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3 1833 02232 6596 





160 9 — 1884. 


Vol. III. 


I.. H. EVKRTS »* CO. 

Copyriglit. 1884. \>y L. H. Everts & Co. 


.1. II. I.IPIMNC'fiTT .* CO.. 





Municipal Government of Philadelphia 1'03 


Municipal, State, and Government Buildings 1769 




Public Squares, Parks, and Monuments 1840 


FiKEMBN, Fire Companies, and Large Fires 1883 

Education l^^l 


The Press of Philadelphia 1^58 


Secret Orders and Societies 206- 

Banks and Bankers, and Currency 2084 


Insurance in Philadelphia -H^ 


Telegraphs, Telephones, and Electric Lights 2128 


Ferries, Bridges, Public Landings, and Wharves 21^** 

Transportation "^^8 


Trade and Commerce 220.S 




ii.ASXJFA.CTUB.ta 2226 

The Industries of Philadelphia 2248 

The Coumercial Exchanobs of Philadelphia 2340 

Burtino-Grocnds and Cemeteries 2856 




Allen, W. H 1947 

Baird, Matthew 2178 

Baldwin, M. W 2255 

Baldwin Locomotive Works 2256 

Baldwin Engine, 1834 2256 

Baldwin Engine, 1842 2257 

Bank of Pennsyltania 2095 

Barclay, James J 1840 

Bement, William B 2266 

Biddle, Alexander 1948 

Bispham, Samdel 2224 

Bonbright, James 2313 

Bradford, William 1965 

Bridge and Tunnel, Fairmohnt Park . . . 1857 

Caldwell, S. A 2103 

Callowhill Street Bridge 1853 

Centre Sqitare 1843 

Chamber op Commerce 2344 

Childs, George W 2008 

City Hall Frontispiece. 

Clark, Enoch W. 2100 

CoATEs, George M. . • 2332 

Cochran, Thomas 2104 

Colket, Coffin 2202 

Comlt, F. a 2188 

Cope, Thomas P 2337 

Cottage of Tom Moore 1866 

Cramp, William 2338 

Cross, Benjamin 2291 

Devil's Pool 1858 

Disston, Henry 2268 

DissTON & Sons, Works of 2269 

DoBsoN, J. & J., Mills of 2309 

DoLAN, Thomas 2306 

DoLAN, Thomas, Works of 2307 

Drake, Thomas 2302 

Drake, Thomas, Residence of 2303 

Drexel, a. J 2102 

Dundas, James 2098 

Ellis, Thomas S 2324 

Ellison, John B 2304 

Fairmount Water-Works 1854 

Fidelity Insurance, Trust, and Safe Deposit Com- 
pany Building 2103 

First Hose-Carriage 1895 

Fitch's First Steamboat 2166 

Fitch's Second Steamboat 2168 

Fitler, E. H 2311 

Forney, J. W 2054 

Fountain and Stand-Pipe, Fairmount Park . . 1869 

Fountain in Rittenhouse Square .... 1849 

Girard's Bank 2097 

GiRARD College 1945 

Girls' Normal School 1933 

Godey, Louis A 1996 

Guarantee Trust and Safe Deposit Company 

Building 2104 

Harrah, C. J 2204 

Harrison, Joseph, Jr 2258 

Hartshoene, Charles 2189 

Hoopes, Barton 2267 

Hunter, John 1716 

Independence Hall, 1884 1797 

Johnson, Lawrence 2328 

Keystone Watch Case Manufactory . . . 2335 

Kneass, Strickland ; 1748 

Knight, E. C 2186 

Lewis, Mordecai 2276 

Lewis, S. N 2276 

Lincoln Monument 1860 

LippiNCOTT, J. B 2330 

Liverpool and London and Globe Insurance Com- 
pany Building 2124 

Lyon, Patrick 1907 

Mackellar, Thomas 2325 

Masonic Hall in 1802 2066 

Masonic Temple 2069 

McClure, a. K 2048 

McMichael, Morton 1972 

Merchants' Exchange 2348 

Mifflin, James L 2212 

Mount St. Joseph's Academy 1955 

Moyamensing Prison 1835 

MuNDELL, John ........ 2288 




OsoMTi Sehiicart 


Swain, William M. 


"Old Ironsides" Engine 


Thomson, J. Edgar 


Old Staoe-Coach 


Times Building 


Old Stage-Waoon 


TowNSEND Mill . 


Patterson, Joseph 


Tread-Mill . 



Unit^) States Custom-House, First . 


Pbiladelphia Record Building 


United States Custom-Housb in 1884 


Pbiladelpdia Trcst, Sapi Deposit, and Insurance 

United States Mint .... 


Company Building 


Unitehsity of Pennsylvania, First . 



University of Pennsylvania, 1884 . 


Powers 4 Weiohtman's Manufactory 


Upton, John 


Protident Lipe and Trust Company Building 


Upton's Hotel, Dock Street, in 1821 


Public Ledger Building 


Vollmer, Gottlieb .... 


Randall, S. J 


Wheeler, Charles 


Saur's House, Germantown 


Wbelen, Israel . 


Scott, Thomas A 


Whelen, Townsend 


Sellers, William 


Wilcox, Mark 


StNOERLY, William M. 


Wilson's School-House 


Smith, Edmund 


WlXSOR, IIenry 


Smith, Richard S 


WisSAHiCKON Views 


Snowden, a. Loudon 


Wood, R. D. . 


Soldiers' Monument, Girard College 


Wood, William & Co., Manufactory 


Struthers, William 


Zoological Garden, Fairuount 






City Departments— Duties of MuDicipal Officers — Condition of the City 
Government — Civil Lists — Statistical Information, etc. 

Before the 2d day of February, 1854, the territory 
of the county of Philadelphia was under the control 
of various municipal corporations, to wit : the mayor, 
aldermen, and citizens of Philadelphia, the commis- 
sioners and inhabitants of the district of South wark, 
the commissioners and inhabitants of the incorporated 
district of the Northern Liberties, the commissioners 
and inhabitants of the Kensington District, the com- 
missioners and inhabitants of the district of Spring 
Garden, the commissioners and inhabitants of the 
district of Moyamensing, the commissioners and in- 
habitants of the district of Penn, the commissioners 
and inhabitants of the district of Richmond, the dis- 
tricts of West Philadelphia and Belmont, of the bor- 
oughs of Manayunk, Germantown, Frankford, White 
Hall, Bridesburg, and Aramingo, and of the townships 
of Passyunk, Kingsessing, Blockley, Roxborough, 
Germantown, Bristol, Oxford, Lower Dublin, More- 
land, Byberry, Northern Liberties, and Delaware, and 
Penn. On that day the Governor of Pennsylvania 
approved an act consolidating the aforesaid corpora- 
tions, and changing the corporate name of the mayor, 
aldermen, and citizens of Philadelphia to " The City 
of Philadelphia," the boundaries of its territory being 
those of the county of Philadelphia. This act is known 
as the " Consolidation Act," and divides the city into 
wards, but continues the county of Philadelphia as one 
of the counties of the commonwealth, the same terri- 
tory thus having a dual name, the county of Phila- 
delphia and the city of Philadelphia. 

The Legislative Power, and Councils.— The 
legislative powers of the city are vested in two bodies, 
called the Select and the Common Council ; the Select 
Council consists of one member from each ward, who 
must have attained the age of twenty-five years, and 
have been a citizen and inhabitant of the State four 
years next before his election, and the last year there- 

1 Tliis cliapter, with the exception of the civil lists and statistical 
tables, was prepared for this work by Isaac H. Shields, attorney>at-law, 
of this city. 

109 ' 

of an inhabitant of the district for which he shall be 
chosen, unless he shall have been absent on the public 
business of the United States or of the State of Penn- 
sylvania ; and no person shall hold said office after he 
shall have removed from such ward. Their term of 
office is three years. Each ward has a member of 
Common Council for each two thousand of taxable 
inhabitants'' that it shall contain according to the list 
of taxables for the preceding year, who shall serve 
for two years from the Ist day of January succeeding 
their election, and it is the duty of the sheriff of the 
County of Philadelphia, in his proclamation for every 

2 Qualifications of Electoes. — Voting on ^ge.— Every male citizen 
between the ages of twenty-one and twenty-two years may vote without 
being assessed. He must previously have resided in the State one year, 
and in the election district (or division) where he offers to vote for at 
least two months, before the election. If his name is not on the regis- 
try of voters, he must make atfidavit, if a native citizen, as to his birth- 
place and residence in the district for two months, and in the State for 
one year, except in case he had been a resident and removed therefrom 
and again returned, when six months' residence will be sufficient. If 
he is not native born, but the son of a citizen naturalized during the 
son's minority, he must also produce proof of his father's naturalization, 
of which the naturalization certificate will be the best evidence. 

A natural-born citizen over twenty-two years of age must have paid 
within two years a State or county tax, which shall have been assessed 
at least two months and paid one month before the election. He must 
have resided in the State one year, or if. having previously been a quali- 
fied elector or native-born citizen of the State, he shall have removed 
therefrom and returned, then six months, immediately preceding the 
election. He must have resided iu the election district where he ofiTers 
to vote at least two months immediately preceding the election. If hia 
name is not upon the registry list, he must produce at least one qualified 
voter of the district or division to prove his residence by affidavit, and 
himself make affidavit to the facts upon which he claims a right to vote, 
also that he has not moved into the district for the purpose of voting 
therein. Proof of payment of taxes must be made by producing the 
tax receipt, or by affidavit that it has been lost, destroyed, or was never 

A naturalized citizen must have the same qualifications as to residence 
iu the State and district, assessment aud payment of taxes, as a native- 
horn citizen. He must have been naturalized one mouth before the 
election. If his name is not on the registry list he must prove his resi- 
dence by the testimony of a citizen of the district or division, and him- 
self state by afiidavit when and where and by what court he was natu- 
ralized, and produce his naturalization certificate for examination. On 
challenge, he may also be required, even when his name is upon the reg- 
istry list, to produce a naturalization certificate, unless he has been for 
lively a voter in the district. 

Qualifications of Election Officers. 
No person can be an election officer who holds, or wUhin tujo montfis 
has held, any office or appointment under the Federal or State govern- 
ment, or under any city or county or any municipal board, commission, 
or trust, in any city, except justices of the peace, aldermen, notaries 
public, and persons in the military service of the State. 




manicipal election, to state the number of members 
of the Common Council which the voters of each 
ward shall be entitled to elect. But no member of 
the State Legislature, nor any one holding office or 
employment from, or under the State, at the time of 
said election, shall be eligible as a member of said 
Councils ; nor shall any member thereof, during the 
term for which he shall be elected, hold any oflSce or 
employment of a municipal character,' nor shall any 
member, whether as a committee or otherwise, make 
any disbursement of corporate moneys, nor audit the 
accounts thereof, nor perform any other executive 
duty whatever. A member of Common Council shall 
have attained the age of twenty-one years, and have 
been a citizen and inhabitant of the State three years 
next preceding his election, and the last year thereof 
an inhabitant of the ward in and for which he shall 
be chosen, unless he shall have been absent on the 
public business of the United States or the State of 
Pennsylvania. Councils in joint meeting, by viva 
voce vote, appoint all heads of departments not elec- 
tive, and provide by ordinance for the appointment 
of clerks and officers, except the mayor's clerk, who 
is appointed by the mayor, all of whom serve for such 
periods as may be fixed by ordinance, subject to dis- 
missal by the appointing power or superior officer, as 
such ordinance may provide. 

The head of each department shall nominate, and 
by and with the advice and consent of the Select 
Council, appoint the clerks and officers in his de- 
partment. The mayor nominates, and by and with 
the advice and consent of the Select Council, appoints 
the policemen and watchmen. 

It is the duty of City Councils to provide by ordi- 
nance for the establishment and regulation of all the 
departments indicated by the said Consolidation Act 
and other laws in force in said city, under the proper 
beads, and with the necessary clerks, officers, and as- 
sistants, to wit: For law, police, finance, surveys, 
highways, health, water, gas, fire, the poor, city prop- 
erty, and the public grounds, and such others as may 
from time to time be needful ; and through the mayor 
and proper committees the Councils shall maintain a 
supervision of each department, whether corporate or 
otherwise, and over the inspectors of the county 
prison, for the exposure and correction of all evils 
and abuses, and for that purpose may require the 
production of and inspect all books and papers, and ! 
the attendance of witnesses by subprena, and examine 
them under oath or affirmation. 

Councils fix the compensation and prescribe the 
duties of all officers of said city, and whenever any 
elective officer dies, or becomes incapable of fulfilling 
the duties of his office, his place, except where other 
provision is made for filling the vacancy, is filled by 
a joint vote of Councils, until the next city election 

> Bot ttato do«a dm applT to dtinUM and uaployta not holding oom- 

and the qualification of a successor in the office: 
Prot'ided, That such vacancy shall exist at least thirty 
days before the next city election, otherwise such 
vacancy is filled at the next election thereafter. 

The salary of any officer elected by the qualified 
voters of the city cannot be increased or reduced by 
j an act or ordinance to take effect during the term for 
' which he was elected ; and in all cases where the 
salary of any officer is not fixed by law, it is by 
I Councils, but it is not lawful for them, at any time, 
I to pass an ordinance, or by other means provide for 
the payment of any money in the shape of per diem 
pay or compensation of any kind for services ren- 
dered by them in their capacity as councilmen, or 
members of committees emanating from Councils. 

Officers elected by the qualified voters are subject 
to removal from office under impeachment for misde- 
meanor in office, or other sufficient cause, on charges 
preferred by the Common Council, and tried bj' the 
Select Council in the manner prescribed by the con- 
stitution and laws of the commonwealth of Pennsyl- 
vania, as to the impeachment by the House of Rep- 
resentatives and trial thereof by the Senate. And all 
officers are subject to removal for sufficient cause, in 
the manner provided by Councils. 

Councils may prescribe by ordinance that paving of 
streets, except at the intersections thereof, and of foot- 
ways, and laying of water-pipes within the limits of 
the city, shall be done at the expense of the owners of 
the ground in front whereof such work shall be done, 
and liens may be filed by the said city for the same. 

They have authority by ordinance to direct owners 
of docks and wharf property to clean their docks after 
certain notification by the proper officer of the city 
government, with power, in case of refusal or neglect 
on the part of any parties thus notified, to cleanse 
such docks, and to enter liens against the surround- 
ing property for its respective proportions of the ex- 
pense attending such work ; and Councils may also 
provide for the cleaning of the docks on the Delaware 
and Schuylkill fronts of said city, and require the 
owners of wharves and piers, which surround such 
docks, to cleanse the same ; and after thirty days' 
default from the service of notice on them to perform 
said duty, it shall be lawful for the city to do said 
work, and to apportion the expenses thereof among 
the owners of the wharves and piers adjoining, in pro- 
portion to the extent of their wharves, having the 
privilege or use of such docks, and to collect the same 
by filing liens therefor and process thereupon, as in 
case of claims for paving: Provided, That no dock 
shall be cleansed to a greater depth than the natural 
bed of the river. 

The city may construct any bridges that may be 
necessary to carry any street or highway at the proper 
grade across any ravine or stream therein, and when- 
ever it shall become necessary in the progress of the 
building improvements of said city, to grade, curb, 
bridge, culvert, or pave any of the highways used as 



turnpikes or plank-roads, it is lawful for Councils to 
agree for the relinquishment of such parts thereof as 
may be required from time to time, and if the parties 
cannot agree to obtain a jury-view upon such parts to 
assess the damage the company owning the franchise 
may sustain by the city using the same for said purposes ; 
such jury appointed, three by the Court of Quarter Ses- 
sions of Philadelphia County, and three by such courts 
in the next adjoining county to which such leads ; and 
such viewers shall take into consideration whether 
such turnpike or plank-road company shall have oc- 
cupied a previous public highway or ground purchased 
by the company. Councils may enact an ordinance 
providing for the inspection of leaf tobacco of domestic 
growth received at the port of Philadelphia, to be 
sold by sample, for establishing the fee for charges for 
inspection and sampling and storage, and imijosing 
penalties for any violation of the same. 

Whenever Councils shall deem the public exigency 
to demand it, they may order, by ordinance, any 
streets, laid upon any of the public plans of the city, 
to be opened, giving three months' notice thereof to 
the owner, whereupon any of the owners whose 
ground will be taken by such street may forthwith 
petition the Court of Quarter Sessions for viewers to 
assess the damages which such owners may sustain 
by the opening of such street, and if the same be not 
paid within one year, may sue the city for the recov- 
ery thereof: Provided, That security shall be given 
the city to the owner for the payment of such dam- 
ages before his ground shall be actually taken, and 
the city may indemnify the persons entering such 
security, and no proceedings to assess the damages 
on any street on such plan shall lapse by the delay of 
a year in paying such damages. It shall be lawful 
for Councils to institute an inquiry as to persons 
benefited by the opening of any new street, and to 
withhold appropriation for the opening of the same 
until the persons found to be benefited shall have 
contributed according to the benefit to be derived 
therefrom toward the damages awarded to the owners 
whose ground will be taken therefor, but in no in- 
stance shall the contributions exceed the damages 
awarded for the ground taken. 

Whenever Councils shall order any street upon the 
plan of said city to be opened or widened, no dam- 
ages therefor shall be paid unless first assessed by a 
jury and approved by the Court of Quarter Sessiens, 
in accordance with the general road laws of the com- 
monwealth : Provided, That Councils may in all cases, 
whether the proceedings to open any street shall have 
been commenced in Council, or in the ordinary course 
before the court, refuse to appropriate for the opening 
of any street until the owners or citizens to be bene- 
fited shall have contributed the whole or any part 
thereof, as Councils may have determined to be just, 
and in such case such street shall not be actually 
opened, nor any security which may have been taken 
for the damages be responsible therefor. 

It is the duty of juries selected to assess damages 
for the opening, widening, or vacating roads or streets 
within the said city, to ascertain and report to the 
court, first, what damages the parties claiming the 
same are entitled to, and second, to assess and appor- 
tion the same among and against such owners of land 
as shall be benefited by such opening, widening, or 
vacating any such road or street, and when such re- 
port shall be affirmed by the court upon notice to all 
such parties, and the damages paid or secured by the 
parties among and against whom it shall be so as- 
sessed and apportioned, the chief commissioner of 
highways shall proceed to open, widen, or vacate such 
road or street accordingly : Provided, however. That it 
shall be lawful for Councils, when in their judgment 
the public interest shall require it, to provide for the 
the payment of such damages out of the city treasury : 
And further provided. That two-thirds of the members 
of Councils present at the passage of such ordinance 
consent thereto, and the yeas and nays on the passage 
thereof shall be entered on the journals. 

It is the duty of Councils in all cases, when mak- 
ing appropriations, to state the items of expenditure 
under separate and distinct heads for which such ap- 
propriations are intended. They are authorized an- 
nually to appropriate toward the support and main- 
tenance of the House of Refuge such sum as they 
may deem expedient, not exceeding thirty thousand 
dollars in any one fiscal year, payable in equal pay- 
ments on the first Mondays of February, May, Au- 
gust, and November in each and every year. 

They have power and authority to make, ordain, 
constitute, and establish such and so many laws, or- 
dinances, regulations, and constitutions as shall be 
necessary and convenient for the purposes of fixing, 
ascertaining, and regulating, from time to time, the 
rates and prices which shall be demanded and re- 
ceived by wagoners, carters, draymen, porters, wood- 
sawyers, and chimney-sweepers, for each and every 
labor and service which they shall respectively do 
and perform within the city; and also for the doing, 
performing, and executing all and every other power, 
authority, act, matter, and thing whatsoever, which 
the wardens and street commissioners separately of 
themselves, or they or either of them, in conjunction 
with one or more justice or justices of the peace, or 
with any person or persons whatever, were authorized 
and empowered, or might or could lawfully do or per- 
form by or under any laws in force at the time of the 
approval of the aforesaid act of consolidation. 

Councils may by ordinance prohibit any interments 
within such parts of the city wherein they shall judge 
such prohibition necessary, and to impose such fines 
for any breach of such ordinance as they may deem 

It is lawful for the Select and Common Councils, 
from time to time, by ordinances, at the expense of 
the owner or owners of the property adjoining, to 
regulate, grade, pave, and repair, curb, and recurb the 



footwajs or sidewalks, and the said ordinances, rules, 
and regulations to execute, under the direction or su- 
perintendence of such person or persons as they may 
authorize or appoint, and the same to enforce by suit- 
able penalties, which penalties and esi)enses of pav- 
ing and repaying, curbing and recurbing, as aforesaid, 
are recoverable before any magistrate of said city, or 
before any court having jurisdiction, in the same 
manner that debts of like amount are by law recover- 

Councils fix the rate and levy all taxes now author- 
ized by law within the limits of said city and county, 
except the State tax, and direct the amount to be ap- 
plied and paid by the city treasurer to health, school, 
poor, city, and other purposes, according to law. The 
said taxes are voted so as to show how much is raised 
for said objects respectively, and they are collected and 
accounted for to the treasurer as one city and county 
tax. The said tax, and all State taxes accruing 
within said city limits, are paid to the receiver of 
taxes, and all allowance made by law for the collec- 
tion and prompt i)ayment of the State tax accrues to 
the city treasury for the use of the city. 

It is the duty of Councils to designate the place of 
holding the elections in the several election divisions 
of the wards, and to notify the sheriff thereof, at least 
thirty days prior to the election, and shall have full 
power and authority to remove or change the place 
of holding the elections in any of the said election 
divisions, whenever by reason of inability to hold said 
election at the place so designated, a change shall be 
necessary. And in sudden emergency, as in case the 
polling place is destroyed by fire on the eve of the 
election, the court designates one. 

The Select and Common Councils have the power 
to levy a tax for municipal purposes on all subjects 
of taxation specified by the thirty-second section of 
the act of April 29, 1844, and to provide, by ordinance, 
11 system for the assessment thereof, and for the col- 
lection of taxes thereon. 

The following is a schedule of taxable articles 
under the thirty-second section of the act of 29th 
April, 1844: 

** IloUH«, Undi, lot* of ground, and Kro'mil-rf ntti, milli and manufttc- 
tortaa of all kindi, fumacca, furgea. bluumorlra, distilleries, lugar-bousea, 
Balt-liout«s, lireweriea, taD-yanls, flslieriea and ferriea, wliarvea, and all 
oUier reul eauta not t-iempt hy law from taxation ; also all perwniil 
•■tale, to Witt horaea, marea, geldings, mulea, and neat cattle over the 
•(e of foor jteara; alai> all mortgages, moiiejr owing b) sulTent delitoia, 
whether ly pmmlssorjr note, penxl or single Mil, Ixind or Judgment; 
alao all articles of agreement and accounts bearing Interest, owned ur 
poaaasaml bj any |>erson or perai>ns wliataoeier, except nolea or lillls for 
work and labor done, antl tjank notes ; also all shares ur stuck In any 
bank, Institution, or company now or hereafter incorporate<l by or In 
parsoanre of any law of the rommonwralth, or nf any other State or 
(oTemmenI; and on all shareaof stock or weekly deposit* in any unin* 
corpiirate^l saving. fund Institution, and all public liMinB or stocks wliat- 
■oarsr, except thc«ei«ued by this commonwealth, and all money loaned 
or invested on intarsat In any otlier State; also all household furniture, 
Including gold and silver plate, owned by any penun or persons, ourpor- 
alioD or corpormtlona, when the value thereof shall exceed the sum of 
ihraa hundred dolUn; also all pleaaura cmrriagaa, Iwth of two and four 
wbaalfl; aaUriaa and emolumenta of office, all offlres and pasta of profit, 

prxifeaaioDs, trades, and occapatloDS, except the occupatloD of fiumelB, 
together with all other tbioga now taxable by the lawa of the commoD- 

Councils fix the salaries of all municipal oflScers 
elected by the people. They have the power to order 
and direct the construction of branch sewers, when- 
ever the same shall be approved by the Board of Sur- 
veys, and in the opinion of Councils shall be required 
for the health, comfort, or convenience of the in- 
habitants of the city. 

Councils are also vested with full power and au- 
thority to modify the powers and duties of any officer 
or department, and for that purpose to enact that 
atler the expiration of the term of any existing officer 
or officers-elect, such office shall cease, and the duties 
thereof be imposed on other officers or departments 
now existing, or by ordinance to be established : Pro- 
vided, That this authority shall not be construed to 
confer any additional powers upon Councils, to 
abolish, modify, or limit the powers of any boards, 
commissioners, or officers regulating public parks 
which have been dedicated to the uses and enjoy- 
ment of the people of the commonwealth, or are 
charged with the collection of taxes or the revision 
and regulation of assessments of property for general 
taxable purposes, or created for the purpose of erect- 
ing public buildings for the use of the city. 

The City Councils cause to be published, once in 
every year, in the month of January, or as soon as pos- 
sible thereafter, not later than sixty days, a statement 
of receipts and expenditures of the city, and a state- 
ment of the financial condition of the city, showing 
all of its liabilities, permanent and temporary, and a 
schedule of its assets, which are published in two or 
more newspapers of different political complexion, 
published in Philadelphia, for three consecutive 

Councils are empowered to provide for the inspec- 
tion of milk, under such rules and regulations as will 
protect the people from adulteration and dilution of 
the same. 

They are also authorized to alter and regulate the 
curb-lines and heights, and determine and make uni- 
form the widths of the footways of the streets within 
the limits of the city. 

The municipal authorities and courts having juris- 
diction in Philadelphia have exclusive control and 
direction of the opening, widening, narrowing, vaca- 
ting, and changing grades of all streets, alleys, and 
highways within the limits of said city, and may open 
or widen streets of such width as may be deemed 
necessary by such city authorities and courts. 

The Councils of the city fix by ordinance the salary 
to be paid out of the city treasury to the mayor. 

" The proper authorities of any county, city, town, 
or township of Pennsylvania are authorized and 
empowered to enter into contracts with any of the 
railroad companies, whose roads enter their limits, 
respectively, whereby the said railroad companies may 



relocate, change, or elevate their railroads within said 
limits or either of them, in such manner as in the 
judgment of such authorities, respectively, may be 
best adapted to secure the safety of lives and prop- 
erty, and promote the interest of said county, city, 
town, or township ; and for that purpose the said 
authorities shall have power to do all such acts as 
may be necessary and proper to effectually carry out 
such contracts. And any such contracts made by any 
railroad company or companies as aforesaid with said 
authorities, or either of them, are hereby fully ratified 
and confirmed: Provided, That nothing in this proviso 
contained shall affect any contract made or hereafter 
to be made with any railroad company, from (for) 
apportioning the expenses of altering and adjusting 
the grades of existing railroads and intersecting streets 
in any city or borough, so as to dispense with grade 
crossings." ' 

" The Councils of every city shall prescribe by ordi- 
nance the number, duties, and compensation of the 
officers and employes of each branch, and no payment 
shall be made from the city treasury, or be in any way 
authorized, to any person, except to an officer or em- 
ploye elected or appointed in pursuance of law ; and 
no ordinance shall be passed except by a two-third 
vote of both Councils, and approved by the mayor, 
giving any extra compensation to any public officer, 
servant, employe, agent, or contractor after services 
shall have been rendered or contract made, nor pro- 
viding for the payment of any claim against the city 
without previous authority of law ; and any officer 
drawing any warrant, or passing any voucher for the 
same, or paying the same, shall be guilty of a misde- 
meanor, and on conviction thereof be punished by a 
fine not exceeding five thousand dollars and impris- 
onment not exceeding one year."- 

Upon the resignation of any member of Select or 
Common Council, the president of the chamber, 
wherein such resignation shall be tendered, is author- 
ized to direct the clerk to notify the sheriff of the 
county of Philadelphia of such resignation within 
one week after the same. 

The City Councils shall, from time to time, exempt 
from the operation of any statute law, conferring on 
the Board of Health jurisdiction of the subject of 
nuisances, such portions of the territory under their 
jurisdiction, being a rural district or sparse in popula- 
tion, as in their opinion they can do with safety to 
the health and comfort of the inhabitants thereof, 
which exemption shall at all times be revocable by 
the like authority. 

Any person who shall, directly or indirectly, ofier, 
give, or promise any money or thing of value, testi- 
monial, privilege, or personal advantage to any 
member of Councils to influence him in the perform- 
ance of any of his public or oflScial duties, shall be 

1 Act June 9, 1874, Se< 
« Act May 23, 1874, Se 

, 1, P. L. 282. 
. .'i, P. L., 230. 

guilty of bribery, and be punished in such manner as 
that offense is by law punishable. 

A member who has a personal or private interest 
in any measure or bill proposed or pending before 
Councils, shall disclose the fact to the branch of which 
he is a member, and shall not vote thereon. If such 
interested member shall vote without disclosing his 
interest in such measure or bill, and the same be car- 
ried by his vote, such member shall forfeit his office. 

A member of Councils who shall solicit, de- 
mand, or receive, or consent to receive, directly or 
indirectly, for himself or for another, from any com- 
pany, corporation, or person, any money, office, ap- 
pointment, employment, testimonial, reward, thing 
of value or enjoyment, or of personal advantage, or 
promise thereof, for his vote or official influence, or 
for withholding the same, or with an understanding, 
expressed or implied, that his vote or official action 
shall be in any way influenced thereby, or who shall 
solicit or demand any such money or other advantage, 
matter, or thing aforesaid for another, as the consider- 
ation of his vote or official influence, or for withhold- 
ing the same, or shall give or withhold his vote or 
influence, in consideration of the payment or promise 
of such money, advantage, matter, or thing to another, 
shall be held guilty of bribery, and shall, upon con- 
viction thereof, be punished by fine not exceeding 
ten thousand dollars, and by separate and solitary con- 
finement at labor for a period not exceeding five years, 
and shall be forever incapable of holding any place 
of profit or trust in the commonwealth of Pennsyl- 

ADELPHIA FROM 1701 TO 1777.3 

The body corporate to consist of the mayor, recorder, eight aldermen, 
and twelve councilmen ; the latter afterward increased. 
1701.— Bi/ City Charter.— John Parsons, William Hudson, William Lee, 

Nehemiah Allen, Thomas Paschali, John Budd, Jr., Edward Smout, 

Samuel Buckley, James Atkinson, Pentecost Teague, Francis Cook, 

and Henry Badcocke. 
1704.— Robert Teildhall, Josejih Yard, Thomas GrifBth, and John Bed- 

man, Sr. 
1705. — Joshua Carpen ter, Abraham Bickley, Thomas Bradford, and John 

1707. — Samuel Hall and John McComb. 
1708.— Henry Flower, Peter Stretch, David Grifflne (or Giffing), and 

George Claypoole. 
1711.— Owen Roberts. 
1712.- Clement Plnmsted, Gilbert Falconer, John Jones (Bolter), and 

Nathaniel Edgcomb. 
1713. — Joseph Redman, John Warder, John Vanleer, George Claypoole, 

William Fishbourne, Thomas Wharton, and Benjamin Viniug. 
1715. — Anthony Morris, Jr., Daniel Radley, and Thomas Redman. 
1716. — James Parrock, Samuel Carpenter, Richard Moore, and Charles 

1717. — Samuel Powel, Edwards Roberts, George Fitzwater, and Evan 

1718 — Israel Pemberton, John Carpenter, John Cadwalader, Joseph 

Buckley, Thomas Griffltts, and Thomas Tresse. 
1723.— Robert Ellis, George Calvert, and Edward Owen. 
1724 —Ralph Assheton. 
1727. — William Allen, Thomas Masters, Alexander Woodroppe, Andrew 

Bradford, Isaac Norris, Jr., and Henry Hodge. 

s From John Hill Martin's " Bench and Bar of Philadelphi 



1T28.— Scmnel Baaell uid Thomu Chue. 

IT29.— Pelcr Llord, Sunuel Powtl, WllliuD Atwood, aod JoMpb Turner. 

lT30.->lmiuM Slevl, G«urge Emlrn, Abram Tsjrior, George MIIBIn, SuD- 

nel Pi>wel, Jr., tod John While. 
11S2.— S>niuel Mickle, Edward Shippen, George HoOM, John Dlllwyn, 

Benjamin Shc>enuker, Joaeph England, Jamee Blogham, and Joseph 

Paachal. Samuel Powel and Samuel Powel, Jr., re.«lected. 
1T39.— William Till, Jualma Uaddox, William Coleman, Jamea Hamil- 
ton, William rium«t«l, aud Nathaniel Allen. 
1741.— Hubert Siretlell, William Panone, Andrew Hamilton, Samuel 

Bhoada, and Ttaomae Hopkiuaon. 
1T41. — JoMph Morris, Joseph Shlppen, Joeliua Emieo, Richard Kixon, 

Samuel Austin, and Isaac Juuea. 
1743.— William Logan, Charles Willing, Altwood Shute, and Septimus 

174S.— Alexander Graydon, John Inglig, Richard Stnulejr, William Ship- 
pen, Thomas Bond, and William Biddle. 
1747.— John Mifflin, Juhn Slam|>er, John Sober, Tench Francis, John 

Wilcocks, Samuel McCall, Jr, Phlneos Bond, and John Sims. 
1748.— Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Laurence, Jr. 
1751.— CbMKa mcrtoMtd b) ni«.— Thomas Cadwalader, William Cole, 

Llojd Zacbar;, Charlw Norris, John Rodman, William Humphreys, 

Samuel Smith, Amoe Strcltell, and William BInghuni. 
17&S.— Edward Shippen, Jr., Samuel Mifflin, Alexander Huston, John 

Wallace, Alexander Sledman, Andrew Elliot, Samuel Morris, Jacob 

Duch^, Samuel Shoemaker, aud Thomas Willing. 
1767.— OmmcU imcrraud eighi more— Henry Harrison, Daniel Benezet, 

Charles Stedman, William Rush, John Swift, Townsend While, 

William VanderBplegel, and Joseph Wowl. 
1762.— John Allen, John Lawrence, Eran Morgnn, John Gibson, and 

Redmond Conyngham. 
17M.— James Tilghman and Archibald McCall. 
1767.— Andrew Allen, Joshua Howell, James Allen, William Fisher, 

William Parr, Joeeph Swift, John Wilcucks, and George Clymer. 
1770. — Joaeph Shippen, Jr., John Cadwalader, Samuel Powel, Alexander 

Wilcucks, Stephen Carmiok, and Peter CheTalier. 
1774.— John Potts, Samuel Mere<lith, Jhmes Biddle, Samuel Howell, 

Isaac Cox, and Thomas Barclay. 



Bobert Assbeton, by clly charier Oct 25, 1701 

Ralph Atshelon,< appointed Aug. 10, 171U 

Andrew Hamilton, appointed Feb. 24,1746 

William Coleman, appointed Sept. 18, 1747 

Edward Miippen, Jr.,3 appointed , May 27, 1758 



Vniler Act o/ April 4, 1796, e(c. 

Francis Gumey, elected Oct. 1796 

Henry Pratt, elected Oct, 1799 

Robert Patterson, elected Oct. 1802 

Benjamin Say, elected Oct 1805 

Robert H»\fU>a. elected Oct 1806 

Jsmea Mllnor, elected Oct 1808 

George Bartram, elected Oct. 18119 

Samuel W. Kluher, elected Oct. 1811 

Lilierty Browne, elected Oct. 1813 

Rolierl KItcbie, elected Oct 1814 

Bobert Wnin, elected _ Oct 1816 

George Vaux, ele«te<i _ _ Oct 1819 

Thomas Kltleia, elected Oet 1824 

John M'.rln Scott elected Dec. 1828 

Joseph Be«l Inger. II, elected Dec. 1832 

William Morris Miredltb, alectad Dec. IS.'Vt 

William Morns, elected Dec. 1849 

John Price Wetberill elected Dec. 1852 

Jacob E. Ilagcrt, elected Dec. 1853 

John P. Verree,elecle.l „ June, 18.M 

George Mifflin Wharton, elected.- „ Hay, 1856 

Ulleer Perry <V>rnmKii, elsctad.... _ May, 1858 

Theodore Cuyler, elected May, I860 

James Lynd,elocled Jan. 186:1 

Ji«hna Sparing, electwl Jan. 1867 

Wllllem .Strumbiirg Stokley, elected Jan. 1868 

Samuel W latlell, elecle<l JaU. 1870 

William Edmund Littleton, elactad Jan. 1872 

B.ilHprt W. iK.wnIng, elected Jan. 1874 

Dr. William W Bumell, elected. July, 1H75 

George A Smith, elected Jan 1876 

George W. Bumm, elected Not. 1881 

William U. Smith, electw) April, 1882 

■ " To laka •> (ct Xorembar 30, whan h* comv at ag*." In oHc* till 
> Ua held the office anlll the Raeulution. 


From 1701 lo 1796 (Ae Mafon 


Samuel Hodgdon. 
Kearney Wharton. 
Robert Ralston. 
Thomas Leiper. 
Timothy Paxson. 
ThciTnas Leiper. 
Horace BInney. 
Thomas Leiper. 
Juhn Ballowell. 
James S. Smith. 
Joeeph Worrell. 
James S. Smith. 
Joseph R. Ingersoll. 
Aquila A. Browne. 
Joshua Percival. 
James M. Linnard. 
Joshua Percival. 
James Page. 
Henry Troth. 
William Rswle. 

of IXt Cily trrr 















I 1872. 
] 1873. 
j 1876, 


« (As PrntidenU of the Oommon 

Thomas S. Smith. 
Samuel Norris. 
Thomas Snowden. 
John Yarrtjw. 
John H. Dielil. 
William P. Hacker. 
Willium C. Patterson. 
John Miller. 
Clmrles B. Trego. 
Wilson Kerr. 
Alexander J. Harper. 
William S. Stokley. 
Joseph F. Marcer. 
Louis Wagner. 
Henry Huhn. 
Louis Wagner. 
A. Wilson Henszey. 
Joseph L. Caven. 
William Henry Lex.' 



Anthony Morris. 
Robert Henry Dnnkin. 
William H. Tod. 
Edward Johnson Coale. 
John L. Loib. 
Joseph Scott. 
Samuel Holmes. 
Robert S. Greene. 
Samuel Keemle.* 
John Cole Lowber. 
Stiniuel Rush. 
John Cole Lowber. 
Nathan B. Potts. 
John Reynolds Yogdes. 


Nathan R. Potts. 
George Fox. 
Robert Hare, Jr. 
Levi Ilollingsworth. 
Henry Helmuth. 
Thomas Birch, Jr. 
Craig Biddle. 
John M. Riley. 
John D. Miles. 
William Fmiicis Small. 
Goorgo F. Gordon. 
Philip U. Lutts. 
William Francis Small. 
John Eckstein. 


1796. William H. Tod. 
1801. Edward Johnson Coale. 
18U2. Johu L. Leib. 
1806. Thomas Bradford, Jr. 
1830. Archibald Randall. 
1833. Josel.h G. Clarkson. 
1840. Joseph Coleman Fisher. 
1846. Henry Helmuth. 

1849. Edmund Wilcox. 
1855. Joseph Wood, Jr. 
1866. Henry C. Leisenring. 
1859. J. Barclay Harding. 

1862. Emanuel Key. 

1863. Henry C. Corfleld. 

1864. Benjamin H. Haines. 
1873. Joseph U.Faist 

Ordinances. — No law shall be construed to impair 
the validity of an ordinance of the city of Philadel- 
phia if the same is not recorded, aud all ordinances 
heretofore passed, or which may hereafter be enacted, 
shall be valid and effectual, although the same may not 
have been, or may not be, recorded in the office of the 
recorder of deeds. 

The Select and Common Councils have the power, 
by a two-thirds vote of each Council, to pass any bill, 
whatever its nature, which may have been returned 
by the mayor, without his signature. 

Councils have full power and authority to make, 
ordain, constitute, and establish such and so many 
laws, ordinances, regulations, and constitutions as 
shall be necessary or convenient for the government 
and welfare of the said city, and the same to enforce, 
put in use and execution, by the proper officers, and 

' All the other officers of holb branchs* of the City Councils were i 
elected on April 4, 1881, by acclamation. 

• All the family now spell their name Keehinle. 



at their pleasure to revoke, alter, and make anew, as 
occasion may require, provided the same shall not be 
repugnant to the laws and constitution of the com- 
monwealth of Pennsylvania. 

For all breaches of the ordinances of the city of 
Philadelphia, where the penalty demanded is fifty 
dollars and upwards, actions of debt shall be brought 
in the corporate name of the city of Philadelphia. 

No ordinance can be passed through Councils 
except by bill, and no bill shall be so altered or 
amended, on its passage through either branch of 
Councils, as to change its original purpose. No bill 
can be considered unless referred to a committee, re- 
turned therefrom, and printed for the use of the mem- 
bers, and no bill can be passed containing more than 
one subject, which shall be clearly expressed in its 
title. Every bill must be read at length in each 
branch, all amendments made thereto must be 
printed for the use of the members before the final 
vote is taken on the bill, and no bill can become a 
law upon the same day on which it was introduced 
or reported. On its final passage the vote is taken 
by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons 
voting for and against the same are entered in the 
journal, and a majority of the members elected to 
each branch are recorded thereon as voting in its 
favor. No amendment to bills by one branch must 
be concurred in by the other except by the vote of a 
majority of the members elected thereto, taken by 
yeas and nays, and the names of those voting for and 
against recorded upon the journal thereof, and reports 
of committees of conference must be adopted in either 
branch only by the vote of a majority of the members 
elected thereto, taken by yeas and nays, and the names 
of those voting recorded upon the journals. 

Every legislative act of the Councils must be by 
resolution or ordinance ; and every ordinance or reso- 
lution, except as hereinafter provided, shall, before it 
takes effect, De presented, duly engrossed and certified, 
to the mayor for his approval ; and all ordinances, 
within five days after their passage, must be adver- 
tised in five daily and two Sunday newspapers, by 
the mayor. 

Committees of Councils. — For the purpose of 
supervising the operations of the different depart- 
ments, and of assisting Councils in the consideration 
of subjects brought before them, relating to the inter- 
ests of the corporation, the following joint standing 
committees are appointed by the respective presi- 
dents annually on the organization of Councils : 

I. Committee o 
II. Committee o 

III. Committee o 

IV. Committee o 

V. Committee o 
VI. Committee o 
VII. Committee o 
yill. Committee o 
IX. Committee o 
X. Committee c 

Department of Water-Works. 
1 Department of Gas-Works. 
1 Department of Highways, Bridges, Sewers, and 

I Department of City Property and Public Grounds, 

I Department of Police. 

I Department of Fire. 

I Department of Prisons. 

1 Department of Schools. 

1 Surveys and BegulatioDS. 

XI. Committee on Railroads. 

XII. Committee of three memlters from each chamber are appointed 
to compare bills and transmit the same to the mayor when 
found correct. 
XIII. Committee on Department of Law. 

The chairmen of the Committees on Finance, Gas- 
Works, Highways, Bridges, Sewers, and Culverts, 
Police, Fire, Schools — and to compare bills — must 
be members of Common Council, and the chairmen 
of the remaining committees must be members of 
the Select Council ; but no member of either branch 
shall be chairman of more than one standing com- 
mittee. They hold stated meetings for the transac- 
tion of business at such times as a majority of the 
committee may determine, and special meetings when- 
ever the chairman or three members thereof may 

The Committee on Finance has supervision over 
the departments of the city treasurer, the receiver of 
taxes, and the city controller. The Committees on 
the Department of the Water-Works, on the Depart- 
ment of the Gas- Works, and on the Department of 
Highways, Bridges, and Sewers, on the Department of 
City Property, on the Department of Police, on the 
Department of the County Prison , on the Department 
of Schools, on Surveys and Regulations, Railroads, to 
compare bills, and Department of Law, exercise a gen- 
eral supervision over said departments for the ex- 
posure and correction of evils and abuses. The Com- 
mittee on the Department of City Property fix the 
sums for which the real estate in charge of that de- 
partment shall be rented. 

Matters relating to the markets are under the su- 
pervision of the Committee on Markets, and those 
relating to the wharves and landings under the super- 
vision of the Committee on Wharves and Landings. 

There is appointed by the respective presidents an- 
nually, on the organization of Councils, a standing 
committee on the cash account of the city treasurer. 
It is the duty of this committee to examine and com- 
pare his statements, and to report to both branches of 
Councils, at their first stated meeting after the second 
Monday in each month, a complete statement of 
moneys received during the preceding month by the 
city treasurer ; stating the total amount received from 
each and every officer and department of the city of 
Philadelphia, and whether such statement from the 
city treasurer agrees with the statements received 
from the said officers and departments. 

There is appointed a committee to supervise all the 
disbursements of the department of clerks of Coun- 
cils, and all requisitions for stationery first receive the 
sanction of said committee; all bills for stationery 
and printing receive the indorsement of the commit- 
tee before countersigned by the controller, and the 
chairman of said committee is appointed by Select 

The presidents of the Select and Common Councils 
appoint a joint committee, styled the committee on 
election divisions, to whom is referred the changing 



of all election divisions; also a committee on boiler 
inspection, and one on House of Correction. 

The number of all standing committees consists of 
twelve from each chamber, and nine members thereof 
constitute a quorum. 

Select and Common Councils each elect a clerk and 
an assistant, and the presidents each appoint a page, 
and there is also a transcribing clerk, whose duty is to 
engross the ordinances when passed by both branches. 

Taxes and Taxation. — The system of assessment 
and collection of taxes in Philadelphia is executed 
by a Board of Revision, forty-two assessors, a re- 
ceiver of taxes, and a collector of delinquent taxes. 

The Court of Common Pleas of Philadelphia County, 
once in everj' three years, before the time of the re- 
vision of the taxes for the succeeding year, and as 
often as vacancies occur, appoint three persons 
deemed the most competent, who compose the Board 
of Revision of Taxes of the county, a majority of 
whom are a quorum, who have the power to revise 
and equalize the assessments, by raising or lowering 
the valuations, either in individual cases or by wards, 
to rectify all errors, to make valuations where they 
have been omitted, and to require the attendance of 
the assessors or other citizens before them for exam- 
ination, on oath or affirmation, either singly or to- 
gether, with power to forfeit the pay of assessors, 
ratable to their annual compensation, for each day's 
absence when their attendance is required ; and the 
Board of Revision hear all the appeals and applica- 
tions of the taxpayers, subject to an appeal from 
their decision to the Court of Common Plea-s of the 
county, whose decision isdnal ; and, ifthe appeal to the 
court be groundless, the appellants pay their costs of 
court. The Board of Revision hear the taxpayers of 
their respective wards in succession, of which notice 
is given ; and the Board of Revision alone, or a ma- 
jority of them, exercise all the powers vested in the 
County Board of Revision, but shall not, in any in- 
stance, lower the aggregate valuation of the county. 
They meet aa often, but not oftener, than is necessary 
to dispatch the business which their duties require of 
them, and hold stated meetings on the first Saturday 
of each month. 

The salary of each member of the Board of Re- 
vision of Taxes is four thousand dollars per annum. 

The Board of Revision have and exercise all the 
powers heretofore by law conferred upon the commis- 
sioners of the city of Philadelphia, and the county 
commissioners of the ditTerent counties of the State, 
in relation to the assessors, and the as-sessment and 
collection of taxes within the city and county of 
Philadelphia, and the correction of all valuation and 
return therefor; and they issue the precepts to, and 
receive the returns of, the assessors, procure the as- 
sessment-books, and cause the duplicates to be made 
out and issued to the receiver of taxes, make the re- 
turns required by law to the Slate Revenue Board, 
and have the exclusive custody and control of all 

books relating to the assessment of taxes, and keep 
them arranged according to wards and dates; and 
also have the custody and control of the duplicates 
of surveys, when the same have been made by the 
department of surveys; they may issue certificates to 
show how property has been assessed, to be used 
with the same etlect as the original books of assess- 
ment, as evidence in relation to the title of property; 
they report to Councils, through the mayor, the ag- 
gregate of the assessments, on or before the first day 
of November in each year. 

The Board of Revision are authorized and empow- 
ered to issue their precept to the several assessors of 
the city and county of Philadelphia, in the year of the 
triennial assessment, and to the assessors of any ward 
or wards of said city in which they shall deem a new 
assessment necessary in any subsequent year otherthan 
the triennial year, requiring them to return the names 
of all taxable persons residing in their resjiective 
wards, and all property taxable by law, together with 
the just valuation of the same, and the said board 
have power to revise and equalize the assessments. 

It is the duty of the Board of Revision, immediately 
afler the annual assessment in each year, to classify 
the real estate so assessed in such a manner and upon 
testimony adduced before them as to discriminate be- 
tween the rural and built-up portions of said city, and 
they are required to certify to the Councils of said 
city on or before the first day of November, in each 
year, the valuations of the built-up portions, the val- 
uation of tlie rural or suburban property, and the val- 
uation of lands exclusively used for agricultural and 
farming purposes respectively, and it is the duty of 
Councils, in determining the rate of taxation for each 
year, to assess a tax upon said agricultural and farm- 
land equal to one-half of the highest rate of tax re- 
quired to be assessed for said year, and upon the rural 
and suburban portion of said city, a tax not exceed- 
ing two-thirds of the highest rate of tax required to 
be assessed, as aforesaid, so that upon the real estate 
assessed there are three rates of taxation, and it is the 
duty of the assessors of said city to make assessments 
of i)roperty in conformity to the foregoing, and to 
designate the class in which such property should be 

The Board of Revision have power to aflSx the seal 
of the city of Philadelphia to all official certificates 
they may be authorized by law to issue, and they 
have authority, from time to time, as the public in- 
terests may require, to create additional assessors' dis- 
tricts and appoint additional assessors therein. 

A copy of the Uix duplicate for each year is filed in 
the office of the city controller, said copy of the dupli- 
cate is made out in form the same as for the depart- 
ment of the receiver of taxes; and it is the duty of said 
controller to |>ost against each item on said duplicate 
the amount of taxes returned to him as received by 
the receiver of taxes; and it is also the duty of the 
I receiver of taxes, whenever allowances are made from 



the assessed value of any property, to certify to the 
city controller the owner's name and locality of such 
property, and the amount of allowance, and by whom 
made, and no credit is given to the receiver of taxes 
for such allowances, unless such certificates be re- 
turned to the office of the said city controller. 

It is the duty of the Board of Revision of Taxes, in 
preparing the duplicates and triplicates of the asses- 
sors' transcripts for the receiver of taxes and city 
controller, to give a definite description of all assess- 
ments, either by street numbers, as fixed by the 
proper department, or where such numbers do not 
exist, by measurement from a given jioint upon the 
city plan, and also indicate by feet and inches the 
frontage and de])th thereof, and in rural districts the 
superficial area thereof. 

The Board of Revision of Taxes prepare triplicate 
copies of the assessment of taxes in each ward, and 
deliver the same to the city controller at the same 
time that the duplicates are given to the receiver of 
taxes, and they also deliver monthly, on the first 
Monday in each month, to the city controller a certi- 
fied schedule of the allowances made to each person, 
separately stated, with his or her name, location of 
property, and page of the duplicate ; also, a correct 
account of all the divisions of properties made dur- 
ing each month. 

It is the duty of the Board of Revision of Taxes, 
through the assessors of real estate, to rearrange and 
revise the numbers of houses whenever necessary, to 
furnish each owner or occupant of any house or prop- 
erty situate upon any street, lane, or alley of the city, 
a written copy of the correct number to which such 
house is entitled, and after such notices served, the 
said property Is designated and known by such num- 
ber in the books and accounts of the several depart- 
ments; and each owner shall, within thirty days after 
such notice, cause a painted, carved, or cast number 
with the proper figures to be placed in a conspicuous 
place upon such house or property in a permanent and 
durable manner, and such owner shall, for every 
neglect in having said house or property numbered 
in the manner and within the time specified, forfeit 
and pay the sum of five dollars, recoverable as debts 
of like amount are recoverable by law, to be ajipro- 
priated to the use of the city. 

Upon the failure or neglect of any owner to com- 
ply with these requirements, it is the duty of the said 
assessors of real estate to notify any magistrate of 
such failure or neglect, and it is the duty of such 
magistrate to collect the said sum of five dollars 
for each and every offense, and pay the same over to 
the city treasurer, and make report to the city con- 
troller, under oath or affirmation. 

The Board of Revision of Taxes, in making out the 
proper number of houses, is governed by the present 
system, that is, the initial or starting point is at Market 
Street and the river Delaware, respectively, allow- 
ing one hundred numbers to each square of three 

hundred and fifty or more feet in length, and com- 
mencing with an even hundred at the commencement 
of each square, and in all respects adhering to the 
decimal system of numeration ; also, in all streets 
running in opposite directions, but not extending to 
the initial points, the same order of enumeration is 
observed as though such street did actually extend to 
such point. And in such parts of the city as it may 
be impracticable to accurately follow this system, the 
Board of Revision of Taxes arrange the numbering as 
nearly in accordance therewith as possible. 

The Board of Revision, immediately after the elec- 
tion in each year, issue their precept to the assessors 
of the respective wards, requiring them to make out 
and return, within such time as the said Board of Re- 
vision shall designate, not later than the 1st day of 
September, following, a just and perfect list, in such 
form as the said board shall direct, of all taxable 
persons residing within their wards respectively, and 
all property taxable and exempt by law, with a just 
valuation of the same ; and whenever the assessors 
of any ward cannot agree upon the valuation of any 
property, the member of the board senior in office 
acts as umpire and decides. 

The books for assessment are furnished to the as- 
sessors by the 15th day of May in each year by the 
Board of Revision, and any assessor who shall not 
have completed and returned his assessment by the 
15th day of August following, forfeits his compensa- 
tion and surrenders his books, to be finished by the 
Board of Revision. It is the duty of the assessors to 
mark opposite all property used for agricultural pur- 
poses the word "rural," and on all property so re- 
turned there is assessed or collected but two-thirds 
the rate for city tax that is assessed on other real 
estate in the city : Provided, That any error in such 
return in this respect shall be corrected by the Board 
of Revision on appeal. 

The assessors, at the time they make the assess- 
ments required by law, ascertain the dimensions or 
quantity of each lot or piece of ground assessed, and 
return the same with their assessment to the Board 
of Revision, and whenever the return shall not be 
sufficiently certain to enable the receiver of taxes 
properly to describe any lot or piece of ground against 
which he is about to proceed for the recovery of 
registered taxes, it is the duty of the surveyor of the 
district in which said lot or piece of ground is situated 
to furnish the said receiver with an accurate measure- 
ment thereof, together with a precise description of 
its locality. 

It is the duty of the several assessors of the city to 
ascertain, by strict inquiry, the proper orthography 
of the name of each taxable person within his ward, 
the exact number of his place of residence, together 
with his present occupation, profession or business, 
and to state, plainly written, all such particulars in 
his assessment-list. 

The assessors make a second return of the values 




of all new buildings which have been erected and 
not included in their previous return, on or before 
the first day of November in each year; and the 
assessors, or either of them, are authorized and em- 
powered to administer an oath or affirmation to any 
person or persons required to make a statement of 
property taxable under the general or special laws of 
this commonwealth : Provided, That no fee be charged 
for the administration of such oath or affirmation. 

The assessors in estimating real estate subject to 
gronnd-rent, where there is no provision made in 
ground-rent deeds that the lessee shall pay the taxes 
on tlie said ground-rents, estimate and assess for 
taxes, the said ground-rents to the owners thereof. 

The pay of assessors is at the rate of two thou- 
sand dollars per annum, and their appointments are 
made so that there is a majority and minority repre- 
sentation of the political parties in each district, and 
no appointment or removal of assessor or assessors is 
made without the concurrence of all the members of 
the Board of Revision. 

All taxes, rates, and levies, which are imposed or 
assessed, either in the city or coui^ty of Philadelphia, 
on real e.state situate in said county and city is a lien 
on the same, together, also, with all additions to and 
charges on the said taxes, rates, and levies; and the lien 
has priority to, and roust be fully paid and satisfied 
before, any recognizance, mortgage, judgment, debt, 
obligation, or responsibility which the said real estate 
may become charged with or liable to. 

All churches, meeting-houses, or other regular 
places of stated worship, with the grounds thereto 
annexed necessary for the occupancy and enjoyment 
of the same ; all burial-grounds not used or held for 
private or corporate profit; all liosjiitals, universities, 
colleges, seminaries, academies, associations, and insti- 
tutions of learning, benevolence, or charity, with the 
grounds thereto annexed and necessary for the occu- 
pancy and the enjoyment of the same, founded, en- 
dowed, and maintained by public or private charity; 
and all school-houses belonging to any county, bor- 
ough, or school district, with the grounds thereto 
annexed and necessary for the occupancy and enjoy- 
ment of the same; and all court-houses and jails, 
with the grounds thereto annexed, are exempted from 
all and every county, city, borough, bounty, road, 
school, and poor tax : Provided, That all property, real 
or personal, other than that which is in actual use 
and occupation for the purposes afore-said, and from 
which any income or revenue is derived, is subject to 
taxation, except where exemjited by law for State 

No portion of the real estate of any religious, 
charitable, or benevolent association or institution in 
the city of Philadelphia, which is used for business 
purpoees, shall be exempt from municipal or State 
tax by reason of any act of Assembly exempting the 
real estate or property of said religious, charitable, or 
benevolent as.Hociation or institution. 

All lands inclosed as burial-grounds and ceme- 
teries, and used for the interment of the dead, and 
for no other purpose, together with the buildings and 
improvements thereon, owned by churches, corpora- 
tions, or associations, are exempt from all taxation 
for municipal or county puposes. 

Councils cannot impose taxes upon rural portions 
of the city for police and watchmen, for lighting and 
paving and cleaning streets, but shall make an allow- 
ance of at least one-third of the whole city tax in 
favor of such section. 

The City Councils fix the rate and levy all the 
taxes authorized by law within the limits of the city 
and county, except the State tax, and direct the 
amount to be applied and paid by the city treasurer 
to health, school, poor, city, and other purposes, ac- 
cording to law. The taxes are voted so as to show 
how much is raised for said objects respectively ; they 
are collected and accounted for to the treasurer as one 
city and county tax. The .said tax and all State taxes 
accruing within the city limits, are paid to the re- 
ceiver of taxes, and all allowance made by law for 
the collection and prompt payment of the State tax 
accrue to the city treasury for the use of the city : 
Provided, That the City Councils discriminate in lay- 
ing the city taxes as not to impose upon the rural 
portions those expenses which belong exclusively to 
the built-up portions of the city ; for which purpose the 
assessors distinguish in their returns what properties 
are within agricultural or rural sections, not having 
the benefit of lighting, watching, and other expendi- 
tures for purposes exclusively belonging to built-up 
portions of the city ; and all land within said agricul- 
tural or rural districts, used for the purpose of culti- 
vation or farming, is assessed as farm land. 

All meadow, or marsh, or meadow land situate in 
the Twenty-fourth Ward, and a-ssessed as marsh or 
meadow land, and paying besides the usual city taxes, 
a further tax for keeping up and in repair the banks 
on said lands, is only liable to pay one-half the rate 
of tax levied on real estjite in said city for city pur- 

The offices, depots, car-houses, and other real prop- 
erty of railroad corporations situated in the city, 
the superstructure of the road and water-stations only 
excepted, are subject to taxation, by ordinances, for 
city purposes. 

If Councils, before or on the second stated meeting 
in December in each and every year, fail to levy and 
fix the rate of taxes for the ensuing year, the tax-rate 
of the preceding year is continued as the rate for the 
ensuing year. 

Upon all taxes paid on or before the 31st of August 
a discount at the rate of one per cent, per annum is 
allowed. If paid after the 31st day of August, and 
on or before the 15th day of September, an addition 

1 Tbii Ml wu axteDded to the Firet Ward b; ut of April 8, 18M, 
P. L., ilO. 

3 1833 02232 6596 



or penalty of one-half of one per cent, is added. If 
paid after the 15th day of September, and on or before 
the 1st day of October, there is an addition or penalty 
of one per cent. If paid after the 1st day of October, 
and on or before the 15th day of October, there is an 
addition or penalty of one and one-half per cent. If 
paid after the 15th day of October, and on or before 
the 1st day of November, there is an addition or pen- 
altj' of two per cent. If paid after the 1st day of 
November, and on or before the 15th day of Novem- 
ber, there is an addition or penalty of two and one- 
half per cent. If paid after the 15th day of Novem- 
ber, and on or before the 1st day of December, there 
is an addition or penalty of three per cent. If paid 
after the 1st day of December, and on or before the 
15th day of December, there is an addition or penalty 
of three and one half per cent. If paid after the 
15th day of December, and on or before the 1st day of 
January, there is an addition or penalty of four per 
cent. If paid after the 1st day of January, and on or 
before the 15th day of January, there is an addition 
or penalty of four and one-half per cent. ; and upon 
all taxes remaining unpaid after the 15th day of 
January, there is an addition or penalty of five per 
cent, added to and made payable upon the same. And 
it is the duty of the receiver of taxes to display from 
day to day, in large figures, and in a conspicuous place 
in the tax-office, the amount of discount or penalty 
fixed by ordinance. 

No receipt for taxes is valid or binding upon the 
city unless the payment be made to the cashier, dur- 
ing business hours, at the office of the receiver of 
taxes, in conformity with the regulations of the de- 
partment for the safe collection of taxes. 

Every person or persons owning and possessing one 
dog shall pay a tax of twenty-five cents for it, and 
for every second dog kept about the same house one 
dollar, and for every additional dog two dollars. 

All taxes unpaid on the 1st day of January, after 
the year for which they were assessed, bear interest 
until paid, besides the commissions thereon for collec- 

The charge for advertising delinquent taxpayers 
of the city of Philadelphia shall not exceed fifteen 
cents for all advertising of each name in any one 
ward, which is payable by the person or persons liable 
for the tax, nor shall the same be inserted in more 
than two newspapers ; and if the name of any person 
shall be so advertised after having paid their tax the 
receiver shall pay the expenses thereof. 

Sales for taxes may be made at any of the regular 
sales by the sherifi" of the county and of the city and 
county of Philadelphia. 

For the purpose of creating a sinking fund for the 
gradual extinguishment of the bonds and funded debt 
of the city, the Councils annually (until payment of 
the bonds and funded debt be fully provided for) 
levy and collect, in addition to the other taxes of said 
corporation, a tax of not less than one-fourth of one 

mill, and not exceeding three mills, upon the assessed 
value of the taxable property of said city, called the 
sinking fund tax, which is paid into the city treasury, 
and applied toward the extinguishment of said bonds 
and funded debt in the order of the date of issue 
thereof, and to no other purpose whatever; and said 
bonds, when purchased, are conspicuously stamped to 
show that they were purchased for the sinking fund 
of said city, and the interest on said bonds is collected 
and used in like manner with the taxes collected for 
said sinking fund. 

The qualified voters of the city elect one person, who 
is denominated receiver of taxes, to serve for three 
years. He gives bonds, and is sworn or affirmed to 
perform his duty. He collects and receives all taxes 
and public assessments payable and receivable within 
the limits of the city. It is the duty of the Board of 
Revision to place the duplicate lists of taxes in the 
possession of the receiver of taxes as early as practi- 
cable in the year for which the taxes are assessed, and 
when he receives them he causes his clerks to make 
out bills against the taxpayers. 

The receiver of taxes, on the first Mondays of Oc- 
tober, November, and December, gives general notice 
to all taxpayers, three times in three newspapers, to 
pay the taxes then due ; and if not paid before the 
1st day of the following January, interest will be 
charged thereon, and the names of all delinquent tax- 
payers will then be published according to law, and 
the names of the delinquent taxpayers, when pub- 
lished, are alphabetically arranged for the several 

The receiver of taxes of the city collects and daily 
pays into the city treasury all State taxes by him col- 
lected. The city pays over all State taxes collected and 
paid into the city treasury before the 25th day of 
July in each year, and receives therefor the five per 
cent, allowed by law, and one per cent, for the com- 
mission of collection, but no allowance for the then 
uncollected State tax, unless the city advance the 
same by the said date, in which case the city may 
borrow the amount of such residue of the current 
year's State tax : Provided, That the loans therefor be 
all payable within the year, and the whole of the State 
taxes for the year for which they accrued shall be 
paid into the State treasury by the 25th of January 
nest thereafter. The city allows the taxpayers for 
the State tax five per cent, on all sums paid before the 
25th of July of the year when due, and nothing if 
paid thereafter. 

The receiver of taxes of the city is charged by the 
city controller with the amount of the duplicates for 
each ward placed in his hands by the Board of Re- 
vision for State and city taxes, and in the month 
of January, annually, the receiver, in books to be 
called " the register of unpaid taxes on real estate," 
registers all unpaid taxes (except occupation taxes) 
of the preceding year, and the said taxes are a lien 
on all real estate. The city controller, immediately 



after the expiration of the term of office of the re- 
ceiver of taxes, audits his accounts and makes allow- 
ance for uncollected taxes, and. all real estate sold by 
order of the Orphans' Court, if returned to and con- 
firmed by the said court, is certified to the receiver of 
taxes by the prothonotary of said court, and all real 
estate sold by order of the Court of Common I'leas, 
or any other court (except sold by the sheriff)', if re- 
turned to said court or courts, and confirmed by said 
court or courts, is certified to the receiver of taxes by 
thr prothonotar>' of said court. 

The receiver of taxes is authorized to refund all 
State and city taxes that may have been paid to and 
collected by him on duplicate and erroneous assess- 
ments to the person or persons who may have so erro- 
nt-ously paid the same ; all amounts to be refunded 
out of the taxes collected in the respective wards and 
in the respective years in which said errors occurred : 
fi-orided, hotrrver. That proper vouchers of allowance 
of such errorx by the Board of Revision be furnished 
to the said receiver of taxes: Ami provided further, 
That the lien of the taxes on the real estate wrong- 
fully paid has not be«'n discharged by a judicial sale 
or otherwise. 

The receiver of laxw gives bond to the city of Phila- 
delphia, with sureties which shall be approved by 
the S-lect and Common Councils in the sum of forty 
thousand dollars, conditioned for the faithful per- 
formance of the duties of his office. He is sworn or 
affirmed by the mayor that he will honestly keep and 
account for all public money-t an<i property intrusted 
to his cari', and to faithfully perform the duties of his 
office. He collects and receivi-s all taxes and public 
aiw<wments payable and ri'ceivable within the limits 
of the city. He renders each day to the city con- 
tftiljer an account, under oath or affirmation, admin- 
istered by the controller, of each item of his receipts, 
and all h-v», and daily pays the same into the city 

On the flmt day of each month the receiver of taxes 
certifies under oath to the city controller the amount 
rpcpive<l by him from the sheriff of the county for all 
taxes and crmts due, or claimed as due, upon any 
property sold by the sheriff, the name of each case, 
the amount received in each case during the pre- 
ft-ding month ; and the receiver of taxes, in making 
payment to the city treasurer, s[>ecifies separately the 
amounts paid t/i the treasurer on account of the sums 
rercived from the sheriff by him. 

Ft is the duly of the city controller t/i examine the 
•aid list or lists so furnished by the receiver of taxes, 
and also the dockets of the sheriff and the books of 
the receiver of taxes, and the city controller sends to 
the second stated meeting in each month of Councils 
a copy of the list or lists so furnished by the receiver 
of lazes (he retaining the original list or lists, and 
filing the same in his office), and he certifies at the 
foot of the list that he has personally examined the 
docket of the sheriff and the books of the receiver 

aforesaid, and that he has compared the same with 
the list or listi*, and that he has found them correct, 
or otherwise, as he finds the same to be. 

The city treasurer keeps a book in which he enters 
the amounts received by him from the receiver of 
taxes on account of the sums collected from the 
sheriff of the county. 

The receiver of taxes appoints one deputy receiver 
of taxes, at a salary of $2000 per annum ; one cashier, 
at a salary of $2500 per annum ; one chief clerk, at 
a salary of $2000 per annum ; one discount clerk, at 
a salary of $1500 per annum ; eight bill clerks, at a 
salary of $1000 per annum ; four registering clerks, 
at a salary of $1000 per annum ; one judicial sales 
clerk, at a salary of $1000 per annum ; one chief 
search clerk, at a salary of $1200 per annum ; four 
assistant search clerks, at a salary of $1000 perannum ; 
one messenger, at a salary of $1000 per annum ; one 
watchman, at a salary of $600 per annum ; and one 
I janitor, at a salary of $600 per annum. 

The judicial sales clerk makes daily returns to the 
' receiver of taxes of all taxes collected through 
, sheriff's sales, or other judicial sales, and the re- 
I ceiver of taxes makes daily reports in duplicate of all 
! such collections, which he files with the controller 
and city treasurer, and he also keeps at the office of 
the sheriff a detailed account of such receipts, sub- 
ject to public inspection. 

The receiver of taxes keeps a detailed daily ac- 
count, by wards, of all receipts for State or muni- 
cipal taxes, subject to public inspection. 

It is the further duty of said receiver to prepare 
blank poll-tax receipts in books containing two hun- 
' dred thereof, which are impressed with the seal of the 
' city of Philadelphia, by the mayor, which said books 
are issued to the collectors of poll-tax from time to 
time, as required, and the stub of each receipt is, on 
j the 29th day before every election, returned to the re- 
ceiver of taxes, and safely kept by him as part of the 
records of his office. And on or before the 20th day 
preceding such election the said receiver transmits 
to the city controller a statement showing the amount 
of poll-tax collected, together with the full names of 
the persons paying the same by divisions and wards, 
also the names of all defaulting collectors of poll-tax, 
if any, with the amount of such default, and the last- 
' mentioned statement he also furnishes to the city 
solicitor for collection and for pro.secution of the 

Poll-tax collectors for each ward, in numbers not 
exceeding the representation in Common Council, 
arc appointed by the receiver of taxes, and they re- 
ceive as compensation twenty per cent, of the gross 
rei-eipts, provided they make return of all 'moneys 

The receiver of taxes is authorized to receive on 
account of taxes due, one-half the amount of the 
same at one time, and the other half at another. 
The sai<l receiver of taxes shall, on or before the 



15th day of Januar-y in each and every year, have 
prepared a registry of all outstanding or delinquent 
taxes of the previous year due and owing, and shall 
immediately proceed upon all such delinquent taxes, 
rates, and levies for the collection thereof, and to col- 
lect the same, by distraint or otherwise, either out of 
the personal property on the premises, or the personal 
or real estate of the delinquent owner wherever the 
same may be found, whether in his own possession, or 
in that of any trustee or other person for him, or in 
the possession of his executors, administrators, or 
legal representatives. 

The receiver of taxes is» authorized to levy upon 
and sell any goods, chattels, or personal property 
found on any premises on which taxes are delin- 
quent, or upon the goods, chattels, or personal 
property of the owner of said premises, wherever 
the same may be found, whether in his own pos- 
session or in that of any trustee or other person for 
him, or in the possession of his executors, admin- 
istrators, or legal representatives : Provided, That 
there shall have been served on such owner or ten- 
ant, or other person in whose hands or possession 
such goods, chattels, or personal property may be, a 
printed or written notice demanding payment of the 
taxes, costs, and charges thereon, within thirty days 
of the date thereof, stating that if said payment be not 
made within said time the same would be enforced 
by levy and sale of such goods, chattels, and per- 
sonal property : Provided, further, That any executor, 
administrator, trustee, or legal representative of any 
estate, or other person who shall pay any such taxes, 
costs, and charges due upon any such estate, may 
defalk the amount paid by him or them out of any 
moneys in his or their hands, or from any revenue 
received thereafter from or belonging to said estate : 
And provided, further. That when goods, chattels, or 
personal property of any tenant shall have been 
levied upon, the collector is authorized and empow- 
ered to collect from said tenant, and when the amount 
of tax exceeds the amount of rent due, then only the 
amount of rent then due, but the lien of the levy 
shall remain upon said goods during the occupancy 
of said premises by said tenant, and all rents after 
accruing shall be applied to the extinguishment of 
said taxes, until the tax, charges, and costs shall 
have been fully paid. The amount collected by said 
receiver is a lawful deduction from the rent due or 
may thereafter become due ; and in the event of the 
refusal of any landlord to allow of said deduction to 
said tenant on account of rent, and shall refuse to 
accept the receipt of said receiver in lieu thereof, 
then it shall be the duty of the city solicitor to de- 
fend the said tenant in any action brought by the 
said landlord or his agent for the recovery of said 
rent from said tenant, the costs and expenses thereof 
to be paid by the collector of delinquent taxes: Pro- 
vided, further, That in no case shall any tenant or 
tenants be compelled to pay the said tax. costs, and 

charges, or any portion thereof, until the said rent 
shall have become due and payable ; neither shall 
said receiver follow said tenant's goods, chattels, or 
personal property to any other premises upon a pre- 
vious levy, upon a change of residence of said tenants, 
or a bona fide removal of said goods, in the ordinary 
course of business. 

In all cases where the receiver shall deem it 
advisable to proceed against the real estate of such 
delinquent owner, whether by action or by lien, and 
the said premises shall be exposed to sheriff's sale, 
if an amount shall not be bid sufficient to cover the 
amount of all taxes due, with all the costs, charges, 
and expenses due thereon, together with all costs 
and expenses incident to said sale and the judgment 
under which the same is made, the receiver of taxes 
has full power and authority, in his discretion, either 
to stay the said sale, or to purchase the property 
in the name and behalf of the city, and take title 

All sales made in suits instituted by such receiver 
or under his direction, on a judgment regularly ob- 
tained invests in the purchaser a good and sufficient 
title to the premises sold, subject to the right of the 
delinquent owner to redeem the same, which is lim- 
ited to two years from the date of the acknowledg- 
ment of the sheriff's deed therefor, upon his payment 
to the purchaser of the amount bidden at such sale, 
with ten per cent, thereon, and all costs, charges, and 

The said receiver of taxes appoints such number of 
clerks and deputies as may be fixed by the Councils, 
removable at his pleasure ; and the deputies have all 
the powers to collect and proceed for such delinquent 
taxes as the receiver has, and they make weekly re- 
turns, and pay over to the receiver weekly all sums 
of money for delinquent taxes, interest, penalties, and 
costs collected by them. 

The said receiver of taxes is allowed a commission 
of one per cent, on all moneys collected by him or his 
deputies as delinquent tax. 

John Hunter,' the present receiver of taxes, was 
born on the 15th of April, 1825, in Belfast, Ire- 
land. When but two years of age he was brought to 
America by his parents, who settled in that portion 
of Philadelphia County, now known as West Phila- 
delphia. The father engaged in the business of print- 
ing calico and other cotton goods. When quite a lad, 
John Hunter entered the establishment of his father, 
and, beginning at the foundation, familiarized himself 
with the various details of the business. The father 
having died while the son was but a young man, the 
latter, in conjunction with his brother James, assumed 
full charge of the mill, and succeeded in placing the 
business upon a substantial foundation. And ever 
since the house of James and John Hunter has en- 
joyed a national reputation for upright dealing. 

1 This Bketch of Mr. Hunter was contributed by F. W, Leacli. 



Although a practical and industrious business man, 
he is, withal, of modest demeanor, and possessed of 
but slight inclination for public life, and his entrance 
into the field of politics, early in 1877, was rather from 
the force of circumstances than from choice. In 
January, of that year, he was asked by a number of 
prominent residents of the Twenty-fourth Ward to 
permit the use of his name as a Republican candidate 
for common councilman. So reluctant was he to ac- 
cede to their request that he suggested a neighbor as 
a more suitable candidate, going so far as to offer 
to pay the latter's campaign expenses. Despite his 
protestations, the convention nominated him for the 
office. Before the body adjourned, however, a certain 
element in the convention, being animated by outside 
influences antagonistic to Mr. Hunter's known ideas 
of honest and efficient municipal government, caused 
his nomination to be reconsidered, on the plea that 
he had declined to subscribe to a pledge that he would 
abide by the decision of the delegates, no matter what 
it might be. In this emergency the man's determina- 
tion of character asserted itself, and he immediately 
began a vigorous warfare against his opponents. 
Having announced himself as an independent candi- 
date, he was subsequently indorsed by the Demo- 
cratic party. At the election which ensued on the 
20th of the February following, Mr. Hunter received 
3014 votes, 2788 ballots having been cast for his 

Mr. Hunter's course in the Common Council dur- 
ing his term of service was of such an aggressive 
character as to keep alive the antagonism of those 
who had fought so bitterly to prevent his success in 
1877, and these same opponents, in 1880, decreed his 
defeat for re-election. New tactics, however, were 
resorted to. Again had Mr. Hunter declined to com- 
ply with the rule requiring a written pledge to the 
nominating convention that he would not become an 
independent candidate, but this refusal was over- 
looke<l, and a forged document supplied iti place. 
On the night before election .Mr. Hunter's enemies 
pretended to have suddenly discovered this fraud, and 
omitting his name from the regular ward ticket, sup- 
planted it with that of a new candidate named by the 
Ward Committee. But the friends of Mr. Hunter 
had anticipated all this, and, to the chagrin of his 
opponents, his tickets were found next morning at 
every polling place in the ward, and he was again 
elected, receiving this lime 2848 votes to 1715 cast for 
his opponent. 

During his second term in the Common Council, 
Mr. Hunter was even more aggressive in the cause of 
good government than in his previous service, turn- 
ing his attention especially to the exposing of certain 
defects and evidences of wrong-doing in the water 
and gas departments. For a portion of this second 
term, also, he served as chairman of the t'lnance 
Committee, the most important of the Councilmanic 

In December, 1880, Mr. Hunter was placed in the 
field for the office of receiver of taxes by the Citi- 
zens' Committee of One Hundred, which organization 
had just inaugurated its career of reform effort and 
investigation. He was subsequently nominated by 
the Democratic Convention. His opponent before 
the people was George G. Pierie, who was the nom- 
inee of the Republican party. The campaign was a 
vigorous one, and much enthusiasm was awakened. 
The result was the polling, in February, 1881, of a 
very heavy vote for a municipal contest, the figures 
being,— Hunter, 88,934; Pierie, 62,348. 

Mr. Hunter's conduct df the tax-office during his 
three years' term of service was characterized by a 
general stopping of official and clerical leaks in the 
administration of the affiairs of the department. 
Taxes were collected with greater promptness, and 
at less expense to the tax-payer, and efficiency and 
honesty took the place of carelessness and malfeas- 

When the Republican Convention to nominate a 
candidate for receiver of taxes for the term begin- 
ning in April, 1884, met in January of that year, Mr. 
Hunter's name was placed before it for a renomina- 
tion. Three ballots were taken before a final result 
was reached, the outcome being the selection of 
George G. Pierie, Mr. Hunter's oi)[)onent of three 
years previous. Mr. Hunter's defeat in the conven- 
tion awakened a storm of condemnation throughout 
the city, on the part of the press as well as among 
the people. Finally, on the 22d of January, Mr. 
Pierie withdrew from the field, and on the 23d the 
Republican Convention was reconvened, and Mr. 
Hunter was placed upon the ticket, with, practically, 
no dissenting voice. On the following day the Demo- 
cratic Convention met, and Mr. Hunter was nomi- 
nated by it also, so that, virtually, he had no oppo- 
sition when the election was held. On the 19th of 
February, 1884, he was re-elected, and is now serving 
his second term as receiver of taxes. 

In his report for the year ending Dec. 31, 1882, 
Mr. Hunter gives the following statement of the col- 
lection of taxes for that year,: 

nt of the rity Ux Msowmeut 

Amnuiit «l clljr tax collecUld t9,4U0,:i62.13 

lliicniinl iinowed t43,M4.9l| 

Pnualty •JJwl - 42.420.43 

Nft illKoiinl 1.216.63 

Net amount city tax collMtad 

( '^tli |ial<l i-lty trpimurtfr. Procwdg from hIo 

of iwilI'lMX r#K:i»tpl«, Fehniary election 

unto, N.iTomlHT election 

Caeh paid city treaanrei. Amount of March fee* from 

Oct. 1. IHHI, lollct, I, IK82 

Amount of Sule tax collected during tbayear 208[612!o8 


Total amount paid to dty treasurer 9 667,677 03 

Amount of city ux delinquent (on which penaltleaarti to ' 
'■••^•'•<') 676,093.23 


















49 1 

62' I 



8,399,250 1 









37,600 1 





























28,000 1 




68,960 1 





39 525 

60,600 1 
18,800 1 

























19,037 1 













Totals 8506,188,483 837,447,307 819,051,765 $662,687,655 $5,698,280 82,304,965 8139,260 $653,205 $119,205 849,571,325 814,645 8366 819 

The following table shows the assessment of real 
and personal property In the city of Philadelphia 
subject to taxation for municipal purposes, from 1867 
to 1884, inclusive, with the tax-rate for each year: 


Eeal Estate. 

Horae.'^, and 



per $100. 















2 25 










By the act of Feb. 2, 1864, the County treasurer was appointed receiver 

until the first election, which was held on the first Tuesaay in May, 


John M. Cnleman, by act of Feb. 2, 1854 

Peter Armbruster, elected May 6, 1H56 

ArmslninK I. Fl.imerfelt, elected May 4, 1868 

William P. Hamm, elected May 1,1860 

James C. Kelsh, elected Oct. 14, 1862 

Charles O'Neill, elected Oct. 12, 1864 

Richard Peltz, elected Oct. 9,1866 

•lohn M. Melloy, elected Oct. 13, 1868 

Richard Peltz,l in oflice Feb. 14, 1870 

1 A decree of the Court of Common Pleas, of Oct. 16, 1869, declared 
Samuel P. Hancock elected city controller; Thomas J. Worrell, city 

Robert H. Beatty, elected Oct. 11, 1870 

Thomas J. Smith, elected Oct. 13, 1874 

Albert C. Roberts, elected Oct. 10,1876 

John Hunter, elected Feb. 15,1881 


Office etlablMed by ad of March 24, 1870. 

John L. Hill, appointed 1870 to 1873 

Henry Bnmm, appointed 1873 to 1876 

William J. Donohugh, appointed 1876 to 1882 

Henry B. Tener,2 appointed July 20,1881 


Established by the act of March 14, 1865, term three years. The 
board to consist of two persons and the senior city commissioner; the 
senior in 1865 was John Given ; the second year, 1866, Philip Hamilton, 
and the third, Thomas Dixey, whose term expired by act of Feb. 2, 1867, 
and was succeeded by Samuel Haworth. By act of Feb. 2, 1867, an ad- 
ditional person, instead of the senior city commissioner, all three to be 
appointed by the judges of the Court of Common Pleas. The members 
of the board are as follows ; 

John Given, by the act March 14, 1865 

William Loughlin, appointed May 6,1866 

Andrew Doz Cash, appointed May 6, 1865 

Thomas Cochran, t-fce Cash Oct. 30, 1866 

Philip Hamilton, commissioned — 1866 

Thomas Dixey, commissioned — 1866-67 

Samuel Haworth, underact of Feb. 2, 1867 


ander McCuen, city 
and Richard Done- 
1 certiorari to the Su- 
affirmed on Feb. 14, 

solicitor; Richard Peltz, receiver of taxei 
I commissioner; Charles Gibbons, district attorney 
gan, prothonotary of the Common Pleas. And t 
preme Court, the decision of the lower court wb 

2 The act of Feb. 14, 1881, consolidated the otHces of receiver of taxes and 
collector of delinquent taxes. Mr. Hunter appointed Tener on July 20, 
1881, and the appointment was approved by the mayor and Councils on 
Jan. 3, 1882, but Donohugh said his appointment dated from April 7, 
1879, for three years, and he refused to vacate until April 7, 1882. 
s From John Hill Martin's " Bench and Bar of Philadelphia." 



JuDM Bowinl Cutle.l uppointed Jan. 1, 1877 

George Waller Fairnian,' appointed March 30, 1878 

Chief Clerk, Jaiuea Wesley 8»>re,appointe<I.NoT. 1,1866 

City Treasurer. — The qualified voters of the city 
elect a city treasurer to serve for three years, from 
the first day of January next succeeding such election. 
He shall give bond to the city, conditioned for the 
faithful performance of his duty, in such amount as 
the City Councils shall direct, and shall, before he 
enters upon his office, take and subscribe an oath or 
affirmation, honestly to keep an account of all public 
moneys and property intrusted to his care; and if 
such treasurer shall knowingly violate such oath he 
shall be deemed guilty of perjury, and on conviction 
thereof in the i>roper court be sentenced to undergo 
solitary imprisonment at hard labor in the Eastern 
Penitentiary for the term of not less than one nor more 
than ten years. Any vacancy in said office shall be 
filled by the City Councils by rira voce vote in joint 
meeting. No money shall be drawn from the treasury' 
of the city, except the same shall have been previously 
appropriated by Councils to the purpose for which it 
is drawn. The accounts to be kejit by the s.aid city 
treasurer shall exhibit all the receipts and all the ex- 
penditures of the city in an intelligible manner, in 
the form of accounts current, in which the particulars 
of each item of charge and discharge shall fully and 
precisely ap])ear. Any citizen may, on the payment 
of a fee of twelve and a half cents, to be paid to the 
city treasurer for the use of the city, inspect the said 
accounts ; and for a further fee of fifty cents and one 
cent per line of ten words, to be paid for the use of 
the city, the treasurer shall, on request of any citizen, 
furnish a transcript of any part thereof. It shall be 
the duty of the Councils of the city to provide, and 
said trea-surer to pay into the treasury of the State, 
the amount of the State tax assessed within the limits 
of the city, deducting all allowances made by law ; 
and said trea-turer elected as aforesaid shall, before 
he enters upon the office, give bond with sureties to 
be approved by the judges of the Court of Common 
Pleas of Philadelphia County, in such sum as they 
shall direct, conditioned for the safe keeping of 
and accounting for all moneys received by him for 
the use of the State. The said treasurer shall keep 
the public moneys in such place and manner as the 
City Councils shall direct, and shall verify his cash 
account at least once every week to the satisfaction of 
a standing committee of Council ; and upon the 
affidavit of a majority of such committee of any 
default therein, the said trca-surer shall be suspended 
from office until the further action of Councils; and 
the Court of Common Pleas of Philadelphia County 
shall, upon said affidavit and cause shown, forthwith 
issue a writ of sequestration to the sherilT of the 
county against such defaulter for the amount of such 

> CmiI* wrua|>puliilr<l In plac* of Cochran, who raaignxl. He died 
March 18, ltl7«, a(eil lixl; /Mn. and Falrman wai appointed to Sll the 

default, to be levied on all his property, estate, and 
effects in favor of said city, which writ shall be a lien 
thereon from the issuing thereof, with a clause of 
attachment contained therein, directing the sheriff to 
arrest the body of such defaulter to answer the said 
charge on a day certain, on which day the said court 
shall inquire of the premises and enter judgment 
thereon as may be just, or in their discretion award 
an issue to try the disputed facts ; and if the said 
court upon such hearing shall be satisfied that there 
is probable cause to believe that such treasurer has 
committed the crime of perjury, it shall be their duty 
to commit him for trial at the next Court of Quarter 
Sessions of said county. 

The treasurer of the city of Philadelphia shall, on 
the first Monday of July, and quarterly thereafter, 
or oftener, if required by the State treasurer, pay into 
the treasury, or such place of deposit as said State 
treasurer shall designate, to the credit of the common- 
wealth, the whole amount of money received during 
the period preceding said payments; and shall furnish 
to the State treasurer statements under proper heads, 
designating the source from which the money was 
received ; and said officer shall file and settle quarterly 
accounts in the office of the auditor-general, as now 
required by law. Upon the settlement of said quar- 
terly accounts, if it appear that the receipts shall not 
have been i)aid as directed by this section, any officer 
so offending shall forfeit his fees and commissions on 
the whole amount of money collected during the 
quarter ; in every case where a balance due the com- 
monwealth shall remain unjiaid for a period of ten 
days after such quarterly settlement, suit shall be 
commenced against such delinquent and his sureties, 
as is provided in case of defaulting officers. 

No money shall be paid out of the city treasury 
except upon appropriations made by law, and on 
warrant drawn by the proper officer in pursuance 

The treasurer of the city is required to render to 
the auditor-general and State treasurer quarterly re- 
turns of all moneys received by him for use of the 
commonwealth, designating under proper beads the 
source from which the money was received, and all 
such moneys so collected shall be paid into the State 
treasury quarterly, or oftener, if required by the State 

Said treasurer gives bond to the corporation, with 
two or more sureties, to be approved by the Select 
and Common Councils, in the sum of one hundred 
thousand dollars conditioned for the faithful per- 
formance of the duties of his office, and he takes and 
subscribes an oath or affirmation before the mayor, 
honestly to keep and account for all public moneys 
and property intrusted to his care. He deposits and 
keeps, in such places and manner as Councils may 
direct, all public moneys intrusted to his care as city 
treasurer, including such as shall come to the corpo- 
ration as trustee, and the accounts of such deposit of 



trust moneys shall 5e kept separate, and not blended 
with any other account. He shall pay all warrants 
that are drawn on him by the proper officer, and 
countersigned by the city controller, and none other. 

Upon the presentation of city warrants at the office 
of the city treasurer, it is the duty of the treasurer to 
pay the same on demand, and in the order of pre- 
sentation. In the event of the inability of the treas- 
urer to so pay the same on their first presentation, he 
shall cause such unpaid warrants to be stamped with 
date of presentation and numbers, and thereafter no 
new or unstamped warrants shall be cashed until all 
those stamped have been first paid, and those stamped 
shall be entitled to be first paid, and in the order of 
their numbers : Provided, That the treasurer shall not 
reftise to cash unstamped warrants when the funds in 
the treasury are sufficient to meet the stamped war- 
rants, as well as those presented and not stamped ; 
And provided further, That the treasurer shall not re- 
fuse to cash any stamped warrant in its regular order, 
and that the money for those previously stamped and 
not presented shall remain in the treasury, subject at 
all times to payment, and the interest on all such un- 
presented warrants shall cease when notice is posted 
in the treasurer's office that the same will be paid on 

The said treasurer daily makes return in writing 
to the controller, verified by oath or affirmation ad- 
ministered by that officer, of all moneys received on 
the day previous, stating the sources, and at the same 
time he shall give to the controller the certificate of 
deposit of the same. 

The treasurer shall not deposit in any one of the 
banks, designated as city depositories, at any one 
time, the city money, in excess of three hundred 
thousand dollars; and in addition to the daily re- 
turns made to the city controller of certificates of 
money deposited in banks, makes a statement, veri- 
fied under oath, of the drafts made on each deposi- 
tory, and the balance remaining to the credit of the 
city at the close of business. 

The accounts of the city treasurer on Jan. 1, 1883, 
stood thus : 

Total cash receipts, as per statement 513,426,404.97 

Cash balance Jan. 1, 1882 2,260,693.44 

Total payments 13,265,684.63 

General cash balance Jan. 1, 1883 $2,420,413.88 

Sinking fund " " " 705,271.39 

Total cash balance in hands of treasurer, Jan. 1, 1883. 83,125,685.27 


Of the City of Philadelphia. 

Edward Shippen, appointed June 1, 1706 

Owen Roberts ^oaIled receiver) July 22, 1712 

William Fishbourne,! appointed Aug. 10, 1716 

Samuel Haaell, in ofBce Oct. 11, 1736 

Bei;jamin Shoemaker, appointed July 15, 1761 

1 Fishbourne was treasurer July 24, 1728. When Hasell wa 
pointed does not appear; he held office at his death, in 1751. 
"Minutes of Council.") 


Samuel Shuemaker,2 appointed July 6, 1767 

John Shee.s in office 1790 to 1797 

George A. Baker, in office 1802 to 1813 

James E. Smith, in office 1813 to 1815 

John Bacon, in office 1816 to 1827 

Thomas Phipps, appointed 1827 to 1829 

Cornelius Stevenson, elected 1829 to 1850 

John Lindsay, elected.. Dec. 19, 18.50 

Dr. F. Knox Morton, in office 1865 to 1867 

William V. McGrath, in office 1857 to 1859 

Benjamin H Brown, in office 1869 to 1861 

Dr James Mc01intock,< in office 1861 to 1863 

Henry Bumm, in office 1863 to 1807 

Joseph North Piersol, in office 1867 to 1869 

Joseph Faviuger Marcer, in office 1869 to 1871 

Peter Arrell Browne Widener, in office 1871 to 1877 

Delos P. Southworth, in office 1877 to 1879 

Joseph J. Martin, elected Nov. 4, 1879 

William B. Irvine, elected Nov. 7, 1882 

Of Philadplphia County. 

Benjamin Chambers, deputy Feb. 22, 1684 

Evan Owen, in office — , 1724 

Thomas Leech, in office 1766 to 1758 

Philip Syng, in office 1758 to 1769 

Barnaby Barnes, in office 1769 to 1777 

Cornelius Barnes, in office 1777 to 1781 

Isaac Snowden, in office 1781 to 1790 

John Baker, in office 1790 to 1807 

Robert McMullin, in office 1807 to 1811 

Michael Baker, in office 1811 to 1816 

Peter Hertzog, in office — , 1816 

Daniel B. Lippard, in office 1816 to 1818 

Joseph Bird 1818 to 1823 

Lodowyk Sharp 1823 to 1824 

James S. Huber, in office 1824 to 1827 

William Moulder, in office 1827 to 1830 

Philip Peltz, in office 1830 to 18;J3 

William Stephens, in office 1833 to 1836 

George W. South, in office 1836 to 1839 

Georse office 18.39 to 1841 

Joseph Plankintun, in office 1841 to 1842 

James Page, in office 1842 to 1844 

Penrose Ash, in office 1844 to 1846 

John H. Dohnert, in office 1846 to 1848 

John F. Deal, in office 1848 to 1850 

Solomon Wagner, in office 1860 to 1852 

Robert 6. Simpson, in office 1852 to 1854 

John M. Coleman, in offices 1854 to 1856 

Board, of Health. — This board consists of nine 
citizens and electors of the city of Philadelphia, who 
are selected in the following manner, to wit: the 
judges of the Court of Common Pleas of the city and 
county appoint three, in such manner that one retires 
each year, their terms being three years each. The 
judges of the Supreme Court likewise appoint three 
in the same manner, and the Select and Common 
Councils appoint the other three. 

In event of a vacancy in said board from death, 
resignation, or otherwise, it is .supplied and filled for 
the unexpired terra of such member by the power 
which appointed him. 

They enter upon their duties by meeting on the 
first Monday of July in each year and organize into 
a board, and elect a president and such other officers 
as may be necessary for the proper transaction of the 
business of the board. All sums of money due, paya- 
ble to, or received by the Board of Health, are paid 
into the city treasury, and all sums expended by or 
for the purposes of the Board of Health are paid 
by the city treasurer upon orders drawn upon appro- 
priations regularly made by Councils. The board act 

2 Appointed in the place of Benjamin Shoemaker, and still in office 
Oct. 3, 1776. 

3 See " Accounts of Pennsylvania," p. 47. 
< Died Oct. 18, 1882, aged seventy-three. 

6 By the consolidation act the County Treasurer continued from 1854 
to 1866 as the Receiver of Taxes. Lindsay was continued as City Treas- 
urer until the expiration of his term. May, 1855. 



upon their own adjournment as they find necessary, 
but must meet between the 1st day of June and the 
1st day of October. 

Whenever it shall come to the knowledge of the 
Board of Health that any person within the city is 
atfiicted with any contagious disease dangerous to the 
community, it is the duty of the board to take meas- 
ures to prevent the of the contagion, by for- 
bidding and preventing all communication with the 
infected house or family, except by means of physi- 
cians, nurses, or messengers, and they exercise all 
such other powers as the circumstances of the case 
shall require, and as shall in their judgment be most 
conducive to the public good with the least private 

All persons other than persons on board of any 
ship or vessel, and liable to be sent to the lazaretto, 
residing within the city of Philadelphia, who are 
afflicted with any pestilential or contagious disease 
(measles excepted), may, upon the advice and order 
of the port physician, or any other physician or per- 
son authorized by the Board of Health to grant such 
order, be removed by the health officer, and such as- 
sistance as he shall for that purpose employ, to the I 
municipal hospital, or to such other place as the phy- 
sician or Board of Health shall approve, if the per- 
son afflicted with any contagious or pestilential dis- 
ease cannot be properly and sufficiently attended at 
home, there to be lodged, nursed, and maintained, 
and kept until duly discharged by a permit in writing, 
signed by a physician of the said public hospital : 
Proriilfil always, nevertheless, That each and every 
patient, and his or her estate, real and personal, shall 
be liable to pay and reimburse all the charges and 
expenses on his or her account incurred in the said 
haspital, unless the Board of Health award that he 
or she shall be exonerated and exempted therefrom. 

Every person practicing physic in the city who 
shall have a patient laboring under a pestilential 
or contagious disease (measles excepted), forthwith 
makes a report, in writing, to the health officer, and 
for neglecting so to do he is considered guilty of a 
misdemeanor, and subject to a fine not exceeding fifty 

Whenever any person shall die in the city, the 
physician or surgeon who has attended such person, 
as a physician or surgeon, during his or her last sick- 
ness, shall leave a note in writing, signed with his 
Dame, with some one of the family in the house where 
such person shall have died, sjiccifying the name and 
afiparentage of the deceased, and the disease of which 
he or she shall have died. And every physician or 
Burgeon refusing or neglecting to make and deliver 
such note shall forfeit the sum of five dollars. And 
no sexton of any church, or other person having 
charge of any cemetery, vault, or burying-ground in 
the city, shall permit any dead body to be interred 
therein until he has received such note in writing so 
signed as aforesaid ; or in case no physician or sur- 

geon shall have attended such deceased person, or the 
physician or surgeon who did attend shall have neg- 
lected or refused to leave such note, then a like note 
signed by some of the family in which such person 
shall have died. The contents of which note, in 
writing, shall be entered by such sexton on a blank 
schedule to be furnished by the clerk of the health 
office, or such other person as the Board of Health 
shall direct, and delivered, together with the said 
schedule, on the Saturday of every week, to the 
health officer for publication in such form as may be 
designated by the Board of Health. And every sex- 
ton, or other person having charge of any place of 
interment, neglecting or refusing to perform the afore- 
said requirements forfeits the sum of twenty-five 

No practicing physician, or other person or per- 
sons, are allowed to communicate the infection of 
smallpox by inoculation or otherwise within the 
jurisdiction of the Board of Health, unless by special 
permission of said board, and any practicing phy7 
sician, or other person or persons, so transgressing is 
liable to a penalty not exceeding one hundred dol- 
lars, nor less than seventy, for each person so inocu- 
lated or infected. 

It is the duty of all persons who may pursue or 
practice midwifery in the city of Philadelphia be- 
tween the 1st day of March and the 1st day of April, 
annually, to leave their names in writing, and the 
places of their residence, at the office of the Board of 
Health. And when so left it is the duty of the clerk 
to enter the same alphabetically in a book kept for 
that purpose, which is open at all times during office 
hours to persons desirous to inspect the same. And 
all persons pursuing or practicing midwifery are re- 
quired to keep a true and exact register of the births 
that take ))lace under their care and superintendence, 
and from time to time, as they may happen, enter the 
same, with the sex of the child so born, on a blank 
schedule furnished to them by the clerk of the health 
office, which schedule is signed with the name of such 
person, and delivered on the last Saturday of each 
month to the clerk of the health office, or other per- 
son calling for the same. And every person pursuing 
or practicing midwifery neglecting or refusing to 
leave their names and places of residence at the 
health office, or to perform any of the duties required, 
forfeit and pay for each offense the sum of twenty- 
five dollars. 

Any person willfully and knowingly obstructing or 
resisting the Board of Health, or any of the members 
thereof, or any person by them appointed, in the 
execution of the powers to them given, or in per- 
formance of duties enjoined by law and the rules 
and regulations of the hoard, forfeits and pays a sum 
not exceeding five hundred dollars. And if, after the 
expiration of the quarantine, any mariner or other 
person who shall have complied with the regulations 
established, shall commit any violence on the person 



of a member of the Board of Health, or any of the ! 
oflScers attached to the same, for anything done in j 
the execution of his duty, such person is subject, on j 
conviction, to a fine of two hundred dollars and im- 
prisonment at hard labor for any term not exceeding 
three years. ; 

The president, secretary, and chief clerk of the 
Board of Health, and the health officer, have power 
to administer oaths and affirmations in conducting 
the business of their respective offices, in connection 
with said board, and any false oath so taken is ' 
deemed perjury. 

The Board of Health are vested with full power to j 
make general rules, orders, and regulations for the 
government and management of the lazaretto, and 
the vessels, cargoes, and persons there detained, or 
under quarantine, and of the health office and public 
hospitals, and for the mode of visiting and examining 
vessels, persons, goods, and houses. They have power 
to appoint such officers and servants as may be neces- I 
sary to attend the health office, the lazaretto, and the 
City Hospital, and convey communications and sup- 
plies to the lazaretto and hospital, and such other 
officers and servants as may be necessary for the 
preservation of the health of the district ; together 
with all temporary officers and servants that may be 
rendered necessary by the existence of any dangerous 
contagious disease in the city, or in any other place 
within the United States : Provided, That such officers 
and servants shall not hold any offices of profit or 
trust under the United States ; and to remove any of 
the officers and servants by them appointed, and to 
allow and pay the said officers and servants such 
compensation for their respective services as the board 
deem just and proper. The Governor appoints one 
physician, who resides at the lazaretto, and is de- 
nominated the lazaretto physician, and one physi- 
cian who resides in the city of Philadelphia, who is 
denominated the port physician, also one health offi- 
cer, one quarantine-master, all of whom are under the 
direction and control of the Board of Health. 

The lazaretto physician is furnished with a house 
to live in, also a garden, within the bounds of the 
lazaretto, and the quarantine-master is provided with 
similar accommodations. 

The health officer is entitled to receive from the 
captain or master of any ship or vessel the following 
sums, and no more, and to pay the same over from 
time to time as the board may direct, to wit : all 
American vessels sailing under coasting documents, 
arriving at the port of Philadelphia, from any port 
or place in the United States, between the river St. 
Croix and the river St. Mary (except ports or places 
between Sandy Hook and Cape Charles), pay two 
dollars and fifty cents for each arrival during quaran- 
tine months, and the vessel during that time shall (if 
having goods capable of containing contagion, persons, 
baggage, or clothing, from any foreign port or place 
or any diseased person) stop at the lazaretto, and there 

be examined by the lazaretto physician and quaran- 
tine-master, under the rules and regulations. And 
all American vessels from any port in the United 
States where they may have touched or traded from 
a foreign port or place, pay the same sum as if they 
had arrived direct from such port or place. And all 
American vessels with coa.sting documents, arriving 
from any port or place between Sandy Hook and Cape 
Charles, including the bay and river Delaware, during 
quarantine months, having on board merchandise of 
foreign growth or manufacture, or persons, baggage, 
or clothing from any foreign port or place, or from 
any place to the northward or eastward of Sandy 
Hook, or westward of Cape Charles, stop at the laza- 
retto for examination under the rules and regulations, 
and pay for each arrival during quarantine months two 
dollars and fifty cents. All American vessels arriving 
from any port or place in New Brunswick, Nova 
Scotia, Canada, or the islands or ports adjacent the 
river St. Mary, the coast of Florida, bay of Mexico, 
including New Orleans and parts adjacent, and from 
thence along the bay of Honduras and coast of Terra 
Firma, as far as the river Amazon, including all the 
islands generally denominated West India, Bahamas, 
or Bermudas, pay on arrival five dollars. All Ameri- 
can vessels arriving from any place in Europe, in the 
Western, Medeira, Canary, or Cape Verd islands, the 
coast of Africa as far as latitude thirty-four degrees 
south, and from any place in the Mediterranean or 
straits thereof, or from any place from the river Ama- 
zon inclusive, and round the coast of Brazil as far as 
latitude thirty-four degrees south, pay ten dollars 
each. And all American vessels arriving from any 
place beyond latitude thirty-four degrees south, or 
round Cape Horn, or the Cape of Good Hope, pay 
twenty dollars each. And all foreign vessels arriving 
as aforesaid (except prizes to American vessels) pay 
twenty-five per cent, each additional, unless otherwise 
regulated by any treaty. And prize vessels, taken by 
foreign armed vessels, pay twenty-five per cent, each 
more than is paid by American vessels. And prize 
vessels taken by American vessels pay on arrival ten 
dollars each. And public armed vessels and priva- 
teers pay six dollars each. And any vessel of the 
burden of one hundred and fifty tons and upwards, 
arriving at the lazaretto, from any foreign port or 
coastwise, may come to in the outer channel, as near 
to the west end of the island of Little Tinicum, oppo- 
1 site the lazaretto, as her draught of water, wind, and 
weather will permit, for the purpose of receiving the 
visit from the lazaretto physician and quarantine- 
' master. And if the said vessel does not receive her 
visit in the inner channel, she shall pay an additional 
sum of five dollars, of which two dollars shall be paid 
to the lazaretto physician, and one dollar to the quar- 
antine-master as a compensation for their services, and 
I two dollars into the treasury of the board. 

Every ship or vessel coming from any foreign port 
I or place, bound to the port of Philadelphia, between 



the 1st day of June and the 1st day of October in 
every year, must come to anchor in the river Dela- 
ware as near the lazaretto as the draught of water and 
the weather will allow, before any part of the cargo or 
baggage be landed, or any person who come in such 
ship or vessel shall leave her, or any person l;p per- 
mitted to go on board, and shall submit to an exami- 
nation. And if any master, commander, or pilot 
shall leave his station before the said lazaretto, or if 
any master or commander permit or suffer any part 
of the cargo or baggage, or any person or persons 
arriving in such ship or vessel from any port beyond 
the limiu of the United States, to be landed on either 
shore of the Delaware Bay or river, or suffer any 
person, except the pilot, to come on board before 
such examination be duly had, and a certificate ob- 
tained, the person or persons so permitting, and the 
person or persons so landed or going on board (unless 
imminent danger of the loss of the vessel or lives of 
the crew shall render assistance necessary) being 
thereof convicted, upon indictment or prosecution, by 
verdict, confession, or standing mute in any court 
having jurisdiction of the offense, shall pay a fine not 
exceeding five hundred dollars. 

It is the duty of the lazaretto physician and quar- 
antine-master, so soon as any ship or vessel is an- 
chored near the lazaretto, between sunrise and sun- 
set, immediately, wind and weather permitting, to go 
on board the same, and there thoroughly examine, 
in form and manner as is prescribed by the Board of 
Health, the said ship or vessel, the crew, passengers, 
cargo, and baggage on board the same, and to demand 
answers under oath or affirmation, administered by 
either the said physician or quarantine-master, who 
are severally empowered to administer the same, to 
all such questions as shall be put to any person on 
board such ship or vew<el touching the health of the 
crew and passengers during the voyage, and the na- 
ture and state of the cargo, as the Board of Health, 
by their rules, from time to time direct to be asked ; 
and it is the duty of the person so examining on oath 
or affirmation, before he shall proceed therein, to 
make known to the person interrogated, the jienalty 
imposed upon the person who shall give false answers, 
undiT oath or affirmation, to the questions proposed 
in such examination, to the said physician or quar- 
antine-master, that the said ship or vessel came from 
a port or place at which no malignant or contagious 
disease prevailed at the time of her departure, that 
the persons on Ixtard such ship or vessel are free from 
every pestilential or contagious disease, measles ex- 
cepted, and that the said vessel has had no malignant 
disease on board, either during the homeward-bound 
voyage or during her continuance in a foreign port; 
and if they shall see no cause to suspect that the cargo 
or any part thereof is infected, they shall forthwith 
deliver to the master or captain of such ship or vensel 
a certificate of the facts in such form as shall be di- 
rected by the Board of Health. And the said captain 

or master may thereupon proceed according to his 
destination, and shall present such certificate at the 
health office in Philadelphia, within twenty-four 
hours after his arrival and safely mooring there. But 
if it shall appear, upon such examination, that the 
ship or vessel came from a port or place at which a 
malignant or contagious disease prevailed, such vessel 
shall be detained at the lazaretto for such time as 
the Board of Health shall deem necessary, not ex- 
ceeding twenty days. 

The lazaretto physician, quarantine-master, nor 
other officer or servant of the lazaretto shall not ab- 
sent himself from the place of his duty between the 
1st day of June and the 1st day of October on any 
pretence whatever, for any time, without leave first 
obtained in writing from the Board of Health, under 
the hand of the president or chairman for the time, 
attested by the secretary and entered on the minutes, 
under the penalty of forfeiting his office, and a fine of 
any sum not exceeding five hundred dollars. 

It is the duty of the lazaretto physician, immedi- 
ately on the arrival of any ship or vessel liable to be 
detained at the lazaretto in order to be cleansed and 
purified, to cause the sick, if any are on board, to be 
removed to the building which shall be appointed by 
the Board of Health for their reception, and diligently 
and impartially to attend upon them, and cause to be 
executed such orders and regulations as the said 
board shall from time to time ordain for the govern- 
ment and management of the lazaretto, and of the 
vessels, cargoes, and persons under quarantine. 

The health officer attends the health office at the 
meetings of the Board of Health, and at such other 
times as shall be required for discharging the duties 
of his appointment, and generally enforces and exe- 
cutes the regulations and instructions of the Board of 
Health. It is his further duty to collect, recover, and 
receive all forfeitures and penalties imposed and 
sums of money directed to be paid by law. He 
shall give bond, with sureties, to the satisfaction of 
the Board of Health, conditioned for the faithful 
performance, and account for all moneys coming 
into his hands as such officer. The bond is a lien on 
the estate of the health officer and his sureties. 

No vessel is permitted to leave the lazaretto, with- 
out first giving security, approved by the Board of 
Health, for the payment of all expenses of said ves- 
sel, and of passengers and other persons imported in 
them, which said vessels, their captains, owners, or 
consignees are by law made liable. 

The health officer, for services rendered in i.ssuing 
permits or certificates of health to vessels, to the col- 
lector of the port and for other purposes, receives the 
sum of two dollars for each permit or certificate issued 
by him, and he is authorized to employ a clerk at a 
salary of twelve hundred dollars a year. The port 
physician receives the sum of eighteen hundred dol- 
lars per annum. 
I The salary of the lazaretto physician is twenty-five 



hundred dollars per annum, and that of the quaran- 
tine-master two thousand dollars, and the health 
officer receives twenty-one hundred dollars. 

The Board of Health receives for treatment in the 
Municipal Hospital all persons afflicted with any con- 
tagious or infectious disease, who would otherwise he 
a charge upon the Guardians of the Poor, and paupers 
so afflicted in the almshouse, and such as are sent by 
the inspectors from the county prison. 

No pilot bringing a ship or vessel to the lazaretto 
in an apparent state of good health shall be obliged to 
perform quarantine, but the lazaretto physician shall 
grant such jjilot a certificate, permitting him to pro- 
ceed to the capes of the Delaware, in order that he 
may prosecute his profession ; but such pilot shall not 
on any pretence come into the city of Philadelphia 
for twenty days from the date of such certificate, under 
the penalty of one hundred dollars or one year's im- 
prisonment. And any pilot bringing to the said laz- 
aretto a ship or vessel infected or supposed to be in- 
fected with any pestilential or contagious disease, may 
be permitted to go and remain on shore within the 
bounds of the lazaretto during the time the ship or 
vessel brought thither shall be detained under quar- 
antine : Provided ahcays, That if the said vessel shall 
be infected with any such disease as aforesaid, he shall 
be detained and treated in the like manner as seamen 
or passengers so infected are detained and treated : 
And provided further, That if he shall go without the 
bounds of the lazaretto he shall be liable to the same 
penalties as are imposed on seamen or passengers 
escaping therefrom. 

