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Full text of "History of Pike and Dubois counties, Indiana : from the earliest time to the present, with biographical sketches, reminiscences, notes, etc. : together with an extended history of the Northwest, the Indiana Territory, and the state of Indiana"

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From the Earliest Time to the Present ; with Biographical Sketches, 

Reminiscences, Notes,. Etc.; Together with an Extended 

History of the Northwest, the Indiana Territory 

and the State of Indiana. 


A Reproduction by 
Unigraphic, Inc. 

4400 Jackson Ave. 
Evansville. Indiana 

Chicago : 





OUR history of Pike and Dubois Counties, after months of per- 
sistent, conscientious labor, is now completed. Every impor- 
tant field of research has been minutely scanned by those engaged in 
its preparation, and no subject of universal public value has been 
i. omitted save where protracted effort failed to secure trustworthy re- 
— suits. The impossibility of ingrafting upon the pages of this volume 
the vast fund of the counties' historic information, and the proper 
omission of many valueless details, have compelled the publishers to 
select such matters as are deemed of the greatest importance. Fully 
aware of our inability to furnish a perfect history from meager public 
documents, inaccurate private correspondence, and numberless con- 
flicting traditions, we make no pretension of having prepared a work 
devoid of blemish. Through the courtesy and the generous assist- 
ance met with everywhere, we have been enabled to rescue from 
oblivion the greater portion of important events that have transpired 
in past years. We feel assured that all thoughtful people in the 
counties, at present and in future, will recognize and appreciate the 
importance of the undertaking and the great public benefit that has 
been accomplished. 

It will be observed that a dry statement of fact has been avoided, 
and that the rich romance of border incident has been woven with 
statistical details, thus forming an attractive and graphic narrative, 
and lending beauty to the mechanical execution of the volume and ad- 
ditional value to it as a work for perusal. We claim superior excel- 
lence in our systematic manner of collecting material by workers in 
specialties; in the division of the subject matter into distinct and ap- 
propriate chapters; in the subdivision of the individual chapters into 
topics, and in the ample and comprehensive index. We also, with 
pride, call the attention of the public to the superb mechanical execu- 
tion of the volume. While we acknowledge the existence of unavoid- 
able errors, we have prepared a work fully up to the standard of our 
promises, and as accurate and comprehensive as could be expected 
under the circumstances. 

December, 1885. THE PUBLISHERS. 




Discovery by Columbus 33 

Explorations by the Whites 37 : 

Indians, The 31 

Immigration, The First 18 ' 

Immigration, The Second 20 ; 

Pyramids, etc, The 21 I 

Relics of the Mound-Builders 23 ; 

Savage Customs 34 

Tattars, The 23 I 

Vincennes 3!) 

Wabash River, The 39 

Wnile Men, The First 37 I 


Gilhault. Father 

Government of the Northwest 
Hamilton's I arcer 

17 Governor Posev 

19 Indiana in 1810 

18 Population in ISIS 

:;:t Territoiial I.egMat tire, The First... 

37 i Western Sun, The 

Expedition of St. ' laii 

Expedition of William. on 

Fort Miami, Battle ot 

Harrison and the Indians 

Hopkins' Campaign 

KickanooTou n. Iim uing of, Halt le .! 

Massacre at Pigeon Boost 

Mississiimwa Town, Battle at 

Oratory, Tecumseh's 

Prophet Town, Destruction of 

Peace with the Indians 

Siege of Fort Wayne 

Siege of Fort Harrison 


Tippecanoe, Battle of 

War of 1812 

War of 1812, Close of the 


Organization of Indiana Tekkitokv.. 

Hank, Establishment of 

Courts, Formation of. 

County tilhcers, \piiointment of 

Corydon,the Capitol 


Oroamzation of Till m in, if 

Amendment, The Fifteenth 

Blast Hawk War 

Constitution, Formation of the. 
Campaigns Against the Indian: 

Defeat of Black Hawk 

Exodus of the Indians 

General Assembly, The First.... 
Guadalupe-Hidalgo, Treaty of.. 

Harmony Community 

Indian Titles 

immigration 1 

Lafayette, Action at 

Land Sales 

. Mexican War, The 


Indiana in the Rfbei.j ion 

Batteries of Light Infantry 

Rattle Record of States 

Call to Anus, The 

Colored Troops of Indiana 

Calls of 18114 

Field, In the 

Independent Cavalry Heeiuien 

Mor-ans Raid . .. 


One Hundred l>a;~ Met 

Regiments, Formation of 

Regiment*, Sketch ol 

Six Months' Regiments 


BELLION... 189 

Slate Hank 

State [loan' f Agricu 

State Expositions 

Wealth and Progress.. 

lo, ** 

Female Prison and Reformatory 241 

House of Refuge, The 243 

Insane Hospital, The 2.18 

Northern Indiana Normal School 229 

Origin of School Funds 221 

"Purdue University 224 

School statistics 

.stale University, The 
Stale Normal School 

Stale Prison, South 

State Prison, North 

Total School Funds 




Economic Geology 


Local Details 

Precious Minerals 

Paleozoic Geology 

Surlace Features 


Section of the County 

Section at Petersburg 

Stone and Water 

Section at Pikesville 

•Section at Martin's Bank 


Settlement op the County.. 

Arrest of Harrison' 

Adams Township 

Count..; felting 

Clay Township 

Early Elections 

Early Marriages 

Hunters and Trappers 

Internal Improvements., 

Indian Stories 

Jefferson Township 

Land Entries 

Logan Township 

Mound-Builders' Works 

Mills and Postoffices 

Militia Musters 

Madison Township 

Miner, il - p r 1 1 1 - ^ , \l me-, etc 

Monroe Township 

Officers, The Firsl 

Settlers, The First 

"Snake Knob" 

Underground Railroad 

Voters, List of. 

Wild Hogs 

Wolf Huntint; 

Washington Grange 

Organization of the County 

Act of Creation 



Acts of the County Hoar. 


Collectors and Comuiissic 
Court Houses and Jails. 
County and other Librari 



Circuit Judges 

County Agents.. 
County Comn ' 




Fair Receipts ant 
Justices of the Pi 

Later Finances... 
New Townships., 
j'robate Judges... 

''.■Itipcis, 1 he 









The Bench and Bar 

Ad Quod Damnum 

Admitted toPractii • 

Change of Venue . 
Crime at Camp . ' . • 
Contested tie. tii □ . , ,. , | 
Compensation of J ml. e. 

Divorce Suit 

Early Attorney 
First Grand. I ur. i. 
First True Hill 

Forger; < as.- I '...'.'.' 

"Judge Lynch" 

Kidnapping r'a f 

Official Negligence , 

Probate i 'oiirt, 1-irst Session 
Record of First Court 

Slander Suits 

Various Cases enumerated 


Military History 

Aid to Soldiers and their Families.. 

Eightieth Regiment 

Fatalities of Regiment 

Fifty-eighth Regiment 

Forty-second Regiment 


. Leg 

Mexican 1 

Mustered Out 

"Not worth adurn" 

On "The March to the Sea" : 

i me Hundred and Kortv-tbird Regiment 
One Hundred and Twenty-fifth Regi- 

Officers of Regiment 

PikeCountv in the War 

Quota For Last Call ; 

Revolutionary Soldieis 

Rebellion, The Great ... : 

Sixty-tilth Re ut 

Soldiers Furnii 1 

Twenty-fourth Regiment 
Twenty-seventh Hand 


Towns and Villages : 

Alexandria, I irst Town 

Alfords :■ 

Algiers City : 

Arcadia :■ 

Augusta ; 

Arthur 3 


First Flat-boat 354 

Hosmer - 354 

Highbanks 355 

Incidents 353 

Liquor, Rate of Prices 338 

Loage, I. O. O. F 353 

Manufacturing Enterprises 338 

Merchants, Fust 338 

Otwell 356 

Officers Chosen 345 

Press, The 349 

Pikeville, Location 353 

Present Industry 351 

Pleasantville 355 

Petersburg, History of. .'. 335 

Surveyed, When 336 

Secret Societies 346 

Stendal 352 

Town Council Proceeding* 343 

Union 353 

Winslow, Location of. 354 


Educational History 357 

Alumni, High School 365 

Blythe-Wood Academy 367 

Early Schools, Primitive Character 359 

First Schoolhouses 358 

Free Schools Provided For 361 

First Teachers 363 

Hogs, Going to School 860 

Incidents and Anecdotes 357 

Jefferson, Schools of 362 

Lockhart Schools 358 

Logan, Number Pupils 362 

List of School Books 361 

Madison Schools 362 

Monroe Schools 364 


Petersburg Schools - 367 

Schools in Clay 362 

Schools, The First 357 

Shooting Deer 360 

Teachers and Their Peculiarities 364 

Washington, School of 365 


Religiods History 369 

Baptists, General 375 

Bethlehem CmiLToL-atiun :I71 

Cumberland Presbyterian Church 370 

Camp Meetings 369 

First Ministers 369 

Flat Creek Church 376 

Lutheran Church 379 

Missionary Bapti-t* 379 

Mount Pleasant I Ian 374 

Methodist Church 372 

Patoka Association 378 

Pleasant Ridge church 377 

Presbyterian Church 380 

Regular Baptists 376 

South Fork Church 377 

Sabbath Schools 373 

United Brethren 374 

White River Church 378 


Clay 464 

Jefferson «4 

Lockhart 431 

Logan ,.. 461 

Madison 439 

Marion 449 

Monroe 468 

Patoka 413 

Washington 384 


Geology 469 

Coal Mines 474 

Drainage 469 

Fossils 471 

Glass Sand 473 

Local Details 472 

Paleozoic Geology 470 

Recent Geology 409 

Rock Houses 471 

Sandstone and Limestone 474 

Section of Paint Mine 473 

Section of the County 470 


Settlement of the County 475 

Boone Township 476 

Block-houses 477 

Coon Skins 482 

Entries of Land 481 

Government Survey 476 

Harbison Township 481 

Intoxicated Indians 482 

Incident of Gen. Harrison- 478 

; Portersville, The 479 


Indian, The.. 

"Mud hole Trace" 

Madison Township 

Pugilistic Propensities-. 

Purchasers of Land 

Slavery in Indiana 


Organization op the County... 

Auditors of State 


Alterations in Boundary 

Act of Formation 

Associate Judges 


Agricultural Society 

County before Creation, The.... 



Division into Townships 

Donations of Land, etc 

Election Returns 

Governors of Indiana Territory.. 

Governors of the State "... 

Judges of the Supreme Court 

Location of the County Seat 

Later Public Buildings 

isew lownanips 

Origin of the Name Dubois.... 


Proceedings of the Board 

Poor Kami, The 

Probate Judges 




Representatives in Congress.. 




Secretaries of State 


Territorial Delegates 

Treasurers of Stale 

I'nit.-d Stales Senators 

Ad 'Jiiod 1'amnum 

Court, The First 

Common Pleas Court 

Destruction of the Records.. 
Innovations on Old Forms.... 

Judges, The First 

Later Attorneys 

Murder Trial. IK. I .1 t 
Murder Trial, I he 5 eond 
New Constitution, Xh< 

Officers, The First Court 

Prominent Practitioners 

Professional Character of At 

Probate Court 

Records, Perpetuation of. 

Sundry Crimes.. 


Military History 

Additional Volunteers 


Civil War, Beginning of 

Conscripts of 1-1 

Doctrine "I <. .-.-.-. i..n 
Draft of 1 -.■■_'. I i,.- 
Mexican ( ampcfii. I he 

Other War M, '.',.-.'.■' 

Public Sentiment 

Roster 01 M. •. ■■ .11. -..Idler-. 
Relief for .-.;.«■ 1 miili.- 

lleDeT'Raids"....!'. ""!.'."!! 

Surrendi 1 ■ i : ■ ■ - tint. 1 

Training I'.u- 

Twenty-S t .w nth I;, .•uncut.. 
Volunteers, The 1 n-t 


ivns and Villages 

Hank, Dubois County 

Board, Members of. 



Donated, By Whom 

Early Settlers Disappointed.. 

Families, The Earliest 


Hook and Ladder Co. First- 
Hunt ingburgh 






Incorporated, When 

Jasper, The Town of 



Porte rsville 

Postollice Estal.|i-h..l 

Physicians, Early 


Shively Post No. 68 

Settlers, I list 

Various Indn ; u s 


Conilict of Method 
First Teachers 

New School ..use ill 
Public Schools 


beriand Pr 

Denominations, First 

Early Fathers Enumerated.. 

Early Preachers 

Methodist Church 

Presbytery for Indiana 

Rude the ' 

Hainli ridge. . 



Columbia .... 
Ferdinand .. 


585 Harbison 

T lack-on 

HS7 Jefferson 

7i'.."> Madison 

757 Patoka 


Hrittain.W C 
Reckm inn. .1 II 

Diet/, « II 

Catholic i hurch.. 

court House 

Fisher, Morinau.. 
Fleming, A T .... 

. E39 540 
603 604 

fi'Jll 6.-1U 




Scientists have ascribed to the Mound Builders varied originBj 
*nd though their divergence of opinion may for a time seem incom- 
patible with a thorough investigation of the , subject, and tend to 
a confusion of ideas, no doubt whatever can exist as to the compar- 
ative accuracy of conclusions arrived at by some of them. Like 
the vexed question of the Pillar Towers of Ireland, it has caused 
much speculation, and elicited the opinions of so many learned 
antiquarians, ethnologists and travelers, that it will not be found 
beyond the range of possibility to make deductions that may 
suffice to solve the problem who were the prehistoric settlers of 
America. To achieve this it will not be necessary to go beyond the 
period over which Scripture history extends, or to indulge in those 
airy flights of imagination so sadly identified with occasional 
writers of e^en the Christian school, and all the accepted literary 
exponents of modern paganism. 

That this continent is co-existent with the world of the ancients 
cannot be questioned. Every investigation, instituted under the 
auspices of modern civilization, confirms the fact and "leaves no 
channel open through which the skeptic can escape the thorough 
refutation of his opinions. China, with its numerous living testi- 
monials of antiquity, with its ancient, though limited literature 
and its Babelish superstitions, claims a continuous history from 
ahtediluvian times; but although its continuity may be denied 
with every just reason, there is nothing to prevent the transmission 
of astieroglyphic record of its history prior to 1656 anno mutidi, 
since many traces of its early settlement survived the Deluge, and 
became sacred objects of the first historical epoch. This very sur- 
vival of a record, such as that of which the Chinese boast, is not 
at variance with the designs of a God who made and ruled the 
universe; but that an antediluvian people inhabited this continent, 


■will not be claimed; because it is not probable, though it may be 
possible, that a settlement in a land which may be considered a 
portion of the. Asiatic continent, was effected by the immediate 
followers of the first progenitors of the human race. Therefore, on 
entering the etudy of the ancient people who raised these tumu- 
lus monuments over large tracts -of the country, it will be just 
sufficient to wander back to that time when the flood-gates of 
heaven were swung open to hurl destruction on a wicked world; 
and in doing so the inquiry must be based on legendary, or rather 
upon many circumstantial evidences; for, so far as written narra- 
tive extends, there is nothing to show that a movement of people 
too far east resulted in a Western settlement. 


The first and most probable sources in which the origin of the 
Builders must be sought, are those countries lying along the east- 
ern coast of Asia, which doubtlesB at that time stretched far beyond 
its present limits, and presented a continuous shore from Lopatka 
to Point Cambodia, holding a population comparatively civilized, 
and all professing some elementary form of the Boodhism of later 
days. Those peoples, like the Chinese of the present, were bonnd 
to live at home, and probably observed that law until after the con- 
fusion of languages and the dispersion of the builders of Babel in 
1757, a. M.; but subsequently, within the following century, the 
old Mongolians, like the new, crossed the great ocean in the very 
paths taken by the present representatives of the race, arrived on 
the same shores, which now extend a very questionable hospitality 
to them, and entered at once upon the colonization of the country 
south and east, while the Caucasian race engaged in a similar move- 
ment of exploration and colonization over what may be justly 
termed the western extension of Asia, and both peoples growing 
stalwart under the change, attained a moral and physical eminence 
to which they never could lay claim under the tropical sun which 
shed its beams upon the cradle of the human race. 

That mysterious people who, like the Brahmins of to-day, wor- 
shiped some transitory deity, and in after years, evidently embraced 
the idealization of Boodhism, as preached in Mongolia early in the 
35th century of the world, together with acquiring the learning of 
the Confucian and Pythagorean schools of the same period, spread 
all over the land, and in their numerous settlements erected these 
raths, or mounds, aud sacrificial altars whereon they received their 



periodical visiting gods, surrendered their bodies to natural absorp- 
tion or annihilation, and watched tor the return of some transmi- 
grated soul, the while adoring the universe, which with all beings 
they believed would be eternally existent. They possessed religious 
orders corresponding in external show at least with the Essenes or 
Theraputae of the pre-Christian and Christian epochs, and to the 
reformed Theraputa3 or monks of the present. Every memento 
of their coming and their 6tay which has descended to us is an evi- 
dence of their civilized condition. The free copper found within 
the tumuli; the open veins of the Superior and Iron Mountain 
copper-mines, with all the modus operandi of ancient mining, 6uch 
as ladders, levers, chisels, and hammer-heads, discovered by the 
French explorers of the Northwest and the Mississippi, are conclu- 
sive proofs that those prehistoric people were highly civilized, and 
that many nourishing colonies were spread throughout the Missis- 
sippi valley, while yet the mammoth, the mastodon, and a hundred 
other animals, now only known by their gigantic fossil remains, 
guarded the eastern shore of the continent as it were against sup- 
posed invasions of the Tower Builders who went west from Babel; 
while yet the beautiful isles of the Antilles formed an integral 
portion of this continent, long years before the European Northman 
dreamed of setting forth to the discovery of Greenland and the 
northern isles, and certainly at a time when all that portion of 
America north of latitude 45° was an ice-incumbered waste. 

Within the last few years great advances have been made toward 
the discovery of antiquities whether pertaining to remains of organic 
or inorganic nature. Together with many small, but telling 
relics of the early inhabitants of the country, the fossils of pre- 
historic animals have been unearthed from end to end of the land, 
and in districts, too, long pronounced by geologists of some repute 
to be withont even a vestige of vertebrate fossils. Among the 
collected souvenirs of an age about which so very little is known, 
are twenty-five vertebra} averaging thirteen inches in diameter, , 
and three vertebrie ossified together measure nine cubical feet; a 
thigh-bone five feet long by twenty-eight, by tweive inches in 
diameter, and the shaft fourteen by eight inches thick, the entire 
lot weighing 600 lbs. These fossils are presumed to belong to the 
cretaceous period, when the Dinosaur roamed over the country from 
East to West, desolating the villages of the people. This animal 
is said to have been sixty feet long, and when feeding in cypress 
and palm forests, to extend himself eighty-five feet, so that he may 


devour the bndding tops of those great trees. Other efforts in this 
direction may lead to great results, and culminate probably in the 
discovery of a tablet engraven by some learned Mound Builder, 
describing in the ancient hieroglyphics of China all these men and 
beasts whose history excites so much speculation. The identity of 
the Mound Builders with the Mongolians might lead us to hope 
for such a consummation; nor is it beyond the range of probability, 
particularly in this practical age, to find the future labors of some 
industrious antiquarian requited by the upheaval of a tablet, written 
in the Tartar characters of 1700 years ago, bearing on a subject 
which can now be treated only on a purely circumstantial basis. 


may have begun a few centuries prior to the Christian era, and 
unlike the former expedition or expeditions, to have traversed north- 
eastern Asia to its Arctic confines, and then east to the narrow 
channel now known as Behring's Straits, which they crossed, and 
sailing up the "unchanging Yukon, settled under the shadow of 
Mount St. Elias for many years, and pushing South commingled 
with their countrymen, soon acquiring the characteristics of the 
descendants of the first colonists. Chinese chronicles tell of such 
a people, who went North and were never heard of more. Circum- 
stances conspire to render that particular colony the carriers of a 
new religious faith and of an alphabetic system of a representative 
character to the old colonists, and they, doubtless, exercised a most 
beneficial influence- in other respects ; because the influx of immi- 
grants of such oulture as were the Chinese, even of that remote 
period, must necessarily bear very favorable results, not only in 
bringing in reports of their travels, but also accounts from the 
fatherland bearing on the latest events. 

With the idea of a second and important exodus there are many 
theorists united, one of whom says: "It is now the generally 
received opinion that the first inhabitants of America passed over 
from Asia through these straits. The number of small islands 
lying between both continents renders this opinion still more 
probable; and it is yet farther confirmed by some remarkable traces 
of similarity in the physical conformation of the northern natives 
of both continents. The Esquimaux of North America, the 
Samoieds of Asia, and the Laplanders of Europe, are supposed to 
be of the same family; and this supposition is strengthened by the 
affinity which exists in their languages. The researches of Hum- 


boldc have traced the Mexicans to the vicinity of Behring y s Straits; 
whence it is conjectured that they, as well as tiie Peruvians and 
other tribes, came originally from Asia, and were t'ae Iliongnoos, 
who are, in the Chinese annals, said to have emigrated under Puno, 
and to have been lost in the North of Siberia." 

Since this theory is accepted by most antiquaries, there is every 
reason to believe that from the discovery of what may be called an 
overland route to what was then considered an eastern extension of 
that country which is now known as the " Celestial Empire," many 
caravans of emigrants passed to their new homes in the land of 
illimitable possibilities until the way became a well-marked trail 
over which the Asiatic might travel forward, and having once 
entered the Elysian fields never eutertained an idea of returning. 
Thus from generation to generation the tide of immigration poured 
in until the slopes of the Pacific and the banks of the great inland 
rivers became hives of busy industry. Magnificent cities and 
monuments were raised at the bidding of the tribal leaders and 
populous settlements centered with happy villages sprung up 
everywhere in manifestation of the power and wealth and knowL 
edge of the people. The colonizing Caucasian of the historic 
period walked over this great country on the very ruins of a civil- 
ization which a thousand years before eclipsed all that of which he 
could boast. He walked through the wilderness of the West over 
buried treasure liidden under the accumulated growth of nature, 
nor rested until he saw. with great surprise, the remains of ancient 
pyramids and temples and cities, larger and evidently more beauti- 
ful than ancient Egypt could bring forth after its long years of 
uninterrupted history. The pyramids resemble those of Egypt in 
exterior form, and in some instances are of larger dimensions. The 
pyramid of Cholula is square, having each side of its base 1,335 
feet in length, and its height about 172 feet. Another pyramid) 
situated in the north of Vera Cruz, is formed of large blocks 
of highly-polished porphyry, and bears upon its front hiero- 
glyphic inscriptions and curious sculpture. Each side of its 
square base is 82 feet in length, and a flight of 57 steps conducts to 
its summit, which is 65 feet in height. The ruins of Palenque are 
said to extend 20 miles along the ridge of a mountain, and the 
remains of an Aztec city, near the banks of the river Gila, are 
spread over more than a square league. Their literature consisted 
of hieroglyphics; but their arithmetical knowledge did not extend 
farther than their calculations by the aid of grains of corn. Yet, 


notwithstanding all their varied accomplishments, and they were 
evidently many, their notions of religious duty led to a most demo- 
niac zeal at once barbarously savage and ferociously cruel. Each 
visiting, god instead of bringing new life to the people, brought 
death to thousands; and their grotesque idols, exposed to drown 
the senses of the beholders in fear, wrought wretchedness rather 
than spiritual happiness, until, as some learned and humane Monte- 
zumian said, the people never approached these idols without fear, 
and this fear was the great animating principle, the great religious 
motive power which sustained the terrible religion. Their altars 
were sprinkled with blood drawn from their own bodies in large 
quantities, and on them thousands of human victims were sacri- 
ficed in honor of the demons whom they worshiped. The head 
and heart of every captive taken in war were offered up as a bloody 
sacrifice to the god of battles, while the victorious legions feasted 
on the remaining portions of the dead bodies. It has been ascer- 
tained that during the ceremonies attendant on the consecration of 
two of their temples, the number of prisoners offered up in sacri- 
fice was 12,210; while their own legions contributed voluntary 
victims to the terrible belief in large numbers. Nor did this 
horrible custom cease immediately after 1521, when Cortez entered 
the imperial city of the Montezumas; for, on being driven from 
it, all his troops who fell into the hands of the native soldiers were 
subjected to the most terrible and prolonged suffering that could be 
experienced in this world, and when about to yield up that spirit 
which is indestruotible, were offered in sacrifice, their hearts and 
heads consecrated, and the victors allowed to feast on the yet warm 

A reference is made here to the period when the Montezumas 
ruled over Mexico, simply to gain a better idea of the hideous 
idolatry which took the place of the old Boodhism of the Mound 
Builders, and doubtless helped in a great measure to give victory 
to the new comers, even as the tenets of Mahometanism urged the 
ignorant followers of the prophet to the conquest of great nations. 
It was not the faith of the people who built the mounds and the 
pyramids and the temples, and who, 200 years before the Christian 
era, built the great wall of jealous China. No: rather was it that 
terrible faith born of the Tartar victory, which carried the great 
defenses of China at the point of the javelin and hatchet, who 
afterward marched to the very walls of Rome, under Alaric, and 


spread over the islands of Polynesia to the Pacific slopes of South 

THE TAKl \i:s 

came there, and, like the pure Mongols of Mexico and the Missis- 
sippi valley, rose to a state of civilization bordering on that attained 
by them. Here for centuries the sons of the fierce Tartar race con- 
tinued to dwell in comparative peace until the all-ruling ambition 
of empire took in the whole country from the Pacific to the Atlan- 
tic, and peopled the vast territory watered by the Amazon with a 
race that was destined to conquer all the peoples of the Orient, 
and only to fall before the march of the arch-civilizing Caucasian. 
In course of time those fierce Tartars pushed their settlements 
northward, and ultimately entered the territories of the Mound 
Builders, putting to death all who fell within their reach, and 
causing the survivors of the death-dealing invasion to seek a refuge 
from the hordes of this semi-barbarous people in the wilds and fast- 
nesses of the North and Northwest. The beautiful country of the 
Mound Builders was now in the hands of savage invaders, the quiet, 
industrious people who raised the temples and pyramids were gone; 
and the wealth of intelligence and industry, accumulating forages, 
passed into the possession of a rapacious horde, who could admire 
it only so far as it offered objects for plunder. Even in this the 
invaders were satisfied, and then having arrived at the height of 
their ambition, rested on their swords and entered upon the luxury 
and ease in the enjoyment of which they were found when the van- 
guard of European civilization appeared upon the scene. Mean- 
time the southern countries which those adventurers abandoned 
after having completed their conquests in the North, were soon 
peopled by hundreds of people, always moving from island to 
island and ultimately halting amid the ruins of villages deserted 
by those who, as legends tell, had passed eastward but never returned; 
and it would scarcely be a matter for surprise if those emigrants 
were found to be the progenitors of that race found by the Spaniards 
in 1532, and identical with the Araucanians, Cuenches and Huil- 
tiches of to-day. 


One of the most brilliant and impartial historians of the Republic 
stated that the valley of the Mississippi contained no monuments. 
So far as the word is entertained now, he was literally correct, but 

in some hasty effort neglected to qualify his sentence by a refer- 
ence to the numerous relics of antiquity to be found throughout 
its length and breadth, and so exposed his chapters to criticism. 
The valley of the Father of Waters, and indeed the country from 
the trap rocks of the Great Lakes southeast to the G.ulf and south- 
west to Mexico, abound in tell-tale monuments of a race of people 
much farther advanced in civilization than the Montezumas of the 
sixteenth century. The remains of walls and fortifications found 
in Kentucky and Indiana, the earthworks of Yincennes and 
throughout the valley of the Wabash, the mounds scattered over 
Alabama, Florida, Georgia and Virginia, and those found in Illi- 
nois, Wisconsin and Minnesota, are all evidences of the univer- 
sality of the Chinese Mongols and of their advance toward a com- 
parative knowledge of man and cosmology. At the mouth of 
Toiirteen-Mile creek, in Clark county, Indiana, there stands one of 
tl - old monuments known as the " Stone Fort." It is an 
unmistakable heirloom of a great and ancient people, and must 
have formed one of their most important posts. The State Geolo- 
gist's report, filed among the records of the State and furnished 
by Prof. Cox, says: "At the mouth of Fourteen-Mile creek, and 
about three miles from Charleston, the county-seat of Clark county, 
there is one of the most remarkable stone fortifications which has 
ever come under my notice. Accompanied by my assistant, Mr. 
Borden, and a number of citizens of Charleston, I visited the 'Stone 
Fort' for the purpose of making an examination of it. The locality 
selected for this fort presents many natural advantages for making 
it impregnable to the opposing forces of prehistoric times. It 
occupies the point of an elevated narrow ridge which faces the 
Ohio river on the east and is bordered by Fourteen-Mile creek on 
the west side. This creek empties into the Ohio a 6hort distance 
below the fort. The top of the ridge is pear-shaped, with the 
part answering to the neck at the north end. This part is not 
over twenty feet wide, and is protected by precipitous natural walls 
of stone. It is 280 feet above the level of the Ohio river, and the 
slope is very gradual to the south. At the upper field it is 240 feet 
high and one hundred steps wide. At the lower timber it is 120 
feet high. The bottom land at the foot of the south end is sixty 
feet above the river. Along the greater part of the Ohio river 
front there is an abrupt escarpment rock, entirely too steep to be 
scaled, and a similar natural barrier exists along a portion of the 
northwest side of the ridge, facing the creek. This natural wall 


is joined to the neck of an artificial wall, made by piling up, mason 
fashion but without mortar, loose stone, which had evidently been 
pried up from the carboniferous layers of rock. This made wall, at 
this point, is about 150 feet long. It is built along the slope of the 
hill and had an elevation of about 75 feet above its base, the upper 
ten feet being vertical. The inside of the wall is protected by a 
ditch. The remainder of the hill is protected by an artificial stone 
wall, built in the same manner, but not more than ten feet high. 
The elevation of the side wall above the creek bottom is 80 feet. 
Within the artificial walls is a string of mounds which rise to the 
height of the wall, and are protected from the washing of the hill- 
sides by a ditch 20 feet wide and four feet deep. The position of 
the artificial walls, natural cliffs of bedded stone, as well as that of 
the ditch and mounds, are well illustrated. The top of the enclosed 
ridge embraces ten or twelve acres, and there are as many as five 
mounds that can be recognized on the flat surface, while no doubt 
many others existed which have been obliterated by time, and 
though the agency of man in his efforts to cultivate a portion of 
the ground. A trench was cut into one of these mounds in search 
of relics. A few fragments of charcoal and decomposed bones, and 
a large irregular, diamond-shaped boulder, with a small circular 
indentation near the middle of the upper part, that was worn quite 
smooth by the use to which it had been put, and the small pieces 
of fossil coral, comprised all the articles of note which were revealed 
by the excavation. The earth of which the mound is made resem- 
bles that seen on the hillside, and was probably in most part taken 
from the ditch. The margin next to the ditch was protected by 
slabs of stone set on edge, and leaning at an angle corresponding to 
the slope of the mound. This stone shield was two and one-half 
feet wide and one foot high. At intervals along the great ditch 
there are channels formed between the mounds that probably served 
to carry off the surplus water through openings in the outer wall. 
On the top of the enclosed ridge, and near its narrowest part, there 
is one mound much larger than any of the others, and so situated 
as to command an extensive view up and down the Ohio river, as well 
as affording an unobstructed view east and west. This is designated 
as ' Look-out Mound.' There is near it a slight break in the cliff 
of rock, which furnished a narrow passageway to the Ohio river. 
Though the locality afforded many natural advantages for a fort or 
stronghold, one is compelled to admit that much skill was displayed 
and labor expended in making its defense as perfect as possible at 

II ■ , OJ 

al p< Sti .1 . ; . arrow-heads, spear-poiuts, tol ims, 

cli rni: and flint flakes liavi been found in great abundance in 
j. 1 ■•.' ■•_ ! . :] ■! al the f<i »t of the old fort." 

From the " Stone Fort "' the Professor turns his steps to Posey 
county, at a point on the Wabash, ten miles above the mouth, 
called "Lone Rank," on account of the number of human hones 
continually washed out from the river hunk. " It is," he states 
"situated in a bend on the left bank of the river; and the ground 
is about ten feet above high-water mark, being the only land along 
this portion of the river that is not submerged in seasons of high 
water. The bank slopes gradually back from the river to a slough. 
This slough now seldom contains water, but no doubt at one time 
it was an arm of the Wabash river, which flowed around the Bone 
Lank and afforded protection to the island home of the Mound 
Builders. The Wabash has been changing its bed for many years, 
leaving a broad extent of newly made land on the right shore, and 
gradually making inroads on the left shore by cutting away the 
Bone Bank. The stages of growth of land on the right bank of the 
river are well defined by the Cottonwood trees, which increase in size 
as you go back from the river. Unless there is a change in the cur- 
rent of the river, all trace of the Bone Bank will be obliterated. 
Already within the memory of the white inhabitants, the bank has 
been removed to the width of several hundred yards. As the bank 
is cut by the current of the river it loses its support, and when the 
water sinks it tumbles over, carrying with it the bones of the 
Mound Builders and the cherished articles buried with them. No 
locality in the country furnishes a greater number and variety of 
relics than this. It has proved especially rich in pottery of 
quaint design and skillful workmanship. I have a number of jugs 
and pots and a cup found at the Bone Bank. This kind of work 
has been very abundant, and is still found in such quantities that 
we are led to conclude that its manufacture formed a leading indus- 
try of the inhabitants of the Bone Bank. It is not in Europe 
alone that we find a well-founded claim of high antiquity for the 
art of making hard and durable stone by a mixture of clay, lime, 
sand and stone; for I am convinced that this art was possessed by 
a race of people who inhabited this continent at a period so remote 
that neither tradition nor history can furnish any account of them. 
They belonged to the Neolithic, or polished-stone, age. They lived 
in towns and built mounds for sepulture and worship and pro- 
tected their homes by surrounding them with walls of earth and 

lil.-l'MKY "y INDIANA. 

stone. In some of these mounds specimens of various kinds of 
pottery, in a perfect state of preservation, have from time to time 
been found, and fragments are so common that every student of 
archaeologj can have a bountiful supply. Some of these fragments 
indicate vessels of very great size. At the Saline springs of Gal- 
latin I picked up fragments that indicated, by their curvature, ves- 
sels five to six feet in diameter, and it is probable they are frag- 
ments of artificial stone pans used to hold brine that was manufac- 
tured into salt by solar evaporation. 

" Now, all the pottery belonging to the Mound Builders' age, 
which I have seen, is composed of alluvial clay and sand, or a mix- 
ture of the former with pulverized fresh-water shells. A paste 
made of such a mixture possesses, in high degree, the properties of 
hydraulic Puzzuoland and Portland cement, so that vessels formed 
of it hardened without being burned, as is customary with modern 

The Professor deals very aptly with this industry of the aborig- 
ines, and concludes a very able disquisition on the Bone Bank in 
its relation to the prehistoric builders. 


The great circular redoubt or earth-work found two miles west of 
the village of New Washington, and the " Stone Fort," on a ridge 
one mile west of the village of Deputy, offer a subject for the anti- 
quarian as deeply interesting as any of the monuments of a 
decayed empire so far discovered. 


From end to end of Indiana there are to be found many other rel- 
ics of the obscure past. Some of them have been unearthed and now 
appear among the collected antiquities at Indianapolis. The highly 
finished sandstone pipe, the copper ax, stone axes, flint arrow-heads 
and magnetic plummets found a few years ago beneath the soil of 
Cut-Off Island near New Harmony, together with the pipes of rare 
workmanship and undoubted age, unearthed near Covington, all 
live as it were in testimony of their owner's and maker's excel- 
lence, and hold a share in the evidence of the partial annihilation 
of a race, with the complete disruption of its manners, customs 
and industries; and it is possible that when numbers of these relics 
are placed together, a key to the phonetic or rather hieroglyphic 
system of that remote period might be evolved. 

It may be asked what these hieroglyphical characters really are„ 
Well, they are varied in form, so much so that the pipes found in 
the mounds of Indians, each bearing a distinct representation of 
some animal, may be taken for one species, used to represent the 
abstract ideas of the Mound Builders. The second form consists 
of pure hieroglyphics or phonetic characters, in which the sound is 
represented instead of the object; and the third, or painted form of 
the first, conveys to the mind that which is desired to be repre- 
sented. This form exists among the Cree Indians of the far North- 
west, at present. They, when departing from their permanent vil- 
lages for the distant hunting grounds, paint on the barked trees in 
the neighborhood the figure of a snake or eagle, or perhaps huskey 
dog; and this animal is supposed to guard the position until the 
warrior's return, or welcome any friendly tribes that may arrive 
there in the interim. In the case of the Mound Builders, it is un- 
likely that this latter extreme was resorted to, for the simple reason 
that the relics of their occupation are too high in the ways of art to 
tolerate such a barbarous science of language; but the sculptured 
pipes and javelins and spear-hea Is of the Mound Builders may be 
taken as a collection of graven images, each conveying a set of 
ideas easily understood, and perhaps sometimes or more generally 
used to designate the vocation, name or character of the owner. 
That the builders possessed an alphabet of a phonetic form, and 
purely hieroglyphic, can scarcely be questioned; but until one or 
more of the unearthed tablets, which bore all or even a portion of 
such characters, are raised from their centuried graves, the mystery 
which surrounds this people must remain, while we must dwell in 
a world of mere speculation. 


Vigo, Jasper, Sullivan, Switzerland and Ohio counties can boast 
of a most liberal endowment in this relation; and when in other 
days the people will direct a minute inquiry, and penetrate to the 
very heart of the thousand cones which are scattered throughout 
the land, they may possibly extract the blood in the shape of metal- 
lic and porcelain works, with hieroglyphic tablets, while leaving 
the form of heart and body complete to entertain and delight un- 
born generations, who in their time will wonder much when they 
learn that an American people, living toward the close of the 59th 
century, could possibly indulge in such an anachronism as is im- 
plied in the term "New World." 


The origin of the Red Men, or American Indians, is a subject 
which interests as well as instructs. It is a favorite with the eth- 
nologist, even as it is one of deep concern to the ordinary reader. 
A review of two works lately published on the origin of the Indiana 
treats the matter in a peculiarly reasonable light. It says: 

" Recently a German writer has put forward one theory on the 
subject, and an English writer has put forward another and directly 
opposite theory. The difference of opinion concerning our aborig- 
inals among authors who have made a profound study of races is at 
once curious and interesting. Blumenbach treats them in bis 
classifications as a distinct variety of the human family; but, in the 
threefold division of Dr. Latham, they are ranked among the MoU- 
golidae. Other writers on race regard them as a branch of the great 
Mongolian family, which at a distant period found its way from 
Asia to this continent, and remained here for centuries separate 
from the rest of mankind, passing, meanwhile, through divers 
phases of barbarism and civilization. Morton, our eminent eth- 
nologist, and his followers, Nott and Gliddon, claim for our native 
Red Men an origin as distinct as the flora and fauna of this conti- 
nent. Prichard, whose views are apt to differ from Morton's, finds 
reason to believe, on comparing the American tribes together, that 
they must have formed a separate department of nations from the 
earliest period of the world. The era of their existence as a distincst 
and insulated people must probably be dated back to the time 
which separated into nations the inhabitants of the Old World, and 
gave to each its individuality and primitive language. Dr. Robert 
Brown, the latest authority, attributes, in his "Races of Mankind," 
an Asiatic origin to our aboriginals. He says that the Western In- 
dians not only personally resemble their nearest neighbors — the 
Northeastern Asiatics — but they resemble them in language and 
traditions. The Esquimaux on the American and the Tchuktchis 
">n the Asiatic side understand one another perfectly. Modern an- 


thropologists, indeed, are disposed to think that Japan, the Kuriles, 
and neighboring regions, may be regarded as the original home of 
the greater part of the native American race. It is also admitted 
by them that between the tribes scattered from the Arctic sea to 
Cape Horn there is more uniformity of physical features than is 
seen in any other quarter of the globe. The weight of evidence 
and authority is altogether in favor of the opinion that our so- 
called Indians are a branch of the Mongolian family, and all addi- 
tional researches strengthen the opinion. The tribes of both North 
and South America are unquestionably homogeneous, and, in all 
likelihood, had their origin in Asia, though they have been altered 
and modified by thousands of years of total separation from the 
parent stock." 

The conclusions arrived at by the reviewer at that time, though 
safe., are too general to lead the reader to form any definite idea on 
the subject. No doubt whatever can exist, when the American In- 
dian is regarded as of an Asiatic origin ; but there is nothing in the 
works or even in the review, to which these works were subjected, 
which might account for the vast difference in manner and form 
between the Red Man, as he is now known, or even as he appeared 
to Columbus and his successors in the field of discovery, and the 
comparatively civilized inhabitants of Mexico, as seen in 1521 by 
Cortex, and of Peru, as witnessed by Pizarro in 1532. The fact is 
that the pure bred Indian of the present is descended directly 
from the earliest inhabitants, or in other words from the survivors 
of that people who, on being driven from their fair possessions, re- 
tired to the wilderness in sorrow and reared up their children under 
the saddening influpnces of their unquenchable griefs, bequeathing 
them only the habits of the wild, cloud-roofed home of their de- 
clining years, a sullen silence, and a rude moral code. In after 
years these wild sons of the forest and prairie grew in numbers and 
in strength. Some legend told them of their present sufferings, of 
the station which their fathers once had known, and of the riotous 
race which now reveled in wealth which should be theirs. The 
fierce passions of the savage were aroused, and uniting their scat- 
tered bands marched in silence upon the villages of the Tartars, 
driving them onward to the capital of their Incas, and consigning 
their homes to the flames. Once in view of the great city, the 
hurrying bands halted in surprise; but Tartar cunning took in the 
situation and offered pledges of amity, which were sacredly ob- 
served. Henceforth Mexico was open to the Indians, bearing pre- 
cisely the same relation to them that the Hudson's Bay Company's 


villages do to the Northwestern Indians of the present; obtaining 
all, and bestowing very little. The subjection of the Mongolian 
race represented in North America by that branch of it to which 
the Tartars belonged, represented in the Southern portion of the con- 
tinent, seems to have taken place some five centuries before the 
advent of the European, while it may be concluded that the war of 
the races which resulted in reducing the villages erected by the 
Tartar hordes to ruin took place between one and two hundred 
^ears later. These statements, though actually referring to events 
which in point of time are comparatively modern, can only be sub- 
stantiated by the facts that, about the periods mentioned the dead 
bodies of an unknown race of men were washed ashore on the Eu- 
ropean coasts, while previous to that time there is no account 
whatever in European annals of even a vestige of trans-Atlantic hu- 
manity being transferred by ocean currents to the gaze of a won- 
dering people. Towards the latter half ot the 15th century two 
dead bodies entirely free from decomposition, and corresponding 
with the Red Men as they afterward appeared to Columbus, were 
cast on the shores of the Azores, and confirmed Columbus in his be- 
lief in the existence of a western world and western people. 

Storm and flood and disease have created sad havoc in the ranks 
of the Indian since the occupation of the country by the white man. 
These natnral causes have conspired to decimate the race even more 
than the advance of civilization, which seems not to affect it to any 
material extent. In its maintenance of the same number of rep- 
resentatives during three centuries, and its existence in the very 
face of a most unceremonious, and, whenever necessary, cruel con- 
quest, the grand dispensations of the unseen Ruler of the universe 
is demonstrated; for, without the aborigines, savage and treach- 
erous as they were, it is possible that the explorers of former times 
would have so many natural difficulties to contend with, that their 
work would be surrendered in despair, and the most fertile regions 
of the continent saved for the plowshares of generations yet un- 
born. It is questionable whether we owe the discovery of this con- 
tinent to the unaided scientific knowledge of Columbus, or to the 
dead bodies of the two Indians referred to above; nor can their ser- 
vices to the explorers of ancient and modern times be over-esti- 
mated. Their existence is embraced in the plan of the Divinity 
for the government of the world, and it will not form subject for 
surprise to learn that the same intelligence which sent a thrill of 
liberty into every corner of the republic, will, in the near future, 


devise some method under which the remnant of a great and an- 
cient race may taste the swoets of public kindness, and feel that, 
after centuries of turmoil and tyranny, they have at last found a 
shelter amid a sympathizing people. Many have looked at the In- 
dian as the pessimist does at all things; they say that he was never 
formidable until the white man supplied him with the weapons of 
modern warfare; but tin , no mention made of his eviction from 
his retired home, and the little plot of cultivated garden which 
formed the nucleus of a village that, if fostered instead of being 
destroyed, might possibly hold an Indian population of some im- 
portance in the economy of the nation. There is no intention what- 
ever to maintain that the occupation of this country by the favored 
races is wrong even in principle; for where any obstacle to advanc- 
ing civilisation exists, it has to fall to the ground; but it may be 
b&'A. with some truth, that the whit-? man, instead of a policy of 
conciliation conned upon the power of kinuness, indulged in bel- 
ligerency ns impolitic as it was unjust. A modern writer says, 
when speaking of the Indian's character: "He did not exhibit that 
Btesdy v&] or and efficient discipline of the American soldier; and 
to-day on the plains Sheridan's troopers would not hesitate to 
attack the bra .est band, though outnumbered three to one." This 
piece of information applies to the European and African, as well 
as to the Indian. The American soldier, and particularly the 
troopers referred to, would not fear or shrink from a very legion of 
demons, even with odde against them. This mode of warfare seems 
strangely peculiar when compared with the military systems of 
civilized countries; yet, since the main object of armed men is to 
defend a country or a principle, and to destroy any thing which may 
oppose itself to them, the mode of warfare pursued by the savage 
•will be found admirably adapted to their requirements in this con- 
nection, and will doubtless campare favorably with the systems of 
<4he Afghans and Persians of the present, and fche Caucasian people 
«f the first historic period. 


The art of hunting not only supplied the Indian with food, but, 
like that of war, was a means of gratifying his love of distinction. 
The male children, as soon as they acquired sufficient age and 
strength, were furnished with a bow and arrow and taught to shoot 
birds and other small game. Success in killing a large quadruped 
required years of careful study and practice, and the art was as 


sedulously inculcated inthe minds ot the rising generation as are 
the elements of reading, writing and arithmetic in the common 
schools of civilized commnnities. The mazes of the forest and the 
dense, tall grass of the prairies were the best fields for the exercise 
of the hunter's skill. No feet could be impressed in the yielding 
soil but that the tracks were the objects of the most searching 
scrutiny, and revealed at a glance the animal that made them, the 
direction it was pursuing, and the time that had elapsed since it 
had passed. In a forest country he selected the valleys, because 
they were most frequently the resort of game. The most easily 
taken, perhaps, of all the animals of the chase was the deer. It is 
endowed with a curiosity which prompts it to stop in ita flight and 
look back at the approaching hunter, who always avails himself of 
this opportunity to let fly the fatal arrow. 

Their general council were composed of the chiefs and old men. 
When in council, they usually sat in concentric circles around the 
speaker, and each individual, notwithstanding the fiery passions 
that rankled within, preserved an exterior as immovable as if cast 
in bronze. Before commencing business a person appeared with 
the sacred pipe, and another with fire to kindle it. After being 
lighted it was first presented to heaven, secondly to the earth, 
thirdly to the presiding spirit, and lastly the several councilors, 
each of whom took a whiff. These formalities were observed with 
as close exact:. ess as state etiquette in civilized courts. 

The dwellings of the Indians were of the simplest and rudest 
character. On some pleasant spot by the bank of a river, or near 
an ever-running spring, they raised their groups of wigwams, con- 
structed of the bark of trees, and easily taken down and removed 
to another spot. The dwelling-places of the chiefs were sometimes 
more spacious, and constructed with greater care, but of the same 
materials. Skins taken in the chase served them for repose. 
Though principally dependent upon hunting and fishing, the 
uncertain supply from those sources led them ;o cultivate small 
patches of corn. Every family did everything necessary within 
itself, commerce, or an interchange of articles, being almost unknown 
to them. In cases of dispute and dissension, each Indian relied 
upon himself for retaliation. Blood for blood was the rule, and 
the relatives of the slain man were bound to obtain bloody revenge 
for his death. This principle gave rise, as a matter of course, to 
innumerable and bitter feuds, and wars of extermination where such 
were possible. War, indeed, rather than peace, was the Indian's 


glory and delight, — war, not conducted as civilization, but war 
where individual skill, endurance, gallantry and cruelty were prime 
requisites. For such a purpose as revenge the Indian would make 
great sacrifices, and display a patience and perseverance truly heroic; 
but when the excitement was over, he sank back into a listless, un- 
occupied, well-nigh useless savage. During the intervals of his 
more exciting pursuits, the Indian employed his time in decorating 
his person with all the refinement of paint and feathers, and in the 
manufacture of his arms and of canoes. These were constructed of 
bark, and so light that they could easily be carried on the shoulder 
from stream to stream. His amusements were the war-dance, ath- 
letic games, the narration of his exploits, and listening to the ora- 
tory of the chiefs; but during long periods of such existence he 
remained in a state of torpor, gazing listlessly upon the trees of 
the forests and the clouds that sailed above them ; and this vacancy 
imprinted an habitual gravity, and even melancholy, upon his gen- 
eral deportment. 

The main labor and drudgery of Indian communities fell upon 
the women. The planting, tending and gathering of the crops, 
making mats and baskets, carrying burdens, — in fact, all things of 
the kind were performed by them, thus making their condition but 
little better than that of slaves. Marriage was merely a matter of 
bargain and sale, the husband giving presents to the father of the 
bride. In general they had but few children. They were sub- 
jected to many and severe attacks of sickness, and at times famine 
and pestilence swept away whole tribes. 



The State of Indiana is bounded on the east by the meridian line 
which forms also the western boundary of Ohio, extending due 
north from the mouth of the Great Miami river; on the south by 
the Ohio river from the mouth of the Great Miami to the month 
of the Wabash ; on the west by a line drawn along the middle of 
the Wabash river from its mouth to a point where a due north 
line from the town of Vincennes would last touch the shore of said 
river, and thence directly north to Lake Michigan; and on the north 
by said lake and an east and west line ten miles north of the ex- 
treme south end of the lake, and extending to its intersection with 
the aforesaid meridian, the west boundary of Ohio. These bound- 
aries include an area of 33,809 square miles, lying between 37° 
47' and 41° 50' north latitude, and between 7° 45' and 11° 1' west 
longitude from Washington. 

After the discovery of America by Columbus in 1492, more than 
150 years passed away before any portion of the territory now com- 
prised within the above limits was explored by Europeans. Colo- 
nies were established in Florida, Virginia and Nova Scotia by the 
principal rival governments of Europe, but not until about 1670-'2 
did the first white travelers venture as far into the Northwest as 
Indiana or Lake Michigan. These explorers were Frenchmen by 
the names of Claude Allouez and Claude Dablon, who then visited 
what is now the eastern part of Wisconsin, the northeastern portion, 
of Illinois and probably that portion of this State north of the Kan- 
kakee river. In the following year M. Joliet, an agent of the 
French Colonial government, and James Marquette, a good and 
simple-hearted missionary who had his station at Mackinaw, ex- 
plored the country about Green Bay, and along Fox and Wiscon- 
sin rivers aa far westward as the Mississippi, the banks of which 
they reached June 17, 1673. They descended this river to about 
33° 40', but returned by way of the Illinois river and the route 
they came in the Lake Region. At a village among the Illinois In- 
dians, Marquette and his small band of adventurers were z - eceived 


in a friendly manner and treated hospitably. They were made the 
honored guests at a great feast, where hominy, fish, dog meat and 
roast buffalo meat were spread before them in great abundance. In 
3682 LaSalie explored the West, but it is not known that he entered 
the region now embraced within the State of Indiana. He took 
il possession, however, of all the Mississippi region in the 
name of the King of France, in whose honor he gave all this Mis- 
sissippi region, including what is now Indiana, the name " Louisi- 
ana." Spain at the same time laid claim to all the region about 
the Gulf of Mexico, and thus these two great nations were brought 
Jlision. But the country was actually held and occupied by 
ifi&mi confederacy of Indians, the Miamis proper (an- 
.ightwees) being the eastern and most powerful tribe. 
Their territory extended strictly from the Scioto river west to the 
Illinois river. Their villages were few and scattering, and their 
occupation was scarcely dense enough to maintain itself against in- 
vasion. Their settlements were occasionally visited by Christian 
missionaries, fur traders and adventurers, but no body of white men 
made any settlement sufficiently permanent for a title to national 
possession. Christian zeal animated France and England in mis- 
sionary enterprise, the former in the interests of Catholicism and 
the latter in the interests of Protestantism. Hence their haste to 
preoccupy the land and proselyte the aborigines. No doubt this 
ugly rivalry was often seen by Indians, and they refused to be 
proselyted to either branch of Christianity. 

The " Five Nations," farther east, comprised the Mohawks, 
Oneidas, Cayugas, Onondaguas and Senecas. In 1677 the number 
of warriors in this confederacy was 2,150. About 1711 the Tusca- 
roras retired from Carolina and joined the Iroquois, or Five Na- 
tions, which, after that event, became known as the " Six Nations." 
In 1689 hostilities broke out between the Five Nations and the 
colonists of Canada, and the almost constant wars in which France 
was engaged until the treaty of Jiyswick in 1697 combined to 
check the grasping policy of Louis XIV., and to retard the plant- 
ing of French colonies in the Mississippi valley. Missionary efforts, 
however, continued with more failure than success, the Jesuits 
allying themselves with the Indians in habits and customs, even 
encouraging inter-marriage between them and their white fol- 




The Wabash was first named by the French, and spelled by them 
Ouabache. This river was known even before the Ohio, and was 
navigated as the Ouabache all the way to the Mississippi a long time 
before it was discovered that it was a tributary of the Ohio (Belle 
Riviere). In navigating the Mississippi they thought they passed 
the mouth of the Ouabache instead of the Ohio. In traveling from 
the Great Lakes to the south, the French always went by the way of* 
the Ouabache or Illinois. 

Francois Morgan de Vinsenne served in Canada as early as 1720 
in the regiment of " De Carrignan " of the French service, and 
again on the lakes in the vicinity of Sault Ste. Marie in the same 
service under M. de Vaudriel, in 1725. It is possible that his ad- 
vent to Vincennes may have taken place in 1732; and in proof of 
this the only record is an act of sale under the joint names of him- 
self and Madame Vinsenne, the daughter of M. Philip Longprie, 
and dated Jan. 5, 1735. This document gives his military position 
as commandant of the post of Ouabache in the service of the French 
King. The will of Longprie, dated March 10, same year, bequeaths 
him, among other things, 408 pounds of pork, which he ordered to 
be kept dafe until VinsenDe, who was then at Ouabache, returned 
to Kaskaskia. 

There are many other documents connected with its early settle- 
ment by Vinsenne, among which is a receipt for the 100 pistoles 
granted him as his wife's marriage dowry. In 1736 this officer was 
ordered to Charlevoix by D'Artagette, viceroy of the King at New 
Orleans, and commandant of Illinois. Here M. St. Vinsenne re- 
ceived his mortal wounds. The event is chronicled as follows, in 
the words of D'Artagette: " We have just received very bad news 
from Louisiana, and our war with the Chickasaws. The French 
have been defeated. Among the slain is M. de Vinsenne, who 
ceased not until his last breath to exhort his men to behave worthy 
of their faith and fatherland." 

Thus closed the career of this gallant officer, leaving $ name 
which holds as a remembrancer the present beautiful town of Vin- 
cennes, changed from Vinsenne to its present orthography in 1749. 

Post Vincennes was settled as early as 1710 or 1711. In a letter 
from Father Marest to Father Gerinon, dated at Kaskaskia, Nov. 9, 
1712, occurs this passage: "Les Francois itoient itabli unfort swr 


lefleuve Ouabache ; Us demanderent un missionaire / et le Pere 
Mermet leurfut envoy e. Ce Pere crut devoir travailler a la 
conversion des Mascoutens qui avoient fait un village sur les 
bords dumeme jleuve. Cest une nation Indians qui entend la 
langue Illinoise." Translated: " The French have established a 
fort upon the river Wabat>h, and want a missionary, and Father 
Mermet has been sent to them. That Father believes he should 
labor for the conversion of the Mascoutens, who have built a vil- 
lage on the banks of the same river. They are a nation of Indians 
who understand the language of the Illinois." 

Mermet was therefore the first preacher of Christianity in this 
pari of the world, and his mission was to convert the Mascoutens, 
a branch of the Miamis. "The way I took," says he, " was to con- 
found, in the presence of the whole tribe, one of these charlatans 
[medicine men], whose Manitou, or great spirit which he wor- 
shiped, was the buffalo. After leading him on insensibly to the 
avowal that it was not the buffalo that he worshiped, but the Man- 
itou, or spirit, of the buffalo, which was under the earth and ani- 
mated all buffaloes, which heals the sick and has all power, I asked 
him whether other beasts, the bear for instance, and which one of 
his nation worshiped, was not equally inhabited by a Manitou, 
which was under the earth. ' "Without doubt,' said the grand medi- 
cine man. ' If this is so,' said I, ' men ought to have a Manitou 
who inhabits them.' ' Nothing more certain,' said he. ' Ought 
not that to convince you,' continued I, ' that you are not very 
reasonable? For if man upon the earth is the master of all animals, 
if he kills them, if he eats them, does it not follow that the Mani- 
tou which inhabits him must have a mastery over all other Mani- 
tous? "Why then do you not invoke him instead of the Manitou 
of the bear and the buffalo, when you are sick?' This reasoning 
disconcerted the charlatan. But this was all the effect it 

The result of convincing these heathen by logic, as is generally 
the case the world over, was only a temporary logical victory, and 
no change whatever was produced in the professions and practices 
of the Indians. 

But the first Christian (Catholic) missionary at this place whose 
name we find recorded in the Church annals, was Meurin, in 1849. 

The church building used by these early missionaries at Vin- 
cennes is thus described by the " oldest inhabitants:" Fronting on 
Water street and running back on Church street, it was a plain 


building with a rough exterior, of upright posts, chinked and 
daubed, with a rough coat of cement on the outside; about 20 feet 
wide and 60 long; one story high, with a small belfry and an equally 
small bell. It was dedicated to St. Francis Xavier. This spot is 
now occupied by a splendid cathedral. 

Vincennes has ever been a stronghold of Catholicism. The 
Church there has educated and sent out many clergymen of her 
faith, some of whom have become bishops, or attained other high 
positions in ecclesiastical authority. 

Almost contemporaneous with the progress of the Church at 
Vincennes was a missionary work near the mouth of the Wea river, 
among the Ouiatenons, but the settlement there was broken up in 
early day. 



Soon after the discovery of the mouth of the Mississippi by La- 
Salle in 1682, the government of France began to encourage the 
policy of establishing a line of trading posts and missionary 
stations extending through the West from Canada to Louisiana, 
and this policy was maintained, with partial success, for about 75 
years. The traders persisted in importing whisky, which cancelled 
nearly every civilizing influence that could be brought to bear upon 
the Indian, and the vast distances between posts prevented that 
strength which can be enjoyed only by close and convenient inter- 
communication. Another characteristic of Indian nature was to 
listen attentively to all the missionary said, pretending to believe 
all he preached, and then offer in turn his theory of the world, of 
religion, etc., and because he was not listened to with the same 
degree of attention and pretense of belief, would go off disgusted. 
This was his idea of the golden rule. 

The river St. Joseph of Lake Michigan was called "the river 
Miamis" in 1679, in which year LaSalle built a small fort on its 
bank, near the lake shore. The principal station of the mission 
for the instruction of the Miamis was established on the borders of 
this river. The first French post within the territory of the 
Miamis was at the mouth of the river Miamis, on an eminence 
naturally fortified on two sides by the river, and on one side by a 


deep ditch made by a fall of water. It was of triangular form. 
The missionary Hennepin gives a good description of it, as he was 
one of the company who built it, in 1679. Says he: " "We fell the 
trees that were on the top of the hill; and having cleared the same 
from bushes for about two musket shot, we began to build a 
redoubt of 80 feet long and 40 feet broad, with great square pieces 
of timber laid one upon another, and prepared a great number of 
stakes of about 25 feet long to drive into the ground, to make our 
fort more inaccessible on the riverside. "We employed the whole 
month of November about that work, which was very hard, though 
we had no other food but the bear's flesh our savage killed. These 
beasts are very common in that place because of the great quantity 
of grapes they find there; but their flesh being too fat and luscious, 
our men began to be weary of it and desired leave to go a hunting 
to kill some wild goats. M. LaSalle denied them that liberty, 
which caused some murmurs among them; and it was but unwill- 
ingly that they continued their work. This, together with the 
approach of winter and the apprehension that M. LaSalle had that 
his vessel (the Griffin) was lost, made him very melancholy, though 
he concealed it as much as he could. We made a cabin wherein 
we performed divine service every Sunday, and Father Gabriel and 
I, who preached alternately, took care to take such texts as were 
suitable to our present circumstances and fit to inspire us with 
courage, concord and brotherly love. * * * The fort was at 
last perfected, and called Fort Miamis." 

In the year 1711 the missionary Chardon, who was said to be 
very zealous and apt in the acquisition of languages, had a station 
on the St. Joseph about 60 miles above the mouth. Charlevoix, 
another distinguished missionary from France, visited a post on 
this river in 1721. In a letter dated at the place, Aug. 16, he says: 
" There is a commandant here, with a small garrison. His house, 
which is but a very sorry one, is called the fort, from its being sur- 
rounded with an indifferent palisado, which is pretty near the case 
in all the rest. We have here two villages of Indians, one of the 
Miamis and the other of the Pottawatomies, both of them mostly 
Christians; but as they have been for a long time without any pas- 
tors, the missionary who has been lately sent to them will have no 
small difficulty in bringing them back to the exercise of their re- 
ligion." He speaks also of the main commodity for which the In- 
dians would part with their goods, namely, spirituous liquors, 
which they drink and keep drunk upon as long as a supply lasted. 



More than a century and a half has now passed since Charlevoix 
penned the above, without any change whatever in this trait of In- 
dian character. 

In 1765 the Miami nation, or confederacy, was composed of four 
tribes, whose total number of warriors was estimated at only 1,050 
men. Of these about 250 were Twightwees, or Miamis proper, 
300 Weas, or Ouiatenons,300 Piankeshawsand 200 Shockeys; and 
at this time the principal villages of the Twightwees were situated 
about the head of the Maumee river at and near the place where 
Fort Wayne now is. The larger Wea villages were near the banks 
of the Wabash river, in the vicinity of the Post Ouiatenon; and 
the Shockeys and Piankeshaws dwelt on the banks of the Vermil- 
lion and on the borders of the Wabash between Vincennes and 
Ouiatenon. Branches of the Pottawatomie, Shawnee, Delaware and 
Kickapoo tribes were permitted at different times to enter within 
the boundaries of the Miamis and reside for a while. 

The wars in which France and England were engaged, from 1688 
to 1697, retarded the growth of the colonies of those nations in 
North America, and the efforts made by France to connect Canada 
and the Gulf of Mexico by a chain of trading posts and colonies 
naturally excited the jealousy of England and gradually laid the 
foundation for a struggle at arms. After several stations were estab- 
lished elsewhere in the West, trading posts were started at the 
Miami villages, which stood at the head of the Maumee, at the Wea 
villages about Ouiatenon on the Wabash, and at the Piankeshaw vil- 
lages about the present sight of Vincennes. It is probable that before 
the close of the year 1719, temporary trading posts were erected at the 
sites of Fort Wayne, Ouiatenon and Vincennes. These points were 
probably often visited by French fur traders prior to 1700. In the 
meanwhile the English people in this country commenced also to 
establish military posts west of the Alleghanies, and thus matters 
went on until they naturally culminated in a general war, which, 
being waged by the French and Indians combined on one side, was 
called " the French and Indian war." This war was terminated in 
1763 by a treaty at Paris, by which France ceded to Great Britain 
all of North America east of the Mississippi except New Orleans 
and the island on which it is situated; and indeed, France had the 
preceding autumn, by a secret convention, ceded to Spain all the 
country west of that river. 


In 1762, after Canada and its dependencies had been surrendered 
to tlie English, Pontiac and his partisans secretly organized a pow- 
erful confederacy in order to crush at one blow all English power 
West. This great ocheme was skillfully projected and cau- 
tiously matured. 

The principal act in the programme was to gain admittance into 
the fort at Detroit, on pretense of a friendly visit, with short- 
ened muskets concealed under their blankets, and on a given signal 
ily break forth upon the garrison; but an inadvertent remark 
*^oman led to a discovery of the plot, which was con- 
ned. Pontiac and his warriors afterward made many 
„ npou the English, some of which were successful, but the 
Indians were finally defeated in the general war. 


In 1765 the total number of French families within the limits of 
the Northwestern Territory did not probably exceed 600. These 
were in settlements about Detroit, along the river Wabash and the 
neighborhood of Fort Chartres on the Mississippi. Of these fami- 
lies, about 80 or 90 resided at Post Vincennes, li at Fort Ouiate- 
non, on the Wabash, and nine or ten at the confluence of the St. 
Mary and St. Joseph rivers. 

The colonial policy of"the British government opposed any meas- 
ures which might strengthen settlements in the interior of this 
country, lest they become self-supporting and independent of the 
mother country; hence the early and rapid settlement of the North- 
western territory was still further retarded by the short-sighted 
selfishness of England. That fatal policy consisted mainly in hold- 
ing the land in the hands of the government and not allowing it to 
be subdivided and sold to settlers. But in spite of all her efforts 
in this direction, she constantly ma<ie just such efforts as provoked 
the American people to rebel, and to rebel successfully, which was 
within 15 years after the perfect close of the French and Indian 


Thomas Jefferson, the shrewd statesman and wise Governor of 
Virginia, saw from the first that actual occupation of Western lands 
was the only way to keep them out of the hands of foreigners and 


Indians. Therefore, directly after the conquest of Vincenne I 
Clark, lie engaged a scientific corps to proceed under an eseor« t • 
the Mississippi, and ascertain by celestial observations the poini 
on that river intersected by latitude 36° 30', the southern limil of 
the State, and to measure its distance to the Ohio. To Gen. ( larl 
was entrusted the conduct of the military operations in that quar- 
ter. He was instructed to select a strong position near that point 
and establish there a fori and garrison; thence to extend his conquests 
northward to the lakes, erecting forts at different points, which 
might serve as monuments of actual possession, besides affording 
protection to that portion of the country. Fort "Jefferson" was 
erected and garrisoned on the Mississippi a few miles above the 
southern limit. 

The result of these operations was the addition, to the chartered 
limits of Virginia, of that immense region known as the " North- 
western Territory." The simple fact that such and such forts were 
established by the Americans in this vast region convinced the Brit- 
ish Commissioners that we had entitled ourselves to the land. But 
where are those " monuments " of our power now? 


As a striking example of the inhuman treatment which the early 
Indians were capable of giving white people, we quote the follow 
ing blood-curdling story from Mr. Cox' " Recohcctions of the 
Wabash Valley": 

On the 11th of February, 1781, a wagoner named Irvin Hinton 
was sent from the block-house at Louisville, Ky., to Harrodsburg 
for a load of provisions for the fort. Two young men, Richard 
Rue and George Hoi man, aged respectively 19 and 16 years, were 
sent as guards to protect the wagon from the depredations of any 
Indians who might be lurking in the cane-brakes or ravines 
throng must pass. Soon after their start a severe 

una set in which lasted nn Lest the melting 

snow m lieir rifles, the guards fired 

them off, intending to reh ion as the storm ceased. 

Einton drove the horses while Ru ods ahead and 

As they ascended a hill 
Hinton heard some on 
to the that something was wrong about the 

pped ana :< . Eolman why he had called him to 
halt. Holm an said that he had not spoken; Rue ■■' 


but said that he had heard the voice distinctly. At this time a voice 
cried out, "I will solve the mystery for you; it was Simon Girty that 
cried Whoa, and he meant what he said," — at the same time emerg- 
ing from a sink-hole a few rods from the roadside, followed by 13 
Indians, who immediately surrounded the three Kentuckians and 
demanded them to surrender or die instantly. The little party, 
making a virtue of necessity, surrendered to this renegade white 
man and his Indian allies. 

Being so near two forte, Girty made all possible speed in making 
fast his prisoners, selecting the lines and other parts of the harness, 
he prepared for an immediate flight across the Ohio. The panta- 
loons of the prisoners were cut off about four inches above the 
knees, and thus they started through the deep snow as fast as the 
horses could trot, leaving the wagon, containing a few empty bar- 
rels, standing in the road. They continued their march for sev- 
eral cold days, without fire at night, until they reached "Wa-puc-ca- 
nat-ta, where they compelled their prisoners to run the gauntlet as 
they entered the village. Hintou first ran the gauntlet and reached 
the council-house after receivir^ several severe blows upon the head 
and shoulders. Rue next ran between the lines, pursued by an 
Indian with an uplifted tomahawk. He far outstripped his pursuer 
and dodged most of the blows aimed at him. Holman complaining 
that it was too severe a test for a worn-out stripling like himself, 
was allowed to run between two lines of squaws and boys, and was 
followed by an Indian with a long switch. 

The first council of the Indians did not dispose of these young 
men; they were waiting for the presence of other chiefs and war- 
riors. Ilinton escaped, but on the afternoon of the second day he 
was re-captured. Now the Indiaus were glad that they had an 
occasion to indulge in the infernal joy of burning him at once. 
Soon after their supper, which they shared with their victim, they 
drove the stake into the ground, piled np the fagots in a circle 
around it, stripped and blackened the prisoner, tied him to the 
stake, and applied the torch. It was a slow fire. The war-whoop 
then thrilled through the dark si. grounding forest like the chorus 
of a band of infernal spirits escaped from pandemonium, and the 
scalp dance was struck up by those demons in human shape, who 
for hours encircled their victim, brandishing their tomahawks and 
war clubs, and venting their execrations upon the helpless sufferer, 
who died about midnight from the effects of the slow heat. As 
Boon as he fell upon the ground, the Indian who first discovered 


him in the woods that evening sprang in, sunk his tomahawk into 
his skull above the ear, and with his knife stripped off the scalp, 
which lie bore back with him to the town as a trophy, and which 
was tauntingly thrust into the faces of Hue and Ilolman, with the 
question, " Can you smell the fire on the scalp of your red-headed 
friend? "We cooked him and left him for the wolves to make a 
breakfast upon; that is the way we serve runaway prisoners." 

After a march of three days more, the prisoners, Rue and Hol- 
man, had to run the gauntlets again, and barely got through with 
their lives. It was decided that they should both be burned at the 
stake that night, though this decision was far from being unani- 
mous. The necessary preparations were made, dry sticks and 
brush were gathered and piled around two stakes, the faces 
and hands of the doomed men were blackened in the customary 
manner, and as the evening approached the poor wretches sat look- 
ing upon the setting sun for the last time. An unusual excitement 
was manifest in a number of chiefs who still lingered about the 
council-house. At a pause in the contention, a noble-looking In- 
dian approached the prisoners, and after speaking a few words to 
the guards, took Ilolman by the hand, lifted him to his feet, cut the 
cords that bound him to his fellow prisoners, removed the black from 
his face and hands, put his hand kindly upon his head and said: " I 
adopt you as my son, to till the place of the one I have lately buried; 
you are now a kinsman of Logan, the white man's friend, as he has 
been called, but who has lately proven himself to be a terrible 
avenger of the wrongs inflicted upon him by the bloody Cresap and 
his men." "With evident reluctance, Girty interpreted this to Hol- 
man, who was thus unexpectedly freed. 

But the preparations for the burning of Rue went on. Holman 
and Rue embraced each other most affectionately, with a sorrow too 
deep for description. Rue was then tied to one of the stakes; but 
the genera] contention among the Indians had not ceased. Just as 
the lighted fagots were about to be applied to the dry brush piled 
around the devoted youth, a tall, active young Shawnee, a son of 
the victim's captor, sprang into the ring, and cutting the cords 
which bound him to the stake, led him out amidst the deafening 
plaudits of a part of the cmwd and the execrations of the rest. Re- 
gardless of threats, he caused water to be brought and the black to 
lie washed from the face and hands of the prisoner, whose clothes 
were then returned to him, when the young brave said: "I take 
this young man to be my brother, in the place of one I lately lost; 


I loved that brother well; I will love this one, too; my old mother 
will be glad when I tell her that I have brought her a son, in place 
of the dear departed one. We want no more victims. The burning 
of Red-head [Hinton] ought to satisfy us. These innocent young 
men do notmeiit such cruel fate; I would rather die myself than 
see this adopted brother burned at the stake." 

A loud 6hout of approbation showed that the young Shawnee had 
triumphed, though dissension was manifest among the various 
tribes afterward. Some of them abandoned their trip to Detroit, 
others returded to Wa-puc-ca-nat-ta, a few turned toward the Mis- 
sissinewa and the Wabash towns, while a portion continued to De- 
troit. Holman was taken back to Wa-puc-ca-nat ta, where he re- 
mained most of the time of his captivity. Rue was taken first to 
the Mississinewa, then to the Wabash towns. Two years of his 
eventful captivity were spent in the region of the Wabash and Illi- 
nois rivers, but the last few months at Detroit; was in captivity 
altogether about three years and a half. 

Rue effected his escape in the following manner: During one of 
the drunken revels of the Indians near Detroit one of them lost a 
purse of $90; various tribes were suspected of feloniously keeping 
the treasure, and much ugly speculation was indulged in as to who 
was the thief. At length a prophet of a tribe that was not suspected 
was called to divine the mystery. He spread sand over a green 
deer-skin, watched it awhile and performed various manipulations, 
and professed to see that the money had been stolen and carried 
away by a tribe entirely different from any that had been 
su6picioned; but he was shrewd enough not to announce who the 
thief was or the tribe he belonged to, lest a war might arise. His 
decision quieted the belligerent uprisings threatened by the excited 

Rue and two other prisoners saw this display of the prophet's 
skill and concluded to interrogate him 6oon concerning their fami- 
lies at home. The opportunity occurred in a few days, and the In- 
dian seer actually astonished Rue with the accuracy with which he 
described his family, and added, " You all intend to make your 
escape, and you will effect it soon. You will meet with many trials 
and hardships in passing over so wild a district of country, inhabited 
by so many hostile nations of Indians. Yon will almost starve to 
death; but about the time you have given up all hope of finding 
game to sustain you in your famished condition, succor will come 
when you least expect it The first game you will succeed in taking 


will be a male of some kind; after that you will have plenty of 
game and return home in safety." 

The prophet kept this matter a secret for the prisoners, and the 
latter in a few days set off upon their terrible journey, and had 
just such experience as the Indian prophet had foretold; they 
arrived home with their lives, but were pretty well worn out with the 
exposures and privations of a three weeks' journey. 

On the return of Holman's party of Indians to Wa-puc-ca-nat-ta, 
much dissatisfaction existed in regard to the manner of his release 
from the sentence of condemnation pronounced against him by the 
council. Many were in favor of recalling the council and trying 
him again, and this was finally agreed to. The young man was 
again put upon trial for his life, with a strong probability of his 
being condemned to the stake. Both parties worked hard for vic- 
tory in the final vote, which eventually proved to give a majority of 
one for the prisoner's acquittal. 

While with the Indians, Holman saw them burn at the stake a 
Kentuckian named Richard Ilogeland, who had been taken prisoner 
at the defeat of Col. Crawford. They commenced burning him at 
nine o'clock at night, and continued roasting him until ten o'clock 
the next day, before he expired. During his excruciating tortures he 
begged for some of them to end his life and sufferings with a gun 
or tomahawk. Finally his cruel tormentors promised they would, 
and cut several deep gashes in his flesh with their tomahawks, and 
shoveled up hot ashes and embers and threw them into the gaping 
wounds. When he was dead they stripped off his scalp, cut him 
to pieces and burnt him to ashes, which they scattered through the 
town to expel the evil spirits from it. 

After a captivity of about three years and a half, Holman saw an 
opportunity of going on amission for the destitute Indians, namely, 
of going to Ilarrodsburg, Ky., where he had a rich uncle, from 
whom they could get what supplies they wanted. They let him go 
with a guard, but on arriving at Louisville, where Gen. Clark was 
in command, he was ransomed, and he reached home only three 
days after the arrival of Rue. Both these men lived to a good old 
age, terminating their lives at their home about two miles south of 
Richmond, Ind. 


In the summer of 1778, Col. George Rogers Clark, a native of 
Albemarle county, Va., led a memorable expedition against the 
ancient French settlements about Kaskaskia and Post Vincennes. 
"With respect to the magnitude of its design, the valor and perse- 
verance with which it was carried on, and the memorable results 
which were produced by it, this expedition stands without a parallel 
in the early annals of the valley of the Mississippi. That portion 
of the West called Kentucky was occupied by Henderson & Co., 
who pretended to own the land and who held it at a high price. 
Col. Clark wished to test the validity of their claim and adjust the 
government of the country so as to encourage immigration. He 
accordingly called a meeting of the citizens at Harrodstown, to 
assemble June 6, 1776, and consider the claims of the company and 
consult with reference to the interest of the country. He did not 
at first publish the exact aim of this movement, lest parties would 
be formed in advance and block the enterprise; also, if the object 
of the meeting were not announced beforehand, the curiosity of the 
people to know what was to be proposed would bring out a much 
greater attendance. 

The meeting was held on the day appointed, and delegates were 
elected to treat with the government of Virginia, to see whether 
it would be best to become a county in that State and be protected 
by it, etc. Various delays on account of the remoteness of the 
white settlers from the older communities of Virginia and the hos- 
tility of Indians in every direction, prevented a consummation of 
this object until some time in 1 778. The government of Virginia 
was friendly to Clark's enterprise to a certain extent, but claimed 
that they had not authority to do much more than to lend a little 
assistance for which payment should be made at some future time, 
as it was not certain whether Kentucky would become a part of Vir- 
ginia or not. Gov. Henry and a few gentlemen were individually 
so hearty in favor of Clark's benevolent undertaking that they 
assisted him all they could. Accordingly Mr. Clark organized his 
expedition, keeping every particular secret lest powerful parties 
would form in the West against him. He took in stores at Pitts- 


m -tort of i:.n; una. 55 

burg and Wheeling, proceeded down the Ohio to the " Falls,'* 
where he took possession of an island of a about seven acres, and 
divided it among a small number of families, for whose protection 
he constructed some light fortifications. At this time Post Vin- 
cenoes comprised about 400 militia, and it was a daring undertak- 
ing for Col. Clark, with his small force, to go up against it and Kas- 
kaskia, as he had planned. Indeed, some of his men, on hearing of 
his plan, deserted him. He conducted himself so as to gain the 
sympathy of the French, and through them also that of the 
Indians to some extent, as both these people were very bitter 
against the British, who had possession of the Lake Region. 

From the nature of the situation Clark concluded it was best to 
take Kaskaskia first. The fact that the people i regarded him as a 
savage rebel, he regarded as really a good thing in his favor; for 
after the first victory he would show them so much unexpected 
lenity that they would rally to his standard. Id this policy he was 
indeed successful. He arrested a few men and put them in irons. 
The priest of the village, accompanied by five or six aged citizens, 
waited on Clark and said that the inhabitants expected to be separ- 
ated, perhaps never to meet again, and they begged to be permitted 
to assemble in their church to take leave of each other. Clark 
mildly replied that he had nothing against their religion, that they 
might continue to assemble in their church, but not venture out of 
town, etc. Thus, by what has 6ince been termed the "Rarey" 
method of taming horses, Clark showed them he had power over 
them but designed them no harm, and they readily took the oath 
of allegiance to Virginia. 

After Clark's arrival at Kaskaskia it was difficult to induce the 
French settlers to accept the "Continental paper" introduced by 
him and his troops. Nor until Col. Vigo arrived there and guar- 
anteed its redemption would they receive it. Peltries and piastres 
formed the only currency, and Vigo found great difficulty in ex- 
plaining Clark's financial arrangements. "Their commandants 
never made money," was the reply to Vigo's explanation of the 
policy of the old Dominion. But notwithstanding the guarantees, 
the Continental paper fell very low in the market. Vigo had a 
trading establishment at Kaskaskia, where he sold coffee at one 
dollar a pound, and all the other necessaries of life at an equally 
reasonable price. The unsophisticated Frenchmen were generally 
asked in what kind of money they would pay their little bills. 


"Dovleur," was the general reply; and as an authority on the sub- 
ject pays, "Ti ibout l, .venty Continental dollars to purchase a 
rth of c^uee; and as the French word "douleur" sig- 
u perhaps no word either in the French or Eng- 
-sed the idea mo.e correctly than the douleur 
itai dollar. A.t any rate it was truly douleur to the 
ae never received a single dollar in exchange for the 
ant taken from him in order to sustain Clark's credit. 
.Now, th^ post at Vincennes, defended by Fort Sackville, came 
next. The priest just mentioned, Mr. Gibauit, was realk fri 
to '■ the American interest;" he had spiritual charge of the church 
at Vincennes and he with several others were deputt-u to a 
the people tl e and authorize them to garrison their 
a free and independent people, etc. This plan had it ■ 
and the people took the oath of allegiance to the c 
and become citizens of the United States. Their style of ! 
and conduct chaaged to a better hue, and they surprised the n 
oub Indians in the vicinity by displaying anew flag and informing 
them that their old father, the King of France, was come to life 
again, and was mad at them for fighting the English; and they ad- 
vised them to make peace with the Americans as soon as they 
could, otherwise they might expect to make the land very bloody, 
etc. The Indians concluded they would have to fall in line, and 
they offered no resistance. Capt. Leonard Helm, an American, 
was left in charge of this post, and Clark began to turn his atten- 
tion to other points. But before leaving this section of the coun- 
try he made treaties of peace with the Indians ; this he did, how- 
ever, by a different method from what had always before been 
followed. By indirect methods he caused them to come to him, 
instead of going to them. He was convinced that inviting them to 
treaties was considered by them in a different manner from what 
the whites expe. ed, and in. ated them to fear, and that giving 
them great presents confirmed it. He accordingly established 
treaties with the Piankeshaws, Ouiatenons, Kickapoos, Illinois, 
Kaskaskias, Peorias and branches of some other tribes that inhab- 
ited the country between Lake Michigan and the Mississippi. 
Upon this the General Assembly of the State of Virginia declared 
«11 the citizens settled west of the Ohio organized into a county of 
that State, to be known as " Illinois " county; but before the pro- 
visions of the law could be carried into effect, Henry Hamilton, the 
British Lieutenant-Governor of Detroit, collected an army of about 


30 regulars, 50 French volunteers and 400 Indians, went down and 
re-took the post Vincennes in December, 1778. No attempt was 
made by the population to defend the town. Capt Helm and a 
man named Henry were the only Americans at the fort, the only 
members of the garrison. Capt. Helm was taken prisoner ..nd a 
number of the French inhabitants disarmed. 

Col. Clark, hearing of the situation, determined to re-capture the 
place. He accordingly gathered together what force he could in 
this distant land, 170 men, and on the 5th of February, started from 
Kaskaskia and crossed the river of that name. The weather was 
very wet, and the low lands were pretty well covered with water. 
The march was difficult, and the Colonel had to work'hard to keep 
his men in spirits. He suffered them to shoot game whenever they 
wished and eat it like Indian war-dancers, each company by turns 
inviting the others to their feasts, which was the case every night. 
Clark waded through water as much as any of them, and thus stimu- 
lated the men by his example. They reached the Little "Wabash 
on the 13th, after suffering many and great hardships. Here a camp 
was formed, and without waiting to discuss plans for crossing the 
river, Clark ordered the men to construct a vessel, and pretended 
that crossing the stream would be only a piece of amusement, al- 
though inwardly he held a different opinion. 

The second day afterward a reconnoitering party was sent across 
the river, who returned and made an encouraging report. A scaf- 
folding was built on the opposite shore, upon which the baggage 
was placed as it was tediously ferried over, and the new camping 
ground was a nice half acre of dry land. There were many amuse- 
ments, indeed, in getting across the river, which put all the men in 
high spirits. The succeeding two or three days they had to march 
through a great deal of water, having on the night of the 17th to 
encamp in the water, near the Big Wabash. 

At daybreak on the 18th they heard the signal gun at Vincennes, 
and at once commenced their march. Reaching the Wabash about 
two o'clock, they constructed rafts to cross the river on a boat-steal- 
ing expedition, but labored all day and night to no purpose. On 
the 19th they began to make a canoe, in which a second attempt to 
steal boats was made, but this expedition returned, reporting that 
there were two "large fires" within a mile of them. Clark sent a 
canoe down the river to meet the vessel that was supposed to be on 
her way up with the supplies, with orders to hasten forward day and 
night This was their last hope, as their provisions were entirely 

I starvation si erina about them. The next 

H , ore cmi [i i_ ■ . when about noon the 

no ,i. a boat witli five Frenchmen from the 

From this part} I ey i- Lrned that they were not as yet dis- 

the i en i the river in two canoes the next 

day, andas Clark had i in i to reach the lown that night, he 

ordered his men to move foi ivard. They plunged into the water 

sometimes to the neck, for over three miles. 

Without food, benumbed with cold, up to their waists in water, 
covered with broken ice, the men at one time mutinied and refused 
to march. All the persuasions of Clark had no effect upon the 
half-starved and half-frozen soldiers. In one company was a small 
drummer boy, and also a sergeant who stood six feet two inches in 
so^kj, and stout and athletic. He was devoted to Clark. The Gen- 
eral mou ited the little drummer on the shoulders of the stalwart 
sergeant and ordered him to plunge into the water, half-frozen as it 
was. lie -lid so, the little boy beating the charge from his lofty 
perch, while Clark, sword in hand, followed them, giving the com- 
mand as he threw aside the floating ice, "Forward." Elated and 
amused with the scene, the men promptly obeyed, holding their 
rifles above their heads, and in spite of all the obstacles they reached 
the high land in perfect safety. But for this and the ensuing days 
of this campaign we quote from Clark's account: 

" This last day's march through the water was far superior to any- 
thing the Frenchmen had any idea of. They were backward in 
speaking; said that the nearest land to us was a small league, a 
sugar camp on the bank of the river. A canoe was sent off and re- 
turned without finding that we could pass. I went in her myself 
and sounded the water and found i t as deep as to my neck. I returned 
with a design to have the men transported on board the canoes to 
the sugar camp, which I knew would expend the whole day and en- 
suing night, as the vessels would pass slowly through the bushes. 
The loss of so much time to men half starved was a matter of con- 
sequence. I would have given now a great deal for a day's provis- 
ion, or for one of our horses. I returned but slowly to the troops, 
giving myself time to think. On our arrival all ran to hear what 
was the report; every eye was fixed on me: I unfortunately spoke 
in a serious manner to one of the officers. The whole were alarmed 
without knowing what I said. I viewed their confusion for about 
one minute; I whispered to those near me to do as I did, immedi- 
ately put some water in my hand, poured on powder, blackened my 


face, gave the war-whoop, and marched into the water without say- 
ing a word. The party gazed and fell in, one after another without 
saying a word, like a flock of sheep. I ordered those near me to 
begin a favorite song of theirs; it soon passed through the line, and 
the whole went on cheerfully. 

" I now intended to have them transported across the deepest 
part of the water; but when about waist-deep, one of the men in- 
formed me that he thought he felt a path; we examined and found 
it so, and concluded that it kept on the highest ground, which it did, 
and by taking pains to follow it, we got to the 6ugar camp with no 
difficulty, where there was about half an acre of dry ground, — at 
least ground not under water, and there we took up our lodging. 

" The night had been colder than any we had had, and the ice iD 
the morning was one-half or three-quarters of an inch thick in still 
water; the morning was the finest. A little after sunrise I lectured 
the whole; what I said to them I forget, but I concluded by in- 
forming them that passing the plain then in full view, and 
reaching the opposite woods would put an end to their fatigue; 
that in a few hours they would have a sight of their long wished-for 
object; and immediately stepped into the water without waiting 
for any reply. A huzza took place. As we generally marched 
through the water in a line, before the third man entered, I called to 
Major Bowman, ordering him to fall in the rear of the 25 men, and 
put to death any man who refused to march. This met with a cry 
of approbation, and on we went. Getting about the middle of the 
plain, the water about mid-deep, I found myself sensibly failing; 
and as there were no trees nor bushes for the men to support them- 
selves by, I feared that many of the weak would be drowned. I or- 
dered the canoes to make the land, discharge their loading, and play 
backward and forward with all diligence and pick up the men; and 
to encourage the part}', sent some of the strongest men forward, 
with orders when they got to a certain distance, to pass the word 
back that the water was getting shallow, and when getting near the 
woods, to cry out land. This stratagem had its desired effect; the 
men exerted themselves almost beyond their abilities, the weak 
holding by the stronger. The water, however, did not become 
shallower, but continued deepening. Getting to the woods where 
the men expected land, the water was up to my shoulders; but 
gaining the woods was of great consequence; all the low men and 
weakly hung to the trees and floated on the old logs until they were 


taken off by the canoes; the strong and tall got ashore and built 
fires. Many would reach the shore and fall with their bodies half 
in the water, not being able to support themselves without it. 

"This was a dry and delightful spot of ground of about ten acres. 
Fortunately, as if designed by Providence, a canoe of Indian squaws 
and children was coming up o town, and took through this part of 
the plain as a nigh way; ii was discovered by our canoe-men as they 
were out after the other men. They gave chase and took the Indian 
canoe, on board of which was nearly half a quarter of buffalo, some 
corn, tallow, kettles, etc. This was an invaluable prize. Broth was 
immediately made and served out, especially to the weakly; nearly 
all of us got a little; but a great many gave their part to the 
weakly, saying something cheering to their comrades. By the 
afternoon, this refreshment and fine weather had greatly invigor- 
ated the whole party. 

" Crossing a narrow and deep lake in the canoes, and marching 
some distance, we came to a copse of timber called ' Warrior's 
Island.' We were now in full view of the fort and town; it was 
about two miles distant, with not a shrub intervening. Every man 
now feasted his eyes and forgot that he had suffered anything, say- 
ing that al! which had passed was owing to good policy, and noth- 
ing but what a man could bear, and that a soldier had no right to 
think, passing from one extreme to the other, — which is common in 
such cases. And now stratagem was necessary. The plain between 
us and the town was not a perfect level; the sunken grounds were 
covered with water full of ducks. We observed several men within 
ahalf a mile of us shooting ducks, and sent out some of our active 
young Frenchmen to take one of these men prisoners without 
alarming the rest, which they did. The information we got from 
this person was similar to that which we got from those taken on the 
river, except that of the British having that evening completed the 
wall of the fort, and that there were a great many Indians in town. 

"Our situation was now critical. No possibility of retreat in 
case of defeat, and in full view of a town containing at this time 
more than 600 men, troops, inhabitants and Indians. The crew of the 
galley, though not 50 men, would have been now a re-enforcement 
of immense magnitude to our little army, if I may so call it, but 
we would not think of them. We were now in the situation that I 
had labored to get ourselves in. The idea of being made prisoner 
was foreign to almost every man, as they expected nothing but tor- 
ture from the savages if they fell into their hands. Our fate was 



now to be determined, probably in a few hours; we knew that 
nothing but the most daring conduct would insure success; I knew 
also that a number of the inhabitants wished us well. This was a 
favorable circumstance; and as there was but little prooability of our 
remaining until dark undiscovered, I determined to begin opera- 
tions immediately, and therefore wrote the following placard to the 
To the Inhabitants of Post Vincermes: 

Gentlemen: — Being now within two miles of your village with 
my army, determined to take your fort this night, and not being 
willing to surprise you, I take this method to request such of you 
as are true citizens and willing to enjoy the liberty I bring you, to 
remain still in yo^r houses; and those, if any there be, that are 
friends to the king, will instantly repair to the fort and join the 
hair-buyer general and fight like men; and if any such as do not go 
to the fort shall be discovered afterward, they may depend on 
severe punishment. On the contrary, those who are true friends 
to liberty may depend on being well treated; and I once more 
request them to keep out of the streets; for everyone I find in 
arms on my arrival I shall treat as an enemy. 

[Signed] G. R. Claek. 

" I had various ideas on the results of this letter. I knew it 
could do us no damage, but that it would cause the lukewarm to 
be decided, and encourage our friends and astonish our enemies. 
"We anxiously viewed this messenger until he entered the town, and 
in a few minutes we discovered by our glasses some stir in every 
street we could penetrate, and great numbers running or riding out 
into the commons, we supposed to view us, which was the case. 
But what surprised us was that nothing had yet happened that had 
the appearance of the garrison being alarmed, — neither gun nor 
drum. We began to suppose that the information we got from our 
prisoners was. false, and that the enemy had already knew of us and 
were prepared. A little before sunset we displayed ourselves in 
full view of the town, -crowds gazing at us. We were plunging 
ourselves into certain destruction or success ; there was no midway 
thought of. We had but little to say to our men, except inculcat- 
ing an idea of the necessity of obedience, etc. We moved on 
slowly in full view of the town; but as it was a point of some con- 
sequence to us to make ourselves appear formidable, we, in leaving 
the covert we were in, marched and counter- marched in such a 
manner that we appeared numerous. Our colors were displayed to 
the best advantage; and as the low plain we inarched through was 


not a perfect level, bnt had frequent risings in it, of 7 or 8 
higher than the common level, which was covered with water; and 
as these risings generally run in an oblique direction to the town, 
we took the advantage of one of them, marching through the water 
by it, which completely prevented our being numbered. We gained 
the heights back of the town. As there were as yet no hostile 
appearance, we were impatient to have the cause unriddled. Lieut. 
Bayley was ordered with 14 men to march and fire on the fort; 
the main body moved in a different direction and took possession 
of the strongest part of the town." 

Clark then sent a written order to Hamilton commanding 
him to surrender immediately or he would be treated as a 
murderer; Hamilton replied that he and his garrison were not 
disposed to be awed into any action unworthy of British sub- 
jects. After one hour more of fighting, Hamilton proposed a 
truce of three days for conference, on condition that each side 
cease all defensive work; Clark rejoined that he would "not 
agree to any terms other than Mr. Hamilton surrendering himself 
and garrison prisoners at discretion," and added that if he, Hamil- 
ton, wished to talk with him he could meet him immediately at the 
church with Capt. Helm. In less than an hour Clark dictated the 
termsof surrender, Feb. 24, 1779. Hamilton agreed to the total 
surrender because, as he there claimed in writing, he was too far 
from aid from his own government, and because of the " unanimity" 
of his officers in the surrender, and his "confidence in a generous 

"Of this expedition, of its results, of its importance, of the merits of 
those engaged in it, of their bravery, their skill, of their prudence, of 
their success, a volume would not more than suffice for the details. 
Suffice it to say that in my opinion, and I have accurately and criti- 
cally weighed and examined all the results produced by the con- 
tests in which we were engaged during the Revolutionary war, 
that for bravery, for hardships endured, for skill and consummate 
tact and prudence on the part of the commander, obedience, dis- 
cipline and love of country on the part of his followers, for the 
immense benefits acquired, and signal advantages obtained by it 
for the whole union, it was second to no enterprise undertaken dur- 
ing that struggle. I might add, second to no undertaking in an- 
cient or modern warfare. The whole credit of this conquest be- 
longs to two men; Gen. George Rogers Clark and Col. Francis 
Vigo. And when we consider that by it the whole territory now 

msroicv OK INDIANA. 

covered by the three great states of Indiana, Illinois and Michigan 
was added to the union, and so admitted to be by the British commis- 
sioners at the preliminaries to the treaty of peace in 1783; (and but 
for this very conquest, the boundaries of our territories west would 
have been the Ohio instead of the Mississippi, and so acknowledged 
by both our commissioners and the British at that conference;) a 
territory embracing upward of 2,CC0,000 people, the human mind 
is lost in the contemplation of its effects; and we can but wonder 
that a force of 170 men, the whole number of Clark's troops, 
should by this single action have produced such important results." 
[John Law. 

The next day Clark sent a detachment of 60 men up the river 
Wabash to intercept some boats which were laden with provisions 
and goods from Detroit. This force was placed under command of 
Capt. Helm, Major Bosseron and Major Legras, and they proceeded 
up the river, in three armed boats, about 120 miles, when the 
British boats, about seven in number, were surprised and captured 
without firing a gun. These boats, which had on board about 
$50,000 worth of goods and provisions, were manned by about 
40 men, among whom was Philip Dejean, a magistrate of Detroit. 
The provisions were taken for the public, and distributed among 
the soldiery. 

Having organized a military government at Vincennes and 
appointed Capt. Helm commandant of the town, Col. Clark return- 
ed in the vessel to Kaskaskia, where he was joined by reinforce- 
ments from Kentucky under Capt. George. Meanwhile, a party of 
traders who were going to the falls, were killed and plundered by 
the Delawares of White River; the news of this disaster having 
reached Clark, he sent a dispatch to Capt. Helm ordering him to 
make war on the Delawares and use every means in his power to 
destroy them; to show no mercy to the men, but to save the 
women and children. This order was executed without delay. 
Their camps were attacked in every quarter where they could be 
found. Many fell, and others were carried to Post Vincennes and 
put to death. The surviving Delawares at once pleaded for mercy 
and appeared anxious to make some atonement for their bad con- 
duct. To these overtures Capt. Helm replied that Col. Clark, the 
" Big Knife," had ordered the war, and that he had no power to lay 
down the hatchet, but that he would suspend hostilities until a 
messenger could be sent to Kaskaskia. This was done, and the 
crafty Colonel, well understanding the Indian character, sent a 


message to the Delawares, telling them that he would not accept 
their friendship or treat with them for peace; but that if they 
could get some of the neighboring tribes to become responsible for 
their future conduct, he would discontinue the war and spare their 
lives; otherwise they must all perish. 

Accordingly a council wai sailed of all the Indians in the neigh- 
borhood, and Clark's answer was read to the assembly. After due 
deliberation the Piankeshaws took on themselves to answer for the 
future good conduct of the Delawares, and the " Grand Door " in a 
long speech denounced their base conduct. This ended the war 
with the Delawares and secured the respect of the neighboring 

Ciark's attention was next turned to the British post at Detroit, 
but being unable to obtain sufficient troops he abandoned the en- 


Tradition says that when Clark captured Hamilton and his gar- 
rison at Fort Sackville, he took possession of the fort and kept the 
British nag flying, dressed his sentinels with the uniform of the 
British soldiery, and let everything about the premises remain as 
they were, so that when the Indians sympathizing with the British 
arrived they would walk right into the citadel, into the jaws of 
death. His success was perfect. Sullen and silent, with the scalp- 
lock of his victims hanging at his girdle, and in full expectation of 
his reward from Hamilton, the unwary savage, unconscious of 
danger and wholly ignorant <>f the change that had just been effected 
in his absence, passed the supposed British sentry at the gate of the 
fort unmolested and unchallenged; but as soon as in, a volley from 
the rifles of a platoon of Clark's men, drawn up and awaiting his 
coming, pierced their hearts and sent the unconscious savage, reek- 
ing with murder, to that tribunal to which he had so frequently, 
by order of the hair-buyer general, sent his American captives, 
from the infant in the cradle to the grandfather of the family, tot- 
tering with age and infirmity. It was a just retribution, and few 
men but Clark would have planned such a ruse or carried it out 
successfully. It is reported that fifty Indians met this fate within 
the fort; and probably Hamilton, a prisoner there, witnessed it all. 


Henry Hamilton, who had acted as Lieutenant and Governor of 
the British possessions under Sir George Carleton, was sent for- 

Iil-]nKY <>P INDIANA. 


ward, with two other prisoners of war, Dejean and LaMothe, to 
Williamsburg, Va., early in June following, 1779. Proclamations, 
in his own handwriting, were found, in which he had offered a 
specific sum for every American scalp brought into the camp, either 
by his own troops or his allies, the Indians; and from this he was 
denominated the "hair-buyer General." This and much other tes- 
timony of living witnesses at the time, all showed what a savage he 
was. Thomas Jefferson, then Governor of Virginia, being made 
aware of the inhumanity of this wretch, concluded to resort to a 
little retaliation by way of closer confinement. Accordingly he 
ordered that these three prisoners be put in irons, confined in a 
dungeon, deprived of the use of pen, ink and paper, and be ex- 
cluded from all conversation except with their keeper. Major 
General Phillips, a British officer out on parole in the vicinity of 
Charlottesville, where the prisoners now were, in closer confine- 
ment, remonstrated, and President Washington, while approving 
of Jefferson's course, requested a mitigation of the severe order, 
lest the British be goaded to desperate measures. 

Soon afterward Hamilton was released on parole, and he subse- 
quently appeared in Canada, still acting as if he had jurisdiction 
in the United States. 

The faithful, self-sacrificing and patriotic services of Father 
Pierre Gibault in behalf of the Americans require a special notice 
of him in this connection. He was the parish priest at Vincennes, 
as well as at Kaskaskia. He was, at an early period, a Jesuit mis- 
sionary to the Illinois. Had it not been for the influence of this man, 
Clark could not have obtained the influence of the citizens at either 
place. He gave all his property, to the value of 1,500 Spanish 
milled dollars, to the support of Col. Clark's troops, and never re- 
ceived a single dollar in return. So far as the records inform us, 
he was given 1,500 Continental paper dollars, which proved in the 
end entirely valueless. He modestly petitioned from the Govern- 
in mt a small allowance of land at Cahokia, but we find no account 
of his ever receiving it. He was dependent upon the public in his 
older days, and in 1790 Winthrop Sargent "conceded" to him a lot 
of about "14 toises, one side to Mr. Millet, another to Mr. Vaudrey, 
and to two streets," — a vague description of land. 


Col. Francis Vigo was born in Mondovi, in the kingdom of Sar- 
dinia, in 1747. He left his parents and guardians at a very early 
age, and enlisted in a Spanish regiment as a soldier. The regiment 
was ordered to Havana, and a detachment of it subsequently to 
New Orleans, then a Spanish post ; Col. Vigo accompanied this de- 
tachment. But he left the army and engaged in trading with the 
Indians on the Arkansas and its tributaries. Next he settled at St. 
Louis, also a Spanish post, where he became closely connected, both 
in friendship and business, with the Governor of Upper Louisiana, 
then residing at the same place. This friendship he enjoyed, though 
he could only write his name; and we have many circumstantial 
evidences that he was a man of high intelligence, honor, purity of 
heart, and ability. Here he was living when Clark captured Kus- 
kaskia, and was extensively engaged in trading up the Missouri. 

A Spaniard by birth and allegiance, he was under no obligation 
to assist the Americans. Spain was at peace with Great Britain, 
and any interference by her citizens was a breach of neutrality, and 
subjected an individual, especially one of the high character and 
standing of Col. Vigo, to all the contumely, loss and vengeance 
which British power could inflict. But Col. Vigo did not falter. 
With an innate love of liberty, an attachment to Republican prin- 
ciples, and an ardent sympathy for an oppressed people struggling 
for their rights, he overlooked all personal consequences, and as 
soon as he learned of Clark's arrival at Kaskaskia, he crossed the 
line and went to Clark and tendered him his means and influence, 
both of which were joyfully accepted. 

Knowing Col. Vigo's influence with the ancient inhabitants of 
the country, and desirous of obtaining some information from 
Vincennes, from which he had not heard for several months, Col. 
Clark proposed to him that he might go to that place and learn the 
actual state of affairs. Vigo went without hesitation, but on the 
Embarrass river he was seized by a party of Indians, plundered of 
all he possessed, and brought a prisoner before Hamilton, then in pos- 
session of the post, which he had a short time previously captured, 
holding Capt. Helm a prisoner of war. Being a Spanish subject, 
and consequently a non-combatant, Gov. Hamilton, although he 
strongly suspected the motives of the visit, dared not confine him, 
bat admitted him to parole, on the single condition that he 
should daily report himself at the fort. But Hamilton was embar- 

il>l'<>KV OF INDIANA. 

rassed by his detention, being besieged by the inhabitants of the 
town, who loved Vigo and threatened to withdraw their support 
from the garrison if he would not release him. Father Gibault was 
the chief pleader for Vigo's release. Hamilton finally yielded, on con- 
dition that he, Vigo, would do no injury to the British interests on 
his way to St. Louis. lie went to St. Louis, sure enough, doing no 
injury to British interests, but immediately returned to Kaskaskia 
and reported to Clark in detail all he had learned at Vincennes, 
without which knowledge Clark would have been unable to ac- 
complish his famous expedition to that post with final triumph. 
The redemption of this country from the British is due as much, 
probably, to Col. Vigo as Col. Clark. 


Col. John Todd, Lieutenant for the county of Illinois, in the 
spring of 1779 visited the old settlements at Vincennes and Kas- 
kaskia, and organized temporary civil governments in nearly all the 
settlements west of the Ohio. Previous to this, however, Clark 
had established a military government at Kaskaskia and Vincennes, 
appointed commandants in both places and taken up his headquar- 
ters at the falls of the Ohio, where he could watch the operations 
of the enemy and save the frontier settlements from the depreda- 
tions of Indian warfare. On reaching the settlements, Col. Todd 
issued a proclamation regulating the settlement of unoccupied 
lands and requiring the presentation of all claims to the lands set- 
tled, as the number of adventurers who would shortly overrun the 
country would be serious. He also organized a Court of civil and 
criminal jurisdiction at Vincennes, in the month of June, 1779. 
This Court was composed of several magistrates and presided over 
by Col. J. M. P. Legras, who had been appointed commandant at 
Vincennes. Acting from the precedents established by the early 
French commandants in the West, this Court began to grant tracts 
of land to the French and American inhabitants; and to the year 
1783, it had granted to different parties about 26,000 acres of land; 
22,000 more was granted in this manner by 17S7, when the practice 
was prohibited by Gen. Harmer. These tracts varied in size from 
a house lot to 500 acres. Besides this loose business, the Court 
entered into a stupendous speculation, one not altogether creditable 
to its honor and dignity. The commandant and the magistrates 
under him suddenly adopted the opinion that thuy were invested 


with the authority to dispose of the whole of that large region 
which in 1842 had been granted by the Piankeshaws to the French 
inhabitants of Vineennes. Accordingly a very convenient arrange- 
ment was entered into by which the whole tract of country men- 
tioned was to ' . divided between the members of the honorable 
Court. A record was made to that effect, and in order to gloss over 
the steal, each member took pains to be absent from Court on the 
day that the order was made in his favor. 

In the fall of 1780 La Balme, a Frenchman, made an attempt to 
capture the British garrison of Detroit by leading au expedition 
against it from Kaskaskia. At the head of 30 men he marched to 
Vineennes, where his force was slightly increased. From this 
place he proceeded to the British trading post at the head of the 
Maumee, where Fort Wayne now stands, plundered the British 
traders and Indians and then retired. While encampeu on the 
bank of a small stream on his retreat, he was attacked bv a band 
of Miamis, a number of his men were killed, and his expedition 
against Detroit was ruined. 

In this manner border war continued between Americans and 
their enemies, with varying victory, until 1783, when the treaty of 
Paris was concluded, resulting in the establishment of the inde- 
pendence of the United States. Up to this time the territory now 
included in Indiana belonged by conquest to the State of Virginia; 
but in January, 1783, the General Assembly of that State resolved 
to cede to the Congress of the United States all the territory north- 
west of the Ohio. The conditions offered by Virginia were 
accepted by Congress Dec. 20, that year, and early in 1784 the 
transfer was completed. In 1783 Virginia had platted the town of 
Clarksville, at the falls of the Ohio. The deed of cession provided 
that the territory should be laid out into States, containing a suita- 
ble extent of territory not less than 100 nor more than 150 miles 
square, or as ne..r thereto as circumstances would pernit; and that 
the States so formed shall be distinct Republican States and 
admitted members of the Federal Union, having the same rights of 
eovereignty, freedom and independence as the other States. The 
other conditions of the deed were as follows: That the necessary 
and reasonable expenses incurred by Virginia in subduing any 
British posts, or in maintaining forts and garrisons within and for 
the defense, or in acquiring any part of the territory so ceded or 
relinquished, shall be fully reimbursed by the United States; that 
the French and Canadian inhabitants and other settlers of the Kas- 


kaskia, Post Vincennes and the neighboring villages who have pro- 
fessed themselves citizens of Virginia, shall have their titles and 
possessions confirmed to them, and be protected in the enjoyment 
of their rights and privileges; that a quantity not exceeding 150,- 
000 acres of land, promised by Virginia, shall be allowed and 
granted to the then Colonel, now General, George Rogers Clark, 
and to the officers and soldiers of his regiment, who marched with 
him when the posts and of Kaskask^ia and Vincennes were reduced, 
and to the officers and soldiers that have been since incorporated 
into the said regiment, to be laid off in one tract, the length of 
which not to exceed double the breadth, in such a place on the 
northwest side of the Ohio as a majority of the officers shall 
choose, and to be afterward divided among the officers and soldiers 
in due proportion according to the laws of Virginia; that in case 
the quantity of good lands on the southeast side of the Ohio, upon 
the waters of Cumberland river, and between Green river and Ten. 
nessee river, which have been reserved by law for the Virginia 
troops upon Continental establishment, should, from the North 
Carolina line, bearing in further upon the Cumberland lands than 
was expected, prove insufficient for their legal bounties, the defi- 
ciency shall be made up to the said troops in good lands to be laid 
off between the rivers Scioto and Little Miami, on the northwest 
side of the river Ohio, in such proportions as have been engaged 
to them by the laws of Virginia; that all the lands within the ter- 
ritory so ceded to the United States, and not reserved for or appro- 
priated to any of the before-mentioned purposes, or disposed of in 
bounties to the officers and soldiers of the American army, shall be 
considered as a common fund for the use and benefit of such of the 
United States as have become, or shall become, members of the 
confederation or federal alliance of the said States, Virginia included, 
according to their usual respective proportions in the general 
charge and expenditure, and shall be faithfully and bona fide dis- 
posed of for that purpose and for no other use or purpose whatever. 
After the above deed of cession had been accepted by Congress, 
in the spring of 1784, the matter of the future government of the 
territory was referred to a committee consisting of Messrs. Jeffer- 
son of Virginia, Chase of Maryland and Howell of Rhode Island, 
which committee reported an ordinance for its government, provid- 
ing, among other things, that slavery should not exist in said terri- 
tory after 1800, except as punishment of criminals; but this article 
of the ordinance was rejected, and an ordinance for the temporary 


government of the county was adopted. In 1785 laws were passed 
by Congress for the disposition of lands in the territory and pro- 
hibiting the settlement of unappropriated lands by reckless specu- 
lators. But human passion is ever strong enough to evade the law 
to some extent, and large associations, representing considerable 
means, were formed for the purpose of monopolizing the land busi- 
ness. Millions of acres were sold at one time by Congress to asso- 
ciations on the installment plan, and so far as the Indian titles 
could be extinguished, the work of settling and improving the 
lands was pushed rapidly forward. 


