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EX)iTi03sr IDE i_iTjx:e. 

Signed by the Author. 

Of this Edition only One Hundred Copies have been 
printed, of which this is 

No. X.fJ. 

iJnvu .^-i^<^A^it^. 







Author of "Helps to Right Living," "Protestantism versus 
Romanism,' &c. 


J. WILKIE & Co., Printers and Publishers, Princes Street. 



Re Some Works already Published by the Author. 

"We sincerely congratulate Mr. Dickson on the publication of 
this book (' Helps to Right Living '). It exceeds our utmost expecta- 
tions, and we venture to say that Mr. Dickson's most intimate friends 
will be surprised at the ability displayed in the work. It has (genuine 
grit and grip. The thought is strong and true, and the style lucid 
and incisive. Mr. Dickson shows real mastery of the subjects with 
which he deals, and we most heartily commend his book to our 
readers. We should like to see it in every household in the Colony." 
— The Christia7i Outlook. 

" We have read Mr. Dickson's book with great interest. He 
was already known to us as a champion of Protestantism against the 
pretensions of Roman Catholicism. Now he appears as a moral and 
religious teacher. We congratulate hira on his new venture. The 
type of the book is good; the contents capital." — The Prohihitioimt. 

" The reasoning is cogent, the illustrations are happy, and the 
anecdotes are apt, . . A young man or woman entering life 
might, with advantage, study this work, and so tain the right to 
wear the white flower of a blameless life." — Otago Daily Tiine^. 

The General Assembly of February last passed the 
following resolution : — 

" That the Assembly express its satisfaction at the near publica- 
tion of a History of the Presbyterian Church of N'W Zealand ; thank 
Mr. Dickson for the great service be has rendered the Church in 
und'-rtaking the work, and for his generous contributions from the 
sale to the funds of the Church ; and accept his suggusiion that the 
contribution falling to the Church be paid to the Church Extension 
Fund. While taking no responsibility upon itself as to the contents 
of the book, the Assembly very cordially and earnestly commend it 
to the members of the Church, urging that it have a place in every 
family as a means of extending information, and awakening interest 
in the great work in which our Church is engaged in taking possession 
of this land for Christ." 


The collecting of materials for this work was begun years ago by the 
Eev. J. K. Elliott, B.A., of Wellington, who thought as the Church 
had more than attained her jubilee, that something should be done to 
preserve her records, before men who could give information had 
passed away. The duties of a city charge not permitting him to 
continue his investigations, he handed over the result of his labours 
to the present writer, as if the minister of a more rural charge 
needed something to do. In undertaking and, amid the many 
engagements of an extensive pastorate, carrying through this task 
de novo, the object of the Author has been to bring the important 
work of this Church prominently before all its members, and aid the 
cause of church extension, by showing at Home and here its clamant 
needs. It has been truly a labour of love. Arrangements have been 
made by which the Church definitely shares with the publishers the 
pecuniary results. 

The plan has been to get as much information as possible from 
ministers, office-bearers, members, church records, and other sources, 
and after putting the facts into the form of history, to seek revision 
in the various local centres. In this way great pains, entailing 
considerable correspondence, have been taken to verify all facts. 

It would be impossible to mention every case of assistance, 
except one said that the Church at large rendered cordial and efficient 
help. We may name, however, among persons fiom whom, in 
revision or otherwise, valuable suggestions and aid have been 
received. Dr. Hocken, abthor of " Contributions to the Early History 
of New Zealand " ; the Rev. W. Gillies ; the Rev. Jasies Patekson, in 
the matter of " Church Extension " and " Church Property " ; the 
Rev. Dr. Sidey, in the matter of " The Church and Education "; 
the Revs. W. Watt, C. Murray, and Dr. Patox, in the matter of 
" Missions ;'' the Rev. W. J. Comrie, Convener of the " Committee 
on the State of Religion and Morals ; " the Rev. R. Sojimerville, 
and all the Clerks of Presbyteries. The Author, however, in the 
writing of the various chapters, has all through exercised what is 
indispensable in a history, a free hand, and holds no one responsible 
for the sentiments or setting of the work. 

1 90724G 


The Author regrets that, owing to want of space, the material of 
a number of manuscripts kindly sent him could not be used, and 
that for the same reason many photographs placed at his disposal 
had to be left out. It will be seen that the photo;jraphs inserted are 
so numerous that the publishers found it difficult in all cases to 
secure suitable places for their artistic illustrations. 

Owing to the treating of the charges seriatim it is hoped that no 
minister or congregation will be able to complain of being entirely 
ignored. An attempt has also been made, by means of a full Index, 
to make the book easy of reference, and therefore of permanent 

Depending upon a wide circulation, the cost of the book to the 
buyer has been fixed by us at a low figure, in order to bring it if 
possible within the reach of the poorest member of the Church. 

As it is difficult to keep a History with a mass of facts and dates 
like this one free from defects, the Author will be glad to receive 
corrections or suggestions from any reader, member of the Church 
or otherwise, with the view to a future edition. 

It is not without interest that this work is given to the public 
in the year following the Jubilee of the New Hebrides Mission ; and 
on the threshold of the Jubilee of the Canterbury Settlement. 
" Glory to Goo in the highest, and on earth peace, goodwill toward 

J. D. 

The Manbe, 

Temuka, N.Z., 

May, 1899. 



I. New Zealand for Christ . . . . . . . . 1 

Loyalty to the Word of God -Three Outstanding Char- 
acteristics: (1) Her Polity Apostolic; Parity of 
Ministers; Elder and Bishop Identical — (2) Her 
Creed Scriptural -(3) Her Aim to Elevat-j the 
Masses — No Saving Ordinaneos — No Salvation by 
Works — Not the Scotch Church — Her Catholicity 
of Spirit — Her Missionary Zeal— Her Heroic Past — 
Her Fitness for the Times — Her Future Prospects. 

II. The Fikht Scotch Colony for New Zealand . . . . 17 

The Send Off— The Voyage — The Passengers — Dangers 
Ahead — A Eed Letter Year — Land 0! — Terra 
Firma at Last—The First Service in Maori Land — 
Early Trials. 

III. In the Beginning at Wellington . . . . . . 31 

A New Zealand Disruption — An Historic Letter of Rov. 
Mr Macfarlane's — Arrival of Eev. James Duncan — 
A Split in the Presbyterian Camp — The Public 
Cemetery Appropriated — An Attempt to Set Up an 
Anglican Edtablishment — A Good-bye to Mr. Mac- 
farlane — A Statistical Table. 

IV. Origins in the Wellington Province . . . . 44 

Eev. J. Inglis— Unsullied Missionary Records— Eev. W. 
Kirton— A Second Congregation in the City- 
Appointment of Eev. John Moir— Mr. Moir's 
Advent — The Hutt and Eev. W. Dron— Wanganui 
and Rev. D. Hogg, of United Presbyterian Church— 
Turakina and Rev. John Thom— The First Pres- 

V. Laying the Foundation at the Capital . . . . 57 

Arrival of the "Duchess of Argyle " and "Jane 
Gifford "— Shepherdless Sheep— Rev. W. Comrie — 
Sudden Activity — A Protest Against the Education 
Bill— Church Building in Early Days— Selection 
of Rev. A. S. Panton— Services in a Courthouse— 
The Panton Controversy— Rev. D. Bruce— Diffi- 
culties Vanish. 



VI. Bbkaking Up New Ground at Auckland .. .. 71 

Origin of St. James'— A Roving Independent Gaelic 
Congregation — Arrivals of Bevs. J. Maoky, T. 
Norrie, and R. McKinney — The First Meeting of 
the Auckland Presbytery — Mr. Bruce's Subsequent 
Church Extension Operations — A Colleague — 
Financial Aid from the Home Churches— Prema- 
ture Settlements. 

VII. The Lifting of the Clouds at Nelson . . . . 88 

A Visit from Rev. John JMacfarlane, Wellington — An 
Exhortation from Scotland — Dependence Solely 
on the Teaching Elder an Evil — The Disruption 
Delays — -The Wairau Massacre — Appointment of 
Rev. T. D. Nicholson — Laying the Foundation 
Stone of Nelson Church — A New Zealand Creed — 
Education in Nelson — April Blasts — ^Testimonial to 
Mr. Nicholson — Rev. P. Calder Arrives — The 
Ralph Turner Donation — Mr. Nicholson in Wairau 
Valley— The Nelson Trust Fuad— The Mission of 
Rev. D. Bruce — Rev. A. Russell — First Meeting of 
the Nelson Presbytery. 

VIII. Days of Yore at Hawke's Bay and Tabanaki . . 113 
Napier — The First Meeting — Rev. P. Barclay Arrives — 

A New Church — Taianaki — Troublesome Times — 
Rev. Jotin Tiiom — Rev. R. F. Macnicol — Per- 
severance Amid DilHculties. 

IX. Eably Rays at Christchurch .. .. .. 122 

Families of Early Days — Spiritual Destitution — Rev. 
John Moir Calls — Under Many Disadvantages — 
Organization — Established Church or Free — Oh, for 
a Clever Minister ! — Rev. C. Fraser Arrives — A Large 
Parish — The Addington Cemetery — Education. 

X. Tbe Dawn in Nurth Canterbury . . . . . . 139 

Church Extension in Early Days— Banks Peninsula— 
St. Paul's, Kaiapoi — Lyttelton — Amuri — Prebble- 
ton — First Meeting of the Canterbury Presbytery — 
Rev. W. Hogg's Race Against Time. 

XI. Daylight in South Canterbury . . . . . . 154 

Rev. George Barclay, Father of South Canterbury's 
System of Education and Presbyterianism — South 
Canterbury in 1865 — Pioneering Difficulties — Rev. 
George Lindsay — Optimism versus Pessimism — 
The First Meeting of the Timaru Presbytery — Rev. 
W. R. Campbell— Rev. W. Gillies. 



XII. Better Than the Gold of Westland . . . . 170 

Settlement in Westland — Mr. A. Scott writes the Pres- 
bytery^Rev. John Gow's Visit to Westland — 
Hokitika Charge Organised — Mr. Gow's Settlement 
— Great Undertakings — A Noble Group of Office- 
Bparf^rs, Messrs. A. Bonar, C. E. Button, A. Scott, 
Mueller, (tc— Grey mouth — Rev. Jos. Mcintosh 
with his Wife Shipwrecked on their Way — His 
Work at Greymouth — Mr. Gow's Success in 
We.stland— Rev. Jas. Kirkland— Mr. D. W. Virtue- 
How Rev. W. Hogg Came to Assume the Pastorate 
of Ross — Failure of Ross Mining — Dangerous 
Journeys — The First Presbytery — Stafford — 
Kumara Leaps into Prominence — Mr. Hogg Leaves 
for Sydney. 

Xlil. The Difficulties of Ecclesiastical Pioneering .. 192 
Undefined Parishes — Trudging on Foot — Bullock 
Riding— Clerical First Attempts at Riding — A 
Probationer's Troubles — Fording Rivers — Stuck 
Fast on a Bridge — Lost in the Bush — Places of 
Worship — Wairau Massacre — Attack on tlie Puke- 
kohe Church — How Dr. Elmslie got his War 
Medal— A Mixed Membership —The Wild Grapes 
of Judah. 

XIV, New Defartures . . . • . . . . . . 222 

1. The First Meeting of the General Assembly. 2. A 
Minimum Stipend and an Aged and Infirm 
Ministers Fund. 3. The Legislative Recognition 
of the Presbyterian Church of New Zealand. 4. An 
Examination Board for Theological Students and 
their Course of Study. 5. The Principle of the 
Barrier Act to be Adopted in Important Cases. 
6. Marriage with a Deceased Wife's Sister. 7. An 
Authorised Hymnal. 8. The General Assembly 
and Ministers of Other Churches Applying for 
Admission. 9. A Book of Order. 10, Tenure of 
Ministeiial Office. 11. A Marked Temperance 
Deliverance. 12. A New Departure in the Forei<.'n 
Mission Field. 13. Increase of the Scholarship 
Endowment Scheme. 14. Adoption of the Declara- 
tory Act. 

XV. Church Extension.. .. .. .. ..244 

The Duty of the Church— The Strong Helping thf 
Weak— The Danger of Looking Back — Legislation 
of the First General Assembly —Rev. D. Brucc's 



Church Extension Tour— Kev. C. Eraser's Work- 
Liberal Congregations — The Canterbury Church 
Extension Association — Aims of the Church 
Extension Scheme — A Sustentation Fund Tried — 
Work Done — Large Districts Unsupplied With 
Ordinances— A Call to Arms. 

XVL Church and Education . . . . . • • • 257 

The Presbyterian Church Constitutionally a Friend of 
Education — The Church of the People — The 
Churches of the Reformation and the Bible — John 
Knox's Scheme of Education for Scotland — Educa- 
tion in the Mission Field — The First High School 
in Canterbury — Champions of Education Past and 
Present— Educational Work of Rev. G. Barclay in 
South Canterbury — Difficulties of the Northern 
Church — The Church's First Pronouncement on 
Education in 1863— A Theological Hall for Both 
Churches— Her Efforts to Raise the Standard of 
Education in the Colleges and University — A 
National and Undenominational System of Educa- 
tion — The Bible in the Public School— University 

XVn. The Chdbch and the Press . . . . . . 273 

The Value of a Free Press —The Press with no Gospel 
of its Own — The Restraints of Public Opinion — 
The Growth of the Press — A Newspaper Reading 
Public — The Power of the Press — The Advantages 
of a Sympathetic Attitude — What New Zealand 
Presbyterian Church has Here Done — The Outlook 
—Other Ways of Utilising the Prese. 

XVin. Missions .. .. .. .. ..285 

(1) The Foreign Mission — The Story of the Dayspring. 
(2) The Maori Mission. (3) The Chinese Mission. 

XIX. Church Property. . . . . . . . . . 306 

Want of Uniformity in Titles— Discipline Weakened— 
A Model Trust Deed Inoperative — Mr. W. S. 
Reid's Services— Act of 1875— Church Property 
Act of 1885— A Central Board of Trustees— The 
Trust Funds. 

XX. Tabulated Facts and Figures . . . . . . 311 



Auckland Pkesbyteet 
Hawkes' Bay 









Gekebal Abseublt 



Adamson, Rev. A. H. 


Akaroa Chukch and Manse 


Alexander, Rkv. A. 


Am-AN, Kev. R. S. 


Ai.lswokth, Rev. R. J. 


Anderson, Mr. J. 


AsHBUKTON Church and 



Auckland Presbytery 


„ St. Andrew's 



,, St. David's Church 


,, St. Jajies' Church 


,, St. James', Office-Beareks of 


Badger, Mr. R. . . 


Bannatyne Rev. J. 

. . 


Barclay, Rev. G. . . 


Barclay, Rev. P. . . 


Beattie, Rev. A. M. 


Bibir, Native Teacher 


Blake, Rev. H. . . 


Blenheim— St. Andrew" 

s Church, Old and 

SfEW . . 499 

Bonar, Mr. a. 


Bonny Glen Church 


Bbookside Church and 



Brown, Mrs. 


Brown, Mb. T. .. 


Brownlee, Mr G. 


Bruce. Rev, D. 


Button, Mr. C. E. 


Cairns, Rev. T. R, 


Calder, Rev. P . . 


Campbell, Rev. J. 


Canterbury Pioneek.s 


Cabbick, Rev. A. , . 






Chetne, Mb. J. . . . . . . . . . . 545 

Chinese Mission School, Greymouth . . . . 573 

Cheistchurch in Early Days . . . . . . 465 

,, Old St. Paul's Chdrcu . • . . 459 

„ Presbytery . . . . . . 451 

„ St. Andrew's — Old Church, New 

Church, and Manse • . . . 453 

,, St. Paul's Church and Manse . . 461 

,, St. Paul's Session . . . . 463 

Clark, Mr. Archibald . . . . . . • • 66 

Clarke, Rev. J. . . . . . . • . • • 523 

CojiRiE, Rev. W. J. .. .. .- •• 523 

Coromandel Church and Manse . . . . . . 429 

Cokruth, Mr. J. . . . . . . • • • • 419 

Craig, Mr. D. .. .. .. .. •• 453 

CusT Church and Manse . . • . . . • • 477 

Deans, Mr. J. 

Deans, Mr. J., Jon. 

Dickson, Rev. J. . . 

DiNWiDDiE, Rev. W. 

Douglas, Rev. A. F. 

Douglas, Rev. W. 

DouLL, Rev. A. . . 

Druey— Old Church and Present Church 

,, Present Session . . 
Duncan, Rev. J. . . 
Dunne, Rev. T. W. 

Elmslie, Rev. Dr. 
Emsley, Mb. W. .. 

Faiblie Church and Manse 
Ferguson, Rev. R. 
FiNDLAY, Rev. W. F. 
FiNLAY, Rev. J. B. 
Fletchke, Rev. H.J. 
Forrester, Mr. J. 
Fraser, Mr. J. . . 
Frasee, Rev. C. . . 
Fbaseb, Rev. T. M., M.A., 
Fulton, Rev. D. . . 

Gavin, Mb. W. . . 

Gillies, Rev. and Mrs. Alex. 

















Gillies, Rev. W. . . 


,. Oi.D Church, Present Church, and Manse 

Glasgow, Mr. 
GoRDAN, Rev. D. 
Gorrte, Rev. J. 
Gow, Rev. J. 
Gow, Rev. J. 
Gow, Rev. W. 
Grant, Rev. A. 
Grant, Rev. G. 
Grant, Rev. W. 
Gray, Rev. A. 
Great Plain, The 
Greymouth Church and Manse 

Hart, Mr. A. 

Hastings Church and Manse 

Hay, Mr. E. 

Hay, Mr. J. 

Hay, Rev. P. S. . . 

Headrick, Rev. J. 

Hill, Rev. J. 

Hogg, Rev. D. 

Hogg, Rev. W. . . 

HoKiTiKA Church and Manse 

Howie, Mb. A. 

Hunterville Church and Manbe 

HuNUA Church 

Hutcheson, Mr. J. M. 

HuTTON, Mr. P. W. 

Inolis, Rev. G. B. 
Inglis, Rkv. John 
Irvine, Mb. R. . . 

Johnson, Mb. W. . . 

Kaiapoi — Old Church, New Church, and Makbe 
Kelly, Rev. H. . . 

Lekston Church and Manse 

,, Sesbion . . 
Lem, Mr. 
Lincoln Church . . 















41 2a 











LiMDSAY, Rev. G. . . 
LoBURN' Church 
LooAN, Mr. R. 
Lyttelton in Early Days . . 
,, Church and Maxse 

Macdoxald, Mr. A. 
Macfarlane, Mr. W. 
MacGowan, Rev. W. 
Macgbegor, Rev. R. 
Macqregor, Rev. W. 
Macintosh, Mr. . . 
Macky, Rev. J. . . 
Macky, Rev. John 
Mahurangi — St. Columba . . 
Napier — St. Paul's Church 
Marshall, Mrs. . . ... 

Martin, Rev. D. and Office-Bearers 

Marton Church and Manse 

Masterton Church and Manss 

Matakana Church . . 

Mathie-on, Mr. J. 

McCallum, Rev. N. 

McClixton, Mr. R. 

McGowan, Rev. W. S. 

McIntosh, Rev. J. 

McIvoR, Mb. 

McKee, Rev. David 

McKee, Rev. J. 

McKee, Rev. J. . . 

McKellar, Rev. J. 

McKenzie, Rev. J. 

McKenzie, Rev. J. H. 

McKinney, Rev. R. 

McLean, Mr. A. H. 

McLean, Mr. D. . . 

McLean, Rev. D, . . 

McLennan, Rev. A. 

McLennan, Rev. D. 

McLeod, Rev. Norjian 

McRae, Mr. G. . . 

Milne, Rev. J. 

Monro, Rev. P. R. 

Morrison, Rev. A. S. 

Morrison, Rkv. R. C. 



481, 485 


Mt. Eomont, View of . . . . . . . . 

Mueller, Mr. 

Murray, Rkv. C, and Wairarapa South Session 

Nelson — Present Church, Interior of Present Church 

Old Church and Manse 
Nelson Session . . 
Ness Valley Church 

New Hebrides— Kwamera — Mission Buh^dinos 
,, Memorial Window 

., ,, Missionaries 

., ,. Mission Scenes 

,, ,, Port Resolution Church and House 

,, ,, Synod 

,, ,, Tanna, The First Communicants of 

,, ,, Watt, Mrs. — Her Grave 




Newin^, Mr. H. . . 

Nicholson, Rev. T. D. 

Norrie, Rev. T. . , .. .. .. 78, 

NoRRiE, Rev. T. A. 
North Island Pioneers 

Old Timaru 

Onehunga — Old Church, New Church, and Manse 

Otahuhu Church . . 

Oxford Church . . 

Palmerston North, Office-bearers op 

Papakura Church and Manse 

Papakura First Session 

Parnell — Laying Foundation Stone of Knox Church 

Paterson, Rev. J. 

Paterson, Rev. J. G. 

Picton — St. Paul's Church, Old and New 

Pioneers of Nelson and Marlborough 

Pleasant Point Church and Manse 

Porter, Rkv. R. J. 

PuKEKOHE Church and Manse 

PuKEKOHE East Church 

Rakaia — St. Andrew's Church 
Ranoiora Church and Mansk 
Reid, Mr. J. 
Reid, Mb. W. S. .. 
Renwick, Dr. 


323, 413 

553, 555 





212, 412 




Renwicktown Church, Old and New 


,, Mr. Nicholson's Manse 


,, Mr. Nicholson's Chhrch 


Riddle, Rev. P. and Elders 


Ring, Mr. J. 


RoBB, Rev. W. 0. 


Rodger, Rev. D. . . 


Ross, Rev. J. 


Russell, Rev. A. 


Rybukn, Rev. R. M. 


Scott, Mr. A. . . 


Scott, Mr. Archibald 


Scott, Rev. T. . . 


Shearer, Mr. J. . . 


Sherriffs, Rev. W. 


SiDEY, Rev, Dr. . . 


Simpson, Rev. J. M. 


Sinclair, Mr. J. . . 


Smart, Mr. J. . . 


Southbridge Church 


Smellie, Rev. J. . . 


Steele, Rev. D. J., M.A. .. 


Stewart, Rev. W. 


Stowell, Rev. G. K. 


Strang, Mr. 


Sydenham Church 


TAir, Rev. A. M. . . 


Tauranga Church 


Temuka Church and Manse 


„ „ Session . , 


Thames — Old Church and Present Church 


Thom, Rkv. John . . 


Timauu — Church, Rev. W. Gillies and OFncE-BEARERfe 

OF 509 

„ Old Church, New Church, and Manse 


,, Presbytery 


Todd, Mrs, W. . . 


Treadwfxl, Late Rev. James 


Treadwell, Rev. A. H. .. 


TuRAKiNA Church and Manse 


Upper Hutt — Knox Church 


ViRXUB, Mr. D. W. 




Waddeix, Rev. Dr. 
Waik-vbi Church . . 
Waimate Church and Manse 
Waibarapa South Church and M.vnsk 
Wairoa— Old and New Church 
Waipukurau Church and Manse 
Wairau Massacre — Scene of the 
Wallace, Rev. J. 
Wanganui Presbytery 

,, St. Paul's Church and Manse 

,, Session of St. Paul's . . 

Waverley — St. Andrew's Church and Manse 
Webster, Mr. J. . . 
Webster, Rev. G. 
Wellinoton - Presbytery . . 

,, St. Andrew's Church 

„ St. John's 

,, St. John's Session 

West, Rev. R. S. 
West, Rev. W. . . 
Westland Presbytery 
Whangabei Church and Manse 

,, Church Session 

White, Rev. J. 
White, Rev. W 
Wilson, Mr. 
Wilson, Mrs. 
Wilson, Mr. J. 
Wood, Rev. R. 
Wright, Rev. A. M. 







Loyalty to the Word of God— Three Outstanding Characteristics : 
(1) Her Polity Apostolic; Parity of Ministers ; Elder and Bishop 
Identical — (2) Her Creed Scriptural — (3) Her Aim to Elevate the 
Masses — No Saving Ordinances — No Salvation by Works— Not 
the Scotch Church — Her Catholicity of Spirit — Her Missionary 
Zeal— Her Heroic Past— Her Fitness for the Times— Her Future 

This is the motto which it becomes the Presbyterian 
Church, true to her origin, constitution, and history, to 
adopt in the Brighter Britain. Under its inspiration it 
behoves ministers, office-bearers, and members to enter 
upon and prosecute their work. New Zealand for Christ I 
This is the noblest ideal any man or company of men can 
set up. Macaulay, speaking of a golden era in the history 
of the Roman Empire, says : 

" Then none was for a party ; 
Then all were for the state ; 
Then the great man helped the poor, 
And the poor man loved the great." 


Now it is quite true that if that condition of affairs 
were realised in modern politics we should have made no 
mean advance, but New Zealand for Christ is a far nobler 
conception, and proportionately more destructive of selfish- 
ness and party strife. Is the Presbyterian Church so con- 
stituted as to be capable of translating this great thought 
into action ? Can her members, in lengthening her cords 
and strengthening her stakes conscientiously say, " We 
are establishing the kingdom of Christ ?" Our Church's 
triumphant answer to these important questions is to be 
found in her loyalty to the Word of God. 

It is the glory of the Presbyterian Church that her 
doctrine, government, and worship are all *' founded on, 
and agreeable to, the Word of God."' No Church could 
appeal more unwaveringly to the law and the testimony 
than she has done. In this she is following noble pre- 
cedents. Peter's sermon on the day of Pentecost, which 
marked the birthday of Gospel preaching, and was so 
signally honoured, was full of quotations from Old Testa- 
ment Scriptures. So was the preaching of Paul and the 
other apostles, of Stephen, and of Clirist Himself. The 
Reformers were distinguished for being men of one book. 
The people liked to hear them preach because their sermons 
smelled of the "myrrh and cassia." Who swayed the 
people like Chalmers, of whose discourses it has been said, 
" They held the Bible in solution ?" Herein is the safety 
of our Church and our religion. So long as we adhere to 
these lines there will be no danger of our getting lost in 
the puzzling mazes of human tradition, or sinking in the 
shifting sand of human expediency, or splitting on the 
adamantine rocks of ignorance, pride, and self-righteousness. 

So loyal is the Presbyterian Church to revealed truth 
that she scorns the mere non - prohibited in doctrine, 


government, and worship. The non-prohibited is the 
downward path that leads to Romanism and Ritualism, 
with all their vanities and vexations of spirit. On all 
vital subjects she demands a " Thus saith the Lord." She 
hath three outstanding characteristics. 

Her polity is that of the early Church, as founded by 
the Apostles. Her creed is a strictly Scriptural creed, and 
her aim and influence has always been to secure the 
enlightenment and elevation of the masses after the 
manner of Christ, and, when He was gone. His divinely- 
commissioned disciples. Let us examine these marks 

(1) Her polity is that of the early Church, as founded by 
the Apostles. This is not one of the least differentiating 
characteristics. It is the government of the Church that 
has given to our communion the name Presbyterian, 
although the title has come to signify very much more 
than that. To show that this government cannot be taken 
up or laid down at pleasure it is sufficient to point out 
that doctrine, government, and worship are stones in our 
spiritual temple tied together by the Head Corner Stone, 
Jesus Christ. No one of these can be removed without 
endangering the safety of the whole structure. This is 
why we lay such stress on our ecclesiastical polity. Its 
key-stone is the favourite key-stone of the Presbyterian 
building, i.e., the headship of Christ. Out of this comes 
naturally the parity of ministers. 

No Pope or other high ecclesiastic is permitted 
to lord it over God's heritage. This is both a beautiful 
and a fundamental principle of the Presbyterian Church. 
What more becoming than that Jesus Christ, the 
King and Head of* the Church, should be "exalted far 
above all principalities and power, and might, and 


domiuion, and every name that is named," and that His 
office-bearers, elders, and deacons, instead of disputing the 
pre-eminence with Him or with one another, should form 
an humble, united, and affectionate brotherhood, whose 
one aim is to glorify their risen Lord. How fitting that 
the disciples, in the absence of their glorified Master, 
should meet for conference and encouragement, government 
and discipline, on an equality of footing in all Church 
courts, and, taking united action in establishing the 
kingdom of God, cease not to labour until in the brother- 
hood of loving, lowly service " the whole round earth be 
everywhere bound by golden chains about the feet of God." 
This is a voluntary and intelligent union, and therefore 
the closest and most permanent of all unions. Without 
destroying any man's independence, it puts the whole 
Church en rapport with the exhortation of Christ : " Bear 
ye one another's burdens." The unity which Episcopacy 
secures by a hierarchy of officers, Presbytery secures by a 
gradation of Councils. Elder and bishop it holds with 
good reason to be identical. 

The highest office in the Presbyterian Church, 
is that of elder, and one of the oldest offices in the 
world. It can be traced back to the very beginning of 
Israel's history as a chosen people. It has had distinguished 
occupants; Peter rejoiced to be able to say: "who am 
also an elder." The office of bishop is not superior to it. 
Presbuteros (elder) and episcopos (bishop) were identical 
in the Apostolic Church, according to Clement and 
Polycarp, and the most distinguished theologians of the 
modern Protestant Episcopal Church. Professor Sanday 
affirms it. Canon Gore, the acknowledged leader of the 
High Anglican party, admits it, and even Langen, the 
eminent historical critic of the Romish Church, views it 
as beyond dispute. It follows that the Presbyterian Church 


is the true Episcopal Church of New Testament times. 
To put down unscriptural pretentions, it might do worse 
than empower and encourage all its ministers to take to 
themselves the title of bishop. Under that appellation of 
dignity, they might do no better work than heretofore, 
bat 250 bishops in New Zealand, and a proportionate 
number throughout the world, would leave no doubt on 
the minds of any as to the primitive and scriptural 
significancy of the term bishop. It might result in a 
blessing to mankind. 

" One is your Master," says the Great Teacher, " and 
all ye are brethren." This explains why we demur to 
ministers of the Gospel being dignified with high-sounding 
titles. Take the word priest. No servant of Christ has 
any right to it. Though it is as Milton puts it, " Presbyter 
writ large," the idea of sacrifice has in modern parlance 
come to be inseparably associated with it, and immediate 
access to God for all on the ground of the one great 
sacrifice of Jesus Christ is a fundamental principle of the 
Reformed Faith. The battle between priestism and 
prophetism was decided two thousand years ago, when 
priestism perished and prophetism became the glory of the 
New Testament Church. The only priesthood we now 
recognise is the priesthood of believers, and that is the 
principle which underlies the eldership. In this unity and 
continuity of the people of God is to be found the true 
apostolic succession. The Church in all its ages is in 
immediate contact with Christ, and is dependent on no 
broken or leaky viaduct. There is no conception of the 
Church so lofty as that it is the Church of the Living 

(2) JJer creed is a strictly Scrijitural creed. The 
story of its birth is a very interesting one. It was 
put into its present form by the Westminster divines. 