Whenever the Board of Health shall receive infor- 
mation that any malignant or contagious disease (the 
measles excepted) prevails in any port or place within 
the United States or on the continent of America, they 
shall make diligent inquiry concerning the same, and 
if it shall appear that the disease prevails as afore- 
said, all communication with such infected port or 
place shall be subject to such control and regulations 
as the Board of Health may from time to time think 
proper to direct and publish in one or more news- 
papers published in the city of Philadelphia. And all 
vessels from such port or place, and bound to the port 
of Philadelphia, shall stop at the lazaretto and be 
proceeded with in the same manner and under the 
same penalties as are provided in cases of vessels 
coming from foreign ports. And every person or per- 
sons having entered or been brought into the city or 
county of Philadelphia from such infected port or 
place shall also be conveyed, by any person author- 
ized by the board, to such place for purification as 
the said board may appoint or direct for that purpose, 
and be there detained at the pleasure of the board 
any time not exceeding twenty days, and at the ex- 
pense of such person or persons. 

Every person keeping a boarding- or lodging-house 
in the city of Philadelphia between the 1st day of 
June and the 15th day of October, in any year, shall, 

within twelve hours after any seafaring man or so- 
journer shall become sick in such boarding- or lodg- 
ing-house report in writing the name of such diseased 
person to the health officer. And no mitster of a 
vessel or other person whatsoever shall remove any 
sick person from any vessel lying in the river Dela- 
ware, before the city of Philadelphia, liefore such sick 
pereon has been visited liy the port physician, and a 
written permit granted l)y him for the purpose of such 
removal. And any person neglecting or refusing to 
comply with the provisions of this section shall, on 
legal conviction thereof, be subject to a fine not ex- 
ceeding fifty dollars, or to imprisonment for any terra 
not exceeding three months. 

The Board of Health, or a committee of them, have 
power, having first obtained a warrant from a justice 
of the peace, in due form of law, founded on a com- 
plaint of two householders, under oath or affirmation, 
directed to the sheriff" of the county of Philadelphia, 
or his deputy, to enter and search all houses, stores, 
cellars, and other inclosures, between sunrise and sun- 
set, where they may have just cause to suspect any 
nuisance to exist: Provided, however. That no sheriff" 
or deputy sheriff" shall execute any civil process, 
either by arresting the body, or attaching the goods 
and chattels, of any person or persons, under color of 
any entry made for the purposes aforesaid, unless 
such service could by law have been made without 
such entry ; and all services so made under color of 
such entry are utterly void, and the officer making 
such service is considered a trespasser. And it is the 
duty of the board to cause all off'ensive or putrid sub- 
stances, and all nuisances which may have a tendency 
in their opinion to endanger the health of the citizens, 
to be removed from the streets, lanes, alleys, highways, 
wharves, docks, or any other part or parts of the city 
of Philadelphia, and to cause such of the privies with- 
in the limits aforesaid to be emptied or corrected with 
lime or otherwise, at the expense of the individuals 
who are the owners of the houses to which the said 
privies are appurtenant, as the board shall from time 
to time deem necessary for the health of the inhabi- 
tants. And if the owners or occupiers of the prem- 
ises on which any nuisance may be found, and the 
owners of the houses to which the said privies are 
appurtenant, shall, on due notice thereof, refuse or 
neglect to have the same immediately removed, emp- 
tied, or corrected, as aforesaid, he, she, or they so re- 
fusing or neglecting, forfeit and pay for every such 
offense any sum not less than twenty, nor more than 
two hundred, dollars. And the expense attending 
the removal of such nuisance shall be recovered by 
the board in any court having lawful jurisdiction, 
from all corporate bodies and individuals, in case due 
notice has been given to remove the same, and a re- 
fusal or neglect to do so within the time prescribed 
by the board. 

It is the duty of the Board of Health in all cases 
where the owner or owners of unoccupied property 



upon which a iiuisaoce, in the opinion of the said 
board, exists, reside out of the city, or cannot be 
found by the messenger of the said board, after dili- 
gent search made, to cause the said nuisance to be at 
once removed, and the expense attending the removal 
of the same is recovered by the said board in any 
court, or before any justice of the peace, having juris- 
diction. The expense attending the removal of any 
nuisance is a lien on the premises from which it was 

Whenever any nuisance is found anywhere within 
the jurisdiction of the Board of Health, by reason of 
keeping of hogs or other animals, the said board, in 
addition to their powerof destroying the pens or other 
inclosures containing such animals, or of otherwise 
abating such nuisance, are authorized to seize such 
animals and deliver them over, as forfeited, to "the 
guardians for the relief and employment of the poor 
of the city of Philadelphia," for the use of said poor. 

The Board of Health have full power to remove the 
cause of all nuisances. 1 

No bone-boiling establishment or depository of 
dead animals shall be kept or erected within the city 
limits without permission of the Board of Health. 

No person shall collect or remove kitchen garbage 
and offal from any dwelling, hotel, restaurant, or 
other buildings, or convey the same through any of 
the streets, lanes, courts, or alleys of the built-up 
portions of the city, except the same be collected or j 
removed in water-tight carts, wagons, or other vehi- ! 
cles, and securely covered, so that none of the con- 
tents shall fall, leak, or spill therefrom, or be exposed 
to public view, and the same regulation exists as to 
the removal of ashes. 

The Board of Health grant licenses to proper per- 
sons, upon their application, to clean privy-wells and 
sinks, under such stipulations as place them under the 
control of the board, which regulates the price they 
may charge and the time and mode of their work. 

Annually on the fourth Tuesday of January the 
Board of Health elect twenty-four persons who have 
had conferred upon them the degree of Doctor of 
Medicine, to serve as vaccine physicians In the city. 

It is the duty of each of the said physicians to vac- 
cinate gratuitously in their respective wards all per- 
iions who may make application or be reported to him 
by the collector of vaccine cases in his ward, either 
at his own office or at their respective places of abode, 
according to the option of the applicant; and he shall 
continue to visit every such patient as often as may 
be necessary to enable him to ascertain whether the 
person or persons so vaccinated have passed through 
the genuine disease. P^ch of said physicians must 
keep in a convenient part of his district an office, 
with a sign in front, having on the words " Vaccine 
Physician," where application may be made at all 
reasonable hour>i in relation to the duties of his ap- 
pointment; and each of said physicians preserve and 
keep on hand a sufficient quantity of genuine vaccine 

matter for distribution without fee or charge to all 
practicing physicians residing within the city of Phil- 
adelphia who make personal application therefor. 

The said vaccine physicians each furnish the Board 
of Health quarterly with a list alphabetically ar- 
ranged of the names, ages, birthplaces, residences, 
and occupations (and, when children, of the occupa- 
tion of their parents) of the persons whom he may 
have successfully vaccinated. 

Upon the fourth Tuesday of January in each year 
the Board of Health elect thirteen persons to serve as 
collectors of vaccine cases. Each collector is required 
to live in the district assigned him, and is paid ten 
cents for every unvaccinated person he procures to be 
vaccinated by the vaccine physician. It is the duty 
of the collectors to call on each and every family re- 
siding in the ward or wards for which he may be 
elected, and inquire whether any and, if any, what 
members thereof may be liable to smallpox disease; 
and if he find any person or persons so liable, he shall 
offer the gratuitous services of the vaccine physician 
of the ward to vaccinate such person or persons ; and 
if the offer is accepted, the collector reports immedi- 
ately to the physician the names of the individuals, 
with their residences ; and at the expiration of each 
quarter he shall leave a copy of all the cases collected 
by him and returned to the physician at the health 
office with the health officer. 

It is the duty of the health officer to register the 
returns made to him of the marriages which are con- 
tracted, and of the births and deaths which may 
occur within the city. He also prepares an abstract 
of them annually, in the month of February, and 
this he sends to Councils through the Board of 
Health, which abstract contains a statement of the 
marriages solemnized, and of the number of births, 
and of deaths, with the reported causes thereof, 
which have occurred in the city during the year 
next preceding the 1st day of January, with such 
other information and suggestions in relation thereto 
as he may deem of practical utility for the promotion 
of public health, and of general interest to the city. 

It is the duty of clergymen of all denominations, 
of clerks or keepers of the records of all churches and 
religious societies, as also of every magistrate, and of 
other persons by or before whom any marriage may 
be solemnized or contracted, and, of every practicing 
|)hysician, and of every practitioner of midwifery, and 
of every undertaker and superintendent or sexton of 
any cemetery or burying-ground in the said city of 
Philadelphia, to re|)ort his, her, or their names and 
places of residence to the health officer, at the office 
of the Board of Health ; and it shall be the duty of 
the health officer to have the same properly registered 
in index form in suitable books. In the event of any 
of the persons above specified removing to any other 
place of residence, it shall be their duty to notify the 
health officer of the fact within thirty days after such 
removal, except where the persons removing shall 



cease to act in such official capacity as makes them 
subject to the provisions of the law. 

It is the duty of every clergyman, .ind every magis- 
trate, and of the clerk or keeper of the records of all 
religious and other societies, and of every other person, 
by or before whom any marriage may be solemnized 
or contracted, to make a faithful return of the same 
at the expiration of every three months to the health 
officer, in the form of a certificate, which shall set 
forth, as far as the same can be ascertained, the full 
name of the husband, his occupation, the place of his 
birth, his residence and age, the date of marriage, the 
full name of the wife previous to the said marriage, 
and her age, the color of the parties, and the place 
where, and the name of the clergyman or other person 
by whom, the marriage ceremony was performed. 

Every clergyman, and every magistrate, and every 
clerk or keeper of the records of all religious societies, 
and every practicing physician, and every person 
practicing midwifery in the city, and every under- 
taker and superintendent or sexton of any cemetery 
or burying-ground in the city, who shall neglect or 
refuse to leave his or her name and place of residence 
at the health office, and shall refuse or neglect to per- 
form any other of the duties aforesaid, forfeits for each 
offense the sum of ten dollars. 

{See Act of march 22. 1803.) 

Samael Toung,' appointed Feb. 10, 1809 

■William Hawks, appointed Jan. 20, 1812 

Caleb Earle, appointed Nov. 3, 1818 

William Hawks, appointed March 15, 1821 

Caleb Earle, appointed Feb. 7, 1824 

George Bird, appointed Blay 13,1828 

Nicholas Esling, appointed March 21, 1836 

Patrick Hayes, appointed Feb. 9,1839 

John F. Stump, appointed April 6, 1842 

Angnstus L. Roumfort, appointed July 11, 1845 

William Abbott, appointed Aug. 22, 1848 

William Rice, appointed Feb. 4, 1862 

George Rex Graham, appointed Feb. 16, 1855 

Capt. Enoch Turley, appointed Nov. 8,1856 

John D. Pettit, appointed March 32, 1858 

George T. Thorn, appointed Jan. 30, 1861 

George J. Weaver, appointed Ian. 28, 1867 

Alexander P. Colesberry, appointed Feb. 28, 1870 

Joseph W. Bullock, appointed — , 1877 

Capt. Henry R. Adams, appointed — , 1879 

James P. Lindsay, appointed Jan. — , 1883 

The following is a report of the number of vessels 
and passengers (chiefly foreign) arriving at the port 
of Philadelphia from 1860 to 1882, inclusive, exam- 
ined by the port and lazaretto physicians: 

Tes- Passen- 




1869 991 

1870 970 

1871 1,109 

1872 1,161 


1873 1,335 

1874 1,285 

1875 1,295 

1876 1,692 

1877 1,321 

1878 1,825 

1879 2,070 

1880 1,828 

1881 1,605 

1882 1,441 


27,078 192,351 

The number of vessels and passengers arriving at 
the port of Philadelphia, and examined by the laza- 
retto physician, during the year 1882, was as follows : 

1 Died Jan. 14, 1812 

Steamships 22;i 

Ships 82 

Barks 6118 

Brigs 1»9 

Schooners 4.17 

Yachts •,; 

Total 1,441 

Number of passengers arrived 32,223 

The following table of mortality in each ward for 
1882, with population (according to tenth census), 
with the ratio of deaths to population, and the per- 
centage of deaths in each ward to the total mortality: 


















Deaths in almshouse, 

Totals 846, 

Ratio of deaths to (estimated) population, 886.539 (in 1882), was 22.62 
per thousand, or 44.19 persons living to 1 death. 

The following table shows the ratio of deaths with 
population for the past twenty-two years : 




Deaths to 

1000 Persons 


Pei^ons Liv- 

iug to One 


1 676,408 


. 15,633 

23 60 






....1 698,166 
....' 608,045 
















....I 800,000 



....1 850,866 







' 886,539 


= United States census ; the interreDing years* population estimated. 



The following table shows the number of persons married, including both sexes, in each division of ages, 
from 1861 to 1882, inclusive: 






































18M _ _.. 



1868 _ 

i(ro!.'.'.7r!r!..'.'.'.'.""!."."™.'"! !!!!!!.'"."!..! !!!!!! 



lan _ „ 

M7S..V.'.""™ Z."!.™.'".'.™™'.".!'..' "".'.'.'.'.'. '.'.'."'. 


1878 „ „ 


















PBtA, 1699-1872. 





BvbmAota dittampor- 











76,01 »♦ 









l*»U(iDr feTer-. 


Vtllow f«Ter 

.^n)Allpox.._„ „.„ 

Smallpox ud camp 






81 >o* 
















Tallow fanr-. _.. 



" •••"—■■• 













Rnullpox 'Z'.'.'.'.'.Z. 









Aalatlc chiliiiiri'.'.'."!.' 


T.llow r>T«r _. 


8(«rl*t r«T«r „.. 




















aaallpol _.. 

• Tb«M a^nrM mn upon ■athorit; of Iir M«u«. who Mid, In 1811, 
thai daring Iha j>mn l7»4-»« Uia y.llow fafar waa ni-arl; •• bad aa In 
1802. whan lh> daatha wara KU. 

tTha daalhi from Board of llaallh rapon attrt aecordlnx <o aatlmata. 

J Tha flgsiaa fl»»n ar» tha aatlmata of panna who ranialnad In the 
dly dnnnc tha aoUra conuglon. Larga niimban of cltiiana UmI from 
tha paaUIaooa. 


Wttfl thr artrage poptdation of each year and dtatlu to every I(XX) peretme 








Returns of births, marriages, and deaths from 1860 
to 1882' areas follows: 

< Incliidaa itlll-boni, premature birtha, and death! fh>m other iocali- 
tlaa, with the rxceptlon of yeva since 1876. 



I860 (aix months), 

















The annual mean temperature in Philadelphia from 
1800 to 1882, inclusive, with the annual amount of 
rain and snow, in inches, from 1825 to 1882 : 


Mean An- 
nual Tem- 

Kain in 


Mean An- 
nual Tem- 

Bain in 
































































41.06 . 






















































39 50 



















































* Ice in every month ; the coldest year on record in the city ; " popu- 
larly known as the year without a summer,'* 

+ From this year ohserrations talcen at United States Signal-Office used 
in tltis department. 

Members of the Board of Health of the Citg and Port of Philadelphia 
1882-83.— President, Horatio G. Sickel; Secretary, A. A. Hirst; Wil 
Ham H. Ford, M.D., Joseph G. Patterson, A. A. Hirst, William B. Kin 
sey, Albert H. Dingee, Bichard A. Cleemann. M.D., Thad. L. Vander- 
slice, Walter Allison, William H. Button, Joseph G. Richardsou, M.D 
Marcus A. Davis. 


The Health Office was eilablUhed by Act of April 1, 1803. 

1803. Cornelius Comegjs. 

1806. Ebenezer Ferguson. 

1807. Thomas C. James. 
1810. Ebenezer Ferguson. 

1817. Liberty Browne. 

1818. John Claxton, 
1823. Cornelius Comepys. 
1830. Joseph Worrell. 

1833. Dr. Robert E. Griffith, J 
1835 Ralph W. Pomeroy. 
18.37. Dr. Henry Bond. 
1839. James Hutchinson. 
1843. Thomas D.Grover. 
1846. Dr. Nathan L. Hatfield. 

1848. Adam Traquair. 

1849. John Lindsay. 

1864. Jeremiah E. Eldredge. 

1856. Dr. Wilson Jewell. 

1857. William Bousull. 

1858. Dr. Joseph R. Coad. 

1858. Robert Lindsay. 

1859, Dr. Paul B. Goddard. 
1863. Dr. James A. McCrea. 
1868. Dr. Eliab Ward. 
1871. Henry Davis. 

I 1879. Dr. William H. Ford. 
1881. Gen. Horatio Gates Sicliel. 


Peter Le Barbier Duplessis, French — , 1794 

Peter S. Du Ponceau, French and English.... — , 1794 

Charles Erdman, German and Low Dutch.... — , 1794 

James Philip Puglia, Spanish — , 1794 

John Holt Oswald, French and Spanish Sept. — , 1805 

J. Ulricb Rivardi, foreign languages May — , 1806 

George Taylor, Jr., foreign languages May — , 1809 

James Philip Puglia, foreign languages May — , 1809 

Peter S. Du Ponceau, foreign languages Nov. 22, 1810 

Matthias J. O'Conway, foreign languages.... Jan. — , 1811 

Charles Erdman, foreign languages Nov. 26, 1813 

Charles Currie, foreign languages Oct. — , 1817 

Benjamin Nones, foreign languages Feb. 17,1818 

Samuel Keemie, German Nov. 26, 1818 

Jacob Zeilin, German July 21, 1819 

Joachim Frederick Eckhard, German Feb. 14, 1820 

M. J. O'Conway, French and Spanish Feb. 14, 1821 

Benjamin Nones, French and Spanish March 14, 1821 

Charles Le Brun, French and Spanish Aug. 23, 1822 

Francis Becker, French and Spanish Oct. — , 1822 

Ignace Frazer, French Sept. — , 1823 


1st Dist. Dr. H. F. Camblos. 
2d Dist. Dr. E. Kilduffe. 
3d Dist. Dr. L F. Love. 
4th Dist. Dr. D. N. Dennis. 
6th Dist. Dr Aug. F. Kempton. 
6th Dist. Dr. C. A. Groff. 
7th Dist. Dr. Wash. H.Baker. 
8th Dist. Dr. L. J. Lauteiibach. 
9th Dist. Dr. Alexander Browne. 
10th Dist. Dr, S. N. Troth. 

11th Dist. Dr. A.Graydon. 
12th Dist. Dr. J. L. Ribl. 
13th Dist. Dr. Thomas Shriner. 
14th Dist. Dr. George W. Bowen. 
16th Dist. Dr. G. L. Thomas. 
16th Dist. Dr. W. L. Phillips. 
17th Dist. Dr. Henry Mullen. 
18th Dist. Dr. F. W. Tliomas. 
19th Dist. Dr. Ella R. Ziegler. 
20th Dist. Dr. D. W. Lane. 

The Law Department. — The qualified voters of 
the city, at the February election, every third year, 
elect one person learned in the law, to act as solicitor 
of the city, whose duties are prescribed by ordinance, 
and who employs such number of assistants as Coun- 
cils may prescribe. He holds his office for a term of 
three years. In his office, provided by Councils, are 
deposited and preserved all patents, deeds, wills, 
leases, mortgages, and other assurances of title, to- 
gether with all contracts, bonds, notes, official bonds, 
books, and other evidences of debt belonging to the 
city of Philadelphia. 

The law-office of the city is under the superin- 
tendence, direction, and control of the city solicitor; 
he gives bond to the corporation, with two or more 
sureties, to be approved by the Select Council, in the 
sum of ten thousand dollars, conditioned for the faith- 
ful performance of the duties of his office, as the same 
are or shall be defined by any act of Assembly or or- 
dinance of the city. 

It is the duty of the city solicitor to prepare all 



bonds, obligations, contracts, leases, conveyances, 
and assurances, which may be required of him by 
any ordinance of the corporation of the city of Phila- 
delphia ; to commence and prosecute all and every suit 
and suits, action and actions, brought and to be brought 
by the corporation for or on account of any of the 
estates, rights, trusts, privileges, claims, or demands 
of the same, as well as to defend all actions or suits 
brought or to be brought against the said corporation 
or any officer thereof, wherein or whereby any of the 
estates, rights, privileges, trusts, ordinances, or acts 
of the corporation, or any branch thereof, may be 
brought in question before any court in the common- 
wealth ; and shall do all and every professional act 
incident to the office which may be required of him 
by the mayor of tiie city, or by any committee of the 
Select or Common Councils, or by any ordinance or 
resolution of the said Councils or either of them ; and 
shall, when required, furnish the Councils or commit- 
tees thereof, and the mayor, with his written opinion 
on any subject which may be submitted by them. He 
shall perform all the duties enjoined by law or ordi- 
nance upon him, including the Board of Health, 
Guardians of the Poor, prison inspectors, and con- 
trollers of the public schools. 

The city solicitor shall, at once in every week, 
make a return to the city controller, under oath or 
affirmation, of each item of moneys received by or 
through him or his assistants by virtue of his office, 
or for any matter connected therewith, and immedi- 
ately upon making such return, pay the amount in 
his hands to the city treasurer. 

There is kept in this department a lien docket, in 
which, in appropriate places, are entered all claims 
for curbing, paving, piping, and all other matters 
that may be the subject of claim on the part of the city, 
and may be returned to the solicitor by the various 
departments as remaining due and unpaid after the 
period prescribed by law or ordinance for the pay- 
ment of such claims to the said departments; and it 
is the duty of the head of each department wherein 
any such claim.s shall originate to furnisii to the 
Bolicitor, within the period prescribed by law or or- 
dinance, a statement of all claims for curbing, paving, 
piping, etc., which remain due or unpaid, a certified 
copy of which the said heads of departments shall at 
the same time furnish to the controller, which docket 
shall at all times be open to the inspection of the 

No claim or suit against the city shall in any way 
or manner be compromised by the city solicitor or 
any other officer of the city, unless the same is au- 
thorized by ordinance. 

The solicitor keeps in his office a general lien 
docket for all the departments, in which is entered 
all claims of whatsoever nature which may be due 
the city. It is his duty to furnish the city controller, 
under oath, weekly returns of the amount received 
on each claim, together with the amount of interest 

and costs received on each, separately stated, and the 
date, page, term, and number of the court docket on 
which satisfaction was entered. He also makes re- 
turn to the city controller, on the first Monday of 
each month, of all directed to be paid, 
or of road damages or other claims allowed, with the 
name of the plaintiff, the amount and purpose on 
which the judgment was obtained, also specific re- 
turns of the amounts collected for any department 
or purpose, and certify to the city controller the 
schedules of all claims and securities placed in his 
charge. He also makes a return of all bills pre- 
sented by the sheriff, coroner, district attorney, and 
clerk of the sessions for fees or other charges, with an 
oath or aflirmation that he has examined the records 
of the several offices, and found by comparison that 
the claims presented by those officers are correct. 

His salary is fifteen thousand dollars per annum. 
All fees received by him are turned into the city 

Contracts. — No debt or contract incurred or made 
is binding upon the city of Philadelphia unless au- 
thorized by law or ordinance, and an appropriation 
sufficient to pay the same be previously made by 
Councils: Provided, That persons claiming unauthor- 
ized debts or contracts may recover against the per- 
son or persons illegally making the same. 

No contract for the construction of any new build- 
ing, school-house, bridge, culvert, new paving of 
streets, redemption of the tolls of any turnpike or 
plank-road, to be paid for by the city, shall become 
binding thereon without an ordinance therefor duly 
enacted. No contract shall be made by the head of 
any department for work or materials for the city, 
unless for objects authorized by Councils, and if for 
new work, the contract and sureties be approved by 
the city solicitor and Councils, and the supervision of 
Councils shall extend to adjudge the character of all 
work and materials done and furnished for the city, 
and to the scrutiny of the accounts and vouchers 
therefor; but such supervision and scrutiny shall in 
nowise relieve the controller from the perfdrmance of 
the like duty in respect to such accounts and vouchers. 

All goods, merchandise, and other articles of any 
kind, and labor and service required for the city in 
any department thereof, shall be purch.ased or con- 
tracted for only in such manner as shall be prescribed 
by ordinance, and for that purpose the Councils are 
required to direct by ordinance the manner and time 
of making the yearly estimates by the several depart- 
ments, and of receiving sealed proposals for such 
supplies as aforesaid, which i>roi)08als shall be pre- 
ceded by advertisement, and no contract shall be 
awarded to any but the lowest bidder, who shall give 
the requisite security therefor. 

All stationery, printing, paper, and fuel used in the 
Councils and in other departments of the city govern- 
ment, and all work and materials required by the city, 
shall be furnished, and the jirinting and all other 



kinds of work to be done for the city shall be per- 
formed under contract, to be given to the lowest 
responsible bidder, under such regulations as shall be 
prescribed by ordinance. No member or officer of 
Councils, or any department of the city government, 
shall be in any way interested in such contracts 
directly or indirectly, either at its inception or dur- 
ing the progress of its fulfillment, or furnish any ma- 
terials or supplies or labor for such contracts. 

It must be one of the conditions of every contract 
entered into by any department for the purchase of 
stone coal that each and every ton of said coal shall 
be weighed at the place of delivery, in the presence 
of a proper person deputed for that purpose by the 
head of the department, who shall keep an accurate 
account of each load of coal delivered, and its exact 
weight; and the city controller shall countersign no 
warrant drawn upon the city treasurer for the pay- 
ment of stone coal furnished the city, unless accom- 
panied by an affidavit of the person who superintended 
the weighing of said coal, setting forth by what con- 
tractor delivered, the time of delivery, the number of 
tons, and the number of pounds to each ton. 

All contracts for grading, paving, or curbing, en- 
tered into by the city, shall specify that the accurate 
measurement thereof shall be certified to by the sur- 
veyor and regulator of the district in which it may be 
performed, and no curbing shall be set, highways 
graded, nor gutters laid, unless in accordance with reg- 
ulations furnished by the surveyor and regulator of 
the district, under a penalty of twenty dollars, to be 
paid by the contractor. 

Whenever any contract for work, labor, or materials 
and repairs for the city of Philadelphia shall be au- 
thorized by Councils, it shall be made a condition of 
the same that the parties shall be skilled and regu- 
larly engaged as to their proper occupation, trade, and 
business in work, labor, and materials and repairs 
required, and to be furnished and by the contractor 
performed ; and that the contractor in person shall 
superintend his own work, labor, and repairs, and de- 
livering all necessary materials to the city. 

Ever}' advertisement for proposals for public work 
to be done, or materials to be furnished, for or on be- 
half of the city, shall state that the person or persons^ 
who shall bid for the same, shall, in the first place, be 
required to enter security at the law department in the 
sum of five hundred dollars, conditioned that if his or 
their bid is the lowest, and he or they shall decline to 
do the said work, or furnish said materials, he or 
they shall pay to the city the difference between the 
amount of his or their bid and the bid of them or him 
who shall actually perform said work or furnish said 
material, and no bid shall be considered unless there 
be a certificate that this has been complied with. 

All contracts entered into by a contractor or con- 
tractors for furnishing supplies, erection of buildings, 
as well as all other work, labor, materials of any 
kind and description for the city must be accom- 

panied with a sufficient joint bond and warrant of 
attorney, with one or more sureties conditioned in 
half the amount of the contract for the faithful per- 
formance of the contract, agreement, or work and 
labor done. And the city solicitor is required to 
enter up the bond in court, and cause judgment- to 
be entered thereon, and said judgment remains a lien 
against said contractor or contractors, and his sure- 
ties until the terms of said contract have been fully 
and faithfully complied with. But the city solicitor 
shall enter satisfaction of record upon said bond and 
the judgment thereon, whenever he shall be so re- 
quested in writing by resolution of the committee, 
and the head of the department having the super- 
vision and control of the contract or work, for the 
performance of which the bond was given, which re- 
quest shall also certify that the terms of said con- 
tract have been fully complied with. The costs and 
charges for preparing said contract, bond and war- 
rant, searches, entering satisfaction, and all other ex- 
penses incident thereto are paid by the contractor or 

No contract for paving, curbing, water-pipe laying, 
culvert grading, or any other municipal work or im- 
provement on any street, avenue, lane, court, or alley 
in the city, is given out or entered into, until a cer- 
tificate is first obtained from the survey department 
that such street, avenue, lane, court, or alley has been 
dedicated or opened to the use of the public. 

All proposals for contracts to do work, labor, or to 
furnish materials and supplies, advertised for, are 
opened in the presence of a committee of Councils, 
and such proposals or bids must be filed with the 
committee before or at the time of the meeting 
thereof, otherwise they will not be considered. 

When such contracts are awarded, a schedule of 
bids offered, a copy of the advertisement therefor, and 
a statement of the award, indorsed by the committee, 
is sent to the city controller, and that officer is in- 
hibited from countersigning any warrant for any 
stationery, printing, paper, fuel, advertising, or for 
work and materials, unless he shall have been fur- 
nished with the statement, schedule, and copy of 
advertisement aforesaid. 

All contracts requiring the signature of the mayor 
that may be entered into in behalf of any of the de- 
partments of the city, for materials to be furnished or 
work to be done, shall not be altered in any material 
matter, either in quantity of materials to be fur- 
nished, work to be done, or prices to be paid for said 
work and materials, without the chief of the depart- 
ment for which said contract has been entered into 
shall have previously laid before Councils a plan and 
estimated cost of the proposed changes, and obtain- 
ing the consent of Councils to the proposed changes 
and alterations. 

The ordinance authorizing the work to be done 
shall contain in full a copy of the proposed contract, 
and specifications of the work intended to be done, 



the prices for which the accepted contractor shall 
offer to do the projiosed work, and the copy of the 
estimated quantities of the different kinds of work to 
he done under the proposed contract, and the total 
estimated cost of the whole work. 

All bids and proposals for stationery, printing, 
paper, advertising, fuel, work, material, and supplies 
furnished to the departments of Board of Revision of 
Taxes, city commissioners, city controller, city treas- 
urer, park commissioners, public buildings, city ice- 
boats, sinking-fund, and receiver of taxes shall be 
opened and contracts awarded in the presence of said 
departments and the committee on finance ; depart- 
ment of clerks of Councils, committee on printing 
and supplies ; fire commissioners, committee on fire 
department ; guardians of the poor. Board of Health, 
and county prison, committee on prisons; highways, 
committee on highways; house of correction, com- 
mittee on house of correction ; law, committee on 
law ; markets and city property and port wardens, 
committee on city property ; police, committee on 
police; police and fire-alarm telegraph, committee 
on police and fire-alarm telegraph ; Board of Public 
Education, committee on schools; steam-engines and 
boilers, committee on boiler inspection; surveys, 
committee on surveys; and water, committee on 

It is the duty of the heads of departments, imme- 
diately after making any contract for work or mate- 
rials for the city, to furnish the city controller with 
a memorandum thereof, together with a probable 
amount that will be required to pay for said work or 
materials when completed or furnished, and there- 
upon the controller shall enter up said amount 
against the item from which the money will be taken 
to pay for said work and materials, and the heads of 
departments shall make similar entry in the books of 
their oflSce. 

It is the duty of every head of a department, when 
entering into a contract for or ordering work or ma- 
terials, to indorse upon the back of the contract or 
order the amount at that time standing to the credit 
of the item out of which said work or materials are 
to be paid for. 

In no shall a chief of a department allow any 
work to be commenced under any proposted contract 
until Councils shall have piissed an ordinance author- 
izing the work to be done, and the mayor has signed 
the contract. 

No contractor for work or materials for the city 
shall have any claim for compensation under his con- 
tract, unlens it shall appear by certificate thereon of 
the city controller that at the date nf execution 
thereof it appeared by the books in the controller's 
office that sufficient amount stood to the cretlit of the 
appropriation from which payment should be made to 
pay said contractor, and to pay for all other contracts 
theretofore awarded to be done under said appropria- 

No contract or lease for the renting of any property 
by any of the departments of the city is binding upon 
the city, unless the contract or lease has been con- 
firmed by the Select and Common Councils. 

The heads of the several departments are forbid to 
award any contract for work or materials to any party 
or parties who have previously defaulted in any con- 
tract with the city. 

Departments. — No portion of the property of the 
city shall be used for purposes of private gain by any 
oflScial, councilman, agent, or employe of the city, or 
of any department thereof, nor shall the same be will- 
fully used or injured, or sold or disposed of in any 
manner, without the consent of Councils, by any such 
official, councilman, agent, or employ^. Nor shall any 
official, councilman, agent, or employe of said city, or 
any department thereof, be interested, either directly 
or indirectly, either personally or as a member or of- 
ficer of any firm, company, or corporation contracting 
with the said city, or any department thereof, for the 
use, lease, occupation, or enjoyment of any of the 
works, material, or property of said city. Any breach 
of these provisions is a misdemeanor, and upon con- 
viction shall be punished by fine not exceeding one 
thousand dollars, and imprisonment not exceeding 
one year, or either, at the discretion of the court try- 
ing the same ; and upon such conviction, the party 
offending shall be forthwith removed from his office 
or employment, and shall not be eligible to appoint- 
ment to any place of profit or trust under said city or 
any department thereof 

It is not lawful for any department, or committee, 
or officer, or the prison inspectors to draw any moneys 
out of the city treasury, or to use any savings or the 
proceeds of the sales of any work or materials for or 
in any office, department, or prison, or any revenues 
whatsoever thereof for any entertainment, eating, 
drinking, or smoking furnished to any members or 
officers of said city, corporation, departments, or offi- 
cers thereof, or of said prison, but shall pay the whole 
of said moneys into the city treasury ; and every war- 
rant drawn for the expenses of ever\- department of 
the public service and prison shall contain the decla- 
ration that no part thereof has been used for said 
purposes; and it shall be lawful for the city con- 
troller, and his duty, whenever required by any citi- 
zen, to administer an oath or affirmation to any person 
presenting a bill against the city as to its accuracy, 
the prices actually paid or contracted to be paid 
therefor, whether others and who are interested 
therein, and as to whatsoever matter he may deem 
needful to protect the interests of said city. 

Every head of department, officer, or agent of the 
city, who shall have made default in the rendering of 
any account or report, or the payment over of any 
moneys or bills collected for the city, shall be guilty 
of a misdemeanor, and be by Councils dismissed 
from his office. 

It is the duty of the controller to furnish to the 



Councils, on or before the 1st day of September in 
each and every year, a detailed statement of the esti- 
mated receipts, expenditures, and liabilities of every 
kind for the next fiscal year, and it shall be the duty 
of the said Councils to levy and fix a tax-rate, on or 
before the 1st day of October in each and every year, 
for the year next ensuing ; the amount of tax-moneys 
collectable during the year for which such tax shall 
have been levied shall be ascertained by deducting 
from the gross amount yielded by said tax-rate, the 
average of such proportion of the annual tax levy for 
each of the five years immediately preceding as shall 
have remained uncollected at the end of each of the 
said years, and the tax-moneys collectable during the 
current year shall, with the average income from 
sources other than from current tax-moneys, exclu- 
sive of sinking-fund receipts (such average of income 
to be determined by ascertaining the average income 
during the five years immediately preceding), be set 
apart for the extinguishment of the floating indebt- 
edness, which the city controller may estimate to be 
outstanding upon the 1st of January following, for 
the payment of all lawful obligations due by the city 
during the fiscal year commencing January 1st next 
ensuing, and for such expenses of the municipal gov- 
ernment as may be authorized by the Councils ; and 
the city controller shall not countersign any warrants 
(except for payments of interest and for sinking- 
fund) pertaining to any of the appropriations until 
the said Councils shall have first passed all appropri- 
ations necessary for the expenses for the current year 
of each department, board, commission, or trust con- 
nected with the city ; nor shall said ofiicer counter- 
sign any warrants, except as aforesaid, until the total 
of all appropriations, all estimates, and other lawful 
obligations shall have been brought within the sum 
yielded by the tax-levy and average income from 
other sources ascertained as aforesaid ; and any ap- 
propriation or expenditure in excess of this total shall 
be void, and shall have no binding force upon the 
municipality. In default of said Councils fixing the 
tax-rate on or before the 1st day of October in each 
and every year, then and in that case the rate of the 
preceding year shall be the rate for the current year, 
and all appropriations shall be made in conformity 
therewith, as if Councils had themselves established 
such rate. 

No department, board, or ofiicer, which or who is 
or may be authorized to issue warrants for the pay- 
ment of claims against such department, board, or 
ofiicer for services rendered or supplies furnished to 
or in the same, shall issue any warrant until the bill 
containing such claim shall be presented by such 
department, board, or ofiicer to the controller to be 

Whenever any such bill is presented to any said 
department, board, or ofiicer, it shall be delivered, 
with a notification from such department, board, or 
officer of the item of the appropriation out of which 

it is proposed to pay the same; and the controller 
shall audit the bill with the view to ascertain whether 
the supplies have been furnished or the services per- 
formed and the sum charged therefor is proper, and 
he shall inquire and ascertain if any member of Coun- 
cils, member or ofiicer of such board, officer of any 
department, or officer or agent of the city corporation 
is interested in the sum due therefor, or is to receive 
any portion thereof, or has received any commission, 
consideration, or gratuity relating thereto; and if any 
such party is so interested he shall refuse to approve 
of such bill, and report the same to Councils. 

Whenever the controller has audited and approved 
any bill, he shall return it to the proper department, 
board, or officer in order that a warrant may be drawn 
therefor. 1136123 

No head of any department, and no commission, 
board, or trust, or any other agent, officer, or em- 
ploye of either or any thereof, exercising any powers 
of government therein, either in the making of con- 
tracts, the approval thereof, or in the authorization 
of the expenditure of the money of the city in any 
manner whatever, shall make any contract without a 
previous appropriation has first been made by Coun- 
cils ; draw, issue, or approve any warrant for any ex- 
penditure by such department, commission, board, or 
trust, or any other agent, officer, or employe, unless 
an appropriation has been previously made ; and no 
warrant shall be drawn against any item in said ap- 
propriations in excess of said item ; and any contract 
made or warrant issued in violation of these require- 
ments is absolutely void as against the city; and any 
head of department, board, commission, or trust, 
agent, officer, or employe issuing such warrant shall 
be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon the 
conviction thereof fined a sum not exceeding five 
thousand dollars, and imprisoned for a term not ex- 
ceeding three years, and be forever disqualified from 
holding any office or position of trust under the State, 
or any county or municipality thereof; and the coun- 
tersigning of any warrant or warrants by the city 
controller, contrary to these provisions, shall likewise 
constitute in such officer a misdemeanor, and shall 
subject him to like penalties. 

Justices of the peace, the receiver of taxes, the col- 
lector of delinquent taxes, the register of the water 
department, commissioners of markets and city prop- 
erty, Board of Health, prison inspectors, guardians 
of the poor, the chief commissioner of highways, city 
solicitor, chief inspector of boilers, chief engineer and 
surveyor, port wardens, commissioners of Fairmount 
Park, and all other municipal officers and depart- 
ments receiving money on behalf of the city, shall 
furnish, under oath, on the second Monday of each 
month, to the committee on the cash account of the 
city treasurer, a statement, giving the date and 
amount of payments to the city treasurer, on account 
of their respective departments, for the preceding 
month. And the several departments are required 



to make a daily statement in writing to said treas- 
urer, showing the number and aumunt of each war- 
rant, and the name of the person or persons in whose 
favor drawn, and the treasurer shall keep a record of 
such reports. 

In each department which shall have liens to be 
entered for claims for paving, curbing, piping, re- 
moving nuisances, and all other matters that may be 
the subject of a claim upon the part of the city, the 
said claims are numerically arranged on the books of 
each department, and a schedule, certified by the chief 
of each department, setting forth the number, name 
of the party chargeable, the purpose and amount of 
each claim, is furnished to the controller on the first 
Monday in each month, and the amount paid on each 
account within the month, or disposed of in any way, 
is noted on the schedule returned to the controller. 
And all claims which remain unpaid after the period 
prescribed by law for the payment of such claims to 
said departments, two schedules thereof are made out 
by each department specifying the name of the party, 
number, purpose, and amount of each claim, and de- 
liver the same to the city solicitor; the duplicate is 
signed by the city solicitor, attesting that he has re- 
ceived the same for collection, and returned the same 
to the city controller to be charged to the city solicitor; | 
and on the books of each department the dates of the | 
credits are stated, or, if handed to the city solicitor for 
collection, the fact shall be entered on said books 
with the date thereof; and all claims returne<l to the 
citv solicitor are paid to and settled only with him ; 
and in each department of the city wherein moneys 
are receive<l, receipt* therefor, attested by the person : 
paying it, shall be taken. 

Mayor. — The qualified voters of the city elect to 
serve as mayor, by a plurality of votes, and in case of 
a tie the Councils order a new election. He serves 
for Ihrrf years, and until his successor is elected and 
qualifietl. He must be at least thirty years old, a 
citizen of the United States, and have resided seven 
years next preceding his election within the common- 
wealth of Pennsylvania, and the last two years thereof 
in the city. He shall take the usual oath of office, in ' 
the presence of the Councils, administered by one of 
the judges of the courts in the city, at twelve o'clock, 
noon, '111 the first Monday in April next succeeding his 
ele<'ti<m. IJosides the powers otherwise conferred by 
law, he httn the like powers and authority as the 
sheriff of the county of I'hiladelphia has for the sup- 
pression of any riot, disturbance, and violation of law, 
and may exercise the authority of making requisition 
for the commanding officer of the military, and of 
dismis«ing all police officers for failure in discharge of 
duty. And it is his duty to communicate to Coun- 
cils, at least once a year, and ofloner, if deemed ex- 
pedient, a general statement of the condition of the 
city in relation to its government, finances, and im- 
provements ; to recommend the adoption of all such 
measures as he may deem expclicnt for the security, 

health, cleanliness, improvement, and welfare of the 
city ; to be vigilant and active in causing the laws 
and ordinances of the city to be duly executed ; for 
which purpose ... all policemen and watchmen 
shall obey his orders, and make a report to him when 
acting under his orders; and he shall exercise a con- 
stant supervision and control over the conduct of all 
subordinate officers, receive and examine all com- 
plaintj^ preferred against them, and generally perform 
all such duties as may be prescribed by the laws and 
ordinances of said city and of the commonwealth ; 
and he may call special meetings of the Councils 
whenever any public emergency may require. The 
mayor may approve ordinances in vacations of Coun- 
cils, and may call special meetings of Councils to re- 
consider ordinances which he does not approve, on 
three days' notice to each member. In case of his 
temporary absence or inability to act, the Councils 
shall appoint a mayor to serve until he shall resume 
the duties of his office ; and whenever a vacancy shall 
occur in the office of mayor, by death or otherwise, it 
shall be the duty of the Select and Common Coun- 
cils, in joint meeting forthwith to elect, viva voce, a 
person qualified as aforesaid to serve as mayor, who 
shall continue in office until the Tuesday succeeding 
the next city election, and until his successor shall 
have been duly elected and qualified. The mayor 
shall receive a salarj-, to be fixed by Councils, which 
shall not be increased nor diminished during the 
term for which he shall have been elected. The 
police officers, policemen, and watchmen, shall re- 
ceive the compensations to be fixed by ordinance of 
said Councils. 

The mayor nominates, and by and with the advice 
and consent of the Select Council, appoints the po- 
licemen and watchmen. All fees and costs pertaining 
to the office of mayor arc paid into the city treasurj'. 
All the police station-houses are under the charge of 
the mayor of the city, who has exclusive care and 
custody of them. He has the jurisdiction and power 
of a justice of the peace. And he may appoint any 
one of the justices of the peace of said city to sit as 
a committing magistrate at the police station adjoin- 
ing his office. 

It is the duty of the mayor to keep a register of the 
amount and objects of all appropriations, and to with- 
hold his signature for all new constructions until all 
the interest accruing on the loans of the city, and the 
]irincipal of those becoming due, and the ordinary and 
necessary ex]>ense8 of the city and the administration 
of justice in the county shall be adequately provided 
for. His salary is five thousand dollars per annum. 

The mayor shall sign a resolution or ordinance, if 
he approve it, or return the same to the branch of 
Councils wherein such resolution or ordinance orig- 
inated, within ten days, or at the next meeting of 
Councils after ten days have expired, if he does not 
approve il, with the reasons therefor; and if, there- 
upon, each branch of Councils pass the same, within 



five days of such veto, by a vote of. three-fifths of all 
the members elected to each branch, it shall become as 
effective as though the mayor had signed the same ; 
and it shall become equally effective, if he should 
neglect to return the same within such ten days. 

The mayor has power to take proof of all deeds, 
conveyances, mortgages, or other instruments of 
writing, touching or concerning any lands, tene- 
ments, or hereditaments situate, lying, and being in 
any part of the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 
which probate shall have the like force and effect as 
if the same were proved before a judge of the Su- 
preme Court, or any judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas within said commonwealth. 

He also may appoint such persons to act as police 
officers, as he may be requested to do, by any duly 
organized or incorporated humane society, having for 
one of its objects the protection of children from 
cruelty, but the city is not liable for their salary or 

It is not lawful to exhibit to the public in any 
building, garden, grounds, concert-room, saloon, or 
other place or room within the city, any interlude, 
tragedy, comedy, opera, ballet, play, farce, negro min- 
strelsy, negro or other dancing, or any other enter- 
tainment of the stage, or any part thereof, or any 
representation in which a drop-curtain and scenery 
or theatrical costumes are used, or any equestrian 
circus or dramatic performance, or any performance 
of jugglers, rope-dancing, or acrobats, or any menag- 
erie, until a license for such exhibition, performance, 
or entertainment shall have been firsc had and ob- 
tained from the mayor by the proprietor thereof; 
which license shall be granted by him for each and 
every place or building in which such exhibitions, 
performances, or entertainments are held, upon the 
payment by said proprietor of the sum of twenty-five 
dollars for the whole or for any portion of each cal- 
endar year: Provided, That before such license shall 
be granted, the said mayor shall be satisfied by affi- 
davit or otherwise that the exhibition, performance, 
or entertainment for which the license shall be ap- 
plied shall not be immoral in its nature or tendencies, 
or otherwise unlawful or hurtful to the community; 
and every manager, proprietor, or director of any 
such exhibition, performance, or entertainment, who 
shall neglect to take out such license, or who shall 
allow or cause any such exhibition, performance, or 
entertainment without such license, and every owner 
or lessee of any building, room, garden, grounds, con- 
cert-room, or other place, who shall lease or let the 
same for the purpose of any such exhibition, perform- 
ance, or entertainment, o'r shall assent to the use 
thereof for any such purpose, except as permitted by 
such license, and without such license having been 
previously obtained and then in force, shall be guilty 
of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof shall 
be sentenced to pay a fine not exceeding one hundred 
dollars, or undergo an imprisonment not exceeding 

three months, or both or either, at the discretion of 
the court. 

The mayor, upon proof satisfactory to him, by affi- 
davit under oath or affirmation, of the violation of 
the provisions of any act of Assembly or ordinance 
regulating places of amusement, or that the exhibi- 
tion, performances, entertainments, or any of them, 
given under color of said license, are or have been 
immoral or unlawful, may vacate, annul, and render 
void and of no effect any license which shall have 
been obtained as aforesaid by any manager, pro- 
prietor, owner, or lessee, for the holding such exhibi- 
tion, performance, or entertainment, or allowing or 
letting any part of a building or other premises for 
the purpose thereof; and it is lawful for the mayor 
to prevent any such exhibition, performance, or en- 
tertainment from being held, exhibited, or performed, 
until the license hereinbefore provided for shall be 
paid, or if the same shall have been annulled or va- 
cated for violation of any act of Assembly or ordi- 
nance, and to that end to direct the police to close 
the building, room, or other place in which the said 
exhibition, performance, or entertainment is intended 
to be held, and prevent the entrance of auditors or 

If any person or persons applying to the mayor for 
a license shall be aggrieved by the action of the 
mayor in refusing to grant such license, or in re- 
voking any license, such person or persons have the 
right of appealing to the Court of Quarter Sessions. 

It is not lawful for any female to attend among or 
wait upon the audience or spectators at any of the 
exhibitions, performances, or entertainments men- 
tioned, or at any other place of public amusement, to 
procure, offer, furnish, or distribute any description 
of commodities or refreshments whatsoever; nor is it 
lawful for any manager or proprietor of any such 
exhibition, performance, entertainment, or place of 
public amusement to employ or permit the employ- 
ment of any female to attend among or wait upon 
the audience or spectators thereat, to procure, offer, 
or distribute any description of commodities or re- 
freshments whatsoever ; and any person violating 
this provision is guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon 
conviction thereof sentenced to pay a fine not ex- 
ceeding five hundred dollars or undergo an imprison- 
ment not exceeding one year, or both or either, at the 
discretion of the court. 

The mayor upon proof satisfactory to him of the 
violation of any law or ordinance regulating places 
of amusement that are or have been immoral, may 
vacate their license, and he may prevent any per- 
formance or exhibition, and to that end may direct 
the police to close the place wherein such exhibition, 
performance or exhibition is intended to be held, 
and prevent the entrance of auditors or spectators ; 
but the refusal of the mayor to grant, or his exercise 
of the authority to vacate a license is subject to appeal 
to the Court of Quarter Sessions. 



If twelve or more persons be assembled unlawfully, 
riotously, and tumultuously, so as to endanger tbe 
public peace, it is the duty of tbe mayor in person, 
or, in case of bis absence or inability to command, of 
the officer in cbarge of tbe police, to go among the 
rioters, or as near to them as be can safely go, and 
then and there, with a loud voice make proclamation 
in the name of the commonwealth, commanding all 
|iersons so unlawfully assembled immediat«ly to dis- 
perse themselves and peaceably to depart, and if such 
persons remain together to the number of twelve or 
more, they shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and 
upon conviction be sentenced to undergo solitary con- 
finement at labor in the county prison for a period 
of not less than one month nor more than two years ; 
and any person arrested, upon whose person or in 
whose possession is found firearms, or any other 
deadly weapon, shall be deemed guilty of an intention 
to riot, whether said firearms or deadly weapon be 
used or not. unless the contrary be satisfactorily es- 
tablished, and punished accordingly. 

If, after proclamation made, or If the mayor or 
other officer of police authorized attempt to make 
such proclamation, and be prevented by force from 
making the same, then after i^uch attempt made, 
if such persons so unlawfully, riotously, or tumult- 
uously a.s.sembled continue together and not disperse 
forthwith, then it shall be lawful for the said mayor 
and police and such other person or persons as shall 
be commanded to a.s-ist under him, who is authorized 
to command all ward consUvbli's, and citizens of age 
and ability, to assist him therein to disperse, seize, or 
apprehend such persons so unlawfully, riotously, or 
tumultuously continuing together, after proclamation 
made or attempted to be made as aforesaid, and they 
are required so to do and to use all neces-sary force 
and means whatsoever for said purpose. 

Evert' person not belonging to the police force or to 
the military force, who may be summoned, and aid 
and asaist the said mayor in the .suppression of any 
riot shall be paid by the commissioners of the county 
of Philadelphia the sum of one dollar for each day or 
part of a day that he shall be so employed upon pre- 
senting the certificate of said mayor that he was so 
sumn'oned, and that he did so aid the officer as 

If in any case the mayor or other officer of police 
authorized shall certify in writing to the major-gen- 
eral or other commanding officer of the military divi- 
sion com|H>sed of said city and county, that there is 
an existing riot, tumult, or unlawful a.s.semblage 
within said county, which the said police force under 
his command is not, in his opinion, competent to 
KUppreM without further aid, and rerjuirc the said 
major-general or commanding officer to assist him 
with the military force under his command, the 
said major-general or commanding officer shall give 
the necessary orders to the etiect that such military 
force, or such part thereof as he shall deem necessary, 

be mustered immediately into the service of the com- 
monwealth, and be subject to the laws applicable 
to such service, and shall proceed to any part of 
said city or county to restore the public peace, by 
suppressing such riot, tumult, or unlawful assemblage, 
and by seizing and securing the offenders therein for 
trial and punishment according to law ; and it shall 
be lawful for said military force to proceed in sup- 
pression of such riot, tumult, or unlawful assemblage 
as aforesaid by such military force, and in like man- 
ner as in case of war or public insurrection, and the 
said military force shall continue and remain in 
service and upon duty under military^ command and 
subordination until the said mayor shall certify in 
writing to the said major-general or commanding 
officer that said riot, tumult, or unlawful assemblage 
is entirely suppressed; and the military body so 
called into service is entitled to be paid while on 
actual duty as follows, to wit: two dollars a day to 
the privates, non-commissioned officers, and musi- 
cians, and four dollars a day to the commissioned 
officers, and two dollars a day for each horse em- 
ployed, which sum shall include all expenses of sub- 
sistence ; the amount thereof, together with the ex- 
pense of their ammunition and artillery used on such 
duty, is paid out of the treasury of said county ; but 
such military body shall not be required to march to 
the place of any such riot, tumult, or unlawful assem- 
blage, until afterthesaid mayor orother person author- 
ized to make proclamation as aforesaid, in an audible 
voice, and as near to the rioters or persons unlawfully 
assembled as he can safely and with convenience go, 
shall have commanded such rioters or persons unlaw- 
fully assembled, and all other persons not being then 
and there on duty as police or a part of his posse, 
civil or military, to return to their lawful homes and 

After proclamation made or attempted to be made, 
and the continuance of said unlawful, riotous, or tu- 
multuous assemblage, notwithstanding the same, the 
said mayor and police, and all and every person or 
persons so aiding and assisting them, and the said 
' military force shall be wholly discharged, held harm- 
less, and indemnified, as well against the common- 
wealth as against all and every other person or 
persons for or concerning the killing, maiming, or 
hurting of any such person or persons so unlawfully, 
riotously, or tumultuously continuing together as 
aforesaid, that shall happen to be killed, maimed, or 

The requisition of the mayor made as afore.said, or 
other officer of police authorized as aforesaid, upon 
the commanding officer of any division, brigade, regi- 
ment, battalion, or company, shall be conclusive evi- 
dence that the services of the military were necessary 
for the suppression of such riot, tumult, or unlawful 
I The mayor appoints one person to act as chief of 
I police, by and with the advice and consent of the 



Select Council, subject to dismissal by him, who per- 
forms such duties as are provided by law and ordi- 

In all cases of arrest made by any police officer or 
constable upon any of the streets or highways, he 
shall take the person arrested for a hearing to the 
office of the justice of the peace nearest to the place 
where said arrest was made, except when the person 
is arrested for intoxication, in which case such per- 
son shall be taken to the station-house for a hearing 
before the committing magistrate of the district. 

Any patrol or watchman selected and employed by 
and at the private expense of the residents or of per- 
sons doing business in any block or blocks, square or 
squares, or parts thereof, for the purpose of protection 
to their property therein against loss by fire, theft, or 
robbery, upon filing with the mayor of the city a 
certificate of such employment, the time for which 
he may have been so employed, and the bounds of the 
locality which he is required to watch, signed by 
the person so employing him, and the mayor is satis- 
fied that such person is qualified, by his integrity and 
vigilance, to perform such duty, he has authority to 
appoint and commission him as patrol or watchman 
for such locality, with all the powers of policemen in 
respect to the arrest of all vagrants and persons found 
ofiending against the law within the bounds of said 
locality, and all vagrants and ofienders arrested by 
such patrol or watchman shall be received and held 
in custody at any police-station in like manner as if 
the arrest had been made by any policeman ; such 
patrol or watchman, when on duty, shall have au- 
thority to carry and use, when necessary, the usual 
implements of policemen for alarm, arrest, and defense, 
and shall respond to the signals of policemen within 
the limits of his said locality in making arrests and 
performing needful duty, but shall not be required to 
leave his said locality ; and policemen shall in like 
manner respond to the signals of such patrol or watch- 
man and give him all needful aid in making arrests 
and protecting property within the limits of said lo- 

Any police officer or constable, upon view of the 
breach of any ordinance, is authorized to forthwith 
arrest the person or persons so offending without any 
process, and to take said person or persons forthwith 
before any police magistrate or alderman, who shall 
require bail for the appearance of said person at a 
time to be fixed for the hearing of said charge, and in 
default of bail, to commit for a hearing ; and at said 
hearing the case shall be proceeded with as if the par- 
ties were appearing before said magistrate or alderman 
upon a summons duly issued and returned served, or 
if both parties desire it, the case may be entered and 
determined by the magistrate or alderman in like 
manner without requiring bail or further continuance. 

There is one station-house in each police district, 
located by the mayor by and with the consent of the 
Councils, for the use of the police, and for the tem- 

porary detention of persons arrested or charged with 
offenses against the laws. 

A docket of cases heard is kept by the magistrates 
at the district station-houses, and it is their duty to 
make return of all cases in which any person or per- 
sons may be there held to answer, at the commence- 
ment of the term of Quarter Sessions, to the district 
attorney. And it is the duty of the lieutenant, or one 
of the two sergeants, to attend at such hearings at the 
station-houses and to deliver to the district attorney 
the said returns. 

The mayor has power to prescribe the duties of the 
various officers appointed, and to make all police rules 
and regulations, subject to the approval of Councils. 

No policeman is permitted to engage in any other 
business or profession whatsoever, and he or they so 
ofiending, upon due proof thereof, are at once dis- 
charged from the service, and are not eligible for re- 
appointment for one year thereafter. 

All policemen are allowed, with the permission of 
the mayor, to receive any rewards or gratuities which 
may be offered them by persons or institutions who 
may consider themselves benefited by their extra ser- 
vices : Provided, The same shall not have been asked 
for or promised before the service was rendered, and 
it Is a misdemeanor in office for any of them to re- 
ceive any other compensation, fee, or reward, to be 
followed by dismission from service. 

The police vans and other vehicles used for the 
carrying of prisoners to and from the several prisons 
are so arranged that the males and females are sepa- 
rated therein. 

It is not lawful for any proprietor, driver, or any 
other person, to carry prisoners in such vans or vehi- 
cles in any manner whereby males and females shall 
be secured together in any apartment thereof. 

It is not lawful for the drivers of prison vans, or 
any other persons, to furnish any spirituous, vinous, 
or malt liquors to any prisoner or prisoners while 
under charge in such vehicle. 

The mayor nominates, and by and with the advice 
and consent of Select Council appoints four captains 
of police, who receive an annual salary of fifteen 
hundred dollars, and are each assigned to duty in 
one of four divisions into which the city is divided 
for that purpose. They are superior in rank to the 
police lieutenants, and it is their duty to see the laws 
enforced, the station-houses and other property of 
the police department kept in order, and that disci- 
pline is maintained among and duty performed by the 
police force. 

There is also, as part of the police force, what is 
called the Reserve Corps, consisting of not less than 
fifty men, with one lieutenant and one sergeant, who 
commands them, all taken from the regular force, and 
performing such duty as the mayor may assign them. 
At present they are on duty on Chestnut Street, and 
being specially selected for size, are like unto the his- 
toric guard of Peter the Great. 



Policemen when on duty are required to wear the 
prescribed uniform, and their salary is two dollars 
and twenty-five cents per day. The mayor appoints 
a clerk to the chief of police, also the telegraph opera- 
tors at the several police station-houses, together with 
four pilots, four engineers, and four firemen, for ser- 
vice upon the Delaware River and Schuylkill River 
police tug-boat-s. 

The city, for purposes of police, is divided into 
twentv-six police districts, including therein the Dela- 
ware harbor police and the Schuylkill harbor police, 
which is divided into boat-crews to man the police 
tug-boats. The fun-c nf harbur jioliii' receive the same 
pay as other police officers. The mayor appoints for 
each of the jwlice districts, one lieutenant and two 

The mayor also appoints a number of persons as a 
tubflHute police force, who only act when called on to 
take the place of a temporary absentee of the regular 
force by reason of sickness or otherwise. 

The detective force consists of eight men appointed 
by the mayor. 

There is elected by Select and Common Coun- 
cils a superintendent of police and fire-alarm tele- 
graph, whose term of office is three years, at a salary 
of two thousand dollars per annum. He appoints by 
and with the advice of .Select Council an assistant 
with a salary of fifteen hundred dollars per year, and 
the said superintendent appoints, also, two operators 
for each police district, four operators for the central 
office, one repair-man, and two battery-men, all with 
the advice and consent of the Select Council, and at 
an annual salary of eleven hundred dollars, payable 
monthly. I 

The said superintendent, with the Councils com- 
mittee on police, are authorized to connect any bank, 
banking-house, insurance company, or other institu- 
tion, with the central office by telegraph, for the pur- 
pose of giving an instantaneous alarm, provided the 
city be at no expense, and the party having such 
privilege pay to the city treasurer twenty-five dollars 

If any person be charged, on oath or affirmation 
before the mayor or any magistrate, with being a pro- 
fessional thief, burglar, pickpocket, counterfeiter, or 
forger, and who shall have been arrested by the police 
authorities at any steamboat landing, railroad depot, 
church, banking institution, broker's office, place of 
public amusement, auction-room, store, or crowded 
thoroughfare, and it shall bo proven by sufficient tes- 
timony that he or she was frc(|uentitig or attending 
such place or places for an unlawful purpose, lie or 
she shall be committed to jail for a term not exceed- 
ing ninety days, there to be kept at hard labor, or, in 
the discretion of the mayor or magistrate, required to 
enter security for good V)ehavior for a period not ex- 
ceeding one year. Any one feeling aggrieved by any 
■uch judgment may appeal to the Court of (Quarter 


Edwnnl SliippeTi, l.v Ili» ilinrlor Oct. 'io, 1701 

Aiilliolij- .MorriB. b\ Common Council Oct. 6, 1703 

Griffllh .loDen, by Common Council Oct. 3, 1704 

Jiwflih \Vilci)\, by Common Council Oct. 2, 1705 

Nathan Slunbury, by Common Council Oct. 1, 1706 

Thonms Masters, bv Common Council Oct. 7, 1707 

Richard Hill, by Common Council Oct. 4, 17> 9 

William CartPr," by Common Council Oct. 3,1710 

Samufl Preston, bv Common Council Oct. 2, 1711 

Jonnllian Dlckiuaon, by Common Council. ...Oct. 7, 1712 

(Icorgo Roche, bv Common Council Oct. C, 1713 

RichHnI Hill, by Common Council Oct. .'i, 1714 

Jonatlian Dickinson, by Common Council ....Oct. 1, 1717 

William Flsiibourne, by Common Council.. ..Oct. 6, 1719 

J»me« Locan, by Common Council Oct. 2, 1722 

Clement PInnistod, by Common Conncil Oct. 7, 1723 

Inaac Norris. by Common Council Oct. 6, 17i4 

William Hudson, by Common Conncil Oct. 5, 1725 

Charles Read, by Common Council Oct. 4,1726 

Thomas Lawrence, by Common Council Oct. 1,1728 

Thomas Hriflitte, by Common Council Oct. 7, 1729 

Samuel Hasell, by Common Conncil Oct. 6, 1731 

Thomas Griflltts, by Common Council Oct. 2, 1733 

Thomas Lawrence, by Common Council Oct. 1,1734 

William Allen, l.y Common Council Oct 7, 1735 

Clement Plumsted, by Common Conncil Oct. 5,1736 

Thomas Griflilts, by Common Conncil Oct. 4, 1737 

Anthony Morris, by Common Council Oct. 3, 1738 

Edward Roberts, by Common Council Oct. 2, 1739 

Samuel Hasell, by Common Council Oct. 7, 1740 

(Uement Plumsted, by Common Council Oct. 6, 1741 

Willinni Till, by Common Council Oct. 6, 1742 

Rcnjamin Shoemaker, by Common CounciL.Oct. 4, 1743 

Edward Shippen, by Common Council Oct. 2, 1744 

James llaralllon. by Common Council Oct. 1, 1745 

William Attwood, bv (Jommon Council Oct. 7, 1746 

Charles Willing, hy Common Council Oct. 4, 1748 

Thomas Lawrence, by Common Council Oct. 3, 1749 

William Plumsted, by Common Council Oct. 2, 1760 

Robert Stiottell, hy Common Conncil Oct. 1, 1751 

Benjamin Shoemaker, hy Common Council...Oct. 3, 1762 

Thomas Lawrence, bv Common Council Oct. 2, 17.53 

Charles Wlllin([,2 by Common Council April 2.5, 1764 

William Plumsted, by Common Council Doc. 4, 1754 

Attwood Sbute,by Common Council Oct. b, 1756 

Thomas Lawrence, by Common Council Oct. 1.5. 1768 

John Stamper, by Common Council Oct. 2,1769 

ll.iii.iriuii Shoemaker, by Common Council. ..Oct. 7, 1700 

Janil. imch.., by Common Council Oct. 6, 1761 

Henry Harrison, by Common Council Oct. 6, 1762 

Thomas William, by Common Council Oct. 4, 1763 

Thomas Lawrence, by Common Council Oct. 2, 1764 

John Liiwrence, by Common Conncil Oct. 1, 1765 

Isaiic Jones, by Common Council Oct. 6, 1767 

Samuel Shoemaker, by Common Council Oct. 3, 1769 

John Gibson, hy Common Council Oct. 1, 1771 

William Fisher, by Common Council Oct. 6. 1773 

Samuel Rhoads, by Common Council Oct. 4, 1774 

Samuel Powel, by Common Council Oct. 3, 1775 

During the ReTolntion,>offlc6 vacant 1770 to 1789 

' From John Hill Martin's " Bench and Bar of Philadelphia." 

' Died April, 1754. 

■■' During the occupation of Philadelphia by the British, Samuel Shoe- 
maker was continued the first magistrate of police by tlic king's author- 
ity. He died Oct. 10, 1800, aged seventy-six years. (See Poulum't Advir- 
tlter, Oct. 1 1, 1«(H1.) M r. WeslcotI, in reply to a query, " How was the city 
governed during the Revolution, from 1770 to 1780?" in theSundu^ DU- 
paUh of Oct. 15, 1882, says, "The last electioti for mayor under the pro- 
prietary charter was on the 3d day of October, 1775, and there had been 
no meeting for six moniha previously. There was no meeting after- 
ward until the 17th of February, 1776, and that was Iho last niKin the 
minutes. Why the city charter was considered to bo superseded by the 
evenu of the Revolution is a political rather than a legal question. 
By the events of the Revolution the peojile claimed lo have succeeded 
to every right which the proprietaries bad under the royal charter, and 
which the Assembly and every local government had. It was an ac- 
cepted fact, after the 4th of July, 1776, that tho old govorEiniont was 
overthrown. The Convention of the State of Pennsylvania, In 1770, ai). 
pointed a lorgo number o( Justices of the peace for the city and county, 
among whom wore Ilonjamin Franklin, John Dickinson, and Ooorge 
Bryan. They were required, before assuming their duties, lo Uke an 
oath of allegiance to the Slate of Pennsylvania and renunciation of the 
authority of George III. Under the ConsUtuUou of 1770 Justices were 
elected, two for each ward, etc., and they were commissioned March 28, 
1777, for the city, and for the city and county June 0th of the same 
year. After that Justices were apijoinled and elected for the city up to 
the time of the second city charier. No aldermen were api»int6d 
within that p-rlod. During the Interval tho municipal government 
wa« iuipauded. The alTalra of the city seemed to have been carried on 



Saninol Fuwol, by the CoiinclU April i:i, 17H(> 

8araui-l Mllon, by the Uounclls A|irll \'i, 1700 

John lluTclfty, by the OuuiitllB Ajirll 11, 1791 

Miillhuw CJurknori, by the Couriclla April 10, 171)1! 

Hlhiry Biikur, by the Councllii Ott. 21, 1796 

Kobort Wburloii, by lhr> (;.)nn(;llil Oct. 19, 1798 

.Tohn Inakoep, by the C'i)uric|]» Oct 21, 1800 

Matthr^w Liiwlur, by'tho Ojiinclln Oct. 20, 1801 

John Imkcop, by the CouncllH Oct. 16, 1804 

Robert Wharton, by the Ooiinclln Oct. 21, IS06 

John Barker, by the CouncllH Oct. IS, 1808 

Robert Wharton, l)y the fJouni;ll« Oct. 16, 1810 

Michael Keppele, by the rjouncllx Oct. Ki, 1811 

John Barker, by the Councll» Oct. 20, 1812 

John Oeyer, by the Counclle Oct. 19, 1813 

Robert Wharton, by the Councll« Oct. 18, 1814 

Jamea Nelaon Barker, by the OjunciU Oct. 19, 1819 

Robert Wbart<jn, by the Oiunclli Oct. 17, 1820 

Joaeph Walnon, by the <>iuncll» Oct. 19, 1824 

George Mirtlln IJalla»,i by the CounclU Oct. 21, 1828 

Benjamin W.,o.l Itlchnr.l«, by the CounclU... April —,1829 

Wllllanj Milpior, by tb.^ (.'ounclU Oct. 20, 1829 

Benjunilri Woo.l Uir:li:tMl», by the OonnclU...Oct. 19, 18:in 

John Wwlft, by tlie Curiclla Oct. 16, 18.12 

Isaac Iloarti, by the CounclU Oct. 16, 18.)8 

John Swift, by the CounclU Oct. 16, 18»9 

John Morin Kcott, elected by the people Oct. 12, 1841 

Peter McCall, elected Oct. 8, 1844 

John Swift, elected Oct. 14, 184* 

Joel Jonea, elected Oct. 9, 1849 

Cbarlea Ollpin, elected Oct. 8, 1860 

Roliert Taylor Conrad, elected ; inaugnrated. June 13, 1864 

Richard Vaux, elected; inaug May 13,1866 

Alexander Henry, elected ; inaug May ll,18i8 

Morton McMlchael, elected; InauK Jan. 1,1806 

Daniel Miller Kox, elected ; inaug Jan. 4, I8fi» 

William 8truniburi! Stokley, elected ; inaug Jan. I, 1872 

Samuel Oeorge King,^ elected ; inaug April 4, 1881 

William Burna Smith, elected Feb. 19, 1884 

High Sheriflfs of Philadelphia.— By the frame 
of government, of April 2.0, 1082 f 1 C. R., 27), the free- 
men of the counties were to elect annually, on April 
2.3d, " a double number of perHonn to Hcrve for Hheriffa, 
justices of the peace, and coroners, for the year next 
ensuing, out of which respective elections and pre- 
sentments the Governor, or his deputy, shall nomi- 
nate and commissionate the proper number for each 
office the third day after the said presentments; or 
else the first-named in such presentment for each 
office shall stand and serve for that office the year 
ensuing." No sheriff could ontinue in office more 
than three successive years, or be capable of being 
again elected during four years afterward. IJy the 
Constitution, Sept. 4, 1790, article H, section I, the 
people were to elect two persons, the Governor to 
appoint one of them. 'See also act of Sept. 2D, 1789.) 
No person to be chosen twice in any six years. The 
same law applies to coroners, and should the sheriff 
die, the coroner of the proper county shall execute 

>Jf ConoeiU of Safetjr, warden*, and itre«t cofDlafa>i//nen, i/BUxn baring 
antfaorfty nuder old acta of Awembly. The ward«n» liad control ./f 
ligliliog the itreeU, and the c/mmUeioriera of paring Ihem and keep- 
ing the highways In repair. We preauine that there were u/i watcti- 
0ien daring t*<e Eerolotl/zn, «z«pl the uiliury guarda. (n regard Ui 
uneotf triabU in tbe City Omn, aa there wa.t no each tril/uoal daring 
(he BeTolati<yD, all caaes of crlioe had to b« tried in the (t'ULiUr B«- 
•ion* (or tbe c^/onty '/f M,IUdelpbia, becauae in Uw, or, at leaat, by 
g«atnl conaent, there waa no city of Phlladelpf-la in *xl«t«ne*," 

> By the act -/f April 4, 17»6, the Coancila were to el*<.t t»<* mayor on 
ibc third Tooday iu Oetol^er. The act of April 10, 1«!«, rej«aled the 
flftb aeetios of the w( of A|>ril 4, 1T*«, nxiairiag the amj'jr to b* 
elected tmm aaoBg the mUermtit, aad aatfaorized '>xir>';iU to ele<:4 any 
atiicD, (ad the >et of Jmae n, MM, gsr* Ih* pv/pU tl.e Hgi.t v, eUct 
the Bijror, CoarKik to elect where do fMxit^le reeeired a uaj/zritj. 
lo 18W. ewift WW elaetad h)r CovBcik. 

' Betted oader the Cn «« tltu ti«i of Un, as tbe third Ta«d«y ta 
Tttir—rj, tbe tenu of «■<* to mmmt»€ » the Int JLmUj in April 

his office. Thoy shall hold their oflices for tlireo 
years, and until a successor shall be duly quKlidi'd. 
The amended Oonstitution of 18.')8 says, in ret^nrd to 
slieriflH and coroners: One person sliall be clioseii lor 
each office, who shall be commiHsioned by the Gov- 
ernor. Vacancies to be lilled by iiii appointment, 
to be made by the Governor, until the next general 
election, and until a successor shall be duly i|ualilie(l. 
The coroner to execute the duties of the ofliec iititil an- 
other sheriff shall be duly commissioned. No person 
shall be chosen or appointed twice in any term of 
six years. 


John Te«t,» mentioned March 10, Ill82-:i 

linnjnoilii 'tjamli.rB, commlwIoDad Oct. 24, 1«H;1 

Han."' 1,11. . ' ni,iw,oiml««loned Oct. 23, I6M 

WlliiMn ' . roioilmioned Nov. 19,1686 

•lobo ' 1,1 I I. . -nimiaeloned 18 9 mo., 1687 

John VVI,il.,,i, .„ April 26, KHW 

John i;layi«,oli-,« .worn in April 20, 169;) 

Dr. John Crapp,' mentioned 21 3 mo., 1701 

Tlioniaa Fanner," apixiinted Oct. 2/>, 1701 

.lobn Flnne»,» up(»,int«d 10 6 mo,, I70:t 

llinjernln Wrlgbi,'" commlaaloned Oct 4,1706 

John liu.M," ami-jlnted Feb, B, 1706-6 

John Kliiney.iJ In olltce Jan. 27, 1706-7 

I'eler Kvana, mentioned April 18, 1707 

John Ilndd, mentioned May 19, 1712 

Owen fribcrta,!* mentioned X»ct. 3, 1717 

Owen Owen,n 'yjmmUaioned Oct, 4, 1726 

Cliarlea ll'ul.commiaal'ined Oct. 4, 1728 

Beptlmiia lt//bln«/,n, (oninilaaloned Oct. 3, 1732 

J'/aepb llflent«ll,coninil««loned Oct. », ITU 

Sentimua llohlnw.n.i'- <a,mmUaloBed Oct. 4, 1738 

John Hyatt, coiomlmdoned Oct. 3, 1741 

Micholaa Hcull, ninimlwioned „., Oct. 4, 1744 

Richard Sewell,i« conimlMloned , Oct. 3, 1747 

Ihuu; Griffltta,<7 'xjmnjUaloned,,, X)ct. 3, 1760 

Harnuel Morda, rornmUaloned .....March 6, 1762 

Jarnea f>/ultae, CfmmlMloned Oct. 4, I76A 

tiamuel Morria, ra/miniaaloned , X*ct. 26, 1768 

Joaeph Redman, I* ojnimiMloned Oct, 4, 1762 

William I'arr, 'a/mmlwioned /let. 4, 17ft4 

.I'jaeph lle'trnan, wymrnlmioned /)cl. 6, I7OT 

Judeh Foulke. Cjinml-aioned Oct. 4, 1770 

William Deweea, uimmlui/>ned (let. 4, 1773 

Williani Maat«n,» elected Oct. — , 1776 

* Mentioned ae akenff; late a fnerebant of Txmdon, and aheriff of 
Cheater O/unly. (M«e Smitb'e " fliatorx of l>elaware Ouiity," 020.) 

*(>iliiatiafioh ext«nde.d one year, and c/wmlaafon re4X;fd«d; 1 C B., 
'Held ofUce until 4th 11 mo., 1680-90; 1 C. B,, 280. 

< He waa defv/ud aa clerk and >h' riff Feb, 12, W/l-it*; I C, II,, 4iM, 

^ f:hinir^i>'m tl *'.. II., 478/, mentioruad aa a b*riiuet aberiff ; 2 C. It., 16. 

< He la mentioned aa aberilT, June 24, 17'X), in the Stale Pajier Offl<;e, 
Ixindon. Aa former eheriff. July 14, 1701 ; 2 C, B , 20. He realgned hU 
office "to tranapurt biruaelf to Knglaiid," lUth 6th mo, i7>;eS; 2 C, B., 

* John Budd waa elet.ted in Of-t/ztier, I7'>4, but the l.ieuUnant.'lofer- 
artr reftiaed to r;</mmlaaf'/n him, and Cyntintjed FInriey ; 2 lAKan Papen, 

>''Oa»t«d for an <MkM failure Feb. 6, I70«; 2 C. B,, 241, 3««. 

« (u office until October, 17<;« ; 2 l/tn/ui Papera, 186. 

'""^Iled "preaent ahenff,** John Bfjdd and Henry Fl//wer were 
electe<) aherilft ',let. I, 17'^/; i/«t the UmUuanl^iorern'/r refuaed to 
u//ti£« their electl/zn, and f^ptaln John ftnwejf la called "prcaent 
•heriff" '2 C, K,, :■/»;,. Finney realgried Fet/. I, I7IJ« 7. 

UMenll'/ned aa tlieriff i4 tbe prerp/fia year, an4 re-elected, tfo 
aberiir menUoned by name in 1722, iTOi. 1724, ar>d I72». 

XDted Aug. t, 1741. 

"Died Jaa. 7, 1767. 

X In CoU/Dial B««</rda, BMMr-d tSewell. 'iiee 6 <,.K , 121;,, In Mtuutea 
'/f O/mm^/D '>iau)il, OtC, it ia Slurwell HU ei^oature U Kewetl ; but 
theae a/e but two apellini^ «yf the ■*<««« family r.aiue. 

>' Kee 6 C R., Ml , HUnA «, l7,V.t Diamiaaed li'M '/Ace. 

>»>—» Pa. A/cfairea Oat aeriea,, 6.Vy. Hberif (or 1761 n/H 
doobt Bedman, a« it appeara to have beett (he rule to eU^A U** mm* 
fttmm Un three yean tvxtmtftlj. 

>* Me declined to act or .flaalify, aAd the '/ffi'^e appeara to hMfc bee» 
nnut ■am iaae U, I7T7 ; 1 1 C. B., 2IT, 222. 



J>UM CU7poole,< appolDtml Jdds IS, 1777 

William Will, elMled OeL 14, 1780 

Thonuu Proctor, elMUd _OcL 20,1783 

jMcph Cowpcrtbwaita, tlactnl _ Oct 14, 1786 

Junn A>li,< elKted Oct. 30,1788 

William Will, elKIMl 1791 to 1794 

John Balier, elecKKl 17»4 to 17»7 

JonatbaD PanroM, alMtad 1797 to 1800 

Iara«l lararl, alacled 180U to 1803 

John Barliar,> alected 1803 to 1807 

William T. DoDaldaon, alaclad. .1807 to 1810 

Fniuria JobnatoD.elaetad 1810 to 1813 

Jacob Filler, fiactad ■._ „ 1813 to 1816 

TbomaaTrtixlun,««lect«L 1816 to 1819 

CWlub Nortb, clacted 1819 to 181!2 

Jacob G. Tryoo.^elacted Oct. 19, 1822 

John Douglaaa,*ap|iointad... 1823 to 1826 

Jacob Strembrck, alKled 1826 to 1829 

G«orgr Rmi, riacird 1829 to 1832 

BanJamiD DuDcan, clocMd 1832 to 1836 

JuhiiG Walnu>ugh,«laetad 1836 to 1838 

Daiii,!l Killi-r, pL-clud _ 1838 to 1841 

Hriirj- Murriv elated. — , 1841 

William A. Poncr.' appolDtad- Dec. — , 1842 

Hurtun SIoMlcliaol, electrd 1843 to 1846 

Uenrr Lelxr, riecled 1840 to 1849 

William Deal, ali-clrd 1849 to 1862 

Samuel Alien, eleclwl 1862 to 1866 

Ge,>rge Megee.i elected 1866 to 1868 

William H. Kern, elected 1858 to 18C1 

Robert Ewiiig,"' elected 1861 to 1862 

John Thompaon. in offlce 1862 to 1864 

BaoT7 C. Huweli, elected. 1864 to 1867 

Peter Ljrie, elected 1867 to 1870 

William R. L««da, elected 1870 to 1873 

William Elliult. elected 1873 to 1876 

William H. Wriehl," elected 1876 to 1880 

Enoch Tavlor, elected 1880 to 1883 

George di- Beniieville Keim, elected Not. 7, 1883 

Masters of Rolls and the Recorder of Deeds.— 
The office of mastter of rolls was created by the twen- 
tieth section of the laws agreed on in England, on the 
6th day of the Third month (May 7), 1682, viz.: "And 
to prevent frauds and vexatious suit-s within said prov- 
ince, that all charters, gifts, grant.s, and conveyances 
of land (except leases for a year or under), and all 
bills, bonds, and specialties above five pounds, and 
not under three months, made in said province, shall 
be enrolled or registered in the public enrollment- 
office of the said province within the space of two 
months next alter the making thereof, else to be void 
in law. And all deeds, grants, and conveyances of 
land (except as aforesaid) within the said province 
and made out of the said province shall be enrolled 
or registered as aforesaid, within six months after 
making thereof, and settling and constituting an en- 
rollment-office or registry within said province, else 
to be void in law against all persons whatsoever." 
(See " Frame of Laws," 1 C. R., pp. 27, 28, sees. 17 
and 18.) 

The master of rolls was the keeper of the " Pub- 
lique Records for the County of Philadelphia and for 

I See in 8 ArchlTH, 321, bia latter of June 14, 1780, In reference to 
bli eirTlcaa. 

IgeelSr. R., 667, 679. 

> At the election In IWK, there waa " no choke," anil lUrker remained 
In nfflce uiilll 18>/7. 

* CunimodoreTbolnaaTnizton waaadUUnKuUhed ufflcororUie United 
auiae naTj, tmm which he bad redftned. He died In IMilladelphia in 
IWi, aged aeTent;.eeTen jraara. 

• Died in 1823. 

* Afterward rc^nlarlj elected and commlialnned. 

' Died foddaol; Dec. 1, 1M2. • Ap|«lnted tij the Gorernor. 

• Died Jan. 18, 1882, aned aeTenlj. 

i** Bla eiectloo waa conteated enccearfully bj Alderman John Thomp- 
» Bae CoiuUtatlon of ItTJ, article ziT. aactloo U 

Entriug of all Judgments of County, publique Pro- 
ceedings of Justice, Legal Cases, and all other Instru- 
menta w*' are by Law to be inrolled and Recorded" 
(1 C. R., 214). The office of recorder of deeds of 
Philadelphia was created by act of May 28, 1715, and 
was separated from that of the master of rolls by act 
of Assembly of March 14, 1777. Read's " Digest," 
341; Dallas' "Laws," vol. i., 731. The second sec- 
tion names the recorder of deeds for each county. 
The Council appointed the master of rolls, the As- 
sembly the recorder of deeds. The act of March 29, 
1809, abolished the office of master of rolls. A por- 
tion of the roll-books are in the office of the Secretary 
of the Commonwealth, the rest in the office of the 
Secretary of Internal Affairs of this State. In Mc- 
Caraher r.f. The Commonwealth (5 W. & S., p. 26), it 
is said by Judge Sergeant, in delivering the opinion 
of the Supreme Court, that the office of recorder of 
deeds, " althongh unknown to the common law, has 
been coeval with our province and State, being part 
of the laws agreed upon in England between William 
Penn and the first purchasers, in 1682, and reduced 
after various effiDrts to a regular system by the act of 
1715, which continues to be the foundation of our 
code on the subject, and this office may be said to 
form the pivot on which all our titles to real estate 
turn. The design of it has been to furnish a perma- 
nent record of all titles and muniments of real estate, 
and many of personal, to which parties may have re- 
course for exemplifications that have the same force 
and efficacy as the originals. But there is another 
equally if not more important design, which is to en- 
able all persons to obtain knowledge of the state of 
titles to real estate by deeds and conveyances, and 
also of charges and encumbrances existing on them 
by way of mortgage." 


Thomas Lloyd, by letters patent 27, 10 br., 1683 

Patrick Rotiin»on, ilrputy — , IGSS 

Wlllliim Marklmm, in office — , 1C88»« Lloyd,i2 in office 5 7 mo., 1690 

David Lliiyd, deputy 1 1 mo., 1689 

Patrick RublnKoD.commlsiiloned June 16,1604 

David Lloyd," in ollico 12 br. 7, 1697-98 

ThuniK" Slory, commiesionod 4 mo. 25, 1700 

Griffith Owen, deputy May 11,1702 

Maurico i.isle, deputy Feb. 1,1706 

Charlea Drockden," commlaaloned May 28,1716 

William I'lirr, commissioned Sept. 28, 1767 

John Mcrris, Jr., commiasioned March 22, 1777 

Matthew Irwin, comnilssloocd March 14, 1785 

Juhn M. Irwin, deputy Mrrch 27, 1800 

Timothy MatlHck," commissioned April 14, 1800 

The list of masters of rolls, printed in 9 Pa. 
Archives, 628 (2d series), is very imperfect and in- 
correct, for it is a matter of hi.story that Charles 
Brockden was made recorder of deeds of the county 

vhlrh he claimoil i 


" Reaumed the office 6tli Seventh 
for life 

» 1 Archlvea, I2.'>. Perhaps a deputy only 

>4 A clerk and deputy (In 1712) under Mr. Story, and on his retirement 
waa appoinleil and commissioned master of the rolls, and waa in offlce 
over nny-twi, years. Resigned 1767, and died Oct. 20, 1769, aged ninoty- 
flve years and six months. 

u Timothy Uatlack died April IS, 1829, aged ninety-nine yean. 



of Philadelphia by the act of May 28, 1715, and at 
the same time appoiDted master of rolls, and that he 
held those offices for over fifty-two years, and until 
his retirement in 1.767, so that Andrew Hamilton, 
Thomas Hopkinson, William Allen, Tench Francis, 
and Benjamin Chew never were the masters of rolls, 
nor did Andrew Allen ever hold such a position. On 
page 629 of the same work Arthur Cook is given as 
the first chief justice of the province from 1681 to 
1684. As the Supreme Provincial Court was created 
by order of Council of " y° 1st of y" 2d mo.," 1684, 
and as the charter to William Penn was not signed 
until March 4, 1681, the statement is unaccountable, 
and a serious error in an official publication. The 
first chief justice was Dr. Nicholas More (not Moore), 
and C. J. Robeson's name was not Rob-son, as given. 
The register-general of wills in 1712 is called Hayne ; 
it should be Mayne, the name of a distinguished Irish 
family. There are many other errors in the lists given, 
but they are not as important as those here corrected. 


Charles Brockdeii, by act of May 28, 1716 

William Parr, comriiissioDed Sept. 28, 1767 

John Morris, Jr.,i by act of March U, 1777 

Matthew Irwin, commissioned March in, 1786 

Edward Fo.\, in office 1799 to 18il9 

James Carson, in ofBce 1809 to 1816 

Matthew Randall, in office 1815 to 1819 

Isaac Worrell, in olBce 1819 to 1821 

John Harrison, in office 1821 to 1824 

George W. Riter, in office 1824 to 1830 

Alexander McCaraher, in office 1830 to 1836 

Samuel Hudson Fisher,2 in office 1.S36 to 1838 

John Swift, for unexpired term 1838 to 1839 

George Smith.s in office 1839 to 1842 

Richard L. Lloyd, in office 1842 to 1845 

Andrew Miller, in office 1845 to 1K48 

George W. Colladay. in office 1848 to 1861 

Thomas Helm,' in office 1851 to 1864 

Robert D.Wilkinson, in office 1854 to 1857 

Albert D. Boileau, in office 1867 to 1860 

Alfred C. Harmer, in office 1860 to 1863 

Lewis R. Brooraall, in office 1863 to 1866 

Joshua Thomas Owen, in office 1866 to 1869 

John A. Houseman, in office 1869 to 1872 

F.Theodore Walton, in office 1872 to 1876 

DaTid H. Lane, in office 1876 to 1879 

Louis Wagner, in office 1879 to 1882 

John O'Donnel, in office 1882 to 

Joseph Kennard Fletcher, deputy to 


Thomas Story, by the city charter Oct. 25, 1701 

David Lloyd, by Ck)mmon Council — , 1702 

Robert Assheton, by Common Council Aug. 3, 1708 

Andrew Hamilton, by Common Council June 12, 1727 

William Allen, by Common Council Aug. 7, 1741 

Tench Francis, by Common Council Oct. 2, 1760 

Benjamin Chew, by Common Council Aug. 29, 1756 

Andrew Allen,^ by Common Council June 26, 1774 

Alexander Wilcocks, by Councils — , 1789 

Alexander J. Dallas, by Governor — , 1801 

Moses Levy, by Governor — , 1802 

Mahlon Dickerson, by Governor July 22, 1808 

Joseph Reed, by Governor Oct. — , 1810 

Joseph Mclivaine,6 by Governor Aug. 19,1829 

John Bouvier, by Governor Jan. 9,1836 

Samuel Rush,' by Governor April 30, 1838 

Richard Vaux,8 by Governor Aug, 1, 1841 

Robert M. Lee, by Governor May 18, 1847 

Joseph Eneu, by Governor March 12, 1868 

I Died March 9, 1786. 2 Died December, 1838. 

•Elected Nov. 11,1839. 

* Died Aug. 6, 1880, aged seventy-two. 

B Andrew Allen was declared a traitor, and the office was vacant 

• Resigned in December, 1835. ' Resigned July 22, 1841. 
9 Resigned May 17, 1847. 

James Given,' by Governor April 15, 1868 

Matthew Stanley Quay.w by Governor April 18, 1878 

David H. Lane,"by Governor Jan. 31, 1879 

Guardians of the Poor.— The Board of Guardians 
of the Poor is composed of twelve members. The 
Select and Common Councils meet in joint convention 
in June of each year, and elect four persons as mem- 
bers of the board to serve for three years in place of 
four whose terms are about to expire, one of whom 
so elected shall represent the political minority. 

The board annually elects a president and such 
other officers as are necessary for the proper trans- 
action of business. 

Each member of the board takes an oath or affir- 
mation that he will discharge the duties of the office 
of guardian of the poor truly and impartially to the 
best of his ability. 

All indentures of apprenticeship by the guardians 
shall be executed in the name of the city of Phila- 

The said board appoint suitable persons as visitors 
of the poor; the said visitors are continued in office 
at the discretion of the board, and give such security 
for the faithful performance of their duty as may be 
required. It is the duty of the visitors to act as 
agents under the direction of the Board of Guardians, 
and when called upon by an applicant for relief, or 
by a citizen in behalf of any poor person, to visit 
such party without delay and, after full examination, 
to report, in writing, the particulars of the case to 
the next meeting of the board, stating the residence, 
name, age, sex, color, birthplace, number of children, if 
any, on receipt of which report, the board, if satisfied of 
the necessity of the case, directs the mode and deter- 
mines the amount of relief to be furnished to such 
applicant, and causes the name, residence, and amount 
of relief directed to be furnished, to be entered in a 
book kept for that purpose: Provided, That in all 
cases of sudden emergencies, when the party cannot 
be removed to the hospital or almshouse, it is the 
duty of the visitor, with the consent of one of the 
guardians, to administer such relief as the case may 
require ; the particulars of the case and the amount 
of relief are reported ta the next meeting of the 
guardians. All relief granted to out-door poor is 

The Board of Guardians are authorized to put out 
as apprentices to some trade or calling all poor chil- 
dren who become cliargeable, that is, the children of 
such poor peradns as are dead without leaving any 
property, or any kindred bound by law to maintain 
them, or who, if living, have deserted them ; males to 
the age of twenty-one, and females to the age of 
eighteen years. And the said guardians are author- 
ized to bind out, as aforesaid, all children that have 
received public support, either in the almshouse or 

> Given died Oct. II, 1880, aged forty^ix years. 
10 Appointed under the act of April 18, 1878 ; resigned Jan. 28, 1879. 
" Ousted 1883. 



children's asylum, although their parents demand 
their discharge from said institutions, unless the ex- 
penses incurred in their support be refunded. 

The said board, annually, at the first stated meeting 
of Councils in the month of January, report to them 
a statement, in detail, of the receipts and disburse- 
ments made by them during the past fiscal year, and 
they, annually, not later than the 1st day of January, 
are required to report to Councils an estimate of the 
amount necessary for the expenses of their depart- 
ment during the then fiscal year, and the items of 
such expenses, with an estimate of their receipts for 
the same time. 

The said board is required to keep an account with 
all the poor district-s of Pennsylvania of all the out- 
door relief furnished in behalf of paupers having a 
legal settlement therein according to the several acts 
of Assembly of Pennsylvania. 

Warrants for the payment of appropriations made 
to the department are drawn by the president of the 
board, and at the time of the issue of any warrant 
the secretary takes a receipt for the same, which 
specifies its number, date, amount, and the service 
or supplies for payment of which is issued, and each 
warrant is accompanied by a bill containing the items 
which comprise the sum for which it is drawn. The i 
bill is signed by the person claiming its amount, and 
to be delivered to the controller, and filed by him. 

All moneys due to jurors, witnesses, and arbitra- | 
tors, which shall remain in the hands of the sheriff 
of the city and county of Philadelphia, or any of the 
clerks, prothonotaries, or officers of any of the courts, 
or in the hands of the county commissioners, or their 
clerks, within the said city and county, and shall not j 
be demanded by or paid over to the person or per- 
sons lawfully entitled to receive the same, and which 
Bhall not have been paid over or demanded within 
twelve months from the receipt thereof, shall belong 
to the said guardians of the poor, and shall be paid I 
over to them ; and the said sheriff, clerks, prothono- 
taries, officers, and county commissioners shall keep 
separate accounts of the said moneys, and furnish 
copies thereof to the said guardians of the poor on 
the first Tuesday in the month of January, in each 
and every year, and pay over the same forthwith to 
the said guardians for the use of the poor. 

If any husband or father, being within the limits 
of this commonwealth, shall separate himself from 
his wife, or from his children, or from wife and chil- 
dren, without reasonable cause, or shall neglect to 
maintain his wife or children, it is lawful for any , 
alderman, justice of the peace, or magistrate of this 
commonwealth, upon information made before him i 
under oath or affirmation, by his wife or children, or 
either of them, or by any other person or persons, to 
issue his warrant to the sheriff or to any constable 
for the arrest of the person against whom the in- 
formation shall be made as aforesaid, and bind him 
over, with one sufficient surety, to appear at the next 

Court of Quarter Sessions, there to answer the charge 
of desertion. 

The information, proceedings thereon, and warrant 
shall be returned to the next Court of Quarter Ses- 
sions, when it shall be lawful for said court, after 
hearing, to order the person against whom complaint 
has been made, being of sufficient ability, to pay such 
sum as said court shall think reasonable and proper 
for the comfortable support and maintenance of the 
said wife or children, or both, not exceeding one hun- 
dred dollars per month, and to commit such person 
to the county prison, there to remain until he comply 
with such order, or give security by one or more sure- 
ties to the commonwealth, and to such sum as the 
court shall direct for the compliance therewith. 

The father and grandfather, and the mother and 
grandmother, and the children and grandchildren of 
every poor, old, blind, lame, and impotent person, 
or other poor person within said city, not able to 
work, being of sufficient ability, shall, at their own 
charges, relieve and maintain every such poor person 
as the Court of Quarter Sessions shall order and direct. 

The husband of every wife, whose father or grand- 
father, mother or grandmother, children or grandchil- 
dren, shall be poor, blind, lame, impotent, or other- 
wise unable to maintain himself or herself, and being 
within the said city, not able to work, shall, if of 
sufficient ability, at his or their own charges, relieve 
and maintain every such poor person as the Court of 
Quarter Sessions shall order and direct, on pain of 
forfeiting seven dollars for every month he shall fail 
therein : Proviiled, That such relief so furnished by 
such husband shall be demanded only where such 
husband shall have obtained possession of personal 
property, or be entitled to the rents and profits of 
real estate belonging to his said wife, and then only 
to the extent of the value of such property so ac- 
quired by his marriage. 

It sometimes happens that men separate themselves 
without reasonable cause from their wives, and desert 
their children, and women also desert their children, 
leaving them a charge on the city, although such 
persons may have estates, rights, and credits which 
should contribute to the maintenance of such wives 
or children : Therefore, it shall and may be lawful for 
the guardians of the poor, in the city, having first 
obtained a warrant or order from one of the justices 
of the peace where such wife or children shall be so 
left or neglected, to take and seize so much of the 
goods and chattels, rights and credits, and receive so 
much of the annual rents and profits of the lands and 
tenements of such husband, father, or mother as such 
justice shall order and direct for providing for such 
wife, and for maintaining and bringing up such child 
or children ; which warrant or order, being confirmed 
at the Court of Quarter Sessions, it shall and may be 
lawful for the said court there to make an order for 
the guardians of the poor to dispose of such goods 
and chattels, rights and credits, by sale or otherwise, 



or so much of them for the purpose aforesaid as the 
court shall think fit ; to receive the rents and profits, 
or so much of them as shall be ordered by the said 
court, of his or her, lands or tenements for the pur- 
poses aforesaid ; and if no real or personal estate, 
rights and credits of such husband, father, or mother 
can be found, wherewith provision may be made as 
aforesaid, it shall and may be lawful to and for the 
said court to order the payment of such sums as they 
shall think reasonable for the maintenance of any 
wife or children so neglected, and commit such hus- 
band, father, or mother to the common jail, there to 
remain until he or she comply with the said order, 
give security for the performance thereof, or be other- 
wise discharged by the said court ; and on complaint 
made to any justice of the peace of any wife or chil- 
dren there being so neglected, such justice shall take 
security from the husband, father, or mother, neglect- 
ing as aforesaid, for his or her appearance at the next 
Court of Quarter Sessions, there to abide the deter- 
mination of such court, and for want of security to 
commit such persons. 

Every master or commander of any ship, or other 
vessel arriving at the port of Philadelphia from any 
country out of the United States, or from any other 
of the United States than this State, shall, within 
twenty-four hours after the arrival of such ship or 
vessel in the said port, make a report in writing, on 
oath or affirmation, to the mayor of the city of Phila- 
delphia, or, in case of his sickness or absence, to the 
recorder of said city, or to any alderman or justice of 
the peace, of the name, place of birth, and last legal 
settlement (if known), age, and occupation of every 
person who shall have been brought as a passenger in 
such ship or vessel on her last voyage from any coun- 
try out of the United States into the port of Phila- 
delphia, and of all the passengers who shall have 
been landed, or suffered or permitted to land from 
such ship or vessel, at any place during such her last 
voyage, or have been put on board, or suffered and 
permitted to go on board of any other ship or vessel 
with the intention of proceeding to said port, and of 
the name or names of the owner or owners and con- 
signee or consignees of such ship or vessel, under the 
penalty on such master or commander, and the owner 
or owners, consignee or consignees of such ship or 
vessel, severally and respectively, of seventy-five dol- 
lars for every person neglected to be reported as afore- 
said, and for every person whose name, place of birth, 
and last legal settlement, age, and occupation, or 
either or any of such particulars, or the name or 
names of the owners or consignees as aforesaid, shall ! 
be falsely reported as aforesaid. 

It shall be lawful for the said mayor, recorder, j 
alderman, or justice to require, by a short indorse- , 
ment on the aforesaid report, every such master or 
commander of any such ship or vessel to be bound i 
with two sufficient sureties (to be approved of by the 
said Board of Guardians), to the said (guardians of i 

the poor of the city of Philadelphia), in such sum as 
the mayor, recorder, alderman, or justice may think 
proper, not exceeding one hundred and fifty dollars 
for each passenger not being a citizen of the United 
States, to indemnify and save harmless the said guar- 
dians and their successors, and the inhabitants of the 
city, from all and every expense or charge which shall 
or may be incurred by them for the maintenance and 
support of any such person, or for the support of the 
child or children of any such persons which may be 
born after such importation, iu case such person, or 
any such child or children, shall at any time within 
two years from the date of said bond become charge- 
able to the said guardians of the poor, and the costs 
of the proceedings before the mayor and recorder shall 
be paid by the said master or commander, and a sum 
not exceeding two dollars for preparing said bond ; 
and if any such master or commander shall neglect or 
refuse to give such bond within five days after such 
vessel shall have so arrived at the said port of Phila- 
delphia, every such master or commander, and the 
owner or owners, consignee or consignees of such ship 
or vessel, severally and respectively, shall be subject 
to a penalty of five hundred dollars for each and every 
person not being a citizen of the United States, for 
whom the mayor or recorder shall have determined 
that bond should be given as aforesaid, to be sued for 
and recovered as hereinafter provided. 

Every ship or vessel on board of which any such 
person, not being a citizen of the United States, may 
have been a passenger shall be liable for the said 

Upon information given to the mayor or recorder 
of the city, or any two justices of the peace of the 
county of Philadelphia, that any old persons, infants, 
maimed, lunatics, or any vagabond or vagrant per- 
sons, are imported, come, or are brought within the 
said city, the mayor or recorder, or any two justices 
of the peace for the county of Philadelphia, shall 
cause such aged persons, infants, or impotent or va- 
grant persons to be brought before him, and if upon 
examination they shall judge that such person or per- 
sons are likely to become chargeable to the said city, 
it shall be lawful for the said mayor or recorder, or 
two justices of the peace, as aforesaid, by warrant or 
otherwise, to send for the master or merchant, or 
other person who imported any such infant, lunatic, 
aged, maimed, impotent, or vagrant person or persons, 
as are likely to become chargeable as aforesaid, and 
upon proof made of their being the importers or 
owners of such ship or vessel in which said infant, 
lunatic, aged, maimed, impotent, or vagrant person, 
who shall be judged likely to become chargeable, as 
aforesaid, were imported, then the said mayor or re- 
corder, or any two of the justices, as aforesaid, shall 
and may compel the said master, merchant, or im- 
porter of such infant, lunatic, maimed, aged, impo- 
tent, or vagrant person or persons to give sufficient 
security to carry and transport such infant, lunatic, 



maimed, aged, impotent, or vagrant person or persons 
to the place or places whence such person or persons 
were imported or brought from, or otherwise to in- 
demnify the inhabitants of the city from any charge 
that may come or be brought upon them by such 
infant, lunatic, maimed, aged, impotent, or vagrant 
person or persons: I'rovidul, That any one feeling 
aggrieved may appeal to the Court of Quarter Sessions. 
If any housekeeper or inhabitant of the said city 
shall take into, receive, or entertain in his or her house 
or houses any person or persons whomsoever (all mari- 
ners coming into this State, and every other healthy 
person coming from any foreign port immediately into 
the said State, only excepted), being persons who 
have not gained a legal settlement in some other 
township, borough, or place within this State, and 
shall not give notice in writing, which they are re- 
quired to do within three days next after the taking 
into or entertaining any person or persons in his or 
her house, within the said city, to the guardians of 
the poor, or some of them, of the said city, such in- 
habitant or housekeeper, being thereof legally con- 
victed by testimony of one credible witness, on oath 
or afhrmation before any one justice of the peace re- 
aiding in the said district or township, shall forfeit and 
pay the sum of four dollars for every offense, the one 
moiety for the use of the poor of said city, and the 
other moiety to the informer, to be levied on the 
goods and chattels of the delimiuent, and for want of 
sufficient distress, the offender to be committed to the 
jail of the city and county of Philadelphia, there to 
remain without bail or mainprise for the space of 
ten days. In case the person or persons so enter- 
tained or concealed shall become poor and unable to 
maintain him or herself, and cannot be removed to the 
place of his or her legal settlement in this or any 
other State, if any such he or she hath, or shall die, 
and not have wherewithal to defray the charges of 
his or her funeral, then in such case the housekeeper 
or person convicted of entertaining or concealing 
such poor person shall be obliged to provide for and 
maintain such poor and indigent person or persons; 
and in case of such poor person's death shall pay the 
guardians of the poor so much money as shall be ex- 
pended on the burying of such poor and indigent per- 
son or persons ; and upon refusing so to do, it shall be 
lawful for the guardians of the poor in the city, and 
they are re<iuired to assess a sum of money on the per- 
son or persons so convicted, from time to time, by a 
weekly assessment, for maintaining such poor and indi- 
gent person or persons, or assess a sum of money for 
defraying the charges of such poor person's funeral, as 
the case may be ; and in case the party convicted 
shall refuse to pay the sum of money so a-nsessed or 
charged to the guardians of the poor, for the uses 
aforenaid, the same shall be levied on the goods and 
chattels of the offender, but if such i)erson have no 
goods to satisfy the money so assesiied for him or her 
to pay, then said justice* may commit the offender to 

prison, there to remain until discharged in the manner 
provided by law. 

Where any person not having legal settlement 
withjn the city shall be relieved and provided for 
temporarily by the guardians of the poor, it is lawful 
for the guardians to transmit with the poor and indi- 
gent person or persons so as aforesaid relieved, to his 
last place of legal settlement, a bill containing the 
amount of money expended in the relief of such poor 
or indigent person or persons, certified under the seal 
of the corporation, and attested by the oath or affirm- 
ation of the guardian furnishing or expending the 
same, which bill shall be received by the overseers 
or justices of the township or place where the said 
poor or indigent person or persons were last legally 
settled, and the overseers of the place or township to 
which such poor and indigent person or persons shall 
be so as aforesaid removed, shall be liable to pay the 
amount adjudged to be due, whether notice has been 
given to them or not, of the pauper's being within 
the city of Philadelphia. 

If any poor person or persons shall remove out of 
the city of Philadelphia into any other township, 
borough, or place within this State, or shall remove 
out of any borough, township, or place into the said 
city, and shall fall sick or die before he or she hath 
gained a legal settlement in the said city, district, or 
township, or other township or borough to which he 
or she shall come, so that such person or persons 
cannot be removed, the guardians of the said city or 
overseers of the said other township or borough into 
which such person or persons is or are to come, or 
one of them, shall, as soon as conveniently may be, 
respectively give notice to the overseers of such 
township or borough, or to the guardians of the said 
city (as it may happen to be necessary), where such 
person or persons had hist gained a legal settle- 
ment, or to one of the said overseers or guardians, 
of the name, circumstances, and conditions of such 
person or persons. And if such overseers of a town- 
ship or borough, or guardians of the said city to 
whom such notice shall be so given, shall neglect 
or refuse to pay the money expended, as well before 
as after the said notice, for the use of such poor 
person or jiersons, and to take order for relieving 
and maintaining such poor person or ])erson8, or in 
case of his, her, or their death, before notice can be 
given as aforesaid, shall, on n^quost being made, 
neglect or refuse to pay the money expended in 
maintaining and burying such poor person or per- 
sons, then and in every such case it shall be lawful 
for any two justices of the county where such poor 
person or persons were last legally settled, and they 
are hereby authorized and required, upon complaint 
made to them, to cause all such sums of money as 
were necessarily exi)ended for the maintenance of 
such i)oor person or persons during the whole time of 
his, her, or their sickness; and in case he, she, or they 
die, for his, her, or their burial by warrant under 



their hands and seals, to be directed to some con- 
stable of the said city, township, or borough, to be 
levied by distress and sale of the goods and chattels 
of the said guardian or guardians, overseer or over- 
seers of the poor so neglecting or refusing to be paid 
to the guardians or overseers aforesaid, where such 
poor person or persons liappencd to be sick or to die 
as aforesaid. 

The Board of Guardians are authorized whenever 
any person or persons shall be received into the alms- 
house, to inquire into the situation and circumstances 
of such persons, and into the causes which have pro- 
duced his or her application for relief; and if in the 
opinion of said guardians the case shall be such 
as to make it expedient, they shall cause to be opened 
in the books of the almshouse an account with the 
person or persons so received, and shall charge him, 
her, or them, a fair and moderate price for the main- 
tenance and other articles furnished for their relief; 
and shall credit such persons with a just and liberal 
allowance for any work they may perform or services 
they may have rendered ; and persons who may be 
sent to the hospital and cured of any disease brought 
on by vicious habits shall be removed to the house of 
employment ; and also, any idle, disorderly, and 
vagrant person who may be sent to the said alms- 
house by any of the said guardians, may be detained 
in the said house by the Board of Guardians, and 
compelled to perform such work and services as the 
said board may order and direct, until they have 
compensated by their labor for the expenses incurred 
on their account, unless discharged by special per- 
mission of the Board of Guardians ; and it shall be 
the duty of said Board of Guardians to furnish such 
person or persons as aforesaid with sufficient work 
and employment, according to their physical abilities, 
so that the opportunity of reimbursement may be 
fully afforded; and the said Board of Guardians 
are authorized and empowered to exercise such power 
as may be necessary to compel all persons within the 
said almshouse and house of employment to do and 
perform all such work, labor, and services as may be 
assigned to them by the said Board of Guardians: 
Provided, The same be not inconsistent with the con- 
dition or ability of such person. 

The several constituted authorities having care and 
charge of the poor in the respective counties, districts, 
and townships of this commonwealth have authority 
to send to the asylum such insane paupers under their 
charge as they may deem proper subjects ; and they 
shall be severally chargeable with the expenses of the 
care and maintenance and removal to and from the 
asylum of such paupers. 

If the guardians, directors, or overseers of the poor, 
to whom any patient who shall be in the asylum is 
chargeable, shall neglect or refuse, upon demand 
made, to pay to the trustees the expenses of the care, 
maintenance, and removal of such patient, and also, 
in the event of death, of the funeral expenses of such 

patient, the said trustees are authorized and empow- 
ered to collect the same as debts of a like nature are 

The appropriations of the guardians of the poor 
for 1882 were : 

Hospital department 829,616 

Insane department 13.598 

Children's asylum 1,«7 

Hunse generally 316,069 

Manufactnring department 20,730 

Farm and Blockley estate 11,527 

Ont-door expenses 26,410 

Deficiency bill, 1876-77 1,160 

Cost of Maraton Street sewer 652 



1830. Thomas P. Cope. \ 1857. James D. Brown. 

1835. George W. Jones. 1868. Dr. George Huhn. 

1847. William G. Flanagan. 1859. Elhanan W. Keyser. 

1848. Daniel S. Beideman. I 1S60. John M. Maris. 

1849. William G. Flanagan. ; 1865. George Erety. 
1882. Michael Day. 1868. John M. Whitall. 

1853. Robert P. King, j 1874. John P. Verree. 

1854. Frederick M. Adams. | 1876. James S. Chambers. 
1856. Joseph B. Smith. 1882. John Huggard. 
1866. Oliver Evans. ; 1883. Edward F. Hoffman. 

Water Department.'— Councils elect every three 
years a chief engineer of this department. He has 
charge of the water-works, including mill-houses, 
steam-engine houses and their machinery, the reser- 
voirs, pipes, mains, dams, fire-plugs, property and fix- 
tures connected with the same, and he exercises con- 
trol over all the officers connected therewith, assigns 
and directs their duties. He makes an annual report 
to Councils, prepares all plans of construction, makes 
all necessary estimates connected with the works 
whether for construction or repairs, certifies all ac- 
counts, bills, and contracts for materials purchased 
or labor performed under his direction, notifies Coun- 
cils of all breaches of contract, supervises and con- 
tracts for laying down mains, pipes, and fixtures. 

The chief engineer appoints three assistants, who 
shall be civil engineers, one general superintendent 
of works, one engineer's clerk, to be chief clerk of 
the department, one assistant clerk, one superintend- 
ent of city repair-shops, one draughtsman, ten engi- 
neers at works, one register, one chief clerk of regis- 
ter's department, one receiving clerk, two permit 
clerks, six general clerks, six purveyors, who give se- 
curity in the sum of five thousand dollars, fourteen 
inspectors, one messenger, one pipe clerk, one muster 
clerk, and one telegraph operator. 