This ordinance has a marvelous and interesting history. Con- 
siderable controversy has been indulged in as to who is entitled to 
the credit for framing it. This belongs, undoubtedly, to Nathan 
Dane; and to RnfuB King and Timothy Pickering belong the 
credit for suggesting the proviso contained in it against slavery, 
and also for aids to religion and knowledge, and for assuring for- 
ever the common use, without charge, of the great national high- 
ways of the Mississippi, the St. Lawrence and their tributaries to 
all the citizens of the United States. To Thomas Jefferson is also 
due much credit, as some features of this ordinance were embraced 
in his ordinance of 1784. But the part taken by each in the long, 
laborious and eventful struggle which had so glorous a consum- 
mation in the ordinance, consecrating forever, by one imprescript- 
ible and unchangeable monument, the very heart of our country to 
Freedom, Knowledge, and Union, will forever honor the names of 
those illustrious statesmen. 

Mr. Jefferson had vainly tried to secure a system of government 
for the Northwestern territory. He was an emancipationist and 
favored the exclusion of slavery from the territory, but the South 
voted him down every time he proposed a measure of this nature. 
In 1787, as late as July 10, an organizing act without the anti- 
slavery clause was pending. This concession to the South was 
expected to carry it. Congress was in session in New York. On 
July 5, Rev. Manasseh Cutler, of Massachusetts, came into New 
York to lobby on the Northwestern territory. Everything seemed 
to fall into his hands. Events were ripe. The state of the public 
credit, the growing of Southern prejudice, the basis of his mission, 
his personal character, all combined to complete one of those sudden 


and marvelous revolutions of public sentiment that once in five or 
ten centuries are seen to sweep over a country like the breath of the 

Cutler was a graduate of Y ale. He had stui' jO and taken de- 
grees in the three learned professions, medicine, law, and divinity. 
lie had published a scientific examination of the plants of New 
England. As a scientist in America his name stood second only to 
that of Franklin. He was a courtly gentleman of the old style, a 
man of commanding presence and of inviting face. The Southern 
members said they had never seen such a gentleman '- *he North. 
He came representing a Massachusetts company that de&ired to 
purchase a tract of land, now included in Ohio, for the purpose of 
planting a colony. It was a speculation. Government money was 
worth eighteen cents on the dollar. This company had collected 
enough to purchase 1,500,000 acres of land. Other speculators in 
New York made Dr. Cutler their agent, which enabled him to 
represent a demand for 5,500,000 acres. As this would reduce the 
national debt, and Jefferson's policy was to provide for the public 
credit, it presented a good opportunity to do something. 

Massachusetts then owned the territory of Maine, which she was 
crowding on the market. She was opposed to opening the North- 
western region. This fired the zeal of Virginia. The South caught 
the inspiration, and all exalted Dr. Cutler. The entire South ral- 
lied around him. Massachusetts could not vote against him, be- 
cause many of the constuitents of her members were interested 
personally in the Western speculation. Thns Cutler, making 
friends in the South, and doubtless using all the arts of the lobby, 
was enabled to command the situation. True to deeper convic- 
tions, he dictated one of the most compact and finished documents 
of wise statesmanship that has ever adorned any human law book. 
He borrowed from Jefferson the term "Articles of Compact," which, 
preceding the federal constitution, rose into the most sacred char- 
acter. He then followed very closely the constitution of Massa 
chusetts, adoDted three years before. Its most prominent points 

1. The exclusion of slavery from the territory forever. 

2. Provision for public schools, giving one township for a semi- 
nary and every section numbered 16 in each township; that is, one 
thirty-sixth of all the land for public schools. 

3. A provision prohibiting the adoption of any constitution or 
the enactment of any law that should nullify pre-existinc contractu. 


Be it forever remembered that this compact declared that " re- 
ligion, morality, and knowledge being necessary to good govern- 
ment and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of edu- 
cation shall always be encouraged. - ' Dr. Cutler planted himself 
on this platform and would not yield. Giving his unqualified dec- 
laration that it was that or -nothing, — that unless they could make 
the land desirable they did not want it, — he took his horse and buggy 
and started for the constitutional convention at Philadelphia. On 
July 13, 1787, the bill was put upon its passage, and was unani- 
mously adopted. Thus the great States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Michigan and "Wisconsin, a vast empire, were consecrated to free 
dom, intelligence, and morality. Thus the great heart of the nation 
was prepared to save the union of States, for it was this act that was 
the salvation of the republic and the destruction of slavery. Soon 
the South saw their great blunder and tried to have the compact 
repealed. In 1803 Congress referred it to a committee, of which 
John Randolph was chairman. He reported that this ordinance 
was a compact and opposed repeal. Thus it stood, a rock in the 
way of the on-rushing sea of slavery. 

The " Northwestern Territory " included of course what is now 
the State of Indiana; and Oct 5, 1787, Maj. Gen. Arthur St. Clair 
was elected by Congress Governor of this territory. Upon 
commencing the duties of his office he was instructed to ascertain 
the real temper of the Indians and do all in his power to remove 
the causes for controversy between them and the United States, 
and to effect the extinguishment of Indian titles to all the land 
possible. The Governor took up quarters in the new settlement of 
Marietta, Ohio, where he immediately began the organization of 
the government of the territory. The first session of the General 
Court of the new territory was held at that place in 17S8, the 
Judges being Samuel II. Parsons, James M. Varnuin and John C. 
Symmes, but under the ordinance Gov. St. Clair was President of 
the Court. After the first session, and after the necessary laws for 
government were adopted, Gov. St. Clair, accompanied by the 
Judges, visited Kaskaskia for the purpose of organizing a civil gov- 
ernment there. Full instructions had been sent to Maj. Ilamtramck, 
commandant at Yincennes, to ascertain the exact feeling and temper 
of the Indian tribes of the Wabash. These instructions were ac- 
companied by speeches to each of the tribes. A Frenchman named 
Antoine Gamelin was dispatched with these messages April 5, 1790, 
who visited nearly all the tribes on the Wabash, St. Joseph and St. 


Mary's rivers, hut was coldly received; most of the chiefs being 
dissatisfied with the policy of the Americans toward them, and 
prejudiced through English misrepresentation. Full accounts o: 
his adventures among the tribes reached Gov. St. Clair at Kaskas- 
kia in June, 1790. Being satisfied that there was no prospect of 
effecting a general peace with the Indians of Indiana, he resolved 
to visit Gen. Harmar at his headquarters at Port Washington and 
consult with him on the means of carrying an expedition against 
the hostile Indians; but before leaving he intrusted Winthrop 
Sargent, the Secretary of the Territory, with the execution of the 
resolutions of Congress regarding the lands and settlers on the 
Wabash. He directed that officer to proceed to Vincennes, lay 
out a county there, establish the militia and appoint the necessary 
civil and military officers. Accordingly Mr. Sargent went to Vin- 
cennes and organized Camp Knox, appointed the officers, and noti- 
fied the inhabitants to present their claims to lands. In establish- 
ing these claims the settlers found great difficulty, and concerning 
this matter the Secretary in his report to the President wrote as 

" Although the lands and lots which were awarded to the inhabi- 
tants appeared from very good oral testimony to belong to those 
persons to whom they were awarded, either by original grants, pur- 
chase or inheritance, yet there was scarcely one case in twenty 
where the title was complete, owing to the desultory manner in 
which public business had been transacted and some other unfor- 
tunate causes. The original concessions by the French and British 
commandants were generally made upon a small scrap of paper, 
which it has been customary to lodge in the notary's office, who 
has seldom kept any book of record, but committed the most im- 
portant land concerns to loose sheets, which in process of time 
have come into possession of persons that have fraudulently de- 
stroyed them; or, unacquainted with their consequence, innocently 
lost or trifled them away. By French usage they are considered 
family inheritances, and often descend to women and children. In 
one instance, and during the government of St. Auge here, a royal 
notary ran off with all the public papers in his possession, as by a 
certificate produced to me. And I am very sorry further to observe 
that in the office of Mr. Le Grand, which continued from 1777 to 
1787, and where should have been the vouchers for important land 
transactions, the records have been so falsified, and there is such 
gross fraud and forgery, as to invalidate all evidence and informa- 
tion which I might have otherwise acquired from his papers." 


Mr. Sargent says there were about 150 French families at Vin- 
cennes in 1790. The heads of all these families had been at some 
time vested with certain titles to a portion of the soil ; and while 
the Secretary was bnsy in straightening oat these claims, he re- 
ceived a petition signed by 80 Americans, asking for the confirma- 
tion of grants of land ceded by the Conrt organized by Col. John 
Todd nnder the authority of Virginia. With reference to this 
cause, Congress, March 3, 1791, empowered the Territorial Governor, 
in cases where land had been actually improved and cultivated 
under a supposed grant for the same, to confirm to the persons who 
made such improvements the lands supposed to have been granted, 
not, however, exceeding the quantity of 400 acres to any one per- 


The General Court in the summer of 1790, Acting Governor 
Sargent presiding, passed the following laws with reference to 
vending liquor among the Indians and others, and with reference 
to games of chance: 

1. An act to prohibit the giving or selling intoxicating liquors 
to Indians residing in or coming into the Territory of the United 
States northwest of the river Ohio, and for preventing foreigners 
from trading with Indians therein. 

2. An act prohibiting the sale of spirituous or other intoxicat- 
ing liquors to soldiers in the service of the United States, being 
within ten miles of any military post in the territory; and to pre- 
vent the selling or pawning of arms, ammunition, clothing or 

3. An act prohibiting every species of gaming for money or 
property, and for making void contracts and payments made in 
consequence thereof, and for restraining the disorderly practice 
of discharging arms at certain hours and places. 

Winthrop Sargent's administration was highly eulogized by the 
citizens at Vincennes, in a testimonial drawn up and signed by a 
committee of officers. He had conducted the investigation and 
settlement of land claims to the entire satisfaction of the residents, 
had upheld the principles of free government in keeping with the 
animus of the American Revolution, and had established in good 
order the machinery of a good and wise government. In the same 
address Major Hamtramck also received a fair share of praise for 
his judicious management of affairs. 



Gov. St. Clair, on his arrival at Fort Washington from Kas- 
iaskia, had a long conversation with Gen. Harrnar, and concluded 
to send a powerful force to chastise the savages about the head- 
waters of the Wabash. He had been empowered by the President 
to call on Virginia for 1,000 troops and on Pennsylvania for 500, 
and he immediately availed himself of this resource, ordering 300 
of the Virginia militia to muster at Fort Steuben and march with 
the garrison of that fort to Vincennes, and join Maj. Hamtramck, 
who had orders to call for aid from the militia of Vincennes, march 
up the Wabash, and attack any of the Indian villages which he 
might think he could overcome. The remaining 1,200 of the mi- 
litia were ordered to rendezvous at Fort Washington, and to join 
the regular troops at that post under command of Gen. Harmar. 
At this time the United States troops in the West were estimated 
by Gen. Harmar at 400 effective men. These, with the militia, 
gave him a force of 1,450 men. With this army Gen. Harmar 
marched from Fort Washington Sept. 30, and arrived at the Mau- 
mee Oct. 17. They commenced the work of punishing the Indians, 
but were not very successful. The savages, it is true, received a 
severe scourging, but the militia behaved so badly as to be of little 
or no service. A detachment of 340 militia and 60 regulars, under 
the command of Col. Hardin, were sorely defeated on the Maumee 
Oct. 22. The next day the army took up the line of march for 
Fort Washington, which place they reached Nov. 4, having lost in 
the expedition 183 killed and 31 wounded; the Indians lost about 
as many. During the progress of this expedition Maj. Hamtramck 
marched up the Wabash from Vincennes, as far as the Vermillion 
river, and destroyed several deserted villages, but without finding 
an enemy to oppose him. 

Although the savages seem to have been severely punished by 
these expeditions, yet they refused to sue for peace, and continued 
their hostilities. Thereupon the inhabitants of the frontier settle- 
ments of Virginia took alarm, and the delegates of Ohio, Monon- 


gahela, Harrison, Randolph, Greenbrier, Kanawha and Monl 
gomery counties sent a joint memorial to the Governor of Vir 
ginia, saying that the defenseless condition of the counties, form 
ing a line of nearly 400 miles along the Ohio river, exposed to tht 
hostile invasion of their Indian enemies, destitute of every kind ol 
support, was truly alarming; for, notwithstanding all the regula- 
tions of the General Government in that country, they have reason 
to lament that they have been up to that time ineffectual for their 
protection ; nor indeed could it be otherwise, for the garrisons kept 
by the Continental troops on the Ohio river, if of any use at all, 
must protect only the Kentucky settlements, as they immediately 
covered that country. They further stated in their memorial: "We 
beg leave to observe that we have reason to fear that the conse- 
quences of the defeat of our army by the Indians in the late expe- 
dition will be severely felt on our frontiers, as there is no doubt 
that the Indians will, in their turn, being flushed with victory, in- 
vade our settlements and exercise all their horrid murder upon the 
inhabitants thereof whenever the weather will permit them to 
travel. Then is it not better to support us where we are, be the ex- 
pense what it may, than to oblige such a number of your brave 
citizens, who have so long supported, and still continue to support, 
a dangerous frontier (although thousands of their relatives in the 
flesh have in the prosecution thereof fallen a sacrifice to savage in- 
ventions) to quit the country, after all they have done and suffered, 
when you know that a frontier must be supported somewhere?" 

This memorial .caused the Legislature of Virginia to authorize 
the Governor of that State to make any defensive operations neces- 
sary for the temporary defense of the frontiers, until the general 
Government could adopt and carry out measures to suppress the 
hostile Indians. The Governor at once called upon the military 
commanding officers in the western counties of Virginia to raise by 
the first of March, 1791, several small companies of rangers for this 
purpose. At the same time Charles Scott was appointed Brigadier- 
General of the Kentucky militia, with authority to raise 226 vol- 
unteers, to protect the most exposed portions of that district. A 
full report of the proceedings of the Virginia Legislature being 
transmitted to Congress, that body constituted a local Board of 
War for the district of Kentucky, consisting of five men. March 9, 
1791, Gen. Henry Knox, Secretary of War, sent a letter of instruc- 
tions to Gen. Scott, recommending an expedition of mounted men 
not exceeding 750, against the Wea towns on the Wabash. With 


this force Gen. Scott accordingly crossed the Ohio, May 23, 1791, 
and reached the Wabash in about ten days. Many of the Indians, 
having discovered his approach, fled, but he succeeded in destroy- 
ing all the villages around Ouiatenon, together with several Kick- 
apoo towns, killing 32 warriors and taking 58 prisoners. He 
released a few of the most infirm prisoners, giving them a " talk," 
which they carried to the towns farther up the Wabash, and which 
the wretched condition of his horses prevented him from reaching. 

March 3, 1791, Congress provided for raising and equipping a 
regiment for the protection of the frontiers, and Gov. St. Clair was 
invested with the chief command of about 3,000 troops, to be raised 
and employed against the hostile Indians in the territory over 
which his jurisdiction extended. He was instructed by the Secre- 
tary of War to march to the Miami village and establish a strong 
and permanent military post there; also such posts elsewhere along 
the Ohio as would be in communication with Fort Washington. 
The post at Miami village was intended to keep the savages in that 
vicinity in check, and was ordered to be strong enough in its gar- 
rison to afford a detachment of 500 or 600 men in case of emer- 
gency, either to chastise any of the Wabash or other hostile Indians 
or capture convoys of the enemy's provisions. The Secretary of 
War also urged Gov. St. Clair to establish that post as the first and 
most important part of the campaign. In case of a previous 
treaty the Indians were to be conciliated upon this point if possible; 
and he presumed good arguments might be offered to induce their 
acquiescence. Said he: "Having commenced your march upon the 
main expedition, and the Indians continuing hostile, you will use 
every possible exertion to make them feel the effects of your superi- 
ority; and, after having arrived at the Miami village and put your 
works in a defensible state, you will seek the enemy with the whole 
of your remaining force, and endaavor by all possible means to 
strike them with great severity. * * * * 

In order to avoid future wars, it might be proper to make the Wa- 
bash and thence over to the Maumee, and down the same to its 
mouth, at Lake Erie, the boundary between the people of the 
United States and the Indians (excepting so far as the same should 
relate to the Wyandots and Delawares), on the supposition of their 
continuing faithful to the treaties; but if they should join ,in the 
war against the United States, and your army be victorious, the 
said tribes ought to be removed without the boundary mentioned." 

Previous to marching a strong force to the Miami town, Gov. St. 


Clair, June 25, 1791, authorized Gen Wilkinson to conduct a second 
expedition, not exceeding 500 mounted men, against the Indian 
villages on the Wabash. Accordingly Gen. Wilkinson mustered 
his forces and was ready July 20, to march with 525 mounted vol- 
unteers, well armed, and provided with 30 days' provisions, and 
with this force he reached the Ke-na-pa-com-a-qua village on the 
north bank of Eel river ..bout six miles above its mouth, Aug. 7, 
where he killed six warriors and took 34 prisoners. This town, 
which was scattered along the river for three miles, was totally de- 
stroyed. Wilkinson encamped on the ruins of the town that night, 
and the next day he commenced his march for the Kickapoo town 
on the prairie, which he was unable to reach owing to the impassa- 
ble condition of the route which he adopted and the failing condi- 
tion of his horses. He reported the estimated results of the expe- 
dition as follows: "I have destroyed the chief town of the Ouiate- 
non nation, and have made prisoners of the sons and sisters of the 
king. I have burned a respectable Kickapoo village, and cut down 
at least 400 acres of corn, chiefly in the milk." 


The Indians were greatly damaged by the expeditions of Harmar, 
Scott and Wilkinson, but were far from being 6ubdued. They 
regarded the policy of the United States as calculated to extermi- 
nate them from the land; and, goaded on by the English of Detroit, 
enemies of the Americans, they were excited to desperation. At 
this time the British Government still supported garrisons at 
Niagara, Detroit and Michilimackinac, although it was declared by 
the second article of the definitive treaty of peace of 1783, that 
the king of Great Britain would, " with all convenient speed, and 
without causing any destruction or carrying away any negroes or 
property of the American inhabitants, withdraw all his forces, 
garrisons and fleets from the United States, and from every post, 
place and harbor within the same." That treaty also provided that 
the creditors on either side should meet with no lawful impedi- 
ments to the recovery of the full value, in sterling money of all 
bona fide debts previously contracted. The British Government 
claimed that the United States had broken faith in this particular 
understanding of the treaty, and in consequence refused to with- 
draw its forces from the territory. The British garrisons in the 
Lake Region were a source of much annoyance to the Americans, 
as they afforded anefcor u> iiostile Indians, encouraging them to 


make raids among the Americans. This state of affairs in the 
Territory Northwest of the Ohio continued from the commence- 
ment of the Revolutionary war to 1796, when nnder a second 
treaty all British soldiers were withdrawn from the country. 

In September, 1791, St. Clair moved from Fort "Washington 
with about 2,000 men, and November 3, the main army, consisting 
of about 1,400 effective troops, moved forward to the head- waters 
of the Wabash, where Fort Recovery was afterward erected, and 
here tbe army encamped. About 1,200 Indians were secreted a few- 
miles distant, awaiting a favorable opportunity to begin an attack, 
which they improved on the morning of Nov. i, about half an hour 
before sunrise. The attack was first made upon the militia, which 
immediately gave way. St. Clair was defeated and he returned to 
Fort Washington with a broken and dispirited army, having lost 
39 officers killed, and 539 men killed and missing; 22 officers and 
232 men were wounded. Several pieces of artillery, and all the 
baggage, ammunition and provisions were left on the field of bat- 
tle and fell into the hands of the victorious Indians. The stores 
and other public property lost in tbe action were valued at $32,800. 
There were also 100 or more American women with the army of 
the whites, very few of whom escaped the cruel carnage of the sav- 
age Indians. The latter, characteristic of their brntal nature, 
proceeded in the flush of victory to perpetrate the most horrible 
acts of cruelty and brutality upon the bodies of the living and the 
dead Americans who fell into their hands. Believing that the 
whites had made war for many years merely to acquire land, the 
Indians crammed clay and sand into the eyes and down the throats 
of the dying and the dead! 

gen. watne's great victory. 

Although no particular blame was attached to Gov. St. Clair for 
the loss in this expedition, yet he resigned the office of Major-Gen- 
eral, and was succeeded by Anthony Wayne, a distinguished 
officer of the Revolutionary war. Early in 1792 provisions were 
made by the general Government for re-organizing the army, so 
that it should consist of an efficient degree of strength. Wayne 
arrived at Pittsburg in June, where the army was to rendezvous. 
Here he continued actively engaged in organizing and training hi« 
forces until October, 1793, when with an army of about 3,600 men 
he moved westward to Fort Washington. 

While Wayne was preparing for an offensive campaign, every 


possible means was employed to induce the hostile tribes of the 
Northwest to enter into a general treaty of peace with the Ameri- 
can Government; speeches were sent among them, and agents to 
make treaties were also, but little was accomplished. Major 
Hamtramck, who still remained at Vincennes, succeeded in con- 
cluding a general peace with ihe Wabash and Illinois Indians; but 
the tribes more immediately under the influence of the British 
refused to hear the sentiments of friendship that were sent among 
them, and tomahawked several of the messengers. Their courage 
had been aroused by St. Clrir's defeat, as well as by the unsuccess- 
ful expeditions which had preceded it, and they now felt quite pre- 
pared to meet a superior force under Gen. "Wayne. The Indians 
insisted on the Ohio river as the boundary line between their lands 
and the lands of the United States, and felt certain that they could 
maintain that boundary. 

Maj. Gen. Scott, with about 1,600 mounted volunteers from 
Kentucky, joined the regular troops under Gen. Wayne July 26, 
1794, and on the 28th the united forces began their march for the 
Indian towns on the Maumee river. Arriving at the mouth of 
the Auglaize, they erected Fort Defiance, and Aug. 15 the army 
advanced toward the British fort at the foot of the rapids of the 
Maumee, where, on the 20th, almost within reach of the British, 
the American army gained a decisive victory over the combined 
forces of the hostile Indians and a considerable number of the 
Detroit militia. The number of the enemy was estimated at 2,000, 
against about 900 American troops actually engaged. This horde 
of savages, as soon as the action began, abandoned themselves to 
flight and dispersed with terror and dismay, leaving Wayne's vic- 
torious army in full and quiet possession of the field. The Ameri- 
cans lost 33 killed and 100 wounded; loss of the enemy more than 
double this number. 

The army remained three days and nights on the banks of the 
Maumee, in front of the field of battle, during which time all the 
houses and cornfields were consumed and destroyed for a considera- 
ble distance both above and below Fort Miami, as well as within 
pistol shot of the British garrison, who were compelled to remain 
idle spectators to this general devastation and conflagration, among 
which were the houses, stores and property of Col. McKee, the 
British Indian agent and " principal stimulator of the war then 
existing between the United States and savages." On the return 
march to Fort Defiance the villages and cornfields for about 50 


miles on each side of the Maumee were destroyed, as well as those 
for a considerable distance around that post. 

Sept. 14, 1794, the army under Gen. Wayne commenced its 
march toward the deserted Miami villages at the confluence of St. 
Joseph's and St. Mary's rivers, arriving Oct. 17, and on the follow- 
ing day the site of Fort Wayne was selected. The fort was com- 
pleted Nov. 22, and garrisoned by a strong detachment of infantry 
and artillery, under the command of Col. John F. Hamtramck, who 
gave to the new fort the name of Fort Wayne. In lS14a new fort 
was built on the site of this structure. The Kentucky volunteers 
returned to Fort Washington and were mustered out of service. 
Gen. Wayne, with the Federal troops, marched to Greenville and 
took up his headquarters during the winter. Here, in August, 
1795, after several months of active negotiation, this gallant officer 
succeeded in concluding a general treaty of peace with all the hos- 
tile tribes of the Northwestern Territory. This treaty opened the 
way for the flood of immigration for many years, and ultimately 
made the States and territories now constituting the mighty North- 

Up to the organization of the Indiana Territory there is but little 
history to record aside from those events connected with military 
affairs. In July, 1796, as before stated, after a treaty was con- 
cluded between the United States and Spain, the British garrisonB, 
with their arms, artillery and stores, were withdrawn from the 
posts within the boundaries of the United States northwest of the 
Ohio river, and a detachment of American troops, consisting of 65 
men, under the command of Capt. Moses Porter, took possession 
of the evacuated post of Detroit in the same month. 

In the latter part of 1796 Winthrop Sargent went to Detroit and 
organized the county of Wayne, forming a part of the Indiana 
Territory until its division ia 1S05, when the Territory of Michigan 
was organized. 



On the final success of American arms and diplomacy in 1796, 
the principal town within the Territory, now the State, of Indiana 
was Vincennes, which at this time comprised about 50 houses, all 
presenting a thrifty and tidy appearance. Each house was sur- 
rounded by a garden fenced with poles, and peach and apple-trees 
grew in most of the enclosures. Garden vegetables of all kinds 
were cultivated with success, and corn, tobacco, wheat, barley and 
cotton grew in the fields around the village in abundance. During 
the last few years of the 18th century the condition of society at 
Vincennes improved wonderfully. 

Besides Vincennes there was a small settlement near where the 
town of Lawrenceburg now stands, in Dearborn county, and in the 
course of that year a small settlement was formed at " Armstrong's 
Station," on the Ohio, within the present limits of Clark county. 
There were of course several other smaller settlements and trading 
posts in the present limits of Indiana, and the number of civilized 
inhabitants comprised within the territory was estimated at 4,875. 

The Territory of Indiana was organized by Act of Congress May 
7, 1800, the material parts of the ordinance of 1787 remaining in 
force; and the inhabitants were invested with all the rights, privi- 
leges and advantages granted and secured to the people by that 
ordinance. The seat of government was fixed at Vincennes. May 
13, 1800, Win. Henry Harrison, a native ot Virginia, was appoint- 
ed Governor of this new territory, and on the next day John (Jib- 
son, a native of Pennsylvania and a distinguished Western pioneer, 
(to whom the Indian chief Logan delivered his celebrated speech in 
1774), was appointed Secretary of the Territory. Soon afterward 
Win. (Mark. Henry Vanderburgh and John Griffin were appointed 
territorial Jud 

Secretary Gibson arrived at Vincennes in July, and commenced, 
in the absence oi Gov. Harrison, the administration of government. 
Gov. Harrison did not arrive until Jan. 10, 1801, when he imme- 
diately called togi ther the Jud .■>■- of the Territory, who pro© eded 


to pass such laws as they deemed necessary for the present govern- 
ment of the Territory. This session began March 3, 1801. 

From this time to ISlOthe principal subjects which attracted the 
attention of the people of Indiana were land speculations, the 
adjustment of land titles, the question of negro slaver}', the purchase 
of Indian lands by treaties, the organization of Territorial legis- 
latures, the extension of the right of suffrage, the division of 
Indiana Territory, the movements of Aaron Burr, and the hostile 
views and proceedings of the Shawanee chief, Tecumseh, and his 
brother, the Prophet. 

Up to this time the sixth article of the celebrated ordinance of 
1787, prohibiting slavery in the Northwestern Territory, had been 
somewhat neglected in the execution of the law, and many French 
settlers still held slaves in a manner. In some instances, according 
to "rules prescribed by Territorial legislation, slaves agreed by 
indentures to remain in servitude under their masters for a certain 
number of years; but many slaves, with whom no such contracts 
were made, were removed from the Indiana Territory either to the 
west of the Mississippi or to some of the slaveholding States. 
Gov. Harrison convoked a session of delegates of the Territory, 
elected by a popular vote, who petitioned Congress to declare the 
6ixth article of the ordinance of 1787, prohibiting slavery, suspend- 
ed; but Congress never consented to grant that petition, and many 
other petitions of a similar import. Soon afterward some of the 
citizens began to take colored persons out of the Territory for the 
purpose of selling them, and Gov. Harrison, by a proclamation 
April 6, 1804, forbade it, and called upon the authorities of the 
Territory to assist him in preventing such removal of persons 
of color. 

During the year 1804 all the country west of the Mississippi and 
north of 33° was attached to Indiana Territory by Congress, but in 
a few months was again detached and organized into a separate ter- 
ritory . 

When it appeared from the result of a popular vote in the Terri- 
tory that a majority of 138 freeholders were in favor of organizing 
a General Assembly, Gov. Harrison, Sept. 11, ls<>4, issued a procla- 
mation declaring that the Territory had passed into the second grade 
of government, as eontem] Lted by the ordinance of 17s7. and 
fixed Thursday, -Jan. 3, L805, as the time for holding an election in 
the several counties of the Territory,to chooei members of a Hon se 
of Representatives, who should ineel . Vincennes Feb. 1 aid 


adopt measures for the organization of a Territorial Council. These 
delegates were elected, and met according to the proclamation, and 
selected ten men from whom the President of the United States, 
Mr. Jefferson, should appoint five to be and constitute the Legisla- 
tive Council of the Territory, but he declining, requested Mr. Har- 
rison to make the selection, which was accordingly done. Before 
the first session of this Council, however, was held, Michigan Ter- 
ritory was set off, its 6onth line being one drawn from the southern 
end of Lake Michigan directly east to Lake Erie. 


The first General Assembly, or Legislature, of Indiana Territory 
met at Vincennes July 29, 1805, in pursuance of a gubernatorial 
proclamation. The members of the House of Representatives were 
Jesse B. Thomas, of Dearborn county ; Davis Floyd, of Clark county; 
Benjamin Parke and John Johnson, of Knox county; Shadrach 
Bond and William Biggs, of St. Clair county, and George Fisher, 
of Randolph county. July 30 the Governor delivered his first mes- 
sage to "the Legislative Council and House of Representatives of 
the Indiana Territory." Benjamin Parke was the first delegate 
elected to Congress. He had emigrated from New Jersey to In- 
diana in 1801. 


was the first newspaper published in the Indiana Territory, now 
comprising the four great States of Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and 
Wisconsin, and the second in all that country once known as the 
"Northwestern Territory." It was commenced at Vincennes in 
1803, by Elihn Stout, of Kentucky, and first called the Indiana 
Gazette, and July, 4, 1804, was changed to the Western Sun. Mr. 
Stout continued the paper until 1845, amid many discouragements, 
when he was appointed postmaster at the place, and he sold out 
the office. 

INDIANA in 1810. 

The events which we have just been describing really constitute 
the initiatory steps to the great military campaign of Gen. Harrison 
which ended in the "battle of Tippecanoe;" but before proceeding 
to an account of that brilliant affair, let us take a glance at the re- 
sources and strength of Indiana Territory at this time, 1810: 

Total population, 24,520; 33 grist mills: 14 saw mills; 3 horse 
mills; 18 tanneries; 28 distilleries; 3 powder mills; 1,256 looms; 


1,350 spinning wheels; value of manufactures — woolen, cotton 
hempen ami flaxen cloths, $159,052; of cotton and woo! spun in 
mills, $150,000; of nails, 30,000 pounds, $4,000; of leather tanned, 
$9,300; of distillery products, 35,950 gallons, $16,230; of gun- 
powder, 3,600 ponnds, $1,800; of wine from grapes, 9b' barrels, 
$0,000, and 5 0,000 pounds of maple sugar. 

During the year 1810 a Board of Commissioners was established 
to straighten out the confused condition into which the land- title 
controversy had been carried by the various and conflicting admin- 
istrations that had previously exercised jurisdiction in this regard. 
This work was attended with much labor on the part of the Commis- 
sioners and great dissatisfaction on the part of a few designing specu- 
lators, who thought no extreme of perjury too hazardous in their 
mad attempts to obtain lands fraudulently. In closing their report 
the Commissioners used the following expressive language: "We 
close this melancholy picture of human depravity by rendering our 
devout acknowledgment that, in tbe awful alternative in which we 
have been placed, of either admitting perjured testimony in sup- 
port of the claims before us, or having it turned against our char- 
acters and lives, it has as yet pleased that divine providence which 
rules over the affairs of men, to preserve us, both from legal mur- 
der and private assassination." 

The question of dividing the Territory of Indiana was agitated 
from 1806 to 1809, when Congress erected the Territory of Illinois, 
to comprise all that part of Indiana Territory lying west of the 
Wabash river and a direct line drawn from that river and Post 
Vincennes due north to the territorial line between the United 
States and Canada. This occasioned some confusion in the govern- 
ment of Indiana, but in due time the new elections were confirmed, 
and the new territory started oft' on a journey of prosperity which 
this section of the United States has ever since enjoyed. 

From the first settlement of Vincennes for nearly half a century 
there occurred nothing of importance to relate, at least so far as 
the records inform us. The place was too isolated to grow very 
fast, and we suppose there was a succession of priests and com- 
mandants, who governed the little world around them with almost 
infinite power and authority, from whose decisions there was no 
appeal, if indeed any was ever desired. The character of society 
in such a place would of course grow gradually different from the 
parent society, assimilating more or less with that of neighboring 
tribes. The whites lived in peace with the Indians, each under- 


standing the other's peculiarities, which remained fixed long 
enough lor both parties to study out and understand them. The 
government was a mixture of the military and the civil. There 
was little to incite o enterprise. Speculations in money and prop- 
erty, and their counterpart, beggary, were both unknown; the nec- 
essaries of life were easily procured, and beyond these there were 
but few wants to be supplied; hospitality was exercised by all, as 
there were no taverns; there seemed to be no use for law, judges 
or prisons; each district had its commandant, and the proceedings 
of a trial were singular. The complaining party obtained a notifi- 
cation from the commandant to his adversary, accompanied by a 
command to render jnslice. If this had no effect he was notified 
to appear before the commandant on a particular day and answer; 
and if the last notice was neglected, a sergeant and file of men 
were sent to bring him, — no sheriff and no costs. The convicted 
party would be fined and kept in prison until he rendered j 
according to the decree; when extremely refractory the cat-o'-nine- 
tails brought him to a sense of justice. In such a state of society 
there was no demand for learning and science. Few could read, 
and still fewer write. Their disposition was nearly always to deal 
honestly, at least simply. Peltries were their standard of value. 
A brotherly love generally prevailed. But they were devoid of 
public spirit, enterprise or ingenuity. 


Immediately after the organization of Indiana Territory Governor 
Harrison's attention was directed, by necessity as well as by in- 
structions from Congress, to settling affairs with those Indians who 
still held claims to lands. He entered into several treaties, by 
which at the close of 1805 the United States Government had ob- 
tained about 40,000 square miles of territory, including all the 
lands lying on the borders of the Ohio river between the mouth of 
the Wabash river and the State of Ohio. 

The levying of a tax, especially a poll tax, by the General Assem- 
bly, created considerable dissatisfaction among many of the inhabit- 
ants. At a meeting held Sunday, August 16, 1807, a number of 
Frenchmen resolved to " withdraw their confidence and support 
forever from those men who advocated or in any manner promoted 
the second grade of government." 

In 1S07 the territorial statutes were revised and under the uew 
code, treason, murder, arson and horse-stealing were each punish- 
able by death. The crime of manslaughter was punishable by the 
common law. Burglary and robbery were punishable by whip- 
ping, fine and in some cases by imprisonment not exceeding forty 
years. Hog stealing was punishable b}' fine and whipping. Bigamy 
was punishable by fine, whipping and disfranchisement, etc. 

In 1804 Congress established three land offices for the sale of 
lands in Indiana territory; one was located at Detroit, one at Vin- 
cennes and one at Kaskaskia. In 1807 a fourth one was opened at 
Jefferson ville, Clark county; this town was first laid out in 1802, 
agreeably to plans suggested by Mr. Jefferson then President of 
the United States. 

Governor Harrison, according to his message to the Legislature 
in 1806, seemed to think that the peace then existing between the 
whites and the Indians was permanent; but in the same document 
he referred to a matter that might be a source of trouble, which in- 
deed it proved to be, namely, the execution of white laws among 
the Indians — laws to which the latter had not been a party in their 
enactment. The trouble was aggravated by the partiality with 
which the laws seem always to have been executed; the Indian 


was nearly always the snfferer. All along from 1805 to 1810 the 
Indians complained bitterly against the encroachments of the white 
people upon the lands ti at belonged to them. The invasion of their 
hunting grounds and the unjustifiable killing of many of their peo- 
ple were the sources of their discontent. An old chief, in laying 
the trouble of his people before Governor Harrison, said: "You 
callus children; why do you not make us as happy as our fathers, 
the French, did? They never took from us our lands; indeed, they 
were common between ns. They planted where they pleased, and 
they cut wood where they pleased; and so did we; but now if a 
poor Indian attempts to take a little bark from a tree to cover him 
from the rain, up comes a white man and threatens to shoot him, 
claiming the tree as his own." 

The Indian truly had grounds for his complaint, and the state of 
feeling existing among the tribes at this time was well calculated 
to develop a patriotic leader who should carry them all forward to 
victory at arms, if certain concessions were not made to them by the 
whites. But this golden opportunity was seized by an unworthy 
warrior. A brother of Tecumseh, a "prophet" named Law-le-was-i- 
kaw, but who assumed the name of Pems-quat-a-wah (Open Door), 
was the crafty Shawanee warrior who was enabled to work upon 
both the superstitions and the rational judgment of his fellow In- 
dians. He was a good orator, somewhat peculiar in his appearance 
and well calculated to win the attention and respect of the savages. 
He began by denouncing witchcraft, the use of intoxicating liquors, 
the custom of Indian women marrying white men, the dress of the 
whites and the practice of selling Indian lands to the United States. 
He also told the Indians that the commands of the Great Spirit re- 
quired them to punish with death those who practiced the arts of 
witchcraft and magic; that the Great Spirit had given him power 
to find out and expose such persons; that he had power to cure all 
diseases, to confound his enemies and to stay the arm of death in 
sickness and on the battle-field. His harangues aroused among 
some bands of Indians a high degree of superstitious excitement. 
An old Delaware chief named Ta-te-bock-o-she, through whose in- 
fluence a treaty had been made with the Delawares in 1804, was 
accused of witchcraft, tried, condemned and tomahawked, and 
his body consumed by fire. The old chief's wife, nephew 
(" Billy Patterson ") and an aged Indian named Joshua were next 
accused of witchcraft and condemned to death. The two men were 
burned at the stake, but the wife of Ta-te-bock-o-she was saved from 

THE 811 AW NICK rUol'HK.T. 


death by her brother, who suddenly approached her, took her by the 
hand, and, without meeting any opposition from the Indians present, 
led her outof the council-house. He then immediately returned and 
checked the growing influence of the Prophet by exclaiming in a 
strong, earnest voice, " The Evil Spirit has come among us and we 
are killing each other." — [Dillon's History of Indiana. 

When Gov. Harrison was made acquainted with these events he 
sent a special messenger to the Indians, strongly entreating them to 
renounce the Prophet and his works. This reallydestroyed to some 
extent the Prophet's influence; but in the spring of 1808, having 
aroused nearly all the tribes of the Lake Region, the Prophet with 
a large number of followers settled near the mouth of the Tippe- 
canoe river, at a place which afterward had the name of "Prophet's- 
Town." Taking advantage of his brother's influence, Tecuraseh 
actively engaged himself in forming the various tribes into a con- 
federacy. He announced publicly to all the Indians that the 
treaties by which the United States had acquired lands northwest 
of the Ohio were not made in fairness, and should be considered 
void. He also said that no single tribe was invested with power to 
sell lands without the consent of all the other tribes, and that he 
and his brother, the Prophet, would oppose and resist all future 
attempts which the white people might make to extend their set- 
tlements in the lands that belonged to the Indians. 

Early in 1808, Gov. Harrison sent a speech to the Shawanees, 
in which was this sentence: " My children, this business must be 
stopped; I will no longer suffer it. You have called a number of 
men from the most distant tribes to listen to a fool, who speaks 
not the words of the Great Spirit but those of the devil and the 
British agents. My children, your conduct has much alarmed the 
white settlers near you. They desire that you will send away those 
people; and if they wish to have the impostor with them they can 
carry him along with them. Let him go to the lakes; he can hear 
the British more distinctly." This message wounded the pride of 
the Prophet, and he prevailed on the messenger to inform Gov. 
Harrison that he was not in league with the British, but was speak- 
ing truly the words of the Great Spirit. 

In the latter part of the summer of 1808, the Prophet spent sev- 
eral weeks at Vincennes, for the purpose of holding interviews 
with Gov. Harrison. At one time he told the Governor that he 
was a Christian and endeavored to persuade his people also to 
become Christians, abandon the use of liquor, be united in broth- 


erly love, etc., making Mr. Harrison believe at least, that hfi was 
honest; but before long it was demonstrated that the ''Prophet" 
was designing, cunning and unreliable; that both he and Tecumseh 
were enemies of the United States, and friends of the English; and 
that in case of a war between the Americans and English, they 
would join the latter. The next year the Prophet again visited 
Vincennes, with assurances that he was not in sympathy with the 
English, but the Governor was not disposed to believe him; and in 
a letter to the Secretary of War, in July, 1809, he said that he 
regarded the bands of Indians at Prophet's Town as a combination 
which had been produced by British intrigue and influence, in antic- 
ipation of a war between them and the United States. 

In direct opposition to Tecumseh and the prophet and in spite 
of all these difficulties, Gov. Harrison continued the work of extin- 
guishing Indian titles to lands, with very good success. By the 
close of 1809, the total amount of land ceded to the United States, 
under treaties which had been effected by Mr. Harrison, exceeded 
30,000,000 a-res. 

From 1805 to 1807, the movements of Aaron Burr in the Ohio 
valley created considerable excitement in Indiana. It seemed that 
he intended to collect a force of men, invade Mexico and found a 
republic there, comprising all the country west of the Alleghany 
mountains. He gathered, however, but a few men, started south, 
and was soon arrested by the Federal authorities. But before his 
arrest he had abandoned his expedition and his followers had 

uarrison's campaign. 

While the Indians were combining to prevent any further trans- 
fer of land to the whites, the British were using the advantage as a 
gronndwork for a successful war upon the Americans. In the 
spring of 1810 the followers of the Prophet refused to receive their 
annuity of salt, and the officials who offered it were denounced as 
"American dogs," and otherwise treated in a disrespectful manner. 
Gov. Harrison, in July, attempted to gain the friendship of the 
Prophet by sending him a letter,offeri ng to treat with him person- 
ally in the matter of his grievances, or to furnish means to send 
him, with three of his principal chiefs, to the President at Wash- 
ington; but the messenger was coldly received, and they returned 
word that they would visit Vincennes in a few days and interview 
the Governor. Accordingly, Aug. 12, 1810, the Shawanee chief 
with 70 of his principal warriors, marched up to the door of the 


Governor's house, and from that day until the 22d held daily inter- 
views with His Excellency. In all of his speeches Tecumseh was 
haughty, and sometimes arrogant. On the 20th he delivered that 
celebrated speech in which he gave the Governor the alternative of 
returning their lands or meetiDg them in battle. 

While the Governor was replying to this speech Tecumseh inter- 
rupted him with an angry exclamation, declaring that the United 
States, through Gov. Harrison, had "cheated and imposed on the 
Indians." When Tecumseh first rose, a number of his party also 
sprung to their feet, armed with clubs, tomahawks and spears, and 
made some threatening demonstrations. The Governor's guards, 
who stood a little way off, were marched up in haste, and the In- 
dians, awed by the presence of this small armed force, abandoned 
what seemed to be an intention to make an open attack on the Gov- 
ernor and his attendants. As soon as Tecumseh's remarks were 
interpreted, the Governor reproached him for his conduct, and com- 
manded him to depart instantly to his camp. 

On the following day Tecumseh repented of his rash act and re- 
quested the Governor to grant him another interview, and pro- 
tested against any intention of offense. The Governor consented, 
and the council was re-opened on the 21st, when the Shawanee 
chief addressed him in a respectful and dignified manner, but reu 
mained immovable in his policy. The Governor then requested 
Tecumseh to state plainly whether or not the surveyors who might 
be sent to survey the lands purchased at the treaty of Fort Wayne 
in 1809, would be molested by Indians. Tecumseh replied: 
"Brother, when you speak of annuities to me, I look at the land 
and pity the women and children. I am authorized to say that they 
will not receive them. Brother, we want to save that piece of land. 
We do not wish you to take it. It is small enough for our purpose. 
If you do take it, you must blame yourself as the cause of the 
trouble between us and the tribes who sold it to you. I want the 
present boundary line to continue. Should you cross it, I assure 
you it will be productive of bad consequences." 

The next day the Governor, attended only by his interpreter, 
visited the camp of the great Shawanee, and in the course of along 
interview told him that the President of the United States would 
not acknowledge his claims. "Well," replied the brave warrior, 
"as the great chief is to determine the matter, I hope the Great 
Spirit will put sense enough into his head to induce him to direct 
you to give up this land. It is true, he is so far off he will not be 


injured by the war. He may sit still in his town and drink his 
wine, while yon and I will have to fight it out." 

In his message to the new territorial Legislature in 1810 Gov. 
Harrison called attention to the dangerous views held byTecumseh 
and the Prophet, to the pernicious influence of alien enemies 
among the Indians, to the unsettled condition of the Indian trade 
and to the policy of extinguishing Indian titles to lands. The 
eastern settlements were separated from the western by a consider- 
able extent of Indian lands, and the most fertile tracts within the 
territory were still in the hands of the Indians. Almost entirely 
divested of the game from which they had drawn their subsistence, 
it had become of little use to them; and it was the intention of 
the Government to substitute for the precarious and scanty sup- 
plies of the chase the more certain and plentiful support of agri- 
culture and stock-raising. The old habit of the Indians to hunt 
so long as a deer could be found was so inveterate that they would 
not break it and resort to intelligent agriculture unless they were 
compelled to, and to this they would not be compelled unless they 
were confined to a limited extent of territory. The earnest lan- 
guage of the Governor's appeal was like this: "Are then those 
extinguishments of native title which are at once so beneficial to- 
the Indian and the territory of the United States, to be suspended on 
account of the intrigues of a few individuals? Is one of the fair- 
est portions of the globe to remain in a state of nature, the haunt 
of a few wretched savages, when it seems destined by the Creator 
to give support to a large population, and to be the seat of civili- 
zation, of science and true religion?" 

In the same message the Governor also urged the establishment 
of a system of popular education. 

Among the acts passed by this session of the Legislature, one 
authorized the President and Directors of the Vincennes Public 
Library to raise $1,000 by lottery. Also, a petition was sent to 
Congress for a permanent seat of government for the Territory, and 
commissioners were appointed to select the site. 

With the beginning of the year 1811 the British agent for 
Indian affairs adopted measures calculated to secure the support of 
the savages in the war which at this time seemed almost inevitable. 
Meanwhile Gov. Harrison did all in bis power to destroy the influ- 
ence of Tecumseh and his brother and break up the Indian confed- 
eracy which was oeing organized in the interests of Great Britain. 
Pioneer settlers and the Indians naturally grew more and more 


aggressive and intolerant, committing depredations and murders, 
until the Governor felt compelled to send the following speech, 
substantially, to the two leaders of the Indian tribes: "This is the 
third year that all the white people in this country have been 
alarmed at your proceedings; yon threaten us with war; you invite 
all the tribes north and west of you to join against us, while your 
warriors who have lately been here deny this. The tribes on the 
Mississippi have sent me word that you intended to murder me 
and then commence a war upon my people, and your seizing the salt 
I recently sent up the Wabash is also sufficient evidence of such 
intentions on your part. My warriors are preparing themselves, 
not to strike you, but to defend themselves and their women and 
children. You shall not surprise us, as you expect to do. Your 
intended act is a rash one: consider well of it. What can induce 
you to undertake such a thing when there is so little prospect of 
success? Do you really think that the handful of men you have 
about you are able to contend with the seventeen 'fires?' or even 
that the whole of the tribes united could contend against the Ken- 
tucky 'fire' alone? I am myself of the Long 'Knife lire.' As soon 
as they hear my voice you will see them pouring forth their swarms 
of hunting-shirt men as numerous as the musquitoes on the shores 
of the Wabash. Take care of their stings. It is not our wish to 
hurt you; if we did, we certainly have power to do it. 

" You have also insulted the Government of the United States, 
by seizing the salt that was intended for other tribes. Satisfaction 
must be given for that also. You talk of coming to see me, attend- 
ed by all of your young men; but this must not be. If your inten- 
tions are good, you have no need to bring but a few of your young 
men with you. I must bo plain with you. I will not suffer you 
to come into our settlements with such a force. My advice is that 
you visit the President of the United States and lay your griev- 
ances before him. 

" With respect to the lands that were purchased last fall I can 
enter into no negotiations with you; the atl'air is with the Presi- 
dent. If you wish to go and see him, I will supply you with the 

" The person who delivers this is one of my war officers, and is a 
man in whom I have entire confidence; whatever he says to yon, 
although it limy not be contained in this paper, you may believe 
comes from me. Mv friend Tecnmseh, the bearer Is a good man 
and a brave warrior; I hope you will tre;it him well. You are 


yourself a warrior, and all such should have esteem for each other." 

The hearer of this speech was politely received by Tecumseh, 
who replied to the Governor briefly that he should visit Vincennes 
in a few days. Accordingly he arrived July 27, 1811, bringing 
with him a considerable force of Indians, which created much 
alarm among the inhabitants. In view of an emergency Gov. 
Harrison reviewed his militia — about 750 armed men — and station- 
ed two companies and a detachment of dragoons on the borders of 
the town. At this interview Tecumseh held forth that he intended 
no war against the United States; that he would send messengers 
among the Indians to prevent murders and depredations on the 
white settlements; that the Indians, as well as the whites, who had 
committed murders, ought to be forgiven; that he had set the white 
people an example of forgiveness, which they ought to follow; 
that it wag his wish to establish a union among all the Indian 
tribes; that the northern tribes were united; that he was going to 
visit the southern Indians, and then return to the Prophet's town. 
He said also that he would visit the President the next spring and 
settle all difficulties with him, and that he hoped no attempts would 
be made to make settlements on the lands which had been sold to 
the United States, at the treaty of Fort Wayne, because the Indians 
wanted to keep those grounds for hunting. 

Tecumseh then, with about 20 of his followers, left for the South, 
to induce the tribes in that direction to join his confederacy. 

By the way, a lawsuit was instituted by Gov. Harrison against a 
certain Wm. Mcintosh, for asserting that the plaintiff had cheated 
the Indians out of -their lands, and that by so doing he had made 
them enemies to the United States. The defendant was a wealthy 
Scotch resident of Vincenues, well educated, and a man of influence 
among the people opposed to Gov. Harrison's land policy. The 
jury rendered a verdict in favor of Harrison, assessing the damages 
at $4,000. In execution of the decree of Court a large quantity of 
the defendant's land was sold in the absence of Gov. Harrison; 
but some time afterward Harrison caused about two-thirds of the 
land to be restored to Mr. Mcintosh, and the remainder was given 
to some orphan children. 

Harrison's first movement was to erect a new fort on the Wabash 
river and to break up the assemblage of hostile Indians at the 
Prophet's town. For this purpose he ordered Col. Boyd's regiment 
of infantry to move from the falls of Ohio to Vincennes. When 
the military expedition organized by Gov, Harrison was nearly 



ready to march to the Prophet's town,severai Indian chiefs arrived 
at Vincennes Sept. 25, 1811, and declared that the Indians 
would comply with the demands of the Governor and disperse; but 
this did not check the military proceedings. The army under com- 
mand of Harrison moved from Vincennes Sept. 26, and Oct. 3, en- 
countering no opposition from the enemy, encamped at the place 
where Fort Harrison was afterward built, and near where the city 
of Terre Haute now stands. On the night of the 11th a few hos- 
tile Indians approached the encampment and wounded one of the 
sentinels, which caused considerable excitement. The army was 
immediately drawn up in line of battle, and small detachments 
were sent in all directions; but the enemy could not be found. 
Then the Governor sent a message to Prophet's Town, requiring 
the Shawanees, Winnebagoes, Pottawatomies and Kickapoos at 
that place to return to their respective tribes; he also required the 
Prophet to restore all the stolen horses in his possession, or to give 
satisfactory proof that such persons were not there, nor had lately 
been, under his control. To this message the Governor received 
no answer, unless that answer was delivered in the battle of Tip- 

The new fort on the Wabash was finished Oct. 28, and at the re- 
quest of all the subordinate officers it was called "Fort Harrison," 
near what is now Terre Haute. This fort was garrisoned with a 
small number of men under Lieutenant-Colonel Miller. On the 
29th the remainder of the army, consisting of 910 men, moved 
toward the Prophet's town; about 270 of the troops were mounted. 
The regular troops, 250 in number, were under the command of 
Col. Boyd. With this army the Governor marched to within a 
half mile of the Prophet's town, when a conference was opened 
with a distinguished chief, in high esteem with the Prophet, and 
he informed Harrison that the Indians were much surprised at the 
approach of the army, and had already dispatched a message to 
him by another route. Harrison replied that he would not attack 
them until he had satisfied himself that they would not comply 
with his demands; that he would continue his encampment on the 
Wabash, and on the following morning would have an interview 
with the prophet. Harrison then resumed his march, and, after 
some difficulty, selected a place to encamp — a spot not very desir- 
able. It was a piece of dry oak land rising about ten feet above 
the marshy prairie in front toward the Indian town, and nearly 
twice that height above a similar prairie in the rear, through which 


and near this bank ran a small stream clothed with willow and 
brush wood. Toward the left flank this highland widened consid- 
erably, but became gradually narrower in the opposite direction, 
and at the distance of 150 yards terminated in an abrupt point. 
The two columns of infantry occupied the front and rear of this 
ground, about 150 yards from each other on the left, and a little 
more thau half that distance on the right, flank. One flank was 
filled by two companies of mounted riflemen, 120 men, under com- 
mand of Major-General Wells, of the Kentucky militia, and one 
by Spencer's company of mounted riflemen, numbering 80 men. 
The front line was composed of one battalion of United States in- 
fantry, under command of Major Floyd, flanked on the right by 
two companies of militia, and on the left by one company. The 
rear line was composed of a battalion of United States troops, 
under command of Capt. Bean, acting as Major, and four companies 
of militia infantry under Lieutenant-Colonel Decker. The regular 
troops of this line joined the mounted riflemen under Gen. Wells, 
on the left flank, and Col. Decker's battalion formed an angle with 
Spencer's company on the left. Two troops of dragoons, about 60 
men in all, were encamped in the rear of the left flank, and Capt. 
Parke's troop, which was larger than the other two, in rear of 
the right line. For a night attack the order of encampment was 
the order of battle, and each man slept opposite his post in the 
line. In the formation of the troops single file was adopted, in 
order to get as great an extension of the lines as possible. 


No attack was made by the enemy until about 4 o'clock on the 
morning of Nov. 7, just after the Governor had arisen. The 
attack was made on the left flank. Only a single gun was fired by the 
sentinels or by the guard in that direction, which made no resist- 
ance, abandoning their posts and fleeing into camp; and the first 
notice which the troops of that line had of the danger was the yell 
of the savages within a short distance of them. But the men 
were courageous and preserved good discipline. Such of them as 
were awake, or easily awakened, seized arms and took their stations; 
others, who were more tardy, had to contend with the enemy in 
the doors of their tents. The storm first fell upon Capt. Barton's 
company of the Fourth United States Regiment, and Capt. Geiger's 
company of mounted riflemen, which formed the left angle of the 
rear line. The fire from the Indians was exceedingly severe, and 


men in these companies suffered considerably before relief could be 
brought to them. Some few Indians passed into the encampment 
near the angle, and one or two penetrated to some distance before 
they were killed. All the companies formed for action before they 
were fired on. The morning was dark and cloudy, and the fires of 
the Americans afforded only a partial light, which gave greater 
advantage to the enemy than to the troops, and they were there- 
fore extinguished. 

As soon as the Governor could mount his borse he rode to the 
angle which was attacked, where he found that Barton's company had 
suffered severely, and the left of Geiger's entirely broken. He 
immediately ordered Cook's and Wentworth's companies to march 
up to the center of the rear line, where were stationed a small com- 
pany of U. S. riflemen and the companies of Bean, Snelling and 
Prescott. As the General rode up he found Maj. Daviess forming 
the dragoons in the rear of these companies, and having ascertained 
that the heaviest fire proceeded from some trees 15 or 20 paces in 
front of these companies, he directed the Major to dislodge them 
with a part of the dragoons; but unfortunately the Major's gal- 
lantry caused him to undertake the execution of the order with a 
smaller force than was required, which enabled the enemy to avoid 
him in front and attack his flanks. He was mortally wounded and 
his men driven back. Capt. Snelling, however, with his company 
immediately dislodged those Indians. Capt. Spencer and his 1st 
and 2nd Lieutenants were killed, and Capt. Warwick mortally 
wounded. The soldiery remained brave. Spencer had too much 
ground originally, and Harrison re-enforced him with a company 
of riflemen which had been driven from their position on the left 

Gen. Harrison's aim was to keep the lines entire, to prevent the 
enemy from breaking into the camp until daylight, which would 
enable him to make a general and effectual charge. With this view 
he had re-enforced every part of the line that had suffered much, 
and with the approach of morning he withdrew several companies 
from the front and rear lines and re-enforced the right and left 
Banks, foreseeing that at those points the enemy would make their 
last effort. Maj. Wells, who had commanded the left flank, charged 
upon the enemy and drove them at the point of the bayonet into 
tl /here they could not be followed. Meanwhile Capt. 

Cool and Lieut. Larrabee marched their companies to the right 
Sank and formed under lire of the enemy, and being there (oil 


by the riflemen of that flank, charged upon the enemy, killing a 
number and putting the rest to a precipitate flight. 

Thus ended the famous battle of Tippecanoe, victoriously to the 
whites and honorably to Gen. Harrison. 

In this battle Mr. Harrison had about 700 efficient men, while 
the Indians had probably more than that. The loss of the Ameri- 
cans was 37 killed and 25 mortally wounded, and ; 56 wounded; the 
Indians lost 38 killed on the field of battle, . a I the number of the 
wounded was never known. Among the whites killed were Daviess, 
Spencer, Owen, Warwick, Randolph, Bean and "White. Standing on 
an eminence near by, the Prophet encouraged his warriors to battle 
by singing a favorite war-song. He told them that they would gair. 
an easy victory, and that the bullets of their enemies would be made 
harmless by the Great Spirit. Being informed duringthe engagement 
that some of the Indians were killed, he said that his warriors must 
fight on and they would soon be victorious. Immediately after 
their defeat the surviving Indians lost faith in their great (?) Proph- 
et, returned to their respective tribes, and thus the confederacy 
was destroyed. The Prophet, with a very tew followers, then took 
up his residence among a small band of Wyandots encamped on 
Wild-Cat creek. His famous town, with all its possessions, was 
destroyed the next day, Nov. 8. 

On the 18th the American army returned to Vincennes, where 
most of the troops were discharged. The Territorial Legislature, 
being in session, adopted resolutions complimentary to Gov. Harri- 
son and the officers and men under him, and made preparations for 
a reception and celebration. 

Capt. Logan, the eloquent Shawanee chief who assisted our 
forces so materially, died in the latter part of November, 1812, 
from the effects of a wound received in a skirmish with a recon- 
noitering party of hostile Indians accompanied by a white man in 
the British service, Nov. 22. In that skirmish the white man was 
killed, and Winamac, a Pottawatomie chief of some distinction, 
fell by the rifle of Logan. The latter was mortally wounded, when 
he retreated with two warriors of his tribe, Capt. Johnny and 
Bright- Horn, to the camp of Gen. Winchester, where he soon after- 
ward died. He was buried with the honors of war. 


The victory recently gained by the Americans at the battle of 
Tippecanoe insured perfect peace for a time, but only a short time 
as the more extensive schemes of the British had so far ripened as 
to compel the United States again to declare war against them. 
Tecumseh had fled to Maiden, Canada, where, counseled by the 
English, he continued to excite the tribes against the Americans. 
As soon as this war with Great Britain was declared (June 18, 
1812), the Indians, as was expected, commenced again to commit 
depredations. During the summer of 1812 several points along 
the Lake Region succumbed to theBritish, as Detroit, under Gen. 
Hull, Fort Dearborn (now Chicago), commanded by Capt. Ileald 
under Gen. Hull, the post at Mackinac, etc. 

In the early part of September, 1812, parties of hostile Indians 
began to assemble in considerable numbers in the vicinity of Forts 
Wayne and Harrison, with a view to reducing them. Capt. Rhea, 
at this time, had command of Fort Wayne, but his drinking pro- 
pensities rather disqualified him for emergencies. For two weeks 
the fort was in great jeopardy. An express had been sent to Gen. 
Harrison for reinforcements, but many days passed without any 
tidings of expected assistance. At length, one day, Maj. Wm. 
Oliver and four friendly Indians arrived at the fort on horseback. 
One of the Indians was the celebrated Logan. They had come in 
defiance of " 500 Indians," had "broken their ranks" and reached 
the tiirt in safely. Oliver reported that Harrison was aware of the 
situation and was raising men for a re-enforcement. Ohio was also 
raising volunteers; 800 were then assembled at St. Mary's, Ohio, 
60 miles south of Fort Wayne, and would inarch to the relief of 
the fort in three or four days, or as soon as they were joined by re- 
enforcements from Kentucky. 

Oliver prepared a letter, announcing to Gen. Harrison his safe ar- 
rival at the besieged fort, and giving an account of its beleaguered 
situation, which he dispatched by his friendly Shawanees, while he 
concluded to take his chances at the fort. Brave Logan and his 
companions started with the message, but had scarcely left the fort 
when they were discovered and pursued by the hostile Indians, vet 
passing the Indian lines in safety, they were soon out of reach. 
The Indians now began a furious attack upon the fort; bat the little 
garrison, with Oliver to cheer them on, bravely met the assault, re- 
pelling the attack day after day, until the army approached to their 
relief. During this siege the commanding officer, whose habita of 


intemperance rendered him unfit for the command, was confined in 
the " black hole," while the junior officer assumed charge. This 
course was approved by the General, on his arrival, but Capt. Rhea 
received very little censure, probably on account of his valuable ser- 
vices in the Revolutionary war. 

Sept. 6, 1312, Harrison moved forward with his army to the re- 
lief of Fort Wayne; the next day he reached a point within three 
miles of St. Mary's river; the next day he reached the river and 
was joined at evening by 200 mounted volunteers, under Col. Rich- 
ard M. Johnson; the next day at "Shane's Crossing" on the St. 
Mary's they were joined by 800 men from Ohio, under Cols. Adams 
and Hawkins. At this place Chief Logan and four other Indians 
offered their services as spies to Gen. Harrison, and were accepted. 
Logan was immediately disguised and sent forward. Passing 
through thelines of the hostile Indians,he ascertained their number 
to be about 1,500, and entering the fort, he encouraged the soldiers 
to hold out, as relief was at hand. Gen. Harrison's force at this 
time was about 3,500. 

After an early breakfast Friday morning they were under march- 
ing orders; it had rained and the guns were damp; they were dis- 
charged and reloaded ; but that day only one Indian was encount- 
ered; preparations were made at night for an expected attack by 
the Indians, but no attack came; the next day, Sept. 10, they ex- 
pected to fight their way to Fort "Wayne, but in that they were hap- 
pily disappointed; and "At the first grey of the morning," as Bryce 
eloquently observes, "the distant halloos of the disappointed sav- 
ages revealed to the anxious inmates of the fort the glorious news 
of the approach of the army. Great clouds of dust could be seen 
from the fort, rolling up in the distance, as the valiant soldiery 
under Gen. Harrison moved forward to the rescue of the garrison 
and the brave boys of Kentucky and Ohio." 

This siege of Fort Wayne of course occasioned great loss to the 
few settlers who had gathered around the fort. At the time of its 
commencement quite a little village had clustered around the mili- 
tary works, but during the siege most of their improvements and 
crops were destroyed by the savages. Every building out of the reach 
of the guns of the fort was leveled to the ground, and thus the in- 
fant settlement was destroyed. 

During this siege the garrison lost but three men, while the 
Indians lost 25. Gen. Harrison had all the Indian villages for 25 
miles around destroyed. Fort Wayne was nothing but a military 
post until about 1819. 


Simultaneously with the attack on Fort Wayne the Indians also 
besieged Fort Harrison, which was commanded by Zachary Taylor. 
The Indians commenced firing upon the fort about 11 o'clock one 
night, when the garrison was in a rather poor plight for receiving 
them. The enemy succeeded in firing one of the block-houses, 
which contained whisky, and the whites had great difficulty in pre- 
venting the burning of all the barracks. The word " fire " seemed 
to have thrown all the men into confusion; soldiers' and citizens' 
wives, who had taken shelter within the fort, were crying; Indians 
were yelling; many of the garrison were sick and unable to be on 
duty; the men despaired and gave themselves up as lost; two of 
the strongest and apparently most reliable men jumped the pickets 
in the very midst of the emergency, etc., so that Capt. Taylor was 
at his wit's end what to do; but he gave directions as to the many 
details, rallied the men by a new scheme, and after about seven 
hours succeeded in saving themselves. The Indians drove up the 
horses belonging to the citizens, and as they could not catch th^m 
very readily, shot the whole of them in the sight of their owners, 
and also killed a number of the hogs belonging to the whites. 
They drove off all of the cattle, 65 in number, as well as the public 

Among many other depredations committed by the savages dar- 
ing this period, was the massacre of the Pigeon Roost settlement, 
consisting of one man, five women and 16 children; a few escaped. 
An unsuccessful effort was made to capture these Indians, but 
when the news of this massacre and the attack on Fort Harrison 
reached Vincennes, about 1,200 men, under the command of Col. 
"Win. Russell, of the 7th U. S. Infantry, marched forth for the re- 
lief of the fort and to punish the Indians. On reaching the fort 
the Indians had retired from the vicinity; but on the 15th of Sep- 
tember a 6mall detachment composed of 11 men, under Lieut. Rich- 
ardson, and acting as escort of provisions sent from Vincennes to 
Fort Harrison, was attacked by a party of Indians within the pres- 
ent limits of Sullivan county. It was reported that seven of these 
men were killed and one wounded. The provisions of course fell 
into the hands of the Indians. 


By the middle of August, through the disgraceful surrender of 
Gen. Hull, at Detroit, and the evacuation of Fort Dearborn and 
massacre of its garrison, the British and Indians were in possession 
of the whole Northwest. The savages, emboldened by their sue- 


cesses, penetrated deeper into the settlements, committing great 
depredations. The activity and success of the enemy aroused the 
people to a realization of the great danger their homes and families 
were in. Gov. Edwards collected a force of 350 men at Camp 
Russell, and Capt. Russell came from Vincennes with about 50 more. 
Being officered and equipped, they proceeded about the middle of 
October on horseback, carrying with them 20 day's rations, to 
Peoria. Capt. Craig was sent with two boats up the Illinois, with 
provisions and tools to build a fort. The little army proceeded to 
Peoria Lake, where was located a Pottawatomie village. They 
arrived late at night, within a few miles of the village, without 
their presence being known to the Indians. Four men were sent 
out that night to reconnoiter the position of the village. The four 
brave men who volunteered for this perilous service were Thomas 
Carlin (afterward Governor), and Robert, Stephen and Davis White- 
side. They proceeded to the village, and explored it and the ap- 
proaches to it thoroughly, without starting an Indian or provoking 
the bark of a dog. The low lands between the Indian village and 
the troops were covered with a rank growth of tall grass, so high 
and dense as to readily conceal an Indian on horseback, until within 
a few feet of him. The ground had become still more yielding by 
recent rains, rendering it almost impassable by mounted men. To 
prevent detection the soldiers had camped without lighting the 
usual camp-fires. The men lay down in their cold and cheerless 
camp, with many misgivings. They well remembered how the 
skulking savages fell upon Harrison's men at Tippecanoe during 
the night. To add to their fears, a gun in the hands of a soldier 
was carelessly discharged, raising great consternation in the camp. 
Through a dense fog which prevailed the following morning, the 
army took up its line of march for the Indian town, Capt. Judy 
with his corps of spies in advance. In the tall grass they came up 
with an Indian and his squaw, both mounted. The Indian wanted 
to surrender, but Judy observed that he " did not leave home to take 
prisoners," and instantly shot one of them. With the blood 
streaming from his mouth and nose, and in his agony " singing the 
death song," the dying Indian raised his gun, shot and mortally 
wounded a Mr. Wright, and in a few minutes expired! Many guns 
were immediately discharged at the other Indian, not then known 
to be a squaw, all of which missed her. Badly scared, and her hus- 
band killed by her side, the agonizing wails of the squaw were 
heart-rending. She was taken prisoner, and afterward restored 
to her nation. 


On nearing the town a general charge was made, the Indians 
fleeing to the interior wilderness. Some of their warriors made a 
6tand, when a sharp engagement occurred, but the Indians were 
routed. In their flight they left behind all their winter's store of 
provisions, which was taken, and their town burned. Some Indian 
children were found who had been left in the hurried flight, also 
6ome disabled adults, one of whom was in a starving condition, and 
with a voracious appetite partook of the bread given him. He is 
said to have been killed by a cowardly trooper straggling behind, 
after the main army had resumed its retrograde march, who wanted 
to be able to boast that he had killed an Indian. 

September 19, 1812, Gen. Harrison was put in command of the 
Northwestern army, then estimated at 10,000 men, with these 
orders: "Having provided for the protection of the western front- 
ier, you will retake Detroit; and, with a view to the conquest of 
upper Canada, you will penetrate that country as far as the force 
under your command will in your judgment justify." 

Although surrounded by many difficulties, the General began 
immediately to execute these instructions. In calling for volun- 
teers from Kentucky, however, more men offered than could be 
received. At this time there were about 2,000 mounted volunteers 
at Vincennes, under the command of Gen. Samuel Hopkins, of the 
Revolutionary war, who was under instructions to operate against 
the enemy along the Wabash and Illinois rivers. Accordingly, 
early in October, Gen. Hopkins moved from Vincennes towards the 
Kickapoo villages in the Illinois territory, with about 2,000 troops; 
but after four or five days' march the men and officers raised a 
mutiny which gradually succeeded in carrying all back to Vin- 
cennes. The cause of their discontent is not appareut. 

About the same time Col. Russell, with two small companies of 
U. S. rangers, commanded by Capts. Perry aud Modrell, marched 
from the neighborhood of Vincennes to unite with a small force of 
mounted militia under the command of Gov. Edwards, of Illinois, 
and afterward to inarch with the united troops from Cahokia 
toward Lake Peoria, for the purpose of co-operating with Gen. 
Hopkins against the Indian towns in that vicinity; but not find- 
ing the latter on the ground, was compelled to retire. 

Immediately after the discharge of the mutinous volunteers, 
Gen. Hopkins began to organize another force, mainly of infantry, 
to reduce the Indians up the Wabash as far as the Prophet's town. 
These troops consisted of three regiments of Kentucky militia, 


commanded by Cols. Barbour, Miller and Wilcox; a small company 
of regulars commanded by Capt. Zachary Taylor; a company of 
rangers commanded by Capt. Beckes; and a company of scouts or 
spies under the command of Capt. Washburn. The main body of 
this army arrived at Fort Harrison Nov. 5; on the 11th it pro- 
ceeded up the east 6ide of the Wabash into the heart of the Indian 
country, but found the villages generally deserted. Winter set- 
ting in severely, and the troops poorly clad, they had to return to 
Vincennes as rapidly as possible. With one exception the men 
behaved nobly, and did much damage to the enemy. That 
■exception wa? the precipitate chase after an Indian by a detach- 
ment of men somewhat in liquor, until they found themselves sur- 
rounded by an overwhelming force of the enemy, and they had to 
retreat in disorder. 

At the close of this campaign Gen. Hopkins resigned his 

In the fall of 1812 Gen. Harrison assigned to Lieut. Col. John 
B. Campbell, of the 19th U. S. Inf., the duty of destroying the 
Miami villages on the Mississinewa river, with a detachment of 
about 600 men. Nov. 25, Lieut. Col. Campbell marched from 
Franklinton, according to orders, toward the scene of action, cau- 
tiously avoiding falling in with the Delawares, who had been ordered 
by Gen. Harrison to retire to the Shawanee establishment on the 
Auglaize river, and arriving on the Mississinewa Dec. 17, when 
they discovered an Indian town inhabited by Delawares and 
Miamis This .and three other villages were destroyed. Soon 
after this, the supplies growing short and the troops in a suffering 
condition, Campbell began' to consider the propriety of returning 
to Ohio; but just as he was calling together his officers early one 
morning to deliberate on the proposition, an army of Indians 
rushed upon them with fury. The engagement lasted an hour, 
with a loss of eight killed and 42 wounded, besides about 150 horses 
killed. The whites, however, succeeded in defending themselves 
and taking a number of Indians prisoners, who proved to be Mun- 
fiies, of Silver Heel's band. Campbell, hearing that a large force 
of Indians were assembled at Mississinewa village, under Tecum- 
seh, determined to return to Greenville. The privations of his 
troops and the severity of the cold compelled him to send to that 
place for re-enforcements and supplies. Seventeen of the men had 
to l>e carried on litters. They were met by the re-enforcement 
about 40 miles from Greenville. 


Lieut. Col. Campbell sent two messages to the Delawares, who 
lived on White river and who had been previously directed and 
requested to abandon their towns on that river and remove into 
Ohio. In these messages he expressed his regret at unfortunately 
killing some of their men, and urged them to move to the Shaw- 
anee settlement on the Auglaize river. He assured them that their 
people, in his power, would be compensated by the Government 
for their losses, if not found to be hostile ; and the friends of those 
killed satisfied by presents, if such satisfaction would be received. 
This advice was heeded by the main body of the Delawares and a 
few Miamis. The Shawanee Prophet, and 6ome of the principal 
chiefs of the Miamis, retired from the country of the Wabash, and, 
with their destitute and suffering bands, moved to Detroit, where 
they were received as the friends and allies of Great Britain. 

On the approach of Gen. Harrison with his army in September, 
1813, the British evacuated Detroit, and the Ottawas, Chippewae, 
Pottawatomies, Miamis and Kickapoos sued for peace with the 
United States, which was granted temporarily by Brig. Gen. Mc- 
Arthur, on condition of their becoming allies of the United States 
in case of war. 

In June, 1813, an expedition composed of 137 men, under com- 
mand of Col. Joseph Bartholomew, moved from Valonia toward 
the Delaware towns on the west fork of White river, to surprise 
and punish some hostile Indians who were supposed to be lurking 
about those villages. Most of these places they found deserted; 
some of them burnt. They had been but temporarily occupied for 
the purpose of collecting and carrying away corn. Col. Bartholo- 
mew's forces succeeded in killing one or two Indians and destroy- 
ing considerable corn, and they returned to Valonia on the 21st of 
this month. 

July 1, 1813, Col. William Russell, of the 7th U. S., organized 
a force of 573 effective men at Valonia and marched to the Indian 
villages about the mouth of the Mississinewa. His experience was 
much like that of Col. Bartholomew, who had just preceded him. 
He had rainy weather, suffered many losses, found the villages de- 
serted, destroyed stores of corn, etc. The Colonel reported that he 
went to every place where he expected to find the enemy, but they 
nearly always seemed to have fled the country. The march from 
Valonia to the mouth of the Mississinewa and return was about 
250 miles. 

Several smaller expeditions helped to "checker" the surrounding 


country, and find that the Indians were very careful to keep them- 
selves out of sight, and thus closed this series of campaigns. 


The war with England closed on the 24th of December, 1814, 
when a treaty of peace was signed at Ghent. The 9th article of 
the treaty required the United States to put an end to hostilities 
with all tribes or nations of Indians with whom they had been at 
war; to restore to such tribes or nations respectively all the rights 
and possessions to which they were entitled in 1811, before the 
war, on condition that such Indians should agree to desist from all 
hostilities against the United States. But in February, just before 
the treaty was sanctioned by our Government, there were signs of 
Indians accumulating arms and ammunition, and a cautionary 
order was therefore issued to have all the white forces in readiness 
for an attack by the Indians; but the attack was not made. During 
the ensuing summer and fall the United States Government ac- 
quainted the Indians with the provisions of the treaty, and entered 
into subordinate treaties of peace with the principal tribes. 

Just before the treaty of Spring Wells (near Detroit) was signed, 
the Shawanee Prophet retired to Canada, but declaring his resolu- 
tion to abide by any treaty which the chiefs might sign. Some 
time afterward he returned to the Shawanee settlement in Ohio, and 
lastly to the west of the Mississippi, where he died, in 1S34. The 
British Government allowed him a pension from 1S13 until his 
death. His brother Tecum6eh was killed at the battle of the 
Thames, Oct. 5, 1813, by a Mr. Wheatty, as we are positively in- 
formed by Mr. A. J. James, now a resident of La Ilarpe township, 
Hancock county, HI., whose father-in-law, John Pigman, of Co- 
shocton county, Ohio, was an eye witness. Gen. Johnson has gener- 
ally had the credit of killing Tecumseh. 


If one should inquire who has been the greatest Indian, the most 
noted, the " principal Indian " in North America since its discov- 
ery by Columbus, we would be obliged to answer, Tecumseh. For 
all those qualities which elevate a man far above his race; for talent, 
tact, skill and bravery as a warrior; for high-minded, honorable and 
chivalrous bearing as a man; in a word, for all those elements of 
greatness which place him a long way above his fellows in savage 
life, the name and fame of Tecnmseh will go down to posterity in 
the West as one of the most celebrated of the aborigines of this 
continent, — as one who had no equal among the tribes that dwelt 
in the country drained by the Mississippi. Born to command him- 
self, he used all the appliances that would stimulate the courage 
and nerve the valor of his followers. Always in the front rank of 
battle, his followers blindly followed his lead, and as his war-cry 
rang clear above the din and noise of the battle-field, the Shawnee 
warriors, as they rushed on to victory or the grave, rallied around, 
him, foemen worthy of the steel of the most gallant commander 
that ever entered the lists in defense of his altar or his home. 

The tribe to winch Tecumseh, or Tecumtha, as some write it, be- 
longed, was the Shawnee, or Shawanee. The tradition of the nation, 
held that they originally came from the Gulf of Mexico; that they 
wended their way up the Mississippi and the Ohio, and settled at 
or near the present site of Shawneetown, 111., whence they removed 
to the upper Wabash. In the latter place, at any rate, they were 
found early in the 18th century, and were known as the " bravest 
of the brave." This tribe has uniformly been the bitter enemy of 
the white man, and in every contest with our people has exhibited 
a degree of skill and strategy that should characterize the most 
dangerous foe. 

Tecumseh's notoriety and that of his brother, the Prophet, mutu- 
ally served to establish and strengthen each other. While the 
Prophet had unlimited power, spiritual and temporal, he distributed 
his greatness in all the departments of Indian life with a kind of 
fanaticism that magnetically aroused the religious and superstitious, 
passions, not only of his own followers, but also of all the tribes in 


this part of the country; bat Tecnraseh concentrated his greatness 
upon the more practical and business affairs of military conquest. 
It is doubted whether he was really a sincere believer in the preten- 
sions of his fanatic brother; if he did not believe in the pretentious 
feature of them he had the shrewdness to keep his unbelief to him- 
self, knowing that religious fanaticism was one of the strongest im- 
pulses to reckless bravery . 

During his sojourn in the Northwestern Territory, it was Tecum-'s uppermost desire of life to confederate all the Indian tribes of 
the country together against the whites, to maintain their choice 
hunting-grounds. All his public policy converged toward this sin- 
gle end. In his vast scheme he comprised even all the Indians in 
the Gulf country, — all in America west of the Alleghany moun- 
tains. He held, as a subordinate principle, that the Great Spirit 
had given the Indian race all these hunting-grounds to keep in 
common, and' that no Indian or tribe could cede any portion of the 
land to the whites without the consent of all the tribes. Hence, in 
all his councils with the whites he ever maintained that the treaties 
were null and void. 

When he met Harrison at Vincennes in council the last time, 
and, as he was invited by that General to take a seat with him on 
the platform, he hesitated; Harrison insisted, saying that it was the 
"wish of their Great Father, the President of the United States, 
that he should do so." The chief paused a moment, raised his tall 
and commanding form to its greatest height, surveyed the troops 
and crowd around him, fixed his keen eyes upon Gov. Harrison, 
and then turning them to the sky above, and pointing toward 
heaven with his sinewy arm in a manner indicative of supreme 
contempt for the paternity assigned him, said in clarion tones: " My 
father? The sun is my father, the earth is my mother, and on her 
bosom I will recline." He then stretched himself, with his war- 
riors, on the green sward. The effect was electrical, and for some 
moments there was perfect silence. 

The Governor, then, through an interpreter, told him that he un- 
derstood he had some complaints to make and redress to ask, etc. , 
and that he wished to investigate the matter and make restitutio- 
wherever it might be decided it should be done. As soon as the 
Governor was through with this introductory speech, the stately 
warrior arose, tall, athletic, manly, dignified and graceful, and with 
a voice at first low, but distinct and musical, commenced a reply. 
As he warmed up with his subject his clear tones might be heard, 



as if " trumpec-tongued," to the utmost limits of the assembly. 
The mo6t perfect silence prevailed, except when his warriors gave 
their guttural assent to some eloquent recital of the red man's 
wrong and the white man's injustice. Tecumseh recited the wrongs 
which his race had suffered from che of the massacre of the 
Moravian Indians to the present; said he did not know how he 
could ever again be the friend of the white man; that the Great 
Spirit had given to the Indian all the land from the Miami to the 
Mississippi, and from the lakes to the Ohio, as a common property 
to all the tribes in these border*, and that the land could not and 
should not be sold without the consent of all; that all the tribes on 
the continent formed but one nation; that if the United States 
would not give up the iands they had bought of the Miamis and 
the other tribes, those united with him were determined to annihi- 
late those tribes; that they were determined to have no more chiefs, 
but in future to be governed by their warriors; that unless the 
whites ceased their encroachments upon Indian lands, the fate of 
the Indians was sealed; they had been driven from the banks of 
the Delaware across the Alleghanies, and their possessions on the 
Wabash and the Illinois were now to be taken from them; that in 
a few years they would not have ground enough to bury their war- 
riors on this side of the "Father of Waters;" that all would perish, 
all their possessions taken from them by fraud or force, unless they 
stopped the progress of the white man westward; that it must be 
a war of races in which one or the other must perish; that their 
tribes had been driven toward the setting sun like a galloping 
horse (ne-kat a-kush-e ka-top-o-lin-to). 

The Shawnee language, in which this most eminent Indian states- 
man spoke, excelled all other aboriginal tongues in its musical ar- 
tienlation; and the effect of Tecumselrs oratory on this occasion 
can be more easily imagined than described. Gov. Harrison, 
although as braveasoldier ami General as any American, was over- 
come by this speech. He well knew Tecumseh's power and influ- 
ence among all the tribes, knew his bravery, courage and determi- 
nation, anil know that he meant what he said. When Tecumseh 
was done speaking there was a stillness throughout the assembly 
which was really ] lai nt'ul ; not a whisper was heard, and all eyes were 
turned from the speaker toward Gov. Harrison, who after a few 
moments came to himself, and recollecting many of the absurd 
statements of the great Indian orator, began a reply which was 
mure logical if not so eloquent. The Shawnees were attentive un- 


til Harrison's interpreter began to translate his speech to the Mia- 
mis and Pottawatomies, when Tecumseh and his warriors sprang 
to their feet, brandishing their war-clubs and tomahawks. "Tell 
hira," 6aid Tecumseh, addressing the interpreter in Shawnee, " he 
lies." The interpreter undertook to convey this message to the 
Governor in smoother language, but Tecumseh noticed the effort 
and remonstrated, " No, no; tell him belies." The warriors began 
to grow more excited, when Secretary Gibson ordered the Ameri- 
can troops in arms to advance. This allayed the rising storm, and 
as 60on as Tecumseh's " He lies " was literally interpreted to the 
Governor, the latter told Tecumseh through the interpreter to tell 
Tecumseh he would hold no further council with him. 

Thus the assembly was broken up, and one can hardly imagine a 
more exciting scene. It wonld constitute the finest subject for a 
historical painting to adorn the rotunda of the capitoL The next 
day Tecumseh requested another interview with the Governor, 
which was granted on condition that he should make an apology to 
the Governor for his language the day before. This he made 
through the interpreter. Measures for defense and protection were 
taken, however, last there should be another outbreak. Two com- 
panies of militia were ordered from the country, and the one in 
town added to them, while the Governor and his friends went into 
council fully armed and prepared for any contingency. On this oc- 
casion the conduct of Tecumseh was entirely different from that of 
the day before. Firm and intrepid, showing not the slightest fear 
or alarm, surrounded with a military force four times his own, he 
preserved the utmost composure and equanimity. No one wonld 
have supposed that he could have been the principal actor in the 
thrilling scene of the previous day. He claimed that half the 
Americans were in sympathy with him. He also said that whites 
had informed him that Gov. Harrison had purchased land from the 
Indians without any authority from the Government; that he, 
Harrison, had but two years more to remain in office, and that if 
he, Tecumseh, could prevail npon the Indians who sold the lands 
not to receive their annuities for that time, and the present Gover- 
nor displaced by a good man as his successor, the latter wonld re- 
store to the Indians all the lands purchased from them. 

The Wyandots, Kickapoos, Pottawatomies, Otta was and the Win- 
nebagoes, through their respective spokesmen, declared their 
adherence to the great Shawnee warrior and statesman. Gov. Harri- 
son then told them that he would send Tecumseh's speech to thePresi- 

I! r-'..|;v 

dent of the United States and return the answer to the Indians as soon 
asitwas received. Tecnmseh then declared that he and his allies were 
determined that the old boundary line should continue; and that 
if the whites crossed it, it would be at their peril. Gov. Harrison re- 
plied that he would be equally plain with him and state that the 
President would never allow that the lands on the Wabash were the 
property of any other tribes than those who had occupied them 
since the white people first came to America; and as the title to 
the lands lately purchased was derived from those tribes by a fair 
purchase, he might rest assured that the right of the United States 
would be supported by the sword. " So be it," was the stern and 
haughty reply of the Shawnee chieftan, as he and his braves took 
leave of the Governor and wended their way in Indian file to their 
camping ground. 

Thus ended the last conference on earth between the chivalrous 
Tecumseh and the hero of the battle of Tippecanoe. The bones of 
the first lie bleaching on the battle-field of the Thames, and those 
of the last in a mausoleum on the banks of the Ohio; each strug- 
gled for the mastery of his race, ap<3 each no doubt was equally 
honest and patriotic in his purposes. The weak yielded to the 
strong, the defenseless to the powerful, and the hunting-ground of 
the Shawnee is all occupied by his enemy. 

Tecumseh, with four of his braves, immediately embarked in a 
birch canoe, descended the Wabash, and went on to the South to 
unite the tribes of that country in a general system of self-defense 
against the encroachment of the whites. His emblem was a dis- 
jointed snake, with the motto, "Join or die!" In union alone was 

Before Tecumseh left the Prophet's town at the mouth of the 
Tippecanoe river, on his excursion to the South, he had a definite 
under, tanding with his brother and the chieftains of the other tribes 
in the "Wabash country, that they should preserve perfect peace 
with the whites until his arrangements were completed for a con- 
federacy of the tribes on both sides of the Ohio and on the Missis- 
sippi river; but it seems that while he was in the South engaged 
in his work of uniting the tribes of that country some of the North- 
ern tribes showed signs of fight and precipitated Harrison into that 
campaign which ended in the battle of Tippecanoe and the total 
route of the Indians. Tecumseh, on his return from the South, 
learning what had happened, was overcome with chagrin, disappoint- 
ment and anger, and accused his brother of duplicity and coward 


ice; indeed, it is said that he never forgave him to the day of his 
death. A short time afterward, on the breaking out of the war of 
Great Britain, he joined Proctor, at Maiden, with a party of his 
warriors, and finally suffered the fate mentioned on page 108. 

CIVIL MATTERS 1812 -'5. 

Owing to the absence of Gov. Harrison on military duty, John 
Gibson, the Secretary of the Territory, acted in the administration 
of civil affairs. In his message to the Legislature convening on the 
1st of February, 1813, he said, substantially: 

"Did I possess the abilities of Cicero or Demosthenes, I could 
not portray in more glowing colors our foreign and domestic politi- 
cal situation than it is already experienced within our own breasts. 
The United States have been compelled, by frequent acts of injus- 
tice, to declare war against England. For a detail of the causes of 
this war I would refer to the message of President Madison; it 
does honor to his head and heart. Although not an admirer of 
war, I am glad to see onr little but inimitable navy riding triumph- 
ant on the seas, but chagrined to find that our armies by land are 
so little successful. The spirit of '76 appears to have fled from our 
continent, or, if not fled, is at least asleep, for it appears not to 
pervade our armies generally. At your last assemblage onr politi- 
cal horizon seemed clear, and our infant Territory bid fair for rapid 
and rising grandeur; but, alas, the scene has changed; and whether 
this change, as respects our Territory, has been owing to an over 
anxiety in us to extend our dominions, or to a wish for retaliation 
by onr foes, or to a foreign influence, I shall not say. The Indians, 
our former neighbors and friends, have become our most inveterate 
foes. Our former frontiers are now our wilds, and our inner settle- 
ments have become frontiers. Some of onr best citizens, and old 
men worn down with age, and helpless women and innocent 
babes, have fallen victims to savage crnelty. I have done my duty 
as well as I can, and hope that the interposition of Providence will 
protect ua»" 

The many complaints made about the Territorial Government 
Mr. Gibson said, were caused more by default of officers than of the 
law. Said he: " It is an old and, I believe, correct adage, that 
' good officers make good soldiers.' This evil having taken root, I do 
not know how it can be eradicated; but it may be remedied. In 
place of men searching after and accepting commissions before they 


are even tolerably qualified, thereby subjecting themselves to ridi- 
cule and their country to ruin, barely for the name of the thing, I 
think may be remedied by a previous examination." 

During this session of the Legislature the seat of the Territorial 
Government was declared to be at Corydon, and immediately acting 
Governor Gibson prorogued the Legislature to meet at that place, 
the first Monday of December, 1813. During this year the Terri- 
tory was almost defenseless; Indian outrages were of common 
occurrence, but no general outbreak was made. The militia-men 
were armed with rifles and long knives, and many of the rangers 
carried tomahawks. 

In 1813 Thomas Posey, who was at that time a Senator in Con- 
gress from Tennessee, and who had been officer of the army of the 
Revolution, was appointed Governor of Indiana Territory, to suc- 
ceed Gen. Harrison. He arrived in Yincennes and entered upm 
the discharge of his duties May 25, 1813. During this year several 
expeditions against the Indian settlements were set on foot. 

In his first message to the Legislature the following December, 
at Corydon, Gov. Posey said: " The present crisis is awful, and big 
with great events. Our land and nation is involved in the common 
calamity of war; but we are under the protecting care of the benefi- 
cent Being, who has on a former occasion brought us safely through 
an arduous struggle and placed us on a foundation of independence, 
freedom and happiness. He will not suffer to be taken from us 
what He, in His great wisdom has thought proper to confer and 
bless us with, if we make a wise and virtuous use of His good 
gifts. * * * Although our affairs, at the commencement of 
the war, wore a gloomy aspect, they have brightened, and promise 
a certainty of success, if properly directed and conducted, of which 
I have no doubt, as the President and heads of departments of the 
general Government are men of undoubted patriotism, talents and 
experience, and who have grown old in the service of their country. 
* * * It must be obvious to every thinking man that we were 
forced into the war Every measure consistent with honor, both 
before and since the declaration of war, has tried to be on amicable 
terms with our enemy, * * * You who reside in various parts 
of the Territory have it in your power to understand what will tend 
to its local and general advantage. The judiciary system would 
require a revisal and amendment. The militia law is verv defective 
and requires your immediate attention. It is necessary to have 


good roads and highways in as many directions through the Terri- 
tory as the circumstances and situation of the inhabitants will 
admit; it would contribute very much to promote the settlement 
and improvement of the Territory. Attention to education is highly 
necessary. There is an appropriation made by Congress, in lands, 
for the purpose of.establishing public schools. It comes now with- 
in your province to carry into operation the design of the appro- 

This Legislature passed several very necessary laws for the wel- 
fare of the settlements, and the following year, as Gen. Harrison 
was generally successful in his military campaigns in the North- 
west, the settlements in Indiana began to increase and improve. 
The fear of danger from Indians had in a great measure subsided, 
and the tide of immigration began again to flow. In January, 
1814, about a thousand Miamis assembled at Fort Wayne for the 
purpose of obtaining food to prevent starvation. They met with 
ample hospitality, and their example was speedily followed by 
others. These, with other acts of kindness, won the lasting friend- 
ship of the Indians, many of whom had fought in the interests of 
Great Britain. General treaties between the United States and the 
Northwestern tribes were subsequently concluded, and the way 
was fully opened for the improvement and settlement of the lands. 

population in 1815. 

The population of the Territory of Indiana, as given in the 
official returns to- the Legislature of 1815, was as follows, by 


COUNTIES. White males of 21 and over. TOTAL. 

Wayne 1,225 6,407 

Franklin 1,430 7,370 

Dearborn 902 4.121 

Switzerland 377 1,832 

Jefferson-- 874 4,270 

Clark 1,387 7,150 

Washington 1,420 7,317 

Harrison 1,050 6,075 

Knox 1,391 8,068 

Gibson 1,100 5,330 

Posey 320 1,619 

Warrick 280 1,41a 

Perry 350 1,720 

Grand Totals 12,112 


The well-known ordinance of 1787 conferred many " rights and 
privileges " upon the inhabitants of the Northwestern Territory, and 


consequently upon the people of Indiana Territory, but after all it 
came far short of conferring as many privileges as are enjoyed at 
the present day by our Territories. They did not have a full form 
of Republican government. A freehold estate in 500 acres of land 
was one of the necessary qualifications of each member of the legis- 
lative council of the Territory ; every member of the Territorial House 
of Representatives was required to hold, in his own right, 200 acres 
of land; and the privilege of voting for members of the House 
of Representatives was restricted to those inhabitants who, in addi- 
tion to other qualifications, owned severally at least 50 acres of 
land. The Governor of the the Territory was invested with the 
power of appointing officers of the Territorial militia, Judges of the 
inferior Courts, Clerks of the Courts, Justices of the Peace, Sheriffs, 
Coroners, County Treasurers and County Surveyors. He was also 
authorized to divide the Territory into districts; to apportion 
among the several counties the members of the House of Represent- 
atives; to prevent the passage of any Territorial law; and to con- 
vene and dissolve the General Assembly whenever he thought best. 
None of the Governors, however, ever exercised these extraordinary 
powers arbitrarily. Nevertheless, the people were constantly agi- 
tating the question of extending the right of suffrage. Five years 
after the organization of the Territory, the Legislative Council, in 
reply to the Governor's Message, said: " Although we are not as 
completely independent in our legislative capacity as we would 
wish to be, yet we are sensible that we must wait with patience for 
that period of time when our population will burst the trammels 
of a Territorial government, and we shall assume the character more 
consonant to Republicanism. * * * The confidence which our 
fellow citizens have uniformly had in your administration has been 
such that they have hitherto had no reason to be jealous of the un- 
limited power which you possess over our legislative proceedings. 
We, however, cannot help regretting that such powers have 
been lodged in the hands of any one, especially when it is recol- 
lected to what dangerous lengths the exercise of those powers may 
be extended." 

After repeated petitions the people of Indiana were empowered 
by Congress to elect the members of the Legislative Council by popu- 
lar vote. This act was passed in 1S09, and denned what was known 
as the property qualification of voters. These qualifications were 
abolished by Congress in 1811, which extended the right of voting 
for members of the General Assembly and for a Territorial delegate 


to Congress to every free white male person who had attained the 
age of twenty -one years, and who, having paid a county or Terri- 
torial tax, was a resident of the Territory and had resided in it for 
a year. In 1814 the voting qualification in Indiana was defined by 
Congress, " to every tree white male person having a freehold in 
the Territory, and being a resident of the same." The House of 
Kepresentatives was authorized by Congress to lay off the Territory 
into five districts, in each of which the qualified voters were em- 
powered to elect a member of the Legislative Council. The division 
was made, one to two counties in each district. 

At the session in August, 1814, the Territory was also divided 
into three judicial circuits, and provisions were made for holding 
courts in the same. The Governor was empowered to appoint a 
presiding Judge in each circuit, and two Associate Judges of the 
circuit court in each county. Their compensation was fixed at 
$700 per annum. 

The same year the General Assembly granted charters to two 
banking institutions, the Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank of Madi- 
son and the Bank of Vincennes. The first was authorized to raise 
a capital of $750,000, and the other $500,000. On the organization 
of the State these banks were merged into the State Bank and its 

Here we close the history of the Territory of Indiana. 


The last regular session of the Territorial Legislature was held at 
Corydon, convening in December, 1815. The message of Governor 
Posey congratulated the people of the Territory npon the general 
success of the settlements and the great increase of immigration, 
recommended light taxes and a careful attention to the promotion 
of education and the improvement of the State roads and highways. 
He also recommended a revision of the territorial laws and an 
amendment of the militia system. Several laws were passed pre- 
paratory to a State Government, and December 14, 1815, a me- 
morial to Congress was adopted praying for the authority to adopt 
a constitution and State Government. Mr. Jennings,the Territorial 
delegate, laid this memorial before Congress on the 28th, and April 
19, 1816, the President approved the bill creating the State of In- 
diana. Accordingly, May 30 following, a general election was held 
for a constitutional convention, which met at Corydon June 10 to 
29, Johathan Jennings presiding and Win. Hendricks acting as 

"The convention that formed the first constitution of the State 
of Indiana was composed mainly of clear-minded, unpretending 
men of common sense, whose patriotism was unquestionable and 
whose morals were fair. Their familiarity with the theories of the 
Declaration of American Independence, their Territorial experience 
under the provisions of the ordinance of 1787,and their knowledge of 
the principles of the constitution of the United States were sufficient, 
when combined, to lighten materially their labors in the great work 
of forming a constitution for a new State. With such landmarks 
in view, the labors of similar conventions in other States and Ter- 
ritories have been rendered comparatively light. In the clearness 
and conciseness of its style, in the comprehensive and just pro- 
visions which it made for the maintainance of civil and religious 
liberty, in its mandates, which were designed to protect the rights 
of the people collectively and individually, and to provide for the 
public welfare, the constitution that was formed for Indiana in 1816 
was not inferior to any of the State constitutions which were in ex- 
istence at that time."— Dillon's History of Indiana. 


The first State election took place on the first Monday of August, 
1816, and Jonathan Jennings was elected Governor, and Christo- 
pher Harrison, Lieut. Governor. Win. Hendricks was elected to 
represent the new State in the House of Representatives of the 
United States. 

The first General Assembly elected under the new constitution 
began its session at Corydon, Nov. 4, 1816. John Paul was called 
to the chair of the Senate pro tern., and Isaac Blackford was elected 
Speaker of the House of Representatives. 

Among other things in the new Governor's message were the 
following remarks: " The result of your deliberation will be con- 
sidered as indicative of its future character as well as of the future 
happiness and prosperity of its citizens. In the commencement 
of the State government the shackles of the colonial should be for- 
gotten m our exertions to prove, by happy experience, that a uni- 
form adherence to the first principles of our Government and a 
virtuous exercise of its powers will best secure efficiency to its 
measures and stability to its character. Without a frequent recur- 
rence to those principles, the administration of the Government 
will imperceptibly become more and more arduous, uutil the sim- 
plicity of our Republican institutions may eventually be lost in 
dangerous expedients and political design. Under every free gov- 
ernment the happiness of the citizens must be identified with their 
morals; and while a constitutional exercise of their rights shall 
continue to have its due weight in discharge of the duties required 
of the constituted authorities of the State, too much attention can- 
not be bestowed to' the encouragement and promotion of every 
moral virtue, and to the enactment of laws calculated to restrain 
the vicious, and prescribe punishment for every crime commensu- 
rate with its enormity. In measuring, however, to each crime its 
adequate punishment, it will be well to recollect that the certainty 
of punishment has generally the surest effect to prevent crime; 
while punishments unnecessarily severe too often produce the ac- 
quittal of the guilty and disappoint one of the greatest objects of 
legislation and good government * * * The dissemination of 
useful knowledge will be indispensably necessary as a support to 
morals and as a restraint to vice; and on this subject it will only 
be necessary to direct your attention to the plan of education as 
prescribed by the constitution. * * * I recommend to your 
consideration the propriety of providing by law, to prevent more 
effectually any unlawful attempts to seize and carry into bondage 


persons of color legally entitled to their freedom ; and at the same 
time, as far as practicable, to prevent those who rightfully owe ser- 
vice to the citizens of any other State or Territory from seeking 
within the limits of this State a refuge from the possession of their 
lawful owners. Such a measure will tend to secure those who are 
free from any unlawful attempts (to enslave them) and secures the 
rights of the citizens of the other States and Territories as far as 
ought reasonably to be expected." 

This session of the Legislature elected James Noble and "Waller 
Taylor to the Senate of the United States; Eobert A. New was 
elected Secretary of State; W. H. Lilley, Auditor of State; and 
Daniel C. Lane, Treasnrer of State. The session adjourned Janu- 
ary 3, 1817. 

As the history of the State of Indiana from this time forward is 
best given by topics, we will proceed to give them in the chronolog- 
ical order of their origin. 

The happy close of the war with Great Britain in 1814 was fol- 
lowed by a great rush of immigrants to the great Territory of the 
Northwest, including the new States, all now recently cleared of 
the enemy; and by 1820 the State of Indiana had more than 
doubled her population, having at this time 147,178, and by 1825 
nearly doubled this again, that is to say, a round quarter of a mil- 
lion, — a growth more rapid probably than that of any other section 
in this country since the days of Columbus. 

The period lS25-'30 was a prosperous time for the young State. 
Immigration continued to be rapid, the crops were generally good 
and the hopes of the people raised higher than they had ever been 
before. Accompanying this immigration, however, were paupers 
and indolent people, who threatened to be so numerous as to 
become a serious burden. On this subject Governor Ray called for 
legislative action, but the Legislature scarcely knew what to do 
and they deferred action. 


In 1830 there still lingered within the bounds of the State two 
tribes of Indians, whose growing indolence, intemperate habits, 
dependence upon their neighbors for the bread of life, diminished 
prospects of living by the chase, continued perpetration of murders 
and other outrages of dangerous precedent, primitive igno- 
rance and unrestrained exhibitions of savage customs before the 
children of the settlers, combined to make them subjects for a more 
rigid government. The removal of the Indians west of the Missis- 
sippi was a melancholy but necessary duty. The time having 
arrived for the emigration of the Pottawatomies, according to the 
stipulations contained in their treaty with the United States, they 
evinced that reluctance common among aboriginal tribes on leav- 
ing the homes of their childhood and the graves of their ancestors. 
Love of country is a principle planted in the bosoms of all man- 
kind. The Laplander and the Esquimaux of the frozen north, 
who feed on seals, moose and the meat of the polar bear, would not 
exchange their country for the sunny clime of "Araby the blest." 
Color and shades of complexion have nothing to do with the 
heart's best, warmest emotions. Then we should not wonder that the 
Pottawatomie, on leaving his home on the Wabash, felt as sad as 
.^Eschines did when ostracised from his native land, laved by the 
waters of the classic Scamander; and the noble and eloquent Nas- 
waw-kay, on leaving the encampment on Crooked creek, felt his 
banishment as keenly as Cicero when thrust from the bosom of his 
beloved Rome, for which he had spent the best efforts of his life, 
and for which he died. 

On Sunday morning, May 18, 1832, the people on the west side 
of the Wabash were thrown into a state of great consternation, on 
account of a report that a large body of hostile Indians had 
approached within 15 miles of Lafayette and killed two men. The 
alarm soon spread throughout Tippecanoe, Warren, Vermillion, 
Fountain, Montgomery, and adjoining counties. Several brave 
commandants of companies on the west side of the Wabash in 
Tippecanoe county, raised troops to go and meet the enemy, and 
dispatched an express to Gen. Walker with a request that he should 


make a call upon the militia of the county to equip themselves 
instantly and march to the aid of their bleeding countrymen. 
Thereupon Glen. Walker, CoL Davis, Lieut-CoL Jennere, Capt. 
Brown, of the artillery, and various other gallant spirits mounted 
their war steeds and proceeded to the army, and thence upon a 
scout to the Grand Prairie to discover, if possible, the number, 
intention and situation of the Indians. Over 300 old men, women 
and children flocked precipitately to Lafayette and the surrounding 
country east of the Wabash. A remarkable event occurred in this 
stampede, as follows: 

A man, wife and seven children resided on the edge of the 
Grand Prairie, west of Lafayette, in a locality considered particu- 
larly dangerous. On hearing of this alarm he made hurried 
preparations to fly with his family to Lafayette for safety. Imag- 
ine his surprise and chagrin when his wife told him she would not 
go one step; that she did not believe in being scared at trifles, and 
in her opinion there was not an Indian within 100 miles of them. 
Importunity proved unavailing, and the disconsolate and frightened 
husband and father took all the children except the youngest, bade 
his wife and babe a long and solemn farewell, never expecting to 
see them again, unless perhaps he might find their mangled re- 
mains, minus their scalps. On arriving at Lafayette, his acquaint- 
ances rallied and berated him for abandoning his wife and child in 
that way, but he met their jibes with a stoical indifference, avowing 
that he should not be held responsible for their obstinacy. 

As the shades of the first evening drew on, the wife felt lonely; 
and the chirping of the frogs and the notes of the whippoorwill only 
intensified her loneliness, until she haif wished she had accom- 
panied the rest of the family in their flight She remained in the 
house a .ew hours without striking a light, and then concluded 
that '• discretion was the better part of valor," took her babe and 
some bed-clothes, fastened the cabin door, and hastened to a sink- 
hole in the woods, in which she afterward said that she and her 
babe slept soundly until sunrise next morning. 

Lafayette literally boiled over with people and patriotism. A 
meeting was held at the court-house, speeches were made by 
patriotic individuals, and to allay the fears of the women an armed 
police was immediately ordered, to be called the ■ Lafayette Guards." 
Thos. T. Benbridge was elected Captain, and John Cox, Lieutenant 
CapL Benbridge yielded the active drill of his guards to the 
Lieutenant, who had served two years in the war of 1812. After 


the meeting adjourned, the guards were paraded on the green 
where Purdue's block now stands, and put through sundry evolu- 
tions by Lieut. Cox, who proved to be an expert drill officer, and 
whose clear, shrill voice rung out on the night air as he marched 
and counter-marched the troops from where the paper-mill stands 
tu Main street ferry, and over the suburbs, generally. Every old 
gun and sword that could be found was brought into requisition, 
with a new shine on them. 

Gen. Walker, Colonels Davis and Jenners, and other officers 
joined in a call of the people of Tippecanoe county for volunteers to 
march to the frontier settlements. A large meeting of the citizens 
assembled in the public square in the town, and over 300 volunteers 
mostly mouuted men, left for the scene of action, with an alacrity 
that would have done credit to veterans. 