These divines were called together by the Long Parliament 
in the 17th century, to settle the doctrine, government, and 
liturgy of the Church of England. They met with their 
Bibles in their hands, and were sworn to maintain nothing 
but what was " most agreeable to the word of God." The 
solemn oath they took was read anew every Monday 
morning, that its influence might pervade the whole 
assembly. They were all intellectual and spiritual-minded 
men, specially selected for their gifts and graces. They 
were entirely free from all outside pressure. The Scotch 
element was numerically an insignificant moiety. Of one 
hundred and fifty-seven literati, only six were from Scotland. 
The rest were English commoners, English lords, and 
more especially English divines. Of the six Scotchmen 
two were laymen, and not one of the six had a right to 
vote on any disputed question. They were really not 
members of the Assembly, properly speaking, at all. Yet, 
strange to relate, the result of their labours was " The 
Directory of Public Worship," " The Confession of Faith," 
and " The Shorter and Larger Catechisms," the first two 
being afterwards ratified by both Houses of Parliament. 
These constitute the standards which we have adopted as 
a Church, and found admirably to express our views of holy 
writ. Curious it is that our formularies are English rather 
than Scotch in their origin. It is just another instance of 
the oft- noticed fact that where any people are left free to 
organise a Church they invariably give to it a Presbyterian 
constitution. The reformers of all lands in the sixteenth 
century, with one exception, making diligent search, came 
substantially to the same conclusion. 

The Scriptural character of the Creed given us by this 
English Assembly of divines is prominently shown in the 
place it accords to, and the emphasis it lays on, justification 


by faith. Dean Stanley, in the last essay he wrote, 
acknowledged that the Confession of Faith excels all other 
creeds in (a) " the warmth with which it sets forth the 
beauty and human tenderness of Christ ; (b) the freedom of 
the human will, it being the only great creed which 
emphasises that." This from an outsider is strong praise, 
and very timely in a restless age when some within the pale 
of the Church seek to disparage that historic document. 
A creed is only a light-holder ; to declaim against it is to 
act like the savage who, walking through the streets of 
London at night, complained that the lamp-posts were an 
obstruction to traffic. 

(3) Her aim has always been to secure the enlightenment 
and elevation of the masses. She does not believe in a 
Church without a people, any more than in a people without 
a Church. This shows that hers is not a worldly ambition. 

" When that the poor have cried, CsBsar hath wept : 
Ambition should be made of sterner stuff." 

She follows the example of her Master in seeking to lift 
up the very lowest strata of society with the lever of 
Gospel truth, that all mankind may enjoy the birthright 
of heaven's light, and be brought nearer to God. To do 
this effectually her ministers themselves must be thoroughly 
imbued with the truth. They must be educated, and an 
educated ministry is very appropriately associated with the 
other two characteristics already mentioned. Unlettered 
men would be open to the charge of not understanding 
what the Bible really contains. It is a matter for great 
thankfulness to God that the Church which more than 
any other takes the Bible for its guide should be also the 
one which insists most strenuously on the high education 
of hei ministers. They are compelled to have a competent 


acquaintance with the original languages of Scripture, 
with Biblical criticism and theology, and to possess all the 
training that will enable them clearly to comprehend, and 
rightly to divide the Word of Truth, We have been some- 
times blamed for laying too much stress on teaching and 
preaching. Our services, it is said, ought to be more 
devotional. Doubtless they should, but ignorance will not 
make them such. God can have little pleasure in the 
praise and prayer which are offered up by unenlightened 
souls. It brings little glory to Him. A blind homage is 
not worship, nor is it loyalty to Jesus Christ. Hence, " Let 
there be light " is a key to all our services, and this light 
radiating out to the Church's remotest extremities consti- 
tutes, as we shall see in a subsequent chapter, a striking 
feature of the Presbyterian Church. We aim at the 
humblest of our Church members being able to give a 
reason for the hope that is in them, and to say of the 
Presbyterian ship : 

"We know what Master laid thy keel, 
What workmen wrought thy ribs of steel ; 
Wbo made each mast, and sail, and rope ; 

What anvils rang, what hammers beat, 

In what a forge, and what a heat, 
Were shaped the anchors of Thy hope." 

In the Headship of Christ lies also the secret of our 
abjuration of all saving ordinances, and the simplicity of 
our Presbyterian worship. The dogma, for instance, that 
baptism is necessary for salvation, which Calvin and Pres- 
byterianism flung away at the time of the Reformation, can 
in no age have a congenial place in our Church, nor any 
other doctrine or embellishment in worship which dis- 
honours Christ. Presbyterianism is anti-ritualistic. Of a 
ritualistic Church we may say : 


" Th' adorning thee with so much art 
Is but a barbarous skill, 
'Tis like the poisoning of a dart, 
Too apt before to kill." 

For a similar reason we do not believe in salvation by 
works. Komanism and Arminianism, which have not a few 
things in common, we equally shun for the sake of the glory 
we owe to our sovereign Lord, and re-echo the watchword 
of the Eeformation, which was the watchword of Paul, 
" Justification by faith." 

We see then what an important doctrine in the Pres- 
byterian Church is the Headship of Christ. It is a prin- 
ciple which, all along the line of her history, she has 
jealously guarded and tenaciously held fast. In defence of 
it the blood of some of ber noblest sons has been shed. 
All rulers, civil and ecclesiastical alike, who have attempted 
to sit in the seat of Christ have been opposed by her to the 
death. Who has not heard of the noble testimony and 
trials of the Waldenses and Albigenses in France and Italy, 
and the Reformers in Germany, on account of their abjura- 
tion of Pope and Popery. When, in Elizabeth's day, to 
get rid of Papal rule, the Queen of England was declared to 
be the head of both Church and State, and an oath of 
allegiance to her as such required of all ministers of the 
Gospel and civil officers, it was just the same. The Puritans 
of England preferred to be fined and imprisoned, and 
dubbed with the name of Non-Conformists. Again, when 
in the days of Charles II., an infatuated attempt was made 
to force Episcopacy on Scotland, the Covenanters stained 
the heath with their blood, contending "for Christ's Crown 
and Covenant." The " Ten Years' Conflict," which was 
raging in Scotland when the first Scotch Colony started for 
New Zealand, was no mere hair-splitting, but the outcome 


of conscientious, deep-seated loyalty to Christ. It virtually 
resulted in the complete spiritual independence of all 
branches of the Presbyterian Church throughout the world. 
Nay, all Christendom came through it to have a clearer 
knowledge of 

" Both spiritual power and civil ; what each means, 
What severs each." 

Surely if there is any Church on earth which can con- 
sistently take for its motto — " New Zealand for Christ "— 
it is the Presbyterian Church. You will hear men some- 
times say that they are Christians first and Presbyterians 
afterwards, using the latter word in its very lowest sense. 
No doubt, as in other communions, there are many who 
belie their profession, and deny Christ ; but that is no fault 
of the Church. If a man be true to her history, and true 
to her principles, and, above all, loyal to her King and 
Head, he is a Christian of a most excellent kind. Such an 
one can pray for her peace and prosperity, give liberally 
for the support of her ordinances at home and abroad, and 
labour incessantly for her advancement everywhere, with- 
out feeling that he is in any way open to the charge of 
being a blind partisan or bigot, [f our Church were named 
after some distinguished Reformer and its government 
founded on human expediency the case would be different. 
We reverence the Reformers as moral heroes who brought 
back the Church to her first moorings in the safe harbours 
of Bible truth, but we view them, notwithstanding as men 
of like passions with ourselves. 

In the same way, and for a similar reason, we object 
to our Church being named after a particular country. It 
is not " the Scotch Church," as many Colonists in their 
thoughtlessness designate it. Its foundation stone was 
not laid in Scotland, its standards did not originate there, 


and it is not to-day confined to Scotland or Scotclimen. 
With its divine equipment and God-given mission it has 
gone into all lands and taken root in every soil. 

Her catholicity of spirit is everywhere manifest. The 
Presbyterian Church is the true Catholic Church. Her loyalty 
to the Lord Jesus Christ makes her catholic through and 
through. She cordially endorses the saying of Ignatius, 
" Where Christ is, there is the Catholic (general) Church." 
She accepts without demur the liberalism of Farrar, who, 
fighting against sacerdotalism, argues, "Where the fruits 
of the Spirit are, the Spirit Himself is ; where the Spirit is, 
Christ is; and where Christ is, the Church is." This does not 
make Church organisation a matter of indifference. We dis- 
tinguish between the hein/j and the well-heimi of a Church. 
For us no organisation is possible but that of New Testa- 
ment Presbyterianism, but if another body of Christian 
men, acting up to their light, adopt a different polity, we 
do not on that account refuse to them the name of Chris- 
tian. This is for us the only tenable position. The 
charity which sees an equal amount of good in everything 
is not far removed from the indifference which sees no 
special good in anything. Loyalty to our own Church, 
however, instead of compelling us to unchurch other 
denominations, restrains us from unchurching any ecclesias- 
tical organisation where Christ and His Word are preached 
and His sacraments administered. Hence the Presby- 
terian Church is the most catholic of all Churches. No 
Church can show more Christian work done by her 
members outside her own communion. The lists of Bible, 
tract, and other philanthropic societies show that no bene- 
ficent scheme appeals to the liberality of her sons in vain. 
The widening circles of her presbyteries, synods, and 
General Assembly help to broaden men's minds, and to 


lift them out of mere local, domestic, and provincial views. 
It is said that you cannot speak five minutes to a member 
of another Church on a religious topic without discovering 
the communion to which he belongs, but that you will talk 
a long time to a Presbyterian before you will find that out. 
Calvin displayed a truly Presbyterian spirit when he wrote 
to the English Reformer, Cranmer, that he " would gladly 
cross five seas to bring about the unity of the Reformed 
Church of God," and Zwingli had far the better of Luther 
when, notwithstanding their differences, he held out to him 
the right hand of fellowship, and the latter declined it. 

The first journal issued by the Pan-Presbyterian 
Council was called " The Catholic Presbyterian." This, 
perhaps more than anything else, has contributed to the 
influence of Presbyterianism to-day. The saying of the 
working man, " We believe in Christianity ^ but not in 
Churchianity," has no meaning when applied to us. Dr. 
Martineau, the eminent Unitarian divine, bears a good 
testimony when he says, " The Presbyterian Church has 
presented to the world an example of Church government 
the most brotherly, the most beneficent, and the most 

"Could wc forbear dispute and practice love, 
We should agree as angels do above." 

Her missionary zeal is conspicuous. Canon Robert- 
son in his tables has shown that the Presbyterian 
Church is the most generous of all the Churches, 
and the average stipend paid to its ministers and 
missionaries higher. This is a fair test of religious 
conviction. The Church, which like many of the great 
religions of the heathen world, is restricted to a particular 
area, and which perhaps oven there allows its agencies to 
languish for want of funds is not worth censure. It 


stands ipso facto condemned. It is one of the glories of 
the Presbyterian Church that its missionaries are to be 
found in ahiiost all heathen lands. 

Consider her heroic past. Who is not proud of 
the history of the Waldenses of Italy, the Huguenots 
of France, the Puritans of England, the Covenanters 
of Scotland, the Pilgrim Fathers of New England, 
the Calvinists of Switzerland, and the victims of the 
Inquisition in Spain and the Netherlands. These men 
have placed the whole world under a deep debt of 
gratitude. We owe to them, under God, our civil and 
religious liberty. In grappling with secular despotism and 
ecclesiastical tyranny they were contending for the rights 
of man. Presbyterians have always been foremost in the 
battle for freedom, both in the Church and the State. It 
is well that our Presbyterian young colonials should know 
what a noble part the Church of their fathers has played 
in the history of the world. This generation, and especially 
these Colonies, are so occupied with the present that the 
records of the past are often entirely ignored. This should 
not be so. The past has many lessons to teach ; if we 
are to progress we must learn them. Listen to the 
testimony of history : Froude, an Anglican, says of the 
Calvinists : " But for them the Reformation would have 
been crushed." Morley, an Agnostic, asserts : " To omit 
Calvin from the forces of Western evolution is to read 
history with one eye shut." Mark Pattison, another 
Anglican, exclaims : " Calvinism saved Europe." Pro- 
fessor Corner, of Berlin, who, although a distinguished 
Protestant, was never a partisan, writes: " Presbyterianism 
is the muscular system of Christianity ; where the call is to 
do or dare for truth, the Church is in the van." Dean 
Stanley frankly says : " Every Episcopalian ought to be 
thankful for the existence of a living Church, which shows 


that outside of Prelacy Christian life and truth can flourish, 
even should they fail among the Episcopal communions." 
Professor A. A. Hodge, of Princeton, sums up his reading 
of history thus : — 

" It is an historic fac' , acknowledged by such impartial 
witnesses as Sir James Mackintosh, Froude, and Bancroft, that 
Presbyterian principles revolutionised Western Europe and her 
populations, and inaugurated modern history. As to their influence 
upon civil as well as religious liberty, and upon national education, 
it is only necessary to cite the post-Reformation history of Geneva, 
Holland, the history of the Huguenots in France, the Puritans of 
England, the Presbjterians of Scotland, and the founders of the 
American Republic." 

No wonder the Emperor Frederic III. of Germany 
said, "I am proud to belong to this heroic Church; its 
martyrs are in every land." Like Professor Drummond's 
monkey, it is a Church that " will not kill." With such a 
record it cannot die. It will never lack adherents in any 

Her fitness for the times is evident to all. We 
live in a democratic age. Milton, who argued that 
peoples were before kings and rulers, that kings and rulers 
exist for the people, that people can never be the property 
of any office or official, passing like an inheritance from 
father to son, which is the most intolerable of all tyrannies, 
would be delighted were he now in our midst. Our popular 
system of government is in sympathy with the times. It 
has anticipated them by thousands of years. It possessed 
at the beginning what other Churches have been acquiring 
by slow experience. Other communions have with much 
benefit to themselves been modifying their Church govern- 
ments on Presbyterian lines. More than one of them have 
been following our example in the matter of gathering their 
forces into general councils on a popular basis, equal voice 
of lay representatives iu Church courts, ministerial parity, 


and the right of the people to elect their own office-bearers. 
These are all democratic principles which the Presbyterian 
Church has long embraced in their entirety, and which 
other Churches are now adopting to a greater or less extent. 
Independency has its Unions, and the English Church its 
Synods and lay representatives. The late Dr. Pope was 
voicing the opinion of Wesleyan scholars themselves when 
he affirmed that "modern Wesleyanism in England is the 
old Puritan Presbyterianism rising up again, with what is 
practically a Presbyterian Church government with a some- 
what altered doctrinal aspect." The Presbyterian Church 
stands as the pioneer to the two great principles now rigidly 
united in modern politics— the equality of all men and the 
right of self-government. All along these principles have 
found clear expression in her creed and constitution, her 
testimony and her strivings. Doubtless this accounts for 
her rapid extension in younger countries where democracy 
finds its fullest development. She is essentially a democratic 
Church ; the Church of the people. 

What is her present position and influence ? Behm 
and Wagner, the highest authorities on such a subject, 
set down Reformed Presbyterians at thirty millions and 
Lutherans at a still higher figure. Rev. J. N. Ogilvie, 
M.A., has communicated with Church leaders in all lands, 
and gone very carefully into the matter. In one of the 
Guild Text Books edited by Dr. Charteris, Edinburgh, and 
Dr. McClymont, Aberdeen, and published in 1896, he 
informs us that Presbyterians, exclusive of Lutherans, 
number at least twenty-four milUon souls, and that Metho- 
dists, even including the two very distinct Churches of 
England and America, come second, and only number twenty 
million adherents. All reputable religious statisticians are 
agreed that the Presbyterian Church at this moment is the 


largest Protestant Church in the world. If the Lutherans 
be reckoned with the Presbyterians proper, with whom they 
are more closely allied than with any others, they will be, 
as Behm and Wagner point out, more numerous than all 
the other Protestant communions put together. The 
majority of the National Churches of Europe will then be 
Presbyterian. The glory of Presbyterianism, however, 
does not consist in State connection. It rather lies in its 
being independent of all political props and free from all 
political complications, in being adapted to all lands. It 
is well known that the majority of the Presidents of 
America have been Presbyterians. In the Republic the 
great oflfices of State are largely adorned by her sons. 

Great as her numerical strength is, the Presbyterian 
Church exercises an influence more potent than her numbers 
would lead one to expect. This is due to the uniform 
culture of her ministers, and the industry, intelligence, and 
law-abiding character of her members. 

What are her future prospects ? They are bright 
with hope. Her past history, her suitability for the times, 
her zeal in the matter of education as well as in piety and 
in every good and beneficent work, her catholicity of 
spirit, and above all her Scriptural principles ensure that 
she shall continue " throughout all generations." 

"Ye seed of Israel's chosen race, 
Ye ransomed of the fall ; 
Hail Him who saves you by His grace, 
And crown Him Lord of all." 




The Send Off-The Voyage— The Passengers— Dangers Ahead— A 
Red-Letier Year— Land !— Terra Firma at Last— The First 
Service in Maori Land— Early Trials. 

The leaves of autumn were falling fast in the Scottish 
gardens and fields, the long days of summer had visibly 
contracted themselves and signs of the coming winter 
were manifest on every hand, when on an October evening 
in 1839 a large assemblage met in the Trades Hall, 
Glasgow. There were merchants and professional men 
and not a few of the sinewy sons of toil. The buildmg 
was brilliantly lighted, and dinner tables groaned under 
the good things which usually characterise a Scotch 
repast. The occasion was a festive one, and yet an 
undercurrent of sadness might have been seen underlying 
the efforts put forth by many of those present to be gay. 
They were bidding good-bye to dear old Scotland. Every 
inch of their native land was dear to them. They loved 
its heath-clad mountains and its smiling valleys, its lakes 
and its woodlands, its villages and its towns, its castles 
and its cabins. There was no land in the world, in their 
estimation, so beautiful as their native land, no religion so 
Scriptural as the Presbyterian religion, and no people so 
free, so enhghtened, so homely, and so dear unto them, as 
the Scottish people — the relations, friends and countrymen 
among whom they had been brought up. Our guests, 
however, had fallen on adverse times. Trade was much 
depressed. Poverty and destitution were rife. In Paisley 


and Glasgow and many other places one-fourth of the 
population was said to be unemployed. Men of influence 
maintained that the Old Country was overcrowded, and 
that the only remedy was for the able-bodied unemployed 
to emigrate to new and unoccupied lands, where they 
should have elbow room. The New Zealand Company 
pointed to this Colony as a promising field, and offered 
facilities for an organised settlement here. Accordingly 
a large nvimber of Scotchmen, proverbially cautious as they 
are about venturing on untried schemes or voyaging to 
distant and unknown lands, resolved thus early to seek in 
New Zealand for a new home. 

Hence this meeting in the Trades Hall. It was 
designed to be a send off for the emigrants and at the 
same time to celebrate the inauguration of a new 
era in the history of British colonisation. After dinner 
the usual speeches. There were two distinguished 
speakers on that occasion, Rev. Norman Macleod (after- 
wards Rev. Dr. Norman Macleod), then minister of 
Loudoun, the famous orator and divine; and Mr. Archibald 
Alison (afterwards Sir A. Alison), the historian of Europe, 
and at that time Sheriff of Lanarkshire. Both entered 
heartily into all schemes which had for their object the 
alleviation of distress among the unemployed and poor, 
but each treated the subject of emigration this evening 
from his own standpoint. 

Mr. Macleod, in wishing success to the expedition, 
stated that he was particularly happy to think that the 
Church of their fathers was providing for their spiritual 
interests by sending out with them the Rev. John 
Macfarlane, who had been successfully labouring for 
three years as minister of Martyrs Church, Paisley, 
and who was now to be the first Presbyterian minister 


going out to provide for the spiritual wants of the New 
Zealand settlei's ; thought, from all he knew, that they 
were specially fortunate in securing the services of Mr. 
Macfarlane ; had no doubt, as he spoke Gaelic, the 
original language of Paradise, he would have no difficulty 
anywhere in making himself understood ; believed that 
merchants, even on the low ground of order, wealth, and 
expediency, would join with him in rejoicing over the 
establishment of religious ordinances among the Colonists 
of Maoriland ; and felt certain the day would come when 
the Church of Scotland should have in New Zealand 
" more churches than she could number in the mother 

The maternal solicitude of the Scottish Church, 
referred to by Mr. Macleod, was greatly enhanced by her 
agreeing to pay her first minister for New Zealand £900 
in advance, or at the rate of £300 per year for three years. 
He might have said, too, not only that Mr. Macfarlane 
was the first Presbyterian minister but the first minister of 
any Church who had come out expressly to minister to 
New Zealand settlers. 

The speech of Mr. Alison, which was afterwards 
published by the New Zealand Company in the interests 
of emigration, was a long and brilliant one. It touched 
also on the moral, but dealt chiefly with the social and 
commercial aspects of the expedition. The renowned 
historian pourtrayed in striking language the advantages 
the Mother Country should reap by fostering the magnifi- 
cent empire that was being built ap abroad ; recommended, 
if necessary, the employment of the British Navy for 
the transport of emigrants across the seas to British 
possessions ; drew a bright picture of the Anglo-Saxon 
race swaying the sceptre of the world, " humanising not 


destroying as they advance ; " thought he saw ah-eady a 
fulfihuGut of the prophecy, " God shall increase Japhet, 
and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem, and Canaan shall 
be his servant," not his slave ; and wound up an eloquent 
and most effective speech by quoting approvingly words of 
the Poet Laureate, that read like a prophecy and show at 
the same time not a little ignorance of these Islands : — 

Come bright improvement, in the car of time, 
And rule the spacious world from clime to clime ; 
Thy handmaid, Art, shall every wild explore 
Trace every wave and culture every shore ; 
On Zealand's hills, where tigers steal along. 
And the dread Indian chants a dismal song ; 
Where human fiends on midnight errands walk. 
And bathe in brains the murderous tomahawk ; 
There shall the flocks on thymy pastures stray, 
And shepherds dance at summer's opening day ; 
Each wandering genius of the lonely gleu 
Shall start to view — the glittering haunts of mrn ; 
And silence mark, on woodland heights around 
The village curfew as it tolls profound. 

The departure of the " Bengal Merchant " was viewed 
in Scotland as an historic occasion. Shortly before she 
weighed anchor in the Clyde on the 31st October, 1839, 
under the auspices of the New Zealand Company, the 
Lord Provost of Glasgow with a large party went on 
board, and, addressing the 150 emigrants en route for New 
Zealand, told them that " they were about to lay the 
foundation of a Colony which in time might become a 
great nation, a second Britain." 

During the voyage, which was prosperous, there was 
one marriage, one baptism, one birth, and one death, so 
that striking events were evenly distributed. Rev. Mr. 
Macfarlane's ministrations to the Colonists began on board 
ship. Every Sabbath day the passengers and crew 


assembled for worship conducted by him. After his 
first service he distributed copies of a pastoral address 
prepared by the Presbytery of Paisley to which he 
belonged, that concluded thus : — 

" And now, dear countrymtn, we sympathise with you in your 
feelings, which are no doubt tender, in leaving the land of your 
fathers, it may be for ever, and are persuaded that as Scotchmen 
you are not likely soon to forget your last view of its rocky shores as 
these fade and disappear in the distant horizon. Other lands, rich 
and sunny though they be, will, to those who have reached maturity, 
still want the tender associations of early life, and the hallowed 
recollections of a Scottish Sabbath with its simple but effective 

accompaniments You will not forget that you also are 

now to be enrolled among her departed children, and that she expects 
you will be distinguished among the natives of other lands, for your 
high moral bearing, your honest and persevering industry, and your 
habitual reverence for God and the things of God." 

We can fancy the tears that would glisten in the eyes 
of many as they read on the deck of the emigrant ship this 
touching appeal. 

Of the 150 persons on board only 19 were cabin 
passengers. Their names alone have been recorded, and 
are as follow : — 

Alexander Marjoribanks (the historian of the voyage). Dr. Logan 
(the naturalist), and Messrs. Hay, Strang, and Dorsey, each with 
his wife ; Dr. Graham Tod and Mr. Carruth, each with a brother ; 
Rev. John Macfarlanc, Messrs. Anderson, Buchanan, Wallace, and 
Yule, each unaccompanied by wife or relative. 

The great majority went intermediate or steerage, and 
were prepared to work with ungloved hands in the far off 
land of their destination, felling bush, building houses, 
erecting fences, and roughing it as circumstances required. 
Being specially selected for the new Colony, they were 
mostly young and vigorous. They needed strong arms 
and brave hearts. 


A few European settlers had preceded them, but for 
the most part they were loose and lawless adventurers, 
convicts and criminals, runaway sailors and the reckless 
crews of whalers, all of whom the missionaries dreaded to 
see, and in whose footsteps ordinary men would not 
care to tread. No settled government of any kind 
existed. Might was the only right. Petitions came from 
indignant missionaries among the Maoris, and memorials 
were laid before the British Government by London 
merchants, both complaining of the haphazard settlement 
of Englishmen on the New Zealand coast, and the strife 
and contention engendered thereby. The former desired 
to see their Gospel work among the Natives prosper 
unchecked by the atrocities of white men ; the latter to see 
trade with the Islands flourish, and land tenure made 
secure. Having Canada and Australia as an outlet for 
surplus population, the British Government was hesitating 
as to its line of policy, and little attention was as yet 
given to the establishment of order in New Zealand. 

Then what about the Maoris ? Had the new settlers 
nothing to fear from them ? Harrowing stories were in 
circulation as to the treachery, ferocity, and cannibalism of 
the Natives of New Zealand. In 1772 Marion Du Fresno 
and fifteen of his crew were killed and eaten in the Bay of 
Islands. In 1809 the crew of the " Boyd " was enticed on 
shore for spars in Whangaroa Harbour, and met a similar 
fate, the vessel being set fire to and burned down to the 
water's edge. In 1816 the American brig "Agnes" and 
her crew fell victims to the savagery of the aborigines in 
Poverty Bay. They heard of all this, and may have 
imagined more, yet they were not dismayed. They felt 
the call of duty, and pushed on. The New Zealand 
Company's arrangements were not then so perfect as they 


were subsequently in the case of the Nelson and Otago 
settlements. Like Abraham called out of God, they 
scarcely knew whither they went ; yet they went and faced 
dangers like men. Such was Christian courage " in the 
brave days of old." 

After a long and tedious voyage of 113 days the 
passengers of the " Bengal Merchant " touched the first 
New Zealand land at D'Urville Island, lying west of Cook's 
Strait, on 10th of February, 1840. 

1840 is a distinguished year in the annals of New 
Zealand. On May 21st of that year Lieutenant-Governor 
Hobson, taking his instructions from New South Wales, 
proclaimed at Kororareka (now Russell) the Sovereignty of 
the Queen, over the North Island by reason of the Treaty 
of Waitangi, and over the South Island by virtue of 
discovery. Six months after this, or on November 16th, 
New Zealand was created by the British Parliament a 
separate Colony. 

Different people in different ways will fix the year 
1840 in their minds. Loyalists will think of it as the year 
in which Queen Victoria married Prince Albert of Saxe- 
Coburg and Gotha, who in the practice of every domestic 
virtue and in the discharge of every public duty has 
left behind him a fragrant memory among the British 
people : the bellicose will remember it as the year when 
the Prussians adopted the needle gun, which made such 
short work of their enemies ; and as the year when the 
war broke out in China which left us in possession of 
Hong Kong, increasing in importance every day : travellers 
will call it to mind as the year in which Livingstone began 
in Africa those missionary journeys and labours that have 
made his name famous throughout the civilised world, 


in which the penny postage system was established in 
England, and in which Thomas Waghorn triumphantly 
pointed a sceptical public to a new overland route to India 
via Egypt and the Red Sea : Scotchmen will associate it 
with the gathering storm that rent the Church of Scotland 
in twain at the time of the Disruption : and Irishmen will 
retain it in their recollection as the year when the union of 
the Synod of Ulster with the Secession Synod was 
consummated. It is worthy of note that 1890 saw the 
Jubilee of the Colony of New Zealand, the Jubilee of the 
New Zealand Presbyierian Church, and the Jubilee of the 
Irish Presbyterian Church. The origin of Presbyterian ism, 
therefore, in New Zealand is in keeping with its historic 
character. It gained a footing at the foundation of the 
Colony, and has grown up with the country's national life. 
The passengers and crew of the " Bengal Merchant " 
were all glad to see land, though it was to them a com- 
paratively unknown land, and was possessed of not a few 
dangers. What matter if, 

The breaking waves dashed high 

On a stern and rock-bound coast ; 
And the woods against a stormy sky, 

Their giant branches toss'd. 

Four months' diet without fresh meat or vegetables, 
four months' tossing on angry billows, and four months' 
monotony of sea life in the first half of this century were 
enough to make any man welcome the wildest and most 
inhospitable shore. We are not surprised to hear that one 
of the earliest ministers after a long and perilous voyage 
took for the text of his first sermon on ter7-a Jinna, " And 
there shall be no more sea." 

The sentiment of the " Bengal " passengers on this 
occasion is well echoed in one of the versos of a poem 
written on board, which gained the prize offered by Mr. 
Macfarlane : — 


And when the cry of " Land " was heard at last, 
How eager all that land were to explore ; 

Though some shed tears on scenes forever past, 
Far, far away on Caledonia's shore. 

We scarcely give now-a-days sufficient credit to the 
courage and bravery and self-sacrificing spirit of New 
Zealand's hardy pioneers of settlement and civilisation. 
Gum-digging in those days held out no inducement. The 
little that the Natives gathered was sold to settlers for the 
small sum of £5 per ton, and even of these transactions 
not much was known to the outside world. The rush for 
gold did not take place until many years afterwards. 
Even at this moment there are many in the Homeland 
who, though you assured them that they should make a 
fortune, would not take a voyage to the Antipodes. The 
bare suggestion would construe up thoughts of mal-de-mer, 
collisions, icebergs, shipwrecks, earthquakes, volcanic 
eruptions, cannibals, katipo spiders, and I don't know 
what not. 

Failing to find any of the New Zealand Land Com- 
pany's officers at D'Urville to give directions, they sailed 
up the Harbour of Port Nicholson, and, after some 
searching, found the land which the agents of the 
Company, sent out a short time before had hastily 
purchased and roughly mapped out as the site of the 
new settlement. It was on a low-lying plain at the mouth 
of the Hutt River, where the town of Petone now stands. 
To this spot also converged about the same time with 
their hving freight, the " Cuba," the " Aurora," the 
" Oriental," and the " Adelaide," all of which sailed 
from Gravesend. How, it was asked then, could passen- 
gers and cargo be landed at " the Head of the Bay," as it 
was called ? The hills in that quarter were steep and 


covered with bush down to the water's edge, and seemed 
a fit abode only for wild pigs, of which there were 
very many roaming at will through its dense and wild 
fastnesses. Scattered through it also in little clearings 
were four Maori pas, strongly fortified with stockades and 
all the science of defence for which the Natives in early 
times were distinguished. This place, said the leaders of 
the first settlement, is entirely unsuited for our purpose, 
let us on this inviting plain to the right at the mouth of 
this beautiful river found a great city that will preserve the 
traditions and eclipse the glory of the Homeland, and call 
it Britannia. Accordingly the passengers of the " Bengal 
Merchant " landed here, and pitched their tents on the 
shore. In these canvas houses they lived for many a day. 

