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Full text of "History of Pike County, Illinois : together with sketches of its cities, villages and townships, educational, religious, civil, military, and political history, portraits of prominent persons and biographies of representative citizens. History of Illinois, embracing accounts of pre-historic races, Aborigines, French, English and American conquests, and a general review of its civil, political and military history. Digest of State laws"

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iOJeoyore Lownft library 

fllinojs Benedicfine College 

Lislejlfin©is 60532 










Digest of State Laws. 

Tfieoyore Lownik Library 

Ulmots Benedictine College 

LiskllHn^is 60532 





The reproduction of this book has been 
made possible through the sponsorship of 
the Pike County Historical Society, 
Pittsfield, 111. 

A Reproduction by Unigraphic, Inc. 

1401 North Fares Avenue 

Evansville, Indiana 47711 

Nineteen Hundred Seventy Four 

Binding by 

Modern Pre^Binding Corporation 

Portland, Indiana 


HISTORY OF m^isoin. 



IllinoiB Confederacy 23 

Starved Rock u:i 

Sacs and Foxes 24 

Manners and Customs 27 

Sinc^le-handed I'omhat with Indians.. 29 


Nicholas Perrot 31 

Jolietand Marquette 31 

LaSalle's Etplorations, 33 

Great Battle of the Illluols 34 

Tonti Safe at Green Ba3' 41 

LaSal\e'e A ssassinatiou 43 


First Settlements 44 

'I he Mieeiesippi Company.'. 45 


Gen. Clark's Exploits 51 


Conntv of Illinois 55 


Ordmanciof 1767 , 56 

St. Clair Governor of N.W.Ter'-iiory.. 59 



Mass»cre of Fort Dear born 60 

Expeditious up tli* Mi.-sissippi 71 


Organization 74« 

Derivation of the name " Illinois " 77 

Stafi! B nk 78 

L-.Fayette's Visit 79 

Grammar and Cook Contrasted 82 


V\ inneiiago War 


Stlllman's Ran 

- Batile of Bad Axe 

Black Hawk Captured 

Biogranhical Sketch of Black Hawk... 
PROM i!^4 TO 1842 

Internal Improvt.meuts 

II\inoi-' aY|d Michigan Canal 

MMrtyr lor Liberty 




Battle ot BuunaVistn 


States Sccpding 

The Fall of Snm«tcr 

Cal J for Troops PR>mptly Answered. . . 

The War Ended— The Union Retttred. 

Schedule of Regiments 






Lieuieiiant Governors 

S<ate Offlci ale 

U. S. Senators 

Repres ■ntutives in Congress 


The Great Pii-e. 

Commerce of Chicago 





Ante-Pioneer History. . 

First A'lierican Settle- 

Original Pike County. . 

First Settle menjT of 
Pike County 

Franklin and Shinn... 

The Rosses 

Seeiey, McGiffln and 

Sickly Season 

Public Improvement. . . 

Crimi'ial Drowned 

Col. Barney 

James Ward Drownel. 


Black Hawk W,ir 218 

James W. Whitney.... 218 
Prominent Cbaracters. 219 
Mr. Hiuman's L 'ttir.. 224 
Mr. Garrison's Lefer.. 230 
Counly-Seiit Removed. 231 
The Beautiful Prairies. 

Prairie Fires 

Incidents of Pioneer 

Life 234 





First Things 240 

What tlu- Pioneers 

Have Done 





Big Snow 

First Negro Settlers.. 
Numerous Settlers.. . 





COURT 253 

First Meeting. 253 

Tavern License 254 

First Justice of the 
Peace 254 

Laying Out Roads ! 

Various Proceedings 257-S 
Difficulty in Selecting 

County.Seat S 

County Divided Into 

Townships 5 

Fearless Commission- 
ers i 

Coiirt-Honse i 

Connty-Seat Re-located S 

The Clerk Resigns S 

Ad Quod Damnum S 

Firsi Court-House at 

Pittsfield 2 

Present Court-House.. 2 

First Jail 2 

Last Meeting S 






SORS 307 

Countv Court 307 

Township Organization 307 

Jail 309 

Supervisors 310 



J roops Rnieeil 3li0 

The Stampede 3'i2 








The Piri^r Indications 

of the War. 368 

Fi'st Cull lor Troops... 371 

Meeting.* Held 371 

Bounty 373 

Piko County's Soldiers 375 
The Close.". 383 

Starved Rock 25 

Au Iroquois Chief 37 

Gen. Ceo. R. Clark 49 

Gen. Arthur St. Cla.r 5S 

Old Port Dwrborn 61 

Old Kiuzie Huuse m 

Poutiac 69 

Black Hawk ' 85 

Alkire, B. W 750 

Angle, H.C 803 

Barney. Beniamin "207 

Bolin, J. O.." 459 

Brakefie.d, James 527 

Brewster, Charles 878 

Brown. H 635 

Cheuoweth, J. 11 478 

Clark, Samuel 859 

Conboy, J. H 587 

. CnnAall, E. A 823 

Davis, Samuel 814 

Deam, D. W 786 

Dorsey, B F 487 

Eastman, Lycurgus 538 

G«y, James 615 

Harrington, Martin 406 

Laws 919 

Jurisdiction of Courts 919 

County Courts 9j0 

Com'r of Highways 920 

Fences M22 

Drainage 924 

Trespass of Stock 924 

Estrays 925 

Horses 9. '6 

Marks and Brands 927 

.Vrticles of Agreement 927 

Notes 928 

Judgment Note 929 

Interest 929 

Wills 931 

Descent 935 

Deeds 936 

Mortgages and Trust Deeds 937 
Trust Deeds 938 



Pioneer Courts 

Circuit Judges 

Prosecuting Attorney.-i 


Bar of the Past 

The Pres.?nt Bar 




Flint.. ..^ 








Sprin'.; Creek 


New Salem 


M irtin<burg 

Pleasant Hill 






Pleasant Vale 


C. R. I. & P. R R. Di ot.. 
Eye and Eay Infirmary. 
D 'af and Dumblnstiiui 

Scene on Fox River 

Lincoln Monument 


As\lum for Fe •l)]o-Minded 143 
Southern Normal Univer- 
sity 151 


Helme, John 688 

Hinman, A nib 

HijpkinH, Benjamin B 547 

Hull, D 900 

Jeffres, Elijah 626 

Johnston, D 498 

Jones, Nathan W 352 

Manton, 'James 442 

Martin, Hutson 279 

Ma-sie, M. D 842 

Matthews, B. L 269 

McMahan, L. W 558 

McWilliams, James 261 

Miller. James B 598 

Reynolds, Thomas 428 

Ross, Col. W 244 

Seaborn, Robert 517 


Liens 938 

Bill of Sale 940 

Days of Grace 941 

Limitation of Action 941 

Receipts 942 

Exemptions from Forced 

Sales 942 

Landlords and Tenants 943 

Criminal Law 946 

Taxes 948 

Subscription 949 

Contract lor Personal Ser- 
vices ' 950 

Newspaper Libel 951 

Tender 951 

Drunkenness 953 

Marriage Contract 954 

School Months 956 

Klnderhook 853 

Levee 868 





Election Returns 875 



TVieGld Flag 889 

Plk-eCounty Democrat ^1 
GriggBvllle Reflector.. 8»4 

Barry Adage 896 

The UnlcOrn Green- 
back 896 

Milton Beacon 899 

Perry Paragrajih 901 

The In4ependent Press 902 
Other Papers 905 



Railroads 9iM 

Sny Island Levee 909 

Co. Treasurer".-* Report. 911 

Marriag.' Licenses 911 

.Agricultural Statistics 911 

Table, f Distances 914 

Educational Statisiics 915 

Agricultural Board.... 916 

Central Insane Hospital... HiO 

ludustrii! Universvt.y 16lJ 

The Ciib 176 

Court-Hou>^e 190 

.Map of Bke County 14-15 

Pres lit Jail 313 

OUlJiiil 505 

First Conrt-House.H-ontispioce 

Shinn, William 695 

.Simmons, Cephas 388 

Smith, Eugene 907 

Starkev, Jonathan M8 

Strubinaer, J. H 816 

Sweet, I. A 917 

Thomas, J. A 731 

Watson, William 655 

Westlake, B. F 578 

Williams, S. R 767 

Wills, A. V 887 

Wills, sr., Willi in) R 298 

Wills, jr., William R 675 

Willsey, B. J 714 

Willse}', James Q 666 

Yates, George 567 

Infants 956 

.\doption of Children 967 

Church Organizations 957 

Game 958 

Millers 960 

Paupers 960 

Public and Private Convey- 
ances 962 

Wages and Stakeholders. . 968 

Sunday 964 

Deflniiion of Commercial 

Terms 964 

Legal Weights and M^as- 

ures 964 

Bees 967 

Dogs • 967 

Cruelty to Animals 968 

Names 968 


The history of Pike county possesses features of unusual interest in 
comparison with those of other neighboring counties, especially those 
in the Military Tract. Here the sturdy pioneer located and began to 
exert \n^ civilizing influence long before other sections contained a 
settler; and this is not only the oldest settled county of all north of its 
south line, but it was the first county organized in the Military Tract. 
Another fact woithy of note is, that it originally embraced all the coun- 
try lying between the great Father of Waters and the placid Illinois, 
extending east to the Indiana line, and north to the Wisconsin line. Pe- 
oria, Rock Island, Galena and Chicago were originally little settlements 
of this then vast c unty. 

In matters of general public interest and progress. Pike county has 
ever taken a leading and prominent position. Here have lived men 
who have taken no unimportant part in the affairs of the St^te, — in 
moulding the political sentiments and destiny of the country. Pike 
county has been the hcene of conflict between some of the most giant 
intellects of the nation. Here the shrewd and enterprising Easterner, 
the courtly Southerner and the sturdy, practical Wes erner, have met 
and mingled, have inherited the better traits, possessed by each other, 
and thus have formed a society, a people superior in many particulars 
to that of most localities. The original settlers, the earliest pilgrims, 
have nearly all passed away. Here and there we see the bended form 
and whitened head of some of these veterans, but they are not numer- 
ous. Most of them have gone to that country which is always new, yet 
where the trials, struggles and hardships of pioneer life are never 

Accurate and reliable history is most difficult to write. Those who 
have never experienced the difficulties incident to such labor cannot 
realize how nearly impossible it is, or can appreciate the earnest, honest 
and faithful labor of the historian. After the most careful and pains- 
taking searches and inquiry upon any particular subject or about any 
event, he will even then find many doubts arising in his mind as to its 
accuracy and entire truthfulness. Each individual of whom inqury is 
made will give you a different account of any event. One of them 
may be as honest as the other and try to relate his story correctly, yet 
they will be so widely different that the most searching and logical 
mind will be unable to harmonize them. This fact is forcibly illustrated 
in an incident related of Sir "Walter Raleigh. While in prison in a 
tower of England he engaged himself in writing the history of the 

world. One day a brawl occurred in the ysLvd of the tower, of which 
he desired to learn the particulars. Two of the principal actors came 
before him, and each related the account of the trouble, yet so widely 
diflFerent were they that he found it utterly impossible to tell what the 
facts were. He then remarked, "Here lam engaged in writing the 
history of events that occurred 3,000 years ago, and yet I am unable to 
learn the facts of what happens at my window." This has been 
the channel of our experience, and that of all others who have at- 
tempted national or local history. As an example in Pike county, we 
noticed in a Pittsfield cemetery " Orvillee" on the headstone as the 
name of the person buri,ed in a certain grave, and "Orval E." on the 

Aside from mistakes occurring from the above causes, doubtless there 
are many others to be found within these pages. To suppose that a 
volume of this magnitude, and containing so many thousands of names 
and dates and brief statements would be wholly accurate, is a supposi- 
tion we presume no sane man will make. While we do not claim for 
this work critical accuracy or completeness, yet we are quite certain 
that it will be found measurably and practically so. het it rest as the 
foundation for the future historian to build upon. 

As one of the most interesting features of this work, we present the 
portraits of numerous representative citizens. It has been our aim to 
have the prominent men of to-day, as well as the pioneers, represented 
in this department, and we Hatter ourselves on the uniform high charac- 
ter of the gentlemen whose portraits we present. They are in the 
strictest sense representative men, and are selected from all the callings 
and professions worthy to be represented. There are others, it is true, 
who claim equal promini^nce with those presented, but as a matter of 
course it was impossible for us to represent aJI the leading men of the 

As we quit our long, tedious, yet nevertheless pleasant task of writ- 
ing and compiling the History of Pike County, we wish to return the 
thanks of grateful hearts to those who have so freely aided us in col- 
lecting material, etc. To the county officials and editors of the various 
newspapers we are particularly^ grateful for the many kindnesses and 
courtesies shown us while laboring in the county. To James Gallaher, 
editor of 77ie Old Flag^ we especially acknowledge our indebtedness 
for the excellent historical sketch of Pittsfield presented in this vol- 
ume. Last and most of all we wish to thank those who so liberally 
and materially aided the work by becoming subscribers to it. We feel 
we have discharged our duties fully, have fulfilled all our promises, have 
earned the laborer's pay. Thus feeling, we present the volume to the 
critical, yet we hope and believe justly charitable citizens of Pike 
county — or more especially, our subscribers. 

Chas. C Chapman & Co. 

Chicago, May, 1880. 

B S W. 

li 7 W 

/f 6 IV 

R. J 


R. ; n: 

F{.3 fr 

n 2 i>: 






The numerous and well-authenticated accounts of antiquities 
found in various parts of our country, clearly demonstrate that a 
people civilized, and even highly cultivated, occupied the broad 
surface of our continent before its possession by the present In- 
dians; but the date of their rule of the "Western World is so re-. 
mote that all traces of their history, their progress and decay, lie 
buried in deepest obscurity. Nature, at the time the first Euro- 
peans came, had asserted her original dominion over the earth; the 
forests were all in their full luxuriance, the growth of many cen- 
turies; and naught existed to point out who and what they were 
who formerly lived, and loved, and labored, and died, on the conti- 
nent of America. This pre-historic race is known as the Mound- 
Builders, from the numerous large mounds of earth-works left by 
them. The remains of the works of this people form the most in- 
teresting class of antiquities discovered in the United States. Their 
character can be but partially gleaned from the internal evidences 
and the peculiarities of the only remains left, — the mounds. They 
consist of remains of what were apparently villages, altars, temples, 
idols, cemeteries, monuments, camps, fortifications, pleasure 
grounds, etc., etc. Their habitations must have been tents, struc- 
tures of wood, or other perishable material; otherwise their remains 
would be numerous. If the Mound-Builders were not the ancestors 
of the Indians, who were they? The oblivion wliifli has closed over 
them is so complete that only conjecture can be given in answer to 
the question. Those who do not believe in the common parentage 
of mankind contend that they were an indigenous race of the West- 
ern hemisphere; others, with more plausibility, think they came 
from the East, and imagine they can see coincidences in the religion 
of the Hindoos and Southern Tartars and the supposed theology of 


the Mound-Builders. They were, no doubt, idolatoFB, and it has 
been conjectured that the sun was the object of their adoration. The 
mounds were generally built in a situation affording a view of the 
rising sun: when enclosed in walls their gateways were toward the 
east; the caves in which their dead were occasionally buried always 
opened in the same direction; whenever a mound was partially en- 
closed by a serai-circuldr pavement, it was on the east side; when 
bodies were buried in graves, as was frequently the case, they were 
laid in a direction east and west; and, finally, medals have been 
found representing the sun and his rays of light. 

At what period they came to this country, is likewise a matter of 
speculation. From the comparatively rude state of the arts among 
them, it has been inferred that the time was very remote. Their 
axes were of stone. Their raiment, judging from fragments which 
have been discovered, consisted of the bark of trees, interwoven 
with feathers; and their military works were such as a people 
would erect who had just passed to the pastoral state of society 
from that dependent alone upon hunting and fishing. 

The mounds and other ancient earth-works constructed by this 
people are far more abundant than generally supposed, from the fact 
that while some are quite large, the greater part of them are small 
and inconspicuous. Along nearly all our water courses that are 
large enough to be navigated with a canoe, the mounds are almost 
invariably found, covering the base points and headlands of the 
bluffs which border the narrower valleys; so that when one finds him- 
self in such positions as to command the grandest views for river 
scenery, he may almost always discover that he is standing upon, 
or in close proximity to, some one or more of these traces of the 
labors of an ancient people. 


On the top of the high bluffs that skirt the west bank of the Mis- 
sissippi, about two and a half miles from Galena, are a number of 
these silent monuments of a pre-historic age. The spot is one of 
surpassing beauty. From that point may be obtained a view of a 
portion of three States, — Illinois, Iowa and Wisconsin. A hundred 
feet below, at the foot of the perpendicular cliffs, the trains of the 
Illinois Central Railroad thunder around the curve, the portage is 
in full view, and the " Father of Waters," with its numerous bayous 


and islands, sketches a grand pamorania for miles above and below. 
Here, probably thousands of years ago, a race of men now extinct, 
and unknown even in the traditions of the Indians who inhabited 
that section for centuries before the discovery of America by Colum- 
bus, built these strangely wonderful and enigmatical mounds. At 
this point these mounds are circular and conical in form. The larg- 
est one is at least forty feet in diameter at the base, and not less 
than fifteen feet high, even yet, after it has been beaten by the 
storms of many centuries. On its top stands the large stump of an 
oak tree that was cut down about fifty years ago, and its annual 
rings indicate a growth of at least 200 years. 

One of the most singular earth-works in the State was found on 
the top of a ridge near the east bank of the Sinsinawa creek in the 
lead region. It resembled some huge animal, the head, ears, nose, 
legs 'and tail, and general outline of which being as perfect as 
if made by men versed in modern art. The ridge on which it was 
situated stands on the prairie, 300 yards wide, 100 feet in height, 
and rounded on the top by a deep deposit of clay. Centrally, 
along the line of its summit, and thrown up in the form of an 
embankment three feet high, extended the outline of a quadruped 
measuring 250 feet from the tip of the nose to the end of the 
tail, and having a width of 18 feet at the center of the body. The 
head was 35 feet in length, the ears 10 feet, legs 60 and tail 75. The 
curvature in both the fore and hind legs was natural to an animal 
lying on its side. The general outline of the figure most nearly 
resembled the extinct animal known to geologists as the Megathe- 
rium. The question naturally arises. By whom and for what pur- 
pose was this earth figure raised? Some have conjectured that 
numbers of this now extinct animal lived and roamed over the prai- 
ries of Illinois when the Mound-Builders first made their appearance 
on the upper part of the Mississippi Valley, and that their wonder 
and admiration, excited by the colossal diuiensions of these huge 
creatures, found some expression in the erection of this figure. 
The bones of some similar gigantic animals were exhumed on this 
stream about three miles from the same place. 


Mr. Breckenridge, who examined the antiquities of the Western 
country in 1817, speaking of the mounds in the American Bottom, 
says: "The great number and extremely large size of some of 


thein may be regarded as furnisliing, with other circumstances, 
evidences of their antiquity. 1 liave sometimes heen induced to 
think that at the period when they were constructed tliere was a 
population here as numerous as that wliich once animated the 
borders of the Nile or Euphrates, or of Mexico. The most num- 
erous, as well as considerable, of these remains are found in pre- 
cisely those parts of the Qpuntry where the traces of a numerous 
population might be looked for, namely, from the mouth of the 
Ohio on the east side of the Mississippi, to the Illinois river, aTid 
on the west from the St. Francis to the Missouri. I am perfectly 
satisfied that cities similar to those of ancient Mexico, of several 
hundred thousand souls, have existed in this country." 

It must be admitted that whatever the uses of these mounds — 
whether as dwellings or burial places — these silent monuments 
were built, and the race who built thetn vanished from the face 
of the earth, ages belbre the Indians occupied the land, but their 
date must probably forever baffle huuian skill and ingenuity. 

It is sometimes difficult to distinguish the places of sepulture 
raised by the Mound-Builders from the more modern graves of the 
Indians. The tombs of the former were in general larger than 
those of the latter, and were used as receptacles for a greater number 
of bodies, and contained relics of art, evincing a higher degree of ^v- 
ilization than that attained by the Indians. The ancient earth- 
works of the Mound-Builders have occasionally been appropriated 
as burial places by the Indians, but the skeletons of the latter may 
be distinguished from the osteological remains of the former by 
their greater stature. 

What finally became of the Mound-Builders is another query 
which has been extensively discussed. The fact that their works 
extend into Mexico and Peru has induced the belief that it was 
their posterity that dwelt in these countries when they were first 
visited by the Spaniards. The Mexican and Peruvian works, with 
the exception of their greater magnitude, are similar. Relics com- 
mon to all of them have been occasionally found, and it is believed 
that the religious uses which they subserved were the same. If, 
indeed, the Mexicans and Peruvians were the progeny of the 
more ancient Mound-Builders, Spanish rapacity for gold was the 
cause of their overthrow and final extermination. 

A thousand other queries naturally arise respecting these nations 


which now repose under the ground, but the most searching investi- 
gation can give us OTily vague speculations for ansvt^ers. No histo- 
rian has preserved the names of their mighty chieftains, or given an 
account of their exploits, and even tradition is silent respecting 


Following the Mound-Builders as inhabitants of Korth America, 
were, as it is supposed, the people who reared the magnificent 
cities the ruins of which are found in Central America. This peo- 
ple was far more civilized and advanced in the arts than were the 
Mound-Builders. The cities built by them, judging from the ruins 
of broken columns, fallen arches and crumbling walls of temples, 
palaces and pyramids, which in some places for miles bestrew the 
ground, must have been of great extent, magnificent and very pop- 
ulous. When we consider the vast period of time necessary to erect 
such colossal structures, and, again, the time required to reduce 
them to their present ruined state, we can conceive something of 
their antiquity. These cities must have been old when many of 
the ancient cities of the Orient were being built. 

The third race inhabiting North America, distinct from the 
former two in every particular, is the present Indians. They 
were, when visited by the early discoverers, without cultivation, 
refinement or literature, and far behind the Mound-Builders in 
the knowledge of the arts. The question of their origin has long 
interested archaeologists, and is the most difficult they have been 
called upon to answer. Of their predecessors the Indian tribes 
knew nothing; they even had no traditions respecting them. It is 
quite certain that they were the successors of a race which had 
entirely passed away ages before the discovery of the New World. 
One hypothesis is that the American Indians are an original race 
indigenous to the Western hemisphere. Those who entertain this 
view think their peculiarities of physical structure preclude the 
possibility of a common pareniage with the rest of mankind. 
Prominent among those distinctive traits is the hair, which in the 
red man is round, in the white man oval, and in the black man fiat. 

A more common supposition, however, is that they are a derivative 
race, and sprang from one or more of the ancient peoples of Asia. 
In the absence of all authentic history, and when even tradition is 


wanting, any attempt to point out the particular location of their 
origin must prove unsatisfactory. Though the exact place of origin 
may never be known, yet the striking coincidence of physical 
organization between the Oriental type of mankind and the Indians 
point unmistakably to some part of Asia as the place whence they 
emigrated, which was originally peopled to a great extent by the 
children of Shem. In thi& connection it has been claimed that the 
meeting of the Europeans, Indians and Africans on the continent 
of America, is the fulfillment of a prophecy as recorded in Gen- 
esis ix. 27: "God shall enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell in the 
tents of Shem; and Canaan shall be his servant." Assuming the 
theory to be true that the Indian tribes are of Shemitic origin, 
they were met on this continent in the fifteenth century by the 
Japhetic race, after the two Stocks had passed around the globe by 
directly different routes. A few years afterward the Ramitic 
branch of the human family were brought from the coast of Africa. 
During the occupancy of the continent by the three distinct races, 
the children of Japheth have grown and prospered, while the called 
and not voluntary sons of Ham have endured a servitude in the 
wider stretching valleys of the tents of Shem. 

When Christopher Columbus had finally succeeded in demon- 
strating the trutli of his theory that by sailing westward from Eu- 
rope land would be discovered, landing on the Island of Bermuda 
he supposed he had reached the East Indies. This was an error, 
but it led to the adoption of the name of " Indians " for the inhab- 
itants of the Island and the main land of America, by which name 
the red men of America have ever since been known. 

Of the several great branches of North American Indians the 
only ones entitled lo consideration in Illinois history are the Algon- 
quins and Iroquois. At the time of the discovery of America the 
former occupied the Atlantic seaboard, while the home of the 
Iroquois was as an island in this vast area of Algonquin popula- 
tion. The latter great nation spread over a vast territory, and various 
tribes of Algonquin lineage sprung up over the country, adopting, 
in time, distinct tribal customs and laws. An almost continuous 
warfare was carried on between tribes; but later, on the entrance of 
the white man into their beloved homes, every foot of territory 
was fiercely disputed by the confederacy of many neighboring tribes. 
The Algonquins formed the most extensive alliance to resist the 
encroachment of the whites, especially the English. Such was the 


nature of King Philip's war. This King, with his Algonquin 
braves, spread terror and desolation throughout New England.With 
the Algouquins as the controlling spirit, a confederacy of conti- 
nental proportions was the result, embracing in its alliance the tribes 
of every name and lineage from the Northern lakes to the gulf. 
Pontiac, having breathed into them his implacable hate of the 
English intruders, ordered the conflict to commence, and all the 
British colonies trembled before the desolating fury of Indian 


The Illinois confederacy, the various tribes of which comprised 
most of the Indians of Illinois at one time, was composed of five 
tribes: the Tamaroas, Michigans, Kaskaskias, Cahokas, and Peorias. 
The Illinois, Miamis and Delawares were of the same stock. As 
early as 1670 the priest Father Marquette mentions frequent visits 
made by individuals of this confederacy to the missionary station at 
St. Esprit, near the western extremity of Lake Superior. At that 
time they lived west of the Mississippi, in eight villages, whither 
they had been driven from the shores of Lake Michigan by the 
Iroquois. Shortly afterward they began to return to their old 
hunting ground, and most of them finally settled in Illinois. 
Joliet and Marquette, in 1673, met with a band of them on their 
famous voyage of discovery down the Mississippi. They were 
treated with the greatest hospitality by the principal chief. On their 
return voyage up the Illinois river they stopped at the principal 
town of the confederacy, situated on the banks of the river seven 
miles below the present town of Ottawa. It was then called Kas- 
kaskia. Marquette returned to the village in 1675 and established 
the mission of the Immaculate Conception, the oldest in Illinois. 
When, in 1679, LaSalle visited the town, it had greatly increased 
numbering 460 lodges, and at the annual assembly of the difierent 
tribes, from 6,000 to 8,000 souls. In common with other western 
tribes, they became involved in the conspiracy of Pontiac, although 
displaying no very great warlike spirit. Pontiac lost his life by 
the hands of one of the braves of the Illinois tribe, which so enraged 
the nations that had followed him as their leader that they fell upon 
the Illinois to avenge his death, and almost annihilated them. 


Tradition states that a band of this tribe, in order to escape the 
general slaughter, took refuge upon the high rock on the Illinois 


river since known as Starved Kock. Nature has made this one of 
tlie most tbriniJtible military fortresses in the world. From the 
waters which wash its base it rises to an altitude of 125 feet. Tiiree 
of its sides it is impossible to scale, while the one next to the land 
may be climbed with difficulty. From its summit, almost as inac- 
cessible as an eagle's nest, the valley of the Illinois is seen as 
a landscape of exquisite beauty. The river near by struggles 
between a number of wooded islands, while further below it quietly 
meanders through vast meadows till it disappears like a thread of 
light in the dim distance. On the summit of this rock the Illinois 
were besieged by a superior force of the Pottawatomies whom the 
great strength of their natural fortress enabled them to keep at bay. 
Hunger and thirst, however, soon accomplished what the enemy 
was unable to effect. Surrounded by a relentless foe, without food 
or water, they took a last look at their beautiful hunting grounds, 
and with true Indian fortitude lay down and died from starvation. 
Years afterward their bones were seen whitening in that place. 

At the beginning of the present century the remnants of this 
once powerful confederacy were forced into a small compass around 
Kaskaskia. A few years later they emigrated to the Southwest, 
and in 1850 they were in Indian Territory, and numbered but 84 


The Sacs and Foxes, who figured most conspicuously in the later 
history of Illinois, inhabited the northwestern portion of the State. 
By long residence together and intermarriage they had substan- 
tially become one people. Drake, in his "Life of Black Hawk," 
speaks of these tribes as follows: " The Sacs and Foxes fought their 
way from the waters of the St. Lawrence to Green Bay, and after 
reaching that place, not only sustained themselves against hostile 
tribes, but were the most active and courageous in the subjugation, 
or rather the extermination, of the numerous and powerful Illinois 
confederacy. They had many wars, offensive and defensive, with 
the Sioux, the Pawnees, the Osages, and other tribes, some of which 
are ranked among the most fierce and ferocious warriors of the 
whole continent; and it does not appear that in these conflicts, run- 
ning through a long period of years, they were found wanting in 
this, the greatest of all savage virtues. In tlie late war with Great 
Britain, a party of the Sacs and Foxes fought under the British 


standard as a matter of choice; and in the recent contest between a 
fragment of these tribes and the United States, although defeated 
and literally cut to pieces by an overwhelming force, it is very 
questionable whether their reputation as braves would suffer by a 
comparison with that of their victors. It is believed that a careful 
review of their history, from the period when they first established 
themselves on the waters of the Mississippi down to the present 
time, will lead the inquirer to the conclusion that the Sacs and 
Foxes were truly a courageous people, shrewd, politic, and enter- 
prising, with no more ferocity and treachery of character than is 
common among the tribes by whom they were surrounded." These 
tribes at the time of the Black Hawk War were divided into twenty 
families, twelve of which were Sacs and eight Foxes. The follow- 
ing were other prominent tribes occupying Illinois: the Kickapoos, 
Shayvnees, Mascoulins, Piaukishaws, Pottawatomies, Chippewas, 
and Ottawas. 


The art of hunting not only supplied the Indian with food, but, 
like that of war, was a means of gratifying his love of distinction. 
The male children, as soon as they acquired sufficient age and 
strength, were furnished with a bow and arrow and taught to shoot 
birds and other small game. Success in killing large quadrupeds 
required years of careful study and practice, and the art was as 
sedulously inculcated in the minds of the rising generation as are 
the elements of reading, writing and arithmetic in the common 
schools of civilized communities. The mazes of the forest and the 
dense, tall grass of the prairies were the best fields for the exercise 
of the hunter's skill. No feet could be impressed in the yielding 
soil but that the tracks were the objects of the most searching 
scrutiny, and revealed at a glance the animal that made them, the 
direction it was pursuing, and the time that had elapsed since it 
had passed. In a forest country he selected the valleys, because 
they were most frequently the resort of game. The most easily 
taken, perhaps, of all the animals of the chase was the deer. It is 
endowed with a curiosity which prompts it to stop in its flight and 
look back at the approaching hunter, who always avails himself of 
this opportunity to let fly the fatal arrow. 

Their general councils were composed of the chiefs and old men. 
"When in council, they usually sat in concentric circles around the 


speaker, and each individual, notwithstanding the fiery passions 
that rankled within, preserved an exterior as immovable as if cast 
in bronze. Before commencing business a person appeared with 
the sacred pipe, and another with fire to kindle it. After being 
lighted, it was first presented to heaven, secondly to the earth, 
thirdly to the presiding spirit, and lastly the several councilors, 
each of whom took a whiff. These formalities were observed with 
as close exactness as state etiquette in civilized courts. 

The dwellings of the Indians were of the simplest and rudest 
character. On some pleasant spot by the bank of a river, or near 
an ever-running spring, they raised their groups of wigwams, con- 
structed of the bark of trees, and easily taken down and removed 
to another spot. The dwelling-places of the chiefs were sometimes 
more spacious, and constructed with greater care, but of the same 
materials. Skins taken in the chase served them for repose. 
Though principally dependent upon hunting and fishing, the 
uncertain supply from those sources led them to cultivate small 
patches of corn. Every family did everything necessary within 
itself, commerce, or an interchange of articles, being almost unknown 
to them. In cases of dispute and dissension, each Indian relied 
upon himself f 3r retaliation. Blood for blood was the rule, and 
the relatives of the slain man were bound to obtain bloody revenge 
for his death. This principle gave rise, as a matter of course, to 
innumerable and bitter feuds, and wars of extermination where such 
were possible. War, indeed, rather than peace, was the Indian's 
glory and delight, — war, not conducted as civilization, but war 
where individual skill, endurance, gallantry and cruelty were prime 
requisites. For such a purpose as revenge the Indian would make 
great sacrifices, and display a patience and perseverance truly heroic; 
but when the excitement was over, he sank back into a listless, un- 
occupied, well-nigh useless savage. During the intervals of his 
more exciting pursuits, the Indian emploj'edhis time in decorating 
his person with all the refinement of paint and feathers, and in the 
manufacture of his arms and of canoes. These were constructed of 
bark, and so light that they could easily be carried on the shoulder 
from stream to stream. His amusements were the war-dance, ath- 
letic games, the narration of his exploits, and listening to the ora- 
tory of the chiefs; but during long periods of such existence he 
remained in a state of torpor, gazing listlessly upon the trees of 
the forests and the clouds that sailed above them; and this vacancy 


imprinted an habitual gravity, and even melancholy, upon his gen- 
eral deportment. 

The main labor and drudgery of Indian communities fell upon 
the women. The planting, tending and gathering of the crops, 
making mats and baskets, carrying burdens, — in fact, all things of 
the kind were performed by them, thus making their condition but 
little better than that' of slaves. Marriage was merely a matter of 
bargain and sale, the husband giving presents to the father of the 
bride. In general they had but few children. They were sub- 
jected to many and severe attacks of sickness, and at times famine 
and pestilence swept away whole tribes. 


The most desperate single-handed combat with Indians ever 
fought on the soil of Illinois was that of Tom Higgins, August 21, 
1814. Higgins was 25 years old, of a muscular and compact 
build, not tall, but strong and active. In danger he possessed a 
quick and discerning judgment, and was without fear. He was a 
member of Journey's rangers, consisting of eleven men, stationed 
at Hill's Fort, eight miles southwest of the present Greenville, Put- 
nam county. Discovering Indian signs near the fort, the company, 
early the following morning, started on the trail. They had not 
gone far before they were in an ambuscade of a larger party. At 
the first fire their commander, Journey, and three men fell, and 
six retreated to the fort; but Higgins stopped to "have another 
pull at the red-skins,"' and, taking deliberate aim at a straggling 
savage, shot him down. Higgins' horse had been wounded at the 
first fire, as he supposed, mortally. Coming to, he was about to 
eifect his escape, when the familiar voice of Burgess hailed him 
from the long grass, "Tom, don't leave me." Higgins told him to 
come along, but Burgess replied that his leg was smashed. Hig- 
gins attempted to raise him on his horse, but the animal took fright 
and ran away. Higgins then directed Burgess to limp off as well 
as he could; and by crawling through the grass he reached the fort 
while the former loaded his gun and remained behind to protect 
him against the pursuing enemy. When Burgess was well out of 
the way, Higgins took another route, which led by a small thicket, 
to throw any wandering enemy ofiT the trail. Here he was con- 
fronted by three savages approaching. He ran to a little ravine 
near for shelter, but in the effort discovered for the first time that 


he was badly wounded in the leg. He was closely pressed by the 
largest, a powerful Indian, who lodged a ball in his thigh. He fell, 
but instantly rose again, only, however, to draw the fire of the other 
two, and again fell wounded. The Indians now advanced upon him 
with their tomahawks and scalping knives; but as he presented his 
gun first at one, then at another, from his place in the ravine, each 
wavered in his purpose, , Neither party had'time to load, and the 
large Indian, supposingfiually that Higgins' gun was empty, rushed 
forward with uplifted tomahawk and a yell; but as he came near 
enough, was shot down. At this the others raised the war-whoop, 
and rushed upon the wounded Higgins, and now a hand-to-hand 
conflict ensued. They darted at him with their knives time and 
again, inflicting many ghastly flesh-wounds, which bled profusely. 
Ope of the assailants threw his tomahawk at him with such pre- 
cision as to sever his ear and lay bare his skull, knocking him down. 
They now rushed in on him, but he kicked them off, and grasping 
one of their spears thrust at him, was raised up by it. He quickly 
seized his gun, and by a powerful blow crushed in the skull of one, 
but broke his rifle. His remaining antagonist still kept up the con- 
test, making thrusts with his knife at the bleeding and exhausted 
Higgins, which he parried with his broken gun as well as he could. 
Most of this desperate engagement was in plain view of the fort; 
but the rangers, having been in one ambuscade, saw in this fight 
only a ruse to draw out the balance of the garrison. But a Mrs. 
Pursely, residing at the fort, no longer able to see so brave a man 
contend for his life unaided, seized a gun, mounted a horse, and 
started to his rescue. At this the men took courage and hastened 
along. The Indian, seeing aid coming, fled. Higgins. being near- 
ly hacked to pieces, fainted from loss of blood. He was carried to 
the fort. There being no surgeon, his comrades cut two balls from 
his flesh; others remained in. For days his life was despaired of; 
but by tender nursing he ultimately regained his health, although 
badly crippled. He resided in Fayette county for many years after, 
and died in 1829. 




The first white man who ever set foot on the soil embraced within 
the boundary of the present populous State of lUinoig was Nich- 
olas Perrot, a Frenchman. He was sent to Chicago in the year 1671 
by M. Talon, Intendant of Canada, for the purpose of inviting the 
Western Indians to a great peace convention to be held at Green 
Bay. This convention had for its chief object the promulgation of 
a plan for the discovery of the Mississippi river. This great river 
had been discovered by De Soto, the Spanish explorer, nearly one 
hundred and fifty years previously, but his nation left the country 
a wilderness, without further exploration or settlement within its 
borders, in which condition it remained until the river was dis- 
covered by Joliet and Marquette in 1673. It was deemed a wise 
policy to secure, as far as possible, the friendship and co-operation 
of the Indians, far and near, before venturing upon an enterprise 
which their hostility might render disastrous. Thus the great con- 
vention was called. 


Although Perrot was the first European to visit Illinois, he was 
not the first to make any important discoveries. This was left for 
Joliet and Marquette, which they accomplished two years thereafter. 
The former, Louis Joliet, was born at Quebec in 1645. He was 
educated for the clerical , profession, but he abandoned it to 
engage in the fur trade. His companion, Father Jacques Mar- 
quette, was a native of France, born in 1637. He was a Jesuit 
priest by education, and a man of simple faith and great zeal and 
devotion in extending the Roman Catholic religion among the In- 
dians. He was sent to America in 1666 as a missionary. To con- 
vert the Indians he penetrated the wilderness a thousand miles 
in advance of civilization, and by his kind attentioti in their afflic- 
tions he won their aftections and made them his lasting friends. 
There were others, however, who visited Illinois even prior to the 
famous exploration of Joliet and Marquette. In 1672 the Jesuit 


missionaries, Fathers Claude AUouez and Claudp Dablon, bore the 
standard of the Cross from their mission at Green Baj through 
western Wisconsin and northern Illinois. 

According to the pre-arranged plan referred to above, at the Jes- 
uit mission on the Strait of Mackinaw, Joliet joined Marquette, 
and with five other Frenchmen and a simple outfit the daring ex- 
plorers on the 17th of May, 1673, set out on their perilous voyage 
to discover the Mississij:)pi. Coasting along the northern shore of 
Lake Michigan, they entered Green Bay, and passed thence up Fox 
river and Lake Winnebago to a village of the Muscatines and 
Miamis, where great interest was taken in the expedition by the 
natives. With guides they proceeded down the river. Arriving 
at the portage, they soon carried their light canoes and scanty bag- 
gage to the Wisconsin, about three miles distant. Their guides 
now refused to accompany them further, and endeavored, by re- 
citing the dangers incident to the voyage, to induce them to return. 
They stated that huge demons dwelt in the great river, whose voices 
could be heard a longdistance, and who engulfed in the raging 
waters all who came within tlieir reach. They also represented that 
if any of them should escape the dangers of the river, fierce tribes of 
Indians dwelt upon its banks ready to complete tlie work of de- 
struction. They proceeded on their journey, however, and on the 
17th of June pushed their frail barks on the bosom of the stately 
Mississippi, down which they smoothly glided for nearly a hundred 
miles. Here Joliet and Marquette, leaving their canoes in charge 
of their men, went on the western shore, where they discovered an 
Indian village, and were kindly treated. They journeyed on down 
the unknown river, passing the mouth of the Illinois, then run- 
ning into the current of the muddy Missouri, and afterward the 
waters of the Ohio joined with them on their journey southward. 
Near the mouth of the Arkansas they discovered Indians who 
showed signs of hostility; but when Marquette's mission of peace 
was made known to them, they were kindly received. After pro- 
ceeding up the Arkansas a short distance, at the advice of the 
natives they turned their faces northward to retrace their steps. Af- 
ter several weeks of liard toil they reached the Illinois, up which 
stream they proceeded to Lake Michigan. Following the western 
shore of the lake, they entered Green Bay the latter part of Sep- 
tember, having traveled a distance of 2,500 miles. 


On his way up the Illinois, Marquette visited the Kaskaskias, 
near what is now Utica, in LaSalle county. The following year 
he returned and established amon^ them the mission of the Im- 
maculate Virgin Mary. This was tiie last act of his life. He died 
in Michigan, May 18, 1675. 

lasalle's explorations. 
The first French occupation of Illinois was effected by LaSalle, 
in 1680. Having constructed a vessel, the " Griffin," above the 
falls of Niagara, he sailed to Green Bay, and passed thence in 
canoe to the mouth of the St. Joseph river, by which and the Kan- 
kakee he reached the Illinois in January, 1680; and on the 3d he 
entered the expansion of the river now called Peoria lake. Here, 
at the lower end of the lake, on its eastern bank, now in Tazewell 
county, he erected Fort Crevecceur. The place where this ancient 
fort stood may still be seen just below the outlet of Peoria lake. It 
had, however, but a temporary existence. From this point LaSalle 
determined, at that time, to descend the Mississippi to its mouth. 
This he did not do, however, until two years later. Returning to 
Fort Frontenac for the purpose of getting material with which to 
rig his vessel, he left the fort at Peoria in charge of his lieutenant, 
Henri Tonti, an Italian, who had lost one of his hands by the 
explosion of a grenade in the Sicilian wars, Tonti had with him 
fifteen men, most of whom disliked LaSalle, and were ripe for a 
revolt the first opportunity. Two men who had, previous to LaSalle's 
departure, been sent to look for the " Griffin " now returned and 
reported that the vessel was lost and that Fort Frontenac was in 
the hands of LaSalle's creditors. This disheartening intelligence 
had the effect to enkindle a spirit of mutiny among the garrison. 
Tonti had no sooner left the fort, with a few men, to fortify what 
was afterward known as Starved Rock, than the garrison at the 
fort refused longer to submit to authority. They destroyed the 
fort, seized the ammunition, provisions, and other portables of value, 
and fied. Only two of their number remained true. These hast- 
ened to apprise Tonti of what had occurred. He thereupon sent 
four of the men with him to inform LaSalle. Thus was Tonti in 
the midst of treacherous savages, with only five men, two of whom 
were the friars Ribourde and Membre. With these he immediately 
returned to the fort, collected what tools had not been destroyed, 
and conveyed them, to the great town of the Illinois Indians. 


By this voluntary display of confidence he hoped to remove the^ 
jealousy created in the minds of the Illinois by the enemies of La- 
Salle. Here he awaited, unmolested, the return of LaSalle. 


Neither Tonti nor his wild associates suspected that hordes of Iro- 
quois were gathering preparatory to rushing down upon their 
country and leducing it to an uninhabited waste. Already these 
hell-hounds of the wilderness had destroyed the Ilurons, Eries, and 
other natives on the lakes, and wei-e now directing their attention 
to the Illinois for new victims. Five hundred Iroquois warriors 
set out for the home of the Illinois. All was fancied security and 
idle repose in the great town of this tribe, as the enemy stealthily 
approached. Suddenly as a clap of thunder from a cloudless sky 
the listless inhabitants were awakened from their lethargy. A 
Shawnee Indian, on his return home after a visit to the Illinois, 
first discovered the invaders. To save his friends from the im- 
pending danger, he hurriedly returned and apprised them of the 
coming enemy. This intelligence spread with lightning rapidity 
over the town, and each wigwam disgorged its boisterous and as- 
tounded inmates. Women snatched their children, and in a delirium 
of f ight wandered aimlessly about, rending the air with their 
screams. The men, more self-possessed, seized their arms ready 
for the coming fray. Tonti, long an object of suspicion, was soon 
surrounded by an angry crowd of warriors, who accused him of be- 
ing an emissary of the enemy. His inability to defend himself 
properly, in consequence of not fully understanding their language 
left them still inclined to believe him guilty, and they seized his 
eifects from the fort and threw them into the river. The women 
and children were sent down the river for safety, and the warriors, 
not exceeding four hundred, as most of their young men were oflF 
hunting, returned to the village. Along the shores of the river 
they kindled huge bonfires, and spent the entire night in greasing 
their bodies, painting their faces, and performing the war-dance, 
to prepare for the approaching enemy. At early dawn the scouts 
who had been sent out returned, closely followed by the Iroquois. 
The scouts had seen a chief arrayed in French costume, and re- 
ported their suspicions that LaSalle was in the camp of the enemy, 
and Tonti again became an object of jealousy. A concourse of 
wildly gesticulating savages immediately gathered about him, de- 


manding his life, and nothing saved him from their uplifted weap- 
ons but a promise that he and his men would go with them to meet 
the enemy. With their suspicions partly lulled, they hurriedly 
crossed the river and met the foe, when both commenced firing. 
Tonti, seeing that the Illinois were outnumbered and likely to 
be defeated, determined, at the imminent risk of his life, to stay 
the fight by an attempt at mediation. Presuming on the treaty of 
peace then existing between the French and Iroquois, he exchanged 
his gun for a belt of wampum and advanced to meet the savage 
multitude, attended by three companions, who, being unnecessarily 
exposed to danger, were dismissed, and he proceeded alone. -A 
short walk brought him ia the midst of a pack of yelping devils, 
writhing and distorted with fiendish rage, and impatient to shed 
his blood. As the result of his swarthy Italian complexion and 
half-rsavage costume, he was at first taken for an Indian, and before 
the mistake was discovered a young warrior approached and stabbed 
at his heart. Fortunately the blade was turned aside by coming 
in contact with a rib, yet a large flesh wound was inflicted, which 
bled profusely. At this juncture a chief discovered his true char- 
acter, and he was led to the rear and efibrts were made to staunch 
his wound. When sufficiently recovered, he declared the Illinois 
were under the protection of the French, and demanded, in consid- 
eration of the treaty between the latter and the Iroquois, that they 
should be suffered to remain without further molestation. During 
this conference a young warrior snatched Tonti's hat, and, fleeing 
with it to the front, held it aloft on the end of his gun in view of 
the Illinois. The latter, judging that Tonti had been killed, 
renewed the fight with great vigor. Simultaneously, intelligence 
was brought to the Iroquois that Frenchmen were assisting their 
enemies in the fight, when the contest over Tonti was renewed 
with redoubled fury. Some declared that he should be immediately 
put to death, while others, friendly to LaSalle, with equal earnest- 
ness demanded that he should be set at liberty. During their 
clamorous debate, his hair was several times lifted by a huge sav- 
age who stood at his back with a scalping knife ready for execution. 
Tonti at length turned the current of the angry controversy in his 
favor, by stating that the Illinois were 1,200 strong, and that there 
were 60 Frenchmen at the village ready to assist them. This state- 
ment obtained at least a partial credence, and his tormentors now 


determined to use him as an instrument to delude the Illinois with a 
pretended truce. The old warriors, therefore, advanced to the front 
and ordered the firing to cease, while Tonti, dizzy from the loss oi 
blood, was furnished with an emblem of peace and sent staggering 
across the plain to rejoin the Illinois. The two friars who had just 
returned from a distant hut, whither they had repaired for prayer 
and meditation, were the fi.rst to meet him and bless God for what 
they regarded as a miraculous deliverance. With the assurance 
brought by Tonti, the Illinois re-crossed the river to their lodges, 
followed by the enemy as far as the opposite bank. Not long after, 
large numbers of the latter, under the pretext of hunting, also crossed 
the river and hung in threatening groups about the town. These 
hostile indications, and the well-known disregard which the Iroquois 
had always evinced for their pledges, soon convinced the lUinoiB 
that' their only safety was in flight. With this conviction they set 
tire to their village, and while the vast volume of flames and smoke 
diverted the attention of the enemy, they quietly dropped down the 
river to join their women and children. As soon as the flames would 
permit, the Iroquois entrenched themselves on the site of the vil- 
lage. Tonti and his men were ordered by the suspicious savages 
to leave their hut and take up their abode in the fort. 

At first the Iroquois were much elated at the discomfiture of the 
Illinois, but when two days afterward they discovered them recon- 
noitering their intrenchments, their courage greatly subsided. 
With fear they recalled the exaggerations of Tonti respecting their 
numbers, and concluded to send him with a hostage to make over- 
tures of peace. He and his hostage were received with delight by 
the Illinois, who readily assented to the proposal which he brought, 
and in turn sent back with him a hostage to the Iroquois. On his 
return to the fort his life was again placed in jeopardy, and the 
treaty was with great difficulty ratified. The young and inexpe- 
rienced Illinois hostage betrayed to his crafty interviewers the nu- 
merical weakness of his tribe, and the savages immediately rushed 
upon Tonti, and charged him with having deprived them of the spoils 
and honors of victory. It now required all the tact of which he was 
master to escape. After much difficulty however, the treaty was con- 
cluded, but the savages, to show their contempt for it, immediately 
commenced constructing canoes in which to descend the river and 
attack the Illinois. 




Tonti managed to apprise the latter- of their designs, and he and 
Membre were soon after summoned to attend a council of the Iro- 
quois, who still labored under a wholesome fearof Count Frontenac, 
and disliking to attack the Illinois in the presence of the French, 
thej thought to try to induce them to leave the country. At the 
assembling of the council, six packages of beaver skins were intro- 
duced, and the savage orator, presenting them separately to Tonti, 
explained the nature of each. "The first two," said he, "were to de- 
clare that the children of Count Frontenac, that is, the Illinois, 
should not be eaten; the next was a plaster to heal the wounds of 
Tonti; the next was oil wherewith to anoint him and Membre, 
that they might not be fatigued in traveling; the next proclaimed 
that the sun was bright; and the sixth and last required them to 
decamp and go home." 

At the mention of going home, Tonti demanded of them when 
they intended to set the example by leaving the Illinois in the 
peaceable possession of their country, which they had so unjustly in- 
vaded. The council grew boisterous and angry at the idea that 
they should be demanded to do what they required of the French, 
and some of its members, forgetting their previous pledge, declared 
that they would " eat^Illinois flesh before they departed." Tonti, in 
imitation of the Indians' manner of expressing scorn, indignantly 
kicked away the presents of fur, saying, since they intended to de- 
vour the children of Frontenac with cannibal ferocity, he would not 
accept their gifts. This stern rebuke resulted in the expulsion of 
Tonti and his companion from the council, and the next day the 
chiefs ordered them to leave the country. 

Tonti had now, at the great peril of his life, tried every expedient 
to prevent the slaughter of the Illinois. There was little to be ac- 
complished by longer remaining in the country, and as longer delay 
might imperil the lives of his own men, he determined to depart, not 
knowing where or when he would be able to rejoin LaSalle. "With 
this object in view, the party, consisting of six persons, embarked in 
canoes, which soon proved leaky, and they were compelled to land 
for the purpose of making repairs. While thus employed, Father Ri- 
bourde, attracted by the beauty of the surrounding landscape, wan- 
dered forth among the groves for meditation and prayer. Not return • 
ing in due time, Tonti became alarmed, and started with a compan- 


ion to ascertain the cause of the long delay. Thej soon discovered 
tracks of Indians, bj whom it was supposed he had been seized, and 
guns were fired to direct his return, in case he was alive. Seeing 
nothing of him during the da^-, at night thej built fires along the 
bank of the river and retired to the opposite side, to see who might 
approach them. Near midnight a number of Indians were seen 
flitting about the light, by whom, no doubt, had been made the tracks 
seen the previous day. Ifiwas afterward learned that they were a 
band of Kickapoos, who had for several days been hovering about 
the camp of the Iroquois in quest of scalps. They had fell in 
with the inofiensive old friar and scalped him. Thus, in the 65th 
year of his age, the only heir to a wealthy Burgundian house per- 
ished under the war-club of the savages for whose salvation he had 
renounced ease and affluence. 


During this tragedy a far more revolting one was being enacted 
in the great town of Illinois. The Iroquois were tearing open the 
graves of the dead, and wreaking their vengeance upon the bodies 
made hideous by putrefaction. At this desecration, it is said, they 
even ate portions of the dead bodies, while subjecting them to every 
indignity that brutal hate could inflict. Still unsated by their hell- 
ish brutalities, and now unrestrained by the pAsence of the French, 
they started in pursuit of the retreating Illinois. Day after day 
they and the opposing forces moved in compact array down the 
river, neither being able to gain any advantage over the other. At 
length the Iroquois obtained by falsehood that which number and 
prowess denied them. They gave out that their object was to pos- 
sess the country, not by destroying, but by driving out its present 
inhabitants. Deceived by this false statement, the Illinois separa- 
ted, some descending the Mississippi and others crossing to the 
western shore. The Taraaroas, more credulous than the rest, re- 
mained near the mouth of the Illinois, and were suddenly attacked 
by an overwhelming force of the enemy. The men fled in dismay, 
and the women and children, to the number of 700, fell into the 
hands of the ferocious enemy. Then followed the tortures, butch- 
eries and burnings which only the infuriated and imbruted Iroquois 
could perpetrate. LaSalle on his return discovered the half-charred 
bodies of women and children still bound to the stakes where they 
had sufiered all the torments hellish hate could devise. In addition 


to those who had been burnt, the mangled bodies of women and 
children thickly covered the ground, many of which bore marks of 
brutality too horrid for record. 

After the ravenous horde had sufficiently glutted their greed for 
carnage, they retired from the country. The Illinois returned and 
rebuilt their town. 


After the death of Ribourde, Tonti and his men again resumed 
their journey. Soon again their craft became disabled, when they 
abandoned it and started on foot for Lake Michigan. Their 
supply of provisions soon became exhausted, and they were 
compelled to subsist in a great measure on ' roots and herbs. 
One of their companions wandered off in search of game, and lost 
his. way, and several days elapsed before he rejoined them. In his 
absence he was without flints and bullets, yet contrived to shoot 
some turkeys by using slugs cut from a pewter porringer and afire- 
brand to discharge his gun. Tonti fell sick of a fever and greatly 
retarded the progress of the march. Nearing Green Bay, the cold 
increased and the means of subsistence decreased and the party would 
have perished had they not found a few ears of corn and some froz- 
en squashes in the fields of a deserted village. Near the close of 
November they had reached the Pottawatomies, who warmly greet- 
ed them. Their chief was an ardent admirer of the French, and 
was accustomed to say: " There were but three great captains in the 
world, — himself, Tonti and LaSalle." For the above account of 
Tonti's encounter with the Iroquois, we are indebted to Davidson 
and Stuve's History of Illinois. 

lasalle's return. 

LaSalle returned to Peoria only to meet the hideous picture of 
devastation. Tonti had escaped, but LaSalle knew not whither. Pass- 
ing down the lake in search of him and his men, LaSalle discov- 
ered that the fort had been destroyed; but the vessel which he had 
partly constructed was still on the stocks, and but slightly injured. 
After further fruitless search he fastened to a tree a painting repre- 
senting himself and party sitting in a canoe and bearing a pipe of 
peace, and to the painting attached a letter addressed to Tonti. 

LaSalle was born in France in 1643, of wealthy parentage, and edu- 
cated in a college of the Jesuits, from which he separated and came 
to Canada, a poor man, in 1666. He was a man of daring genius, 


and outstripped all his competitors in exploits of travel and com- 
merce with the Indians. He was granted a large tract of land at 
LaChine, where he established himself in the fur trade. In 1669 
he visited the headquarters of the great Iroquois confederacy, at 
Onondaga, New York, and, obtaining guides, explored the Ohio 
river to the falls at Louisville. For many years previous, it must 
be remembered, missionaries and traders were obliged to make their 
way to the Northwest through Canada on account of the fierce 
hostility of the Iroquois along the lower lakes and Niagara river, 
which entirely closed this latter route to the upper lakes. They 
carried on their commerce chiefly by canoes, paddling them through 
Ottawa river to Lake Nipissing, carrying them across the portage 
to French river, and descending that to Lake Huron. This being 
the route by which they reached the Northwest, we have an explana- 
tion' of the fact that all the earliest Jesuit missions were established 
in the neighborhood of the upper lakes. LaSalle conceived the 
grand idea of opening the route by Niagara river and the lower 
lakes to Canada commerce by sail vessels, connecting it with the 
navigation of the Mississippi, and thus opening a magnificent water 
communication from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the Gulf of Mex- 
ico. This truly grand and comprehensive purpose seems to have 
animated him in hi^ wonderful achievements, and the matchless 
difficulties and hardships he surmounted. As the first step in the 
accomplishment of this object he established himself on Lake 
Ontario, and built and garrisoned Fort Frontenac, the site of the 
present city of Kingston, Canada. Here he obtained a grant of 
land from the French crown, and a body of troops, by which he 
repulsed the Iroquois and opened passage to Niagara Falls. Hav- 
ing by this masterly stroke made it safe to attempt a hitherto 
untried expedition, his next step, as we have seen, was to build a 
ship with which to sail the lakes. He was successful in this under- 
taking, though his ultimate purpose was defeated by a strange com- 
bination of untoward circumstances. The Jesuits evidently hated 
LaSalle and plotted against him, because he had abandoned them 
and united with a rival order. The fur traders were also jealous of 
his success in opening new channels of commerce. While they were 
plodding with their bark canoes through the Ottawa, he was con- 
structing sailing vessels to command the trade of^he Jakes and the 
Mississippi. These great plans excited the jealousy and envy of 


small traders, introduced treason and revolt into the ranks of bis 
men, and finally led to the foul assassination by which his great 
achievements were permanently ended. 

lasalle's assassination. 
Again visiting the Illinois in the year 1682, LaSalle de- 
scended the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico. lie erected a 
standard upon which he inscribed the arms of France, and took 
formal possession of the whole valley of this mighty river in the 
name of Louis XIY,, then reigning, and in honor of whom he named 
the country Louisiana. LaSalle then returned to France, waa 
appointed Governor, and returned with a fleet of immigrants for the 
purpose of planting a colony in Illinois. They arrived in due time 
in the Gulf of Mexico, but failing to find the mouth of the Missis- 
sippi, up which tRey intended to sail, his supply ship, with the 
immigrants, was driven ashore and wrecked on Matagorda Bay. 
With the fragments of the vessel he constructed rude huts and 
stockades on the shore for the protection of his followers, calling 
the post Fort St. Louis. He then made a trip into New Mexico 
in search of silver mines, but, meeting with disappointment^ 
returned to find his colony reduced to forty souls. He then resolved 
to travel on foot to Illinois. With some twenty of his men they 
filed out of their fort on the 12th of January, 1687, and after the part- 
ing, — which was one of sighs, of tears, and of embraces, all seeming 
intuitively to know that they should see each other no more, — they 
started on their disastrous journey. Two of the party, Du Haut 
and Leotot, when on a hunting expedition in company with a 
nephew of LaSalle, assassinated him while asleep. The long 
absence of his nephew caused LaSalle to go in search of him. On 
approaching the murderers of his nephew, they fired upon him, kill- 
ing him instantly. Thoj then despoiled the body of its clothing, 
and icft it to be devoured b}' the wild beasts of the forest. Thus, 
at the age of 43, perished one whose exploits have so greatly 
enriched the history of the New World. To estimate aright the 
marvels of his patient fortitude, one i^just follow on his track 
through the vast scene of his interminable journeyings, those thou- 
sands of weary miles of forest, marsh and river, where, again and 
again, in the bitterness of baffled striving, the untiring pilgrim 
pushed onward toward the goal he never was to attain. America 
owes him an enduring memory; for in this masculine figure, cas^ 


in iron, she sees the heroic pioneer who guided her to the possession 
of her richest lieritage. 

Tonti, who had been stationed at the fort on the Illinois, learning 
of LaSalle's unsuccessful voyage, immediately started down the 
Mississippi to his relief. Reaching the Gulf, he found no traces of 
the colony. He then returned, leaving some of his men at the 
mouth of the Arkansas. These were discovered by the remnant of 
LaSalle's followers, who guided them to the fort on the Illinois, 
where they reported that LaSalle was in Mexico. The little band 
left at Fort St. Louis were finally destroyed by the Indians, and the 
murderers of LaSalle were shot. Thus ends the sad chapter of 
Robert Cavalier de LaSalle's exploration. 



The first mission in Illinois, as we have already seen, was com- 
menced by Marquette in April, 16T5. He called the religious 
society which he established the " Mission of the Immaculate Con- 
ception," and the town Kaskaskia. The first military occupation of 
the country was at Fort Crevecoeur, erected in 1680; but there is no 
evidence that a settlement was commenced there, or at Peoria, on 
the lake above, at that early date. The first settlement of which there 
is any authentic account was commenced with the building of Fort 
St. Louis on the Illinois river in 1682; but this was soon abandoned. 
The oldest permanent settlement, not only in Illinois, but in the val- 
ley of the Mississippi, is at Kaskaskia, situated six miles above the 
mouth of the Kaskaskia river. This was settled in 1690 by the 
removal of the mission from old Kaskaskia, or Ft. St. Louis, on the 
Illinois river. Cahokia was settled about the same time. The 
reason for the removal of the old Kaskaskia settlement and minion, 
was probably because the dangerous and difficult route by Lake 
Michigan and the Chicago portage had been almost abandoned, and 
travelers and traders traveled down and up the Mississippi by the 
Fox and Wisconsin river^. It was removed to the vicinity of the 
Mississippi in order to be in the line of travel from Canada to 
Louisiana, that is, the lower part of it, for it was all Louisiana then 
south of the lakes. Illinois came into possession of the French in 
1682, and was a dependency of Canada and a part of Louisiana. 
During the period of French rule in Louisiana, the population 


probably uever exceeded ten thousand. To the year 1730 the jfol- 
lowing five distinct settlements were made in the territory of 
Illinois, numbering, in population, 140 French families, about 600- 
"converted " Indians, and many traders; Cahokia, near the mouth 
of Cahokia creek and about five miles below the present city of 
St, Louis; St. Philip, about forty-five miles below Cahokia; Fort 
Chartres, twelve miles above Kaskaskia; Kaskaskia, situated on the 
Kaskaskia river six miles above its confluence with the Mississippi, 
and Prairie du Rocher, near Fort Chartres. Fort Chartres was 
built under the direction of the Mississippi Company in 1718, and' 
was for a time the headquarters of the military commandants of 
the district of Illinois, and the most impregnable fortress in ^orth 
America. It was also the center of wealth and fashion in the West. 
For about eighty years the French retained peaceable possession 
of Illinois. Their amiable disposition and tact of ingratiating them- 
selves with the Indians enabled them to escape almost entirely the- 
broils which weakened and destroyed other colonies. "Whether 
exploring remote rivers or traversing hunting grounds in pursuit 
of game, in the social circle or as participants in the religious exer- 
cises of the church, the red men became their associates and were 
treated with the kindness and consideration of brothers. For more 
than a hundred years peace between the white man and the red was 
unbroken, and when at last this reign of harmony terminated it 
was not caused by the conciliatory Frenchman, but by the blunt, 
and sturdy Anglo-Saxon. During this century, or until the coun- 
try was occupied by the English, no regular court was ever held^ 
"When, in 1765, the country passed into the hands of the English,, 
many of the French, rather than submit to a change in their insti- 
tutions, preferred to leave their homes and seek a new abode. 
There are, however, at the present time a few remnants of the old 
French stock in the State, who still retain to a great extent the- 
' ancient habits and customs of their fathers. 


During the earliest period of French occupation of this country, 
M. Tonti, LaSalle's attendant, was commander-in-chief of all the- 
territory embraced between Canada and the Gulf of Mexico, and 
extending east and west of the Mississippi as far as his ambition or 
imagination pleased to allow. He spent twenty-one years in estab- 
lishing forts and organizing the first settlements of Illinois. Sep- 


tenibei- 14, 1712, the French government granted a monopoly of all 
the trade and commerce of the country to M. Crozat, a wealthy 
merchant of Paris, who established a trading company in Illinois, 
and it was by this means that the early settlements became perma- 
nent and others established. Crozat surrendered his charter in 
1717, and the Company of the West, better known as the Missis- 
sippi Company, was organized, to aid and assist the banking system 
of John Law, the most famous speculator of modern times, and 
perhaps at one time the wealthiest private individual the world 
has ever known; but his treasure was transitory. Under the 
Company of the West a branch was organized called the Company 
of St. Philip's, for the purpose of working the rich silver mines sup- 
posed to be in Illinois, and Philip Renault was appointed as its 
agent. In 1719 be sailed from France with two hundred miners, 
laborers and mechanics. During 1719 the Company of the West 
was by royal order united with the Royal Company of the Indies, 
and had the influence and support of the crown, who was deluded 
by the belief that immense wealth would flow into the empty treas- 
ury of France. This gigantic scheme, one of the most extensive 
and wonderful bubbles ever blown up to astonish, deceive and ruin 
thousands of people, was set in operation by the fertile brain of 
John Law. Law was born in Scotland in 1671, and so rapid had 
been his career that at the age of twenty-three lie was a " bankrupt, 
an adulterer, a murderer and an exiled outlaw.'' But he (possessed 
great financial ability, and by his agreeable and attractive manners, 
and his enthusiastic advocacy of his schemes, he succeeded in 
inflaming the imagination of the mercurial Frenchmen, v/hose greed 
for gain led them to adopt any plans for obtaining wealth. 

Law arrived in Paris with two and a half millions of francs, 
which he had gained at the gambling table, just at the right time. 
Louis XIV. had just died and left as a legacy empty cofiers and an 
immense public debt. Every thing and everybody was taxed to 
the last penny to pay even the interest. All the sources of in- 
dustry were dried up; the very wind which wafted the barks of 
commerce seemed to have died away under the pressure of the 
time; trade stood still; the merchant, the trader, the artificer, once 
flourishing in affluence, were transformed into clamorous beggars. 
The life-blood that animated the kingdom was stagnated in all 
its arteries, and the danger of an awful crisis became such that 


the nation was on the verge of bankruptcy. At this critical junc- 
ture John Law arrived and proposed his grand scheme of the 
Mississippi Company; 200,000 shares of stock at 500 livres each were 
at first issued. This sold readily and great profits were realized. 
More stock was issued, speculation became rife, the fever seized 
everybody, and the wildest speculating frenzy pervaded the whole 
nation. Illinois was thought to contain vast and rich mines of 
minerals. Kaskaskia, then scarcely more than the settlement of a 
few savages, was spoken of as an emporium of the most extensive 
traffic, and as rivaling some of the cities of Europe in refinement, 
fashion and religious culture. Law was in the zenith of his glory, and 
the people in the zenith of their infatuation. The high and the low, 
the rich and the poor, were at once filled with visions of untold 
Vealth, and every age, set, rank and condition were buying and selling 
stocks.' Law issued stock again and again, and readily sold until 
2,235,000,000 livres were in circulation, equaling about $450,000,000. 
While confidence lasted an impetus was given to trade never before 
known. An illusory policy everywhere prevailed, and so dazzled 
the eye that none could see in the horizon the dark cloud announc- 
ing the approaching storm. Law at the time was the most influ- 
ential man in Eurt)pe. His house was beset from morning till 
night with eager applicants for stock. Dukes, marquises and 
counts, with their wives and ,daughters, waited for hours in the 
street below his door. Finding his residence too small, he changed 
it for the Place Vendome, whither the crowd followed him, and the 
spacious square had the appearance of a public market. The boule- 
vards and public gardens were forsaken, and the Place Vendome 
became the most fashionable place in Paris; and he was unable to 
wait upon even one-tenth part of "his applicants. The bubble burst 
after a few years, scattering ruin and distress in every direction. 
Law, a short time previous the most popular man in Europe, fled 
to Brussels, and in 1729 died in Yenice, in obscurity and poverty. 


As early as 1750 there could be perceived the first throes of the 
revolution, which gave a new master and new institutions to Illi- 
nois. France claimed the whole valley of the Mississippi, and Eng- 
land the right to extend her possessions westward as far as she 
might desire. Through colonial controversies the two mother 


countries were precipitated into a bloody war within the North- 
western Territory, George Washington firing the first gun of the 
military struggle which resulted in the overthrow of the French 
not only in Illinois but in North America. The French evinced a 
determination to retain control of the territory bordering the Ohio 
and Mississippi from Canada to the Gulf, and so long as the En- 
glish colonies were confined to the sea-coast there was little reason 
for controversy. As the English, however, became acquainted 
with this beautiful and fertile portion of our country, they not only 
learned the value of the vast territory, but also resolved to set up a 
counter claim to the soil. The French established numerous mili- 
tary and trading posts from the frontiers of Canada to New Or- 
leans, and in order to establish also their claims to jurisdiction over 
the country they carved the lilies of France on the forest trees, or» 
sunk plates of metal in the ground. These measures did not, 
however, deter the Etiglish from going on with their explorations; 
and though neither party resorted to arms, yet the conflict waa 
gathering, and it was only a question of time when the storm 
should burst upon the frontier settlement. The French based 
their claims upon discoveries, the English on grants of territory 
extending from ocean to ocean, but neither p*rty paid the least 
attention to the prior claims of the Indians, "From this posi- 
tion of affairs, it was evident that actual collision between the 
contending parties would not much longer be deferred. The En- 
glish Government, in anticipation of a war, urged the Governor 
of Virginia to lose no time in building two forts, which were 
equipped by arms from England. The Frencli anticipated the- 
English and gathered a considerable force to defend their possessions. 
The Governor determined to send a messenger to the nearest 
French post and demand an explanation. This resolution of the 
Governor brought into the history of our country for the first time 
the man of all others whom America most loves to honor, namely,' 
George Washington. He was chosen, although not yet twenty-one 
years of age, as the one to perform this delicate and difiicult mission. 
With five companions he set out on Nov. 10, 1753, and after a per- 
ilous journey returned Jan. 6, 1754. The struggle commenced and 
continued long, and was bloody and fierce; but on the 10th of Octo- 
ber, 1765, the ensign of France was replaced on the ramparts of 
Fort Chartres by the flag of Great Britain. This fort was the 



depot of supplies and the place of rendezvous for the united forces 
of the French. At tliis time the colonies of the Atlantic Seaboard 
were assembled in preliminary congress at New York, dreaming of 
liberty and independence for the continent; and Washington, who 
led tlie expedition against the French for the English king, in less 
than ten years was commanding the forces opposed to the English 
tyrant. Illinois, besides being constructively a part of Florida for 
over one hundred years, during which time no Spaniard set foot 
upon her soil or rested his eyes upon her beautiful plains, for nearly 
ninety years had been in the actual occupation of the Frencli, their 
puny settlements slumbering quietly in colonial dependence on the 
distant waters of the Kaskaskia, Illinois and Wabash. 
GEN, Clark's exploits. 
The J^orthwest Territory was now entirely under English rule, 
and on the breaking out of the Revolutionary war the British held 
every post of importance in the West. While the colonists of the 
East were maintaining a fierce struggle with the armies of England, 
their western frontiers were ravaged by merciless butcheries of In- 
dian warfare. The jealousy of the savage was aroused to action by 
the rapid extension of American settlement westward and the im- 
proper influence exerted by a number of military posts garrisoned by 
British troops. To prevent indiscriminate slaughters arising from 
these causes, Illinois became the theater of some of the most daring 
exploits connected with American history. The hero of the achieve- 
ments by which this beautiful land was snatched as a gem from 
the British Crown, was George Rogers Clark, of Yirginia. He had 
closely watched the movements of the British throughout the 
Northwest, and understood their whole plan; he also knew the 
Indians \^ere not unanimously in accord with the English, and 
therefore was convinced that if the British could be defeated and 
expelled from the Northwest, the natives might be easily awed into 
neutrality. Having convinced himself that the enterprise against 
the Illinois settlement might easily succeed, he repaired to the cap- 
ital of Yirginia, arriving Nov. 5, 1777. While he was on his way, 
fortunately, Burgoyne was defeated (Oct. 17), and the spirits of the 
colonists were thereby greatly encouraged. Patrick Henry was 
Governor of Yirginia, and at once entered heartily into Clark's 
plana. After satisfying the Yirginia leaders of the feasibility of 
his project, he received two sets of instructions, — one secret, the 


Other open. The latter autliorized him to enlist seven companies 
to go to Keiituckv, and serve three months after their arrival in 
the West. The secret order authorized him to arm these troops, 
to procure his powder and lead of General Ilaud at Pittsburg, and 
to proceed at once to subjugate the country. 


With these instructions Col. Clark repaired to Pittsburg, choos- 
ing rather to raise his men west of the mountains, as lie well knew 
all were needed in the colonies in the conflict there. He sent Col. 
W. B. Smith to Holstein and Captains Helm and Bownmn to 
other localities to enlist men; but none of them succeeded in rais- 
ing the required number. Tlie settlers in these parts were afraid 
to leave their own firesides exposed to a vigilant foe, and but few 
could be induced to j^in the expedition. With these companies 
and several private volunteers Clark commenced his descent of the 
Ohio, which he navigated as far as the falls, where he took posses- 
sion of and fortified Corn Island, a small island between the present 
cities of Louisville, Ky., and New Albany, Ind. Here, after having 
completed bis arrangements and announced to the men their real 
destination, he left a small garrison; and on the 24:th of June, dur- 
ing a total eclipse of the sun, which to them augured no good, they 
floated down the river. His plan was to go by water as far as Fort 
Massac, and thence march direct to Kaskaskia. Here he intended to 
surprise the garrison, and after its capture go to Cahokia, then to 
Vincennes, and lastly to Detroit. Should he fail, he intended to 
march directly to the Mississippi river and cross it into the Spanish 
country. Before his start he received good items of information: 
one that an alliance had been formed between France and the United 
States, and the other that the Indians throughout the Illinois 
country and the inhabitants at the various frontier posts had been led 
by the British to believe that the " Long Knives," or Virginians^ 
were the most fierce, bloodthirsty and cruel savages that ever scalped 
a foe. With this impression on their minds, Clark saw that 
proper management would cause them to submit at once from fear, 
if surprised, and then from gratitude would become frie'ndly, if 
treated with unexpected lenity. The march to Kaskaskia was 
made through a hot July sun, they arriving on the evening of the 
4th of July, 1778. They captured the fort near the village and 
soon after the village itself, by surprise, and without the loss of 


a single man and without killing any of the enemy. After suffi- 
ciently working on the fears of the natives, Clark told them they 
were at perfect liberty to worship as they pleased, and to take 
whichever side of the great conflict they would; also he would pro- 
tect them against any barbarity from British or Indian foe. This 
had the desired eflfect; and the inhabitants, bo unexpectedly and so 
gratefully surprised Ly the unlooked-for turn of affairs, at once 
swore allegiance to the American arms; and when Clark desired 
to go to Cahokia on the 6th of July, they accompanied him, and 
through their influence the inhabitants of the place surrendered 
and gladly placed themselves under liis protection. 

In the person of M. Gibault, priest of Kaskaskia, Clark found a 
powerful ally and generous friend. Clark saw that, to retain pos- 
session of the Northwest and treat successfully with the Indians, he 
must establish a government for the colonies he had taken. St. Vin- 
cent, the post next in importance to Detroit, remained yet to be 
taken before the Mississippi valley was conquered. M. Gibault 
told him that he would alone, by persuasion, lead Vincennes to 
throw off its connection with England. Clark gladly accepted this 
offer, and July 14th, in company with a fellow-townsman, Gibault 
started on his mission of peace. On the Ist of August he returned 
with the cheerful intelligence that everything was peaceably ad- 
justed at Vincennes in favor of the Americans. During the inter- 
val. Col. Clark established his courts, placed garrisons at Kaskaskia 
and Cahokia, successfully re-enlisted his men, and sent word to 
have a fort (which proved the germ of Louisville) erected at the 
falls of the Ohio. 

While the American commander was thus negotiating with the 
Indians, Hamilton, the British Governor of Detroit, heard of Clark's 
invasion, and was greatly incensed because the country which he 
had in charge should be wrested from him by a few ragged militia. 
He therefore hurriedly collected a force, marched by way of the 
Wabash, and appeared before the fort at Vincennes. The inhabi- 
tants made an effort to defend the town, and when Hamilton's 
forces arrived, Captain Helm and a man named Henry were the 
only Americans in the fort. These men had been sent by Clark. 
The latter charged a cannon and placed it in the open gateway, and 
the Captain stood by it with alighted match and cried out, as Ham- 
ilton came in hailing distance, "Halt!" The British officer, not 


knowing the strength of the garrison, stopped, and demanded the 
surrender of the fort. Helm exclaimed, " No man shall enter here 
till I know the terms." Hamilton responded, " You shall have the 
honors of war." The entire garrison consisted of one oliicer and one 


On taking Kaskaskia, Clark made a prisoner of Kocheblave, 
commander of the place, and got possession of all his written 
instructions for the conduct of the war. From these papers lie 
received important information respecting the plans of Col. Ham- 
ilton, Governor at Detroit, who was intending to make a vigorous 
and concerted attack upon the frontier. After arriving at Vin- 
cennes, however, he gave up his intended campaign for the winter, 
and trusting to his distance from danger and to the difficulty of 
approaching him, sent off his Indian warriors to prevent troops from 
coming down the Ohio, and to annoy the Americans in all ways. Thus 
he sat quietly down to pass the winter with only about eighty soldiers, 
but secure, as he thought, from molestation. But he evidently did 
not realize the character of the men with whom he was contending. 
Clark, although he could muster only one hundred and thirty men, 
determined to take advantage of Hamilton's weakness and security, 
and attack him as tlie only means of saving himself; for unless he 
captured Hamilton, Hamilton would capture him. Accordingly, 
about the beginning of February, 1779, he dispatched a small galley 
which he had fitted out, mounted with two four-pounders and four 
swivels and manned wnth a company of soldiers, and carrying stores 
for his men, with orders to force her way up the Wabash, to take 
her station a few miles below Vincennes, and to allow no person to 
pass her. He himself marched with his little band, and spent six- 
teen days in traversing the country from Kaskaskia to Vincennes, 
passing with incredible fatigue through woods and marshes. He 
was five days in crossing the bottom lands of the Wabash; and for 
five miles was frequently up to the breast in water. After over- 
coming difficulties which had been thought insurmountable, he 
appeared before the place and completely surprised it. The inhab- 
itants readily submitted, but Hamilton at first defended himself in 
the fort. Next day, however, he surrendered himself and his gar- 
rison prisoners-of-war. By his activity in encouraging the hostili- 
ties of the Indians and by the revolting enormities perpetrated by 


those savages, Hamilton had rendered himself so obnoxious that he 
was thrown in prison and put in irons. During his command of 
the British frontier posts he offered prizes to the Indians for all the 
scalps of the Americans they would bring him, and earned in con- 
sequence thereof the title, "Hair-Buyer General," by which he was 
ever afterward known. 

The services of Clark proved of essential advantage to his coun- 
trymen. They disconcerted the plans of Hamilton, and not only saved 
the western frontier from depredations by the savages, but also 
greatly cooled the ardor of the Indians for carrying on a contest in 
which they were not likely to be the gainers. Had it not been for 
this small army, a union of all the tribes from Maine to Georgia 
against the colonies might have been effected, and the whole current 
of our history changed. 



In October, 1778, after the successful campaign of Col. Clark, the 
assembly of Virginia erected the conquered country, embracing all 
the territory northwest of the Ohio river, into the County of Illi- 
nois, which was doubtless the largest county in the world, exceeding 
in its dimensions the whole of Great Britian and Ireland. To speak 
more definitely, it contained the territory now embraced in the great 
States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin and Michigan. On the 
12th of December, 1778, John Todd was appointed Lieutenant- 
Commandant of this county by Patrick Henry, then Governor of 
Virginia, and accordingly, also, the first of Illinois County. 


Illinois continued to form a part of Virginia until March 1, 1784, 
when that State ceded all the territory north of "the Ohio to the 
United States. Immediately the general Government proceeded to 
establish a form of government for the settlers in the territories 
thus ceded. This form continued until the passage of the ordi- 
nance of 1787, for the government of the Northwestern Terri- 
tory. No man can study the secret history of this ordinance and 
not feel that Providence was guiding with sleepless eye the des- 


tinies of these unborn States. American legislation has never 
achieved anjtliing more admirable, as an internal government, 
than this comprehensive ordinance. Its provisions concerning the 
distribution of property, the principles of civil and religious liberty 
which it laid at the foundation of the communities since established, 
and the efficient and simple organization by which it created the 
first machinery of civil society, are worthy of all the praise that has 
ever been given them, 


This ordinance has a marvelous and interesting history. Con- 
siderable controversy lias been indulged in as to who is entitled to 
the credit for framing it. This belongs, undoubtedly, to Nathan 
Dane; and to Rufus King and Timothy Pickering belong the 
credit for suggesting the proviso contained in it agninst slavery, 
and also for aids to religion and knowledge, and for assuring for- 
ever the common use, without charge, of the great national high- 
ways of the Mississippi, the St. Lawrence and their tributaries to 
all the citizens of the United States. To Thomas Jefi"erson is also 
due much credit, as some features of this ordinance were embraced 
in his ordinance of 1784. But the part taken by each in the long, 
laborious and eventful struggle which had so glorious a consum- 
mation in the ordinance, consecrating forever, by one imprescript- 
ible "and unchangeable monument, the very heart of our country to 
Freedom, Knowledge, and Union, will forever lionor the names of 
those illustrious statesmen. 

Mr. Jefferson had vainly tried to secure a system of government 
for the Northwestern Territory. He was an emancipationist and 
favored the exclusion of slavery from the territory, but the South 
voted him down every time he proposed a measure of this nature. 
In 1787, as late as July 10, an organizing act without the anti- 
slavery clause was pending. This concession to the South was 
ex.pected to carry it. Congress was in session in New York. On 
July 5, Rev. Manasseh Cutler, of Massachusetts, came into New 
York to lobby on the Northwestern Territory. Everything 
seemed to fall into his hands. Events were ripe. The state of the 
public credit, the growing of Southern prejudice, the basis of his 
mission, his personal character, all combined to complete one of 
those sudden and marvelous revolutions of public sentiment that 


once in five or ten centuries are seen to sweep over a country like 
the breath of the Almighty. 

Cutler was a graduate of Yale. He had studied and taken de- 
grees in the three learned professions, medicine, law, and divinity. 
He had published a scientific examination of the plants of New 
England. As a scientist in America his name stood second only to 
that of Franklin He was a courtly gentleman of the old style, 
a man of commanding presence and of inviting face. The Southern 
members said they had never seen such a gentleman in the North. 
He came representing a Massachusetts company that desired to 
purchase a tract of land, now included in Ohio, for the purpose of 
planting a colony. It was a speculation. Government money was 
worth eighteen cents on the dollar. This company had collected 
enough to purchase 1,500,000 acres of land. Other speculators in 
New York made Dr. Cutler their agent, which enabled him to 
represent a demand for 5,500,000 acres. As this would reduce the 
national debt, ar.d Jefferson's policy was to provide for the public 
credit, it presented a good opportunity to do something. 

Massachusetts then owned the territory of Maine, which she was 
crowding on the market. She was opposed to opening the North- 
western region. This fired the zeal of Virginia, The South caught 
the inspiration, and all exalted Dr. Cutler. The entire South ral- 
lied around him. Massachusetts could not vote against him, be- 
cause many of the constituents of her members were interested 
personally in the Western speculation. Thus Cutler, making 
friends in the South, and doubtless using all the arts of the lobby, 
was enabled to command the situation. True to deeper convic- 
tions, he dictated one of the most compact and finished documents 
of wise statesmanship tlmt has ever adorned any human law book. 
He borrowed from Jeff'erson the term "Articles of Compact," which, 
preceding the federal constitution, rose into the most sacred char- 
acter. He then followed very closely the constitution of Massa- 
chusetts, adopted three years before. Its most prominent points 
were : 

1. The exclusion of slavery from the territory forever. 

2. Provision for public schools, giving one township for a semi- 
nary and every section numbered 16 in each township; that is, one 
thirty-sixth of all the land for public schools. 

3. A provision prohibiting the adoption of any constitution or 


the enactment of any law that ehould nullity pre-existing contracts. 
Beit forever remembered that this compact declared that "re- 
ligion, morality, ami knowledge being necessary to good govern- 
ment aiul the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of edu- 
cation shall always be encouraged." Dr. Cutler planted himself 
on this platform and would not yield. Giving his unqualified dec- 
laration that it was that or nothing, — that unless they could make 
the land desirable they did not want it, — he took his horse and buggy 
and started fur the constitutional convention at Philadelphia. On 
July 13, 1787, the bill was put upon its passage, and was unani- 
mously adopted. Thus the great States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Michigan, and Wisconsin, a vast empire, wei-e consecrated to free- 
dom, intelligence, and morality. Thus the great heart of the nation 
was prepared to save the union of States, for it was this act that was 
the salvaiion of the republic and. the destruction of slavery. Soon 
the South saw their great blunder and tried to have the compact 
repealed. In 1803 Congress referred it to a committee, of which 
John Randolph was chairman. He reported that this ordinance 
was a compact and opposed repeal. Thus it stood, a rock in the 
way of the on-rushing sea of slavery. 


With all this timely aid it was, liowever, a most desperate and 
]U'otracted struggle to keep the soil of Illinois sacred to freedom. 
It was the natural battle-field for the irrepressible conflict. In the 
southern end of the State slavery preceded the compact. It ex- 
isted among the old French settlers, and was hard to eradicate. 
That portion was also settled from the slave States, and this popu- 
lation brought their laws, customs, and institutions v>-ith them. A 
stream of population from the North poured into the northern part 
of the State. These sections misunderstood and hated each other 
])erfectly. The Southerners regarded the Yankees as a skinning, 
tricky, penurious race of peddlers, filling the country with tinware, 
brass clocks, and wooden nutmegs. The Northerner thought of the 
Southerner as a lean, lank, lazy creature, burrowing in a hut, and 
rioting in whisky, dirt, and ignorance. These causes aided in 
making the struggle long and bitter. So strong was the sympathy 
with slavery that, in spite of the ordinance of 1787, and in spite of 
the deed of cession, it was determined to allow the old French set- 
tlers to retain their slaves. Planters from the slave States might 



bring their slaves if they would give them an opportunity to choose 
freedom or years of service and bondage for their children till tliey 
should become thirty years of age. If they chose freedom they 
must leave the State within sixty days, or be sold as fugitives. 
Servants were whipped for offenses for which white men were fined. 
Each lash paid forty cents of the tine. A negro ten miles from 
home without a pass was whipped. These famous laws were im- 
ported from the slave States, just as the laws for the inspection of 
flax and wool were imported when there was neither in the State. 


On October 5, 1787, Maj. Gen. Arthur St. Clair was, by Congress, 
elected Governor of this vast territory. St, Clair was born in Scot- 
land and emigrated to America in 1755. He served in the French 
and Eiiglisli war, and was major general in the Revolution. In 
1786 he was elected to Congress and chosen President of that body. 


After the division of the Northwestern Territory Illinois became 
one of the counties of the Territory of Indiana, from which it was 
separated by an act of Congress Feb. 3, 1809, forming the Territory 
of Illinois, with a population estimated at 9,000, and then included 
the present State of Wisconsin. It was divided, at the time, into 
two counties, — St. Clair and Randolph. John Boyle, of Ken- 
tucky, was appointed Governor, by the President, James Madison, 
but declining, Ninian Edwards, of the same State, was then 
appointed and served with distinction; and after the organization 
of Illinois as a State he served in the same capacity, being its third 


For some years previous to the war between the United States 
and England in 1812, considerable trouble was experienced with the 
Indians. Marauding bands of savages would attack small settle- 
ments and inhumanly butcher all the inhabitants, and mutilate 
their dead bodies. To protect themselves, the settlers organized 
companies of rangers, and erected block houses and stockades in 
every settlement. The largest, strongest and best one of these was 
Fort Russell, near the present village of Edwardsville. This stockade 


was made the main rendezvous for troops and military stores, and 
Gov. Edwards, who during the perilous times of 1812, when Indian 
hostilities threatened on every hand, assumed command of the Illi- 
nois forces, established his headquarters at tliis ])lace. The Indians 
were incited to many of these depredations l)y Eni^lish emissaries, 
who for years continued their dastardly work of "setting the red 
men, like dogs, upon the whites." 

In the summer of 1811 a peace convention was held with the 
Pottawatomies at Peoria, when they promised that peace should 
prevail; but their promises were soon broken. Tecumseh, the great 
warrior, and fit successor of Pontiac, started in the spring of 1811, 
to arouse the Southern Indians to war against the whites. The pur- 
pose of this chieftain was well known to Gov. Harrison, of Indiana 
Territory, who determined during Tecumseh's absence to strike and 
disperse the hostile forces collected at Tippecanoe. This he success- 
fully did on Nov. 7, winning the sobriquet of " Tippecanoe," by 
which he was afterwards commonly known. Several peace councils 
were held, at which the Indians promised good behavior, but only 
to deceive the whites. Almost all the savages of the Northwest 
were thoroughly stirred up and did not desire peace. The British 
agents at various points, in anticipation of a war with the United 
States, sought to enlist the favor of the savages by distributing to 
them large supplies of arms, ammunition and other goods. 

The English continued their insults to our flag upon the high 
seas, and their government refusing to relinquish its olfensive course, 
all hopes of peace and safe commercial relations were abandoned, 
and Congress, on the 19th of June, 1812, formally declared war 
against Great Britain. In Illinois the threatened Indian troubles 
had already caused a more thorough organization of the militia and 
greater protection by the erection of forts. As intimated, the In- 
dians took the war-path long before the declaration of hostilities 
between the two civilized nations, committing great depredations, 
the most atrocious of which was the 


During the war of 1812 between the United States and England, 
the greatest, as well as the most revolting, massacre of whites that 
ever occurred in Illinois, was perpetrated by the Pottawatomie In- 
dians, at Fort Dearborn. This fort was built by the Government, 
in 1804, on the south side of the Chicago river, and was garrisoned 



by 54 men under command of Capt. Nathan Heald, assisted by 
Lieutenant Helm and Ensign Ronan; Dr. Voorhees, surgeon. Tlie 
residents at the post at that time were tlie wives of officers Heald 
and Helm and a few of the soldiers, Mr. Kinzie and his family, and 
a few Canadians. The soldiers and Mr. Kinzie were on the most 
friendly terms with the Pottawatomies and Wiunebagoes, the prin- 
cipal tribes around them. 

On the 7th of August, 18,12, arrived ^;he order from Gen. Hull, at 
Detroit, to evacuate Fort Dearborn, and distribute all United States 
property to the Indians. Chicago was so deep in the wilderness 


that this was the first intimation the garrison received of the dec- 
laration of war made on the 19th of June. The Indian chief who 
brought the dispatch advised Capt. Heald not to evacuate, and 
that if he should decide to do so, it be done immediately, and by 
forced marches elude the concentration of the savages before the 
news could be circulated among them. To this most excellent ad- 
vice the Captain gave no heed, but on the 12t:h held a council with 


the Indians, apprising tlietn of the orders received, and offering a 
liberal reward for an escort of Pottawatomies to Fort Wayne. The 
Indians, with many professions of friendship, assented to all he 
proposed, and promised all he required. The remaining officers re- 
fused to join in the council, for thej had been informed that treach- 
ery was designed, — that the Indians intended to murder those in 
the council, and then destroy those in the fort. The port holes were 
open, displaying cannons pointing directly upon the council. This 
action, it is supposed, prevented a massacre at that time. 

Mr. Kinzie, who knew the Indians well, begged Capt. Heald 
not to confide in their promises, or distribute the arms and ammu- 
nitions among them, for it would only put power in their hands to 
destroy the whites. This argument, true and excellent in itself, 
was now certainly inopportune, and -would only incense the treach- 
eroiis foe. But the Captain resolved to follow it, and accordingly on 
the night of the IStli, after the distribution of the other property, the 
arms were broken, and the barrels of whisky, of which there was a 
large quantity, were rolled quietly through the sally-port, their 
heads knocked in and their contents emptied into the river. On that 
night the lurking red-skins crept near the fort and discovered the 
destruction of the promised booty going on within. The next morn- 
ing the powder was seen floating on the surface of the river, and 
the Indians asserted that such an abundance of " fire-water" had 
been emptied into the river as to make it taste " groggy." Many 
of them drank of it freely. 

On the 14th the des])onding garrison was somewhat cheered by 
the arrival of Ca])t. Wells, with 15 friendly Miamis. Capt. Wells 
heard at Fort Wayne of the order to evacuate Fort Dearborn, and 
knowing the hostile intentions of the Indians, made a rapid march 
through the wilderness to protect, if possible, his niece, Mrs. Heald, 
and the officers and the garrison from certain destruction. But 
he came too late. Every means fur its defense had been destroyed 
the night before, and arrangements were made for leaving the fort 
on the following morning. 

The fatal morning of the 16th at length dawned brightly on the 
world. The sun shone in unclouded splendor upon the glassy waters 
of Lake Michigan. At 9 a. m., the party moved out of the south- 
ern gate of the fort, in military array. The band, feeling the solem- 
nity of the occasion, struck up the Dead March in Saul. Capt. 


Wells, with his face blackened after the manner of the Indians, led 
the advance guard at the head of his friendly Miamis, the garrison 
with loaded arms, the baggage wagons with the sick, and the women 
and children following, while the Pottawatomie Indians, about 500 
in number, who had pledged their honor to escort the whites in 
safety to Fort Wayne, brought up the rear. The party took the 
road along the lake shore. On reaching the range of sand-hills 
separating the beach from the prairie, about one mile and a half- 
from the fort, the Indians detiled to the right into the prairie, bring 
ing the sand-hills between them and the whites. This divergence 
was scarcely effected when Capt. Wells, who had kept in advance 
with his Indians, rode furiously back and exclaimed, "They are 
about to attack us. Fortn instantly and charge upon them!" 
These words were scarcely uttered before a volley of balls from 
Indian muskets was poured in upon them. The troops were hastily 
formed into line, and charged up the bank. One veteran of 70 Ml 
as they ascended. The Indians were driven back to the prairie, and 
then the battle was waged by 54 soldiers, 12 civilians, and three or 
four women — the cowardly Miamis having fled at the outset— 
against 500 Indian warriors. The whites behaved gallantly, and 
sold their lives dearly. They fought desperately until two-thirde 
of their number- were slain; the remaining 27 surrendered. And 
now the most sickening and heart-rending butchery of this calam- 
itous day was committed by a young savage, who assailed one of 
the baggage wagons containing 12 children, every one of which fell 
beneath his murderous tomahawk. When Capt. Wells, who with 
the others had become prisoner, beheld this scene at a distance, he 
exclaimed in a tone loud enough to be heard by the savages, " If 
this be your game, I can kill too;" and turning his horse, started 
for the place where the Indians had left their squaws and children. 
The Indians hotly pursued, but he avoided their deadly bullets for 
a time. Soon his horse was killed and he severely wounded. With 
a yell the young braves rushed to make him their prisoner and re- 
serve him for torture. But an enraged warrior stabbed him in the 
back, and he fell dead. His heart was afterwards taken out, cut in 
pieces and distributed among tlie tribes. Billy Caldwell, a half- 
breed Wyandot, well-known in Chicago long afterward, buried his 
remains the next day. Wells street in Chicago, perpetuates his 


Iq this fearful combat women bore a conspicuous part. A wife 
of one of the soldiers, who had frequently heard that the Indians 
subjected their prisoners to tortures worse than death, resolved not 
to be taken alive, and continued fighting until she was literally cut 
to pieces. Mrs. Heald was an excellent equestrian, and an expert 
in the use of the rifle. She fought bravely, receiving several wounds. 
Though faint from loss of blood, she managed to keep in her saddle. 
A savage raised his tomah&wk to kill her, when she looked him full 
in the face, and with a sweet smile and gentle voice said, in his 
own language, " Surely you will not kill a squaw." The arm of 
of the savage fell, and the life of this heroic woman was saved. 
Mrs. Helm had an encounter with a stalwart Indian, who attempted 
to tomahawk her. Springing to one side, she received the glancing 
blow on her shoulder, and at the same time she seized the savage 
round the neck and endeavored to get his scalping-knife which 
hung in a sheath at his breast. While she was thus struggling, she 
was dragged from his grasp by another and an older Indian. The 
latter bore her, struggling and resisting, to the lake and plunged 
her in. She soon perceived it was not his intention to drown her, 
because he held her in such a position as to keep her head out of 
the water. She recognized him to be a celebrated chief called 
Black Partridge. When the firing ceased she Was conducted up 
the sand-bank. 


The prisoners were taken back to the Indian camp, when a new 
scene of horror was enacted. The wounded not being included in 
the terms of the surrender, as it was interpreted by the Indians, 
and the British general, Proctor, having offered a liberal bounty for 
American scalps, nearly all the wounded were killed and scalped, 
and the price of the trophies was afterwards paid by the British 
general. In the stipulation of surrender, Capt. Heald had not 
particularly mentioned the wounded. These helpless sufferers, on 
reaching the Indian camp, were therefore regarded by the brutal 
savages as fit subjects upon which to display their cruelty and satisfy 
their desire for blood. Referring to the terrible butchery of the 
prisoners, in an account given by Mrs. Helm, she says: "An old 
squaw, infuriated by the loss of friends or excited by the sanguin- 
ary scenes around her, seemed possessed of demoniac fury. She 
seized a stable-fork and a88aulte(J one miserable victim, who lay 



groaning and writhing in the agonies of his wounds, aggravated by 
the scorching beams of the sun. With a delicacy of feeling, scarcely 
to have been expected under such circumstances. Wan-bee-nee-wan 
stretched a mat across two poles, between me and this dreadful scene. 
I was thus spared, in some degree, a view of its horrors, although I 
could not entirely close my ears to the cries of the sufferer. The 
following night live more of the wounded prisoners were toma- 


That evening, about sundown, a council of chiefs was held to 
decide the fate of the prisoners, and it was agreed to deliver them 


to the British commander at Detroit. After dark, many warriors 
from a distance came into camp, who were thirsting for blood, and 
were determined to murder the prisoners regardless of the terms of 
surrender. Black Partridge, with a few of his friends, surrounded 
Kinzie's house to protect the inmates Mm the tomahawks of the 
bloodthirsty savages. Soon a band of hostile warriors rushed by 
them into the house, and stood with tomahawks and scalping-knives, 
awaiting the signal from their chief to commence the work of'death. 


Black Partridge said to Mrs. Kinzie: "We are doing everything 
in our power to save you, but all is now lost; you and your friends, 
together with all the prisoners of the camp, will now be slain." At 
that moment a canoe was heard approaching the shore, when Black 
Partridge ran down to the river, trying in the darkness to make §ut 
the new comers, and at the sanje time shouted, "Who are you?" 
In the bow of the approaching canoe stood a tall, manly personage, 
with a rifle in his hand. He jumped ashore exclaiming, " I am 
Sau-ga-nash." "Then make all speed to the house; our friends are 
in danger, and you only can save them." It was Billy Caldwell, 
the half-breed Wyandot. He hurried forward, entered the house 
with a resolute step, deliberately removed his accouterments, placed 
his rifle behind the door, and saluted the Indians: " IIow now, my 
friends! a good day to you. I was told there were enemies here, 
but am glad to find only friends." Diverted by the coolness of his 
manner, .they were ashamed to avo.w their murderous purpose, and 
simply asked for some cotton goods to wrap their dead, for burial. 
And thus, by his presence of mind, C'aldwell averted the murder of 
the Kinzie family and the prisoners. The latter, with their wives 
and children, were dispersed among the Pottawatomie tribes along 
the Illinois, Rock and Wabash rivers, and some to Milwaukee. 
The most of them were ransomed at Detroit the following spring. 
A part of them, however, remained in captivity another year, 


By the middle of August, through the disgraceful surrender of 
Gen. Hull, at Detroit, and the evacuation of Fort Dearborn and 
massacre of its garrison, the British and Indians were in possession of 
the whole Northwest. The savages, emboldened by their successes, 
penetrated deeper into the settlements, committing great depre- 
dations. The activity and success of the enemy aroused the people 
to a realization of the great danger their homes and families were 
in. Gov. Edwards collected a force of 350 men at Camp Russell, 
and Capt. Russell came from Vincennes with about 50 more. Being 
officered and equipped, they proceeded about the middle of October 
on horseback, carrying with them 20 days' rations^ to Peoria. Capt. 
Craig was sent with two boats up the Illinois, with provisions 
and tools to build a fort. The little army proceeded to Peoria 
Lake, where was located a Pottawatomie village. They arrived late 


at night, within a few miles of the village, without their presence 
being known to the Indians. Four men were sent out that night 
to reconnpiter the position of the village. The four brave men who 
volunteered for this perilous service were Thomas Carlin (after- 
ward Governor), and Robert, Stephen and Davis Whiteside. They 
proceeded to the village, and explored it and the approaches to it 
thoroughly, without starting an Indian or provoking the bark of a 
dog. The low lands between the Indian village and the troops were 
covered with a rank growth of tall grass, eo highland dense as to 
readily conceal an Indian on horseback, until within a few feet of 
him. The ground had become still more yielding by recent rains, 
rendering it almost impassable by mounted men. To prevent de- 
tection, the soldiers had camped without lighting the usual camp- 
fires. The men lay down in their cold and cheerless camp, with 
many misgivings. They well remembered how the skulking sav- 
ages fell upon Harrison's men at Tippecanoe during the night. To 
add to their fears, a gun in the hands of a soldier was carelessly 
•discharged, raising great consternation in the camp. 


Through a dense fog which prevailed the following morning, the 
army took up its linQ of march for the Indian town, Capt. Judy 
with his corps of spies in advance. In the tall grass they came up 
with an Indian and his squaw, both mounted. The Indian wanted 
to £urrender,but Judy observed that he "did not leave home to take 
prisoners,"' and instantly shot one of them. With the blood 
streaming from his mouth and nose, and in his agony " singing the 
death song," the dying Indian raised his gun, shot and mortally 
wounded a Mr. Wright, and in a few minutes expired. Many guns 
were immediately discharged at the other Indian, not then known 
to be a squaw, all of which missed her. Badly scared, and her hus- 
band killed by her side, the agonizing wails of the squaw were 
heart-rending. She was taken prisoner, and afterwards restored 
to her nation. 


On rearing the town a general charge was made, the Indians 
fleeing to the interior wilderness. Some of their warriors made a 
stand, when a sharp engagement occurred, but the Indians were 
Touted. In their flight they left behind all their winter's store of 


provisions, which was taken, and their town burned. Some Indian 
children were found wlio had been left in ihe hurried flight, also 
some disabled adults, one of whom was in a starving condition and 
with a voracious appetite partook of the bread given him. He is 
said to have been killed by a cowardly trooper straggling behind, 
after the main army had resumed its retrograde march, who wanted 
to be able to boast that he had killed an Indian. 

About the time Gov. Edwards started with his little band against 
the Indians, Gen. Hopkins, with 2,000 Kentucky riflemen, left 
Yincennes to cross the prairies of Illinois and destroy the Indian 
villages along the Illinois river. Edwards, with his rangers, ex- 
pected to act in concert with Gen. Hopkins' riflemen. After 
marching 80 or 90 miles into the enemy's country, Gen. Hopkins^ 
men became dissatisfied, and on Oct. 20 the entire army turned 
and retreated homeward before even a foe had been met. After the 
victory of the Illinois rangers they heard nothing of Gen. Hopkins 
and his 2,000 mounted Kentucky riflemen ; and apprehensive that a 
large force of warriors would be speedily collected, it was -deemed 
prudent not to protract their stay, and accordingly the retrograde 
march was commenced the very day of the attack. 


The force of Capt. Craig, in charge of the provision boats, was 
not idle during this time. They proceeded to Peoria, where they 
were fired on by ten Indians during the night, who immediately 
fled. Capt. Craig discovered, at daylight, their tracks leading up 
into the French town. He inquired of the French their where- 
abouts, who denied all knowledge of them, and said they " had 
heard or seen nothing; " but he took the entire number prisoners,, 
burned and destroyed Peoria, and bore the captured inhabitants 
away on his boats to a point below the present city of Alton, where 
he landed and left them in the woods, — men, women, and children, — 
in the inclement month of November, without shelter, and without 
food other than the slender stores they had themselves gathered up 
before their departure. They found their way to St. Louis in an 
almost starving condition. The burning of Peoria and taking its. 
inhabitants prisoners, on the mere suspicion that they sympathized 
with the Indians, was generally regarded as a needless, if not 
wanton, act of military power. 




In the early part of 1813, the country was put in as good defense 
as the sparse population admitted. In spite of the precaution taken, 
numerous depredations and murders were committed by~ the In- 
dians, which again aroused the whites, and another expedition was 
sent against the foe, who had collected in large numbers in and 
around Peoria. This army was composed of about 900 men, collect- 
ed from both Illinois and Missouri, and under command of Gen. 
Howard. They marched across the broad prairies of Illinois to 
Peoria, where there was a small stockade in charge of United States 
troops. Two days previously the Indians made an attack on the 
fort, but were repulsed. Being in the enemy's country, knowing 
their stealthy habits, and the troops at no time observing a high de- 
gree of discipline, many unnecessary night alarms occurred, yet the 
enemy 'were far away. The army marched up the lake to Chili- 
cothe, burning on its way two deserted villages. At the present 
site of Peoria the troops remained in camp several weeks. While 
there they built a fort, which they named in honor of Gen. George 
Kogers Clark, who with his brave Yirginians wrested Illinois from 
the English during the Revolutionary struggle. This fort was de- 
stroyed by fire in 1818. It gave a name to Peoria which it wore fur 
several years. After the building of Fort Crevecceur, in 1680, Peo- 
ria lake was very familiar to "Western travel and history; but there 
is no authentic account of a permanent European settlement there 
until 1778, when Laville de Meillet, named after its founder, was 
started. Owing to the quality of the water and its greater salu- 
brity, the location was changed to the present site of Peoria, and by 
1796 the old had been entirely abandoned for the new village. 
After its destruction in 1812 it was not settled again until 1819, 
and then by American pioneers, though in 1813 FoH Clark was 
built there. 


The second campaign against the Indians at Peoria closed with- 
out an engagement, or even a sight of the enem^^, yet great was the 
benefit derived from it. It showed to the Indians the power and 
resources of his white foe. Still the calendar of the horrible deeds 
of butchery of the following year is long and bloody. A joint ex- 
pedition again moved against the Indians in 1814, under Gov. 


Clark of Missouri. This time tliey went up the Mississippi in 
barges, Prairie du Cliieii being the point of destination. There they 
found a small garrison of British troops, which, however, soon fled, 
as did the inhabitants, leaving Clark in full possession. He im- 
mediately set to work and erected Fort Shelby. The Governor 
returned to St. Louis, leaving his men in peaceable possession of 
the place, but a large force of British and Indians came down upon 
them, and the entire garrison surrendered. In the mean time Gen. 
Howard sent 108 men to strengthen the garrison. Of this number 
66 were Illinois rangers, under Capts. Rector and Riggs, who oc- 
cupied two boats. The remainder were with Lieut. Campbell. 


At Rock Island Campbell was warned to turn back, as an attack 
was contemplated. The other boats passed on up the river and 
were some two miles ahead when Campbell's barge was struck by. a 
strong gale which forced it against a small island near the Illinois 
shore. Thinking it best to lie to till the wind abated, sentinels 
were stationed while the men went ashore to cook breakfast. At 
this time a large number of Indians on the main shore under 
Black Hawk commenced an attack. The savages in canoes passed 
rapidly to the island, and with a war-whoop rushed upon the men, 
who retreated and sought refuge in the barge. A battle of brisk 
musketry now ensued between the few regulars aboard the stranded 
barge and the hordes of Indians under cover of trees on the island, 
with severe loss to the former. Meanwhile Capt. Rector and Riggs, 
ahead with their barges, seeing the smoke of battle, attempted to 
return; but in the strong gale Riggs' boat became unmanageable 
and was stranded pn the rapids. Rector, to avoid a similar disaster, 
let go his anchor. The rangers, however, opened with good aim 
and telling eflfect upon the savages. The unequal combat having 
raged for some time and about closing, the commander's barge, 
with many wounded and several dead on board, — among the former 
of whom, very badly, was Campbell himself, — was discovered to be 
on fire. Now Rector and his brave Illinois rangers, comprehending 
the horrid situation, performed, without delay, as cool and heroic a 
deed — and did it well — as ever imperiled the life of mortal man. 
Ip the howling gale, in full view of hundreds of infuriated savages, 
and within range of their rifles, they deliberately raised anchor, 


lightened their barge by casting overboard quantities of provisions, 
and guided it with the utmost labor down the swift current, to the 
windward of the burning barge, and under the galling fire of the 
enemy rescued all the survivors, and removed the wounded and 
dying to their vessel. This was a deed of noble daring and as 
heroic as any performed during the war in the West. Rector hur- 
ried with his over-crowded vessel to St. Louis. 

It was now feared that Riggs and his company were captured 
and sacrificed by the savages. His vessel, which was strong and well 
armed, was for a time surrounded by the Indians, but the whites 
on the inside were well sheltered. The wind becoming allayed in 
the evening, the boat, under cover of the night, glided safely down 
the river without the loss of a single man. 


Notwithstanding the disastrous termination of the two expedi- 
tions already sent out, during the year 1814, still another was pro- 
jected. It was under Maj. Zachary Taylor, afterward President. 
Rector and Whiteside, with the Illinoisan, were in command of 
boats. Thu expedition passed Rock Island unmolested, when it 
was learned the country was not only swarming with Indians, but 
that the English were therein command with a detachment of regu- 
lars and artillery. The advanced boats in command of Rector, White- 
side and Hempstead, turned about and began to descend the rapids, 
fighting with great gallantry the hordes of the enemy, who were 
pouring their fire into them from the shore at every step. 

Near the mouth of Rock river Maj. Taylor anchored his fleet out 
in the Mississippi. During the night the English planted a battery 
of six pieces down at the water's edge, to sink or disable the boats, 
and filled the islands with red-skins to butcher the whites, who 
might, unarmed, seek refuge there. But in this scheme they were 
frustrated. In the morning Taylor ordered all the force, except 20 
boatmen on each vessel, to the upper island to dislodge the enemy. 
The order was executed with great gallantry, the island scoured, 
many of the savages killed, and the rest driven to the lower island. 
In the meantime the British cannon told with effect upon the fleet. 
The men rushed back and the boats were dropped down the stream 
ont of range of the cannon. Capt. Rector was now ordered with 
bis company to make a sortie on the lower island, which he did. 


driving the Indians back among the willows ; but they being re-in- 
forced, in turn hurled Rector back upon the sand-beach. 