The first night they camped nine miles west of Lafayette, near 
Grand Prairie. They placed sentinels for the night and retired to 
rest. A few of the subaltern officers very injudiciously concluded 
to try what effect a false alarm would have upon the sleeping sol- 
diers, and a few of them withdrew to a neighboring thicket, and 
thence made a charge upon the picket guards, who, after hailing 
them and receiving no countersign, fired off their guns and ran for 
the Colonel's marquee in the center of the encampment. The aroused 
Colonels and staff sprang to their feet, shouting "To arms! to arms!" 
and the obedient, though panic-stricken soldiers seized their guns 
and demanded to be led against the invading foe. A wild scene of 
disorder ensued, aijd amid the din of arms and loud commands of 
the officers the raw militia felt that they had already got into the 
red jaws of battle. One of the alarm sentinels, in running to the 
center of the encampment, leaped over a blazing camp fire, and 
alighted full upon the breast and stomach of a sleeping lawyer, who 
was, no doubt, at that moment dreaming of vested and contingent 
remainders, rich clients and good fees, which in legal parlance was 
suddenly estopped by the hob-nails in the stogas of the scared 
sentinel. As soon as the counselor's vitality and consciousness 
sufficiently returned, he put in some strong demurrers to the con- 
duct of the affrighted picket men, averring that he would greatly 
prefer being wounded by the enemy to being run over by a cowardly 
booby. Next morning the organizers of the ruse were severely 

May 28, L832, Governor Noble ordered General Walker to call 
out his whole command, if necessary, and supply arms, horses and 


provisions, even though it be necessary to seize them. The next 
day four baggage wagons, loaded with camp equipments, stores, 
provisions and other articles, were sent to the little army, who were 
thus provided for a campaign of five or six weeks. The following 
Thursday a 6quad of cavalry, under Colonel Sigler, passed through 
Lafayette on the way to the hostile region ; and on the 13th of June 
Colonel Russell, commandant of the 40th Regiment, Indiana Militia, 
passed through Lafayette with 340 mounted volunteers from the 
counties of Marion, Hendricks and Johnson. Also, several com- 
panies of volunteers from Montgomery, Fountain and Warren 
counties, hastened to the relief of the frontier settlers. The troops 
from Lafayette marched to Sugar creek, and after a short time, 
there being no probability of finding any of the enemy, were 
ordered to return, They all did so except about 45 horsemen, who 
volunteered to cross Hickory creek, where the Indians had com- 
mitted their depredations. They organized a company by electing 
Samuel McGeorge, a soldier of the war of 1812, Captain, and Amos 
Allen and Andrew W. Ingraham, Lieutenants. 

Crossing Hickory creek, they marched as far as O'Plein river 
without meeting with opposition. Finding no enemy here they 
concluded to return. On the first night of their march home they 
encamped on the open prairie, posting sentinels, as usual. About 
ten o'clock it began to rain, and it was with difficulty that the sen- 
tinels kept their guns dry. Capt. I. H. Cpx and a man named Fox 
had been posted as sentinels within 15 or 20 paces of each other. 
Cox drew the skirt of his overcoat over his gun-lock to keep itdry; 
Fox, perceiving this motion, and in the darkness taking him for an 
Indian, fired upon him and fractured his thigh-bone. Several sol- 
diers immediately ran toward the place where the flash of the gun 
had been seen; but when they cocked and leveled their guns on the 
figure which had fired at Cox, the wounded man caused them to 
desist by crying, " Don't shoot him, it was a sentinel who shot me." 
The next day the wounded man was left behind the company in 
care of four men, who, as soon as possible, removed him on a litter 
to Col. Moore's company of Illinois militia, then encamped on the 
O'Plein, where Joliet now stands. 

Although the main body returned to Lafayette in eight or nine 
days, yet the alarm among the people was so great that they could 
not be induced to return to their farms for some time. The pres- 
ence of the hostiles was hourly expected by the frontier settlements 
of Indiana, from Vinceunes to La Porte. In Clinton county the 


inhabitants gathered within the forts and prepared for a regular 
siege, while our neighbors at Crawfordsville were suddenly 
astounded by the arrival of a courier at full speed with the announce- 
ment that the Indians, more than a thousand in number, were then 
crossing the Nine-Mile prairie about twelve miles north of town, 
killing and scalping all. The strongest houses were immediately 
put in a condition of defense, and sentinels were placed at the prin- 
cipal points in the direction of the enemy. Scouts were sent out to 
reconnoitre, and messengers were dispatched in different directions 
to announce the danger to the farmers, and to urge them to hasten 
with their families into town, and to assist in fighting the moment- 
arily expected savages. At night-fall the scouts brought in the 
news that the Indians had not crossed the "Wabash, but were hourly 
expected at Lafayette. The citizens of Warren, Fountain and Ver- 
million counties were alike terrified by exaggerated stories of Indian 
massacres, and immediately prepared for defense. It turned out 
that the Indians were not within 100 miles of these temporary 
forts; but this by no means proved a want of courage in the citizens. 

After some time had elapsed, a portion of the troops were 
marched back into Tippecanoe county and honorably discharged; 
but the settlers were still loth for a long time to return to their 
farms. Assured by published reports that the Miamis and Potta- 
watomies did not intend to join the hostiles, the people by degrees 
recovered from the panic and began to attend to their neglected 

During this time there was actual war in Illinois. Black Hawk 
and his warriors, well nigh surrounded by a well-disciplined foe, 
attempted to cross to the west bank of the Mississippi, but after 
being chased up into Wisconsin and to the Mississippi again, he 
was in a final battle taken captive. A iew years after his liberation, 
about 1837 or 1838, he died, on the banks of the Des Moines river, 
in Iowa, in what is now the county of Davis, where his remains 
were deposited above ground, in the usual Indian style. His re- 
mains were afterward stolen and carried away, but they were re- 
covered by the Governor of Iowa and placed in the museum of the 
Historical Society at Burlington, where they were finally destroyed 
by fire. 


In July, 1S37, Col. Abel C. Pepper convened the Pottawatomie 
nation of Indians at Lake Ke-waw-nay for the purpose of remov- 
ing them west of the Mississippi. That fall a small party of some 
80 or 90 Pottawatomies was conducted west of the Mississippi 
river by George Promt, Esq. Among the number were Ke-waw- 
nay, Nebash, Nae-waw-kay, Pash-po-ho and many other leading 
men of the nation. The regular emigration of these poor Indians, 
about 1,000 in number, took place under Col. Pepper and Gen. Tip- 
ton in the summer of 1838. 

It was a sad and mournful spectacle to witness these children of 
the forest slowly retiring from the home of their childhood, that 
contained not only the graves of their revered ancestors, but also 
many endearing scenes to which their memories would ever recur 
as sunny spots along their pathway through the wilderness. They 
felt that they were bidding farewell to the hills, valleys and streams 
of their infancy; the more exciting hunting-grounds of their ad- 
vanced youth, as well as the stern and bloody battle-fields where 
they had contended in riper manhood, on which they had received 
wounds, and where many of their friends and loved relatives had 
fallen covered with gore and with glory. All these they were leav- 
ing behind them, to be desecrated by the plowshare of the white 
man. As they cast mournful glances back toward these loved 
scenes that were rapidly fading in the distance, tears fell from the 
cheek of the downcast warrior, old men trembled, matrons wept, 
the swarthy maiden's cheek turned pale, and 6igli3 and half-sup- 
pressed sobs escaped from the motley groups as they passed along, 
some on foot, some on horseback, and others in wagons, — sad as a 
funeral procession. Several of the aged warriors were seen to cast 
glances toward the sky, as if they were imploring aid from the 
spirits of their departed heroes, who were looking down upon them 
from the clouds, or from the Great Spirit, who would ultimately 
redress the wrongs of the red man, whose broken bow had fallen 
from his hand, and whose sad heart was bleeding within him. 
Ever and anon one of the party would start out into the brush and 
break back to their old encampments on Eel river and on the Tippe- 


canoe, declaring that they would rather die than be banished from 
their country. Tims, scores of discontented emigrants returned 
from different points on their journey ; and it was several years 
before they could be induced to join their countrymen west of the 

Several years after the removal of the Pottawatoinies the Miami 
nation was removed to their Western home, by coercive means, un- 
der an escort of United States troops. They were a proud and 
once powerful nation, but at the time of their removal were far 
inferior, in point of numbers, to the Pottawatomie guests whom 
they had permitted to settle and hunt upon their lands, and fish in 
their lakes and rivers after they had been driven southward by 
powerful and warlike tribes who inhabited the shores of the North- 
ern lakes. 


In 1831 a joint resolution of the Legislature of Indiana, request- 
ing an appropriation by Congress for the extinguishment of the 
Indian title to lands within the State, was forwarded to that body! 
which granted the request. The Secretary of War, by authority, 
appointed a committee of three citizens to carry into effect the pro- 
visions of the recent law. The Miainis were surrounded on all 
sides by American settlers, and were situated almost in the heart 
of the State on the line of the canal then being made. The chiefs 
were called to a council for the purpose of making a treaty; they 
promptly came, .but peremptorily refused to go westward or sell 
the remainder of their land. The Pottawatoinies sold about 
6,000,000 acres in Indiana, Illinois and Michigan, including all 
their claim in this State. 

In 1838 a treaty was concluded with the Miami Indians through 
the good offices of Col. A. C. Pepper, the Indian agent, by which 
a considerable of the most desirable portion of their reserve was 
ceded to the United States. 


As an example of the manner in which land speculators were 
treated by the early Indianians, we cite the following instances 
from Cox's '• .Recollections of the Wabash Valley." 

At Crawfordsville, Dec. 2±, 1S24, many parties were present 
from the eastern and southern portions of the State, as well as from 
Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee and even Pennsylvania, to attend a 
land sale. There was but little bidding against each other. The 
settlers, or " squatters," as they were called by the speculators, had 
arranged matters among themselves to their general satisfaction. 
If, upon comparing numbers, it appeared that two were after the 
same tract of land, one would ask the other what he would take 
not to bid against him; if neither would consent to be bought off 
they would retire and cast lots, and the lucky one would enter the 
tract at Congress price, $1.25 an acre, and the other would enter the 
second choice on his list. If a speculator made a bid, or showed a 
disposition to take a settler's claim from him, he soon saw the 
white of a score of eyes glaring at him, and he would " crawfish" 
out of the crowd at the first opportunity. 

The settlers made it definitely known to foreign capitalists that 
they would enter the tracts of land they had settled upon before 
allowing the latter to come in with their speculations. The land 
was sold in tiers of townships, beginning at the southern part of 
the district and continuing north until all had been offered at 
public sale. This plan was persisted in, although it kept many on 
the ground for several days waiting, who desired to purchase land 
in the northern part of the district. 

In 1827 a regular Indian scare was gotten up to keep specu- 
lators away for a short time. A man who owned a claim on Tippe- 
canoe river, near Pretty prairie, fearing that some one of the 
numerous land hunters constantly scouring the country might 
enter the land he had settled upon before he could raise the money 
to buy it, and seeing one day a cavalcade of land hunters riding 
toward where his land lay, mounted his horse and darted oil' at 
full speed to meet them, swinging his hat and shouting at the top 
of his voice, " Indians! Indians! the woods are full of Indians, 
■ (133) 


murdering and scalping all before them!" They paused a moment, 
but as the terrified horseman still urged his jaded animal and cried, 
"Help! Longlois,Cicots, help!" they turned and fled like a troop of 
retreating cavalry, hastening to the thickest settlements and giving 
the alarm, which spread like fire among stubble until the whole 
frontier region was shocked with the startling cry. The squatter 
who fabricated the story and started this false alarm took a cir- 
cuitous route home that evening, and while others were busy 
building temporary block-houses and rubbing up their guns to 
meet the Indians, he was quietly gathering up money and slipped 
down to Crawfordsville and entered his land, chuckling to himself, 
"There's a Yankee trick for yon, done up by a Hoosier." 


In 1814 a society of Germans under Frederick Rappe, who had 
originally come from Wirtemberg, Germany, and more recently 
from Pennsylvania, founded a settlement on the Wabash about 50 
miles above its mouth. They were industrious, frugal and honest 
Lutherans. They purchased a large quantity of land and laid off 
a town, to which they gave the name of " Harmony," afterward 
called "New Harmony." They erected a church and a public 
school-house, opened farms, planted orchards and vineyards, built 
flouring mills, established a house of public entertainment, a public 
store, and carried on all the arts of peace with skill and regularity. 
Their property was "in common," according to the custom of an- 
cient Christians at Jerusalem, but the governing power, both tem- 
poral and spiritual, was vested in Frederick Rappe, the elder, who 
was regarded as the founder of the society. By the year 1821 the 
society numbered about 900. Every individual of proper age con- 
tributed his proper share of labor. There were neither spendthrifts, 
idlers nor drunkards, and during the whole 17 years of their sojourn 
in America there was not a single lawsuit among them. Every 
controversy arising among them was settled by arbitration, expla- 
nation and compromise before sunset of the day, literally according 
to the injunction of the apostle of the New Testament. 

About 1S25 the town of Harmony and a considerable quantity 
of land adjoining was sold to Robert Owen, father of David Dale 
Owen, the State Geologist, and of Robert Dale Owen, of later 
notoriety. He was a radical philosopher from Scotland, who had 
become distinguished for his philanthropy and opposition to 


Christianity. He charged the latter with teaching false notions 
regarding human responsibility — notions which have since been 
clothed in the language of physiology, mental philosophy, etc. 
Said he: 

"That which has hitherto been called wickedness in our fellow 
men has proceeded from one of two distinct causes, or from some 
combination of those causes. They are what are termed bad or 

" 1. Because they are born with faculties or propensities which 
render them more liable, under the same circumstances, than other 
men, to commit such actions as are usually denominated wicked; 

" 2. Because they have been placed by birth or other events in 
particular countries, — have been influenced from infancy by par- 
ents, playmates and others, and have been surrounded by those 
circumstances which gradually and necessarily trained them in the 
habits and sentiments called wicked; or, 

" 3. They have become wicked in consequence of some particu- 
lar combination of these causes. 

" If it should be asked, Whence then has wickedness pro- 
ceeded ? I reply, Solely from the ignorance of our forefathers. 

" Every society which exists at present, as well as every society 
which history records, has been formed and governed on a belief 
in the following notions, assumed as first principles: 

" 1. That it is in the power of every individual to form his own 
character. Hence the various systems called by the name of religion, 
codes of law, and punishments; hence, also, the angry passions 
entertained by individuals and nations toward each other. 

" 2. That the affections are at the command of the individual. 
Hence insincerity and degradation of character; hence the miseries 
of domestic life, and more than one-half of all the crimes of man- 

" 3. That it is necessary a large portion of mankind should ex- 
ist in ignorance and poverty in order to secure to the remaining part 
such a degree of happiness as they now enjoy. Hence a system of 
counteraction in the pursuits of men, a general opposition among 
individuals to the interests of each other, and the necessary effects 
of such a system, — ignorance, poverty and vice. 


During the administration of Gov. Whitcomb the war with 
Mexico occurred, which resulted in annexing to the United States 
vast tracts of land in the south and west. Indiana contributed her 
full ratio to the troops in that war, and with a remarkable spirit of 
promptness and patriotism adopted all measures to sustain the gen- 
eral Government. These new acquisitions of territory re-opened 
the discussion of the slavery question, and Governor Whitcomb 
expressed his opposition to a further extension of the " national 

The causes which led to a declaration of war against Mexico in 
1846, must be sought for as far back as the year 1S30, when the 
present State of Texas formed a province of New and Independent 
Mexico. During the years immediately preceding 1S30, Moses 
Austin, of Connecticut, obtained a liberal grant of lands from the 
established Government, and on his death his son was treated in an 
equally liberal manner. The glowing accounts rendered by Aus- 
tin, and the vivid picture of Elysian fields drawn by visiting jour- 
nalists, soon resulted in the influx of a large tide of immigrants, 
nor did the movement to the Southwest cease until 1830. The 
Mexican province held a prosperous population, comprising 10,000 
American citizens. The rapacious Government of the Mexicans 
looked with greed and jealousy upon their eastern province, and, 
under the presidency of Gen. Santa Anna, enacted such measures, 
both unjust and oppressive, as would meet their design of goading 
the people of Texas on to revolution, and thus afford an opportu- 
nity for the infliction of punishment upon subjects whose only 
crime was industry and its accompaniment, prosperity. Precisely 
in keeping with the course pursued by the British toward the col- 
onists of the Eastern States in the last century, Santa Anna's 
Government met the remonstrances of the colonists of Texas with 
threats; and they, secure in their consciousness of right quietly 
issued their declaration of independence, and proved its literal 
meaning on the field of Gonzales in 1835, having with a force of 


500 men forced the Mexican army of 1,000 to fly for refuge to their 
strongholds. Battle after battle followed, bringing victory always 
to the Colonists, and ultimately resulting in ihe total rout of the 
Mexican army and the evacuation of Texas. The routed army 
after a short term of rest reorganized, and reappeared in the Terri- 
tory, 8,000 strong. On April 21, a division of this large force 
under Santa Anna encountered the Texans under General Samuel 
Houston on the banks of the San Jacinto, and though Houston 
could only oppose 800 men to the Mexican legions, the latter were 
driven from the field, nor could they reform their scattered ranks until 
their General was captured next day and forced to sign the declaration 
of 1S35. The signature of Santa Anna, though ignored by the 
Congress of the Mexican .Republic, and consequently left unratified 
on the part of Mexico, was effected in so much, that after the sec- 
ond defeat of the army of that Kepublic all the hostilities of an 
important nature ceased, the Republic of Texas was recognized by 
the powers, and subsequently became an integral part of the United 
States, July 4, 1S46. At this period General Herrera was pres- 
ident of Mexico. He was a man of peace, of common 6ense, and 
very patriotic; and he thus entertained, or pretended to enter- 
tain, the great neighboring Republic in high esteem. For this 
reason he grew unpopular with his people, and General Paredes 
was called to the presidential chair, which he continued to occupy 
until the breaking out of actual hostilities with the United States, 
when Gen. Santa Anna was elected thereto. 

President Polk, aware of the state of feeling in Mexico, ordered 
Gen. Zachary Taylor, in command of the troops in the Southwest, to 
proceed to Texas, and post himself as near to the Mexican border 
as he deemed prudent. At the same time an American squadron was 
dispatched to the vicinity, in the Gulf of Mexico. In. November, 
General Taylor had taken his position at Corpus Christi, a Texan 
settlement on a bay of the same name, with about 4,000 men. On 
the 13th of January, 1846, the President ordered him to advance 
with his forces to the Rio Grande; accordingly he proceeded, and 
in March stationed himself on the north bank of that river, with- 
in cannon-shot of the Mexican town of Matamoras. Here he 
hastily erected a fortress, called Fort Brown. The territory ly- 
ing between the river Nueces and the Rio Grande river, about 
120 miles in width, was claimed both by Texas and Mexico; ac- 
cording to the latter, therefore, General Taylor had actually 
invaded her Territory, and had thus committed an open 


act of war. On the 26th of April, the Mexican General, Ampudia, 
gave notice to this effect to General Taylor, and on the same day a 
party of American dragoons, sixty-three in number, being on the 
north side of the Rio Grande, were attacked, and, after the loss of 
sixteen men killed and wounded, were forced to surrender. Their 
commander, Captain Thornton, only escaped. The Mexican forces 
had now crossed the river above Matamoras and were supposed to 
meditate an attack on Point Isabel, where Taylor had established a 
depot of supplies for his army. On the 1st of May, this officer left 
a small number of troops at Fort Brown, and marched with his 
chief forces, twenty-three hundred men, to the defense of Point 
Isabel. Having garrisoned this place, he set out on his return. 
On the 8th of May, about noon, he met the Mexican army, six 
thousand strong, drawn up in battle array, on the prairie near Palo 
Alto. The Americans at once advanced to the attack, and, after an 
action of five hours, in which their artillery was very effective, 
drove the enemy before them, and encamped upon the field. The 
Mexican loss was about one hundred killed; that ot the Americans, 
four killed and forty wounded. Major Ringgold, of the artillery, 
an officer of great merit, was mortally wounded. The next day, as 
the Americans advanced, they again met the enemy in a strong 
position near Resaca de la Paltna, three miles from Fort Brown. 
An action commenced, and was fiercely contested, the artillery on 
both sides being served with great vigor. At last the Mexicans 
gave way, and fled in confusion, General de la Vega having fallen 
into the hands of the Americans. They also abandoned their guns 
and a large quantity of ammunition to the victors. The remain- 
ing Mexican soldiers speedily crossed the Rio Grande, and the next 
day the Americans took up their position at Fort Brown. This 
little fort, in the absence of General Taylor, had gallantly sustained 
an almost uninterrupted attack of several days from the Mexican 
batteries of Matamoras. 

When the news of the capture of Captain Thornton's party was 
spread over the United States, it produced great excitement. The 
President addressed a message to Congress, then in session, declar- 
ing " that war with Mexico existed by her own act;" and that body, 
May, 184(5, placed ten millions of dollars at the President's dispo- 
sal, and authorized him to accept the services of fifty thousand 
volunteers. A great part of the summer of 1S46 was spent in prep- 
aration for the war, it being resolved to invade Mexico at several 
points. In pursuance of this plan, General Taylor, who had taken 


possession of Matamoras, abandoned by the enemy in May, marched 
northward in the enemy's country in August, and on the 19th of 
September he appeared before Monterey, capital of the Mexican 
State of New Leon. His army, after having garrisoned several 
places along his route, amounted to six thousand men. The attack 
began on the 21st, and after a succession of assaults, during the 
period of four days, the Mexicans capitulated, leaving the town 
in possession of the Americans. In October, General Taylor 
terminated an armistice into which he had entered with the 
Mexican General, and again commenced offensive operations. 
Various towns and fortresses of the enemy now rapidly fell into 
our possession. In November, Saltillo. the capital of the State 
of Coahuila was occupied by the division of General Worth; 
in December, General Patterson took possession of Victoria, 
the capital of Tamaulipas, and nearly at the same period, 
Commodore Perry captured the fort of Tampico. Santa Fe, 
the capital of New Mexico, with the whole territory of the State 
had been subjugated by General Harney, after a march of one 
thousand miles through the wilderness. Events of a startling char- 
acter had taken place at still earlier dates along the Pacificcoast. On 
the 4th of July, Captain Fremont, having repeatedly defeated su- 
perior Mexican forces with the small band under his command, de- 
clared California independent of Mexico. Other important places 
in this region had yielded to the American naval force, and in Au- 
gust, 1846, f hole of California was in the undisputed occupa- 
tion i if the Americans. 

The year 1S47 opened with still more brilliant victories on the 

part of our armies. By the drawing off of a large part of 

I Taylor's troops for a meditated attack on Vera Cruz, he 

was left with a comparatively small force to meet the great body of 

ii troops, now marching upon him, under command of the 

aa, who had again h ntofMexico. 

Ascertaining the advance of this powerful army, twenty thou- 
trong, and consisting of the best of the Mexican soldiers, 
<■ ral Taylor took up his position at Buena Vista, a valley a few 
'Void Saltillo. His whole troops numbered only four thousand 
seven hundred and fifty-nine, and here, on the 23d of February, he 
was vigorously attacked by the Mexicans. The battle was very 
sevi re, and continued nearly the whole day, when the Mexicans fled 
from the field in disorder, with a loss of nearly two thousand men. 
Santa Anna speedily withdrew, and thus abandoned the region of 


the Rio Grande to the complete occupation of our troops. This left 
our forces at liberty to prosecute the grand enterprise of the cam- 
paign, the capture of the strong town of Vera Cruz, with its re- 
nowned castle of San Juan d'Ulloa. On the 9th of March, 1847, 
General Scott landed near the city with an army of twelve thousand 
men, and on the 18th commenced an attack. .For tour days and 
nights an almost incessant shower of shot and shells was poured 
upon the devoted town, while the batteries of the castle and the city 
replied with terrible energy. At last, as the Americans were pre- 
paring for an assault, the Governor of the city offered to surrender, 
and on the 26th the American flag floated triumphantly from the 
walls of the castle and the city. General Scott now prepared to 
march upon the city of Mexico, the capital of the country, situated 
two hundred miles in the interior, and approached only through a 
series of rugged passes and mountain fastnesses, rendered still more 
formidable by several strong fortresses. On the 8th of April the 
army commenced their march. At Cerro Gordo, Santa Anna had 
posted himself with fifteen thousand men. On the 18th the Amer- 
icans began the daring attack, and by midday every intrenchment 
of the enemy had been carried. The loss of the Mexicans in this 
remarkable battle, besides one thousand killed and wounded, was 
three thousand prisoners, forty-three pieces of cannon, five 
thousand stand of arms, and all their amunitions and mate- 
rials of war. The loss of the Americans was four hundred 
and thirty-one in killed and wounded. The next day our forces 
advanced, and, capturing fortress after fortress, came on the 
18th of August within ten miles of Mexico, a city of two hun- 
dred thousand inhabitants, and situated in one of the most 
beautiful valleys in the world. On the 20th they attacked and 
carried the strong batteries of Contreras, garrisoned by 7,000 men, 
in an impetuous assault, which lasted but seventeen minutes. On 
the same day an attack was made by the Americans on the fortified 
post of Churubusco, four miles northeast of Contreras Here 
nearly the entire Mexican army — more than 20,000 in number — 
were posted; but they were defeated at every point, and obliged to 
seek a retreat in the city, or the still remaining fortress of Chapul- 
tepec. While preparations were being made on the 21st by Gen- 
eral Scott, to level his batteries against the city, prior to summon- 
ing it to surrender, he received propositions from the enemy, which 
terminated in an armistice. This ceased on the 7th of September. 
On the 8th the outer defense of Chapultepec was successfully 


1 (1 

6tormed by General Worth, though lie lost one-fourth of his men 
in the desperate struggle. The castle of Chapultepec, situated on 
an abrupt and rocky eminence, 150 feet above the surrounding 
country, presented a most formidable object of attack. On the 
12th, however, the batteries were opened against it, and on the 
next day the citadel was carried by storm. The Mexicans still strug- 
gled along the great causeway leading to the city, as the Americans 
advanced, but before nightfal a part of our army was within the 
gates of the city. Santa Anna and the officers of the Government 
fled, and the next morning, at seven o'clock, the flag of the Ameri- 
cans floated from the national palace of Mexico. This conquest of 
the capital was the great and final achievement of the w T ar. The 
Mexican republic was in fact prostrate, her sea-coast and chief 
cities being in the occupation of our troops. On the 2d of Feb- 
ruary, 184S, terms of peace were agreed upon by the American 
commissioner and the Mexican Government, this treaty being rati- 
fied by the Mexican Congress on the 30th of May following, and 
by the United States soon after. President Polk proclaimed peace 
on the 4th of July, 1848. In the preceding sketch we have given 
only a mere outline of the war with Mexico. We have necessarily 
passed over many interesting events, and have not even named 
many of our soldiers who performed gallant and important ser- 
vices. General Taylor's successful operations in the region of the 
Rio (irande were duly honored by the people of the United States, 
by bestowing upon him the Presidency. General Scott's campaign, 
from the attack on Vera Cruz, to the surrender of the city of 
Mexico, was far more remarkable, and, in a military point of view, 
must be considered as oneof the most brilliant of modern times. It 
is true the Mexicans are not to be ranked witli the great nations of 
tin earth; with a population of seven or eight millions, they have 
little more than a million of the white race, the rest being half-civ- 
ilized Indians ami mestizos, that is, those of mixed blood. Their 
government is inefficient, ami the people divided among them- 
selves. Their soldiers often fought bravely, but they were badly 
officered. While, therefore, we may consider the conquest of so 
extensive and populous a country, in so short a time, and attended 
with such constant superiority even to the greater numbers of the 

enemy,as highly gratifying eviden* f the courage and capacity 

ot our army, still we must not, in judging of our achievements, fail 
to consider the real weakness of the nation whom we vanquished. 


One thing we may certainly dwell upon with satisfaction — the ad- 
mirable example, not only as a soldier, but as a man, set by our com- 
mander, Gen. Scott, who seems, in the midst of war and the ordinary 
license of the camp, always to have preserved the virtue, kindness, 
and humanity belonging to a state of peace. These qualities 
secured to him the respect, confidence and good-will even of the 
enemy he had conquered. Among the Generals who effectually 
aided General Scott in this remarkable campaign, we must not 
omit to mention the names of Generals Wool, Twiggs, Shields, 
"Worth, Smith, and Quitman, who generally added to the high 
qualities of soldiers the still more estimable characteristics of 
good men. The treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo stipulated that the 
disputed territory between the Nueces and the Rio Grande should 
belong to the United States, and it now forms a part of Texas, as 
has been already stated; that the United States should assume and 
pay the debts due from Mexico to American citizens, to the amount 
of $3,500,000; and that, in consideration of the sura of $15,000,000 
to be paid by the United States to Mexico, the latter should 
relinquish to the former the whole of New Mexico and Upper 

The soldiers of Indiana who served in this war were formed into 
five regiments of volunteers, numbered respectively, 1st, 2d, 3rd, 
4th and 5th. The fact that companies of the three first-named reg- 
iments served at times with the men of Illinois, the New York 
volunteers, the Palmettos of South Carolina, and United States 
marines, under Gen. James Shields, makes for them a history; be- 
cause the campaigns of the Rio Grande and Chihuahua, the siege 
of Vera Cruz, the desperate encounter at Cerro Gordo, the tragic 
contests in the valley, at Contreras and Churubusco, the storming 
of Chapultepec, and the planting of the stars and stripes upon 
every turret and spire within the conquered city of Mexico, were 
all carried out by the gallant troops under the favorite old General, 
and consequently each of them shared with him in the glories at- 
tached to such exploits. ''The other regiments under Cols. Gorman 
and Lane participated in the contests of the period under other com- 
manders. The 4th Regiment of Indiana Volunteers, comprising 
tea companies, was formally organized at Jeffersonville, Indiana, 
by Oapt. R C. Gatlin, June 15, 1847, and on the 16th elected 
Major Willis A. Gorman, of the 3rd Regiment, to the Colonelcy; 
Ebenezer Damont, Lieutenant-Colonel, and W. McCoy, Major. On 
the 27th of June the regiment left Jeffersonville for the front, and 


subsequently was assigned to Brigadier-General Lane's command, 
which then comprised a battery of five pieces from the 3rd Regi- 
ment U. S. Artillery; a battery of two pieces from the 2nd Regiment 
TJ. S. Rrtillery, the 4th Regiment of Indiana Volunteers and the 4th 
Regiment of Ohio, with a squadron of mounted Louisianians and 
detachments of recruits for the U. S. army. The troops of this 
brigade won signal honors at Passo de Ovegas, August 10, 1S47; 
National Bridge, on the 12th; Cerro Gordo, on the 15th; Las Ani- 
mas, on the 19th, under Maj. F. T. Lally, of General Lane's staff, 
and afterward under Lane, directly, took a very prominent part in 
the siege of Puebla, which began on the 15th of September and 
terminated on the 12th of October. At Atlixco, October 19th; 
Tlascala, November 10th; Matamoras and Pass Galajara, Novem- 
ber 23rd and 24th: Guerrilla Ranche, December 5th; Napaloncan, 
December 10th, the Indiana volunteers of the 4th Regiment per- 
formed gallant service, and carried the campaign into the following 
year, representing their State at St. Martin's, February 27, 1848; 
Cholula, March 26th; Matacordera, February 19th; Sequalteplan, 
February 25th; and on the cessation of hostilities reported at 
Madison, Indiana, for discharge, July 11, 1848; while the 5th In- 
diana Regiment, under Col. J. H. Lane, underwent a similar round 
of duty during its service with other brigades, and gained some 
celebrity at Vera Cruz, Churubuscu and with the troops of Illinois 
under Gen. Shields at Chapultepec. 

This war cost the people of the United States sixty-six millions 
of dollars. This very large amount was not paid away for the at- 
tainment of mere glory; there was something else at stake, and 
this something proved to be a country larger and more fertile than 
the France of the Napoleons, and more steady and sensible than 
the France of the Republic. It was the defense of the great Lone 
Star State, the humiliation and chastisement of a quarrelsome 


We have already referred to the prohibition of slavery in the 
Northwestern Territory, and Indiana Territory by the ordinance of 
1787; to the imperfection in the execution of this ordinance and the 
troubles which the authorities encountered; and the complete estab- 
lishment of the principles of freedom on the organization of the State. 
The next item of significance in this connection is the following lan- 
guage in the message of Gov. Ra} to the Legislature of 1828 : " Since 
our last separation, while we have witnessed with anxious solicitude 
the belligerent operations of another hemisphere, the cross contend- 
ing against the crescent, and the prospect of a general rupture among 
the legitimates of other quarters of the globe, our attention has 
been arrested by proceedings in our own country truly dangerous 
to liberty, seriously premeditated, and disgraceful to its authors 
if agitated only to tamper with the American people. If such ex- 
periments as we see attempted in certain deluded quarters do not 
fall with a burst of thunder upon the heads of their seditious pro- 
jectors, then indeed the Republic has begun to experience the days 
of its degeneracy. The union of these States is the people's only 
sure charter for their liberties and independence. Dissolve it and 
each State will soon be in a condition as deplorable as Alexander's 
conquered countries after they were divided amongst his victorious 
military captains." 

In pursuance of a joint resolution of the Legislature of 1850, a 
block of native marble was procured and forwarded to Washington, 
to be placed in the monument then in the course of erection at the 
National Capital in memory of George Washington. In the 
absence of any legislative instruction concerning the inscription 
upon this emblem of Indiana's loyalty, Gov. Wright ordered the 
following words to be inscribed upon it: Indiana Knows No 
North, No South, Nothing but the Union. Within a dozen 
years thereafter this noble State demonstrated to the world her loy- 
alty to the Union and the principles of freedom by the sacrifice of 
blood and treasure which she made. In keeping with this senti- 
ment Gov. Wright indorsed the compromise measures of Congress 
on the slavery question, remarking in his message that " Indiana 
takes her stand in the ranks, not of Southern destiny, nor yet of 


Northern destiny: she plant9 herself on the basis of the Consti- 
tution and takes her stand in the ranks of American destiny." 


At the session of the Legislature in January, 1869, the subject 
of ratifying the fifteen tli amendment to the Federal Constitution, 
allowing negro suffrage, came up with such persistency that neither 
party dared to undertake any other business lest it be checkmated 
in some way, and being at a dead lock on this matter, they adjourn- 
ed in March without having done much important business. The 
Democrats, as well as a portion of the conservative Republicans, 
opposed its consideration strongly on the ground that it would be 
unfair to vote on the question until the people of the State had had 
an opportunity of expressing their views at the polls; but most of 
the Republicans resolved to push the measure through, while the 
Democrats resolved to resign in a body and leave the Legislature 
without a quorum. Accordingly, on March 4, 17 Senators and 36 
Representatives resigned, leaving both houses without a quorum. 

As the early adjournment of the Legislature left the benevolent 
institutions of the State unprovided for, the Governor convened 
that body in extra session as soon as possible, and after the neces- 
sary appropriations were made, on the 19th of May the fifteenth 
amendment came up; but in anticipation of this the Democratic 
members had all resigned and claimed that there was no quorum 
present. There was a quorum, however, of Senators in office, 
though some of them refused to vote, declaring that they were no 
longer Senator?; but the president of that body decided that as he 
had not been informed of their resignation by the Governor, they 
were still members. A vote was taken and the ratifying resolution 
was adopted. When the resolution came up in the House, the 
chair decided that, although the Democratic members had resigned } 
there was a quorum of the de-facto members present, and the 
Eouse proceeded to pass the resolution. This decision of the chair 
was afterward sustained by the Supreme Court. 

At the next regular session of the Legislature, in 1871, the 
Democrats undertook to repeal the ratification, and the Republican 
members resigned to prevent it. The Democrats, as the Republi- 
can- did on the previous occasion, proceeded to pass their resolu- 
tion of repeal; but while the process was under way, before the 
Eouse Committee bad time to report on the matter, 34 Republican 
members resigned, thereby preventing its passage and putting a 
Stop to further legislation. 


The events of the earlier years of tins State have been reviewed 
down to that period in the nation's history when the Republic de- 
manded a first sacrifice from the newly erected States: to the time 
when the very safety of the glorious heritage, bequeathed by the 
fathers as a rich legacy, was threatened with a fate worse than death 
— a life under laws that harbored the slave — a civil defiance of the 
first principles of the Constitution. 

Indiana was among the first to respond to the summons of patri- 
otism, and register itself on the national roll of honor, even as she 
was among the first to join in that song of joy which greeted a Re- 
public made doubly glorious within a century by the dual victory 
which won liberty for itself, and next bestowed the precious boon 
upon the colored slave. 

The fall of Fort Sumter was a signal for the uprising of the State. 
The news of the calamity was flashed to Indianapolis on the 14th of 
April, 1861, and early the next morning the electric wire brought 
the welcome message to Washington : — 

Executive Department of Indiana, J 
Indianapolis, April 15, 1861. J 
To Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States-.— On behalf of the State 
of Indiana, I tender to you for the defense of the Nation, and to uphold the au- 
thority of the Government, ten thousand men. 

Governor of Indiana. 

This may be considered the first official act of Governor Morton, 
who had just entered on the duties of his exalted position. The 
State was in an almost helpless condition, and yet the faith of the 
" War Governor " was prophetic, when, after a short consultation 
with the members of the Executive Council, he relied on the fidelity 
of ten thousand men and promised their services to the Protectorate 
at Washington. This will be more apparent when the military 
condition of the State at the beginning of 1861 is considered. At 
that time the armories contained less than five hundred stand of 
serviceable small arms, eight pieces of cannon which might be use- 
ful in a museum of antiquities, with sundry weapons which would 
merely do credit to the aborigines of one hundred years ago. The 
financial condition of the State was even worse than the military. 



The sum of $10,368.58 in trust funds was the amount of cash in the 
hands of the Treasurer, and this was, to all intents and purposes 
unavailable to meet the emergency, since it could not be devoted 
to the military requirements of the day. This state of affairs was 
dispiriting in the extreme, and would doubtless have militated 
against the ultimate success of any other man than Morton; yet 
he overleaped every difficulty, nor did the fearful realization of 
Floyd's treason, discovered during his visit to Washington, damp 
his indomitable courage and energy, but with rare persistence he 
urged the claims of his State, aud for his exertions was requited 
with an order for five thousand muskets. The order was not exe- 
cuted until hostilities were actually entered upon, and consequently 
for some days succeeding the publication of the President's procla- 
mation the people ]abored under a feeling of terrible anxiety min- 
gled with uncertainty, amid the confusion which followed the crim- 
inal negligence that permitted the disbandment of the magnificent 
corps (T armee (51,000 men) of 1832 two years later in 1S34, Great 
numbers of the people maintained their equanamity with the result 
of beholding within a brief space of time every square mile of their 
State represented by soldiers prepared to fight to the bitter end in 
defense of cherished institutions, and for the extension of the prin- 
ciple of human liberty to all States and classes within the limits of 
the threatened Union. This, their zeal, was not animated by hos- 
tility to the slave holders of the Southern States, but rather by a 
fraternal spirit, akin to that which urges the eldest brother to cor- 
rect the persistent follies of his juniors, and thus lead them from 
crime to the maintenance of family honor; in this correction, to 
draw them away from all that was cruel, diabolical and inhuman in 
the Republic, to all that is gentle, holy and sublime therein. Many 
of the raw troops were not only unimated by a patriotic feeling, 
but also by that beautiful idealization of the poet, who in his un- 
conscious Republicanism, said: 

" I would not have a slave to till my ground, 

To carry me, to fan me while I sleep, 

And tremble when I wake, for all the wealth 

That sinews bought and sold have ever earned 

No: dear as freedom is— and, in my heart's 

Just estimation, prized above all price — 

I had much rather be myself the slave, 

And wear the bonds, than fasten them on him." 

Thus animated, it is not a matter for surprise to find the first 
call to arms issued by the President, and calling for 75,000 men, 


answered nobly by the people of Indiana. The quota of troops to 
be furnished by the State on the first call was 4,683 men for three 
years' service from April 15, lsGO. On the lGth of April, Gov- 
ernor Morton issued his proclamation calling on all citizens of the 
State, who had the welfare of the Republic at heart, to organize 
themselves into six regiments in defense of their rights, and in 
opposition to the varied acts of rebellion, charged by him against 
the Southern Confederates. To this end, the Hon. Lewis Wallace, 
a soldier of the Mexican campaign was appointed Adjutant-General, 
Col. Thomas A. Morris of the United States Military Academy, 
Quartermaster-General, and Isaiah Mansur, a merchant of Indian- 
apolis, Commissary-General. These general officers converted the 
grounds and buildings of the State Board of Agriculture into a 
military headquarters, and designated the position Camp Morton, 
as the beginning of the many honors which were to follow the pop- 
ular Governor throughout his future career. Now the people, im- 
bued with confidence in their Government and leaders, rose to the 
grandeur of American freemen, and with an enthusiasm never 
equaled hitherto, flocked to the standard of the nation; so that 
within a few days (19th April) 2,400 men were ranked beneath 
their regimental banners, until as the official report testifies, the 
anxious question, passing from mouth to mouth, was, " Which of 
us will be allowed to go? " It seemed as if Indiana was about to 
monopolize the honors of the period, and place the 75.000 men 
demanded of the Union by the President, at his disposition. Even 
now under the genial sway of guaranteed peace, the features of 
Indiana's veterans-flush with righteous pride when these days— re- 
membrances of heroic sacrifice — are named, and freemen, still un- 
born, will read their history only to be blessed and glorified in the 
possession of such truly, noble progenitors. Nor were the ladies 
of the State unmindful of their duties. Everywhere they partook 
of the general enthusiasm, and made it practical so far as in their 
power, by embroidering and presenting standards and regimental 
colors, organizing aid and relief, societies, and by many other acts 
of patriotism and humanity inherent in the high nature of woman. 
During the days set apart by the military authorities for the or- 
ganization of the regiments, the financiers of the State were en- 
gaged in the reception of munificent grants of money from pri- 
vate citizens, while the money merchants within and without the 
State offered large loans to the recognized Legislature without even 
imposing a condition of payment. This most practical generosity 


strengthened the hands of the Executive, and within a very tew days 
Indiana had passed the crucial test, recovered some of her military 
prestige lost in 1S3±, and so was prepared to vie with the other 
and wealthier States in making sacrifices for the public welfare. 

On the 20th of April, Messrs, I. S. Dobbs and Alvis D. Gall re- 
ceived their appointments as Medical Inspectors of the Division, 
while Major T. J. Wood arrived at headquarters from Washington 
to receive the newly organized regiments into the service of the 
Union. At the moment this formal proceeding took place, Morton, 
unable to restrain the patriotic ardor of the people, telegraphed to 
the capitol that he could place six regiments of infantry at the dis- 
posal of the General Government within six days, if such a pro- 
ceeding were acceptable; but in consequence of the wires being cut 
between the State and Federal capitols, no answer came. Taking 
advantage of the little doubt which may have had existence in re- 
gard to future action in the matter and in the absence of general 
orders, he gave expression to an intention of placing the volunteers 
in camp, and in his message to the Legislature, who assembled three 
days later, he clearly laid down the principle of immediate action 
and strong measures, recommending a uote of $1,000,000 for there- 
organization of the volunteers, for the purchase of arms and supplies, 
and for the punishment of treason. The message was received most 
enthusiastically. The assembly recognized the great points made 
by the Governor, and not only yielded to them in toto, but also made 
the following grand appropriations: 

General military purposes $1,000,000 

Purchase of arms 500,000 

Contingent military expenses 100,000 

Organization and support of militia for twoyears 140,000 

These appropriations, together with the laws enacted during the 
ses^i. in of the Assembly, speak for the men of Indiana. The celerity 
with which these laws were put in force, the diligince and economy 
exercised by the officers, entrusted with their administration, and 
that systematic genius, under which all the machinery of Govern- 
ment seemed to work in harmony, — all, all, tended to make for the 
State a spring-time of noble deeds, when seeds might be cast along 
her fertile fields and in the streets of her villages of industry to 
grow up at once and blossom in the ray of fame, and after to bloom 
throughout the ages. Within three days after the opening of the 
extra session of the Legislature (27th April) six new regiments were 
organized, and commissioned for three months' service. These reg- 



iments, notwithstanding the fact that the first six regiments were 
already mustered into the general service, were known as "The 
First Brigade, Indiana Volunteers," and with the simple object of 
making the way of the future student of a brilliant history clear, 
were numbered respectively 

Sixth Regiment, commanded by Col. T. T. Crittenden. 

Seventh " " " " Ebenezer Dumont. 

Eighth " " " " W. P. Benton. 

Ninth " " " " R. H. Milroy. 

Tenth " u " " T. T. Reynolds. 

Eleventh " " " " Lewis Wallace. 

The idea of these numbers was suggested by the fact that the 
military representation of Indiana in the Mexican Campaign was 
one brigade of five regiments, and to observe consecutiveuess the 
regiments comprised in the first division of volunteers were thus 
numbered, and the entire force placed under Brigadier General T. 
A. Morris, with the following staff: John Love, Major; Cyrus C- 
Hines, Aid-de-camp; and J. A. Stein, Assistant Adjutant General. 
To follow the fortunes .of these volunteers through all the vicissi- 
tudes of war would prove a special work; yet their valor and endur- 
ance during their first term of service deserved a notice of even more 
value than that of the historian, since a commander's opinion has 
to be taken as the basis upon which the chronicler may expatiate. 
Therefore the following dispatch, dated from the headquarters of the 
Army of Occupation, Beverly Camp, W. Virginia, July 21, 1861, 
must be taken as one of the first evidences of their utility and 
valor: — 

"Governor O. P. Morton, Indianapolis, Indiana. 

Governor:— I have directed the three months' regiments from Indiana to 
move to Indianapolis, there to be mustered out and reorganized for three years' 

I cannot permit them to return to you without again expressing my high 
appreciation of the distinguished valor and endurance of the Indiana troops, and 
my hope that but a short time will elapse before I have the pleasure of knowing 
that they are again ready for the field. ******* 
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 
George B. McClellan, 
Major- General, U. 8. A, 

On the return of the troops to Indianapolis, July 20, Brigadier 
Morris issued a lengthy, logical and well-deserved congratulatory 
address, from which one paragraph may be extracted to characterize 


the whole. After passing a glowing eulogium on their military 
qualities and on that unexcelled gallantry displayed at Laurel Hill, 
Phillipi and Carrick's Ford, he says: — 

'■ Soldiers! You have now returned to the friends whose prayers went with you 
to the field of strife. They welcome you with pride and exultation. Your State 
and country acknowledge the value of your labors. May your future career be as 
your past has been, — honorable to yourselves and serviceable to your country." 

The six regiments forming Morris' brigade, together with one 
composed of the surplus volunteers, for whom there was no regi- 
ment in April, now formed a division of seven regiments, all reor- 
ganized for three years' service, between the 20th August and 20th 
September, with the exception of the new or 12th, which was ac- 
cepted for one year's service from May 11th, under command of 
Colonel John M. Wallace, and reorganized May 17, 1S62, for three 
years' service under Col. W. H. Link, who, with 172 officers and 
men, received their mortal wounds during the Richmond (Ken- 
tucky) engagement, three months after its reorganization. 

The 13th Regiment, under Col. Jeremiah Sullivan, was mus- 
tered into the United States in 1861 and joined Gen. McClellan's 
command at Rich Mountain on the 10th July. The day following it 
was present under Gen. Rosencrans and lost eight men killed; three 
successive days it was engaged under Gen. I. I. Reynolds, and won 
its laurels at Cheat Mountain summit, where it participated in the 
decisive victory over Gen. Lee. 

The 14th Regiment, organized in 1861 for one year's service, and 
reorganized on the 7th of June at Terre Haute for three years' ser- 
vice. Commanded by Col. Kimball and showing a muster roll of 
1,134 men, it was one of the finest, as it was the first, three years' 
regiment organized in the State, with varying fortunes attached to 
its never ending round of duty from Cheat Mountain, September, 
1861, to Morton's Ford in 1S64, and during the movement South in 
May of that year to the last of its labors, the battle of Cold Har- 

The 15th Regiment, reorganized at La Fayette 14th June, 1861, 
under Col. G. L>. Wagner, moved on Rich Mountain on the 11th 
of July in time to participate in the complete rout of the enemy. 
On the promotion of Col. Wagner, Lieutenant-Col. G. A. Wood 
became Colonel of the regiment, November, 1862, and during the 
first days of January, 1863, took a distinguished part in the severe 
action of Stone River. From this period down to the battle of Mis- 
sion Ridge it was in a series of destructive engagements, and was, 


after enduring terrible hardships, ordered to Chattanooga, and 
thence to Indianapolis, where it was mustered out the 18th June, 
1864, — four days after the expiration of its term of service. 

The 16th Eegiment, organized under Col. P. A.- Hackleman at 
Richmond for one year's service, after participating in many minor 
military events, was mustered out at Washington, D.C.,on the 14th 
of May, 1^62. Col. Hackleman was killed at the battle of Iuka, 
and Lieutenant-Col. Thomas I. Lucas succeeded to the command. 
It was reorganized at Indianapolis for three years' service, May 27, 
1S62, and took a conspicuous part in all the brilliant engagements 
of the war down to June, 1865. when it was mustered out at New 
Orleans. The survivors, numbering 365 rank and file, returned to 
Indianapolis the 10th of July amid the rejoicing of the populace. 

The 17th Regiment was mustered into service at Indianapolis 
the 12th of June, 1861, for three years, under Col. Hascall, who 
on being promoted Brigadier General in March, 1862, left the 
Colonelcy to devolve on Lieutenant Colonel John T. Wilder. This 
regiment participated in the many exploits of Gen. Reynold's army 
from Green Brier in 1862, to Macon in 1865, under Gen. Wilson. 
Returning to Indianapolis the 16th of August, in possession of a 
brilliant record, the regiment was disbanded. 

The 18th Regiment, under Colonel Thomas Pattison, was organ- 
ized at Indianapolis, and mustered into service on the 16th of 
August, 1861. Under Gen. Pope it gained some distinction at 
Blackwater, and succeeded in retaining a reputation made there, 
by its gallantry at Pea Ridge, February, 1862, down to the moment 
when it planted' the regimental flag on the arsenal of Augusta, 
Georgia, where it was disbanded August 28, 1S65. 

The 19th Regiment, mustered into three years' service at the 
State capital July 29, 1861, was ordered to join the army of the 
Potomac, and reported its arrival at Washington, August 9. Two 
days later it took part in the battle of Lewinsville, under Colonel 
Solomon Meredith. Occupying Falls Church in September, 1861, 
it continued to maintain a most enviable place of honor on the 
military roll until its consolidation with the 20th Regiment, October, 
1864, under Colonel William Orr, formerly its Lieutenant Colonel. 

The 20th Regiment of La Fayette was organized in July, 1861, 
mustered into three years' service at Indianapolis on the 22d of the 
same month, and reached the front at Cockeysville, Maryland, 
twelve days later. Throughout aW its orilliant actions from Hat- 
teras Bank, on the 4th of October, to Clover Hill, 9th of April, 1865, 


including the saving of the United States ship Congress, at New- 
port News, it added daily some new name to its escutcheon. This 
regiment was mustered out at Louisville in July, 1865, and return- 
ing to Indianapolis was welcomed by the great war Governor of 
their State. 

The 21st Regiment was mustered into service under Colonel I. 
W. McMillan, July 24, 1861, and reported at the front the third 
day of August. It was the first regiment to enter New Orleans. 
The fortunes of this regiment were as varied as its services, so that 
its name and fame, grown from the blood shed by its memWs, are 
destined to live and flourish. In December, 1SG3, the regiment 
was reorganized, and on the 19th February, 1864, many of its 
veterans returned to their State, where Morton received them with 
that spirit of proud gratitude which he was capable of showing to 
those who deserve honor for honors won. 

The 22d Regiment, under Colonel Jeff. C. Davis, left Indian- 
apolis the 15th of August, and was attached to Fremont's Corps at 
St. Louis on the 17th. From the day it moved to the support of 
Colonel Mulligan at Lexington, to the last victory, won under 
General Sherman at Bentonville, on the 19th of March, 1865, it 
gained a high military reputation. After the fall of Johnston's 
southern army, this regiment was mustered out, and arrived at 
Indianapolis on the 16th June. 

The 23d Battalion, commanded by Colonel W. L. Sanderson, 
was mustered in at New Albany, the 29th July, 1861, and moved 
to the front early in August. From its unfortunate marine ex- 
periences before Fort Henry to Bentonville it won unusual honors, 
and after its disbandment at Louisville, returned to Indianapolis 
July 24, 1865, where Governor Morton and General Sherman 
reviewed and complimented the gallant survivors. 

The 24tu Battalion, under Colonel Alvin P. Hovey, was 
mustered at Vincennes the 31st of July, 1S61. Proceeding imme- 
diately to the front it joined Fremont's command, and participated 
under many Generals in important affairs during the war. Three 
hundred and ten men and officers returned to their State iu August, 
1865, and were received with marked honors by the people and 

The 25th Regiment, of Evausville mustered into service there 
for three years under Col. J. C. Veatch, arrived at St. Louis on the 
26th of August, 1861. During the war this regiment was present 
at 18 battles and skirmishes, sustaining therein a loss of 352 men 


and officers. Mustered out at Louisville, July 17, 1S65, it returned 
to Indianapolis on the 21st amid universal rejoicing. 

The 26th Battalion, under W. M. Wheatley, left Indianapolis 
for the front the 7th of September, 1861, and after a brilliant cam- 
paign under Fremont, Grant, Heron and Smith, may be said to 
disband the 18th of September, 1S65, when the non-veterans and 
recruits were reviewed by Morton at the State capital. 

The 27th Regiment, uuder Col. Silas Colgrove, moved from 
Indianapolis to Washington City, September 15th, 1861, and in 
October'was allied to Gen. Banks' army. From Winchester 
Heights, the 9th of March 1862, through all the affairs of General 
Sherman's campaign, it acted a gallant and faithful part, and was 
disbanded immediately after returning to their State. 

The 28th or 1st Cavalry was mustered into service at Evans- 
villeon the 20th of August, 1861, under Col. Conrad Baker. From 
the skirmish at Ironton, on the 12th of September, wherein three 
companies under Col. Gavin captured a position held by a 
few rebels, to the battle of the Wilderness, the First Cavalry per- 
formed prodigies of valor. In June and July, 1865, the troops 
were mustered out at Indianapolis. 

The 29th Battalion of La Porte, under Col. J. F. Miller, left 
on the 5th of October, 1861, and reaching Camp Nevin, Kentucky, 
on the 9th, was allied to Rosseau's Brigade, serving with McCook's 
division at Shiloh, with Buell's army in Alabama, Tennessee and 
Kentucky, with Rosencrans at Murfreesboro, at Decatur, Alabama, 
and at Dalton, Georgia. The Twenty-ninth won many laurels, 
and had its Colonel promoted to the rank of Brigadier General. 
This officer was succeeded in the command by Lieutenant-Col. 

The 30th Regiment of Fort Wayne, under Col. Sion S. Bass, 
proceeded to the front via Indianapolis, and joined General Rosseau 
at Camp Nevin on the 9th of October, 1S61. At Shiloh, Col. 
Bass received a mortal wound, and died a few days later at 
Paducah, leaving the Colonelcy to devolve upon Lieuteuant-Col. J. 
B. Dodge. In October 1865, it formed a battalion of General Sheri- 
dan's army of observation in Texas. 

The 31st Regiment, organized at Terre Haute, under Col. Charles 
Cruft, in September 1861, was mustered in, and left in a few days 
for Kentucky. Present at the reduction of Fort Donelson on the 
13th, 14th, and 15th of February, 1S62, its list of killed and 
wounded proves its desperate fighting qualities. The organization 


was subjected to many changes, but in all its phases maintained a 
fair fame won on many battle fields. Like the former regiment, 
it passed into Gen. Sheridan's Army of Observation, and held the 
district of Green Lake, Texas. 

The 32d Regiment of German Infantry, under Col. August 
Willich, organized at Indianapolis, mustered on the 24th of August, 

1861, served with distinction throughout the campaign. Col. 
"Willich was promoted to the rank of Brigadier-General, and Lieut. - 
Col. Henry Von Trebra commissioned to act, under whose com- 
mand the regiment passed into General Sheridan's Army, hold- 
ing the post of Salado Creek, until the withdrawal of the corps of 
observation in Texas. 

The 33d Regiment of Indianapolis possesses a military history 
of no small proportions. The mere facts that it was mustered in 
under Col. John Coburn, the 16th of September, won a series of 
distinctions throughout the war district and was mustered out at 
Louisville, July 21, 1865, taken with its name as one of the most 
powerful regiments engageoj in the war, are sufficient here. 

The 34th Battalion, organized at Anderson on the 16th Sep- 
tember, 1861, under Col. Ashbury Steele, appeared among the in- 
vesting battalions before New Madrid on the 30th of March, 1862- 
From the distinguished part it took in that siege, down to the 
13th of May, 1865, when at Palmetto Ranche, near Palo Alto, it 
fought for hours against fearful odds the last battle of the war for 
the Union. Afterwards it marched 250 miles up the Rio Grande, 
aud was the first regiment to reoccupy the position, so long in 
Southern hands, of Ringold barracks. In 1865 it garrisoned Bea- 
consville as part of the Army of Observation. 

The 35th oe First Irish Regiment, was organized at Indian- 
apolis, and mustered into service on the 11th of December, 1861, 
under Col. John C. Walker. At Nashville, on the 22d of May, 

1862, it was joined by the organized portion of the Sixty -first or 
Second Irish Regiment, and uuassigned recruits. Col. Mullen now 
became Lient.-Colonel of the 35th, and shortly after, its Colonel. 
From the pursuit of Gen. Bragg through Kentucky and the affair 
at Perryville on the 8th of October, 1862, to the terrible hand to 
hand combat at Kenesaw mountain, on the night of the 20th of 
June, 1864, and again from the conclusion of the Atlanta campaign 
to September, 1865, with Gen. Sheridan's army, when it was mus- 
tered out, it won for itself a name of reckless daring and unsur- 



The 36th Regiment, of Richmond, Ind., under Col. William 
Grose, mustered into service tor three years on the 16th of Sep- 
tember, 1861, went immediately to the front, and shared the for- 
tunes of the Army of the Ohio until the 27th of February, 1862, 
when a forward movement led to its presence on the battle-field of 
Shiloh. Following up the honors won at Shiloh, it participated in 
some of the must important actions of the war, and was, in October, 
1865, transferred to Gen. Sheridan's arm}'. Col. Grose was pro- 
moted in 1864 to the position of Brigadier-General, and the 
Colonelcy devolved on Oliver 11. P. Carey, formerly Lieut.-Colonel 
of the regiment. 

The 37th Battalion, of Lawreneeburg, commanded by Col. 
Geo. W. Hazzard, organized the 18th of September, 1861, left tor 
the seat of war early in October. From the eventful battle of 
Stone river, in December, 1863, to its participation in Sherman's 
march through Georgia, it gained for itself a splendid reputation. 
This regiment returned to, and was present at, Indianapolis, on the 
30th of July, 1865, where a public reception was tendered to men 
and officers on the grounds of the Capitol. 

The 38th Regiment, under Col. Benjamin F. Scribner, was mus- 
tered in at New Albany, on the 18th of September, 1861, and 
in a few days were en route for the front. To follow its continual 
round of duty, is without the limits of this sketch; therefore, it 
will suffice to say, that on every well-fought field, at least from 
February, 1862, until its dissolution, on the 15th of July, 1865, it 
earned an enviable renown, and drew from Gov. Morton, on return- 
ing to Indianapolis the 18th of the same month, a congratulatory 
address couched in the highest terms of praise. 

The 39th Regiment, or Eighth Cavalry, was mustered in as 
an infantry regiment, under Col. T. J. Harrison, on the 28th of 
August, 1861, at the State capital. Leaving immediately for the 
front it took a conspicuous part in all the engagements up to April, 
1863, when it was reorganized as a cavalry regiment. The record of 
this organization sparkles with great deeds which men will extol 
while language lives; its services to the Union cannot be over esti- 
mated, or the memory of its daring deeds be forgotten by the un- 
happy people who raised the tumult, which culminated in their 
second shame. 

The 40th Regiment, of Lafayette, under Col. W. C. Wilson, 
subsequently commanded by Col. J. W. Blake, and again by Col. 
Henry Learning, was organized on the 30th of December, 1861, and 


at once proceeded to the front, where some time was necessarily spent 
in the Camp of Instruction at Bardstown, Kentucky. In February, 
1862, it joined in Buell's forward movement. During the war the 
regiment shared in all its hardships, participated in all its honors, 
and like many other brave commands took service under Gen. 
Sheridan in his Army of Occupation, holding the post of Port 
Lavaca, Texas, until peace brooded over the land. 

The 41st Regiment oe Second Cavalry, the first complete regi- 
ment of horse ever raised in the State, was organized on the 3d of 
September, 1S01, at Indianapolis, under Col. John A. Bridgland, 
and December 16 moved to the front. Its first war experience was 
gained en route to Corinth on the 9th of April, 1S62, and at Pea 
Ridge on the loth. Gallatin, Vinegar Hill, and Perry vi lie, and 
Talbot Station followed in succession, each battle bringing to the 
cavalry untold honors. In May, 1864, it entered upon a glorious 
career under Gen. Sherman in his Atlanta campaign, and again 
under Gen. Wilson in the raid through Alabama during April, 
1865. On the 22d of July, after a brilliant career, the regiment wan 
mustered out at Nashville, and returned at once to Indianapolis for 

The 42d, under Col J. G. Jones, mustered into service at Evans- 
ville, October 9, 1861, and having participated in the principal 
military affairs of the period, Wartrace, Mission Ridge, Altoona, 
Kenesaw, Savannah, Charlestown and Bentonville, was discharged 
at Indianapolis on the 25th of July, 1865. 

The 43d Battalion was mustered in on the 27th of September, 
1861, under Col. George K. Steele, and left Terre Haute en route to 
the front within a few days. Later it was al'ied to Gen. Pope's 
corps, and afterwards served with Commodore Foote's marines in 
the reduction of Fort Pillow. It was the first Union regiment to 
enter Memphis. From that period until the close of the war it was 
distinguished for its unexcelled qualifications as a military body, 
and fully deserved the encomiums passed upon it on its return to 
Indianapolis in March, 1S65. 

The 44th ok the Regiment of the 10th Congressional District 
was organized at Fort Wayne on the 24th of October, 1861, under 
Col. Hugh B. Reed. Two months later it was ordered to the front, 
and arriving in Kentucky, was attached to Gen. Cruft's Brigade, 
then quartered at Calhoun. After years of faithful service it was 
mustered out at Chattanooga, the 11th of September, 1865. 

The 45th, or Third Cavalry, comprised ten companies 


organized at different periods and for varied services in 1861- 
'62, under Colonel Scott Carter and George H. Chapman. The 
distinguished name won by the Third Cavalry is established in 
every village within the State. Let it suffice to add that after its 
brilliant participation in Gen. Sheridan's raid down the James' 
river canal, it was mustered out at Indianapolis on the 7th of Au- 
gust, 1865. 

The 46th Regiment, organized at Logansport under Colonel 
Graham N. Fitch, arrived in Kentucky the 16th of February, 1862, 
and a little later became attached to Gen. Pope's array, then quar- 
tered at Commerce. The capture of Fort Pillow, and its career 
under Generals Curtis, Palmer, Hovey, Gorman, Grant, Sherman, 
Banks and Burbridge are as truly worthy of applause as ever fell to 
the lot of a regiment. The command was mustered out at Louis- 
ville on the 4th of September, 1865. 

The 47th was organized at Anderson, under Col. I. R. Slack, early 
in October, 1S62. Arriving at Bardstown, Kentucky, on the 21st 
of December, it was attached to Gen. BuelPs army; but within two 
months was assigned to Gen. Pope, under whom it proved the first 
regiment to enter Fort Thompson near New Madrid. In 1864 the 
command visited Indianapolis on veteran furlough and was enthu- 
siastically received by Governor Morton and the people. Return- 
ing to the front it engaged heartily in Gen. Banks' company. In 
December, Col. Slack received his commission as Brigadier-General, 
and was succeeded on the regimental command by Col. J. A. Mc- 
Laughton; at Shreveport under General Heron it received the sub- 
mission of General Price and his army, and there also was it mus- 
tered out of service on the 23d of October, 1S65. 

The 48th Regiment, organized at Goshen the 6th of December, 
1861, under Col. Norman Eddy, entered on its duties during the 
siege of Corinth in May, and again in October, 1S62. The record 
of this battalion may be said to be unsurpassed in its every feature, 
so that the grand ovation extended to the returned soldiers in 
1865 at Indianapolis, is not a matter for surprise. 

The 49th Regiment, organized at Jeffersonville, under Col. J. W. 
Ray, and mustered in on the 21st of November, 1861, for service, 
left en route for the camp at Bardstown. A month later it arrived 
at the unfortunate campground of Cumberland Ford, where dis- 
ease carried off a number of gallant soldiers. The regiment, how- 
ever, survived the dreadful scourge and won its laurels on many 



a well-f'onght field until September, 1865, when it was mustered out 
at Louisville. 

The 50tb Regiment, under Col. Cyrus L. Dunham, organized 
during the month of September, 1861, at Seymour, left en route to 
Bardstown for a course of military instruction. On the 20th of 
August, 1862, a detachment of the 50th, under Capt. Atkinson, was 
attacked by Morgan's Cavalry near Edgefield Junction; but the 
gallant few repulsed their oft-repeated onsets and finally drove 
them from the field. The regiment underwent many changes in 
organization, and may be said to muster out on the 10th of Septem- 
ber, 1865. 

TheSlsT Regiment, under Col. Abel. D. Streight, left Indianap- 
olis on the 11th of December, 1861, for the South. After a short 
course of instruction at Bardstown, the regiment joined General 
BuelPs and acted with great effect during the campaign in Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee. Ultimately it became a participator in the 
work of the Fourth Corps, or Army of Occupation, and held the post 
of San Antonio until peace was doubly assured. 

The 52d Regiment was partially raised at Rushville, and the 
organization completed at Indianapolis, where it was consolidated 
with the Railway Brigade, or 56th Regiment, on the 2d of Feb- 
ruary, 1862. Going to the front immediately after, it served with 
marked distinction throughout the war, and was mustered out at 
Montgomery on the 10th of September, 1865. Returning to Indian- 
apolis six days later, it was welcomed by Gov. Morton and a most 
enthusiastic reception accorded to it. 

The 53rd Battalion was raised at New Albany, and with the 
addition of recruits raised at Rockport formed a standard regi- 
ment, under command of Col. W. Q. Gresham. Its first duty was 
that of guarding the rebels confined on Camp Morton, but on 
going to the front it made for itself an endurable name. It was mus-' 
tered out in July, 1865, and returned to Indiananoplis on the 25th 
of the same month. 

The 54th Regiment was raised at Indianapolis on the 10th of 
June, 1862, for three months' service under Col. D. G. Rose. The 
succeediug two months saw it in charge of the prisoners at Camp 
Morton, and in August it was pushed forward to aid in the defense 
of Kentucky against the Confederate General, Kirby Smith. The 
remainder of its short term of service was given to the cause. On the 
muster out of the three months' service regiment it was reorgan- 


ized for one year's service and gained some distinction, after which 
it was mustered out in 18G3 at New Orleans. 

The 55th Regiment, organized for three months' service, retains 
the brief history applicable to the first organization of the 54th. 
It was mustered in on f he 16th of June, 1862, under Col. J. R. 
Mahon. disbanded on the expiration of its term and was not reor- 

The 56th Regiment, referred to in the sketch of the 52nd, was 
designed to be composed of railroad men, marshalled under J. M. 
Smith as Colonel, but owing to the fact that many railroaders had 
already volunteered into other regiments, Col. Smith's volunteers 
were incorporated with the 52nd, and this number left blank in the 
army list. 

The 57th Battalion, actually organized by two ministers of the 
gospel, — the Rev. I. W. T. McMullen and Rev. F. A. Hardin, of 
Richmond, Ind., mustered into service on the ISth of Novem- 
ber, 1S61, under the former named reverend gentleman as Colonel, 
who was, however, succeeded by Col. Cyrus C. Haynes, and he in 
turn by G. W. Leonard, Willis Blanch and John S. McGrath, the 
latter holding command until the conclusion of the war. The 
history of this battalion is extensive, and if participation in a num- 
ber of battles with the display of rare gallantry wins fame, the 57th 
may rest assured of its possession of this fragile yet coveted prize. 
Like many other regiments it concluded its military labors in the 
service of General Sheridan, and held the post of Port Lavaca in 
conjunction with another regiment until peace dwelt in the land. 

The 58th Regiment, of Princeton, was organized there early in 
October, 1861, and was mustered into service under the Colonelcy 
of Henry M. Carr. In December it was ordered to join Gen- 
eral Buell's army, after which it took a share in the various 
actions of the war, and was mustered out on the 25th of July, 1865, 
at Louisville, having gained a place on the roll of honor. 

The 59th Battalion was raised under a commission issued by 
Gov. Morton to Jesse I. Alexander, creating him Colonel. Owing 
to the peculiarities hampering its organization, Col. Alexander could 
not succeed in having his regiment prepared to muster in before 
the 17th of February, 1862. However, on that day the equipment 
was complete, and on the lsth it left en route to Commerce, where 
on its arrival, it was incorporated under General Pope's command. 
The list of its casualties speaks a history, — no less than 793 men 
were lost during the campaign. The regiment, after a term char- 


acterized by distinguished service, was mustered out at Louisville 
on the 17th of July, 1865. 

The 60th Regiment was partially organized under Lieut .-Col. 
Richard Owen at Evansville daring November 1861, and perfected 
at Camp Morton during March, 1862. Its first experience was its 
gallant resistance to Bragg's army investing Munfordsville, which 
culminated in the unconditional surrender of its first seven com- 
panies on the 14th of September. An exchange of prisoners took 
place in November, which enabled it to joine the remaining com- 
panies in the field. The subsequent record is excellent, and forms, 
as it were, a monument to their fidelity and heroism. The main 
portion of this battalion was mustered out at Indianapolis, on the 
21.-t of March, 1S65. 

The 61st was partially organized in December, 1861, under Col. 
B. F. Mullen. The failure of thorough organization on the 22d of 
May, 1862, led the men and officers to agree to incorporation with 
the 35th Regiment of Volunteers. 

The 62d Battalion, raised under a commission issued to Wil- 
liam Jones, of Rockport, authorizing him to organize this regiment 
in the First Congressional District was so unsuccessful that consoli- 
dation with the 53d Regiment was resolved upon. 

The 63d Regiment, of Covington, under James McManomy, 
Commandant ot Camp, and J. S. Williams, Adjutant, was partially 
organized on the 31st of December, 1861, and may be considered 
on duty from its very formation. After guarding prisoners at 
Camp Morton and Lafayette, and engaging in battle on Manassas 
Plains on the 30th of August following, the few companies sent 
out in February, 1862, returned to Indianapolis to find six new 
companies raised under the call of July, 1862, ready to embrace 
the fortunes of the 63d. So strengthened, the regiment went forth 
to battle, and continued to lead in the paths of honor and fidelity 
until mustered out in May and June, 1865. 

The 64th Regiment failed in organization as an artillery corps; 
but orders received from the War Department prohibiting the con- 
solidation of independent batteries, put a stop to any further move 
in the matter. However, an infantry regiment bearing the same 
number was afterward organized. 

The 65tb was mustered in at Princeton and Evansville, in July 
and An-ust, L862, under Col. J. W. Foster, and left at once en 
routi for the front. The record of this battalion is creditable, not 
only to its members, but also to the State which claimed it. Its 


last action during the war was 011 the 18th and 20th of February, 
1865, at Fort Anderson and Town creek, after which, on the 22d 
June, it was disbanded at Greensboro. 

The 66th Regiment partially organized at New Albany, under 
Commandant Roger Martin, was ordered to leave for Kentucky on 
the 19th of August, 1862, for the defense of that State against the 
incursions of Kirby Smith. After a brilliant career it was mus- 
tered out at Washington on the 3d of June, 1865, after which it 
returned to Indianapolis to receive the thanks of a grateful people. 

The 67th Regiment was organized within the Third Congressional 
District under Col. Frank Emerson, and was ordered to Louisville 
on the 20th of August, 1862, whence it marched to Munfordville, 
only to share the same fate with the other gallant regiments en- 
gaged against Gen. Bragg's advance. Its roll of honor extends 
down the years of civil disturbance, — always adding garlands, un- 
til Peace called a truce in the fascinating race after fame, and insured 
a term of rest, wherein its members could think on comrades forever 
vanished, and temper the sad thought with the sublime mem- 
ories born of that chivalrous fight for the maintenance and integri- 
ty of a great Republic. At Galveston on the 19th of July, 1865, the 
gallant 67th Regiment was mustered out, and returning within a 
few days to its State received the enthusiastic ovations of her citi- 

The 68th Regiment, organized at Greensburg under Major Ben- 
jamin C. Shaw, was accepted for general service the 19th of August, 
1862, under Col.J^dward A. King, with Major Shaw as Lieutenant 
Colonel; on the 25th its arrival at Lebanon was reported and with- 
in a few days it appeared at the defense of Munfordville; but shar- 
ing in the fate of all the defenders, it surrendered unconditionally to 
Gen. Bragg and did not participate further in the actions of that 
year, nor until after the exchange of prisoners in 1863. From this 
period it may lay claim to an enviable history extending to the end 
of the war, when it was disembodied. 

The 69th Regiment, of Richmond, Ind., under Col. A. Bickle, 
left for the front on the 20th ot August, 1862, and ten days later 
made a very brilliant 6tand at Richmond, Kentucky, against 
the advance of Gen. Kirby Smith, losing in the engagement two 
hundred and eighteen men and officers together with its liberty. 
After an exchange of prisoners the regiment was reorganized under 
Col. T. W. Bennett and took the field in December, 1862, under 


Generals Sheldon, Morgan and Sherman of Grant's army. Chick- 
asaw, Vicksburg, Blakely and many other names testify to the valor 
of the 69th. The remnant of the regiment was in January, 1365, 
formed into a battalion under Oran Perry, and was mustered out in 
July following. 

The 70th Regiment was organized at Indianapolis on the 12th of 
August, 1862, under Col. B. Harrison, and leaving for Louisville on 
the 13th, shared in the honors cf Bruce's division at Franklin 
and Russellville. The record of the regiment is brimful of honor. 
It was mustered out at Washington, June 8, 1865, and received at 
Indianapolis with public honors. 

The 71st or Sixth Cavalry was organized as an infantry regi- 
ment, at Terre Haute, and mustered into general service at Indian- 
apolis on the 18th of August, 1862, under Lieut. -Col. Melville D. 
Topping. Twelve days later it was engaged outside Richmond, 
Kentucky, losing two hundred and fifteen officers and men, includ- 
ing Col. Topping and Major Conklin, together with three hundred 
and forty-seven prisoners, only 225 escaping death and capture. 
After an exchange of prisoners the regiment was re-formed under 
Col. I. Bittle, but on the 28th of December it surrendered to Gen. 
J. H. Morgan, who attacked its position at Muldraugh's Hill with a 
force of 1,000 Confederates. During September and October, 1863, 
it was organized as a cavalry regiment, won distinction throughout 
its career, and was mustered out the 15th of September, 1S65, at 

The 77th Regiment was organized at Lafayette, and left en route 
to Lebanon, Kentucky, on the 17th of August, 1862. Under Col. 
Miller it won a series of honors, and mustered out at Nashville on 
the 26th of June, 1865. 

The 73ed Regiment, under Col. Gilbert Hathaway, was mustered 
in at South Bend on the 16th of August, 1862, and proceeded im- 
mediately to the front. Day's Gap, Crooked Creek, and the high 
eulogies of Generals Rosencrans and Granger speak its long and 
brilliant history, nor were the welcoming shouts of a great people 
and the congratulations of Gov. Morton, tendered to the regiment 
on its return home, in July, 1865, necessary to sustain its well won 

The 74th Ri ii mi. nt, partially organized at Fort Wayne and made 
almost complete at Indianapolis, left for the seat of war on the 22J 
of August, 1862, under Col. Charles W. Chapman. The desperate 
opposition to Gen. Bragg, and the magnificent defeat of Morgan, 


together with the battles of Dallas, Chattahoochie river, Kenesaw 
and Atlanta, where Lieut. Col. Myron Baker was killed, all bear evi- 
dence of its never surpassed gallantry. It was mustered out of ser- 
vice on the 9th of June, 1865, at Washington. On the return of the 
regiment to Indianapolis, the war Governor and people tendered it 
special honors, and gave expression to the admiration and regard 
in which it was held. 

The 75th Regiment was organized within the Eleventh Congress- 
ional District, and left Wabash, on the 21st of August, 1S62, for the 
front, under Col. 1. W. Petit. It was the first regiment to enter 
Tullahoma, and one of the last engaged in the battles of the Repub- 
lic. After the submission of Gen. Johnson's army, it was mustered 
out at Washington, on the 8th of June 1865. 

The 76th Battalion was solely organized for thirty days' service 
under Colonel James Gavin, for the purpose of pursuing the rebel 
guerrilas, who plundered Newburg on the 13th July, 1862. It was 
organized and equipped within forty-eight hours, and during its 
term of service gained the name, " The Avengers of Newburg." 

The 77th, oe Fourth Cavalry, was organized at the State capi- 
tal in August, 1862, under Colonel Isaac P. Gray. It carved its 
way to fame over twenty battlefields, and retired from service at 
Edgefield, on the 29th June, 1865. 

The 79th Regiment was mustered in at Indianapolis on the 2nd 
September, 1862, under Colonel Fred Knefler. Its history may be 
termed a record of battles, as the great numbers of battles, from 
1862 to the conclusion of hostilities, were participated in by it. 
The regiment received its discharge on the 11th June, 1S65, at 
Indianapolis. During its continued round of field duty it captured 
eighteen guns and over one thousand prisoners. 

The 80th Regiment was organized within the First Congress- 
ional District under Col. C. Denby, and equipped at Indianapolis, 
when, on the 8th of September, 1862, it left for the front. During 
its term it lost only two prisoners; but its list of casualties sums 
up 325 men and officers killed and wounded. The regiment may 
be said to muster out on the 22nd of June, 1865, at Saulsbury. 

The 81st Regiment, of New Albany, under Colonel W. W. 
Caldwell, was organized on the 29th August, 1862, and proceeded 
at once to join "Buell's headquarters, and join in the pursuit of 
General Bragg. Throughout the terrific actions of the war its 
influence was felt, nor did its labors cease until it aided in driving 
the rebels across the Tennessee. It was disembodied at Nashville 

Or INDIANA. 167 

on the 13th June, 1S65, and returned to Indianapolis on the 15th, 
to receive the well-merited congratulations of Governor Morton 
and the people. 

The 82sd Rhhmkxt, under Colonel Morton C. I Inn tor, was 
mustered in at Madison, IndL, on the 30th Augnst, 1862, and 
leaving immediately for the seat of war, participated in many of 
the great battles down to the return of peace. It was mustered out 
at Washington on the 9th June, 1865, and soon returned to its 
State to receive a grand recognition of its faithful service. 

The 83ed Regimknt, of Lawrenceburg, under Colonel Ben. J. 
Spooner, was organized in September, 1862, and soon left en rout* 
to the Mississippi. Its subseqnent history, the fact of its being 
under fire for a total term of 4,800 hours, and its wanderings over 
6,285 miles, leave nothing to be said in its defense. Master of a 
thousand honors, it was mustered out at Louisville, on the 15th 
July, 1865, and returned home to enjoy a well-merited repose. 

The 84th Rkgixknt was mustered in at Richmond, Ind., on the 
8th September, 1S62, under Colonel Nelson Truster. Its first 
military duty was on the defenses of Covington, in Kentucky, and 
Cincinnati; bnt after a short time its labors became more eon- 
genial, and tended to the great disadvantage of the slaveholding 
enemy on many well-contested fields. This, like the other State 
regiments, won many distinctions, and retired from the service on 
the 14th of June, 1865, at Nashville. 

The S5th Rjcgimknt was mustered at Torre Haute, under Colonel 
John P. Bayard, on the 2d September, 1862. On the 4th March, 
1863, it shared in the unfortunate affair at Thompson's Station, 
when in common with the other regiments forming Coburn's Bri- 
gade, it surrendered to the overpowering forces of the rebel 
General, Forrest In June, 1863, after an exchange, it again took 
the field, and won a large portion of that renown accorded to 
Indiana. It was mustered out on the 12th of June, 1865. 

The 86th Rkotmeot, of La Fayette, left for Kentucky on the 26th 
August, 1S62, under Colonel Orville S. Hamilton, and shared in the 
duties assigned to the 84th. Its record is very creditable, particu- 
larly that portion dealing with the battles of Nashville on the 15th 
and 16th December, 1864. It was mustered out on the 6th of June, 
1865, and reported within a few days at Indianapolis for discharge. 

The 87th Rsormarr, organized at South Bend, under Colonels 
Kline G. Sherlock and N. Gleason, was accepted at Indianapolis 
on the 31st of August, 1S62, and left on the same day en route to 


the front. From Springfield and I'erryville on the 6th and 8th of 
October, 1862, to Mission Ridge, on the '25th of November, ls<:,3, 
thence through the Atlanta campaign to the surrender of the South- 
ern armies, it upheld a gallant name, and met with a true and en- 
thusiastic welcome- home on the 21st of June, 1865, with a list of 
.absent aggregating 451. 

The 88tu Regiment, organized within the Fourth Congressional 
District, under Col. Geo. Humphrey, entered the service on the 
29th of August, 1862, and presently was found among the front 
ranks in war. It passed through the campaign in brilliant form 
down to the time of Gen. Johnson's surrender to Gen. Grant, after 
which, on the 7th of June, 1865, it was mustered out at Washing- 

The 89th Regiment, formed from the material of the 
Eleventh Congressional District, was mustered in at Indianapolis, 
on the 28th of August, 1862, under Col. Chas. D. Murray, and 
after an exceedingly brilliant campaign was discharged by Gov. 
Morton on the 4th of August, 1865. 

The 90th Regiment, or Fifth Cavalky, was organized at 
Indianapolis, under the Colonelcy of Felix W. Graham, between 
August and November, 1862. The different companies, joining 
headquarters at Louisville on the 11th of March, 1863, engaged in 
observing the movements of the enemy in the vicinity of Cumber- 
land river until the 19th of April, when a first and successful 
brush was had with the rebels. The regiment had been in 22 en- 
gagements during the term of service, captured 640 prisoners, and 
claimed a list of casualties mounting up to the number of 829. 
It was mustered out on the 16th of June, 1865, at Pulaski. 

The 91st Battalion, of seven companies, was mustered into 
service at Evansville, the 1st of October, 1862, under Lieut.-Colonel 
John Mehringer, and in ten days later left for the front. In 
1863 the regiment was completed, and thenceforth took a very 
prominent position in the prosecut: >n of the war. During its ser- 
vice it lost 81 men, and retired from the field on the 26th of June, 

The 92d Regiment failed in organizing. 

The 93d Regiment was mustered in at Madison, Ind., on the 
20th of October, 1862, under Col. De Witt C. Thomas and Lieut.- 
Col. Geo. W. Cair. On the 9th of November it began a move- 
ment south, and ultimately allied itself to Buckland's Brigade of 


Gen, Sherman's, On the 14th of May it wag among the (ir.-t regi- 
ments to enter Jackson, the capital of Mississippi; was next pres- 
ent at the assault, on Vicksburg, and made a stirring campaign 
down to the storming of Fort Blakely on the 9th of April, 1865. 
It was discharged on the 11th of August, that year, at Indianapo- 
lis, after receiving a public ovation. 

The 94th and 95th Reoimexts, authorized to be formed within 
the Fourth and Fifth Congressional Districts, respectively, were 
only partially organized, and so the few companies that could l>e 
mustered were incorporated with other regiments. 

The 96th Regiment could only bring together three companies, 
in the Sixth Congressional District, and these becoming incorpo- 
rated with the 99th then in process of formation at South Bend, the 
number was left blank. 

The 97th Regiment, raised in tbe Seventh Congressional Dis- 
trict, was mustered into service at Terre Haute, on the 20th of 
September, 1861, under Col. Robert F. Catterson. Reaching the 
front within a few days, it was assigned a position near Memphis, 
and subsequently joined in Gen. Grant's movement on Vicksburg, 
by overland route. After a succession of great exploits with the 
several armies to which it was attached, it completed its list of 
battles at Bentonville, on the 21st of March, 1865, and was dis- 
embodied at Washington on the 9th of June following. During its 
term of service the regiment lost 341 men, including the three 
Ensigns killed during the assaults on rebel positions along the 
Augusta Railway, from the loth to the 27th of June, 1864. 

The 98th lis giment, authorized to be raised within the Eighth 
Congressional District, failed in its organization, and the number 
was left biank in the army list. The two companies answering to 
the call (rf July, 1^!2, were consolidated with the 100th Regiment 
then being organized at Fort Wayne. 

The 99th Battalion, recruited within the Ninth Congressional 
District, completed its muster on the 21st of October, 1862, under 
Col. Alex. Fawler, and reported for service a few days later at 
Memphis, where it was assigned to the lGth Army Corps. The va- 
ried vicissitudes through which this regiment passed and its remark- 
able gallantry npon all occasions, have gained for it a fair fame. 
It was disembodied on the 5th of June, 1865, at Washington, and 
returned t-. Indianapolis on the 11th of the same month. 

The 10«tTii Regiment, recruited from the Eighth and Tenth 
Congressional Districts, under Col. Sandford J. Stoughton, mustered 


into the service on the 10th of September, left for the front on the 
11th of November, and became attached to the Army of Tennessee 
on the 26th of that month, 1862. The regiment participated in 
twenty-five battles, together with skirmishing during fnlly one-third 
of its term of service, and claimed a list of casualties mounting up 
to four hundred and sixty-four. It was mustered out of the ser- 
vice at Washington on the 9th of June, and reported at Indianapolis 
for discharge on the 14th of June, 1865. 

The 101st Regiment was mustered into service at Wabash on 
the 7th of September, 1862, under Col. William Garver, and pro- 
ceeded immediately to Covington, Kentucky. Its early experiences 
were gained in the pursuit ofBragg's army and John Morgan's 
cavalry, and these experiences tendered to render the regiment one 
of the most valuable in the war for the Republic From the defeat 
of John Morgan at Milton on the 18th of March, 1863, to the fall 
of Savannah on the 23rd of September, 1863, the regiment won 
many honors, and retired from the service on the 25th of June, 
1865, at Indianapolis. 


The 102d Regiment, organized under Col. Benjamin M. Gregory 
from companies of the Indiana Legion, and numbering six hun- 
dred and twenty-three men and officers, left Indianapolis for the 
front early in July, and reported at North Vernon on the 12th of 
Jnly, 1863, and having completed a round of duty, returned to In- 
dianapolis on the 17th to be discharged. 

' The 103d, comprising seven companies from Hendricks county, 
two from Marion and one from Wayne counties, numbering 681 
men and officers, under Col. Lawrence S. Shuler, was contemporary 
with the 102d Regiment, varying only in its service by being mus- 
tered oat one day before, or on the 16th of July, 1863. 

The 104th Regiment of Minute Meh was recruited from mem- 
bers of the Legion of Decatur, La Fayette, Madison, Marion and Rush 
counties. It comprised 714 men and officers under the command 
of Col. James Gavin, and was organized within forty hours after the 
issue of Governor Morton's call for minute men to protect Indiana 
and Kentucky against the raids of Gen. John H Morgan's rebel 
forces. After Morgan's escape into Ohio the command returned 
and was mustered out on the 18th of July, 1863. 

The 105th Regiment consisted of seven companies of the Legion 
and three of Minute Men, furnished by Hancock, Union, Randolph, 


Putnam, Wayne, Clinton and Madison counties. The command 
numbered seven hundred and thirteen men and officers, under Col. 
Sherlock, and took a leading part in the pursuit of Morgan. Re- 
turning on the 18th of July to Indianapolis it was mustered out. 

The 106th Regiment, under Col. Isaac P. Gray, consisted of 
one company of the Legion and nine companies of Minute Men, 
aggregating seven hundred and ninety-two men and officers. The 
comities of Wayne, Randolph, Hancock, Howard, and Marion were 
represented in its rank and file. Like the other regiments organized 
to repel Morgan, it was disembodied in July, 1863. 

The 107th Regiment, under Col. De Witt C. Rugg, was organ- 
ized in the city of Indianapolis from the companies' Legion, or 
Ward Guards. The successes of this promptly organized regiment 
were unquestioned. 

The IOSth Regiment comprised five companies of Minute Men, 
from Tippecanoe county, two from Hancock, and one from each of 
the counties known as Carroll, Montgomery and Wayne, aggregat- 
ing 710 men and officers, and all under the command of Col. W. C. 
Wilson. After performing the only duties presented, it returned 
from Cincinnati on the 18th of July, and was mustered out. 

The 109th Regiment, composed of Minute Men from Coles 
county, 111., La Porte, Hamilton, Miami and Randolph counties, 
Ind., showed a roster of 709 officers and men, under Col. J. R. 
Mahon. Morgan having escaped from Ohio, its duties were at an 
end, and returning to Indianapolis was mustered out on the 17th 
of July, 1863, after seven days' service. 

The 110th Regiment of Minute Men comprised volunteers from 
Henry, Madison, Delaware, Cass, and Monroe counties. The men 
were ready and willing, if not really anxious to go to the front. But 
happily the swift-winged Morgan was driven away, and conse- 
quently the regiment was not called to the field. 

The 111th Regiment, furnished by Montgomery, Lafayette, 
Rush, Miami, Monroe, Delaware and Hamilton counties, number- 
ing 733 men and officers, under Col. Robert Canover, was not 

The 112th Regiment was formed from nine companies of Min- 
ute Men, and the Mitchell Light Infantry Company of the Legion. 
Its strength was 703 men and officers, under Col. Hiram F. Brax- 
ton. Lawrence, Washington, Monroe and Orange counties were 
represented on its roster, and the historic names of North Vernon 
and Sunman's Station on its banner. Returning from the South 


after seven days' service, it was mustered out on the 17th of 
July, 18G3. 

The 113th Regiment, furnished by Daviess, Martin, Washington, 
and Monroe counties, comprised 526 rank and file under Col. Geo. 
W. Burge. Like the 112th, it was assigned to Gen. Hughes' 
Brigade, and defended North Vernon against the repeated attacks 
of John H. Morgan's forces. 

The 114th Regiment was wholly organized in Johnson county, 
under Col. Lambertson, and participated in the affair of North 
Vernon. Returning on the 21st of July, 1S63, with its brief but 
faithful record, it was disembodied at Indianapolis, 11 days after 
its organization. 

All these regiments were brought into existence to meet an 
emergency, and it must be confessed, that had not a sense of 
duty, military instinct and love of country animated these regi- 
ments, the rebel General, John H. Morton, and his 6,000 cavalry, 
would doubtless have carried destruction as far as the very capital 
of their State. 

six months' regiments. 

The 115th Regiment, organized at Indianapolis in answer to the 
call of the President in June, 1863, was mustered into service on 
the 17th of August, under Col. J. R. Mahon. Its service was short 
but brilliant, and received its discharge at Indianapolis the 10th 
of February, 1864. 

The 116th Regiment, mustered in on the 17th of August, 1863, 
moved to Detroit, Michigan, on the 30th, under Col. Charles Wise. 
During October it was ordered to Nicholasville, Kentucky, where it 
was assigned to Col. Mahon's Brigade, and with Gen. Willcox's 
entire command, joined in the forward movement to Cumberland 
Gap. After a term on severe duty it returned to Lafayette and 
there was disembodied on the 24th of February, 1S64, whither Gov. 
Morton hastened, to share in the ceremonies of welcome. 

The 117th Regiment of Indianapolis was mustered into service 
on the 17th of September, 1863, under Col. Thomas J. Brady. 
After surmounting every obstacle opposed to it, it returned on the 
6th of February, 1S64, and was treated to a public reception on 
the 9 th. 

The 118th Regiment, whose organization was completed on the 
3d of September, 1863, under Col. Geo. W. Jackson, joined the 
116th at Nicholasville, and sharing in its fortunes, returned to the 


State capital on the 14th of February, 1864. Its casualties were 
comprised in a list of 15 killed and wounded. 

The 119th, or Seventh Cavalry, was recruited under Col. John 
P. C. Shanks, and its organization completed on the 1st of Octo- 
ber, 1863. The rank and tile numbered 1,213, divided into twelve 
companies. On the 7th of December its arrival at Louisville was 
reported, and on the 14th it entered on active service. After the 
well-fought battle of Guntown. Mississippi, on the 10th of June, 
1864, although it only brought defeat to our arms, General Grier- 
son addressed the Seventh Cavalry, saying: " Your General con- 
gratulates you upon your noble conduct during the late expedition. 
Fighting against overwhelming numbers, under adverse circum- 
stances, your prompt obedience to orders and unflinching courage 
commanding the admiration of all, made even defeat almost a vic- 
tory. For hours on foot you repulsed the charges of the enemies' in- 
fantry, and again in the saddle you met his cavalry and turned his 
assaults into confusion. Your heroic perseverance saved hundreds 
of your fellow-soldiers from capture. You have been faithful to 
your honorable reputation, and have fully justified the confidence, 
and merited the high esteem of your commander." 

Early in 1865, a number of these troops, returning from impris- 
onment in Southern bastiles, were lost on the steamer "Sultana." 
The survivors of the campaign continued in the service for a long 
period after the restoration of peace, and finally mastered out 

The 120th Regiment. In September, 1863, Gov. Morton re- 
ceived authority from the War Department to organize eleven regi- 
ments within the State for three years' service. By April, 1864, 
this organization was complete, and being transferred to the com- 
mand of Brigadier-General Alvin P. Hovey, were formed by him 
into a division for service with the Army of Tennessee. Of those 
regiments, the 120th occupied a very prominent place, both on ac- 
count of its numbers, its perfect discipline and high reputation. 
It was mustered in at Columbus, and was in all the great battles 
of the latter years of the war. It won high praise from friend 
and foe, and retired with its bright roll of honor, after the success 
of Right and Justice was accomplished. 

The 121st, ok Ninth Cavalky, was mustered in March 1, 1864, 
under Col. George W. Jackson, at Indianapolis, and though not 
numerically strong, was 6o well equipped and possessed snch excel- 
lent material that on the 3rd of May it was ordered to the front. 
The record of the 121st, though extending over a brief period, is 


pregnant with deeds of war of a high character. On the 26th of 
April, 1865, these troops, while returning from their labors in the 
South, lost 55 men, owing to the explosion of the engines of the 
steamer " Sultana." The return of the 386 survivors, on the 5th of 
September, 1S65, was hailed with joy, and proved how well and 
dearly the citizens of Indiana loved their soldiers. 

The 122d Regiment ordered to be raised in the Third Congres- 
sional District, owing to very few men being then at home, failed 
in organization, and the regimental number became a blank. 

The 123d Regiment was furnished by the Fourth and Seventh 
Congressional Districts during the winter of 1863-'64, and mus- 
tered, March 9, 1864, at Greensburg, under Col. John C. McQuis- 
tpn. The command left for the front the same day, and after win- 
ning rare distinction during the last years of the campaign, par- 
ticularly in its gallantry at Atlanta, and its daring movement to- 
escape Forrest's 15,000 rebel horsemen near Franklin, this regi- 
ment was discharged on the 30th of August, 1865, at Indianapolis, 
being mustered out on the 25th, at Raleigh, North Carolina. 

The 124th Regiment completed its organization by assuming 
three companies raised for the 125th Regiment (which was intended 
to be cavalry), and was mustered in at Richmond, on the 10th of 
March, 1864, under Colonel James Burgess, and reported at Louis- 
ville within nine days. From Buzzard's Roost, on the 8th of May, 
1864, under General Schotield, Lost Mountain in June, and the 
capture of Decatur, on the 15th July, to the 21st March, 1865, in 
its grand advance under General Sherman from Atlanta to the 
coast, the regiment won many laurel wreaths, and after a brilliant 
campaign, was mustered out at Greensboro on the 31st August, 

The 125th, or Tenth Cavalry, was partially organized during 
November and December, 1862, at Vincennes, and in February, 
1863, completed its numbers and equipment at Columbus, under 
Colonel T. M. Pace. Early in May its arrival in Nashville was 
reported, and presently assigned active service. During September 
and October it engaged rebel contingents under Forrest and Hood, 
and later in the battles of Nashville, Reynold's Hill and Sugar 
Creek, and in 1S65 Flint River, Courtland and Mount Hope. The 
explosion of the Sultana occasioned the loss of thirty-five men with 
Captain Gaffney and Lieutenants Twigg and Reeves, and in a 
collision on the Nashville & Louisville railroad, May, 1864, lost 
live men killed and several wounded. After a term of service un- 

iil-i. .in OF LNDL4-NA. 


surpassed for its utility aud character it was disembodied at Vicks- 
burg, Mississippi, on the 31st August, 1S65, and returning to 
Indianapolis early in September, was welcomed by the Executive 
and people. 

The 126tu, or Eleventh Cavalry, was organized at Indian- 
apolis under Colonel Robert R. Stewart, on the 1st of March, 1864, 
and left in May for Tennessee. It took a ver}' conspicuous part in 
the defeat of Hood near Nashville, joining in the pursuit as far as 
Gravelly Springs, Alabama, where it was dismounted and assigned 
infantry duty. In June, 1865, it was remounted at St. Louis, and 
moved to Fort Riley, Kansas, and thence to Leavenworth, where it 
was mustered out on the 19th September, 1865. 

The 127tii, or Twelfth Cavalry, was partially organized at 
Kendallville, in December, 1863, and perfected at the same place, 
under Colonel Edward Anderson, in April, 1864. Reaching the 
front in May, it went into active service, took a prominent part in 
the march through Alabama and Georgia, and after a service bril- 
liant in all its parts, retired from the field, after discharge, on the 
22d of November, 1865. 

The 128th Regiment was raised in the Tenth Congressional Dis- 
trict of the period, and mustered at Michigan City, under Colonel 
R. P. De Hart, on the 18th March, 1864. On the 25th it was 
reported at the front, and assigned at once to Schofield's Division. 
The battles ol Resaca, Dallas, New Hope Church, Lost Mountain, 
Kenesaw. Atli I i. .lonesboro, Dalton, Brentwood Hills, Nashville, 
and the six days' skirmish of Columbia, were all participated in by 
the 128th, and it continued in service long after the termination 
of hostilities, holding the post of Raleigh, North Carolina. 

The 129th Regiment was, like the former, mustered in at 
Michigan City about the same time, under Colonel Charles Case, 
and moving to the front on the 7th April, 1864, shared in the for- 
tunes of the L28th until August 2:», L865, when it was disembodied 
at Charlotte, Notrh Carolina. 

The 130tb Regiment, mustered at Kokorno on the 12th March, 
1864, under Colonel C. S. Parrish, left en route to the seat of war 
on the 16th, and was assigned to the Second Brigade, First Division, 
Twenty-third Army Corps, at Nashville, on the 19th. During the 
war it made for itself a brilliant history, and returned to Indian- 
apolis with its well-won honors on the 13th DecemDer, 1S65. 

The 131st, or Thirteenth Cavalry, under Colonel G. M L. 
Johnson, was the last mounted regiment recruited within the State. 


It left Indianapolis on the 30th of April, 1864, in infantry trim, 
and gained its first honors on the 1st of October in its magnificent 
defense of Huntsville, Alabama, against the rebel division of 
General Btiford, following a line of first-rate military conduct to 
the end. In January, 1865, the regiment was remounted, won 
some distinction in its modern form, and was mustered out at 
Vicksburg on the 18th of November, 1865. The morale and 
services of the regiment were such that its Colonel was promoted 
Brevet Brigadier-General in consideration of its merited honors. 


Governor Morton, in obedience to the offer made under his auspices 
to the general Government to raise volunteer regiments for one hun- 
dred days' service, issued his call on the 23rd of April, 1864. This 
movement suggested itself to the inventive genius of the war Gov- 
ernor as a most important step toward the subjection or annihila- 
tion of the military supporters of slavery within a year, and thus 
conclude a war, which, notwithstanding its holy claims to the name 
of Battles for Freedom, was becoming too protracted, and proving 
too detrimental to the best interests of the Union. In answer to 
the esteemed Governor's call eight regiments came forward, and 
formed The Grand Division of the Volunteers. 

The 132d Regiment, under Col. S. C. Vance, was furnished by 
Indianapolis, Shelbyville, Franklin and Danville, and leaving on 
the 18th of May, 1864, reached the front where it joined the forces 
acting in Tennessee. 

The 133d Regiment, raised at Richmond on the 17th of May, 
1864, under Col. R. N. Hudson, comprised nine companies, and 
followed the 132d. 

The 134th Regiment, comprising seven companies, was organ- 
ized at Indianapolis on the 25th of Mav, 1864, under Col. James 
Gavin, and proceeded immediately to the front. 

The 135th Regiment was raised from the volunteers of Bedford, 
Noblesville and Goshen, with seven companies from the First Con- 
gressional District, under Col. W. C. Wilson, on the 25th of May, 
1864, and left at once en route to the South. 

The 136th Regiment comprised ten companies, raised in the 
same districts as those contributing to the 135th, under Col. J. W. 
Foster, and left for Tennessee on the 24th of May, 1864. 

The 137th Regiment, under Col. E. J. Robinson, comprising 
volunteers from Kokomo, Zanesviile, Medora, Sullivan, Rockville, 


and Owen and Lawrence counties, left ^ n route to Tennessee on the 
28tli of May, LS64, having completed organization the day previous. 

The I3Stij Regiment was formed of seven companies from the 
Ninth, with three from the Eleventh Congressional District (nn- 
reformed), and mustered in at Indianapolis on the 27th of May, 
1864, under Col. J. H. Shannon. This fine regiment was re- 
ported at the front within a few days. 

The 139th Regiment, under Col. Geo. Humphrey, was raised from 
volunteers furnished by Kendallville, Lawrenccburg, Elizaville, 
Knightstown, Connersville, Newcastle, Portland, Yevay, New 
Albany, Metamora, Columbia City, New Haven and New Phila- 
delphia. It was constituted a regiment on the 8th of June, 1864, 
and appeared among the defenders in Tennessee during that month. 

All these regiments gained distinction, and won an enviable po- 
sition in the glorious history of the war and the no less glorious 
one of their own State in its relation thereto. 


The 140th Regiment was organized with many others, in response 
to the call of the nation. Under its Colonel, Thomas J. Brady, it pro- 
ceeded to the South on the 15th of November, 1864. Having taken 
a most prominent part in all the desperate struggles, round Nash- 
ville and Murfreesboro in 1S64, to Town Creek Bridge on the 20th 
of February, 1865, and completed a continuous round of severe duty 
to the end, arrived at Indianapolis for discharge on the 21st of July, 
where Governor Morton received it with marked honors. 

The 141st Regiment was only partially raised, and its few com- 
panies were incorporated with Col Brady's command. 

The 142d Regiment was recruited at Fort Wayne, under Col. I. 
M. Comparct, and was mustered into service at Indianapolis on the 
d of November, 1S64. After a steady and exceedingly effective 
service, it returned to Indianapolis on the 16th of July, 1865. 


Was answered by Indiana in the most material terms. No less 
than fourteen serviceable regiments were placed at the disposal of 
the General Government. 

The 143d Regiment was mustered in, under Col J. T. Grill, on 
the 21st February, 1865, reported at Nashville on the 24th, and af- 
ter a brief but brilliant service returned to the State on the 21st 
October, 1865. 


The 144th Regiment, under Col. G. W. Riddle, was mustered in 
on the 6th March, 1865, left on the 9th for Harper's Ferry, took an 
effective part in the close of the campaign and reported at Indian- 
apolis for discharge on the 9th August. 1865. 

The 145th Regiment, under Col. W. A. Adams, left Indianapolis 
on the 18th of February, 1865, and joining Gen. Steadman's division 
at Chattanooga on the 23d was sent on active service. Its duties 
were discharged with rare fidelity until mustered out in January, 

The 146th Regiment, under Col. M. C. Welsh, left Indianapolis 
on the 11 th of March en route to Harper's Ferry, where it was ^.a- 
aigned to the army of the Shenandoah. The duties ot this regiment 
were severe and continuous, to the period of its muster out at Bal- 
timore on the 31st of August, 1*65. 

The 147th Regiment, comprised among other volunteers from 
Benton, Lafayette and Henry counties, organized under Col. Milton 
Peden on the 13th of March, 1865, at Indianapolis. It shared a 
fortune similar to that of the 146th, and returned for discharge on 
the 9th of August, 1865. 

The 148th Regiment, under Col. N. R. Ruckle, left the State 
capital on the 28th of February, 1865, and reporting at Nashville, 
was sent on guard and garrison duty into the heart of Tennessee. 
Returning to Indianapolis on the 8th of September, it received a 
final discharge. 

The 149th Regiment was organized at Indianapolis by Col. W. 
H. Fairbanks, and left on the 3d of March, 1865, for Tennessee, 
where it had the. honor of receiving the surrender of the rebel 
forces, and military stores of Generals Roddy and Polk. The reg- 
iment was welcomed home by Morton on the 29th of September. 

The 150th Regiment, under Col. M. B. Taylor, mustered in on the 
9th of March, 1865, left for the South on the 13th and reported at 
Harper's Ferry on the 17th. This regiment did guard duty at 
Charleston, Winchester, Stevenson Station, Gordon's Springs, and 
after a service characterized by utility, returned on the 9th of 
August to Indianapolis for discharge. 

The 151st Regiment, under Col. J. Healy, arrived at Nashville on 
the 9th of March, 1865. On the 14th a movement on Tullahoma 
was undertaken, and three months later returned to Nashville for 
garrison duty to the close of the war. It was mustered out on the 
22d of September, 1865. 

The 152d Regiment was organized at Indianapolis, under Col. 


W. W Griswold, and left for Harper's Ferry on the 18th of March, 
1865. It was attached to the provisional divisions of Shenandoah 
Army, and engaged until the 1st of September, when it was dis- 
charged at Indianapolis. 

The 153d Regiment was organized at Indianapolis on the 1st of 
March, 1S65, under Col. O. H. P. Carey. It reported at Louis- 
ville, and by order of Gen. Palmer, was held on service in Ken- 
tucky, where it was occupied in the exciting but very dangerous 
pastime of fighting Southern guerrillas. Later it was posted at 
Louisville, until mustered out on the 4th of September, 1865. 

The 154th Regiment, organized under Col. Frank Wilcox, left 
Indianapolis under Major Simpson, for Parkersburg, W. Virginia, 
on the 28th of April, 1S65. It was assigned to guard and garrison 
duty until its discharge on the 4th of August, 1865. 

The 155th Regiment, recruited throughout the State, left on the 
26th of April for Washington, and was afterward assigned to a 
provisional Brigade of the Ninth Army Corps at Alexandria. The 
companies of this regiment were scattered over the country, — at 
Dover, Centres ille, Wilmington, and Salisbury, but becoming re- 
united on the 4th of August, 1S65, it was mustered out at Dover, 

The 156th Battalion, under Lieut-Colonel Charles M. Smith, 
left en route to the Shenandoah Valley on the 27th of April, 1865, 
where it continued doing guard duty to the period of its muster 
out the 4th of August, 1865, at Winchester, Virginia. 

On the return of these regiments to Indianapolis, Gov. Morton 
and the people received them with all that characteristic cordiality 
and enthusiasm peculiarly their own. 


The people of Crawford county, animated with that inspiriting 
patriotism which the war drew forth, organized this mounted com- 
pany on the 25th of July, 1863, and placed it at the disposal of 
the Government, and it was mustered into service by order of the 
War Secretary, on the 13th of August, 1863, under Captain L. 
Lamb. To the close of the year it engaged in the laudable pursuit 
of arresting deserters and enforcing the draft; however, on the 
18th of January, 1864, it was reconstituted and incorporated with 
the Thirteenth Cavalry, with which it continued to serve until the 
treason of Americana against America was concmered. 



The 28th Regiment of Colored Troops was recruited through- 
out the State of Indiana, and under Lieut.-Colonel Charles S. 
Russell, left Indianapolis for the fronton the 24th of April, 1864. 
The regiment acted very well in its first engagement with the 
rebels at White House, Virginia, and again with Gen Sheridan s 
Cavalry, in the swamps of the Chickahominy. In the battle of 
the " Crater," it lost half its roster; but their place was soon filled 
by other colored recruits from the State, and Russell promoted to 
the Colonelcv, and afterward to Brevet Brigadier-General, when he 
was succeeded in the command, by Major Thomas H. Logan. 
During the few months of its active service it accumulated quite a 
history, and was ultimately discharged, on the 8th of January, 
1866, at Indianapolis. 


First Battery, organized at Evansville, under Captain Martin 
Klauss, and mustered in on the 16th of August, 1861, joined Gen. 
Fremont's army immediately, and entering readily upon its salu- 
tary course, aided in the capture of 950 rebels and their position 
at Blackwater creek. On March the 6th, 1S62 at Elkhorn Tavern, 
and on the 8th at Pea Ridge, the battery performed good service. 
Port Gibson, Champion Hill, Jackson, the Teche country, Sabine 
Cross Roads, Grand Encore, all tell of its efficacy. In 1864 it was 
subjected to reorganization, when Lawrence Jacoby was raised to 
the* Captiancy, vice Klauss resigned. After a long term of useful 
service, it was mustered out at Indianapolis on the 18th of August, 

Second Battery was organized, under Captain D. G. Rabb, at 
Indianapolis on the 9th of August, 1861, and one month later pro- 
ceeded to the front. It participated in the campaign against Col. 
Coffee's irregular troops and the rebellious Indians of the Cherokee 
nation. From Lone Jack, Missouri, to Jenkin's Ferry and Fort 
Smith it won signal honors until its reorganization in 1864, and 
even after, to June, 1S65, it maintained a very fair reputation. 

The Third Battery, under Capt. W. W. Frybarger, was organ- 
ized and mustered in at Connersville on the 24th of August, 1861, 
and proceeded immediately to join Fremont's Army of the Mis- 
souri. Moon's Mill, Kirksville, Meridian, Fort de Russy, Alex- 
andria, Round Lake, Tupelo, Clinton and Tallahatchie are names 


which may be engraven on its guns. It participated in the affairs 
before Nashville on the 15th and 16th of December, 1864, when 
General Hood's Army was put to route, and at Fort Blakely, out- 
side Mobile, after which it returned home to report for discharge, 
August 21, 1865. 