The chief engineer gives bond in the sum of ten 
thousand dollars. 

The water purveyors have charge of all the mains, 
pipes, stop-cocks, fireplugs, and other fixtures apper- 
taining to the distribution of the water through the 
city, and personally attend to the laying of new 
pipes as well as the repairs of the pipes, fireplugs, 
and other fixtures that require it, to shut off the pipes 

1 The history of the water-works of Philadelphia is given in the nar- 
rative of volume i. of this work. 



for repairs on account of leaks, to shut off water, to 
cut off such pipes on premises on which the water- 
rent has not been paid, to keep an account of all 
new pipes laid or repairs made. 

The register makes assessments of water-rents in 
manufacturing and other establishments where large 
quantities are used, receives all water-rents, and 
makes return of them to the controller, and turns the 
money over to the treasurer. 

The permit clerks attend to their respective sub- 
ofiBces, issue all permits under the supervision of the 
register, and make weekly returns to the register of 
all permits issued and moneys received, and perform 
such other duties as directed by the chief engineer. 

The inspector examine all premises where water 
is introduced, and return to the register an account 
of all connections and openings on the premises and 
their uses, such as the number of hydrants, baths, 
water-closets, fountains, etc., and other rate of charge 
as fixed by Councils, distribute the water-rent bills 
and notices, and examine and report cases of fraudu- 
lent use of water and abuse of permits, etc. 

Whenever the chief engineer shall issue a war- 
rant, he shall at the same time take a receipt which 
shall specify its number, date, and amount, and the 
services or materials for payment of which it is 
issued ; and every warrant shall be accompanied by 
a bill which shall contain the items which compose 
the sum for which it is issued, signed by the person 
in whose favor the warrant is drawn, and the said 
bill is delivered to the controller and filed by him. 

Whenever the pipes for conveyance of water shall 
have been laid in any square of street or highway, 
the chief engineer of the water-works shall, within ' 
five days thereafter, inform the surveyor of the dis- 
trict within which the said street is situated, and the 
•aid surveyor shall, within ten days thereafter, assess 
the expense of laying such pipes at the sum herein- 
before mentioned, against the several owners of 
ground fronting said street, in proportion to their 
respective fronts thereon, and make out duplicate 
bills therefor, which he shall deliver to the chief 
engineer of the water-works; and the said engineer 
shall cause one of said bills to be delivered by one 
of the inspectors in the department for .lupplying the 
city with water, to the owner or owners of ground 
aforesaid ; or, if the owner be unknown or cannot be 
found, place*] upon the premises, and the other 
thereof he shall deliver to the register in said de- 
partment. The said bills shall contain a printed ' 
notice that the amount thereof is payable to the 
register, and that if the same be paid within thirty 
days from the day of such delivery, a deduction of 
five per centum will be made thereon, and that if 
not paid within four months therefrom, a claim for 
the same will be filed. Every bill ho delivered to the 
register shall have note*] thereon, by the proper 
inspector, the date of the delivery of its duplicate to 
the pervon charged therein, or of its being left on 

the premises as aforesaid. And at the end of four 
months from such date of delivery, or being left as 
aforesaid, and within five days thereafter, the reg- 
ister shall return to the said surveyor the bills in 
his hands unpaid, whereupon the said surveyor shall, 
within five days, prepare a full description by metes 
and bounds of each property whose owners shall not 
have paid the amount charged against him, and de- 
liver the same, with said bill, to the city solicitor, 
who shall forthwith file claims for, and proceed to 
collect the same as it is now practiced and allowed 
by law, and when the amount of any such claim ia 
collected and received by him and paid to the city 
treasurer, he shall inform the register thereof 

Whenever any pipes for the conveyance of water 
shall be laid in any of the streets or highways, the 
owners of the ground in front whereof the same shall 
be laid shall i>ay for the expense thereof the sum of 
one dollar for each foot of their ground upon such 
street : Prorided, That on all corner lots an allowance 
shall be made of one-third the length of their fronts, 
but such allowance shall be always and only on the 
street or highway running at an angle to the street or 
highway in which ]ii]ic sliall have been previously 
laid and paid for, but in no case shall the allowance 
exceed fifty feet on any corner lot. 

It is obligatory on the chief engineer of the survey 
dei)artment to furnish the city controller with a state- 
ment of all bills for thi' laying of water-])ipes, at the 
same time that they arc sent to the register of the 
water department. At the exjiiration of four months 
from the time the register of the water department 
receives the bills for water-pipe, he shall then furnish 
the city controller with a statement of all unsettled 
bills sent to the city solicitor for collection. 

All water-rents shall be payable to the register of 
water-rents at his office, annually, in advance, on the 
second Monday of January ; and ujion all water-rents 
unpaid u|ion the 1st day of May in any year, there ia 
charged the sum of five per centum, and upon all 
rents ungiaid on the 1st day of July in any year there 
shall bo charged an additional sum of ten per centum ; 
and if such rent, with the said additional charges, 
shall remain un])aid on the 1st day of September in 
any year, the said register shall notify the chief engi- 
neer of the water-works of the names of such delin- 
quents, who shall cause the ferrules of all such delin- 
quent water-tenants to be detached from the pipe of 
conduit, and suit be instituted for the recovery of such 
rent; and after such ferrules shall have been de- 
tached the water shall not again be supplied or fur- 
nished to the said premises, except upon payment of 
all arrears of water-rent, and the sum of two dollars 
for expenses incurred ; and a i)rinted notice shall be 
Icit upon the premises. 

The following are the rates charged : 

DwrlUnf.—Onn-haU ilnellingn (one room on a floor), wUliout by- 
drmnl or ilnk on prrmlam, 32.5U; ttarer-quartrr dwellings (one room on 
a Uoor and kitchen), wlUiout hydrant or link on premiaea, »3.75 ; other 



dwellings, without hydrant or sink ou premises, $5 ; all dwellings with 
hydrant or 5ink, or hydrant in yard and sink in kitchen, with hot or 
cold water, S5. 

Wash-Paves. — Screw nozzles on hydrants or elsewhere, 83 ; for water- 
ing horses, $10. 

Wash- Basins or Sinks. — In private I'.wellings (kitchen excepted), each 
$1; in hotels or boarding-houses, each S;J ; in drug-stores, attached to 
dwellings, each 82.50; in stores, attached tu dwellings, each S2 ; in stores, 
attach men t from main pipes, each $5; in public buildings and halls, each 
$3; in barber-shops, one basin or outlet, each 83 ; in barber-shops, each 
additional outlet, 81. 

Slop-Sinks. — In boarding-houses, hotels, etc., each 84. 
Tra«ft-n<69.— (Stationary) each partition, 81. 

Baths (hot and cold, or either). — In private dwellings, each 83 ; at- 
tached to main pipe, each 85; in hotels and public bath-houses, each 
S6 ; shower-baths in private dwellings, each 81 ; shower-baths in hotels 
and public bath-houses, each 82. 

Water-Closels, Urinals, Bidets, and Foot-Tubs, — In private dwellings, 
each 81 ; in stores, factories, etc., self-acting, each 82; instores, factories, 
etc., all others, each $3; in hotels, boarding-liouses, self-acting, each 83; 
in hotels, boarding-houses, all others, each 85. 

Stables. — Without water on premises, each stall and each carriage, 81 ; 
with water on premises, not exceeding five stalls or carriages, $5; hc- 
commodating farmers, each stall, 50 cents. 

Bars.— \With or without water, each 810. 

Hotels and Boardiug-Houses (in addition to opening charges). — For 
boarders to the number of ten, S5 ; for boarders to thenumberof twenty- 
five, 810; each additional twenty-five, 85. 

Boarding and P)-ivate Schools. — Each pnpil, 3 cents. 

FamV'j Bakeries. — In addition to dwelling charges, $3. 

Ice-Cream Saloons. — In addition to dwelling charges, 83. 

Ealing- and Oysler-Salooyis. — In addition to dwelling charges, ^. 

Market- Houses. — Each stall, 25 cents. 

Fish-Stalls.— E&ch, 85. 

Photngraphers. — -One operator, 810; each additional operator, So. 

Hatters' Planks. — Fours per set, 88; sixes per set, 810; eights per set, 

Brickyards. — Per gang of men, $5. 

Bteam-Engines. — Each horse-power, 83. 

Steam- Boilers. — Each horse-power, 83. 

Dye- Trorta.— Each hand on tubs used, 810. 

Vinegar Establishments. — According to capacity, from 810 to 820. 

Dije- or Wool-Washers'^—Each 100 gallons, 2 cents. 

Skin-Vressers.— Each 100 gallons, 2 cents. 

Malt- Houses.— -Each 100 gallons, 2 cents. 

Packet Steamers and Vessels. — Each 100 gallons, 5 cents. 

Breweries. — Each 100 barrels, 82. 

Other Establishments.— E&ch 100 gallons, 2 cents. 

Fountains. — Counter in stores, ^^-inch jet, 85; garden, etc., ^"g-inch 
jet, 10 hours per day, 6 months, 86; garden, each additional jot, 10 
hours per day, 6 months, 81.50; garden, J^-inch jet, 10 hours per day, 6 
months, 87.50; garden, each additional jet, 10 hours per day, 6 months, 
82.50; garden, i<^-inch jel, 10 hours per day, 6 months, 814 ; garden, 
each additional jet, 10 hours per day, 6 months, $9; garden, ^.^g"'^^^ j^t, 
10 hours per day, 6 months, 832. (No ferrule larger than J^ inch 
granted for fountains exclusively.) 

Qreen- or Hot-Houses. — Witli or without water, each 85. 

Building Purposes. — Bricks, per thousand, 5 cents; stone, per perch, 2 

Water-Meter Raie.—^&ch thousand cubic feet, $1.25. 

For a Flow of Water Tu-elve Hours Per Daij.—iTom ^2-»nch ferrule, 
per annum, 8200; from %-inch ferrule, per annum, 8315; from 3_^-iDch 
ferrule, per annum, 8450; from l-inch ferrule, per annum, 8800. The 
water-rent for meters used for church organs shall be assessed at the rate 
of from $10 to $25 per annum, according to capacity, and subject to 
water-rates at the discretion of the chief engineer. 

The water-rents for all charitable institutions at fifteen per cent, of 
the regular schedule rates charged for the use of water. 

The city water department has 772 miles of pipe 
under ground, and supplies with water 151,096 
dwellings, 67,011 bath-rooms, 6119 fire-plugs, and 
has an average daily pumpage of 67,647,782 gallons 
of water. 

The chief engineer of the department for supplying 

the city with water reports, for the year 1882, that the 
receipts amounted to $1,495,483.59, and the expendi- 
tures were $660,958.45. 

The itemized table of revenue and expenditures 
! from annual and special appropriations and loans, 
shows — 

Total revenue in twenty-eight years, 1855-82, was 825,343,252.08; 
expenditures, $17,190,896. 

The average percentage expenditures on the basis of receipts in 
twenty-eight years, 1855-82, sixty-eight per cent. 

In twenty-eight yeare, 1855-8L', tho quantity of water pumped by 
steam-power, one hundred feet high, was 287,910,247.143. 

In twenty-eight years, 1855-82, the quantity of water pumped by 
water-power, one hundred feet high, was 182,393,609,671. 

In twenty-eight years, 1855-82, cost to maintain the steam pumpage, 

In twenty-eight years, 1855-82, cost to maintain the water pumpage, 

In twenty-eight years, 1855-82, expense to maintain the works, 

In twenty-eight years, 1855-82, expenditures of all kinds, except 
interest, 817,190,896. 

In twenty-eight years, 1855-82, cost of distribution, $6,702,866.31. 

In twenty-eight years, 1855-82, cost of machinery (construction) 
plant, 81,520,315.15. 

In twenty-eight years, 1855-82, cost of buildings, grounds, and reser- 
voirs, 82,984,800.05. 

In twenty-eight years, 1855-82, cost of incidentals, $33,145.37. 

The following analysis of the water taken from the 
forebay of the Fairmount Water- Works, Feb. 9, 1872, 
is by Dr. Charles M. Cressou. The figures show the 
total amount of solid matter of all kinds contained in 
one United States standard gallon of water, contain- 
ing two hundred and thirty-one cubic inches. 

Water collected at the forebay of the Fairmount 
Water-Works, Feb. 9, 1872; no water had flowed 
over the dam for sixteen days : 

Grains in 
one gallon. 

Condition of the sample Clouded. 

Amount of sediment in one gallon 1.92(R). 

Acid or alkaline Alkaline. 

Scum on boiling None. 

Total solid matter 6.2937. 

Total after ignition 4.7250. 

Total organic matter, carbonic acid, etc 1.5687. 

Ammonia, free 0.0006985. 

Ammonia, albuminoid 0.004656. 

Nitrogen, from nitrates and nitrites 0.071900. 

Sewage 0.046500. 

Sulphuric acid, free None. 

Sulphuric acid, in combination 1.186700. 

Chlorine, free None. 

Chlorine, in combination 0.260300. 

Magnesia 0.149700. 

Alumina and oxides of iron and silica. 0.548100. 

Lime 0.604800. 

Total solid matter in one United States gallon of 

Analyzed by 


Schuylkill Prof. Boyer....(in 1842) 4421 

Schuylkill Booth & Garrett (1854) 6314 

Schuylkill Booth A Garrett (18G2) 5693 

Schuylkill F. C. Phillips (1870) 4493 

Schuylkill C. M. Cresson (1872) 6293 

Delaware Wurtz 3480 

Croton, N. Y Chandler (1870) 6873 

Jersey City and Newark. ..E. W. Horseford 7440 

Cleveland, Ohio J. L. Cassels 6270 

Chicago (Lake Tunnel' Blaney 6680 

Albany, N. T Horseford 10.780 

Rochester, N. Y Chandler 13.250 

Syracuse, N. Y Chandler 13,930 

Brooklyn. N. Y Chandler 3920 

Boston, Mass Horaoford 3110 

London, England Letterly 16,380 

Paris, France 8830 



Surveys and Surveyors. — The city is divided into 
twelve survey districts, and one surveyor for each dis- 
trict is elected by Councils. The twelve surveyors 
constitute the Board of Surveyors. Councils elect a 
chief surveyor and engineer, who serves five years, 
at a salary of three thousand dollars per annum. The 
district surveyors each receive five hundred dollars 
per year. All the public plans of town lots are de- 
posited in the office of the Board of Surveys, subject 
to public inspection. 

The said Board of Surveyors, under the direction of 
Councils, have authority to alter the lines and regu- 
late the grades of any street or streets which may 
have been laid out upon any of the public plans, but 
not opened, subject to the approval of the Court of 
Quarter Sessions. 

The chief engineer and surveyor shall, by and with 
the advice and consent of the Select Council, appoint 
the following officers, viz.: A recording clerk, whose 
duty it shall be, under his directions, to assist in the 
charge of the office, in recording documents, and in 
such business as may be required by said chief engi- 
neer and surveyor. He shall act as secretary of the 
Board of Surveyors, and keep regular minutes of 
their proceedings. A draughtsman, who shall make 
and copy such drafts and plans pertaining to the busi- 
ness of the department as the chief engineer and sur- 
veyor may require; and a rodman, who shall act as 
messenger, whose duties shall be prescribed by the 
said chief engineer and surveyor. 

The chief engineer shall have the superintendence 
and direction of all surveys and regulations as author- 
ized by acts of Assembly and ordinances of the sev- 
eral districts of the city of Philadelphia. He shall 
preside as president of the Board of Surveyors at all 
stated and special meetings of the said board, and be 
entitled to vote upon all (|uestions. He shall, as chief 
engineer and surveyor, sign all plans and profiles of 
surveys, regulations, bridges, and culverts, when acted 
on by the said Board of Surveyors. He shall furnish 
the department of highways with all plans and speci- 
fications for laying out, grading, and regulating streets 
and public ways, and for bridges, culverts, location of 
inlets, or other improvements to be done under the 
superintendence of said department, and under the 
direction of the said chief engineer and surveyor. 

The district surveyors shall, in their respective dis- 
trict*, lay out and survey the same, as may be requi- 
site from time to time, and designate the proper lines, 
levels, and grades, as established by the confirmed 
plan of such district as he may have in charge. All 
general plans for sewers, bridges, or other improve- 
ments, to he cfinstructcd under the direction of the 
chief engineer and surveyor, shall be ai)prove(l by the 
Board of Surveyors, to be decided thereby, and no con- 
tracts for such improvements, whether of culverts or 
bridges, shall be executed or work commenced until 
the chief engineer and surveyor shall certify that the 
plans thereof have been approved by said board ; and 

when built or constructed by contract, no estimate 
shall be paid without his certificate as to its correct- 

Each district surveyor shall keep an accurate record, 
in a book provided by the city for that purpose, of all 
surveys and adjustments of party lines, and also fur- 
nish duplicates thereof to the chief engineer and sur- 
veyor within one month after the same is made, and 
also such plans of such parts of said district, and in 
such form, and with such details as said chief engi- 
neer shall from time to time require for official pur- 
poses ; and such plans, surveys, records, minutes, 
notes, memoranda, and regulations, whether in the 
principal office or in the respective offices of the dis- 
trict surveyors, are the property of the city of Phila- 
delphia, and shall be delivered up to their successors 
in office on the termination of their official service. 

The district surveyors and regulators shall be re- 
quired to attend to all surveys to be made with a view 
to the erection of new buildings, or other work, in their 
respective districts, within four working days after 
notice so to do. 

No person shall begin the foundation or erect any 
building or buildings adjoining to or upon any street, 
road, lane, court, or alley, or on the line of his, her, 
or their neighbors' ground, without first applying to 
and having the line or lines thereof regulated and 
marked by the surveyor and regulator of the district; 
or shall deviate therefrom by extending his, her, or 
their building or buildings beyond any or either of 
the lines or boundaries marked as aforesaid (unless 
determined otherwise by appeal). 

The district surveyors shall be allowed to charge 
and demand, in advance, the following from the 
owners of property ordering the work to be performed, 
or against whom the same is properly chargeable, 
namely : For surveying and regulating each lot of 
not more than twenty feet in width, three dollars. 
Each lot of more than twenty and not over forty feet 
in width, four dollars. Each lot of more than forty 
and not over sixty feet in width, five dollars. Each 
lot of more than sixty and not over one hundred feet 
in width, six dollars ; and for each additional foot in 
width, two cents. For measuring and making returns 
of paving and curbing, two cents per linear foot of 
property on Ciich side, payable by contractor. For 
; furnishing heights and stakes for resetting curb, 
i seventy-five feet continuously or under, one dollar 
I and fifty cents; for each additional foot, two cents. 
For measuring and making returns of repaving and 
paving new intersections, two cents per square yard, 
to be paid by contractor. And they shall be entitled 
to demand and receive from the city corporation the 
following, viz.: For measuring, making drawings, 
and returns for water-pipes, two cents per linear foot 
of property on each side, inclusive of description for 
liens for pipe laid. For gutter or grading stakes, one 
cent per linear foot. For furnishing heights and 
' slakes one hundred feet or less of new curbing, two 



dollars and fifty cents ; and two cents per foot for 
each additional foot. For preparing liens for muni- 
cipal claims, each (exclusive of water-pipe liens), one 
dollar. For surveys and duplicate sectional plans 
for line regulations, per acre, two dollars. For sur- 
veys and duplicate sectional plans for grade regula- 
tions, per acre, one dollar and fifty cents. For dupli- 
cate sectional plans, comprising both line and grade 
regulations, per acre, three dollars. For superin- 
tendence of branch culverts with lines and levels, 
property plans and assessment bills, with certificate 
that specifications have been complied with, per 
linear foot, six cents, payable by contractor. 

The chief engineer and surveyor shall cause to be 
made books of plans of the city, divided into sections 
80 far as the streets of the said city are laid out, which 
shall show the situation and dimensions of each prop- 
erty therein, with the city numbers thereof, and who 
are the owners, with such succession of blank columns 
as will permit the names of future owners to be entered 
therein, with the dates of transfer, and with index for 
recording such names alphabetically. 

To enable the chief engineer and surveyor of the 
city to keep up the said books of plans, it shall be the 
duty of every seller and buyer of ground upon the 
planned plot of the city of Philadelphia to make re- 
port to him of every conveyance made, with the pre- 
cise dimensions and locality of the premises, and, so 
doing, the same shall be received without charge, and 
noted on the deed of conveyance, by the assistant of 
the said chief engineer and surveyor ; but if said seller 
and buyer shall both omit said duty, the recorder of 
deeds of the said county of Philadelphia shall not 
admit the deed of conveyance to record in his office 
without charging fifteen cents for each lot described 
therein ; and it shall then be his duty to furnish the 
proper description of such lot or lots, with the date 
of conveyance, and names of grantor or grantee, 
within one month, into the office of the department 
of surveys, under the penalty of one dollar for each 
omission, to be recovered as penalties for taking un- 
lawful fees are recovered, for the use of the said city ; 
and it shall be the duty of every purchaser of houses 
and lands at judicial sales, and of every one to whom 
an allotment in partition shall have been made, and 
of every devisee by will, to make return to the chief 
engineer and surveyor of the purchase he has made, 
or allotment he has received, and of all devises made 
to him by will, with descriptions as aforesaid, which 
the said chief engineer and surveyor shall receive 
without charge; but if he shall not have done so 
simultaneously with the completion of his purchase, 
or on partition effected, or if on probate of any will 
the devisee shall not have done so as to am' houses or 
lands in the said city, purchased, allotted, or devised, 
it shall be the duty of the clerk or prothonotary of 
the proper court, under whose authority such judg- 
ment or partition shall have been made, and for the 
register of wills to furnish such descriptions as are 

above required of the recorder of deeds, so far as the 
wills to be proved in his office shall enable him to do 
so, for the like charge, and under the same penalty ; 
and the clerk or prothonotary and register may make 
such charge against such purchaser or party taking 
in partition, or devisee, on delivery of the deed, cer- 
tifying proceedings in partition, or granting probate 
of the will, and that whether the same be in trust, or 
for any estate for life only, or otherwise, unless the 
party interested shall produce to him or them the 
certificate of the chief engineer and surveyor that 
such duty has been performed. 

If neither the seller or buyer, devisee or heir, or 
other party, who has acquired title to houses and 
lands in the said city, shall have furnished the de- 
scription of the property sold, as aforesaid, both he 
who may have parted with and he who acquired title 
shall be liable for the taxes thereafter assessed thereon, 
without right of reclamation or contribution therefor, 
either against the other, and if the lands or houses 
sold be afterward sold for taxes thereafter accruing 
as a lien by record, before said duty shall have been 
performed, the purchaser shall acquire title as now he 
may by law within the county of Philadelphia; but 
if the said duty of making the return, as required by 
this act, shall have been discharged by the party who 
shall have acquired title before the tax accrued, as a 
lien of record, for which the same shall have been 
sold, the purchaser at the tax sale shall not acquire 
the title of such person who shall have performed 
such duty, or of his heirs or assigns, unless the same 
shall have been made in the name of such owner after 
the service of process upon him. 

The greater part of Philadelphia is laid out in 
parallelograms, with the streets at right angles to 
each other, making the system of numbering houses 
a simple one. The houses on streets running east 
and west are numbered by hundreds, beginning at 
Front Street, near the Delaware River. The houses 
on the south side bear even numbers, those on the 
north side uneven numbers. Thus, on the north 
side of Chestnut Street, beginning at Sixth and 
going west, the numbers are 601, 603, 605, etc.; on 
the south side the numbers are 600, 602, 604, etc. At 
Seventh Street the numbers in 700 begin, and so each 
successive street begins a hundred of its own number. 
Market Street is taken as a dividing-line between 
north and south for numbering houses on streets run- 
ning north and south. The even numbers are on the 
west side of these streets, the uneven numbers on the 
east side. No. 1 " north" and No. 1 " south" begin 
at Market Street. No. 100 north begins at Arch 
Street, the first principal street north of Market; No. 
100 south begins at Chestnut, the first principal street 
south of Market. The following are the names of 
the streets running parallel to Market Street, north 
and south thereof. The numbers signify the number 
which is given to the houses north or south, as the 
case may be, of the street to which it is attached. 



Those streetB having no numbers are narrow or short 
streeU between the principal avenues : 

Ko. North. 

No. South. 

1 MlrkrL 

1 Market. 







100 Arab. 

100 Cbeatnot. 



200 lUce. 





S«0 Walnut. 

300 Vliw. 



300 Spruce. 

400 ChllowhIII. 



400 Pine. 


600 Lombard. 



aOu ButtonwiKxl. 

600 Sonlb. 

Spriug Garden. 

700 Bainbridge. 

600 GreeD. 


Houul Vernuu. 





goo Catharine. 

700 FttirmouDt Avenue. 



90U Cbrialinn. 

8U0 Brown. 



lOOU Ciirpenter. 


IlOU Washington Avenue 

SOO PopUr. 



1200 Federal. 




1300 Wharton. 

1200 Ginird Arenue. 

1400 Bead. 


IMC Dickinson. 

1300 Tlionipeon. 



1600 Tasker. 

140U Muter. 

1700 Morris. 

lUO Jeffenon. 


1600 Oxford. 

1800 Moore. 

1700 Oolumbla ATenue. 


1800 Moutgunierjr. 

1900 Mifflin. 

ISOO Berke. 

2000 McKean. 

aiou Norrii. 

2100 Snyder. 


2200 Jackson. 

2100 DUmund. 

2:100 Wolf. 

22UO Suaquehenna ATeuue. 

2400 Bitnor. 

2300 Iteupliln. 

2500 Porter. 

24'JO Y..rk. 

2600 Shunk. 

2/i<H> CumUrUnd. 

2700 Oregon Avenue. 

2600 lluollogilou. 

2800 Johnson. 

Z700 Leblgb Avenue. 

2»0U Blgier. 

2800 DumerKl. 

3000 Pollock. 

2S00 CunbriK. 

3100 Packer. 

3000 Indiana. 

3200 Curtln. 

3100 Uleaifleld. 

3200 Alleghanj Avenue. 

The following lists give the names oF the principal 
city surveyors and regulators and assistants to date: 


Thomas Holme, s 
E<l»ar.l P-niniiU 
Thnmss raltniaii 
Jsc.l. T«;l.' 

irvrjor-general 18 2nia.,1682 


lurveyur-genpral Feb. 


general.. Nov. 

20, 1688 

I Reilman. frf>m 1712 to 1728 

Jacob Ts)lor,iap|M>inl«l Aug. 30, 1726 

Benjamin Ijutliiirn, survejnrgeneraL Aug. 8, 1737 

William ■■•r»>r,a, survejor-general Aug. 27, 1741 

Nichola* >t<iill,iiirve;iir.general Jan. 14, 1748 

Joaaph K'>i. regiilabir Jan. 14, 1748 

John Lukens,surts;i>r'gsneral April 10,1761 

David Kitlenhonse, sppuinnid Jan. 26.1774 

ICd«ard Ilonsail, apiK.inled _ Jan. 26, ITTi 

I From John Hill Martin's 
• Vies Kadman. 

' Demh and Bar of Philadelphia." 

Josiiih Mallack, appointed April 15, 1782 

Jamos I'earson. nppointi'd April 15, 1782 

Beading Howell, appointed — , 1804 

James Pearson, appointed —,1808 

William Stevenson, appointed — , 1809 

William Garrigues, appointed. — , 1811 

-Samuel Haiiiw, appointed... Aug. — , 1814 

Alphonso C. Ireland, appointed Aug. — , 1814 

Enoch Lewl«,' appointed 1827 to 1834 

Edward H. Gill, appointed 1834 to 1840 

Samuel Haines, appointed Jan. 16, 1840 

Samuel Honi'.vman Kneas8,appolnted April 26, 1849 

S|<encerBon8Hll, appointed May 9, 1853 

Strickland Knea«s,< appointed May 29, 1856 

Samuel Lightfooot Smedley, appointed March 14, 1872 


Ordinance of Dec. 5, 1839. 

Marino T. W. Chandler, appointed Jan. 16, 1840 

Spencer Bonsall, appointed July II, 1850 

David Hudson Afihedaker, appointed Sept. 1, 1853 


Offia created by Ordinance of July 7, 1870. 

James K. McClure, appointed July 7, 1870 

J. Milton Tillow, apijoiuted March 1, 1874 

Assistant City Rnginekrs. 

Office etlablithed by Ordinance of Feb. 6, 1874. 

Rudolph Hering,»appointed Feb. 6, 1874 

John D. Estabronk, appoi utod Aug. 15,1882 

The department of surveys of the city of Phila- 
delphia was organized by ordinance of Councils, 
under the provisions of the 27th and 50th sections of 
the act (of consolidation) of Feb. 2, 1854. The ordi- 
nance was sent to the mayor on Oct. 14, 1854, and not 
having been returned to Councils within fifteen days 
thereafter, became a law. 

On March 27, 1855, Councils in joint session elected 
Strickland Kiieass chief engineer and surveyor, to- 
gether with twelve district surveyors and regulators, 
viz. : 

1. Charles S. Close. 7. James I'. Davis. 

2. David Hudson Sliudaker. 8. William Keod. 

3. Francis Lightfool. 9. Henry A. Frink. 

4. Joseph King, Jr. 10. Ilonry Haiues. 

6. Jesse Lightfoot. i 11. John H. Levering. 

6. Spencer Bonsall. I 12. Amos Stiles, Jr. 

These to constitute a Board of Surveyors, with the 
chief engineer as president. These gentlemen met 
once, and organized as a board by electing Strickland chief engineer and surveyor and president of 
the Board of Surveyors ; but they never performed any 
other duty, as they were superseded by a supplement 
to the act (of consolidation) of Ai)ril 21, 1855, direct- 
ing that the members of the Board of Surveys should 
be elected by the votes of the twelve survey districts 
into which the city was divided by the supplement, 
one person to be elected in each district, to serve for 
five years, "who shall have had five years' experience 
and skill in his profession." The supplement also 
directed that the board should be organized by the 
election of the chief engineer as president. 

The said district surveyors were duly elected on May 

• Wcs Howell. t Chief engineer and surveyor. 
' Tlie act of Feb. 2, 1854, abolished this position. 

• lU'signed Dec. 31, 1881. 




1, 1855, and the board organized by electing Strickland 
Kneass chief engineer and surveyor. (Journal of Se- 
lect Councils, May 7, 1855.) 

Strickland Kneass,' late assistant to the president 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, was born in 
Philadelphia, July 29, 1821, his father being William 
Kneass, who for many years was engraver for the 
United States Mint. His school education was ob- 
tained chiefly at the classical academy of James P. 
Espy, and at an early age he adopted civil engineer- 
ing as a profession. Mr. Kneass derived most of his 
practical training from his services upon the Dela- 
ware and Schuylkill Canal and Philadelphia and 
Wilmington Railroad, which were constructed under 
the supervision of his eldest brother, Samuel H. 
Kneass, as chief engineer. On the completion of the 
latter road he became a student in the Rensselaer 
Polytechnic Institute at Troy, N. Y., whence he 
graduated in 1839 as civil engineer, taking the high- 
est honor. He was soon after made assistant engineer 
and topographer on the State survey for a railway 
between Harrisburg and Pittsburgh, which enterprise 
was rather ahead of the times and failed of accom- 
plishment. He then became draughtsman in the 
Naval Bureau of Engineering, at Washington, and 
was afterward employed by the British Commission 
in preparing the maps of the northeast boundary 
between the United States and the provinces; and, 
subsequently, by the Federal government, on the gen- 
eral map of the boundary survey. In 1847 he was 
selected, by J. Edgar Thomson, chief engineer, as 
one of his assistants in the explorations which re- 
sulted in the construction of the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road, and afterward he was promoted to the position 
of principal assistant engineer, and designed the first 
shops and engine-house erected by the company at 
Altoona. In this part of his career the powers of 
Mr. Kneass were severely tasked, as the construction 
of the road from Altoona to the summit of the Alle- 
ghanies was one of the most difficult engineering feats 
of the day. In 1853 he resigned to accept the position 
of associate engineer on the North Pennsylvania Rail- 
road, where he remained two years, leaving, in 1855, to 
accept the office of chief engineer and surveyor of 
the newly-consolidated city of Philadelphia. To that 
position he was re-elected three times, each for a 
term of five years. He here organized the Depart- 
ment of Surveys and Registry Bureau, and their 
development under his direction may be regarded as 
one of the most valuable results attained in the city. 
Under his surveys the entire drainage system of the 
city was provided for, resulting in the construction of 
the great sewers to carry oif the waters of Cohock- 
sink Creek, on the northeastern, and of Mill Creek, 
in the western part of the city. Of the various 
bridges that span the Schuylkill, those at Callowhill 
Street and Chestnut Street are from his designs. He 

1 Contributed by F. W. Leach. 

was one of the first to encourage the project of 
city passenger railways, and was chief engineer of 
many of these companies. In 1862, during Lee's 
invasion, he was dispatched into the interior, and 
during his absence made an extended survey of the 
Susquehanna River from Duncan's Island to Havre 
de Grace. He also assisted Professor Bache in pre- 
paring topographical maps of the surroundings of 
Philadelphia, with a view to the location of forts and 
other devices for protecting the city from invasion. 
Mr. Kneass resigned the office of chief engineer and 
surveyor on March 6, 1872, to accept the position of 
assistant to J. Edgar Thomson, president of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad Company, at the earnest so- 
licitation of that gentleman, and Councils passed a 
series of resolutions, as did also the Board of Surveys 
and South Street Bridge and Park Commissions, 
referring in complimentary terms to the character of 
his service while in public office. As an officer of the 
main line he soon became identified with the manage- 
ment of some of the branches of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad Company, and in February, 1880, became 
president of the Pennsylvania and Delaware Rail- 
road Company, of the Trenton Railroad Company, 
of the Columbia and Port Deposit and Western 
Railrpad Company, and a director of the Pittsburgh, 
Cincinnati, and St. Louis line ; also was made pres- 
ident of the Eastern Railroad Association in 1878, 
and was largely instrumental in bringing it up to its 
present state of usefulness. He was a member of the 
American Philosophical Society, of the Franklin In- 
stitute, and of the American Society of Civil Engi- 
neers, and was past president of the Engineers' Club 
of Philadelphia. He filled the position of assistant 
to the president of the Pennsylvania Railroad at the 
time of his death, which occurred at twenty minutes 
after five o'clock, on the morning of Jan. 14, 1884, 
from heart-disease, after an illness of four months. 

In 1853, Mr. Kneass was married to Margaretta 
Sybilla, granddaughter of Judge George Bryan, of 
the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, who survives 
her husband. Mr. Kneass also left five children, two 
sons and three daughters. 


Thomas Daly, elected May 1,1855 

, Charles S. Close,* elected May 1, 1865 

Spencer Bonsall, elected May 1, 1855 

Amos Stiles. Jr., elected May 1, 1865 

Joseph H. Siddall, elected May 1, 1868 

James P. Davis,^ elected May 1, 1855 

Henry Haines, elected May 1, 1856 

Joseph S. Siddall, elected May 1, 1855 

Jesse Lightfoot, elected May 1, 1866 

Isaac Shallcross, elected May 1,1855 

Charles H, Fox, elected May 1,1855 

James Miller, elected May 1,1855 

Samuel L. Sniedley,* elected May 17,1858 

Edward D. Roberts,* elected May 7, 1860 

D, Hudson Shedaker,* elected May 7, 1860 

William H. Jones,* elected May 7,1860 

John F. Wolf, elected May 7, 1860 

s Present members are indicated thus, *. 

> James P. Davis died Nov. 25, 1879, aged sixty-i 

* Vice Fox, resigned. 



g. Juun Krilx, elected Vny 7, 1860 

8. John R. LeTeriDg,«> elected ...Oct. 10, 1865 

7. WlllUm AlWrtaun,* elected -Oct. 10, 1865 

1. Ttaomu 0*1; (2d),< elected Maj 24, 1866 

13. Jowph lliktMnl. •J elected April 20,1868 

10. lauc E. Sliiillcrues,) elected Jan. 1,1871 

11. George W. Haacnck.' appoioted March 14, 1872 

5. Andrew Krench,** appuinted. March 16, 1874 

1. Wllliaoi C. Cranmer,* elected Not. 18,1878 

11. Joe4*pli Jobn«oii.* elected Jan. 1, 1878 

6. Jneepli Mercur,*' elected „.. Dec 3, 1879 

9. Henrv A. Stallnian," elected Feb. 17, 1880 

10. George S. Webeler,«» appointed April 19, 1880 

RxcORDixo Cleek and Sbcretakt op thb Board or StrmrBTS. 
George Slurgia, appointed March 31, 1856. 

Table of Distances in Philadelphia.— Strickland 
Kneass, chief enpineer and .surveyor of the city, pre- 
pared the following u.seful table showing the length 
of the squares, the width of the streets, the distances 
to and from various parts of the city, and the order 
in which the house numbers run. The distances east 
and west are measured along the south side of Market 
Street, and the distances north and south are measured 
along the west side of Broad Street. The first column 
shows at what street the numbers begin for each 
100; thus, No. 520, south of Market, will be found 
between Lombard and South Streets ; No. 1329 be- 
tween Wharton and Reed Streets; No. 723, north of 
Market, between Fairmount Avenue and Brown Street, 
and No. 1520 between Jefferson and Oxford Streets. 
On the streets running east and west the names 
themselves indicate where the numbers begin. The 
third column shows the width of the streets, the fourth 
the length of the squares or blocks, and the fifth the 
aggregate distance. As 5280 feet make one statute 
mile, this last column will enable any one to compute 
the distance from point to point along Market Street 
and Broad Street, and these distances will approxi- 
mate to the actual distances on most of the parallel 
streets. Thus, going south from Market Street, the 
distance from the south side of Market to the south 
side of Washington Avenue is one mile and 71 feet 
11 inches over; from the south side of Market, going 
north, it is one mile to the south side of Fairmount 
Avenue, and 109 feet 10 inches over. Going west 
from the Delaware, it is one mile to the east line of 
Twelfth Street, and 18 feet 5 inches over; it is two 
miles and 362 feet 5 inches to the Schuylkill River, 
Dearly three miles to Thirty-sixth Street, nearly four 
miles to Forty-seventh Street, and a little over five 
miles to Fifty-seventh Street. These are illustrations 
only; other distances can be computed in the same 

> Dm Krlljr, deceued. 

> Br the l«panl. In place of fain deceaaed father. 

•The act of AMemlilyof April 13, 1868. creating the Twenty-fourth 
Ward, made It a •orfejr dl-lrlcl, which ntceaaltaled the appointment of 
a diatrlcl rarri-jror. Mr. HIbbard waa appointed bf the board, and con- 
tinued, b; election, linre. 

« In place of hia father. 

• FJw Snie.ll.jt. 

• net Wolf, realgned. 
' Vtt* OaTli, deceaaed. 

• In place of LIghtfiol, who declined. 

• In place of laaac K. Shallcroaa, realgned. 

Names of Streets, etc. 

Delaware Avenue 

Delaware ,\veoue to Water Street 

Water Street 

Water Street to Front Street 

100 Front Street 

Front Street to Second Street 

200 Second Street 

Second Street to Third Street 

300 Third Street 

Third Street to Fourth Street 

400 Fourth Street 

Fourth Street to Fifth Street. 

500 Kiflh Street 

Fifth Street to Sixth Street 

600 Sixth Street 

Sixth Street to Sereuth Street. 

700 Seventh Street 

Seventh Street to Eighth Street 

800 Eighth Street 

Eighth Street to Ninth Street „. 

900 Ninth Street 

Ninth Street to Tenth Street 

lOOU Tenth Street 

Tenth Street to Eleventli Street 

1100 Eleventh Street 

Eleventh Street to Twelfth Street 

1200 Twelfth Street 

Tweflth Street to Thirteenth Street 

1300 Thirleentli Street. 

Thirleenth Street to Broad Street 

1400 BroaJ Street 

Broad Street to Fifteenth Street 

1500 Fifteenth Street 

Fifteenth Street toSixteenth Street 

1600 Sixteenth Street 

Sixteenth Street to Seventeenth Street.. 

1700 Si'veuteenth .Street 

Seventeenth Street to Eighteenth Street. 

1800 Eighteenth Street 

Eighteenth Street to Nineteenth Street.. 

19U0 Nineteenth Street 

Nineteenth Street to Twentieth Street... 

2000 Twentieth Street 

Twentieth Street to Twenly-flrst Street. 

2100 Twenty-first Street 

Twenty-first Street to Twenty-second St 

2200 Twenty .second Street 

Twenty-second St. to Twenty-third St 

2300 Twontv-third Street 

Twenty-third Street to River Schuylkill 

River Schuylkill 

River Schuylkill to Thirtieth Strvet 

3000 Thirtieth Street 

Thirtieth Street to Thitty-flrat Street.... 

3100 Thirty-first Street 

Thirty-flret Street to Thirty-second St... 

3200 Thirtv-second Street 

Thirty-second Street to Tblrty-thlrd St. 

3300 Thirty-third Street 

Thirtythird Street to Thirty-fourth St.. 

3400 Thirly-fourUi Street 

Thirty-fourth Street to Thirty-sixth St. 

3600 Thlrty-elllh Street'". 

Thirty-eixth Street to Thlrty-aeventh St 

3700 Tliirty-oevi.nth Street 

Thirty-seventh St to Thlrtyeighth St... 

380O Thirty-eighth Street 

Thirty-eighth Street to Thirty-ninth St.. 

3900 Thirty.nlnth Street _ 

Thirty-ninth Street to Fortieth 8tr»et... 

4OO0 Forlleth Street 

Forlii'th Street to Forty-flt«t Street 

4100 Forty-first Street 

Forty-first Street to Forty-second Street 

4S0O Forty-second Street 

Forty-eecond Street to Forty-third St 

4300 Forty-third .Street 

Forty-third Street to Forty-fourth 8t 

4400 Forty-fourth Street 

Forty.fourlh Street to Forty-flfth Street 

46CO Forty-fifth Street 

Foity-fifth Street to Forty-siitth Street.. 

4800 Forty-sixth Street 

I Forty-sixth Street to Forty-seventh St... 

4700 Forty-seventh Street 

Forty-seventh Street to Forty-eighth St. 

" a" 

.... 395 


405 2 

466 7 
427 4 


325 3 

726 3 

776 3 

1,276 3 

1.326 3 
1,721 3 
1,771 3 
2,176 6 
2,226 6 ' 
2,622 < 
2,672 S 
3,068 6> 
3,118 6< 
3,514 6i 
3,564 6: 
3,960 6, 
4,010 S 
4,406 5 
4,456 5 
4,852 6 
4,902 6 
6,298 6 
6,348 6 ' 
6,744 6. 
5,794 6 
6,322 5 
6,435 5 
6,831 5 
6,881 5 
7,277 6 

7.327 6 
7,723 6 
7,777 5 
8,169 5 
8,219 5 
8,615 5 
8.665 5 
9,061 6 
9,111 6 
9,606 6 
9,658 6 

10,052 6 
I ,112 6 
10,385 5 
10,434 5 
10.922 6 
11,360 S 
11,960 5 
12,020 5 
12,993 4 
13,063 4 
13,679 4 
13.739 4 
14,240 I 
14,300 1 
15,(IO<l 1 
16.0C0 1 
15,560 1 
18,620 1 
16,090 7 
16,150 T 
16,650 7 
16,610 T 
17,210 7 
17,270 7 
17,842 7 
17,892 7 
18.377 7 
18,4.37 7 
18,970 7 
19,(00 7 
19..383 1 
19,42:1 1 
19,823 1 
19.883 1 
20,383 1 
20,443 1 
20,943 I 
21,003 1 
21,453 1 

■"The otnlsslon of Thirty-fifth Street Is not accidental. In conse- 
quence of peculiar territorial conditions In West Philadelphia south of 
Market Street no street rune through between Thirty.fourth and Thlrty- 





Names of Streets, etc. 

Forty-eightli Street 

Forty-eighth Street to Forty-ninth St.... 
Forty-nintli Street 

Forty-nintli Street to Fiftieth Street 

Fiftietii Street 

Fiftietli Street to Fifty-flrst Street 

Fifly-flrst Street 

Fifty-flrst Street to Fifty-second Street... 
Fifty-second Street 

Fifty-second Street to Fifty-third Street. 
Fifty-third Street 

Fifty-tliird Street to Fifty-fourth Street. 
Fifty-fourth Street 

Fifty-fourth Street to Fifty-flftli Street... 
Fifty-fifth Street 

Fifty-fifth Street to Fifty-sixth Street.... 
Fifty-sixth Street 

Fifty-sixth Street to Fifty-seventh St 

Fiftv-seventh Street 

Fifty-seventh Street to Fifty-eighth St.. 
Fifty-eighth Street 

Fifty-eighth Street to Fifty-ninth St 

Fifty-ninth Street 

Filty-ninth Street to Sixtieth Street 

Sixtietti Street 

Sixtieth Street to Sixty-flrst Street 

Sixty-first Street 

Sixty-first Street to Sixty-second Street, 
Sixty-second Street 

Sixty-second Street to Sixty-third St 

Sixty-third Street 

Measurements north from Market Street Oh 
west side of Broad Street. 

Marlcet Street , 

Market Street to Arch Street 

100! Arch Street 

I Arch Street to Race Street 

200 Eace Street 

I Hace Street to Vine Street , 

300 Vine Street 

[ Vine Street to Callowhill Street 

) Callowhill Street 

Callowhill Street to Pennsylvania Ave... 

Pennsylvania Avenue 

Pennsylvania Avenue to Hamilton St.... 

lamilton Street 

Hamilton Street toButtonwood Street... 

) Buttonwood Street 

Buttonwood Street to Spring Garden St, 

Spring Garden Street 

Spring Gardeu Street to Green Street.... 

) Green Street 

Green Street to Mount Vernon Street,... 

Mount Vernon Street 

Mount Vernon Street to Wallace Street, 

Wallace Street , 

Wallace Street to Fairmount Avenue... 

^airmount Aveuue , 

Fairmount Avenue to Brown Street 

irown Street 

Brown Street to Parrish Street 

Parrish Street 

Parrish Street to Poplar Street 

) Poplar Street 

Poplar Street to Girard Avenue , 

Jirard Avenuel , 

i Girard Avenue to Thompson Street , 

1300 Thompson Street 

] Thompson Street to Master Street 

1400|Master Street 

Master Street to JeSferson Street 

1500 Jefferson Street 

Jefferson Street to Oxford Street 

Oxford Street 

Oxford Street to Columbia Avenue 

Columbia Avenue 

Columbia Avenue to Montgomery St... 






60( 22,603 

600 23,103 

60 23,163 

I 600 23,663 

60; 23,723 

I 500 24,223 

60 24,283 

I 450 24.733 

60l 24,793 

574 26,.307 

sol 25,447 

I 500 25,947 

601 26,007 

I 480 I 26,487 



616 5 
632 "3 


178 11 
267" 8 

191 5 
201" "5 
617 " 6 

259" "i 



1,446 5 
1,496 5 
2,128 8 
2,178 8 
2,677 2 
2,747 2 
2,939 2 
3,019 2 
3,226 8 
3,276 8 
3,464 7 
3,404 7 
3,702 3 
3,822 3 
4,209 6 
4,279 6 
4,470 11 
4,520 11 
4,722 4 
4,772 4 
5,389 10 
6,469 10 
6,728 11 
6,778 11 
6,134 U 
6,184 11 
6,579 11 
6,639 11 
7,031 1 
7,111 1 
7,G89 1 
7,739 1 
8,157 1 
8,207 1 
8,662 3 
8,712 3 
9,187 3 
9,237 3 
9.701 3 
9,761 3 
10,271 3 

' By this arrangement Numbers 1000 and upvrards, and 1100 and up- 
wards, seem to be excluded. This is the case on Broad Street, which 
Poplar Street strikes after running from the Delaware considerably to the 
northwest, instead of directly west. At the Delaware Poplar Street is, 
comparatively speaking, but a short distance above Brown Street. But 
at Broad Street Poplar is but a little distance south of Girard Avenue. 
In other words, the distance from Poplar Street to Girard Avenue on 
Front Street is much greater than upon Broad Street. On Front Street 
the nnmbers run over 1100, but on Broad Street, the distance being so 
short, they cannot do so. 

1 of Streets, etc. 

1800 Montgomery Street 

Montgomery Street to Berks Street 

1900 Berks Street 

Berks Street to Norris Street 

2000 Norris Street 

I Norris Street to Diamond Street 

2100 Diamond Street 

Diamond Street to Susquehanna Ave 

2200 Snaquehrtona Avenue 

Susquehanna Avenue to Dauphin St 

2300 Dauphin Street 

I Dauphin Street to York Street 

2400|Tork Street 

York Street to Cumberland Street 

2500 Cumberland Street 

Cumberland Street to Huntingdon Street 
2600|Huntingdon Street 

Huntingdon Street to Lehigh Avenue., 
2700 Lehigh Avenue 

Lehigh Avenue to Somerset Street 

2800'Somerset Street 

i Somerset Street to Cambria Street 

2900 Cambria Street 

I Cambria Street to Indiana Street ] 

3000 Indiana Street 

Indiana Street to Clearfield Street 

3100 Clearfield Street 

Clearfield Street to Alleghany Avenue... 
3200 Alleghany Avenue 

Alleghany Ave. to Westmoreland Street 
3300 Westmoreland Street 

Westmoreland Street to Ontario Street... 
3400 Ontario Street 

Ontario Street to Tioga Street 

3500 Tioga Street 

Tioga Street to Venango Street 

36C0 Venango Street 

Venango Street to Erie Avenue 

3700 Erie Avenue 

Measurements soJith from Marltet Street 
teest side of Broad Street. 

Market Street to Chestnut Street 

100 Chestnut Street 

Chestnut Street to Walnut Street 

200 Walnut Street 

Walnut Street to Locust Street 

Locust Street 

Locust Street to Spruce Street 

300 Spruce Street 

Spruce Street to Pine Street 

400 Pine Street 

Pine Street to Lombard Street 

500 Lombard Street 

Lombard Street to South Street 

600 South Street 

South Street to Bainbridge Stieet 

700 Bainbridge Street 

Bainbridge Street to Fitzwater Street. 

Fitzwater Street 

Fitzwater Street to Catharine Street... 

800 Catharine Street 

Catharine Street to Christian Street... 

900JChri9tian Street 

I Christian Street to Carpenter Street 

1000 Carpenter Street 

Carpenter Street to Washington Avenue' 

1100 Washington Avenue | 

; Washington Avenue to Ellsworth Street] 

jElIsworth Street , 

Ellsworth Street to Federal Street 

120o!Federnl Street 

Federal Street to Wharton Street ..... 

1300 Wharton Street 

Wharton Street to Reed Street 

1400 Reed Street 

Keed Street to Dickinson Street 

1500 Dickinson Street 

Dickinson Street to Tasker Street...,,, 

1000 Tasker Street 

Tasker Street to Morris Street 

1700 Morris Street 

Morris Street to Moore Street , 

ISOO Moore Street 

Moore Street to Mifliin Street 

1000 Mifflin Street 

Mifilin Street to McKean Street 

2000 McKean Street 

SIcKean Street to Snyder Avenue 

2100 Snyder Avenue 

' Snyder Avenue to Jackson Street 

2200 Jackson Street 

Jackson Street to Wolf Street 

feet in. ' feet. in. 

10,321 3 

600 , 10,821 3 

10,871 3 

600 11,371 3 

; 11,421 S 

600 ] 11,921 3 

I 11,971 3 

630 ' 12,501 3 

12,661 3 

13,091 8 

13,141 3 

13,641 3 

13,691 3 

14.191 S 

14,241 3 

14,741 3 

14,791 3 

16,311 3 

16,.391 3 

16,911 3 

15,961 3 

16,461 2 

16,511 3 

17.011 3 

17,061 3 

17,561 S 

17,611 3 

18,111 3 

18,231 3 

18,731 3 

18,781 3 

19,281 3 

19,331 3 

19,831 3 

19,881 3 

20,381 3 

20,431 3 

20,931 3 

21,061 3 















22.5 3 

299 6 

370 3 

336 10 

336 4 

624 4 









387 6 


387 6 


4,466 3 
4,631 3 
4,832 S 
4,881 8 
6,261 11 
5,361 11 
6,687 » 
6,074 1 
6,124 1 
6.648 6 
6,698 6 
7,098 6 
7,148 B 
7,548 6 
7,598 6 
7,998 6 
8,048 6 
8,448 6 
8,498 6 
8,898 6 
8,948 6 
9,348 6 
9,398 6 
9,798 5 
9,848 6 
10,2:» 11 
10,310 11 
10,698 5 
10,768 6 
11,158 6 




Kainta of Straeti, ete. 


Wolf SiTMt tv Hlliisr Stt«L 400 

2400 Ritnar StneU 1 «• ••"• 

Rituer Strwt to Porter Street - | ..^-| 400 

2400 Porter Street- 

Porter Street to Shank Street ' 400 

2600 Shank Street 80 .•"•■• 

Shuuk Street to Oregon Avenue , 4W> 

2700 Oregon Avenue.- •■■ • '20 •■•••■ 

Orepiu Arenue to Johnaon 8lr»et 400 

2800 Johneon Street. *" ••"•■ 

Johnaon Street to BlglerStreat 400 

2900 Blgler Street | *• ..^.. 

BIgler Street to Pollock StiMt i 400 

SOOO Pollock Street <» •••"• 

Pollock Street to Packer Street 400 

3100 Pecker Street 60 ••■— 

Packer Street to Curtin Street. .... ' 40J 

3200 Cnrtin Street 80 

feet.! feet. in. feet. In. 

11,218 B 

11,618 4 

11.678 6 

1 12,1178 6 

12,l:l8 5 

112,6:»8 6 

12..'>98 " 

Fulls Bridge to the terminus of the Wissahickou 
drive, is twelve and a quarter miles, five miles of 
which are on the direct road through the beautiful 
valley of the Wissahickon. 

12.'.198 B 

i:i,ll8 s 

llV''8 S 

13.578 .1 

113.978 !> 

U,IX» 6 

: 14,438 .'i 

14,498 & 

14,898 r> 

14.958 5 

15,:«8 5 

1M18 fi 



We»l Spnice Street Presliyterian Church, Spruce aud 

Seventeenth Streets ^"»'Pl« :** 

Masonic Temple, BrondHud Kilb.Tt Strecte ,■■■-:•■•••■ Tower i4U 

St. Peter's Roman Cutholic Church, Fifth and Glrard 


Methodist Kplscopnl Church, Bi-oad and Arcli 

Sr Mark'e Kiilscopal Church, Locust, west of Sixteenth.. 
North Itroiid Street Presbyterian Church, Broad and Green 

Firet Bapllst Church, Broad and Arch. ■■■■■■■ 

St. Mark's Lutheran Church, Spring Garden, above Thir- 
teenth • ■••••: 

St. Peter's Episcopal Church. Third and 1 iiio...... 

Cathedral, Roman Catholic, Eighteenth, above Knee....... Dome 216 

Tabernacle Baptist, Cheslnut, aUive tli!hleenth.. Steeple £12 
Alexander Presbyterian Church, Niueteenlh and Green... ^m 

Annunciation Roman CaUiollc Church, Tenth and Dick- _ _^ 


[ feet. 

Steeple 235 
" 2:i3 
" '2.12-7 



m_, 3,526 

Yini -. »., „ 

8«:oDd ^»| 

ThInI ]l^ 

Fourth 1*J 


Sixth. 206 

Seventh ^«l 

Wghth 2™ 

T«i«h- ?^ 

B«TeDth '■« 24 

Thlrtwnth }«< 

VtoartMnth J5f 

Wftaentb 671 

BUlcenth ]°0 

Seventeenth Jy^ 

Elghleeutb , 



! Miles. 


utieth and Cherry, 







.'.' 6,224 

Tii'n'ty-ftnir...'.'."..-...- 6.6.30 

Twenty-elxth *.]*» 

Twentv.*.venth 7,476 

Tw.nth-elghth •*."«» 

Twenty-ninth 900 

Tblrtleth ^2 

Tbirty-ant *°^ 

To,„l 82,603 129.382 

Distances to Various Points in the Park.— The 
dintance-s meii.-<ured below are understood to be along 
the main drive. There are numerous by-paths and 
sbort cuts by which pcdcstriiins may shorten the dis- 
tance, except along tlie \Vis!*ahickon. 

From the Green Strort gate — 

Christ Church (Episcopal), Second, above Market............ 

St. Augustine's Roman Catholic Church, Fourth, below 

FourlirilKpiisVchiVrchV'cornerKVn Buttouwood 

Zlon Lutheran Church, Franklin, above Race.... 

Oxford Presbyterian Church, Broad and Oxfiird 
St. Clement's Episcopal Church, T 

taken down In 1809 , ... , ., , 

West Arcli Slreet Presbyterian Church, Eighteenth and 

West Arch'streeV Preshytorian Church, Eighteenth and 

. , Towers 110 

West Phiiadelp'hiaBapUstChiirch, Thirtieth and Cheat- 

„.,, steeple 17U 

nut ""• ' '. tC iTn 

Nativity Episcopal Church, Tenth and Mount ^ ornon...... 17U 

Beck's Shot Manufactory, Arch, near Schuylkill, built in 

1808, torn down in 1834 -• Towef 166 

Fifth Presbyteriiin cliurch. Arch, abo 

Pome 170 


St. John's (leniinii I.ntlu 


Slalc-llouse, built 1711, t 

Slato-Houw, finiii 177- l" 

Afsumptioii 1 U iiMii ' iilli 

Berean Bapli-i ' 'I'.' 1 

Filth Baptl-I 11, HI. I., ^rl 
Holy Trinllv l;i i- .t"' ' 
First Presbyl'ii^.n < linn 
Masonic Hnll, rh. -limi > 
Sr. Joachim'i' l^'niiui I'ltl 

Tenth Steeple 165 

liurch, Fifteenth and Ogden " 165 

n Fifth and Sixth " 160 

loWnl778 " IM 

l^s Tower and Spiro 69 

li. ) Spring Onrdon, near Twollth Spires 160 
I -I. Hit Street, West Philadelphia.. Spiro 160 

iiiK Garilen and Eighteenth " 166 

lui. h, Nineteenth and Walnut „ Tower 150 
I rli.-lteii Avenue, Gormantown.. Spire 150 

11, .1, liiinit ibiwn IRI9 Steeple 160 

li ,lii Chmch, Fiankford, taken 


Spark"*Sl.ot' Manura'ctoryi'aLVpen'ter 's\7eM,i*.'uliiwark... Tower 148 
.layne'a Itulbllng, Cliealnut Street below Third, burned 

St M"lv''''''r'''l'''''''''' '■^■''"'•"^^^^^^ 
Stind-I'il..-, \Vi--l l'|.l»" Wilt 
Chaniliii .if I'.iiiiiil.TC.., ,, i.l..i 

St lli.ii.iiii.-. ili ihCiitl...linClii 

Fiml iliipti.t riiurili, V<\c,' Street, I 
Ilidef " ' ■■ 

Observatory 134-9 

burg! Steeple 132 



Ki.iiiUlord I 

1.1 and 


,,.,„vlvanl» Hospital for the In«ane, Mule Kopartment... Dome 119 
lh«enmne BaptM Church, corner Eighteenth and Co- 

lumbhi Avenue "* ,.- 

t.i.inlc llull.Cheslnnt Street "J 

nnuel Episiupul Church, Holmeaburg .'Steeple lu 


nt Av 

I Hill (direct) - 3U 

•• •• Oeorge'l Hill lrf.1 Belmont) VA 

" " Belmi.tit (dlr..<lj ^'Z 

" - ll..|monl (rti C„M,rKp'« Illlh *-A 

" '• Falla Bridge (rii Weet Park) OV? 

- •• WlisBhlckon Pike (efa Weal Park) V/i 

The distiini'es along the ^Vi^«^ahick(ln arc n.s follows : 

From the monOi of the WiMahlcknn— 

To Llveiwy'a Mllla. „ 3 

" Valley Or-en ~ -... 4 

" Iwllan Kofk _»..... ♦ 

" Thorp'aMlll L«na - B 

The total distance along the drive from the Green 
Street gate, through the Western Park and over the 


St. .Mlehael's Roman Catholic Church, Second, helo 
8t Vincent depiiui luVitian Cntiioll'c Seminary, Cholten 

,-, Vc"i"ir ""■ """" ""■"• °"''""'r.".":::.::.:v.::.:-ped^I?t 'J? 

S.."ohn=L ofphan"i;:;yinm (fiiminCatholic), West Phlla- ^^^^^^ ^^ 

Ea.tenrPei,Uen'tVa;^;Fi'ir™^^^ " 

„ 1. " Entrance " 65 

., t. •• Corner " 68 

j,..d.,.r H,,i,.iin„, Sixth -i ;■>;;■.."- ;:;::;.^':!'" w w 

w Fifth " BO 

Dve Choatnut,.. Towere 88 

Cliimnoy 8:J 

Towers 80 

Proteatant Episcopal Chnrch, Falla of 

, Ninth, below 

Spni :■■ . I 

St. M. i ■ 1 

Sprii.K '•^"'1'" \ 
Unlverslly Coll.. 
St. Jamea the L 

Schuvlklll ■;•"■,■ 

Baptist Church, Queen Street, Falls of Schuylkill 

Moyamen.lng Prl«.n ..■•• *'''""'"^?,1. 72 

Pennsvlvania n.).pltal. Eighth and Pino. ■ Dome 72 

Bank of Pennsylvania, Second, above Walnut, torn down _ ^^ 

PrJbyfe?lan CTiapelVTwonij-flritamicoi *,"»""•■■ ^'"''1;!° 55 

CentrJ 8<,u»ro Distributing House, taken down n 8'29...... Dom, 60 

Falrmount Waler.Works Stand-pipe and Tower 50 

Towor 80 
Steeple 80 



Population aiid Area according to United Statft Cenme Returns. 
















Crawford , 




























Washington... , 














30,61 J3 






























































495,36 1 


































































































































Total 4,282,738 


From Philadelphia to 

Albany, N. Y 232 

Absecom, N. J 52 

Allentown, Pa 71 

Alliance, Ohio 449 

Atlantic City, N. J .-,9 

Altoona, Pa 2:^8 

Augusta, Ga ^i> 

Bellefonte, Pa 2,60 

Bethlehem, Pa 54 

Beverly, N. J 13 


Boonsburg, Pa 149 

Bordentown, N.J 27 

Boston, Mass 332 

Bridgeton, N.J 37 

Bristol, Pa 17 

Bristol. Va 620 

Brooklyn, N. Y 89 

Buffalo, N. Y 424 

Burlington, N.J 19 

Burlington, Iowa. 1050 

Camden, N.J 1 

Cape May City, N. J 84 

1 The distances in this table are computed by the shortest 
usually traveled railroad routes. 


Carlisle, Pa 124 

Catawissa, Pa 145 

Catskill (Landing), N. Y 199 

Charleston, S. C 563 

Chambersburg, Pa 158 

Chattanooga, Teun 700 

Chester, Pa 14 

Cheyenne, Dakota 1824 

Chicago, III 823 

Cincinnati, Ohio 008 

Claymont, Del 20 

Cleaifleld, Pa 264 

Oleveland, Ohio 605 

Coate»ville,Pa 40 

Colninl.ia, Pa SO 

Columbus, Ohio 648 

Corning, N. Y 292 

Corry, Pa 413 

Crei^son, Pu t.VA 

Crestline, Ohio 544 

Crisfield. Md 163 

Cumberland, Md 276 

Danville, Pa 154 

Davenport, Iowa 1006 

Delanco, N. J 12 

Delaware Water Gap, Pa 100 

Detroit, Mich 076 

Des Moines, Iowa 1180 

Dover, Del 76 

Downiugtown, I'u 33 

Dovlestown, Pa 32 

Dunkirk, N. Y 461 

Eagle, Pa 17 

Eiiston, Pa 66 

Ebeueliurg, I'a 264 

Egg H^irbor, N, J 41 

Klizalieth, N. J 73 

Ellicotfs Mills, Md 113 

Elmira, N. Y 275 

Elkton, Md 46 

Erie, Pa 451 

Fleniington, N. J 58 

Florence, N.J 23 

Fort Uarker. Kan 1499 

Fort Kilev. Kan 1414 

F.jrt Wayne, liid e75 

Franklin, Pa , via Pittsburgh 480 

Frederick, Md 160 

Fredericksburg, Va 208 

Freehold, N.J .59 

Galveston, Te.\as 1734 

Gettysburg, via Columbia, Pa. 122 

Giiard, Pa 113 

Glasaborough, N.J IS 

Grafton, Va 377 

Greensburg, Pa 324 

Gwynedd, Pa 18 

Uaddonfield, N. J 7 

Hagerstown, Md 180 

Hammonton, N. J...^. 30 

Hamilton, Canada 489 

Harrington, Del 92 

Harrisburg, Pa 106 

Harper's Kerry, Va 179 

Hartford, Conn 198 

Havre de Grace, Md 62 

lliglitstown, N.J 41 

Hi>llidaysburg,Pa 246 

Hornellsville.N.Y 333 

Huntingdon, Pa 2o4 

Indiana, Pa 320 

Indianapolis, Ind 736 

Jackson, Miss 1344 

Janieshurg, N.J 43 

Jefferson City, Mo 1125 

Jersey City, N.J 87 

Johnstown, Pa 277 

Kane, Pa 356 

Kansas City, Mo 1280 

Knoxville, Tenn 740 

Lambertville, N. J 46 

Lancaster, Pa 69 

Laramie, Dakota _... 1886 

Lawrence, Kan 1313 

Leavenworth, Kan 1307 

Lebanon, Pa 86 

LewistowD, Pa 167 

Linwood, Pa 18 

Little Rock, Ark 1300 

Lock Haven, Pa 228 

Long Branch, N. J 82 

Louisville, Ky 775 

Lowell, Mass 358 

Lynchburg, Va 316 

Lynn, Mass 343 

Madison, Wis 961 

Mahanoy, Pa 117 

Maninsburg, Va 198 

Mauch Chunk, Pa 87 

Media, Pa 14 

Meadville, Pa 444 


Memphis, Tenn 1152 

Middletown, Del 63 

Middletown, Pa 97 

Milford,N.J 65 

Millville, N. J 40 

Milton, Pa 176 

Milwaukee, Wis 908 

Mobile, Ala 1472 

Morgan's Corner, Pa 14 

Montgomery, Ala 1027 

Moorestown, N.J 10 

Morristown, N. J 118 

Morrisville, Pa 26 

Mount Holly, N. J 14 

Mount Joy, Pa 82 

Nashville, Tenn 900 

Natrona, Pa 378 

Newark, Del 40 

Newark, N.J 79 

New Brunswick. N. J 56 

Newburyport, Mass 368 

Newburg, N. Y 148 

New Castle, Del 34 

New Haven, Conn 160 

New London, Conn 210 

New Orleans, La 1527 

Newport, K. I. (rail and boat). 251 

New York City 88 

Niagara Falls, N. Y 446 

Northumberland, Pa 163 

Norristown, Pa 17 

Ogden, Utah 2346 

Oil ('ity. Pa 440 

Omaha, Neb 1316 

Paoli, Pa 20 

Parkersburg, Va 481 

Parkeraburg, Pa 45 

Paterson. N.J 104 

Pemberlon, N. J 24 

Pensacola, Kla 1196 

Perryville, Md 01 

Petersburg, Va 290 

Phillipsburg. N.J 81 

Philipsburg, Pa 227 

Phceni.wille. Pa 28 

Pittsburgh, Pa 355 

Pittstown. Pa 151 

Pittston, N. J 26 

Port Clinton, Pa 78 

Portland, Me 440 

Portsmouth. N. H 384 

Pottstown, Pa 40 

Pottsville, Pa 98 

Ponghkeepsie, N. Y 163 

Princess Anne, Md 144 

Princeton, X. J 40 

Providence, R. 1 272 

Promontory, Utah 2400 

Quakake, Pa 106 

Quakerlown, Pa 38 

Uahwav, N.J 68 

Raleigh, N.C 451 

Reading, Pa 58 

Richmond, Va 268 

Ridgeway, Pa 332 

Riverton, N. J 7 

Rochester. N. Y., via Wil- 

liamsport. Pa 373 

Rochester, Pa 381 

Rupert, Pa 147 

Sacramento, Cal 3090 

Salt Lake City 2369 

St. George's, Del 44 

St. Louis, Mo 998 

St. Mary's, Pa 323 

St. Paul. Minn 1232 

Salem, Mass 348 

Salem, N.J 43 

Salisbury, Md 131 

San Francisco, Cal 3228 

Saratoga, N. Y 264 

Savannah, Ga 874 

Schurlkill Haven, Pa 89 

Scrantnn, Pa 164 

Seaford, Del 112 

Sheridan, Kan 1685 

Sing Sing, N. Y 120 

Smyrna, Del 66 

South Amboy, N, J 63 

Springfield, Mass 224 

Steamboat, Pa 27 

Stroudsburg, Pa 102 

Sunbury, Pa 163 

Suspension Bridge, N. Y 448 

Syracuse, N. Y S80 

Swedesborough, N.J IS 

Tacony, Pa 6 

Tamaqua, Pa 98 

Titusville, Pa 458 

Toronto, Canada S28 

Trenton, N. J 28 




Troj, N. Y _ 238 

Tallylown, Pa 81 

TiiDklmniiuek, Pn. 176 

Tyrone, P» fiJ4 

Uilitali (Salt Uk«) - 23IU 

Valley Forgo, P« '.'4 

VIckabiiri;, tllH IU8 

Vlncuiiiiw. Ind 716 

Vliieland, N.J 3i 

Warri'ii, I'li 'Mi 

WMliliigloii, D. 138 


W>l«rrord, N. J„ SJ 

Wcldon, N. C 3M 

WMt ChMlrr, P». 27 

Wlwlliig, V« 424 

WliU«lmll. P« 11 

Whim Haven, Pa 110 

Wllke«liarre, Pu. 142 

Wnll.nwiKirl, P» 197 

Wlliiiiuglun.Del „ 28 

WllniliiKluii, N.C Sin 

Woodbury, N. J s 

City Commissionerg.— The city comraissionere are 

elected at the general election held on the Tuesday 
next tbllowing the first Monday of Xoveniher. Three 
are then elected, each voter voting for two. They 
are county officers. 

The city commissioners shall have the respective 
places appointed for holding elections put in conveni- 
ent and proper order for holding and conducting the 
same, shall furnish the election officers of each di- 
vision with the nece.isary hlanks, .stationery, etc., and 
a list of the taxable inhabitant.s of such division. 

The city cominissioners shall disburse no money, 
nor make any contracts for public works or highways, 
nor take any part in the opening of streets, or the 
assessment of the damage therefor. 

The city commissioners .shall draw no warrants 
upon the city treasury for the payment of the fees of 
jurors, viewers, witnesses, or otliccrs of the courts, 
without a certificate of the prothonotary or clerk of 
the court, countersigned by one of the judges of the 
court in which the duty or service was performed, 
that the same is correct to the best of his belief; nor 
shall any warrant be drawn tor jury or witness fees in 
favor of any person but the juror or witness entitled 
to such fees. 

The city commissioners of the city shall, before en- 
tering on the duties of their office, give bond in such 
amount, and with such sureties as shall be approved 
by Councils, for the faithful performance of the duties 
of the said office, and that no debt shall be contracted 
or warrant drawn against the city by said commis- 
missioners except for the purposes legally authorized, 
and not to exceed the appropriation therefor made 
by Councils. 

In Philadelphia, all applicants for license to sell 
intoxicating liquors, by any measure than one 
quart, shall appear before the commi.'5sioners of said 
city between the first Monday in March and the first 
Monday in April in each and every year, and make 
and sign an oath or affirmation of the amount of their 
respective sales of liquors and other refreshments at 
their respective bars, to the best of their knowledge 
and belief; and said commissioners are hereby au- 
thorized to administer said oath or affirmation, and ' 
required to file the same in their office, and rate and 
classify each applicant in accordance therewith : I 
Provided, That any applicant for a license, for a i 
place not previously licensed, shall be rated and 
classified by them for the first year as they may deem I 
just, after considering the locality of the premises for i 
which license is asked ; and they shall make out a 

correctilist of all such applicants, with their names, 
places of business, and the class in which they are 
respectively placed, and furnish the same to the city 
treasurer, who shall advertise the same once a week, 
for three weeks, in two daily papers. 

The commissioners shall perform such other duties 
as Councils may from time to time prescribe. 

The receipts of this department for 1882 amounted 
to $130,760.01, received from the following sources: 

From market-liuuiee- - Utt.mri.Oi) 

" wharvm and laodlnfl. 4<,0«>.U>l 

" cUjr pru|>»rtjr „. 7,127.119 

" Mile »r clly pivperljr, ate I.1,2U*.62 

" Tenden' llcenM _ _ ]6,2UI.(W 

ToUl J1:a),:oii51 

Coroner. — The coroner holds an inquest on the 
body of any deceased person who shall have died of 
violent death, or whose death shall be sudden : J'ro- 
vided, That such sudden death be after an illness of 
less than twenty-four hours, and that no regular prac- 
ticing physician shall have been in attendance within 
said time, or that susjiicious circumstances shall ren- 
der the same necessary. He apj>oinls a deputy at a 
salary of fifteen hundred dollars per annum, and him- 
self receives six thousand dollars ]>er annum. Cor- 
oner's jurors receive i\.W jier day. 


Griffllh Otfii, bofure - in 7 mo., 

Hmry L»wl», apiuliitnl _ _ 26 7 mo., 

Tli..iu«« ril'iwntrr.cummlaianrd „ Vi 7 roo., 

Pente<-o«t TtMitiuo, menlloned 17 7 l>r., 

WilllRln 1..0. elccled 16 8 W., 

KklinnI Walker. In office „ May 19, 

Ku.K-li Slorv. m«-nlione<l _ — 

Riilinrd Walk.r, circle.! „ 1717 to 

Merrick llavii, elccle'l 1721 to 

Joaliua Fincher, elected „._ 1726 to 

Jnme» Mackey, elected Sept. 1, 

Merrick [>iiti«, elected 1728 to 

Owen Owen, elected _ 1729 to 

Henry Prati, elected 1741 to 

r„«.r(:o ll.-«p, elected 1749 to 

Tli.nun Jiinie«. elected.....„_ 1751 to 

Thomnii It.n.le, elecleil „ 1714 to 

PeKT R.)l,.-oii. elected 17.17 to 

Caleb Cash, elected 17K1 to 

John Knight, elected 1773 to 

Robert Jewell, elected^ _ 1775 to 

Joseph llnsh, elected 178<J to 

John I.eac<'ck, elected «« 1785 to 

John Dennis, elected 1802 to 

John Dickerson,! elected 1832 to 

James clregory, appolDte<l May 20, 

Jarvid Webster. app<nnted May ^d, 

Janie^i Gregory,' elected Oct. 18:16 to 

Samuel Helntzelmiin,' elected _ 18.19 to 

Fmncla BrelsfortI, elected 1842 to 

Dr. N"a|Kileon B. Leid.r, elected 1845 to 

Oliver l!nx)kri,< elected Oct. 10, 

Jacob S. Ilmis, in office 1848 to 

Dr. Thomas 0. G..lil»milh,' in office 1851 to 

Joseph Delavau, in oRice 18H to 

John R. Fcnner. in oBico 18.17 to 

Anthony C«nn»d, in office .?. „ 1860 to 

William Taylor, in office 1863 to 

Samuel Daniels, In office 1866 to 

William Taylor, in office 1869 to 

John Gilbert L. Brown,' in office _ 1871 to 

Dr. Kinireton Goildard, in office 1874 to 

Dr. William Kent Gilbert,^ in office 1878 to 

Thomas J. Powers, appointed July 17, 

Dr. William S. Janney, commissioned from..Jan. 1, 

Thomiis J. Powers, commisaloned from Jan. 1, 

, 1686 
, 1688 
, 17(tl 


1 Died In office May 1, 1836. 

- Appointed in 18.16, elected in 1839, died i 

» Appointed Oct. 21, 1839, elected 1840. 

5 Klected Dec. 20, 1851 ; died Feb. 17, 1880. 

* Appointed in place of Taylor, who died in 
was afterward elected in 1871, and died May 12, 1878, aged fifty-three. 

7 Died June 28, 1880, aged fifty. By Constitution of 1873 the term of 
Coroner Goddard was extended to Jan. 1, 1878. 

I Died Not. 5, 1848. 

1 1870, and Brown 



City ControUeri — The qualified voters of the city 
elect a city controller every three years. He acts as 
a check on all heads of departments in matters of 

He shall countersign all warrants on the city treas- 
urer, and shall not suffer any appropriation made by 
the City Councils to be overdrawn. 

He shall superintend the fiscal concerns of the city 
in such manner and make reports thereon at such 
times as shall be prescribed by ordinance. 

It shall be a misdemeanor in office for the controller 
of the city to pass, or the treasurer of the city to pay, 
any bill or order for any object not authorized by law. 

The city controller shall be and he is hereby required 
to keep separate accounts for each specific or separate 
item of appropriation made by City Councils to each 
and every department of the city, and shall require all 
warrants to state particularly against which of said 
items the said warrant is drawn ; and he shall at no 
time permit any one of the items of appropriation to 
be overdrawn, or the appropriation for one item of 
expenses to be drawn upon for any other purpose by 
any one of the departments than that for which the 
appropriation was specifically made ; he shall upon 
receiving a bill or warrant from any one of the depart- 
ments proceed immediately to examine the same, and 
if the said bill or warrant contain an item for which 
no appropriation has been made, or the appropriation 
for which is exhausted, or to which, from any other 
cause, he cannot give his approval, it shall be liis duty 
immediately to inform such department, and the war- 
rant therefor shall not be issued unless by special 
authority from the City Councils. 

The coutroller shall communicate at all times to 
the mayor and the committees of Councils such infor- 
mation upon the condition of the finances and the 
accounts of all officers expending or receiving the 
moneys of the city as his department can afford. 

It shall be the duty of the prothonotaries of the 
several courts of the said city, on the expiration of 
each term of their respective courts, to furnish to 
the controller a statement, under oath or affirma- 
tion, of the fines and penalties imposed, recogni- 
zances recovered, judgment and jury fees received, 
and arbitrators' and witnesses' unclaimed by the par- 
ties entitled to the same, with the name of the case in 
which the same were imposed, recovered, or received : 
and it shall be the duty of the sheriff of the county of 
Philadelphia to submit his account with the city to 
the controller for settlement on the 1st day of Janu- 
ary, and quarterly thereafter, and upon such settle- 
ment the sheriff shall be charged with all sums re- 
ceived and recovered as aforesaid, and he shall forth- 
with pay over the balance, if any, to the city treas- 
urer; and any officer neglecting or refusing to comply 
with the provisions of this section shall be deemed 
guilty of a misdemeanor in office, and be proceeded 
against in like manner as for other misdemeanors. 

It shall be the duty of the controller of said city 

upon the death, resignation, removal, or expiration of 
the term of office of officers and persons who, by law 
or ordinance, may be authorized to receive or pay city 
moneys, make contracts, or draw warrants on the 
treasury, to audit and examine the accounts and offi- 
cial acts of said officer, and if such officer shall be 
found to be indebted or liable to said city, a copy of 
the report of said controller shall be filed in the 
i office of the court of Common Pleas of said city, and 
a writ of scire facing may be issued thereon, and the 
City Councils shall have full power and authority to 
prescribe by ordinance the mode and means by which 
the said controller shall exercise the duty hereby en- 
joined, and the officers and persons whose accounts 
and official acts shall be so audited and examined. 
And whenever the writ of scire facias herein author- 
ized shall issue, it shall be lawful to file with the pre- 
cipe therefor a copy of the official bonds of such de- 
fendant, and the \vi\t of scire facias shall contain a 
clause warning the surety or sureties, or the execu- 
tors or administrators of such surety or sureties, to 
appear and make defense, and the judgment in such 
proceeding may be entered against all the parties 
named in said writ. 

Every department, board, or officer shall furnish to 
the controller weekly a list of the warrants which 
shall have been issued by such department, board, 
or officer during the preceding week, which list shall 
contain the number and amount of such warrants, 
the names of the party in whose favor the same 
were drawn, and the items of appropriation against 
which they were charged. 

All departments and officers of the city government 
who are or may hereafter be authorized by ordinance 
to draw warrants upon the city treasurer for the pay- 
ment of salaries in their respective departments, are 
hereby expressly prohibited from exceeding, in or for 
any one mouth, one-twelfth of the aggregate appropri- 
ation made by Councils for the payment of such sala- 
ries for the fiscal year, and the city controller is hereby 
required to withhold his signature from all warrants 
drawn in violation of the provisions of ordinances. 

He shall keep a regular set of books, in which shall 
be opened and kept as many accounts, under appro- 
jiriate titles, as may be necessary to show distinctly 
and separately all the estate and property whatsoever, 
real and personal, vested in the city by law or other- 
wise, all trusts in the care of the same, all debts due 
to and owing by the city, all the receipts and ex- 
penditures in the various departments, and all appro- 
priations made by Councils, and the sum expended 
under the same. 

He shall make a report, verified by oath or affirma- 
tion, to the City Councils, at their first stated meeting 
in January in each year, of the public accounts of 
the city and of the trusts in their care, exhibiting all 
the receipts and expenditures of the city, the sources 
from which the revenue and funds are derived, and 
in what manner the same have been disbursed, each 



account to be accompanied by a statement in detail, 
in separate columns, of the several aiipropriations 
made by Councils, the amount drawn on each ajjpro- 
priation, and the balance standing to the debit or 
credit of such ajipropriation ; and he shall jiublish 
said rei>ort in two daily papers, twice in each pa]>er. 

In Philadelphia, the duty of county auditors was 
transferred by the act of Feb. 2, 1854, to a city con- 
troller, to be elected every second year. By the Con- 
stitution of 1873, the term was increased to three 
years. The revenues of the controller's department 
from all sources for the year 1882, were, — 



. Sio, 

Tines and penalties. 

LIcenHes, |]iawnl>n>kers\ Iheulrical, petrolcim 

Onardians of the poor 

Inspectors of prison „ 

Board of Health 









301 SO 
13,07.') 31 

18,201 .(«) 



ToUl rvcelpis $13,425,4(M.97 

The expenditures for the same period were for : 

Interest on the funded debt $4,002,690.80 

Interest on ont^landinK warrants lo.').40 

Tlie xveral ■hikiiif; funds 806,6O.S.0O 

Wamnia of preTloni year* 4(H,CK)2.«6 

Erection of puMIc biiililinKS 774,626.07 

Amount paid Park fund 6,3K0.49 

Amntint p.ild for dfpKrlmenls 6,70.'i,318.ll 

Amount paid for Judgnienlii. eiKullons, elc 137,879.20 

Amonnt paid for four per rent. loans, series C 4(m,n(io.(M( 

Amount paid miscellaneous 18,076.71 

ToUl expenditures $*1.53 

Total receipt* $13,42.5.404 97 

Total expenditures 13,25.'.,084.53 

Schools (State) 


City solicitor 

Harkets and city property 


Fire commissioners 

Park fund 

Snnreys .' 

City treasurer. 

Beglsterof wills. 

Dlrtdends, North Pennsylvania Ballroad stock, and ttn 

tees ft^works 

Port wal^ens 

Boiler inapoction 

House of Correction « 

State tax after settlement 

Pnbllc bnildlntm 

Huckster licenses 


Recorder of deeds 

Clerk of Quarter Sessions. 

City commissioners 

Poll tax „ 

Pnbllc building lax 


Delinquent tax commissions 


Fire-alarm telegraph .-.. 

Excess receipts over expenditures 8109,7a).44 

Add the cash Ulanre, Jan. I, 18*2 2,2.50,691.44 

Add the sinking fund cash, Jan. I, 18S3 705,27Ui9 

The resnlt is the general ra«h balance, Jan. 1, 1883 $:i,125,6a5.27 

Cost of IheseTeral departnienla for 1875 $10,10.5,919 811 

Cost of the several deimrlnienta for 1870 9,890,019.04 

Cost of the ne.eral rtepHrlmenl. f..r 1877 8,184.961.20 

Cost of the ».-»,.r«l il..|«rlnietita for 1878 7.161,704 18 

Cost of the seTenil de(«\rlnienin for 1879 7,160,034.85 

Cost of IheseTeral de|wrtmrnla for 1880 6.370^578. .34 

Coat of the several departments for ISdl 0,88:1,32692 

Cost of the several depanmenls for lg«2 7,1' 0,561.18 


John N. Henderson, elect«d„ June 

Stephen Taylor, elected May 

George W. Hnflv. eleiied May 

Josejtli R. Lyiidall,' eli.cted Oct. 

6, 1&50 
4, 18.58 
14, 1862 

George Getz, elected Oct. 13, 1808 

Siimuel P. Hancock,* in office Feb. 14, 1870 

Robert Emory Pattison.'elected Nov. 7, 1877 

S. Pavis Page,* appointed Jan. 15, 1883 

E. Harper JelTries,' elected Nov. 6,1883 

„ William N. Hirst, appointed Jan. 1884 

Appropriations for 1883 and Estimates for 
1884. — The following table shows the amount of the 
annual appropriations to the departments for 1883, 
and the estimates received to Feb. 1, 1884, for this 
year : 



Gniirdians of the Poor 

City commisMoners 

Markets and city properly.. 

City treasurer 

Bottrd of ReviRion 

Park comniissionera 


Clerks of Ofuncils 

Receiver of taxes 




398,304 00 



















13,300 00 

189,575 00 

7,130 00 







64,000 00 

67,800 00 


Total $8,310,201.37 

City solicitor... 

Ijigliting the cit,v 

Board of Public Education 

Board of Health 

County prison 

Conutv ice-boats 

City controller 

Police and tire-alarm telegraph 

Boiler inspection 

House of Oirrection 

Port wardens 

Public buildings 

Board of fire-escapes 


Register of wills 

District attorney 


Recorder of deeds 

Prothonotary , 

Clerk of Quarter Sessions 




40,290 (10 

184,625 00 
1,297,-500 00 



The funded debt of the city Jan. 1, 1882, was 

Amount redeemed by sinking fund coniinissiono 

Amount of four per cent, loan, series C, paid off 
Funded delit Jan. 1, 1883 


Total funded and floating debt Jan. 1, 1882 $68,029,403.72 

Funded debt of thec'.ty Jan. 1,1883 

Floating debt of the city Jan. 1, 1883 


46,000 shares of Pbiladelpliia and Erie Railroad slock at 
$20 per share 

12.784 shares of North Pennsylvania Railroad stock at 
$.30 per share 

Sinking fund securities, city loan at par 

Sinking liind securities, Slain loan at par. 

Sinking fund securities, United Slates loan at par 3 per 

iiding taxes 

Cash in tlie Ireasm-y Jan. 1, 1883 . 





3,125,686 27 


Full $.510,984,183.00 $1.86 

Suburban 35,447,307.00 l.WX, 

Fanu 19,051,766.00 92>^ 


Totals $671,483,255.00 


■ Iijniiall was elected Oct. 14, 1802, and re-slecltd in 1864 and 1866. 

•Died April 6, 1879, aged flRy-slx. 'Re-elected Nov. 2, 1880. 

* Controller Pattison having been elected Governor of the Common- 
wealth, ap|K>inted Ids 
> Died Jan. 21. 1884. 




19l« . 

Four per cent. Five per cent. 

400,000 00 
400,000 00 








Loans overdue and yet outstanding 

From which deduct 8800,769.61, which appears to have heen jiaid in 
ported as due in certain years and outstanding at 

loans bpinff payable in various months in the latter , — ^- -„ , p., ■ 

consolida^fd'^dty loans, the time of payn.ent was thrown forward to January of the 

year, thus making the amount payable 
the year prior as yet outstanding 

excess of the amount re- 

onsolidation. Tlie districts and county 

nths in the latter part of the year, on being transferred f. 

3 of payment 

I that year appear a 

, and the 

Funded debt Jan. 1, 1883.. 

Debt guaranteed by the city for gas loans, included in the above statement: 

By ordinance approved July 13, 18.55, due July 1, 1885 

By ordinance approved March 26, 1859, due July 1,1883 

By ordinance approved Oct. 22, 1860, due July 1, 1884 

By ordinance approved Dec. 22,1864, due July 1, 1SS4 

By ordinance approved Dec. 26, 1868, due Jan. 1, 1899 

By ordinance approved May 17,1870, due Jan. 1,1900 

By ordinance approved Oct. 26, 1871, due Jan. I, 1902 

By ordinance approved Nov. 6, 1874, due Jan. 1, 190.5 













Jan. 1 
Jan. ~: 
Jan. 1 
Jan. ] 

Jan. 1 
Jan. ■ 











, 1870 






, 1876 








Funded Debt. 

60 371,632.40 


24,7.50 056.16 

Cost of 


7,161,704 18 





Th« ftanded d«bt of the dtj, Jan. 1, 1883 

Classified as fullows: 

Balance of amount due at cooaolidaiioD - 84,054,566.24 I 

Tor war purpoaes Il.SSO.noo.OO 

For railroad oiUcriptione ' ],72.'>.0O0.OO 

Forachool parpoeca„ I 3,600,000.00 

For bridge* 4,853, SOO.OO 

For walrr-works ...I 6,500,000.00 

For Park aud C«ntennial 8,701,000.00 

For House of Correctiiin - 950,000.00 

For ice-bo«t« _ 385,000.00 

For (Ulioo-houaM 450,000.00 

F»r sewere 3,750,760.00 

For (Ire purpoaes 200,000.00 

For moDiclpal pnrpoeee 14,648,500.00 

For Kuarantrml debt gas-works 5,999,400.00 

For floating debt of departments 

$67,468,316.24 22,500 shares Sunbnry and Eiie Bailroad 

I stock, par value $100 per share, or 45,000 

shares Philadelphia and Erie Railroad 

. stock, par value SoO per share, at $20 

^ I per share, market value. 

12,784 shares North PeDnsylvnnia Rail- 
road stock, at S.'>0 per share, par value.. 
Sinking fund securities (city loan at imr) 
Sinking fund securities (Pennsylvania 

State loun at par) 

Siuking-Fund securities (United States 

government 3 per cent, at par) 

Outstanding taxes, due and collectable... 
Cash in treasury Jan. 1, 18S3 

454,576.17 Excess of debt over and above assets.. 


! $67,922,892,41 

Highway Department.— Tlic (ki^artment of high- 
way.s, bridges, and siwirs of tliu rity is constituted as 
follows: One cliief eommissioner, at a salary of four 
thousand dollars ; six a.ssistant commissioners, at a 
salary of two thousand dollars each ; one superin- 
tendent of city railroads, one chief clerk, one assistant 
clerk, one license clerk, one assistant license clerk, one 
miscellaneous clerk, one mes-senger, and twelve street 

The building and re])airing of all bridges, culverts, 
sewers, and inlets, the ojiening, grading, curbing, 
paving, repaving, and re]iairing of all streets, roads, 
lanes, alleys, and other highways of the city of Phila- 
delphia, is under the control, supervision, and man- 
agement of the chief coinmis.sioner of highways. 

Councils elect, in joint convention, by viia rorc 
vote, one chief commissioner of highways, to serve 
three years. The said chief commissioner ap|)oints 
six assistant commissioners, whose term is two years 
(three of whom are elected for one year, and three for 
two years), and until their successors be duly quali- 
fied. It is the duty of said chief commissioner to 
assign the as,sistant commissioners to their respective 
districts, and the said assistant commissioners have 
charge of the respective districts to which they have 
been a.ssigned, and have the general supervision of 
all work done therein by order of the chief commis- 
sioner (who may, at his discretion, at any time assign 
any of the said a.s.sistants to any other district he may 
deem for the advantage of the deiiartment). The 
said a.-vsistant commi-s-^ioners enforce all laws and 
ordinances relative to the dejiartment of highways, 
and have charge of and direct (subject to the chief 
commissioner) the street superintendents and work- 
men that may be employed within the limits of their 
re(i])ective districts. 

The chief commissioner shall annually rei)ort to 
Councils, in detail, the receipts and disbursements of 
his department during the past fiscal year. 

The joint standing committee of Councils have 
supervision over all matters appertaining to this de- 
partment, and it is the duty of the chief commissioner 
of highways to submit all contracts, plans, etc., to- 
gether with all accounts, bills, etc., for work or labor 

done, which may appertain to this department, to the 
said committee for their inspection, before any action 
shall be had thereon. 

The api>ropriation for this department for the year 
1882 was $639,397.60, and the disbursements were 
S506,089.75, and the revenue for the year amounted 
to $51,175.18. 

The office of the chief commissioner of highways 
was created by the act of consolidation, i.e., Feb. 2, 
1854, P. L., for the supervision of the streets and 
roads of this city and county. By the act of April 
21, 1855, and ordinance of Councils, the chief and 
his two assistant commissioners were constituted a 
board for the transaction of all business relating to 
the highways. The term of office at first was for one 
year, but since the new constitution for three years. 

This department in 1882 expended $251,885 for 
street cleaninjr and removing ashes, jrarliage, and 
dead animals. Prior to 1882 this work had come 
under the supervision of the Board of Health, and 
their annual expenditures for this purpose were as 

Clenniiig Streets „„„,„,, 



2:t.I92 90 


1877 $i82,O27.10 

1»78 168,899,44 

1879 171,.W2.35 

1S80 169.040.10 

1881 133,6.10.73 

Average for five yeare under Board of Health _ 212.642.60 

1882 Under Department of Higliwaye 251,996.00 


Thomas Birch, elected Oct. 6, 1854 

John McCarthv, elected July 16, 1857 

Conrad B. Andreas, elected July 8, 1858 

Joseph Shantr., elected July 7, 1869 

James Lnndv, elected Feb. 6, 1860 

George W. Schofleld, elected Feb. 26, 1863 

William W. Sme.lley, elected Feb. 11, 1864 

Mahlon H. Dickinson, elected Feb. 12, 1867 

Jnhn Liberton Hill, elected Feb. 18, 1876 

Wiillan, Bnldwin.l elected March 2, 1876 

Ji.lin D. Kstabrook, elected Jan. 6, 1883 

Markets and City Property.— This department 
is conducted by a commissioner of markets and city 

> Mr. Baldwin was elected for the unexpired term of John L. Hill, 
who resigned aud was re-elected for three years, Jan. 1, 1877, and again 
r)n Dec. .10, 1879, for three years from Jan. 1, 1880. Ho died suildenly 
of heartHlisease on Jan. 1, 188;t, aged forty-flve yeare, on bis way to at- 
tend a Joint meeting of Councils, who were to fill bis expired term of 



property. He is elected by Councils for a term of 
three years. He is charged with the renting and col- 
lecting of the rents of all market-stalls and stands, 
and with the care of-all the market-houses belonging 
to the city, and wharves and landings. 

Steam-Engines and Boilers.— The mayor of the 
city of Philadelphia nominates, in the month of 
June, annually, and by and with the advice of the 
Select Council of the said city, appoints a person skill- 
ful and competent, for the discharge of the duties 
performed by him, to be the inspector of stationary 
engines in and for the city of Philadelphia. Before 
entering upon the duties of his office he gives bond 
in the sum of ten thousand dollars, with security, 
approved by the mayor. 

It is the duty of the inspector carefully to examine 
and inspect all stationary steam-engines and steam- 
boilers erected or in use; and no stationary steam- 
engine or steam-boilers shall be erected and put into 
use and operation in the city of Philadelphia without 
being first inspected and certified to be competent and 
safe under the hand and seal of the inspector; and 
he shall furnish to the owner, proprietor, or other 
person using such engine or steam-boiler a certificate 
under his hand and the seal of his office that it has 
been so inspected and found to be competent and safe; 
he shall from time to time, and as often as he may 
deem expedient, examine all or any such engines or 
steam-boilers in use or operation, and for such pur- 
pose he, together with his assistants, may enter upon 
any premises and require the removal of any part of 
the building, fixtures, or machinery, and he shall note 
in a book to be kept for that purpose the result of 
every such examination ; and he shall, at least once 
in every year, make such examination and give cer- 
tificate of the result whenever required. 

Gas and Gas-Works. — The city manufactures gas 
under and by twelve trustees, six elected by Common 
and six by Select Council. They select a president 
out of their own number. They serve three years. 
They conduct the business of manufacturing and dis- 
tributing gas. 

It is the duty of the trustees to manufacture car- 
buretted hydrogen gas from bituminous coal for the 
purpose of public and priv.ate illumination, and to 
lay pipes for its distribution through the city. The 
trustees keep accurate accounts of their receipts and 
disbursements, and report the same, together with a 
statement of their proceedings, to Councils annually 
in the month of January, and give such other infor- 
mation as may from time to time be required by the 
Select or Common Council. 

The trustees are vested with power to construct 
works, to purchase materials, make contracts, and 
employ such agents as they deem necessary in and 
about the furnishing of light for public and private use. 

According to the engineer's report of the gas-works 
for 1882, the total amount of gas made during the 
year was 2,319,898,000 cubic feet, making the total 

product of the works since their erection 37,342,521,- 
000 cubic feet. 

The amount manufactured at the different stations 
was as follows: 

Cubic feet. 
Gas made at the Twenty-sUth Ward works.... 713,212,000 

Gas made at the Ninth Ward works 1,079,907,000 

Gas made at the Fifteenth Ward works 23,155,000 

Gas made at tiie Twenty-first Ward works 41,027,000 

Gas made at tlie Twenty-fifth Ward works.... 401,997,000 


The maximum consumption of gas in twenty-four 
hours was 10,667,000 cubic feet, which occurred on 
the night of the 22d of December, 1882. The maxi- 
mum production of gas in twenty-four hours was 
10,049,000 cubic feet. 

The Philadelphia Gas Department has 742 miles of 
gas mains, 18,100 street lamps, about 102,000 con- 
sumers of gas, with an annual consumption of about 
2,054,857,000 cubic feet. The price for cubic feet is 
$1.90 for gas, with an average illuminating power of 
16.39 candles. By resolution of the trustees, gas 
has been supplied the city lamps without cost since 
Oct. 1, 1882. 

The net profits of the gas-works during the year 
1882 were $510,586.57, making the accumulated 
profits to the end of the year, $4,538,957.23. 




Total number of 





















































































( 270 











1 Including thoae received from private gas compauies. 

2 Northern Libertiea, 



Lkkgtb c 

F JiAiNS Laid ill 

SlretLi, Each Tear, 

m Lintal FetL 

SXTE. l^iDCb. 






10-iDch. 12-inch. 16-inch. 

























4,1 M 












18,6 6 

























2 2,958 
9,9 9 



















9140 1 P" 




31,479 1 
14,667 i 



3 726 


...... .....'. 













4.-iGU 1 2.G19 















0,:i43 1 























3,8:14 ' R 



i 21.3I.5.39 
















{ 132^135 1 

j 1 98081 1 



1 097 1 
















1 187,2.')3 

' 1 1 101,;155 











'.'.'.".'. 1458 



















185,839 20,680 







1458 3,813,777 

^ Including those reculved from gtis companies. 

Ga4 made at aU the tt'orln manag>d under the 3Viuf, and of that delivered 
to Prieale and I'abtic Lighli; llec. 31, 1882. 

1869 502,110,000 

1860. 6.39,678,000 

1861. I 632,646,600 

1862 6.'.6,957,0(ll> 

186:) 7:l6,69a,0(J0 

1861 794,676,000 

1866 844,610,0011 

1866. 916,9.V1,0 

1867 , 981,«42,0"'i 

1868... I,0fi«,67»,n<l0 

1869. l,16I,l«>,noo 

1870 I,241,48.V«»I 

1871 l,3:i*l,U72.l«>il 

1872 1,480,969,000 

1873 1,64S,S«7,000 

1874 ■ 1,708 2«ll,i«IO 

1876 l,873,l'.r2,ll(Ml 

1876 2,l.'>4,28l,00iP 

l«n 2,ll",077,l«ll> 

1878 2,l«7,5:ili,o<iO 

1879 2,|Hll,n2.'>,a0ll 

18K<1 2,171,010,000 

18*1 2,2i<i,14.%0ri0 

1882 2;ll9,»;i8,000 

MHd« In Z3) 

pnTlou y 3,078,362,400 

37,342,621 ,aoa|6,n6,0M,3T8 22,862,680,268 4,986,381,966 


LAJirs under Ihr O're of Deparlmnit of Pulilic Li:jh(iiig, 
Jan. 1, 1882. 

City,i including Mnyamensing, Southwftrk, West Philadelphia, 
Spring Garden, KenninKton, Uichmund, Germantown, Mana- 
yunk, Fniiikford, and Nicetown 12,414 

Morlhern Liberties = 509 


The board of tni-stees of tlie Philadelpliia Gas- 
Work.s for 1884 are as follows : 

President, William D. Gardner; Trustees, John S. Rittenhouse, Wil- 
liam K. Leeds, Samuel S. Kelly, M. Hall Stanton, James Work, Alfred 
Moore, William W. Alcorn, Thomas H. Gill, William H. Smith, Efflng- 
ham 11. Morris, James E.Salter, William D.Gardner; Engineer, William 
K. Park (elected Feb. 28, 1879) ; Cashier, Samuel M. White (elected June 
28,1870); Itegistnir, Thomas Noble (elected Dec. 9,1870); Controller, 
Alexander J. McCleary. 

Police Magistrates, — In accordance with the re- 
quirements of the twelfth section of Article v. of the 
Constitution of 1873, the Assembly, by act of Feb. 5, 
1875, authorized the election of a police magistrate 
(to serve for five years from the first Monday in 
April) for every thirty thousand inhabitants of the 
city of Philadelphia. The courts therefor to be located 
by Councils, and indicated by numbers, the magis- 

' Supplied directly from City Woiks. 

3 Supplied directly from Northern Llbcrli( 



trates to choose their courts by lot; and in the elec- 
tion for magistrates, no voter to vote for more than 
two-thirds of the number to be elected. liy the Con- 
stitution, the office of alderman in Philadelphia was 

The police magistrates have jurisdiction not ex- 
ceeding one hundred dollars, and exercise such au- 
thority, civil and criminal, as is given them by law. 
Their jurisdiction extends throughout the city and 
county, and they are e.v officio justices of the peace. 


1. Jesses S. Bonsall, elected Feb. 16, 1875 

2. WiUiam B. Collins, elected Fell. 16,1875 

3. Andrew Alexander, Sr., elected Feb. 16,1875 

4. T. Sprole Leisenring, elected Feli. 16, 1S75 

5. William H. List, elected Feb. 16, 1875 

6. Hugh Franklin Kennedy, elected Feb. 16, 1875 

7. John McCliiitock, elected Feb. 16, 1S75 

R. Robert R. Smith, elected Feb. 16,1875 

9. William A. Tliorp. elected Feb. 16, 1875 

10. John F. Pole, elected Feb. 16, 1875 

11. Wilson Ker, elected Feb. 16, 1875 

12. Ezra Lukena, elected Feb. 16,1875 

13. Charles E. Pancoast, elected Feb. 16,1875 

14. John Develin.l elected Feb. 16, 1875 

15. Luke V. Sntphin, elected Feb. 16,1875 

16. Stuart Field, elected Feb. 16, 1875 

17. Henry Smith, elected Feb. 16,1875 

18. Benton 0. Severn, elected Feb. 16,1875 

19. David Hanley Stone, elected Feb. 16,1875 

2(1. Alfred T. Snyder, elected Feb. 16, 1875 

21. Thaddens Stearne, elected Feb. 16,1875 

22. George K. Krickbauni, elected Feb. 16, 1875 

23. Thi.mas H. Ulark, elected Feb. 16, 1S75 

24. Thomas Randall, elected Feb. 16,1875 

14. John T. Thompson.^ appointed Feb. 19,1878 

15. Joseph S. Alleu,2 appointed Sept. 14,1879 

Second Term. 

1. ■William A. Thorp, elected Feh. 17, 1880 

2. John KiugFindlay, elected Feb. 17,1880 

3. Henry H. Everlv,3 elected Feb. 17, 1880 

4. Hugh Collins, elected Feb. 17,1880 

5. William H. List, elected Feb. 17, 1880 

6. John B. Martin, elected Feb. 17, 1880 

7. John McClintock, elected Feb. 17, 1880 

8. Robert R. Smith, elected Feb. 17,1880 

9. Richard J. Lennon, elected Feb. 17, 1880 

10. John F. Pole, elected Feb. 17,1880 

11. Albert H. Ladner, elected Fell. 17,1880 

12. Ezra Lukens, elected Feb. 17,1880 

13. Charles Brown, elected Feb. 17,1880 

14. John T. Thompson, elected Feb. 17,1880 

15. Joseph S. Allen, elected Feb. 17, 1880 

16. William P. Becker, elected Feb. 17, 1880 

17. Henry S. Myers, elected Feb. 17,1880 

18. Benton 0. Severn, elected Feb. 17,1880 

10. Joseph S. Riley, elected Feb. 17,1880 

20. Robert J. Barr, elected Feb. 17, 1880 

21. Thomas W. South, elected Feb. 17,1880 

22. George R. Kiickbaum. elected Feb. 17, 1880 

23. Thoma.5 II. Clark, ebcted Feb. 17,1880 

24. Thomas Randall, eleeted Feb. 17,1880 

3. James L. Brown, appointed May 26, 1881 

The following statistical information for reference 
was furnished by the various city departments at the 
request of John E. Addicks, health officer in 1882 : 

Philadelphia is situated in latitude 39° 57' N. and 75° 09' W. The total 
area is one hundred and twenty-nine thousand four hundred and fifty 
square miles, or eighty-two thousand eight hundred and forty-eight 

The greatest elevation in each ward above high water is, viz. : 

1 Develin died May 11,1877, and John T. Thompson was appointed by 
the Governor to fill the vacancy, and elected Feb. 19, 1878, for five years. 

■ Appointed by the Governor vice Sutphin, deceased. By the act th» 
Governor fills the vacancy until the first Monday in the next succeed- 
ing April. The vacancy to be supplied at next municipal election, for 
the full term of five years, as in case of Thompson, of Court No. 14. 

3 Henry H. Everly, of Court No. 3, died May 23, 1881, aged forty-five, 
and on May 26th Lieut. James L. Brown was appointed to fill the va- 
cancy, and elected on the third Tuesday in February, 1882, to serve five 
years from the first Monday in April. 

First.— Gerhard, north of McKean Street 

Second.— Hale, west of Tenth Street 

Third.— Lebanon, south of Fitzwater Street 

Fourth. — Emeline, west of Eighth Street 

Fifth. — St. Mary's, east of Seventh Street 

Sixth. — Crown, north of Race Street 

Seventh.— Delancy, west of Twenlieth Street 

Eighth.— Broad, south of Chestnut Street 

Ninth. — Chestnut, west of Broad Street 

Tenth. — Jacohv, north of Race Street 

Eleventh —Third and Brown Streets 

Twelfth, Sixth, soutli of Green Street 

Thirteenth.— Wallace, east of Tenth Street 

Fourteenth. — East of Broad and north of Parrish 

Fifteenth.— Corner of Vineyard and Perkiomen Streets 

Sixteenth.— Sixlh Street, south of Girard Avenue 

Seventeenth. — Lawrence, south of Oxford Street 

Eighteenth. — Neland, northeast of Hanover Street 

Nineteenth.— Corner of Seventh Street and Lehigh Avenue 

Twentieth.— Columbia Avenue, east of Broad Street 

Twenty-first. — Between Ridge Avenue and Township line road.. 

Twenty-second.- Summit Street, northeast of Chestnut Hill 

Twenty-third.— Sharswood Street and Montgomery County line. 

Twenty-fourth. — Belmont and City Avenues 

Twenty-fifth.— Nicetown Lane, north of Baker Street.. 
Twenty-sixth.— South of Washingto " ' " 

fifth Street 

Twenty-seventh.— Sixty-first and Walnut Streets 

Twenty-eighth -Thirtieth and Coulter Streets 

Twenty-ninth.— Bridge Street, above Columbia Avenue and Coi 

necting Railroad 

Thirtieth. — Gray's Ferry Road, north of Catharine Street 

Thirty-first.— Kensington Avenue, northeast of Huntingdo 


e and west of Twenty- 




The length of paved streets 900 

The length of sewers 200 

The length of water-pipes 7fO 

The length of gas-pipes '32 

The number of gas-lamp* ^?'iiQ 

The number of gasoliue-lamps 1,449 

Total l*.l" 

The length of river front on the Delaware River 

The length of wharves on the Delaware River 

The length of river front on the Schuylkill River (both sides).. 
The length of wharves on the Schuylkill River (both sides) 

Total length of river front.. 
Total length of wharves 



umber of public squares is, viz. : 


1. Independence Square ^64 

- Washington Square 6.70 

3. Franklin Square 7.83 

4. Logan Square J=^ 

5. Rittenhouse Square o-^o 

6. Jefferson Square 

7. Passyunk Square 

8. Notris Square 

9. Fairhill Square 

10. Shackamaxon Square '*' 


Total *■'■- 


I of Fairmount Park i 


. 1232 

Old Park W\ 

East Park 

West Park 

Wissahickon Park *^}i 

Hunting Park ^J 

Out-lying lots paid for out of park loan i«t 

Extent of water surface of Schuylkill River in limits of park 373 

Total areas -^l^i 

The number of dwellings "?;S?^ 

Number of milesof City Passenger Railway track '^'yi 

The population (as per United States census) at each decade was as 

follows, with percentage of deaths to each one thousand of population : 

Years. Population. Deaths. Deaths in 1000. 

1810 .'.'.'.!......!................... 110,210 i.897 17.215 

18-20 137,097 3,189 23.26 

1830 — 188,797 3,918 20.90 

1840 258,037 4,.Wi 17.78 

1850 408,762 8,034 19.63 

Igeo'" " 505,529 10,849 19.18 

1870 674,022 15^117 22.72 

1880 846,980 17,711 20.91 

* No record of deaths published. 

5 Still-born and bodies brought from c 

















".'..'.'. "i'uo 



1 2,960 

' 6,396 





Clly Prop. 


















1 15,062 

1 25.172 


1 64,Ui6 




Vr'anl. 1870. 

IM 26,817 

2d „ _... 30,220 

3d 19,149 

4Ul. 20,862 

fiUl.» „ 18,736 

6lll 12,064 

7lh._ _ „ 31,658 

8lh 22,286 

9Ul 16,629 

loth ™ 2:1,312 

lllh _ 14,846 

12th 16,171 

13th _ 19.966 

14th _. 22,643 

15th „ „ 44,660 

161h „ 19,266 

17th 21,347 

18lh 26,366 

I9th and 31tt-._ - 46,240 

20<h and 2«tb 66,642 

2llt _.. 13,861 

22d 22,005 

23d_ 20,888 

24th, 24,932 

26th 1»,«39 

S«lh and 30lh- 36,003 

87th _ 19,386 

28th,_ „ 10,370 

ToUl 674/122 

locnaaa In wvantaan wardi 


IncreHBe. Decrease. 



846,980 l».t,690 

DacrMae In fourtaan wards.. 

Net Incraaae ainca 1870 172,958 

Malaa, 1870 320,379 Natlte, 1880 642,648 

Femalsa, 1870 :I63,643 Foreign, 1880 2mJ32 

Malea, 1880 406,899 Whilea, 1870 661,864 

Fi-malea, 1880 44I,ii«l Colored, 1870 22,168 

NallTc, III70 4»<V1B8 Whilea, 1880 816,182 

Foreign, 1870 183,624 Colored, 1880 31,798 

The census of 1777 wa.s taken by order of Sir Wil- 
liam Howe when the British army was in possession 
of the city. At that time many Whigs and patriots 
were absent, and it is estimated tliat the population 
in the same year before the entry of the British was 
about thirty thousand. 