The first Sabbath service conducted by the Rev. Mr. 
Macfarlane in New Zealand was held here in the open air 
on the beach the Sunday after the arrival of the Scotch 
settlers. The hymn with which it began is worthy of 
record. It was Dean Stanley's favourite. It comforted 
Dr. Livingstone in all his wanderings, and to its music his 
remains were laid in Westminster Abbey. The passengers 
on board the " Philip Laing " seven years afterwards sang 
it as, bound for Port Chalmers, they bade good-bye at 
Greenock to their friends and fatherland. Will Doddridge's 
grand old hymn ever be forgotten ? What dwellers in 
foreign lands are not stirred by it ? All hearts were 
now moved by the strains of this well-known Scottish 
paraphrase ; — 

" O God of Bethel, by whose hand 

Thy people still are fed, 
Who through this weary wilderness 

Hast all our fathers led. 

" Through each perplexing path of life 
Our wandering footsteps guide ; 
Give us each day our daily bread, 
And raiment fit provide. 


" Such blessings from Thy gracious hand 
Our humble prayers implore ; 
And Thou shalt be our chosen God 
And portion evermore." 

It was a good beginning for a British Colony ; a 
splendid foundation for a great nation. The right keynote 
was struck that day in New Zealand, when the words of 
this hymn rang through the woods of Petone. The 
experience of fifty-eight years has taught us that the safety 
and prosperity of a people and country depend on the 
realisation of its dying echo ; " and portion evermore." 

Mr, Macfarlane's congregation then and for years 
afterwards was composed of men and women belonging to 
various denominations. He had the privilege and prestige 
during that primeval period of being the settlers' only 
minister. The Presbyterian Church is sometimes credited 
with being slow on entering upon a new field of labour. 
Other Churches before she moves have got a good start. 
It requires time, as a rule, to get great guns into position, 
and effective machinery into operation. It was not so on 
this occasion ; she was first in evidence at Wellington. Is 
this prophetic of Avhat the end shall be in New Zealand ? 
It lies with the Presbyterian Church herself to determine 
that. Mr. Macfarlane's earliest services were held in Mr. 
Bethune's store on the banks of the Hutt River. 
Occasionally he officiated in Colonel "Wakefield's house, 
where many of the officials of the Company and of the 
leading men of the emigrant ships assembled for worship. 
It was a trying time for the settlers. They had, one and 
all, many difficulties to contend with, and needed much 
the consolations of religion. 

The first difficulty was to procure habitable dwellings. 
Many had brought with them serviceable tents. Some 


had thoughtfully provided themselves with little wooden 
houses, which they set up triumphantly on the beach. A 
large number found residences, that for warmth at least 
were not to be despised, by interlacing toi-toi with karewa 
and daubing the network over with soft clay. At this 
work the Natives were adepts, and rendered good service 
when employed, as they often were. Over this promiscuous 
collection of domiciles floated gloriously the New Zealand 

Mr. Marjoribanks tells us that he was a little more 
fortunate than his fellow passengers on arrival, having 
found shelter with a Scotchman who, hearing of the 
expected arrivals from home, had come over from Sydney, 
and among numerous other trades, set up as butcher, and 
sold pork. He relates how the hut which served for both 
shop and residence had neither door nor window, and how 
the proprietor used to arouse him at night, blazing away 
with his gun at the native dogs attracted by the savoury 
meat, but that so far as he knew, none of them were ever 
hit. These white and black dogs of the aborigines, with 
small muzzles, sharp ears, and a peculiar whining cry, 
have since died out before the European species. From 
all accounts it would appear that if at night the 
native dogs were at times troublesome, the mosquitoes 
were ten times more so. Owing, perhaps, to the pristine 
swamps and forests, the country then literally swarmed 
with these little pests. Being always in evidence, they 
made sleep difficult. More serious mishaps occurred both 
by sea and land. A number of the most energetic settlers 
were accidentally drowned. A fire suddenly burnt to ashes 
a whole row of the toi-toi huts, and afforded no small 
amusement to their dark-skinned neighbours, who danced 
round the conflagration in high glee. 


One night an earthquake created great consternation 
by leading the Colonists to believe that the Maoris had 
come to shake down their frail habitations, many rushing 
out with arms in their hands. The Natives, of whom 
there were 300 in a pa close by, well provided with guns 
and ammunition, and many more not far off, were a 
constant source of fear. A European lad found in a 
potato plot helping himself without leave was murdered 
by them. Some of the Natives themselves were found 
slain in the bush. Many asked, "Was it safe to walk 
alone in this dense forest of trees and underwood, that 
seemed to be everywhere, covering the ground down to the 
banks of the river and the mai'gins of the sea?" Already 
there were grumblings low and deep among the Maoris 
about not being sufficiently remunerated for their land. 
Complaint was afterwards made by Rauperaha, of Nelson, 
that Warepori, the fighting chief of Port Nicholson, might 
have been seen "smoking his pipe and wearing his blankets 
alone," Though the Natives fond of trading brought 
their baskets of fish and potatoes and their pigs for sale, 
and offered their services as labourers, most of the new 
comers had a strong feeling that it was better to watch 
them than trust them. A flour famine in Sydney did not 
improve the tempers or add to the contentment of the 
immigrants. Many wished themselves safely back in their 
" ain countrie." The cHmax was reached when the Hutt 
river overflowed its banks, and inundated all the low lying 
country adjoining. Few then failed to appreciate the 
sentiment of the immigrant who, seated on the top of a 
large case surrounded with water, sang to the accompani- 
ment of his accordion, 

" Home sweet home, there's no place like home." 
Many all along had observed the low-lying nature of 
the ground at Petone Beach, and noticed how the fierce 


south-eastern gales eudangerGcl the shipping lying ofif the 
shore, and stoutly maintained that it was not a suitable 
site on which to build a great city. Colonel Wakefield for a 
time turned a deaf ear to their representations, till Dr. 
Evans, a distinguished lawyer, arrived and pleaded their 
cause, and the Hutt River, with a surging devastating 
flood, added the weight of its powerful influence. Then 
the oppositionists had an easy victory. 

With one consent the foundation of what proved to 
be the metropolis of New Zealand was laid at the head of 
the Bay by the running up of houses of wattle and daub. 
To this cluster of huts the Colonists gave the dignified 
name of Wellington, not merely because the wearer of 
that historic title was Great Britain's most illustrious hero, 
but because he gave life to the principle of colonisation by 
advocating the South Australian Bill in the Home 
Parliament. Some time afterwards all bade good-bye to 
the Hutt Valley without a tear, a few Scotchmen celebrat- 
ing the event by meeting at Glenlyon farm, and planting, 
as evidences of their occupation, the first Scotch burr 
thistle introduced into New Zealand. At the beginning 
of the settlement the European population of Port Nicholson 
was somewhat more numerous than that of the Natives 
in the same district, the former being 1275, and the latter 
840. There were, however, sufficient armed and warlike 
aborigines round about to overwhelm and blot out the 
settlement at any time, if they chose to do so. 

It is said that a hard beginning is a good beginning. 
It is good for the Church, good for the State, and good for 
the individual. 

"Sweet are the uses of adversity 
Which, like the toad, ugly and venomous, 
Wears y<t a precious jewel in its head : 
And this our life, exempt from public haunt, 
Finds tongues in trees, books in the running brooks, 
Sermons in stones, and good in everything." 




A New Zealand Disruption— An Historic Letter of Rev. Mr. 
Macfarlane's — Arrival of Rev. James Duncan — A Split in the 
Presbyterian Camp— The Public Cemetery Appropriated — An 
Attempt to Set Up an Anglican Establishment — A Good-bye to 
Mr. Macfarlane — A Statistical Table. 

The Rev. John Macfarlane lodged in Woolcombe Street 
with Mr. Strang, who till his death was a staunch friend 
of St. Andrew's Church, and to 
whose memory a mural tablet has 
been erected in the present edifice. 

With the minister of Welling- 
ton in lodging, and the people of 
Wellington residing in houses of 
toi-toi and daub, or dwellings not 
far removed in their primitive 
simplicity, what could the Church 
hope for in the way of a house of 
worship ? It was not to be expected that she should be 
put into immediate possession of an ecclesiastical structure 
that would satisfy the aspirations of a Michael Augelo, 
or rival the Glasgow Cathedral and the Abbey Parish 
Church of Paisley left behind. Congregational worship 
began in New Zealand as it began with the first 
Christians in Jerusalem nearly two thousand years ago. 
There was " the church in the house " until better pro- 
vision was forthcoming. Then there was an advance. 



For some time Mr. IMacfarlane preached in what was 
known as Hunter's premises to the first congregation of 
settlers formed in the Colony. The next step was to rent 
the Exchange, a wooden building still standing in Custom 
House Street. Here he preached twice every Sabbath 
day, and, when his strength permitted, had a service 
in the afternoon for the benefit of the Highland emigrants, 
praying, reading, and preaching in the tongue they 
dearly loved to hear. It was not a large edifice, and 
yet it was seldom filled. Some spent their Sundays at home. 
Some took liberties with the Sabbath Day that would have 
shocked their countrymen in the Homeland; nay, that should, 
if done by others there, have made themselves stand aghast. 
It was no very uncommon thing during the service to hear 
the clank of the anvil in the distance, or the ring of the car- 
penter's hammer, or the sharp crack of the sportsman's 
fowling piece bringing down a parrot or a pigeon from a 
native tree, or the loud clatter of horses' feet as they 
galloped swiftly past. Being the only resident minister, he 
had a great many duties outside the pulpit to discharge, 
visiting the sick, officiating at funerals, and baptising and 
marrying all and sundry. For years he had on an average 
a marriage every fortnight, and a baptism every week. 
To the cause of education, also, he gave a helping hand. 
He took a deep interest in the Mechanics' Institute, and 
moved the adoption of its first report. In doing so he was 
able to speak of the pleasure he had in visiting the day 
school held in the same place. Many of his fiock were 
equally zealous in the same cause, Mr. W. Lyon giving an 
occasional lecture, and others contributing according to 
their ability. He had a very wide and promiscuous pas- 
torate. There were Englishmen, Scotchmen, Irishmen, 
Americans, French, Germans, Africans, and men of other 
nations laying claim to his ministrations. Even the 


Natives came in for a share of his attention. It was 
unreasonable to expect such a charge as this to hold 
together for long. The time had come for its breaking up. 

In August, 1842, Bishop Selwyn paid his first visit to 
Wellington. He was very warmly received, especially by 
the members of his own communion. The latter presented 
him with a flattering address, which showed clearly the 
High Church proclivities of the Anglican party in Welling- 
ton. It was moved by Dr. Evans, a lawyer, seconded by 
Mr. St. Hill, a magistrate, adopted at a public meeting 
called together for that purpose, and contained the follow- 
ing paragraph : — 

We need scarcely assure your Lordship that, having been left 
so long without regular and authorised administration of the services 
and sacraments of the Church, we have been enabled to judge of the 
vanity of resting upon the spontaneous impulses of voluntary zeal 
for a distribution of the bread of life, and we rejoice, therefore, in the 
prospect of an efficient and permanent establishment of religion in 
these Islands. 

If this tall talk meant anything it meant that it is vain 
to hope for a distribution of the bread of life or expect 
religion efficiently and permanently established without the 
presence of a bishop. No comment from us, however, is 
needed. We are able to produce Mr. Macfarlane's own 
refutation. To the New Zealand Colonist of August 23rd, 
1842, he wrote a letter, which is a historic one. It reveals 
such ability and boldness on the part of the first settled 
minister of New Zealand, and the subject itself is so im- 
portant, that no apology is needed for re-producing it : — 

No one can more cordially welcome Dr. Selwyn and his coadjutors 
than I do. In some of the sentiments, however, contained in these 
addresses I cannot concur, as I feel that they reflect upon the Church 
of Scotland and myself as her only clerical representative here. And 
I am happy to think that in regard to one of them the Bishop himself 


avowed "temperately but decidedly" his dissent from the latitu- 
dinarian principles which it embodied. In the address moved by 
Mr. St. Hill, it is said to be that of " the members of the Established 
Church of the New Zealand first and principal settlement " (meaning 
thereby, 1 presume, the Church of England). This, however, is a 
mistake, for, thanks to the Bishop of Exeter, it has been decided by 
all the judges of England that the Church of Scotland is equally 
established with that of England, and in all the Colonies of the 
British Crown possessing the same rights, privileges, and immunities. 
In the second paragraph of the address I find the following state- 
ment : — " Having for so protracted a period been deprived of the 
spiritual guidance of a resident minister." That this is an error, 
whether intentionally or not, is very evident, as, with the exception 
of a necessary visit to Nelson, I have been permanently resident at 
Port Nicholson, preaching, I trust faithfully, the same doctrines 
which Dr. Selwyn will now do. As a proof that, as far as principle 
pennitted, I have not limited my ministrations to any class or 
denomination of people, I may mention (and it may perhaps form a 
useful item in the future statistics of a new Colony like this), that in 
looking over the registry of the Scotch Church, I have married 74 
couples, of whom no fewer than 48 were English, only 13 Scotch, 
2 Irish, 6 Natives, 1 African, 1 German, 1 Van Dieman's Land, 
1 American, and 1 French. I have also baptised 114 children, of 
whom 53 were the infants of English parents, 50 Scotch, 4 Irish, 
5 Natives, 1 German, and 1 American ; all the parents conforming 
to the practice of the Church of Scotland, in the absence of any 
minister of their own denomination, while at the same time they 
professed her doctrines. I think with such facts as these — and 
more might be adduced — Dr. Evans in his address might have spared 
the complaint of the " painful circumstances of religious destitution 
under which the Colonists have so long laboured," as well as the 
paragraph which immediately followed: — " We need scarcely assure 
your lordship that, having been left so long without regular and 
authorised administration of the services and sacraments of the 
Church." If these statements are correct, one thing at least is 
certain : that the Church of England, not the Church of Scotland, 
is to be blamed ; the latter of which, so soon as a body of her people 
resolved upon emigrating to New Zealand, immediately provided 
them with a clergyman at her own expense, without a single 
farthing's aid from either the Government, the New Zealand 


Company, or the Colonists. Perhaps, however, Dr. Evans, imitating 
the example of some Oxonians, means that a clergyman of the 
Church of Scotland is not authorised to administer the services and 
sacraments of the Cliurch. In another paragraph I find the 
following passage :-" It is with pride we advert to having been the 
foremost in the van of colonization combined with Christianisation 
in these Islands." This is surely a strange blunder on the part of the 
members of the Church of England in this settlement. They surely 
cannot have forgotten the devoted exertions of the Wesleyan and 
Church of England missionaries for many years past and at the 
same time that, until the last few days, with the exception of Mr. 
Churton's services during some months, the Christianisation of this 
part of the Islands has been left entirely to the exertions of the 
Wesleyan missionaries and the Scotch minister. As to the expression 
"authorised head" and "apostolic authority," I need scarcely 
advert, for the Church of Scotland admits of no head but Christ, 
and attaches but very little importance to the expression " apostolic 
authority," in the exclusive sense in which it is used, considering 
the polluted channel through which it has been demised. 

I am glad, however, there are other sentiments in which I must 
heartily concur. First, I feel a most earnest desire for the usefulness 
and happiness of the Bishop. I most heartily concur in the 
admission that "the spontaneous impulses of voluntary zeal" are 
ineffectual in this Colony. And, last of all, I rejoice in the assurance 
given to Dr. Selwyn that it will afford the settlers unfeigned pleasure 
to aid in the building and endowment of churches and schools, 
though I must say that in my own experience I have found no small 
reluctance and tardiness to promote such objects. As I have no wish 
for controversy, but merely to prevent any misapprehension that 
might arise by such statements being brought before the Church of 
Scotland, I will feel obliged to you to insert these few remarks. 

I am, 

John Macfablane, 
Wellington, First Minister of the Scotch Church N Z 

August 19th, 1842. 

Trust no party, Church, or faction. 

Trust no leaders in the fight ; 
But in every word and action. 

Trust in God and do the right. 


This hiving oflf, accompanied with such vicious stinging, 
set the Presbyterians of Wellington on their mettle. They 
saw that henceforth the warfare must be waged on strictly 
denominational lines. It was now every Church fighting 
to its own hand. Accordingly at a Presbyterian assem- 
blage held in March, 1843, which The N.Z. Gazette of 
that time designated " a numerous and highly respectable 
meeting of the Committee and members of the Scotch 
Presbyterian Church," a draft of the Constitution of the 
first Presbyterian Chuvch in Wellington was unanimously 
approved of, and subscriptions for the building of a church, 
to the amount of nearly £400, announced. 

Mr. Macfarlane's troubles, however, were not at an end. 
He had yet to face the more serious disaster of dissension 
in the Presbyterian camp itself. 

" Another sword hath laid him low, 
Another's and another's ; 
And every hand that dealt the blow, 
Ah, me, it was a brother's !" 

The occasion, though not the cause, of the second 
"blow" dealt out to him was the coming of the Rev. 
James Duncan. 

The Kev. James Duncan, recently minister in charge 
of Foxton, and still living at that place, is one of the 
earliest and most-devoted sons of the Presbyterian Church. 
As a willing supply of her early vacant charges, as an 
organiser of new congregations, and as a settled minister, 
he has rendered her long and efficient service. He was the 
first Presbyterian minister to hold services at Wanganui, 
Turakina, Foxton, Parawanui, and North Palmerston. 
Few men have rocked the cradle of the Church in so many 
places as he. A prominent place in our records is well 
deserved by him. 


Mr. Duncan was sent out by the Reformed Presby- 
terian Church as a missionary to the Manawatu Maoris, 
receiving outfit, passage money, and £100 per year. He 
arrived at Wellington on April 4th, 1843. He thought it 
wise to make that place his headquarters until he had 
gained a moderate grasp of the Native tongue. He paid 
frequent visits during this period to the pas at Petone and 
elsewhere, and had Maoris coming almost every day, read- 
ing, writing, and conversing. He found that when one 
interested himself in their welfare, and made sacrifices for 
their good, their prejudices gave way, and their willingness 
to receive instruction became manifest. 

Mr, Duncan had only been a few weeks in Wellington 
when he received a pressing invitation to minister to a 
section of Presbyterians morally and intellectually influen- 
tial. They represented that they had conscientious scruples 
about attending any existent place of worship, but would 
gladly wait on his ministrations, and that there were many 
others who had become careless as to the means of grace, 
and might be reclaimed. Mr, Duncan consented, and 
found it to be so. He began with a regular congregation 
of fifty persons, and the attendance and interest gradually 
increased. In his auditory he had English Dissenters and 
Scotch Dissenters, and members of the National Church of 
Scotland, To this congregation he preached for fifteen 
months, until, acting jon instructions from Home, he took 
his departure for the Manawatu Maori missionary field. 

Cast down but not destroyed, Mr. Macfarlane and his 
friends maintained services in the Exchange, still prosecut- 
ing the work of church building. Perseverance had its 
reward. The first New Zealand church built by the 
settlers was opened by him, assisted by Mr. Duncan, on 
January 7th, 1844. 


Another cause of annoyance to IMr. Macfarlane and 
other ministers was the appropriation of the public 

A plot of eighteen acres had been laid off for a public 
cemetery by the Surveyor General of the New Zealand 
Company, and for years had been utilised by all classes and 
conditions of men. In May of 1843, however, a Presby- 
terian who wanted burial for his child to his surprise found 
a fence erected, and a locked gate. On applying to Rev. 
Mr. Cole, the Anglican clergyman, he was told by him that 
Dissenters would be permitted to bury there until the 
Bishop should pay a visit and make other arrangements, 
when they should be excluded unless they submitted to 
have the services performed by the Church of England 
clergy, and paid them their fees. Hearing this, Mr. Mac- 
farlane wrote Mr. Cole, remonstrating in strong but 
dignified language, and Mr. Cole apologised. Notwith- 
standing, when the Bishop came on the scene, Mr. Mac- 
farlane received notice from Major Richmond to select a 
suitable site for a burying place for his congregation. A 
deputation was then organised, which consisted of Mr. 
Macfarlane, Mr. Woodward (Congregational minister), and 
others, who urged that wives naturally wished to slumber 
beside their husbands, and children beside their parents, 
and sisters beside their brothers, and vice versa. Who shall 
blame them if they spoke plainly on this subject ? Who 
shall find fault if one of the sentiments of Halleck's well- 
known call to arms suggested itself to their outraged 
feelings ? : — 

" Strike for your altars and your fires, 
Strike for the green graves of your sires, 
God, and your native land." 

In spite, however, of their combined remonstrance no 
immediate step to remove the grievance complained of was 


taken, and the Presbyterians were for some time without a 
place in which to bury their dead. Before the dispute 
came to an end there was an amusing law case over it. 
Mr. Woodward had threatened that if he found the 
cemetery gate locked he would break it open. When the 
case came on the latter testified that he had never found it 
locked, while others swore that they had often seen it 
locked. The caretaker furnished the explanation, when 
he stated in his evidence that he always watched, and when 
he saw Mr. Woodward coming he unlocked the gate. The 
case that time went against the exclusivists. 

It was about this time that an attempt was made to 
set up an ecclesiastical establishment in New Zealand. 
On June 1st, 1844, His Excellency, when the Appro- 
priation Bill came on for discussion, moved that a sum 
of £200 be granted from Colonial revenue in aid of 
the Lord Bishop's salary. It appears that Bishop Selwyn's 
income originally was £1200, £600 coming from the 
Imperial Government and £600 from the Church Missionary 
Society. Of this sum he appropriated only £500 to himself, 
and devoted the rest to religious and charitable objects in 
connection with the Anglican Church. By-and-bye the 
Imperial Government withdrew its grant, and the Bishop 
thought that the burden laid down should be assumed by 
the Colonial Government, and vainly made several appeals 
to it with that object in view. The Governor now proposed 
to help him out of the public purse. The proposition was 
met with strenuous opposition. A petition was sent in by 
the Presbyterians of Auckland protesting against it. Both 
they and their friends at Wellington had some able advocates 
in the Legislative Council. Dr. Martin, who was Editor of 
The Southern Cross, and who throw open his columns for tlie 
ventilation of every legitimate grievance, a liberal-minded 


but staunch Presbyterian, was a member of the Council. 
So was Mr. W. Brown, another Presbyterian, and so was 
Mr. Clifford, a Roman Catholic. Misery, it is said, acquaints 
a man with strange bedfellows. All three spoke strongly 
against this motion. In view of the opposition raised, 
His Excellency intimated that there would be no 
objection later on to aid other denominations as well. This 
did not lessen in the smallest degree their resistance to the 
proposal. They had a knowledge of human nature, and 
put no confidence in fair speeches. They knew how — 

"Alas ! we make 
A ladder of our thoughts where angels step. 
But sleep ourselves at the foot." 

There was the fact staring them in the face that a vote of 
money had been already passed in connection with this Bill 
for "an ecclesiastical establishment" in spite of the protests 
of the non-official members. Besides, they strongly 
objected to indiscriminate endowment. Dr. Martin's 
arguments were well arranged and exceedingly cogent. He 
considered it contrary to the spirit of true religion that it 
should be placed in the position of requiring or demanding, 
aid from, it might be, heretics and infidels. He detailed 
the system pursued in New South Wales and Van Diemen's 
Land of indiscriminately assisting all sects. He preferred 
the plan at Home of supporting one Church to that 
infamous system which declared that all sects were 
alike. It was not, he thought, right to tax a man to pay 
towards a religion which in his conscience he believed to 
be false. If it were a matter of charity, then the Roman 
Catholic priest, with his 15/- per week, ought to receive the 
first consideration. He would be sorry to see any system 
of religious bigotry established in this country. Contrary 
to expectation, some of the official members voted with the 


three non-oflScial ; the proposal was rejected, and the friends 
of civil and religious liberty breathed freely. 

"Tender-hearted strike a nettle 

It will sting you for your pains ; 
Grasp it like a man of mettle 
And it soft as silk remains." 

We shall see how at a subsequent period the Auckland 
Presbyterians sent in to the Council a strongly- worded 
petition, signed by 200 persons, against the exclusiveness 
of "The Marriage Bill," and a little afterwards protested 
on the same grounds against " The Education Bill " of 
1847, and how all Auckland, outside of one denomination, 
was on the verge of a whirlpool of excitement. This is no 
new experience of the Presbyterian Church. In all lands 
she has had to fight the battle of freedom with the con- 
sciousness that she was defending the privileges and 
vindicating the rights of the human race. 

The first minister of the Colonists was entertained at 
dinner in Barrett's Hotel on September 22nd, 1844, it being 
the occasion of his leaving on a trip to the Old Country. 
A large number of the leading men of Wellington came 
together. There were amongst many others, E. S. Halswell, 
Esq., Judge of the County Court ; R. D. Hanson, Esq., 
J.P., Crown Solicitor ; R. Hart, Esq., Solicitor ; Dr. Kelly, 
of the " Bella Marina," in which he was about to sail ; and 
Kenneth Bethune, Esq., Chairman. Even Dr. Evans, who 
framed and moved the address to Bishop Selwyn which had 
given such pain to Mr. Macfarlane, was present, and gave 
the sentiment of the Church of Scotland. It was a happy 
meeting. The chairman complimented the guest of the 
evening on his not having unduly obtruded his own doctrines 
on the members of other Churches to whom he ministered, 
and on "the Christian charity and forgiveness" he had 


manifested during the trials through which he had passed, 
believed these graces were now generally reciprocated, and 
wished him ban voyage and a safe return. 

Mr. Macfarlane, who appeared to be labouring under 
the eftects of a late indisposition, said in reply that be was 
about to leave them for the space of about eighteen months, 
hoping to return at the end of that period, and that he 
would do bis utmost at Home to promote the temporal and 
spiritual interests of the Colony, in which he took a lively 

The Attorney- General regretted that "an attempt bad 
been made in the Council to introduce the principle of a 
dominant Church," and he "thanked those members 
through whose agency it had been defeated." He " did 
not believe," he said, "in giving to the members of any 
one Church an exclusive or even excessive right to support 
from the State." 

Mr. Macfarlane left by the "Bella Marina" in October, 
1844, and did not return to New Zealand. He remained 
in the Old Country, and settled down as parish minister of 
Lochgilphead, in Argyllshire. Not a few left behind in 
Wellington were inclined to say of their first New Zealand 

minister : 

"Fare thee well, and if for ever 
Still for ever fare thee well ; 
E'en though unforgiving, never 
'Gainst thee shall my heart rebel." 

The following table will show the ostensible strength of the various 
denominations in Wellington about this time, i.e., 1845, when owing 
to the Maori disturbance and a disagreement between the Home 
Government and the N.Z. Company, the tide of emigration for a time 
was checked : — 










Church of England 


Roman Catholics . . 




Hebrews . . 












Rev. Robert Cole 


(Revs. J. P. O'Reilly 
\ and M. Le Compte 
jRevs. J. Watkin & 
1 S. Ironside 

Rev. Jonas Wood- 


Sum Total .. 







Rev. J. Inglis— Unsullied Missionary Records— Rov. W. Kirton — A 
Second Congregation in the City-Appointment of Rev. John 
Moir — Mr. Moir's Advent — Tlie Hutt and Rev. W. Dron — 
Wanganui and Rev. D. Hogg, of United Presbyterian Church — 
Turakina and Rev. John Thom— The First Presbytery. 

As the mission of the Church, according to Christ, is to 
"disciple all nations," early missionaries, in breaking up 
new ground in New Zealand, might have said with Kepler, 
in his outburst of enthusiasm at discovering the laws of 
planetary motion, "Oh, God, we are thinking Thy 
thoughts." The development of foreign missions will ever 
continue to be one of the outstanding characteristics of 
the latter half of the nineteenth century. It is the most 
glorious feature of the reign of Her Gracious Majesty 
Queen Victoria, whose loyal subjects we are, and has done 
more than anything else to justify the extension of the 
British Empire and consolidate on a beneficent basis the 
scattered fragments of which it is composed. In the early 
part of the century the Church had to contend with per- 
secution without and heresy and moderation within. She 
had no eyes to look afield. She was struggling for life. 
Now that conflict is past, and, purified and triumphant, 
she braces herself for aggressive work in all lands. We 
have already referred to the good work which Rev. James 
Duncan did in New Zealand for the Maoris and the Pres- 
byterian Church. Another missionary of like spirit followed 
them to these shores. 



Rev. John Inglis arrived at Wellington about Novem- 
ber, 1844. He is better known as Dr. Inglis of the New 
Hebridean Mission, who initiated 
and successfully carried on a 
good work on the Island of Anei- 
tyum. New Zealand, however, 
has the honour of giving to the 
New H ebrides one of the fathers 
of that Mission. He belonged 
to the same church as Mr. 
Duncan, and was designated 
as a missionary to New Zealand, 
at Paisley, on September 26th, 
1843, it being intended that he 
should follow on Mr. Duncan's 
heels, and join hands with him 
in his mission work among the 

Maoris. But the infrequency of vessels at that time 
running to New Zealand, and a strong desire to acquire 
some knowledge of medicine, delayed his departure for a 
year. On arrival in Wellington Mr. Inglis hastened to the 
side of Mr. Duncan, who was labouring among the Natives 
on the banks of the Manawatu Eiver. He was not long in 
New Zealand until he came to the conclusion that the 
Reformed Church had made " a mistake in selecting New 
Zealand as its mission field." No doubt the Maori 
troubles and the number of missionaries of other Churches 
already at work had much to do in bringing him to that 
decision. In his well-known work on the New Hebrides, 
at page 46, he says : 


" After the Mission had been in existence for two or three 

years we felt satisfied that the Church had committed 

a mistake in selecting New Zealand as our mission field. . . 
. . . Meanwhile the Blaori War had broken out, and all the 


settlers and miasionaries were driven into Wellington. While thus 
detained there, Mr. Duncan and I employed our time in preaching to 
the Presbyterians in Wellington, who were at that time without a 
minister. ... As the Maori War was now over, Mr. Duncan, 
acting on instructions, returned to his former station, but, acting on 
my own convictions of duty, I remained in Wellington for eighteen 
months or so, ministering, under temporary arrangements, to the 
Scotch settlers, and being supported by them, but corresponding still 
with the Committee about a new mission field." 

During the vacancy at Wellington the Presbyterians 
were particularly fortunate in being able to draw upon the 
services of these two distinguished missionaries. Mr. 
Inglis, especially, made an efficient supply. He was very 
popular as a preacher, and, previous to the arrival of Mr. 
Macfarlane's successor, did excellent work in Wellington. 
When the Kev. T. D. Nicholson, on his way to Nelson, 
called in at Wellington, on May 23rd, 1848, and " preached 
five sermons and baptised eleven children," he was there 
to receive him, and accompanied him again to the ship 
that was to take him to his destination. Congregations 
vied with one another in securing his ministrations. Some- 
times, as in the case of St. Andrew's, Auckland, in 1850, 
on the eve of his departure for the New Hebrides, he was 
the innocent cause of considerable envy and heart-burning. 