A council of officers called by Taylor had by this time decided 
that their force was too small to contend with the enemy, who 
outnumbered them three to one, and the boats were in full retreat 
down the river. As Rector attempted to get under way his boat 
grounded, and the savages, with demoniac yells, surrounded it, 
when a most desperate hand-to-hand conflict ensued. The gallant 
ranger, Samuel Whiteside, observing the imminent peril of his 
brave Illinois comrade, went immediately to his rescue, who but for 
his timely aid would undoubtedly have been overpowered, with all 
his force, and murdered. 

Thus ended the last, like the two previous expeditions up the 
Mississippi during the war of 1812, in defeat and disaster. The 
enemy was in undisputed posession of all the country north of the 
Illinois river, and tlie prospects respecting those territories boded 
nothing but gloom. With the approach of winter, however, Indian 
depredations ceased to be committed, and the peace of Ghent, Dec. 
24, 1814, closed the war. 



In January of 1818 the Territorial Legislature forwarded to 
Nathaniel Pope, delegate in Congress from Illinois, a petition pray- 
ing for admission into the national Union as a State. On April 
18th of the same year Congress passpd the enabling act, and Dec. 
3, after the State government had been organized and Gov. Bond 
had signed the Constitution, Congress by a resolution declared Illi- 
nois to be "one of the United States of America, and admitted into 
the Union on an equal footing with the original States in all 

The ordinance of 1787 declared that there should beat least three 
States carved out of the Northwestern Territory. Tne boundaries 
of the three, Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, were fixed by this law. 
Congress reserved the power, 'however, of forming two other States 
out of the territory which lies north of an east and west line drawn 
through the southern boundary of Lake Michigan. It was generally 
conceded that this line would be the northern boundary of Ulinoia ; 


but as this would give the State no coast on Lake Michigan ; and 
rob her of the poi't of Chicago and the noithern terminus of the 
Illinois & Mi^iigan canal which was then contemplated, Judge 
Pope had the northern boundary moved fifty miles further north. 


Not only is Illinois indebted to Nathaniel Pope for the port where 
now enter and depart more vessels during the year than in any 
other port in the world, for the northern terminus of the Illinois 
& Michigan canal, and for the lead mines at Galena, but the nation, 
the undivided Union, is largely indebted to him for its perpetuity. 
It was he, — his foresight, statesma/iship and energy, — that bound 
our confederated Union with bands of iron that can never be broken. 
The geographical position of Illinois, with her hundreds of miles 
of- water-courses, is such as to make her the key to the grand arch 
of Northern and Southern States, Extending from the great chain 
of lakes on the north, with snow and ice of the arctic region, to the 
cotton-fields of Tennessee; peopled, as it is, by almost all races, 
classes and conditions of the human family ; guided by the various 
and diversified political, agricultural, religious and educational 
teachings common to both North and South, — Illinois can control, 
and has controlled, the destinies of our united and beloved republic. 
Pope seeminijly foresaw that a struggle to dissolve the Union would 
be made. With a prophetic eye he looked down the stream of time 
for a half century and saw the great conflict between the South and 
North, caused by a determination to dissolve the confederation of 
States; and to preserve the Union, he gave to Illinois a lake coast. 

Gov. Ford, in his History of Illinois, written in 1847, while 
speaking of this change of boundary and its influence upon ^ur 
nation, says: 

"What, then, was the duty of the national Government? Illinois 
was certain to be a great State, with any boundaries which that 
Government could give. Its great extent of territory, its unrivaled 
fertility of soil and capacity for sustaining a dense population, 
together with its commanding position, would in course of time 
give the new State a very controlling influence with her sister 
States situated upon the Western rivers, either in sustaining the 
federal Union as it is, or in dissolving it and establishing new gov- 
ernments. If left entirely upon the waters of these great rivers, it 


was plain that, in case of threatened disruption, the interest of the 
new State would be to join a Southern and Western confederacy; 
but if a large portion of it ct)ukl be made dependent upon the com- 
merce and navigation of the great northern lakes, connected as they 
are with the Eastern States, a rival interest would be created to 
check the wish for a Western and Southern confederacy. 

"It therefore became the duty of the national Government not 
only to make Illinois strong,,,but to raise an interest inclining and 
binding her to the Eastern and Northern portions of the Union. 
This could be done only through an interest in the lakes. At that 
time the commerce on the lakes was small, but its increase was con- 
fidently expected, and, indeed, it has exceeded all anticipations, 
and is yet only in its infancy. To accomplish this object effectually, 
it was not only necessary to give to Illinois the port of Chicago and 
a route for the canal, but a considerable coast on Lake Michigan, 
with a country back of it sufficiently extensive to contain a popu- 
lation capable of exerting a decided influence upon the councils of 
the State. 

" There would, therefore, be a large commerce of the north, west- 
ern and central portion of the State afloat on the lakes, for it was 
then foreseen that the canal would be made; and this alone would 
be like turning one of the many mouths of the Mississippi into 
Lake Michigan at Chicago. A very large commerce of the center 
and south Would be found both upon the lakes and rivers. Asso- 
ciations in business, in interest, and of friendship would be formed, 
both with the North and the South. A State thus situated, having 
such a decided interest in the commerce, and in the preservation of 
the whole confederacy, can never consent to disunion ; for the Union 
cannot be dissolved without a division and disruption of the State 
itself. These views, urged by Judge Pope, obtained the unquali- 
fied assent of the statesmen of 1818. 

" These facts and views are worthy to be recorded in history as 
a standing and perpetual call upon Ulinoisans of every age to 
remember the great trust which has been reposed in them, as the 
peculiar champions and guardians of the Union by the great men 
and patriot sages who adorned and governed this country in the 
earlier and better days of the Kepublic." 

During the dark and trying days of the Rebellion, well did she 
remember this sacred trust, to protect which two hundred thousand 


of her sons went to the bloody field of battle, crowning their arms 
witli the laurels of war, and keeping inviolate the solemn obliga- 
tions bequeathed to them by their fathers. 


In July and August of 1818 a convention was held at Kaskaskia 
for the purpose of drafting a constitution. This constitution was 
not submitted to a vote of the people for their approval or rejection, 
it being well known that they would approve it. It was about the 
first organic law of any State in the Union to abolish imprisonment 
for debt. The first election under the constitution was held on the 
third Thursday and the two succeeding days in September, 1818. 
Shadrach Bond was elected Governor, and Pierre Menard Lieuten- 
ant Governor. Their term of office extended four years. At this 
time che State was divided into fifteen counties, the population being 
about 4'0,000. Of this number by far the larger portion were from 
the Southern States. The salary of the Governor was $1,000, while 
that of the Treasurer was $500. The Legislature re-enacted, ver- 
batim, the Territorial Code, the penalties of which were unneces- 
sarily severe. Whipping, stocks and pillory were used for minor 
ofienses, and for arson, rape, horse-stealing, etc., death by hanging 
was the penalty. These laws, however, were modified in 1821. 

The Legislature first convened at Kaskaskia, the ancient seat of 
empire for more than one hundred and fifty years, both for the 
French and Americans. Provisions were made, however, for the 
removal of the seat of government by this Legislature. A place in the 
wilderness on the Kaskaskia river was selected and named Yandalia. 
From Yandalia it was removed to Springfield in the year 1837. 


The name of this beautiful "Prairie State" is derived from 
Illini, an Indian word signifying superior men. It has a French 
termination, and is a symbol of the manner in which the two races, 
the French and Indians, were intermixed during the early history 
of the country. The appellation was no doubt well applied to the 
primitive inhabitants of the soil, whose prowess in savage warfare 
long withstood the combined attacks of the fierce Iroquois on the 
one side, and the no less savage and relentless Sacs and Foxes on the 
other. The Illinois were once a powerful confederacy, occupying 
the most beautiful and fertile region in the great valley of the 


Mississippi, which tlieir enemies coveted and struggled long and 
hard to wrest IVoni them. By the fortunes of war they were dimin- 
ished in number and finally destroyed. "Starved Rock," on the 
Illinois river, according to tradition, commemorates their last trag- 
edy, where, it is said, the entire tribe starved rather than surrender. 

The low cognomen of " Sucker," as applied to Illinoisans, is said 
to have had its origin at the Galena lead mines. In an early day, 
when these extensive mines were being worked, men would run up 
the Mississippi river in steamboats in the spring, work the lead 
mines, and in the fall return, thus establishing, as was supposed, asim- 
ilitude between their migratory habits and those of tiie fishy tribe 
called "Suckers." For this reason the Illinoisans have ever since 
been distinguished by the epithet "Suckers." Tiiose who stayed 
at the mines over winter were mostly from Wisconsin, and were 
called " Badgers." One spring the Missourians poured into the 
mine's in such numbers that the State was said to have taken a puke, 
and the offensive appellation of " Pukes" was afterward applied to 
all Missourians. 

The southern part of the State, known as " Egypt," received this 
appellation because, being older, better settled and cultivated, grain 
was had in greater abundance than in the central and northern por- 
tion, and the immigrants of this region, after the manner of the 
children of Israel, went "thither to buy and to bring from thence 
that they might live and not die." 


The Legislature, during the latter years of territorial existence^ 
granted charters to several banks. The result was that paper money 
became very abundant, times flush, and credit unlimited; and every- 
body invested to the utmost limit of his credit, with confident 
expectation of realizing a handsome advance before the expiration 
of Iris credit, from the tlirong of immigrants then pouring into the 
couiitr}'. By 1819 it became apparent that a day of reckoning 
would approrich before their dreams of fortune could be realized. 
Jjanks everywhere began to waver, paper money became depreci- 
ated, and gold and silver driven out of the country. Tii9 Legisla- 
ture sought to bolster up the times by incorporating the "Bank 
of Illinois," which, with several branches, was created by the ses- 
sion of 1821. This bank, being wholly supported by the credit of 
the State, was to issue one, two, three, five, ten and twenty-dollar 


notes. It was the duty of the bank to advance, npon personal prop- 
erty, money to tlie amount of $100, and a larger amount upon real 
estate. All taxes and public salaries could be paid in such bills; 
and if a creditor refused to take them, he had to wait three years 
longer before he could collect his debt. The people imagined that 
simply because the government had issued the notes, they would 
remain at par; and although this evidently could not be the case, 
they were yet so infatuated with their project as actually to request 
the United States government to receive them in payment for their 
pnblic lands! Although there were not wanting men who, like 
John McLean, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, fore- 
saw the dangers and evils likely to arise from the creation of such 
a bank, by far the greater part of the people were in favor of it. 
The new bank was therefore started. The new issue of bills by the 
barik of course only aggravated the evil, heretofore so grievously 
felt, of the absence of specie, so that the people were soon com- 
pelled to cut their bills in halves and quarters, in order to make 
small change in trade. Finally the paper currency so rapidly depre- 
ciated that three dollars in these bills were considered worth only 
one in specie, and the State not only did not increase its revenue, 
but lost full two- thirds of it, and expended three times tlie amount 
required to pay the expenses of the State government. 
Lafayette's visit. 
In the spring of 1825 the brave and generous LaFayette visited 
Illinois, accepting the earnest invitation of the General Assembly, 
and an affectionately written letter of Gov. Cole's, who had formed 
his personal acquaintance in France in 1817. The General in reply 
said: " It has been my eager desire, and it is now my earnest inten- 
tion, to visit the Western States, and particularly the State of Illi- 
nois. The feelings which your distant welcome could not fail to 
excite have increased that patriotic eagerness to admire on that 
blessed spot the happy and rapid results of republican institutions, 
public and domestic virtues. I shall, after tlie 22d of February 
(anniversary day), leave here for a journey to the Southern States, 
and from New Orleans to the Western States, so as to return to 
Boston on the 14th of June, when the corner-stone of the Bunker 
Hill monument is to be laid, — a ceremony sacred to the whole Union 
and in which I have been engaged to act a peculiar and honorable 


General LaFajette and suite, attended hy a large delegation of 
prominent citizens of Missouri, made a visit by the steamer Natch- 
ez to the ancient town of Kaskaskia. No military parade was 
attempted, but a multitude of patriotic citizens made him welcome. 
A reception was held, Gov. Cole delivering a glowing address of 
welcome. During the progress of a grand ball held that night, a 
very interesting interview took place between the honored General 
and an Indian squaw whose father had served under hira in the 
Revolutionary war. The squaw, learning that the great white chief 
was to be at Kaskaskia on that night, had ridden all day, from early 
dawn till sometime in the night, from her distant home, to see 
the man whose name had been so often on her father's tongue, and 
with which she was so familiar. In identification of her claim to 
his distinguished acquaintance, she brought with her an old, worn 
letter which the General had written to her father, and which the 
Indian chief had preserved with great care, and finally bequeathed 
on his death-bed to his daughter as the most precious legacy he had 
to leave her. 

By 12 o'clock at night Gen. LaFayette returned to his boat and 
started South. The boat was chartered by the State. 


In the yoar 1822 the term of office of the first Governor, Shadrach 
Bond, expired. Two parties sprung up at this time, — one favorable, 
the other hostile, to the introduction of slavery, each proposing a 
candidate of its own for Governor. Both parties worked hard to 
secure the election of their respective candidates; but the people at 
large decided, as they ever have been at heart, in favor of a free 
State. Edward Coles, an anti-slavery man, was elected, although a 
majority of the Legislature were opposed to him. The subject of 
principal interest during his administration was to make Illinois a 
slave State. The greatest effort was made in 1824, and the propo- 
sition was defeated at the polls by a majority of 1,800. The aggre- 
gate vote polled was 11,612, being about G,000 larger than at the 
previous State election. African slaves were first introduced into 
Illinois in 1720 by Renault, a Frenchman. 

Senator Duncan, afterward Governor, presented to the Legisla- 
ture of 1824-5 a bill for the su])port of schools by a public tax; and 
William S. Hamilton presented another bill requiring a tax to be 


used for the purpose of constructing and repairing the roads, — both 
of which bills passed and became laws. But although these laws 
conferred an incalculable benetit upon the public, the very name of 
a tax was so odious to the people that, rather than pay a tax of the 
smallest possible amount, they preferred working as they formerly 
did, five days during the year on the roads, and would allow their 
children to grow up without any instruction at all. Consequently 
both laws were abolished in 1826. 

In the year 1826 the office of Governor became again vacant. 
Ninian Edwards, Adolphus F, Hubbard and Thomas C. Sloe were 
candidates. Edwards, though the successful candidate, had made 
liimself many enemies by urging strict inquiries to be made into 
the corruption of the State bank, so that liad it not been for his 
talents and noble personal appearance, he would most probably not 
have been elected. Hubbard was a man of but little personal merit. 
Of him tradition has preserved, among other curious sayings^ a 
speech on a bill granting a bounty on wolf-scalps. This speech, 
delivered before the Legislature, is as follows: "Mr. Speaker, I rise 
before the question is put on this bill, to say a word for my constit- 
uents. Mr. Speaker, I have never seen a wolf. I cannot say that 
I am very well acquainted with the nature and habits of wolves. 
Mr. Speaker, I have said that I had never seen a wolf; but now I 
remember that once on a time, as Judge Brown and I were riding 
a,cross the Bonpas prairie, we looked over the prairie about three 
miles, and Judge Brown said, ' Hubbard, look! there goes a wolf; ' 
and I looked, and I looked, and I looked, and I said, ' Judge, wliere?' 
and he said, 'There!' And I looked again, and this time in the 
edge of a hazel thicket, about three miles across the prairie, I think 
I saw the wolf's tail. Mr, Speaker, if I did not see a wolf that 
time, I think I never saw one; but I have heard much, and read 
more, about this animal. I have studied his natural history. 

" By the bye, history is divided into two parts. There is first 
the history of the fabulous; and secondly, of tlie non-fabulous, or 
unknown age. Mr. Speaker, from all these sources of information 
I learn that the wolf is a very noxious animal; that he goes prowl- 
ing about, seeking something to devour; that he rises up in the 
dead and secret hours of night, when all nature reposes in silent 
oblivion, and then commits the most terrible devastation upon the 
rising generation of hogs and sheep. 


" Mr. Speaker, I have done; and I return my thanks to the houso 
for tlieir kind attention to my remarks." 

Gov. Edwards was a large and well-made man, with a noble, 
princely appearance. Of him Gov. Ford says: "-He never con- 
descended to the common low art of electioneering. Whenever he 
went out among the people he arrayed himself in the style of a 
gentleman of the olden time, dressed in tine broadcloth, with short 
breeches, long stockings, and high, fair-topped boots; was drawn in 
a fine carriage driven by a negro; and for success he relied upon his 
speeches, which were delivered in great pomp and in style of diffuse 
and florid eloquence. When he was inaugurated in 1S26, he 
appeared before the General Assembly wearing a golden-laced cloak, 
and with great pomp pronounced his first message to the houses 
of the Legislature." 


Demagogism had an early development. One John Grammar, 
who was elected to the Territorial Legislature in 1816, and held the 
position for about twenty years, invented the policy of opposing 
every new thing, saying, " If it succeeds, no one wrill ask who 
voted against it: if it proves a failure, he could quote its record." 
When first honored with a seat in the Assembly, it is said that 
he lacked the apparel necessar}' for a member of the Legislature, 
and in order to procure thetn he and his sons gathered a large 
quantity of hazel-nuts, which were taken to the Ohio Saline and 
sold for cloth to make a coat and pantaloons. The cloth was the 
blue strouding commonly used by the Indians. 

The neighboring women assembled to make up the garments; the 
cloth was measured every way, — across, lengthwise, and from corner 
to corner,— and still was found to be scant. It was at last con- 
cluded to make a very short, bob-tailed coat and a long pair of leg- 
gins, which being finished, Mr. Grammar started for the State 
capital. In sharp contrast with Grammar was the character of D. 
P. Cook, in honor of whom Cook county was named. Such was 
his transparent integrity and remarkable ability that his will was 
almost the law of the State. In Congress, a young man and from 
a poor State, he was made Chairman of the Ways and Means Com- 
mittee. He was pre-eminent for standing by his committee, regard- 
less of consequences. It was his integrity that elected John Quincy 


Adams to the Presidency. There were four candidates in 1824, 
Jackson, Claj, Orawturd and Adams. There being no choice by 
the people, the election was thrown into the House. It was so bal- 
anced that it turned on his vote, and that he cast for Adams, elect- 
ing him. He then came home to face the wrath of the Jackson 
party in Illinois. 

The first mail route in the State was established in 1S05. This 
was from Vincennes to Cahokia. In 182-i there was a direct mail 
route from Vandalia to Springfield. The first route from the central 
part of the State to Chicago was established in 1832, from Shelby- 
ville. The difficulties and dangers encountered by the early mail 
carriers, in time of Indian troubles, were very serious. Tiie bravery 
and ingenious devices of Harry Milton are mentioned with special 
commendation. When a boy, in 1812, he conveyed the mail on a 
wild Trench pony from Shawneetown to St. Louis, over swollen 
streams and through the enemy's country. So infrequent and 
irregular were the communications by mail a great part of the time, 
that to-day, even the remotest part of the United States is unable to 
appreciate it by example. 

The first newspaper published in Illinois was the Illinois Herald^ 
established at Kaskaskia by Mathew Duncan. There is some va- 
riance as to the exact time of its establishment. Gov. Reynolds 
claimed it was started in 1809. Wm. H. Brown, afterwards its 
editor, gives the date as 1814. 

In 1831 the criminal code was first adapted to penitentiary pun- 
ishment, ever since which time the old system of whipping and 
pillory for the punishment of criminals has been disused. 

There was no legal rate of interest till 1830. Previously the rate 
often reached as high as 150 per cent., but was usually 50 per cent. 
Then it was reduced to 12, then to 10, and lastly to 8 per cent. 



The Indians, who for some years were on peaceful terms with 
the whites, became troublesome in 1827. The Winnebagoes, Sacs 
and Foxes and other tribes had been at war for more than a hun- 
dred years. In the summer of 1827 a war party of the Winnebagoes 
surprised a party of Chippewas and killed eight of them. Four 


of the murderers were arrested and delivered to the Chippewas, 
by whom they were immediately shot. This was the tirst irritation 
of the Winnebagoes. Red Bird, a chief of this tribe, in order to 
avenge the execution of the four warriors of his own people, attacked 
the Chippewas, but was defeated; and being determined to satisfy 
his thirst for revenge by some means, surprised and killed several 
white men. Upon receiving intelligence of these murders, the 
whites who were working the lead mines in the vicinity of Galena 
formed a body of volunteers, and, re-inforced by a company of United 
States troops, marched into the country of the Winnebagoes. To 
save their nation from the miseries of war. Red Bird and six other 
men of his nation voluntarily surrendered themselves. Some of 
the number were executed, some of them imprisoned and destined, 
like Red Bird, ingloriously to pine away within the narrow confines 
of a jail, when formerly the vast forests had proven too limited for 


In August, 1830, another gubernatorial election was held. The 
candidates were William Kinney, then Lieutenant Governor, and 
John Reynolds, formerly an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, 
both Jackson Democrats. The opposition brought forward no can- 
didate, as they were in a helpless minority. Reynolds was the 
successful candidate, and under his administration was the famous 


In the year of 1804 a treaty was concluded between the United 
States and the chiefs of the Sac and Fox nations. One old chief of 
the Sacs, however, called Black Hawk, who had fought with great 
bravery in the service of Great Britain during the war of 1812, had 
always taken exceptions to this treaty, pronouncing it void. In 1831 
he established himseU", with a chosen band of warriors, upon the dis- 
puted territory, ordering the whites to leave the country at once. The 
settlers complaining, Gov. Reynolds dispatched Gen. Gaines, with a 
company of regulars and 1,500 volunteers, to the scene of action. 
Taking the Indians by surprise, the troops burnt their villages and 
forced them to conclude a treaty, by which they ceded all lands east 
of the Mississippi, and agreed to remain on the western side of the 
river. Necessity forced the proud spirit of Black Hawk into 
submission, which made him more than ever determined to be 



avenged upoi: his enemies. Having rallied around bim the warlike 
braves of the Sac and Fox nations, he crossed the Mississippi in the 
spring of 1632. Upon hearing of the invasion, Gov. Reynolds 
Ifastilj coUecte'^ a body of 1,800 volunteers, placing them under the 
command oi J3xig-Gen. Samuel "Whiteside. 

stillman's run. 

The army marched to the Mississippi, and having reduced to 
ashes the Indian village known as '• Prophet's Town," proceeded 
for several miles up the river to Dixon, to join the regular forces 
under Gen. Atkinson. They found at Dixon two companies of 
volunteers, who, sighing for glory, were dispatched to reconnoiter 
the enemy. They advanced under command of Maj. Stillman, to a 
creek afterwards called " Stillman's run; " and while encamping 
there saw a party of mounted Indians at the distance of a mile. 
Several of Stillman's party mounted their horses and charged the 
Indians, killing three of them; but, attacked by the main body 
under Black Ilawk, they were routed, and by their precipitate 
flight spread such a panic through the camp that the whole company 
ran off to Dixon as fa&t as their legs could carry them. On their 
arrival it was found that there had been eleven killed. The party 
came straggling into camp all night long, four or five at a time, 
each squad positive that all who were left behind were massacred. 

It is said that a big, tall Kentuckian, with a loud voice, who 
was a colonel of the militia but a private with Stillman, upon his 
arrival in cami? gave to Gen. "Whiteside and the wondering multi- 
tude the followdng glowing and bombastic account of the battle: 
"Sirs," said he, "our detachment was encamped among some scat- 
tering timber on tlie north side of Old Man's creek, with the prairie 
from the north gently sloping down to our encampment. It was 
just after twilight, in the gloaming of the evening, when we dis- 
covered Black Hawk's array coming down upon us in solid column; 
they displayed in the form of a crescent upon the brow of the prai- 
rie, and such accuracy and precision of military movements were 
never witnessed by man; they were equal to the best troops of 
"Wellington in Spain, j. have said that the Indians came down in 
solid columns, and displayed in the form of a crescent; and what was 
most wonderful, there were large squares of cavalry resting upon 
the points of the curve, which squares were supported again by 


other coliimiis fifteen deep, extendinor back through the woods and 
over a swainj^ three-quai-ters of a mile, \vhicli again rested on the 
main body of Bhick ILiwk's ai-my bivouacked upon the banks of the 
Kishwakee. It was a terrible and a glorious sight to see the tawny 
warriors as they rode along our flanks attempting to outflank ut;, 
with the glittering moonbeams glistening from their polished blades 
and burnished spears. It was a sight well calculated to strike con- 
sternation in the stoutest and boldest heart; and accordingly our 
men soon began to break in small squads, for tall timber. In a 
very little time the rout became general, the Indians were soon 
upon our flanks and threatened the destruction of our entire detach- 
ment. About this time Maj. Stillman, Col. Stephenson, Maj. 
Perkins, Capt, Adams, Mr. Hackelton, and myself, with some 
others, threw ourselves into the rear to rally the fugitives and pro- 
tect the retreat. But in a short time all my companions fell 
bravely fighting hand-to-hand with the savage enemy, and I alone 
was left upon the field of battle. About this time I discovered not 
far to the left a corps of horsemen which seemed to be in tolerable 
order. I immediately deployed to the left, when, leaning down and 
placing my body in a recumbent posture upon the mane of my 
horse so as to bring the heads of the horsemen between my eye 
and the horizon, I discovered by the light of the moon that they 
were gentlemen who did not wear hats, by which token I knew they 
were no friends of mine. I therefore made a rctrogade movement 
and recovered my position, where I remained some time meditating 
what further I could do in the service of my country, when a ran- 
dom ball came whistling by my ear and plainly whispered to me. 
' Stranger, you have no further business here.' Upon hearing this I 
followed the example of my companions in arms, and broke for 
tall timber, and the way 1 ran was not a little." 

For a long time afterward Maj. Stillnan and his men were sub- 
jects of ridicule and merriment, which was as undeserving as their 
expedition was disastrous. Stillman's defeat spread consternation 
throughout the State and nation. The number of Indians was 
greatly exaggerated, and the name of Black Hawk carried with it 
associations of great military talent, savage cunning and cruelty. 


A reo;iment sent to spy out the country between Galena and Rock 
Island was surprised by a party of seventy Indians, and was on the 


point of being thrown into disorder when Gen. Whiteside, then 
serving as a private, shouted out that he would shoot the first man 
who should turn his back to the enemy. Order being restored, the 
battle began. At its very outset Gen. Whiteside sliot the leader of 
the Indians, who thereupon commenced a hasty retreat. 

In June, 1832, Black Hawk, with a band of 150 warriors, attack- 
ed the Apple Eiver Fort, near Galena, defended by 25 men. This 
fort, a mere palisade of logs, was erected to afford protection to the 
miners. For fifteen consecutive hours the garrison had to sustain 
the assault of the savage enemy ; but knowing very well that no 
quarter would be given them, they fought with such fury and des- 
peration that the Indians, after losing many of their best warriors, 
v/ere compelled to retreat. 

Another party of eleven Indians murdered two men near Fo.f-t 
Hamilton. They were afterwards overtaken by a company of 
twenty men and every one of them was killed. 


A new regiment, under the command of Gen. Atkinson, assem- 
bled on the banks of the Illinois in the latter part of J une. Maj. 
Dement, with a small party, was sent out to reconnoiter the move- 
ments of a large body of Indians, whose endeavors to surround him 
made it advisable for him to retire. Upon hearing of this engage- 
ment, Gen. Atkinson sent a detachment to intercept the Indians, 
while he with the main body of his army, moved north to meet the 
Indians under Black Hawk, They moved slowly and cautiously 
through the country, passed through Turtle village, and marched 
up along Eock river. On their arrival news was brought of the 
discovery of the main trail of the Indians. Considerable search 
was made, but they were unable to discover any vestige of Indians 
save two who had shot two soldiers the day previous. 

Hearing that Black Hawk was encamped on Rock river, at the 
Manitou village, they resolved at once to advance upon the enemy; 
but in the execution of their design they met with opposition from 
their officers and men. The officers of Gen. Henry handed to him 
a written protest; but he, a man equal to any emergency, ordered 
the officers to be arrested and escorted to Gen. Atkinson. Within 
a few minutes after the stern order was given, the officers all collected 
around the General's quarters, many of tliem with tears in their 


eyes, pledging themselves that if forgiven thej would return to duty 
and never do the like again. The General rescinded the order, and 
they at once resumed duty. 


Gen. Henry marched on the 15th of July in pursuit of the 
Indians, reaching Kock river after three days' journey, where he 
learned Black Hawk was encamped further up the river. On July 
19th the troops were ordered to commence their march. After 
having made fifty miles, they were overtaken by a terrible thunder- 
storm which lasted all night. Nothing cooled, however, in their 
courage and zeal, they marched again fifty miles the next day, 
encamping near the place where the Indians had encamped the 
night before. Hurrying along as fast as they could, the infantry 
keeping up an equal pace with the mounted force, the troops on the 
morning of the 21st crossed the river connecting two of the four 
lakes, by which the Indians had been endeavoring to escape. They 
found, on their way, the ground strewn with kettles and articles of 
ba(>-fage, which the iiaste of their retreat had obliged the Indians 
to throw away. The troops, inspired with new ardor, advanced so 
rapidly that at noon they fell in with the rear guard of the Indians. 
Those who closely pursued them were saluted with a sudden 
fire of musketry by a body of Indians who had concealed them^ 
selves in the high grass of the prairie. A most desperate charge 
was made upon the Indians, who, unable to resist, retreated 
obliquely, in order to out-flank the volunteers on the right; but the 
latter charged the Indians in their ambush, and expelled tiiem 
from their thickets at the point of the bayonet, and dispersed them. 
Night set in and the battle ended, having cost the Indians 6S of 
their bravest men, while the loss of the lUinoisans amounted to but 
one killed and 8 wounded. 

Soon after this battle Gens. Atkinson and Henry joined their 
forces and pursued the Indians. Gen. Henry struck the main trail, 
left his horses behind, formed an advance guard of eight men, 
and marched forward upon their trail. When these eight men 
came within sight of the river, thej^ were suddenly tired upon and 
five of them killed, the remaining three maintaining their ground 
till Gen. Henry came up. Then the Indians, charged upon with 
the bayonet, fell back upon their main force. The battle now 


became general; the Indians fought with desperate valor, but were 
furiously assailed by the volunteers with their bayouets, cutting 
many of the Indians to pieces and driving the rest into the river. 
Those who escaped from being drowned took refuge on an island. On 
hearing the frequent discharge of musketry, indicating a general 
engagement, Gen. Atkinson abandoned the pursuit of the twenty 
Indians under Black Hawk himself, and hurried to the scene of 
action, where he arrived tpo late to take part in the battle. He 
immediately forded the river with his troops, the water reaching 
up to their necks, and landed on the island where the Indians had 
secreted themselves. The soldiers rushed upon the Indians, killed 
several 'of them, took others prisoner, and chased the rest into 
the river, where they were either drowned or shot before reaching 
the opposite shore. Thus ended the battle, the Indians losing 300 
besides 50 prisoners; the whites but 17 killed and 12 wounded. 


Many painful incidents occurred during this battle. A Sac 
woman, the sister of a warrior of some notoriety, found herself in 
the thickest of the fight, but at length succeeded in reaching . the 
river, when, keeping her infant child safe in its blankets by means 
of her teeth, she plunged into the water, seized the tail of a horse 
with her hands whose rider was swimming the stream, and was 
drawn safely across. A young squaw during the battle was stand- 
ing in the grass a short distance from the American line, holding 
her child — a little girl of four years — in her arms. In this posi- 
tion a ball struck the right arm of the child, shattering the bone, 
and passed into the breast of the young mother, instantly killing 
her. She fell upon the child and confined it to the ground till the 
Indians were driven from that part of the field. Gen. Anderson, 
of the United States army, hearing its cries, went to the spot, took 
it from under the dead body and carried it to the surgeon to have 
its wound dressed. The arm was amputated, and during the oper- 
ation the half-starved child did not cry, but sat quietly eating a 
hard piece of biscuit. It was sent to Prairie du Cliien, where it 
entirely recovered. 


Black Hawk, with his twenty braves, retreated up the "Wisconsin, 
river. The Winnebagoes, desirous of securing the friendship of 


the whites, went in pursuit and captured and delivered them to 
Gen. Street, tlie United States Indian ai^ent. Among the prisoners 
were the son of Black Hawk and the prophet of the tribe. These 
with Black Hawk were taken to Washington, D. C, and soon con- 
signed as prisoners at Fortress Monroe. 

At the interview Black Hawk had with the President, he closed 
his speech delivered on the occasion in the following words: " We 
did not expect to conquer the whites. Thej have too many houses, 
too many men. I took up the liatchet, for my part, to revenge 
injuries which my people could no longer endure. Had I borne 
them longer without striking, my people would have said, ' Black 
Hawk is a woman; he is too old to be a chief; he is no Sac' These 
reflections caused me to raise the war-whoop, I say no more. It 
is known to you. Keokuk once was here; you took him by the 
handj and when he wished to return to his liome, you were willing. 
Black Hawk expects, like Keokuk, he shall be permitted to return 


Black Hawk, or Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiah, was oorn in the prin- 
cipal Sac village, near the junction of Rock river with the Missis- 
sippi, in the year 1767. His lather's name was Py-e-sa. Black 
Hawk early distinguished himself as a warrior, and at the age of 
fifteen was permitted to paint, and was ranked among the braves. 
About the year 1783 he went on an expedition against the enemies 
of his nation, the Osages, one of whom he killed and scalped; and 
for this deed of Indian bravery he was permitted to join in the 
scalp dance. Three or four years afterward he, at the head of two 
hundred braves, went on another expedition against the Osages, to 
avenge the murder of some women and children belonging to his 
own tribe. Meeting an equal number of Osage warriors, a fierce 
battle ensued in which, the latter tribe lost one-half their number. 
The Sacs lost only about nineteen warriors. He next attacked the 
Cherokees for a similar canse. In a severe battle with them near 
the present city of St. Louis his father was slain, and Black Hawk, 
taking possession of the " Medicine Bag," at once announced him- 
self chief of the Sac nation. He had now conquered the Cherokees, 
and about the year 1800, at the head of five hundred Sacs and 
Foxes and a hundred lowas, he waged war against the Osage 


nation, and subdued it. For two years lie battled successfully with 
other Indian tribes, all of which he conquered. 

The year following the treaty at St. Louis, in 180-1, the United 
States Government erected a fort near the head of Des Moines 
Rapids, called Fort Edwards. This seemed to enrage Black Hawk, 
who at once determined to capture Fort Madison, standing on the 
west side of the Mississippi, above the mouth of the Des Moines. 
The fort was garrisoned by about fifty men. Here he was defeated. 
The difficulties with the British Government arose about this time, 
and the war of 1812 followed. That government, extending aid to 
the Western Indians, induced them to remain hostile to the Ameri- 
cans. In August, 1812, Black Hawk, at the head of about five 
hundred braves, started to join the British forces at Detroit, passing 
on his way the site of Chicago, where the famous Fort Dearborn 
massacre had a few days before been perpetrated. Of his con- 
nection with the British but little is known. 

In the early part of 1815, the Indians west of the Mississippi 
were notified that peace had been declared between the United 
States and England, and nearly all hostilities had ceased. Black 
Hawk did not sign any treaty, however, until May of the following 
year. From the time of signing this treaty, in 1816, until the 
breaking out of the Black Hawk war, he and his band passed their 
time in the common pursuits of Indian life. 

Ten years before the commencement of this war, the Sac and 
Fox Indians were urged to move to the west of the Mississippi. 
All were agreed, save the band known as the British Band, of which 
Black Hawk was leader. He strongly objected to the removal, and 
was induced to comply only after being threatened by the Govern- 
ment. This action, and various others on the part of the white 
settlers, provoked Black Hawk and his band to attempt the capture 
of his native village, now occupied by the whites. The war fol- 
lowed. He and his actions were undoubtedly misunderstood, and 
had his wishes been complied with at the beginning of the struggle, 
much bloodshed would have been prevented. 


By order of the President, Black Hawk and his companions, 
who were in confinement at Fortress Monroe, were set free on the 
4th day of June, 1833. Before leaving the fort Black Hawk 


made the foUowincr farewell speech to the coinmaiuler, which is not 
only eloquent but shows that within liis chest of steel there beat a 
heart keenly alive to the emotions of gratitude: 

"' Brother, I have come on my own part, and in beluilf of my 
companions, to bid you forewelK Our great father has at length 
been pleased to permit us to return to our hunting grounds. We 
have buried the tomahavv'lc, uiul the sound of the rifle hereafter will 
only bring death to the deer and the buffalo. Brothers, you have 
treated the red man very kindly. Your squaws have made them 
presents, and you have given them plenty to eat and drink. The 
memory of your friendsliip will remain till the Great Spirit says it 
is time for Black Hawk to sing his death song. Brother, your 
houses are as numerous as the leaves on the trees, and y^ur young 
warriors like the sands upon the shore of tlie big lake that rolls 
before us. The red man has but few houses and few warriors, but 
the red man has a heart which throbs as warmly as the heart of his 
white brother. The Great Spirit has given us our hunting grounds, 
and the skin of the deer which we kill there is his favorite, for its 
color is white, and this is the emblem of peace. This hunting 
dress and these feathers of the eagle are wliite. Accept them, my 
brother. I have given one like this to the White Otter. Accept it as 
a memorial of Black Hawk. When he is far away this will serve 
to remind you of him. May the Great Spirit bless you and your 
children. Farewell." 

After their release from prison they were conducted, in charge 
of Major Garland, through some of the principal cities, that 
they might witness the power of the United States and learn 
their own inability to cope with them in war. Great multitudes 
flocked to see them wherever they were taken, and the attention 
paid them rendered their progress through the country a triumphal 
procession, instead of the transportation of prisoners by an officer. 
At Rock Island the prisoners were given their liberty, amid great 
and impressive ceremony. In 1838 Black Hawk built him a 
dwellino- near Des Moines, Iowa, and furnished it after the maniier 
of the whites, and engaged in agricultural pursuits and hunting and 
iishinp-. Here, with his wife, to whom he was greatly attached, he 
passed the few remaining days of his life. To his credit, it may be 
said, that Black Hawk remained true to his wife, and served her 


with a devotion uncommon among Indians, living with her up- 
ward of forty years. 


At all times when Black Hawk visited the whites he was 
received with marked attention. lie was an honored guest at the 
old settlers' re-union in Lee county, Illinois, at some of their 
meetings and received many tokens of esteem. In September, 
1838, while on his way to Ilock Island to receive his annuity from 
the Government, he contracted a severe cold which resulted in a 
fatal attack of bilious fever, and terminated his life October 3. 
After his death, he was dressed in the uniform presented to him by 
the Presidert while in Washington. He was buried in a grave six 
feet in depth, situated upon a beautiful eminence. The body was 
placed in the middle of the grave, in a sitting posture upon a seat 
constructed for the purpose. On his left side the cane given him 
by Henry Clay was placed upright, with his right hand resting 
upon it. Thus, after a long, adventurous and sliifting life. Black 
Hawk was gathered to his fathers. 

FROM 1834 TO 1842. 


No sooner was the Black Hawk war concluded than settlers 
began rapidly to pour into the northern part of Illinois, now free 
from Indian depredations. Chicago, from a trading post, had 
grown into a commercial center, and was rapidly coming into 

At the general election in 1S34 Joseph Duncan was chosen 
Governor, by a handsome majority. His principal opponent was 
ex-Lieutenant Governor Kinney. A reckless and uncontrollable 
desire for internal public improvements seized the minds of the 
people. In his message to the Legislature, in 1835, Gov. Duncan 
said: "When we look abroad and see the extensive lines of inter- 
communication penetrating almost every section of our sister States; 
when we see the canal boat and the locomotive bearing with seem- 
ing triumph the rich productions of tlie interior to the rivers, lakes 
and ocean, almost annihilating time, burthen and space, what 
patriot bosom does not beat liigh with a laudable ambition to give 
Illinois her full share of those advantages which are adorning her 


sister States, and which a magnificent Providence seems to invite 
by a wonderful adaptation of our whole country to such improve- 


The Legislature responded to the ardent words of the Governor, 
and enacted a system of internal improvements without a parallel 
in the grandeur of its conception. They ordered the construction 
of 1,300 miles of railroad, crossing the State in all directions. 
This was surpassed by the river and canal improvements. There 
were a few counties not touched by railroad, or river or canal, and 
they were to be comforted and compensated by the free distribution 
■ f $200,000 among them. To inflate this balloon beyond credence, it 
was ordered that work should commence on both ends of each of these 
railroads and rivers, and at each river-crossing, all at the same time. 
This provision, which has been called the crowning folly of the 
entire system, was the result of those jealous combinations ema- 
nating from the fear that advantages might accrue to one section 
over another in the commencetnent and completion of the works. 
^.Ye can appreciate better, perhaps, the magnitude of this grand 
system by reviewing a few figures. The debt authorized for these 
improvements in the first instance was $10,230,000. But this, as 
it was soon found, was based upon estimates at least too low by 
half. This, as we readily see, committed the State to a liability of 
over $20,000,000, equivalent to $200,000,000, at the present time, 
with over ten times the population and more than ten times the 

Such stupendous undertakings by the State naturally engendered 
the fever of speculation among individuals. That particular form 
known as the town-lot fever assumed the malignant type at first in 
Chicago, from whence it spead over the entire State and adjoining 
States. It was an epidemic. It cut up men's farms without regard 
to locality, and cut up the purses of the purchasers without regard 
to consequences. It was estimated that building lots enough were 
sold in Indiana alone to accommodate every citizen then in the 
United States. 

Chicago, which in 1830 was a small trading-post, had within a 
few years grown into a city. This was the' starting point of the 
wonderful and marvelous career of that city. Improvements, 


unsurpassed by individual efforts iu the annals of the world, were 
then begun and have been maintained to this day. Though visited 
by the terrible fire fiend and the accumulations of years swept 
away in a night, yet she has arisen, and to-day is the best built city 
in the world. Keports of the rapid advance of property iu Chicago 
spread to the East, and thousands poured into her borders, bringing 
money, enterprise and industry. Every ship that left her port 
carried with it maps of splendidly situated towns and additions, 
and every vessel that returned was laden with immigrants. It was 
said at the time that the staple articles of Illinois export were town 
plots, and that there was danger of crowding the State with towns 
to the exclusion of land for agriculture. 


The Illinois and Michigan canal again received attention. This 
enterprise is one of the most important in the early development 
of Illinois, on account of its magnitude and cost, and forming 
as it does the connecting link between the great chain of lakes and 
the Illinois and Mississippi rivers. Gov. Bond, the first Governor, 
recommended in his first message the building of the canal. In 
1821 the Legislature appropriated $10,000 for surveying the route. 
This work was performed b}^ two young men, who estimated the 
cost at $600,000 or $700,000. It cost, however, when completed, 
$8,000,000. In 1825 a law was passed to incorporate the Canal 
Company, but no stock was sold. In 1826, upon the solicitation of 
Daniel P. Cook, Congressman from this State, Congress gave 
800,000 acres of land on the line of tlie work. In 1828 commis- 
sioners were appointed, and work commenced with a new survey 
and new estimates. In 1834-5 the work was again pushed forward, 
and continued until 1848, when it M'as completed. 


Bonds of the State were recklessly disposed of both in the East 
and in Europe. Work was commenced on various lines of railroad, 
but none were ever completed. On the Northern Cross Kailroad, 
from Meredosia east eight miles, the first locomotive that ever 
turned a wheel in the great valley of the Mississippi, was run. 
The date of this remarkable event was Nov. 8, 1838. Large sums 
of money were being expended with no assurance of a revenue, 


and consequently, in 1S40, the Legislature repealed the improve- 
ment laws passed three years previously, nut, however, until the 
State had accumulated a debt of nearly $15,000,000. Thus fell, 
after a short but eventful life, by the hands of its creator, the most 
stupendous, extravagant and almost ruinous folly of a grand sys- 
tem of internal improvements that any civil community, perhaps, 
ever engaged in. The State banks failed, specie was scarce, an 
enormous debt was accumulated, the interest of which could not 
be paid, people were disappointed in the accumulation of wealth, 
and real estate was worthless. All this had a tendency to create a 
desire to throw off the heavy burden of State debt by repudiation. 
This was boldly advocated by some leading men. The fair fame 
and name, however, of the State was not tarnished by repudiation. 
Men, true, honest, and able, were placed at the head of affairs; and 
though the hours were dark and gloomy, and the times most try- 
ing, yet our grand old State was brought through and prospered, 
until to-day, after the expenditure of millions for public improve- 
ments and for carrying on the late war, she has, at present, a debt 
of only about $300,000. 


The year 1837 is memorable for the death of the first martyr for 
liberty, and the abolishment of American slavery, in the State. 
Elijah P. Lovejoy was shot by a mob in Alton, on the night of the 
Tth of November of that year. He was at the time editor of the 
Alton Ohserver, and advocated anti-slavery principles in its 
columns. For this practice three of his presses had been destroyed. 
On the arrival of the fourth the tragedy occurred which cost him 
his life. In anticipation of its arrival a series of meetings were 
held in which the friends of freedom and of slavery were represented. 
The object was to effect a compromise, but it was one in which 
liberty was to make concessions to oppression. In a speech made 
at one of these meetings, Lovejoy said: "Mr. Chairman, what 
have I to compromise? If freelj^ to forgive those who have so greatly 
injured me; if to pray for their temporal and eternal happiness; if 
still to wish for the prosperity of your city and State, notwith- 
standing the indignities I haye suffered in them, — if this be the 
compromise intended, then do I willingly make it. I do not admit 
tiiat it is the business of any body of men to say whether I shall 


or shall not publish a paper in this tity. That right was given to 
me by my Creator, and is solemnly guaranteed by the Constitution 
of the United States and of this State. But if by compromise is 
meant that 1 shall cease from that which duty requires of me, I 
cannot make it, and the reason is, that I fear God more than man. 
It is also a very different question, whether 1 shall, voluntarily or 
at the request of my friends, yield up my position, or whether 
I shall forsake it at the hands of a mob. The former I am ready at 
all times to do when circumstances require it, as I will never put 
my personal wishes or interests in competition with the cause of 
that Master whose minister I am. But the latter, be assured I 
never will do. You have, as lawyers say, made a false issue. There 
are no two parties between whom there can be a compromise. I 
plant myself down on my unquestionable rights, and the ques- 
tion to be decided is, whether I shall be protected in those rights. 
You may hang me, as the mob hung the individuals at Vicksburg; 
you may burn me at the stake, as they did old Mcintosh at St. 
Louis; or, you may tar and feather me, or throw me into the Mis- 
sissippi as yon have threatened to do; but you cannot disgrace me. 
I, and I alone, can disgrace myself, and the deepest of all disgrace 
would be at a time like this to deny my Maker by forsaking his 
cause. He died for me, and I were most unworthy to bear his 
name should I refuse, if need be, to die for him.^^ Not long 
afterward Mr. Lovejoy was shot. His brother Owen, being pres- 
ent on the occasion, kneeled down on the spot beside the corpse, 
and sent up to God, in the hearing of that very mob, one of the 
most eloquent prayers ever listened to by mortal ear. He was bold 
enough to pray to God to take signal vengeance on the infernal 
institution of slavery, and he then and there dedicated his life to 
the work of overthrowing it, and hoped to see the day when slavery 
existed no more in this nation. He died, March 24, 1804, nearly 
three months after the Emancipation Proclamation of President 
Lincoln took effect. Thus he lived to see his most earnest and 
devout prayer answered. But few men in the nation rendered bet- 
ter service in overthrowing the institution of slavery than Elijah 
P. and Owen Lovejoy. 


Thomas Carlin, Democrat, was elected Governor in 1838, over 
Cyrus Edwards, Whig. In 1842 Adam W. Snyder was nominated 


for Governor on tlie Democratic ticket, but died before election. 
Thomas Ford was placed in nomination, and was elected, ex-Gov- 
ernor Duncan being his opponent. 


The northern part of the Cicate also had its mob xperiences, but 
of an entirely different nature from the one just recounted. There 
has always hovered around the frontier of civilization bold, desper- 
ate men, who prey upon the unprotected settlers rather than gain 
a livelihood by honest toil. Theft, robbery and murder were car- 
ried on by regularly organized bands in Ogle, Lee, Winnebago and 
DeKalb counties. The leaders of these gangs of cut- throats were 
among the first settlers of that portion of the State, and conse- 
quently had the choice of location. Among the most prominent of 
the leaders were John Driscoll, William and David, his sons; John 
Brodie and three of his sons; Samuel Aikens and three of his sons; 
William K. Bridge and Norton B. Boyce. 

These were the representative characters, those who planned 
and controlled the movements of the combination, concealed them 
when danger threatened, nursed them when sick, rested them when 
worn by fatigue and forced marches, furnished hiding places for 
their stolen booty, shared in the spoils, and, under cover of darkness 
and intricate and devious ways of travel, known only to themselves 
and subordinates, transferred stolen horses from station to station; 
for it came to be known as a well-established fact that they had 
stations, and agents, and watchmen scattered throughout the coun- 
try at convenient distances, and signals and pass-words to assist 
and govern them in all their nefarious transactions. 

Ogle county, particularly, seemed to be a favorite and chosen 
field for the operations of these outlaws, who could not be convicted 
for their crimes. By getting some of their number on the juries, 
by producing hosts of witnesses to sustain their defense by per- 
jured evidence, and by changing the venue from one county to 
another, and by continuances from term to term, they nearly always 
managed to be acquitted. At last these depredations became too 
common for longer endurance; patience ceased to be a virtue, and 
determined desperation seized the minds of honest men, and they 
resolved that it' tliere were no statute laws that could protect them 


against the ravages of thieves, robbers and counterfeiters, they 
would protect themselves. It was a desperate resolve, and desper- 
ately and bloodily executed. 


At the Spring term of court, 18-il, seven of the "Pirates of the 
Prairie," as they were called, were confined in the Ogle county jail 
to await trial. Preparatory to holding court, the judge and lawyers 
assembled at Oregon in tlieir new court-house, which had just 
been completed. Near it stood the county jail in which were the 
prisoners. The "Pirates" assembled Sunday night and set the 
court-house on fire, in the hope that as the prisoners would have to 
be removed from the jail, they might, in the hurry and confusion 
of the people in attending to the fire, make their escape. The 
whole population were awakened that dark and stormy night, to 
see their new court edifice enwrapped in flames. Although the 
building was entirely consumed, none of the prisoners escaped. 
Three of them were tried, convicted and sent to the penitentiary 
for a year. They had, however, contrived to get one of their num- 
ber on*the jury, who would not agree to a verdict until threatened 
to be lynched. The others obtained a change of venue and were 
not convicted, and finally they all broke jail and escaped. 

Thus it was that the law was inadequate to the protection of the 
people. The best citizens held a meeting and entered into a solemn 
compact with each other to rid the country of the desperadoes that 
infested it. They were regularly organized and known as " Regu- 
lators." They resolved to notify all suspected parties to leave the 
country within a given time; if they did not comply, they would 
be severely dealt with. Their first victim was a man named Hurl, 
who was suspected of having stolen his neighbor's horse. He was 
ordered to strip, his hands were tied, when thirty-six lashes of a 
raw-hide were applied to his bare back. The next was a man 
named Daggett, formerly a Baptist preacher. He was sentenced 
to receive five hundred lashes on his bare back. He was stripped, 
and all was ready, when his beautiful daughter rushed into the 
midst of the men, begging for mercy for her father. Her appeals, 
with Daggett's promise to leave the country immediately, secured 
his release. That night, new crimes having been discovered, he 
was taken out and whipped, after which he left the country, never 
again to be heard from. 


The friends and comrades of tlie men who had been M'hipped 
were fearfully enraged, and swore eternal and bloody vengeance 
Eighty of them assembled one night soon after, and laid plans to 
visit AVhite Rock and murder every man, woman and child in that 
hamlet. They started on this bloody mission, but were prevailed 
upon by one of their number to disband. Their coming, howevc)-, 
had been anticipated, and every man and boy in the town was 
armed to protect himself and his family. 


John Campbell, Captain of the '• Regulators," received a letter 
from William Driscoll, filled with most direful threats, — not only 
threatening Campbell's life, but the life of any one who should 
oppose their murderous, thieving operations. Soon after the re- 
ceipt of this letter, two hundred of the "Regulators" marched to 
DriscoU's and ordered him to leave the county within twenty days, 
but he refused to comply with the order. One Sunday evening, 
just after this, Campbell was shot down in his own door-yard by 
David Driscoll. He fell in the arms of his wife, at which time 
Taylor Driscoll raised his rifle and pointed it toward her, but low- 
ered it without firing. 

News of this terrible crime spread like wild-fire. The very air 
was filled with threats and vengeance, and nothing but the lives of 
the murderous gang would pay the penalty. Old John Driscoll 
was arrested, was told to bid his family good-bye, and then with 
his son went out to his death. The "Regulators," numbering 111, 
formed a large circle, and gave the Driscolls a fair hearing. They 
were found guilty, and the "Regulators" divided into two "death 
divisions," — one, consisting of fifty-six, with rifles dispatched the 
father, the otlier fifty -five riddled and shattered the body of the 
son with balls from as many guns. The measures thus inaugu- 
rated to free the country from the dominion of outlaws was a last 
desperate resort, and proved effectual. 


In April, 1840, the "Latter-Day Saints," or Mormons, came in 
large numbers to Illinois and ])urchased a tract of land on the east 
side of the Mississippi river, about ten miles above Keokuk. Here 
they commenced building the city of Nauvoo. A more picturesque 
or eligible site for a city could not have been selected. 


The origin, rapid development and prosperity of this religious 
sect are the most remarkable and instructive historical events of 
the present century. That an obscure individual, without money, 
education, or respectability, should persuade hundreds of thousands 
of people to believe him inspired of God, and cause a book, con- 
temptible as a literary production, to be received as a continuation 
of the sacred revelation, appears almost incredible; yet in less than 
half a century, the disciples of this obscure individual have in- 
■ creased to hundreds of thousands; have founded a State in the dis- 
tant wilderness, and compelled the Government of the United 
States to practically recognize them as an independent people. 


The founder of Mormonism was Joseph Smith, a native of Ver- 
mont, who emigrated while quite young with his father's family to 
western New York. Here his youth was spent in idle, vagabond 
life, roaming the woods, dreaming of buried treasures, and in en- 
deavoring to learn the art of finding them by the twisting of a 
forked stick in his hands, or by looking through enchanted stones. 
Both he and his father became famous as " water wizards," always 
ready to point out the spot where wells might be dug and water 
found. Such was the character of the young profligate when he 
made the acquaintance of Sidney Rigdon, a person of considerable 
talent and information, who had conceived the design of founding 
a new religion, A religious romance, written by Mr. Spaulding, a 
Presbyterian preacher of Ohio, then dead, suggested the idea, and 
finding in Smith the requisite duplicity and cunning to reduce it 
to practice, it was agreed that he should act as prophet; and the 
two devised a story that gold plates had been found buried in the 
earth containing a record inscribed on them in unknown characters, 
which, when deciphered by the power of inspiration, gave the his- 
tory of the ten lost tribes of Israel. 


After their settlement in and about Nauvoo, in Hancock county, 
great depredations were committed by them on the " Gentiles." 
The Mormons had been received from Missouri with great kind- 
ness by the people of this State, and every possible aid granted 
them. The depredations committed, however, soon made them 


odious, when the question of getting rid of them was agitated. In 
the fall of 18il, the Governor of Missouri made a demand ou Gov. 
Cai'liu for the arrest and delivery of Joe Smith as a fugitive from 
justice. An e.xecutive warrant issued for that purpose was placed 
in the hands of an agent to be executed, but waa returned without 
being complied with. Soon afterward the Governor handed the 
same writ to his agent, who this time succeeded in arresting Joe 
Smith. lie was, however, discharged by Judge Douglas, upon the 
grounds that the writ upon which he had been arrested had been 
once returned before it was executed, and was f,'/ net us officio. In 
1S43 Gov. Carlin again issued his writ, Joe Smith was arrested 
again, and again escaped. Thus it will be seen it was impossible 
to reach and punish the leader of this people, who had been driven 
from Missouri because of their stealing, murdering and unjust 
dealing, and came to Illinois but to continue their depredations. 
Emboldened by success, the Mormons became more arrogant and 
overbearing. Many people began to believe that they were about 
to set up a separate government for themselves in defiance of the 
laws of the State. Owners of property stolen in other counties 
made pursuit into Nauvoo, and were fined by the Mormon courts 
for daring to seek their property in the holy city. But that which 
made it more certain than any tiling else that the Mormons con- 
templated a separate government, was that about this time they 
petitioned Congress to establish a territorial government for them 
in Nauvoo. 


To crown the whole folly of the Mormons, in the Spring of 18A4 
Joe Smith announced himself as a candidate for President of the 
United States, and many of his followers were confident he would 
be elected. He next caused himself to be anointed king and 
priest, and to give character to his pretensions, he declared his 
lineage in an unbroken line from Joseph, the son of Jacob, and 
that of his wife from some other important personage of the ancient 
Hebrews, To strengthen his political power he also instituted a 
body of police styled the " Danite band," who were sworn to ])ro- 
tect his person, and obey his orders as the commands of God. A 
female order previously existing in the church, called " Spiritual 
wives," was modified so as to suit the licentiousness of the prophet. 
A doctrine was revealed that it was impossible for a woman to get 


to heaven except as the wife of a Mormon elder; that each elder 
mi<]^ht marry as many women as he could maintain, and that any 
female might be sealed to eternal life by becoming their concubine. 
This licentiousness, the origin of polygamy in that church, they 
endeavored to justify by an appeal to Abraham, Jacob and other 
favorites of God in former ages of the world. 


Smith soon began to play the tyrant over his people. Among 
the first acts of this sort was an attempt to take the wife of Wil- 
liam Law, one of his most talented disciples, and make her his 
spiritual wife. He established, without authority, a recorder's 
office, and an office to issue marriage licenses. He proclaimed that 
none could deal in real estate or sell liquor but himself. He 
ordered a printing office demolished, and in many ways controlled 
the freedom and business of the Mormons. Not only did he stir up 
some of the Mormons, but by his reckless disregard for the laws of 
the land raised up opposition on every hand; It was believed that 
he instructed the Danite band, which he had chosen as the ministers 
of his vengeance, that no blood, except that of the church, was to 
be regarded as sacred, if it contravened the accomplishment of his 
object. It was asserted that he inculcated the legality of perjury 
and other crimes, if committed to advance the cause of true believ- 
ers; that God had given the world and all it contained to his saints, 
and since they were kept out of their rightful inheritance by force, 
it was no moral offense to get possession of it by stealing. It was 
reported that an establishment existed in Nauvoo for the manufac- 
ture of counterfeit money, and that a set of outlaws was maintained 
for the purpose of putting it in circulation. Statements were cir- 
culated to the effect that a reward was offered for the destruction of 
the Warsaw Signal, an anti-Mormon paper, and that Mormons dis- 
persed over the country threatened all persons who offered to assist 
the constable in the execution of the law, with the destruction of 
their property and the murder of their families. There were rumors 
also afloat that an alliance had been formed with the Western 
Indians, and in case of war they would be used in murdering their 
enemies. In short, if only one-half of these reports were true the 
Mormons must have been the most infamous people that ever ex- 



William Law, one of the proprietors of the printing-press 
destroyed l)_v Smith, went to Carthage, the county-seat, and 
obtained warrants for the airest of Smith 'and the members of the 
City Council, and others connected with the destruction of the 
press. Some of the parties having been arrested, but discharged 
by the authorities in Nauvoo, a convention of citizens assembled at 
Carthage and appointed a committee to wait uj)ou the Crovernor for 
the purpose 'of procuring military assistance to enforce the law. 
The Governor visited Carthage iu person. Previous to his arrival 
the militia had been called out and armed forces commenced assem- 
bling in Carthage and Warsaw to enforce the service of civil process. 
All of them, however, signified a willingness to co-operate with the 
Governor in preserving order. A constable and ten men were then 
sent to make the arrest. In the meantime, Smith declared martial 
law; his followers residing in the country were summoned to his 
assistance; the Legion was assembled and under arms, and the 
entire city was one great military encampment. 


The prophet, his brother Hiram, the members of the City Coun- 
cil and others, surrendered themselves at Carthage June 24, 1S45, 
ou the charge of riot. All entered into recognizance before a Jus- 
tice of the Peace to appear at court, and wei-e discharged. A new 
writ, however, was immediately issued and served on the two 
Smiths, and both were arrested and thrown into prison. The 
citizens had assembled from Hancock, Schuyler and McDonough 
counties, armed and ready to avenge the outrages that had been 
committed by the Mormons. Great excitement prevailed at Car- 
thage. The force assembled at that place amounted to 1,200 men, 
and about 500 assembled at Warsaw. Nearly all were anxious to 
march into Nauvoo. This measure was supposed to be necessary 
to search for counterfeit money and the apparatus to make it, and 
also to strike a salutary terror into the Mormon people by an exhi- 
bition of the force of the State, and thereby prevent future out- 
rages, murders, robberies, burnings, and the like. The 27th of 
June was appointed for the march; but Gov. Ford, who at the 
time was in Cai'thage, apprehended trouble if the militia should 
attempt to invade Nauvoo, disbanded the troops, retaining only a 
guard to the jail. 



Gov. Ford went to Nauvoo on the '27th. The same morning 
about 200 men from Warsaw, many being disguised, hastened to 
Carthage, On learning that one of the companies left as a guard 
had disbanded, and the other stationed 150 yards from the jail while 
eight men were left to guard the prisoners, a communication was 
soon established between the Warsaw troops and the guard; and it 
was arranged that the guard should have their guns charged with 
blank cartridges and lire at the assailants when they attempted to 
enter the jail. The conspirators came up, jumped the fence around 
the jail, were fired upon by the guard, which, according to arrange- 
ment, was overpowered, and the assailants entered the prison, to 
the door of the room where the two prisoners were confined. An 
attempt 'was made to break open the door; but Joe Smith, being 
armed with a pistol, fired several times as the door was bursted 
open, and three of the assailants were wounded. At the same time 
several shots were fired into the room, by some of which John 
Taylor, a friend of the Smiths, received four wounds, and Hiram 
Smith was instantly killed. Joe Smith, severely wounded, attempt- 
ed to escape by jumping out of a second-story window, but was so 
stunned by the fall that he was unable to rise. In this position he 
was dispatched by balls shot through his body. Thus fell Joe 
Smith, the most successful imposter of modern times. Totally ignor- 
ant of almost every fact in science, as well as in law, he made up in 
constructiveness and natural cunning whatever in him was want- 
ing of instruction. 


Great consternation prevailed among the anti-Mormons at 
Carthage, after the killing of the Smiths. They expected the Mor- 
mons would be so enraged on hearing of the death of their leaders 
that they would come down in a body, armed and equipped, to 
seek revenge upon the populace at Carthage. Messengers were 
dispatched to various places for help in case of an attack. The 
women and children were moved across the river for safety. A 
committee was sent to Quincy and early the following morning, 
at the ringing of the bells, a large concourse of people assembled 
to devise means of defense. At this meeting, it was reported that 
the Mormons attempted to rescue the Smiths; that a party of Mis- 
sonrians and others had killed them to prevent their escape; that 


the Governor and his party were at JMauvoo at the time when intel- 
ligence of the lact was brought there; that they had been attacked 
by the Nauvoo Legion, and had retreated to a house where they 
were closely besieged; that the Governor had sent out word that 
he could maintain his position for two days, and would be certain 
to be massacred if assistance did not arrive by that time. It is 
unnecessary to say that this entire story was fabricated. It was 
put in circulation, as were many other stories, by the anti-Mormons, 
to influence the public mind and create a hatred for the Mormons. 
The eifect of it, however, M'as that by 10 o'clock on the 2Sth, 
between two and three hundred men from Quincy, under command 
of Maj. Flood, went on board a steamboat for Nauvoo, to assist in 
raising the siege, as they honestly believed. 


It was thought by many, and indeed the circumstances seem to war- 
rant the conclusion, that the assassins of Smith had arranged that the 
murder should occur while the Governor was in ISTauvoo; that the 
Mormons would naturally suppose he planned it, and in the first out- 
pouring of their indignation put him to death, as a means of retalia- 
tion. They thought that if they could have theGovernorof the State 
assassinated by Mormons, the public excitement would be greatly 
increased against that people, and would cause their extermination, 
or at least their expulsion from the State. That it was a brutal and 
premeditated murder cannot be and is not denied at this day; but 
the desired eifect of the murder was not attained, as the Mormons 
did not evacuate Nauvoo for two years afterward. In the meantime, 
the excitement and prejudice against this people were not allowed 
to die out. Horse-stealing was quite common, and every case that 
occurred was charged to the Mormons. That th'ey were guilty of 
such thefts cannot be denied, but a great deal of this work done at 
that time was by organized bands of thieves, who knew they could 
carry on their nefarious business with more safety, as long as sus- 
picion could be placed upon the Mormons. In the summer and 
fall of 1845 were several occurrences of a nature to increase the 
irritation existing between the Mormons and their neighbors. A 
suit was instituted in the United States Circuit Court against one 
of the apostles, to recover a note, and a marshal sent to summons 


the defendant, who refused to be served with the process. Indiiij- 
nation niectini^s were held by the saints, and the marshal tlireat- 
ened for attempting to serve tlie writ. About this time. General 
Denning, slieriff, was assaulted by an anti-Mormon, whom he killed. 
Denning was friendly to the Mormons, and a great outburst of 
passion was occasioned among the friends of the dead man. 


It was also discovered, in trying the riglits of property at Lima, 
Adams count}-, that tlie Mormons had an institution connected 
with their church to secure their effects from execution. Incensed 
at this and other actions, the anti-Mormons of Lima and Green 
Plains, held a meeting to devise means for the expulsion of the 
Mormons from that part of the country. It was arranged that a 
number of their own party should fire on the building in which 
they were assembled, in such a manner as not to injure anyone, 
and then report that the Mormons had commenced the work of 
plunder and death. This plot was duly executed, and the startling 
intelligence soon called together a mob, wdiicli threatened the Mor- 
mons with fire and sword if they did not immediately leave. The 
Mormons i-efusing to depart, the mob at once executed their threats 
by burning 125 houses and forcing the inmates to flee for their 
lives. The sheriff of Hancock county, a prominent Mormon 
armed several hundred Mormons and scoured the country, in search 
of the incendiaries, but they had fled to neighboring counties; and 
he was unable either to bring them to battle or make any arrests. 
One man, however, was killed without provocation; another 
attempting to escape was shot and afterwards hacked and muti- 
lated; and Franklin A. Worrell, mIio had charge of the jail Mhen 
the Smiths were killed, was shot by some unknown ])erson con- 
cealed in a thicket. The anti-Mormons committed one murder. 
A party of them set fire to a ])ile of straw, near the barn of an old 
Mormon, nearly ninet}^ years of age, and when he appeared to ex- 
tinguish the flames, he was shot and killed. 

The anti-Mormons left their property exposed in their liurried 
retreat, after having burned the houses of the Mormons. Those 
who had been burned out sallied forth from Kauvooand plundered 
the whole country, taking whatever they could carry or drive 
away. By order of the Governor, Gen. Hardin raised a lorce of 
350 men, checked the Mormon ravages, and recalled the fugitive 
anti-Mormons home. 



At this time a convention, consi^tini^ of delegates from eio^ht of 
tlie adjoining counties, assembled to concert measures fur the exjiul- 
sion of the Mormons from the State. The Mormons seriously c n- 
templated emmigration westward, believing the times forboded 
evil for them. Accordingly, during the winter of 184r)-'4(!, the 
m st stupendous preparations were made by the Mormons for 
removal. All the principal dwellings, and even the temple, were 
coiiNcrtfd into work-shops, and before spring, 12,000 wagons were 
in readiiuss; and by the middl(3 of February the leaders, with 2,000 
of their Ibllowers, had crossed the Mississi|)])i on the ice. 

Before the spring of IS-fG the majority of the Mormons had left 
Nauvoo, but still a large number remained. 


In September a writ was issued against several prominent Mor- 
mons, and placed in the hands of John Carlin, of Carthage, for 
execution, Carlin called out a posse to help make tiie arrest, which 
brought together quite a large force in the neighborhood of Nauvoo. 
Carlin, not being a military man, placed in command of the posse, 
lirst. Gen. Singleton, and afterward Col. Brockman, who })roceeded 
to invest the city, erecting breastworks, and taking other means for 
defensive as well as oiiensive operations. What was then termed a 
battle next took place, resulting in tlie death of one Mormon and 
the wounding of several others, and loss to the anti-Mormons of 
three killed and four wounded. At last, througli the intervention 
of an anti-Mormon committee of one hundred, from Quincy, the 
Mormons and their allies were induced to submit to such terms as 
the posse chose to dictate, which were that the Mormons should 
immediately give up their arms to the Quincy committee, and re- 
move from the State. The trustees of the church and five of their 
clerks were permitted to reniain for the sale of Mormon property-, 
and the posse were to march in unmolested, and Iea\e a suilicient 
force to guarantee the performance of their stipulations. Accord- 
ingly, the constable's p(^sse marched in with Brockman at their 
head. It consisted of about 800 armed men and GOO or. 700 
unarmed, who had assembled from all the country ar-mnd, through 
motives of curiosity, to see the once proud city of Nauvoo hum- 
]»ltd and delivered up to its enemies. They proceeded into the 


city slowly and curet'ully, exainiuinc; the way for fear of the explo- 
sion of a iniue, many of which had been made by the Mormons, 
by burying kegs of powder in the ground, with a man stationed at 
a distance to pull a string communicating with the trigger of a 
percussion lock affixed to the keg. This kind of a contrivance was 
called by the Mormons "hell's half-acre." When the posse 
arrived in the city, the leaders of it erected themselves into a tri- 
bunal to decide who should be forced away and who remain. 
Parties were dispatched to hunt for fire-arms, and for Mormons, and 
to bring them to judgment. When brought, they received their 
doom from the mouth of Brockman, who sat a grim and unawed 
tyrant for the time. As a general rule, the Mormons were ordered 
to leave within an hour or two; and by rare grace some of tliem 
were allowed until next day, and in a few cases longer time was 


Nothing was said in the treaty in regard to the new citizens, who 
had with the Mormons defended the city; but the posse no sooner 
had obtained possession than they commenced expelling them. 
Some of them were ducked in the river, and were in one or two 
instances actually baptized in the name of some of the leaders 
of the mob; others were forcibly driven into the ferry-boats to be 
taken over the river before the bayonets of armed ruffians. Many 
of these new settlers were strangers in the country from various 
parts of the United States, who were attracted there by the low 
price of property; and they knew but little of previous difficulties 
or the merits of the quarrel. They saw with their own eyes that 
the Mormons were industriousl}' preparing to go away, and they 
knew "of their own knowledge " that any effort to expel them by 
force was gratuitous and unnecessary cruelty. They had been trained, 
by the States whence they came, to abhor mobs and to obey the law, 
and they volunteered their services under executive authority to 
defend their tov/n and their property against mob violence, and, as 
they honestly believed, from destruction; but in this they were partly 
mistaken; for although the mob leaders in the exercise of unbridled 
power were guilty of many injuries to the persons of individuals, 
although much personal property was stolen, yet they abstained 
from materially injuring houses and buildings. 

116 lllSlnUV UF ILLINOIS. 


Tlie fugitives proceeded westward, takiiiu- the i-oud throiiijfli Mis- 
souri, but were tbreibly ejected from that State and compelled to 
move indirectly through Iowa. After innumerable haid&hips the 
advance guard reached the Missouri river at Council IjIuIFs, when 
a United States officer presented a re(|uisition for 50*) men to 
serve in the war with Mexico. Compliance with this order so di- 
minished their number of effective men, that the expedition was 
again delayed and the remainder, consisting niustly of ohl men, 
women and children, hastily prepared habitations for wintei-. 
Their rudely constructed tents were hardly completed before winter 
set in with great severity, the bleak prairies being incessantly swept 
by piercing winds. Wliile here cholera, fever and other diseases, 
aggravated by the ])revious hardshi})S, the want of comfortable 
(piarters and medical treatment, hurried many of them to prema- 
ture graves, yet, imder the inilueuce of religious fervor and fanati- 
cism, they looked deatli in the tace with resignation and cheerful- 
ness, and even exhil)ited a gayety which manifested itself in music 
and dancing during the saddest hours of this sad winter. 

At length welcome spring made its ap})earance, and by April 
they wei-e again organized for the journey; a pioneer ])arty, con- 
sisting of Ijrigham Young and 140 others, was sent in advance to 
locate a home for the colonists. On the 21 of July, 1847, a day 
memorable in Mormon annals, the vanguard reached the valley of 
the Great Salt Lake, having been directed thither, according to 
their accounts, by the hand of the Almighty. Here in a distant wil- 
derness, midway between the settlements of the East and the Paciiic, 
and at that time a thousand miles froni the utmost verge of civili- 
zation, they commenced preparations for founding, a colony, which 
has since grown into a mighty empire. 


During the month of May, 1846, the President called for four 
regiments of volunteers from Illinois for the Mexican war. This 
was no sooner known in the State than nine regiments, numbering 
8,370 men, answered the call, though only four of them, amounting 
to 3,720 men, could be taken. These regiments, as well as their 
officers, were everywhere foremost in the American ranks, and dis- 


tiii^uished tlieinselves by their matchless valor in the bloodiest 
battles of the war. Veterans never tbu<rht more nobly and etiect- 
ively than did the volunteers from Illinois. At the bloody battle of 
Buena Vista they crowned their lives— many their death — with the 
laurels of war. Kever did armies contend more bravely, determinedly 
and stubbornly than the American and Mexican forces at this famous 
battle; and as Illinois troops were ever in the van and on the blood- 
iest portions of the field, we believe a short sketch of the jiart they 
took in the fierce contest is due them, and will be read with no lit- 
tle interest. 


General Santa Anna, with his army of 20,000, poured into the 
valley of Aqua Nueva early on the morning of the 22d of February, 
hoping to surprise our army, consisting of about 5,000 men, under 
Gen. Taylor and which had retreated to the "Narrows." They 
were hotly pursued 1)y the Mexicans who, before attacking, sent 
Gen. Taylor a flag of truce demanding a surrender, and assuring 
him that if he refused he would be cut to pieces; but the demand 
was promptly refused. At this the enemy opened fire, and the con- 
flict began. In honor of the day the watchword with our soldiers 
was, " The memory of Washington." An irregular fire was kept up 
aW day, and at night both armies bivouacked on the field, resting on 
their arms. Santa Anna that night made a spirited address to his 
men, and the stirring strains of his own band till late in the night 
were distinctly heard by our troops; but at last silence fell over the 
hosts that were to contend unto death in that narrow pass on the 

Early on the following morning the battle was resumed, and con- 
tinued without intermission until nightfall. The solid columns of 
the enemy were hurled against our forces all day long, but were 
met and held in check by the unerring fire of our musketry and ar- 
tillery. A portion of Gen. Lane's division was driven back by the 
enemy under Gen. Lombardini, who, joined by Gen. Pacheco's divis- 
ion, poured upon the main plateau in so formidable numbers as 
to appear irresistible. 


At this time the 2d Illinois, under Col. Bissell, with a squadron 
of cavalry and a few pieces of artillery came handsomely into action 


and ojallaiitly received the concentrated lire of the enemy, which 
they retnrned with deliberate aim and terrible eflect; every dis- 
charge of the artillery seemed to tear a bloody path through the 
heavy columns of enemy. Says a writer: "The rapid mus- 
ketry of the gallant troops from Illinois poured a storm of lead 
into their serried ranks, which literally strewed the ground with 
the dead and dying." But, notwithstanding his losses, the enemy 
steadily advanced until our gallant regiment received fire from 
three sides. Still they maintained their position for a time with 
unflinching tirmness Hgainst that immense host. At length, per- 
ceiving the danger of being entirely surrounded, it was determined 
t(^ fall back to a ravine. Col. Bissel, with the coolness of ordinary 
drill, ordered the signal "cease firing" to be made; he then with 
the same deliberation gave the command, "Face to the rear, "Bat- 
talion, about face; forward march," which was executed with the 
regularity of veterans to a point beyond the peril of being out- 
flanked. Again, in obedience to command these brave men halted- 
faced about, and under a murderous tempest of bullets from the foe. 
resumed their well-directed fire. The conduct of no troops could 
have been more admirable; and, too, until that day they had never 
been under fire, when, within less than half an hour eighty of their 
comrades dropped by their sides. How different from the Arkansas 
regiment, which were ordered to the plateau, but after delivering 
their first volley gave way and dispersed. 


But now we have to relate the saddest, and, for Illinois, the most 
mournful, event of that battle-worn day. We take the account 
from Colton's History of the battle of Buena Vista. "As the enemy 
on our left was moving in retreat along the head of the Plateau, 
our artillery^ was advanced until within range, and opened a heavy 
fire upon him, while Cols. Hardin, Bissell and McKee, with their 
Illinois and Kentucky troops, dashed gallantly forward in hot pur- 
suit. A powerful reserve of the Mexican army was then just 
emerging from the ravine, where it had been organized, and 
advanced on the plateau, opposite the head of the southernmost 
gorge. Those who were giving way rallied quickly upon it; when 
the whole force, tlius increased to over 12,000 men, came forward 
in a perfect blaze of fire. It was a single column, composed of the 
best soldiers of the lepublic, having for its advanced battalions the 

scr.M ON 1 <)\ Rn IE. 


vtiteran regiments. The Kentucky and Illinois troops were soon 
obliged to give ground before it and seek tlie shelter of the second 
gorge. The enemy pressed on, arriving opposite the head of the 
second gorge. One-half of the column suddeidy enveloped it, while 
the other half pressed on across tliL' plateau, having for the moment 
nothing to resist them but the three guns in their front. The por- 
tion that was immediately opposed to the Kentucky and Illinois 
troops, ran down along each side of the go)-ge, in whicli they had 
sought shelter, and also circled around its head, leaving no possible 
way of escape for theni except b}- its njouth, which operied 
upon the road. Its sides, which were steep, — at least an angle of 
45 degrees, — were covered with loose pebbles and stones, and con- 
verged to a point at the bottom. Down there were our poor fel- 
lows, nearly three regiments of them (1st and 2d Illinois and 2d 
Kentucky), with but little opportunity to load or tire a gun, being 
liardly able to keep their feet. Above the whole edge of the 
gorge, all the way around, was darkened by the serried masses of 
the enemy, and was bristling with muskets directed on tlie crowd 
beneath. It was no time to pause. Those who were not immedi- 
ately shot down rushed on toward the road, their number growing 
less and less as they went, Kentuckians and lUinoisans, officers and 
men, all mixed up in confusion, and all pressing on over the loose 
pebbles and rolling stones of those shelving, precipitous banks, 
and having lines and lines of the enemy tiring down from each 
side and rear as they went. Just then the enemy's cavalry, which 
had gone to the left of the reserve, had come over the spur that 
divides the mouth of the second gorge from that of the third, and 
were now closing up the only door through which there was the 
least shadow of a chance for their lives. Many of those ahead 
endeavored to force their way out, but few succeeded. The laiaers 
were fully six to one, and their long weapons were already reeking 
with blood. It was at this time that those who wer.5 still back in 
that dreadful gorge heard, above the din of the musketry and the 
shouts of the enemy around them, the roar of Washington's Bat- 
tery. No music could have been more grateful to their ears. A 
moment only, and the whole opening, where the lancers were busy, 
rang with the repeated explosions of spherical-case sliot. They 
gave way. The gate, as it were, was clear, and out upon the road 
a stream of our poor fellows issued. They ran panting down 



toward the hattery, an.d directly under the light of iron then pas 
sing over tlieir heads, into the retreating cavalry. Ilardin, McKee, 
Clay. Willis, Zahriskie, Houghton — but wliy go on? It would be 
a sad task indeed to name over all who fell during this twenty 
minutes' slaughter. The whole gorge, from the plateau to its 
moutli, was strewed with our dead. All dead! ]N'o wounded there 
— not a man; for tlie infantry had rushed down the sides and com- 
pleted the work with the bayonet." 


Tiie artillery on the plateau stubbornly maintained its position, 
The remiumts of the 1st and 2d Illinois regiments, after issuing 
I'rom the fated gorge, were formed and again brought into action, 
the former, after the fall of the noble Hardin, under Lieut. Col. 
Weatherford, the latter under Bissell. The enemy brought forth 
reinforcements and a brisk artillery duel was kept up; but gradually, 
as the shades of night began to cover the earth, the rattle of mus- 
ketry slackened, and when the pall of night was thrown over that 
bloody field it ceased altogether. Each army, after the fierce and 
long struggle, occupied much the same position as it did in the 
morning. However, early on the following morning, the glad 
tidings were heralded amidst our army that the enemy had retreated. 
thus again crowning the American banners with victory. 


Other bright names from Illinois that shine as stars in thiei 
war are those of Shields, Baker, Harris and Coffee, which are 
indissolubly connected with the glorious capture of Vera Cruz 
and the not less famous storming of Cerro Gordo. In this latter 
action, when, after the valiant Gen. Shields had been placed hors 
(ie comhat, the command of his force, consisting of three regiments, 
devoled upon Col. Baker. This officer, with his men, stormed witli 
unheard-of prowess the last stronghold of the Mexicans, sweeping 
everything before them. Such indeed were the intrepid valor and 
daring courage exhibited by Illinois volunteers during the Mexican 
war that their deeds should live in the memory of their countrymen 
until those latest times when the very name of America shall have 
been forarotten. 


On the fourth day of March, ISCl, after the most exciting and 
momentous political campaign known in the history of this country, 
Abraham Lincoln — America's martyred President — was inaugu- 
rated Chief Magistrate of the United States. This fierce contest 
was principally sectional, and as the announcement was flashed over 
the telegraph wires that the Republican Presidential candidate had 
been elected, it was hailed by the South as a justifiable pretext for 
dissolvi^jg sthe Union. Said Jefferson Davis in a speech at Jackson, 
Miss., prior to the election, "If an abolitionist be chosen Presi- 
dent of the United States you will have presented to you the 
question whether you will permit the government to pass into 
the hands of your avowed and implacable enemies. Without 
pausing for an answer, I will state my own position to be that 
such a result would be a species of revolution by which the 
purpose of the Government would be destroyed, and the obser- 
vances of its mere forms entitled to no respect. In that event, 
in such manner as should be most expedient, I should deem it 
your duty to provide for your safety outside of the Union." Said 
another Southern politician, when speaking on the same sub- 
ject, " We shall fire the Southern heart, instruct the Southern 
mind, give courage to each, and at the proper moment, by one 
organized, concerted action, we can precipitate the Cotton States 
into a revolution." To disrupt the Union and form a government 
which recognized the absolute supremacy of the white population 
and the perpetual bondage of the black was what they deemed 
freedom frorti the galling yoke of a Republican administration. 


Hon. R. W, Miles, of Knox county, sat on the floor by the side 
of Abraham Lincoln in the Library room of the Capitol, in Spring- 
field, at the secret caucus meeting, held in January, 1859, when 
Mr. Lincoln's name was first spoken of in caucus as candidate ibr 
Pres-ident. When a gentleman, in making a short speech, said, 
" We are going to bring Abraham Lincoln out as a candidate for 
President," Mr. Lincoln at once arose to his feet, and exclaimed, 
"For God's sake, let me alone! I have suffered enough!" This 
was soon after he had been defeated in the Legislature for United 
States Senate by Stephen A. Douglas, and only those who are 


intimate with that important and unparalleled contest can appre- 
ciate the full force and meaning of these expressive words of the 
martyred President. They were s])ontaneous, and prove heyond a 
shadow of doubt that Abraham Lincoln did not seek the high ]->osi- 
tion of President. Nor did he use any trickery or chicanery to 
obtain it. But his expressed wish M'as not to be complied with; 
onr beloved country needed a savior and a martyr, and Fate liad 
decreed that he should be the victim. After Mr. Lincoln was 
elected President, Mr. Miles sent him an eaorle's quill, with which 
the chief magistrate wrote his first inaugural address. The letter 
written by Mr. Miles to the President, and sent with the quill, 
which was two feet in length, is such a jewel of eloquence and 
prophecy that it should be given a place in history: 

Persifer, December 21, 18G0. 
Hon. a. Jjncoln : 

. Dear Sir : — Please accept the eacle quill I promised you, by the hand of our 
Representative, A. A. Smith. The bird from whose wing the quill was taken, was 
shot by John F. Dillon, in Persifer township, Knox Co^, Ills., in Feb., 1857 Hav- 
iug lieard that. James Buchanan was furuislied with an eagle quill to write his 
Inaugural with, and believing that in 1860, a Republican would be elected to take 
his place, I determined to save this quill and present it to the fortunate man, who- 
ever he might be. Reports tell us that the bird which furnished Buchanan's quill 
was a captured bird,— fit emblem of the man that used it ; but the bird from 
which this quill was taken, yielded the quill only with his life,— fit emblem of the 
man who is expected to use it, for true Republicans l)elieve that you would not 
tliink life worth the keeping after the surrender of principle. Great difficullies 
surround you; traitors to 'their country have threatened your life ; and should 
you be called upon to surrender it at the post of duty, your memory will live for- 
ever in the heart of every freeman ; and that is a grander monument than can be 
built of brick or marlile. 

"For if lieartB may uot our memories keep, 
Obl.iviou huBtc eacli vestige sweep, 
And let our memories eu<l.'' 

Yours Truly, 

R. W. Miles. 


At the time of President Lincoln's accession to power, several 
members of the Union claimed they had withdrawn from it, and 
styling themselves the "Confederate States of America," organ- 
ized a separate government. The house was indeed divided 
against itself, but it should not fall, nor should it long continue 
divided, WHS the hearty, determined response of every loj^al heart 
in the nation. The accursed institution of human slavery was 
the primary cause for this dissolution of the American Union. 
Doubtless other agencies served to intensify the hostile feel- 
ings which existed between the Northern and Southern portions 


of our conntry, but tlieir remote origin could be traced to this great 
national evil. Had Lincoln's predecessor put forth a timely, ener- 
getic effort, he might have prevented the bloody war our nation 
was called to pass through. On the other hand every aid was given 
the rebels; every advantage and all the power of the Government 
was placed at their disposal, and when Illinois' honest son took the 
reins of the Republic he found Buchanan had been a traitor to his 
trust, and given over to the South all available means of war. 


On the 12th day of April, 1861, the rebels, who for weeks had 
been erecting their batteries upon the shore, after demanding of 
Major Anderson a surrender, opened fire upon Fort Sumter. For 
thirty-four hours an incessant caimonading was continued; the fort 
was- being seriously injured; provisions were almost gone, and Major 
Anderson was compelled to haul down the stars and stripes. That 
dear old flag which had seldom been lowered to a foreign foe by 
rebel hands was now trailed in the dust. The first blow of the 
terrible conflict which summoned vast armies into the field, and 
moistened the soil of a nation in fraternal blood and tears, had 
been struck. The gauntlet thus thrown down by the attack on 
Sumter by the traitors of the South was accepted — not, however, 
in the spirit with which insolence meets insolence — but with a firm, 
determined spirit of patriotism and love of country. The duty of 
the President was plain under the constitution and the laws, and 
ii>l)ove and beyond all, the people from whom all political power is 
derived, demanded the suppression of the Rebellion, and stood ready 
to sustain the authority of their representative and executive 
otticers. Promptly did the new President issue a proclamation 
calling for his countrymen to join with him to defend their homes 
and their country, and vindicate her honor. This call was made 
April 14, two days after Sumter was first fired upon, and was for 
75,000 men. On the 15th, the same day he was notified, Gov. 
Yates issued his proclamation convening the Legislature. lie also 
ordered the organization of six regiments. Troops were in abund- 
ance, and the call was no sooner made than filled. Patriotism 
thrilled and vibrated and pulsated through every heart. The farm, 
the workshop, the ofiice, the pulpit, the bar, the bench, the college, 
the school-house, — every calling offered its best men, their lives and 
their fortunes, in defense of the Government's honor and unity. 

128 HISTOID' <>K ll.I.INOI^. 

JJitter wonlri spoken in moments of })olitical lieat were forgotten 
an<l forgiven, and joining hands in a common cause, they repeated 
the oatli of America's sohiier-statesman: " />y the Great Eternal^ 
the rn'ion must and shall he j:>rescrve(l.''^ The honor, the very 
life and glory of the nation was committed to the stern arbitrament 
of the sword, and soon the tramp of armed men, tlie clasli of 
musketry and the heavy boom of artillery reverberated througliout 
the continent; rivers of blood saddened hy tears of motliers, wives, 
sisters, daughters and sweethearts flowed from the lakes to the 
gulf, but a nation was saved. The sacrilice was great, but the 
Union was preserveil. 


Simultaneously with the call for troops by the President, enlist- 
ments commenced in this State, and within ten days 10,000 
volunteers offered service, and the sum of -$1,000,000 was tendered 
by patriotic citizens. Of the volunteers who offered their services, 
only six regiments could be accepted under the quota of the State. 
But the time soon came when there was a place and a musket for 
e\ery man. The six regiments raised were designated by numbers 
commencing with seven, as a mark of respect for the .six regiments 
which had served in the Mexican war. Another call was antici- 
j)ated, and the Legislature authorized ten additional regiments to 
be organized. Over two hundred companies were immediately 
raised from which were selected the required number. lS"o sooner 
was this done than the President made another call for troops, six 
regiments were again our ]n-oportion, although by earnest solicita- 
tion the remaining four were accepted. There were a large number 
of men with a patriotic desire to enter the service who were denied 
this privilege. Many of them wept, while others joined regiments 
from other States. In May, June and July seventeen regiments 
of infantry and live of cavalry were raised, and in the latter month, 
when the President issued his first call for 500,000 volunteers, 
Illinois tendered thirteen regiments of infantry and three of cavalry, 
and so anxious were her sons to have the Rebellion crushed that 
tlie number could have been increased by thousands. At the 
close of ISGI Illinois had sent to the field nearly 50,000 men, and 
had 17,000 in camp awaiting marching orders, thus exceeding her 
I'lU quota by 15,000. 



In July and August of 18G2 the President called for 600,000 
men — our quota of vvliich was 52,296 — and gave until August 18 as 
the limits in which the number might be raised by volunteering, 
after which a draft would be ordered. The State had already fur- 
nished 17,000 in excess of her quota, and it was first thought this 
number would be deducted from the present requisition, but that 
could not be done. But thirteen days were granted to enlist this 
vast army, which had to come from the farmers and mechanics. 
The former were in the midst of harvest, but, inspired by love of 
country, over 50,000 of them left their harvests ungathered, their 
tools and their benches, the plows in their furrows, turning their 
backs on their homes, and belore eleven days had expired the 
demands of the Government were met and both quotas filled. 

The war went on, and call followed call, until it began to look as 
if there would not be men enough in all the Free States to crush 
out and subdue the monstrous war traitors had inaugurated. But 
to every call for either men or money there was a willing and ready 
response. And it is a boast of the people that, had the supply of 
men fallen short, there were women brave enough, daring enough, 
patriotic enough, to have offered themselves as sacrifices on their 
country's altar. On the 2l8t of December, 1864, the last call for 
troops was made. It was for 300,000. In consequence of an im ■ 
perfect enrollment of the men subject to military duty, it became 
evident, ere this call was made, that Illinois was furnishing thous- 
ands of men more than what her quota would have been, had it 
been correct. So glaring had this disproportion become, that 
under this call the quota of some districts exceeded the number of 
able-bodied men in them. 


Following this sketch we give a schedule of all the volunteer 
troops organized from this State, from the commencement to the 
close of the war. It is taken from tlie Adjutant General's report. 
The number of the regiment, name of original Colonel, call under 
which recruited, date of organization and muster into the United 
States' service, place of muster, and aggregate strength of each 
organization, from which we find that Illinois put into her one hun- 
dred and eighty regiments 256,000 men, and into the United States 


army, through otlier States, enough to swell the number to 290,000. 
This far exceeds all the soldiers of the Federal Government in all 
the war of the Revolution. Her total years of service were over 
000,000. She enrolled men from eighteen to fv>rty-five years of aije, 
when the law of Congress in 1864^the test time — only asked for 
those from twenty to forty-five. Her enrollments were otherwise 
excessive. Her people wanted to go, and did not take the pains to 
correct the enrollment; thus the basis of fixing the quota was too 
great, and the quota itself, at least in the trying time, was far above 
any other State. The demand on some counties, as Monroe, for 
example, took every able-bodied man in the county, and then did 
notthave enough to fill the quota. Moreover, Illinois sent 20,844 
men for one hundred days, for whom no credit was asked. She 
gave to the country 73.000 years of service above all calls. "With 
one-thirteenth of the population of the loyal States, she sent regu- 
larly one-tenth of all the soldiers, and in the perils of the closing 
calls, when patriots were few and weary, she sent one-eighth .of all 
that were called for by her loved and honored son in the White 
House. Of the brave boys Illinois sent to the front, there were 
killed in action, 5,888; died of wounds, 3,032; of disease, 19,496; 
in prison, 967; lost at sea, 205; aggregate, 29,588. As upon every 
field and upon every page of the history of this war, Illinois bore 
her part of the sufi'ering in the prison-pens of the South. More 
than 800 names make up the awful column of Illinois' brave sons 
who died in the rebel prison of Anderson ville, Ga. Who can 
measure or imagine the atrocities which would be laid before the 
world were the panorama of sufterings and terrible trials of these 
gallant men but half unfolded to view? But this can never be 
done until new words of horror are invented, and new arts dis- 
covered by which demoniacal fiendishness can be portrayed, and 
the intensest anguish of the human soul in ten thousand forms be 
painted. , 

Xo troops ever fought more heroically, stubbornly, and with bet- 
ter eff'ect, than did the boys from the "Prairie State." At Pea 
Ridge, Donelson, Pittsburg Landing, luka, Corinth, Stone River, 
Holly Springs, Jackson, Vicksburg, Chicamauga, Lookout Moun- 
tain, Murfreesboro, Atlanta, Franklin, Nashville, Chattanooga, and 
on every other field where the clash of arms was heard, her sons 
were foremost. 



Illinois was almost destitute of firearms at the beginning of the 
■'conflict, and none could be procured in the East. The traitorous 
Floyd had turned over to the South 300,000 arms, leaving most 
arsenals in the North empty. Gov. Yates, however, received an 
order on the St. Louis arsenal for 10,000 muskets, which he put in 
the hands of Captain Stokes, of Chicago. Several unsuccessful 
attempts were made by the Captain to pass through the large crowd 
of rebels which had gathered around the arsenal, suspecting an 
attempt to move the arms would be made. He at last succeeded 
in gaining admission to the arsenal, but was informed by the com- 
mander that the slightest attempt to move the arms would be dis- 
covered and bring an infuriated mob upon the garrison. This fear 
was well founded, for the following day Gov. Jackson ordered 2,000 
armed men from Jefferson City down to capture the arsenal. Capt. 
Stokes telegraphed to Alton for a steamer to descend the river, and 
about midnight land opposite the arsenal, and proceeding to the 
same place with TOO men of the 7th Illinois, commenced loading 
the vessel. To divert attention from his real purpose, he had 500 
guns placed upon a difierent boat. As designed, this movement 
was discovered by the rabble, and the shouts and excitement upon 
their seizure drew most of the crowd from the arsenal. Capt. 
Stokes not only took all the guns his requisition called for, but 
emptied the arsenal. When all was ready, and the signal given to 
start, it was found that the immense weight had bound the bow of 
the boat to a rock, but after a few moments' delay the boat fell away 
from the shore and floated into deep water. 

"Which way?" said Capt. Mitchell, of the steamer, ''Straight 
in the regular channel-to Alton," replied Capt. Siokes. "What if 
we are attacked?" said Capt. Mitchell. "Then we will fight," was. 
the reply of Capt. Stokes; "What if we are overpowered?" said 
Mitchell. " Kun the boat to the deepest part of the river and sink 
her," replied Stokes. "Til do it," was the heroic answer of 
Mitchell, and away they went j^ast the secession battery, past the 
St. Louis levee, and in the regular channel on to Alton. When 
they touched the landing, Capt. Stokes, fearing pursuit, ran to the 
market house and rang the fire bell> The citizens came flocking 
pell-mell to the river, and soon men, women and children were 
tugging away at that vessel load of arms, which they soon had 
deposited in freight cars and ofi" to Springfield. 



The people were liberal as well as patriotic; and while the men 
were busy enlisting, organizing and cquip}>ingconii>anies. the ladies 
were no less active, and the noble, generous work perttM-nied by 
their tendei", loving liands deserves mention along with the bravery, 
devotion and patriotism of their brothers upon the Southern fields 
of carnage. 

The continued need of money to obtain the comforts and neces- 
saries for the sick and wounded of our army suggested to the loyal 
women of the North many and various devices for the raising of 
funds. Every city, town and village had its fair, festival, picnic, 
excursion, concert, which netted more or less to tlie cause of 
hospital relief, according to the population of the i)lucc and the 
amount of energy and patriotism displayed on such occasions. 
Especially was this characteristic of our own fair State, and scarcely 
a Iramlet within its borders which did not send something from its 
stores to hospital or battlefield, and in the larger towns and cities 
were well-organized soldiers' aid societies, working systematically 
and continuously from the beginning of the war till its close. The 
great State Fair held in Chicago in May, 1S65, netted $250,000. 
Homes for traveling soldiers were established all over the State, in 
which were furnished lodging for 600.000 men, and meals valued 
at $2,500,000. Food, clothing, medicine, hospital delicacies, 
reading matter, and thousands of other articles, were sent to the 
boys at the front. 


Letters, messages of love and encouragement, were sent by 
noble women from many counties of the State to encourage the 
brave sons and brothers in the South. Below we give a copy of a 
printed letter sent from Knox county to the "boys in blue," as 
showing the feelings of the women of the North. It was headed, 
" From the Women of Kn'ox County to Their Brothers in the 
Field." It was a noble, soul-inspiring message, and kindled anew 
the intensest love for liome, country, and a determination to crown 
the stars and stripes witli victory : 

"You have gone out from our homes, but not from our hearts. 
Never for one moment are you forgotten. Through weary march 
and deadly conflict our prayers have ever followed you; your 
.sufferings are our sufferings, your victories our great joy. 


" If there be one of you who knows not the dear home ties, lor 
whom no mother prays, no sister watches, to him especially we 
speak. Let liira feel that though he may not have one mother he 
has many; he is the adopted cliild and brother of all our hearts. 
Nut one of you is beyond the reach of our sympathies; no picket- 
station so lonely that it is not enveloped in the halo of our 

" During all the long, dark months since our country called you 
from us, your courage, your patient endurance, your fidelity, have 
awakened our keenest interest, and we have longed to give you an 
exjjression of that interest. 

"By the alacrity with wliich you sprang to arms, by the valor 
with which those arms have been wielded, you have placed our 
State in the front ranks; you have made her worthy to be the home 
of our noble President. For thus sustaining the honor of our 
State, dear to us as life, we thank you. 

"Of your courage M-e need not speak. Fort Donelson, Pea 
Ridge, Shiloh, Stone River, Vicksburg, speak with blood-bathed 
lips of your heroism. The Army of the Southwest fights beneath 
no defeat-shadowed banner; to it, under God, the nation looks U\: 

"But we, as women, have other cause for thanks. We will-not 
speak of the debt we owe the defenders of our Government; that 
blood-sealed bond no words can cancel. But wc are your debtors 
in a way not often recognizedf You have aroused us from the 
aimlessness into which too many of our lives had drifted, and have 
infused into those lives a noble pathos, "We could nob dream our 
time away while our brothers weredyingfor us. Even your suffer- 
ings have worked together for our good, by inciting us to labor for 
their alleviation, thus giving us a work worthy of our womanhood. 
Everything that we have been permitted to do for your comfort 
has filled our lives so much the fuller of all that makes life valua- 
ble. Ton have thus been the means of developing in us a nobler 
type of womanhood than without the example of your heroism we 
could ever have attained. For this our whole lives, made purer 
and nobler by the discipline, will thank you. 

"This war will leave none of us as it found us. We cannot 
buflfct the raging wave and escape all trace of the salt sea's foam. 
Toward better or toward worse we are hurried with fearful 


liiiste. It' we :it home feel this, wliut must it be to you! Our 
liearts throb with agony when we think of you wounded, suffering, 
(Iviii:,^ but the thought of no physical pain touches us half so 
deeply ;is the thought of tlie temptations which surround you. 
We could better give you up to die on the battle-tield, true to your 
God and to your country, tlian to have you return to us with 
blasted, blackened souls. When temptations assail fiercely, you 
must lei the thought that your mothers are praying for strength 
enable you to overcome, them. But fighting for a worthy cause 
woithily ennobles one; herein is our confidence that you will 
return better men than you went away. 

'- Bv all that is noble in your manhood; by all that is true in 
our womanhood; by all that is grand in jiatriotism; by all tiiat is 
sacred in religion, we adjure yon to be faithful to yourselves, to us, 
to yonr countrv, and to your God. ]Sever were men permitted to 
fiixht in a cau.--e more worthy of tlieir blood. Were you fighting 
for m«M-e coiupiest, or glory, we could not give you up; but to sus- 
tain apriyicipJe, the greatest to which human lips have ever given 
utterance, even your dear lives are not too costly a sacrifice. Let 
that principle, the corner-stone of our independence, be crushed, 
and we are all .^Jurcs. Like the Suliote mothers, we might well 
clasp our children in our arms and leap down to death. 

'•To the stern arbitrament of the sword is now committed the 
honor, the very life of this nation. You fight not for yourselves 
alone; the eyes of the whole world are on you; and if you fa 1 our 
Nation's death-wail will echo through all coming ages, moaning a 
re(|U!ein over the lost hopes of oppressed humanity. But you will 
not fail, so sure as there is a God in Heaven. lie never meant 
this richest argosy of the nations, freighted with the fears of all 
the world's tyrants, with the hopes of all its oppressed ones, to 
flounder in darkness and death. Disasters may come, as they have 
conic, but they will only be, as they have been, ministers of good. 
Each one has led the nation upward to a higher plane, from wdience 
it has seen with a clearer eye. Success could not attend us at the 
West so long as wo scorned the help of the black hand, which 
;;lone Lad ])ower to open the gate of redemption; the God -of 
battles would not vouchsafe a victory at the East till the very foot- 
prints of a McClellan were washed out in blood. 

"But now all things seem ready; we have accepted the aid of 


thatliand; those footsteps are obliterated. In his own good time 
we feel that God will give us the victory. Till that hour comes wc 
bid you fitrht on. Thouo^h we have not attained that heroism, or 
decision, which enables us togxveyou up without a struggle, which 
can prevent our giving tears for your hlood, though many of us 
must own our hearts desolate ^ill you return, still we bid you stay 
and fight for our country, till from this fierce baptism of blood slie 
sliall be raised complete^' the dust shaken from her garments puri- 
fied, a new Memnon singing in the great Godlight." 

sherman'^s march to the sea. 

On the 15tli of November, 1864, after the destruction of Atlanta, 
and the railroads behind him, Sherman, with his army, began his 
march to the sea-coast. The ahnost breathless anxiety with wiiich 
his progress was watched by the loyal hearts of the nation, and the 
trembling apprehension with which it was regarded by all who 
hoped for rebel success, indicated this as one of the most remark- 
able events of the war; and so it proved. Of Sherman's army, 45 
regiments of infantry, three companies of artillery, and one of 
cavalry were from this State. Lincoln answered all rumors of 
Sherman's defeat wuth, " It is impossible; there is a mighty sight 
of fight in 100,000 Western men." Illinois soldiers brought home 
300 battle flags. The first United States flag that floated over 
Richmond was an Illinois flag. She sent messengers and nurses to 
every field and hospital to care for her sick and wounded sons. 

Illinois gave the country the great general of the war, U. S. 

character of ABRAHAM LfNCOLX. 

One otluir name from Illinois conies up in all minds, embalmed 
in all hearts, that must have the supreme place in this sketch of 
our glory and of our nation's [honor: that name is Abraham 
Lincoln. The analysis of Mr. Lincoln's character is difficult on 
account of its symmetry. In this age we look with admiration at 
his uncompromising honesty; and well we may, for this saved us. 
Thousands throughout the length and breadth of our country, who 
knew him only as "Honest Old Abe," voted for him on that 
account; and wisely did they choose, for no other man could have 
carried us through the fearful night of war. "When his plans wei-e 
too vast for our comprehension, and his faith in the cause too sub- 

136 JiI;?TuKV uK lLLUNui:>. 

lime for our participation; wlien it was all night about ug, and all 
dread before us, and all sad and desolate behind us; when not one 
ray shone upon our cause; when traitors were haughty and exult- 
ant at the South, and fierce and blasphemous at the North; when 
the loyal men seemed almost in the minority; when the stoutest 
heart quailed, the bravest cheek paled; when generals were defeat- 
ing each other for place, and contractois were leeching out the very 
heart's blood of the republic; when everything else had failed us, 
we looked at this calm, patient man standing like a rock in the 
storm, and said, " Mr. Lincoln is honest, and we can trust him still." 
Holding to tliis single point with the energy of faith and despair, 
■we held together, and under God he brought us through to victory. 
His practical wisdom made him the wonder of all lands. With 
such certainty did Mr. Lincoln follow causes to their ultimate 
effects, that his foresight of contingencies seemed almost prophetic, 
lie is radiant with uU the great virtues, and his memory will shed 
a glory upon tliis age that will fill the eyes of men as they look 
into history, (^ther men have excelled him in some points; but. 
taken at all ])()ints, he stands head and shoulders above every other 
trfan of 6,000 years. An administrator, he saved the nation in the 
]>erils of unparalleled civil war; a statesman, he justified his 
n)easures by their success; a philanthropist, he gave liberty to one 
race and salvation to another; a moralist, he bowed from the sum- 
mit of human power to the foot of the cross; a mediator, he exer- 
cised mercy under the most absolute obedience to law; a leader, 
he was no partisan; a commander, he was untainted with blood; a 
ruler in desperate times, he was unsullied with crime; a man, he 
has left no word of passion, no thought of malice, no trick of craft, 
no act of jealousy, no purpose of selfish ambition. Thus perfected, 
without a model and witliout a peer, he was dropped into these 
troubled years to adorn and embellish all that is good and all that 
is great in our liumanity, and to present to all coming time the 
representative of the divine idea of free government. It is not 
too much to say that away down in the futui-e, wlien the I'cpublic 
has fallen from its niche in the wall of time; when the great war 
itself shall have faded out in the distance like a mist on the 
horizon; when the Anglo-Saxon shall bespoken only by the tongue 
of the stranger, then the generations looking this way shall see 
the great President as the supreme figure in this vortex of history. 




The rebellion was ended with the surrender of Lee and his army, 
and Johnson and his command in April, 1865. Our armies at the 
time were up to their muximum strength, never so formidable, 
never so invincible; and, until recruiting ceased by order of Sec- 
retary Stanton, were daily strengthening. The necessity, however^. 


for so vast and formidable numbers ceased with the disbanding of 
the rebel forces, which had for more than four years disputed the 
supremacy of the Government over its domain. And now the 
joyful and welcome news was to be borne to the victorious legions 
that their work was ended in triumph, and they were to be per- 
mitted "to see homes and friends once more." 



ScHEDUTE— Showius statement of volunteer troops organized within the State, and pent to the 

field, commonciu;; April, 1861, and ending December 31, IStto, with number of n-gimeut, name 

of original commanding officer, date of organization and nius'er into United States' service, 

place of muster, and the ag'^regatc strength of each organization. 


Commanding officer atorganiza 

7]Col. John Cook 

8| " Richard J. Oglesby. 

Kleazer A. Pume. . 

Jas. D. Morgan 

W. H. L. Wallace... 

John McArthur 

John B. Wyman... 

John M. Palmer.... 

Thos. J. Turner.... 

Robert F. Smith.... 

Leonard F. Ross 

Michael K. Lawler.. 

John B. Turchin.... 

Chas. C. Marsh 

Ulysses S. Grant... . 

Henry Dougherty... . 

Jas. A. Mulligan 

Frederick Hecker... 

Wm. N. Coler 

John M. Loomis 

Nap. B. Buford 

A. K. Johnson 

Jas. S. Keardcn 

PhilipB. Fouke 

John A. Logan 

John Lo<jan 

Chsf>. E. Ilovey 

Edward N. Kirk 

Gu8. A. Smith 

" Nich. Greusel 

" JuMus White 

" Wm. P. Carlin 

" Austin Li .'ht 

" Steph. G. Ilicks 

" Isaac C. Pugh 

" Wm.A. Webb.. 

'• Julius Raith. . . .. 
" Chas.Noblesdorflf ... 

"• John E. Smith 

" John A. Davis 

" JohuBryuer 

'" Isham N. llayuie — 
" Wm. R. Morrison.. . 

'• Moses M. Bane 

'" G. W. Gumming 

" Isaac G. Wilson 

•• W. H. W. Cushman. 
•' Thos. W. Harris... . 

'• David Stuart. 

'■ Robert Kirlvham.. .. 

'• Silas D. Baldwin 

" Wm.F. Lynch 

■■ P. Sidney Post 

" Silas C. Toler 

'• Jacob Fry . 

" James M. True 

" Francis .Mora 

Lt. Col. D. D. Williams . 

Col. Daniel Cameron .... 

" Patrick E. Burke.... 

Rosell M. Hough. 

Date of organization and Place where mustered 
muster into the United into the United State; 
States service. service. 

July 2.1, 1861. 

May 2t, 18fil. 
May 25, mil. 
May 34, 1861. 

Cairo, Illinois 

May 28, 1861. 

June M, 1861. 
June 15, ISol. 
June 25, 1861. 
June 18, 1861. 
July 8, 1861. 

Oct. 31, 1861... 

Ang. 3, 1861 . 
July 27, 1861. 
Sept. 30, 11361. 
Sept. 8, 15j61.. 
Dec. 31, 1861 
Aug. 15, 1861. 
Sept. 7, 1861. 

Sept. 2 1,1861 

Sept. 18,1361 

Au<;. I'l, 1861. .. 
December, 1861.. 

Ang 10, 1861 

Aug, 9, 1861 

Sept. 17, 1861 

Doe. 16, 1861 

Sept. 13, 1861.... 
Dec. 26, ] 61. ... 

Dec. 2>. 1861 

Oct. 1, 1861 

Nov. 18, 1861 

Dec. 31, 1861 

Sept. 12, 1861 ... 
Dec. '61, Feb. '62. 

Nov. 19, 1861 

March. 1862 

Feb. 18.1862 

Oct. 3L 1861 

Feb. 27, 1S62 

Dec. 26, 1861 

Doc. 24, 1861 

Augusl. 1861 

Feb. 17,1862 

March 7, 1862.... 
\pril 10, 1S62 

Dec. 31, 1R52. 
Mavis. 1862. 
.\pril. 1S6>... 
luiut 13, 1862. 

Ellas Stuart June 20, 1862. 

Jos. H. Tucker June 11, 1^62. 

U T.Reeves July 4. I«fi2 . 

Othuicl Gilbert IjuJv 26. l'^6-> 







Joliet . . . 
Chicago. . . 

Camp Buter. 

Camp Butler. 
Camp Butler. 
I'amp Butler. 
Camp Butler. 
Camp Butler. 
Camp But'er. 
Camp Butler. 


Camp Butler... 





Camp Butler. . . 