In 1854 the boundaries of the city were l)y the Con- 
solidation Act extended over the whole of the country, 
80 lliat the distinction between the city with the 
suburbs or adjoining incorporated districts and the 
county wa.s abolished. 



In the colored are included Chinese in 1870, 12; in 
1880, 80; Japanese, 1870, 1; 1880, 3; Indians, 1870, 
8; in 1880, 25. 

Ward. Population. 

l«t 4;l,08o 

2d. 28,498 

3d 18,271 

4th 1S.8,W 

5th 16,368 

6th 10,004 

7th 31,087 

8th 19,541 

6th 12,481 

10th 2.1,36:1 

11th 12,9:10 

12lh ; 14,6110 


18tli 29,364 

19th 4.'i,887 

2tlth 43,207 

21et 19,699 

22d 31,766 

?M 26,622 

24th 46,067 

25th 36,104 

2CIh 35,138 

27th 23,284 

28lh 34,442 

•.d9th 40,787 

13lh 18,646 3nth 29,100 

14th 22,:154 ; 3Ut 31,303 

16th 47.806 I 

10th 17,802 Grand total 846,980 

17th 20,451 

The Governors of Pennsylvania' and of the Set- 
tlements on the Delaware before the Formation 
of the Commonwealth. — No list that has yet ap- 
peared in print gives a complete list of the names of 
the Governors of this province and of the previous 
settlements on the Delaware. The following is more 
nearly perfect than any heretofore pilblished : 

DuToii Rn.E. 

Cornollue Jacobsen May, Director of New 
Nelheilanda —,1624 

William Van HuUt, Director of New Neth- 
erlands • —,1625 

Peter Miimit, Director of New Nelherlands.May 4, 1626 

David Pieterzen Do Vries, Governor on the 
Delaware Dec. 6,1632 

Woiiter Van Twiller, Director of New Neth- 
erlands April 14, 1633 

Sir William Klett, Director of New Nether- 
lands March 28, 1638 

SwEnisH Rule. 

Peter Minuit, Governor of New Sweden April — , 1038 

I'eter llollnndnor. Governor of New Sweden.. — , 1 641 

John Printz, Governor of New Sweden Feb. 15, 1643 

Di'Tcii Rile. 
Peter Stujvesant, Director of New Nether- 
lands May 27, 1647 

Swedish Rule. 
John Pappegoya, Governor of New Sweden..0ct. — , 1053 
John Claude Rysing, Vice.Director of New- 
Sweden May — , 1054 


Peter Stnyvesant, Director of New Nether- 
lands — , 1655 

Dirck Smidt, Schout Fiscal and CommissHry 

on the Delaware —,1655 

John Paul Jaquel, Director on the Delaware.. — , 1655 

Andreas Huddo, Commissary on the Dela- 
ware 1656 to 1067 

Jacob Alriclis, Director of the City Colony ...April — , 1667 

Gregorlus Van Dyck, Director of the Com- 
pany's Cxilony May 20, 1657 

VVillinm Deekman, Vice-Director of Com- 
pany's Colony Oct. 28,1658 

Alexander D'Hinovossa, Director of the City 

Colony Dec. 30,1069 

Enoi-irii Rule. 
Col. Richard Nichols, Governor at New york..Sept. 8, 1 664 
Robert Noedham, Commander on the Dela- 
ware Sept. 8,1064 

Col. Francis Lovelace.Governorat Now York. May — , 1607 

Capt. John Carr, Commander on Delaware... — , 1008 

Dutch Rtlk. 

Anthony Colve, Governor of New Nether- 
lands Aug. 12,1673 

Peter Alrlche, Deputy Governor on the west 
ilde of the Delaware Sept. — ,1673 

> From John Hill Martln't " B«Dch and Bar of Philadelphia.", 



English Rule. 
Sir Edmond Andros, Governor Ht New York..Nov. 10, 1674 
Capt. Edmund Cantwell.Commnnder on Del- 

a^f^Ye Nov. 10, lGj4 

Cnpt.Jolin Collier, Commanderon Delaware..Sept. 23, 1676 
Capt. Christopher BiUop, Commander on Del- 

aware -• Ang. 24,1677 

Copt. Anthony BrockholBt.l Governor Jan. 16, 1081 

Peopeietarv Government. 

William Penn, Proprietor March 4, 1681 

William Markham, Deputy Governor April 20, 1681 

William Ponu, Proprietor and Governor Oct. 24, 168^ 

Thomaa Lloyd, President of Council..... 18 6 mo., 1684 

William Clayton,2 President of Council 24 8 mo., 1684 

Thomas HoIme,2 President of Council 30 1 mo., 168o 

William Clarke,^ President of Council 9 2 mo., 1680 

Arthur Cooke,2 President of Council 5 5 mo., 1686 

John Simcock,2 President of Council i 



3 7i 

1., 1686 

.„..>,.„ Harrison,^ President of Council in 

the afternoon ■^ 1 

Arthur Cooke," President of Council 1 8 

John Simcock,- President of Council 16 9 

William CIarke,= President of Council 19 2 

Thomas Lloyd.a Commissioner W 12 

Robert Turner.s Commissioner 19 12 

Arthur Cooke.^ Commissioner 19 l- 

John Simcock,3 Commissioner 19 12 

John EcUley.s Commissioner 19 12 

Capt. John Blackwell, Lieutenant-Governor..Dec. 18, lbS8 

Thomas Lloyd, President of the Council 2 11 mo., lesg 

Thomas Lloyd, Deputy Governor of the Prov- 

ince March — , 1691 

William Markham, Deputy Governor of the 

Tn«.«rr,. unties March — , 1Ij91 

JjOWer IjOUIIlieb „ • ■> ni> Tfn-3 

Benjamin Fletcher, Governor for the Crown.April 26, 1693 
William Markham, Lieutenant-Governor for 

the Crown "V-V,-" •■■*""' ^^' ^^^^ 

William Markham, Governor for William 
Penn " 

Dr. John Goodson,* Deputy Governor, or 
Assistant 10 William Markham 24 

Samuel Carpenter,< Deputy Governor, or As- 
sistant to William Markham ..-.24 

William Markham, Lieutenant-Governor fur 

Penn May 19, 1698 

William Penn, Proprietor and Governor 21 10 mo., 1699 

Andrew Hamilton, Lieutenant-Governor Nov. 

Edward Shippen, President of Council 19 12 

John Evans, Lieutenant-Governor leD. 

Col. Charles Gonkin, Lieutenant-Governor...Fcb. 

William Keith,* Lieutenant-Governor May 

Hnnnah Penn, Executrix for Proprietaries. ..July 

., 1086 
., 1687 

)., 1694 
)., 1694 


14, 1701 
10., 1702 
14, 170?^ 
2, 170| 
31, 1717 
31, 1718 

Sir William Keitii.s Governor April 28,1719 

Patrick Gordon,' Lieutenant-Governor June 2„, il-o 

John, Thomas, and Richard Penn, J"™?"" ..„ 

.Tames Logan, President of Council -Aug, 

Thomas Penn, Proprietary Sept. 

George Thomas, Lientenant-Governor... June 

to 1746 
5, 1736 

28, 1736 

Thomas and Richard Penn, Proprietaries 1746 to 1771 

Anthony Palmer, President of Council June 6, 1747 

James Hamilton. Lieutenant-Governor Nov. 2.i, 1748 

Robert HunterMorris.Lieulenant-Governor Oct. 

William Denny, Lieutenant-Governor Aug. 

James Hamilton, Lieutenant-Governor Nov. 

John Penn, Lieutenant-Governor Nov. 

.Tames Hamilton, President of Council May 

Thomas and John Penn, Proprietaries 1771 

Richard Penn, Lieutenant-Governor Oct. 

John Penn, Governor ""g- 

Under thr Commonwealth. 
Thomas Wharton, Jr.,8 President Supreme 

Executive Council March 5, 1777 

George Bryan, Vice-President May 23, 1778 

15, 17S4 
27, 1756 
18, 17S9 
1, 1763 
6, 1771 
to 1775 
16, 1771 
30, 1773 

Joseph Reed, President Supreme Executive 

Council. Dec. 

William Moore, President Supreme Execu- 
tive Council Nov. 

John Dickinson, President Supreme Execu- 
tive Council - Nov. 

Benjamin Franklin," President Supreme Ex- 
ecutive Council Oct. 

David Redick, Vice-President Oct. 

Thomas Mifflin, President Supreme Execu- 
tive Council Nov. 

Thomas Mifflin, Governor Dec. 

Thomas McKean, Governor Dec. 

Simon Snyder, Governor .'. Dec. 

William Findlay, Governor Dec. 

Joseph Hiester, Governor Dec. 

John Andrew Shulze, Governor Dec. 

George Wolf, Governor Dec. 

Joseph Ritner, Governor Bee. 

David Ritlenhouse Porter, Governor Jan. 

Francis Rahu Shunk, Governor Jan. 

William Freame Johnston, Governor July 

William Bigler, Governor Jan. 

James Pollock, Governor Jan, 

William Fisher Packer, Governor Jan. 

Andrew Gregg Curtin, Governor Jan. 

John White Geary, Governor Jan. 

John Frederic Hartranft, Governor Jau. 

Henry Martin Hovt, Governor Jan. 

Robert Emory Pattison,!" Governor Jan. 

1, 1778 
14, 1781 

5, 1788 
21, 1790 
17, 1799 
20, 1808 
16, 1817 

19, 1820 
16, 1823 
15, 1829 
15, 181)5 
15, 1839 
21, 1845 


20, 1862 
16, 1855 
19, 1858 
15, 1867 
21, 1873 
16, 1883 

FROM 1682 TO 1775. 

1682. William Markham. 
Christopher Taylor. 
Thomas Holme. 
Lawrence Cock. 
William Clark. 
John Hilliard. 
William Haigue. 
John Moll. 
Ralph Withers. 
John Simcock. 
Francis Whitwell. 
Edmund Cantwell. 
William Clayton. 

1682. William Biles. 
James Harrison. 
John Richardson. 

1683. Edward Southern. 
John Roads. 

1684. William Welch. 
William Wood. 
Thomas Lloyd. 
Thomas Janney. 
Luke Watson. 
John Cann. 
William Southebe. 
William Darvall. 

"Armor's Governors," 251 ; 

1 Governor until June 26, 1681, when the colonial government ceased 
by virtue of the charter to William Penn of March 4, 1681, who then 
became the proprietor. Penn's Council first met at Upland, i.e. Chester, 
on Aug. 3, 1631. 

2 The members of Council were authorized by the Governor to choose 
one of themselves President in the absence of Thomas Lloyd (1 C. R., 
124), and they were Governors for Ihe time being, and as such signed 
commissions and performed all the duties of that office. Thomas Holme 
died 10th 7 mo., 1694, aged forty-five years. 

3 Commissioners, any three to act as Deputy Governor; 1 C. R., 166. 
< Deputy Governors, or assistants to Markham; 1 C. R., 437. 

6 His commission bears date Nov. 29, 1716, but the dates given by me 
are those when the Lieutenant-Governors were inducted into office. 

6 Called Lieulenant-General,Governor,and Commander-in-Chief, etc. ; 
3 0. B., p. S5. Not Sir William until 1721, when he succeeded to the 

baronetcy. « r, t> or«i 

7 Lieutenant-Governor, with the a-ssent of Hannah Penn ; 3 C. B., 265. 

8 President of the Committee of Safety, A ug. 6, 1776. President of the 
Supreme Executive Council, March 6, 1777. 

' Franklin's term expired Oct. 14, 1788. 
XV. C. K., 664. 

w The first Constitution for the government of Pennsylvania as a State, 
went into effect on Sept. 2, 1790. An election was held under it the fol- 
lowing month, and Thomas Mifflin, of Philadelphia, who had been Presi- 
dent of the Supreme Executive Council since Nov. 5, 1788, was elected, 
andonDec. 21,1790, inaugurated as Governor in Philadelphia, "with 
much ceremony." He was Governor until Dec. 17, 1799, a period of 
nine years having been twice re-elected. Joseph Ritner, of Washing- 
ton County, was Governor from Dec. 15, 1835, until the third Tuesday of 
January, 1839, the beginning of the gubernatorial term having been 
changed by the amended Constitution of 1838 from the third Tuesday of 
December to the third Tuesday of January. Governor Shunk resigned 
on the 9th day of July, 1848, when William Freame Johnston, of Arm- 
strong, who was Speaker of the Senate, by virtue of his office, became 
Governor until the third Tuesday of January, 1849. In the mean time 
Governor Johnston had been elected at the October election in 1848, 
and on the third Tuesday of January, 1849, was inaugurated, and served 
a full term. Andrew Gregg Curtin, of Centre County, was Governor for 
two terms, covering the entire period of the Rebellion, 
Pattison was elected on Nov. 7, 1882, to serve as Goveri 
from the third Tuesday in January (the 16th), 1883 ; he 
yearsof age, being our youngest Governor. Mifflin, at his inauguration, 
was forty -six; McKean, sixty-five ; Snyder, forty-nine; Findlay, forty- 
nine; Hiester, sixty-eight; Shulze, forty-eight; Wolf, fifty-two ; Ritner, 
fifty-five; Porter, fifty-one; Shunk, fifty-seven; Johnston, forty; Big- 
ler, thirty-eight; Pollock, forty-five; Packer, fifty-one; Curtin, forty- 
four; Geary, forty-eight; Hartranft, forty-three, and Hoyt, forty-nine 
yeara of age'. The Constitution of 1790 provided that a Governor could 
be elected for three terms successively. The amended Constitution of 
I 1838 limited the time to two terms, and that of 1S73 to one term of four 
1 years. Philadelphia was the capital of the commonwealth until 1799, 
when' the seat of government was removed to Lancaster, where it con- 
tinned until 1812, when Harrisburg was made the capital. Of these 
eighteen former Governors of the State, only four are now living, 
I namely: Pollock, Curtin, Hartranft, and Hoyt. 

Robert Emory 
>r for four years 
8 but thirty-two 





Peter Alrichs. 


John Guest 


Jobu Barnes. 

Samuel Finney. 

Nicholas Sewlin. 

John Blunston. 

Pliiiieas Ponibeilou. 


Jamas Logan. 

WilliHm Kmmplon. 

John Finney. 

Edward GrooQ. 


Roger Mompesson. 

Robert Turner. 

William Trent. 


Fr«Dci8 Harrison. 


William Penn, Jr. 

Arthor Cooke. 

Richard Hill. 


MiO. William Dyer. 

George Roche. 

Griffith Jonea. 

Joseph Pidgeon. 

Jamee Claypoole. 


Isaac Norris. 

John BriBtow. 

Anthony Palmer. 

Joseph Growden. 


Jonathan Dickin^n. 

Samuel Carpenter. 

Robert Asshetou. 

John Eckley. 


Col. John French. 


Barttiolomew Coppock. 

Thomas blasters. 

William Tardley. 

Andrew Hamilton. 

Samuel Riobardaon. 

Henry Brooke. 

John d'Haaa. 


William Assheton. 


John Hill. 


William Fishbouru.^ 

William Stockdale. 

Josiah Kolfe. 

John Curtis. 


Francis Rawle. 


Griffith Owen. 


Dr. Thomas Graeme. 

Thomaa Clirton. 


Evan Owen. 

Thomas Duckelt. 


Clement Pliimsted. 

John Brinckloe.i 


Samuel Uasell. 


Andrew Robeson. 

Thomas Lawrence. 

Patrick Bol.inson. 

Ralph Assheton. 


Lawrence Cock. 


Thomas Griftitts. 

William Salway. 

Charles Read. 

Georse Forman. 


Abram Taylor. 


Charles Sanders. 

Robert Stretteil. 

John Donaldson. 

William Till. 


Anthony Morris. 


Benjamin Shoemaker. 

David Lloyd.5 

James llninilton. 

Caleb Puscy. 


Lawrence Growden. 

George Maris. 

William Logan. 

John Williams. 

Joseph Turner. 

Richard Halliwell. 

TliomiiH llopkinson. 

Robert Clifton. 


Rev. Richard Peters. 

Richard Wilson. 


John I'enn. 


Edward Shippen. 


Lyn-Ford Lardner.^ 


William Rodney.i 

Dr. Thomas Cudwnlude 


Richard Hough. 


Benjamin Chew. 

Jasper Teatea. 

John Mifflin. 

Samuel Preston. 


John Moland. 

Tliomas Fenwick. 


Richard Penn. 

Robert French. 


James Tilghman. 

Thomas Story. 


Edward Shippon, Jr. 

Humphrey Murry. 

Andrew Allen. 


EltcUd aider I/i< QmtlUuUon of \%Ti, tc pruiite In Ihe Senate. 

John Lalla, elected Nov. 3,1874 

Charles W. Stone, elecle<l Nov. 6, 1878 

Cliauncey F. Black, elected Nov. 7, 1882 

I Brlnckloe, CUrk, FlabboorD, Murry, William and Cnsar, and Rod- 
Day la the spelling In their siguaturos. Despite the utmost care, these 
namsa have been mlB*|>elt heretofore. 

«"Sl«.— Having had some experience of Your Loyalty to Our moat 
gracious Soveraign KiMO WiLtlAM and nidelity to Our Proprietor I 
havelhouithl Att to Nominate You One of the Proprietors Counclll for 
this Oovernm'. And in Order of Seltlitig affairs of great Imgiorteucy I 
doa require you to Attend me at Philnilelpbia the Afluenth day Instance. 
8a I bid You heartily farewell 

'* Your affectionate friend 

"PhlU'lelphiathlB7lhaho rest defaced) " Wh Harxiiah. 

"To Davi.l l.loyd. Theae" 

David Lloyd aral sat at the Council held April 2:1, I(ja6. I am In- 
debted to Furman Shep{<ard. Esq., for Ihlj intereatlng paper. 

> Ula signature was Lyn-Ford ; he died Oct. 6, 1774, aged flfly-eight. 

To THE Continental Congress.^ 

Samuel Rhoads 1774 to 1775 

Thomas Mifflin 1774 to 1775 and 1782 to 1784 

.lohn Dickinson 1774 to 1776 

Denjamin Franklin 1775 to 177S 

Tllonias Willing 1775 to 1771! 

Robert Morris 1775 to 1778 

Andrew Allen 1775 to 1776 

James Wilson 1775 to 1778 and 1785 to 1786 

Benjamin Rush 1770 to 1777 

George Clymer 1776 to 1778 and 178U to 1782 

Daniel Rolierdeau 1777 to 1779 

.Jonathan liaynrd Smith 1777 to 1778 

Joseph Reed 1777 to 1773 

Dr. Samuel DuBield 1777 to 1779 

William Shippen, Sr 1778 to 17Scl 

James Searie 1778 to 1780 

Frederiik .Xnpnstus Muhlenberg 1779 lo 1780 

Jared Incei-soll 1780 lo 1781 

Timothy Mallack 1780 to 1781 

Thonms Fitzsimons 1782 to 178:i 

Ricliard Peters 17l'2 to 17S:i 

Cadwalarier Morris 1783 to 1785 

Joseph Reed 1784 to 1785 

Matthew Clarkson 1785 to 1787 

Charles Peltit 1785 to 17S7 

Jolm Bavai-d 1785 to 1789 

Gen. Arthur St. Chiir 1785 to 17S7 

Samuel Meredith ITSO to 1789 

William Bingham 178li lo 17S'I 

John Armstrong, Jr 1787 to 1789 

To THE Congress or the United States. 

Frederick Augustus Muhlenberg 1789 lo 1707 

George Clymer 1789 to 1791 

Thomas FitMimons 1789 to 1795 

John Swanwick 1795 to 1799 

Blair McClenachun 1797 to 1799 

Robert Wain 1799 to 1801 

Michael Leib 1799 to 18116 

William Jones 1801 to 1803 

Joseidi Clay 18u:i to 1808 

Dr. John Porter 1800 to 1811 

Dr. Benjamin Say 1808 to 1811 

Rev. Dr. Jiinies Miluor 1811 to 18l:i 

Dr. Adam Seyhert 1611 to 1815 and 1817 to 1819 

Charles Jared Ingersoll 1813 to 1815 and 1841 to 1849 

Jolin Conard 1813 to 1815 

Jonathan Williams 1815 to 1817 

Joseph Hopkinson 1815 to 1819 

William Milnor.Jr 1815 to 1817 and 1821 to 1823 

John Sergeant 1817 to 1823 and 1837 to 1841 

Joseph Hemphill 1819 to 1826 and 1827 to 1831 

Thomas Forrest 1819 to 1821 

Samuel Breck 182:) lo 1825 

Daniel H Miller 1823 to 1831 

John Wurtz 1825 to 1827 

Thomas Kittera,* 1820 to 1827 

Dr. Joel B.Sutherland 18ii7 to 18.37 

Henry Horn 18U to 1833 

John C. Watmough 1831 to 1836 

Horace Binney 1833 to 1835 

James Harper 1833 to 1837 

Joseph K. ed Ingersoll 1835 to 1837 and 1841 to 1849 

Michael Woolston Ash 18:15 to 18:17 

Lemuel Paynter 1837 tt> 1841 

George Washington Toland ls:i7 to 1S43 

Charles Nsylor 1837 to 1841 

Charles Brown 1841 to 1843 and 1S47 to 1849 

Edward Joy Morris 1843 to 1846 and 1857 to 1861 

.lohn T. Smith 1843 to 1845 

Lewis Cllnrles Levin 1845 to 1861 

John H. Campbell 1845 to 1847 

Joseph R. Chandler 1849 to 1865 

Henry I). Moore 1849 to 1853 

John Robbins, Jr.« 1849 to 1855 

Thomas B.Florence 1851 to 1861 

William II. Witte 1863 to 1865 

John McNalr 1853 to 1855 

Job Rolierls Tyson 1856 to 18.57 

< The Assembly of Pennsylvania elected the members of tlie Conti- 
nental Congress during the Confederacy on general ticket. The names 
here given arc such of the members as are known to bavo been residents 
of the city and county of Piilladelphla. There wore otlieia chosen from 
other parts of the Slate who are not named here. There is also some 
difficulty In assigning some of them to their proper residences, as they 
had estates anil seats in Phllndelphia and In other counties. For in- 
stance Joseph Galloway, In Congress 1774-75, was in liie Assembly a 
delegate from Bucks County, although most of the year lie lived In Phil- 
adelphia. The same conditions apply to Charles II phreys, member 

of Congreas 1774-76. 

* Vice Hemphill, resigned. 

' Died April 27, 1880, aged seventy-two years. 



Williiim Millward 18 

Jacoli Broom 

John Cadwalader 

.lames Landy 

Henry Myer Phillips 

Owen Jones 

Jolin P. Verree '. 

Jolin Wood 

William Eckliardt Lehman... 

William Darrah Kelley 

William Morris Davis 

V, to 1657 an 

1 1859 
. 1861 
d 1873 
. 18i;7 




Samuel J. Randall 

63 to 1871 an 

Leonard Myers 

Martin Kussell Thayer 

John V. Creely 

Caleb N. Tavlor 


Alfred C. Harmer 

Nathaniel Chapman Freeman 
Henry H. Bingham 







William .Maclay, elected 

Robert Morris, elected 

Albert Gallatin, elected 

James Ross, elected 

William Bingham, elected.... 
Peter Muhlenberg, elected... 
George Logan, elected 





Andrew Gregg, elected 

Michael Leib, elected 

Abner Lacock, elected 

Jonathan Roberts, elected.... 

Walter Lowne, elected 

William Findlav, elected 

William Marks, elected 

Isaac D. Barnard, elected 

George Mifflin Dallas, elected 

William Wilkins, elected 

Samuel McLean, elected 

Janie.'J Buchanan, elected 

Daniel Sturgeon, elected 

Simon Cameron, elected 

Simon Cameron, elected 

Simon Cameron, elected 

James Cooper, elected 

Richard Brodhead, Jr., elecle 

William Bigler, elected 

Edgar Cowan, elected 

David Wilmot, elected 

Charles R. Buckalew, elected 




. 1833 


William A. Wallace, elected 

James Donald Canieron,l elected 

John I. Milchell,2 elected 





Eichaid Peters. 


John Strohn 


Samuel Prwell. 


im Heister 


Anthony Morris. 


Benjamin Crispi 

1795 Bingham. 



am Bigler. 


Robert Hare. 


William P. Wile 



John Wood. 


Daniel L. Sherwood. 


Samuel Maclay. 



es Gibbons 


Robert Whitehill. 


William Willian 



James Brady. 

William F. Johnston. 


Presly C. Lane. 


George Dars 



John Tod. 



line Best. 


Isaac Weaver. 



min Matthias. 


William Marks, Jr. 



H. Walker 


Thomas Burnside. 


Thomas CarBon. 


Ale-xander Mahon. 


Maxwell McCas 



Daniel Sturgeon. 


William M. 



William G. Hawkins. 






Dr. Jesse R. Burden. 


David Taggart. 


Thomas Ringland. 






Jacob Kern. 







T. S. Cunningham. 



am M. 




Dr. Jesse R. Burden. 


Robert M. Palmer. 


Charles B. Penrose. 


Louis W. Ha 



William T. Dodgers. 


George V. L 


Ebenezer Kingsbury, Jr. 



P. Penny. 


Charles B. Penrose. 



im J. Turrell. 

J. H. Ewing. 


David Flemi 


1867. Louis W. Hall. 

1868. James L.Graham. 

1869. Wilmer Worthingto 

1870. Charles H. Stinson. 

1871. William A.Wallace. 

1872. James S. Rntan. 

1873. George H. Anderson. 

1874. Butler B. Strang. 


^o tempore. 

George H. Cutler, elected Jan. 4, 1875 

Elisha W. Davis, elected March 18, 1875 

John C. Newniyer, elected May 6,1876 

Thomas VernoM Cooper, elected March 23,1877 

Andrew Jackson Herr, elected May 24,1878 

John Lamon, elected June 6,1879 

William Imlay Newell, elected Jan. 4, 1881 

Hugh McNeill, elected June 9, 1881 

John Edgar Reyburn, elected Jan. 2, 1883 


Richard Ingelo, appointed Oct. 27, 1682 

Dr. Nicholas More, appointed 2 3 mo., 1683 

William Markham, appointed 28 3 mo. ,1685 

David Jamison, appointed April 26, 1693 

Patrick Robinson, appointed 3 4 mo., 1693 

James Logan, appointed 15 7 mo., 1701 

Robert Assbeton, deputy, appointed 24 9 mo., 1709 

Ralph Asshetoii, deputy, appointed Oct. 12,1713 

George Barclay, deputy, appointed May 31,1717 

Dr. Patrick Baird, appointed May 20, 1723 

Robert Charles,^ appointed Sept. 15, 1726 

Thomas Lawrie, appointed Aug. 1, 1738 

Dr. Patrick Baird, appointed July 21, 1740 

Rev. Richard Peters, appointed Feb. 14,1742-43 

William Peters, deputy, appointed Feb. 15, 1758 

Joseph Shipiien, Jr Jan. 2, 1762 


1682. Dr. Nicholas More.< 
1682-83. Dr. Thonuis Wyni 

1683. John Songhurst.6 

1684. Dr. Nicholas More.: 
1686-88. John White. 
1689, Arthur Cooke. 
1690-93. Joseph Growden.s 
1092. William Clark. 
1694. David Lloyd. 

1696. Edward Shippen. 
1096. John Simcock. 

1697. John Blunston. 
1700-2. Joseph Growden. 
1702-3. No organization. 
1703-6. David Lloyd. 
1705-B. Joseph Growden. 
1706-10. David Lloyd. 
1710-12. Richard Hill. 
1712-13. Isaac Norris. 
1713-14. Joseph Growden. 
1714-15. David Lloyd. 
1715-16. Joseph Growden. 
1716-17. Richard Hill. 
1717-18. William Trent. 
1718-19. Jonathan Dickinsi 
1719-20. William Trent. 
1720-21. Isaac Noriis. 
1721-22. Jeremiah Langhoi 

1722-23. Joseph Growden. 
1723-24. David Lloyd. 
1724-26. William Biles. 
1725-29. David Lloyd. 
1729-33. Andrew Hamilton. 
1733-34. Jeremiah Langhorn 
1734-39. Andrew Hamilton. 
1739^5. John Kinsey. 
1846. John Wright (sick). 
1745-50. John Kinsey.^ 
1750-56. Isaac Norris. 
1756. Benjamin Chew.M 
1756-58. Isaac Norris. 
1758-59. Isaac Leech. ^^ 

Isaac Norris. 
1759. Isaac Leech. 
1759-64. Isaac Norris. 
1764. Benjamin Franklin. 
1764-65. Isaac Norri«. 
1765-66. Joseph Vox. 
1765-69. Joseph Galloway. 
1769. John Fox.12 
1769-73. Joseph Galloway. 
1773. Thomas McKean.l= 
1773-74. Joseph Galloway. 
1774-75. Edward Biddle. 
1776. John Morton.'s 
1776-76. John Morton. 

1 The unexpired term of his father, who resigned ; and on Jan. 21, 
1879, he was re-elected for six years from March 4, 1879. 

2 Elected for six years, on Feb. 2:3, 1881. 

3 In 9 Pennsylvania Archi 
given as provincial secretary 
seph Growden in 1736, but thi 
noting such appointments. 

* During the first session at Chester. 

5 Second session, 1682, and for 1083. Died 1st mo. 16, 160: 

6 Deputy, 24th 8th mo., 168-3. 

' In place of Francis Fincher, declined. 

s Minutes of the session of 1691-92 are missing. 

9 Died before Aug. 9, 1760. 

1^ But being called to Council, it vacated his seat 
11 Leech was elected to serve during the frequ 
1= Part of session only. 
13 Elected on March 16, 1776, for part of session. 

I (2d Series), p. 634, John Georges is 
1733, Robert Charles in 1736, and Jo- 
are no entries in the Colonial Becords 

the Assembly. 
t sickness of Mr. 



1784-S5. John Ba.vard. 
1TS5-88. Thuniaa Mifflin. 
178S-89. Richard Peters. 

1776-77. John Jncol.s. 
1777-«0. John Baynrd. 
n80-«3. F. A. Sluhlenberg. 
1783-84. George Gray. 


1791. William Bingham. 

1843. Ueudrick D. Wright. 

1793. Gerard ns Wjrnkoop. 

1814. James Ross Snowden. 

1794. George Ijitimer. 

1845. Findley Petterson. 

1799 Cadwalader Evans. 

1847. James Cooper. 

1800. Isaac W.-aver, Jr. 

1848. William F. Packer. 

1804. Simon Snjrder. 

1850. John S. McCalniout. 

1806. Charles Porter. 

1851. John Cessna. 

18C7. SimoD Snyder. 

1852. John S. Rhey. 

1809. Jamee Eugle. 

185.1. William P. Schell. 

1810. John Weber. 

1854. E. B. Chase. 

1812. Jo"hn Tod. 

1855. Henry K. Strong. 

1813. Robert Smith. 

1856. Richardson L. Wright. 

1814. John St. Clair. 

1857. J. Lawrence Getz. 

1815. Jaroh Holgate. 

1858. A. B. Longnker. 

1816. Bees Hill. 

1860. W. A. C. Lawrence. 

1818. William Davidson. 

1861. Ellsha W. Davis. 

1819. Bees Hill. 

1862. John Rowe. 

1820. Joseph Lawrence. 

1863. John Cessna. 

1821. John Gilmore. 

1864. Henrj- C. Johnson. 

1822. Joseph Lawrence. 

1865. Arthur G. Olmsled. 

182S. Dr. Joel B. Sutherland. 

1866. James R. Kelly. 

1826. Joseph Bitner. 

1807. John P. Glass. 

1828. Ner Middleswarth. 

1868. Elisha W. Davis. 

1830. Frederick Smith. 

1869. John Clark. 

1832. John Laporte. 

1860. Butler B. Strang. 

1833. Dr. Samuel Anderson. 

1871. James H. Webb. 

1833. Janiea Flndlay. 

1872. William Elliott. 

1834. William Patterson. 

1874. Hugh H. McCormick. 

1835. James Thompson. 

1875. Samuel F. Pattenjon. 

1836. Ner .Middleswarth. 

1877. Elijah Reed Myer. 

1837. Levis Dewart. 

1879. Henry M. Long. 

1839. William Hopkins. 

1881. Benjamin L. Hewitt. 

1841. William A. Crabb. 

1833. John Egner Fan nee. 

1842. James Boas Snowden. 



1683-86. John Southvurth. 

1722-23. Aquilla Rose. 

1886-89. John Claypoole. 

1723-28. Thomas Leech. 

1689-92. David Lloyd. 

1728-30. John Roberti. 

1692-95. William AUoway. 

1730-30. Joseph Growdon. 

1695-98. FnincU Cooke. 

173I-.-51. Benjamin Franklin. 

169S-99. Jonathan Dickinson. 

1751-56. William Franklin. 

16W. Stephen Olcman. 

1766-73. Charles Moore. 

1700. Aareliua Hoskins. 

1776. Caleb Davis, pro (em. 

1701-5. John Antrohus. 

1777. John Morris, Jr. 

1706. Maurice Lisle. 

1779. Thomas I'aine. 

1706-9. Thomas Hakin. 

1780. Samuel Sterrett. 

1709. Joseph Willcox. 

1783. Peter Zuchnry Lloyd. 

.1710-11. Richard Heath. 

1790. Joseph Redman. 

1711-17. Thcnias Wilson. 

1789-90. Jacob Shallus, auinlanl. 

1717-22. Maurice Lisle. 





Richard Reynolds. 1728. James Slackey. 

William Elllngworth. 1731. John Campbell. 

George Moore. 1732. John Remington 

Charlea Ware. 1736. Stephen Potts. 

Thomas Curtis. 1741. Thomas Bur<liu. 

Daniel Smith. 1749. F.dwanl Kelly. 

William Woodroan»ey. 17.'.0. David Edwards. 

John Oram. 17.'i8. Andrew McNair.i 

Nicholas Rosogan.' 1789. Joseph Fry. 


Peter Worrall. 1741. Samuel KIrke. 

John Eyer. 1771. William 8hedd.> 

Jame* Mackey. 1789. Jame* Uartln. 
Jams* PItcbsrd. 

> In oSc* nnUI 1725. 'Still In office In 1775. 

• In *'Klnat«or Common Council," this name is spelled Sheed, pp. 


Thomas Lloyd, commiasioued 27 10 br., 1683 

Thomns Stor'v,< couimissioued 25 2 mo., 1700 

Thomas Grilfllts,5 coniuii*.ioned Nov. 3, 1727 

" Lyn-Ford Lardner, coninnssioiifd Dec. 12, 1746 

Bichard Hocklev, commissioned March 28, 17.13 

Edmund Physick, conmiissioned Jan. 1, 170<1 

Timothy .Matlack,' commissioned — , 1777 


Timothy Matlack, appointed March 6, 1777 

John Arnistrung, Jr., appuiuted March 25, I78;i 

Charles Biddle. appointed Oct. 23, 1787 

James Trimble,: appointed .'. Nov. 12, 1788 

Alexander James Dallas, appointed Jan. 19, 1791 

Thomas SIcKean Thompson, appointed April 18, 1801 

Nathaniel B. Boileau, appointed Dec. 20, 1808 

Thomas Sergeant, appointed Dec. 16,1817 

Samuel D. Ingham, appointed July 6, 1819 

Andrew Gregg, appointed Dec. 19, 1820 

Moltoti Cropper Rogers, appointed Dec. 16, 1823 

Msj. Isaac D. Barnard,^ appoiTited Jan. , 2,1826 

Calvin Blvthe, appointed Nov. 28, 1827 

Samuel McKean, appointed Dec. 10,1829 

James Findlay, appointed Dec. 17,1833 

Thomas H. Burrowes. appointed Dec. 15,1835 

Francis Rahn Shunk,' appointed Jan. 15, 1839 

Anson Virgil Parsons, appointed Jan. 25, 1842 

Charles McClure, appointed Feb. 20, 1843 

Jesse Miller, appointed Jan. 21, 1845 

Townsend Haines, appointed July 29,1848 

Alexander L. Russell, appointed Jan. 25, 1850 

Francis Wade Hughes, appointed Jan. 21, 1852 

Charles A. Black, appointed March 16, 1863 

Andrew Gregg Cnrtin, appointed Jan. 17, 1855 

William M. Hiester, appointed Jan. 20, 1858 

Eli Slifer, appointed Jan. 10, 1861 

Francis Jordan, appointed Jan. 16, 1867 

Matthew Stanley Quay, appointed Jan. 22, 1873 

John Blair Liun. appointed May 15, 1878 

Matthew Stanley Quay, appointed — , 1879 

Francis Jordan, appointed Nov. 4, 188i 

William S. Stenger, appointed Jan. 16, 1883 


Samuel Carpenter, deputy 28 5 mo., 1685 

Robert Turner, in office Aug. 8, 1093 

Samuel Carpenter, in office Aug. 28, 1701 

James Fox, before 20 2 mo., 1709 

Samuel Carpenter, appointed March 6, 1710-11 

Samuel Preston,"' appointed 6 mo. 7,1714 

Michael Lightfoot, appointed Nov. 17, 1743 

Samuel Preston Moore, appointed Dec. 4, 1764 

Owen .Tones, appointed Oct. 16, 1768 

Michiiel Hillegas," appointed June 30, 1775 

David Rittenhouae, appcdnted Jan. 14, 1777 

Christian Febiger,i= cnimissioned Nov. 13, 1789 

Peter Baynton, conimi«sioned Jan. 10, 1797 

Jacob Carpenter, in ollire Jan. 13, 1801 

Isaac Weaver, Jr., in office 1802 to 18(i6 

Andrew Gregg, in office 1800 to 1807 

William Findlav, in office 1807 to 1817 

Richard M. Grain, in office 1817 to 1820 

John I). Trevor, in office 1820 to 1821 

Willinm Clark, In office 1821 to 1827 

Alexander Mahon, in office 1827 to 18.35 

Joseph Lawrence, in office 1835 to 1836 

Daniel Stnrgeon, in office 1830 to 1840 

Almond H. Reed, in office 1840 to 1841 

John Gilmore, in office 1841 to 1842 

Job Mann, in office 1S42 to 1845 

James Ross Snowden, in office 1846 to 1847 

John Banks, in office 1847 t.) 1848 

Arnold Plnmer, in office 1848 to 1849 

Gideon J. Ball, in office 1849 to 1860 

'* Edward Shippen, Griffith Owen, and James Logan are mentioned on 
July 11, 1702, and on Feb. 3, 1705, as dopulies to the Master of Rolls. 

f* In office (see votes of Assembly) until 1746. 

«Hc was sick and in office Feb. 14, 1809 ; 14 C. R., 605, and Timothy 
Matlack, Jr., was his father's deputy in 1809 (see "Patent Book," No. 
60, p. 277. 

' Assistant secretary from Nor. 12, 1788, to Jan. 14, 1836. 

* Mr. Barnard was a member of the Delaware County bar, previously 
« mi^or In the regular army of the United Slates during the war of 1812. 
(See Martin's " History of Chester," 410 and 474.) 

■ Not Itawn, as In Armor's "Governors of Pennsylvania." 
"> Samuel Preston died September, 1743, aged eighty. He was ap- 
pointed by the Assembly in the place of Carpenter, deceased. 
" See 10 C. R., 281, and "The Accounts of Pennsylvanio." 
"Reappointed Sept. 4, 1790. His last commission is dated January, 
1790. He died Sept. 20, 1790, aged forty-nine. 



Johu M. Bickel.l in office 1860 to 1854 

Joseph Bailey, in office 1854 to 1855 

Eli Slifer, in office 1855 to 1856 

Henry S. Magraw, in office 1856 to 1859 

Eli Slifer, in office 1859 to 1861 

Henry D. Moore, in office 1801 to 1863 

William V. MoGrath, in office 1863 to 1864 

Henry D. Moore, in office 1864 to 1865 

William H. Kemble, in office 1865 to 1868 

William W.Irwin, in office 1868 to 1869 

Bobert W. Mackey, in office 1869 to 1870 

William W. Irwin, in office 1870 to 1871 

Robert W. Mackey, in office 1871 to 1876 

Henry Rawle, in office 1876 to 1878 

Amos C. Noye9,= in office 1878 to 1880 

Samuel Butler, in office May 3, 1880 

Silas M. Baily, in office May 1, 1882 

Appointed by WiUiam Penn tlh mo. 30tt, 1681. 
William Crispin. John Bezar. 

Nathaniel Allen. 

The original commission is in the possession of the Historical Society 
of Pennsylvania, and hangs framed in their fire-proof. 

The names of the witnesses are Richard Vickris, Charles Jones, Jr. 
Ralph Withers, Thomas Callowhill, and Philip Th. Lehi 


The office of secretary of the land-office was abolished by act of April 
17, 1843, and the duties of the office were transferred to the surveyors- 


1732. Thomas Penn. 

1734. John Penn. 
Thomas Penn. 

1735. Thomas Penn. 
1743. George Thomas. 

1747. Anthony Palmer. 

1748. James Hamilton . 

1764. Bobert Hunter Jl 
1756. William Denny. 
1759. James Hamilton. 
1763. John Penn.» 
1771. Richard Penn.< 
1773. John Penn. 

1684. Thomas Lloyd. 

James Claypctole. 

Robert Turner. 
1686. Thomas Ellis, deputy. 

John Goodsonn, deputy. 

William Markham, secr( 
1689. William Markham. 

Robert Turner. 

Dr. John Goodsonn. 

Samuel Carpenter. 
1694. Thomas Holme. 

Robert Turner. 

Arthur Cooke. 

Samuel Carpenter. 

Dr. John Goodsonn. 

Francis Rawle. 

Phineas Pemberton. 

1701. Edward Shippen. 

Griffith Owen. 

Thomas Story. 

James Logan. 
1711. Edward Shippen. 

Samuel Carpenter, 

Richard Hill. 

Isaac Norris. 

James Logan. 
1725. Richard Hill. 

Isaac Norris. 

James Logan, 

Bobert Assbeton. 

Thomas Griffith. 
1728. Eichard Hill. 

Isaac Norris. 

Samuel Preston. 

James Logan. 

In 1741, James Steel, Richard Peters, and Lyn-Ford Lardner i 
pointed agents of the proprietary estates of Jolm, Thomas, and 



June 13, 1801 

Office abolished by act of March 29, 1809, and the duliea devolved 
upon the State treasurer, and the books placed iu charge of the secre- 
tary of the land-office. 


Capt. John Blackwell, commissioned Sept. 

Samuel Jennings,^ commissioned luly 

Robert Turner, commissioned June 1, 

James Logan, commissioned Oct. 29, 

Francis Steel, commissioned Jan. 30, 

James Steel, commissioned Dec. 16, 

Lyn-Ford Lardner, commissioned Aug. 8, 

Richard Hockley, commissioned March 28, 

Edmuud Physick, commissioned Jan. 1, 

Francis Johnston, commissioned April 10, 

Frederick Aug. Muhlenberg, commissioned..Jau. 8, 
John McKissick, 

William Markham. 
Job n Georges. 
Eev. Richard Peters. 
William Peters. 
James Tilghman. 
David Kennedy. 
James Tilghman. 
David Kennedy. 
John Hall. 
Nathan Luf borough. 

1800. Tench Ccte. 

1801. Andrew Ellicott. 
1809. John Cochran. 
1818. William Clark. 
1821. James Brady. 
1824. Joshua Dickerson. 
1830. Samuel Workman. 
1836. John Gebhardt. 

1839. John Klingensmith, Jr. 
1842. William Hopkins. 

1 Died April 20, 1881, aged seventy-two. 
> Ex-Treasurer Noyes died Sept. 2, 1880. 

3 Benjami 


1 Chambers, deputy, 

ned Nov. 1, 1690. 


Philip Th, Lehnmann, commissioned 2 2 mo., 1683 

William Markham, commissioned 28 3 mo., 1685 

Patrick Robinson, commissioned 3 4 mo., 1693 

James Logan, commissioned 27 8 mo., 1701 

Rev. Richard Petera, commissioned 6 4 mo., 1747 

Joseph Shippen, Jr., commissioned Jan. 2,1762 


Silas Crispin, appointed — , 1681 

Thomas Hoi me,6 commissioned 18 2 mo., 1682 

Edward Penington, commissioned Feb. 20, 1698 

Thomas Fairmau,' commissioned Oct. 29, 1702 

Jacob Taylor.s commissioned Nov. 20, 1706 

Benjamin Eastburn, commiasioued Oct. 29,1733 

William Parsons, commissioned Aug. 22, 1741 

Nicholas Scull, commissioned June 14,1748 

John Lukens,^ commissioned Dec. 8,1761 

Daniel Brodhead, commissioned Nov. 3, 1789 

Samuel Cochran, commissioned April 23, 1800 

Andrew Porter, commissioned May 10, 1809 

Richard T. Leech, commissioned Dec. 7, 1813 

Jacob Spangler, commissioned Feb. 13, 1818 

Samuel Cochran, commissioned May 11, 1821 

Gabriel Hiester, commissioned May 11,1824 

Jacob Spangler, commissioned May 10, 1830 

John Taylor, commissioned May 10, 1836 

Jacob Sallade, commissioned May 10, 1839 

John Laporte. commissioned May 10, 1845 

Johu Porter Brawley, commissioned May 5, 1851 

John Rowe,i" commissioned May 4,1857 

William H. Keim, commissioned May 7, 1860 

Henry Souther, commissioned Dec. 27, 1861 

James P. Barr, commissioned May 4, 1863 

Jacob M. Campbell, commissioued May 7, 1866 

Bobert B. Beath, commissioned May 6, 1872 

By the Constitution of 1873 the office of surveyor- 
general was abolished, and the duties transferred to a 
new department called internal affairs, to go into 
effect May 4, 1875. 


Term of office, jour years, 

William McCandless, commissioned May 4,1875 

Aaron K. Dunkel, commissioned May 6, 1879 

J. Simpson Africa, elected Nov. 7, 1882 


1779. John Nixon. 

1780. William Govett. 
William Geddes. 
Samuel Miles. 
John Purviance. 
John Sbee. 

1780. Jacob Morris. 
Joseph Dean. 

1781. Jona. Bayard Smith. 

* Sons of Richard Peun. 

s Davis, in his " History of Bucks County," erroneously calls Col. Wil- 
liam Markham " Penn's surveyor-general," p. 106. 

6 Thomas Holme died 1696. He was a native of Waterford, Ireland. 

7 In a note to p. 182, 1 " Logan Papers," surveyor-general, 3d 2 mo. 

8 Jacob Taylor died February, 1745-46. 

9 Lukens died in 1789. 

M John Eowe died Dec. 27, 1880, aged sixty-six. 

" The " Accounts of Pennsylvania" is a very interesting publication, 
containing the names of all persons in the State who paid taxes during 
the above period. 





Richard Hocklej.i 


George R. Espy. 


Edward Fox.« 


William F. Packer. 


John NicholsuD. 


John N. Purviance. 


John DoDDaldaon. 


Ephraim Banks. 


JoDatban Bayard Smith. 


Jacob Fry, Jr. 


Samuel Bryan. ^ 


Thomaa E. Cochran. 


George Duffleld. 


Isaac Slenker. 


John Eean. 


John Fred. Hartranft 


Richard M. Grain. 


Harrison Allen. 


George Bryan. 


Justis F. Temple. 


Jamee Puncan. 


William P.Schell. 


David Slann. 


John A. Lemon. 


Daniel Sturgeon. 


Jerome B. Niles'. 


Nathaniel P. Hobart. 

Dr. DaTid Stanton was elected auditor-general in 1871, but died before 
■BBuming office, and Hartranft held over until December, 1872, by direc- 
tion of the Legislature. 


Qfice created by Act of April 13, 1782. 

John Nicholson, commissioned Nov. 8, 1782 

John Donnaldson, commissioned April 12, 1794 

Samuel Br) an. commissioned Oct. 13,1801 

George Duffleld, commissioned Oct. 15, 1805 


Act 0/ March 27, 1789. 

John Donnaldeon, commissioned March 27, 1769 

Samuel Bryan, in office — , 1796 


Henry Osboume, commissioned Feb. 20, 1781 

John Nicholson, commissioned Oct. 2, 1787 

Clement Biddle, commissioned Nov. 25, 1795 

William N. Irvine, commissioned Sept. 14, 1815 

The office of escheator-general was abolished in 1821, and the duties 
thereof transferred to the auditor-general by the act. 


John Bull, appointed June 1", 1777 ; Tacated Jan. 7, 1778 

James Wilkinson,* appointed , ; vacated Oct. 2, 1784 

John Armstrong, appointed Oct. 2, 1784; vacated — , 

Jcslah Harmar,' appointed , 1793; vacated Feb. 27,1799 

Peler Baynton, appoinle<i Feb. 27, 1799; vacated May 1, 1800 

Richard Uumplun, appointed -, 1802; vacated........ — , 

Mahlon Dickel^un. appointed Jan. 1, 18(>5; vacated July 22, 1808 

Thomas McKran, Jr., appointed July 23, 1808 ; vacated... — , 

William Ree<l commissioned Aug. 3,1811 

William N. Inine, commissioned July 6,1813 

William Duncan, commissioned Sept. 20, 1813 

John Bl. H.> nemaii, coranii'sioned Aug. 1, 1814 

Mathanlel B Bi.ileau, commissioned March 29, 1816 

Wllllum N Irvine, commissioned Oct. 1, 181C 

Bol«!rt Carr, commissioned Aug. 23, 1821 

George Bryan Porter, commissioned Aug. 4.1824 

Simon Cameron, cmniiseioned Aug. 19, 1829 

Samuel Power, c<im missioned Hay 3, 18:i0 

Wlllism Piper, c..mmlw.ioned Aug. 3, 1836 

James Kennedy MiHirhead. commissioned Aug. 3, 1839 

Adam DiUer, commis.ioned Aug. 12, 1839 

George W. B..wnmn, commissioned Aug. 3, 1846 

William H. Irwin, commissioned Aug. 3, 1848 

Jsme* Keenan, commissioned Feb. 2, 1862 

Osorgs W. B.iwnmn. commissioned _ Oct. 28, 1862 

Thomas J. Power, commissioned -.Aug. 3, 1864 

Wwin C. Wll«,n, comml«ilone<l Feb. 6, 1858 

Edward M. Bid.lle, n,mmiB.|one<l „ April 17, 1861 

Alexander L. KiiMell, comniissloned Jan. 9, 1862 

David B. McCreary, commissioned Oct. 11, 1867 

Alexander L. Russell, conimlnloned Jan. 4, 1870 

James William Latia, commissioned June 1, 1873 

Pressly N. Unthrie, commissioned Jan. 16, 1883 

' i Frond's " History of Pennsylvania," p. 290. In Gordon's " History 
of Pennsylvania," p. 628, appendix, Richard Hockley Is called auditor- 
gsosral of the laod-offlco. 

'Davis' "History of Bucks," 703, "Auditor-General, Mr. Edward 

' For some account of Samuel Bryan, see United Blatra Gautte of Sept. 
7, 1842. I have a letter dated Hay 12, 180X, addressed to " Mr. Samnel 
Bryan, Esq., Register-General," Inclosing a " return of Exempts In the 
Connly of Bucks," signed "Joseph Hart, B. J." 

< Two adJnUnls-general have caramande<l the army of the Unltad 


Which supersedfd tin- CornmitUe July 24, 1776, appointed by the OommMom 
.. of the Slatr of Pemsylvaraa,from June 30, 1775, to Dec. 6, 1777. 


Benjamin Franklin, elected June 30, 1775 

Thomas Wharton, Jr., elected Aug. 6, 1776 

Vice-Pees ID ENTs. 

Robert Morris, elected June 30, 1776 

David Rittenhouse, elected Aug. 6, 1776 

Members of the Committee. 

John Dickinson. John Cadwalader. 

George Gray. Andrew .\llen. 

Henry Wyukoop. Owen Biddle. 

Anthony Wayne. Francis Johnston. 

Benjamin Bartholomew. Richard Reiley. 

George Ross. Samuel Morris, Jr. 

Michael Swope. Capt. Robert Whyte. 

John Montgomery. Samuel Miles (October, 1775) 

Edward Biddle. George Taylor. 

William Edmonds. Joseph Reed. 

Bernard Dougherty. Nicholas Fairlamb. 

Samuel Hunter. George Clymer. 

William Thompson. Samuel Howell. 

Thomas Willing. Alexander Wilcocks. 

Daniel Roberdeau. John Nixon. 

James Mease. Samuel Cadwalader Morris. 

James Biddle. John Bayard. 

Joseph Parker (1776). Francis Gurney. 

Michael Hillegas. William Lyons. 

David Rittenhouse. Nathaniel Falconer. 

James Cannon. Daniel Hunter. 

Joseph Blewer. David Epley. 

Frederick Kuhl. Joseph Dean. 

Col. John Bull. William Moore. 

Timothy Matlack. Thomas Fitzsimons. 

John Moore, Jonathan Bayard Smith, 

Henry Keppele, Jr. Peter Rhoads. 

John Weitzel. Andrew Caldwell. 

Samuel Morris, Sr. George Campbell. 

John Hubley. Joseph Marsh. 

John Maxwell Nesbit, treasurer. 

William Govett, clerk. 


Oct. 17, 1777, the Assembly enacted that the Supreme Executive Coun- 
cil and the following should he a Council of Safety : 

Col. John Bayard. 
Dr. Joseph Gardner, 
Jonathan Bayard Smith. 
Jonathan Si>rgeant. 
David Rittenhouse. 
Robert Whitehill. 

Christopher Marshall. 

Jacob Arndt. 

Col. Curtis Qnibb. 

James Cannon. 

James Smith, of Yorktown. 

William Henry, of Lancaster. 

SYLVANIA FROM 1777 TO 1790. 


Thomas Wharton, Jr., elected March 6, 1777 

George Bryan,' acting May 23, 1778 

Joseph Reed, elected Dec. 1. 1778 

William Mooi e, elected Nov. 14, 17S1 

John Dickinson, elected Nov. 7, 1782 

Benjamin Franklin, elected „ Oct. 18, 1785 

David Redick, acting Oct. 16, 1788 

Thomas Mifflin, elected Nov. 6, 1788 


George Bryan, elected March 5, 1777 

Matthew Smith, elected Oct. 11, 1779 

William Moore, elected Nov. II, 1779 

James Potter, elected Nov. 14, 1781 

^ Vice Wharton, deceased. 



James Ewing, elected Nov. 7,1782 

James Irvine, elected Nov. 6, 1784 

Charles Biddle, elected Oct. 10, 1786 

Peter Muhlenberg, elected Oct. 31, 1787 

David Redick, elected Oct. 14, 1788 

George Ross, elected. ...T.... Nov. 5, 1788 

Members or Ck)UNOiL. 

Thomas Wharton, Jr. James Irvine. 

George Bryan. George Wall, Jr. 

John Evans. John McDowell. 

JoDathau Hoge. Samuel John Atlee. 

George Taylor. Stephen Balliet. 

John Louden. Bernard Dougherty. 

John Proctor. Isaac Meason. 

John Hubley. John Neville. 

Col. Jacob Morgan. John Boyd. 

Col. Joseph Hart. Daniel Hieater. 

John Bailey. Charles Biddle. 

Thomas Urie. Richard McAllister. 

John Hambright. John Woods. 

James Edgar. James McLene. 

Jacob Arndt. Benjamin Franklin. 

Thomas Scott. Henry Hill. 

John Mackey. Evan Evans. 

Matthew Smith. Samuel Dean. 

James Read. Peter Muhlenberg. 

Joseph Reed. William Brown. 

James Ewiog. Robert Traill. 

John Lacey, Jr. William Maclay. 

William Moore. David Redick. 

James Thompson. John Smilie. 

Robert Whitehill. John Baird. 

John Van Campen. Andrew Billmyer. 

Col. John Piper. Nathan Denison. 

Gen. James Potter. Christopher Kucher. 

Dr. Joseph Gardner. George Ross. 

James Cunningham. Samuel Edie. 

Christopher Hayes. George Woods. 

John Bayard. Frederick Watts. 

Sebastian Levan. John Cannon. 

John Byers. Abraham Smith. 

Dorsey Pentecost. Zebulon Potts. 

John Dickinson. Richard Willing. 

Amos Gregg. Jonas Hartzel. 

Samuel Mile§. Nathaniel Bredin. 

Thomas Mifflin. Henry Taylor. 

John Wilkins. William Findley. 

James Martin. Benjamin Elliott. 

William Wilson. Lord Butler. 


Thomas McKean. 
Joseph Reed. 
Jared Ingersoll. 
Charles Biddle. 
John Sergeant. 
John Goodman. 
Robert McMuUin. 
Thomas Leiper. 
John Barker. 
Henry Hawkins. 
Thomas Cadwalader. 
John Steele. 
George Latimer. 
Liberty Browne. 
Charles Ross. 
Manuel Eyre. 
John Connelly, 
William McFadden. 
John Goodman, seen 
Francis Coxe and S. 

Coudy Raguet. 

John Geyer. 

Col. Jonathan Williams. 

Daniel Groves. 

John Barclay. 

John Naglee. 

Thomas Snyder. 

Isaac W. Norris. 

Michael Leib. 

Jacob Huff. 

James Whitehead. 

James Josiab. 

John Thompson, 

Ebenezer Ferguson. 

James Ron aid sou. 

Peter Miercken. 

Richard Palmer. 

Philip Peltz. 
itary of the committee. 
Field, aBsistants. 



City and District Halls— Watch-Houses— Watchmen and Police Stations 
— State House or Independence Hall — Custom-House — Post-OflBce — 
United States Mint. 

City Halls and District Halls.— Although there 
is reason to believe that Philadelphia might have 
been created a borough by William Penn in 1684, it 
is not probable that there were any buildings belong- 
ing to the public that were in use before the city was 
chartered, in 1701. In the charter there is a provision 
that the mayor, recorder, Common Council, and alder- 
men shall hold sessions at stated times, and " on the Ist 
3d day of the week, in the 8th month (Oct.), yearly for 
ever hereafter, publicly to meet at a convenient room 
or place within the said city, to be by them appointed 
for that purpose and there chose one of the aldermen 
to be mayor for that ensuing year." The minutes of 
the City Council, which have been preserved, com- 
mence with the entry : " Att a Meeting of the Mayor, 
Aldermen, and Comon Council at the House of Bar- 
bert Carry, of this City, Innholder, the Third day of 
October, 1704," showing that there was no public 
hall or place for municipal use. The succeeding 
minutes are dated at the " CofFy House," and a sub- 
sequent meeting was held at the same place. After 
that time, during the whole provincial period, the 
general custom was to head the minutes " at Philadel- 
phia," the place of meeting not being stated. It is 
probable that after the court-house at High and 
Second Streets was finished the Common Council 
meetings were held there up to the time of the Rev- 
olution. The City Court, presided over by the re- 
corder, met there to hear all matters connected with 
the provincial or county government. 

The first movement toward the collection of a fund 
for the erection of a city hall took place in October, 
1746, which is thus recorded upon the minutes of the 
Common Council : 

"James Hamilton, Esqr., Mayor, represented to the Board that as it 
had been customary for the mayors of this City at the going out of their 
Office to give an Entertainment to the Gentlemen of the Corporation ; he 
intends in Lieu thereof to give a Sum of Money, equal at least to the 
Sums usually expended on such Occasions, to be laid out in something 
permanently Useful to the City, And proposes the Sum of One Hundred 
and Fifty Pounds toward erecting an Exchange or some other Publick 
Building. The Board taking the said Proposal into Consideration 
unanimously approved of the same. And the said James Hamilton accord- 
ingly presented to the Mayor and Committee of the City of Philadelphia 
the said sum of One Hundred and Fifty Pounds, to be applied towards 
the Building of an Exchange in this City, for the like uses with that of 
the Royal Exchange, in London, or of the erecting of such other publick 
Edifice in this City as the Mayor and Commonalty shall see fit to order 
and direct. The Money aforesaid to be placed out and Continued at In- 
terest until the same shall be wanted for the Purposes aforesaid." 

This money was paid to the treasurer, who was 
ordered to place it out at interest, on security which 
should be approved by the mayor, recorder, and treas- 
urer for the time being, and two Common Councilmen. 



The example of Mayor Hamilton was not followed 
by all of his successors ; several of them, it is prob- 
able, preferred to '' give the customary entertain- 
ment." The minutes contain only the following 
notes of gifts to this fund : 

1746. .\lriandcr Uamiltou £150 

17»4. William .\ttwoatl „ SO 

1749. William AlUvaod „...„ fiO 

Ch«rliri Willing ^ 100 

1763. William I'lum.tMl „ 7,1 

1753. Ruben Slrrlltll _ 75 

Total „ JES20 

The necessity of having some building appropri- 
ated entirely to municipal use was considered so 
urgent that the following proceedings in relation 
thereto took place in Common Council on the 8th of 
February, 1775 : 

** It was propoMd that the Board take iDto ConBJderatlon the great necee- 
■117 there la orerecliog a City Hall and Court- Huuee, for the use of this 
OorporatloD, and the Mayor's Court, a lot of ground having been long 
since apprupriated (or that purpose in the State-House Square. The 
■enae of the Board appeared generally in favor of the Prvposal ; and a 
Committee was agreed to be appointed to draw a plan and make an es- 
timate of a pRtper building; likewise to inspect the state of the funds of 
this Corporation, and to Consider whether this Board ain apply the 
Moneyi formerly giren by several of the Mayors of this City in lieu of 
the accustumeil Entertainments on going out of their Office for the Pur- 
pose of a City Hall and Court-Honse, or whether they are restricted by 
the terms of those donations to apply that money, with the accumulated 
lutereat thereon, solely for the Purpoee of building an Exchange." 

At the next meeting of Common Council, in April, 
1775, the committee presented a plan of a city hall, 
but without an estimate of the cost. At the same 
time that body expressed the opinion that the former 
donations by several of the mayors of the city " were 
to be applied to the building of an Exchange, or .such 
other public edifice in this City, as the Mayor and 
Commonalty should see fit to order and direct, con- 
sequently, that this hoard had an undoubted Right to 
apply the same toward building a City Hall." .\t 
the same meeting the managers of the of Em- 
ployment, who owed the city seven hundred and fifty 
pounds for money lent, ofl'cred to settle by the transfer 
of some ground-rents. The proposition was refused, 
because " probably the money would soon be wanted 
in order to buihl a City Hall," and notice was };iven 
that the bond must be di.ncharged within two months, 
"Othcrwi.HC let it be then Peremptorily put in suit." 

The Revolutionary war suspended all, active opera- 
tions for the erection of a city hall. In 1785 the 
Assembly passed an act appropriating six thousand 
pound", which had been realized from the sale of the 
old High f^trect pri.son, toward the erection of munici- 
pal buildings. Nothing was done, however, until 1789, 
when another act was passed authorizing a lotterv 
to raise eight thousand dollars, four-fifths of the pro- 
ceeds of which was to be paid to the corporation to- 
ward the erection of a city hall, and the other fifth to 
be given to Dickinson College at Carlisle. 

The city hall was begun in 17'J0, and the building 
finished in the summer of 17'.i|. It was of plain 
brick, two stories high, with a small cupola. The 
style was solid and respectable. There was a little 

display of oroamentation by the use of marble as a 
band between the first and second stories, with marble 
keystones and springers to the arches of the windows 
and-doors. The building was originally intended to 
be used in the first story by the Mayor's Court and by 
the mayor in hearing cases which were brought before 
him as a committing magistrate. But as the Federal 
government had come to I'hiladelphiabetbre the build- 
ing was finished, it was requisite to find some suitable 
place lor the accommodation of the Supreme Court. 
The Federal Senate and House of Representatives 
were of necessity granted the use of the building at 
the southesLst corner of Sixth and Chestnut Streets, 
which had been erected for the County Court-House. 
The As.sembly of the State, with the Supreme Court, 
and County Court of Common Ple:is and Quarter 
Sessions, were crowded into the State-House. The 
Federal courts, Supreme, Circuit, and District, could 
not be accommodated anywhere else than at the 
building at Fifth and Chestnut Streets. 

While the Supreme Court was there the bench was 
occupied by the first chief justice, John Jay, who had 
been appointed by Washington in 1789, but resigned 
in 1794, with .some reluctance, to accept the mission 
to England, against the actions of which this country 
at that time had many causes of complaint. Oliver 
Ellsworth, of Connecticut, succeeded him as chief 
justice in 179G, and remained in that office until 
1800. The associate justices were John Rutledge, of 
South Carolina; William Cushing, of Msissachusetts; 
James Wilson, of Pennsylvania ; Samuel Chase, of 
Rhode Island; John Blair, of Virginia; James 
Iredell, of North Carolina ; Thomas Johnson, of 
Maryland; William Patterson, of New Jersey; 
Bushrod Washington, of Virginia; Alfred Moore, of 
North Carolina; and .lohn Jay, who was reappointed 
in 1800, but declined to act. Some of these justices 
replaced others who had died or resigned in the mean- 

The United States Circuit and District Courts were 
also held in the second story of the City Hall, they 
being under the administration of Justice William 
Lewis, of the Supreme Court, and Judges Francis 
Hopkinson and Richard Peters. After the seat of 
the Federal government was removed to Washington 
City, the Councils of the city took charge of the City 
Hall. The Mayor's Court met there until after the 
old State-House was purchased from Pennsylvania by 
the city ot Philadelphia, in 1816. After tliat time the 
Mayor's Court was removed to the centre State-House 
building. The lower back room of the City Hall was 
occupied by the mayor. The City Council began to 
meet in the second story of the building as soon as it 
was finished, and continued there until the consolida- 
tion of the city, in 1854. 

The Common Council was in the back room, and 
the Select Council in the northeast front room, second 
story, on the west side ; north were the committee 
rooms. The rooms on the first floor were occupied 



bj' departments of city government. The water de- 
partment, city commissioners, city clerk, city treas- 
urer, and otlier officers, were in the back room. The 
Mayor's Court was afterward removed to the State- 
House building. 

After the consolidation of the city and districts, in 
1854, Councils resolved that the State-House should 
be the City Hall. To accommodate Select and Com- 
mon Councils extensive alterations were necessary. 
They were completed about 1854, and since that time 
meetings of the Municipal Legislature have been con- 
tinuous in that building. 

City Courts. — One of the incidents of the charter 
of the city of Philadelphia, granted by William Penn 
in 1701, was the conferring of authority to exercise 
judicial functions within the city upon the officers of 
the corporation. In order to facilitate this design 
there was to be a city sheriff and a town clerk, who 
was to be clerk of the peace and clerk of the court 
and courts. The functions of the recorder, who in 
after-years acted as one of the presiding judges of the 
City Court and Mayor's Court, were not so well defined. 
He was "to do and execute all things which unto the 
oflBce of Kecorder of the said city doth or may belong." 
It is worthy of notice that in the original charter the 
recorder was not mentioned as being necessary to the 
corporate title. "Mayor and commonalty of Phila. 
in the province of Pennsylvania" was the title of the 
old city corporation, although in some parts of the 
charter "the mayor and commonalty of the city of 
Phila.," omitting the words in the province of Penn- 
sylvania, are spoken of as the official title. A court, 
whereof any four or more of the aldermen (whereof 
the mayor and recorder for the time being shall be 
two) has no name assigned to it in the charter fur- 
ther than a " Court of Record." Under the charter 
Thomas Story was named as the first recorder, Thomas 
Farmer to be the city sheriff, and Robert Assheton to 
be the town clerk and clerk of the court and courts. 
Farmer was the county sheriff at the time. There 
does not appear to have been at any period afterward 
an attempt to constitute a separate city sheriff. The 
sheriff for the county was always considered to be the 
sheriff of the city. The case was different with the 
coroner. The charter does not command that the 
county sheriff shall be the city sheriff. But the 
county coroner was always to be the city coroner, 
whether he resided in the city or in the county. There 
is a curious provision in the charter in reference to 
this matter : 

'* And I will that the coroners to be chosen by the county of Phila. for 
the time being sliail be the coroners of the said city and liberties tliereof; 
but that the freemen and inhabitants of the said city shall from time to 
time as often as occasion be have equal liberty with the inhabitants of 
the said county to recommend or choose persons to serve in the respec- 
tive capacities of coroners and sberiflffor the county of Phila. who shall 
reside in the said city." 

From this it would seem that the coroners and 
sheriff of the county were obliged to reside in the city. 
The court established under the charter without a 

name was generally known as the City Court. Under 
the authority of the charter the city corporation, 
shortly after 1701, set up under ordinance a court for 
determining small debts, and to be held by the mayor 
or recorder with one or more of the aldermen. This 
was called "the forty .shillings court" "or the two 
weeks court." The management of this tribunal was 
not satisfactory. According to the recital in the act 
of May 28, 1715, "the several Laws of this Province 
for determining small Debts without formality of trial 
were designed for the Ease and Conveniency of the 
Subject ; but Complaint is made by many of the In- 
habitants of the City & County of Philadelphia that 
the manner of putting the same in Execution by some 
of the said City i\Iagistrates and Officers, proves very 
chargeable and inconvenient." For remedy of this 
it was declared that the city ordinance under which 
the Forty Shillings or Two Weeks' Court exercised 
its functions was null and void, that no court in the 
province should have cognizance of debts and de- 
mands under forty shillings, and that the same should 
be recoverable by ordinary process before any justice 
of the peace. 

The Revolution was considered to have put an end 
to the corporation of the city under Penn. 

During the interval when there was no city cor- 
poration, under certain acts of Assembly the justices 
of the peace for the city of Philadelphia were author- 
ized to hold " a city court." Under the act of March 
11, 1789, creating the new city charter, this authority 
was annulled, and all the records and proceedings of 
the City Court were ordered to be transferred to the 
Mayor's Court on the 15th of April of the same year. 
Under the charter of 1789 the corporate title was 
"the mayor, aldermen, and citizens of Phila." The 
recorder elected by the mayor and aldermen was to 
hold his office for seven years, and to have all the 
powers and jurisdictions of a justice of the peace 
within the said city. A court with a large jurisdic- 
tion in cases of crimes and misdemeanors, to consist 
of the mayor, recorder, and aldermen, or any four 
or more of them, of whom the mayor or recorder for 
the time being shall be one, were given authority to 
hold a court of records to be entitled " the Mayor's 
Court for the city of Phila." 

Authority was granted at the same time to estab- 
lish a city court to be called " the Alderman's Court," 
to consist of three of the aldermen of the city, any 
two of whom might be a quorum. The aldermen 
who were to constitute this court were to be ap- 
pointed by the mayor and recorder four times in 
each year, or oftener, if they thought proper. The 
aldermen were to have a civil jurisdiction in " causes 
and matters cognizable before any one justice of 
the peace within the State, where the debt or de- 
mand amounts to forty shillings, and does not exceed 
ten pounds." In cases of debts under forty shillings, 
right was given to the mayor and any alderman 
within the city to " have cognizance of and a sole 



and exclusive right to hear and determine in a sum- 
mary way all such matters and things." An appeal 
from the judgment from the mayor and alderman was 
allowed to the Aldermen's Court. The latter tribunal 
proved to be no more popular than the Forty Shil- 
lings Court of the early munici]>al period. The act 
of 1789, so far as related to the establishment and 
power of the Aldermen's Court, was repealed after 
fifteen years' experience, in 1804. 

The Mayor's Court came to an end under the act 
of 19th March, 1S38, which created the Court of 
Criminal Sessions in the city and county of Phila- 
delphia, and abolished the Mayor's Court. 

Aldermen and Justices of the City Court and 
Mayor's Court, 1701-1838.— Under the charter of 
the city granted by William I'ona in 1701, the mayor, 
recorder, and aldermen were created justices of the 
peace, and justices of Oyer and Terminer in the city 
and liberties thereof; " that they, or any four or 
more of them (whereof the mayor and recorder of 
the said city shall be two) shall and may forever 
hereafter have power and authority ... to hear and 
inquire into all manner of treasons, murders, man- 
slaughters, and all manner of otfences, capital and 
criminal," etc.; also "to hold and keep a Court of 
Record tjuarterly or oftener, if they see occasion," 
etc. This was the establishment of the court which 
was known before the Revolution as the City Court. 
They were also justices of the quorum of the county 

Oct 25, 17U1 (Chaiier).— •Edward Shippon, Joshua rarpenlar, •Griffith 

Jonea, •Anthony Morria, •Jgacpb Wilcox, Natliao Staobury, Charlaa 

R«ul, Tboniaa Maalan, William Carter. 
Bafura Oct. 3, ITol — John Jonea. 

Oct. 3, 170t Joahiia Carpentrr. 

Tab. 4, 1706.— Thomaa Storejr. 

Oct. 2, 17W.— Samuol Richardaon. 

Oct. 5, 17W1.— Gegrge Roch (did not qualify). •Ricbanl Hill, 'Samuel 

Prratoo, laaac Norris (did not qualify). 
Oct. 2, 1711.— 'Jouathan Dicklnaon. 
Oct. 7, 1712 -'Georiie Roch. 

Oct. 6, 1713.— Joacph Growden, •!«»€ Norria, Pentecoat Teague. 
OoL 4, I71.S.— 'William Iludaon, Al>r»hnm Rlckley, Joieph Redmnn. 
Oct. 1, 1717— •Jamea lx>|can. 

Oet. 7, 1718.— Thomaa Griffllh. •William Fiihbouni. 
Oct. 20, 172<l.— laraei Feml«rt«n (did not qualify). 
Oct. 2, 1722 —•Clement Pliimited, I»rai-1 Prmberlon (would not accept), 

•Thomaa Griffllli, •Charlra Read, Benjamin Vining. 
Oct (1, 1724.— -Tlioinaa Lawrence, Eran Owen. 
Sapt. 2». 1726.- •Anthony Morris (did not act). 
Oct 3, 1727— •Edward Roberta 
Oct. 7, 172V.--Samiiel Ifaan-I, John Jonea, George Filzwaler, George 

Oet 6, 17nn -•William Allm, laaac Norria, Jr. 
Oet. 2, 17.13 —lamel Pr-ml-rton (did not accept|. 
Oet 2. IT.IT- Anthony Morria. 
Oct. 1. 1734— Edward HolH-rU 
Oct «. 1741 — •nenjamin Shoemaker, •William Till, Jnaeph Turner, 

•Jamei Hamilton. 
Oet. 4, 1741 —•William Attwood, Abraham Taylor, 8amiiel Powel, Jr., 

•Edward Shippen. 
Oct«, 1747.-!>«muel Maddoz fdld not accept), •Charlea Willing (diad 

NoTemher, 17M;,*WlilUm Pinmelad. 

' Thai* aukad * w«« alaetad mayor during thair lanna. 

Oct 4, 1748.— 'Robert Strettel, Septimus Bobinson (did not accept). 

Oct 1, 1751.— Benjamin Kranklln, John Mifflin. 

Oct 7, 17W. — ejohn Stamper, •Attwood Shute, •Thomas Lawrence. 

Oct 6, 1766.— Alexander Stedman, Samuel Mifflin. 

Oct. 4, 1759.— "John W ilcocks, Jacob Ducb^, William Cole. 

Ocf2, 1769.— •Tho8. Willing (did not accept until 1761), Daniel Bene- 

lat (leeigned Oct 7, 17Gi;). 
October, 1761 —•Henry Hannis, 'Samuel Bboads. 
Oct 2, 17G4. — 'Isaac Jonet, 'John Lawrence. 
Oct 7, 1706.— Amofl Strettel, •Samuel Shoemaker. 
Oct 6, 1767.— 'John Gibson. 
Oct 2, 1770.— James Allen, Joshua Howell (did not accept), •William 

Oct 4, 1774.— •Samuel Powell, George Clymer. 

Last minutes of meeting of Aldermen and Common Council under 
the charter of 1701, dated Feb. 17, 1776. 

There must have been a stoppage of Justice for some time. The City 
Court was held to he abrogated by the supposed annulment of the charter 
of the city. The Convention of Pennsylvania in July, 1776. appointed 
thirty-six Justices for the city and county of Philadelphia. Offenses 
triable before the City Ojurt must have been tried in the County C«urt 
(See " Courl-Housee.") 

In 1777 a better order waa established. There were justicea of the 
peace apix)inted for the city wards. Presumably tliey held the City 


Samuel Simpson,^ Middle Ward, elected Feb. 14, 1777 

John McCalltt,! Walnut Ward, elected Feb. 14, 1777 

Samuel Howell,- Li.wer Delaware Ward Feb. 14, 1777 

Gei.rge Brvan,2 Dock Ward, elected Feb. 14, 1777 

James Young, Mulberry Ward March 28, 1777 

John Ord, Lower Delaware Ward March 28, 1777 

Joseph Redman, Sr., North Ward March 28,1777 

Isaac Howell, North Ward March 28, 1777 

.John Henrv. Walnut Ward March 28, 1777 

Plunket Ffeeson. Middle Ward March 28, 1777 

Benjamin Paschal. Dock Ward March 28, 1777 

Pliiiip Boehni (resigns Sept. 30, 1778) Mul- 

lierry Ward March 28, 1777 

William Ball, High Street Ward Jan. 5, 1779 

William Ailcock, Chestnut Street Ward Jan. 5, 1779 

Samuel Jlorrls, Jr., Walnut Street Ward Jan. S, 1779 

Benjamin Paschal, Dork Street Ward Jan. .■!, 1779 

William Rush, North Mulberry Ward May 7, 1779 

.lohn Miller 

Josel'h Wharton, New Market Ward May 10, 1784 

Isaac Howell, North Ward May 21, 1784 

Plunket IFIeesiin, Middle Ward June 2, 1784 

John Gill, Lower Delaware Ward June 29, 1784 

Edward Shippen, Dock Ward Oct. 3, 1786 

William Craig, High Street Ward March 18. 1786 

William Pollard, Chestnut Ward March 27, 1786 

Lewis Weiss. South Mulberry Ward May 20,1786 

William Rush. North Mulberry Ward May 26, 1786 

Alexander Todd. Dork Waixl Feb. 9, 1787 

Robert M.KiiiRlit, Walnut Ward Feb. 28.1787 

New City Hall. — During several years after con- 
solidation propositions relating to the erection of a 
new city hall for tlie use of the corporation was dis- 
cussed. As early as 1838 an act was passed author- 
izing the mayor, aldermen, and citizens of Philadel- 
phia to erect a city hall on any )>art of the lots of 
ground in said city now known by the name of Penn 
Square. The expenses of erecting the hall were to 
be paid out of the treasury of the city. There was a 
proviso that the consent of the commissioners of the 
county of I'hiladelphia should first be had. 

The grant of the Centre Square to the city liy Penn 
was not clearly expressed as to the direct intention 
further than the same might be used for public build- 
ings. In "a short advertisement" upon the situation 
aud extent of the city of Philadelphia, explanatory of 
Holme's " Portraiture of the Plan of the City," issued 
about 1685, is this language: "In the center of the 
City is a square of 10 A. At each angle are to be 

* Th«M do not smid to bare b««n oommlastoued. 



houses for Publick affairs as a Meeting-house House, 
Assembly, or State-House, Market-House, School- 
House, and several other buildings for publick Con- 
cerns." Although there was considerable discussion 
upon the subject of a new city hall in 1838, the project 
failed. On the 16th of March, 1847, an act was passed 
authorizing the commissioners of the county of Phila- 
delphia, by the consent of Select and Common Coun- 
cils of the city, to erect a new court upon a part of 
the said State-House Square. Councils were also 
authorized by the same act to " cause a new city hall 
to be erected on any other part of said square ; the loca- 
tion and erection of said buildings to be first approved 
by the County Board of said Philadelphia County." 
There was much discussion in the newspapers about 
this proposition, and plans of buildings were pre- 
pared. But eventually the subject seemed to have 
been abandoned. On the 31st of September, 1868, 
City Councils passed an ordinance providing for the 
erection of municipal buildings on Independence 
Square, and designating commissioners to carry the 
same into effect. These gentlemen met shortly after- 
ward, and organized and advertised for architectural 
plans for the buildings. On the 17th of September 
following plans and drawings were received from vari- 
ous architects, and at a meeting of the commission- 
ers shortly afterward the plan of John McArthur, Jr., 
was selected, and he was appointed architect of the 
work. Contracts were solicited and awarded in Jan- 
uary, 1870, but work was not begun. As soon as it 
appeared that the commissioners were determined to 
erect the new city buildings, there sprung up a very 
decided opposition to the use of Independence Square 
for such a purpose. It was argued that the erection 
of buildings for the accommodation of the munici- 
pality and courts would be a desecration of ground 
sacred to patriotic veneration by reason of Revolu- 
tionary memories connected with the old State- 
House. This opposition was something more than 
sentimental. The Legislature was in session, and 
the controversy was transferred to that forum. The 
opponents of the use of Independence Square suc- 
ceeded, and on the 5th of August, 1870, an act of 
Assembly was passed by which Theodore Cuyler, 
John Rice, Samuel C. Perkins, John Price Weth- 
erill, Lewis C. Cassidy, Henry M. Phillips, William 
L. Stokes, William Devine, and the mayor of the 
city of Philadelphia, and the presidents of Select 
and Common Councils for the time being were con- 
stituted commissioners " for the erection of the pub- 
lic buildings required to accommodate the courts and 
for all municipal purposes in the city of Philadel- 
phia." This board was in nature permanent until 
the public buildings were finished. The commis- 
sioners had authority to fill vacancies in their own 
number, and also to increase their number to thirteen.' 

1 In 1882 only one of them remained, the others having died or re- 
Bigned, The president, Samuel C. Perkins, was at that time the only 
original member of the ( 

The commissioners were given authority to procure 
plans for the buildings, and adopt them, make con- 
tracts, and superintend the carrying on of the work. 
They were entitled to make requisitions on the City 
Councils for the amount required annually toward 
the expense of construction. The commissioners 
were authorized and directed to locate the buildings 
on either Washington or Penn Square, as might be 
determined by vote of the citizens at the election in 
October, 1870. Within thirty days afterward the 
question was determined, and the commissioners were 
authorized to commence the work. 

If Washington Square was selected by a majority 
of votes, Councils were directed to execute to the 
commissioners the proper deed or deeds. As to the 
four Penn Squares, at the intersection of Broad and 
Market Streets, if the decision of the people was in 
favor of Washington Square, Councils were directed 
to convey one of said squares to each of the following 
institutions : Academy of Fine Arts, Academy of 
Natural Sciences, Franklin Institute, and Philadel- 
phia Library, " for the purpose of allowing them to 
erect thereon ornamental and suitable buildings for 
their respective institutions." If Penn Square was 
chosen as the site of the public buildings, the com- 
missioners were authorized to vacate so much of 
Market or of Broad Streeet as they might deem 
needful, and lay out streets passing around said 
buildings of width not less than one hundred feet." 
During a portion of the year succeeding the appoint- 
ment of the commissioners there was a lively contro- 
versy as to the site of the new buildings. A large 
number of property-holders and business men were 
anxious to retain the public buildings at the old site 
at Sixth and Chestnut Streets, while other persons 
who were interested in property farther west pre- 
ferred the Penn Square location. "A series of liti- 
gations ensued ; application was made to the Legis- 
lature; resistance was attempted in the City Councils, 
and the elements of the most vehement partisan 
prejudice were used to frustrate the law and to procure 
its repeal." ' After a bitter contention, mostly waged 
through the newspapers, the vote was taken in Octo- 
ber, and the return was as follows : For Washington 
Square, 32,825 votes; for Penn Square, 51,623. This 
was decisive, and the commissioners entered upon 
their duties as well as they could. Subsequent ad- 
verse efforts delayed the actual commencement of 
work for a year. 

The decisions, popular, legal, and legislative, being 
in favor of the Penn Square site, the commissioners 
commenced work on Jan. 7, 1871, by removing the 
iron railings which inclosed the four squares. After 
the passage of the act of 1828, which declared that 
the Centre Square (then one inclosure) should be cut 
by running Market and Broad Streets through it. 

2 B. H. Brewster's address at laying the 
boildings, 1874. 

r-8tone of the public 



the four plots made by this bisectiou were first in- 
closed with a wooden fence, or paling, and afterward 
by iron railings. On the 10th of August, 1871, the 
ground was broken by John Rice, then president of 
the Board of Commissioners, and on the 12th of Au- 
gust, 1872, at two o'clock p.m., the first stone of the 
foundation was laid. One of the most important 
questions presented to the commission was whether 
they should allow Broad and Market Street.s to be 
continued through the square, and erect four build- 
ings on the corner lots, or take the whole square as 
originally laid out, including the ground occupied by 
streets, and erect thereon one building. The com- 
missioners resolved upon the latter plan, and whether 
their decision was right or wrong was of little mo- 
ment after the work had so far progressed that it 
could not be undone. The excavations for the cellars 
and foundations required the removal of one hundred 
and forty-one thousand five hundred cubic yards of 
earth. The building occupies four hundred and sev- 
enty feet from east to west, and four hundred and 
eighty-six and a half feet from north to south, and 
covers an area, exclusive of the court-yards, of nearly 
six and a half acres. It is larger than any single 
building in America. The main building is ninety- 
four feet high, and consists of a basement story eigh- 
teen feet in height, a principal story of thirty-six feet, 
an upper story of thirty-one feet, surmounted by an- 
other of fifteen feet. The small rooms 0[)cning into 
the court-yards are each divided into two stories for 
the purpose of making useful all space. The several 
stories are to be approached by four large elevators 
at the intersection of the leading corridors, together 
with eight grand staircases, one in each of the four 
corners of the building, and one in each of the centre 
pavilions at the north, south, east, and west fronts. 
The entire structure contains five hundred and twenty 
rooms, all fire-proof in material, and provided with 
every possible convenience for heat, light, and ventila- 
tion. The architecture presents a rich example of the 
style of the Renaissance, modified and adapted to the 
varied and extensive requirements of a great Ameri- 
can municipality. It is designed in the spirit of 
French art, while at the same time its adaptation of 
that florid and tasteful manner of building is free from 
servile imitation either in ornamentation or in the 
ordonnance of its details. The whole exterior is bold 
and effective in outline and rich in its parts, elabo- 
rated with highly ornate columns, pediments, pilas- 
ters, cornices, enriched windows, and other appropri- 
ate adornments, wrought in artistic forms, expressing 
American ideas and developing American genius. 
The interior is richly decorated with carvings in re- 
lief, full-length figures upon the spandrels of the 
arches, carved keystones, caryatides, and other orna- 

The entrance pavilions are eighty-six feet wide, 
and rise to the height of two hundred and one feet. 
The corner pavilions are forty-eight feet square and 

one hundred and sixty-one feet high. The pavilions 
are crowned with massive dormer-windows, in marble, 
forty-two feet high, flanked by marble caryatides 
twenty feet nine inches high. The corner pavilions 
are* fitted with marble dormer-windows, with cary- 
atides. The central court-yard is one hundred and 
eighty-six feet north and south by two hundred and 
twenty feet east and west. From the north side of 
the central court-yard rises a grand tower of ninety 
feet square at the base, gracefully falling ofi" at each 
story until it becomes, at the spring of the dome 
(which is three hundred and fifteen feet above the 
level of the court-yard), an octagon of fifty-six feet in 
diameter, tapering to the height of eighty-four feet, 
where it is to be crowned with a statue of the founder 
of Pennsylvania, , thirty-six feet in height, thus com- 
pleting the extraordinary altitude of four hundred and 
thirty-five feet, making it the highest artificial con- 
struction in the world. 

Town-House of the Northern Liberties.— That 
part of the township of Northern Liberties which 
had become populous, so as to be, in fact, a suburb of 
the city, had arrived at such a condition of importance 
in 1795 that it was necessary to place it under some 
sort of municipal regulation. A division was made 
in the thickly-settled portions of the district for elec- 
tion purposes. In that year an act of Assembly was 
passed to authorize the building of a town-house and 
market-place in the Northern Liberties. Twenty 
feet of ground on each side of Second Street, between 
Coatcs and Poplar Streets, had been previously dedi- 
cated by the owners of lots to encourage the improve- 
ment of that part of the county. They undertook 
to build the market-house by subscription, without 
cost to the public. The town-house was directed to 
be commenced in the middle of Second Street, forty 
feet north of Coatcs Street, and was to be twenty-six 
feet front by thirty feet in depth along Second Street, 
where it joined the market-house, eighteen feet wide, 
which originally extended to Brown Street. This 
building was probably finished in a year or two. It 
was constructed in the style of the old court-house at 
Second and Market Streets. Arches rising from the 
ground to the height of one story gave passage to 
the market-house beyond. The main room of the 
town hiiU was in the second story. The building 
was of brick, with a small cupola on top, and was in 
general appearance similar to the market-hall stand- 
ing at the intersection of Second and Pine Streets. 
When the Northern Liberties were incorporated as a 
district, on March 29, 1803, the town house of the 
Northern Liberties became the Commissioners' Hall. 
The commissioners were elected May 7th, and met 
for the first time May 11th at the town house. The 
building was occupied for several years, but was en- 
tirely too small for the intended purpose. In the 
early part of 1814 the commissioners of the Northern 
Liberties purchased a building on the east side of 
Third Street, between Tammany [or ButtonwoodJ 



Street and Green Street, which was formerly known 
as the officers' house of the military barracks. 

The commissioners first occupied that building on 
the 17th of February, 1815. Previously the old house 
was used as a tavern. After the commissioners of 
the Northern Liberties bought the barracks building, 
an act of Assembly was passed declaring that thereafter 
that buildingshould be the Commissioners' Hall of the 
Northern Liberties. The building was of plain brick, 
which in later times was rough-cast. During the 
period that the Northern Liberties had a mayor, his 
office was in the basement of the building, and there 
were rooms for lock-up and accommodatiou of the 
watch. The Recorder's Court of the Northern Liber- 
ties, with criminal jurisdiction, was held in the first 
story from 1836 to 1838, Robert T. Conrad being the 
recorder or judge. 

Incorporated March 29, 1803. 
May 13, 1803-May, 18()i5.— Dr. Peter Peres. 
May 14, 180o-AugUBt, 1809.— John Kessler. 
Aug. 29, 180G-May, 1812.— John Goodman. 
May 6, 1812-May, 1814.— Daniel Grovea. 
May 11, lS14-May, 1816.— Cornelius Trimnel. 
May 10, 1815-May, 181S.— Dr. Michael Leib. 
May 6, 1818-October, 1829.— Daniel Groves. 
Oct. 20, 1829-Jan. 11, 1831.— J. W. Norris. 
Jan. 11, 1831-Oct. 1, 1831.— J. Edmund Shotwell. 
Oct. 18, 1831-Octoher, 1832.— William Binder. 
Oct. 16, 1832-October, 1834.— William Wagner. 
Oct. 21, 1834-Octobcr, 1835.— William Binder. 
Oct. 20, lS35-October, 1837.— John G. Wolf. 
Oct. 17, 1837-October, 1838.- Charles J, Sutter. 
Oct. 16, 1838-October, 1839.— Joseph Pancoast. 
October, 1839-October, 1840.— William Brnner. 
October, 1840-October, 1843.— John T. Smith. 
October, 1843-0ctob6r, 1846.— James Landy. 
October, 1846-October, 1849.— John T. Smith. 
October, 1849-October, 1850.— James S. Watson. 
October, 1850-October, 1852.— Edward T. Mott. 
October, 1852-October, 1854.— Stephen D. Auderson. 

Southwark Commissioners' Hall. — The southern 
suburbs were erected into a muuicipality denominated 
the district of Southwark by act of Assembly passed 
May 14, 1762. It was a qualified organization, com- 
posed of three surveyors and regulators, three asses- 
sors, and three supervisors, also an overseer of the poor 
andan inspector, having the same power as similaroffi- 
cers in townships. In 1794 the district of Southwark 
was incorporated with fifteen commissioners, having 
general municipal powers, among which were the 
erection of buildings. 

The Board of Commissioners first met on the 26th 
of May of that year, at the house of Catharine Fritz, 
which was an inn, and situated in Front Street, be- 
low Catharine. This place was not agreeable, and 
it was determined at once to take the lease for public 
purposes of Jonathan Penrose's house, at a rent of 
thirty dollars per annum, he to furnish one window 
for election, " to put a cloth on the floor, if the board 
considers it necessary, to keep the place clean, take 
care of the wood, etc." This building stood north of 

Christian Street, and east of Second, on the back part 
of the lot afterward occupied by the commissioners' 
hall. In the succeeding year the meeting-place of the 
commissioners was at James Little's school-house. 
In 1797, during the yellow fever, the board met at 
Crosby's house, near Moyamensing road, afterward 
at Sampson Goff 's house. Fifth and Christian Streets, 
but they went back to Little's school-house after the 
epidemic had ceased. In 1798 tha yellow fever again 
drove them. to the house of Sampson Crosby. It was 
there resolved to meet regularly in a new brick build- 
ing at John McLeod's rope-walk, in Front Street, at a 
rent of six dollars per month. In 1799 a stone build- 
ing in the rear of the Third Baptist Church, which 
stood about the head of the present Scott's Court, was 
rented. About 1810 the commissioners purchased 
from Paul Beck a lot of ground on the east side of Sec- 
ond Street, above Christian, where they erected a plain 
and substantial two-story brick building, forty feet 
deep by sixty-nine feet in width. This hall was first 
occupied by the commissioners April 11, 1811. There 
was a large hall for public meetings in the first story. 
The commissioners usually met in the second story. 
The front of the hall stood back from Second Street, 
but the building extended to a street in the rear, run- 
ning from Catharine to Christian, which was at one 
time called Sutherland Street. There was a vacant 
space north and south of the building. At Second 
Street, at each side of the lot, were erected, some 
time after the hall was built, two fire-engine houses, 
which were occupied for some years by the South- 
wark and Weccacoe Fire Companies. The new South- 
wark Hall was first occupied by the commissioners 
April 11, 1811. After consolidation this building was 
used as a police station. It was ordered to be torn 
down in 1882, and replaced by a new station-house. 

Incorporated April 18, 1794. 
May, 1794-May, 1795.— Joseph Marsh. 
May, 1796-May, 1798.- Richard Tittermary. 
May, 179S-May, 1801.— William Linnard. 

May, 1801-May, .—William Penrose. 

May, May, 1813.— Robert McMullin. 

May, 1813-May, 181C.— John Thompson. 

May, 1816-May, 1817.— Phineas Eldredge. 

May, 1817-May, 1821.— Robert McMullin. 

May, 1821-May, 1822— Charles Penrose. 

May, 1822-May, 1829.— Joel B. Sutherland. 

May, 1829-May, 1846.— Thomas D, Grover. 

May, lS46-May, 1850.— Lemuel Paynter. i 

May, 1850-May, 1862.- George C. Rickard. 

May, 1862-May, 1853.— Charles C. Wilson. 

May, 1853-May, 1854.— Thomas A. Barlow. 

Spring Garden Hall. — When the District of 
Spring Garden was incorporated, March 22, 1813, it 
was directed that the citizens of the district should 
meet together at the school-house belonging to the 
Spring Garden Association, which was situate at the 
northeast corner of Eighth and Buttonwood Streets, 
and is still standing (1884). They were to choose 
twelve commissioners at the election to be held there. 



The school-house was a two-story brick building with 
a cupola, which had originally been erected by sub- 
scription of citizens in 1809. It was intended to be 
a place for religious worship and education, and to 
be used for township elections and other purposes. 
In 1823 the Legislature passed a law authorizing the 
commissioners of the district to build in the centre of 
Callowhill Street, between Sixth and Seventh Street, 
a market-house and town hall, the same to be of the 
width of thirty-four feet. This privilege. was not ac- 
cepted so far as regarded the erection of a town hall 
in the centre of the street. The commissioners pur- 
chased a lot and building on the north side of Vine 
Street, east of Ninth, where they remained for some 
years. On the 19th of July, 1847, an ordinance was 
passed authorizing the issuing of certificates of loan 
to be applied toward the erection of a new hall for 
the District of Spring Garden. The lot chosen was 
at the northwest corner of Thirteenth and Spring 
Garden Streets. The building was constructed with 
rapidity, and was finished in 1848. It was the largest 
and most elegant commissioners' hall in the county, 
and extended parallel from Si>ring Garden Street 
near the line of Thirteenth, northward to Brandy- 
wine Street. The first story was for offices. The 
commissioners' room was in the second story. In 
fnmt the first story from the ground was a basement, 
and a fine Grecian portico rose above it. The build- 
ing was surmounted by a steeple built by Jacob Ber- 
ger, in which there was a clock made by T. Tyson. 
At the consolidation of the city and districts this 
building was appropriated for some time for the pur- 
poses of a station-house. At a later jieriod it was 
occupied as the office of the Spring Garden Gas- 
Works and by the water department of the city. 

hmrporaUd March 22, 1813. 
Majr 7, 18l3-M*jr 6, 1815.— Joseph R. Z«bli-y. 
Ma; 6, IHIS-Mnjr 7, 1824.— DaTid Wuelpper. 
M*7 7, 1824-Oct. IX, IKll.— Lawrence Shiiiter. 
Oct. 13, IKtl-Oct. 13, 18:12.— Juaeph B. Bolton. 
Oct. 13, l(tl2-0ct. 12, 1833.— John SI. Ogden. 
OcL 12, 18:u-0ct. 18. 18:14.— George W. Rller. 
Oct. 18, 1S.T4-0ct 1ft, 1836.— Joaeph Johna. 
Oct. 15, 1830-Oct. 13, 18.3M.— John M. Ogden. 
OcL 13, IKl8-0ct. 12, 18:19.— William W. Walker. 
Oct. 12, iai9-OcL 17. I84II.— Thomas Mallack. 
Oct. 17, l»40-Oct. 4, 1841. -Daniel Smith. 
Oct. 4, 1841-Oct. 16, 1842.- George W. A»h. 
Oct 15, lli42-Oct 1», IMS.— John H. Dohnert. 
Oct. 18, 1845-Oct. 16, 1847.- Robert T. Fry. 
Oct. 16, 1847-Oet. 14, 184H.— fllram Ayres. 
Oct. 14, 184IM)ct. 1.3, 1849.— William Neal. 
Oct. 13, 184»-Ocl. 12, 18U).— Joseph W. .Martin. 
Oct. IS, ISSft-Oct. 12, mw.— George W. Donohue. 

Kensington Hall. — After the incorporation of the 
KcnHingtf)n DiHtrict of the Northern Liberties, March 
6, 1820, the commiusioners met in rooms hired for 
their accommodation. In 183.3 a large lot of ground 
wan purchaHcd by the commissioners upon Frankford 
road, bounded by that avenue. Master and Front 

Streets. In the centre of this plot was erected a fine 
hall building of brick, two stories in height, sur- 
mounted with a steeple. This building was ready 
for use in 1834. The commissioners met in the 
second story. The first story was occupied by offices, 
and in the basement were fitted up cells for the re- 
ception and safe-keeping of oflenders. This hall was 
torn down in 1883, and the ground is now occupied 
by dwellings. 

hicorporaUd March 6, 1820. 
May, 1820-Aag. 10, 1832.— John C. Brown. 
October, 1832-October, 1834.— Henry Bemmey, Jr. 
October, 18.34-October, 1835.— Mahlon Dungan. 
October, 1835-June, 1836.— Henry Bemmey, Jr. 
June, 183t>-Blay, 1840.— Abraham B. Eyre. 
May, 1840-SIay, 1841.— Peter Rambo. 
May, 1841-June, 1842.— Thomas H. Brittalo. 
June, 1842-October, 1845.— John Bobbins, Jr. 
Oclober, 1845-1847.— Samuel T. Bodine. 
1852-64.— John P. Verree. 

Moyamensing Hall. — The commissioners of Moya- 
mensing met in 1812 at the inn or tavern of William 
Daly, South Sixth Street. Afterward they occupied 
various rented rooms for some years. About 1833 a 
movement was made to provide a proper hall for the 
use of the district officers. A lot of ground was pur- 
chased on the south side of Christian Street, between 
Ninth and Tenth. A fine hall, with a marble front 
portico, was commenced in August, 1833. It was 
finished in November, 1834, and for twenty years 
was the principal voting-place in the district. During 
the cholera of 1806, the building not being in actual 
use, was selected to serve as a hospital for cholera 
patients in case the epidemic should be severe. The 
designation of the hall for such a purpose aroused 
apprehension and fear in the neighborhood. Pro- 
tests were made against the proposed service. As no 
attention was paid to these remonstrances, some evil- 
disposed persons took an opportunity to settle the 
matter in a summary way. The hall was set on fire 
by incendiaries, and the interior destroyed, Aug. 4, 
1866. The walls were in good condition. The prop- 
erty was afterward sold and rebuilt, and wsis occu- 
pied by a Roman Catholic institution. 

Richmond Hall. — The commissioners' hall for the 
district of Richmond was situate at the corner of 
Clearfield and West Streets, and finished in 1829. 

District of Penn HaU.— By act of April 19, 1843, 
James Markoe, Andrew D. Ca,sh, William Esher, 
Jacob Heyberger, and Edward T. Tyson were ap- 
pointed commissioners to appoint surveyors and lay 
out with streets, sewers, etc., that jiortion of Penn 
township "lying between the north boundary-line 
of Spring Garden and a line parallel with and at the 
distance of one hundred feet north of Susquehanna 
Avenue, and between the middle of Delaware Sixth 
Street and the river Schuylkill," etc. They met for 
the first time May 2, 1843, at Woodvale Cottage, the 
residence of James Markoe, and organized. They 



were superseded in authority by act of March 14, 
1844, which created a municipal corporation styled 
"The Commissioners and Inhabitants of the District 
of Penn." The first meeting of the commissioners 
was held March 25, 1844, at the house of Michael 
Deiner. On the 30th of March, 1846, the commis- 
sioners met for the first time at the new hall, north- 
east corner of Tenth and Thompson Streets. They 
were in the occupancy of that building at the time 
of consolidation (1864). 

Incorporated March 14, 1844. 
March, 1844-Marcli, 1846. — James Markoe. 
March, 1846-March, 1847.— Athanasius Ford. 
March, 1847-March, 1849.— Anthony Olwine. 
March, 1849-March, 1850.— William Esher. 
March, 1860-May 13, 1850.— Samuel Ogden. 
May 13, 1850-May 13, 1851.— William Esher. 
March, 1851-June 15, 1852.— Samnel Ogden. 
June 15, 1852-June 15, 1854,— Jacob D. Sheble. 

West Philadelphia Hall, — The commissioners for 
West Philadelphia occupied a lofty brick building 
for district uses at the corner of Washington [Mar- 
ket] and Park [Thirty-seventh] Streets. 

Germantowii Hall. — The town hall of German- 
town, built upon a lot fifty-five feet front by one 
hundred feet in depth, stood back from the main 
street, or Germantown Avenue. It was authorized 
to be built before the act of consolidation was passed, 
and was finished July 1, 1855. 

Frankford Hall.— The town hall of Frankford 
was occupied January, 1849. 

Watch-Houses, Watchmen, and Police Stations. 
— At the consolidation of the city .and districts all the 
commissioners and town halls of the various districts 
and townships ceased to be of local importance. As 
nearly all of them had been used for police head- 
quarters, and were provided with facilities for the 
temporary detention of prisoners, they were continued 
in use as police stations. 

In Philadelphia the earliest conservators of the 
peace were the constables. The first watchman was 
appointed in July, 1700, by the Provincial Council, 
and had the whole care of the city within his charge. 
He was appointed and empowered " to go round ye 
town with a small Bell in the night time to give no- 
tice of ye time of night & the weather, and if any 
disorders or dangers happen by fire or otherwise in 
the night time to acquaint ye constables eyrof." 

In a curious document of instructions, purported to 
have been addressed to Thomas Todd (constable of 
Mulberry Ward) in 1722, probably by Mayor Fish- 
bourne, there are directions as to his duty in daytime, 
particularly to suppress disorder on the first day of 
the week in the public streets, the arrest of persons 
tippling in public-houses, and the maintenance of 
peace at other times. The following is in relation to 
the watch : 

" What I have said chiefly concerns thy conduct 

I . 

in the day, but what follows is relative to the Night 

" I. Take care to warn the watch duly, and that 
thou attend accordingly at the time and place already 

" II. If any person duly warned does not come or 
send one in time, or when come does not attend his 
duty therein, return the names of every such to some 
magistrate next day. 

"III. If thou meet any disorderly persons in the 
streets, endeavor to suppress them, and commit them 
to Gaol until next morning ; but if, with the assist- 
ance of the watch, thou cannot then learn their 
names make return thereof accordingly next day to 
some magistrate. 

" IV. If thou knows or hears of any suspected lew'd 
houses as entertaining debauched persons or servants, 
&c., search there accordingly and apprehend all sus- 
pected persons thou finds therein, and commit them 
to Gaol in order to be brought before some magis- 
trate next morning. 

" V. If any publick housekeepers keep unseason- 
able hours or rude disorderly company in their 
houses thou art to require them to disperse the com- 
pany and return the name of such publick house- 
keeper to some magistrate the next day." 

From these instructions it appears that the consta- 
ble was the principal officer of the watch. There was 
another matter connected with it, viz., that the watch 
was not a permanent paid body of men, but was com- 
posed of citizens who were designated or chosen for 
that service. Practically every able-bodied house- 
keeper had to take his turn upon the watch or send a 
substitute, which privilege is alluded to in Clause II. 
of the above instructions. This system had, in course 
of time, become onerous upon some citizens, and was 
not satisfactory for other reasons. In 1743 a grand 
jury made a presentment on this subject, in which it 
was stated, " The Watch for some time past has been 
a great expense to the Citizens and the charge thereof 
unequal and grievous to the poorer part of the Citi- 
zens and that a less sum than what was yearly col- 
lected on that account raised by an equal assessment 
and properly managed might in a short time be suf- 
ficient to build a watchhouse and support a stated 
watch, who would be more diligent and careful and 
go their hourly rounds during the whole night." 
Common Council voted that a stated watch, to be paid 
for by the city, would be most effectual, and applica- 
tion was made for authority to establish it. It was 
not until 1751 that the necessary authority was given 
by the Assembly. The nightly watch was established, 
and at the same time public lamps were set up. This 
was a temporary law, and expired in 1756. In the 
latter year another act was passed, by which Henry 
Harrison, Samuel Rhodes, George Okill, Joseph 
Morris, Daniel Roberdeau, and James Fisher were 
appointed wardens to maintain and take care of the 
lamps already erected, and to put up others, and pro- 



vide for lighting and watching, and to hire and ap- 
point the watchmen. They had power to direct, in 
writing, °' at what stands it is fit for the said watchmen 
to be placed, how often they shall go the rounds and 
also to appoint the rounds each watchman is to go 
and to order what number of the constables of the 
City shall watch each night." 

The hours of watching between the 10th of March 
and the 10th of September were from 10 p.m. to 4 a.m., 
and between the 10th of September and the 10th of 
March from 9 p.m. to 6 a.m. There were seventeen 
rounds or beats at that time. The largest one was on 
Market and Chestnut Streets, from Front Street to 
Seventh. The other beats were not farther we^t than 
Fifth Street. 

It was also directed, " and the Constables shall in 
theirseveral Turnsand Courses of Watching use their 
best Endeavors to prevent Fires, Murders, Burglaries, 
Robberies, and other Outrages and Disorders within 
the said City, and to that End shall and they are 
hereby im powered and required to arrest and appre- 
hend all nighlwalkers, malefactors, and suspected 
persons, persons who shall be found wandering and 
misbehaving themselves, and shall take the person or 
persons who shall be so apprehended, as soon aa con- 
veniently they may, before one of the Justices of the 
Peace of and for the said city, to be examined and 
dealt with according to law, and shall once or oftener, 
at convenient times in every night, go about the 
several wards of the said city and take notice wether 
the watchmen perform their duties in their .leveral 
stations." The pay of the constables wa.s three shil- 
lings per night. The section of the law defining the 
duties of watchmen followed, substantially in the 
language that regulates the ]iower of the constables. 
The watchmen were authorized "to apprehend all 
Nightwalkers, Malefactors, Rogues, Vagabonds, and 
disorderly persons whom they shall find disturbing 
the public peace, or shall have just cause to suspect 
of any evil design. . . . And in case of any Fire 
breaking out or other great Necessity shall imme- 
diately alarm each other and the inhabitants in their 
respective Rounds, which when done they shall repair 
to their respective Stands, The better to discover any 
other Fire that may happen as well as to prevent any 
Burglaries, Robl>eries, Outrages, and Disorders and 
to apprehend any suspected Persons who in such 
Times of Confusion may be feloniously carrying off 
the Goods and the Effects of others." 

The watch-box wa.* an early nece-ssity of the watch 
system. They were small wooden constructions, square 
or hexagonal, and at a late period of their employ- 
ment some of them were perfectly round. They were 
in width or diameter from four to five feet, and sur- 
mounted by lamps. Within them was space for a 
narrow bench, fixed to one of the sides of the build- 
ing. Sometimes there was space for a small stove, 
the pipe from which rose near the top of the box and 
opened out upon the street. Around the inside walls 

were hooks upon which to hang coats, capes, torches, 
etc., and underneath the bench was a place in which 
to store cans of oil, with wicks, lamp-dishes, and other 
appliances. Probably about 1830 small round holes 
were placed in the doors of the watch-houses, behind 
which were fixed revolving disks of iron or tin, upon 
which were cut in Roman numerals figures running 
from IX. to XII., then commencing at I. down to VI., 
the latest morning hour. The watchman set this dial 
on each return from traversing his beat, and the way- 
farer by consulting the dial could learn the hour of 
the night. It was not essentially necessary in the 
earlier period of the watch that such precaution should 
be taken. The watch-box was doomed to removal 
by ordinance of March 16, 1848, which declared that 
thereafter no watch-boxes should be provided or per- 
mitted in the public streets. It was the duty of the 
watchman, as he went his rounds, to announce the 
hour in a loud voice. The watchman's cry was pecu- 
liar and musical, and was usually listened for by those 
awake with some interest, because he not only told the 
time of the night, but the condition of the weather. 
If he should cry out, ''Oh pasttw — elveo — clock — and 
a starlight morning I" the information was more pleas- 
ant than if it might be at another hour, " Oh pa — a — st 
three o — clock — and a stormy morning!" It is a matter 
of historic legend, probably true, that on the night 
that the news of the British surrender at Yorktown, 
in 1781. was brought to the city, the intelligence 
having come in at a late hour, a German watchman, 
who went his rounds, startled the wakeful population 
by crying the hour, and adding, " Uiit Cornwalist ish 
daken !" Before the Revolution the watchman car- 
ried a stave and a flambeau, which was made of tin 
or iron, with usually a square fountain for oil at the 
end, which he held in his hand, and a stout wick 
running through the tube, which burned with a great 
flare, and was rarely blown out, even iu the most 
windy weather. A badge buckled round his hat 
was a certificate of his official authority, and a rattle 
conveniently carried in the side-pocket of his coat, or 
great-coat in winter, was ready for use in case of alarm 
or the attempted escape of an offender. In 1806 city 
watchmen were provided with tin trumpets. 