Before taking leave of these two early missionaries we 
must point out the untarnished name that they have made 
for themselves. They neither interfered with other mis- 
sionaries in their work nor were interfered with by any of 
them. The experience of Kev. Mr. Turton, the Wesleyan 
missionary, was not theirs. In a series of letters written 
to the New Zealand Gazette and Wellington Spectator, in 
18-14, Mr. Turton complained of what he called " the 
bigotry and exclusiveness " of a distinguished ecclesiastic 
in seeking to induce the Church Missionary Society to 
throw aside its magnanimity, and declare him a layman, 


and all non-prelatists as schismatics, and in forbidding him 
to minister to the Natives of a village where he had acted 
as a missionary for eleven years. No hindrance of this 
kind was thrown in their way. They left the mission field, 
as we have seen, on-ing to other causes, and in leaving it 
their character was without a stain. Serious charges of 
" land-grabbing " have been brought against some of the 
early missionaries. They have been accused by Colonists 
and editors of newspapers, and even a Governor, with 
abusing their religious influence in acquiring lands at 
trifling cost. A wagging tongue has turned " the twelve 
apostles and the forty thieves of Hawkes Bay" into a 
proverb. Doubtless there were some missionaries who, 
by securing extensive tracts of land in the interests of their 
families and of the Church, left themselves open to censure. 
It may be that there were instructors of the heathen in the 
early days who failed to tread in the footsteps of the great 
New Testament missionary, who at Corinth and elsewhere 
worked, night and day, with his own hands, that he might be 
" chargeable " to none, and be charged by none with the love 
of filthy lucre and an eye to the main chance, to the dis- 
paragement of the Gospel. To that number, however, 
Presbyterian missionaries did not belong. It is gratifying 
to be able to say that, however the Presbyterian Church 
failed to adequately value the responsibilities placed upon 
it by the Native population, its oftice-bearers have here 
clean hands. No minister or missionary labouring in con- 
nection with this Church at any time, or in any district, 
took advantage of his position and of Native simplicity to 
acquire small or great tracts of land at a cost which pre- 
cludes the name of purchase. The spirit of their dealings 
with the aborigines was that of the evangelists, Messrs. 
Moody and Sankey. When the latter found that immense 
sums of money were likely to be realised by the sale of 


their hymn-books, they wisely resolved at the outset not to 
touch a penny of it, and had a committee appointed to 
distribute the proceeds to various charitable objects, that 
their work might not be hindered. 

" For right is right since God is God, 
And right the day must win. 
To doubt would be disloyalty, 
To falter would be sin." 

The interregnum at Wellington was brought to an end 
by the Eev. W. Kirton, a minister of the Established 
Church of Scotland, coming on the scene on February 
16th, 1850, and at once entering on the work of the pastorate. 
Though his stay in Wellington was longer than that of 
his predecessor, Mr. Macfarlane, he had some of the same 
difficulties, as we shall see, to contend against. Not a few 
qualifications for the high office of the ministry were 
possessed by him. He had had some experience in the 
work of the ministry before coming to New Zealand, 
having had a charge in Shields, England. He was a good 
scholar, and, what many scholars do not possess, he had 
the knack of imparting to others what knowledge he had 
acquired. This gift he had cultivated at Home by teaching 
a school as well as preaching the Gospel, and he turned it to 
practical account in Wellington by keeping a boarding 
school in addition to his ministerial work. He arrived, too, 
at an auspicious time. Captain Fitzroy, the Governor, 
had taken his departure amid the rejoicings of the people 
of Wellington, who lighted bonfires in the exuberance of 
their joy. Complaints as to the unprotected state of the 
town, and the general neglect of the Government at 
Auckland to care for its interests, were not so bitter as 
heretofore. The first Maori war had been brought to an 
end by Governor Grey, who had just been knighted for 
his distinguished services. The population of Wellington 


had considerably increased, and so had trade and the 
comforts of the people. Under the wise administration 
of Sir George Grey, the Colony seemed to be on the 
high road to marked prosperity. Notwithstanding all 
this, it cannot be said that Mr. Kirton reaped an 
abundant harvest at Wellington. Some say that the 
congregation never got over the disappointment of not 
permanently securing the acceptable services of the Kev. 
John Inghs ; others that he devoted too much of his 
attention to the demolition of the Pope ; others that as a 
pre-millenarian he had more to say about the second coming 
of Christ than the first ; others, again, that they should 
have liked to have seen him by precept and example to have 
given more countenance to the cause of temperance ; and 
others still that he belonged to the old school of moderates. 
Whatever the cause or causes, the old dissatisfaction 
reappeared, and a number withdrew to form a second con- 
gregation. How true it is what Eev. M. McCheyne says : 
"It is not so much great talents that God blesses as great 
likeness to Christ." There is no need to say this in a spirit 
of censoriousness. We might all say in the language of 
Goethe : "It is only necessary to grow old in order to 
become indulgent. I see no fault committed that I have 
not been myself inclined to." From this weakening of its 
strength the charge had not recovered when Mr. Kirton 
decided to accept a call to Kaiapoi in January, 1863, after 
being in Wellington about thirteen years. 

The second congregation in Wellington began in this 
way. During the second year of Mr. Kirton's pastorate a 
memorial, signed by sixty-nine persons residing in Welling- 
ton, and attested by Mr. Kobert Strang, the Clerk of the 
Supreme Court, and Mr. King, a lawyer, was sent to the 
Free Church of Scotland asking that an ordained minister 


be sent out to form them into a congregation, and become 
their pastor. A number of the signatories were individuals 
who had come out to found the Otago Settlement in 1848, 
and who in the fluctuations of population incident to a new 
country had found their way to Wellington. Their presence 
naturally increased the inclination to look to the Free 
Church for the supply of Gospel ordinances. Professor 
Lumsden was at that time Convener of the Colonial Com- 
mittee of that Church. To him a member of the Brechin 
Presbytery, Rev. Mr. Nixon, recommended a co-presbyter 
of his, the Rev. John Moir, of the Free Church, Menmuir, 
and Mr. Moir was appointed. At that juncture Mr. Moir 
had been five years in his third charge, and was forty-five 
years of age. He began his ministerial career as an 
Independent minister, having studied under the celebrated 
Dr. Wardlaw. He had had the honour, when settled in 
Hamilton, of not only being the pastor of the great African 
explorer David Livingstone, but of directing his studies and 
turning his thoughts to the mission field. He appears 
himself to have possessed not a little of the missionary 
spirit, and doubtless this was one of the chief reasons why 
he was selected for Wellington. Mr. Moir had great 
difficulty in coming to a decision. There were many 
obstacles in the way of his going to New Zealand. His 
wife was delicate in health, his children were six in number, 
and his own congregation at Menmuir strenuously opposed 
his release. Moreover, he felt that if he decided to accept 
the invitation put into his hands he should have a long and 
perilous voyage, run unknown dangers on the other side of 
the globe, and would probably never see his father, mother, 
or relatives again. In his diary he informs us that the seven 
months during which the matter hung in suspense were 
the most anxious he had ever passed through. What 
chiefly helped him to make up his mind in favour of 


Wellington was that while in Menmuir he had " a narrow 
sphere of labour," in Wellington he should have a large 
and growing one, that the need for a minister in the latter 
place was urgent and could not be so readily supplied, and 
above all, that the invitation had come to him unsought. 
The entry in his diary concludes : — 

" I think it is the Lord's will that I go thither, and I hope to go 
in His strength. I will go in the strength of the Lord, making 
mention of His righteousness— of His alone. I cast all my interests 
and those of my family upon His care, and I know I shall not be 
disappointed nor put to shame in the end." 

Mr. Moir and family arrived in Wellington by the 
" John Taylor " on November 30th, 1853, and conducted 
service the following Sabbath in the Athenaeum Hall. 
Shortly afterwards he was formally inducted by the Kev. 
W. Dron, of the Hutt. Never minister received a warmer 
reception. He was welcomed with open arms, and pre- 
sented with a silk pulpit gown and a purse of sovereigns. 
The congregation under his ministry at once entered on a 
prosperous career. Three years after his arrival a new 
church was erected in Willis Street at a cost (including the 
price of the ground) of £1000 the congregation being 
known as Willis Street Congregation. He proved himself 
a workman that needeth not to be ashamed. He was a 
good classical scholar and a man of much personal piety. 
It was a habit of his when retiring for rest to choose a 
portion of Scripture for meditation during his waking 
moments. Under a reserved and modest demeanour were 
concealed a nobility of character which strangers coming 
casually into contact with him failed to recognise, but 
■which further acquaintance revealed. A Chinese proverb 
runs : "A truly great man never puts away the simplicity 
of the child." He was great in his life, great in his work, 


and great in his simplicity. Such a man, like the meteoric 
stone when it falls to earth, may not shine in society, but 
he does not live in vain. What Emerson says is true : — 

" Every thought which genius and piety throw into the world 
alters it," 

We come now to deal with some rural parishes. 
Country ministers in their isolation often struggle to 
maintain a show of respectability on slender means, and 
are deserving of more sympathy and appreciation than 
are usually accorded to them. The anthor of "Private 
Thoughts," with much truth remarks, "A poor country 
parson fighting against the devil in his parish has nobler 
ideas than Alexander the Great ever had." This especially 
holds good of early labourers in thinly-populated districts. 

The Hutt, another of those places wnere services were 
occasionally held by Revs. Duncan and Inglis, had for its 
first minister the Rev. W. Dron, a licentiate of the Free 
Church. He landed in New Zealand on March 1st, 1852, 
nearly two years before Mr. Moir, and therefore in the early 
part of Mr. Kirton's ministry. He and Mr. Kirton were for 
a time the only settled ministers in the Wellington district. 
Mr. Moir used to raise a laugh among his New Zealand 
friends by relating how Dr. Guthrie met him one day in 
Scotland, and asked him if he would have any other 
ministers near to him in New Zealand. When he heard 
that one of his next neighbours would be a Rev. W. Dron 
— pronounced by some as if it were Drone — he replied, 
" What an awful name for a minister. So soon as you can 
form a Presbytery, get an Act passed to change that man's 
name." There proved to be no need for this. Mr. Dron, 
after faithfully labouring in the Hutt district for a number 
of years, resigned his charge, and sailed for Home on June 
12th, 1858, a disappointed man. 


Wanganui from the beginning has been closely asso- 
ciated with Wellington. It began as a settlement at the 
close of 1840 by two hundred of the Wellington settlers 
who despaired of getting land at Port Nicholson migrating 
by sea to Wanganui, which was then called Petre, and 
distant 120 miles up the West Coast. It became the field 
of Colonel Wakefield's second land purchase from the 
Natives, and the first settlement made by the New Zealand 
Company after it obtained its charter on February 12th, 
1841. It remained under the jurisdiction of the Wellington 
Presbytery till as recently as 1884. 

A Presbyterian congregation was early organised at 
Wanganui. Its first minister was the Rev. D. Hogg, who 
belonged to the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland. 
He came to New Zealand for the sake of his health, but 
was nearly losing his life in Palliser Bay, where the sailing 
vessel " Slains Castle " hung for hours on a dangerous reef 
of rocks till a strong puff of wind brought her providentially 
off. This seems now an appropriate beginning for the 
difficult and arduous work which, as it turned out, lay 
before him in New Zealand. He arrived in Wellington 
on the eve of Christmas, 1852. Though he brought his 
ministerial credentials with him, yielding to the representa- 
tions of his friends that they were easily carried, his 
intention was to occupy a farm which a brother of his had 
left him at Nelson. He found, however, many claimants 
for his spiritual services. He had no sooner reached shore 
in the surf boat at Wellington than Mr. Kirton sought to 
book him for St. Andrew's the following Sabbath. There 
was also an urgent message for him to go at once to 
Wanganui, and take pity on the sheep there who were 
without a shepherd. His brother-in-law, Capt. Munn, took 
upon him to solve the difficulty in the meantime by carrying 


him off to spend the Christmas holidays with him. In the 
first week of the new year Mr. Hogg sailed for Wanganui 
in a little schooner called Governor Grey, which belonged 
to Messrs. Taylor and Watt, shipping merchants of Wan- 
ganui. The voyage occupied ten days. Mr. Hogg's first 
congregation numbered about 30 persons. The service 
was held in a fragile building which was constructed of 
toi-toi, and rejoiced in the dignified appellation of Athenaeum. 
The people looking forward with fond anticipations to their 
having an acceptable Presbyterian minister of their own, 
pressed him to become their pastor. He agreed to give 
them the benefit of his ministrations for at least twelve 
months. At the expiration of that period, he continued 
to dispense to them the ordinances of religion. A grant of 
the acre of ground on which the present church manse and 
lecture hall now stand was obtained. The congregation 
promised a more permanent church by-and-bye, and held 
out hopes of better times. He was greatly assisted and 
encouraged in his labours, in particular, by Capt. Campbell 
and Messrs. Taylor and Watt, the first two being elders, 
and the latter a member of the Court of Managers. Few 
ministers of any church have had more trying pioneer 
work to do than Mr. Hogg. He lived with his family for 
years in a small four-roomed cottage unlined, on £100 per 
year, his good wife grinding all the flour needed by the 
household in a little steel hand mill. When he was not 
trudging along muddy and uneven cattle-tracks, he rode a 
bullock for a horse. His journeying and labours in a 
rough and unopened country were of a Herculean kind. 
He seems to have had in the Old Country some little 
training for church organisation under difficulties, having 
built up a new congregation at East Lothian. Here we 
shall leave him for a time, glorying in the sacrifices that 
spring from the love to which Sir Walter Scott refers : — 


Love rules the Court, the camp, the grove, 
And men below and saints above, 
For love is heaven and heaven is love. 

Turakina had occasional visits from Mr. Hogg, 
but as he had no horse, and the Wilsons, Camerons, 
Glasgows, Simpsons, and other settlers had to take 
him to and from their district in turn, two days 
being occupied each way, these visits of his were few 
and far between. They never exceeded one in a 
month. A good deal depended on the weather and 
the state of the roads. The Colonists at Turakina 
therefore eagerly looked forward to the time when 
a minister should be settled amongst them. Mr. James 
Wilson, who may be said to have been the father of the 
congregation, did all that he could to bring about the 
accomplishment of this desirable end. He generously 
gave the congregation ten acres of land, six for glebe, one 
for a day school, and three for a cemetery. His purse was 
always open, and his influence always good. One of his 
sons, Robert, who married a daughter of Rev. John Moir, 
still resides in the district, and worthily walks in the 
footsteps of his excellent father. The result was that a 
church was built and a manse in progress when the Rev. 
John Thorn, of the Free Church, came upon the scene 
in 1857. He was cordially received, all the more so 
that through an annual grant of £50 from the Free 
Church the charge was to be generously fostered for some 

There were now five ministers in the Wellington 
district, i.e., Revs. Kirton, Moir, Dron, Hogg, and Thom. 
With these to begin with, it was considered high time that 
a Presbytery should be formed. Accordingly, the Wellington 


Presbytery met for the first time on November 8rd, 1857. 
The members present were : — 

Eev. John Moie, Wellington, Moderator. 
Rev. W. Dron, Hutt. 
Rev. John Thom, Turakina. 
M. QuiNN I 
Alex. Yule ) 

These ministers, it is worthy of note, were all from the 
Free Church. St. Andrew's, Wellington, did not at that 
time unite with the Presbytery. It stood in the Colony 
alone, and maintained its ecclesiastical connection with 
the Estabhshed Church of Scotland till 1874, when Rev. 
C. Ogg and congregation, with the consent of the Church 
of Scotland, were received into the Presbyterian Church of 
New Zealand. 

Mr. Yule became afterwards one of the first elders of 
Masterton. His widow is still living, having reached the 
age of 86 years. 

In this district there are now two Presbyteries, i.e., 
Wanganui with fourteen settled charges and Wellington 
with ten, besides mission stations. 

" Faith, mighty faith, the promise sees, 
And looks to that alone ; 
Laughs at impossibilities. 
And cries it shall be done.' 




Arrival of "The Duchess of Argyle " and "Jane Gifford" — 
Shepherdless Sheep— Rev. W. Comrie— Suddpn Activity — A 
Protest At,'ainst the Education Bill — Church Building in Early 
Days — Selection of Rev. A. S. Panton — Services in a Courthouse 
— The Panton Controversy — Rev. D. Bruce — DitHculties Vanish. 

The hoisting of the British flag at Waitemata on September 
18th, 1840, by Captain \V . C. vSymonds, on a bold promontory 
everlooking the harbour, was the signal for an influx of 
population from various parts of New Zealand. A number 
of the people of New South Wales were also induced to 
cross the sea in the " Chelydra" by the news that Auckland 
(named after Lord Auckland, General- Governor of India) 
had been chosen as the capital of this Colony. These 
migrants from a sister Colony did not come as agriculturists 
to settle on the land, but as mechanics to seek employment 
in laying the foundations of the new city. Their services 
were very acceptable. To settlers dwelling in tents and 
whares built of raupo or manuka, with fern for bedding and 
rough pieces of logs for furniture, the bluegum timber and 
mechanical skill which these Australians brought with them 
were exceedingly welcome. The honour, however, of 
making the first substantial addition to the settlement 
belongs to Scotland. 

In the second week in October 1842 the first two 
immigrant ships coming direct from Great Britain entered 
the Auckland Harbour. One was the ship " Duchess 
of Argyle" and the other, the barque "Jane Giflford," 
both from Scotland. The former carried 297 and the 
latter 255 passengers. This was a good beginning for the 


Northern settlement. One would naturally fancy that 
it ought to have been an equally coo<^ beginning for 
the Church in that place. The number of Presbyterians 
brought by these two ships should have made a most 
respectable and flourishing congregation. Additions were 
almost daily made to their strength by the population that 
flowed in on every side. During the five years that 
followed, these sons and daughters of the Church, trained 
in the best of all Presbyterian schools, that of Scotland, 
saw their numbers more than doubled. Nothwithstanding, it 
is sad to relate that during all that time they were without a 
church, without organisation, and without as a congregation 
systematically assembling for worship according to the 
custom of their fathers, and the dictates of their own 
consciences. These Presbyterian settlers seemed to have 
acted on the principle that the peach tree is foolish to 
show its blossoms to the sun before the frosts of spring are 
done, and that, 

" Much wiser is the mulberry. 

Which only thinks its leaves to show 
When leaves are green on every tree, 

And roses have begun to blow." 

Making all due allowance for the difficulties of the times 
we cannot free the people from blame. It is no excuse 
to urge that they had not the services of an acceptable 
minister. Why should the very existence of a church be 
made to depend on the presence of a minister ? Is such in 
accordance with Reformation doctrine ? Is a people to be 
paralysed with helplessness because a full-blown pastor does 
not at the right moment put in an appearance? Why 
could these poor Scotch Presbyterians not have met them- 
selves for praise and prayer and the reading and exposition 
of the Word, encouraging one another " in psalms and 
hymns and spiritual songs, making melody in their hearts 


to God?" What was to prevent them, except a false 
diffidence and unworthy prejudice, from putting forward 
some of their own number to conduct meetings for worship 
until such times as the services of a trained minister could 
be obtained? The state of spiritual impotence is one that 
confronts us frequently in the early history of this Colony. 
Through it other Churches in many instances have got 
the start of us in the race. The civil power, too, taking 
advantage of it, as we shall see, seemed sometimes disposed 
to treat as non-existent the rights and privileges of the 
Presbyterian Church. Perhaps the defect is not so glaring 
to-day as it was then, yet the members of our Church need 
still to have their attention drawn to it, and the heart of 
every man and woman stirred up to obey the Master's 
command, " Go work to-day in my vineyard." 

The Kev. W. Comrie, of the Established Church of 
(Scotland, uncle of the Rev. W. J. Comrie, present minister 
of Fairlie, South Canterbury, began services at Auckland in 
1813, but they were never largely attended. He failed to 
consolidate the scattered fragments of Auckland Presby- 
terianism, many of which had broken off from the National 
Church at Home. A minister who belonged to the old 
school of Moderates was scarcely the man to draw them 
together in New Zealand. The poet truly says : — 

Persuasion, friend, comes not by toil or art ; 

Hard study never made the matter clearer ; 

'Tis the live fountain in the speaker's heart 

Sends forth the streams that melt the ravished hearers. 

Would you, then, touch the heart, the only method known. 

My worthy friend, is first to have one of your own. 

Mr. Comrie laboured, it is true, under difficulties. 
Through the favour of Chief-Justice Martin, he held 


services in the Supreme Courthouse, Queen street. By- 
and-bye he was politely informed that these Presbyterian 
services were an inconvenience, and he transferred them to 
the Total Abstinence Society's Hall. Here he inaugurated 
a Sabbath School on March 8th 1844, and carried on 
religious work in a small way. It was here in September 
of the same year that a meeting of Presbyterians was 
held to appoint a Committee to receive ground from the 
Government for cemetery and church purposes. Considering 
the divided state of the Presbyterians, and the apathy 
at that time displayed, one does not wonder that for 
many years the request was not acceded to, and that bitter 
complaints had to be made regarding the Governments 
delay. Attendance at the services held in the Total 
Abstinence Society's Hall having dwindled down to a few 
individuals, Mr Comrie discontinued them altogether, and 
met for worship with some friends in his own house each 
Lord's Day. The malcontents doubtless thought they 
were displaying a love for sounder doctrine, purer worship, 
and superior virtue, but in swelling the assemblies of other 
denominations, where they did not feel at home, or in 
absenting themselves from public worship altogether, as 
many of them did, they took a very poor Avay of showing 

At length, on the 4th of May 1847 a large and 
influential meeting of the Presbyterians was held in 
the Courthouse, to consider the supply of Presbyterian 
ordinances. The Hon. Dr. Sinclair, Colonial Secretary, 
occupied the chair, and the Hon. Alex. Shepherd, Colonial 
Treasurer, moved the first resolution. It was resolved at 
that meeting to apply for a minister to the Free Church of 
Scotland, and, failing it, to any other branch of the Presby- 
terian Church in that country. Mr. Matthew Whytlaw of 


Edinburgh, in seconding one of the resolutions, intimated 
that on one occasion he had laid their case before Dr. 
Chalmers, who said : — 

I know not how we can help you, for our very popularity puzzles 
us. There are at the present time more than 200 congregations 
belonging to the Free Church yet uaprovided with a pastor. But if 
you can find the willing man, I am sure that our Church will give 
all the aid in its power to forward the object. 

In the following resolution are to be found the names 
of the strong Committee that was appointed on this 
occasion : — 

"That the following gentlemen, namely :— Hon. Dr. Andrew 
Sinclair, Hon. Alexander Shepherd, Capt. Rough, W. S. Graham, 
W. Gorrie, M. Whytlaw, James Robertson, J. Walker, Robert Graham,' 
R. MacKenzie, Robert Mitchell, WilHam Goodfellow, and T. Cleghorn, 
be appointed a Committee (Mr. Whytlaw, Convener) to communicate 
with the Colonial Committee of the Free Church of Scotland, and to 
receive and collect subscriptions." 

This Committee at once set to work in the room, with 
the result that before the meeting broke up the sum of 
£728 was subscribed. In a week it amounted to £1120. 
A site was at last procured from Governor Sir Geo. Grey, 
at the corner of Symonds street and Alten road, where St. 
Andrew's church now stands, and a deed made out. The 
work of gathering in funds and of church organization 
now went on apace. 

On the 6th of June 1847 the first Sabbath School 
connected with the resuscitated charge was opened under 
unusually favourable auspices. There was none of the 
lack often experienced in such cases of influential and 
competent men to put their hand to this important work. 
The Hon. Alex. Shepherd, Colonial Treasurer, acted as 
superintendent, and taught the senior Bible class, out of 


which have come many distinguished men to fill important 
offices in the State. His eflforts were ably seconded by Mr. 
Matthew Whytlaw and others of like calibre. 

How true what William Congreve says : 

" For blessings ever wait on virtuous deeds, 
And, though a late, a sure reward succeeds." 

In view of the activity now manifested and its fruits, 
one cannot help feeling sorry that the Auckland Presby- 
terians lay upon their oars so long. One of the dis- 
advantages of disorganization in dealing with public affairs 
wa8 now apparent. 

The Presbyterians of Auckland had had occasion to 
protest strongly against the exclusiveness of the Marriage 
Act in making no provision, prospective or otherwise, for a 
representative of the Presbyterians performing the ceremony 
of marriage. When this action of the Government in 
Council was followed by a similar state of matters on the 
Education Bill, then excitement rose to a white heat. 
Were they to be deprived of all their rights and privileges, 
they asked, " because they had no minister ?" Was the 
minister whom they expected shortly to arrive to be placed 
upon a footing different from those of the Anglican Church ? 
They talked the matter over. They held an indignation 
meeting on September 23rd 1847. Otlier denominations 
feeling also aggrieved joined them. The town was on the 
verge of a whirlpool of excitement. A memorial remon- 
strating was prepared, and signed by two hundred pro- 
minent members of various communions, and sent in to 
the Governor. His Excellency objected to the petitioners 
coming forward as "remonstrants." The Government 
organ, Tlie New Zealaiuler, threw cold water on the 
movement, but The Southern Cross of October 2nd 1847 


in an able article justified the action taken. It pointed 
out that memorialists did not wish to prevent the enact- 
ment of an Education Bill, as represented, but say that 
they will be " the firm friends of any means that might 
secure the blessings of a superior education to all classes 
of the community, and that they objected to anything that 
would exclude anyone from a participation in its benefits." 
Replying to what the Attorney-General said, that " as 
their wishes were acceded to in the Marriage Bill, so they 
might have taken it for granted that their interests would 
have been respected in the Education Bill," he remarked 
that the Presbyterians did not ask for a favour, but 
demanded a right, and that neither the Attorney-General 
nor anyone else ought to place them or others in the 
character of petitioners. Why should they be degraded 
into the position of begging for their rights ? He 
expressed the opinion that " the spiritual and determined 
movement of the past week ought to dispel the idea that 
one communion is to monopolise all State favours." 

Feeling was allayed by the Governor giving the 
assurance that " the Act would come giadually into opera- 
tion and be susceptible of adaptation to the wants of the 

To build a magnificent church, such as the first 
Presbyterian edifice in Auckland district was designed to 
be, was in those days no small undertaking. Sometimes 
it was the materials that were difficult to obtain, sometimes 
the mechanical skill, and sometimes both. Of scoria there 
was abundance not far off, but no one knew the right way 
to quarry it. Persons versed in the intricacies of lime 
manufacture, as required in the district, were not easy to 
procure, and then the lime had to be brought from 
Mahurangi. The stone facings needed had to be procured 


at Whangarei, a distance of eighty-eight miles. There 
were other difficulties and delays. Shortly after the 
building was begun, on December 28th, 1847, heavy rain 
turned the interior into a large reservoir, and it was 
wittily remarked that the architect had got the foundation 
in, but could not get the water out. Before this deep pool 
subsided a child who was playing on the margin fell in and 
was drowned. To complicate matters still further, the 
architect and the contractor got to loggerheads, and the 
work came to a standstill. The hands of the trustees were 
tied by a nine-months' contract, and they could do nothing 
till that period had expired. At the end of that time new 
contractors had to be appointed, and a new contract made. 
Then the delay brought financial difficulties in another 
way. Owing to the Californian gold rush many of the 
original subscribers left Auckland in haste, and their 
promised contributions were not available. It was 
estimated that the large edifice, with buttresses on each 
side and Corinthian columns in front, and a lofty massive 
tower overlooking all, would cost £2400 ; but, owing to 
these untoward circumstances it cost, without buttresses 
or tower, a much larger sum. The tower was added 
thirty-five years afterwards, and cost an additional £3000, 
so that the entire expense incurred by the erection of the 
mother Presbyterian church of Auckland Province was 
about £6000. It was anticipated that the building would 
be ready for the reception of the expected minister on his 
arrival, but the above events prevented this. 

The choice of the Colonial Committee fell on the Rev. 
A. G. Panton. The arrangement was that the Home 
Committee, in addition to paying the passage of himself 
and family, and £50 for outfit, should be responsible for 
£160 for two years, and that the congregation at Auckland 

REV. A. G. PANTON. 65 

should pay him £150 for two years, and £300 afterwards. 
This secured that the newly-appointed minister should get 
£300 from the beginning. Mr. Panton arrived on January 
15th 1849. 

Until the church was completed, Mr. Panton preached 
in the old Supreme Courthouse, Queen Street. Marriages 
and baptisms for a time came a galore. Many boys and 
girls walked to the Courthouse to be baptised. In Moses' 
seat was promulgated the gospel of " grace and truth." 
Where every wrong -doer was condemned and punished, 
pardon was offered to the chief of sinners. Where the 
Court Crier called out the names of trembling witnesses, 
nuptial banns were proclaimed. Where husband was 
sometimes separated from wife, bride and bridegroom were 
made one flesh. Though no fines were struck by the 
occupant of the bench, the offerings of the first day 
amounted to £50. All were highly pleased. The Court- 
house was as much crowded as if a murder case was on. 
Many had their joke. The elders happened to sit in the 
dock ; this gave wags an opportunity of saying : " Quite 
right ! they should have been there long ago." So say we. 

The new church was opened for divine worship on 
April 7th 1850. The Southern Cross of that time says : — 

" The Presbyterian church, which has so long engaged the time 
and drawn upon the pockets of the Presbyterians, is now opened. 
We congratulate the Presbyterian community on the possession of 
the finest and best-finished place of worship in Auckland. It has 
cost £3500, but it is money well laid out, since, both in sohdity of 
structure and convenience and comfort of its internal arrangements, 
it is as yet without an equal." 

The first officebearers were Hon. Alex. Shepherd, M. 
Whytlaw, W. Gorrie, John Nisbet, Wm. Hay, T. S. 
Forsaith, G. Deuchar, elders ; and W. S. Grahame, James 



Robertson, John Gorrie, and A. Wright, deacons. Their 
promiscuous character is interesting, and shows the 
diflBcult task Mr. Panton undertook in seeking to weld 
them together. Mr. Hay was a U.P., Mr. Nisbet a 
Cameronian, and Mr. Forsaith, while signing the Confession 
of Faith with the others, intimated that he still retained a 
preference for the Congregational form of church govern- 
ment. Those were not the days for nice distinctions. 

Some of the office-bearers of 
played an important part in the 
history of their country as well 
as of their own congregation. In 
addition to those we have men- 
tioned, we may note that the late 
Mr. Archibald Clark who, with his 
family came to Auckland in 1849 
to carry on a wholesale drapery 
business, was an elder of the con- 
gregation highly honoured of his 
fellow citizens. He was one of the 
first Mayors of the City, and a 
member subsequently of the House 
of Representatives at Wellington. 

St. Andrew's have 


Before Mr. Panton there seemed now to lie a long 
ministerial career of much usefulness. He was himself a 
spiritually-minded man, and possessed the affection of his 
people and the hearty co-operation of his office-bearers. 
Presbyterians of the Established and Reformed Churches, 
Caraeronians, Seceders, Independents, and Baptists, as 
well as members of the Free Church, all rallied round 
him. Unfortunately, however, his pastorate in Auckland 
was short. 


The friction between Mr. Panton and his office-bearers, 
which came to be designated " The Panton Controversy," 
arose through the employment of Rev. John Inglis who was 
known to some of the members of Session and Deacons' 
Court, to assist Mr. Panton, especially in the rural districts. 
Mr. Inglis came by invitation of Session in 1850, and 
proved himself to be a most acceptable preacher and 
pastor. The settlers at Tamaki, who found it difficult to 
attend services at Auckland during the winter months, 
proposed building him a church and giving him a call to 
settle amongst them. This gave umbrage to Mr. Panton. 
He somewhat indiscreetly accused his office-bearers of 
unfaithfulness and irregularity, called a public meeting, 
and relegated the matter for settlement to Scotland. 
<' The fat was now in the fire." Some took one side, and 
some the other. Thus was widened into a yawning gulf 
a little divergence of opinion that with a modicum of tact 
might easily have been bridged over. Tillotson has truly 
said, " A more glorious victory over another cannot 
be gained than this : that when the injury began on his 
part, the kindness should begin on yours." Instead of 
taking this course, Mr. Panton seemed to think it an 
occasion for applying the principle of Professor Rainy, 
"The crowning evidence of complete success is an action 
of damages for defamation of character." The result 
achieved was not encouraging. Those railed at said that, 
*• being a little lame, he was sensitive ; and having been 
a tutor at Home, he was pedantic." 