Camp Butler... 


Camp Butler.. . 
Camp Butler. . 


Camp "Douglas. 

Geneva.. ... 


Anna . . 

Camp Douclas 
Shawnoetown .. 
Camp Douglas. 
Camp Douglas 

Louis, Mo.. 


L'arrollton , 



Camp Butler. . . 
Cam i) Douglas. 
St Loni«, Mo.. 
Cam J) Douglas. 

ip Butler... 
Camp Douglas. 
Cami) Butler... 
Camp Douglas. 



ScffEDOLE— Showing statement of volnnteer troops organized within the State, and sent to l\w. 
field, commcnciug April, 1861, and eudiug December 31, I8tt5, W'th number of regiment, name 
of original commanding officer, date of organization and mnster Into United States' service, 
place of muster, and the aggregate strength of each orgauizaiiou. 


Commanding officer at organiza 

Col. Frederick A. Starring.... 

Jas. F. Jaquess 

Jason Marsh 

George Ryan 

Alonzo W. Mack 

David P. Grier 

VV. H. Benuison 

Lyman Guinnip 

Thos. G. Allen 

Jas. J. Do. line 

Frederick Uecker 

Abner C. Harding 

Louie II. Waters 

'Robert S. Moore 

David D.Irone 

John E. Whiting 

F. T. Sherman. 

John Christopher 

Timothy O'Mera 

Henry Sf . Day 

Smith D. AtKius 

Ilolden Putnam 

Wm. VV. Orme 

Lawr'n S. Church 

Thos. E. Champion 

P. S. Rutherford 

J.J. Funkhoueer 

99 " G. W. K. Bailey 

100 '• Fred. A. Bartleson 

101 " Ohas. H. Fox 

103 " Wm. McMurtry 

103 " Amos C. Babcock 

104 " Absalom R. Moore 

105 " Daniel Dustin 

lOe " Robert B. Latham 

lOr " Thomas Snell 

lOg " John Warner. 

109 " Alex.J.Nimmo 

110 " Thoe.S Casey 

111 •' James S. Martin 

112 " T.J.Henderson 

113 '• Geo. B. Hoge 

114 •' James W. Judy 

115 " Jesse H. Moore 

lie " Nathan H. Tupper 

117 " Risden M. Moore... 

118 " John G.Fonda 

119 '■ Thos. J. Kenney 

130 " George W. McKeaig 

131 Never organized 

13-2 Col. John I. Rinaker 

12:i " Jamee Moore 

124 " Thomns J. Sloan 

125 " Oscar F. H.armon 

126 " Jonathan Richmond 

127 " John VanArman 

128 " Robert M. Hudley 

129 " George P. Smith 

130 " Nathaniel Nilee....' 

131 " George W. Neeley.. 

133 " Thomas C. Pickett 

ia3 " Thad. Phillips 

134 " W. W McChesney 

135 " Johns. Wolfe 

Date of organization and Plac3 whore mustered 
muster into the United into the United States 
States service. service, 

Aug. 21, 1863.. . 

Sept. 4, 1862... 
Sept. 2. 1662.. 
Aug. 23, 1R63. 
•Sept. 3, tmi. 
Sept. 1, \m-i... 
Aug. 28,1863.. 
Aug. 25, 1863... 
Aug. 26, 1863.. 

Aug. 21, 1862.. 
Sept. I,)b63.. 
Aug. 27, 1862. 

Sept 22, 1863. 
Aug. 27, lb63.. 
*Aug 25. 18'i'. 
Nov. 23, 1862.. 
Sept. 8, 1S62 . 
Sept. 4, 1863... 
Oct. 13,1863... 
Aug. 2'), 1863.. 
Sept. 4, I8ii3.. 
Sept. 6, 1863.. 
Sept. 8, 1863.. 
Sept. 3, lf6i .. 
Aug. 26, 186J. 
Aug. 30,1862. 
Sept. 2, 1862... 

Oct. 2, 1862. . . . 
Aug. 27, 1863. , 
Sept. 2, 1863. 
Sept. 17. 1862. , 
Sept. 4,1862... 
Aug. 28,1862.. 
Sept. 11,1861.. 

Sept. 18, 1862. 
Sept. 13,1863.. 
Oct. 1, 1862. . . . 
Sept. 18, 1862.. 
Sept. 13, 1?63.. 
Sept. 30 1862.. 
Sept. 19, 1862. . 
Nov. 29.1863. 
Oct 7, 1863... 
Oct 29, 1862... 

Sept 4.1862.. 
Sept 6 1R63 . 
Sept. 10. 1864. 
Sept 4. 1862.. 

*Sept 5.1862. 
Dec 18, 1863.. 
Sept. 8, 1863.. 
Oct. 25. 1865.. 
Nov. 13.1863.. 
Junel, 1864.. 
May 31,1864.. 



Camp Butler... 



Camp Butler... 


Camp Massac. 


Camp Bntler. 

Camp Fry 

June 6, 1864 IMattooM 

Camp Douglas 

Camp Uutler 




Peoria.., , 





Camp Butler 

Monmouth , 





Camp Douglas 

Camp Douglas 

Camp Douglas 

Camp Butler. 

Rockford. — 

Princeton and Chicago... 




Camp Butler 


Florence, Pike Co.,.. 








Camp Bntler 






Camp Douglas 

Camp Butler 

Camp Butler 


Camp Bntler 

Camp Butler 


amp Butler 








ScHKDDLE— Showing eUtement of volunteer troops organized within the State, and sent to the 
field, commencing April, 1861, and ending December 31, 1865, with nnmbor of regiment, name 
of original commandiTis< officer, date of organization and musler into United States' service, 
place of muster, and the aggregate strength of each organization. 


Commanding officer at organiza- 

Col. Fred. A. Johns 

'• John Wood 

" J.W.Goodwin 

" Peter Davidson 

'■ L.H.Whitney 

" Stephen Bronson. . . 

" Rollin V. Ankney.. 

" Dudley C. Smith... 

'• Cyrus Hall 

" George W. Lackey. 

" Henry n. Dean 

•' Hiram F. Sickles. .. 

" Horace H.Wilsie... 

" Wm. C. Kueffner. .. 

" George W. Keener. . 

■'' French B.Woodall. 

" F. D. Stephenson... 

" Stephen Bronson . . . 

' McLean F.Wood.. 

" Gustavus A. Smith. 

'■ Alfred F. Smith.... 

" J. W. VM'son 

" John A. Bross 

Capt. John Curtis . . 

'• Simon J. Stookey.. 

" James Steele 

Date of organization and 
muster into the Uniied 
States service. 

:une 1,1864... 
June 5, 1864.. 
June 21, 1864.. 
June 1.1864.. 
June 18, 1864. 
June 16, 1864. 
Juueia, 1864. 
June 11,1864. 
Oct. 21,1864.. 
■Iune9, 1864.. 
Sept. 30, 1864. 
Feb. 18, 1865.. 

Feb. 11, 1865. 
Feb. 14, 1865 
Feb. 25, 1865. 
Feb. 18, 1865. 
Fob. 27. 18ti5. 
Feb. 2-2, 1865. 
Feb. 28, 1865 
March 9. 1865 
Dec. 1, 1861.. 

June 21, 1864! 

Place where mustered 
■ into the United SUtes 





Camp Butler.. 


Camp Butler.. 


A ton. Ills 

Camp Butler.. 
Camp Butler.. 



Camp Butler. . 
Camp Butler.. 


Camp Batler.. 


Cnmp Butler. 
Camp Butler. 




C;amp Butler. 
Camp Butler. 


Camp Butler... 
Camp Butler... 


Camp Butler... 
Camp Butler... 
Camp Butler... 
St. Charles.. .. 
Camp Douglas. 
Camp Butler... 


Camp Butler. . 
Camp Douglas. 


Camp Butler... 
Camp Butler. . . 
St. Charles 

Thomas A. Marshall. 

Silas Nob'.e 

Eugene A. Carr 

T.Lyle Dickey 

John J. Updegraff. . 
Thomas H. Cavanauc 
Wm. Pitt Kellogg.. 
John F. Farnsworth. 
Albert G. Brackett.. . 

James A. Barrett 

Robert G. IngersoU. 


Joseph W. Bell 

Horace Capron 

V\ arien Stewart 

Christian Thielman. 
John L. Beveridge... 

June, 1861 

Aug. 24, " 

Sept. 21, " 

Sept. 30, " 

December " 

Nov., '61, Jan., '6'.i. 

August, '61 

-ept. 18, '61 

Oct. 26, '61 

Nov. 25, '61 

Dec. 20, '61 

Dec, '61, Feb., '62.. 

Jan. 7, '63 

Organized Dec. 2,5, ' 
Jan. and April, '63. 
Jan. 28, '64 


A Capt. 

and Staff. 

C. M.Willard 

Ezra Taylor 

C. Haughtaline 

Edward McAllister. 
A. C. Waterhouse.. 
John T. Cheney . . . 

Arthur O'Leary 

A.vel Silversparr 

Edward Bouton . . . 

A. Franklin 

John Rourke 

John B. Miller 







Camp Butler. . 






Chicago . . , 



ScHEDTTLE— Showing efatoraent of volunteer troops organized within the State, and eent to the 
tield commencing April, 1861, and ending December 31, 1865, with number of regiment, name 
of original commanding officer, date of organization and muster iuto United States service, 
place of muster, and the aggregate strength of each organization. 


Commanding officer at organiza- 

Date of organization and 
muster into the United 
States service. 

Place where mustered 
into the United States 
service. ♦ 


Aug. ir, 1861 

June 20 '61 




" Riley Madison 



" Caleb Hopkins 

Aug. 5, ''61 


Dec. 17, '61 


" Adolph Schwartz 

Feb 1 '62, 



" John W. Powell 

" Charles J. Stolbrand 

" Andrew Steinbeck 

" Charles W.Keith 

'• Benjamin F. Rogers 

" William H. Bolton 

" JohnC. Phillips 

Field and Staff 

Dec. 11, '61 

Dec. 31, '61.. 

Feb. 28, '62 

June 6, '62 

Cape Girardeau, Mo... 
Camp Butler. 





Camp Butler. 

Camp Butler 












Board of Trade 








Capt. James S. Stokes 

Thomas' F. Vaughn.. 
" Charles G. Cooley... 
" George W. Reuwick. 
" William Coggswell . . 

" Ed. 0. Henehaw 

" Lyman Bridges 

" John H. Colvin 

July 31, 1862 
Aug. 21, '62. 
Aug. 29, '6-2. 
Nov. 15, '63. 
Sept 2.3, '61. 
Oct. 15, '62. . 
Jan. 1, '62... 
Oct. 10, '63. . 


Camp Butler... 



Camp Douglas. 










, 32 0«2 
. 7,277 


Th^j code of chivalry so common among Southern gentlemen 
and SO frequently brought into use in settling personal differences 
has also been called to settle the " affairs of honor " in our own 
State, however, but few times, and those in the earlier days. 
Several attempts at duels have occurred; before the disputants met 
in mortal combat the differences were amicably and satisfactorily 
settled; honor was maintained without the sacrifice of life. In 
1810 a law was adopted to suppress the practice of dueling. This 
law held the fatal result of dueling to be murder, and, as it was 
intended, had the effect of making it odious and dishonorable. 
Prior to the constitution of 1848, parties would evade the law by 


ajoing beyond the jurisdiction of the State to engage in their con- 
tests of honor. At that time they incorporated in the Constitution 
an oath of office, which was so broad as to cover the whole world. 
Any person who had ever fouglit a duel, over sent or accepted a 
cliallenge or acted the part of second was disfranchised from holding 
office, even of minor importance. After tliis went into effect, no 
other duel or attempt at a duel has been engaged in witliin the 
State of Illinois, save thos^e fought by parties living outside of 
the State, wlio came here to settle their personal differences. 

thp: fii:st duel. 
Tlie first duel fon^lit witiiin the boundaries of this great State 
was between two young military officers, one of the French and 
the otlicr of the Eng.ish army, in the year 1765. It was at the 
time the British troops came to take possession of Fort Chartres, 
and a woman- was the cause of it. The aifair occurred early 
Sunday morning, near the old fort. They fought with swords, and 
in the combat one sacrificed his life. 


In 1809 the next duel occurred and was bloodless of itself, but out 
of it grew a quarrel which resulted in the assassination of one of 
the Ci)ntestants. The principals were Shadrach Bond, the fii-st 
Governor, and Rice Jones, a bright young lawyer, who became quite 
a politician and the leader of his party. A personal difference arose 
between the two, which to settle, the parties met for mortal combat 
on an island in the Mississippi. The weapons selected were hair- 
trigger pistols. After taking their position Jones' weapon was 
prematin-ely discharged. Bond's second, Dunlap, now claimed that 
according to the code Bond had the right to the next fire. But 
Bond would not take so great advantage of liis opponent, and said 
it was an accident and would not fire. Such noble conduct 
touched the generous nature of Jones, and the difficulty was at 
once amicably settled. Dunlap, however, bore a deadly hatred for 
Jones, and one day while he was standing in the street in Kaskaskia, 
conversing with a lady, he crept up behind him and shot him dead 
in his tracks. Dunlap successfully escaped to Texas. 


In 1812 the bloody code again brought two young men to the 
field of honor. They were Tlu.mas Rector, a son of Capt. Stephen 


Rector who bore such a noble part in the war of 1S12, and Joshna 
Barton. Tliej liad espoused the quarrel of older brothers. The 
affair occurred on Bloody Island, in the Mississippi, but in the 
limits of Illinois. This place was frequented so often by Missou- 
rians to settle personal diflBculties, that it recei\^ed the name of 
Bloody Island. Barton fell in this conflict. 


In 1819 occurred the first duel fought after the admission of the 
State into the Union. This took place in St. Clair county between 
Alphonso Stewart and William Bennett. It was intended to be a 
sham duel, to turn ridicule against Bennett, the challenging party- 
Stewart was in the secret but Bennett was left to believe it a 
reality. Their guns were loaded with blank cartridges. Bennett, 
suspecting a trick, put a ball mto his gun without the knowledge 
of his seconds. The word "fire" was given, and Stewart fell 
mortally wounded. Bennett made his escape but was subsequently 
captured, convicted of murder and suffered the penalty of the law 
by hanging. 


In 1840 a personal difference arose between two State Senators, 
Judge Pearson and E. D. Baker. The latter, smarting under the 
epithet of ''falsehood," threatened to chastise Pearson in the public 
streets, by a " fist fight. " Pearson declined making a "blackguard'' 
of himself but intimated a readiness to fight as gentlemen, accord- 
ing to the code of honor. The affair, however. wa8 carried no 


The exciting debates in the Legislature in 184:0-'41 were often 
bitter in personal " slings," and threats of combats were not 
infrequent. During these debates, in one of the speeches by the 
Hon. J. J. Hardin, Hon. A. R. Dodge thought he discovered a 
personal insult, took exceptions, and an " affair" seemed imminent. 
The controversy was referred to friends, however, and amicably 


Hon. John A. McClernand, a member of the House, in a speech 
delivered during the same session made charges against the Whig 
Judges of the Supreme Court. This brought a note from Judge 


T. W. Smith, by the hands of liis "friend'' Dr. Merriman, to 
McClernand. This was construed as a challenge, and promptly 
accepted, naming the place of meeting to be Missouri; time, early; 
the weapons, rifles; and distance, 40 paces. At this critical junc- 
ture, the Attorney General had a warrant issued against the Judge, 
whereupon he was arrested and placed under bonds to keep the 
peace. Thus ended this attempt to vindicate injured honor. 


During the hard times subsequent to the failure of the State and 
other banks, in 1S42, specie became scarce while State money was 
plentiful, but worthless. Tlie State officers thereupon demanded 
specie paj'ment for taxes. This was bitterly opposed, and so fiercely 
contested that the collection of taxes was suspended. 

During the period of the greatest indignation toward the State 
officials, under \\\Q.noin de ■plume of " Rebecca," Abraham Lincoln 
had an article publislied in the Sangamo Journal^ entitled " Lost 
Township." In this article, written in the form of a dialogue, the 
officers of the State were roughly handled, and especially Auditor 
Sliields. The name of the author was demaded from the editor by 
jMr. Shields, who was very indignant over the manner in which he 
was treated. Tlie name of Abraham Lincoln was given as the 
author. It is claimed by some of his biographers, however, that 
the article was prepared by a lady, and that when the name of the 
author was demanded, in a spirit of gallantry, Mr. Lincoln gave 
his name. In compciny with Gen. Whiteside, Gen. Shields pur- 
sued Lincoln to Tremont, Tazewell county, where he was in attend- 
ance upon the court, and immediately sent him a note "requiring 
a full, positive and absolute retraction of all offensive allusions" 
made to him in relation to his "private character and standing as 
a man, or an apology for the insult conveyed." Lincoln had been 
forewarned, however, for William Butler and Dr. Merriman, of 
Springfield, had become acquainted with Shields' intentions and by 
riding all night arrived at Tremont ahead of Shields and infor^led 
Lincoln what he might expect. Lincoln answered Shields' note, 
refusing to offer any explanation, on the grounds that Shields' note 
assumed the fact of his (Lincoln's) authorship of the article, and 
not pointing out what the offensive part was, and accompanying the 
same with threats as to consequences. Mr. Shields answered this, 
disavowing all intention to menace; inquired if he was the author, 


asked a retraction of that portion relating to his private character. 
Mr. Lincoln^ still technical,- returned this note with the verbal 
statement " that there could be no further negotiations until the 
first note was withdrawn." At this Shields named Gen. White- 
side as his " friend," when Lincoln reported Dr. Merriman as his 
"friend." These gentlemen secretly pledged themselves to agree 
upon some amicable terms, and compel their principals to accept 
them. The four went to Springfield, when Lincoln left for Jack- 
sonville, leaving the following instructions to guide his friend. Dr. 

" In case Whiteside shall signify a wish to adjust this affair with- 
out further difficulty, let him know that if the present papers be 
withdrawn and a note from Mr. Shields, asking to know if I am the 
author of the articles of which he complains, and asking that I shall 
make him gentlemanly satisfaction, if I am the author, and this 
without menace or dictation as to what that satisfaction shall be, a 
pledge is made that the following answer shall be given: 

I did write the " Lost Township " letter which appeared ia the Journal of the 
2d inst., but had no participation, in any form, in any other article alluding to 
you. I wrote that wholly for political effect. J had no intention of injuring 
your personal or private character or standing, as a man or gentleman ; and I did 
not then think, and do not now think, that that article could produce or has pro- 
duced that effect against you; and, had I anticipated such an effect, would have 
foreborne to write it. And I will add that your conduct toward rae, so far as I 
know, had always been gentlemanly, and that I had no personal pique against 
you, and no cause for any. 

" If this should be done, I leave it to you to manage what shall 
and what shall not be published. If nothing like this is done, the 
preliminaries of the fight are to be: 

'^ 1st. Weapons. — Cavalry broad swords of the largest size, pre- 
cisely equal in all respects, and such as are now used by the cavalry 
company at Jacksonville. 

" 2d. Position. — A plank ten feet long and from nine to twelve 
inches broad, to be firmly fixed on edge, on the ground, as a line 
between us which neither is to pass his foot over on forfeit of his 
life. Next a line drawn on the ground on either side of said plank, 
and parallel with it, each at the distance of the whole length of the 
sword, and three feet additional from the plank; and the passing of 
his own such line by either party during the fight, shall be deemed 
a surrender of the contest. 


'•3d. 7V//it. — On Tiiursdaj evening at 5 o'clock, if you can ^et 
it 6o; but in no case to be at a greater distance of time than Friday 
evening at 5 o'clock. 

"4tli. Plact. — AVithin tliree miles of Alton, on the oi)posite 
bide of the river, the particular sj)ot to i)e agreed on by you. 

'' Any preliminary details coming within the above rules, you are 
at liberty to make at your discretion, but you are in no cuso to 
swerve from these rules, or pass beyond their limits." 

The position of the contestants, as prescribed by Lincoln, seem? 
to have been such as both would have been free from coining in 
contact with the sword of tho other, and t!ie first impression is that 
it is nothing more than one of LiiK^jln's jokes. He possessed very 
long arms, however, and could reach his adversary at the stipulated 

Not being amicably arranged, all parties repaired to the field of 
combat in Missouri. Gen. Hardin and Dr. English, as mutual 
friends of both Lincoln and Shields, arrived in tlie meantime, and 
after much correspondence at their earnest solicitation tlie affair 
was satisfactorily arranged, Lincoln making a statement similar to 
the one above referred to. 


William Butler, one of Lincoln's seconds, was dissatisfied with 
the bloodless termination of the Lincoln-Shields affair, and wrote an 
account of it for the Sangamo Jouriial. This article reflected dis- 
creditably upon both the principals engaged in tliat controversy. 
Shields replied by the hands of his friend Gen. Whiteside, in a 
curt, menacing note, which w^as promptly accepted as a challenge 
by Butler, and the inevitable Di'. Merriman named as his friend, 
who submitted the following as preliminaries of the fight: 

Time. — Sunrise on the following morning. 

Place. — Col. Allen's farm (about one mile north of State House.) 
Weapons. — Rifles. 

Distance. — One hundred yards. 

The parties to stand with their right sides toward each other — 
the rifles to be held in both hands horizontally and cocked, arms 
extended downwards. Neither party to move his j)erson or liis 
rifle after being placed, before the word fire. The signal to be: 
"Are you ready? Fire! one — two — three!" about a second of 


time intervening between each word. Neither partj to fire before 
the word " fire," nor after the word " three." 

Gen. Whiteside, in hinguage curt and abrupt, addressed a note to 
Dr. Merriman declining to accept the terms. Gen. Sliields, how- 
ever, addressed anotlier note to Butler, explaining the feelings of 
his second, and offering to go out to a lonely place on the prairie to 
fight, where there would be no danger of being interrupted; or, if 
that did not suit, he would meet him on his own conditions, when 
and where he pleased. Butler claimed the affair was closed and 
declined the proposition. 


Now Gen. Whiteside and Dr. Merriman, who several times had 
acted in the capacity of friends or seconds, were to handle the 
deadly weapons as principals. While second in the Shields-Butler 
Jiasco, Whiteside declined the terms proposed by Butler, in curt 
and abrupt language, stating that tlie place of combat could not be 
dictated to him, for it was as much his right as Merriman's, who, 
if he was a gentleman, would recognize and concede it. To this 
Merriman replied by the hands of Capt. Lincoln. It will be 
remembered that Merriman had acted in the same capacity for Lin- 
coln. Whiteside then wrote to Merriman, asking to meet him at 
St. Louis, when he would hear from him further. To this Merri- 
man replied, denying his right to name place, but offered to meet 
in Louisiana, Mo. This Whiteside would not agree to, but later 
signified his desire to meet him there, but the affair being closed, 
the doctor declined to re-open it. 


These two gentlemen were members of the Constitutional Con- 
vention of 1847, and both from Jo Davies -county. A disputearose 
which ended in a ehallenge^to meet on the field of honor. They 
both repaired to St. Louis, but the authorities gaining knowledge 
of their bloody intentions, had both parties arrested, which ended 
this " affair." 


The dress, habits, etc., of a people throw so much light upon their 
conditions and limitations that in order better to show the circum- 
stances surrounding the people of the State, we will give a short 


exposition of the manner of life of our Illinois people at different 
epochs. The Indians themselves are credited by Charlevoix with 
being "very laborious,". — raising poultry, spinning the veool of the 
buffalo and manufacturing garments therefrom. These must have 
been, however, more than usually favorable representatives of their 

''The working and voyaging dress of the French masses," says 
Reynolds, "was simple and primitive. The French were like the 
lilies of the valley (the Old Ranger was not always exact in his 
quotations), — they neither spun nor wove any of their clothing, but 
purchased it from the merchants. The white blanket coat, known 
as the capot, was the universal and eternal coat for the winter with 
the masses. A cape was made of it that could be raised over the 
head in cold weather. 

" In the house, and in good weather, it hung behind, a cape to 
the blanket coa^ The reason that I know these coats so well is, 
that I have worn many ininy youth, and a working man never wore 
a better garment. Dressed deer-skins and blue cloth were worn 
commonly in the winter for pantaloons. The blue handkerchief 
and the deer-skin moccasins covered the head and feet generally of 
the French Creoles. In 1800, scarcely a man thought himself clothed 
unless he had a belt tied around his blanket coat, and on one side 
was hung the dressed skin of a pole-cat, rilled with tobacco, pipe, 
flint and steel. On the other side was fastened, under the belt, the 
the butcher-knife. A Creole in this dress felt like Tam O'Shanter 
filled with usquebaugh; he could face the devil. Checked calico 
shirts were then common, but in winter flannel was frequently 
worn. In the summer the laboring men and the voyagers often 
took their shirts off in hard work and hot weather, and turned out 
the naked back to the air and sun." 

" Among the Americans," he adds, " home-made wool hats were 
the .common wear. Fur hats were not common, and scarcely a boot 
was seen. The covering of the feet in winter was chiefly moccasins 
made of deer-skins, and shoe packs of tanned leather. Some wore 
shoes, but not common in very early times. In the summer the 
greater portion of the young people, male and female, and many of 
the old, went barefoot. The substantial and universal outside wear 
was the blue linsey hunting-shirt. This is an excellent garment, 
and I have never felt so happy and healthy since I laid it off. It is 


made of wide sleeves, open before, with ample size so as to envelop 
the body almost twice around. Sometimes it had a large cape, 
which answers well to save the shoulders from the rain. A belt is 
mostly used to keep the garn.ent close around the person, and, 
nevertheless, there is nothing tight about it to hamper the body. 
It is often fringed, and at times t!ie fringe is composed of red, and 
other gay colors. The belt, frequently, is sewed to tiie hunting-shirt. 
The vest was mostly made of striped linsey. The colors were made 
often with alum, copperas and madder, boiled with the bark of trees, 
iusucii a manner and proportions as the old ladies prescribed. The 
pantaloons of the masses were generally made of deer-skin and 
linsey. Course blue cloth was sometifnes made into pantaloons 

'' Linsey, neat and flue, manufactured at home, composed generally 
the outside garments of the females as well as the males. The 
ladies had linsey colored and woven to suit their fancy. A bonnet, 
composed of calico, or some gay goods, was worn on the head when 
they were in the open air. Jewelry on the pioneer ladies was 
uncommon; a gold ring was an ornament not often seen." 

In 1820 a change of dress began to take place, and before 1S30, 
according to Ford, most of the pioneer costume had disappeared. 
"The blue linsey hunting-shirt, with red or white fringe, had given 
place to the cloth coat. [Jeans i^ould be more like the fact.] The 
raccoon cap, with the tail of the animal dangling down behind, had 
been thrown aside for hats of wool or fur. Boots and shoes liad 
supplied the deer-skin moccasins; and the leather breeches, strapped 
tight around the ankle, had disappeared before unmentionables of a 
more modern material. The female sex had made still greater pro. 
gress in dress. The old sort of cotton or woolen frocks, spun, woven 
and made with their own fair hands, and striped and cross-barred 
with blue dye and turkey red, had given place to gowns of silk and 
calico. The feet, before in a state of nudity, now charmed in shoes 
of calf-skin or slippers of kid; and the head, formerly unbonneted, 
but covered with a cotto \ handkerchief, now displayed the charms 
of the female face under main^ forms of bonnets of straw, silk and 
leghorn. The young ladies, 'instead of walking a mile or two to 
church on Sunday, carrying their shoes and stockings in their hands 
until within a hun.dred yards of the place of worship, as formerly, 
now came forth arrayed complete in all the pride of dress, mounted 
on fine horses and attended by their male admirers." 


The last half century has doubtless witnessed changes quite as 
great as those set forth by our Illinois historian. The chronicler 
of to day, looking back to the golden days of 1830 to 1840, and 
comparing them with the present, must be struck with the tendency 
of an almost monotonous uniformity in dress and manners that 
comes from the easy inter communication afforded by steamer, rail- 
way, telegraph and newspaper. Home manufacturers have been 
driven from the household, by the lower-priced fabrics of distant 
mills. The Kentucky jeans, and the copperas-colored clothing of 
home manufacture, so familiar a few years ago, have given place to 
tlie cassimeres and cloths of noted factories. The ready-made- 
clothing stores, like a touch of nature, made the whole world kin- 
and may drape the charcoal man in a dress-coat and a stove-pipe 
hat. The prints and silks of England and France give a variety of 
choice, and an assortment of colors and shades such as the pioneer 
women could hardly have dreamed of. Godey, and Demorest, and 
Harper's Bazar are found in our modern farm-houses, and the latest 
fashions of Paris are not uncommon. 


In area the State has 55,ilO s_guare miles of territory. It is 
about 150 miles wide and 400 miles long, stretching in latitude 
from Maine to North Carolina. The climate varies from Portland 
to Richmond. It favors every product of the continent, including 
the tropics, with less than half a dozen exceptions. It produces 
every great food of the world except bananas and rice. It is hardly 
too much to say that it is the most productive spot known to civil- 
ization. With the soil full of bread and the earth full of minerals; 
with an upper surface of food and an under layer of fuel; with per- 
fect natural drainage, and abundant springs, and streams, and navi- 
gable rivers; half way between the forests of the North and the 
fruits of the South; within a day's ride of the great deposits of 
iron, coal, copper, lead and zinc; and containing and controlling 
the great grain, cattle, pork and lumber markets of the world, it is 
not strange that Illinois has the advantage of position. 

There are no mountains in Illinois; in the southern as well as in 
the northern part of the State there are a few hills; near the banks 
of the Illinois, Mississippi, and several other rivers, the ground is 


elevated, forming the so-called blufls, on which at the present day 
may be found, uneifaced by the hand of Time, the marks and traces 
left by the water which was formerly much higher; whence it may 
be safe to conclude that, where now the fertile prairies of Illinois 
extend, and the rich soil of the country yields its golden harvests, 
must have been a vast sheet of water, the mud deposited by which 
formed the soil, thus accounting lor the present great fertility of the 

Illinois is a garden 400 miles long and 150 miles wide. Its soil 
is chiefly a black, sandy loam, from 6 inches to 60 feet thick. About 
the old French towns it has yielded corn for a century and a half 
without rest or help. She leads all other States in the number 
of acres actually under plow. Her mineral wealth is scarcely 
second to her agricultural power. She has coal, iron, lead, zinc, 
copper, many varieties of building stone, marble, fire clay, cumu 
clay, common brick chiy, sand of all kinds, gravel, mineral paint, — 
in fact, evervthino; needed for a hiirh civilization. 


If any State of the Union is adapted for agriculture, and the other 
branches of rural economy relating thereto, sucli as the raising of 
cattle and the culture of fruit trees, it is pre-eminently Illinois. 
Her extremely fertile prairies recompense the farmer at less 
trouble and expense than he would be obliged to incur elsewhere, in 
order to obtain the same results. Her rich soil, adapted by nature 
for immediate culture, only awaits the plow and the seed in order 
to mature, witliin a few months, a most bountiful harvest. A 
review of statistics will be quite interesting to the reader, as well as 
valuable, as showing the enormous quantities of the various cereals 
produced in our prairie State: 

In 1S76 there was raised in the State 130,000,000 of bushels of 
corn, — twice as much as any other State, and one-sixth of all the corn 
raised in the United States. It would take 375,000 cars to transport 
this vast amount of corn 1o market, which would make 15,000 trains 
of 25 cars each. She harvested 2,747,000 tons of hay, nearly one- 
tenth of all the hay in the Republic. It is not generally appreciated, 
but it is true, that the hay crop of the country is worth more than 
the cotton crop. The hay of Illinois equals the cotton of Louisiana- 



(to to Charleston, S. C, and see tlieni peddling handt'nls of liay or 
grass, almost as a curiosity, as we regard Chinese gods or the cryo- 
lite of Greenland; drink your coffee and condensed milk; and walk 
back from the coast for many a league through the sand and burs 
till you get up into the better atmosphere of the mountains, with- 
out seeins: a wavino^ meadow or a wrazinor lierd; then you will beijin 
to appreciate the meadows of the Prairie State. 

The value of her farm ''implements was, in 1876, $l> 1 1,000,000, 
and the value of live stock was only second to New York, The 
same year she had 25,000,000 hogs, and packed 2,113,345, about 
one-half of all that were packed in the United States. She marketed 
$57,000,000 worth of slaughtered animals, — more than any other 
State, and a seventh of all the States. 

Illinois excels all other States in miles of railroads and in miles 
of postal service, and in money orders sold per annum, and in the 
amount of lumber sold. 

Illinois was only second in many important matters, taking the 
reports of 1876. This sample list comprises a few of the more 
important: Permanent scliool fund; total income for educational 
purposes; number of publishers of books, maps, papers, etc.; value 
of farm products and implements, and of live stock; in tons of coal 

The shipping of Illinois was only second to New York. Out of 
one port during the business hours of the season of navigation she 
sent forth a vessel every nine minutes. This did not include canal- 
boats, which went one every five minutes. 

No wonder she was only second in number of bankers or in phy- 
sicians and surgeons. 

She was third in colleges, teachers and schools; also in cattle, 
lead, hay, flax, sorghum and beeswax. 

She was fourth in population, in children enrolled in public 
schools, in law schools, in butter, potatoes and carriages. 

She was fifth in value of real and personal property, in theologi- 
cal seminaries, and colleges exclusively for women, in milk sold, 
and in boots and shoes manufactured, and in book-binding. 

She was only seventh in the production of wood, while she was 
the twelfth in area. Surely that was well done for the Prairie State. 
She then had, in 1876, much more wood and growing timber than 
she had thirty years before. 


A few leading industries will justify emphasis. She manufactured 
$205,000,000 worth of goods, wliich phiced her well up toward 
New York and Pennsjlvauia. Tlio number of her manufacturing 
establishments increased from 1800 to IS 70, 300 per cent. ; capital 
employed increased 350 ])er cent.; and the amount of product in- 
creased 400 per cent. She issued 5,500,000 copies of commercial 
and financial newspapers, being only second to New York. She had 
6,759 miles of railroad, then'leading all otlier States, worth $036,- 
458,000, using 3,245 engines, and 67,712 cars, making a train long 
enough to cover one-tenth of the entire roads of the State. Ilor 
.stations were only five miles apart. She carried, in 1S76, 15,795,- 
000 passengers an average of 30.^ miles, or equal to taking her 
entire population twice across the State. More tlian two-thirds of 
her land was within five miles of a railroad, and less than two per 
cent, was more than fifteen miles away 

The State has a large financial interest in the Illinois Central 
railroad. The road was incorporated in 1850, and the State gave 
each alternate section for six miles on each side, and doubled tlic 
price of the remaining land, so keeping herself good. The road 
received 2,595,000 acres of land, and paid to the State one-seventh 
of the gross receipts. The State received in 1877, $350,000, and 
had received up to that year in all about $7,000,000. It was prac- 
tically the people's road, and it had a most able and gentlemanly 
management. Add to the above amount the annual receipts from 
the canal, $111,000, and a large per cent, of the State tax was pro- 
vided for„ 


Shadrach Bond — Was the first Governor of Illinois. He was a 
native of Maryland and born in 1773; was raised on a farm; re- 
ceived a common English education, and came to Illinois in 1794. 
He served as a delegate in Congress from 1811 to 1815, where he 
procured the right of pre-emption of public land. He was elected 
Governor in 1818; was beaten for Congress in 1824 by Daniel P. 
Cook He died at Kaskaskia, April 11. 1830. 

Edward Coles — Was born Dec. 15, 1786, in Virginia. His father 
was a slave-holder; gave his son a collegiate education, and left to 
him a large number of slaves. These he liberated, giving each 
head of a family 160 acres of land and a considerable sum of money. 


He was President Madison's private secretary. He caiue to Illinois 
in 1S19, was elected Governor in 1S22, ontlio anti-slaverj ticket; 
moved to Pliiladelphia in 1S33, and died in ISGS. 

JVinia/i J^'d wards. — In 1801), on tlieforniatii)n of the Territory of 
Illinois, Mr. Ecjwards was appointed Governor, which position he 
retained until the organization of the State, wlien lie was sent to 
the United States Senate. Ho was elected Governor in 1826. He 
was a native of Maryland and bora in 1775; received a collegiate 
education; was Chief Justice of Kentucky, and a Republican in 

John Reyjiolds — Was born in Pennsylvania in 1788, and came 
with his parents to Illinois in 1800, and in 1830 was elected Gov- 
ernor on the Democratic ticket, and afterwards served three terms 
in Congress. He received a classical edncation,yet was not polished. 
He' was an ultra Democrat; attended the Charleston Convention in 
1860, and urged the seizure of United States arsenals by the 
South. He died in 1865 at Belleville, childless. 

Josejpfi Duncan. — In 1831 Joseph Dnncan was elected Governor 
by the Whigs, although formerly a Democrat. He had previously 
served four terms in Congress. He was born in Kentucky in 1794; 
had but a limited education; served with distinction in the war of 
1812; conducted the campaign of 1832 against Black Hawk. • He 
came to Illinois when qnite young. 

Thomas Carlin — Was elected as a Democrat in 1838. He had 
bnt a meager education; held many minor offices, and was active 
both in the war of 1812 an^ the Black Hawk war. He was born in 
Kentucky in 1789; came to Illinois in 1812, and died at Carrollton, 
Feb. 14, 1852. 

Thomas J^ord—Ws,s born in Pennsylvania in the year 1800; was 
brought by his widowed mother to Missouri in 1804, and shortly 
afterwards to Illinois, He received a good education, studied law; 
was elected four times Judge, twice as Circuit Judge, Judge of 
Chicago and Judge of Supreme C(^nrt. He was elected Governor 
by the Democratic party in 1842; wrote his history of Illinois in 
1847 and died in 1850.' 

Augustus C. French— Wn.^ born in New Hampshire in 1808; 
was admitted to the bar in 1831, and shortly afterwards moved to 
Illinois when in 1846 he was elected Governor. On the adoption 
of the Constitution of 1848 he was again chosen, serving until 1853. 
He was a Democrat in politics. 


Joel A. Matteson — Was born in Jefferson county, N. Y., in 180S. 
His father was a farmer, and gave his son only a common school 
education. He first entered upon active life as a small tradesman, 
bnt subsequently became a large contractor and manufacturer. He 
was a heavy contractor in building the Canal. He was elected Gov- 
ernor in 1852 upon the Democratic ticket. 

William H. Bissell — W^s elected by the Republican party in 
1856. He had previously served two terms in Congress; was 
colonel in the^Mexican war and has held minor official positions. He 
was born in J^ew" York State in 1811; received a common educa- 
tion; came to Illinois early in life and engaged in the medical pro- 
fession. This he changed for the law and became a noted orator, 
and the standard bearer of the Republican party in Illinois. He 
died in 1860 while Governor. 

Richard Yates— "'The vfa^r Governor of Illinois," was born in 
Warsaw, Ky., in 1818; came to Illinois in 1831: served two terms 
in Congress; in 1860 was elected Governor, and in 1865 United 
States Senator. He was a college graduate, and read law under J. J. 
Hardin. He rapidly rose m his chosen profession and charmed the 
people with oratory. He filled the gubernatorial chair during the 
trying days of the Rebellion, and by his energy and devotion won 
the title of " War Governor." He became addicted to strong drink, 
and died a drunkard. 

Richard J. Ogleshy — Was born in 1824, in Kentucky; an orphan 
at the age of eight, came to Illinois when only 12 years old. He 
was apprenticed to learn the carpenter's trade; worked some at 
farming and read law occasionally. He enlisted in the Mexican 
War and was chosen First Lieutenant. After his return he again 
took up the law, but during the gold fever of 1849 went to Califor- 
nia; soon returned, and, in 1852, entered upon his illustrious 
political career. He raised the second regiment in the State, to 
suppress, the Rebellion, and for gallantry was promoted to Major 
General. In 1864 he was elected Governor, and re-elected in 1872, 
and resigned for a seat in the United States Senate. He is a staunch 
Republican and resides at Decatur. 

Shelby M. Cullom^— Was born in Kentucky in 1828; studied 
law, was admitted to the bar, and commenced the practice of his 
profession in 1848; was elected to the State Legislature in 1856, 
and again in 1860. Served on the war commission at Cairo, 1862. 


and was a member of the 39th, -iOth add 4 1st Congress, in all of which 
he served witli credit to his State. Hi was again elected to the 
State Legislature in 1872, and re-electod in 1874, and was elected 
Governor of Illinois in 1876, which office he still holds, and has 
administered with marked ability. 


Pierre Menard — Was the first Lieut. Gov. of Illinois. He was 
born iu Quebec, Canada, in 1767. He came to Illinois in 1790 
where he engaged in the Indian trade and became wealthy. He 
died in 1844. Menard county was named in his honor. 

AdolpKus F . Iluhhard — Was elected Lieut. Gov. in 1822. Four 

years later he ran for Governor against Edwards, but was beaten. 

WilUavi Kinney — Was elected in 1826. He was a Baptist 

clergyman; was born in Kentucky in 1781 and came to Illinois in 


Zadock Casey — Although on the opposition ticket to Governor 
Reynolds, the successful Gubernatorial candidate, yet Casey was 
elected Lieut. Gov. in 1830. He subsequently served several terms 
in Congress. 

Alexander M. Jenkins — Was elected on ticket with Gov. Duncan 
in 1834 by a handsome majority. 

S. H. Anderson — Lieut. Gov. under Gov. Cariin, was chosen in 
1838. He was a native of Tennessee. 

John Moore — Was born in England in 1793; came to Illinois in 
1830; was elected Lieut Gov. in 1842. He won the name of 
" Honest John Moore." 

Joseph B. Wells — Was chosen with Gov. French at his first 
election iii 1810. 

William McMurtry. — In 1848 when Gov. French was again 
chosen Governor, William McMurtry of Knox county, was elected 
Lieut. Governor. 

Gustavus P. Koerner — Was elected in 1852. He was born in 
Germany in 1809. At the age of 22 came to Illinois. In 1872 he 
was a candidate for Governor on Liberal ticket, but was defeated. 

John Wood — Was elected in 1856, and on the death of Gov. 
Bissell became Governor. 

Francis A. Hoffman — Was chosen with Gov. Yates in 1860. 
He was born in Prussia iu 1822, and came to Illinois in 1840. 



William Bross — Was born in New Jersey, came to Illinois in 
1848, was elected to office in 1864. 

John Dongherty — Was elected in 1868. 

John L. Beveredge — Was chosen Lieut. Gov. in 1872. In 1873 
Oglesbj was elected to the U. S. Senate when Beveridge i)ecame 

Ayidreio Shuman — Was elected Nov. 7, 1876, and is the present 


Ninian W. Edwards 1854-56 Newton Bateman 1859-75 

W. H. Powell 1857-58 Samuel M. Ettcr 1876 


Daniel P. Cook. 1819 

William Mears 1820 

Samuel D. Lockwood 1821-22 

James Turncy 1828-28 

George Forquer 1829-32 

James Semple , ...183;j-34 

Nmian E. Edwards 1834-:5r) 

Jesse B. Thomas, Jr 1835 

Walter B. Scales 183G 

Asher F. Linder 1837 

Geo. W. Olney 1838 

Wickliffe Kitchell 1839 

•Josiali Lamborn 1841-42 

James A. McDougall 1843-46 

David B. Campbell 1846 

[Office abolished and re-created in 1867J 

Robert G. Ingersoll 1867-68 

Washington Bushnell 1869-72 

James K. Edsall 1873-79' 


John Thomas 1818-1 9 

R. K. McLaughlin 1819-22 

Ebner Field 1823-26 

James Hall 18J7-30 

John Dement 183 1-36 

Charles Gregory 1836 

John D. Whiteside 1837-40 

M. Carpenter 1841-48 

John Moore 1848-56 

James Miller 1857-60 

William Butler 1861-62 

Alexander Starnc 1863-64 

James H. Beveridge. .- 1865-6() 

George W. Smith 1867-6.S 

Erastus N. Bates 869-72 

Edward Ruiz 1873-75 

Thomas S. Ridgeway 1876-77 

Edward Rutz 1878-79 


Eliaa K. Kane 1818-22 

Samuel D. Lockwood 1822-23 

David Blackwell 1823-24 

Morris Birkbcck 1824 

George Forquer 1825-28 

Alexander P. Field 1829-40 

Stephen A. Douglas 1840 

Lyman Trumbull 1841-42 

Tliompson Campbell. 
Horace S. Cooley. . . . 

David L. Gregg 

Alexander Slarne. . . . 
0/ias M. Hatch 

... 1843- 
.... 1846- 
.... 1850- 

Sharon Tyndale 1865- 

Edward Rurarael 1869- 

Georo-e II. Harlow 1873- 



Elijah C. Berry 181tS-31 Thompson Canipbc-ll 1846 

I. T. B. Stapp 1831-^5 Jfssu K. Dubois m'i7-G4 

Levi Davis 18;J5--40 Orlin II. Miner 18G5-68 

James Shields 1841-42 Charles E. Lippencott 18^9-70 

W. L. D. Ewing 184:^-45 Thompson B. Needles 1877-79 


Ninlan Edwards. — On the organization of the State in 1S18, 
Edwards, the popular Territorial Governor, was chosen Senator for 
the short term, and in 1819 re-elected for full term. 

Jesse B. Thomas — One of the federal judges during the entire 
Territorial existence was chosen Senator on organization of the 
State) and re-elected in 1823, and served till 1829. 

John McLean — In 1824 Edwards resigned, and McLean was 
elected to fill his unexpired term. lie was born in North Carolina 
in 1791, and came to Illinois in 1815; served one term in Congress, 
and in 1829 was elected to the U. S. Senate, but the following year 
died. He is said to have been the most gifted man of his period in 

Ellas Kent Kane — Was elected Nov. 30, 1824, for the term be- 
ginning March 4, 1825. In 1830 he M'as re-elected, but died before 
the expiration of his term. He was a native of New York, and in 
1814 came to Illinois. He was first Secretary of State, and after- 
wards State Senator. 

David Jewett Baker — Was appointed to fill the unexpired term 
of John McLean, in 1830, Nov. 12, but the Legislature refused to 
endorse the choice. Baker was a native of Connecticut, born in 
1792, and died in Alton in 1869. 

JohnM. Rohinsoii. — Instead of Baker, the Governor's appointee, 
the Legislature chose Robinson, and in 1834 he was re-elected. In 
1843 was elected Supreme Jndge of the State, but within two 
months died. He was a native of Kentucky, and came to Illinois 
while quite yonng. 

William L. D. Eioing — Was elected in 1835, to fill the vacancy 
occasioned by the death of Kane. He was a Kentuckian. 

Richard M. Young — Was elected in 1836, and held his seat 
from March 4, 1837, to March 4, 1843, a full term. He was a 


native of Kentucky; was Circuit Judge before his election to the 
Senate, and Supreme Judge in 1842. He died in an insane asylum 
at Washington. 

Sainucl Mc Roberts — The first native Illinoisian ever elevated to 
the high ofiice of U. S. Senator from this State, was born in 1799, 
and died in 1843 on his return home from Washington. He was 
elected Circuit Judge in 1824, and March 4, 1841, took his seat in 
the U. S. Senate. 

Sidney Breese — Was elected to the U. S. Senate, Dec. 17, 1842, 
and served a full term. He was born in Oneida county, N. Y. 
He was Major in the Black Hawk war; Circuit Judge, and in 1841 
was elected Supreme Judge. He served a full terra in the IT. S. 
Senate, beginning March 4, 1843, after which he was elected to the 
Legislature, again Circuit Judge, and, in 1857, to the Supreme 
Court, which position he held until his death in 1878. 

James Semple — Was the successor of Samuel McRoberts, and 
was appointed by Gov. Ford in 1843. He was afterwards elected 
Judge of the Supreme Court. 

Stephen A. Douglas — Was elected Dec. 14, 1846. He had pre- 
viously served three terms as Congressman. He became his own 
successor in 1853 and again in 1859. From his first entrance in the 
Senate he was acknowledged the peer of Clay, Webster and Cal- 
houn, with whom he served his first term. His famous contest 
with Abraham Lincoln for the Senate in 1858 is the most memor- 
able in the annals of our country. It was called the battle of the 
giants, and resulted in Douglas' election to the Senate, and Lincoln 
to the Presidency. He was born in Brandon^ Vermont, April 23, 
1813, and came to Illinois in 1833, and died in 1861. He was 
appointed Secretary of State by Gov. Carlin in 1840, and shortly 
afterward to the Supreme Bench. 

James Shields — Was elected and assumed his seat in the U. S. 
Senate in 1849, March 4. He «vas born in Ireland in 1810, came 
to the United States in 1827. He served in the Mexican army, was 
elected Senator from Wisconsin, and in 1879 from Missouri for a 
short term. 

Lyman Trumbull— Took his seat in the CT. S. Senate March 4, 
1855, and became his own successor in 1861, He had previously 
served one term in the Lower House of Congress, and served on 
the Supreme Bench. He was born in Connecticut; studied law 


and came to Illinois early in life, where for years he was actively 
engaged in politics. He resides in Chicago. 

Orvill H. Browning — Was appointed U. S. Senator in 1801, to 
till the seat made vacant by the death of Stephen A. Douglas, until 
a Senator could be regularly elected. Mr. Browning was born in 
Harrison county, Kentucky; was admitted to the bar in 1831, and 
settled in Quincy, Illinois, where he engaged in the practice of law, 
and was instrumental, with his friend, Abraham Lincoln, in form- 
ing the Republican party of Illinois at the Blooraington Conven- 
tion, lie entered Johnson's cabinet as Secretary of the Interior, 
and in March, 1868, was designated by the President to perform the 
duties of Attorney General, in additioi: to his own, as Secretary of 
the Interior Department. 

Willtam A. Richardson — Was elected to the U. S. Senate in 
1863, to fill the unexpired term of his friend, Stephen A Douglas. 
He was born in Fayette county, Ky., about 1810, studied law, 
and settled in Illinois; served as captain in the Mexican War, and, 
on the battle-field of Buena Vista, was promoted for bravery, by a 
unanimous vote of his regiment. He served in the Lower House 
of Congress from 1847 to 1856, continually. 

Richard Yates — Was elected to the U. S. Senate in 1865, serv- 
ing a full term of six years. He died in St. Louis, Mo., Nov. 27, 

John A. Logan — Was elected to the U. S. Senate in 1871. He 
was born in Jackson county, 111., Feb. 9, 1826, received a common 
school education, and enlisted as a private in the Mexican War, 
where he rose to the rank of Regimental Quartermaster. On 
returning home he studied law, and came to the bar in 1852; was 
elected in 1858 a Representative to the 36th Congress and re-elected 
to the 37t]i Congress, resigning in 1861 to take part in the sup- 
pression of the Rebellion; served as Colonel and subsequently as a 
Major General, and commanded, with distinction, the armies of 
the Tennessee. He was again elected to the U. S. Senate in 1879 
for six years. 

David Davis — Was elected to the U. S. Senate in 1877 for a term 
of six years. He was born in Cecil county, Md., March 9, 1815, 
graduated at Kenyon College, Ohio, studied law, and removed to 
Illinois in 1835; was admitted to the bar and settled in Blooming- 
ton, where he has since resided and amassed a large fortune. He 


was for many years tlie intimate friend and associate of Abraham 
Lincoln, rode the circuit with him each year, and after Lincoln's 
election to the Presidency, was appointed by him to fill the position 
of Judge of the Supreme Court of the United States. 



John McLean \... .1818 Daniel P. Cook 1825-26 


Daniel P. Cook 1819-30 Joseph Duncan 1827-28 


Daniel P. Cook 1821-22 Joseph Duncan. 1829-30 


Daniel P. Cook 1823-24 Joseph Duncan 1831-32 


Joseph Duncan 1833-34 Zadock Casey 1833-34 


Zadock Casey 1835-36 William L. May 1835-36 

John Reynolds 1835-36 


Zadock Casey 1837-38 William L. May 1837-38 

John Reynolds 1837-38 


Zadock Casey.. . .1839-40 John T. Stuart 1839-40 

John Reynolds 1839^0 


Zadock Casey 1841-i2 John T. Stuart 1841-42 

John Reynolds 1841-42 


Robert Smith 1843-44 Joseph P. Hoge 1843-44 

Orlando B. Finklin 1843-44 John J. Hardin 1843-i4 

Stephen A. Douglas 1843-44 John Wentworth 1843-44 

John A. McClernand 1843-44 


Robert Smith 1845^6 Joseph P. Hoge 1845-46 

Stephen A. Douglas 1845-4G John A. McClernand 1845-46 

Orlando B. Finklin 1845-46 John Wentworth 1845-46 

John J. Hardin 1845 


John Wentworth 18i7-48 Orlando B. Finklin 1847-48 

Thomas J. Turner 1847 Robert Smith 1847-48 

Abraham Lincoln 1847-48 William A. Richardson 1847^8 

John A. McClernand 1847-48 



John A. McCieruaod 1849-50 Edward D. Bakor 1849-50 

John Wentworth 1849-50 William H. Bissell 1849-50 

Timothy R. Young 1849-50 Thomas L Harris. 1849 

William A. Richardson 1849-.50 


William A. Richardson 1851-53 Richard Yates 1851-52 

Thompson Campbell 1851-52 Richard S. Maloney 1851-52 

Orlando B. Finklin 1851-52 Willis 1851-53 

John Wentworth 1851-52 William H. Bissell 1851-53 


William H. Bissell 1853-54 Thompson Campbell 1853-54 

John C. Allen 1853-54 James Knox 1853-54 

Willis 1853-54 Jesse O. Norton 1853-54 

Elihu B. Washburne 1853-54 William A. Richardson 1863-54 

Richard Yates 1853-54 


Elihu B. Washburne 1855-5G Samuel S. Marshall 1855-56 

Lyman Trumbull 1855-56 J. L. D. Morrison 1855-56 

James H. Woodworth 1855-56 John C. Allen 1855-56 

James Knox.. 1855-56 Jesse O. Norton .1855-56 

Thompson Campbell - 1855-56 William A. Richardson 1855-56 


Elihu B. Washburne... 1857-58 Samuel S.Marshall ....1857-58 

Charles D. Hodges 1857-58 Isaac N. Morris 1857-58 

William Kellogg. 1857-58 Aaron Shaw 1857-58 

Thompson Campbell 1857-58 Robert Smith 1857-58 

John F. Farnsworth 1857-58 Thomas L. Harris 1857-58 

Owen Lovejoy 1857-58 


Elihu B. Washburne 1859-60 John F. Farnsworth 1859-60 

John A. Logan 1859-60 Philip B. Fouke .....1859-60 

Owen Lovi-joy 1859-60 Thomas L. Harris 1859-60 

John A. McClernand 1859-60 William Kellogg.. 1859-60 

Isaac N Morris 1859-60 James C. Robinson 1859-^0 


Elihu B. Washburne 1861-62 Isaac N. Arnold 1861-63 

James C.Robinson 1861-63 Philip B. Fouke 1861-62 

John A. Logan 1861-63 William Kellogg 1861-62 

Owen Lovejoy 1861-63 • Anthony L. Knapp 1861-62 

John A. McClernand 1861-63 William A. Richardson 1861-63 


Elihu B. Washburne 1803-64 William J. Allen 1863-64 

Jesse O. Norton 1863-64 Isaac N. Arnold 1863-64 

Tames C. Robinson 1863-G4 John R. Eden 1868-64 





Lewis W. Ross 1863-64 

John T. Stuart 1863-64 

Owen Lovejoy 1863-64 

William R. Morrison 1863-64 

John C. Allen 1863-64 

John F. Farnswortb 1863-64 

Charles W. Morrjs 1863-64 

Ebea C. Ingersoll 1863-64 

Antuony L. Knapp 1863-64 


Elihu B. Washburne 1865-66 

Anthony B. Thornton 1865-66 

John Wentworth 1865-66 

Abuer C. Hardin 1865-66 

Eben C. Ingprsoll 1805-06 

Barton C. Cook 1865-f)6 

Shelby M. Cullom 1865-66 

Jonn F. Famsworth 1865-66 

Jbhu Baker , 1865-66 

Henry P. H. Bromwell 1865-66 

Andrew Z. Kuykandall 1865-66 

Samuel S. Marshall 1865-66 

Samuel W. Moulton 1865-06 

Lewis W. Ross 1805-66 


Elihu B. Washbufne 1867-68 

Abner C. Hardin 1867-68 

Eben C. Ingersoll 1867-68 

Norman B. Judd 1867-68 

Albert G. Burr 1867-68 

Burton C. Cook 1867-68 

Shelby M. Cullom .1867-68 

John F. Famsworth 1867-68 

Jehu Baker 1867-68 

Henry P. H. Bromwell 1867-68 

John A Logan. . . , 1867-68 

Samuel S. Marshall 1867-68 

Green B. Raum 1867-68 

Lewis W. Ross .1867-68 


Norman B. Judd 1869-70 

John F. Famsworth 1869-70 

H. C. Burchard -. 1869-70 

John B. Hawley 1869-70 

Eben C. Ingersoll 1869-70 

Burton C. Cook 1869-70 

Jesse H. Moore 1869-70 

Shelby M. Cullom 1869-70 

Thomas W. McNeely 1869-70 

Albert G. Burr 1869-70 

Samuel S. Marshall 1869-70 

John B. Hay 1869-70 

John M. Crebs 1869-70 

John A. Logan 1869-70 


Charles B. Farwell 1871-72 

John F. Famsworth 187 (-72 

Horatio C. Burchard 1871-72 

John B. Hawley 1871-72 

Bradford N. Stevens 1871-72 

Henry Snapp 1871-72 

H.Moore 1871-72 

James 0. Robinson 1871-72 

Thomas W. McNeely 1871-72 

Edward Y. Rice 1871-72 

Samuel 8. Marshall 1871-72 

Jolm B. Hay 1871-72 

John M. Crebs 1871-72 

John S. Beveredge 1871-72 


John B. Rice 1873-74 

Jasper D. Ward 1873-74 

Charles B. Farwell 1873-74 

Stephen A. Hurlbut 1873-74 

Horatio C. Burchard 1873-74 

Johj» B. Hawley 1873-74 

Franklin Corwin 1873-74 

Robert M. Knapp 1873-74 

James C. Robinson • 1873-74 

John B. McNulta 1873-74 

Joseph G. Cannon 1873-74 

John R. Eden 1873-74 

James S. Martin 1873-74 

William R. Morrison 187^-74 



Grcciibury L. Fort 1873-74 

Granville Banerc ....1873-74 

William H. Kay 1873-74 

Isaac Clements 1873-74 

Samuel S. Marshall 1873-74 


Bernard G. Caulfield 1875-76 

Carter H. Hariison 1875-76 

Charles B. Farwell 1875-76 

Stephen A. Hnrlbut 1875-76 

Horatio C. Burchard .'1875-76 

Thomas J. Henderson 1875-76 

Alexander Campbell 1875-76 

Greenbury L. Fort 1875-16 

Itichard H. Whiting 1875-76 

.John C. Bagby 1875-76 

Scott Wike 1875- 

William M. Springer 1875- 

Adlai E. Stevenson 1875- 

Joseph G. Cannon. 18'i5- 

John R. Eden 1875- 

W. A.J. Sparks 1875- 

William R. Morrison 1875- 

Williara Hartzcll 1875- 

William B. Anderson 1875- 


William Aldrich 1877-78 

Carter H. Harrison 1877-78 

Lorenzo Brentano 1877-78 

William Lathrop 1877-78 

Horatio C. Burchard 1877-78^ 

Thomas J. Henderson 1877-78 

Philip C. Hayes 1877-78 

Greenbury L. Fort 1877-78 

Thomas A. Boyd 1877-78 

Benjamin F. Marsh 1877-78 

Robert M. Rnapp 1877-78 

William M. Springer 1877-78 

Thomas F. Tipton 1877-78 

Joseph G. CannoB 1877-78 

John R. Eden r877-78 

W. A. J. Sparks 1877-78 

William R. Morrison 1877-78 

William Hartzell '. 1877-78 

Richard W. Townshend 1877-78 


William Aldrich 1879-80 

George R. Da^^is 1879-80 

Hiram Barber 1879-80 

.John C. Sherwin 1879-80 

R. M. A. Hawk 1879-80 

Thomas J. Henderson 1879-80 

Philip C. Hayes 1879-80 

Greenbury L. Fort 1879-80 

Thomas A. Boyd 1879-80 

Benjamin F. Marsh 1879-80 

James W. Singleton 1879-80 

William M. Springer ^ .1879-80 

A. E. Stevenson 1879-SO 

Joseph G. Cannon 1879-80 

Albert P. Forsythe 1879-80 

W. A. J. Sparks .1879-80 

William R. Morrison 1879-80 

John R. Thomas 1879-80 

R. W. Townshend 1879-80 


Wliile we cannot, in the brief space we have, give more than a 
meager sketch of such a city as Chicago, yet we feel the liistory of 
the State would be incomplete without speaking of its metropolis, 
the most wonderful city on the globe. 

In comparing Chicago as it was a few years since with Chicago 
of to-dav, we behold a change wliose veritable existence we should 


be inclined to doubt were it not a stern, indisputable fact. Ila})iJ 
as is the customary development of places and things in the United 
States, the growth of Chicago and her trade stands without a parallel. 
The city is situated on the west shore of Lake Michigan at the 
mouth of the Chicago river. It lies 14 feet above the lake, having 
been raised to that grade entirely by the energy of its citizens, its 
site having originally been on a dead level with the water of the 

The city extends north and south along the lake about ten miles, 
and westward on the prairie from the lake five or six miles, embrac- 
ing an area of over 40 square miles. It is divided by the river 
into three distinct parts, known as the North, West and South 
Divisions, or "Sides," by which they are popularly and commonly 
known. These are connected by 33 bridges and two tunnels. 

The first settlement of Chicago was made in 1804, during which 
year Fort Dearborn was built. At the close of 1830 Chicago con- 
tained'12 houses, with a population of about 100. The town was 
organized in 1833, and incorporated as a city in 1837. The first 
frame building was erected in 18o2, and the first brick house in 
1833. The first vessel entered the harbor June 11, 1834; and at 
the first ofticial census, taken July 1, 1837, the entire population 
was found to be 4,170. In 1850 the population had increased to 
29,963; in 1860, to 112,172; in 1870,298,977; and, according to 
the customary mode of reckoning from the number of names in 
the City Directory, the population of 1879 is over 500,000. 

Nicholas Perrot, a Frenchman, was the first white man to visit 
the site of Chicago. This he did in 1671, at the instigation of M. 
Toulon, Governor of Canada. He was sent to invite the Western 
Indians to a convention at Green Bay. It has been often remarked 
that the first white man who became a resident of Chicago was a 
negro. His name was Jean Baptiste Pointe au Sable, a mulatto from 
the West Indies. He settled there in 1796 and built a rude cabin on 
the north bank of the main river, and laid claim to a tract of lan^ 
surrounding it. He disappeared from the scene, and his claim was 
"jumped" by a Frenchman named Le Mai, who commenced trad- 
ing with the Indians. A few years later he sold out to John Kin- 
zie, who was then an Indian trader in the country about St. 
Joseph, Mich., and agent for the American Fur Company, which 
had traded at Chicago with the Indians for some time; and this 


fact had, probably more than any other, to do with the determina- 
tion of the Government to establish a fort there." The Indians 
were growing numerous in that region, being attracted by the 
facilities for selling their wares, as well as being pressed northward 
by the tide of emigration setting in from the south. It was judged 
necessary to have some force near that point to keep them in 
check, as well as to protect the trading interests. Mr. Kinzie 
moved his family there the 'same year Fort Dearborn was built^ 
and converted the Jean Baptiste cabin into a tasteful dwelling. 

For about eight years things moved along smoothly. The garri- 
son was quiet, and the traders prosperous. Then the United States 
became involved in trouble with Great Britain. The Indians took 
the war-path long before the declaration of hostilities between the 
civilized nations, committinsj great depredations, the most atro- 
cious df ♦•which was the massacre of Fort Dearborn, an account of 
which may be found in this volnme under the heading of "The 
War of 1812." 


From the year 1840 the onward march of the city of Chicago 
to the date of the great fire is well known. To recount its marvel- 
ous growth in population, wealth, internal resources and improve- 
ments and everything else that goes to make up a mighty city, 
would consume more space than we could devote, however interest- 
ing it might be. Its progress astonished the world, and its citizens 
stood almost appalled at the work of their own hands. She was 
happy, prosperous and great when time brought that terrible Octo- 
ber night (Oct. 9, 1871) and with it the great fire, memorable as 
the greatest fire ever occurring on earth. The sensation conveyed 
to the spectator of this unparalleled event, either through the eye, 
the ear, or other senses or sympathies, cannot be adequately 
described, and any attempt to do it but shows the poverty of lan- 
guage. Asa spectacle it was beyond doubt the grandest as well as 
the most appalling ever offered to mortal eyes. From any 
elevated standpoint the appearance was that of a vast ocean of 
flame, sweeping in mile-long billows and breakers over the doomed 

Added to the spectacular elements of the conflagration — the 
intense and lurid light, the sea of red and black, and the spires and 
pyramids of flame shooting into the heavens — was its constant and 


terrible roar, drowning even the voices of tlie shrieking nmMfe«4e| 
and ever and anon — for a while as often as every half- minute — 
resounded far and wide the rapid detonations of explosions, or fall- 
ing walls. In short, all sights and sounds which terrify the weak 
and unnerve the stronoj abounded. But they were only the accom- 
paniment which the orchestra of nature were furnishing to the 
terrible tragedy there being, enacted. 

The total area burned over, including streets, was three and a 
third square miles. The number of bnildings destroyed was 
17,450; persons rendered homeless, 98,500; persons killed, about 
200. Not including depreciation of real estate, or loss of business, 
it is estimated that the total loss occasioned by the fire was 
$190,000,000, of which but $44,000,000 was recovered on insur- 
ance. , The business of the city was interrupted but a short time; 
and in a year after the fire a large part of the burned district was 
rebuilt, and at present there is scarcely a trace of the terrible dis- 
aster, save in the improved character of the new buildings over 
those destroyed, and the general better appearance of the city — 
now the finest, in an architectural sense, in the world. 

One of the features of this great city worthy of mention is the 
Exposition, held annually. The smouldering ruins were yet smok- 
ing when the Exposition Building was erected, only ninety days 
being consumed in its construction. The accompanying engrav- 
ingf of the building, the main part of which is 1,000 feet long, 
will give an idea of its magnitude. 


The trade of Chicago is co-extensive with the world. Every- 
where, in every country and in every port, the trade- marks of her 
merchants are seen. Everywhere, Chicago stands prominently 
identified with the commerce of the continent. A few years ago, 
grain was carted to the place in wagons; now more than 10,000 
miles of railroad, with thousands of trains heavily ladened with the 
products of the land center there. The cash value of the produce 
handled during the year 1878 was $220,000,000, and its aggregate 
weight was 7,000,000 tons, or would make 700,000 car loads. 
Divided into trains, it would make 28,000 long, heavily ladened 
freight trains, wending their way from all parts of the United States 
toward our great metropolis. These trains, arranged in one con- 


tinnous line, would stretch tVoni London across the broad Atlantic 
to New York and on across our continent to San Francisco. 

In rei^urd to the grain, lumber and stock trade, Ciiicago has sur- 
])assed all rivals, and, indeed, not oalv is without a peer but excels 
any three oi" four cities in the world in these branches. Of grain, 
the vast quantity of 131,851, lO.) bushels was received during the 
year 1878. This was about two-iifths more than ever received 
before in one year. It took 13,000 long freight trains to carry it 
from the fields of the Nortl-.wcst to Chicago. This would make a 
continuous train that would rtnch across the continent from New 
York to San Francisco. S|)eaKlng more in detail, we have of the 
various cereals received daring the year, 62,783,577 bushels of corn, 
29,901,220 bushels of wlieat, 18,251,529 bushels of oats, 133,981,104 
pounds of seed. The last item alone would till about 7,000 freight 

The lumber received djtring the year 1878 was, 1,171,364,000 feet, 
exceeded only in 1872, the year after the great fire. This vast 
amount of lumber would require 195,000 freight cars to transport 
it. It would build a ience, four boards high, four and one-half 
times around the globe. 

In the stock trade for the 3'ear 1878, the figures assume propor- 
tions almost incredible. They are, however, from reliable and 
trustvforthy sources, and must be accepted as authentic. There 
were received during the year, 6,339,656 hogs, being 2,000,000 more 
than ever received before in one year. It required 129,916 stock 
cars to transport this vast number of hogs from the farms of the 
West and Northwest to the stock yards of Chicago. These hogs 
arranged in single file, would form a connecting link between 
Chicago and Pekin, China. 

Of the large number of hogs received, five millions of them were 
slaughtered in Chicago. The aggregate amount of product manu- 
factured from these hogs was 918,000,000 pounds. The capacity of 
tlie houses engaged in slaughtering operations in Chicago is 60,000 
hogs daily. Tiie number of hands employed in these houses is 
from 6,000 to 8.000. The number of packages required in which 
to market the year's product is enormously large, aggregating 500,- 
000 barrels, 800,000 tierces and 650,000 boxes. 

There has been within the stock yards of the city, during the 
year 187S, 1,036,066 cattle. These were gathered from the plains 


of Oregon, "Wyoming and Utah, and the grazing regions of Texas, 
as well as from all the Southern, Western and Northwestern States 
and Territories and from the East as far as Ohio. If these cattle 
were driven from Chicago southward, in single file, through the 
United States, Mexico, and the Central American States into South 
America, the foremost could graze on the plains of Brazil, ere the 
last one had passed the limits of the great city. 

Not only does Chicago atttract to its great market the products of 
a continent, but from it is distributed throughout the world manu- 
factured goods. Every vessel and every train headed toward that 
city are heavily ladened with the crude products of the farm, of the 
forests, or of the bowels of the earth, and every ship that leaves her 
docks and every train that flies from her limits are filled with 
manufactured articles. These goods not only find their way all 
over our own country but into Europe, Asia, Australia, Africa, 
South America, Mexico, and the Islands of the sea; indeed, every 
nook and corner of the globe, where there is a demand for her 
goods, her merchants are ready to supply. 

The wholesale trade for the year 1S78 reached enormous figures, 
aggregating $280,000,000. Divided among the leading lines, we 
find there were sold of dry goods, $95,000,000 worth. The trade in 
groceries amounted to $66,000,000; hardware, $20,000,000; boots 
and shoes, $24,000,000; clothing, $17,000,000; carpets, $8,000,000; 
millinery, $7,000,000; hats and caps, $6,000,000; leather, $8,000,- 
000; drugs, $6,000,000; jewelry, $4,500,000; musical instruments, 
$2,300,000. Chicago sold over $5,000,000 worth of fruit during 
the year, and for the same time her fish trade amounted to $1,400,- 
000, and her oyster trade $4,500,000. The candy and other con- 
fectionery trade amounted to $1,534,900. This would fill all the 
Christmas stockings in the United States. 

In 1852, the commerce of the city reached the hopeful sum of 
$20,000,000; since then, the annual sales of one firm amount to 
that much. In 1870, it reached $400,000,000, and in 1878 it had 
grown so rapidly that the trade of the city amounted during that 
year to $650,000,000. Her manufacturing interests have likewise 
grown. In 1878, her manufactories employed in the neighborhood 
of 75,000 operators. The products manufactured during the year 
were valued at $230,000,000. In reviewing the shipping interests of 
Chicago, we find it equally enormous. So considerable, indeed, is the 


commercial navy of Chicago, that in the seasons of navigation, one 
vessel sails every nine minutes during the business hours; add to 
this the canal-boats that leave, one every five minutes during the 
same time, and you will see somothiug of the magnitude of her 
shipping. More vessels arrive and depart from this port during the 
season than enter or leave any other port in the world. 

In 1831, the mail system was condensed into a half-breed, who 
went on foot to Niles, Mich., once in two weeks, and brought back 
what papers and news he could find. As late as 1846, there was 
often but one mail a week. A post-office was established in 
Chicago in r.S33, and the postmaster nailed up old boot legs upon 
one side of his shop to serve as boxes. It has since grown to be 
the largest receiving office in the United States. 

In 1844-, the quagmires in the streets were first pontooned by 
plank roads. The wooden-block pavement appeared in 1857. In 
1840, water was delivered by peddlers, in carts or by hand. Then 
a twenty -five liorse power engine pushed it through hollow or bored 
logs along the streets till 1854, when it was introduced into the 
bouses by new works. The first fire-engine was used in 1835, and 
the first steam fire-engine in 1859. Gas was utilized for lighting 
the city in 1850. The Young Men's Christian Association was 
organized in 1858. Street cars commenced running in 1854. The 
Museum was opened in 1863. The alarm telegraph adopted in 
1864. The opera-house built in 1865. The telephone introduced 
in 1878. 

One of the most thoroughly interesting engineering exploits of 
the city is the tunnels and water-works system, the grandest and 
most unique of any in the world; and the closest analysis fails to 
detect any impurities in the water furnished. The first tunnel is 
five feet two inches in diameter and two miles long, and can deliver 
50,000,000 gallons per day. The second tunnel is seven feet in 
diameter and six miles long, running four miles under the city, and 
can deliver 100,000,000 gallons per day. This water is distributed 
through 410 miles of water mains. 

Chicago river is tunneled for the passage of pedestrians and vehi- 
cles from the South to the West and I^orth divisions. 

There is no grand scenery about Chicago except the two seas, one 
of water, the other of prairie. Kevertheless, there is a spirit about 
it, a push, a breadth, a power, that soon makes it a place never to 


be forsaken. Chicago is in the field almost alone, to handle the 
wealth of one-fourth of the territory of this great republic. The 
Atlantic sea-coast divides its margins between Portland, Boston, 
New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore and Savannah, but Chicago has 
a dozen empires casting their treasures into her lap. On a bed of 
coal that can run all the machinery of the world for 500 centuries; 
in a garden that can feed tlie race by the tliousand years; at the 
head of the lakes that give lier a temperature as a summer resort 
equaled by no great city in the land; with a climate that insures 
the heal t}i of her citizens; surrounded by all the great deposits of 
natural wealth in mines and forests and herds, Chicago is the 
wonder of to-day, and will be the city of the future. 



Alabama. — This State was first explored by LaSalle in 16S4, and 
settled by the French at Mobile in 1711, and admitted as a State in 
1817. Its name is Indian, and means " Here we rest." Has no 
motto. Population in 1860,964,201; in 1870,996,992. Furnished 
2,576 soldiers for the Union army. Area 50,722 square miles. 
Montgomery is the capital. Has 8 Representatives and 10 Presi- 
dential electors. Rufus W. Cobb is Governor; salary, $3,000; 
politics. Democratic. Length of term, 2 years, 

Arkansas — Became a State in 1836. Population in 1860, 435,- 
450; in 1870,484,471. Area 53,198 square miles. Little Ptock, 
capital. Its motto is Regnant Populi — " The people rule." It lias 
the Indian name of its principal river. Is called the " Bear State." 
Furnished 8,289 soldiers. She is entitled to 4 members in Congress? 
and 6 electoral votes. Governor, W, R. Miller, Democrat; salary, 
$3,500; term, 2 years. 

California — Has a Greek motto. Eureka, which means " I have 
found it." It derived its name from the bay forming the peninsula 
of Lower California, and was first applied by Cortez. It was first 
visited by the Spaniards in 1542, and by the celebrated English 


navigator, Sir Francis Drake, in 1578. In 1846 Fremont took 
possession of -it, defeating the Mexicans, in the name of the United 
States, and it was admitted as a State in 1850. Its gold mines 
from 1868 to 1878 produced over $800,000,000. Area 188,982 square 
miles. Population in 1860, 379,991. In 1870, 560,247. She gave 
to defend the Union 15,225 soldiers. Sacramento is the capital. 
Has 4 Representatives in Congress. Is entitled to 6 Presidential 
electors. Present Governor is William Irwin, a Democrat; term, 
4 years; salary, $6,000. 

Colorado — Contains 106,475 square miles, and had a population 
in 1860 of 34,*277, and in 1870, 39,864. She furnislred 4,903 
soldiers. Was admitted as a State in 1876. It has a Latin motto, 
Nil sine Numine^ which means, " Nothing can be done without 
divine aid." It was named from its river. Denver is the capital. 
Has 1 member in Congress, and 3 electors, T. W. Pitkin is Gov- 
ernor; salary, $3,000; term, 2 years; politics, llepublican. 

Connecticut — Qui transtulit sustinet, " He who brought us over 
sustains us," is her motto. It was named from the Indian Quon- 
ch-ta-Cut, signifying "Long Jliver." It is called the "Nutmeg 
State." Area 4,674 square miles. Population 1860, 460,147; in 
1870, 537,454. Gave to the Union army 55,755 soldiers. Hart- 
ford is the capital. Has 4 Representatives in Congress, and is 
entitled to 6 Presidential electors. Salary of Governor $2,000; 
term, 2 years. 

Delaware. — " Liberty and Independence," is the motto of this 
State, It was named after Lord De La Ware, an English states- 
man, and is called, '' The Blue Hen," and the '• Diamond State." It 
was first settled by the Swedes in 1638. It was one of the original 
thirteen States. Has an area of 2,120 square miles. Population iti 
1860, 112,216; in 1870, 125,015. She sent to the front to defend 
the Union, 12,265 soldiers. Dover is the capital. Has but 1 mem- 
ber in Congress; entitled to 3 Presidential electors, John W. 
Hall, Democrat, is Governor; salary, $2,000; term, 2 years. 

Florida — Was discovered by Ponce de Leon in 1512, on Easter 
Sunday, called by the Spaniards, Pascua Florida, which, with the 
variety and beauty of the flowers at this early season caused him to 
name it Florida — which means in Spanish, flowery. Its motto is, 
" In God we trust," It was admitted into the Union in 1845. It has 
an area of 59,268 square miles. Population in 1860, 140,424; in 


1870, 187,756. Its capital is Tallahassee. Has 2 members in Con- 
gress. Has 4 Presidential electors. Geoi-f^e F. Drew, Democrat, 
Governor; term, 4 years; salary, $3,500. 

Georgia — Owes its name to George II., of England, who first 
established a colony there in 1732. Its motto is, " Wisdom, justice 
and moderation." It was one of the original States. Population 
in 1860, 1,067,286; 1870,1,184,109. Capital, Atlanta. Area 58, 
000 square miles. Has 9 -Representatives in Congress, and 11 
Presidential electors. Her Governor is A. H. Colquitt, Democrat; 
term, 4 years; salary, $4,000. 

Illinois — Motto, '* State Sovereignty, National Union." Name 
derived from the Indian word, Illini, meaning, superior men. It 
is called the ''Prairie State," and its inhabitants, "Suckers." 
Was first explored by the French in 1673, and admitted into the 
Union-in 1818. Area 55,410 square miles. Population, in 1860 
1,711,951; in 1870, 2,539,871. She sent to the front to defend the 
Union, 258,162 soldiers. Capital, Springfield Has 19 members in 
Congress, and 21 Presidential electors. Shelby M. Cnllom, Repub. 
lican, is Governor; elected for 4 years; salary, $6,000. 

Indiana — Is called " Hoosier State." Was explored in 1682, 
and admitted as a State in 1816. Its name was suggested by its 
numerous Indian population. Area 33,809 square miles. Popu- 
lation in 1860, 1,350,428; in 1870, 1,680,637. She put into the 
Federal army, 194,363 men. Capital, Indianapolis. Has 18 mem- 
bers in Congress, and 15 Presidential electors. J. D. Williams, 
Governor, Democrat; salary, $3,000; term, 4 year, 

Iowa — Is an Indian name and means "This is the land." Its 
motto is, "Our liberties we prize, our rights we will maintain." 
It is called the " Hawk Eye State," It was first visited by 
Marquette and Joliet in 1673; settled by New Englanders in 
1833, and admitted into the Union in 1846, Des Moines is the 
capital. It has an area of 55,045, and a population in 1860 of 674,913, 
and in 1870 of 1,191,802, She sent to defend the Government, 
75,793 soldiers. Has 9 members in Congress; 11 Presidential 
electors, John H. Gear, Republican, is Governor; salary, $2,500; 
term, 2years. 

Kansas — Was admitted into the Union in 1861, making the 
thirty-fourth State. Its motto is Ad astra per aspera, " To the 
stars through difiiculties." Its name means, " Smoky water," and 


is derived from one of her rivers. Area 78,84:1 square miles. 
Population in 1S60, 107,209; in 1870 was 3l)2,812. She furnished 
20,095 soldiers. Capital is Topeka. Has 3 Representatives in Con- 
gress, and 5 Presidential electors. John P. St. John, Governor; 
politics, Ilepubiican; salary, $3,000; term, 2 years. 

Kentucky — Is the Indian name for " x\t the head of the rivers." 
Its motto is, '* United we stand, divided we fall." The sobriquet 
of "dark and bloody ground " is applied to this State. It was first 
settled in 1769, and admitted in 1792 as the fifteenth State. Area 
37,(iS0. Population in 1860, 1,155,684; in 1870, 1,321,000. She 
put into the Federal army 75,285 soldiers. Capital, Frankfort. 
Has 10 members in Congress ; 12 Electors. J. B. McCreary, 
Democrat, is Governor; salary, $5,000; term, 4 years. 

Louisiana — Was called after Louis XIY., who at one time 
owned that section of the country. Its motto is " Union and Con- 
fidence." It is called "The Creole State." It was visited by La 
Salle in 1684, and admitted into the Union in 1812, making the 
eighteenth State. Population in 1860,708,002; in 1870, 732,731. 
Ai-ea 46,431 square miles. She put into the Federal army 5,224 
soldiers. Capital, Xew Orleans. Has 6 Pepresentatives and 8 
Electors. F. T. Nichols, Governor, Democrat; salary, $8,000; 
term, 4 years. 

Maine. — This State was called after the province of Maine in 
France, in compliment of Queen Henrietta of England, who owned 
that province. Its motto is Diriyo^ meaning " I direct." It is 
called "The Pine Tree State." It was settled by the English in 
1625. It was admitted as a State in 1820. Area 31,766 square 
miles. Population in 1860, 628,279; in 1870, 626,463; 69,738 sol- 
diers v/ent from this State. Has 5 members in Congress, and 7 
Electors. Selden Conner, Republican, Governor; term, 1 year; 
iialary, $2,500. 

Maryland — Was named after Henrietta Maria, Queen of 
Charles I. of England. It has a Latin motto, Crecite ct multiplica- 
mini, meaning " Increase and Multiply." It was settled in 1634, 
and was one of the original thirteen States. It has an area of 11,- 
124 square miles. Population in 1860 was 687,049; in 1870, 780,- 
806. This State furnished 46,053 soldiers. Capital, Annapolis. 
Has 6 Representatives, and S Presidential electors. J. H. Carroll, 
Democrat, Governor; salary, $1,500; term, 4 years. 


Massachusetts — Is the Indian for '' The country around the great 
hills." It is called the " Bay State," Ironi its numerous bays. Its 
motto is Ense petit placldavi sub Uhertate quietem, " By the sword 
she seeks placid rest in liberty." It was settled in 1620 at Plymouth 
by English Puritans. It was one of the original thirteen States, 
and was the first to take up arms against the English during tlie 
Eevolution. Area 7,800 square miles. Population in 1860, 1.231,- 
066; in 1870, 1,457,351. She gave to the Union army 146,467 sol- 
diers. Boston is the capital. Has 11 Representatives in Con- 
gress, and 13 Presidential electors. Thomas Talbot, Republican, is 
Governor; salary, $5,000; term, 1 year, 

Michigan — Latin motto, Luebor, and Si qucei^is peninsulam 
ammnani circu?nspice, ^^ 1 will defend" — "If you seek a pleasant 
peninsula, look around you." The name is a contraction of two 
Indian words n:eaning "Great Lake." It was early explored by 
Jesuit missionaries, and in 1837 was admitted into the Union. It 
is known as the " Wolverine State." It contains 56,243 square 
miles. In 1860 it had a population of 749,173; in 1870, 1,184,059. 
She furnished 88,111 soldiers. Capital, Lansing. Has 9 Repre- 
sentatives and 11 Presidential electors. C. M. Croswell is Gov- 
ernor; politics, Republican; salary, $1,000; term, 2 years. 

Minnesota — Is an Indian name, meaning " Cloudy Water." It 
has a French motto, VEtoile du Nord — " The Star of the North." 
It was visited in 1680 by La Salle, settled in 1846, and admitted 
into the Union in 1858. It contains 83,531 square miles. In 1860 
had a population of 172,023; in 1870, 439,511. She gave to the 
Union army 24;002 soldiers. St. Paul is the capital. Has 3 mem- 
bers in Congress, 5 Presidential electors. Governor, J. S. Pills- 
bury, Republican; salary, $3,000; term, 2 years. 

Mississippi — Is an Indian name, meaning " Long River," and the 
State is named from the " Father of Waters." The State was first 
explored by De Sota in 1541; settled by the French at Natchez in 
1716, and was admitted into the Union in 1817. It has an area of 
47,156 square miles. Population in 1860, 791,305; in 1870,827,- 
922. She gave to suppress the Rebellion 545 soldiers. Jackson is 
tjie capital. Has 6 representatives in Congress, and 8 Presidential 
electors. J. M. Stone is Governor, Democrat; salary, $4,000; 
term, 4 years. 

Missouri — Is derived from the Indian word " muddy," which 


more properly applies to the river that flows through it. Its motto 
is Salus ijopull saprema lex esto, "Let the vvelt'are of the people 
be the supreme law." Tlie State was lirst settled by the Frencli 
near Jefferson City in 1719, and in 1821 was admitted into the 
Union. It has an area ol" 67,380 square miles, equal to 43,123,200 
acres. It had a population in ISGO of 1,182,012; in 1870, 1,721,- 
000. She gave to defend the Union 108,lt!2 soldiers. Capital, 
Jefferson City. Its inhabitd.nts are known by the offensive cogno- 
man of •' Pukes." Ilas 13 representatives in Congress, and 15 
Presidential electors. J. S. Phelps is Governor; politics, Demo- 
cratic; salary, $5,000; term, 4 years. 

Nebraska — Has f>r its motto, " Equality before the law." Its 
name is derived from one of its rivers, meaning " broad and shal- 
low, or low." It was admitted into the Union in 1867. Its capital 
is Lincoln. It had a population in 1860 of 28,841, and in 1870, 
123,993, and in 1875,240,280. It has an area of 75,995 square 
miles. She furnished to defend the Union 3,157 soldiers. Has but 
1 Representative and 3 Presidential electors. A. Nance, Repub- 
lican, is Governor; salary, $2,500; term, 2 years. 

Nevada — '' The Snowy Land " derived its name from the Span- 
ish. Its motto is Latin, Volens et jpotens^ and means " willing 
and able." It was settled in 1850, and admitted into the Union in 
1864. Capital, Carson City. Its population in 1860 was 6,857; 
in 1870 it was 42,491. It has an area of 112,090 square miles. 
She furnished 1,080 soldiers to suppress the Rebellion. Has 1 Rep- 
resentative and 3 Electors. Governor, J. IJ. Kinkhead, Republican ; 
salary, $6,000; term, 4 years. 

Neio Hampshire — Was first settled at Dover by the English in 
1623. Was one of the original States. Has no motto. It is 
named from Hampshire county in England. It also bears the 
name of " The Old Granite State." It has an area of 9,280 miles, 
which equals 0,239,200 acres. It had a population in 1860 of 326,- 
073, and in 1870 of 318,300. She increased the Union army with 
33,913 soldiers. Concord is the capital. Has 3 Representatives 
and 5 Presidential electors. N. Head, Republican, Governor; 
salary, $1,000; term, 1 year. 

NeAO Jersey — Was named in honor of the Island of Jersey in the 
British channel. Its motto is " Liberty and Independence." It was 
first settled at Bergen by the Swedes in 1624. It is one of the orig- 


inal thirteen States. It has an area of 8,320 square miles, or 5,324,- 
800 acres. Population in 1860 was 672,035; in 1870 it was 906,096. 
She put into the Federal army 75,315 soldiers. Capital, Trenton. 
Has 7 Representatives and 9 Presidential electors. Governor, 
George B. McClelland, Democrat; salary, $5,000; term, 3 years. 

New York. — The " Empire State " was named by the Duke of 
York, afterward King James II. of England. It has a Latin motto. 
Excelsior., which means " Still Higher." It was first settled by the 
Dutch in 1614 at Manhattan. It has an area of 47,000 square 
miles, or 30,080,000 acres. The population in 1860 was 3,880,735 ; 
in 1870 it was 4,332,759. It is one of the original thirteen States. 
Capital is Albany, It gave to defend our Government 445,959 
men. Has 33 members in Congress, and 35 Presidential electors. 
Governor, L. .Robinson, Democrat; salary, $10,000; term, 3 years. 

North Carolina — Was named after Charles IX., King of France. 
It is called " The Old North," or " The Turpentine State." It was 
first visited in 1524 by a Florentine navigator, sent out by Francis 
I., King of France, It was settled at Albemarle in 1663. It was 
one of the original thirteen States. It has an area of 50,704 square 
miles, equal to 32,450,560 acres. It had in 1860 a population of 
992,622, and in 1870, 1,071,361. Raleigh is the capital. She 
furnished 3,156 soldiers to put down the Rebellion. Has 8 mem- 
hers in Congi-ess, and is entitled to 10 Presidential electors. Z. B. 
Vance, Democrat, is Governor; salary, $5,000; term, 4 years. 

Ohio — Took its name from the river on its Southern boundary, 
and means " Beautiful." Its motto is Imperliim in Iinperio — 
■'An Empire in an Empire." It was first permanently settled in 
1788 at Marietta by New Englanders, It was admitted as a State 
in 1803. Its capital is Columbus. It contains 39,964 square 
miles, or 25,576,960 acres. Population in 1860, 2,339,511; in 1870 
it had 2,665,260. She sent to the front during the Rebellion 310,- 
654 soldiers. Has 20 Representatives, and 22 Presidential electors. 
Governor, R. M. Bishop, Democrat; salary, $4,000; term, 2 years. 

Oregon — Owes its Indian name to its principal river. Its motto 
is Alis volat jprojpriis — "She files with her own wings." It was 
first visited by the Spaniards in the sixteenth century. It was set- 
tled by the English in 1813, and admitted into the Union in 1859. 
Its capital is Salem. It has an area of 95,274 square miles, equal 
to 60,975,360 acres. It had in 1860 a population of 52,465; in 


1870, 90,922. She furnished 1,810 soldiers. She is entitled to 1 
member in Congress, and 3 Presidential electors. W. W. Thayer, 
Kepublican, is Governor; salary, $1,500; term, 4 years. 

Pennsijlvania. — This is the ''Keystone State," and means "Penn's 
Woods," and was so called after William Penn, its original owner. 
Its motto is, " Virtue, liberty and independence." A colony was 
established by Penn in 1682. The State was one of the original 
thirteen. It has an area of 46,000 square miles, equaling 29,440,- 
000 acres. It had in 1860 a'population of 2,906,215; and in 1870, 
3,515,993. She gave to suppress the Rebellion, 338,155. Harris- 
burg is the capital. Has 27 Representatives and 29 electors. H. 
M.Hoyt, is Governor; salary, $10,000; politics, Republican; term 
of office, 3 years. 

Rhode Island. — This, the smallest of the States, owes its name to 
the Island of Rhodes in the Mediterranean, which domain it is said 
to greatly resemble. Its motto is " Hope," and it is familiarly 
called, "Little Rhody." It was settled by Roger Williams in 1030. 
It was one of the original thirteen States, It has an area of 1,306 
square miles, or 835,840 acres. Its population in 1800 numbered 
174,620; in 1870, 217,356. She gave to defend the Union, 23,248. 
Its capitals are Providence and Newport. Has 2 Representatives, 
and 4 Presidential electors. C. Vanzandt is Governor; politics, 
Republican; salary, $1,000; term, 1 year. 

South Carolina. — The Palmetto State wears the Latin name of 
Charles IX., of France (Carolus). Its motto -is Latin, Animis 
oplbusque parati, " Ready in will and deed." The first permanent 
settlement was made at Port Royal in 1670, where the French 
Huguenots had failed three-quarters of a century before to found a 
settlement. It is one of the original. thirteen States. Its capital is 
Columbia. It has an area of 29,385 square miles, or 18,^^06,400 . 
acres, with a population in 1860 of 703,708; in 1870, 728,000. 
Has 5 Representatives in Congress, and is entitled to 7 Presidential 
electors. Salary of Governor, $3,500; term, 2 ^^ears. 

Tennessee — Is the Indian name for the " River of the Bend," i.e_ 
the Mississippi, which forms its western boundary. She is called 
"The Big Bend State." Her motto is, " Agriculture, Commerce." 
It was settled in 1757, and admitted into the Union in 1796, mak- 
ing the sixteenth State, or the third admitted after the Revolution- 
ary War — Vermont being the first, and Kentucky the second. It 


has an area of 45,600 square miles, or 29,184,000 acres. In 1860 
its population numbered 1,109,801, and in 1870, 1,257,983 She 
furnished 31,092 soldiers to suppress the Rebellion. Nashville is 
the capital. Has 10 Representatives, and 12 Rresidential electors. 
Governor, A. S. Marks, Democrat; salary, $4,000; terra, 2 years. 

Texas — Is the American word for the Mexican name by which 
all that section of the country was known before it was ceded to the 
United States. It is known as " The Lone Star State." The first set- 
tlement was made by LaSalle in 1685. After the independence of 
Mexico in 1822, it remained a Mexican Province until 1836, when 
it gained its independence, and in 1845 was admitted into the 
Union. It has an area of 237,504 square miles, equal to 152,002,- 
560 acres. Its population in 1860 was 604,215; in 1870, 818,579. 
She gave to put down the Rebelion 1,965 soldiers. Capital, Austin. 
Has 6 Representatives, and 8 Presidential electors. Governor, O. 
M. Roberts, Democrat; salary, $5,000; term, 2 years. 

Vermont — Bears the French name of her niountains Verde Mont, 
"Green Mountains," Its motto is "Freedom and Unity." It 
was settled in 1731, and admitted into the Union in 1791. Area 
10,212 square miles. Population in 1860, 315,098; in 1870, 330,551- 
She gave to defend the Government, 33,272 soldiers. Capital, Mont- 
pelier. Has 3 Representatives, and 5 electors. Governor, H. Fair- 
banks, Republican; term, 2 years; salary, $1,000. 

Virginia. — The Old Dominion, as this State is called, is the 
oldest of the States. It was named in honor of Queen Elizabeth, 
the '^ Yirgin Queen," in whose reign Sir Walter Raleigh made his 
first attempt to colonize that region. Its motto is Sic semper 
tyrannis, " So always with tyrants." It was first settled at James- 
town, in 1607, by the English, being the first settlement in the 
United States. It is one of original thirteen States, and had before 
its division in 1862, 61,352 square miles, but at present contains 
but 38,352 square miles, equal to 24,545,280 acres. The population 
in 1860 amounted to 1,596,318, and in 1870 it w^as 1,224,830. Rich- 
mond is the capital. Has 9 Representatives, and 11 electors. Gov- 
ernor, F. W. M. Halliday, Democrat; salary, $5,500; terra, 4 years. 

West Virginia. — Motto, Montani seynper liheri, " Mountaineers 
are always free." This is the only State ever formed, under the 
Constitution, by the division of an organized State. This was done 
in 1862, and in 1863 was admitted into the Union. It has an area of 



23.000 square miles, or 14,720,000 acres. The population in 1860 
was 376,000; in 1870 it numbered 445,616. She furnished 32,003. 
Capital, Wheeling. Has 3 Representatives in Congress, and is 
entitled to 5 Presidential electors. Tlie Governor is H. M. Mathews, 
Democrat; terra, 4 years; salary, $2,700. 

Wisconsin — Is an Indian name, and means "Wild-rushing 
channel." Its motto, Civitatas successit harbarum, " The civilized 
man succeeds the barbarous." It is called " The Badger State." 
The State was visited by the French explorers in 1665, and a settle- 
ment was made in 1669 at Green Bay. It was admitted into the 
CFnion in 1848. It has an area of 52,924 square miles, equal to 
34,511,360 acres. In 1860 its population numbered 775,881; in 
1870, 1,055,167. Madison is the capital. She furnished for the 
Union army 91,021 soldiers. Has 8 members in Congress, and is 
entitled to 10 Presidential electors. The Governor is W. E. Smith; 
politics, Republican; salary, $5,000; term, 2 years. 



The first class of unfortunates to attract tlic notice of the legis- 
hiture were the deaf mutes. The act establishing the institution for 
the education of these unfortunates was approved by Gov. Carlin, 
Feb. 23, 1839, the asylum to be located at Jacksonville. Tiie 
original building, afterward called the south wing, was begun in 
18-12, and completed in 1819, at a cost of about $25,000. A small 
portion of the building was ready for occupancy in 181:6, and on 
the 26th day of January, of that year, the Institution was formally 
opened, with Mr. Thomas Officer as principal. The first term 
opened with but four pupils, which has increased from year to year, 
until the average attendance at the present time is about 250. 


In response to an appeal from the eminent philanthropist, 
Miss D. L. Dix, an act establishing the Illinois Hospital 
for the Insane, was approved by Gov, French, March 1, 184Y. 
Nine trustees were appointed, with power to select a site, 
purchase land, and erect buildings to accommodate 250 patients. 
On the 1st of May the board agreed upon a site, 1^ miles 
from the court-house in Jacksonville. In 1851 two wards in 
the east wing were ready for occupancy, and the first patient 
was admitted Nov. 3, 1851. In 1869 the General Assembly passed 
two acts creating the northern asylum fur the insane, and the 
southern asylum for the insane, which was approved by Gov. 
Palmer, April 16, 1869. Elgin was selected as a location for the 
former, and Anna for the latter. The estimated capacity of the 
three asylums is 1,200 patients. In addition to the State institu- 
tions for the insane, there are three other asylums for their benefit, 
one in Cook county, which will accommodate about 400 patients, 
and two private institutions, one at Batavia, and one at Jack- 


The experimental school for feeble-minded children, the first 
institution of its kind in the North-west, was created by an act 
approved, Feb. 15, 1865. It was an outgrowth of the institution 
for deaf and dumb, to which idiots are frequently sent, under a 
mistaken impression on the part of parents, that their silence 
results from inability to hear. The selection of a site for the 


building was intrusted to seven comniissionors, avIio, in July, 1875, 
agreed upon the town of Lincoln. The building was begun in 
1S75, and completed three years later, at a cost of $154,209. The 
average attendance in IS 78 was 224. 


The association for founding this institution was organized in 
May, 1S5S, and Pearson Street, Chicago, selected for the erection 
of the building. In 1805 the legislature granted the institution 
a special charter, and two years later made an appropriation of 
$5,000 a year for its maintenance, and in 1S71 received it into the 
circle of State institutions; thereupon tlie name was changed by 
the substitution of the word Illinois for Chicago. The building 
was swept away by the great fire of 1871, and three years later the 
present building was completed, at a cost of $42,813. 


Is located at Carbondale. This University was opened in 1874, 
and occupies one of the finest school edifices in the United States. 
It includes, besides a normal department proper, a preparatory 
department and a model school. The model school is of an 
elementary grade; the preparatory department is of the grade of a 
high school, wuth a course of three years. The normal course of four 
years embraces two courses, a classical and a scientific course; both 
make the study of the English language and literature quite 


Located at Urbana, was chartered in 1867. It has a corps of twen- 
ty-five instructors, including professors, lecturers and assistants 
and has an attendance of over 4uO pupils. It comprises four 
coliogo'3 (1) Agriculture, (2) Engineering, (3) Natural Science, 
(4) Literature and Science. These colleges embrace twelve subt)r- 
dinate schools and courses of instruction, in which are taught 
domestic science and art, commerce, military science, wood engrav- 
ing, printing, telegraphy, p^hotographingand designing. This insti- 
tution is endowed with the national land grant, and the amount of 
its productive fund is about $320,000. The value of its grounds, 
buildings, etc., is about $640,000. It is well supplied with appara- 
tus, and has a library of over 10,000 volumes. 





We now begin to chronicle the history of one of the largest and 
wealthiest, as well as the oldest, counties in the great State of Illi- 
nois, To say that our task is a most difficult one will only be 
expressing the sentiment of all who have attempted the compilation 
of local history. Only such persons can fully appreciate the em- 
barrassment arising from the multiplied perplexities that are 
continually crowding around the local historian. We shall seek to 
make this a record as detailed and accurate as accessible data will 
permit. Of course it will be impossible to gather up all of the frag- 
mentary facts of the three-score years of the county's history, of 
most which no written record was ever made, and many even 
important facts have slipped through the meshes of memory never 
to be recalled. Doubtless when the early pilgrim reads, or has 
read to him, historical items recorded in this volume, it will rekin- 
dle in memory recollections of kindred facts, not given us, and that 
otherwise would have been forever cast into the darkness of oblivion. 
Records of these items should be made as they are brought to light, 
that the future historian may have the greater abundance of material 
from which to compile. 

Truth and accuracy will be our motto, yet that some errors will 
occur in names and dates, and even in statements, cannot be denied. 
Studious care will be taken, however, to avoid as many such inac- 
curacies as possible. 

The face of the country of this county, save that portion bordering 
on the Mississippi and Illinois rivers, is mostly rich, rolling prairie, 
watered by Bay, McGee, Six Mile, Honey, Pigeon and McCraney's 


creeks, witli their numerous and small tributaries, along which are 
extensive bodies of timber. The farmers have planted artificial 
groves extensively over the prairie, which has had the effect of 
ameliorating the climate, by keeping the winds of an open country 
from the surface of the earth. By the energy and enterprise of the 
citizens of this county, it has been transformed from the native 
wilderness into one of the most attractive portions of the State, if 
not of the West. It is claimed that there is no spot on the face of 
the earth capable of sustaijiing a denser population than the Mili- 
tary Tract; and those familiar with this beautiful portion of our State 
know that Pike county is not excelled by any other within its 
boundary. That this county contains as intelligent, enterprising and 
thrifty agriculturists as probably can be found elsewhere in the 
same breadth of territory in the United States, few will deny. Fine 
barns, with all the modern improvements, comfortable dwellings, 
lawns, gardens, out-houses, etc., are to be found on every hand; 
towns and cities have sprung up as if by magic, and every knoll is 
graced by a church edifice or school building. 

The natural resources of Pike county, as above alluded to, for 
agricultural and manufacturing purposes, and marketing, give to 
the farmers and manufacturers of the county superior advantages. 
The agricultural interests of the county are well advanced. Indeed, 
it may be said that Pike is the great agricultural county of Illinois. 
The soil is mostly rich prairie loam, and has great productive qual- 
ities. It is mostly divided into farms of medium size, from 80 to 
320 acres; but few large farms are to be found. The benefit of this 
is apparent by the increased population and a better cultivation. 
The staple crops of cereals are corn, wheat and oats, which generally 
yield abundantly. This is the condition of Pike county at present, 
..How different when Ebenezer Franklin, with his family, located 
within its borders! Then these prairies were a vast wilderness 
covered with a rank growth of prairie grass, and much of the land 
now under a high state of cultivation was covered with heavy for- 
ests. At that time the native red men roamed unmolested over the 
flowery prairies and through dark forests. 

We wish to quote in this connection tlie eloquent, just and ap- 
propriate tribute ]iaid to Pike county l>y Hon. Wm. A. Grimshaw 
in his "Centennial Address." It speaks in praiseworthy, yet truth- 
ful, descriptive terms of both people and county: 

'' The citizens of this county have always been marked for a love 
of our national Government, for i^rticipation in all State measures 
to promote the common good of Illinois. With one brief exception, 
the period of the 'vigilance committee,' local government has 
always been of an orderly character. The brief excitement of that 
period led to more efficient laws for the protection of society, and 
thus good came out of evil. No fratricidal strife, no display of 
brothers in battle array with deadly cannon and all the dread habil- 
iments of war, are portrayed here. The life of our citizens has 
been with few exceptions that of peaceful farmers and townsmen. 


busy in the affairs of domestic life. Thus your historian has no 
startling tales to tell. 

"Still as the current of your own gentle river, Illinois, with a 
few swells in the stream of life, when wars waged beyond the lim- 
its of the present county called off our men to war, has been the life 
of your people. Industry has prevailed. Education has had its 
marked influence, and the holy gospel, taught in its beauty and 
simplicity, has pervaded every walk in life. Crime has, notwith- 
standing, been perpetrated, to be brought generally to condign 
punishment. Such is generally the end of those who violate the 
laws, human and«divine. 

" This county, once embracing the fairest portion of the once 
Eden-like State of Illinois, yet retaining within her limits land 
beautiful to look upon, desirable to inhabit, and famed for her fair 
daughters, her gallant sons, prosperous farmers and mechanics, able 
professional men and legislators, her present territory equal yet 
almost to some of the old thirteen States, owes much, if not all, of 
this 'to the patriotism and foresight of the Kevolutionary fathers. 

" Contemplate the vastness of Pike county as she was when organ- 
ized by the act of the Legislature of 1821, in these words: 

Section 1.— Ee it enacted by the People of the State of Illinois represented in 
the General Assembly, That all that tract of country within the following bounda- 
ries, to wit: beginning at the mouth of the Illinois river and running thence up 
the middle of said river to the fork of the same, thence up the south fork of said 
river until it strikes the State line of Indiana, thence north with said line to the 
north boundary line of this State, thence west with said line to the western bound- 
ary line of this State, and thence with said line to the place of beginning, shall 
constitute a separate county to be called Pike. 

" To repeat the extent of the boundaries: On the south, \)egm at 
the junction of the Illinois and Mississippi rivers, then follow the 
Illinois to the fork of the same, meaning the Kankakee, thence to 
the line of the State of Indiana, thence north and west embracing 
the territory from Chicago, following on the line of Wisconsin to 
the Mississippi river, including the famed lead mines of Galena, 
and to the channel of the Mississippi, thence descending to the 
place of beginning. 

" First note the beautiful,, still gliding river, the Illinois, then 
observe the majestic Father of Waters; traverse all this territory, 
great in extent, formerly the home of savage tribes of Indians, the 
land marked by the tread of the buffalo and dotted over with the 
graves and mounds, the relics of extinct races, the fierce brute crea- 
tion and game and fish abounding, prairies illimitable, adorned 
with flowers of gorgeous hues, fruits delicious in profusion and great 
variety, forests of vast size filled with gigantic trees and of many 
species, rivers bounding unfettered by man's contrivances; then no 
locks and dams existed thereon, fish in myriads were the dwellers 
in those rivers, — and these all existed in 1821, when Pike county 
was struck off by name from the older settlements and the few 
counties then existing in Illinois. 


"Pike county has been the mother of States to the west of Illi- 
nois. Having a pioneer population of an enterprising turn, large 
numbers have emigrated together to Oregon, Texas and California 
and other remote points, following the star of empire. Many estima- 
ble farmers who once lived in Pike have gone further east in Illi- 
nois and settled in the prairie counties. 

•'The health of this county is almost invariably good excepting 
in lowlands where some malarious disease comes on at times. Lon- 
gevity exists to a marked degree and children fairly swarm. Pros- 
perity and fine crops are the general results of industry." 


Before proceeding further in detailing the immediate history of 
the county, we desire to mention a few important facts relative to 
the earliest history of this section of the State. In 1673 the great 
French explorers, Marquette and Joliet, passed down the Missis- 
sippi and up the Illinois in their canoes, on their first famous voy- 
age down the great Father of Waters, Seven years later, Jan. 3, 
1680, LaSalle, with his little band of Frenchmen, came down the 
Illinois river as far as Peoria lake, landed upon the opposite shore, 
and erected a fort — Fort Creve-coeur. This fort was soon evacuated 
and destroyed, yet the enterprising Frenchmen continued asnong 
the Indians as traders. They exerted no perceptible civilizing influ- 
ence, however, upon the red-skins: indeed, by life and inter-mar- 
riage among them, they became in all respects more and more like 
them, until their identity was almost lost. 

Year after year rolled by until almost a century and a half had 
passed since LaSalle stepped ashore from his skiif, before the abo- 
rigines who occupied the territory embraced within the present 
boundary of Pike county were molested by the encroachments of the 
white man. Generation after generation of natives appeared upon 
the wild scenes of savage life, roamed the forest and prairie, and 
glided over the beautiful, placid Illinois and Mississippi rivers in 
their log and bark canoes, arid ])assed away. Still the advance of 
civilization, the steady westward tread of the Anglo-Saxon, disturbed 
them not. The buffalo, deer, bear and wolf roamed the prairie and 
woodland, the Indian their only enemy. But nature had destined 
better things for this fertile region. She had been too lavish in the 
distribution of natural advantages to leave it longer in the peaceable 
possession of those who had for centuries refused to develop, even 
in the slightest degree, any of her great resources. She accordingly 
directed hitherward the footsteps of the industrious, enterprising 
pioneer; and so fertile was the soil and so beautiful the flowers, so 
sparkling were the streams and shady the groves, that, in advance of 
all the surrounding country, the pioneers sought and settled the 
timber land and prairie of Pike county. 

The thrilling scenes through which the pioneer settlers passed in 
the settlement of this portion of Illinois must ever awaken emotions 


of warmest regard for them. To pave the way for those who fol- 
lowed after them, to make their settlement in the West a pleasure, 
they bore the flood-tide wave of civilization; they endured all, suf- 
fered all. But few of these spirits now survive; they have passed 
away full of years and honors, leaving their children, and children's 
children and strangers to succeed them and enjoy the fruits of the 
toil, privations and savings of their long and eventful lives. 

Life with them is o'er, their labors all are done, 
. jid others reap the, harvest that they won. 

Too great honor cannot be accorded them, and we regret that we 
have not the data to speak more fully and definitely of them, their 
personal experiences, their lives and their characters. 


Coming on down through the years for over a century, we wish 
to speak of the first American settlements in the State, as an intro- 
ductory to the more immediate history of the original Pike county. 

The first settlement made within the borders of the great State 
of Illinois by citizens of the United States was in 1784, when a few 
families from Virginia founded a small colony or settlement near 
Bellefontaine, in Monroe county. The next American settlement 
was made in St. Clair county, two of which were made prior to the 
year 1800. 

The first American settlers in Illinois were chiefly from Ken- 
tucky, Virginia, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, Tennessee and some 
from Maryland. Some of these had served with Gen. Clark, who 
conquered the country from the British in 1778. This whole people 
did not number more than 12,000 in 1812, but with the aid of one 
company of regular soldiers defended themselves and their settle- 
ments against the numerous and powerful nations of Kickapoos, 
Sacs, Foxes, Pottawatomies and Shawnees, and even made hostile 
expeditions into the heart of their countrj^ burning their villages 
and defeating and driving them from the territory. 

When the State was admitted in 1818 the settlements extended 
a little north of Edwardsville and Alton; south along the Missis- 
sippi to the mouth of the Ohio; east in the direction of Carlysle to 
the Wabash, and down the Wabash and Ohio to the conjunction of 
the Ohio and Mississippi. Such was the extent of the settlement 
in Illinois when the Territory was clothed with State honors. 

There, were but 15 organized counties represented in the conven- 
tion to frame the first Constitution. These were St. Clair, Kan- 
dolph, Madison, Gallatin, Johnson, Edwards, White, Monroe, Pope, 
Jackson, Crawford, Bond, Union, Washington and Franklin. The 
last three were tiie youngest counties, and were formed in 1818. 