The Fourth Battery, recruited in La Porte, Porter and Lake 
counties, reported at the front early in October, 1861, and at once 
assumed a prominent place in the army of Gen. Buell. Again 
under Rosencrans and McOook and under General Sheridan at 
Stone River, the services of this battery were much praised, and it 
retained its well-earned reputation to the very day of its muster out 
— the 1st of August, 1865. Its first organization was completed 
under Capt. A. K. Bush, and reorganized in Oct., 1864, under Capt 
B. F. Johnson. 

The Fifth Battery was furnished by La Porte, Allen, Whitley 
and Noble counties, organized under Capt. Peter Simonson, and mus- 
tered into service on the 22d of November, 1861. It comprised 
four six pounders, two being rifled cannon, and two twelve-pounder 
Howitzers with a force of 158 men. Reporting at Camp Gil- 
bert, Louisville, on the 29th, it was shortly after assigned to the 
division of Gen. Mitchell, at Bacon Creek. During its term, it 
served in twenty battles and numerous petty actions, losing its Cap- 
tain at Pine Mountain. The total loss accruing to the battery was 
84 men and officers and four guns. It was mustered out on the 
20th of July, 1864. 

The Sixth Battery was recruited at Evansville, under Captain 
Frederick Behr, and left, on the 2d of Oct., 1861, for the front, 
reporting at Henderson, Kentucky, a few days after. Early in 
1862 it joined Gen. Sherman's army at Paducah, and participated 
in the battle of Shiloh, on the 6th of April. Its history grew in 
brilliancy until the era of peace insured a cessation of its great 

The Seventh Battery comprised volunteers from Terre Haute, 
Arcadia, Evansville, Salem, Lawrenceburg, Columbus, Vin- 
cennes and Indianapolis, under Samuel J. Harris as its first 
Captain, who was succeeded by G. R. Shallow and O. H. Mor- 
gan after its reorganization. From the siege of Corinth to the 
capture of Atlanta it performed vast services, and returned to 
Indianapolis on the 11th of July, 1865, to be received by the peo- 
ple and hear its history from the lips of the veteran patriot and 
Governor of the State. 


The Eighth Battery, under Captain G. T. Cochran, arrived at 
the front on the 2Gth of February, 1862, and subsequently entered 
upon its real duties at the siege of Corinth. It served with dis- 
tinction throughout, and concluded a well-made campaign under 
Will Stokes, who was appointed Captain of the companies with 
which it was consolidated in March, 1865. 

The Ninth Battery. The organization of this battery was 
perfected at Indianapolis, on the 1st of January, 1862, under Capt. 
'N. S. Thompson. Moving to the front it participated in the affairs 
of Shiloh, Corinth, Queen's Hill, Meridian, Fort Dick Taylor. Fort 
de Russy, Henderson's Hill, Pleasant Hill, Cotile Landing, Bayou 
Rapids, Mansura, Chicot, and many others, winning a name in 
each engagement. The explosion of the steamer Eclipse at Johnson- 
ville, above Paducah, on Jan. 27, 1S65, resulted in the destruction of 
58 men, leaving only ten to represent the battery 7 . The survivors 
reached Indianapolis on the 6th of March, and were mustered out. 

The Tenth Battery was recruited at Lafayette, and mustered in 
under Capt. Jerome B. Cox, in January, 1861. Having passed 
through the Kentucky campaign against Gen. Bragg, it partici- 
pated in many of the great engagements, and finally returned to 
report for discharge on the 6th of July, 1864, having, in the mean- 
time, won a very fair fame. 

The Eleventh Battery was organized at Lafayette, and mus- 
tered in at Indianapolis under Capt. Arnold Sutermeister, on the 
17th of December, 1861. On most of the principal battle-fields, 
from Shiloh, in 1S62, to the capture of Atlanta, it maintained a high 
reputation for military excellence, and after consolidation with the 
Eighteenth, mustered out on the 7th of June, 1S65. 

The Twelfth Battery was recruited at Jeffersonville and sub- 
sequently mustered in at Indianapolis. On the 6th of March, 1862, 
it reached Nashville, having been previously assigned to Buell's 
Army. In April its Captain, G. W. Sterling, resigned, and the 
position devolved on Capt. James E. White, who, in turn, was suc- 
ceeded by James A. Dunwoody. The record of the battery holds 
a first place in the history of the period, and enabled both men and 
officers to look back with pride upon the battle-fields of the land. 
It was ordered home in June, 1865, and on reaching Indianapolis, 
on the 1st of July, was mustered out on the 7th of that month. 

The Thirteenth Battery was organized under Captain Sewell 
Coulson, during the winter of 1861, at Indianapolis, and proceeded 
to the front in February, 1862. During the subsequent months it 


was occupied in the pursuit of John II. Morgan's raiders, and 
aided effectively in driving them from Kentucky. This artillery 
company returned from the South on the 4th of July, 1S65, and 
were discharged the day following. 

The Fourteenth Battery, recruited in "Wabash, Miami, Lafay- 
ette, and Huntington counties, under Captain M. II. Kidd, and 
Lieutenant J. "W. H. McGuire, left Indianapolis on the 11th of 
April, 1862, and within a few months one portion of it was cap- 
tured at Lexington by Gen. Forrest's great cavalry command. The 
main battery lost two guns and two men at Guntown, on the Mis- 
sissippi, but proved more successful at Nashville and Mobile. It 
arrived home on the 29th of August, 1865, received a public wel- 
come, and its final discharge. 

The Fifteenth Battery, under Captain I. C. H. Von Sehlin, 
was retained on duty from the date of its organization, at Indian- 
apolis, until the 5th of July, 1862, when it was moved to Harper's 
Ferry. Two months later the gallant defense of Maryland Heights 
was set at naught by the rebel Stonewall Jackson, and the entire 
garrison surrendered. Being paroled, it was reorganized at Indian- 
apolis, and appeared again in the field in March, 1S63, where it 
won a splendid renown on every well-fought field to the close of 
the war. It was mustered out on the 24th of June, 1865. 

The Sixteenth Battery was organized at Lafayette, under 
Capt. Charles A. Nay lor, and on the 1st of June, 1862, left for 
Washington. Moving to the front with Gen. Pope's command, it 
participated in the battle of Slaughter Mountain, on the 9th of 
August, and South Mountain, and Antietam, under Gen. McClel- 
lan. This battery was engaged in a large number of general en- 
gagements and Hying column affairs, won a very favorable record, 
and returned on the 5th of July, 1865. 

The Seventeenth Battery, under Capt. Milton L. Miner, was 
mustered in at Indianapolis, on the 20th of May, 1862, left for the 
front on the 5th of July, and subsequently engaged in the Gettys- 
burg expedition, was present at Harper's Ferry, July 6, 1863, and 
at Opequan on the 19th of September. Fisher's Hill, New Mar- 
ket, and Cedar Creek brought it additional honors, and won from 
Gen. Sheridan a tribute of praise for its service on these battle 
grounds. Ordered from Winchester to Indianapolis it was mus- 
tered out there on the 3d of July, 1S65. 

The Eighteenth Battery, under Capt. Eli Lilly, left for the 


front in August, 1862, but did not take a leading part in the cam- 
paign until 1S63, when, under Gen. Rosencrans, it appeared prom- 
inent at Hoover's Gap. From this period to the affairs of West 
Point and Macon, it performed first-class service, and returned to 
its State on the 25th of June, 1S65. 

The Nineteenth Battery was mustered into service at Indian- 
apolis, on the 5th of August, 1862, under Capt. S. J. Harris, and 
proceeded immediately afterward to the front, where it participated 
in the campaign against Gen. Bragg. It was present at every post 
of danger to the end of the war, when, after the surrender of John- 
son's army, it returned to Indianapolis. Reaching that city on 
the 6th of June, 1865. it was treated to a public reception and 
received the congratulations of Gov. Morton. Four days later it 
was discharged. 

The Twentieth Battery, organized under Capt. Frank A. Rose, 
left the State capital on the 17th of December, 1862, for the front, 
and reported immediately at Henderson, Kentucky. Subsequently 
Captain Rose resigned,, and, in 1S63, under Capt. Osborn, turned 
over its guns to the 11th Indiana Battery, and was assigned to the 
charge of siege guns at Nashville. Gov. Morton had the battery 
supplied with new field pieces, and by the 5th of October, 1863, it 
was again in the field, where it won many honors under Sherman, 
and continued to exercise a great influence until its return on the 
23d of June, 1865. 

The Twenty-first Battery recruited at Indianapolis, under the 
direction of Captain W. W. Andrew, left on the 9th of September, 
1862, for Covington, Kentucky, to aid in its defense against the 
advancing forces of Gen. Kirby Smith. It was engaged in numerous 
military affairs and may be said to acquire many honors, although 
its record is stained with the names of seven deserters. The battery 
was discharged on the 21st of June, 1865. 

The Twenty-second Battery was mustered in at Indianapolis 
in the 15th of December, 1862, under Capt. B. F. Denning, and 
moved at once to the front. It took a very conspicuous part in the 
pursuit of Morgan's Cavalry, and in many other affairs. It threw 
the first shot into Atlanta, and lost its Captain, who was killed in 
the skirmish line, on the 1st of July. While the list of casualties 
numbers only 35, that of desertions numbers 37. This battery was 
received with public honors on its return, the 25th of June, 1865, 
and mustered out on the 7th of the same month. 


The Twenty-third Battery, recruited in October 1862, and 
mustered in on the 8th of November, under Capt. I. II. Myers, pro- 
ceeded south, after having rendered very efficient services at home 
in guarding the camps of rebel prisoners. In July, 1865, the battery 
took an active part, under General Boyle's command, in routing 
and capturing the raiders at Brandenburgh, and subsequently to 
the close of the war performed very brilliant exploits, reaching 
Indianapolis in June, 1865. It was discharged on the 27th of that 

The Twenty-fourth Battery, under Capt. I. A. Simms, was 
enrolled for service on the 29th of November, 1862; remained 
at Indianapolis on duty until the 13thof March, 1863, when 
it left for the field. From its participation in the Cumberland 
River campaign, to its last engagement at Columbia, Tennessee, it 
aided materially in bringing victory to the Union ranks and made 
for itself a widespread fame. Arriving at Indianapolis on the 28th 
of July, it was publicly received, and in five days later disembodied. 

The Twenty-fifth Battery was recruited in September and Oc- 
tober, 1864, and mustered into service for one year, under Capt. 
Frederick C. Sturm. December 13th, it reported at Nashville, and 
took a prominent part in the defeat of Gen. Hood's army. Its 
duties until July, 1865, were continuous, when it returned to 
report for final discharge. 

The Twenty-sixth Battery, or "Wilder's Battery," was re- 
cruited under Capt. I. T. Wilder, of Greensburg, in May, 1S61; but 
was not mustered in as an artillery company. Incorporating itself 
with a regiment then forming at Indianapolis it was mustered as 
company "A," of the 17th Infantry, with Wilder as Lieutenant- 
Colonel of the regiment. Subsequently, at Elk Water, Virginia, 
it wa6 converted into the "First Independent Battery," and became 
known as " Rigby's Battery." The record of this battery is as 
brilliant as any won during the war. On every field it has won a 
distinct reputation; it was well worthy the enthusiastic reception 
given to it on its return to Indianapolis on the 11th and 12th of 
July, 1865. During its term of service it was subject to many 
transmutations; but in every phase of its brief history, areputation 
for gallantry and patriotism was maintained which now forms a 
living testimonial to its services to the public. 

Tlie total number of battles in f he " War of the Rebellion " in 
which the patriotic citizens of the great and noble State of Indiana 
were more or less engaged, was as follows: 


Locality. No. of Battles. Locality. No of Battles. 

Virginia 90 Maryland 7 

Tennessee 51 Texas 3 

Georgia 41 South Carolina 2 

Mississippi 24 Indian Territory 2 

Arkansas 19 Pennsylvania 1 

Kentucky 16 Ohio 1 

Lmiisana 15 Indiana 1 

Missouri 9 

North Carolina 8 Total 308 

The regiments sent forth to the defense of the Republic in the 
hour of its greatest peril, when a host of her own sons, blinded by 
some unholy infatuation, leaped to arms that they might trample 
upon the liberty-giving principles of the nation, have been passed 
in very brief review. The authorities chosen for the dates, names, 
and figures are the records of the State, and the main subject is 
based upon the actions of those 267,000 gallant meu of Indiana 
who rushed to arms in defense of all for which their fathers bled, 
leaving their wives and children and homes in the guardianship of 
a truly paternal Government. 

The relation of Indiana to the Republic was then established; 
for when the population of the State, at the time her sons went 
forth to participate in war for the maintenance of the Union, is 
brought into comparison with all other States and countries, it will 
be apparent that the sacrifices made by Indiana from lSCl-^ 
equal, if not actually exceed, the noble3t of those recorded in the 
history of ancient or modern times. 

Unprepared for the terrible inundation of modern wickedness, 
which threatened to deluge the country in a sea of blood and rob, 
a people of their richest, their most prized inheritance, the State 
rose above all precedent, and under the benign influence of patriot- 
ism, guided by the well-directed zeal of a wise Governor and 
Government, sent into the field an army that in numbers was 
gigantic, and in moral and physical excellence never equaled 

It is laid down in the official reports, furnished to the War De- 
partment, that over 200,000 troops were specially organized to aid 
in crushing the legiousof the slave-holder; that no less than 50,000 
militia were armed to defend the State, and that the large, but abso- 
lutely necessary number of commissions issued was 17,114. All 
this proves the scientific skill and military economy exercised by 
the Governor, and brought to the aid of the people in a most terri- 
ble emergency; for he, with some prophetic sense of the gravity of 
the situation, saw that unless the greatest powers of the Union 
were put forth to crush the least justifiable and most pernicious 


of all rebellions holding a place in the record of nations, the best 
blood of the country would flow in a vain attempt to avert a catas- 
trophe which, if prolonged for many years, would result in at least 
the moral and commercial ruin of the country. 

The part which Indiana took in the war against the Rebellion is 
one of which the citizens of the State may well be proud. In the 
number of troops furnished, and in the amount of voluntary con- 
tributions rendered, Indiana, in proportion and wealth, stands 
equal to any of her sister States. " It is also a subject of gratitude 
and thankfulness," said Gov. Morton, in his message to the Legis- 
lature, " that, while the number of troops furnished by Indiana 
alone in this great contest would have done credit to a first-class 
nation, measured by the standard of previous wars, not a single 
battery or battalion from this State has brought reproach upon the 
national flag, and no disaster of the war can be traced to any want 
of fidelity, courage or efficiency on the part of any Indiana officer. 
The endurance, heroism, intelligence and skill of the officers and 
soldiers sent forth by Indiana to do battle for the Union, have shed 
a luster on our beloved State, of which any people might justly be 
proud. Without claiming superiority over our loyal sister States, 
it is but justice to the brave men who have represented us on 
almost every battle-field of the war, to say that their deeds have 
placed Indiana in the front rank of those heroic States which 
rushed to the rescue »f the imperiled Government of the nation. 
The total number of troops furnished by the State for all terms of 
service exceeds 200,000 men, much the greater portion of them 
being for three years; and in addition thereto not less than 50,000 
State militia have from time to time been called into active service 
to repel rebel raids and defend our southern border from inva- 


In 1867 the Legislature comprised 91 Republicans and 59 Dem- 
ocrats. Soon after the commencement of the session, Gov. Morton 
resigned his office in consequence of having been elected to the U. 
S. Senate, and Lieut.-Gov. Conrad Baker assumed the Executive 
chair during the remainder of Morton's term. This Legislature, 
by a very decisive vote, ratified the 14th amendment to the Federal 
Constitution, constituting all persons born in the country or sub- 
ject to its jurisdiction, citizens of the United States and of the 
State wherein they reside, without regard to race or color; reduc- 


ing the Congressional representation in any State in which there 
should be a restriction of the exercise of the elective franchise on 
account of race or color; disfranchising persons therein named 
who shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the 
United States; and declaring that the validity of the public debt 
of the United States authorized by law, shall not be questioned. 

This Legislature also passed an act providing for the registry of 
votes, the punishment of fraudulent practices at elections, and for 
the apportionment and compensation of a Board of Registration; 
this Board to consist, in each township, of two freeholders appointed 
County Commissioners, together with the trustee of such 
township; in cities the freeholders are to be appointed in each 
ward by the city council. The measures of this law are very strict, 
and are faithfully executed. No cries of fraud in elections are 
heard in connection with Indiana. 

This Legislature also divided the State into eleven Congressional 
Districts and apportioned their representation; enacted a law for 
the protection and indemnity of all officers and soldiers of ^he 
f i i ted States and soldiers of the Indiana Legion, for acts done in 
the military service of the United States, and in the military ser- 
of the State, and in enforcing the laws and preserving the 
l>eace of the country; made definite appropriations to the several 
benevolent institutions of the State, and adopted several measures 
for the encouragement of education, etc. 

In 1868, Indiana was the first in the field of national politics, 
both the principal parties holding State conventions early in the 
year. The Democrats nominated T. A. Hendricks for Governor, 
and denounced in their platform the reconstruction policy of the 
Republicans; recommended that United States treasury notes be 
substituted for national bank currency; denied that the General 
Government had a right to interfere with the question of suffrage 
in any of the States, and opposed negro suffrage, etc.; while the 
Republicans nominated Conrad Baker for Governor, defended its 
reconstruction policy, opposed a further contraction of the currency, 
etc. The campaign was an exciting one, and Mr. Baker was 
elected Governor by a majority of only 961. In the Presidential 
election that soon followed the State gave Grant 9,572 more than 

During 1S68 Indiana presented claims to the Government for 
about three and a half millions dollars for expenses incurred in the 
war, and $1,958,917.94 was allowed. Also, this year, a legislative 


commission reported that $413,599.48 were allowed to parties suf- 
fering loss by the Morgan raid. 

This year Governor Baker obtained a site for the House of 
Refuge. (See a subsequent page.) The Soldiers' and Seamen's 
Home, near Knightstown, originally established by private enter- 
prise and benevolence, and adopted by the Legislature of the 
previous year, was in a good condition. Up to that date the insti- 
tution had afforded relief and temporary subsistence to 400 men 
who had been disabled in the war. A substantial brick building 
had been built for the home, while the old buildings were used for 
an orphans' department, in which were gathered 86 children of 
deceased soldiers. 


By some mistake or liberal design, the early statute laws of 
Indiana on the subject of divorce were rather more loose than those 
of most other States in this Union ; and this subject had been a 
matter of so much jest among the public, that in 1870 the Governor 
recommended to the Legislature a reform in this direction, which 
was pretty effectually carried out. Since that time divorces can 
be granted only for the following causes: 1. Adultery. 2. Impo- 
tency existing at the time of marriage. 3. Abandonment for two 
years. 4. Cruel and inhuman treatment of one party by the other. 
5. Habitual (' -unkenness of either party, or the failure of the hus- 
band to makfc reasonable provision for the family. 6 The failure 
of the husband to make reasonable provision for the family for & 
period of two years. 7. The conviction of either party of an infamous 


Were it not for political government the pioneers would have got 
along without money much longer than they did. The pressure of 
governmental needs was somewhat in advance of the monetary 
income of the first settlers, and the little taxation required to carry 
on the government seemed great and even oppressive, especially at 
certain periods. 

In November, 1821, Gov. Jennings convened the Legislature in 
extra session to provide for the payment of interest on the State 
debt and a part of the principal, amounting to $20,000. It was 
thought that a sufficient amount would be realized in the notes of 
the State bank and its branches, although they were considerably 
depreciated. Said the Governor: " It will be oppressive if the 
State, after the paper of this institution (State bank) was author- 
ized to be circulated in revenue, should be prevented by any assign, 
ment of the evidences of existing debt, from discharging at least 
so much of that debt with the paper of the bank as will absorb the 
collections of the present year; especially when their notes, after 
being made receivable by the agents of the State, became greatly 
depreciated by great mismanagement on the part of the bank 
itself. It ought not to be expected that a public loss to the State 
should be avoided by resorting to any measures which would not 
comport with correct views of public justice; nor should it be 
anticipated that the treasury of the United States would ultimately 
adopt measures to secure an uncertain debt which would inter- 
fere with arrangements calculated to adjust the demand against the 
State without producing any additional embarrassment." 

The state of the public debt was indeed embarrassing, as the 
bonds which had been executed in its behalf had been assigned. 
The exciting cause of this proceeding consisted in the machinations 
of unprincipled speculators. Whatever disposition the principal 
bank may have made of the funds deposited by the United States, 
the connection of interest between the steam-mill company and the 
bank, and the extraordinary accommodations, as well as their amount, 
effected by arrangements of the steam-mill agency and some of 
the officers of the bank, were among the principal causes which 


had prostrated the paper circulating medium of the State, so far as it 
was dependent on the State bank and its branches. An abnormal 
state of affairs like this very naturally produced a blind disburse- 
ment of the fund to some extent, and this disbursement would be 
called by almost every one an " unwise administration." 

During the first 16 years of this century, the belligerent condi- 
tion of Europe called for agricultural supplies from America, and 
the consequent high price of grain justified even the remote pio- 
neers of Indiana in undertaking the tedious transportation of the 
products of the soil which the times forced upon them. The large 
disbursements made by the general Government among the peo- 
ple naturally engendered a rage for speculation; numerous banks 
with fictitious capital were established; immense issues of paper 
were made; and the circulating medium of the country was in- 
creased fourfold in the course of two or three years. This infla- 
tion produced the consequences which always follow such a scheme, 
namely, unfounded visions of wealth and splendor and the wild 
investments which result in ruin to the many and wealth to the 
few. The year 1821 was consequently one of great financial panic, 
and was the first experienced by the early settlers of the West. 

In 1822 the new Governor, William Hendricks, took a hopeful 
view of the situation, referring particularly to the "agricultural 
and social happiness of the State." The crops were abundant this 
year, immigration was setting in heavily and everything seemed to 
have an upward look. But the customs of the white race still com- 
pelling them to patronize European industries, combined with the 
remoteness of the surplus produce of Indiana from European mar- 
kets, constituted a serious drawback to the accumulation of wealth. 
Such a state of things naturally changed the habits of the people 
to some extent, at least for a shcrt time, assimilating them to those 
of more primitive tribes. This change of custom, however, was 
not severe and protracted enough to change the intelligent and 
social nature of the people, and they arose to their normal height 
on the very first opportunity. 

In 1822-'3, before speculation started up again, the surplus 
money was invested mainly in domestic manufactories instead of 
other and wilder commercial enterprises. Home manufactories 
were what the people needed to make them more independent. 
They not only gave employment to thousands whose services were 
before that valueless, but also created a market for a great portion 


of the surplus produce of the farmers. A part of the surplus cap- 
ital, however, was also sunk in internal improvements, some of 
which were unsuccessful for a time, hut eventually proved remu- 

Noah Noble occupied the Executive chair of the State from 1831 
to 1837, commencing his duties amid peculiar embarrassments. 
The crops of 1832 were short, Asiatic cholera came sweeping along 
the Ohio and into the interior of the State, and the Black Hawk war 
raged in the Northwest, — all these at once, and yet the work of 
internal improvements was actually begun. 


The State bank of Indiana was established by law January 28, 
1834. The act of the Legislature, by its own terms, ceased to be a 
law, January 1, 1857. At the time of its organization in 1834, its 
outstanding circulation was $4,208,725, with a debt due to the insti- 
tution, principally from citizens of the State, of $6,095,368. During 
the years 1857-'58 the bank redeemed nearly its entire circulation, 
providing for the redemption of all outstanding obligations; at this 
time it had collected from most of its debtors the money which they 
owed. The amounts of the State's interest in the stock of the bank 
was $1,390,000, and the money thus invested was procured by the 
issue of five per cent bonds, the last of which was payable July 1, 1866. 
The nominal profits of the bank were $2,780,604.36. By the law 
creating the sinking fund, that fund was appropriated, first, to pay 
the principal and interest on the bonds; secondly, the expenses of 
the Commissioners; and lastly the cause of common-school educa- 

The stock in all the branches authorized was subscribed by indi- 
viduals, and the installment paid as required by the charter. The 
loan authorized for the payment on the stock allotted to the State, 
amounting to $500,000, was obtained at a premium of 1.05 per 
per cent, on five per cent, stock, making the sum of over $5,000 on 
the amount borrowed. In 1836 we find that the State bank was 
doing good service; agricultural products were abundant, and the 
market was good; consequently the people were in the full enjoy- 
ment of all the blessings of a free government. 

By the year L843 the State was experiencing the disasters and 
embarassment consequent upon a system of over-banking, and its 
natural progeny, over-trading and deceptive speculation. Such a 
state of things tends to relax the hand of industry by creating false 


notions of wealth, and tempt to sudden acquisitions by means as delu- 
sive in their results as they are contrary to a primary law of nature. 
The people began more than ever to see the necessity of falling 
back upon that branch of industry for which Indiana, especially 
at that time, was particularly fitted, namely, agriculture, as the 
true and lasting source of substantial wealth. 

Gov. Whitcomb, 1843-'49, succeeded well in maintaining the 
credit of the State. Measures of compromise between the State 
and its creditors were adopted by which, ultimately, the public 
works, although incomplete, were given in payment for the claims 
against the Government. 

At the close of his term, Gov. "Whitcomb was elected to the 
Senate of the United States, and from December, 1848, to Decem- 
ber, 1849, Lieut-Gov. Paris C. Dunning was acting Governor. 

In 1851a general banking law was adopted which gave a new 
impetus to the commerce of the State, and opened the way for a 
broader volume of general trade; but this law was the source of 
many abuses; currency was expanded, a delusive idea of wealth 
again prevailed, and as a consecpuence, a great deal of damaging 
speculation was indulged in. 

In 1857 the charter of the State bank expired, and the large 
gains to the State in that institution were directed to the promotion 
of common-school education. 


During the war of the Kebellion the financial condition of the 
people was of course like that of the other Northern States generally. 
1870 found the State in a very prosperous condition. October 31 
of this year, the date of the fiscal report, there was a surplus of 
$373,249 in the treasury. The receipts of the year amounted to 
$3,605,639, and the disbursements to $2,943,600, leaving a balance 
of $1,035,288. The total debt of the State in November, 1871, was 

At the present time the principal articles of export from the State 
are flour and pork. Nearly all the wheat raised within the State 
is manufactured into flour within its limits, especially in the north- 
ern part. The pork business is the leading one in the southern 
part of the State. 

When we take into consideration the vast extent of railroad lines 
in this State, in connection with the agricultural and mineral 
resources, both developed and undeveloped, as already noted, we can 


see what a substantial foundation exists for the future welfare of 
this great commonwealth. Almost every portion of the State is 
coming up equally. The disposition to monopolize does not exist 
to a greater degree than is desirable or necessary for healthy compe- 
tition. Speculators in Hour, pork and other commodities appeared 
during the war, but generally came to ruin at their own game. 
The agricultural community here is an independent one, under- 
standing its rights, and " knowing them will maintain them." 

Indiana is more a manufacturing State, also, than many imagine. 
It probably has the greatest wagon and carriage manufactory in the 
world. In 1875 the total number of manufacturing establishments 
in this State was 16,812; number of steam engines, 3,68-4, with a 
total horse-power of 114,961; the total horse-power of water wheels, 
38,614; number of hands employed in the manufactories, S6,402; 
capital employed, is $117,462,161; wages paid, $35,461,9S7; cost of 
material,- $104,321,632; value of products, $301,304,271. These 
figures are on an average about twice what they were only five years 
previously, at which time they were about double what they were 
ten years before that. In manufacturing enterprise, it is said that 
Indiana, in proportion to her population, is considerably in advance 
of Illinois and Michigan. 

In 1S70 the assessed valuation of the real estate in Indiana was 
$460,120,974; of personal estate, $203,334,070; true valuation of 
both, $1,268,180,543. According to the evidences of increase at 
that time, the value of taxable property in this State must be double 
the foregoing figures. This is utterly astonishing, especially when 
ws consider what a large matter it is to double the elements of a 
large and wealthy State, compared witli its increase in infancy. 

The taxation for State purposes in 1870 amounted to $2,943,078; 
for county purposes, $4,654,476; and for municipal purposes, 
$3,193,577. The total county debt of Indiana in 1S70 was $1,127,- 
269, and the total debt of towns, cities, etc., was $2,523,934. 

In the compilation of this statistical matter we have before us the 
statistics of every element of progress in Indiana, in the U. S. 
Census Reports; but as it would be really improper for us further 
to burden these pages with tables or columns of large numbers, we 
will conclude by remarking that if any one wishes further details in 
these matters, he can readily find them in the Census Reports of 
the Government in any city or village in the country. Besides, 
almost any one can obtain, free of charge, from his representative in 


Congress, all these ami othei public documents in which he may he 


This subject began to be agitated as early as ISIS, during the 
administration of Governor Jennings, who, as well as all the 
Governors succeeding him to 1843, made it a special point in their 
messages to the Legislature to urge the adoption of measures for 
the construction of highways and canals and the improvement of 
the navigation of rivers. Gov. Hendricks in 1822 specified as the 
moat important improvement the navigation of the Falls of the 
Ohio, the Wabash and White rivers, and other streams, and the 
construction of the National and other roads through the State. 

In 1826 Governor Ray considered the construction of roads and 
canals as a necessity to place the State on an equal financial footing 
with the older States East, and in 1S29 he added: "Trtis subject 
can never grow irksome, since it must be the source of the bless-' 
iugs of civilized life. To secure its benefits is a duty enjoined upon 
the Legislature by the obligations of the social compact." 

In 1830 the people became much excited over the project of con- 
necting the streams of the country by " The National New York 
& Mississippi railroad." The National road and the Michigan 
and Ohio turnpike were enterprises in which the people and Legis- 
lature of Indiana were interested. The latter had already been the 
cause of much bitter controversy, and its location was then the 
subject of contention. 

In 1832 the work of internal improvements fairly commenced, 
despite the partial failure of the crops, the Black Hawk war and 
the Asiatic cholera. Several war parties invaded the Western 
settlements, exciting great alarm and some suffering. This year 
the canal commissioners completed the task assigned them and had 
negotiated the canal bonds in New York city, to the amount of 
$100,000, at a premium of 13J per cent., on terms honorable to the 
State and advantageous to the work. Before the close of tnis year 
$54,000 were spent for the improvement of the Michigan road, and 
$52,000 were realized from the sale of lands appropriated for its 
construction. In 1832, 32 miles of the Wabash and Erie canal was 
placed under contract and work commenced. A communication 
was addressed to the Governor of Ohio, requesting him to call the 
attention of the Legislature of that State to the subject of the 
extension of the canal from the Indiana line through Ohio to the 


Lake. In compliance with thi6 request, Governor Lucas promptly 
laid the subject before the Legislature of the State, and, in a spirit 
of courtesy, resolutions were adopted by that body, stipulating that 
if Ohio should ultimately decline to undertake the completion of 
that portion of the work within her limits before the time fixed by 
the act of Congress for the completion of the canal, she would, on 
just and equitable terms, enable Indiana to avail herself of the bene- 
fit of the lands granted, by authorizing her to sell them and invest 
the proceeds in the stock of a company to be incorporated by Ohio; 
and that she would give Indiana notice of her final determination 
on or before January 1, 1838. The Legislature of Ohio also 
authorized and invited the agent of the State of Indiana to select, 
survey and set apart the lands lying within that State. In keeping 
with this policy Governor Noble, in 1834, 6aid: "With a view of 
engaging in works of internal improvement, the propriety of 
adopting a general plan or system, having reference to the several 
portions of the State, and the connection of one with the other, 
naturally suggests itself. No work should be commenced but such 
as would be of acknowledged public utility, and when completed 
would form a branch of some general system. In view of this 
object, the policy of organizing a Board of Public "Works is again 
respectfully suggested." The Governor also called favorable atten- 
tion to the Lawrenceburg & Indianapolis railway, for which a 
charter had been granted. 

In 1835 the Wabash & Erie canal was pushed rapidly forward. 
The middle division, extending from the St. Joseph dam to the 
forks of the Wabash, about 32 miles, was completed, for about 
$232,000, including all repairs. Upon this portion of the line nav- 
igation was opened on July 4, which day the citizens assembled 
"to witness the mingling of the waters of the St. Joseph with 
those of the Wabash, uniting the waters of the northern chain of 
lakes with those of the Gulf of Mexico in the South." On other 
parts of the line the work progressed with speed, and the sale of 
canal lands was unusually active 

In 1836 the first meeting of the State Board of Internal Im- 
provement was convened and entered upon the discharge of its 
numerous and responsible duties. Having assigned to each mem- 
ber the direction and superintendence of a pjortion of the work, 
the next duty to be performed preparatory to the various spheres of 
active service, was that of procuring the requisite number of 
engineers. A delegation was sent to the Eastern cities, but returned 


without engaging an Engineer-in-Chicf for the roads and railways, 
and without the desired number for the subordinate station; but 
after considerable delay the Board was fully organized and put in 
operation. Under their management work on public improve- 
ments was successful; the canal progressed steadily; the naviga- 
tion of the middle division, from Fort Wayne to Huntington, was 
uninterrupted; 16 miles of the line between Huntington and La 
Fontaine creek were filled with water this year and made ready for 
navigation ; and the remaining 20 miles were completed, except a 
portion of the locks; from La Fontaine creek to Logansport prog- 
ress was made; the line from Georgetown to Lafayette was placed 
under contract; about 30 miles of the Whitewater canal, extending 
from Lawrenceburg through the beautiful valley of the White- 
water to Brookville, were also placed under contract, as also 23 
miles of the Central canal, passing through Indianapolis, on which 
work was commenced; also about 20 miles of the southern divis- 
ion of this work, extending from Evansville into the interior, 
were also contracted for; and on the line of the Cross-Cut' canal, 
from Terre Haute to the intersection, of the Central canal, near 
the mouth of Eel river, a commencement was also made on all the 
heavy sections. All this in 1836. 

Early in this year a party of engineers was organized, and 
directed to examine into the practicability of the Michigan & 
Erie canal line, then proposed. The report of their operations 
favored its expediency. A party of engineers was also fitted out, 
who entered upon the field of service of the Madison & Lafayette 
railroad, and contracts were let for its construction from Madison 
to Vernon, on which work was vigorously commenced. Also, con- 
tracts were let for grading and bridging the New Albany & Vin- 
cenncs road from the former point to Paoli, about 40 milee. 
Other roads were also undertaken and surveyed, so that indeed a 
stupendous system of internal improvement was undertaken, and 
as Gov. Noble truly remarked, upon the issue of that vast enter- 
prise the State of Indiana staked her fortune. She had gone too 
far to retreat. 

In 1S37, when Gov. Wallace took the Executive chair, the 
reaction consequent upon -over work" by the State in the internal 
improvement scheme began to be felt by the people. They feared 
a State debt was being incurred from which they could never be 
extricated; but the Governor did all he could throughout the term 
of his administration to keep up the courage of the citizens. He 


told them that the astonishing success so far, ourpassed even the 
hoped of the most sanguine, and that the flattering auspices of the 
future were sufheient to dispel every doubt and quiet every fear. 
Notwithstanding all his efforts, however, the construction of pub- 
lic works continued to decline, and in his last message he exclaimed: 
" Never before — I speak it advisedly — never before have you wit- 
nessed a period in our local history that more urgently called for 
the exercise of all the soundest and best attributes of grave and 
patriotic legislators, than the present. * * * The 

truth is — and it would be folly to conceal it — we have our hands 
full — full to overflowing; and therefore, to sustain ourselves, to 
preserve the credit and character of the State unimpaired, aud to 
continue her hitherto unexampled march to wealth and distinction, 
we have not an hour of time, nor a dollar of mouey, nor a hand 
employed in labor, to squander and dissipate upon mere objects of 
idleness, or taste, or amusement." 

The State had borrowed $3,S27,000 for internal improvement pur- 
poses, of which $1,327,000 was for the Wabash & Erie canal and 
the remainder for other works. The five per cent, interest on 
debts — about $200,000 — which the State had to pay, had become 
burdensome, as her resources for this purpose were only two, 
besides direct taxation, and they were small, namely, the interest 
on the balances due for canal lands, and the proceeds of the third 
installment of the surplus revenue, both amounting, in 1838, 
to about $45,000. 

In August, 1839, all work ceased on these improvements, with 
one or two exceptions, aud most of the contracts were surrendered 
to the State. This was done according to an act of the Legislature 
providing for the compensation of contractors by the issue of 
treasury notes. In addition to this state of affairs, the Legisla- 
ture of 1839 had made no provision for the payment of interest on 
the State debt incurred for internal improvements. Concerning 
this situation Gov. Bigger, in 1840, said that either to go ahead 
with the works or to abandon them altogether would be equally 
ruinous to the State, the implication being that the people should 
wait a little while for a breathing spell and then take hold again. 

Of course much individual indebtedness was created during the 
progress of the work on internal improvement. When operations 
ceased in 1839, and prices fell at the same time, the people were 
left in a great measure without the means of commanding money 
to pay their debts. This condition of private enterprise more than 


ever rendered direct taxation inexpedient. Hence it became the 
policy of Gov. Bigger to provide the means of paying the interest 
on the State debt without increasing the rate of taxation, and to 
continue that portion of the public works that could be immedi- 
ately completed, and from which the earliest returns could be 

In 1840 the system embraced ten different works, the most im- 
portant of which was the Wabash & Erie canal. The aggregate 
length of the lines embraced in the system was 1,160 miles, and 
of this only 140 miles had been completed. The amount expended 
had reached the sum of $5,600,000, and it required at least $14,000,- 
000 to complete them. Although the crops of 1841 were very 
remunerative, this perquisite alone was not sufficient to raise the 
State again up to the level of going ahead with her gigantic 

We should here state in detail the amount of work completed and 
of money expended on the various works up to this time, 1841, 
which were as follows : 

1. The Wabash & Erie canal, from the State line to Tippe- 
canoe, 129 miles in length, completed and navigable for the whole 
length, at a cost of $2,041,012. This sum includes the cost of the 
steamboat lock afterward completed at Delphi. 

2. The extension of the Wabash & Erie canal from the mouth 
of the Tippecanoe to Terre Haute, over 104 miles. The estimated 
cost of this work was $1,500,000; and the amount expended for the 
same $408,855. The navigation was at this period opened as far 
down as Lafayette, and a part of the work done in the neighbor- 
hood of Covington. 

3. The cross-cut canal from Terre Haute to Central canal, 
49 miles in length; estimated cost, $718,672; amount expended, 
$420,679; and at this time no part of the course was navigable. 

4. The White Water canal, from Lawrenceburg to the mouth 
of Settle creek, 76£ miles; estimated cost, $1,675,73S; amount 
expended to that date, $1,099,867; and 31 miles of the work 
was navigable, extending from the Ohio river to Brookville. 

5. The Central canal, from the Wabash A: Erie canal, to 
Indianapolis, including the feeder bend at Muncietown, 124 miles 
in length; total estimated cost, $2,299,853; amount expended, 
$568,046; eight miles completed at that date, and other portions 
nearly done. 


6. Central canal, from Indianapolis to Evansville on the Ohio 
river, 194 miles in length; total estimated cost, $3,532,394; amount 
expended, $831,302, 19 miles of which was completed at that date, 
at the southern end, and 16 miles, extending south from Indianao- 
olis, were nearly completed. 

7. Erie & Michigan canal, 182 miles in length; estimated cost, 
$2,624,823; amount expended, $156,394. No part of this work 

8. The Madison & Indianapolis railroad, over 85 miles in 
length; total estimated cost, $2,046,600; amount expended, $1,493,- 
013. Road finished and in operation for about 28 miles; grad- 
ing nearly finished for 27 miles in addition, extending to Eden- 

9. Indianapolis & Lafayette turnpike road, 73 miles in length; 
total estimated cost, $593, 737; amount expended, $72,118. The 
bridging and most of the grading was done on 27 miles, from 
Crawfordsville to Lafayette. 

10. New Albany & Vincennes turnpike road, 105 miles in 
length; estimated cost, $1,127,295; amount expended, $654,411. 
Forty-one miles graded and macadamized, extending from New 
Albany to Paoli, and 27 miles in addition partly graded. 

11. Jeffersonville & Crawfordsville road, over 164 miles long; 
total estimated cost, $1,651,800; amount expended, $372,737. 
Forty-five miles were partly graded and bridged, extending from 
Jeffersonville to Salem, and from Greencastle north. 

12. Improvement of the Wabash rapids, undertaken jointly by 
Indiana and Illinois; estimated cost to Indiana, $102,500; amount 
expended by Indiana, $9,539. 

Grand totals: Length of roads and canals, 1,289 miles, only 
281 of which have been finished; estimated cost of all the works, 
$19,914,424; amount expended, $8,164,528. The State debt at 
this time amounted to $18,469,146. The two principal causes 
which aggravated the embarrassment of the State at this juncture 
were, first, paying most of the interest out of the money borrowed, 
and, secondly, selling bonds on credit. The first error subjected 
the State to the payment of compound interest, and the people, 
not feeling the pressure of taxes to discharge the interest, natu- 
rally became inattentive to the public policy pursued. Postpone- 
ment of the payment of interest is demoralizing in every way. 
During this period the State was held up in an unpleasant manner 
before the gaze of the world; but be it to the credit of this great 


and glorious State, she would not repudiate, as many other States 
and municipalities have done. 

By the year 1850, the so-called "internal improvement" system 
having been abandoned, private capital and ambition pushed for- 
ward various "public works." During this year about 400 miles 
of plank road were completed, at a cost of $1,200 to $1,500 per 
mile, and about 1,200 miles more were surveyed and in progress. 
There were in the State at this time 212 miles of railroad in suc- 
cessful operation, of which 124 were completed this year. More 
than 1,000 miles of railroad were surveyed and in progress. 

An attempt was made during the session of the Legislature in 
1869 to re-burden the State with the old canal debt, and the matter 
was considerably agitated in the canvass of 1870. The subject of the 
Wabash & Erie canal was lightly touched in the Republican plat- 
form, occasioning considerable discussion, which probably had 
some effect on the election in the fall. That election resulted in 
an average majority in the State of about 2,864 for the Democracy. 
It being claimed that the Legislature had no authority under the 
constitution to tax the people for the purpose of aiding in the con- 
struction of railroads, the Supreme Court, in Aoril, 1871, decided 
adversely to such a claim. 


In 1869 the development of mineral resources in the State 
attracted considerable attention. Rich mines of iron and coal were 
discovered, as also fine quarries of building stone. The Vincennes 
railroad passed through some of the richest portions of the mineral 
region, the engineers of which had accurately determined the 
quality of richness of the ores. Near Brooklyn, about 20 miles 
from Indianapolis, is a fine formation of sandstone, yielding good 
material for buildings in the city; indeed, it is considered the beat 
building stone in the State. The limestone formation at Gosport, 
continuing 12 miles from that point, is of great variety, and 
includes the finest and most durable building stone in the world. 
Portions of it are susceptible only to the chisel; other portions are 
soft and can be worked with the ordinary tools. At the end of this 
limestone formation there commences a sandstone series of strata 
which extends seven miles farther, to a point about 60 miles from 
Indianapolis. Here an extensive coal bed is reached consisting of 
seven distinct veins. The first is about two feet thick, the next 
three feet, another four feet, and the others of various thicknesses. 


These beds are all easily worked, having a natural drain, and they 
yield heavy profits. In the whole of the southwestern part of the- 
State and for 300 miles up the Wabash, coal exists in good quality 
and abundance. 

The scholars, statesmen and philanthropists of Indiana work- 
ed hard and long for the appointment of a State Geologist, with 
sufficient support to enable him to make a thorough geological 
survey of the State. A partial survey was made as early as 1837-'8, 
by David Dale Owen, State Geologist, but nothing more was done 
until 1869, when Prof. Edward T. Cox was appointed State Geolo- 
gist. For 20 years previous to this date the Governors urged and 
insisted in all their messages that a thorough survey should be 
made, but almost, if not quite, in vain. In 1852, Dr. Ryland T. 
Brown delivered an able address on this subject before the Legis- 
lature, showing how much coal, iron, building stone, etc., there 
were probably; in the State, but the exact localities and qualities 
not ascertained, and how millions of money could be saved to the 
State by the expenditure of a few thousand dollars; but "they 
answered the Doctor in the negative. It must have been because 
they hadn't time to pass the bill. They were very busy. They had 
to pass all sorts of regulations concerning the negro. They had to 
protect a good many white people from marrying negroes. And as 
they didn't need any labor in the State, if. it was ' colored,' they 
had to make regulations to shut out all of that kind of labor, and 
to take steps to put out all that unfortunately got in, and they didn't 
have time to consider the scheme proposed by the white people " — 
W. W. 'Clayton. 

In 1853, the State Board of Agriculture employed Dr. Brown to 
make a partial examination of the geology of the State, at a salary 
of $500 a year, and to this Board the credit is due for the final 
success of the philanthropists, who in 1869 had the pleasure of 
witnessing the passage of a Legislative act " to provide for a Depart- 
ment of Geology and Natural Science, in connection with the State 
Board of Agriculture." Under this act Governor Baker immedi- 
ately appointed Prof. Edward T. Cox the State Geologist, who has 
made an able and exhaustive report of the agricultural, mineral 
and manufacturing resources of this State, world-wide in its celeb- 
rity, and a work of which the people of Indiana may be very 
proud. We can scarcely give even the substance of his report in a 
work like this, because it is of necessity deeply scientific and made 
up entirely of local detail. 


The coal measures, says Prof. E. T. Cox, cover an area of about 
6,500 square miles, in the southwestern part of the State, and 
extend from Warren county on the north to the Ohio river on the 
south, a distance of about 150 miles. This area comprises the fol- 
lowing counties: Warren, Fountain, Parke, Vermillion, Vigo, Clay, 
Sullivan, Greene, Knox, Daviess, Martin, Gibson, Pike, Dubois, 
Vanderburg, Warrick, Spencer, Perry and a small part of Crawford, 
Monroe, Putnam and Montgomery. 

This coal is all bituminous, but is divisible into three well-marked 
varieties: caking-coal, non-caking-coal or block coal and cannel 
coal. The total depth of the seams or measures is from 600 to 80O 
feet, with 12 to 14 distinct seams of coal; but these are not all to 
be found throughout the area; the seams range from one foot to 
eleven feet in thickness The caking coal prevails in the western 
portion of the area described, and has from three to four workable 
seams, ranging from three and a half to eleven feet in thickness. 
At most of the places where these are worked the coal is mined by 
adits driven in on the face of the ridges, and the deepest shafts in 
the State are less than 300 feet, the average depth for successful 
mining not being over 75 feet. This is a bright, black, sometimes 
glossy, coal, makes good coke and contains a very large percentage 
of pure illuminating gas. One pound will yield about 4J- cubic feet 
of gas, with a power equal to 15 standard sperm candles. The 
average calculated calorific power of the caking coals is 7,745 heat 
units, pure carbon being 8,080. Both in the northern and southern 
portions of the field, the caking coals present. similar good qualities, 
and are a great source of private and public wealth. 

The block coal prevails in the eastern part of the field and has an 
area of about 450 square miles. This is excellent, in its raw state, 
for making pig iron. It is indeed peculiarly fitted for metal- 
lurgical purposes. It has a laminated structure with carbonaceous 
matter, like charcoal, between the lamina, with slaty cleavage, and 
it rings under the stroke of the hammer. It is " free-burning," 
makes an open fire, and without caking, swelling, scaffolding in the 
furnace or changing form, burns like hickory wood until it is con- 
sumed to a white ash and leaves no clinkers. It is likewise valuable 
for generating steam and for household uses. Many of the principal 
railway lines in the State are using it in preference to any other 
coal, as it does not burn out the fire-boxes, and gives as little trouble 
as wood. 


There are eight distinct seams of block coal in this zone, three of 
which are workable, having an average thickness of four feet. In 
some places this coal is mined by adits, but generally from shafts, 
40 to 80 feet deep. The seams are crossed by cleavage lines, and 
the coal is usually mined without powder, and may be taken out in 
blocks weighing a ton or more. When entries or rooms are driven 
angling across the cleavage lines, the walls of the mine present a 
zigzag, notched appearance resembling a Virginia worm fence. 

In 1871 there were about 24 block coal mines in operation, and 
about 1,500 tons were mined daily. Since that time this industry 
has vastly increased. This coal consists of 81£ to 83£ percent, of 
carbon, and not quite three fourths of one per cent, of sulphur. 
Calculated calorific power equal to 8,283 heat units. This coal also 
is equally good both in the northern and southern parts of the field. 

The great Indiana coal field is within 150 miles of Chicago or 
Michigan City, by railroad, from which ports the Lake Superior 
specular and red hematite ores are landed from vessels that are able 
to run in a direct course from the ore banks. Considering the 
proximity of the vast quantities of iron in Michigan and Missouri 
one can readily see what a glorious future awaits Indiana in respect 
to manufactories. 

Of the cannel coal, one of the finest seams to be found in the 
country is in Daviess county, this State. Here it is three and a 
half feet thick, underlaid by one and a half feet of a beautiful, jet- 
black caking coal. There is no clay, shale or other foreign matter 
intervening, and fragments of the caking coal are often found 
adhering to the cannel. There is no gradual change from one to 
the other, and the character of each is homogeneous throughout. 

The cannel coal makes a delightful fire in open grates, and does 
not pop and throw off scales into the room, as is usual with this 
kind of coal. This coal is well adapted to the manufacture of 
illuminating gas, in respect to both quantity and high illuminating 
power. One ton of 2,000 pounds of this coal yields 10,400 feet of 
gas, while the best Pennsylvania coal yields but S,6S0 cubic feet. 
This gas has an illuminating power of 25 caudles, while the best 
Pennsylvania coal gas has that of only 17 candles. 

Cannel coal is also found in great abundance in Perry, Greene, 
Parkeaud Fountain counties, where its commercial value has already 
been demonstrated. 

Numerous deposits of bog iron ore are found in the northern part 
of the State, and clay iron-stones and impure carbonates and brown 


oxides are found scattered in the vicinity of the coal field. In some 
places the beds are quite thick and of considerable commercial 

An abundance of excellent lime is also found in Indiana, espe- 
cially in Huntington county, where many large kilns are kept in 
profitable operation. 


In 1852 the Legislature passed an act authorizing the organization 
of county and district agricultural societies, and also establishing a 
State Board, the provisions of which act are substantially as follows: 

1. Thirty or more persons in any one or two counties organizing 
into a society for the improvement of agriculture, adopting a consti- 
tution and by-laws agreeable to the regulations prescribed by the 
State Board, and appointing the proper officers and raising a sum 
of $50 for its own treasury, shall be entitled to the same amount 
from the fund arising from show licenses in their respective 

2. These societies shall offer annual premiums for improvement 
of soils, tillage, crops, manures, productions, stock, articles of 
domestic industry, and such other articles, productions and improve- 
ments as they may deem proper; they shall encourage, by grant 
of rewards, agricultural and household manufacturing interests, and 
so regulate the premiums that small farmers will have equal 
opportunity with the large; and they shall pay special attention to 
cost and profit of the inventions and improvements, requiring an 
exact, detailed statement of the processes competing for rewards. 

3. They shall publish in a newspaper annually their list of 
awards and an abstract of their treasurers' accounts, and they shall 
report in full to the State Board their proceedings. Failing to do 
the latter they shall receive no payment from their county funds. 


The act of Feb. 17, 1S52, also established a State Board of Agri- 
culture, with perpetual succession; its annual meetings to be held 
at Indianapolis on the first Thursday after the first Monday in 
January, when the reports of the county societies are to be received 
and agricultural interests discussed and determined upon; it shall 
make an annual report to the Legislature of receipts, expenses, 
proceedings, etc., of its own meeting as well as of those of the local 


societies; it 6hall hold State fairs, at such times and places as they 
may deem proper; may hold two meetings a year, certifying to the 
State Auditor their expenses, who shall draw his warrant upon the 
Treasurer for the same. 

In 1861 the State Board adopted certain rules, embracing ten 
sections, for the government of local societies, but in 1868 they 
were found inexpedient and abandoned. It adopted a resolution 
admitting delegates from the local societies. 


As the Board found great difficulty in doing justice to exhibitors 
without an adequate building, the members went earnestly to work 
in the fall of 1872 to get up an interest in the matter. They 
appointed a committee of five to confer with the Councilor citizens 
of Indianapolis as to the best mode to be devised for a more 
thorough and complete exhibition of the industries of the State. 
The result of the conference was that the time had arrived for a 
regular " exposition," like that of the older States. At the Janu- 
ary meeting in 1873, Hon. Thomas Dowling, of Terre Haute, 
reported for the committee that they found a general interest in 
this enterprise, not only at the capital, but also throughout the 
State. A sub-committee was appointed who devised plans and 
specifications for the necessary structure, taking lessons mainly 
from the Kentucky Exposition building at Louisville. All the 
members of the State Board were in favor of proceeding with the 
building except Mr. Poole, who feared that, as the interest of the 
two enterprises were somewhat conflicting, and the Exposition being 
the more exciting show, it would swallow up the State and county 

The Exposition was opened Sept. 10, 1873, when Hon. John 
Sutherland, President of the Board, the Mayor of Indianapolis, 
Senator Morton and Gov. Hendricks delivered addresses. Senator 
Morton took the high ground that the money spent for an exposi- 
tion is spent as strictly for educational purposes as that which goes 
directly into the common school. The exposition is not a mere 
show, to be idly gazed upon, but an industrial school where one 
should study and learn. He thought that Indiana had less untill- 
able land than any other State in the Union; 'twas as rich as any 
and yielded a greater variety of products; and that Indiana was 
the most prosperous agricultural community in the United States. 


The State had nearly 3,700 .miles of railroad, not counting ' • 
track, ill i 11 " miles more tinder contract for building. In 15 
or IS months one can go from Indianapolis to cvt-vy county in 
tin State I'V i tilroad. Indiana has 6,500 square miles of coal fieldi 
450 oi which contain block coal, the beat in the United States for 
manufacturing purposes. 

On the subject of cheap transportation, he said: " By the census 
of l s 7". Pennsylvania bad, of domestic animals of all kinds, 4,006,- 
589, and Indiana, 4,511,094. Pennsylvania bad grain to the amount 
of 60,460,000 bushels, while Indiana had 79,350,454. The value of 
the farm products of Pennsylvania was estimated to be $183,946,- 
000; those of Indiana, $122,914,000. Thus you see that while 
Indiana had 505,000 head of live stock more, and 19,000,000 
bushels of grain more than Pennsylvania, yet the products of Penn- 
sylvania are estimated at $183,946,000, on account of her greater 
proximity to market, while those of Indiana are estimated at only 
$122,914,000. Thus you can understand the importance of cheap 
transportation to Indiana. 

" Let us see how the question of transportation affects us on the 
other hand, with reference to the manufacturer of Bessemer steel. 
Of the 174,000 tons of iron ore used in the blast furnaces of Pitts- 
burg last year, 84,000 tons came from Lake Superior, 64,000 tons 
from Iron Mountain, Missouri, 20,000 tons from Lake Champlain, 
and less than 5,000 tons from the home mines of Pennsylvania. 
They cannot manufacture their iron with the coal they bave in 
Pennsylvania without coking it. We have coal in Indiana with 
which we can, in its raw state, make the best of iron; while we are 
250 miles nearer Lake Superior than Pittsburg, and 430 miles 
nearer to Iron Mountain. So that the question of transportation 
determines the fact that Indiana must become the great center for 
the manufacture of Bessemer steel." 

"What we want in this country is diversified labor.'' 

The grand hall of the Exposition buildings is on elevated ground 
at the head of Alabama street, and commands a fine view of the 
city. The structure is of brick, 308 feet long by 150 in width, and 
two stories bigh. Its elevated galleries extend quite around the 
building, under the roof, thus affording visitors an opportunity to 
secure the most commanding view to be had in the city. The 
lower floor of the grand hall is occupied by the mechanical, geologi- 
cal and miscellaneous departments, and by the offices of the Board, 
which extend along the entire f'rout. The second floor, which is 


approached by three wide stairways, accommodates the tine art, 
musical and other departments of light mechanics, and is brilliantly 
lighted by windows and skylights. But as we are here entering 
the description of a subject magnificent to behold, we enter a 
description too vast to complete, and we may as well stop here as 

The Presidents of the State Fairs have been: Gov. J. A. Wright, 
1852-'4; Gen. Jos. Orr, 1855; Dr. A. C. Stevenson, 1856-'8; G. D. 
Wagner; 1859-00; D. P. Ilolloway, 1861; Jas. D.Williams, 1862, 
1870-'l; A. D. Hamrick, 1863, 1867-'9; Stearns Fisher, lS64-'6; 
John Sutherland, 1872-'4; Wm. Crim, 1875. Secretaries: Johu B. 
Dillon, 1852-'3, 1855, 1858- '9; Ignatius Brown, 1856-7; W.T. Den- 
nis, 1854, 1860-'l; W. H. Loomis, 1862-'6; A. J. Holmes, 1867-'9; 
Joseph Poole, 1870-'l ; Alex. Heron, 1872-'5. Place of fair, Indian- 
apolis every year except: Lafayette, 1853; Madison, 1854; New 
Albany, 1859; Fort Wayne, 1865; and Terre Haute, 1867. In 
1861 there was no fair. The gate and entry receipts increased from 
$4,651 in 1852 to $45,330 in 1874. 

On the opening of the Exposition, Oct. 7,1874, addresses were 
delivered by the President of the Board, Hon. John Sutherland, 
and by Govs. Hendricks, Bigler and Pollock. Yvon's celebrated 
painting, the " Great Republic," was unveiled with great ceremony, 
and many distinguished guests were present to witness it. 

The exhibition of 1875 showed that the plate glass from the 
southern part of the State was eijual to the finest French plate; that 
the force- blowers made in the eastern part of the State was of a 
world-wide reputation; that the State has within its bounds the 
largest wagon manufactory in the world; that in other parts of the 
State there were all sorts and sizes of manufactories, including roll- 
ing mills and blast furnaces, and in the western part coal was mined 
and shipped at the rate of 2,500 tons a day from one vicinity; and 
many other facts, which " would astonish the citizens of Indiana 
themselves even more than the rest of the world." 


This society was organized in 1842, thus taking the lead in the 
West. At this time Henry Ward Beecher was a resident of Indian- 
apolis, engaged not 3nly as a minister but also as editor of the 
Indiana Farmer and Gardener, and his influence was very exten- 
sive in the interests of horticulture, floriculture and farming. 
Prominent among his pioneer co-laborers were Judge Coburu, 


Aaron Aldridge, Capt. James Sigarson, D. V. Culley, Reuben 
Eai;an, Stephen Hampton, Cornelius Katliff, Joshua Lindley, 
Abner Pope and many others. In the autumn of this year the 
society held an exhibition, probably the first in the State, if not 
in the "West, in the hall of the new State house. The only pre- 
mium offered was a set of silver teaspoons for the best seedling 
apple, which was won by Reuben Ragan, of Putnam county, for 
an apple christened on this occasion the "Osceola." 

The society gave great encouragement to the introduction of 
new varieties of fruit, especially of the pear, as the soil and cli- 
mate of Indiana were well adapted to this fruit. But the bright 
horizon which seemed to be at this time looming up all around the 
field of the young society's operations was suddenly and thoroughly 
darkened by the swarm of noxious insects, diseases, blasts of win- 
ter and the great distance to market. The prospects of the cause 
scarcely justified a continuation of the expense of assembling from 
remote parts of the State, and the meetings of the society therefore 
soon dwindled away until the organization itself became quite 

But when, in 1852 and afterward, railroads began to traverse the 
State in all directions, the Legislature provided for the organization 
of a State Board of Agriculture, whose scope was not only agri- 
culture but also horticulture and the mechanic and household arts. 
The rapid growth of the State soon necessitated a differentiation of 
this body, and in the autumn of 1860, at Indianapolis, there was 
organized the 


October 18, Reuben Ragan was elected President and Wm H. 
Loom is, of Marion county, Secretary. The constitution adopted 
provided for biennial meetings in January, at Indianapolis. At 
the first regular meeting, Jan. 9, 1861, a committee-man for each 
congressional district was appointed, all of them together to be 
known as the "State Fruit Committee," and twenty-five members 
were enrolled during this session. At the regular meeting in 1863 
the constitution was so amended as to provide for annual sessions, 
and the address of the newly elected President, Hon. I. G. D. Nel- 
son, of Allen county, urged the establishment of an agricultural 
college. He continued in the good cause until his work was 
crowned with success. 


In 1864 there was but little done on account of the exhaust- 
ive demands of the great war; and the descent of mercury 60° in 
eighteen hours did so much mischief as to increase the discourage- 
ment to the verge of despair. The title of the society was at this 
meeting, Jan., 1864 changed to that of the Indiana Horticultural 

The first several meetings of the society were mostly devoted to 
revision of fruit lists; and although the good work, from its vast- 
ness and complication, became somewhat monotonous, it has been 
no exception in this respect to the law that all the greatest and 
most productive labors of mankind require perseverance and toil. 

In 1866, George M. Beeler, who had so indefatigably served as 
' ry for several years, saw himself hastening to his grave, and 
showed his love for the cause of fruit culture by bequeathing to 
the society the sum of $1,000. This year also the State Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction was induced to take a copy of the 
Society's transactions for each of the township libraries in the State, 
and this enabled the Society to bind its volume of proceedings in 
a substantial manner. 

At the meeting in 1867 many valuable and interesting papers 
were presented, the office of corresponding secretary was created, 
and the subject of Legislative aid was discussed. The State Board 
of Agriculture placed the management of the horticultural depart- 
ment of the State fair in the care of the Society. 

The report for 1868 shows for the first time a balance on hand, 
after paying expenses, the balance being $61.55. Up to this time 
the Society had to take care of itself, — meeting current expenses, do- 
ing its own printing and binding, " boarding and clothing itself," 
and diffusing annually an amount of knowledge utterly incalcu- 
lable. During the year called meetings were held at Salem, in the 
peach and grape season, and evenings during the State fair, which 
was held in Terre Haute the previous fall. The State now assumed 
the cost of printing and binding, but the volume of transactions 
was not quite so valuable as that of the former year. 

In 1870 $160 was given to this Society by the State Board of 
Agriculture, to be distributed as prizes for essays, which object 
was faithfully carried out. The practice has since then been con- 

In 1871 the Horticultural Society brought out the best volume 
of papers and proceedings it ever has had published. 


In 1872 the office of corresponding secretary was discontinued; 
the appropriation by the State Board of Agriculture diverted to 
the payment of premiums on small fruits given at a show held the 
previous summer; results of the exhibition not entirely satisfac- 

In 1873 the State officials refused to publish the discussions of 
the members of the Horticultural Society, and the Legislature 
appropriated $500 for the purpose for each of the ensuing two 

In 1875 the Legislature enacted a law requiring that one of the 
trustees of Purdue University shall be selected by the Horticultu- 
ral Society. 

The aggregate annual membership of this society from its organ- 
ization in 1860 to 1875 was 1,225. 

The subject of education has been referred to in almost every 
gubernatorial message from the organization of the Territory to 
the present time. It is indeed the most favorite enterprise of the 
Hoosier State. In the first survey of Western lands, Congress set 
apart a section of land in every township, generally the 16th, for 
school purposes, the disposition of the land to be in hands of the 
residents of the respective townshipB. Besides this, to this State 
were given two entire townships for the use of a State Seminary, 
to be under the control of the Legislature. Also, the State con- 
stitution provides that all fines for the breach of law and all com- 
mutations tor militia service be appropriated to the use of county 
seminaries. In 1825 the common-school lands amounted to 
680,207 acres, estimated at $2 an acre, and valued therefore at 
$1,216,044. At this time the seminary at Bloomington, supported 
in part by one of these township grants, was very flourishing. The 
common schools, however, were in rather a poor condition. 


In 1852 the free-school system was fully established, which has 
resulted in placing Indiana in the lead of this great nation. Al- 
though this is a pleasant subject, it is a very large one to treat in 
a condensed notice, as this has to be. 

The free-school system of Indiana first became practically oper- 
ative the first Monday of April, 1853, when the township trustees 


for school purposes were elected through the State. The law com- 
mitted to them the charge of all the educational affairs in their 
respective townships. As it was feared by the opponents of the 
law that it would not be possible to select men in all the town- 
ships capable of executing the school laws satisfactorily, the 
people were thereby awakened to the necessity of electing their 
very best men; and although, of course, many blunders have been 
made by trustees, the operation of the law has tended to elevate the 
adult population as well as the youth; and Indiana still adheres to 
the policy of appointing its best men to educational positions. 
The result is a grand surprise to all old fogies, who indeed scarcely 
dare to appear such any longer. 

To instruct the people in the new law and set the educational 
machinery going, a pamphlet of over 60 pag^, embracing the law, 
with notes and explanations, was issued from the office of a super- 
intendent of public instruction, and distributed freely throughout 
the State. The first duty of the Board of Trustees was to establish 
and conveniently locate a sufficient number of schools for the edu- 
cation of all the children of their township. But where were the 
school-houses, and what were they? Previously they had been 
erected by single districts, but under this law districts were abol- 
ished, their lines obliterated, and houses previously built by dis- 
tricts became the property of the township, and all the houses were 
to be built at the expense of the township by an appropriation of 
township funds by the trustees. In some townships there was not 
a single school-house of any kind, and in others there were a few 
old, leaky, dilapidated log cabins, wholly unfit for use even in sum- 
mer, and in " winter worse than nothing." Before the people could 
be tolerably accommodated with schools at least 3,500 school-houses 
had to be erected in the State. 

By a general law, enacted in conformity to the constitution of 
1852, each township was made a municipal corporation, and every 
voter in the township a member of the corporation; the Board of 
Trustees constituted the township legislature as well as the execu- 
tive body, the whole body of voters, however, exercising direct con- 
trol through frequent meetings called by the trustees. Special 
taxes and every other matter of importance were directly voted 

Some tax-payers, who were opposed to special townships' taxes, 
retarded the progress of schools by refusing to pay their assess- 
ment. Contracts for building school-houses were given up, houses 


half finished were abandoned, and in many townships all school 
operations were suspended. In some of them, indeed, a rumor was 
circulated by the enemies of the law that the entire school law from 
beginning to end had been declared by the Supreme Court uncon- 
stitutional and vuid; and the Trustees, believing this, actually dis- 
missed their schools and considered themselves out of office. Hon. 
"W. C. Larrabee, the (first) Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
'corrected this error as soon as possible. 

But while the voting of special taxes was doubted on a constitu- 
tional point, it became evident that it was weak in a practical point; 
for in many townships the opponents of the system voted down every 
proposition for the erection of school-houses. 

Another serious obstacle was the great deficiency in the number 
of qualified teachers. To meet the newly created want, the law 
authorized the appointment of deputies in each county to examine 
and license persons to teach, leaving it in their judgment to lower 
the standard of qualification sufficiently to enable them to license 
as many as were needed to supply all the schools. It was therefore 
found necessary to employ many "unqualified " teachers, especially 
in the remote rural districts. But the progress of the times 
enabled the Legislature of 1853 to erect a standard of qualifica- 
tion and give to the county commissioners the authority to license 
teachers; and in order to supply every school with a teacher, while 
there might not be a sufficient number of properly qualified teach- 
ers, the commissioners were authorized to grant temporary licenses 
to take charge of particular schools not needing a high grade of 

In 1854 the available common-school fund consisted of the con- 
gressional township fund, the surplus revenue fund, the saline 
fund, the bank tax fund and miscellaneous fund, amounting in all 
to $2,460,G00. This amount, from many sources, was subsequently 
increased to a very great extent. The common-school fund was 
intrusted to the several counties of the State, which were held 
responsible for the preservation thereof and for the payment of the 
annual interest thereon. The fund was managed by the auditors 
and treasurers of the several counties, for which these officers were 
allowed one-tenth of the income. It was loaned out to the citizens 
of the county in sums not exceeding $300, on real estate security. 
The common-school fund was thus consolidated and the proceeds 
equally distributed each year to all the townships, cities and towns 


of the State, in proportion to the number of children. This phase 
of the law met with considerable opposition in 1854. 

The provisions of the law for the establishment of township 
libraries was promptly carried into effect, and much time, labor 
and thought were devoted to the selection of books, special atten- 
tion being paid to historical works. 

The greatest need in 1S54 was for qualified teachers; but never- 
theless the progress of public education during this and following 
years was very great. School-houses were erected, many of them 
being fine structures, well furnished, and the libraries were consid- 
erably enlarged. 

The city school system of Indiana received a heavy set-back in 
1858, by a decision of the Supreme Court of the State, that the 
law authorizing cities and townships to levy a tax additional to the 
State tax was not in conformity with that clause in the Constitu- 
tion which required uniformity in taxation. The schools were 
stopped for want of adequate funds. For a few weeks in each year 
thereafter the feeble " uniform " supply from the State fund en- 
abled the people to open the schools, but considering the returns 
the public realizes for so small an outlay in educational matters, 
this proved more expensive than ever. Private schools increased, 
but the attendance was small. Thus the interests of popular edu- 
cation languished for years. But since the revival of the free 
schools, the State fund has grown to vast proportions, and the 
schools of this intelligent and enterprising commonwealth compare 
favorably with those of any other portion of the United States. 

There is no occasion to present all the statistics of school prog- 
ress in this State from the first to the present time, but some 
interest will be taken in the latest statistics, which we take from the 
9th Biennial Report (for 1877-'8) by the State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, Hon. James H. Smart. This report, by the 
way, is a volume of 480 octavo pages, and is free to all who desire 
a copy. 

The rapid, substantia) and permanent increase which Indiana 
enjoys in her school interests is thus set forth in the above report. 

of School 


No of 



Ami Paid 


In Days. 


at School. 







44.". .791 

% 239,924 
































The increase of school population during the past ten years has 
been as follows: 

Total in 1868, 592,865. 

Increase for year ending Increase for year ending 

Sept. 1,1809 17,699 May 1, 1874 13,922 

" 1,1870 9.063 " 1,1875 13,372 

" 1,1871 3,101 " 1,1876 11,494 

" 1,1872 8,811 " 1,1877 15,476 

May 1, 1873 (8 months) 8,903 " 1,1878 4,447 

Total, 1878 699,153 

No. of white males 354,271 ; females 333,033 687,304 

" "colored" 5,937; " 5,912 11,849 


Twenty-nine per cent, of the above are in the 49 cities and 212 
incorporated towns, and 71 per cent, in the 1,011 townships. 

The number of white males enrolled in the schools in 1878 was 
267,315, and of white females, 237,739; total, 505,054; of colored 
males, 3,794; females, 3,687; total, 7,481; grand total, 512,535. 

The average number enrolled in each district varies from 51 to 56, 
and the average daily attendance from 32 to 35; but many children 
reported as absent attend parochial or private schools. Seventy- 
three per cent, of the white children and 63 per cent, of the colored, 
in the State, are enrolled in the schools. 

The number of days taught vary materially in the different town- 
ships, and on this point State Superintendent Smart iterates: "As 
long as the schools of some of our townships are kept open but 60 
days and others 220 days, we do not have a uniform system, — such 
as was contemplated by the constitution. The school law requires 
the trustee of a township to maintain each of the schools iii his 
corporation an equal length of time. This provision cannot be so 
easily applied to the various counties of the State, for the reason 
that there is a variation in the density of the population, in the 
wealth of the people, and the amount of the township funds. I 
think, however, there is scarcely a township trustee in the State 
who cannot, under the present law, if he chooses to do so, bring his 
schools up to an average of six months. 1 think it would be wise 
to require each township trustee to levy a sufficient local tax to 
maintain the schools at least six months of the year, provided this 
can be done without increasing the local tax beyond the amount 
now permitted by law. This would tend to bring the poorer schools 
up to the standard of the best, and would thus unify the system, 
and make it indeed a common-school system.'" 


The State, however, averages six and a half months school per 
year to each district. 

The number of school districts in the State in 1878 was 9,3S0, in 
all but 34 of which school was taught during that year. There are 
396 district and 151 township graded schools. Number of white 
male teachers, 7,977, and of female, 5,699; colored, male, 62, and 
female, 43; grand total, 13,781. For the ten years ending with 
1878 there was an increase of 409 male teachers and 811 female 
teachers. All these teachers, except about 200, attend normal 
institutes, — a showing which probably surpasses that of any other 
State in this respect. 

The average daily compensation of teachers throughout the 
State in 1878 was as follows: In townships, males, $1.90; females, 
$1.70; in towns, males, $3.09; females, $1.81; in cities, males, 
$4.06; females, $2.29. 

In 1878 there were 89 stone school-houses, 1,724 brick, 7,608 
frame, and 124 log; total, 9,545, valued at $11,536,647.39. 

And lastly, and best of all, we are happy to state that Indiana has 
a larger school fund than any other State in the Union. In 1872, 
according to the statistics before us, it was larger than that of any 
other State by $2,000,000! the figures being as follows: 

Indiana $8,437,593.47 Michigan $2,500,214.91 

Ohio 6,614,81(5.50 Missouri 2,525,252.53 

Illinois 6,348,538.32 Minnesota 2,471,199.81 

New York 2,880,017.01 Wisconsin 2,237,414.37 

Connecticut 2,809,770.70 Massachusetts 2,210,864.09 

Iowa 4,274.581.93 Arkansas 2,000,000.00 

Nearly all the rest of the States have less than a million dollars 
in their school fund. 

In 1872 the common-school fund of Indiana consisted of the 

Non-negotiable bonds $3,591,316.15 Escheated estates 17.866.55 

Common-school fund, 1,666,^24.50 Sinking fund, last distrib- 

Sinkingfund, at 8 per cent 569,139.94 ution 67,068.72 

Congressional township Sinking fund undistrib- 

fund 2,281,076.69 uted 100.165.92 

Value of unsold Congres- 8wamp land fund 42,418.40 

sional township lands.. 94,245.00 

Saline fund 5,727.66 $8,437,593 47 

Bank tax fund 1,744.94 

In 1S78 the grand total was $8,974,455.55. 

The origin of the respective school funds of Indiana is as follows: 

1. The "Congressional township" fund is derived from the 

proceeds of the 16th sections of the townships. Almost all of these 


Lave been sold and the money put out at interest. The amount of 
this fund in 1877 was $2,452,936.82. 

2. The "saline" fund consists of the proceeds of the sale of 
salt springs, and the land adjoining necessary for working them to 
the amount of 36 entire sections, authorized by the original act of 
Congress. By authority of the same act the Legislature has made 
these proceeds a part of the permanent school fund. 

3. The " surplus revenue " fund. Under the administration of 
President Jackson, the national debt, contracted by the Revolutionary 
war and the purchase of Louisiana, was entirely discharged, and a 
large surplus remained in the treasury. In June, 1836, Congress 
distributed this money amcng the States in the ratio of their repre- 
sentation in Congress, subject to recall, and Indiana's share was 
$860,254. The Legislature subsequently set apart $573,502.96 of 
this amount to be a part of the sciiool fund. It is not probable that 
the general Government will ever recall this money. 

4. " Bank tax " fund. The Legislature of 1834 chartered a State 
Bank, of which a part of the stock was owned by the State and a 
part by individuals. Section 15 of the charter required an annual 
deduction from the dividends, equal to 124, cents on each share not 
held by the State, to be set apart for common-school education. 
This tax finally amounted to $80,000, which now bears interest in 
favor of education. 

5. '•Sinking'' fund- In order to set the State bank under 
good headway, the State at first borrowed $1,300,000, and out of 
the unapplied balances a fund was created, increased by unapplied 
balances also of the principal, interest and dividends of the amount 
lent to the individual holders of stock, for the purpose of sinking 
the debt of the bank; hence the name sinking fund. The 114th 
Bection of the charter provided that after the full payment of the 
bank's indebtedness, principal, interest and incidental expenses, the 
residue of said fund should be a permanent fund, appropriated to 
the cause of education. As the charter extended through a period 
of 25 years, this, fund ultimately reached the handsome amount of 

The foregoing are all interest-bearing funds; the following are 
additional school funds, but not productive: 

6. "Seminary" fund. By order of the Legislature in 1852, all 
county seminaries were sold, and the net proceeds placed in the 
common-school fund. 


7. All fines for the violation of the penal laws i>i the State are 
placed to the credit of the common-school fund 

8. All recognizances of witnesses and parties indicted for crime, 
when forfeited, are collectible by law and made a part of the 
school fund. These are reported to the office of the State Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction annually. For the five years ending 
with 1872, they averaged about $34,000 a year. 

9. Escheats. These amount to $17,865.55, which was still in 
the State treasury in 1872 and unapplied. 

10. The "swamp-land" fund arises from the sale of certain 
Congressional land grants, not devoted to any particular purpose 
by the terms of the grant. In 1872 there was $42,418.40 of this 
money, subject to call by the school interests. 

11. Taxes on corporations are to some extent devoted by the 
Constitution to school purposes, but the clause on this subject is 
somewhat obscure, and no funds as yet have been realized from this 
source. It is supposed that several large sums of money are due 
the common-school fund from the corporations. 

Constitutionally, any of the above funds may be increased, but 
never diminished. 


So early as 1802 the U. S. Congress granted lands and a charter 
to the people of that portion of the Northwestern Territory resid- 
ing at Vincennes, for the erection and maintenance of a seminary 
of learning in that early settled district; and five years afterward 
an act incorporating the Vincennes University asked the Legisla- 
ture to appoint a Board of Trustees for the institution and order the 
sale of a single township in Gibson county, granted by Congress in 
1802, so that the proceeds might be at once devoted to the objects 
of education. On this Board the following gentlemen were ap- 
pointed to act in the interests of the institution: William H. Har- 
rison, John Gibson, Thomas H. Davis, Henry Vanderburgh, Wal- 
ler Taylor, Benjamin Parke, Peter Jones, James Johnson, John 
Rice Jones, George Wallace, William Bullitt, Elias McNamee, 
John Badolett, Henry Hurst, Gen. W. Johnston, Francis Vigo, 
Jacob Kuykendall, Samuel McKee, Nathaniel Ewing, George 
Leech, Luke Decker, Samuel Gwathmey and John Johnson. 

The sale of this land was slow and the proceeds small. The 
members of the Board, too, were apathetic, and failing to meet, the 
institution fell out of existence and out of memory. 


In 1816 Congress granted another township in Monroe county, 
located within its present limits, and the foundation of a university 
was laid. Four years later, and after Indiana was erected into a 
State, an act of the local Legislature appointing another Board of 
Trustees and authorizing them to select a location for a university 
and to enter into contracts for its construction, was passed. The 
new Board met at Bloomington and selected a site at that place for 
the location of the present building, entered into a ( jntract for the 
erection of the same in 1822, and in 1825 had the satisfaction of being 
present at the inauguration of the university. The first session was 
commenced under the Eev. Baynard R. Hall, with 20 students, and 
when the learned professor could only boast of a salary of $150 a 
year; yet, on this very limited sum the gentleman worked with 
energy and soon brought the enterprise through all its elementary 
stages to the position of an academic institution. Dividing the 
year into two sessions of five months each, the Board aoting under 
his advice, changed the name to the " Indiana Academy," nnder 
which title it was duly chartered. In 1827 Prof. John H. Harney 
was raised to the chairs of mathematics, natural philosophy and 
astronomy, at a salary of $300 a year; and the salary of Mr. Hall 
raised to $400 a year. In 1828 the name was again changed by the 
Legislature to the " Indiana College," and the following professors 
appointed over the different departments: Rev. Andrew Wylie, 
D. D., Prof, of mental and moral philosophy and belles lettres; 
John H. Harney, Prof, of mathematics and natural philosophy ; and 
Rev. Bayard R. Hall, Prof, of ancient languages. This year, also, 
dispositions were made for the sale of Gibson county lands and for 
the erection of a new college building. This action was opposed 
by some legal difficulties, which after a time were overcome, and 
the new college building was put under construction, and continued 
to prosper until 1854, when it was destroyed by fire, and 9,000 
volumes, with all the apparatus, were consumed The curriculum 
was then carried out in a temporary building, while a new struct- 
ure was going up. 

In 1873 the new college, with its additions, was completed, and 
the routine of studies coutinued. A museum of natural history, 
a laboratory and the Owen cabinet added, and the standard of the 
studies and morale generally increased in excellence and in strict- 

Bloomington is a fine, healthful locality, on the Louisville, New 
Albany & Chicago railway. The University buildings are in the 


collegiate Gothic style, simply and truly carried out. The building, 
fronting College avenue is 145 feet in front. It consists of a 
central building 60 feet by 53, with wings each 38 feet by 26, and 
the whole, three stories high. The new building, fronting the 
west, is 130 feet by 50. Buildings lighted by gas. 

The faculty numbers thirteen. Number of students in the col- 
legiate department in 1879-'80, 183; in preparatory, 169; total, 
349, allowing for three counted twice. 

The university may now be considered on a fixed foundation, car- 
rying out the intention of the President, who aimed at scholarship 
rather than numbers, and demands the attention of eleven pro- 
fessors, together with the State Geologist, who is ex-officio member 
of the faculty, and required to lecture at intervals and look after 
the geological and mineralogical interests of the institution. The 
faculty of medicine is represented by eleven leading physicians 
of the neighborhood. The faculty of law requires two resident 
professors, and the other chairs remarkably well represented. 

The university received from the State annually about $15,000, 
and promises with the aid of other public grants and private dona- 
tions to vie with any other State university within the Republic. 


This i6 a " college for the benefit of agricultural and the mechanic 
arts," as provided for by act of Congress, July 2, 1862, donating 
lands for this purpose to the extent of 30,000 acres of the public 
domain to each Senator and Representative in the Federal assem- 
bly. Indiana having in Congress at that time thirteen members, 
became entitled to 390,000 acres; but as there was no Congress 
land in the State at this time, scrip had to be taken, and it was 
upon the following condition (we quote the act): 

" Section 4. That all moneys derived from the sale of land 
scrip shall be invested in the stocks of the United States, or of 
some other safe stocks, yielding no less than five per centum upon 
' the par value of said stocks; and that the moneys so invested shall 
constitute a perpetual fund, the capital of which shall remain undi- 
minished, except so far as may be provided in section 5 of this act, 
and the interest of which shall be inviolably appropriated by each 
State, which may take and claim the benefit of this act, to the 
endowment, support and maintenance of at least one college, where 
the leading object shall be, without excluding other scientific and 


classical studies, and including military tactics, to teach such 
branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic 
arts, in such a manner as the Legislatures of the States may re- 
spectively prescribe, in order to promote the liberal and practical 
education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and pro- 
fessions of life. 

" Sec. 5. That the grant of land and land scrip hereby author- 
ized shall be made on the following conditions, to which, as well as 
the provision hereinbefore contained, the previous assent of the 
several States shall be signified by Legislative act: 

" First. If any portion of the funds invested as provided by the 
foregoing section, or any portion of the interest thereon, shall by 
any action or contingency be diminished or lost, it shall be replaced 
by the State to which it belongs, so that the capital of the fund 
shall remain forever undiminished, and the annual interest shall be 
regularly applied, without diminution, to the purposes mentioned 
in the fourth section of this act, except that a sum not exceeding ten 
per centum upon the amount received by any State under the pro- 
visions of this act may be expended for the purchase of lands for 
sites or experimental farms, whenever authorized by the respective 
Legislatures of said States. 

" Second. No portion of said fund, nor interest thereon, shall 
be applied, directly or indirectly, under any pretence whatever, to 
the purchase, erection, preservation or repair of any building or 

" Third. Any State which may take and claim the benefit of 
the provisions of this act, shall provide, within five years at least, 
not less than one college, as provided in the fourth section of this 
act, or the grant to such State shall cease and said State be bound 
to pay the United States the amount received of any lands pre- 
viously solo\ and that the title to purchase under the States shall 
be valid. 

" Fourth. An annual report shall be made regarding the prog- 
ress of each college, recording any improvements and experiments 
made, with their cost and result, and such other matter, including 
State industrial and economical statistics, as may be supposed use- 
ful, one copy of which shall be transmitted by mail free, by each, 
to all other colleges which may be endowed under the provisions 
of this act, and also one copy to the Secretary of the Interior. 

"Fifth. When lands shall be selected from those which have 
been raised to double the minimum price in consequence of railroad 


grants, that they shall be computed to the States at the maximum 
price, and the number of acres proportionately diminished. 

"Sixth. No State, while in a condition of rebellion or insur- 
rection against the Government of the United States, shall be 
entitled to the benefits of this act. 

"Seventh. No State shall be entitled to the benefits of this act 
unless it shall express its acceptance thereof by its Legislature 
within two years from the date of its approval by the President." 

The foregoing act was approved by the President, July 2, 1862. 
It seemed that this law, amid the din of arms with the great Rebel- 
lion, was about to pass altogether unnoticed by the next General 
Assembly, January, 1863, had not Gov. Morton's attention been 
called to it by a delegation of citizens from Tippecanoe county, who 
visited him in the interest of Battle Ground, lie thereupon sent 
a special message to the Legislature, upon the subject, and then 
public attention was excited to it everywhere, and several localities 
competed for the institution ; indeed, the rivalry was so great that 
this session failed to act in the matter at all, and would have failed 
to accept of the grant within the two years prescribed in the last 
clause quoted above, had not Congress, by a supplementary act, 
extended the time two years longer. 

March 6, 1865, the Legislature accepted the conditions ot the 
national gift, and organized the Board of " Trustees of the Indiana 
Agricultural College." This Board, by authority, sold the scrip 
April 9, 1867, for $212,238.50, which sum, by compounding, has 
increased to nearly $400,000, and is invested in U. S. bonds. Not 
until the special session of May, 1869, was the locality for this col- 
lege selected, when John Purdue, of Lafayette, offered $150,000 
and Tippecanoe county $50,000 more, and the title of the institution 
changed to " Purdue University." Donations were also made by 
the Battle Ground Institute and the Battle Ground Institute of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. 

The building was located on a 100-acre tract near Chauncey, 
which Purdue gave in addition to his magnificent donation, and to 
which 86$ acres more have since been added on the north. The 
boarding-house, dormitory, the laboratory, boiler and gas house, 
a frame armory and gymnasium, stable with shed and work-shop 
are all to the north of the gravel road, and form a group of build- 
ings within a circle of 600 feet. The boiler and gas house occupy 
a rather central position, and supply steam and gas to the boarding- 
house, dormitory and laboratory. A description of these buildings 


may be apropos. The boarding-house is a brick structure, in the 
modern Italian style, planked by a turret at each of the front angles 
and measuring L20 feet front by 6S feet deep. The dormitory is a 
quadrangular edifice, in the plain Elizabethan style, four stories 
hMi, arranged to accommodate 125 student.-. Like the other build- 
ings, it is heated by steam and lighted by gas. Bathing accommo- 
dations are in each end of all the stories. The laboratory is almost 
a duplicate of a similar department in Brown University, R. I. It 
is a much smaller building than the boarding-house, but yet suffi- 
«•:, utly large to meet the requirements. A collection of minerals, 
fossils and antiquities, purchased from Mr. Richard Owen, former 
President of the institution, occupies the temporary cabinet or 
museum, pending the construction of a new building. The military 
hall and gymnasium is 100 feet frontage by 50 feel deep, and only 
one story high. The uses to which this hall is devoted are exer- 
cises in physical and military drill. The boiler and gas house is an 
establishment replete in itself, possessing every facility for supply- 
ing the buildings of the university with adequate heat and light. 
It is further provided with pumping works. Convenient to this 
department is the retort and great meters of the gas house, capable 
of holding 9,000 cubic feet of gas, and arranged upon the principles 
of modern science. The barn and shed form a single building, 
both useful, convenient and ornamental. 

Inconnectioi with the agricultural department of the university, 
a brick residence and barn were erected and placed at the disposa 1 
of the farm superintendent, Maj. L. A. Burke. 

The buildings enumerated above have been erected at a cost 
approximating the following: boarding-house, $37,807.07; labora- 

tory, $15 ; dormitory, $32,000; milita.y hall and gymnasium, 

$6,41 17; boiler and ^> house, $1,814; barn and shed. $1,500; 
work-shop, $l,0«K"l; dwelling and barn. *•_!,, "iOO. 

Besides the original donations, Legislative appropriations, vary- 
ing in amount, have been made from time to time, and Mr. Pierce, 
the treasurer, has donated his official salary, $«',i>(> a year, tor the time 
he served, for decorating the grounds, -it' ne> essary. 

The opening of tin- university was, owing to varied circumstan- 
ces, po tponed from time to time, and not until March, 1874, was a 
class formed, and this only to comply with the .-.ft of I 
that connection in its relation to the university. However, in 
September following a curriculum was adopted, and the first regu- 
lar term of the Purdue University entered upon. This curriculum 


comprises the varied subjects generally pertaining to a first-class 
university course, namely: in the school of natural science — 
physics and industrial mechanics, chemistry and natural history; 
in the school of engineering; — civil and mining, together with the 
principles of architecture; in the school of agriculture — theoret- 
ical and practical agriculture, horticulture and veterinary science; 
in the military school — the mathematical sciences, German and 
French literature, free-hand and mechanical drawing, with all the 
studies pertaining to the natural and military sciences. Modern 
languages and natural history embrace their respective courses to 
the fullest extent. 

There are this year (1880) eleven members of the faculty, 86 
etndents in the regular courses, and 117 other students. In respect 
to attendance there has been a constant increase from the first. 
The first year, 1874-'5, there were but 64 students. 


This institution was founded at Terre Haute in 1870, in accord- 
ance with the act of the Legislature of that year. The building is 
a large brick edifice situated upon a commanding location and 
possessing some architectural beauties. From its inauguration 
many obstacles opposed its advance toward efficiency and success; 
but the Board of Trustees, composed of men experienced in edu- 
cational matters, exercised their strength of mind and body to 
overcome every difficulty, and secure for the State Normal School 
every distinction and emolument that lay within their power, 
their efforts to this end being very successful; and it is a fact that 
the institution has arrived at, if not eclipsed, the standard of their 
expectations. Not alone does the course of study embrace the 
legal subjects known as reading, writing, spelling, arithmetic, 
geography, United States history, English grammar, physiology, 
manners and ethics, but it includes also universal history, the 
mathematical sciences and many other subjects foreign to older 
institutions. The first studies are prescribed by law and must be 
inculcated; the second are optional with the professors, and in the 
case of Indiana generally hold place in the curriculum of the nor- 
mal school. 

The model, or training school, specially designed for the training 
of teachers, forms a most important factor in State educational 
matters, and prepares teachers of both sexes for one of the most 
important positions in life; viz., that of educating the youth of the 


the Corinthian style, while each wing is similarly overcapped 
The porticoes, cornices and verandahs are gotten up with exquisite 
taste, and the former are molded after the principle of Ionic archi- 
tecture. The building is very favorably situated, and occupies a 
space of eight acres. 

The nucleus of a fund for supplying indigent graduates of the 
institution with an outfit suitable to their trades, or with money in 
lieu thereof, promises to meet with many additions. The fund is 
the out-come of the benevolence of Mrs. Fitzpatrick, a resident of 
Delaware, in this State, and appears to be suggested by the fact 
that her daughter, who was smitten with blindness, studied as a 
pupil iu the institute, and became singularly attached to many of 
its inmates. The following passage from the lady's will bears 
testimony not only to her own sympathetic nature but also to the 
efficiency of the establishment which so won her esteem. " I give 
to each of the following persons, friends and associates of my blind 
daughter, Margaret Louisa, the sum of $100 to each, to wit, viz: 
Melissa and Phoebe Garrettson, Frances Cundiff, Dallas Newland, 
Naomi Unthunk, and a girl whose name before marriage was 
Kachel Martin, her husband's name not recollected. The balance 
of my estate, after paying the expenses of administering, I give to 
the superintendent of the blind asylum and his successor, in trust, 
for the use and benefit of the indigent blind of Indiana who may 
attend the Indiana blind asylum, to be given to them on leaving 
in such sums as the superintendent may deem proper, but not more 
than #.j0 to any one person. I direct that the amount above direct- 
ed be loaned at interest, and the interest and principal be distributed 
as above, agreeably to the best judgment of the superintendent, 
so as to do the greatest good to the greatest number of blind 

The following rules, regulating the institution, after laying down 
in preamble that the institute is strictly an educational estab- 
lishment, having its main object the moral, intellectual and phys- 
ical training of the young blind of the State, and is not an asylum 
for the aged and helpless, nor an hospital wherein the diseases of 
the eye may be treated, proceed as follows: 

1. The school year commences the first Wednesday after the 
15th day of September, and closes on the last Wednesday in June, 
showing a session of 40 weeks, and a vacation term of 84 days. 

2. Applicants for admission must be from 9 to 21 years of age; 
but the trustees have power to admit blind students under 9 or 


over 21 years of age; but this power is extended only in very 
extreme cases. 

3. Imbecile or nnsound persons, or confirmed immoralista, 
cannot be admitted knowingly; neither can admitted pupils who 
prove disobedient or incompetent to receive instruction be retained 
on the roll. 

4. No charge is made for the instruction and board given to 
pupils from the State of Indiana; and even those without the State 
have only to pay $200 for board and education during the 40 weeks' 

5. An abundant and good supply of comfortable clothing for 
both summer and winter wear, is an indispensable adjunct of the 

6. The owner's name must be distinctly marked on each article 
of clothing. 

7. In cases of extreme indigence the institution may provide 
clothing and defray the traveling expenses of such pupil and levy the 
amount so expended on the county wherein his or her home is 

8. The pupil, or friends of the pupil, must remove him or her 
from the institute during the annual vacation, and in case of their 
failure to do so, a legal provision enables the superintendent to 
forward such pupil to the trustee of the township where he or she 
resides, and the expense of such transit and board to be charged to 
the county. 

9. Friends of the pupils accompanying them to the institution, 
or visiting them thereat, cannot enter as boarders or lodgers. 

10. Letters to the pupils should be addressed to the care of the 
Superintendent of the Institute for the Education of the Blind, so as 
the better to insure delivery. 

11. Persons desirous of admission of pupils should apply to the 
superintendent for a printed copy of instructions, and no pupil 
should be sent thereto until the instructions have been complied 


In 1843 the Governor was also instructed to obtain plans and 
information respecting the care of mutes, and the Legislature also 
levied a tax to provide for them. The first one to agitate the subject 
was William "Willard, himself a mute, who visited Indiana in 1843, 
and opened a school for mutes on his own account, with 16 pupils. 


Notre Dame University, near South Bend, is a Catholic institu- 
tion, and is one of the most noted in the United States. It was 
founded in 1842 by Father Sorin. The first building was erected 
in 1843, and the university has continued to grow and prosper until 
the present time, now having 35 professors, 26 instructors, 9 tutors, 
213 students and 12,000 volumes in library. At present the main 
building has a frontage of 224 feet and a depth of 155. Thousands 
of young people have received their education here, and a large 
number have been graduated for the priesthood. A chapter was 
held here in 1872, attended by delegates from all parts of the world. 
It is worthy of mention that this institution has a bell weighing 
13,000 pounds, the largest in the United States and one of the finest 
in the world. 

The Indiana Asbury University, at Greencastle, is an old and 
well-established institution under the auspices of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, named after its first bishop, Asbury. It was 
founded in 1835, and in 1872 it had nine professors and 172 

Howard College, not denominational, is located at Kokomo, and 
was founded in 1S69. In 1872 it had five professors, four instructors, 
and 69 students. 

Union Christian College, Christian, at Merom, was organized in 
1858, and in 1872 had four resident professors, seven instructors 
and 156 students. 

Moore's Hill College, Methodist Episcopal, is situated at Moore's 
Hill, was founded in 1854, and in 1S72 had five resident professors, 
five instructors, and 142 students. 

Earlhain's College, at Richmond, is under the management of 
the Orthodox Friends, and was founded in 1859. In 1872 they 
had six resident professors and 167 students, and 3.300 volumes in 

Wabash College, at Crawfordsville, was organized in 1834, and 
had in 1872, eight professors and teachers, and 231 students, with 
about 12,000 volumes in the library. It is under Presbyterian 

Concordia College, Lutheran, at Fort Wayne, was founded in 
1850; in 1872 it had four professors and 148 students: 3,000 volumes 
ill library. 

Hanover College, Presbyterian, was organized in 1833, at Han- 
over, and in 1872 had seven professors and 118 students, and 7,000 
volumes in library. 


Hartsville University, United Brethren, at Hartsville, was 
founded in 1854, and in 1872 had seven professors and 117 students. 

Northwestern Christian University, Disciples, is located at 
Irvington, near Indianapolis. It was founded in 1854, and by 
1872 it had 15 resident p.-ofessors, 181 students, and 5,000 volumes 
in library. 


By the year 1830, the influx of paupers and invalid persons was 
so great that the Governor called upon the Legislature to take 
steps toward regulating the matter, and also to provide an asylum 
for the poor, but that body was very slow to act on the matter. 
At the present time, however, there is no State in the Union which 
can boast a better system of benevolent institutions. The Benevo- 
lent Society of Indianapolis was organized in 1843. It was a 
pioneer institution; its field of work was small at first, but it has 
grown into great usefulness. 


In behalf of the blind, the first effort was made by James M. Ray, 
about 1846. Through his efforts William H. Churchman came 
from Kentucky with blind pupils and gave exhibitions in Mr. 
Beecher's church, in Indianapolis. These entertainments were 
attended by members of the Legislature, for whom indeed they 
were especially intended; and the effect upon them was so good, 
that before they adjourned the session they adopted measures to es- 
tablish an asylum for the blind. The commission appointed to carry 
out these measures, consisting of James M. Ray, Geo. W. Mears, 
and the Secretary, Treasurer and Auditor of State, engaged Mr. 
Churchman to make a lecturing tour through the State and collect 
statistics of the blind population. 

The " Institute for the Education of the Blind " was founded by 
the Legislature of 1847, and first opened in a rented building Oct. 
1, of that year. The permanent buildings were opened and occu- 
pied in February, 1853. The original cost of the buildings and 
ground was $110,000, and the present valuation of buildings and 
grounds approximates $300,000. The main building is 90 feet 
long by 81 deep, and with its right and left wings, each 30 feet in 
front and 83 in depth, give an entire frontage of 150 feet. The 
main building is five stories in height, surmounted by a cupola of 



State. The advanced course of studies, together with the higher 
studies of the normal school, embraces Latin and German, and pre- 
pares young men and women for entrance to the State University. 

The efficiency of this school may be elicited from the following 
facts, taken from the official reports: out of 41 persons who had 
graduated from the elementary course, nine, after teaching success- 
fully in the public schools of this State from two terms to two 
years, returned to the institution and sought admission to the 
advanced classes. They were admitted; three of them were gentle- 
men and six ladies. After spending two years and two terms in the 
elementary course, and then teaching in the schools during the 
time already mentioned they returned to spend two and a half or 
three years more, and for the avowed purpose of qualifying them- 
selves for teaching in the most responsible positions of the public 
school service. In fact, no student is admitted to the school who 
does not in good faith declare his intention to qualify himself for 
teaching in the schools of the State. Thi6 the law requires, and 
the rule is adhered to literally. 

The report further says, in speaking of the government of the 
school, that the fundamental idea is rational freedom, or that free- 
dom which gives exemption from the power of control of one over 
another, or, in other words, the self-limiting of themselves, in their 
acts, by a recognition of the rights of others who are equally free. 
The idea and origin of the school being laid down, and also the 
means by which scholarship can be realized in the individual, the 
student is left to form his own conduct, both during session hours 
and while away from school. The teacher merely stands between 
this scholastic idea and the studeut's own partial conception of it, 
as expositor or interpreter. The teacher is not legislator, executor 
or police officer; he is expounder of the true idea of school law, so 
that the only test of the student's conduct is obedience to, or 
nonconformity with, that law as interpreted by the teacher. This 
idea once inculcated in the minds of the students, insures industry, 
punctuality and order. 


This institution was organized Sept. 16, 1873, with 35 student* 
in attendance. The school occupied the building known as th« 
Valparaiso Male and Female College building. Four teacher* 


were employed. The attendance, so small at first, increased rap- 
idly and steadily, until at the present writing, the seventh year 
in the history of the school, the yearly enrollment is more than 
three thousand. The number of instructors now employed is 23. 

From time to time, additions have been made to the school 
buildings, and numerous boarding halls have been erected, so that 
now the value of the buildings and grounds owned by the school 
is one hundred thousand dollars. 

A large library has been collected, and a complete equipment of 
philosophical and chemical apparatus has been purchased. The 
department of physiology is supplied with skeletons, manikins, 
and everything necessary to the demonstration of each branch of 
the subject. A large cabinet is provided for the study of geology. 
In fact, each department of the school is completely furnished 
with the apparatus needed for the most approved presentation of 
every subject. 

There are 15 chartered departments in the institution. These 
are in charge of thorough, energetic, and scholarly instructors, and 
send forth each year as graduates, a large number of finely cultured 
young ladies and gentlemen, living testimonials of the efficiency 
of the course of study and the methods used. 

The Commercial College in connection with the school is in itself 
a great institution. It is finely fitted up and furnished, and ranks 
foremost among the business colleges of the United States. 

The expenses for tuition, room and board, have been made so 
low that an opportunity for obtaining a thorough education is 
presented to the poor and the rich alike. 

All of this work has been accomplished in the short space of 
seven years. The school now holds a high place among educational 
institutions, and is the largest normal school in the United States. 

This wonderful growth and devolopment is wholly due to the 
energy and faithfulness of its teachers, and the unparalleled exec- 
utive ability of its proprietor and principal. The school is not 


Nor is Indiana behind in literary institutions under denomina- 
tional auspices. It is not to be understood, however, at the present 
day, that sectarian doctrines are insisted upon at the so-called 
" denominational" colleges, universities and seminaries; the youth at 
these places are influenced only by Christian example. 


The next year the Legislature adopted this school as a State insti- 
tution, appointing a Board of Trustees for its management, consist- 
ing of the Governor and Secretary of State, ex-officio,and Revs. Henry 
Ward Beecher, Phineas D. Gurley, L. H. Jameson, Dr. Dunlap, 
Hon. James Morrison and Rev. Matthew Simpson. They rented the 
large building on the southeast corner of Illinois and Maryland 
streets, and opened the first State asylum there in 1844; but in 1846, 
a site for a permanent building just east of Indianapolie was selected, 
consisting first of 30 acres, to which 100 more have been added. 
On this site the two first structures were commenced in 1849, and 
completed in the fall of 1850, at a cost of $30,000. The school 
was immediately transferred to the new building, where it is still 
flourishing, with enlarged buildings and ample facilities for instruc- 
tion in agriculture. In 1869-70, another building was erected, 
and the three together now constitute one of the most benefi- 
cent and beautiful institutions to be found on this continent, at 
an aggregate cost of $220,000. The main building has a facade of 
260 feet. Here are the offices, study rooms, the quarters of officers 
and teachers, the pupils' dormitories and the library. The center 
of this building has a frontage of eighty feet, and is five stories high, 
with wings on either side 60 feet in frontage. In this Central 
structure are the store rooms, dining-hall, servants' rooms, hospital, 
laundry, kitchen, bakery and several school-rooms. Another struct- 
ure known as the " rear building " contains the chapel and another 
set of school-rooms. It is two stories high, the center being 50 feat 
square and the wings 40 by 20 feet. In addition to these there are 
many detached buildings, containing the shops of the industrial 
department, the engine-house and wash-house. 

The grounds comprise 105 acres, which in the immediate vicinity 
of the buildings partake of the character of ornamental or pleasure 
gardens, comprising a space devoted to fruits, flowers and veget- 
ables, while the greater part is devoted to pasture and agriculture. 

The first instructor in the institution was Win. Willard, a deaf 
mute, who had up to 1844 conducted a small school for the instruc- 
tion of the deaf at Indianapolis, and now is employed by the State, 
at a salary of $800 per annum, to follow a similar vocation in its 
service. In 1853 he was succeeded by J. S. Brown, and subse- 
quently by Thomas Mclntire, who continues principal of the 



The Legislature of 1832-'3 adopted measures providing for a 
State hospital for the insane. This good work would have been 
done much earlier had '.t not been for the hard times of 1837, 
intensified by the results of the gigantic scheme of internal improve- 
ment. In order to survey the situation and awaken public sympa- 
thy, the county assessors were ordered to make a return of the 
insane in their respective counties. During the year 1842 the 
Governor, acting under the direction of the Legislature, procured 
lerable information in regard to hospitals for the insane in 
other States; and Dr. John Evans lectured before the Legislature 
on the subject of insanity and its treatment. As a result of these 
efforts the authorities determined to take active steps for the estab- 
lishment of such a hospital. Plans and suggestions from the 
superintendents and hospitals of other States were submitted to the 
Legislature in 1844, which body ordered the levy of a tax of one 
cent on the $100 for the purpose of establishing the hospital. In 
1845 a commission was appointed to obtain a site not exceeding 
200 acres. Mount Jackson, then the residence of Nathaniel Bolton, 
was selected, and the Legislature in 1846 ordered the commissioners 
to proceed with the erection of the building. Accordingly, in 
1847, the central building was completed, at a cost of $75,000. It 
has since been enlarged by the addition of wings, some of which 
are larger than the old central building, until it has become an 
immense structure, having cost over half a million dollars. 

The wings of the main building are four stories high, and entirely 
devoted to wards for patients, being capable of accommodating 

The grounds of the institution comprise 160 acres, and, like 
those of the institute for the deaf and dumb, are beautifully laid 

This hospital was opened for the reception of patients in L848. 
The principal structure comprises what is known as the central 
building and the right and left wings, and like the institute for the 
deaf and dumb, erected at various times and probably under various 
adverse circumstances, it certainly does not hold the appearance of 
anyone design, but seems to be a combination of many. Not- 
withstanding these little defects in arrangement, it presents a very 
imposing appearance, and shows what may be termed a frontage 


of 624 feet The central building is five stories in height and con- 
tains the store-rooms, offices, reception parlors, medical dispensing 
rooms, mess-rooms and the apartments of the superintendent and 
other officers, with those of the female employes. Immediately 
in. the rear of the central building, and connected with it by a 
corridor, is the chapel, a building 50 by 60 feet. This chapel 
occupies the third floor, while the under stories hold the kitchen, 
bakery, employes' dining-room, steward's office, employes' apart- 
ments and sewing rooms. In rear of this again is the engine- 
house, 60 by 50 feet, containing ail the paraphernalia for such an 
establishment, such as boilers, pumping works, fire plugs, hose, 
and above, on the second floor, the laundry and apartments of male 


The first penal institution of importance is known a6 the "State 
Prison South," located at Jefferson vi lie, and was the only prison 
until 1859. It was established in 1821. Before that time it was 
customary to resort to the old-time punishment of the whipping- 
post. Later the manual labor system was inaugurated, and the 
convicts were hired out to employers, among whom were Capt. 
Westover, afterward killed at Alamo, Texas, with Crockett, James 
Keigwin, who in an affray was fired at and severely wounded by a 
convict named Williams, Messrs. Patterson Hensley, and Jos. 
R. Pratt. During the rule of the latter of these lessees, the atten- 
tion of the authorities was turned to a more practical method of 
utilizing convict labor; and instead of the prisoners being per- 
mitted to serve private entries, their work was turned in the direc- 
tion of their own prison, where for the next few years they were 
employed in erecting the new buildings now known as the " State 
Prison South." This structure, the result of prison labor, stands 
on 16 acres of ground, and comprises the cell houses and work- 
shops, together with the prisoners' garden, or pleasure-ground. 

It seems that in the erection of these buildings the aim of the 
overseers was to create so many petty dungeons and unventilated 
laboratories, into which disease in every form would be apt to 
creep. This fact was evident from the high mortality character- 
izing life within the prison; and in the efforts made by the 
Government to remedy a 6tate of tilings which had been permitted 
to exist far too long, the advance in prison reform has become a 
reality. From ls>57 to lfeTl the labor of the prisoners was devoted 


to the manufacture of wagons and farm implements; and again the 
old policy of hiring the convicts was resorted to; for in the latter 
year, 1871, the Southwestern Car Company was organized, and 
every prisoner capable of taking a part in the work of car-building 
was leased out. This did very well until the panic of 1873, when 
the company suffered irretrievable losses; and previous to its final 
down-fall in 1876 the warden withdrew convict labor a second time, 
leaving the prisoners to enjoy a luxurious idleness around the 
prison which themselves helped to raise. 

In later years the State Prison South has gained some notoriety 
from the desperate character of some of its inmates. During the 
civil war a convict named Harding mutilated in a most horrible 
manner and ultimately killed one of the jailors named Tesley. In 
1874, two prisoners named Kennedy and Applegate, possessing 
themselves of some arms, and joined by two other convicts named 
Port and Stanley, made a break for freedom, swept past the guard, 
Chamberlain, and gained the fields. Chamberlain went iu pursuit 
but had not gone very far when Kennedy turned on his pursuer, 
fired and killed him instantly. Subsequently three of the prisoners 
were captured alive and one of them paid the penalty of death, 
while Kennedy, the murderer of Chamberlain, failing committal for 
murder, was sent back to his old cell to spend the remainder of his 
life. Bill Kodifer, better known as " The Iloosier Jack Sheppard," 
effected his escape in 1875, in the very presence of a large guard, 
but was recaptured and has since been kept in irons. 