There can be no doubt about there being faults also 
on the people's side, as the Convener of the Home 
Committee afterwards wrote. There was much need then, 
and there is much need still, for the appreciation in the 
highest sense to which Ruskin refers : — 


" Men are enlisted for the labour that kills ; let them be enlisted 
for the labour that feeds ; and let the captains of the latter be held as 
much gentlemen as the captains of the former." 

"Men," says Emerson, "forget that the respectable 
man is the man who respects." 

At length Mr. Panton decided to return to the Old 
Country. Before leaving he published in The New Zeahnider 
a protest against any minister of any denomination other 
than the Free Church of Scotland " filling the pulpit of 
the church in Auckland erected for the use and on behalf 
of the congregation of Presbyterians adhering to the 
principles of the Free Church of Scotland." This was 
surely a very hard and fast line to lay down for a colonial 
church in early days, and not complimentary to a large 
number of the members of St. Andrew's mixed Presbyterian 
congregation itself. Apart from its undesirability necessity 
prevented its being carried out. Mr. Panton and family 
sailed in the ship " Oliver Cromwell " on October 25th, 
1850, a number of his congregation going aboard on the 
eve of his departure, and presenting him with a purse of 
sovereigns. Over such contention, how the heart of the 
Head of the Church grieves. 

" Fathers alone a father's heart can know, 
What secret tides of sweet enjoyment flow 
When brothers love. But if their hate succeeds, 
They wage the war, but 'tis the father bleeds." 

It seemed not improbable now that the congregation 
that had been gathered together with such trouble would 
again go to pieces. For a couple of years, contrary to the 
injunctions of Mr. Panton, it availed itself of the services 
of the Rev. Mr. Inglis, once more in Auckland, of the 
preaching staff of the Wesleyans, and of the Independent 
minister, as they could be obtained. Many, however. 

EEV. D. BRUCE. 69 

drifted away to other communions, where, without being 
a source of material strength to other denominations, their 
presence seriously weakened that of their own. 

" 'Tis good to be merry and wise ; 
'Tis good to be tender and true; 
'Tis well to be off wi' the auld love 
Before one is on wi' the new." 

A fresh appeal to the Free Church for a minister was 
not in vain. At this juncture there came on the scene one 
who was destined to play a prominent part in the history of 
the New Zealand Presbyterian Church, the Rev. David 
Bruce, now Dr. Bruce of Sydney. Though he severed his 
connection with this Church many years ago, and went 
to New South Wales, where he is at present labouring 
energetically as if given a new lease of life, his work is 
not forgotten. His name throughout most of the Church's 
borders is still familiar. In Auckland district it continues 
to be a household word. He has the distinction of being 
the brother of Professor A. B. Bruce D.D. of Free 
Church College, Glasgow, whose literary works are so well 

Being appointed by the Colonial Committee of the 
Free Church of Scotland, and ordained to Auckland by the 
Presbytery of Aberdeen, as Home Presbyteries now ordain 
missionaries to unoccupied fields, the Rev. David Bruce 
reached Auckland on the 8th of June, 1853. A trustee of 
St. AndreAv's, who boarded the " Simla" in the harbour 
to welcome him, had a doleful tale to tell. He frankly 
informed him of the extent to which the congregation 
had suffered through recent dissensions and lack of a 
settled minister. He told him that they had incurred a 
debt of £1600, which in those days was considered an 


enormous sum for a Church to owe ; that only the day 
before the congregational treasurer was dragged into a law 
court by an irate creditor ; and concluded by saying, " So 
ye see what sort o' wark ye hae set before ye I " If he 
imagined that the new minister would quail before these 
difficulties, he was greatly disappointed. " Gentlemen," 
said Mr. Bruce to his astonished deacons, '' I am resolved 
that the debt shall be wiped out in three months' time." 
The promise was fulfilled to the letter, and the treasurer 
declared that " he had been connected with many 
subscription lists, but this was the best of all ! " Everyone 
promised liberally, and, what was better still, paid what he 
promised. By earnest and active service and a kind and 
conciliatory manner the old wounds were gradually 
healed, many of the lapsed Presbyterians brought back to 
their own fold, and a prosperous congregation again built 
up. How true what Emerson says, "The greatest success 
is confidence, or a perfect understanding between sincere 
people." Well do we sing, 

" Work, for the night is coming ! 
Work through the sunny noon ; 
Fill brightest hours with labour ! 
Rest comes sure and soon." 




Origin of St. James'— A Roving Independent Gaelic Congregation 
—Arrivals of Revs. J. Macky, T. Norrie, and R. McKinney — 
The First Meeting of the Auckland Presbytery— Mr. Bruce's 
Subsequent Church Extension Operations — A Colleague — Finan- 
cial Aid from the Home Churches — Premature Settlements. 

•' And not by eastern windows only, 

When daylight comes, comes in the light ! 

In front the sun climbs slow — how slowly, 

But Westward, look 1 The land is light ! " 

The activity of Mr. Bruce in promoting the cause of 
Church Extension during almost forty years of his life 
has left the entire Church under a debt of gratitude. 
Doubtless there is much truth in what Ian Maclaren says 
of the organiser in his " Plea for the Spirituality of the 
Church ":— 

" Everybody will be a secretary or something in a year, but the 
people will be going to the next Church for their daily bread. . . . 
What we want to-day is not organisers, but preachers." 

Still no Church can exist without organisation. In 
its early stages especially men with gifts of this kind fill 
an important place. They are the drill sergeants of the 
Church's army, and do well to move round from pillar to 
post. Under Mr. Bruce's fostering care, many a congrega- 
tion came to be established. The zeal of himself and 
office-bearers in laying the foundation of St. James', 
Auckland, where now Rev. R. F. Macnicol is in the 


thirtieth year of his efficient ministry, is worthy of all 
praise. Sabbath Schools were established by them at 
Freeman's Bay, and Upper and Lower Hobson Street, in 
the western and somewhat neglected portion of the town. 
They quickly took root. Accommodation for the children 
was found first in private houses, then in an unoccupied 
flour-mill, and afterwards in a suitable building erected 
for the purpose in Hobson Street at the cost of £450. 
Here, under the wise and careful superintendence of the 
Session of St. Andrew's, Sabbath services were frequently 
held by the Rev. John Thom and others ; the people 
formed into a self-supporting charge ; and Rev. Peter Mason 
finally inducted as the first minister of St. James' 
congregation on August 5th, 1862. 

The same may be said of St. David's. It owes its 
beginning to Mr. Bruce having purchased a site for a 
church on the southern side of the town, at the upper end 
of Symonds Street, and facing Kyber Pass Road. There 
a Sabbath School building was subsequently erected in 
1864, and there on a commanding elevation the most 
conspicuous of all the city churches now stands, that 
Auckland's teeming thousands may, 

" Like the stained web that whitens in the sun, 
Grow pure by being purely shone upon." 

A roving independent Gaelic congregation, carrying 
its own minister with it, was surely a novelty in those days. 

The late Rev. Norman McLeod of Waipu has seen 
many lands, and has had a very chequered career. He and 
the attached Highlanders who accompanied him in their 
own ship remind us, in their peregrinations, of the 
adventures of Ulysses, the hero of Homer's " Odyssey." 
Mr. xMcLeod left the Highlands of Scotland while still a 
young man and after ministering to Gaelic - speaking 




countrymen scattered over the United States of America, 
he found his way to the British Colony of Cape Breton, 

and congenial work in a com- 
munity largely composed of 
members speaking the Gaelic 
tongue. Here he laboured 
successfvilly for many years. 
So strong an attachment grew 
up between him and his 
people, that, when dissatisfied 
with their surroundings they 
resolved to seek a new home, 
they set out in the quest to- 
gether. They left Cape Breton 
in the year 1851, in their own 
ship, with the object of settl- 
ing in Australia. Calling at 
the Cape in Africa, Sir George 
Grey endeavoured to induce them to settle there, but in 
vain. In a few months they continued their voyage, 
and, reaching Australia, took up their residence there 
for a couple of years. At the end of that time they 
again took to their ship, and, committing themselves 
to the sea, sailed for New Zealand. They finally settled 
down in the district of Waipu, some seventy miles north 
of Auckland. Here he laboured amongst his loving and 
beloved flock of two hundred families till the Sabbath 
before his death, which took place in 1866, at the age of 
eighty-six years. Visiting "Waipu a few years afterwards, 
the minister of Otahuhu wrote the Irish Missionary 
Herald as follows : — 

" Though possessed of some peculiarities, the Eev. Norman 
McLcod was a man of great force of character, and singular energy 
and zeal, and has left a memory hallowed beyond anything I ever 


knew in the recollections of his people. It is very affecting to hear 
them, often in broken English and with tears in their eyes, 
telling of noble traits that would remind you sometimes of a prophet 
of Israel, and sometimes of a Christian apostle." 

It is pleasing in a new country like this, which is 
making its history and where people are not credited with 
undue attachment to their ministers, to come upon such 
revered " footprints on the sands of time." The 
Solomonic proverb finds here a striking exemplification, 
" The memory of the just is blessed." So do the words 
of an Eastern poet less renowned : — 

" As far and wide the vernal breeze 
Sweet odours waft from blooming trees : 
So, too, the grateful savour spreads 
To distant times of virtuous deeds." 

We have now to chronicle the arrivals of Revs. J. 

Macky, T. Norrie, and R. McKinney. The Church in 

them received a considerable addition to its ministerial 

strength. Three ministers in three years was then an 

unwonted and welcome event. Ireland and Scotland 

united in sending of their best to the Auckland field. 

The Rev. John Macky, a 

graduate of the Glasgow Univer- 

'"Z:^ sity, brought with him much 

..M^^^^ wisdom, gentleness, and grace 

^^^^^H from Fahan, County Derry 

fPHIHp^ Ireland, wherein his native land 

he laboured for some time as 

minister. He is one of the 

fathers of the Auckland district 

whose memory is to-day greatly 

revered. During his long and 

faithful ministry of thirty -six 

years, he endeared himself to all 

REV. JOHN MACKY. •,, , , , , 

With whom he came m contact, 

REV. J. MACKY. 75 

and was distinguished for his wise counsel in Presbytery and 
Assembly. None could be found so ably and so wisely as 
he to preside over the interests of the first united General 
Assembly of the New Zealand Presbyterian Church. For 
twenty-seven years his faithful horse " Jack " carried its 
partially blind rider hither and thither throughout his 
rough and extensive field of labour, never making a 
mistake by night or day. When in 1890, through total 
loss of sight, he was obliged to resign the active duties of 
the ministry, he had the sympathy of the entire Church ; 
and when in the following year he passed quietly away 
from earthly scenes to join the ransomed throng before the 
throne of Christ, his loss to the Church on earth was 
greatly lamented. It is comforting, however, for those left 
behind in the struggles of life to be able to say of such 

" Far from a world of grief and sin, 
With God eternally shut in, 
They are for ever blest." 

The best prayer we can offer up for the New Zealand 
Presbyterian Church is, " May the Giver of All Good 
send her many ministers after the spirit of the Rev. John 

When Mr. Macky landed at Auckland from the ship 
" Cashmere," on Sunday August 20th 1854, with his wife 
and children, father, mother and sister, he was full of life 
and vigour. After preaching in St. Andrew's, Auckland, 
which was the only organized congregation then existing in 
or around the city, he at once set out to establish a cause at 
Otahuhu, Tamaki, and Howick, accompanied by the Rev. 
D. Bruce. This district lay south of Auckland, and had an 
average breadth of seventeen miles from north-east to south- 
west, and an average length of six miles from north to south. 


It comprised the villages of Otaliuhu, Panmure, and Howick, 
which were originally pensioner settlements, and exceed- 
ingly serviceable in supplying labour on agricultural lands 
and on public works. Only a very small number of these 
pensioners belonged to the Presbyterian Church. The 
fertile lands, however, of Otahuhu and Tamaki attracted a 
large number of adroit Scotchmen, who purchased blocks 
and settled down upon them. The people of Tamaki, we 
have seen, proposed in 1850 to build a church and call 
Rev. John Inglis. Though their wishes were not gratified 
in regard to the choice of a minister, a building was erected 
in that year which served for school and church. Here, at 
Otahuhu and at Howick, religious services were conducted 
by Mr. Inglis, the Congregational minister of Auckland, 
and others, until Kev. D. Bruce arrived in 1853 and took 
the oversight. 

Mr. Macky carried with him a grant of £100 from 
the Irish Presbyterian Church, which was found very 
serviceable in the day of small things. His first services 
were held at Baird's Store, Otahuhu Wharf. The Baird 
family from the beginning, rendered good service to the 
Presbyterian Church. It was Mr. Thomas Baird who, 
when population increased, gave the site at Otara on which 
the church and hall now stand ; and Mr. S. C. Baird, who 
presented the congregation with a site for a manse and 
an acre of ground for a cemetery. 

In few congregations have there been such heated and 
protracted differences of opinion regarding the choice of a 
church site and the dimensions of the church building, and 
in few instances have such differences been attended with 
more lamentable results. Two parties have existed from 
the beginning, and on many an occasion have tried their 
strength. One desired to erect a commodious church in 


the village of Otahuhn. The other less hopeful contended 
for a modest edifice at a place two miles away. The latter 
being in the majority, a miserable structure whose 
dimensions were thirty by twenty feet was erected at Otara, 
and opened on November 14th, 1855. As might have been 
expected, the building proved too small for the congregation 
and three years afterwards another tussle took place 
over the church site and the church's dimensions, with 
the result that the space afforded by the little schoolhouse 
was increased by one half. A few more years showed the 
folly of doing things by halves. The discomfort of the 
growing congregation necessitated something being done ; 
and, after another grand struggle and house-to-house 
canvass, the majority decided to erect the present church 
on the old site. That edifice was opened on May 3rd 
1863. With a teacher's residence the repeated building 
alterations, besides not meeting in many instances the 
requirements of the case, cost the greater part of £2000. 
This money, however, like all the moneys required by the 
charge, was raised without extraneous aid. A Sabbath 
School, Prayer Meeting, and Bible Class have been in 
existence from its inception. The following account of 
Mr. Macky's early experiences and work is transcribed 
from his diary : — 

" The afternoon was rather unfavourable, and the roads 
shockingly bad ; still the attendance was considerable. From this 
time continued to preach every Sabbaih morning at Otahuhu, and 
fortnightly on the Sabbath afternoons at Tamaki and Howick. 

Week-day services occasionally held near Papakura, McLennan's, 
Slippery Creek, and Wairoa (about seventeen miles distant), from the 
commencement of my ministry here till the arrival of Mr. Norrie in 
October, 1855. 

6th of May, 1855. — Preached for the first time in the new church 
or schoolhouse, it being still in a very unfinished state." 



The Rev. Thomas Norrie, who has been designated 
by Bishop Sehvyn as " a typical Colonial minister," and 
who is still labouring assiduously 
and energetically in the field of 
his early endeavours, arrived from 
the Free Church of Scotland as 
an ordained minister and mis- 
sionary on October 17th 1855 
by the ship " Joseph Fletcher," 
Shortly after preaching in the 
Wesleyan Chapel at Papa- 
kura, a call signed by almost 
every settler in the district was 
Presented to him by the Rev. D. 
Bruce ; and Papakura, Drury, 
and Wairoa were assigned to him 
as his future sphere of labour. It 
was that wide and extensive dis- 
trict out of which have since 
been formed the seven charges of 
Waiuku, Pukekohe, Ngaruawahia, Cambridge, Hamilton, 
Waikato West, and Te Aroha — a county rather than a 
parish. Mr. Norrie is the premier pioneer builder of the 
Presbyterian Church of New Zealand. No otlier minister 
has put up so many ecclesiastical edifices. He has been 
instrumental in erecting no fewer than nineteen churches. 
Including the manse at Papakura built in 1888, and a 
teacher's residence, he has erected in all twenty - one 
Church buildings, at a cost of about £5000, raising to his 
own hand most of the money required outside his own 
district. This is not a bad record for one individual 
minister. Of these churches six still remain in connection 
with his charge, namely : — 





Time of Opening. Cost. 




Papakura Valley . . 


Ness Valley . . 

June 20th, 1858.. 
December 26th, 1858.. 
January 23rd, 1859.. 
January 4th, 1863.. 
November 21st, 1875.. 
June 16th, 1877.. 

.. 250 

.. 151 

.. 300 

.. 85 

.. 90 

.. 67 

Although so many slices have been taken from bis 
original parish, he still supplies twelve different stations 
with services, three with a weekly, two with a fortnightly, 
and seven with a monthly service. This entails the 
herculean labour of preaching five times on one Sabbath 
and four on another. Though the places are not very far 
apart, the physical strain which this work imposes h such 
as few ministers could stand. A pastor of a Home Church 
with his two Sabbath services, or, it may be, only one, 
would lift his hands in holy horror at such ministerial 
labour being crowded by a creature of flesh and blood into 
the working hours of the Lord's Day. On Sabbath Day, 
to the country ministers of New Zealand who begin 
working "while the dew is sparkling," and continue long 
after "the last beam fadeth," the exigencies of the 
country seem to say, 

" Give every flying minute 

Something to keep in store ; 

Work, for the night is coming 

When man works no more." 

The Rev. R. McKinney, who hke Mr. Norrie is 
still actively engaged ministering to the charge in which 


be first began work, had before coming to the Colony been 
minister of Saltersland, County Derry, Ireland. He has 
reason to have pleasant memories over his departure for 
New Zealand. The renowned Dr. Cooke gave the address 
on the occasion of his designation to the Colonial field in 
the Magherafelt Presbytery ; and leave was taken of him 
at a public entertainment in Londonderry, attended by 
many leading clergymen and laymen of the "Maiden City" 
and district. He arrived in Auckland on October 8th, 
1856. He was designed for Mahurangi, a settlement 
about thirty miles north of Auckland. 

Mr. Bruce, the unwearied pioneer of so many outlying 
districts, had been to Mahurangi two years before, and 
had begun to hold services in a house owned by Captain 
Daldy, who on more than one occasion has proved himself 
to be a good friend of the Presbyterian cause there. He 
gave a valuable glebe of fourteen acres as a site for a 
manse and church, ten acres gratuitously and four acres 
which he allowed the Church to have at one-fourth their 
value. Here Mr. Bruce had a building erected which was 
intended to serve for both a church and a manse, and 
to be ready for Mr. McKinney's reception. He had also 
a church set on foot at Mahurangi, and a small church 
built at Matakana on a site granted by Mr. W. Aitken of 

Mr. McKinney therefore had a good beginning. He 
was inducted by Mr. Bruce into the charge on the same 
day as that on which the Mahurangi Church was opened, 
i.e., December 13th 1856. Mr. McKinney found the 
manse delightfully situated on a rising ground, the 
centre of a circle that had for its circumference a 
mountain range clothed with primitive forest to the very 
summit. The land, however, he found to be inferior, even 


on the banks of the Mahurangi and Matakana where most 
of the settlers resided. It was easy to see that the two 
hundred Colonists of all denominations living there could 
never hope to be rich, or to increase in numbers by large 
additions from the outside world. We take the following 
from a letter written to the Irish Mission Board :— 

"Mr. McKinney at once entered on the pastoral work of his 
scattered parish, preaching on one Sabbath in the morning in the 
Mahurangi Church, and in the evening in a house belonging to the 
Government at Mahurangi Heads ; and on the alternate Sabbath, in 
the morning in Mr. Whytane's flax-mill, Matakana, and in the 
evening in a house at Matakana Heads, belonging to Mr. Green- 

Referring to other places where services were held, 
the writer says : — 

" The principal of these places are Pakiri, Mangawai, 
Kaiwaka, and Little Omaha. In Little Omaha, a monthly service 
has been held for a length of time in the house of Mr. McKenzie. 
Services are also sometimes held in the Island of Kawau, in the 
house of Sir George Grey. . . . His district is so intersected 
with rivers and inlets of the sea as to make visitation of it extremely 
difficult. . . . The minister of this place since bis settlement in 
it has been obhged, for the most of the time, to pull himself in his 
own boat on alternate Sabbaths, often against wind and tide, a 
distance of about fourteen miles — besides preaching at least twice — 
a work that is probably without parallel in the history of modern 
clerical life." 

The first Auckland Presbytery met on October 15th 
1856 in St. Andrew's Church. The ministers present 
were Revs. D. Bruce, John Macky, T. Norrie, and R. 

There are now twenty-six settled charges conncctsd 
with this Presbytery and nine Mission stations. 

As usual, we have brought the history down to the 
first meeting of Presbytery. It is fitting, however, 
that something should be said here regarding Mr. 


Bruce's subsequent Church Extension operations. The 
zeal manifested by Mr. Bruce in the cause of Church 
Extension was greatly in advance of his time. It 
knew no bounds. Even the sea did not seem to 
him an insuperable barrier in the way of realising the 
corporate union of two Presbyterian communities having 
the same doctrine, government, and worship. He was one 
of those energetic and far-seeing men who conceived the 
lofty idea of gathering all the scattered fragments of 
Presbyterianism in both Islands into one grand United 
Church. He thought that speaking with one voice 
they should exercise a powerful influence on the 
State and, covering the whole land from the North 
Cape to the Blufl' with a network of Scriptural 
agencies worked on the same lines and pulsating 
with the same life, should win New Zealand for 
Christ. The advent of both inter-Island and inter-Colonial 
steamboats in the second decade of the Colony's history 
seemed to make the project feasible. If negotiations with 
the Southern Church at this early stage failed, the fault 
was not his. He at least showed no lack of hope or of 
perseverance, and turned away from no sacrifice in order 
to secure the consummation devoutly to be wished. If 
anything, he erred on the side of enthusiasm. He did not 
make sufficient allowance for the more slowly moving 
natures of some of the spirits of Otago in the extreme 
South. At the preliminary Conference held in Dunedin 
in 18G1 on the subject of " Union " he moved the chief 
resolutions, brought up the Report of the Committee 
appointed to formulate a " Basis of Union," and in all 
the negotiations took a leading and conspicuous part. 
He was present at the Convocation which met in 
Auckland the year afterwards to perfect the work of 
Union, and again brought forward the motions that were 


finally adopted. The first General Assembly of 1862 
could find no one so suitable to act as the Convener of the 
first Church Extension Committee of the New Zealand 
Presbyterian Church. 

A colleague for Mr. Bruce was early provided. 
It was thought by the office-bearers of St. Andrew's, 
as congregation and city were growing and the claims 
made on their minister increasing, that an assistant 
would be exceedingly acceptable. Accordingly a Commission 
was sent home to Scotland, and the Key. James Hill, 
minister of Scone, was selected. Mr. Hill, when a 
theological student at Edinburgh, was acquainted with the 
Rev. Mr. Pan ton, and was naturally much interested in 
his Colonial labours. At an early period, therefore, Mr. 
Hill had his thoughts turned to New Zealand. He arrived 
in 1863, and was inducted on November 3rd as second 
minister of St. Andrew's. The Rev. Peter Mason having 
resigned the charge of St. James' on April 6th 1864, Mr. 
Hill was inducted on July 19th of the same year, and at 
once set about the work of building the present St. James' 

Such was Mr. Bruce's zeal for Church Extension, and 
such the needs of the Church at that time, that, by 
direction of the General Assembly, the Presbytery of 
Auckland temporarily released him from the charge of St. 
Andrew's, in order that he might visit neglected districts, 
and appointed Rev. Mr. Thorn to take his place in 
Auckland. The Church Extension Committee reported 
thus to the General Assembly of 1863 regarding the result 
of these peregrinations : — 

" In the course of that time he visited the following places : — 
Takaka or Golden Bay, Motueka and the Waimeas, Pictou, the 
Wairau Valley, the Awatere Valley, Kaikoura and the Amuri, the 


Hutt, Wairarapa, from Masterton to Castle Point, and the most of 
the stations on the overland route from Wellington to Napier. The 
result of his visit was that there were found at these several places 
numbers of Presbyterians, averaging froni 150 to 250, and forming at 
the very least an aggregate of from 1300 to 1500 souls, who are 
receiving no regular spiritual instruction from the Church to which 
thoy belong, and in some instances scarcely any religious visitation 
or superintendence from other denominations worthy of the name. 
Another result was that by an exposition of the Assembly's Church 
Extension Scheme, either in personal interview or on occasion of 
public service held, or by other means, the people in most of the 
districts visited were instructed more or less in the objects 
contemplated thereby, and induced to express formally their desire 
to have for themselves and their families the benefits of a resident 
ministry. Accordingly calls were made out and very generally 
subscribed to, and by the Committee have been forwarded to the 
Assembly's Commissioners at Home, with instructions that ministers 
be sent with as little delay as possible to the districts from which 
the calls proceed." 

Some of these calls, with blank spaces for names, 
were sent to Scotland, and some to Ireland, according to 
the Church at Home from which the majority of the 
settlers in a given district had come. At the same time 
was solicited the financial aid of the Home Churches. 

" The Free Church of Scotland, tho United Presbyterian 
Church of Scotland, and the Presbyterian Church of Ireland have 
severally been asked to contribute ^100 per annum for some time 
towards enabling the Church at once to occupy these long-neglected 

These Home Churches have given to this appeal a 
liberal response. From that day to the present they have 
been assisting this young New Zealand Church in money 
and in men. The Free Church has not contributed so 
systematically and handsomely in money year by year as 
the National Church of Scotland and the Irish Presbyterian 
Church, with their £100 per year each, but the noble band 


of ministers she has from time to time fitted out, and with 
passages paid sent across the sea to occupy the Colonial 
field cannot be measured in pounds, shillings, and pence. 
What would the New Zealand Church be without her 
Free Church ministers ? 

Of the seventeen ministers who came to New Zealand 
in 1871-72, the vast majority belonged to " the great 
missionary Church of Scotland," the Free Church. During 
that "red letter year" in the history of the Church, 
the number of ministers in the Auckland Presbytery was 
doubled. Twelve, at least, of the new comers were the 
result of a visit paid by Eev. D. Bruce to the Old Country. 
Previously he had appealed successfully by letter ; now he 
made intercession in person, with magnificent results. It 
mast be noted, however, that most of these ministers were 
required to occupy places vacated by ministers who had 
preceded them and taken their departure for other fields. 
The truth is that not a few of the charges formed in those 
early days, and provided with separate ministers, proved to 
be premature settlements. 

Goethe says : — " Happy the man who early learns the 
difference between his wishes and his powers." Such a 
man will not dissipate his energy by aiming at the 
impossible ; and it does seem too much to expect that all 
our ministers and Church members will realise that, as 
Froude puts it, " In common things the law of sacrifice 
takes the form of positive duty." The pastor of a small, 
struggling country charge cannot always be depended 
upon to rise to the conception of Eenan, " So soon as 
sacrifice becomes a duty and a necessity to man, I see no 
limit to the horizon which opens before him," and to perceive 
that no one ever escapes from the struggles of life without 
a stain. 


A minister is set down in a sparsely-peopled district. 
He is obliged to preach at least three times a day in places 
wide apart. This is only a small part of his duty. So far 
from imitating the example of some luxurious city parsons 
at Home who preach a couple of " cultured" sermons in 
the same place each Lord's Day, and resign their con- 
gregations every Sabbath evening for a week, the country 
minister spends the greater part of his time in the 
saddle, going from district to district and visiting from 
house to house. He is in most places kindly received, 
but he experiences a great lack of liberality, enthusiasm, 
co-operation, unity, and all that goes to make up real 
Church life. He must himself be preacher, pastor, 
teacher, lecturer, organiser, financier, and much more, all 
rolled in one. " Dark Care " sits behind the ecclesiastical 
horseman. To meet current expenses is a constant worry. 
Then churches must be erected and a manse built, and 
funds slender enough at other times are totally unable to 
meet the strain placed upon them. To " raise the wind" 
he raust resort to all sorts of expedients, from tea meetings 
to Church bazaars, until he is ready to exclaim, in 
language of the great dramatist much admired by the late 
Mr. Gladstone in the midst of the multifarious State 
duties thrust upon him, 

" 0, 'tis a burden, Cromwell — 'tis a burden 
Too heavy for a man with hopes of heaven." 

To add poignancy to his anguish of soul, the Church, 

from which he expected better things, instead of 

generously and sympathetically coming to his help, leaves 

him severely alone to struggle on unaided in his lonely 

isolation. It is hardly to be wondered at if, under these 

circumstances, a minister, in days when there was a 

hurrying to and fro on the face of the earth and every 

newspaper contained long lists of unclaimed letters, should 


come to the conclusion that he was spending his energy 
preaching to a handful, when he might be edifying 
thousands. Is it a cause for wonder that he should learn 
by experience that men are like sheep, of which a flock is 
more easily driven than a single one ; and that congregations 
are Hke bee-hives, one large united congregation being 
worked at less expense of brain, muscle, and money, and 
producing better results than two or three struggling 
independent ones ? One does not know whether most to 
blame ministers for deserting their posts, ecclesiastical 
pioneers for erecting premature charges, or the Church at 
large for not rising to the occasion, and with a large heart 
and generous hand fostering into strength these struggling 
congregations ; or most to admire the men who have battled 
on without much sympathy in the midst of all their 
difficult surroundings. 

Ordinances in all settlements ought, by some method, 
to be supplied. Deprived of the blessings of a preached 
Gospel, the dwellers in " bush settlements " and districts 
remote from towns do not become unattached saints. 
They live and move, we know, in such an atmosphere of 
sense, and have become so habituated to the sight and 
touch of material things, that too often ■" the Unseen " 
fades before their minds into a dream ; and the day on 
which Sunday falls, if known, is scarcely more sacred than 
any other day of the week. Suitable agents, lay or 
otherwise, ought to be supplied, and the whole Church 
realise the prayer of Christ, " That they all may be one, 
as Thou, Father, art in Me and I in Thee : that the world 
may know that Thou hast sent Me." This was not unlike 
the dream of Tennyson : — 

" One God, one law, one element, 
And one far-off event 
To which the whole Creation moves." 




A Visit from Rev. John Macfarlane, Wellington— An Exhortation 
from Scotland— Dependence Solely on the Teaching Elder an 
Evil— The Disruption Delays— The Wairau Massacre— Appoint- 
ment of Rev. T. D. Nicholson— Laying the Foundation Stone 
of Nelson Church— A New Zealand Creed— Education in Nelson 
—April Blasts— Testimonial to Mr. Nicholson— Rev. P. Calder 
Arrives— The Ralph Turner Donation— Mr. Nicholson in Wairau 
Valley— The Nelson Trust Fund— The Mission of Rev. D. Bruce 
—Rev. A. Russell— First Meeting of the Nelson Presbytery. 