Pike county was the first or second county organized after the 
State was admitted into the Union. It was erected Jan. 31, 1821, 


and included all of the territory west and north of the Illinois 
river, and its south fork, now the Kankakee river. At the first 
election in Pike county after its orij;anization only 35 votes were 
polled, even though it did extend over the entire northern part of 
the State, and out of which more than fifty counties have sii\ce been 

A " Gazetteer of Illinois and Wisconsin," published about 1822, 
says that the county "included a part of the lands appropriated by 
Congress for the payment of military bounties. Tlie lands con- 
stituting that tract are included within a peninsula of the Illinois 
and the Mississippi, and extend on the meridian line (-Ith), passing 
through the mouth of the Illinois, 162 miles north. Pike county 
will no doubt be divided into several counties; some of wliich will 
become very v/ealtliy and important. It is probable that the sec- 
tion about Fort Clark (now Peoria) will be the most tiiickl}^ settled. 
On the Mississippi river, above Rock river, lead ore is found in 
abundance. Pike county contains between 700 and 800 inhabi- 
tants. It is attached to the "first judicial circuit, sends one mem- 
ber to the House of Representatives, and, with Greene, one to the 
Senate. Tlie county-seat is Cole's Grove, a post town. It was laid 
out in 1821 and is situated in township 11 south, in range 2 west 
of the fourth principal meridian; very little improvement has yet 
been made in this place oi' vicinity. The situation is high and^ 
healthy and bids fair to become a place of some importance." 

Thus the liistorian of three-score years ago speaks of Pike county 
as it was in its original magnitude and wildness. How changed 
is the face of the country since then! Who could have foretold 
its future greatness with any degree of knowledge or certainty! 

We deem it within the province of this work to speak of the 
earliest settlement of all this vast region. Much of it was settled 
prior to that portion contained within the present boundaries of 
the count}', and as it was for many years a })art of Pike county it 
is proper we should refer to it, briefly, at least. 

The earliest history and the first occupation of the original Pike 
county are enshrouded in almost impenetrable obscurity. After 
the lapse of more than three-quarters of a century, the almost total 
absence of records, and the fact that the whites who visited or 
lived in this region prior to 1820 are all dead, render it iinpossil)le 
now to determine with any degree of certainty the name of him 
who is entitled to the honor of being recorded as " first settler." 
Perhaps the first man who sojourned within the Military Tract 
lived in what is now Calhoun county. Ho went there about 1801, 
and lived for years before any other settler came, and remained 
alone and unknown for a long time after the first i)ioneers moved 
into that section. His home was a cave dug out by himself, and 
was al)out a quarter of a mile from the Mississij)]M rivei-. In 1850 
the boards of liis cave flot)r were dug u]i and the ground leveled. 
Who he was or where he c;ime from was known only to himself, 
for he refused all intercourse with the settlers. 


Tlie next settlers, perhaps, were French trappers and half-breeds 
who formed quite a large colony on the Illinois river near the Deer 
Plains Ferr}', Calhoun county. These remained there until the 
great high water of 1815 or 1818, which drove them away. Andrew 
Jnd}' lived at this point at a very early day. Major Roljerts settled 
in Calhoun county in June, 1811. He came from Ohio. John 
Shaw came into that county at a very early day and was one of the 
leading men in the organization of Fike county, and for some time 
was County Commissioner. He settled at Gilead, the site of the 
original countj'-seat of Pike county. He was the most noted and 
influential man in his day of alMn all this region. He carried on 
farming, stock-raising, and conducted a atore, and engaged in poli- 
tics very largely. His influence was so great that he was able to 
rule the county indirectly, which he did for many years. He was 
.denominated the " Black Prince," on account of his having great 
sway over the community. It is said that he had control over a 
largje band of half-breeds, with which and his numerous other hench- 
men he controlled the elections, and carried every measure he de- 
sired. He forged deeds, even by the quire, doctored poll books, 
etc. So great was his influence and at the same time so injurious 
to the settlers that the public issue was gotten up in its politics, of 
"Shaw," or "Anti-Shaw," and not im til there was a great and united 
struggle that John Shaw lost his supremacy. 

There was a man by the name of Davison who was found living 
as a hermit a few miles above the mouth of Spoon river on its 
banks by the first settlers in Fulton county. He was a physician 
and a man of culture and refinement. How long he had resided 
there before discovered by the whites is not known, but evidently 
for many years, as the shrubbery and trees that he liad planted 
had grown quite large. He was selected as'one of the first grand 
jurors for the Circuit Court of Pike county. He refused all inter- 
course with the whites, and about 1824 put his efiects in a canoe, 
paddled down Spoon river and up the Illinois to Starved Kock, 
where he lived in obscurity until he died, which was a few years 

In 1778 the French made a settlement at the upper end of Peoria 
lake. Tiie country in the vicinity of this lake was called by the 
Indians Pim-i-te-wi, that is, a place wjiere there are many fat 
beasts. Here the town of Laville de Meillet, named after its 
founder, was started. Within the next twenty years, however, the 
town was moved down to the lower end of the lake to the present 
site of Peoria. In 1812 the town was destroyed and the inhabi- 
tants carried away by Captain Craig. In 1813 Fort Clark was 
erected there by Illinois troops engaged in the war of 1812. . Five 
years later it was destroyed by fire. Some American settlers, how- 
ever, early came into this neighborhood. These were mostly sol- 
diers of the war of 1812 who had been given bounty-land for their 
services and had come to possess it. An old veteran of that war 
by the name of "Wm. Blanchard came to Peoria in 1819, soon 


moved over tlie river into Tazewell county, and in 1830 moved just 
over the line into Woodford, and is still living there, perhaps the 
oldest living settler north of the mouth of the Illinois river. 

The first permanent settlement by the whites in all Northwestern 
Illinois, of which any record or reliable knowledge now remains, 
existed about 1820 on the banks of the river now known as the 
Galena. This river was theri known as Feve, or Bean river. The 
Indian name for the river was Mah-cau-bee, the fever that blisters, 
and was named from the fact of the Indians having small-pox here. 
Hundreds of the natives died and they gave the names of Big 
Sraall-Pox river and Little Small-Pox river to the streams upon 
which they lived. The former was changed by the whites to the 
more pleasant name of Fever river; the smaller is still known as 
Small-Pox creek. Galena was known as " Fever River Settle- 
ment," and we find frequent mention of it in the old Commis- 
sioners' Court records. John S. Miller, who was perhaps the first 
settler there, and Moses Meeker, perhaps the next, often applied to 
the court at Cole's Grove for licenses, recommendations to the 
Governor to be appointed Justice of the Peace, etc. 

Fever river was also known in an early day by the name of Bean 
river, from the French name. Riviere au Feve, given it by the early 
traders and adventurers. This section of country is referred to 
in the " Gazetteer of Illinois and Missouri," a work published in 
1822 and now very rare, as follows: 

'■''Bean river (Riviere au Feve, Fr.), a navigable stream of Pike 
county, emptying into the Mississippi three miles below Cat-Fish 
creek, and 20 miles below Dubuque's mines, and about 70 above 
Rock river. Nine miles up this stream a small creek empties into 
it from the west. The banks of this creek, and the hills which 
bound its alluvium, are filled with lead ore of the best quality. 
Three miles below this on the banks of Bean river is the Traders^ 
Yillage, consisting of ten or twelve houses or cabins. At this 
place the ore procured from the Indians is smelted and then sent 
in boats either to Canada or New Orleans. The lands on this stream 
are poor, and are only valuable on account of the immense quanti- 
ties of minerals which they contain." 

In the same work Chicago is simply mentioned as " a village of 
Pike county, containing 12 or 15 houses and about 60 or 70 inliab- 
itants." Fort Dearborn had been built there in 1804, but so far 
was it in the wilderness that when the massacre of the garrison in 
1812 occurred many days elapsed before it was known to the near- 
est white settlement. There was also a fort and military garrison 
on the Mississippi river where Warsaw is now located. This was 
known as Fort Edwards, and the name also occurs frequently in 
the old records of Pike county. One of the main wagon-roads, and 
one upon which the Commissioners expended much time and 
money, was known as the Fort Edwards road. 

By 1820 to 1825 many settlements had sprung up through Central 
Illinois, but scarcely before J 830 was there any considerable num- 


ber of whites living north of the north line of the present bound- 
ary of Pike county. It is true, prior to that Adams, Fulton and 
Schuyler counties had been organized, but they were very thinly 
populated. By 1830 and after the close of the Black Hawk war in 
1832 and the expulsion of the Indians the northern part of the 
State settled up quite rapidly. 


We now come to a period in the history of the settlement of this 
county when we will restrict ourselves to the present boundaries of 
Pike "county. The few broken references to the settlement of the 
Military Tract and Northern Illinois we oflPer as a slight historic 
token to the grand old original Pike county — to Pike county as it 
was in its primitive days. They are brief and scattering, but, 
owing to the fact, as previously remarked, that there are no records 
extant, and that the earliest pioneers have passed away, it is impos- 
sible to give more, other than to elaborate and enlarge on the facts 
already stated, which we will not do for want of space. 

Prior to the coming of the first settler to Pike county there had 
often been French traders, hunters and travelers passing through 
the native forests and crossing the wild and beautiful prairies. They 
pitched their tent for the night, and amid the vast wilderness^ 
inhabited only by wild beasts and the native red man, rested their 
weary limbs only to move at the early dawn. The first individual 
of whom we have account, and this is traditionary, that settled in 
Pike county as it is, or who made it his home for any considerable 
time, was J. B. Teboe (Tibanlt), a Canadian Frenchman. He came 
somewhere during the period between 1817 and 1819, and occupied 
a cabin on the banks of the Illinois river, situated on what is now 
section 33, Flint township. There is no doubt this man wasin that 
locality prior to 1820. He lived as a hunter, and for a time we 
think ran a ferry, but whether he is entitled to the honor of being 
termed the " first settler " we very much doubt. He, it seems^ 
tilled no land and made no permanent abode, nor had a family. He 
was killed at Milton in 1844. 


The man who may properly be denominated the first settler of 
Pike county was Ebeuezer Franklin. He came to the county in 
March, 1820, and first stopped upon the northwest quarter of sec- 
tion 27, half a mile east from where Atlas was afterward located 
and up ''Jockey Hollow." He brought with him his family, con- 
sisting of his wife, son and three daughters, besides a Mr. Israel 
Waters. This gentleman afterward moved to Adams Qounty. 
When Franklin first came he found no neighbor with whom he 
could stop until he had reared his cabin. He was obliged to pitch 
his tent and gather his family around him in his tented mansion 
provided with the meager and rude furniture he brought with him 


and what lie constructed after his arrivaL There is no doubt the 
family suffered from tlie chilling winds of early spring, but they 
were sturdy pioneers and withstood the privations and hardships as 
became true pioneers. He resided in his tent until May, when lie 
erected a rude log cabin. 

The next settler to come in after Franklin was Daniel Shinn. 
He came from Batavia, Ohio, and arrived about the last of April, 
1820. On his way here he stopped at Edwardsville, where he left 
most of his large family, which consisted of a wife and eight chil- 
dren: Benjamin, John, Eliza, Hannah, Mary, Phebe, Daniel and 
Nancy. John Webb, now living five miles east of Pittsfield, then 
only six ^-ears of age, came with them. Mr. Webb is now the oldest 
living settler in the county by four 3'ears, that is, he came to the 
county four years prior to an}' other man now living in the county. 
Mr. Shinn was the first man who brought a wagon into Pike county, 
probably the first to the Military Tract. He settled near Mr. 
Franklin, and the two lived in tents until May, when they both 
erectfed cabins, aiding one another in their labors. Mr. Shinn with 
two of his sons cleared a piece of ground and planted three acres -of 
Corn. It took but comparatively little labor to raise grain, but to 
have it ground or prepared for food was a bard task. At this early 
day there were no mills within reach of these early pilgrims. The 
first mill they had to go to was a horse-mill run by John Shaw in 
Calhoun county. Mr. Franklin erected his cabin upon the south- 
east quarter of section 22, Atlas township, or what is now Atlas, 
three-fourths of a mile from Atlas and about 150 yards north of 
where the road has since run. Many years ago, even, the place was 
covered with a spindling growth of young trees. 

Ml'. Shinn located as a near neighbor to Mr. Franklin. He 
became a great wolf-hunter, prompted by the fact of his being una- 
ble to raise stock, owing to their ravages. He lost 200 pigs by 
that rapacious animal, and resolved to make war upon them. He 
finally succeeded in raising fine hogs by shutting them up in a 
close log stable from their earliest pighood. 

The Shinn family were originally from New Jersey. On their 
way West they stopped for awhile at Cincinnati, where they fol- 
lowed gardening. After a long and useful life Mr. Shinn died at a 
little over 70 years of age, while on a visit to his daughter at Pitts- 
field in 1852. He took an active part in the early history of the 
county. . 


In the year 1820 there also came, from Pittsfield, Mass., the 
Rosses: William (Col.), Clarendon, Leonard (Capt.), and Henry J. 
(Dr.); also Samuel Davis, Wm. Sprague and Joseph Cogswell, all 
settling in or near Atlas .Leonard had been Captain in the war of 
1812, and William obtained his title afterward by having been ap- 
pointed Colonel of Illinois militia. Davis was a bee-hunter, who 
built for himself and large family a log cabin on section 16. Two 


years afterward he moved into Missouri. Most of these men 
brought their families to their new homes tlie following February, 
having previously left them at Alton. Mr. Cogswell was from 
Berksliire, Mass. 

The Rosses in coming West had a tedious journey. They came 
by flat-boats down the Alleghany and Ohio rivers, and by wagons 
from Shawneetown to Upper Alton, where at that time but one 
house existed, occupied by Major Hunter. Here they left their 
families, and coming northward, they found an Indian camp at the 
mouth of the Illinois river," where they split puncheons and laid 
them across two canoes and thus safely carried over their wag-ons. 
The horses were made to swim alongside. Continuing up the Mis- 
sissippi bottom they marked the trees as they went, for there were 
no roads and nothing to guide them but an occasional Indian trail. 
They arrived at section 27 in township 6 south and 5 west, "• at 
last," whence, according to tradition, the name "Atlas." Some 
wished to name the place " Charlotte," after a certain lady in the 
company. This beautiful land of prairie and timber charmed the 
immigrants, and they at once set to work their energies and con- 
structed a camp to shelter themselves while preparing quarters for 
their families. They hurried up four rough log cabins, knowing 
that Indians were numerous and that probably not more than five 
white men were within 50 miles of them east of the Mississippi. 


James M. Seeley, father of Dr. Seeley, of Fittsfield, came to this 
county about this time. Charles McGiffin and Levi Newman set- 
tled on this side of the Mississippi river opposite Louisiana on a 
slough called " McGiffin's Slough," but not known by that name 
now; but they had no families. McGiffin died two years afterward 
and JSTewman moved over into Morgan county. 


In 1821, John and Jeremiah Eoss, brothers of the preceding' 
Rufus Brown, John Wood (afterward State Governor) and Willard 
Keyes arrived at Atlas. Here Brown kept a tavern, but he and 
these two Rosses and Mr. Wood removed to Adams county. When 
they first came to Pike county Wood and Keyes first settled on the 
16th section just below New Canton and kept bachelor's hall on the 
bank of a creek, subsequently named "Keyes " creek, after one of 
these men. They had a few hogs, two yoke of oxen and a small 
iron plow, by which latter they broke up a piece of ground before 
building a cabin. In three or four years they sold out and went to 
Adams county, where Wood founded the city of Quincy. He was 
then a young man, vigorous and ambitious. One day he, with 
William Ross, the founder of Atlas, and Capt, Ross, the Sheriff of 
Pike count}', were traveling over the country north and west of this 
county, but then within its borders. When nearing the Mississippi 


river he told his companions to follow him and he would show them 
where he was going to build a city. They went about a mile off the 
main trail when they reached the present site of the city of Quincy. 
The view presented to the trio of sturdy frontiersmen was a magnifi- 
cent one. The hand of the white man had never touched the soil, 
or disturbed the beautiful decorations of nature. Below them swept 
the Father of Waters yet unburdened by steam navigation. Mr, 
Wood tried to sliow his companions the advantages the location 
had, but Mr. Ross, thorougiily interested in building up his own 
town of Atlas and so sanguine of its future greatness, that the beau- 
tiful and excellent location selected by Mr. Wood was completely 
overshadowed by that enjoyed by his village. Mr. Wm. Ross con- 
gratulated his young friend and hoped he would make of his town 
a success, but he despaired of it ever amounting to much, for, as he 
remarked to the Governor, " It's too near Atlas." 


In 1821 there also came to the county James McDonald, who 
settled opposite Louisiana, on Sny Island, and kept a ferry. He 
opened the iirst farm on the road between Atlas and Louisiana, but 
floods drowned him out. He was from Washington county, N. Y., 
and his famil}^ consisted of himself, wife and four daughters. The 
next spring he was found dead at his ferry, supposed to have been 
murdered. Joseph Jackson afterward married his widow. 

In the summer of 1821, Garrett Van Deusen came to the county 
and settled on tiie Illinois river near the old Griggsville Landing. 
He was the^ first settler on the east side of the county except two 
transient French taniilies, who had located some distance below. 
He erected the second band-mill in the county, the first having been 
put up by Col. Ross, at Atlas. 


The summer of 1821 sorely tried the hearts of the sturdy settlers 
in and about Atlas. That was a sickly season and scarcely a family 
but followed some of its members to the newly made ceineterjj 
until over one-half the entire population were numbered with the 
dead. The prevailing cause of the visitation of such a calamity to 
the settlers was the malaria emanating from the vegetable decay of 
the newly broken prairie and the decomposition of immense quan- 
tities of fish in the ponds below the town. The victims of this 
dreadful malady were laid in coftins made from bass-wood puncheons, 
hollowed out and consigned to earth in agrave-yard near Franklin's 
first location, and about 400 yards west of Shinn's. The bones and 
dust of 80 persons now lie buried there, and at present there is not 
a stone or head-board, or any signs whatever of its being a cemetery. 
There was no physician nearer than Louisiana during this scourge, 
and with this tact, and taking into consideration the poor facilities 
the settlers had for providing for and nursing the sick, it remains 
no wonder that so many died. 


During this year Col. Ross built a small brick house, the first in 
the county. Two years afterward he erected a much larger brick 
structure adjoining it. 


This year also the first court-house in the county was built. 
Daniel Shinn took the contract for cutting and hauling the logs, at 
$6, and for $26 he got out the puncheons and finished tlie building. 
It was completed without nails or iron in any shape. It was 16 by 
18 feet in dimensions, with one door and two windows, the door on 
the east side, one window on the south side and another on the west 
side; desks made of puncheons; chimney outside; and the clap- 
boards of the roof held on with weight-poles and knees. There 
were no trees around the house, but plenty of hazel-brush in the 

This year the first school was taught in the county, by John Jay 
Ross, son of Capt. Leonard Ross. It was kept in the court-house, 
and' the names of his pupils were, so far as remembered, Orlando, 
Charlotte, Schuyler, Mary Emily and Elizabeth Ross, Benjamin, 
John, Eliza and Phoebe Shinn, John Webb, Frederick and Eliza 
Franklin, Jeremiah and William Tungate, James, Laura and Nancy 
Sprague. James W. Whitney taught the next school, which was 
also at Atlas. 


About this time Dexter Wheelock and wife settled at Atlas, where 
for a time he kept a hotel and a general store. He had been a 
drummer in the war of 1812, and was an active and generous man. 
He died many years ago, and his son, John G. Wheelock, has been 
a prominent citizen of the county. 

The spring of 1822 two brothers named Buchanan settled at "Big 
Spring." A Mr. Allen (father of Lewis) came to the county this 
year, and was probably the first settler in the neighborhood of Mil- 
ton. His wife was a sister of the celebrated Daniel Boone. An 
old gentleman named Clemmons also settled about this time near 
Milton, where his sons now reside. Joel Moore, now living two 
miles north of Pittsfield, on Bay creek, was the first settler on that 

This year Mr. Franklin sold out his place near Atlas, to Col. 
Ross, for $30 or $40, and removed to a point a little south of Pitts- 
field, where Mr. Allen now lives; he sold out here again ere long 
to Mr. Goodin, and located near Milton, on a prairie called after 
him, " Franklin's Prairie;" and this home too he subsequently sold, 
removing this time to Perry. He died in Milton in 1878. 

Mr. Hoskins (father of John) came to the county soon after the 
Ross family. 


The first white person born in this county was Nancy Ross, 
daughter of Col. Wm. Ross, born May 1, 1822. She died Nov. 18 


of the same year at Atlas. Some say, however, that there was a 
white person born in this county some time previous to this; how 
true that is we cannot state authoritatively. 


The first settlers suflFered much from want of provision, as well as 
from the loneliness of their wilderness homes. During the year 
1822, Franklin and Shinn, getting out of provisions, started to Lou- 
isiana for a supply. On arriving at the river they gave tlie cus- 
tomary signal for the I'erryman to come over after them, but could 
not make him hear. Being strong and fearless they undertook to 
swim the great river, even with their clothing on. They buffeted 
the waves well for a time, and made good progress, but unfortu- 
natelv Mr. Shinn took the cramp, and came near drowning, and 
would have drowned if it had not been for his companion's pres- 
ence of mind. Franklin, by beating him, got him out of the cramp. 
In order to make further progress, however, they were compelled 
to divest themselves of their clothing. After a long, hard and dan- 
gerous struggle they finally landed upon the Missouri shore, about 
three-quarters of a mile i3elow town, but void of clothing. They 
made their presence known, however, and were soon furnished with 


During this same year (1822) a man by the name of Franklin, 
not Ebenezer, stole a gun from a Mr. Hume. In making away with 
it in his haste he was unfortunate enough to lose it while swimming 
McGee's creek. He was pursued, caught, and in a very summary 
trial before Col. Ross, Justice of the Peace, was sentenced to have 
25 lashes laid upon his bare back. This punishment being inflicted 
(and we are told he bore it nobly), he was given his liberty. He 
soon committed another crime, however, was caught, but broke from 
custody. The pioneers were full of pluck, and when they set out to 
accomplish anything they generally did it, at whatever price. He 
was tracked to Fort Edwards (now Warsaw) and again captured. 
They had no jail or place to confine such a cunning fellow with any 
safety; so it was determined to send him to the jail at Edwardsville. 
Constable Farr and John Wood (ex-Governor) took charge of him 
to convey him to Edwardsville. Knowing he would take advan- 
tage of every opportunity to escape, they lashed him to the back of 
a mule, by tying his feet underneath. They came to a creek on 
their journey, and the young man thinking that an excellent oppor- 
tunity to escape, plunged in, even against the threatenings of his 
escort. He heeded them not, but yelled back that he would "go to 
h — 1 and kick the gate open for them." The water was high and 
before the mule had reached the farther shore he went down be- 
neath the waves, carrying with him his rider. Both were drowned. 
Franklin's body was rescued and buried upon the bank of the creek. 
When Messrs. Farr and Wood returned to Atlas, Col. Ross asked 


them where their prisoner was, they had returned so quickly. " Oh, 
we've drowned him," was their indifferent reply. " You have to 
account for hira in some way according to law, you know," said Col.. 
Ross. "Oh, yes," they again replied, "we've drowned him." 
Franklin's bones were some time afterward taken up and wired to- 
gether by Dr. Vande venter, and the skeleton is now in the posses- 
sion of his family at Yersailles, 111. 


In 1823 Alfred Bissell came to the county and located at New 
Hartford, or rather, nearly a mile north of the present town. Mr. 
Bissell raised the iirst apples in Pike' county. He linally sold o,ut 
to a Mr. Brown, some of whose family still reside upon the place. 
Daniel Husong came to the county the same year, also an old 
man by the name of Nicholas, who was the first settler near High- 
land. Another gentleman, Mr. John Matthews, who was consid- 
erably advanced in life, the father of B. L. Matthews, and the 
grandfather of Col. Matthews, came and located north of Griggs 

After this period settlers came in rapidly, and it is quite impos- 
sible for us to note the advent of each one. That will be done to a 
very great extent in our township histories. 


The first Fourth-of-July celebration ever held in Pike county,, 
and probably • p!?] the Military Tract, was held at Atlas in 1823. 
Col. Ross thus speaks of it in a letter written at the time to a 
friend in the East, which is still preserved: "July 4, 1823.— The 
first celebration of the Fourth of July was held in Atlas, Pike 
county. 111. Oration delivered by Nicholas Hanson, of Albany, 
N. Y. The Declaration of Independence was read. There was an 
audience of about fifty persons, who afterward partook of an excel- 
lent dinner prepared by Rufus Brown at his tavern. The audience 
marched in procession after dinner. A jolly good time was had' 
drinking toasts, etc., and 'all went merry as a marriage bell;' this 
being the first celebration ever held in Pike county, or in this Mil- 
itary Tract." 

This Rufus Brown, spoken of, subsequently removed to Quincy^ 
where he built a log house on the lot where the Quincy House now 
stands. After living in Quincy for a time, he pulled up and moved 
further West, and has since died. 


1824.— This year the first jail at Atlas was built. .Daniel 
Husong hewed the logs and Daniel Shinn did most of the work on 
the building. The door was four inches thick. Wrought spikes 
were used, and for hinges bars were employed which were as thick 
as a man's arm. The only window was a hole about the size of a. 


pane of glass. The logs were a foot square and " scotched " down, 
and the place for ushering in prisoners was in the roof. It was a 

food jail, however, — even better, some think, than the jail at 
'ittsfield some 3'ears ago. The old Atlas jail building is still in 
existence, but has been removed to near the Levee and is consider- 
abl_y dilapidated. 

This year old Keoknk and 500 of his men, on their way to fight 
Indians below St- Louis, stopped on the Sny near Atlas, over night, 
and had a war dance. They had sent to the wliites at Atlas a 
nc»tice in advance thalf they intended them no harm. Keokuk was 
a fine-looking man, it is said, while Black Hawk, who also fre- 
quently visited this region, was rather a small man, with one eye. 


Nov. 11, 1824, Marcellus Ross was born, a son to Col. Wm. 
Ross at Atlas, the first white male child born in Pike county. It 
is stated, however, in Mr. Grimshaw's historical sketch, that a son 
to Ebenezer Franklin was born before this, and still others say 
that a son was born before this date in the family of Mr. Ward. In 
the proceedings of the Old Settlers' Association it is stated that 
Rev. John Hopkins, of New Hartford, was born in Pike county 
May 30, 1822; that he attended school at Atlas when there were 
but five scholars, and that he bound after the first reaper in the 
county. In July, 1836, Col. William Ross and family removed to 
Pittsfield, where he remained until his death, and where Marcellus 
still resides. 


In 1826 there came to Atlas, from Berkshire, Mass., that eminent 
man. Col. Benjamin Barnej', who still survives, residing at Barry. 
He "was a man of great physical powers, of strong natural sense, 
benevolent, patriotic, not learned in book lore, but wise in that 
which made him a leader in trying times; was sober, industrious 
and always at his post. His tales of early adventure are marvelous, 
and yet undoubtedly true." — Grimshaw. He was born in Septem- 
ber, 1795, emigrated first to Sandusky, O., and afterward was one 
of the first five settlers in Seneca county in that State. In Ohio 
he married Minerva Harris, who died in 1849. He was the first 
blacksmith in Pike county, and probably the first in the whole 
Military Tract. He made the first plow ever made in this county, 
and was for a long time known as " the county blacksmith." He 
was induced to stop at Atlas mainly on account of his beins: offered 
the position of Deputy Sheriff by Capt. Ross, the newly elected 
Sheriff. Col. Barney bore a prominent part in the Black Hawk 
war, and his life has all along been so identified with the history 
of Pike county that his name will occur frequently in this volume. 



COL. barney's trip to CARUOLLTON, 

During this age of quick transit we often speak of mail " facili- 
ties," but for pioneer times it would be more appropriate to say 
mail "difficulties." It must be borne in mind that it cost 25 cents 
for the early pilgrims who came to this country to get a letter from 
their friends in the East or South, and then the mails came only at 
long intervals. Col. Barney relates a bit of experience as a mail- 
carrier in early day, which is quite thrilling. 

There had been no mail received at Atlas I'or abt)ut six weeks. 
The Illinois river was high, and filled with running ice so that it 
was impossible to cross it with any degree of safety. Capt. Koss 
was postmaster at Atlas, the only place in the county where there 
was a postoffice, and he as well as the other settlers were exceed- 
ingly anxious to get the mail from Carrollton, the point from 
which the Pike county mail was bi'ought. Carrollton is on the east 
side of the river and 40 miles distant from Atlas. Postmaster 
Ross had made liberal offers to induce some one to go after the 
mail, but none had yet succeeded in getting it. The six dollars he 
had offered was a great motive, and at least three men at different 
times had attempted the trip, but could get no further than the 
Illinois river, and would return discouraged. At last, becoming 
exceedingly anxious to hear from the outside world, Mr. Koss made 
the very liberal offer of ten dollars to any one who would carry the 
mail to Carrollton and return with the mail from that point. This 
offer was made Saturday night, and Col. Barney resolved to attempt 
to win the prize. It must be remembered that in those primitive 
times ten dollars was considered a large amount of money; and the 
Colonel said, when he returned and got his money, that he felt as 
though he was rich enough to start a baidv. 

Mr. Barney was up before day Sunday morning getting ready 
for the trip. His wife prepared a lunch of corn- cake and venison 
for him to take' with him and eat upon the way; but unfortunately 
he forgot it when lie left home. He had traveled but a few miles 
ere it began to snow. The large flakes began to fall thicker and 
faster, and the wind began to blow and soon the storming elements 
were raging around him with great fury. He quickened the pace 
of his horse and finally arrived at the Illinois river at a point 
where there had been a ferry and where he intended to cross. The 
man who had conducted the ferry had recently died, leaving a 
family of wife and several small children. They lived in a rude 
cabin upon the western bank of the river; the widowed mother 
lay sick and near death's door; they were without medicine, food 
or care, and suffering untold misery. The Colonel put his horse 
in the smoke-house attached to the cabin, which was so small that 
the horse could not turn around in it. He then hired a lad who 
was there at this time to assist him over the river. After much 
difficulty he reached the eastern bank and started oft' on his trip to 
Carrollton on foot. 



The Atlas mail was small, yet he found ajreat difficulty in making 
his way through the deep snow. He at last reached his destination, 
got the mail and started homeward. Before leaving Carrollton, 
however, he called upon the doctor and reported the condition 
of the woman at the ferry. The physician said he had been 
down to the river two or three times on his way to visit her but 
could not get over, and had concluded that she was dead.' lie gave 
the Colonel some medicine for her, and the kind lady at the post- 
office gave him a large package of provisions also to take to the 
distressed woman. Tliis j'iackage weighed about 16 pounds, and 
with the mail, which was quite large and consisted mostly of mili- 
tary matter, he started on foot for the river. It was dusk when he 
arrived in the river bottom. To add to the ah-eady great peril in 
which he found himself, a large pack of wolves, about 50 in num- 
ber, followed him, some ot them yelping furiously. The bolder 
ones would approach closely and gnarl at the lone footman, whom 
they were eager to make a meal of. He would frighten tliem oif 
by slapping his hands on the mail-bags, making a loud, sharp 
noise. This lie did repeatedly, and perhaps it was the only way he 
could get through safely, as he had no tire-arms or weapons of any 
kind. He reached the river only to find difficulties more com]ili- 
cated: he could not get over. He hallooed, but in vain. Ho got 
into an old boat which lay fastened in the ice out from the shore, 
and lay down, thinking he would be compelled to remain there 
during the night. Pie soon found himself shivering with cold, 
and would certainly freeze to death if he remained there longer. 
He aroused himself, got a pole and finally worked his way over tlie 
river, from cake to cake of the floating ice, though a dangerous task 
it was. He remained over night at the cabin and gave the widow 
the medicine and jirovision sent her. These relieved her ]iresent 
wants, but she continued to decline, and shortly afterward died. 

The Colonel at last reached Atlas, with the long-looked-for mail. 
He made the settlers joyous with the letters brought from their 
friends and was himselt made happy by the receipt of ten dollars, 
wliich lie had certainly well earned. 


In the spring of 1826, James Ward, who had settled about four 
miles south of Atlas near Six-Mile creek, and whose farm lay partly 
on the blufi'.and partly in the bottom, made a trij> to Fort Clark, 
now Peoria, and other settlements in that direction in comjiany 
with Col. Hoss, on an electioneering tour, or to view some land. 
On arriving at Crooked creek on their return, just above a drift of 
flood-wood, Mr. Ward ventured to cross, but was drowned. Mr. 
Ross, thus left in a wilderness with the sliades of night fast hover- 
ing around him, and the gloom cast over him by the loss of his 
com])anion, wandered on down the stream, not daring to cross and 
not desiring to stop. Soon he saw a light in the distance and fol- 
lowed on down until he came to the cabin of a lone hunter. Here 


he was taken in, provided for and kept for the night. In the 
morning the body was recovered and buried upon the bank. The 
horse had made the shore and was found fastened to a tree by his 
bridle being caught in a limb. A year or so afterward the bones 
of the drowned man were taken up and re interred with Masonic 


In 1826 Col. Ross built a keel-boat called "The Basket," which 
was hauled down to the Sny and launched. It would hold about 50 
tons, and in this craft the Colonel shipped the produce of the 
neighborhood, as beef, pork, hides, etc. He used to pack about 400 
head of cattle every season. Dressed beef was only two and a half 
cents a pound. Dealers liad the hide and tallow as their reward 
for killing and dressing. .They sold their beef in the South, New 
Orleans generally, for live dollars a barrel, tallow ten cents a pound, 
dry hides five cents, andgreen hides two and a half cents a pound. 
To, get their boats over sand-bars they would unload the barrels, 
roll them over the bars and then reload. On one trip it required 
one whole day to get over a distance of twelve miles. 


Capt. Hale, a Missionary Baptist minister, came to the county in 
the summer of 1826, but at this time several other ministers were 
also preaching in Pike county, as Messrs. Grarrison, Medford and 
Lewis Allen. Mr. Medford was a smart man, and had a circuit 
extending from Rushville to some point in Calhoun county, Capt. 
Hale probably organized the first Baptist Church in the county. 

This year also the first store building in the county was erected, 
by Col. Ross at Atlas. It was built of hewed logs, and in dimen- 
sions was 16 feet square. The principal part of a merchant's stock 
those days was whisky. 

In the fall of 1826 the first whisky made in the county was man- 
ufactured by Mr. Milhizcr, a Pennsylvania Dutchman, although it 
is also claimed that Mr. Blair, spoken of a little further on, erected 
the first distillery; but his distillery was erected in 1829 or 1830, 
Mr. Milhizer made but one barrel of whisky. 

Soon after his arrival Col. Ross put up a band-mill by which he 
could grind four or five bushels a day, but he soon built a larger 
mill which, with four good horses, would grind from 25 to 30 bush- 
els a day. Settlers from even 25 miles above Quincy used to come 
to this mill. Good fine flour, however, was brought from Cincin- 
nati, O., but this costly article was used only on occasion of visits 
from friends, or on Sunday when the family thought they could stand 
the expense of such a luxury. For most of their milling at this 
period the settlers in this section went to St. Louis, Mo. There 
was no Alton then. 

The first coal burned in Pike county was from Pittsburg, Pa., 
and used by Benj. Barney in his blacksmith shop in 1826. During 


the summer of 1827 there was a great deal of rain, and the streams 
rose- higher than thej ever did afterward until 1851. The Sny Carte 
was naviguljle for steam-boats at least as far up as Atlas, as Col. 
Ross proved to the astonishment of many. He had three steam- 
boats in his service, and one of them in particular, the "Mechanic," 
came up to a point directly opposite Atlas. Its arrival was an- 
nounced by the liring of guns. 

The tirst wheat raised in Pike countj' was raised this year by Col. 
Ross and Mr. Seeley, and ife was also the first wheat ground within 
the limits of the county. 

This year came Benjamin B. Barney, no relation of Col. Barney. 
Endeavoring to trace their relationship one day the Colonel said he 
was from Massachusetts, when Benjamin B. replied with an oath, 
"Oh, if you are a Yankee you are no connection of mine." This 
Benjamin B. Barney bought Col. Ross' horse-mill and kept it a 
long time, probably until it was worn out or finally abandoned. 


In the vicinity of Atlas, Henry Long, from Baltimore city, settled 
about the year 1827. During a residence of many years, until his 
decease on his farm, he was a useful citizen and upright man. He 
reared a second numerous famil^^ of intelligent and educated chil- 
dren. His son, Jesse Long, has been a Supervisor of Atlas town- 
ship, and resides on the old homestead of his father. Nathan Wat- 
son, now living about five miles south of Pittsfield with his son Job, 
came to the county in 1827. During this year or some time pre- 
viously, there came to Atlas, James M. Seeley, who was for 12 years 
(1828—40) noted as the honest, easy Sheriff of Pike county. It 
was his duty to collect revenue. If a man was not ready to pay his 
tax, Seeley paid it and trusted him. Mr. S. had a numerous family, 
of whom Dr. E. M. Seeley, who was a surgeon during the late war, 
was one; another was Dr. David Seeley, who was an early settler 
of Texas, where he died. 


Among the many prominent citizens now living who came to the 
county in 1828, was James Ross, who introduced and used the first 
cradle in the county for cutting wheat. It was a great curiosity to 
the pioneers, but a familiar thing to him, as he was from Pennsyl- 
vania where cradles were common. He equipped and ran the first 
turner's lathe and cabinet-shop in Pike county. This shop was in 
one end of the first clerk's office building in Atlas. His shop was 
burned out here. He is now closing his long and eventful life in 
Pittsfield. Even when he was 60 years of age he was a fine dancer 
and could whistle almost equal to the flute. It has always been 
interesting to hear him tell stories of pioneer times. 

This year a saw and grist mill was built at Rockport by James 
McMurphy and son, who used limestones for burrs. They also built 


a flat-boat which thej ran to Galena in their trade. At this time 
there were but three steam-boats on the Mississippi river. 

This yeai- Wm. Montgomery Blair, a New-Liglit minister, came 
with his family to Kinderhook. His son Montgomery, now living 
at Barry, was then 19 years of age. The family emigrated origi- 
nally from Kentucky to Ohio, then to Indiana and lastly to this 
county. When they arrived here, however, they found that several 
other families had preceded them in this part of tlie county, namely, 
an old hermit named Peter Harper, a refugee from justice, having 
come here from Indiana. He was at Kinderhook. To the north 
of where Barry now stands were David Edwards and Edward 
Earle, and to the south lived Samuel Gary, on section 30, then the 
Jackson family and Mr. Howard and John Milhizer. Harper lived 
at Kinderhook until his death. 

Mr. Blair built the first log cabin at Kinderhook, and the next 
year he built the first mill in this part of the county, and also a dis- 
tillery, which is said by some to be the first in the county. Although 
this gentleman made considerable whisky, the distillery had finally 
to be abandoned on account of there not being grain enough raised 
in the country to make the business pay. He sometimes made as 
high as two or three barrels of whisky per day by a process known 
as " steam distilling." Wheat at this time was only three "bits " 
a bushel, and Mr. Blair kept a stock on hand for two or three years 
waiting for a better market. Milling was so difficult to obtain that 
several days were generally wasted by persevering parties lingering 
around the mill to see that their grist was ground in its proper 
tui*n, or in frequent visits to the mill. At tliis period beef and 
pork were only one and a half cents a pound. A large three-year- 
old steer would bring onlj' ten dollars. 

About this period Benj. Matthews, a lad of 18 years, settled in 
the northern part of the county. 


By this time the immigrants had become sd numerous and the 
events of history so complicated that they cannot be very well 
grouped by years either in the memories of old settlers or in writ- 
ten history. 

The second court-house was built in 1829 by Elijah Petty and 
Col. Ross, contractors, at a cost of $650. About this time the 
clerk's office building was erected in Atlas. It was a double log 
building, and one end was occupied by James Poss as a cabinet 
shop. This building was totally destroyed by fire one night during 
the winter of the big snow, as referred to further on. Many of the 
earliest records were thus lost, and many others would have 
been burned but for the great exertions and bravery of Mr. James 

John Barney, now residing at Pittsfield, is a brother of Col. Benj. 
Barney, and came to the county in 18;>0. Soon after the county- 
seat was removed to Pittsfield, Mr. John Barney was elected treas- 


nrer, which office lie filled with fidelity for a number ol years. All 
the money raised and expended for the construction of the ])resent 
court-house and the first Pittsfield jail passed through his hands. 
It being once charged that he was a little behind with the public 
funds, an investigation was instituted, which resulted in showing that 
instead of his being in debt to the county, the county was owing him 
over a hundred dollars. 

Fielding Hanks settled in Pike county in 1830, and was proba- 
blv the first tanner here. 



We now come to the winter of the deep snow, 1830-'l. The snow 
of that winter commenced falling Nov. 10, and did not all go away 
until the following April, yet the largest fall of snow did not begin 
until the 29th of December. This was the heaviest snow that ever 
fell in Illinois within the memory of the oldest settler of this part 
of the State. According to the traditions of the Indians as related 
to the pioneers, a snow fell from 50 to 75 years before the settle- 
ment by the white people, which swept away the numerous herds of 
buffalo and elk that roamed over the vast prairies at that time. 
This tradition was verified by the large number of bones of these 
animals found in different localities on the prairies when first visited 
by the whites. The deep snow is one of the landmarks of the pio- 
neer. He reckons, in giving dates of early occurrences, so many 
years before or so many after the deep snow. He calculates the 
date of his coming, his marriage and birth of liis children from it, 
and well might it make a lasting impression upon their minds. 

In the northern portion of the county the snow at first was about 
three feet deep on a level, and as it settled a crust formed on the 
surface. The winter was also unusually cold, and this, in connec- 
tion with the snow covering the mast and other food of wild animals, 
resulted in starving and freezing to death most of the game, as deer, 
wild hogs and turkey. The deer, indeed, had been rendered scarce 
by the sweeping fires of the preceding autumn which the Indians 
had set out. After all this, however, theiv. wa? but very little suf- 
fering among the citizens of this county. They had plentv of meat 
and hulled corn, and with this simple fare they were content. 
What wild game there was alive in the forest was easily caught, on 
account of their reduced condition and the depth of the crusty snow 
which impeded their progress in the chase. Col. Ross chased down 
two deer with a horse, and caught and killed them by hand. The 
men got out of liquor, however, and this was tlieii- greatest priva- 
tion; but their suffering on this account was probal^ly more imagin- 
ary than real. On the 18th of February two men who had engaged 
to chop some wood for Col. Barney backed out of their agreement 


when they found he li;ul no whisky. Mr. Bai-ne}', recollecting tliat 
a nei£;hhor owed him a })int of whisky on a bet made at S(jine former 
time, induced the men to ^-o to woi'k by otieriuir them a treat. This 
whisky being the last in the nfiulibor's demijohn had some drug in 
it, but that "did not hurt the li(|Uur any,'" as it was so scarce and 
costly, it being worth f^^l.'iS a gallon. Clothing was also a little 
scarce, as the new comers into the new country had but very few 
slieep. For most of their substantial clothing the ])ioneers of these 
times had to depend u])on liome-made matei-ial. 

In the northern j>art of the county the snow was so deep as to 
cover the ears of the outstanding corn and make it very ditKcult to 
gather. Joshua Woosley. who, on account of the two preceding 
years being very favorable, inadvei'tently K't his stock of corn on 
hand get quite low, gave men three bushels a day for picking 
corn; and it was surprising how much of the article these hardy 
pioneers would gather amid such surroundings. Twenty men in 
four day? gathered 2,500 bushels. 

During the spring a freshet came with the melting snow, and the 
waters of the Sny underniined the mills at Kockport so that they 
sank down. Col. Koss had 50 or" 00 men at work there nearly all 
spring tilling up the places washed out. 

During this winter the clerk's office building at Atlas was burned 
down. Col. Ross tirst discovei-ed tire breaking out in that end of 
the structure where "Jimmy" Ross had his cabinet-shop, and raised 
the alarm; but the wind was blowing tiercely and nearly all was 
lost. This building was not more than tive rods from Col. Barney's 
residence, and he and "Jimmy" succeeded in rescuing some of the 
papers and records of the oitice, which but few of the other citizens 
seemed to care but little about. Many such things grow valuable 
with the lapse of time, and doubtless many more papers might have 
been saved which would render this liistory naore complete. 

The year 1831 M^-as also marked by a freeze in August which 
nearly ruined the corn crop before it was sufficiently matui-e, and con- 
sequently the following spring the farmers had to send to Kentucky 
for seed corn, ])aying for it on its delivery $3 a bushel. Boats came 
up the river about one a week, and their arrival was always the oc- 
casion of joy or disappointment. The settlers, however, got all the 
seed corn they wanted, those who wei'e flush being willing to divide 
with their le.^s fortunate neighbors and trust them, depending upon 
the success of their next crop for ]>ay; Shipping (Mi the Mississii)pi . 
at this period was limited to only three steam-boats between St. 
Louis and Galena, and whatever freighting was done by flat and 
keel boats, which were poled, rowed, sailed, cordelled and towed. 


"Free Frank," a colored man, arrived in Hadley township, this 
county, in the spring of 1831, with his wife Lucy and three chil- 
dren. They were originally from Kentucky and had spent the pre- 


ceding winter in Greene county, 111. This t'ainilj were the first 
settlers in that township, and none others arrived for two years. 
To conform to the custom of the aij^e the Legislature gave Free 
Frank the surname of McWorter, and he was ever afterward 
known as Frank McWorter. He' was a live, enterprising man, and 
laid out the town of New Philadeljihia, which once had great 
promise of making a good town. lie had bought his own freedom 
and that of his wife and many of his children, and left provision in 
his will to buy grandchildren, which was carried out by his son, 
Solomon McWorter. Frank died about the year 1857, at 77 3-ears 
of age. His wife died in her 99th year in 1871. Mr. McWorter 
was born in North Carolina, his wife in Virginia. They were both 
members of the Baptist Church and led exemplary lives. By in- 
dustry and economy they left a valuable farm to their heirs. A 
large and respectable settlement of their descendants now exists 
around the old home. 

In 1832 or 1833 a colored man came to the southern ]-)art of the 
county known by the name of "Bob," who wanted to marry a white 
girl, the daughter of a Mr. Guernsey. This aroused the indignation 
of the whites, and as soon as he saw the citizens after him he took 
to his heels and ran away so fast that "50 men couldn't catch him!" 


Before the Black Hawk war there came to this county, settling 
in various parts, besides those we have mentioned and many others,- 
Hawkins Judd, Geo. W. Hinman, Stepheti II. Watson, Garrett 
VanDeusen, Daniel Cliiigensmith, N. E. Quinby, M. Branson and 
Horace Horton. Messrs. Hinman and Judd were County Com- 
missioners with Col. Barney when they bought of the United States 
for $200 the quarter section of land upon which Bittsfield was 
located. They are now dead. Mr. Van Deusen, ati eccentric 
Knickerbocker Dutchman, was a Justice of the Peace and likely one ■ 
of the earliest settlers east of Pittsfield on Blue river, and was the 
originator of a queer device to crack corn, operated something after 
the manner supposed to be in vogue in the days of Adam and Eve. 
He used the stream of Blue river at a nai-row place, and by catching 
and contining tlie water therefrom in a h'dlow tree or trough, oj^en 
at the end up stream and closed at the lower end, he worked a 
swinging vessel which was suspended over a mortar to crack Indian 
corn. The process was to let the trough fill with water nearly to 
overflowing, when by its weight it would descend, dashing the pestle 
into the mortar and crushing the corn. The pestle being adjusted 
some distance from the end of the trough up stream, the water 
spilled beyond the mortar, and the machine adjusted itself for an- 
other beat at the corn. Col. N. E. Quinby was a lawyer. Mr. 
Ciingensmith settled in the northern part of the county: he died 
in 1835. Capt. Horton was a jolly tar from Connecticut, an en- 
ergetic man and a good settler. He came in 1832 and located above 
Rockpoi't. Branson and Watson, the latter a tailor, settled at Atlas. 



Clironologicallv we liavc how an-ivtd at, the period of tlie Black 
Hawk war, and tlie eoiiHcction uf Pike coinity with that e]ioch will 
be given in the cliajiter upon tliat war. No county perhaps took a 
more active and decided ]iart in this struggle of the ])ioneers with 
the Indians than this count}'. Almost as soon as it was known that 
soldiers were wanted Pike county had filled her quota. In an early 
day Indians were quite num.eious here, but we liave no record of 
any depredations being committed by them other tlian petty theft. 
The Sacs and Foxes made their headquarteis along the Sny for 
many years, where they were often visited by Black Hawk and 
Keokuk. At or near Atlas the whites often saw them in their war 
dances. These Indians however gave the settlers of Pike county 
very little trouble. Indeed they sometimes evinced some title to 
the epithet "noble." As for example, when a squaw was at one 
time sick of a fever and was nursed and doctored by a white family 
at Atlas until she got entirely well to the surprise of her Indian 
friends, they were very thankful and showed their gratitude in many 

In tliis connection we may relate a little anecdote characteristic 
of early times. John Jay Ross and a Mr. Filer thought they 
would have some fun one day by frightening Mr. Young and his 
family who resided at Atlas, and in the vicinity of his honse they 
imitated the noise and whoop of Indians so perfectly that Mr. and 
Mrs. Young thought they were surrounded by blood-thirsty red- 
skins. They were greatly frightened and chugged their children 
into a small cellar which was not large enough for themselves to 
giet into. They ran out into the mustard ])atch and remained there 
until the afternoon of the next day, so scared were they, before they 
dared to return to the house and liberate their suli'ering children. 


A very noted character in tlie earliest days of Pike county 
was James W.Whitney, more generally known as "Loi'd Coke," on 
account of his knowledge of law. He was teacher of the second 
scliool at Atlas, but having no family or permanent home he can 
scarcely be denominated a"" settler." He was the first Circuit and 
County Clerk, and held many local ofhces. He was a native of 
Massachusetts, a man of considerable education, having some 
knowledge of Latin. He came to Illinois before it was a State and 
resided at or near Edwardsville. Kot much is known of his former 
life, as he was always very taciturn when the subject was intro- 
duced. It is said that there was a hidden sorrow in his former life 
which was a delicate matter to touch upon. He wrote a very pecu- 
liar hand, which would indicate that he was an oddity. At first 
sight one would have taken liim to be a well-preserved preacher or 
schoolmaster of the davs of the earlier Adamses. His dress was 


plain and even homely; liis hair was sparse and all combed to the 
back of his head, and often tied with a buckskin striii^^ or old black 
shoe-string as a cue. Pecuniarily he was not prosperous, and he 
was very indifferent with respect to his dress. . He made his jour- 
neys generally afoot and alone, putting up where night found liim, 
with some friend, and his acquaintance was very extensive. He 
was always welcomed by the lonely pioneers, as he was a kind of 
gazetteer, bringing them the news when newspapers were scarce. 
He lived sometimes alone in a log cabin and sometimes he made 
the city of Quincy his hea'dquarters. 

" Lord Coke " was also known as the " Speaker of the Lobby," as 
he was the leader ot that branch of the Legislature for many years. 
When theaters and shows were rare, the citizens, judges and legis- 
lators at Yandalia were all agog to witness the convening of the 
Lobby. It was a great event. A throng would assemble, and after 
some ceremony "Lord Coke" would mount the stand and call tlie 
house to order. He would deliver his annual message, which would 
be received with cheers and laughter. Many hits and jokes were 
embodied in the message. Sometimes the satire was very broad, 
and at one time he hurt his standing with the Supreme Court by a 
farcical account of a meeting represented to have been held by that 
Court and leading members of the Bar to *' exterminate the varmints 
of the. State." He presided over the ''Lobby" with magisterial 
sway, and when mock heroics moved the man he would be a very 
important personage. The '"Lobby" was organized by appointing 
subordinate officers and numerous committees, whose titles and 
functions would be of the most ludicrous character; and the mem- 
bers composing the same would be in physical form, public stand- 
ing and personal bearing the most opposite of that position and 
character. For example. Col. Thos. Mather, President of the State 
Bank of Illinois, was a man short in stature but of great rotundity 
of person, quiet in demeanor; Judge Thomas Brown and Jesse 
Thomas, jr., were ffne, portly gentlemen. Such as these "Lord 
Coke" would announce, and that in print, as the most suitable 
members of "the committee on gymnastics and ground and lofty 
tumbling." Man}' reports of these committees would be submitted 
which would be in accord with their burlesque titles. These reports 
were often written by "Lord Coke" himself, and there was a broad 
personality in them rather Hudibrastic. 

At the Bar " Lord Coke" was not successful, as there was a want 
of practical sense in his applications and his law was often obsolete. 
He died Dec. 13, 1860, between 83 and 85 years of age. 


Parvin Paullin, a native of ISew Jersey, came in mature years 
to this county, served one term as a Repr'esentative in the Illinois 
Legislature, and was Probate Judge, discharging always his dut^ 
with honor and efficiency. He died many years ago. 


Ephraiin Cannon was an early settler of Pike county, and for a 
time Slierifl'. 

Robert and Joseph Goodin and Fislier Petty were amongst the 
noted men of Iligliland. Petty was a County Commissioner at 
Pittstield; Mr. Murphy was the first County Surveyor; and Joseph 
Goodin was C(junty Sni-veyor thereafter and a good ofhcer. lie was 
living a few years ago in Missouri. 

John George Nicohiy, an illustrious rc])resentative of Pike county 
education, was born in Germany, and came to this county an ob- 
scure boy: being very studious he became highly self-educ.ited; 
learned the printer's trade in Pittstield; married Miss Bates of 
that place; he edited the Free Press for a sliort time, and when 
O. M. Hatch was elected Secretary of State Mr. N. was his clerk 
for two years at S])ringfield; read law in Abraham Lincoln's olKce, 
and t»n the election of Mr. Lincoln to the Presidency of the United 
States he became one of his private secretaries; subsequently lie 
was Consul to Paris, and is now Marshal of the Sujireme Court of 
the United States, which is a life office or a tenure during good 

John Hay, son of Dr. Hay, of Warsaw, and ne])hew of Milton 
Hay, next mentioned, and for some time a resident of Pittstield, 
was a c mpanion of Mr. Nicolay in the study of law in Mr. Lin- 
coln's office at Spi'ingfield and in being ])rivate secretary of the 
President. While iti Pittstield he published •' Pike County Bal- 
lads," a collection of ca])ital pieces of poetry, among the most noted 
of which are '• Bantv Tim," "Little Breeches" and " Bludsoe." 

Milton Hay, now ranking high as a lawyer at Springfield, resided 
in l^ittsfield in his eai-lier days as an attorney at law. He has since 
been in a Ccnistitutional Convention and in the Legislature of the 

Major Charles J. Sellon we can claim as a son of Pike county, his 
parents having been the ]>resent wife of Col. D. B. Bush, by her 
former husband, Pev. John Sellon, an episcopal clergyman who 
once owned St. Ann's Church, >Jew York city, and was a wealthy 
man, and whose sistei' was the wife of Sir lienjamin Brodie, the 
eminent English physician. Charles J. was brought up ])rinci- 
pally in the family of Col. )>usli, was in the ^Mexican war {\\\ the 
battle of Bueiia A'ista), and during our late war was Major of an 
Illinois regiment; was editor of the Springfield (111.) -/o^/r/^f?/; still 
later on the Peoria Tr<rnsrr;j>l. He died in 1862. 

''Aunt" Poby Ko^-^. still living at Barry, in her 9iM year, came 
with her )ieo]»lo to Atlas She was born Sei)t. 27, 1789, in lien- 
sellaer county. N. Y., and wa- first the wife of Chirendon Ross and 
afterward of his bi'otiier Ca])t. Leonai-d Ross. Clarendon Ross was 
the first man whodic(l iti the county and Ca})tain Ross is long since 
dead. Aunt Ro1»n'> ineniory is ^till clear, and she relates nniny in- 
teresting ex])ei'ieiiee> and events of early times. Her house was the 
stopping ]dace for many jieople; she has \Qi\ as many as a hundred 
in a day. She wonhl aiTaiige tables out of doors made of clajiboards 


placed upon sticks, supported "bj stakes driven in the ground. In 
that day thej had an abundance of meat, vegetables an3 sometimea 
fried cakes and crab-applesauce. Mrs. Ross's son Schuyler,' bj her 
first husband, died at the age of 20, in 1832, at Atlas. 

Merrill E. Rattan, the first Postmaster at Pittsfield, long since 
dead, was also Probate Judge. He kept a hotel on the same lot 
where the Oregon House now stands. Wm. Watson, once a Pro- 
bate Judge, is still living in Pittsfield. As a business man Mr. 
Watson was ever foremost and has accumulated some property. 
Robert R. Greene and his cousin Austin Barber opened and carried 
on the first large store in Pittsfield, These gentlemen are both vet 
living in that town. Mrs. G. was one of the earliest and highly 
respected school-teachers. Mr. Barber was for a period County Clerk. 

Wm. A. Grimshaw came to Pike county in 1833. For his biog- 
raphy see history of Pittsfield township. John U. Grimshaw, 
cousin of the former, settled near Pittsfield in 1834, and afterward 
moved to town and for many years was an active merchant. He 
died many years since. Jackson Grimshaw, a brother of William 
A., was a resident of Pittsfield for 14 years, then of Quincy, Ills., 
where he died in December, 1875. 

Belus and Egbert Jones, brothers, were old settlers. Belus was 
never a lawyer, but a pettifogger, who hung on to " Lord Coke "( J. 
W. Whitney) like a bobtail to a kite. At court time it was said, 
" No court till Coke and Belus come." 

Major James Tolbert, an old Virginian, was an ofiicer in the 17th 
Illinois Militia at an early day. He was an early settler of Pike 

Lyman Scott, an early settler, married a daughter of Leonard 
Ross. He was for a time one of the owners of a former mill at 
Rockport. He was a pushing business man. Many years ago he 
went to Kansas and is now dead. 

John Keeley, an early County Commissioner, removed to Texas 
and has since died. 

John Lyster, at times a Justice of the Peace, was an early settler 
in the Meredith and Neeley neighborhood near the Illinois river, 
now Detroit township. 

David Dutton early settled in the vicinity of Pleasant Yale, once 
County Commissioner, a prosperous farmer, and peculiar in his 
ways. He has long since deceased. 

Among the early settlers of Pike county was Mrs. Nancy M. 
Heath, who taught the first school in Pittsfield in the winter of 
1834. She had 14 scholars, taught in a rented house and boarded 
herself. Her terms were $3 per scholar for 12 weeks. The names 
of her patrons were Jonathan Pike, Col. Johnson, Wm. Watson, 
Ephraim Cannon, James McNary, Wm. Grimshaw, Dr. Worthing- 
ton, Mr. Davis, and John Turnbull. Her maiden name was Dun- 
bar, and she was born Jan. 1, 1791, the first white child born in 
Cincinnati; was brought up by Gov. Mc Arthur, of Ohio; in 1813 
she married Dr. Jonathan Heath, who was born on the south bank 


of the Potomac, Morefield, Ilardj county, Va. She came to Naples 
Morgan county, in 1825, taught school there, and came to Pittsfield in 
1834. The school-house, which was also their dwelling, was a small 
hewed-log house rented of Mr. Turnhull. She has had six children, 
five girls and one son, all dead. Mrs. Heath is still living in Pitts- 
field, but has had teel)le health for many years. Her daughter, 
afterward Mrs. A. V. Wills, also taught school with her. 

Dr. Hezekiah Dodge emigrated from Virginia to Bayville, this 
county, in an early day. In his physical structure he was " long, 
lean and lank, and moved upon a spindle shank." 

Mr. Gray, an early settler and prominent citizen of the county, 
was Sheriff about 1851; vyas Postmaster at Barry, and afterward for 
many years his home has been in Pittsfield. 

Joshua Woosley, an early settler of Hadley township, has been 
Sheriff, and taken quite an active part in the politics of the county. 
He is still a man of great activity, living on the old homestead. 

Among many other pioneers of Pike county we would mention, 
Henry P. Ramsey, Jacob Ilodgen (father of Dr. John Hodgen), 
Charles T. Brewster, W. B. Grimes, D. B. Bush, Elias Kent Kane 
(nephew of the celebrated Elisha Kent Kane, the Arctic explorer), 
all of whom have been more or less prominent in the history of this 
county. A little anecdote concerning Mr. Kent, who settled 
in Montezuma township in 1836, we cannot forbear to relate here. 

He went out deer-hunting one day, soon scaring up three large 
deer, which ran around him in a circle about 300 yards distant. He 
stood watching them with cocked gun in his hands, not knowing 
why he did not shoot; but subsequently learned from friends that 
he must have had the " buck ague." 

Many other names of early settlers will appear in the histories of 
the respective townships. 

Among the sons of Pike county who have departed to other fields 
of glory, are: Ozias M. Hatch and Alexander Starne, both of Pitts- 
field, then of Griggsville; both have run about the same cai-eer in 
this county, having been Clerks of the Circuit Court, members of 
the Legislature, and Secretaries of State; and both are nov/ resi- 
dents of Springfield, in pi-osperous circumstances. Mr. Starne left 
Philadelphia in 1836, " with the intention of getting so far away 
from home that he never could get back again," and he chose the 
beautiful section of country called Pike county for his permanent 
home. He relates many amusing stories concerning the olden 
times, clock peddlers, abolition riots. Dr. Dix's first land purchase 
and trip to the grist-mill. 

Among other numerous settlers in various parts of the county 
we would name the following: Rev. John Shinn, one of the early 
preachers of the county, settled just west of Phillips' Ferry; then 
came David Johnson, who bought the farm owned by him. He 
settled there in 1828, and for many years was Surveyor of the 
county. ]SIear him was Richard Wade; the next two who came 
were a Mr. Bateman and Andrew Phillips. Geo. W. Hinman, an 


early prominent man, came in 1S29, Joel Moore was the first set- 
tler north of Atlas towfird Griggsville. Nathan W. Jones, a resi- 
dent of Grigo-sville, was a well-known early settler. Abel Shelley, 
the Bradbiirys, Charles and Martin Harrington were also promi- 
nent pioneers. Boone Scholl, the founder of Perry, which was laid 
out first as " Booneville," was an early settler. 

In concluding our personal mention of early settlers, we quote the 
following from Mr. Grimshaw's "Centennial Address;" 

"Alfred Grubb, once called the 'Little Bay Horse,' for his 
sprightliness, was a good'- Sheriff and a County Judge. Thomas 
Orr, noted as a grand juror for many long years, was respected by 
all. Thomas Hull, a good farmer and remarkable for his active 
piety. These all leave numerous descendants of respectability. 
The Blairs (father and several sons), all good men, were in the 
vicinity of Barry before Pittsfield was laid out. William, son of 
the senior, was a marked member of the Illinois Legislature, and 
an upright and useful man. He is long dead. Montgomery Blair 
was, once a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1847. 
Harvey Blair is yet alive, and is an estimable farmer. 

"It is impossible in this sketch to notice all the early settlers; 
some have emigrated, others have died. At court time at an early 
day in Pittsfield, Samuel Gibson, Henry Kent, George Gibson, 
Sain'l Sitton, Esquire Hayden, the Tucker brothers would be seen, 
and Wm. Johnson, James Johnson, John and Jacob Heavener. 
The latter dressed in the homeliest garb, with his long rifle as 
bosom friend. James Johnson was a cous})icuous man. Both of 
these men were possessed of great nerve and endurance, and made 
great havoc amongst the deer. Small "varmint" they des[)ised. 
Sam'l G. Sitton survives in his 75th year; and on June 29th, 1876, 
he cut on his own farm an acre of wheat with a sickle and bound 
it up on that day, and the next day was at Pittsfield as spry as 
usual. Harvey Dunn, of Chambersburg, was an old settler, and 
in 1847 was a member of the Constitutional Convention of Illinois. 
He was a very unassuming but intelligent, honest man; but is 
long dead. Stephen R. Gray, venerable and respected in years, 
yet lives. He was Sheriff' about 1S51. He is an early settler and 
resided at or near Barry, and was at one time Postmaster thereat. 
Hamilton Wills is yet as happy as ever, jolly in person, comfort- 
able in business, an old settler in Pittsfield, as a Justice of the 
Peace in former years useful and respected. Richard Kerr, of 
Pleasant Hill township, was an old farmer, a leading whig, and 
represented Pike county in the Legislature for one term. He died 
many years since, esteemed by all, leaving many relatives in Pike. 

"Bonaimrte Greatliouse, of Milton, was County Commissioner 
at an early day, a man of great worth and a good farmer. He is 
long dead and left surviving him a numerous family. Several of 
his sons are practitioners at law. Sam'l L. Crane, now venerable 
in years, was a very early settler of Morgan county, 111., and has 
filled acceptably with perfect integrity the oftice of Postmaster at 


Pittsfield. He is now in private life. He is the father of that 
useful son, resident of Fittslield, James H. Crane, who has been 
Circuit Clerk of Pike county, yet lives here, and is a Deputy Clerk 
in the ofKce of Geo. W. Jones, our present and efficient popular 
circuit clerk. Wni. B. Grimes yet lives in Pittstield, He was an 
able and honest County Clerk for one term, succeeding Wm. 
Steers, who was a good and worthy officer; and his successor i8 
Jonathan L. Frye, who was a son of an honest miller, Jonathan 
Frye. James McWilliams,'. venerable for his years, influential in 
his town of Griggsville, has been a Pepresentative of the county 
in the Legislature and often a Supervisor of Griggsville township. 
Daniel D. Hicks, now the esteemed Cashier of the First National 
Bank, is an old resident of Pittstield and has honorably filled 
several offices. He was once Sheriff of the county. During his 
terra of office a riot took place one election day in Pittsfield, when 
many wild boys wlio had been good soldiers in the Mexican war 
took ,a most active part in the riot, calling out, ' We are some 
punkins.' By aid of a posse of the people, called by Hicks, the 
riot was put down." 

MR. HINMAN's letter. 

We copy the following very excellently prepared historical article 
from the Griggsville Reflector of July 1, 1876. It was prepared 
by Asa Hinman, son of the veteran pioneer, George W. Hinman. 
It so clearly portrays various features of the county's history, and 
knowing that it will be accepted as from a reliable source, we make 
no alterations in it, but present it as from the pen of Mr. Hinman: 

"In 1829, I think Oct. 14lh, my father, George W. Hinman, 
crossed the Illinois river at Phillips' Ferry with his family to make 
a permanent residence in Pike county. He drove out to the foot 
of the mound upon which the town of Griggsville now stands, 
and stopped with a man by the name of Bateman, who had made 
a small improvement and laid claim to the S. W. quarter of sec. 
14, T. 4. S., 3 W., which my father soon afterward bought and 
occupied. This was on the main traveled route from Phillips' 
Ferry to Quincy and Atlas, the county- seats of Adams and Pike, 
the two routes parting on top of the mound in what is now called 
Quincy Avenue. The first settlement on the road, which was then 
known as the Atlas trail, after passing the site where Griggsville 
was afterward built, was seven miles' out on Bay creek, where Joel 
Moore had settled some two or three years before. He emigrated 
from North Carolina, and, as I have understood, served in the 
army of the United States for the land he lived upon. The next 
settlement was Col. Seeley's, twelve miles farther and three miles 
from Atlas, on the trail to Quincy. It was thirty miles to the first 
house, where lived John Wiggle, a German, who formed the 
nucleus for the large German settlement that afterward settled in 
that part of Adams county. 

" I believe Atlas was the only laid-out town in Pike county at 



that time. At Phillips' Ferrj there was a small settlement. I 
will name those I remember: J^imrod Phillips, Dr. Bennett, first 
owners of the ferry, Tebo & McWorthy. One and a half miles up 
the road lived Charles Hazelrig, the only blacksmith in the eastern 
part of the county. 

"The settlement on the road west from the ferry was David 
Johnson's, who settled on the farm owned for a long time by the 
Rev. John Shinn and now the property of E. S. Parker. Mr. John- 
son settled there in 1828. ,He was surveyor in this county for many 
years. Near this place on the north side of the road lived Richard 
Wade. The next two settlements were Bateman, of whom I have 
spoken, and Andrew Phillips, who lived just east of Marshall's 
blacksmith shop. Dr. Phillips lived one and a half miles south of 
town on the farm now owned by Davis. North of town lived Mar- 
shall Kee, John Matthews, father of B. L. Matthews, and grand- 
father of Col. Matthews, Abel Shelly, Wm. AVilkerson, Sam Hola-- 
way, Abraham Scholl, Sam Chenoweth, and an old gentleman by 
the name of Ayers. All these I have named were men of families; 
and none to my knowledge now remain but David Johnson, who 
still lives in the town of Perry, and is badly crippled with rheuma- 
tism, but otherwise is in good health. Many of their children and 
grandchildren yet remain in the county. 

"Although the immediate descendants of these old pioneers grew 
up without an opportunity to get an education, many of them are, 
yes, I may say most of them, are noble, high-minded men and wo- 
men, and' are generally among the foremost to make a sacrifice to 
secure for their children a substantial education; and while on this 
subject I will say, if there was a school-house in the county I was not 
aware of its location. The first school-house near Griggsville was 
built in 1831. It was located a little northeast of town, a small log 
cabin, stick-and-clay chimney, the floor laid from slabs split from 
lind logs, and the seats made of some material mounted on wooden 
legs. For light, one log was cut out of the building, a hewn slab 
put under -this opening and paper pasted over it in cold weather; 
then with a rousing log fire, Webster's speller, the Testament, 
sometimes the Life of Washington, sometimes Jack Downing, Rob- 
inson Crusoe, or whatever happened to be in the library at home, 
and a few copies of Daboll's or Pike's arithmetic, and a long 'gad' 
or two, Master Robert Rankin used to ' teach the young idea how 
to shoot.' Some of my young friends no doubt will laugh at my 
description of our educational privileges in those days, but this 
happened less than half a century ago and within less than half a 
mile and in sight of that fine school-house that so adorns the town 
and adds so much to your educational privileges. My description 
of this one will answer with very little variation all the first schools 
in this part of the county. 

"The next settlements to those already mentioned were along the 
bluff' near Cliambersburg and a few in the neighborhood of Detroit. 
The first settlers were poor, honest and brave, always kind to 


friends and ready to resent an insult, but rarely with any weapon 
only such as nature furnielied them with. 

" The first settlements were nearly entirely confined to the edge 
of the timber where small fields could be cleaned and plowed with 
one yoke of oxen or a span of horses, the prairie sod bein^ tough, 
requiring heavy teams to plow it. 

'' At this time game was very abundant. Deer, turkeys, prairie 
chickens, quail, raccoon, opossum and skunk were here in immense 
numbers. The buffalo had disappeared, but from the amount of 
horns and bones that lay bleaching on the prairies they must have 
been here in vast numbers. 

" At this time occasional bands of Indians would come in to hunt, 
but the settlers would form into companies, shoulder their rifles 
and march out to their camps and drive them away. 

" Now, I can imagine some of ray young friends would like to 
know how these poor settlers lived and what kind of houses they 
had, how they dressed themselves, and many other questions. Well, 
I have told you game was plenty; so was wild honey; the land pro- 
ductive and every man and boy who was large enough knew how to 
use the rifle and bring down the game. And up to the winter of 
1830-'! the winters had been very mild. Flax grew well, and cot- 
ton for the first few years did well. The women had all been raised 
to spin, weave and manufacture all the clothing that was needed in 
the family; but a large portion of the men dressed deer-skins and 
made themselves pants and coats, or what they called hunting- 
shirts. Some wore moccasins made of the same material, others 
would buy leather and manufacture shoes for their own family, or 
perhaps some neighbor would become quite an expert at cobbling, 
and besides doing all the shoe work for his own family, would do 
also a good deal for his neighbors; and 1 have seen women that 
could make quite a respectable shoe. The men would frequently 
manufacture caps for themselves and boys from the skins of foxes, 
coons and muskrats. Honey, at that day, was almost the only 
sweetening, besides maple sugar, that was used. Very little tea 
and coffee were used. Cows were cheap and the rich and nutritious 
grass caused them to produce choice milk and butter. Everybody 
used milk in those days. Potatoes, squashes, pumpkins and the 
various vegetables were securely stored for winter. The people 
had no money; they made but very few debts and very little dealing 
at the stores. What they did was mostly trade in furs, peltries and 
beeswax; and some of the oldest settlers would have a little surplus 
to sell to new comers. 

" It was several years before there was any grain shipped from 
this part of the country. The only means of transportation was a 
keel-boat owned and run by Ira Kellogg from Naples to St. Louis. 
It would make a trip once in five or six weeks. Naples was the 
only trading point for all the east side of the county. All the mills 
I can think of now that were then in Pike county, were Johnson's 
little grist and saw mill, two miles above Chambersburg, built in 


1830 or 1831, Van Deusen's little corn-cracker on Blue river, that 
would grind from one to two bushels per hour according to the 
stage of water, and Barney's horse-mill, some four or five miles 
from where Pittsfield now stands. As these mills did not accom- 
modate half the settlers, hand-mills, mortars and pestles were re- 
sorted to, and quantities of hominy were used during the winter 

"Now, for the habitations. Well, they were all built of logs 
after the fashion of the sphool-house I described. All had fire- 
places and only one room. The cooking was done in iron vessels 
on and around the log fire. If the weather was cold, the family 
large, or company in, which very frequently happened, the wood 
was piled on so as to raise the lieat and cause all hands to sit back 
to give the cooks room to work. In at least two corners of the 
cabin would be one-legged bedsteads, made by boring two holes at 
right angles into the logs and two to correspond into a single post, 
to receive the outer ends of the two rails. Clapboards, being laid. 
across, formed quite a convenient bedstead; and besides these I 
have often seen a loom and spinning-wheel in use in the same 
cabin. This state of aifairs would often last for years before another- 
room would be added. 

" At the time of which 1 write, settlements were not very rapid. 
The land was not in market. Congress had passed an act that all 
actual settlers who had lived for one year upon the public lands 
were entitled to enter or buy 160 acres at any time before the land 
was offered at public sale, which was in the fall of 1830; but very 
few of the settlers had any money to buy the land upon which they 
lived. The land office for this district was at Edwardsville, at which 
place a loan office was opened by Mason & Co. They would loan 
$200 to a settler which would pay the Government for 160 acres of 
land, the settler giving mortgage on the land and personal security 
for the payment of the $200 with 35 per cent, interest. 

"Soon after this, settlements became more frequent, many of 
the new comers bringing some money with them. Many of the old 
settlers who had borrowed money at the enormous rate of interest 
referred to, sold their land and improvements, thereby enabling 
them to pay the mortgage and have some money left to buy another 
tract of unimproved land. The most of these early settlers were 
from the Southern States. Yery few of them had ever had many 
advantages of an education; and, coming into a new country, where 
for several years schools were unknown, and then for several years 
more the only schools we had being gotten up by the individual 
efforts of the poor settlers, we see how limited their education must 
have been. We had no school fund then, no law to levy tax for 
school purposes, and school-houses were built by individual efibrt, 
and teachers hired in the same way. Books and papers were very 
scarce. I think the nearest paper published in the State was at 
Yandalia, the seat of Government at that time. Our postoffice was 


at Naples, in Morgan, now Scott, county, where we paid twentj-five 
cents postage on a letter. 

"With these limited advantages nearly all the children of that 
day grew to be men and women with but little education, or what 
is considered so at the present day. And let me say to my young 
friends, when you feel disposed to laugh at the speech, orthography, 
or grammar of old fogies who have come up from, those days, just 
laugh and feel good, and then remember them with gratitude for 
the many sacrifices and poble efforts they have made to secure to 
you the grand educational advantages you now enjoy under aur 
free-scho01 system. 

'• In pecember, 1830, snow fell to the depth of three feet on a 
level and drifted in many places to eight or ten feet. This was kept 
up by snow-falls until the middle of March. This has been known 
and refesred to as the winter of the deep snow. During this win- 
ter vast numbers of deer, turkey and other game died, or were 
killed by thoughtless hunters. During these early settlements 
wolves were very abundant and very destructive on pigs and sheep. 
This county had a great many snakes, of which the rattlesnake was 
the most numerous and dangerous, persons and animals being fre- 
quently bitten by them, causing the most intense pain and occa- 
sionally producing death. The habits of these reptiles were to 
gather up late in the fall ar, some rocky bluff or other place where 
they could make their way underground beyond the reach of frost 
and remain there until warm weather in May, when they crawled 
out and lay around in the sun a few days and then dispersed for 
miles over the surrounding country. During the time of their 
coming out in May we used to visit their dens and kill them in 
large numbers. Tiiis practice, in the course of a few years, greatly 
lessened their numbers, but still, in some localities a few remain. 

" In the fall of 1830, if my recollection is right, we had the first 
preaching, by a Methodist minister named Hunter, whose circuit or 
mission covered all the territory south of Rushville and Warsaw, 
lying between the Illinois and Mississippi rivers. He went around, 
this circuit once in four weeks. The preaching place for a little 
society that was Ibrmed in the neighborhood of Griggsville was at 
my father's house, on the S. W. quarter of sec. 14, T. 4 S., R. 3 W. 

"Asa Hinman." 

MR. garrison's letter. 

In 1876, when F. M. Grimes was preparing the history of Monte- 
zuma townsliip, he received the following very descriptive letter 
from Z. A. Garrison, of Oregon: 

" Fifty years ago I with my father and his family crossed the 
Illinois river in a small hand ferry-boat at Meacham's Ferry, where 
Montezuma now stands. We went west four miles and settled in 
the timber, a pretty country abounding with game of all kinds. 
Deer, turkey and bees were ver}- plenty. The Indians were our most 
numerous neighbors, being about twenty to one white man. In the 


winter of 1829 and 1830, the deep snow fell, whicli was four feet on 
a level. The summer following 1 was tending the ferry for Solo- 
mon Seevers at Montezuma and saw the first steam-boat that 
ploughed the Illinois river. It was a small stern-wheeler. When 
opposite the ferry the wheel rolled up so much grass that it conld 
not turn, and the men had to cut it loose and pole her through the 
grass. There was but one water mill in the county and that was 
on Big Blue. It was a tub-wheel and a very faithful one it was. 
When it got one grain cracked it would jump upon another with a 
powerful vim and crack it i;bo. The nearest store in the county was 
kept by Col. Ross at Atlas. Women wore homespun cotton dresses, 
and deer-skin moccasins. Men and boys dressed in buckskin from 
head to foot, and on the head a coon or fox skin cap; ate hog and 
hominy, lived sociably and enjoyed each other's company with true 


By the year 1831 it was seen that the county-seat could not long 
remain at Atlas, and a movement was started to fix its future and 
permanent location. The Legislature of the following winter 
authorized the appointment of three commissioners to locate the 
permanent seat of justice, which commissioners were Hawkins 
Judd. Geo. W. Hinman and Benj. Barney. After thoroughly can- 
vassing the situation they chose that beautiful site, centrally located 
in the county, whereon the present town of Pittsfield stands. The 
parties who wished to make the best of the situation had not the 
necessary $200 to enter the land with. It was difficult to borrow it 
anywhere in the county except of the Ross family, and they were 
interested in Atlas and opposed to Pittsfield. Of course some ill- 
feeling was engendered, and Mr. Hinman and Col. Barney got so 
mad they swore they "would never hold office again," and the Colo- 
nel has kept his word. They signed a note and obtained the money 
of Col. Ross, had the ground surveyed, let the building of the 
court-house to a Mr. Burke, and the commissioners held court in it 
in the fall of 1833, and the next spring the Circuit Court was held 
there. The Commissioners favoring the location were elected by a 
handsome majority at the next election, showing how the people of 
the county felt on the subject. 


The large prairies of the county presented a most beautiful sight 
before they were settled. The following very descriptive lines on 
"The Prairies of Illinois," by Capt. Basil Hall, graphically por- 
trays their beauty in their wild and native state: 

" The charm of prairie exists in its extension, its green, flowery 
carpet, its undulating surface, and the skirt of forest whereby it is 
surrounded; the latter feature being of all others the most signifi- 
cant and expressive, since it characterizes the landscape, and defines 
the form and boundary of the plain. If the prairie is little, its 


greatest beauty consists in the viciniiy of the encompassing edge of 
forests, which may be compared to the shores of a lake, being inter- 
sected with many deep, inward bends, as so many inlets, and at in- 
tervals projecting very far, not unlike a promontory or protruding 
arm of land. These projections sometimes so closely approach each 
other, that the traveler passing through between them may be said 
to walk in the midst of an alley overshadowed by the forest, before 
he enters again upon another broad prairie. Where the plain is ex- 
tensive, the delineations of the forest in the distant background ap- 
pear as would a misty oceati beach afar off. The eye sometimes 
surveys the green prairie without discovering on the illimitable 
plain a tree or bush, or any other object save the wilderness of 
flowers and grass, while on other occasions the view is enlivened by 
the groves dispersed like islands over the plain, or by a solitary 
tree rising above the wilderness. The resemblance to the sea which 
some of these prairies exhibit is really most striking. In the spring, 
when the young grass has just clothed the soil with a soddy carpet 
of the most delicate green, but especially when the sun is rising be- 
hind a distant elevation of the ground and its ra3'S are reflected by 
myriads of dew-drops, a more pleasing and more eye-benefitting 
view cannot be imagined. 

"The delightful aspect of the prairie, its amenities, and the ab- 
sence of that sombre awe inspired by forests, contribute to forcing 
away that sentiment of loneliness which usually steals upon the 
mind of the solitary wanderer in the wilderness; for, although he 
espies no habitation, and sees no human being, and knows himself 
to be far ofi" from every settlement of man, he can scarcely defend 
himself from believing that he is traveling through a landscape 
embellished by human art. The flowers are so delicate and elegant 
as apparently to be distributed for mere ornament over the plain; 
the groves and groups of trees seem to be dispersed over the prairie 
to enliven the landscape, and we can scarcely get rid of the impres- 
sion invading our imagination, of the whole scene being flung out 
and created for the satisfaction of the sentiment of beauty in reflned 

"In the summer the prairie is covered with tall grass, which is 
coarse in appearance, and soon assumes a yellow color, waving in 
the wind like a ripe crop of corn. In the early stages of its growth 
it resembles young wheat, and in this state furnishes such rich and 
succulent food for cattle tliat the latter choose it often in preference 
to wheat, it being no doubt a vei-y congenial fodder to them, since 
it is impossible to conceive of better butter than is made while the 
grass is in this stage. 

" In the early stages of its growth the grass is interspersed with 
little flowers, — the violet, the strawberry-blossom, and others of 
the most delicate structure. When the grass grows higher these 
disappear, and taller flowers, displaying more lively colors, take 
their place; and still later a series of still higher but less delicately 
formed flowers appear on the surface. While the grass is green 


these beautiful plains are adorned with every imaginable variety of 
color. It is impossible to conceive of a greater diversity, or dis- 
cover a predominating color, save the green, which forms a beauti- 
ful dead color, relieving the splendor of the others. In the summer 
the plants grow taller, and the colors more lively; in the autumn 
another generation of flowers arises which possesses less clearness 
and variety of color and less fragrancy. In the winter the prairie 
presents a melancholy aspect. Often the fire, which the hunters 
annually send over the prairies in order to dislodge the game, will 
destroy the entire vegetation^ giving to the soil a uniform black ap- 
pearance, like that of a vast plain of charcoal; then the wind sweep- 
ing over the prairie will find nothing which it might put in motion, 
no leaves which it might disperse, no haulms which it might shake. 
No sooner does the snow commence to fall than the animals, unless 
already frightened away by the fire, retire into the forests, when the 
most dreary, oppressive solitude will reign on the burnt prairies, 
which often occupy many square miles of territory." 


Fires would visit the grassy plains every autumn. The settlers 
who had pushed out from the timber took great precaution to pre- 
vent their crops, houses and barns from being destroyed, yet not 
always did they succeed. Many incidents are relatexl of prairie 
fires. The great conflagrations were caused either accidentally, or 
designedly from wantonness, or with a view of bewildering the 
game. The fire often spread further than it was intended it should. 
Wherever were extensive -prairie lands, one-half was burned in the 
spring and the other half in the autumn, in order to produce a more 
rapid gi-owth of the naturally exhuberant grass, destroying at the 
same time the tall and thick weed stalks. Violent winds would 
often arise and drive the flames with such rapidity that riders on 
the fleetest steeds could scarcely escape. On the approach of a 
prairie fire the farmer would immediately set about " burning back," 
— that is, burning ofi" the grass close by the fences, that the larger 
fire upon arriving would become extinguished for want of aliment. 
In order to be able, however, to make proper use of this measure of 
safety, it was very essential that every farmer should encompass 
with a ditch those of his fences adjoining the prairie. "When known 
that the conflagration could cause no danger, the settler, though 
accustomed to them, could not refrain from gazing with admiration 
upon the magnificent spectacle. Language cannot convey, words 
cannot express, the faintest idea of the splendor and grandeur of 
such a conflagration during the night. It was as if the pale queen 
of night, disdaining to take her accustomed place in the heavens, 
had dispatched myriads upon myriads of messengers to light their 
torches at the altar of the setting sun until all had flashed into one 
long and continuous blaze. 

The following graphic description of prairie fires was written by 
a traveler through this region in 1849: 


''Soon the fires began to kindle wider and rise higher from the 
long grass; the gentle breeze increased to stronger currents, and 
soon tanned the small, flickering blaze into fierce torrent flames, 
which curled up and leaped along in resistless splendor; and like 
quickly raising the dark curtain from the luminous stage, the scenes 
before me were suddenly changed, as if by the m.agician's wand, into 
one boundless amphitheater, blazing from earth to heaven and 
sweeping the horizon round, — columns of lurid flames sportively 
mounting up to the zenith, and dark clouds of crimson smoke curl- 
ing away and aloft till they nearly obscured stars and moon, while 
the rushing, crashing sounds, like roaring cataracts mingled with 
distant thunders, were almost deafening; danger, death, glared all 
around; it screamed for victims; yet, notwithstanding tlie immi- 
nent peril of prairie fires, one is loth, irresolute, almost unable to 
withdraw or seek refuge." 


The amusements of the pioneers were peculiar to themselves. 
Saturday afternoon was a holiday in which no man was expected to 
work. A load of produce might be taken to " town " for sale or 
trafiic without violence to custom, but no more serious labor could 
be tolerated. When on Saturday afternoon the town was reached, 
"fun commenced." Had two neighbors business to transact, here 
it was done. Horses were " swapped," difficulties settled and free 
fights indulged in. Blue and red ribbons were not worn in those 
days, and whisky was free as water; twelve and one-half cents would 
buy a quart, and thirty-five or forty cents would buy a gallon, and 
at such prices enormous quantities were consumed. Go to any 
town in the county and ask the first pioneer you meet, he will tell 
you of notable Saturday-afternoon fights, either of which to-day 
would fill a column of the Police News, with elaborate engravings 
to match. Indeed, fights on Saturday in the villages ana settle- 
ment centers were so customary that when a Saturday passed with 
no fight in the neighborhood, it was the occasion of considerable 
remark for weeks. 

Rough, ready to fight, as these pioneers were, their latch-string 
was always out. No stranger ever stopped at their cabins without 
receiving a hearty welcome. 

The settler in the early days was not only hospitable but also 
philanthropic, and never neglected' an opportunity to aid a neigh- 
bor. House-raisings were his special delight. Let a new-comer 
arrive in tlie neighborhood and all were ready to help him. One 
would send a bushel or two of potatoes, another a piece of meat, 
another some other article that could be used to eke out the larder; 
but when the new-comer had his logs cut and all ready for the rais- 
ing, then the fun commenced. Teams, men, axes, all were on the 
ground at an early hour, logs were hauled, scored, one side hewed, 
it may be, and before night willing hands had erected a residence 
as comfortable and commodious as any in the settlement, and at 


night was ready for the "house-warming," where dancing was kept 
up until the " wee short hours," and where all enjoyed themselves 
in a manner unknown to the people of to-day. Let a neighbor get 
sick in the fall, as frequently occurred, and some neighbor would 
inaugurate a " chopping bee " or corn-gathering, for his benefit, 
when all his fall work would be done in a day, — corn gathered and 
cribbed, wood chopped and hauled, and everything put in good 
shape for the winter. After the day's labors were completed, song 
and dance were in order, apd until morning, perhaps, the younger 
members of the community would keep up their hilarity. 

The only amusements of the pioneers had a hospitable, kindly 
core and were connected with some helpful act for needy neighbors. 
It was not only in amusements, but in all other acts of life that this 
kindliness was manifested, as instances which living witnesses can 
testify to will illustrate. 

The earliest commercial transactions carried on in this county 
were but neighborhood exchanges, in great part. True, now and 
then a farmer would load a flat-boat with beeswax, honey, tallow 
and peltries, with perhaps a few bushels of wheat or corn or a few 
hundred clapboards, and float down the Illinois or Mississippi river 
to St. Louis, or even to New Orleans, where he would exchange his 
produce for substantial in the way of groceries and a little ready 
money, with which he would return by some one of two or three 
steam-boats then running; or if the period of the trip was before 
the advent of steam-boats he would turn his load into cash and 
come home on foot. 

After the advent of steam-boats a new system of commerce sprang 
up. Every town would contain one or two merchants who would 
buy corn, wheat and dressed hogs in the fall, store them in ware- 
houses on the river at some of the " landings," and when the river 
opened in the spring would^ship his winter's accumulations to St. 
Louis, Cincinnati or INew 'Orleans for sale, and with the proceeds 
visit New York and lay in six months' supply of goods. So far as 
the farmer was concerned in all these transactions money was an 
unknown factor. Goods were always sold on twelve months' time 
and payment made with the proceeds of the farmers' crops. When 
the crops were sold and the merchant satisfied the surplus was paid 
out in orders on the store to laboring men and to satisfy other 
creditors. When a day's work was done by a working man his 
employer would say, " Well, what store do you want your order on? " 
and the order was always cheerfully accepted. 

Hogs were always sold ready dressed. The farmer, if forehanded, 
would call in his neighbors some bright fall or winter morning to 
help ''kill hogs." "immense kettles filled with water had been 
boiling since dawn. The sleds of the farmer covered with loose 
plank formed a platform for dressing, and a cask or half hoo^shead, 
with an old quilt thrown over the top, was prepared in wnich to 


scald. From a crotch of some convenient tree a projecting pole 
was rigged to hold the dead animals. When everything was 
arranged the best sliot of the neighborhood loaded his trusty rifle 
and the work of killing commenced. To make a " hog squeal " in 
shooting or " shoulder-stick," i. e., run the point of the knife used 
into the shoulder instead of the cavity of the breast, was a disgrace. 
As each hog fell the "sticker" mounted him and plunged a long, 
well-sharpened knife into his throat, and others caught him by the 
legs and drew him to the scalding tub now filled with hot water, 
into which a shovel -full of good green-wood ashes had been thrown. 
The cleaners now took the departed porcine, immersed him head 
first into the scalding tub, drew him back and forward a time 
or two, tried the hair, and if it would '' slip " easily the animal 
was turned and the other end underwent the same process. As 
soon as taken from the water the scrapers with case-knives went to 
work and soon had the animal denuded of hair, when two stout 
fellows would take it up between them and a third man to manage 
the ".gambrel " (which was a stout stick about two feet long, sharp- 
ened at both ends to be inserted between the muscles of the hinS 
legs at or near the hock joint), the animal would be elevated to the 
pole and the entrails removed by some skillful hand. 

When the work of killing was completed and the hogs had time 
to cool, such as were intended for domestic use were cut up, the 
lard tried out by the women of the household, and the surplus taken 
to town to market. In those days almost every merchant had, at 
the rear end of his place of business or at some convenient neigh- 
boring building, a " pork-house," and would buy the pork of his cus- 
tomers and of such others as would sell to him, and " cut " it for 
market. This gave employment to a large number of hands in 
every village cutting pork — work which lasted all winter; also to a 
large number of teams hauling to the river, and coopers making 
pork barrels. 

Prices of pork then were not so high as at present. Thousands 
of hogs dressed for market have been sold in this county at $1.26 
to |1.50iper hundred pounds: sometimes they were sold'by the dozen, 
bringing from $12 to $18 per dozen, owing to size and quality. 
When, as the county grew older and communications easier between 
the seaboard and the great West, prices went up to $2 and $2.50 per 
hundred pounds, the farmers thought they would always be content 
to raise pork at sucli a fine price. 

There was one feature in this method of buying pork that made 
any town in Pike county a paradise for the poor man in winter. 
" Spare-ribs, " " tender loins, " " pigs' heads " and " feet " were not 
considered of an}- value, and were given freely to all who asked. If 
a barrel were taken to any pork-house and salt furnished, the barrel 
would be filled and salted down with tender loins or spare-ribs for 
nothing. So great in many cases was the quantity of spare-ribs, 
etc., to be disposed of, that they would be hauled away in wagon 
loads and dumped in the woods out of town. 


In those days if wheat brought half a dollar per bushel the 
farmer was satisfied. A good young milch-cow could be bought for 
from $5 to $10, and that payable in work. 

Those might truly be called close times, yet the citizens of the 
county were accommodating, and no case of actual suffering for the 
necessaries of life was known to exist before each vied with the 
other to relieve it. 


The early settlers were not entirely without preaching. Says an 
old pioneer on this subject: "The ministers of the gospel of the 
Savior of the world hunted us up and preached to what few there 
were; therefore, we did not degenerate and turn heathen, as any 
community will where the sound of the gospel is not heard. I shall 
not give their names, though sacred in memory, for they were not 
after the fleece, but after the flock, because they had but little to 
say about science and philosophy, but spoke of purer things." 

In speaking of the early preachers Col. Wm. Ross, in a letter 
read before the first meeting of the Old Settlers' Association, said: 
^' Among my early recollections are the faithful services rendered 
by pioneer ministers of the gospel, among whom the name of 
Brother Trotter is familiar. He rendered faithful services as a 
minister of Christ, and wae well received by all Christian denomina- 
tions as a liberal-minded Christian and a noble man. " 

Rev. W. D. Trotter, the gentleman above referred to, was present 
at this meeting, and reviewed the hardships and trials of the early 
-settlers of Pike county to the great entertainment of the audience. 
He had been a missionary in this county as early as 1830. He ex- 
hibited a balance sheet of his receipts and expenditures during 
the year 1832-'3, in what was then called Blue River Mission. He 
received from the mission $88; the conference paid him $12 in ad- 
dition, making his salary $100 for iiis services for the year. 

Hon. Wm. A. Grinshaw delivered the oration of the occasion 
and referred to this subject in the following language: " "We all 
worship God according to the dictates of our own conscience, and 
under our vine and fig tree. When Brother Trotter, who is now 
present, venerable with years and revered for piety, or old Father 
Wolf, now gathered to his fathers-, blessed for his good deeds, came 
around to his appointment, all of every religion and no one religion 
turned out to meeting in the woods or the log school-house, or at 
a settler's home; we had no fine churches in those days. Mormons 
puzzled the unwary by their startling pretense at new revelations. 
Or, if disappointed by the regular minister, old Father Petty would 
recite in prayer Belshazzar's feast in trembling tones of piety." 

In early day when public gatherings were occasions of great ex- 
citement and means of conveyance rare the people would walk a 
great way to church. Girls have been known to walk six miles to 
church, to " meeting " as it was termed in those days. Persons 


very often would ride horseback, two or three on ahorse, and sjo ten 
or fifteen miles in this way, bringing along their bread and cheese. 
Until public buildings were erected meetings would be held in 
private houses, as they were offered by their owners, or in groves. 


Though struggling through the pressure of poverty a;nd privation 
the early settlers planted among them the school-house at the earli- 
est practical period. So important an object as the education of 
their children they did not deter until they could build more comely 
and convenient houses. They were for a time content with such as 
corresponded with their rude dwellings, but soon better buildings 
and accommodations were provided. As may readily be supposed, 
the accommodations of the earliest schools were not good. Some- 
times schools were taught in small log houses erected for the pur- 
pose. Stoves and such heating apparatus as are now in use were 
unknown. A mud-and-stick chimney in one end of the building, 
with earthen hearth and fire-place" wide and deep enough to take 
in a fonr-foot back-log, and smaller wood to m itch, served for warm- 
ing purposes in winter and a kind of conservur^ry in summer. For 
windows, part of a log was cat out in either >[de and may be a few 
lights of eight-by-ten glass set in, or ju§t as likely as not the 
aperture would be covered over with greased paper. Writing 
benches were made of wide planks, or likely puncheons, resting on 
pins or arms, driven into two-inch- auger-holes bored into the logs 
beneath the windows, Seats were made out of puncheons, and 
flooring of the same material. Everything was rude and plain, but 
many of 'America's greatest men have gone out from just such 
school-houses to grapple with the world and make nanjes for them- 
selves, and have come to be an honor to their country. Among 
these we can name Abraham Lincoln, our martyred President, one 
of the noblest men ever known to the world's history. Stephen A. 
Douglas, one of the greatest statesmen of the age, began his career 
in Illinois teaching in one of these primitive school -houses. 

Things are changed now. "We no longer see the lo^ school-house. 
Their places are filled with handsome frame or brick structures, 
which, for elegance and beauty of' design, rival those of older 
settled countries; and in place of the "masters" who were " looked 
up to " as superior beings, and were consulted on all matters of law, 
physic and religion, there are teachers of liberal culture, intelligent 
and progressive, many of whom have a broad and comprehensive 
idea of education, and regard their labor as something more thaix 
merely teaching in order to m^ke a livings — more than a knowledge 
of a great number of fact* in the great universe of mind and mat- 
ter. It means culture, the developing and disciplining of all the 
faculties of the human mind. It is the comprehension of the entire 
being of man. And the school or teacher wno takes charge and care 
of the young should provide the means and methods for carrying 
forward the process in all departments of their complex nature, 
physical, mental and spiritual. 



One of the greatest difficulties encountered by the early settlers 
was in having their milling done. By a liberal application of enter- 
prise and muscle they experienced but little trouble in producing 
an abundance of the cereals, but having it converted into breadstuff 
was a source of much hard labor. The hand-mill introduced was a 
great improvement over the mortar or tin grater, a description of 
which is given elsewhere in this volume. Then the band-mill was 

John Shaw ran a horse-mill for a time in Calhoun county, where 
the earliest settlers sometimes went, but it appears he soon aban- 
doned it. Wm. Eoss then started one at Atlas. The burrs of this 
mill were limestone, and it is said that in every bushel of meal 
ground in this mill there would be a peck of stone dust. Many of 
the settlers had to travel long distances to mill, and then often wait 
for several days before they could get their grist. 

'After the large mill was built at Rockport it was the great center 
for milling for all this section of country. 


The Mormons first settled at "Mormontown," about three miles 
east of Pittsfield, in 1839, and by 1845 there were 300 voters in that 
settlement. They were quiet and harmless. On the building of 
Nauvoo most of them removed to that place. They tried to work 
some miracles about Pittsfield, but not with very signal success. 
We heard of but one crime committed by them during their carieer 
in this county, and that was not particularly a Mormon crime. A 
man among them named Benj. Sweat was convicted of passing 
counterfeit gold : was caught at Jacksonville. He was v^ery poor 
and excited the sympathies of the people, and a petition was pre- 
sented for his release, which was granted. 

In pioneer times a little cotton was raised in the Military Tract, 
and as late as 1861 and 1862 there was cotton raised in Pike county. 
Lindsay Dilworth, living eight miles from Pittsfield, raised 17 
pounds from three rows, each 100 feet long. One-half of it was 
fi^ost-bitten : the remainder was white and fine-fibered. In 1862 
Wm. Ross, jr., raised some very good cotton. 


While this scourge wrought great devastation in some sections of 
the United States in 184:8-'9, Pike county almost escaped its ravages. 
In and about Pittsfield Dr. Comstock, DeWitt St. John, David 
Ober and wife, Mr. Main, Alvin Hash's wife and several strangers 
died, and at Kinderhook there were 15 or 20 cases of the disease. 
It seemed to have got out into the county from Louisiana, whither 
it had been brought by steamers from the lower Mississippi. 



The celebrated internal improvement system inaugurated by the 
State in 1836-'7 did not give Pike county any railroads or canals, 
or even promise any; but an appropriation of several thousand 
dollars was made, which was economically expended in the im- 
provement of highways. Commissioners were appointed, men 
were hired to superintend the work, and wagon roads were made 
evener or improved from Quincy through the northeastern part 
of the county, from Pittsfield to Florence, and one from Griggsville 
to the Illinois river. These works were completed, however, by 
county and township aid. 


McCraney's creek, formerly called '' McDonald's creek," by the 
Government survey, was named after McCraney, who was the first 
settler upon its banks. He was a man of great endurance and a 
skillful sportsman. One day he chased down a gray wolf with his 
horse, When he placed one foot upon the animal's neck and with 
the other succeeded in breaking his legs so that he could get some- 
thing with which to completely dispatch him. 

Hadley creek was named after Col. Levi Hadley, an early settler. 

Dutch Church creek was named after a rocky bluff near its bank 
which is supposed to resemble an old Dutch ch.urch in the city of 
Albany, N. Y. Keyes creek was named after Willard Keyes. 

Ambrosia creek was named from the purity of its waters, 

Two-Mile creek was named from its crossing the bluff two miles 
from Atlas. 

Six-Mile creek is six miles below Atlas. 

Bay creek was so called from the bay into which it runs. 


The first settler in Pike county was Ebenezer Franklin, who 
also cut the first tree and built the first log cabin, in 1820. 

The first white person born in the county was Nancy, daughter 
to Col. Wm. Ross, at Atlas, May 1, 1822, who died Nov. 18, the 
same year. 

Marcellus Ross, now living one mile east of Pittsfield, was the 
first white male child born in Pike county. 

The first death in the county was that of Clarendon Ross, at 

Daniel Shinn brought the first wagon into the county in 1820. 

Col. Benj. Barney was the first blacksmith in the county, erect- 
ing his shop at Atlas in 1826. He also burned the first coal in the 
county, it having been shipped from Pittsburg, Pa. 

James Ross brought and used the first grain cradle here, in 1828. 

James Ross also equipped and ran the first turner's lathe and 
cabinet shop, at Atlas, in 1828. 


Col. Wm. Ross built the first brick house in the county, at Atlas, 
in 1821. 

He also erected the first store building, at Atlas, in 1826, and 
also the first grist-mill, a band-mill, at Atlas, about the same time. 

Fielding Hanks was the first to follow tanning in Pike county. 

The first Circuit Court was held at Coles' Grove, Oct. 1, 1821. 

The first Court at Atlas was held " the first Thursday after the 
fourth Monday in April," which .would be May 1, 1823. 

The first court-house , within the present limits of Pike county 
was built at Atlas in 1824. 

The first jail was erected at Atlas in 1824. 

The first school was taught at Atlas by John Jay Ross in 1822. 

The first Church was organized in the Ross family at Atlas prior 
to 1830. It was Congregational. 

The first church building in Pittsfield was the Congregational, 
and built by Col. Ross. 

Capt. Hale, a Baptist minister, probably organized the first Baptist 
church in Pike county. 

The first library was founded at Atlas, about 1833-4. 

The first Fourth-of-July celebration was held at Atlas in 1823. 

The first political meeting was held in Montezuma township in 
1834, when Col. Ross, who was running for the Legislature, made 
a speech. About 50 voters were present, besides boys. No nomi- 
nations or appointments were made. 

The first whisky distilled in the countv was manufactured by Mr. 
Milhizer in 1826. 

The first wheat was raised by Col. Ross and Mr, Seeley near 
Atlas, which was also the first ground in Pike county and made 
into biscuit. The flour was bolted through book muslin. 

The first apples were raised by Alfred Bissell, near New Hartford, 
and the first at Pittsfield by Col. Wm. Ross. 

The first man hung in the Military Tract was a Mr. Cunning- 
ham, at Quincy. 

The first man executed in Pike county was Bartholomew Barnes, 
at Pittsfield, Dec. 29, 1872. 

The first State Senator elected from Pike county was Col. Wm. 

The first County Commissioners were Capt. Leonard Ross, John 
Shaw and Wm. Ward. 

The first County Treasurer was Nathaniel Shaw, appointed in 

The first County and Circuit Clerk was James W. Whitney. 

T. L. Hall, of Detroit tp,, taught the first singing school, at Atlas. 
• The first Justices of the Peace wereEbenezer Smith and Stephen 
Dewey, appointed in 1821. 

The first Constable was Belus Jones, appointed in 1821. 

The first Masonic lodge was held up-stairs, at the house of Col. 
Ross, in Atlas, between 1830 and 1834. The desk used on the 
occasion is still in the possession of Marcellus Ross. It is a plain 


box, stronorly built, fifteen inches square and two and one-half feet 
high, and contains two shelves. In one side is a door swung on 


Pike county is a grand county, in many respects second to none 
in the State, and in almost everything that goes to make a live, 
prosperous community, not far behind the best. Beneath its fertile 
soil is coal enough to supply the State for generations; its harvests 
are bountiful; it enjoys a medium climate and many other things 
that make them a contented, prosperous and happy people; but the 

f)eople owe much to those who opened up these avenues that have 
ed to their present condition and happy surroundings. Unremit- 
ting toil and labor have driven off the sickly miasmas that brooded 
over swampy prairies. Energy and perseverance have peopled every 
section of the wild lands, and changed them from wastes and deserts 
to gardens of beauty and profit. When but a few years ago the 
barking wolves made the- night hideous with their wild shrieks and 
howls, how is heard only the lowing and bleating of domestic ani- 
mals. Only a half century ago the wild whoop of the Indian rent 
the air where now are heard the engine and rumbling trains of cars, 
bearing away to markets the products of the soil and the labor of 
its people. Then the savage built his rude huts on the spot where 
now/ise the dwellings and school-houses and church spires of civil- 
ized life. • How great the transformation! This change has been 
brought about by the incessant toil and aggregated labor of thou- 
sands of tired hands and anxious hearts, and the noble aspirations 
of such men and women as make any country great. What will 
another half century accomplish'^ 

There are few, very few, of these old pioneers yet lingering on the 
shores of time as connecting links of the past with the present. 
What must their thoughts be as with their dim eyes they view the 
scenes that surround them? We often hear people talk about the 
old-fogy ideas and fogy ways, and want of enterprise on the part of 
the old men who have gone tlirough the experiences of pioneer life. 
Sometimes, perhaps, such remarks are just, but, considering the 
experiences, education and entire life of such men, such remarks are 
better unsaid. They have had their trials, misfortunes, hardships 
and adventures, and shall we now, as they are passing far down the 
western declivity of life, and many of them gone, puint to them the 
finger of derision and laugh and sneer at the simplicity of their 
ways? Let us rather cheer them up, revere and respect them, for 
beneath those rough exteriors beat hearts as noble as ever throbbed 
in the human breast. These vetferans have been compelled to live 
for weeks upon homi:iy and, if bread at all, it was bread made from 
corn ground in hand-mills, or pounded up with mortars. Their 
children have been destitute of shoes during the winter ; their 
families had no clothing except what was carded, spun, wove and 
made into garments by their own hands; schools they had none; 





churches they had none; afflicted with sickness incident to all new 
countries, sometimes the entire family at once; luxuries of life they 
had none; the auxiliaries, improvements, inventions and labor-sav- 
ing machinery of to-day they had not; and what they possessed they 
obtained by the hardest of labor and individual exertions; yet they 
bore these hardships and privations without murmuring, hoping for 
better times to come, and often, too, with but little prospects of 

As before mentioned, the changes written on every hand are most 
wonderful. It has been but three-score years since the white man 
began to exercise dominion over this region, erst the home of the 
red man, yet the visitor of to-day, ignorant of the past of the county, 
could scarcely be made to realize that within these years there has 
grown up a population of 50,000 people, who in all the accomplish- 
ments of life are as far advanced as are inhabitants of the counties of 
older States. Schools, churches, colleges, palatial dwellings, beauti- 
ful grounds, large, well-cultivated and productive farms, as well as 
cities, towns and busy manufactories, jiave grown up, and occupy 
the hunting grounds and camping places of the Indians, and in 
every direction there are evidences of wealth, comfort and luxury. 
There is but little left of the old landmarks. Advanced civilization 
and the progressive demands of revolving years have obliterated 
all traces of Indian occupancy, until they are only remembered in 

In closing this chapter we again would impress upon the minds 
of our readers the fact that they owe a debt of gratitude to those 
who pioneered Pike county, which can be but partially repaid. 
Never grow unmindful Of the peril and adventure, fortitude, self- 
sacrifice and heroic devotion so prominently displayed in their lives. 
As time sweeps on its ceaseless flight, may the cherished memories 
of them lose none of their greenness, but may the future genera- 
tions alike cherish and perpetuate them with a just devotion to 



At the close of the war between the United States and England 
in 1812 our Government laid off a tract of land in Illinois for the 
soldiers who participated in that war. The land thus appropriated 
was embraced in the region between the Mississippi and the Illinois 
rivers, and south of the north line of Mercer county. Its northern 
boundary, therefore, ran east to Peru on the Illinois river, and a 
little south of the middle of Bureau and Henry counties. To it the 
name '' Military Tract " was given, and by that name this section is 
still known. Within this boundary is embraced one of the nlost 
fertile regions of the globe. Scarcely had Congress made the proper 
provisions to enable the soldiers to secure their land ere a few of the 
most daring and resolute started to possess it. There were only a 
few, however, who at first regarded their " quarter-section " of suf- 
ficient value to induce them to endure the hardships of the pioneer 
in its settlement and improvement. Many of them sold their patent 
to a fine " prairie quarter " in this county for one hundred dollars, 
others for less, while some traded theirs for a horse, a cow, or a 
watch, regarding themselves as jnstso much ahead. It is said that 
an old shoemaker, of New York city, bought several as fine quarters 
of land as are in Pike county with a pair of shoes. He would make 
a pair of shoes for which the soldier would deed him his " patent 
quarter" of land. This was a source of no little trouble to the 
actual settlers, for they could not always tell which quarter of land 
belonged to a soldier, or which was " Congress land" and could be 
pre-empted. Even when a settler found a suitable location known 
to be " patent land," with a desire to purchase, he experienced great 
difiiculty in finding the owner, and often did not find him u*ntil he had 
put hundreds of dollars' worth of improvements on it, when the 
patentee was sure to turn up. Many of the early settlers presumed 
that the owner never would be known; bat in many instances, after 
a patent quarter-section was made valuable by improvement, the 
original patent would be brought on by some one, who would 
oust the occupant and take possession, sometimes paying him some- 
thing for his improvements and sometimes not. Many holders of 


patents had no pity. This condition of affairs presented a tempta- 
tion to merciless " land-sharks," who would come into this section 
and work up cases, ostensibly for the original patentees, but really 
for their own pockets. The most notorious of these was one Toliver 
Craig, who actually made it a business to forge patents and deeds. 
This he carried on extensively from 1847 to 1854, especially in 
Knox and Fulton counties, and to some extent in Pike. He had 
forty bogus deeds put on record in one day at Knoxville. He was 
arrested in New York S,tate, in 1854, by O. M. Boggess, of Mon- 
mouth, and taken to the jail at Cincinnati, Ohio, where he attempted 
suicide by arsenic; but at the end of the year he was releasea on " 


As a part of the Territory of Illinois in 1790 all of that portion 
of Illinois south of what is now Peoria was made a county and 
named St. Clair, in honor of Gen. St. Clair, Governor of the 
Northwestern Territory. Cohokia was the county-seat of this 
county. In 1812 that part of Illinois Territory above St. Louis- 
was created into a county called Madison, with Edwardsville as 
the county-seat, Illinois was admitted as a State in 1818, and in. 
1821 all that part of Madison county between the Mississippi and 
Illinois rivers was organized into a county and named Pike, Its 
name was chosen in honor of Gen. Pike, of the war of 1812. The 
tract of country now known as Pike county was surveyed by the 
Government in the years 1817-'9, and soon afterward attracted at- 
tention on account of its natural advantages for commerce, fertility 
of soil and abundance of water. It is the oldest county in the 
Military Tract, and one of the largest, containing 510,764 acres, or 
800 square miles, in 23 townships. The following is a copy of the 
act organizing the county : 

An act to roRM a nbw county on the bountt lands. Appboved Jaw. 31, 1821. 