Watch-Houses. — The watch-house became a ne- 
cessity for the watchman and his prisoners from the 
first establishment of municipal police guardianship. 
Where the earliest one was located is not known, but 
in 1704 a watch-house wjis ordered to be built in the 
market-place. There is no evidence as to how long 
its use was continued or how it was superseded. The 
records show that it was twenty-six feet long and 
fourteen feet wide. Perhaps it was replaced by the 
use of the county prison lor the same purposes. The 
headquarters of the watch were fixed at the county 
court-house as soon as the courts were removed to 
the State-House. During the Revolutionary period 
there was a watch-house in the State-House yard, and 
under the second city charter of 1789 the old court- 



house at Market and Second Streets became the city 
watch-house, and was occupied as such for some 

A superintendent of the nightly watch was ap- 
pointed under ordinance of 1797. It was his duty to 
take care of the oil, wick, and utensils belonging to 
the city, to see that the watchmen performed their 
duties, and to aid them in " preventing murders, bur- 
glaries, robberies, and other outrages." In course of 
time the principal watch-house was established in the 
basement of the City Hall, at Fifth and Chestnut 

In 1833, under the stimulus of the will of Stephen 
Girard, by which money was devised for the improve- 
ment of a police force in the city, four equal divi- 
sions of the territory were made for public purposes. 
There was a captain of the watch and a lieutenant of 
the city police for each division. Each division was 
apportioned into three sections, and for each of the 
latter there was an inspector of police to superintend 
the policemen and watchmen, subject to the orders of 
the lieutenant of the division. There were twenty-four 
day policemen and one hundred and twenty watch- 
men for night duty. It was provided that there 
should be a suitable watch-house for each section. 
Therefore there were twelve watch-houses. But this 
arrangement was so unsatisfactory and expensive 
that in 1835 a new ordinance was passed, reducing 
the number of the day police and the number of 

Of the several watch-houses, that for the northern 
section of the city proper stood upon the north side 
of Cherry Street, east of Fifth. Another was on the 
south side of Union Street, between Third and 
Fourth. The western watch-house occupied a site 
on Broad Street, near Arch, which is now partly 
covered by the Masonic Temple. The district cor- 
porators had watch-houses that were established at 
the commissioners' halls. On Nov. 12, 1810, the 
Northern Liberties organized by ordinance a nightly 
watch, and provided for lamps. The force was in- 
creased in 1811, and a captain appointed. 

A radical departure from the old system or lack of 
system was taken by the act of Assembly of 1850, 
which brought into existence the Philadelphia police 
district, and created a force which was clothed with 
authority not only in the city proper, but also in the 
districts of Northern Liberties, Spring Garden, Ken- 
sington, Richmond, Penn township, Southwark, 
and Moyamensing. This organization was inde- 
pendent of the old watch and police of the city and 
districts. By the act a police board was created, to 
be composed of the marshal and his four lieutenants, 
who were obliged to keep an office in the city, which 
should be called the chief police station. It was also 
made the duty of the Councils of the city and the 
commissioners of the districts to erect suitable and 
convenient station-houses for the police in proper 
localities. The office of the chief marshal was opened 

on Fifth Street, below Walnut, and the new station- 
houses required were gradually provided in diflerent 
sections of the city. 

The marshal's police officers established the follow- 
ing signals for calling the force together, the intention 
being that the officers should repair to, aud concen- 
trate at, the station-house indicated by the signal : 

To the marshal's office 5 strokes of the alarm-bell. 

S. E. Section of the city 5—1 " " " 

S. W. ' 5—4 

N. W. " " " 6—3 " " " 

N. E. " " " 5—2 

Southwark 12 " " 

Moyamensing 11 " " " 

Spring Garden 10 " " " 

Northern Liberties 9 " " " 

Kensington 8 

Penn 7 

Richmond 6 " " " 

West Philadelphia 13 " " " 

" When such concentration may be required at any 
station the signal shall be given by the alarm-bell 
within the limits of the said staticjn. The adjoining 
stations will promptly answer the alarm by giving the 
same number of strokes as that given by the first 
alarm-bell, thereby conveying the intelligence to the 
next station, and so on ; so that all policemen will 
proceed at once to the station whose alarm corresponds 
with the above statement or regulation." 

When the Consolidation Act was passed, in 1854, 
there was a reorganization of the police department, 
and by ordinance of July 28th, of the same year, it 
was declared that for police purposes each ward 
should be a separate police district, and that in each 
district there should be " a station-house for the use 
of the police, and for the temporary detention of per- 
sons arrested or charged with offences against the 
laws." ' The central station was established in the 
City Hall, at Fifth and Chestnut Streets. Stations 
in some of the wards were provided by the appropria- 
tion of the former commissioners' halls, and in the 
other wards buildings were rented and fitted up. It 
was soon discovered that there was no economy in the 
renting method, and the city then began to build its 
own police stations. The first were solid but plain 
structures, but in course of time architectural effect 
was attempted, and the buildings provided with or- 
namental material. 

In 1884 there were twenty-six station-houses, lo- 
cated as follows : 

First District, Fitzwater Street, below Twentieth. 

Second District, at old Southwark Commissioners' 
Hall, Second Street, above Christian. 

Third District, north side of Union Street, below 

Fourth District, east side of Fifth Street, above 

Fifth District, east side of Fifteenth Street, above 

1 This ordinance has not been rigidly complied with, aa in 1884, 
although there were tliirty-one wards, the number of police districts 
was only twenty-four, corresponding with the original number of wards. 
The only extra stations were for the Delaware and Schuylkill Harbor 
Police, whose duties are mainly executed upon the water, . 



Sixth District, east side of Eleventh Street, shore 

Seventh District, St. John Street, above Button- 

Eighth District, south side of Buttonwood Street, 
above Tenth. 

Ninth District, northwest corner Twenty-third and 
Brown Streets. 

Tenth District, east side of Front Street, above 

Eleventh District, Girard Avenue, near Otis Street. 

Twelfth District, northeast corner Tenth and 
Thompson Street*, old Penn District Commissioners' 

Thirteenth District, old Manayunk Borough Hall, 
Main Street, Manayunk. 

Fourteenth District, old Germantown Borough 
Hall, Main Street, Germantown. 

Fifteenth District, old Frankford Borough Hall, 
Main Street, Frankford. 

Sixteenth District, corner Thirty-ninth Street and 
Lancaster Avenue. 

Seventeenth District, Taylor Street, below Passy- 
nnk Avenue. 

Eighteenth District, Trenton Avenue, below Dau- 
phin Street. 

Nineteenth District, Lombard Street, below Eighth. 

Twentieth District, north side of Filbert Street, 
above Fifteenth. 

Twenty-first District, corner of Darby Road and 
Thirty-eighth Street. 

Twenty-second DLstrict, northwest corner of Le- 
high and Park .4 venues. 

Twenty-third District, south side Jefferson Street, 
above Twentieth. 

Twenty-fourth District, corner of Belgrade and 
Clearfield Streets. 

4 Delaware Harbor, northeast corner Front and No- 
ble Streets. 

Schuylkill Harbor, Fairmount Water-Works. 


n U tImM/or Ikrm ftan, mmd^r Uu act o/ Maf 3, 1860 ; act rtpeaUd 

Xof 13. 1U«. 

JobnS. KpTMr.darlxl Oct. 8, ISSO 

Col. JobD K. MurpbT.i elMied _ Oct. 11, l«&3 

Thi« ofllc* ni cr**l«d \>j act of Hay 13, IBM, lu tok* rffect at Ui« eod 
of tb« Unn of tb« nurahal of pollc«. Tb* cbl«& to b« appointed by the 
mayor, to bold offlc« durio; bit ploaaara. 

Samarl O. RacRlo. appointed May —,1857 

Ofn SL Clair A. Mulhulland, appolntad —, 18«S 

Krnnarl H. J<>oi>.< »ppulnt«] _..- —,1871 

Samiii'l Irrln Gliln, »pp.ilnltd July — , 187» 

JuiM gl'wart, Jr , appointed April — , 1884 

The State-Hoase, or Independence HalL— As 

»oon iw William I'enn arrived in his province of 
Pennsylvania, it became ref|uinitc to convene the 
representatives of the inhaliitants, to agree upon 
proper lawn for the government of the settlement. It 

was not necessary to employ for these primitive legis- 
lative sessions a building of large proportions, for, 
although, by the form of government, the General 
Ass§.mbly for the province was to consist of all the 
freemen of and in the said province, it is not likely 
that all attended. The first Assembly met at Chester, 
Dec. 4, 1682.' 

The first session of the Assembly at Philadelphia 
was held on the 12th of First month (March), 1683. 
There were fifty-four members, nine for each of the 
counties of Philadelphia, Bucks, Chester, Kent, New 
Castle, and Sussex. Where this body met is not 
known. Mr. Etting thinks ("History of Independ- 
I ence Hall") that the place might have been at 
! Guest's Blue Anchor Tavern, because there was no 
public building in the city at that time, yet it is 
probable that there was a structure which was looked 
upon as a public building. Richard Townsend, who 
was with Penn in the " Welcome," says, in his testi- 
mony, " Our first concern was to keep up and main- 
tain our religious worship, and in order thereto we 
, had several meetings in the houses of the inhabitants, 
' and a boarded meeting-house was set up where the 
city was to be, near the Delaware, and as we had 
nothing but love and good will in our hearts to one 
another we had very comfortable meetings from time 
to time, and after our meeting was over we assisted 
j one another in building little houses for our shelter." 
I From this it seems that the meeting-house was com- 
i pleted before many of the original inhabitants had 
j got out of the caves under the banks of the Delaware, 
[ which were their earliest dwelling-places. There is 
a minute of a meeting held at Philadelphia on the 
9th of Eleventh month (January), 1683 (Jan. 9, 
1684, new style), at which it was agreed that Monthly 

lBadiadrah.U,UT«,ac*4annlgr-ala«. > Okd July «, 1(79. 

* The namee of the persons who attPnded this body are not given in 
the rotes of the Assembly at the head of the proceedings of tlie session. 
We can only obtain a portion of the names from the minutes that note 
members appointed on committees, etc. From this source it is ascer- 
tained that the following delegates among others were present: Chris- 
topher Taylor, of Bucks; Nicholas More, of Philadelphia; John Sim- 
cock, of Chester; William Clark, of Deal ; Francis Wbitewell ; Griffith 
Jones, of Philadelphia; Luke Watson, of Sussex ; William Yardley, of 
Bucks; William Sample; Thomas Brassy, of Chester; John Briggs, of 
Kent; Ralph Withers, of Chester; Thomas Holme, of Philadelphia; 
Thomas Winn, of Philadelphia; John Moll, of Kew C^tle; and Edward 

In the Assembly arose on the first day of its session the first election 
contest in Penmylyania. The return for New Castle was ooDtMted for 
lllegallly. John Moll was admitted and Abraham Han waSDOtadmitlad 
to the seat. 

In what house or place the Assembly met at Chester has been a matter 
ofoontroTersy. One opinion extensiyely belioved was that the sittings 
were In an old building, which, until about 1860, •lood on the west side 
of Filbert Street, near the margin of Cbeeter Creek, and was commonly 
known as the old Assembly.bouse. But Dr. George Smith, In the " His- 
tory of Delaware County," with whom John Hill Martin (ilie " History 
of Chester") agree*, declares that the Asscmbly.boiMe,ao called, was not 
built until 1693, and Ibat it was not used then for the Assembly, butwas 
the first Friends' meeting.houie. Both thoae writers coincide in the 
opinion that th* Assembly sat in the court-house, which was then the 
•' bouse of defense," a log itractore, the site of which is not known.and 
which Is belieTed to have been torn down about the time of the BsTolu. 
Unn. Dr. Smith says It was the only public buiiditig erected In Upland 
(Chsatar) at that Urns of which we hare any knowledge. 



Meetings should be held on the first third-day of each I 
month for men and women, and that every third ' 
meeting should be Quarterly Meeting. At this meet- j 
ing Thomas Holme, John Songhurst, Thomas Wynne, 1 
and Griffith Owen were designated to make the ar- 
rangements for the choice of a fit place for the meet- 
inghouse. Some time in 1684 the brick meeting- ! 
house in Centre Square and the bank meeting-house, 
which was probably of frame, were constructed. The 
brick meeting-house was not, therefore, the boarded ' 
meeting-house, and the bank meeting-house, a more 
pretentious structure, is believed to have replaced the 
latter. We may hence presume that the meeting 
of the Assembly in March, 1683, took place in the 
boarded meeting-house. The bank meeting-house, 
on Front Street, above Arch, was completed in 1684 
or 1685, and there is strong probability that the 
Assembly then, and for some years afterward, was 
convened in that building. 

In 1695 it met in the principal room of a large 
house that had been erected by Richard Whitpain 
on the east side of Front Street, between Walnut and 
Spruce. It was considered quite a grand structure for 
its day, and Penn, writing from England in 1687, said 
it was too big for a " private man," wherefore he rec- 
ommended its use by his own commissioners as a State- 
House for the use of the officers of the province. When 
the Assembly, eight years afterward, occupied this 
building for the legislative branch of the government 
they must have been in some strait for a proper place 
in which to do business. A committee was appointed 
to negotiate with Sarah Whitpain. They reported 
next day that they had agreed with her as to the com- 
pensation, or rent, which must have been an unusual 
thing, because one member for each county stood forth 
and " obliged themselves to defray the charge of this 
house, each for their respective county." In 1696 the 
Assembly met at the house of Samuel Carpenter, 
which was at that time on the west side of King [or 
Water] Street, above Walnut. In 1698 the Assembly 
ordered the rent of the house in which the meetings 
were held to be paid, and in February, 1699, in conse- 
quence of the extreme cold weather they adjourned to 
Isaac Norris' house, probably to warm themselves. In 
1701 the Assembly again met at Whitpain's house, 
then owned by Joseph Shippen, and occupied the great 
front room. Subsequently they occupied the school- 
room of Thomas Makin, who had been elected clerk 
of the Assembly in 1699. In February, 1705, Thomas 
petitioned the House and made complaint that he had 
lost several scholars "by reason of the Assembly's 
using the school-house so long, the weather being 
cold." Makin had been allowed twenty shillings for 
the use of his room during the session, but now the 
Assembly, being in a generous mood, voted him three 
pounds in addition. The new Friends' meeting- 
house, built at the southwest corner of Second and 
Market Streets in the year 1695, is believed to have 
been occasionally used by the Assembly for a place 

of meeting, intermittingly with Makin's school- 

At the convening of the Assembly, Dec. 16, 1728, 
there was again a question as to where it could find a 
proper place for meeting. It appears that at the pre- 
ceding session it had passed a resolution requesting 
the Governor and Council to make an order for a 
meeting place that should be most convenient for the 
dispatch of business, because of " indecencies used to- 
ward members of the Assembly" where it had been 
sitting. Lieutenant-Governor Gordon was obliged to 
apologize for not executing this resolution. He said 
that he would have appointed some other place than 
Philadelphia, had it not been that the Council was of 
opinion that for the convenient dispatch of business 
the members ought to meet in the city. But he said 
that if the house would not agree with him, an ad- 
journment to Chester — " which next to Philadelphia 
seems to be the most convenient place for your meet- 
ing" — would be proper. As the Governor did not 
help the Assembly out of its dilemma, it appointed a 
committee which selected for its temporary abode the 
house of Capt. Anthony Morris, on Second Street be- 
low Walnut. 

In April, 1729, the citizens of Philadelphia pre- 
sented a petition to the Assembly that it would by 
law empower the city and county to build a State- 
House in High Street near the prison. At this time 
the legislative branch was in one of the frequent con- 
troversies it had with the executive whenever it pro- 
posed to issue paper money, part of which was for 
the renewal of former emissions whose legal time had 
expired. The bill then pending had originally pro- 
posed the issue of fifty thousand pounds, but the ob- 
jections of Lieutenant-Governor Gordon reduced the 
amount to thirty thousand pounds before it was 
passed. May 10, 1729. In this act was inserted a sec- 
tion in which it was declared that " a House for the 
Representatives of the Freemen of this Province to 
meet in and sit in General Assembly in the City of 
Philadelphia, is very much wanted." Therefore it 
was enacted " that the sum of two thousand pounds 
of bills of credit made current by this act be delivered 
by the trustees of the loan office to Thomas Lawrence, 
Andrew Hamilton, and John Kearsley, who are here- 
by appointed for building and carrying on the same, 
who shall give their receipt to the trustees for the 
said bills," etc. 

Andrew Hamilton and William Allen were named 
as trustees by the Assembly for the use of the province. 
On Feb. 20, 1736, in an act " for vesting the state 
I house and other public buildings with the lots of 
j land whereon the same are erected in trust for the 
use of the province," it was recited that Hamilton 
and Alien had purchased divers lots of land situ- 
ate on the south side of Chestnut Street, and extend- 
ing from Fifth to Sixth Streets, 396 feet ; and on Fifth 
', Street south 337 feet; thence west 148i feet; then 
1 north 82 feet to a lot of ground reputed to be vacant ; 



thence west 99 feet ; thence south 82 feet ; thence 
west 148} feet to the east side of Sixth Street ; thence 
north 337 feet. Thus it appears that the whole of 
the ground between Chestnut and Walnut was not 
taken up at that time, and that the sides on Fifth 
and Sixth Streets extended south farther than the lot 
extended in the centre portion. It was as if a piece ob- 
long in shape had been cut out neatly from the south- 
ern portion of the ground. As Hamilton and Allen 
made their purcha.^es individually, the act of 1735 
was ititended to settle the title. It was there di- 
rected that Hamilton and Allen should make good 
and sufficient deed of conveyance of the property to 
John Kinsey, of Philadelphia, Joseph Kirkbride, 
Jr., of Bucks, Caleb Cowpland, of Chester, and 
Thomas Edwards, of Lancaster, " to and for the use 
of the representatives of the freemen aforesaid which 
now are and from time to time hereafter shall be 
duly elected by the freemen aforesaid and to and for 
such other uses intents and purposes as they the said 
representatives at any time or times hereafter when in 
general assembly met shall direct and appoint, Pro- 
i-ided always and it is hereby declared to be the true 
intent and meaning of these presents that no part of 
the said ground lying to the Southard of the State 
house as it is now built be converted into or made 
use of for erecting any sort of buildings thereupon 
bul that the said ground shall be enclosed and remain a 
public green and walk for ever." In an act passed 
Feb. 7, 17G2, It was stated that Allen purchased of 
Anthony Morris one other lot of ground, adjoining to 
the original ground, bounded on the south by Walnut 
Street, eastward by the lot formerly of John Bird, 
northward with the State-House ground, and west by 
the lot reputed to be vacant. This lot was 49} feet 
on Walnut Street, and 255 feet deep, so that it ran 
out on the eastern boundary of the west side of the 
extension down to Walnut Street, but did not extend 
to Sixth. 

Neither Hamilton nor Allen had made the con- 
veyance to Kinsey and the other trustees as ordered 
in 1735. 

An effort was made to discharge this duty on the 
Kith of September, 1761, by James Hamilton, heir 
and representative of Andrew Hamilton, and by 
WilliaiM Allen, by which they conveyed the property 
ti) Norris, Leach, and Fox, who were named to be trus- 
tees in the jirevious act. The Assembly does not 
appear to have been satisfied with this arrangement. 
By an act passed Feb. 17, 1762, It was recited that 
Hamilton, Kinsey, Cowpland, and Kirkbride were 
dead. The legality of the conveyance might be 
called into queHtion, and consequently the Assembly, 
acting as cfslui t/w trust and as the sovereign authority 
as well, enacted that all the estate and Interest of Ham- 
ilton in his lifetime, and of his heirs after his death, 
and als^) of William Allen in the premises, should be 
settled upon and vested in Isaac Norris, Thomas 
Lecab, Samuel Rlioads, Joseph Galloway, John Bayn- 

ton, aqd Edward Penlngton, and the survivors and 
survivor of them, and the heirs and assigns of such 
survivor freed and acquitted from the former uses, but 
to be held by Norris and his associates for the same 
uses and purposes as were directed in the act of 1785. 
The Assembly excepted out of the grant two lots at 
the corners of Fifth and Sixth Streets and Chestnut, 
on which the county court-house and city hall were 
afterward erected. It was stated that Hamilton had 
bought these grounds for the use of the city and 
county, and by the act the municipal and county title 
was affirmed. The declaration was again made that 
the ground south of the State-House within the wall 
of the inclosure should not be used for erecting any 
sort of buildings thereon, but should remain a public 
green and walk forever. Three mouths after the pas- 
sage of the act already noticed, another act was passed 
" to enable the trustees of the State house to pur- 
chase certain lots of ground, the remainder of the 
square whereon the said house now stands." 

An appropriation of five thousand pounds was made 
for the purchase, and the deeds were ordered to be 
taken in the names of the trustees, the new acquisition 
to be added to the State-House grounds. After the 
seat of the State government was removed from Phil- 
adelphia the title to the property remained vested in 
the commonwealth of Pennsylvania; but the members 
of the Assembly seem to have so lost pride in the old 
house that, in 1813, a bill was introduced to sell the 
property, as a means of doing which with the best pecu- 
niary results the opening of a street through it was pro- 
jected. Voicing the indignation of the people at such 
a desecration, the Philadelphia Councils sent a pro- 
test to the State Legislature; yet, on March 11, 1816, 
it did pass an act for the sale of the whole property; 
but it embraced a proviso that if the corporation of 
the city of Philadelphia should, within ten days be- 
fore the 1st of June, the day named for the sale, make 
a contract with the Governor for the purchase of the 
State-House buildings, with the clock and grounds, 
for the sum of seventy thousand dollars, and pay one- 
third within five days thereafter, the sale should not 
take place, but that the lot and buildings should be 
conveyed to the city, excepting the County Court 
buildings, at Sixth Street, the City Hall, at Fifth 
Street, the American Philosophical Society's hall, 
south of it, and the office buildings east and west of 
the main State-House building, which had been 
erected in 1812, and they were to be vested in the 
city and county of Philadelphia. The money real- 
ized was to be used by the State for the building of a 
capitol at Harrisburg. The act again repeated the 
declaration in former acts that the grounds south of 
the buildings should br aitd remain a public green and 
walk forever. Councils raised the funds by loan. A 
portion of the money was paid immediately, and the 
balance after some delay. And thus this valuable 
property became vested in the city. William Allen 
bought the lots on the south side of Chestnut Street, 



between Fifth and Sixth, Oct. 15, 1730. There was 
at least one building upon the ground, as it appears 
that the Assembly occupied such a building before 
the State-House was ready for use. It is not likely 
that the latter was begun before the succeeding year. 

The building committee was composed of Speaker I 
Hamilton, Dr. John Kearsley, aud Thomas Lawrence. 
Kearsley, although not a professional architect, had j 
gained much local reputation by reason of his plan 
for the construction of Christ Church, on Second 
Street. It may have been this achievement which 
gained him a place upon the building committee. 1 
Hamilton was a lawyer, and not expected to be an 
architect, and Lawrence was a merchant. However, ! 
when the committee met to agree upon the plan of 
the building, Hamilton came with his design, and so 
did Dr. Kearsley with his. Lawrence seems to have 
had the casting vote, and he decided in favor of 
Hamilton's plan. Kearsley was not only disap- 
pointed by the rejection of his design, but he was 
opposed to the building of the State-House on Chest- 
nut Street. In 1732, August 8th, Speaker Hamilton 
reported to the House that he had provided mate- 
rials to " carry on the building in the manner as the 
House now sees it. But for as much as the said John 
Kearsley had opposed the work, both on account of 
the place where it is begun to be built and of the 
manner and form of the building, and had frequently 
insisted that the House of Representatives had never 
agreed that it should be erected in that place, Mr. 
Speaker desired to know the sentiments of the House 
thereupon ; and the said John Kearsley being pres- 
ent as a member, stood up in his place, and having 
offered to the House his reasons and allegations, 
which were fully heard, Mr. Speaker moved the 
House would resolve itself into a Committee of the 
Whole House, that he might have an opportunity of 
answering the said John Kearsley." This was done, 
and the matter was debated between the two archi- 
tects. On a subsequent day the Assembly ordered 
that William Allen should be paid for the ground 
which he had bought for the State-House lot. At 
that time it was recorded : "Mr. Speaker (Hamilton) 
then produced a draught of the State House, contain- 
ing the plan and elevation of that building, which, 
being viewed and examined by several members, was 
approved of by the House." ' 

Hamilton, having been vindicated by the action of 
the House, was now anxious to withdraw from subse- 
quent supervision of the work. He asked to be ex- 
cused from service, saying, " that the care of conduct- 
ing the said building had almost entirely rested on 

I John r. Watson, in his " Annals of Philadelphia," vol. i. page 398, 
shows that he was led astray as to the name of the architect of the State- 
House. Supposing, no doubt, that the architect of Christ Church was the 
only man on the committee competent to make a design for the building, 
he came to the conclusion that Kearsley must have been the architect, 
and seems to have been ignorant of the plain and decisive entries con- 
cerning the matter which appear in the votes of the Assembly. 


himself; that by experience he found the affair was 
attended with great difficulties and much inconveni- 
ence to his own private concerns ; that it was neces- 
sary that the House should appoint some skillful 
person to superintend the work, who ought to have 
an eye constantly upon the management of the whole 
and have authority sufficient to consider what is proper 
to be done." The members of the Assembly gave no 
heed to this request. They knew that they had the 
proper man in control, and they voted " that Mr. 
Speaker be the person appointed by this House with 
the advice of the two gentlemen before nominated to 
superintend and govern the building of the State 
House, and that for his trouble therein the House 
will give him compensation." This vote of confi- 
dence was satisfactory, and Mr. Hamilton was en- 
couraged to make a statement to the Assembly in re- 
lation to some of his troubles as contractor for the 
erection of the building. The carpenters were on a 
sort of strike, and alleged that the " work expected 
from them was heavy and to be carried on in an ex- 
traordinary manner," and they demanded as compen- 
sation " thirty shillings per square." The House 
resolved that it should be given to them. At a later 
day, Dr. Kearsley, having fortified himself, it may be 
supposed, with stronger objections than he was able 
to interpose on the 8th of August, when the matter 
was unexpectedly broached by Speaker Hamilton, 
addressed himself again to the subject, his text being 
"that the form of the building was liable to great 
exceptions." The House heard him patiently, and 
then resolved that in the selection of the place " and 
the manner of conducting the said building" the 
Speaker had " behaved himself agreeably to the mind 
and intention of this House." Speaker Hamilton 
stated, on Jan. 18, 1734, that he was blamed, without 
cause, for delay in finishing the building ; that his own 
plan, with "one or more" produced by one of gentle- 
men joined in the said undertaking (Dr. Kearsley), 
with several other plans and elevations, were jiro- 
duced ; that his jilan was " agreed upon as the least 
expensive and the most neat and commodious and 
'. had been approved by the then House of Re|)resen- 
tatives." Notwithstanding his care, attention, and 
loss of time, "many Persons imagining it might rec- 
ommend them to the People have made it their 
Business unjustly to charge the said Andrew Hamil- 
ton with being the sole projector of the building and 
house for the Purposes aforesaid, and of his own Head 
running the Country to a much greater Charge than 
was necessary." In disgust at this treatment, Mr. 
Hamilton asked the Assembly " to discharge him 
from having any further Concern in carrying on or 
taking care of the said Building, he being unwilling 
to bear the unjust Reproaches of malicious Persons 
for doing what he conceived and is well satisfied is 
not only necessary, but when finished will be a credit 
to the whole province." The House postponed con- 
I sideration of the matter. In fact, no action was taken 



in regard to Mr. Hamilton's complaints, and the As- 
sembly adjourned the next day. 

The building which was projected by Mr. Hamil- 
ton was the ceutre edifice since known in later years 
as Independence Hall. It was one hundred feet in 
width on Chestnut Street by forty-four feet in depth' 
and the tower was not a part of the plan. The mas- 
ter-carpenters and builders were Edmund Wooley 
and Ebenezer Tomlinson. John Harrison was the 
joiner and carver; Thomas Shoemaker, Robert Hind, 
Thomas Peglar, Joseph Hitchcock, and Thomas Boude 
were the bricklayers. The brick were made and fur- 
nished by Daniel Jones, James Stoops, and Benjamin 
Fairman. The stone-masons and cellar-diggers were 
Jonathan Palmer and Thomas Redman ; the mar- 
ble-mason was William Holland; the wood-carver 
who executed the fine decorative carvings in the hall 
and apartments was Bryan Wilkinson. Thomas Ellis 
and Thomas Godfrey, the inventor of the quadrant, 
were the glaziers, and Gustavus Hesselius, one of the 
best known and talented artists of bis time, who is 
yet renowned for his portraits in the style of Godfrey 
Kneller, gave up for a period the finer practice of his 
art, and condescended with pot and brush to do the 
painting of the wood-work. The construction went 
on slowly. As original ly designed, it was intended 
that the State-House building should accommodate 
the Assembly, the Supreme Court, and the Governor 
and Provincial Councils. On the 24th of March, 
1733, the Assembly ordered, " for the greater security 
of the public papers of this Province (agreeable to a 
plan now produced before the House) two offices to 
be built adjoining the State-House." These were 
square buildings two stories in height, capped by a 
hip-roof. They were some distance east and west of 
the main State-House. There appears to have been 
no provision for reaching the upper stories of them 
by a stairway in the interior. The somewhat curious 
plan was adopted of constructing a covered piazza of 
thri'C open arches in front, which contained the stair- 
way and also led to the State-House. A front eleva- 
tion of the latter, engraved in 1798, shows this ar- 

In January, 1735, it was ordered " that the west end 
of the Stale-House be wainscoted of a convenient 
height on three sides, and that the east end be neatly 
wainscoted and finisheil the whole height for the 
use of the As.sembly." This room on the first floor 
east was afterward known as Independence Room or 
Hall. The wainncoting at the east end was to be 
considered as complete, while on the sides it was but 
partial. It is probable that the Assembly first occu- 
pied the State-House at the session commencing Oc- 
tober, 173.'>. The square buildings adjoining and the 
main State-House were sometimes called Province 
Hall. The additional buildings were nearly com- 
pleted in January, H.'Jfi. On the l-'ilh of that month 
John Kinsey made a motion, in which he recited 
that " the Province bath been at considerable Ex- 

pense in building the several Offices adjoining to the 
State-House, which are now almost completed, and 
were intended as Repositories for such Records and 
Papers as more immediately concern the Publick, 
and particularly those of the Trustees of the General 
Loan Office, the Rolls Office for recording Deeds, 
and the Register-General's Office." The House took 
into consideration a proposition that such officers 
should be compelled to deposit their records and jiapers 
in those offices, and give their own attendance there. 
The committee briiuirht in theirdraughtunder the title, 
"An act to enjoin sundry officers in the county of Phila- 
delphia to give their attendance in the offices adjoin- 
ing the Province Hall." This proposition was not well 
received by the officers in question. The register- 
general, Peter Evans, protested that the papers and 
records of his office were " as well-secured against 
Fire, and more effectually guarded against any Em- 
bezzlement that may be made by ill-disposed Persons 
in the place where they now are." The wills and 
papers of the office were lodged in the various coun- 
ties, and application to the register-general was 
seldom made and the profits of the office small. It 
would be a great inconvenience to him to make him 
attend on the office on Chestnut Street daily. He 
therefore proposed, at his own expense, to build "a 
strong Brick Room near the Market-Place, apart from 
any other Buildings, arched with Brick, and covered 
with tile or slate, with such a Door and Window as shall 
render it secure from Fire and other accidents, and 
that the Property of said Building shall be vested in 
the Register-General for the time being forever." 
Charles Brockden, recorder of deeds, was as unwilling 
as Evans to remove to the offices. In his protest he 
said that the site of the projiosed office was remote 
from his habitation and establishment in business, 
and inconvenient for his daily attendance at certain 
I hours, and if, by the act, the care of the records was 
taken from him, he presumed that he would not be 
responsible in case of fire or other accidents. Mr. 
Brockden also represented that he was suffering upon 
account of "the Smallness of his Fees, which, as he 
is informed, are much less than in any other Govern- 
ment in America." The House resolved "that the 
Security given by the Recorder of Deeds for the due 
Execution of his Office cannot by Law be extended 
to Fire or other accidents which may happen with- 
out any Default in him or against his Will." The 
bill was pjissed by the Assembly on the 31st of Jan- 
uary, 1730, but it met with opposition from the Gov- 
ernor, who refused to sign it unless considerable 
modifications were made for the benefit of the office- 
holders. The Assembly would not agree, and so the 
bill fell. 

The Philadelphia Library Company in 1739 was 
granted jiermission to use the second story of the 
western office or wing building, "to deposit their 
books in." The company remained there thirty-four 
years, and went to Carpenters' Hall in 1773. This 



room, and one in the eastern wing, was occupied 
during the Revolution for committee-rooms, either 
by the Assembly or Congress. The lower story was 
occupied l)y the secretary of the province from 1739 
down to the Revolution, In the attic of the western 
wing the doorkeeper of the Assembly in colonial 
times was lodged. 

In February, 1736, Edmund Wooley and Ebenezer 
Tomlinson sent a petition to the Assembly stating 
that they had almost finished that part of the State- 
House that they undertook to construct, and, there- 
fore, " praying that the house will direct in what 
manner the house will complete the same," and 
claiming payment for some extra work. Upon this 
it was resolved "that for as much as it will be too 
great a Change at present to wainscoat the inside of 
the State House and that wainscoating any Part of it 
may be totally lost when the Whole come to be com- 
pleatly finished the House is therefore of Opinion, 
and doth order, that the Inside of the said building be 
finished with good Plaistering, a proper Cornish round 
the Room next the Cieling and a Surbase below." 

At the session commencing in October, 1738, An- 
drew Hamilton brought in his accounts for the build- 
ing, which were audited by a committee of the Assem- 
bly. It was shown that he had paid out on account of 
the State-House £4043 16.5. llrf. Thomas Lawrence 
had received £666 13s. 4rf., and paid out £399 19.s. 3d. 
John Kearsley had received £666 13s. 4rf., and paid 
out £550. To Hamilton there was allowed £402 3s. 
9c?. for commissions and services during five years ; 
to Lawrence, £32 ; and to Kearsley, £32 10s. 4A In 
June, 1741, a committee, composed of Edward War- 
ner, Mark Watson, and William Hughes, appointed 
to inquire into the cause of the delay in the comple- 
tion of the structure, reported that "they had dis- 
coursed with the manager of such building, who 
informed that he had met with several Disappoint- 
ments by Workmen ; that the Carpenters' Work, bow- 
ever, was now finished ; that the Sashes were made 
and the Glass ready to put in, but that the enclosing 
Wall, not being yet completed, he had thought it better 
to defer putting them up until that was done lest they 
should suffer much damage by breaking ; that as to 
the Plaistering, notwithstanding the Pains he had 
taken for that Purpose, he had not been able to pro- 
cure a Workman capable of doing it as in his Opinion 
it ought to be done, tho' he had no Hopes of getting 
such a One by next Spring ; but if the House would 
be content with such Work as is commonly done here 
he would have it speedily performed, and like wise 
would have the lower Rooms immediately glased, if 
the House think fit to direct it; in which Case he 
will cause the Enclosure to be finished in such a 
Manner as may for the present tend to preserve the 
Glass; and that he would cause that Part of the Wall 
that is ill done to be amended." Some members were 
dissatisfied with the manner in which the work had 
been going on. A motion was put " that the building 

be no longer continued under the present direction, 
but that some other person or persons be appointed 
to manage and carry on the same." This was lost. 
But on the same day the committee brought in their 
report in writing, as follows : 

"We think it neceseary, that the AsBembly-room of tho State house 
sliould be plaistered, glaized, and tinjslied, all but tlie Cieling and upper 
Worlt, by the next Meeting of the Asaembly. And tlie Cieling and 
upper Work to be finished as soon as a Workman can he got. 

'* A boarded Fence, from each Otfice to each Wall, as high as the Wall, 
and Doors fitted in the Wall adjoining the Ofiices, to inclose the whole. 

" Part of the Brick Wall ought to be taken down, and new built, the 
North End of each Wall turned round, or carried upright, to prevent 
Children getting over. 

"The Earth being high, and the Wall low on the South Side of the 
Back Wall, the Earth should be taken away, to prevent getting over. 

"Considering Stone is so hard to be come at in covering the Wall, 
Brick will have many Joints where the Water will get in, and perish 
the Wall, we are of Opinion, that to put a Cornish on each side of the 
Wall to carry the Water a small Distiince off, and cover it with .Shingle, 
will be sufficient for many Years, and not very Chargeable. 

"That the Manager of the Building lay the Accounts relating to it 
before the Committee of Accounts. 

"That the Whole Building, with all its Parts, should be finished 
without Delay, that it may be ready for the Use intended. 

"EnwARD Waekeb 
"Mark Watson 
"WiLLiAsi Hughes." 

This was agreed to, and a copy of the report ordered 
to be sent to Mr. Hamilton for his observance. But 
fate ordained that he should be unable to pay much 
attention. He died in less than two months, Aug. 4, 
1741. He must have left his papers in excellent con- 
dition, as in two weeks after his death his executors 
exhibited to the Assembly his accounts as superin- 
tendent of the building. 

At this time there was a proposal in relation to 
carved work, and shortly after John Harrison, car- 
penter, who had done the inside work, sent a petition 
requesting that it might be inspected, and an allow- 
ance in compensation be made. Shortly afterward 
Thomas Leach, Isaac Norris, and Edward Warner 
were appointed superintendents to finish the building, 
with recommendation that they expedite such por- 
tions as had already been recommended to Superin- 
tendent Hamilton. 

A plan for finishing the court-room, the west room, 
first story, and the piazzas between the offices and the 
court-room was laid before the House, and ajiproved of 
in 1743. It is probable that the State-House building 
was finished in 1744, as toward the close of that year 
Edmund Wooley's bill was presented to the House. 

It was then without tower or steeple. It was ob- 
long, and it has been somewhat of a puzzle how 
ascent was made to the upper story. It might have 
been by galleries accessible from the piazzas, the 
steps of which led to the office buildings east and 
west, or it might have been by stairways running 
right in from the main hall of entrance. The front 
of the building presented much the same appearance 
as it does in 1884, except that the doorway, which 
was perfectly plain in its frame-work and in the same 
style with the windows, has been replaced by the pres- 



ent doorway, which was substituted after the begin- 
ning of the present century by certain officers, who 
made some alterations. The brick basement course, 
in which the cellar-windows opened, was crowned by 
a coping of soapstone, which ran horizontally to the 
edge of the sham windows on each side nearest the 
door. Then the ridge dropped to the parallel of 
the upper step, which it joined, running east and 
west for that purpose. An example of this ridge can 
be seen in the rear of the State-House now, but it 
does not appear in the front, having been changed, 
probably, when the doorway was altered. A heavy 
balustrade rose upon the central portion of the roof, 
and connecting the three stacks of flues or chimneys. 

When finished, the State-House was occupied in 
the lower east room by the Assembly, and in the 
lower west room by the Supreme Court of the prov- 
ince. The accommodation of the Governor and his 
council was also intended when it was projected, but 
it was not until 1747 that the Council-chamber, the 
western room on the second floor, was finished. 

It is not possible to trace entirely the location of 
the offices of the provincial government previous to 
that year. While Penn, on his first arrival, wiis 
living in Fairman's house, at Shackamaxon, the 
public business connected with the executive branch 
of the government must have been transacted there. 
When be took possession of the cottage (afterward 
known as Letitia's) on the lot running from Front to 
Second, south of High Street, there can be little 
doubt that the public concerns were also attended to 
by himself and his council in that house. On his 
return to England, in 1683, he directed his steward, 
James Harrison, to allow his cousin, William Mark- 
ham, to live in the Letitia house, and that Thomas 
Lloyd, the Deputy Governor, should have the use of 
his periwigs, "and any wines and beers that may be 
there for the use of strangers." This seems to refer 
to the visits of strangers to the Deputy Governor on 
public bu?'iness, and justifies the belief that the seat 
of the proprietary government was at the Letitia 

After Penn's return to the province he conducted 
its affairs at his successive residences in the Shippen 
mansion and the "slate-roof house," where his sec- 
retary, James Logan, also lived. Logan was given 
permLssion to live in the "slate-roof" until the 
year was up. in January, 1702. The building was 
then the State-House of the province, at least as far 
as regarded the executive officers. In May, 1702, 
Logan wrote to Penn, " I am forced to keep this 
house still, there being no accommodation to be had 
elsewhere for public business. Jacob Taylor (the 
office must pay for him) likewise tables here and 
holds it in thy closet that was, the books, etc. being 
removed to the next room just above it." Logan left 
the "slate-roof house" when Governor John Evans 
came to Pennsylvania in February, 1704, and then 
Evans, James Logan, and Judge Mompesson, and i 

William Penn, Jr., went to Clark's Hall, southwest 
corner of Third and Chestnut Streets. The offices 
of State were probably established in that building 
duri-Bg the term of Evans. The early minutes of the 
the Council generally state that they were held at 
Philadelphia or in "ye Council room." On the 
11th of the Fourth month (June), 1685, the Council 
is stated in the beginning of the minutes to be 
held in the Council-room at Philadelphia, Thomas 
Holmes being the president, and William Markham 
secretary. Subsequent minutes are generally par- 
ticular in noting the same fact up to the com- 
mencement of the term of Governor Fletcher, in 1693. 
In May, 1689, the Council was held "in ye council 
room," Governor Gen. John Blackwell being pre.sent, 
but in January, 1689, it was held "at the Governors 
lodging at Phila." and there are several subsequent 
entries of that kind. During the succeeding, in Jan- 
uary, 1690, the Council was again held " in ye Coun- 
cil room," and in after-years the general entry was 
that they were held at Philadelphia. 

The Council took jiossession of the Council-cham- 
ber in the State-House when Anthony Palmer was 
president, some time in the summer of 1747. This 
room and the upper story were occupied by the Gov- 
ernor and Council up to the Revolution, and no doubt 
by the Council of Safety and the Supreme Executive 
Council, and the Governors of the State afterward, 
and until the seat of government was removed to 
Lancaster. The whole of the second story was occu- 
pied most probably before the Revolution by the offi- 
cers of the provincial government. A division ran 
through the centre east and west. The Governor's 
room was in the southwest corner, and the officers of 
the Council and the proprietaries seem to have been 
located in the southeast. The long apartment on the 
Chestnut Street front was often appropriated to social 
purposes, and on such occasions was called the "ban- 
queting hall." 

On the 30th of September, 1736, William Allen, 
mayor of the city, made a feast for the citizens at the 
State-House, to which all the strangers in town of 
note were also invited. Franklin's Pcnnsylrania (fa- 
ze^/ff contains an enthusiastic notice of "the delicacies 
of the viands, the variety and excellency of the wines, 
the great number of guests, and yet the easiness and 
order with which the whole was conducted," so that 
it was " the most grand and the most elegant enter- 
tainment that has been made in these parts of Amer- 
ica." This must have been given in a down-stairs 
room, and not in the up-stairs apartment, afterward 
called the " long room" or the " banqueting room," 
because it is apparent that at this time the upper 
stories were unfinished. On the 9th of November, 
1752, Lieutenant-Governor James Hamilton cele- 
brated the anniversary of the birthday of King 
(ieorge XL by an entertainment at Bush Hill, where 
the royal healths were drank, in honor of which 
there was a discharge of cannon from the Association 



Battery and from the ships in the Delaware. In the 
evening there was a grand ball at the State-House, 
with a hundred ladies present, and a larger number 
of gentlemen. The- dancing must have either taken 
place in the Assembly-room, or the room occupied by 
the Supreme Court. The supper was given in the 
long gallery, and "everything conducted with the 
greatest decorum." Governor Robert Hunter Morris 
gave a supper and ball there in 1754. Governor Wil- 
liam Denny was honored by a dinner in the same 
apartment in 1756. The Earl of Loudon, commander 
of the British forces in America, was feasted in the 
long room by the city corporation in the ensuing year. 
John Penn was dined there by the city in 1763, and 
Richard Penn in 1771 and 1773. In the rejoicings 
which followed the news of the repeal of the Stamp 
Act, on the 21st of May, 1766, the " principal inhabit- 
ants" gave an entertainment at the State-House, to 
which were invited the Governor and officers of the 
government, the military, and Capt. Hawker, of his 
Majesty's ship "Sardoine," which had convoyed the 
stamp ship into port a few months previously. Three 
hundred plates were laid, and a contemporary chron- 
icler says that " the whole was conducted with the 
greatest elegance and decorum, so that detraction 
itself must be silent on the occasion." In September, 
1774, when the Continental Congress met at Carpen- 
ters' Hall, its members were the guests of the gentle- 
men of Philadelphia at a dinner in the State- House, 
and this is believed to have been the last occasion 
on which public social festivities took place there, 
although there were jjrivate occasions afterward when 
the building was used for banquets. 

The General Assembly of the province met in the 
east room on the lower floor, and it was there that 
the constant controversies between the members and 
the Governers were fought out. The sturdy Quaker 
majority held their own against the proprietary de- 
mands, and important political questions were settled 
there. This apartment was occupied from October, 
1736, to May 13, 1775, upon all occasions of regular 
or called sessions. During the three latter days of 
this period it is probable that the chamber was 
occupied during a portion of the time by the Assembly 
and at other times by the Continental Congress. The 
Congress sat there until driven out by the British, on 
Sept. 18, 1777. It came back July 2, 1778, and in 
the east room received on August 6th of that year, 
M. Conrad Alexander Gerard, minister of France. 
On the 9th of July, 1778, "the Articles of Confedera- 
tion and Perpetual Union between the Independent 
States of America" were signed in that chamber by 
the delegates of eight States, but upon conditions not 
to be binding until ratified by the thirteen States.' 

1 The eight States were New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, 
Connecticnt, New York, Pennsylvania, Vermont, and South Carolina. 
The delegates from Pennsylvania who entered into this treaty were 
Bobert Morris, Daniel Roberdean, Jonathan Bayard Smith, William 
Clingan, and Joseph Keed. During the course of the year the articles 

Congress continued in the east chamber until June 
21, 1783, when, because some soldiers of the Penn- 
sylvania line were a little uproarious in front of the 
State-House in demanding that the Supreme Ex- 
ecutive Council of the State (not Congress) should 
requite their claims, the Confederate delegates took 
upon themselves an unnecessary panic, and adjourned 
in great haste to Princeton, where they met on the 
30th of June. It was impossible to coax them back 
for some years, and when they did come they did not 
sit in the Assembly-room. 

Session at Carpenters* Hall. 
Sept. 3, 1774.— Peyton Randolph, of Virginia. 

Sessions at the State-House. 
May 24, 1775. — John Hancock, of Massachusetts, session at the State- 
House until Congress adjourned, Sept. 18, 1777, to Lancaster, 

Session at Lancaster. 
Nov. 1, 1777. — Henry Laurens, of South Carolina. 

State-House, Philadelphia. 
Dec. 10, 1778.— John Jay, of New York. 
Sept. 28, 1779.- Samuel Huntingdon, of Connecticut. 
July 10, 1781,— Thomas McKean, of Delaware. 
Nov. 5, 1781. — John Hanson, of Maryland. 
Nov. 4, 1782.— Elias Boudinot, of New Jersey, 
Congress adjourned to Princeton June, 1783. 

To what use the east room was put for a few years 
is not now known, but there. May 14, 1787, assembled 
the members of the convention appointed by the 
various States to frame and agree upon a Constitution 
for the United States. Of that august body George 
Washington was president, and Maj. William Jack- 
son was secretary. This convention was in session 
until September 17th, when, having perfected their 
work, the members adjourned. They were succeeded 
shortly after, in the month of October, by a conference 
of delegates from the congregations and churches 
in the United States which before the Revolution 
had been in connection with the Church of England. 
This convention consulted upon the means best 
adapted to secure independence of Great Britain, 
while at the same time the religious service and 
creed of the Church of England should be disturbed 
as little as possible. The result was that after a ses- 
sion of eight days the labors of the delegates resulted 
in the foundation of the Protestant Episcopal Church 
of the United States of North America. In the same 
year, November 24th, the convention of the State of 
Pennsylvania to frame a new constitution met in the 
east chamber, perfected its work, and occupied the 
room, with the exception of vacation, until Sept. 2, 
1790. During this time this convention passed a 
resolution to ratify the new Federal Constitution of 
the United States. Under the State Constitution of 
1790 there was a very material change in the legis- 

were raUBed by North Carolina, July Zlst; Georgia, July 24th ; New 
Jersey, November 26th ; Delaware, May 5, 1779 ; Maryland, March 1, 


lative system. The General Assembly of Pennsyl- 
vania had up to that time been a single body. There 
was now constituted an additional department, and 
the two were denominated the Senate and the House 
of Representatives of the State of Pennsylvania, the 
term General Assembly being enlarged so as to in- 
clude both. This change led to new arrangements. 
The Senate was to be accommodated as well as the 
House. They took possession of the first floor, and 
occupied the east and west chambers. The Senate 
occupied the eastern room, and the House remained 
in the old quarters of the Assembly on the west. A 
writer who had visited the Assembly at this period 
relates his recollections in later years : 

**The Senate of Peiinsylvuiiia held their ilelibernlions iu an iij)per 
chalul>er of the State-House, Anthony Slorris, Speaker, in the cliair, 
facing the north. Hi» personal appearance from the chair was that of 
an amiable, contemplative, placlil-looking gentleman, dressed fiu^hion- 
abljr plain, in a suit of mixed or drab clutli ; fair complexion and light 
flaxen hair, slightly powdered, his imperturbable serenity of counte- 
nance seemingly illuminated by a brilliant pair of silver-mounted 

"The Representatives' chamber wm In the east wing down-stairs, 
designated since the arrival of Lafayette aa* Independence Hall,' George 
Latimer in the chair, facing the west. When seated in the chair, and 
the table before him, he seemed admirably adapted to the station he so 
honorably filled, and which he had the honor to fill, by his well-formed 
manly person, from his bust upward, and being of the proper height 
and bulk, his neck supporting a head and physiognomy of the first 
order, even such a one na is given by Milton to our first piirent in these 
words, — 

" His fair large front, 
Absolute rule." 

1 eye sublinie, declared 

"Nevertheless, being judged by his political opponents, all spake of 
him as being possessed in a high degree of that admirable quality of 
* softness in the manner but firmness in the purpose,' which he exhib- 
ited one day with great effect. A new member, fresh from his constitu- 
ents, and highly charged with the politlcnl lluld of the day, attempted 
to Introduce personality into the debate. Ho was on the instant stopped 
by Hr. Sp«Aker, and cautioned by him very gently to beware, as it 
would Id no case be permuted. The memlier, notwithstanding, in a 
■hort time afterward intimated soinelhing like a repetition of his pur- 
pose, on which Mr. Speaker raised himself uiwn his feet, and addressed 
to him certain words uf powerful import in a low huljlrm tune of voice, 
which caused the offending member to shrink witliiu himself, as a 
touched terrapin within the shell, Mr. Speaker the mean while de- 
libetmtcly preparing with finger and thumb to regale himself from his 
op«n snuff-box with a cool pinch of snulT. 

"On the floor of the House aud from the lobby the first object which 
arretted the attention of the spectator was tho venerable appearance of 
old Mr. Hillzhelmer, from South Seventh Street, he being always among 
the first in his place, and looking towards tho door with the most pro- 
found gravity through a pair of full-moon speclacle-glasses, or else 
reading and filing away the doily printed Journal which had been just 
hAnded him, damp from the press. 

"The largeat man in the House, and probably In the State at the 
UlD^ w«« the member from Berkii County, Mr. Coolbaugh, a gentleman 
of high respectability, and very |K)pular among his constituents, though 
•omcUmes doalgnated in the city as the 'Dutch giant.' But among 
them all, u tho leading mHster-splrit or ' I'rosporo' of tho Assonibly, 
■Dd the moat mem(ir»bIo State pidlllclan of the day, was the far-famed 
(within the boundaries of the State) Dr. Michael Leib. Ho was always 
remarkable In the House for his erect poslllon of crest, his fashionable, 
gentlemanly drew and address, his handsome face aufl ruddy com- 
plexion, and his piercing, brilliant black eyes, sjurkllng with Intelli- 
gence and quickness of thought. He used to bo seen continually in 
motion somewheri-, either conversing with animated gestures among 
other members surrounding Ihe fireplace, addressing himsi'lf to the 
chair In most energetic »iKcch, exhibiting therein thoughU which 
glowed and word, which bume<l In tho cause of ■ the People," as he at 
all times constantly averred lu those ibiys." 

By this time the inhabitants of the interior of the 
State had become dissatisfied with the continuance of 
the capital at Philadelphia. Persons who were in- 
terested in the public business with the legislative or 
executive departments were compelled to travel great 
distances from the western boundary to the eastern, at 
Philadelphia. Therefore, in March, 1787, it was re- 
solved that a State-House should be erected for the 
accommodation of the executive and General As- 
sembly, at Harrisbiirg, in Dauphin County. No ac- 
tive measures were taken to effect the removal imme- 
diately, but to expedite the measure the Legislature 
resolved, by an act pa.ssed in April, 1799, that tem- 
porary removal of the seat of government should be 
made to Lancaster, and that after the first Tuesday in 
November of the same year the functions of the State 
government should be exercised there. The As- 
sembly adjourned on the 11th of April of that year, 
and thus, after a hundred and seventeen years, during 
which the State capital was at Philadelphia, that con- 
nection with the city and its people ceased. 

In the latter part of 1799 the Grand Lodge of 
Masons of Pennsylvania presented a petition to Gov- 
ernor Thomas MitHin for permission to hold its meet- 
ings in one of the rooms of the State-House. The 
Governor granted the use the room formerly occupied 
by the secretary of the Senate of Pennsylvania, in the 
second story of the western part of the building, prob- 
ably in that which was formerly known as the Coun- 
cil-room. The lodge removed from the State-House 
in 1802, when Peale's Museum was established. 

This departure of the legislative and executive 
offices of the government of the commonwealth from 
Philadelphia left the State-House building vacant 
for a time, and there was much inquiry as to what 
should be done with it. Charles Wilson Peale, whose 
museum had grown too large for the quarters it occu- 
pied, offered to become the tenant. 

The American Philosophical Society by memorial, 
and the Select and Common Councils of the city by 
resolution, recommended the plan of Peale to the 
attention of the Assembly. A committee to which 
the subject had been referred reported in favor of 
.selling the State-House, with a lot of sufficient size 
adjoining, for the use of the building, and that the 
balance of the State-House yard should be divided 
into convenient lots. But there was a better spirit 
among the members. They rejected the proposition 
to sell the property, and, instead of that sacrifice, 
])asscd the act of March 17, 1802, granting to Peale 
the use of the lower story of the eastern end and the 
whole of the upper floor, with the proviso that the 
citizens, as usual, should hold their elections there 
(presumably at tlie windows of the east room), and 
that Peale would take care of the State-House yard, 
and " 0])en the doors in the hall and permit citizens 
to walk in the yard for recreation, and to pass and 
repass at reasonable hours as heretofore." The second 
story was divided into four rooms. The " long room" 



was upon the north, fronting Chestnut Street, and 
extended from the east to the west end of the main 
building, and half-way toward the south end. It took 
up, in fact, the front half of the building. The 
southern half was divided into three apartments. 
The " mammoth-room" extended from the east wall to 
a parallel with the east wall of the tower. The " lec- 
ture-room" was small, and occupied a space about the 
width of the tower. The stairway leading to the 
upper tower of the steeple was on the east side. The 
" quadruped-room" extended from the lecture-room to 
the west wall. The stairway to the tower also led to 
the "marine-room," which was in the attic. In the 
long room were over a thousand specimens of birds 
and four thousand insects, with minerals and por- 
traits. The mammoth-room contained the skeleton 
of the remarkable antediluvian monster, the bones of 
which were first discovered in a marl-pit in Ulster 
County, N. Y., by Mr. Peale in 1801. The lecture- 
room was used for lectures, when delivered, but also 
contained curiosities. In the quadruped-room were 
stuffed specimens of some two hundred animals, large 
and small. In the marine-room were bodies of large 
fish, alligators, serpents, and reptiles. In the yard 
were placed in cages a few living animals which could 
stand existence in the open air in summer and winter. 
A splendid eagle was in a cage, on the front of which 
was inscribed, " Feed me well ; I live one hundred 

This very small zoological garden was of unfailing 
interest to the boys of the city and to the country 
people, when they came as visitors. Besides the rooms 
in the State-House proper, Mr. Peale threw a floor over 
the stairway in the main hall or tower, in which he 
prepared subjects, deposited duplicates, and kept his 
library of natural history. After the city of Phila- 
delphia became owners of the State-House, Mr. Peale 
was notified to remove this floor, as it was a disfigure- 
ment of the fine proportions of the stairway and tower, 
but he made objection, and succeeded in baflling the 
opposition. The museum remained in the State-House 
until the Arcade building, Chestnut Street, north side, 
between Sixth and Seventh, was finished, in 1828-29.' 

Up to the time when the State sold the State-House 
property to the city Mr. Peale had paid no rent. In 
1811, before that transfer was made, he proposed that 
he should be allowed, for the accommodation of the 
museum, the use of the second stories in the wings 
about to be constructed. As soon as the city bought 
the property, in 1816, it was resolved that Mr. Peale 
should pay rent. He began at a rale of four hundred 
dollars per annum. In 1818 Councils resolved that 

1 When Mr. Peale fii-st opened the museum he kept the coUection 
open on Sunday, and placed at the front door a placard, upon which waa 
the following inscription : " Here the wonderful works of the Divinity 
may be contemplated with pleasure and advantage. Let no one enter 
to-day with any other view." This attempt at an e.'ihiLiition on Sunday 
brought forth opposition and articles in the newspapers in regard to 
Sabbath desecration, which were replied to by Mr. Peale defending his 
course. How long the museum was open on Sundays is not known. 

he should pay twelve hundred dollars rent, and leave 
the two lower rooms vacant. The latter were rented 
to the county commissioners for the use of the County 
Courts for twenty-four hundred dollars. In 1821, 
Peale's rent was reduced to six hundred" dollars, and 
in the same year the Legislature incorporated the 
Philadelphia Museum Company, composed of Ra- 
phael, Rembrandt, and Rubens Peale, sons of C. W. 
Peale, Coleman Sellers, a son-in-law, and Pierce 
Butler. They purchased the interest of the elder 
Peale, and the capital of the company was fixed at 
five hundred shares at two hundred dollars each, the 
stockholders to be personally responsible. 

After the evacuation by Peale of the lower stories, 
the east room became occasionally an exhibition- 
room. The first employment of the apartment for 
that purpose was in November, 1824, when Trum- 
bull's picture of " Washington Resigning to Congress 
his Commission" was exhibited there. TheVeason for 
its admission was that this being a representation of 
a great historical event, the hall dedicated to patriotic 
memories was the proper place for the display. Sub- 
sequently other pictures were exhibited, in favor of 
which no patriotic pretence could be presented. 

Probably the last occasion on which Independence 
Hall was used for show purposes was when a picture 
called "The American Flag Unveiled in Mexico for 
the Protection of Joel R. Poinsett" (formerly minister 
to Mexico) was exhibited. Councils resolved that 
after that making a show-room out of the Independ- 
ence chamber was not beneficial to the character of a 
great city. 

In " the picture of Philadelphia in 1824" is a plan ot 
the State-House and adjoining buildings, including 
the court-house. Proceeding westward from the pas- 
sage-way leading to the yard adjoining the City Hall, 
the offices and rooms upon the first floor of the east 
wing were occupied by the clerk of the Mayor's Court 
and recorder of deeds. Then the hall or passage-way 
leading through to the yard and to the stairway to 
the second story. On the west side of the passage- 
way were the register of wills and rooms of the Supreme 
Court. Next was the east room, second story, denom- 
inated on the plan " Court-Room," but without regular 

The centre hallway leading to the tower was de- 
nominated " entrance to the museum," etc. The 
west room was occupied by the Mayor's Court ; the 
adjoining office in the west wing was held by the 
prothonotary of the Court of Common Pleas; next 
was the sherifi''s oflice ; then the west hallway to the 
yard and stairs to the second story ; then clerk of 
Orphans' Court and clerk of Quarter Sessions. 

The second story of the east oflice wing was divided 
ea-st of the hallway by a partition running parallel 
with Chestnut Street. The front room was occupied 
by the guardians of the poor, and the back room, 
looking out upon the yard, by the grand jury. West 
of the hallway the space was cut by a partition run- 




ning north and south, with an entry leading to the 
stairway. A small room front of this entry, looking 
upon Chestnut, was the " black witness-room," and 
immediately opposite was the " white witness-room." 
The westernmost room of this second story, reached 
by the short entry, was occupied by the prothonotary 
of the District Court. The second story of the west- 
ern side w:is planned in the same manner as the east 
wing. The clerk of the United States Court occu- 
pied the e:istern apartment. The United States mar- 
shal held the two offices front and back, correspon- 
ing to the witness-rooms in the east wing. The 
western half of the second story was divided by east 
and west partitions. The county commissioners oc- 
cupied the southern room, and the auditors that at 
the north. 

After the Legislature and Governor had removed to 
Lanciister and Harrisburg, the Supreme Court for the 
Eiistern District, which had been held up-stairs, sought 
more comfortable quarters. The judges descended to 
the ejist room, and remained there, it is supposed, until 
after the State-House building was sold to the city, 
and probably until 1818. After that time there was 
no public use of the east room until about the time 
when the second visit of Lafayette to America was 
expected, in 1824. In that year. Councils having re- 
solved to honor Lafayette as the guest of the city, it 
was determined to receive him in the east chamber, 
a design considered tlie more appropriate because of 
the Reviilutiiinary history of the apartment. 

Previously certain officers having charge over the 
State-House had changed very materially the appear- 
ance of the apartment. The old wainscot and panel- 
work had been torn out, the curious chandelier of 
glass with its pendants had been taken down and 
conveyed to an upper story, and the interior had been 
modernized. The walls were painted in stone-color, 
and the windows hung with curtains of red and blue 
studded with stars. A statue of Washington, carved 
in wood by Rush, stood near the east centre, and 
on either side of it were hung portraits of Wash- 
ington and of Penn, Franklin, Morris, Hopkinson, 
Green, Wayne, Montgomery, Hamilton, Gates, 
Rochambeau, Carroll, and McKean. Lafayette was 
received at the Chestnut Street entrance, passing 
under an archway designed by William Strickland 
and decorated with paintings, mottoes, and two carved 
figures emblematic of justice and wisdom, that were 
executed by Rush. The City Councils met Lafayette 
at this entrance, and accompanied him to the east 
room, where Mayor Watson delivered the address of 
welcome, to which he made an appropriate reply. In 
18.33 an effort was made to restore this room to its 
original appearance. Much of the panel-work was 
found and restored, and missing pieces were replaced 
by substitutions in the same style. The old chandelier 
having been restored, the room was very much iis it 
was in 1776, the prinejpal lacking feature being the 
gallery that had partially filled the eastern end. Por- 

traits of eminent Philadelphians were hung up, and 
iu 1854 a portion of the Peale collection was added. 
The City Councils having devoted the room to public 
purposes, a large number of the guests of the mu- 
nicipality were received there, among them Presidents 
Jackson, Van Buren, Harrison. Polk, Taylor, Pierce, 
Lincoln, and Grant, the Prince de Joinville, and Louis 
Kossuth. The remains of John Quiney Adams, 
Henry Clay, and Abraham Lincoln, and those of 
many officers killed during the civil war lay in state 
in the cast room. 

The west chamber of the first floor was ordered to 
be finished in 1743, but might have been in use before 
that year by the Supreme Court of the province. It 
may be assumed, without positive knowledge, that the 
Courts of Admiralty under the crown held their ses- 
sions at the court-house at Market and Second Streets, 
after that building was finished, and at the State- 
House after the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania was 
assigned the use of the west room. This would be 
likely from the known interests of the colonial Gov- 
ernors and Assembly to keep on good terms with the 
crown and officers of the English government. Yet 
it must be stated that there are no means of proving 
anything upon the subject. Knowledge is meagre in 
relation to the manner in which the admiralty juris- 
diction under the crown was exercised. Casual refer- 
ences in letters, or allusions in the colonial records, 
to persons as officers of the admiralty are about all 
that can be found in relation to this subject. The 
titles to the jurisdiction of the officers were changing. 
William Penn and the Council exercised admiralty 
jurisdiction in Pennsylvania and the lower counties 
on the Delaware for ten years after the settlement, 
and until 1693. Several cases are found upon the 
Council minutes, as for instance, the petition of the 
mariners belonging to the " Friends' Adventure," 
March, 1693 ; the " Levee,'' of Liverpool, September, 
1683; the " Mary," of Southampton, November, 1683; 
the " Harp," of Lonilon, and others. Governor Ben- 
jamin Fletcher, of New York, upon his assuming au- 
thority in Pennsylvania in 1692, announceil himself 
as vice-admiral, and appointed in the succeeding year 
William Markham to be his surrogate, with the power 
of vice-admiral. In 1697, Col. Robert Quarry was in 
Philadelphia, and claimed to be judge of the admi- 
ralty for Pennsylvania and West Jersey. Some of the 
jiid^'es are called coninussaries. Col. Seymour, Gov- 
ernor of Maryland, is said to have been vice-admiral 
of Maryland, Pennsylvania, and West Jersey in 1704, 
and John Moore was deputy judge at Philadelphia 
in the same year. Jareil Ingersoll, in 1771, was de- 
siTibed to be judge i>f admiralty in appeal for Penn- 
sylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, and Virginia. In- 
gersoll seems to have been a superior officer. There 
are references to show that E<lward Shippen, Jr., who 
was appointed commissary or deputy judge in 1751, 
was acting in Philadelphia in 1773, although Inger- 
soll was still in commission. 



As soon as resistance to the elaims of Great Britain 
became a settled policy in Pennsylvania, the au- 
thority of the admiralty under the laws of Great 
Britain was superseded. The Continental Congress 
recommended the Assemblies of the various colonies to 
create Courts of Admiralty. An act of Assembly for 
this purpose was passed in the early part of 1776, and 
Georj^c Ross, of Lancsister, was commissioned judge 
on the 6th of April by the Assembly. This court was 
in existence until superseded by the District Court of 
the United States, holding admiralty power in 1790. 

July 15, 1776, the convention to form a constitu- 
tion for the State of Pennsylvania assembled in this 
room, and remained there until September 28th, when 
the frame of the constitution was finished. What be- 
came of the Assembly after the members were driven 
out of the east chamber is not exactly known. In 
1778 it was sitting in the eastern room of the second 
story, possibly in the banqueting-room. About 1780 
the Legislature came down-stairs and occupied the 
west room of the first story. In 1811, the District 
Court for the City and County of Philadelphia occu- 
pied this chamber. In 1821 the Mayor's Court be- 
came tenant of the apartment. When that tribunal 
was superseded by the Court of Criminal Sessions, 
established March 19, 1838, Judges Bouvier, Conrad, 
and Todd established themselves in the Mayor's court- 
room. They were driven out by the act of Feb. 2o, 
1840, which abolished the Court of Criminal Sessions 
and established the Court of General Sessions. In 
less than two years Judges Barton, Conrad, and Doran 
were themselves /unctn>! officio by act of Feb. 3, 1843. 
The west room was vacant for a short time, but the 
necessities of justice requiring more court-rooms than 
had previously been in use, the General Sessions room 
was fitted up to accommodate the Court of Common 
Pleas, while the old Common Pleas court-roora, in 
Sixth Street below Chestnut, was given up entirely to 
the Quarter Sessions. In 1875, principally through 
the exertions of Francis M. Etting, Councils resolved 
to appropriate the west room as a national museum 
and place of deposit for relics connected with the his- 
tory of the Province and State of Pennsylvania, and 
of the United States. Eventually the whole building 
may come to some such use as a proper sequence of its 
evacuation and the use of the City Hall at Broad and 
Market Streets by Councils. 

After Peale's Museum was removed from the State- 
House the United States government rented the sec- 
ond story for judicial purposes. The long room was 
obliterated, and the western portion of the second 
floor was thrown into one room for the use of the 
United States Circuit and District Court. The judge's 
bench was placed in front of an alcove, upon the wall 
of which was erected an elegant marble tablet, pre- 
pared by the bar of Philadelphia, in memory of Justice 
Bushrod Washington. A canopy, supported by Co- 
rinthian pillars, arose from the bench and projected 
out into the room. The United States district attor- 

ney and clerk occupied a railed-off space in front of 
the bench. The wood-work was handsomely painted, 
the bench and its portico in pure white, and at the 
time this was the handsomest court-room in the city. 
East of the United States court-roora the second 
story was divided by a partition, leading east and west, 
into two rooms. The northern apartment, with the 
remaining portion of the old long room, was used as a 
jury-room for the United States Court. The southern 
apartment was given up to the use of the clerk of the 
District and Circuit Court. Francis Hopkinson held 
both of these oflSces for some years. In November, 

1846, George Plitt was appointed clerk of the Circuit 
Court, Mr. Hopkinson remaining as clerk of the Dis- 
trict Court, but being superseded therein, March 9, 

1847, by Thomas L. Kane. During this period the 
clerk of the District Court occupied the southern 
office, and the clerk of the Circuit Court that on the 
north. In 1854, upon the consolidation of the city 
and districts, it was decided by Councils that increased 
accommodation for the legislative branch of the mu- 
nicipal government was required. The United States 
courts were given notice to remove from the second 
story of the State-House building, and the court-room 
required but little alteration to make it suitable for 
the use of Common Council. On the east the parti- 
tion between the rooms of the court clerks was demol- 
ished and a single chamber was fitted up for Select 
Council. Access from one chamber to the other is 
by a passage-way railed otf on the northern side. A 
small room between them has been sometimes used for 
committee purposes. 

The State-House has been singularly fortunate in 
escaping injury by fire. It was especially threatened 
on the occasions when the City Hall and the court- 
house were partially destroyed. There have also 
been serious fires in the neighborhood on the north 
side of Chestnut Street between Fifth and Sixth, but 
good fortune preserved that old building. Its nar- 
rowest escape was March 24, 1824, when the Mayor's 
court-room was entered by three incendiaries, Dennis 
McCarthy, Thomas Cole, and John Carr. They piled 
chairs, books, and combustibles in thesoutheast corner, 
set fire to them, and escaped through the window. 
The flames were soon discovered, and' were extin- 
guished before they had gained much headway. One 
of the intentions of the incendiaries was the murder 
of Mayor Wharton, in whose court they had been 
previously convicted on a criminal charge. For the 
second crime they were arrested, and the prosecuting 
attorney, Thomas M. Pettit, presented an indictment 
against them for conspiracy to burn the State-House 
and to burn the dwelling of Charles Wilson Peale, 
and also for conspiracy to kill the mayor. They were 
convicted on all the counts, and were sentenced to 
twelve years' imprisonment each. 

In 1749 measures were taken to erect the tower on 
the south side of the main hall. The superinten- 
dents were ordered to proceed as soon as they conven- 



iently might, and the tower was to contsiin " the.stair- 
c:ise with a suitable place therein for hanging a bell." 
At the sessions of 1750-51, the House passeil a reso- 
lution directing "that the superintendents provide a 
bell of such weight and dimensions as they shall think 
Buitable." Isaac Xorris, Thomas Leech, and Edward 
Warner acconlingly. a few months afterward, prepared 
the following letter, which is interesting in showing 
the commencement of proceedings which resulted in 
the castinj: of what was afterward known as "the 
liberty bell :" 

« To BoImH C%irla, of Landmi, Son. 1, 1751. 

"Respected, — The Assembly liaviDc ordered us (the siiper- 
iDteiidenls of the State-Hooxo) to procure a hell from England, tu be 
purchased for their use, we take the lil»erty to apply ourselves to thee 
to get us a good bell of about two thousand pounds weight, the cost of 
which we presume nmy amount to about one liundred pounda sterling, 
or perhaps with the charges, etc. 

" We hope and rely on thy care and assistance in this afTair, and that 
thou wilt procure and forward it by the firet opportunity, as our worlt- 
men inform us it wilt l>e less trouble to hang the bell before their schI- 
folds are struelc from the building where we intend to place it. which 
will not be done until the end of next summer or beginning of the fall. 
Let the bell be cast by the best workmen, and examine carefully before 
It ia shipped with the following words, well shaped, in large letters 
arvund it, viz.: 

** ' By onler of the Assembly of the Province I'f Pennsy. for the State- 
nonso in the city of Phila., 1762.' 

** And underneath, — 

"'Proclaim Liberty through nil the land unto all the inhabitants 
thereof.' — Levlt. xxv. 10. 

" As we have experienced thy readyness to serve this Province on all 
occasions, wo desire it may be our excuse for this additional trouble from 
tbj assured friends. 

"Isaac Norris, 
"Thomas Leech, 
" EnwARP Warner." 

The bell was brought l>y Capt. Budden, and was 
jiut on shore about the end of August. It was su])- 
posed to be of the best quality, but when hung up 
and being tried for the sound "it was cracked by a 
stroke of the clapper, without any other violence." 
Very much disappointed, the superintendents deter- 
mined to ship the bell back to England to be recast. 
But Ca|)t. Budden had a large cargo, and had no 

room for the bell. In this emergency, Pass, a 

native of the Isle of Maltji, and Stow, a son of Charles 
Stow, undertook to reciist the bell from the old ma- 
terial. The mould was opened March 10, 1753, and 
one of the trustees, writing to Europe, said, "The 
mould was finished in a very masterly manner, and 
the letters, I am told, are better than the old ones. 
When we broke up the oM metal our judge-s here 
generally agreed that it was too high an<l brittle, and 
cast several little bells out of it to try the sound and 
Htrength.and fixed u|>on a mixture of an ounce and a 
half of copper to one pounil of the old bell, and in 
this proportion we now have it." But it turned out 
that the sound wiis not satisfactory. There was too 
much copper in the bell, and Pass and Stow made 
another trial. The third bell was considered satisfac- 
tory, but Isaac Norris <lid not like it, as he confessed 
in a letter some months afterward, and even then 

made some mention of a determination to have an- 
other bell cast in England. 

The following notice shows that the third l)ell was 
put in place : 

"June 7th, 1753. — Last week was raised and fixed 
in the State-House steeple the new great bell cast 
here by Pass and Stow, weighing 2080 pounds, with 
this motto: 'Proclaim Liberty to all the land and all 
the inhabitants thereof.' "' 

The original bell was cast at Whitechapel, prob- 
ably by Lister. It cost one hundred and ninety-eight 
pounds. Pa.-vs and Stow, for recasting it, received, in 
September, 1753, £60 13«. 5-/. They had the benefit 
of the old material, and adiled but little. On the 8th 
of July. 1776, it is probable that tliis bell was rung, as 
the public reading of the Declaration of Independence 
took place in the State-House yard on that day, and 
there were general rejoicings. This has been gener- 
ally assumed iis an event that ought to have happened 
to make the inscription on the bell prophetic. John 
Adams, in writing to Samuel Chase on July 9th, said, 
" The bells rang all day and almost all night." On 
the 15th of September, 1778. by order of the Executive 
Council, the bells of Christ Church and St. Peter'.*, 
as well as the State-House, were ordered to be taken 
down and removed to a place of safety. This action 
was taken, it is said, because at that time the bells in 
a captured town belonged to the conquering troops, 
and were available as spoil of war for the ca.sting of 
cannon. These bells, eleven in all, were removed to 
Allentown, Pa., by the way of Bethlehem, in the streets 
of which the wagon bearing the State-House bell broke 
down, and had to l)e unloaded. After the evacuation 
of the city by the British army they were brought back, 
and the bell was ]ilaccd in its old jiosition 
in the latter part of 1778. 

The dimensions of the tower of the State-House 
were thirty-four by thirty-two feet. The stairways 
to the upper stories found spacious accommodation 
there. The trustees for building the State-House 
were not instructed further than to erect a tower, but 
they took the responsibility of adding to it a steeple. 
This was rendered the more easy by a direction that a 

1 The fbllowlng bill, curious in its particulars, gives an account of the 
cost of" raising" the first bell. Whether there was another festival when 
the sccnnd bell was put up is not known : 

"Phila., April 17, 1753. 
"The Province. 

"To Edmvnd Woolkt, debtor^ for sundries advanced for raising the 
bell-frame and putting up the bell : 

a peck potatoes 2 9 

14 lb. beef f^ 4(1.. 4 8 £ •. d. 

4 gammons, 38 Ih., (S, 6ii 19 1 C . 6 

Mustard, pepper, salt, butter 2 

A cheese, 13 lb., at lid. 6 6 

Beef, 30 lb., @ 4(i. 10 ci 

A peck potatoes 2 7 U 19 1 

300 limes 14 1) 

3 gallons of rum of John Jones 014 18 

36 loaves of bread of Lacey ye baker.. 9 

Cooking and wood 8 

Earthen ware and candles of Duchee.. 3 4 119 

Abarrelofbeerof Anthony .Morris 10 

6 13 10 
" errors excepted. " Ed. Wooliv." 



new room should be added to the tower for use of 
lumiiiittees and " for our books." 

The steeple was raised Nov. 4, 1741, when there 
was a great feast, to ,which, from the considerable 
quantity of provisions, punch, and beer consumed, 
there must have been a large accession of participants 
beyond the carpenters and bricklayers, as the follow- 
ing bill, well preserved, will show: 

" Not. 4, 1741. 

"The Province of Pennsylvania, 

" To Edmund Wdoley, Dr. 

" For e.\penBea in raising the to^er of the Stadt House, viz.: 

£ 8. d. 

95 loaves of bread 19 9W 

Cljilb. bacon at 7ii 1 14 \% 

148P^lb. ■beefat.'i.lid 2 8 1 

Potatoes and greens <> 7 11 

SOU limes at 4s 1 I'-i 

IK barrel of beer at 18s 17 

44'lb. mutton at S^rf 12 8 

:i73:; lb. veal atS'^d 11 

30 lb. venison at 2d 6 

Turnips 16 

Pepper and mustard 15 

2 Jugs and Candles Pipes and Tobacco 6 

Butter 9s. 8d., Turkey 4s., 4 pair fowls 9s 12 8 

K "f a •"'"died of flour 3 6 

Two former bookings at getting on two iloors, and 
now for raising the tower, fir-wood, etc 3 

14 12 8!4" 

As early as 1774 the wood-work of the steeple was 
found to be decaying, and the superintendents were 
instructed to take it down, and to have the brick- 
work of the tower covered, in order to save it from 
damage by the weather ; but all this was not effected 
until 1781, when a low hip-roof was made to cover 
the tower, and carried in its centre a slim-pointed 
spire. The bell was lowered into the tower, and, al- 
though occasionally heard, it may be said to have 
been retired emeritus, as it ceased to do active duty. 
A new bell, which sounded the hours by the clock, 
and rang for fires, was placed upon the roof under an 
open wooden belfry. It wiis not until 1828 that any 
attention was given to the restoration of the steeple. 
A committee was appointed by City Councils to have 
" the turret in the rear of the State-House surveyed, 
and, if found adapted to the purpose, to procure a 
plan and estimate of the cost of carrying it up to a 
height suiHcient to place a cluck and bell therein, to 
be called the city clock, from which the time of the 
■whole city can be regulated." William Strickland, 
Daniel Groves, John O'Neill, and John Struthers, 
architects and builders, presented their plans and es- 
timates on the 14th of February, 1828. They found 
that the foundation-walls of the tower were very 
strong, being three feet thick at the base, and eighteen 
thick at the top, sixty-nine feet above the ground. 
They w-ere in such good condition that two stories 
more in brick might be added with perfect safety. 
Strickland drew the plan, and endeavored to make 
the steeple as much like the old one as possible. 
The great difference was that it was a story higher. 
The old steeple was one hundred and fifty feet high to 
the top of the spire, and the new steeple was one hun- 
dred and sixty feet high. In March, 1828, after con- 
siderable debate in Councils, during which it was 

alleged by some members that the new steeple would 
be entirely unlike the old, an appropriation of twelve 
thousand one hundred dollars was made for a new 
steeple, bell, and clock, but not without a very sharp 
debate. Councilman Troth reminded his fellow- 
members that their character was at stake as men of 
taste and admirers of antiquity, and lie hoped that 
they would not proceed hastily. Mr. Lowber said 
that "so far from being an ornament to the city, the 
steeple would be a deformity; so far from recalling to 
mind the venerable pile that stood on that spot, it 
would efface the remembrance of it altogether. It is 
not the ancient design. I would rejoice to see that 
building restored to its ancient state, — to the precise 
state in which it was when the glorious event to 
which it owes its celebrity was consummated. But no 
man will be able to look at that building with its new 
steeple and be able to persuade himself that it repre- 
sents the ancient State-House. ... If the original 
features of the building cannot be preserved, I would 
much rather the whole were demolished, that we might 
by some handsome monument point out the spot where 
the glorious declaration of our national independence 
was agreed upon." 

The result was that Strickland was compelled to 
modify his plan, and he did so by simply substituting 
wood for brick. The two upper stories were con- 
structed of wood. The first above the brick of the 
tower, was what might be called a dumb-story, and 
attracted no attention by any inward or outward orna- 
ment. The next story was the dock-room, and above 
that was the turret, the open arches of which were set 
upon a base sufficiently high to give access to a small 
gallery with balustrades on all sides. A sight of the 
city from this gallery of the State-House steeple was 
one of the town wonders for nearly half a century 
after the steeple was finished, not only to citizens but 
to strangers. The latter, after they had seen the Fair- 
mount Water-Works and climbed the State-House 
steeple, inspected the method of coinage in the Mint 
and visited the navy-yard, might be allowed to go home 
and boast that they had thoroughly seen Philadelphia. 
Strickland's plan, thus modified by wood instead of 
brick, was so nearly a reproduction r)f the old steeple, 
the tower-windows being omitted, that it may be sub- 
stantially declared to be a renewal of the original de- 

John Wilbank was awarded the contract for fur- 
nishing the new bell, the weight to be forty-two hun- 
dred pounds. The calculations for the casting were 
made as scientifically as possible, and were verj- close, 
the bell exceeding the expected weight only seveuty- 
five pounds. The contract was at the rate of fortj'- 
five cents per pound, and at the weight which was 
ascertained when cast, four thousand two hundred and 
seventy-five pounds, the cost was $1923.75.^ 

I The following were the dimensions of the first new State-House bell 
cast by Mr. Wilbank in 1828: Height, including crown, five feet nine 
inches; diameter at bottom, five feet one and a halfinches ; thickest 



There seemed to be a fatality about the State-House 
bells. It took three castings in 1752-53 to get a per- 
fect bell, and it required just as many in 1828. Mr. 
Wilbank's first casting was unsatisfactory in tone; 
it was broken up and recast in different proportions. 
That bell was cracked almost as soon as put in use. 
A third bell was cast, the fine, deep tones of which 
were perfectly familiar to every citizen for over half 
a century. In 1876, Henry Seybert, a citizen of 
Philadelpiiia, anxious to do honor to the Centennial 
year, oflered to present to the city a nevy bell and 
clock for the State-House steeple, much more errand 
in proportions. The new bell weiirhed thirteen thou- 
sand poumls, ami when placed in the steeple the tone 
was 80 low and could be lieard suili a short distance 
that it w:is altojrether unsatsi factory. Meneely & 
Kindierly, of Troy, N. Y., wore the bell-founders. It 
was sent hack to them to be recast. Like its prede- 
cessors in the State-House steeple, it al.M) required 
three trials to produce a perfect bell. The second 
casting; was so unsatisfactory it was broken U]>, and 
the third bell was east and bniUfrht to the city and 
put in place. It has never been as resonant as the 
bell of 1828, but after the thinl trial the bell of 1876 
was accepted, and hits since done duty in the tower.' 

The history of the " Liberty Bell" requires further 
mention. After the alterations made in 1828, it re- 
mained in the upper story of the brick tower upon 
the heavy frame-wurk which had sustaine<l it. It be- 
came a venerated object, and it was tacitly determined 
that it should f)nly be rung on special occasions of re- 
joicing, or to commemorate some event of public im- 
portance. It waa tolle<l in 1828 u|)on the reception 
of the news of the emancipation of the Catholics by 
act of the British Parliament. Its sharp tones were 
heard Feb. 22. 1832, when the centennial anniveivary 
of the birthday of Washington was celebrated. It 
might have been used on other occasions, but an end 
was put to its usefulness for sound early in the morn- 
ing of July 8, 1835. While being tolled in memory 
of Chief Justice Marshall, wlio had died in the city 
two days before, and wiiose remains were then being 
conveyed to the wharf to be sent to Virginia, a large 
crack was developed in the bell, starting from the 
centre of the rim and inclining in a right-haml <liree- 
tion toward the crown. This break was at first onlv 

part, fonr and • half iiichn; Ihinnnt part, ona and a half liicbn. 
Than wa« « clapiwr In thr 1*11, which wan not titrd. For tounding llie 
boor II wai •truck bj: a lianimor l.jr Ibr action of mnchlnory. For tljo 
pnrpoan of alxrm in limn of flrr lliere vaa another liammor, on tho op- 
poalla iMr of tho Iwll. A rope froni Ihr rn<\ of thia liiimmrr lr<l to tha 
atory •urrmindvdhy Iha opan gallfr;, which waa ImmedlRtely Im'Iow the 
opan caiula. and here llie wauhnian or Janitor uf the State-Hoiiae and 
of Iha •laepla itnick Iha l>ell for flre-alarm For nmny jonra thia duty 
waa executed hy a man well known In hia tlm>' to orirjr flraman and 
almoat In e»ery dtlzen, younK or old, bjr name. If not by sight. Tommy 
Downing waa a town rharai'ler. 

■ The old State-llouae b.11 of 182). waa remoTe<l to Germanlown, and 
placed In Iha lawn hall, together with the old clock. Occaalonally the 
dtilen of Uie central part of the city who hap|>ena to be In Gennanlown 
laiUrUed by lla aollod, once ao well known to every iDbabllaot. 

eight or ten inches in length, but when the bell was 
rung on Feb. 22, 1843, it was so much increased that 
never again could the sound of the famous old instru- 
ment be heard at a distance f>f more than a few feet. 
Thenceforth it became a silent memento of the historic 

After the original steeple anil bell had been decided 
upon, a clock was ordered by resolution of March 11, 
1752. It was intended that it shoulil " strike on the 
bell in the tower," and that there should be "a suit- 
able dial-plate to show the hours and minutes." Peter 
Stretch, of Philadelphia, a watch- and dock-maker, 
was employed to make this machine. Isaac Korris, in 
a letter written a year afterward (March 10, 1753), 
said, "They expect it will prove better than any they 
would send us from England, where, when once they 
had it put out of their hands, they have done with it; 
but here the workman would be made very uneasy if 
he did not exercise his utmost skill, and we do not 
stint him in the price of his labor." Six years after- 
ward Peter Stretch was paid for making the clock and 
taking charge of it for six years, £494 5s. nbl. The 
dials of this clock were fixed in round windows in the 
east and west gables of the State-Housebuilding. Tlie 
clock movements were immediately under the rdof 
near the centre. Motion was ctmimunicated to the 
hands by rods connected with the machinery. The 
l)endulum extended through the floor to a lower stoiy, 
and the weights were concealed in wooden boxes in 
the tower. In deference to the custom of the time, 
when tall clocks were found in the best houses, the 
dials were ciused in a stone imitatitm of an eight-clay 
clock. Stretch took care of the clock until 1762, and 
was succeeded by Edward Duflield. who was a watcli- 
and dock-maker. In March, 1775, David Ritteii- 
house, the a.stronomer, succeeded, U])on hisown petition 
to the Assembly, in which he stated that Duflield no 
hmger desired the positinii, and that as he (Ritteii- 
house) " has charge of the time-piece belonging to th<' 
Philosophical Society, which is kejit in the observatory 
in the State-House Square, with the a-stronomical in- 
struments for adjusting it, he conceives it would nut 
be too inconvenient for him to take charge also of the 
said i)ul>lic clock." 

The construction of the new steeple, in 1828, led to 
the acquisition of a new dock. In the course of time 
the instrument which Peter Stretch had constructed 
had become unreliable. In the debate on the subject, 
in 1828, the testimonials as to the character of the 
Stiitc-Housc clock were not flattering. Mr. Lukens 
was at that time the dock-keeper. Tilghman said of 
him, " He is a very good keeper, but has had the care 
of a very bad dock. . . If there is anything pro- 
verbial, it is the badness of the dock at the State- 
House. It is an ejcuninf!, not a regulating, clock. 
It is a clock which affords no rule to go by, but a 
rule not to go by, for everybody knows it can never go 
right." Mr. Lukens made the new clock, at a cost of 
two thousand dollars. This proved to be a clock to 



go by, and for many years it was the standard for city 
time. Four clock-faces were fitted in the steeple, and 
these were made of ground glass, which was then con- 
sidered a great novelty. , What was yet more surprising 
was the fact, demonstrated as soon as gas came to be 
burned, that by strong lights in the clock-room, the 
dial-plates could be illuminated at night, and seen 
from a great distance. Nothing of the kind could be 
possible with the old clock, and the new arrangement 
was so unusual that travelers frequently spoke of it 
with admiration. The pendulum of this clock ex- 
tended down into the tower, where it was properly 
encased to prevent its being meddled with. The clock- 
weights ran down wooden troughs, which were placed 
against the east wall of the tower to the first floor. 
The old clock and bell were, by resolution of Councils, 
sold to the Roman Catholic Church of St. Augustine, 
the clock for two hundred and fifty dollars, and the 
bell for four hundred dollars. Both were destroyed by 
the burning of the building, in May, 1844, during the 
riots in which Boman Catholic Churches sufifered so 

In 1830 the committee on State-House steeple made 
report of the cost, as follows : 

For rebuilding the steeple $12,376 

Paid for the bell 2,157 

Paid for the clock 2,076 

Credit received from Rev. Michael Hurley, of St. 

Augustine Church $650 

In 1875, when Henry Seybert offered to supply the 
city with a new bell, he also expressed a desire to 
furnish a better clock than that whicli was in use. 
There was not much complaint about the old clock, 
but the offer being generous, it could not very well be 
separated by accepting the bell and refiising the clock. 
Mr. Seybert's proposition was therefore accepted, and 
the new clock was constructed by the Seth Thomas 
Clock Company of Thomaston, Conn. 

The ground on Chestnut Street east and west of the 
square oflices or buildings remained vacant for some 
years. Before the Revolution, it is supposed, al- 
though even as to that there is no positive clue, two 
barn-like frame structures were erected at Fifth and 
Sixth Streets, and joined the east and west walls 
of the square office buildings by a right-angled at- 
tachment, so that each shed was in the shape of an 
L. It is said that these structures were originally put 
up for the accommodation of Indian delegations when 
they came to the city. During the Revolution the 
sheds were used for storage purposes, and it has even 
been claimed that munitions of war were put there for 
safety. However this may be, it is a fact that when 
the new court-house and City Hall at Fifth and Sixth 
Streets were erected, the wooden buildings were torn 

In 1741 the Assembly ordered that the grounds 
apportioned to the State-House be inclosed with a 
wooden fence. The brick wall was in an unfinished 
condition, and some protection was needed before win- 

dows could safely be placed in the structure. There 
was no attempt at decoration of the grounds until 
1785, when George Morgan, a Pennsylvanian, pre- 
sented to the Supreme Executive Council one hundred 
elm-trees, to be planted in the State-House Square. 
This gift was obtained through the influence of Sam- 
uel Vaughan, of Philadelphia, and about the same 
time a brick wall, seven or eight feet in height, was 
built around the inclosure. There was a grand en- 
trance by a central gate on Walnut Street, due south 
of the State-House tower. This portal rose fifteen or 
eighteen feet, and far above the coping of the wall. 
It was decorated with a jjediment, cornice, entablature, 
and pilasters, beneath which an arched semicircle in 
wood, and paneled, permitted the narrow, paneled, 
wooden gates to open. After this improvement and 
the growth of the trees, more attention was paid to the 
decoration of the grounds. Walks were laid out, grass 
was cultivated, and seats for rest in the shade were 
placed in various portions of the ground. The State- 
House yard was really the first approach to a little 
park or square which the city possessed, for although 
squares in four parts of the city were dedicated to 
public use by Penn in laying it out, they were under 
no improvement. The place became a famous resort, 
and the town poets wrote verses in praise of its rural 
beauties, which were duly published in the news- 
papers. In 1811, when the improvements were made 
by demolishing the square offices, houses, and building 
the office wings of the State- House adjoining the main 
edifice, the removal of the great brick walls was au- 
thorized. In their place was erected a low brick wall, 
about three feet high, which was coped with marble, and 
a railing of plain iron palisades, between standards, 
which resembled three oblong rings on top of each 
other and finished off with a spear-point, was placed 
around the square, which thus appeared open and more 
attractive than ever from the surrounding streets. A 
gate of somewhat imposing proportions was fixed on 
the south, and there were small gates on Fifth and 
Sixth Streets, about half-way between Walnut and 
Chestnut. The length of the railing on Sixth Street, 
exclusive of the gate-ways, was three hundred and 
ninety-seven feet ; on Fifth Street it was shorter, by 
reason of the Philosophical Hall building taking uj) 
ground not occupied on the west side. Here the 
length, exclusive of the gate-way, was tliree hundred 
and thirty-seven feet nine inches; and on the south 
side, exclusive of the gate-way, it was three hundred 
and ninety-one feet four inches. The cost of remov- 
ing the walls and replacing the improvements was six 
thousand five hundred and six dollars and eighteen 
cents. The southern gate-way was in time enhanced 
by a design which made the jambs of heavy marble, 
upon which were fastened the Roman fiisces and spear. 
About 1876 another improvement was made in the 
yard by removing the wall and rails. The surface of 
the ground being some two or three feet above the 
adjoining streets, there was no difficulty in throwing 



it open, and yet practically securing; it from thou^rht- 
less trespass. A low wall of vraiiito, with an orna- 
mental co|>in{r ofniarlile, was placed around thesiiK-s, 
and l)road and easy .-iteps were conistructed in the 
centre of the Walnnt Street front, and at the cor- 
ners on Fifth and Sixth Streets. Wide fla^' walks 
were cnt throujrh the frroiinds in almost every diree- 
tion from street to street, which would facilitate the 
enjoyment of the proverbial American pleasure, — "the 
short cut." The trees were thinned out in order to 
admit the sunlight, as they had ijreviously been so 
thick as to make the square seem ilark and gloomy. 

In 1768 the American Philosophical Society peti- 
tioned the Assembly of Pennsylvania for a.ssistance to 
enable the members to observe the transit of Venus 
across the sun, which was expected to take |)lacc June 
3, 1769. The proposition was treated with liberality. 
One hundred pounds were granted to enable the 
society to procure a reflecting telescope of two and a 
half or three feet focus and a micrometer of Dolland's 
make, which had to be i)rocured from Englaiul. They 
were purchased th<'re by Dr. Franklin. The society 
erected a wooden building as an observatory in the 
State-House yard, the exact site of which is not 
known. It was generally sujjposed to have been c<m- 
strueted near the centre ]>arallel of the gnmnd, and 
west of the main walk which runs southward. It 
might have been on a line with Little George Street 
[now called Sanson)], and about halfway between Sixth 
Street and the main walk. .John Adams alludeil to it 
in his writings as "an awful ]>latform." Mr. Etting 
says, " The foundations were discovered when recently 
perfecting the sewerage of the square. It a|ii>ear3 to 
have been of circular shape, and was erected about 
forty feet due west from the rear door of the present 
Philf>sophical Hall and about the sameilistance south 
of the ])resent ea.stern wing." Wat.son's ■•Annals." 
however, states that it "was about twenty feet high, 
twelve to fifteen feet square, and was from fifty to 
sixty feet south of the 8tate-House, and fifteen to 
twenty feet west of the main walk." 

The transit was observed in this buihiing by Dr. 
John Ewing, Joseiih Shippen, Dr. Hugh Williamson, 
Thomas Prior, Charli-s Thom.son, and James Pearson. 
While they were thus engaged, David Hittcuhouse, 
Dr. William Smith, John ScIUts, anci John Lukeiis 
noti<'eil the phenomena at Norriton, and Owen nid<ile 
atHenlopen light-house. How long that building re- 
mained is not known. It wiu* there <m the 8th of 
July, 1776, when the Declaration of Indepenilenee 
was first reail to the people by the recommendation of 
0>ngre«a an<l by order of the Counr-il of Safety of 
Pennsylvania. It wiis rew)lved that the sherifTl Wil- 
liam Dewecs) should <lo this, but for some reasons he 
did not. John Nixon, member of the Omncil of 
Safety, read the instrument. Then, by order of the 
Committee of Inspection, the king's arms were taken 
down from the c'ourt-room in the, and 
publicly burned by nine a.-woeiators appointed for that 

jiurpose. According to a tradition little known, the 
]>lace of the burning was at Front and High Streets, 
immediately opposite the London Coffee-House. 
.The only invasion upon the State-House yard that 
was not of a public character was by a grant made in 
1785 by the Legislature of Pennsylvania to the Ameri- 
can Philosophical Society, which was done in a sea.son 
of liberality among the niembcrs. The lot granted, as 
described in the act of Assembly, was on the west side 
of Filth Street, beginning ninety-six feet south from 
Chestnut Street, extending along Firth Street seventy 
feet, and westward fifty feet. The society took ]>os- 
session of this building about 1787-88. 

The State-House yard was for a long time the 
favorite place of a.ssembling of town-meetings, and 
tor great public demonstrations which could be made 
in the open air. Here, on Oct. 6, 1765, was held a 
I meeting of citizens to express their indignation be- 
cause of the i)!us.sage of the stamp act, and the use of 
"the detested .stjtnips," just brought into the port in 
the ship " Royal Charlotte," under convoy of the 
sloop-of-war "Sardoinc." Here, also, in August, 1768, 
there was a meeting to protest against the act of Par- 
liament to levy duties on i)aper,, painters' colors, 
lead, and tea importeil into America. A meeting on 
the 18th of October, 1773, spiritedly protested against 
the unloa<ling of tea sent out by the East India Com- 
pany, and on the 27th of December, a public meeting 
in the State-House yard resolved that the tea-ship 
" Polly," Cai)t. Ayres, which had been sent to Phila- 
delphia, should return immediately with her whole 
cargo, and that none of it should be lauded. There 
wius an impromptu town-meeting in the State-House 
yard on the 25th of April, 1775, the day after the 
news was received of the battles of Lexington and 
Concord on the 19th. A single resolution, " to defend 
with arms their i)ro|ierty, liberty, and lives against all 
attempts to deprive them of them," was the .short and 
ilecisive act of the eight thousand citizens who had 
assembled without preconcert. In after-years the 
square was the chosen scene of great ])olitieal meet- 
ings which were held by Democrats, Whigs, Native 
Americans, Republicans, and other political parties 
and divisions of ])arties. During the war of 1812, 
young volunteer soldiers enrolled for the defense of 
the country were taught the march and the drill in 
the yaril. The most notable military use of the in- 
closure occurred at the outbreak of the war of the Re- 
hellion, when the recruiting officers of various Penn- 
sylvania regiments i)itched their tents U]>on the 
ground, showing a stretch of canvas from Walnut 
Street to the rear door of the State-House, while under 
the old elms the inclosurc took on the character of a 
eamji, with groups of .soldiers, and above all arose the 
shrill notes of the fife and the intcriiiiiiable rattle and 
boom of the drums. 

Not nniny years before the outbreak of the Southern 
Rebellion a proposition Wiw made that a monument 
should be erected in Independence Sqiuire to eommem- 



orate the Declaration of Independence. The plan was 
that only the original thirteen States of the Union 
should participate, and that they should combine in 
the erection of the monument. The commonwealth 
of Pennsylvania approved of that plan, and invita- 
tions were issued to the Governors of " the old thir- 
teen" to send commissioners, with authority to agree 
upon the plan of a monument, and to take measures 
for its construction. Albert G. Waterman, a member 
of Common Council for the Eighth Ward, was the 
originator of this project, and labored faithfully for 
its success. The first meeting of the commissioners 
was appointed to take place in Independence Hall 
in June, 1860. In anticipation of that event. City 
Councils, on June 4th, passed an ordinance declaring 

their approbation. The times were critical, the coun- 
try was rapidly drifting toward civil war, and when 
the first gun was fired at Fort Sumter, in April, 18G1, 
the scheme was dropped. 

The front of the State-House, on Chestnut Street, 
must have presented the appearance of great neglect 
before the Revolution. In one of Birch's views, ]iub- 
lishcd in 1800 and afterward, the square fnmi Sixth to 
Fifth Streets appears in an unattractive character. A 
brick pavement, apparently not more than six or eight 
feet in width, had lieen laid next the curb. Inside of 
that, up to the walls, the original earth remained, cov- 
ered, no doubt, with grass and weeds in the summer, 
but barren, trodden down, and unpleasant in its looks 
in the late autumn, winter, and early spring. A soli- 


that the commissioners should be the guests of the 
city, and that the trustees nominated by the Governors 
of the States "should have authority to enter upon 
Independence Square and to mark out the spot where 
the monument should be erected, at such time as they 
may deem fit to lay the corner-stone of the same." Ac- 
cordingly, commissioners appointed by ten States met 
at Independence Hall and chose, in the centre of the 
square, a spacious circular plot for the purpose. Several 
plans for the structure were submitted to them, but 
they wisely concluded to defer laying the corner-stone 
until the States by which they were appointed should 
ratity their proceedings and make the necessary appro- 
priations. Some progress was made in that direction, 
and appropriations were made by some of the North- 
ern States, but the Southern States generally withheld 

tary pump stood some twenty or twenty-five feet from 
the curbstone, on the western portion of the ground, 
and about opposite the western piazza, which was con- 
nected with the square office building. East of the 
centre doorway, in front of the east room, about fifteen 
or twenty feet from the front wall of the building, 
stood a wooden hexagonal watch-box, above the roof 
of which was placed an oil-lamp. There was another 
watch-box at the east end of the pavement, placed at 
a very short distance from the window in the City Hall 
building, which is now (1884) the doorway leading to 
the office of the police and fire-alarm telegraph. That 
which is now considered a window, south of the pres- 
ent door, was then the door of entrance on the west 
side of the City Hall building. It may be as well to 
notice that at this time there were clear pa.ssages from 




Chestnut Street to the yanl, which wito controlled hy 
gates. Oni- was botwwn the City Hall at Fifth Street, 
and the square county otfiiv huildin^ on the east of the 
State-House. The suiuc arrangement was made on the 
west, between thecourt-houso liuildin;: and the offices. 
When the otfice tiuildiu'rs were erected these imssajre- 
ways to the State-House yard were closed with pites of 
W'mkI, in the upper part of the frame-work of which 
iron palisade railinfrs were arranged. After the con- 
struction of the winjr otfice buildin}rs the space in front 
of the State-House up to the curbstone \vil« paved with 
brick. The pump, which stood south of the brick path, 
was removed toasituation near theeurbstone, due north 
of the old site. .\t a eorrespondinf: distance on tlie 
east side of the State-House another well was du-r and 
a i)ump established. The State House pumps were 
very near, if not exactly, upon the spot where foun- 
tains, surmounted by vases and intended to be deco- 
ated by flowers or shrubbery, were afterward placed 
by the Philadelphia Fountain Society. Lon)r after 
the hydrant-water from the Schuylkill was in common 
use in thi' city, these .State-House pumps maintaineil 
their reputation for their supply of water, which was 
considered pure and delifrhtful, and much preferable 
to Fairniount water. More than that, the tempera- 
ture <if the water was always cool, and in the summer- 
time, ere ice-water became so t-onimon that it mijrht 
be had everywhere, there was a jrreat run of hot and 
perspiring citizens upon the State-House pumps. 
LiiTfie iron ladles, which never rusted because they 
were in constant use. were fixed by chains near the 
nozzle. On warm summer days hundreds, if not 
thousands, of persons stopped to drink at those 
pumjw, and they did not fail to read the placard 
posted upon the head of the pump by the Humane So- 
ciety, which kindly cautioned all persons a^rainst the 
danjrer of drinkin;: cold water in imnioilerate quantity 
when the body was heate<l. 

The State-House pavement was a wide and un- 
pleasant place in warm weather when the sun was 
ithinini;. Fully exposed, and reflecting back the heat, 
it wax, in consequence of the buildin)rs beinjf far back 
from the line of the street, less attractive than sidewalks 
acros.-* which nei);hborin;r housis threw a shade in 
some periods of the day. No atlempt was made to in- 
trodueo any improvement until the fall of 1821, when 
trees were planted in front of the State-House, extend- 
ing fnmi Fifth to Si.xtli Street. Poulson said in refer- 
ence to this improvement, " It will be a salubrious ex- 
change for the arid bricks that have been broiling our 
brains there for fifty years." The trees chosen were 
ailanthus, noted for quick growth and thick foliage. 
In ten or filteen years the front of the Slate-House in 
Humnier-time was as umbrageous as a fori-st. After- 
ward these tre<'s were attacked by worms, anil were 
onlered t<i be cut down. The axe was applied at some 
little distani'C above their roots, and in a few hours the 
grove, once the glory of the city, the favorite place in 
which the town politicians itssemble<l to talk about 

nominating and elections, to discuss political afliiirs — 
where they were commonly called " tree-toad.<" — pre- 
sented the dismal a])pearanee of a forest in which the 
wood-choiipers had been entirely too busy. The public 
could not stand that. In a short time new trees (silver 
maples) replaced the ailanthus. the idea being from 
exiierience that they would not be disturbed by the 
worms. They grew finely, and in a few years the 
grove in front of the State-House was restored to its 
original beauty. But just about that time the worms 
gave proof that they would change their diet upon 
necessity rather than starve. The ailanthus and pajier 
mulberry having been ahuost exterminated as a side- 
walk tree in the streets of the city, the worms accom- 
modated themselves to circumstances, and conde- 
scended to devour the leaves of the maples. 

In time the English sparrow was imported, and he 
justified the expectations founded upon his change of 
country by attacking the worm vigorously. In the 
meanwhile many years had gone by, and a consider- 
able number of the trees had yielded to natural decay. 
When about 1876 it was determined to replace the 
brick footways by a ])avemeiit of slate, there were very 
few of the old trees left. It was not difficult to dis- 
pose of them. By covering the surface with the stone 
and making no provision for watering the roots, the 
remaining trees gradually died ofl^, so that in 1884 
there is probably no survivor of this most beautiftil 
grove which for many years was the most attractive 
place on Chestnut Street. 

About I860, in consequence of the existence of no 
public memorial to the memory of Wa.shington, the 
Society of the Cincinnati being slow in its collections, 
and the fund in the bands of that association being 
considered as its own projierty, a movement was started 
for the erection of a Washington monument by the 
children of the public schools of the city and county 
of Philadelidiia. 

A " Washington Monunu-nt Fund Society" was 
established and incorjjorated. The collections at first 
were small, but they were carefully invested and the 
income applied, together with new contributions, so 
that in the course of a few years the fund was sufli- 
cient for the erection of a handsome statue and its 
base. City Councils gave the use of a ]iiece of ground 
in the centre of the Independence Hall pavi^ment, op- 
posite the nuiin door. Here on the .5th of July, 1869, 
was unveiled the statue of Washington by J. A. Bailly, 
.sculptor, which has since been familiar to every 

> ThU nguro la eight feot >ix liichua lilith, awl carvail out of n ainglo 
block of Ilalinu miirtilo, remarkAltly froo from spot or blomiith of any 
kind. WuhiiiKtoii is reprcaenti'il In rltizun'a ilr«M, tho l>i'autiriil (lr»« 
of Iho |i<irio<l. Tho (lositlon li full uf i^Tacr> and dignity, and tho face ii 
almoat aa full of nxproHalon na tho renowned picturo by Stuart. Tho 
right hand roaln upon a book, supported tipon a pedoilal, and tho left 
grupa lightly tho hilt of the dross sword at tho side of tho flguro. Tho 
l«»o waa niodelod and cut at tho yard of William Struthors, and ia com- 
poaod of RichmoDd granite. Thoro are throe blocks to the baao, tho 
lower one being alx foat alx Inclioa aquare, and Iho eallre height ten 



On the pedestal is the inscription : 


by the 


Monument Association 

of the 

First School District 



July 4,1809. 

J. A. Bailly, 


Philadelphia, 18C0. 

Custom-Houses. — Upon no subject of general in- 
terest conuected with the early history of Pennsylva- 
nia is there less information to be had than con- 
cerning matters connected with the collection of 
customs duties upon goods and merchandise and 
the methods of levying and recovering them. Oc- 
casional and incidental mention furnish a few 
hints, and that is about all. The names of some of 
the persons who exercised the functions of collectors 
of customs in the colonial period are known. But 
even here great confusion exists to distinguish the 
principal, who was entitled to the emoluments of the 
office, and the deputy who did the actual work. The 
latter was the man who came in communication with 
the people. The former in some cases might have 
been an absentee, holding a sinecure. For these 
reasons a complete and satisfactory account of the his- 
tories of the custom-houses in Pennsylvania cannot be 
given. The earliest regulation concerning commerce 
is to be found in the Duke of York's laws concerning 
the appointment of viewers of pipe-staves. "That 
the Constable and Overseers in all Townes within this 
Government where Pipe Staves shall bee shipt do, 
from time to time as need shall require, Nominate 
Two men of each Town SkiltuU in the Commodity. 
And such as can attend the Service to be viewers of 
Pipe Staves, who, so chosen, shall be by the Constable 
Convented before some Justice of the Peace to be 
sworn diligently and faithfully to view & search all 
such Pipe Staves as are to be Transported, and to be 
used for making of right Caske, who shall cast by all 
such as they shall Judge not Merchantable, both in 
respect of Worme holes and do Assize (viz.), That 
are not in Length Four Foot and a halfe, in breadth 
Three Inches and a half, without sap ; in thickness 
three-quarters of an Inch, and not more or less than 
an Eighth part of an Inch ; Then three-quarters of an 
Inch, well and even hewed, and sufficient for use," etc. 
Masters of vessels were subject to fine of five pounds 
for receiving on board every thousand of pipe-staves 
not properly viewed and examined, and the jiersons 
putting the staves on board of the vessel were subject 
to forfeiture of the whole consignment. By another 
clause in the same act it was directed that all casks 
used for liquors, fish, beef, pork, or other commodities 
to be put to sale should be of London assize, and of 
sound and well-seasoned timber. Gangers were to be 

appointed to gauge such ve-ssels or casks. Coopers 
were required to have a distinct brand-mark on each 
cask. The selling of defective casks was liable to 
punishment. Gangers were to be ai)pointed yearly, 
and the following regulations were established for the 
inspection of merchandise intended to be exjiorted : 

"That in every Towne where any such Goods are 
packed up for Sale, the Gager or Packer of that Towne 
or of the Towne wherein it is put to sale or Shipped 
shall see that it be well and orderly performed (viz), 
Beefe and Porke the whole halfe or Quarter, and so 
proportionably, That the best be not left out, and for 
Fish that they be packed all of one kind, and all Caske 
soe packed be full, Sound, and well seasoned, etc." 