The settlement of Nelson by the New Zealand Company 
followed closely upon the settlements of Wellington and 
Wanganui. A preliminary expedition, consisting of 
Captain Wakefield, Resident Agent of the Company, 
surveyors, surveyors' assistants, and ordinary labourers, 
arrived at Nelson in the ships " Whitby" and " Will 
Watch " from Gravesend, in November 1841, and at once 
hoisted the British flag on a hill overlooking the harbour. 
They were followed by the ** Fifeshire," which with the first 
immigrants on board came to anchor in the snug little bay 
on February 1st 1842, and she by other boats bearing 
their living freight. All the newly-arrived Colonists, 
when they had looked around them and got over the 
inconveniences accompanying the initiatory stages of 
settlement in a strange land, were dehghted with their 
new home. In contrast to Wellington, they found good 
agricultural land sufficient for all present needs close to 


the site of their new town. The harboui', they boasted, was 
in some respects superior to that on the other side of 
Cook's Strait, in spite of the fact that vessels desirous of 
entering had sometimes to wait six hours for the rising 
tide. Many likened it to the Piraeus, the offspring of the 
fertile brains of Themistocles and Pericles, and the outlet 
for the commerce of historic Greece ; others to the harbour 
of Trieste, the famous Austro-Hungarian seaport of the 
Adriatic, and were disposed to give it the palm over both. 
They went into raptures over the climate, and quoted 
statistics to show that while the rate of mortality in most 
European countries was 1 in 44, in Nelson they had 
found it to be only 1 in 239. The settler afterwards 
rich in flocks and herds, who threw the last sixpence he 
had in his pocket overboard, that he might land and begin 
a Colonial life penniless, was a specimen of the self-reliant 
spirit and buoyant hopefulness possessed by the Nelson 
settlers of early days. They little realised then the sad 
calamity that was to befall the Settlement in 1843, the 
year of the Wairau Massacre to which we shall imme- 
diately refer. 

The Government brig ''Victoria" arrived in Nelson 
on Tuesday May 3rd 1842, and brought with it the Rev. 
John Macfarlane, the Presbyterian minister of Wellington. 
He crossed the Straits to sympathise with the Presbyterians 
of Nelson, who were as sheep without a shepherd, and to 
render them whatever help was in his power. In the 
Nelson Examiner of the following Saturday appeared an 
advertisement intimating that he would hold services on 
the coming Sabbath at the Emigration Depot, both in the 
forenoon and afternoon, and that persons wishing to be 
married, and parents desirous of having their children 
baptised, were to apply to him at the depot before the 


morning service. The Presbyterians of Nelson took 
advantage of these novel and welcome services, and at the 
same time expressed a strong desire for a resident 
clergyman and a permanent place of worship. An 
advertisement to that effect appeared for a month in the 
local paper, in hopes that it might in the Colony or at 
Home meet the eye of someone who should be able to 
help them in the realization of their wish. A memorial, 
too, asking the General Assembly in Scotland to supply 
the need, was prepared and put into the hands of Mr. 
Macfarlane for transmission to its destination. It stated, 
" The population of Nelson amounts to about 1700 souls, of 
which fully three hundred may be Scots ; and the number 
is daily increasing." iMemorialists asserted that they 
were not able to procure for their infants the sacred 
ordinance of baptism, " whilst the impossibility of having 
the rite of marriage duly performed by an ordained 
clergyman, has led, and must still lead, to irregularities 
to be deplored as at variance with sound morality and 
the best interests of the Colonists." They concluded by 
hoping that someone of the licentiates at Home might 
come to their assistance, and that " the Church itself 
will not be wanting in liberality," they in Nelson doing all 
that they could to " promote his comfort and usefulness." 

A year afterwards, or in April 1843, a reply was 
received from Dr. Welsh by Mr. Macfarlane, in which the 
Convener of the Colonial Committee says : — 

"It has been the anxious wish of the Committee, for a 
considerable time past, to send out to you a fellow-labourer who 
might cheer your heart by his presence, and strengthen your hands 
by his counsel and co-operation. They regret that the state of the 
funds puts it altogether out of their power .... that the time 
may soon come when they may be able to send out u minister." 


The letter concluded with the following advice :— 

" In the meantime we would recommend that some arrangement 
should bo made for religious meetings on Sabbaths, under the 
conduct of men of godliness and influence, who might be selected 
with your advice and assis^.ance." 

The exhortation of the Convener was much needed. 
One proof of this was that it was not taken. Previous to 
1848, there is no record of meetings held or of religious 
work carried on in Nelson in connection with the 
Presbyterian Charch, although a Roman Catholic priest 
was labouring there as early as 1844 ; and an Anglican 
minister, and Wesleyan lay preachers were at work ; and 
Temperance, Friendly, and School Societies had an exist- 
ence from almost the very beginning. This is a 
question that bears closely on the well-being of the 
Presbyterian Church, especially in these Colonies. In 
early history it meets us again and again. The cry in 
very many cases is — "The Wesleyans and others have 
preceded us ! " Why should this be so ? We do not believe 
in the Romish doctrine, that the clergy constitute the 
Church; and yet we have practically come in many 
instances to adopt that position in placing dependence 
solely on the teaching presbyter. 

The high development of the teaching elder in the 
Church is at the same time its weakness and its strength. 
It was never intended, when at first from among the 
general elders some particularly " apt to teach " were set 
apart chiefly to " labour in word and doctrine," to prevent 
or even discourage the others from exercising whatever 
gifts of teaching they possessed. They might still not only 
assemble in Church Courts, and with the teaching elder 
discharge the duties proper thereto, and ofdciate in the 
sick room, Sabbath School, and Prayer Meeting ; but it 


was their privilege and their duty, if urgent necessity 
required and some degree of fitness were possessed, to 
mount the 7-ostrum and lead the services of the sanctuary 
on the Lord's Day. The disparity, however, which 
through the advance of ministerial education and training 
has gradually grown up in the Colony between the 
teaching presbyter and his fellows, has made the latter 
slow to teach, and the congregation slow to hear. The 
consequence is that, where the minister is removed by 
death or otherwise and no outside help is at hand, the con- 
gregation ceases to assemble, and becomes totally dis- 

The remedy seems to be as follows: — (1) Let ministers 
be careful to teach that the differences which at present exist 
between various classes of elders are differences of gifts 
rather than of office, and encourage and expect from this 
quarter much assistance in the work of their congregations. 
(2) Let the differences be minimised as far as possible, by the 
appointment to the eldership in every congregation of men 
of superior gifts and graces, the aim being to level up, 
not to level down. (3) Let the Church fill up the gap 
by calling into being, from the eldership if possible, an 
intermediate class of Church workers, after the manner 
of the teachers, helps, and evangelists of Apostolic times, 
who shall not be eligible for a call to a congregation, but 
who can always be depended upon to supply ordinances 
to vacant charges and outlying stations, and generally 
to promote the pressing and important work of Church 
Extension in this growing Colony. (4) Let the ordinary 
members be taught that whether spiritual office-bearers 
are appointed over them in largo numbers, or not at all, 
the responsibility of the exhortation, " Let him that 
heareth say come," rests on them ; and that in cases of 


emergency they ought to be able, like the early Christians, 
to " exhort one another in psahiis and hymns and spiritual 
songs." This would make the congregation such a 
bee-hive of workers, that in no case through the dropping 
out of a labourer would the work cease. 

Whatever hope of being able to send out a minister to 
Nelson there was at the end of 1842, when Dr. Welsh 
posted his letter at Edinburgh, it vanished into thin air 
under the withering influence of the Disruption. The 
people of Scotland were too deeply absorbed in Home 
affairs to have any ear for the complaints of destitute 
Presbyterians on the other side of the globe. This state 
of matters continued for some time. Those members of 
the National Church, who remained in, found all their 
energies taxed to provide ministers for their numerous 
vacant fragmentary charges ; and those, who walked out, 
discovered that the popularity of their cause created the 
greatest difficulty in supplying with ministers the large 
and numerous Free Church congregations who looked to 
them for the supply of ordinances. If there was spiritual 
destitution at Nelson, there was also spiritual destitution 
at Home. But what, perhaps, more than anything delayed 
the appointment of a minister for Nelson was the " Wairau 
Massacre." This dread event of June 17th 1843, by 
which twenty Colonists including Captain Wakefield and 
other representative men lost their lives, had far-reaching 
consequences. It shocked Europe, checked immigration 
from Great Britain to New Zealand for years, threw the 
whole of the New Zealand Company's Settlements into a 
state of excitement and alarm, and gave rise to a prolonged 
and acrimonious controversy between the Company and 
their settlers on the one hand and the Government on the 



After a strict investigation into all the circumstances 
on the spot, Governor Fitzroy, lately arrived, decided that 
the agents of the Company were wrong in persisting with 
the survey of lands whose disputed title had not been 
investigated by Mr. Spain, the Government Land Com- 
missioner appointed for the purpose ; and that the Maorig 
were wrong in slaying unarmed men after they had 
surrendered. There the matter ended. No punishment 


succeeded. Many thought afterwards that if the Governor 
had demanded Wairau Valley as compensation for the 
murdered men, it would have been acceded to without 
demur, and prevented the Natives supposing that the 
decision was dictated by cowardice. The Maori War that 
shortly broke out seemed to lend colour to this idea, and 
to give point to the indignation meetings held, the strong 



resolutions passed, and the protesting deputations formed 
in Wellington, Nelson, and elsewhere. In process of time, 
however. Captain Grey came on the scene, and in 1848 
brought the war to an end by carrying off to the ship one 
early morning before daylight the same old Maori chief 
whose attempted arrest was the occasion of the Wairau 
massacre. Affairs at Nelson then settled down into their 
wonted calm, if a state of matters can be called such, in 
which dissatisfied land claimants blamed the Government 
for not encouraging and promoting settlement, and dis- 
appointed labouring men blamed the New Zealand 
Company for scarcity of work, lowness of wages, 
insufficiency of food, and breach of faith. The population 
had so far increased that in the town and rural districts 
lying around there were about 3000 persons when the first 
Presbyterian minister put in an appearance. 

An appeal to the Free Church of Scotland was 
attended with better results. Its 
,. , .-,. Colonial Committee appointed 

to Nelson the Rev. Thomas 
Dickson Nicholson on a three 
years' engagement at £300 
per year. This was complying 
with the request of the Nelson 
Presbyterians to be liberal. Mr. 
Nicholson, having accepted the 
appointment, preached his fare- 
well sermon at Lowick, England 
on November 7th 1847. The 
circumstances under which it 
was delivered, and the tender 
leave-taking that followed, was 
experienced by him to be a 
trying ordeal. This is evidence of the conscientious way 



in which he took up and laid down the duties of the 
ministerial office. Some of the sermons written at home 
by him have come down to us. They have many 
excellencies. The thoughts are clear, the diction incisive, 
the arguments cogent, the illustrations apt, and the home 
thrusts pointed and practical, and full of evangelical 
sentiment, amply justifying the choice of the Home 

Fortunately, we have also a valuable journal written 
by Nelson's first minister, which he designated " a 
collection of sea-weed," and which gives an account of 
his voyage out, his settlement in Nelson, and his experiences 
there up to the year 1857, when he removed to Blenheim. 

His wife and children were passengers on board the 
historic " John Wickliffe " when that vessel, with the first 
party of settlers on board bound for the Free Church 
Colony of Otago, set sail from Gravesend on November 
24th 1847. Cicero, Scott, Carlyle, and many more point 
out the attachment felt by a good man for his native land. 
Mr. Nicholson's regret in bidding good-bye to the country 
of his birth is embodied in lines quoted by him : 

" They left their native land, and far away 

Across the waters sought a world unknown ; 
Yet well they knew that they in vain might stray 
In search of one more lovely than their own." 

During a fierce gale encountered at the beginning of the 
voyage the " John Wickli£fe " found refuge in St. Helen's 
Bay, Isle of Wight, at the same time as the " Philip 
Laing " ran for shelter into Gal way Bay. Then follow in 
his well-kept diary many expressions of pity for the 
victims of recent shipwrecks, commercial distress, 
epidemics carrying off thousands in Great Britain, a 
passing Portuguese slave-ship, and of gratitude to God 


for " His sparing mercy toward unworthy us." Evidence 
of deep piety crop up again and again. The sea, the 
sunset, the flying fish, the orbs that rule the day and 
night, the many passing ships, the ports of call, and 
islands passed, transferred to his journal in little pen-and- 
ink sketches, all excite in him thoughts of awe and 
reverence. Though there were 95 "souls on board, 
exclusive of crew and surgeon," we have no reference to 
any one of them or to the usual tittle-tattle of a ship. 
Being the only minister among the passengers, a prayer 
meeting was held by him every evening, and divine 
service conducted each Sabbath Day, when the weather 
permitted. A school was also "talked into existence," 
with an attendance of 24 children. Life on board ship 
was itself a school for young and old. He was ignorant, 
he confesses, of many of the lessons to be derived from 
the wonders of the deep, as he expresses it in one of his 
many apt poetical quotations, 

" Till he saw how the innocent creatures played 
In the billowy depths, and were not afraid ; 
Till he saw how the nautilus spread his sail, 
And caught as it flew the favouring gale : 
And great and small through the watery realm 
Were steered as it were by a veering helm." 

Rounding the southernmost end of the Middle Island of 
New Zealand they arrived, after a prosperous voyage, at 
the entrance to Port Chalmers on the morning of 
Wednesday March 22nd 1848, and saw " no boat upon 
the waters, no smoking chimney, no signs of man " 
anywhere. On the second Sabbath after landing, i.e., 
April 9th, Mr. Nicholson preached at the Emigration 
Barracks, Dunedin, at 11 o'clock, taking for his text one 
very suitable for the first sermon in a new settlement on 
foreign shores, "Neither is there salvation in any other. 


for there is none other name under heaven given among 
men whereby we must be saved " (Acts iv., 12). The 
theme of his afternoon discourse on the same day at the 
landing-place was not less appropriate for young New 
Zealand, " Wherewithal shall a young man cleanse his 
way ? By taking heed thereto according to Thy Word " 
(Psalm cxix., 9). Three weeks after his own arrival he 
sighted the " Philip Laing," and found how delightful it 
was to meet with Mr. Burns and his friends in this far-off 
land, and to give them a hearty welcome to the shores of 
their future home. " The first child baptised by Mr. 
Burns in the Colony, and the first birth since the arrival 
of the Colonists," was the son of Mr. Nicholson, the water 
used being brought all the way from the Thames, and the 
name being " John Wickhffe McWhir Daly." 

Bidding adieu to Port Chalmers, the Nicholson family 
arrived at Port Nicholson in the " John Wicklifife " on 
May 23rd. Here they found Eev. J. M. Inglis supplying 
Presbyterian services, and stayed three weeks. During 
that time Mr. Nicholson "preached five sermons and 
baptised eleven children," and bade an affectionate 
good-bye to the old ship that had borne him safely across 
the ocean wide, and which now sailed for Bombay. 

Nelson was reached on the morning of Sabbath, the 
18th of June 1848. Mr. Nicholson lost no time in 
getting into harness in his new field of labour. That 
same evening he " preached in Mr. Campbell's large 
school-room to a goodly audience of attentive listeners," 
Mr. Campbell being a Presbyterian who had done much 
in early days for the cause of education in Nelson. 

A more permanent and respectable place of worship, 
however, was deemed urgently required by the Presbyterians 
of Nelson, very many of whom were well-to-do Scotchmen. 


Out of a population of 3089 in the town and rural districts 
adjoining, 313 were Presbyterians, mostly of this character. 
A building scheme was set on foot in July, and soon after- 
wards it was announced that 30 persons had contributed 
the sum of £200, and that there was more to follow. D. 
Sclanders, Esq., gave £20, and Rev. T. D. Nicholson and 
Messrs. W. Wilkie, D. Moore, and T. Renwick, M.D., £10 
each. These were followed hard by Mr. George McRae, 
who afterwards left £700 for 
the Foreign Mission and £300 
for the Nelson and Blenheim 

February 22nd 1849 was, 
so far as the Presbyterians were 
concerned, a red-letter day in 
Nelson. On that day was to be 
laid the foundation-stone of a 
new Presbyterian Church, the 
only stone that was to go into „« /> « ».„ 

the building, the design being 
to erect a structure of wood on 

a brick foundation to seat 350 persons. A large con- 
course of people assembled. Amongst those present were 
the ministers of all the leading Churches, i.e., Aiiglican, 
Methodist, and German Lutheran, with many of their 
hearers. The speech delivered by Mr Nicholson on the 
occasion has been preserved. It was couched in con- 
ciliatory terms, and yet it showed that the speaker was 
possessed of a large amount of backbone, and was not 
afraid to " use great plainness of speech." After referring 
to the brotherhood of Christ, and the revival of the 
primitive spirit of Apostolic times, he went on to say : — 

" Surely Presbyterians might be allowed to have a preference for 
the communion to which they belonged. They need not be ashamed 



of Presbyterianism. Contrast the state of England in vital religion 
in Puritan times and after the restoration of Charles II., and the 
ejection of the 2000 Nonconformists ; contrast the present state of 
Presbyterian Ulster with any other province of Ireland ; contrast the 
state of Scotland with any other country in Europe ; and every 
friend of Biblical instruction, of Sabbath observance, and of true 
religion, ought to rejoice in the prospect of extending Presby- 
terianism. ... I appeal to Scotchmen to uphold the credit of 
their country in New Zealand. Presbyterian Scotland had shosvn 
that living faith and high principle are yet to be found on the earth 
as in former times, when her blood was shed like water, when from 
many a bloody scaffold and from many a gallows tree she witnessed 
a noble testimony for the truth confirmed and sealed by the blood of 
her truest sons and daughters." 

The concluding sentiment, as the sequel shows, was 
scarcely realised : — 

" May glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace and 
goodwill to men be preached here ; and may truth, peace, and 
charity take up their abode within its walls. For my brethren and 
companions' sake I will now say peace be ivithin thee." 

The bottle deposited under- 
neath the stone contained, 
among other things, a copy of 
the New Zeahmd Evamjelist, 
February 1849 ; of the Nehun 
Examiner, January 27th 1849 ; 
with statistics of settlement ; and 
of " The Desolation of Jeru- 
salem," by Rev. T. D. Nichol- 
son ; and the following now 
historic documents, the titles 
being ours : — 


"Elders to be elected next month. 
Trustees ; — Messrs. D. Sclanders, T. 

Renwick (M.D.), W. Rogerson, W. DR. RENWICK. 

Wilkie, W. Gardner, Rev. T. D. 


Nicholson, J. Mackay, G. McRae, R. D. M. Isaac, aud A. Rankin." 


" The Presbyterian ministers of New Zealand :— Rev. T. D. 
Nicholson, Nelson ; Rev. T. Bums, Dunedin, Otago ; Rev. Geo. 
Panton, Auckland ; sent out by the Free Church of Scotland. Rev. 
John Inglis, Wellington ; Rev. James Duncan, Manawatu ; sent out 
by the Reformed Church of Scotland. 


" The standards of the Church are the Confession of Faith 
and the Catechism prepared by the Westminster divines ; and 
this Church adheres to the Free Church of Scotland in her primitive 
mode of worship, to the testimony of the martyrs who have laid 
down their lives in defence of her fundamental principles and for 
the preservation of her ancient and her noble constitution. And 
may God grant that no apostasy shall ever arise in this Church 
from any one doctrine which bears either upon the cross or crown of 
the Divine Redeemer." 


" This building would have been of brick instead of wood if it 
had not been for the earthquakes of October, 1848." 

The church was to be known as " Trinity Presby- 
terian Church, Nelson." In this was shown much 
wisdom on the part of Mr. Nicholson and his officebearers, 
for which the Presbyterians of Nelson to-day ought to be 
thankful. What a pity that in many parts of New Zealand 
and the Home country the practice, discontinued at the 
Keformation, should be revived of naming churches after 
the saints. In these days of rituahsm and Romeward 
movement on the part of many, we cannot afford to toy 
with strange fire from off the Romish altar. We know, of 
course, that those amongst us who name their churches 
after some particular saint do not wisli to suggest that it 
is under the guardianship of such. But we live in strange 
times, and for all we know stranger times may be in store 
for us, and we ought to be ever on our guard against 


the enemy having any occasion to speak reproachfully. 
Few Churches are so intimately acquainted with the inner 
workings of Romanism as the Irish Presbyterian Church, 
and what is her invariable practice ? In all her borders 
you will not find, perhaps, more than one church with the 
name of a saint stuck before it. 

The new church was opened on December 28rd 
1849, when the edifice was more than comfortably filled, 
360 persons being crushed into space provided for 350, 
and when £23 of a collection was taken up. Mr. Nicholson 
preached in the morning and afternoon, and Rev. Mr. 
Ironside, the Wesleyan minister, in the evening. With 
the Wesleyan minister he seems to have been on terms of 
intimate friendship, often ofiiciating in his church as he 
now did in the Presbyterian. 

Here Mr. Nicholson, who began his ministry in 
Nelson under favourable auspices, usually preached twice 
every Sabbath, but often only once, giving the second 
and sometimes a third service to such places as Stoke, 
Wakapuaka, Richmond, Springrove, or Waimea West. 
These places he not unfrequently reached on horseback, 
but thought nothing of walking out on foot a distance of 
12 miles to hold a service, to administer baptism, or to 
pay a sick visit. Long tramps became part of the routine 
of his duties, aud had ko be taken with as good a grace as 

How did matters stand in regard to education ? 
Mr. Nicholson had not been long in Nelson when the 
Colonial Secretary sent him a circular from Wellington, 
inquiring what schools were under his direction. He 
replies, "I have no love for sectarian schools strictly 
speaking, and think the wants of the Nelson community 
with regard to the ordinary branches of a common 


education seem to be fully met, but should yet gladly 
seek the institution of a school or academy where we 
might have taught the higher branches of a classical and 
commercial education." This laudable desire to see the 
district put into possession of the advantages of a good 
education is for a Presbyterian minister a characteristic 
one. The Presbyterian Church has always laid great 
stress on education, and when, as here, it is conducted on 
right lines, cannot lay too much. Mr. M. Campbell, a 
Presbyterian, organised the first school in Nelson, and had 
the Bible read every day and a Sabbath School conducted 
each Lord's Day. After that school merged in the " Nelson 
School Society," he continued to be principal spoke in the 
educational wheel. The well-equipped schools of this society 
had spread all over the district when Mr. Nicholson came. 
It is greatly to the credit of these early pioneers of education 
in Nelson, and shows how far we have departed from the 
good old practices of early times, that in all these schools 
the Bible was read daily, and in many cases Sunday 
Schools held in connection therewith. 

Mr. Nicholson had written in his diary, 

" What is this passing scene ? 
A peevish April day ! 
A little sun, a little rain, 
And then night sweeps along the plain. 
And all things fade away." 

Cold April winds began now to blow upon him. There 
were divided interests in his congregation, and lack of the 
complete harmony he longed to see. A worse trial was 
experienced at home. On July 30th 1856 he lost a 
prop in the death of his beloved wife, whose "counsel, 
love, and fellowship " he had enjoyed for 14 years. He 
must have keenly felt the loss sustained by himself and 
family when he wrote, 


What is home without a mother? 

What are all the joys we meet ? 
When her loving voice no longer 

Greets the coming of our feet. 

Mr. Nicholson now determined to resign his charge 
at Nelson, but offered to wait until he saw his successor 

There is evidence to show that he had some attached 
friends in Nelson. A public breakfast on August 4th 
1857 was given to hira on the occasion of his leaving for 
Blenheim. After refreshments were partaken of, D. 
Sclanders, Esq., who occupied the chair, stated the object 
of the meeting. He thought they would all agree with 
him in saying that- during the nine years Mr. Nicholson 
had been in Nelson his zeal, learning, and general 
attainments had commanded the respect of all denomina- 
tions, and maintained the standing of the Presbyterian 
Church. The community, though small, was composed 
of nearly all the sects known in Scotland, and he (the 
chairman) was of opinion that this was " one of the 
reasons why Mr. Nicholson had not met with that entirely 
general support which the number of Presbyterians in the 
settlement would warrant us to expect." It was a great 
trial, he thought, for a man of education to come out 
to a small place like Nelson ; but in the midst of all 
his diflficulties Mr. Nicholson had rendered service to 
the Presbyterian cause, for which they were exceedingly 
grateful. Mr. Sclanders then presented Mr. Nicholson 
with a well-filled purse of sovereigns. 

Mr. Nicholson, in reply, thanked them for the 
undeserved gift, and wished them all prosperity as a 
congregation. He conceived it to be past conjecture 
that the golden age of Nelson had arrived, and exhorted 


them all to give a helping hand to lay well the foundations 
of the Colony and transmit to rising generations the 
precious trust of their glorious privileges, both sacred and 

The choice of the Free Church Colonial Committee 
fell upon the minister of Belhelvie, Scotland, the 
Rev. P. Calder. Dr. Bonar, the Convener, urged the 
need and the growing importance of Nelson as reasons 
for his translation. The congregation sent representatives 
to the Presbytery of Aberdeen to oppose. Mr. Calder 
himself settled the matter by saying that it had been a 
long-cherished wish of his to go to the Colonial fields. 
He was released in January 1857, and arrived in New 
Zealand in October 6th of the same year. He was 
accompanied by his father, mother, and sister. Miss 
Calder still resides at Nelson, and occupies the old manse 
as tenant. He at once entered with vigour on the 
work of the congregation. The ministry of Mr. Calder, 
extending as it did over a period of 34 years, reaches too 
near our own time to call for much comment. We may 
say, however, that he had the reputation of being a 
scholarly man, and when he lectured in the days of his 
prime had no difficulty in securing a large and appreciative 
audience. When the General Assembly met in Nelson in 
1867 it paid him the honour of calUng him to the 
Moderatorial chair. 

A few words are necessary to explain the nature of 
the Ralph Turner donation. 

In 1863 Mr. Calder reported to the Maori Mission 
Committee that a friend of his, Ralph Turner Esq. of 
Genia, Nelson, had given £100 for a mission to the Maoris 
of the district, and would give an additional hundred as 
soon as the Church entered on the work. Coming at the 


time of a disturbance amongst the Natives and from a 
district bordering on the scene of the Wairau massacre, 
the Convener looked upon the gift as an encouragement 
from God for the Church to go forward in prosecuting 
with all diligence this important mission work. For 
some time the money was banked, and additions being 
made to it rpached the sum of £454 before it was 
handed over to the Church Property Board for Maori 
mission work. What a blessing to a most deserving 
mission if many other friends in like manner heard 
the Master say, " Wherefore if thine enemy hunger, 
feed him ; if he thirst, give him drink ; for in so doing 
thou shalt heap coals of fire on his head." 

Mr. Nicholson, after leaving Nelson went to the 
Wairau Valley. When minister of Nelson he had paid 
several visits to the Wairau, and was attracted towards it 
as a district that was fertile and beautiful and of growing 
importance. In 1857 he came permanently to reside in 
it, and took up eventually his residence at Renwicktown. 
The Wairau Valley was then in almost its native state. 
The population was small and scattered. Blenheim had 
little more than a name. That name had a peculiar origin. 
The place, it is said, was originally called Beavertown, 
because the surveyors, in flood time, had, like the animal 
of that name, to take to logs and stumps of trees. When 
after separation from Nelson the province was named 
Marlborough its principal town was named Blenheim, 
after the Duke of Marlborough's famous battle. It 
had then only a few houses. In one of these, a store of 
the late Mr. Jas. Sinclair, Mr. Nicholson often held 
services. He also frequently officiated at a store of Mr. J. 
M. Hutcheson's at Grovetown, where a number of men 
found employment as sawyers in a large bush, the labourers 



coming often to worship in blue shirts and moleskin 
trousers, the usual working attire of that time. Then Mr. 
Nicholson roamed at his sweet will over the Awatere 
district, distant 25 miles, where large sheep stations 
existed. In the opposite direction he made his way 
to Picton, and a very dismal way it was. It was a 
narrow boggy track, which for many miles followed the 


indentations of the hills round the Big Swamp which is 
still in existence. This weary road Mr, Nicholson often 
tramped on foot in all weathers. Possibly these long and 
fatiguing journeys had not a little to do with his final 

A church had been built for him at Renwick, which 
was the first church of any denomination erected in the 



Province of Marlborough, the congregation there getting 
as usual some assistance from the Nelson Trust Fund. 

Part of the original scheme of settlement by the New 
Zealand Company was that out of the funds received from 
the sale of lands, £50,000 should be set apart for a college, 
for steam navigation, and for religious purposes ; but, as 


is well known, the Company was not able to meet its 
engagements. The Church suffered with other interests. 
The Anglican communion fared best. It received at an 
early stage £5000, on the understanding that the same 
amount was to be raised by it and invested in the settle- 
ment. According to the Ac/son Examiner, however, that 


Church in 1847 had only raised £1500, and it called upon 
the Church to refund the difference. It was intended to 
give the Churches £15,000 in all, and when the affairs of 
the Company were wound up and local trustees appointed 
by Act of Parliament in England various sums were 
given to religious bodies for the support of ministers and 
the building of churches. After the Home Church dis- 
continued its grant Mr. Nicholson received for a number of 
years the sum of £150 per annum out of this fund. In 
Blenheim we find him complaining that the trustees had 
promised him £150 for the building of a church there, 
and then handed over £300 for that district to the Bishop 
of Nelson to be dealt out by him as he thought fit, and 
that the Bishop had condescended to devote £100 towards 
the erection of the Blenheim Presbyterian Church. In 
support of his claim Mr. Nicholson stated then that be 
was only receiving £100 per annum from his people in 
the Wairau Valley, and that the congregation had already 
expended the sum of £120 on the new church. 

In Mr. Nicholson centre more than one historic 
interest. Of ministers who came out expressly in 
the interests of the settlers, he was the first Presby- 
terian minister to preach at Dunedin, the first in 
the Wairau, the second at Wellington, and the very 
earliest settled Presbyterian minister in Nelson and its 
neighbourhood. His labours and strivings, however, were 
now to end. He died on July 16th 1864, and was 
buried at Picton. In describing his latter end, we cannot 
do better than draw upon another quotation of his, 

" In such a season of calm weather, 
Though seaward far we be, 
Our souls have sight of that immortal sea, 
Which brought us hither : 
Can in a moment travel thither, 
And see the children sport upon the shore, 
And hear the mighty waters — rolling evermore." 



According to a recommendation of the General 

Assembly, the Presbytery of Auckland at the end of 

1862 temporarily released Rev. 

David Bruce from his charge 

at Auckland, in order that he 

might visit certain places named 

by the supreme court as urgently 

requiring the Church's spiritual 

superintendence. Mr. Bruce 

entered on this mission in the 

beginning of the following year, 

and spent two months, visiting 

among other regions Takaka, 

Golden Bay, Motueka, Waimea, 

Picton, and the Wairau and 

Awatere Valleys, places scattered 

over what came afterwards to bo 

known as the Provinces of Nelson 

and Marlborough. He carried with him a form of call 

ready for signature. When it was signed by a people 

desirous of obtaining the services of a minister, it was 

sent to the Assembly's Commissioners at Home, with 

instructions that as far as possible they were to procure a 

minister in that Church to which the majority of the 

subscribers in each case belonged. 


In response to one of these calls, given at the time 
of Mr. Nicholson's failing health. Rev. A. Russell, of 
Newburgh, Scotland, came out from the Free Church, 
and arrived in October 1864, a short time after the 
decease of Wairau's first minister. Mr. Russell had the 
pleasure of finding a manse at Blenheim, which had just 
been finished, waiting for his reception. There was also 
plenty of work in store for him, more than he could well 


overtake. Owing to the discovery of gold in the district, 
the population had greatly increased, as his predecessor 
always thought it would. He continued, however, to give 
such services as he could to Picton, Havelock, the Awatere 
Valley, and other places round about. Under his direction 
the people of Picton erected a small church, and promised 
to raise £100 towards the stipend of a minister. 