Section 1. Be it enacted, etc., that all that tract of country within the follow- 
ing boundaries, to wit : Beginning at the mouth of the Illinois river and running 
thence up the middle of said river to the fork of the same, thence up the south 
fork of said river until it strikes the State line of Indiana, thence north with said 
line to the north boundary line of this State, thence west with said line to the west 
boundary line of this State, and -thence with said line to the place of beginning 
shall constitute a separate county to be called Pike. 

Sec. 2. Be it further enacted that there shall be appointed the following per- 
sons, to wit: Levi Roberts, John Shaw and Nicholas Hanson, to meet at the 
house of Levi Roberts, in said county, on or before the first day of March next, to 
fix the temporary seat of justice of said county, the said seat of justice to be south 
of the base line of said county. 

Sec. 3. Be it further enacted, etc., that the citizens of Pike county be hereby 
declared entitled in all respects to the same rights and privileges that are allowed 
in general to other counties in the State. 

Sec. 4. Be it further enacted, etc., that said county of Pike be and form a part 
of the first judicial circuit. 

This act to take effect and be in force from and after its passage. 



The following act was passed at the next session of the Legisla- 
ture : 

An act definino the boundaries of ;Pike county, and fob other purposes. Approved 

Dec. 30, 182i. 

Section 1 . Be it enacted by the people of the State of Illinois represented in 
General Assembly, that the county of Pike shall be bounded as follows, to wit: 
On the north l)y the base line; on the east by the Illinois river; on the west by 
the Mississippi; and all the rest and residue of the territory, composing the 
county of Pike before the passage of this act, shall be attached to, and be apart of, 
said county until otherwise disposed of by the General Assembly of this State. 

Sec. 2. Be it further enacted, etc ., for the purpose of fixing the permanent 
seat of justice of said county, the following persons be and the same are hereby 
appointed Commissioners, to wit: Garrett VanDusen, Ossian M. Ross, John M. 
Smith, Daniel Ford and Daniel Shinn, who, after being duly sworn by some judge 
or justice of the peace of this State, faithfully and impartially to discharge the 
duties imposed upon them by this act, shall meet at the house'of John Shaw, in 
said county, on or before the first day of March next, and jiroceed to determine on 
the permanent seat of justice of said county, and designate the same, taking into 
consideration the condition and convenience of the people, the future population 
of the county, and the health and eligibility ot the place; and they are hereby 
authorized to receive as a donation for the use of said county any quantity of 
land that may be determined on by them, from anv proprietor that may choose to 
offer such donation of land; which place, so fixed and determined upon, the said 
Commissioners shall certif\\ under their hands and seals, and return the same to 
next Commissioners of Court in said county, which shall cause an entry there- 
of to be made upon their books of record . 

Sec 3. Be it further enacted, etc. , that the said Commissioners shall receive, 
as a compensation for their service, the sum of two dollars per day for each day 
by them necessarily spent in discharging the duties imposed upon them by this 
act, to be allowed by the Commissioners of the Court, and paid out of the county 

Pursuant to that portion of the above act as relating to locating 
the county-seat, the Conimissioners made their report to the County 
Commissioners at their March term of Court, 1823, and presented 
the Court with a deed from William Ross and Rufus Brown for an 
acre of land upon section 27, Atlas township. 


When Pike county was organized it embraced all of that country 
between the Illinois and Mississippi rivers, and extended east along 
the line of the main fork of the Illinois, the Kankakee river, to the 
Indiana State line and on to the northern boundary of the State, in- 
chiding the country where Rock Island, Galena, Peoria and Chi- 
cago now are. It was indeed a large county, and embraced what is 
now the wealthiest and most populous portion of the Great West. 
The extensivelead mines of Galena had not yet been discovered, and 
Chicago was only a trading;and military post. The Commissioners of 
Pike county, as will be noticed in the following chapter, exercised 
full authority, so far as the duties of their respective offices were 
concerned, over all this vast region. 

Settlers soon began to locate here ?.nd there in the Military Tract. 
Two years had scarcely passed ere the few settlers east of the fourth 


principal meridian and north of the base line desired a county, and 
appealed to the Legislature for power to organize one. Ossian M. 
Koss, the founder of Lewistown, Fulton county, and one of the 
prime movers in the organization of that county, was at that time 
a member of the County Commissioners' Court of Pike county. 
The following is an abstract of the act referred to: 

An act approved Jan. 28, 1823, forming the county of Fulton out 
of all the attached part of Pike, beginning where the fourth princi- 
pal meridian intersects the Illinois river, thence up the middle of said 
river to where the line between ranges live and six east strikes the 
said river, thence north with the said line between ranges five and 
six east, to the township line between townships nine and ten north, 
then west with said line to the fourth principal meridian, then south 
to the place of beginning; and all the rest and residue of the at- 
tached part of the county of Pike east of the fourth principal merid- 
ian shall be attached to Fulton county, 

Jan. 13, 1825, Schuyler county was cutoff from Pike and Fulton, 
and included all that country within the following boundaries: 
" Commencing at a place where the township line between town- 
ships two and three south touches the Illinois river, thence west on 
said line to the range line between ranges four and five west, thence 
north from said line to the northwest corner of township three 
north, range one west, thence east on said township line to the Illi- 
nois river, thence down the said river to the place of beginning." 

The same year an act was passed forming new counties. Those 
formed were Adams, Hancock, McDonough, Warren, Mercer, Henry, 
Putnam and Knox. Their boundaries were fixed by the act of Jan. 
30, 1825. Calhoun county was cut off* from Pike county and organ- 
ized in 1825. 


No whites settled north of Alton for agricultural purposes prior 
to 1819. During that year and the next there was a sufficient num- 
ber of settlers to organize a county. Accordingly the Legislature 
of 1820-1, as above seen, organized the county of Pike, which then 
included all of the State of Illinois between the Illinois and Missis- 
sippi rivers. The county-seat was first fixed at Coles' Grove, ad- 
joining the locality of Gilead, afterward the county-seat of Calhoun 
county. This place was named after Edward Coles, Governor of 

We copy the following topographical sketch of Pike county from 
" Peck's Illinois Gazetteer," published in 1834, as giving an idea of 
the county at that early date: 

" Pike county is the oldest county in the Military Tract, and was 
erected from Madison and other counties in 1821, It then em- 
braced the whole county northwest of the Illinois river, but by sub- 
sequent formation of new counties it is now reduced to ordinary 
size, containing twenty-two townships, or about 800 square miles. 
It is bounded north by Adams, east by Schuyler and the Illinois 


river, south by that river and Calhoun, and west by the Mississippi. 
Besides the Mississippi and Illinois rivers, which wash two sides, 
it has the Sny Carte slough, running the whole length of its west- 
ern border, which floats steam-boats to Atlas at a full stage of water. 
Pike county is watered by the Pigeon, Hadley, Keyes, Black, 
Dutch Church, Six-Mile and Bay creeks, which flow into the Mis- 
sissippi; and Big and Little Blue, and the North and West Forks 
of McGee's creek, which enter into the Illinois. Good mill-sites 
are furnished by these streaips. 

" The land is various. The section of country, or rather island, 
between the Sny Carte slough and the Mississippi, is a sandy soil, 
but mostly inundated land at the spring flood. It furnishes a great 
summer and winter range for stock, affbrding considerable open 
prairie, with skirts of heavy bottom timber near the streams. 
Along the bluffs and for two or three miles back the land is chiefly 
timbered, but cut up with ravines and quite rolling. Far in the in- 
terior and toward Schuyler county excellent prairie and timber 
lands are found, especially about the Blue rivers and McGee's 
creek. This must eventually be a rich and populous county. 

" In Pleasant Vale, on Keyes creek, is a salt spring twenty feet 
in diameter, which boils from the earth and throws oflf a stream of 
some size, and forms a salt pond in its vicinity. Salt has been made 
here, though not in great quantities. 

"In the county are seven water saw-mills, four grist-mills, one 
carding-machine, five stores, and a horse ferry-boat across the Mis- 
sissippi to Louisiana." 


The State Constitution, adopted on the admission of Illinois into 
the Union in 1818, prohibited slavery in this State. Owing to this 
fact many of the early immigrants coming West,'who were from 
the slave States of Virginia and Kentucky, passed right through 
this garden of Eden into Missouri. An effort was made, therefore, 
to so amend the Constitution as to permit slavery in this State that 
it might be more attractive to settlers, and the sequel showed that 
Illinois had a narrow escape from the dreadful evils of slavery. 
When the necessary preliminary resolution was offered in the Sen- 
ate it was ascertained that the requisite two-thirds vote to pass the 
resolution for the call of a convention to amend the Constitution 
could be obtained and to spare; but in the House they needed one 
vote. At first it was strenuously argued that the two-thirds vote 
meant two-thirds of the two Houses in joint convention; but the 
opponents were too powerful in their argument upon this point. 
The majority, however, was not to be foiled in their purpose. An- 
other mode presented itself: all that was required was courage to 
perpetrate a gross outrage on a recalcitrant member. There had 
been a contested election case from Pike county. The sitting mem- 
ber decided by the House to be entitled to the seat was Nicholas 
Hanson, and the contestant, John Shaw, the " Black Prince." Han- 


son's vote had been obtained for the re-election of Jesse B. Thomas, 
strongly pro-slavery, to the United States Senate; but further than 
this he would not go. Shaw, who favored the convention project, 
was now discovered to be entitled to the seat. A motion was there- 
upon made to reconsider the admission of Hanson, which prevailed. 
It was next further moved to strike out the name of Hanson and 
insert that of Shaw. During the pendency of the resolution a 
tumultuous crowd assembled in the evening at the State House, 
and after the delivery of 'a number of incendiary speeches, inflam- 
ing the minds of the people against Hanson, they proceeded 
through the town (Yandalia) with his effigy in a blaze, accompa- 
nied with the beating of drums, the sound of bugles, and shouts of 
" Convention or death." A motion to expel Hanson and admit 
Shaw was adopted, and the latter awarded the majority by voting 
for the convention resolution, which thus barely passed. The night 
following, a number of members of both Houses entered their sol- 
emji protest against this glaring outrage of unseating Hanson, both 
with the object intended and the manner of perpetrating it. Many 
reflecting men, earnest in their support of the convention question, 
condemned it, and it proved a powerful lever before the people in 
the defeat of tlie slavery scheme. The passage of the convention 
resolution was regarded as tantamount to its- carriage at the polls. 

The pro-slavery party celebrated their triumph by an illumina- 
tion of the town, and the procession, accompanied by all the horrid 
paraphernalia and discordant music of a charivari, marched to the 
residence of Governor Coles, and the quarters of the chief oppo- 
nents of the measure, where they performed with their demoniac 
music to annoy and insult them. 

The convention resolution was finally defeated by 1,800 majority 
at the polls. 

It is thus seen how Pike county gave the casting vote on the 
slavery question in this State in 1820. 


The counties now bounding Pike on the north are Adams and 
Brown; but in 1841 there was a county struck ofi" from the east 
side of Adams and called Marquette. Columbus, being more cen- 
trally located in Adams county, became ambitious for the county- 
seat, but as Quincy was too powerful against this project, the eastern 
portion of Adams county was struck off" by an act of the Legis- 
lature in order that the ambition of Columbus might be satisfied 
and become a county-seat. No attempt was made to organize the 
county until 1846, when Quincy again proved too powerful for 
them, and the following Legislature repealed the act defining the 
boundaries of the county. 


In 1842-'3 an efibrt was made to divide the county, the new 
county-seat to be at Barry. Dr. Thomas Worthington was a mem- 


ber of the State Senate, and Wm. Blair of the House, each repre- 
senting the interests of his section of the county. The bill introduced 
by Mr. Blair proposed to divide the county by a line running 
north and south through its extent; but, after the presentation 
of many petitions and remonstrances, and a period of consider- 
able excitement, the bill failed to pass the House. In 1850 the 
county was divided into 19 townships, and organized under the town- 
ship organization law of the Constitution of 1848. Under this 
mode the county is at present conducted. And that was the end 
of this little fight The county remains, therefore, to the present 
day as it was outlined by the Legislature of 1825. In the fall of 
1846 the efibrt was renewed. Meetings were held in various parts 
of the county, and speeches were made on both sides of the ques- 
tion; but public interest soon died down. 




The first meeting of the County Commissioners' Court of Pike 
county was held April 24, 1821. There were present Leonard Ross, 
John Shaw, and William "Ward, the three Commissioners. After 
the Court was organized, Stephen Dewey was appointed Clerk pro 
tem^ in the absence of James W. Whitney, the Clerk, The records 
give but little information in regard to the organization of the 
county. They begin with unqualified statements, and record the 
acts of the honored Court with greatest simplicity. 

The first business before the Court was an application for a li- 
cense to sell spirituous liquors made by Belus and Egbert Jones. 
The license was granted upon the payment of $3 into the newly 
made treasury by the Joneses. 

Belus Jones was then appointed Constable for the county of 
Pike. The liquor traflBc evidently was not great enough to em- 
ploy the entire time of the two gentlemen, and as the newly organ- 
ized county needed a Constable, Mr. Jones' services were solicited 
in that capacity. 

The county must needs have a Treasurer; accordingly Nathaniel 
Shaw was appointed to this important office. The Court then ad- 
journed to meet at 7 o'clock a. m., April 25. 

According to adjournment the Commissioners assembled upon 
the morning of the 25th. The first business presented to the con- 
sideration of the Court was an application for license to sell 
liquors presented by Thomas Ferguson. The Court seemed to pos- 
sess a willingness to encourage the liquor business within the newly 
made county, as they granted Mr. Ferguson license for $2.60. 
Why they should grant him a license for 50 cents less than they 
charged the Joneses, we can not tell. Perhaps an increase of busi- 
ness and flattering prospects enabled them to reduce the " tax. " 

Ebenezer Smith and Stephen Dewey were then recommended 
"as fit and suitable persons for the Governor to commission Jus- 
tices of the Peace." The Court then adjourned until June. 



Monday, June 4, 1821, the date set for the convening of the 
Court, John Shaw appeared and opened Court, but there not being 
a quorum present the Court was kept open until 4 o'clock in the 
afternoon, when all of the Commissioners appeared and took their 
seats. Upon the following day James W. Whitney, who had been 
appointed Clerk of the Court, although we find no record of his 
appointment, " appeared in open Court and took the several oaths 
required by law, and gaVe bond in the penal sum of $1,000, and 
tendered Levi Koberts and Rigdon C. Fenton his securities, who 
were accepted and approved by the Court." 


At the June term, 1821, Nathaniel Hincksley was granted 
license " to keep a tavern. " 

A tavern in those days was a combination of an inn and a 
saloon. The proprietor, however, did not expect to derive any great 
revenue from the hotel, but looked to his liquors for an income. 
Many of these " taverns " were the smallest of log cabins. Here 
and there all over the country, sometimes miles from any other 
cabin, they might be found. Some of them were indicated to be 
such by signs nailed to a post, tree, or to the side of the cabin. 
These were of the rudest make and design. Some simply had the 
word ''entertainment" scrawled upon them, while others, more ex- 
plicit, read "entertainment for man and beast." Some were still 
more definite and said simply " whisky and oats. " The storms of 
a half century, the advancement of civilization, the culture of the 
age, have ail combined to transform these rudest of signs, scrib- 
bled by an uncultured pioneer upon hewn boards, into gilded and 
glittering letters artistically traced upon French-plate glass. 

The name by which the place was known where liquor was vended 
was shortly after this changed from " tavern " to " grocery " or 
" groggery, " and subsequently assumed the appellation of" saloon ; ' ' 
and finally, that coming into disrepute, many have adopted the 
more modern title of "sample room," "hall," " garden," etc. 

The following schedule of "tavern rates" was then established 
to govern Hincksley : 

Victuals, per meal, 25 cents 

Horse keeping, per night, 37J^ 

Lodging, per night, 123^ 

Whisky, per half pint, 12>| 

Rum and gin, per half pint, 25 

French Brandy, per half pint, 50 

Wine, per half pint, 87>^ 


Upon motion of Abraham Beck, Esq., John Kinzie was recom- 
mended to the Governor of Illinois as a fit and suitable person for 


Justice of the Peace for Pike county. This gentleman was the 
well-known first settler of Chicago, and at that time resided there, 
it then being in this county. It must be remembered that Pike 
county at that time spread over a vast territory, and embraced all 
of the northern part of the State. Yes, though unlearned in law 
and unacquainted with science and literature, the Commissioners 
held jurisdiction over a large district; and that they conducted the 
public affairs rightly, and built a firm and solid foundation upon 
which the future prosperity and greatness of this portion of our 
beloved State should rest, can not be gainsaid. This is plainly 
evident from the unparalleled strides made in agricultural and me- 
chanical progress; from the hundreds of thousands of busy inhabi- 
tants now dwelling within this territory; and from the vast stores 
of wealth accumulated solely from resources within it. Those 
great and unconcealed wonders reflect honor and credit each day 
upon their founders; and as days and years multiply, when the 
same territory over which they presided shall be teeming with 
millions of earnest and energetic people, then will great honors and 
more exultant praise and adoration be expressed for the brave, 
sturdy pioneers who explored and opened up a region so prolific, 
and founded a community that for genius, enterprise and wealth 
will in the near future out-rank many older settled countries, and 
indeed will vie with many kingdoms of the earth. Then these vast 
prairies will be cultivated as a garden. Every forest tree and 
woodland will be utilized, and populous cities with numerous fac- 
tories and vast stores of commerce may be numbered by the score. 
Then will the modes of travel be superior to the remarkable rail- 
road facilities of to-day, and transport the increased products with 
greater facility. Indeed, everything will then be as different and 
as superior to what they are at present as the things of to-day are 
as compared with those of fifty years ago. Our readers may re- 
gard this as wild and unreasonable speculation, as wholly vision- 
ary ; but they are only the conclusions deduced from a careful study 
of history, of a comparison of what has been accomplished, with 
certain advantages, with the results that the superior advantages 
now enjoyed will as certainly accomplish. 


One of the first acts of the noble-hearted Commissioners was to 
make provisions for their poor. The pioneers were generous and 
liberal to a fault when it came to provide the necessities of life to 
those more unfortunate in their midst. June 6, 1821, Baxter 
Bradwell and Joel Bacon were appointed overseers of the poor. 


A record book was then ordered to be purchased, for which $3.00 
was given. This is a common paper-covered blank book of about 
200 pages, and at the present time the price would be considered 
high if the book were sold at half that amount. 



For many years the petitions for roads occupied a very large pro- 
portion of the Court's time and attention, and consumed more space 
to record than all other proceedings. They are similar in construc- 
tion, and it would be useless, and worse, to speak of them as often 
as they occur. We will only give a specimen of these applications 
and the mode of dealing with them. The records read as follows: 
"A petition of sundry inhabitants of this county was presented 
praying that a road may, be laid out from McDonald's Ferry on the 
Mississippi river, the nearest and best course to the Illinois river to 
meet a road that may be laid out from thence to Vandalia." The 
prayer was granted, and Daniel Shinn, Clarendon Ross and Eben- 
ezer Franklin were appointed a committee to view and ascertain 
where said road should be located. 

Upon the 3d of July of the same year the committee reported 
and their report was: "Accept as far as the north line of section 27 
of township 6 south, in range 5 west [Atlas township], that being 
as far as said Commissioners were able to proceed, owing to the ex- 
cessive growth of vegetation ; and it is further ordered that the time 
for viewing and laying out the remainder of said road shall be ex- 
tended until after the vegetation shall be destroyed by frost." 

Five days' work upon this road was required of each man who 
lived within two and one-half miles of it. This rule also applied 
to other roads laid out in those primitive times. One dollar was 
allowed for each day a man labored more than that. 

A petition was also presented for a road from Ferguson's Ferry 
on the Illinois river, to Fort Edwards, upon the Mississippi river. 
Again we find "a petition presented by sundry citizens, Oct. 4, 
1821, for a road from Fort Clark (now Peoria) to the mouth of the 
Illinois river." Accordingly James J^ixon, John Shaw and Eben- 
ezer Smith were appointed a committee to view the road from the 
house of Ebenezer Smith \jo Fort Clark. 


June 6, 1821, a license was granted James McDonald "to keep 
a ferry upon the east bank of the Mississippi river, opposite to the 
town of Louisianaville, on condition of his paying a tax of one dol- 
lar, besides Clerk's fee, and on his entering into bonds according 
to law, and that the following rates of ferriage be established, to 
wit : " 

For a single person, 25 cents 

For a single horse, 25 " 

Every head of cattle over one year old, 25 " 

Every hog, sheep or goat, 6}^ " 

Every four-wheeled carriage, 1 00 " 

Ever)' hundred weight of dead lumber, 6J^ " 

Every two wheeled carriage, 75 " 



Among the pioneers "training" or " muster day" was one 
which was looked forward to with feelings of pleasure. It was nec- 
essary to have a well organized militia to repel any invasions of 
the Indians which at that time were numerous through this sec- 
tion of the country. The Commissioners' Court, in its official capac- 
ity, took note of this, and accordingly, June 6, they "ordered that the 
militia of this county be organized into a regiment, and all that part 
of the county lying south of the township line between townships 
8 and 9 compose the first company district; and all north of that 
line to the base line compose the second company district ; and all 
north of the base line be and compose the third company district. 
Baxter Broadwell, Wm, Metz and Rigdon C. Fenton were ap- 
pointed Judges of election in the first company district; "Wm. 
keyes, Peter D. Moyer and Clarendon Ross were appointed judges 
of election in the second company district; Ossian M, Ross, Dr. 
Davigon and Amos Eveland, as judges of election in the third com- 
pany district. An election was then called for June 30, 1821, to 
select officers for the various companies. The base line, which runs 
east and west upon a parallel with Beardstown, was made the divid- 
ing line between the two militia battalions of the- regiment of Pike 
county. The battalion south of the base line was the first, and the 
one north the second, battalion. 


A sura not to exceed ten dollars was appropriated " to defray the 
expenses of opening and clearing out the old trace from the head 
or upper end of Salt Prairie to the lower end of Sni Carte Prairie, 
and five dollars for opening and cleaning out the old trace from the 
lower end of Sni Carte Prairie to Ross settlement." Further on in 
the records we fiiid^these orders rescinded, and at the same time 
Joel Bacon and James Levin were ordered credited with the amount 
of their road tax for having opened the said " trace." These traces 
were old Indian trails, but having been deserted for newer ones 
were unfit for travel. 


John Shaw was paid $5.00 for his services as an interpreter at the 
October term of the Circuit Court during the trial of two Indians 
for murder. These 'were Shouwennekek and Pemesan, who are 
spoken of in connection with this trial more fully in the chapter 
upon the criminal record. 

Ossian M. Ross was then recommended to the Governor as a suit- 
able person for Justice of the Peace in Pike county. Mr. Ross at 
this time lived where Lewistown, Fulton county, now stands. He 
was with one exception the first settler of that county, and was the 
founder of Lewistown. 


There was no jail in the county at this time, and at the October 
term, 1821, "Nathan Shaw was given $22.50 for guarding Indian 
prisoners." These, we presume, were the two Indians referred to 
above, and who were on trial for murder. The same amount, and 
for the same purpose, was given to Christopher Long. 

Jan. 10, 1822, " Abner Eads, of Peoria, made application for 
license to keep a tavern in the house where he now resides, which 
is granted on him paying $1.50." 

Jan. 12, 1822, the Sheriff was paid $50 for his salary for the 
year. Mr. Whitney Was given $30 for his services as Circuit 
Clerk, and $30 as Clerk of the Commissioners' Court, and $50 for 
his salary as Judge of Probate. 

Jan. 12, 1822, John Shaw was paid $8 for locating the county- 
seat, and Levi Roberts $4 for like services. 

Abraham Beck, Judge of Probate, died, and Jan. 12, 1822, the 
administrator of his estate was paid $16.60 as salary while he was 


The official papers of the inquest held over the body of James 
McDonald were ordered filed. McDonald ran a ferry across the 
Mississippi river at Louisiana. It is supposed he was murdered at 
his landing during the winter. He was found lying dead upon the 
ice one day by two men on their wa_y to Louisiana. They went to 
his ferry, but found him dead, and evidences of a long and severe 
scuffle all around him, as if he had been struggling for life in a 
hand-to-hand combat. The tracks of two men led from this place 
across to Louisiana, and it was generally supposed they were the 
men who killed McDonald, although nothing in a legal way was 
ever done with them. 

treasurer's first REPORT. 

The first report made by a County Treasurer of Pike county was 
made March 5, 1822. We give it in full: 

Cash received into the Treasury f 765 

Cash paid out under order of Court $701.28^. 

Treasurer's compensation 38.25 


Balance in Treasury $25.47 


Ossian M. Poss was then granted a license to keep a tavern at 
his house. He lived where the city of Lewistown now is. The same 
schedule which regulated other " Public Inns" or " Tavern-Keep- 
ers " were adopted to regulate him. 

David W. Barnes, O. M. Ross and Daniel Sweetland were ap- 
pointed trustees of the school section, tp. 5 north, R. 3 east, which 


is Lewistown tp., Fulton Co. These gentlemen lived in Lewis- 
town, and were its first settlers. 


June 5, 1822, the county was divided into three election precincts. 
All that part of the county lying north of the township lines, between 
towns 4 and 5 south and west of the Illinois blufi's, and all north of 
the base line, was the first precinct. Election was ordered in this 
precinct at the house of 0. M. Ross, and that gentleman was ap- 
pointed judge of election. All that part of the county lying north 
of township lines between towns 9 and 10 soutli, and wesfrof Illi- 
nois bluffs and north of the base line, was made another precinct, 
and the " polls ordered opened at the house of Rufus Brown and 
Daniel Whipple, Leonard Ross and Wm. Ross, judges." *' The re- 
mainder of the county was made another precinct, and election held 
at county-seat, and John Shaw, Stephen Dewey and Amos Ban- 
croft, judges." 

Davenport's taveen. 

June 6, 1822, it was ordered that a license to keep a tavern at or 
near Fort Armstrong, be granted to George Davenport for $3.00. 
This place was on the lower end of Rock Island. Mr. Davenport 
was the man who kept the trading post at Fort Armstrong, and in 
honor of him Davenport, Iowa, was named. The generous Com- 
missioners permitted Davenport to charge higher rates for " enter- 
tainment " than they did those nearer to the borders of civilization. 


An election was held in August, 1822, for selecting three new 
Commissioners. Those chosen were David Dutton, James M. Seeley 
and Ossian M. Ross. Much trouble appears to have grown out of 
this election, as we find the election of the three honorable gentle- 
men was contested, and evidently very strongly, too. The con- 
testants were Ebenezer Smith, James Nixon and William Metz. 
The case was appealed to the Circuit Court, Judge John Reynolds 
presiding. He decided in favor of the contestants. We cannot 
tell upon what grounds they contested the rights of Dutton, Seeley 
and Ross to take their seats as Commissioners, but from what we 
can glean from the indefinite records they did not comply with 
the law in taking the oath of office, as the contestants claimed. 
These were merely technical grounds, but the law must be com- 
plied with to the letter. Smith, Nixon and Metz held a term of 
Court Sept. 3 and 4, 1822, but transacted no business of import- 
ance. The other gentlemen called Court for Oct. 10, but no quorum 
was present. Another session was held Oct. 24. Commissioners 
Dutton and Seeley being present. We find recorded upon the fol- 
lowing day " a certificate of the Hon. John Reynolds setting forth 


the result of the contested election." This decision was the result 
of a second hearing; of the case by the Judge, and is as follows: 

" State of Illinois, ss: — Upon a second and full examination of 
the documents transmitted to me in relation to the contested elec- 
tion of the Sheriff, Coroner and County Commissioners for the county 
of Pike; and being satisfied that the certificates heretofore given by 
me of the election of Rigdon C. Fenton as Sheriff, Joel Bacon as Coro- 
ner and Ebenezer Smith, "William Metz and James Nixon as County 
Commissioners, was given without sufliicient consideration, I do 
hereby revoke the said certificates, and do now certify that Leonard 
Ross was duly elected Sheriff, Daniel "Whipple, Coroner, and James 
M. Seeley, David Dutton and Ossian M. Ross County Commis- 
sioners for Pike county in said State. 

"Given under my hand and seal this 4 th day of September, 1822. 

" John Reynolds, 
" Justice of the Supreme Court of said State, and presiding in the 
first Judicial Circuit." 

Thus, after a long and hotly contested trial, the Judge reversed 
his former decision and reinstated Seeley, Dutton and Ross, as 
well as the Sheriff and Coroner, whom he had decided were not 
legally and rightfully entitled to hold the positions to which they 
claimed they had been elected. 

clerk's office. 

We find the following quaint item on record, which is in refer- 
ence to renting an office for the County and Circuit clerks . "John 
Shaw, having proposed to lease the county the building in Coles' 
Grove, adjoining the one now occupied by Rigdon C. Fenton, for 
thp term of one year, to be occupied as a Clerk's office, for the sura 
of 6^ cents, and to be repaired by the county, under the direction 
of said Shaw, and to suit his convenience." 


Evidently a little rivalry had sprung up between the settlements 
at Atlas and Coles' Grove, the latter of which had been the county- 
seat up to this time (1823). Atlas was the most important town 
in the county, and it became ambitious to have the county build- 
ings located there, which it finally secured. Pursuant to an act of 
the Legislature, approved Dec. 30, 1852, "to fix upon and locate the 
permanent seat of justice for Pike county," the commission ap- 
pointed made their report at the March term of the Commissioners' 
Court, 1823, and presented a deed from "William Ross and Rufus 
Brown for one acre of land, which was given as an inducement for 
the county to locate its seat of justice there. The report reads as 
follows : 

" The Commissioners appointed to fix upon and locate the per- 
manent seat of justice of Pike county have attended to the services 
assigned them, and do report that they have fixed the permanent 



seat of justice of said county upon section 27, town 6 south, range 
5 west, and have tfken a deed of the proprietor of one acre of land 
on which to erect the public buildings, which is particularly de- 
scribed in said deed, and that they have named the seat of justice 

" John M. !Smith, 
" Daniel Moorb, 
''Daniel Shinn." 

NEW commissioner. 

An election was held March 18, 1823, to select a County Com- 
missioner to till vacancy occasioned by O. M. Ross, resigning. The 
county of Fulton, where Mr. Ross lived, having just been formed, 
and he chosen Sheriff, Amos Bancroft was elected to fill the va- 

difficulty in. selecting county-seat. 

It appears that some dissatisfaction arose froni the selection 
made by the Commi&uioners for a county-seat. We presume that 
the feeling was then as now in this and all other counties. More 
than one place, settlement or town, think it is the most suitable 
and proper place for the county-seat. In relation to the difficulty 
at tills time we find the following statement on record : "^Nicholas 
Hanson and Leonard Ross presented a report of certain persons 
appointed by an act of the Legislature as Commissioners to locate 
the permanent seat of justice for Pike county, and moved to have 
said report tiled and recorded, which said motion for the reasons 
following : 1st, The authority given by the act aforesaid was a 
special joint authority and should have been strictly pursued ; 2d, 
It happens that but three out of five Commissioners acted in the 
location of the countj^-seat, when the law gave no power to a ma- 
jority to act ; 3d, That said Commissioners did not. return and 
present their report at or before the time prescribed by law for the 
return of said report ; 4th, That the legal and qualified County 
Commissioners were in session at the time prescribed by law for 
the return of said report. And for the reasons aforesaid this Court 
does adjudge and decide that the proceedings of said Commission- 
ers to locate the permanent county-seat of Pike county are void, 
and that the temporary seat of justice of said county still remains 
at Coles' Grove." 

This decision was finally reversed, as seen from the following or- 
der made at the June term of the Court in 182-1: " The doings of 
this Court at a special term held on 26, 27 and 28 of January last, 
and also doings of this Court at last March term be, and the same 
are hereby, confirmed and established, except a contract entered 
into with John Shaw for the purpose of leasing a house, the rent of 
which was 6|- cents, in Coles' Grove, which contract is by mutual 
consent released and dissolved; and also an order of adjudication 
respecting the county-seat, which order is revoked and rescinded." 


264 HISTORY OF pike county. 

Thus, according to the selection made by tlie commission ap- 
pointed for that purpose, the countj-seat was moved from Coles' 
Grove, now in Calhonn county, to Atlas. 


Upon tlie 28th of January, 1S24, the county of Pike was divided 
into three townships by the Court, as follows: That part commenc- 
ing at the mouth of the Illinois river, thence up the said river to 
the north line of the first tibr of sections above the north line of 
town S south, thence running on said line west to the Mississippi 
river, thence down said river to place of beginning, constituted 
Coles' Grove township. That part embraced within the boundary 
beginning at the northeast corner of section 36 of township! south, 
on range line between ranges 4 and 5 west, thence along said 
range line north to tiie north line of the county, thence west to the 
Mississippi river, thence down said river to a point directly west of 
the place of beginning, thence to the place of beginning, which 
composed Atlas township. That part of the county within the fol- 
lowing limits was known as Franklin township: Commencing on 
the Illinois river one mile north of tlie north line of township 8 
south, thence np the said river to the base line, thence along said 
line to the range line between ranges 4 and 5 west, thence south 
running on the said range line to the northwest corner of sec- 
tion 31, of town 7 south, and range 4 west, thence along the 
north line of said section 31, and said first tier of sections north of 
town 8 south, to the place of beginnings together with all of the 
attached part of Pike county lying north of the aforesaid bounda- 

Thus it will be seen that these were exceedingly large townships. 
They embraced several counties, and extended over one of the fair- 
est portions of this great State. These divisions were made for the 
convenience of the settlers in voting, making roads, etc., yet from 
the extended size of each townshi]) we can see that many of the 
early voters had to travel many miles to cast his ballot. 


During the year the Commissioners ]>ursued the even tenor of 
their way, granting petitions for roads, ferries, tavern licenses and 
election precincts; appointing and removing officers with an in- 
flexibility of purpose that is really amusing. When they investi- 
gated a matter there were no palliating circumstances to screen the 
delinquent, but the judicial guillotin(i cut off official heads with a 
refreshing impartiality. Negligent officers feared the ]Kjwer of the 
"triple C" more than Damocles feared the hair-suspended sword. 
They simply and plainly said "Go," and. the official hesitated not 
but went at once, and tiiat was the end of it. 

In reference to this subject we find the following quaint docu- 
ment on record under date of July 29, 1824: 


"It appearing to this Court that the Clerk for some time past has 
not resided at the countj'-seat, nor kept the records and papers be- 
longing to the county at this. place; and the Court having consid- 
ered the facts and the law arising upon the case, does adjudge and 
determine that the said office of Clerk is now vacant, aiid that for 
the aforesaid cause James W. Whitney, the Clerk, be and is hereby 
removed from office." 

We suppose that Whitney remained at Coles' Grove after the 
county-seat had been rem9ved to Atlas, and the inconveniences of 
having the county offices and officials scattered over the country in 
that wise would not be endured longer by the strict, law-abiding 

The Court assembled upon the following day, and not yet having 
selected a clerk, appointed Mr. AVhitney Clerk jpro tern. It appears 
that the Commissioners had nothing personally against Mr. Whit- 
ney, for the very next act of the Court was to recommend him to the 
Governor as a fit and proper person to be appointed County Sur- 
veyor, to fill the vacancy having occurred by the removal of Stephen 
Dewey out of the county. This man Dewey, the first Surveyor of 
Pike county, laid out the town of Lewistown, Fulton county, where 
he shortly afterward removed and served for many years as Circuit 
and County Clerk, and did efficient work in the organization and 
establishment of that county. 

It appears that the Court could find no suitable person to take 
charge of the Clerk's office, for upon July 30, two days after Mr. 
Whitney was so summarily removed from office, he was re-instated. 
Perhaps a compromise was made between the Court and Mr. Whit- 
ney. It is more than likely that he was compelled to move to the 
county-seat in order to receive again the patronage of the Court. 
He served until April 27, 1825, when he resigned and George W. 
Britton was appointed in his stead. Whitney was indicted for mal- 
feasance in office, and the suit was withdrawn on condition he 
would resign. 


At the September term, 1824, in compliance with a petition from 
the citizens on and near Fever river (now Galena) and the lead 
mines, John Connelly, Moses Meeker and John S. Miller were 
recommended as proper persons for the Governor to commission Jus- 
tices of the Peace of Pike county. These men were the very earli- 
est settlers in northern Illinois, and of whom we speak more fully 
in a former chapter. April 27 of the following year Chas. D. St. 
Traine was recommended for the same office. 


The liitle temporary log court-house first built in Atlas soon be- 
came too small to accommodate the Court and county officers, so the 


buildino^ of a new court-house was discussed and determined upon 
by the lionorable Court, as is evinced by the following order : 

'■ Notice is hereby given that on the 2r)th day of June instant, at the court-house 
in A.tlas, Pike county, Illinois, at 2 o'clock, p. m., will be let to the lowest bidder 
the building of a court-house so far as is hereinafter expressed : To be 40x30 feet 
on the floor and 20 feet high, two stories; to be built of brick, the two side walls 
below to be one and a half brick thick, the other walls to be one brick thick. 
The outside to be finished complete with doors and windows; the lower floor to 
be laid with brick or tile, fire-places and partitions, except the partition of the 
grand jury room, to be done with a plain wooden cornice. The Commissioners 
reserve one bid for the county. '• Plans to be shown and further particulars made 
known at time and place of sale. 

" ]Sr. B. — County orders to be given to undertakers on interest until paid. It is 
proposed to give the job of procuring the stone and mortar for building separate 
from the other part or parts, all of wliich is to be completed by the first day of 
Januar\^ A. D. 1827. Sufficient securities will be required." 

The contract for furnishing stone and mortar was struck off to 
Daniel Shinn and Joseph Petty for $200. The main contract was 
given to Leonard and William Ross at $1,260. 

It appears, however, tliat the building of this fine structure was 
never carried to completion. The building rose in its magnificent 
proportions only in the visions of the honorable Commissioners. It 
was evidently too fine and expensive for the times. They rented 
an office for the County and Circuit Clerks, which in the winter of 
1830-'31 burned down. 

Nothing further was done, according to the records, toward the 
building of a new court-house until April 7, 1829, when the sub- 
ject was again before the Court for its consideration. The Court 
then ordered the contract for the erection of a building of the fol- 
lowing dimensions and description to be let: "Said house to be 30 
feet long by 18 feet wide, to be two stories high, — the lower one 
nine feet and the upper one eiglit feet high. To be covered and 
enclosed in a good, workmanlike manner. To leave and case two 
outside doors in the lower story, and al^o six windows in the same, 
and six windows in the upper story. To put in joists and sleepers 
for the upper and lower floors, putting them down loose so as to 
serve as lioors. To be underpinned with six pillars, to be substan- 
tially made of stone, placing one at each corner of the house and 
one under each side in the middle; all to be done in a good, work- 
manlike manner. The undertaker to give bond with good and 
sufficient security in double the sum at which the same shall be 
stricken off for prompt and faithful performance of his contract. 
The contractor shall receive his pay out of the first moneys which 
shall come into the treasury not otherwise appropriated." 

The records continue as follows: "The court next proceeded to 
sell the building of said court-house to the lowest bidder, atid after 
sufficient notice was given thereof, and the same for a long time 
exposed, it was stricken off to James Rice for the sum of $493, 
that being the lowest sum bid therefor." 

James Rice failed to furnish the required security for the faithful 


performance of his contract, and accordingly June 1, 1829, the 
Sheriff was ordered to again "put up at public auction and sell the 
building of the same to the lowest bidder, witli the addition to the 
former plan of six feet in length and six feet in breadth." They 
further altered the plans upon the 6th of June, upon which day 
they met for the purpose of letting the contract for building it. 
They made the following alterations: "There shall be ten stone 
pillars, 18 inches above the surface of the ground, six windows in 
the lower story with 16 lights in each window, 8 by 10, an5 §*win- 
dows in upper story with 12 lights in each window, 8 by 10." 

The contract was "struck off" to Elisha Petty for $600. Wil- 
liam Ross went upon his bond for $1,200. Mr. Petty was subs^e- 
quently allowed $42.28 for extra work. 

The court-house was accepted by the Court Sept. 7, 1829. 


It appears that the location of the county-seat at Atlas was not en- 
tirely satisfactory to every person, as we find an election was held in 
March, 1827, to select commissioners to re-locate the county-seat. 
David Dutton, Joel Meacham and William Meredith were chosen 
for this work. That any definite move was made by these gentlemen 
toward selecting another site for the countj^-seat we are not aware; 
the records are silent as to anything done by these gentlemen. By 
the year 1832 the subject of changing tlie county-seat from Atlas, 
however, was freely discussed. It was desired to have it more cen- 
trally located. The Legislature of lS32-'3 appointed a commis- 
sion to re-locate the county-seat. These gentlemen made their 
report in April 13, 1833, which is as follows: 

"We, the undersigned, having been appointed commissioners to change and re- 
locate the seat of justice of the county of Pike by the Legislature of the State of 
Illinois, by an act approved Feb. 22, 1838, beg leave to report to your honorable 
body now in session, that after being duly sworn in conformity with said act, did, 
on the 9th day of April, 1833, enter upon the duties assigned us by said act, by ex- 
amination of said county of Pike, having a due regard to the piesent as well as 
the future settlement and prospective growth of said couuty, have selected and lo- 
cated the southeast quarter of section 24, in township 5 south, and range 4 we^st of 
the fourth principal meridian, as the count} -seat of the county of Pike, said coun- 
ty-seat to be known and designated by the name of Pittsficid. 
"April 17, 1833. 


Each of these gentlemen was paid $36 for his services. 

The town was platted and a sale of lots held April 15, 1833. The 
records proceed as follows: "The amount of notes and cash, after 
paying Wm. Ross, Esq., $200 borrowed of him to enter the quar- 
ter section on which the town of Pittsfield is located; the expenses 
to Alexander Peirce and Sterne $108, for locating said seat of jus- 
tice; also, for advertising sale of lots, paying for the survey of the 
same, making plat and all the expenses of the Commissioners' 


Court, which liave accrued in and about the location, sale of lots, 
laying off the town, etc., leaves the amount of $901.88, which sum 
is delivered over to the Treasurer as a special fund for the purpose 
of erecting public buildino-g." Tlius it will be seen that the county 
purchased tiie land upon which the business and much of the resi- 
dence portion of the town of Pittslield now stands for the sum of 
$200. The new town having been sui'veyed, large hard- wood stakes 
were driven, designating the corner of each lot, and being also the 
only guide to the location'of streets. 

April 15 was the day ajSpointed Ibr the first sale of lots at public 
auction. The settlers assembled from all ])arts of the county upon 
the site of the pro])Osed village, each anxious to become the owner 
of a town lot. This and subsequent sales were held, and lots seem 
to have met with a ready sale at fair prices, which is the best evi- 
dence that the pioneers were not only enthusiastic in sentiment in 
relation to the bi-ight prospects and futui-e greatness of the town 
they were building, but Avere also willing to lend all the material 
aid in their power to the consummation of the desired end. 

Another sale of lots was held Oct. 28, 183:3, from which the 
county realized Sl,150.7-1: cash, and notes to the amount of $876.73. 
Another sale was held June 4, 1831, when 38 lots were sold, real- 
izing $1,060 cash, after deducting $67 as expenses, and $704 worth 
of notes. Another sale was had Monday, May 2, 1836, when 102 
lots were sold for $9,354.50. Another," Oct. 6, 1837, when 28 lots 
brought $4,110. 


The following document appears upon pages 121 and 122 of 2d 
volume of County Commissioners' Court records. It is the resig- 
nation of William Ross, as Clerk. He had served the county in 
that capacity faithfully atid ably for a decade, and now as he is about 
to leave he writes his old associates the following resignation: 

Axr.AS, Sept. 1, 1884 
To the Hon. Benj. Barnei/, Geo. W. Hinman and Andrew Phillips, Connii/ Com- 
■missioners for the County of Pike, and Stufe of Illinois : 

Gentlemen:— The period will soon arrive in-which it will become my duty to 
resign to you the oflice 1 hold on the appointment of your Court, on account of my 
having been elected a member of the next General Assembly of this State. To 
hold both otTlces is incompatible with the Constitution of our State and contrary 
to my wishes. I will therefore for the of uivinij; the Court lim(; to select 
my successor, propose to make this my resignation of the office of Clerk of your 
Court, to take etlect on the 2'Ah day of November, 18:34. 

In doing this, I beg of you to do me the justice to l)e assured that in presenting 
my.-^elf as a candidate at the late election, Avhich has teiminated in the necessity of 
my witlidrawing my services from you, it is not without a strict regard to all 
th(3 consi leratious which 1 conceive bind a dutiful ( itizen to his country. I 
have been influenced by no ambitious motives or self-aggrandi/ement; but my 
sole object has been to' restore and su.stain the dign ty of our country. 

Ptrniit me here to rem\rk that it is a source of great pleasure to me that during 
a period of about ten years which 1 have had tlie honor to serve this county in sev- 
eral important offices. I liave been so fortunate as to discharge those duties to the 
satisfaction of niv fellow-cili/ens iK'uerally. 

Relying upon the guidance of that Being which controls the destiuie3 of man, I 


hope and^trust that I may be be permitted to retain that continuation of confidence 
whicli has been so recently mauit'ested toward me until my latest breath. 
With sentiments of great personal consideration, 

I remain, yours sincerely, 

W. Ross, C. C. C. C. P. C. 


This was a process to secure a mill site. In those early times 
the milling of the country was of no little importance. Mills were 
of such great public necessity.that they were permitted to be located 
upon any person's land, if the miller thought the site desirable. 
Sites along the streams were selected for water-power. A person 
looking for a mill-site would follow up and down the stream for 
the desired location, and when found he would go before the Com- 
missioners' Court and secure a writ of ad quod damnum. This 
would enable the miller to have the adjoining land officially exam- 
ined and the amount of damage for making the dam was secured. 

The old records contained numerous applications for these"writs. 
We quote one only as a specimen of others: 

" On application of Wm. Ross, and previous notice having been given of his in- 
tention, by publication on the door of the court-house for four weeks preceding 
the sitting of the Court, it is ordered that a writ oi ad quod damnum issue, directed 
to the Sheriff of the county, commanding him to summon twelve good and law- 
ful men of his county to meet on the aodlheast quarter of section 18, in township 
6 south, and range 5 west, to locate and set apart by metes and bounds so much 
of the said quarter section, not exceeding three acres, as they shall think_ neces- 

ary for the purpose of erecting a dam across the Sny Carte for a water grist and 



The county-seat having been re-located, a town laid out, lots 
sold, business houses and dwellings being erected, it became the 
duty of the Court to have a court-house built in the new town. 
Accordingly, Tuesday, June 4, 1833, the contract for building a 
court-house at Pittsfield was let to Israel N. Burtt, he agreeing to 
erect the structure for $1,095. This he speedily did, and the old 
building still stands u])on the street at the corner of the alley, 
facing and just north of the Public Square. It is a frame build- 
ing, in a good state of preservation, and is occupied by Mr. Ileck 
as a bakery and grocery. 


Two years liad scarcely rolled by ere the building of a new court- 
house was begun to be agitated. Some of the more aristocratic 
thought the count}' should have a finer court edifice, one more in 
keeping with the wealth and progress of the county. It is true the 
county had grown rapidly in population and wealth. Notice, 
therefore, was given by the Court that plans, for a new building 
would be received. LJpon the 5th day of February, 1836, the Court 
accepted the plans that were presented by Benjamin L. Osborne, 
and gave him a'premiuin of $20 for the plans. 


The county not owuin<^ desirable ground, as it was thought, upon 
which to locate the coutein})lated structure, the Court appointed 
James Johnson, James I). Morrison and William Watson agents 
to procure hy purchase or exchange a suitahle ]Meee of ground. 
This committee accordingly ]irocured of Daniel ]>. Bush a ])art ot 
lot G, block 5, being the whole front of .said lot u]^on the Public 
Square, running back 100 feet, for which they gave Mr. Bush a 
part of lot 8, block 5. This location was not satisfactory to all ])ar- 
ties, and quite a bitter war arose as to where the court-house should 
stand. It was at last decided that it should be located u]K»n the 
center of the Public Square. 

At the September term, 1836, Wm. Boss, Uriah Brown and 
James Johnson were appointed agents u})on the part of the cuunty 
to contract for the erection of a court-house, ''said building to be 
placed in the center of the Public S<|uare, and not to cost over 
$15,000." These gentlemen entered into contract with Benjamin 
T. Osborne, George D. Foot and Judson Clement for the erection 
of the court-house for the sum of $15,000. Daniel D. White, 
Henry Caswell and Lyman Beeman were appointed a committee 
to superintend its erection. 

- The construction of the court-house was pushed rapidly on, and 
Dec. 8, 1838, it was delivered over to the Sheriff, though in an un- 
finished condition. It was used for court purposes in this way for 
a time before completion. By June, 1839, it was completed, and 
Foot, Clement and Osborne were ]>aid the balance due them in 
county orders, upon which the county paid 12 per cent, interest. 

Wilis structure still stands and is in use to-day. It is located in 
the center of a small square, which is set with many large and 
beautiful trees. The main upper room is used for circuit court 
purposes. Besides this room there are two other smaller ones, one 
of which is occupied by the State's Attorney, the other a jury room. 
Upon the main floor there is a hall-way rutming through the build- 
ing from north to south. Ui)Oii either side of this are offices for 
the county ofticials. Upon the west side are the County Judges, 
Sheriff's and School Superintendent's offices, and u})on the oppo- 
site side are the offices of the County Treasurer and Surveyor. 

This building when erected was among the finest and largest 
court-houses in the W^est, and for many years it stood foremost 
among the public buildings of Illinois, and was pointed to with 
pride, not only by the citizens of Pike county, but by those through- 
out Central Illinois. It stood as a monument of the enterprise of 
the pioneers of this section, and was one of the grandest evidences 
of the prosperity of the newly settled State. It stands to-day as 
solid as when first built. Every stone and brick is in its place, 
and every timber has stood the storms of nearly lialf a century un- 
shaken. Around thig old building cluster pleasant recollections of 
the long-ago. Within its storm-beaten walls have been heard pleas 
as rich in eloq'jence as were ever ])resented to judge or jury. 
Within those old walls, made sacred by time and tne memories of 


some of the grandest characters and most gifted men known in the 
liistory of Illinois, many a scene full of historic interest has oc- 
cun-ed, which, could we accurately picture, would be read more as a 
romance than prosaic history^ What numbei-s of trembling and 
downcast prisoners have stood before the learned tribunal within 
the old upper room, to plead "Guilty," or "Not Guilty!" Then 
the long, hotly-contested trial came; witnesses examined and cross- 
examined; the wrangle and wordy wars between the lawyers; the 
appeal to the jury and addresses, which for logic, eloquence, touch- 
ing, sympathetic eloquence, have not been excelled in all the broad 
land. How many times have the twelve jurors, sworn to be im- 
partial, filed into their little secret room, to consult and decide the 
fate of the prisoner at the bar! Then how often have the joyous 
words come forth, " Not Guilty!" But, again, how very many 
have stood before the Judge to hear in measured tones their sen- 
tence! Sometimes it was thought Justice was outraged; that the 
Judge, jury and Prosecuting Attorney had prostituted their high 
positions, violated their sworn duty, and made easy the escape for 
culprits; yet, taking it all in all, the goddess of justice has shed no 
more tears over insults to her holy and righteous charge here than 
she has at any other judgment-bar in the State. Law and justice 
have almost always been vindicated, and the offender punished. 

Could these old walls speak and tell us of the eloquent and eflPect- 
ive pleadings of Lincoln, Baker, Eichardson, MeDougal, Browning, 
Bushnell, Manning, Walker and others, or of the learned decisions 
of Douglas, Young, Thomas and Walker, that they have listened to, 
how eagerly we would seek them ! We do not forget that at the pres- 
ent time justice is as swiftly vindicated as ever before; that the Pike 
county Bar is at its maximum in point of legal 9.bility. It takes 
the mazes of time to add the luster of fame to the labors and char- 
acter of most men. That which is of the past, or of the future, we 
are wont to believe possesses more merit than that which we have 
with us. Thus it is with the legal lights of to-day. 

Just west of the court-house and within the Court Square stands 
the "fire-proof" This building contains the offices of the Circuit 
and County Clerks, and was erected in 1854. It was first ordered 
built upon the northwest corner of the Square, but that order was 
rescinded and it was decided to erect it " near the west gate of the 
Public Square, upon the south side of the walk, the south side 
ranging with the south side of the court-house, the west end 24 
feet from the fence of the Public Square." 


Speaking of the fence around the Public Square calls to mind 
an order of the Court of June, 1845, giving the President and 
Trustees of Pittstield permission to fence the Public Square and 
plant within the enclosure ornamental or shade trees. Heretofore, 
we presume, there was neither fence nor shrubbery in the vicinity 
of the court-house, save the liazel-brush that stood in its native 


growth within the Square.- Here, we are told that Wm. R Peters 
often fed liis cattle. 

We find in the records of the Board of Supervisors that in April, 
1854, that body appropriated $200, on condition that the town of 
Pittsfield should appropriate a like amount, to build a fence around 
the Public Square, ''ten feet insideof present fence, and put hitch- 
ing posts where the fence stood." 


Necessarily, as faithful historians, we are compelled to mar the 
pleasant progress of this chapter by reference to prison bars. It 
seems as the county advanced in wealth and population the evil 
principle kept pace with it; and as immaculate and good as the 
pioneer fathers undoubtedly were, even among them there were 
wicked and vicious characters. The old log jail at Atlas never was 
a very strong or secure one, and prisoners were continually escap- 
ing. When the county-seat was moved to Pittsfield, it was deter- 
mined' to build a good, substantial jail. Accordingly the contract 
for building a jail was let to M. E. Rattan, March 5, 1835, for a 
prison to cost $3,889. The building was to be 28x36 in size, two 
stories high, and to be made of stone. It appears that considerable 
time was emploj-ed in its erection, for we find it v>^as not received 
by the county until June, 1830, when Mr. Rattan was allowed $300 
for the extra work performed. 


Heretofore tlie terms of office of all three of the Commissioners 
had expired at the same time, being elected for two years; but in 
1838 a new rule was adopted, in compliance with an act of the Leg- 
islature. Now they were to be elected for three years and one re- 
tire every year, thus leaving two experienced men in office. For 
the first terms, however, one of them should serve only one year, 
another two, and the third three years. On convening at the fall 
term of this year they drew lots to decide the term each should 
serve. Three pieces of paper, upon which were written " one year," 
"two years," " three years," respectively, were thrown together, 
and each Commissioner drew one. John W. Burch drew " one 
year,'' Alfred Grubb, " two years," and John Necley " three 


At the December term, 1843, the Court ])rovi(lcd a farm fur the 
poor of the county, and instead of " letting out" or " selling" the 
paupers as heretofore, they were obliged to go to that farm. The 
first pau])er of whom we find mention on the records was Joseph 
Moore. He died in June, 1830. Green Street was the next one 




The Commissioners' Court continued to manasje the affairs of 
the county until 1849, when the new Constitution of the State 
went into effect, which abolished this time-honored Court. Before 
adjourning finally, ho^vever, it ordered a vote to be taken for or 
against township organization, and then adjourned till " court in 
course," but never re-assembled. 



A large proportion of the upland of Pike county was ori<^inalIy 
lieavily timbered, but there are several small prairies in the cen- 
tral and northern portions. It is a well-watered county, and the 
valley of the Mississippi is from 8 to 12 miles wide, most of it 
lying on the Illinois side. More than one-lifth of the area of the 
county lies in this valley. The general level of the uplands may 
be estimated at from 200 to 300 feet above the great water courses, 
with no very well-defined water-shed. The soil on the timbered 
lands is generally a chocolate-colored clay loam, becoming lighter 
in color on the banks of the streams and in the vicinity of the 
river bluifs. 

The geological structure of this county is somewhat peculiar, 
and the strata exposed within its limits comprise the upper part of 
the Niagara limestone, the whole series of Lower Carbonifei'ous- 
limestones except the Chester group, and a limited thickness of 
Coal Measures, M'ith the usual surface deposits of Loess and Drift. 
The most northerly outcrop of Devonian beds is in Calhoun county. 
The Loess and Drift measure 40 to 100 feet in thickness in Pike 
count}', the Coal Measures 20 to 60, St. Louis limestone one to 30^ 
Keokuk group 100 to 125, Burlington limestone 150 to 200, Kin- 
derhook 100 to 120, and the Niagara limestone one to 50. 

The Niagara limestone is found only in the southwest ]>art of 
the county, where its main outcrop is at the base of the bluflfs 
between Rockport and the south line of the county and for a short 
distance up Six-Mile creek. It contains a few fossils at the out- 
crop near Pleasant Hill, among which are Trilobites and a few 
shells. At Mr. Wells' place, N. W. i sec, 17, Pleasant Hill town- 
ship, the buff-colored magnesia beds of this group are exposed 
about 10 feet in thickness, and the rock has been quarried for 
building-stone. On the S. E. J sec. 8 there is an exposure of about 
22 feet of this limestone, the lower 10 feet being a gray, even- 
bedded limestone, and the upper 12 feet a buff-colored magnesiaa 

♦Abstracted from State Geological Report by Prof. A. fl. Worthen. 


rock, closely resembling the rock from the Grafton quarries. It 
is the prevailing rock at Pleasant Hill, where it forms a limestone 
bench about 30 feet high, above the road, at tiie base of the bluffs. 
Two miles north of Pleasant Hill, on a branch of Six-Mile creek, 
the upper part of this limestone is exposed in the bed of the creek. 


One of the best exposures of this group in this county is just 
above Kinderhook: whence tlie name. It is at the point of the 
bluff, and comprises 2C feet of Loess, 15 of Burlington limestone, 6 
of thin-bedded, fine-grained limestone, 36 of thin-bedded sandstone 
and sandy shales, ^.nd 40 feet of clay and sandy shales, partly 
hidden. Fossil shells are found in the sandstone. This group is 
also well exposed at Rockport and two miles below Atlas, and 
somewhat exposed at the base of the Illinois river bluffs. Almost 
everywhere in the county the Burlington limestone overlies the 
group, which determines the topographical features of the region 
also* underlaid by the shales and gritstones of the group. 


This limestone forms the bed rock over fully one-half the up- 
lands. It is from 50 to 100 feet in thickness, and its best expo- 
sures are among the river bluffs. It is a rather coarse-grained, 
gray stone, interspersed with brown laj'ers, and is largely com- 
posed of the fossilized remains of crinoids and mollusks. In the 
Mississippi bluff, near the north line of the county, 40 feet or more 
of the lower portion of this limestone is exposed, forming the upper 
escarpment of the bluff, and consisting of alternate beds of gray and 
brown limestone, usually in regular and tolerably thick beds. It 
has fossils, and has been extensively quarried on Big Blue creek 
for building purposes. On the eastern side of the county the most 
northerly outcrop of this limestone is near Griggsville Landing, 
where the cherty beds of the upper division of this rock are exposed 
at the base of the bluffs. The outcrop here is about 50 feet thick. 
It appears about the same at Montezuma, and is seen exposed at 
points all along these bluffs. It is well exposed on Bay creek, 
forming the main portion of the bluffs along this stream from near 
Pittsfield to the southeast corner of tlie county. It is the most im- 
portant of all the limestones exposed in this county, both as regards 
extent of exposure and its economical value. As a building stone 
it is not equal to the magnesiau beds of the INiagara group, as 
found near Pleasant Hill, but is nevertheless very durable. It can 
be found over half the county. 


This group lies just above the Burlington limestone, and out- 
crops over a large portion of the northern and northeastern parts 
of the county, where it is frequently found immediately beneath 

276 HISTORY OF pike county. 

the Coal Measures. The St. Louis group, which should properly 
intervene, was worn away before the coal epoch. It consists of 
light gray and bluish gray cherty limestones at the base, which 
closely resemble the upper beds of the Burlington limestone. Some 
of the limestone strata are as crinoidal in their structure as the 
Burlington, but they are usually more bluish gray in color. 
There is usually a series of cherty beds, 10 to 30 feet in thickness, 
separating the main limestones of the two groups, which may 
properly be regarded as transitional. The upper division consists 
of lime-clay shales and tli'in-bedded limestones, containing geodes 
lined with crystallized quartz, chalcedony, calcite, dolomite, crystals 
of zinc blende and iron pyrite.-. The pyrites is usually in minute 
crystals implanted on quartz. 

This division may be seen a mile and a half southeast of Griggsville, 
and where it first appears beneath the Coal Measures the geodes are 
imbedded in a ferruginous sandstone, which perhaps represents 
the conglomerate usually lying at the base of the Coal Measures. 
This indicates that before or during the formation of this conglom- 
erate the shales originally inclosing the geodes were swept away,* 
and the geodes were then enclosed in sand which subsequently 
hardened. These geode-bearing limestones are exposed near Perry 
Springs, where the waters derive tlieir mineral ingredients from 
tliese beds. At Chambersburg, the limestones of this group form 
the bed of McGee's creek. Other prominent exposures of these 
limestones are at Griggsville Landing, on Hadley's creek, near 
Huntley's coal-bank, etc. From this stratum much good building 
stone has been quarried. 


On the banks of McGee's creek only are indications of the pres- 
ence of this group. The beds exposed here consist of brown mag- 
nesian limestoneand shales, 20 to 30 feet thick. A mile and a half 
northwest of Perry quarries have been opened in these beds, and 
about three miles north of Perry Springs they are again exposed, 
overlaid by shale, the whole being about 20 feet in thickness. 


The coal formation occupies but a limited area in the central 
and northern portiop.s of this county, underlying the whole of New 
Salem township, and a portion only of the four surrounding town- 
ships. The thickness does not probably exceed 60 feet. The fol- 
lowing ai-e the ])rinci}»al points where coal has been dug in Pike 

Huntley's, N.AV, ^ sec. 15, Hadley township; coal 10 to 24 inches 
thick, overlaid by about 6 inches of black shale. 

Huntley's new bank, N.W. J sec. 10, Hadley township; bed 6 
feet thickli with a parting of clay shale in the middle, about 2 inches 
in thickness. The coal in the upper part of this seam is rather 
soft, and contains considerable iron bisulphide. The lower division 


affords a harder and better coal and rests upon a gray fire claj 2 
feet or more in thickness. 

Three miles east of Barry coal has been dug on a small branch 
south of the Philadelphia road; and a mile further south there is a 
blue clay shale 26 to 30 feet thick exposed along the creek which 
intersects the river bluffs near New Canton. It contains septaria 
and tuten-mergel, and closely resembles the shale over the coal at 
Huntley's mine. 

From this point the ^western boundary of the Coal Measures 
trends southeastwardly to Houseworth'scoal bank, two miles and a 
half northwest of Pittsfield, on K.W. J sec. 16, Pittstield township. 
Coal about 18 inches thick, overlaid by about three feet of dark blue 
shale, passing upward into sandy shale 10 feet more. 

Fo'nr miles west of Griggsville, coal is found on Mr. Dunham's 
place. It is 14 to 20 inches thick, overlaid by about two feet of 
fossiliferous black shale. This seam of coal outcrops on S. E. J sec, 
11, same township, and in the ravines between Griggsville and 
Philadelphia, via New Salem. 

A half mile south of Griggsville coal has also been worked, the 
seam being IS to 21 inches thick. 

On Lazarus Ross' place, a mile and a half northwest of Perry 
Springs, some indications of coal may be seen in the bluffs of the 
middle fork of McGee's creek. 


Abroad belt of alluvial bottom lands, 6 to 12 miles wide, skirts 
the whole western border of Pike county. The deposit consists of 
alternations of clay, sand and loam, in quite regular strata, but of 
variable thickness. The soil is exceedingly fertile, and where they 
are above high water, they constitute the most productive and val- 
uable .lands in the county. A large proportion of this land was 
originally prairie, but now there are many belts of heavy timber 
skirting the small streams intersecting these bottoms. 

On the east side of the county there is very little bottom land 
from the south line of the county to the north line of Flint town- 
ship, where it begins to widen, and thence to the north line of the 
county the Illinois bottoms are 2 to 5 miles wide; but they are too 
low and wet for cultivation. • A portion of them are heavily tim- 
bered with Cottonwood, sycamore, soft maple, 3lm, ash, hackberry, 
honey locust, linden, black walnut, water oak, hickory, etc. 


The river bluffs on both sides of the county are capped with this 
formation, which ranges from 10 to 60 feet or more. It always 
overlies the Drift, where both are present, and hence is of more 
recent origin. It generally consists of buff or brown marly clays 
or sands, usually stratified, and often so coherent as to remain in 
vertical walls 20 or 30 feet high when cut through. From 76 to 


60 per cent, of it is silica, 10 to 15 per cent, alumina and iron per- 
oxide, 3 to 4 per cent, lime, and 1 to 2 per cent, maofnesia. In the 
vicinity of Chambersbnrir the Loess is 60 to 70 feet thick. Every- 
where it furnishes a light, porous sub-soil, which is admirably 
adapted to the growth of fruit trees, vines and small fruits. In 
some places it contains a variety of fossil shells which present the 
usual bleached and water- worn appearance of the dead shells of our 
ponds and bayous. It also affords a variety of chalky lum]>s and 
masses which assume many imitative forms, as of potatoes and the 
disks called " clay-stones " lift New England. It also gives origin 
to the bald knobs so frequently met with along the river bluffs, and 
is often rounded into natural mounds which have been very gener- 
ally used by the Indians as burial places. The bones of extinct 
animals are often found in the marly beds of this formation, along 
with land and fresh-water shells. 


This deposit consists of variously colored clays containing gravel 
and boulders. It underlies the Loess, and lience is not visible along 
the bluffs. In the interior of the county it is often penetrated by 
well-diggers. It thins out toward the bluffs. At the base of the 
Drift near Barry there is a bed of clean, yellow flint gravel, par- 
tially cemented by iron oxide into a ferruginous conglomerate. 


Pike county has an abundance of building stone. The Niagara 
limestone near Pleasant Hill furnishes a buff magnesian rock, in 
very regular beds, fully equal in quality to that of Grafton and 
Joliet. Part of the stone in the public-school building at Pittsfield 
was brought from Joliet, while stone just as good and beautiful was 
outcropping within ten miles of that town. "A want of the knowl- 
edge of this, fact," says Mr. Worthen, "has probably cost the citi- 
zens of Pike county far more than their proportion of the entire 
cost of the geological survey of Illinois." 

The Burlington limestone, which outcrops over a wide area in 
this county, will furnish an unlimited supj)ly of excellent budding 
stone. It is probably not less than 150 feet thick. The more flinty 
portions are the best material for macadamizing roads. Near 
Montezuma is a 10-foot bed of excellent dimension stone. Similar 
beds are exposed on Big Blue creek four miles southeast of Pitts- 
field, where they are 40 feet thick, containing masses two to four 
feet in thickness. On the west side of the county it forms an 
almost continuous outcrop, 10 to 40 feet tliick, along the river 
bluffs; and on the east side of the county it also forms a continuous 
outcrop in the bluffs from Griggsville Landing south. 

The lower portion of the Keokuk limestone is fully a^ u?eful as 
the preceding. Excellent quarries are worked two miles north ot 
Griggsville on the south fork of McGee's creek. The stone is com- 



posed almost entirely of the joints and plates of crinoids, cemented 
together bv a calcareous paste. 

The St. Louis group, although limited in extent, furnishes some 
good bu'lding stone, mostly found in Peri-y township and vicinity, 
as already described. 

The coal deposits in this county ai-e all, except at Huntley's 
place, too thin for profitable working. Where surface "stripping," 
iiowever, can be done, it pays to mine the thinner deposits. Hunt- 
ley's is probably a local deposit, a " pocket,'' wliich wil! soon be 

No mineral ore, except a little iron, has been found in Pike 

The Burlington and Keokuk groups furnish the best of material 
for quick-lime. The St. Louis group, which is generally preferred, 
is very limited. 

Good hydraulic limestone for cement can be obtained from the 
Kinderhook group. 

Fire claj', which usually underlies the coal, can be mined with 
the coal to advantage. The l)rown clays of the Drift and the Loess 
furnish superior material for brick. 

For marble the bed of oolitic conglomerate of the Kinderhook 
group nt Rockport furnishes a stone capable of a fine polish aiid 
makes a beautiful variegated marble ; but the bed, so far as ex- 
amined, is rather thin for profitable working. Some of the sub- 
crystalline beds of the Burlington limestone also receive a high 
polish and make a fine ornamental stone. 

The Perry mineral springs, three in number, issue from the up- 
per part of the Keokidv limestone which underlies the valley and 
outcrops along the bluffs. The princi])al ingredients of the water 
here are the bi-carbonates of lime and magnesia, the silicate of 
potash and soda and the carbonate of potash. For further account 
of these springs see history of Perry township in this volume. 

There are a few small caves in Pike county, two near Barry, into 
one of which one can enter a distance of 550 feet and the other 400 
feet. In early day panthers were known to inhabit these caves. In 
Pearl township, on land owned by Judge Atkinson, the railroad 
employees of the Chicago & Alton compaii}'- were blasting rock in 
18Y1 or 187:^, when they discovered a small cave in which were 
found lime carbonate drippings in the form of stalagmites and sta- 
lactites. Many of these are of imitative forms and can be imag- 
ined to be petrified human beings or animals. An exaggerated 
account of this cave was published in the Pittsfield papers at the 
time, which led many people to believe something wonderful was 
found at the place. 




Of the species of native animals that once roamed the flowery 
prairies and wild forests of Pike coanty, i)nt few of the smaller 
remain, and none of the lar^•er. Of the latter we cannot even find 
a spe^nmen ])reserve(l in taxidermy. The buftalo which i^razed 
npon the verdant pi-.iiries has been driven westward. With or he- 
fore it went the huaver. elk, l):idi;;fr, panthci-, black v.'olf and black 
bear. Some animals that were ijuite immei-ous have become very 
rare, sucii as the gray t'ox, the catamount, otter, lynx, and the beau- 
tiful Viri^inia deer. 

There still remain many of tlie different species, mostly inhabit- 
ino- the country adjacent to tlie Illinois and Aiississippi rivers and 
a few of the otlier lnrgei- streams. These are, however, fast disap- 
|)earing, and ere long will be known only in history, as are the 
deer, the beaver, and the bison. Among those still to be found 
here are the grav wolf, which is numerous in some parts, the opos- 
sum, raccoon, mink, muskrat, the common weasel, the small brown 
weasel, skunk, M'oodchuck, or Alaiwlaiid marmot, prairie mole, com- 
mon shrew mole, meadow and deer mouse, and the gray rabbit. 
Of squirrels there are the gray timber squirrel, the fox, chip- 
munk, the large gray prairie squirrel, the striped and the spotted 
prairie squirrel, and the beautiful flying squirrel. The dark-brown 
and the reddish bat are conunon. Other small animals liave been 
found here which have strayed from otlier localities. 

Of the 5,000 existing species of birds many have sojourned in 
this county, sojne temporai-ily and others for a considerable time. 
Manv migratory species come only at long intervals, and therefore 
but little is known of them. 

There is not a more fascinating study tlian that afforded l)y our 
feathered friends. Their free movements through seemingly bound- 
less 8|)ace, the joyous son^s of many, and the characteristic tones of 
all. their brilliant colors, their lively manners, and their woTiderful 


in^tillct6, liave from earliest ages made a strong impression on the 
minds of men, and in the infancy of intellect gave rise to many 
peculiar and mysterious associations. Hence the flight of birds 
was made the foundation of a peculiar art of divination. Religion 
borrowed many symbols from them, and poetry many of its orna- 
ments. Birds avail themselves of their powers of wing to seek sit- 
uations adapted for them in respect to temperature and supply of 
f'od. The arrival of summer birds is always a welcome sign of 
advancing spring, and is. associated with all that is cheerful and 
delightful. Some birds come almost at the same date annually; 
others are more influenced by the character of the season, as mild 
or severe. 

Pike county is highly favored, compared with an}- county north 
of it, as the Virginia red-bird and cedar-bird remain here during 
the winter, and the indigo-bird is here in its season. Parroquets 
also used to abound in this region. 

The following list is as iiearl}' correct as can be compiled from 
the available information upon the subject: 

PercAers. — This order of birds is by far the most numerous, and 
includes nearly all those which are attractive either in plumage or 
in song. The ruby-throated humming-bird, with its exquisite 
plumage and almost ethereal existence, is at the head of the list. 
This is the humming-bird which is always the delight. of the chil- 
dren, and is the only one found in Illinois. The chimney swallow, 
easily known from other swallows by its verj' long wings and forked 
tailj and which is a true swift, is quite numerous. Of the whip- 
poorwill family there are two representatives. — the whippoorwill 
proper, whose note enlivens the forest at night, and the night-hawk. 
The belted kingfisher, so well known to the school-boy, is the only 
member of its family in this region. At the head of the fly- 
catchers is the king-bird, the crested fly-catcher and the wood 

Snh-ovdev of Singers — Thrush famll//. — Of this family are the 
robin, the A«^ood thrush, Wilson's thrush, the blue-bird, the ruby- 
crowned and the golden -crested wren, tit-lark, the black and the 
white creeper, blue yellow-backed warbler, yellow-breasted chat, 
worm-eating warbler, blue- winged yellow- warbler, Tennessee war- 
bler, and golden-crowned thrush. /Shrike family. — This family is 
represented by the great northern shrike, red-eyed fly-catcher, 
white-eyed fly-catcher, the blue-headed and the yellow-throated fly- 
catcher. Swallow faynily. — This family of birds are very numerous 
in Pike county. Among them are the barn swallow, white-bellied 
swallow, bank swallow, clift' swallow, and purple martin. Wax- 
wing family . — The cedar-bird is the repi-esentativeof the wax- wing 
in America. Mocking -hird family. — The genera of this family 
are the cat-bird, brown thrush, the house and winter wren. Finch 
and Sparrow family. — The snow bunting and Smith's bunting 
appear only in winter. The purple finch, the yellow-bird and the 
lark finch inhabit this county. Of the passerine genus of this 


family are the Savannali sparrow, tlie field and the chipping spar- 
row, the black snow-bird, the tree sparrow, the song sp'-^ri'ow, the 
swamp and the fox-colored sparrow, the black-throated bunting, the 
r()se-l)reasted gros-beak and tlie ground robin. I'it'inonxe fcnnlly 
is represented by the chickadee and the tufted titmouse. Creeper 
family. — Tiiere are two specimens of this family, — the white-bellied 
nnt-liatch and the American creeper. S/ii/lark family. — This 
melodious family is represented hei-e by only the common skylark 
of the i)rairie. Black-bird fOfmiJ y . — The rusty black-bird, the crow 
black-bird, the cow-bird, the red-winged black-bird, the meadow 
lai'k, the orchard and the Baltimore orioles of this I'ainily, are the 
most beautiful and brilliant of binls that inhabit this region. 
Croio family.— T\\Q blue-jay and the common crow com])rise the 
species of this family. 

Birds of Prey. — Tiiis order of birds comprises all those, with 
few excejitions, which pursue and capture birds and other animals 
for food. They are mostly of lai"ge size, the females are larger than 
the males, they live in pairs, and choose their mates for life. Most 
raptorial birds have disappeared. Among them are the golden 
eagle, which was alwaj's rare but now no longer seen here; the bald 
eagle, or properly the white-headed eagle, once quite common, now 
scarce. Some well-preserved specimens of this genus are in the 
county. This eagle enjoys the honor of standing as our national 
emblem. Benjamin Franklin lamented the selection of this bird 
as emblematical of the Union, for its great cowardice. It has the 
ability of ascending in circular swee])S without any apparent mo- 
tion of the wings or the tail, and it often rises in this manner nntil 
it disappears from view; when at an immense height, and as if ob- 
servino- an object on the ground, it sometimes closes its wings and 
glides toward the earth with such velocity that the eye can scarcely 
follow it, causing a loud rustling sound like a violent gust of wind 
among the branches of the forest. The II av^k family \\n& eight or 
nine species, some but seldom seen, others common. The turkey- 
buzzard has almost, if not (juite, disappeared. Of the owl genera 
are several s])ecies, though all are but seldom seen because of their 
nocturnal habits. Among them ai-e the barn owl, the screech owl, 
the long and the short eared owl, the barred owl, and the snowy 
owl, the latter being the rarest. 

Climbers. — But few of this order remain in the county, the most 
common of whicli are the woodpeckers. Of the various kinds are 
the golden-winged, the ])ileatcd, the hairy, the downy, the yellow- 
bellied, red-bellied an<l the red-headed. At an early day the Car- 
olina ])ain»t, generally called the " parrokeet," was often seen, but 
he has ti.>w entirely deserted this section. The yellow and black- 
billed cuckoos are occasionally seen. 

Seratchers. — This order contains but few genera in this county. 
The wild turkey, the choicest of game, has almost entiivly disap- 
]ieared, and was the only one of its family that ever sojourned here. 
In an early day they were in abundance. Grouse family. — The 


cliiefest this family is the prairie chicken, which, if not 
carefully protected, must ere long follow the wild turkey, never to 
return. " The ruffled grouse, wrongfully called " pheasant," has of 
late made its appearance. It is quite fund of cultivated fields, and, 
if pro])erly protected and encouraged until it becomes fairly settled, 
will make a line addition to the game, and till the place of tlie 
prairie chicken. Partridge fainily. — The fate of that excellent bird, 
the quail, is only a question of a short time. The Dove fanulij. — 
The wild ])igeons continue to make their semi-annual visits, l)ut 
not in such vast numbers as years ago. Acres of forest were so 
often tilled at ni,H:ht uirh these birds that the breaking of boughs 
and the flying of pigeons made a noise that could be heard for 
miles, and the shot of a s])ortsman's gun could not be heard at a 
distance often feet. Highly interesting is the description by Audu- 
bon of the enormous flights which lie observed on the Ohio in the 
fall of 1813; they obscured the daylight and lasted three days with- 
out interruption. According to a very moderate estimate of his, 
each flight contained the stupendous number of one billion, one 
hundred and fifteen thousand ihillion, one hundred and thirty-six 
thousand pigeons. These flights caused a general commotion 
among the entire rural population. Desirous of booty and anxious 
lest their crops should be spoiled, the farmers, arming themselves 
with rifles, clubs, poles, torches and iron pots filled with sulphur, 
proceed to the resting places of the birds. The work of slaughter 
being accomplished everybody sat down among mountains of dead 
pigeons, plucking and salting the birds which they selected, aban- 
(loning the rest to the foxes, wolves, raccoons, opossums and hogs, 
whole herds of which were driven to the battle-field. The plaintive 
notes of the Carolina dove, commonly known as the turtle-dove, 
are still heard. 

Swimmers. — This order of birds, which formerly frequented this 
county in large numbers, have almost disappeared. They are mi- 
gratory, and in their usual season would appear coming from the 
north or south, as winter passes into summer or summer into winter. 
Diver family. — The great northern diver, or loon, sometimes visits 
this section, but inhabits the frigid zone. Gull family. — Of this 
family are Wilson's tern and silvery gull. Pelican family. — The 
rough-billed pelican was the only genus of this family that ever 
stopped in Pike county, and it has now altogether ceased to make 
its visits here. Cormorant fainily. — The double-crested cormo- 
rant, or sea raven, has been seen here. Duck family.— T\\\& family 
of migratory birds visited the ponds and streams of this county in 
large numbers before it became so thickly settled, both on their 
northern and southern passage, but now mostly confine themselves 
to the Illinois and Mississippi, where large numbers are found. 
This family furnishes most game for sportsmen and for the table. 
There are the wood-duck, the big black-headed duck, the ring- 
necked duck, the red-head, the canvas-back, the dipper, the shell- 
drake or goosander, the fish-duck, the red-breasted, and the hooded 


merganser, the mallard and the pintail, the green-winged and the 
blue- winged teal, the spoonbill and the gadwall, the bald pate, the 
American swan, the trumpeter swan and the white-fronted goose. 

Waders. — Probably less is known of this order of birds than of 
any other, because of their shyness and solitary habits. They fre- 
quented the marshes, but cultivation has drained their favorite 
haunts. Crane family. — The whooping crane, always rare^isnow 
never seen. The sand-hill cranes stop on their journeys north and 
south. Heron farnily. — The great blue heron or crane, least bittern, 
the green heron, night heron and the American bittern, compose 
those of this family visiting this region. Ihis.farnily. — The glossy 
ibis has been seen here.' Plover family. — The golden plover, the 
killdeer and the king plover comprise this family known here. 
Phalar ope family. — The Wilson's and the red phalarope have fre- 
quented the swamps of this county. Snipe family. — Various birds 
of this family have been common in and around the swamps of this 
county. Among them were Wilson's snipe, grey or red-breasted 
snipe, the least and the semi-palmated sandpiper, the wiilet, the 
tell-tale, the yellow-leg, the solitarj'* sandpiper, the spotted sand- 
piper, the field plover, long-billed curfew, the common rail, the 
clapper rail or mud hen, and the coot. 

Reptiles. — All of the species of this class that ever inhabited this 
region are still to be found here except the poisonous snakes. The 
rattlesnake, of the genus Crotalus, is of a yellowish-brown color, 
and has a series of horny joints at the end of the tail, which make 
a rattling sound. These were the most venomous of all snakes 
found here, and were numerous in the early settlement. There are 
two kinds, the bandy, or striped, and the prairie rattlesnake, the 
latter being still occasionally found. The copperhead was always 
rare. Among the harmless snakes are the water-snake, the garter- 
snake, the bull-snake, the milk-snake, the black-snake, and the blue 

Many reptiles found here are erroneously called lizards, but are 
salamanders and other like innocent creatures. Lizards are never 
found in this county. Among the tortoises or turtles are found the 
map turtle, the snapping and the soft-shelled turtle. Of the batra- 
chian, or naked reptiles, there are a few, and, though loathsome to 
sight and touch, are harmless. The toad, the bull-frog, the leop- 
ard-frog, the tree-toad, with some tailed batrachia, comprise the 
most of this order. The Illinois rivei^^bull-frog is as large as a 
man's head, often much larger, and his deep bellowing can be heard 
for a mile or more. 


Although fishes are the lowest class of vertebrates, their varied 
forms and colors, which often rival those of precious stones and 
burnished gold, the wonderful power and velocity of some, the 
wholesome food furnished by many, and the exciting sport of their 
capture, combine to render fishes subjects of great interest to the 


casual observer, as well as to the amateur and professional natural- 
ist. The number of known s])ecies of fishes is about ten thousand. 
Tlie waters of this county are quite prolific of the finny tribe. The 
commerce in fish has become (juite extensive alon^i^ the Illinois and 
]\Iississippi. SicHe-lackcd familij. — This I'amily furnishes the 
^ame fish, and arc never caught larger than four pounds in weight. 
The varous genera tbund here are the black bass, goggle-eye, the 
cropjty, or big black sun-fish, and the two common sun-fish. Pike 
fantllij. — There are but two species of this family, — the pickerel, 
weighing from fi\ e to twen.ty-five pounds, and the gar ])ike. Sucker 
fcnnily. — Of this tribe are the bufialo, red-horse, white-sucker, two 
species of black-suckers, mullet ranick. Fish of this familj' are 
found in all the streams of the county. They abound wherever 
there is water. Cat-fish family. — Of this voracious family the 
channel cat-fish, the mud cat-fish and two species of the small cat- 
fish inhabit the waters of this county, and are caught ranging in 
weight from one to thii-ty pounds. 

The shovel-fish is yet abundant, and its flesh, as well as its gen- 
eral appearance, resembles that of the cat-fish. 

Besides these varieties there are the chub, silver-sides, and fresh- 
water herring, and large numbers of other species denominated 
minnows, which are found in the smallest spring branches, as well 
as the larger streams. 


Persons coming to the West for the first time in tlieir lives are 
deeply impressed with the high and rolling character of our 
prairies, which thej had before always imagined low and level; 
and this feature of the prairie, combined in earls' days with its 
beautiful, dreamy covering of flowering plants and grassy- verdure 
in spring and summer, inspired one to sing: 

A billowy ocean with green carjiet spread, 
Which seems almost too ueat for man lo treul : 
With glittering stars of amaryllis white, 
With violets blue and roses red and bright, 
With golden cinquefoil, star-grass, buttercups, 
AVith dazzling cardinal flowers and painted-cups, 
And lone but cheerful meadow larks lo sing, 
This grassy sea appeared in smiling spring. 
In summer came the stately compass-plant, 
As if to guide the wandering immigrant. 
Tlien asters, golden-nnls and wild sunflowers 
O'erspread the vales in labyrintliinc bowers. 
Thus nature, clad in vesture gold and green, 
Brought autumn in and closed the liora] scene. 

Also the beautiful, clean-cut hills of our forests present a taste- 
ful view scarcely ever witnessed in the East. But at the ])resent 
day both our prairie and our timl)er are under either culti"ation 
or pasturage, and blue grass, wlnte clover ui;d a large number of 
introduced weeds from the East have taken the place of tlie origi- 
nal flora. Industrially this ciiltivation is a gain, but poetically it 
is a loss. Only in the most retired situatii^ms can many interest- 
ing plants be found which used to be abundant. Several species 
of prairie clover, false wild indigo. I'osin-weed, mountain mint, 
loosestrife, etc., have almost disappeared with the original prairie, 
while a few of the modest strawl)erry, star-grass and blue-eyed 
grass remain with us as sweet reminiscences of the ])ast. 

Nearly all the plants growing si)ontaneously in cultivated or 
waste grounds are " introduced;'" that is, they have been brought 
here by white settlers, — utiintentinnally, of course, with reference 
to most of the weeds. In the timbtjre<l sections no ])articular 
weed is on the increase in the jji-esent decade, but in the prairie 
section, the garden parsni|u C(>inmoii thistle, rich \\'eed (in artificial 


proves), toad flax, wild lettuce, and oxybaphus (a four-o'clock plant) 
are increasing rapidly; and along the railroads several sand plants 
are making good headway, as sand-bur, polanisia, ox-eje daisy, etc. 

Before settlement by the whites the prairie was mostly covered 
by two or three kinds of grass. Several other kinds grew in 
patches here and there, notably the Indian grass and blue joint, 
which grew very tall. In wet places grew " slough " grass and 
many sedges, and along the channeled sloughs abounded several 
species of golden-rod, aster and wild sunflower, which in the lat- 
ter part of summer and in autumn formed waving yellow stripes 
across the prairie, and were peculiarly charming. They seemed 
to have a sedative effect upon the feelings. 

About 2,300 species of plants are found within the United 
States, 1,600 of which can be found in Illinois, and about 950 in 
Pike county. We now give a list of all the common plants grow- 
ing spontaneously in Pike county, and some of the most interest- 
ing rare ones, excepting mosses, mushrooms, etc.; and we name 
all the trees and shrubs, rare as well as common. We give the 
English names, following Gray's Manual, fifth edition, mainly, in 
respect to names, and altogether with respect to the order in which 
the families range. By the way, we make a few corrections of 
popular errors as to names. Some names, even in the books, are 
applied to two or more different plants, as sycamore, button snake- 
root, black snakeroot, goose-grass,* hair-grass, loosestrife, etc. Also, 
every plant has several names, — communities differing widely in 
this regard. We endeavor to select the most common name as we 
can judge from Gray's Botany. 

Crow/oois.— Common virgin's bower, a vine, and Pitcher's vir- 
gin's bower, a half vine, are occasionally found : the leather-flower, 
a cultivated vine bearing large, blue flowers, is of the same genus. 
The Pennsylvanian, Virginian and wood anemones occur here and 
there. Liver-leaf ("liver-wort") is common on forest hillsides. 
Rue anemone, and the early, the purplish and the tall meadow-rues 
are common in the woods. The true buttercups of the East are 
not found here, but the most common flower corresponding to them 
is the creeping crowfoot. The small-flowered, the hooked, the 
bristly and the early crowfoots also occur. Isopyrum grows in 
moist, shady places. Marsh marigold is common in early spring, 
growing in mud supplied with fresh water : in the East they are 
called " cowslips" and sometimes used for greens. Water plantain 
spearwort, growing in mud, and yellow water crowfoot, growing in 
water and with the submersed leaves finely divided, are seen occa- 
sionally. Wild columbine, so easilj' recognized by its resemblance 
to the cultivated species, abounds in the margins of the woods ; so 
also two species of wild larkspur. Yellow puccoon is very scarce. 
AVhite baneberry is occasionally seen in the deep woods. 

Custard- Apple Family. — The papaw is common along the Illi- 
nois river. It fruits better in Calhoun county than Pike, being 
of a more modern growth here. This is a fragile bush, with large 


leaves, bearing fruit about the size and appearance of short, thick, 
green cucumbers, which have a pulp like the banana. To " learn" 
to like them one must merely taste of them at times far apart. 

Moonseed Family. — Canadian inoonseed is abundant in the 
woods. It is a smooth, twining vine like the morning-glory, with 
a beautiful, round, yellow root, which has a tonic-bitter taste, and 
is, sometimes called sarsaparilla. The true wild sarsaparilla belongs 
to the Ginseng family. 

Barberry Family. — May-apple is abundant and blue cohosh 
somewhat rare. 

Water Lilies. — The pond, or white water lily, is abundant in 
large, open ponds in the river bottoms, and the yellow water, or 
frog lily, growing in shallow, stagnant water, is scarce, as is also 
the yellow nelumbo, a similar plant. 

Pojppy Fam^ily. — The well-known blood-root is the only repre- 
sentative of this family growing wild in this country. 

Fumitory Fam,ily. — The celebrated Dutchman's breecb'^.s is the 
only member of this family in our woods. Bleeding heart is of the 
same genus. 

Mustard Family. — Marsh cress is common ; lake cress, grow- 
ing in water, is sometimes seen; and horse-radish flourishes beyond 
the bounds of cultivation. Pepper-root, an early-flowering plant, is 
common in the dense forest. Two varieties of spring cress are fre- 
quent. Two species of the delicate little rock cress are also fre- 
<5uent. Hedge mustard is the most common mustard-like weed 
that grows on cultivated and waste grounds. Tansy mustard is 
rare. Black mustard, the type of this family, flourishes on culti- 
vated and waste grounds. White mustard is very rare at the 
present day. Shepherd's purse is abiindant early in the season, — 
a weed everywhere :;ed-pod is triangular, somewhat inflated, 
and in shape resembles a shepherd's purse of the olden time. Wild 
peppergrass is common in late summer: seed-pods, wafer-form. 
Whitlow grass grows in sandy ground. To the Mustard family 
belong the radish, turnip and cabbage of our gardens. 

Caper Family. — Polanisia, a fetid pod-bearing plant, is com- 
'mon on sandy ground, and is extending along the railroads where 
sand and gravel are deposited. 

Violets. — Common blue violet is abundant, the otlier kinds 
more rare, namely, hand-leaf, arrow-leaved, larkspur, bird-foot, 
downy yellow, etc. Heart's-ease belongs to this order. 

Rock-Rose Fa^mily. — Frost- weed grows in sandy soil, and pin- 
weed on dry ground. 

St. John'sworts. — Two or three rare species are found in this 

Fink Farnily. — Starry campion, sleepy catohfly, corn cockle, 
sandwort, long-leaved stitchwort and forked chickweed are found 
here and there. Common chickweed and three species of mouse- 
ear chickweed and bouncing bet are more common. Carpet weed 


in common on the sand; it grows in the form of a bunch}' lamp- 

Purslane Family. — Akin to the beautiful portulaca is our uni- 
versal purslane, often called " pursley." Spring beauty belongs to 
this family. It is one of our earliest spring tJo\yers, and may be 
distinguislied by the plant's having but two leaves, long and tiar- 
row and somewhat fleshy. The flower is a light rose color, with 
deeper veins. 

Mallows Family. — Comlnon, or low mallows and velvet-leaf, or 
Indian mallows are very abundant. The latter is a tall, pestiferous 
weed about our flelds, with seed-vessels resembling poppy-bolls. 
•Sida and bladder ketmia, or flower of an hour, are common. To 
this order belong the hollyhock and okra, in cultivation. 

Linden Family. — -Bass-wood, known as lin among Southern peo- 
ple, is the only member of this famih' growing here. 

Geranium Family. — AVild crane's-bill is common in early spring, 
having a solitary, rose-colored flower on the summit. Carolina 
■crane's-bill is rather rare. Spotted and pale touch-me-nots are com- 
ujon in moist, shaded places, growing in dense patches. Tiie hal- 
samine of cultivation is of the same genus. Yellow wood-sorrel is 
everywhere, and liere and there the violet wood-sorrel prevails to 
some extent. This is erroneously called " sheep-sorrel." Sheep, or 
iield sorrel grows on sandy or gravely ground, has lance-shaped and 
pointed leaves, obscure flowers, and seeds like pie-plant or yellow- 
dock, while wood-sorrel grows mostly in clay soil, has three leaflets 
like clover, showy flowers, and seeds in a pod. The tyt^o sorrels be- 
long to diflerent orders, but have a similar taste. 

line Family. — The northern prickly ash, a common shrub in our 
woods but growing scarcer, and the still rarer hop-tree, are the only 
members of this family in Pike county. Garden rue is of the same 
order, or family. 

Cashew Family. — In America this would seem to be rather the 
sumac family. The smooth sumac is common everywhere, fragrant 
sumac abundant in sandy ground, and ])oison ivy is common along 
fences — some places abundant. The latter is a coarse, woody vine 
with innumerable rootlets, and has three leaflets to each leaf, with 
these leaflets sometimes partly divided. When the plant is young 
it can be distinguished from box-elder by the latter having a white 
" bloom " on the stem; and -at all times it can be distinguished 
from Virginia creeper ( American ivy, an iimocent plant) by the 
latter having five leaflets to each leaf, and the whole leaf in shape 
like that of buckeye. 

Vine Family, that is, the grape-vine family. — Virginia creeper, 
just described, is as abundant as any weed. The winter, or frost 
grape is common, but the summer grape, a delicious fruit, is very 
scarce, if indeed it can be found at all in this county. It used to be 
abundant, but the vines have been destroyed by reckless grape 

Buckthorn Family. — The noted red- root, or I^ew Jersey tea, a 

292 HISTOKV CF riKE e\>U.NTV. 

shrnb in tlie margin of prairies and to some extent in all other fit- 
nations, is the only representative of this i'amih' here, and it is be- 
coming rarer by tlie encroachments of c.iltivation and pasturage. 
The leaves make very good tea. 

Staff-tree Fcimily. — The climbing bittersweet and waahoo are 
all there are of this family in onr limits. The former is a smooth, 
woody vine, common in the woods, climbing by simply twining, 
and bearing orange-colored berries in clusters, often called wax- 
work and used in ornamentation. This vine is often called simply 
bittersweet, but the true medical bittersweet is a very ditt'erent 
plant, scarcely a vine at all, and not growing wild in this county. 
The waahoo, or bnrning-bush, is a real lui>h of about the size and 
proportions of a plum-tree; its twigs have tour white lines, and its 
crimson fruit in a\;tumn after the leaws h;i\e fallen are very showy. 
The flowers are dark purple. 

Soajyherry Order includes the Maple, J^laddernutand Soapberry 
(proper) families. Of the maples the most common are the sugar and 
the white. The latter is one of the soft maples, the red maple of other 
sections of the United States being the other. The red does not 
grow in this county. Box-elder is sometimes called ash-leaved 
maple, and belongs to this famil3\ The American bladdernut is a 
tree- like shrub about 10 feet iiigh, producing large three-lol)ed, in- 
flated seed pods. The Ohio buck-eye is common in the river bot- 

Milkworts. — Seneca snakeroot and two otlier species of milkwort 
are found in this region. 

Pulse Family. — This large family is characterized by having 
seeds in pods like beans and peas, which are members of the family. 
The first in the list, according to the books, are the clovers, — red 
and white. Two other species of this genus occur, indeed, bui are too 
rare to enumerate here. Then the white sweet clover, more recently 
escaped from cultivation; then two species of pi-airie clover, almost 
extinct. Goat's rue, false indigo (Amorpha) and lead plant abound 
on dry, sandy loam in river bottoms. The common locust was in- 
troduced here, but this is too far north for it to be hardy enough to 
withstand our winds and the borer. A honey-locust occurs here 
and there. One milk vetch is frequent. Six species of tick trefoil 
abound. These are those plants in the woods bearing " pods" of 
triangular, flat burs. Two species of bush clover are found here. 
One vetch (tare) and one marsh vetchlino-, gronnd-nnt, kidney bean,. 
false indigo (Baptisia) and wild senna are found here and there. 
Hog peanut, called wild pea or bean by some, abounds everywhere 
in fhe woods. Red-bud is an ugly little tree except in the spring 
before the leaves appear, when the whole top is of a beautiful 
pnrplish-red from the blossoms. Partridge pea is abundant "in 
spots," grows like a weed in low places, 20 inches to 2 feet high, 
has leaves like a locust, and bears a very large yellow flower. 
The sensitive plant may be found within the bounds of this county^ 


but if SO, it is very scarce. Kentnck}- cotfee-tree is rare. It is 
famous for its beautiful compound leaves and i^lossj- beans. 

J^ose Family. — Most of our fruits come from this family, as the 
apple, peach, plum, cherry, strawberry, etc. The wild })lum (yellow 
or red) is becoming very scarce. Tlie wild black cherry is abun- 
dant; the choke-cherry is a shrub found occasioiuill}'. Nine-bark, 
common meadow-sweet and goat's-beard are species of spiraea fre- 
quently found. Acrimony is a coarse lierb occasionally found, 
having leaves resembling those of the strawberry and bearing a kind 
of drooping bur; plant about two feet high. One species of avens 
is ver}' common ; thi'ee other species are found. Common cinque- 
foil, or tive-tinger, resembles the strawberry very closely, and abounds 
in dry soil. JSTorwegian cinquefoil lias similar leaves, but the plant 
is coarse and grows three feet high; not common. Another species 
is also found. One species of wild strawberry abounds in retired 
situations; itwas common over the original prairie. Tiie blackberry 
and the raspberry prevail here as elsewhere, but their sylvan terri- 
tory, is narrowed to close limits by the encroachments of man. Of 
the roses proper the dwarf wild rose is the most common, but its 
territory is also very limited now-a-days. The early wild rose occurs. 
Three species of red haw (hawthorn) occur, and two varieties of one 
species. The black, or pear, thorn is the inost common, with two 
varieties, then the scarlet-fruited thorn, and lastly the cockspur 
thorn. The crab-apple is well known. 

Saocifrages. — Two or three species of gooseberry' are common; 
swamp saxifrage and a species of alum-root are sometimes met 

Orpine Family. — Ditch stonecrop is common during wet seasons. 

Evening Primrose Family. — Common evening primrose, en- 
chanter's nightshade, and one species of willow-herb, are common; 
seed-box, water-purslane, sun-drops and two other species of false 
loosestrife occur occasionally. 

Loosestrife Family. — One species not infrequent. 

Gourd Family. — The wild balsam-apple is a vigorous, herba- 
ceous vine, bearing bur-like fruit, about cultivated grounds, and 
the one-seeded star cucumber flourishes in the shaded river bottoms. 

Parsley Faraily. — This family is charcicterized by liaving their 
seed-bearing tops like those of parsnips. Most of the poisonous 
plants growing in this country belong to this family. Two species 
of black snakeroot prevail in this county. Parsnip itself is 
becoming a common weed in open but protected places; and there 
may be found here and there the cow parsnip, cowbane, meadow 
parsnip, spotted cowbane, rattlesnake master, two species of water 
parsnip, honewort, chervil, two species of sweet cicely, poison hem- 
lock. Of the whole family the most poisonous are tlie spotted 
cowbane and poison hemlock. 

Ginseng Farn-ily. — Ginseng, on account of its popular medical 
qualities, has been pretty well thinned out. The true wild sar- 


> i|i;irilla (^;i ]il;mt of the appearance of a lar^e ginseng) is some- 
times f uiikK ami spik' nard is coiiiinoii in the forest ravines. 

l)nairnods.—T\w most common dogwood is the white-berried, or 
panii'liMl cornel: next the roiii^h-leaved, the alternate-leaved, the 
tio\vtM-in<4-, the .silky, and lastly the red-osier. 

IIo)ii ysuckh Faiii'ihi.- (.'ommon elder is becomincr too abun- 
dant. \ ellow iioneysuckle is common. Horse gentian, or fever- 
wort, is a forest weed bearing 5 to 10 yellow berries in a circle 
around the stem at every place where the two opposite leaves are 
attached. Tlie true l)lack haw is scarce, but sheep-berry, which is 
genei'ally caUed black haw, is common. 

Madder Family. — Two sj)ecies of the small bed-straw are 
rd)undant, and the sweet-scented is common, while occasionally 
may be found cleavers, or goose-grass. AVild liquorice occurs 
ai'ely. These herbs ai-e all of a flax-like ap]iearance, having sev- 
eral l)cautifnl little leaves in a whorl at each joint. Button bush 
is common in wet ground. 

Composites. — This order is- by far the largest of all. Its flowers 
are compound, tluit is, there are several, sometimes many, small 
flowers crowded close together in a head, as sunflower, lettuce, 
dandelion, aster, chrysantliemnm. May-weed, etc. Their time of 
flowering is generally late in the season. 

Iron-weed is common on flat ground: its summit in August is 
a beautiful royal purple. J'our species of button snakeroot (one 
called also l)lazing star) are abundant on ])rotected original prairie, 
and occur nowhere else. Five species of thoroughwort grow here, 
that called boneset being abundant. The sjiecies called trumpet, or 
Joe-Pye weed, is a tall, interesting weed, with 3 to G leaves in each 
whorl, that is, at each joint. Kuhnia is not rare; it resembles 
boneset. Mist-flower grows in our limits. ()f the asters there arc 
about 30 S])ecies growing within this county, about half of them 
very common. The flowers have a starry appearance: hence the 
name. The most remarkable of, them is the New England aster, 
a large purjde flower along the roadsides in September. Five 
species of fleabane, similar to the asters in appearance, are com- 
mon, namely, horse-weed, which is abundant on waste and culti- 
vated grounds, E,ol)in's ])lantain, common fleabane. and two daisy 
fleabanes, one of them called also sweet scabious. About IS 
species of golden-rod can be found in this count}', oidy half of them 
common, however. The most abundant is the Solidago Canaden- 
sis. From these much honey is made by bees in September. Four 
species of rosin-weed used to prevail on the original prairie, but 
their territory is very limited at the ])resent day. The most noted 
of them lias divided leaves, and is also called compass plant, or 
polar plant, the leaves having once been thought to point north 
and south. They do indeed stand with their faces somewhat paral- 
lel, but they are just as apt to have their edges toward other points 
of the compass. One species of rosin-weed has undivided leaves, 
large and rough, and is called prairie dock. This find the compass 


plant flourish on flat prairie soil which is not pastured. The species 
called cup-plant grows along the banks of channeled sloughs. The 
leaves join together at the base so as to form a cup. It is a very 
large weed. Partheniura, a similar plant, is not rare. Ragweed 
is the most common weed we have along the roadsides: called also 
hogweed, Roman wormwood, etc. Great ragweed is the largest 
weed that grows in this country. Common along fences. Cockle- 
bur is on the increase. We have a State law " providing " for their 
destruction. Ox-eye, Lepachys and six species of cone-flower are 
almost common. Six species of wild sunflower flourish along fences 
in unfrequented situations. They are tall weeds, but not trouble- 
some. One kind has tuberous roots and is really an artichoke. 
Three species of tickseed occur in this county. The true Spanish 
needle does not grow here, but three species of its genus abound 
here, especially during ,wet seasons, namely, common and swamp- 
beggar-ticks and the larger bur-marigold. The smaller bur-marigold 
is found in shallow running water. Fetid marigold is abundant in 
dry situations along the wagon roads. When struck, even lightly, 
it yields a rank aromatic odor: called also false dog-fennel. Sneeze- 
weed, which looks somewhat like a Spanish needle, is abundant 
durjng wet seasons and exceedingly scarce at other times. May- 
weed, or dog-fennel,^ every one is familiar with. So with yarrow. 
The ox-eye d^isy, or white-weed, a vexatious weed in the East, is 
just beginning to creep in along the railroads. Biennial worm- 
wood is a common but harm|ess weed in waste places. Common 
aryi plantain-leaved everlasting are common. Fire- weed abundant. 
Golden rag- wort here and there in the spring. The famous Canada 
thistle is seldom seen: the common thistle abounds more and more,. 
Two other species are common, growing very tall. Burdock is a 
Composite, Dandelion belongs in this connection. Wild lettuce 
and false or blue lettuce are common milky weeds, growing very 
tall. Two species of sow-thistle, comparatively harmless, are mod- 
estly on the increase. 

Lobelias. — The celebrated medical lobelia, or Indian tobacco, 
flourishes along our garden fences. The great lobelia, or blue car- 
dinal flower, is abundant in moist ground. The cardinal flower is 
the most showy, dazzling-red flower we have growing wild: found 
in wet ground and on the banks of sloughs. A small and slender 
species of lobelia is common in protected situations. 

Campanula^ or Bellflower Family. — The tall bellflower is com- 
mon. .Venus's looking-glass is found here and there. "Blue- 
bells" do not belong here: they are the smooth lungwort, belonging 
to the Borage family. 

Ehony Family. — Persimmon, or date plum; rather scarce, but 
more abundant farther south. 

Plantain Family. — The common plantain of our door-yards. 
Four other species of this faratily may occur in this county, but 
they are exceedingly rare. 


Prhnrose Family . — Two species of loosestrife (Lysiinacliia) 

Flgwort Family. — Mullein, toad-flax (" biitter-aTid-eggs "), fig- 
wort, beard-tongue, two species of Gerard ia, two species of louse- 
wort and cow-wheat, are common, while monkey-flower, hedge 
hvssop, false ]>itn|)ernel, purslane and corn speedwell are sometimes 
seen. Toad flax has persistent roots like witch-grass and threatens 
to become a })est. Tlie snap-dragon of our gardens is a flg-wort. 

Vervains. — Verbenas belong to this order. The most abundant 
plant belonging to this faitiily, and growing wild, is the hoarj' ver- 
vain; next are the bracted (prostrate), the white, or nettle-leaved, 
and the blue. They all prefer dry, waste grounds, and are much 
inclined to hybridize. Fog-fruit is abundant in sandy ground 
along the rivers. 

Mint family. — Common are wood sage, or American ger- 
mander, wild mint, bugle-weed, American pennyroyal, and hedge 
nettle, two species. Motherwort, catnip, heal-all, and wild mint 
are abundant. Here and there are water horehound, mountain 
mint, horse-mint, blephilia (two species), giant hyssop (two spe- 
cies), false dragon-head, or lion's-heart, mad-dog skullcap and one 
other species of skullcap. Ground ivy, or gill-over-the-ground, is 
abundant about dv^ellings. AVhat is generally called "horse-mint" 
in the West is " wild bergamot" according to the books, while wild 
mint is often taken for pe]'>permint. True peppermint, spearmint, 
and horehound are scarce within our limits. South of the Illinois 
river horehound takes the place of catnip along the fences and road- 
sides. Salvia, sage and Mexican sage are cultivated plants belong- 
ing to this order. 

Borage Family. — Hairy and hoary puccoon, smooth lungwort, 
stick-seed, beggar's lice and common hound's-tongue are common; 
all other species rare. Comfrey belongs to this family. Smooth 
lungwort is often called " blue-belJs." It is common in early spring 
about door-yards and along fences near dwellings. Common 
hound's-tongue flourishes along the roads; flowers a dull purple, 
appearing in early summer. Beggar's-lice is a species of hound's- 

Water-leaf Family. — Ellisia appears in cool, shady places, and 
resembles small tomatoes in leaf and fruit. 

Polemcmiams^ or Phloxes.— Greek valerian, paniculate, hairy 
and divaricate phlox are frequent. The true wild sweet-William is 
vei'Y rare. 

Convolvulus, or Morning-glory Family. — The most common 
plant o\' this order growing spontaneously beyond the bounds of 
cultivation is hedge bindweed, or Rutland beauty. Eight species of 
dodder (" love-vine ") may be found, all rare except one. It appears 
like orange-colored thread growing on the tops of weeds. 

Nigiitshade Family. — To this family belong Irish potatoes, to- 
matoes, egg-plant, bitter-sweet, tobacco and Jerusalem cherry. The 
most common weeds of this family are jimson-weed, horse-nettle 



("bull nettles"), common or black nightshade and two species of 
ground-cherry. The white-flowered jinison-weed (Datura Stramo- 
nium) is called common stramonium or thornapple by Dr. Gray, 
while the purple-flowered he calls ])ur])Ie thornapple. 

Gentians. — One beautiful species of American centaury, Ameri- 
can Col umbo and several species of gentian are found within our 
limits, but all of them are scarce. "Horse gentian " belongs to the 
Honeysuckle family. 

Dogbanes. — Spreading dogbane in the borders of thickets and 
Indian hemp (x'Vmsonia) on the river banka are common. 

Milkweeds. — Common milkweed, or silkweed, is common; has 
large, boat-shaped pods of glistening cotton. Swamp milkweed is 
also common. Butterfly weed, or pleurisy-root, whirled milkweed 
and two species of green milkweed occur not rarelj'. 

Olive Family. — It would seem more natural to us Westerners 
to call this the Ash family, as we liave no members of this order 
about us except the five species of ash,— white, black, blue, red and 
green, the white being the most common. Some of these kinds are 
diflicult for the begiimer to distinguish. 

Birthworts. — Wild ginger is common in deep, wooded ravines. 
The leaf is kidney-shaped, plant but few inclies high, and the root 
tastes like ginger. 

Four- o'' clock Family. — Oxybaphus is rapidly increasing along 
the raili-oads, and in low, sandy places. 

Pokeweeds. — The common poke with its purple-juiced clusters 
of berries is well known. 

Goosefoots. — Lamb's-quarters, or pigweed, a common weed in 
our gardens, is the type of this order. Beet and spinach belong 
here. JNext in abundance to lamb's-quarters are oak-leaved goose- 
foot, maj)]e-leaved goosefoi.-t, Jerusalem oak and Mexican tea. 
Wormsoed is a fetid plant belonging to the genus goosefoot. 
Orache is becoming abundant in the towns and cities. 