In 1666, Governor Nicholls, of New York, issued 
orders to collectors and receivers of customs, and no- 
ticed the necessity of granting some temporary privi- 
lege for the encouragement of trade between New York 
and Delaware, and that the tenths of all sorts of goods, 
liquors, or peltry, etc., by former practice and order 
had been collected and paid in or at the aforesaid port 
or in Delaware River; now he orders that (until fur- 
ther orders) no sort of liquor, goods, or peltry, shall be 
liable to pay any custom either in New York or Dela- 
ware Kiver, provided that due entry and certificate be 
made and given of all such goods transported to or 
from those places. This would seem to show that 
there was a collector of customs on the Delaware 
Kiver, but no information is given as to the name of 
the person holding that office. In 1670, Deputy Gov- 
ernor Francis Lovelace issued an order, March 25th, 
reciting, " Whereas, I am given to understand tliat all 
European Goods imported at the Whorekill, in Dela- 
ware Bay, did heretofore pay custom at the rate of £10 
per cent., and all ftu-s and peltry exported from thence 
at the same rate, which turned to some advantage 
towards the support of Government, upon mature ad- 
vice and consideration had thereof, I have thouglit fit 
to renew the former custom, and do therefore hereby 
order and appoint Captain Martin Krieger, who is a 
person well versed in tlie trade of those parts, and 
very well known there both to the Christians and In- 
dians, to be receiver and collector of the customs at the 
Whorekill, whereby himself or his Deputy is to receive 
10 \>er cent, of all European Goods Imj)f)rted there, 
whether coming fi-om this place (New York), New 
Castle, in Delaware, or any other part, and 10 per 
cent, also for all furs or peltry exported from thence 
according to the former Custom and Usage on that be- 
half." This custom became a hardship, which was 
complained of particularly by persons who were 
coming to the Delaware to settle in West Jersey. 
Tliey were despoiled of one-tenth of their property, 
and the duty was oppressive. Accordingly they ad- 
dressed themselves to the trustees of Billinge to have 
the duties removed by application to the Duke of 
York. William Peun was one of those commissioners. 
A long argument was addressed to commissioners ap- 
pointed by the Duke of York to consider the question. 



After considi'rabk' dt-lay the commissioners referred 
the matter to Sir William Jones, who decided in favor 
of the colcmists. The result was oflScially made known 
to the Governor of Xew York, and the duty removed 
in 1680.1 

In the charter of Charles II. to William Penn for 
the province of Pennsylvania, March 4, 1682, liberty 
was given to the liege people and the subjects of the 
king to " transport themselves and families vnto 
to the said countrey with such cimvenient shipping as 
by the Lawes of this our Kingdome of England they 
ought to vse with fitting jirovisions, paying only the 
cnstomes therefore due." The settlers were also given 
fuU license to lade and freight in any ports of the 
country, and to carrj- goods, wares, etc., from England, 
"saving always to vs, our hem, and successors, the 
Legall impossicons, customes, and other duties and 
payments for the said Wares and merchandise by any 
Law or Statute due, or to be due to vs our heires and 
successors." License was also given to Penn and the 
inhabitants of the province to import goods and to 
export the commodities of the province either by land 
or by sea, subject, however, to the king's customs and 
impositions, and the regulation of acts of navigation 
and other laws in that behalf. Power was also given 
to Penn to " have and enjoy the Customes and Sub- 
sidies in the ports, harbors and other creeks, and 
places aforesaid, payable and due for merchandises 
and wares there to he Laded and Unladed, the said 
customes and subsidies to be reasonably a.ssessed upon 
any occasion by themselves and the people there as 
aforesaid to be assembled to whom we give power by 
these presents for vs, our heires, and successors, vpon 
iust cause and in a due Pporcn to assesse and impose 
the same saveing vnto vs our Heires and Successors 
such imposican and customes as by Act of Parliament 
are or shall be appointed." Under this authority two 
principles were established. First, that all goods and 
merchandise imported into, or e.xported from, Penn- 
sylvania were subject to such customs duties as might 
be imposed by the crown under act of Parliament, and 
that vessels and the service of commerce were subject 
primarily to the British navigation acts. Second, that 
the Government of Pennsylvania had a fight to levy 
import and export duties secondary to those levied 
under the king. Under this authority, chapter ninety- 
seven of the law made March 10, 1683, declared that 
oa "all Rum, Wine, Brandy, and Strong Waters 
that shall be imported into this province or territories 
thereof, shall i)ay to the Projjrietarj- and Governor as ■ 
a custom. Two-pence by ye Gallon. And all Syder ; 
that shall be imported as aforesaid, shall pay One 
penny by ye Gallon." Other goods imi)orted were to ' 
pay at the rate of twenty shillings for even,- one hun- 
dred pounds worth, molasses only excepted. This act 
was repealed in the year 1690. The ninetv--eighth 
chapter of the act of 1683 laid duties of twelve pence 

I Huard, " Annab of Paaniylnnla," p. 479. 

upon steer-, bull- or cow-hides exporte*! ; nine pence 
on beaver skins, and nine jjence on other peltry when 
amounting to the value of a beaver skin, with one-half 
penjjy per pound weight on deer-skins. This was 
also rei)ealed in 1690. In 1684 the Provincial Council 
exercised the franchise of a court of aduiiralty in the of the ship '' Harp," of London, Robert Hutchins 
master, charged with being "an unfree ship," not 
being cleared from the custom-house at London. It 
ajjpeared that the vessel was a French bottom, and 
not free to trade with the colonies. The councilors 
therefore condemned the said ship with her tackle, 
apparel, and ammunition. The vessel was sold " by 
inch of candle" to Barnaba Wilcox for £59 10«. 6d.' 

It has already been seen that customs were levied 
upon the river under the Duke of York laws. When 
Penn arrived the practice was well established, so that 
we find that in March, 1683, John Moll, William 
Hage, William Clarke were appointed a committee to 
bring in a report " of the fees of officers belonging to 
ye Custom-House." They were not as prompt as ex- 
pected. Either that, or they made no report. A year 
afterward some propositions for laying duties on goods 
were considered. 

The first collector of customs under the king ap- 
pears to have been Maj. William Dyer, who came be- 
fore Council on the 28th of August, 1685, and pre- 
sented his commission and instruction. He was 
appointed collector of customs in the province of 
Pennsylvania by the commissioners of his Majesty's 
customs in England, and collector for New Jersey, 
and surveyor-general for all his Majesty's colonies in 
America. Dyer gave notice that he had appointed 
Christopher Snowden to be " his Deputy Sercher 
and Wayter of his Majts Customs in Pennsylvania." 
The latter was attested. He was, in fact, the deputy 
collector of customs. Dyer did not make a good offi- 
cial record. In 1687 he presented himself to the 
Provincial Council, a.sking for admission as a member. 
At that time the councilors were elected, and Dyer 
had the return from Sussex County. There was ob- 
jection to receiving him. Members of Council " ex- 
pressed their general dissatisfaction, and desired him 
to desist, declaring that they could not, in duty and 
res|)ect to the king, nor with security to the province, 
take into the Council such as had not discharged the 
office of the king's collector of the customs with a 
faithfulness and good report." A committee was ap- 
pointed upon Dyer's i)ersistence, and it made report 
at a subsequent meeting, with the reasons for their 
objections to Dyer. The substance of this document 
is not stated. It was quite sufficient, in the opinion 
of the other members of the Council, to exclude him, 
and he was not admitted. 

.Tames Walliams was appointed to succeed Dyer, 
and produced his commission before Council Nov. 18, 

• 8«le by Inch of candle wr« n peculiar kind of auction. The candle 
was liglitod, and an tfuon ha It was burnlux bidn could be made. The 
highest bid before the candle was burned out was the Bucceasful one. 



1686, granted by Patrick Mein, Esq., the king's sur- 
veyor-general of his Majesty's customs in America. 
Council was of opinion that Walliams had not pre- 
sented himself in form and manner as directed in his 
instruction. Notwithstanding this be seems to have 
exercised the office, and in May, 1689-90, upon a 
matter of a seizure made by him, a commission was 
appointed to take testimoney in reference thereto. 
Finally the board recommended that the dispute 
should be settled by the parties. 

William Clark was appointed collector of customs 
fur the province aud territories by Edward Randolph, 
"surveyor-general of their Majesty's customs in the 
Main of America," on the 13th of June, 1692. He 
appointed, Feb. 18, 1695, John Deplove to be searcher 
of customs for the city and county of Philadelphia. 
Clark himself lived at New Castle, and Deplove at 
Philadelphia, called the searcher, was really deputy 
collector for the port. 

John Bewley succeeded Clark and Deplove as col- 
lector at Philadelphia, on the 21st of November, 1696. 
He was appointed by the commissioners of customs in 
England, — Robert Clayton, Robert Southwell, Walter 
Yonge, Samuel Clark, and J. Chadmesh. It was re- 
cited that this appointment was made by virtue of an 
act of Parliament of the twenty-fifth year of Charles 
II., entitled, " An Act for tlie Encouragement of the east 
land and green land trades, and for better securing the 
plantation trade." On the 25th of March, 1698, Ed- 
mund Randolph, surveyor-general of customs on the 
continent of America, being at the time at Philadel- 
phia, commissioned Matthew Birch to be surveyor and 
searcher of the customs in Pennsylvania. He went 
into office at the same time that Bewley assumed the 
duties of collector of customs. The functions of the 
Court of Admiralty were exercised for some years by 
the proprietary (Penn) and Council in 1683, and 
Thomas Lloyd and Council in 1684. When the gov- 
ernment was taken from Penn by the crown. Governor 
Benjamin Fletcher, who was appointed to Pennsyl- 
vania, held, as is recited in his commission, Oct. 20, 
1692, the office of vice-admiral. He appointed Wil- 
liam Markham deputy in his office as vice-admiral. 
May 17, 1693. After this time the officers of the pro- 
prietary government ceased to exercise the office of 
vice-admiral or judge of adnuralty. Col. Robert 
Quarry appears to have been exercising the power of 
a judge of admiralty for the province of Pennsylvania 
before September, 1698. Complaint was made to the 
Council of his conduct in a matter of seizure of goods on 
board of the sloop " Jacob," but how long before that 
time he had been acting is not certainly known. When 
William Penn the proprietary died, William Penn tlie 
second, who succeeded, sent, in his letters to Lieuten- 
ant-Governor Sir William Keith, instructions to pro- 
tect the officers of the customs in the discharge of their 

On the 9th of January, 1695-96, the commissioners 
of customs at London — Robert Southwell, E. Godol- 

phin, Samuel Clarke, and Robert Clayton — sent a letter 
to Lieutenant-Governor Markham on the subject of an 
act lately passed in Scotland, for erecting a company to 
trade with India, Africa, and America, and the danger 
that might happen to English commerce if the Scotch 
enterjjrise should be successful. The letter contained 
strict instructions as to the duties of custom-house 
officers in Pennsylvania, the care to be taken in 
making up the records of entries and clearences per- 
mits, etc. William Penn had occasion, in 1702, to 
make complaint to the commissioners of customs in 
regard to the restrictions and injury borne by the 
tobacco merchants by heavy duties on exportation, 
closeness and severity exercised in matters of form, 
occasioning forfeitures and condemnation of goods and 
other hardships operating on trade. 

Lord Loudoun had cause to complain, in 1757, of 
the extra strictness of the collector of the port of 
Philadelphia, who was inclined to compel the king's 
transport vessels to be cleared at the custom-house, 
and had given some annoyance thereby. Lord Lou- 
doun requested Governor Denny to interpose his au- 
thority as Governor, to give those transports dis- 
patches to leave the port of Philadelphia. If the 
Governor had no authority over the king's officers, this 
could scarcely have been done. 

The proceedings in the custom-house during the 
greater part of the provincial period were uninterest- 
ing and uneventful. The officers took their fees, and 
business went on without excitement. Toward the 
close of the colonial period, when the spirit of the 
people was gradually increasing and hatred of Great 
Britain was growing warmer, there were some episodes 
between the custom-house officers and the people 
which were interesting. The headquarters of the 
surveyor-general of customs in North America ap- 
pears to have been at Boston in the latter part of the 
century, and they managed to send from that city to 
Philadelphia some unpopular persons. The Stamp 
Act stirred up feeling among the people, which wa.s 
not soothed by any particular efforts on the part of 
the crown officers. In 1769, John Swift, collector of 
customs, seized several pipes of Madeira wine upon 
charge made of an attempt on the jiart of the owner 
to evade the customs laws. The wine was placed in a 
store-h(juse near the Delaware River. In the night 
boats, in which several persons were, rowed to the 
store-house, which was broken open and the wine car- 
ried off. Collector Swift was present and tried to pre- 
vent the outrage. He was threatened and abused, and 
on the same night the windows of his house were 
broken. The wines had been restored to the owner. 
This being perfectly well known, there was a meeting 
in reference to the subject the next day at the Coffee- 
House, by the resolutions of which it was suggested to 
the owner that he had better return the wine to the 
custom-house, which he did. Suits were subsequently 
brought against some of the rioters in the Mayor's 
Court, and they were convicted. In October, 1769, a 



person who had informed tlie collector concerning 
some pipes of wine which were landed without ])ay- 
ing the duties thereon, was seized hy the people, 
ducked, set up in the pillory, and at^erward smeared 
with tar and strewed with feathei-s. Shortly after- 
ward there was an atl'ray on the Delaware River 
caused by the hrutality of Capt. William Diddinjrton, 
commander of thi' royal armed schooner "' Gasjiee," 
who, with David Hay. seized Davis Bevan. a citizen 
of Chester County, who had been fishing in the Dela- 
ware, near Chester, and maltreated him. This eveut 
added to the discontent. 

In the .same year the collectors of customs and naval 
officers were accused of taking illegal fees amounting 
to over seventeen hundred pounds in one year. It was 
quite an ordinary thing, as a consequence of the bad 
feeling against England at this time, that custom- 
house officers were roughly treated. John Keates, of 
Southwark, was a.s.saulted by a mob in 1770, on suspi- 
cion of being an informer to the customs officers con- 
cerning some smuggling of tea and other articles. In 
1771, Collector John Swift had in his service a schooner 
for the purpose of preventing smuggling. In Novem- 
ber, 1771, Thonuis Muskett was commander of the 
king's vessel, and seized a pilot-boat ui)on charge of 
smuggling. The latter was brought up the river as far 
as Red Bank, where the king's vessel and the jnlot- 
boat were anchored. On the same night a pilot-boat 
wa» observed coming from Philadelphia. She was 
steered straight for the revenue vessel, and struck the 
sides of the latter, when about thirty men, with black- 
ened faces, si)rung from the stranger craft, boarded the 
king's ves.sel, and, with fire-arms, cutlasses, and clubs, 
overcame the crew, beat and wounded them, threw 
them in the iiold, and confineil them there. The y 
then ran the king's schooner upon a bar, cut U]i tlie 
rigging and sails, and seizing the captive |)ilot-boat, 
sailed away with her. There was a great stir about 
this outrage. Chief Justice Allen was informed of tlie 
cireumstjinces by affidavit. Governor Penn issued a 
proclamation for the arrest of the daring perpetrators; 
but nobody denounced them, nor was the recaptured 
pilot-boat, with its cargo of smuggled goods, ever re- 
claimed. In consequence of this bold i)roceeding 
another king's vowel, stronger and more heavily 
armed, was sent to the Delaware in 1772, and was 
managed by its officers in a high-handed way. They 
acted with great strii'ttiess on the river, stopped ves.sels 
of all kinds, subjected them lo inquiry and sometimes 
to search, arri'sted captains and crews, and maile them- 
selves odious by arrests and bringing suits in the ad- 
miralty. Im 1773, Ebenezer Ri«-hardson was sent to 
Philadelphia by the customs commissioners at Boston. 
He wa.s accused of being an informer, and that his 
busine«4s was to lurk about the wharves and spy out 
offensi-s on the part of the importers an<l report them 
to his masters. A di'scription of this man was pub- 
lished in Brailford'g Journal in October, 1773, and it 
was suggested "that all lovers of liberty in this prov- 

ince will nuike diligent search after said Richardson, 
and, having found this bird of darkness, will produce 
him tarred and feathered at the Cotl'ee-House, thereto 
expiate his sins against his country by a public recan- 
tation." Immediately afterward Richardson was pur- 
sui'd by a mob, but managed to escape, and got out of 
Philadeli)hia as s]ieedily as possible. In 1774 a luim- 
ber of hogsheads of sugar, seized by the custom-house 
officers on board the .schooner " Felicity," Capt. Allen 
Moore, for not having paid duty or being entered at 
the custom-house, was resciu'd from the king's officers, 
who were beaten with clubs and staves, and the sugar 
carried ofT. The usual iiroclanuition was made by the 
Governor for the arrest of the offenders, but they were 
never discovered. 

The reception of the news of the battle of Lexington 
in 1775 practically suspended the power of the king's 
officers, and they were superseded in a short tinu' en- 
tirely by the committees to conduct public affairs, ap- 
pointed by the patriots. The State of Pennsylvania 
a.ssumed the power of the King, and during the 
Revolution the affairs of commerce were transacted 
un<ler direction of the popular and State authorities, 
the regulations about imports and exports, duties, 
etc., varying from time to time with the public exi- 

A naval officer for the port of Philadelphia seems 
to have been ajipointed early in the eighteenth cen- 
tur\'. But little is known as to when the office c(mi- 
menced, or what its duties were. Ai)])ointment to it 
seems to have been under the jirovincial government, 
and it may be conjectured that the naval officer exe- 
cuted the Jiort laws of the i)rovince of Pennsylvania, 
or collected whatever customs and duties might be im- 
posed under the charter, subject to the |>aramount 
rights of the <rown. The "9th Pennsylvania Ar- 
chives," |)age 738, shows that Robert Assheton was 
naval officer in 1717. Dr. Frederick Phile held the 
office before the Revolution, in 1770 and 1771, but 
was superseded before 1773 by Dr. David Finney. 
Dr. Frederick Phile was reappointed in 1776 by 
the Supreme Executive Council. The last iiu-umbent 
before the Revolution was Lieutenant-Governor Rich- 
ard Pen!i, who appointed himself to this place, the 
salary of which was six hundreil ])ounds. 

After the authority of the crown was thoroughly over- 
thrown, the Constitution of the 28th of December, 1776, 
directed that "the President and, in his absence, the 
Vice-Presi<lent, with the Council, five of whom shall 
be a quorum, shall have power to appoint and com- 
missionate judges, nnvnl offinm, judge of the Admi- 
ralty, etc." The powers of those offuers wi'ri' not 
defined further than what iidght be inferred from the 
name of the office. No collector of customs was pro- 
vided for, and it may be inferred that the duties of 
the naval officers were th<ise which, before the Revo- 
lution, under the crown, were discharged by the col- 
lectors of customs. On the 5th of April, 1777, Dr. 
Frederick Phile was balloted for and chosen naval 



officer for the port of Philadelphia. In April, 1785, 
the naval officer reported to Council that he had made 
choice of a convenient place for holding his office. 
The collector of imposts and the wardens of the port 
also reported having made similar arrangements for 
their own comfort. In January, 1788, the naval officer 
made report that he had seized the brig " Catharine," 
from Halifax, which was entered in ballast, but found 
to contain a quantity of fish. He represented that he 
suspected that the crew of the brig intended to evade 
the law l)y seizing on the vessel and cargo. The com- 
mander of the " Invalids" was ordered to furnish him 
with as many men as might be necessary to prevent 
such action. The naval officer was still Frederick 
Phile, who had been re-elected Nov. 9, 1787. 

As soon as the Federal Constitution was adopted, 
and the Congress of the United States got to work, the 
first act passed, on June 1, 1789, settled the form of 
the oaths to be taken by the members and officers of 
Congress, officers of the various States, and officere of 
the United States. The second act, passed July 4, 
1789, was entitled an act for laying a duty on goods, 
wares, and merchandise imported into the United 
States. The duties were to commence on the 1st of 
August, and specific tarifi" was provided on particular 
articles. This was the first of a long series of laws in 
relation to imports. The system established by the 
Congress of the Confederation for the collection of 
duties was not interfered with in Pennsylvania until 
1799, when the State of Pennsylvania was divided 
into two districts, — those of Philadelphia and Presque 
Isle (Erie). The district of Philadelphia was to in- 
clude all the shores and water of the river Delaware, 
and the rivers and waters connected therewith being 
within the State of Pennsylvania. The city of Phila- 
delphia was to be the sole port of entry and delivery 
for the same, and a collector and naval officer for the 
district was to be appointed, who should reside at the 
city of Philadelphia. These regulations, with some 
modifications, have remained in force ever since. In 
1784 the State of Pennsylvania established a custom- 
house at Philadelphia, and Sharp Delany was ap- 
pointed collector by the General Assembly, and gave 
bond to the satisfaction of the Supreme Executive 
Council on the 15th of March of that year. 

The naval officer, as a member of the custom-house 
establishment of the United States, was created by an 
act to regulate the duties on imports and tonnage 
passed March 2, 1790. He was to receive copies of 
all manifests and entries, and estimate the duties on 
goods, and keep a separate record thereof, counter- 
sign all permits, clearances, debentures, and other 
documents to be granted by the collector, and to ex- 
amine the collectors' abstracts of duties and other 
accounts of receipts, bonds, and expenditures, and if 
found right to certify the same. 

The office of surveyor of customs was established by 
act of Congress of 1799, with authority to superintend 
and direct all inspectors, weighers, measurers, and 

gaugers within his port, and report weekly as to their 
performance of duties or their neglect. Also to report 
the names of vessels arriving from foreign ports, with 
particulars in relation to their cargoes, tlie liability of 
the property to duty, etc. 

The location of the custom-houses at the early 
periods are not known, except in a few instances. 
Tliey were probably in the stores or offices of the col- 
lectors. In 1784, Col. Delany was authorized to rent 
a building for the use of the custom-house, and he was 
located at the corner of Black Horse Alley and Second 
Street. In 1810 the United States autliorized the pur- 
chase of a lot of ground and the construction of a build- 
ing for the use of the custom-house and the various 
offices connected _ _ 

therewith. There '"" : v^iu^ -^ -^Vnii 

was an attempt to 
obtain the use of a 
lot at the Draw- 
bridge belonging to 
the city, which 
failed. A lot of 
ground was bought 
on the west side of 
Second Street, be- 
low Dock, at the 
northwest corner 
of Elmslie's Alley, 
running through to 
Laurel Court, after- 
ward called Levant 

Street. Here, on the 12th of July, 1819, the first Fed- 
eral building used for a custom-house in the city was 
opened. It was plain, three stories in height, the front 
of the first story being of marble. The second story was 
lighted by long, arched windows. Small, square win- 
dows were above them. The roof stood gable-fashion, 
rising above the third story. A niche near the apex 
contained a fine statue in wood, representing " Com- 
merce," cut by William Rush. The upper stories 
were of brick. Large warehouses were built back of 
the main building for storage purposes. The architect 
was William Strickland. The building stood back 
from the street a distance of forty or fifty feet. On 
Second Street there was a heavy brick archway, with 
a wide passage in the centre for drays and carts, pro- 
tected by an iron gate. SnuiUer arches for pedes- 
trians were on each side, and there was a small show 
on either side of the archway of a low wall surmounted 
with iron palings. The entrance in front of the build- 
ing was by a central doorway, which led to the main 
business-room in the second story. In this building 
the business of the Philadelphia custom-house was 
carried on until about 1845, when the United States 
Bank having failed, the white nuirlile building on 
Chestnut Street, between Fourth and Fifth, occupied 
by that institution, was purchased by the United 
States government, and has been in use ever since. 
The want of sufficient space in the custom-house 




for the accommodation of the large business of the [ 1727.— GrMvonor Bedford; l Archive, sse. He actfid in psraon from 

ITM to 1732. When appuinted not known. 

oflSce, led to the erection of a heavy, massive, brick 
building upon tlic Int runniiiir from Second to Dock 
Street, north of Walnut, wliicli had been for many 
years occupiwl by the Bank of Pennsylvania. This 
structure, known sis the a)>jiraisers' building, is solidly 
built of brick and iron, no wood or combustible iiiatc- 

1727.— John Moore,' bis deputy, died December, 1732. He is referred to 

ae being the king's collector in tbe ** Charter and Laws of Pennsyl- 

Tania," p. 307 (1879), on Not. 24, 1726. 
lT32-:0.— Peter ETans,> Bedford's deputy, February 6th. Evans was 

Moure's son-in-law ; be resigned in 1743. 1 Pennsylvania Archives, 

1743.— William Aleisn.ler. He died January, 1744-45. 


rial being used in it. It is five stories in height, and ' 
Mr. Mullett, supervising architect of llic Treasur)- of 
the United States, has declared that this is the only 
thoroughly fire-proof building in the country. The 
ai)i)raisers' building was completed and put in use in 



1686.— MiO- William Dyer. 

1686.— James Walllamn, 1 C. R, 147, for bay and river Delaware. 
16A2.— William Clarke, ap|K>inled June 13, 1692 ; 1 Archive*, 117. 
laM.— John Bewley; 1 C. R., M2. Died 17m. 
1703.— Robert Aasheton ; I lK>giin Papers, 200. 

1T04.— John Moore, appointed 24lh .lib mo. (July), by Col. Quarry, rics 
Bewley, deceased ; 1 Logan Papers, 300, 

■ From Jobs Hill Martin's " Bench and Bar of Fhiladelpbia." 

1746. — Abram Taylor, deputy for Grosvenor Bedford. 
1748. — Alexander Barclay, deputy for Grosvenor Bedford. 

> In PtJiti'ukania OaulO; Nov. 30, 1732, It In stnted that " On Saturday 
last f'26lli), died John Mnore, Collector of liis Mt\jc8ly's Customs for this 
Port, which place he enjoyed above tliirly yenre. lie dyed In the 74th 
year of his age." His conimlsfiiun as collector, signed by Evelyn, Is in 
possession of one of bis descendants. In the Pentmylvania Archives, 
2d series, the following list of the collectors of customs is given, viz.: 
"John Bewley, 1698 to 1702; John Moore, 17UC (1703!) to 1728; Ralph 
Assheton, 1732 ; Crosvenor BedfonI, 1733; Richard Pearno (died), 1762; 
Enoch Story, 1762; Abraham Taylor (resigned), 1762; John .Swift (rice 
Taylor), June 9, 1762; Robert Bayard, Feb. 21, 1772 ; John Patterson, 
Oct. 19, 1772." It Is said in the " Life of Ilr. William Smith," 2 vol., 
488, "John Moore, It appears, ciinie wllli his wife and family to Phila- 
delphia prb.r to 17011, and became the King's Collector at that Port." 
Tills we know from his commission, which Is before me, dated 1703, 
signetl by Evelyn. 

' In an obituary of Peter Eva 
Is stated be was "an eminent c< 
the King's Customs." 

s, Pentuj/haala Gairlu, June 20, 1746, It 
iinselor, and for many years Collector of 



1751.— Abram Taylor, and in office; 8 C. E., 39, 713, which covers tlie 
time from May 7, 1757, to May 10, 1762. John Inglis ia said to have 
been collector from 1751 to 1759, but it is an error. He was deputy 
in the absence of Collector Taylor from 1751 to 1753. William Till 
was collector at New'Castle during the above period, 

I702.-Johu Swift, vice T«ylor, June 9th. Still in ofBce Dec. 6, 1771. 
Dr. Thomas Graeme is said to have been collector before his death, 
in 1772. See " Memoirs of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania," 
1 vol., 460 (2d edition). 

1772. — Robert Bayard, February 7th ; 4 Pennsylvania Archives, 449 (1st 

1772.— John Patterson, October 19th, in place of Bayard, declined. 
1773.— Zachariah Hood, acting for the collector; 10 C. R., 90. 
1774. — Lacblaoe Maclean. John Patterson,^ deputy. 





Penrmjlvania to he one district 

Julij 31 



duty 01 



Sharp Delany.2 


James Page. 


George Latimer. 


William D. Lewis.3 


Peter Muhlenberg. 


Charles Brown. 


John Shee. 


Joseph B. Baker. 


John Steele. 


William B Thomas. 


William Jones. 


William F. Johnston 


James Nelson Barker. 


Joseph W. Cake. 


Ex-Governor George Wolf. 


Henry D. Moore. 


Jonathan Roberts. 


John W. Forney. 


Thomas S. Smith. 


Seth I. Comly. 


Calvin BIythe. 


Alexander P. Tutton 


Henry Horn. 


John F. Hartranft.* 


Under the Crown. 

Patrick Mien,s in ofBce 5 mo. 14, 1690 

Edward Randolph,' in oflico 9 mo. 13, 1691 

Col. Robert Quarry," appointed 9 mo. — , 1703 

William Keith,* previous to Sept. 27, 1716 

George Phenny,9 in office Feb. 6,1732-33 


William Alexander, in office.. 
Alexander Barclay, in office... 
Christopher Sanderson, in offi 
Alexander Barclay, in office.. 
Lynford Lardner, in office 

,. — , 1723 

,. — , 1749 

..1756 to 1762 

.. — , 1762 

.. — , 1771 


Christopher Srinwden, appointed 28 6 mo., 1685 

Samuel Land,'" in office 18 9 mo., 1686 

John Deplove,!! in office Feb. 18, 1694-96 

Matthew Birch," in office Nov. 21,1696 

John Jewell." in office April 15,1698 

Col. Robert Quarry," in office — , 1699 

Patrick Baird, in office — , 1730 

William Hero, in office — , 1735 

William Sheppard, in office — , 1768 

David Drummond,is in office — , 1772 

William Macpherson, appointed Sept. 19,1789 

Walter Stewart, in office 179J to 1796 

1 On the tombstone of " John Patterson, Esq.," in Christ Church grave- 
yard, it is stated he was "a native of Ireland, formerly an officer in the 
British army, and, at the period of the Revolution, Collector of Customs 
in the Port of Philadelphia." He was buried Feb. 24, 1798. Gordon's 
"Pennsylvania," 628. 

- Died May 13, 1799, aged sixty. 

3 Died April 1, 1881, aged eighty-eight. 

* rice Tutton, deceased; conflmied by the Senate Feb. 11, 1881. 

6 1 C. R., -297. 5 1 C. R., 503. 

' See 1st Logan Papers, 281. 

8 Memoirs of the Historical Society, 4 vol., 380. 

1 Archives, 385. i« 1 C. R., 149. 

" 1 Archives, 117. "IC. R., 501. 

18 1 C. E., 505-6. " Logan Papers, 34. 

IS 1 Proud, 290. 

William Jackson, appointed Jan. 14,1796 

Dr. William Bache, appointed — , 1803 

James Glenlworth. in office Oct. 24, 1814-29 

William Duncan, in office 1829 to 1838 

George W. Kiter, appointed 1838 to 1841 

J. Washington Tyson, appointed — , 1841 

.John G. Watmough. appointed Oct. — , 1841 

Thomas A. Cooper,io appointed — , 1844 

John Davis, of Bucks County 184S to 184S 

William B. Norris. in office — , 1849 

Reuben Charles Hale, in office — , 1853 

John Hamilton, Jr., in office — , 1867 

E. Reed Meyer, in office — , 1861 

William Harbeson. in office — , 1867 

Edward O'Meara Goodrich," appointed April 2.3, 1869 

Edwin H. Nevin, Jr., appointed Feb. — , 1881 

George F. Leland, appointed July 30, 1883 


Sec Act of June 7, 1872. 

John H. Young," appointed June —,1872 

William L. James, appointed April 11, 1880 


Robert Assheton, in office 1717 to 1727 

Dr. Thomas Graeme," in office 1727 to 

Eobert Charlea,=" in office before — , 1731 

Dr. Thomas Graeme, in office 1740 to 1761 

Dr. Frederick Phile, in office 1770 and 1771 

Dr. David Finney, in office before — , 1773 

David Finncy,2l in office Nov. 4, 1773 

Richard Hockley, in office 1773 and 1774 

Gov. Richard Penn,=2 in office 1775 to 1776 

George Bryan, in office June — ,1776 

Dr. Frederick Phile,!^ in office April 6, 1777 

William Macpherson, in office 1791 to 1813 

Samuel Clarke, in office 1813 to 1824 

WilliamJones, in office 1824 to 1826 

Philip S. Markley, in office ISiO to 1829 

John Pemberton, in office April —,1829 

Johu Horn, in office 1838 to 184U 

Alexander Ferguson, in office Sept. — , 1840 

Bela Badger," in office April 14,1841 

Dr. Joel B. Sutheriand, in office Nov. 18, 1842 

Henry Wel3h,»» in office May — , 1845 

Peter C. Ellmaker, in office May — , 1849 

N. P. Eldred, in office 1853 to 1857 

Chambers McKibben, in office 1857 to 1861 

Edward Wallace, in office 1861 to 1866 

Joseph R. Flanigen, in office 1806 to 1867 

De Witt Clinton Baxter, in office 1867 to 1871 

John A. Hiestand, in office March 1, 1871 

Ex-Governor James Pollock,2C in office Feb. 7, 1879 

Edwin H. Nevin, in office , 1883 


1733.— At the dwelling of Peter Evans, deputy collector. 

1743._At the house of John Nelson, in Chestnut Street. W. Alexan- 
der, deputy. 

1762.— At the house of John Swift, collector. Front, between Arch and 
Race Streets. 

1784.— Corner of Black Horse Alley and Front Street. Sharp Delany, 

1791.— Southeast corner of Walnut and Second Streets. Sharp De- 
lany, collector. 

1795._119 South Front Street, near Walnut. Sharp Delany, col- 

16 Mr. Cooper was the distinguished actor, 

17 Died Jan. 28, 1881, aged fifty-six. 

18 Died April 5, 1880, aged seventy-two. 

"9 Pennsylvania Archives (2d series), p. 738; Thomas Graeme, vice 
Asshoton, deceased, 1727, 1740, 1761. 
soRawle's Equity, Appendix, p. 32. 

21 A son of Dr. David Finney ; 10 C. R., 109. 

22 The Governor appointed himself; the salary wassix hundred pounds ; 
4 Pennsylvania .Archives, 60O. He was the last person to hold this 
office under the crown. 

23 See 5 Pennsylvania Archives, 298 ; recommissioned Not. 9, 1787 
called Phyle. 

2< Rejected by the Senate on Sept. 1, 1841. 

2& Appointed in May, 1846 ; confirmed February, 1846. 

28 Ex-Governor of Pennsylvania; not confirmed by the Senate on its 
adjournment on March 4, 1879. Renominated March 11, 1.S79, and con- 
firmed April 4, 1879. The naval officer is an officer of the United States 
customs. See Statutes at Large, 506, Act of March 2, 1790. Term of 
office, four years. 



I7B8.— Daring yellow feier at Congrea Hall, soDtheul cornar of Sixth 
and Cbentnat Streeta. Sharp Delany, collector. 

1802 to 1819.— At Carpentera' Hall, Chestnut Street, between Third 
and Fourth. 

1819, July 12.— Secund Street, below Dock, west side. 

1846.- United Sutea Bank building, Cheetnut Street, below Fourth. 


Argentine Republic, E. Sbippcn. 
Austria-Hungary, Lara Weeter* 

Belginm, Dr. Tharlea E. S^joua. 
Braiil, John Moaon, Jr. 
Chili, E. Shippen. 
Columbia, Annibal Gonzalea Tor- 
Denmark, F. F. Myhlertz. 
Ecuador. E. Sbippen. 
France, P. De Bouteillier. 
German Empire, C. U. Meyer. 
Great Britain, Robert Charles Clip- 

perton, consul ; George Crump, 

Greece, A. H. Lennox. 
Hayti, A. H. Lennox, 
luly, Count GofTredo Galli. 
Liberia, Edward S. Morris. 

Mexico, RafTael Varrios. 

Netherlands, Lars Westergaard. 

Nicaragua, Henry C. Potter. 

Norway, Lars Weetergnard. 

Orange Free State, Chaa. \V. Riley. 

Paraguay, Fnincis Wells. 

Peru, George Blaese. 

Portugal, John Mason, Jr. 

Russia, Henry Preaut. 

Spain, Antonio DiRZ Mirandi, con- 
sul; Francisco Monjes Merino, 

Sweden, L. Westergaard. 

Switzerland, Rudolph Koradl, con- 
sul : Werner Ilschner, vice-con- 

Turkey, Henry W. Bartol. 

Uruguay, Charles W. Matthews. 

Venezuela, Manuel Martii-Carrion. 

Post-Office. — The iimiinenci'iiient of the jiost and 
letter service in Philailelphia will pi l)ack to the Duke 
of York's times, and orijrinate<l in the necessities of 
government. By the act of Sei>t. 26, 1676, it wa.s held 
as follow.s : 

" PuBLiQt;R ArrAlits. — Whereas, this GoTernmenl may on many occa- 
tions be disappointoil of speedy and true Information of Publiijue Af- 
(aira out of England as well as out of our Neighbors' Coloneyes, To the 
remedy of such future Inconveniences, every Constable to whiim any 
letters may come Directed to the Governeur, Attested on the Backe 
aide the letter with the name of one of his Majesties principall Secre- 
Ur}'ea of SUte, or with the name of any one of the Govcrneurs of any 
of his H%)eeties Coloneyes of New England ; or any letter Sent from the 
Oovemeur to the Sheriff, or any of the Justices of the York shire upon 
Long Is Land, and so Attested as abovesaid, shall be dispacht by every 
such ConsUble within three hours at the furthest after the receipt 
thereof to the next Constable, and so forwards as the letter directs Upon 
the penally of 40 Shillings for every hour's delay. And In such cases all 
Oonstablea are Impowered to Presa a Sufficient horse and man for that 
purpose. Allowing for the Han and Horse Satisfaction Six pence for 
each miles travel, which shall be discounted to such Constable In the 
Publlque Rates." 

Under this system the constables were the first post- 
masters, hut they were only to carry inililic letters and 
communications. By the (rreat law of March 1, 1683, 
pa.Mscd liy the Assemhly under Peiiii at Chester, this 
law was sulistantially re-enacted for the benefit of the 
Governor and the dis|)atch of letters coneerninp public 
affairs. The constable cea.seil, however, to be the post- 
master in all cases, and became a forwarder of letten*. 
It wiLM directed that every justice of the peace, sheriff, 
ami constable, to whoge bands public letters should 
come in any county <lirectcd to the Governor, should 
disimtch them within three hours at the furthest after 
receipt or knowleilfre thereof to the next sheriff or con- 
atable, and .so forward as the letters direct upon pen- 
alty of twenty shillinp* for every hour's delay. The 
Hheriffs and constables were empowered to press either 
man or horse for that service, allowinj; for a horse or 
man " two pence by ye mile, to be paid for out of the 

public sttK'k." This arrangement was not for the 
benefit of private persons sendinjr letters to each other. 
It wa.s abrojrateil by act of William and Mary in 1693. 

Iu.the Pcmberton papers it is said that the first post- 
ofiice was set up by William Penn in July, 1683, and 
that Henry Waldy, of Taciuiy, was given authority 
to conduct the service and " to sujiply passengers with 
Horses from Phila. to New Castle or to the Falls" 
(afterward near Trenton). The rates were to be : For 
letters from the Falls to Philadeli)hia, threepence; 
from the Falls to Chester, five pence; from the Falls 
to New Castle, seven jjcnce ; from the Falls to Mary- 
land, nine pence ; from Philadelphia to Chester, two 
]ience; to New Castle four pence; and to Maryland 
si.xpcnce. This post went once a week, and was to be 
fully published " on the meeting-house door and other 
jiublic iilaces." There is nothing in the Colonial 
Records or Archives in reference to this matter. 

On the 17th of February, 1691, King William and 
Queen Mary granted to Thomas Neale, Esq., his 
executors, adinini.strators, anil assignees for twenty-one 
years full ]iower and authority to erect, settle, and 
establish within the king's colonies and plantations in 
America, one or more office or offices for receiving and 
despatching letters ami i>aikets by jiost, and to re- 
ceive, send, and deliver the same under such rates and 
sums of money as should be agreeable to the rates es- 
tablished by act of Parliament in England, or as the 
jilanters and others should agree to give on the first 
settlement. Under this power the king's Postmaster- 
General of England, at the request of Neale, dejiuted 
Andrew Hamilton, of New Jersey, "to Govern and 
Manage the said General Post-Office for and through- 
out all the King's plantations and Colonics in the main 
land or Continent of America and the Islands adjacent 
thereto. Hamilton applied to the Lieut. -Gov. and 
Council of Penna., May 19, 1797, for an encourage- 
ment to support the Post, and the Council Voted that 
a Bill be prepared for encouragement to support ye 
post both by the ]iublick and upon private letters. 
The Act was ineparcd and jiassed in the same year." 
In the preamble it was stated " that the mantaining 
of mutual and speedy Correspondencies is very Bene- 
ficial to the King and his Subjects, and a great en- 
couragement to trade, and that the same is best carrie<l 
on and managed by Publick Post. As well as for 
preventing Inconveniences which heretofore have 
hajineil for want thereof, as for a certain, safe, and 
speedy Dispatch, carrying and re-carrying of all Letters 
and Pacquets of Letters by Post to and from all part.s 
and places within the Continent of America and 
several jiarts of Europe, and that the well ordering 
thereof is matter of General Concernm' and of great 
advantage. The act then went on to declare that 
there be from henceforth one general letter office 
erected and established within the town of Phila."' 

The act estJiblished the following rates and rcgula- 

' Bench and Bar of Philadelphia," John Hill HarUn. 



tions: Every single letter might coDtain merchants' j 
accounts (none exceeding one sheet of paper), bills of 
lading, gazettes, invoices, or bills of exchange (if they j 
did not exceed one sh*et of paper). A])acket wastobe | 
accounted three letters, at the least. If any letters or 
packets should lie or remain in the post-office uncalled ■ 
for for the space of forty-eight hours, the postmaster 
might send them forth to the houses of the persons to 
whom they were directed, and receive therefor one 
penny more. Letters directed to or going from the Pro- 
prietary or Governor were to be free. Persons employed 
in the several stages within the province and territo- 
ries might pass or repass every ferry without paying 
either for his own passage or for his horses'. Ferry- 
masters who refused transportation were liable to five j 
pounds' fine. Ship-letters were also matters of con- | 
cern, as is shown by the second preamble : " And '■ 
whereas, upon the arrival of Ships into the Several 
ports of this province, many Letters directed to Sev- 
eral Merchants and others have been detained long, 
to the great damage of ye merchants, and want of 
that Speedy Advice which they might have had if the 
same had forth with been dispatched. And sometimes 
such Letters have been delivered by the Masters or 
Passengers of such Ships to ignorant and Loose hands 
that understand not the ways and means of speedy : 
Conveyance and Delivery of Letters, whereby great 
Prejudice hath acrued to the affairs of merchants and 
others, as well as by the miscarriage of many letters. 
As numy times liy opening of the same to the discov- 
ery of the Correspondencies and Secrets of Merch"." 
It was, therefore, directed that all letters and packets 
brought into the province by any ship should be de- 
livered to the master of the general letter-office for the 
time being, to be delivered by him according to the 
directions of the same. A fine of twenty shillings 
might be recovered against any master who refused to 
deliver such letters to the |iost-office, and for the en- 
couragement of the shipmaster it was directed that he 
should receive from the master of the post-office one 
penny for every such letter delivered to him. There 
was an exception in favor of letters pa.ssing between 
consignors by the vessel and the merchants, masters, 
or owners, and in favor of any special messenger sent 
on purpose by the writer of a letter to deliver it to 
some other person. Any attempt to set up a private 
post (to the injury of the postmaster) for hire, or to 
" set up or employ any spot, Post-House, Post-Paquet, 
Boat, or Conveyance whatsoever, for carrying, convey- 
ing, or re-carrying any Lett" or Pacquets by Sea or 
Land," was subject to a forfeiture of forty pounds. 
The act was to remain in force seven years. The 
postage-rates were as follows : For every single letter 
to or from Boston or Rhode Island, eighteen pence, 
and so in proportion to the greatness and quantity of 

Single letters to or from Philadelphia, Piscataway, 
and other parts to the eastward of Boston, two shil- 
lings ; to or from the post-road in Connecticut 

Colony, one shilling; to or from New York, eight 
pence ; to or from any place within eighty miles of 
Philadelphia, sixpence; to or from Maryland or 
Virginia, eighteen pence. These rates were provided 
the letters went by post. If delivered into the office 
by any private person, rate four pence. 

For letters greater than single, the rates were to be 

Under this, the first establishment of the post in 
Philadelidiia,. Postmaster-General Hamilton ap- 
pointed Henry Flower to be his deputv'. 

For the encouragement of Hamilton's post-office 
there was an allowance made by the province of 
Pennsylvania of twenty pounds per annum for three 
years. This sum had not been paid in 1701, when 
Hamilton petitioned the Provincial Council for the 
remuneration, and it was ordered that the treasurer 
pay the same out of the public stock as soon as he 
should have sufficient in his hands for that purpose. 

When Gen. Braddock arrived, in 1753, he requested 
the establishment of a post between Philadelphia and 
Winchester for the forwarding of his dispatches. This 
request was laid before the Assembly, and seems to 
have been comjilied with, as it was noted in May, 
1756, that the western post had not yet come in, 
owing, it was supposed, to the ravages of Indians 
near Winchester. 

Postmaster-General Hamilton died in Philadelphia 
in 1709. In the succeeding year the British govern- 
ment took possession of the establishment of the post- 
office, and thenceforth it was managed in connection 
with the postal service of the British government, 
with chief officers at Edinburgh, Dublin, and New 
York. There was no material change in the manage- 
ment or system by reason of the assumjition of the 
management of the post-office under the royal au- 

The advance of the post-office was slow. In De- 
cember, 1717, Jonathan Dickinson wrote to a corre- 
spondent, " We have a settled post from Virginia and 
Maryland unto us, and goes through all our northern 
colonies, whereby advices from Boston unto Williams- 
burg, in Virginia, is completed in Four Weeks, from 
March to December, and in double that time in the 
other months of the year." In 1727 the mail to 
Annapolis went from Philadelphia once in two weeks 
in suuuner, and once a month in winter via New 
Castle to the Western shore and back to the Eastern 
shore. The mail for New York was carried weekly 
in 1729, in the summer time, and fortnightly in the 
winter months. For this reason the Pemuylvania Ga- 
zette, in 1729, announced that during the fortnightly 
stage to New York the paper would be continued 
only once in two weeks. Henry Pratt was riding 
postmaster for all the stages between Philadelphia 
and Newport, in Virginia, in 1738. He set out at the 
beginning of each month, and returned in twenty- 
four days. In 1748, Kalm, the Swedish traveler, re- 
marked that when the vessel in which he arrived 



reached the city, many inhabitants came on board 
asking for letters. Those not called for were taken to 
the CotTee-House and not the post-office. The de- 
livery of letters from the post-office to the persons for 
whom they were intended seems not to have been re- 
newed ;i3 a custom, which was required by the act of 
1797, when the royal authority took hold of the post- 

The first penny-post, as it was called (meaning the 
delivery- of letters from the post-office. to persons to 
whom they were addressed), is said to have com- 
menced in 1753. At the siime time the advertising of 
lists of letters uncalletl for commenced. In 1754 an 
immense advance was made by the establishment of 
a mail to New York three times per week in summer, 
and (mce a week in winter. In the next year 
lin, who was Postmaster-General, speeded the mail for 
New England by sending it imt once a week all the 
year round, instead of once a fortnight, as formerly. 
By this arrangement a letter could be sent to Boston 
and a reply received in Philadelphia in three weeks, 
instead of si.x weeks, iis formerly. Newspapers in 
1758 were carried by the post-riders fitty miles tor 
nine pence per year, and one shilling sixpence for 
one hundred miles. As no pai)er was published at 
this time oftener than once a week, prices com- 
prised fifty-two deliveries. It is supposed, but not 
known, that this small profit was a personal perquisite 
of the post-riders. 

The .stages for carrying travelers soon became more 
frequent than the mails. The new stage, in Novem- 
ber, 1756, lett John Butler's sign of " The Death of 
the Fox," in Strawberrj- Alley, for New York. The 
trip WiLs made in three days, and a return in three 
days more, made one trip weekly between city and 
city. In 1765 this was improved upon by the estab- 
lishment of a line of stages to New York twice a 
week. They also required three days for the trip, but 
the proprietors must have owned four or five coaches. 
The fare was two pence per mile. The " Flying Ma- 
chine" set up by John Barnhill, in Elm Street, went in 
the summer time to New York in the remarkably 
short ])eriod of two days. Fare through, twenty shil- 
lings; for way pa.s.sengers, threepence per mile. The 
vehicles used were wagons ; the seats set on springs. 
John Bes.sonet & Co., in 1773, started stage coaches to 
New York, through in two day.s. Fare for inside pa.s- 
sengers, four dollars; outside pas.sengers, twenty shil- 

Up to the time of the employment of steamboats, 
the speed wa.s not much greater. The latter, upon 
the Delaware River and streams on the coa-st of New 
Jersey, were enabled to shorten tlie time, but the 
stages acrfww New Jersey were, a.s usual, slow. To get 
to New York in one day wits a matter that might be 
accomplished in summer, but frequently occupied a 
day and a half, — pa.ssengers leaving Philadelphia in 
the morning slept in inns upon the route over night, 
and were enabled to reach the city of New York on 

the morning of the next day. Even as late as July, 
1828, the UnUed Slates Gazette of Philadelphia chroni- 
cled the fact that the morning i)apers from New York 
weje receive*! at their office in the evening of the day 
they were printed, nine hours and forty-three minutes 
from New York. At the same time it was a matter of 
congratulation that the time of travel between Phila- 
delphia and Baltimore was shortened so much that 
pa.-vseiigers were carried through in (me day. 

William Goddard, in 1774, about the time that the 
First Continental Congress was in session, encouraged 
by the spirit which prevailed in the country, endeav- 
ored to set up an independent post-office establish- 
ment. Goddard, who was the publisher of the Penn- 
sylvania Chronicle, had been surveyor of roads ami 
eomijtroller of the jMLst-officc establishment under 
Franklin. He originated a plan for " the Constitu- 
tional Post," and traveled over the c(mntry to obtain 
.support. His proposition was that .sul)scrii)tions should 
be taken uj) to maintain the post; that the subscribers 
in each colony should annually select a conimittee 
from among themselves ; and that the committee of 
each colony should apjioint the postmaster, regulate 
the rates of ]>ostagc, make contracts with the post- 
riders ; to have charge of the mails, the colonial 
postmasters were to elect the Postmaster-General. 
Goddard went through the country endeavoring to 
gain support for his plan. In New England and New- 
York he was encouraged, but he made few friends in 
Philadelphia. At a meeting of mechanics, about Oc- 
tober, 1774, his plan was proposed for their accept- 
ance, and they listened to s(mie of his letters .setting 
forth the merits of his scheme, but they refused to 
li.sten to the rest of them, declaring that Americans 
had their hands fiill, without setting up a post. He 
established his route, however, between Philadelphia 
and New York, and iierhajis to other points, and 
placed his i>ost-office at the London Cotiee-Housc, 
where it was o])en for a short time, but soon closed 
for want of patronage. 

As soon as it was perceived by the Continental 
Congress that it was necessary to supersede the royal 
authority, the importance of establishing a post-service 
was recognized. On the meeting of the Second Con- 
gress, in May, 1775, a connnittee was appointed to 
report the scheme of a post " for conveying letters 
and intelligence through this Continent." In July an 
act for that ])urposewas passed, the general post-office 
to be at Philadelphia. The Postmaster-General nom- 
inated was Benjamin Franklin, at a salary of one 
thousand didlars ])er annum. He was succeeded in 
the next year by Richard Bache. It was directed 
that there should be formed "a line of posts from Fal- 
mouth, New England, to Savannah, in Georgia, with 
cross-posts where needful." Under this arrangement a 
new system was established for carrying the mail. The 
riders cea-sed to go through from one extremity of the 
route to another, iis Henry Pratt did in 1738. Mail 
riders were appointed for every twenty-five miles, to 



go through hy night and day, carrying the mail one 
way, and receiving tlie return mail, when possible, to 
lie curried the other way to the end of their station. 
At tlie same time advice boats were ordered to be 
cstalilished between North Carolina and Georgia, and 
the place wherever Congress was sitting. They were 
armed, and had a right to carry freights. 

As soon as the Federal government went into opera- 
tion, Congress set to work to establish the post-office. 
]!> act of Sept. 22, 1789, it was resolved that there 
should be a Postmaster-General, with assistant or 
clerk or deputies, the postmaster to be under the 
ilirection of the President in performing the duties of 
bis office, which were to be " the same as they last 
were under the resolutions and ordinances of the late 
Congress." This was only an act to continue the 
post-office, and its time was limited to a year. By act 
of 1790, August 4th, it was again continued until 
March 4, 1791. And again Ijy act of March 3, 1791, 
until the end of the next session of Congress. All 
letters to and from the treasurer, comptroller and 
auditor of the treasury, and the assistant secretary of 
the treasury- on public service were to go free of post- 
age, and the Postmaster-General was to extend the 
carni-ing of the mail from Albany, N. Y., to Benning- 
ton, in Vermont. 

On the 20th of February, 1792, a long act was 
passed by which were established a great number of 
post-roads, extending from Wiscasset, Me., to Savan- 
nah, in Georgia, passing through many cities, towns, 
and villages, with branches, lateral extensions, cross 
extensions, etc., extending westward in all the States 
as far out as Lexington and Danville, Ky., to Hagers- 
town, Cbambersburg, and other places. It was directed 
that a general post-office should be established at the 
seat of government of the United States, which was 
then at Philadelphia, and that the Postmaster-Gen- 
eral should have authority to appoint deputies at tlie 
offices. He was to provide for carrying the mails " by 
stage-carriages or horses, as he may judge most expe- 
dient, and to regulate the manner in which deputy 
postmasters should discharge their duties. Persons 
obstructing the passage of the mails, or of any horse 
or carriage carrying the same, were liable to a fine of 
one hundred dollars, and ferrymen delaying the mail 
to a penalty of ten dollars for each half-hour of delay. 
Mails were to be kept open for the reception of letters 
until within half an hour of the time for forwarding. 
The salary of the Postmaster-General was two thou- 
sand dollars per year, and of his assistants one thou- 
sand dollars, without fees or perquisites. The rates 
of postage were heavy. The following was the postage 
to be charged on each single letter: 


Not exceeding thirty miles 6 

Over 30 and not e.\ceeding 60 miles 8 

" 60 " " 100 " 10 

" 100 " " lou ■' 121^ 

" 150 " " 200 " 15 

" 200 " " 250 " 17 

" 250 " " 350 " 20 

" 350 " " 460 " 22 

" 450 uiles to any distance 25 

Rates from one port to another in the United States 
p.acket-boats or vessels provided by the government : 


For each single letter 8 

" double " 16 

" triple " orpackets 24 

Ship letters brought into the United States to be 
carried at the same rate. 

In order that ship-letters should be promptly deliv- 
ered, it was directed that no vessel entering port should 
be allowed to break bulk till the master or com- 
mander had delivered to the postmaster all letters 
brought with him directed to persons within the 
United States, except such as were for the owners or 
consignees. The shipmaster was to receive two cents 
for each letter so delivered to the post-office. There 
were penalties for delaying, secreting, opening, em- 
bezzling, or destroying letters by persons employed in 
the post-office department, penalty or such fine not 
exceeding three hundred dollars, or imprisonment not 
exceeding six months, or both, according to the cir- 
cumstances and aggravations of the offense. But if it 
should happen that the letters so dealt with contained 
any bank-note, bill of exchange. Treasury warrant, 
assignments of stock, letter of credit, promissory 
note, with other valuable papers specially named, the 
punishment was to be death. The punishment of 
robbing the mail, or a carrier of the mail, was death. 
Regulations were made for publishing the address of 
letters uncalled for every three months, forwarding 
dead letters to the Postmaster-General for examination, 
and return of valuable articles therein to the person 
by whom the letter was written. Very liberal pro- 
visions were made for sending letters free by offi- 
cers of the national government, congressmen, etc. 
A tree exchange of one copy of a newspaper by the 
printer thereof, and sent to any otlier printer of 
newspapers, was established. Newspapers ccmveyed 
in the mails under cover ojien at one end were to be 
carried, not more than one hundred miles, for one 
cent, and one and a half cents for any greater dis- 
tance. One-half of the newspaper postage was al- 
lowed to be received by deputy jiostmasters for their 
own use. Regarding the compensation of deputy 
postmasters, this was to be fixed by the Postmaster- 
General by salaries and commissions on the amount of 
lousiness done, no compensation to any one post- 
master to exceed eighteen hundred dollars per annum. 
This act was the foundation of all subsequent acts in 
relation to the post-office, there being modifications 
at various times in the postage charges, the establish- 
ment of delivery of letters to persons to whom they 
are addressed, methods of transportation, compensa- 
tion to postmasters and others, and many other modi- 
fications made necessary by the immense changes in 
the population of the country, and the tremendous 
increase in the volume of correspondence which seems 
to have followed everj- reduction in the amount of 



1728.— At Andrew Brrndfurd'a hoow, Sacond Slrwt. 
irJ4.— In Second Str«t. 
1737.— Al Franklin'! house, llarket Street. 
1771— At Foicroft'i liouae, Murkrt Street, no«r Fourth. 
177.^. — At Goddard's Constitutional I'odt^lffice, at Coff«e-House, sonth- 

weei comer Front and Markal Streets. 
1782.— At Widow Sudden's house. Front Street, below Market, ea<t side. 
1784. — At comer of Front and Market Streets. 
1785.— At corner of Front and Chestnut Streets. 
1790.— At No. 7 South Front Street, below Market. 
1791.— So. 36 South Front Street, north of Chestnut. 
1793. — During yellow fever, at old college. Fourth Street, below Arch. 
1794.- At No. 34 South Front Street. 
1797.— During yellow feter, at Dunlap's stable, Tweltlh Street, below 

1798. — During yellow fever, at north side of Market Street, first house 

west of Elerenth Street. 
1799.— At No. 27 South Third Street, below Elbow Lane, east side. 
1799. — During yellow ferer, at the np|>er end of Market Street. 
1602.— During yellow fercr, at Dunlap's stable. Twelfth, below Market 

1805, September. — During yellow fever, at the house of James Traquair, 

northeast corner Tenth and Market Streets. 
1814, June.— At southwest comer of Third and Market Streets. 
1815.— At No. 27 South Third Street, for a short lime. 
1816. — At No. 116 Chestnut Street, south side, corner Carpenters' Court. 
1828.— At No. 107 Chestnut Street, north side, corner Franklin Place. 
1834.— At Philadelphia Exchange, north side, on Dock Street. 
18M.— At Jayne's building. Dock Street, below ThinI, north side. 
1863, February 27th. — Clicatnut Street, below Fifth, south side. 
1884. — Northwest comer of Ninth and Chestnut Streets. 

The carrier delivery of the PhiUidelpliia post-ofiBcc 
covers the greatest territory of any city in the world, 
exceptin<r London. The New York post-office serves 
forty .s()uare miles of territory ; the Pliiludelphia cen- 
tral office serves seventy stjuare miles, and it ha.s in 
addition thirty suh-stations and fit\y stamp afreneies, 
coverinj: an aptrretrate of one hundred and twenty-one 
square miles, all within the houndaries of the city of 
Philaileli)liia. The London postal service covers two 
hundred an<l twenty-five sipiare miles. 

The official "Post-Office Guide" for the year 1883 
shows the relationship of Pliiladclpliia to the other 
large offices to have been : 

Nomber of Number of 

pieces mailed. pieces mailed. 

New York 4R9.741.230 St. Louis 80,527.2:12 

Philadelphia- 181,952,2.32 Baltimore 34,9.57,920 

Chicago 170.M4,:M6 Washington 28,937,208 

BodoD 140.88l.4fl<i fndianapolU 13,282,434 

OlDeinnatl _ 86,6.16,752 

In all post-office documents, however, of late years, 
Philadelphia leads the list, because the business of its 
office is conducted with the least number of errors and 
greatest jirofit. 

The new frranite buildinp frontin<r on Chestnut, 
Ninth, an<l .Market Streets, erected for the post-office. 
United States Court, and officers of tlie Federal gov- 
ernment, wa.s occujiied and opened for business for 
the first time in March, 1884. For eleven years this 
expensive edifice has been spreadinjr and rearing it.s 
gray granite proportions, until now (March 20, 1884), 
with a frontage of fiiur hundred and twenty-five feet, 
a dejith of one liundrol and seventy-five, and one 
hundred and si.xty-four feet in height, it is the largest- 
looking and most substantial edifice, with the exception 
of the new City Hall, in Philadelphia. The work of 

digging for the foundations of this magniiiceut struc- 
ture began Get. 11, 1873. The site is the most expen- 
sive that hits ever been selected for a imst-offiee. Its 
coiit alone wits $1,491,200.99. The entire cost of siU>, 
buil<Iin>r, furniture, machinery, and interior fixtures, 
when completed, it is estimated will amount to about 
$8,000,000. The actual cost of the building itself has 
only been alxmt if4,500,000. 

From the first the actual work has been under the 
direction of A. M. Siuedlcy, witli .John Mc.\rthur, 
Jr., as nominal superintendent. In turn H. H. Bing- 
ham, George W. Fairman, A. Loudon Snowden, and 
Gen. Hartranft, as i)ostniasters, have been custodians 
of the work and disbursing agents of the funds. The 
latest and most important share of the work has fallen 
upon Gen. Huidekopcr, the present ]iostmaster. 

As a com])arison, we give the square feet of area 
covered by the six largest post-office buildings in the 
United States: 

liiiltiniore 29,500 Cincinnati .59,100 

St. Louie 49,028 Philadelphia. 67,121 

New York 49,323 Chicago 70,446 

While the Philadelphia |)ost-office does not cover 
the largest space, it is, however, the finest, most com- 
plete, and costly, and more thoroughly equijiped than 
any other post-office building in tlie country. 

Scanning the splendid front of this expensive struc- 
ture, which is on Ninth Street, the eye has to take in 
at a glance the whole five stories, extending from 
Chestnut to Market Street, a hmg stretch of nearly 
five hundred feet of massive ma.sonni', with one hun- 
dred and eighteen windows, flankeil by one hundred 
and eighty Ionic flutcil shafts and ten imnieiise door- 
ways, each jiorticoed with a dozen iniinense granite 
columns, standing in groups of two at each side. The 
central jiart of the fnmt rises the five stories, the upper 
story forming a part of the dome, which is heavy, but 
not high. This central part is five windows wide down 
to the great central jiortico, inclosing the tliree central 
doors, whicli have also a window at each side. It i)ro- 
jects out farther tlian any other part of the building, 
and shows a little more elaboration and careftiluess 
of eonstructi(m than the rest. Extending from this 
centre toward Chestnut Street are three sectitms, each 
varying in projection, and three similar ones extend 
to Market Street. The sections nearest the centre on 
each side are set back flat, and are each seven windows 
wide above, with four doors and six windows below. 
This section, like the two sections, each three windows 
wide, atljoining it and extending to the corners, is but 
four stories high. The windows of the first storj', reach- 
ing almost from floor to ceiling, are over four times as 
higli as a full-grown man, and the windows above, al- 
though they diminish in size, are proportionately large. 
The actual heights are : 


feet. In. 

First story 27 3 

Second story 22 3 

Third story „_ 20 9 

Fourth star; __.„__.. 16 6 


feet. Id. 

Fifth story 18 6 

Dome 59 8 

Total height. 163 11 



The whole surface of the front and sides is granite, 
with nothing else in sight to break the grandeur and 
harmony of the pile. Even the plate-glass in the 
walnut frames of the windows is set back so far that 
in an oblique view the heavy sills and jutting sides 
produce an almost fortress-like effect. The only points 
at which full round granite columns are introduced are 
in the three porticoes ornamenting the principal groups 
of doorways, three in the central section, and the two 
nearest the Market and Chestnut Streets corners. 
There they stand out boldly on stalwart pedestals, 
and support the usual frieze and fillet with round 
marble teeth or colonettes, forming a little railing 
on lop. The building line is set very far back from 

stories. The Market Street side is an exact fac-simile. 
In all probability the building is the best designed for 
its purpose of any erected in America. Without going 
into the details of the arrangement of the upper floors, 
there are one hundred and forty actual rooms in the 
building, ranging in size from the work-room, in which 
several regiments could drill, to the smallest, which 
would hold at least a full-sized company. There are 
on the first floor seventeen rooms ; on the second, 
forty rooms ; on the third, forty rooms ; on the fourth, 
thirty-two rooms ; and on the fifth floor, eleven rooms, 
a total of one hundred and forty rooms. The doors, 
window-frames, etc., all through the building are 
dark-red mahogany. The furniture is the same, even 


the curb line, probably fifty feet, and from the line of 
each of the projecting porticoes to the other a low rail- 
ing extends, inclosing a space of twenty or twenty-five 
feet, which helps to set off" the building. The charac- 
ter of the architecture generally preserved within as 
well as without is Romanesque. 

There are no doors on either the Market or Chest- 
nut Street sides. On Chestnut Street a plain granite 
elevation, with forty-four windows in it, the central 
section five windows wide for four stories, with three 
windows on each side, and three windows on top in 
the fifth story, or attic, is all that is to be seen. The 
only ornamental feature is the repetition of the mezzo- 
portico over the central windows ol the first and second 

the tables in the post-office work-room. In the finer 
private ofiices there is leather upholstery. Some of 
the carpets are old gold and very a»thetic. Ever)- 
door and window in the building has a solid iron screen 
slid into the wall, and when these are in place, it is 
asserted, the building is absolutely fire-proof These 
iron doors alone cost one hundred thousand dollars. 
The building is lighted by six hundred incandescent 
electric lights. A few of the striking and interesting 
facts concerning this superb building, said to be the 
finest government structure outside of Washington, 
are as follows : 

Fronton Ninth Street 425 feet 

Fronton Chestnut Street 175 " 

ITeight from pavement to dome 1G4 " 



Length of front corridor... 

Width of frunt corridor 

Height of first story 

Length of work-room 

Depth of work-room «. 

Numlwr of rooms 

Number of windows 

Exterior stone columns 

Exterior fluted shifts 

Colomns in work-room 



TotAl squmre feet of arem^. 
Electric lights 

Cc«t of «ite $1,491,200 

Cost of building 4,508,800 

Furcitureand macbiuerj 2,000,000 

Estimated total cost-.. 

. 18,090,000 

The statistics of the oflSce are as follows : 

Employes, total -Il291 *^ 

Carriei^ and sulxarriere J 468 

Wagons '. 34 

Sub-stations 30 

Stamps, annual salM 81,500,000 

Mail matter handled, pieces daily 500,000 


1696.— Andrew Hamilton, Postmaster-General ; 1 C. R., 463. 

1698.— Henry Flower,' Sept. 2, 1698. 

1707.— Capt. John Hamilton; 2 Logan Papere, 228. 

1722.— Henry Flower, PoU^'t American ilonlhti/, 1876, p. 891. 

1725.— Andrew liradford. 

1737.— William Spotewood, Fostmnster-Genen^. 

1737. — Benjamin Franklin, I/arper'a 3f()^artne, October, 1871. 

175.'?. — Benjamin Franklin and Peter Hunter, Potttmasters-General. 

175.1 —William Franklin. 

1757 —Peter Franklin, brother of Benjamin ; 4 Pennsylvania Archives, 

1759. — Josiah F. Davenport (about tliis time). 

1767.— John roxcrofl,^ a relaUre of Franklin's wife. 

1774.— William Bradford. 

1775. — William Franklin,* called comptroller of the general poet-office 
at Philadelphia. 

1776.— William Goddard ' (Constitutional Post). 

1775 —Richard Bache, deputy to Franklin. 

1776.— Richard Itache, Postninster-General. He was appointed by Con- 
gress on Nov. 7, 1776. 

1776— Peter Baynton. 

1782-89.— Ebenezer Hazard, |x>8tmaster to the United Colonies. 

James llryson, appointed Jan. 28, 1782 

Robert Patton, appointed Oct. 2, 1789 

Dr. Michael Leib, appointed Feb. 14, 1814 

Rich«r<l Hache, appointed Feb. 26, 1817 

Thomas Sergeant, appointed - April 16, 1828 

James Page. ap(>olnted April 11,1833 

John Crathome Montgomery, appointed March 23,1841 

James Hoy, Jr., appointed June 26,1844 

Dr. George F. Lehman, appointed May ft, 1845 

William J. P. White, appointed May 9,1849 

John Miller,* appointed April 1,1853 

> Area of New York post-office, 49,1128 square feet 

* Cliapter 60 of the laws (unprinted). Session 1700-1, an act was 
paaied for erecting and establishing a post-office at Philadelphia; 1 
Dallas Laws, 16. 

' John, not Thomas, " Journal of Hugh Finlay," xxiii. and xxlv. 

<8ee letter in the Delaware County Ilepublican, Jua. 28, 1876, copied 
from the renn«ylrania Sf>ujanne of 1775, as follows, which explains 

■•Gp.mbai. Po8T-OpricE, Philadelphia, Fob. 14, 1776. 

"It having been found very inconvenient to persons concerned in 
trade that the mall from Philadelphia to Now England seta out but once 
a fortnight during the winter season, this Is to give notice that the New 
England mail will henceforth go onre a week the year round ; whore a 
correspondence may be carried on and answer obtained to letters be- 
tween Philadelpbiaand Boston in three weeks, which used In the winter 
to require six weeks. 

" By command of Postmaster-General, 

" William Fbanklin, Comptroller." 

' BeiiJamIn Franklin, PoatmaAter-Gencral, appointed William Ooddard 
surveyor of the [loet roafls and comptroller of the poet-oifice. See 
" Writings of William L. Goddard," 1 vol. xll. 

< Died Jan. 30, 1878, aged sixly.flve. 

Gideon G. WestcotI, appointed March 19, 1857 

Nathaniel Borradaile Browne, ap|K>inted March 30,1859 I 

Cornelius A Walborn, ap|>ointed April 20,1861 

Charies M. Hiill.alipointed Oct. -,1866 

Henry H. Biligliam, app^iinted March 23, 1667 

George Walter Fairnian, appointed Dec. 10,1872 

Archibald Lituden Suowden, appointed Dec. 11, 1876 

- John Frwleric Hartranlt, appointed Feb. 17,1879 

James T. Bingham," appointed July -,1X80 

Henry S. Huidekoper, appointed Dec. — , 1880 

United States Mint. — Some of the American colo- 
nies either issued or allowed to be issued, under their 
! authority, various coins of copper and silver, but in 
Pennsylvania no attempt was made in that direction. 
The record is extant of the case of Charles Pickeriiif:, 
a lawyer, and a man in some authority under Penn, 
who attempted to engage in a coinage speculation in 
1683. He was charged before Penn liiniself in Council, 
on the 28th of OctolxT of that year, with being con- 
cerned, together with Samuel Buckley, in coining i)ieccs 
of silver, being Spanish bits and Boston money. Tliis 
they confe.ssed, and acknowledged that they had ])ut 
out some of those new bits, "but they say that all 
their money was as good silver as any Spanish money." 
The trouble seems to have been that, although the 
silver was pure, there w;ls too much of an alloy of 
copper or Pickering and Buckley alleged that 
John Rush was concerned with them in the making 
of the bits, which Rush denied. It was resolved that 
there should be a proclamation against these new liits 
and New England shillings, and that they should lu- 
i cried down. The trial was a peculiar one. The Coun- 
' cil ordered a sjiecial grand inquest to be summoned 
and examined, and appointed a specitil attorney, John 
White. A special petit jury Wius also summoned. 
Pickering said that nobody should lose anything by 
him ; but he was found guilty, together with Buckley 
and Rol«rt Fenton, who had made the seals or dies 
for the money. Pickering was sentenced to pay to 
every person who should bring in within the space of 
one mcmth "this false. Base, and Counterfeit Coyne." 
The pieces so redeemed were to be his property, but 
they were to be melted in gross before the metal was 
returned to him. He wa.s also sentenced to pay a fine 
of forty pounds "toward ye building of a Court House 
in this Towne." Buckley was fined ten pounds " to- 
ward a public Court House here," while Robert Fen- 
ton, being a servant, and having coiifc.s.sed the truth, 
was only sentenced " to sitt an hour in the Stocks to- 
morrow morning." Pickering suffered very little by 
this transaction, and afterward held jjublic situations 
; of trust. His coin must have been nearly uptostand- 
I ard value, and doul)tless w;is redeemed according to 
I the sentence of the court. 

1 In New England there was difficulty after the first 
settlements for the want of a currency. In Massachu- 
I setts they tried to make out with Indian wampum and 
I seawant. At one time "country pay," including corn, 
all kintls of grain, peas, and live-stock, were received 
at the colonial treasury for taxes. The General Court 
of Massachusetts passed a law at an early day that 

' Appointed by Bartranfl's sureties according to set of Congreia. 



musket-balls of ftill bore should pass currently for a 
farthing each, but this sort of legal tender was not al- 
lowed to be carried to an inconvenient extent. No man 
could be compelled to take more than twelve pence 
worth, or forty-eight of them at one time. This sort 
of money could not have been of plentiful issue, as 
afterward the General Court of Massachusetts was com- 
pelled to pass a law to the effect that upon executions 
on judgments for old debts the officers of the law might 
take lands, houses, corn, cattle, fish, and other com- 
modities, which, after being valued, were to be turned 
over to the creditor in satisfaction of his debt. The 
only hard money in circulation was such as had been 
brought from England, with Holland and other for- 
eign coins. These colonists were continually in debt 
to the people abroad, from whom they obtained sup- 
plies. The merchants in the English and Dutch 
West Indies drained them all the time of their gold 

In 1652 Massachusetts resolved to establish a mint, 
a dangerous invasion of the royal prerogative ; but as 
as there was no king in England at the time, the com- 
monwealth under Cromwell being in power, it was 
considered expedient to take the risk. The Mint- 
House was established at Boston, and John Hull was 
appointed master of the Mint, with authority to coin 
twelvepence, sixpence, and threepence pieces. They 
were to be of the just alloy of new sterling English 
money, but in order to prevent their being exported, 
they were ordered to be of less value by two pence in 
the shilling than the English coins, and lesser pieces 
proportionally. The earliest pieces, bearing the date 
1650, which were issued by this authority, had on one 
side in the centre, in a ring of dots, a rude representa- 
tion of a pine-tree, with the inscription, " Massacho- 
sets. N. E." On the other side, in the centre, " 1650 ;" 
" xii." under it, and upon the outer circle " New . Eng- 
land . and." There seems to be some doubt as to 
whether these coins were struck in Massachusetts at 
all. One numismatist believed that they were made 
in New Castle, England, while another says that they 
were made in Newark, England. It is not necessary 
to follow up here this interesting subject of the Mas- 
sachusetts currency. Commenced in an invasion of 
the supreme authority, there were occasional contests 
with the English Mint officers, which were terminated 
in 1686 by prohibiting the issue by the Massachusetts 
Mint of sixpences, groats, and pennies. In Maryland 
a shilling was issued bearing a bust of Lord Baltimore, 
1659. Various pieces of copper and silver were issued 
between the time of the settlement of the colonies and 
the Revolution, which were ascribed to various North 
American colonies, as, for instance, the Carolina half- 
penny, 1694; the New England half-penny, 1694. 
These were really struck in Great Britain, with others 
which were brought over to America and circulated, 
among them the Rosa Americana, 1722, and afterward 
the Granby and Connecticut coppers, Virginia silver 
and copper half-pennies, French pieces for Louisiana, 

and Spanish pieces for Florida. As soon as the Revo- 
lution had fairly set in, coining became quite common. 
Private speculators struck off numerous pieces of small 
value in copper or silver. The States, which were not 
now under awe of the royal prerogative, authorized 
coinage. Even England came to our assistance by 
striking pieces at nominal values beyond their worth, 
and sending them over to this country. 

Various curious pieces were brought out, among 
which may be mentioned several varieties and with 
different designs, in copper principally, called Wash- 
ington pennies and Washington pieces; Continental 
currency, 1776 ; Janus, 1776, copper ; Massachusetts 
pine-tree coppers, 1776 ; U. S. A. coppers, supposed 
to have been issued in 1776 ; Non Depen — dens, 
status, 1778 ; Nova Constellatio, copper and silver, 
1783 and 1785, and gold in 1785; Annapolis shilling, 
sixpence and threepence, 1783 ; Washington cent, 
1783; Washington tokens, 1783; Confederatio, cop- 
per, 1785. Several pieces in copper were issued under 
authority of the State of Vermont, and a large num- 
ber under authority of Connecticut, and many under 
the law of New Jersey between 1776 and 1788. New 
York, in 1786-87, authorized the coining of copper 
and gold coins. 

In 1786, October 16th, the Congress of the Confed- 
eration passed an ordinance for establishing a Mint of 
the United States and for regulating the value and the 
alloy of the coin thereof. A contract was m.ade, and 
on the 6th of July, 1787, the government ordered that 
its copper coin should bear the following inscriptions 
and devices: 

Device.— K dial, with the hours expressed upon the 
face, with " fugio'' on the left and " 1787" on the 
right. A meridian sun above the dial, and below it 

Legend. — " Mind your Business." 

Reverse. — Thirteen circles, linked together, forming 
a large circle. In the centre of the same a small 
circle, with " United States." Around it and in the 
centre, " We are one." 

This piece was coined by contract, and was the only 
legal coinage of the United States copper coins until 
the year 1793, except the experimental pieces of three 
varieties, coined in 1791, and called the Washington 

On the 3d of March, 1791, the Congress of the 
United States, established under the Federal Consti- 
tution, passed the following resolution : 

" That a Mint shall be established under such regu- 
lations as shall be directed by law. 

" Eesolved, That the President of the United States 
be, and he is hereby authorized to cause to be engaged 
such principal artists as shall be necessary to carrv' the 
preceding resolution into effect, and to stipulate the 
terms and conditions of their service, and also to 
cause to be procured such apparatus as shall be 
requisite for the same purpose." 

On the 2d of April, 1792, Congress passed " an act 



establishing a Miot and regulating the coins of the 
United States. 

" That H Mint for tlu' national I'oina^c be ami the 
same is estahlishetl, to lie situate and carried on at the 
seat of the government of the United States for the 
time being; and tliat tor the well-conducting of the 
busint-ss of the said mint there shall be the following 
officers and persons, namely : a director, an assayer, a 
chief coiner, an engraver, a treasurer." 

The act then went on to describe tlie duties of the 
officers. The director '' shall emj)loy as many clerks, 
workmen, and .-iervants as he shall from time to time 
finrl neci-s-sary. subject to the apiirobation of the Pres- 
ident of the United States. ... He shall have the 
chief management of the busines.s thereof, and shall 
superintenil all other officers and persons who shall be 
employed therein. The assayer wiis to " receive and 
give receipts for all metals which may lawftiUy be 
brought to the mint to be coined, . . . assay all such of 
them as may require it, and . . . and deliver them to 
the chief coiner to he coined." The chief coiner was to 
" cause to be coined all mcuds which shall be received , 
by him for that purpose." The engraver was to "sink 
and prejiare the neces.sary dies for such coinage, with 
the proper devices and inscriptions," but it shall be 
lawful for the functions and duties of the chief coiner , 
and engraver to be i>erformed by one person. The \ 
trciusurer was to " receive from the chief coiner all the 
coins that shall have been struck, and shall [)ay or de- 
liver them to the persons re.s])ectively to whom the 
same ought to lie paid or delivered. He shall, more- 
over, receive and safely keep all monies which shall 
be for the use, maintenance, and su])port of the Mint, 
and shall <lisburse the same upon warrant-^ signed by 
the director." Each of these officers was to give a 
bond, with one or more sureties, to the satisfaction of 
the Secretarv- of the Treasury, in the sum of $10,000, 
conditioned for the faithful and diligent performance 
of the duties of his office. The yearly salaries of officers were as follows: Director, S2000; assayer, 
$1,500; chief coiner, s^loOO; engraver, $1200; treas- 
urer, $1200; to each clerk, not exceeding $500; and 
to subordinate workmen and servants, such wages and [ 
allowances as are customary and reasonable. The 
President of the United States was authorize<l to 
cause to be provided an<l put in proper con<litioii such 
buildings and in such manner as sh:ill appear to him 
requisite for the purpose of carrying on the business 
of the same Mint. The coins were to be of gold, sil- 
ver, and copper. The gold coins were to be eagles, 
value of $10 or units, anil to contain 247 grains, and 
J of a grain of pure gold, or 270 grains of standani 
gold ; half-eagles, each of the value of $•"), and quar- 
ter-eagles, each of the value of $2.50, were to be of 
relative proportions of pure and standard gold. The 
dollar was to be of" the value of a Spanish Mill Dol- 
lar, a« the same is now current, and to <'ontain 371 
Grains, an<l ,*j part-s of a Grain of pure, or 416 Grains 
of Standard Silver. The Half Dollar and the Quarter 

Dollar were to be of proportion in the amount of pure 
and standard metal. The Disme was to be the value 
of -jV of a dollar, in the same proportions of i>ure and 
standard metal, and the Half Disme was to be the 
value of .;'„th of a dollar. The Cent to be the value 
of 100th part of a tlollar, and to contain 11 penny 
weights of copper. The half-cent to be half the value 
of the other in the weight of the metal. Section 
10th said,— 

"That upon the .sjud coins, respectively, there shall 
be the following devices and legends, namely : Upon 
one side of each of the said coins there shall be an 
im])ression emblematic of liberty, with an inscription 
of the word Liberty, and the year of the coinage; 
and upon the reverse of each of the Gold and Silver 
Coins there shall be the figure or representation of an 
Eiigle with this Inscriptiim : ' United States of Amer- 
ica;' and upon the reverse of each of the Copper coins 
there shall be an inscription which shall express the 
denomination of the piece, namely : cent, or half cent, 
as the case may require." 

The proportional value of gold to silver was fixed as 
15 to 1, according to the quantity in weight of pure 
gold or pure silver. Every 15 jiounds weight of pure 
silver was to be of equal value, in all payments, with 
1 pound weight of i)ure gold. The standard for gold 
coins was 11 parts fine to 1 part alloy. The alloy to 
be composed of silver ami copi)er in such pro]>ortions, 
not exceeding onehalfsilver, as should be found conve- 
nient. The standard for silver coins was to be 1485 
parts fine to 179 parts alloy, or 1485 parts in 1GG4 parts 
of the entire weight of pure silver. Gold and silver 
coins struck at the Mint were declared to be legal 
tender. There were directions for an annual assay 
and other necessary matters. By the act of March 3, 
1795, an adilitional officer was directed to be appointed 
in the .Mint by the name of " The Melter and Re- 
finer." He was to take charge of all copper, silver, 
and gold bullion di'livered out by the treasurer of the 
Mint, after it had bei'n assayed, and to reduce the 
same into bars or ingots fit for the rolling-mills, and 
then to deliver them to the coiner or treasurer, as the 
director shall deem exjiedient. He was to give bond 
in the sum of $6000 for the performance of his duties, 
and was allowed a salary of $1500 per year. It will 
be observed that according to the terms of the act of 
1792, the Mint was to be located at the seat of govern- 
ment for the time being. After Congre-ss went to 
Washington City, the act of March 3, 1801, declareil 
that the Mint should renuiin in Philadelphia until 
the 4tli of March, 1803. This act for continuing the 
Mint was revived time after time for terms of five 
years. In 1828, May 19th, it was enacted that the ad 
of 3d of March, ISOl, concerning the Mint, should be 
revived and continueil in force and operation "until 
otherwise jirovided by law." Practically this made 
the position of the Mint more permanent. Fifty-six 
years have rolled on, and the location in Philadelidiia 
has not been disturbed, although there have been oc- 



casional efforts to remove the institution to other 

Under the act of 1791 the President was authorized 
to employ artists, etc., for tlie purposes of establishing 
a Mint. During the time that succeeded the passage 
of that act and the ftdl Mint Act of 1792, it is believed 
that experiments were made in coinage in Philadel- 
phia. John Harper, a manufacturer of saws at the 
corner of Sixth and Cherry Streets, is credited with 
the coinage of one of the Washington pennies of 1791, 
which was struck in his cellar upon an old press prob- 
ably imported from England, and afterwards used in 
the Mint. The piece ascribed to Harper's press was 
of copper.. It bears a clumsy lil^eness of Washington 
attired in military costume, his hair dressed with a 
cue in the old-fashioned style, date 1791 ; legend, 
" Washington President." On the reverse appears the 
upright eagle with wings outspread, his claws grasp- 
ing respectively the olive-branch and thirteen arrows. 
The national escutcheon is on his breast, and the motto 
" Unum E Pluribus," inscribed upon the ribbon which 
is held in the beak. There are no stars on this coin. 
In 1792 a copper coin much resembling the above, de- 
signed by Adam Getz, engraver, of Lancaster, together 
with some silver half-crowns from the same die, are 
said to have been struck under the superintendence of 
Adam Eckfeldt, who was for many years cliief coiner 
of the Mint, upon a press manufactured by Mr. Harper 
in a cellar on Sixth Street, nearly opposite Carpenter. 
In 1792 a half-dime was prepared, with the female 
head wearing ear-rings, and the hair brushed back in 
the fashion of the time. It is said that the features 
of the face resemble those of Mrs. Washington. On 
the other side an eagle shaped sometliing like a hawk 
was represented flying beneath the words " half disme" 
above a star. On the face was the legend " Lib. par. of 
Science and Industry" (Liberty parent of Science and 
Industry), and on the reverse "Uni. States of Amer- 
ica." These pieces were struck at Harper's cellar. 
Sixth and Cherrj' Streets, from a deposit of one hun- 
dred dollars' worth of silver bullion made by Wash- 
ington himself The pieces were distributed by him 
to particular friends in the United States and Europe, 
and were never intended to be currency. The act of 
1792 put an end to the idea of placing the head of 
Washington upon the national coin, and it is repre- 
sented that he discouraged such devices, and selected 
the female head of Liberty instead. 

Under the act of 1792, the first thing necessary to 
put the Mint in working order was the appointment of 
the oflicers who should have charge of the establish- 
ment. Washington selected for director David Rit- 
tenhouse, the astronomer, on the 1st of July, 1792. 
Henry Voight, watch-maker, assistant of John Fitch 
in the manufacture of machinery of the first steam- 
boat, was made chief coiner, and Tristram Dalton 
treasurer. In the succeeding year Albion Cox was 
appointed chief assayer, and Robert Scot engraver. 
The first matter of impottance was to obtain the proper 

buildings for the accommodation of the machinery and 
the officers of the establishment. For this purpose a 
lot of ground on the east side of Seventh Street, north 
of Farmer's Alley [afterward Sugar Alley, afterward 
Farmer's Street, and now Filbert Street], was pur- 
chased. There was an old still-house and other build- 
ings upon it. On the 19th of July six men were 
employed in removing the buildings. On the 31st of 
July the foundation-stone was laid by David Ritten- 
house, and work was commenced at once. The foun- 
dation was ready for the superstructure on the 25th of 
August. The frame-work was raised in the afternoon 
of that day. Preparations were made in the " shoj)" 
for setting up bellows, etc., on the 7th of September. 
Six pounds of old copper were bought for the Mint, at 
one shilling threepence per pound, three days after- 
ward, being the first metal for coinage. Three coin- 
ing-presses, imported from England, arrived September 
25th, and were put in operation about the 1st of Octo- 
ber. Washington, in his message to Congress, Nov. 6, 
1792, said, "There has also been a small beginning in 
the coinage of half-dimes, the want of small coins in 
cii'culation calling the first attention to them." There 
were coined in 1792 the dime and half-dime and the 
cent. The silver dollar and half-dollar were coined in 
1794, and gold eagles and half-eagles in 1795. The 
Mint building, still standing on the east side of Seventh 
Street, and finished in 1792, was the first piece of prop- 
erty owned by the United States of America. It was 
very plain, of brick, three stories in height, with a 
central doorway leading to a hall, which ran through 
to back buildings. Space on each side of the hall 
was used for offices. In the rear, in old wooden build- 
ings, was the coining-room and melting apartment. 
There was access to these buildings by a gateway 
upon Farmer's Alley, which opened to a passage run- 
ning between the front and back buildings. Up to 
1816 the work of coinage at the Mint was done by 
hand- or horse-power. In the latter year the use 
of steam was introduced for operating the presses. 
During the yellow fever years, 1797-99 and 1802-3, 
the work of the Mint was suspended. 

Humble as it really was, this establishment was 
conducted with great care, under the management of 
eminent men, for many years. The increase in the 
size of the country, the growth of the population and 
wealth, rendered it necessary that better quarters 
should be obtained. The Secretary of the Treasury 
and the President considered this matter. 

On the 2d of March, 1829, a resolution was pa.ssed 
by Congress making a liberal provision for the erection 
of a suitable building for the purposes of a mint. A 
lot of ground was purchased at the northwest corner 
of Chestnut and Juniper Streets, extending northward 
to Olive Street, one hundred and fifty feet front by 
two hundred and four feet deep. The architect was 
William Strickland. He furnished the design for a 
building of the Ionic order, taken from the celebrated 
Grecian temple on the Ilyssus, near Athens, having 



porticoes, sixty feet front, with six pillars of the Ionic 
order upon the north and south fronts. The buildings 
consist iif a liasenient, principal and attic stories. 
The front is one hundred and twenty-three feet, and 
the huilding carried of that width from street to 
street one hundre<l and ninety-three feet, including 
therein two porticoes, each of twenty-seven feet in 
depth, making the huilding space one hundred and 
twenty-throe feet wide by one hundred and thirty- 
nine feet deep, leaving small open spaces on the east 
and west sides. The corner-stone was laid July 4, 
1829, by Samuel Moore, then director of the Mint, 
but the edifice was not finished and occupied until 
May, 1833. The form of the building was a quad- 
rangle, with an open court in the centre, fifty-five by 
eighty-four feet in space. It was overlooked from 
piazzas in each story connected with all parts of the i 

building, and to give additional light to the various 
departments. The officers' rooms, vaults, etc., were on 
the Chestnut Street front, and part of the western 
flank was arched in a complete fire-proof manner. 
The entrance was from the south portico into a cir- 
cular ve.sti))ule, communicating immediately with the 
apartments of the director and treasurer, and arched 
passages with those of the chief coiner, melter, and 
refiner, and with the rooms for receiving bullion and 
delivering coins. The eiist flank and north section of 
the edifice contained the rooms appropriated to the 
operations of the chief coiner. There were two rooms 
for laminating ingots of fifty-five feet l)y forty, opening 
to the north portico. The propelling steam-power 
was placed in the l);i.sement story. A range of apart- 
munts extending one hundred and thirty feet by 
thirty-two, w:is api)ropriated to the more immediate 
operations of coinage and the machinery connected 
therewith. The principal coinage-room, thirty-seven 
feet by thirty-two, was sufl!iciently capacious to con- 
tain ten coining-presses. The west flank was occupied 
by the melter and refiner, and accommodated in a range 
of apartments extending ninety-five feet by thirty- 
two. The i)rincipal melting-room was an apartment 
of thirty-seven feet by thirty-two, and the i)rocess of 

gold and silver i)arting, for which a contracted space 
would be peculiarly unfit, was jirovided for in an 
apartment of fifty-three feet by thirty-two. The 
marble staircase in each wing of the southern front 
communicated with the attic story, in which, on the 
west, were the apartments of the assayers and en- 
gravers, the former upon the west and the latter upon 
the east. 

Upon the south front, in the second story, is placed 
the cabinet, which contains not only specimens of all 
the coins struck by the Mint, but many curious and 
rare foreign pieces. Among them is the " widow's 
mite," the smallest in value of all ancient coins which 
are mentioned in the New Testament. There are 
coins of the Greek Republic in large variety; coins 
of -Egina, claimed to have been struck seven hundred 
years before Christ ; coins of Athens and of the 
Greek colony of Massilia, settled about six 
hundred years before Christ, upon the coast 
of Gaul, on the spot now known as Mar- 
seilles, in France ; coins of the Greek mon- 
archies, dating back to five hundred and 
fifty years before Christ, including several 
of Alexander the Great, of Macedon ; coins 
of Darius, of Persia ; Egyptian pieces ; 
Syrian and Helirew coins; Roman coins, 
over one thousand in number, of the earlier 
periods ; Imperial coins, from Julius Ca?sar 
down to the time of the Eastern Empire, 
covering eight centuries; Oriental coins, 
from Burmah, Siam, and China; African 
ring money ; Japanese, and other pieces of 
money of Eastern nations. Modern Europe 
is represented by French coins, covering 
one thousand years ; German, Swiss, Danish, Norwe- 
gian, Sweilish, and Russian coins in great variety ; and 
English coins from an early jieriod, dating from the 
reign of the Saxon kings, and coming down from Wil- 
liam the Conqueror to Queen Victoria. Portuguese and 
Spanish coins arc numerous; Mexican, Brazilian, and 
South American coins in great variety ; coins of tlie 
Sandwich Islands, from the time when they began to 
be civilized; the American colonial coins of Massa- 
chusetts and the various provinces; the Summer 
Islands or Bermudas pieces; and coins of English, 
Spanish, and Portuguese colonies; the various coins 
struck for use in the United States after the Revolu- 
tion, including the rare New York doubloon of 1787, 
value sixteen <lollars; the Washington cent, so called, 
in variety, and various tokens; also a full collection 
of medals struck by order of Congress and for private 
purposes to commemorate great events, as well as for- 
eign medals of rarity and historical value. When the 
Mint was finished the roof was covered with copper. 
The intention was to furnish commodious quarters, 
but the growth of the United States has been so rapid, 
and the necessities of the Mint so great, that every 
available inch of sjiaco has been taken up. The 
court-yard has been filled with buildings, and from 



them, out of necessity, ascends a tall brick chimney, 
towering far above the roofs, and being in strange 
contrast with the classic character of the marble 
building which surrounds this structure on all sides. 

The interests of the country — such was the argu- 
ment — required in the course of years that branch 
Mints should be established in various parts of the 
United States. Really the only necessity was for the 
placing of national establishments and buildings in 
the sections favored, and the distribution of offices 
and salaries among their residents. Under the greed 
for office, frequent assaults have been made upon the 
Mint at Philadelphia with effort to remove it else- 
where. Failing in the full endeavor, partial satisfac- 
tion has been given to local feeling by the establish- 
ment of branches. The latter have really been of 
little necessity or assistance, and have only divided 
work which the parent Mint could have done entirely. 
The places at which branch Mints or assay-offices 
have been set up are as follows : 

March 3, 1835. — Branch at the city of New Orleans for the coinage of 
gold and silver. 

March 3, 1835.— Branch at Charlotte, Mecklenburg Co., N. C, for the 
coinage of gold only. 

Marcli 3, 1835. — Bmnch at Dahlonega, Lumpltin Co., Georgia, for the 
coinage of gold only. 

1852. — Branch Mint at San Francisco, Cal. 

1863.— Brancli Mint at Carson, Nev. 

1864.— Branch Mint at Dallas City, Oregon. 

1873,— Branch Mint at Denver, Col. 

Feh. 12, 1873.— Assay-office at New York City. 

June 16, 1874. — Assay-office at BoiB6 City, Idaho. 

Feb. 12, 1873.- Assay-office at Charlotte, N. C, established instead of 
the branch Mint there. 

The discovery of gold in California added very ma- 
terially to the business of the Mint. The first delivery 
of gold from that State was described as follows in a 
letter from the director of the Mint to the Secretary of 
the Treasury, Dec. 11, 1848 : 

" On the 8th instant we received the first deposit of 
gold from California. It was deposited by Mr. Daniel 
Carter, who brought it from San Francisco by the 
Isthmus route. It weighed 1804.59 ounces troy. . . . 
On the 9th another deposit was sent by the Secretary 
of War which weighed 228 ounces. . . . The average 
value per ounce of the bullion before melting is 

The experience of the Mint authorities in relation 
to American gold is that the purest deposits are found 
in tlie State of .Georgia. The largest nugget ever 
brought to the Mint came from California in 1852, 
and yielded nearly six thousand dollars in pure gold. 
Attemjjts have been made to deposit spurious or man- 
ufactured nuggets at the Mint. But as these are only 
accounted for according to the amount of pure metal 
found in them, such frauds have not been profitable 
to the persons concerned. Gold-dust occurs in fine 
grains, from the size of a pin's head to that of a pea, 
and in lumps varying in size from a pea to the size 
of a man's hand. It is occasionally found in a crj's- 
talline form. The changes in the methods of West- 
ern mining by the erection of melting and refining 

establishments in the gold and silver regions of the 
Pacific States has materially changed the character of 
the deposits of metals. They do not frequently come 
now in the native condition as found by the miner, 
but in the shape of ingots and bars. But they are 
not pure, and require remelting and separating to 
olitain the gold and silver. 

In 1857 the coining of nickel pieces was commenced, 
with copper alloy. The three-cent pieces were of 32 
grains ; the five-cent pieces, 72j\j% grains. One-fourth 
was nickel, and the balance copper. The bronze pieces 
(one- and two-cent) are of copper, zinc, and tin, about 
95 per cent, of copper, and 2h per cent, of zinc, and 2J 
per cent, of tin. The one-cent pieces in 1870 weighed 
48 grains, and the two-cent pieces 96 grains. The 
coining-presses are capable of making from 70 to 120 
coins per minute, and, if run at the highest capacity, 
double-eagles to the surprising value of §34,000 could 
be struck in one minute. The presses are generally 
ruu at the speed of 80 pieces to the minute. These 
machines are exceedingly delicate in the adjustment. 
The deviation of a hair's breadth would spoil a coin. 

1792, April 14.— David Eiltenhouse. 
1795, July 8. — Henry William De Saussure. 
1795, Oct. 28.— Elias Boudinot. 
ISOS, Jan. 17.— Robert Patterson. 
1824, July 15.— Samuel Moore. 
1835, May 26.— Robert M. Patterson. 
1851, June 30.— George N. Eckert. 
1853, April 4.— Thomas M. Pettit. 
1853, June 3. — James Roes Snowden. 
1861, April 4.— Ex-Governor James Pollock. 

1866, Oct. 1.— William Millward (not confirmed). 

1867, April 1.— Henry R. Linderman. 
1869, May 1. — James Pollock (second term). 

By act of Congress, May 12, 1873, the Bureau of the 
Mint was established at Washington, D. C. The Mint 
at Philadelphia was to be under the direction of a 

1873.— James Pollock. 
1879, March. — A. Loudon Snowden. 


1792, April 14. Tristram Dalton. 

1793. Dr. Nicholas Way. 
1797. Dr. Benjamin Rush. 

1813. Dr. James Rush. 
. Ex-Governor William Find- 

1841, April 13. Ex-Governor Joseph 
Ritner. I 

By act of Congress, April 7, 1868, an assistant treas- 
urer of the United States was established at Phila- 
delphia. The said treasurer became thereby in effect 
the treasurer of the Mint, and the office of treasurer 
of the mint was virtually abolished. 

1868. Chambers McKibben. | 1869. George Eyster. 

1792, April. Henry Voight. ; 1861. Louis R. Broomal. 

1814. Adam Eckfeldt. I 1863. John G. Butler. 
1839. Franklin Peale. 1866. A. Loudon Snowden. 
1835. George K. Childs. | 1877. Oliver 0. Bosbysbell. 

1841. Isaac Roach. 

1847. James Ross Snowden. 

1852. Edward C. Dale. 

1853. Daniel Sturgeon. 
1858. James H. Walton. 

. Archibald Mclntyre. 

1866. Chambers McKibben. 




1793. Albion Cox. 

. Jo6eph Richanl«on. 

. Jacob B. EckfcldL 

1872. William E. Du Bois. 
I88I,Decemb«r. Jacob B. EckMdt. 


1793. Robert Scot. 
1824. William Kueaaa. 
1840. CbrisUan F. Uobrecht. 

1845, Jan. 9. James B. LoDgacre. 
1868. William Barber. 
1880. Charles E. Barber. 

Ofia nlMuhed by ad of Ckmyreai, March Z, 1795. 

1795. Joaepb Cloud. 1840. Richard J. McColloagh. 

1838. Franklin Peale. [ 1850. James C. Booth. 

1839. Dr. J. R. McCllntock. | 

Archibald Loudon Snowden, the present superinten- 
dent of the Mint, was born in Cumberland County, Pa., 
and descends from one of the oldest families in Pennsyl- 
vania. His great ancestor in Philadelphia, William 
Fairfax Snowden, came from Virginia, and was the 
owner of large tracts of land in what was subsequently 
known as the " Old City Proper," as early as 1669. 
His son, John Snowden, was born in Philadelphia, 
August, 1685, and was for many years one of the 
most prominent merchants of the city, as were also 
his son and grandson. The grandfather of Col. 
Snowden, the Rev. Nathaniel Randolph Snowden, 
was born in Philadeliihia in 1770, and his fother, Dr. 
Isaac Wayne Snowden, in 1794. Dr. Snowden gradu- 
ated at an early age in medicine, and entered the 
military service under Gen. Jackson, as surgeon. 
He was with liim at the battle of New Orleans and 
in the Seminole war. At the close of the Florida 
campaign — in which he was severely wounded — Dr. 
Snowden resigned from the army, and settled in the 
rich valley of the Cumberland, nine miles below Car- 
lisle, Pa., where he practiced his profession with great until his death, in 1850. The mother of Dr. 
Snowden was a daughter of Dr. Lemuel Gustine, and 
was the last survivor of the ma.ssacre of Wyoming. 
Her father subsequently removed from the Wyoming 
Valley to Carlisle, Pa., where he practiced medicine 
for many years. 

Shortly after Dr. Snowden's removal to Cumberland 
County, he married tlie daughter of Archibald Lou- 
don, Esq., a large land-owner in that section of the 
State, and from this union the subject of our sketch 
was born. 

At a very early age Col. Snowden was sent to an 
academy, and subsequently entered Jefferson (now 
Wasliington and Jefferson) College, in Washington, 
Pa. Hero he received a thorough education, and was 
particularly distinguished during his collegiate cour>>e 
as a brilliant and effective orator. He was twice se- 
lected by the literary society of which he was a 
member as class orator. On the completion of his 
collegiate course he studied law, but on May 7, 1857, 
before being admitted to the bar, accepted the posi- 
tion of register tendered him by his uncle, the late 

Hon. James Ross Snowden, then director of the 
United States Mint While discharging the duties 
of register he familiarized himself with all subjects 
relating to coinage. 

In 1866, a vacancy having occurred in the office of 
chief coiner of the Mint, he was appointed by the 
President, and unanimously confirmed by the Senate. 
He entered upon the duties of this office Oct. 1, 1866. 

As chief coiner of the Mint, he was enabled to put 
into practical use the valuable information which he 
had been diligently acquiring for many years, and also 
had an opportunity for the exercise of his remarkable 
power of thorough organization, for which he is so 
justly distinguished. The coining department soon 
felt the impulse of his active and earnest spirit, and 
the most gratifj-ing results followed. While thus 
prosecuting with great ardor and enthusiasm the deli- 
cate and important work intrusted to his care, he was 
suddenly and unexpectedly called upon to lay aside 
his agreeable and congenial duties to accept, at the 
request of President Grant, the postmastership of 
Philadelphia, to which he had been nominated, and 
was unanimously confirmed by the Senate. 

He assumed the duties of the office Jan. 1, 1877, 
with much reluctance, but st)on manifested as post- 
nia.ster the same capacity for thorough discipline ami 
organization which had distinguished him in the Mint. 
In his administration of the postal service of the city 
he gained credit for himself and rendered a most ac- 
cei^table service to the public. Col. Snowden's recog- 
nized ailministrative ability, integrity of character, and 
thorough knowledge on all matters relating to coinage 
being fully understood and appreciated in the Trcsmy 
Department at Wa.shington, as well as by the i)ublic 
at large, general satisfaction was manifested when 
I President Hayes, in December, 1878, voluntarily ten- 
' dered him the positicm of director of all the Mints 
of the United States, made vacant by the expiration 
of the commission of Dr. Linderman. After the 
death of Dr. Linderman, the President again sent for 
i him, and urged his acceptance of the place, which lie 
was believed to have declined previous to Dr. LimU r- 
inan's death from motives of delicacy, having Iohl' 
been the friend of the late director. This tem|)tiiiL' 
I and verj' complimentary offer he again declined, givini: 
as his re!i.son that the acceptance W(mld necessitate liis 
removal from Philadelphia to Washington. 

In the following February the President again mail.' 
him a voluntary tenderof office. This time it was tin 
superintendency of tlie Philadelphia Mint; and as ii^ 
acceptance restored him to a service agreeable in every 
particular, and ])ermitted him to remain among lii> 
friends in Phila<lelphia, he promptly accepted, w:i~ 
again unanimously confirmed by the Senate, and a- 
sumed control of the Mint on the 1st of March, 187',i. 

On the outbreak of the Rebellion, Col. Snowdi ii 
promi)tly offered his services, and, under authority 
from the Governor, a.ssisted in enlisting and organizing 
a regiment, which he offered to the State. Declining the 




colonelcy in favor of Col. Gabriel de Korpornay, who 
had had much experience and long service abroad, he 
\\ as elected and commissioned lieutenant-colonel. The 
iiKist solemn promises to muster the regiment into the 
service were overlooked or disregarded, until, from the 
long delay and expense of maintaining the command 
intact, four of the companies tendered their services to 
New York, and were incorporated into the Excelsior 
Brigade, commanded by Gen. Sickles. The other six 
companies were ultimately sent into Camp Washing- 
ton, at Easton, Pa., but by an ingenious system of 
gerrymandering were so divided among the other com- 
panies from different parts of the State that, although 
voting for their old field-officers, their votes in each of 
the regiments to which they were assigned did not con- 
stitute a majority. Thus, after months of labor and 
expense in enlisting, subsisting, and clothing the men, 
the field-officers were deprived of the places to whicli 
they were justly entitled. 

On his return from Camp Washington he was in- 
vited, and consented, to resume his old place as register 
at tlie Mint. 

For fifteen years he was an active member of the 
First City Troop, and participated with it in the ser- 
vices it rendered during the late war, and ultimately 
became its captain. 

For many years he has taken an intelligent and ac- 
tive interest in railroad and insurance matters. In 
January, 1873, he was elected vice-president of the 
Fire Association, one of the oldest and largest fire in- 
surance companies in the United States, and in 1878 
was elected president. In October, 1880, he was 
elected president of the United Fire Underwriters of 
America, an organization embracing the officers of 
more than one hundred and fifty of the leading 
American and foreign companies doing business in 
the United States, representing a capital and assets of 
over one hundred and eighteen million dollars. 

In the midst of the large demands made upon him 
by business and social interests, he finds time to culti- 
vate his fine literary taste, and within the past few 
years has delivered several notable addresses on scien- 
tific and other subjects. As a public speaker he is 
brilliant, entertaining, and instructive, and is always 
welcomed as one who can be relied upon, with or 
without notice, to meet the highest expectation. In 
the discharge of the important trusts committed to 
him he has at all times manifested the highest intel- 
ligence, united with energy and thorough integrity. 
In his public and private life he commands the con- 
fidence of the government he has long and faithfully 
served, and the respect and esteem of the public at 



Prisons — House of Correction — House of Refuge, etc. 

Court-Houses.— In 1706 the inconvenience of the 
Assembly having no proper place for its sessions led 
to an address being presented to the Governor, asking 
permission that the House should sit in Chester or 
Bucks Counties "until the county of Philadelphia 
shall have a State-House or other convenient place 
for the Assembly to sit in." This action seems to 
have stimulated the justices of the county to under- 
take the building of a court-house. At the same time 
they proposed the building of two county bridges, and 
levied a tax of one penny on the pound. The Com- 
mon Council of the city objected strongly to the tax 
being laid for the building of the bridges. The mem- 
bers were willing to pay their share of a court-house 
for the city and county, but they were uncertain 
where the court-house was to be built, and this was a 
matter of great importance. The municipality there- 
fore asked that a law should be passed for the erection 
of a court-house, and that the collection of the taxes 
should be stopped. In a conference before the Gov- 
ernor and Council in reference to this dispute, in 
April, 1708, Justices Growden and Pidgeon, of the 
county, said, " Here, in the capital town of the gov- 
ernment, the magistrates are obliged to hold courts 
in an ale-house." Finally the dispute was compro- 
mised by a stipulation that if the county would build 
its own bridges, the city would build the court-house, 
and it was agreed that the Ijuilding should be as free 
" for all the services of the county magistrates, for 
their courts, etc., as those of the city." This struc- 
ture is known to have been finished in 1710, and is 
spoken of in the minutes of Common Council of No- 
vember 16th of that year, in which persons who keep 
their stalls " at the east end of the court-house are 
ordered to remove themselves to the other shambles." 
The latter stalls were authorized to be built by reso- 
lution of May 22, 1710, and they were constructed 
immediately west of and adjoining the court-house. 
The building which was thus authorized was of two 
stories, and the first story had an arched entrance on 
Second Street, beneath the outside stairway. There 
was an arched entrance in the centre of the north and 
south sides of the building, and on each side of this 
doorway were arched windows, as appears in an en- 
graving published in 1764. After the lower story 
ceased to be used as a watch-house, the windows on 
the north and south sides were taken out, and the 
opening continued down to the pavement, so that it 
might seem, in later times, to persons not knowing of 
the change, that the building on those sides was sus- 
tained on three brick arches. 

The court-room was in the second story, and was 
approached by steps on the outside of the building, 
commencing in Market Street, on the north and south 



sides, extending eastward until the east front of the 
huilding was reached, when they turned and ascended 
to a pUitform on a level with the floorway of the second 
storj-. A portico, supported l>y plain pillars, rose from 
the balustrade of the platform to a pediment which 
jutted out from the wall above the doorway. The 
style of this entrance was jjrobably copied from the 
conventional doorway of the ordinary Quaker meeting- 
house. On the second story front, toward Second 
Street, a window was )>laccd on each side of the door, 
and two windows on the north and south sides gave 
plenty of light to the court-room. Above this story 
rose a steep-pitched roof inclosing an attic, in which 
there were two plain windows looking east and west 
and three dormer-windows with a northern and south- 
em aspect. In a little cujiola, rising regularly from 
the middle of the roof, the original town bell was 
suspended. It had previously hung in a crotch on or 
near the site of this court-house. From the balcony 
the orators addressed the people on public occasions, 
and there the official prochunations were also read. 
On it newly-appointed Governore stood to deliver their 
inaugural addresses. Rev. George Whitefield preached 
from it during one of his visits to America, and his 
voice was so loud and clear that Franklin, who made 
a practical test by walking away from Second Street, 
said that he could hear it distinctly until he very nearly 
reached Front Street. 

Before the State-House was built the elections for 
the city and county of Phila(leli)hia were held at the 
court-house, and the voters ascemled the steps on one 
side, passed uji to the central door, where they gave in 
their ballots, and went down on the other side. Some- 
time.s, when ]>olitical excitement was very high, the 
stair\vays were held by rough fellows, who attempted 
to prevent any citizens from ascending the stairs ex- 
cept such as belonged to their own jjarty. This was 
particularly the case during " the bloody election" of 
1742. At some time before the Revolutinn the outside 
stairway was removed. All that remained of that 
convenience was the platform at the second story, 
which was railed and took the shai)e of a balcony, 
the porch and i)ediment of the main door being re- 
moved. About the same time it is probable that a 
change wa.s made in the arches beneath. The cost of 
this building, John F. Watson says, was six hundred 
anil sixteen pounds. The lower story seems to have 
been divirled into four spans or corners, which were 
rented at good rates. The millers occuiiieil a portion 
of the sjiace, and in 1714 were ordered to " Exjjose 
their meal \inder the court-house by Opening their 
Sacks' Mouths that the Inhabitants may see what they 
Buy." In 1718 it was ordered that no public sale of 
goods be made under the court-h<iuse unless considera- 
tion he paid to the corporation for the same. Then, 
or about then, the floor was raised, the i>avement 
bricked, and jmsts put up to keep out carts and horses. 
The vendue-master had one jiortion of the space 
within the arches, and John Leech, in 1718, for the 

privilege paid a rent of ten pounds per annum. The 
space was rather limited, and some of the tenants 
complained that the premises were not " tenantable." 
Joha Leech, vendue-master in 1729, rei>resented that 
he had not quiet possession, being often interrupted 
by the clerks of the market. A compromise was 
made with him. 