Mr. Piussell's ministerial career was short. It was 
only of four years' duration, but they were years filled 
with hard and honest work. A man's life cannot be 
measured by periods of time. He had attended the 
General Assembly of 1867, which met in Nelson, and had 
taken a very active part in its proceedings. Returning 
home with fresh zeal for his work, he had the pleasure 
of seeing a church at Blenheim carried to completion, 
and of opening it on May 24th 1868. This was the first 
and last time he preached in it. Diphtheria, then prevalent 
in the district, carried him off as one of its victims. Well 
may all labourers in the vineyard look upon this event as 
a call to increased faithfulness and increased submission 
to the will of Him who has said, "Go ye also into the 
vineyard, and whatsoever is right I will give." 

" Else our lives are incomplete, 

Standing on those walls of time, 
Broken stairways where the feet 
Stumble as they seek to climb." 

Two other ministers came out to this district as a 
result of the blank calls sent Home by the Rev. D. Bruce. 
One was the Rev. William Hogg, whose trials and 
endurings we refer to in connection wdth Northern 
Canterbury, but whose peregrinations often extended into 
the Province of Nelson. The other was the Rev. John 
Campbell of Helensburgh who arrived at Nelson towards 
the end of 1863, in answer to a call from Riwaka, Motueka, 


Sec. Regarding hia settlement the Church Extension 

Committee reported to the Assembly in October 18G4, as 

follows : — 

"In obedience to the Assembly's instructions the Convener 
proceeded to Nelson in the mouth of March, and aided the Rev- 
Patrick Calder, minister of the place, in the ordination of Mr. 
Campbell to the work of the ministry among the people to whom he 
had been sent, and the Committee are glad to say that the work of 
God has since that time prospered well in his hand. Steps have been 
taken to erect a church in the priucipal district, Riwaka, upon a site 
liberally granted by one of the members of the church, and in the 
course of a few weeks the foundation of the fabric will be laid. The 
efficiency of Mr. Campbell's labours will doubtless be greatly 
increased and the organization of the congregation be more complete, 
so soon as minister and people are privileged to occupy their new 

Mr. Campbell remained but a brief period in Riwaka. 

He was inducted at Lincoln and Prebbleton on February 

21st 1866. For nearly two years the charge he vacated 

was without a minister, the people being kept together by 

Mr. Calder. At the end of that time the Rev. William 

Bherriffs was happily settled over them, and among other 

districts had assigned to him by the Committee the care of 

Takaka " until further arrangements were made." 

The Presbytery of Nelson was constituted for the first 
time at Trinity Presbyterian Church, Nelson, on January 
13th 1869. The members present were, Rev. Patrick 
Calder, Nelson ; Rev. William Sherriffs, M.A., Riwaka ; 
and Mr. W. Gardiner, representative eider from Nelson 

The Presbytery now includes the following charges 
and ministers : — 



REV. W. 0. ROBB. 







Napier— The First Meeting— Rev. P. Barclay Arrives— A New 
Church — Taranaki— Troublesome Times— Rev. John Thom— 
Rev. R. F. Macnicol — Perseverance Amid Difficulties. 

The Hawke's Bay district has an early historic interest. 
It was among the first places in New Zealand touched by 
Captain Cook in his famous voyage of 1769. Such 
names as Cape Kidnappers and Poverty Bay bear modern 
testimony to his disappointing experiences. He found the 
Natives, with whom the neighbourhood swarmed, hostile, 
treacherous, thievish, and intractable, and their country, 
which at one point, he alleged, " did not afford a single 
article they wanted except a little firewood," an "unfortunate 
and inhospitable place." Hawke's Bay then shared in the 
stigma attached to the East Coast. One can scarcely realise 
this now-a-days as he thinks of the cultured inhabitants of 
modern Napier doing honour in the nomenclature of their 
city to such groat literary personages as Shakespeare, Milton, 
Chaucer, Tennyson, and Browning ; or as he stands on 
Prospect Hill with its magnificent villas, gardens, and 
trees, and looks out upon a bay that has been compared to 
that of Naples, and inland upon the picturesque townships, 
well-cultivated farms, and comfortable homesteads that dot 
the rich alluvial plain adjoining. This beautiful district, 
however, with its ideal climate was once given over to some 
of the fiercest Native tribes in New Zealand. Of these 
there were at the foundation of the Colony about 12,000 
scattered over the Hawke's Bay district. The country round 


about was the rendezvous of Te Kooti and the scene of a 
fearful massacre carried out by him in Poverty Bay as late as 
1868. In 1858, when the Presbyterian Church began to take 
root, the European population was very small, not more 
than 1180 all told. For the most part, however, they were 
prosperous and independent. In that year a desire long 
entertained by them was fulfilled. The district was 
disjoined from Wellington and formed into a separate 

The first meeting to establish a Presbyterian cause 
was held in the Royal Hotel, Napier, on Saturday, June 
9th 1858. It was occasioned by a letter received from 
Rev. D. Bruce of Auckland, stating that he had written 
home for a minister who should live at Napier and take 
charge of all the Presbyterians in the district of Ahuriri, or 
Port Napier. The chair was occupied by A. Alexander, 
Esq., who came to the district previously to 1852, and was 
one of its very earliest and most respected settlers. His 
opening remarks were not characterised by a sanguine 
tone. He thought that " an apartment for occasional 
services was needed," and "a residence for a minister," 
and a horse to carry him hither and thither ; but was of 
opinion that owing to the district being thinly populated 
and the fact of a comparatively small number taking an 
interest in the matter, they should need external assistance. 
The following committee was appointed : — 

Messrs. Alexander, Gollan, Gray, D. McLean (afterwards Sir D. 
McLean), Mun, and Wood, Mr. Mun being treasurer and Mr. Wood 

Some of these gentlemen gave handsome contributions 
towards meeting the expense that would have to be incurred 
in starting a new cause in Napier. Mr. D. McLean gave 
£20, Mr, D. Gollan £15, and Mr. A. Alexander, a member 


of the General Assembly, £10. Shortly afterwards it was 
announced that the Colonial Committee of the Free Church 
had selected Rev. P. Barclay for Napier and Hawke's Bay, 
Professor Lumsden, a member of it, testifying that he had 
been his companion at college, and that he was a " good 
scholar," an " excellent preacher," an "able man," and a 
" splendid horseman," a qualification said to have been 
much needed in his Colonial field of labour. 

Presbyterians were not so slow in occupying this field 
as they were in the case of some others. Their movement 
anticipated even that of the English Church. Not a few 
of the settlers were Scotchmen of the well-to-do class. 
An event of some interest was approaching. A dis- 
tinguished minister was on his road to Napier, and due 
preparation must be made for his advent. A five-acre lot 
was purchased before the end of the year, and a manse 
set on foot. 

The "White Swan" brought Rev. P. Barclay to 
Napier on June 6th 1859. There being no church as 
yet, Mr. Barclay held divine service once a day in the 
schoolroom at Napier, and once at Clive in the afternoon, 
and arranged these services so that they should not clash 
with those of Rev. Mr. St. Hill, the Church of England 
minister. This was a temporary expedient. The popula- 
tion was increasing. In 1860 there were 2800 people in 
the district, of whom about 260 were Presbyterians. This 
justified the office-bearers in letting a contract for a church, 
which was opened on June 16th 1861. A novelty of the 
proceedings in clearing off the debt on the church was 
that now much-hackneyed method of raising money, a 
church bazaar, the articles disposed of being brought out 
for the purpose from the Old Country. Since then the 
congregation, having passed through many vicissitudes, 


has grown strong and vigorous, and now occupies an 
influential position in the town of Napier. Carlyle says 
with much truth, " Conviction, be it ever so excellent, is 
worthless till it converts itself into conduct." Tried by 
this standard the convictions of the people of Napier must 
be pronounced of the right sort. 

The Presbyterian cause at Taranaki in days of yore, 
like the settlement there, had a struggle for existence. 
It shared in troubles which had an early beginning and 
were of an aggravated kind. In this respect the settlement at 
New Plymouth did not differ from the other ventures of the 
New Zealand Company. Though it was at first organized 
by a joint stock association, called the New Plymouth 
Company, after the town of Plymouth in the South of 
England, it speedily became amalgamated with the New 
Zealand Company's operations. The latter in 1840 sold 
the former 10,000 acres of excellent land on the West 
Coast, which it professed to have purchased from the 
Natives, many of whom at the time, it is said, were held 
captives by the Waikato tribes, and did all that it could to 
advance the new colonisintj scheme. Help was much 
needed. Fate seemed to have determined that the English 
city should not have a counterpart in New Zealand. The 
country itself had many attractions. Seaward there was 
an open roadstead, but landward the region appeared to be 
everything that could be desired. Mt. Egmont, capped with 
snow, rose in solitary grandeur, and looked down with pride 
on a rich open fern country, well watered by its numerous 
streams, and seen from afar formed a striking landmark in 
a beautiful landscape. The Colonists found the earth there 
so kind that they had only to tickle it with a hoe, and it 
laughed with a harvest. Mr. Carrington, the Company's 
surveyor, was so struck with its charms that he designated 



it in 1841 " the garden of this country," and that name, 
endorsed by Governor Hobson, has adhered to it ever 
since. It is now known as " the Garden of New Zealand." 
How true it is that happiness is not inherent in a place. 
As the great dramatist says, 

" The mind is in its own place, and in itself 
Can make a heaven of hell, a hell of heaven." 

'S^^fp^ '* '^^ 


When the district was originally purchased in 1840 
from certain Natives, the business was transacted with 
great difficulty. Another section of the aborigines refused 
to give their consent to the sale, and denied the power of 
the others to sell without their concurrence. Fearing a 


breach of the peace the Government stepped in to settle the 
dispute, but despite its efforts extending over years, the 
Maori difficulty became more threatening. To pacify the 
Natives it limited the Colonists to a fraction of the 
land they claimed to have purchased. This enraged 
the Colonists. Cooped up in a small block of land around 
the town of New Plymouth, the migrants took no pains to 
show their strong displeasure, so that the breach between 
them and the aborigines was widened instead of lessened. 
Frequent attempts were made by the Colonists, with the 
consent of the Government, to enlarge their borders, and 
every essay was met by increased opposition on the part of the 
Natives. It was over a block of land at the Waitara that the 
Taranaki War in 1860 began, when the first fierce fighting 
between the Europeans and the Natives occurred. The 
whole district resounded with the clash of arms. British 
ships of war hovered off the coast ; 2000 English soldiers 
garrisoned the Province, marching and counter-marching 
from place to place. New Plymouth itself was in a state 
of siege. It was fortified and blockaded. The settlers 
living around had been ordered into it, and leaving their 
houses to be burnt, their crops to be wasted, and their 
flocks and herds to be driven off by the Natives, were 
huddled together like sheep in a narrow pen. Disease 
broke out, and carried off numerous victims. Many 
persons, rather than endure the prolonged agony, removed 
to other parts of the Colony or returned Home, having 
lost their all. It was near New Plyn.outh, too, in 1864, 
that the Hau-Haus, seized with a dangerous fanaticism, 
made their first onslaught on the Christians. Previous to 
this a common Christianity formed a bond of union more 
or less strong between the two races. Now, however, 
with Hau-Hauism, and its ally, the King movement, 
rampant, the motto was " No quarter for the aliens." 


The coming, therefore, of Rev. John Thorn from 
Wanganui to reside in New Plymouth and hold services 
in various districts of Taranaki, towards the end of the fifties, 
was destined to fall on troublesome times. He could not 
be expected to accomplish much. There was no settled 
charge. He was scarcely adapted for ministering to one. 
He seems to have been unable to secure any hearty co- 
operation on the part of the unsettled settlers. There are 
some men who are more fitted for itinerating than for 
regular pastoral work. They are more at home breaking 
up new ground and casting in the seed than fencing, 
weeding, and patiently nursing the crop into a fruitful 
harvest. Mr. Thom was one of these. Coming out under 
the auspices of the Colonial Committee of the Free Church 
in 1857, he had been to Turakina and then to the Hutt, 
and for longer or shorter periods had preached the Gospel 
in both those places. He itinerated for about three years 
in Taranaki. He visited and preached in Foxton and 
Auckland, and finally did good pioneering work across the 
sea in New South Wales. He was desirous, howevei-, 
before he left to see provision made for occupying the 
Taranaki field. So were certain military settlers who at 
the time resided in it. Through their representations the 
Auckland Presbytery sent Home for a minister to the 
Church of Scotland. 

In response Rev. R. F. Macnicol, late assistant in the 
parish of St. Luke's, Glasgow, arrived with his wife on 
November 23rd 1865. He had offered himself for 
Colonial service, and intended going to Canada, but, 
hearing of the necessities of New Plymouth, crossed two 
seas instead of one. The Church of Scotland had not 
given any assistance in men or money to the New Zealand 
Presbyterian Church up to this time, although she had a 


congregation of her own in Wellington. In this case she 
both sent a suitable labourer and guaranteed for a time 
one-half of his salary, or £150. A disappointment instead 
of a charge awaited Mr. Macnicol in New Plymouth. He 
searched in vain for the St. Andrew's congregation, which 
he was led to believe eagerly desired a minister. The 
explanation was that the Maori war which had been 
raging there was over, though trenches and fortifications 
still surrounded the city, and settlers feared going far 
afield to cultivate the ground. The military had taken 
their departure. The Imperial Government had ordered 
the withdrawal of five regiments, and left further fighting 
to be done by the Colonial forces. Along with them went 
the bone and sinew of many a flourishing congregation. 
The military settlers, too, had for the most part beaten a 
hasty retreat. The few Presbyterians that remained had 
lost heavily in the recent war, and were very much dis- 
couraged. It was a gloomy outlook, which required 
courage to face. The fortitude which rises upon an 
obstruction, as the river swells the higher whose course 
is stopped, was now equal to the occasion. With the 
ocean behind him and duty beckoning him on, Mr. 
Macnicol felt like saying, 

" Tet I argue not 
Against Heaven's hand or will, nor 'bate a jot 
Of heart or hope, but still bear up and steer 
Right onward." 

Above the heaviest cloud a star is shining. A few of the 
old settlers rallied round him, attracted by his fervent and 
indomitable spirit. Better fortune still was coming. The 
Independents had had a minister, but he was gone, and 
being satisfied with Mr. Macnicol's services they cast 
in their lot with the Presbyterian congregation, and 
materially strengthened a cause to which they have 


adhered ever since. Thus encouraged, the Presbyterians 
put their shoulders to the building of a church so 
vigorously that in nine months after services began it 
was opened for worship. It was not large, holding 200 
and costing with site £700, but it amply met all the 
requirements of the case till it was burned down many 
years afterwards. As the settlers regained confidence 
they returned to their farms, moving out very gradually 
farther and farther from the town, and erecting new 
homes for themselves in place of those that war had swept 
away. The Presbyterian minister followed them with 
services, often at the risk of his life from the Maoris, 
especially the Hau-Haus, who had a great dislike to 
parsons ; and from the rivers, particularly the Waitara 
where he was once nearly drowned. He was naturally 
venturesome, but Providence was particularly kind to him 
during his ministry of three years and three months in 
Taranaki. So were the people by the will of God. They 
did everything they could to make his lot happy. That 
lot had its advantages as well as its disadvantages. The 
very romance of the surrroundings was exhilarating to the 
city-bred youth, and gave zest to his service for Christ in 
a new land. All through he felt not only that he was 
establishing the first congregation in Taranaki, but 
helping in some measure to lay the foundation of a great 
Colony at the Antipodes. Having accepted a call to St. 
James', Auckland, on January 29th 1869, from his 
larger sphere of usefulness he looks back with pleasure 
upon his ministerial life at New Plymouth, where he 
sought on Natives and settlers alike to inculcate the much- 
needed truth, 

" Cowards are cruel, but the brave 
Love mercy and delight to save." 




Families of Early Days — Spiritual Destitution — Rev. John Moir 
Calls — Under Many Disadvantages — Organization —Established 
Church or Free— Oh, for a Clever Minister! — Rev. C. Fraser 
Arrives — A Large Parish — The Addington Cemetery — Education. 

Though the Canterbury Plains became the site of an 
extensive Church of England settlement in the middle of 
this century, they were first permanently occupied by 
Scotch Presbyterians from Ayrshire, whose representatives 
still reside at Eiccarton. One has only to consult the map 
of the South Island, published by Keith Johnstone about 
1850, to be convinced of this. There Riccarton has " a 
habitation and a name," but when it was prepared 
Christchurch was not. 

Since the beginning of the century a few whalers and 
runaway sailors had settled in the Native pas along the 
coast or among the bays of this Island, from time to time, 
and had taken to themselves Maori wives. They were 
ministered unto by missionaries of the Anglican, Wesleyan, 
or Roman Catholic Churches. The Plains themselves, 
however, remained without inhabitants from the time of 
Rauparaha's raid, about the end of the twenties, till the 
beginning of the forties, when two attempts were made in 
vain by rival Sydney firms to colonise them. The intended 
settlers, after a trial, considered them unfit for human 
habitation, Mr. Heriot, one of the last, declaring that the 
district was " the most God and man forsaken place on the 


face of the earth." All this sounds strange in the ears of 
its modern successful inhabitants. It shows what human 
skill and perseverance can do to make an uninviting 
country habitable. It was three years after this, or in the 
beginning of 1843, seven and a half years prior to the 
arrival of the Canterbury Church of England settlers, that 
the late Messrs. WilHam and John Deans, brothers, came 
from Wellington to take vip their residence at Riccarton, 
which they named after their native parish in Ayrshire. 
The name of the river that gracefully flows under hanging 
willows and traffic bridges, and forms so attractive a 
feature of Christchurch, also bears testimony to their 
early occupation. Its native designation when they came 
and estabhshed themselves on its banks was Putare 
Kamutu. This they altered to Avon, calling it after the 
Avon in Lanarkshire, which formed one of the boundaries 
of their grandfather's property, on its way to join the Clyde, 
and was a stream in which they had fished when boys. 
The naming of this river, therefore, had no connection, 
as some suppose, with the English Avon of Stratford, the 
birthplace of Shakespeare, or with the coming of the 
" Canterbury Pilgrims." The Deans brothers were not alone. 
They brought with them from Wellington John Gebbie, wife, 
and children, and Samuel Manson, wife, and children ; in 
all six adults and six children. Here the men, leaving the 
women and children at Port Levy for a time, pitched their 
tent, and erected the first house that was built on the 
Plains. It was constructed of wood, put together with 
wooden pegs, and though the winter was cold and the 
openings numerous, the whole of the little colony managed 
to find shelter in it, by battening the joints, and by 
partitioning it off into three apartments with blankets and 
sheets. This interesting old house stood till 1890, when, 
being unsafe, it was taken down. 


The Riccarton household has been given to hospitality 
from an early date. Mr. William Deans had the privilege 
of welcoming the immigrants of " the four ships," and of 
supplying them with timber to build their dwellings. 
Two other houses at Riccarton were erected immediately 
after the first, in 1843-4, Manson being chief carpenter. 
They are still standing. When the little community was 
diminished by the withdrawal of the Gebbies and Mansons 
to the head of Lyttelton Bay, William Todd, with his wife 
and children, came to occupy their place, and maintain 
the efficiency of the establishment. Here Sir George Grey 
and Lady Grey were entertained in 1849, and many 
humbler guests before and since. 

" True friendship's laws are by this rule exprest, 
Welcome the coming, speed the parting guest." 

Here the Deans brothers leased the first land from the 
Natives, whom they found most friendly, planted the first 
oak trees, built the first bridges, and took the first 
permanent possession of the Plains. About a month after 
the arrival of the Deans, Mr. Ebenezer Hay and family, 
and Mr. Sinclair and family settled at Pigeon Bay. 

These were all Presbyterians, and for seven and a half 
years were without ordinances provided by their own 
Church, being dependent for spiritual ministrations on 
occasional visits from Bishop Selwyn and the Roman 
Catholic priest who ministered to the French settlers in 
the Peninsula. The famine of the severe winter of 1846, 
when they were all on the point of starvation till relieved 
from Wellington, was a true symbol of the unappeased 
hunger of their souls. When the Free Church settlement 
was first spoken of, these families all hoped that this might 
be the site chosen for it, but when the scarcity of timber 
induced the surveyors to decide in favour of Otago, there 


was bitter disappointment among the settlers dwelling 
around Port Levy. No wonder. They were leading an 
isolated and lonely life at their several homes, and the Otago 
settlers were their own countrymen, who were bringing 
with them their own minister and schoolmaster. Even 
for some years after the Canterbury Pilgrims arrived, there 
was no minister of the Church of their fathers to baptise 
their children, bury their dead, or administer to them 
or the Presbyterians who had arrived with the new comers 
the other ordinances of religion. Many evils resulted, 
connected both with the living and the dead. The young 
Hansons and Gebbies, never seeing a Presbyterian service, 
grew up to be Protestant Episcopalians, and were lost to 
the Church of their fathers. A child, in days of no 
minister, died and was buried unbaptised. When the 
surveyors came to lay off the ground for a cemetery at 
Christchurch, they proceeded to exclude the little grave 
of the infant that had done neither good nor evil, and 
about whom the thoughts of father and mother were, 

" Early bright, transient, chaste, as morning dew, 
She sparkled, was exhaled, and went to heaven.'' 

We can guess the feelings of relatives and friends. It was 
only when Mr. William Deans strongly remonstrated that 
the design was not carried out. Can a man be saved 
without baptism? was then the question of the hour. 
This was not marvellous in a settlement that originated in 
the time of a High Church revival in England, when Dr. 
Pusey succeeded the Kev. John Henry Newman in the 
leadership of the Oxford Tractarian or Medieval movement, 
and a large number proceeded to New Zealand to found a 
Church on congenial and independent lines. 

The calling in at Lyttelton of the Rev. John Moir on 
his way to Wellington, in October, 1853, was a welcome 


break on their spiritual destitution. With much sympathy 
he crossed the hills one Saturday evening, and on the 
following Sabbath officiated and baptised several children 
who needed no parental arms to bear them up. They were 
able themselves to walk forward and submit themselves to 
the sacred rite. After this much-appreciated visit of Mr. 
Moir, the desire on the part of the Presbyterians for the 
services of a minister of their own Church, always strong, 
grew more intense. In founding such a Church they had, 
of course, to labour under many disadvantages. The force 
of some of these are felt to this day. Their numbers and 
resources were not great, while their ecclesiastical 
neighbours in these respects were very strong. One of the 
most important features of the Canterbury Association 
was, that of every £3 obtained by the sale of lands to the 
settlers, £1 should be reserved for " the establishment and 
endowment of ecclesiastical and educational institutions in 
connection with the Church of England." The consequence 
is that to-day Christchurch is one of the richest dioceses 
in New Zealand. According to a report submitted to the 
Synod a few years ago, the annual income from endowments, 
bishopric and general, was £4735, or a sum larger than 
the entire stipend paid annually to the twenty ministers 
who are at present in the Christchurch Presbytery. We 
have no reason to believe, however^ that if possessed by 
the New Zealand Presbyterian Church it would be used to 
augment the income of the clergy. The sister Presbyterian 
Church of Otago and Southland has employed her 
endowment similarly acquired to build and repair churches 
and manses, and endow three professorial chairs, to the 
advantages of which the general public are admitted. 
This is in keeping with the Catholic spirit that has always 
characterised the Presbyterian Church. In spite, however, 
of the overshadowing influence exercised by a sister 



communion, the Presbyterian Church of North Canterbury 
has felt from the beginning that she had a work to do 
for her Master in this district. And as she braced herself 
for it, her song has been : 

" And the night shall be filled with music, 
And the cares that infest the day 
Shall fold their tents like the Arabs, 
And as silently steal away." 

At last the longings of the Presbyterians, stimulated 
by wholesome ecclesiastical rivalry, and guided by the wise 
counsel of Mr. Moir, took definite shape. 

Organization now began. Four years after the 

Canterbury P i Ig r i m s 
landed at Lyttelton, or 
in January 1854, the 
first movement was 
made towards inaugu- 
rating in this district 
a Presbyterian Church. 
A public meeting of the 
residents favourable to 
the project was called, 
and was largely 
attended. Mr. W. K. 
MacDonald of Orari, 
well known in connec- 
tion with the Geraldine 
congregation, presided. 
The late Mr. John 
Deans, who was in the 
neighbourhood so many 
years before the Canter- 
bury settlement took place, was unable to be present, but 



wrote offering not only a liberal contribution of £100 for 
the building of a church, but an annual sum towards 
the stipend of the minister. This yearly contribution 
to the maintenance fund has been increased by his son, 
Mr. John Deans, jun., who is an elder of the congrega- 
tion at present, and who, with his mother, Mrs. Deans, 
has been one of the best friends and most liberal supporters 
of the Church. It was also announced that as the 
Presbyterians had liberally helped other denominations 
in the building of their churches, so other denominations 
were most willing to help the Presbyterians in return. 

Encouraged by promises of support from various 
quarters the meeting passed resolutions affirming the need 
for Presbyterian ordinances, and appointing a committee 
to select a site for a church, and prepare a suitable design. 

Learning that the Provincial Government was granting 
free sites for places of worship and education, the 
committee applied to it, and obtained a grant of three acres 
close to the junction of Lincoln Road and Hagley Pari<, 
on which to erect a church, manse, and school. The 
application for this site was warmly advocated by the late 
Mr. W. G. Brittan, Commissioner of Crown Lands, who 
was kind enough to say that " the Presbyterians were a 
respectable body of people." Here building operations soon 
began, all transactions of the embryo congregation 
being conducted in a most business-like way. The minutes 
kept by the Secretary, Mr. W. Wilson, are a model of 
painstaking care, and in matters of detail remind us in 
their small way of nothing so much as Boswell's Life of 
Dr. Johnson. 

The question as to whether they should apply for a 
minister to the Free or to the Established Church of Scotland 


was quickly disposed of at a public meeting called chiefly 
for that purpose. The Secretary, Mr. Wilson, very adroitly 
argued that they were not liliely to be troubled with either 
patronage or endowment in this Colony, and that from 
whichever Church they got their minister he would have 
to be supported on the Free Church principle of 
voluntaryism. For this reason he moved, and carried by 
an overwhelming majority, that they make application to 
the Free Church of Scotland. 

The letter written to the Colonial Committee of the 
Free Church on July 27th 1854 sets forth that " the 
Presbyterian population of the settlement, according to 
the Government census very recently taken, amounts to 
324 individuals, with the certainty of a rapid increase 
both from Scotland and from Australia," and offers an 
** extended field of usefulness," and that the people 
" guarantee a stipend of £200 a year." The ministerial 
qualifications formulated in this document seem to have 
puzzled the good Kev. John Bonar, who was then Convener 
of the Colonial Committee : 

" It has been the repeated and strongly expressed desire of 
almost every Presbyterian in the settlement, that none but a really 
clever minister should be sent ; one who is not only fluent in speech, 
and a good extempore preacher, but capable, should it seem desirable, 
of giving an occasional week-evening lecture on astronomy, geology, 
natural history, or other secular subject of popular and instructive 

One cannot help seeing in this desire for a clever 
extempore preacher the spirit of sturdy independence and 
love of truth for which Presbyterians, and especially 
Scotch Presbyterians, have ever been distinguished. They 
think for themselves. They take an intelligent interest in 
all that is going on in their own Church, and in the world 
around. More than any other denomination, the Anglicans 


with their enormous endowments not excepted, have they 
advanced in this, as in other Colonies, the cause of primary, 
secondary, and university education. 

Mr. W. P. Reeves, Agent-General of New Zealand, 
and late Minister of Education in this Colony, ought to 
have a good knowledge of this country, yet in " The Story 
of New Zealand," just published by him, he says : — 

"The Scotch, in proportion to their numbers, are more prominent 
than any other race in politics, commerce, finance, sheep farming, 
and the work of education." 

This is no small praise in a Colony in which, as he 
points out in the same connection, " the intellectual 
average " is higher than at Home. The fact that here and 
there are to be found ministers of brilliant intellectual 
gifts, who fail for want of consecrating grace, is no 
argument against the gifts themselves. There must be 
something to consecrate. All along the line of our history 
the cry of our people has been "give us an educated 
ministry, to whom we can look up, and who will be abreast 
of the age." It will be an evil day for the Church when, 
through the exigencies of Church life, or from any other 
cause, that cry shall be ignored. The motto which Adam 
Clarke recommended ministers to adopt was: "study 
yourself to death, and then pray yourself alive again." 
Wesley must have felt the need of study, for in his 
" Journal and Letters " he says, " I know that if I myself 
had to preach one whole year in one place, I should preach 
both myself and most of my congregation asleep," 
Emerson puts the matter in a nutshell when he says, " If 
you would lift me up you must be on higher ground." 

About this time Dr. Burns, of Dunedin, wrote 
announcing the erection of " the Presbytery of the Church 


of Otago," and enclosing a copy of the Acts of that 
Presbytery, for the benefit of the Presbyterians of 
Canterbury. The Kev. Mr. Moir of Wellington also sent 
a letter, offering his counsel and his congratulations. The 
encouragement given by both was ixiuch appreciated. It 
was needed. Of the 924 persons living in 183 houses in 
Christchurch, and the 548 living in 109 houses in Lyttelton, 
the vast majority, of course, belonged to the Anglican 

In due time a letter was received from the Convener 
of the Colonial Committee of the Free Church, intimating 
that, after much searching to find a minister answering 
the requirements specified, the Committee had selected the 
Rev. Charles Fraser. This minister, it went on to say, was 
a young man of superior talents and acquirements, a man 
of scientific attainments, who had "a good deal of experience 
in the ministry," could speak and even preach in French, 
was bringing out with him " the necessary philosophical 
apparatus" for giving lectures, and that he was deeply 
sensible that, however important other inquiries were, 
" nothing compared with the great question, ' What shall 
we do to be saved ? ' " 

The Convener evidently half suspected that his New 
Zealand correspondents might be losing sight of " the one 
thing needful," and thought it advisable to point out to 
them that the great end of the Christian ministry is to 
unfold the Gospel of Jesus Christ. 

Mr. and Mrs. Fraser arrived at Christchurch early in 
April 1856, the year in which the Victoria Cross was insti- 
tuted as a reward for valour displayed in the Crimean 
War, to do battle for the cross of Christ in New Zealand, 
taking up their residence for a time with Mrs. Deans. 


Their advent is thus roferrecl to in tho Canterlnirij SUoulanl, 
which died some years afterwards : — 

" The Rev. Charles Fraser, of 
Miuischal College, Aberdeen . . . 
l£mded on Sunday morning last from 
tlie ship " Oriental," and immediately 
afterwards preached to a very fine 
congregation in the Wesleyan Church, 
Lyttelton, and on Sunday next will 
preach both morning and evening 
in the Chapel, Christchurch. We 
understand that the Wesleyan s have 
generously granted to the Presbyterians 
the use of each of their chapels in 
Lyttelton and Christchurch, until such 
time as their own church, a largo and 
handsome building now in course of 
erection, shall be sufficiently advanced 
to be available for public worship. 




Mr. Fraser's first sermon in New Zealand was preached 
in Lyttelton, from a suitable text : " This is a faithful 
saying and worthy of all acceptation, that Christ Jesus 
came into the world to save sinners, of whom I am chief 
(1 Tim. i., 15). On every anniversary of his ministry ho 
made it a habit to preach from this same text, and to note 
whatever special events had happened in the congregational 
life during the year. 