Amaranihs. — The cultivated coxcomb, globe amaranth and 
prince's feather (red, chafly spikes) illustrate the characters of this 
family. Pigweed is one of the most common weeds in cultivated 
ground. The pigweed of the last paragraph should be called goose- 
foot only, or lamb's-quarters. White pigweed, generally kiiown in 
the West as " tumble-weed," is abundant in some fields. Amaran- 
tus blitoides has recently become very abundant in our towns. At 
a little distance it resembles common ])urslane. Acnida and Froe- 
lichia are common in sandy soil near the rivers. 

Buckwheat Family or Knotvieeds. — Goose-grass is the most 
ubiquitous member of this order, forming a carpet in every door- 
yard. A taller variety witli wider leaves also abounds under the 
shade trees about the premises. Two species of smart-weed, mild 
water-pepper, water Persicaria and two other species of knotweed 
are all common. Out of 14 species of what ajipears to be smart- 
weed, only two are biting to the taste. Arrow-leaved tear-thumb, 
black bindweed and climbing false buckwheat are common vines. 


300 iiisroKY OF piKi; oountv. 

Pie-plant, "yellow dock"' unci slieep-sorrel represent iinotlier di- 
vision of the knotweed family. The most common member of tliis 
division in Pike county is curled, or "yellow" dock; then follow 
sheeji-sorrel (abounding in sundy soil), pale, water, swamp and 
bitter docks. 

LoAirel Family. — Sassafras is common along the blufis and bot- 
toms of tlie rivers. Spice bush is also found in Pike county. 

Sandal'WOod Family . — Dastard toad-flax rather scarce. 

Sjiuvjes. — Spotted spurge, an lierb gi'owing more prostrate than 
all others, on cultivated ground; milky; no visible Howers. Three 
other species of spui-ge are almost common. Three-seeded Mer- 
cury, known in former years to inhabit only the daik forest, has 
followed -to our city residences where it can find a similar situation. 
Croti)n is conimon near the rivers; an insignificant little hei-b. 

Nettle Order. — Of the Elm family are the white and the slip|-)ery 
elm and the hackberry, — the first mentioned abundant, the other 
two scarce. Of the Bread-fruit and Fig family is the red mul- 
berry, which is scarce. Of the Kettle family ])ro])er are the true 
nettle (rare), wood nettle (common), riehweed. pellitory, hemp and 
hop. Riehweed, or clearweed, like the Mercuiw of the last para- 
graph, has followed man to his artificial groves and is very abun- 
dant on flat ground under heavy shade-trees, in some places. It is 
remarkable that botanists have placed in this order the Osage 
orange tree of our hedges, the bread-fruit tree of the far-off Pacific 
isles, the fig and the banyan, and the poison upas of the East 

Plane- Tree F ariiily. — " Sycamore," or button- wood, or American 
T)lane. The true sycamore of Europe is a different tree. 

Walnut Family. — Black and white walnut (butternut) are well 
known. Three species of shell-bark and tv/o of smooth-bark, be- 
sides pecan in the river bottoms, are common in this country. The 
list comprises the shag-bark, the western shell-bark, the mocker- 
i;ut or white-heart, the pig-nut or broom, bitter-nut or swam'p 
hickories, and the pecan. The latter used to be abundant in the 
river bottoms, but the larger trees having been cut out for both 
the timber and the fruit, most of the pecan growth now is too 
yonuijto produce much fruit. 

Oak Family. — This family comprises not only the oaks but also 
the cliestnut, beech, hazel-nut and iron-wood. Some of the oaks 
hyl)ridize so much that it is difficult to keej) track of the species 
and varieties. White oak, of course, takes the lead here as else- 
where, but the blackjack is about as abundant. The latter is 
usually the "second growth," and is as good as hickory for fire- 
wood. Bur-oak, scarlet oak and black oak (yellow-barked, or 
quercitron) are common. Laurel or shingle oak, yellow chestnut 
oak and red oak are occasionally met with. Laurel oak is so called 
on account of the shape of its leaves, and is also called shingle oak, 
on account of its being so good in pioneer times for clapboards. 
Two species of iron-wood flourish here. They belong to different 


g;enera, one liavimr seeds \v. clusters of involucres resembling hops: 
hence it is called hop hornbeam. The other iron-wood or horn- 
beam is also called blue or water beech. 

Birch Family. — The red, or river birch is sometimes found 
alonw the rivers and creeks. 

Willows. — The most common willow, as well as the largest, is 
the black; then the prarie, glaucous, lieart-leaved, shining and 
long-leaved. Tlie black and the shining willows have tough twigs 
which are vei-y brittle at the base. Several other species of willow 
occur, but are rare. The,,. quaking asp, or American aspen, the 
cotton-wood, balm-of-Gilead, Lombardy poplar and silver-leaf, or 
white poplar, are well known. 

Arum Family. — Indian turnip (Jack-in-the pulpit) abundant; 
skunk cabbage common in wet places supplied by spring-water; 
sweet flag and green dragon very rare. 

Duckweeds. — One species common on the surface of ponds. It 
doe? not take root in the earth. 

Cat-tails. — Common cat-tail (a kind of flag) and a species of bur 
reed occur in wet places. 

Pondweeds. — Several species grow throughout this (-("injtiy'. 
They grow in or under water. 

Water- Plantain Family. — Arrowhead (two species, with several 
variations) is abundant. Has large, arrow-shaped leaves and white 
flowers in threes, and grows along the sloughs. Water plantain is 
sometimes found : grows in same situation as last. 

Amaryllis Family. — The star-grass is common. It is a modest 
little grass-like plant, putting forth its conspicuous,'yellow, 3-petal- 
ed flowers in June. 

Pris Far)iily. — The larger blue flag is becoming rare. The blue- 
eyed grass looks like the star-grass just mentioned, except that the 
flowers are white or pale blue. 

Yam, Family. — Wild yam-root is a green vine sometimes seen 
in the woods. 

Smilax Family. — Common greeu-brier, Smilax hispida and 
carrion flower are all not very rare. 

Lily Family. — Purple trillium, or three-leaved nightshade, is 
abundant: flowers in May. One other species of trillium some- 
times occurs. Bellwort is an early flower in the woods. 
Smaller Solomon's seal and false spikenard are common. Wild 
orange-red lily is common in the margins of prairies which are not 
pastured and have never been broken. White dog's-tooth violet 
and great Solomon's seal are reported here. It is another early- 
flowering plant of a similar appearance to the last and in similar 
situations. Squill (eastern quamash, or wild hyacinth) is said 
also to be found in this county. Wild garlic, having tupS like our 
garden top-onions, and wild leek are common in low places not pas- 

Rush Pamily. — The bog-rush is a very common, yellowish, 
grass-like herb along roads and paths, especially those leading 


throu>;'li the t'orc.-^t ; l)\it it i:^ also lound to some extent in all other 

Pic/i'( /'<J ■'■"'' '/ /■'/////''//.- -\\':itor star-ixrass, growing under run- 
niui;' water in ;lie t'iirt\-t l)i\»nks, is ronimoii. 

ASV/''/tV''/-'/Yv. -Coinnioii s]ii<!ci-\V(ii't is cnniinon. 

Sri/(/ts. -TluTt' aro three or tour dozen species of sedge growing 
within tlie liinit> ol'any one county, hut thev are all unimportant 
])lants. Thev liaxc a giMS^-like appearance, l)Ut can readily be dis- 
tin_;ni>lied tron; the gra^bc^ 'ov theii- lia\iiig triangular stems and 
l)ui'-Iike tops (seed c]u>tei\-). u'hih' the i;ras>e.> have rounder round- 
ish stems. What i> genei-ally called lake grass along the rivers is 
a tiaie .-ediiC and its k]iigli>li name is gi-eat huli-ush. It is by I'ar 
the large-t of the >ed_;;es. The river eluh-ru.-h is next in size. 

(r/'f/sst's.- -\]\nc ij:;r:i>^ takes the lead (or ):)revalence and utility. 
Next, two species of to\-tail. IJesides these the most common 
grasses are white grass, i-ice cut gras<, Indian i-ice or water oats, 
timothy, ru>h grass (two spe(•ie^), bent grass, wood reed-grass, 
dropseed (two genera); reed beut-gi-ass. liliic joint grass, porcupine 
grass, fresh-water coi-d-grass, Koeleria, Ivitonia (two species), melic 
grass, fowl meadow grass an^l its coiigeiu'i', Glyceria flnitans, low 
spear-grass, i-ed to]^, Eragrosti^ (tliree s|)ecies), fescue (two species), 
chess, Bromus ciliatus, reed (a tall, broom-corn-like grass growing 
in dense fields in the swam])S of the river bottom), liordeum pra- 
tense (a kind of wdld barley), two species of lyme-grass or wild rye, 
bottle-brush grass, reed canary grass. J'aspalum, wire grass, eight 
species of panic-grass, among them two kin<ls of tickle-grass and 
one old-witch grass, crab-grass and barn-yard grass, sand-bi.'r (in 
sand) and two Sj)ecies of beard-gi-a.-s. About two dozen other 
kinds of grass can be found in the county, but they are all very 

irorsc-td !!■■<. — Scouring y\\A\ and comtuou ]i.»!'>e-tail (e>pecially 
aloiiii^ railroa(is) are common : two othei- ^jiecies scarce. 

Ferns. — Maiden-haii-, brak'e. a s])l(.'enwoi-t. a shield fern, a blad- 
dei--fern and the sensitive foiai are c>)mmon in the order here nameil, 
while one S])ecies of liowering fern an<l two or three othei' ferns 
may be found. 


Perhaps no district of country in the West contains more traces 
of that pre-historic |)eople known to us only as the " JVEound-Build- 
ers" than the district between tlie Illinois and the Mississippi riv- 
ers. There is scarcely a township of land in this section which 
does not contain more or less of these traces, and in some of them 
are works v^'hich in extent and character will compare with any in 
the West. 

The mounds in this county are evidently of three classes : sacred 
mounds, which were used +br the sacrificial fires; burial mounds, 
which were erected over the last remains of important personatres; 
and moimds which were used for domestic habitations. These were 
probably residences similar to those of some tribes of our present 
Indians. First, j)oles or logs set up in a circle, then covered with 
brush or grass, and the whole with earth to a considerable extent. 
The sacrificial mounds always contained bui-nt earth, burnt bones, 
and frequently, too, the charred bones of human beings. In the 
burial mounds only the bones of a few persons are found, probably 
of some chief and his immediate family, and usually near them are 
utensils of the kitchen, arrows, pottery, and such articles as were 
most prized in life by the departed. 

In some localities immense shell-heaps exist, while it is not un- 
common to find in the mounds shells from the sea, notably the 
conch-shell and sea-periwinkles, the latter ver}' common.' Imple- 
ments of both hardened copper and copper in a soft state are often 
found, and a metal resembling iron in texture and color, but hard 
enough to cut glass and wliich resists the action of almost all the 

That these mounds were not erected by the same race as our 
present Indians is at once apparent from the bones of the latter 
being of a reddish hue, while those of the Mound-Builders are of 
a different shade and much larger. 

It is our opinion that the Mound-Builders were a pastoral peo- 
ple, who had made considerable progress in civilization. In the 
winter, doubtless, they drove their flocks and herds to the bluffs 
and rich, sheltered bottoms where thev could obtain shelter, and 


ill the sumtner tliej drove them to the prairies tor pasturage. 
Doubtless, like the Chinese of to-day, they esteemed their native 
hills sacred and sought to be buried there, no matter where the 
iron liand of Death overtook them; and their friends, respecting 
tliis desire, were in the habit of bringing the bones of each family 
or tribe to these sacred burial places, after the}' had been stripped 
of their tiesh, for permanent burial. 

Perhaps some future archaeologist will delve among these ruins 
and find a key to the mystery of the Builders, of whom we to-day 
know next to nothing; and linless some means arc taken by the 
Government or societies organized for the purpose, and these meas- 
ures at no distant day, they will have become so far obliterated by 
the plow and by unskilled diggers that the slight clues they contain 
will be buried in oblivion greater than now enshrouds the history 
of their builders. 

A few years ago some of the prominent gentlemen of Pike 
county interested themselves in organizing an " Archaeological 
Society," but of late the interest seems to have abated very per- 
ceptibly, and the Society so enthusiastically organized can now 
scarcely be said to be in existence. 

The gentlemen pi-oposing to organize an " Antiquarian Society " 
met at the court-house in Pittsiield, May 24, 1873, when Dr. T. 
Worthington was called to the chair and R. H. Criswell appointed 
secretary. They organized the •' Pike County Antiquariaji Soci- 
ety," an'^d the permanent officers elected at this meeting were, Pres- 
j(]ent — Wm. A. Grimshaw ; Vice Presidents — Wm. McAdams, 
Esq., Dr. E. S. Hull, of Madison county, Capt. W. H. Reed, of 
Calhoun county, Dr. T. Worthington, of Pike, Dr. A. Mittower, of 
Pike, Richard Perry, of Pike, 11. J. Harris, of Pike, C. L. Obst, of 
Pittsiield, Archaeologist Artist; Dr. Thos. Alton, Secretary; Wm.R. 
Archer, Treasui-er. 

W. B. Grimes, Dr. Mittower and C. L. Obst were appointed a 
committee to solicit contribution-s to the cabinet of the Society, and 
invite the exhibition of such relics as owners are unwilling to part 
with, the ol'ject being to obtain possession of evidences and traces 
of the people of antiquity, their implements and usages as far as 

A letter was read before the Society from Mr. McAdams, of Wa- 
tervillo, Jersey county, May 18, 1873, as follows: 

" I see in the papers a call for a meeting in Pittstield on the 24th 
inst., to organize a society with a view of further investigatioli and 
more perfect knowledge of relics and ancient remains near the H- 
linois and Mississippi rivers. I have for the last 15 years, during 
my leisure hours, been making' some investigations of the mounds 
and tumuli of Jersey and Calhoun counties.' There is not ])erhaps 
in all the West a section richer or more interesting in its great 
numbers of relics of an almost unknown race of people who once 
inhabited this country. No thorough investigation has been made. 
Already many of them hav^ been destroyed by the cultivation of 


new fields. Before many ^-ears the majority of them will be ob- 
literated, or so defaced that the orlo^iiial plan of construction will 
be lost. There should be a society like the one yon propose to or- 
ganize, not onl}' for the purpose of investinjation but also for the 
purpose of making some record of their work. Comparatively little 
is known of the mounds of Jersey and Calhoun, although I have 
visited many of them and collected quite a number of interesting 
relics. Yours truly, 

"Wm. McAdams." 

The second week in June, 1873, the Society made an excursion 
to the southern part of the county and spent several days among 
the numerous mounds in that locality, where they found many 
relics of the aborigines, among which werearrow heads, fish- spears, 
stone knives and liatchets, earthen vessels of various kinds, copper 
kettles, stone pipes, shell and copper beads, silver ear-rings, silver 
buckles, etc. Nearly all these articles were found imbedded in the 
mounds with human bones, pieces of pottery, etc., generally at a 
■depth of about three feet below the surface. In some cases stone 
vaults containing bones and other relics were discovered a few feet 
beneath the surface. The members of the Society who went on 
that excursion say they had a most enjoyable trip and consider 
themselves well repaid for their trouble. 

In the summer of 1873, Col. D. B. Bush presented to the Society 
for its museum Indian trappings of great value. Thos. James, of 
Martinsburg. presented a large lot of beautiful beads and amulets 
from the Big Mound of Sacramento valley, Cal.; also, moss, peat, 
•cinnabar and Chinese corn, etc. — all from California. Col. S. S. 
Thomas presented a rare and beautiful specimen of coquine and 
concrete shells from St. Augustine, Florida. In September of the 
same year, Col. A. C. Matthews contributed to the museum one 
beaked saw-fish {Pristis) from Matagorda Island, Texas; auto- 
graph letter of Henry Clay, dated Oct. 5, 1829, Ashland, Ky.; 
pass of Lieut. Gen. S. B. Buckncr, C. S. A.: one C(>])y of army cor- 
respondence; also coin and fossils. Geo. H. Frencli presented a 
stone mortar from Pilot Bluff, Illinois river; E. JN. French, speci- 
mens of columnar limestone; Hon. J. M. Bush presented one copy 
of the Massachusetts Centennial, published at Boston, Sept. 5, 
1789, about four months after the inauguration of President Wash- 
ington; Hon. W. A. Grinishaw presented books as follows: Amer- 
ican volume. Ancient Armeca; Lines of Humboldt; two volumes 
of Smithsonian Institute Reports, 1865-'6; two volumes of History 
of Wisconsin; stone and flint implements, bone needle and speci- 
mens of pottery. Patrick Ilalpin presented specimens of Ameri- 
can and Italian marble. 

In December, Mr. R. Perry contributed specimens of silicious 
•and ferruginous conglomerate; Dr. A. McFarland, a very nice 
human skeleton, five bottles containing in alcohol specimens of 
•ophidian, all indigenous to Pike county, and also one containing 


taenia; Tlios. Williams, seven heaiitirul tiiiit inipleinents; and N. 
W. Kibler, a verv large tooth of a j)acli_vderni. 

Feb. 21, l.ST4/Geo. l?elL Thos. Bloomer, llinun Ilurton and G. 
S. Pennington found remains oftive human skeletons in the Mis- 
sissippi blulis on tlie farm of Mrs. L. B. Lyon at the month of 
Dutch creek hollow. One skull measured 26 inches from the top 
of the cranium around under the lower jaw. Indeed, many 
more skeletons are in these blufts. Several wagon-loads of 
rock had been thrown over these remains. The heads appeared to 
be laid toward a common center of about three leet space. One 
skull contained a rock which had doubtless been thrown there when 
the remains were buried. The bones were veiy brittle and difficult 
to secure in their integrity from among the roots. There are seven 
of these mounds in Mr. Horton's field, in a semi-circle, all contain- 
ing human remains. Also a s])ecies of pottery has been found 

In the southeast part of Pearl township about a mile from the 
Illinois river two copper vessels were once found, one smaller than 
the other, under some flat stones which had been ])lowed up, and a 
little lower down stone coffins, were found in a field where they had 
been plowing; but these "remains" were probably left there by 
early French explorers. 

Mr. C. L. Obst, photograplier in Pittsfield, who is a fine archas- 
ologist and the virtual founder of the '' Pike County Antiquarian 
Society," has a splendid collection; namely, 100 varieties of flint 
implements, four varieties of stone hatchets, four of wedges, varie- 
ties of stone disks of various materials, as iron ore, sandstone, gran- 
ite and greenstone, four varieties of plummets, mostly iron ore, 
two of hammers, pestles, round stone for clubs, eight kinds of 
pipes, iron ore and greenstone chisels, plowshares and hoes, a large 
variety of pottery, drills and mortars, bone of the pre-historic bison, 
sinkers, weights, etc., etc. Air. Obst has also a good collection of 
geological specimens. 

The museum of the Society is in the Public Library room over 
the postoffice in Pittsfield, but the association is not active at pres- 
ent and their collection of relics seems neglected. 



In 1817 a State election was held for members of the Constitu- 
tional Convention, which Convention prepared and submitted to the 
people a new Constitution, which was adopted bj a large majority. 
By this Constitution, in place of the Commissioners' Court a County 
Court was organized in each county. This Court consisted of a 
County Judge, and, if the Legislature saw proper to so order it, two 
Associate Justices. This the Legislature favorably acted upon. 
The last meeting of the County Commissioners' Court was held 
November, 1849. After the transaction of such business as prop- 
erly came before them, they adjourned until court in course, but 
never re-assembled. 

On the first Monday of December of tlie same year the first regu- 
lar term of the County Court was held. The duties of the Court 
in a legislative capacity were precisely the same as those of the 
County Commissioners' Court. In addition to the legislative power 
the members of this Court were permitted to exercise judicial 
authority, having all the rights and privileges of Justices of the 
Peace, together with all probate business. This Court consisted of 
a County Judge and two Associate Justices. The Judge and As- 
sociate Justices acted together for the transaction of all county busi- 
ness, but none other. The Justices had an equal vote with the 
Judge, and received the same salary while holding Court, which was 
$2 per day. Two of the three constituted a quorum. 

The County Judge who served under this regime was James 
Ward. The Associate Justices were Joshua Woosley and William 
P. Harpole. 


The Constitution of 1847 provided for township organization 
in those counties desiring it. (Hons. Wra. R. Archer and Wm. 
A. Grimshaw, both of this county, were members of the Conven- 
tion framing this Constitution.) The (piestion of organizing 
according to this jM-ovision soon began, of course, to agitate the 


people of Pike county, and the controversy grew bitter, — the bit- 
terest pndeed that this more than usually peaceful coniinunity ever 
indnli^ed in. Iinniiii^rants from the Elast were familiar with tiie 
workings of township legislation and management, and desired to 
perpetuate their home institution in the West; but the other citi- 
zens of the county were afraid that the introduction of the measure 
would necessitate an increase of ofiice holders, useless expenses and 
many unforeseen vexations. . The Judges in office were all opposed 
to the innovation, — so mucli so indeed that they continued to hold 
Court even after the great victory of the innovators in carrying the 
county by 1,563 votes against 317, and the election of new mem- 
bers. For a short time the county liad two legislatures at once. 
The vote was taken at the general election of November 6, 1849, at 
which election Peter Y. Sliankland was elected County Clerk on 
this hotly contested issue, and Stephen R. Gray Sheriff. Both these 
gentlemen were Democrats, in favor of township organization. In- 
deed, as a matter of curiosity, but of no political significance, we 
may State that the fight on both sides Vv'as nearly all done by the 
Democrats, the Whigs taking but little part. 

An election was held in November, 1S49, to vote " for " or 
"against " township organization, which resulted in favor of the 
measure. Tiiis was met with bitter opposition however, and an ap- 
peal was taken to the Circuit Court by Samuel L. Crane. The law 
was decided to be constitutional, and the election a fair one. 

The Board of Supervisors of Pike county first assembled April 
8, 1850, tliis being one of the first counties in the State to organize 
under the township mode. 

There were present at this meeting the following members : 
Montgomery Blair, Ban-y; Hazen Pressy, Washington; Archibald 
Brooks, Chambersbnrg; David Preble, Salem; Wilson Adams, 
Hardin; Wm. B(jss, Newburg; Thos. Hull, Kinderhook; A. W, 
Bemis, Martinsburg; R. C. Robertson, Milton; James M. Seeley, 
Atlas, and John McTucker, Hadley. Supervisor Blair was elected 
temporary Chairman and Col. Ross chosen Chairman. The Board 
then adjourned to re-assemble April 23. 1S50. There were present 
at this the second meeting the folluwing gentlemen: Wm. Ross; 
Archibald Brooks; Darius Dexter, Perry; Amos Hill, Griggsville; 
David Preble; John McTucker; Montijomcrv Blair; Jesse Seniff, 
Detroit; Thomas Hull; A. W. Bemis; J. M. Seeley; J. T. Hyde, 
Pittsfield; R. C. Robertson ; Wilson Adams; Plazen Pressy; and 
James Talbot, Pleasant Yale. 

The County Court, when in session in 1849, a})pointed a com- 
mittee to divide the county into townships. This committee made 
their i"eport to the Board of Supervisors, which is as follows : 

"We, the undersigned, Commissioners appointed by the honor- 
able the County Court at the December term, 1849, to divide Pike 
county into towns or townships pursuantto the declared wish of the 
citizens of said county, decided by a majority of votes given for 
and against township organization at an election held on Tuesday 


after the first Monday in November, 1849, under and by autliority 
of an act to provide for township and county organization, and may 
organize whenever a majority of votes of said county at any gen- 
eral election shall so determine, respectfully report that, after ma- 
ture deliberation and hearing the views and consulting the wishes 
of the people through delegations appointed by the different pre- 
cincts, they have unaniniously agreed upon the following division 
boundaries and names, and report the same as organized : 

" John Lyster, 
" S. R. Gray, 
" John K. Cleveland. 

" Commencing at the northeastern corner of the county and 
making fractional townships 3 s., 1 and 2 w., a town by tlie name 
of Chambersburg; Congressional township 3 s,, 3 w., Perry; 3 s., 
4 w., Fairmount; 4 s., 7 w., and fractional of 4 s. and 8 w., Kin- 
derhook; 4 s., 6 w., Barry; 4 s., 5 w., Hadley; 4 b., 4 w.. New 
Salem; 4 s., 3 w., Griggsville; fractional township 4 s., 2 w., Flint; 
fractional township 5 s., 2 w., Detroit; CongressioTial township 5 8., 
2 w., Newburg; 5 s., 4w., Pittsfield; 5 s., 5 w., Washington; 5 8., 
€ w., and the fractional townships 6 s., Y w., and 5 s., 8 w., and 6 
s., 7 w., Pleasant V^ale; 6 s., 5 w., 6 s., 6 w., 7 s., 5 w. and 7 s., 8 
w., Atlas; 6 s., 4 w., Martinsbnrg; 6 s., 3 w., Hardin; 6 s., 2 w., 
Milton; fractional township 7 s., 2 w., Pearl; 7 s., 3 w., Spring 
Creek; and 7 s., 4 w., Pleasant Hill." 

Subsequently the Board of Supervisors were notified bj' the 
State Auditor that the names of Washington and Milton must be 
changed, owing to other townships in the State bearing those 
Dames. On motion of Supervisor Robertson the name of Milton 
was changed to Montezuma ; and on motion of Supervisor Pressly 
that of Washington to Derry. 

In 1876 the fractional part of township 4 s., 8 w., and heretofore 
a part of Kinderhook township was organized into a separate town- 
ship and named Levee. In 1879 that part of Atlas township in 
town 7 s., 5 w., was organized into a separate township and named 

At the April meeting, 1863, the Board of Supervisors resolved 
to build a new jail, the cost of which should not exceed $15,000. Su- 
pervisors Gray, Dimmitt, Smitherman, Roberts, Dennis, Adams 
and Shields were appointed a committee to carry out the decisions 
of the Board, and they authorized a sub-committee to visit jails of 
other counties and procure plans and specifications for consideration 
and adoption by the above committee; and also with full power to 
appoint, if they see proper, a sub-committee as acting superintend- 
ents of the erection of said building; and also tlie said committee 
was given power to dispose of the old part of the present jail, to- 
getlier with the lot, and to purchase a more suitable lot whereon to 
erect tlie new building. 



At a meetino^ held Tuesday, Sept. 16, 1SG3, Supervisor Dennis 
oftered a resolution to increase the appropriation for the l)uilding 
of the jail and Sheriff's residence from $15,000 to $25,000. Su- 
pervisor IloUis moved that the appropriation he $20,000. His 
motion was lost, and Mr. Dennis' was adopted. 

The jail building, of which we give a cut in this volume, was com- 
pleted in due time, and now stands an honor to the county. 


Below we give a full list of all the Supervisors fn^m the time the 
count}' was organized under the township law till the present time, 
by years, together with the name of the chairman and the township 
each member is from: 


William Ross, 
Archibald Brooks, Chambersburg. 
Darius Dexter, Peny. 
Amos Hill, Grisrgsville. 
David Preble, New Salem. 
John McTucker, Hadley. 
Montgomery Blair, Barry. 
Jesse SeniC Detroit. 
Thomas Hull, Kinderhook. 
A. W. Bemis, Martinsburg. 
J. M. Seelev, Atlas. 

Newburg, Chairinnn. 

J. F. Hyde, Pittsficld. 

K. C. Robertson, Milton (Montezuma). 

Wilson Adams, Hardin. 

Hazcn Pressy, Washington, Derry. 

James Talbot, Pleasant'Vale. 

William Turnbull, Flint. 

William Morrison, Fairmount. 

Thomas Barton, Pleasant Hill. 

J. P. Stark, Spring Creek. 


Amos Hill, Griggsville. 
Thomas Odiorne, Atlas. 
Hazen Pressy, Derry. 
William Morrison, Fairmount. 
William Turnbull Flint. 
Thomas Barton, Pleasant Hill. 
William Grammar, Hadley. 
John Lyster. Detroit. 
Worden Willis, Pleasant Vale. 
Montgomery Blair, Barry. 

Newburg, Chairman. 
Darius Dexter, Perry. 
D. H. Gilmer, Pittsfield. 
R. C. Robertson, Montezuma. 
William Adams, Hardin. 
Harvey W. MeClintock, Martinsburg. 
David Preble, New Salem. 
J. P. Star<, Spring Creek. 
Thomas Hull, Kinderhook. 
Constantine Smith, Pearl. 
Peter Kargcs, Chambersburg. 


H. R. Ramsay, Atlas, Chainnan. 

James Brown, Chambersburg. William Turnbull, Flint. 

Darius Dexter, Perry. H. W. MeClintock, Martinsburg. 

David Preble, New Salem. E. C. Thurman, Pleasant Hill. 

John E. Ayres, Fairmount. William Grammar, Hadley. 

M. B. Churchill, Kinderhook. B. F. Browndl, Barry. 

S. K. Taylor, Derry. S. Grigsbv. Pleasant Vale. 

D. H. Gilmer, Pitlstield. Bichard Robertson, Montezuma. 

M. J. Noves. A. Main, Hardin. 

Amos Hill, Grigsville. . ohn P. Stark, Spring Creek. 
John Lyster, Detroit. 




William Turnbull, Chairman. 

James Brown, Cbambersburf 
William Dustin, Atlas. 
Daniel Fisher, New Salem. 
Thomas Hull, Kinderhook. 
Harlow Huntley, Hadley. 
Tyre Jennings, Barry. 
B. L. Matthews Perry. 
H. T. Mndd, Pittstield. 
Constaatine Smith, Pearl. 

William E. Smith, Sprins^ Creek. 
Cornelius Sullivan, Marliusburg. 
Jonathan Frye, Detroit. 
Dennis Leary, Monlezuma. 
William Kinnian, Griggsville. 
Samuel G. Sittuu, Hardin. 
William C.Crawford, Fairmount. 
L. H. Stone, Pleasant Hill. 
F. A. Laudrum, Derry. 


J. S. Roberts, 
James Brown, Chambersburg. 
Calvin Greeuleaf, Flint. 
Jonathan Frye, Detroit. 
Dennis Leary, Montezuma. 
Constantine Smith, Pearl. 
B. L'. Matthews, Perry. 
James Winn, Griggsville. 
B. F. Westlake, Newburg. 
John Heavener, Hardin. 
Wm. E. Smith, Spring Creek, 

Martinsburg, Chn/'rinan. 

Daniel Fisher, New Salem. 

Henry T. Mudd, Pittsfield. 

L. H. Stone, Pleasant Hill. 

Wm. Oframmar, Hadley. 

Jethro Petty, Derry. 

Wm. Dustin, Atlas. 

Tyre Jennings, Barry. 

Charles T. Brewster, Pleasant Vale. 

S. B. Gaines, Kinderhook. 

Wm. C. Crawford, Fairmount. 

B. F. Westlake, 
John Loer, Chambersburg. 
Wm. Thackwray, Flint. 
D. Leary, Montezuma. 
Const intine Smith, Pearl. 
B. L. Matthews, Perry. 
James Winn, Grigi^sville. 
Wilson Adams, Hardin. 
Wm. C. Smith, Spring Creek. 
Wm. C. Crawford, Fairmount. 
Daniel Fisher, New Salem. 
H. T. Mudd, Pittsfield. 


Newburg, Chairman. 

John S. Roberts. Martinsburg. 

John ]{ay. Pleasant Hill.])h P. Smith, Hadley. 

J. S. Vertrees, Perry. 

Simon K. Taylor, Derry. 

Tyre Jennings, Barr}'. 

Thos. Odiorne, Atlas. 

Charles T. Brewster. Pleasant Vale. 

S. B. Gaines, Kinderhook. 

R. C. Allen, Detroit. 

Nicholas Hobbes, Fairmount. 

John Loer, Chambersburg. 
Jonathan Frye, Detroit. 
Wm. Wheeler, Pearl. 
O. M. Hatch, Griggsville. 
Joseph G. Colvin, Hardin. 
Wm. H. Love, Fairmount. 
Daniel D. Hick.s, Pittsfield. 
Alex. Hemphill, Pleasant Hill. 
Josiah Long, Atlas. 
Daniel Pyle, Flint. 


J. S. Roberts, Martinsburg, Cluiirmnn. 

Edwin Wooley, Montezuma. 
John L. Gaine, Perry. 
B. F. Westlake, Newburg. 
Wm. E. Smith, Spring Creek. 
Wm. F. Hooper, New Salem. 
Richard Hayes, Hadley. 
James Wallace, Pleasant Vale. 
A. Landrum, Derry. 
John P. Grubb, Barry. 


John W. Allen, Detroit, Chairman. 
B. B. Metz, Chambersburg. Wm. F. Hooker, New Salem. 

Joseph G. Pyle, Flint. Daniel D. Hicks, Pittsfield. 

Spencer Hudson, Montezuma. Joshua Butler. Martinsburg. 

Constantine Smith, Pearl. Alex. Hemphill, Pleasant Hill. 



Thos. Reynolds, Perry. 
Alfred Gordon, Griggsville. 
B. F. Westlake, Newburg. 
J. G. Colvin, Hardin. 
John IT. Brewer, Fairmount. 
Wm. E. Smith, Spring Creek. 

Richard Hayes, Iladley. 
John L. Underwood, Derry. 
Jesse Long, Atlas. 
J. R. Williams, Barry. 
James Wallace, Pleasant Vale. 
M. B. Churchill, Kiuderhook. 


Harvey Dunn, CUambersbiirg. 
Jonathan Frye, Detroit. 
E. N. French, Montezuma. 
Hiram Hess. P«flrl. 
Thos. Reynolds, Perry. 
James Winn, Griggsville. 
B. F. Westlake, Newburg. 
Adam Puterbaugh, Hardin. 
Wm. E. Smith, Spring Creek. 
John H. Brewer, Fairmount. 

Flint. ChairuHin. 
Thos Gray, New Salem. 
Austin Barber, Piltstield. 
Joshua HuiUr, Martiusburg. 
John G. Sitton, Pleasant Hill. 
Wm. Giammar, Hadley. 
John L. Underwood, Derry. 
Sherman Brown, Atlas. 
James B. Williams, Barry. 
James Wallace, Pleasant Vale. 
A. T Love, Kinderhook. 

John S. Roberts, 
Wilson S. Dennis, Chambersburg. 
James L. Thompson, Flint. 
Jonathan Frye, Detroit. 
Isaac S. Brown, Montezuma. 
Constantine Smith, Pearl. 
B. L. Matthews, Perry. 
James Winn, Griggsville. 
Benj. F. Westlake, Newburg. 
Wilson Adams, Hardin. 
Wm. E. Smith, Spring Creek. 


M arti nsburg, Cha irtna n . 
John Vail Fairmount. 
James C. Conkright, New Salem. 
Isaac W. Jones. Pittsfield. 
Thos. Barney. Pleasant Jlill. 
Wm. Grammar, Hadley. 
Simon K. Taylor, Derry. 
Sherman Brown, Atlas. 
Richard St. John, Barry. 
James AVallace, Pleasant Vale. 
John G. Wheelock, Kinderhook. 


John S. Roberts, 
James H. Dennis, Cham^bersburg. 
Jas. L. Tiiompson, Flint. 
John W. Allen. Detro.t. 
E. C. Clemmous, Montezuma. 
Hiram Hess, Pearl. 
James Johns, Perry. 
T. H. Dimmitt, Griggsville. 
B. F. Westlake, Newburg. 
J. C. Colvin, ardin. 
Wm. E. Smith, Spring Creek 

Martinsburg, Chairman. 
John Vail, Fairmount. 
Jas. C. Conkright, New Salem. 
David .V. Stanton, Pittstield. 
Alex. Parker, Pleasant Hill. 
Wm. Grammar, Hadley. 
James B. Land rum, Derry. 
Sherman Brown, Atlas. 
Lewis D. White, Barry. 
Harrison Brown. Pleasant Hill. 
John G. Wheelnck, Kinderhook. 


John S. Roberts, 
J. H. Dennis, Chambersburg. 
Geo. H. Sanford, Flint. 
John W. Allen, Detroit. 
Wm. B. Grimes, Montezuma. 
Andrew N. Hess, Pearl. 
Geo. W. Baldwin, Perry. 
Thos. H. Dimmitt, Griggsville. 
B. F. Westlake, Newburg. 
Jos. G. Colvin, Hardin. 
Wm. E. Smith, Spring Creek 

Martinsburg, Chairmun. 
John Vail, Fairmount. 
A. J. McWilliams, New Salem. 
D. A. Stanton, Pittsfield. 
A.J. Lovell, Pleasant Hill. 
Wm. Grammar, Hadley. 
Isaac Pryor, Perry. 
J. G. Adams, Atlas. 
John McTiicker, Barry. 
Perry H. Davis, Pleasant Vale. 
John Aron, Kinderhook. 


31 a 

John S. Roberts, 
James H. Dennis, Chambersburg. 
Geo. H. Sanford, Flint. 
Jonathan Frye, Detroit. 
^eo. Underwood, Montezuma. 
Andrew N. Hess, Pearl, 
James W. Brown, Perry. 
T. H. Dimmitt, Griggsville. 
B. F. Westlake, Newburg. 
J. G. Colvin, Hardin. 
Wm. E. Smith, Spring Creek. 

John S. Roberts, 
James H. Dennis, Chambersburg. 
Wm. Thackwray, Flint. 
L. J. Smitherman, Detroit. 
J. O. Bolin, Montezuma. 

A. N. Hess, Pearl. 
Augustus Akin, Perry. 

T. H. Dimmi;t, Grigggville. 
Strothcr Grigsby, Newburg. 

B. F. Westlake, Newburg. 
J. G. Colvin, Hardin. 

D. Hollis, Spring Creek. 


Martinsburg, Chairman. 

Wm. Morrison, Fairmount. 
A. J. Mc Williams, New Salem. 
D. A. Stanton, Pittsfield. 
L. H. Stone, Pleasant Hill. 
Wm. Grammar, Hadley. 
J. B. Landrura, Derry. 
J. G. Adams, Atlas. 
Henry Wallace, Barry. 
P. H. Davis, Pleasant Vale. 
John Aron, Kinderhook. 


Martinsburg, Chairman. 

Wm. Morrison, Fairmount. 

A. J. McWilliams, New Salem. 

S. R. Gray, Pittsfield. 

A. Hemphill, Pleasant Hill. 

Wra. Grammar, Hadley. 

Thos. Harris, Derry. 

J. G. Adams, Atlas. 

Wm. P. Shields, Barry. 

J. R. Thomas, Pleasant Vale. 

John Aron, Kinderhook. 


James H. Dennis, 
Wm. Thackwray, Flint. 
L. J. Smitherman, Detroit. 
E. N. French, Montezuma. 

A. N. Hess, Pearl. 
Harvey Dunn, Jr., Perry. 
Thos. H. Dimmitt, Griggsville. 
Nathan Kelley, Newburg. 

B. C. Lindsay, Hardin. 
David Hollis, Spring Creek. 
John Vail, Fairmount. 

Chambersburg, Chairman. 
John Preble, New Salem. 
N. A. Wells, Pittsfield. 
J. 8. Roberts, Martinsburg. 
Alex. Hemphill, Pleasant Hill. 
Wm. Grammar, Hadley. 
Thos. 8. Harris, Derry. 
J. G. Adams, Atlas. 
Wm. P. Shields, Barry. 
James Wallace, Pleasant Vale. 
John G. Wheelock, Kinderhook. 


P. H. Davis, 
Jas. H. Dennis, Chambersburg. 
Wm. Turnbull, Flint. 
L. J. Smitherman, Detroit. 
Robert E. Gilliland, Montezuma. 
A. N. Hess, Pearl. 
John E. Morton, Perry. 
T. H. Dimmitt, Griggsville. 
Wm. J Ross, Jr., Newburg. 
Samuel Heavener, Hardin, 
David Hollis, Spring Creek. 

Pleasant Vale, Chairman. 

John Vail, Fairmount. 
Asahel Hinman, New Salem. 
J. M. Bush, Pittsfield. 
David Roberts, Martinsburg. 
Alex. Hemphill, Pleasant Hill. 
Wm. Grammar, Hadley. 
Albert Landrum, Derry. 
Wm Dustin, Atlas. 
Wm. P. Shields, Barry. 
John G. Wheelock, Kinderhook. 


James H. Dennis, Chambersburg, Chairman. 
William Turnbull, Flint. James M. Ferry, Pittsfield. 

L. J. Smitherman, Detroit. R. A. McClintock, Martinsburg^ 

George Marks, Montezuma. A. F. Hemphill, Pleasant Hill. 



Joshua Hanks, Pearl. 
John E. Morton. Perry. 
T. H. DimmitI, Griffgsv''le. 
Strother Grigsby. Newburg. 
David HoUis, Spring Creek. 
John Vail, Fairmouut. 
John Preble, New Salem. 

James H. Dennis 
James L. Thompson, Flint. 
L. J. Smitherman, Detroit. 
John O. Bolin, Montezuma. 
Joshua Hank^i, Pearl. 
John A. Morton, Perry. 
Thomas H. Dimmitt, Griggsville, 
Strother Grigsby, Newburg. 
Jos. G. Golviu, Hardin. 
David Hollis, Spring Creek. 
John Vail, Fairmount. 

James H. Dennis, 
William Anderson, Fliot. 
John W. Alien, Detroit. 
James A. Brown, Montezuma. 
Joshua Hanks, Pearl. 
Harvey Thornbury, Perry. 
T. H. Dimmitt, Griggsville. 
Strother Grigsby, Newburg. 
John C. Dinsmore, Hardin. 
F. J. Halford, Spring Creek. 
John Vail, Fairmount. 

William Grammar, Hadley. 
Albert Landrum, Derry. 
J. G. Adams, Atlas. 
William M. P. Shields, Barry. 
James Wallace, Pleasant Vale. 
R. M. Murray, Kinderhook. 


Chambersburg, Chairmati, 
John Preble, New Salem. 
George W.Jones, Pittstield. 
William M. McClintock, Martinsburg. 
A. F. Hemphill, Pleasant Hill. 
William Grammar, Hadley. 
Albert Landrum, Derry. 
J. G. Adams, Atlas. 
M. Blair, Barry. 
Perry H. Davis, Pleasant Vale. 
Thomas Mclntire, Kinderhook. 


Chambersburg, Chairman. 
John Preble, New Salem. 
George W. Jones, Pittstield. 
John Melton, Martinsburg. 
William Grammar, Hadley. 
Albert Landrum, Derry. 
Monlgomery Blair, Barry. 
P. H.Davis, P.easant Vale. 
A. J. Loveli, Pleasant Hill. 
J. G. Adams, Atlas. 
R M. Murray, Kinderhook. 


George W. Jones, 
James H. Dennis, Chambersburg. 
William Anderson, Flint. 
John Lyster, Detroit. 
James A. Brown, Montezuma. 
David Hess, Pearl. 
B. L. Matthews, Perry. 
Noah Divilbiss, Perry. 
T. H. Dimmitt, Griggsville 
B. F. Westlake, Newburg. 
B. C. Lindsay. Hardin. 
Frank J. Halford, Spring Creek. 

Pittstield, Ghairman. 
■ T. M. Coss, Fairmount. 

John Preble, New Salem. 

Joseph TiirnbaugJi, Martinsburg. 

J. B. Harl, Pleasant Hill. 

William Grammar, Hadley. 

Maberry Evans, Derry. 

A. Simpkins, Atlas. 

Montgomery Blair, Barry. 

P. H. Davis, Pleasant Hill. 

John Aron, Kinderhook. 


George W. Jones, 
Lewis Ham, Chambersburg. 
William Anderson, Flint. 
Samuel Havden, Detroit. 
James A. Brown, Montezuma. 
George W. Roberts, Pearl. 
B. L. Matthews, Perry. 
T. H. Dimmitt, Grigtrsville. 
Thompson J. Pulliam, Newburg 
Alvin Petty, Hardin. 
F. J. Halford, Spring Creek. 

Pittsfield, Chairman. 
Taylor M. Coss, Fairmount. 
John Preble, New Salem. 
John Brittain, Martinsburg. 
A. J. Loveli, Pleasant Hill. 
J. W. Burke, Derry. 
William Dustin, Atlas. 
M. Blair, Barry. 
P. H. Davis, Pleasant Vale. 
John Clutch, Kinderhook. 

f / 




George W. Jones 
Lewis Ham, Chambersburg. 
William Anderson, Flint. 
B. W. Flynn, Detroit. 
James A. Brown, Montezuma. 
George W. Roberts, Pearl. 
Thomas Reynolds, Perry. 
James McWilliams, Griggsville 
T. G. Pulliam, Newburg. 
Francis Frye, Hardin. 
T. J. Halford, Spring Creek. 


, Pittsfield, Chairman. 

William Morrison, Fairmoum. 
John Preble, New Salem. 
Hardin Goodin, Martinsburg. 
A. J. Lovell, Pleasant Hill. 
William Grammar, Hadley. 
William Dustin, Atlas. 
James W. Burke, Derry. 
Calvin Davis, Barry. 
M. D. Massie, Pleasant Vale. 
John Clutch, Kinderhook. 

George W. Jones, 
Lewis Ham, Chambersburg. 
B. W. Flynn. Detroit. 
William T. Dugdell, Montezuma. 
G. W. Roberts, Pearl. 
Thomas Reynolds, Perry. 
Jan^es McWilliams. Griggsville. 
Strotber Grigsby, Newburg. 
Francis Frye, Hardin. 
David Hollis, Spring Creek. 
William Corey, Fairmount. 


Pittsfield, Chairman. 
John Preble, New Salem. 
William Fowler, Martinsburg. 
A. J. Lovell, Pleasant Hill. 
William Grammar, Hadley. 
J. W. Burke, Derry. 
William Dustin, Atlas. 
Calvin Davis, Barry. 
M. D. Massie, Pleasant Vale. 
John Clutch, Kinderhook. 

Lewis Ham 
David Pyle, Flint. 
B. W. Flynn, Detroit. 
Milton Grimes, Montezuma. 
George W. Roberts, Pearl. 
Thomas Reynolds, Perry. 
James McWilliams, Griggsville. 
P. H. Cooper, Newburg. 
Wright Hicks, Hardin. 
F. J . Halford, Spring Creek. 
William Corey, Fairmount. 


Pittsfield, Chairman. 

Addison Cadwell, New Salem. 
Lewis Dutton, Pittsfield. 
William Fowler, Martinsburg 
A. J. Lovell, Pleasant Hill. 
William Grammar, Hadley. 
Thomas H. Coley, Derry. 
Josiah Long, Atlas. 
John P. Grubb, Barry. 
John Horn, Pleasant Vale. 
John Clutch, Kinderhook. 

James H. Dennis, 
William Turnbull, Flint. 
WilliaiTi Douf^las, Detroit. 
A. J. Worcester, Montezuma. 
Andrew N. Hess, Pearl. 
Thomas Reynolds, Perry. 
James McWilliams, Gnggsville. 
Nathan Kelley, Newburg. 
Wright Hicks, Hardin. 
C. C. Melton, Spring Creek. 
William Corey, Fairmount. 


Chambersburg, Chairman. 

Addison Cadwell, New Salem 
Lewis Dutton, Pittsfield. 
Francis Fowler, Martinsburg 
A. J. Lovell, Pleasant HiU. 
William Grammar, Hadley. 
Maberry Evans, Derry. 
J. G. Adams, Atlas. 
Calvin Davis, Barry. 
.John B. Horn, Pleasant Vale. 
John Clutch, Kinderhook. 


William B. Grimes, Pittsfield, Chairman. 
J. L. Metz, Chambersburg. Addison Cadwell, New Salem. 

Austin Wade, Flint. Thomas Aiton, Martinsburg. 

Henry Moler, Detroit. A. J. Lovell, Pleasant Hill. 

A. J. 'Worcester, Montezuma. William Grammar, Hadley. 




D. W. Miller, Pearl. 
Thomas Reynolds, Perry. 
James McWilliams, Griggsville. 
J. H. Farriuglon, Ilardin. 
C. C. Melton, Spring Creek. 
R. B. McLaughlin, Fairraount. 

A. J. Worcester, 
J. L. Metz, Chamborsburg. 
Joseph Wilson, Flint. 
Henry .>.l()ler, Detroit. 
G. W. Roberts, Pearl. 
Z. Wade, Perry 
George Pratt, Griggsville. 
C. P. Chapman, Xevvbnrg. 
R. R. Pollock, Spring Creek. 
R. B. McLaughlin, Fairmount. 
Addison Cadwell, New Salem. 
Wm. B. Grimes, Pitisfield. 

Maberry Evans, Derry. 
J. G. Adams, Atlas. 
Alex. Wiiite, Barry. 
M. I). Massie, Pleasant Vale. 
William Ross, Newburg. 
R. M. Murray, Kinderhook. 


Montezuma, Chairman. 

Thomas Aitou, Martinsburg. 
A J. Lovell, Pleasant Hill. 
William Grammar, Hadley. 
]\Ial)erry Evans, Derry. 
Samuel Taylor, Atlas. 
W. F. White. Barry. 
H. M. Murray, K'nderhook. 
John W. Brammell, Pleasant Vale. 
J. n. Farrington, Hardin. 
F. .A.. Douglas, Levee. 

J. W. Burke, 
George Ham, Chambersburg. 
Joseph Wilson, Flint. 
David Sloner, Detroit. 
Charles E. Bolin Montezuma. 
A. N. Hess, Pearl. 
Z. Wade, Perry. 
George Pratt, Griggsville. 
C. P. Chapman, Newburg. 
Wright Hicks, Hardin. 
W. R. Wilson, Spring^ Creek. 
R. B. McLaughlin, Fairmount. 


Derry, Chnirman. 

Addison Cadwell, New Salem. 
Lewis Duttou, Piltsfield. 
William Fowler, Martinsburg. 
John S. LockwooQ, Pleasant Vale, 
William Grammar Hadley. 
Samuel Taylor, Atlas. 
W. F. White, Barry. 
F. L. Zernberg, Pleasant Hill. 
R. U. Murray, Kinderhook. 
Marcus Hardy, Levee. 

Calvin Davis, 
George Ham, Chambersburg. 
Joseph Wilson, Flint. 
W. T. Smith, Detroit. 
C. E. Bolin, Montezuma. 
G.W. Roberts, Pearl. 
J. W. Grimes, Perry, 
(reorge Pratt, Griggsville. 
C. P Ciiapman, Newburg. 
J. H. Griffin, Hardin 
M. W. Bogart, Spring Creek. 
Dele Elder, Fairmount. 


Barry, Ghainaan. 
John Preble, New Salem. 
Lewis Dutton, Pittsfield. 
P. H. Sullivan, Martinsburg. 
A. L. Galloway, Pleasant Hill. 
H. L. Hadsell, Hadley. 
T. H. Coley, Derry. 
Samuel Taylor, Atlas 
J S. Lockwood, Pleasant Vale. 
Samuel Clark, Kinderhook. 
Marcus Hardy, Levee. 


J, C. Newton, Chambersburg. 
David Pyle, Flint. 

B. W. Flynn, Detroit. 

N. D. McEvans, Montezuma. 

G. W. Robert?, Pearl. 

Z. Wade, Perry. 

George Pratt, Griggsville. 

C. P Chapman, Newburg. 
George Main, Hardin. 

C. C. Melton, Spring Creek. 
Dele Elder, Fairmount. 

Abel Dunham, New Salem. 

H. S. Lloyd, Pittsfield. 

P. H Sullivan, Martinsburg 

A. L. Galloway. Pleasant Hill. 

Orrin Campbell, Hadley. 

T. H. Coley, Derry. 

C. B. Dustin, Atlas. 

E. A. Crandall, Perry. 

M. D. MaSsie, Pleasant Vale. 

John Clutch, Kinderhook. 

Marcus Hardy, Levee. 


In November, 1830, 50 or 60 of the Sac and Fox tribes of Indians 
came down on a hnntini^ excursion and camped on Bay creek. 
These tribes at that time were living on Rock river in the northern 
part of the State, and wished once more to visit the scenes, of their 
former hnnting-gronnd. Some little trouble occurred between 
these Indians and tlie whites on account of. the disappearance ot 
hogs in the neighborhood. The settlers turned out and caught 
some of the red men, tied them up and administered to them severe 
flagellations with withes, and they immediately left the country, 
never, with one or two exceptions, to return in a body to Pike 
county. This episode comes as near to anything of a warlike na- 
ture, especially a hostile collision with the Indians, as any that we 
have any record of occuring in Pike county. 

In the fall of 1831 Black Hawk and his tribes appeared on Rock 
river, where they committed several petty depredations. The set- 
tlers of Rock River and vicinity petitioned Gov. Reynolds for aid, 
stating that "Last fall the Black Hawk band of Indians almost de- 
stroyed all of our crops, and made several attacks on the owners 
when they attempted to prevent their depredations, and wounded 
one man by actually stabbing him in several places. This spring 
they acted in a more outrageous and menacing manner." This pe- 
tition represented that there were 600 or YOO Indians among them: 
it was signed by 35 or 40 persons. Another petition sets forth that 
" The Indians pasture their horses in our wheat-fields, shoot our 
cows and cattle and threaten to burn our houses over our heads if 
we do not leave." Other statements place the Indians at not more 
than 300. 

According to these petitions. Gov. Reynolds in May. 1831, called 
for 700 mounted men. Beardstown was the designated place of 
rendezvous, and such were the sympathy and courage of the settlers 
that the number offering themselves was nearly three times the num- 
ber called out. They left Rushville for Rock Island June 15, 1831 ; 
and on the 30th of the same month, in a council held for the pur- 
pose, Black Hawk and 27 chiefs and warriors on one part, and Gen. 
Edmund P. Gaines, of the U. S. army, and John Reynolds, Gov- 


ernor of Illinois, on the other part, signed a treaty of peace and 
friendship. This capitulation bound the Indians to ^o and remain 
west of the Mississippi river. 

In April, 1S32, in direct violation of the treaty above referred to, 
Blcick Hawk, with some 500 followers, appeared again upon the scene 
of action, and fear and excitement spread through the length and 
breadth of the State, To again drive them from the State, Gov. 
Reynolds called on the Militia April 16, 1832. 


No sooner had volunteers been called for than every county and 
settlement throughout this portion of the State promptly responded. 
Nowhere, however, was such alacrity shown in answering the 
call as in Pike county. The hearts of the sturdy pioneers were 
easily touched by the stories of depredations by the Indians. These 
stories were doubtless greatly exaggerated, yet tlie frontiersmen 
wlio knew the subtlety and treachery of the red men well knew 
they could not be trusted; and almost any crime was expected of 

Col. Wm. Ross, then Captain of the Pike County Militia Com- 
pany, received word from the Governor on P"'riday, the 20th, and 
he immediately issued the following : 

" Company Orders. — The volunteer company of Pike county will meet at Atlas, 
on Monday, the 23cl inst., ready to take up their march by sun-rise, except such 
part of the company as are living on the east side of said county, which part will 
meet the company atthe house of William Henman, about four miles this side of 
Phillip's Ferry, on the same day, all with a good horse, and rifle, powder-horn, 
half pound of powder, and one hundred balls, with three days' provisions. The 
commanding officer of said company flatters himself that every man will be 
prompt to his duty. 

[Signed,] " W. Ross, Capt. 1st Rifles, Pike Co. 

"April, 1832." 

The Captain then called upon Benj. Barney at his blacksmith 
shop and told him of the nature of the order he had received, and 
for him to forthwith mount a horse and start out to notify the set- 
tlers to assemble immediately. Mr. Barney was engaged at his 
forge at the time, making a plow ; but he straightway laid down 
hammer and tongs, untied his leathern apron, left his lire to 
smolder and die, and started immediately upon his mission. He 
first went to a man at the mouth of Blue creek ; from thence he 
made a circuit of the county, uppea,ling to all to assemble at Atlas 
without delay. He tells us that alinot^t all of tliem left their work 
and started immediately. 

The men having assembled at Atlas, the martial band began to 
discourse lively music to stir the patriotism of the militia-men 
to a high pitch so that they would enlist for the service. The 
music did not seem to "enthuse" them with as great a desire to 
enlist as their leaders had anticipated. Something more potent 
must be had; so two buckets of whisky were summoned to their 


aiM; tfe,^ m^n were for^i^d in two lines facing each otlier, and wide 
enough apart to adinlt of two men walking up and down the line 
between them. Capt. Ross and Lieut. Seeley started down the Kne, 
each with a bucket of liquor; two boys followed with water, and 
then came the music. It was understood that those who would 
fall in after the music would enlist for service. By tlie time the 
third round was made 100 men were in line, which was even more 
than the quota of this county under that call. Wn). Ross was 
elected Captain and Benj, Barney, 1st Lieutenant. The company 
adjourned to meet at Griggsville on the followitig day at 10 o'clock 
A. M. The men went to their homes in various parts of the county 
to notify their families of their enlistment and to make slight 
preparations for their journey. We are told that with four or live 
exceptions, and those lived along the Illinois river, every man was 
at Griggsville by sunrise on the day appointed. 

The company then started for Beardstown, the place of rendez- 
vous for the troops in this part of the State. The Illinois river 
was very high and much difficulty was experienced in crossing it. 
The ferry would carry but six horses at a time ; and while waiting 
for transportation the horses stood in mud up to their knees. It 
was a gloomy time and they had no liquor with which to cheer up 
the new volunteers. Capt. Ross was among the first to cross over, 
while Lieut. Barney remained with the men upon the western hank. 
Great dissatisfaction was being manifested by the men under Lieut. 
Barney, who were waiting in the mud and water to cross the river, 
all of whom did not get over until 11 o'clock that night. Lieut. 
Barney sent word to Capt. Ross to forward liim a jug of whisky. 
This was done ; a fire was built, striking it by the flint locks of 
their guns; the whisky was distributed, and once more the troops 
were in good spirits and ready for any hardship. 

The Pike county troops arrived at Beardstown the next day, be- 
ing the first company to reach that point. Tiie Governor and some 
of the leading officers were already there. It was found that the 
Pike county company was too large; it accordingly was divided 
and formed into two companies. Lieut. Barney was chosen Cap- 
tain of one of these, and Joseph Petty, Captain of the other. 
James Ross was elected 1st Lieutenant of Capt. Petty 's company, 
and a Mr. Allen, of Capt. Barney's company. Capt. Koss was 
chosen Colonel and aid of the cornmanding General. It was he 
who appointed Abraham Lincoln, onr martyr President, to the 
Captaincy of one of the Sangamon ounty companies in this war. 

The troops marched from Be;irclstown to Rock Island, where 
they were mustered into the United States service by Gen.Zachary 
Taylor. At Fort Armstrong, which was at that point, there were 
then only abont 50 United States troops. The Pike county volun- 
teers, with others, then marched np toward Dixon on Rock river, 
the course the Indians had taken. They followed them for some 
days, but did not overtake them or encounter them in any engage- 
ment. During the entire campaign the Pike county troops did 


not meet the i'oii in battle anav; not a leaden ball was shot at any 
of the^e men during the 50 days they were out. During this time 
they iar. short ot provisions, and sent to Chicago, but in that pres- 
ent ^reat city, where millions ot" hogs are slaughtered annuallj'and 
the greatest grain market in the world exists, they could not get a 
barrel of ]>ork or of flour. The Pike county volunteers then went 
to Ottawa and shared with some troops at that point. They ob- 
tained rations enough there- to last them about three days, wlieii 
they marched on down the river to the rapids, where there was a 
boat filled with United States provisions. There they drew rations 
for their homeward march. . Capt. Barney drew seven days' rations 
for his men, but Capt. Petty thought they would get hon'iein three 
or four days, so only drew four days' rations, much to the regret of 
the hungry stomachs of his men, as it took them longer to get 
home than he had anticipated. The privates of this call received 
$8 a month, and were paid off that fail by United States agents, 
who came to Atlas. 


While iu the northern part of the State four regiments of troops 
camped together, among whom were the men from this county. 
They formed a hollow square, upon the inside of which were the 
officers' tencs. The horses, about 1,000 in number, were guarded 
in a corral outside of the square. In the dead hour of night, when 
not a light remained burning, and the slow tread of the faithful 
sentinel was the only sound that broke the silence, the horses 
became frightened and stampeded. In tlie wildest rage they dashed 
forward, whither they knew not ; they headed toward the camp of 
slumbering soldiers, and in all the mad fury of frightened brutes 
they dashed forward over cannon, tents and men, wounding several 
of the latter quite severely. The troops heard their coming and 
supposed each wild steed was ridden by a wilder and less humane 
red-skin ; the treacherous and subtle toe was momentarily expected 
and the frightened men thought they were now coming down uj)on 
then). They had all heard of the night attack upon the rangers at 
the famous battle of Tippecanoe, and feared a rej)etition of that 
night's bloody work. Capt. Barney, with quickness of thought and 
military skill, in a loud voice gave orders for his men to form at 
the rear of their tents. He hallooed lustily, and when he went \ip 
and down the line feeling his way he found every man in his place. 
The commanding officers hearing the Captain's orders and knowing 
there would be safety with his company if anywhere, ran to him. 
Fortunately the horses were riderless, which was soon discovered, 
and then the frightened men began joking. Col. De Witt joked 
Capt. Barney considerably about his hallooing so loud, when Gen. 
Taylor spoke up and said he was glad the Captain was so prompt 
to give orders for his men to form, as it showed a soldierly disposi- 
tion ; besides, it let him know where he might go for safety. 

A third company subsequently went from Pike county under 


Capt. Hale and Lieut. David Seeley : about 50 men composed this 
company of mounted riflemen. Tiiey enlisted for three months 
and participated in the famous battle of Bad-Ax. 

The people of this county were not disturbed by the Indians at 
this time, but so timid were they that they were easily frightened. 
The following incident is related by Samuel Clark, of Kinder- 
hook township. In 1832, during the Black Hawk war, a man 
while passing a neighbor's house heard the cries of a child who was 
in the house. He supposed the Indians were within committing 
their foul deeds, and accordingly raised the alarm that the Indians 
were there murdering all the members of the family, and every- 
body who came that way. This created the greatest consternation 
in the settlement, for the people had heard of the bloody deeds 
committed npon the settlers in the northern part of the .State. 
The settlers fled for safety. Some went to the fort, others ran 
hither and thither they knew not where. One very large fleshy 
woman mounted a horse and rode in the direction of the fort at full* 
speed. She came to a ditch about ten feet wide and as many feet 
deep; the horse halted, but she urged him to jump, which he did 
at great peril, but foi-tunately landed safely on the opposite side. 
After the people had become quite exhausted with running they 
learned that no Indians were Tiear, but that the yells came from the 
child because his father was chastisine: it. 



Since the two Indians, Shoiiweimekek andPeniesan, were indicted 
'for raurder, there have been 41 other indictments for this grave 
crime returned by the grand juries of Pike county, many of which 
included more than one individual. This represcMts a long and 
bloody calendar, a stain that every good citizen would have bhjtted 
out were it possible. It has been made by the blond of many vic- 
tims, dyed in crimson never to be erased, and we only lecord what 
has occurred. Who can picture the agony of heart, the remorse, 
the anguish of mind, to say nothing of the physical pains caused 
by these bloody deeds ? Both the victim and his friends, as well as 
the ]ierpetrator of the crime, have suffered untold misery. 

Often has the deadly weapon been brought into use on the slight- 
est ])retext. A moment after he had triken the life of his victim 
and he had realized that his hands were stained with tlie life-blood 
of a fellow man, the perpetrator of the deed would have given every- 
thing he possessed or ever hoped for, and in some cases life itself, 
could he but recall the deed; but alas ! it is done, never to be 
undone. The feeling has not been thus in every instance where 
the bloody victim fell at the feet of the man-slayer, but frequently 
so. Sometimes the joy was great when he who sent the deadly 
messenger saw its work well done. 

Among this long catalogue of criminals only one has ever suffer- 
ed tlie extreme penalty of the law, and most of them have had light 
punishment. We begin with the first ])erson indicted for murder, 
and give every indictment during the county's existence. There 
are a multitude of cases of murder or manslaughter of which we 
make no mention, as no indictments were made for want of suffi- 
cient evidence. 

Pemesan and Shonwennekek. 
(Two Indians.) 

These Indians were indicted Oct. 2, 1821, at the very first terra 
of Court held in Pike county, for the murder of a P>enchman. The 


evidence sliowing, however, that the shooting of the deceased was 
more an act wf carelessness tlian of premeditated murder, the 
next morning the jury returned a verdict for manslaughter on the 
part of Pemesan, or " Traveler," and that Slionwennekek, or " Spice- 
bush," was not guilty. The Court had assigned Daniel P. Cook 
and Polemon II. Winchester as counsel for the Indians, and John 
Shaw and Jean Baptist Patelle were the sworn interpreters. No 
attorney for the people appears on record, but of course there must 
have been such an officer present. It appears that these Indians 
were out hunting one dajf, and when the Frenchman suddenly ap- 
peared in view in the distance they took him to be a deer or some 
other animal, and Pemesan immediately lired and killed him. No 
sooner was this done than they discovered their mistake, and Slion- 
wennekek proposed that they run away; but Pemesan argued that 
as it was an accident the whites would do them no harm. There- 
upon they immediately surrendered themselves to a magistrate. 
Pemesan's punishment was a fine of 25 cents and imprisonment 
for, 24 hours. He accordingly paid the fine and served out his sen- 
tence in a rail pen which was guarded for the occasion. 

Charles Collins, James Whitly, Alfred Miller and James 

These parties were indicted for murder May, 2, 1843, but after 
their case was continued from term to term with hopes of arresting 
them, they were never found. 

Winship Moreton 

was indicted Sept. 10, 1841, but the following April his case 
was stricken from the docket. 

John Bartholomew, et at. 

were indicted April 5, 1848, for the murder of John Crewson, 
or Cruson, near the Mississippi river a few days preceding (March 
29 ), while the latter was hauling a log for the rafting. He was 
shot beside his team. The others indicted with Bartholomew were 
Benj. Chouls and John Stipp. The two latter took a change of 
venue to Adams county, where a nolle prosequi was entered April 
2, 1849. Bartholomew's case was continued from term to terra 
until Sept, 12, 1853, when it was stricken from the docket. 

John McGayre 

was indicted Sept. 5, 1849, for the murder of Wm. Bennett near 
Phillip's Ferry, Sept. 1, preceding. That day McGuyre went to 
the house of Mr. Pease where Mr. Bennett was and urged him to 
go gunning, but which, by the solicitation of Mr. Pease, he declined 
doing. McGuyre left and returned about sun-down, when Pease and 
Bennett were eating their supper, who invited him to partake ; he 


I'efnsed, sayin<T, "G — d d — ii }'ouI 1 am tired waitiuf;^ fur you and 
am iJ^oiiig to shoot you now." lie immediately tired a load of buck- 
shot, which struck Bennett in the face, killing him. McGuyre 
I'ommenced reloading his gun with the dechired intention of kill- 
ing Pease, but the latter made his esca})e and raised the alarm. 
McGuyre ran away but was arrested on the 6th and taken before 
the Circuit Court then in session, and at first pleaded guilty ; but 
after the consequence of such a plea was explained to him, he ])leailed 
not guilty, and for want of time his case was continued to the 
next term of Court. McGuyre broke jail twice: the first time he 
was caught at McGee's creek, in ciossing which he came veiy 
near being drowned, and the second time he got out tlirough the 
wall, a stone having been removed by the aid of friends outside. 
This was effected without awaking a family which was asleep di- 
rectly above. He has never been re-taken, and his case was finally 
stricken from the docket with leave to reinstate. 

George Kesterson 

was indictea for murder March 29, 1851, but for some reason was 
never brought to trial. 

Fhillp Wilcoiv 

was indicted Oct. 11, 1851, and he also was never tried. 

Preston, F . Groves 

was indicted March 23. 1853, for the murder of Robert Carr, about 
5 miles east of Pittsfield. Both these parties were married men 
and frequented a house of ill repute. Groves was tried and acquit- 
ted March 28, 1853. 

Jonathan W. Uutclilnson. 

This man was indicted Nov. 27, 1854, ior killing Francis l'- 
Wells in Brown county. A change of venue had been taken from 
that county, his case was tried at Pittsfield, and after the jury was 
out several days it brought in a verdict of not guilty, Sept. 18, 


Ibujh W. ^Vven 

was indicted Sept. 14, 1855, for manslaughter ; about a fortnight 
afterward his bail was tbrfeited by his escape and his case was 
never brought to trial. 

James Daniels 

was accused of killing Newton Soules in Calhoun county in a 
saloon. Soules had burned his hair previously. Daniels was in- 
dicted in the Pike county Court Sept. 12, 1856 ; but Aug. 5, 1859, 
bis case was discontinued. 


Stephen Cole et. al. 

were, accordincr to the record, indicted for murder March D, 1857. 
In this suit it seems that no parties were ever brought to trial. 

Robert Ellis. 

This criminal was indicted April 14, 1860, lor the murder of 
Benj. F. Wade, Dec. 23 preceding, a little west uf J)etroit. Wade 
broke Ellis' whisky bottle and a quarrel ensued which resulted in 
the fatal affray in the yard of Fi-ancis Phillips. Ellis stabbed 
Wade with a large pocket-knife. Ellis pleaded not guilty but was 
convicted of manslaughter Nov. 24, 18G0, and sentenced to one year 
in the penitentiar}-. 

Edwin C. Hendrick. 

This party was indicted Aug. 10, 1860, for poisoning to death 
Emeline Amanda Hendrick. He pleaded not guilty, was tried, 
and, after the jury had two days' consultation, he was acquitted. 

James Likes, Simon Likes, Lyman Likes, Philip Ifeal, Christo- 
pher Neal and Win. Bothwick. 

The indictment in this case, Nov. 23, 18G0, was for the murder 
of Samuel Macumber, an innocent man about 65 years of age, 
living in Barry township, and who was killed Oct. 23, 1860. The 
parties set upon their victim in cold blood and killed him with 
clubs and stones. Macumber was a Baptist minister, who had 
married the mother of the Neals, and it was alleged that he mal- 
treated her in some way. After trial all the indicted parties were 
acquitted Dec. 8,1860, except Christopher Neal, who was convicted 
of manslaughter and sentenced for life, and James Likes was 
acquitted the next term of Coui-t. 

Thom^as Johnson, Fielding Johnson.. John Ilopkins., Andrew J. 
Winso7\ Mary Pearson, J alia Bell, Aug eline Bell and Hampton 

These parties were indicted during the spring term of Court in 
1863, for the murder of Andrew J .^ Pearson, in Flint township. 
The victim, a farmer, was found murdered by hanging, and robbed. 
November 18, 1862, Pearson started from his house in search of 
some of his stock. Night came on and he did not return. Suspicion 
was aroused, inquiries and search were made, and finally his body 
was found in a ravine, a half mile from home, covered up with 
leaves, brush, etc. : two hundred dollars in money had been taken 
from his person. The robbers also went to his house, and, finding 
no one at home, they entered it and took about seventy dollars more, 
which they found in a bureau. They then took a good horse and 
decamped. Of the above i^arties, some were directly accused by the 


iiulictineiit, some iin]>leaded with them, ai>d scvei-iiiices were ob- 
tained. S )me of them were desperadoes from Arissouri ; some of 
the parties took a change of venue to Brown countv. The result 
of tlie whole prosecution was, that Thomas Johnson and John IIoj)- 
kins were convicted of manslaughter April 27, 1803, and sentenced 
for life; Fielding Johnson was convicted of the same and sentenced 
for 20 years, and the rest were discharged. 

During the trial the guilty criminals pleaded guilty of man- 
slaughter, confessing as follows: They lived in ]\[issouri, M'cre 
rebels in Porter's army, which subse(juently disbanded. They worked 
several days for a neighbor of Pearson's named Dimmitt, and sj)ent 
several evenings at Mr. Pearson's house. This man and his wife, 
Mary (impleaded above), frequently quarreled. T!>e night previous 
to the murder they had an unusually wicked altercation, after wiiich 
Mrs. P. went into a fit. After coming out ""slie told the accused 
tliat if they would kill Pearson slie would give them a liorse. The 
girls, Julia and Angeline Bell, her daughters by a fijrmer husband, 
also expressed the wish that they should kill him. The next morn- 
ing they invited Pearson out for a walk and told him they were 
going to hang liim. He said lie did not blame them. Two of them 
held him up while the ot'.ier adjusted the rope. He did not resist nor 
struggle. After he was dead they took sixty dollars from his pocket, 
carried it to the house and reported wliat they had done. All were 
rejoiced and gave the prisoners ten dollars apiece. Mrs. Pearson 
gave them a horse, asking them not to betray her, and they started 
for Missouri. The daughters asked for and received a lock of their 
hair for mementoes, and a parting kiss. 

The 3'onng men were not over twenty years of age, did not look 
like criminals, and were said to be respectfully connected. 

John W. Parks a7id Henry C. Price. 

Tliese parties were indicted Apr. 18, 1864, for the murder of Peter 
C. Staats, an old settler of Hadley t(3wnship, on the road between 
ISIew Salem and Maysville. Staats was twice shot in the back, one 
ball coming out at the breast. The accused took a change of venue 
to Adams county and were finally acquitted. 

George Crou\ alias Roselh., 

was indicted April 19. 1864, for the murder of a Mr. Gard. 
May 21, following, he broke jail, and the shooting necessary to his 
capture June 11, in Greene county, resulted in his death the next 
day in jail. 

Austin and Abraham Stevens 

were, according to the records, indicted April 19, 1864, for murder, 
but it appears that there was never any trial of the ease. 


W/n. W. Moore and J. S. Wifsoii 

were indicted the same day for being accessor}' after the fact of the 
murder. They moved their case to Brown county, and from the 
evidence elicited it appears that yoimg Mooi-e, only sixteen years 
of age, had killed John Ziff, living near Pittstiold. Mr. Moore's 
father and Ziff had a dispute about some wood which Moore had 
been cutting on land which Ziff claimed and which Moore had 
rented. Ziff struck Moore with an ax, knocking him down and 
then stamping upon him.-- Tlie lad seeing his fatiier in this condi- 
tion, ran up and struck Ziff a blow upon the top of his head with 
the edge of an ax, thus literally cleaving his head clear to his 

Samuel Evayis and Matthew GUme7\ Gilmore.or Oilman- 

These men were indicted Nov. 29, 186Jt, for killing Cornelius 
Myers, Evans being a resident of Montezuma. They broke jail, and 
after several months Evans was recaptured in Tennessee. He took a 
change of venue to Brown county, where he was convicted of man- 
slaughter and sentenced for twelve years in the State prison. There 
he became insane, and after his release he stole a horse, was ar- 
rested, and while in jail his insanity became so marked that he was 
finally sent to the asylum at Jacksonville. 

Chan. Brummell or Brumhle, etc. 

This rascal, whose name was spelled half a dozen different ways, 
was indicted March 15, 1866, for the murder of Edward Garrison, 
of New Canton. The fatal deed was perpetrated by stabbing the 
victim with a pocket-knife. Sept. 19, 1867, he was convicted of 
the charge and sentenced to State prison for three years. 

Name not Given. 

Although not strictly within the purview of this chapter, we may 
mention here, as the parties were both residents of Griggsville, this 
county, that Dr. J. II. Caldwell, of that place, went to Texas in May 
or June, 1868, employing a young man to accompany him, who, on 
the 24th of June, murdered and robbed the doctor, but was sum- 
marily lynched by the infuriated people when the deed occurred. 

Mg Wright Murray 

was indicted for murder in 1S69, but the ca.-e was ultimately 
stricken from the docket. 

Joseph Daul and Anthony Scheinrr. 

These criminals were indicted April 20, 1869, for committing 
murder in Brown county, as the result of an affray connected with 
the burning of show tents at Mount Sterling. A change of venue 


was taken to Pike county, and after a two days' trial the chaps were 
sentenced to 15 years' hard labor. 

Cfqit. irw. //. Sf<nit. 

This man was indicted April <>, 1871. charged with the murder 
of a Mr. Kimball, at Cockle-bur slough, the preceding year. By 
change of venue his case was taken to the Brown comity Court. 

Samuil DoiKjlcs 

was the homicide who beat ro dfatli James Sapp, June 12, 1871, 
near Pleasant Hill. At the lirst beating he left Mr. Sapp lying 
prostrate, and induced a Mr. McKenna to accompany him to the 
place, who tried to lift him up, when Douglas gave the poor vic- 
tim several additional bk»ws, from which he died a few days after- 
ward. Douglas and McKeniui were both arrested, but the latter 
was dismissed for want of evidence against him. Douglas was iield 
for manslaughter, the indictment being made Oct. 12, 1871. He 
was convicted and sentenced Nov. 29, 1871, for six and a half years 
in the i»enirentiary. 

John Shannahan. 

Sept. 16, 1871, in Pleasant Yale township, Wm. Hall claimed 
that Shannahan had said something mean about him, and proceeded 
to assault him with a club. The latter warded off the blow, snatched 
the club from Hall, who then started to run away; Shannahan, 
however, soon overtook him, struck him on the head with the club, 
knocking him over into a gully senseless, and Shannahan tumbling 
down with him. Hall's ankle was broken in the fall, and he died 
soon afterward. Shannahan was arrested and committed to jail, 
where he suffered from a feeble constitution and a diseased leg, 
which had to be am})utated. He was indicted l)y the grand jury, 
Oct. 12. 1871, but he died before the trial took place. 

Bartholomew Barnes. 

The only execution ever taking place in Pike county was that of 
Bartholomew Barnes, Dec. 20, 1871. in the Pittsheld jail-yard, for 
the murder of John Gresham in Calhoun cj)unt3'. The suit was 
first instituted in that county, and a change of venue being taken 
to this county, the case was called at the session of the Pike 
county Circuit Court Nov. 27, 1871; and after a thorough trial the 
traverse jury returned a verdict of guilty of murder in the tirst de- 
gree, and that he should suffer death by hanging. The particulars 
of the murder are well condensed in Judge Higbee's sentence given 
Dec. 6, as below. The court-house was crowded to overflowing 
with ladies and gentlemen to hear the sentence of death pronounced 
upon the young convict. At 10|- a. m. he was brought in to re- 
ceive his sentence. Death-like stillness reigned within the room, 


as the Judge, in a soleiiiii and iinjjressive maniier, addressed him, 
broken only by the prisoner, who, standini; with brazen effrontery, 
gave vent occasionally to protests (jf innocence. Tiie Judii^e said: 

"In discharging the unpleasant duty required of nie by the law, 
it seems proper that T shoidd ph'ce on the tiles of this Court a brief 
statement of the facts and proofs which render it the duty of the 
Court to pronounce a judgment wliich is to deprive a human being 
of his life. 

" By the record in this case it appears that you were indicted at 
the May term of the Callibun Circuit Court, 1871, for the murder 
of John Gresham, and the case was bi'ought here on a ciiange of 
venue for trial; that there is no prejudice in this county which 
would injuriously affect your rights is sufHciently manifest by the 
fact that the crime for which you have been tried was committed 
in another county; and of the twelve jurors selected for your trial 
every one has stated under oath that he never heard of the case un- 
til called into the jury box. 

"From the evidence it appears that somewhere about the first 
of February last, for some cause (which is not apparent) j'on 
became very much enraged acrainst the deceased in the town of Pleas- 
ant Hill and threatened to whip him. When told by the town con- 
stable that that would not be permitted and that he would arrest 
you if you did not keep quiet, you said that _you would see the de- 
ceased at same other time and tear his heart out. On the 27th day 
of February the deceased, his son (15 years of age) and yourself, 
were in Clarksville, Mo., and crossed the river on your return in 
the a/ternbon in the same boat, the deceased and his son within a 
wagon; and after the boat landed, as they were leaving the river 
for home, you asked the privilege of riding with them, to which 
the boy objected, his father being quite drunk at the time. You 
then said to them that if they would let you ride you would be 
quiet and peaceable; whereupon the deceased consented, and you 
got into the wagon and seated yourself on a Ix^ard beside the 
deceased, the boy standing up in front driving. You had gone 
but a short distance when some words passed, but no blows or 
attempts to strike ensued, and you jumped out, saying, 'You 

d d old son of a bitch!' At the time you jumped out the 

board on which the deceased was sitting tipped up and he fell 
out on the other side on his back near the wagon and near to a fence. 
You ran back to the wagon aiid to where the deceased lay, and 
turning your back to the fence, you seized the rails with which to 
steady yourself, and with the deceased still lying on his back im- 
mediately in front of you, with the heel of your boot you stamped 
his face, head and breast until you killed him. The evidence shows 
that in this brutal manner, and when the deceased was lying on 
his back perfectly helpless, in the ])resence of his son and another 
witness who was near by, you stamped from eight to ten times, 
breaking bis nose, cheek-bone and jaw, and crushing out one eye, 
and forced the heel of your boot through his skull into his brain 


more than an inch in depth, and so crushed and distiu^iired his face 
that it could not 1)3 recognize) i by Dv. Thomas, who had lived a 
near neiglihor to deceased for 20 years. 

?'" Wiiile engaged in this work of death, Mr. Oyler, who was a 
short distance off and saw it all, hallooed and started to run to you. 
On seeing liim you jumped over the fence and started to run. You 
were pursued and captured in a few minutes, and blood was found 
all over tiie heel of your boot, with hair and whiskers still atlhering 
to it. Soon afterward you, declared that you had not seen deceased 
on that day. 

'•In answer to all tiiis proof you })roduced a single witness, your 
brother, who testified that in the fall of 1869 deceased made some 
threats against you, which, so far as the evidence shows, he never 
attempted to execute. Beyond this you offer no explanation or 
justification of this dreadful crime. 

'• Upon this proof the jury have found you gnilty of murder, and 
their verdict declares that j'ou shall suffer death by hanging. You 
have been well defended by able attorneys, fairly tried, and, as it 
seems to me, properly convicted; and it only remains now for the 
Court to pronounce the judgment of the law, which is, to deprive 
you of your life. Unpleasant as this duty is, I am not at liberty 
"to shrink from it. You have deprived John Gresham of his life by 
a foul and brutal murder, and the law demands your life as the pen- 
alty. As the time which can be extended to you to prepare to 
meet this dreadful punishment is limited by law, let me admonish 
yon not to spend it in vain efforts to arrest your doom, but rather 
devote every moment of the time allotted you to prepare for the 
final trial wiierein injustice is never done and where all must 
answer for every act of his life. It is^the order of this Court, Bar- 
tholomew Barnes, that you be taken from here to the county jail of 
this county and tliere confined until Friday, the twentv-nintli day 
of December, 1871, and that between the hours of 10 o'clock a. m. 
and 3. p. m. of said day, in said jail, and in the presence of the wit- 
nesses required by law, hanged by the neck until you are dead." 

We talvC the following account of the execution from the Old 
Flag of Jan. 4. 1872: 

'•The dreadful day having arrived, a large crowd gathered around 
the jail, which iiicreased constantly as the hour of execution ap- 
proaclied. There was no disturbance, however, the anxiety of sus- 
pense seeming to pervade the throng and kee]) them quiet, and 
waiting almost with suspended breath until the tragedy was over. 
The execution was delayed until ai'ternoon in order to give the 
prisoner all the time possible. About half past one, or later, in 
company with the pliysicians, the jury and others, we were admitted 
to the Sheriff's room and waited the last pre]>arations for the final 
scene. The leave-taking of the brother and s'ster and relatives of 
the ]n-isoner we did not witness. At about a quarter past two the 
great iron door leading from the Sheriff's room into the hall of the 
jail was unbarred, and those in waiting entered the hall and took 



places in front of the scaffold and waited with uncovered heads the 
appearance of the prisoner. We need hardly tell our readers there 
was stillness in that company and that all sound was hushed ex- 
cept the lono;-drawn breathings of men who knew they stood in 
the chamber of Death, that a living mortal man was soon to be his 
victim, and that a fellow being was within a few moments of eternity 
and judgment. There was the scaffold, rather a rough-looking 
structure, and of larger dimensions than we had expected to see; 
above it, from a pulley fastened to a beam, hung a rope apparently 
about half an inch in thickness, with knot and noose on the end 
of it. 

" As we stood there contemplating the scene, and held our watch 
to note the time, some few remarks were made in a whisper and 
several times a reporter asked us, ' What time is it now ?* Seven- 
teen minutes past two, eighteen minutes, nineteen minutes, each 
elapsing minute increasing the anxiety of suspense and expectation; 
twenty minutes, and the Sheriff and prisoner, accompanied with 
deputies and ministers, appeared on the corridor and descended 
one flight of steps and ascended the other which led to the scaffold. 
The prisoner was pale from long confinement, but we could not 
say that he flinched or quailed at the sight of the gallows or when 
standing on the platform. When his eyes first caught sight of 
scaffold and rope there was an expression of surprise which was* 
momentary, and that was all. He was well dressed in a black suit' 
with a tine shirt, white stockings and slippers, and looked like a 
gentleman. He was told to be seated on a seat of boards that had 
been prepared, which he did. Revs. Priestly and Johnsey, Methodist 
preachers, sitting on each side of him. They sat only for a moment 
when deputy Landrum told him to stand up, which he did. They 
both stood close to the grated window when the death warrant was 
read to him by Mr. Landrum distinctly, but with evident emotion, 
and was heard by the prisoner attentively, but without any mani- 
festations whatever. When the reading was over and Mr. Landrum 
had folded the paper, ' Let us pray ' was announced, and a prayer 
was pronounced by Rev. Mr. Johnsey, which to our ear was some- 
what peculiar if not poetical, the prisoner all the while uttering 
fervid ejacnlatiotis, such as, 'O Lord, have mercy on my soul!' 
On rising from his knees after the prayer he deliberately stepped 
forward, and taking the rope in his right hand, passed the noose 
into his left and seemed to take a careful look at it. He was then 
told, if he had any thing to say, to say it now. He hesitated a 
moment as if not fully comprehending what was meant; but upon 
being told a second time, he said, 'Well, I say that I believe all 
my sins have been pardoned; and I thank the jailor for his kindness 
to me, and I hope that no one will ever again be hung.' He was 
then told to take farewell of all; and having shaken hands with the 
ministers, Sheriff and attendants, he asked leave to pray once him- 
self, and was told to do so, when, kneeling down with his face 
toward the window in the west, he said, as we understood, ' O Lord, 


336 llI^TOKV (>V I'lKK Cor.NTY. 

I pray thee to forgive my sins, to save my suul ami take ine to 
lieaven,' repeating the petitions, as we t'louglit, twice or more. 
He then arose and stepi)e(l forward on the tra}), and the rope was 
put over his head and adjusted about his neck, and the l>hvck cap 
drawn over liis face, his lia uls and feet having been previously tied, 
he all the while i)rayinir. 'O Lord, sa\e my soul." 

"This was the most solemn and anxious moment of the execution, 
botli to the doomed man and to the sj)ectators. There stood a 
man on the immediate conlines of two worlds, just ready to step 
into eternity and know the gi'and secret; only one moment more 
to live in this life. 

" The cap was drawn over his I'aee at tv/enty-five minutes past two; 
the elapsing seconds now seemed as long as minutes; the Sheriff 
and an attendant wcw the last to come down from the steps. The 
fatal lever which should S])riiig the trap M^as at the bottom, con- 
cealed by a piece of cari^et. ' What time is it now?' said the re- 
porter to us. Twenty-five minutes and iifteen seconds past two, 
and quick as a flash the man who was standing on the scaffold and 
still saying, ' O Lord, save my soul,' dropped till his head hung 
more than six inches below. There was tio noise more than the 
sudden tightening of the cord with a heavy weight would occasion. 
A trap door swung into a niche pre]\ared to receive it and remained 
there. The rope had been perfectly tested and did not stretch the 
least. The fall was more than six feet. His neck had been instantly 
broken and all ])ain was over. The victim did not struggle at all. 
At the end of the first minute there was a slight motion of the feet 
and limbs, swaying slightly, which was continued until after the 
end of the second minute, and evidently caused by muscular con- 
traction. At the end of three and a half minutes there was one 
violent and last contraction of muscle; shoulders heaved and the 
whole body was lilted up, and then rela))sed and hung motionless; 
at the end of twenty minutes the doctors pronounced Barnes dead, 
and at the end of twenty-five minutes the body was cut down and 
laid out, while a further examination was made by the doctors, who 
pi-onouneed his neck broken and his life to be extinct; at the end 
of thirty minutes from the time of the dvop and within about five 
minutes of 3 o'clock he was placed in a coffin and at once carried 
out and delivered to his relatives to be taken to Pleasant Hill for 

The preparations for the hanging had l)een very complete, and 
thei-e was not a single mistake or slightest failure in any particular; 
and Sherifi' McFarlaiid deserves praise for the manner in which he 
bore himself and ]ierformed his melanciioly duties. 

Barnes made a "confession '' in which h(( insisted to the last that 
he did not mo;ui to kill Gi-esham, and claimed that lie was drnidc 
and did not know what he was about. The wai-rant was printed it 
a very large phiin hand by the pen of doctor J, J. Topliff, who was 
Circuit Cleric at the time. 

Illt^T.'KY OF riKK COlNn. 337 

,/(.'//// Barnes, 

cousin of the ]M-ecedini(, \v;is iiulicted Nov. -29, 1S71, for the murder 
of McLano^hlin, in DetVuit, on the sixteontli of that month. The 
name of the murdered man was ascertained only by its beincr 
marked on liis arm with India ink. Both the men had been in a 
saloon drinking and had had a (juurrel about a red ball. McLaugli- 
lin shook his list in Barnes' face and told him not to open his face 
again about it. He turned around, and when his eyes were averted 
Barnes jumped to his feet having a knife in his liand which he swung 
with great force, the bhide striking McLaughlin's face and neck, sev- 
ering the jugular vein and windpipe and completely cutting his 
throat. Barnes then made a back stroke which missed McLaughlin, 
who then staggered into a back room and fell dead. Barnes was 
immediately arrested and committed to the Pittsfield, jail where, 
sometime after his indictment, he gradually wasted away with pul- 
monary consumption and died. 

Jack Connor, alias Win. C. Walton, and Chas. Berry ^ 

were indicted in the Pike Circuit Court Oct. 18, 1872, for man- 
slaughter. April n, 1873, Connor was acquitted and Berry was 
convictc'l and sentenced for one year. 

Pttcr B. Ford. 

On the night of May 3, 1872, George Dellaven, of Barry, was 
killed on a shebang boat just above Florence, by Peter B. Ford. 
Two disreputable women and two or three low-lived men .were on 
board. '• Tack," Henry Schafi'uer and DeHaven came on the boat, 
which was owned by the Fords. After drinking awhile Tack 
hauled open his coat and declared he was the best man on board, and 
attacked Elisha N. Ford. At the same time DeHaven sprang at 
Peter Ford with brass knuckles on one hand and a cocked revolver 
in the other, pointed at Peter's breast. Peter knocked the revolver 
aside and shot DeHaven, who died in about 20 minutes. Elisha 
and the two women were arrested, but after examination were dis- 
charged. Peter was also arrested, and indicted Oct. 21, 1872, for 
murder, was convicted, and "sent up " for 18 years. A motion for 
a new trial was made, but denied, and tiie sentence was executed. 

James Bay and L. J. Hall. 

At Pleasant Hill, June 22, 1872, L. J. Hall, a grocer, had a 
controversy with a Mr. McGinn, when a young man named James 
Ray interfered, knocking McGinn down vrith a beer glass and beating 
him and stamping upon him, Hall meanwhile keeping off all who 
would interfere. When the beating ceased McGinn was found 
dead. Hall then gave Pay some money, telling him to make his 
escape, which it seems he did most efiectually. Hall wa- arrested, 
and examined, but acquitted of being an accessory. McGinn left 
a wife and eight children. 

338 HISTORY OF iMKi: orNrv. 

}bitt]ir,r ILirrU a,ul Tlunuax St n pi don. 

At a ]^laee called tlie cut-oil', on the Snv Leve(>, in the S]^rino;of 1873 
Wire two lai'i^u squadsot" men at work. The one workinghii>liei-n|i tlie 
river received $2.00 per da}' to each man and those below received 
$1.75. After those above had completed their work, their employers 
told them they could go and work with those below if they were will- 
ing to work at the same rates. They all went to work, i)nt after awhile 
became dissatisfied with the wages, threatened to strike, and made a 
good deal of disturbance. 'Their employers discliarged several of 
the ring-leaders who still continued to make trouble. When pay- 
day ai-rived the strikers drank a great deal, came to the place of 
work and were determined, as they said, to clean out Harris, the 
time-keeper, and Stapleton, the " walking-boss." As the two latter 
were coming from the store after dinner, the mob of strikers fell 
upon them and Harris and Sta|>leton both tired at the tirst man, 
Pat Vaughan, killing liim and slightly injuring another man. This 
proceeding deterred the rioters from any furtlier aggressions. 
Stapleton and Harris were arrested, but to keep them safe from the 
rioters they were lodged in the jail at Pittslield. They were in- 
dicted April 12- following, tried, convicted oi murder, and July 1 
both were sentenced to State prison for one year. 

Andrew Ilmnilton. 

Near Nebo, Feb. 5, 1875, a number of young people assembled 
at the house of Mrs. McKee, for the purpose of taking part in a 
dance. Among those present were Andrew Hamilton and Clifton 
U. Daniels, both 3'oung men and sons of well-known farmers in 
the vicinity. During the dauce a quarrel arose between Hamilton 
and Daniels, wlien the former drew a revolver and shot Daniels in 
the neck at its juncture with the chest. The wounded man stag- 
gered against the wall and fell dead almost instantly. Hamilton 
immediately fled, and, so far as appears from the records, has never 
been captured. 

Joliii A. Thoiwis 

was indicted Oct. 11:, 1876, for murder, l>ut three days afterward 
was acquitted. 

John II. Mallory. 

A man named Davis got to peeping around Mallory's house at 
night to see some girls, and Mallory, discovering the fact, ran out 
with a gun and shot Davis as he dodged behind a cedar bush, and 
killed him. This occurred at Barry. Mallory was indicted Octo- 
ber 14, 1S7G. for manslaughter. The case dragged along in the 
Courts until April G, 1878, when the accused was acquitted. 


George TLtsl'lns. 

About four miles northwest ot' Kindorliook a quarrel took ])l:ice, 
March 4, 1877, between two jouiii^ men, Geo. llaskins and a Mr. 
Simpkins, ori<^inatiii<^ in a controversy about a dosf bitiuij^ a sister 
of Sim})kins. A tussle ensued duriiii; which Simpkins was stabbed 
with a knife, and from the effects of the wound he shortly after- 
ward died. Ilaskins was arrested, and A]")rll 10, 1877, he was in- 
dicted for luurder; but the trial resulted in his conviction for man- 
s)auo;hter, and Oct. 19, fpllowini;, he was sentenced to two years, 
imprisonment at hard labor. He was only nineteen years of age 
and Simpkins seventeen. 

Henry A. Foicler. 

This ruffian and a Mr. Hamilton were attending a dance near 
Nebo in the spring of 1878, where they drank and quarreled until 
Fowler cut Hamilton across the arm with a knife, and the latter 
bled to death. Fowler was arrested and April 6, 1878, was indicted 
for murder. Before his trial he escaped from jail, but voluntarily 
returned and delivered himself up. The trial resulted in his con- 
viction and sentence to confinement in the State prison for two 

Thomas McDonald. 

James A. Brown was murdered near his own door in Montezuma 
March 11, 1878, shortly before daylight. Jan. 25 preceding he had 
been waylaid, drugged and robbed by two men in a small wood 
near his home, and lay exposed all night in a stupid condition until 
found the next morning, and was restored to c<jnsciousness with 
much difticulty. Thomas McDonald was aifei-ward arrested and 
identified as one of those two men: the other culj^rit remained at 
large. Mr. Brown and his friends had feared that an effort would 
be made to prevent him (Brown) from a])pearing at a certain trial, 
and the traged}' just mentioned showed how well grounded their 
fears had been. For several nights j^receding the murder noises 
had been heard in the vicinity of the residence of 13rown, and he 
went armed. About 4 o'clock that morning (Monday) he stepped 
from his house to an out-house a few yards distant, taking his rifle 
with him. On his return a few minutes later, and when within 
two or three paces of the door, he was shot, the ball entering the 
back of the head and coming out toward the front. Hearing the 
report the family rushed out to find the victim lyiiig where he fell, 
and in a few moments he ceased to live. Excitement became so in- 
tense that the Sheriff" had to obtain assistance from the State Gov- 
ernment to aid in keeping the peace. The excitement was greatly 
intensified by a report tliat the Sheriff" intended to remove thepris- 
oner from the Pike county jail to another county. McDonald was 
tried and found innocent. A full account of his case is given in 
the history of Pittsfield. 


Colonel Williams. 

A miinber of people gathered at the house of JNEoiite Gaut about 
ten miles south of Pittstield, ou Christ!i>:is eve, to have a dance, 
and '.vero enjoying themselves in the usual way, when some of the 
boys asked Andrew Main (commoidy denominated "Coon Main ") 
to call olT a set. Main refusing, they said they could get along 
well enough without him. He thought this a good time as any to 
whip some of the boys, and, the quarrel continuiiifr for some time, 
he commenced striking them... Main struck Williams, knocking 
him down. Williams then commenced stabbing at Afain with his 
pocket knife. Main got hold of a long iron poker and commenced 
striking at Williams. About this time the landlord interfered and 
turned them from the house, when the latter and his brother Col- 
onel immediately left and were followed by Main and two or three 
others. Then Colonel Williams shot Main with a revolver, and he 
and his brother immediately ran away, no effort being made at the 
time to arrest them. The wounded man then retured to the house, 
lay down on a bed, saying that Colonel Williams had shot him, 
and died about five hours afterward. Williams has been arrested, 
and is nosv in the Pittsfield jail awaiting trial. 


a lad seventeen years of age, is also in jail for lielping his brother 
to escape who had killed a companion with a pocket knife. 



We shall, in this chapter, give as clear and exact a description of 
pioneer life in this county as we can find language to picture it in, 
commencing with the time the sturdy settlers tirst arrived with 
their scanty stores. ' They had migrated from older States, where 
the prospects for even a competency were very poor, many of them from Kentucky, for, it is supposed, they found that a good 
State to emigrate from. Their entire stock of furniture, imple- 
ments and family necessities were easily stored in one wagon, and 
sometimes a cart was their only vehicle. 

As the first thing after they arrived and found a suitable loca- 
tion, they would set about the building of a log cabin, a description 
of which may be interesting to tlie 3'ounger readers, and especially 
their descendants, who may never see a structure of the kind. 
Trees of uniform size were selected and cut into pieces of the de- 
sired length, each end being saddled and notched so as to bring the 
logs as near together as possible. The cracks were "chiidced and 
daubed" to prevent the wind from whistling through. This had 
to be renewed every fall i)efore cold weather set in. The usual 
lieight was one story of about seven or eight leet. The gables were 
made of logs graduilly shortened up to the to]>. The roof was made 
by laying small logs or stout poles reaching from gable to gable, 
suital)le distances apart, on which were laid the clapboai'ds after the 
manner of shingling, showing two feet or more to the weather. 
The clapboards were fastened by l^^ying across them heavy poles, 
called "weight poles," reaching from one gable to the other, being 
kept apart and in their place by laying ]>ieces of timber between 
them called " runs," or " knees." xV wide chimney place was cut 
out of one end of the cabin, the chimney standing entirely outside, 
and built of rived st'cks, laid up cob-house fashion and filled with 
clay, or built of stone, often using two or three cords of stone in 
building one chimney. For a window, a piece about two feet long 
was cut out of one of the wall logs, and the hole closed, sometimes 
with glass, but oftener with greased paper ])asted over it. A door- 



way was ais(> cut tlirouifli one ut" tlie walls, and the docn- was made 
of spliced clapboards and liuni; with wooden hin<2;es. This was 
opetied by pulling a leather latch-strini,^ which raised a wooden 
latch inside the door. For security at ni^dit this latch-strino; was 
pulled in, but for friends and neighbors, and even strangei-s, the 
'' latch string was always hanging out," as a welcome. In the inte- 
rior, upon one side, was the huge lire-]ilace, lai'ge enough to contain 
a back-log as big as the strongest man could carry, and hold- 
ing enough wood to supply an ordinary stove a week ; on either 
side were ])oles and kettles, and over all a mantel on which was 
placed the tallow dip. In one corner stood the larger bed for the 
old folks, under this the trundle-bed for the children ; in another 
corner stood the old-fashioned, large s})inning-wlieel, with a smaller 
one by its side ; in another the pine table, around which the family 
gathered to partake of their plain food ; over the door hung the 
ever-trustful rifle and powder-horn ; while around the room were scat- 
tered a few splint-bottomed chairs and three-legged stools ; in one 
corner was a rude cupboard holding the tableware, which consisted 
of a few cups and saucers and blue-edged plates, standing singly 
on their edges against the back, to make the display of table furni- 
ture more conspicuous. 

These simple cabins were inhabited by a kind and true-hearted 
people. They were strangers to mock modesty, and the traveler, 
seeking lodgings for the night or desinjus of spending a few days 
in the community, if willing to accept the rude offering, was always 
welcome, although how they were disposed of at night the reader 
may not easily imagine ; for, as described, a single room was jnade 
to serve the purjiose of kitchen, dining-room, sitting-room, bed- 
room, and parlor, and many families consisted of si.\ or eight mem- 


For a great many years but few thought it advisable to attempt 
farming on the prairie. To many of them the cultivation of the 
prairies was an untried experiment, and it was the prevail ng 
opinion that the timber would soon become very scarce, — a fear 
soon proven to be without foundation. Anothei- obstacle that was 
in the wa}' lor a great many years, was that no plows suitable for 
breaking the pi'airie land could be had. The sod was very much 
tougher then than it was in aftei' years when the stock had pastured 
the prairies and killed out the grass to some extent. It would be 
ast<Kiishing to the younger residents to see the immense crops of 
prairie grass that grew u|>on the fields which are to-day in such a 
liigh state of cultivation. It grew in places six to twelve feet high. 
It was these immense crops of grass that furnished the fuel for the 
terrible fires that swept over the prairies during the fall. Then, 
again, there was so much of the pj-airie land that was considered 
too v.-et to be ever suitable for cultivation. Many of the older set- 
tlers now livinif well remember when I'arms that are now in the 


highest state of cultivation were a vast swamp. There was another 
drawback in the settlement of the prairies, and that was the great 
labor and cost of fencing. Bat the princij)al reason for locating in 
the timber was that many of their cabins wei-e poor, half-tinished 
affairs, and protection from the driving storms was absolutely re- 
quired. The timber also sheltered stock until such times as sheds 
and out-buildings could be erected. That the time should soon 
come when intelligent, enterprising farmers would see that their 
interest Vav in improving- ]U'airie farms, and cense clearing Helds, 
when there were boundless acres presenting no obstacle to tlie most 
perfect cultivation, argues nothing in the policy of siieltering for a 
time in the woods. In regard to the piuneers settling along the 
timber, we often hear remarks made as though the selection of such 
locations implied a lack of judgment. Those who are disposed to 
treat it in that manner are asked to consider carefully tlie above 
facts, when they will conclude such selection argued in their favor. 
Clearing of timber land was attended with much hard labor. The 
underbrush was grubbed up, piled into heaps and burned. The large 
trees were in many cases left standing, and deadened by girdling. 
This was dofte by cutting through the bark into the wood, generally 
through the " sap," all around the trunk. 

Not the least of the hardships of the pioneers was the procuring 
of bread. The first settlers must be supplied at least one year from 
other sources than their own lands. But the iirst crops, however 
abundant, gave only partial relief, there being no mills to i^rind the 
grain. Hence the necessity of grinding by hand power, and many 
families were poorly provided with means for doing this. Another 
way was to grate the corn. A grater was made fron\ a piece of tin, 
sometimes taken from an old, worn-out tin bucket or other vessel. 
It Was thickly perforated, bent into a semi-circular form, and nailed, 
rough side upward, on a board. The corn was taken in the ear, 
and grated before it got dry and hard. Corn, however, was eaten 
in various ways. 

Soon after the country became more generally settled, enterpris- 
ing men were ready to embark in the milling business. Sites along 
the streams were selected for water-])ower. A person looking for a 
mill-site u^ould follow up and down the stream for a desired loca- 
tion, and when found he would go before the County Commis- 
sioners and secure a writ lA' ad quod damnum. This would enable 
the miller to have the adjoining land officially examined, and the 
amount of damage by making a dam was named. Mills being such 
a'great public necessit}', they were permitted to be located upon any 
person's land where the miller thought the site desirable. 

The Hominy Block. — Before giving the particulars of the anec- 
dote about to be related it would be well to describe the hominy 
block, for there are thousands in this county, doubtless, especially 
of the rising generation, who have never so much as heard of the 

344 insTcRv OF riKK t-ovsw. 

hoiiiiiiy block. It consisted of a liolc l)orod or hunicd in tlic end 
of a log or stump, basin form, in wliicli tlie corn was jdaccd and 
then ]-»onnded witii an iron wedfj^e, block of wood or a rollings pin. 
Sometimes the jiounding apparatus consisted of a long, hcavyblock 
of wood attached to a sprin .--pole above, which lessened the labor of 
preparing a meal. The one we liave in question consisted of a 
burned-out place in the top of a stump, a lieavy block or pole at- 
tachtd to a transverse spring-pole, but was run by w\ater ])ower 
instead of the common way. This hominy block was made and 
owned by Amasa Shinn, tvho resided in or near Kinderhook town- 
ship. Mr. Shinn would fill the block with corn at night, set it in 
motion, and by morning it would be pulverized and ready to be 
made into bread for breakfast. There came a time, however, when 
Mr. Shinn and family preferred to fast, for at least one meal. 
Sqnirrels were quite numerous in those days — far more than they 
are at present — and one evening after Mr. Shinn had set his mill in 
motion as usual, a squirred hopped upon the edge of the block and 
began wistfully to scrutinize the corn below. Finally he concluded 
to have some; and while the hammer was up, jumped into the 
block and began helping himself,* when the huge pounder alighted 
upon him. During the remainder of the night the pounder kept 
regularly descending into the block, thoroughly mashing and mix- 
ing the squirrel and the corn. When j\[r. Shinn came down the 
next morning for his meal he found a conglomerate of squirrel and 

Many interesting and ludicrous incidents are related in reference 
to going to mill, waiting for grists, etc., many of which are 
gi'eatly overdrawn. Harrison Henry, now deceased, often related 
an incident that, although untrue, was commendable for its witticism 
and application to the mills of pioneer days. He would tell the 
story of himself in the following language: "I went to Mr. Ever- 
itt's mill (an overshot water-mill) one day, and remained until 
night for my turn. When my turn came Mr. Everitt filled 
the hopper with corn, and taking me with him to the house, retired 
for the night, leaving the mill to do the work alone. During the 
night I was awakened by the barking of Mr. Everitt's dog. This 
annoyed me not a little, but I finally fell asleep again. In the early 
morning when I awoke, I heard the almost steady barking of the 
dog, and went down to the mill to learn what it was barking at. On 
arriving there I found that the dog had eaten all the meal and w^as 
barking for more! He would wait until a little meal would come 
down, when he would ravenously lick it up, and then look up the 
spout and bark for more! " Mr. Henry would continue: " I don't 
tell this incident to injure the mill, for it was a very good and faith- 
ful !nill; it grinds away faithfully on one grain until it finishes it, 
and then jnin])S right on to another." 


The wild animals infesting this county at the time of its settle- 


ment were the deer, vvoll', bear, wild-cat, fox, otter, raccoon, wood- 
clinck or ground-doo:, skunk, mink, weasel, niiiskrat, opossnin, rab- 
bit and squirrel; and the principal feathered game were the quail, 
prairie-chicken, and wild turkey. Several of these animals furnished 
meat for the early settlers; but their principal meat did not consist 
long of game. Pork and poultry were soon raised in abundance. 
The wolf was the moat troublesome animal, it being the common 
enemy of the sheep. It was quite difficult to protect the sheep from 
their ravages. Sometimes pigs and calves were also victims of the 
wolf. Their bowlings in the night would often keep families awake, 
and set all the dogs in the neighborhood to barking. Their yells 
were often terrific. Says one settler: "Suppose six boys, having 
six dogs tied, whipped, them all at the same time, and you would 
hear such music as two wolves would make." To effect the destruc- 
tion of these animals the county authorities oflered a bounty for 
their scalps; and, besides, big hunts were inagurated for their des- 
truction, and " wolf hunts " are prominent among the memories of 
the earlj settlers. Such events were generally turned into a holi- 
day, and everybody that could ride a nag or stand the tramp on foot 
joined in the deadly pursuit. A large circuit was generally made 
by the hunters, who then closed on every side, driving the hungry 
wolves into the center of the corral, where they were despatched. 
The return home with the carcasses was the signal for a general turn- 
out, and these '• pleasure parties " are still referred to by old citizens 
as among the pleasantest memories of early life in Pike county. 
Many a hungry wolf has been run down on the prairies where now 
is located a town or a fine farm residence. This rare old pastime, 
like much of the early hunting and fishing the pioneers indulged in 
here, departed at the appearance of the locomotive. 


During the early settlement of this part of the State, one of the 
prevailing customs of the poineers was "bee-hunting." Often a 
small company would travel many miles into a wild, unsettled 
country, in search of the sweet, flavored honey of the wild bee. 
Large trees containing many gallons, and often a barrel, were fre- 
quently found by bee-hunters. The little, busy bees would be 
carefully watched as they flew heavily laden with the richest extract 
of the flowers that were y)urely native and unknown to the present 
generation. They always took a "bee-line" for their homes. This 
was a correct guide to the sturdy hunter, who had studied with care 
the ways of the bee and by their knowledge took advantage of the 
little insect. Once on the trail<j good bee-hunters were almost cer- 
tain to capture the'rich prize. After the bee-tree was discovered it 
was no trouble to get possession of the honey. The tree was felled, 
and the hunters would rush for their booty ere it was lost by run- 
ning out upon the ground. 

340 III^TOKV VF riKE Col.MV. 

>[A.\.\"I;R:; and C'L•^^'>M^. 

The pioneer was more tVeely ami heartily soeiai witii his tViciuis, 
and cokl toward his enemies, than we >ei'm to be at the j^rescnt 
day; ami he siiowed wliat race he beloiig-ed to by his ell'orts to 
establish reliijious, {»hila!ithro])i(' and educational institutions. The 
young- folks, we have no doubt, found many ways of robbinu^ old 
Time of loneliness. It would be unfair to su])pose them, es])eci- 
ally the ladies, destitute of fashionable as]-»i rations, but the means 
for gaudy display were very much circumscribed in those days. 
The male attire consiste<l chictiy of buckskin, or homesi)uii 
cloth, — we might add home- woven, the loom being far more com- 
mon in or near theii- rude huts than the piano or organ. They 
were not, however, destitute of musical taste, and many of their 
vocal pertbrmances would compare favorably with our present 
choirs. We may safel}' say they sang with the sjMrit. Most of 
the ladies, also, wore homespun, which they manufactured from 
wool, flax, cotton, and the bark or lint of the nettle, colored with 
such ingredients as nature provided, without the aid of art. A few 
even adopted buckskin. How many yards of the latter article 
were required for a fashionable dress in those times, or in what 
particular style it was cut and trimmed, we are not informed, and 
must leave the ladies to draw their own conclusions. These dresses 
certainly were durable, and shielded the wearer in out-door exer- 
cises incident to the planting, attending and gathering of crops, in 
which pursuit the ladies in all new countries assist. 