This establishment, owing to former mismanagement, has fallen 
very much behind, financially, and has asked for and received an 
appropriation of $20,000 to meet its expenses, while the contrary 
is the case at the Michigan City prison. 


In 1859 the first steps toward the erection of a prison in the 
northern part of the State were taken, and by an act of the Legis- 
lature approved March 5, this year, authority was given to construct 
prison buildings at some point north of the National road. For this 
purpose $50,000 were appropriated, and a large number of convicts 
from the Jeffersonville prison were transported northward to 
Michigan City, which was just selected as the location for the new 
penitentiary. The work was soon entered upon, and continued to 
meet with additions and improvements down to a very recent 
period. Sf late as 1875 the Legislature appropriated $20,000 


toward the construction of new cells, and in other directions also 
the work of improvement has been going on. The system of 
government and discipline is similar to that enforced at the Jeffer- 
sonville prison; and, strange to say, by its economical working has 
not only met the expenses of the administration, but very recently 
had amassed over $11,000 in excess of current expenses, from its 
annual savings. This is due almost entirely to the continual 
employment of the convicts in the manufacture of cigars and 
chairs, and in their great prison industry, cooperage. It differs 
widely from the Southern, insomuch as its sanitary condition has 
been above the average of similar institutions. The strictness of its 
silent system is better enforced. The petty revolutions of its 
inmates have been very few and insignificant, and the number of 
punishments inflicted comparatively small. From whatever point 
this northern prison may be looked at, it will bear a very favorable 
comparison with the largest and best administered of like establish- 
ments throughout the world, and cannot fail to bring high credit to 
its Board of Directors and its able warden. 


The prison reform agitation which in this Siate attained telling 
proportions in 1869, caused a Legislative measure to be brought 
forward, which would have a tendency to ameliorate the condition 
of female convicts. Gov. Baker recommended it to the General 
Assembly, and the members of that body showed their appreciation 
of the Governor's philanthropic desire by conferring upon the bill 
the authority of a statute; and further, appropriated $50,000 to aid 
in carrying out the objects of the act. The main provisions con- 
tained in the bill may be set forth in the following extracts from 
the proclamation of the Governor: 

" Whenever 6aid institution shall have been proclaimed to De 
open for the reception of girls in the reformatory department 
thereof, it shall be lawful for said Board of Managers to receive 
them into their care and management, and the said reformatory 
department, girls under the age of 15 years who may be committed 
to their custody, in either of the following modes, to- wit: 

"1. When committed by any judge of a Circuit or Common 
Pleas Court, either in term time or in vacation, on complaint and 
due proof by the parent or guardian that by reason of her incorrig- 
ible or vicious conduct she has rendered her control beyond the 
power of such parent or guardian, and made it manifestly requisite 


that from regard to the future welfare of such infant, and for the 
protection of society, she should be placed under such guardianship. 

" 2. When such infant has been committed by such judge, as 
aforesaid, upon complaint by any citizen, and due proof of such 
complaint that such infant is a proper subject of the guardianship 
of such institution in consequence of her vagrancy or incorrigible 
or vicious conduct, and that from the moral depravity or other- 
wise of her parent or guardian in whose custody she may be, 
such parent or guardian is incapable or unwilling to exercise the 
proper care or discipline over such incorrigible or vicious infant. 

" 3. "When such infant has been committed by such judge as 
aforesaid on complaint and due proof thereof by the township 
trustee of the township where such infant resides, that such infant 
is destitute of a suitable home and of adequate means of obtaining 
an honest living, or that she is in danger of being brought up to 
lead an idle and immoral life." 

In addition to these articles of the bill, a formal section of 
instruction to the wardens of State prisons was embodied in the 
act, causing such wardens to report the number of all the female 
convicts under their charge and prepare to have them transferred 
to the female reformatory immediately after it was declared to be 
ready for their reception. After the passage of the act the 
Governor appointed a Board of Managers, and these gentlemen, 
securing the services of Isaac Hodgson, caused him to draft a plan 
of the proposed institution, and further, on his recommendation, 
asked the people -for an appropriation of another $50,000, which 
the Legislature granted in February, 1873. The work of construc- 
tion was then entered upon and carried out so steadily, that on the 
6th of September, 1873, the building was declared ready for the 
reception of its future inmates. Gov. Baker lost no time in 
proclaiming this fact, and October 4 he caused the wardens of the 
State pmons to be instructed to transfer all the female convicts in 
their custody to the new institution which may be said to rest on 
the advanced intelligence of the age. It is now called the 
" Indiana Reformatory Institution for Women and Girls." 

This building is located immediately north of the deaf and 
dumb asylum, near the arsenal, at Indianapolis. It is a three- 
story brick structure in the French style, and shows a frontage of 
174 feet, comprising a main building, with lateral and transverse 
wings. In front of the central portion is the residence of the 
superintendent and his associate reformatory officers, while in the 



rear is the engine house, with all the ways and means for heating 
the buildings. Enlargements, additions and improvements are 
still in progress. There is also a school and library in the main 
building, which are sources of vast good. 

October 31, 1S79, there were 66 convicts in the " penal" depart- 
ment and 147 in the " girls' reformatory " department. The 
" ticket-of-leave " system has been adopted, with entire satisfaction, 
and the conduct of the institution appears to be up with the 


In 1867 the Legislature appropriated $50,000 to aid in the 
formation of an institution to be entitled a house for the correction 
and reformation of juvenile defenders, and vested with full powers 
in a Board of Control, the members of which were to be appointed 
by the Governor, and with the advice and consent of the Senate. 
This Board assembled at the Governor's house at Indianapolis, 
April 3, 1867, and elected Charles F. Coffin, as president, and 
visited Chicago, so that a visit to the reform school there might 
lead to a fuller knowledge and guide their future proceedings. 
The House of Refuge at Cincinnati, and the Ohio State Reform 
school were also visited with this design; and after full consider- 
ation of the varied governments of these institutions, the Board 
resolved to adopt the method known as the " family " system, 
which divides the inmates into fraternal bodies, or small classes, 
each class having a separate house, house father and family offices, 
— all under the control of a general superintendent. The system 
being adopted, the question of a suitable location next presented 
itself, and proximity to a large city being considered rather 
detrimental to the welfare of such an institution, Gov. Baker 
selected the site three-fourths of a mile south of Plainfield, and 
about fourteen miles from Indianapolis, which, in view of its 
eligibility and convenience, was fully concurred in by the Board 
of Control. Therefore, a farm of 225 acres, claiming a fertile soil 
and a most picturesque situation, and possessing streams of running 
water, was purchased, and on a plateau in its center a site for the 
proposed house of refuge was fixed. 

The next movement was to decide upon a plan, which ultimately 
met the approval of the Governor. It favored the erection of one 
principal building, one house for a reading-room and hospital, two 
large mechanical shops and eight family houses. January 1, 1868, 


three family houses and work-shop were completed; in 1869 the 
main building, and one additional family house were added; but 
previous to this, in August, 1867, a Mr. Frank P. Ainsworth and 
his wife were appointed by the Board, superintendent and matron 
respectively, and temporary quarters placed at their disposal. In 
1869 they of course removed to the new building. This is 64 by 
128 feet, and three stories high. In its basement are kitchen, 
laundry and vegetable cellar. The first floor is devoted to offices, 
visitors' room, house father and family dining-room and store- 
rooms. The general superintendent's private apartments, private 
offices and five dormitories for officers occupy the aecond floor; 
while the third floor is given up to the assistant superintendent's 
apartment, library, chapel and hospital. 

The family houses are similar in style, forming rectangular build- 
ings 36 by 58 feet. The basement of each contains a furnace 
room, a store-room and a large wash-room, which is converted into 
a play-room during inclement weather. On the first floor of each 
of these buildings are two rooms for the house father and his 
family, and a school-room, which is also convertible into a sitting- 
room for the boy6. On the third floor is a family dormitory, a 
clothes-room and a room for the " elder brother," who ranks next 
to the house father. And since the reception of the first boy, from 
Hendricks county, January 23, 1868, the house plan has proved 
equally convenient, even as the management has proved efficient. 

Other buildings have since been erected. 

4- .4--/t< e. 





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^tyyi<u*7 /ff ^ c ^/^^n cm£$. 

Or" r i,-/ 





Geology— Boundary — Surface Features — Paleozoic Geology— 
Section ok the County— The Coals— Local Fossils— Township 
Characteristics— Valuable Stone Strata— Economic Consid- 

PIKE COUNTY is bounded Dortli by Knox and Daviess Coun- 
ties, easi by Dubois, south by Warrick and Gibson and west 
by Gibson, and contains 338 square miles. White and Patoka 
Rivers with their numerous small branches drain the entire county. 
Surface Geofogy. Only a few evidences of the glacial period 
appear in this county, ami such as there are come mainly from 
upper localities, having been washed here. The loess loam is 
found on the high hills near Pikesville, and appears as an ash- 
gray impalpable sand, washed of its fertile elements. Here it 
was deposited when the ancient river which traversed this county 
was at high water mark. South Patoka Valley has been cut down 
120 to Kill feet from its height in ancient times. The strata, of the 
sui rounding hills appear in regular order, proving the origin of the 
vallej l>v erosion. Ancient streams have traversed i i nearly all 
directions the western and southwestern part of the county. The 
barren deposits southwest of Winslow prove this. East of Peters- 
burg is found a rich black soil covered with a young growth of 
timber; and here doubtless at no verj distant period was a tract 
of prairie. Beneath the surface are beds of clay and sand, clearly 
laminated, with fragments of trees and enormous grape vines, 
establishing the lacustrine origin of the plain. On the mirth of 
this plain or plateau are ancient sand liars on the White River 

*Adapt«d to this volume from Hie report .1 il» :■ >^ist. E. T Cox, in 18;::. 


bluffs over 100 feet above the river fixing the high water level of 
the ancient White Eiver. 

Paleozoic Geology. — The visible rocks of the county are the 
massive conglomerates or subcarboniferous sandstones and those 
of the coal measures. The county section from west to east 
across the county is as follows: 

Loess, drift, lacustrine clay, sandstone and limestone. . . 84 

Coal and slate, rash 1| 

Fire clay, silicious shales and flagstones 28 

Coal, rash f 

Fire-clay, silicious shales, thin bedded sandstones, buff, 

quarry sandstone, clay shales and black slate 49£ 

CoalN lto 4* 

Fire clay, silicious flagstones, ferruginous limestones, 

clay shale and black slate 18£ 

CoalM 2i 

Fire-clay, argillaceous sandstone, silicious, shal ■ nd 
flagstones clay shale and soapstone with fossil 

plants 62} 

Coal L 3 to 10J 

Fire-clay, soapstone, clay shale, thin bedded sandstone, 
silicious flagstones, aluminous shale, clay shale with 
iron nodule, calcareo-magnesian limestone, ochre, 

black bituminous slate and pyritous clod 72 

Coal K 2 to 10 

Fire-clay, coarse ferruginous laminated sandrock, mas- 
sive conglomerates, gray aluminous shale, calcareous 

shale, black slate and cannel coal 79J 

Coal A 1 to 5i 

Fire-clay and silicious shales and flagstones 10 

Coal A underlies the whole county, but outcrops are seen only 
in ravines on the eastern border. Immense blocks of the mass- 
ive conglomerate appearing below Coal K may be quarried in 
unlimited quantities. This stone in this county is the terminm 
of the conglomerate spur, which extends westward across Dubois 
County, and disappears under the surface near Winslow. Coal 
K is found well up on the hill sides in the conglomerate sand- 
stone region. From the east, going westward, this coal dips rap- 
idly, and increases in thickness, reaching five to nine feet. The 
limestone above Coal K furnishes good lime, and is two to three 
feet thick. It contains the following fossils : Productus puncta- 
lus, P. semireticulatus, P. costatus, Spirifer cameratus, S. lineatus, 
Athyris subtilata, Pinnce, Myalina, Allorisma, Discina, Nautilus 
(lecoratus and Criuoid stems. It also contains Gasteropods, 
Aviculopecten Providence, Phillipsia, and Chonestes mesoloba. 
Coal L is found on the hill tops at Pikesville and near the surface 
in the high lands east of Otwell. This seam has been eroded 
north and south through the county. It is a valuable coking 


coal, and occurs from four to ten and a half feet thick. In the 
s&apstone above it, called the "fern bed," occur the following 
fossil plants: Pecopteris arborescens, Neuropteris rarinervis. 
Annularia longifolia. Spin t ,nyuutn Schloiheimii, Asterophvl 
lites equisetiformis, Cerdaitws, angustifolia, Paleoxylon, Lepido- 
dendron elegans and Sigillaria reniformis. Outcrops of Coals M 
and N, about three miles west of the line dividing Ranges 7 and 
8, except in the southwestern part, where both are eroded. 
Neither of these coals possesses great economic value to the 
county, though in localities both are found workable and good. 
The rash coals are not constant. They are thin, and of doubtful 
workable value. 

Local Details. — The conglomerate spur, which enters the 
county from the east, terminates abruptly, forming a line of pre- 
cipitous bluffs, against which the waters of the carboniferous seas 
beat and the coal seams were deposited. An ancient river sand- 
bar mav be seen in western Logan Township. 135 feet above the 
Patoka. Coal .\ is worked considerably in Town 1 south. Rangi 
'.I west. It is from three to four feet thick, with ;i little more 
than a foot of choice coking coal. Numerous outcrops of Coal 
M may be seen iii Town I south. Range H west. At Alexanders 
Mine, on the Hosmer and Petersburg road, coal N is four feet ami 
seven inches thick, four feet of which is good coal. The follow- 
ing section was taken at Sandhill, two miles north of Petersburg: 

Ancient river sand 10 to 80 

Silicious shale ~ 

Soapstonc will) Pecopteris, Neuropteris, Aste 

ophyllites, Cordaites anil Flabellnria J 

Coal N 3to4f 

Fire-clay 2 to 4 

Soapstone 8 

Silicious shale 2 to 12 

Ferruginous limestone with Produetus 

purirtutus, Spirifer lineatus, Gyathox onia 

prolifera Chatetes milliporaceus Athyris 

sabtttuta and Gasteropoda 2J 

Calcarious nnd pyritous clay 1 to 8 

Coal M 25 


Sandstone: 5 to 20 

Covi I'd silicious Hags and shales 20 

s. „p i ,nc 10 

Coal [-(reported 8 


In the southwest part of Petersburg the following section oc- 
curs: Soil mul clay, 28 feet; shellstone, 10 feet; slate anil 
boulders, 2 feet; Coal K. 10 feet; fire-clay. 2+ feet. On Section 
12, Town 1 north. Range 8 west, at the Posey Mine. Coal K is 
from five to nine feet thick. Many hanks of this coal have been 
opened in this vicinity. At the old DeBruler shaft Coal K is over 
seven feet thick. This is on Section 7, Township I north. Range 
7 west. Numerous shafts have been sunk in this township. Three 
specimens of the Mound- Builders' work* may be seen just north 
of Otwell. South of this in several localities white sulphur 
springs burst out of the limestone roof of Coal K. An excellent 
quality of cannel coal is found on Section 31, Township 1 south, 
Range 6 west, and at numerous other places in this vicinity. 
Numerous coal shafts have been sunk between Patoka River and 
Flat Creek. In some cases copperas is made from the refuse of 
these mines. On Section .">, Township 1 south. Range west, is 
a valuable chalybeate spring, and on Section 3o, Township 1 south, 
Range 7 west, is another highly prized and very valuable for dis- 
eases of the stomach, kidneys, skin, etc. Coal K is well developed 
near Winslow, and is nearly six feet thick. It outcrops and is 
worked in numerous localities. Coal L is extensively worked in 
Township 2 south. Range 7 west, and varies from three to five 
feet thick. East of this over a large area Coal L has been eroded 
by the ancient river. In many of the ravines bordering the Pa- 
toka, Coal A outcrops, and is from three to four and one-half feet 
thick. At Pikesville Coal L is found in wells near the surface. 
Coal K on the hill sides and Coal A a little below the water level 
of Patoka River. The following section is given : 


Soil and loess loam 20 

Silicious shale and soapstone 18 

Coal L H 

Fireclay 3 

Silicious and clay shale 30 

Ochre and black slate 3 

Coal K 3 

Laminated sandstone 20 

Massive sandstone 60 

Aluminous shale 30 

Coal A 4 

A spring containing the sulphates of iron, alumina, sodium 
and perhaps magnesia, issues from the northern part of Pikes- 


ville. Coal L is rare east of this town. Goal K is on the hill 
tops, and in places is wholly missing by erosion. Coal A is found 
near the water level. Between coals A and K the conglomerate 
sandstone is well developed. Coal A is often a valuable cannel 
coal. Good coal is found in the vicinity of Stendal, and numer- 
ous banks have been opened. West of Stendal Coal K becomes 
better developed and lower down. It is usually between four and 
five feet thick. East of Pleasantville is one of the most product- 
ive coal regions of the county. Coal K is rarely less than four 
feet, and often exceeds six feet. The thin limestone roof of K is 
used to wall wells. North of this the strata are not much re- 
vealed. Snake Knob and vicinity was in early years famous for 
its snakes. Coal K has been worked in several banks around Ar- 
cadia, and is usually about four feet thick. On Section 9, Town- 
ship 2 south, Range 8 west, at the old Martin bank, the following 
section was taken; 


Soil, clay, etc 18 

Black slate 1 

CoalM n 

Fire-clay i\ 

Silicious shales and soapstones 57$ 

Soapstone with ferns 4 

Coal L: 

Feet. Inches. 

Slaty coal 4 

Laminated coal 2 6 

Soft Mack slate 4 

Good smith coal 1 6 

White clay and soft coal •> 

Good smith coal ~ IS 

Rash pyritous coal 2 

9 4 
Fire-clay 4} 

Economif Geology. -The county coals are usually coking, and 
are fully up to the average of the Western States. The supply- 
is practicably inexhaustible. The loess sands and clays furnish 
good material for bricks. The tire clays underlying the coals are 
of the best quality for pottery wans. It is necessary to weather 
this clay before it can be used. The glacial and lacustrine clays 
of the northern part of the comity are also good for pottery ware. 
Silicious iron ores are found among the conglomerate sandstones 
north and east of Pikesville, but they are not desirable. The fer- 


ruginous limestone found in the beds of the old canal and along 
the banks of White River north of Petersburg, contains much 
iron ore. The clay iron stones in the southern part are good for 
paints, but are abundant, seemingly, only in the southwestern cor- 
ner. Occasionally specimens of gold, copper, lead, etc., are found 
among the glacial drift of the county. Numerous tales are told 
of Indian traditions of the existence in the county of valuable 
mines _of the precious metals. Few except the lazy and credu- 
lous give any heed to the traditions. About Pikesville are found 
enormous quantities of the subcarboniferous sandstone. It i sex- 
cellent for weathering and masonry. Some valuable limestone 
is found, but usually in thin strata. In the northern half the soil 
consists of dark colored alluvium, sandy and loess. In the 
Patoka bottoms appear the impalpable sands washed from the 
loess on the hills. All this soil can be improved by under-drain- 
age. In the basin south of the Patoka mineral salts are com- 
mon, and the soil is red from the decomposed ironstones. North 
of the Patoka the water of wells and springs is fair to good; but 
south, especially about Pikesville, it is highly charged with min- 
eral salts, unpleasant and unhealthy. Cisterns are used. Sev- 
eral valuable mineral springs exist in the county, and there are 
three or four of them, the Townsend, Milburn and Coats 1 Springs, 
possess the highest medicinal qualities, containing sulphates and 
carbonates of iron, soda, magnesia, alumina, lime, etc., besides 
valuable salts and acids. They are highly regarded locally. 



bt prof. z. t. emerson. 

Settlement ok the County by Townships— The First Settlers and 
Their Trials in the Wilderness— Their Habitations and Cus- 
toms— Anecdotes. Industries, Postoffices— Stories of the In- 
dians—The .Mound-; and Their Contents— Elections, Officers 
and Land Entries. 

THE first settlement made in the county was at White Oak 
Springs, in 1S()0. by Woolsey Pride. Here he built a block- 
house, about 1807. He was followed, in 1802, by Henry Miley. 
the Coonrod and Tislow families in 1803, David Miley in 1804, 
Eosea Smith in the spring of 1811, and in the fall by Charles and 
Ashbury Alexander and Jacob Chapped. Other families that 
followed soon after were the Butlers. Pearces, Merricks, Ashbys, 
Pancakes, Colemans and Kearns. Hosea Smith was from North 
Carolina He had with him his sons. Henry. Onias and Hosea, 
and Stanton Lamb, his nephew. During tlu- year 1812 Charles 
Risley, the Scallerhern and Walker families came to this vicinity 
fm- the protection of the block-house, and after the war of 1812 
remained in the county. In 1816 James Brenton, Peter Brenton, 
Thomas Case, Thomas Mead. John Flinn, Moses Harrell and the 
Sarter f amilj settled near I' fcersbu also about the same time 
John Mclntire and Thomas C. Stewart. 

The first postoffice in the township was kept by Hosea Smith 
Springs, about 1811. Smith was post master, surveyor, 
justice of the peace, merchant and farmer. The office was on an 
old Indian ••trace"' leading from Vincennes to Louisville. The 
road was there from time immemorial, leading from White River 
at Decker Ferry, White Oak Springs, Mud Holes, mar Inland. 
Dubois County. French Lick. Paoli, to Louisville. Ge irge Tever- 
baugh carried the mail over this roul ce a week on foot; how- 
ever, Mathias Mounts was the first carrier. 

The first mill of this township, and even in the county, was 
built by Benrj Miley in 1824. It was a two-horse mill, with a 

■ ;i],;i. •it\ uf about tLirty-five bushels pel day. N" 1 mil ■ "'\ 

us of ill*' mill would have to wait for thirU -i\ *.■ ■ •> 

wrist, as tiny often came from twenty miles disl mi .M n 
ing their waiting they would spend their time in shooting, 
drinking, or othei snort. At night they camped .»ut. 
The first bolting cloth used in the county was at Miley's Mill, in 
Jacob Stuckey build a saw and grist-mill in LSiJO, but uu 
his death, in 1838, the mill went down. In 1826 John Young- 
man buiit a mill and copper distillery on what is now a part of 
-burg. He could make about one barrel of whisky per 
ir which, according to the early records of Pike County. 
the commissioners allowed him to charge from 10 to 12^ cents 
per gallon. Usually one gallon of whisky v. given for one 
bushel of corn. This mill and distillery was burned in 1831, 
with a large quantity of whisky, and it is still remembered that 
while the precious liquid w r as flowing in wasteful streams through 
streets and gullies, some worshipers of Bacchus, through a feeling 
of economy, by means of straws, rilled themselves, too unutterably 
full for intelligent utterance. The first steam-mill was built by 
John Graham in 1838, near the site of the steam-mill « 

In 1828 Samuel Stuckey built the first tanyard on a part of 
the present site of Petersburg. This yard was in operation for 
fifty years or more. Its capacity was about $1,200 or $1,300 
worth of leather -annually. Hides were generally tanned on the 
shares, i. e. one-half being given for the other. Tin skins of 
cattle, deer and elk were tanned. Many of those of the cattle 
were "Murrain' hides. 

Among the most noted hunters of this township were David 
and Ed Corn, Ben Ashby, Joe Pancake and George Teverbaugh. 
Deer were seen by the hundred. Turkeys were also very abund- 
ant. In lSi52 a man named Langworth took a flat-boat load of 
deer hams aiufhides down the river; of these he bought 500 pairs 
of liams from David and Ed Corn, for which he paid from 13 to 
25 cents a pair. Solomon Teverbaugh killed in one day seventeen 
wild turkeys and carried them home, a distance of six miles. The 
next day, he carried them, on foot, to Vincennes, a distance of 
thirteen miles, and exchanged them for a bag of salt, with which 
he returned on the same day. 


By an order of Paul Tislow, James Campbell and Harrison 
Blackgrave, with their names signed as county commissioners 
•Esquires" (sic), it was decreed that the second township sin mid 
be called Washington and should be bounded as follows: Begin- 
ning at second section line east of line dividing Ranges 8 and 
9; north by county line; east byline dividing Ranges 7 and 
8; south by county line, and west to boundary line of Madison 

At the first election Washington chose two justices who were 
elected Tuesday, February 25. In 17. The commissioners 
appointed John Butler, constable for Washington, with James 
Brenton, inspector. This election was held at the house of Henry 
Miley. The commissioners of the poor at that time were Benja- 
min Rice and John Coonrad. At the next election which was held 
August 1. L817, there were seventy-six votes cast. The names 
of Brenton. Meade. Alexander, Rice, Lett, Hornady, and Campbell 
are frequently mentioned for office in the early history. Political 
chicanery was to be seen in the very beginning of the'eounty's 
history as may be seen from the following notice which we give 
verbatim: "Daniel Miley sou of Henry you are hereby Notifyed 
that the election of Archabald Campbell as Justice of the i 
for the county of Pike is contested in consequence of improper 
Votes having been Taken and legal votes Refused September the 
15, 1820. John Butler/' 

Mr. Campbell offered his resignation a short time after and it 
was accepted, but was re-elected to the same office the following 

Jvfferxon Township. The county commissioners, in 1817, 
ordered the limit of this township to lie fixed. The first settler 
in the township was, perhaps, Richard Ainby, who settled in the 
township about 1815. The Hargraves, De Brulers, and Barrets 
came from North Carolina at a verv early day. In 1819 Judge 
Hammond settled at High Banks. He came from Massachu- 
setts, and "being well supplied with this world's goods, had 
brought many unwonted luxuries. He had wagons, forsooth, ami 
glass, the first the settlers had seen, brought all the way from 
Pittsburgh, and it is said that when he had erected his house witli 
sash and >;lass in the windows, large numbers came to see it. Up 
to that tine-, in the settler's rude cabin, light had been obtained 


by leaving out a part of the chinking in the crevices between the 
logs, or if very nice and stylish, by pasting greased paper over 
the apertures." Among others who had settled in Jefferson 
Township previous to 1817, were Benjamin Hays, Ebenezer 
Case. Henry Miley, William Hurst, James Payn. Henry Lace- 
field, Joab Chappell, William Shook. Daniel Eowe. and others. The 
first general election ever held in Jefferson was at the house of 
James Brinton, August 4, 1817. at which election twenty-six 
votes were cast; there had been an election for justice of the 
peace February 25, of the same year, at which but seventeen 
v. it s were cast, nine being for John Case, and eight for Randle 
Lett for justice. Elections seem to have been held once or twice 
a year, for several years, either for township, county or State 
elections. August 2, 1818, Christopher Harrison received six- 
teen votes for governor, and Jennings seventeen for the same office, 
Randle Lett casting the first vote of the day, and William Har- 
grave the last. The first, and perhaps the only, scientific botan- 
ist and florist ever in the county was H. P. De Bruler, of Jeffer- 
son. He is said to have had flowers from many parts of the 
world He was a Methodist preacher, and held a three-day's 
debate at "Old Prospect" with E. B. Mann. 

From almost the day of Independence until 1839 it was n< >t 
only the custom, but also the law, to have annual muster, and 
many an old pioneer gained his pompous title of captain, major, 
colonel or general, at these bloodless displays of brass and tinsel. 
General muster occurred in the autumn of the year, after the busy 
season was over. There were company, regimental and brigade 
musters. One was held at Ditney Hill, one mile east of Peters- 
burg, in 1828. At this muster "Gen. Wright was commander: 
George Chambers, colonel; Joseph Shawhan, lieutenant-colonel; 
Isaac Crow, Hiram Conn, William Kinman, Daniel Conrad, Elias 
Osborn, and Pinas Smith, captains. The officers wore gorgeous 
uniforms, consisting of a blue coat, made of the usual homespun, 
cut swallow-tailed, with stripes of red tape sewed on the breast, 
and adorned with double rows of brass buttons, and huge brass 
tinsel epaulets, a sword, homespun or buckskin trousers, an enor- 
mous three-cornered hat, with waving plume, and moccasins, com- 
pleted the costume. The men dressed in ordinary frontier dress, 
with muskets or rifles, as chance might select. The law com- 


pelling these martial displays was repealed in 1839. To these 
musters came the men to engage in mimic fray, the matrons to 
behold their prowess, and the lads and lassies not unfrequently to 
woo. Muster day was set apart usually to settle old disputes and 
grudges, and frequently two giant frontiersmen engaged in a ter- 
rible tilt at fist-cuff. These tilts usually settled the matter, and 
the thing was dropped. Ebenezer Case, in 1814; Samuel Acker- 
man, three entries, 1818; Thomas Pride, 1814; Wolsey Pride, 
1814; John Case, 1814; Paul Tislow, 1815; Jessee Taylor, 1817; 
James Brenton, 1816. All these first entries were near High 
Banks or Long Branch. 

Madison Township. — This was the first division made for a 
township in Pike County, and the division was ordered made by 
the county commissioners, Paul Tislow, James Campbell and Harri- 
son Blackgrave, Monday, February 10, 1817, and the division was 
made the next day. It was called the First or Madison Town- 
ship, and was bounded on the south, west and north by the coun- 
ty lines and on the east by Washington Township. It is difficult 
to tell who the first settler was, but among the very earliest were 
John Miley, Sinzy Kogers, a relative of the Sinzys, Jonathan 
Park, the Williamsons, the Fowlers, the Brentons, Morgans, 
Burkharts, Snyders, who were from North Carolina, John and 
Peter Rebbling, Elijah Molett, MacAtees, George and William 
(Buck) Wright. At the first session of the county commission- 
ers in Pike County, at their session on the 10th day of February. 
1817, they called an election in Madison, to be held on the 25th 
day of February, of the same year, for the purpose of electing a 
justice of the peace. The names of those voted for were Zacha- 
ria Selby, William Wright and Thomas Withers. Of the forty- 
three votes cast Selby received nineteen, Wright thirteen and 
Withers ten. The election was held at the house of Archibald 
Pea and the election was certified to by /. F. Selby and Aaron. 
A strange thing about this is that Selby himself was compelled to 
certify to his own election. Among the voters at the first elec- 
tion were Joseph Selby, G. Davidson. John Caldwell, John Catt, 
Thomas Withers, Philip Catt, Archibald Pea, John Johnson and 
others. Elections were held in Madison August 4. 1817, 
February 1818, August 3, L818, August 7. L819, L820 and L823. 
In the election in 1818, .Madison Township cast ninety-two rotes, 


of which Robert Brenton cast the first vote and Harrison Black- 
grave cast the last one. In the election in 1823 300 votes were 
cast, while on November 8, 1824, only eleven votes were cast, the 
last election having been called to fill the vacancy caused by the 
resignation of Henry Hopkins as justice of the peace. In Janu- 
ary, 1818, David Kinman received eight votes for justice of 
oeace with no opposition, while in the general election for gov- 
ernor in 1819, Gov. Jennings received sixty-eight votes while 
Christopher Harrison got twelve votes for the same office. While 
iladison Township was one of the first settled and is truly the 
pioneer township, and while it possesses an intelligent class of 
farmers, it has neither postoffice, railroad, pike, store nor busi- 
ness house of any kind, except one small blacksmithshop, yet it 
has a soil of almost inexhaustible fertility and yields the patient 
and industrious husbandman a rich reward for his toils ; it is also 
well known that its pauper list is smaller than any. other in the 

A robbery was committed January 1, 1867, at Macon, Noxu- 
bee County Miss., the Southern Express Company having been 
sufferers to a large amount. A large reward had been offered 
by the company for the arrest of the thief and detectives were 
anxious for the reward. A requisition from the governor of Mis- 
sissipi had been made on the governor of Indiana for the person 
of Daniel Harrison alias J. W. Smith, a citizen of Madison 
Township, who was supposed to be connected with the robbery. 
Accordingly on the 12th day of February, 1867, while at Evansville 
on business he was suddenly arrested and thrown in jail and when 
on attempt was being made to have him released on a writ of 
habeas corpus, he was hurried across the river to Kentucky and 
taken to Macon, Miss. Word was sent to Representatives Wil- 
son and Barker who were at Indianapolis and the attention of 
the governor was called to the fact. He accordingly appointed 
Gen. Mansfield as agent for the State and he, with Richard Glad- 
dish, W. H. Gladdish and Robert Willis as' witnesses, proceeded 
to Mississippi where they found Harrison on trial for the robbery 
and in a fair way for the penitentiary. An alibi was quickly and 
clearly proven and he was accordingly brought home to his great 
satisfaction. It is a question if the detectives did not attempt to 
convict some one for the reward without regard to guilt. 


The following is a list of land entries made in Washington 
and Madison Townships previous to the year 1818: George Boss 
and association, 1813; Jeremiah Arnold, 1813; Levi Kruman, 
1813; E. Lett, 1816; Henry Brenton, 1807; Walter Beading, 
1815; James Brenton, 1812; Moses Harrell, 1815; John Coonrad i 
four large tracts, 1815; Daniel Coonrad, 1815; Henry Miley, 1814; 
B. D. Savarns, 1814; Henry Miley, 1813; James Campbell, 1816, 
Silas Bisby, 1813; Wolsey Pride, 1813; George Wallace, 1807; 
Wolsey Pride, 1808; James Brenton, 1807; David Hornady, 
1815; Hosea Smith, 1812; Paul Tislow, 1807; Beading & Co., 
1815; David Wease, David Kinnet(?), 1815; H. Smith, 1814; 
John Johnson, 1817; William Traylor, 1815; Hosea Smith, 1815; 
Paul Tislow, 1814; Samuel Baldwin, 1808; Trafton Bosen, 1815; 
John Defendall, 1811. 

Clay and Logan Townships. — Clay was originally a part of 
Gibson County, and was attached to Pike by an act of the Leg- 
islature in 1824. The first election was held on the first Satur- 
day in October, 1824, for choosing a justice of the peace. It was 
held at the house of James Lamsdale, and this settler acted 
as inspector of elections. At said election James Hillman received 
twenty-two votes for justice of the peace and Charles White 
twenty votes. The second election was also held at the house of 
James Lamsdale, the third in 1828, at Charles White's and only 
eighteen votes were cast for president. In the first presidential 
election held in the township the following persons voted : Charles 
and Joshua Young, James Hillman, Fielding Coleman, William 
Hovey, Charles White, Samuel Polk, James Lamsdale, Isaac 
Knight, Adam Nixon, Joe Davidson, Jonathan Young, John Hill, 
Elias Boberte, William M. Wright and John Hillman. In the 
same election Thomas White was inspector, and William McDon- 
nald, Charles White and Philip Catt were clerks. The first set- 
tlement ever made in the county was in Clay Township while it 
was all yet a part of Knox. One Glass settled on a donation in 
this township in the vicinity of the Davidson settlement and after 
his death the widow married a man by the name of Conyer who 
was from Pennsylvania, and was a carpenter by trade. A settle- 
ment was also begun by Peter Frederick and by Capt. Beedy in 
the Catt neighborhood. 

In addition to those already mentioned were the Chambers 

258 iiisronv ok I'iki: coi \i i 

and Lindys. Many <»f thus,. ,, 1,1 settlers haw left families. »-J, 
still bear mi honorable part in society. The increase of popula- 
tion at first was quite slow, as is indicated In votes at differcni 
elections. In August, l«2<5, for Congress only eight votes «-i»r- 
cast. This election, as were main subsequent elections. \v«k held 
at the house of Charles White. In 1*27. for representative only 
eight were cast, while in November. 182s. for President John 
Adams received fifteen Votes, and Andrew Jackson only three 
In 182!) John M. Gray received three rotes, and William Wright 
sis votes for justice of the peace, to till n vacancy made by George 
Wright. A tread-mill and distillery was built north of I'm.., 
about 1835, also a tanyard, by (ien. William M. Wright as early 
as 1824, and continued in use till lMu. T first postoffice ii 
the township was at the Old Red House, on the farm of Patter- 
son. Among the earlier postmasters were Daniel Lauisdale, 
Daniel Roberts and Judge Hornbrook. 

Logan Township was originally a part of Madison, but was 
separated from it in lsJii. It was named in honor of Robert 
Logan, who represented the county at that time in the Legisla 
hire. The commissioners at that time were Henry Brenton. Con- 
rad Coleman and Richard Selby. 

The first election in the township was in April. i^W>. at tin- 
house of Robert Crow. James 0. Crow being inspector of the 
board. The election was for two justices, one inspector, two 
constables and two fence viewers. The first settlers of what i- 
now Logan were Joseph Woodry, Michael Kime, Isaac Knight, 
Robert C. Johnson, James McAfee. James Barnes. Samuel Barnes. 
John Barnes, Daniel Frederick, Adam Snyder and Isaac Loveless. 
Isaac Loveless built the first mill in the township in 1830. 

Postoffice, Stump-Mill, Mines, Mineral Sprinys. — About 
1838 Valentine Hart introduced the famous stump-mill into 
the township. This avoided the necessity of frame work 
for a mill, as a large tree was cut down and the stump smoothed 
off and hollowed out to fit one stone, and the other was fitted 
over that one, and by a slow process the corn was reduced to a 
very indifferent meal. Robert Hawthorn kept the first postoffice 
in the township at Hawthorn's Mill. It was established about 
L850, and was kept up about ten years. There is an office now 
at West Saratoga Springs, and one at Oatsville, near the line of 


Gibson County. "While Pike County is one continuous coal field 
of vast wealth, little has ever been done to develop it, for want 
of railroad facilities, until within the last few years. In 1850 A. 
J. Johnson discovered West Saratoga Springs, which attained 
some celebrity as a watering place. It might be said that almost 
every section of the county contains a mineral spring of more or 
less virtue. 

Assistant State Geologist Collet, Eev. Lewis Wilson and Dr. 
James Wilson measured a large hickory tree in Section 8, Town- 
ship I south, Range 8 west, which was found to be over five feet 
in diameter, three feet above the ground, maintaining almost uni- 
form size to the height of sixty feet, without limbs. It is thought 
by Mr. Collet to be the largest tree of its kind in the world. The 
said tree is standing near West Saratoga Springs, in Logan 

Monroe Totmiship. — Pike County at first was laid off into 
Madison, Washington, Jefferson and Harbison Townships. This. 
was done by order of the county commissioners Monday, Feb- 
ruary 10, 1817, the commissioners being Paul Tislow, James 
Campbell and Harrison Blackgrave. In 1820 an order was 
passed by the board of county commissioners creating a new 
township to be called Monroe, the commissioners in this case 
were Moses Harrel, Peter Brenton and Jesse Traylor. The work 
was to be done by William Black and Henry Coleman. The order 
said it should be marked by " a line east and west three miles 
south of the principal (sic) meridian (base bine) to include 
the whole of the county." The first election held in Monroe 
Township was Monday, March 20, 1820, at the house of Henry 
Coleman. At said election only thirty-one votes were cast, and 
William Doughten was elected justice of the peace. The follow- 
ing are some of the voters: David Black, James Slater, William 
Condor, George Davis, James Hedge, John Wyatt and William 
Ashby, Black having cast the first vote and Henry Coleman the 
last. A short time after this Adams Township was created, 
embracing what is now a portion of Columbia Township, Gibson 
County, and a part of Logan Township. The same authority 
made the second Saturday in December as the time for the first 
election, and the house of Samuel McDill as the place, and 
Henry Hopkins as inspector of elections. 



ton Grange 


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io'2, was organized at the Thoiua- 
'ownship, November (5, ls7:S. Tin- 
uembers: H. C. Brenton, R. Selb%, 
lish. H. (;. Selby. J. L. Brenton. 
son. .1. (). M. Selby. L. (J. Selbv. 
'1.1, J. P. Kinman, William Lomax. 
ohn Tislow, J. E. Bottom. G. W 
Selby, Abbie Thomas. Amelia Thomas. Sarah A. Selhy. Dora 
Thomas, Mary Kinman, Elizabeth Lomax, Kate Brenton ami 
Polly Selby. The following were the officers: H. C. Brenton. 
Master; J. W. Brunfiehl, secretary. By donation from the mem- 
bers they built a suitable hall and purchased a good library, but tin- 
hall, furniture, library and all fixtures were destroyed by tire, April 
11. 1880— the supposed work of an incendiary. In the fall of the 
same year a new hall was built, two miles west of where the old one 
stood. This grange has never attempted to run a store of their own. 
hut frequently the members combine their orders and make pur- 
chases for the whole. The grange holds a grand feast once a year 
at their hall. The Washington Grange is the only one in the 
county, and we might say in this entire section of the State. 
The present officers are F. G. Selby, Master; H. C. Brenton, sec- 
retary. The present membership is forty-three, being an increase 
of nine within the last year. 

In an election in Adams Township, in August, 1822, there 
were thirty votes cast, the election having been held at the house 
of James B. McGar'rah. In Monroe Township, in August, 1828. 
Isaac Montgomery received sixteen votes for State Senator, while 
David Robb received none for the same office. By an act of the 
Legislature about 1823, a portion of Gibson County was cut off 
and given to Pike, which was immediately erected into C)fBf 
Township, and the same act took away a portion of Adams %nd 
gave to Gibson County, and the remaining portion was attached 
to Madison, but now forming a portion of Logan. At the same 
time what was formerly called Harbison Township, was attached 
to Dubois. There' were only five or six elections ever held in 
Harbison Township while it was a part of Pike, and only twenty- 
one votes cast at any one time; about the same number occurred 
in Adams. In 1S38, the commissioners ordered Pat-oka Township 
to be set off from Monroe, the place of the first election to be at 


the house of John Hathaway. The township took its name from 
the river of the same name. Logan was separated from Madison 
at the March term <>f the commissioners in 1S40. Lockhart was 
taken out of Monroe in 185*2, having its present boundaries from 
the first. It was named in honor of Judge Lockhart. The com- 
missioners at their September term in 1857, divided Patoka 
into two parts, the part set off being called Marion. 

Stranger's Best Lodge No. 585, I. O. O. F. was organized 
July 19, 1881, at Washington Grange Hall, with the following 
charter members: H. C. Brenton, A. C. West, J. B. F. Dearing, 
George W. Selby, F. G. Selby and Thomas Abell. The officers 
are H. C. Brenton, N. G. ; A. C. West, V. G. ; J. B. F. Dearing, 
E. S.; F. G. Selby, treasurer; G. A. Selby, P. S. The present 
membership is sixteen. The following are the officers: D. G. 
Smith, N. G. ; A. D. Hollen, V. G. ; G. W. Selby, secretary, and 
H. C. Brenton, treasurer. 

As the settlements of all the south part of this county were 
made while it was yet Monroe Township, it would be impossible 
to separate the settlements of that part of the county. It is said 
that the first settlement made south of the Patoka, was in the 
year 1815, by Frank Taylor and George Adams, at Honey 
Springs. In 1817, Conrad LeMasters settled the old LeMasters 
farm. Conrad LeMasters was the father of Simeon LeMasters 
who is still living, and attended the first school ever taught in the 
township. John Ferguson lived in Monroe before 1820, as he 
taught school at Henry Springs that year. Among other men of 
mark of the time, who settled south of the river, or near it, were 
the Simpsons, the. Masons, the Beattys, Hugh Shaw, — Ashby, 
Filly Pancake Jacob Nelson. A. J. Wells. Daniel Crow, John Mar- 
tin, one of the first business men, Arthur Thompson, H. T. 
Thompson, John S. Johnson, Aziel "Whitman and Newton Brenton. 

Deer and turkeys existed in vast numbers; there were also num- 
bers of wolves, panthers, wild-cats and bears. It may be said that 
game was the chief subsistence of the early settlers. It was so 
abundant that the smaller game was not interfered with. The 
powder, lead and trouble being considered worth more than the 
game. When a deer was killed only the skin and hams were 
taken or sometimes the branching antlers to grace the hunter's 
humble home. A favorite way of cooking food was to hang a 


piece of venison or turkey beneath a piece of bear meat and allow 
the dripping grease of the bear meat to fall on the deer or 
turkey and thus season them by means of the rich grease of the 
bear. Mills being so scarce, frequently venison, turkey or bear- 
meat and hominy was the only food, the hominy taking the place 
of bread. Some of the most noted hunters of the times were 
Conrad LeMasters already mentioned, David Bilderback, Peter 
Ferguson, L. Miller, Dan Miller, Joe Honchins, Benjamin Hon- 
chins, Dan Hedrick, John Davis, David Corn and Andrew Corn. 
Miller in one winter killed 125 deer, on one occasion he shot an 
old doe and while sitting on a log preparatory to dress her, a 
fawn came galloping by, when Miller plunged his hunting knife 
into it and killed it. Wolves were often killed by the hunters 
finding their dens and by catching the puppies and making them 
cry their cries would bring the old ones for protection and then 
they would kill them. This story is related in the Centennial: 
David Bilderback and Peter Ferguson went to a wolf's den, they 
knew of, intending to kill the puppies as the young wolves were 
called, and get their scalps for the reward then paid for wolf 
scalps. Bilderback stationed himself beside a tree at the entrance 
of the den to shoot any old wolves should any be attracted by the 
cries of the puppies. Ferguson entered the den and began the 
work of killing the puppies and cutting off their ears. The old 
ones came rushing at him in a terrible fury having heard the 
puppies' cries. But no shot was heard and Ferguson escaping 
barely with his life, rushed for his gun standing against a tree, 
and saw Bilderback up in a sapling hallooing to the wolves 
"begone." They drove the wolves off without having succeeded 
in killing any of them, but they finished scalping the puppies and 
got their prize for scalps. LeMasters once discovered a genuine 
snake den on Snake Knob, a hill 290 feet high between Pleasant- 
ville and Lynnville. He awaited till the cool weather of the fall 
so that all the snakes would be together, and would be somewhat 
torpid. He, accompanied by Park Bethell, John Ferguson mid 
others opened the den and killed 300 rattlesnakes and 200 others 
of different kinds. The knob is to this day called "Snake Knob." 
The above is given on the authority of Rev. John Ferguson, 
son of John Ferguson, Sr. On one occasion while LeMaster's 
dogs were fighting a bear in which the bear was getting the bet- 


ter of the fight and fearing to shoot, for the safety of his dogs 
lie crept up behind the bear, while his attentiou was attracted to 
the dogs and plunged his hunting knife into his heart. 

Flat-boats began to run down the river as early as 1825. 
Among those who took flat-boats to New Orleans were James 
John Wheatley, John Ferguson and J. W. Cockrum. Vast 
improvements were made in the comforts of living after this time. 
The boats were loaded with some grain but mostly with ••deer- 
saddles," hides and game. 

Usually several traders would lash their boats together and 
go down the river, sell out their goods, and boat if possible, and 
then would begin their long tedious journey homeward on foot 
through tangled everglades, swamps and canebrakes, always keep- 
ing near the river. After months of toil they would again re- 
turn, thinking nothing of their hardships. One authority says 
that the first boat ever sent down the Patoka was one loaded with 
pork in 1835, by J. W. Oockrun. It would not be out of place 
here to say that vast numbers of wild hogs were found in the 
woods. They were allowed to feed on the mast and roots and to 
care for themselves. About the only thing the owner would do 
would be to determine how many he thought he ought to have, 
and when fat he would kill that number if they could be found. 
The little expense of raising hogs and the small price they 
brought in the markets precluded the idea of any serious contests 
over them as they roamed the woods. 

John Hathaway built a mill below the bridge at Winslow on 
Patoka over thirty years ago, another was built in an early day 
by A. J. Kinman. John Meyo had a mill near where Pikesville 
now is. Summary justice was usually meted to offenders of the 
law without the pomp of form or display of judicial ermine. 
On one occasion a man named Moore was convicted of horse steal- 
ing and as a punishment he was publicly whipped and branded 
on the cheek with a "T" indicating that he was a thief. 

January 15, 1812. Aaron Decker made entries for land in 
Town 3 south, Eange 8 west, a part of Section 6, eight acres ; 
Town 3 south, Eange 8 west, a part of Section 7, 137 acres; Town 
3 south, Eange 8 west, a part of Section 7, four acres; David 
Leonard made entry for land in Town 3 south, Eange 8 west, a 
part of Section 8, 16 acres. 


Frequently there were full votes for some of the more import- 
ant offices, while for the lesser important there would be but few. 
besides the voters were not confined to any particular precinct, 
many times the votes being nearly all cast at Petersburg or some 
of the larger precincts. Frequently the name of a voter will be 
found among the names at one precinct and possibly at the next 
election his name will be found in another precinct. 

At an election in 1833 for school commissioner there were 
only six votes cast at Petersburg, and they were all for James 
Brenton. The voters being John Butler, Thomas Mead, Paul 
Tislow, Thomas Withers, Elijah Malott and Hosea Smith, all of 
whom were on the election board except Butler and Smith. In 
Monroe in 1834 only twenty one votes were cast at a general 
election. At the house of John Crow on the 6th of August, 1833, 
the following votes were registered: George Shaw, Alex Sever- 
cool, John Coleman, Ben Johnson, Samuel Didman. Philip Cole- 
man, Robert Ashby, Milt Hudson, Samuel Black, Henry Atkins, 
A Coan, L. Coleman, Jesse Honchins, Daniel Black, H. Coleman, 
T. Macey, John Crow, Asa Crow, Daniel Boss, James Bates, Con- 
rad LeMasters, Thomas Bice, James Berdett, Emmett Almont, 
Joseph Pancake, John Face and Simeon LeMasters. 

Long before the passage of the fugitive slave law, negroes 
were captured and returned to their masters not as a fulfillment 
of law, but for the reward that was always forthcoming. Not in- 
frequently innocent negroes were abducted from their homes by 
thieves dealing in human flesh. The earliest we have was the 
abduction of "Old Jim." A man named Sawyer living in North 
Carolina, held some land warrants and laid his claims in Pike 
County, west of Petersburg. Sawyer dying, the family moved to 
their claims and they brought "Old Jim" with them. He raised 
a crop for them in 1820, and had just married a woman of color 
who was living with the family of Isaac Montgomery. Suddenly 
"Old Jim" was missing and was never heard of afterward. A 
certain man was supposed to know his fate, but the public never 
learned. So strong was the feeling that "Old Jim's bones" fol- 
lowed that man, that, though lie was frequently an aspirant for 
office, he never succeeded in getting one. At a little later date 
Mathias Mount moved with his family and settled on White 
River, and brought with them a little negro girl, ••Merit." who 


was to stay with the family until grown and then have her free 
dom. Mrs. Osborn, mother of Elias Osborn, her sister and 
"Merit"' were sent to the field to pick c itton and in addition were: 
to call at Archibald Campbell's, who lived whereG sorge II. Siple 
now lives, to borrow n flat-iron. The negro girl was sent from tho 
field to Mr. Campbell, while the other girls awaited her return to 
thefield, that they then might return home. '-Merit" never v< lied 
Campbell's nor was she seen afterward. There was a strong feel- 
ing in the county against slavery but uol a strong one for inter- 
fering with it as ii was. <>,i the passage of the fugitive slave law 
in L850 feelings on this question were greatly intensified. As 
early as ls:>7 two uegroes, one named Sam, were arrested and 
guarded in Petersburg, awaiting word to be sent to Kentucky, 
when some anti-slavery men slipped them away from their guards 
and hid them in Posey Coal Shaft for a time, when they made 
their escape. George Deen, living near Winslow; Lewis Wilson, 
near Coat's Springs; Dr. John \V. Posey, at Petersburg; a Mr. 
Stevenson, in Daviess County, and Benjamin Moore, at New- 
berry were considered friends to runaway negroes, while H. W. 
Kinman, Josiah Hoggatt. James W. Bass, George H. Seott and 
Jackson Kinman were particularly conspicuous for their efforts 
against runaways and made themselves very obnoxious to the con- 
servative (dement. In 1833 three runaway negroes were chased 
down and captured near the fair grounds. The excitement over 
the event was intense. The people turned out as if the negroes 
were wild beasts. The fugitives were taken to Kinman Hotel, 
where Mr. King now lives, and tied to await their masters. The 
captors received §300 for their services. A negro from Vincennes 
came to Petersburg and opened a barber shop. A man named 
Turner, froin Washington, with two other men concocted a scheme 
to have •• Morris" taken into slavery. A description of him had 
been previously made out and sent to Petersburg. Morris was ar- 
rested and of course answered to the description. Turner swore 
he had eaten at his master's I ible and knew the negro well. Dr. 
Adams and Boberl LaPlant and others swore to the negro's birth 
and freedom, and he was accordingly released. As a historic 
fact, Morris wns the first barber in the county. The rapid chai 
of thirty-one years enabled the negroes to hold religious services 
almost on the very spot, where the three were captured in L835. 


Tin- coming on of the war with the changes wrought by it, ended 
nl] the struggles over the question of slaver)'. 

The efforts of Pike County for an outlet to the great business 
centers began with the " Internal Improvement System " of the 
thirties, the Wabash & Erie Canal being the branch that affected 
tins county. The failure of the State to complete the work with- 
out complete bankruptcy, the leasing the same to a syndicate by 
the donation of a vast amount of Congress lands, the failure of 
the company to complete the job honestly, and their efforts to sad- 
dle the debt upon the State, again by persistent lobbying, and the 
final triumph of the State, are matters of history. The next ef- 
fort for outlet was in the old "Straight Line ,, from Evansville to 
Indianapolis. To this enterprise the citizens donated over $100,- 
000 in money and a vast amount of labor and other assistance, 
but the failure of Willard Carpenter and the Alfords to pay for 
labor and supplies, brought wreck and ruin to many, particularly 
to the laborers and small farmers along the line. Many never 
recovered from the crash of 1854 and 1855. The next effort that 
seemed likely to succeed was the Air Line, organized and par- 
tially constructed in 18G8. The road failed under the first man- 
agement, but was reorganized under a new management of which 
Stephen Boyle was president. The franchise of the old having 

1 n bought by the new, and by very liberal aid along the line, 

Patoka and Marion voting a two per cent tax as aid, the road was 
at last completed in 1870. The completion of the Air Line was 
the beginning of a new era of prosperity to the county. The vast 
coal fields of the county are being opened up with their untold 
wealth. Ingleton, Whitman and Ayrshire are sources of great 
wealth to their owners, and supply vast quantities of coal to New 
Albany, St. Louis, and other markets, besides the road furnishes 
transportation to market for produce and other commodities. In 
1879 the old Straight Line was revived again under the "Her- 
vey" management. A proposition was made by'Hervey to build 
the road through Washington Township on condition of the town- 
ship voting a two per cent tax — about §18,500 — and private 
donations enough to swell the amount to $40,000. The most of 
the private subscriptions were promptly paid, but on the failure 
to complete the road according to contract, or at least the 
spirit of the contract, the two per cent tax was refused. 


Labor and supplies were not paid for by the management, 
something the people justly demanded. Only one install- 
ment of the tax was ever placed on the tax duplicate, and that 
was not collected. However, it is but just to state that Hervey 
completed the road from Washington to Petersburg. Suit has 
been brought against the county commissioners for the tax, and 
the case is now in the supreme court on an appeal. The road was 
thrown into the hands of a receiver, and has since passed into the 
hands of Mackey, who has completed the road to Evansville with- 
out further aid from the county. Thus, after nearly thirty years of 
delay, the Straight Line is a success, and the county is sharing 
the benefits. 

During a portion of the year 1883, and several years previous, 
the people of Stendal and vicinity were annoyed by a band of 
counterfeiters, who were operating, not only throughout Pike 
County, but several counties of the State. They grew so bold 
and defiant that a remedy became necessary. Killing stock, steal- 
ing, and terrorizing the citizens by threats and insults, forcing 
spurious coin upon them, and many other criminal acts, were 
common occurrences. The authorities were informed, and Detect- 
ive Charles Hobbs was sent to Stendal under the guise of a doctor, 
assisted by J. M. Killian. Negotiations were carried on with the 
band for nearly a year, and it was found that the spurious money 
was made in Crawford County, near New Albany. When every- 
thing was deemed ready, the quiet people of Stendal were sur- 
prised when, November 1, 1883, United States Marshal Fos- 
ter, with a heavy force of detectives swooped down upon the 
place, and after a terrific fight, in which Jesse Honchins, Joseph 
Honcliins and Detective Killian were wounded, the second dan- 
gerously, succeded in arresting almost the entire gang. Jesse 
and Columbus Honchins were sentence. I to seven years in the 
penitentiary by Judge Woods, of the United States Court, Joseph 
Honchins five years, Zimri Kinder three years, and Wesley 
Wunds three years. Others received lighter sentences. 

The following was placed on record November 28, 1817: 
Ttiia indenture, made and entered into this 28th day of November, in the 
year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventeen, between Francis 
Cunningham, of the county of Knox, and State of Indiana, of the one part, and 
Ede, a woman of color, of Pike County, of the other part, she being of full age, 
Witnesseth, that the said Ede. for and in consideration of the sum of two hundred 


and eighty dollars.good and lawful money, to her in hand paid by the said Fran- 
cis Cunningham, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, and him, the -aid 
Francis thereof, forever exonerated and discharged. The said Ede doth hereby 
voluntarily, and of her own free will and accord, bind herself to serve the said 
Francis, his heirs or assigns, either within or without the State, as an indented 
servant, for and during- the tirm of thirty years from this date, fully to be com- 
pleted and ended, her said master's secrets keep, his lawful commands gladly do 
and obey, for and during the said term of thirty years, and the said Francis 
Cunningham hereby obligates himself to find the said Ede good sufficient meat, 
drink, clothing, fit and sufficient for an indented servant, forand during the said 
term of thirty years, and also to pay to the said Ede, at the expiration of said 
thirty years, one good feather bed, bedstead and clothing, aud also two good and 
sufficient suits of clothes. In witness whereof the said Ede and Francis Cun- 
ningham have hereunto set their hands and affixed their seals the day and year 
first above written. Francis Cunningham. 


Ede X 


Witness: a free woman of color. 

John McIntire. 

Taken and acknowledged before me, Joseph W. Loan, a justice of the 
peace in and for said county Joseph W. Loan. 

The following ventures were made on the tempestuous sea of 
matrimony in 1817: Ephraim McLean and Jane Blackgrave, 
Hiram Kinny and Hannah Goodwin, David Miley and Nancy 
McManis, James Blackgrave and Peggy Curry, Thomas Mills 
and Roda Lindley, Thomas Stewart and Elizabeth Simington, 
James Poor and Juliet Williams, Job Weace and Bachael Harbi- 
son, B. Twitty and Rebecca Brittain, Peter Wolf and Mary 
Frederick, Samuel Kinman and Carrie Love Traylor, Thomas A. 
Good and Priscilla Williams, Ebenezer Case and Elizabeth 
McBride, Elijah Malott and Selah Kinman, Alexander McDaniel 
and Rachel Harbison, Joseph W. Loan and Susan Potts, James 
Harris and Juratia McCain. 

Indians and Mound Builders. — What school-boy is there whose 
blood has not been made to thrill while reading the stories of In- 
dian atrocities and Indian butcheries? He is ready to shoulder 
gun, dress in deer-skin suit, and with his hunting knife, start out 
to avenge the wrongs committed by those red men of the forest. 
Next to the bandit story, the Younger or James brothers, or Buf- 
falo Bill, the Indian story of massacre catches the average boy, 
little thinking that where he now walks to school or plows the 
furrow the Indian walked, and all within the memory of people 
now living. While the school-boy's blood boils to shed the blood of 
an Indian, there is the sentimentalist who grieves over the "noble 


red man" and sheds tears for "Lo! the poor Indian." Notwitli 
standing, there is a studied indifference as to the fate of the In- 
dian. The writers experience with him in his uncivilized state 
is that he is a very uncertain, careless, indolent and untrustwor- 
thy individual, while it' brought within the pale of civilization he 
readily develops habits and traits worthy of Ins white brother. 
The law of development in mind is slow, and a course of training 
extending hundreds of years back into the misty past cannot be. 
overcome in a short time. For this reason the spasmodic re- 
former soon gives up the task of making anything out of the In- 
dian and abandons the undertaking in disgust. 

Before the beginning of the eighteenth century the struggle 
between the great rival powers of Europe began for the posses- 
sion of the American continent, and a few years later the struggle 
was confined almost exclusively to the Mississippi Valley, the 
other points in dispute having been previously settled by the ar- 
bitrament of the sword, or by treaty. The two great rival powers 
for this territory were the French and English. The English 
based their claims to the valley on charters granted by their 
king. These charters almost invariably extended from the At- 
lantic to the Pacific, while the French, with the better right 
based their claims on the discoveries and explorations of the 
Jesuit missionaries, Father Marquette, the bold adventurous La 
Salle and others, together with the French traders. The British 
relied on their superior prowess and tactics, and the French on their 
earlier possession and friendship with the Indians. Many of the 
French went among the Indians, not for trade or barter, but 
burning with a zeal to convert them to the Roman Catholic faith, 
and to make them obedient subjects to the French king. To do 
this they went among them, and dwelt there as brothers, sharing 
their hardships, eating from the same dish, sleeping in the same 
wigwam, and fighting with them in their battles. On the other 
hand the English usually treated the Indian as a savage, and as 
a consequence they had frequent and bloody wars with the In- 
dians, while the French and Indian lived at peace as brothers. 
The result of the French policy toward the Indians, and by forti- 
fying at the mouth of all the larger rivers and their tributaries, 
gave the French possession of nearly all the Mississippi Vi 'ley 
up to the middle of the seventeenth century. Then began the 


struggle for supremacy between the French and English. Yin- 
cennes was an important trading post for many years. This was 
founded the year of Washington's birth, 1732. At this place, 
on the 18th day of October, 1775, a company of speculators 
bought of the Piankeshaw Indians a tract of land embracing many 
million acres lying on both sides of the Wabash River. This land 
was bought for a small sum of money and a great many trinkets. 
Although duly signed by eleven chiefs of the tribe, it was never 
recognized by Congress. The first treaty with the Indians affect- 
ing this territory was at Vincennes, September 17, 1802, between 
the Miami chief. Little Turtle, and Richardville and agents for the 
Piankeshaw, Wea, Kaskaskia. Kickapoo and Eel River tribes, and 
Winamac and Tofinefic for the Pottawattomies ; a second treaty, 
August 18, 1804, with the Delawares embraces all the south of the 
Indian trace through this county between the Wabash and Ohio 
Rivers. August 27, 1804, the Piankeshaws gave up their claims 
to the same lands. August- 21, 1805, at Groveland, near Vin- 
cennes, the Pottawattomie, Miami, Eel River, Wea and Delaware 
tribes gave up all claim to southeast Indiana. Doubtless the great 
Shawnee warrior, Tecumseh, and his brother. Le-la-was-i-kaw, or, 
as he afterward was called, Penns-quat-a-wah trod the "trace" 
near Petersburg in their efforts to unite all southern tribes in the 
great Miami confederacy of 1810-11, from Florida to the lakes. 

The local tribes in this county were the Wyandots, mainly to 
the east, and the Pottawattomies, who were the last to leave ; scat- 
tering and roving bands occasionally passing down White Rjver 
many years after the power of the great confederacy was broken. 
They seemed loth to leave their old hunting grounds. West and 
down the river were the Kickapoos. Nothing definite is known 
as to the local history of these tribes, other than that they fre- 
quently camped near some of the various springs of the county, 
and the bones of many of their dead have been found since their 

Mound*. — These monuments of a peculiarly remarkable peo- 
ple are very numerous in the county, extending as they do from 
the east to the western part of the county. They extend from 
Jefferson along the river through Washington, Madison, Clay 
and Logan Townships. They are always found either in the 
river bottom or along the edge of hills that skirt the bottom. 

lilShiin DF PIKE CUL'NTY 271 

I'lipv range in lieiglit from a few feel to seemingly thirty or forty 
feet, yet the exact lieiglit of the very high ones would be very dif- 
ficult to tell without extensive research, as will be explained 
further on. The object of the mounds, as well as the peculiar- 
ities and aims of their builders, will doubtless ever remain 
enshrouded in mystery. Whether this prehistoric people belonged 
to the Asiatics, the Egyptians, or were a part of the " lost tribes," 
or were distinct from any other, and were a preadamic race 
ethnology nor any other science gives little light; darkness 
and obscurity seems to encompass and enshroud them. The 
archaeologist is often enabled to reveal many of the minute 
peculiarities of this people, and afterward have his knowledge 
verified by further discoveries. One thing is certain. The habits 
of the Mound Builders differ greatly from any characteristics of 
the North American Indian. They seem to have been more 
peaceful than warlike. It has been argued that the Mound Build- 
ers were a peaceful people living by agricultural pursuits or by 
fishing, and that they made war only for defense rather than as 
aggressors, and that their works, which were of a warlike charac- 
ter, were intended as places of retreat. Of the various kinds of 
work left by that peculiar people called Mound Builders, some 
seemed to be for watch towers or places of observation, doubtless 
as a warning against the approach of aggressive neighbors, some 
as places of sacrifices, and it is worthy of remark that they were 
doubtless sun worshipers or some rude form of nature, but not 
a gross or sensual character, some as burying grounds, as is 
shown by the numerous human remains, and other sepulchral 
evidences that abound in many mounds, some as fortifications as U 
the case of the one at Fort Ancient in Ohio, which bears evident 
of nice mathematical calculation, the white structure being a 
huge fort having a stone basement, a huge wall of earth on top: 
another frequently seen bythe writer lie just across the Wabash 
River, about three mile below Gigville, 111. This i^ a rectangu- 
lar earth-work enclosing about six acn la ; all bearing 
evidence of intelligent design. The mounds of this count) 
belong to the same class as those extending from Pittsburgh. 
I'enn., to the plateau of the Rocky Mountains. The size of some 
of the mounds and their aumber in this county indicate an exten 
sive population, when we consider the means these primitive peo- 


nle had of transporting earth and the vast size of the mounds. 

The largest and most clearly marked of these mounds lies on the. 

farm of George H. Siple, about two miles west of Petersburg. 

This mound has been built out from the higher grounds, and 

i huge causeway or mole, where it c ma >pts the mound 

i with the high lands behind it. and t 'rmiuates so abruptly 

as to be inaccessible except to footmen, on all sides except the 

one joining the mound to the high ground behind it. Being 

joined as it is to the high lands back of it renders the matter 

difficult to tell how much of it is of artificial formation. On 

sides of the mound at least, it is rounded and about as 

steep as loose earth could be made to stand and has been clothed 

in huge forest trees. 

The mound in Clay Townshipof large size is of similar struct- 
ure and appearance to the one above described. The majority, 
however, are only from three to six feet high, and all the small 
ones of similar structure. These mounds seem to have been for 
burial or sacrificial purposes, yet the one above described, having 
the mole extending back to alarge spring, might indicate a camp 
of defense. The relics that have been found in these consist of 
stone hatchets, arrow heads, both very numerous, occasionally 
copper beads and other works, pipes, and numerous human re- 
mains. Mr. Mount once found near the river bank a human skull 
washed from one of these mounds by the river encroaching upon 
it. John Stuckey, Mr. Oborn and a few others, whose names are 
forgotten, were digging a grave on top of a mound near Siple"s, 
and reaching the depth of about three feet came upon the re- 
mains of three persons. The first was a huge being, the lower 
maxillary being large enough to pass over that of a living per- 
son, flesh and all. Mr. Stuckey further says that the femur bone 
was several inches longer than that of an ordinary man. Unfor- 
tunately these remains have been neglected and lost. Of the re- 
mains of the other two, one seemed to have been a woman, the 
other a child. The skeleton of the woman was reclining between 
the legs of the huge man, and the child between those of the 
woman. Other skeletons have been found usually with a stone 
resting under the head and one on the heart. Unfortunately no 
extensive, scientific examination has ever been made into these 
mounds. Doubtless they would richly repay the archaeologist for 
his pains. 



by w. s. wheatlev. 

Organization of the County— Important Proceedings of the Com- 
missioners— New Townships— Public Buildings -County Offi- 
cers— Finances— Population— The Paupers— Agricultural So- 
cieties—Elections—General Matters of Interest. 

AFTEK the organization of Indiana as a State in 1816, the 
rapid increase in population made necessary the formation 
of new counties. Previous to lslT the territory now comprising 
the county of Pike was included in Gibson County, but by the act 
for its formation, approved December 21, 1816, Pike County was 
made to include a much larger area than it now does. The fol- 
lowing is the act as far as it relates to the organization of the 

An act for the formation of a new < oust? hut of the counties of Knox, 

Perry and Gibson. 

Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the Stale of Indiana, That from 
and after the 1st day of February next all that part of the counties of Knox, 
Perry and Gibson included in the following boundaries, shall form and consti- 
tute a new county: that is to say, beginning at a point on White River where 
the line dividing Sections 9 and 10 in Range 9, Township 1 north of Bucking- 
ham's base line strikes the same: thence south with said line to the township 
line dividing Townships 3 and 1 south, th( ace east with said township line until 
it strikes the range line dividing Ranges 2 and-'! west; thence north with said 
range line until it strikes the line dividing the counties of Orange and Gibson; 
thence with said line until it strikes Lick Creek; thence down said creek to 
White River; thence down said river with the meanderings thereof, to the place 
oi beginning. 

Sec 2 /•'- it ' That the said county shall, from and after 

the 1st day of February msi. be known and designated by the name of the 
county of Pike, and it shall enjoy all the rights, privileges and jurisdictions 
which, to a -i parate county, do, or may properly appertain or belong 

Provided a u ays, That all suits, pleas, plains, actions and proceedings which 
may before thesaid 1st day of March m set 

pending within thi Knox, Perry and Gibson, shall be prosecu 

final judgment and effect in the same manner as if this act had not p 

territorial at)' i which are now due 

within the boun I d and paid in the -aim 

ind as they would have been if the erection of said 

new county had ni 


Sec. 3. Be . it further enacted, That G. R. C. Sullivan, Benjamin V. 
Beckes and Ephraim Jordan, of Knox County, William Hargrove, of Gibson 
County, and George Boone, of Harrison County, be, and they are hereby 
appointed commissioners to designate the place for the seat of justice of Pike 
County, agreeably to an act for fixing the seats of justice in all new counties 
hereafter to be laid off. The commissioners above named or others appointed 
by proper authority, shall convene at the house of Hosea Smith, in the town of 
Alexandria, on the 2d day of February next, and then and there proceed to 
discharge the duties assigned them by law. 

Sec. 4. Be it further enacted. That the board of commissioners of said 
new county, shall, within twelve months aft-r the permanent seat of justic- 
shall be established, proceed to erect the necessa :y public buildings thereon. 

Sec. 5. Be it further enacted, That until suitable accommodations can be 
had in the opinion of the Circuit Court at the seat of justice of said new county, 
all the courts of justice of the same shall be held at the house of said Hosea 
Smith, in the town of Alexandria. And as soon as the court shall be informed 
that the public buildings are in such a state of forward' - ss as to accommodate 
the couit, the said court shall adjourn to the county seat, and after that time 
the Circuit Court, and all other courts necessary to be held at the county seat 
of the county aforesaid, shall be held at the county seat established for said 

Sec. 6 relates to a county library; Section 7, to senators and 
representatives ; Section 8, to the attachment of a part of Gibson 
County to Warwick County. 

By examination of a map, it will be seen that Pike County at 
that time included all of its present territory except a part of Clay 
Township, and in addition took in all of what is now Columbia 
Township and a large part of Barton Township, Gibson County, 
a small part of Warrick and Perry Counties, all of Dubois County 
and that part of Martin County south of Lick Creek. By acts of 
the legislature in regard to the formation of Dubois County 
passed during the session of 1817-18,the present eastern boundary 
of Pike County was established, and the General Assembly o'f 
1823-24 fixed the present limits on the west. 

Ads of the County Board, — At an election held in February, 
1817, Paul Tislow, James Campbell and Harrison Blackgrove were 
elected county commissioners and on the following Monday they 
met at the house of Hosea Smith. Their first work was to divide 
the county into townships, which was done as follows: All 
of the county west of the second section line east of the line 
dividing Ranges 8 and 9 constituted Madison Township; Wash- 
ington Township included all of the territory between the east 
line of Madison and the second section line east of the lino dividing 
Ranges 7 and 8 ; Jefferson Township embraced all the remainder 


of what is now Pike County, with two additional row- of sections 
of the south, and Harbison Township included all of what is now 
Dubois County, and a small additional area now belonging 
to the counties of Perry and Martin. Officers were ap- 
pionted for each of the townships, and an election of jus- 
tices was ordered to take place February 25. Washington was 
allowed two. Madison two, Jefferson one, and Harbison three. 
At the next meeting of the board, which was held in March, John 
Johnson was appointed agent of the county. He gave bond in 
the sum of $5,000 with Thomas J. Withers as surety. In May. 
David Kinman, William Crayton and Robert Brenton were ap- 
pointed to view a road from Petersburg to Phillip's Mill, and 
from this time forth roads were speedily laid out in all parts of 
the county. 

At the same meeting William Wright, Campbell and Loan, 
John Butler, Benjamin Rice and Thomas Case were licensed to 
keep taverns. A pound fifty feet square was ordered to be erect- 
ed on the public square and Thomas Case was appointed keeper. 
In August the first levy of taxes was made. The rates were for 
first-rate land 50 cents per 100 acres; for second-rate land 43£ 
cents per 100 acres, and for third-rate land 25 cents per 100 
acres. Hosea Smith was allowed $16 for the use of his house 
as a court house. G. R. C. Sullivan received $100 for his serv- 
ices as prosecuting attorney for the year. This gentleman seems 
to have been an adept at securing full pay for his services. He 
was allowed more than all the other officers of the county com- 
bined for the first two or three years, and even then managed in 
some way to overdraw his salary. In May, 1819, contractors 
were appointed for building bridges over Pride's, Congress and 
Muddy Creeks. The law of 1824 transferred the transaction of 
public business to a board composed of all the justices in the 
county. Thomas Mead was president of the first board. In 
September, 1827, it was decided to offer a premium for wolf 
scalps. Fifty cents were paid for the scalps of wolves under six 
months old and $1 for those above that age. During the next 
four or five years over $50 was paid out for this purpose. The 
rates of taxation for 1830 were fixed as follows: Each horse 374 
cents; work oxen, 18§ cents; carriages, $1.50; brass clocks. $1; 
gold watches, $1; pinchbeck and silver watches, 50 cents: first. 


second and third-rate lands, $1, 80 cents and 60 cents, respective- 
ly, for each 100 acres. Each town lot 75 cents on the $100 val- 
uation. License to retail liquor $10; license to vend merchan- 
dise, $15. From the above it is seen that a brass clock was a some- 
what expensive luxury, and it cost more to sell merchandise than 
whisky. In 1831 Elijah Hammond was appointed commissioner 
of the three per cent fund, and continued to hold the office as 
it existed. This fund was used in building bridges and the im- 
provement of roads. At the September term of the county board 
in 1832, $213 was appropriated toward building a bridge across 
the Patoka. provided that enough could be raised by subscription 
to complete it. No evidence is obtained that any subscriptions 
were made and the bridge was not built. 

New Tovmships. — In February, 1820, all of that part of the 
county south of a line running due east and west across the coun- 
ty, three miles south of the base line, was cut off and called 
Monroe Township. Previous to this Harbison Township hail 
been taken off to form Dubois County. In November of the 
same year a new township called Adams was formed to include 
all of Monroe south of the Patoka and west of the South Fork of 
Patoka. The greater part of this territory was soon after an- 
nexed to Gibson County. Previous to 1824, the territory now 
included in Clay Township except the eastern row of sections 
which were added in 1825, belonged to Gibson County. In that 
year it was annexed to Pike County and organized as a separate 
township. In September, 1838, Patoka Township, comprising 
its present area and what was afterward formed into Marion 
Township was organized. The others organized were Logan in 
1846, Lockhart in 1852, and Marion in 1857. 

Collectors and Commissioners. — May, 1840, Meredith Howard 
was appointed collector for the county. Those who had preceded 
him in that office were Elias Osboi ne, 1832; George Chambers, 
1833, and Charles Alexander, 1839. The commissioners of sur- 
plus revenue appointed were Thomas C. Stewart, 1*37; (Jeorge 
Chambers, 1840, and James Hillman, 1841. The trustees of 
county seminaries were Z. F. Selby, 1834; Charles Alexander, 
1835; James R. Withers, 1*37; Malachi Merrick, 1838; Samuel 
Stucky, 1841, and John S. Stucky, 1*43. School commissioners. 
James Brenton, Peter- Brenton. L836; Hiram W. Kinman, 1837; 


E. B. Boon, 1843; George H. Proffit, 1846; Alexander Leslie, 
1848. Boon resigned in 1845, and a committee was appointed to 
examine h/s accounts They reported a defalcation to the amount 
of $352.(58, and the county board ordered suit to be begun on his 

Court Hotises and Jails. — One of the first acts of the county 
commissioners was to order the letting of a contract for building 
a court house. The contract was obtained by Thomas C. Stewart, 
who agreed to have the work completed by November, 1817. 
The building, however, was not received by the county board until 
the following February. It was erected on Lot 107, on the east 
side of the public square. It was built of hewed logs, and was 
32x24 feet, two stories high. The cost was $599.75. At about 
the same time a contract for building a log jail was awarded to 
Peter Brenton, who received $1,340. The building was twenty 
feet square, two stories high, with double walls, one foot apart, 
the space between being filled with upright timbers. The cells 
were in the lower part, and the only entrance to them was a trap 
door in the floor of the upper story. In May, 1819, the county 
board authorized James Campbell, Henry Brenton, St., and John 
Johnson, to contract for the building of a brick court house as 
soon as $500 was subscribed for that purpose by the citizens of 
the county. The amount was not subscribed. By 1830 the old 
building had become unfit for use, and court was held at the 
house of Mrs. Elizabeth Finn. In September of that year Matthew 
Foster, Peter Brenton and Samuel Stocky were appointed to draft 
a plan and let the contract for building a court house. The con- 
tract for the masonry was given to George H. Proffit and Charles 

F. White. John Butler and Henry B. Merrick were appointed a 
committee to oversee the construction. The building was to be 
thirty-six feet square, built of brick with stone foundation. Prof- 
fit had his contract completed by 1835, but Butler, who received 
the contract for the remainder of the work, did not have it finished in 
May, 1836, and the county board was compelled to purchase mate- 
rial, and hire workmen to complete it. This building was erected 
on the public square, and the old lot was sold. In March, 1837, 
Elias Osborne received the contract for rebuilding the jail. The 
plan was about the same as before, and all the sound logs of the 
old building were used. 



In 1838 a one-storied brick clerk's office, 36x18 feet, was built 
on the public square at a cost of $724, and in 1852 a similar 
building was erected for the accommodation of the auditor and 

In March, 1864, "William H. De Wolf was appointed to confer 
with a competent architect in regard to plans for a new court 
house. Nothing more was done until June, 1865, when it 
was decided by the county board to build a brick court house, 
large enough to contain all county offices, and accommodate courts 
and juries. It was not, however, until August of the next year 
that the contract was let. William and E. P. Hawthorn agreed 
to erect the building, according to the plans and specifications, 
for $23,280. In July, 1866, a tax of 10 cents on the $100 was 
levied to constitute a fund for the payment of county bonds, which 
up to 1870 had been issued to the amount of $26,214. The court 
house was completed in October, 1868, and was received by the 
county board. Many changes had been made in the original plans, 
which had increased the cost. The contractors received $8,521.62 
for extras, making the entire amount expended, including archi- 
tects' and superintendents' fees, $33,264.89. 

In 1853 Albert Smith and Goodlet Morgan took the contract 
for the erection of a jail to be 40x20 feet, built of brick on a stone 
foundation. The price agreed upon was $2,347.25. In 1885 this 
building was repaired at considerable cost, and an addition 24x21 
feet added. 

Later Acts of the County Board. — In December, 1863, a 
somewhat remarkable order was issued to the county auditor, 
J. P. Glezen. It authorized him to procure fixtures for the 
windows and a lock for the door of the court house for the pur- 
pose of keeping the gamblers out. It further stated that should 
they take possession of the building, he was entrusted with the 
power as agent of the board to disposses them. We leave our 
readers to draw their own inferences. 

July 10, 1855, after the passage of the prohibitory liquor law, 
the auditor called a special meeting of the board to appoint an 
agent to sell liquors, as was required by that law. They met, but 
refused to appoint on the ground that the auditor had no right to 
convene them. He thought otherwise, and sent the sheriff to 
summons them to meet on July 21, which they accordingly did, 
but again refused to appoint. 


Iii March. L846, a resolution was adopted to appropriate a 
sum not to exceed $250 to build a bridge across the Patoka on 
the Evansville road, provided the commissioners of Gibson County 
would pay one-half. This proposition was accepted by that board 
in 1848 and the bridge was built. In 1831 the bridge was found 
to be too low, and it was raised to permit flat-boats to pass under. 
In 18G0, $530.95 was paid as Pike County's share of the expense 
in building a bridge across the Patoka at Dongola. In Decem- 
ber, 1864, George W. Massey was allowed $495 toward building 
a bridge across the same stream near his residence. $500 reward 
was offered in December, 1863, for the arrest of the parties who 
broke into the county safe. In June, 1870, George W. Massey 
was authorized to employ one or more competent persons to in- 
vestigate the books of the treasurer and auditor for the fiscal 
years 1865-70 inclusive. He employed W. T. Stillwell and 
Charles H. De Bruler, who after a careful examination reported 
that McC. Gray, treasurer, appointed in 1860, was indebted to 
the county $946,77, and that the accounts of his successor, R. M. 
Case, showed a defalcation of $4,280.56. They also stated that 
in neither case was there evidence of intentional fraud, but the 
defalcations were simply the result of negligence and incompe- 
tency. Both Gray and Case made good their defalcations. 

July 12, 1877, George Whitman, treasurer of the county, was 
removed from office, and Jefferson W. Richardson was appointed 
to fill the vacancy. Investigation of Whitman's accounts showed 
him a defaulter to the amount of $27,435.30. He absconded, and 
his property was turned over to his bondsmen. After it had all 
been disposed of the latter had a large deficit to make good. 

In June, 1883, another investigation of the treasurer's books 
was ordered. Frederick W. Bennett, of Evansville, and A. J. 
Montgomery, of Princeton, Ind., were employed as experts to 
examine the accounts from August, 1877, to November, 1880. 
They reported that the duties of the office had been very care- 
lessly performed, and that the books were in bad condition. At 
the December settlement, in 1877, there was an error of $962.89 
against Richardson, and the next year a similar error of $659.84, 
but that from the June settlement of 1878 there was a balance of 
$2,989.70 still due the county, and from the next year an addi- 
tional amount of $7,253.35. Other errors were found in the ao- 


count of 1880, and the total defalcation was found to be $9,725.23. 
After considerable litigation a compromise was made, by which 
Richardson turned over to the county, real estate and notes to the 
value of $5,002.80, and the suits against him were withdrawn. 
In 1877 a new iron bridge was built across the Patoka, at Don- 
gola, the cost of which to this county was $1,423.42. At a joint 
meeting of the commissioners of Gibson and Pike Counties, Sep- 
tember 20, 1881, $7,000 was appropriated to build a bridge over 
the stream at the county bine. Of that sum Pike County was to 
pay one-fourth. The bridge was completed in 1884. 

The County Finances. — The most prolific source of revenue 
to the county for the first three or four years was the sale of town 
lots. This was a valuable assistance. Public buildings had to 
be erected, and the other means of raising revenue were very 
limited. The following is a statement of the receipts and ex- 
penditures for 1817: 


Tavern license $ 38 00 

Ferry license 6 00 

Store license 22 25 

Fines assessed by the circuit court 12 00 

Fines assessed by justices 30 50 

County revenue 161 48 

Sale of lots in Petersburg 982 62 

Total $1,252 85 


Treasurer's percentage $ 62 00 

Sheriffs percentage 9 69 

County library 98 26 

County commissioners : 74 00 

Associate judges 20 00 

Orders redeemed 648 56 

Total $912 51 

The next year Willis C. Osborne refused to make a report, 
and an investigation of his accounts showed him indebted to the 
county to the amount of $13. During the year, $2,095.25 was 
received from the sale of town lots, and $292.98 from the county 
revenue. The expenditures amounted to $1,150.40. At the end 
of the year 1819, the county was in debt $90.75. The county 
revenue for that year amounted to $234.07, store license, $22.50, 
tavern license $30. For 1821 the expenditures were $335.50 and 
the receipts $495.39. In 1830 the receipts were merchant's license 


$62.50, grocer's license $27.50, show license $14.50, county rev- 
enue $574.75; the expenditures amounted to $471.60; the indebt- 
edness of the county, January 1, 1831, was estimated by the 
treasurer to be $760.75. For the fiscal year ending May 31, 1850, 
the receipts were $3,560.84 and the expenditures $2,913.46. The 
county revenue amounted to $1, 379. 76, and county officers cost $56L- 
62. At the beginning of the fiscal year ending May 31,1860, there 
was a balance in the treasury of $3,757.02. There was received 
during the year for lands redeemed $6445. ferry license $5, circus 
and show license $45, merchant's license $5, county revenue 
$5,881.79. Total receipts $9,758.26. The total disbursements 
amounted to $6,527.15 of which $1,033.04 was for county officers, 
$566.27 on acount of the poor, and $2,239.86 for roads and high- 

The receipts for the year 1869-70 including the amount on 
hand at the beginning of the year, were $41,940.65, of this sum 
the county revenue was $26,16441, and bonds sold $8,800. The 
disbursements for the year amounted to $28,532.55. The total 
indebtedness of the county, June 1, 1870, was $32,096.59. The 
county revenue for 1879-80 amounted to $26,669.72; bonds to the 
amount of $10,000, were sold, and the total receipts were $40,- 
139.53. The expenditures including $8,931.54 overpaid by the 
treasurer the previous year, were $36,976.33, bonds to the amount 
of $2,000, were redeemed and county officers cost $4,887.40. The 
following is a statement of the receipts and expenditures for the 
fiscal year 1885. 


Amount in the treasury June 1, 1884 $ 5.998 07 

Ferry license 2 50 

Road damages 35 00 

Sale of school land 4 69 

County bonds 36,000 00 

Show licenses 10 00 

Bailiff and juror's fees 11 30 

Bridge expense 80 

School fund interest 169 30 

Appropriation for Louisville Exposition, balance 

unused 73 35 

County asylum 75 30 

Bondtax 1,915 33 

Special judge 30 0» 

Change of venue 229 00 

County revenue 21,788 10 

Total receipts 66,342 74 



Scalps $ 456 50 

County asylum 3,214 64 

Insane 1,668 33 

Roads 573 30 

Bridges 5,907 32 

Jurors 1,360 92 

Poor 3,286 18 

Assessing revenue 1,603 20 

Prisoners 1,24100 

Inquests 181 15 

Special allowances 541 30 

Printing and stationary 2,364 66 

Bailiffs 717 79 

County officers 6,196 14 

Public buildings 526 35 

County superintendent 2,411 91 

Equalization 53 80 

Justices of the peace 33 65 

Change of venue 134 25 

Board of health 77 85 

Investigation 659 00 

Courts 108 45 

County attorney 200 10 

County institute 50 00 

Fuel 141 00 

House of refuge and blind 123 25 

Appropriation to Louisville Exposition 100 00 

County bonds returned to the auditor 19,500 00 

Total $53,442.04 

Balance in the Treasury June 1, 1885 $12,900.70 

The indebtedness of the county at the present time may be 
stated in round numbers at $50,000. The greater part of this 
is in bonds drawing 5 and 6 per cent interest. 


1840 ' 4.769 

1850 7,720 

1860 10,064 

1870 13,779 

1880 16,384 

1885 (estimated) 17,500 

The County Paupers. — Pike county from its organization has 
cared well for its poor. Among the first township officers 
appointed were overseers of the poor, whose duty it was to look 
after those persons incapable of supporting themselves. They 
reported the expenses to the county commissioners, who issued 


orders on the county treasurer for the amount. The permanent 
paupers were farmed out to the lowest responsible bidders. 
The first incident or this kind was the farming of Greenbury 
Bird to Hugh Shaw for one year at $29, in 1827. Bird continued 
to be cared for by the county for many years. This system was 
continued until 1850, when the county board purchased eighty 
acres of land of -lames Mount for SHOD. This was fitted up for 
a poor farm, and Andrew J. Barker was appointed to superintend 
it. He paid the county $20 as rent for the farm, and received 
SI. 7 5 per week each for keeping the paupers, This method of 
keeping poor was found more expensive than the old one, and the 
farm was sold in 1854 to Hezekiah Cox for $800. The paupers 
were again tanned nut until lsi'>li, when the present poor farm was 
purchased from E. W. Gray for $4,698.59. Soon after an 
asylum. 60x38 feet, two stories high, was built, and William M. 
Anderson appointed superintendent for two years from March, 
1867. Dr. J. K. Adams was appointed physician in 1868. The 
number of inmates was then eight. The next year E. W. Gray 
was appointed superintendent. He received 81.45 per week for 
each pauper, and had the use of the farm. John Fettinger was 
appointed superintendent in 1872. He was succeeded the next 
yen- by Charles S. Fettinger. He paid rent for the land, and 
re ;eived $3 per week for each pauper. He was followed by Will- 
iam ('. Richardson in 1^74. In 1882 it was decided to pay the 
superintendent a salary, the county bearing all the expenses, and 
receiving all the proceeds of the farm. John J. Fleener was 
appointed at a salary of $600. The next year Isaac L. Fordyce 
succeeded him at a salary of $290. March 21, lSSo, the asylum 
was entirely destroyed by fire. Two frame buildings. 82x3(5 feet, 
each containing five rooms, have since been erected. 

Agricultural Societies. — The first attempt to organize an agri- 
cultural society in Pike County was in ls:$r>, when a meeting 
was held for that purpose at the court house. Nothing was 
accomplished in that direction, and no further efforts were made 
until 1857, when a temporary organization was effected. A fair 
was held near what was known as Stuckey's Pond, October 23 
of that year. It was a very primitive affair. A space of about 
one fourth of an acre w. s enclosed with a rope, and the articles 
exhibited were placed upon rude stands, or hung upon ropes 

ep1 111 

U'SOS Ul'lV lljlllll 

.■ ilH-li 

•sure. The fail 

on jirii 

?c was HI cents. 

X.i other Fnir 

i-ii-ty v 

mi article imb- 


[n the winter 

ti.-iil tu 

ml society was 


A number of 


■ in-. ■tn, -s. the 

Pike I 

'nuiih Agrieul- 

livers 1 

ii the entei | 


k McXabb, W. 


stretched from tree to tree. X.i stuck ex. 
exhibition, ami those were tie.] imtsiileof tl 

was continued but oue«lay. ami tin- n.hniss 

All address was .l.-li vered l»y Joseph P. (! 

was lulil until the present agricultural s. 

following histon (if which is taken imiinl; 

lished in the Ihulg Prnss of September 10 

of ln7<l the question of organizing an a» 

agitated anil meetings were liel.l for the p 

[ironiinent citizens took an active interest 

result of which was the organization of the 
tural Society in 1 V 7L Among the prime in 

were Lemuel Hargrave, Aaron H. George. 

L. Merrick. \V. H. Kelso. Isaac R. Lett. Matthew McMurray, H. 

C. Brenton, Con ami Hiram Adams. Orlando Siple, and many 
others. A meeting was held at Alford to select a place to hold 
tin- fairs, and to elect the proper officers. Alford, Petersburg, and 
near the farm of John O. M. Selby were mentioned as suitable 
places to hold the fairs, hut Petersburg was finally selected as 
the place, and fifteen acres of hind (the present location) were 
leased by Groodlet Morgan for ten years at .Slot) per year. The 
society was organized with a capital stock of §3,000 and the 
following officers and directors were elected: President, Patrick 
McNabb; vice-president, Ashael Whitman; secretary. Aaron H. 

'ieoige; treasurer, Matthew McMurray; superintendent, \V. L. 
Merrick; directors-, Orland Siple, H. C. Brenton, A. J. Patter- 
son, John J. Fleener, Joshua Wilson, Isaac ft. Latt Washington, 
Temple Woolsey, W. H. Kelso, W. H. Gladish, John Le Masters 
and 15. W. Anderson. The first fair was held September 12, 13, 
14 and 15, lsTl. The receipts for tickets, entry fees, etc., were 
$l,32i).75. The next year the receipts from the same source were 
§2,152.50, and the amount paid for premiums §1,142.50. In 

1ST:! the receipts were $1,931.43. The grounds, twenty-eight 
and one-half acres were purchased December 11, 1875 for $100 
per acre and an assessment of thirty per cent levied on the stock 
to make the first payment. The track was originally only one- 
third of a mile but in lsTti was enlarged to half a mile. The 
grounds are beautifully located, and are kept in excellent condi- 
tion. The society has never failed to pay all premiums, and 



other expenses in full. In 1884 a dividend of fifteen per cent was 
paid on the stock and the society is free from debt except $1,200 
which was spent in building an amphitheater during the present 
year. The cipital stock at present is $3,887.50 and is divided 
among about one hundred stockholders. The following is a list 
of the receipts, disbursements and premiums paid since 1873. 
1874. 1880. 


Disbursements . 
Premiums paid. 

$2,443 45 
2,153 03 

978 00 


Disbursements . 


Receipts 2,912 82 

Disbursements 2,052 82 

Premiums paid 1,160 60 


Receipts 4,376 55 

Disbursements 4,184 38 

Premiums 1,450 60 


Receipts 3,236 57 

Disbursements 3,224 85 

Premiums 1,466 75 






3,110 65 
3,131 65 
1,878 05 

2.800 07 
1,733 50 

4,785 13 
3.767 70 
1,453 55 

Receipts 4,348 73 

Disbursements 4.196 70 

Premiums 1,765 50 


Disbursements . 

3,340 75 


Premiums. . . 

3,819 27 
1,903 60 


Disbursements . 

Receipts, including borrowed 

2,710 70 money 5,068 04 

2,659 50 Disbursements 4,399 65 

1,448 90 Premiums 1,775 00 

Present Officers — President, Samuel Hargrove; vice-presi- 
dent, William A. Oliphant; secretary, Goodlet Morgan ; treasurer, 
E. P. Richardson; superintendent. Samuel H. Stuckey. 

Directors — Patrick McNabb, A. G. Billmeyer, Willard Mor- 
rison. Isaac B. Lett, K. Harrell. Sr., J. W. Wilson, Henry C. 

The County TAbrary. — It was provided by legislative enact- 
ment that ten per centum of the proceeds of the sale of town lots 
should he used for the purchase and maintenance of a county 
lituary. This sum amounted to K'.is. •_!»'> the first year; and in 
November, L822, the county treasurer was ordered to turn oVer 
the fund, amounting at that time to S:»:? 1 ..">(>. to the treasurer of 
the county library. With this fund was purchased a compara- 


lively large library. Trustees, a treasurer, and librarian, were 
the officers. The trustees iu 1827, were Elijah Hammond, Archi- 
bald Campbell, John Johnson, James Lownsdale, Robert Crow. 
Griffith Evans and James Kinman. At that time the library was 
of great value to the people of the county. 

Another system for the diffusion of general information was 
that of the township libraries furnished by the State early in the 
fifties. Each library comprised about 300 volumes of the best 
works in all departments of literature, and were distributed to the 
counties according to population. The number allotted to Pike 
County was eight, distributed by the county board as follows: 
one each to Washington, Jefferson, Patoka and Logan Townships ; 
one to Madison and Clay; and one to Monroe and Lockhart. The 
books were widely read, and were a valuable source of education 
for many years. 

Quite early in the fifties, a benevolent gentleman of southern 
Indiana, named William McClure, dying, bequeathed a large for- 
tune to the founding of "Workingmen's Institutes," in sums of 
$500 each, to be expended in books for the use only of "men who 
earned their bread by the sweat of their brows." Institutes were 
formed at Petersburg and in Clay Township. Many books, all 
of the best character, were bought, and a vast amount of good 
was the result. The library at Union, in Clay Township, has 
been preserved, and new books added from time to time by pri- 
vate subscriptions, an addition of $100 worth being under con- 
templation at the present time. 

Sheriffs. — Adam Hope, February, 1817 ; John Johnson, August, 
1817; Thomas C. Stewart, 1820; James Kinman, 1822; Joseph 
C, Morgan, 1826; David Miley, 1830; Fielding Johnson, 1833; 
Charles Alexander, 1836; Meredith Howard, 1840; M. L. Withers 
and James C. Graham received the same number of votes each in 
18-14. The latter became sheriff. David Miley, 1848; Marquis 
L. Withers, 1850; F. M. Whight, 1854; H. Gladish, 1858; Jon- 
athan Wilson, 1861; H. Gladish, 1863; John Crow, 1865; J. W. 
Humphrey, 1870; John Crow, 1872; William C. Miller, 1874; 
Byron Brenton, 1876 ; Thomas J. Scales, 1878 ; John Crow. 1882, 
ancl W. J. Shrode, 1884. 

Coroners.— Archibald Campbell, 1817; Peter Tislow, 1819; 
Robert Brenton, 1821; Daniel Coonrod, 1823; Isaac Knight, 


1- ' Daniel loowod, 1828 ; Jeremiah Woolfen, 1833; Meredith 
Ho\\:ird li>3S; Thomas Martin. 1840; Jeremiah Woolfen, btl: 
Ne! i n ili Ogden, LS45; Jeremiah Woolfen, 1847; John G. Sny- 
der. !•-"._•: -Joseph Stubblefield, 1854; Robert Edwards, 1856; 
Henn Pope7f857; Samuel Fettinger, 1858; John Tislow, 1861; 
George W. De Tar. 1862; Henry Pope, 1863; T. C. Withers. 
1864; James Hilborn. 1865; Robert M. Stewart, 1867; Louis 
Hisgen, 1868; Joseph Lory, 1873; Mr. Betliell. 1876; Wilson 
Stobaugh, 1878; William H. Thomas. 1880, and Pembroke S. 
Withers. L882. 

Treasurers. — Thomas Case, 1817; Willis C. Osborne, Feb- 
ruary 11, 1818; James Kininan, August, 1818; Thomas J. With- 
ers, L819; John Finn. 1S-J2; David Miley, 1823; Franklin F 
Sawyer 1830; Albert Hammond (vice Sawyer resigned), March. 
1838; John W. Posey, 1842; Alexander Leslie, 1847; Jonathan 
Wilson, 1852; James Crow, 1857; McCrillus Gray, vice Crow 
resigned, June, 1860; Reuben M. Case, 1862; Alexander Leslie. 
1864; George Whitman. L866; McCrillus Gray, 1870; George 
Whitman, 1874; Jefferson W. Richardson, July 12, 1877 ; Perry 
W. Chapped, 1880: Fred H. Portker. 1884. 

Clerks. — John Mclntire, 1817; John B. Hannah, 1855; Al- 
bert H. Logan, 1863; William Barr, appointed vice Logan re- 
signed, June 19, 1865; Joseph P. Glezen, 1865; Jefferson W. 
Richardson, 1871; John Crow, 1874, Daniel C. Ashby, 1878, re- 
elected in 1882. 

Recorders. — John Mclntire, 1817; David Miley, 1851; John 
Mclntire, 1858; Jonathan Wilson, December, 1863; Daniel C. 
Ashby, 1868; Mark Powers. 1876, and Joseph C. Ridge, 1884. 

Auditors. — John Mclntire, 18-11; Clark M. Anthony, June, 
1846; Joseph P. Glezen, 1847; W. H. De Bruler, 1855; David 
H. Miley, 1858; William C. Davenport, 1862; Levi Ferguson, 
1866; Ansel J. Patterson, 1874; Franklin Bilderback, 1878, and 
W. J. Bethell, 1882. 

Surveyors.— Hosea Smith, 1817; William Hawthorn, 1847: 
William C. Davenport, 1852; John H. Boyd, 1858; William 
C. Davenport. 1860; William Hawthorn. 1862; Mark Reed, 1864; 
H. D. Onyett, 1865; D. W. Horton. 1861); William C.Miller. 
1870; John B. Blaize, 1874: Josiah Martin. ls78 ; William C. 
Miller. 1SS2. and F. R. Bilderback, 1884. 

238 msTOKv of pike county. 

County Commissioners. — Paul Tislow, James Campbell, Har- 
rison Blockgrave, February 10, 1817 ; Peter Brenton, vice Camp- 
bell, August 11, 1817; Moses Harrell, vice Blackgrave, 1818; 
Jesse Traylor, vice Tislow, 1819; Jacob Pea, vice Brenton, 1820; 
Peter Brenton, vice Harrell, 1821; Thomas Pride, vice Taylor, 
1822; Kobert Crow, vice Pea, 1823. In 1824 the board of jus- 
tices, consisting of all the justices of the peace in the county, 
took the place of the county commissioners, and continued to do 
thdir business until 1831, when three commissioners were again 
elected. Joseph C. Morgan, Levi Kinman, Henry Coleman, 
1831; Archibald Campbell, vice Coleman, 1832; Conrad Cole- 
man, vice Campbell and Wesley De Bruler, vice Kinman, 1830; 
Charles F. "White, vice Morgan, 1837; James K. Withers, vice 
Coleman, 1838; Thomas Hargrave, vice De Bruler, 1839; Con- 
rad Coleman, vice. Withers, 1841; Thomas Williams, vice White, 
1842; Joseph Chew, vice. Hargrave, 1843; Henry Brenton, vice 
Williams, 1844; Richard Selby, vice Chew, 1845; Alexander 
Barnes, vice Henry Brenton, 1846; Warren Smith, vice Coleman, 
1847; Warner L. Scott, vice Selby, 1848; Henry Brenton, rice 
Alexander Barnes, 1849; Meredith Howard, vice Warner L». 
Scott, 1851; Joseph Manning, vice Smith, 1852; Joseph C. Mor- 
gan, vice Brenton, 1852; Marcellus Chew, vice Howard, 1854; 
Henry Brenton, vice Morgan (resigned), 1854; S. LeMasters, 
vice Manning, 1856; James E. Davidson, vice Brenton, 1859; 
Jonathan J % Bowman, vice Davidson, 1861; James M. Evans, 
vice LeMasters, 1862; Goodlet Morgan, vice. Chew, 1863; 
George W. Massey, vice Evans, 1864; Josiah Chappell, vice 
Morgan, 1866; John Stubblefield, vice Chappell (resigned), 
1867; Leroy Eobinson, vice Stubblefield, 1867; Dale O. Stew- 
art, vice J. Bowman, 1867; Marcellus Chew, vice Robinson, 
1870; J. J. Bowman, vice Stewart, 1870; W. H. De Bruler, vice 
Massey, 1871; Patrick McNabb, vice Chew, 1872; John Thomp- 
son, vice De Bruler, 1873; Herman Henke, vice Thompson, 1874; 
William T. Anderson, vice NcNabb, 1875; John J. Robling, 
vice Bowman, 1876; Joseph Ferguson, vice Henke, 1877; George 
Fettinger, Sr., vice Anderson, 1878; J. J. Bowman, vice Robling, 
1879; Joseph p. Ridge, vice Fettinger (deceased), 1882; Aaron 
H. George, vice Ridge, 1882 ; Albert H. Johnson, vice Bowman, 
1882; Vinson France, vice Ferguson, 1883; William J. Abbott 
vice George, 1884. 


County Agents. — John Johnson, February, 1817 ;' Thomas C. 
Stewart, August, 1817 ; Moses Harrell, 1823 ; John Butler, 
1824; John Finn, 1825; James Brenton, 1829. 

Associate Circuit Judges. — Arthur Harbison, 1817; Henry 
Brenton, 1817 ; Thomas J. Withers, 1818 ; Elijah Hammond, 
1822 ; Henry Hopkins, 1823 ; William Hargrove, 1824 ; James 
Hillman, 1828 ; Charles F. White, 1831 ; George Chambers, 
1835 ; Turner Wyatt, 1836 ; James Hillman, 1838 ; Thomas 
Pride, 1840; Josiah Chappell, 1844; CharleB Alexander, 1848; 
John Almon, 1849 ; James Hillman, 1851 ; H. A. Edwards, 

. Circuit Judges.— William Prince, 1817; David Hart, 1818; 
Eichard Daniel, 1819; J. E. E. Goodlet, 1820; Samuel Hall, 
1832; Elisha Embree, 1836; James Lockhart, 1846; A. P. Hovey, 
1852 ; William E. Niblack, 1854 ; Ballard Smith, 1858 ; M. 
F. Barker, 1859 ; James C. Denny, 1864 ; John Baker, 1865 ; 
James C. Denny, 1866 ; James T. Pierce, 1867 ; O. M. Welborn, 

Probate Judges.— Matthew Foster,1831 ; H. P. DeBruler,1835 ; 
F. F. Sawyer, 1842; Thomas Pride, 1847; Charles Alexander, vice 
Pride (resigned), 1847. 

Justices of the Peace. — James Edmonson, John McManus, 
Samuel Smythe, Benjamin Eice, Joseph W. Loan, Zachariah 
Selby, William Wright, John Case, 1817; Thomas Mead, Levi 
Kinman, John G. Withers, 1818; D. Kinman, 1819; Nicholas 
Naylor, Charles DeBruler, Archibald Campbell, James B. Mc- 
Garrah, W. Doughter, 1820; F. F. Sawyer, Thomas Martin, 
1821; Joseph Hawkins, 1822; Jacob Pea, 1823; William Crow, 
Charles F. White, James Hillman, 1824; Thomas Pride, 1825; 
John Finn, Henry Brenton, John Crow, 1826; John Butler, E. 
H. Maxon, 1827 ; George Wright, Henry Hillman, Thomas Mil- 
ler, David Miley, H. B. Merrick, John B. Dohine, 1828 ; John 
Martin, Thomas Fowler, 1830; J. G. Gray, 1831; John Butler, 
Sebastian Conger, Charles Alexander, Meredith Howard, Henry, 
Hillman, 1832; A. Snyder, 1833; John Colvin, Joseph Arnold, 
Samuel Stucky, 1834; Peter Bobbins, Small Bass, Elias Osborne, 
James Crow, H. I. S. English, Thomas Williams, 1835 ; William 
C. Davenport, Josiah Whitehead, William Branson, Eobert Bren- 
ton, 1836; A. Wiggs, 1838; S. S. P. Dedrick, 1839; Newton 


Brenton, Daniel C. Black, 1*40: Edward W. Fowler, Joseph A. 
Gray, Bichard M. Barrett, 1S44; Samuel Kinman, Jonathan Con- 
ger, Thomas Fowler, William Wright, Jr., Samuel S. Johnson. 
1842; George Wright, Samuel Fettinger, James Clark, Daniel H. 
Roberts, 1844. 

Representatives. — Bichard Daniel and John Johnson (Gib- 
son, Pike, Dubois and a part of Posey Counties). 1818; John 
Johnson (Pike), 1825; same (Pike and Dubois). 1826; James 
Bitchie, same, 1828; Thomas C. Stewart, same, 1829; George H. 
Promt, same, 1832; William M. Wright, same. 1833; Benjamin 
B. Edmundson, 1835: George H. Proffit, 1836; same (Pike). 
1837; same (Pike and Dubois), 1838; Elijah Bell (Pike), 1839; 
Aaron B. McCrillus (Pike and Dubois), 1840; Alvan T. Whight 
(Pike), 1841;*Bobert Logan, same, 1843; Alvan T. Whight. 
same, 1844; Bobert Logan, same, 1845; James C. Graham, same, 
1848; James B. Withers, same, 1849; Perry Brown, same, 1850; 
James C. Graham, same, 1851; John S. Martin, same, 1855; G. 
Massey, same, 1857 ; A. J. Wells, same, 1801 ; W. H. DeBruler. same. 
1863 ; J. W. Bichardson, same, 1865 ; Lewis Wilson, same, 1867 ; 
Bobert Logan, same, 1869; James Barker, same, 1873; James W. 
Arnold, same, 1875; L. W. Stewart, same, 1877; James Barker, 
same, 1879; Samuel Hargrove (Pike and Dubois), 1881: Morman 
Fisher, same, 1883; Lemuel Hargrave, same, 1885. 

Senators. — Isaac Montgomery (Gibson, Pike and Dubois), 
1818; David Bobb (same), 1820; Bichard Daniel (Gibson & 
Pike), 1821; Thomas H. Blake (Sullivan, Green, Vigo, Owen 
and Pike), 1821; Bichard Daniel (Gibson & Pike), 1822; Isaac 
Montgomery (same), 1823 and to 1825; then (Gibson, Pike and 
Dubois), 1826-28; David Bobb (same), 1829-33; Elisha 
Embree (same), 1833-35; Thomas C. Stewart (same), 1835- 
38; John Hargrove (same), 1838-40; Smith Miller (same), 
1841-44; Benjamin B. Edmundson (same), 1844-47; Smith 
Miller (same), 1847-50; Benjamin T. Goodman (same), 1850- 
52; William Hawthorn (same), 1852-50; John Hargrove (same), 
1856-60; Thomas Shoulders (same), 1860-04; James Barker 
(same), 1864-68; Aaron Houghton (Pike, Dubois & Martin), 
1869; Leroy Cave (same), 1871; James B. Hendricks (Warrick 
and Pike), 1875; T. B. Hart (same), 1879; Eward P. Bichard- 
son (same), 1883. 