Besides its use as a court-house, being occupied 
by the City ir Mayor's Court, County Court, or Com- 
mon Pleas, Ori)hans' Court, and Quarter Ses^^ions, 
this building was also tenanted by the Supreme Court 
twice a year. It is believed to have been the i)lace of 
meeting of the Common Council of the city. When 
the State-House was finished the Supreme Court went 
to that building, occupying the west room, first floor, 
where it is supposed the County Courts also were 
held. Whether the City Court was helil there is not 
now known. That tribunal might have found it more 
comfortable to remain at the old court-house, which it 
was privileged to use under the agreement of 1709. 

After the County Court-house was built at Sixth 
and Chestnut Streets, the building at Second and 
Market remained a monument of the past. As a cu- 
rious relic (if the early times it was valueil, but busi- 
ness cared nothing for it, and so, in April, 1837, upon 
the demand of trade that it should have more facili- 
ties than it possessed upon Market Street, the old 
court-house was torn down. Not, however, much to 
the advantage of the highway. The structure and 
the old stalls were rejilaced by a new market-house, 
the principal feature of which was that instead of 
supporting the roof upon stout brick jiiers, as in the 
provincial buiUling, light and graceful pillars of iron 
were substitute<l. There was little space gained on 
the sides. If the market-houses had been entirely 
displaced there might have been an argument against 
allowing the old court-house to renuiin. The only 
gain by demolishing it was that one obstruction was 
rei)laced by another not quite so large, but, unfortu- 
nately, less interesting. 

County Court-House. — The ground upon the State- 
House Square at the southeast corner of Sixth and 
Chestnut Streets, dedicated for the use of a county 
court-house by the Assembly in 1763, was fitly feet 
on Chestnut by seventy-three feet on Sixth Street, 
and afterward was enlarged on the latter by fifteen 
feet, making the entire depth eighty-eight feet. In 
the spring of 1787, the county commissioners com- 
menced the building of the new court-house. Con- 
victs, who about that time were put to hard labor by 
virtue of an act of Assembly, were recommended by 
Chief Justice McKean as proper to be employed in 
paving streets and other public work. A gang of these 
convicts dug the cellars for the new court-house 
building. The earth taken from the excavations was 
carried down Sixth Street, below Walnut, where it 
was deposited upon the street, in the neighborhood 
of the run which passed through the square and be- 
neath the Walnut Street prison toward Fifth Street 



and Dock Creek, about the intersection of Hudson's 
Alley and Harmony Court. The construction of the 
lu'w court-house was authorized on March 18, 1787, 
by the Supreme Executive Council, after the inspec- 
tion of the plans and approval of that which was 
atterward carried out by the county commissioners. 
This building was finished in March, 1789, and cost 
sixteen thousand dollars. The fitting up of the 
interior may have taken up the greater portion of that 
year. It is not known whether any court had occu- 
pied it before it was placed at the disposition of Con- 
gress. The Assembly of Pennsylvania on March 4, 
1789, tendered for the accommodation of Congress the 
use of any or all the public buildings in Philadel- 
phia, the property of the State, "and of the build- 
ing lately erected on the State-House Square belong- 
ing to the City and County of Philadelphia, in case 
Congress should at any time incline to make choice 
of that city for the temporary residence of the Federal 

It was not until more tliau a year afterward, on tlie 
2d of July, 1790, that the United States Senate passed 
the bill fixing the temporary seat of Congress at 
Philadelphia for ten years, the next session to com- 
mence on the 1st of December, 1790, in Pliiladelphia. 
The bill was passed finally, and signed by the Presi- 
dent on the 16th of July. It will be observed that 
the Assembly tendered to Congress the use of a build- 
ing which was not the property of the State. Proba- 
bly the commissioners of the county of Pliiladelphia 
were understood in some way to have authorized the 
offer. On the 6th of December, the day when Con- 
gress met, the commissioners confirmed the use of the 
court-house, which had already been offered, by com- 
munication sent to Congress. This courtesy was ac- 
knowledged by Vice-President John Adams, on the 
8th of December. The two houses of Congress occu- 
pied what might be called the southern portion of the 
building. There was no archway and opening upon 
Sixth Street, as there is now (1884), and entrance was 
obtained by the centre doorway on Chestnut Street. 
The entry ran southward to the door of the chamber 
of the House of Representatives, which was just 
where the central doorway to tlie room sometimes 
occupied by the Court of Quarter Sessit)ns is now. 
The stairway to the second story led from a line par- 
allel north and south with the east frame-work of the 
doorway to tlie upper story, reaching a landing about 
half distance from the second story, with a turn in 
which the steps were reversed, and ascended to the 
westward. Whether there was a door on the first 
floor beneath the stairway leading into the passage 
by the gateway from Chestnut Street is uncertain. 
The front entry in the centre divided the spaces on 
each side, and they were again divided into rooms for 
committees or offices. Passing the doorways to tliese 
rooms the members of the House of Representatives 
are supposed to have entered tlieir chamber by the 
first door in the State-House yard, on the east side of 

the edifice. The space assigned to spectators of the 
proceedings was on the east side, and they were ad- 
mitted by a door on that side, which is still visible, 
but has been closed up to the height of the lower sill 
of a window. When inside, they found themselves 
immediately in front of the Speaker, who was seated 
on the west side, near the windows on Sixth Street. 

An interesting writer, who published his rcniinis- 
ceuces of this period many years afterward, thus de- 
scribes the appearance of the Representative chamber : 
" The House of Representatives in session occupied 
the ground floor. There was a platform elevated, 
three steps plainly carpeted, and covering nearly the 
whole of the area, with a limited promenade for the 
members and privileged persons, and four narrow 
desks between the Sixth Street windows for the stenog- 
raphers, — Lloyd, Gales, Callender, and Duane. The 
Speaker's chair, without canopy, was of plain leather 
with brass nails, facing the east at or near the centre 
of the western wall. . . . Speaker Muhlenberg was suc- 
ceeded by Jonathan Dayton, of New Jersey, a tall, 
raw-boned figure of a gentleman, with terrific aspect, 
and, when excited, a voice of thunder. His slender, 
bony figure filled only the centre of the chair, rising 
on the arms of it with his hands and not his elbows. 
From thesilence which prevailed, of course, on coming 
to order, after prayers by Bishop White, an occasional 
whisper increasing to a buzz, after the manner of 
boys in school, in the seats in the lobby and around 
the fires, swelled at last to loud conversation inimical 
to debate. Very frequently at this stage of confusion 
among the babbling politicians, Mr. Speaker Dayton 
would start suddenly upon his feet, look fiei-cely 
around the hall, and utter the words 'order! order 
without the bar !' in such an appalling tone of voice, 
that as though a cannon had been fired under the 
windows upon the street, the deepest silence prevailed, 
but for a very short time." A colossal bust of Minerva, 
now in possession of the Philadelphia Library Com- 
pany, is said to have been placed above and behind 
the Speaker's chair. It would have required a stout 
and strong iiracket to hold it up. 

The Senate of the United States assembled in the 
second story south room. The bay-window space at 
the south was occupied by the Vice-President of the 
United States, or the president ^jto tnn. of the Senate. 
The writer, already quoted, speaking of the appearance 
of this chamber, said, "In a very plain chair, witliout 
canopy, and a small mahogany table before him, fes- 
tooned at the sides and front with green silk, Mr. 
Adams, the vice-president, presided as jtresident of 
the Senate, facing the north. . . . Among the thirty 
senators of that day there was observed constantly 
during debate the most beautiful order, gravity, and 
personal dignity of manners. They all appeared 
every morning full powdered and dressed, as age or 
fancy might suggest, in the richest material. 

"The very atmosphere of the place seemed to in- 
spire wisdom, mildness, and condescension. Should 



any of them so far forget for a moment as to be the 
cause of a protracted whisper while another was att- 
(Iressing tlic Vice-Presiilerit, three trentle taps with 
his silver pencil-case upon the table by Mr. Adams 
ininieiliatdy restored everything to repose and the 
most respectful attention, presenting in their courtesy 
a most strikini: contrast to the independent loquacity 
of the Representatives down-stairs, some few of whom 
persiste<l in wearintr, while in their seats, and durinu: 
the debate, their ample cocked-hats, placed fore and 
aft upon their heads, with here and there a leg 
thrown across the little desks before them, and facing 
Mr. Jupiter Dayton, as he was sometimes called by 
writers in the Aurora of Benjamin Franklin Bache." ' 

1 During the period that Congress occupied tlie court-house building 
the following were the members of the United States Seuate: 

Neva Hiimpshirt.—\~9{) to March 3,1793, Paine Wingate; March 4, 

1793, to June 17, 18(11, Samuel Livermore. 
March 4, 1789, to March 3, 18(11, John Langdon. 
i/asMcAu«f««— March 4, 1789, to March 3, 1791, Tristram Dalton ; 

March 4, 1791, to July 7, 1790, George Cabot; July 7, 1796, to Nov. 14, 
1800, Benjamin Goodhue. 

March 4, 1789, to June 11, 1796, Caleb Strong; June 11,1796, to March 
3, 1799, Theodore Sedgwick ; March 4, 1799, Samuel Dexter. 

Shod, /«(und.— Juue 7, 1790, to March 3, 1803, Theodore Foster. 

June 7, 179(), to March 3, 1793, Joseph Stanton ; March 4, 1793, to Oc- 
tober, 1797, William Bradford ; October, 1797, to May, 1801, Ray Green. 

Connt-clicul.— March 4, 1789, to May, 1796, Oliver Ellsworth ; May, 
1796, to March 3, 1803, James Hillhouse. 

March 4, 1789, to June 13, 1791, William Samuel Johnson ; June 13, 
1791, to March 3, 1793, Roger Sherman ; March 4, 1703, to March 3, 179.'), 
Stephen M. Mitchell ; March 4, 1795, to October, 1796, Jonathan Trum- 
bull ; October, 1796, to March 3, 1801, Uriah Tracy. 

Vermont. — October, 1791, to Oct. 18, 1796, Moses Robinson; October, 
1796, to Oct. 17, 1797, Isaac Tichenor; Oct. 17, 1797, to March 3, 1803, 
Nathaniel Chipman. 

Oct. 17, 1791, to March 3, 1795, Stephen B. Bradley ; March 4, 1795, to 
March 3, 1801, Elijah Paine. 

A'.u lor*.— July l.'i, 1789, to March 3, 1791, Philip Schuyler; March 4, 
1791, to March 3, 1797, Aaron Burr; Jan. 11, 1798, to May 5, 1798, John 
Sloss Hobert; May 5, 1798, to Aug. 17, 1798, William North ; Aug. 17, 
1798, to April 3, 1800, James Watson. 

July 16,1798, to Nov. 9, 1796, Uiifus King; Nov. 9, 1796, to Nov. 6, 
1800, John Laurance. 

AVw JiTicy.— March 4, 17.89, to March 3, 1791, Jonathan Elmer; March 
4, 1791, to Dec. 6, 1798, John Rutherford; Dec. 6, 1798, to Feb. 14, 1799, 
Franklin Davenport; Feb. 14, 1799, to Fob. 26, 1801, James Schureman. 

March 4, 1789, to Nov. 23, 1790, William Paterson ; Nov. 23, 1793, to 
March 3, 1703, Philemon Dlckorson ; March 4, 179!, to Nov. 12, 1796, 
Frederick Frellnghuysen; Nov. 12, 1796, to March ,3, 1799. Richard 
Stockton ; March 4, 1799, to March 3, 1805, Jonathan Dayton. 

/Vniutjd-ani.!.— March 4, 1789, to March 3,1701, ■\Villiam Maclay; Feb. 
28,1793, to Feb. 28, 1794, Albert Gallatin ; April 1,1704,10 March 3, 1803, 
James Ross. 

March 4, 1789, to March 3,1796, Robert Morris; March 4,1795, to 
March 3, 1801, William Bingham. 

Z;«^Ilcar.,— March 4, 1789, to March 19, 1794, George Read ; March 19, 

1794, to Feb. 7, 179S, Klnsey Johns; Feb. 7, 1795, to Feb. 28, 1801, Henry 

March 4, 1789, to March 3, 1793, Richard Bassett ; March 4, 1793, to 
Jan. 19, 1798, John VInIng ; Jan. 19, 1798, to Jan. 17. 1799, Joshua Clay- 

JfnT/fam/.— Jan. 17, 1709, to Nov. 13, 1804, William Hill Wells ; March 
4, 1789, to Jan. 10, 1793, Charles Carroll of Carrollton; Jan. I(), 1793, to 
Nov. 30,1796, Richard Potts; Nov. 30, 1706, to March 3, 1803, John Eager 

March 4,1789, to Dec, 11, 1797, John Henry; Dec. 11, 1797, to Dec. 12, 
1800, James Lloyd. 

Tir^nio.— March 4, 1789, to March 31, 1790, William Grayson; March 
.31, 1790, to Nov. 9, 17;k), John Walker; Nov. 9, 1790, to Nov. 18, 1791, 
James Monro*; Nov. 18, 1794, to June 4, 18.3, Stevens Thomson Mason. 

The first session of Congress in the court-house build- 
ing commenced March 4, 1790 ; the last session ended 
May U, 1800. 

After Congress left the city the county court-house 
building wiis taken possession of by the tribunals for 
the accommodation of which the edifice had been 
constructed. The Courts of Common Pleas, Quarter 
Sessions, and the Orphans' Court occupied the south 
room, first floor, which had been the chamber of the 
Federal House of Representatives. The bench was 
placed within the bay recess on an elevated platform. 
The clerks and district attorney, when present on 
business, sat within a railed inclosure, the floor of 
which was lower than the bench, and probably ten 
feet in width. In front of this a n-^^haped table, cov- 
ered with baize or cloth, joined the railings of the 
privileged inclosure, extending some twenty or thirty 
feet. Within this division was the place for the 
members of the bar. The jurors were seated on a 
railed platform east or west of the table, as occasion 

March 4, 1789, to Oct. 18, 1792, Richard Henry Lee; Oct. 18, 1792, to 
Nov. 18, 1794, John Taylor ; Nov. 18, 1794, to Dec. 6, 1799, Henry Taze- 
well ; Dec. 6, 1799, to August, 18(i4, Wilson Cary Nicholas. 

Xorlli Carolina.— Nov. 27, 1789, to March 3, 1793, Samuel Johnston; 
March 4,1793, to March 3, 1799, Alexander Martin; March 4, 1799, to 
March 3, 1805, Jesse Franklin. 

Nov. 27, 1789, to March 3, 1796, Benjamin Hawkins; March 4, 1795, to 
March 3, 1801, Timothy Bloodworth. 

SoiUh airolinn.— March 4, 1789, to March 3, 1795, Ralph Izard , March 
4, 1795, to March 8, 1801, Jacob Read. 

Georjio.— March 4, 1789, to March 3, 1793, William Few; March 4, 
1793, to Nov. 16, 1795, James Jackson; Nov. 16, 1796, to Feb. 20, 1796, 
George Walton ; Feb. 20, 1790, to March 3, 1799, Josiah Talnall ; March 
4, 1799, to Aug. 27, 1807, Abraham Baldwin. 

March 4, 1789, to March 3, 1801, James Gunn. 

Kentucky. — lune, 1792, to March 3, 1805, John Brown. 

June 18, 1792, to March 3, 1795, John Edwards; March 4, 1796, to 
Ma(ch 3, 1807, Humphrey Manihall. 

TcmifMcf.— Aug. 2, 1796, to March 3, 1797, William Cocke; Sept. 26, 
1797, to Oct. 0, 1798, Andrew Jackson; Oct. 6, 1798, to Dec. 12, 1798, 
Daniel Smith; Dec. 12,1798, to March 3, 1803, Joseph Anderson ; Aug. 2, 
1796, to June 8, 1797, William Blount; Sept. 26, 1797, to Doc. 12, 1798, 
Jo.seph Anilereou; March 4, 1799, to March 3, 1806, William Cocke. 

During the same period the Senate was presided over by Vice-Presi- 
dent John Adams, March 4, 1789, to March 3, 1797, and Thomas Jefler- 
son, from March 4, 1797, to March 3, 1801. 

PregUlentH pro tt-mporc of tkf. Senate : 

John Langdon, March 4, 1789, to April 17, 1792. 

Richard Henry Leo, April 18 to May 8, 1792. 

John Langdo«, Nov. 6, 1792, to May 30, 1704. 

Ralph Izard, May 31, 1794, to Feb. 19, 1796. 

Henry Tazewell, Feb. 20, 1795, to May 5, 1796. 

Samuel Livermore, May 6, 1796, to Feb, 15, 1797. 

William Bingham, Feb, 16, 1797, to July 5, 1797. 

William Bradford, July 6 to July 10, 1797. 

Jacob Read, Nov, 22, 1797, to June 26, 1798. 

Theodore Sedgwick, June 27 to July 17, 1798. 

John Lawrence, Dec. 6, 1798, to Fob. 28, 1799. 

James Ross, March 1 to March 3, 1799. 

Samuel Livermore, Dec. 2, 1799, to May 13, 1800. 

Sptakern of Ute Ilowte of Repre*entatwe». 

Frederick A.Muhlenberg, of Pennsylvania, April 1, 1789, to March 
3, 1791, 

Jonathan Trumbull, nf Connecticut, Oct. 24, 1791, to March 2, 1793. 

Freilerick A. Muhlenberg, of Pennsylvania, Dec. 2, 1793, to March 3, 

Jcuinthan Dayton, of Now Jersey, Dec. 6, 1796, to March 3, 17M. 

Theodore Sedgwick, Dec. 2, 1799, to March 3, 1801. 




might serve. The entrances for the bar, juries, and 
witnesses were at doors on tlie south side of the build- 
ing near the east and west corners. Ordinary specta- 
tors were admitted from the centre passage-way by the 
hall, and rising seats on each side accommodated 

After the Supreme Court of the United States went 
to Washington, the room occupied by that tribunal, 
which was at the southern end of the second floor, 
was handed over to occupancy of the United States 
District and Circuit Courts. A small gallery above 
the doorway accommodated fifteen or twenty persons, 
and was entered by a stairway leading to another 
gallery in a little room which adjoined the stairway, 
and which, in later times, was fitted up as a con- 
versation-room, but is now a sort of passage-way 
eastward to the wing. This arrangement is believed 
to have been built in 1795. It remained for many 
years, but was not in use for spectators. It was prob- 
ably removed during some alterations made about 
or before 1850. The ceiling over the gallery was dec- 
orated with the painting of an eagle during the Fed- 
eral occupation of the room. This emblem of national 
sovereignty kept its place long after the State tribu- 
nals had taken possession of the chamber, and it was 
frequently a matter of curiosity among speculating 
lawyers why a national emblem was there instead of 
the arms of Pennsylvania. The general belief was 
that the eagle had been painted while the Senate 
occupied the room. 

About 1818 or 1819 the front passage-way and entry 
from Chestnut Street on the first floor was closed. 
The partitions of the office-rooms on each side were 
torn down and the whole thrown into one chamber. 
The District Court of the city and county of Phila- 
delphia came from the State-House about 1820 and 
took possession of the new court-room. The bench 
was constructed on an elevated platform on the north, 
or Chestnut Street side. The centre door was closed 
up, but the fan-light was left in its place. At the 
same time it is likely that the arched opening was 
made on Sixth Street, with inside steps ascending to 
the floor and communicating with the stairways. 
Entrance to the Supreme Court was by a middle 
door in the hall, and a smaller one on the eastern 

The second story front during the occupation of 
Congress is understood to have had an entry, with 
offices on each side. These were also torn out and a 
court-room constructed. It was most pleasantly sit- 
uated, and in 1824 the Supreme Court of Pennsylva- 
nia removed from the State-House and occupied the 
new apartment. On the 26th of December, 1821, fire 
broke out in the county court-house, which was oc- 
casioned by the bursting of a flue leading through 
the attic. A portion of the roof was destroyed and 
some injury was done to the cupola. The Supreme 
Court was allowed temporary quarters at the City Hall 
in the Common Council chamber during the session 

of 1821-22, and the District Court was probably ac- 
commodated at the State-House. A plan in the "pic- 
ture of Philadelphia," published in 1824, places the 
District Court in the north room, first story; Com- 
mon Pleas, south room, first story; Supreme Court, 
north room, second story ; and the United States Cir- 
cuit Court, south room, second story. Between the 
last two courts were two small rooms. The law 
library was on the west (Sixth Street) front, while the 
controller of public schools was on the east side, ad- 
joining the stairs. About 1825 the United Stat&s 
Court was removed from the second story, south 
room, and the chamber was granted to the use of the 
District Court of Philadelphia, the extension of the 
business of which required larger accommodations. 
Jury trials were held usually in the lower court- 
room, which was also on most occasions the place of 
assemblage of public meetings held, according to 
notice, " at the county court-house." Jury trials 
were also held in the second story, south room, but 
the court in banc preferred the latter on all occa- 
sions when not engaged in trials. After some years 
the increasing necessities of the District Court re- 
quired that the Supreme Court should be given notice 
to remove from the second story front room. It was 
proposed, as means of accommodation, that the east 
room, first floor, of the State-House, then known as 
the Hall of Independence, should be used for the 
purpose, but there was a great outcry against the 
"desecration," as it was called, and the superior tri- 
bunal was sent to the old Masonic Hall on Chest- 
nut Street, between Seventh and Eighth, where 
it occupied the Grand Chapter-room, on the second 
story front. Some time afterward the space occu- 
pied by offices in the second story of the office wing 

1 buildings, on the east of the State-House, was fitted 
up for the accommodation of the Supreme Court, 
and was in use until the building of the new City Hall 
at Broad and Market Streets was so far advanced that 
accommodations could be had there. 

As soon as consolidation was an established fact, in 
1854, it was found that enlarged accommodations 
would be necessary for that highly-important city 
officer, the receiver of taxes. The front room of the 
court-house, first story, was believed to be the most 

j proper apartment that could be provided. The re- 
ceiver was established in it until his office was re- 
moved to the new public buildings, when the next 
tenant was the clerk of the Court of Common Pleas, 
who also occupied all the offices on the first story of 
the west wing and the extension across the alley-way 
leading from Chestnut Street. 

i The New Court-House.— The growing population 

' of the city, the increase in the number of persons 
charged with offenses, and the constant pressure to 

{ compel the trial of criminals under the two-term law, 

] whether the district attorney was prepared or not, 
required for public use more court-rooms than could 

I be conveniently had in the limited space available at 



the State-House. Otlen it wa-s a necessity that there 
should be two Courts of Quarter Sessions holding 
trials at the same time, and it was frequently trouble- 
some to find a public court-room that could be put in 
use by other than the regular tenants. This led to 
consideration of the necessity of additional court- 
house accommodations. On the 30th of December, 
1865, an ordinance was pa-ssed authorizing the com- 
missioners of city property, under tlic supervision of 
the committee of Councils, to advertise for proposals 
for the erection of a suitable court-house, in accord- 
ance with plans relating to the necessity of imme- 
diately providing better accommodations for the Court 
of Quarter Sessions, the cost not to exceed thirty-four 
thousand five hundred dollars, and the building to be 
finished within five months from its commencement. 
It was begun Nov. 2, 1866, and completed early in 
1867. The location was on Sixth Street, just south of 
the old county court-house, and the structure mainly 
of brick, with a granite facing up to the level of the 
first floor, where, on the north side of the central 
hall, is the office of the clerk of the Quarter Ses- 
sions and the waiting-rooms for witnesses. On tlie 
south side are the ante-room and grand jury-room and 
the offices of the district attorney. The second floor 
is taken up with the court-room, and the loft under 
the roof is very inadequately fitted up as a jury-room, 
where unfortunate jurors shiver in winter and roast 
in summer. As regards acoustics, the court-room 
is a marked failure, and none of the many experi- 
ments that have been tested have remedied its de- 
fects. The best that can be done is to huddle together 
closely the judges, the jury, the counsel, and the i 

Prisons. — The want of a prison in which oflfenders 
against the laws might be confined was one of the 
questions which earliest engaged the attention of the 
settlers. They were almost without exception men 
of deep religious feelings and stern purity of life, but 
it wa.s inevitable that to a new country there should 
flock some adventurers who were always ready to 
throw off moral restraint. As early as February, 
1683, the Council ordered one of their members, Wil- 
liam Clayton, to build a cage, seven feet long by five 
feet broad, for the detention of miscreants, and the 
grand jury made a presentment in which it specified 
the necessity of establishing a prison. An agreement 
seems to have been made with Lacy Cock, in 1685, 
for the building of a log house, on Second Street, 
intended for a county jail. He complied with his 
contract, but in September of that year, it being con- 
sidered that the log house was insufficient for the 
purpose of a prison, it was agreed by the grand jury 
that Cock mi^rht have the house and the lot upon 
which it was built and some ground adjoining, if he 
would release the county from the payment of sixty 
pounds, the cost of building the structure. Instead 
of using Cock's house, the high sheriff hired one that 
belonged to Patrick Robinson, and when he had fur- ■ 

nished it with fetters and chains he declared in court 
that " with his own attendance and that of his depu- 
ties he had a .sufficient gaul, and if any escapes 
occurred he would not blame the county for want of 
a gaol, nor for the insufficiency of the said house." 

The location of this prison is believed to have been 
on the west side of Second Street, north of the corner 
Market Street lot, at the distance of one hundred and 
two feet from the High Street. It was situated be- 
tween Market Street and Christ Church ground. The 
sheriff' of the county was the person to whom the 
owner of the prison looked for his rent, and he was 
not always recompensed promptly, as was shown 
in 1694 by Mary White, the widow of Sheriff John 
White, whose estate was bound for the rent of the 
prison. She made application to the Provincial 
Council for recompense, and it was ordered that the 
justices of the county should pay the amount due. In 
1685 the Court of Quarter Sessions received the report 
of Samuel Carpenter, Humphrey Murry, and Na- 
thaniel Allen, and others who had made inquiry as to 
the cost of building a new prison, and made return 
that an edifice twenty feet loiiir and fourteen feet wide, 
two stories high, with convenient light doors, case- 
ment constructed of stone, and brick floors, with a 
cock-loft, and having four chimneys, capable of being 
divided into four rooms inside, could be built for one 
hundred and forty pounds. That it was constructed 
shortly afterward is a matter of inference, and it was 
situated in the middle of High | or Market] Street, be- 
tween Front and Second.' 

This primitive jail was standing in 1702, when the 
grand jury presented "the prison-house and the 
prison-yard, as it now stands in High Street, as a com- 
mon nuisance." In the ensuing year the court ap- 
pointed a commission to ascertain what the cost of a 
new prison and court-house would be. In 1705 the 
Common Council ordered that the old cage built by 
Clayton should be repaired and put in use as a city 
watch-house, and a new cage was ordered to be built 
in the market-place in the latter part of the same 
year. It was to be sixteen feet long, fourteen feet 
wide, and to be used as a watch-house. 

In 1706 a i>air of stocks, a whii)ping-i)()st, and pil- 
lory were ordered to be set up in the same place, but 
tluy had not been complctcil two years afterward. In 
1707 the grand jury rc|iortcd that the middle and 
upper windows of the jail were insufficient, and that 
body ])rcsentcd the whole jail on a similar complaint ' 
in 1716 and 1717. In the latter year a general act 
was |)assed " for erecting Houses of Correction and 
Work-Houses in the respective Counties of this 
Province." The preamble set forth " that the i)ro- 

> In « plat of Letitia Penn'a lot drawn <n 1098, tho priaon atanda Id 
the middle of High Street, twenty-four feet aquiiro. The priaon-yard 
wn» twenty-four by cichly feet, and wa» ca«t of the prl»on. A plat 
twenty-four by forty-«lx feet adjoliiinK, la marked "designed for a 
courl-hnuao." Tho aaine plan shows that the rngo was on the open 
aimcoat the Intoraocllon of Second and High Streets.and the bell under 
a belfry, auppart»d by potts, a little eaatward, but still in the street. 



prietary and first adventurers, in their principal model- 
nient of the government, proposed that for crimes 
inferior to murder the jjuuishraent might be by way 
of restitution, fine, imprisonment, and such like; 
where the offender proved not of ability to make such 
satisfaction, it was intended that he' should be kept 
in jirison or house of correction at hard labor. But 
no effectual care has been yet taken to erect such 
houses, by reason whereof many evil-doers escape 
unpunished, and servants who, for their neglect and 
abuse, could be kept to work in such houses are become 
incorrigible." This act gave to justices of the peace 
of the city of Philadelphia, in conjunction with the 
justices of the county and to justices of other 
counties of the province, power to cause to be built 
houses of correction and work-houses, and it was 
directed that such buildings should be constructed, in 
Philadelphia, inside of three years, counting from 
March 25, 1718. From this we may presume that the 
work was done before the end of 1721. Common 
Council, in April, 1722, ordered that " the old prison 
be sold to the highest bidder." This was done, and 
the amount realized for the materials was seventy-five 

The new prison was at the southeast corner of 
Third and Market [or High] Streets. It was two 
stories high, and was made up of two stout buildings, 
that fronting on High Street being the debtors' prison, 
and the one south of it the criminals' prison. The 
attics under the high-pitched roof were also utilized 
as cells. Between the two buildings was a high wall 
which inclosed a yard. 

In a poem describing High Street, published in the 
Bradford Mercury in 1729, the writer describes the 
court-house and prison in the following strain : 

"An yew-bow distance from the key-built strand, 
Our Court-IIouae fronts Cesarea's Pine-tree land ; 
Through the arch dome and on each side the Street 
Divided runs, remote again to meet ; 
Here Eastward stands tlie tracks to obloquy 
And pretty crimes, stocks, posts, and piUory.i 

Thence half a furlong west declining pace 
And see the rock-built prison's dreadful face." 

The inmates of the prison were of different charac- 
ter. Their offenses might be civil or criminal, accord- 
ingly as they were defaulters in their debts, or had 
broken the laws against felonies and misdemeanors. 
The practice of imprisonment for even the smallest 
amount of debt was imported from England. 

In 1715 an act was passed for better determining 
debts and demands under forty shillings. It provided 
for summary arrest by capias, summary hearing, judg- 
ment without appeal, and execution against the body 
or goods, thus justifying imprisonment of the debtor. 

1 From this it would seem that the stocks and pillory were east of the 
court-house and between Front and Second Streets. They were subse- 
quently placed west of the market, which extended from the court-house 
at Second Street aud to very near Third Street, and within sight of 
the prison. 

In 1745 a new act was passed, which declared that "a 
great number of the law-suits which are commenced 
in this province are brought against the poorer sort of 
people for small sums of money, who are unable to 
pay the expenses arising by the common method of 
prosecution." The intention of the act was to make 
the method of recovery against these poor persons 
less costly, and easier than it had been, but there was 
no change in the liability of the debtor to imprison- 
ment, even for the smallest sum. Hence a delitor 
once committed to prison was in a worse condition 
than a criminal. The latter had a time fixed when 
his sentence would expire, but the delator had no hope 
of release except by payment of the debt. Prisoners 
for debt were expected to support themselves ; and 
if they were not able to do so, and failed in procuring 
relief from the charitable, they were liable to starva- 
tion. In 1705 the Assembly enacted a law directing 
that jailors should not oppress their prisoners ; that 
all prisoners should be free as to room, and should 
have lil)erty to provide themselves with bedding, 
food, and other necessaries during their imprisonment, 
and that the public allowance should be two pence per 
day and no more. The dimensions of the prison were 
soon found to be insufficient to hold the crowd of debt- 
ors liable to confinement together with the criminals, 
and measures of relief became necessary. In 1700 
there was passed the law relative to arrest and forcing 
debtors to pay by servitude. In 1705 it was enacted 
that no person should be kept in prison for debt or 
fines longer than the second day of the next sessions 
after his or her commitment, unless the plaintiff should 
make it appear that the person in prison had some 
estate, which he would not produce. If there was no 
estate, the court might order the prisoners to make 
satisfaction by servitude. The time of the service 
was to be fixed by the judges. If the debtor was a 
single person, and under the age of fifty-three years, 
the term could not exceed seven years ; and if a single 
person, under forty-three years, the term of service 
could not be more than five years. It was at the op- 
tion of the plaintiff to require this service or to refuse 
it. If he chose the latter, the debtor might be dis- 
charged in open court. 

In 1729 an act was passed for the relief of insolvent 
debtors, which recited that by experience it was found 
that the service of the debtor, in accordance with the 
previous law, had " in no wise answered the end pro- 
posed." For remedy it was provided that any person 
against whom any prosecution had been made, whose 
debt did not amount to more than one hundred pounds 
might, upon petition to the court, on exhibition of 
his property and an assignment for the benefit of his 
creditors, be discharged from imprisonment, the prop- 
erty to be divided among the creditors. This privilege 
depended in part upon the willingness of the cred- 
itors to allow the discharge, as they might prevent it 
by agreeing in writing to pay for the sujiport of the 
prisoner such amount as the court should assess, not 



to exceed three shillings weekly on each creditor, 
payable on the second day of the week. Some sick 
prir^oners languished tor want of medicine, and in 1770 
one died of starvation. Public indignation ma<le 
itself manifest, and a committee of the Assembly, 
visiting the prison about that time, reporteil that it 
contained forty inmates, men and women. Many of 
the men were naked, and their usual covering at 
night was one blanket to two persons. Even the 
blankets were of recent introduction into the jail, 
having been furnished by charitable subscriptions 
raised by sermons for the benefit of the poor, and 
by donations. One man had been detained in prison 
for four years for non-payment of the jail fees, and 
another three years for want of surety for his good 
behavior. The Assembly passed an act increasing 
the allowance for prisoners to threepence per day, 
payable out of the county stock, and made some new 
arrangements in regard to confinement. Notwith- 
standing the assistance supposed to have been secured 
by this act, the prisoners were still in a wretched 
condition. In 1772 three persons died at the Market 
Street prison of starvation, a fact which created great 
excitement. Contributions were raised. The Rev. 
Mr. Stringer, of St. Paul's, preached a sermon which 
yielded thirty pounds, the Society of the Friendly 
Sons of St. Patrick contributed between twenty and 
thirty pounds, and other donations were made. The 
best result was the formation, in the early part of 
1776, of "The Society for the Relief of Distressed 
Prisoners." Procuring wheelbarrows, on the tops of 
which were painted the words " victuals for pris- 
oners," the members of the society passed from door 
to door, gathering food for the unfortunates. It con- 
tinued in existence until the British troops took pos- 
session of the city ; was revive<l later, and is now 
"The Society for Alleviation of the Miseries of 
Public Prisons." 

The laws for the punishment of crime which pre- 
vailed in England as to felonies were by the Royal 
Charter inteiide<l to be continued in Pennsylvania. 
But it was [)resently agreed that acts of Parliament 
did not extend to the PlantiUions in America, unless 
they were particularly mentioned in the acts. In 
1717, it was recited in an act of Assembly that "some 
persons have been encouraged to transgress certain 
statutes against capital cri?nes and other enormities 
because those statutes have not been hitherto fully 
exteniled to this iirovince." To remedy this defect it 
was enacted that trials for high treason shouhl be ac- 
cording to the order and course of the common law, 
observing the direction of the statute laws of Great 
Britain relating to trials and proceedings and judg- 
ments in such eases. Trials for petty treason, mis- , 
prision of treason, murder, manslaughter, and other 
crimes were to be according to the metliod clirected 
by the act. Women convicted of concealing the death 
of their illegitimate children, and persons who advised 
the killing of such children, were liable to the death I 

punishment. The English statutes against stabbing, 
which deprived persons guilty of that offense of the 
benefit of clergy, was extended to Pennsylvania, and 
the offense was classed with murder, while those who 
were present were to be considered as accessories. 
Punishment of death without benefit of clergy was 
denounced against persons convicted of burglary in 
the night-time; also, against persons who burned the 
dwelling-house, barn, stable, or out-house of another 
having corn or hay therein. Benefit of clergy was 
extended to women convicted of felony, but they were 
lialile to be branded and burnt in the hands. Benefit 
of clergy was denied to such women for a second of- 
fense. The commissioners and assessors of the city 
in 1749 made application to the Assembly for use of 
the court-house and the labor of the prisoners in the 
work-house for the benefit of the county, with the in- 
tention of hiring out the prisoners. James White- 
head, who was kee])er of the jail at that time, peti- 
tioned for an extra allowance for the support of 
lunatics. He had paid nine pounds out of his own 
pocket to save these sufferers from freezing, but there 
is nothing to show that he was ever reimburseil. In 
this same year two highwaymen, under Whitehead's 
charge, concocted a plot to seize him, obtain his keys, 
and make their escape. They made a desperate fight, 
but were overpowered, and were hanged on the com- 
mon by sentence of the court. This is the first known 
occasion in Pennsylvania where the place of execu- 
tion was mentioned in the newspa])ers. 

After the Walnut Street prison was finished, in 
1774, the prison ]iniiierty at Third and Market Streets 
was in condition to be sold ; liut when the Revolution- 
ary war broke out it became useful as the headquarters 
of a military guard, and for the incarceration of politi- 
cal prisoners as well as military prisoners. Samuel 
R. Fisher, who was arrested, in 1779, on the charge of 
having sent information to the enemy, at New York, 
was confined in this prison for nearly two years, a 
consequence of his refusal to give bail to answer in 
the regular way for his offense. The town-major, 
Louis Nicola, had the headquarters of his guard there, 
and afterward the regiment of invalids, under com- 
mand of Col. Nicola, had quarters and i)rivilege of 
confinement of prisoners at the same place. These 
bodies were, after the suspension of the city charter 
by the event* of the Revolution, the only effective 
organizations for the preservation of the i)eace which 
the city possessed. 

During the period that this prison was occupied, the 
gallows were somewhat active. The following execu- 
tions took j)lace between 1721 and 1775, the persons 
having first been prisoners and carried to the place of 
execution according to the sentence of the law : 

1721.— Eilward Hunt, for coiintorfeltinR Spanish riWer coin. 

1721, July 12.— A negro, for house-breaking. 

172'.i, Oct.— Jamoa Smith, burglary. 

17SII.— Thomaa Sonmon a/In* Watbell, burglary. 

173(i, April.— John Wata.i.i and Michael McDermllt, burglary. 

173G, Auguet. — James, a negro, rape. 



1737, April. — Henry Wildman and Catherine Conner, burglary. 
1739, April. — A negro, for murder. 

1741, April.— Lawrence Kalaban, murder of William Bentine. 
1741, November. — John Bullach, murder of his wife. 
1744, October. — Mtishamelin, an Indian, fur the murder of Armstrong, 
a trader, and two others. 
1747. — Patrick Burns and ^lichael Burns, burglary. 
1748. — Alexander Ulrie, murder. 
174S.— Arthur Maginnisand Thomas White, sodomy. 

1749, Oct. 26. — James Johnson and Thomas Fielding, highway robbery. 

1750, August.— Hans Dlick Seller, murder of Mrs. Shullz. 

1751, January. — John Morris, Francis McCoy, and Elizabeth Robins, 

1752, May. — John Webster, burglary. 

1752, Not. 29.— Daniel Hurley, murder of James Clark. 
1723, Oct. 25.— Thomas Ruth, murder of Charles Quig. 
1759. — James Jones and James Powell, burglary. 

1759. Durel, soldier of the Royal American regiment, murder. 

1759. — John Jones, burglary. 

1760, October.— John Brulaman, murder of Robert Scull. 

1762, November. — Caspar and Joe, negroes, burglary. 

1764, May 5. — William Frederick Handinreid, felony and burglary. 

1764, May. — John Williams alias John Heins, felony and burglary. 

1765. — Henry Halbert, murder of Jacob Woolman. 

1766, Oct. 18, — Dennis Scan Ian, highway robbery. 

1766, Oct. 18.— Abraham Eyall, burglary. 

1767, Oct. 24.— David Smith, burglary. 

1768, August. Robinson, soldier of the Thirty-fourth Regiment, 

shot for desertion. 

1769, June 12. , soldier of the Thirty-fourth Regiment, shot 

for desertion. 

1770, April 24. — David and Thomas Jones, burglary. 

1770, April 24. — Herman Rosikrans, counterfeiting provincial bills of 

1771, May 22.— John Thompson, burglary. 
1771, July 4. — John Thomas, burglary. 

1774, April 30.— Thomas Stephens, Joseph Price, and Richard Burch, 

1774, April 30. — James Swain and mulatto, Elizabeth, murder. 

1774, April 30. — Burnard Reptln, counterfeiting provincial bills of 

1775. — Andrew Stewart, counterfeiting provincial bills of credit. 

Walnut Street Prison.^In consequence of com- 
plaint of the insufficiency of the old jail at Third and 
Market Streets the Assembly passed a law, Feb. 26, 
1773, which authorized the commissioners of the 
county of Philadelphia to borrow as much money as 
they might think sufficient for purchasing a lot of 
ground " in some convenient part of the said city, 
and erecting thereon a commodious, strong, and suffi- 
cient gaol, work-house, and house of correction, with 
a good yard to each of them, inclosed by a wall of 
proper height and strength." After this prison was 
built, the commissioners had authority to sell the old 
jail at Third and Market Streets, and to appropriate 
the money received toward the cost of constructing 
the new prison. The property at Third and Market 
had been vested in trustees, for the use and benefit of 
the city and county of Philadelphia, and Joshua 
Carpenter, the survivor, in 1721, made a declaration of 
trust, reciting the title of the city and county. 

The county commissioners purchased from John 
and Thomas Penn and others, for three thousand two 
hundred and fifty-two pounds in Pennsylvania cur- 
rency, a lot at the corner of Walnut and Sixth Streets, 
extending nearly half way down to Fifth Street and 
southward about four hundred feet to Prune [Locust] 
Street. Upon this ground they erected a stone prison 

building of one hundred and eighty-four feet front on 
Walnut Street, thirty-two feet deep, and with wings 
on the east and west extending ninety feet southward. 
On the southern portion of the lot fronting on Prune 
Street, a stone building was erected for a work-house, 
but it soon came to be used for the confinement of 
debtors. In time buildings were erected in the prison 
yard, some of them adjacent to the Sixth Street wall, 
for work-rooms. There was a stone wall twenty feet 
high which ran from the western wing of the prison 
down Sixth Street, and along Prune to a line with 
the debtors' department, which was set a little back 
from the street. Another wall began west of the 
building, ran along Prune to the eastern line of the 
property, and then northward until it met the east 
wing of the main building. The prison was two 
stories in height, with a basement rising some feet 
above the ground. The central building stood out 
from the wings a short distance, and was crowned 
with a pediment in which was a semicircular arched 
fan-window. A one-story cupola rose above all, and 
the vane was in the shape of a gilded key. The main 
entrance was in the centre by a passage-way eight 
feet broad, through two iron-grated doors to a cross 
hall running from east to west ou the southern side 
of the building, with stairs and windows at each end. 
There were eight large rooms on each floor, all arched, 
and having two windows to each room. The wing 
building had arched windows upon the court-yard, 
one for each room. Beneath the wings were the dun- 
geons, in the basement, and partially under ground. 
The jail occupied the whole width of the lot, and 
southward to a depth of three hundred feet, where 
there was a semicircular row of work-houses, two 
stories high, and beyond them the southern wall. 
The stone front on Walnut Street was rough-cast, 
and the impression created by the prison was that of 
solidity and fitness. In the yard a brick building, 
three stories in height and raised on arches, con- 
tained the sixteen solitary cells, each six feet by eight, 
and nine feet high. They were very dark, as the only 
light admitted came from above, through a peculiar 
form of blind. They succeeded the basement dun- 
geons, which were abandoned in 1795.' 

The architect of the new prison was Robert Smith, 
but it is not exactly certain at what date it was occu- 

I In an account of the Walnut Street prison, published in the United 
Slates Gazette, before its demolition, in October, 1835, it was said, *' Be- 
neath the eastern wing, projecting into the yard of the prison, is a long- 
arched passage, dimly lighted with one or two lamps fastened to the 
masonry of the wall. Doorways at the side of this long subterranean 
chamber opened into dark, arched cells, where no rays of light but by 
the door could find entrance, and where all that is imagined of the soli- 
tary and subterranean dungeon holes of feudal castles might be fully 
realized. Strong, massive chains were fastened to the floor and the 
grating, and the thick, iron-studded doors, now thrown down, show that 
an attempt at escape must have been futile. No prisoner has occupied 
these horrible abodes for nearly forty years. The last prisoner had 
been thrust in for some crime out of the usual course. His situation 
was not made known to the keeper, and he perished miserably, without 
being able to make his voice heard." 



pied. In August, 1775, the buildings were used as 
store-houses for powder, and in the following Decem- 
ber the Committee of Safety was notified that a por- 
tion was ready for the reception of prisoners. It was, 
therefore, resolved to remove to that building as pris- 
oners the soldiers, sailors, and others confined under 
authority of Congress. Thomas Apty was appointed 
temporary keeper for this purpose, and the sum of 
one dollar per week was allowed for the support of 
each prisoner, under authority of an act of Congress. 
In January, 1776, one hundred and five felons, Tories, 
debtors, and prisoners-of-\var, were taken from the old 
jail to the new one. Six of them made their escape 
the same night by breaking the lock of a back gate 
and getting over the wall, and only one was retaken. 
The British general, Richard Prescott, captured in 
Canada in 1775, was prisoner on parole, and per- 
mitted to reside at the City Tavern for a time, but, 
it being alleged that he had acted iruelly toward 
Col. Ethan Allen and the Continental prisoners in 
Canada, he was ordered into close confinement in the 
new prison, and remained there until September, when 
he was exchanged for Gen. Sullivan. He again be- 
came a prisoner July 10, 1777, when he was seized 
and captured by Lieut. -Col. Barton, of Rhode Island, 
at Overing's house, near Newport. Col. Moses Kirk- 
land, a South Carolina Tory, who had been captured 
upon a tender sent by Lord Dunniore, of Virginia, to 
Gen. Howe, at Boston, was also sent to the Walnut 
Street prison, from which he escaped in May.' 

In May, 1776, twenty-three North Carolina Tory 
officers, among whom were Gen. McDonnald, Col. R. 
Allen McDonnald, Maj. Alexander McDonnald, Col. 
Thomas Rutherford, and others, were sent to the new 
prison, and Col. John Shee was ordered to furnish an 
officer's guard for the protection of the jail. In Sep- 
tember, 1777, during the excitement caused by the 
movements of the British army toward Philadelphia, 
and the probability of an early flight from the city 
being necessary, the Supreme Executive Council of 
Pennsylvania thought proper to remind the Conti- 
nental Board of War " of the great number of prison- 
ers-of-war now in the new jail." It is to be presumed 
that they were released, if not by the Whigs before i 
they left the city, by Howe after the entry of the | 
British army. 

After the British marched into Philadelphia, the 
Walnut Street jail became the British provost i)rison. 
This establishment was under the principal control 
of the inhuman William Cunningham, provost-mar- 
shal, and Joshua Loring, commissioner of prisons. 
When they received the prisoners belonging to the 
frigate " Delaware'' of the Pennsylvania armed fleet, 
which was compelled to strike iUs flag in front of the 

1 In the ftdrortiMroent offering a rewjird for his arreat his costume 
was described to be a green coat faced with blue, a veUet waistcoat, and 
brown Telret breeches. It was a matter of sufficient odditjr to note 
the fact that, instead of a wig, be " wore bis own grey hair Ued 

city during the naval operations which succeeded 
Donop's attack upon Red Bank, Cunningham and 
Loring were particularly offensive. The American 
prisoners were assaulted and abused with foul lan- 
guage. For three days they were kept without food 
of any kind, as if there was an intention to starve 
them to death. Aftor that they were furnished with 
stale and mouldy bread at the rate of fi>ur pounds for 
nine days' subsistence, and one and a half pi)unds of 
meat tluring the same time. The people of the city 
who had remained, Tories although they mijxht be, 
did as much as they were allowed to do in furnishinfr 
victuals to the American prisoners in the provost. 
Cunningham took ])leasure in upsetting the vessels in 
which their meals were brought, and was amused in 
witnessing their scrambles for the scraps which were 
spread out on the dirty floor. Jacnb Ritter, an 
American prisoner, told John F. Watson that after 
he had been captured at the battle of Brandywine 
and brought to the city, he was given no food for 
three days and nights, and he saw u starved soldier, 
who had been allowed no food for five days, and who 
then, upon being given a i>iece of rye bread, fell over 
dead while attempting to eat it. The prisoners who 
were allowed the liberty of the yard ate grass and 
roots and chewed scraps uf leather ami chips. Some, 
by watching at the rat-holes, were enabled to catch 
some of the rodents, which they skinned and cooked 
in the best manner they could. Many of these died." 
In the winter the condition of the prisoners was 
terrible. The glass in the windows had been broken 
by the concussion caused by the blowing-up of tlic 
British frigates "Augusta" and "Merlin," and tlie 
piercing blasts, the rain, sleet, and snow penetrate 1 
the cells. There were no fires, and the sufferers were 
almost without blankets or other covering. The 
Board of War, writing to President Wharton, said of 
the cruel treatment of the prisoners by the British, 
that "so far from observing even the common line of 
humanity, their conduct to our prisoners through tlio 
several stages of the war has been marked with more 
than savage cruelty, and has rendered it nece-*sary 
for Congress to send in ))rovisions for their support, 
lest a greater number should fall a sacrifice to their 
inhumanity." Elias Boudinot was appointed com- 
missary of prisoners for that purpose. Day after day 
the bodies of American soldiers who had died in the 
Walnut Street prison, either from wounds, sickness, 
or starvation, were carried over to Potter's Field, 

3 In "the lifo, cunfesslon, and last dying wunls of Capt. Cuunlngham, 
formerly British provost-niarslial In th<? Clly of New York, who was 
cxecutpd In London on the lOlh uf August, 17U1," la the following lan- 
gungp: " When the war commenced I wns appointed proTost-manhal to 
the ]U>yal Army, which placed me in a imeitiuirto wreak my Tengeance 
on the Americans. I shudder to think of the murders 1 have been ac- 
cessary to, both with and without the orders of goTernmont.*' The 
authority of this "confession" hns tieen much disputed by historical 
students, but many of the circumstances related are so nearly what must 
hare occurred In the life of Cunningham that If fabricated It must have 
been composed by some one exceedingly faniitlar with the Incidents of 
his dark career. 



immediately adjoining, where they were thrown into 
trenches and covered up. 

In 1787, under the influence of Chief Justice Mc- 
Kean, the street cammissioner.s of tlie city were in- 
duced to agree to tlie employment of criminals con- 
demned to hard labor as a part of their sentence, and 
to put them to use in cleaning the public streets. 
For this purpose about thirty convicts were em- 
ployed, and the city paid for their labor to the 
county one shilling sixpence per head at the begin- 
ning, and afterward one shilling ninepence per day. 
The experiment was expected to effect something in 
the way of economy. It turned out disastrously, and 
ended in 1789, after the conviction and execution of 
five of " the wheelbarrow men," as they were called, 
for murder, which they had planned while upon the 
streets. There were two classes of these felons: those 
who were most dangerous and least to be trusted were 
the chain-and-ball men. They were each manacled 
with a chain ten or twelve feet long, which was at- 
tached to a heavy ball. These convicts were the 
sweepers, and were considered the most desperate 
characters. They could move about by carrying the 
ball with them; but as this was heavy, the journey 
was not very much extended. When they put the 
ball down they swept in a circle bounded by the 
length of the chains. They were dressed in a parti- 
colored prison uniform. 

When, in 1781, the Society for the Alleviation of 
the Miseries of Public Prisons was organized, it un- 
dertook to reform the shocking condition of the Wal- 
nut Street jail, which the jailer managed with an eye 
to his own profit. Dr. Mease says, in regard to the 
reformation undertaken by the society, " the task was 
truly- arduous. An Augean stable of filth and in- 
iquity was not only to be cleansed, but industry and 
morality to be introduced and under difficulties that 
seemed almost insurmountable. The man whose duty 
required him to assist in the experiment constituted 
one of them, for he had grown wealthy by the abuses 
which had been for a long time tolerated, and feared 
the introduction of a system which would cause his 
conduct to be closely watched, and the garnish jail 
fees, sale of liquor, and other perquisites to cease ; his 
opposition was therefore decided, and the number of 
his friends enabled him to retain his place." The in- 
fluence of the society was shown in the passage of 
an act of Assembly, in 1790, creating a board of in- 
spectors of the prison. They were Daniel Thomas, 
Charles Shoemaker, Thomas Paul, James Bayland, 
James Sharswood, John Connelly, Alexander Henry, 
Robert Wharton, Joseph Snowden, Caleb Lownes, 
James Cooper, and Richard Wister. The very first 
matter to which they addressed themselves was to the 
separation of the sexes, men and women before that 
time having been confined in the same room. They 
banished spirituous liquors from the rooms, encour- 
aged the convicts to labor, for which they received 
compensation, separated the convicts from untried 

prisoners, secured for all the inmatesof the jail better 
clothing and food than they had ever had before, and 
introduced a regular system of religious instruction. 
Against these great reforms, says Dr. Mease, " the 
opposition of the keeper of the prison was decided." 
The inspectors also had to contend against the 
opposition of many of the inmates of the prison, who 
had become accustomed to their old surroundings of 
squalor, indolence, and drunkenness. With them the 
proposed reform was most unpopular, and, liy concert, 
a desperate attempt was made by all the inmates to 
escape on the evening of the first day of the intro<luc- 
tion of the new system ; fifteen of them succeeded in 
obtaining their liberty. In 1798 yellow fever broke 
out in the prison during the time that epidemic was 
raging in the city. This institution, although ten- 
anted Ijy the most abject and dissipated classes, had 
escaped attack during the fevers of 1703 and 1797. 
There were three hundred persons in the prison in 
1798, the convicts, the untried and debtors, and the 
mortality was very considerable. The inspectors did 
the best that they could do under the circumstances. 
The women, the vagrants, and persons accused of 
small crimes were transferred to Rol)ert Morris' un- 
finished mansion house on Chestnut Street, between 
Seventh and Eighth. The remaining prisoners be- 
came desperate, and made an effort to escape by 
securing the key from Dr. Dufiield, who was in the 
prison professionally. The keepers fought them as 
well as they could, and Alderman Robert Wharton, 
who was in another part of the building, ran to the 
assistance of the guard. He found Miller, the ring- 
leader, with an axe raised to kill Evans, a constable 
and deputy keeper. Upon this Mr. Wharton and 
Gass, an assistant keeper, who were both armed with 
muskets, fired. Miller was mortally wounded, and 
Vaughan, who had struck Evans with a bar of iron, 
was shot through the lungs by Evans, who pursued 
him. Subsequently some of the i)risoners escaped by 
undermining the walls. The grand jury investigated 
the facts, and in 1799 made a special presentment, in 
which they declared that the convicts. Miller and 
Vaughn, came to their death during the attempt to 
escape from confinement, and that Wharton, Evans, 
and Gass were " doing an act which was of impera- 
tive necessity, and their duty as men and citizens, and 
were not only fully justified, but which we further 
present as highly meritorious, and deserving the 
thanks of their fellow-citizens." 

By 1810 the adminLstratiou of the prison had been 
so greatly changed for the better that it was stated 
each inmate slept on the floor, on a blanket, and 
there wore no more than thirty of them in a room. 
The encouragement of the convicts to labor by ofler- 
ing them payment had resulted admirably, and it was 
remarked that " on several occasions the balance paid 
to a convict has amounted to SlOO (in one instance it 
was $150), and from $10 to $40 are commonly paid." 
In addition to this, the poorer prisoners, when dis- 



charged, were furnished with money to take them to 
their own homes, if they did not live at a great dis- 
tance. Cleanliness was enforced by strict rules, and 
a rigid discipline was generally niaintiiined. At meals 
the race distinctions were preserved, the whites and 
blacks eating at different tiibles. Good conduct was 
rewarded with an extra allowance, but the frac- 
tious convict was placeil in a dark cell, on short 
rations of bread and water, corporal punishment not 
being permitted.' 

About 1819 the treadmill was introduced into the 
prison system of Philadelphia. It was an appliance 
by which the prisoners' weight gave a revolving mo- 
tion to a cylinder, which was sometimes attached to 
useful machinery. It soon went out of use. 


On July 23, 1800, twelve prisoners made their 
escape by descending the wells which led into the 
common sewer, through which they crawled into the 
light of day. Their desperate and daring attempt, 
under the most repulsive circumstances, secured 
them but a few weeks of liberty, as they were all 
soon recaptured. In 1817, William Mcllhenny, 
Henry Kelly, Jock Smith, and apme eight or ten 
others tried a bold dash for freedom. Mcllhenny 
concealed himself in the prison-yard, and hid away 
some poles, with which he hoped to mount the walls. 
Kelly managed to force the lock of a door inside the 
vestibule leading to the Sixth Street gate. They and 
three others got into the cellar of the western wing, 
and, burrowing through the wall, they made an ex- 
cavation under the pavement of Sixth Street. All 

1 It wu probably In the rarly part of the term of authority of the 
inspectora that they were presented with the large oil-painting that for 
many years hung in the office of the prison. It depicled a woman 
weeping at the door of a cell, and bore the following inscription : 
" At the door of the Prison see Frlomlship in tears. 
May her object some pity inspire; 
May the band of Humanity banish her fears. 
And relieve while she stoops to admire. 

"'Tis an emblem which mortals may view with delight. 
Nay ! Divinity brightens tlio scene ! 
'Twas to save, when from lieaTen our Lord took his flight, 
To pardon, and cleanse the unclean." 

This painting and a rusty Iron gibbet fthat has come down from pre- 
BeTolotionary times) are aliout the only relics of the Walnut Street 
piijon that have been preacrred la the Jail on Panyunk road. 

five escaped, and were caught within a brief time. 
In 1819 a far more serious aflair occurred. Two of 
these men, Mcllhenny and Jock Smith, sawed away 
the bar which held the door of their cell, and, rush- 
ing down-stairs, attempted to batter down the iron 
doors which opened on Walnut Street. Baffled there 
by a keeper, who fired upon them, they rushed out 
into the prison-yard to the dungeons to obtain props 
and poles. Here they met with some resistance from 
a convict named Scott, whom they stabbed. The next 
attempt was to get over the wall. This failing, an 
effort was made to tear up the entrance to the com- 
mon sewer. All this happened while the yard was 
full of prisoners, the greater jiortion of whom took no 
part in the proceedings. At the critical moment the 
bell of the prison sounded for the prisoners to return to 
their rooms. The majority obeyed, and the human 
tide was so strong that Mcllhenny, Kelly, and the 
rest were swept along with it, and their attempt was 
abandoned. Among others confined in the jail at 
this time was a negro named Harry Powell, who, in 
order to shorten the term of his own imprisonment, 
and to secure the favor of the inspectors to be used 
for his benefit in obtaining a pardon, had become a 
spy of the keeper upon the doings of his fellow-con- 
victs. Powell had taken a prominent ])art in defend- 
ing Armstrong, a keeper, during the attempt to escape 
in 1819. He was yet a prisoner, and when Mcll- 
henny's party were admitted to the yard, after pun- 
ishment, was himself engaged in a quarrel with a 
convict named Hedgman, in which the latter was 
badly stabbed. This circumstance occasioned con- 
siderable excitement among the prisoners, and was 
the signal of a concerted attack upon the informer. 
Some forty desperate men rushed toward Powell, but 
he was nimble and powerful, and defended himself so 
well that he was able to retreat to the blacksmith- 
shop, where he caught up a bar of iron. Here, al- 
though stones, bars of iron, tools, and other missiles 
were hurled at him, he kept his foes at bay for some 
time ; but Mcllhenny and others, by breaking through 
a rear window, got behind him, and drove him from 
his shelter. Then, with one blow from an iron bar, 
he was laid prostrate, his skull broken through. 
Death must have happened immediately, although 
Mcllhenny stooped over the prostrate body and 
])lunged into it a long-bladed knife up to the haft. 
All this was sudden and unexpected to the officers, 
and when the inspectors were called together they 
resolved that the ringleaders should be put in dark 

The next morning the keepers iind inspectors, with 
Peter Meirckcn, their i)resi(lcnt, at their head, sur- 
rounded the door of the room in which Mcllhenny 
aii<l others were confined. This man Wius called out, 
and he came with an iron bar, and, a.ssisted by those 
who swarmed out with him, made an attack ujion the 
opposing force. There were forty of the prisoners, full 
of resolution and passion. The result was a retreat of 



the officials. Down the stairs, in the greatest con- 
fiision, tumbled inspectors, keepers, and convicts, black 
and white, while the upper passages and rooms re- 
sounded with shrieks, yells, and groans, and clanging 
of chains and bars, as the fastenings were torn to 
pieces with wild fury. In a few moments every door 
was thrown open, and throughout the whole range the 
prisoners were released. The force of the rioters was 
increased by two hundred men, who hastened to the 
lower hall, and then the entire body of convicts had 
unlimited sway within the prison. They hurried into 
the yard to make their escape, the alarm spreading 
fast throughout the city. Some persons who were 
armed climbed to the top of the eastern wall, and fired 
into the mob of convicts, killing one of them, John 
Runner, and wounding others who were endeavoring 
to break down the Sixth Street gate. The fire of 
the citizens cowed the insurgents, and while they 
shrank back into the yard the gates suddenly opened, 
and the whole space swarmed with the bayonets of 
the United States marines and the militia. 

Sheriff Caleb North placed the force under the 
command of Col. Clement Biddle, a man of invinci- 
ble determination. Col. Biddle mounted a marble 
block in front of the convicts, and, drawing out his 
watch, said, in a loud voice, " I give you just three 
minutes to march to your rooms ; any hesitation will 
bring upon you a volley from these muskets." It was 
enough ; authority had asserted itself The crowd 
slunk away, and when the time had expired they 
were all in full march to their rooms. Forty-eight of 
the worst characters were arrested by means of the 
military, and put in cells. For three or four days 
and nights the prison was guarded by a force of ma- 
rines and volunteers. Thirteen or fourteen of the 
ringleaders were arraigned for the murder of Howell, 
but as every witness was a convict, infamous by law, 
and unable to give legal testimony, it was impossible 
to convict any one. 

Three or four years afterward there was a riot in 
the prison incited by two convicts named Malony and 
Helmbold. For two hours these desperate men had 
range of the yard, and with their spades and shovels 
threatened every keeper who came near them. Provi- 
dentially just at this time a company of volunteer sol- 
diers were parading the streets, and the captain being 
notified of the trouble at the prison, marched his men 
there, and quiet was soon restored. On the 26th of 
February, 1839, on a gusty night, Jock Smith, with 
some twenty or thirtj' others, managed to escape from 
a room on the second story east of the main door by 
sawing through the window-bars. Jock Smith was not 
heard of again for six years, when he was brought to 
the Eastern Penitentiary from the interior of the 
State, to be confined for horse-stealing. 

In the course of time the Walnut Street prison, 

which was commonly called the penitentiary up to the 

time when the Eastern Penitentiary was built on 

Coates Street, became densely crowded. In 1817 the 


grand jurj' called attention to the subject. There 
were then in the prison four hundred and fifty-one 
convicts, and ten hundred and fifty-eight prisoners 
awaiting trial. It was no unusual thing for thirty or 
forty to be lodged in a room eighteen feet square. On 
March 30, 1831, the Legislature passed the act for the 
construction of Moyamensing prison, and on Oct. 29, 
1835, it was finished, and the inmates of the Walnut 
Street jail were transferred to it. The commissioners 
had authority to sell the Walnut Street property, and 
in 1836 they disposed of it to John Moss for S299,- 
000.99, having first demolished the prison structure. 
As the original cost of the ground to the city was but 
eight thousand six hundred and seventy-two dollars, 
it made a highly profitable bargain. Mr. Moss pro- 
posed to erect upon it a splendid hotel, to be called 
the Penn Hotel, but the scheme fell through, and the 
lot was cut up into building sites. 


1776, May 4.— John Woodward, for the murder of his wife. 

1777, March 4. — Brinton Debadee, shot for deaertion. 

1777, March 31. — James Moleaworth, hanged as a spy. 

1778, August. — George Spangler, hanged as a spy. 

1778, Sept. 2. — Lients. Samuel Jones and Ford, shot for desertion. 

1778, Sept. 4.— Patrick McMuUin, shot for desertion. 

1778, Nov. 4. — Abraham Carlisle and John Roberts, high treason. 

1778, Dec. 1.— Wright, burglary. 

1778, Dec. 22. — James Beard, highway robbery. 

1779. — Abijah Wright, high treason, acting as a guide to the British 

1780, April. — John Wilson, high treason, enlisting with the British. 

1780, May 6. — Dennis Carragau, burglary. 

1780, May 6.— John Hill, highway robbery. 

1780, May 6. — Marmadulie Grant, burglary. 

1780, November. — David Dawson, high treason. 

1780. — Richard Chamberlain, counterfeiting Continental hills. 

1780, Dec. 30. — James Sutton, running away with the American priya- 
teer " Luzerne," and taking her to the British, hung on the lower end 
of Windmill Island. 

1780, Dec. 30.— John Hill, burglary. 

1781, May 23,— Thomas Wilkinson, piracy, hung on Windmill Island 
and gibbeted at Mud Island. 

1781, May 26.— Henry McKeever, John Dobbins, John Flannagan, 
James Byrnes, Thomas McCollough, burglary. 
1781, May 26.— Thomas McGee, robbery. 
1781, Nov. 24.— Mary Hall, burglary. 

1781, Nov. 24. — James Cannon and James Green, robbery. 
1781, Nov. 13. — John Moody, hanged as a spy; 

1781, Nov. 13. Bums, alias Murphy, burglary. 

1782, October. — Peter, a negro, for the murder of James, a negro. 

1783, Feb. 15. — Kemble Stackhouse, Lot Salsey, Samuel John Freeman, 
alias Murick, burglary. 

1783, Oct. 25. — Petro Giacobe, alias Simons, and Francisco Mesca, for 
the murder of Capt. Pickels. 

1783, Nov. 1. — James McGraw and James Jones, burglary. 

1784, July 17. — John Downey and John Martin, highway robbery. 
1784, Oct. 16.— James Burk, murder of Timothy McAuliffe. 
1784, Oct. 16. — James Crowder, burglary. 

1784, Oct. 16.— Peter Brown, attempt to murder Capt. Tolbert. 
1784. Oct. 16. — George Williams, aZioaOne-Armed Tom Robinson, mnr- 
der and highway robbery. 
1784, Oct. 16. — James Brown, burglary. 

1784, Oct. 16. — James Doane, robbery of the treasurer of Bucks 

1785, May 7.^Andrew D. Black and Samuel Preston, robbery. 
1785, July. — Francis Courtney, rape. 

1787, May 12.— Robert Elliott, burglary. 

1788, Sept. 24. — Abram Doane and Levi Doane, outlawry and treason. 

1789, July 29.— William Coll, burglary and highway robbery. 



1769, Oct. 12. — Daoiel CmiiaD, Fntncis Burus, John Bennett, John 
Logan, and John Ferguson (the wheelbarrow men), for murder of 
Jamee McFnrland. Hanged on a lot on Market Street, nest of Thir- 
teenth, near where tlie nmpler was perpetrated. 

178S. — Charlee Reed, for the murder of a boatman. 

Here the bloody list comes down to a milder record. 
In 1786 the Legislature of Pennsylvania changed the 
jiunishment for burglary, highway robbery, and other 
crimes less than murder in the first degree to im- 
prisonment. By the act of 22d of April, 1794, it was 
declared '' no crime whatsoever hereafter committed 
(except murder in the first degree) shall be punished 
with death in the State of Penna." Under the same 
act the benefit of clergy in felonies of death was 

After that there were no executions under the 
State laws, except for murder, and even they were 
fewer in number than they had been in the early 
part of the century. The first execution after the 
passage of the act took place under the administra- 
tion of the Federal law. On the 9th of May, 1800, 
Baker, , Brous, and, Peterson, alias Labruse, con- 
victed of piracy and the murder of the mate and 
supercargo and one of the crew of the schooner 
" Amelia," and tried by a United States District 
Court, were hung at Windmill Island. This site 
seems to have been the place of execution for ad- 
miralty prisoners and persons charged with offenses 
under the law of nations before the Revolution, and 
convicted under the crown. There were no more 
executions there after 1800. Where the gallows was 
erected and executions took place before that time 
for prisoners convicted under the laws of the prov- 
ince and State is not exactly known. Whenever the 
newspapers published before the Revolution alluded 
to the |)lace of an execution under State laws, it was 
frequently mentioned to have been " on the Com- 
mons," which, in the early part of the eighteenth 
century, might have been west of Eighth or Ninth 
Streets. But in fact most of these executions took 
place in Centre Square. After the law was passed 
restricting the in which capital punishment 
might be imposed, the following inmates of the Wal- 
nut Street prison were executed : 

1800, Hay 9.— Baker, Brous, anil PoltMBon, for piracy, at WiTulniill 

1H07.— John Joyce nriil I'eter MathiaB (colored), fur themiiriler of Mm. 
Cross, ha]igpd In Bush Hill. 

ISlfi, Aug. 10.— Lieut. Richard Smith, for the murder of Capt. John 
Carson, hanged at Potter's Field, now Logan Square. 

1823, Feb. 7.— William Gross, for the murder of Kezlah Stow, hanged 
at Potter's Field, now I.ogan Square. 

Arch Street Prison. — As early as the year 1803 
the nece.Hsity of erecting a new prison to relieve the 
Walnut Street prison of the pressure upon it was ac- 
knowledged by the Legislature. On the 1st of April, 

> Crimes which were punishable by death before Sept. 16, 178B, the 
date fixed In the act last mentioned, were murder, robbery, burglary, 
rape, sodomy, malicious maiming, manslaughter by stabbing, witcli- 
craft, conjuration, arvon, concealn>ent of the death of bastard children, 
counterfeiting any gold or siWer coin, and every felony (except larceny) 
on a second conviction. 

in that year, was passed "an act for the sale of cer- 
tain vacant lots in the city belonging to the State." 
The preamble recited that the Walnut Street prison was 
toojsmall to accommodate the convicts sent from all 
parts of the commonwealth. It was therefore directed 
that the money received from the sale of all vacant, 
unimproved lots in the city should be devoted to the 
construction of a new building for the confinement 
of prisoners awaiting trial, vagrants, and such other 
persons except convicts as had been committed to the 
county prison. The work was to be done in such a 
way as the inspectors of the prison, the Court of 
Quarter Sessions, the grand jury, and the county 
commissioners should agree upon. This was a meas- 
ure of honesty on the part of the State of Pennsylva- 
nia, which, by reason of a gift of five hundred pounds 
for the purpose of erecting cells in the Walnut Street 
prison-yard, had obtained a right to use the Philadel- 
phia prison for State purposes, under which it was 
made a place of confinement for convicted criminals 
from all parts of the State. The officers, to whom 
control in this matter was accorded, selected for the 
new prison a lot on the south side of Arch Street, 
between Broad Street and Schuylkill Eighth [Fif- 
teenth], and extending to a small street running east 
and west, north of Filbert Street. Some of the vacant 
lots of the commonwealth were sold and the building 
was commenced. The work went on slowly. In 1809 
a portion of it was occupied, and in the succeeding 
year the prison inspectors reported to the General 
Assembly of Pennsylvania that .^^85,821. 12 had been 
received for the sale of city lots, and that they had 
expended in building the new prison .*85,600.84. 
They wanted $25,000 more to complete the jail, and 
put up the wall. Their request was not complied 
with until two years afterward, when $25,000 were 
appropriated ; but, even in this, much injustice was 
done by the conditions under which the money was 
to be spent. The act declared that the prison should 
be the exclusive property of the commonwealth. If 
the intention had been to relieve the county prison 
of Philadelphia at Sixth and Walnut Streets from the 
use the State had made of it for twenty-two years, as a 
penitentiary for the confinement of prisoners from 
other counties, there could have been no objection, 
and the measure would have been considered bene- 
ficial to Philadelphia. But while the law making the 
appropriation declared that the Arch Street prison 
should be entirely a State prison, the right of sending 
prisoners to the Walnut Street prison was not relin- 
quished. There was no justice iu this, but the in- 
spectors took the money and proceeded to finish the 
Arch Street prison as well as they could. When 
com])leted, its ground plan was in the shape of the 
letter T. 

The main entrance, offices, keeper's residence, 
kitchens, and wash-rooms were in the centre front, a 
buililing i)f brick, with basement, and high steps 
ascending to the principal story. There was a second 



story, crowned with ;i pediment, above which rose a 
small cupola, in which was placed a bell. Back of 
the central building, the prison rooms extended east 
and west nearly to Broad and Schuylkill Eighth 
Streets. They were two stories high, with a base- 
ment, and ran out to the small street extending east 
and west, and there at times the friends of prisoners 
could hold communication with them. The yards for 
the use of the prisoners were at the northeast and 
northwest angles of the lot. The main central build- 
ing stood a little back from Arch Street. High walls 
of rough stone extended from each side to the building- 
line on Arch Street, and were thence continued along 
that street to Broad and Schuylkill Eighth [Fifteenth] , 
and along the latter to the prison buildings, inclosing 
them on every side. This structure was never compe- 
tent for the object for which it had been erected, as it 
was weak and insecure. Eventually the debtors were 
sent there to be imprisoned, as punishment for their 

During the war of 1812 the Arch Street prison was 
partially appropriated for the use of the troojis coming 
to Philadelphia, and it was also used for the confine- 
ment of prisoners of war. In December of 1814 it 
was occupied by a militia brigade from the interior 
of the State, under command of Brig.-Gen. Spearing. 
He was aided by the Committee of Defense, by a lib- 
eral appropriation, to enable him to piuchase shoes, 
stockings, and clothing for his men, who were about 
to march for their homes in a distant part of the State 
in the most inclement part of the winter season. 

In January, 1814, the Legislature of Pennsylvania 
approved of the policy, on the part of the national 
government, of securing hostages for the safety of 
such American soldiers as were threatened with exe- 
cution by the British troops. In pursuance of this 
policy, in March of this year, Maj. De Vilette and 
twenty-two other British officers were brought to the 
city and confined in the Arch Street prison as hostages. 
In the succeeding month eighteen escaped by the 
simple method of sawing the iron bars of the windows 
of the rooms in which they were confined. Some of 
these were retaken, but the larger number got off 
beyond the possibility of arrest. 

In 1822 the eastern end of the prison, which had 
been occupied by the debtors, was altered for the pur- 
pose of placing there prisoners awaiting trial, and the 
debtors were renaoved to the western side. The wall 
on all sides was raised six or eight feet, and changes 
were made in the character of the rooms and cells. 
In the succeeding year, by an act of Assembly, all the 
debtors in the Prune Street department of the Wal- 
nut Street prison were directed to be removed to the 
Arch Street prison, and the space they had formerly 
occupied was used as a part of the penitentiary. 

In 1832 the Arch Street prison suffered severely 
from the cholera, the first death occurring on July 30. 

There were then confined in that institution two 
hundred and ten persons on the criminal side and 

twenty-one in the debtors' apartment. The former 
class was made up most entirely of vagrants, disor- 
derly persons, petty thieves, and drunkards. In two 
days after the outbreak of the disease in the prison 
there were a very considerable number of cases. Dr. 
Jesse R. Burden was at the time a visiting inspector, 
and being apprised of the threatening condition of 
affairs, not only applied his own professional skill and 
attention to the persons taken sick, but obtained the 
services of Dr. A. M. Allen as resident physician, and 
Edward Peace, at that time a student of medicine, to 
attend at the prison. Dr. Allen was prostrated shortly 
after he went to the prison, and Dr. Peace also be- 
came ill before the end of the first week. The latter 
before he was himself attacked was in consequence of 
the sickness of Dr. Allen the only person in medical 
charge, and was in great personal danger. The in- 
mates of the prison were intensely excited and chafed 
under a restraint which they would have borne with 
comparative good humor under ordinary circum- 
stances, but which at that time seemed to be cruel. 
When Dr. Peace was taken with the disease, on Sun- 
day, August 5th, there were eighty sick persons among 
the inmates and four of the officers were down. There 
was great danger of an outbreak on the part of those 
prisoners who remained. What was more important 
was the fact that they were without medical assistance 
in case of attack. News of the unfortunate state of 
affairs soon spread throughout the city, and Dr. Bur- 
den obtained the assistance of a number of fearless 
physicians. They were Drs. George Fox, R. Harlan, 
C. W. Morris, C. Lukens, J. Peace, A. M. Allen (who 
had partially recovered from his sickness), George 
Norris, Benjamin H. Coates, T. Ash, Wilson Jewell, 
Robert Bridges, and J. Togno. They promptly re- 
paired to the jail and did the best they could, hut the 
pestilence was extremely virulent. " The scenes of 
that memorable day were of unparalleled tearfulness 
and loathsomeness in the history of Philadelphia. 
Before night not less than seventy persons who were 
living in the building when the morning dawned were 
consigned to the grave," said the citizens' sanitary 
committee of North Ward in the formal report which 
they made of the circumstances connected with this 
visitation. " In the midst of this awful riot of disease 
and mortality the medical gentlemen nobly and faith- 
fully maintained their ground, and were instrumental 
in rescuing many who would otherwise have swelled 
the frightful number of the dead."' 

1 The committee of North Ward named as principals among the citi- 
zens, John Swift, Thomas Eoney, Peter Fritz, Robert O'Neill, Thomas 
Wallace, George Tees, Michael Wartman, George Nagle, and Peter A. 
Grotjan. Thomas Louellen, a keeper, was the only officer of the 
prison who remained on duty throughout the existence of the disease 
in that building, and although exposed more than any ouo else (except 
the physicians) by contact with the flick and the dead, was at no time 
seriously indisposed. Joseph S. Kite, a citizen, was invested with the 
office of keeper by the inspectors when all the officers but Louellen had 
succumbed. Kite acted but a single day, and was himself attacked by 
the disease the next morning. John Swift was taken sick the day after. 
He was conspicuous at the prison, and narrowly escaped death. In the 




At the succeeding session of the Legislature a com- 
mittee was appointed in the House of Representatives 
to investigate the circumstances connected with the 
appearance of cholera at the Arch Street prison. 
They stated that the entire period during which the 
disease raged in the institution was from the 5th of 
July until some time in September. It first appeared 
in the women's apartment, and the sufferer was a 
female vagrant who had been only a day or two in the 
house. In relating the circumstances the committee 
said, " The rooms used as hospitals became crowded 
and the sick were brought into the great hall. There 
was an interval of several days before the epidemic 
occurred on the men's side ; when it did, it seemed, 
according to the description of a keeper, like a shock 
of electricity. The cries, shrieks, and groans of the 
sick and dying, the frantic desperation and agony of 
those who were eager to escape, and the difficulty at 
the moment of deciding upon all the points of most 
interest to the welfare of the prisoners and that of 
the public, are described as in the highest degree dis- 
tressing and embarrassing to those who had them in 

On the night of the 4th of August the diseased 
were so numerous upon the floors of the extensive 
halls that the keepers had difficulty to avoid treading 
upon them as they performed their duty. "About 
eighty persons were lying dead, dying, or suffering 
with this epidemic in the building. The dead were 
necessarily kept all night in the jail, because the 
keepers feared to open the doors, lest the prisoners 
for whose security they were resjionsible should at- 
tempt to escape." The chief keeper, on the "fatal 
Sunday," August 5th, " bewildered with fatigue, and 
almost in a state of derangement," called upon the 
recorder of the city, reported upon the condition of 
the prison, and begged that the prisoners might be 
released. Upon consultation with the inspectors, the 
determinatiim was taken by the latter to discharge 
many of the prisoners upon their own recognizance. 
The recorder did this with a formal sort of protest 
"that he had no legal right to do so, but that in his 
opinion the necessity of the case amply justified the 
act." Some of the sick were sent to the cholera hos- 
pitals of the city, and thirteen of the most desperate 
characters were taken under convoy of a strong guard 
of citizens to a neighboring watchhouse. As for the 
debtors, they were in worse condition than the crimi- 
nals. The public, represented by the officers of the 
commonwealth, might be satisfied with overlooking 
the strict demands of law and duty in a case like this, 
where the necessity was great; but the remorseless 
creditor, who had put his unfortunate debtor in 
prison, might not be willing to forgive any citizen 
who should make himself legally responsible by aid- 

•ncceedlag yxar a Mnrice of plate woi preatnted by the citizens of Phil- 
adelphia in appreciation of his courageous conduct and the valuable 
anistance which he gave at the prison. This presentation was made in 
March, 1833. 

ing in the discharge or escape of his victim. In 
some instances money was advanced by private citi- 
i zens to release them from the judgments against 
t them. In others bonds were filed and surety en- 
tered by persons who were unacquainted with the 
debtors, on condition that they would apply for the 
benefit of the insolvent laws. Many of the prisoners 
in health assisted those who were sick, and some of 
them who were discharged on Sunday remained until 
the succeeding day as nurses. In fact the prison was 
entirely cleared out on the 6th of August, and it was 
cleaned and fumigated before it was again put to use. 
During the interval the thirteen prisoners who had 
been strongly guarded at the neighboring watch- 
house, at Broad and Filbert Streets, were returned 
to their old quarters. Not one of them had died. 

It may be permissible to mention here that during 
this season there was no case of death by cholera at 
the penitentiary. There was only one case at the 
Walnut Street prison which resulted in death. Diar- 
rhoea and diseases of the bowels were noticed to be 
more prevalent there than elsewhere.' 

After the Philadelphia County prison, at Moya- 
mensing, had been finished, in 1836, the Arch Street 
prison was abandoned and the property sold. The 
only execution in the latter building was that of James 
Porter, found guilty of robbing the United States mail 
at Ridge road and Turner's Lane. He was hanged on 
July 2, 1831, on the line of Seventeenth Street, near 
the intersection of Wallace. 

Eastern Penitentiary.— On March 21, 1821, the 
Legislature passed an act to provide for the erection 
of a State penitentiary within the limits of the city 
and county of Philadelphia. Commissioners were 
appointed to select the site and superintend the erec- 
tion of the building. They were Thomas Wistar, Dr. 
Samuel P. Griffith, Peter Miercken, George N. Baker, 
Thomas Bradford, John Bacon, Caleb Carmalt, Sam- 
uel R. Wood, Thomas Sparks, James Thackera, and 
Daniel H. Miller. They were directed to build a 
penitentiary on the general plan of the Western Peni- 
tentiary, at Pittsburgh. They were also authorized to 
sell the Arch Street prison to the commissioners of the 
city and county of Philadelphia, if the latter would 
pay fifty thousand dollars for the buildings. They 
selected a tract of land of eleven acres, with a 
dwelling-house and country-seat, known as Cherry 
Hill, and situated upon Francis Lane, afterward 
called Coates Street [Fairmount Avenue], between 

1 The Board of Health record states the number of cases of cholera In 
the Arch Street prison between July llth and September 13th to have 
been eighty-six ; deathH, forty-six. But the committee of the House of 
Representatives, at the session of 18-12-33, said that there was difference 
of opinion as to the degree of mortality, A member of the Society for 
AlleTinting the Miseries of Public Prisons was of the opinion that the 
entire mortality of the prinon inmates was flfty-two persons, and this 
included those who died in the prison and the cholera hospitals, and two 
who were discharged from prison, but were found lying dead on the roads 
a few miles from the city. Ten persons died after that time, making a 
total of sixty-two. Another estimate placed the entire mortality as high 
as eighty. 



Schuylkill Third [Twentieth] Street and Schuylkill 
Front [Twenty-second] Street. John Haviland was 
chosen to be the architect, and produced a plan dif- 
fering from any previously used in prison buildings. 
There is a central structure for the officers, and as a 
guard over all the establishment, it was crowned by 
a tower. This observatory, for such it is, overlooks 
the blocks of cells, which radiate from the central 
building like spokes from the hub of a wheel. Each 
corridor of cells opens upon a small yard for the use 
of the inmates. Long passage-ways extend through 
each corridor, and separate the cells. Beside the 
overlook in the watch-tower, there are galleries on 
the outside, by which every yard space in a block of 
cells can be seen, so that if any prisoner should at- 
tempt to escape his design can, by the exercise of 
ordinary vigilance, be detected and prevented. There 
are thirty-six cells in blocks, each twelve feet long, 
eight feet wide, and 
ten feet high, with 
an exercising-yard to 
each. The prison ^fr- 

proper is in the cen- 
tre of the grounds, 
which occupy more 
than a solid square 
of the ordinary size 
upon the city plan. 
The front is in the 
castellated style of 
architecture, having 
heavy square towers 
sixty-five feet high, 
aud a splendid arched 
gateway, with port- 
cullis and central 
tower. The gate is 
twenty-seven feet 
high and fifteen feet 
broad, and the main 
front tower ninety- 
seven feet high. The 

front on Fairmount Avenue is six hundred and seventy 
feet depth, and on the sides about the same. One 
of the objects expected to be secured by the erec- 
tion of this building was the establishment of the 
Pennsylvania system of separate confinement. The 
plan was administered with earnestness by the inspec- 
tors for several years, but it was found that it did not 
accomplish near as much as was expected. The 
greatest objection to it was that it sometimes caused 
insanity, and the system has consequently been much 

The corner-stone of the Eastern Penitentiary was 
laid on the 22d of May, 1823, and an address was de- 
livered by Roberts Vaux. The buildings were finished 
in 1829, with two hundred and sixty-six cells, accord- 
ing to the original plan. In 1881 the inspectors were 
authorized to increase the number of cells to four hun- 

dred. Additions have been made from time to time, 
so that the buildings are much larger now than they 
were fifty years ago. Between 1824 and 1839 there 
were appropriated for the grounds and building of 
the Eastern Penitentiary six hundred and eighty- 
eight thousand one hundred and twenty-four dollars. 

On May 19, 1837, William Moran, who had been 
confined in the Cherry Hill prison, was hanged on 
the line of Seventeenth Street, near the intersection 
of Spring Garden Street, for the murder of Capt. 
Smith and Mate Ward of the schooner " William 

The Philadelphia County Prison (Moyamen- 
sing).— On the 30th of March, 1831, the Legislature 
passed an act directing that a prison for the city and 
county of Philadelphia, capable of holding at least 
three hundred prisoners on the principle of separate 
confinement, should be erected at such a place within 


the city and county as the commissioners appointed 
by the Court of Common Pleas of the county and the 
Mayor's Court should direct. This building was to 
be called the Philadelphia County prison. The com- 
missioners were authorized to purchase a site and 
make contracts for the erection of the building, and 
to borrow $150,000, if necessary for the purpose, at 
an interest not exceeding five per cent, per annum, for 
the security of which the Walnut Street prison prop- 
erty was pledged. By the act of Feb. 27, 1833, power 
was given them to borrow $70,000 additional, and the 
sale of the Arch Street prison was provided for. In 
the succeeding year another loan of $70,000 was au- 
thorized. The Moyamensing prison cost §360,000, 
and as the receipts from the Walnut Street and Arch 
Street sales netted $330,012.18, the county had to pay 
no greater sum than $29,517.82. Under these acts 



the Court of Common Pleas appointed as commis- 
sioners for building the new prison Jesse R. Burden, 
Jacob Frick, and William G. Alexander, and the 
Mayor's Court a|)pointed \S'illiam E. Lehman, Joseph 
Price, and Samuel Palmer. On the 13th of April, 
1S32, these commissioners purchased of John Savage 
fifteen and three-quarter acres of ground in Moya- 
mensing township for $8000, and in the succeeding 
May they bought one hundred perches adjoining for 
S97o. The ground was on the west side of Passyunk 
road, near Tenth Street, and just below Reed Street. 
It extended back, crossing Eleventh, Twelfth, and 
reaching to Thirteenth Street, and was much larger 
than the necessities of such a building at the time of 
purchase. When the prison came to be built, it was 
laid out in lines parallel to Passyunk road, and its 
depth was sufficient to cut into Eleventh Street and 
block up that highway entirely. 

The ground west of the prison inclosure remained 
vacant for some years. The greater portion of it was 
assigned, in 183S, for use by the military as a parade- 
ground, and was known by that name for many years. 
It was rarely used by the volunteers, and was unpop- 
ular among them because it was never properly laid 
out for their use. Afterward a portion of it, bounded 
by Wharton, Reed, Twelfth, and Thirteenth Streets, 
was laid out for a public square, and known as Passy- 
unk Square. On a portion of the lot on the east side 
of Twelfth Street was built, in 1882, an armory for 
the Third Regiment National Guards. 

The corner-stone of the new prison was laid on the 
2<1 of April, 1832. The plans for the building were 
prepared by Thomas U. Walter, architect. He chose 
for it th^astellated Gothic style, and was successful 
in the dSgn of a bold and exceedingly striking front, 
the effect of which was much increased by the hea\'y, 
dark color of the syenite granite which was selected 
for the building material. The fafade was set back 
from the road, at the distance of fifty feet from the 
line of the .-iidewalk. The centre building, fifty feet 
in height, is of three stories, with a front of fifty-two 
feet at the base and a height of fifty feet. Circular 
warders' towers, sujiported on large corbels, are at the 
corners, an<l rise above the roof, being crowned with 
projecting embattle<l parapets. The centre building 
also is surmounted by parapets pierced with embra- 
sures. The whole front is ornamented with archi- 
traves, corbels, labels, etc., peculiar to the style. On 
each side of the centre building are wings receding 
ten feet, and fifty feet wide, surmounted by a parapet 
pierced with emlirasures. Entrance gates, ten feet 
wide and seventeen feet high, secured at the top by 
wrought-iron portcullis, give means of access to the 
interior of the prison. Octagonal towers terminating 
in embattled parapets, and ornamenti'd with narrow, 
pointed windows, are joined by a yard wall receding 
fifteen feet, and then extemling northeastward and 
sfiuthwestwaril Ut bastions fifteen feet wide at the, thirteen feet at the top, and twenty feel high. 

The centre building contains the oflSce of the inspec- 
tors and rooms for the keeper. There were offices 
and lobbies in each of the wings on the lower story, 
from which the cells extend. 

There are four hundred and eight cells, each nine 
feet wide, thirteen feet long, and nine feet high. The 
entire front of the prison is three hundred and ten 
feet, and its depth between the yard walls five hun- 
dred and twenty-five feet. Inside of the prison-yard, 
in a building forty-three feet wide by seventy-two feet 
long, erected between the blocks of cells, is the kitchen, 
bake-house, laundry, and bath-houses ; and in two 
other buildings are rooms for turning, tinsmithing, 
blacksmithing, carpentering, and dyeing. 

On the north side of the prison the debtor's apart- 
ment was erected as a separate building, having its 
front on the Moyamensing road on a line with the 
prison. The architect Walter designed it in the Egyp- 
tian style. The material is red sandstone, from quar- 
ries on the Connecticut River. The front is about 
ninety feet, and the depth one hundred and twenty 
feet. The entrance is by a recess portico ornamented 
by two columns three feet in diameter, twelve feet high. 

By section eighth of the act of 1831, it was directed 
that every person who should be convicted after the 
completion of the new prison for any crime, the 
punishment for which should be imprisonment for a 
term under one year, should be sent to the new prison. 
This was altered in 1835 to a term of two years or 

By act of 14th of April, 1835, it was directed that 
there should be a board of inspectors of the county 
prison, twelve in number, four of them to be ap- 
pointed by the mayor, recorder, and aldermen of the 
city of Philadelphia, four by the judges of the Quar- 
ter Sessions, and four by the judges of the District 
Court. The board was directed to divide itself into 
four classes to serve one, two, three, and four years, 
and afterward new appointments were to be made for 
four years. In 1838, by the act constituting the Court 
of Criminal Sessions, the number of inspectors was 
increased to fifteen, three of whom were to be ap- 
pointed by the judges of that court.' 

By act of March 22, 1836, the commissioners for 
building a prison were authorized to purchase a suit- 
able site and erect a building thereon to be called 
" the vagrant department of the city and county of 
Philadel]>hia." To this building all persons convicted 
by magistrates as vagrants or disorderly for one 
month's imprisonment were to be sent. The com- 
missioners performed the duty by erecting a vagrant 
building upon the premises of the county prison. 
After the abolition of imprisonment for debt in 1841, 

>In 1838-39 the inspeclon) wpre Jesse R. Burden, Edward C. Dnle, 
John L. Woolf, Kobert O'Neill, appointed by the District Court; Wil- 
liam G. Alexander, Augustine Stevonaun, William King, John B. 
Walker, appointed by Quarter Sessions ; Joseph I'rice, William Betliel, 
William K. Lehman, Joel H. Sutherland, appointed by mayor, recortler 
and aldermen ; Joseph E. Smith, Michnel l<ay, William F. Hughes, ap- 
{Kiinted by Criminal Sessions. 



the debtors' apartment, adjoining the county prison, 
became unnecessary for that service, except in the 
case of prisoners confined upon proceedings and ac- 
tions in tort, and the debtors' apartment was utilized 
for the confinement of witnesses and other purposes. 

On the 10th of April, 1834, the Legislature passed 
an act abolishing public executions, and directing that 
the sentence of the law where prisoners should l)e con- 
demned to death by hanging should be inflicted within 
the walls or yard of the county jail, and it should be 
the duty of the sheriff or coroner to be present, and 
the presence of a physician, the attorney-general, or 
deputy of the countj-, and twelve reputable citizens, 
to be selected by the sheriff, should be invited, with 
one or two ministers of the gospel, if desired by the 
criminal, and any immediate relatives, together with 
officers of the prison, and such of the sheriff's depu- 
ties as might be selected. After the execution, oath 
by the sheriff or coroner, together with the death- 
warrant, is ordered to be filed in the office of the Court 
of Oyer and Terminer of the county. Under these 
provisions the executions in the county prison have 
since taken place within the prison walls. The fol- 
lowing gives the dates and names of persons hanged 
up to March 4, 1884 : 


1839.— Siimiiel Zeppon (colored), for the murder of Cuffy Todd (col- 

1839, Aug. 9. — James Williams, for the murder of Francis Kearney. 

1846. — Charles Hosier, for the murder of his wife. 

1848, Oct. 29.— Charles Langfeldt.for the murder of Mrs. Riidemacher. 

1852, Aug. 6. — Matthias Skupinski, for the murder of .Tacoh Lehman. 

1852. — Blaise Sknpiuski, for the murder of Jacoh Lehman. 

18o3, June 10. — Arthur Spring, for the murder of Ellen Lynch and 
Honora Shaw. 

1856, May 23.— Peter Mattocks (colored), for the murder of Elizabeth 
Gilbert (colored). 

1861, Aug. 9. — Thomas J. Armstrong, for the murder of Robert Craw- 

1866, June 8. — Auton Probst, for the murder of Christopher Peering, of 
which he was convicted. He also murdered at the same time, and con- 
fessed to the crime, the other members of the Deering family, viz. : Mrs. 
Julia Deering, John Deering, Thomas Deering, Emily Deering, Eliza- 
beth Dolan, and Cornelius Carey. 

1867, June 4.— Gottlieb Williams, for the murder of Mrs. Elizabeth H. 

1867, Aug. 29.— George W. Winnemore, for the murder of Mrs. Dorcas 

1869, April 8,— Gerald Eaton, for the murder of Timothy Heenan. 

George S. Twitchell, convicted of the murder of Mrs. Mary E. Hill, 
his mother-in-law, was sentenced to be hanged April 8, 1869, but took 
poison on the morning of that day, and died before the time of execu- 

1871, Feb. 1.— John Hanlon, for the murder of Mary Mohrman. 

1875, Jan. 20. — Frederick Heidenhlut, for the murder of Godfrey 

1877, May 17. — Patrick Qnigley, for the murder of Mrs. Catharine 
Quigley, his wife. 

1881,Jan. 6.— Daniel F. Sullivan, for the murder of Josephine S.Irviu. 

1881, Jan. 6.— Patrick Hayes, for the murder of his wife, Bridget 

1884, March 4. — John McGinnis, for the murder of his mother-in-law, 
Mrs. Mary Reed. 

The House of Correction, — The growing demand 
of prison management for available space was ham- 
pered to a considerable degree by the increasing num- 
ber of prisoners committed for trivial offenses. The 

necessity of an intermediate establishment between 
an almshouse and a prison was frequently enforced by 
the public journals, and occasionally the plan wiis pre- 
sented by grand juries. At length the Legislature was 
induced to take some action. By act of April 14, 1868, 
City Councils were authorized to provide for a house 
of correction and employment, and to erect the proper 
buildings for the organization and management 
thereof. Under this authority Councils passed an 
ordinance, Dec. 29, 1870, creating a body to be man- 
agers of the House of Correction. In the succeeding 
year, June 2d, the Legislature passed an act making 
those managers a body politic and corporate, under 
the title of "The House of Correction, Eniploymeiit, 
and Eeformatian for Adults and Minors in the City 
of Philadelphia." Under this act the managers were 
empowered to receive all persons who were willing to 
be committed for not less than three months, nor 
more than twelve ; any persons liable to be com- 
mitted to a place of confinement, who might apply 
for the purpose ; and also all persons convicted of being 
vagrants, drunkards, or disorderly street-walkers ; 
also minors not under sixteen years of age " absenting 
themselves from school, or who shall disobey their 
parents' command, or be found idle in the streets," 
if arrested on complaint of parents, or any citizen ; 
provided no boy shall be kept in the House of Cor- 
rection beyond twenty-one years of age, or a girl be- 
yond the age of eighteen. Provision was made that 
every person in the custody of the managers, un- 
less disqualified by sickness or casualty, "shall be 
employed by the superintendent in quarrying stone, 
cultivating the ground, manufacturing such articles 
as may be needed for the prison, almshouse, other 
public institutions of the State or city, or for other 
persons, and at such other labor as shall upon trial be 
found to be profitable to the institution and suitable 
to its proper discipline and to the health and capacity 
of the inmates." Permission was given to employ 
inmates under direction of the superintendent out- 
side of the grounds of the institution " for any of the 
departments or institutions of the city, or for such 
other persons as may be approved by the Board of 

The first board of managers was elected by Councils 
in December, 1870, and consisted of A. H. Franciscus 
(president), Thomas A. Barlow, William F. Smith, 
Samuel Leonard, Samuel Kilpatrick, Samuel C. Wil- 
lets, John Fry, William M. Wilson, John Robbins, 
Jr., William A. Duff (secretary). A tract of ground 
was selected for the erection of the House of Correc- 
tion on the west bank of the Delaware River and the 
south bank of Pennypack Creek, embracing a tract of 
from two hundred to three hundred acres. It was 
situate between the river and the State road, and not 
far from the Trenton Railroad, so that there was access 
by railroad, and, by the building of a wharf upon the 
Delaware, there was a convenient landing from the 
water. It was expected that a portion of this ground 



could be employed for farming and other accommo- 
dation for industries. On this plot there was com- 
menced, in 1871, an extensive range of buildings, the 
ground plan of which was something like a letter Y, i 
with three cross-pieces below the crotch. The plans | 
were tlrawn by James H. Wiudrim, architect, who 
superintended the construction until the buildings 
were well advanced, after which he was superseded ' 
by Frank Furness. The builder was Richard J. Dob- 
bins. The buildings are of stone. They comprise a 
large main edifice, with keeper's residence and offices, 
and a central building for correction purposes, with 
eight extensive wings. In the centre, high above all, 
rises a steep roof-construction, which is visible for a 
long distance. It is the Anchor of Hope chapel. Its 
floor is on a level with the third-story floors of the 
adjacent buildings, and its ceiling is some thirty or 
forty feet above. This chapel is conveniently situ- 
ated for access from all parts of the building, and it 
will hold two thousand five hundred persons. The 
hospital-rooms are upon the third story, also a school- 
room for boys. Connected with the house are very 
extensive kitchens, bakery, store rooms, and shops. 
The institution has held more than two thousand 
inmates at a time. The men are put to labor in stone- 
quarries near by, or to work about the grounds filling 
up the low places, cultivating the garden, and gather- 
ing ice in the winter. Some of them were occupied ! 
for several months, about 1879-80, in building the 
great levee and embankment upon the Schuylkill, 
intended to keep the water from overflowing the low 
grounds at the Neck during jrreat freshets in the river. 
They were also engaged in the repairing of South 
Broad Street, and in 1882 an arrangement was made 
by which the labor of the inmates was to be utilized 
for finishing the great reservoir for the water-works 
in East Fairmouut Park. In the shops of the House 
of Correction are made clothing for the inmates, hats, 
shoes, etc. Tlie women prisoners work at sewing and 
washing. The latter necessity is very extensive, and 
sometimes involves the cleansing of seven thousand 
pieces a week. 

House of Refuge. — The establishment of the House 
of Refufie is to be ascribed to the efforts of the Society 
for the Alleviation of the Miseries of Public Prisons. 
In the course of their experience, closely connected 
with the character and weakness of the criminals and 
destitute, the members of this society were frequently 
and painfully impre.s.sed with the danger to which 
youths were exposed when their early associations 
were not restrained, and their impulses properly di- 
rected. The society considered the matter, and origi- 
nated a plan for the establishment of a place of re- 
formation for juvenile delinquents. The plan of such 
a society had already been demonstraU-d as a neces- 
sity in the city of New York. Under this example 
the Philadelphia society formulated a plan, and a 
meeting of citizens was called at the county court- 
house on the 7th of February, 1826, for the purpose 

of instituting a society to build and manage a house 
of refuge. Chief Justice William Tilghman was 
president, and Col. Robert Patterson secretary. Rob- 
erts-Vaux read an address in which the part taken 
in the movement by the Society for Alleviating the 
Miseries of Public Prisons was explained. John Ser- 
geant offered a set of resolutions, in which it was 
stated that at that time there were sixty persons in 
the Walnut Street prison under the age of twenty- 
one years. It was resolved that an as.sociation should 
be formed, to be called " The House of Refuge for 
Juvenile Offenders," and that the Legislature should 
be appealed to for a charter. To carry out the measure 
a committee was appointed, composed of Joseph R. 
Ingersoll, Alderman Abraham Shoemaker, Thomas 
Bradford, James C. Biddle, John Swift, Roberts Vaux, 
Dr. James Mease, George M. Dallas, and Robert 
Wharton. Applicati<m was immediately made to the 
Legislature for a charter, and on the 23d of March, 
1826, an act of Assembly was passed, the preamble of 
which stated that an association of citizens had been 
formed in the city and county of Philadelphia for 
the humane and laudable i)urpose of reforming ju- 
venile delinquents, and separating them from the 
society and intercourse of old and experienced of- 
fenders, with whom, within the prisons of the said 
city, they have heretofore associated, and were thereby 
exposed to the contamination of every species of vice 
and crime. The members of this society were incor- 
porated and made a body politic in law by the name, 
style, and title of ihe House of Refuge. Membership 
in the corporation was assured to any person who 
should pay the sum of two dollars annually during 
the time he made such contributions. Any one who 
paid ten dollars annually for six years, or fifty dollars 
in one sum, would become a member for life. The 
directors were twenty-one in number, elected at the 
annual meetings. Afterward, in 1832, an act was 
passed giving the appointment of two managers to 
the mayor of the city, and three to the Court of 
Quarter Sessions. The managers were to provide a 
suitable building and establish regulations for the re- 
ligious and moral education, training, employment, 
discipline, and safe-keeping of the inhabitants of the 
house. They were entitled to receive at their discre- 
tion children taken up or committed as vagrants or 
upon any criminal charge, or duly convicted of any 
criminal offense upon commission of Court of Oyer 
and Terminer, or Court of Quarter Sessions, to which 
the Mayor's Court was afterward added, or of alder- 
men or justices of the peace, or managers of the 
almshouse. There were some changes in these regu- 
lations in after-years, the most important of which 
gave the managers a right to receive males under 
twenty-one years of age, and females under eighteen, 
committed by an alderman or justice on complaint of 
a parent, guardian, or next friend of children, on 
])roof of vagrancy, or incorrigible or vicious conduct. 
On the 2d of March, 1827, the Legislature granted 



five thousand dollars immediately and two thousand 
five hundred dollars on the Ist of January, 1828, and 
a like sum on the 1st of January, 1829, and the 
county commissioners were ordered to set aside ten 
thousand dollars, to be paid in two installments, 
toward the purchase of the site and building of the 
house. After that was paid the commissioners were 
to pay out of the count)' funds five thousand dollars 
a year for keeping of the house, and repairs for five 
years. Subsequent appropriations were made in dif- 
ferent ways. In 1835 the act in regard to the com- 
mission and confinement of infants was amended and 
changed in some particulars, and it was directed that 
the judges of Common Pleas and the District Court 
and the recorder of the city should alternately visit 
the house at least once in two weeks to examine into 
the commitments and causes, and, if satisfied with 
them, to indorse on the commitment of the magistrate 
that the infant should continue there or be discharged. 
The managers of the society obtained subscriptions 
during the year 1826 to the amount of eight thousand 
one hundred and four dollars and forty-one cents. 
Encouraged by this success and the legislative as- 
sistance, they entered into the work. For the pur- 
poses of the institution they purchased, for five thou- 
sand five hundred dollars, the piece of ground which 
had been held for the purposes of the botanic garden. 
It was situated at the northwest corner of Ridge road 
and Francis' Lane [afterward Coates Street, and now 
Fairmount Avenue]. Upon this ground the man- 
agers, with excellent discretion to avoid subsequent 
trouble in regard to the opening of streets, laid out 
an inclosure west of the Ridge road, and on the line 
of Schuylkill Eighth [Fifteenth] Street, and extend- 
ing to the line of Schuylkill Seventh [Sixteenth]. 
None of these streets were at that time opened above 
Vine or Callowhill Street. The plot taken for the 
purpose was four hundred feet in length from east to 
west, and two hundred and thirty-one feet in breadth 
from north to south. It was inclosed on all sides witli 
a stone wall two feet thick and twenty feet high. The 
back part of the building was upon Coates Street, but 
the unpleasant uniformity in the shape of the wall was 
avoided by a rise in the central portion in the shape 
of a pediment, which gave to the wall somewhat the 
appearance of a front of a large building. There were 
tower-like projections at each corner. The wall was 
entirely of rough stone. The principal front was upon 
the north, and fronted upon a street then called 
Howard Street. It was in appearance much like the 
wall on Coates Street, except that the central building 
rose higher and was of two stories and an attic, and a 
large central door. The low towers at each end rose 
a few feet above the wall, and were capped with high 
roofs. Long narrow windows were opened at dis- 
tances along the whole front. The architecture was 
simple but substantial. In the main building were 
the superintendent's residence, rooms for the managers, 
libraries, etc. The dormitories and shops were in 

the inclosure. There were winga on each side of the 
main building, three stories in height, which con- 
tained one hundred and seventy-two cells, four feet 
by seven each, for separate lodging-rooms, which 
were well lighted and ventilated. The main build- 
ing was ninety-two feet front and thirty feet deep. 
The workshops were low buildings, running parallel 
with the east and west walls. The corner-stone of 
the House of Refuge was laid on the 2Ist of June, 
1827, and the building was carried on with so much 
energy that before the end of the year it was under 

The whole cost of the lot and buildings was $38,- 
025.16. The house was exhibited to the public and 
formally opened Nov. 29, 1828, by an address by John 
Sergeant, the president of the institution. The first 
subject committed to the discipline of the house was 
received on the 8th of December of the same year. 
He was a boy fourteen years of age, and committed 
by the maj'or. A library of several hundred volumes 
was contributed at an early period, mostly by the book- 
sellers of the city. The regulations of the house were 
exact. At a quarter before five o'clock in the morn- 
ing the bell rang, as a notification to the inmates that 
it was time to rise for the day. By five o'clock the 
dormitory doors were opened and the inmates sent to 
their ablutions, afterward to morning worship, and 
then to school. Seven o'clock was the breakfast hour, 
and in half an hour they were sent to work. There 
they continued until noon, which was the dining 
hour. After dinner they heard lessons or lectures 
until one o'clock, when they returned to the shops. 
At five o'clock they went to supper, after which half 
an hour was allowed for recreation or play. School 
from half-past five o'clock to a quarter before eight, 
followed. Then there were evening prayers. The 
boys and girls were sent to bed before eight o'clock, 
and the doors locked, and they were left to their 
slumbers. On Sundays there was a Sunday-school 
and religious services, morning and afternoon. Cler- 
gymen of different denominations preached by turns 
in the chapels, and the services of the superin- 
tendents of the schools were gratuitously given. The 
boys were employed at book-binding, shoemaking, 
winding bobbins, making brass nails, umbrellas, furni- 
ture, cane chair-seats, and bonnet-reeds. The girls 
were employed at sewing, knitting, cooking, and 
other domestic duties about the establishment. 

Some time after the original building was finished 
additional cell buildings were erected for girls, and 
there were then accommodations for seventy females. 
The House of Refuge was in considerable favor for 
some years. It was a fact that the expenses of the 
almshouse and penitentiary had been reduced after 
its establishment. It was asserted that vagrant chil- 
dren had become less numerous in the streets, not 
merely wanderers, but children who professed to beg 
and were ready to steal. The judges of the courts, in 
their charges to the grand juries, dwelt upon the 



advantages of the institution, and the grand juries 
made favorable mention. Four thousand six hun- 
dred dollars were contributed to the support of the 
house by the executors of William Mackenzie, in 
1829. Frederick Kohne also made a large bequest 
in favor of the institution. 


In the courr-e of years the institution became 
crowded. There was a difficulty also in regard to the 
commitments of colored children. The prejudices of 
the white children were very strong against such asso- 
ciates, and their feelings at times were unpleasantly 
manifested. These circumstances induced the man- 
agers at as early a time iis they could arrange to ob- 
tain the funds to make preparations for the con- 
struction of a building for colored children. A lot 
of ground was purchased upon William [Twenty- 
fourth] and Parrish Streets, extending to Twenty- 
second and to Poplar Streets. Here, upon a lot 
four hundred feet by two hundred and ten in width, 
the colored department of tlie House of Refuge 
was opened on the 1st of January, 1850. The prem- 
ises were surrounded by a high wall, and the inte- 
rior fitted up with work-shops and other buildings. 
This wa" the commencement of a movement to take 
the institution from Fifteenth and Coates Streets, 
which was fully accomplished in after-years. The 
managers built on the eastern portion of the lot, 
extending from about the line of Twenty-third to 
Twenty-second Streets, the House of Refuge for white 
boys. At a later period there was built on the west 
side of Twenty -second Street and north side of Poplar 
Street, and extending to South College Avenue, a 

House of Refuge for girls, in a brick building sepa- 
rated from the department for white boys by the 
width of Poplar Street. This building is, however, 
contlected by a bridge to the building south of it, an 
arrangement of convenience to the officers of the in- 
stitution. Tins building was dedicated on the 20th 
of January, 1872. The property at Fifteenth and 
Coates Streets had been disposed of before that time. 
James J. Barclay, president of the institution, has 
held that position for forty-eight years, and was one 
of its founders. On his ninetieth birthday, Jan. 15, 
1884, a public reception was given him at the House 
of Refuge, a ceremony which was a just tribute to his 
arduous and honorable services to that as well as to 
other charitable and reformatory institutions. Among 
those who on that occasion congratulated him upon 
his ripe age, his useful life, and the general esteem in 
which he is held by the community, were many of 
the leaders of commerce, law, and society in this 
great city. 