Another of the prevailing fashions was of that of carrying fire- 
arms, made necessary by the presence of roving bands of Indians, 
most of whom were ostensibly friendly, but like Indians in all 
times, treaclierous and unreliable. These tribes were princi))ally 
Pottawatomies. There were also in the northern part of the State 
several tribes of hostile Indians, ready at any time to make a mur- 
derous, thieving raid upon the white settlers; and an Indian war 
at any time was an accepted probability; and these old settlers 
to-day have vivid recollections of the Black Hawk and other Indian 
wars. And, while target practice was much indulged in as an 
amusement, it was also necessary for a proper self-defense, the 
settlers linding it necessary at times to carry their guns with them 
when they went to hoe their corn. In some instances their guns 
were stacked in the field and the laborers worked for a certain dis- 
tance around them, and then moved the guns to a certain position 
and again proceeded with their work. 

These were only a few of the hardships incident to pioneer life, 
which was largely made up of privations, inconveniences and dan- 
gers. They had few labor-saving machines and no reliable markets. 
Even comniunicati(jn by letter with theii- distant friends and rela- 
tives was reiulered difticult for want of proper mail facilities, and 
sometimes for the want of money to pay the postage on the letters 
sent to tliem, — the ijosta^e then beinc; twentv-five cents for a siuj^le 


letter, man}' of which remained in the office for weeks on account 
of the inability of the persons addressed to pay the postage. 

The earliest settlers of the county went to St. Louis with what 
little produce they had to sell, and the merciiants bought all their 
goods in that city. Soon, howev^er, Louisiana became a market, 
and produce was wagoned to that city and from there sent south 
on the river. There was at that time no sale for corn, or com- 
paratively none, and wheat would bring but a small price; so that 
really tliere was no impetus given to the raising of grain of any 
sort, except for home consumption, until the advent of the railroad. 
At that time improvement began. The gi-eat resources of the 
county which had scarcely supplied more than home demand were 
then turned to supply the wants of thousands. That occasion, the 
advent of railroads, was the commencement of agricultural develop- 
ment.. It was the commencement of the manufacturing institu- 
tions the county can now boast of; it was the building of her thriv- 
ing cities and towns; indeed it was the beginning of progress. 

One of the earliest steam-boats in the Illinois river trade was the 
steamer " Exchange," which plied between St. Louis and Peoria. 
She was familiarly known as "the Shingle Weaver," so called from 
the fact of her carrying upon her hurricane deck a machine for cut- 
ting shingles, which was operated by the machinery of the boat, 
cutting whenever the boat was in motion. Shingle timber would 
be obtained at the wood-3'ards along the river, and market found 
for the manufactured goods at St. Louis. This Iwat was an especial 
favorite with the people of this county, many of whom would, 
when desiring to take a trip by the river, wait for her coming, and 
most of the early stocks of goods for the eastern part of the county 
were shipped on her; she also carried most of the county's " bees- 
wax " and other products to their market. 

"When the first settlers came to the wilderness" says an old set- 
tler, " they all supposed that their hard struggle would be prin- 
cipally over after the first year; but alas! we looked for 'easier 
times next year ' for about ten years, and learned to l)ear hardships, 
privation and hard living as good soldiers do. As the facilities for 
making money were not great, we lived pretty well satisfied in an 
atmosphere of good, social, friendly feeling, and tiiought ourselves 
as good as those we left behind when we emigrated West." 


One of the greatest obstacles to the early settlement and prosper- 
ity of this county was the ""cliills and fever," or " ague," or "Illinois 
shakes," as it was variously styled. This disease was a terror to 
new comers. In the fall of the year everybody was afilicted with 
it. It was no respecter of persons; everybody shook with it, and 
it was in every person's system. They all looked pale and yellow as 


though they were frostbitten. It was not contagious, but was a 
kind of iniasma floating around in the atmosphere and absoi-bed 
into the system. It continued to l)e absorbed from day to day, and 
week to week, until the wliole body corporate became cliarged with 
it as with electricity, and then the shock came; and the shock was 
a regular shake, with a fixed beginning and an ending, coming on 
each day, or each alternate day, with a regularity that was surpris- 
ing. After the shake came the fever, and this " last estate was 
worse than the flrst. " It was a burning, liot fever and lasted for 
hours. When you had the chill you couldn't get warm, and wlicn 
you had the fever you couldn't get cool. It was exceedingly 
awkward in tl\is respect; indeed it was. Nor would it stop for any 
sort of contingency. Not even a wedding in the family would 
stop it. It was imperative and tyrannical. When the appointed 
time came around everything else had to be stopped to attend 
to its demands. It didn't even liave any Sunday or holidays. 
After the fever went down you still didn't feel much better. You 
felt as though you had gone through some sort of collision and 
came out not killed but badl_y demoralized. You felt weak, as 
though you had run too far after something, and then didn't 
catch it. You felt languid, stupid and sore, and was down in 
the month and heel and partially raveled out, so to speak. Your 
back was out of fix and your appetite was in a worse condition 
than your back. Your head ached and your eyes had more white 
in them tlian usual, and altogetl^er you felt poor, disconso- 
late and sad. You didn't think much of yourself, and didn't 
believe other peqple did either, and you didn't care. You 
didn't think much of suicide, but at the same time you almost made 
up your mind that under certain circumstances it was justifiable. 
You imagined that even the dogs looked at you with a kind of self- 
complacency. You thought the sun had a kind of sickly shine 
about it. About this time you came to the conclusion that you 
would not accept the whole State of Illinois as a gift, and if you 
had the strength and means, you picked up Hannah and the baby 
and your traps, and went back " yander " to Injianny, Ohio, or old 

"And to-day the swallows fliiting 
Round my cabin see me siuing 
Moodily within the sunshine, 

Just inside my silent door, 
Waiting for the 'ager,' seeming 
Like a man forever dreaming; 
And the sunlight on me streaming 

Throws no shadow on the lloor ; 
For I am too thin and sallow 

To mal<e shadows on the floor — 

Nary shadow any more ! " 

The above is no picture of the imagination. It is simply re- 
counting what occurred in hundreds of instances. Whole families 
would sometimes be sick at one time, and not one member scarcely 


able to wait npon another. One widow lad\' on the Illinois river 
informs us that she lost nine children from this dreaded disease! 

To witnessthe various processes of cooking in those days would 
alike surprise and amuse those who have grown up since cooking 
stoves and ranges came into use. Kettles were hung over the large 
fire, suspended on trammels which were held by strong poles. The 
long-handled frying-pan was used for cooking meat. It was held 
on the fire by hand ; or, to save time, the handle was laid across 
the back of a chair. This pan was also tised for baking short-cake. 
A better article was a cast-iron spider, which was set upon coals on 
the hearth. But the best thing for baking bread was the flat-bot- 
tomed bake-kettle, of greater depth, with closely fitting cast-iron 
cover, and commonly known as the " Dntch oven." With coals 
over and under it bread and buscait would quickly and nicely bake. 
Turkeys and spare-ribs were sometimes roasted before the fire, sus- 
pended by a string, a dish being placed underneath to catch the 


The agricultural implements used by the first farmers here would 
in this age of improvement be great curiosities. The plow used 
was called the bar-share plow. The iron point consisted of a bar of 
iron about two feet long, and a broad share of iron welded to it. 
At the extreme point was a coulter that passed through a beam six 
or seven feet long, to which were attached handles of corresponding 
length. The mold-board was a wooden one split out of winding 
timber, or hewed into a winding shape in order to turn the soil 
over. Sown seed was brushed in by dragging over the ground a 
sapling with a bushy top. In harvesting the change is most strik- 
ing. Instead of the reapers and mowers of to-day, the sickle and 
cradle were used. The grain was threshed with a flail, or' trodden 
out by horses or oxen. 


Th3 men were not called upon to endure alone all the hardships 
and labor of frontier life. The women also had their physical labor 
to perform, and much of it was quite arduous. Spinning was one 
of the common household duties. This exercise is one which few 
of the present generation of girls have ever enjoyed. The wheel 
used for spinning flax was called the " little wheel," to distinguish 
it from the " big wheel," used for spinning yarn. These stringed 
instruments furnished the principal music of the family, and were 
operated by our mothers and grandmothers with great skill, attained 
without pecuniary expense and with far less practice than is neces- 
sary for the girls of our period to acquire a skillful use of their 
costly and elegant instruments. 


The loom was not less necessary than the wheel. Not every 
house, however, in which spinning was done had a loom; but there 
were always some in each settlement who, besides doing their own 
weaving, did some for others. Settlers, having succeeded in spite 
of the wolves in raising sheep, commenced the manufacture of 
woolen cloth; wool was carded and made into rolls by hand-cards, 
and the rolls were spun on the " big wheel." We occasionally find 
now, in the houses of the old settlers, one of these big wheels, some- 
times used for spinning and twisting stocking yarn. They are 
turned with tliehand, and with such velocity that it will run itself 
while the nimble worker, b^ her backward step, draws out and 
twists her thread nearly the whole length of the cabin. A common 
article woven on the loom was linsey, also called linsey-woolsey, the 
chain being linen and the filling woolen. This cloth was used for 
dresses for the girls aud mothers. Nearly all the clothes worn by 
the men were also home-made. Rarely was a farmer or his son 
seen in a coat made of any other. If, occasionall}', a young man 
appeared in a suit of "bough ten " clothes, he was suspected of hav- 
ing gotten it for a particular occasion, which occurs in the life of 
nearly every man. 

Not until the settlers had supplied themselves with the more use- 
ful articles of clothing and with edibles of various kinds, did wheat 
bread become a common article of food. It is true they had it 
earlier, but this was ouly served on extra occasions, as when visitors 
came, or on Sundays; and with this luxury they would have a lit- 
tle " store coffee." " The little brown jug " found a place in almost 
every home, and was often brought into use. No caller was per- 
mitted to leave the house without an invitation to partake of its 


The history of pioneer life generally presents the dark side of the 
picture; but the toils and privations of the early settlers were not a 
series of unmitigated sufferings. No; for while the fathers and 
mothers toiled hard, they were not averse to a little relaxation, and 
had their seasons of fun and enjoyment. They contrived to do 
something to break the monotony of their daily life and furnish 
them a good, hearty laugh. Among the more general forms of 
amusement were the " quilting-bee," "corn-husking," "apple-par- 
ing," "log-rolling" and "house-raising." Our young readers .will 
doubtless be interested in a description of these forms of amuse- 
ment, when labor was made to afford fun and enjoyment to all par- 
ticipating. The " qui 1 ting-bee,*^' as its name implies, was when the 
industrious qualities of the busy, little insect that " improves each 
shining hour" were exemplified in the manufacture of quilts for 
the household. In the afternoon ladies for miles around gathered 
at an appointed place, and while their tongues would not cease to 
play, their hands were as busily engaged in making the quilt; and 
desire was always manifested to get it out as quickly as possible. 

'^#^^1/ V^i^^2i^'-^1^ 



for then the fun would beo^in. In the evening the gentlemen came, 
and the hours would then pass swiftly by in playing games or danc- 
ing. " Oorn-huskings" were when both sexes united in the work. 
They usually assembled in a large barn, which was arranged for the 
occasion; and when each gentleman had selected a lady partner the 
husking began. When a lady found a red ear she was entitled to 
a kiss from every gentleman present; when a gentleman found one 
he was allowed to kiss every lady present. After the corn was all 
husked a good supper was served; then the "old folks" would 
leave, and the remainder of the evening* whs spent in the dance and 
in having a general good time. The recreation afforded to the 
young people on the annual recurrence of these festive occasions 
was as highly enjoyed, and quite as innocent, as the amusements of 
the present boasted age of refinement and culture. 


The furniture of the cabin was as primitive as the occupants. In 
onfe corner — perhaps in two or three corners — were the bedsteads. 
These were your genuine "cottage bedsteads," made by boring one 
hole, say four feet from one corner of the cabin, into a " house-log," 
another hole, say six feet from the same corner, on another side; 
opposite these holes was set an upright post, usually a section from 
the body of a peeled sapling; in this post two holes would be bored 
at any desired height, and at right angles with each other; poles 
were inserted in these holes, making in this manner a square frame; 
over this frame was laid a covering of clapboards, or, as some de- 
nominated them, " shakes," and on top of this platform the bed 
was spread. The chairs were not exactly chairs, but three-legged 
stools or puncheon benches. The cupboard was literally a cup- 
board, being a puncheon supported by pins driven into holes in the 
house logs at some convenient corner. The boxes which had held 
the family dry goods while en route to the new country generally 
furnished the table, and a trough or troughs the meat and soap bar- 
rels. Hollow logs sawed into sections and provided with a pun- 
cheon bottom furnished a receptacle for meal, potatoes, beans, wheat, 
"and sich like truck" — to use the pioneer vernacular. The table 
was bounteously supplied with "samp," "lye hominy," "corn 
pone," honey, venison, pork, stewed pumpkin, wild turkey, prairie 
chicken and other game. Wheat bread, tea, coffee, and fruit — ex- 
cept wild fruit — were luxuries not to be indulged in except on 
special occasions, as a wedding or gala day, " Samp " was quite a 
frequent dish. It was made by burning a hole into some conven- 
ient stump in the shape of a mortar; this hole was tilled with corn 
and pounded by a large pestle hung like theold-fashioned well-sweep 
pendent from a long pole, which was nearly balanced on an upright 
fork. This pole had a weight attached to one end and the pestle 
to the other; the weight would lift the pestle, while manual force 
was expected to bring it down. When the " samp " was pounded 
sufficiently, it was washed and boiled like rice. 


354 HISTORY OF pikp: county. 

The traveler always found a welcome at the pioneer's cabin. It 
was never full; although there might already be a guest for every 
puncheon, there was still " room for one more," and a wider circle 
would be made for the new-comer at tiie log fire. If the stranger 
was in search of land, he was doubly welcome, and his host would 
volunteer to show him all the "first-rate claims in this neck of 
woods," going with him ibr dn} t^, showing the corners and advan- 
tages of every " Congress .tract" within a dozen miles from his own 

To his neighbors the pioneer was equally liberal. If a deer was 
killed, the choicest bits were sent to his nearest neighbor, a half- 
dozen miles away, perhaps. When a "shoat" was butchered, the 
same custom prevailed. If a new-comer came in too late for 
" cropping," the neighbors would supply his table with just the 
same luxuries they themselves enjoyed, and in as liberal quantity, 
until a crop could be raised. When a new-comer had located his 
clailn, the neighbors for miles around would assemble at the site of 
the new-comer's proposed cabin and aid him in "gittin" it up. 
One party with axes would fell and hew the logs; another with 
teams would haul the logs to the ground ; another party would " raise 
the cabin"; while several of the old men would "rive the clap- 
boards" for the roof. By night the cabin would be up and ready 
for occupying, aiid by the next day the new-comer was in all re- 
spects as well situated as his neighbors. 

" Saturday was a regular holiday, in which work'was ignored and 
everybody went to town or to some place of general resort. When 
all were together in town, sport began. Of course whisky circula- 
ted freely and everybody indulged to a greater or less extent. 
Quarrels were now settled by hand to-hand encounters; wrestling- 
matches came oif or were arranged for the future; jumping, foot- 
racing, and horse-racing filled up the interval of time; and every- 
body enjoyed the rough sport with a zest unknown among the 
more refined denizens of the present day. 


OLD settlers' association. 

It is not strange that among the pioneer settlers of any new conn- 
try a deep-seated and sincere friendship should spring up that 
would grow and strengthen with their years. The incidents pecu- 
liar, to life in a new country, — the trials and hardships, privations 
and destitution, — are well calculated to test not only the physical 
powers of endurance, but the moral, kindly, generous attributes of 
manhood and womanhood. Then are the times that try men's 
souls, and bring to the surface all that may be in them whether 
good or bad. As a rule tliere is an equality of conditions that rec- 
ognizes no distinctions. All occupy a common level, and as a 
natural consequence a strong brotherly and sisterly feeling rise up 
that is as lasting as time. For "a fellow feeling makes us won- 
drous kind." With such a community there is a hospitality, a 
kindness, a benevolence, a charity unknown and unpracticed among 
the older, richer and more densely commonwealths. The very 
nature of the surroundings teaches them to feel each other's woe 
and share each other's joy. An injury or a wrong may be ignored, 
but a kindly, charitable act is never forgotten. The memory of old 
associations are always fresh. Raven locks may bleach and wJiiten, 
full, round cheeks become sunken and hollow, the fires of intelli- 
gence vanish from the organs of vision, the brow become wrinkled 
with care and age and the erect form bowed with accumulating 
years, — but the true friends of "long ago" will be remembered as 
long as life and reason endure. 

The surroundings of pioneer life are well calculated to test the 
" true inwardness" of the human heart. As a rule the men and 
women who first settle in a neV country, — who go in advance to 
spy out the land and prepare it for the coming people, — are bold, 
fearless, self-reliant and industrious. In these respects, no matter 
from what remote section or country they may come, there is a 
similarity of character. In birth, education, religion and language, 
there may be a vast difference, but imbued with a common pur- 
pose, — the founding and building of homes, — these differences are 
soon lost by association, and thus they become one people united 
by a common interest; and no matter what changes may come in 

356 HisroKY Oh- imks; county. 

after years the associations thus formed are never buried out of 

In pioncM- life are always incidents of peculiar interest, not only 
to the pioneers themselves, but which if properly preserved, would 
be of interest to posterity; and it is a matter of some regret that 
"The Old Settlers' Association " was not formed years before it 
was, and tliat more copious records were not kept. Such an asso- 
ciation with well kept records of -the more important events, such 
as dates of arrivals, births, marriages, deaths, removals, nativities, 
etc., as any one can easily'and readily see, would be the direct 
means of preserving to the literature of the country the history of 
every community, that to future generations would be valuable as 
a record of reference, and a ready and sure method of settling 
important questions of controversy. Such records would possess 
facts and figures that could not be had from any other sonrce. 
Aside from this historic importance such associations serve ks a 
means of keeping alive and further cementing old friendships and 
renewing among its members associations that were necessarily 
interrupted hj the innovation of increasing population, cultivating 
social intercourse and creating a charitable fund for such of their 
old members as were victims of misfortune and adversity. 

The subject of organizing an old settlers' society was brought up 
in the summer of 1869. In the l^ike County Democrat of July 
29, that year, the following significant passage occurs: " The time 
will come when the history of this county will be written. For 
that history, the meeting of such society will furnish the best ma- 
terial, and the parties now living attest the facts that will form a 
large portion of it." There was nothing definitely done toward 
the organization of this society until the summer of 1872, when 
some of the leading old settlers interested themselves in it. The 
first meeting was held on what is called Blue creek, Aug. 21, 1872. 
The meeting was called to order by Wm. Turnbull, of Flint, on 
whose motion Gapt. B. F. Westlake was appointed temporary Chair- 
man. Upon taking the chair Capt. Westlake stated in brief the 
object of the meeting, and for the purpose of effecting on organiza- 
tion he suggested the propriety of appointing acommittee on perma- 
nent organization to report to the meeting at 1 o'clock, r. m. This 
committee consisted of Col. A. C.Matthews, Jas. H. Dimmittand 
Wm. Turnbull. The meeting was then addressed by Rev. Mr. Mc- 
Coy, after which an adjourn memt was had until 1 o'clock, p. m. After 
the diimer was dispatched the peof»le were called together by the 
choir, discoursing most pleasant music. After singing the commit- 
tee on permanent organization reported the following named per- 
sons as officers of the "Old Settlers' Association of Pike and Calhoun 
Counties, 111." 

For President, Col. Wm. Ross, Newburg; 1st Vice President, 
Col. Benj. Barnev, Pleasant Vale; 2d Vice President, Daniel B. 
Bush. Pi'ttsfield ; 3d Vice President, Capt. B. F. Westlake, Newburg; 
4:th Vice President, Capt. Benj. L. Matthews, Perry; 5th Vice 


President, Jos. Brown, Cliambersburaj; 6tli Vice President, John' 
Lyster, Detroit; 7th Vice President, jas. Grimes, Milton; 8th Vice 
President, Abel Shelley, Gris^fi^sville; 9th Vice President, Perry 
Wells, Atlas; 10th Vice President, Sam'l G. Sitton. Hardin;^ 11th 
Vice President, Wra. Grammar, Hadley; 12th Vice President, 
Montgomery Blair, Barry; 13th Vice President, John Brittain, 
Martinsbur^; 14th Vice President, Thos H. Dimmitt, Griggsville. 
Secretary, Marcelliis Ross, ISJewburg; 1st Assistant Secretary, Dr. 
E. M. Seelev, Pittsfield; 2d Assistant Secretary Wm. Turnbnll, 

Col. Barney presided at this meeting, Col. Ross being absent on 
account of sickness. A "communication was however read from the 
President. Rev. W. D. Trotter, one of the pioneer preachers of the 
county, spoke for about an hour, reviewing the early life of the 
pioneers. Hon. William A. Grimshaw delivered the address of the 
day. It was an ably prepared historical review of the county's his- 
tory. Indeed, so replete is it with interesting facts of pioneer 
times that we give the entire address in this connection: 


Mr. President^ Ladies and Gentlemen : — Selected by your 
committee of arrangements to bid you welcome here to-day, I do 
so most cordially, as an old settler myself, of, say, the second period 
of Pike county, coming here in the j^ear 1833 ; that being after the 
winter of the deep snow, which was our early noted period in the 
annals of this then wild, romantic, and beautiful country', sparsely 
settled and embraced in the bounds of Pike county. That snow 
with us, once, was the starting point of the date of current events, 
although our records of the courts of justice do not legally recog- 
nize that as a " day in law," yet we even in courts, in the simplicity 
of our early language, often heard events traced by that snow as 
the date point. 

In the early days we all enjoyed the largest constitutional liberty; 
we voted for him we liked best, as I, a Whig, did for " honest Joe 
Duncan," a Democrat, on a deep question in those days, the Illi- 
nois and Michigan Canal, " the deep cut ;" we also each worshipped 
God according to the dictates of our own conscience and under our 
vine and fig-tree. When Brother Trotter, who is now present, 
venerable with years and revered for piety, or old Father Woolf, 
now gathered to his fathers, blessed for his good deeds, came 
around to his appointment, all, of every religion and no one religion, 
turned out to meeting in the woods or the log school- house or at a 
settler's home. We had no fine churches in those days. Mormons 
puzzled the unwary by their startling pretense at new revelations. 
Or, if disappointed by the regular minister, old Father Petty would 
recite, in prayer, Belteshazzar's feast, in trembling tones of piety. 

Our worthy and venerable President (elect but absent). Col. Wm. 
Ross, who has been often honored by the people of Pike Co. by their 


votes, electing him to high oflBces of public trust, could tell you 
much of the first period or earliest years of the settlement of your 
county, as he arrived in the county in 1820 and settled at Atlas, 
which was the county-seat in its day, and was laid out by the Ross 
brothers. Atlas was yet the place at which the county records 
were kept in 1833, but in the spring of the year Pittslield was sur- 
veyed and laid off into lots and the sale thereof made at different 
periods, the first sale of lots being in that spring. A court-house 
was built in the summer of 1833 at Pittsfield ; from that event 
the greater prosperity of the county and an increase of population 

The terror infused into the public mind, beyond tiie settlements 
of Illinois, by tiie Black Hawk war, which had' retarded emigration 
to our State, the Indians being removed to the West of the Missis- 
sippi, the tide of emigration began to set in, and you witness to- 
day, in the presence here of this assemblage, the vast change in a 
little over fifty years since the Yankees (who came before the clock- 
peddlers) set foot within the limits of Pike county, as it now exists. 
Clock peddlers were the only gentlemen in those days, as they rode 
in the only covered carriages. 

It is true, when you consider the rise and growth of Chicago in 
our own State, and of St. Louis in Missouri, rival cities, each of 
nearly four hundred thousand people, we don't seem to have much 
to brag of as to our growth. Consider, however, that we are almost 
strictly an agricultural county, that being our chief and most profit- 
able pursuit, and then the greatest zealot for progress mxust admit 
that, from a beginning of a few families in 1821, we are now a 
county not to be sneezed at, and especially when our vote at the 
polls is counted. Excluding counties in which cities have arisen, 
we are most densely populated, more so than many in our beauti- 
ful Illinois, and yet we have broad acres of valuable lands in a state 
of nature." 

Once our prairies were the home of the bounding deer in vast 
herds, of the prarie wolf, the prairie fowl in great flocks, the tim- 
ber land abounded with the squirrel, the turkey and the pigeon, 
and in the hollow trees we had the beautiful but noisy paroquet; 
as well as in their haunts numerous other birds and animals. These 
have in a great measure disappeared until game is a rarity. The 
wild fruits once abounding have been superseded by more luscious 
cultivated fruits. And yet, who of the old settlers does not remem- 
ber with a twinkle in his eye the old settlers' first substitute for an 
apple, a big turnip; and also find a good taste in the mouth when 
he thinks of those nice preserved plums, ci-ab-apples and ground 
cherries, and the pumpkin pie, and the pork mince meat. We 
then think of the prairie and woodland each abounding in the sea- 
son in beautiful flowers, rivaling in their colors the rainbow. These 
were the holiday delights of dame and maiden, and the husband 
and lover we. o alike made glad in their contemplation. The retro- 
spect of nature has its beauties. The reality of the first settler's 


life in a new country is often full of prose and but little poetry. 
CompMre the simple and even poor furniture of our early homes 
with the elegant furniture now in use, and what a contrast ! But 
with all the drawbacks of an early settler's life few repine at their 
lot in this beautiful land. IS^one can who accept with reflection 
and thankfulness the many mercies which crown our lives. 

I am reminded by this retrospection, that yesterday, on return- 
ing home, I found a written, kind notification from your Com- 
mittee, in charge of the convening of this your first Old Settlers' 
meeting, that I was invi,ted and expected to address yon to-day. I 
then took my pen to endeavor to bridle my thoughts and to bid 
them serve the request of the Committee, that 1 should speak as 
to the "honesty, patience, industry, self-sacrifice and hospitality 
of the old settlers." 

Honesty was the rule, crime the exception, in early days. It 
would seem as if at the first mention of the honesty of the old set- 
tlers it was a sarcasm, on the idea of lawyers settling here, and as 
if I had some personal experience and revelation to make. Of 
colirse T know something and much of the facts, and will relate 

It was well known that because we had no locks we never locked 
our houses and out buildings; it was proverbial that the deer skin 
of the door latch was never pulled in, that is the latch string was 
out; then we had not much to tempt people to steal; so our things 
lay about loose; our plows with their wooden mold-boards hung 
on the fences with imj^unity; but at Christmas time, the plow or 
ox skull hung upon a tree by the way side, reminded the passer-by, 
on the three-year old, riding to see his girl, that a fool's head was 
too soft to butt either of those pendants in the tree. 

At an early day an old ax, worth fifty cents perhaps in these 
days being stolen, the vile thief was ordered to leave the settle- 
ment of Atlas, and did leave for his country's good. It was said 
that loud porcine cries were heard upon the "Sny Island " at times, 
because men would kill their neighbor's hogs : that was a trifling 
aft'air and cost only the penalty of going halves with the nearest 
justice; thus dividing the rneat^unless the head and ears were 
found and those bearing some man's recorded mark; then that was 
a case for the Grand Jury. Hog stealing was said to be caused by 
drinking Sny water. 

We have told only of the style of dishonest tricks in those days. 
With more facts to bear us out, we can now affirm that the general 
reputation of our early settlers was remarkably good for honesty 
in general, but there was a slight propensity to "hook timber" to 
make rails and to use as house logs and some fellows in the land, 
held, in fact it was "common law," that a "bee tree" even in your 
pasture lot was lawful plunder. 

As to the patience of our people, if that means bearing up with 
the courage of a true man and true woman under the perils to 
limb and property, the early settlers were exemplary for that; the 


trials of an early settler's life were leofion. His resources, so far 
as supplies for his family, were small; his debts were a great vex- 
ation, and some, if not all, had these pests, until the lands were 
entered and paid for, the money often being loaned at interest as 
high as 75 per centum per annum. Then if you went to mill, you 
journeyed a score, aye, three-score miles; to meeting often as far. 
No bridges, and but few roads existed; the saddle, or the ox cart, 
or truck, wooden-wheeled wagon, and no fine carriages, was the 
mode of travel. 

Corn dodger, without salt, and porkor side- meat,were great staples; 
vegetables and fruits, unless wild fruits, were rarely on the table, 
unless when company came to spend the afternoon, or to a quilt- 
ing, then the best the house or the neighborhood afforded was 
forthcoming for the visitor. The quilting parties were generally 
the resort of young and old. Marriages were rare in those ^lays, 
because bachelors were more plenty than belles. 

As to the industry of the old settlers, as a class, industry was to 
the extent of present ability, implements, health and condition, and 
was not surpassed by the toil of men of the present day. The ma- 
tron and the few young ladies had much toil and vexation, and that 
was often more excessive on wash-day, because of having to pick up 
fuel as it could be gleaned, or carrying the clothes to and from 
the wash place, which was a branch or spring. The clothes-line 
was a grape vine or a fence, and the hogs and calves trespassed on 
that to " chaw the things," and to keep the "creeters" off, old 
boss and the old woman (not yet 25 years old) often had a hard 
fight lest the baby in the cradle sitting near the out-door fire should 
be " up sot." 

Self-sacrifice was one of the many and noblest virtues of the 
early settler; in times of sickness you were free to call up any 
neighbor for help, to sit up with the sick, to ride 25 or even more 
miles for the doctor, and that mostly, as our doctors said, in the 
dead of night, to the great horror of the doctor, who had to saddle 
up and travel, even in the dead of night, to the farthest limits of 
his own or to an adjoining county. 

Although the county of Pike was naturally healthy, the over 
toil, the privation, the imperfect protection from the inclemency of 
seasons, the water used from shallow water-holes, all these tended 
to multiply disease and death. This county was never, as a gen- 
eral tiling, visited so much with sickness and death as other coun- 
ties in onr State. 

In the early day no iron horse snorted and raced over our 
prairies. The steamer once perhaps in several weeks dragged itself 
along. Twelve days was a short time for a trip from New York 
here, and that mostly by stage. Our mails arrived once a week, 
and a letter cost us onr " last quarter." News from Europe a 
month old was fresh. No troublesome quotations of daily markets 
puzzled or enlightened us. A counterfeit United States bill was 
almost legal tender. Hoop-poles, staves and cord wood were equal 


at a later day to gold. Store pay was better than any of the fore- 
going, but often lead to heavy mortgages and secret bills of sale. 
The laws were quickly enforced. Once a client of a celebrated 
lawyer was taken out of Court and the penalty of the law put on 
his back with stripes before the motion for a new trial was over; 
then the client protested against a new trial lest if convicted he 
would be a second time whipped. 

Now how changed is everything around us! In the early day 
there was more variety in dress, if less taste. All dressed in their 
best, and sometimes (if 'the ladies will pardon such an o'er true 
tale) a white satin bonnet, the worse for the wear, was seen over a 
blue " Dolly Yarden " ruffled cap. The most distinguished man 
at shows, for a number of years, was an old, gaunt, straight man, 
with a bell-crowned hat, in the height of the fashion when he was 
young, which was nearly twelve inches perpendicular; horses often 
carried double in those days, if girls were plenty, and about spark- 
ing and wedding time. Oh how sociable! and yet all was modesty 
and innocence. 

Hospitality — that signifies strictly "practice of entertaining 
strangers," but in its true early settler's ways much more was 
meant, intended, and done. On a journey almost every house was 
a welcome home to the weary traveler; if any charge was made 
for the entertainment it was very moderate; at times the parting 
word to you was, " You are welcome to such as we had, and please 
call again when traveling this way." 

Hospitality scarce expresses the line sensibility, the manly Chris- 
tian spirit, of many of the olden time. The pioneer feels that each 
and every settler of his neighborhood (and he does not criticise 
much as to who is his neighbor) is entitled to such help and good 
feeling as may be asked or should be extended. 

I felt and still feel a large degree of sympathy, and that the most 
cordial, with the old settlers. It occurs to me that as Pike county 
once included Calhoun, and as some of the settlers there are co- 
temporaries with our earliest settlers, we should include the Cal- 
houn old settlers in our Society — in fact just this week that was 
named to me in that county. 

"With great hopefulness as to the prosperity of this new Society, 
desiring for it many happy re- unions, I offer to you the thanks of 
myself, an old settler, for your courtesy in inviting me to address 
this meeting; and may God bless our vast population, spread over 
our large county, which had when first known to myself about 
three thousand people, and now contains approaching forty thou- 
sand, although the hive of people has swarmed many times. 

Farewell, my friends, one and all. Let us part with mutual 
good wishes, as we never more can all meet again in this life. 

At the first meeting it was decided to invite the old settlers of 
Calhoun county to join with the Pike county Old Settlers' Society. 


In harmony with this decision Calvin Twjchell, Smith Jennings 
and William Wilkinson were elected Vice-Presidents. 


The second meeting of the Old Settlers' Association was held in 
September, 1873. The following letter from Judge William 
Thomas, of Jacksonville, was read: 

" Jacksonville, Aug. 30, 1873. 

"Mr. Marcellus Ross, 'Secretary: — Dear Sir, — I have received 
two invitations to attend the Old Settlers' Meeting in Pike county 
on Wednesday next. I regret that I cannot accept either, for I 
would be glad to meet the survivors of those with whom I became 
acquainted forty-five years ago. I attended the Circuit Court in 
Atlas in June. 1827, which was my first visit to Pike. The Court 
was held by Judge Lockwood, who now resides atBatavia, in Kane 
county. The attorneys in attendance v^^ere John W. Whitney, N. 
Hansoti, and John Jay Ross, of Pike county, Gen. James Turney 
and Alfred W. Caverly, of Greene county, now of Ottawa, and J. 
W. Pugh, of Sangamon county, Mr. Jenkins, of Calhoun county, 
John Turney and myself, of Morgan county. Capt. Leonard Ross, 
one of nature's noblemen, was Sherifi", Col. Wm. Ross was Clerk; 
James M. Seeley was an oflScer of the Court. Of all these. Judge 
Lockwood, Mr. Caverly, and myself are the only survivors. The 
Court was in session three days, and then went to Calhoun county. 
It was held in a log cabin in the prairie, near which was a log cabin 
occupied by the grand jury. The traverse jury had the privilege 
of the prairies. 

'' In September afterward, returning from the Winnebago war I 
left the boat at Quinoj, where I purchased a horse, saddle and 
bridle for $40. From'Quincy I came to Atlas, a good day's travel; 
remained in Atlas one day and two nights, and then set out for 
home. Passing Col. Seeley's, I found no other house until I 
reached Blue river, where Van Deusen had a small grist-mill, and 
I crossed the Illinois river on Van Deusen's ferry. That night I 
reached Exeter. The weather was pleasant, the roads were dry and 

"Pike county was then a wilderness. I came as directed, the 
nearest and best route home. I could never then have been made 
to believe that I should live to see a population of 30,000 within 
its boundaries. 

" Capt. Ross entertained the jury and the lawyers in their double 
log cabin free of charge, expressing his regret that we could not 
stay longer. I was at Atlas at the Presidential election in 1824 
and voted for John Qnincy Adams for President. 

"Judge Lockwood, -Mr. McConnell and myself, in attending 
Court at Atlas (the year 1 do not recollect), passed the present site 
of Griggsville and saw the man, Mr. Scholl, raising the first log 


<;abin on that hill. I suppose the land had been laid out in town 

" In the early settlement of the Military Tract traveling cost but 
little. The old settlers were always glad of the opportunity of 
entertaining travelers, and especially the judt^e and lawyers, from 
whom they could obtain interesting accounts in relation to "what 
was going on in the world around them. Besides, we often had 
to encamp in the woods and prairies because no house was within 
reach at dark, and this was Called "lodging at Munn's tavern," be- 
cause of the large number of quarter sections of land owned by him. 
I have often fared sumptuously in the log cabins on bread made of 
grated meal, venison, honey, butter and milk and stewed pumpkins, 
ijnd slept comfortably and soundh' on the puncheon floor. * * * 

"Feb. 14, 1823, Wm. Ross was elected Judge of the Court of 
Probate. In 1823 Geo. Cadwell, then of Greene county but after- 
ward included in Morgan, was elected to the Senate for Greene 
and Pike, and Archibald Job, who was still living, for the House. 
Oadwell's term expired in two years, and in 1824 Thos. Carlin, 
afterward elected governor in 1836, was elected to the "Senate. 
"Cadwell was an educated physician, a man of talent and stern in- 
tegrity: he died in 1824 or 1825. 

" At the meeting of the Legislature in 1824 Nicholas Hanson 
and John Shaw both produced certificates of election to the House, 
The question which was entitled to the seat was referred to the 
Speaker, who decided in favor of Hanson. During the ses- 
sion the question was again brought before the House, and de- 
cided by a unanimous vote in favor of Hanson. Near the close of 
the session the question was reconsidered and Shaw admitted, in 
consideration of which Shaw voted for the resolution for a call' 
of a convention. 

" For several years after I came to the State, deer, wild turkey 
and wild beasts were plenty, especially on the Illinois and Missis- 
sippi rivers. But for this fact many of our early settlers would 
have suffered for provisions, or have been compelled to retreat for 

"In passing from Rushville to Quinc}'-, the Judge, Mr. Caverly 
and myself slept on the prairie during the night, and the next 
morning, which was Sunday, we found a house a few miles distant 
in the barrens; and we could not make the family believe it was 
not Saturday. The nearest neighbor lived five miles distant. They 
lived on wild game, grated corn meal and roasted ears, and lived 
well. We thought at breakfast we could not wish for better fare. 

"In passing from Atlas to Gilead in Calhoun county we always 
made the house of an old gentleman named Munn our stopping- 
place. He and his wife were always glad to see us and maae 
sumptuous preparations for our comfort. 

" If I were at the stand and questioned I could probably answer 
many questions in regard to matters of interest to the present in- 
habitants; but as I do not know the points on which they would 


qnestioTi me, atui as I have already extended this letter, consideriiijs^ 
the hot weather, to what may be considered a reasonable length, I 
close, hopinty that you may have a good day and a good time. 

" Respectfully your friend, " William Thomas." 

This meeting was* addressed by many old settlers, who related 
very interesting experiences. The exercises were interspersed 
with music and a grand picnic dinner, etc. Letters were read 
from Edwin Draper and Leyi Pettibone, of Louisiana. Mo., besides 
the one from Judge Thomas, above given. Wm. A. Grimshaw 
was elected President, James McWilliams, of Griggsville, Vice 
President, and Geo. W. Jones Assistant Secretary. Tlie following 
resolution was adopted: '-''Resolved^ That the old settlers of Pike 
and Calhoun counties be requested to notify the President and 
Secretary of tlie Old Settlers' organization, the names of all mem- 
bers of this Association who shall depart this life during the 
present year, and that the Secretary be instructed to enter the 
same upon record." 

Among those who addressed the assembly were Hon. Wm. A. 
Grimshaw, John T. Hodgen, of St. Louis, Calvin Twichell, of 
Calhoun county, J. T. Long, now of Barry, for many years a resi- 
dent of A<lams county, Wm. Turnbull, of Flint, A. P. Sharpe, of 
Griggsville, Alvin Wheeler, the oldest living settler of Pike county 
(came here in 1818), now 75 years of age. Col. D. B. Bush closed 
th*e line of history by giving a sketch of Pittsfield. Dr. Worthing- 
ton claimed Frederick Franklin, of Montezuma, as the oldest living 
settler of Pike county now living. He was the son of Ebenezer 
Franklin, the first settler in the county. 

In this connection we give the very interesting letter of Mr. 

" Louisiana, Mo., Sept. 1, 1873. 

" Hon. Wm. A. Grimshaw and others: Gentlemen, — Througii 
the politeness of some friend of your coimty-seat I am indebted 
for an invitation to attend the meeting of old settlers of your county 
at Pittsfield, on the 3d inst. ;for this invitation I presume I am in- 
debted for tlie fact of being nearly connected by inarriage with Levi 
Pettibone, Esq., an old settler and perhaps the oldest man in Pike 
county, Mo., and perhaps with few exceptions the oldest man in 
Missouri, he being now nearing the completion of his 93d year. 
But from whatever cause, I esteem it a compliment altogether un- 
deserved to myself, but wiiich nevertheless I should take the great- 
est pleasure, if circumstances permitted, of meeting with the old 
settlers of your county, among whom I am proud to recognize, not 
only the many distingished piiblic men, but many old and long 
esteemed personal friends, some of whom have long been settlers of 
Pike County 111., and not a few of them old settlers of Pike and 
Lincoln counties. Mo., who, not content with aiding to break up the 
wilds of Missouri and bring them into the paths and fields of 
civilization, have largely colonized Pike county 111., where they have 


been long enough to earn the appellation of ' old settlers,' where 
they are realizing the rich fruits of their industry in land flowing 
with milk and honey, and as I lament to know, many of them are 
resting beneath the sods that are no respecters of persons in the 
final winding up of human affairs. The memory of many of these 
persons, both living and dead, carry me far back into the history of 
the past, in the early history of Missouri, of whose soil I have been 
an occupant since the year 1815, before either your State or Mis- 
souri had a State Government. Though then quite young (but eight 
years old) I was old enoug'h to remember everything 1 saw, and 
everybody I knew, — much more so than persons and facts of later 
years; but to attempt to recount or name any considerable number of 
them would be to inflict a bore upon you that I dare not presume 
upon; but as I presume that a part of the exercises of the occasion 
would be to recur to the early history of the "West, including your 
State and ours, I cannot resist the temptation to jot down a few facts 
and names, even at the risk of being laid upon the table as a bore. 

" Tbe date 1815 shows that the early settlers, among whom was 
my father, were crowding into Missouri even before the forts were 
all vacated, whither the old settlers had fled for the purpose of pro- 
tection from hostile savages,' M^ho had but recently had almost 
undisputed possession of a large part of our State. To get into 
Missouri, then largely considered as the promised land, we had to 
cross the Mississippi river, the Father of Waters. I don't know 
how much of a father he was at that time, but I have been acquainted 
with him since that time, and I don't know much difi'erence in 
his size between then and now, except occasionally, as in 1851, he 
got into a terrible rage and had uncontrolled possession from Lou- 
isiana to Atlas, and rolled on, whether vexed or unvexed, in solemn 
majesty to the Gulf of Mexico. 

" But to continue. He had to be 'crossed ' to get into Missouri. 
In 1815, as history shows, no steam-boats were known on our rivers, 
and the only modes, or rather mode, of crossing the river at St. 
Louis was by means of a small keel-boat or barge without any deck 
or covering, propelled by poles ; and our wagons were crossed by 
placing two planks or slabs across the keel, running the wagons by 
hand upon these slabs across the boats and 'scotching' the wheels 
with billets of wood, filling in the inner parts of the boat with 
horses, children, etc. Yet we conquered the old gentleman and 
rode across in triumph, but not, however, until after waiting two 
days on the eastern bank for the wind to lie, which had so ruffled 
the surface and temper of the 'father' that he could not, safely at 
least, be mounted by an insignificant keel-boat until the cause of 
his irritation had ceased. 

" Safely on the Missouri shore, the first night was passed in the 
city of St. Louis, then containinc^ about 1,200 inhabitants and very 
few brick houses : I did not count them, however. No railroads 
then were even thought of in the West, so far as 1 remember, but 
now — well, you can lell the tale yourselves. St. Louis has now 


450,000 inliabitants, and would likely have a million but for Chi- 
cago and the railroads, which have revolutionized the course of 
nature and the natural rights of St. Louis, which depended on the 
navigation of the great rivers to work for her ; and while her great 
land-owner slept a quarter of a century Chicago and the railroads 
were surging ahead of her. 

"Excuse this digression, which I could not help while reflecting 
on the immense cliange all over the West since I first crossed the 
great river. 

" I have alluded to the |act of your county being largely colon- 
ized from Pike and Lincolii counties, Mo. It would be impossible 
for me to enumerate all of them, even if I knew them all ; but 
among the names I remember well those of the Gibsons, the Sit- 
tons, Buchanan, Yokems, Galloway, Uncle Jake Williamson, the 
Cannons, Collard, Wellses, Kerrs, J^oyes, Metz, Johnsons, McCou- 
nells, Andersons, etc., etc., all of whom went from Pike or Lin- 
coln. All of them were good citizens, while some of them held 
high and honorable positions in public office. Your former valued 
Sheriff, Ephraim Cannon, was for a while a school-mate of mine, 
larger and older than I, but still a school-mate. The only special 
recollection I have of our school- boys' life was that the teaclier 
once asked him, when nearly time to close school, ' How high is 
the sun V He replied he had no means of measuring the height,, 
but 'from appearance it was about a rod high.' 

"John J. Collard, Esq., a former Clerk of one of your Courts, was 
the son of an old settler of Lincoln county, dating before the war 
of 1812, if my memory is not at fault. I have attended your Courts 
when held at the old county-seat, Atlas, and since its location at 
your beautiful town Pittsfield. The old settlers at Atlas, as well as 
of Pittstield, were the Rosses, most of whom I knew personally, 
and had a slight acquaintance with the 'Bashaw' of Hamburg, Mr. 
Shaw. Old Father Burnett and his boys John and Frank belonged 
to both Pikes, in Illinois and Missouri. The sons wore out their 
lives in trying to sustain a ferry between the two Pikes. 

"Put I must forbear, fearing that I have already bored you, a 
thing I feared at the start. I could write a half quire of recollec- 
tions of Pike in Missouri, and some of Pike in Illinois, if there 
were any market for them. But I must close with my best wishes- 
for your people, both old and young. 

" Edwin Dkaper." 
third meeting. 

At the Old Settlers' meeting, Sept. 2, 1874, Hon. Wm. A. Grim- 
shaw delivered an address of welcome, and interesting speecheB 
were made by Col. Benj. Barney, Pev. J. P. Dimmitt, Dr. Hodgen, 
Mr. Turnbull, Judge Grigsby and others. Dr. P. E.Parker was 
elected Secretary in place of G. W, Jones, resigned. A motion was 
adopted charging the time of membership from 1840 to 1850; also 
a motion to establish a portfolio and gallery of likenesses of old set- 


tiers; and members and others were invited to send pictures. A 
social reception of old settlers was given in the evening at Bush's 


At the 4th annual meeting of the old settlers at Perrj'-, Aug. 
19, 1875, old-time customs were commemorated by the erection of 
a cabin complete in all its details. It looked as if a family had 
been living in it for year^. Cooking utensils hanging around the 
wall, suspended on a string were slices of pumpkin and dried ap- 
ples, corn hung from the posts, suspended by the husks, the rifle 
hung on the wooden hook over the door, tlie spinning wheel, the 
reel and the hand-cards occupied prominent positions; the mam- 
moth gourd for a water bucket and tiie lesser one as a dipper at- 
tracted considerable attention. On the outside walls the skins of 
different fur-bearing animals were stretched; climbing vines were 
turned up to the roof, and the sunflower in all its magnificence 
nodded here and there close to the house, and last, but not least-, 
the latch-string hung on the outside. The cabin was presided over 
during the early part of the day by Mr. Wm. Grotts, who enter- 
tained his visitors with his " fiddle," playing Arkansas traveler, 
Money Musk, Old Eosin the Bow," etc. Mr. Grotts was born in this 
State in 1802, in Madison county. His father was killed by Indians 
in Bond county in 1814. 


During the Old Settlers' meeting at Griggsville, Aug. 30, 1876, 
they formed a procession in front of the M. E. Church, headed by 
an old truck wagon drawn by oxen, containing a band, the people 
being dressed in the Sunday attire of pioneer times, girls and boys 
riding double on horseback without saddles, showing how they 
went to church in olden times. This was one of the most attractive 
features of the procession, the young ladies especially conducting 
themselves with becoming grace, and appeared as if they were in- 
spired with the spirit of their grandmothers. An old dilapidated 
wagon drawn by oxen was loaded with the old-fashioned loom, 
spinning wheel, flax wheel and reel, and an old plow was followed 
by most of our modern machinery in the shape of reapers, mowers, 
harrows, etc. After these a man dressed in Indian costume on his 
pony, ladies and gentlemen in modern style in buggies and carriages, 
the fire engine drawn by members of the base-ball clubs in uniform, 
and a modern child-wagon with children was drawn by a very small 



When, in 1861, the war was forced upon the country, the people 
were quietly pursuing the even tenor of their ways, doing whatever 
their hands found to do, — working the nriines, making farms, or 
cultivating those already made, establishing homes, founding cities 
and towns, building shops and manufactories; in short, the country 
was alive with industry and hopes for the future. The people were 
just recovering from the depression and losses incident to the finan- 
cial panic of 1857. The future looked bright and promising, and 
the industrious and patriotic sons and daughters of the North were 
buoyant with hope, looking forward to the perfecting of new plans 
for comfort and competence in tlieir declining years. They little 
heeded the rautterings and threatenings wafted from the South. 
They never dreamed that there was one so base as to attempt the 
destruction of the Union their fathers had purchased for them with 
their life-blood. While thus surrounded with peace and tranquillity 
they paid but little attention to the rumored plots and plans of those 
who lived and grew rich from the sweat and toil, blood and flesh, 
of others. 

The war clouds grew darker and still darker, the thunders of 
treason grew louder and louder until April 12, 1861, when the fear- 
ful storm burst npon the country and convulsed a continent with 
its attendant horrors. 

On that day the rebels, who for weeks had been erecting their 
batteries upon the shore, after demanding of Major Anderson a 
surrender, opened fire upon Fort Sumter. For hours an incessant 
cannonading was continued; the fort was being damaged severely; 
provisions were almost gone, and Major Anderson was compelled to 
haul down the stars and stripes, — that dear old flag which had 
seldom been lowered to a foreign foe; by rebel hands it was now 
trailed in the dust. How the blood of patriotic men of the North 
boiled when on the following day the news was flashed along the 
telegraph wires that Major Anderson had been forced to surrender! 
And nowhere was greater indignation manifested than in Pike 




Immediately upon the surrender of Fort Sumter, Abraham Lin- 
coln, America's martyr President — wlio but a few short weeks be- 
fore had taken the oath of office as the nation's cliief executive — 
issued a proclamation calling for 75,000 volunteers for three months. 
The last word of that proclamation had scarcely been taken from 
the electric wires before . the call was filled, and men and money 
were counted out by hundreds and thousands. The people who 
loved their whole government could not give enough. Patriotism 
thrilled and vibrated and pulsated through every heart. The farm, 
the workshop, the office, the pulpit, the bar, the bench, the college, 
the school-house, — every calling offered its best men, their lives 
and fortunes, in defense of the Government's honor and unity. 
Bitter words spoken in moments of political heat were forgotten 
and forgiven, and, joining Jiands in a common cause, they repeated 
the oath of America's soldier statesman, "^y the Great Eternal^ the 
Union must and shall he preserved ^ 

Call the young men in the prime of their life; 
Call them from mother, from sister, from wife; 
Blessed if they live, revered if they fall,— 
They who respond unto Liberty's call. 

Seventy-five thousand men were not enough to subdue the Rebel- 
lion; nor were ten times the number. Tlie war went on, and call 
followed call, until it began to look as if there would not be men 
enough in all the Free States to crush out and subdue the monstrous 
war traitors had inaugurated. But to every call for either men or 
money there was a willing and ready response; and it is a boast of 
the people that, had the supply of men fallen short, there were 
women brave enough, daring enough, patriotic enough, to offer 
themselves as a sacrifice on their country's altar. Such were the 
impulses, motives and actions of the patriotic men of the North, 
among whom the sons of Pike made a conspicuous and praiseworthy 


The tocsin of war was sounded, meetings were held in every 
township, village and city, at which stirring and spirited addresses 
were made, and resolutions adopted admitting of but one interpre- 
tation, — that of unconditional allegiance and undying devotion to 
their country and their country's flag; that, at whatever cost of 
blood or treasure, the stars and stripes, wherever floating, must be 
honored; and the supremacy of the law of the National Union sus- 

A Union meeting was held in Pittsfield April 20, 1861, the Chair- 
men of which were David A. Stanton, Wm. E. Wills and D. D. 
Hicks, and the Secretaries F. C. Brown and A. G. Matthews. The 
Committee on Resolutions were Wm. A. Grimshaw, C. L. Higbee, 
J. W. Mackintosh, D. B. Bush, jr., Nathan Kelly and Wm. Steers. 


L. II. Waters, of Macomb, delivered the priiicijial speech, which 
was a very eloquent one, and Hon. Scott Wike, Messrs. D. II. Gil- 
mer and S. M. Hayes made short speeches. A series of resolutions 
were adopted setting forth the inauguration of the war b}' the firing 
on Fort Sumter and the necessity of rallying to the support of the 

April 22 a meeting; wis held in the conrt-house for the purpose^of 
forming a company of home guards. The company organized, elect- 
ing S. M. Hayes Captain. M. J. Noyes presided at this meeting. 
About this time the " Pike County Union Guards " were also organ- 
ized, with John McWilliams for Captain. In Jul}' Jas. S. Barnard 
was elected Captain of the latter company' and P. G. Athey Captain 
of a cavalry company of 130 men, all from Pike county. 

During this summer also Wm. W. Taylor, a Breckenridge Demo- 
crat of Perry, was suspected of disloyalty and made in an informal 
manner to take the oath of allegiance by some soldiers of Col. 
Grant's regiment. 

Aug. 5, 1861, a company called the " Henderson Home Guards " 
was organized in Pittsfield, numbering 130 men, with Daniel D. 
Hicks as Captain, each member to arm and equip himself; it was 
also called the " Henderson Union Guards." 

The subject of bounty for soldiers was one that engaged the un- 
divided attention of the law-making power of this county during 
these trying times. That the reader may know what was done by 
the county ofiicials we give a very full account of the proceedings 
of the Boai'd of Supervisors whenever the bounty subject was 
being considered by that honorable body. 

At a special meeting of the Board of Supervisors held Aug. 4, 
1862, for the purpose of considering the feasibility or propriety of 
offering bounty to soldiers, Supervisor Smith moved that the Chair 
appoint a committee of five to draft resolutions expressive of the 
sense of the meeting. Thereupon the Chair appointed Messrs. 
Smith, Westlake, Wallace, McWilliams and Adams. 

Mr. Wallace presented a petition from the citizens of Barry, 
asking an appropriation by the Board of $16,000. 

The Committee on Resolutions submitted the following report 
the next day: 

Whereas, Several Southern States of this Uuion in convention assembled have 
absolved themselves by resolution from allegiance to the United States of America 
and formed themselves into a so-called "confederacy," thereby disclaiming any 
right, benetit or protection from or under the Constitution of the United States; 

Whkrkas, Said confederacy have organized, armed and equipped hostile armies 
and did tire upon, reduce and take into their possession Fort Sumter with all its 
defenses, and unlawfully seize and take into possessioiv other forts, arsenals and 
other property belonging to the United States, thereby bidding defiance to the 
Constitution and the laws of the same; and 


Whereas, It still exists and unsubdued, a ..d our present army is insufficient in 
numbers to put down the rebellion ; and 

Whereas, The President of the United States has recently made a call upon the 
several States of this Union to raise 300,000 men in addition to the present army; 

Therefore we, the representatives of the several townships of the county of Pike 
and State of Illinois have here assembled for the purpose of considering the pro- 
priety of offering encouragememt to the volunteers who will immediately enter 
into the service of the United States ; therefore be it 

Resolved, That the sum of $3,000 be paid to the first three companies that are 
raised or organized in the county of Pike under said call, provided said companies 
are organized on or before the 20th inst. ; and that the Clerk of this Court be au- 
thorized to issue orders on the'Treasury for the said sums of money whenever said 
volunteers are accepted and mustered into service; 

Resolved, That $1,000 be appropriated to the families of those who have here- 
tofore volunteered in the service of the United States, and we recommend that 
each township shall through their Supervisor call a meeting to provide for 
the future wants of all families of volunteers; that the Supervisor of each town- 
ship shall be a committee to distribute all appropriations made by the county or 

Resolvid, That the Supervisors of each township shall report at the September 
meeting the number of families of volunteers in their townships, and their names. 

By invitation Judge Higbee addressed the Board briefly, after 
which Cols. Ross and Bush made short addresses. . 

Mr. Dennis moved to atnend the repurt by striking out " $3,000 " 
and inserting "$50 to each volunteer private who may enlist under 
the present call." Mr. Westlake moved to amend the amendment 
of Mr. Dennis by striking out "$50" and inserting " $25;" which 
motion was lost. The amendment offered by Mr. Dennis was also 

Mr. Landrum offered the following resolutions: 

Resolved, That tlie proposition of the appropriation by the county of $G,000 to 
be submitted to the people for their vote for or against levying a tax to meet said 
appropriation, at an election to be held at the usual places of holding elections in 
the several towns, on Tuesday, the 13th inst. ; said fund, if so voted, to be appro- 
priated to aid in raising volunteers. 

Resolved, That a proposition be also submitted at the same time for or against 
appropriating $2,000 as a fund for the necessitous families of volunteers as have 
heretofore or may hereafter be mustered into the service of the United States. 

Mr. Wallace moved to strike out that portion of Mr. Landrum's 
resolution referring to the submission to the people, and that the 
Board appropriate the amount specified in said resolution; which 
motion was carried. 

The question recurring on Mr. Landrum's resolution as amended 
it was put and lost. 

Mr. Dennis moved to strike out the first resolution and amend 
the second so that $4,000 be appropriated for the support of desti- 
tute families of soldiers in the service, 

Mr. Frye moved to lay all on the table without further action 
until the September meeting; which motion was lost. The question 
then recurring on the amendinent of Mr. Dennis, it was adopted. 

The substance of the resolution as passed appropriated $4,000 for 
the families of destitute soldiers. 


At a special meeting of the Board of Supervisors lield June 23, 
1S65, to eitlier ofter a Ijounty for enlistments or to aid persons who 
mav be di'afted into the service of the United States, Supervisor 
Robei-ts offered the follo\vin<i^ resolutions: 

WuEREAS, Tlie President of the United States has called for 300,000 volunteers, 
and ordered, in ease the same are not made bj' the 15th of February next, that a 
draft shall be made to till the quota; and 

Whereas, Such draft will fall heavy on many poor persons in this coui.tywho 
have large families to support; and 

Whereas, The property of the'county receives the protection of the Govern- 
ment, as well as persons, and should be made to bear its just proportions of the 
burdens of war; therefore 

Resolved, That our Representatives in the Legislature now in session be respects 
fullv requested to procire the passage of an act as speedily as possible, authoriz- 
ino-the Board of Supervisors of this county to offer a bounty to volunteers and to 
aid in procuring substitutes for drafted persons, and to provide such funds as will 
be necessary therefor by issuing bonds payable within 20 years, bearing interest 
not exceeding ten per cent, per annum. 

Res lived, That in case of the passage of such an act, the Board of Supervisors 
will pay to each volunteer credited to any town in this county subject to the draft 
a bounty of |500, and in case of a draft, each person so drafted in this county who 
shall procure a substitute shall receive from the county the sum of $500 to aid him 
in paying for such substitute. 

Mr. Shields moved to postpone the resolution indefinitely. 
After remarks by Supervisors Shields, Roberts, Kelley, Dunn 
and others, Mr. Shields withdrew the motion, and in lieu thereof 
moved that it be postponed to the April meeting of the Board. 
This he, ijovi'ever, withdrew, and Supervisor Dimmitt moved to 
refer the resolution offered by Mr, Roberts to a committee; and 
Mr. Dimmitt, from this committee reported on the following day 
this resolution; 

Resolved, That there be paid to each volunteer or drafted man in this county 
imder the call of Dec. 19, 1864, the sum of $400, such money to be raised by the 
issue of county bonds (interest not to exceed ten per cent.) payable annually in 
lawful money of the United States. 

Resolved, That when such bonds shall have been issued they shall be divided 
among the several townships in proportion to the amount ot taxable property 
assessed in each township for the year 1864; and it shall be the duty of each super- 
visor to receive said bonds and pay over to each drafted man and volunteer the 
sum of $400 when actually mustered into service. 

Mr. Shields moved that said resolution be laid on the table until 
the April meeting; which motion was lost, Mr. Smitherrnan 
then moved that i't, be submitted to the people of the county on 
Jan. 28, 18()5; and Mr. Yail moved to amend by takitig said vote 
on the 30th; which motion was withdrawn; and Mr. Roberts 
moved that whatever action this Board may take shall be sub- 
mitted to the people on Jan, 30, 1865; which motion was 
adopted. Mr, Roberts then moved to amend the first resolution 
by inserting " SoOO " in place of "$400;" which was adopted, 

xVt a mee^ting of the Board held Jan. 31, the day after the elec- 
tion, tliey found after a canvass of the returns that 3,416 votes had 


been cast, of wliicli 2,131 were for the tax and 1,285 against it. Jt 
was then resolved b}' the Board to give a bounty of $500 to each 
volunteer to till the quota of Pike county; and in case said quota 
shall not be tilled by volunteers, then a bounty of $500 shall be 
paid to each person who shall be drafted. For this purpose $127,- 
000 were raised in the county. 

Kinderhook township gave $1,500 bounty, and paid $180 for 

PIKE county's soldiers. 

A few statistical items will show what was done by Pike county, 
and whether she was worthy the trust reposed in lier. According 
to the census of 18G0 the county had a population of 27,182. The 
war, however, continued forseveral years, and the county increased 
in population; accordingly we will place the population in round 
numbers at 30,000. There are tive persons to every voter, accord- 
ing to the customary basis of reckoning. That would make the 
number of men in the county 6,000. Pike county put in the tield 
3,132 men, being over one-half of her voters. 

The quota of the county for the calls of 1861 was 762, which 
were quickly furnished. In 1862 the quota for this county was 
521. For the calls of Feb. 1 and March 14, 1864, it was 786, and 
for the call of 500,000, July 18, 1864, it was 617, making the large 
number of 2,687 men as the quota for this county up to Dec. 31, 
1864. The county not only furnished this number, but sent of her 
brave sons 2,853, being 166 in exqess of Iter various quotas. Sub- 
sequent calls increased the quota of Pike county to 3,221, which 
the county did not till by 89. 

Pike county was largely represented in the following regiments 
and companies. Besides those referred to, her sons were in many 
other regiments, but we give only those which were largely made 
up from this county. 

eighth regiment. 

Company G of this Regiment was entirely furnished by Pike 
county, with James S. Barnard as Captain: afterward Elisha Jones 
and Charles H. Hurt served the Company in that position. The 
1st Lieutenants in succession were Elihu Jones, Wm. P. Sitton, 
Charles H. Hurt and George Sanderson. The 2d Lieutenants were 
Wm. P. Sitton, Charles H. Hurt and Wm. A. Saylor. 

The 8th Illinois Eegiment was organized April 25, 1861, Colonel 
Oglesby commanding. A contest for rank and seniority arose be- 
tween the 7th and 8th, both being organized on the same day. The 
contest was tinally ended, giving to Col. Cook the first number 7, 
as the number of his Regiment, with the second rank of Colonel, 
and Col. Oglesby the second number for his Regiment, with the 
first rank as Colonel. 

The fir t enlistment was for three months, during which timethe 


Retrimeiit was taken to Cairo. July 25, 1861, its term of three 
months havino; e.\]>ired, the 8th reorganized for three years' service. 
It took part in many of the most important engagements of the 
war; was in tlie advance attack on Fort Donelson, where it lost 57 
killed, 191 wonnded and 10 missing. It was also at Piitsburg 
landing, where it lost 26 killed, 9t wounded and 11 missing; and 
it went through the fatigue and dangers of the siege of Corinth. 
The Regiment re-enlisted in 1863 and was veteranized March 24, 
1864; took part in the engagement at Vicksburg, Spanish Fort and 
many other important engagements. 


Company D, of the 7th, beiner a new company of that old Regi- 
ment, was from Pike county. It was organized Feb. 14, 1865, 
under Capt. Samuel N. Iloyt, of Griggsville, v/ith Andrew Moore 
as 1st Lieutenant and Wm. J. Hanlin as 2d Lieutenant. The Com- 
pany served until July 9, 1865, when it was mustered out. 


Company K, of the 16th Infantry, was largely, indeed almost alto- 
gether, from Pike county. They enlisted May 25. 1861. and served 
until July 8, 1865. The Company was organized by Geo. D. Stew- 
art, Captain, wlio served until April 25, 1865, and John Bryant, of 
Pittsfield, was appointed to fill the position. The 1st Lieutenant 
was James Hedger, and following came French B. Woodall, John 
Bryant and Franklin J. Cooper. The 2d Lieutenants were Richard 
B. Higgins, Josej^h E. Haines and Asbury Brown. 

The 16tli was oi'ganized and mustered into service at Quincy, 
Col. Robert A. Smith commanding. In July, 1861, it was removed 
to Green river as railroad guard, after which the Regiment was 
scattered along the line of the road as guard. July 10, Col. Smith's 
force was attacked at Missionary Station by 1,600 mounted rebels, 
but he held his position until the arrival of reinforcements, when 
the enemy fled. It participated in the battle of Bird's Point, Mo., 
and New Madrid, where it supported the siege guns. They cap- 
tured 5,000 prisoners and a large amount of artillerj-, small arms 
and ammunition at Tiptonville, Tenn. In January, 1862, it par- 
ticipated in the siege of Corinth and Nashville. It was mustered 
out July 8, 1865. 


Pike county furnished Company B of this Regiment, and almost 
all of Companies E and I. Company B was commanded first after 
consolidation by Capt. John T. Thomson, of New Hartford, who was 
honorably discharged May 15, 1865, when Geo. W. Chrysup was 
appointed and served until March 15, 1866. The 1st Lieutenants 
in succession were Robert Young, Henry L. Iladscll, Geo. "W". 
Chrysup and Job Pringle. The 2d Lieutenants were Geo. W. 


Chrjsup, Job Prinfjle and Tlioinas James. The officers of the Corn- 
pan}' were James M. Gale, Henry S. Stokes ami Joseph A. Hanks. 

Companies B, E and I of the original organization were from 
this county. Company B was first commanded by Capt. Tiiomas 
H. Bntler, deceased, then by Capt. Geo. W. Stobie, and finally by 
Capt. John T. Thompson. Tne 1st Lieutenants were John T. 
Thompson and Kobert Young: 2d Lieutenants, George Stobie, 
David C. Troutner and Cyrus K. Miller. Lieutenant Troutner 
soon died and Lieutenant Miller died July 8, 1863. Company E 
was first commanded by Captain Thomas M. Kilpatrick. who was 
promoted to Lieutenant Colonel and was killed in battle at Pitts- 
burg Landing. John M. Griffin then commanded the Company. 
The 1st Lieutenants were John M. Griffin, Fredrick C. Bechdoldt, 
who was killed July 12, 1863, and VVm. B. Griffin; the 2d Lieu- 
tenant was Burrel McPherson. Company I was commanded until 
consolidation of Regiment by Capt. Elishallurt; Ist Lieutenants, 
Philip S. Likes and David Dixon; 2d Lieutenant, David Dixon 
and -Henry L. Hadsell. 

The 28th Infantry was organized at Camp Butler in August, 
1861, by Lieut. Col. Lewis H. Waters and Maj. Charles J. Sellon, 
the latter from Pike county. Aug. 28 it was ordered to Thebes, 
111.; Sept. 9, to Bird's Point, Mo.; Oct. 2, to Fort Holt, Ky., where 
it remained until Jan. 21, 1862, when it was assigned to Brig. Gen. 
Lew Wallace's Division. Feb. 6 it took part in the capture of 
Forts Henry and Heiman; Feb. 13 a detachment of 48 men and 12 
officers under Col. Johnson met the enemy 500 strong at Little 
Bethel Church, five miles from Fort Holt, and immediately attacked 
and routed them. The Regiment also took part in the battle of 
Pittsburg Landing; was assigned to the left line in a peach orchard, 
where it was immediately attacked by the enemy, but who were 
repulsed. On the morning ot the 7th it held a position on the 
right line and was hotly engaged until the battle closed and the 
victory won. During these two long, trying, bloody days the 
Regiment behaved nobly and was never broken or driven back by 
the enemy, though often most heavily pressed. It sustained a loss 
of 239 killed and wounded. In May, 1862, it was engaged in the 
siege of Corinth: Oct. 5 engaged in the battle of Metamora, losing 
97 killed and wounded; engaged in the siege of Vicksburg from 
June 11 to July 4, 1863; on the 12th of July, 1863, near Jackson, 
Miss., the 41st, 53d and 28th Illinois and 3d Iowa, not exceeding 
800 men, were ordered to charge across an open field some 600 
yards and carry a strong line of the enemy's works, mounting 12 
guns and manned by at least 2,000 men. The Brigade swept gal- 
lantly forward under a destructive fire of grape, canister and minie 
bullets. The enemy appeared upon both flanks as it reached the 
ditch; it was compelled to fall back with a loss of more than half 
of their rank and file killed or wounded. The eight Companies of 
this Regiment, in line, numbering 128 men, lost 73 killed and 
wounded and 16 taken prisoners. 


Jan., 1864, the Regiment re-inlisted as veterans, took part in the 
advance upon Spanisli Fort, and were mustered out March 16, 1866 


Company I of the 33rd was made up in Pike county. The orig- 
inal Captain was Wm. H. Law^ton, who resigned June 8, 1863, 
and Wm. T. Lyon received tlie commission. The 1st Lieutenants 
were Wm. T. Lyon, Charles T. Kinney and Natlianiel W. Rey- 
nolds ; the 2nd Lieutenants were Edward A. F. Allen, Charles T. 
Kinney, JSTathaniel W. Reynolds and David F. Jenkins. The 
Company was wholly from the northern part of the county. 

The 33rd was organized at Camp Butler Sept., 1861, by Col. 
Charles E. Hovey ; Nov. 20, it removed to Ironton, Mo., beyond 
St. Louis, where it remained during the winter. In March, 1862, 
it removed to Arkansas, engaging in many expeditions through 
that State. In 1863 it returned to Pilot Knob; was engaged in the 
battles of Port Gibson, Champion Hills, Black River Bridge, the 
assaultand siege of Vicksburg, and the siege of Jackson ; in August, 
1863, moved to New Orleans and engaged in the ciampaign up the 
Bayou Teche, and returned to New Orleans in November; thence 
ordered to Brownsville, Tex., but before landing was ordered to 
Arkansas Pass. The Regiment re-enlisted Jan. i, 1864, took part 
in the engagement at Spanish Fort, Mobile, and April 14. 1865, 
moved to Yicksburg, and in November ordered to Camp Butler, 
111., for titial payment and dischai-ge. 


Company B of this Regiment, which was organized for three 
months' service in June, 1862, was from tliis county, mostly from 
the northern part. Capt. Daniel F. Coffey served the Coiruiany 
as Commander. 1st Lieutenant, Judson J. F. Gillespie; 2nd Lien- 
tenant, Wm. Reynolds. 


Company H of the 73rd Illinois Infantry, commanded by Capt. 
James I. Davidson, who subsequently was promoted to Lieut. Col- 
onel, was from Pike county. After Capt. Davidson's promotion 
Joseph L. Morgan was appointed to the Captaincy. The l.-^t Lieu- 
tenants were Samuel Purcell, who resigned April 28, 1863, Joseph 
L. Morgan and Jairies G. Wolgemath. The 2nd Lieutenants were 
Clement L. Shinn and De Witt C. Simmons. 

This Regiment was organized at Camp Butler, in August, 1862, 
and immediately became a part of Gen. Bnell's army. It partici- 
pated in every engagement fought by the Army of the Cumberland 
from Oct., 1862, until the rout of Gen. Hood's army at Nashville 
and the winding up of the wliole matter. The dead of this Regi- 
ment are found on the battle-fields of Perrvville, Murfreesboro, 


Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, through East Tennessee and the 
succession of battles from Chattanooga to the fall of Atlanta. It 
had two Majors and two Adjutants killed, and nearly every 
officer of the Regiment wounded at some one time : several of them 
many times. It was mustered vut June 10, 18G5. 


The 99th was, strictly speaking, a Pike county Eegiment. It 
was organized in Pike county in August, 1862, by Col. George W. 
K. Bailey, and was mustered in at Florence, Aug. 23, 1862, by 
Col. J. H. Hathbone. Upon the same day it removed to St. Louis, 
going into Benton Barracks, and was the first Regiment out of the 
State under the call of 1662. Sept. 8, ordered to Rolla; served in 
that department to the spring of 1863; was assigned to the Brigade 
of Brig. Gen. Fitz Henry Warren; engaged in the skirmish at Bear 
creek, losing one killed and four wounded and one taken prisoner, 
and in the battle of Hartsville, Mo., losing 35 killed and wounded; 
went into camp at Houston; Jan. 27, moved to West Plains, Mo., 
reporting to Brig. Gen. Davidson; March 3, removed to Pilot Knob, 
thence to St. Genevieve, arriving the 12th; and Marcli 15, 1863, 
embarked for Milliken's Bend, La., arriving the 26th, and was 
assigned to the 1st Brigade, Brig. Gen. W.P. Benton command- 
ing; 14th Division, Brig. Gen. E. A. CarA commanding : 13th 
Army Corps. Moved from Milliken's Bend April 11, arriving at 
New Carthage the 12th; was at Grand Gulf J^pril 29; crossed the 
river, and May 1 was engaged in the battle near Port Gibson, 
called Magnolia Hills, losing 37 men killed and wounded; marched 
with the army toward Jackson, and returned by Champion Hills 
and Black River Bridge; May 19, was at the defenses of Vicks- 
burg; on the 22d the Regiment took a prominent part in the assault, 
losing 103 killed and wounded, out of 300 men. The Colonel and 
Major were wounded early in the day, leaving Cat)t. A. C. Matthews 
in command. Its line during the day was close to the enemy's 
works, and its colors planted on their breastworks. This position 
was held until 4 p. m., when it was relieved by another Regiment 
and moved back 150 yards to where its knapsacks had been left. 
While calling the roll the line which had relieved the Regiment was 
driven back in great confusion. The 99th advanped and opened a 
heavy fire, drovej the enemy back into his worlds and .held him 
there, probably saving the wliule Division from Stampede. Was 
engaged during the siege in Gen. Benton's Brigade — 8th and 18th 
Indiana, and 33d and 99tli Illinois. The 99th lost during the entire 
campaign and siege 253 killed, wounded and missing. July 5 the 
9th, 13th and 15th Corps, Maj. Gen. Sherman commanding, moved 
after Johnson's army to Jackson; returned to Vicksburg July 24; 
Aug. 21 removed to New Orleans, and on the 26th went into camp 
at Brashear City. Oct. 3, 1863, the campaign of the Teche was 
commenced. The Regiment was in several skirmishes, and a de- 


taclimeat of the Regiment, Capt. A. C. Matthews coinnianding, 
was engaged in tiie battle at Grand Coteau; Nov, 9, returned to 
Brashear City and moved to New Orleans; Nov. 16, embarked for 
Texas, landing on the 25th at Mustang Island; marclied up to Mat- 
agorda Island and commenced the attack on Fort Esperanza, which 
was soon surrendered. ' 

The 99th remained in Texas during the spring of 1864. June 
16 of this year it evacuated the island and reported to Gen. Reynolds, 
at Algiers, La. The Regiment performed garrison duty on the 
Mississippi during the entire summer, in tlie First Brigade, Brig. 
Gen. Slack; 1st Division, Gen. Dennis; 19th Corps, Gen. Reynolds. 
The 99th was brigaded with the 21st Iowa, 29th Wisconsin and 
47th Indiana. 

In November, 1864, removed to Memphis, where the Regiment 
was consolidated into a Battalion of five Companies, and Lieut. Col. 
A. C. Matthews assigned to the command, Col. Bailey and the other 
supernumerary officers being mustered out. 

Moved to German town and went on duty guarding railroad; 
Dec. 25, three men of the Battalion were captured and murdered by 
guerrillas; moved to Memphis Dec. 28; Jan. 1, 1865, embarked 
for New Orleans, arriving on the 9th. Feb. 1 embarked for Dau- 
phine Island, Ala. ; was assigned to the 1st Brigade, 1st Div., 13th 
Corps, with 21st Iowa, 47th Indiana and 29th Wisconsin, Gen. 
Slack commanding Brigade, Brig. Gen. Veatch commanding Di- 

March 17, moved to Fort Morgan; on the 26th, arrived at Fish 
river; took part in the siege of Spanish Fort until the 30th, when 
the Division was sent to General Steele's army, and April 1 went 
into position at' Fort Blakely. The 99th assisted in the investment 
and capture, and on the 12th entered Mobile. 

In June, 1865, the Division was ordered to Red river to receive 
the surrender of Kirby Smith, and it proceeded to Shreveport, La.; 
from this place Col. Matthews was detailed to proceed with a body- 
guard of the 6th Missouri Cavalry to the Indian Territory and 
receive the surrender of Brig. Gens. Cooper and Standwaite, and to 
form temporary treaties of peace with the Indian tribes. The Col. 
formed treaties with ten tribes, including the Choctaws, Cherokees, 
Chickasaws and Osages, and returned (having traveled a thousand 
miles) on the 3d of July. 

July 19, ordered to Baton Rouge, and Julv 31 was mustered out 
by Capt. E. S. Howk, A. C. M. 

Arrived at Springfield, 111., Aug. 6, receive<l final payment and 
dischai-ge Aug. 9, 1865. 

Tlie Regiment was commarlded by Col. Bailey until Dec. 16, 
1864, when he was mustered out. The Lieut. Colonels were Lem- 
uel Parke and Asa C. Matthews ; the Majors at various times were 
Edwin A. Crandall, Asa C. Matthews and John F. Richards ; Ad- 
jutants, Murcellus Ross, Harvey D. Johnson and Joseph R. Furrey ; 
Quartermasters, Isaac G. Ilodgen, Joshua K. Sitton and James F. 


Greathouse ; Surgeons, Joseph II. Ledlie and Edwin May ; 1st 
Asst. Surgeon, Archibald E. McNeal and John F. Curtis ; 2d Asst. 
Surgeon, Abner T. Spencer ; Cliaplains, Oliver A. Topliff and 
Wm. M. Evans. 

Company A. — Captains — Geo. T. Edwards and Isaac G. Ilodgeu; 
1st Lieutenant— James K. Sinirti ; "id Lieutenants — James F. Sto- 
bie, Thos. A. Hubbard, John W. Sajlor. (riul)bard died Feb. 15, 

Company B. — Captains— Benj. L. Matthews and James W. Fee; 
1st Lieutenants — James W. Fee, James A. Elledge and Harvey 
Thornbury ; 2d Lieutenants — James A. Elledge, Harvey Thorn- 
bury and Milton L. Tiell. 

Company G. — Captains — Asa C. Matthews and John A. Bal- 
lard ; 1st Lieutenants — Joshua K. Sitton, Lucien W. Shaw, John 
A. Ballard, Wm. B. Sitton (died July 10, 1861), N. Henry Kinne ; 
2d Lieutenants — Lucien W. Shaw and Wm. B. Sitton. 

Company D. — Captains — John F. Kichards and Wm. B. Clandy ; 
1st Lieutenants— Francis M. Dabney, Wm. B. Clandy and John 
Bowsraan ; 2d Lieutenants — Wm. 1". Mitchell, Win. B. Clandy 
and John Bowsman. 

Company E. — Captains — John C. Dinsmore, Allen D. Rich- 
ards ; 1st Lieutenants — Joseph G. Colvin, Allen D. Richards and 
Robert II. Griffin ; 2d Lieutenant—Allen D. Richards. 

Company F. — Ca])tains — Eli R. Smith, Daniel McDonald. 
Captain Smith was killed in battle May 22, 1863. 1st Lieutenants 
— Leonard Greaton, Jacob E. Stauffer ; 2d Lieutenants — Daniel 
McDonald and Jesse Parke. 

Company G. — Captains — Henry D. Hull and Henry B. Atkin- 
son ; 1st Lieutenants— James II. Crane and Henry B. Atkinson ; 
2d Lieutenant — Lewis Duttou. 

Company H. — Captains — Lewis Hull and Melville D. Massie; 
1st Lieutenants — Melville D. Massie, Benj. L. Blades and Daniel 
Riley; 2d Lieuter^ants — Gottfried Wenzel and Benj. L. Blades. 

Com^pany I. — Captain — Joseph G. Johnson; 1st Lieutenants — 
John G. Sever and George S. Marks; 2d Lieutenant — Robert E. 

Company K. — Captains — Isaiah Cooper and John G. Sever; Ist 
Lieutenants— Wm. Gray (died May 30, 1863, of wounds received 
in battle May 22, 1863), Augustus Hubbard and Zebu Ion B. Stod- 
dard; 2d Lieutenants — Thos. J. Kinman (killed in battle May 22, 
1863) and John Andrew. 


April 2, 1863, according to orders from the War Department, the 
99th was consolidated into a Battalion of liveCompanies,— A, B, C, 
D and E, officered as follows: 

Colonel, Asa C. Matthews; Adjutant, Joseph R. Furrey; Quar- 
termaster, James F. Greathouse; Surgeon, Edwin May; 1st Asst. 
Surgeon, John F. Curtis; Chaplain, Wm. M. Evans. 


Company A. — Capt., Joliii F. Hicliards; 1st Lieut., Win. I>. 
Clandy; 2d Lieut., John Bowsman. 

Company B. — Capt., James W. Fee; 1st Lieut., Jacoh K. Staut- 
fer; 2d Lieut., Josepli Dugdell. 

Company C. — Capt.. Melville D. Massie; 1st Lieut., Henry B. 
Atkinson; 2d Lieut., Wni. L. C^'ter. 

Company D. — Capt., Isaac G. Ilodgen; 1st Lieut., James K. 
Smith; 2d Lieut., Sylvester Durall. 

Company E. — Capt., John A. Ballard, 1st Lieut., N. Henry 
Kinne; 2d Lieut., Clayton B. Hooper. 


Company F of this Regiment was organized by Robert B. Robin- 
son, of Barry, this county; Company G, by Orville C. Holcomb, of 
Milton, and Company I, by Levi Barbour, of Fittsfield. These three 
Companies of this Regiment were made up from Pike county. The 
Isl Lieutenant of Company F was De Witt C. Simmons, of Griggs- 
viljcy and the 2d Lieutenant David D. Kidwell, of Barry. The 1st 
Lieutenant of Company G was John M. Johnson, and the 2d Lieu- 
tenant, Joseph vS. Latimer. The 1st Lieutenant of Company I was 
Henson S. VanDeventer and the 2d Lieutenant, Wm. A. Hubbard. 

This Regiment was organized at Camp Wood, Quincy, by Col. 
John Wood, and was mustered in June 5, 1864, for 100 days. June 
9, the Regiment left Quincy and proceeded to Memphis, Tenn., 
where it was assigned to the 4th Brigade, District of Memphis, Col. 
E. L. Baltwick, of Wisconsin, commanding. On July 9 it was as- 
signed to the 3d Brigade, Col. John Wood commanding, and was 
stationed on the Hernando road, on picket duty. The Regiment 
was mustered out of the U. S. service at Springfield, HI., Sept. 4, 


Of this regiment Company K and ])arts of other Companies were 
from Pike county. It was organized July 30, 1861, with Pressly G. 
Athey as Captain, who resigned Jan. 27, 1862, when Thos. W.Jones, 
1st Lieutenant, was promoted Cajitain. He was subsequently pro- 
moted to the position of Major. Daniel B. Bush, jr., was at first 
Major, and was subsequentlj^ promoted to the rank of Lieutenant 
Colonel and finally Colonel. In 1865 Montgomery Demmons was 
promoted to the Captaincy. The 1st Lieutenants were Thos. W. 
Jones, Benj. F.Garrett and Wm. R. Scull, and tiie 2d Lieutenants, 
Benj. F. Garrett, Franklin Kinman, L. Mitciiell, Montgomery 
Demmons and David C, Rock. 

Besides the Regiments and Coinpanies noticed above, Pikecounty 
gave many men to numerous other Companies. Her sons fought 
upon every battle-field of that great war, and upon the field of 
every gi-eat battle during that long, hard struggle for the supremacy 
of the Union the life-blood of some of her sons was shed. They 
were found in the foremost of the fight : indeed, they were found 


wherever duty called them. It is an easy lyatter to be a patriot 
"in the piping times of peace, in the sunny hours of prosperity," 
but when war, discord and rebellion present their 'horrid forms to 
strike the liberty of a hundred years, it is then the patriot shines 
in his devotion to his country. When the painful duty presented 
itself to the patriots of this county to send thousands of her citi- 
zens into danger, and many of them to certain death, there was no 
hesitation. Men enrolled their names with a steady hand, bade wife 
and little ones, fathers, mothers, brothers and sisters farewell, and 
went boldly to the front and saved this glorious blood bought 

lee's surrender. — Lincoln's assassination. 

Our armies bravely contended until fina;lly, after four long years 
of bloodshed and carnage, the news was flashed over the wires that 
Lee had surrendered. This joyful news reached this county Mon- 
day, April 10, 1865, being within two days of four years from the 
time the batteries were opened on Fort Sumter. On receiving the 
news of the fall of Ilichmond the people were very jubilant over 
the success of the Union forces. They assembled in all parts of 
the county and had grand jubilees. The streets of the cities were 
brilliantly illuminated; boniires, rockets and music were seen on 
every hand; it was indeed a season of rejoicing; and well might it 
be, for what had been endured, what had been suffered. 

Scarcely had the downfall of the Southern Confederacy been re 
ceived ere the sad news of the assassination of Abraham Lincoln 
was flashed over the wires. On that beautiful April morning, five 
days after the announcement of Lee's surrender, the people, joyful 
over the near approach of the return of their loved ones from the 
South, the sorrowing news of the President's death was announced. 
Mr. Lincoln was bound to the people of this county with stronger 
cords than simply being a good ruler. He had spent many days 
here, had many warm personal friends, and it was like the loss of a 
brother. They felt the loss keenly; the tolling bells, the sym- 
pathetic dirges, interpreted not merely the grief of the people at the 
loss of a President, but the sorrow of a community at the death of 
brother, a son, one who was closely akin to all. Meetings were 
held and appropriate resolutions passed. Dwellings, stores, churclies 
and public buildings were draped, andthefla^s which had been sent 
up in moments of rejoicing were taken down, draped, and sent up 
at half-mast. 

THE close. 

The war ended and peace restored, the Union preserved in its in- 
tegrity, the sons of Pike, who had volunteered their lives in de- 
fense of their Government, and who were spared to see the army of 
the Union victorious, returned to their homes to receive grand 
ovations and tributes of honor from friends and neighbors who had 
eagerly and z-ealously followed them wherever the fortunes of war 

3S4 msioKV t'F riKE (X)UNty. 

called. Exchaiigiiig their soldiers" uiiifornis for citizens' dross, most 
of them fell back to their old vocations, — on the farm, at the for^e, 
at the bench, in the shop, and at whatever else their hands found to 
do. Brave men are lionorable always, and no class of citizens are 
entitled to o;reater respect than the volunteer soldiery of Pike 
county, not alone because they were soldiers, but because in their 
associations with their fellow-men their walk is upright, and their 
honesty and character without re])roach. 

Their country first, tl.cir ixlorj' and their pride, 
Liind of their hope^, land where tlieir fatliers died; 
When in the riglit, they'll keep their honor bright; 
When in the wrong, they'll die to set it right. 

The soldiers of Pike county met at the court-house Aug. 23, 
1866. The meeting was called to order by Maj. T. W. Jones, when Dr. 
E. M. Seeley was called to the chair, and James H. Crane was ap- 
pointed Secretary. The object of the meeting was to take measures 
tor raising funds for the erection of a monument. Elaborate resolu- 
tions were adopted with reference to the loyalty and fidelity of the 
soldiery, etc., and S3aiipathy with the suffering, the widows and or- 
phans etc.; and committees of soldiers, five in each township, were 
appointed t:j solicit donations. A central committee for the county 
was also appointed, and a committee to solicit $10,000 from the 
county treasury. Considerable entiiusiasm was manifested in this 
work of love, and a wish to honor the heroic dead, the citizen 
soldiers who yielded their lives a sacrifice to their country, but 
nothing definitely toward the final carrying out of the project was 
ever done. Altliough no marble pile rises heavenward to commemo- 
rate the fallen heroes, yet we know that the memory of their valor 
and heroic devotion to our country will never fade in the minds 
atid hearts of the citizens, and that their love and gratitude are as 
strong and undying as though a monument of stones were piled 
up as high as Babel's tower. 



The records of the early Coarts found in the Circuit Clerk's 
office open as follows: 

"At a Circuit Court begun and held at Cole's Grove, within and 
for the county of Pike, on Monday, the first day of October, in the 
year one thousand eight hundred and twenty-one. Present, Hon. 
John Reynolds, Judge. 

" The Sheriff of the county returned a panel of grand jurors, 
which being called over, sixteen of thera appeared and were sworn 
agreeably to law, viz: Levi Roberts, foreman; Ebenezer Franklin, 
Gardner H. Tullus, Joel Bacon, George Tully, Ebenezer Smith, 
David Dutton, Amos Bancroft, James Nixon, Nathaniel Shaw, 
Thomas Proctor, Richard Dilley, Stephen Dewey, William Massey, 
Comfort Shaw, Daniel Phillips; and the following persons were 
called but made default, to wit: Leonard Ross, Henry J. Ross, 
Daniel Shinn, James M. Seeley, Abraham Kuntz, Levi iN^ewman, 
Henry Loup, John Bolter and John Jackson. 

" Joseph Jervais and John Shaw, interpreters sworn to give evi- 
dence to the grand jury." 

The first case called was " Solomon Smith, assignee of Elias K. 
Kane, vs. \Vm. Frye, action of d^bt." The case was continued, as 
the defendant was reported by the Sheriff not found. 

The second case was a "libel for a divorce," by Sall.ey Durham, 
plaintiff, vs. John Durham, defendant. The defendant not appear- 
ing, the case went against him. 

The fourth case was the indictment of two Indians for murder, 
an account of which is given in our chapter entitled "Criminal 

Pike county was originally in the 1st Judicial Circuit, then in the 
5th, and is now in the 11th, comprising the counties of Adams, 
Hancock, McDonongli, Fulton, Schuyler, Brown and Pike. By 
provision of a recent State law the Circuit elects three Judges, who 
divide the work between them. 

Four Appellate Districts were defined in the State in 1877, for 
each of which the Supreme Court appoints three Judges, and these 


Judges elect one of their own number the presiding Judge. Each 
District elects its own Clerk, and these officers are all chosen for six 
years. The sessions of the Court arc held the 3d Tuesday of May 
and November each year. Pike county is in the 3d Appellate 
District, and the Court is held at Springfield. 


We now proceed to give a short sketch of all the Judges and 
attorneys who have been or are now connected with the Bar of Pike 

Hon. John Reynolds was a native of Pennsylvania, of Irish 
descent, and was reared amid pioneer associations and imbibed the 
characteristics, manners and customs of the pioneers. He disliked 
polish, condemned fashion, and was addicted to inordinate pro- 
fanity. These, garnished by his varied reading, a native shrewd- 
ness and a wonderful faculty of garrulity, make him, considering the 
high offices he held, one of the public oddities of Illinois. He 
was one of the Justices of the Supreme Court when he held Court 
at Atlas. 

Hon. John Y. Sawyer. — By the Constitution the terms of office of 
the Supreme Judges were to expire with the close of the year 1824. 
The Legislature re-organized the judiciary by creating both Circuit 
and Supreme Courts. The State was divided into five judicial 
circuits, providing two terms of Court annually in each county. 
The salaries of the Circuit Judges were fixed at $600. Judge 
Sawyer was the first Circuit Judge to hold Court in this county. 
He was chosen for the First Circuit. 

Hon. Richard M. Young was appointed Judge of this Circuit in 
1828, and j-emained in the office till January, 1837, when he resigned 
to accept a seat in the United States Senate. Judge Young was a 
native of Kentucky, and was one of the first settlers of Northern 
Illinois. He ranked high in his profession, and his counsels did 
much to shape the policy of the State. In his manners he was 
gentle, courteous and entertaining, which qualities rendered him 
attractive and popular. He was generous in his feelings and lib- 
eral in his views; possessed liberal endowment of intellectual abil- 
ity and literary and legal acquirements, and these, with his other 
qualifications, admirably fitted him for the post he was called to 
fill. He died from insanity. 

Hon. James H Ralston, a native of Kentucky, was elected by the 
Legislature in 1837, and in August of the same year he resigned on 
account of his health, with a view of going to Texas, whither lie 
went, but soon returned to Quincy. In 1840 he was elected State 
Senator. In 1846 President Polk appointed him Assistant Quar- 
termaster of the U. S. army. Having discharged his duties faith- 
fully during the war with Mexico, he returned home and soon after 
emigrated to California. 

Hon. Peter Lott, a native of New York, was elected the successor 





of James Kalston, and continued in the office until January, 1841. 
He was subsequently appointed Clerk of the Circuit Court of Ad- 
ams county, and served until 1852; he then went to California and 
was appointed Superintendent of the U. S. Mint in San Francisco 
by President Pierce, and was removed in 1857 by President 
Buchanan, and afterward moved to Kansas and lived in humble 

Hon. Stephen A. Douglas was elected Jud^e by the Legislature 
in 184:1. The life and career of this p^reat man is so well and widely 
known as to render any extended notice of him useless. It is suf- 
ficient to say that the circumstances under which he entered upon 
the duties of his office were such as to thoroughly try the scope of 
his ability. The Circuit was large; the previous incumbent of the 
office had left the "docket" loaded with unfinished " cases," buthe 
was more than equal to the task. He "cleaned out the docket " 
with that dispatch and ability which distinguished his subsequent 
course; and so profound was the impression he made upon the 
people that, in the first Congressional election which occurred after 
he was established in his character as Judge, he received nomination 
as a member of Congress, and was elected. 

Hon. Jesse B. Thomas was appointed in August, 1843, and con- 
tinued to hold the position until 1845, when he resigned. Judge 
Thomas possessed liigli legal abilities and acquirements, and dis- 
charged the duties of his office with honor to himself and to the 
satisfaction of the people. After his resignation he was appointed 
to another Circuit, and soon after died. He was a delegate to 
Congress from Indiana as early as 1808. His district was what 
are now the States of Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin and Michigan. 
He was one of the first U. S. Senators of Illinois. 

Hon. Norman H. Furple was the next incumbent of the office. 
He was elected in 1845 and served till May, 1849, when he resigned. 
The probable cause for this was the insufficiency of salary. The 
people of this district were anxious to retain him as Judge, and 
probably w^)uld, but for the cause stated. He was distinguished 
for high legal abilities and executive talents, and the office was ren- 
dered the more honorable for his having occupied it. 

Hon. Willvtm A. Minshall was elected in May, 1849, and con- 
tinued to hold the office till his death, in October, 1851, although in 
1850 his district M'as changed. Judge M. was a native of 
Tennessee, and came early into the State. He was an active and 
successful lawyer, and attained distinction in his profession. Pre- 
vious to liis election as Judge he had been a men)ber of the Con- 
stitutional Convention, and also a member of tlie State Legislature. 

Hon. 0. G . Skinner succeeded Judge Minshall and occupied the 
office from May, 1851, to May, 1853, when he was elected to the 
Supreme Bench, and remained there till 1858, when he resigned. 
He was a sound, able lawyer, and popular as a Judge, and gained 
eminence in his position as a Judge of the Supreme Court. 

Hon. Pinkney H Walker served until his appointment, in 1858, 


to fill a vacancy on the Supreme Beiieli. In 1859 lie was elected to 
the Supreme Court for nine years, which ]>ositiun he now holds. 
Judge Walker is a native of Kentucky, and came into the State 
with his father among the first settlers, and located in McDonough 
county, lie had only such advantages for obtaining his literary 
acquirements as a newly settled country' afforded, but a strong 
determination, added to high intellectual abilities and good health, 
carried him over all of tlie educational wants of the times, and 
gave him a fair position as a scholar. The same qualifications 
rendered him thorough as a student of law, and gave him superi- 
oritv as a counselor. His present i-esidence is at Rushville. 

Hon. John 8. Bailey was the succeeding incumbent of the office 
and served for three years. Previous to his appointment he was 
State's Attorney for this district. He was considered a sound 
lawyer, and made an impartial Judge. He now resides at Ma- 
comb, and yet follows his chosen profession. 

Hon. Chauncey L. Higbee, of Pike county, was first elected in 
1861, and was re-elected twice, each time for six years. His repu- 
tation as an able lawyer is unquestioned, and fewer appeals were 
made from his decisions than from any otlier Judge in the State. 
He w;is elected to the Appellate Court in 1877, when the present 
incumbent. Judge Shope, of Le^dstown, was chosen. 

Hon. S. P. Shope. — Judge Shope, of Lewistown, was born in 
Mississippi but reared in Ohio. In the spring of 1839 he came to 
Illinois, read law with Judges Purple and Powell in Peoria, and 
was admitted to the Bar June 11, 1850. He first opened an office 
in Metamora, 111, but in a short time removed to Lewistown, where 
he still resides. He 1ms had a large practice as a lawyer, not only 
in his own Judicial District, but alst> in Logan, Mason and Cass 
counties. In August, 1877, he was elected Judge of this District 
without opposition. His thorough knowledge of law, quick com- 
prehension and well-known impartiality, render him a popular 


During the earliest period of the county's history the Attorney. 
General of tlie State acted as Prosecuting Attorney in Circuit Dis- 
tricts. After the expiration of Attorney- General Forquer's term 
the Circuit was given a State's Attorney. This mode remained in 
vogue, although, of course, the districts were often changed and cut 
down, until 1872, when the county was given a Prosecuting At- 
torney, who is known both as State's Attorney and County At- 
torney. This official is not now, as formerly, called out of the 
county to prosecute for the people. 

The Prosecuting Attorneys serving this county are as follows: 
Hon. Thomas Ford served for several years previous to 1836. 
He was possessed of high and noble qualities of manhood, a thor- 
ough student, a keen, energetic, untiring lawyer, of strict integrity 


and laudable aspirations, and was universally esteemed and re- 
spected, lie afterward became Judge of the northern district, and 
when he had become known over the State, was chosen Governor 
by a spontaneous movement of the people. Mr. Ford failed to 
..ppear at the Courts of this county very much, and in his place in 
1832 Hon. J. H. Ralston served, and in 1833 Gen, John J. Hardin. 

IToji. William A. Richardaon^ who served till 1837. Mr. liich- 
ardson's personal merits and characteristics are too well known to 
require any delineation. His predominating traits were courage, 
nnyielding perseverance and unvarying adherence to the cause to 
which he was committed. He had command of a regiment of Hli- 
nois volunteers during the Mexican war, and in the battle of Buena 
Yista his cap was carried from his head by a musket ball. He re- 
turned home and was elected to Congress, and re-elected five 
times. He was also appointed Governor of Nebraska by Buchanan, 

Hon. Henry L. Bryant^ of Lewistown, succeeded Mr. Richardson, 
and served until 1839. He is characterized as. a gentleman of fine 
qualities and as an able lawyer. 

Hon. William Elliott served from January, 1839, till January, 
1848. Fie was esteemed as a worthy man, a warm friend and a 
good lawyer. He served in the Black Plawk war, and was wounded 
in a hand-to-hand conflict with a single Indian, whom he killed. 
He was Quartermaster in the 4th Regiment during tlie Mexican 
war, and served through. He returned to Lewistown and continued 
his practice until about 1856, wlien he moved upon a farm in Peoria 
county, near Farmington, where he died in February, 1871. 

Hon. Rohert S. Blackwell was the successor of Mr. Elliott, and 
served from 1848 till 1852, Mr. Blackwell was one of the most 
distinguished lawyers in the State, and is the author of " Blackwell 
on Tax Titles." 

Harm,on O. Reynolds. — From 1852 to 1854, Hon. Harmon G, 
Reynolds, of Knoxville, held the office. Mr. Reynolds was an at- 
torney-at-law of great ability, and an active man in all beneficent 
enterprises. He came from Rock Island to Knoxville some time 
about 1851, where he practiced law, was State's Attorney and post- 
master, and held prominent positions in the Masonic order. He 
moved from Knoxville to Springfield, where he served as Grand 
Secretary of the order. He now resides in Kansas. 

William C. Ooudy. — Hon. William C. Goudy, of Lewistown, 
succeeded Mr. Reynolds. Mr. Goudy was a shrewd Democratic 
politician in earlier days, as well as a faithful servant of the people 
as a delegate to conventions, as a member of the State Senate, etc. 
As a lawyer he is accounted one of the ablest that ever practiced 
at the Bar. He has accumulated large wealth and now resides in 
Chicago, where he moved in 1859. 

Calvin A. Warren followed Mr. Blackwell in the office. Mr. 
Warren served from May, 1852, until August, 1853. This gentleman 
was a popular, fluent speaker and successful lawyer. 

392 HISTORY OF pike COUNTi-. 

Hon. John S. Bailey., of McDoiiough county, tilled the office 
until Sei>totiiber, 1S58, wlien he resis^ned for a seat upon tlie Bench. 

Daniel IL Gilmer served as State's Attorney j9?'o teni in 1860, 
as also did Thomas E. Morgan in 1862, and Win. 11. Archer. 

Hon. L. n. Waters was appointed' by the Governor to fill the 
unexpired term of Mr. Bailey. He was from Macomb, and served 
until the fall of 1860. A year later he entered the army as Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel of the 28tli Illinois Infantry. Resigning, he was 
commissioned to raise another regiment, which he succeeded in 
doing and received the appointment of Colonel. 'Ihis was theS-ith 
Illinois Infantry and did excellent service under his efficient com- 
mand. At the close of the war he returned to Macomb and prac- 
ticed law, and about four years later moved to Missouri. He now 
resides at Jefferson City that State. 

Thomas E. Morgan was the next incumbent. Mr. Morgan was 
a lawyer of .fine ability and ranked at the head of the Bar in this 
part of the State. He died July 22, 1867. 

L. W. James, of Lewistown, was the next incumbent. Mr. James 
is a lawyer of more than ordinary talent, and was one of the best 
])rosecutor8 in the district, and is said to be one of the most brilliant 
young men in the State. He now resides at Peoria. 

Jeff Orr. — When each county throughout the Circuit was given 
a Prosecuting Attorney JefF Orr was chosen for Pike county, and 
since has served with marked ability. He is a young member of 
the Bar, endowed with great energy, and gifted with superior native 
talent. He has resided in Pittsfield since 18<'3. 

The Bar of Pike county has ever stood foremost of all in this 
great State. Some of the best legal minds, and fairest logicians 
and finest orators of the age have practiced at this Bar. 

In reviewing the Bar of the county our readers must bear in 
mind that as tlie prosperity and well-being of every community 
depends upon the wise interpretation, as well as upon the judi- 
cious framing, of its laws, it must follow that a record of the mem- 
bers of the Bar, to whom these matters are generally relegated, 
must form no unimportant chapter in the county's history. Upon 
a few principles of natural justice is erected the whole superstruc- 
ture of civil law tending to relieve the wants and meet the desires 
of all alike. But where so many interests and counter interests 
are to be ]:)rotected and adjusted, to the judiciary is presented many 
interesting and complex problems. But change is everywhere im- 
minent. The laws of yesterday do not compass the wants and 
necessities of the people of to-day. The old relations do not exist. 
New and satisfactory ones must be established. The discoveries in 
tlie arts and sciences, the invention of new contrivances for labor, 
the enlargement of industrial pursuits, and the increase and devel- 
opment of commerce are without precedence, and the science of 


the law must keep pace witli tliem all; nay, it inubt even forecast 
events and so frame its laws as will most adequately subserve the 
wants and provide for the necessities of the new conditions. Hence 
the lawj'er is a man of the day. The exigencies he must meet are 
those of liis own time. His capital is his ability and individuality. 
He can not bequeath to his successors the characteristics that dis- 
tinguished him, and at his going the very evidences of his work 
disappeai". And in compiling this short sketch one is astonished 
at the paucity of material for a memoir of tlu)se who have been so 
intimately connected with, and who exerted such an influence upon, 
the county's welfare and progress. The pecnliarities and the per- 
sonalities, which form so pleasing and interesting a part of the lives 
of the members of the Bar, and which indeed constitute the charm 
of local history, are altogether wanting. Unlike the fair plaintiff 
in JBardell vs. Pickwick, we have no pains-taking sergeant to relate 
"the facts and circumstances" of the case. The Court records 
give us the facts, but the circumstances surrounding and giving 
ah interest to the events are wanting. 

The great prominence in history occupied by the Bar of the Mili- 
tary Ti-act is well known, and ranking with and a part of this is 
the Pike county Bar. High as stood the local standard of its at- 
tainment and repute, whenever its chieftains were called to combat 
on other arenas, they left no lost laurels there. Here were taught, 
needed, developed, the stalwart qualities that attach to and betoken 
the most complete fruition of legal excellence, as attained in the 
recognition, study, comprehension and application of the abstruse 
and limitless principles and history of that noblest portion of juris- 
prudence, land law. 

It is no such difficult task to become what the world calls a 
lawyer, but with hope to tread the higher paths of the profession, 
easy effort, varnished knowledge, common mind muscle, need not ap- 
ply. There are grades to which any may attain, but there are also 
summits to which few can aspire. Education, industry, and per- 
sistency may rightly demand and ensure success and even eminence 
in the settlement of commercial collisions, or in the adjustment of 
the thousand ordinary interests that constantly appeal to a lawyer's 
guidance. The babbling charlatan may, equally with the profound 
jurist, claim a fictitious standing as a criminal advocate; but such 
will always stumble among the rugged paths of " land law" prac- 
tice, where rests the settlement of the earth's ownership and where 
true learning, combined with most grasping mental strength, can 
only be at home. 

On this broad field, years since, inviting and fast filling with ad- 
venturous immigration, where existed land titles of every shade, 
affected by conflicting legislation varying as the years, was gained 
the rare training and reputation of the legal athletes,' an arena such 
as was found in no other section of the State; and in addition to 
these advantageous themes of practice, the professional necessities 


of the Bar vastly aided its members in their advance to self-reliant 
supremacy. The reasons for this are novel, but conclusive. 

Law in those past-off daj's demanded of its votaries different 
qualities from now. It exacted the instincts of the smarter men, of 
genius and nerve and novelty. It was the intellectual over the ed- 
ucated who chiefly led the van. Of books there wei-e few. Author- 
ities and precedents slumbered not in the great handj libraries. 
The entire resources of the Bounty Tract could hardly fill out the 
shelves of one ordinary lawyer's library to-day. llence alike, 
whether engaged in counsel or in litigation, native resource, re- 
membrance of past reading, but mainly the readiness and aptitude 
with which legal pr'nciples drawn from rudimental reading or 
educed by intuition could be applied to any interest or exigence in 
" the infinite vanity of human concerns," were tiie armories whence 
were drawn their welded weapons of assured success. 

He was a luckless lawyer who had to hunt his books to settle a 
suddenly controverted point, or answer a bewildered client's query; 
and he' was a licensed champion, who, theorizing from his instored 
legal lore, or instinctive acumen, knew on the instant where best to 
point his thrust and was equally ready with every form of parry and 
defense. The off-hand action and advice of such men, tierved by 
necessity and, skilled by contest, became of course to be regarded 
almost like leaves of law. 

One can thus somewhat realize what keen, pliant, incisive re- 
source was attained by such, careers, how inspiring and attractive 
were their collisions, how refined and subtle and sharpened their 
intellects must have become. 

It should not i)e supposed that looseness, lack of accuracy or legal 
formula, marked the rulings of the Bench or Bar. There was friend- 
ship and familiarity, it is true, because everybody knew everybody ; 
the court-houses were shambling great log siianties, their furniture, 
chairs and desks, split-bottomed and unplaned, would have set a 
modern lawyer's feeling on edge, but the Bench was always filled 
with character, knowledge and dignity (in fact, the second Judge 
who held Court in Pike county, John York Sawyer, weighed 386 
pounds, and if that Bench was not full of judicial dignity where 
will the proper amount of avoirdupois be found ?), and forensic ruling 
and requirement was governed by as much judicial precision and 
professional deference as would mark the records of the most pre- 
tentious tribunals in the land. 

The Bar in those days was a sort of family to itself. Tiiere was 
a mutual acquaintance. All traveled the Circuit, went to every 
county on Court week, came from all quarters. Egypt and Galena 
had tiieir representatives. Some went there because they had busi- 
ness: some because they wanted to get business, and all that they 
might learn. 

In Court, by practice and observation, was acquired much of 
knowledge that the paucity of books denied the student and young 
practitioner. Out of Court their association was like that of a de- 


bating society or law school. They mingled in common, ate, drank, 
smoked, joked, disputed together. The Judge had at the tavern the 
spare rooni, if such a room there was, and the lawyers bunked 
cosily, dozens together, in the "omnibus," as the big, many-bedded 
room was called, and there they had it. Whatever of law point 
past, pending, or probable could be raised, they "went for," dis- 
cussed, dissected, worried, fought over it until, whether convinced 
or not, all knew more than when they commenced; and thus, strug- 
gling over these made-up issues of debate, became sharpened, by 
mutual attrition, the legal faculties that were panting for future 
and more serious contests. 

These lawyers were on exhibition, too, and they knew it. Every 
man in the county came to town Court week if he could. There 
were but few people in the country then, and Court week was the 
natural periodical time for the farmers to meet, swap e-tories, make 
trades, learn the news, hear the speeches and form their own opin- 
ions as to which of these " tonguey fellers it is safest to give business 
to or vote for for the Legislater." 

A pretty good idea how universal was the gathering of necessity 
a,t the county-seats in those primitive days may be gleaned from the 
fact that often Sheriff, Capt. Ross and Deputy Sheriff" Jimmy " Koss 
had to go on the jury to make up the number. They could not find 
enough men in reach to sit as jurors. They had jolly old times, 
those limbs of the law — ^jolly, indeed. Most of them were young. 
All were instinct with the very cream of zeal, enterprise and, origin- 
ality that inheres to a new community, and among them jibe and 
jeijt and fun and yarn and repartee and sell were tossed about like 
m.eteoric showers. 

An amusing incident is told in which figured an eminent surviv- 
ing member of the Bar, of the Military Tract. He, the Judge, and 
the Prosecuting Attorney, traveling over the prairie, while lighting 
their pipes, either thoughtlessly or accidentally set the grass on 
fire. It spread, swept toward the timber, destroyed a settler's fences 
and improvements, and some luckless wight was indicted for the 
offense. The lawyer above was engaged as counsel for the culprit. 

The Prosecuting Attorney of course had his duty to perform to 
the furtherance of the ends of justice; the Judge had the outraged 
interests of law to protect under the solemnity of his position and 
oath; but it required all the earnest effort of the gifted counsel, all 
the generous ruling of the Judge, all the blundering action of the 
Prosecuting Attorney, the united sympathies, in fact, of this secretly 
sinning legal trinity to prevent the jury from finding a verdicl 
against the innocent accused. Countless are the racy legends of Illi- 
nois life and law, unrecorded and fast fading away as the memories 
that hold them pass from existence, but time and space give now 
no warrant for their recital. 