Elections. — For many years after the organization of the 
county, the voters at a general election could cast their ballots at 
any voting place in the county, and as there was more excite- 
ment and larger crowds at the county seat than elsewhere, the 
majority of the votes were cast there. Until after the " Hard 
Cider Campaign" whisky was freely used at elections and 
political speakings. Usually a barrel of whisky would be rolled 
out, its head knocked in, and drinking vessels conveniently placed, 
so that all could partake of it as freely as of water. Of course 
fights were numerous, but as the fists were the only weapons used 
the results were not serious. The first general election occurred 
in August, 1817. For representative to Congress Thomas Posey 
received 71 votes and William Hendricks the same number, the 
vote being a tie. By townships the vote was as follows : Posey — 
Washington, 53; Madison, 9; Jefferson, 5; Harbison, 4; Hend- 
ricks — Washington, 23; Madison, 7; Jefferson, 21; Harbison, 20. 
In 1819, John Jennings received for governor 99 votes, and his 
opponent, Christopher Harrison, received 37. The decrease in 
votes from the election in 1817 is accounted for by the fact that 
Harbison Township had been cut off at the formation of Dubois 
County. In 1820 William Hendricks received the entire vote of 
the county for representative to Congress. The vote for State 
senator stood 130 for Richard Daniel and 66 for Isaac Montgom- 
ery. The following year for State representative John Johnson 
received 120 votes and David Kinman 61. In 1822 William 
Hendricks received the entire vote for governor. For represen- 
tative to Congress Charles Dorsy received 45 votes, and William 
Prince, 173. In 1823, for State senator, Isaac Montgomery 
received 168 votes and David Eobb, 73. The next year the vote 
for congressman stood: Jacob Call, 65; Ratliff Boon, 209. At 
the presidential election of that year the vote by townships was 
as follows: 


townships. Jackgon and Clay and Adams and 

Calhoun. Santord 

Washington 13 59 1 

Madison 5 6 

Jefferson 13 8 2 

Clay 18 1 

Totals 31 91 4 

The vote in Monroe Township could not be ascertained. 


Iu 1825, the vote for governor was Isaac Blackford (Whig), 
154; James B. Kay (Democrat), 43. For Congress the follow- 
ing year, Thomas H. Blake received 32 votes and Ratliff Boon 245. 
Two years later the vote for the same candidates show a remark- 
able change. Two townships gave Blake 169 votes and Boon 
113. The same ^wnships gave H. H. Moor for governor, 97 
votes; James B. Kay, 110; Isaac T. Canby, 73. 

The vote for President and Vice-president was as follows: 


townships. Jackson Clay 

and Calhoun. and'Sargeant. 

Washington 129 73 

Madison 8 25 

Clay 3 1*5 

Jeflerson 9 27 

Monroe 2 16 

Totals 151 156 

In 1831 the vote for governor was Noah Noble (Whig), 172; 
James G. Reed (Democrat), 265. The following is the vote at 
the Presidential election in 1832: 


townships. Jackson Clay 

and Van Buren. and Rush 

Washington 157 105 

Jeflerson 7 35 

Clay 9 

Monroe 5 16 

Madison 17 9 

Totals.... 186 174 

In 1834 the vote for governor was Noah Noble (Whig), 182; 
James G. Reed, (Democrat) 278. The next year for representa- 
tive to Congress, Ratliff Boon received 252 votes and John G. 
Clendennin, 193. 

The vote at the Presidential election of 1836 was as follows: 


TOWNSHIPS. Harrison Van Buren 

and Granger, and Johnson. 

Washington 172 173 

Madison 20 6 

Clay 11 6 

Jefferson 7 28 

Monroe 8 13 

Totals 218 226 

In 1837 the vote for governor stood: John Dumont (Demo- 
crat), 267; David Wallace (Whig), 286. The vote for congress- 


man was still more evenly divided, Ratliff Boon receiving 284 
votes and John Pitcher 286. 

The above results show that the strength of the two parties 
was very nearly equal. In L839 George H. Promt, a brilliant 
and popular candidate, defeated his democratic opponent for rep- 
resentative to Congress, Robert Dale Owen, by a decided majori- 
ty, that is so far as Pike County was concerned in the result. 
The vote stood Promt, 478; Owen, 227. After the hard cider 
campaign of the next year this majority suffered but little de- 
crease. The following is the vote: 


townships. Van Burcn Harrison 

and .Tohnson. and Tyler. 

Washington 183 309 

Clay 10 17 

Monroe 6 7 

Madison 34 12 

Patoka 59 106 

Jefferson 26 23 

Totals 318 474 

The vote for governor was, Tilghman A. Howard (Demo- 
cratic i, 354; Samuel Bigger (Whig), 472. 

In 1843 the vote for governor was James Whitcomb (Demo- 
cratic i. 423; 'Samuel Bigger (Whig), 390. For congressman, 
Owen reci iveil 1 17 votes and John W. Payne 394; a small Demo- 
cratic majority which was maintained at the next Presidential 
election, as is shown by the vote: 


township Clay and Polk 

Frehnghuysen. and Dallas. 

Washington 267 24* 

Jefferson '.I 37 

Madison 34 60 

Monroe 11 33 

Patoka 101 90 

Clay 37 23 

Totals 459 491 

The next year Owen again received a majority of votes for 
representative to Congress over his Whig opponent, (!. P. R. 
Wilson. The vote was Owen, 159, Wilson, too. In 1840 the 
Democratic majority shows a considerable increase, James Whit- 
comb received 508 votes for governor, and Joseph (1. Marshall 
372, but in 1M7 Elisha Embree, Whig candidate Eor congress- 


man received 486 votes, and Owen, 464. The following is the 
vote at the presidential election of 1848: 


TOWNsmrs. Taylor Cass 

and Fillmore, and Butler. 

Washington •. 156 99 

Madison 55 72 

Patoka 70 68 

Logan 50 63 

Monroe 42 63 

Jefferson 75 107 

Clay 70 38 

Totals 518 510 

But one vote was cast for the Free Soil candidSle at this elec- 
tion. In 1849 the vote for governor was J A. Wright (Demo- 
crat), 591, John A. Matson (Whig), 476; for representative to 
Congress, Nathaniel Albertson (Democrat), 568, Elisha Embree. 
(Whig), 512. The vote for congressman in 1851 was James 
Lockhart (Democrat), 606, L. Q. DeBruler (Whig), 583. In 
1852 the Democratic majority again shows an increase. 

The vote for governor was Joseph A. Wright (Democrat), 
809, and Nicholas McCarty (Whig), 499. For congressman, 
Smith Miller (Democrat), received 780 votes and William Reavis, 
546. The November election resulted as follows: 


townships. Fierce and Scott and 

King. Graham 

Washington..-. 225 172 

Jefferson 131 83 

Madison 55 57 

Clay 39 66 

Logan 100 56 

Patoka 78 72 

Monroe 32 16 

Lockhart 28 16 

Totals 688 538 

For congressman in 1854 the vote stood, Smith Miller (Dejn- 
ocrat), 701, Samuel Hall (Whig), 668. At the gubernatorial 
election, two years later, Ashbel R. Willard (Democrat), received 
802 votes, and Oliver P. Morton (Republican), 608. For con- 
gressman the vote was James C. Veatch (Republican), 620; 
James Lockhart (Democrat), 785. 

The presidential election resulted as follows : 



Buchanau and Fremont and Fillmore and 

townships. Breckinridge. Dayton. Donelson. 

Washington 137 74 ^11 

Jefferson 181 2 84 

Marion 35 67 

Clay 49 9 54 

Patoka 148 3 67 

Logan 52 20 34 

Monroe 94 1 33 

Lockhart 76 1 23 

Totals 772 80 572 

In 1858 for congressman, W. E. Niblack (Democrat) received 
612 votes, and A. P. Hovey (Kepublican), 569. In 1860, for 
the same office, L. Q. De Bruler (Kepublican) received 903 votes 
and John Law (Democrat) 877. For governor, Thomas Hen- 
dricks (Democrat) received 910 votes, and Henry S. Lane (Re- 
publican) 863. The following is the vote for President and 
Vice-President : 


Douglas and Breckinridge Lincoln and Bell and 

townships. Johnson. • and Lane. Hamlin. Everett. 

Washington 152 278 11 

Jefferson 194 15 130 5 

Monroe 97 30 47 2 

Patoka 87 3 97 9 

Logan 72 96 1 

Marion 71 3 45 3 

Lockhart 91 6 72 1 

Madison 60 1 68 2 

Clay 58 61 5 

Totals 882 58 894 39 

For congressman in 1862 the vote was A. Johnson, 618 ; John 
Law, 594. In 1864, for governor, Joseph E. McDonald, 957; 
O. P. Morton, 938. For President and Vice-President, in that 

DEMOCRAT. republican. 

McLellan and Lincoln and 

townships. Pendleton. Johnson. 

Washington 109 294 

Madison 57 64 

Jefferson 240 122 

Clay 46 60 

Logan 55 84 

Patoka 78 120 

Monroe 155 74 

Lockhart 128 59 

Marion 108 43 

Totals 971 920 


For congressman in 1866, L. Q. DeBruler (Republican), 1,245; 
W. E. Niblack, 1,168. In 1868 for the same office, James C. 
Veatch (Republican) , 1,386 ; W. E. Niblack, 1,381. For governor 
the vote stood, Conrad Baker (Republican), 1,387; Thomas Hen- 
dricks (Democrat), 1,380. For President and Vice-President: 


townships. Blair. Colfax. 

Washington 165 373 

Madison 75 89 

Clay 59 83 

Jefferson 301 192 

Logan 72 121 

Patoka 147 169 

Monroe 195 144 

Lockhart 190 147 

Marion :.... 165 92 

Totals 1369 1410 

In 1870 for congressman the vote stood: H. C. Gooding (Re- 
publican), 1,106; William E. Niblack (Democrat), 1,215. In 
1872 for governor, Thomas M. Browne (Republican), 1,317; 
Thomas A. Hendricks (Democrat), 1,437. For congressman, 
William Heilman (Republican), 1,342; William E. Niblack (Dem- 
ocrat), 1,434. The November election resulted as follows: 


townships. Greely and Brown. and Wilsou. 

Washington 173 343 

Clay ; 51 88 

Madison 65 77 

Marion 167 69 

Logan 51 119 

Monroe 194 91 

Jefferson 261 186 

Lockhart 184 170 

Patoka 123 185 

Totals 1269 1328 

In 1876 for governor, Benjamin Harrison (Republican), re- 
ceived 1,523 votes; James D. Williams (Democrat), 1,702. For 
congressman, T. R Cobb (Democrat), 1,662; Andrew Hum- 
phries (Democrat), 1,646; Lewis Loveless (Republican) — elev- 
en of twelve precincts — 1,457; W. T. Spicely (Republican) — 
the same precincts — 1,444. 

In 1876 the vote for President and Vice-President was: 


TOWNSHIPS Tilden and 



Washington 200 389 19 

Jefferson 305 181 48 

Madison 77 67 4 

Clay 84 107 1 

Patoka 193 177 29 

Monroe 253 170 16 

Logan 80 125 3 

Lockhart 259 193 G 

Marion 189 49 57 

Totals 1640 1458 183 

In 1878 the vote for congressman was: Thomas R. Col>K 
(Democrat), 1,651; Richard M. Wellman (Republican), 1,26(1 
William F. Green (Independent), 47v In 1880 the vote was 
William Heilman (Republican), 1,688; John J. Kleiner (Demo 
crat), 1,753; C. Kramer (Independent), 214. For governoi 
Allen G. Porter (Republican) received 1,592 votes, and F. Land 
ers (Democrat), 1,732. The following is the vote at tin- presi 
dential election: 


townships. Garfield Hancock Weaverand 

and Arthur. andEnglish. Chambers. 

Washington 413 256 23 

Jefferson 203 286 38 

Madison 83 102 

Clay 11 7 94 1 

Patoka 245 213 36 

Monroe 152 ■,'•';; 29 

Logan 138 103 5 

Lockhart 'J 1 1 291 27 

Marion 50 176 70 

Totals 1618 1760 229 

In L882 the vote for congressman was: William Heilman 
(Republican), L.629; John .1. Kleiner (Democrat), 1,694; J. G 
Nisbei (Independent), 220. In 1884 for the same office: Will- 
iam H. Godgel (Republican), L830; John J. Kleiner (Demo 
crat), L,889; F. M. English (Independent), L04. For governor 

[saac P. Graj (De srat), L.883; William H. Calkins (Repub 

lican), 1,825; HZ. Leonard (Prohibition), L33. For President 
rind Vice- President: 



townships. Blaine Cleveland But'e 

and Logan, and Hendricks, and Wi 

Washington... 461 292. 17 

Jefferson 195 280 10 

Madison 76 103 

Clay 132 85 

Patoka 338 255 31 

Monroe 161 290 15 

Logan 147 103 3 

Lockhart 214 281 8 

Marion 102 191 47 

Totals 1826 1882 131 


by prof. z. t. emerson. 

Bench and Bar— The First Indictments— Character of Cases- 
Court Officials— The First Supreme CoustT Case— The Famous 
Negro Trial— Other Suits of Interest— Professional Charac- 
ter of Judges and Attorneys — Important Trials forMurder— 
The Probate Court. 

THE record of the first court of Pike County begins as follows : 
" At a Circuit Court began and held at the house of Hosea 
Smith, in and for said County of Pike, on Monday, the Fourteenth 
day of April, 1817, it being the day appointed by law for the set- 
ting of the First Term of said Court. The Hon. William Prince, 
Esq., appeared and produced his Commission as President Judge 
of the first circuit. The Hon. Henry Brenton and the Hon. 
Arthur Harbison, Esqrs., appeared and produced their commis- 
sions as associate Judges of said Court, and it appeared that they 
had severally taken the oath of office provided by the Constitution 
and Laws of the State." On the same day appeared John Mcln- 
tire with his commission as clerk of said court, for whose good 
behavior and official conduct the said John Mclntire, John John- 
son, and Adam Hope bound themselves in the penal sum of "two 
thousand and five hundred dollars good and lawful money of the 
United States" to Jonathan Jennings, governor for the time 
being, or liis successors in office. On the same day was Adam 
Hope appointed sheriff, and George E. C. Sullivan prosecuting 


The sheriff returned grand jurors as follows: Thomas J. 
Withers, foreman ; Isaac Alexander, Edward Woods, Jacob Har- 
bmson, John Butler, William Shrode, William McDonald, Hugh 
Kedmond, Abram Pea, James Lindsey, John Coonrod, Henry 
Miley, Peter Bunton, Archibald Campbell and .Moses Harrell, 
"fourteen good and lawful men." Thomas H. Blake, David 
Hart, Bichard Daniel, Jacob Call, Nathaniel Huntington, Henry 
P. Coburn, and George E. C. Sullivan took the oath as attorneys 
and counselors-at-law. 

The first official act was ordering a seal for the county, which 
was simply the word "seal" en vignette. The above named 
grand jury returned this "true bill" on the next day: "The 
Jurors for the State of Indiana and for the Body of the County of 
Pike, upon their oath present that Willis Boon, late of Washing- 
ton township, of the County of Pike, yeoman, on the fourteenth 
day of April, 1817, with force and arms at the Township and 
County aforesaid, in and upon one James Walker in the peace of 
God and the citizens of the State of Indiana then and there being, 
did make an assault, and him the said James Walker then and 
therj did beat, wound and illtreat, so that his life was then and 
there despaired of. and other wrongs to the said James Walker, 
then and there did to the damage of the said James Walker 
against the Statutes and against the peace and dignity of the State 
of Indiana." 

George B. C. Sullivan, Prosecuting Attorney.' 1 '' 

The sheriff was ordered to take said Willis "if found in his baili- 
wick" and hold till next term of court. Willis was produced and 
plead guilty, and was fined $3 and cost ; said fine to go to the semi- 
nary fund. Then followed divers other suits of assault and bat- 
tery. Benjamin Ashley brought suit against Jeremiah Arnold, 
whereupon Jeremiah brought counter suit against Benjamin, and 
both were fined. The first jury case in the county was entitled 
Il.iirv Coonrod vs. James Ashley. The following twelve "good 
and lawful men" constituted that jury: Thomas Williams, Henry 
Coleman, C. Pickens, Hugh Shaw, David Fouts, William Wright, 
Levi Kinman, J. Millburn, William Shook. William Wright, Sr., 
Samuel Kinman, and Henry Miley. The case was against de- 

The case being peculiar, as well as the language, we give the 


indictment: "The Grand Jury for the State of Indiana, and the 
body if the body of the County of Pike, upon their oaths, pre- 
sent that Tobias Bright, late of Washington Township. * * 
laborer, by force and arms did take, steal, one table-fork, of the 
value of twenty-five cents, the personal goods of Theodosia Saw- 
yer. * * against the peace and dignity of the State of Indiana.*' 
John Pitcher, Prosecuting Attorney. 

The proceedings were in the exact language, as follows: "To- 
bias Bright put himself upon the Country, and the attorney prose- 
cuting doth the same. Wherefore, let a Jury come. Where- 
upon, came a jury, to-wit: T. C. Stewart, Raudle Lett, William 
Pride. Jonathan Postlewait, Jacob Pea, John Selby, George Saw- 
yer, Thomas Hargrave, Lewis Thomas, Henry .vicFetrich, Samuel 
Kinman and Thomas Young, twelve good and lawful men, who. 
being duly elected, tried, and sworn upon their oath, do say, we, 
of the jury, find the defendant guilty, and assess his fine at twelve 
and one-half cents, the value of the fork stolen, that he return the 
fork stolen to Theodosia Sawyer, the owner thereof, or on failing to 
restore the same to pay the said Theodosia twenty-five cents two- 
fold value of the fork stolen, and adjudge him to be confined at 
hard labor in the State prison of the State of Indiana, at or near 
Jeffersonville, in the State aforesaid, for the term of one year. 
"T. C. Stewart, Foreman." 

The case was tried at the September term, 1823, J. R. E. Good- 
let presiding, with E. Hammond and Henry Hopkins, as asso- 
ciates. The court gravely ordered Tobias to pay l'J.l cents to the 
State, and 12i cents to Theodosia, and that the sheriff execute the 
decree of the court and the jury. It was thought the defendant 
was not guilty. The crime was committed at a camp-meeting, 
and the fork causing the trouble had but one tine, and was stolen 
while sticking in a tree to fasten thereto a candle. 

To the thirty-second case there had been but two or three suits 
for debt, four or five for retailing liquor ; the remainder, with one 
or two exceptions, were assault and battery, and in nearly every 
case either William Wright, Sr., or William Wright, Jr., was a 
party to the suit. It seems as though fisticuff was not looked 
upon as a very disgraceful affair then, as nearly every one seems 
to have tried his hand at the game. 

Bob and Anthony. — This was a long and tedious case, wherein 


Bob ;uul Anthony, two ''free men of coloi-," were plaintiffs, and 
Luke Decker was defendant. Bob and Anthony were held bj 
i )i cker as slaves, or he claimed their services. He claimed Bob 
as an indented servant, setting up the plea that in l^Ol said Boh 
of his own free will bound himself to said Decker for a term of 
fifteen years, for the sum of $400 in hand paid, to which Boben- 
tered n general denial, claiming that he had had no consideration 
and was held by force. Anthony was claimed under the laws of 
Virginia, and the sixth article of agreement on the ceding of 
Northwest Territory to the United States. This will be shown 
further on. The case was begun in Orange County, and was 
brought to Pike County, and a change of venue was taken to Jef- 
ferson County, and was finally remanded to Pike County. The 
case first appeared in Pike at the first term of court in 1817. and 
was finally settled in 1822 by the same court. The following is 
Bob's plea for a change: 
To the Hons. Henry Brenton and Arthur Harbison, Associate Judges 

for the County of Pike, in the State of Indiana. 

The Petitioner, Bob, a free man of color, respectfully represents to jour 
Honors that he has at this time a case pending in the Circuit Court holden for 
the County of Pike within the First Judicial Circuit of the State of Indiana, and 
undetermined, wherein he, the said Bob, a free man of color, is plaintiff, and 
Luke Decker is defendant, and your petitioner further states that he is fearful 
and does not believe that from the prejudices of the President Judge of the 
First Judicial Circuit, also from the predjudice of the people of Pike aforesaid, 
and from the undue influence of Luke Decker over the minds of the people of 
said county, he is fearful and does believe he cannot have a fair and impartial 
trial in any county in the First Judicial Circuit, and therefore prays your Honors 
to grant him a change of the venue in the case aforesaid to any County in the 
Third Judicial Circuit your Honors may think proper to grant. 

Bob, X a free man of color. 

The following is the plea of defendant : 

John Decker, father of Luke Decker, moved from Virginia prior to July 30, 
ITS? , he moved to the northwest of the Ohio River and that territory then he- 
longed to the territorial limitsof Virginia, but on its cession to Congress was sub- 
ject to certain terms and conditions, among which is one in the words following 
That the French and Canadian inhabitants and other settlers of Kaskaskia and 
St Vincent* and the neighboring villages who have professed themselves citizens 
of Virginia, shall have the possession and letters confined to them, and be pro- 
tected in their rights and liberties ; that long before the said 30th day of July, 
1787, John Decker, father of Luke Decker, was a resident and citizen within the 
present limits of Virginia, and as such citizen, was tin- owner and possessor of a 
number of persons of color as slaves, amongst whom was a woman called Rach . 

•The early name oi Vineeiiues. 


that long before the said 30th day of July. 1787, the said John Decker removed 
with his slaves and family aforesaid from the State of Virginia to St. Vincent 
where he continued to dwell until his death ; that a short time after his residence 
at St. Vincent the said John Decker departed this life having first made and as- 
serted his last will and testament in writing, which said last will was duly proved 
and recorded ; that among other decrees is to be found the following to wit. 
"I likewise give and bequeath unto my wife Dinah, a negro wench named Rach 
during her natural life, and at her death to revert to my son Luke ; which said 
Rach is the said Rach before mentioned and the mother of the said Anthony; the 
said Dinah continues to hold the said Rach as her slave under the decrees afore- 
said until the death of the said Dinah, after which the said Rach, together with 
the said Anthony, reverted to the said Luke Decker under, and by the authority 
of said decree ; that after the death of the said Dinah took possession of the said 
Anthony, son of said Rach aforesaid, as her lawful slave as he might ; that said 
Anthony continued peaceable and quietly in the possession of said Luke until the 
14th diy of July last, when tli3 said Anthony without the will and consent 
of him, the said Luke, desert his services and keeping and contract, and to 
continue out of the service or contract of the said Luke until the 29th day of 
January last past, on which day. and prior to the service of the writ on the said 
Luke, he the said Luke, did receive the peaceable and quiet possession of him, 
the said Anthony, from Zachariah Lindley, Esq., sheriff of Orange County, and 
hath, in like manner detained the said Anthony as lawfully he might, and this 
is the cause of the detention of the said Anthony, the body of which he has. 

" Luke Decker." 
Thus, after nearly five years of contest the case was decided 
before J. E. E. Goodlet, Henry Brenton, and T. J. Withers, that 
Bob and Anthony should not be held, and that Luke Decker 
should pay the costs of the suit. The first appeal to the supreme 
court was made in the case of J. W. Loan against James Reedy, 
about the same time the Hon. David Hart became president 
judge, a position which he held about one year, 1818 to 1819. 
He was followed by Richard Daniel who held the place from 
1819 to 1820, before whom were tried several cases entitled scire 
facias. Trespass vi et armis, trespass on the case, etc. Soon after 
J. R. E. Goodlet came upon the bench, a case of considerable in- 
terest was tried in which John Chamber and wife sued Thomas 
Young for slander. Young was accused of having called the 
wife (Rachel) of Chambers many ugly names, such as murderess, 
adulteress and such terms, while Rachel claimed that she was 
"a good, true, honest, just, faithful, discreet, chaste and virtuous 
citizen of the State of Indiana " which was. made evident to the 
f,\tisf action of the following jury of " good and lawful men " 
John Catt, Ebenezer Case, Levi Kinman, Charles Williams, H. 
B. Merrick, Henry Miley, M. Thomas, John Kinman, Phillip 
Coffee, Jere Gladdish, John Kinman, Sr., and Richard White,whore- 


turned a verdict against Thomas for $25 damage and costs. A 
second suit was brought against Elizabeth, wife of Young, with 
about the same results. This seems to have been a decade for 
slander suits, as Hugh Shaw brought a $3,000 suit against Han- 
son More for calling him "hog thief;" Paul Tislow, a $500 suit 
against T. J. Withers ; William Wright, a $10,000 suit against 
Thomas Mead; Martin Miley, a $2,000 suit against William 
Wright for saying: "You stole money and I can prove it;" 
Thomas Case a $2,000 suit against Graves Mead for asserting, 

" you are a rascal, rogue and liar ; " Hannah Crayton claimed 

$1,000 from Charles A. Lamb and wife for saying "she stole a 
stran of beads from me;" and, in turn, Lamb and wife brought 
suit against the Craytons. Nothing was recovered in any case ex- 
cept the last two in which there was a verdict for $3P> for the 
Craytons in the first, and one for $50 for Lamb in the second suit. 

In 1829, Henry Coonrod brought suit against George Miley, 
for alienating the affections of his wife, Elizabeth, and recovered 
$1,000 damages, and was granted a divorce from her. In the 
same year, the grand jury returned their first "true bill" for 
assault, with intent to kill. It was against Cain Hudspeth, in 
•language and figures," as follows: "That Cain Hudspeth, pick- 
maker, otherwise laborer, not having the fear of God, but being 
moved and seduced by the instigation of the devil, did assault 
with a peach tree limb and withe of no value, upon the head and 
neck, and drug upou the ground a great distance, and from an 
oven and a hat * * did throw water upon the body so that by 
his wounds and a mortal distemper, he, John Hewit, did die." 
However, a jury of "fifteen good and lawful" men found him "not 

In the next court. Alexander Leslie brought suit for slander 
against Abraham Tourtellot, for calling him "thief" and saying 
he had tried to poison him. The case came up before Jinl^cs 
Samuel Hall, Janus Hilliman and Charles 1'. White, in which a 
verdict of $150 was awarded to Leslie. 

In lsll, the court t'uu ml Charles Alexander guiltj of official 
negligence in delivering a commission to James Blackford, as 
road supervisor of District No. 3, Monroe Township, and t<> show 
that its official dignitj was uol to be trifled with, assessed hi> 
fine a1 1 cenl to the seminar} of learning, and that he stand com- 


mitted until paid; Meredeth Howard was fined .1 like sum for a 
similar offense; at the same time Elias Terry, Daniel C. Black 
and Elijah Bell were fined $50 each for contempt of court. A 
case occurred a little earlier in which the State found an indict- 
ment against Rebecca Coleman for perjury, in giving false testi- 
mony against James Hillman. Rebecca plead that she was not 
guilty. "Whereupon she threw herself upon the country." The 
"attorney prosecuting doth the same. Wherefore, let a jury 
come," and they did come and returned a verdict, "not guilty." 
Rebecca was allowed to go "without day." 

President Judges. — The judges up to 1833, had been William 
Prince, Daniel Hart, Richard Daniel, J. R. E. Goodlet and 
Samuel Hall. The first had been a citizen of Knox County, of 
excellent family, a commissioner in a treaty with the Indians 
about 1811. Princeton was named in his honor; he served but 
one year as judge. Judge Prince, as an attorney, is said to have 
been neither ready nor brilliant, was slow in forming an opinion, 
but his opinions were from deliberate thought, for which reason 
a judgeship was his sphere. 

It will be seen from preceding pages, that David Hart was one 
of the attorneys admitted on the opening of the court in 1817, 
and became president judge the following year, but served only 
one year, and was succeeded in 1817 by Richard Daniel, another 
of the first counselors, but he served only one year, and in L820, 
was succeeded en the bench by Hon. J. R. E. Goodlet, who 
served till 1832. It might not seem strange that these judges 
should resign, as the salary was only $700 and only three circuits 
in the State. 

By way of contrast, it may be proper to remark that there 
are now thirty-eight circuits, and judges receive something like 
$3,000 each. It might be further said that John Mclntire re- 
ceived only $50 a year as clerk, and Adam Hope §50 as sheriff, 
while G. R. C. Sullivan, as prosecutor, got $100. Mention is 
made of his faculty for getting good fees elsewhere in this vol- 
ume. Of the professional character of Judge Goodlet, it is said 
that he was not a brilliant practitioner. He was phlegmatic and 
deliberate, and a good counselor, but lacked that readiness ami 
rapidity essential to success before a jury. His personal char- 
acter was such as to receive a namesake in one of the county s 
most honored citizens, J. R. E. G. Morgan. 


Early Attorneys. — Mention has already been made of David 
Hart and Kickard Daniel as being two out of the seven who took 
the oath and were sworn as attorneys in the first court in the- 

COlintv ojirl hoth so hooti to become inrltres over fhe same court. 

Their rapid ascent is evidence of their worth. Both were said to 
be men of no mean merit. Thomas H. Blake was widely and ex- 
tensively known in the courts in southern Indiana, where he had 
an extensive practice. In 1839 he was a candidate for the United 
States Senate, but was defeated. The history of the remaining 
attorneys is not well known. Henry Hurst and Charles Dewey 
were well-known lawyers of the First Circuit, and were attorneys 
for defendant in the case of Anthony against Luke Decker. In 
1832 Samuel Hall was commissioned judge. This man deserves 
some notice. He was admitted to the bar in 1823, began practice 
in 1829, and was elected judge in 1832. He was elected as a 
member of the General Assembly for two terms, and served on 
the board of public works for a number of years, where he exer- 
cised a very healthful influence over the financial acts of that 
board; served as lieutenant-governor for three years. ,He retired 
from general practice in 1840. He was bitterly opposed to hold- 
ing one man as security for another. He urged such a matter 
on the Legislature in 1831, and as a member of the Constitutional 
Convention of 1850, urged the following bill: "No man shall be 
held to answer a debt, default or miscarriage of any other person 
upon contract entered into from and after the year I860, except 
in cases where executors and administrators are required to give 
bond, and where security is given to persons acting in a judiciary 
capacity." On the bench with Judge Hall were James Hillman 
and Charles P. White, as associates. Then Judge Hall resigned, 
and was succeeded by Elisha Embree, who had been prominent as 
an attorney and legislator for some time. In 1838 Mr. Embree 
defeated the Hon. George H. Profit for the State Senate. He 
was elected to Congress in 1847, over Hon. E. D. Owen. He 
was author of a bill to abolish the "Congress mileage" system. 
Judge Embree was a man of the highest integrity as a lawyer, 
statesman and legislator. He was not that kind of a lawyer who 

Often miss the skies 
For aiding knaves in telling lies. 

In 1840 while Elisha Embree was judge the grand jury found- 


a "True Bill" against James Mead for gaming to which James set 
up a general denial and was at last induced "to throw himself upon 
the country." The complaint accused the said defendant of win- 
ning a dollar contrary to the statutes, and the following jury of 
"twelve good and lawful men: 1 ' Daniel Catt, James Thomas, 
William Thompson, Adam Decker, Samuel Lett, Daniel Hillman, 
P. H. Woodward, David May, William Cutwright, John B. Kich- 
ardson, John Palmer and Peter Brenton, found the defendant 
guilty as charged and assessed his fine at 1 cent to be given to 
the seminary fund. 

At first all fines of this character werw for the seminary fund 
but later they were for the "seminaries of learning." Just where 
these "seminaries of learning" were located in the county might 
puzzle the memories of the oldest. The first witness who claimed 
a fee as a witness so far as the records show, was John Smith in 
a case against Henry Scraper for retailing liquors and in a sim- 
ilar case against William Cumming. This court was prolific in 
cases of assault and battery and in selling liquor without license 
and also for gaming, there being eleven cases of the latter against 
Charles F. White. In August Gov. Noah Noble issued a com- 
mission to James Hillman as associate judge and in February 
before, 1837 L. Q. DeBruler was permitted ex gratui to practice 
for that term. Little beginnings sometimes have great endings. 
During the year 1838 and a number following, A. Tourtellot fig- 
ured in many cases, once for a divorce from his wife Nancy which 
was not granted at that time. In the same year was another jury 
trial in which Joab Chappell, the defendant, was found guilty and 
fined 1 cent. Another important case came up in this court in 
which there was an indictment against Hiram Corn for betting 
on a horse race. Hiram Corn bet 50 cents with James Foster 
that his horse could beat William Case running a race of fifty 
yards. Corn won the bet and the jury assessed a fine of 12£ 
cents against him, but the quick witted attorney moved an ar- 
rest of judgment on the ground that a race between a man and a 
horse was not a horse-race. The judge was inflexible and he 
ordered the prisoner committed until the fine was paid. A second 
case from this county to the supreme court was returned from 
that body to the circuit court. In this case Abraham Tourtellot 
and T. C. Stewart were plaintiffs and David Tunstin el al were 


defendants. In the same year Isaac P. Horner was fined $10 for 
contempt, and Nancy Tourtellot was given one hour in jail for 
adultery, and George Wyatt fined $25 for the same offense. 

Ad quod Damnum. — The first case of ad quod damnum was in 
the interest of Hiram Hawthorn and Samuel Hawthorn. These 
men desired to build a mill on Patoka, and the case was simply 
an inquiry by a jury as to what damage would befall the public or 
private individuals from the construction of a dam across said 
stream. The jury summoned in the above case made a favorable 
report at the February term, 1839. In the same year were four 
cases against parties tor gaming, with fines ranging all the way 
from 2 cents to 5 cents each. 

George Wright vs. State of Indiana. — This was a case with 
above title in which the State had convicted Wright of "open and 
notorious adultery;" it was taken to the supreme court and the 
court reversed the decision of the lower one on the ground that 
there was proven only occasional adultery, and that that was not 
"open and notorious," consequently the decision was reversed and 
the lower court was ordered to begin the case de novo. In 1841 
D. E. Black was fined $50 in each of three counts, and Elijah 
Bell, prosecuting attorney, $50 in one count for contempt. Clark 
M. Anthony, a well-known attorney of this place, was admitted to 
practice in February, 1841. 

Belinda Hewins brought a suit for divorce and alimony against 
Joel W Hewins, who being "three times solemnly called,"' did 
not appear to answer. The 6uit was decided in his absence, and 
the plaintiff retained "all property in her person and recovered 
$500 from the defendant." At the same time William Clayton 
received a $200 fine and thirty days in jail for perjury, and William 
Crayton received his naturalization papers. The practices of a 
court change quite slowly. There was no motion to quash an 
indictment till about 1850, yet since that time the pages of the 
records are fairly covered with motions to quash. An authority 
says: "It may be of interest to attorneys to know that till near 
this time a motion to quash an indictment was not made. Its 
sufficiency was not tested until the accused had taken his chancer 
with tin' jury, then should the verdict be against him, he went 
into court with the indictment on motion in arrest." A little fur- 
ther on, at the adoption of the new code in 1853, many old terms 


were dropped The terms " trespass on the case," -'assumpsit," 
"trover," "in chancery," "retailing," "assault and battery," "adul- 
tery," "usury," writs of "ad quod damnum," "capias addefenden- 
(Iinii," or "alias capias defendum" were very numerous. Itwill be 
observed that those two litigious characters, John Doe and Rich- 
ard Roe, either made friends or one forever "downed" the other 
about the same time. They were two mythical characters in law. 
where there were contentions over the possession of real estate. 

The new code provides that cases shall be brought by the 
real party in interest against the real party complained of. Vale 
John Doe and Richard Roe. There was another old form that 
disappeared about the same time where there were judgments 
for money. All such cases ended with "and the defendant in 
mercy, etc." Some old justices of the peace still use it. The 
meaning of the same has called forth this facetious explanation : 
"One attorney has suggested that it was commending him to the 
mercy of the sheriff, to whom an execution would issue, and that 
sheriffs became more and more lenient until finally it has become 
almost impossible, especially when they are candidates for re-elec- 
tions to get them to execute the process at all. Another says, 
that like the solemn appeal at the close of the death sentence, it 
is the last appeal for mercy to the insatiable attorney for the 
plaintiff, who will probably show him no quarter. In truth it 
is an obsolete phrase which meant that the defendant was 'amerced' 
or punished for his delay of justice." 

William W. Carr was admitted as an attorney at the bar at tin 
August term of 1844, and the matrimonial links binding Daniel 
Risby and Nancy Risby werejegally severed and soon after Nancy 
was compelled to donate $5 for the "seminary of learning" for 
adulterous practices. In February, 1845, Gov. Whitcomb issued 
a commission to Thomas Pride as associate judge for the term of 
seven years from February 24, L845, and at the same time com- 
missions came to Josiah Chappel] and John Mclntire for their 
respective county offices. 

The grand jury found the usual number of "true bills" none of 
which were of much importance, also, Hon. W. E. Niblack and 
T. P. Bradley were admitted to practice law. 

The grand jury found that the "jail was unsafe and that the 
door needed a padlock." and it may be added as an historic fact that 


the jail gave evidence of weakness and was the object of attention of 
the grand jury for more than thirty years. The court gave Sam- 
uel Decker $2 fine for betting on elections. Tecumseh Gray and 
N. Wheatley SI each for betting on a horse race which goes to 
show that it is just half as bad to bet on a horse race as to bet on 
election. James McAdams got §2. for fornication and Polly Corn 
$5 for the same offense. Their crimes being in the ratio of five 
to two. James Lockhart received the judicial ermine from the 
shoulders of Judge Embree as is shown by the commission from 
Gov. Whitcomb of February, 184(1 L. Q. DeBruler of Spencer 
County, became prosecuting attorney. 

Judge Lockhart was admitted to the bar in lSo'2, was prose- 
cutor for seven years. He is described as being a "leading law- 
yer of strong and determined mind and in spite of every obsta- 
cle attained a commanding position in his profession. He was 
tall in person, of remarkable voice, was a keen, and logical debat- 
er and an impartial and popular magistrate. 11 He was the first 
to formulate a code of rules to govern "this court. 1 " There were 
thirty -nine in all under the heads, "motions 11 "pleadings and 
papers," "docket, 11 "trial 11 "sheriff," "chancery," and "miscellan- 
eous." "Under trial" is this rule; "one lawyer only on each 
side can question a witness." 1 Whether an approaching election 
called for it or not, there were twenty-one persons called for 
naturalization papers. There is a notion prevalent that certain 
crimes follow each other, and the records seem to indicate this. 
There were forty-seven indictments for gaming at the same town. 
Thomas Michael received a nominal fine for carrying concealed 
weapons, the first of the kind on record. A second writ of ad 
quod damnum was issued at the instance of Isaac Kinman who 
desired a mill site on South Fork. In 1848 Charles Alexander 
received his commission as associate judge for a period of seven 
years. A case of kidnapping against Hiram W. Kinman and 
Josiah Eoggatt was begun in L848 and was continued through a 
period of five years. The case was finally dismissed. These 
iin d were very zealous in returning runaway negroes. 

In 1849 James Startin was tine. I 1 .•■•iit for betting on a dorse 
race. $3 for letting the horse run. ami \Y. dimming x'A for rid- 
ing the horse. In the same year Samuel Greenup was convieted 
of bigamous practices, and required to devote two years of hard 


labor to the interest of the State of Indiana. A. L. Robinson 
was admitted to the bar in 1850. Maj. Robinson fought in the 
Mexican war, and has been a prominent spirit before the bar for 
thirty years or more. He was known for the energy with which 
he prosecuted criminals. An indictment for assault and battery 
with intent to commit murder was found against William Woolsey 
and James Woolsey, during the same court. The latter was tried 
by jury and found "not guilty." The case against the former 
was soon after nollied. The same court gave Madison Traylor 
$16 for usury, this being the first case of the kind, and James 
Loveless got $20 on the charge of assault and battery with in- 
tent to murder. In 1852 Woodford Lawson received a two years' 
leave of absence to Jeffersonville for a murderous assault, and 
John Kennedy received four years on each of two counts to the 
place for forgery. Two of our citizens failed to tell the grand 
jury all they knew about gambling, and the wounded dignity of 
that body was healed for the sum of $10 for each case. The same 
year Michael Burk was admitted as an attorney, and Alvin P. Ho- 
vey received his commission from Gov. Joseph A.Wright as judge. 
His plain, bold signature is typical of the man. The practice of 
having one president and two associate judges was discontinued 
at the time of Judge Hovey's election, and he was the first to sit 
as sole judge and handle the judicial scale. Judge Hovey has 
been a prominent figure in southern Indiana for more than a quar- 
ter of a century. He has been upon the supreme bench, and was 
earnest and enthusiastic in his efforts to crush the Rebellion. He 
is one of the comparatively few civilians who rose to the rank of 
major-general. He resides at his home in Mount Vernon. Olive 
Mason plead for a legal severing of the matrimonial bonds exist- 
ing between her and William McAndress, on the grounds that 
William was enjoying matrimonial relations with Nancy Morris. 
There wa6 the unprecedented number of ninety-five naturaliza- 
tion papers made out during the year 1852. George Grubb con- 
tributed $1 to the seminary fund for altering the mark of a hog 
"with intent" On the opening of court in 1853 H. F. Keiger, 
John L. Evans Henry Wise and H. I. Cawthorn were admitted 
to the bar. David Miley certifies that the seal of his office, re- 
corder, is "a circle surrounding a plow and a sheaf of wheat." 
James Barr was fined $10 for official negligence. Monday, 

111<<$j)KV OF PIKE COUXTV. 311 

March 5, 1854. Gov. Wright's commission to William E. Niblack 
was issued. A. P. Hovey had resigned that position. It is now 
fortj years since Judge Niblack was admitted to the bar of this 
court, and in all that time he has been continually before the pub- 
lie. He has been on the supreme bench, a member of Congress 
and is now one of the oldest, most influential and respected mem- 
bers of the supreme court. During a long period of public life 
he lias burn a character above reproach. 

At the March term Jane Haddock brought suit against Joseph 
Harness to compel him to carry out the stipulations of a marriage 
contract, or pay for the injured affections. It was settled the fol- 
lowing year by the court awarding her §500 damages. About tin- 
same time Amanda Harbison was fined §00 for bigamy. Robert 
Thurman was admitted' to the bar, and Nathaniel Ersher became 
prosecuting attorney for the Third District. The following year 
John Clark got a one-year sentence for forgery. A motion for 
new trial and one for arrest of judgment were both overruled. In 
September. 1855, the following attorneys were admitted: William 
H. De Wolfe, W. C. Marion, Austin M.- Gentry and Theodore F. 
McAlister, ex gratia for the term. The following year L. Q. 
DeBruler was appointed prosecutor for the September term, and 
John Van Trees, Isaac Moore and J. F. Sanders were admitted 
The Evansville, Indianapolis & Cleveland Straight Line Railroad 
suits began, and were continued till 18G3. In 1850 William 
Smith received a two-year's sentence for counterfeiting, and Lesler 
Wallace received a "verdick" of three years on two indictments 
for a similar offense. L. Q. DeBuler was again made prosecutor 
in 1857, and N. J. Smith was admitted to the bar. Samuel 
Dover got a leave of absence to Jeffersonville for two years. 

Ex-Gov. A. G. Porter was admitted in 1S5S, as was W. Don- 
ahey and John I. Neely. M. F. Bink was prosecutor for the 
term. William L. Hennick, with an alias, was sent to the peni- 
tentiary for eight years for grand larceny; R. Kinman and Fred 
erick Jennings each got two years for receiving stolen goods, and 
Franklin Palmer two years for forgery. In 1859 Henry Dickens 
was sent to the penitentiary for one year for larceny, and George 
Black received a three-years' sentence for a similar offense. Hal- 
lard Smith succeeded \V. K. Niblack on the bench in ts.")8, and 
he in turn was succeeded by M. F. Burke in 1859. Smith is 


described as ;i man of fine intellect and excellent literary tastes, 
and a brilliant and successful practitioner. The fiery eloquence, 
the ready mind, the sterling character, which are characteristic 
of his race — the Irish — were blended in Judge Burke. In 1801 
John Mitchell and W. Buyer each got a five-years' sentence for 
burglary. We submit the following as a reminiscence of the old 
"Straight Line:" 

March 2, 186:1 
John B. Hanna, Esq., Clerk: 

Please pay to H. W. DeWolf all money in your hands belonging to the 
Evansville, Indianapolis and Cleveland Railway Company, or to Gen. John 
Love, receiver of said Company, and oblige. Yours truly, 

W. E. Niblack. Attorney for Receiver. 

In 1805 John Baker received his commission as judge from 
Gov. O. P. Morton. About the same time William Mclntire and 
I. W. B. Moore were admitted to the bar and Warner Johns 
received a sentence to the penitentiary for three years for burg- 
lary, and Hugh Hopkins a $375 fine for assault and battery, with 
intent. G. G. Bailey and John H. Miller were granted permis- 
sion to practice law, and Madison Traylor received a ten-years' sen- 
tence for grand larceny, and Ferdinand Bangert got a five years' 
sentence for a like offense. The grand jury found that the court 
house "is old and worn out, and dilapidated in condition, and cannot 
in cold weather be warmed, and the offices are too small, and the jury 
say on oath that the commissioners have totally failed, neglected, 
refused and still refuse to provide better accommodations." At 
this time John Wilson was indicted for murder, but found "not 
guilty." Simpson McConnell got a $200 fine for assault and bat- 
tery, Moses Deadman a $50 fine, and William Scales was found 
by a jury to owe to the State $02 for the same offense. A com- 
mission was also issued to C. S. Dobbins as prosecutor of the 
Third Judicial Circuit, by O. P. Morton. 

The court in 1807, by jury, found "a gipsy" guilty on two 
counts, for betting on a horse race, and assessed him $5. George 
.A rgenbright, James P. Brumfield ami James Corn got $5 for 
backing their judgments on horse flesh with money. John 
Bundle and James Hart were domiciled two years at Jefferson- 
ville tor appropriating oilier persons' means to their own use. 
Scott Minnis was fined $5 for disturbing a religious meeting, and 
John Yeager threw himself upon the court for a similar offense. 


and got $10. Levi Fe -on was made prosecutor for the 
term, and owing to sickness of Judge Baker, W. C. Adair waa 
appointed iudge pro tern. 

A. Mr. Pdcliej was assassinated on his waj horn, from Otwell.' 
1 mt no one was ever punished for the crime, as it was never posi- 
tively known who did the deed ; however, strong suspicion pointeu 
to a certain individual as the author of the deed. Richey was an 
iirdenl temperance worker and labored hard againsl the whisk) 
interest, and it is supposed some of its votaries committed the 

George Boose was killed a short time before this whih alone in 
Lis cabin. The assassin had shot him while sitting before his 
tire. The shot came through a crack in the wall. John Ficklin 
was arrested and tried lor the crime, but was finally cleared, !mt 
the general feeling is that he was guilty. 

This case was tried in the Pike County Court, on a change of 
venue from Gibson, the change having been made on petition of 
the defendant. The plaintiff, Jaliza Embree, was living with the 
family of the d( fondant, Thomas Hull, who seduced her, and suit 
was brought for damage. The prominence of the defendant 
made the case one of no little interest. Be was lined in the sum of 
S2,.j()0 with costs. The case was hotly contested, and the best 
legal talent employed. In lsTl there vvas a contested election 
case between Joseph P. Glezen and J. W. Richardson for the 
office of countj clerk, which was decided in favor of Richardson. 
Dorus Bowlin was sent to the house of correction, until he should 
attain to the age of twent) years and five months for forgery. 
John Kinder got a two year's sentence for assault and battery, 
with intent. .1. (\ Shafer and E. 1'. Richardson were admitted 
to the bar of tin Pike Count) Court in L873. Daniel S. Osborn 
and (I. ( ). W'oltin each go! a two years 1 sentence; the latter foa 
murder in the second degree. During the same year E. A. Ely, 
William 11. May, J. E. McCulloch and A. II. Taylor, began prac- 
tice before the same bar, as also did Luther M. DeMott, of White 
County. Illinois. 

Murder Trials. An exciting murder trial was begun at tin 

1 i. i m of 1881, in which Dr. Frederick T. Ausl was charget 

with the murder of his brother-in-law, .lames Humphreys. Tin 

trouble was of a trivial, personal matter, Eoi which Aust waylaii 


and shot Humphreys. Aust was arrested and tried; the case 
began on June 0, 18S1, and ended oil September 27, of the same 
year. The case was hotly contested. A. H. Taylor, assisted by 
W. T. Townsend and J. E. McCulloch, appeared for the State, 
nnd E. A. Ely, C. H. Burton, F. B. Posey, J. W. Wilson and 
(Ten. James Shackelford, were engaged for the defense. The ver- 
diet was for murder in the first degree, and the jury fixed the 
penalty at hard labor for life. This was the first life sentence 
ever given in the county. Hard upon this case followed the 
case of the State against Henry Brenton, for the murder of 
George Morton. Brenton was of most excellent family relations, 
but had borne an unsavory reputation for some time. Young 
Brenton assassinated his pal Morton, as is said, to hide crimes for 
which themselves and others were guilty. Morton lived some 
time after he was shot, and clearly identified Brenton as his 
slayer. This case was also bitterly contested by the best legal 
talent; A. H. Taylor, F. B. Posey and J. W. Wilson were for the 
prosecution, and E. A. Ely, W. F. Townsend for the defense. 
Brenton also received a life sentence. This, as well as the pre- 
ceding, are being carried out. The case of Aust was tried before 
Francis Wilson, judge pro tern, and the case of Brenton lief ore 
Judge O. M. Welborn, in November of the same year. Both the 
above cases occurred at Winslow. A short time after these cases, 
the community was startled by the news that Samuel Heminger 
had killed Dr. Hornbrook, of Union. Hornbrook was accused of 
holding illicit relations with the wife of Heminger, which so 
frenzied him that he deliberately shot Hornbrook. The promi- 
nence of the deceased, made the case highly exciting. Heminger 
was quickly arrested, and after a strong defense made by Miller 
& Richardson and J. E. McCulloch, and as earnest a prosecution 
by Taylor, Ely, Townsend, Posey and Nelson, received a twenty- 
one year's sentence to the penitentiary. 

On Friday night about the close of December, 1883, the quiet 
of the citizens of Petersburg was disturbed by the quick discharge 
of two pistol shots, and the news that two had been messengers 
of death to Henry L. Custin, whose body was found near his own 
door, weltering in his life blood. Custin was in the service of 
Mr. C. E. Montgomery, who was believed to be the intended vic- 
tim. Suspicion pointed strongly to Charles Harvey as the author 


of the deed. He was followed to his home near Alfords, brought 
to town and had a preliminary trial, and was put in jail to await 
justice by the hands of the enraged people. The jail was broken 
open, Harvey was taken out and marched a short distance from 
the square, where the solemn "halt!" was called, and he was left 
dangling from a tree, and the chill winds sighed a sad requiem 
over the grave of his victim. Harvey's actions would seem to 
prove that "whom the gods would destroy, they first make mad." 
Another recent case of interest was the charge of arson against 
John Turner Wyatt, and a man named Hartley. The feeling was 
so strong against Wyatt, that no attorney of the place would 
take his case. All the leading attorneys were employed on the 
prosecution ; he was however ably defended by Gardner, Taylor and 
Ogden, of Washington. He received a sixteen years 1 sentence 
to the penitentiary, and Hartley a shorter term. Notwithstand- 
ing many old and high sounding legal terms were dropped at the 
adoption of the new code, and their places filled by more modern 
terms, yet no one can help but remark the great increase in the 
number of continuances and changes of venue, and demurrers 
entered, and the exceptions and appeals that have been taken 
within the last decade. 

Probate Court. — The first session of probate court was held 
November 3, 1817, and there were present the Hon. Arthur Har- 
bison and Henry Brenton. The first act was to approve the ap- 
pointment of Benjamin Bice as administrator of the estate of 
George Branson made by John Mclntire " in vacation. " The 
second was the appointment of John Johnson and Henry Brenton 
administrators of the estate of James Lindsey. And so on the 
record goes. The name probate implies its jurisdiction. Its 
judges were men gifted more in good sense and judgment than 
in the intricacies of law. Its last judges were James Hillman 
and H. A. Edwards. This court was abolished in lS.j'2 ami tin' 
common pleas court was created in its stead with somewhat sim- 
ilar powers. "It had original jurisdiction of all that class of of- 
fences which did nut amount to a felony, except those over which 
justices "I' the peace had exclusive jurisdiction. State prosecutions 
were instructed l>\ affidavit and information. Under certain restric- 
tions this court had jurisdiction over felonies where the punish- 
ment could nut lie death, and in no case was the intervention of a 


grand jury necessary. In all civil cases, except for slander, libel, 
breach of marriage, action on official of any State or county offi- 
cer, or where the title to real estate was involved, this court had 
concurrent jurisdiction with the circuit court, where the sum or 
damages due or demanded did not exceed $1,000 exclusive of 
interest and costs, and concurrent jurisdiction with justices of the 
peace, where the sum due or demanded exceeded $50. When the 
court was organized, appeals could be taken from it to the circuit 
court, but that right was afterward abolished, but appeals could 
be. taken to the supreme court, and its jurisdiction from time to 
time enlarged. The clerk and sheriff of the county operated in 
the common pleas as well as in the circuit court. The judge of 
this court was ex-officio judge of the court of conciliation. The 
court of conciliation had jurisdiction of cases of action for libel, 
slander, malicious prosecution, assault and battery and false im- 
prisonment, and extended to questions of reconciliation and com- 
promise only. No attorney was allowed to appear for his client 
before the court of conciliation, but the parties were required 
to appear before the judge apart from all other parties, except 
that an infant was required to appear by guardians and a female 
by her husband or friend. This branch of the court was 
abolished in 1867." The court of common pleas was abolished 
in 1873, and the entire business transferred to the circuit court 
as it now is. O. M. Welborn is now serving a third term as 
circuit judge, which is sufficient evidence of his popularity. 

The bench and bar of this circuit have been represented by 
men, who have made their mark as commanders in the army, in 
the legislative hall of the State and nation, on the supreme 
bench, and the executive chair of the State ; yet where there 
has been an "Oliver, it is believed there is still a Rowland." 



by prof. z. t. emerson. 

Military History— Revolution ry Soldiers — Survivors of the 
Mexican War— The Great Rebellion— Opening Scenes— War 
Meetings and Resolutions Adopted— The First Volunteers- 
Sketches of the Regiments— Recruiting— Interesting Local 
Events— Bounty and Relief— The Legion. 

EVERY nation whether savage or civilized justly prides itself 
in its military prowess. It is the stronghold of England, 
the pride of Germany, and the glory of France. The American 
soldiers too rank with any in the world. The history of the troops 
of the different States was hardly known in the various wars in 
which the United States has been engaged until the Civil war of 
1861. No other having attained such stupendous proportions, a 
separate history of each would have been difficult, but now Ave 
are able to trace the work of each county separately. At least 
two of the early settlers of this county were soldiers of the Revo- 
lution as will be seen by the following: 

Thomas Mead, a Revolutionary soldier, appeared in open court 
and pleaded the following declaration, to wit: 
Pike County. ) 

On the fifteenth day of August, A. D. 1832, personally appeared before the 
probate court of the county of Pike, Thomas Mead (alius Maid) resident of Pike 
County and State of Indiana, aged seventy eight years the 9th day of last April, 
who being first duly sworn according to law doth on his oath make the following 
declaration in order to obtain the benefit of the pension made by the act of Con- 
gress passed June 7th. 1832; That he enlisted in the army of the United States in 
the year 1776 with Capt. William T. Cole and served in the Fourth Regiment of 
the North Carolina line under the following officers: Col. Thomas Polk and 
William Lee Davidson; that he enlisted in Salisbury in the spring and marched 
from thence to Halifax, N. C in the summer of the same year and in about two 
weeks afterward returned to Salisbury under the command of Capt. Cole on a 
recruiting expedition, where we enlisted sixteen men. He believes Maj. Davidson 
had command of the recruiting district. Lieut. Gillespy and Ensign Hays were al 
tached to the recruiting party, al the same lime Capt. Charles Alexander wenl 
with a recruiting party to Meeklenburgh; in the fall following we returned to 
Halifax and joined Maj. Davidson's command. He was then by the solicitation 


Of Capt. Nicholas Long and by the consent of his officers transferred to the quar- 
termaster-general's department as a wagoner: as a wagoner he then made two 
trips to Wilmington and on his return the last time was sent or transferred to Gen. 
Ash's brigade as a wagoner to transport the General's baggage to the South; 
that he then was appointed wagon-master and went toCampbelltown. to Augusta 
and from there to Briery Creek and was in the battle of Briery Creek. The 
heavy baggage taken down on the east side of the river was saved, and that taken 
down on the west side of the river was lost, taken and destroyed by the enemy; 
his term of enlistment being for three years, had expired some time previous to 
the battle of Briery Creek, but he still remained with the army not being able to 
procure a discharge; from thence he went to Pusysburgh, he believes, in the 
summer of 17T9, where Gen. Ash commanded, anil was there discharged by Col. 
James Thaxton, who endorsed on his discharge that a year and a half's pay and 
clothing were due him. Col. Thaxton was enabled to do this in consequence of 
a certificate of enlistment in his (Mead's) possession, given him by Capt. Cole at 
the time he enlisted at his request, in order to enable him to guard against a 
practice believed to prevail in the army of enlisting men for a definite period and 
then reporting them as enlisting for during the war. He sent his discharge to 
Philadelphia by Col. Hunter for the purpose of securing his clothing and pay en- 
dorsed on the back thereof. Col. Hunter stated to him on his return that all 
that was deficient was a power of attorney in order to enable him lo succeed in 
procuring said pay and clothing; that he executed a power of attorney to said 
Hunter and that said Hunter on his return to Congress next year died, and that 
he has not since been able to procure his discharge and certificate. 

Col. Hunter was representative of District 96 of S. Congress. He here- 
by relinquishes every claim whatever to a pension or annuity, except the present; 
he declares that his name is not on the pension roll of any agency of any State. 

Thomas Mead. 

And the said court do hereby declare their opinion that the above mentioned 
applicant was a Revolutionary soldier and served as he states. 

M. \V Foster. Judge of Probate. 

Pike County. ) 

On the 13th day of August, A.D., 1832, personally appeared, James Bunter. 
aged sixty-eight, being duly sworn according to law, doth make the following 
declaration; that he served a third term the same year under Capt. Joseph 
Kuagka and Lieut. Benjamin Logan. They started from Harrodsburgh and 
then went to Bryant's Station, then to Blue Licks, and buried the dead slain in 
the battle of the Blue Licks. He has no documentary evidence, and that he 
knows of persons whose testimony he can procure who can testify to his service; 
he has a record x>( his age now in his possession which he copied from his 
father's record. James Brenton. 

Sworn to and subscribed the day and year aforesaid. 

M. W. Fostek, Judge of Probate. 

Iii addition to those Mrs. Fanny Fisher, who is still living, 
draws a pension tor the services of her husband in the Revo- 
lutionary war; as also did Mrs. Wheatley until a few years since. 
There wore two soldiers from this county in the Black Hawk 
war. Fielding Johnson, and Harrison Johnson, who is still living 
in the county. 


For the Mexican war a whole company was tendered the Go*, 
eminent, but communication with the department was Lnconveui- 

ent and the quota of the State was full before they were received. 
The following succeeded in getting mustered into other compan- 
ies: John Ficklin, John Bilderback, S. Sullivan, Reuben Long, 
and Jonathan Poe and possibly one or two more. The three last 
named served in the late war and are still living, Sullivan being 
now trustee of Marion Township. 

The Great Rebellion. — Over the memorable events that occur- 
red from 1800 to 1865 the feelings and sentiments of the people 
were worked up to the intensest pitch. Some favored war, some 
opposed. The following abridged resolution from the majority re- 
port on the resolution on the "State of the Union 11 read in the 
State Senate of 1861-62 will illustrate the feelings of the extreme 
anti-war party in the State at that time. The resolution was read 
by Mr. Tarkington: 

Resolved, That the State of Indiana cannot but deplore the sectional mad- 
ness and party prejudice that would suffer the dismemberment of this con- 
federacy; that she takes great pride in declaring to her sister States that her 
Legislature has not been stained by military law orpoisoned by liberty bills; that 
while Indiana is firmly attached to the Union, yet in frankness, she is bound to 
say that the grievances that the people of the South have suffered at the hands of 
the North, and by the election of a sectional president, furnishes them good 
grounds for demanding concessions and new guarantees for the safety of her 
institutions; that she seconds the efforts of the Executive in his efforts to enforce 
the law by civil processes. 

The war party at the same time 

Resolved, That the declaration of secession, peaceable or forcible, now or at 
any other time, is a dangerous heresy, fraught with all the evil consequences of 
civil war and bloodshed, and leading directly to the overthrow of all our free 
institutions. That finally, in the language of the old hero of New Orleans, "The 
Union, it must and shall be preserved. " 

The pending events were brought to a culmination, when on 
Friday morning at 4 four o'clock, of April 12, 1861, the first gun 
was opened on Fort Sumter, and sounded around the world as the 
opening of one of the must gigantic wars of history. 

On Sunday morning, April 1 1, the news reached the capital 
of the State that Fort Sumter had fallen. On the morning of 
the 15th the wires flashed back this message from "Indiana's war 



ih on I ■ icoln, Prei 


• »_/ ,',, ? ailed Stales: 

behalf of the !?tul 

e of 

Indiana I tender to yo 

; to uphold the 


arity of the govemmen 



iapoijs, April l.i | si; 

i, for the defensi i>l . 
. ten th oisn "' men 
Oi.ivei! P. Mob con, 
Governor of India' , 

The war spirit seemed to revive, and at once ••like the sun- 
light, the -war fever" permeated every locality, and the -o! 1 
Hug" at once became s-icred and was proudly displayed from everj 
house.'" On the call of the President for 75.000 men. uo regular 
organized body responded, as the county was cut off from railroad 
and telegraphic communication with the departments, but there 
were a few men in the Ninth, a number in the Thirteenth Regi- 
ment : Louis Bolton and five others in Compauj A. two in 13. and 
two in G; George Sigenhigh and George Miller, both of whom 
lived to be mustered out in 18C5. The Seventeenth Regiment 
was represented by twenty-seven men from Pike County. The 
men went to Indianapolis as recruits, and were attached to Com- 
pany A. This company was detached and formed the Twenty - 
sixth Battery; Wilders and only a part of those from this county 
remained with the regiment. The regiment was organized at 
Camp Morton during May. L8bl, and was mustered into the 
United States service on the 12th of June. 18(51, and left imme- 
diately for the seat of war in the east. It was in various skir- 
mishes in Maryland and West Virginia, including the battle of 
Greenbrier: was 'transferred to Gen. Buell's army in Kentucky 
where it arrived on the 30th of November; participated in skir- 
mishes and marches all through Kentucky and Tennessee. Febru- 
ary 1"-! the regiment had orders to mount itself, which it did by 
foraging and pressing horses, and on the IMh of May it was 
armed with the celebrated Spencer rirle. thus making each man 
etp.ial to sixteen of the enemy. The regiment fought a hard hat- 
tie with the enemy at Hooker's (lap. on the 24th of June, ami 
captured 75 prisoners and 125 stand of anus, losing itself 4S 
killed and wounded. It was engaged almost constantly with 
the cavalry of the eneni) during Rosecrans' advance, and 
participated in the bloody battle of Chickamaugn on the I'.Uli 
and 20th of September. They were engaged in scouting and 
guarding communications, and threatening those of the ene- 


my during the siege of Chattanooga, and assisted Burnside at 

Knoxville. In January. 1804, a majority of the regiment re- 
enlisted as veterans, and on the 22d of the month left for Indian- 
apolis, where they arrived mi the 24th. They were addressed 
there by Gov. Morton and Col. Wilder. They were remounted 
while in Indiana, and on the 2tl of April left Indianapolis by rail 
for Louisville; camped there till the L8th, and then started for 
Nashville on horseback, where they arrived on the 25th, a dis- 
tance of 18f) miles. They left Nashville on the uext day. and 
joined Sherman's army on the 10th of May. The regiment was 
actively engaged during the entire Atlanta campaign. Later it 
was remounted, and was with Gen. Wilson on his raid through 
Alabama and Georgia. On the 1st of April, 1865, the regiment 
fought with Wheeler and Roddy, twenty-nine miles from Selma. 
and raptured 100 prisoners and 1 gun, sustaining a loss of 
8 killed. 11 wounded and 5 missing. On the 2d of the same 
month the Seventeenth was in the engagement at Selma, and 
captured 4 guns and 300 prisoners. Out of 421 engaged, the 
regiment lost 12 killed and so wounded. On the 20th, at Macon, 
the regiment deceived the enemy as to their number, and the 
city surrendered, with Gens. Howell. Cobb, McCall, Mercer and 
G. W. Smith, and 8.(100 prisoners, a stands of colors. 60 pieces 
of artillery, and 3,000 small arms. During its time of service 
the Seventeenth inarched over 4.000 miles, captured over 5,000 
prisoners, more than 6,000 stands of small arms, 70 pieces of artil- 
lery, and 11 stands of colors. All this was done with a loss of 3 
officers and 66 men killed, and 13 officers and 176 men wounded. 
making a total loss of 258. 

Twenty-fourth Regiment. It was now dear that the war would 
go on, and that it would be no child's play matter, so the people 
set themselves to work to raise their portion of the 200,000 
call. Old men bending with age, men in the strength of 
manhood, matrons and beautiful maidens, all with one purpose 
went to work in earnest. War was the talk at the fireside, at 
church, at the shop, at the place of business. War meetings were 
held in the various townships, and appeals of fiery eloquence were 
made 1>\ local speakers and patriotic songs sung \>\ the ladies. 
At Winston 8 war meeting was held, and among other speakers 
was the Rev. Agae, who had come from Tennessee with his fain 


ily. After an earnest appeal, lie said: "I am too old for the serv- 
ice, this boy is too young, but my other boy I consecrate for tin- 
good of my country." The meeting and community were so elec- 
trified that not only one, but two full companies were soon organ- 
ized. They were intended for the Seventeenth, but that regiment 
being ready before these companies were full, quarters were fur- 
nished them in Morgan's warehouse, where they were cheerfully 
fed by the patriotic people of the town and vicinity until com- 
munication should be had with the authorities as to what dispo- 
sition should be made of them. When orders were received they 
were taken to Yincennes and formed a part of the Twenty-fourth. 

This regiment was organized and mustered into the service 
July 31, 1861. Alvin P. Hovey was first chosen colonel; on his 
promotion, "William T. Spicely was made colonel. He, however, had 
been previously promoted from a major to a lieutenant-colonelcy, 
Other lieutenant-colonels were John Guber, killed at Shiloh, Rich- 
ard F. Baxter and John F. Grill. 

Simeon R. Henderson, of Petersburg, was adjutant of the 
regiment from May 1, 1861 to November 18, 1864, and William 
H. Posey was for a time quar term aster. The company ofiicers 
of Company ••£," were Samuel R. Morgan, John E. Phillips, F. 
M. Downey, Thomas J. Reed, and John M. Lemon, captains; 
John E. Phillips, S. D. Bateman, T. J. Reed, John M. Lemon, 
and William S. McGowan, first lieutenants; John T. Deweese. 
G. D. Bateman, T. J. Reed, and John M. Lemon, second lieu- 
tenants. The non-commissioned officers of the company were as 
follows: First sergeant, George D. Bateman; other sergeants 
were J. H. Scott, W. H. Posey, afterward quartermaster, S. R. 
Henderson, F. M. Downey. Corporals, J. M. Rose, William H. 
Kelley, J. M. Lemon, Aaron Grider, George Hopkins, David 
Power, William Lowerlass and T. J. Reed. John Coursey and 
John W. Rose were musicians, and John Haddock, wagoner. 
The company numbered ninety-eight men, beside commissioned 
officers, and the recruits that were received while in the service. 
The company lost James A. Woods, S. C. Harris, and Joel Han- 
nah, killed in battle; and John Elliott, John Bredenbaugh, Joe 
Collins, W. C. Cooper, George Hopkins, William Howard, H. H. 
McCain, Sam McBride, Abram Pea, F. A. Stanford, Calvin Reese, 
Thomas Turner, E. B. Woods, Lindsey Taylor, Joseph K. Brown, 


Harrison Harberson, Thomas Johnson, and Lewis McGowan, died 
from sickness or wounds. Company H consisted of ninety- 
eight enlisted men and twenty recruits. The company officers 
were William S. Merrick and J. B. Hutchins, captains; first 
lieutenants, J. B. Hutchins, J. T. Jones and George E. Mer- 
chant; second lieutenants, J. T. Jones, and Thaddeus Withers. 
Kasper Cohlhepp was killed at Shiloh, and Thomas Bryant mor- 
tally wounded; L. De LaMater, N. T. Evans, William Gamble, 
James Hancock, Burwell Hardin, Thomas Tully, and Levi 
Stephens gave up their lives at Champion Hills. The following 
died of disease or wounds: George F. Argenbright, W. C. Bren- 
ton, Bardine Casender, Thomas Harbison, H. H. Hedge, Zach. 
Hedge, Allen Rhodes, J. B. Brown, Henry Fickling, John Over- 
ton, William Overton, W. S. Seaborn, J. W. Evans, Arthur 
Hutchins, George Vickers, Elisha Wheatley, James Fisher, C. G. 
Hickman, R. J. Stone, William Stroud, and others who doubtless 
ended their lives in rebel prisons. Of this company, E. H. Tray- 
lor was first sergeant, and George E. Merchant, T. C. Withers, 
E. S. Crow, and L. De LaMater were sergeants. 

On the 19th of August, 1861, the regiment left Vincennes for 
the seat of war in Missouri, and was placed under command of Gen. 
Fremont, doing duty in the interior of the'State until Februarv. 
1862, when it was ordered to reinforce the army under Gen. 
Grant, but did not arrive at Paducah until one day after the sur- 
render of Fort Donelson. The regiment was with Grant at the 
bloody battle of Shiloh, in which Kasper Cohlhepp was killed and 
Thomas Bryant mortally wounded, including the gallant Maj. 
Gerber. On May 14, 1862, Maj. Spicely was made colonel of 
the regiment, Col. Hovey having been made brigadier-general. 
The regiment participated in the slow and laborious siege of 
Corinth under Halleck, until its evacuation in June, and was 
then transferred to Memphis; in July it was moved to Helena, 
Ark., where it remained during the fall and winter, doing 
guard and other duty. In the spring of 1863 it was placed in 
Hovey's division of the Thirteenth Corps of Grant's army; 
then actively engaged in the siege of Yiekslmrg. This reg- 
iment was with Grant in the celebrated march around Vicks- 
burg, in the battles of Port Gibson and Champion Hills. In the 
desperate fighting at the latter place, Company H. alone lost six 


men killed. During the siege the regiment was in the trenches 
from May 19 to July 4. 

After the capitulation the regiment was carried by water to 
New Orleans. In the fall of 1863, the regiment did duty at New 
Iberia, and later at Algiers near New Orleans'," when on the 1st 
of January, 18(54, the regiment "veteranized," and in a short 
time returned home on furlough. During the year 1864, the 
regiment did duty at various points in Louisiana, and while sta- 
tioned at Morganza in December was consolidated with the Sixty- 
seventh, a new organization, but still retained the original name. 
In January, 186.5, it was transferred to Barrancas, Fla., and there 
remained until the movement against Mobile was begun in April, 
under Gen. Canby. It took part in the battles near Blakely, and 
by assault was the first to plant its colors on the works of the 
enemy. After the defeat of the enemy the regiment was sent 
first to Selma, Ala., and thence transferred to Galveston, Tex. 
Here, July 1(5, it was reorganized as a battalion of five compa- 
nies. The time of the older soldiers having expired they were 
mustered out of the service and sent home, and received a public 
reception at Indianapolis, August 4, 1865. The number of men 
and officers returned was 310. 

Ttvcidij-Sevrnlh B<ind. — The regiment to which this band be- 
longed was organized at Indianapolis, August 30, 1861, and was 
mustered into the service on the 12th of September, and on the 
15th started for Washington City, and in a short time was trans- 
ferred to Banks' army in the Shenandoah. It remained in win- 
ter quarters at Camp Halleck, near Frederick, Md., from whence 
it moved in March, 1862, across the Potomac into the Shenan- 
doah valley. It joined in the pursuit of Jackson's army after his 
defeat at Winchester Heights, and was engaged at the battle of 
Front Royal, on the 23d of May, and formed a part of the column 
that made the famous retreat from Strasburg to Winchester, and 
on the 25th was in the furious battle in which the brigade to which 
the Twenty-seventh belonged, withstood the assault of twenty- 
eight rebel regiments for three hours and a half and repulsed 
them. It assisted in an attempt to check a flank movement on 
the right, but the rebels had massed in such force that it was 
compelled to fall back into the town, fighting the enemy in the 
public streets. The regiment afterward crossed the Potomac at 


Williamsport, the 20th of May. The Government finding that 
regimental bands were not as effective in subduing rebels as 
guns, the boys were soon after discharged John Q. Trafzer was 
principal musician. The boys returned home, but many of them 
afterward joined other regiments and did effective service. 

In the fall of 1861, the fires of patriotism were burning 
warmer than ever, and old Pike was doing her tint}- nobly and her 
sturdy yeomanry were enlisting to maintain the honor of the 
"old flag." Col. James Shanklin of Evansville, W. T. B. Mcln- 
tire and Dr. A. K. Byrer were particularly active in soliciting vol- 

Nearly two whole companies were raised but only one was 
mustered as a company with Forty-second. James G. Jones 
William T. B. Mclntire and Gideon R. Kellams, were colonels of 
the regiment; Charles Denby, James G. Shankles, W. T. B. 
Mclntire, Gideon R. Kellams and William M. Cockrum were 
lieutenant-colonels in theorder named. There were Majs. Shanklin, 
Mclntire, French. Kellams and Scammahorn. The men were en- 
listed and allowed to remain at home until the company was full 
and then they were taken to Princeton in carriages by their friends 
and then by train to Evansville. The company officers were 
W. T. B. Mclntire and John Burch, captains ; A. R. Byrer. Hugh 
I', oner, William Davidson and J. B. T. Dearing, first lieutenants; 
Hugh Penner, John Burch, William F. Caldwell and William 
Allison, second lieutenants. The company originally consisted 
of ninety-seven enlisted men and two regimental officers, and re- 
ceived at different times 105 recruits, besides there were a larg 
number of recruits in Company G. The regiment was organized 
at Evansville, October 9, and soon after left for the seat of war, 
passing Eenderson, Calhoun, Owensboro, thence to Nashville, 
and Huntsville, back to Nashville and Louisville, and then joined 
in the pursuit of Bragg, fought in the battle of Perryville, losing 
160 in killed, wounded and missing, Miles C. Barret being one 
of the killed. The regiment \v<-nt with Rosecrans' army to Nash- 
ville thence to Murfreesboro took pail in that bloody battle on 
December 31, 1802, and Januarj 2, L863, losing 17 killed and sT 
wounded. It then wen! into camp until June -i. when Rose- 
cra'ns began his advance upon Chattanooga. On September 19 
and "JO. it was engaged in the terrihlc struggle at C'hickamauga, 


the river of death, losing Skilled. 53 wounded and 32 missing 
•)3 in ulL 

Among tlic badly wounded was Col. Cockrum, who was cap- 
tured but lived to be mustered out with the regiment. In Janu- 
ary, 1864, tlic regiment re-enlisted as veterans, returned home on 
furlough, was welcomed by Morton in behalf of the State, and 
in March returned to the field, engaged in the Atlanta campaign, 
losing 103 in killed, wounded and missing. At Six Mile Range 
near Allatoona the regiment was on picket duty, within fifty yards 
of the enemy, seven days and nights without relief. 

The regiment was in the pursuit of Hood, the •'march to the 
sea," through the Carolinas, losing ten men, passed from Golds 
bon to Richmond on to Washington, thence to Louisville, where 
July 21, it was mustered out and left for Indianapolis, and on the 
25th was given a public reception at which Gen. Sherman was 
present. During its term of service the regiment was engaged 
in 20 battles and lost 86 killed on the field, 443 wounded and 1 00 
prisoners — 629 in all. When mustered out the regiment num- 
bered 846 men. 

Opinion of the Reporter 's Correspondence. — The following 
earnest appeal appeared in The Reporter of August 13, 1861: 

"This may be said to be 'a time that tries men's souls" — 
rebels and traitors conspire to destroy this once happy, peaceful 
and heaven favored republic and to establish anarchy and despot- 
ism on its ruins. . They have combined all their energies and 
schemes to subvert the national Government that has ever blessed 
them, a flag that has ever protected them and a people that has 
never wronged them. They have raised their unholy hands to 
^ull down and destroy the tree of liberty that was planted by our 
pilgrim fathers and nurtured by the blood of our Revolutionary 
sires. And whilst these ungodly rebels and perjured traitors are 
moving earth and hell for the accomplishment of their unholy 
purposes and damnable designs, all true men stand ready to sustain 
the officers of the Government to put down this accursed rebellion 
It is true that all patriotic citizens are not expected or required 
to enter the field of blood, but there is no neutrality in this con- 
test. They who are not for their country openly and uncondi- 
tionally are against it. * * * * The man that shows no evi- 
dence of concern for the success of our arms, who hangs his head 


like a bull-rush at the defeat of rebels and never looks cheerful 

when our arms arc successful, talks of defeat with indiffer- 
ence, that man. rest assured, is a black-hearted traitor. And 
strange as it may appear, we have a few such individuals among 
us. Let such be watched with jealous eye, let all loyal citi- 
zens withdraw from such an one their custom, patronage and 
social intercourse — let the mark of Cain fall and fasten upon 
his visage, that his guilt may be manifest to all- -let the ghosts 
of Judas and Arnold haunt him in his midnight slumber and 
attend him as his destroying angel as he wanders to and fro a 
guilty fugitive. Ah, let Satan blush and devils bewail the fact, 
that there are men viler, blacker and more hell-deserving than 
themselves." G. * * * * * 

The Fifty-eighth Regiment— For the Fifty-eighth Regiment 
Pike County furnished two whole companies — G and I — and there 
were men of this county in every company of the regiment except 
one or two. The company officers of G were W. H. Donahey, 
Nathan Evans and J. E. Chappell, captains; S. H. Spillman. Joseph 
Grant. Nathan Evans, R, P. Craft, J. E. Chappell ami Robert 
Cromwell, first lieutenants; George Labanee, Sasser Sullivan, J. 
S. Ewing, J. E. Chappell, Robert Cromwell and J. W. Simpson, 
second lieutenants. Of I were Jackson M. Kinman and William 
E. Chappell, captains; the first lieutenants were W. E. Chappell, 
Quincy A. Harper and T. J. Smith; second lieutenants, L. R. 
Hargrave, R. A. Ward and M. S. Chappell. Capt. Donahey. of 
G, resigned, and Evans succeeded him till March, 1865, when 
Chappell remained with the company. Lieuts. Grant and Sul- 
livan were dismissed in 1862. G mustered at first 83 enlisted 
men, and received 73 recruits. Company I had originally 85 
men, and received 76 recruits. Of 11 officers but 4 were dis- 
charged with the company — 3 had died, and the others were dis- 
charged. Twenty -seven privates died of disease and 3 were killed ; 
80 non-commissioned officers and privates were discharged for vari- 
ous causes, and 6 deserted. The regiment was organized at 
Princeton in October under Col. H. M. Carr. It joined Buell's 
forces at Louisville, passed slowly through Kentucky during the 
u inter, arrived at Nashville in March, reached Shiloh Monday 
evening after the right of April 6 and 7, joined in the siege of 
Corinth till its capture, returned to Louisville, passing through 


northern Alabama, Shelbyville, Tenn., Dechard, Nashville, ami 
joined in the pursuit of Bragg from Louisville ; had a slight skir- 
mish at Lavergne ; fought two days at the battle of Stone River. 
losing 110 men, 18 of whom were killed. It was in the brig- 
ade that first entered Chattanooga; fought through the entire 
battle of Chickamauga, losing 171 men out of 400 engaged — vol- 
umes for its bravery. It sealed Mission Ridge on November 23. 
in front of 18 guns, and lost 06 men. It immediately start 
ed for Knoxville to assist . in relieving Burnside. After the 
siege was raised it encamped among the hills of east Tennessee; 
fed on scanty rations, and on January 24 re-enlisted and returned 
home on furlough. In April was assigned to the engineer de- 
partment. In October 170 veterans of the Tenth were assigned 
to the Fifty-eighth. They did all the bridging for Slierman 
during the Atlanta campaign ; was assigned to Slocum's command 
in the "march to the sea," bridging the Savannah, 3,000 feet in 
width. In December, 1804, the non-veterans returned home. At 
Sister's Ferry, in February, 1805, they bridged the Savannah, 
working six days and nights in water from two to four feet deep. 
They made in the campaign over 10,000 feet of bridges. After the 
surrender they went with the army to Washington, bridging riv- 
ers as they went, and were in the grand review. They arrived in 
Louisville, July 25, where, they were mustered out. They were 
given a reception at Indianapolis on the 27th. The regiment lost 
in battle and by disease 2(55 men. (War presents comic as well as 
tragic pictures. The Fifty-eighth had just left Princeton after 
having received the blessings of friends and a New Testament 
from the hands of the Rev. McMasters; the train had just left 
the station ; friends were there ; a rustic lass was weeping ; a sym- 
pathetic individual interposed to know the cause. Between her 
sobs she said: "The boys are all gone to war." "But there are 
plenty left." "Yes," said she, "but they are not worth a durn.") 
The next troops for the service from Pike were Company G, 
of the Sixty-fifth. This was raised under the July call of 1802. 
The company officers of the company were J. M. Hammond, J. H. 
Keys and S. K. Leavitt, captains; first lieutenants, -1. H. F>;iss. 
Miles Chambers, R. K. Davidson and Jacob A l !:■■•. second 
lieutenants, N. L. Critser, Thomas Hornbrook, < i I'i ton and 
George W. Parker; A. R. Byers was first assistani irgeon. 


The company had eighty-one enlisted men, and received twenty- 
one recruits. Of the officers Leavitt, McAtee and Parker only 
were mustered out with the regiment, and only sixty out of the 
one hundred and one privates. Of these John Alkaline and E. W. 
Frederick were killed in battle. Jacob Simpson, Lewis Brumfield, 
James Butler, James J. Conrad, John Connett, Henry Dorset, 
Harrison Dunning, David Denney, Charles C. Fowler, Richard 
Kinman, E. F. Meek, J. A. Steele, W. H. Tooley and B. F. 
Shaver died in the service, and George H. Sills, William Masters 
and Henry Hillman were starved in prison. The regiment was 
mustered on the 18th and 20th of August, with John W. Foster 
as colonel. The regiment first went to Henderson to guard 
against guerillas; on the 27th embarked for Green River, disem- 
barked at Ashbyville, marched all night and attacked Adam 
Johnson's rebel regiment, with loss to the enemy ; captured Madi- 
sonville, and the companies were distributed in different parts of 
the State. At Glasgow, the regiment was attached to Graham's 
brigade of cavalry, and in April was mounted by order of Gen. 
Burnside. After a few skirmishes, it was ordered to east Ten- 
nessee, being among the first troops to arrive there. It made a 
raid of 110 miles above Knoxville, on the 20th of September; 
fought the enemy at Tellieo on the 22d; again at Bluntsville 
losing 13 men, John Alkaline being killed ; and again at Rhea- 
town on the 11th of October; and on the 15th at Bristol. On the 
1st of December, at Walker's Ford, it lost 12 men. The regi- 
ment had a fight with Longstreet's infantry at Bean Station on 
December 14th, losing 17 men; the next day at Powder Spring 
Gap, 14 men were lost; again the same day at Skagg's Mills, 3 
were lost; at Dandridge, on thel7th, 1 man was mortally wounded 
On the 21st of April, 1869, the regiment was dismounted and 
assigned to the Second Brigade, Third Division and Twenty- 
third Army Corps, participated in the engagement in the Atlanta 
campaign and pursuit of Hood, losing 39 men in all. It was at 
Columbia, Franklin and at Nashville. In . January it was trans- 
ferred to Alexandria, Va. ; thence to near Wilmington ; was en- 
gaged nt Fort Anderson and other minor jxiints.. After the sur- 
render of Johnson, the regiment was mustered out June 22, 1865. 
Soon it returned to Indianapolis and was discharged. The regi- 
ment lost during its term of service, 26 killed, 86 wounded and 


CI prisoners. The next organized body of troops for the war 
from Pike wen' those of Company H. of the Eightieth. 

This company was organized under the July call of 1862. 
Sasser Sullivan, an old soldier of the Mexican war. also a volun- 
teer before this time in the war of the Rebellion, was, to a great 
extent, instrumental in raising this company. It was almost 
entirely enlisted at Wihslow. The men w-ere from that place and 
vicinity. The commissioned officers ai first were W. H. H. Joy. 
captain: J. J. Collins, first lieutenant; ; nd James F. Ruark, sec- 
ond lieutenant. On the resignation of ('apt. Ivy, the office was 
tendered James S. Epperson, of Company F. but declined, and 
.cis then ^iven to Joseph P. Glezen.. Lieut. Collins resigned in 
March. 1st;:;, and J. P. Glezen was made capti in and then second 
lieutenant; Q. C. Ashby was made first lieutenant, hut was mus- 
tered out May 15, 18(55, from the loss of a leg. The sergeants be- 
sides those whose names have been mentioned in connection 
with commissions, were George C. Dearirig, M. M. Frambles 
and Willis Brewster. The company consisted of 101 enlisted 
men and a full line of commissioned officers. The regi- 
ment was rendezvoused at Princeton in August and September of 
1862, and left camp on September 8th; was first taken to 
Covington, Ky., and then to Louisville, and placed in BuelTs 
army to oppose the threatened attack of Bragg. Just one month 
after leaving Princeton, the regiment fpught in the battle of Per- 
rwille. in which Nathan Beadles, of Company H, was killed 
and Milton Spaggins mortally wounded. The regiment lost in 
the engagement 150 men and officers. After Bragg had 
left Kentucky, the regiment remained doing guard duty or chas- 
ing Morgan till August IS, 1863, when, with Burnside's 
army, it passed through Cumberland Gap into east Tennessee; 
was at the siege of Knoxville; at the battle of Kingston and 
Mossy Creek, and in the spring of 1864, formed a part of Sher- 
man's army, under Gen. Schofield. It was at Resaca, Kenesaw, 
Peach Tree Creek, and the fights about Atlanta, sustain- 
ing a loss of 175 in killed and wounded; then joined in 
the pursuit of Hood until that was abandoned; then was de- 
tached with the Twenty-third Corps a- a part of Thomas' 
army. On the 30th of November, it was at the desperately 
fought battle of franklin, and again on the loth and 16th of 


December at Nashville. After the annihilation of Hood's army, 
it was transferred by rail and water to North Carolina, was con- 
spicuous at Fort Anderson, took part in the campaigns against 
Wilmington, Kingston, Goldsboro and Raleigh. Three hundred 
and twenty of the regiment were present for discharge, and a 
reception at State House Grove given by Martin, Hovey and 
others. During its term of service, the regiment sustained a loss 
of 325 men and officers killed and wounded, and 2 prisoners, 
and traveled 7,245 miles, of which nearly 4,000 were on foot. 

The quota of Indiana under calls of the President for July 7 
and August 5, each for 300,000 men was 42,500, but was filled 
by volunteers, except a fraction over 6,000 which was to be filled by 
a general draft on the 6th of October. Accordingly, prepara- 
tions were made for that event. Henry B. Custin was appointed 
draft commissioner; R. Hanel, marshal, and John W. Posey, 
surgeon. The enrolling officer presented the following statement 
on September 19, 1862, for the county: Total militia, 1,386; 
volunteers in the service, 891; number subject to draft, 1,157. 
Volunteering had continued up to the time of the draft, so that 
there was a deficiency in but one township, Lockhart, of eleven 
men. Enrolling board for the First District, to which Pike then 
belonged were; Provost Marshal Blythe Hynes, succeeded in 
May, 1864, by C. K. Drew, and he by James W. Hartman in 
August, and in November, Alvah Johnson received the office; 
William G. Ralston was surgeon. Under the call of October, 
1863, the quota of the State was 18,597, and of the county 118, but 
owing to the energetic efforts of friends to the cause the number 
was furnished, the men going to the various old regiments 
already in the field and were incorporated with them. 

Indiana Legion. — Under orders of the governor, the State 
was divided into districts for military purposes, the men being 
formed into companies, regiments and brigades, ready to be called 
'in case of invasion as was almost continually threatened. There 
were two companies organized in the county, one the Petersburg 
Guards, August 7, 1862, and the Jefferson Home Guards, August 
l'J. L862. These, however, were never called into service. 

One Hundredand Twenty-Fifth Regiment. — In October, L863, 
the President issued a call for 300,000 men, and the first organ- 
ized body under the call furnished by the county was Company 


F, of the Tenth Cavalry (One Hundred and Twenty-Fifth Regi- 
ment). The officers of the company were: A. H. Alexander, cap- 
tain; E. F. Littlepage, first lieutenant, and William L. Shaw. 
Lemuel L. Kelso, second lieutenants. The company mustered 
111 men and received 1 recruit. The Tenth was recruited 
in the fall and winter of 1803, but was not mustered into 
the service until January 8, 1864. The men rendezvoused 
at Vincennes and Columbus. The regiment did not leave 
the State till May 3, 1804. They went dismounted and were 
stationed at Pulaski, Tenn., and Decatur, Ala., guarding the 
Northern Alabama Railroad during the Atlanta campaign. They 
had several skirmishes with the rebels under Redely, Wheeler and 
Forrest. At Pulaski, on September 28. in an t^igagement with 
Wheeler, the regiment lost •")() men. A detachment under Mayor 
Williamson fought Hood's forces at Decatur four days and 
lost, 4 killed and 8 wounded. A portion of the regiment under 
Col. Gresham fought at Nashville, Little Harpeth, Reynold's 
Hill and Sugar Creek, and lost, 8 killed, 43 wounded, and 75 cap- 
tured. The regiment in these various engagements captured 4 colors, 
300 prisoners and their arms from the enemy. In December and Jan- 
uary Williamson's detachment fought at Flint River, Indian Creek, 
Courtland and Mount Hope, and captured from the enemy 10 
pieces of artillery, 130 men, 130 wagons, and 300 mules. In 
February, 1865, the detachments were reunited and sent down 
the Mississippi to New Orleans, thence to Mobile and assisted in 
its capture. The Tenth proceeded to Eufaula and Montgomery, 
Ala., thence to Columbus and Vicksburg, Miss., and arrived at 
the latter place in July. The regiment did guard-duty the re- 
maining portion of its time. In April, the regiment lost 38 
men in the explosion of the "■Sultana," and in May, 1867, 5 
killed and 75 wounded in a collision on the Louisville <fe Nash- 
ville Railroad. The Tenth was mustered out on 31st of Au- 
gust, 1865, arrived in Indianapolis on the 5th of September, with' 
28 officers and 519 men for discharge, and was honored with a 
dinner and reception. 

The heavy drain on the country in men and money, the tre- 
mendous tension to which the minds had been held so long, were 
well calculated to cool the ardor of the friends of the Administra- 
tion and embolden its enemies, and it had some enemies in every 



portion of the State; but be it said to the credit of Pike County, 
there was little outspoken disloyalty and barring one possible 
exception there were no overt acts. The tires of patriotism burned 
anew, the songs and blessings of patriotic women, the speeches 
of brave men who had been to the front and made bare their 
breasts to the storm of battle, and had endured the hardships of 
camp life, or told how their comrades had rotted with loathsome 
diseases or starved in rebel hells, as they showed an empty sleeve 
or leaned upon crutches, told in burning words the country's 
peril, and cried out in thunder touts, the Macedonian call, "come 
over and help us." The aggregate of the President's calls of all 
classes, of February 1. March 14. April 23 and July 18, ls»<4:, 
amounted to 083,000 men. Old soldiers were furloughed home. 
recruiting officers visited every precinct in the county and State, 
recruiting became quite brisk and nearly all of the old regiments 
filled their much depleted ranks. For the coming draft, and 
other needs of the Government, the following changes had taken 
place in the offices of the county: P. C. Hammond had succeeded 
H. B. Custin as draft commissioner; Goodlet Morgan had taken 
the place of R. Harrell as marshal, and Harrell had become 
assistant revenue collector. To the energy and efficiency of these 
officers does the county owe a great deal for her splendid showing 
in sending forth so many men. The following statement shows 
the condition of the county by townships, for the year 1864, ex- 
cept the call of December: 


























1 ockhart 


One Hundred <m<l Forty-Third Regiment. — Under the final 
call for troops of December L9, L864, one company, I. was raised 
in tlii> county. The officers were as follows: Ira J. Burch, cap- 



iain; Benjamin F. Laswell, first lieutenant, and Willis M. Cole- 
man, William E. Haynes, second lieutenants. This regiment 
was mustered into the service on February 21, 1865, at Indian- 
apolis, under Col. John F. Grill, and left for Nashville on the 
24th. It went to Murfeesboro and remained till May, doing 
guard duty, till it was sent to Tullahoma, thence to Nashville, 
thence to Clarksville, after which a portion went to Fort Donelson. 
The regiment was soon after brought together at Nashville and 
mustered out on 21st of October, 1805. It arrived at Indian- 
apolis with thirty officers and 691 men, was publicly received and 
mustered out. 

The followin 

g is 



af Pike for the 

ast call 



2 2 

T. '- 















II Hi 




































Not counting the number who went irregularly, and leaving out 
the One Hundred and Fifty-second and the Thirty-sixth Battery 
there is a showing for the county of 1,763 men being a surplus over 
all calls of forty-eight men. This is a splendid showing for the 
county and well illustrates her patriotism and self-sacrifices for the 
cause. The roll of honor of the dead, is long but their memory is 
not forgotten, 

Aid to Soldiers and their Families. — In July, 1861, the 
county commissioners ordered the township trustees to supply 
widows, children or wives of volunteer soldiers with supplies at 
the rate of 75 cents for each head of family, 40 cents for each 
child under ten years of age. This, with some little variations, 
sometimes more liberal, sometimes less so, continued to the close 
< .' the war. In any case where the trustee failed to do his duty 
in this regard, other parties were appointed to do the work. The 
following shows the amount of aid furnished by the county and 
townships, as far as reported: 


II . i , RELIKF. 

Pike County 2tf.440.24 13,863 36 

Jefferson Township 4,800.00 

Patoka Township 1,6 

All the Townships 3o,899.24 15, 1.00 

Total 04.7HO SO 

The above does not include the vast number of boxes of deli- 
cacies and other supplies furnished by private enterprises. 

Size of Indiana Soldiers. The following remark, although 
seeminglj b strange one, is made bj Dr. B. A. Gould, an eminent 
statistician, on the measurement of 118.254 Indiana soldiers: 
"One tiling will certainly interest you that it is evident from 
our statistics that the Indiana men are the tallest of all natives of 
tli.' United States, and these latter the tallest of all civilized coun- 


Complete History of the Towns and Villages of tiif. County- 
Alex akdeia— Petersburg— St end il—Pikeville— Union— Wins- 
low— II'ismi -i: Pleasantville— ETighbanks— Alfouds— Algiers 
ClTY-rAltCADIA— AtTGtTSTA— ARTnuis— Otwell. 

TEE earliest record of a town in Pike County is that of Alex- 
andria. About L815 Hosea Smith laid off a town at White 
Oak Springs and gave it the above name. It would undoubtedly 
have been chosen as the county seat had he been willing to donate 
the land; but this he r< fused to do, and the town had its exist- 
ence only on paper. 

The historj of Petersburg begins with the appointment of 
five commissioners to select a seat of justice for Pike County. 
At the firs! meeting of the county commissioners in 1M7. these 
five "good and lawful men" made their report. They seem to 
have expected thai theii selection would not be satisfactory to all 
the people of the county, and so give at considerable length the 
reasons for their choice. We give 1 the report in full: 
To the Flonorable County ' liana: 

Tin- nnili-r-i'.'ii'-il i 'einmissioners, appointed by an Act of the General 'Assem 

bly of tin State of Indiana, entitled An Act fot the formation of a new county 

out of the i ounties ol Knox, Perry and Gibson approved December twenty 

teen, for the purpose of fixing the seat of justice 


in said county of Pike, consistent and conformably to the Act of the General 
Assembly of the Territory, entitled An Act for the fixing of the seats of justice 
in all new Counties hereinafter lo be laid off, approved March 2d, 1813, beg 
leave to report that they have chosen and fixed the seat of justice on a donation 
(if land made to the county by Peter Brenton. Henry Miley, Sr., Henry Miley. 
Jr., and John Coonrod, containing one huudred and twelve acres, situate and 
lying north of the base line, in town one, to be taken off of sections twenty-two, 
twenty six and twenty-seven, agreeable and consistent with the plat and bond of 
the said Peter Brenton, Henry Miley, Sr., Henry Miley, Jr., and John Coonrod 
to convey the same to the county, herewith submitted In making the selection 
for the seat of justice for Pike County, your Commissioners have taken into 
view the present population, the extent of the county and the quality of the 
soil, together with the natural advantages of the county, and were unanimously 
of the opinion that it would admit of a future division, and in all probability 
from the great emigration to Ibe country (judging from the past), will justify a 
division in a few years by the line dividing Sections two and three, in Range 
six, running north and south. Previous to fixing upon any site your Commis- 
sioners examined all the county lying between Patoka and White Rivers, except 
the extreme eastern part, and would willingly have examined that part of the 
county south of Patoka had the season and weather admitted of it. But your 
Commissioners are satisfied of its situation and quality of the soil from the 
acquaintance of Colonel Hargrove, one of the Commissioners, with that part of 
the county, and the character given by many of the citizens north of the Patoka 
and one or two south of Patoka. Your Commissioners have examined the situ- 
ations near the Center of the whole county, and the center of the western 
division of the county and the country around them, but your Commissioners 
could not think of fixing the seat of justice on any of the sites in the center of 
the whole county, because they were of opinion a division would take place in 
a few years. Nor could your Commissioners, from the present population, tak- 
ing into view the prospect of a future population in the western division of the 
county, think of placing it nearer than they have. Although the site fixed upon 
is not the center of the western division, yet from its eligible and beautiful situ- 
ation, together with its natural advantages and present population, with a due 
regard to future population, your Commissioners could not think otherwise than 
that it would remain and be the permanent seat of justice for the western 
division of the county. 

Pike County, 15th February, 1817. 

George R. C. Sullivan. 

B. V. Beckes. 

George W. Boone. 

Ephbaim Jordan. 

William Hargrove. 

The town site was surveyed by Hosea Smith April 3, 1817. 
It was laid off into 152 lots one-fourth acre in size, twelve one 
acre in size, and two consisting of about one-half an acre. The 
deed from the donors conveying the land to the agent of the 
county, Thomas C. Stewart, was not made until August 18, of the 
same year. The consideration mentioned in the deed is $20,000, 
but of course nothing was paid. It was decided to call the town 


Petersburg, in lienor of the principal donor, Peter Brenton. A 
public sale of lots took place April 14, 1817, with Benjamin V. 
Beckes as auctioneer. The first plat sold was No. 83. It was 
bought by Robert M. Evans for $144, the highest price paid for 
a single lot at this or any subsequent sale. Joseph W. Loan 
bought Lot No. 84 for §120. John N. Truesdale paid 81<>('> for 
Lot No. 72, and Thomas J. Withers, $101 for the adjoining lot, 
73. Occasional private sales were afterward made, and up to 
February 11, of the next year, eighty-six lots had been sold for 
an aggregate of $3,183.87. In addition to those already men- 
tioned the purchasers of lots are as follows: G. R. C. Sullivan. 
Bazil Brown, Levi Kinman, Harrison Jones, Peter Brenton, 
David Hart, Jacob Harbison, James Campbell, John Butler, 
Archibald Campbell, B. V. Beckes, Robert Brenton, John Ollom, 
Joseph Selby, Jonathan Walker, Isaac Ogden, John Mclntire, 
Thomas Case, William Wright, John Price, James Kinman, 
Thomas C. Stewart, John Chapman, Phillip Catt, John J. Neely. 
John Johnson, Paul Tislow, James Jackson, Daniel Coonrod, 
David Parks, Nathaniel Huntingdon, Hugh Shaw. John Davis- 
son, John Child s, Samuel Scott, John Coonrod, John Kinman, 
Silas Sovereigns, Henry Miley, Ewing Milburn, Henry Coon- 
rod. George Coonrod, J. Hathaway. David Kinman and Robert 

A second public sale of lots took place on the first Monday in 
January, 1825. But it seems that all were not disposed of at 
that time and another sale was held in August of the same year. 
The prices paid were much less than at the first sale, and thirty- 
six lots brought only about $300. Soon after the town was laid 
off, the sheriff let the contract for clearing the public square to 
Levi Kinman who received $4-1 therefor. At about the same 
time Thomas C. Stewart received the contract for the erection of 
a pillory on the square. This served also as a whipping post. 
James Walker was paid 817.7."). for clearing Lot No. 107. upon 
which a log court house was soon after erected. Among the first 
to build houses ami take up their residence in the town were 
Thomas C. Stewart, Thomas Case Chomas Mead, .lames Kinman 
and John Mclntire. The early taverndteepers were Joseph Hay, 
Robert C. Mead. Thomas J. Withers, Thomas Case, James Kin- 
man, John Finn and Bazil Gaither. A large pari of their busi- 


ness consisted in selling liquors, and they were compelled to pay 
a license of from §1.50 to S2.50. Their rates of charges were 
fixed by the county commissioners, and the following is the scale 
adopted at their first meeting: 

Eiich half pint of whisky 12$ cents. 

Each pint of cider or beer 12$ cents. 

Each half pint of peach brandy 37$ cents. 

Each diet 25 cents. 

Each night's lodging 12 J cents. • 

A horse to hay all night 12* cents. 

At a little later date most of the stores sold whisky, and were 
licensed under the title of "groceries," to sell spirituous and 
malt liquors and aromatic and foreign groceries. 

Mclntire & Stewart were the first merchants. They occupied 
a small log building where Eisert's grocery store now stands. A 
little later, James Bryant opened a store in a little frame build- 
ing near the same site. Neither of these stores was continued 
long, and in 1820, Vincennes was the nearest point at which 
goods were sold. The earliest merchant who did business on 
anything like an extensive scale was Matthew Foster, who began 
business in 1827, and afterward formed a partnership with Albert 
Hammond. They handled large amounts of produce which the}' 
flat-boated to New Orleans. Other merchants of the "twenties" 
were Moses Harrell, George H. Proffit, James Kinman, Archibald 
Campbell and Daniel O'Blenis. The postoffice was removed from 
White Oak Springs soon after the town was laid out, and John 
Mclntire became postmaster. He was accustomed to carry the 
letters in his hat, and to deliver them as he chanced to meet those 
to whom they were addressed. The physician of this period was 
Abraham Tourtellot, a man of considerable ability. He died 
about 1835. He was succeeded by John W. Posey, Alexander 
Leslie and Joseph Davisson. 

Manufacturing Enterprises. — The first to engage in this line 
of business was Thomas Milburn, who built a horse-mill a short 
distance from town, about 1822. After running it a short time 
he sold it to Henry Miley, who moved it to a site near the ceme- 
tery in the east part of town. In 1827, Peter and James Brenton 
erected a building and put in a carding-machine which they ran 
for a few years. About the same time William Deadman had a 
battery in a log-house on Lot 10(5. He supplied a larg*e section 


of country with hats which would often last eight or ten ypai> 
Two distilleries furnished "liquid comfort" to the inhabitants 01 
the town. Meredith Howard had one on a lot now owned bj 
Frederick Eeuss and Chris and William Miller ran one on the 
bank of the creek. These furnished a market for a considerable 
quantity of corn and rye. The Millers also had a tread-mill at 
which they ground the grain for their --still." Jacob Stuckey 
built a saw and grist-mill which was run by the same power. It 
was located in the lower part of town, and was built about L828. 
Boots and shoes were made by William Cargle and Aaron Grider. 
Samuel Sttickey had a tanyard just outside of town, on what is 
known as the Vincennes road. The above includes about all of 
the manufacturing industries previous to 1835. 

The Business Men of tin- Thirties. — The leading business 
men during the decade of the thirties were Foster & Hammond. 
H. W. & S. W. Kinman, Posey & Withers, Thomas L. Montgom- 
ery and A. S. Drennen, all of whom carried a stock of general 
merchandise and were licensed to keep "groceries." George H. 
Promt and Mr. Hughs also sold goods during this period. In 
L838, John Graham built a saw-mill on the present site of Frank 
Bros.' mill. He afterward enlarged it and put in machinery for 
grinding grain. 

The Business Men of the Forties. — The growth of the town 
was very slow up to the close of this decade, at which time the 
population as found by the census of L850 was only 480. The 
leading merchants were Thomas L. Montgomery, A. & P. C. 
Hammond, Warner L. Scott, Goodie! Morgan, Jackson M. Kin- 
man, .lames Kinman. Jonathan Wilson. William Hawthorn and 
Robert McBay. The postmasters up to 1850 after John Melntire 
were Albert Hammond, Warner L. Scott and William Hawthorn. 

The Business Men of the Fifties. The decade of the tifties 
was one of the most prosperous in the earlier history of the town. 
The building of theWabash & Erie Canal brought in Large num- 
bers of laborers, and by its completion Petersburg was made one 
of the best shipping points in southern Indiana. A number of 
warehouses were liuilt. and pork packing became an important 
industry, while all kinds of produce were shipped in Large quanti- 
ties. Anion-- the Leading business men of this period were 
Warner I.. Scott, P. C. Hammond, Thomas I.. Montgomery, 


Goodlet Morgan, Jonathan Wilson, William and E. P. Haw- 
thorn, John B. Hanna, William H. Connelly, Thomas M. Kin- 
man. E. B. Boone and W. L. Minnick. The leading physicians 
were Alexander Leslie, J. E. Adams, G. D. Jacquess and Colum- 
bus Hickson. The hotels were kept by Samuel Benjamin and 
Jackson M. Kinman. 

The Cholera. — In the summer of 1850 Petersburg was visited 
by that terrible scourge, cholera. The hist death was that of the 
child of an Irishman who came from New Orleans to work on the 
canal. A few days later the man himself took the disease and died. 
From these cases the disease spread rapidly among the laborers 
on the canal, and large numbers of them died. The citizens of 
the town became panic stricken, and at one time Petersburg was 
almost depopulated, there being about only twelve families re- 
maining. Drs. Leslie and Adams remained bravely at their posts, 
and did much to relieve the suffering and to prevent the spread 
of the disease. Only eleven residents of the town died. Among 
them were Malachi Merrick and two children, Mrs. Emiline 
Connelly and two children, George Barnett and wife, and William 

The Merchants of the Sixties. — At the beginning of this dec- 
ade, the canal having fallen into disuse, the growth of the town 
received a decided check, and business men were compelled to go 
back to the old methods of transportation. Goodlet Morgan con- 
tinued to deal extensively in produce and live-stock, and also 
carried a large stock of general merchandise. Among other lead- 
ing merchants may be mentioned P. C. Hammond, Thomas L. 
Montgomery, Gus Frank, Moses Frank, S. G. Barrett, Kobert 
McBay and Gus Hisgen. N. W. Thornton and Thomas Zull 
were druggists; Weedman & White and Custin & King, manu- 
facturers and dealers in furniture; Elias Osborne, Alexander 
Moore, dealers in boots and shoes; Fred Keuss and John J. In- 
graham, harness-makers ; C. A. Burger & Bro., merchant tailors; 
John J. Eisert, groceries; Shawhan & Knight, hardware ; David 
son A: Hopkins, Adams Bros, and Charles Schaefer were the 
livery men; Charles Schaefer was proprietor of the Pike Hotel. 
Mrs. John O. Carter of the Carter House, and A. G. Davisson of 
the Exchange. The postmasters during this and the preceding 
decade were Warner L. Scott, Samuel Campbell, J. B. Hendricks. 


John Hanna, Darwin Hewins and James Coleman. Those who 
have had the office since 1870 are Rev. Ravenscroft, his daughter, 
Mary Glezen and Thomas K. Fleming. 

Later Manufacturing Industries. — About 1834 Graham & 
Connelly built a saw-mill on the present site of Frank's Mill. 
Two years later it was sold to George H. Proffit, who soon after 
transferred it to James C. Graham and Fielding Johnson, the 
latter of whom was succeeded by Fred Meyers. About 1839 a 
grist-mill was added, and a few years later it was entirely 
destroyed by fire. It was rebuilt by Graham and Simon P. 
Frank. The former sold his interest to Snyder, and the mill is 
now owned by the sons of Mr. Frank. About 1855 Harrison Po- 
sey built a mill, and put in some carding machines. He sold out 
to J -hn N. Posey and W. H. Connelly. The next owner was 
Clinton Braner, who put in a grist-mill. He died, and the mill, 
after changing hands several times, was burned in 1885. The 
first planing-mill was built by Marcus King on the lot where Al- 
fred Buress lives, about 1858. After being run for some time it 
was moved away. Coleman & King built the planing-mill now 
owned by E. R. King, in 1866 or 1867. The mill owned by 
Canady was built by Erb Dickson. 

In 1865 John S. Stucky built a woolen-mill on Lot 17. It 
was run for about ten years, when it fell into disuse. John Bu- 
chanan had a foundry in Snyder's enlargement, between 1850 and 
1860. He operated it about two years, but when the canal went 
down it was discontinued. S. G. Upton & Co. were also connect- 
ed with it for a short time. The Champion Steam Flouring-mill 
was built by C. E. Montgomery in 1878. In 1885 the roller pro- 
cess was put in, and the mill sold to John B. Young and John 

Petersburg has been the residence of several men of prom- 
inence in State and National affairs. Among the earlier may be 
mentioned Maj. John Mclntire who served with distinction dur- 
ing the war of 1812 in Col. R. M. Johnson's regiment. Soon 
after the organization of the county he took up his residence in 
Petersburg, and from that time for many years filled the offices 
of county clerk and recorder. John Johnson and Thomas C. Stew- 
art were both men of ability. The former organized the county, 
and represented it in the State Legislature for the first eight 


years. Stewart was agent of the county for several years, and 
was a member of the State Senate from 1835 to 1838. During 
the "twenties" George H. Proffit came to Petersburg, and en- 
gaged in merchandising. He later turned his attention to law 
and politics, especially the latter. He was a shrewd politician 
and an orator of great brilliancy. He served two terms in the 
State Legislature, and two terms as Representative in Congress. 
Upon the accession of Tyler to the presidency, he championed the 
President's cause and was made minister to Brazil. He died 
in the prime of life, and is buried in the old cemetery. Hon. 
John W. Foster, United States minister to Spain, is the son of 
Judge Matthew Foster, and it was here that he was born and 
spent his early years. 