The title of the city of Philadelphia to the five 
public squares within the boundaries of the city, as 
originally laid out between Vine and Cedar Streets 
and the Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, depends, 
with the exception of a direct grant by patent of the 
Southeast Scjuare for a public burying-ground, upon 
a statement issued as the explanation of a ma]). The 
earliest known plan is " a portraiture of the City of 
Phila. in the Province of Penna. By Thos. Holme, 
surveyor General. Sold by Andrew Sowle in Shore 
ditch, London." At what time this map was pub- 
lished is not known. It might have been in 1682, 
but was more probably in 1683. It shows some 
things which are evidence that the exact position of 
the streams was not clearly understood. For instance, 
Dock Creek is represented as discharging itself into 
the Delaware between Spruce and Pine Streets. The 
Cohoquenoque, or Pegg's Run, is laid down as com- 
mencing near the intersection of Arch and Broad, 
and flowing northeasterly, crossing Vine Street about 
the present intersection of Franklin Street, between 
Seventh and Eighth, and so bending northeasterly to 
the Delaware, which it enters at about the right po- 
sition. While a portion of this course was correct, 
that which gave it rise at Broad and Arch Streets 
was wrong. Broad Street on this ina|i is the twelfth 
street from the Delaware, there being eleven i>arallel 
streets on each side of it between the Delaware and the 
Schuylkill. The Centre Square is laid down at the in- 
tersection of Twelfth Street and Market Street. Four 



smaller squares, with trees upon them to show their 
uses, are also marked. One, afterward called South- 
east and then Washington Square, commenced at the 
southwest corner of the sixth street from the Delaware 
and the street afterwards known as Walnut Street. It 
was a perfect square. It extended on Walnut Street 
beyond Seventh Street, and about half the way to 
Eighth Street. Southward it ran toward Spruce 
Street, which it did not touch, but extended about 
three-fourths of the distance to the latter. It was, 
therefore, only bounded by two streets, and it closed 
up the passage on Seventh Street entirely. The dis- 
tance from Walnut to Spruce is greater than between 
any other two streets running east and west in the old 
city. The actual reason of the width is that Dock 
Creek (although this plan does not show it) entered 
the Delaware north of Spruce Street, and just where 
any street laid immediately adjacent to the southern 
boundary of the Southeast Square would have come 
out. To avoid this. Spruce Street was jilaced far 
enough south of the square to secure a clear passage.' 

The Northeast Square was situate upon Sixth Street, 
between Race and Vine Streets, and along the two 
latter, crossing Seventh and about half-way to Eighth 
Street. The Southwest Square upon this plan is laid 
down between the sixth [Seventeenth] and eighth 
[Fifteenth] streets from the Schuylkill. It extended 
eastward from Schuylkill Sixth, and crossed and 
blocked up Schuylkill Seventh [Sixteenth] Street. 
It was bounded by the accessible streets Schuylkill 
Sixth and Walnut, and occupied relatively the same 
position as the Southeast Square. 

The Northwest Square was bounded on the west by 
Schuylkill Sixth [Seventeenth] Street, and on the 
north and south by Vine and Sassafras Streets. It 
extended across Schuylkill Seventh, and half-way to 
Schuylkill Eighth Streets. These squares upon the 
plan appear to be of the same size, but by survey some 
difference is now shown. The Southeast Square is 540 
feet north and south by 540 feet 4 inches east and 
west, and contains six acres and two roods. The 
Northeast Square is 632 feet north and south by 543 
feet 6 inches east and west, and contains seven acres 
and three roods. The Southwest Square is 540 feet 
4 inches north and south by 540 feet 4 inches east 
and west. The Northwest Square is 632 feet north 
and south by 540 feet east and west, and contains 
seven acres and three roods. 

It will be observed from this statement that the two 
western squares were not intended to be situate where 
they are now. They were at some time after the 
" portraiture" was published moved westward, so 
that their eastern boundaries were upon Schuylkill 
Fifth [Eighteenth] Street, and they extended west- 
wardly, crossing Schuylkill Fourth [Nineteenth] 

1 The dJEtance from Walnut to Spruce Street is seven hundred and 
seventy feet. The distance from Chestnut to Walnut Street is four hun- 
dred and seventy feet. The square from Race to Vine Street is six 
hundred and thirty-two feet. 

Street, nearly to Schuylkill Third [Twentieth] Street. 
When this alteration was made is not exactly known. 
It must have been within a year or two after the " por- 
traiture" was published. Within about two or three 
years afterward it is supposed that Holme issued "a 
mapof the improved parts of Pennsilvania, in America, 
begun by Wil. Penn, proprietary and Governor 
thereof in 1681." It contains plans of the three 
counties of Philadelphia, Chester, and Bucks, as far 
as then surveyed and laid out. Unfortunately, there 
is nothing upon it to show the date of its publication. 
There is a letter from Philip Ford, in London, dated 
21st of the 1st month, 1684-85 (probably March 21, 
1685), in which he says, " As for the map of the city 
it was needful that it should be printed. It will do 
us a kindness, as we were to loss for something to show 
the people." Mr. Reed assumes that the map thus 
referred to was the " portraiture," which he says was 
published by Mr. Penn's printer, of the Shoreditch 
(Andrew Sowle). If this supposition is correct, the 
" portraiture" could not have been published until 
some time in 1685. 

Mr. Reed says that the plan of the city. Broad 
Street being the twelfth street from each river, etc., 
was altered by Benjamin Eastburn when he was ap- 
pointed surveyor-general ; but this must be a mistake, 
as Eastburn was appointed Oct. 29, 1733. There is 
on record a certificate of warrant and survey to An- 
thony Burgess from Thomas Holme, surveyor-general, 
dated 25th of the Eighth month (October), 1684, for a 
lot of ground " situate between the eighth street from 
Schuylkill and the Broad Street on the eastward," 
showing that Broad Street was the next street east 
of Schuylkill Eighth (now Fifteenth) Street at that 
early time. There is a record of survey made Oct. 9, 
1684, and recorded April 11, 1687, for a lot to Josiah 
Elfreth, " bounded eastward by the Market Square, 
and westward by the eighth street from Schuylkill," 
and of a warrant and survey for lot adjoining, between 
the same streets, to William Dilwyn, surveyed Nov. 
29, 1684, and recorded 29th of June, 1686. Market 
Square seems to have been the original name given 
to the ground at the intersection of Market anij Broad 
Streets, afterward called Centre and Penn Square. 

If there was a dedication of the ground of the 
public squares to tlie use of the city, it was never 
made by formal warrant or patent. Holme's por- 
traiture was accompanied with " a short advertise- 
ment upon the scituation and extent of the city of 
Phila." It was in illustration and explanation 
of the small map, or portraiture, and is written in 
the third person, and not in the name of William 
Penn. Thus it is said, " the Governor, as farther 
manifestation of his kindness to the purchasers, hath 
freely given them theire respective lotts in the city 
without defalcation of any of theire quantities of pur- 
chased lands, etc. . . . The city is so ordered now by 
ye Governor's care and prudence, that it hath a front 
to each river. . . . The city, as the nioddell shews, 



consists of a large front street to each river, and a 
High Street near the midel from front or River front, 
of 100 foot broad, and a Broad Street in the middle 
of ye city, from side to side, of the like bredth. In 
the center of the city is a square of 10 acres. At 
each angle are to be houses for publick atiairs, as a 
Meeting-House, Assembley or State House, Market 
House, School House, and severall buildings for 
public concerns. There are also in each quarter of 
ye city a square of 8 acres, to be for the like uses as 
the moorfields, in London." These statements, made 
apparently by Holme, are all that there is to. show 
that the Centre Square, and the Northeast, Northwest, 
Southeast, and Southwest Squares were dedicated to 
public use by William Penn. Legally there is no 
doubt of the title of the city, which has been con- 
firmed by decision of the Supreme Court. 

Centre or Penn Square. — The square in the cen- 
tre of the city was designed, it will be observed, to 
be occupied at each angle with houses for public af- 
fairs. In the large map of Pennsylvania, by Holme, 
this proposed disj)Osition of the inclosure is made 
very apparent in the plan of the city drawn on the 
margin. There is a rectangular house with a steeple 
and weather-cock planted in the middle of the square 
at the intersection, and near the corners are four 
smaller buildings. In Auirust, 1684, the Quarterly 
Meeting of Philadelphia agreed that a meeting-house 
should be built in the Centre Square, to be of brick, 
sixty feet long and forty broad. In 1686 there was a 
disposition to change the dimensions to fifty feet long 
and forty-six feet wide, but Robert Turner, in a letter 
to William Penn, Aug. 30, 1685, published in the 
second account of Pennsylvania, says. — 

" We are now laying the foundation of a new brick 
meeting-house in the Centre (sixty feet long and 
about forty feet broad) and hope soon to have it up, 
there being many hearts and hands at work that will 
do it." It is not known how long this meeting-house 
was in use. 

The yearly fairs established shortly after the settle- 
ment were held most probably in the eastern part of 
the city. As they were occasions of great gatherings 
of people to the benefit of business, it was natural 
that there should be some competition for the benefit 
of having them near certain places. In April, 1688, 
the Provincial Council received " The Petition of the 
inhabitants at ye Center of Philadelphia, Requesting 
ye fayr to be kept there;" answered, " The next fayr 
will be granted to be kept at ye center." The propo- 
sition did not meet with the approval of the persons 
who had been benefited by the previous holding of 
fairs in the eastern neighborhoods. They went so far 
a.t to print something in the shape of a handbill, per- 
haps in reference to the presumption of the Centre 
Square people in asking that a fair should be held 
away from the town. The attention of the Council 
was drawn to tliis matter on the 16th of May, in the 
same vear. " A summons was sent. Directed to Thos. 

ClyfiFord, messenger, for the summonsing ye Sub- 
scribers of a Contemptuous Printing Paper, touching 
ye keeping of ye fair at ye Centre, where it was or- 
deretl by ye Govr. and Council to be kept." The 
messenger made return the next day that he had sum- 
moned " the subscribers of ye contemptuous i)rinted 
advertismt. . . . Several of ye subscribers Excusing 
themselves. The Depty Govr. and Council, after Re- 
proveingthem, did pardon all those who subscribed to 
what was endorsed on ye back of one of ye printed 
papers." Two days afterward it was ordered that 
inasmuch as the practice was to hold the fairs on the 
latter days of the sitting of the General Assembly, it 
was found that the public business of the govern- 
ment was impeded. For this reason it was ordered 
that the fair should be kept hereatter on the 20th of 
May ; " and it is further Ordered yt an Additional fayr 
be kept at Phila. at ye Centre to be held the 30th day 
of ye next Sixth Month" (August). In May, 1698, 
the Assembly voted '" that the Fair at the Centre of 
Philaddpliia is of little Service, but rather of ill Ten- 
dency. It was put to the vote that the same may be 
recommended to the Governor and Council, to " put 
the said Fair down." The reply of Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor William Markham to the request of the Assem- 
bly is thus stated in the Council minutes : " To ye 
sd, that the Centre Fair was a nusance, hce told ym 
yt he wold Leave yt to the care of ye justices of ye 
peace." It is likely that the " Fair at the Centre" was 
suppressed about that time, since no subsequent refer- 
ence to it has been observed. 

Centre Square remained without any inclosure for 
more than one hundred years. The short-cut from 
Market Street east to Market Street west went 
through it, and if there was auy necessity of passing 
by the line of Broad Street the way ran straight 
from north to south. In 1799 it was determined to 
construct the city water-works for the supply of the 
inhabitants from the Schuylkill River. The pumping 
works were at Chestnut Street Wharf, Schuylkill, and 
the Centre Square was chosen as the situation for 
another pumping house and reservoir. The works 
went into operation in January, 1801. The Centre 
House, with its pillared portico and dome, was long a 
conspicuous object, and could be seen upon Market 
Street anywhere between Broad Street and the Dela- 
ware. Gradually the grounds were laid out in circu- 
lar shape, fenced in with wooden pickets, which were 
neatly painted white. The streets were continued 
around the inclosure as far north as the line of Fil- 
bert Street, and southward to Olive Street. The 
ground was planted in and with trees, and in 
1809 the great attraction of the fountain with the 
figures of a nymph and a swan were added. They 
were placed upon a mound of stone in front of the 
main entrance to the central building, and were 
exceedingly attractive for a long time. 

After the .square had ceased to be used by Friends 
for their meetings, it wiis for many years a mere com- 



mon, and the owners of fast horses gradually put it 
to the uses of a race-course. The earliest notice of 
this disposition of the ground appeared in 1760, when 
it was advertised that by subscription a " piece of 
plate (about £50 value) would be run for at the 
Centre House, near Philadelphia." The races were 
nominally two-mile heats, best three in five, but as 
twice around the track was considered a mile the j 
distance was actually short. A gallery for spectators ' 
was erected by a man named Wilson, who charged 
seven shillings sixpence for admission. In 1761 two 
days, and in 1764 four days, were devoted to the races. 
A jockey club was formed in 1767, and the four days i 
of racing were given under its auspices. i 

Among the events was a gentleman's subscription- ] 

owner of "Creeping Kate" and "Northumberland." 
" Angelica" contested in fleetness with " Regulus" 
and " Billy." Very properly the ladies' purse of fifty 
pounds was won by " Lady Legs." The races were 
continued at the Centre Square probably up to the 
Revolution. , The Jockey Club, in 1773, offered the 
Whim plate and the Ladies' plate to winning horses, 
and the result of the races was duly reported for the 
information of the public. For many years Cen- 
tre Square was the common hanging-ground of the 
city and county. Convictions, with capital punish- 
ment, were, before the Revolution, frequent; and the 
gallows was probably a permanent fixture for many 
years. This use may have continued up to the time 
when the Centre House was erected for the use of the 

[Site of the new City Hall, 1884.] 

purse of one hundred guineas, four-mile heats, a 
sweepstake for all horses owned twelve months by 
the persons entering them, a fox-hunt, and a brilliant 
assembly, for a purse of fifty pounds given by ladies, 
and a watch for a vintners' and innholders' purse of 
fifty pounds. " Jockeys," the directions stated, were 
" to appear with neat waistcoat, cap, and top-boots. 
There will be ordanaries every day, and it seems to 
be the intention of Gentlemen to dine togather, as is 
the custom in England, rather than be divided by 
private engagements." In 1770 the Jockey Club 
purse of three hundred pounds was won by James 
De Lancey's horse " Lath." The names of the horses 
were very much like those chosen by sportsmen of 
the present day. The Hon. Horatio Sharp was the 

water-works. During the period of the Revolutionary 
war Centre Square and the common in the neigh- 
borhood were the ordinary grounds for company and 
regimental drill and exercise. Reviews were held 
there in the early part of the Revolution by various 
high military ofiicers. In 1783 the French army, 
under Count Rochambeau, six thousand strong, on 
their way out Market Street to Yorktown, encamped 
at Centre Square and on the common. They pitched 
their tents, kindled their camp-fires, and attracted as 
visitors thousands of the people of the city, who 
wondered at the brilliancy of the white and pink 
uniforms and the strange appearance of the foreign 
soldiers, whose language few could understand. 
Gen. Wayne also encamped there on his return 



from the Western expedition against the Indians. It 
was the parade-ground of McPherson's Blues and 
Shee's Legion. Dunlap's company (the First City 
Troop), Capt. John Morrell's Volunteer Green Cav- 
alry, the Second Troop, under Capt. Thomas Cad- 
walader, and many other organization* — Fencibles, 
Kangers, Fusileers, Guards, Blues, Grays, Greens, 
artillerists, cadets, horse infantry, and pikemen — exer- 
cised in the neighborhood. 

After the Revolution the Centre Square was the 
place of interest when the volunteer and militia 
paraded. On the 4th of July, for many years, tents, 
booths, and stands were set up there, for the sale of 
eatables, such as pickled oysters, cakes, gingerbread, 
spruce beer, porter, ale, strong beer, and in some 
places the fiery liquors, gin, rum, Scotch or Irish 
whiskey. The American whiskey distilled from wheat 
or rye was scarcely known in those days. In time 
these assemblages became a great nuisance, and Zach- 
ariah Poulson, in the Daili/ Ailveriiser of July 4, 1821, 
printed the following expressions of righteous indig- 
nation : 

"Centre Square boa too often on Ibis day been disreputably tltstin- 
guisbed. Petty gambling establisbnieuta abound there in the open day, 
to which apprentice-boys and otliers are enticed. Tliey there become 
initiated in the wretclied school of gambling, and may possibly, at a 
future period, trace their ruin to the deviations at Centre Square. Some 
of the harpies well known in the city were on the ground with their 
tables yesterday afternoon, pursuing their abominable vocation ; should 
they return to-day lot au example be made of them.*' 

This remonstrance may have produced some imme- 
diate effects, but in the succeeding years the evil was 
renewed. Mayor Robert Wharton determined, in 
1823, to put an end to the disgraceful scenes which 
had occurred for so long at Centre Square on Inde- 
pendence day. Shortly before the 4th of July he 
issued a proclamation, in which he said, — 

"The scones of debauchery, gambling, and drunkenness, with many 
other acta of excess and riots which unnniiHy take place on the 4th of 
July, in and about the booths, tents, and other unlawful restaurants on 
the public streets and grounds of the city, have for years past been to 
the mayor, and haa, no doubt, been to many other citizens, a source of 
deep regret ; and aa his military brethren, who assemtile underarms to 
celebrate the anniversary of our independence, remain but for a short 
period on the parade, and can obtain refreshments from sources less im- 
pure, he confidently hopes that the prohibition about to be enforced 
will not be inconvenient to tbem, but that they will see the propriety 
of banishing from our city limits causes of such ruinous effect to the 
morals and future usefulness of the rising generation." 

The mayor therefore forbade the erection of the 
booths and tents on Centre Square, but the liquor- 
sellers and gamblers removed to Bush Hill, where they 
soon became more objectionable than ever. 

The engine-house in Centre Square ceased to be 
useful for the ])urpose originally designed when the 
water-works at Fairmount were fully established. 
After 1823 the Centre House, as it was usually called, 
served no other i)urpose than a place of storage for oil, 
necessary to Ite used in the |)ublic lamps. There 
was at one time a movement to grant the use of the 
building to the American Pliilosophical Society as an 
astronomical observatorj-, but for some reason, prob- i 

ably lack of funds for suitable instruments, the matter 
fell through. 

About the year 1828 an agitation commenced, prin- 
cipally under the influence of flour, grain, and liquor- 
dealers, on Market Street west of Broad, to have the 
Centre House removed, on the plea that it was an 
obstruction to business, and this was done. By reso- 
lution of the Councils, (m May 19, 1829, the name of 
the inclosure was changed to Peiin S<iuare, and on 
Aug. 28, 1828, Mr. Toland, chairman of the Council 
committee, reported that they had directed the city- 
commissioner to take down the fence and remove the 
rubbish fi-om the square. In accordance with resolu- 
tions of Councils, numerous of the tall trees were cut 
down, and Broad Street and Market Street were car- 
ried through the inclosuie, which thus was divided 
into four small jiarks, bounded on the exterior by 
Juniper, Oak, Filbert, and Olive Streets, surrounded 
by picket-fences, and having two rows of trees on the 
sidewalks. When the Boston City Guards visited 
Philadelphiaaboutl833, they camped on the Southwest 
Penu Square, and many years afterward the Pennsyl- 
vania Horticultural Society held an exhibition on the 
southeast squai-e, in tents. In 1852 Councils pa.ssed 
an ordinance that an iron railing or fence be erected 
around Penn Square, of a suitable height trom the 
jjavement, and secured in and resting upon a stone 

The ground originally embraced in Centre Square 
was not bounded liy any stieet, and the " square" was 
in reality a circle. When it was inclosed as a portion 
of the water-works, thoroughfares were oi>ened around 
it. It is not easy to fix the date of the establishment 
of Juniper Street and Filbert Street.' 

Regarding the streets on the south and west of the 
Penn Squares, it appears that on May 11, 1846, Coun- 
cils authorized the mayor "to cause to be laid off, and 
marked out with stakes or otherwise, two passages or 
strips of giouiid, each of fifty feet in width, one of 
them over and along the western edge or boundary of 
Penn Square, the whole length of the square from 
north to south ; the other over and along the south edge 
or boundary thereof the whole length from to 
west, and also to cause so much of the whole eastern 
edge or boundary of said square to be marked off 
agreeably to the afore-said plan, ns will make the 
wiilth of. funiper Street along the said eastern bound- 
ary to be fifty feet." From this it appears that 
Juniper Street was narrower than the described width, 
probably of the same width as is now occupied by 
that street above and below the square, forty feet. 
The southern street, which was called Olive Street, 

> The enlarged plan of the city on Clarkson Ic Diddle's map (1702) ex- 
tends from the Delaware no farther west than Kighth Street. On its 
margin is aamall plat of the city, which presenta Centre Square as a rec- 
tangular Inclosure at Market and Hroad Streets, but with no designated 
street around it. On Varhi's map, i>ublished subsequent tu 1790 and 
before 18(H), the public square is bounded on the east by a small street 
(Juniper), and on the north hy Filbert, but no streets are Indicated on 
the southern and western faces. 



and the western street, called Oak Street [afterward 
Merrick Street], were taken entirely from the ground 
of Peun Square, thus reducing considerably the size 
of that inclosure. 

Southeast or Washington Square.— After the 
Southeast Square was abauddned as a burial-ground, 
about 1794-95, years elapsed before any attempt was 
made for its improvement. In 1802 a petition was 
presented to City Councils asking that thirty feet of 
Potter's Field, on the south side of Walnut Street, 
should be taken out of the inclosure, and that two 
rows of trees be planted in addition to the row already 
there. The committee to which the subject was re- 
ferred, made report that they had viewed the ground, 
that in their opinion " public walks in a city" were 
very desirable, and that the prayer iif the petitioners 
ought to be granted. They recommended that a fence 
should be set on the west side of Sixth Street, five feet 
within the row of trees, and that another row of trees 
should be planted there ; also that the wooden build- 
ings at Sixth and Walnut Streets, used by the city 
commissioners, be removed to the corner of Seventh 
Street (probably the southwest corner), and that the 
corners should be rounded, commencing at the dis- 
tance of one hundred feet from the corner on each 
side. Three years afterward a proposition was made 
that a public market-house be built on the Southeast 
Square, but it was never carried into effect, although a 
general permission for the erection of market-houses 
was given the municipality by the act of the Legisla- 
ture, March 19, 1804. 

In November, 1805, it was directed by Councils that 
in order to complete the improvements of the square 
the city commissioner should erect side-walls to it, 
and cover the little stream crossing it diagonally from 
Walnut to Sixth Street to the distance of thirty-five 
feet south from Walnut Street, and lay the bottom 
with condemned logs, or cover or arch the same, so 
that the flow of water be not impeded. Another 
effort to obtain possession of the ground was made 
about the same time by the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, which solicited permission to erect a building 
in the square for the accommodation of their medical 
school. This request was not granted. 

In 1813, under the authority of City Councils, an 
advertisement appeared in the Aurora, requesting 
proposals for the renting of the southeast square and 
the lots on Lombard Street between Ninth and Elev- 
enth, south side, as pasture grounds during the 
pleasure of Councils. In 1816 it was ordered that 
the city carpenter-shop on Locust Street should be 
removed to Lombard Street, and the rubbish used to 
fill up the square. In the previous year Councils 
adopted a resolution that as soon as the owners and 
occupiers of property in the vicinity of the Southeast 
Public Square would pay fifteen hundred dollars into 
the city treasury a culvert should be built in the 
square, and the paving-stones, lumber, and dirt 
should be removed from the line of Seventh Street. 

An open fence was to be put upon the Seventh 
Street front, and the other fences around the square 
were to be repaired. Before that time and for some 
years the ground on the line of Seventh Street and 
west of it had been used as a cattle-market. The oc- 
cupants of the fine houses on Sansom Row found this 
to be a great nuisance. Councils ordered, in May, 
1815, that the cattle-market should cease at that 
place, and it was transferred to the hay-market, in 
Sixth Street, above Callowhill. In the succeeding 
year (1816) it was resolved that the square should be 
fenced in according to the boundaries in the patent. 
A space for a street was left on the west side, ex- 
tending from Walnut Street southward, which was 
named by Councils Columbia Avenue. In the same 
year Mr. Learning, of Select Council, proposed that 
the four squares should be named for Washington, 
Franklin, Columbus, and Penn, but he did not desig- 
nate the squares to which each title should be given. 
It was part of his plan that in each square there 
should be erected a statue in bronze of the distin- 
guished character after whom the inclosure was to 
be named. Common Council agreed to this plan, 
but Select Council did not concur. Nine years after- 
ward the proposition to give new names to the squares 
was more favorably received, and by ordinance of 
May 9, 1825, the Southeast Square received the name 
of Washington Square. Within a year or two after- 
ward the improvements were sufliciently advanced to 
permit the opening of this square for public use. 
George Bridport, artist and engineer, was intrusted 
with the task of laying out the square for public use 
about the year 1817 or 1818, and Andrew Gillespie, 
gardener, superintended the planting of the trees. 
For several years the ground was inclosed with a 
white paling fence. In 1831 a committee of the 
Horticultural Society of Pennsylvania, in its report 
of the gardens in tlie neighborhood of Philadelphia, 
described Washington Square as follows: 

" It is situated south of Walnut, and above Sixth Street, in the south- 
easteru part of the city, and contains eiglit acres, alt scientifically in- 
teraecterl with very handsome and spacious wall<8. The figure of the 
whole is aa follows: Foul" diagonal walks, thirty feet wide, leading to a 
circular plot in the centre of one hundred and twenty feet diameter. 
Around this is a walk forty feet wide, and another circular walk twenty 
feet wide extends to within tweiity-flTe feet of the side of tlie square. 
Where this walk intersects the diagonal are circular plots thirty-five 
feet in diameter, thus forming a handsome recreative and interesting 
promenade amongst fifty varieties of trees, seven of which are European 
and forty-three native, a large proportion of which are from distant parts 
of the Union. Blany ot the Acers are very handsome trees, ns also sev- 
eral varieties of Pi-unus ; two of the latter were introduced by Lewis and 
Clark from the Rocky Mountains. The one is conspicuous for its foliage 
and fruit; the other, called ^tirft-sccnted cherry, has very large racemose 
spikes of fragrant flowers, ana is much admired for its beauty ; the 
majestic Aila7Uhui^, with several varieties of Pines and Cypri'ss, all of 
the first and second class of trees, and admired for their foliage, tlowei-s, 
and shade. Hence instruction with respect to our own productions is 
placed before the public, and at the same time it is ascertained what 
trees are best adapted to our immediate climate, salubrity is diffused 
througitout the neighborhood and to the city generally, and recreation 
afforded to the assiduous citizen, where he may view four hundred trees 
in the midst of a populous and busy city. These trees are in a very 
healthy and thriving condition, and well trained by Mr. Andrew Gilles- 



pie, who is a judicious arborist. . . . Tlie whole is beautifully kept, and 
well illuminated at uight with reflecting lamps till ten o'clock, all 
showing the correct and liberal spirit of our city." 

After the centennial celebration of Washington's 
birthday, in 1832, the feeling that there should be 
erected a monument to his memory was greatly 
increased, subscriptions were taken up, and the gen- 
tlemen who had charge of the business were so much 
encouraged that it w^as believed that, if the corner- 
stone of a monument was laid with public ceremonies, 
the people would feel assured that the structure would 
be built, and that there would be no trouble afterward 
in obtaining subscriptions. The most suitable place 
for the erection of such a monument was considered 
to be Washington Square, and on Feb. 19, 1833, 
Councils passed an ordinance authorizing the erec- 
tion of the monument in that square, the plan to be 
submitted to and approved by Councils. The desire 
was that the corner-stone should be laid on the 22d 
of February, but the ordinance was passed at such a 
short time previously that there was not time to 
arrange the details of the procession and to make it 
as large and imposing a.s it should have been. The 
military portion, under Maj.-Gen. Patterson, was the 
most interesting part of the parade. There were 
three troops of cavalry, five companies of artillery, 
and ten companies of infantry. The tradesmen 
turned out slimly. The marble masons had pre- 
pared the corner-stone in the procession of 1832. 
They marched after the wagon on which the gift was 
drawn by four white horses. The hatters, agricul- 
turists, and gardeners, tin-plate workers, tobacconists, 
journeymen cabinet-makers, silver-plate workers, cord- 
wainers, saddlers, and the Youths' Library and Liter- 
ary Association took part in the civic procession. The 
place fixed for the reception of the corner-stone was 
in the middle of the centre plot. In making the 
excavation for the purpose, some of the mouldering 
relics of the old Potter's Field were disturbed. The 
mayor of the city was chief marshal of the proces- 
sion. A prayer was ofi'ered by the Rt. Rev. Bishop 
White. Dr. W. C. Draper, on behalf of the Wash- 
ington Monument Association, delivered the intro- 
ductory address, and the oration was pronounced by 
David Paul Brown. The corner-stone was then, with 
due ceremonies, placed upon the foundation and cov- 
ered up, and there has since remained, the monument 
never having been built.' 

> The following articles were deposited In the stone at that time : 

1. A neat copy containing the Constitution of the United States, and 
of the State of Pennsylvania, with the names of the executive officers, 
members of Congress, the executive ofllcers of the State, and of the 
corporation of the city of Philadelphia, and an almanac fur 1833. Pre- 
sented by Isaac Klllot, Esq. 

2. A copy of the oration on the death of Charles Carroll of Carrollton, 
by John Sergeant, E*<q. I'resented by Isaac Elliot, Esq. 

3. A description of the centennial procession as it occurred In 1832. 

4. An emblematical sketch of the centennial celebration. By William 
J. Mullen, l->^i. 

6. Washington's Farewell Address on satin. Presented by the com- 
mittee of arrmngements. 

An ordinance to authorize the lighting of Wash- 
ington Square by gas was passed in August, 1837, 
and it was subsequently inclosed by an iron palisade. 
Within the past two years this railing has been taken 
down, a large number of the trees have been removed, 
and flag-stone walks have superseded the gravel paths. 

Northeast or Franklin Square. — This square re- 
mained an open irround for many years after it had 
been dedicated to the city by the proprietary. If 
Councils believed it to be of any value, no measure 
was taken to exercise authority over it. A minute of 
Council, dated April 21, 1721, indicates that it was 
leased to Ralj)h Assheton "for 21 years, at the rate of 
40 shillings per annum, to be paid to the corporation, 
to commence March 25, 1724, which is agreed to by 
this board, he leaving the same at the expiration of 
said time well and sufficiently fenced in with good 
rails and cedar posts." It is not clear under this 
minute whether Assheton's leiisewasto run from 1721 
or 1724, but possibly the fencing of the square was 
considered equivalent to three years' rent, after which 
the money compensation mightbe fairly asked. Asshe- 
ton must have abandoned the lease, as on June 1, 
1741, Thomas Penn issued a warrant to Benjamin East- 
burn, Surveyor-General, which recited, " Whereas, 
Philip Boehni and Jacob Seigel have requested that 
we would be i)leased to grant them to take up in trust, 
to and for the use of the German Congregation in the 
city of Philadelphia, a vacant lot or piece of ground 
within our said city, situate between the Sixth and 
Seventh Streets, bounded northward by Vine Street, 
eastward and westward by vacancies, and southward 
by the ends of Sassafras Street lots, containing in 
length north and south 306 feet and in breadth east 
and west 150 feet, for which they agree to pay for our 
use the sum of £50, together with the yearly quit-rent 
of 5 shillings sterling or the value of the said quit- 
rent, the coin current," etc. The German congrega- 
tion spoken of was that of the German Reformed 
Church, of which the jiastor was John Philip Boehm, 
who preached alternately in Philadelphia, German- 
town, and Whitpaine. 

The Penn family had no moral or legal right to 
grant the property, but the congregation neverthe- 
less went into possession of the square, which they at 
once began to use as a burying-ground. 

In 1745 thirteen pounds was paid to the receiver- 
general for four years' interest and four years' quit- 

6. A beautiful specimen of an Anthracite case, inclosing a portrait of 
Gen. Washington in 1797. Presented by the Messrs, Eerks. 

7. A silver medul, struck off during the centennial procession, and 
presented by the gold and silver artificers for the corner-stone. 

8. Several specimens of composition coin. Presented by Mr. William 

9. Several specimens of copper coin. By several citizens, of the years 
1771-72,1771,1791, 1797, etc. 

10. A print representing the Surrender at Yorktown, and a full statue 
of Gen. Washington. 

11. Several newspapers of the day. 

12. The programme of ttio procession for laying the corner-stone. 
By the committee of arrangements. 



rent. In December, 1763, John Penn was paid £189 
Id., in full, for the lot, and a patent was issued on the 
14th of December. The ground chosen by the congre- 
gation was one hundred and fifty feet in width on Vine 
Street. It was taken out of the middle of the square, 
leaving vacancies on each side, so that the eastern and 
western boundaries were about at equal distance from 
Sixth Street and from the western boundary of the 
lot, no street then being open on that side. The 
depth (three hundred and six feet) extended less 
than half a square toward Race Street, where it was 
bounded by what the Penns called the back end of 
Race Street lot, meaning the back ends of the ground 
which they would have been willing to sell as build- 
ing lots. During the Revolution the military author- ' 
ities erected on this square the public magazine or 
powder-house. In November, 1782, the German Re- 
formed congregation presented a petition to the As- 
sembly, stating that for fifty years it had been using 
a lot on the south side of Vine Street, between Sixth 
and Seventh, for the purposes of a burial-ground; 
that, owing to the increase of the congregation, it 
had often happened that encroachments were made 
on other lots in the said ground for the purpose of 
burying the dead, and they asked leave to bring in a 
bill to vest a portion of the square in the congregation 
as a place of interment. The Assembly did not grant 
this request, and in 1797 City Councils, acting on the 
opinion that the deed to the German congregation 
by Thomas Penn was illegal, passed a resolution that 
suit be instituted for the recovery and possession of 
the ground. This order was not complied with, and 
two years later another of the same purport was 
adopted. It might have been because of the repre- 
sentations made to the Assembly that the burying- 
ground on the Northeast Square was filled, that a 
grant was made on Feb. 19, 1800, to the German Re- 
formed congregation of a lot, bounded on the south 
by Mulberry [Arch] Street, on the east by Schuyl- 
kill Sixth [Seventeenth | Street, on the north by 
Cherry, and on the west by Schuylkill Fifth [Eigh- 
teenth] Street. This lot was much larger than was 
needed by the congregation, so that more jirofit was 
made by the sale of a portion of it. The burial- 
ground was laid out on the east side of the ground, 
extending from Arch to Cherry Street on the west 
side of Schuylkill Sixth Street, and was about one 
hundred feet in width. 

The city closely pressed its suit in relation to 
Franklin Square, and in February, 1801, it was 
agreed, on the part of Councils, to discontinue it 
upon the following conditions : 

"let. That the congregation yield possession of aU of the square in 
which interments had not been made. 

"2d. If they will accept a lease from the corporation of that part of 
the lot in which interments are made, but for which they hold no patent. 

"3d, That they do not erect buildings on the lot for which they have 
a patent, and length of possession is to be no bar to the city's rights." 

In August it was reported that this agreement had 
been signed. 

At this time John M. Irwin, auctioneer, was in pos- 
session of the western side of the square for the use 
of a horse and cattle market, and was at the same 
time carrying on the business at the Southeast 
Square. He generally held one sale during the 
week at each location. 

During the war with Great Britain, especially in 
the year 1814, the City Councils, finding that there 
was not room sufficient for the drilling of volun- 
teer companies, passed a resolution in September, 
" That all the uninclosed part of Northeast Public 
Square, east of Seventh Street and south of the oil- 
house, be cleared off as far as the same is not in- 
closed, and that the militia, or any company thereof, 
or any military association shall be permitted to drill 
or parade on said open ground when cleared." 

In September, 1815, Councils passed a resolution 
that the Northeast Public Square should be inclosed. 
It was recommended shortly afterward that the high 
parts of the ground should be plowed down, that 
earth should be laid over the lower portions, that 
grass-seed be sown, and the square planted with 
forest-trees, and that there should be other improve- 
ments under the direction of the city commissioner. 

Under the compromise made between the city and 
the German Reformed congregation, in 1801, a lease 
was executed for fifteen years, and when it expired 
the congregation was anxious for renewal. In the 
memorial sent to Council it was asked that the lease 
should be renewed for ninety-nine years, but the com- 
mittee to which the subject was referred was not will- 
ing to allow the disfigurement of the ground for nearly 
three generations. The answer to the request for a 
very long lease was the brief recommendation that a 
lease be executed for two years and four months from 
the 20th of September, with a proviso that the con- 
gregation must first agree to put up an open painted 
fence, corresponding with that on the other portion 
of the square, and inclosing the ground which they 
claim, within eight months. The congregation would 
not accede to those conditions, and held out strongly 
in favor of a ninety-nine years' lease. In 1819 a cul- 
vert was ordered to be built in the Northeast Square, 
to commence on Race Street, about sixty-five feet west 
of Delaware Seventh Street, and to run diagonally 
across the square to Sixth Street. Whether this cul- 
j vert went through the burying-ground is a matter of 
conjecture. In the same year Councils ordered the 
j city commissioners to open a street, fifty feet in 
1 width, on the western boundary of the Northeast 
Public Square, to connect Race and Vine Streets. 
After it was opened sufliciently for carriages to pass, 
\ it was ordered that Seventh Street should be closed 
in such a way as to make the square entire. Before 
that time there had been an ordinary passage direct 
on the line of Seventh Street. The proposition ex- 
cited considerable indignation among citizens, and 
some of them commenced proceedings in the Court 
of Quarter Sessions to procure the opening of Seventh 



Street again. This att«iiipt having failed, a bill was 
introduced into the Legislature, in 1823, directing that 
Seventh Street should be carried through the square, 
but it was not adopted. The Reformed congregation 
having refused to take a short lease of the ground held 
by them in the square, a peremptory order was issued 
by Councils, in 1821, that the congregation should 
vacate the square altogether. 

In 1835 a strong effort was made to induce City 
Councils to purchase the right of the German Re- 
formed congregation in the burying-grouud. . There 
was a disposition to pay the congregation for the re- 
linquishment of its right, but the negotiation was not 
successful. In Common Council motions to pay the 
congregation fifty thousand dollars, with amendments 
naming lesser sums, were defeated. It was held by 
some members that the priee was entirely too high. 
Common Council finally agreed to oft'er the congre- 
gation thirty-five thousand dollars, but Select Coun- 
cil would not agree. The suit was then proceeded 
with, and the result was a decision by the Supreme 
Court that the congregation had no right; that the 
original dedication by William Penn to the city was 
a complete act, and that the grant in 1741 by Gov- 
ernor Thomas Penn, and subsequent proceedings, 
were illegal, the Penn family having no title. The 
congregation sadly relinquished the property. The 
fence was torn down, and the gravestones were par- 
tially removed, but many of them were laid a few 
feet below the surface of the earth on the tops of the 
graves. Some of the bodies were removed, but the 
greater portion of the remains were undisturbed. 
The grassy mounds were leveled down, the surface 
was in some places raised, and in others where the 
ground was inclined to be hilly they were leveled, and 
the appearance of the burial-ground plot was made to 
conform with that of the remainder of the square. 
The walks were extended, trees were planted, and in 
a few years all traces of the old graveyard were lost.' 

The unfortunate dispute was finally settled by the 
decision of the court ; but after the city took posses- 
sion of the ground a feeling of regret over the contro- 
versy had something to do with promoting a spirit of 
liberality in favor of the congregation. Two years 
after the final judgment the Councils passed a resolu- 
tion remitting a claim for costs. An additional reso- 
lution was passed, ofiering the congregation five thou- 
sand dollars, on condition that they would relinquish 
all claims to the lot. This offer was accepted and the 
controversy was ended. 

Northeast Square became Franklin Square by reso- 

1 Id Harbaugh'i " Life of Schlatter," page :i.'>7, is the foHowiug refer- 
SDCa to some of the mouldering tenaote of the square: "Directly eaat 
of tbe sparkling Jota, a few feet from the edge of tlie circular gravel 
walk, under the green sod, lie the Revs. Stoiiier and Winkhaus, and 
Dn. Weyberg and Hondci, the aged. Directly north of this spot, ahont 
mldwajr between It and Vine Street, lies Rev. Michael Schlatter: 
around these leaders of the Lord's host, far and near, — a silent congre- 
gation now I — ale<>p thonsatids of those to whom they once ministered 
tbe holy ordinances of the church, and the precious Instructions and 
consolations of the Gospel." 

lution of Councils, passed in 1825. Preparations for 
opening the square at night and lighting it by gas 
were made in 1837. By this time the inclosure had 
become in appearance worthy of its use. The trees 
had grown finely and there was a pleasant shade. 
To render it more attractive, a large fountain wjis 
ordered to be constructed by ordinance of Nov. 2, 
1837. It was of grand dimensions, having forty jets 
of water that fell into a marble basin, which was 
guarded from intrusion by an iron railing round the 
top. The centre of the square was chosen for this 
purpose, and when the fountain was finished, a com- 
plete circle of wooden benches, on the opposite edge 
of the circular walk, was provided for the use of 
citizens. In 1883 the iron railings were taken down, 
and were replaced by a low stone coping. The walks 
were laid out with flagging, and the electric light wa.s 

Northwest or Logan Square.— After the North- 
west Square ceased to he used for a burying-ground, 
it remained for some time in a condition of neglect. 
The post and rail fence which inclosed it was but 
little attended to, the rails were broken, and in some 
places the posts were rotting away. The first evi- 
dence of its increasing value was given in 1821. The 
Orphans' Society, the buildings of which were at the 
northeast corner of Schuylkill Fifth [Eighteenth] and 
Cherry Streets, made application in that year to City 
Councils for the use of the square as a pasture-ground, 
and the lease was executed at a rent of sixty dollars 
per year. It was ordered that the ground should be 
fenced in to prevent carts from driving through. 
William Gross was hanged in the Northwest Square 
on the 7th of February, 1823, an occurrence which 
drew a great crowd, and contributed toward breaking 
down trees and injuring the fences. It was the last 
public execution held on that ground. The value of 
this square began to be appreciated in 1825, when an 
ordinance was passed changing its name from North- 
west to Logan Square, in honor of James Logan, 
secretary to William Penn. By ordinance of Feb. 
13, 1834, the city commissioners were authorized "to 
lay out and mark off a ]iassage or strip of ground fifty 
feet in width along the western edge or boundary of 
Logan Square, the whole length thereof from north 
to South, and that the said street shall be called 
Logan Street." Freedom of ingress and egress to the 
owners or occupants of buildings upon the said street 
or passage-way was pledged by the ordinance, the 
owners being under the same obligation as to curbing 
and paving along the fronts of their buildings, as 
owners of other houses and lots fronting upon other 
streets in the city. By ordinance of Sept. 15, 1842, 
which referred to Logan, Rittenhouse, and Penn 
Squares, it was declared to be an oflense punishable 
by fine for any perscm to drive or take into either of 
those squares any horse, cow, cart, wagon, carriage, 
or wheelbarrow, except by permission, or place any 
wood, coal, rubbish, carrion, or offensive matter 



within either of tlie squares, or to climb upon the 
trees, or to injure trees, fences, or gates in the said 
squares, or to dig up the soil or injure the grass, or to 
" run or walk over or lie upon the same." By this 
time Logan Square was under regulation. There was 
an open paling fence, walks had been laid out, trees 
planted, and the ground had been leveled. The 
mounds and hillocks above the graves were oblit- 
erated, the square began to assume the feature of 
a park, and was for some years jealously guarded 
from intrusion. The continual care of the public 
squares had been vested in the Commissioners of 
City Property, under the direction of Councils 
Committee on City Property. Among other things 
they were required to " personally superintend the 
preservation, repairing, and improvement of . . . 
the public squares." Small annual appropria- 
tions to those officers enabled them to make grad- 
ual improvements from year to year, and the 
western squares seemed to grow up without at- 
tracting much public attention until the time had 
come for opening them for public use. By ordi- 
nance passed March 6, 1852, the Committee on 
City Property was authorized to cause an iron 
railing or fence to be constructed around Logan 
Square "of a suitable height from the pavement, 
and secured in and resting on a stone basement." 
The great Sanitary Fair of 1864 was held in Logan 
Square, but so much care was taken that no con- 
siderable injury was done to the trees or herbage. 

Southwest or Rittenhouse Sq[uare. — This 
public pleasure-ground escaped the fate of those 
that were used as cemeteries. In response to pe- 
titions that some improvement should be made 
upon it, in 1816 Councils passed resolutions that 
if the owners and occupants of property in the 
neighborhood would raise eight hundred dollars 
among themselves, and loau it to the city for 
three years without interest. Councils would in- 
close the square with a substantial fence of rough 
boards ; money was raised, and the inclosure fol- 
lowed. In the same year a committee of Coun- 
cils reported in April that the Southwest Square, 
"in those parts not used for particular purposes, 
should be tilled to destroy the weeds with which 
it was overgrown, and laid down with grass as 
soon as possible." 

In 1825 the grounds were named Rittenhouse 
Square, in memory of David Rittenhouse, the phi- 
losopher. In 1840 the American Philosophical 
Society, which had for years been desirous of the privi- 
lege of constructing an astronomical observatory in 
the city, applied to Councils for authority to erect 
such a building in Rittenhouse Square. The com- 
mittee on city property, to which the memorial had 
been referred, made report as follows : 

" The subject is one to which the committee haa given much atten- 
tion, and which they believe has received the approval of former Coun- 
cils. The importance of an observatory is universally admitted. The 

difiBculty usually has been to obtain suitable instruments and to erect a 
proper building. The controllers of the public sclinnls have imported 
from Germany the several instruments required, of suitable size and of 
great excellence. The Philosophical Society is provided with funds to 
erect an edifice such as is required to nse with advantage the inatm- 
ments. All that is now required is a site, which will allow of a sufllcieQt 
horizon, and be at such a distance from the crowded streets as to be be- 
yond the agitation consequent on the petssage of carriages on the pave- 
ment. No place presents itself in the city excepting the public squares, 
and none of them have the advantage possessed by Rittenhouse Square. 


Believing that the great objects of the public squares will not bo inter- 
fered with by (he erection of an observatory upon one of thera, and 
that such building might be regarded as a proper monument to the dis- 
tinguished American whose name has been given to the Southwestern 
Square, and that great public good will be promoted by the measure 
without pecuniary contribution on the part of the city, the committee 
feel authorized to report favorably to the memorial referred to their 

The bill authorized the society to erect the observa- 
tory at its own expense, under the supervision of the 



Committee on City Property, subject to removal from 

the square whenever the mayor and Councils should 
determine. It was passed on the 12th of November, 
1840, but the society for some reason declined to 
enter upon the work, and in September, 1842. the 
ordinance permitting the observatory to be erected 
was repealed. 

On Feb. 13, 1834, the commissioners were ordered 
to lay out a street fifty feet wide alonjr the west edge 
or boundary of Rittenhouse Square, the whole length 
of the square from north to south, and another street 
along the south edge or boundary, the whole length 
from east to west, the western street to be called Rit- 
tenhouse Street and the southern street Locust Street. 
An iron paling was erected around this inclosure 
aliout 1852-53, but, except in the trees, grass, and 
walks, no other improvements were made for many 
years. The first improvement was an iron fountain, 
tall, grotesque, and fanciful, which, by the permission 
of Councils, was put up by a lady near the entrance- 
fjate at Walnut and Rittenhouse Streets. It was fol- 
lowed by the construction of a similar fountain near 
the gate at Eighteenth and Walnut Streets, the gift 
of a gentleman, and another of similar style was put 
up near the gate at Eighteenth and Locust Streets. 
As they dampened the ground, these fountains be- 
came unpopular, and were removed by orders of 
Councils. The dimensions of Rittenhouse Square are 
five liundred and forty feet on each of its four sides. 

Independence Square. — This name was given to 
the State House yard by the ordinance of 1825. It 
occupies four squares and two roods, and its history 
has been fully told in the article upon the State- 
House in a previous cha|)ter. 

Passyunk Square. — When the commissionera for 
building a eounty pri.son purcha.sed ground for that 
purpose, in 1832, on the west side of the Pa.ssyunk road, 
in the district of Moyamensing, they bought a nuicb 
larger tract than was absolutely necessary for the pur- 
pose. The ])rison building was on the east side of the 
lot, south of Reeil Strei't. When built it extended 
northwestward to about Eleventh Street. Beyond that 
several acres ai)purtenant stretched westward as far 
as Thirteenth Street. There being no use for this 
ground, it lay vacant until about 1838, when a projx)- 
sition wa.s made that the s])ace might be utilized as a 
parade-ground for the use of the volunteers and militia 
of the city and county. The inspectors of the ])rison 
were directed to devote the ground to that use, and the 
major-general ami brigadier-generals of tile First Divis- 
ion were authorizeil to ordain the necesiary regula- 
tions for the government of the ground. Evidently 
appropriations were nece-s^ary to put the parade in 
go«Kl order, level it, and preserve it from injury; but 
a-ssistance was not cheerfully given, and whatever was 
done by the volunteers was at their own expense. On I 
the occasion of the few military parades and reviews ' 
which took j)lace there, the ground wa.s found to be 
dusty, rough, and uneven, the sun scorching, and the 

' inclosure without trees or shade. The parade-ground 
was a failure. Upon the consolidation of the city and 
districts this property was vested in the city of Phila- 
delplua. It lay for some years vacant, and was used 
as a commons. At length. Ct>uneils by ordinance re- 
solved that the portion ot the ground lying between 
Wharton and Reed Streets and Twelfth and Thir- 
teenth should be inclosed as a public square. No 
name was given to it originally, but gradually the title 
Piussyunk Square was attached to it. Appropriations 
were made for leveling the ground, laying out walks, 
and planting grass and trees, and within a few years 
this inclosure has become an ornament and a plea.sure 
to th;it |iorticiu of the city. 
I Jefferson Square. — Under an act of Assembly 
( passed April 13, 1835, the commissioners and inhabi- 
tants of the district of Southwark were authorized to 
j purchase, whenever they might consider it expedient, 
I " a lot of ground in said district, to l)e kept open for a 
; public square forever in the same manner that the 
public squares in the city of Philadelphia are kept 
ojien." The authority thus given was not exercised 
! immediately. The question of a large and 
' of increased taxation on the people of the district 
operated to prevent the commissioners from adding to 
the public burden. About 1850 there was some move- 
ment to excite sufficient interest and siiirit among the 
inhabitants of Southwark tojustit\' the commissioners 
in ])Urchasiiig a piece of vacant ground which was 
considered suitable for the purpose, situate between 
Third and Fourth Streets, and extending from Wash- 
ington Street to Federal Street. The dimensions were 
three hundred and ninety-two feet east and west, three 
hundred and seven feet on Fourth Street, and two hun- 
I dred and ninety-two feet on Third Street. Tiie area 
' included two acres and two roods. The i)roperty was 
known as the Miller lot, and beh)nged to the heirs of a 
family of that name. There were some negotiations 
for the i)urchase of the Miller lot, but the commis- 
sioners had not reached the jmint of offering decidedly 
: to buy. Whilst they were hesitating the bill to con- 
I solidate the city of Philadel]>liia and adjoining dis- 
tricts was introduced into the Legislature, and made 
such headway that it was apparent some time before 
the bill was finally passed that it covild not fail ingoing 
through both houses and receiving the approbation of 
the Governor. Under this stimulus the commissioners 
of Southwark, arguing that the district wanted a public 
square, iind that the peojde of the whole city and 
county would have to pay for it, bought the Miller lot 
on credit. They named it Jefferson Square. In the 
City Digest of 1856, compiled by William Duane, 
William B. Hood, and Leonard Myers, it is said of the 
proceeilings of the Southwark commissioners that "It 
is understood that no ordinance was passed, and that 
the resolution upon the subject still remains in manu- 
script." Nevertheless the city of Philadelphia paid 
for Jefferson Square, which has been converted into 
one of the finest of the local plea-sure-grounds. 




Hunting Park. — Forty-five acres of ground at the 
intersection of Nicetown Lane and the Old York 
road were for many years the " Hunting Park Race- 
Course," but under the laws prohibiting horse-racing 
they were gradually abandoned, and remained vacant 
for several years. The property was unoccupied until 
in 1854, under the stimulus of the consolidation act, 
a number of gentlemen, some of whom were inter- 
ested in real estate in the vicinity of the old race- 
course, joined together to purchase the ground, with 
the intention of presenting it to the city, to be used 
as a public park. In their communication sent to 
Councils, Nov. 9, 1854, they stated the fact, and re- 
quested Councils to take measures and receive the 

This generous offer was accepted with little delay. 
On the 29th of January, 1855, a resolution was 
adopted accepting of the ground formerly embraced 
in the Hunting Park Course, in trust, for the use of 
the public as a park. Councils also agreed that they 
would " cause a wooden fence to be erected around 
the said premises ; and that they will enact ordinances 
to forbid, and will otherwise prevent, the sale of liquor, 
or merchandise of whatever kind, within the said 
park; and that they will, within twelve months from 
the date of said conveyance, cause avenues and walks 
to be laid out and properly graded, the plan of which 
shall be approved by a committee to be appointed by 
the said owners; and that they will also plant a suit- 
able number and variety of trees, and keep the same, 
with the grounds, in good order." Upon survey, it 
was found that the inclosure contained about forty- 
three acres two-tenths square perches of land. By 
ordinance of July 10, 1856, the ground was dedicated 
" free of access for all the inhabitants of the city, and 
for the health and enjoyment of the people forever, 
under the name of Hunting Park." By act of April 
4, 1872, the commissioners of Fairmount Park were 
authorized to open a street between Fairmount Park 
and Hunting Park, and to keep it in repair as a park 
road, under their police control and supervision. They 
were also authorized to negotiate with the owners of 
property adjoining Hunting Park on the east and 
south for exchange of ground within the park limit 
for ground outside of it, so as to square the park, and 
to make it more suitable and attractive in shape for 
the purposes intended. 
Fairhill Square. — The heirs and trustees of the 

* The parties who participated in this purchase and gift were Charles 
Henry Fisher, Thomas T. Lea, John Tucker, Isaac B. Davis, Francis N, 
Buck, .lohn Riie, Joseph Swift, Jacob Steinmetz, Charles P. Fox, Fred- 
enck Fraley, Pierce Butler, Josepli S. Lovering, Harry Ingersoll, John 
A. Brown, George Cadwalader, George Roberts Smith, Alfred Cope.S. 
Morris Wain, Samuel Welsh, James Dundas, Philip M. Price, J. Dick- 
inson Logan, Morris L. Hallowell, Henry Pratt McKean, David S. 
Brown, John Grigg, Joseph D. Brown, George G. Presbury, Jr., John 
Farnum, Richard Ashhurst, E, M. Davis, James D. Whetham, C. W. 
Churchman and friends, Joseph R. Ingersoll, Isaac Norris, William 
Welsh, Gustavus G. Logan, John B. Myers, J. Francis Fisher, William 
Goodrich, Isaac F. Baker, Caleb Cope and friends, Charles H. Bogei^ 
and friend, George B. Wood and friends. 

estate of Joseph Parker Norris held for many years 
after his death a large tract of land, embraced in 
what was called the Fairhill and Sepviva estates, in 
the district of Kensington. The Fairhill estate was 
on the east side of Germantown road, and extended 
over almost to the Delaware, crossing the Frankford 
road. The eastern portion of the ground, which lay 
to the east of Frankford road, was called Sepviva. 
The western portion was known as Fairhill, The 
original Sepviva plantation in the last century was 
one hundred and fifty-five acres, and the Fairhill 
estate five hundred and thirty acres. This large 
j body of land, six hundred and eighty-five acres in 
I all, was derived from Isaac Norris, of Fairhill, who 
had obtained title to some of it as early as 1713. It 
remained substantially in the ownership of his de- 
1 scendants in the present century. After the death of 
Joseph Parker Norris, June 22, 1841, the members of 
the family made arrangements to bring the body ot 
land into the market in the shape of building lots. 
In doing so they generously determined, for the bene- 
fit of the persons who would buy land of them, as well 
a.s for the improvement generally of the district of 
Kensington, to devote two considerable pieces for 
public uses. By act of Assembly, passed April 6, 
1848, the trustees and parties in interest were author- 
ized to convey to the commissioners of Kensington 
district in fee-simple for such consideration as they 
might think proper, "and to be held for public use 
as a public green and walk forever, and to be used for 
no other use or purpose whatever, the plot or square of 
ground now called Fairhill Square, part of the said 
Fairhill estate, bounded by Lehigh Avenue on the 
north, by Huntingdon on the south. Fourth Street on 
the east, and Apple Street on the west." The com- 
missioners were required to keep the ground properly 
inclosed, and planted with trees, for a public square 
and walk for light, air, and recreation forever. The 
consideration was merely nominal, and in 1851 the 
title was accepted by the solicitor of the district of 
Kensington. The ground was put under cultivation, 
and Fairhill Square is now one of the best features of 

Norris Square. — By the act of Assembly of 1848, 
which authorized the conveyance to the district ot 
Kensington of Fairhill Square, the commissioners 
were also authorized to accept Norris Square, part of 
the Fairhill estate, bounded by Susquehanna Avenue 
on the north. Diamond Street on the south, Howard 
Street on the east, and Hancock Street on the west. 
Upon the county plan a passage called Clinton Street 
was laid down, running through this inclosure from 
north to south. It was vacated by act of Assembly. 
The same directions to the Kensington commissioners 
in regard to keeping the square open for general use 
and benefit as a public green and walk forever were 
given, with injunction as to inclosing of the ground 
and planting of trees, which were directed to be in 
force in relation to Fairhill Square. Norris Square 



was held under a lease from the Norris family in 
1851, but at the time when the lease expired, in the 
same year, the commissioners of the district toolc pos- 
session of the property. By ordinance of Nov. 21, 
1859, the plan of Franklin Square was adopted as tlie 
plan for the improvement of Norris Square, except- 
ing that the fountains were omitted. There is, how- 
ever, a handsome fountain in the square, surrounded 
by flower-beds. 

Shackamaxon Square. — When the Point Pleasant 
Market, at the intersection of Frankford road and 
Maiden Street, was built, in 1819, under the authority 
of the commissioners of the district of Northern Lib- 
erties, there was left on its western side an open space, 
which it was proposed to convert into a public square. 
Upon the incorporation of the district of Kensington 
in 1820, authority over the market was vested in the 
Kensington commissioners, and the same jurisdiction 
was extended over the square. As the market was 
deserted by dealers, it was torn down, and tlie grounds 
were neglected until, in 1845. the commissioners re- 
solved that two dozen seats should be placed in the 
square, and that it should be kept open, under the 
supervision of the police, from six o'clock in the 
morning to eight o'clock in the evening, daily, from 
the 1st of May to the 31st of August. At a later 
period in the same year an ordinance was passed for 
the regulation of the public square, prohibiting in- 
jury to the trees or benches, making it an offense for 
any one to lie down in the square, or to use insulting 
language to any person passing through the grounds. 
The commissioners gave no name to the place. In 
1850 an act of Assembly was passed which declared 
that the public square in the district of Kensington, 
bounded on the northwest by the Frankford road, on 
the southeast by Beach Street, on the southwest by 
Maiden Street, and on the northeast by Manderson 
Street, should be thereafter called Shackamaxon 
Square. The commissioners were authorized to keep 
the inclosure in good order, for the purposes in- 
tended, and to tear down and remove the market- 
house fronting on Beach Street whenever they should 
deem it expedient to do so. This privilege was soon 
exercised, as the market-house had become useless, 
except as a resort for the disreputable classes of the 

Germantown Square. — The Gcrmantown public 
square is upon Main Street and in front of the town 
hall. The ground was purchased by the borough 
authorities in 1854, just previous to consolidation, 
and the cost was charged upon the city. The square 
is decorated with the monument to tlu' soldiers of 
Germantown who fell during the civil war, which was 
dedicated on July 4, 1883. It is a lofty cenotaph, 
surmounted by a granite statue of an American sol- 

TJnion Square. — Union Square, a triangular piece 
of ^Toiirid, bounded on the south by Buttonwood 
Street, on the west by Fifth Street, and on the east 

by Old York road, is not of great extent, but being 
neatly inclosed with an iron fence, and the trees and 
grass kept in order, it is a pleasant and open place 
for the benefit of the neighborhood and for the pub- 
lic who pass along the street. This space of ground 
was once occupied by some old buildings. A better 
class of houses having been erected on Fifth Street 
and York Avenue, the parties interested in those 
properties united in subscriptions to purchase the 
property. The ground was cleared, dedicated to pub- 
lic use, and accepted by ordinance of Councils dated 
July 11, 1864. 

Thouron Square. — Thouron Square, a small trian- 
gular piece of ground at the intersection of Sixth 
Street and Germantown road, was dedicated for pub- 
lic use about the time of the Centennial Exhibition. 

Fairmount Park. — The vast and magnificent pleas- 
ure-grouud to which the nanje of Fairmount Park has 
been given w:ts not the outgrowth of any suggestion 
or expectation that it would ever be possible to ob- 
tain two thousand acres on the banks of the Schuyl- 
kill for public use. It is quite well known that the 
first purchases of ground at Fairmount were for the 
enlargement of the city water-works, and it was 
not until forty years later that the idea of a public 
park was mooted. But when the project was once 
mentioned it caught the fancy of the community, and 
Fairmount Park was created by successive gifts and 
purchases. The earliest intimation that it might be 
judicious for the city to acquire Morris Hill, as the 
lower portion of Fairmount was then styled, was 
made by Frederick Graff, engineer of the water- 
works, and John Davis, who, in 1810 or 1811, were 
directed by the water committee of Councils to make 
examination of the best means of increasing the water 
supply. On Dec. 18, 1811, Mr. Graff made a report sug- 
gesting the erection of pumping-machines and reser- 
voirs on Morris Hill. On Aug. 13, 1812, aii ordinance 
was passed empowering the mayor to raise money for 
the construction of works at Fairmount for supplying 
the eity with water. The reportsof the department state 
that the first purchase of ground .at Fairmount wa« 
made on June 28, 1812, when five acres were obtained 
for sixteen thousand six hundred and sixty-six dol- 
lars, and that the steam-works were begun in August 
of the same year. It has proved to have been ex- 
ceedingly fortunate that the members of the Councils 
I'Dnimittee directing the construction of the works 
were men of ta-ste and prevision. Morris Hill rose so 
Bttep from the edge of the river that there was barely 
sjiaee between its verge and the water for the con- 
struetiiiM of the engine-house, and when it was deter- 
mined to substitute water-j)Ower for steam as a pump- 
ing energy, a great deal of bla.sting had to be done on 
this rocky frontage to make an entrance to the grounds 
and to give space for the forebay. This accomplished 
and the wheel-houses built, the Councils saw that 
there was an ojiijortunity for laying out and cultiva- 
ting a garden which would always be a favorite place 



of public resort. William Rush, the sculptor, who 
was a member of the water committee, was appealed to, 
and his figures of the " Nymph and the Swan" were 
brought from Centr-e Square and placed on the rocks 
above the west side of the forebay, and, with addition 
of several jets, which were constantly in play in fine 
weather, were of themselves a constant wonder and 
delight. Crowning the pediments of the doorways of 
the wheel-houses were two reclining figures, by Rush, 
of full life size, with accessories, and they were so 
prominent as always to attract admiration and atten- 
tion. When they were finished and set in place they 
were thus described : 

"The male figure represents the Schuylkill in its 
present improved state, no longer running uncon- 
trolled, but flowing gently from dam to dam, and 
passing through artificial canals by locks and gates. 

ing main. Water gushes out of the top, falling into 
the vase, and, to make it more picturesque, but not 
appropriate, overflowing the vase and falling down 
its sides." 

There was a pretty garden with grass-plats and 
trees planted on the south side of the inclosure, ex- 
tending from the entrance north of the Upper Ferry 
bridge as far as the forebay, from which steps ex- 
tended to a paved way lower than the adjoining 
ground, and extending from along the front of the 
forebay to the head of the race bridge, from which a 
raised walk ran out into the Schuylkill to the edge of 
the dam, where, in 1835, was constructed a pavilion 
sustained by pillars, and arranged with seats for the 
comfort of visitors. At the same time the large build- 
ing nearest Callowhill Street, which had been the 
engine-house, was altered into a public saloon, and 


" The female personifies the water, — a work un- 
equaled in its kind throughout the world. 

" The male figure is recumbent on a bed of rocks, the 
water flowing in several directions from him. It repre- 
sents Old Age, the head covered with flags, a long 
flowing beard, the body covered with water-grass, 
etc., and a chain attached to the wrist, intended to 
emblemize the neutralized state of the Schuylkill by 
locks and dams. A bald eagle at his feet with wings 
opening is about to abandon the banks of the Schuyl- 
kill in consequence of the busy scene which art is in- 

"The female figure is represented as seated near 
the pump which pours water into the reservoir. On 
the left side is represented a water-wheel ; her left 
arm gently waved over it is indicative of the water- 
power ; her right arm or elbow rests on the edge of a 
large vase, representing the reservoir at Fairmount. 
On the side of the vase a pipe represents the aacend- 

in it were placed the full-length statues of Justice 
and Wisdom that had been carved by Rush in 1824 
for the ornamentation of the triumphal arch erected 
in front of the State-House upon the occasion of the 
reception of Lafayette. 

The summit of the sharp acclivity west of the wheel- 
houses was gained by steps and platforms, ujion which . 
there were resting-places in the shape of arbors, from 
which the most delightful views of surrounding 
scenery were to be had. The reservoirs at the top of 
the hill were guarded with an open fence, outside of 
which a hard-rolled gravel path was carried around 
the circumference of the mount, which broke away in 
three terraces, upon which shade-trees were planted. 
The Fairmount gardens, opened in 1825, were the 
show-place of the city. No stranger was allowed to 
think that he had seen anything of Philadelphia un- 
less he was taken to Fairmount Water-Works, and 
this small plot at the southwest limit of the present 



noble inclosure was the inception of Fairmount Park. 
The ground did not at first extend out to the line of 
the street. A portion of the space between the bridge 
and Fairmount projier was occupied by the bridge 
company, and upon it was l>uilt a dwelling-house for 
the accommodation of their toll-gatherer. In 1835 
the company built a toll-house opposite the entrance 
of the bridge, and an arrangement was then made by 
which a lot belonging to the city at Callowhill Street 
and Schuylkill Second was sold, and from the pro- 
ceeds, with other money, the bridge ])roperty adjoin- 
ing Fairmount garden was bought, and the line of the 
inclosure brought out to the street. 

The original dimensions of Fairmount being only 
five acres, additions were made from time to time, 
until in 1828 the reservation comprised twenty-four 
acres, the aggregate cost of which w:is one hundred 
and sixteen thousand eight hundred and thirty-four 
dollars. It then included the ground from Biddle 
Street up to Fairmount Avenue, and from the Schuyl- 
kill over to what is now known as Twenty-fifth Street. 
The northern side was for many years a barren and 
unsightly waste, but finally it was fenced in along 
Fairmount Avenue fnmi the Schuylkill landing to the 
Philadelphia and Columbia Railroad, and thence to 
the rise of the hill below Green Street, and trees were 

The extent of this improvement is yet visible in the 
appearance of the ground between the line of Fair- 
mount Avenue and Green Street, which is deeply 
shaded. Northof Fairmount, on the north sideof Fair- 
mount Avenue from the Columbia Railroad nearly to 
the river Schuylkill, were hotels and houses for many 
years after the water-works had become a place of great 
resort. An old-fashioned country house, which, about 
1832 and afterward, was occupied as a tavern, called 
the " Four Nations Hotel," was near the railroad. 
From that point extended westward dwelling-houses 
and shops, until at the extreme point of the square 
near to the Schuylkill, and at the corner of a street 
running northwest which stretched out toward Lemon 
Hill, was a conspicuous four-story establishment, 
visible from nearly all parts of Fairmount, which was 
called the Robert Morris Hotel. Farther up on the 
northeast side of Landing Avenue were dwelling- 
houses, some of which were torn down in later years 
to make place for the Rialto House, a tavern and 
place of resort for the crews of the amateur boating 
clubs on the Schuylkill. Farther on beyond the Rialto, 
and on the southwestern bank of a creek which flowed 
out from the Dark Woods, was for many years a rol- 
ling-n)ill. The creek was crossed by a bridge, and 
Landing Avenue was continued up until it met an- 
other creek, which came down on the east side of the 
high ground of Lemon Hill. On the side of this creek 
was once partially erected a stone building, which it 
was saiil wa-s originally intended to be occupied as a 
mill for making beet-sugar. It was afterward utilized 
as an ice-house. The place where that creek crossed 

and fell into the Schuylkill was a little south of the 
spot where the Lincoln monument now stands, and 
the main driving road east of the Schuylkill goes over 
the line of the creek. On the southwest side of Land- 
ing Avenue there was a narrow strip of ground from 
Fairmount Avenue upward, upon which were built 
store-houses with wharves. Between the mouths of the 
Dark Woods and Lemon Hill Creeks was a place for 
the mooring of rafts and boats, which were kept there 
to be hired out for use on the Schuylkill. This was 
the condition of the neighborhood of Fairmount 
Water- Works up to the year 1867 or 1868. 

In the mean while the city had become the owner 
of the Lemon Hill estate, once the seat of Henry 
Pratt, which, having been bought from him by Isaac 
S. Lloyd, was lost when that daring real-estate specu- 
lator got into difliculties. The United States Bank, 
either to prevent loss or for speculative purposes, 
took the property after it passed from the control of 
Lloyd. When that institution failed, efforts were 
made to induce the city of Philadelphia to buy it. 
Interested persons suggested that its possession would 
be a matter of absolute necessity to the city, in order 
to prevent it from being built upon, and the waters 
of the Schuylkill polluted by discharges from build- 
ings. Over two thousand four hundred citizens 
petitioned Councils to make the purchase, and the 
College of Physicians presented a memorial in which 
the advantage of the acquisition to the public health 
was gravely represented. At the time affairs were 
gloomy, the failure of the bank having brought many 
persons of affluence face to face with poverty. Real 
estate was worse than a drug in the market, and it 
required a good deal of tact to get rid of so large a 
piece of property as this. The bank had paid two 
hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars for it, and 
was holding it for a sale at two hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars ; but its own failure broke the spirit 
of speculation. The trustees wanted one hundred 
and thirty thousand dollars for the estate, but the 
city bought it for seventy-five thousand dollars, pay- 
able in a five per cent. loan. The conveyance was 
made on the 24tli of July, 1844. The ground was 
leased for several years to a tenant, who used the old 
Pratt mansion and ground for a beer-house and gar- 
den. It became famous with German citizens, and a 
favorite spot for picnics, Easter Sunday and Easter 
Monday celebrations, and for entertainment* at other 
times. It was not until the 15th of September, 1855, 
that Councils jia.sscd the ordinance dedicating Lemon 
Hill for the purposes ol' a jiublic |)ark, to be known 
as Fairmount Park. The ground was about forty- 
two acres in extent. As soon as this dedication wa.s 
made, measures were adopted to imi>rove the ground. 
Some of the outbuildings of Lemon Hill were re- 
moved, the mansion was altered in certain respects 
for the better accomtnodation of the i)ublic, the old 
walks, parterres, and garden-beds remained, and, in 
addition to Fairmount Water- Works, the visitor was 


V]IS!7 &? J^^JflMSUKl-T ffl/^VTlH-^JSJlllS ®W TMI 8©J^y-ya,313t!L. 



directed to Fairmount Park, crossing Fairmount 
Avenue, and walking along the especially hot and 
unshaded line of Landing Avenue. 

Some wealthy citizens took au interest in the ex- 
tension of the grounds, and subscribed a fund toward 
the purcliase of the Sedgeley estate, immediately 
north of Lemon Hill on the Schuylkill, bounded on 
the northeast by the Reading Railroad and extending 
to Girard Avenue. This property, formerly belonging 
to the Mifflin and Fislier families, had been bought in 
1836 b)' Isaac S. Lloyd for speculative purposes. He 
paid seventy thousand dollars, and on being sold by 
the sheriff it passed into the hands of an individual, 
who in turn disposed of it to Ferdinand J. Dreer. 
Mr. Dreer then sold it to Henry Cope, Alfred Cope, 
Joseph Harrison, Thomas Ridgeway, Nathaniel B. 
Browne, and George W. Biddle, the trustees for the 
subscribers to the fund to procure Sedgeley for the 
enlargement of the park. A deficit occurred in the 
purchase-money because of all the subscriptions not 
being paid up, and the city acquired the property by 
paying the balance of forty-five thousand dollars due 
on the mortgage and assuming all responsibilities. 
The transaction was completed in 1857, and thus 
Sedgeley was added to Fairmount Park. 

The tract extended from the Lemon Hill Creek or 
Run up the Schuylkill, crossing Girard Avenue, to the 
little creek or run which came down on the south 
side of the Spring Garden Water- Works. The latter 
being at the time, by reason of the act of consolida- 
tion, city property, increased the possession of the 
park, and ran it up as far as the great rock upon which 
in after-years the eastern abutment of the connecting 
bridge was built. 

For ten years Fairmount Park was the ground north 
and west of Landing Avenue, separated by the latter 
from the property and grounds of Fairmount Water- 
Works. After the acquisition of Sedgeley, Councils 
determined to obtain possession of the neck of land 
between the water-works and Lemon Hill, which 
included all the property on Fairmount Avenue and 
Landing Avenue, which was done under a jury award 
for fifty-five thousand dollars. Memorials to City Coun- 
cils and the Legislature sought some small purchases 
of ground on the west side of the Schuylkill, and while 
these measures were pressed, but not acted upon defi- 
nitely, four citizens learned that the Lansdowne tract 
on the west side of the Schuylkill, belonging to the 
family of Barings in England, was about to be sold, 
and that the owners were disposed to accept a price 
much below the actual value of the ground. They 
understood that if the Lansdowne property was 
brought into the market it would become an object of 
speculation, and that the construction of buildings 
would follow, with necessary risk of drainage into the 
Schuylkill and pollution of the water. They had 
the opportunity and they bought the ground, their 
intention being to offer it to the city of Philadelphia 
at cost price if used for public purposes. The offer 

was promptly accepted, and one hundred and forty 
acres were bought for eighty-four thousand nine hun- 
dred and fifty-three dollars. 

The acquisition of this large tract naturally led to 
a demand that there should l)e some better system of 
management of the park than had yet been provided. 
Jurisdiction over the works and adjacent ground was 
shared between the chief engineer of the water-works 
and the commissioner of city property. The latter 
had done something toward the decoration of the 
grounds near Fairmount, but wiis restricted by small 
appropriations from devising or executing any en- 
larged plan. It was necessary that there 
some better jurisdiction, and in accordance with public 
sentiment an act was passed " appropriating ground 
for public purposes in the city of Philadelphia" on 
the 26th of March, 1867. It declared that the title and 
ownership to certain ground on the west side of the 
river Schuylkill should be vested in the city of Philar 
delphia, "to be laid out and maintained forever as an 
open public jilace or park, for the health and enjoy- 
ment of the people of the said city, and the preser- 
vation of the purity of the water supply." To de- 
scribe the ground thus appropriated by metes and 
bounds would be tedious. Generally, it may be said 
that it took in the area on the west side of the 
Schuylkill, the lines of which can be easily traced in 
the present park, extending from the west side of the 
Fairmount or Callowhill Street bridge northwardly 
by Bridgewater Street, Haverford Street, and the 
Pennsylvania Railroad, up to the Junction Railroad, 
and along the latter to Girard Avenue; crossing that 
highway to the north side of the park, it ran due west 
to Forty-first Street, and northward along the latter 
to Lansdowne Avenue, and then westwardly to 
Belmont Avenue, up Belmont northward to Mont- 
gomery Avenue ; thence eastward along the same 
to the river Schuylkill, and down that stream by the 
banks to the west side of the Fairmount bridge, the 
place of beginning. In this area were included the 
West Philadelphia Water-Works, which were oppo- 
site Lemon Hill, and the noted country-seats of Soli- 
tude, Egglesfield, Sweet Brier, and Lansdowne, with 
a gore of ground north of the latter, between the 
regular line of Lansdowne and Montgomery Avenue. 
The grounds were to be managed by a board of com- 
missioners, composed of the mayor, presidents of Se- 
lect and Common Councils, the commissioner of city 
properly, the chief engineer and surveyor, and the 
chief engineer of the water-works of the city, together 
with five citizens appointed for five years by the Dis- 
trict Court, and five citizens appointed for the same 
period of time by the Court of Common Pleas. They 
were to receive no compensation for their services. 
The coumiissioners were authorized to negotiate and 
agree with the owners of the ground within the space 
specified for the purchase thereof and if no agree- 
ment could be made, to introduce proceedings to con- 
demn the ground and award damages, the whole being 




subject to the approval of the Court of Quarter Ses- 
sions. They were to have the whole management and 
care of Fairuiount Park on both banks of the river 
Schuylkill. In due time afterward the Fairmount 
Park Commission wa.-* organized. It was composed 
of Morton McMichael, mayor of the rity ; Joshua 
Spering, president of Select Council ; Joseph F. Mar- 
cer, president of Common Council ; Charles Dixey, 
commissioner of city property ; Strickland Kneass, 
chief engineer and surveyor; Frederick Graff (the 
second), chief engineer of the water-works; and the 
following citizens : Eli K. Price, John Welsh, William 
Sellers, Joseph Harrison, Jr., and John C. Cresson, 
appointed by the District Court ; and Nathaniel B. 
Browne, Theodore Cuyler, Henry M. Phillips, Gus- 
tavus Remak, and Maj.-Gen. George G. Meade, ap- 
pointed by the Court of Common Pleas. Mr. Mc- 
Michael was elected president, and at his death in 
1879 was succeeded by William S. Stokley, who in 
1881 was succeeded by Henry M. Phillips. 

X. B. Browne was elected treasurer, Joseph ,F. 
Marcer secretary, and David F. Foley (not a mem- 
ber of the commission) assistant secretary. Stand- 
ing committees were appointed on land purchases and 
damages, on plans and improvements, on superin- 
tendence ami police, on finance and of audit ; also 
an executive committee, composed of theofBcersof the 
board and the chairmen of the five standing commit- 
tees, and a special committee upon the subject of 
" tlie preservation of the i)urity of the water supply." 
During they ear after the commissioners were appointed 
they did but little. They came to the opinion at an 
early jieriod that the ground acquired was not suffi- 
cient, as on the east side of the Schuylkill there was 
no park property north of the Spring Garden Water- 
Works. An act of Assembly of 1866 authorized the 
purchase of the small strip of ground between the 
Reading Railroad and the river as far north as the 
Columbia bridge, but beyond this there was no pro- 
tection, and on the west side of the Schuylkill the 
extreme western boundary was below the bridge. If 
the water supply was to be preserved from pollution 
park extension was unavoidable, and in their report 
for 1867 the committee on plans and improvements 
said, " Now, if ever, while it is yet possible to be done 
at a cost which is moderate when compared with its 
advantages, we must possess the ground which sur- 
rounds our water supply so closely that the impurities 
which are drained from its surface must necessarily 
be drawn into the reservoirs, and, by preventing the 
erection of dwellings and manufactories on the shores 
of the basin and of the waters closely adjacent, provide 
against the pollution of the water which is the sole 
supply for domestic of the present and of the 
future population of this vast and rapidly-growing 
city. If we fail to do so, and our population con- 
tinues to increase in the ratio of our past progress, 
twenty years will not pa-ss before the shores of the 
Schuylkill will be crowded with dwellings and man- 

ufactories pouring their impurities- into the basin, and 
compelling the city, at an enormous cost, either to 
build fresh water-works at some other point, where 
pure" water for domestic uses may be had, or else 
to acquire the very ground — the purchase of which 
we now recommend while its cost is moderate — when 
its price will have been so enhanced as to make its 
acquisition almost impracticable." The committee 
proposed that the boundaries of the park should be 
increased, commencing on the west side of the river 
Schuylkill, near the city bridge at the Falls; thence 
southwardly and westward down to the Lansdowne 
property (already belonging to the park), and out the 
Ford road to George's Run, not far from the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad. On the east side of the river the 
ground was to be extended above the Spring Garden 
Water-Works so as to take in the space between 
Thirty-third Street and the Schuylkill River as far 
as Laurel Hill Cemetery, west of which it was to be 
carried by a driving-road (one hundred feet wide, and 
above that point one hundred and fifty feet wide) 
along the Schuylkill up to the intersection of the 
Ridge turnpike and School Lane ; thence between 
the Ridge turnpike and the Schuylkill up to the 
southeasterly side of Wissahickon Creek, then cross- 
ing the Schuylkill to the Reading Railroad property 
at the city boundary line and the place of beginning. 
They also recommended that the control of the Wis- 
sahickon and of both the shores of that creek within 
narrow limits, yet sufficient to protect the water from 
impurities, should be acquired by the city, to be used 
in connection with the park. The whole extent of the 
ground thus recommended to be taken and comprised 
within the limits of the park, including the water 
ana of the river, was computed to be sixteen hundred 
anil eighteen and one-fifth acres. The extra ground 
recommended to be taken in addition to that pre- 
viously embraced in the park was one hundred and 
fifty-one acres on the eastern side and six hundred 
acres on the western side of the river. This did not 
include the property along the Wissahickon, which 
it was suggested shouM be put under control of the 
city, but which was not asked to be included within 
the park grounds. 

The draft of the bill to enlarge the boundaries ol 
the park was presented to the attention of Ci>uncil8, 
which acted in a very liberal sjiirit, and with the in- 
tention to secure ground that might be needed at some 
future time for basins and rcsorvoirs by adding to the 
proposed territory on tlie east side of the river and 
south of South Laurel Hill three hundred and ten acres 
adilitional. The As.scnd)ly a.ssented to the demands 
made by the passage of the act of April 14, 1868, which 
not only made a grant of the ground within the en- 
larged area, hut directed that the ])ark commissioners 
should ap])ropriate " the shores of the Wis-sahickon 
Creek, tm both sides of the same from its mouth to 
the Paul's Mill road, and of such width ;us may em- 
brace the road now passing along the .same, and may 



also protect the purity of the water of said creek, and 
by passing along the crest of the heights which are on 
either side of the said creek may preserve the beauty 
of its scenery." The act provided for the laying out 
of a road of easy and practicable grades, " extending 
from the intersection of the northerly line of the park 
by Belmont Avenue, on the westerly side of the Schuyl- 
kill, to the head of Roberts Hollow, and thence along 
said hollow and the river Schuylkill to the foot of City 

estimated that the amount, excluding the Wissahickon 
ground and the road through Roberts Hollow, was 
two thousand two hundred and forty acres. This, it 
was calculated, left about sixteen hundred acres 
to be acquired ; but the area wa-s reduced some- 
what by river surface, so that the actual purchases 
necessary were a fraction over nine hundred and sixty- 
nine acres. While the commissioners were busily em- 
ployed in carrying out the work, they experienced an 


Avenue, laid out, with the ground contiguous thereto 
for ornamentation, of such width and so constructed 
as the commissioners . . . maj' determine. And such 
road and its contiguous ground are hereby declared to 
be a part of the aforesaid park." The act also con- 
tained a code of rules and regulations for the govern- 
ment of the park, and ordered that the commissioners 
should employ, equip, and pay a park force adequate 
to maintain good order therein. When the commis- 
sioners got to work in negotiating for the land they 

unexpected generosity in the presentation to them and 
to the city by Jesse George and his sister, Rebecca 
George, of the loftj' piece of ground west of the as- 
signed park boundaries, which was known as George's 
Hill. At that time Jesse George was over eighty-three 
years of age, and his sister was of advanced years. In 
his communication to the park commissioners, Mr. 
George stated that the ground had been the uninter- 
rupted home of his ancestors for many generations, 
and from the original settlement of the country. He 



had been frequently applied to to sell portions of it on 
account of its lotly situation, but had declined. He 
said, " I had ex]iec'ted to retain |)ossession during my 
lifetime, and had thought of devising some of this 
ground to some iiuhlie use thereafter. Considering 
the benefits which a public park will secure for the 
health, recreation, and enjoyment of the citizens of 
Philadelphia, I have determined that this disposition 
would be as useful to the peojjle as any other. . . . My 
sister Rebecca George is joint owner with me in that 
portion which belongs to the estate of my. brother 
Edwin George, now deceased, and she joins with me 
in making the same offer." The ground was eighty- 
three acres situate at such a lofty attitude as to over- 
look the city of Philadelphia in the distance. The 
conditions were that annuities of four thousand dollars 
per year should lie paid to .Jesse George and Rebecca 
George during their respective lifetimes. 

These payments were not many. Rebecca George 
died on the 10th of November, 1869, aged seventy- 
eight years, and Jesse George died Feb. 14, 1873, and 
the whole property came into the possession of the 
city. By resolution it was determined that this por- 
tion of the park should be forever known as George's 
Hill. Upon the passage of the act of 1868 the com- 
missioners concluded a piece of work that ought to 
have been done long before. This was the acquisition 
of the ground between the old water-works and Lemon 
Hill, situate upon Fairmount Avenue and Landing 
Avenue. This ground had been authorized to be 
taken by ordinance passed in 1864, but legal proceed- 
ings delayed action for four years. 

The commissioners in their first report set forth 
their understanding of the object for which a park 
should be supported and the benefits to be acquired. 
They said, — 

" The primary requisite of the park for popular recreation is an ex- 
panne of green sward partly sheltered and adorned by trees and sbrub- 

" These simple niral elements will of themselves give pleasure and 
healthful exhilaraticin to people of alt ages and conditions, but a large 
community need something mure. 

"There should bo breadth enough of open lawns to give room for 
play-grounds and parades ; shaded and secluded spots in sufficient num- 
ber to present ample opportunity for the enjoyment of the quiet, doubly 
grateHll to those who temporarily escape from the din of crowded city 
street!, Tb6r« should be ornatuental fountains and abundant supplies 
of running water accessible for the refreshment of visitors of all degrees 
and of the animals admitted fur their convenience or amusement. 

"There sbonld also be arbore and other structures for shelters and 
rest, as well as suitable arrangements to facilitate the enjoyment of fine 
Tiews of the park and the surrounding scenery." 

Easy access to works of art and beauties of 
nature must be provided, recjuiring road and walks 
skillfully designed for securing to all visitors, both 
pedestrians and riders, freedom from danger or any 
reason to apprehend dangerous interference with 
their common recreation. 

As to laying out the grounds, the general system 
necessary was concluded to be such as would give 
easy access to all interesting objects by judiciously 
adapting the roads for pleasant transit, without in- 

jury to the natural scenery among which they were 
to be located. The diversified character of the 
ground, and the abundance of noble trees and groves, 
gav£ to the commissioners at many points a park 
made to their hands, replete with the objects which 
form nature's share of its adornment. 

Seven engineering parties were sent out the first 
season, led by Samuel L. Smedley, surveyor and 
regulator of the city. One of these, under the lead 
of John D. Estabrook, made a special survey of a line 
for a sewer designed to convey the drainage of the 
factories at Manayunk to tide-water below Fairmount 

An enumeration of the trees standing in the park, 
in 1869, excepting those on the borders of the Wissa- 
hickon, showed that there were thirty-four thousand 
seven hundred trees of large size, between eighteen 
feet and twenty-seven feet in girth, and that they 
embraced thirty-nine genera and sixty species. The 
trees of less size were nearly seventy thousand, and 
the hard-wood shrubs and vines were estimated to be 
nearly two thousand in number. There were one hun- 
dred and fifteen springs of water and wells. The high- 
est level in the West Park was a short distance north 
of Belmont mansion, at an elevation of two hundred 
and forty-three feet above tide. In the Eiist Park the 
highest spot was on the Strawberry mansion tract, 
one hundred and thirty feet above tide. An esti- 
mate made at the same time of the length of fence 
or impervious hedges for outside inclosure was that 
nearly eight miles would be required ; and that the 
length for single screens for railways outside of the 
boundary, and double screens for railways inside, 
would exceed ten miles. 

In the second annual report of the commissioners 
of the park, laying aside the formal expressions usual 
in such documents, they became enthusiastic in set- 
ting forth the beauties of the ground over which they 
had control. Thus they observed, — 

"Lying in what in a few years will be the very 
heart of the city ; exhibiting singly and in combina- 
tion every variety of picturesque as])ect; ]>resenting 
contours, both smooth and broken, adapted to all 
forms of embellishment, and soil suited to all kinds 
of cultivation; bountifully endowed with stately and 
umbrageous trees ; irrigated by numerous brooks, 
which, as they meander from the higher to the lower 
levels, babble over pebbly bottoms, or leap in flash- 
ing cascades, or spread into shining pools; and partly 
composed of two romantic streams, flowing for miles 
between banks of verdurous lawn or sloping wood- 
land, or rock-girt precipice ; Fairmount Park, consid- 
ered in reference to the uses for which it is intended 
and the situation it occupies, may justly claim to be 
without a rival. Superb and elegant as are many of 
the parks belonging to European capitals, except in 
the architectural and sculptural adornments which 
the lavish application of wealth has bestowed, or the 
grand and graceful arboreous avenues which the care- 


i)lg^]t-o L^oaiL, UyJlSiiJ J'lrl e)!? DjieoiniiJlli«l StlElliul. 



ful nurture of centuries lias secured, there is no one 
among them to which it is inferior, while in natural 
capacities it far exceeds them all. And if the people 
of Philadelphia have-been fortunate in the site selected 
for their park, because of these natural capabilities, 
they are still more fortunate in the economic results 
which that selection involves. For many years the 
gravest topic submitted for municipal deliberation 
had been one connected with the water supply of the 
city. Whether that supply could continue to be drawn 
in sufficient abundance and of the desired purity from 
the Schuylkill, or whether it would have to be sought 
in more distant regions, were questions which deeply 
exercised not only the public functionaries, but all 
thoughtful citizens. In the discussion of these ques- 
tions it became manifest that, if the latter alternative 
were adopted, it would compel an outlay of many mil- 
lions of dollars. The formation of huge artificial 
lakes, and the construction of long lines of aqueducts 
through a rugged country, as experience elsewhere 
had shown, could only be accomplished at an enor- 
mous expense, and, when completed, the cost of main- 
tenance and repair would be proportionately heavy. 
To avert this but one course was feasible, and that 
was the dedication of the park as its boundaries are 
now defined." The commissioners went on to argue 
that without a park the water of the Schuylkill River 
would have soon been unfit for use. " Singular and 
paradoxical as the statement may seem, it is never- 
theless true that by this purchase Philadelphia will 
actually save money, and practically get a park for 
nothing. In other words, without the acquisition and 
disposition of this land it would not be possible to pro- 
tect the Schuylkill from such contamination as would 
speedily make its waters unfit for general use, and in 
that contingency a resort to remoter sources of supply 
would be inevitable. Such a resort could not be suc- 
cessfully had without the expenditure of at least twice 
the amount expended in procuring the ground in Fair- 
mount Park." 

There was a good deal of work to be done in ob- 
taining possession of lands, the payment of damages, 
and the laying out of roads to make the new park 
accessible. In tlie West Park the Lansdowne drive 
was the principal carriage-way, and it required much 
labor to put it in order for use. This grand road was 
opened on the 21st of June, 1869, from Girard Avenue 
at the head of the bridge to George's Hill, with some 
ceremony, in which the Park Guard, a section of the 
Keystone Battery which fired a salute, and members 
of Councils, judges of the courts, and city officials 
took part. The flag-staff at George's Hill was first 
put in use by the raising of a large Burgee flag, in- 
scribed with the title "George's Hill," by Maj.-Gen. 
George G. Meade and Mayor Fox, a ceremony which 
was accompanied by instrumental and vocal music. 
Eli K. Price delivered an engrossed testimonial of 
thanks, for the gift of George's Hill, to Jesse George, 
for himself and his sister. On the 13th of September, 

1869, the corner-stone of a monument to the memory 
of Alexander von Humboldt was laid, on the centen- 
nial anniversary of his birth, by the German society, 
on the knoll where the tele du pont battery had been 
built during the war of the Rebellion, which was on the 
hill adjoining the entrance to Girard Avenue bridge. 

In 1871, Councils adopted a resolution requesting 
the commissioners to construct within the Park suit- 
able fire-proof buildings for a public art-gallery and 
museum for free exhibition at all times. Joseph Har- 
rison, Jr., a park commissioner, proposed the erection 
of an edifice on the crest of Lemon Hill. In this 
structure he thought might be permanently preserved 
Rothermel's great picture of the battle of Gettysburg, 
painted by order of the State of Pennsylvania, and he 
offered as the nucleus of an art collection his numer- 
ous Indian portraits, taken from life scenes, portray- 
ing Indian manners and customs, landscapes, etc., and 
also a large picture painted by Benjamin West. 

In 1872, in accordance with this suggestion, the 
museum building was erected near the Green Street 
entrance. It was of brick, stone, glass, and iron, 
ninety feet long, thirty-eight feet wide, and twenty- 
two feet high. Rothermel's picture was placed in it, 
with some statues and pictures belonging to the Fair- 
mount Park Art Association, and others which were 
loaned. The gallery was opened to the public daily, 
but in 1876 most of the contents were removed to 
Memorial Hall, and the building was afterward 
assigned to the use of the Pompeian Gallery. 

In 1870-71 a new walk, twelve feet in width, was 
opened through a highly picturesque ravine, to which 
was given the name of Belmont Glen. It extended 
from the Belmont Mansion to the Belmont Station of 
the Reading Railroad, near the bank of the Schuyl- 
kill. The length of the walk was two thousand six 
hundred and forty feet, passing in its course over 
the old inclined plane of the Columbia Railroad, on 
a rustic bridge, and following for some distance the 
meanderings of a bill-side brook bordered by several 
springs, two of which were utilized by being inclosed 
in stone basins to form drinking-fountains. 

Michaux Grove was jilanted in 1870-71, near the 
northwestern limit of the Lansdowne drive. It com- 
prised sixteen species of oaks, selected for their 
adaptability to the soil and the climate. 

On Sept. 22, 1871, a bronze statue and monument in 
memory of Abraham Lincoln, erected by the Linclon 
Monument Association of Philadelphia, was unveiled 
and dedicated on the plateau near the southeast bound- 
ary of Lemon Hill. Tlie artist was Randolph Gross, 
an American residing in Rome, and the casting was 
done at Munich. The cost of the statue was nineteen 
thousand three hundred dollars, and of the granite 
base nine thousand four hundred dollars. The figure 
is colossal in size, and measures, in the sitting posture, 
nine feet six inches in height, the statue and base 
together being thirty-two feet high. In the dedication 
ceremonies was included a parade of military, which 



embraced the First Division of PennsylTania Volun- 
teers, under Maj.-Gen. Provost and fourbrigades under 
Brig.-Gens. John P. Bankson, J. William Hoffman, 
William B. Thomas, and Louis Wagner. 

The pavilion at Belmont, a building erected tor 
public purposes, including meetings and banquets, 
was opened on the evening of the day that the Lin- 
coln monument was dedicated, with a public banquet. 
It stood a little west of, but conveniently near to, 
Belmont Mansion and Restaurant. It was forty-five 
feet wide by eighty feet long, well adapted for the 
uses for which it was intended. This building was 
frequently the place at which public entertainments 


were given previous t<j the opening of the Centennial 
E.xhibition of 1876. The place which it occupied 
was taken up by considerable two-story additions 
built for restaurant purposes in 1875-76, at the south a set of managers who had no jjower to raise money 

the country in the mean time. The Councils of the 

city sent a memorial and appointed a committee on 
the celebration, and an association of citizens was 
formed to execute the project. Congress took no 
immediate action, but eventually the Committees on 
Manufactures and on Foreign Relations of the House 
of Representatives visited Philadelphia on invitation 
and were shown the grounds in the park, which, in 
the opinion of the commissioners, would be most 
suitable for exhibition purposes. 

In consequence of the recommendations of these 
committees. Congress passed an act, March .3, 1871, 
" to provide for celebrating the one hundredth an- 
niversarj' of American Inde- 
pendence by holding an In- 
ternational exhibition of arts, 
manufactures, and products of 
the soil and mine, in the city 
of Philadelphia, and State of 
Pennsylvania, in the year 
1876." The act authorized the 
appointment of a commission 
composed of one delegate from 
each State and Territory, to be 
nominated by the Governors of 
the States, and confirmed by the 
President of the United States. 
This was the Centennial Com- 
mission, a body for the main- 
tenance of which, or the dis- 
charge of its duties, no means 
were provided. There were 
no ap[iropriations or pledge of 
moneys on behalf of the United 
States, and the commission was 
actually a body appointed " to 
work for nothing and find it- 
self" There was no power 
given in the bill to the com- 
missioners to raise a penny 
by subscription, and Congress 
seemed to have reluctantly 
sanctioned the i)roject of hold- 
ing the exhibition, with i>articular care that it should 
be at no expense to the national treasury. Under these 
circumstances it was found that the exhibition, under 

and west of the old Belmont Mansion. 

One of the most memorable incidents connected 
with the historj- of the park was the use to which it 
was put for the great Centennial Exhibition of 1876. 
Attention was at first officially called to the propriety 
of holding the exhibition there sus early as 1869, when 
the Franklin Institute and Academv of Fine Arts 

could not have been other than a failure. 

For more than a year the project languished. It 
was not until 1872— in which year an association was 
formed in Philadelphia to raise the funds necessary 
for the construction of buildings, etc., and for carry- 
ing on the exhibition, to which was given the title 
'The Centennial Board of Finance"— that there was 

of Philadelphia memorialized Congress in favor of any probability that the exhibition would be provided 

holding an International Exhibition to commemorate for and held. Congress was induced, by act of June 

the one hundredth anniversary of the Declaration of 1, 1872, to incorporate the Centennial Board of Fi- 

Independence, and to signalize the immense progress nance, with authority to receive subscriptions to a 

in population and prosperity which had been made by , capital stock not exceeding $10,000,000, to be divided 



into shares of not more than $10 each, with authority 
to construct the buildings and to carry on the exhi- 
bition. Under the control of this commission, sub- 
scriptions were made, and the stock allotted to be 
distributed in the various States. There were in ad- 
dition some large gifts. The State of Pennsylvania 
gave $1,000,000 to the commission, for the purpose of 
erecting the Permanent Building, since known as 
Memorial Hall, and the city of Philadelphia gave 
$1,500,000, with which were constructed Horticultural 
Hall and Machinery Hall. On the 26th of June, 
1873, Governor Hartranft, in compliance with a pro- 
vision in the act of Congress, notified President Grant 
that provision had been made for the erection of the 
exhibition buildings. The latter made proclamation 
on the 3d of July, of the same year, that the exhibition 
would be held in 1876, and two days afterward Mr. 
Fish, Secretary of State, sent notification to all for- 
eign governments. On the 4th of July, 1873, the 
commissioners of Fairmount Park formally trans- 
ferred to the Centennial Commission and Centen- 
nial Board of Finance, for the use of the exhibition, 
two hundred and thirty-six acres of ground, extend- 
ing from the River road, or continuation of Forty- 
first Street, northwest to the Lansdowne drive and 
concourse not far south of Belmont, and around the 
same, south by west, by the Belmont drive to the 
edge of George's Hill, and south to Elm Avenue, 
and along the same to the place of beginning, oppo- 
site Forty-first Street. The first plan for the exhi- 
bition was to have but one structure, to cover forty- 
four acres. Afterward this idea was abandoned, and 
it was determined to erect several buildings. Con- 
gress, on the 3d of March, 1875, appropriated $505,000 
for the arrangement of an official government display, 
of which $150,000 was to be devoted for the erection 
of a special building for the government exhibition. 
Ground was first broken for the construction of build- 
ings July 4, 1874. Up to the beginning of 1876 the 
iiinds realized by the board of finance from gifts, sub- 
scriptions, and concessions, were $5,187,750. It was 
calculated that $1,537,000 would be necessary to finish 
the buildings and open them free of debt. Congress 
passed an act authorizing a grant of $1,50(),000 on the 
14th of February, 1876, which was supposed to be a 
gift, but which, after the exhibition had closed, was 
claimed to be only an advancement or loan, and, 
under the effect of a judicial decision by the Supreme 
Court of the United States, was returned to the 
national Treasury, so that, except as to the money 
paid for the purpose of the government display, the 
Centennial Exhibition did not cost the United States 
a dollar. The stockholders of the Board of Finance 
received a small percentage of their investments. 
The receipts of the exhibition were only sufficient to 
pay expenses and something over, and the stock- 
holders pocketed their losses and charged them off 
on their account-books " to patriotism." 

The buildings constructed for the use of the exhibi- 

tion were one hundred and ninety-four in number, and 
some of them of immense size. The Centennial Com- 
mission divided the buildings into five groups. The 
first were composed of the largest structures on the 
ground, and included the Industrial Hall or the Main 
Building, and Memorial, Machinery, and Agricultural 
Halls with their respective annexes, several of the latter 
being buildings of large size. The second group was 
composed of buildings belonging to the United States 
and the individual States. They included the United 
States Government Building, Hospital, Signal-Office, 
and smaller structures, and also the buildings erected 
by the various States of the Union for the accommo- 
dation of their own commissioners, and as places for 
the assembling of their citizens who were visitors at 
the exhibition. There were twenty-seven of these 
State buildings, and one which was erected by the 
city of Philadelphia. Many of them were pictur- 
esque and elegant in style, and were constantly ad- 
mired by all visitors. The third group were build- 
ings erected by foreign nations, — Great Britain, 
Germany, Spain, Brazil, Portugal, Sweden, Japan, 
France, and the Dominion of Canada. The fourth 
group was composed of restaurants and houses of en- 
tertainment, of which there were twelve or fifteen with 
accessories. The fifth group was declared to be com- 
posed of miscellaneous buildings, among which were 
the Women's Exhibition Building, the Bankers', 
Brewers', and Dairymen's Buildings, besides various 
structures put up by persons in particular business 
bazaars, railroad offices, etc. Within the inclosure 
were sufficient structures to make a large town, and 
some of them of greater proportions than any town 
or city ever saw. The following were the dimensions 
of some of the principal buildings : Industrial Hall, 
Main Exhibition Building, built of iron, glass, stone, 
and brick, covered 21.27 acres, with two annexes ; 
shape, a parallelogram ; running from east to west 
eighteen hundred and seventy-six feet, and from 
north to south four hundred and sixty-four feet. 
The east and west centres of the fronts were relieved 
by central projections, galleries, and towers. In the 
centre was a transept running from side to side, from 
which arose four great towers, each forty-eight feet 
square and one hundred and twenty feet high. The 
building was commenced May 8, 1875, completed, 
set up, and transferred to the commission Feb. 14, 
1876. Architects, Joseph Pettit and Joseph M. Wil- 
son ; builder, Richard J. Dobbins ; cost, one million 
six hundred thousand dollars. 

Machinery Hall resembled the Main Exhibition 
Building in general details, but was materially dif- 
ferent in many respects. It was principally built of 
iron and glass, and covered nearly thirteen acres ; 
shape, a parallelogram ; length, fourteen hundred and 
two feet east and west ; width, three hundred and sixty 
feet ; annex in the centre, two hundred and eight feet 
wide and two hundred and ten feet deep to Elm Ave- 
nue; and some smaller annexes. Architects, Henry 



Pettit and Joseph M. Wilson ; builder, Philip Quig- 
ley ; cost, seven hundred and ninety-two thousand 

Horticultural Hall, built of brick, stone, iron, and 
glass; style, Moresque; situate at the head of 
Fountain Avenue, on the north side of Lansdowne 
Valley and northeast of Memorial Hall, intended to 
be fire-proof. Length, east and, three hundred 
and eighty-three feet ; width, one hundred and ninety- 
three feet ; height to top of lantern, seventy-two feet ; 
covers 1.05 acres; architect, H. J. Schwarzman ; 
builder, John Rice; cost, two hundred and fifty-one 
thousand nine hundred and thirty-seven dollars. 

Memorial Hall, intended to be an art gallery. A 
permanent building of granite, brick, glass, and iron, 
situate immediate!}' north of the Main Building and 
south of Lansdowne Glen. Building, east and west, 
three hundred and sixty-five feet; width, north and 
south, two hundred and ten feet ; height of walls, 
fifty-nine feet. The dome over the rotunda rises one 
hundred and fifty feet above the ground. It was 
capped by a colossal bell, upon which stood an em- 
blematic figure of Columbia, cast in zinc. This figure 
was taken down some time after the centennial year, 
as it was found to be sinking, and there were fears 
that it would break through the dome. The plan 
consisted of a centre building, open arcades east and 
west of the main entrance, and closed pavilions at 
the corners. The exterior was decorated with statu- 
ary and many ornaments. Architect, H. J. Schwarz- 
man ; builder, R. J. Dobbins; cost, one million five 
hundred thousand dollars. 

Agricultural Hall stood north of Horticultural 
Hall and beyond Belmont Valley. Material, wood 
and glass ; ground-plan, a long nave, crossed by three 
transepts ; nave, eight hundred and twenty feet long, 
from north to south, and one hundred feet wide; 
grand central transept, four hun<lred and sixty-five 
feet long and one hundred feet wide ; height of the 
nave, seventy-five feet. Areas and courts were be- 
tween the naves and the transepts, which were built 
upon to the height of one story, so that really the 
building was almost square. There was a central 
tower and steeple, and towers at the end of each 
transept. The hall, although cheaply put up, pre- i 
sented an attractive appearance. Space covered, 
seven and one-fourth acres; architect, James H. 
Windrini ; builder, Philip Quigley ; cost, one hun- 
dred and ninety-seven thousand dollars. 

The United States Government Building, the largest 
of the second group, was on the west side of Belmont 
Avenue, at Fountain Avenue. Built of wood, in the 
shape of a cross. Long nave, running east and west, 
four hunilred feet long, one hundred feet wide: cross 
transepts, three hundred feet in <lepth, one hundred 
feet wide; height of Imilding, sixty feet, surmounted 
by a lantern. This building was occupied by the 
War, Navy, Interior^ and Post-Office Departments, | 
with the Agricultural Bureau and Smithsonian Insti- i 

tution. Architect, James H. Windrim ; builder, 
Aaron Doane & Co. ; cost, sixty-two thousand dollars. 

Women's Pavilion, built by the Women's Centen- 
nial,Committee, for the exhibition of women's work 
in art and manufacture. Situate on the east side of 
Belmont Avenue, opposite the United States Govern- 
ment Building. Formed by two intersecting naves, 
each sixty-four by one hundred and ninety-two feet, 
with a porch at the end of each eight by thirty-two 
feet, and four pavilions, each forty-eight feet square, 
in the corners formed by the naves. Architect, H. J. 
Schwarzman ; builders, Jacob G. Peters and John 
D. Burger, of Lancaster, Pa. ; cost, forty thousand 

There were several special buildings for the exhibi- 
tion of particular industries, which were erected by 
persons interested in their trade displays. Among 
these were the Shoe and Leather Building, in which 
all sorts of shoes and boots, from those that would fit 
the tiny feet of the infant up to the enormous stogies 
worn by the giant, were on exhibition. Also leather 
of all kinds, in every stage of manufacture, and arti- 
cles made of leather, from the pocket-book up to the 
Saratoga trunk. This building was three hundred 
and fourteen feet long, from east to west, and one hun- 
dred and sixty feet in width. Architect, Alexander 
B. Bary ; builder, J. H. Coffrode & Co. ; cost, thirty- 
one thousand dollars. 

The Carriage Exhibition Building was three hun- 
dred and ninety-two feet long by two hundred and 
seventy -seven feet wide, a single story, constructed of 
wood, sheathed with corrugated iron. It was used 
for the exhibition of carriages, coaches, fancy wagons, 
pleasure carriages, sleighs, omnibuses, and railway 
cars from all parts of the world. Architect, H. J. 

The Photographic Exhibition Building was spe- 
cially prepared to receive actinic pictures. It was 
an annex of the Art Gallery ; style, of the French 
Renaissance ; length, two hundred and fifty-eight 
feet ; width, one hundred and seven feet. 

The Pomological Building, east of Agricultural 
Hall, was considered an annex of the latter, and was 
of the dimensions of one hundred and eighty by two 
hundred feet. It was used particularly for the ex- 
hibition of fruits and flowers, when they were in 

The Brewers' Building was an annex to Agricultu- 
ral Hall, designed to show the processes and business 
of brewing. Length, two hundred and seventy-two 
feet east and west; breadth, ninety-six feet; two 
stories in height. Builder, James B. Doyle; cost, 
twenty thousand dollars. 

The buildings erected by foreign governments for 
the accommodation of their commissioners were not 
very elaborate. The most striking was St. George 
House, in the picturesque style of the old English 
timber houses of two centuries ago, some examples 
of which yet remain near Chestar and other parts of 



England. It was a combination of gables, bay and 
oriel windows, verandas, balustrades, balconies, with 
a very liberal distribution of chimneys, which might 
defy accurate description. Its oddity rendered it 
very attractive. 

The French Government Building was very plain, 
built of brick, and not particularly attractive in 
style. It was used for displays of models, plans, and 
drawings of the public works maintained by the 
French nation. 

The German Government Building was of brick, 
rough-cast, in the Italian Renaissance style, eighty- 
two feet long and forty-two feet broad, and particu- 
larly noticeable on account of its capacious and 
handsome portico. 

Brazil had a pavilion which was noticeable. It 
was octagonal in form, but so decorated with porches 
and bay-windows that the ground-plan was not 
observable, and the effect was pleasant. 

The Spanish government prepared an octagonal 
building, surmounted by a lantern, and in the details 
of doors and windows Moresque in style. Spain was 
the only country, except the United States, which 
sent regular soldiers to the exhibition. The building 
spoken of was first intended for their quarters. It 
was fifty feet in diameter. Subsequently an annex 
building, eighty by one hundred feet, was constructed, 
in which there were exhibited Spanish products. 

Japan presented for the occupancy of its commis- 
sioners a curious building, put up by Japanese work- 
men, with odd tools and strange manual processes. 
It was entirely of wood, finely planed and finished, 
and was joined with as much neatness as a fine piece 
of furniture. The wood-carvings, birds, flowers, and 
other objects over the porch of entrance were exe- 
cuted with great skill. This was one of the most 
attractive buildings on the ground. 

Sweden was represented architecturally by a school- 
house, and Canada by a timber house, made of planks 
and boards piled upon each other on the interior, with 
an outside portico formed of trunks of trees with the 
bark on ; it was a curious-looking structure. 

Among the State buildings none was more showy 
and peculiar than the one that was erected by New 
Jersey. The style inclined to the Norwegian pattern 
in architecture, but with its peaks, gables, lofty tower, 
porches, gallery, and pavilions, it was not to be as- 
signed exactly to the architecture of any country. 

The Ohio State Building was composed in front of 
stone of difierent colors and qualities produced in 
different parts of the State. Unfortunately it was 
not of sufficient size, and a wooden annex was added, 
which detracted from the general appearance. 

Kansas and Colorado united in the construction of 
a building in Gothic style, built in the form of a 
Greek cross, the arms of which were each one hun- 
dred and thirty-two feet long, and they used the space 
for a special exhibition of their products of agricul- 
ture and minerals and manufactures. 

Many of the State buildings were small, and not 
particularly handsome, their styles being apparently 
modeled from those of the most conspicuous and 
elegant private houses in some of their villages. 

The Centennial Exhibition opened on the 10th of 
May, 1876, and closed Nov. 10, 1876. The total ad- 
missions were 9,910,966 persons, of which 1,906,692 
were free, the latter representing in a large degree 
exhibitors, officers, and employes, who passed in and 
out of the enclosure daily, and some of them several 
times a day. 

After the close of the Centennial Exhibition, which 
had been remarkably successful as an object of inter- 
est and a means of instruction, there were expressions 
of regret that such a magnificent collection of inter- 
esting objects should be dissipated, and that the ex- 
hibition and its resul