Of those attorneys who resided in the county at one time, or 


practiced liere, and are now either dead, have quit tlic practice or 
moved away, we will speak first : 

Gen. E. D. Baker., whose father was an Admiral in the Eiii^lish 
navy, and whose brother, Dr. Alfred C. Jjaker, now resides at Barry, 
was an eminent lawyer, a fine rhetorician and orator, a man of 
great intellect, and a leader in the halls of legislation. After many 
years' practice in Illinois he went to Califoi'nia, which State soon 
sent him to Congress as Senator, but he was finally slain by treach- 
ery at Ball's Bluff in Virginia. 

Hon. O. H. Browning., of Qnincy, too well known to describe 
here, has practiced at this Bar. 

Col. D. B. Bush, of Pittsfield, is the oldest man in the county 
who has been a member of the Bar at this Court. He was admit- 
ted to practice in 1814. 

Hon. J. M. Bush, the present editor of the JDemocrat, has prac- 
ticed law here wii'i commendable success. 

Nehemiah Bus'hnell, a partner of Mr. Browning's at Qnincy, 
has also practiced law in the Pike county Circuit Court, lie was 
an easy, quiet and thorough lawyer, and a supei'ior man in the U. 
S. Court. He died in 1872. 

Alfred W. Cavalry was a smooth, pretty talker. He moved to 
Ottawa and died there a year or two ago at a very advanced age. 

George W. Cro'w, of Barry, was a young man but not much of a 
lawyer. He went to Kansas. 

Stephen A. Douglas practiced at the Pike county Bar in early 

Daniel H. Gilmer was a young but able lawyer, thorough-going, 
learned, careful and popular. For a time he was a partner of Archi- 
bald Williams, and was subsequently a Colonel in the army, suc- 
ceeding Col. Carlin : he was killed at Stone river. His daughter 
Lizzie is now Postmistress at Pittsfield. 

Jackson Grimshaw., younger brother of Hon. Wm. A. Grimshaw, 
was leader of the Bar in his day. He resided at Pittsfield fourteen 
years, then went to Quincy, where he died in December, 1875. 

The following high eulogy was paid to the memory of Mr. Grim- 
shaw by Hon. I. N. Morris before the Bar of Quincy, at the time 
of his decease : " I rise to second the motion to place on the 
records of this Court the resolutions adopted by the members of 
the Bar of Quincy, as a slight testimonial to the memory of Jack- 
son Grimshaw. It is but little we can do, at best, to keep the 
defacing march of time from obliterating every sensitive memory 
of our departed friends, but we can do something toward it and 
let us do that little in this instance. Jackson Grimshaw deserves a 
living place in our minds and in our hearts. Yet he was mortal. 
He, like other men, had his faults and his virtues. His faults 
belonged to himself. His virtues to all. When the melanclioly 
news came out from his residence, at 11 o'clock yesterday, that he 
was dead, its echo went over the city like the sound of a funeral 
bell, and " poor Grimshaw '' was the general wail amid the heart- 


felt sorrow of all. His genius was of no ordinary kind; his energy 
was tireless, and he was trne to his profession, liis client and his 
honor. I challenge any man to say if he ever heard either 
impeached, even by a suspicion. If there was any thing the 
deceased hated more than any other, it was an illiberal, tricky, 
unmanly, dishonorable act, inside or outside of tlie profession, more 
especially inside of it. He had no patience with anything low or 
mean. These words grate on the ear, but I know of none more 
appropriate or expressive. His impulses flowed from a pure and 
noble inspiration, and were guided by a cultivated mind. I repeat 
it with pride, Jackson Grimshaw was an honest man. He bowed 
to no expediency, nor to sordid motive. He was easily excited, 
and the blood would mount to his cheeks instantly at a wrong or 
indignity, and he would rebuke it on the spot. All will concede 
there was not a particle of deceit or hypocrisy about him. What 
he was he was, and we all understood him. He did not ask a favor 
in a smiling, cunning, obsequious way, but he trod the world as a 
man; and he looked with pity and disdain upon the servile who 
crawl upon their belly. In short, I say from a long and intimate 
acquaintance, notwithstanding his quick resentment and liasty 
words, he was superior in all the better qualities of tlie head and 
heart, for he never meant or planned a wrong: never coolly devised 
an evil, or gave the least countenance to it in another. I do not 
speak the languageof romance or eulogy, but the simple, unadorned 
language of truth, and by that standard let him be judged. He 
would not prostitute his profession to plunder the widow or the 
orphan, or, in other words, he did not study or practice it merely 
as a means of gain, but for the higher and nobler purpose of estab- 
lishing justice among men, and not degrading the court-house 
into a place of tricks, technicalities and legal legerdemain. His 
sense of right was exalted, and he was not a spawn of nature, but 
was cast in the best mold. I repeat it, he was in the broadest 
sense of the term an honest and honorable lawyer and man. 

It is no disparagement to others to say that in his profession he 
was the peer of any of them. He was a close student, but what 
was better, he was a close thinker. The principles bearing on his 
case shone through his mind as the face in the mirror, and they 
were unfolded to the Court and the Jury in language clear, forcible 
and convincing. His plain law, his impressment of facts, his eluci- 
dation, his power of analysis, his clear, forcible language and 
delivery, placed him justly in the front rank at the Bar. 

Zachariah N. Oarhutt was born in Wheatland, N. Y., about 
the year 1813; graduated at the University of Vermont; studied 
law in Washington city in the office of Matthew St. Clair Clark; 
he directly emigrated to Jacksonville, 111., where he finished his 
legal course; he came to Pike county about the year 1839, returned 
East for a year, and then came back to Pittstield, where he estab- 
lished the Free Press in 1846. and from which paper he retired in 
1849; he also practiced law some, was Justice of the Peace and 


Master in Chancery. He was a strong anti-slavery Whig and a 
temperance advocate, and in the Mormon war, as Mr. Grinishaw 
says, " He earned lanrels by piling up big sweet potatoes for the 
troops of tlie anti-Morinons." Earnest and somewhat original in 
his opinions, very independent in the expression of his thoughts, he 
WHvS an upright, jovial man, and something of a genius. Finally, 
while traveling for a firm in St. Louis on commercial busiiiess, he 
was attacked with varioloid in Mem])his, Tenn., where he died in 
1855. In 1841 he married Phimelia B. Scott, a native of New 
York State, and who has since married Mr. Purkitt, and still re- 
sides in Pittsfield. 

Alfred Grubh was lirst Sheriff, then a member of the Legisla- 
ture, then County Judge, and then admitted to the Bar, and prac- 
ticed in the Courts. lie had considerable legal knowledge, and 
was well versed in tlie rules of practice, but his natural ability was 
comparatively deficient. 

Gen. John J. Hardin^ who had descended from a stock of 
soldiers and lawyers, was a fine attorney. He used to practice con- 
siderably at the Bar in this county, and often stop liere on his way 
to Calhoun and return. For a period he was State's Attorney on 
this Circuit. Ho was killed at the battle of Buena Vista. 

Milton Hay^ formerly of the firm of Hay & Baker, now ranks 
high as a lawyer at Springfield, 111., being a member of the firm of 
Hay, Greene & Littler, and has accumulated a fortune. He has 
been a member of tlie State Constitutional Convention and of the 
State Legislature. 

Mr. Ilew itt Tpracticed here a while, and went to Iowa. 

Capt. Joseph Klein, of Barry, was admitted to the Bar, but 
never practiced in the Circuit; was a partner of J. L. Underwood 
until 1869. He had considerable ability. He was once a steam- 
boat captain, and came from St. Louis to this county. 

Josiah Lamborn.^ a lame man, once Attorney General of the 
State, resided at Jacksonville, and after wai-d at Springfield. He 
had a great deal of talent, but was a corrupt man. 

Abraham Lincoln ]>racticed at the Pike county Bar in early 

Samuel D. Lockwood, who resided at Jacksonville, was a very 
superior man as a lawyer and as a gentleman. He was once Attorney 
General of the State, Judge of the old Fifth Circuit, and was the 
author of the original criminal code of Illinois. He resigned the 
ofiace on account of ill health, and went up to or near Aurora, 
where he died a short time ago. He was also one of the original 
trustees of the Asylum for the Blind at Jacksonville. 

Gen. Maxwell^ of Rushville, has appeared beibre the Bar in this 
county. His favorite song was, "The big black bull went roaring 
down the meadow." At one time he was a partner of Wm. A. 
Minshall, and at another of Wm. A. Richardson. 

Isaac N. Morris, of Quincy, but recently deceased, has practiced 
law in Pike county. 


Murray 6^' 6''6»w-?ieZ^, of Jacksonville, practiced here considerably. 
He was a rough-speaking man, but of great wit. During Buchan- 
an's administration he was 5tli Auditor of the Treasury. He was 
murdered at the age of seventy. 

John G. Pettiugill, School Superintendent for a number of 
years, was also a lawj'er in this county, but is now living in Mis- 

N . JS, Quinhy^ another Pike county lawyer, is now deceased. 

James II. Ralston^ formerly of Quincy, used to practice here 
and was for a time Circuit Judge. He was finally killed and de- 
voured by wolves in California. 

Hon. Wm. A. Richardson^ State's Attorney for a long time, used 
to practice here, but of late years he has visited the county more 
in the role of a politician. 

John Jay Ross., son of Capt. Leonard Ross, was a lawyer of Pike 
county, but his practice was mostly confined to Atlas. He is now 

David A. Smith, once of Jacksonville, practiced here a great 
deal. He was a partner of Gen. Hardin at the time the latter died. 

Thomas 'Stafford, a Barry lawyer, had not much ability. He 
soon removed from Barry to parts not now remembered. 

Mr. Starr practiced at Coles' Grove in very early day : he after- 
ward went to Cincinnati. 

John T. Stewart, of the firm of Stewart, Edwards & Brown, 
Springfield, is a shrewd lawyer of the Scotch kind. He was the 
first antagonist of Stephen A. Douglas in the Congressional race 
that the latter made in 1838, and was beaten by eighty-odd votes. 
The noted " Black Prince" turned the election. This district then 
extended to Galena and Chicago. 

E. G. Tingle, Barry, whose father was a Judge in Maryland, was 
a well-read lawyer^ but he did not stay in Barry long. 

Hon. Lyman Trumbull, ex-U. S. Senator and now practicing 
law in Chicago, has appeared as attorney in the Pike county Court. 

James Ward was a native of Ohio, and in this county was Jus- 
tice of the Peace and Probate Judge. He died, leaving a fiimily at 
Origgsvillc and numerous relatives. 

Calvin A. Warren, of Quincy, but now dead, has visited here 
some as a lawyer, and was State's Attorney for a time. 

Charles Warre?i, for a time partner of Milton Hay in Pittsfield, 
was counsel of the commission appointed to ascertain the damages 
incurred by the damming of Copperas creek. 

Alpheus Wheeler, an eccentric preacher and lawyer, came from 
old Virginia to Pike county at the close of the Black Hawk war, 
residing for some time at Highland. In 1838 and 1840 he was 
elected to the Legislature of Illinois where he made his peculiar 
speeches and encountered the wit and humor of another remarkable 
man, but of a more elevated type of manhood and education, 
namely, Usher F. Binder, who died recently at Chicago. On one 
occasion Mr. Wheeler addressed the Chair, saying, "Mr. Speaker, I 


liave a-rosc^" •' Docs tliei^entleiiian keep allower i,Mnlen?" inter- 
rupted tlie 'Speaker. I\[r. W. ])racticod law in l^■^t^tiel(l and ob- 
tained considerable business, lie took gn.'at ])ride in his oi'atorical 
eftorts and made some lofty flights in speeches to the jurv. On one 
occasion when D. M. Woodson, State's Attorney, submitted a case 
without argument for the pui-pose of preventing Wheeler frtun 
speaking, the latter replied: "Gentlemen, 1 admire the State's At- 
torney; he has shown the most sublime eloquence, as from some 
men it consists in most profound silence." He used to say of 
Woodson, " His eloquence is like the tall thunder amongst the lofty 
oaks, coming down for to split tilings." This remark at one time 
excited some one who had a ready hand at a rough {)encil sketch to 
draw a picture of a man's head with a big nose elevated in a tree- 
top, upon the west wall of the court-room at Pittsfield, and it i-e- 
mained there for many years, until the house was whitened up on 
the inside. That big nose was a caricature of Wheeler's. In a case 
for killing a cow, when O. H. Brovvning made some points for the 
defendant, Mr. Wheeler replied: "The gentleman tells you, gentle- 
men of the jury, that the plaintiff, my client, cannot recover in this 
suit because the cow warn't no cow because she never had a calf, 
but that she war a heifer. Gentlemen, that are not the notion of a 
sound and legal lawyer but the notion of a musharoon." This al- 
most convulsed the court-house with laughter. Another objection 
of Browning's in this case was thus replied to by Mr. Wheeler: 
" Gentlemen of the jury. Mr. Browning says that our cow warn't 
worth a cent. Now, gentlemen, where were there ever a cow that 
warn't worth a cent? That cow were wortii something for her meat, 
if she warn't worth nothing for a milk cow. She war wortli some- 
thing for her horns; she war worth something for her hide, if not 
for her meat or milk; and gentlemen, she war worth something be- 
cause the tail goes with the hide." The cause of Browning's \)oiut 
was, that Wheeler had failed to prove by witnesses the worth of the 

A suit brought by Wheeler for one Harpole against his brother 
was for damage done to hogs by cutting the toe-nails off the hogs 
so as to prevent them from climbing. Wheeler, in describing tiie 
injury done to the hogs, insisted that the hogs had a right to toe- 
nails and a right to climb, and that, although they liad done dam- 
age, yet it was laid down. " root hog or die." 

One Zumwalt was indicted for destroying a mill-dam of Dr. 
Hezekiah Dodge's. Wheeler in this case assailed the character of 
Dr. Dodge, who was a res[)ectable man and whoiti the jury did be- 
lieve. Zumwalt was convicted upon evidence that he had said 
at his son-in-law's, on the night of the destruction of the dam of 
Dodge's. " Just now the musrats are working on old Dodge's dain." 
Wheeler said of Dodge on the trial, "Dr. Dodge are a man so de- 
void of truth that when he speaks the truth he are griped." 

During another of the lofty flights of our hero, a wag, John J. 
Ross, a lawyer and a man who made and enjoyed a joke, laughed 


60 at one of Mr. Wheeler's speeches that he became excited, and, 
turning upon Ross in a very contemptuous way, with a majestic 
sweep of his long arm brought down at Ross, said: " I wish i had 
a tater: I'd throw it down your throat." Wheeler did not close his 
speech that evening, and the next morning eai-ly, when he was 
again addressing the jurj' and Ross at the Bar table, by some hand 
several large potatoes were put down in sight of Wheeler's eye. 
He fired up and let out a torrent of invective upon Ross, every one. 
Judge and all, in a loud roar of laughter. 

In a line frenzy at one time, Mr.W. parodied Shakspeare thus: 

" Who steals my purse steals trash ; 
Robs me of that which not enriches him but makes me poor, — 

all to injure ray client," 

Wheeler went to Bates county, Mo., since which time he has 
been lost sight of by people of this county. It is reported that he 
is not now living. 

Jarfies W. Whitney was denominated " Lord Coke" on account 
of his knowledge of law. For a sketch of him see chapter on the 
early settlement of this county. 

Arohihald Williams, formerly of Quincy but later of Kansas and 
U. S. Circuit Judge, has been an eminent practitioner at the Bar 
of Pike, 

John n. William?,., now of Quincy and a Circuit Judge, is a son 
of Archibald Williams, a man of good sense, and has been an able 
pleader at the Bar of Pike county. He is one of three Judgas of 
this Circuit, but seldom holds Court in Pike county. 

David M. Woodson was a State's Attorney of the old 1st District, 
which then included Pike county; afterward was Circuit Judge 
for 18 years, then was member of the Legislature. His partner in 
the law was Charles D. Hodges, late Circuit Judge of Greene 

Gov. Richard Yates delivered his " maiden" speech as an at- 
torney here in Pittsfield. 


We have endeavored to mention the names and give what facts 
we could learn of every attorney who has ever practiced in the 
courts of Pike county. We will now speak of those who compose 
the Bar at present. No name will intentionally be omitted. The 
list we give was furnished by some of the leading attorneys of the 
county, and we believe full and complete. 

Son. TF7?^. i?. ^rcAer is a native of New York city, where he 
read law and was admitted to the Bar in 1838, and shortly after- 
ward moved to this county, where he has ever since resided, ever 
active to forward any movement for the progress and prosperity of 
the county. 


R. M. Atkijison was admitted to the Bar in 18GS; was elected 
County Judge in 1S65 and servetl two terms. 

Quitman Brown is eiitjai^ed in the practice of law at Milton. 

A. G- Crawford. — Mr. Crawford is a native son of Pike; studied 
law at Pittstield, and ii^raduated from the Chica<ijo law school. He 
received his non-professional education in the schools of this 
county and at Blackburn University at Carlinville. 

Joseph L. Dohhin. — This gentleman, who resides at Pittsfield, 
ha^ been gaining a foot-hold in this county as an attorney of high 

Edward Doocy, Griggsville, is a graduate of Illinois College at 
Jacksonville, and was admitted to the ]3ar in 1874. He was ijorn 
in Griggsville in 1851, and as a lawyer he now has a successful 

Isaac J. Dyer, Time, was reared in Jacksonville; iiad but limited 
literary education; received his professional education at the law 
school of Washington University at St. Louis, and was admitted to 
the Bar in 1873. He served in the late war and was disabled for 
life by wounds in the left arm. 

James F. Greathouse, of Pittsfield, is a son of one of the-early 
pioneers of Pike county. He was reared in Montezuma township 
and has thus far continued to reside in the county. He served his 
country during the trying days of the Rebellion. 

Delos Grigshy, son of Judge Grigsby, has recently been admitted 
to the Bar. 

Hon. Wm. A. Grimshaio, the oldest practicing attorney of the 
county, ranks as one of the leading lawyers of the State; was ad- 
mitted to the Bar in Philadelphia at the age of 19; in 1833 he came 
to Pike county, since which time he has been actively identified 
with almost every public interest of the county. 

/Samuel V. Ilayden is engaged in the practice of law at Milton. 

Harry Highee, son of Judge Higbee, and partner of Messrs. 
Wike c^- Matthews, attended Columbia Law School, New York 
city, and the Chicago Law School, and was admitted to the Bar in 

Geo. W. Hininan is engaged in the practice of law at Perry. 

James S. Irioln was a college class-mate of the noted Jolin C. 
Breckinridge, who was once Vice President of the United States and 
afterward a leader in the Southern Confederacy. Mr. Irwin is one 
of the leading lawyers of the State. 

Henry G. JohnstoJi, of Pittsfield. Mr. Johnston has resided in 
Pittsfield for some time, engaged in the practice of law. 

J. W. Johnson was admitted to the Bar in 1869, came to Pike 
county the following year, taught school for two years and tiien 
located at Pittsfield. He is at the present engaged in the practice 
of law in company with J. S. Irwin. 

W. I. Klein, who graduated at Ann Arbor, is practicing 
law at Barry at the present time. 

A. G. Lang is also practicing at Barry. 


Hon. A. C. Matthews is a native of this county, his father being 
one of the sturdy pioneers. He served in the late war with dis- 
tinction as Colonel of the 99th, and subsequently was Collector of 
Internal Revenue for several years in the 9th District,'' then Super- 
visor of Internal Revenue. 
. Jefferson Orr. Mr. Orr is at present the State's Attorney. As 
a lawyer and as a man of integrity and ability he ranks high. 

Peter T. Staats, Griggsville. While engaged in the practice of 
law Mr. Staats also teaches school occasionally. 

J. L. Underwood., of Barry, was born in New York city May 
10, 1826, the son of Robert L. and Martha Underwood; emigrated 
first to Adams county, and in 1837 to Pike county, settling at 
Eldara; read law here and was admitted to the Bar in 1865, but 
had been practicing law four years before that time. Although 
living at Eldara his office lor man}' years was at Barry, to which 
place he has more recently moved. 

Hon. Scott Wike studied law at Harvard University, and was 
admitted to the Bar in 1858; the following year he located at 
Pittsfield and began the practice of his chosen profession. He is 
one of the leading lawyers of the Circuit. 

Thos. Worthington, jr., son of Dr. Thos. Worthington, was born 
in Tennessee while his mother was there on a visit during the 
holidays. But he is, strictly speaking, an Illinoisan. He read law 
with Judge Atkinson and in the law school at Chicago, and was 
admitted to the Bar in 1877. He is now in the office with Judge 
Atkinson at Pittsfield. 

Ed. Yates, a partner of Jeff Orr, the State's Attorney, at Pitts- 
field, ranks among the leading attorneys at this Bar, and unrivaled 
in his ability to relate anecdotes. 




This township lies in the extreme nortlieastern part of the 
county. It is bounded upon the north by Versailles tp., Brown 
CO., on the west by Perry tp., on the south by Flint, and on the east 
by the Illinois river. Along the river is much bottom land, whole 
sections of which are entirely useless for agricultural purposes. 
Both the north and south forks of McGee's creek traverse this town- 
ship: they join on section 27, and empty into the Illinois river 
about a mile above Naples, which is on the opposite shore^ in Scott 

The first pioneers who came to this township were James Wells, 
Samuel Atchison, a Mr. Brewster and a Mr. Van Woy. They 
came in 1822. The first named located on section 20, and Mr. 
Atchison erected his cabin on section 17. The first sermon 
preached in the township was at the house of Rachel Brown, in 
1827, by Rev. John Medford, a Methodist preacher. The first 
church edifice was erected on section 31. Tlie first school was 
taught in 1830 in an old log house which stood near where Joseph 
Brown lives, by John Lyster, The first Siuiday-schoolin the town- 
ship was organized by the Methodists in the town of Chambersburg. 
The first wedding in the township was in 1826, the contracting 
parties being James Medford and Eliza Brown. The wedding 
occurred at the residence of the bride's mother, and the ceremony 
was performed by Esquire Wells. The first person overtaken by 
death in the township was Michael Brown, who died in 1826. 
lie came to tlie township in the fall of the same year. 

Joseph Brown is the oldest pioneer living in the township. 
James Pool is the next oldest. Harvey Dunn was an early settler 
here. He was a member of the convention which framed the Con- 
stitution of 184:7. He was an unassuming, intelligent and honest 
man, and died many years ago. 

The privations of the pioneer families in this township were in 
soYne respects very great, cut off as they were from almost all' 
social, religious, educational and commercial advantages. Of course 
they enjoyed these in a limited degree. The first settlers were people 
who valued greatly such privileges, and though they were for many 

^^^^^^^' ~y^yh^-^:^d-^^f7^^^^^ 


years without school-houses and churches, easily found the facilities 
for enjoying themselves, both socially and religiously. The great- 
est privations arose from the want of the means of communication 
with the outside world. The absence of railroads, or even good 
wagon roads, rendered the locality almost inaccessible to postal and 
commercial facilities, and traveling for other than business pur- 
poses was out of the question. Most of the original pioneers are 
represented here by descendants, but they, with few exceptions, 
have passed to a country that is always new, where, however, the 
trials of pioneer life are unknown. 

The first settlers were all farmers, after a fashion now unknown. 
They raised a little corn and a few vegetables, and, like their red 
neighbors, depended largely^upon their rifle for subsistence. Their 
houses were but little superior to those of the Indians, being 
merely little cabins erected only with the help of the ax and per- 
haps an auger. No locks, nails or any other article of iron entered 
into their construction, but such devices as could be wrought out 
on the ground by the use of the tools named and of such materials as 
the locality afforded. The only boards used for any purpose were 
such as could be hewed out of logs. 


The town of Chambersburg is located. on the north fork of Mc- 
Gee's creek, on section 8. It was surveyed and laid out May 7, 
1833, by Seabouru Gilmore and B. B. Metz. Mcintosh and 
Givens were the first settlers of the town. They owned a distillery 
and store here before the town was laid out. There are several 
good stores, churches, a school-house, shops, etc., in the town; and 
for an inland village it transacts a very good trade. 


James Barry is a native of Morgan county, O., and was born in 
1834; he is a son of Wilson and Rosanna Barry, the /ormer a native 
of Pennsylvania and the latter of Vermont; he was brought to this 
county at the age of nine years; Feb. 1, 1855, he married Eleanor 
E. Kurfman, who was born in Pennsylvania in 1838. Everything 
was in its native wildness when Mr. B. came to this county, and as 
hi& father soon died, he began life for himself at an early age, work- 
ing for $13 a month; he had many obstacles to overcome, but his 
enterprising, persevering disposition overcame all of them. He 
prospered for a time here and removed to Rockport, with the 
intention of going to Missouri the following spring, but the out- 
break of the war prevented him. He bought land again in this 
county, met with disasters, but has again established himself, now 
owning 190 acres of land. Mr. B. is a member of the U. Baptist 
Church. P. O., Chambersburg. 

Joab Brooks ; P. O., Chambersburg. Mr B. was born in Pike 
county in 1832, and is a son of A. H. and Lucy Brooks, natives of 
Tennessee. In 1863 he married the widow Brooks, whose maiden 


name was Elizabeth Hume. She was bom in 1833. Six children 
have blessed this union. Mr. B. is engao^ed- in farniinp^ on sec. 9, 
but formerly followed blacksniithiug. Meinl)ers of M. E. Church. 

Joseph Brown^ fanner, sec. 17; P. O., Chainbersburg; isa native 
of the Green Mountain State, where he was born in 1816; his 
father, Michael Brown, is a native of Ireland, who came to this 
country when 18 years of ao;e; his mother, the daughter of Joseph 
Greir, was born near Philadelphia, Pa. Mr. B. came with his 
parents to Illinois in 1820 and located near Sliawneetown, 111., and 
in the fall of 1824 was brought to this county, and has lived on the 
same farm since the spring of 1825, and has been engaged in farm- 
ing and ninning flat and steam-boats on the river. In 1858 he 
married. Mrs. Catharine Jones, a native of Coshocton Co., O. Three 
children have been born to them, two of whom are dead. Mr. 
Brown is an old pioneer, coming here when the wolves were thick 
as squirrels and could be heard in all directions, and turkey and 
deer seen in large numbers. He is the oldest pioneer now living 
in the township. His wife is a member of the Methodist Church. 

Nancy Burrows^ widow of the late Robert G. Burrows, was 
born in East Ten n. Dec. 18, 1825, and is a daughter of William 
Deviney, deceased. She was married to Mr. Burrows June 5, 
1850. They had 8 children, of whom 3 are living,— Ada E., wife 
of David M. Reynolds, of Pike county; Ella F. and Laura A. Mrs. 
B's brother, Capt. P. Deviney, who spent most of his life on the 
waters, now resides in St. Louis, where she also has a sister resid- 
ing, and one sister in California, whom she has not seen for 29 
years. Mr. Burrows, her husband, was born in New York city, 
May 2, 1819; by profession he was a civil engineer, but desiring a 
more active life he went upon the waters; lie was mate of the Cal- 
houn on the Illinois river from the time she was launched until his 
death, which occurred Jan, 13, 1879. lie was a man of culture 
and education, widely known and highly respected, and a worthy 
member of the M. E. Church. 

James W. Chenoweth was born in 1847 in Pike county, and is a 
6on of Wm. and Sarah Chenoweth; he iirst married Mary Erving 
in 1874. One child was born to them. Mrs C. died the same year, 
and in 1878 Mr. C. married Miss Maggie Erving, who was born in 
1857. Mr. C. commenced buying and shipping stock eight years 
ago, and jh this business has succeeded very well. 

Miles B. Chenoweth) P. O. Chambersburg; M^as born in 1827 in 
Bartholoniew Co., Ind. His parents, Abraham and Rachel Cheno- 
weth, were both natives of Kentucky; they moved to Clinton Co., 
Ind., in the fall of 1832, and in 1836 to Pike county. 111., where our 
subject grew to manhood and embarked in farming; in 1848 he was 
united in marriage to Miss AnnaE. Allen, a native of Madison Co., 
N. Y., born April 7, 1830, and they are the parents of 4 children. 
They have been members of the Christian Church for 35 years, and 
in all public enterprises Mr. C. is very liberal. 

.1^. D. Cooper was l)orn in 1812 in Sumner Co., Tenn., and was 
the son of George and Elizibcth Cooper, the former of N. C. and 


his inotliei- of Tenii. With his parents our subject moved to Ky., 
and iu 1S29 came to Illinois, and worked at the carpenter's trade in 
Pittstield. In 1843 he married Miss Veturia Hobbs, who was born 
in Kj., in 1818. jSfr. C. .followed farniincr up to 1857, and then 
embarked in the grocery business; he went West, and in 1860 came 
back to Illinois, and again engaged in the grocery business until 
1865, then embarked in the milling business, which he continued 
two years; farmed for a year; engaged in the milling business in 
Versailles, 111., for about a year and a half; returned to the farm, 
where he lived for 7 years; tlien sold out and bought the Chambers- 
burg Mills, which he has been running since. In connection with 
the flouring-mill, which he has put in excellent repair, he has a 

J. H. Dennis^ Chambersburg, is one of the leading citizens of 
the township, indeed of the county. Mr. D. has served many terms 
as a member of the Board of Supervisors, and as Chairman of that 

Thomas Dorman, farmer, sec. 4; P. O. Chambersburg. Mr. D. 
is a son of Lewis and Eliza J. Dorman; born in 1851 in Brown Co., 
111.; his father is a native of Ohio and his mother a native of Brown 
Co.. 111., where Thomas was raised until the age of 15; he then en- 
gaged in engineering, and for 3 years followed black smithing, at 
Hersman Station, then wen£ to Jaques' Mills, where he worked two 
years. He was married to Miss America Berry in 1872; she was 
born in Ohio in 1850. Of the 3 children born to them one is dead. 
Mr. and Mrs. D. are members of the Christian Church. 

George H. Dunn was born in Morgan Co., 111., Feb. 28, 1838. 
His parents, Harve}' and Angeline Dunn, were born in N. Y. and 
Mass., respectivel}'. Mr. D. was brought to this county by his 
parents in 1839, and up to the year 1850 lived in the town of Cham- 
bersburg, and then moved on a farm on sec. 5, where he lived until 
the death of his father in Dec, 1869. He shortly afterward returned 
to Chambersburg and has since lived in retired life. In April, 1864, 
he married Miss Susan M. Dennis. Mr. D. is a brother of Dr. 
Dunn, of Perry. He is a member of the Blue Lodge, also the 
Chapter of Knight Templars of the Masonic fraternity. 

Thomas Grayham^ farmer sec. 17; P. O. Chambersburg. Mr. G. 
was born in 1833 in Kentucky; at the age of 22 he came to this 
county and followed carpentering and boat-building. His parents 
were John and Susan Grayham. Our subject was married to Miss 
Siretta J. Rushing, who was born in Nashville, Tenn. To them 
have been born 10 children, 6 of whom are living. Mr. G. has 
been very successful as a farmer. Mrs. G. is a member of the 
Methodist Church. 

Joel Ham^ farmer, sec. 20; P. O. Chambersburg. In Ruthei-ford 
Co., Tenn., in 1829, there was born to James and Mary Ham the 
subject of this sketch; they moved to this county when their son 
was one year old; here he grew to manhood, and May 9, 1850, was 
inarried to Miss Sarah A. Wells, who was born in this township 


April -^9, 1S3>. James A., Or.-on, Sarah 11., Bennett D. and 
Charles ai-e the names of the children horn to theni. Mrs. H. died, 
and Sept. s, 18">9, Mr. H. married Miss ^[aI\•ina Lee, who was i)orn 
Mav 24, lS;3t!, at Orleans, Iiid. Ten cliildren have heen horn to 
theiiu^lJenj. F,, An^enettia, Lucretia, David L., Enocli, Walter S., 
llarvey, Anna E., Dollie P., Frederick A. The following of his 
former children are dead: James A., Orson and Chai'lie; and of 
the latter, Benjamin, Lucretia and Dollie. Mr. IL l)egan life very 
poor, hut now owns 400 acres of laud. He well rememhers about 
the early settlers poundino^ corn with an iron wedge in the top of a 
slum]) hurned out for the purpose, and when it took two days for 
his father to go to mill with the grist in a sack thrown over the 
horse's' hack. All the sugar they used was from the maj)le trees 
standing in the forest. Mrs. II. is a memhor of the Christian 

tlohn II. Ham, farmer, sec. 20 ; P. O. Chamhersburg ; is the son 
of Lewis and Julia A. Ham, and was born in this county in 1855 ; 
his mother died in December, 1878. In 1874 Mr. H. took unto 
himself a wife in the person of Miss Alice Conner : she was born 
in Pike county in 1854 : only one of the two children born to them 
is living. Mrs. IL is a member of the Christian Churcli. 

James L. Ham, one of the largest farmers in this county, was 
born June 15, 1832, in this township ; his parents came here in 
1830 from Kutherford county, Tenn.; their names were James and 
Mary (Broiles) Ham, one a native of S. C. and the other of Tenn., 
and of German descent, — -both very old families in those States, 
and took part in the Revolutionary war, their great-grandfatlier. 
Gen. "Williams, serving under Washington. JTames Ham, the 
father of our subject, during his life-time was a very large and 
successful farmer, owning and working 1,500 acres of land in this 
township at the time of his death, which occurred in 1868. He 
began life in 1830 with a team and 35 cents. He raised a large 
family of eight children, seven of whom lived to be grown, — -four 
now living in this county and one in Stark county. James L. was 
married Sept. 25, 1853, to Julia A, Wells, daughter of James 
Wells, the oldest settler in this township. He had a family of four 
children, — John II., who is married and lives on sec. 20, Henry A., 
Marshall A. and Reuben L. Mr. Ham has served the township for 
several years as Supervisor, and was Chairman of that body : he is 
now acting as Justice of the Peace. He has been a member of the 
Christian Church for many years. He is also a member of the 
Masonic and Odd Fellows fraternities, and has been prominently 
Connected with the Pike County Agricultural Society, being Pres- 
ident, Vice-President or Director for the last fifteen years, and is_ 
now Vice-President. 

William Haiok, farmer, sec. 4 ; P. O. Chamhersburg ;' was born 
Aug. 3, 1842, and is a son of James and Rachel Hawk. He came 
with his parents to Brown county. 111., when nine years of age, and 
in 1854 located in Pike county. Mr. H. served three years in Co. 


G, 99tli 111. Yol. Inf.; was in tlie siege of Vicksburg, then trans- 
ferred to the Army of tlie Gulf; was in the battle of Fort Blakely, 
then returned to New Orleans, then to Memphis, then to Mobile, — 
was there when that ])lace was captured, then to Shreveport and 
Baton Roni^e. lie returned home and engaged in farming. 

Henry Ilendricls, farmer, sec. 16 ; P. O. Ciianibersburg. Mr. 
H. is a son of Thomas and Elizabeth Hendricks, the fortner a native 
of Kentucky and the latter of Vermont. They were married in 
Jennings county, O.. where in 1836 the subject of this sketch was 
born ; in 1849 Mr. II. came with his parents to Brown county. III., 
where lie lived until he became of age and married Miss Elmina 
Hume, who was bjrn in 1837. To them have been born seven 
children. Mr. H. has held some township offices ever since he 
came to this county in 1861. Mrs. 11. is a member of the Christian 

D. J. Hohhs, of the lirm of Smith & Hobbs, was born in 1848 
in Pike county, 111., and is the son of Ilenson and Jane Hobbs ; 
his father was born in Kentucky and his mother in this county ; 
in 1857 he moved with his parents to Missouri, and returned to 
Pike county in 1861. He worked two years in a woolen mill at 
Perry, this county. In 1868 he married Miss Bettie Ann Wilkins, 
who was born in Ohio Dec. 22, 1848. Four children have been 
born to them. Mr. H. embarked in the wagon business in 1870, 
turning out good wagons and buggies and meeting with fair suc- 
cess. Both Mr. and Mrs. H. are members of the Christian Church. 

Geo. T. Hiune, merchant, Chambersburg, was born in Pike 
county in 1855, and is a son of Thos. and Elmina Hume, father a 
native of Pike county and mother of Brown county, Illinois. Mr. 
H. grew to manhood in this immediate vicinitj-, receiving a liberal 
education, and embarked in the mercantile business; he carries a 
large stock of dry goods, hats, caps, boots, shoes, notions, etc., and 
transacts a large business. He married Miss Vienna McPherson 
in 1877; she was born in DeWitt county, Illinois, in 1858. 

W. A. Hume, merchant, Chambersburg, was born in 1837 in this 
county, and is a son of W. A. and Margaret Hume, both natives of 
Kentucky. They came to this State in 1828 (where both of them 
died) when the subject of this sketch was bound out; in 1864 he 
married Miss Caroline Pool, who was born in Pike county in 1846. 
Two of the four children born to them are living. Mrs. H. died in 
1873, and Mr. H. married again in 1874 Miss Mary Winegar. Miss 
"W. was born in this county in 1850. Of this union two children 
have been born. Mr. H, has held the offices of Collector, Treasurer 
and Town Clerk. He embarked in the dry-goods business in 1865 
and met with good success. He owns a farm of 230 acres. 

John G. Irving was born in 1852 in Pike county and is a son of 
Christopher and Mary Irving, the former a native of Scotland and 
the latter of England; they came to America and were married in 
Massachusetts and emigrated to Illinois in early days. In 1878 
Mr. I, married Miss Ida M. Newton, who was born in Morgan 


comity, Illinois, in 1S59; tliov have one child. Mr. I. has been 
en«;a<i^ed in farinini^ .^ince lie was of ago. Mrs. I. is a member of 
the Christian Church. 

A*. 3f. lr>u/}i/, fanner and stock dealer, was born Sejit. 25, IS-iS, 
in Pike Co., 111., and is the son of Christopher and Mary Irvinty; 
at the age of 15 K. M. uommenceil doing business tor liimself, en- 
gaging in farming and tinally becoming a stoek-shipper. When he 
and his brother commenced in the cattle business thuy borrowed 
$200 and bought calves, and from the start kept increasiiii;^ their 
number until now he is shipping about 200 head a year. He and 
his brother own a fine farm of 280 acres. 

/i'. O. Jackson was born in Indiana in 1845; he is the son of 
Samutd and Harriet (^Twicliell) Jackson, natives of New Yovk 
State, lie is a farmer and owns 100 acres of land. lie was edu- 
cated in a seminary in Orland Town, Ind. At the present time he 
is running a " leveeing" machine, throwing up embankments along 
streams of water, so as to make bottom lands tillable. It has proved 
a success. This machine will throw a cubic yard of dirt in a 
minute, and the expense is only 5 cents per yard. It takes 12 
horses and 3 men to do the work. Over 100 acres of wheat was 
raised in 1870 on lands that had been ponds of water before; the ma- 
chine had been used for grading roads, but Mr. Jackson has im- 
proved it till he can do all kinds of work with it. In 1S76, he 
married the daughter of Mr. Gardner, one of the early settlers of 
this county. 

A. W. James^ farmer, sec. 32 ; was born in 1818, Rutherford 
county, Tenn., son of Casey and Mtirtha James, natives of Vir- 
ginia. In 1838 he married Matilda Clardy, who was born in Bed- 
ford county, Tenn., and died in Sept., 1844. March 19, 1848, lie 
married Elizabeth Sartain, who was born in 1827, in Tenn.. and 
they had 6 children. Mr. J. came to Adams county in 1852, and 
in 1862 to this county, wliere he has since resided. He has held 
the offices of Constable, School Director and Koad Commissioner. 

John M. Kelse>j was born in this county in 1852, son of Samuel 
and Annie E. Kelsey, the former born Nov. 18, 1827, and the ]at- 
ter April 20, 1834. ' In 1875 he married Matilda Smith, who was 
burn in this county in 1859, and they had 3 children. Mr. K. is a 
farmer and also follows grain threshing with the Spence machine. 
He is a member of the Christian Churcb. His father was in the 
late war, belonging to Co. B., 99th Reg. 111. Inft., and died at Mem- 
phis, Tenn., while in sei-vice. 

Andrew Kldnleinwa.?, born in Germany in 1820, and is a son -of 
Peter and Martha Kleinlein. At the age of 33 he crossed the ocean 
and landed in Paltimore, Md., and followed butchering for 10 
months, then worked in an engine house 2 years for the Great 
Western R. R. CV)., and in 1858 came to this county and com- 
menced farming. In 1850 he married Miss Caroline Berceka, who 
was born in 1833 in Hamburg and came across the ocean in 1855. 
Of their 9 children 7 are living, 2 of whom are married. Mr. and 


Mrs. K. have been ineinbcrs of the Gerinau Lutheran Churcli, and 
he owns 140 acres of i;ood land, 

John Lealii\ son ot" Joseph and Anna M. Leahr, was born in 
Germany in 1840. He came. to New York when but 15 years old, 
thence to Pike county, where he commenced tarminij. and in 1867 
he married Miss Emma Smith, who was born in 1847, in Ohio. 
They had 7 children, of whoni 5 are living. Mr. L. has been School 
Director and is a member of the Christian Church. 

David E. Loer, farmer, sec. 5 ; P. 0., Chambersburi^; son of 
Plenry and Matilda Lc^er; was burn in Hamilton county, Ohio, in 
1832. His fatherdied in 1847 and his mother in 1879. He moved 
to Indiana with his parents when quite young; in 1852 he married 
Miss Sarah Leisur, who was bui-n in Rush county, Ind., in 1833, and 
died in 1867, in Grant county, Ind. They had 3 childi-en, 2 of 
whom are living. In 1868 he married Mrs. Maria Glassgow, a 
widow having 3 children, and who was born in Ohio in 1836. Mr. 
and Mrs. L. have 3 living children and are members of the Chris- 
tian Church. 

John Loer was born Aug. 22, 1814, * in Colraiu tp., Hamilton 
Co., Ohio. His father, Thomas Loer, was a native of Virginia, and 
son of Henry Loer, a native of Germany, who emigrated to x\mer- 
ica with his parents before the Revolutionai-y war, being then 8 
years of age. He served under Washington during the war, for 
wliich he received a pension until, his death. After the war lie 
married Sarah Barkus and settled in Virginia; thence they removed 
to Ohio about 1795; he died in Hamilton in 1841. Thomas Loer, 
the father of our subject, died in Henry county. Ind., in 1873, aged 
86. John's mother, Sarah {nee Patterson ) was the daughter of 
George Patterson, a native of Scotland, who came to America before 
the Revolution, settling in Grant county, Ky., where he resided 
until his death. John Loer married Martha Hickman in 1835, in 
Ohio, and moved to this county in 1839, locating in this township. 
He was a cooper by trade and brought 5 coopers with him, intend- 
ing to conduct thftt business here; he built a frame cooper shop 20 
X 40, bought timber and opened up business, which he followed 2 
years with success; then went into the pork speculation, buying 
pork at $1.50 per cwt., or $5.00 per barrel, shipping to New Orleans, 
some of which brought only 75 cents ])er barrel. Mr. L. lost 
heavily by this venture, and returned to coopering, which he fol- 
lowed with varying success until 1849. At one time during the 
wild-cat-money period he took a cargo of barrels to Alton and waa 
obliged to sell them for 50 cents, when they had cost him %2^ cents 
to have them made, besides the freight, which was 25 cents eacii. He 
took Shawneetown money for pay and was advised to hurry home 
and dispose of it, as it was liable to become worthless any day. 
Mrs. Loer died in 1847, leaving 5 children. In 1^49 Mr. L. mar- 
ried Mary, daughter of John and Hannah Hall Reese, of Ky , and 
they liad 6 children, 2 living. In 1849 he invested in a saw-miU 
on McGee's creek, which he carried on until 1862, then traded for a 


farm on sec. IH and carried on tarniini; until 1877; sold the farm 
in 1879 and bought a flourinij^ will in Chainbersburjj^ which he now 
operates. j\[r. L. has served as Suj^ervisor for several years : also 
as Road Commissioner, Collector and School Director. The pres- 
ent fine scliool l)nildini2; was built under the administration of Mr. 
Loer while he was Director. Mr. and Mrs. L, are meml)ers of the 
Christian Cliurch, and Mr. L. belongs to the Masonic fraternity. 

Frank Marden is one of the leading and enterprising citizens of 
Pike county. Residence, Chambersburg. 

Mark McGinnis was born in East Teanessee in 1823. His 
father, David, was a native of Tennessee, and liis mother, Sarah, a 
native of Virginia. When he was 9 or 10 years of age he moved 
with his parents to Indiana, living there six yeai's; then came to 
Morgan county, 111., and then to Pike in 1844 and located at 
Chambersburg. He followed coopering 16 years, and in 1842 
married ]\rary Bushfield, who was born in 1828 in Kentucky. 
They ha(i 7 children, <->nly one of whom is living, Tiiomas B. Mr. 
McG. is now farming and has considerable property. Mr. and Mrs, 
McG. are members of the Christian Church. 

Henry Metz was born in this county in 1842; his father, Benj. 
B., was born in Maryland in 1806, and his mother, Jane Metz, was 
born in Ohio in 1812. In 1871 Henry married Alvira Morrison, 
wlio was born in this county in 1855; of their 4 children 3 are 
living. Mr. M. is a farmer, his land lying adjoining the town of 
Chambersburg. Mr. M. served 4 years in the late war, firsi in Co. 
L., then transferred to Co. I, 10th 111. Cav.; was mustered out in 
1865 at San Antonio, Texas. In 1864 he was taken prisoner by 
Joseph Shelby; was held for 14 days and then paroled, and was ex- 
changed in 6 months. Mrs. M. is a Methodist. 

James L. Mcts, son of Benj. B. Metz, was born in this county 
Jan. 27, 1834. His father moved from Maryland to Virginia, 
where he married Miss Jane Lawson. They came to Pike county 
in 1833, and became one of the iirst and most influential settlers of 
Chambersburg township. He died April 9, 1870. James L. married 
Emily Morris, daughter of John and Emily Morris, of Pikecounty. 

Dr. John W. Murph//, son of Jolin, a native of Vermont, and of 
Nancy, a native of Ohio, was born in Highland county, O., in 1844. 
His father died Jan. 10, 1845, in Ohio; in 1850 his mother removed 
to Indiana and then back to Ohio. During the late war he enlisted 
in Co. II, 39th O. V. I.; was in the battle of Corintli, was u) the 
siege of Vicksburg, then at Chattanooga and in the Atlanta cam- 
paign and through to the sea and around by Washington, and was 
mustered out at Louisville, Ky.; then came home and learned the 
cooper's trade and milling business. The Doctor came to Pike 
county in 1869; commenced the study of medicine in 1871, and 
attended the American CollegeatSt. Louis, Mo.; in 1874 he located 
in Chambersburg and commenced the practice of medicine; in 
1877-'8 attended medical college and returned home, continuing 
his profession. In 1876 he married Annie Lockerbie Tiiompson, 


who was born in 1S51 in Cincinnati, O., and wlio was a teacher. 
She is a member of the M. E. Church. 

Augustus Myers was born in 1S19 in Baden, Germany. His 
parents were Andone and Catherine Myers, both natives of Ger- 
many, lie emip^rated to America in 1846, worked in Cincinnati 
8 years by the month, tiien in this county to 1858, wlien he married 
Louise Carterman, who was born in 1S29, in Lippe Detmold, Ger- 
many, who came to this country in 1857. Of their 8 children 1 
are liviui;. Mr. M. lias been very successful in farmintr, now hav- 
ing 300 acres of nice land, sec. 19. He and his wife are members 
of the Lutheran Church at Perry. P. ()., Chaml>ersburg. 

Thomas J. Smith, of the firm of Smith & llobbs, wagon and 
Carriage manufacturers, was born in 1835 in Clarke county, Ind., 
a son of Nicholas "W. and Susan E. Smith, the former b ^rn in 
Kentucky, the latter in Vermont. In 1852 he married Margaret 
T. Montgomery, who was horn in 1837, also in Clarke county, Ind. 
Of their 10 children only 5 are living. Mr. S. studied and practiced 
medicine 4 years in Indiana, and since 1871 he has practiced med- 
icine and been connectetl with the carriage maiuifactory at Cham- 
bersburg. From 1863 to 1865 he served in Co. I, 40th Ind. Vet. 
Vol, Inf.; fought in the battles of Pulaski, Columbia, Spring Hill, 
Franklin, Teiin. (where he was wounded), Nashville, and in the 
whole campaign after Gen. Hood. Mr. and Mrs. S. are Methodists, 
and he is an Odd Fellow. 

Valentine Smith was born in 1819 in Baden, Germany, near 
the river Rhine; his parents, Vincent and Mary, were also natives 
of Baden. He crossed the sea in a sail vessel, landing at New 
Orleans; then went to Cincinnati, and in 1855 he came to this 
county, where he has lived ever since, a pros])erous farmer, owning 
3T3 acres of good bluff land. In 184S Mr. S. married Martha 
Thrasher, who was born in 1830 in Hamilton county, Ohio, and of 
their twelve children Tiine are living. Mr. and jSIrs. S. are mem- 
bers of the Christian Church, reside on sec. 30, and their postoffice 
is Chambersburg. 

George L. Thompson, blacksmith, Chambersburg, was born in 
Woodford county, Ky., son t)f William and Elizabeth Thompson, 
the former a native of Pennsylvania, and the latter of Scotland; in 
1833 he emigrated to Indianapolis with his grand-parents, and the 
next year with his parents, to Perry towfishij\ in this county; in 
the spring of 1835 he left his i^arents, returning to Indianapolis, 
where he learned his trade; in the tall of 1855 he settled at 
Chambersburg, where he has since followed his trade. In 1845 he 
married Hannah S. O'Harrow, who was born June 20, 1829, in 
Hamilton county, Ohio, and they have had six children. Being an 
early comer to this wild West, Mr. T. has often seen large 
packs of wolves and killed many a deer. One day when well 
on his way home with a deer on horseback, the wolves attacked 
him, and he was compelled to abandon his booty and seek safety. 
The wolves devoured the deer with chara";teristic greed. Mr. 


Tlioiupson used to go to the town of Perry to buy such tilings as 
were kept for sale in an old log hut 12 feet square, kept by Joseph 
King, who was an old bachelor, and cooked, ate and sold goods in 
the same room. His wife is a Methodist. 

Franklin Todd\\'?i^ born in 1825 in Bourbon county, Ky.; his 
father, John P., was born in Vermont, and bis mother, Mary, in 
Pennsylvania; his fatiier died in 1827, and in 1832 he accompanied 
his mother to their new home in Chambersburg, when there were 
but two cabins there, occupied by James and John Fike. In 1843 
Mr. Todd married Lucretia Draper, who was born in Scc»tt county, 
111., in 1825, the daughter of Samuel and Iluldah Draper, her 
father a native of Massachusetts, and her mother, of Ohio. Mr. 
and Mrs. T. have had 11 children, 7 of whom are living. From 
18-40 to 1855 Mr. T. followed coopering in Chambersburg, part of 
the time when there were 10 coopers at work. Since that time he 
lias been a successful farmer, and now owns 160 acres of land. 
Twelve years ago he was $4,000 in debt, but has now paid it all. He 
has been School Director and Road Commissioner. lie and his 
wife are members of the Christian Church, and are public-spirited, 
worthy citizens. 

Robert Todd was born in Bourbon county, Ky., in 1819, son of 
John and Mary Todd, natives of Maryland and South Carolina, 
respectively. His father died in 1828, and in 1832 he came with 
his mother to this county. In 1843 he married Margaret Edwards, 
who was born in 1824 in Greenup county, Ky. ; they have had '3 
children. Mr. T. now owns 120 acres of good land on sec. 5, 
besides other valuable property; he has been Constable, Tax Col- 
lector, School Trustee and Director, and was in the Mormon war. 
In his earl}-- day here Indian trails were sometimes his only guide 
in traveling over the country, and for two years St. Louis was his 
trading post. P. O., Chambersburg. 

Ell D. Tucker was born in 1857 at Sutton, Worcester Co., Mass., 
son of Ebenezer and Elizabeth T., the former a native of Khode 
Island, and the latter of Massachusetts; both his parents dying 
while he was very young, he was bound out at the age of 7, but 
at the age of fourteen, being maltreated, he ran off to West Warren, 
Mass., where he worked at $10 a month on a farm; commencing 
in 1871, he worked two years in a rubber manufactory; in 1874 he 
came to Illinois, worked on a farm and repairing telegraph wires 
on the O. & M. P. P.; in 1877 he became an employee at the 
Perry Mineral Springs; Nov. 8. 1878, he began to learn the black- 
smith's trade under Frank Mardeii, of this place, and is doing well. 

James T. V<irner was born in 1830 in Morgan county, III., son 
of John and Sarah (Wood) Varner, natives of Kentucky, and of 
German a-acestry. He came to this cimnty in 1849 and now owns 
90 acres on sec. 6, and is a fanner and cooper. In 1850 he mar- 
ried Nancv Hanks, and they have one son and three daughters 
living. Mr. V". has been ll<>a(l Commissioner and is a Democrat 
P. O., Chambersburg. 


Wm. W. Winegar was born in this place (Chambersburg) in 
1844, son of John and Freelove Wineojar, his father a native of 
Massachusetts and his mother of Ohio; he served three years in 
the army, in Co. F, 99th 111. Inf., being in the siege of Yicksburg, 
etc.; transferred to tHe Army of the Gulf; was wounded at Fort 
Gibson. In 1866 he married Mary E. Breden, and they had one 
child, which died in infancy; Mrs. W.' died in 1867, and in 1874 
Mr. W. married Clarinda Jones, who was born in Brown county, 
111., in 1851, and they have had one sou. Since 1865 Mr. Winegar 
has followed blacksraithing, with fair success. He and his wife 
are members of the Christian Church. 

Dr. Henry E. Walling was born March 28, 1836, in Orange 
county, Ind., son of James and Catherine Walling, the former a 
native of Tennessee, and the latter of Orange. county, Ind. In 1852 
the subject of this sketch came with his parents to Coles county, 
III., and in February, 1854, they moved to this county. Sept. 12, 
1863, Henry R. was married by T. M. Hess, at Homer 111., to Miss 
S. S. Gaston, who was born Aug. 18, 1840, in Lawrence county, 
111. Her migrations were: at the age of three months she wks 
taken to Cinncinnati, in 1850 to Paducah, in 1861 to Douglas 
■county, 111., and in 1863 to Homer, Campaign Co., 111. After 
their marriage Mr. and Mrs. W. tirs^t settled at Areola, Douglas Co., 
where he followed preaching for a while; jbut he took to the 
study of medicine, which he pursued with zeal while working his 
way at manual labor; in 1866 he attended medical college in Ohio, 
and then went to Mt. Yernon, 111., where he clerked in a drug 
stjre; he then went to Bridgeport, where he had a driving practice; 
but health failing, he went to iEtna, 111., where also he had a large 
practice, and in 1870 he settled at Ferry in this county, where he 
again preached the gospel as well as practiced medicine. He now 
has a nice piece of property in Perry. 

In 1877 he moved to Lociisiana, Mo., where he again followed 
preaching (for the Christian denomination), and the next year back 
to this place(Chamber8burg), where, Sept. 2, he opened an office and 
commenced business; he also has a drug store. His wife is an 
intellectual woman and a good painter of pictures. In this family 
there have been born 5 children, only 2 of whom are living. The 
Doctor is a Republican. 

This is the smallest township in the county and was thelirst one 
settled. In 1817 a Canadian Frenchman by the name of Teboe, 
located on section 33 in this township. He was the lirst resident 
of Pike county, as r^entioned in the first chapter in this book. 
Mr. Teboe's residence, which was on the banks of the Illinois river, 
was the favorite resort of hunters and trappers. He was killed at 
Milton in the year 1844. Garrett Yan Deusen was the next settler. 
He opened a ferry across the Illinois, which is still carried on at 
Valley City, near Griggsville Landing, and is known as Phillips' 


Ferry. Mi'. V;ui Densen sold his claim to Mr. IS'iiiirotl Pliillips, 
many of whose (Jesceiidants are still residents of Pike county. 

Tiie early settlers were alive to the importance of educating their 
children and anxiously desired to have the proper facilities, or as 
good as they ecjuld afford, to carry on this great work. Accordingly 
the citizens met on section 19, near Flint creek, in 1846, for tlie 
purpose of inaugurating or organizing for school purposes. There 
being no houses in the vicinity their deliberations were carried on 
upon a log in the wild forest. Among those present at this meeting 
were Josiah AVade, Wm. Thackwray, James Crawford, Richard 
Sweeting, James L. Thompson, James G. and David Pyle, E. A. F. 
Allen, Francis Wade, J. Hnsband and Wm. Turnbull. Peter 
Kargis. presided over the deliberations of this body. The first 
school in the townshi}) was taught in the winter of lS45-'6 by Wm. 
Turnbnll, James G. and David Pyle, and James L. Thompson, who 
gave their services without any compensation. The school was 
held in an old log house bought and paid for by a few of the citizens. 

The. first and only church ever built in the township was erected 
at Griggsville Landing in 1871 ; it is known as Union Church, but 
the M. E. society is the only one having an organization at this 
place. We were unable to obtain its history definitely, as we failed 
to find the records. 

Flint township was named from a stream which runs through it 
called Flint creek. The name is very appropriate, as the bluffs of 
Flint township contain a variety of flint rock. In the crevices of 
the rocks, in the bluffs on Flint, are found a variety of fossils whose 
formation would puzzle the most skillful geologist. They are 
mostly of the crinoid family. Mr. Wallace, who has a very fine 
collection and many relies of the Indian days, gavems much infor- 
mation on the point. Mr. N. A. Woodson, of Griggsville, also 
showed us a very fine and rare collection of fossils, which he had 
obtained by many days of hard labor on the bluffs and in the rocks 
of Flint township. 

Tlie township is divided into three school districts, and contains 
three scliool-houses, known as North, Middle and South Flint. 

To a stranger Flint township presents at first sight, as he 
approaches from the east, a rugged and desolate appearance ; and 
one would suppose that an ignorant and rather indolent class of 
people dwell here ; but such is far from being the case. We were 
not a little astonislied at the intelligence and enterprise of its noble- 
hearted citizens. Although tlie surface of Flint township is rough 
and broken, it is a fine locality for growing and feeding stock. 

jFluit Magnesia Sj)rtngs. — In the southeastern portion of Flint 
township, on the land, or rather rock, of Wm. Reynolds, there is a 
living spring of magnesia water flowing from a crevice in the rock, 
and em])ties' into the Big Blue river. It would require a volume 
as large as this to describe fully all the wonders of nature found in 
Flint township. 



Tills little village, and the only one in Flint township, was 
founded at Phillips' ferrv by ^V^lll:lce Parker in the year 1877. 
The postoffice at Griggsville J^anding, one-half mile below, and 
known as Flint, was then discontinued and another establihhed at 
the new town, taking the name of Yalley City. The town contains 
one store and postotiice. 

Yalley City Christian Temperance Union. — This society was 
established in the spring of 1S79 on the Murphy plan, and has thus 
far been very successful. In the fall of the same year the society, 
by the aid of the citizens of the township, erected a hall 28 by 40 
feet in size, with 16-foot stoiy, and finished in first-class style, at a 
cost of $1,000. The ground upon which the hall was erected, wliich 
is valued at $100, was donated by Wallace Parker. 


Wm. Bright, lumber dealer, Yalley City, was born in this county 
Oct. 13, 1847. His father, Geo. W., was a farmer, a native of West 
Tennessee, and was a soldier in the Mexican war. He was one of 
the first pioneers of Pike county, and died in 1855. In 1867 Wil- 
liam married Hannah Davis, who died in 1869, and Mr. 13. again 
married in 1872, this time Belle Griffin, and they had 2 children, 
William, deceased, and Mabel L. Mr. B. is proprietor of the saw- 
mill at Griggsville Landing, formerly owned by I. S. Freeman, and 
is doing a good business. 

Levi Butler, t'^irmer, sec. 17; P. ()., Valley City; was born in 
Genesee Co., N. Y., Oct. 4, 1831 ; he came with his parents in 1833 
to this county, where he still resides. Oct. 14, 1853, he married 
Louisa Wilson, and of their 10 children 9 are living: Parvin, Joseph, 
John, David, Ellen, Emma, Loraine, Ann and Maggie. Parvin 
married Elizabeth Walker, and resides in this township. 

George Garrell, farmer and stock-raiser, sec. 29; P. O., Yalley 
City; was born June 25, 1823, in Morgan Co., O.; his grandfather 
was a soldier in the war of 1812; his father, Joseph, a farmer, was 
a native of Pennsylvania, and died Jan. 13, 1867. George has been 
Constable or Deputy Sheriff 12 years. March 27, 1845, he mar- 
ried Providence Wells in Morgan Co., O., who was born in Guern- 
sey Co., O., March 19, 1829; they have three children — John J., 
Nancy J. and Sarah E.; the two former are married. 

John Carrell, farmer, sec. 29; P. O., Yalley City; was born in 
Morgan, now Noble, Co., O., April 26, 1846, the son of George Car- 
rell, of this township; he was brought by his p.irents to this county 
when but 3 years old; has pursued various vocations, but for the 
past 9 years has been farming. Feb. 7, 1870, he married Sarah 
Bartlett, daughter of N. Bartlett, near Maysville; their 3 children 
are Wilbur, Robert ana an infant girl. 

James L. Cawthon, farmer, sec. 19; P. O., Griggsville; was 
bornMar^h 4, 1836, in Yirginia, the son of Christopher Cawthon, de- 
ceased, who was a soldier in the war of 1812, and hence a pensioner 


until lii;; (k'jitli in 18.">3. -lames I^. came to this county in 1857, 
where he has since been tarmino^. At lirst he worked ])y the month 
until he hud by enough to beirln for himself. Nov. 14, 1858, he 
married Louisa Ilensel!, daui^hter of the late Daniel Ilensell, of 
Griggsville. and they have had 8 children, of whom 5 are living — 
Mary, Laura, Eddie, Albert and Frankie. 

Jolin Clark, farmer, sec. 7; son of the late John Clark, of 
Griggsvillc; was born in Hamilton Co., O., Sept. 14, 1830; was 
brought by liis parents to Ogle Co., 111., in 1835; was reared on a 
farm, and came to this county in 1857. June 8, 1852, he n.iarried 
S. Janett Berger, daughter of Samuel Berger, of Polo, 111., and of 
their 6 children 5 are living — Henry, Julia E., Libbie, Jennie and 
Fred A. 

Hachel Conover was born in Northampton Co., Penn., Nov. 7, 
1807; married, in New Jersey, Abraham Conover, and had 2 children 
— Catherine, now Mrs, Wallace Parker, of Valley City, and Rachel, 
deceased. Mr. Conover died Aug. 1, 1827. Mrs. C. kept house for a 
Mr. and Mrs. Moore in Pennsylvania; the former came to Pike 
county and erected a house on the present site of Griggsville, which 
is still standing; he then returned to Pennsylvania, where he died 
in 1835, Mrs. Moore having previously died. In 1836 Mrs. C. 
came with the Moore family atid her own children, and occupied 
the house that Mr. Moore had previously built. She now resides 
with her daughter, Mrs. Parker. 

Willlain Glenn^ sr. , sec. 29; P. O., Vallej' City; born in March, 
1800, in Ireland; in 1830 he landed in Philadelphia; he remained 
in Pennsylvania 5 years; is a mason by trade; came to Pike county 
and entered the land whereon he now resides in 1835; then went to 
St. Louis, Mo., where he followed his trade for five years, and then 
moved back to this county; has been a])rominent farmer and stock- 
raiser, but being old, has turned the business over to his son Wil- 
liam. In 1835 he married Maria Topping, and of their 6 children 
5 are living,— James, Thomas, William, Catharine and Maria. 
Their son Robert was killed in the late war during Gen. Forest's 
raid through Tennessee. 

Elizabeth Husland, sec. 30 ; P. O., Valley City; was born in 
Coshocton Co., O., May 1, 1834, the daughter of George McCune, 
deceased, also a native ofCosiiocton Co., O., who was the first white 
child born in that county. He renioved with his family to St. 
Louis Co.. Mo., in 1835, where he resided until the fall of 1864, 
when he came to Pike county, and died Dec. 18 of the same year. 
He was Sheriff in St. Louis county, Missouri, County Treasurer, 
Tax Collector and lield other offices of trust. Mrs. Husband's 
grandfather, Joseph Fuller, was a soldier under Gen. Washington. 
She was married Aug. 20, 1850, to Edward Monnier, in Pock Hill, 
Mo., and had 3 children, — Henry E., born Oct, 6, 1853; Ida L., 
Oct. 25, 18G(); and James, Feb, 19, 1862. Mr. M. died Feb. 19, 
1863; in 1865 she inari'ied Jonathan Husband, who was born in 
Yoikshire, Eng., Sept. 21, 1803, and etnigrated to America in 
!825" ):e died Nov. 28 3S?'.'> 


Robert Husband, farmer, sec. 20; was born April 11, 1842, in 
this tp., the son of Jonathan Husband, deceased, an early pioneer 
of this county, who in company with Mr. Wade and Wm. Turnbull 
owned the same cofi'ee-mill. Marcli 15, 1871, Robert married 
Esely Grable, and of their 3 children 2 are living, — Nellie and 
Eddie Mr. 11. was a prosperous farmer, but worked 2 years in a 
saw-mill in Wisconsin. 

Sylvester McKee, farmer and stock-raiser, sec. 19; P. 0.,Griggs- 
ville. This man was born in Noble county, O., Feb. 22, 1850, and 
is the only son of Ezra, who now resides with him. The family 
emigrated in 1864 to this county, where he still resides. Oct. 20, 
1869, he married Sarah A., daughter of Wm. Orr, of Derry tp. 
Of their 4 children 3 are living, — Addie C, Rosie E. and Alraa. 
Little Wilbert W. died Oct. 26, 1879. Sylvester's mother's 
maiden name was Elizabeth Mummy, and she died Jan. 17, 1870. 

Wallace Parker was born in Clinton county, N. Y,, Feb. 17, 
1825, and is the son of James Parker, of Griggsville; came with 
his parents to Pike county in 1844, where he followed farming 
until 21 years of age, when he became a merchant in Valley City; 
has been very successful except in some grain speculation in 
Chicago and St. Louis. At present he carries a stock of about $3,000' 
worth. In Feb., 1849, he married Catharine Conover, and of their 
7 children only 4 are living, Rachel C, Hardin W., James H. and 
Helen F. Mr. P. is also Express Agent, Postmaster and Justice 
of the Peace, at Valley City. He has given his son James H. an 
interest in the store. He also has a fine collection of Indian relics, 
as battle-axes, arrowheads, pipes, fryiiig-pans, a copper needle, the 
burnt jaw-bone of an Indian and numerous other curiosities. Some 
of these he has picked up and others he has obtained by opening 
Indian graves. 

David PyZ^, farmer, sec. 18; P.O. Griggsville. This gentle- 
man was born in Harrodsburg, Ky., Feb. 4, 1817; his parents, 
Ralph and Rachel Pyle, deceased, emigrated with him to New 
Orleans in 1818. where he was reared and educated. In 1834 he 
came with his mother to Phillips' Ferry on a visit; went to Phila- 
delphia, Pa., then to Cincinnati, O., and then back to this county 
in the fall of 1835; the next spring he bought a farm on sec. 19, 
where he lived for 21 years, aiid which he then sold, removing to 
Morgan county. 111.; in 1862 he returned to this township, pur- 
chasing a farm on sec. 18, where he still resides. He was married 
Aug. 2, 1838, to Martha A. Willsey, and they have had 11 chil- 
dren, all living; namely, Ralph W., Joseph H., Christopher W., 
Rachel E., Isaac N., Martha A., Carrie, David W., Morgan L., 
James C. and Emma L. All but three of these are married, and 
living in this county. 

K M. Roberts^ farmer, sec. 28, was born in London, Eng., June 
23, 1828; in 1836 the family emigrated to America, settling in 
Pike county. Feb. 19, 1867, he married Susan W. Kem})ton, while 
visiting friends in Fairhaven, Mass. They have had 5 children, of 
whom 4 are living: Sarah M., E^?n M. \iOv.\fi F.,9.nd George B. 


Mr. Roberts is a cousin to the popular Roberts Brothers, publish- 
ers, Washington street, Boston, Mass. 

Joseph A. Rulon is of French ancestry. During the Catholic 
persecution of the Protestants in France two of the Rulon Broth- 
ers, being Protestants, were arrested and placed under a guard in 
a private house up stairs. They knew it would be certain death 
if they were brought to trial; hence they attempted to bribe the 
guardsmen to let them escape, but in vain. They then asked tlie 
guards simply t(j i-emainjust; outside the room and they would take 
care of the rest; the guards then received the offered tees, stepped 
out of the ro'.nu and guarded the door. The Rulons then made a 
rope of the bed-clothes, by which they made their escape through 
the window; and in the night found their way to the wharf where 
they boarded a brig bound for America. Some time after landing 
in America one of these men married, and his descendants are scat- 
tered throughout the country. One of these, Jesse, was a soldier 
in the Revolution, participating in the battle of Monmouth, and he 
was the father of Joseph C, a sailor, who in 1832 settled on a farm 
in Indiana; but after a short time he began trafficking and came to 
Meredosia, 111., in 1849. He was capsized and drowned in the 
Mississippi river Jan. 12, 1852, while attem])ting to board a steamer 
from a small row-boat. He was the fatlier of Josejih C. Rulon, 
the subject of this sketch, who was born Sept. 5, 1831, on the Mon- 
mouth battle grounds, on the very spot where his grandfather fought 
in the bloody battle of Monmouth in the Revolutionary war. He 
was married June 0, 1856, to Mary E. Bonds, and their two child- 
ren are Albert E. and Flora E. The latter is teaching instrumental 
music. Mr. R. came to Pike county in 1871, where he still re- 
sides, and is foreman of the railroad bridge at Phillips' Ferry. 

John C. Scott is a native of Scott Co., where he was l)orn Dec. 
22, 1823, being the first white child born in that county; was 
brought up on a farm; came to this county in 1836, in 1843 re- 
turned to Scott Co., wliere he married, in Jan. 1845, Mary A. Hob- 
son, who died the next year; then Mr. S. returned to this county, 
where, in 1850, he married Martha Wilson, and of their 11 children 
the following 9 are living: Charles W., James M., Leonard G., Da- 
vid W., Frank W., Joseph L., Benjamin E., Margaret J. and George 
E. Mr. Scott is a farmer on sec. T. His father,, John Scott, was 
the first settler in Scott county, and for him that county was 
named. Having been a soldier in the war of 1S12 he was a pen- 
sioner until his death in Jan., 1856. He was a noble-hearted, man. 

John G. Sleight, sr., was born in Lincolnshire, Eng., Oct. 5, 
1805; in 1827 he married Rebecca Walker, and their 8 children 
are: Betsy G., Sally G., Ann G., Walker G., Eliza G., Mary G., 
John G. and Rebecca G., deceased. They came to America in 1857, 
stopping at Griggsville until the following spring, when they set- 
tled on sec. 6, where Mr. S. still resides. Mrs. S. died June 19, 
1862, and Mr. Sleight's son-in-law, Joseph Wilson, resides with 
him and conducts the farm. Mr. Wilson was born in 1838 in Griggs- 

^ar)ia^ oh 



ville tp., and is the father of -i cliildren, of whom but one, Elizabeth 
F., is liviiio:. 

Walker G. Sleight was born in Lincolnshire, Eng., Aug. 29, 1833; 
came to Pike county in 1856, where he still resides, a farmer, on 
sec. 7; P. O., Griggsville. 

Samuel Thachwray ^ farmer, sec. 32; P. O., Griggsville. He was 
born March 25, 1837. in Pike count}', and is a son of Wm, Thack- 
wray, deceased; his mother, Hannah T., is now in her 80th year, re- 
siding on the old homestead, sec. 31, with her son James. Mr, 
T. is a successful farmer and stock-raiser. Nov. 9, 1865, he married 
Mary A. Lynde, daughter of Henry Ly nde, of Griggsville. She 
was born Nov. 10, 1843, in this county. Of their 4 children, these 

3 are living: Annie, Cassie and Melva. 

James L. Thompson^ farmer, sec. 18; P. O., Griggsville. This 
early settler of Pike county was born in Charlestown (now part of 
Boston), Mass., Sept. 11, 1812, and is the son of Dr. .Abraham R. 
Thompson, a native of the same place and a college class-mate of 
Daniel Webster; they were intimate friends all through life. Dr. 
T. died in Charlestown in 1870. James L. was educated in Boston 
in the school of Willard Parker, now a noted physician of New 
York city. He was commission merchant in the city of Boston, 

4 or 5 years, when he suffered a severe loss by the crisis of 1836; 
in the fall of 1837 he emigrated West and settled on sec. 18, this 
tp., where he now resides, on a farm of 160 acres of well-improved 
land. When but 19 years of age Mr. T. went to sea, taking a cargo 
of ice from Boston to New Orleans, where he loaded his ship with 
staves, cotton and coffee, which he carried to Tarragona, 3pain; 
there he loaded with a cargo of wine and dried fruits, and shipped 
for Buenos Ayres, S. A. ; at this place he took on a cargo of jerked 
beef, which he brought to Havana, Cuba, whence he took a load of 
coffee and sugar to Boston. Fifteen months were consumed in this 
round trip, which was full of interest and had its frightful scenes. 
In 1850 Mr. T. went overland to California, suffering untold priva- 
tions on the way. En route he met with Col. Robert Anderson, 
afterward of Fort Sumter notoriety, and had a conversation with 
him. In California Mr. T. met with Admiral James Alden, who 
procured for him a situation as Purser on the U. S. Surveyincr 
Steamer "Active." He was on the survey of the northwestern 
boundary, the report of which was accepted by Emperor William. 
This report, requiring about a quire of foolscap, was all written by 
Mr. T. It took two seasons to complete the survey. After being 
absent about 5 years he returned to his family here in 1856, where 
he has since resided. He has been married four times, and is the 
father of seven children, — James L., J. B., Henry, Frederick W., 
Katie, Charlie and Benj. F. 

Austin Wade, farmer, sec. 6; P. O., Griggsville. The birth of 
this gentleman took place July 23, 1832, in this county; he is the 
son of Josias Wade, of Griggsville; Sept. 27, 1855, he married 
Mary A., daughter of Joseph Pyle, of Naples, 111., and of their 8 

•i26 HISTORY OF pikf: colxtv. 

children (] are livinti^, — Willard, Klizaljeth, Arthur, Luraiiie, Ferber 
and Homer. ]V[r. Wade resided 7 vears in Morgan county, 111., 
and two years on the Pacific coast. 

Coleman Wade^ farmer, sec. I'J; P. O., Valley (/ity; a native of 
Pike county, and was born July 7, ls37. tiie son of Josias Wade, 
ofGriggsville, and brother of the i)recedin<:^; was educated in Gri^ii^s- 
ville; lias been very successful in farmini:^ and stock-raisinij^. Jan. 
20, 1859, he married Rachel, daughter of Josl'iJi Pyle, of Naples, 
and they have had 6 children, of whom 5areli\ing: Lillian, Ernest, 
Raymond, ClifFord and Irene. The four youngest are attending the 
Middle J^'lint school, where Lillian is engaged as assistant teacher. 

John Wade, farmer, sec. SO; P. ()., Griggsville; born Jan. 12, 
1822, in Blyth, Nottinghamshire, Eng., and is the son of Francis 
Wade, deceased. All the school education he has had he received 
before he was 8 years old. The family emigrated to America in 1834, 
locating in Trenton, N. J., thence to Pennsylvania, and in July, 
1838, landed at Phillips' Ferry, in this county; May 18. 1866, he 
married Ann Stoner. Their 7 children are: Mai-ia, Mai-y J., Arthur, 
Francis, Fred, John and (Tcorge. Mr. W. now owns 370 acres of 
land, and is a successful farmer and stock-raiser. 


Detroit township is situated on the Illinois river and consists for 
the most of broken land. To Lewis Allen belongs the honor of 
being the first settler in tlie township, lie came in 1823 and erected 
a cabin on section 31. He was a native of Warren county, Ky., 
and was born Nov. 11, 1794. Garrett Yan Deusen. Wm. Meredith 
and a. Mr. Morgan, also, were very early settlers in this township. 
The first birth in the township was a daughter of David and Hannah 
Mize, \vho died in infancy, which was also tlie first death to occur. 
The first marriage was Robert Cooper to Nancy Rice in 1826, at 
the residence of Wm. Meredith. The first sermon was preached 
by Rev. Elijah Garrison, a Christian minister, at the house of David 
Mize in 1826. Tlie early pioneers were industrious people and 
were not neglectful of the education of their children; for as early 
as 1827, David Mize, Ezekiel Cleuimons, Wm. Meredith, Joseph 
Neeley and others banded togetlier and erected a school-house on 
section 16. and employed a teacher, placing their children in their 
charge for instruction and intellectual improvement. The first 
teacher was Abraham Jones. 

The next great question which occupied tlie minds of these noble 
fathers and mothers was the preparations for public worship. They 
accordingly organized themselves into a body, or rather each person 
considered himself one of the building committee, a\id as early as 
1834 there was a church building erected by the Baptists at Blue 
river graveyard. Previous to tliis meetings were held in school- 
houses and private dwellings. 

Garrett A^an Deusen was the first Justice of the Peace, and Isaac 
Teniff the first Supervisor. The township received its name from 
the postoffice which had been established several years previously, 
and named by Col. Daniel Bush at Pittsfield and Wm. Johnson, 
the first postmaster at Detroit. 

The pioneers had many encounters with wild animals during the 
early settlement of the county, two or three of which, related by 
Mrs. Dinsmore, who is still residing m this township, we will place 
on record in this connection. On one occasion, while she andjier 
husband were passing through the«woods, a huge lynx came bound- 
ing up behind her and grabbed her dress with .his claws. She 
hastily called the dogs and they quickly came to her side. The wild 


animal loosened his hold and gazed upon the dogs. Thej were 
greatly frightened and did not attempt an attack npon the lynx, 
but ran to the house. Tiie lynx, too, concluded to leave and took 
to the forest. 

This same lady tells of another time when she was attacked or 
about to be attacked by one of tJiese fierce creatures. She was en- 
gaged in the woods making sugar, with her camp fire near a large 
log. She heard a noise upon the opposite side, which was made by 
the lynx just in the act of preparing to make a leap, as she sup- 
posed. She set the dog Uj)on it, and us it sprang over the log he 
alighted. upon a large, powerful lynx. The tierce contest that ensued 
was a short one, for the dog was completely overpowered; and as 
soon as he could release himself from the clutches ot his antagonist 
he " run home a-howlin' with his tail between his legs, and run 
under the house," where he remained for some time. 

We will ofive Mrs. Dinsmore's panther story in her own language 
as nearly as we can. " One day wiien 1 wasa-comin' thro' the woods 
I seen a large painter come out of the brush and begin to drink out 
of a puddle of water in the path; and I shooed at him, and he paid 
no attention to me, and I touk oft' my bonnet and shooed and shooed 
at him; but he wouldn't shoo; he jist staid there and lapped away 
till he got done and then went off." 

Mrs. Dinsmore also relates that she was once standing in the door 
when she saw her father stab and kill an Indian. 

I^ig Blue Hollow. — This is quite an historical locality. In 18-i2 
it ranked as the second place in the county in the amount of busi- 
ness transacted. There were then three flouring mills, a saw-mill, 
and a store in this mountainous-looking region; these mills were 
known by the name of Providence Mills, and were owned by 
Jonathan Frye. In 1835 he erected there a two-story frame house 
and sided it with shaved clapboards; this house is still standing 
there, with the old siding upon it, and is occupied by Mr. Wm, 
Reynolds and family. 


This is the oldest town in Detroit township, and was founded 
in 1836 by the Florence Company; this company was composed 
p.'-incipally of Pittsfield business men, among whom were Austin 
Barber, Robert R. Greene, Wm. Ross, Thos. Worthington and 
James Davis. The town is located on the Illinois river, and was 
intended for river transportation for the town of Pittsfield, and a 
gravel road was constructed from Pittsfield to this place. The land 
was first settled by John Roberts. Col. Wm. Ross and Stephen Gay 
kept the first store in the place. A saw-mill was erected here in 
1836, by the Florence Company, which was converted into a steam 
flouring mill in 1842. During,the early pioneer days Florence was 
known by the name of Augusta. 


This lively little business village was founded in 1837 by Peter 
H. Lucas, and named by him after the postoffice which had been 
establislied at this point some years previous. Soon after Henry 
Neeley added to the town plat what is known as Neeley's addition, 
and consists of all that part of town north of Main street. 

Detroit contains 2 general stores, 1 drug store, 2 blacksmith shops, 
1 wagon manufactory, 1 shoemaker's shop, a millinery store, and a 
broom factory. Three physicians reside in the place. There are iii 
the town 3 church edifices and 4 church organizations. The citi- 
zens have erected a fine two-story brick school-house and employ 
two teachers. 


Detroit Christian Churc/t. — This church was organized Feb. 25, 
1876, by Elders Rufus Moss and J. W. Miller, with a membership 
of 33.- The first deacons were Nathaniel Smith and John Turner. 
C. L. Hall was appointed Elder and afterward elected to that office, 
in company with his brother, W. C. Hall. The present Deacons are 
Albert Field and John Turner. The congregation sustains a large 
and interesting Sunday-school, which was organized the first Lord's 
day in 1876, with 25 members. It now has an attendance of about 
85, with W. C. Hall as superintendent. The congregation at pres- 
ent worship in the house belonging to the Predestinarian Baptists. 
The present membership is 140. Elder Thomas Weaver is Pastor. 

Detroit M. E. Church, South. — This society was organized in 
1861, and consisted of parties who left the Methodist Episcopal 
Church on account of the political excitement that then pervaded 
all of the Churches. They erected a meeting-house in 1870, and 
sustain a Sabbath-school : membership 30. Services are held each 
alternate Sabbath morning and evening by Rev. J. Metcalf, Pastor. 

Detroit 31. K Church. — The Methodists had an organization in 
this township at an early day. As early as 1S-2S this people held a 
camp-meeting on the Meredith farm, sec. 16. The exact date, how- 
ever, of the first organization of this society is not certainly known. 
The congregation erected a brick house, 36 by 48 feet in size, in 
the town of Detroit, in 1857, at a cost of $1,500. The Church now 
sustains a good Sunday-school, has preaching each Sunday evening 
and each alternate Sunday morning, by Rev, James A. Wills, Pas- 
tor. The number cf communicants at present is 7."). 

Detroit Dredestinaria7i Baptist Church. — In the year 1828 
the Baptists began holding services in the ]>hie River school- 
house, and in 1834 they erected a church edifice. Soon after this 
the question of missions divided them, and the Missionary Baptists 
retained this house, and in 1840 the Predestinariaiis formed another 
organization. The former society is now extinct, and the latter, 
by the help of others, in 1857 erected a house of worship in De- 
troit. They have no regular services, the society being very weak. 



Below are personal sketches of many of the old settlers and lead- 
ing citizens of this township. 

Wm. Afithoni/, a native of this county, was born Dec. 9, 1833. 
Ilis father, Martin Anthony, came to tiiis county about the year 
1831. William was reared on a farm and had limited school advan- 
tages, lie attended school a mile and a half from home, in an old 
log cabin with no ceiling, and a fire-place across one end of the 
house. His books consisted of a testament and spelling-book. 
July 17, 1867, he married Orle A., daughter of the late Leander 
Jefters, of the vicinity ot' Hannibal, Mo. Mrs. Anthony was born 
Aug. 22, 1847, in Cincinnati, O. They have had six children, of 
whom three are living, — Ida, Mattie and Nellie. Mi-. A is engaged 
in general farming on sec. 6, this township. P. O., Griggsville. 

I). J. Aldrich was born in Worcester county, Mass., Oct. 3, 
1802, and is the son of Jesse Aldrich, deceased. He was educated 
in the academy at Uxbridge, and after leaving school engaged in 
teaching at $8.50 per month in winter, and worked on a farm by 
the month in summer, receiving .fttO per month. F.or two and a 
half years he traveled throughout the Middle and Western States, 
a distance of 13,000 iniles, visiting many points of interest. In 
1825 he visited Ann Arbor, Mich., and while there entered 160 
acres of land eight miles north, in Dexter township. May 8, 18.'.^7, 
he married Eliza A. Taft and they had two children,— Adaline, 
deceased, and Augusta. Mr. A. came to Pike county in 1838 and 
settled on sec. 18, this township. Mrs. Aldrich died April 30, 
1871. She was a woman of fine education and a worthy member 
of the M. E. Church. 

Sarah Allen was born in Yorkshire, Eng., Jan. 21, 1828, and is 
the daughter of John Burlend, deceased, who brought his fa;nily to 
America in 1831, and, like all pioneers, endured many hardships. 
He died April 4, 1871, aged 88 years. Mrs. Allen was married 
May 4, 1852, to Fi-ancis Allen, and they had 4 children, — Charlotte 
M., John W., deceased, Francis E. and David Franklin. Charlotte is 
married to Sylvester Thompson, and resides near Pittslleld. Mr. 
Allen was a farmer on sec. 16 until his death, which occurred July 
23, 1874. He belonged to the Episcopal Church, and was a promi- 
nent and worthy citizen. 

George P. Bechdoldt was born in Germany March 28, 1828, the 
son of Jacob P., who came to America with his family in 1837, 
and settled in Little York, Pa., where he remained until 1839, 
when he removed to Calhoun county. 111., and died the same year, 
leaving a widow and 8 children, who had to endure many hardships 
and privations. Two of the children had married and remained 
in the East. Geo. P. is the 9th of 11 children; his education was 
principally in German, before he came to America. April 10, 
1851, he married Frances S. Price, daughter of Robert Price, "well 
known in ihe earlv settlement of Scott and McDonough counties. 


She was born May 29, 1S34, in MeDonou.:;li Co., 111. Thej have 
liad 11 children, of whom 9 are living — Julia, Helen, Theodore, 
Maria, Anna, Esther, Ettie, Edith and Frederick. Mr. B. is a 
])roinincnt farmer and stock-raiser on the north :V of S. E. } of sec. 
32. r. O., Milton. 

Di\ Wi/i. Cohel was born in Middle Tennessee May 30, 18-2(], tlie 
son of Geo. A. and Mary Cubel, who emii^rated with their family 
to Hendricks connty, Ind., in 1833. Tlie doctor is aijradnatcof hot'h 
the Keoknk (regular) Medical College and of the Eclectic JSIedical 
College, of Cincinnati, O., and began })ractice in 1S59. He has 
lost but one case out of 300 in the last 1'2 months, and that was a 
chronic case of lieart-disease. He settled in the town of Deti'oit, 
this county, in 1873; in 1878 he met witli an accident, dislocating 
liis hip joint, but he still continues to ride day and night. Nov. 
21, 1851, he married Elizabeth J. McClnre, and of their 5 children 
only 2 are living, Wm. M. and Fannie A. Mrs. Cobel died Nov. 
12, 1878, aftering a lingering illness of 22 years' standing. She 
was a member of the M. E. Church, and a faithful and respected 
worker in the moral interests of society. Wm. M. Cobel is now 
teaching school near Detroit. 

John L. Cravens was born Jan. 1, 1844, in Jefferson Co., Ind., 
the son of John C. Cravens, of the same State; wa^ educated at 
Hanover College, Ind.; he chose the profession of teaching, enter- 
ing upon this work in 1806; he taught three terms in Boone 
connty. Mo., when he went to college nntil 1870, and then to Wa- 
pello Co., Iowa, where he raised a crop, and in September he 
returned to Boone county, Mo.; taught school until 1875, when he 
came to F'ike Co., and now has charge of the Toil-Gate school, dis- 
trict 4, in this township. In the late war he served 4 months in 
Co. K, 137th in. Vol. Inf., and was honorably discharged. In 1873 
he married Elizabeth D. Snyder, of Boone county. Mo., and their 
two children are Lillian B. and W. Guy. 

Thomas Dalhy, farmer and stock-raiser, sec. 5, was born in 
England in 1853, the son of David and Sarah Dalby, deceased. His 
brother James was in the 73d Beg., I. A^. I., under Capt. Davidson, 
of Griggsville; was taken prisoner and confined in the pen at An- 
dersonville, where he died from starvation. He lost another brother, 
Joseph, who died from a wound received by a saw-log rolling off a 
wagon and catching him; so that Mr. D. now has no brother in Amer- 
ica. Aug. 27,1849, Mr. D. married Hannah Burland,who was born 
in Yorkshire, Eng., in 1853. Mr. Dalby is the owner of 400 acres 
of land, 

James W. Demjpsey was born in Chillicothe, O., Aug. 20, 1834, 
the son of Coleman Dempsey, who emigrated to Missouri in 1854. 
After spending two years in Texas, erecting telegraph wire from 
Galveston to Houston, and thence to Shreveport on Red river, 
James W. returned to Missouri. By .profession he is a civil engi- 
neer, and by trade a gunsmith. He is a " natural genius." He 
came to Pike county in 1856, where he followed engineering mostly 


for 14 years. In 1S7<' he began trading in guns, aniniunition, etc., 
in Detroit, and also dealt in sporting poods, cigars, tobacco and con- 
fectionery: he now has a full supply of dry goods, groceries, 
liardware and confectionery, the stock being about $3,000 in value. 
His trade is increasing. Aug. 22, 1856, he married Minerva, daugh- 
ter of Jesse Sinff, deceased, of Detroit. They had four children, of 
whom but one, Harry, is li\'ing, who was born Dec. 11, 1868. 
Mrs. J), died May 20, 1879, mourned by all who knew hor. 

Miss Virginie Dinsjaore, teacher, was born Dec. 2.6, 1853, in 
Hardin township. Her father, John C. Dinsmore, deceased, was Cap- 
tain of Co. E, 99th 1. V. I., in the Rebellion, and was also an qf- 
ficer in the Mexican war, j^al-ticipating in the battles of Buena 
Yista, Cerro Gordo and others, and saw Col. Hardin fiall. He died 
in February, 1874, on the old homestead near Time, this county. 
Miss Dinsmore has been a teacher for 7 years, and now has charge 
of the primary department of the Detroit schools. She is well liked 
as'an instructor and disciplinarian. 

Willinn Douglas was born March 9, 1817, in New Galloway, 
Kirkcudbrightshire, Scotland, where he received a common-school 
education, and came to America in 1836, stopping in the East for 
several years. Dec. 19, 1841, he married Permelia, daughter of 
Edmund Strawn, who came to this county in 1830, just in time to suf- 
fer the privations of the severe winter of the deep snow. Mrs. Doug- 
las was born in Guilford Co., N. C, Aug. 25, 1823. Mr. and Mrs, 
D. have had 12 children, of whom 7 are living, — Andrew, Mary, 
Edmund, John T., Churchwell, William W. and James S. The '4 
eldest ai-e married. Mr. Douglas is a mechanic by trade, in which 
capacity he v.Tought during the earlier portion of his life, but is 
now a prominent farmer and stock-raiser on sec. 33. He spent one 
year in Canada and 6 years in Missouri. He helped erect the State 
University in the latter State, and also assisted in the erection of 
the first mill in Pittsfield in 1849. 

John W. Dunniway was born in Gallatin county, Ky., Jan. 17, 
1834, the son of David and Annie (Crow) Dunniway. They came 
to Pike county in 1836, settling on sec. 18, enduring the usual hard- 
sliips of that day, their houses consisting of little log cabins, etc. 
They came by boat, having sent their teams through by land, and 
when the teams arrived the hair was all worn off the horses' legs, 
so terrible were the roads and swamps through which they passed. 
Mr. D. died March 5, 1869, at the age of 69 years, and Mrs. D. re- 
sides with her son on the old home place, at the age of 77. She 
was born in Clark count}^ Ky. John W. was married Nov. 29, 
1855, to Julia A., daughter of David Rupart, who came to Pike 
county in 1840. They have 4 children, viz: Mary E., William A., 
David F. and Frederick A. Mr. D. is a farmer and stock-raiser. 

James W. Ellis, a native of this tp., was born Oct. 10, 1838, and 
is the son of Thomas Ellis, deceased, and brother of John and T. B. 
Ellis. He received his education in a log cabin known as " mud 
college," raised a farmer, and knows all about heavy work in pio- 


neer times. Dec. 2S. 1869, he married Miss C. J. Phillips, daughter 
of James Piiillips, of this tp., and they have had 2 children, Charlie, 
deceased, and Lillian. Mr. Ellis is a farmer on sec. 16. 

John B E'lis was born Oct. IT, 1S3-1:, in Lockport, N. Y., the 
son of Thomas Ellis, deceased, whobrouglit his family to this county 
in 1836. John B's mother, Elizabetli Ellis, still resides on the old 
homestead, at the age of 7i. Nov. 6, 1862, Mr. E. married Ellen 
Croft, daughter of George Croft, of Montezuma tp., and their 7 
children are, Ellen E., Thomas G., John W., Peter J., David C, 
Annie S. and Mary E. Mr. Ellis is a farmer and stock-raiser on 
sec. 16, 

Thomas Eilis^ deceased, was born in the village of Milton, Oxford- 
shire, Eng., Dec. 18, 1808; educated in the village school, and March 
16, 1832, married Elizabetli Brooks, and they have had 7 children: 
Thomas B., John B., Peter, James W., Elizabeth A., Harriott and 
Ellen J., deceased. Mrs Ellis was born July 15, 1804, in Shipton, Ox- 
fordshire, Eng.; tliey came to America in 1832, locating at Lock- 
port, N. Y., where they remained until 1835, when they removed 
to this county; resided on a rented farm one year; then purchased 
80 acres at a sale of school land in Detroit tp., where Mrs. Ellis 
still resides. Mr. E. died March 21, 1868. 

Thomas B. Ellis was born in Lockport, N. Y., Nov. 8, 1832, son 
of the preceding; is a farmer on sec. 15. Oct. 9, 1873, he married 
Fannie Allen, daughter of J. W. Allen, of Milton. Their 4 chil- 
dren are Thomas II., Jolin A., Charles L and Elizabeth. Mr. Ellis 
served 3 years in the late war in Co. C, 99th I. V. L, participating 
in the siege of Yicksburg and in other engagements; he was taken 
prisoner while on a scouting expedition in Texas near Yictoria; he 
was held in camp in Camp Ford, Texas, for 6 months and tlien ex- 
changed. He was discharged in 1865. 

Bernard W. Flinn, farmer, sec. 5, and the present County Treas- 
urer, was born in Philadelphia, Pa., March 29, 1814, the son of 
John Flinn, deceased, who was a native of Ireland; he was brought 
by his parents to Morgan county, O'., in 1819, where they remained 
until 1826, and then were in Zanesville, O., until 1839; a portion of 
this time he engaged in wholesale dry goods, and afterward in the 
mercantile business in Coshocton Co., O. In 1841 he moved to 
Cincinnati, O., and became proprietor of the St. Charles House: in 
1852 he removed to St. Louis, Mo., and to Pike county in October, 
1856, settling on sec. 5, this tp., where he still resides, owning 3S5 
acres of land. In February, 1841, he married Sarah Brownell,,and 
they have had 8 cliildren, of whom 5 are living, namely: James, who 
married' Charlotte Stephens and resides at Pana, 111.; Esley, now 
Mrs. James Dimmitt, of Detroit tp. ; Cornelia, Lewis H. and Charles. 
Mr. Flinn was elected Treasurer at the November election in 1879 
by a majority of 323 votes. 

Norton Foreman, farmer and stock-raiser, sec. 31; was born 
Aug. 2. 1843, in Newburg township, this county, and is the son of 
James Foreman, who came to this county in early day; was edii- 

434 nisTc>Kv op^ pikk ('(^int^'. 

cated in Detroit and feared <in a fiinii. Dec. IT, LSG3, he married 
Sai-ali E., dauirliter of Jaiiie> Uond, of Piatt county. Ill . Their 5 
chihlreii are "William. James F., Annie, Nellie and Edwin. 

T(jwnsend Forenvin^ farmer, was born July 28, 1845, in New- 
buru; tp., this county, the son of James W. and Jane Foreman; 
was raised on a farm and received a common-school education; 
May 15, l^OT, he married Mary J. Goldman. He was a merchant 
in Detroit 4 or 5 years, then a farmer until 1874, when he moved 
to Lewistown, Fulton county. 111., where he again engaged in mer- 
chandising 2 years; lie sold out and entered the livery business in 
that place; he then returned to Deti'oit, where he is engaged in 
farming. He is also ])ro{)rietor of an '' Eclipse " thresher, which he 
operates each season to tlie entire satisfaction of his many patrons. 

James E. French was born Oct. 25, 1S32, in Indiana, and is the 
Son of Jacoi) French, deceased, who came to this county in 1834, 
settling in Griggsville township; received his education in an old 
log cabin, in a subscription school at a distance of 4 or 5 miles 
from home. Nov. 10, 1850, he married Caroline C. Madden, 
daughter of T3onham A. Madden, an early settler of the Illinois 
river valley. Mrs. French was born Feb. 10, 1833, in Indiana. 
Their 4 children are George N., who married Frances Thackston, 
and resides in Greene county. 111.; Henry C, who married Mari- 
etta McEvers, and resides near Montezuma; M. E. and William A. 
Mr. French is a farmer and stock-raiser on sec. 32. 

y^'/u/ P. 7"rfc";i(?A, P. O., Florence, was born September 20, 1832, 
in Harrison county, Ind., and was brought to this county by his 
parents about 1842; was reared on a farm and is now engaged 
in farming, and also has a half interest in the Florence horse 
ferry. Dec. 20, 1853, he married Mary E., daughter of Edward 
Farthing, deceased, and of their 9 children only 4 are living, namely: 
Wm, P., Nancy J., Edward and Annie. Mr. French traded in live 
stock and followed general merchandising in Florence for several 
yeai's, hut his health failing, he liad to change business. 

Eliz'iheth Goldman^ widows of the late Benjamin Goldman, was 
born in Chii-k county Ivy., Dec. 29, 183'i, the daughter of David 
and Anna Dunniway, who brought their family of 5 children to 
this ct»unty in 1836, settling on sec. 7, this township, where Mrs. 
Diinniwa}' still resides, at the age of 77. Mr. and Mrs. Goldman 
were married Nov, 26, 1848, in this township, and of their 4 chil- 
dren 3 are living, Mary J., Julia 0. and Elizabeth D. Julia mar- 
ried Taylor Foreman, who is managing the farm of his mother-in- 
law. Mr. Goldman was born Dee. 24, 1824, in Clark county, Ky., 
and is the son of AI)raham and Susannah Goldman, deceased, who 
brought him to Pike county in early day, where he was brought up 
on a i'a,i-m atuid all the privati(jns of pioneer times. He was a 
Class Leader in the M. E. Church for many years. An eminent 
Christian and a worthy head of the liamily. Ilis death occurred 
October 20, 1874. 

Elizaheth A. Ooldinan was born in this county January 31, 


1841, aud is the dangliter of Thomas Ellis, deceased, and a sister 
of John and Thomas B. Ellis, of this township, elsewhere noticed. 
Jan. 2, 1852. she married Josiah Goldman, and S of their 9 chil- 
dren are living, viz: John, Millicent, Fannie, llettie, Thomas^ Jane, 
Ellen and James Monroe. John is snperintending the farm. 

Wm. C. Hall wa^born May 20, 1844, in this connty, and is the 
sou of T. L. Hall, of early day here, who came in 1828, when he 
had to go to Atlas, a distance of 26 miles, to mill. He taught the 
first singing-school in Atlas, said to be the first in the connty. In 
1840 he built a saw-mill on Little Blue creek. He was brought 
up a Presbyterian, but during the latter part of his life was a mem- 
ber of the Christian Church. His death occurrL'd January 6, 1872. 
Wm. C. was reared on a farm in early day, having all the usual 
experiences oi clearing woodland. October 9, 1S60, he married 
]S"ellie, daughter of John S. Shinh, of Criggsville. and they have 
one little boy, Willy. Mr. Hall is a farmer and stock-raiser on 
sec. IP). 

'Javies D. Heavner, farmer and stock-raiser, sec. 32; 1*. O. Mil- 
ton; was born Jan. 7, 1835, in this county, and is the son of Jacob 
Heavner, who emigrated with his family to Sangkmon county in 
1*^27, and to this county in 18 28; he was a soldier in the Black Hawk 
wui-. iiuder Abraham Lincoln. He died in 1867. James D. was 
married Nov. 4, 1858, to Matilda, daughter of Mauley Thomas, an 
early settler. Of their 7 children the following 6 are living: Clara, 
Lizzie, Maggie, Nannie, Dovie and Mattie. 

Samuel Ughtle was brought to this county when a boy by his 
parents in 1835; educated in the old-fashioned subscription school; 
married, Dec. 31, 1858, Martha, daughter of Coleman Dempsey, of 
Pike county, Mo. Of their 10 children these 8 are living: Mary 
A., Isaac S., Clara IL, John W., Annettie J., Charlotte M., Nellie 
E. and James W. Mr. L. is a farmer on sec. 8. P. O., Detroit. 

Stewart Lindsey, farmer and stock-raiser, sec. 31, owning 200 
acres of land, was born Oct. 1, 1808, in Scott county, Ky., and is 
the son of Kobert Lindsey, who emigrated with his parents from 
Virginia to Kentucky in 1788. Stewart's grandfather, Aaron Rey- 
nolds,' was one of Daniel Boone's associates as an early settler of 
Kentucky. His mother was born in a fort called Graig's Statiim, 
in Woodford county, Ky. He was educated in a log cabin with a 
triangular fire-place across one end of the room, with a window ten 
feet in length and one light high. The text books consisted of a 
Webster's speller, Testament and Guthrie's Arithmetic. The seats 
consisted of split logs with legs fastened in them. Jan. '^7, 1835, 
he married Mary Hays, and they had 10 children, of whom 9 are 
living, — Falissa A., John W., Newton J., James, Oscar, Mary, 
Robert, Charles and Frank. The name of the deceased was Samuel. 
Four of his sons were in the late war; Samuel was a prisoner at 
Andersonville, where he contracted a disease that caused his death. 
The others were honorably discharged. 

Aaron Loveless was born in Medina county, O., Dec. 7, 1883, 


and is the son of Wm. Loveless, of Detroit tp., who brought his 
family to this countj in 1839, Oct. 13, 1858, he was married to 
Rebecca Yelliott, daughter of Lnke Yelliott. Siie is a native of 
England, and was born in 1840. Mr. Loveless is a farmer and 
resides on sec. 7"; he is also proprietor of a portable saw-mill, which 
he has successfully operated for two years, and which is now situ- 
ated on Cicero Scoby's farm, between Pittstield and Griggsville. 
Mr. and Mrs. Loveless have had 5 children, of whom 4 are living, 
— Addie, Albert. Wesley and Clayton. 

Wm. Loveless was born in Monmouth county, N. J., Oct. 26, 
1816; was brought by his parents to Medina county, O., in 1830, 
where he remained until he attained his majority, when he married 
Rebecca Snyder, Feb, 22, 1838. They emigrated to this county in 
1839.. Mr. Loveless is a mechanic, and worked in various places in 
this county for several years, Ab'out 1848 he purchased a farm on 
sec 18, Detroit tp., but has resided in this tp. all the time. They 
resided in Rockport,this county, for about 3 years, and in Wiscon- 
sin for 5^ years, where he pursued his profession. Mr. and Mrs. 
Loveless Jiave 3 children, — Aaron, Wilson and Emily. Aaron 
married RebeccaYeliiott, of this Ip.; Wilson married Nellie Ole- 
son, and resides in Oak county, Wis. ; and Emily married James 
Shriver, and resides in the house with her parents. 

Samuel S. MoAtee was born near Baltimore, Md., July 23, 1865, 
and is the son of Samuel L McAtee, of Shelby county, Mo. He 
was educated in the common sclwols of Missouri, where his parents 
took him in 1857, and in 1872 came to Pike Co., and to Detroit in 
1875, where he engaged in the manufacture of wagons, in which he 
has been successful. Dec. 24, 1877, he married Ollie Sanderson, 
daughter of Reuben Sanderson, of Detroit, 

Wm. Moore was born in Detroit, Pike Co., 111., Dec. 29, 1853, 
and is the son of Wm, Moore, of Detroit tp. He was reared on a 
farm, and at the age of 21 was apprenticed to A. F. Reinika, a 
blacksmith of Detroit, and in 1878 he began business for himself, 
and has a good trade. He also manufactures wagons in company 
with Mr. McAtee. 

George M. Netley., P. O., Detroit, a native of this county, was 
born March 1, 1839, where Detroit now stands. His father, Henry 
Neeley, was a resident of Horse-Shoe Bend, on the Sangamon river, 
before IMinois was a State. In 1821 he went up in a keel-boat to a 
French trading post on the Upper Mississippi. He emigrated with 
his father, Joseph N eeley, from North Carolina to Tennessee, where 
they remained several years, when Joseph Neeley emigrated to 
Illinois, and soon after was followed by his son. Henry, who came 
to Pike Co, in 1831 and settled on sec. 18, Detroit tp. Henry saw 
the first house erected in Pitts field, and states that the parties erect- 
ting it began at the top of the rafters to lay on the roof. Mr. Neeley 
died Aug. 1, 1869, at the place where he lirst settled in Pike Co. 
Geo. M. was married April 4, 1861, to Lizzie Mclver, by whom he 
had 2 cliildren, Alfred and Emma. He again married Sept. 10, 


1874, Lizzie Stephens, daughter of Elijah Stephens, of Jasper 
county, Mo. They have 2 children, — Lillie and George Arthur. 
Mr. iS'eeley is a farmer; also proprietor of tlie Detroit House in 
Detroit; he spent about IS years of his life in Texas, Mexico and 
the Southern States, and while there served three years in the Con- 
federate army. He is now Justice of the Peace for Detroit tp. 

Henry Perry ^ farmer and stock- raiser, was born in Manchester, 
Eng., Dec 10, 1840, and is the son of John Perry, deceased. He 
came to America in 1856 and settled in Detroit tp., where he still 
resides. July 14, 1859, he married Sarah H., daughter of Amos 
Taylor, a pioneer of this Co. They have had 9 children: 8 are 
living, — Maria, Laura A., John H., Rosa M., Elizabeth IL, Wm. M., 
Mattie M. and Lillie M. The name of the deceased was Robt. FL: he 
accidentally shot himself with a gun while climbing a fence in the 
fall of 1878. Mr. Perry served in the late war in Co. I, 99tli Reg. 
I. V. L and participated in the battle of Hartsville, Mo., where he 
received a slight wound, aiwl in the campaign of Vicksburg, He 
was discharged in 1865. 

James Phillips was born in Cherry Valley, Otsego county, N. Y., 
March 12, 1812, and is the son of Barnabas Pliilliiis, dec. He came 
to this county in the fall of 1837^and settled in the town ofGriggs- 
ville. His lather was a soldier in the war of 1812. He worked in 
a flouring mill at intervals for about 10 years, then settled on sec. 
21, Detroit tp., where he still resides a prominent farmer. Dec. 
29, 1842, he married Armina Hughes: they have had 9 children, 8 
of whom are living, — Clarissa J., Edward D., Francis M., Martha E., 
Lucinda C, Mary C, Owen R. and James M. Mr. Phillips is a very 
worthy citizen. 

A. F. Reinika, blacksmith, was born in Germany, Sept. 15, 
1848, and is the son of Simon Reinika. of Pittsfield; was reared on 
a farm until 17 years of age; was then apprenticed to August Sit- 
ler, a shoemaker of DetroiJt, but the trade not being pleasant to 
him he went back to farming, which he pursued 2 years, when he 
engaged upon a saw-mill for 9 montiis ; he then apprenticed 
himself to Conrad Winant, a blacksmith of Pittsfield, with whom 
he worked 18 months; then went back to the farm again for one 
season, then went to work for Geo. Carrier, a blacksmith of Pitts- 
field. In Oct. 1872, he began business for himself in Detroit,- 
where he still remains, doing a large business. Nov. 37, 1871, he 
married Mary E. Ayers, and their 4 children are Allie M., Harry 
O., Lurie and Wm. A. 

Wm. Reynolds was born in Gallia county, O., Oct., 1825, and 
came to Pike Co. in 1840; was raised on a farm; served 21 
month's in the Mexican war, then returned to Ohio and married 
Susan Fry, by whom he had 12 children, of these 10 are living, — 
Geo. W., Wm. L., Stephen A., Frances J., Emily, Maud, Henry 
and Mary. Mr. R. returned to Hlinois in 1850, and now resides 
on sec. 4, Detroit tp., in the Big Blue valley, and is engaged in 
farming. Jle was 2d Lieutenant in Co. B. 68th Reg. L Y. L, in 


the late war. About 1854 or 1855 he engaged in brick-laying 
and assisted in laying the brick in all the principal buildings in 
Pittsfield, Origgsville, Perry and New Salciii, up to about 1870. 

Joseph Rhodes, farmer, sec. 6, was borti in Yorkshire, Eng., Jan. 
8, 1824; learned the business of a wool-stapler under Mr. Atkin- 
son; then worked as journeyman until 1848, when he came to 
America and worked witli one GreCnbanks, of New England, until 
1856, and then came to Pike county and settled upon his farm. 
Although farming was entirely new to him he has by good sense, 
hard .work and economy made for himself a nice farm of 190 acres. 
He is a prominent farmer in this tp. and makes wheat-raising a 
speciality. In 1844 he married Martha, daughter of James Whit- 
field, a hind for Arthur Haj'wood, a large land-owner in England. 
Their 9 children are W illiam, Henry, Charles, Albert E., Manuletta, 
Daniel E., Sarah J. and Mary J. (twins), and Julia A. Mrs. 
Rhodes also is a native of Yorkshire and was born July 10, 1823. 

WiUiain Sanderson v;2lS, born Dec. 28, 1826, in Highland Co, 
O., and is the son of George Sanderson, dec; was reared on a farm, 
received a common -school education, came to Pike county in 1855, 
where he still resides, on sec. 30, this tp. In Nov., 1848, he mar- 
ried Sarah Faris, and their children are Alva C. and Rufus A. 
Mrs. Sanderson died in 1852. Sept. 17, 1857, Mr S. married Jane, 
daughter of John A. Williams, deC, who was a native of North 
Carolina and settled in this county in the fall of 1830, just in time 
to help wade through the "deep snow." Mr. and Mrs. Sanderson 
have 5 children: Gilbert C, Linuie L., Orin R., Willy A. and Clara 
B. Mr. Sanderson's father was a soldier in the war of 1812. H'is 
widow draws a pension and resides among her children. 

Joshua K. Sitt07i\ P. O., Detroit; was born Nov. 25, 1824, in 
Lincoln Co., Mo., the sou of Jesse Sitton, who brought his family 
here in 1828, and died in the fall of 1832, a Baprtist minister. He 
preached all over Pike county and in the counties of Morgan and 
Sangamon. He was a soldier in the war of 1812, and was in the 
battle of New Orleans under Gen. Jackson. Oct. 6, 1847, Joshua 
K. was married to Mary A. Heavner, daughter of Jacob Heavner, 
dec, an early settler in this State. They have had 6 children, of 
wjiom only 3 are living, namely, Jesse, Mary E. and Annettie. Mr. 
Sitton is a farmer and stock-raiser on sec 20. In 1849 he went 
overland to California and returned in 1851. He served 18 months 
in the late war, in Co. C, 99th I. Y. I.,