No. of Lots. 
1836 Canalport by Peter Brenton 43 

1853 Snyder's enlargement 65 

1854 Adams' addition to Canalport 6 

1854 Withers' addition 12 

1869 Hawthorn's addition 77 

1870 Harrell's addition 25 

1872 Promts' addition 42 

1883 Morgan's addition 33 

1884 Eisert's addition 21 

1885 Schaefer's addition 25 

The Municipal Government. — June 4, 1855, Alexander Leslie 
presented to the. county commissioners a petition signed by 
ninety-eight voters of the town praying for an order of incorpora- 
tion to include the original town and the addition which had been 
made up to that time. It stated that according to a census 
taken by W. R. Scott the town had a population of 58°-. An 
order for an election to determine upon incorporation was issued, 
and the ■ election was held June 23, 1855, resulting in a vote 
of sixty-three for to sixty-one against incorporation. Accord- 
ingly at the next meeting of the commissioners the town was 
ordered incorporated. An election of officers was held and the 
government organized. H. B. Custin was elected president of 
the board. G. H. Scott, clerk ; and James Barr, marshal. The 
other members of the board were J. P. Glizen, George D. 
Mitchell, Thomas M. Kinman and John Hutchins. One of the 
first ordinances passed provided for the laying of a pavement 


eight feet wide on each side of Main Street. At the election held 
in May. 1858, D. W. Horton was elected clerk; A. Leslie, treas- 
urer ; R. R. Rainey, marshal, and Marcus King, John S. Stuckey, 
John Mclntire, Samuel R. Snyder and Henry Knost, trustees. 
In April, 1800, an ordinance regulating the liquor business and 
requiring dealers to pay a tax of $100 per annum, was passed. 
The officers at this time were Thomas Knight, John S. Stuckey, 
John J. Eisert, William Barr, R. M. Case, trustees; X. W. 
Thornton, clerk; Alexander Leslie, treasurer and R. R. Rainey, 
marshal. At the next election Marcus King, James R. Adams, 
Simon P. Frank, Robert McBay and John Washam were elected 
trustees; Thomas L. Montgomery, treasurer; John E. Phillips, 
clerk, and William Shaw, marshal. 

The records of the proceedings of the town council having 
been destroyed by fire in 1883, but little is known in regard to 
them previous to 1870, but it is safe to say that no business of 
great importance was transacted. The officers elected were as 
follows in 1801: Thomas Knight, Goodlet Morgan, Robert 
McBay, S. R. Snyder. Robert M. Case, trustees; Thomas L 
Montgomery, treasurer; J. E. Phillips, clerk; John Hawkins, 
marshal. 1802, Thomas Martin, Simon P. Frank, Robert 
McBay, William Barr, Reuben Case, trustees; James L. Mount, 
marshal: O. F. Baker, clerk: Thomas L. Montgomery, treasurer. 
1863, Thomas Knight, J. B. Hanna, H. B. Custin, S. R. Sny- 
der, R. M. Case, trustees; Thomas L. Montgomery, treasurer; 
William H. Donahue, clerk: William L. Shaw, marshal. 1864, 
Alexander Leslie, Goodlet Morgan. J. J. Eisert, John M. Ham- 
mond, John O. Carter, trustees; William H Connelly, treasurer; 
William Hawthorn clerk; Thadeus Withers, marshal. 1865, 
Alexander Leslie, William Hawthorn, H. B. Custin, Samuel R. 
Snyder, John O. Carter, trustees; William H. Connelly, treas- 
urer; W. T. B. Mclntire, clerk; John Tislow, marshal. 1866, N. 
W. Thornton, Reddick Harrell, William Davisson, James R. 
Adams, Abraham Case, trustees; Thomas L. Montgomery, treas- 
urer; J. D. Boon, clerk; A. Palmer, marshal. 1867, Thomas 
Knight, William H. Connelly. H. B. Custin, Robert H. Stewart, 
John O. Carter, trustees; Thomas L Montgomery, treasurer; 
John H. Miller, clerk : William Davisson, marshal. 1868, Alex- 
ander Leslie, R. Harrell, F. M. Scales, J. F. Hoffhine, Abraham 


Case, trustees; A. J. Snyder, treasurer; A. G. Davisson, clerk; 
William Selby, marshal. 1869, Alexander Leslie, Hiram N. 
McGowan, George Whitman, Levi Ferguson, William Barr, trus- 
tees; Kobert McBay, treasurer; Thaddeus C. Withers, clerk; 
David Tyler, marshal. 1870, N. W. Thornton, William H. 
Posey, James Shawhan, Charles D. Alexander, Zachariah Troyer, 
trustees; John J. Eisert, treasurer; F. B. Posey, clerk; Kobert 
Beazley, marshal. In July, bonds to the amount of $6,000 were 
ordered to be issued for the purpose of erecting, a school build- 
ing. The bonds were each of the denomination of $100, due in 
one, two and three years. The officers elected in May, 1871, were 
John Hammond, H. C. Adams, William L. Merrick, William 
Barr and Zachariah Troyer, trustees; Thomas L. Montgomery, 
treasurer; J. D. Boon, clerk; Samuel Coonrod, marshal. At 
their last meeting, the trustees and clerk donated their services 
for the year to the town. 

At the September meeting of the county board a petition was 
presented praying for the incorporation of all territory included in 
Sections 22, 23, 26, fractional Section 16 and the greater part of 
Sections 21 and 27, Town 1 north, Range 8 west. A remonstrance 
was presented and the prayer was not granted. The officers for 
1872-73 were C. E. Montgomery, John H. Miller, John J. Eisert, 
William Barr and C. H. McCarty, trustees ; W. L. Merrick, marshal ; 
William H. Posey, treasurer ; J. D. Boon, clerk. In June, bonds to 
the amount of $15,000 were ordered to be issued for the purpose of 
funding the bonds outstanding and to provide for the completion 
of the school buildings. The bonds were each of the denomina- 
tion of $500, and drew interest at the rate of 10 per cent. They 
were sold at 6 per cent discount. Eight bonds were made due 
in four years, five in six years, seven in eight years, and ten in 
ten years. The officers elected for 1873-74 were Alexander Les- 
lie, J. B. Hendricks, A. R. Snyder, Thad. C. Withers, John O. 
Carter, trustees; W. H. Posey, treasurer; F. B. Posey, clerk; D. 
C. Hutchins, marshal. For 1874-75 the officers were J. P. 
Martin, John F. Trofzer, A. R. Snyder, William Siple, John O. 
Carter, trustees; W, H. Posey, treasurer; E. P.Richardson, clerk. 
The officers elected for the next year were Alexander Leslie, J. 
F. Trafzer, A. R. Snyder, J. W. Richardson, C. F. Boonshot, 
trustees; William H. Posey, treasurer; Oscar Hammond, clerk. 


For 187H-77 the officers were Elias Osborne, S. P. Frank, A. R 
Snyder, M. M. C. Hobbs, C. F. Boonshot, trustees; William H. 
Posey, treasurer; Oscar Hammond, clerk. 

In August, four bonds of $500, each bearing 10 per cent inter- 
est due in three years were issued to pay other bonds then due. 

The next officers elected were Thomas S. Tull, John Ham- 
mond, Abraham Seebern, Levi Ferguson, E. S. Ely, trustees; 
J. W. Gullick, treasurer; Charles H. Burton, clerk. For 1878-79 
the officers were Alexander Leslie, J. B. Hendricks, C. W. Cham- 
bers, E. R. King, C. F. Boonshot, trustees; J. W. Gullick, treas- 
urer; Emmet M. Smith, clerk In July, bonds to the amount of 
$1,750, drawing 6 per cent interest, due in three years, were is- 
sued to pay outstanding bonds then due. 

At the election in 1879, the officers chosen were: William 
Berry, J. W. Gullick, G. S. Eisert, F. B. Posey, George King, 
trustee; O. A. Hammond, treasurer; D. A. Sherwood, clerk; J. 
F. Hoffhines, marshal. For 1880-81, the officers were Charles 
Boonshot, John H. Miller, Daniel White, George W. Pinney, J. 
M. Craig, trustees; J. W. Gullick, treasurer; William H. Thomp- 
son, clerk; Thomas J. Reed, marshal. In November, a bond 
for $4,200 due August 1, 1882, was issued to pay bonds then due. 
The officers for 1881-82 were John Crow, Morris Frank, H. C- 
Adams, George Miley, Arthur Palmer, trustees; J. W. Gullick, 
treasurer; John M. Hammond, clerk; Thomas Tislow, marshal. 
The officers for 1882-84 were Solomon Snyder, J. B. Young, 
H. C. Coleman, H. C. Adams, Morris Frank, trustees; E. M. 
Smith, treasurer; F. J. Patterson, clerk; George W. Miley, mar- 
shal. In August, bonds to the amount $7,000 were issued to 
replace all outstanding bonds. The officers for 1883-84 were J. B. 
Young, Reddick Harrell, Sr., Thomas Smith, Frederick Smith, 
James Shawhan, George Miley, marshal ; E. M. Smith, treasurer ; 
Harry Fowler, clerk. For 1884-85 the officers were A. K. Selby, 
John Tislow, Frederick Smith, Morris Frank. Thomas Smith, 
trustees; E. M. Smith, treasurer; Harry Fowler, clerk; 
Jerome Borer, marshal. For 1885 86 the officers are: Frederick 
Smith, A. K. Selby. John F. Trafzer, J. P. Martin, Joseph 
Lowery, trustees; E. M. Smith, treasurer; Harry Fowler, clerk; 
E. S. Martin, marshal. The lists of officers are those elected, 
others have been, from time to time, appointed to fill vacancies. 


The corporation is now practically out of debt, as there are suf- 
ficient funds mi hand to pay all outstanding bonds. 

Fires.- December 2, L8S2, occurred the first of a series of 
fhvs which were to destroy the best part of the town. This 
fire originated in Alexan ler Moore's saloon, and the entire block 
was laid in ashes. The heaviest losses were: W. P. Knight. 
$2,000, Henry Rickrich, $0,500; M. H. Frank, $2,000; J. K. 
Adams, $1,500; Alexander Moore, §1,700; William McBay. 
$1,500. Many others lost smaller amounts. Only eight days 
later, at an early hour in the morning, the alarm of fire was again 
sounded, and the postoffice was found to be in flames. The office 
had been burglarized and afterward fired to cover up the rob- 
bery. Among the losses were: Augustus Frank, $-20,01)1): 
Shawhan & Boonshot, $1,000; George Kin-, $1,000; Glezen & 
Carson,. $1,500; J. J. Eisert & Son, $1,200; IX W. Horton. $200. 
Mrs. Knight, $1,500; Frederick Reuss, $700. The third tire. 
which was more disastrous than either of the preceding, oc- 
curred August 29, 1883. The aggregate losses were estimated 
at $71,000, with an insurance of about $28,000. The sufferers 
from this fire were numerous. Moses Frank lost $10,000; P. ('. 
Hammond .V Son. ST. 500; Hammond & Parker. $5,000; Barrett 
A- Son, $0,000; N. W. Thornton. $3,500; Edwards & Ware. 
$5,000; Bergen k Adams, $4,500; J. W. Gladish, $1,000; Will- 
iam Hawthorn, $2,500; Billmeyer A- Young, $5,000; Emmet M. 
Smith, $1,500; O. A. Borger & Bro., $800; Ely & Townsend, 
$2,000. The fourth fire occurred May 15, 1884 It origi- 
nated in a building occupied by Ware & Latshaw, and spreading 
rapidly, destroyed an entire block. Among the buildings burned 
were two hotels, two dry goods stores, a grocery, drug store, 
saloon, butcher shop and several offices. The office of the Demo- 
crat was a second time destroyed. The loss was estimated a1 
§50,000 partially insured. Immediately after the first fires, the 
work of rebuilding was begun, ami in less than three years near- 
ly every one of the old buildings is replaced by handsome brick 
structures that would do credit to any city. 

Secret Socicl /Vas.— Pike Lodge No. 121, F. & A. M., was or- 
ganized under a dispensation from the Grand Lodge, March 18, 
1851. The following is a list of the first officers, which includes 
all who were members at that time: John Mclntire, W. M. ; 


James Kinman, S. W. ; Warner L. Scott, J. W. ; David Miley, 
secretary ; Paul Tislow, treasurer ; Elijah Malott, S. D. ; Thomas 
J. S. English, J. D. ; Kichard Welch, Tyler. A public installa- 
tion of officers took place at the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. 
They were installed by Samuel Rodarmel, from Charity Lodge 
No. 30, Washington, Ind. They received their charter May 25, 
1851. The first members initiated were Joseph P. Glezen, Clark 
M. Anthony, Perry C. Hammond and Elijah Boon. The lodge 
has enjoyed uninterrupted prosperity from its organization, and 
in the spring of 1885 completed a hall at a cost of $3,000. It 
has a present membership of fifty-four. The officers are H. C. 
Brenton, W. M. ; Thomas S. Smith, S. W. ; William McFarland, 
. W. ; J. J. Eisert, treasurer ; George S. Eisert, secretary ; Hen- 
rv Reed, S. D. ; Abraham Seebern, J. D. ; James G. Evans, 

Pacific Lodge No. 175, I. O. 0. E, was instituted March 10. 
IS50, by B. T. Meredith, under a dispensation from the Grand 
Lodge of Indiana. The charter members were Thomas Knight, 
David W. Horton, Reddick Harrell, Henry B. Custin and John 
Hawkins. The officers were Thomas Knight, N. G. ; David W. 
Horton. V. G.; Reddick Harrell. secretary; Henry B. Custin. 
treasurer. At the hist meeting William H. Connelly, Jonathan 
Wilson, George H. Scott, Jackson M. Kinman and James R. Ad- 
ams were received into membership. The lodge has always been 
highly prosperous, and lias done much good by its distribution of 
charities. It has laid out and owns one of the most beautiful 
c imeteries in the State, the value of the unsold lots in which is 
estimated at $8,000. The Lodge has other resources to the value 
1,1 85,004.03, and a present membership of ninety. Those now 
filling the offices are J. W. Wilson, N. G. ; J. 15. Duncan, V. G. ; 
N. S. Selby, R. S.; J. J. Eisert, treasurer; S. K. Selby, P. S. ; 
E. M. Smith. T S. Smith and E. R. King, trustees. 

Atlantic Encampment No. 87, I. O. O. F., was instituted in 
November. L807. The presenl membership is about forty. 

Unitj Lodge No. 77. A. ( ). I'. W.. wasorganized Maj In. L879, 
and received its charter April 21, L880. The,., were fifteen 
charter members, ivitli the following officers: 1). J. Phillips. 1'. 
M u ! VV. I). Babcock, M W.; W. F Townseud, (I. F.; John 
M. WTiite, O.; W. P. Knight, recorder; (i. Frank, financier; H. 


Rickrich, receiver ; P. S. Withers, G. ; Jacob S. Reefer, I. W. : 
Jacob Brock, O. W. The total membership has been seventy- 
five, but on account of losses from death, removal, suspension, 
etc., there are now only twelve members in good standing. The 
present officers are James B. Duncan, P. M. W. ; Isaac Whitaker, 
M. W. ; S. R. Smith, G. F. ; J. P. Martin, O. ; Charles Fickeri, 
recorder; Charles Schaefer, receiver; J. M. White, financier; A. 
J. Patterson, G. ; H. C. Brenton, I. W. ; W. H. King, O. W. ; 
John M. White, representative; James B. Duncan, medical ex- 

Merchant Post No. 15, G. A. R., was chartered March 26, 
1880. The members numbered fifteen. The present officers are 
A. Seebern, S. V. C. ; W. F. Williams, J. V. C. ; Daniel C. Ashby, 
surgeon; John M. White, adjutant; R. Spillman, Chaplain; A. H. 
Alexander, Q. M. ; C. C. LeMasters, O. D. ; J. T. Bottles, O. G. 

The first organization of this order was made June 27, 1867, 
with the following members: Levi Ferguson, Miles Chambers, 
John H. Miller, John G. Crosier, Ashbury Alexander, J. R. 
Adams, J. K. Patterson, A. R. Byers, Jofin Crow, W. C. Adams, 
Joseph P. Glezen, John Muhr, E. F. Littlepage and T. C. With- 
ers. It was then known as Post No. 1, District of Pike, Depart- 
ment of Indiana, and so continued until May 2, 1868, when it 
was changed to Merchant Post No. 243. Meetings were regular- 
ly held until April, 1872, when the organization was discontinued, 
and the o?der was, not represented in Petersburg until the pres- 
ent post was established, 

Friendship Assembly No. 2688, K. of L. received a charter 
June 2, 1883, and the following persons named as members: D. 
F. Painter, J. T. Palmer, A M. Jones, John M. White, George 
S. Colvin, John Culshaw, S. R. Smith, Jonathan Minion and J. 
T. Rinman. The lodge now has a membership of about sixty-two, 
and is in a prosperous condition. 

Bank. — The town was without a bank until 1873, when the 
Citizens State Bank was organized with a capital stock of $25,000. 
The stockholders were McC. Gray, James Shawhan, John H. 
Miller, C. E. Montgomery, N. W. Thornton, C. A. Burger, 
John J. Eisert, J. R. Adams,. P. C. Hammond and W. H. De 
Wolf. The first four were the directors. The bank began busi- 
ness December 1, 1873, with McC. Gray as president, and N. W. 


Thornton, cashier. Until the fire August 29, 1883, the business 
was conducted in a room over Thomas TulFs drug store. After the 
fire, a temporary building was erected on the same site. The busi- 
ness was continued there until November 1,1884, when the present 
large and handsome building was completed. January 3, 1877, 
James Shawhan was elected president, and he has since continued 
in that position. June 1, 1877, Emmet M. Smith was appointed 
clerk in the bank, and six months later was made assistant 
cashier. The bank does a safe and conservative business, and has 
the confidence of the county. 

The Press of Petersburg. — The early history of newspaper 
enterprises in small towns is usually a record of lives as brief as 
those allotted to the angels of Kabbi Jehosha: 

Whose only office is to cry 
Hosanna once, and then to die. 

The first newspaper established in Petersburg was the Patriot, 
a small five-column folio, subscription price $1.50 per annum. It 
purported to be independent in politics, and was owned by a few 
of the leading men in town, who purchased the press and mate- 
rial. John N. Evans, a school teacher and lawyer, was the editor, 
and Henry Stout, a son of Elihu Stout, the first editor of the 
Vincennes Sun, was the printer. It was discontinued after run- 
ning about six months. This was in 1851. The next person to 
embark in the newspaper business was Joseph P. Glefcen, who 
established the Reporter in March, 1855. It was also a small 
paper, and advocated Republican principles. In a few months 
Edward P. Thorp became the editor and proprietor. He contin- 
ued until some time in 1860, when he sold the paper to Francis 
M. Downey. He had conducted it but a few months when he sold 
out to J. H. Keys, and entered the army. Keys continued the 
publication until June, 1802, when, following the example of his 
predecessor, he enlisted in the service of his country. S. T. 
Palmer then assumed control and his name appeared as editor in 
the next issue, but the following week he sent out a supplement, 
■-tilting that he too was going oft' to the war. Publication was 
then suspended for a few months after which John E. Bowen ob- 
tained control of it, and published it until 1864 At first he ad- 
vocated the principles of the Republican party, but probably 


through the influence of money lie changed the tone of his paper, 
and professed to be in sympathy with the Confederacy. He be- 
came involved in a difficulty with William H. Donahey and shot 
iiim. Bowen escaped from the county, and soon after the office 
■ it the Reporter was bui led. The town was then without a paper 
for about a year. During the campaign of 1850 Samuel Upton 
began the publication of the Pike County Democrat. It was 
printed in Washington. End. I rat was ostensibly published in 
Petersburg. It was discontinued after a few months. In 1805 
one McGinnis established a paper called the Messenger. It was 
a strong supporter of the Democracy, until during the campaign 
of 1806, when a few leading Republicans bought the paper and 
editor. Though McGinnis still continued as the publisher, the 
editorials were written by such Republicans as Levi Ferguson and 
J. P. Glezen. 

In February. 1807. the Messenger was bought bj S. T. 
Palmer, who changed the name to the Tribune, and continued 
the publication until June, 1809, when he sold out to Malachi 
Krebbs. During the campaign of 1808, and for a short time 
thereafter, James E. Huckeby published the Democratic Press. 
He was a Democrat, and a firm believer in a ••white man's gov- 

When Krebbs bought the Tribune he changed the name to 
the Republican Press, and it was later given its present name. 
He continued as editor and proprietor until 1872, when lie sold 
to F. B. Posey, but in a short time in company with E. H. Har- 
rell, repurchased it. In ls7o bought Harrell's interest, and the 
same year sold the paper to Harvey Wishard. January 1, 1870, 
bought out Wishard and was editor and proprietor until July 1, 
187!*, when he was succeeded by J. W. Gladish. who, three weeks 
later sold a one-half interest to Frederick J. Matson. January 1, 
1880, Mr. Gladish again became the sole proprietor. During 
the fire of August 29, 1883, the office was entirely destroyed, but 
the paper was continued without the loss of a single issue. Mr. 
Gladish is a highly educated gentleman and publishes an excel- 
lent county paper. It has a large circulation and wields a wide 
influence. The office under the management of N. S. Selby, a 
printer of experience and ability, docs a large amount of job 
work. In the fall of IS70. George M. Emack transferred the 


Atwell Herald, which he had published about six months, to 
Petersburg. It was a five-column paper, devoted to the interests 
of the Democratic party. He sold a cue-half interest to Alexan- 
der Leslie, Jr., and the paper under the name of the Pike County 
Democrat, was enlarged to a six column folio. Emack became 
involved in some difficulty and left the town. Leslie continued 
the publication until after the campaign of 1872, when B. F. 
Wright became the publisher. Under his management the paper 
was not a financial success, and after two months, not being able 
to pay his bills he silently stole away. Leslie then leased the 
..llice to Oscar McDonald and Monroe Crow, who found that there 
was not ••millions in it." and in six weeks it reverted to Leslie. 
Publication was suspended until November, 1872, when the office 
was sold to M. S. Evans & Co. Tin- paper was enlarged to a 
seven column folio, and H. 8. Evans became editor. In .lane, 
ls7o. the office again changed hands and William P. Knight and 
M. L. DeMotte became the owners. The following year DeMotte 
sold his interest to L. J. Campbell, and during the campaign of 
L87 I. the paper was conducted under the firm name of Knight <& 
Campbell; in December of that year. Leslie foreclosed a mortgage 
on the office. The publishers went to Yincennes. purchased the 
material in the Times office, and without missing a single issue, 
continued the Democrat. In February, 1^7~>. Campbell sold his 
interest to Knight and the following November, Knight trans- 
ferred the office t.. Charles Mitchener. He then went to Tell 
City, End., but in February, 1^77. he returned to Petersburg, 
and again became the proprietor of the Democrat. He has since 
continued in that capacity, having associated with him at various 
limes in the editorial management, -J. M. Doyle, W. 1 >. McSwane, 
W. F. Townsen.l and 1" rem. .nt Arford. The office lias been twice 
totally destroyed l>\ lire, first December 2, L882, and again .Max 
1"), L884. The Democrat is well managed, enjoys a liberal ad- 
vertising and job patronage, and is the organ of the county De- 

The Weekly News was established In the present editor and 
proprietor. E. II. Han. II m L884, the first number appearing 
M;i) 1-". It is independent in politic- and lias a Eair share ot th< 
patronage of the county. 

Present Basinrss interests. Dn g Is, boot- and si i. etc. 


— Montgomery, Hammond & Hudson, P. C. Hammond & Sons, 
Hammond & Parker, Moses Frank, S. G. Barrett & Son, Gus. 
Frank ; groceries — Johnson & Lane, Isaac M. Johnson. Fleming 
cV r Patterson, John J. Eisert & Son, John Berridge ; hardware — 
Billmeyer & Montgomery, Shawhan & Boonshot; drugs — J. R. 
Adams & Son, J. W. Bergen, Frank & Hornbrook; agricultural 
implements — Patterson <fe Martin, David White and all hardware 
dealers; furniture — E. R. King, Smith & Pinney; boots and 
shoes— E. & D. S. Osborne, D. W. Hdrton, William Hisgen; 
clothing — Moses Hess and nearly all dry goods dealers ; harness — 
Fred. Reuss, Chris Weitzel, C. Baum ; confectionery — S. G. Coon- 
rod, Albert Haas, H. Rickrich ; jewelry — S. P. Hammond, H. C. 
Gordon ; merchant tailor — C. A. Burger & Bro. ; milliners — Sarah 
Osborne, Mrs. Richardson ; carriage manufacturers — J. F. Trofzer, 
bank— -Citizens State Bank ; newspapers — the Press, J. W. Gladish, 
Democrat, W. P. Knight, News, E. E. Harrell ; grain dealer — W. 
L. Merrick; grist-mills — Young & Crow, Frank Bros.; planing- 
mills — H. C. Coleman & Co., J. W. Canady; brick and tile — Reed 
& Gray, and Morgan Bros.; livery — Adams Bros., and Wood & 
Canatsey; hotels — Charles Schaefer, Pike Hotel, G. M. Rowe, 
Lingo House, Gus. Hisgen, Farmers' Hotel; saloons — Charles 
Schaefer, G. M. Rowe, Alexander Moore, P. A. McCarty, J. Vin- 
cent, D. Bruner and W. S. Mitchell; barbers — A. Buress, F. Fort- 
ner, and John Turner; blacksmiths — R. Dickson, Miller & Smith. 
McFarland <fe Ficken; marble works — F. M. Banks; butchers — 
John Brenkm, Whitaker & Colvin; insurance agent — A. H. 
Alexander ; professional men : attorneys — J. W. Wilson, Ely 
Townsend, Fleener, Richardson & Taylor, Posey & Honeycutt. 
Doyle & Thompson and Edwin Smith; physicians and surgeons — 
Alexander Leslie, A. R. Byers, Adams & Fullinwider, J. B. Dun- 
can, Carleton & Wilson, W. H. Kepley, J. Hawkins ; dentists — S. 
L. Wilson and J. D. Loetzerich ; ministers — Methodist Episcopal, 
Daniel Davis; Presbyterian, A. M. Freeman; Cumberland Presby- 
terian, C. W. Yates; superintendent of public schools, A. C. 

Stendal. — This beautiful little village is located not far from 
the c.'nter of Lockhart Township, and was named by Rev. Bauer- 
meister in honor of a town in Prussia of the same name. It was 
laid out in 1867 and 1869 by F. H. Poetker. The streets run- 


ning north and south are named respectively Williams, Warrick, 
Main, Broadway, Poetker and Church. Those at right angles to 
these are named Washington, Huntingburg and Bearhardina. 
Among the first inhabitants were F. H. Poetker, William Stark. 
John White, Dr. Agee and Dr. DeTarr. The town has had a slow 
but healthful growth, and now contains about 150 persons. A 
fine graded schoolhouse was built in the north part of town in 
1875. Among the prominent educators who have taught there 
are J. Borders, Dr. Hoover, S. B. Omsler and N. C. Johnson. 
There is a German Lutheran Church and parsonage in the north- 
east part of town, and near the same is the Reformed Lutheran 
Church. The town can boast of several physicians, 1 mill and 
carding machine, 1 shoe shop, 2 blacksmith shops. 1 hardware 
and tin shop, 1 furniture store and 1 hotel. 

Pikevillc is situated in Section 30, near the northern part of 
the township. It was laid out on the 18th day of September, 
L859, by Benjamin C. Clark. It contains a hotel, a Methodist 
Episcopal, a Lutheran and a Christian Church, also a school- 
house. Population about 125. 

Union, in Clay Township, is located on the road leading from 
Petersburg to Hazelton and Princeton, about ten miles west of 
Petersburg. The town was never formally laid out, or at least 
not till recently, consequently it is not dignified by streets with 
high-sounding names. Union is the only town in Clay Town- 
ship, although being a large and wealthy township, it is so iso- 
lated from railroads and other means of communication with the 
business world, that the growth is necessarily slow. The busi- 
ness houses of Union have been in the hands of such men as the 
Hornbrooks, Chambers, McFaddens and Kimes. Union has 
3 dry goods stores, 1 drug store, 2 blacksmith shops, 1 machine 
shop, 1 wagon shop, 2 churches, and other businesses. 

The I. O. O. F. Lodge of Union was organized in July, 1871, 
the charter having been granted May 1 of the same year by W. 
H. De Wolfe. The charter members were Josiah Colvin, John 
Kime, Jacob McAtee, Jeremiah Eillman and F. M. Key. The 
charter bears the name "Harrell No. 370." The following are 
officers: G. W. Drain, N. (1.; John Caldwell, V. G.; C.S.Cham- 
bers, R. S. ; Elisha Colvin, PS.; F. M. Key, T., and Robert 
Hu.Im.u. R. R. Kime ami .1 S. Slir.nle. trustees. Strength of 
lodge is thirty-eight. 


Winslow is situated in Section 32, Town 1 south, Eange 7 
west. It was laid out November 14, 1837, by John Hathaway. 
The town lies immediately north of the river, the streets nearly 
parallel with the river are Patoka, Union, Jefferson, Washington, 
Center, Lafayette and North ; those at right angles are West, Mill, 
Main, Walnut, Cherry and East. Winslow was a place of some 
note, many years ago, as a shipping and milling point on the 
Patoka River, but its progress was slow until within the last few 
years, its period of prosperity beginning with the completion of 
the Air Line Railroad. 

John Hathaway, the founder, owned a mill on the river, just 
below the town. Of George Dean, who came to Winslow in 1838, 
it may be said that he was an accomplished merchant, and ac- 
cumulated considerable wealth. "He was the first to attempt to 
establish a charity fund in Pike County, leaving, by will, all 
his property, except the widow's dower, to create a fund for the 
relief of destitute widows living within eight miles of Win- 
slow." The first flat-boat run out of Patoka was one loaded 
with pork, by James W. Cockrum, in 1835. The first hogshead 
of tobacco was shipped from the same place in 1841. Winslow, 
being near the center of the county, and having good railroad fa- 
cilities, is ambitious to become the county seat, with some show 
of success. The growth of the town within the last few years has 
been rapid, and it is now well supplied with business houses — a 
livery stable, hotel, a church, and a fine graded school, which has 
been in successful operation since 1880. 

The charter to Winston Lodge of F. &. A. M., No. 260, 
was granted May 30, 1861. A. C. Denney was G. M. ; M. D. 
Manson, D. G. M., and Francis King, secretary. W. E. Chap- 
pell was then Master; George W. DeBuler, S. W., and N. Cut- 
wright, J. W. W. J. Bethel is now Master; Nathaniel Evans in 
the West, and A. J. Carter in the South. The financial standing 
of the society is good, with a membership of forty. 

Hosmer is situated in the northwestern corner of Patoka 
Township, and was laid out February 28, 1854, by Stephen R. 
Hosmer, and named in honor of him. Mr. Hosmer owned lands 
on the Wabash & Erie Canal, and it was the expectation that 
the town would become one of some importance. A steam-mill 
and other improvements were begun on a large scale, and streets 


laid out bearing as pompous names as those of a large city, but 
on the failure of the canal, in 1855, the place began to decay. 
Since the completion of the Straight Line Kailroad, in 1882 it 
has done considerable business in the lumber trade. 

Pleasantville. — This pleasant little village lies near the south- 
ern part of Monroe Township. It was laid out in 1860, by J. W. 
Kichardson. It lies near Honey Springs, one of the first settle- 
ments south of the river. The place contains several stores, 
tobacco houses, a Methodist Episcopal Church and school and 
school building. It contains about 300 population. 

Highbanks. — Hugh McCain, Thomas McCain and C. Beams 
laid out the town January 12, 1837, Wolsey Pride with his 
brother William settled at Highbanks in 1813, and in 1816 to 
the same place came Ebenezer and John Case, Hamilton and 
Alexander McCain, and soon after William and Charles Hargrave. 
The town was formerly laid as above mentioned, having main and 
back streets parallel with the river and Highbanks, Walnut, Cherry, 
Plum, Union and Upper at the right angles to the river. Being 
one of the first settlements in the county and located on the river 
as it was it bid fair to be a place of note but want of outlet has 
brought decline to it, and it is Highbanks only in name. Your 
historian has named its streets with the belief that it could not 
have been done by its oldest inhabitants. 

Affords was laid out by Elijah, Nathaniel and Samuel Alfords 
November 8, 1856. These men were contractors on the "Old 
Straight Railroad." The failure of the railroad at first and a 
change of the line since has brought stagnation to the place. 
The business that formerly went to Alfords now goes to Peters- 
burg or Winslow. 

Algiers Cify. — In 1868, Algiers City was laid out, although 
not formally platted as a town until recent years it was a place of 
note in the very earliest history of the county. Such names as 
Case, Kussel, Pride, Endly-and Scraper are intimately connected 
with its early history. The first postmaster at Algeir6, formerly 
called Delectable Hill, was Harbard DeBruler. Mathew Foster 
did business there in the twenties. 

Arcadia. Simeon LeMasters laid off the little village of 
Arcadia in 1869. It is mar the old LeMasters settlement, one 
of the former settlements of the county. The Pancakes and 


Ashbys live near the place. As a commercial place it is of little 

Augusta lies in the extreme northwestern corner of Lock- 
hart Township and is a place of some little note. It contains 
130 lots, a church, tobacco factory, and a graded school. The 
streets are named First, Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth from 
the north and Main, Vigo, Bradley and Washington at right 
angles to the former. 

Arthur. — This little village is found in the southern part of 
Patoka Township and contains one hotel, a number of business 
houses and 200 town lots. 

Ohvell. — This place is situated in a rich agricultural dis- 
trict near the central part of Jefferson Township. It was 
laid out January 15, 1855 by Berry Brown. The place was 
called Pierceville until 1864 when Lawrence Jones, A. J. Wells 
and James R. Nelson presented a petition signed by two- 
thirds of the town to have its name changed from Pierceville to 
Otwell. This was done at the March term of 1864. The streets 
running parallel with the principal streets are named in order, 
Jefferson, Washington and Madison ; those at right angles are 
Virgin and Liberty. The town having no railroad outlet does 
not increase rapidly. The village has its complement of stores 
and other business houses. Among the business firms of Otwell 
are D. H. Daniel, J. W. Abbot, J. W. Conger, Samuel Dillon, 
Frank Bilderback, John Wilhelm, Michael Fletcher, Jacob Bow- 
ers and J. T. Scahlan who has been running a blacksmith shop 
for twenty-five years. The population is estimated at 300. 



by prof z. t. emerson. 

Educational History of Pike County— The First Schools, Houses 
and Teachers— Names of School Patrons— Anecdotes of Inter 
est— Funds for the Maintenance of Schools— Comparison of 
Early and Later Systems of Study and Discipline— Blythe- 
wood Academy' — High Schools. 

THE first schools of Patoka Township, were taught in rude, 
round log structures ; no windows, a large fire-place, a plank 
placed against the wall for a writing desk, split log benches, and 
puncheon floors. Writing was done with goose quill pens. The 
schools were "pay schools," the master charging §1.25 for each 
pupil for a term of sixty-five days — a prodigious sum for those 
days. There was no such thing as board bills, the teacher 
"boarded around." 

The first schools of this kind were taught in Patoka by 
Thomas English, a Vermonter. He taught one school in the 
Ashby neighborhood, between Arthur and Augusta in the year 
1844, His next school in this township was taught in Section 
14, Township 2 south, Eange 8 west, near D. E. Barrett's. In 
these schools it was customary for the big boys and big girls to 
take their arithmetics and slates and study out of doors. Among 
other early teachers might be mentioned Ira J. Burch, who is 
still teaching, in Missouri, and who has taught for over forty-four 
wars. Then came a man into the township, bearing the name of 
C. C. Winfrey, who taught a pay school at the old "Burch school- 
house." Hf was thought an excellent teacher. He often played 
with the children. 

One of his favorite plays was "walking a race" in which he 
would walk against any or all of the school running. When 
standing in the natural position. Mr. Winfrey was about six Eeel 
high; when walking fast he seemed about only four. When he 
wished to call the pupils in. lie would knock on the side of the house, 
and with his knife and halloo, "hooksin! booksin!" He acted 


strnngeh • ■"<>< times: one day at uoon. he took some of the boys 
iumit..; behind one corner oi the schoolhouse. where he took mi t a 
leather bag tilled with gold: he allowed each of the boys to hold 
the money, and told them there were S1.500 ,,f it. 

This teacher would give the children fifteen minutes each day 
to prepare their spelling lessons, during which time he permitted 
them to "stud) out" and uot unfrequeutly in such cases, they 
would get off the subject. The first free schools were only thirty 
days long, and the teachers were paid .Si a day. They still 
"boarded around." When, however, they did board, it was obtained 
at 30 cents a week. YV. .7. Grimes is thought to have been the 
hist teacher who ever taught a free school in Patoka Township. 
He was licensed for four months to teach reading, writing, spell- 
ing and arithmetic to the "rule of three." Among the more recent 
teachers may be mentioned William Ivy. Lottie Green, Mattie 
Edmunson, Byron Brenton. K. W. Hurt, Cicero Agee and John 
D. Grimes. 

Lockhart Schools. — Almost twenty years before Lockhart was 
separated from Monroe Township her first schoolhouse was built. 
This was about the year 1833, and it was built on the southwest 
quarter of the northeast quarter of Section 25, Town 2 south, Range 
7 west, on a point of land rising a little above the Beaden's Creek 
bottom and on the south side of the creek about one-quarter of a 
mile west of the road leading from the Cup Creek Church north t. i 
to Beaden's Creek, in a field now owned by Mrs. Mary Martin. This 
site seems now to have been the very poorest that could have been 
selected for a schoolhouse, but taking into consideration that at that 
time the roads or traces, as they were called, followed water courses 
to a great extent; this was a very convenient location as a road up 
this branch bottom connected to settlements, the one on the east 
and the other on the west, with the schoolhouse on half-way 
ground. The site of the old schoolhouse is known to but few and 
there are very few of the old men now who can call to mind 
the fact of its ever having been there. It was 1.6x18 feet, built 
of round logs, high enough that a man could stand straight under 
the eaves, a dirt floor, the roof kept on by means of weight poles, 
no tire-place, and as the schools were taught in the fall season 
they did not chink and daub the cracks, in consequence of which 
the necessity of windows was avoided. The door was made of 

clap-boards and swung on wooden hinges which caused I ; I 
breaking noises when the door was opened mul sluit. Tin ivi I 
ing desk was a plank, twelve or fourteen feet long, that some of the 
patrons had arrested in its course down the Patokn River. It was 
placed along one side of the house, just before a large crack, upon 
pegs that were driven in holes made in the wall beneath. The 
house was built, of course, by the patrons of the school, at a cost 
of about three or four days' work each. The following were patrons 
of the first school: Daniel Hendricks, the first settler of the tow 
ship; Peter Kinder. Jackson Davis. Jesse Coker, Comfort Brew- 
ster, Beaden Davis and John Miller. There were altogether be- 
tween twenty and thirty pupils. They came from a scop;' of 
country over six miles square. The first school teacher was 
Beaden Davis, after whom Beaden's Branch took its name. He 
was one of the patrons of the school and had a large family of 
children, all of whom were girls. He was good humored in the 
main, but knew well how to use the rod or ferule when necessity 
demanded. In relating an anecdote he was quite successful, gen- 
eral]} acting out all the parts while narrating the story. He 
afterward became a Methodist preacher. He was quite a singer 
in his day and very sympathetic in song and discourse, the tears 
flowing readily down his cheeks, when narrating the emotional 
part of either song or sermon, frequently rising on tiptoe on 
those parts and then noiselessly relaxing on his heels again. He 
was a good, quiet, inoffensive man, received from $50 to $60 per 
term in the pioneer schools. He died at the ripe old age of about 
eighty. The history of one school of Lockhart is in a measure a 
history of all her schools. The urchin's mind thirty' years ago 
"might not stretch away into stately halls'" yet the same avenues 
were open to his mind then as now. If he had not so many op- 
portunities to store his mind, he had fewer things to detract from 
his work. Lockhart has now fourteen schoolhouses, one a graded 
school, all in good condition, with an average of seventy days 1 
term and wages $2.08 per day. Lockhart enumerates over Ton 

Logan, Clay and Madison Scliools.- Logan Township formed 
a part of Madison until 1846. The first schoolhouse within the 
boundary of Logan was erected by the citizens in L830. This 
building whs situated on what is now known as the Lewis Wilson 


farm near the center of Logan Township. It is described as 
being "about the size of a smoke-house." It was built of split 
poles, and had no floor, chimney, or door — poles being used 
to bar the entrance at night. Not a crack was chinked or 
daubed. The seats (split poles with legs) were arranged around 
the wall. On one side was a writing desk (a puncheon) for those 
who wrote. It is thought that four men could have buirt such a 
house in one day. Only one term was taught in thi9 building 
and that by James Atkinson in July, August and September, 1830. 
Only a few remain to recount the incidents of that term. One 
day the teacher's hogs followed him to school, a distan«e of three 
miles. Being quite gentle they persisted in going into the house, 
and had to be soundly thrashed several times during the day to 
the intense delight of the "scholars". 

On one occasion a number of young ladies visited the school, 
among them a sweetheart of a young man who was in attendance. 
In his efforts to hide his big bare feet, from her whose ankles 
"were bare and brown," he thrust them out through a crack near 
the ground. This youth seems to have been fertile in expedient 
and swift of understanding. On another occasion when the 
teacher was hearing some one recite, a little girl looking out, saw 
three deer browsing near the house. She told her brother (it 
was the custom then for teacher and boys to carry guns to school) , 
who put his gun out through a crack to shoot. By this time the 
teacher had also discovered the game and was vainly endeavoring 
to persuade his old flint lock to fire. Suddenly the young man's 
gun was discharged and one deer fell dead. The young man's 
sister exclaimed, "Ma said this morning we 'd have fresh meat 
because the pot burned." In 1832 the house described was re- 
placed by a much better one. It was located near the site of the 
old on the land now belonging to William Carr. It was erected 
by citizens, prominent among whom were Revs. C. Johnson, 
Joseph Woodry and Michael Kime and was called the Kime 
Schoolhouse. This building was much better than the first one. 
True, it had no floor, but it had a door, shutter and a chimney. 
This chimney was built of mud and sticks, and rested on a log 
which extended across the room about five feet from the ground. 
The fire was made on the dirt floor at the end of the building 
and as the smoke arose it was intended to pass through the chim- 


ney. Here was taught a school by William Campbell, and another 
in 1834 by Henry Borders. His patrons were to pay him $1.50 
per scholar and pay his board. On Saturday before school opened 
the patrons had a meeting and sold him out to the lowest bidder. 
He was duly struck off to Adam Snyder, and Daniel Frederic at 
50 cente per week. During this term the teacher taught eight 
hours per day and killed on an average thirty squirrels per day. 
Those schools were of course supported by private patronage, 
the teacher agreeing to teach reading, writing, spelling and arith- 
metic, to the "rule of three." In the books used at that time 
this subject began on about the seventy-fifth page. Each pupil 
recited separately and in the order in which they arrived in the 
morning. Evidently there was a new program each day. It 
is remembered that in 1840 one teacher was severely criticized 
for introducing a scheme whereby a large part of the school was 
taught at once, i. e. in a class. It was argued that classification 
could not be too severely condemned since it held back the bright 
ones with the dull ones. How fiercely the lovers of darkness 
fight against the first dawning of light. In early times a great 
variety of text books were used, thus making classification very 
difficult. One aered teacher remembers that his pupils used as 
readers the following books: Introduction to the Euglish Reader, 
The English Reader, New Testament, Old Testament, American 
Preceptor, Peter Parley's Readers, Cousin Alice's Stories, Swiss 
Family Robinson, Baron Munchausen, etc. There seems to have 
been no uniformity of text books. 

The act of 1837, providing for free public schools, marks the 
beginning of a new era in the history of education in this coun- 
ty. The next year a schoolhouse was built on the farm of Gar- 
bison & Masters. Here Henry Borders taught a term of sixty- 
five days for $50. His was the first under the free school sys- 
tem which has so justly become the pride of our people. James 
Crow taught at the Kime Schoolhouse in 1836; John Alexander 
at Olive Branch in 1840: Lewis Wilson at Olive Branch in 1853, 
later at the Bailey, the first frame schoolhouse in the township. 
In 1859 Lewis Wilson was elected trustee; this office he held for 
twelve years. Under his administration neat frame buildings 
took the place of the old log ones, and maps, globes, charts and 
blackboards were brought into use. The trustee, in early years 

362 HISTORY OF PIKE county. 

a teacher ml all his life a student, visited the schools, gave 
lectures, and in various ways promoted the growth and develop- 
ment that characterized that period. C. J. Agee, Joshua Wilson, 
S. W. Stewart and Joseph Borders were among the leading teach- 
ers of the more modern ones. In Clay were Samuel Deadman, 
about 1828, and a finely educated Irishman named Scannel, about 
the year 1838. Others were Andrew Frederick, Reuben White, 
Cork Davidson, E. Denning and Daniel Aman, of the older teach- 
ers. Clay Township now supports eight schools for sis months 
in the year, one a fine graded school. In Madison the same prog- 
ress has been made. Instead of old, abandoned residences, or 
log-houses with greased paper windows, they all have nice frame 
r houses, and all are furnished with bells, dictionaries, globes, 
maps, charts, etc. Pupils now pursue, under competent teachers, 
a course including the eight common branches and civil govern- 
ment, and on completing the same they receive a diploma signed 
by the trustees and county superintendent. Logan now has six 
frame schoolhouses, and a school term of eighty school days, and 
each taught by a competent teacher. The average wages per day 
for 1884-85 were about $2. This fact, with an enrollment of 327 
pupils in Logan Township, affords a very pleasing contrast with 
the condition of the schools in 1818. On a vote taken at the 
general election of that year, the question of a constitutional 
amendment establishing the free school system, the vote stood 
fifty-two "for" and seventy-two "against." Clay stood at tin 
same time tnirt^ -seven "for" and sixty-five "against," yet Clay 
now has eight schools, one a fine graded school, and employs nine 
teachers, three of whom are females. The vote in Madison at 
the same election and on the same question stood ten for the 
amendment and 100 against it. Madison now has six good school- 
houses, and employs six teachers who receive an average of $2 
per day. The average length of schools of Madison Township 
is only sixty-two days, the shortest of any in the county. 

Schools of Jefferson Townshi}). — The professional teacher of to- 
day, particularly those of little experience, is disposed to sneer at 
the methods of instruction, at the text books used, at the methods of 
government, at the hours of study, at the crude furniture of the 
schoolroom, at the dross and habits of those in attendance, and 
wonder that the old folks knew anything, and be astonished at 


his own wisdom. Such individuals are not unlike the old Ger- 
man mentioned by Coleridge, who had such profound respect for 
himself that whenever he had occasion to mention his own name 
he would reverently take off his hat. Young America has an 
excellent opinion of himself. Wendell Phillips' "Lost Arts" is 
an excellent thing for study by such individuals. 

While the early settlers of Jefferson were combating the dif- 
ficulties peculiar to a new country, clearing the forests, driving 
away wild beasts, fighting opposition to religious conviction, they 
were not unmindful of the intellectual needs of their children. 
The first schools were taught in some old, abandoned cabin, or other 
place of shelter. It is said the first schoolhouse in Jefferson 
Township was built ten rods north of the residence of William 
Kelso in 1828, called the Taylor Schoolhouse. This was on the 
farm now owned by Alva Price, and was built by the people of 
the community. It was a small, log structure, and has long since 
decayed. John Graham, a Scotchman, was the first teacher. 
School hours lasted from about sunup till sundown, or from the 
time the pupils arrived in the morning, till about dark. The pu- 
pils recited singly, and generally in the order of their arrival in 
school. The wages varied from $1.50 to $2 per term for each 
scholar, the teacher "boarding around." His pay was either in 
money or articles of food and clothing. A Baptist Church used 
as a schoolhouse stood near the Long Branch and Highbanks 
road, the old site of which is now marked by two neglected graves. 
Samuel Hargrave taught school at this house for a time. 

A schoolhouse was built near the store of White Chappell in 
about 1832. At this house John Sawyer was the first teacher. 
■ The man Hargrave is said to have been a very excellent man. 

Other teachers were John Adridge in 1840, and Aaron 
McCarty in 1842. The latter taught several years and is said to 
have been somewhat addicted to drink. This need not seem 
strange when William Hargrave, a minister of the gospel and a 
man of great worth was proprietor of a copper distillery. A 
schoolhouse was built at Otwell, on the farm owned by Daniel 
DeMott, but has been removed by Henry Coleman and used now 
as a lumber-house. The first teacher in this I^use was Eliza- 
beth Preston. Jefferson Township now enrolls over 600 pupils 
and employs 15 teachers — 11 males and 4 females — yet Jefferson 


has no graded school from the fact that the schools are almost 
entirely in the country. 

The length of term of Jefferson is 100 days, with average 
wages of $2.08 per day. The vote of 1848 for the constitution- 
al amendment favoring fxee schools stood: twelve for Anthony, 
the representative favoring the system, and 170 for Alexander 
who was opposed to the system. It is but justice to the people 
to say that the free schools were to them an experiment then and 
it was difficult to overcome prejudice and to bring about innova- 

Monroe Township Schools. — The first school ever taught in 
Monroe Township was in 1820 — the same year that Monroe 
Township was laid off — by John Ferguson, the father of Bevs. 
James and John Ferguson. This school was at Honey Springs, 
uear the town of Pleasantville. It was taught in a little log-cabin. 
Among the patrons of this school were the Le Masters family. 
King family, Hegaman and Skidmore families. Several other 
schools were afterward taught at the same house, one by a man 
by the name of Clark, in about 1825, but nothing can qow 
be recalled of him other than his name and a faint shadow of 
recollection. John M. Grant taught a school on what is now 
the farm of Joe Ferguson, a short distance west of Pleas- 
antville, about 1839. He was able to lead his pupils into the 
mysteries of reading, writing, spelling and arithmetic to the 
single rule of three. He was particularly strong on spelling and 
required his pupils to study that branch aloud and the one who 
could make the most noise in the work was considered the best 
student. He believed in the doctrine of Solomon, "spare the 
rod and spoil the child." By his pupils he was considered a 

oonrad Coleman taught in the Blackfoot neighborhood and 
was considered a good teacher. Wesley Hopkins was considered 
a fair teacher, but Wesley had one weakness, he would get drunk 
when opportunity afforded, and unfortunately for him and the 
school, Cutwright's distillery stood near the schoolhouse, and not 
unfrequently he would visit that and during the remainder of the 
day the boys and girls would have things pretty much their own 
way. This was about ls44. 

Charles F. Elwin. a Welsh-Englishman taught a number of 


schools. Elwija was a well educated man and an excellent teacher 
in his day. He was a good debater and a very fine penman. He 
died but a few years ago. 

Rev. James Ferguson of Warrick County is still teaching, 
though quite old. On the vote favoring the constitutional amend- 
ment for free schools, Monroe Township stood twenty-seven for 
the amendment and eighty-one against it. There are now Vi 
school houses and 14 teachers in the township — 11 being male 
and 3 female teachers. 

Schools of Washington Township. — The first account we have 
of schools in this township were those taught by a Mr. Tuustle. 
He seems to have been a man of sufficient sense and of good in- 
tention, but who had not reduced the matter of teaching to a 
science by any means. It cannot be said that his ideas were 
'ver consistent with those of Horace Mann or any other great 
educator of the present. He taught the double rule of three, now 
called compound proportion. Among the teachers of Washing- 
ton township who taught, before the common schools were in 
vogue, may be mentioned, Mrs. Sarah Finn, Mrs. Rebecca Finn, 
William Withers, John Mclntire and William Davenport. The 
last named taught after the common schools were in operation. 
About the time Indiana became a State, a gentleman named 
English taught private school in Washington township for some 
time. His school was known only by name of Thomas English's 
school. All knew him and liked him for his social qualities, for 
that was all there was of him. His teaching was neither an art 
nor a science. 

He was skilled to rule. 

And rule 

Was all there was 

Of his little school. 

The amount of all his learning, and the extent of all he taught, 
as was the case with many others, was wrapped up in the "old 
blue back," '"Webster's Elementary Spelling Book." This book 
contained leading and spelling lessons as well, but the spelling 
was about all that was taught. The method of recitation 
was about as follows: each pupil recited alone, one at a time, 
like going to a mill, was the rule. The first at school in the 
morning was the first to recite and the second to school was 
the second to recite, etc. A story is told of a lady who. 


wl quite n small child, attended Mr. Thomas English's 

school. On going to school one morning she saw a much larger 
and older girl coming in the distance ; both ran with all their might 
to reach the house first. The small girl got in first, but on open- 
ing school and calling the first to recite, both the small and the 
large girl came up with book in hand to recite. The word of the 
larger girl prevailed and the smaller had to recite last. This 
little girl had a "big" sister who came to school that day and who 
was angry at the teacher for his decision. She spent the day in 
making wry faces at her sister's enemy as opportunity afforded; 
such was the discipline of Thomas English's school. Notwith- 
standing the poor methods of the teachers, their limited knowl- 
edge, the inconveniences of log-cabin schoolhouses, with their hard 
benches, no boards, greased domestic or paper windows, the long 
distance to school, the short term, some learned to read, write 
and spell, and learned business transactions and business forms. 
Among them may be mentioned David Miley, who was suffi- 
ciently qualified to fill any county office at the present time, and 
who did in his later years fill every county office in the county, 
and was county auditor at the time of his death. Overwork in 
business caused his death. Among the first teachers who taught 
after the public schools received popular patronage were William 
C. Davenport and John Mclntire. Mr. Davenport was a good 
practical surveyor and followed the business after he quit teach- 
ing. He got his' death from pouring cold water on his head 
while hot when engaged in surveying on a hot day. Mclntire, 
commonly called Maj. Mclntire deserves some mention, although 
he is mentioned in connection with the schools of Petersburg and 
with the settlements and coxinty officers. He was sent for to come 
from Shawneetown. 111., to Petersburg. Besides holding nearly 
every county office at one time himself, he found time to teach 
school six hours a day, and then the remuneration was barely 
sufficient for a very plain living. It is worthy of remark that now 
nearly every officer has a deputy and yet finds a good living in the 
office. It is said that the coroner now receives as much for his little 
iffice as Mclntire did for all. Since the time of these men the in- 
terest in schools has grown wonderfully. There are now fifteen 
teachers employed in the township alone, making twenty-one 
altogether. The great improvement in the schools of this town- 


ship within the last sixty years may be seen by comparing no 
schools at all with the following facts as reported to Mr. J. L. 
Mount, county superintendent, by Mr. John Brenton, township 
trustee; number of pupils admitted into the school within the 
year, 922; number of houses, 13; length of term, 90 days; value 
of school property, $12,000; amount of .tuition, 83,602; special 
school revenue, $1,754. 

Petersburg Schools. — It is supposed that the first school ever 
taught in Petersburg was conducted about 1820, by Judge Sawyer. 
He taught in a small frame house on Main Street. He is said to 
have been from New York, and moved first to North Carolina, and 
then to Indiana, near Petersburg. His first term was for three 
months. He taught mainly that his own children might attend ; 
at the same time others were in attendance, the Osborns and others 
of the older families attended. John Mclntire was the next 
teacher. He taught school in the old court house. He was in 
some respects a remarkable man, having held every county office 
in the county and continued in office for thirty-seven years. Sam- 
uel Kelley taught in a small house on the lot now owned by Pren- 
tis Martin. J. S. English, a Vermonter, was a good teacher who 
taught for a time. Other teachers of the older class were Harvey, 
Graham, Davenport, and E. Bell. H. D. Ouyett, a Presbyterian 
minister, taught about 1855. 

Blythe-Wood Academy. — From the pen of Mrs. Anna Blythe 
Hendricks, we give the following account of Blythe-Wood: "In 
the spring of 1853, the Rev. A. T. Hendricks became pastor of 
the Presbyterian Church of Petersburg. At that time the 'public 
school system' had found footing only in the larger towns and 
cities, leaving the villages and rural districts dependent on the 
three or six months schools which were opened in the summer or 
winter by transient teachers. Mr. Hendricks feeling the need for 
a more extended and influential mode of instruction, opened a 
school in the spring of 1854. As the village furnished no build- 
ing suitable for the purpose, he erected and furnished rooms con- 
nected with his residence. This school, styled ' Blythe- Wood 
Academy,' was continued for a period of fifteen years, when the 
introduction of the public schools into the village rendered its 
continuance unnecessary. The course of instruction extended from 
the A, B, C's to the higher branches of a liberal English educa- 


tn hi, off i ..g to its advanced pupils a knowledge of higher math- 
. .uatics, with Latin and Greek. The study of the Bible as a 
classic, as well as a system of religion and morality, was made a 
prominent feature in the entire course. Each pupil was required 
to furnish his desk with > Bible. The government was entirely 
paternal. The pupils on entering were informed that corporeal 
punishment formed no part of the plan. Dismissal was the capi- 
tal punishment, as a consequence serious offenses were very rare. 
The efforts of the teachers and pupils were directed less to the 
acquisition of mere rules and facts than to the cultivation of the 
powers of investigation and habits of thought." 

The Petersburg graded school building was erected and made 
ready for schools in the fall of 1872. The building is an elegant 
brick structure, built at a cost of §20, 000. The following is a list 
of the school trustees of this school: Francis V. Scales, Joseph 
P. Glezen, Simon P. Frank, Dr. A. E. Byres, Pi. Harrell, J. J. 
Eisert. J. B. Young, J. H. Miller. J. W. Gladdish. and G. W. 
Pinney. The present board is composed of Dr. A. R. Byres, 
president; G. W. Pinney, secretary; and G. W. Gladish, 
treasurer. The following is a list of the various superintendents : 
Rev. A. M. Bryant, 1 year; J. W. Wilson, 2 years; W. D. 
McSwane, 4 years; Dr. W. H. Link, 3 years; and the pres- 
ent A. C. Crouch, 3 years. The corps of teachers for 1885-86 
are A. C. Crouch, superintendent; G. J. Nichols, high school; 
Frank R. Taylor,, grammar ; Mrs. H. B. Elliot, intermediate; Miss 
R. L. Whittinghill, second primary ; and Miss Susan Bartlett, first 
primary. The school has a course of twelve years, equaling the 
course of most cities of corresponding size. The high school was 
commissioned by the State Board of Education, in March, 1884, 
to prepare students for the freshman class in the State University. 
As an indication of the progress of the school, we apj>end the high 
school alumni for the diff erent years : 

Class of 1877 — Emma Johnson. Ambrose Johnson, W. E. 

Class of 1878— J. L. Mount, W. H. Brenton. 

Class of 1881— Cora Selby, E. J. Beardsley, Fred Selby, Mar- 
shall Burrees, colored. 

Class of 1884 — Lulu Bartlett, Minerd Burrees, colored. 

Class of 1885 — Anna Hewins, Anna Lamb, Minnie Selby, 
Edith Lamb, Belle Shawhan, Emery Green. 




Religious History or Pike County— The Old Cip uit Riders- 
Meetings of the Early Time— The Formation and Develop- 
ment of Organizations— The Erection and Cost of Buildings- 
Camp Meetings — Sunday-schools, etc.— Names of Ministers 
and Members. 

THE religious history of Pike County is very closely connected 
with its early settlements. Immediately following the first set- 
tlers, came the pioneer ministers, ever ready to share in the hard- 
ships, and cares, and dangers of pioneer life. With unflinching 
zeal they carried their work into every part of the country. 

Camp-Mertings. — In the early history of the church, particu- 
larly of the Methodists and Cumberland Presbyterians, there 
being no churches, and few and incommodious dwellings, these 
dwellers of the forest met, in the Indian summer days of 
autumn, to hold camp-meetings. Hundreds flocked to these 
meetings from far and near, and ministers without regard to 
creed, poured forth their warnings witli apostolic zeal. Often the 
burning eloquence of these men so wrought on the emotions of 
their hearers, that hundreds were stricken with conviction, and 
amid the glimmering camp fires or "the struggling moonbeam's 
misty light, 7 " their lamentations and cries for mercy arose on 
high. No language could describe the effect of their mingled 
songs and shouts and lamentations. The site selected for these 
meetings was always near some spring or other suitable place for 
water. The Centennial says: "The first camp-meeting was held in 
1825, by the Cumberland Presbyterians at the end of Hosea 
Smith's Lane, on the hill near White Oak Springs. 

"They also held camp-meetings in 1826 and 1S27. In 1828. 
the Cumberland Presbyterians and Methodists held union meet- 
ings for two successive years. In 1829, a number of ministers of 
both denominations were present; among them Rev. John Strain, 
who wa6 a man of extraordinary jwwer. During one of his ser 


mons, Kev. Hiram A. Hunter, while attempting to make a report 
of it for preservation, fell unconscious, and lay in that condition 
for hours, as did also Kev, John Decker, and may be others 
throughout the audience. 

"In 1830 and 1831, the Presbyterians, Methodists and Cumber- 
land Presbyterians held union meetings. At that time the camp 
burned, and was never rebuilt. In 1833, the Cumberland Pres- 
byterians erected a camp near Petersburg, in what is now George- 
Davidson's wood-pasture. In 1839, the Methodists built a camp 
on the grounds of Eev. John Decker, three miles northeast of 
Petersburg, and held meetings for four years at that place. In 
1848, they erected a camp on the farm now owned by George. H. 
Siple, and held ■ yearly meetings for three years at that place. 
They also held camp meetings at Mount Pleasant Church in Clay 
Township, in 1854 and 1855; also on the farms of Samuel Jen- 
kins in Logan Township ; these were the last camp-meetings held 
in the county, their days of usefulness having passed away." It 
would not be proper to pass the subject of camp-meetings, with- 
out mentioning the matter of "Jerks." This was a peculiar affec 
tion, brought on by the tremendous tension of the nervous sys- 
tem during the excitement of these religious revivals. The dis- 
ease was indicated by a jerking and violent contortions of the 
body. It afflicted both saint and sinner. Its cause has never 
been fully understood. 

The Cumberland Presbyterian Church. — The Cumberland 
Presbyterian Church had its origin in Pike County, and possibly 
in the State, in a camp-meeting held at White Oak Springs in 
1821. This meeting was conducted by ministers from Kentucky, 
who had traveled all the way on horseback. The ministers, by 
whom this meeting was carried on, were William and John Bar- 
nett (two of Alex Downey's cousins), Hiram A. Hunter, William 
Lynn, William Chapman and David Lowery. At this meeting 
were over eighty conversions, and about forty of these joined the 
Cumberland Presbyterian Church, and immediately at the close 
of the meeting the congregation of that denomination was formed. 
This congregation is thought to have been the first in the State, 
although there was one organized near Owensville, at old Mount 
Zion. about the same time. The first pastor of the congregation 
was John M. Berry, who was ordained in 1822, and remained as 


pastor about one year. After Berry there was no regular pa->tt>r. 
although occasional preaching, till 1833 when James Richej 1>« 
came pastor and remained until IS43. The following ministers 
have preached to this congregation at ditf'en nt times, althougl 
possiblj not in the order named: John Edmunson, David Don; 
Walter Scanks, H. D. Ouyett, Lewis Wilson. A. T. Hutchinson. 
M. M. Smith. O. E. Hart. Ebenezer, Ben and Ephraim Hall. •' 
B. Madden and C. W. Yates, the present pastor. This congrega- 
tion at first worshiped in private dwellings and the old court 
house, but in 1842 a. new brick church was erected not tar from 
the public square. Among the principal donors to this hous- 
were Jesse Alexander. Matthew Foster (grandfather of Hon. J. 
W. Foster), Peter Tislow and Peter Brenton. Members of the 
first congregation were Jeremiah Gladdish and wife. Mrs. Lindsey. 
Jacob Meade, Luev Meade and Mrs. Miley, the only one of these 
now living. Judge Sawyer. John Summers and Jeremiah Gladish 
were among the first elders. The first Sabbath-school of this church 
was organized about lS4( I, and has continued to the present time, 
and is now quite prosperous. It was continued through the sum- 
mer months only, till 1853, when, through the influence of Mis. 
Miley and a few other ladies, it was carried on through the win- 
ter months. The example was soon followed by other schools. 
The pastors have usually acted as Sunday-school superintendents, 
Tin' old church house is being replaced by an elegant new one. 
at a cost of about $(5,000. The following persons have given 
very liberal aid in the construction of the new house: M. M. 
Thomas, Sarah Ash, J. J. Eisert and Mary Ann Park. The 
membership of the church is about 131, who pay their pastor a 
salary of $700. 

The Bethlehem congregation was organized, and worshiped 
under an old shed, near Union, about 1840. This congregation 
used the old shed as a place of worship until 1830, when tin 
Bethlehem Church house was erected, mainly by Oliphants, Col 
\ins. Fredericks. Donaldsons, bindys and Crow. It is thought 
Bethlehem congregation was organized by James Richey. 
Among tie- firsl members were Mrs. Hudleson i tin- first Cumber 
land Presbyterian in Clay Township), Joseph Davidson and wit'.-. 
Edmunson ami wife Mr. Lincly and the White family, Mi-. White 
being the first elder. The church at Union was built mainly b\ 


J. T. Kime and Alonzo Hillman, acting as solicitors, at a cost of 
$1.P>50. It maintains a good Sabbath-school, of which A. Hill- 
man is superintendent. The churches at Bethlehem, Union and 
Olive Branch are called the Bethlehem congregation. Those 
mainly instrumental in the erection of Olive Branch were A. 
Johnson, Mr. Carr and Michael Kime. The first church was a 
log structure, built in 184(5; the new one in 1858. The first 
members of this congregation were Michael Kime and family, A. 
J. Johnson, Isaac Carr. Felix Falls and S. G. Barrett, The 
strength now is about forty-five. Among the pastors who have 
preached to Bethlehem congregation are James Riehey, William 
Lynn, John and George Edmunson, Stewart. Dorr, Bates. Lewis 
Wilson, T. B. McCormick, James Gleason and M. E. Chappell. 

The White River congregation was organized May 2!), 1875, 
with Mason Hedriek as pastor. The first membership was thirty- 
four, and it has had a steady increase, until it now numbers sev- 
enty. The elders of the church have been: W. H. Kelso, Henry 
Stone, A. L. Case, Jonas Robinson, John W. Griffith, Quincy 
Harper and Alva Pierce. The congregation worships at the Gray 
Church, just across White River. This is a neat house, and was 
built as a "union" church, at a cost of $2,000. This congrega- 
tion has had but two pastors, Mason Hedriek and W. B. Craw- 
ford, the present pastor. It has maintained a very flourishing 
Sabbath -school — Union School — since April, 1882. 

Methodist Churches. — The first church services ever held in 
Pike County, were at Highbanks, the date of which is unknown 
although they antedated 1820 some years. The class was com- 
posed of a body of persons who emigrated from North Caro- 
lina. Owing to some schism in the class to which they belonged, 
they withdrew from the Methodist Episcopal Church and organ- 
ized themselves into the "Christian body" at Highbanks. The 
local ministers of this class were William Hargrave, Barnett 
and Harbard DeBruler, but on the organization of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church in Pike County, all these again joined the 
mother church except Mr. Case, wife, son and daughter who 
joined the Presbyterians and a few who went to the Universalists. 
The first class of Methodists was organized at the house of Arch- 
ibald Campbell in April, 1822. Mr. Campbell being a black- 
smith by trade and a Methodist by faith, the itinerant ministers 


frequently stopped with him to have their horses shod and for 

entertainment. Not only were there regular preaching services 
at Mr. Campbell's, but quarterly meetings as well. Minis- 
ters were supplied to this class from the first till 1832 by the 
Tennessee conference and then by the Illinois conference until 
the formation of the Indiana conference. On the removal of a 
number of families from Daviess County to Petersburg in 1828, 
a new class was organized at that place. Mrs. Osborn, Eber (her 
son), two of the Kinmans, Mr. and Mrs. Campbell and Levin 
Young were members of the first class. Of the second were 
Samuel, Kebecca, Catharine and Irene Stuckey, Thomas and Mary 
Palmer, John Mclntyre, and Fanny Mclntyre, Henry Merick, wife 
and daughter, Lydia Mclntyre, Samuel Stuckey, Jr. and Catharine 
his wife. Samuel Stuckey was the first class leader. The two 
classes were in a few years merged into one. Services were held 
at Mr. Campbell's and other private residences or the old court 
house until 1835, when a small house, about 30x35 feet was erected 
a short distance from the public square. This house cost about 
$400. but was built mainly by donations in work and material. 
This building served as a place of worship till 1855, when a new 
and more commodious structure was erected on the site of the old 
parsonage ground at a cost of §1,000. The following is a list of 
the presiding elders of this class: James Armstrong, James 
Hamilton, Samuel Hamilton. George Socke, Samuel Thompson, 
John Miller, Henry S. Talbot, John Kern, Jehu Keiger, Elijah 
Whiten, Henry S. Robinson, George Walker, J. J. Stallard, Hay- 
den Hays, Aaron Turner, Grim and Talbot. Those named below 
have preached to this class at different periods: Richard Har- 
grave, son of William Hargrave of Highbanks, preached in 
1821, and joined the conference in 182-1; Joseph Tarkington, 
James L. Thompson, Alfred Arrington, John M. Green, Ingle, 
Samuel Reed, Eli C. Jones, Whiting, Caldwell, Chapman, Car- 
ter. Charles Slocum, Hobbs and Daniel Davis. This class has 
had a steady and healthful growth and now numbers about 100 
members. The salary of the pastor is $600. 

The Sabbath -school of this class was organized in L828 and 
since 1855 has been kept running through the entire year. Among 
the Sabbath-school superintendents are named Mitchell. John 
Mclntyre, William Hawthorn and J. B. Young. 


The Methodist Church at Union was organized at the house 
of Joshua Young. The class built a log-house of worship about 
one mile east of Union at Wesley Chapel, but a new house of 
worship was built at Union in 1881 and the class was changed to 
that place. O. H. Chapman, I. C. Jones, Wilkinson. Spencer 
and Patterson were some of the older ministers; the later were 
three of the Woodses, Davis, Hilliard and McRoberts. This class 
has an elegant house of worship and has a membership of about 

Mount Pleasant class was organized in 1850, at the Bailey 
Schoolhouse in Logan Township by N. Patterson. Bailey re- 
mained the place of worship till about 1860. The house was 
erected by John Smith and Elias Hunt, the principal donors be- 
ing Thomas Bailey, Richardson, Jenkins, Wesley Whitehead, 
Felix Falls and William Smith. The first members were Thomas 
Bailey and wife, J. Richardson and wife, Felix Falls and wife, 
Wesley Whitehead and wife, A. Hoover and wife, William Smith 
and wife. The total strength now is about seventy. 

There are two classes of the Methodist Episcopal Church in 
Jefferson, one at Pleasant Grove, the other at Otwell. The one at 
Otwell was organized in 1858 with about twelve members. The 
class has been reasonably prosperous and in 1863 built a neat 
church house about 30x30 feet. 

United Brethren Church. — These people have the follow- 
ing church organizations in Pike County; Otwell, Cup Creek, 
Atkinson Chapel, Butler Chapel, and White River Chapel. 
The latter was built in 1867. This house was erected by private 
donation, mainly by Washington and Samuel Vansickle, William 
Crandall, William Foust, and William Sappenfield. This church 
also has a very neat parsonage, and a membership of about forty. 
The following ministers have preached to this people: Jacob 
Scammahorn, J. W. Tucker, R. Binkley, John Elliott, Lewis 
Jameson, James M. Fowler, Joseph Bosley, William F. Green, 
John Grubb, E. Thomas, Thomas Butler, Thomas Hitchcock, 
John H. Barnett, Martin Tucker, A. H. Chittenden, B. W. Bow- 
man, C. C. Rucker, I. K. Haskins, and J. W. DeMunbrun. The 
following have been elders: L. S. Chittenden, John Elliott, 
Jacob Scammahorn, John Breeden, Daniel Shuck, J. O. Current, 
J. M. Fowler, I. K. Haskins, and J. F. DeMunbrun. However, 


the first United Brethren Church was organized at the house 
of Stephen Wheatley in the year 1834; that house stood about 
the center of where Justus Miller's orchard now is. Its mem- 
bers were John and Mary Miller, Hannah, their daughter, Abel 
and Nancy Dewitt, Martha Miller and Nancy Davis, all of 
whom were members of John Miller's family, except Nanc> 
Davis. Mr. Miller was a member of the United Brethrer 
Church when he came to this county. The first preaching was 
in his house by Aaron Farmer, a man from Perry County. Silas 
Davis from Dubois County near Huntingburg effected an organ- 
ization. Charles Mills was the first revivalist after the organ- 
ization. Frederick Kennawyer from Crawford was an old time 
preacher. The organization did not have regular preaching for 
some time after organization. They built their first church house 
in this county in 1853 about one mile west of Pikeville. This 
was built of hewed logs, and when raised, they used cattle to 
draw the logs to the top of the building. In 1882, the old house 
was torn down and rebuilt, with some additions, near the old site 
It is still the place of worship for this organization. The mem- 
bership of the same is over one hundred. Butler Chapel was the 
second built in the county. The history of the other cfrarches 
could not be procured. 

General Bctptists. — The General Baptist denomination had its 
origin in Pike County, in a schism in the United Baptist de- 
nomination. Elder Samuel T. Thompson and James Thomas, not 
being permitted to practice free communion in the United Bap- 
tist denomination, with seventeen lay members, withdrew from 
the United Baptists in the year 1851, and organized themselves 
into a church, taking the name of Flat Creek Church of Free 
Communion United Baptists. Samuel T. Thomson serving as pas- 
tor and preaching in other places. They continued a separate 
organization for about eight years; in the meantime, Eldei 
Thompson had organized eight churches with a membership 
about 300 and had organized them into the Flat Creel 
Association of Free Communion United Baptists. Having 
become acquainted with the General Baptists, and finding their 
doctrines and usages were the same as their own. and having been 
visited by Elder T. M. Strain and G. P. Cavanaugh of Liberty As- 
sociation of General Baptists in the autumn of 1859, these eight 


climcl"- oi Liberty Association of General Baptists were organ- 
ized int.. an association taking the nam.- of United Association i 
General Baptists. The association grew so rapidly that it was 
thought best, in the meeting of the association in lsi','1. to iliviil. 
the association. The original churches in Pike ami adjoining 
counties were formed into a new association adopting the nam-! 
of Flat Creek Association of General Baptists. The following 
churches were tin' original churches organized by Elder Thomp- 
son: Flat Civ.-k. Bethel. Mount Olive. Little Bethany. Mount 
Ziou. Enon. and Ridge. In 1^70. the association contained 2J>17 
communicants, but becoming so large, a number of the churches 
were detached and added to a new association. The Flal 
Creek Association in L881 numbered 501) members, not all, 
however, lived in Pike County. The following wen- pioneer min- 
isters: Elder Thomas Boling. Simeon Wood. William T. Hop- 
kins, and Samuel T. Thompson; other ministers: William M. 
Chisser, J. J. Laswell, J. VV. Shouse, J. G. Jackman, I. Smith. 
R. M. Lucas, A. C. West. D. F. Philips, J. N. Baggarly. J. 
Evans. William F. Robertson and F. E. King. Elder Samuel 
T. Thompson may very properly be considered the founder of this 
people as lie organized most of the churches that first constituted 
it. with several others that were left in the United Association. 
The association for 1885 reported the following churches with 
their membership in the county: 

Flat Creek Church. A. C. West, pastor, membership. HI : 
Shepherd's Chapel, A. E. Wood, 35; Liberty, W. M. Chesser, 98; 
White River, W. M. Chesser, 30; Mount Tabor, G. T. Hutchin- 
son, 37; Olive Branch, H. C. Clinton, 20; Winslow, W. M. Ches- 
ser, 132; New Liberty, A. 0. West, 56; Pikeville. A. C. West. 27; 
Pleasant Hope, A. C. West, 77. 

Regular Baptists. — The first preaching by the Regular Bap- 
tists, was about the year is IF at the residence of Col. Henry 
Hopkins, by Elders Alex Diven. William Hanks, William Rick 
ets and Jeremiah Cash. The first church was organized near 
High Banks about 1816, at Handle Letts. 

Our best information is that David Hornaday, John Colwell 

I ■ ■vi Kintiiaii. Capt. Isaac Coau. Joseph Chew, Jonathan Postle- 

wait. Duncan. Judge Hammond, and possibly their families 

elonged also: among- these Hornaday and Ca^h were preach*"--- 


A schism arose am »ng the Regular ami Missionary Baptists, and 
the church was ruined — most of the members joining the Univer- 
salists: a result of questions that '-gender strife." and are of "no 
profit." The following is an account of the churches in Pike 
County: Harvv's Creek Church was constituted at the house of 
James Lumsdale, a short distance west of Union. February 
"s. 1*2:5. bv Elders Alexn»W Diven and William Hanks. 
Among the members of the constitution were William Wright andl 
wife. Fielding Colvin and wife. Mary Lumsdale. Elizabeth Shaw- 
h i'i and Elizabeth Davidson. The first was a log church, built 
on the land of Dr. Joseph Davidson. Alex Diven was the first 
pastor. Their pist »rs hive been Jeremiah Cash. Samuel Fitten- 
ger. Jam es Strickland, A. D. Newton, J. C. Riggin, Charles 
Sands. J. W. Arnold, and J. W. Richards:):], the present pastor. 
They worship at Gladdish Chapal.. Since Elder Richardson's pas- 
torate, the church has increased from thirteen to eighty-five. 
Little Zion was organized January 8, 1848, at the residence 
of Elizabeth Colvin, by Elders Larken Burchfield and Samuel 
Fettinger. The following names are in the constitution: James 
Kinman and wife. John Kinman and wife. David Hillman and 
wife, George Fettinger and wife, and eight others, all of whom 
were dismissed by letter from Harvey's Creek Church to form anew 
one. Elder Fettinger was the first pastor and served till July. L855 : 
James Strickland from that time till December 14, 18U7; Charles 
Sands until October lti. 1870; James Strickland again till No- 
vember 8, 1*74. when J. W. Richardson became pastor. The 
church has a convenient house of worship about one-half mile 
from Onion, with a membership of seventy-six. 

Pleasant Ridge Church was organized at the Pleasant Ridge 
meeting-house, south of Petersburg. Saturday, November 23, 
l^l'l. There were thirty-three members in the constitution, all 
of whom had been members of the White River Church. There 
were three ministers belonging to i his church, vet it elected do 
regular pastor till January. ISTli. when it chose Elder J. W. 
Richardson, who served through eight prosperous years; then it 
chose Elder William Gammon. The membership is now seventy- 


South Pork Church was organized at Pleasantville, March 
19. L864 Et was composed of eighteen members of the Walnut 


Grove Clrur; i. of Warrick County. Elder Samuel Fettinger had 
bei .1 preaching in the neighborhood two or three years before 
the church was constituted at South Fork, and was the first pas- 
tor. By the labors of Elders Fettinger, Strickland, Thomas, 
Arnold. Hume and othei -.this church reached nearly 100 in num- 
bers, when a division arose of the question of secret societies. 
The majority kept the house, and the minority withdrew to Pleas- 
nntville. The first is called tin- Radical Anti-Secret Society 
party of South Fork, and numbers less than fifty; the other was 
pronounced by a council of six churches to be the '•South Fork 
Church in order."' Neither branch, however, tolerates secret 
societies; the last named body now numbers 108 members. There 
is no essential difference in doctrines or practices between the 
two factions, and the "preacher jealousy" seems to have been the 
real cause of the difficulty. Elder William S. Green is pastor of 
the Pleasantville Church. 

White River Church was organized at the house of Jeremiah 
Arnold in Jefferson Township on the 11th of April, 1835, by 
Elders Jeremiah Cash, Lewis Duncan, and Elihu Holcomb. Elder 
Cash was its first pastor, and he was succeeded by Elder Fettin- 
ger, who served till 1872, when Elder J. W. Richardson was 
chosen, who has since served as pastor. In 1872, thirty-three 
members of this church were dismissed by letter, to constitute 
Pleasant Ridge Church. Since that time the old body has 
increased to seventy, and has built a neat house, Arnold Chapel, 
about six miles east of Petersburg. 

Patoka Association. — All of the foregoing churches, and 
Walnut Grove, which house is in Warwick County, once be- 
longed to Salem Association, but in October, were organized into 
a new association called Patoka Association, at Gladdish Chapel, 
five miles west of Petersburg. 

At the meeting of the association in 1880 it numbered 370, 
in 1884 it numbered 531. 

The meeting of the association is oil Friday before the second 
Sunday in October. To place the Regular Baptists before the 
public properly on one point of doctrine their Ninth Article of 
Faitli is here quoted: 

Art. IX. "We believe that all persons who die while in a state 
of infancy are regenerated and saved by Christ through the 


Imtheran church <it Stendal. — The Evangelical Lutheran 
Church of the Augsburg confession was organized in 1860, with 
eight members: Frederic Salman, Sr., Henry Gille, Eudolf 
Butka, Christian Rebber, Frederick Brust. Frederick Pickhart, 
Henry Katterjohn and Henry Wellmeyer. 

Not being able to keep a pastor and build a house they held 
their meetings at Frederick Salman's, which meetings were con- 
ducted by Rev. F. A. Graetz, from Holland, Dubois County, who 
was of the same denomination. In 1S<»3 they built a log church, 
28x36 feet, at a cost of about $150. At this time the church 
called Rev. W. G. C. Bauermeister, who remained among them 
twelve years. His work proved a success, for at the expiration 
of that time the congregation numbered sixty members and had 
built a new church 40x60 feet, with a tower eighty feet high, at 
a cost of $2,500, together with a parsonage 16x32 feet, two sto- 
ries high, at a cost of §600. In 1879 Rev. Bauermeister accept- 
ed a call from a congregation in Dearborn County, and Rev. E. 
Mahlberg came in his stead and remained three years, when he 
answered a call from Pittsburgh, Penn. The present minister is 
the Rev. August Stein. 

The present membership is sixty. The church maintains a 
day-school, four days of the week, during the winter months, and 
Sunday-school during the summer. Henry Gille and Rudolf 
Butka are the only two living members of the first organization, 
two were then, as now, the leading members of the church. 
The church holds services every Sunday at 10 o'clock. Rev. 
Bauermeister donated two acres of ground for a church, parson- 
age and graveyard. 

Missionary Baptists. — On the authority of the Rev. Lewis 
Loveless, we give the following: "The Missionary Baptist 
Church of Pike County is not numerically strong. There are 
tour churches, numbering about 200 members." 

The oldest of these is Union, two miles southwest of Peters- 
burg, the county seat, It was organized in 1836, by Elder Will- 
iam Stansil, with some assistance from the Daviess County 
churches. Its original members were Oias Smith and wife, 
Newton Battles and wife, James Upton and wife, and Andrew 
Johnson. In its early history it had a hard controversy with its 
anti-mission brethren, who opposed an educated ministry. Sab- 


hath-sch.> J. tlomestie and foreign mission-;. The opposing 
:•]•'! reii withdrew from the church, and formed a new org^nix - 
lion, which soon perished. Its former pastors were Elders F. 
Slater, P. H. Evans. Lewis Loveless and the present. William 
Hoagland. It has a :.■' tod lions. ,,f worship, and numbers about 
members. Lick Greek, about two miles east of Peters- 
was irganizedby Elder Lewis Loveless, assisted by Wilson 
Creek Church, in 1872. Its charter members were. A. B. Green 
and wife, Hiram Purcell and James Rhoades. It has no house 
of worship, but does have preaching once a month, by Elder A. 
B. Green. Hosmer Baptist Church was I in 1872, by 

Elder W. O. Camp, who was its pastor for two or three vears 
It has an interest in a good house of worship, but no preaching. 
Its original members were Forde DeJarnett, Dr. J. F. Smith. 
Mrs. Christina DeJarnett, Daniel DeJarnett and William Martin. 
The Baptist Church of Petersburg was organized by Elder P. H, 
Evans, assisted by the Union Baptist Church, in 1880, Elder 
Evans preached for it for some time, but resigned for other fields 
of labor, since which time this church has been without preach- 
ing. Some of the members of this church are Emily Morgan, 
W. O. Carter, Benjamin Wyatt and Mrs. Harrison. The man 
who built up a sentiment favorable to the Baptists, more than 
any other, was Elder P. H. Evans, who took charge of Union 
Church in 1860, and preached the word with power. Large num- 
bers were added under his ministry, but since his ministry the 
members have greatly diminished. The prayer of the Baptists is: 
"Lord, send more laborers into Thy vine} aid." 

Presbyterian Church. — The Presbyterian Church of Peters- 
burg was organized under the direction of the Yincennes Presby- 
tery, May 20, 1848, by Rev. John McCord with the following 
original members: Thomas Davidson, and Isabella his wife, 
Joseph A. Cray and Nancy M. his wife, Mrs. Margaret Hawthorn, 
John Hawthorn. Sarah Hawthorn, and Mrs. Sarah B. Posej 
For some time the little band was supplied regularly with preach 
ing by Rev. H. Patten of Princeton, afterward 1>\ Rev. S. McGuii 
of Washington, who. for near U two vears gave them one-fourth 
of his time. In the spring of L853 Rev. Abraham T. Hen, hick- 
took charge of the church and ministered to it acceptably and 
successfully until the spring of 1803 when he left for a chaplaincy 


in the army, fie was succeeded by Kev. John T. Aughey who 
had been a chaplain and escaped from a rebel prison. Mr. 
Aughey supplied however but six months. The church next 
enjoyed the ministry of Rev. Henry W. Fisk who began his 
labors with them in the spring of 1865, and remained until the 
autumn of 1870, when he left on account of ill health. Rev. 
E. C. Johnson, his successor, was the first regularly installed 
pastor of the church, and labored faithfully from the summer of 
IS71 to the summer of 1878, when his physical strength was ex- 
hausted, and he went from the pulpit directly to his bed of death 
He was greatly beloved by his people and sincerely mourned b) 
the entire community. Rev. M. L. Milford was next called 
and installed as pastor in March, 1879. He continued his labors 
until the summer of L882 when lie resigned on account of impaired 
health. Rev. David Van Dyke came from Michigan in an- 
swer to a call to the pastorate in March, 1883. His ministry was 
characterized by zeal and energy, and during his brief stay lie 
secured the erection of a manse. He closed his labors with the 
church, December 1, 1884, having accepted a call to the First 
Avenue Presbyterian congregation in Evansville. Rev. A. W. 
Freeman is now ministering to the church as pastor-elect. It 
would be an unpardonable omission in this historical sketch not 
to mention the Rev. Thomas Martin who came to Petersburg from 
Martinsburg, Va., in 1855 and resided here till his death in 1872. 
Though an invalid and incapable of preaching, his influence and 
usefulness were very great. By his liberal contributions, his 
council and his aid in the judge's meeting, and in the Sabbath- 
school — in all these and other ways as also by his exemplar} 
walk and conversation - lie assisted much to build up this church, 
and in his family he has left it a rich legacy. Mention should 
also he made of Thomas Davidson, an original member 
and an elder from the organization of the church till his death in 
L874. Faithful to the duties of his office, he gave largely of his 
means toward building the house and maintaining worship within 
it. and when without a minister, he often read a sermon, aided bj 
r Martin who took charge of the introductory and conclud 
rvices. Tie' congregation has acomfortable edifice, erected 
during the ministry of llev. A. T. Hendricks as appears from 
the following record made by him in the session hook: "October 


1, 1854. This Sabbath was the first ever spent by the church in 
their own house. It was with evident delight that they convened 
and united in the observance of the Sacrament of the Lord's 
Slipper. May it be truly a house of prayer and praise." The 
eligible lot was donated by Joseph P. Glezen, the lumber by 
Robert P. Hawthorn, and the bell by Mrs. Hendricks with the 
assistance of her two brothers, two sisters and a brother-in-law, 
viz. : Jasper W. Blythe, Cranberry, N. J. ; James E. Blythe, 
Evansville, Ind. ; Mrs. Elizabeth Butler, Carrollton, Ky. ; Mrs. 
Mary Haynes, Bardstown, Ky. : and George Green, Trenton, N. 
1. The present number of communicants is about sixty-five. 



CHARLES D. ALEXANDER, a native of Pike County, 
was born on the farm, where lie now lives, February 25. 1825. 
He is the second of nine children in the family of Jesse and 
Maria Alexander, both natives of North Carolina, from which 
State, in 1824, they came to Pike County. They bought a farm 
in Washington Township, upon which they afterward resided. 
The father died in April, 1851, and the mother followed him to 
the grave in 1865. Charles D. remained with his parents, work- 
ing on the home farm until he was twenty-five years of age. He 
then went hi Jasper, where he worked at the cooper's trade for 
two years. At the death of his father he returned home and 
managed the farm until his marriage. He then located on a farm 
east of Petersburg, where he remained two years, after which he 
removed to another farm, which he sold to Morris Tucker. He 
then removed to Petersburg where he was engaged in the agri- 
cult ural implement business, and as a mail route contractor for 
nine years. Since that time he has resided upon the homestead 
farm. He now owns about 400 acres of good land, and is recog- 
nized as one of the substantial men of the county. He has been 
three times married. He chose for bis first wife Pamelia Thomas, 
whom he married October 20, 1853. She died April 21, 1864, 
leaving two children, now Mrs. Leslie Lamb and Mrs. Elijah 
Malott. October 29, 1865, he was joined in marriage with Emily 
Denson, who died October 9, 1866, leaving one child, Jennetta, 
since deceased. His third wife. Elizabeth ('. Wheeler, is the 
mother of five children. Those living are Albert B.. Walter B.. 
Fred B. and Waughneta (•. Mi'. Alexander has been a Republican 
since the organization of that parly, and previous to that time 
was a Whig. He is a member of the Cumberland Presbyterian 
Church, and Ins wife is a General Baptist. 

(WIT. \. II. ALEXANDER, tire insurance ageni and justice 
of the peac< "I' Petersburg, [nd., is a native of Dubois County, 


Inil.. h i'. February 1-"J, 1827. He is the fifth of the nine e.liil- 
■' .11. bom to the marriage of Ashbury Alexander and Elizabeth 
Lindsey, natives of North Carolina and Kentucky, respectively. 
The father, when about twenty-six years of age, came to Indiana, 
and located in Pike County in 1811, and the following year was 
married. He soon utter removed to what is now Dubois County, 
where he remained until 1831, when lie went to Diiviess County. 
He died there April 15. 1852. The mother died in the same 
county, February 27, 18(58. A. H. Alexander was reared at home. 
receiving his education in the old log house of that day. At the 
age of twenty-three he married and located on a farm about four 
miles from Petersburg, where he remained until 18551. In that 
year he removed to Jasper, where he was engaged in a general 
merchandise business until 18(51; at the breaking out of the war 
he assisted in raising Company E, Fifty-eighth Indiana Volunte -r 
Infantry, with which company he went inti> service as its first 
lieutenant and June 2, 1862, was made its captain. He served in 
that capacity until the battle of Stone River, when he received a 
gunshot wound in the arm and side. June 1. 1863, he resigned 
his commission on account of disability and returned home. Dur- 
ing October and November of that year he raised Company F, 
Tenth Indiana Cavalry, with which he served as captain until 
mustered out August 31, 18(55. Besides the battle of Stone River, 
he participated in battles of Perryville. Shiloh, Corinth. Nashville. 
Decatur (Ala.), Fort Blakey (Ala.), and numerous lesser en- 
gagements. Since the war he has resided in Petersburg, engaged 
in his present business. He is now serving his sixth term as jus- 
tice of the peace. April 12. 1ST'.* he wa . joined in marriage with 
Lucy Smith, a native of th»a county, and to their union have been 

>orn four children, only two of whom, ft .ry and Laura ( now Mrs. 
Mart Fleener) are living. Roth Cape. Alexander and wife are 

nembers of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. He is also a 
member of G. A. R. and A. F. & A. M. In politics he is a 
stanch Republican. 

JAJMES RALPH ADAMS, M. D., a prominent physician of 
Petersburg, Ind.. was born in Knox County, March 19, 1S24, son 
of William and Grace (Roberts) Adams wdio were the parents of 
nine children. The father was of Irish descent but born in Penn- 
sylvania. He came to Indiana in L80f> when he was about ten 
years old. and located in Knox County. He lived a farmer's life 
and died in 1 stilt. The mother was born and raised in Wales, and 
came to the United States with her parents when she was a young 
lady nearly grown. James R. received a better education than 
the average boj of his times, and after attaining his majority he 
taught school fcwo years, and at,the same time studied medicine. 
He attended the Medical College of Ohio at Cincinnati during 


the sessions of 1*4-7 I s t' 1 . then came to Petersburg and prac- 
ticed his profession two years, and then returned to Cincinnati 
and graduated n year Later. He then resumed his [>ractice 
here where he lias remained ever since, meeting with flattering 
success. Of late years lie has rather retired from active life. 
In |x:il he married Sarah McCrillus. a native of Jasper, [nd. 
They became the parents of tliree children: McCrillus, Howard 
Vigo and Elizabeth (deceased!. Dr. Adam- has always been a 
Whig and Republican. He is a member of the I < >. ( >. F. Era 
ternity. He has resided in the county thirty yeai-s and is consid- 
ered n competent practitioner and wide-awake citizen. He served 
as surgeon in the Fifty-eighth and Fifteenth Indiana Regiments, 
and served until tSn4." 

DAM I'M, ('. AKHBY. clerk of the circuit court of Pike Coun- 
ty Ind.. and native of the county, was born January 2. LSiJl), being 
one of ten children horn to Peyton and Louisa ' v Crow ) Ashby. 
The father, who was a practical farmer, was born and raised in 
Pike County, where he married and raised a large family. He 
was well and favorably known as an unpretentious and upright 
citizen. He is now deceased hut his wife still lives in the county. 
In L8f>l our subject enlisted as a private in Company D. Fifty- 
eighth Indiana Infantry, and served in (his capacity until May, 
lM'>:i. when he was discharged on account of disability contracted 
during service. August Hi, lstTJ he re-enlisted in Company H. 
Eightieth Indiana Infantry and served as private, sergeant and 
second lieutenant of his company until April. INtio, when he was 
promoted to first lieutenant, serving until December 1 5. ImU. when 
he was wounded at the battle of Nashville and was mustered out 
.May 1"). LKoo. He then returned home and attended school two 
■i three years. In lfcf><> he was a candidate for county auditor 
on the Democratic ticket but was defeated by three majority. He 
then continued attending school until 18(>X. when he was elected 
recorder of Pike Count) and served two terms hi LbTS he was 
elected to Ids present office, and has filled it very efficiently two 
terms by re-election. April l:>. IKTO he wedded Frances Griffin 
who died January 11. IS7(>. leaving two children: Frederick H 
and Frances A. February 7. LSSO. Mr. Ashby married Flora 
Hargrove, his present wife. He is a member of the I. 0. 0. F. 
and G. A. I!, and K. of L. Mr. Ashliv is an industrious, compe- 
tent official and an enterprising member of society. 

HENRI C. BRENTON, one of the enterprising and progres 
sive farmers of Pike County, is the second son of Wesley Brentou. 
deceased (See sketch of Peter I. Brenton.) He is n native of 
the county, having been horn in Washington Township, April Hi. 
1840. He has been engaged in farming all his life, and is well in 
foil I on all subjects pertaining to the most advanced ideas onagri 


culture, He has a fine farm and lias done much to raise the stair! 
ard of farmers in this county. He is also one of the If ] ■* 
spirits in keeping up the only granger's organization in this i art 
of Indiana. Mr. Brenton obtained a gooil. practical education in 
his youth. He remained at Lome until the breaking out of the 
Rebellion, when. June 2. 1 ->'•!. lie enlisted in Company C. S. ven- 
teenth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, with which regiment he served 
until mustered out at Macon. Ga.. August I s . I"- 1 >~>. He participated 
in the battles of Chickamauga and Keuesaw Mountaiu. the Atlanta 
campaign and the siege of Atlanta, besides numerous piio u 
ments of less note. Januaiy 1. IS<>8. he was uniteil in marring 
with Kate Harper- of Gibson County, and to them have been born 
three children. Ella. Julia and Mary. Mr. Brenton is a met hi 
of the I. 0. 0. F. F. & A. SI. G.A. R. K. of L.. A. 0. U. W.. 
and the Grangers. In politics he is a nienilier of the National 
Greenback party, and has been deputy sheriff of Pike County for 
two terms, during which time he performed the greater part of 
the duties of that office. 

PETER BRENTON. one of the oldest native residents ol 
Pike County, was born February 18, 1819. He received but 
little education in youth, partly owing to his dislike of school. 
Previous to his marriage, lie followed various occupations such as 
wool-carding, fiat-boating, etc. December 23. 1811, he married 
Nancy Tislow and soon after located on eighty acres of his present 
farm. He now has 200 acres of well improved land. He is the 
father of six children, three of whom, Helen A., widow of Daniel 
Hawkins, John and Wesley are living. Mr. Brenton is tin- 
youngest child of Peter Brenton. in whose honor Petersburg 
was named. The latter was born in Mercer County. Ky.. 
and came to this County about the beginning of the present cen- 
tury. His principal business was that of farming, though he. at 
one time, ran a carding machine in Petersburg. When the seat 
of justice of Pike County was selected, he gave the greater part 
of the land for the site. He was a man of considerable ability, 
and was one of the first commissioners of the county. He was 
twice married. His first wife was Eleanor Smith who in 
1823. About three years later he married Elizabeth Johnson. 
He was a member of the militia during the war of 1812, and re- 
ceive,) a land warrant for his services. 

PETER I. BBENTON. one of the most prominent farmers 
in Pike Count}', is a grandson of the founder of Petersburg, 
and a son of Wesley Brenton. The latter was born in Peters- 
burg, in December. 1812. He married Betsey A. (row. and 
lived upon a farm southeast of Petersburg. His death occurred 
October, 1864. He was the father of six sons and four daughters, 
the subject of this memoir is the oldest. Peter I. was 


born October IT. 1837. He remained at home until after attain- 
ing his majority, after which he rented and worked land for five 
years. He then bought 156 acres of land upon which he has 
since resided and to which he has added until he now has 24* I 
acres. He has erected one of the finest residences in the county, 
and by his energy, economy and business ability has become one 
of the county's wealthiest men. December 29, 1859, be was 
united in marriage with Minerva E. Alexander, a native of Ken- 
tucky. They have only one child, William H. To him they 
have given a finished education. Having graduated at the uni- 
versity of Michigan, he is now employed as a civil engineer by 
the Chicago & Alton Railroad Company. Mr. Brenton and wife 
are members of the General Baptist Church. He is also a Mason, 
and in politics a Republican. 

JOHN BRENTON, trustee of Washington Township. Pike 
County, Ind.. was horn October 27, 1853, and is one of four chil- 
dren in the family of Peter and Nancy (Tislow) Brenton, 
who were natives of the county in which they have passed their 
lives. The grandfather, Peter Brenton, was one of the first set- 
tlers of the town which was named in honor of him. John Bren- 
ton received his education in the schools of the county and at 
Oakland City. He remained at home, working on the farm in 
summer and teaching school in winter, until he was about twenty- 
seven years old. After marriage he settled on a farm, which he 
had previously purchased, and upon which he has since resided.' 
He now owns 121 acres of land in the township. In August, 
1884, he opened a meat market in Petersburg, which he has 
since conducted with good success. He deals, also, in live stock 
to some extent. April 16, 1882, he was united in marriage to 
Christina I. Argenbright, a native of Crawford County, Ind. 
They have one child: Ethel, born April 14, 1883. In politics 
Mr. Brenton is a Republican, and is one of the enterprising citi- 
zens of Pike County. 

ALEXANDER'R, BYERS, M. D., of Petersburg, Ind., is one 
of a large family of children born to the marriage of Thomas and 
Margaret (Hamilton) Byers, who were natives of Pennsylvania, 
where they lived and died. Alexander was born in Washington 
County, Penn., June 15, 1829. At the age of fifteen he entered 
the West Alexander Academy, and completed his course when he 
was twenty. He then taught school for about a year in Ohio, 
and also began the study of medicine. He came "to Indiana in 
1851. and soon after located in Clark County, where he taught 
school two years. He then came to Petersburg, and taught 
school for about seven months, and shortly after entered the office 
of Prof. J. R. Wilcox, M. D., of Evansville, Ind.. and also at- 
tended lectures at the medical college, of that city. He practiced 


medicine with his preceptor for about three months, when the 
latter died, and our subject returned to Petersburg in Septem- 
ber. I s ;-") 4-. In 1*111 he was commissioned first-lieutenant of Com- 
pany I, Forty-second Indiana Volunteers, and served in that 
capacity in the war of the Rebellion for about eight months. In 
August, 1862, he was appointed first assistant-surgeon of the 
Sixty-fifth Indiana Regiment, and in 18G3 was appointed sur- 
geon of the regiment, serving until March, when he re- 
turned home and resumed his practice. In 1856 he married 
Mary Morgan, who died in July, 1858, leaving one child, Mary 
V. In November, 1866, he married Mary F. Hammond. They 
have six children: Harry W., Anna M., Perry H, John A., Ol- 
iver A. and Ethel May. Mr. Byers is a Republican, and a mem- 
ber of the I. O. O. F., also of the Tri-State, Indiana State and Pike 
County Medical Societies. He and wife are members of the 
Presbyterian Church. 

THOMAS A. BYNUM. local editor of the Democrat, was born 
in Greene County, Ind., July 14, 1859. His father, Daniel A. 
Bynum, was a native of North Carolina, from which State, when 
a youth, he came with his parents to Indiana and located in Greene 
County. There he grew to manhood, was married and lived until 
180 ( J, when he removed to Daviess County, where he remained 
the greater part of the time until his death, which occurred in 
March, 1883. He was extensively engaged in farming, stock- 
raising and merchandising. He was treasurer of Greene County 
for two terms. He married Emma J. Allen, by whom he was the 
father of ten children, of whom Thomas A., was the sixth. The 
latter was reared at home, receiving his education in the schools of 
Washington, Ind. .In 1875 he entered the office of the Washing- 
ton Gazette where he remained three years. He then went to 
Vincennes with the proprietor of the Gazette, who established 
the Commercial in that city. He worked on that paper about 
one year, and the remainder of the time until 1881, he was em- 
ployed in the office of the Vincennes Sun. The greater part of 
the time during the next three years, he worked on the Courier- 
Journal at Louisville, Ky. Since September, 1884, he has been 
employed on the Democrat. 

CHARLES ADAM BURGER, merchant tailor, of Peters- 
burg, Ind., was born in Bavaria, December 2, 1842, son of Joseph 
and Henrietta (Rudolph) Burger. The father died in the old 
country, in 1880. Our subject was raised with his-parents in 
Bavaria, securing a fair education in German, also some knowl- 
edge of French and Latin. He learned his present business 
of his father. When eighteen years old he came to the United 
States, and worked at his trade in Erie, Perm. ; Cincinnati, Ohio ; 
Louisville, Ky. ; Buffalo, N. Y., and New York City, and finally 


came to Petersburg in 18(55. where he h;is remained ever since. 
He is a flourishing and successful tailor, and has the only estab- 
lishment of the kind in the city. He owns the large brick block 
on Main Street, where he does business. It was erected in 1883. 
March 23, 18*58, he married Elizabeth Harsch, a native of Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio. They have eight children — five sons and three 
daughters. He is a Republican and Mason, and was born in the 
Catholic faith, but attends the Presbyterian Church with his 
family, who are members. Mr. Burger takes an active interest 
in all worthy enterprises, and has been director of the bank since 
its organization. His brother, John, has been his partner in 
business for about six years. 

WILLIAM J. BETHELL, auditor of Pike County, In A, was 
born October 11, 1848, and is one of five children born to the 
marriage of John B. Bethell and Elizabeth Fitzgerald. The 
father is now a resident of Warrick County (see sketch). Will- 
iam J. Bethell was raised with his parents on the farm in his 
native county of Warrick, obtaining only a limited education in 
his boyhood days, but which he has improved in later years by 
contact with business life. At the age of twenty or twenty-one, he 
began clerking in a store in his native county, continuing there 
one year, then studied medicine two years, and practiced that pro- 
fession in Folsomville until 1873, then he came to Pike County 
and established a good practice at Winslow, where he remained 
until 1878, when he removed to White Oak and continued his 
practice, meeting with good success. In 1882, he was elected by 
the Republican and Greenback parties to the office of audi- 
tor of Pike County, and is now filling that office to the 
satisfaction of all. Although Mr. Bethell's political views 
were with the Greenback party, and he was first nominated 
by them, yet to-day his political views are Republican. He has 
been very unfortunate in matrimonial life, and is now living 
with his third wife, having lost two previously by death. He 
has three children; a daughter by his second wife, and a 
son and daughter by his present wife, whose maiden name 
was Effie Wells. He is a member of the Masonic and I. O. O. F. 
fraternities, and is a courteous and upright officer, and good citi- 

JOHN CROW, ex-sheriff and clerk, was born in Pike Coun- 
ty, August 27, 1833. He is the seventh child in a family of 
ten children, born to the marriage of William Crow and Mary 
Shaw, natives of Tennessee and Virginia, respectively. The 
grandfather, Robert Crow, about 1802, came with his family to 
Indiana, and settled in the eastern part of what is now Gibson 
County, then Knox County. A short time after his arrival, he 
wjib made sheriff of Knox County, which office he was filling at 


the time of his death. He was killed by a fall from hi* 
horse while at a muster about 1809 or 1810. William Crow, 
then a lad, was bound out to a Baddler in Princeton, Ind. 
After completing his apprenticeship, he came to Pike County, was 
married, and became one of the first residents of Petersburg. 
About 1830, he moved to a farm near Winslow, and lived in that 
vicinity the remainder of his life. He died April 22, 1870, and 
his wife in May, 1878. John was reared at home, receiving but 
little instruction in the schools, though he has since obtained a 
good practical education through his ovn efforts. In 1853, in 
company with Daniel Crow and Dr. G. B. Montgomery, he opened 
a store on the canal below Hosmer. After six months Montgom- 
ery withdrew, and in less than a year afterward, Daniel Crow 
died, when the business waB turned over to the latter' s heirs. 
John Crow then engaged in farming and teaching school. In 
1854, he bought a farm in Marion Township which he owned 
until about 1865. He has since bought and sold several farms, 
and is now the owner of over 500 acres of land in Jefferson Town- 
ship. He has served eight years as sheriff of the county, and 
filled the clerk's office one term, having been one of the most 
popular officers the county has ever had He was also candidate 
for auditor on the Republican ticket, but was defeated, the coun- 
ty being largely Democratic at the time. During the summer of 
1885, he purchased a one-half interest in the Champion Steam 
Flouring-mills at Petersburg, though he still gives considerable 
attention to farming. In July, 1861, he enlisted in Company H, 
Twenty -fourth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, with which regiment 
he served until honorably discharged on account of disability. 
May 21, 1870, he married Tennessee Traylor, a native of the 
county, by whom he is the father of five children, four of whom, 
William D, Edna M., Charles B. and Prentice M., are living. Mr. 
Crow is a member of the Masonic fraternity, and is a Republi- 

MARTIN CONDER, a native of Boyle County, Ky., came to 
this county in 1863. He bought 120 acres of the farm upon 
which he has since resided, and to which he has added until he 
now has 200 acres. He gives considerable attention to stock- 
raising, and has been very successful in his business. Mr. Con- 
der was born December 10, 1829, and is the seventh of ten 
children born to Peter and Lucinda (Hack) Conder, natives of 
Germany sad Virginia respectively. The father, when an infant, 
came to the United States with his parents who located in Tennes- 
see, and later removed to Kentucky. There Peter Conder was 
married, and, with the exception of a few months in Indiana, 
passed the remainder of his life. He died in 1865, and his 
widow afterward came to this county, where she lived until her 


death, which occurred in August, 1875. Martin was reared at 
home, where he remained until attaining his majority. He then 
rented land for three years, after which he bought a farm. He 
choee for a wife Rachel A. Gray, whom he married January 
22, 1852. Four children have been born to this union: John 
F., the eldest, married Carrie Hawkins; Margaret E. is now Mrs. 
Jefferson Hollon ; Nancy J. is the wife of Amos C. Hawkins ; and 
Anna E. married George W. Lawrence. She died leaving one 
child, Bettie B. Mr. Conder is a good farmer, and recognized as 
an honest, upright citizen. Both he and his wife are members of 
the Christian Church. 

SIMEON B. CARLETON, M. D., of Petersburg, Ind, is a 
son of Henry and Martha (Williams) Carleton, who were natives 
of Virginia. Our subject is one of eleven children, and was born 
in Hardin County, Ky., February 17, 1840. When twelve years 
of age his mother died, and he and an elder brother came to 
Spencer County, Ind., where Simeon worked as a farm laborer 
during the summer and attended school during the winter, and 
when twenty years of age began teaching school, continuing at 
that business until 1861, when he enlisted as a private in Com- 
pany E, Twenty-fifth Indiana Volunteers. He served his country 
gallantly for three years in the war of the Rebellion. He then 
returned to Spencer County and resumed teaching. He also 
studied medicine under Dr. Camp, and practiced that profession 
part of 1875 and 1876. He attended lectures at Cincinnati, Ohio, 
in 1876, and in 1880 graduated from an institution there and re- 
sumed his practice. In 1883 he went to Huntingburgh, but re- 
mained there but six months, and then came to Petersburg, where 
he has lived ever since. He has a large and paying practice. 
The Doctor was married in 1868, to Mary E. Taylor, who died 
seven years later, leaving three children: Ella, William and Nel- 
lie. A year later he married Belle Anderson, by whom he is the 
father of one child — Catherine. Mrs. Carleton has also two chil- 
dren by a former marriage: John and Daisy. Dr. Carleton is a 
Republican and a Mason, and he and wife are members of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. The Doctor is a very successful 
and competent physician, and an enterprising business man. 

PERRY W. CHAPPELL was born in Pike County, Ind., 
June 24, 1842, son of Stephen and Hannah (Miller) Chappfll. 
natives of Indiana and Pennsylvania respectively. The father, 
who was of French descent, was born in Pike County in 1811. 
He passed his life raising stock and farming, and was trustee of 
the township a number of terms. His death occurred in 1873, 
The mother is still living on the homestead farm. Our subject, 
when twenty-three years old, began farming for himself on the 
home place. Three years later he removed to New Albany. Ind.. 


and engaged in mercantile pursuits two years, and then moved t<» 
Washington, Ind., and worked at the same business until 1^72. 
when he returned to Pike County. He remained in Long Branch 
two years, and then moved on a farm which he had purchased. 
He was elected trustee of he township and served two terms. In 
1880 he was elected to the office of treasurer of Pike County, and 
served two terms by re-election. In 1801 he enlisted as a pri- 
vate in Company I. Forty-second Indiana Infantry, and served 
his country faithfully and well over throe years. He was wound- 
ed in the shoulder and hip at the battle of Stone Eiver, and yet 
suffers from the shoulder wound. In 1804 he married Harriett 
E. Totten, who died in 1870, leaving six children : Frances, Han- 
nah E., Harriett A., Nellie E., Dora E. and- Fielding Alexander. 
In 1878 he married Harriett L. Mather. They have three chil- 
dren: James B., Louisa D. and Merada E. Mr. Chappell is a 
Mason and member of the I. O. O. F. and I. O. of R. M. 

EUGENE A. ELY, attorney at law of Petersburg, Ind., was 
born in Warsaw. Gallatin Co., Ky., October 21, 1817, and is one of 
six children born to the marriage of John E. Ely and Elizabeth 
Hatfield, natives of Cincinnati, Ohio, and Louisville, Ky., re- 
spectively. The father, who was a physician by profession, 
removed from Kentucky to Spencer County, Ind.. in 1864, where 
he practiced his profession until his death, June 22, 1885. The 
mother died in Kentucky in 1803. Our subject followed the life 
of a farmer from the age of ten to eighteen years, and in the 
meantime prepared himself for teaching, which profession he fol- 
lowed in Kentucky until 1808, when he came to Spencer County, 
Ind., and taught school until 1871. While teaching he was an 
energetic student -of Blackstone, and in 1871 was admitted to the 
Pike County bar and practiced law in that county until Septem- 
ber, 1873. He then came to Petersburg and established a good 
and paying practice. At different times he was in partnership 
with G. G. Reily, Levi Ferguson, C. H Burton and lastly, with 
W. F. Townsend and Martin Fleener. They are now together 
and may be said to control the leading practice in the town and 
county. April 7, 1809, Mr. Ely married Rhoda M. Frank, a 
natire of Spencer County. They have three sons: Horace, 
Harry and Frank. Mr. Elys political views are democratic. 
He is a member of the Masonic and I. O. O. F. fraternities. He 
and wife are members of the Presbyterian Church, and he is one 
of Pike County's most successful practitioners. He was nom- 
inated on the Democratic ticket for judge of the Eleventh Judi- 
cial Circuit in 1884, but was defeated by a very small majority. 

MARTIN FLEENER, attorney at law of Petersburg, Ind., was 
born in Warrick County, September 15, 1851, the eldest of four 
living children of a family of eight, born to the marriage of John 


J.- Fleener and Louisa Bilderback. Both parents were born in 
Warrick County, where the father followed farming and dealt in 
the leaf tobacco business. In 1864 the family removed to Pike 
County and located in Pleasftntville, where he followed the same 
business until 1874. The tobacco business proving unsuccessful, 
he has since devoted his entire time and attention to farming. 
Martin was raised in Warrick and Pike Counties and obtained a 
very good education. He learned his father's business and when 
seventeen years old he taught two terms of school, but soon re- 
turned to his former occupation. At the age of twenty he went 
to Illinois where he worked for one season at the tobacco busi- 
ness. He then came home and was appointed deputy clerk of 
the county courts and served one and a half years. He then re- 
engaged in farming at Pleasantville. In 1877 he was again ap- 
pointed deputy clerk and served until 1882, thoroughly acquaint- 
ing himself with the routine of these offices. He also served 
as assistant attorney -general of the State under T. W. Worlen, 
during 1879-80, and later was employed as expert in examining 
town and county records in Southern Indiana. In the mean- 
time he was an earnest reader of Blackstone. In 1882 he en- 
tered into partnership with A. H. Taylor in real estate and ab- 
stract title business and two years later formed his present part- 
nership under the firm name of Ely, Townsend & Fleener. He 
was admitted to the Pike County bar in March, 1885. In 1875 
he married Laura Alexander. They became the parents of three 
children: Lucy, Kate and an infant (deceased). Mr. Fleener is a 
Democrat and was chairman of the State central committee in 
1882. He is a member of the I. O. O. F. 

MOSES FRANK, a merchant of Petersburg, Indiana, is one 
of seven children born to Leopold Fra^k and wife, who were natives 
of Prussia, where the mother died in 1859, and where the father 
still resides. Moses was born in Prussia, April 28, 1844. When 
fifteen years old he left home and learned the mercantile business 
of an uncle, and four years later immigrated to the United States. 
and located in Petersburg, where he clerked until 18(56 for a 
brother and cousin who were engaged in the general merchandise 
business. In 18(58 he engaged in the business for himself, in 
which he has continued successfully ever since. He has a fine 
stock of goods and has also engaged quite extensively in buying 
and selling wool. He deals in fine stock and real estate, and owns 
some fine farming land in the county, and some good property in 
Petersburg. In 1871 he married Josephina Levi, a native of 
Prussia. They have three living children : Gus, Bernice, and Re- 
gina. His political views are Democratic. He is an I. O. O. F., 
and a member of the Hebrew fraternity I. O. B. B. He is not a 
member of any church, but was born in the Jewish faith. Mr. 


Frank is a well-to-do citizen and a straightforward business man 
of tbe county. 

JEREMIAH WRIGHT GLADISH, editor and proprietor of 
the Petersburg Press, the only Republican newspaper in the 
county, was born in Pik^ County, March 1, 1855, and is one of five 
living members of a family of eight children born to the marriage 
of Richard Gladish and Eliza Ann Foster. Jeremiah W. was 
reared on a farm, and secured in the common schools of the district 
a foundation for a more liberal education in later years. In 1874 
he became a student in the literary department of the State Uni- 
versity, and remained there one year. In 1876 he entered the 
few department of the same institution and became a disciple of 
Blackstone. He remained there one year and then begsn study- 
ing lew in the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, receiving 
the degree of L.J* B. in 1878. He returned korae the same year 
and was nominee on the Republican ticket for county clerk of 
Pika County, but was defeated with the entire county ticket He 
then began practicing his profession in Shoals, Ind, and re- 
mained there until July 1, 1881, when he came to Petersburg and 
purchased the Press, which he has conducted efficiently and suc- 
cessfully to the present time. He has developed it from rather a 
limited country sheet into a newey, flourishing, eight-column 
weekly, and has enlarged the circulation and advertisements until 
it ranks with any of tike county papers in southern Indiana. April 
12, 1882, he married Louie A. Oppelt, a native of Pennsylvania. 
They have one child, Foster Oppelt Mr. Gladish and wife are 
members of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, and he has 
taken an active interest in all public and private enterprises in 
town and county. He is treasurer of the town school board and 
vice-president of the local building and loan association. Mr. 
Gladish is recognized in the county as a successful and enter- 
prising newspaper man and a moral, upright citizen. 

WILLIAM C. HOLLOWAY, a prominent farmer of Pike 
County, Ind, was born in Brown County, Ohio, February 22, 1824. 
He is the eldest of five children born to the marriage of Isaac 
Holloway and Mary Coats, both natives of Ohio. The parents of 
Isaac, when he was an infant, joined the Shaker's community 
Bear Lebanon, Ohio. He remained there until fifteen years of 
age, when he left and went to Brown County, Ohio, where he was 
married, and lived until about 1844, when he removed to Pike 
County, 111. He died there about 1861 or 1862. He was twioe 
married. The mother of our subject having died in 1835, 
he was again married and had six children. William C. was 
reared at home where he remained until about twenty-one. He 
then went to Warren County, Ohio, where he worked on a farm 
by the year for four years for $476, and at expiration of that 


time he had $421, an example in economy which young men of 
the present day would do well to follow. After this he leased 
what was known as the College farm near Lawrenceburgh, Ind., 
for ten years, but remained only four years. He then came to 
Pike County and bought the farm where he has since resided. 
Mr. Holloway is still an active, energetic man, and by bis econo- 
my and energy has accumulated a competency. January 11, 
1854 he married Emily P. Jackson, a native of Dearborn County, 
Ind. They have three children: James C, a practicing physi- 
cian; Cora B., now Mrs. Simeon Haines, and M •••.■■• M. Both 
be and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. In 
politics he is a Republican, and previous to the organisation of thai 
party, was a Whig. 

PHINEAS HORNADY, one of the wealthiest farmers in 
Pike County, was born on the farm where he now resides 
March 4, 1826. He is the youngest child in a family of six 
children. His father, David Hornaday, when a young man, 
came from Ohio to Pike County in 1812. The following year he 
married Hannah Whitehead, a native of Chatham County, N. 0. 
He entered eighty acres of land'where the subject of this memoir 
still resides; he continued to live on the same farm improving it 
and adding to it until his-death which occurred October 18, 1839; 
be was for nearly twenty years a minister in the Regular Baptist 
Church, having had charge of the church at Highbanks. The 
mother died November 20, 1857. Since that time Phineas, with 
bis three sisters, Jemima, Maria and Sophia, have continued to 
live at the old homestead, one of the most beautiful residences il 
the county. The farm consists of 360 acres of fine land and is 
well situated about one and a half miles west of Petersburg. Mr. 
Hornaday has been a member of the Masonic fraternity for about 
thirty yeara In politics he is a Republican and is widely known 
as an honest, upright citizen. 

HON. LEMUEL R HARGRAVE, representative from Pike 
County, wasvborn in this county February 6, 1829. He is the 
fifth child in a family of ten children; his father, Thomas R. 
Hargrave, was a native of Virginia, to which State his ancestors 
came from England at a very early period in the history of this 
country; he moved to North Carolina with his father and in 1816 
came to Indiana and located in Pike County. A few years after 
reaching the State he married Martha P. Traylor, and settled upon 
a farm in Jefferson Township For several years he was a minis- 
ter in the Methodist Episcopal Church, as also were his brothers. 
One of his sisters married John Niblack, and became the mother 
of Judge W. E. Niblack Thomas R Hargrave died in July, 
1859; his widow survived him until October, 1883. Lemuel R. 
received s good practical education in youth ; he remained si 


home until he was twenty years of age, when he began his career 
as a farmer for himself by renting a farm in the river bottom 
After two years he bought a farm which he owned for six years-: 
he then removed to Alford. where he was engaged in a mercan- 
tile business for two years. In October, 1861, he enlisted in 
Company I, Fifty-eighth Indiana Volunteer Infantry as second 
lieutenant, and served until March, 1863, when he resigned on ac- 
count of ill health. Since the war he has given his attention to 
agricultural pursuits, and is now the owner of a fine farm of 186 
acres. Soon after reaching manhood he married Mary J. May, 
who died leaving three children: Millard F., William E., and 
Alice J. (deceased), who married John Griffith. He chose 
for his second wife, Emily (Morrison) Hathaway, whom he 
married October 18, 1859. They have six children: Ella, Mark. 
Minnie, now Mrs. Thomas Mount, Frank, Lucile and Ralph. 
Politically, Mr. Hargrave was formerly a Whig, but is now a 
member of the Democratic party. In 1884 he was elected to rep* 
resent the counties of Dubois and Pike in the State Legislature, 
receiving a majority of 1,638 votes. . 

DAVID WRIGHT HORTON. an old and prominent resi- 
dent of Petersburg is a native of New York. He was born July 
10, 1826, and is the sixth in a family of eleven children. His 
parents were also natives of New York where the father James 
Horton died in 1849. The mother Elizabeth Wright came to 
Pike County in 1864, and lived with her son until her death in 
May, 1868. David received a good practical education in youth, 
having attended the high school at Port Byron, N. Y., and the 
Aurora Academy. At the age of fourteen he began to learn the 
shoe-maker's trade of his father. In December, 1851, he left his 
native State, and the following June, located at Petersburg where 
he has since resided and followed his trade the greater part of the 
time. In 1866 he was appointed deputy county surveyor, and 
was afterward twice elected to the office of surveyor of Pike 
County. He still continues to do considerable surveying. He is 
the owner of 150 acres of land in Jefferson Township which he 
bought in 1869. Mr. Horton has been three times married. In 
February, 1854, he married Mary Bass who died eighteen months 
later, and in 1860 he was united in marriage with Katharine 
Bass, a sister of his first wife. She died in March, 1864. He 
chose for his third wife Elvina Scott whom he married in Novem- 
ber, 1871. Mr. Horton was for many years an Odd Fellow, and 
took an active part in organizing the lodge in Petersburg. ■ ; 

JOHN HAMMOND, of the firm of Hammond <fe Parker, 
dealers in general merchandise, Petersburg, IncL, is a native of Pike 
County. He was born September 30, 1846, and is the youngest 
and only surviving one of two children born to John and Jane 


(Stewart) Hammond. The father when a small boy came with 
his parents from Pennsylvania to Pike County, Ind., and located 
at Highbanks. He passed his life upon the farm and died Feb- 
ruary 1. 1847. His widow has never married again and is still liv- 
ing with her son. John was reared at home with his mother who 
after the death of her husband removed to Dubois County. They 
continued to live there until about 1S04, when they returned to 
this county. From that time until 1882 he was engaged in clerk- 
ing in the stores of Connelly & Barrett, William Hawthorn, and 
P. C. Hammond <fe Son. In the latter year, he engaged in the 
general merchandising business in which he has since continued 
with good success. June 30, 1880 he was united in marriage 
with Lillie B. Telle, a native of Washington County, Ind. To 
them have been born two children Horace A. and Ida. Mr. Ham- 
mond is a member of the Masonic fraternity, is a Republican in 
politics, and is one of the leading business men of the town. 

REDDICK HARRELL, Sr., is a native of Pike County, 
born July 25, 1820. His parents, Moses and Mary (Miley) Har- 
rell, came from Virginia and Kentucky respectively. The father 
came to Indiana about the year 1815 and a year later married 
and located in Petersburg, but entered 160 acres of land a short 
distance from town. He built a saw-mill on Pride's Creek and 
followed that and farming a few years, and was engaged in the 
mercantile business almost the remainder of his life. His death 
occurred December 30, 1830. The mother lived until March, 
1870, Our subject was reared in Petersburg. At the age of 
fifteen years he began clerking in a store. At the end of four years 
he was appointed deputy clerk under Maj. Mclntyre who was clerk 
of the county courts. He worked on as deputy in all the offices in 
the court house for over thirty-five years and became thoroughly 
acquainted with the duties of each office. He was township 
trustee eleven years and during this time was government asses- 
sor from 1801 to 1868. He devoted considerable time and all his 
surplus means in land and was very successful in his purchases 
and sales. As his health has somewhat failed him he has given 
up active life. September, 1850, he married Jane Barr who died 
March 7, 1882, leaving three living children: Reddick, Emory H., 
proprietor of the Petersburg News, and William G. Brownlow. 
Mr. Harrell is a Republican in politics, but is not radical in his 
views, voting rather for the man than for the party. He belongs to 
the L O. O. F. and is a member of the Presbyterian Church and 
is one of the influential and enterprising citizens of Pike County. 

E. H. HARRELL, editor and proprietor of the Weekly Aries. 
Petersburg, Ind, is a native of the town, born March 4, 1855. 
He is a son of Reddick Harrell, Sr., whose sketch appears above- 
this. He received his education in the schools of Petersburg, 

aya history or pike count?. 

having completed the high-school course. With the first issue 
of the Press, he began to learn the printing trade. He worked 
in the office of that paper for about five years, during which time 
he bought a half interest in the Press. After owning it about 
aine months he sold 01H and went to Evansville, where he was 
employed as compositor and assistant foreman in the Journal 
office for about one year. January 1, 1876, he returned to Peters- 
burg and bought the Press, which he conducted for four years. 
May 15, 1884, he issued the first number of the News. Mr. 
Harrell is a live energetic newspaper man, and always makes his 
paper a success financially. As he is fearless in expressing his 
opinions, he wields a considerable influence in the political and 
social affairs of the county. 

PERRY C. HAMMOND was born in Philadelphia, Penn., 
September 26, 1813, and is one of two living members of seven 
children born to Elijah and Mary (Pollock) Hammond, natives 
of Marrs and Dublin, Ireland. The father came to Pike County, 
Ind., in 1819, and located on a farm in Jefferson Township, where 
h« followed farming successfully until his death in 1846. He 
was associate judge of the circuit court a number of years, and a 
Whig and Mason ; he and his wife were members of the Uni- 
versaJist Church. The mother died in 1842. Our subject re- 
ceived the ordinary education of the times, being greatly aided 
by his father and elder brother, who was educated in the East 
When eighteen years old he left home and clerked in a mercantile 
establishment in Louisville, Ky., for about a year and a halt He 
then came home and engaged in the general merchandise business 
in Petersburg. Here he haa remained ever since, with the 
exception of two years during the war of the Rebellion, when he 
aasisted in getting up a draft in the county. Mr. Hammond has 
been very successful in his business ventures and has one of 
the best stores in the county. In 1837 he married Nancy Ed- 
nondaon who died in 1855, having borne, eight children, three 
how living, Oliver A., Perry O, partners in the mercantile busi- 
ness, and Flora, the wife of Dr. A. R Byers, Mr. Hammond 
married Caroline Galbreeth, a native of Orange County. They 
bscaaw the parents of two children, one now living, Ida B. Ha 
is a stanch Republican and a Mason, and he and wife are ad- 
herent* to the Universalis faith. 

HON. WILLIAM HAWTHORN, a prominent eitiaen of Pe- 
tarsburg, Ind., was born in Lancaster County, Penn., May 29, 1816, 
and is one of eleven children born to Samuel and Margaret (Me- 
Cally ) Hawthorn, natives of the same place. The father waa a farm- 
er and lived, married aid brought up his large family in his native 
eounty. He came to Indian* m 1843 aact located 

ity. He came to Indiana m 1840 aaut located on his 
farm where ha died the same year. <B m l i aamn ra dea th occurred 


about the close of the war. Subject studied civil engineering 
and in 1837 left home and came to Indiana, locating in Tippe- 
canoe county, where he remained one year. He then came to Pike 
County and was appointed county surveyor. Two years later he 
built a saw -mill on Patoka River and continued there four years 
and held the surveyor's office fifteen years. In 1846 he engaged 
in the general merchandise business in Petersburg and continued 
in that business until 1882. In politics he has always been an 
Independent and takes an active interest in the political affairs of 
the nation. He was elected to the State senate in 1852 by the 
Democratic party, and has held a number of other offices in towa 
and county. He has been very unfortunate in married life, hav- 
ing lost two wives and ten children. He has two children living, 
one by each wife: Margaret and Grace E. Mr. Hawthorn has 
been an active member of the Methodist Episcopal Church nearly 
half a century. He is a warm advocate of temperance. He con- 
tributed $700 for aVailroad in the eountv. 

ISAAC M. JOHNSON, grocer, Petersburg, began business 
in 1881 where he is now located He carries a well selected 
stock of goods and has built up a good trade. He is a native of 
this county, having been born here in January 25, 1848. His 
father, Laban Johnson, was born in either Daviess County, InA, 
or in Georgia, from which State his parents moved. He married 
Nancy A Coan, and two years later bought a farm in Jefferson 
Township which he owned for several years. He afterward went 
to Hlinois, where he remained two years, after which he returned 
to this county, and is now living upon a- farm. I. M. Johnson 
remained at home until November, 1863, when he enlisted in 
Company F, Tenth Indiana Cavalry, with which regiment he 
served until August, 1865 ; after his return from the war he was 
engaged in farming in this county until 1869, when he went to 
Missouri, remaining in that State two yeare. He then returned 
to Illinois and worked at manual labor until 1880, when he re- 
moved to Patoka, InA He remained at that place until engag- 
ing in his present business. He chose for a wife, Mary Thomas, 
to whom he was married April 14, 1867. They have one child, 
Henry, born January 17, 1868. Both he and wife are members 
of the Methodist Church. He is also a member of the Masonic 
fraternity, and is a Republican in politics. 

JOHNSON & LANE, grocers, began business as the above 
firm in 1884, when Isaac Lane bought a one-half interest in the 
store from J. W. Lee. They carry a well-selected stock worth about 
$2,500, and have a good trade from the town and surrounding 
country. E. Johnson, senior member of the firm, is a native of 
Pike County, born Octobe • 12, 1853. He is the elder of two chil- 
dren in the family of Ja. es and Jane (Ainley) Johnson, na- 


tives of Indiana, and England, respectively. The father, who 
was a farmer, died whe.n our subject was quite small, and the 
mother married John D. Coonrod. At the age of sixteen he learned 
the carpenter's trade, at which he worked until 1880, when he en- 
gaged in the grocery business. He has since continued in the 
business with the exception of one year when he was in Illinois. 
He has met with many discouragements, but has overcome them 
all, and is now doing a prosperous business. He chose for a wife, 
Elizabeth Sargent, to whom he was married November 22, 1874. 
They have had three children, two of whom, Blythe and Guy are 
living. Isaac Lane was born in Bedfordshire, England, June 22, 
1830. His parents, John Lane and Mary Clark, never left their 
native country.. He remained at home until he was seventeen 
years old, when he came to the United States and located at 
Buffalo, where he worked in a harness shop until 1851. In that 
year he went to Rockford, 111., where he worked in a shop, and 
conducted a business of his own until 1876. He then resided at 
Pecatonica in the same State until coming to Pike County in 1884. 
May28, 1878, he married Sophia (White) Sargent, also a native 
of England. 

WILLIAM P. KNIGHT, editor and publisher of the Pike 
County Democrat, was born in Boone County Ky., October 24, 
1844. He is a son of Joshua Knight, a native of Lynchburgh, 
Va. The latter, when a boy, came with his parents to Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, where he in time married Amanda Winans. Soon 
after that event he removed to Boone County, Ky., but remained 
there only a short time. He then returned to Cincinnati where 
he remained three years, after which he removed to Franklin 
County, Ind. He died there in 1852, and his widow con- 
tinued to live in that county until 1872. William P. remained at 
home with his mother until the breaking out of the Rebellion, 
when at the first call for troops, he enlisted in the army, and was 
enrolled in Company H, Sixteenth Indiana Volunteer Infantry. 
He served with that regiment for one year. In August, 1862, he 
was mustered into service again as a member of Company B, 
Fourth Indiana Cavalry, which he had assisted in raising. He 
continued with this regiment until mustered out June 23, 
1865. He took part in the battles of Chickamauga, Resaca, Mur- 
freesboro, the siege of Atlanta, and was with Wilson's cavalry 
at the capture of Selma and Montgomery. After his return from 
the war, he located at Cambridge City, Ind,, where he learned the 
carpenter's trade. In 1867, he came to Petersburg and worked 
at his trade until 1872, when he purchased the Democrat, which 
he has since published, with the exception of one year, when he 
was publishing a paper at Tell City, Ind. December 7, 1871, 
he married Ella S. Harvey, by whom he is the father of five 


children, only two of whom : Cassie M. and Edna M. are Living. 
Both Mr. Knight and wife are members of the Methodist Church. 
He is also a member of the I. O. O. F. (Encampment), A. (). V. 
W., K. of P. and K. of L. 

EDWIN R KING was born in Mecklenburgh County, Va.. 
October 1, 1832, and is the only child of Richard R and Rebec- 
ca N. (Rainey) King, natives respectively of North Carolina and 
Virginia. They lived and died in the mother's native State. 
Edwin R. was raised on a farm in his native State, and when 
eighteen years old began learning the carpenter's trade. After 
attaining his majority and mastering his trade, he followed car- 
pentering in Virginia and also in Maryland and Kentucky \mtil 
1862, when became to Indiana and worked in various counties 
and also in Omaha, Neb., until 1809, when he came to Peters- 
burg. A year later he engaged in the planing-mill business, but 
abandoned it in 1873, and began keeping a furniture store. In 
1881 he discontinued business on account of ill health, and spent 
three winters in Florida. In the spring of 1885 he resumed 
business, and now has an excellent stock of furniture. He came 
here with little or no capital, but by hard work and economy and 
business tact and integrity, has now a comfortable competency. 
He owns some valuable town pre»perty, besides 200 acres of good 
land in Orange County, Fla. In 18(>7 he married Julia A. Smith. 
They became the parents of rive children : Capitola, Neva | de- 
ceased), Minnie, Eugene and Raymond. Mr. King is a Demo- 
crat and a member of the I. O. O. F. He is one of Pike County's 
most worthy and intelligent citizens. Both his grandfathers were 
soldiers in the Revolutionary war. His grandfather Rainey served 
seven years in that war, and was at the surrender of Cornwallis. 

STANTON LAMB (deceased), formerly a prominent farmer 
of I'ike Comity, was born in North Carolina July 9, 1802. His 
father died when he was only four years of age. ami his mother 
having married again, he came with his uncle, Hosen Smith, to 
this county in 1810. They located on a farm at what is known as 
White Oak Springs. He continued to live with his uncle until a 
year after his marriage, when he bought fifty acres of the farm 
upon which he continued to reside the remainder of his life. At 
the time of his death, he was the owner of 315 acres of fine Land, 
and was known as a successful farmer and a courteous. Christian 
gentleman. He was twice married. He chose for his first wife, 
Elizabeth Bright, who died, leaving seven children, of whom 
Joseph. Leslie, Alvina and George are deceased: Harbard IV. 
Emory and Theophila, now Mrs. William Gladish, are living. 
November 23, 18.">7, his marriage with Lavina Smith was sol- 
emnized. She is a daughter of John and Penina (Chappell) 
Smith, both ver\ early settlers of the rountv. She still survives 


her husband, who died March 24, 1884. To their union were 
born six children: William E., McLellan, Charles, Webster, Anna 
and Franklin S. Since the death of her husband Mrs. Lamb, 
assisted by her son William E., has managed the farm. 

ALEXANDER LESLIE, M. D., an old and prominent phy- 
sician of Petersburg, was born in Camden County, North Carolina, 
January 8, 1815. He is the youngest of a family of six children 
born to the marriage of Alexander Leslie and Elizabeth Aydelotte. 
The father, who was a native of the "Old Dominion," died before 
the subject of this sketch was born, and the mother died only 
seven days after his birth. He was placed with a nurse, with 
whom he remained until he was five years of age. He then went 
to live with his sister at Norfolk, Va., remaining five or six 
years, after which he went to Baltimore, where another sister re- 
sided. In the schools of that city he obtained a good English 
education, and studied medicine in the University of Maryland, 
during the sessions of 1832-33 and 1836-37. Meanwhile he had 
come to Petersburg and engaged in the practice of his profession. 
After 1837 he returned to Petersburg, where he has since been 
administering to "the ills that flesh is heir to." During the past 
year, on account of ill health, he has retired from active practice. 
For over fifty years he has enjoyed the confidence of the county, 
and is widely known as a skilful and successful physician. He is 
a Democrat, and was for eight years county treasurer. April 4, 
1841, he was joined in marriage with Rowene Hewins, a native of 
Ashtabula County, Ohio, by whom he is the father of four children : 
Ella, the widow of Henry C. Jerauld; Anna, now Mrs. William 
Bott ; Alexander, a real estate agent in Washington, Ind. ; and 
George, a resident of Chicago, 111. 

GOODLET MORGAN was born in Dubois County, Ind., 
February 26, 1825. He is one of the best known men in the 
county, and at one time carried on a very extensive business. He 
owned large tracts of lands, handled a large amount of live stock 
and produce, and also conducted one of the largest general mer- 
chandise stores in the town. In 1877 he became financially embar- 
rassed, and since that time he has confined his attention to his 
farm, upon which he has an elegant residence. Mr. Morgan is 
the fourth of eight children born to the marriage of Simon Mor- 
gan and Rose E. Reed. The father, who was born in Virginia, 
removed when a young man to Ohio. After a short residence in 
that State he started for St. Louis, but upon reaching Dubois 
County, Ind., he was taken sick and was obliged to remain for 
some time. While there the county was organized, and he was 
prevailed upon to accept the office of county clerk, a position 
which he filled until his death in January 12, 1841. In his early 
life he studied medicine, and graduated at a college in Philadel- 


phia. In addition to his professional knowledge he had a fin© 
literary education. His wife died in March, 1836. Goodlet was 
reared at home until he was fourteen years old, when he came to 
Petersburg and lived with Judge Foster for nine years. During 
that time he was employed in a general merchandise store. Af- 
ter leaving Foster he went to Evansville and opened a store which 
he conducted for seven years. During his residence in that city 
November 24, 1848, he was united in marriage with a daughter of 
George H. and Mahala (Wyatt) Promt In 1851 he returned to 
Petersburg. He is the father of eight children, only three of 
whom are living. They are Simon, Promt and Kalph, all of whom 
are married and living near home. 

CAPT. WILLIAM L. MERRICK was born in Petersburg, 
January 31, 1832. His parents Malachi and Lydia (Ogden) 
Merrick, were born in Virginia and Pennsylvania, respectively. 
The father came to Pike County with his parents in 1812, locating 
near White Oak Springs. He spent several winters in building 
a block-house at Dicksburg and Vincennes, in order to evade the 
Indians who infested the region plentifully at times. The father 
passed the greater part of his life in Pike County, and was en- 
gaged in the cabinet-maker's and undertaker's business until his 
death by cholera in 1852. The mother died in 1866. William 
L. secured a fair literary education and prepared himself for the 
profession of book-keeping, working in Jonathan Wilson's em- 
ploy for seventeen, years in this capacity. In 1858 he en- 
gaged in the general merchandise business for himself, con- 
tinuing till 1861, when he organized Company H, Twenty- 
fourth Indiana Volunteers, and served as its captain for six 
months. He then resigned on account of rheumatism contracted 
during service. After regaining his health, he worked - at farm- 
ing and stock-raising for seven years. He owns two valuable 
farms in Clay Township. He has given a great deal of time and 
attention to buying and shipping grain largely by flat-boat in 
early times. Since the establishment of the railroad, he has dealt 
largely in grain, and handles on an average 100,000 bushels of 
wheat and 50,000 bushels of corn fcid other cereals annually. 
He is a Republican and a member of the I. O. O. F., and has 
been very successful financially. 

REV. THOMAS MARTIN was born at Banfteld Rath- 
friland, County Down, Ireland. He was a son of James and 
Elizabeth (Stranaghan) Martin. Our subject passed hie boy- 
hood in the "Emerald Isle," and received his education in that 
country, attending the college at Belfast, and took a thorough 
course in the theological seminary. He with many of his 
countrymen, came to the United States in 1832. He attend- 
ed the theological seminary at Princeton, N. J., for one 


year, and was given the pastoral charge of the Presby- 
terian Church at Morgantown, Va., and later of Cahaba. Ala., 
and Brownsville. Tenn. His health began to fail, and he 
abandoned his ministerial duties and came to Petersburg, Ind., 
where he remained until his death, April 18, 1872. In 1838, he 
took for his companion through life, Jane Isabella Prentice, their 
union being consummated at Morgantown. They became the 
parents of four children, one son and three daughters: Eliza, 
Margaret (deceased), Anna (deceased), and J. Prentice, a promi- 
nent young citizen of Petersburg. Sev. Martin was for four 
years principal of the Monongohelia Academy of Morgantown, Va. 
He was an intelligent and worthy citizen and was much hon- 
ored by his friends and acquaintances. 

CHARLES E. MONTGOMEEY, a prominent merchant of 
Petersburg, Ind., and native of Pike County, was born August 
5, 1849, and is one of nine children of Thomas L. Montgom- 
ery and Elizabeth Edmondson. The father who was born in Vir- 
ginia, came with his father to Indiana, and located near where 
Oakland City now is. Thomas L. married in Princeton, and about 
1833 or 1834, came to Petersburg and engaged in the merchan- 
dise business, and also shipped produce on Hat-boats to Southern 
markets. He was well and favorably known throughout the 
country as a successful business man, and a worthy Christian. 
He was a member of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, and 
a Whig and Republican in politics. His death occurred July 19, 
1870. The mother still survives him and is living with our sub- 
ject at the advanced "age of seventy-seven years. Charles E. was 
raised in Petersburg and learned the mercantile business from 
his father. At the age of seventeen years, he left home in order 
to improv% his somewhat limited education. After completing a 
business course in college, he returned home and took entire 
charge of the business. In 1867, he purchased an interest in the 
store, and on his father's death, he assumed entire ownership and 
control, and has conducted affairs successfully and well ever 
since. In 1878, he built the Champion Steam Flour-mills, which 
he has operated successfully. He has added many improvements 
and his mill has a capacity of seventy-five barrels per day. He 
owns a half interest in the hardware store of Billmeyer <fe Mont- 
gomery, and has engaged extensively for nearly twenty years in 
stock-trading, shipping produce and tobacco, and has a large 
amount of money invested in Lincoln, Neb. October 25, 
1870. he married Alice M. Logan, who died September 24, 1871. 
He is a Republican, and has held various local offices of trust in 
towu. He is a thoroughly self-made man, and a moral, upright 


JAMES L. MOUNT, superintendent of schools of Pike 
County, Intl.. is a son of James and Mary (Miley) Mount, and 
was born September 12, 1854. (See father's sketch). James L. 
was reared by his parents in the country on a farm and secured 
only a common education in his boyhood days. He owes his 
present efficiency as an instructor to his own efforts in later years. 
Being a close, energetic student he has not only mastered the com- 
mon branches but also two languages besides his native t< uigue. At 
the age of nineteen he began teaching school in this county and has 
continued at that work ever since, meeting with the best of success. 
In 1885 he was elected to his present office and is now filling the 
requirements of that position greatly to his credit. December 
■2.1. 1882 he took for his life companion Fannie E. Taylor, his 
present wife. They have one child — Morris T. In politics Mr. 
Mount is a Democrat and he is also a member of the K. of P. 

FREDERICK H. POETKER, treasurer of Pike County, [nd. 
was born in the kingdom of Hanover, February 1. 1Mb being 
tin- eldestof six children born to the marriage of William Poetker 
and Elizabeth Dierker. The mother died in Hanover and the 
father married again and came to the United States in 1880, and 
took up his residence with our subject in this county, where he 
now resides. Frederick H. was raised in his native land and 
obtained a very good education in his native language. In 1800 
he came to the United States and located in Dubois County, near 
Holland, where he remained until 1862 when he enlisted as a 
private in Company H. Sixty-fifth Indiana Infantry and served 
his country faithfully until 18G5 when he and his regiment were 
honorably discharged. After returning home he clerked in a 
stoic in Holland about eighteen months. In lst',7 he came to 
Pike County and engagedin the general merchandise business in 
Stendal in which he has remained ever since, meeting with good 
success. He is an unswerving Democrat in politics and was 
trustee <,f Lockhart Township a number of terms, and in l^Slwas 
elected to his present office and holds the position efficiently and 
acceptably. In 1 st5s he was married to Dena Catherine New- 
bridge, a native of Ohio. They have seven children : William 1'.. 
Nora. Caroline. Louis. Flora. Mary and Oscar. Mr. Poetker and 
family are members of the Lutheran Church and he is recognized 
as one of the enterprising and successful business men of Pike 
County, and an upright official. 

HON. FRANCIS I',. POSEY, a prominenl attorney of Pike 
County, was bom in Petersburg. April 28, 1848. He is the young- 
est of six children, only two of whom are now living, born to the 
marriage of John W. Posey and Sarah Blackburn, natives of South 
Carolina and Kentucky, respectively. The father when a child 
came to Indiana in 1804 with his parents, who located in Knox 


County near Vincennes. In 1830 he came to Pike County, where 
he wns engaged in the practice of medicine until I So."), when he 
retired from the profession. He was especially skillful in sur 
gory, and during the Rebellion was at Shiloh in charge of a 
field hospital a few months, and for a time was in charge of the 
marine hospital at Evans 'ille. His death occurred August 12, 
1884. His wife died August 12, 1851. As a young man he 
was noted for his remarkable feats of strength. He could lift a 
barrel of whisky by the chime, and place it in a wagon, and on 
one occasion carried six bushels of wheat up five flights of stairs. 
He was a man of great force of character and was fearless in the 
expression of his principles. He was one of the first to champion 
the cause of the slave, and his house was known as a station on 
the underground railroad. Previous to the organization of the 
Republican party he was a Whig. In 1844 he was elected to the 
office of county treasurer, and re-elected in 1846. He also served 
several terms as trustee of the township. He obtained his profes- 
sional knowledge in the office of Dr. Burnside, the father of Gen. 
Burnside. Frank B. Posey is a man of fine .attainments and is 
widely known as an able lawyer, a skillful politician, and an elo- 
quent orator. His early education was obtained in the schools of 
the county. He afterward attended Asbury College completing 
the sophomore year. His professional education was obtained at 
the Indiana University from which institution he graduated in 
the class of 1869. Since leaving school he has been engaged in 
the practice of his profession in Petersburg with the exception of 
two years when he was at Vincennes. He is the owner of 300 
acres of coal land bordering on White River and is operating 
what is known as the Blackburn Mines. January 17, 1878, he 
united in marriage with Emma Brown, a native of this county, 
and to their union have been born two children ; Helen and Fran- 
cesco. In politics Mr. Posey is a Republican and holds a prom- 
inent place in his party in the State. In 1872 he was appointed 
prosecuting attorney by Gov. Baker; in 1880 was an elector on 
the Garfield ticket; in 1882 was a candidate for the senatorship 
from Pike and Warrick Counties. He was defeated by only 21 H I 
votes in a district which gave the State ticket a Democratic 
majority of 750 votes. In 1884, he was a delegate to the Repub- 
lican National Convention. 

HON. EDWARD P. RICHARDSON, a prominent attorney of 
Petersburg, Ind., and a native of Pike County, was born May 23, 
1849, being a son of Jefferson W. and Mary ( Ferguson) Richard- 
son, natives respectively of Warrick and Pike Counties, Ind. The 
father removed from Warrick to Pike County when he was a 
young man, about the year 1847. Here he married and has followed 
the life of a farmer since that time. The mother died in 1864, 


having borne six children — three sons and three daughters. When 
eighteen years old our subject began serving in the auditor's 
office in Petersburg and attended school during the winter until 
L873. In the meantime he had begun the study of law and 
during the year mentioned attended the law school at Blooming- 
ington, Ind. He returned to Petersburg and was admitted to the 
Pike County bar and engaged in the practice of his profession 
in which he has acquired distinction throughout southern Indiana. 
He has always been a faithful Democrat and was chairman of the 
Democratic Central Committee in L878, L880 and 1884. In 1882 
he was elected by his party to represent Pike aud Warrick 
Comities in the State Senate, and served with honor and dis- 
tinction in the legislative halls during the sessions of 1883 and 
1885. In 1875 he was married to Cammie Barrett, who died 
in 1878 having borne two children, both now deceased. In 1881; 
he married Emily Wheeler, his present wife, a native of Posey 
County, Ind. Mr. Richardson is a member of the I. O. O. F., and 
K. of P. 

JOSEPH C. RIDGE, recorder of Pike County, Ind., was 
born in Marion County. Ky., May 28, 1843. His parents, Isaac 
and Margaret H. (Nelson) Ridge, were natives of Maryland and 
Kentucky, respectively, and the parents of eight children. Our 
subject passed his boyhood on a farm and received a fair edu- 
cation. At the age of sixteen he left his native State and made 
his home with a brother who was living in Daviess County, Ind., 
until 1865, when he came with him to Pike County and located 
in Marion Township where he soon after served two terms as 
assessor, and at their expiration he was appointed county com- 
missioner to fill a vacancy caused by death. In the meantime he 
resided on the farm and worked at tilling the soil. He has 
always been an enthusiastic Democrat in politics and in 1884 
was elected by his party to his present office in which he is ably 
and efficiently discharging his duties. He is a member of the 
General Baptist Church, and is one of the enterprising and moral 
young men of Pike County and a trustworthy officer. 

JOHN O. M. SELBY. a well to do farmer of Pike County, 
Ind., is a native of the county, born October 28, 1826. He is the 
eldest in a family of nine children, all of whom are now living. 
His father, Richard Selby, when a boy came with his parents to 
this county before IM>7. They located in Madison Township, 
where they continued to live until the disturbances of the Indians 
previous to the war of 1812, caused them to return to Kentucky. 
In 1818 they again came to Tike County, and located in Madison 
Township, where Richard lived until 1833. In that year he re- 
moved to the farm now owned by L. G. Selby where his death 
occurred in August, 1869. His widow survived him until October 


7, L883. John O. M. Selby was raised at home where he re- 
mained until Ids marriage, after winch he settled on the farm 
where he has since resided. It was then covered with the original 
forest, but by hard work he cleared and improved the farm, and is 
now the owner of 300 acres of good land. December 14. Is Is. 
he was united in marriage with Jemima A. Robinson, who died 
February '.•. 1n70. leaving four children: Sebastian, George P. C. 
Dlysess G. and Abraham L. August HO, 1870, he married Sarah 
A. (Pipes) Brumfield, a native of Kentucky, Mr. Selby is a 
member of the General Baptist Church, and his wife of the 
Christian Church. In politics he is a member of tin National 
Greenback Partv. 

SAMUEL H. STUCKY. a, prominent farmer of Pike Coun- 
ty, Ind.. is a native of the county, born March "_'•">. 1833. 
He is the eighth of twelve children born to the marriage of 
Frederick Stucky and Elizabeth Love, natives of Breckinridge 
County, Ivy., and North Carolina, respectively. The father, at 
the age of eighteen, in 1814, came to Knox County. Ind.. and 
later removed to Martin County, where he was married. In 
1830 he came to Pike County and located in Petersburg and 
engaged in running a tannery with his f" her, continuing for two 
years. He then entered a tract of lam which he owned until 
lSd'.l. when on account of having to pa\ .ome security debts he 
sold it. He afterward bought a farm jut .-:outh of town, where 
he lived until his death in May. ISOs. ti •> mother died in 1850, 
Samuel H. was reared at home, receiving his < ilucation in Peters- 
burg. At the age of eighteen he learned the blacksmith's 
trade which he followed for five years. He tnen worked on his 
father's farm until in September, 1801. when he enlisted as a mu- 
sician in the band of the Twenty-seventh Indiana Volunteer 
Infantry with which regiment he served one year. 1 u July, 1863, 
he enrolled in Company A, Ninety-first Indiana Volunteer 
Infantry as a private but served as a musician until July 1805, 
when the regiment was mustered out. He was in the Atlanta 
campaign and was present at the battles of Franklin. Nashville, and 
numerous lesser engagements. After the war he returned home 
and again engaged in farming. He is now the owner of "J Id 
acres of land and raises and deals quite extensively in stock, 
especially hogs. In September, 1800. he was united in marriage 
with Amanda (Ent) Lamb, and to their union have been born 
three children, only one of whom. Pearl, is now living. Mrs. 

Stucky has ( son. Leslie Lamb, bj her former marriage. Both 

Mr. Stucky and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. In politics he is a Republican, is a stockholder in the 
Pike County Agricultural Society, and is general superintendent 
of the grounds. 


.!. M. SHANDY was horn hi Floyd County. Iiul.. Octobei 
27. LS32. He i- the fifth of ten children born to the marriage of 
•Jacob Shandy and Nancj Rendleman. both natives of the "Old 
North State.'' Uiout two years after marriage tiny removed to 
Floyd Comity, [nd.. where they resided for eight years. Thej 
next resided in Madison Township, Dubois County, until 1853. 
when they went to Missouri. They continued to live there until 
their deaths. The father died January 2(5. 1881. and the mothei 
on the 5th of the preceding November. J. M. Shandy received 
his education in the school-; of Dubois County. After marriage 

removed to Pike County and settled on a farm near where he 
now lives. In 18(57, he opened a coal mine, on his farm which he 
continued to work for about twelve years. This was the first 
shaft sunk in the comity. In 1^71 he opened a general merchan- 
dise store which he conducted for about ten years. January (5, 
1853 he was united in marriage with Hester A*. Decker, a daugh- 
ter of Kev. John A. Decker, a prominent pioneer preacher. 
Their union has been blessed with four children: Fletcher A.. 
Orlando C. Charles V. and Mahala F. (deceased), who married 
James Dunbar. Both Mi'. Shandy ami wife are members of the 
Methodist Church. In politics he is a Republican. __ 

CHARLES SCHAEFER, proprietor of the Pike Hotel, and 
retail liquor dealer. Petersburg, Ind., is a native of Hessen-Darm- 
stadt, Germany, born August 15, L837. His parents, Haartman 
Schaef er and Frederika Stark passed their lives in the "Father- 
land."' Charles was reared at home, receiving such an education 
as is common in Germany. At the age of fourteen he began to 
learn the baker's trade, continuing in his native country until 
1857 when he came to the United States, and located in New 
York City. He worked at his trade there for two years, when he 
went to Cincinnati. Ohio, where he remained with his brother who 
was in the hotel and saloon business, Eor a few months. In April, 
1861, at the first call for troops he joined Company F, Ninth Ohio 
Volunteer Infantry, with which regiment he served until mustered 
out at Kingston, Ga., in June. 18H4. He was present at the bat- 
tles of Cheat Mountain, Cornifex Ferry, Mill Spring, Chicka- 
mauga, Missionary Ridge, Dalton and numerous engagements of 
less note. A few months after leaving the army, he came to 
Petersburg and opened a bakery which he conducted for about four- 
teen years. He was also at one time engaged in running a livery 
and feed -table, and in working a farm adjoining town, in addi- 
tion to his present occupation. l>y close attention to business, he 
has accumulated a competency, and is recognized as one of the 
most honorable, and upright citizens of the town. October 23, 

L865, he married Maggie Obel, and to their union have been born 
eight children. Those now living are John C, William, Fred- 
• rika Henri 11. and Bertha. 


JAMES SHAWHAN, president of the Citizens State Bank, 
at Petersburg, Intl., was born in Pike County, December IS, 
1823, and is a son of Joseph Shawhan who was born in 
Kentucky and came to Pike County in 1821, and located on a 
farm in Clay Township, where he lived about ten years and then 
resided in Madison Township about forty years. He underwent 
all the hardships incident to pioneer life in the wilderness, but 
became quite wealthy. Later he moved to Petersburg where he 
died January 14, 1881. Mrs. Shawhan whose maiden name was 
Elizabeth Lownsdale was a native of Kentucky, she shared all 
the hardships and privations of her husband and died in this 
county in 1852. Our subject received little or no education in 
boyhood but now has a good education owing to his active busi- 
ness life. In 1848 he purchased a farm in Clay Township on 
which he resided until 1866 when he removed to Washington, Ind., 
where he engaged in the livery business one year, and then came 
to Petersburg and engaged first in stock trading two years and 
then the hardware, stove and tinware business in which he has re- 
mained ever since. He has a large and fine stock of goods anil 
controls a large trade in town and county. In 1848 he married 
Virginia Carr who died May 15, 1875, having borne two children: 
Margaret Elisabeth (wife of C. F. Boonshot) and Mary Belle. 
In 1878 he married Malinda Morrison, native of Pike County. 
In politics Mr. Shawhan is a Republican. His wife is a member 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church and he is a Mason and a suc- 
cessful business man anil has always taken an active interest in 
all public and private enterprises. In 1874 his son-in-law, C. F. 
Boonshot became his partner in business. 

WILLIAM J. SHBODE. sheriff of Pike County, Ind., was 
bo.rn in Warrick County, October 8, 1837, being one of six chil- 
dren born to Henry and Mary ( Bradley) Shrode. The father was a 
native of Warrick County where he married and raised his family. 
In 1866 he moved to Iowa where he now resides. The mother 
died in Warrick County about 1855. The father has a second 
wife. Our subject received an ordinary education in his boyhood 
days, at the age of eighteen he left home and began farming foi 
himself in Pike County. In 1862 ho enlisted in Company B, 
Ninety-first Indiana Volunteers and served his country gallantly 
and faithfully for three years. At the close of the war he came 
to Pike County and located on a farm in Lockart Township where, 
he purchased a farm and resided until November, 1884, when he 
assumed the duties of his present office. He is a Democrat in 
politics and was elected sheriff by this party. In 1857 he mar- 
ried Sarah A. Hunsaokor. a native of Warrick County. They 
have seven children, four living: Mary E.. wife of Richard Tre- 
ault, Joseph 1'.. Amanda M. and Sarah E. Mr. Shrode and wife 


are General Baptists and he is well liked and respected as an offi- 
cer and a citizen. His children have all been teachers in the county 

WILLIAM F. TOWNSEND, attorney of Petersburg, Ind., 
is a son of John F. and Mary E. (Taylor) Townsend, natives of 
East Tennessee and Indiana, respectively. The father, when a 
lad of six or seven years of age, came to Indiana with his parents in 
1830 and located at Troy. Here he married and raised his fam- 
ily, following a farmer's life. March 21, 1860, he came with his 
family to Pike County, and located at White Sulphur Springs, 
where he farmed and engaged in the tobacco and mercantile busi- 
ness until November, 1877, when he removed to Kansas, where he 
now resides. The mother died when William F. was about six 
years old. The father took for his second wife Emily Julian. 
He has eight children by this marriage. Our subject was born 
January 10, 1851, and was reared in Spencer County on a farm. 
At the age of twenty-one he began teaching school, continuing at 
that business until 1877. In February of the next year he came 
to Petersburg and started a newspaper called the National Venti- 
lator, which was in the interest of the Greenback party. Hecon- 
ducted that paper nine months, and finding that it proved unsuc- 
cessful financially he sold out and edited the Pike County Demo- 
crat one year. In the meantime he had given the study of law 
some attention and entered into partnership with W. S. Hurst, 
stablished a law practice continuing one year, when he prac- 
ticed his profession alone until 1881, when he became one of the 
firm known as Ely. Townsend & Fleener. November 3, 1871. he 
married Lidie E. Stucky,a native of Daviess County, Ind. They 
became the parents of five children: Minnie, Frederick F., Capi- 
tola, Leonora, and Clarence (deceased). Mr. Townsend is a 
Democrat and takes an active part in politics. He was one of the 
Democratic State canvassersin 1880. In 1878 he was a candidate 
for the State Legislature on bhe Greenback ticket, but was defeated 
owing to the hopeless minority of the parts. He is a member of 
the I. O. O. F. Mr. Townsend lias been a very successful lawyer 
and is a worthy citizen of Pike County. In L884 he was pres- 
idential elector for the First Congressional District. 

JASPEB WILLIS, a native of North Carolina, was born No- 
vember ;,. 1825. lie is the eldest of eleven children born to the 
marriage of Maxwell Willis and .lane Miller, also natives of North 
ta, Erom which State iii 1830 they came to Pike County and 
lived on various farms, finally locating on the farm where .Mrs. 
Willis still lives. The father diet! March L0, 1856. Jasper was 
reared at home, receiving such an education as was afforded by 
the pioneer schools in thee- intry. After his marriage he rented 
land for three years, and then bought forty acres of the farm where 


William Selby now lives. In 1864 he sold the farm which he 
had increased to 160 acres, and removed to Logan Township. 
After a four years' residence there he bought the farm upon 
which he now resides. He has been quite successful in his busi- 
ness and is now the owner of 440 acres of good land. March 6, 
1846, he was joined in marriage with Sarah E. Dean, a native of 
Kentucky. Of the thirteen children born to them, nine are now 
living, they are: Beverly, William E., Charles L., George M., 
Cordelia, Maria, now Mrs. Jesse Richardson, Lovisa, Catharine 
and Elizabeth. Both Mr. Willis and wife are members of the 
Missionary Baptist Church, and are highly respected by the com- 
munity in which they live. 

JOHN W. WILSON, attorney of Petersburg. Ind., was born 
in Grayson County, Ky., April 17. 1847. His parents, Vincent 
and Anna (Davis) Wilson, were also natives of Kentucky, where 
they lived and died. Our subject received a limited education, 
and when thirteen years old, he came to Indiana and worked at 
manual labor in Spencer County, and in the meantime began pre- 
paring himself for teaching, and followed that occupation a year 
or two. In 1867, he went to Missouri, but returned the same 
year, and the next year moved to Bartholomew County, Ind., 
where he attended school, and graduated from Hartsville Univer- 
sity. In 1872, he went to Warrick County and taught school, 
and worked as deputy county recorder one year. In 1873, he 
came to Petersburg and took charge of the public schools two 
years, and at the same time studied law. In 1S7<>, he was 
admitted to the Pike County bar, and has since been very suc- 
cessful in the practice of his profession. January 1. lN7s. he 
married Kate Lcmgbotham, a native of Evansville. Ind. They 
have two children: Frank and John M. He is a Republican in 
politics, and was candidate in ISM. for judge of the Eleventh 
Judicial Circuit, but owing to the hopeless minority of his party. 
he was defeated. He is a Mason and a member of the I. O. O. F. 
He is a member of the Presbyterian Church and bears the repu- 
tation of being a proficient and energetic member of the legal 
profession. He was chairman of the Republican Central Com- 
mittee three years, and has been city attorney at times for four 
or five years. 

SIMEON L. WILSON, dentist, of Petersburg, Ind., was 
born in Jefferson County, I ml., September 17, 1841. His 
parents, John C. and Anna Jane (Reynolds) Wilson, were 
natives also of Jefferson County. Simeon L, in conjunction 
with the duties of a farmer boy, attended the district schools. 
obtaining a fair education. When twenty years old, he began 
keeping a hotel in Madison, which business lie followed about 
one year. He then studied medicine in Jennings County, Ind. 


for two years, and later began the practice of medicine in south- 
ern Indiana, continuing at that four years. In 1868, he turned 
his attention to dentistry, in which profession he has remained 
ever since. By constant study and much practice, he has 
thoroughly mastered this profession. In February, 1884. he 
came to Petersburg and established his dental office, and has 
met with well-deserved success, having acquired the leading 
practice in town and county. In 1878, he married Dicie Craw- 
ford, his present wife. They have two children: Daisy M. and 
Nelson H. He is also the father of four living children by a 
former marriage. He is a Democrat, and belongs to the I. (). O. 
F. He is an efficient and successful operator in dentistry, and a 
good citizen of the county. 


JAMES ASHBY is a son of Benjamin and Margaret (Bur- 
dett) Ashby. In 1813 they were married, and soon after came to 
this township, locating in Patoka Township, where he lived until 
his death in 1880. The mother died about 1860. Our subject 
had very poor advantages for education, having to walk three 
miles to school and recite to a teacher who amused himself by 
reading a newspaper while hearing classes recite. When twenty - 
one years old, he began hiring out among the farmers, and soon 
after inheriting 80 acres of land from his father, he built his first 
log-house and began farming for himself. In time, he became 
the possessor of 278 acres of land, of which 87 acres are under 
cultivation. April 26, 1853, Cynthia Atkins, born January 26, 
L833, became his wife, and to their union, four children were 
born: America J.. Mary G, George B. and Everett, America 
and Mary are the wives of Edward Pickard and George B. Hean, 
respectively. Mr. Ashby is a Democrat of longstanding, and 
cast his first vote for Polk. 

WASHINGTON ASHBY was born in Pike County. Ind., 
October 26, L834, and is a son of Benjamin and Margaret (Ber- 
dett) Ashby. His educational advantages were poor, but be has 
since acquired a very good business education. When he was 
twenty years old, he began fiat-boating from Winslow to New 
Orleans, making five trips in all. In L858, he began clearing 
the farm of eighty acres where he yet lives, and has now sixty- 
five acres of it under good cultivation. February 20, L862, he 
toot Eor In- life companion, Charlotte T. Coleman, born Novem- 


ber 0, 1841, daughter of John and Maria (Thickston) Cole- 
man. They are the parents of two children: Ida E. and John 
B. Ida is one of the successful young teachers of Pike County. 
Mr. Ashby is a Democrat and cast his first vote for Buchanan. 
He is a successful farmer, and a wide-awake and enterprising 

GEORGE B. ASHBY is a son of James and Cynthia ( Atkis- 
son) Ashby, and was born May 1">. 1859, in Pike County, Ind. 
In early life he attended the common schools, and at the age of 
sixteen years left home, and took a trip to Arkansas and Texas, 
where he remained about a year, working on the farm, carrying 
mail, etc. Returning home he farmed during the summer, ami 
attended school in the winter; he attended the Petersburg 
schools one term, and then began teaching, which business he 
followed three years. In the spring of 1879 he took the com- 
mercial and teachers' course at Valparaiso. He then taught 
school again, and in 1881 set up a drug store in Winslow, con- 
tinuing eighteen months. He then went to Albany, N. Y., and 
clerked in a drug store, and shortly after moved to Cohoes, and 
then to Alabama, where he was stock receiver in the cold-blast 
furnace. In August, 1883, he returned, and again began a drug 
store in Winslow, where he is now doing a lively business. De- 
cember 22, 1881, he married Willimina Hisgen. a native of New 
York. They are the parents of one child, Bernice. Mr. Ashby 
is a member of the Presbyterian Church. In June, 1885, he was 
elected justice of the peace. He is a Democrat, having cast his 
first vote for Hancock. He is a successful business man, and is 
much esteemed by all. 

DANIEL C. BARRETT, a stanch Democrat and prominent 
citizen of Patoka Township, Pike Co.. 1ml. , was born August V>. 
1830, where Oakland City now stands. His parents, Richard and 
Mary (Black) Barrett, were natives of South Carolina and 
Georgia, respectively, and came to Gibson County in childhood, 
and here they married and lived, farming on the present site of 
Oakland City. In 1844 they came to Pike County. Here the 
father died, in 1850, the mother having passed away in 1849. 
At the age of twenty Daniel C. began farming where the streets 
and squares of Oakland City now are. In L850 he purchased a 
farm of sixty acres in Pike County, but sold it soon after and 
purchased sixty-two acres where he now lives. He now owns 
120 acres of land, and has 106 acres under cultivation. Septem- 
ber 21, L851, Martha Wiggs, born in 1834. became his wife. To 
tLem were born four children: Mary E., Sarah F., Esther M. 
and Judith H. Mary is the wife of Peter Hoover, a rising 
young physician of the West, and Sarah was married on the same 
• lay as her sister, to Jerome Beeler, one of the leading physicians 


of Boonville. Husband and wife and the first three children are 
members of the General Baptist Church. In November, 1861, 
Mr. Barrett enlisted in Company D, Fifty-eighth Indiana Infant- 
ry. At Stone River, Chickamauga and the siege of Atlanta, he 
fought among the bravest of the brave. He was also with Sher- 
man on his march to the sea. While at Stone' River he was 
struck by a ball, which produced a lasting injury, and for which 
he now receives a pension of $4 per month. He was tendered 
the position of captain, but rejected it, not wishing to serve under 
his colonel. He served over three years, and was discharged 
January 1, 1865. 

JAMES M. BEARDSLEY, M. D., is the son of John and 
Sela (Thompson i Beardsley. who were born in Illinois and In- 
diana, respectively. The father yet lives, and farms on the same 
place he bought when he first came to the county. James M., 
the subject of this sketch, was born in Warrick County, Ind., 
January 2, 1850, and received the advantages of a common school 
education. When eighteen years old he attended three terms of 
school at the Oakland Institute, and afterward taught seven terms 
of school in Dubois and Warrick Counties. In 1877 he took an 
extended trip through the West, and walked over 276 miles 
across the Rocky Mountains. On returning he began studying 
medicine under Dr. McMahan, of Huntingburgh, Ind., and in 
1 >7s took a term of jU>ctures at the Ohio Medical College, and 
the following year attended the Kentucky School of Medicine, 
where he graduated in 1880 among the first in his class. In 
L881 lie located in Winslow, and December 14, of the next year, 
he married Maria Martin, born June 22, 1862; daughter of 
Thomas and Mary (Traylorl Martin. They have one child, 
John T. Dr. Beardsley is a Republican, and cast his first vote 
for Grant. He has been highly successful as a physician, and 
is a wide-awake and enterprising man. 

BEARDSLEY BROS., one of the leading firms of Winslow. 
Ind. established their business in 1884. John D., the senior 
niember of the firm, was born December 10, 1856, in Warrick 
County. Ind.. and at the a<n- of twenty-four, having learned the 
carpenter's trade lie began to work for himself, following the 
iccupation of carpentering until 1884, when he and his brother, 
i. W.. purchased the stock of furniture formerly owned by J. 
V. Whitman. John is a Republican and cast his first vote for 
rlayes. January 22, INN"), he married Florence Carter, horn May 
'•. L865, and daughter of Andrew and Jane (Urcery) Carter. 
George W., the junior member of the firm of Beardsley Bros.. 
was born October 25, I860, in Warrick Count) ; he lived with his 
father about three years iii Arkansas, ami then returned and 
entered the shire with his brother. Mn\ 24, L885, he wedded 


Ll;i Reyuierson. daughter of Thomas anil Sarah iHanmiens) 
Reynierson. John and George are enterprising young men ' 
an- bound to succeed. Their parents. James M. and Lucj J. 
iDutton) Beardsley were natives of Indiana, the father born in 
LsiJO. in Warrick County, and tin 1 mother born in Pike County 
in 1838. They live at present in Lawrence County. IucL, where 
the father follows saw-milling as an occupation. 

NEWTON BRENTON. one of the pioneer settlers of Pike 
County. Ind.. was horn February 28, lsl<. near Petersburg. His 
educational advantages were limited but by contact with business 
life he has acquired a good, practical business education. At the 
age of eighteen he went South as a common laborer ami later 
returned and followed clerking and various other occupations 
until 1851, when he commenced selling groceries in Winslow, 
carrying on this business as one of the partners of the firm known 
as Brenton A- Winslow, until 1884, when the firm dissolved part- 
nership and Mr. Brenton retired from business. February 20, 
1842, he wedded Julia A. Masters and after the brief space oi 
rive months she died August -Ik 1842. October 0. 1844, 
Nancy Coleman became his second wife and to them were born 
eight children: Byron, Theodore, Julia A.. Emily F.. Sarah A., 
Mary M.. Clara and Elmer E. Byron, Julia, Emily and Mary 
are the only ones now living. On the 16th of April. 1864, his 
second wife was called to her long home, and July '2t">, of the 
same year he married Margaret Spencer, born December 11, 
ls'1'2. Both are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
Mr. Brenton was postmaster of Winslow for about four years 
during the war: he is a Republican, and cast his first vote for 
Gen. Harrison: l;e is the oldest citizen of Winslow. save one, 
William Winslow Hathaway, and is an esteemed friend and 
neighbor and is now enjoying the fruits of his previous labor. 

BYRON BRENTON. the eldest child of Newton and Nancj 
A. (Coleman) Brenton. was born in Winslow. Pike County, Ind.. 
September 22, 1845. He attended the common schools in his 
neighborhood and completed his education by taking the mercan 
tile course in the Evansville Commercial College. After com- 
pleting his course he began merchandising in Winslow in L866, 
and with the exception of about five years he has carried on that 
business ever since. In 1*70 he was called by the people to till 
the office of township trustee, which position he held to the satis- 
faction of the people for six years. In 18"76 he was elected 
sheriff of Pike County, and held the office two years, giving the 
best of satisfaction. During thai time he and family made their 
home in Petersburg, but since that time have lived in the quiet 
little village of Arthur. May 2(5, 1867, Mattie, daughter of James 
and Liza A. (Hargrave) Edmonson, became his wife. She was 


bora January 28, 1*4."), in Petersburg, and she and Mr. Brenton are 
the parents of two children: Nellie and Fred, both of whom are at 
home. In politics Mr. Brenton is an active and enthusiastic Repub- 
lican, and cast his first vote for Grant. As a business man he is 
quite successful, having started in life with comparatively nothing, 
he lias arisen to the ownership of a good store in Winslow, besides 
a comfortable home ami forty acres of land at Arthur. In connec- 
tion with the mercantile business he also trades in stock and land. 
He has done much toward furthering public enterprise and is a 
useful citizen. 

JAMES CARTER was horn in Kentucky, August 23, 1827, 
and is the son of Jesse and Sarah | Elder | Carter, who were born 
in the Blue (iiass State, the father in 1801 and the mother in 
1802. Jesse Carter was a farmer and shoe-maker, and came t<> Pike 
County, Ind., in 1848, locating near Winslow. He afterward 
moved to the town, where he died in 1880. A year later his widow 
toll. »wed him to the grave. Our subject began working for 
himself when nineteen years old. In tV">7 he purchased fiftj 
acres of the farm where he now lives. He now owns 100 acres 
of excellent farming land. He was married to Candus Davis, 
April 11, 1*17. She is a daughter of Jesse and Nancy Davis, 
and was born January 7. 1832. Thej became the parents of 
eight children: John W., Jesse T.. James M. (deceased). David 
N\. Sarah N.. -Mary ('.. Henn T. and Warren S. Mr. Carter 
was a soldier in the late war and enlisted in Company I. One 
Hundred and Forty-Third Indiana Infantry. After serving nine 
months lie returned home, hearing an honorable discharge. He 
is a warm Republican and cast his first vote for Taylor. He 
and wife are members of the Baptist Church, and excellent neigh- 
bors and friends. 

BLUFORD S. COLEMAN, farmer, is a son of John and 
Maria (Thickston) Coleman, who were horn in 1*01 and 180(5, 
i. Bpectively, and came to this country very early and followed the 
occupation of farming. The father died in 1*-"1 and the mother in 
1844. They were the parents of seven children: Perlina, Malissa, 
Emeline, Blnford S.. Elizabeth, Charlotte and Sarah E. Our 
subject was born on the 20th of February, 183G. When sixteen 
year's old In- began working for himself and followed the various 
callings of clerking, carpentering, blacksmithing, painting, and 

finally settled down to farming on the place where he now lives. 

April' I. 1800, he married .Man E. Shields, horn October H, 1834, 
in Ohio, daughter of William and Mary Shields. William 
was born in 1798 and Marvin 1*0*. The father clerked in a 
store iii Cincinnati, Ohio, for some time, where he also kepi 
boarding house. In W> s while on a trip to Virginia he was 

suddenly taken ill and died. His widow lived till l*t',f,. Mr. and 


Mrs. Coleman are members of the General Baptist Church, and 
he is a leading Republican and cast his first vote for Lincoln. 
For three years he was on the police force in Cincinnati, but on 
joining to this State has made farming his occupation, at which 
he has been quite successful. 

ROBERT CROMWELL, deceased, was born in L830, and in 
early life learned the blacksmith's trade, at which he worked for 
some time in Winslow; at the breaking out of the war, he, being a 
strong Union man, offered his services in behalf of his country, and 
enlisted in Company G, Fifty-eighth Indiana Infantry, and served 
his country faithfully for nearly four years. By gallant conduct 
on the field he was promoted to the position of tirst lieutenant. 
As his life companion he chose Mary E. Curtis, born August 30, 
1832, daughter of William D. and Margaret (Birdwell) Curtis. 
To their union seven children were born: Frank (deceased), 
Anna, Maggie B., Oliver (deceased), Ida (deceased). Orpha and 
Emma. Both husband and wife were members of the Methodist 
Church, and he was a Republican. In 1871 his death occurred as 
a result of a wound received in the battle of Chickamauga. 
August 10, 1878, his widow married John Crow, born in 1813, 
one of the early settlers of Pike County. Mr. Crow had been 
married twice before; first to Johanna Alexander and then to 
Mrs. Eliza (Butler) Selby. The fruits of the first marriage 
were eight children: Arnetta, Charles M., Daniel. Isaac P.. Louisa, 
Richard M., Robert M. and Hosea. Mr. Crow is the oldest, 
Democrat in the county, having cast his first vote for Van Buren. 
In 1810 he purchased eighty acres of timber land on which he 
built a commodious log house. By untiring energy he now owns 
213 acres of good farming land. 

GIBSON CROSS was born October 15, 1841, in Pike County, 
Ind., and is a son of Joseph and Epsy D. (Kinman) Cross, 
natives of Kentucky and Indiana, respectively. Mr. Cross came 
to this county in 1829, where he was married. He followed tin- 
life of a farmer and in connection with that acted as justice of the 
peace for two years prior to his death, which occurred in L884, the 
mother having passed away in 1849. Gibson, the subject of this 
sketch, when twenty years old, volunteered his services for 
his country, and enlisted in Company G. Fifty-eighth Indiana 
Infantry, and was in many of the principal battles of the war. 
He was a brave soldier and served his countrj faithfully 
for three years. January 10, 1867, he married Priscilln Ander- 
son, who died ten months after her marriage. October 15, L868, 
he took for the second wife. Betsey A. Kinman. born December 
20, L850, and daughter of Burrell and Nancy Kinman. Mr. and 
Mrs. Cross became the parents of four children: Oliver. Hufus A., 
Gibson T. and Lillie B. Both parents are members of the Bap- 


tist Church, and Mr. Cross is a leading Republican, having east] 
his first vote Eor Lincoln. He owns a fine farm of 14:0 acres and 
is a well to do citizen. 

JOHN B. T. DEAEING. a farmer of Patoka Township. Pike 
•^o., Ind., was born March 31, 1842, in Kentucky, and is a 
son of William and Elizabeth (Morton) Dearing. The parents 
came from the Blue Grass State to Pike County about 1844 
Here the father died in L852 and the mother in 1869. When 
twelve years old John B. T. was bound out to John Selby with 
whom he staid until he was uineteen years old, lie then enlisted 
in Company I, Forty-second Indiana Infantry. He was at Perry- 
ville. Stone River, Chickamauga, and was with Sherman on his 
march to the sea. He served his country faithfully and well for 
nearly four years and from a private was raised to the office of 
first lieutenant. November 23, 1865, he was married to Bettie 
A. Selby, born June 11. 1849 in Pike County, and they became 
the parents of two children: Larentus S. and William 1*. Mr. 
Bearing's political views are Republican, having cast his first 
vote for Grant. He and wife are members of the Baptist Church 
and he is a successful farmer, owming '212 acres of good land. 

SAMCEL F. BEBMAN is a son of William and Jane 
i ( 'aider) Bedman, who were born in Kentucky and Virginia, re- 
spectively. The father was a hatter by trade and followed that 
occupation for many years, but on coming to this county in 1820, 
he farmed in connection with his trade. His death occurred 
about 1858; the mother dying several years later. The sub- 
jcet of our sketch was bom in Patoka Township, Pike Co.. 
I ml.. January U. L824, and when eighteen years old began work- 
ing for himself in a mill. Later he began farming on rented 
places, and in about three years he had accumulated enough 
money to purchase forty acres of land. By hard work 
and good management he now owns 258 acres of good land, 
»175 of which are cleared and furnished with good buildings. 
June 11, 1846, Ellen M. Bunham, born October 1. 1829, became 
his wife. Her parents are Charles and Maria (Campbell) Bun- 
ham. Mr. and Mis. Bedman are the parents of six children: 
Zachariah T.. Rufus B., Rowene N., Maria. John Q. and Willard 
E. In 1865, Mr. Bedman enlisted in Company K, One Hundred 
and Forty-sixth Indiana Infantry and served his country faith- 
fully for eight months. In politics he is a Republican, having 
cast his first vote for Harrison. He has succeeded well as a 
farmer and is now enjoying the fruits of his labor. 

CAPT. NATHAN EVANS, one of the early citizens of Wins- 
low, Ind., is a son of James M. and Louise (Curtis) Evans. 
The father was born near Murfreesboro. Tenn., and the mother 
at Tompkinsville. Ky. About 1844 he came to this county and 

420 !!!«■ rOKV OF PIKE COU.NTV. 

followed <clioi>] teaching. carpentering, cabinet-making, shoo- 
making ruiu milling. He lived in Winslow until 18(5-1. when lie 
passed from among the living. His widow still lives and i- tl< ■ 
wife of Maston Holland. Nathan was born in Harrison County. 
Ind., July 27, 1S#). When the cloud of rebellion rose threaten- 
ingly in the South, lie sb uldered his musket and enlisted in Com- 
pany G, Fifty-eighth Indiana Infantry, July 20, 1801. At Stone 
River. Chickamauga and Mission Ridge, lie. with the other 
heroes ot Company (!. fought bravely for the preservation of the 
Union. After a veteran furlough of thirty days he rejoined his 
corps and went on that long and perilous march to Savannah. 
In July. 1802, lie was commissioned first lieutenant, and three 
months later he arose to the position of captain. He was honor- 
ably discharged in 1805 after nearly four years' faithful service. 
For injuries received in the war he receives, as a slight compen- 
sation. SIT per month. From the families of three Evans 
brothers, eleven Union soldiers were furnished. Mr. Evans 
is a member of the G. A. E., and is a stanch Republi- 
can, but cast his first vote for Douglas. March 24. 1804, he 
wedded Paralee Crane, horn May 18, 1840, daughter of Henry 
H. and Frances (Broyles) Crane. They are the parents of four 
children: Laura, Bobert, Helen and Lee. In 1875 Mr. Evans 
was chosen justice of the peace, which office he ably filled for four 
years. He is a good carpenter and contractor and stands high in 
the opinion of all. 

CHAELES FETTINGEE. senior member of the firm Fet- 
tinger & Beasley. is a son of George and Harriet (Hillman) 
Fettinger. natives of South Carolina. The father followed coop 
ering and at the same time worked a large farm. At different 
times he held the offices of justice, assessor, and county commis- 
sioner. During his second term of office, his death occurred in 
February, 1883. Charles, our subject, was born in Pike County, 
Ind.. August 0, 1847. On attaining his majority, he began work- 
ing for himself, farming on a rented place. After five years he 
bought a farm of forty acres which he worked until 1879, when 
he took charge of the county asylum where he remained two 
years. At the expiration of this time he entered the grocery 
business in Winslow. continuing six months, when he purchase! 
a half interest in the livery and feed stable, his present business. 
In L871, Mary Martin became his wife, and to this union two 
children were born: Opha M.. and Lovie C. For two terms Mr. 
Fettinger filled the office of county assessor and filled it satisfac- 
torily. He is a Democrat and an enterprising business man. 
His wife is a member of the Baptist Church. 

WILLIAM GEANT, outside manager of the Ayrshire ( \ >a 1 
Mines, is the son of James and Elizabeth (Shaw) Grant. 


They were natives of hivernesskire, Scotland, where the father 
was born in IT'.Xl and tin* mother in 1802: the father is a 
rnerchani and lias followed that business for sixty-seven years. 
They both live in the old country and are bale and hearty. 
Our subject was born in his parents 1 native place October 
ll. 18-47. He received good educational advantages, gradu- 
ating from the grammar school in his native shire; at the pge of 
nineteen he began book-keeping in a hardware store in Glasgow, 
Scotland, and in 1867 be came to thiscountry and landed at New 

York, where be was 1 k-keeperfor a railroad company till 1878, 

when le- came to this county and State and worked for one year 
on the farm, and in Is so entered upon Ins present duties. Au- 
gust 10, 1874, he married Mary, daughter of Henry and Sarah 
Giles of Kentucky, and they a re the parents of three children: Anna 
Bella, William Shaw and H. 1!. S. Mr. Grant is a warm Republi- 
can and east his first vote for Grant. As a business man he is 
very successful, and be and wife are much respected by all. They 
are worthv citizen- and r< >mmodating neighbors. 

WILLIAM WINSLUvv' HATHAWAY, after whom the town 
of Winslow was named, is a son of John and Elizabeth (Traylor) 
Hathaway. John was a native of Massachusetts and a miller by 
to de, liaving built one of the tirst mills in Pike County, and op- 
erated it until his death, a period of about thirty years. William 
was born in the town which now bears his name. April IT. 1837. 
A' the age of seventeen he began working for himself on his farm 
of 1<><) acres. In L878 he began the drug business in Arthur in 
ci i a* ction with farming and ran the store three years. He is a 
good carpenter and has worked at the trade, off and on, for four 
years. In December, L855, he married Sarah Reel, who bore 
him one child. Emeline. For his second wife he took Maria 
and they became the parents of two children: .John and 
om unnamed. January I. L882, he married his third w 
abeth Crow, born December 23, 1835, and daughter of William 
and Mary i Shaw Crow. In 1 ^ 7 • i . Mr. Hathaway was elected to 
the office of justice of the peace, and filled the position with abil- 
our years. En politics he is n Republican, having cast 
Ins firs! vote for Lincoln. During the war, he twice went to 
Evansville and ottered his services for his country . but was rejected 
on account of disabilites He and wife are much respected by 
their acquaintances as neighbors and friends. 

EMBREE H \TIIAWAY. a well to do farmer of PikeCoun- 
ty, Ind.. is the son of John and Elizabeth (Traylor) Hathaway 
Embree was born in Pike County. June 24, 1845, and during his 
boyhood days had very poor advantages for schooling. By con- 
la -t with business life he lias now B very good practical education. 
He lived with his widowed mother until he was twenty-five years 


old, when lie began merchandising in Winslow as one of the 
equal partner? in the store of Hathawaj A Whitman, abou+ t«" 
years later lie sold his interest in the store and worked on his farm 
.,..• two yearswhenheweirf to Arthur and kept a general merchandise 
store for six 3 ears. He then returned to the farm anil commenced 
raising bees, and is carrying on the business quite extensively. 
July 10. 1870, he married Sibyl Maxan, born in 1850, after the 
brief space of five years his wife died leaving one child, Will- 
iam. May 29 of the next year he wedded Eliza Gwartney, born 
September lii. 1858, to this union four children were born: Min- 
nie, Frank. Denny and Fred. Mr. Hathaway has always been a 
Republican and cast his firs! vote for Grant. 

LERIGHT HOUCHIN is a son of Jesse and Elizabeth 
(Clifford) Houchin. The father was born May 17. 1798, in Ken- 
tucky, and the mother, a native of the same Si ite, was born in 
1790. Soon after their marriage they moved to Gibson County. 
Ind., and located in Pike County in 1827. They lived three 
years near Honey Springs, and then moved to Lockhart Town- 
ship, where the father died in 1861. The mother lived till 1872. 
Our subject was born October 25, 1825, in Gibson County, Ind.. 
and in early life received but little schooling, never having 
attended more than seven months. When twenty -one years old 
he began clearing up a farm for himself, but not being satisfied 
with his surroundings he sold out and bought 160 acres of the 
farm on which he now lives. He now owns 775 acres of land. 
340 under cultivation. October 25, 1846, Sarah Davis became 
his wife. She was born February 11, 1827. and is the daughter 
of Jesse and Nancy (Mason) Davis. Her father was one of tin- 
heroes who fought at the battle of New Orleans. Her mother, 
born in 1797. still lives. To Mr. and Mrs. Houchin three chil- 
dren were born: Devore C, Theodore P., and Commodore D.. all 
of whom are married, settled in the neighborhood and doing 
well. Mr. Houchin is a Republican and cast his first vote for 
Clay. He and wife and son. Commodore, belong to the Baptist 

THOMAS A. JOHNSON, a prominent farmer of Pike Coun- 
ty, is a son of Robert and Caroline (McClanhan) Johnson, and 
was born in Pike County. Ind., December 17. 1852. On attain- 
ing his majority he began working for himself on his father's 
farm. For a year he kept "bach," and June 3, 1875, he was mar- 
ried to America Whitman, born February 22, 1855, in Pike 
County. She is a daughter of Job R. and Palina (Hunt) Whit- 
man. The children born to Mr. and Mrs. Johnson are Festus E., 
Cora F., Flora B. and Mattie M. Mr. Johnson is a wide-awake 
young Republican and cast his first vote for Gen. ({rant. He re- 
ceived sixty acres of land from his father and by industry and 


economy he now owns 120 acres, of which about seventy are 
cleared and cultivated. In all his enterprises he has been ver) 
successful and is now on the road to become a wealthy and popu 
lar citizen. 

RICHARD H. KINMAN, merchant, Hosmer, Ind., is the 
son of Burrell and Nancy (Selby) Kinman. He was born in 
Pike County. Ind.. June 25. 1854, and when a lad, received in- 
struction in the common schools. When twenty-two years old 
lie began working for himself on his farm of 120 acres, on which 
he lived until in Jul v. 1885, when he moved to Hosmer, and en- 
gaged in the mercantile business, buying a half interest in the 
dry goods and grocery store, known under the title of Kinman & 
Kinman. In addition to this Mr. Kinman is freight agent at 
Hosmer. September 2s. 1876, he wedded Mary A. Troutman, 
born December 28, l s "»>>. Four children were born to their 
union: Nancy E., Ira B., Israel P. H. and Oscar E. Mr. Kinman 
is one of the" leading young Republicans of the township, having 
-cast his first vr»t» W Haves. He is a successful and well known 
business man anil is much respected by all. 

ROBERT LAUDER, general superintendent of the Ayrshire 
Coal Mines, is the son of Thomas and Agnes (McKnight) Lau- 
der, who were natives of Ayrshire, Scotland, where his father 
worked as a miner until 1873, when ' he came to America and 
located in Illinois where he died in 1879. The mother came to 
this country a year later than her husband and yet lives in Illi- 
nois. Robert was born September 3, 1838, in Scotland and as 
he began working in the mines when only eleven years old. he 
received a very limited education. In 1808 he came to this 
country and mined for three years in Illinois and afterward be-» 
came superintendent of some mines in that State, then he worked 
-,..111.' mines of his own in Kentucky and finally in 1879 he opened 
the, Ingleton Mines. In 1883 he became superintendent of the 
Ayrshire Mines and has filled that position ever since. June 30, 
L860, Ik- was married to Margaret Hewitson, born January 25, 
L841, and they became the parents of eleven children: Ann D. 
(deceased \. Agnes McKnight, Mary, Margaret (deceased), Thomas, 
William H.. Robert (deceased), Margaret, Robert, Anna D. and 
• lanie H. A^nes and Mary are married to miners and the two 
sons Thomas and William are engineers at the mines. Mr. Lau- 
der has been postmaster of Ingle for three years. He owns thir- 
teen acres in town lots besides a good eighty acre farm. He 
originated the idea of manufacturing coke at the mines. He sent 
some that he had made to some of the principal cities and it was 
pronounced first class, they have now eight furnaces and promise 
to do an extensive business. Mr. Lauder and wife are members 
of the Established Church of Scotland and he is a Republican and 
cast his first vote for Hayes. 


ALONZO MARTIN, merchant of Winslow, is the son of 
Thomas and Mary (Traylor) Martin. The father was bom in 
Kentucky. August 5, 1813, and the mother in Pike County. Ind.. 
May 24, 1823. They were married in this county and located in 
Petersburg where Thomas worked at blaeksruithing for about five 
years and then moved on a farm where he remained ten or eleven 
years. After moving to Winslow, he followed successfully milling, 
blacksmithing and merchandising. November 21, 1884, lie. at 
the ripe old a<, r e of seventy-one years, passed from among the liv- 
ing. Our subject was born September 7, 1845, in Pike County 
where he received the advantages of the common schools, and 
when so small that he was unable to strike the anvil without 
standing on a box, he began to work at his father's trade. When 
sixteen years old he began working in the tobacco business at 
which lie continued three years, meeting with fair success. March 
29, 1804, he volunteered his services for the Nation's weal, and 
enlisted in Company G, Fifty-eighth Indiana Infantry and served 
for sixteen months. On his returning from the army, he received 
a one-fourtlj interest in his father's store and in 18t>8 he purchased 
his lather's interest, thereby becoming sole proprietor. Mary E. 
Edmondson, born June 20, 184U, became his wife November 2(1, 
1866, and to their union five children were born: Harry, Charley, 
Ralph and two unnamed. Only Charley and Ralph are now liv- 
ing, In lS7l> Mr. Martin was elected to the office of trustee of 
Patoka Township and filled the position ably for about four years. 
After an interval of tour years he was again elected to fill the 
office. Under his supervision the condition of the schools has 
constantly been bettered. He commenced life a poor boy, but 
now owns a good store and is well respected by all who know him. 
He is a leading Republican, having cast his first vote for U. S. 

HON. GEORGE W. MASSEY. one of the prominent farmers 
of Patoka Township, Pike Co., Ind.. is a son of Joshua J. and 
Harriet M. ( Smith ) Massey. They were natives of Queen Anne 
County, Mil., where the father was born February 1(5, 17IJ5, and 
the mother, November 11, 17U7. They were married the 13th 
of March. 1821, and lived in Maryland until 1840, when they 
came to Evansville, Ind., and lived for three years in Terre 
Haute. Finally in 1843, they settled on the farm where George 
now lives. They purchased 160 acres of timber land, cleared 
off a spot and built their first log house. The father's death 
occurred October 18, 1844, and his widow's December 8, 1857. 
Our subject was born in his parents' native county, March 26, 
1823. and when eighteen years old, commenced learning the 
carpenter's trade in Terre Haute, remaining there two years, 
and then came to this county with his father, and worked on 


the farm, which occupation he lias followed ever since. He 
inherited eighty acres of land from his fathers estate, and In 
economy and bard work, lie imh owns 320 acres, 220 of which 
are under cultivation, and furnished with excellent buildings. 
.May 0, L858, lie took for his life companion, Lucretia Bowlen, 
born Februan -I. 1830, and daughter of .Janet and Mary J. 
i Husk i Bowlen. They became the parents of six children: 
Tames J., Horace H, William M., Charlotte L., Harriet .M. and 
George W., all of whom are deceased except Harriet. About 
!s.",:;. Mr. Massey was elected township trustee, filling the office 
three years. In L856, he was called by the unanimous voice of 
the people of his county to represent them in the State Legis- 
lature as a member of the House. For three sessions lie filled 
that responsible position with great credit to himself. About a 
year after his retirement from that office, he was appointed to 
fill a vacancy as county commissioner, and at the expiration of 
that term, was re-elected to the position for two terms. He has 
filled all the positions of trust and honor with great ability, 
ami to the entire satisfaction of the people. It may be said of 
him, that he has never sought for office, and lias never spent a 
cent, directly or indirectly, to influence a man to support him 
with his vote, but he has been chosen unanimously by the peo- 
ple. He is a leading Democrat of Pike County, and cast his 
first vote for Polk. His life has been an entire success, and he 
is known and respected throughout this portion of the State. 

WILLIS F. McCOY, merchant, of Winslow, Pike Co., 
Ind., is a soii of Stark and Marinda | Kelsey | McCoy, who were 
natives of Warren County. Ky.. where the father was born 
about Lv_N. He followed farming in his native State until 
1857, when he moved to Illinois. He took several trips to 
Missouri. Kansas and Arkansas, but always returned to the 
Sucker State where he still lives, being married to Celia 
McKinzie, his first wife having died in L858. Willis was born 
in Warren Counts. Ky., December 25, 1851. The education lie 
received in boyhood was very limited, and up to the age of 
twenty-one, the only school book he possessed, was an old "blue- 
back" spelling 1 k. He was unable to write his own name. 

but by continued exertion ami ambition, he has now a very 
good business education. He followed the occupation of farm- 
ing in Illinois, until 1881, when he came to this country. A 
year later, he purchased a stock of drugs of G. B. Ashby, and 
commenced the drug business in Winslow, January 12, L882. 
Lucinda Aust, born Maj -I. 1847, in Kentucky, became his 
wife, and to their union one child was horn. Mary May. Mr. 
McCoy is a Democrat, ami cast his first vote for Tildem lb 
is an excellent citizen and successful business man. 


JOSEPH MILLARD, merchant, of Winslow, Ind., is a 
son of William and Etheldra ( Sparks ) Willard, who were natives 
of Londonshire, England, where the father was born, in 1802. 
The father was a butcher by trade, and worked at that business 
for twenty-six years. In 1847 he came to this country, and 
farmed in Williams County, Ohio, for two years, and then went 
in Steuben County, Ind.. and then to Illinois, and finally settled 
in Pike County, Ind., in 1858. The father still lives with his 
daughter in Illinois; the mother died in 1851. Joseph was born 
July 15, 1840, in the same shire as his parents, and at the age 
of twenty enlisted in Company H. Twenty-fourth Indiana In- 
fantry. He served his adopted country faithfully for eight 
months, when he received an injury that disabled him for the 
rest of the war. As a slight compensation for the injury, he re- 
ceives a pension of ss per month. After his return from the 
army he began blacksmithing in Winslow. and continued at that 
business about seventeen years. He kept a restaurant in Illinois 
for some time, but in 1879 he began keeping groceries in Wins- 
low, where he is doing a good business. Margaret Erans be- 
came his wife December 8. 1867, and they became the parents of 
three children: Dora. Carrie and Bertha. Mr. Millard is one 
of the leading Republicans in his township, and cast his first 
vote for Lincoln. He is a successful business man and a wide- 
awake citizen. 

WILLIAM C. RICHARDSON is a son of Edward P. and 
Eliza (Fleener) Richardson, who were natives of Indiana, born 
in 1807 and 1808, respectively. The father, when quite young. 
moved to Warrick County, where he married and followed the 
life of a farmer in that county until his death, in 1831. The 
mother lived until t*7(>. Our subject was born in Warrick 
County, December 8, 1830. When nineteen years old he left 
home and began working for himself. In 18.12 he bought his 
first farm of forty acres, which he afterward sold, and took 
charge of the poor asylum, which he ran two years. He then 
purchased the 220 acres of hind, where he now lives. December 
5. 1850, he married Caroline Parker, born September 3, L833, 
daughter of Lorenzo D. and Elizabeth (Ferguson) Parker, and 
to their union twelve children were horn: Eliza J., Brazilla, 
Thomas J.. Joseph W.. Andrew J.. Mary E. John W., Sarah M., 
Caroline B., Nancj II.. Edward P. and one unnamed. Both hus- 
band and wife are members of the Baptist Church. Mr. Rich 
ardsorj is a Democrat in politics, and cast his Erst vote for Pierce. 

HENRY G. SELBY, farmer, of Pike County. Ind.. is a son 
of Richard and Betsej A. (Gladish) Selby. The father came to 
this county at n \ery early day. when nearly ;ill the present pro- 
ductive farms « re dense forests, inhabited by many wild animals. 


H.iv he located, and here both his parents died. Our subject 
born in Pike County, [nd., February 11. 1838. ami at the ag 
twenty-one began to do for himself, working on the farm of 
eightj acres given hini by his father. Be succeeded so well that 
he now owns 100 acres of Land, of which LOO acres are under cul- 
tivation. March 1. 1800, he married Elizabeth McCain, born 
\ii_n-t 11. 1838, in Pike County, and after a wedded life of sev- 
yetirs, Mrs. Selby died, leaving two children: Zilpha A. 
nnd Barlej E. October L3, 1878, Mr. Selby married Louisa 
Crow, born March (>, 1843, in Pike County. Both husband and 
wife arc members of the General Baptist Church. August 19, 
1802, Henrj enlisted in Company I, Forty-second Indiana In- 
fantry, and participated in the battle of Murfreesboro, Term., and 
Qumerous other engagements. He was quite severely wounded 
while in service, and now receives a pension of $4 per month. 
He is a stanch Republican, and cast his first vote for Lincoln. 

GEORGE SHEPHERD, farmer, was horn November. 1. 1827, 

in Sullivan County, Ind., and is the son of Stephen and Sarah 

Porter) Shepherd. The father was horn in Virginia, and his 

parents were natives of Wales. The mother was born in South 

• , ilina, and her ancestors were Scotch. They lived most of 

their married life in Sullivan County, where they died. 

i her n, L858 and the mother in L879. Our subject's 

tional advantages were Limited, but by his own ef- 

he acq\iired a practical education. It was las father's 

m to give his sons (of whom he had nine) forty acres of 

hi reaching their majority, but George surrendered his 

claim to the land in consideration that he should be free at nine- 

l',\ the time he was of age he had saved enough money to 

lsi eighty acres of land. In 1852 he married Berthana 

\Vyatt, and to them were horn five children: Sarah. Lucinda. 

Thomas, Rachel and Stephen. Mr. Shepherd is a wide-awake 

D and cast his first Vote for Cass on the very day he was 

twenty-one years old; he moved to Pike County in L867, and 
owns a good farm of 335 acres; he has followed the various occu- 
pations of flat-boating, working on the canal and railroad, and in 
a saw-mill, hut now makes farming his occupation, in which he 
has been verj successful. 

ARTHUR THOMPSON one of the pioneer settlers of Pike 
County, Ind., is the son of .lames and Marj I English | Thomp- 
son. The father was a native of Ireland, and when quite young 
came to Kentucky, where he married. In L820 he came to this 
and located in Patoka Township, Tike County, where he 
Lived till his death, which L837, the mother Living 

till L857. Our subjeel was born in Kentucky, January20, L816. 
As the nearest schoolhouse was six miles from his home his 


education..! advantages were limited. In L 837 he began clearing 
the farm where he now lives, and by energy and good manage- 
ment he at one time owned nearly 1.000 acres of land. Septem- 
ber 20, 1837 he married Ada Almon, who was horn in Kentucky, 
in 1820. Their children are John, James, Levi, Matilda, Frank- 
lin and Francis, Holland and Marian. His wife is a member of 
the Baptist Church, and for twelve years he has been postmaster 
of Arthur, the town named in honor of him. He is a Democrat 
in politics and a prominent and enterprising citizen; one of the. 
few men who have made Pike Count}' what it is. He was among 
the famous hunters of pioneer times, having killed wolves and as 
many as fifty deer in one winter. 

JOHN THOMPSON is a son of Arthur and Ada Almon 
Thompson, and was born in Pike County, August 23, L838. 
When twenty-one years old he began teaching, and followed 
that business three years giving good satisfaction: he then turned 
his entire attention to farming and followed that occupation through 
life. October 0, IS.")'.), he married Catharine Selby, born August 5, 
1842, and daughter of Richard and Betsey Selby. To Mr. and 
Mrs. Thompson, six children were born: Arthur W., Richard 
I deceased), Franklin E., Anion, Henry and Gilbert. Mr. Thomp- 
son was a Democrat and cast his first vote for Douglas. He was 
a successful farmer, being the possessor of one of the finest farms 
in Patoka Township. His death occurred July 8, 1876. He was 
a kind father and husband, a useful member of society and 
his loss was deeply felt by all. In 1872 he was appointed county 
commissioner to fill an unexpired term, and filled the duties of 
that office creditably and well. 

ARTHUR W. THOMPSON, merchant of Arthur, Ind. is the 
son of John and Catharine (Selby) Thompson and was horn Sep- 
tember 2-". 1860, near Arthur. He was educated in the common 
schools and attended one term at Petersburg. At the age of 
twenty he began merchandising in Arthur and at first, carried a 
stock of drugs but since carried a full line of groceries and dry 
goods, in which he is doing an active business. September '■'>. 
1882, Johanna Wilson became his wife. She was born July 7. 
1860, in Warrick County, Ind.. and is a daughter of James and 
Sarah J. (Judd) Wilson. Mr. and Mrs. Thompson are the parents 
of one child: Alice M. (deceased). In 1SS2 Arthur was ap- 
pointed notary public and has held that position ever since. He 
is a wide-awake young Democrat and cast his first vote for Cleve- 
land. As a busiuess man he is highly successful and now runs a 
$3,000 stock of goods. 

JOHN F. THOMAS, merchant of Winslow was born July 
17, 1841, in Washington County, Ky., and is a son of James 
Thomas and Mary Trotter who were born in Virginia and North 


Carolina respectively. The father chose ministry as his life 
work. After marriage lie lived for some time iu Kentucky and 
afterward moved to L'iko County, Ind., where he has lived ever 
since. John F. worked on his father's farm until nineteen years 
old when he enlisted in his country's service in Company I, Forty 
second Indiana Infantry, and participated in the battles of Mur- 
freesboro, Resaca, Lookout Mountain, Chickamauga ami on that 
evei- memorable march to the sea. After serving nearly four 
years be returned to home and friends and attended for some time 
the schools of Petersburg and then worked on the farm. About 
L880, he began the mercantile business, dealing in furniture, and 
two years later he became a partner in the store known as Thomas iv 
Berton. A year later Mr. Thomas became sole proprietor. Novem- 
ber • !. 1867, he was married to Isabel Adams, daughter of Ed- 
ward and Martha Adams. Mr. Thomas is a warm Republican, 
having casl liis first vote for Lincoln. He is a very successful 
business man and owns a first-class store. 

GEORGE WHITMAN was born January 19, 1842, in Pike 
County, Ind.. and is a son of Job and Perlina ( Hunt i Whitman. 
The father was born February 19, 1811, in Randolph County, 
Ya.. and the mother March 1. 1815, in Tennessee. Thej were 
married in 1835 and five years later came to Pike County, loca- 
ting near Ingle. The mother passed from among the living Feb- 
ruary 8, 1885. The father still lives at the ripe old age of sev- 
enty-four. At the age of twenty years George began working 
for himself on his present farm. In 1865, he volunteered his 
services for the Union and enlisted in Company I, One Hundred 
and Forty-third Infantry. At the close of the war, he returned home 
to take charge of his farm of seventy acres, which he has since 
increased to L 50 acres. In 1861, lie married Mary A. Williams. 
born May 21, 1845, daughter of Charles H. and Phoebe (Bolin) 
Williams. To them two children were born: Palina and Noble 
K. both deceased. March 2, 1865, Mrs. Whitman died and April 
7. 1868, he was married to Alice, daughter of George W. and 
Abarila DeBruler. and thej became the parents of these children: 
Aharila. Morley S.. Gingsley L. John W.. and Ethel. In 1862, 
Mr. Whitman was licensed to exhort and in L866 was licensed to 
preach, becoming a regularly ordained minister of the Methodist 
Church in lss:i. in which profession lie has been an earnest 
workei ever since. He is a Republican and lie and wife are much 
esteemed and respected by all. 

HENRY J. WIGGS is a son of Alexander and Matary 
(Wagoner)Wiggs. The father was born in North Carolina in 
1799, and the mother in Tennessee in 1806. Here they were 
married and lived for five years and then came to Petersburg in 
L828, where the father worked at the blacksmith's trade for about 


thirteen rears and then moved to his farm near Winslow, where 

ci February 7, 1872. The ther still lives and i- - re.niy- 

uine years old. Oar subjecl was born February 5, 1839, and in 
boyhood received a common school education. By his own i 
he prepared himself for teaching and has been engaged in that 
business for the las! twentj years, meeting with the best of suc- 
cess. August 18, 18(52, he enlisted in Company H, Eightieth 
Indiana Infantry, and participated in the battles of Perryville, 
Buzzard Roost, Big Shanty and Kenesaw Mountain. During his 
service, lu3 received internal injuries for which, he receives tin 
slight compensation of $0 per month. After three years service 
lie returned home and .lane 11. L807. lie married Elizabeth 
.Mason, born February L2, 1840, daughter of David and Louise 
i Rhea ) Mason. To Mr. and .Mrs. Wiggs, ten children wen 
born: Alexander. Everett, Louella, Joseph, Frederick. Mary. 
Minnie (deceased), Thomas -I. Addison and Clarence. Mr. 
Wiggs is a Democrat and cast his first vote for Douglas. He 
owns 1 1-1 acres of good land and is a worthy citizen. 

WILLIAM C. \\ 1GGS is a son of William ('. Wiggs, St., 
and l'atsey Coleman. The father was born mar Winslow. 
April 25, 1825. By occupation he was a farmer and remained 
on the home place till his death. May 20, 1849. The mother 
lived until 18-j'J. The subject of our biography was born in Pike 
County, Ind., October 3, 1849, and at the age of sixteen hired 
out as a farm hand and began working for himself. He spent 
six years in Illinois and in 1872 he purchased fortj acres of land 
and began his career as a tiller of the soil. He has since in- 
creased his farm to eighty acres and fifty-five are under culti- 
vation. December 29, 1870, he married Frances M. Selby, born 
August 28, 1852: She is a daughter of Peter and Eliza (Butler I 
Selby. Mr. and Mrs. Wiggs are the parents of three children: 
Orra A., Clarence and Purvace. Both husband and wif 
members of the Baptist Church. Mr. Wiggs is a stanch Demo- 
crat and cast his first vote for Greeley. 

CHAKLES H. WILLIAMS was born in Kentucky August 
•J."). 1820. His parents were Thomas and Mary (Arnold) Will- 
iams and were natives of Maryland and Virginia. In early life 
the father worked at carpentering, but later followed the life of i 
farmer. In 1839 lie and fainiU came to Dubois County, Ind.. 
where he died a year later. The mot her's death occurred in 1870. 
Charles worked on dilt'erent farms until he had saved enough 
money to bny forty acres of land in Dubois County: later hi 
nAA that and purchased eighty acres of timber land. In I s -"'-! 
lie sold his farm and came to Pike County, locating on a farm of 
LOO acres near [ngle. lie now owns 347 acres of good farming 
land, furnished with good buildings. In addition to running his 


extensive farm, he engages quite extensively in stock raising, and 
meets with good success in both occupations. May 25, 1842, he 
married Phoebe Bolin, who died in 1865, leaving these children: 
Thomas, Mary, Jarret, Charles, Catharine, Philip and James. 
May 25, 1866, Elizabeth Cochran became his wife and to their 
marriage seven children were born: Charles E., Samuel, John, 
Melvina, Fannie, Ida and Curtis. Both Mr. and Mrs. Williams 
are members of the Methodist Church, and he is a Republican, 
and cast his first vote for Clay. 

EDWARD WILLIAM, the only miller in Winslow, is the son 
of Benjamin and Mary (Schultz) William, both of whom were 
natives of Prussia. The father was a miller and wheat merchant, 
and followed that occupation until his death in 1838. The 
mother's death occurred in 1882. Edward was born in the same 
province as his parents, January 27, 1827, and obtained a very 
good common school education. In 1850 he bade his native land 
farewell and embarked for the United States. He proceeded im- 
mediately to southern Indiana, where he followed milling until 
1860, when he bidlt a mill of his own in German Township, and 
ran it five years. In 1867 he located at Oakland City and oper- 
ated a mill at that place until 1883, when he built his present 
three-story flouring-mill in Winslow, known as the Patoka Val- 
ley Mill. Ee was married to Bettie Goerlitz in 1855, and they 
are the parents of five children: Caroline, Louise, Bettie, Anna 
and Edward. Both husband and wife are members of the Evan- 
gelical Church, and Mr. William is a Democrat and cast his first 
vote Tor Franklin Pierce. On reaching this country Mr. William 
had aboul $70 worth of clothing, all of which was stolen save 
the suit he had on, leaving him nothing but his trade. He now 
owns one of the best mills in the county, besides 166 acres of 
excellent Canning land. 


DR. C. J. AGEE, is bhe son of Rev. Alfred and Katherine 
A.gee, and was bora March 22, L839 in Campbell County. Tenn. 
In 1861 be came to Pike County, Ind., where be permanently se1 
tied. In April of that year In' enlisted in Company H. Twenty 
fourth Indiana Volunteers and fought bravely for Ms country in the 
battles of Shiloh, Port Gibson, and Champion Hills. In the Latter 
battle be was wounded severely in the Left arm and side. He 
was in the battle of Blakely and then went to Galveston and was 
-■lit to Indianapolis. Ind.. where he received bis discharge. Feb 


ruary 4. 1872. he married Caroline Farmer of Pike County. 

Theb >uiion resulted in three childn n two sons and one daughter, 

day, Ray and Carl. Mr. Agee acquired an excellent English c lu- 

i-ation. being a graduate of Walden Academy, Tennessee. He 

taught eighteen terms of school in Pike County and two terms in 

■see. In l s 71 he entered upon the practice of medicine, in 

liich profession he has been very successful. He is a member 

i [. O. 0. F. and the G. A. R. In polities he is a leading 

Republican and is one of Pike County's most esteemed citizens. 

His parents were natives of Tennessee, born respectively in 1813, 

and 1815, and died in 1ST:') and 1875. 

CHARLES G. BEACH was born near Harrington, Conn., 
June 22, 1821. April 10, 1802, he wedded Emily J. Woolsej al 
Pike County, Ind., ami they became the parents of >ix children: 
Sylvester (married), Clara, James W. (deceas< 
and Eva, Charles G. is the son of Levi and Abigail Beach r 
were born in Connecticut, the father in IT'.H). The mother died 
in 1827. The father died in Missouri on the 1st of January. 
1874. Our subject acquired his education through self exertion: 
he is not a member of any church, but his wife belongs to tie 
General Baptist Church; he is at the present time keeping a gen- 
eral merchandise store in Augusta and also buys and sells to- 
bacco; he was for some time engaged in the milling business in 
Missouri, but has not worked at that business for a number of 
years: he is one of the founders of Augusta and R stanch Re- 
publican and has held the office of postmaster three years; he is 
the owner of 1.070 acres of land on which are three coal mines, 
one very extensive. The firs! is eighteen inches, the si 
five feet, and twenty feet below the first, the third vein is six 
feet in thickness and forty-seven feet below the five foot vein: he 
has also found some indications of silver and lead on his farm. 

RUDOLPH BUTE A. farmer of Lockhart Township, Pike 
Co., Ind., was born in Hanover, Germany in lvJ7. Being 
a young man of energy and enterprise, he determined to come 
to America and seek his fortune. Accordingly he embarked 
for this country in 1845, and landed at Baltimore and then 
went to Dayton. Ohio, where he remained eleven years and 
worked as a day laborer: he finally settled on his present farm 
Pike County. Ind.. and has since tilled the soil. April 12, 1853, 
his marriage with Diena Wellmeyer, a native of Prussia, was 
solemnized, and to their union eleven children were born eighi 
sons and three daughters: Henry, John, Samuel. Sophia (wife ol 
Ernst Poetker), Minnie, William, Mary,Eddie; and Ernst and two 
dead who were not named. Mr. Butka takes an active interest in 
political affairs and is a warm Democrat; he has succeeded well 
as a farmer and he and family are members of the Lutheran 


JOHN H. DOTKER, a well-to-do farmer of Lockhavt 
Township, Pike Co., Ind., and son of John H., Sr: and Kath- 
rina E. Dotker, was born September 16, 181'.), in Germany, and 
when about twenty-eight years old, he determined to seek his 
fortune in the new world, and accordingly in 1847, embarked for 
the United States and landed at Quebec. He remained there but 
a short time and then went to Cincinnati, Ohio, where he worked 
for eight years as a laborer. Christina Niemiller, of Cincinnati, 
became his wife in L856, and their union was blessed with eight 
children — three sons and tive daughters: Louisa ami John (de- 
ceased i. Mina, Frederick. August, Lisetta, Emma and Lizzie, liv- 
ing, Mr. Dotker's German education is somewhat limited. He 
and his family belong to the Evangelical St. Paul's Church. In 
politics he is a warm Democrat, and has always followed farming 
as an occupation, in which business he has been very successful 
li; L856, he settled on his present farm in Lockhart Township, 
and has since resided there, known and respected by all. 

HENRY EILERT, a native of Prussia, and a son of Henry 
and Margaret Eilert, was born April 21, 1828. He received a 
good education in the schools of his native country, and when 
about twenty-six years old, he left home and friends and came to 
America to seek his fortune. He landed at New Orleans, and 
finally settled in Lawrence County, Ohio, where he made his 
home for a number of years. His marriage with Louise Wessel. 
of Cincinnati. Ohio, was solemnized July 21, 1859, and their 
union was blessed with ten children, eight of whom are living: 
Henry. Fred. Mina, Rosa. Elizabeth, Katy. Flora and Martha. 
On the 21st of March. 1881, Mrs. Eilert was called from this 
earth, and since that time his daughters have been his housekeep- 
ers. As members of the Lutheran Church, lie and his family have 
aided all benevolent enterprises with their money and influence. 
His political views are Republican, and he takes an active interest 
in (hi' affairs of the day. He has always followed the occupation 
of farming, but is a cabinet-maker In trade, and is also a good 
carpenter, and has been successful in all his enterprises. His 
father was born in L794, in Prussia, and died in l*o5. The 
mother's birth occurred in IT'.lT. and her death in 1844. 

OI5ADIAH J. GPvEEN WAY. is a son of William and Melin- 
<la Greenway, who were natives of Kentucky and Tennessee, and 
born in L81fi ami L819, respectively. They are the parents of 
three living children: Agnes Iv. Jennie and Obadiah. The sub- 
ject of our sketch was born in Dubois County, Ind., January 7. 
L843, He obtained