The Presbyterians of Christchurch seemed now to 
be greatly elated over the realization of their hopes. 
They had already formed a good opinion of their minister. 
The ladies had presented him with a pulpit gown and a 
Bible, and this gift was followed, some years afterwards, 
by a purse of sovereigns and a silver inkstand. Sub- 
scriptions for the edifice that was to be the first Presby- 
terian Church in Canterbury poured in fast. 


The new church, which was to cost £900, was opened 
in February 1857, when, we are told, the Rev. Charles 
Fraser M.A. preached an impressive and appropriate 
sermon from the text, "Holiness becometh Thine house, 
Lord for ever." A splendid motto for a church ! Alas 
that so many obstacles should stand in the way of its fall 
realization ! At the close of the sermon he read notifica- 
tions of his ordination by the Presbytery of Aberdeen, 
together with other documents connected with his appoint- 
ment to Canterbury. This obviated the necessity for any 
local ceremony. The Christchurch Presbyterian com- 
munity was simply treated as a mission charge of the 
Home Church. A baptism followed, the child receiving 
the Christian name of Charles Fraser, in accordance with a 
Scotch custom of showing personal regard for a minister by 
giving his name to the first child baptised in the new church. 

The collection taken up on the occasion was as volun- 
tary and as successful as Dr. Welsh, or Dr. Chalmers him- 
self could have wished. At either side of the entrance 
porch a plate, covered with a white cloth, was placed for 
the people to drop in their contributions as they passed. 
The sum realised was £74 8s 6d. No collection approach- 
ing it had ever been made in Christchurch. 

That day there was a good muster of the Presbyterians 
of the district. Out of a population of 6000 all told in 
this English Church settlement there were 304 persons 
present in the morning, and 210 in the evening. It being, 
however, a special occasion, many of them came from 
considerable distances in the country around. We have 
no reason to believe that those pastoralists and others by 
their givings on this occasion hurt themselves in the 
smallest degree, though trade and agriculture were both in 
their initiatary stage. The Millennium will be upon us in 


all its glory when a church membership shall arise that, 
instead of calculating what it can contribute without 
discredit, or with some degree of human approbation, 
shall be moved by the all-abounding goodness of God, and. 

Give as the morning that flows out of heaven, 

Give as the waves when their channel is riven. 

Give as the free air and sunshine are given — 

Lavishly, utterly, carelessly give. 

Mr. Fraser called the new church St. Andrew's, after 
the patron saint of Scotland, whatever that means. At 
this juncture the church in the Anglican communion 
known as St. Luke's, had not been erected, and as for the 
Cathedral, its foundation was not laid for seven years 

The origin of the Addington Cemetery shows that 
minister and people were not backward in preserving their 
principles and rights. A little independence was needed 
in those days. The Government had provided separate 
burial grounds for Roman Catholics, Anglicans, and 
" Dissenters," but the Presbyterians had objections 
against enrolling themselves in any of these classes. For 
a time they were permitted to use the Church of England 
Cemetery, but when it came to be consecrated by a Bishop 
the practice of interment there with a Presbyterian burial 
service was disallowed. In 1858 St. Andrew's congrega- 
tion decided to procure a piece of ground, of five acres, 
known as the " Addington Cemetery." Getting possession 
of it afterwards, they declined to follow the example set 
them, and generously threw it open to all who should pay 
the required fees. Mr. George M'llraith, brother of Mrs. 
Deans sen., who was killed by a fall from a horse, was the 
first to be interred here. The graveyard was vested in 
trustees, and is still under the care of St. Andrew's 


The Cemetery Trust Deed required the appointment 
of deacons. These were selected on July 27th 1858, and 
were as follow : — Messrs. John Anderson, Douglas Graham, 
W. Wilson, Thomas Anderson, and George Duncan. 

The next few years were years of progress. The 
manse in which Mr. Fraser was to show such unbounded 
hospitality was erected in 1859, and the church, grown too 
small for the congregation, was enlarged soon afterwards. 

A large parish was assigned to the Rev. Mr. Fraser, 
Christchurch was then looked upon as the centre of 
a wide area over which Presbyterians were sparsely scat- 
tered, having Kaiapoi on the one side and the Peninsula 
and Lyttelton on the other. The intention was that the 
minister of the City should hold a service every Sabbath 
evening at Lyttelton, and this programme was carried out 
for several years, but not for long. There were too many 
other demands upon Mr. Fraser's time. The district over 
which he had superintendence really extended from the 
Hurunui to the Waitaki, and from the snowy mountains to 
the sea, including the Peninsula. It embraced the entire 
Province of Canterbury, had a seaboard of 200 miles, a 
breadth of 150, and an area of 13,000 square miles. Here 
was surely ample room for man and horse. This entailed 
many a long journey, and though the country was thinly 
populated and unopened, Mr. Fraser, who was often accom- 
panied by Mrs. Fraser, enjoyed these long rides. He was 
happy on land, but like a fish out of water at sea. 
Susceptibility to vial de mer greatly interfered with his 
attendance at the Assemblies held in Wellington and 
Auckland, and his usefulness outside his own district. 
Another drawback to his usefulness, especially in country 
districts, was his dishke to the cries of children, whom 
mothers were in the habit of bringing to service in their 


arms. He could never stand this, and must pause until 
the disturbance came to an end, even though the per- 
plexed mother should have to leave. 

Some of Mr. Fraser's sermons were so impressive that 
many of his congregation had a desire to see them pub- 
lished. His lectures on such topics as Hebrews and the 
Shorter Catechism, and his expositions of Scripture, wore 
much appreciated by both old and young. 

Education in the Presbyterian camp, as we might 
have expected from Mr. Fraser's own attainments, received 
a good deal of attention. An Act passed by the Provincial 
Government granted subsidies to the different denomina- 
tions for educational purposes. Each Church, therefore, 
provided its own schoolmasters and conducted its own 
schools in its own way. Mr. Eraser and his friends took 
large advantage of this Act. A schoolroom was erected at 
Christchurch, the school held in it being called at first the 
Academy. Others were built in the Peninsula, at Lyttelton, 
Kaiapoi, Lincoln, and other places. A dozen of schools 
came to be estabhshed, for which £15,000 was drawn out 
of the public purse. Many of the schoolmasters were 
brought out direct from Scotland in the same way as the 
Church received its ministers. The connection between 
education and religion was on this occasion unusually 
close. The schoolhouses in the various districts served 
for churches, and the schoolmasters often served for 
Sabbath School teachers and preachers. In this way the 
nucleus of many a congregation was formed and many 
a charge had its origin. 

Not content with these efforts to promote the interests 
of primary education, Mr. Eraser set his heart upon having 
a High School in Christchurch. Circumstances seemed to 


indicate a need for this. Many thought the teaching of 
the College too classical for the majority of the boys of 
those days, and scarcely suited to the requirements of the 
commercial world, for which a large number wished to fit 
themselves. The numerous saints' days that had to be 
observed in connection with it was to them also objection- 
able. A building with three class-rooms was secured on 
the Lincoln road, where the West Borough School now 
stands. The High School had for a time a successful 
career under its several masters, Messrs Scott and Cook, 
and Revs, Campbell and Cumming, &c. It had a large 
boarding establishment connected with it, and drew pupils 
from even the North Island and Otago. Dr. Lillie of 
Tasmania, to whose memory a marble tablet has been 
erected in St. Andrew's ; the Rev. John Gow of Lyttelton ; 
the Rev. W. Kirton of Kaiapoi, and others supported it by 
giving it their influence and by sending their sons. It 
possessed, however, no endowments, and came to have a 
struggle for existence during its last few years. To save 
the institution Mr. Fraser voluntarily and gratuitously 
took the higher classes for years, but in 1874 the school 
had to be reluctantly given up, and the building sold. 
During its existence it did good work, and the success of 
the present High School, afterwards founded under more 
favourable auspices, shows that such a school was much 
needed. Mr. Fraser was fond of children, though he had 
none of his own, and felt much at home in instructing them. 
It shows the high esteem in which his teaching ability was 
held that Mr. Tancrcd, the Chancellor of the University, 
once invited him to take his place and deliver an address 
to the students. He had a hand also in obtaining for the 
sons of small farmers easier access to the Agricultural 
College at Lincoln. All this is highly praiseworthy. 
Christianity, as Amiel says, is " salvation by the conver- 


sion of the will, humanism by the enlightenment of the 
mind." Its highest development is reached only when 
the ideal of Tennyson is realised: — 

'' Clear and bright it should be ever, 
Flowing like a crystal river, 
Bright as light and clear as wind." 




Church Extension in Early Days— Banks Peninsula— St. Paul's— 
Kaiapoi— Lyttelton -Amuri-Prebbleton— First Meeting of the 
Canterbury Presbytery— Rev. W. Hogg's Race Against Time. 

St. Andrew's Church was twice enlarged in the time ot 
Mr. Fraser, and, what is rather remarkable, after each 
enlargement there was a hiving off of members to form 
a new congregation. First there was St. Paul's, and then 
at a later period there were, about the same time, 
Sydenham and North Belt. In addition to this there 
was growth all over the district. 

In the matter of Church Extension, Mr. Fraser did 
for Canterbury much the same sort of work that Mr. 
Bruce did for Auckland and the North Island. The people 
of St. Andrew's liberally assisted and encouraged him 
in his missionary labours. Of course, it was to the 
advantage of both him and them that the Province of 
Canterbury, which had been assigned to its first minister 
for a parish, should be broken up, and the latter left more 
time to devote to his pastoral work proper ; but apart from 
that there was on all sides a genuine desire to extend the 
Kingdom of Christ. The formation of a second congre- 
gation in the city added increased stimulus to the rivalry 
of the Presbyterians in securing for their countrymen and 
co-religionists everywhere round about the blessings of the 


The plan at the beginning usually pursued was to stir 
up the Presbyterians of each district to contribute the 
money necessary for the building of a schoolhouso, the 
Provincial Government granting pound for pound and a 
subsidy afterwards in aid of the teachers ; and tlien to 
send Home to the Convener of the Colonial Committee of 
the Free Church for a suitable teacher, whose outfit was 
generally provided on the other side of the globe. This 
teacher was expected to give religious as well as secular 
instruction during the week, organise a Sunday School, 
hold an occasional service on the Lord's Day, and as far 
as possible meet both the educational and spiritual 
wants of the neighbourhood. It was an attempt to realise 
John Knox's idea of a church and school for every parish. 
Many of these teachers did not fulfil the expectations 
formed regarding them, but they and the primitive 
buildings in which they laboured prepared the way for 
better things. In this manner most of the congregations 
that were organized in and around Christchurch in early 
days came into existence. 

When the Canterbury Church Extension Association 
came afterwards to be formed in the beginning of the 
seventies, it did noble work in supplying ordinances in 
neglected districts, in organising new congregations, and 
in aiding them with men and money until they became 
self-sustaining charges. 

One of the earliest settlers in the Peninsula district 
was Mr. Ebenezer Hay. Arriving in Wellington by the 
"Bengal Merchant" in 1840, and finding no suitable land 
in that neighbourhood, he soon determined to go south and 
seek a homo. After a journey of exploration, he finally 
set out in 1843, and reached the Peninsula about a 
month after Mr. William Deans came to the Plains ; 



and with Captain Sinclair and his family, who were 
also Scotch Presbyterians, he settled at Pigeon Bay. 
The only inhabitants 
of the Peninsula then 
were the Maoris, a few 
French settlers, and 
the sailors of a couple 
of whaling stations. 
They had many trials. 
The education of the 
children was one of 
their greatest diffi- 
culties. Tutors, seven 
years after their 
arrival, were obtained 
from the Christchurch 
settlement. These 
proved unsatisfactory, 
and Mr. Hay sent 
home to Scotland for 
a teacher. In response 
Mr. Gillespie, junr., 
came out. He was 

son of the old pioneer of the same name, whose 
interest in the Presbyterian Church, of which he was an 
elder for 20 years, was so deep, whose piety was so 
genuine, and whose name and memory are still so green 
in the district. The teacher was himself a man of 
splendid character, and during his short life of two years 
endeared himself to both parents and children. He and 
his successor, Mr. Fitzgerald, now Inspector of Schools, 
Dunedin, and Mr. W. Stewart, a farmer of the district, 
used to conduct frequent services at Pigeon Bay. When 
Mr. Fraser got settled in Christchurch, ho occasionally 

MR. E. HAY. 


went down and visited the Peninsula. The region, bow- 
ever, was not easy of access. The only means of transit 
to and from Lyttelton in those days was by a whale- 
boat, and the city minister had, we have seen, no liking for 
the sea under any circumstances. Besides, his time was 
more than occupied elsewhere. Still he found his way 
down once in a while. His first services were held in 
1857 in the house of Mrs. E. 
Brown. Mrs. Brown had been 
a resident of the district for 
thirteen years, and is still living 
on the Peninsula. During her 
long life she has conferred many 
benefits on the Presbyterian 
Church, starting a Sabbath 
School, collecting Church funds, 
and throwing her house open to 
its ministers. On this occasion 
she took down the middle wall mrs. brown. 

of partition to make room for 
the worshippers, and Mr. Fraser 

preached in English in the morning and in French in the 

At length there came to be so many Scotch Presby- 
terian settlers in and around Pigeon Bay, that they found 
by joining forces with Akaroa and Duvauchelles Bay they 
could afford to send Home for a minister, and supply a 
long-felt want. So Mr. Hay advanced £100 to pay hia 
travelling expenses, and Dr. Bonar, the Convener of the 
Free Church Colonial Committee, selected and sent out 
Rev. George Grant. Mr Grant with his young wife 
arrived in 1862, and proved himself a faithful pastor and 
a most acceptable preacher. Ho soon made many warm 


and attached friends on the Peninsula. It was to these 
latter a great grievance and a breach of the Ninth Com- 
mandment, if not the eighth, when the people of St. 
Paul's wiled liim away to Christchurch in 1861, and left 
them without a minister for several years. Mr. Hay took 
it somewhat more philosophically than the others. He 
remarked that they had need of him in Christchurch. 

" How hardly man the lesson learns, 
To smile and bless the hand that spurns : 
To see the blow, to feel the pain, 
And render only love again." 

The city having extended itself, a number of those 
connected with St. Andrew's determined to establish a 
second congregation. The knowledge that an excellent 
minister laboured in the Peninsula, who might not despise 
the attractions of a city charge, had something to do with 
the forming of this resolution. At a meeting held in 
1864 a call to Rev. George Grant, of Akaroa, was made 
out. They were not disappointed. He accepted the 
invitation, and was inducted in the Town Hall, High 
street, on April 20th 1864. The next step was to appoint 
suitable office-bearers to co-operate with the minister in 
the government and discipline of the congregation. The 
organisers of the new charge believed in having the offices 
of the Church filled, and filled by men who were 
something more than figure-beads. Accordingly, early in 
January 1865, the following office-bearers were elected : — 
Elders : J. Gillespie, W. Gavan, J. D. McPherson, A. 
Rhind, and W. Henderson ; Deacons : W. Wilson, D. 
Mackay, J. C. Angus, A. Richie, and T. Anderson. A 
church was a more difficult undertaking ; yet that, too, 
soon followed. The Town Hall, which stood where 
Messrs. W. Strange & Co.'s premises now stand, was 
engaged until a church was built. What is now known 


as Old St. Paul's, and used for a Sabbath School and other 
meetings, was opened in May 1867. It cost about £1000. 
The architect was Mr. S. C. Farr, a mcaiber of the 
congregation and subsequently a member of Session, who 
designed the Presbyterian churches at Lyttelton, Kaiapoi, 
Papanui, Leeston, and North Belt, the present church of 
St. Paul's, and others. Unlike the second edifice, the 
first church of St. Paul's was opened almost free of debt. 

Mr. Grant proved himself to be a man of deep piety 
and mature scholarship, and left a stamp of evangelicalism 
on St. Paul's congregation which it has never lost. His 
pastorate, however, was very short. Transference from the 
Peninsula with its boundless, fragrant, fresh scenery, the 
home of many sweet-voiced birds, its exhilarating air and 
its secluded picturesque bays, to the whirl and excitement 
of a city charge, hardly suited his quiet, reserved disposi- 
tion and his somewhat feeble health. In December, 1868, 
he resigned, and shortly afterwards left with his family in 
the ill-fated ship " Matoaka." The vessel was never heard 
of. It is supposed that she foundered through collision 
with one of the icebergs which at the time were seen in 
large numbers drifting across the Southern seas. How 
true what Young says : — 

" Faith builds a bridge across the gulf of death 
To break the shock blind nature cannot shun, 
And lands thought smoothly on the farther shore." 

Kaiapoi is one of the oldest townships in Canterbury. 
It had become so populous in 1857 that it was exalted 
to the dignity of a township. At one time it was 
considered to have more people than Lyttelton, and to 
be possessed of a harbour that, for convenience and safety, 
was only second to that of its great rival. In accordance 
with the usual plan, a modest building for the use of both 


church and school was erected by the Presbyterians in 
1860, Mr. Somerset being the first teacher. Here Mr. 
Fraser and others officiated occasionally. Evidently the 
religious requirements of the place were not met either 
locally or from Christchurch, for in the following year we 
find a list of subscribers living in Kangiora and Kaiapoi, 
and districts round about, made out with the view of 
obtaining a minister, and holding out the hope of being 
able to afford a stipend of £260. Relying on this, the 
Kev. W. Kirton, whose position was not very comfortable 
in Wellington, and who had already become acquainted 
with a lady in Kaiapoi — Miss Mary Blackett — who was to 
be his second wife, wrote the local secretary in February, 
1863, accepting the call. Shortly afterwards he put in an 
appearance, and settled down as minister of Kaiapoi. The 
hopes of pecuniary support held out to him were never 
realised. During the eight years of his ministry in the 
place he only received the sum of £603, or at the rate of 
£75 per year. The original subscribers were too far scat- 
tered to give much coherency or strength to the congrega- 
tion. As a matter of fact, not more than twenty of them lived 
in and around Kaiapoi itself. Once we find the Presby- 
tery, at his request, intervening on his behalf, but with little 
fruit. They seem, however, to have provided him with a 
ministerial residence to shelter him in the second year of 
his pastorate. Doubtless there was more than one cause 
for this parsimony, which necessitated that the minister 
of Kaiapoi in those days should be " contented wi' little an' 
cantie wi' mair." 

Mr. Fraser soon ceased scaling the Lyttelton Hills 
to hold a service every Sabbath evening at the Port. 
Christchurch was rapidly growing in extent and import- 
ance, and many other places had urgent claims on his 


attention. Besides, there was every prospect of Lyttelton 
becoming at an early date a flourishing independent 
charge. A schoolhouse was erected in 1859, and Mr J. 
D. Ferguson arrived from Scotland the following year to 
be a catechist, teacher, and preacher. His salary was 
made up of ^650 out of the Government grant, £50 from 
local Presbyterians for religious purposes, and all the 
school fees, or about £216 in all per year. This school 
was known as Lyttelton High School in connection with 
the Presbyterian Church. The same building and the 
same Committee served for both church and school. This 
old edifice is still standing, being used for a Sunday 
school. At first the Sabbath services were held fort- 
nightly, but in the beginning of 1862 we find weekly 
religious services and a Sunday School in full swing. 
Mr. Ferguson was a most acceptable preacher, and did 
yeoman service in officiating at Lincoln, Christchurch, 
Kaiapoi, Akaroa, or wherever needed. He gathered a 
good congregation at Lyttelton. His idea was to enter 
the ministry of the Presbyterian Church, and, perhaps, 
bocome pastor of Lyttelton congregation. With that 
object in view he prosecuted his studies under the direc- 
tion, first of Otago Presbytery, and then of Canterbury 
Presbytery. From the latter Court he received his license 
in 1866, being the first student licensed by that Presbytery. 
An attempt was made to call Mr Ferguson at Lyttelton, 
but, for reasons unconnected with his ministerial gifts, it 
was opposed, and was unsuccessful. To smooth matters 
over, Mr. Fyfe brought to the meeting of Presbytery a 
memorial, signed by 76 persons willing to accept of Mr. 
Ferguson as minister of Lyttelton ; but those present 
learning from Mr. Fraser, during the proceedings, that 
Rev. John Gow, another minister from Scotland, was ex- 
pected every day, only 24 members and 82 adherents voted 

AMURI. 147 

for Mr. Ferguson, while 22 members and 23 adherents 
voted against him. Under the circumstances, the Pres- 
bytery decHned to proceed with the settlement. As all 
who had votes seems to have polled on the occasion, we 
learn that there were at that time about 46 members and 
56 adherents in the Lyttelton congregation. 

The Amuri district originally extended from Kaiapoi to 
the Clarence River, and from the Spencer Range to the sea. 
The first minister who laboured in 
it was the Rev. W. Hogg, formerly .,_^ • 

of Bally-James-Duff, Ireland. He 
arrived on December 8th 1863, 
with his wife and seven children, 
whose education and maintenance 
was at the time, he confesses, a 
source of anxiety to him. He was 
designed for Kaiapoi, but learning 
that the vacancy there was filled, 
and that the General Assembly 
had appointed him to Amuri, he ^e^* *• hogg. 

proceeded to that unbroken field of 

labour. His heart sank within him when he saw the 
everlasting tussock and the fierce unbridged rivers of a 
district as large as Antrim and Down, and learned from a 
settler that he " never heard his neighbour's cock crow, 
or his neighbour's dog bark," and that the other settlers 
were similarly situated, and that you might travel for miles 
without seeing a house. For seven weeks one of the 
colonists here kept Saturday by mistake for Sunday, and 
for fourteen years never saw a strange white woman cross 
his threshold. There was, of course, no church or school- 
house in any part of that region. Beyond the immediate 
bounds of the few primitive houses, scattered thinly over 


the district, there was little evidence of civilisation any- 
where, except, perhaps, a bridge at Saltwater Creek. 

He established his headquarters for a time at Kaiapoi, 
owing to the difficulty of finding a residence elsewhere. 
When that proved inconvenient he moved his camp to 
Sefton, where a small manse of cob came to be erected for 
him, near Mount Grey Swamp. From these points he 
was accustomed, with his swag on his back and his staff 
in his hand, to make a monthly circuit of from 140 to 185 
miles, for a large part of the way by unformed tracks, and 
sometimes without any track at all. Afterwards a settler 
took pity on him, and made him a present of a big, power- 
ful, and sagacious horse, called " Bob," with which he 
made many a journey. In these circuits, a course often 
taken was from Kaiapoi 66 miles northward, or from 
Sefton 53 miles, fording the rivers Waipara and Hurunui, 
to Cheviot Hills ; thence, continuing the journey north- 
wards, and fording the Waiau River, to Mount Parnassus 
Station, a distance of ten miles, and from this place to 
Hawkswood, five miles. Turning westward he visited 
Ferniehurst, three miles, Waiau township, 21 miles, 
Leslie Hills, 12 miles, and Montrose, 4 miles. Strik- 
ing southwards, and homewards, he journeyed to Culver- 
den, 10 miles, to Glens of Tekoa, by Balmoral, 20 miles, 
to Hurunui, 16 miles, and to Sefton or Kaiapoi, 30 or 40 
miles. Services were held at each place. At Waiau 
Sunday services were conducted in the Courthouse. 

Sometimes, instead of crossing the Waiau to Par- 
nassus, he would pass over the ranges westward to St. 
Leonard's, a journey of 22 miles, and cross the plain from 
St. Leonard's to Culverden, and thence homewards. At 
times he would go further northwards, by Leslie Pass or the 
Waiau Gorge, to the Hanmer Plains and the Hot Springs. 


He was a strong, hardy, energetic man, but the 
journeys, with work around Sefton in addition, were too 
much for him. He often reached Sefton completely 
exhausted. He had many narrow escapes. Once he lost 
his way on Teviotdale Kun ; once he was snowed up for 
weeks at Hawkswood Station, owned by Mr. John 
Scott, Caverhill ; once, in crossing the Waiau River, 
he nearly lost his life, being washed off his horse, 
wounded severely on the head, and divested of his 
leggings, hat, and spectacles. On one occasion he 
crossed the ranges from Cheviot to St. Leonard's and 
Culverden in deep snow, going along the tops of the 
mountain ridges, performing a really hazardous journey 
of 32 miles over trackless snow, and reaching Culverden 
about three hours after dark. Those who know what 
rough up-country work in New Zealand is in a trackless 
region, with big unbridged rivers, can understand how 
much Mr. Hogg had to encounter and endure. In addi- 
tion to these monthly periodical journeys, he carried on 
work at Leithfield, Saltwater Creek, Mount Grey Downs, 
Ashley Bank, and Loburn, His visitation extended even to 
Rangiora and the Cust. There are now in the wide district 
through which he itinerated the charges of Rangiora, Cust, 
Sefton, Amberley, Waikari, Amuri, and Cheviot. The 
region once assigned to one minister has now become closely 
settled. Cheviot Station, the " crack run of the district," 
has been sold to the Government for £260,000, and cut up 
into small farms. Other runs have shared a similar fate. 

Mr. Hogg, who, though an old man, is still living at 
Goldsborough, on the West Coast, whither he went after- 
wards to labour, has reason to remember, as a set-o£f 
against his Amuri hardships, the extreme kindness of Mr. 
Donald Cameron, Mr George Rutherford, who gave him 
£25 per year, and many others. 




Religious services first began in Prebbleton and 
Lincoln in tbe house of Mrs Todd, who in the forties 
led a somewhat lonely life at 
Riccarton, and came to live in 
the Lincoln district in 1858. 
Shortly afterwards a building 
was erected in which, being 
enlarged, the Sunday School 
is now held. Here Mr. Bowie, 
a teacher brought out from Home 
by Mr. Fraser, taught a day 
school and a Sunday School, 
and religious services were 
occasionally held by Mr. Fraser, 
Mr. Ferguson, and others. 
Finding the Rev. John Camp- 
bell of Riwaka, near Nelson, desirous of a change 
of pastorate, Mr. Fraser invited him to take charge 
of Prebbleton and the country to the south, includ- 
ing Leeston, Southbridge, and all that quarter. Without 
call or further ceremony he came and was inducted on 
February 21st 1866, and proved himself a pleasant and 
serviceable friend of the minister of St. Andrew's. Having 
successively dispensed with the services of two teachers of 
the High School in Christchurch, Mr. Fraser stood much 
in need of someone to assume the Rectorship. Accord- 
ingly, he prevailed upon Mr. Campbell, after a ministry of 
a few years, to resign his congregation, which was only 
paying him £60 per year, and fill that position. Mr. 
Campbell had reason to regret the step. He set up a 
boarding establishment, invested in it all his money, and 
left afterwards for Napier with an empty pocket. 

The Presbytery of Canterbury, as the Presbytery of 
Christchurch was originally called, was formed for the 


first time in St, Andrew's Church, on the 16th of January 
1864. The members present were : Revs. Charles Fraser, 
George Grant, William Kirton, and William Hogg, 
ministers, and Messrs Duncan, Gillespie, and Mac- 
Millan, elders. The only other minister of this Church 
in the South Island at the time was Eev. P. Calder, of 
Nelson. Of all these Rev. W. Hogg is the sole survivor. 

The following incident will be better understood if 
narrated here. It shows how difficult the first minister of 
Canterbury found it to realise himself an office-bearer 
among equals, and the slip-shod way in which the business 
of Church courts was sometimes transacted. As the Pres- 
byterial minutes belonging to this period have been 
re- written, and are unsigned and unreliable, we take a 
portion of our information from other trustworthy docu- 
mentary sources. 

In due time Rev. John Gow, whose name was 
mentioned at the congregational meeting in Lyttelton 
when a fruitless attempt was made to call Mr Ferguson, 
arrived and preached at the Port. A call was again 
moderated in, when only 19 members and 17 adherents 
voted for him. Here was an awkward difficulty. He came 
with a good reputation, but a call signed by a larger 
number had recently been set aside. The Presbytery felt 
bound to preserve its consistency, and again declined to 
proceed. It appointed a kirk session, with Rev. George 
Grant as Moderator. It was agreed to meet in St. 
Andrew's Church on a future day, and decide what should 
be done with Lyttelton. On December 12th 1865, the 
day arranged for. Rev. George Grant, Rev. W. Hogg, and 
Mr Drummond M'Pherson, elder of St. Paul's, repaired to 
St. Andrew's, but to their surprise were told that Revs. 
Fraser and Campbell had gone to Lyttelton to ordain Mr. 


Gow. The disappointed and indignant trio held a hasty 
consultation, which resulted in their drawing up a protest 
and appeal against the proceedings. The next question 
was who should serve it. Mr. Grant was not physically 
robust, and Mr. McPherson had his business to attend to, 
so the duty was laid on the shoulders of Mr. Hogg. 

He at once called a cab from the nearest stand, and 
jumping in started oflf at a break-neck pace for Lyttelton. 
The whip cracked, the flax bushes and the tussocks flew 
quickly past. Full of impatience Mr. Hogg took out his 
watch as often as the schoolboy who gets possession of one 
for the first time, and made fresh calculations every mile. 
He was going faster than the vehicle. On and on flew 
the steaming horse, urged with whip and voice, through 
Heathcote Valley and up on the Bridle Track. When the 
cab could go no farther Mr. Hogg leaped from his seat, 
and divesting himself of coat and vest rushed up the hill. 
He recked not the loss of sweat, breath, or dignity. He 
had no eyes for the picturesque beauties of land and sea 
seen from the hill top. Lyttelton, as it lay cosily beneath, 
was only a place to be reached by a certain hour. Even 
the beaten track was occasionally disdained as only 
suitable for pleasure-seeking tourists with whom time was 
of little consideration, and all possible near-cuts embraced. 
At last, panting and perspiring, and much excited, he 
entered the church as Mr. Fraser finished the reading of 
the Scripture lesson, and had just strength left to say, 
"In my own name and in the name of others who have 
signed this document, I protest and appeal against these 
proceedings." Then, feeling as if he would faint, he 
sought for a glass of water. He evidently expected, when 
he came armed with his formidable document, that the 
ceremony would come to an abrupt termination. It 
proceeded, however, to the end. 


In due course the appeal came before the General 
Assembly, Messrs Grant and McPhersoii, by means of a 
little brochure called " The Power of the Keys," putting 
the facts of the case into the hands of every member. 
The supreme court felt obliged to adopt the recommenda- 
tion of a Committee appointed to investigate the matter, 
which was, that since Mr. Gow is "now discharging the 
duties of his office with apparent success, it would be 
unwise to disturb the settlement," that the decision was 
not to be viewed as a precedent, and that all were to 
" study the laws of the Church." 

" For Freedom's battle once begun, 
Bequeathed by bleeding sire to son, 
Though baffled oft is ever won." 




Rev. George Barclay, Father of South Canterbury's System of 
Education and Presbyterianism — South Canterbury in 1805 — 
Pioneering Difficulties — Rev. Geo. Lindsay — Optimism versus 
Pessimism— The First Meeting of the Timaru Presbytery — Rov. 
W. R. Campbell-Rev. W. Gillies. 

South Canterbury, with its rich alluvial plains, dotted 
over with well-cultivated farms and comfortable home- 
steads, is calculated to give the stranger a good idea of the 
natural resources of the Colony. From it more than, 
perhaps, from any other part of New Zealand, the visitor 
carries away the impression that there is a great future 
before this country. 

The plains aglow with Nature s charms, 
Were dotted o'er with smiling farms ; 
The mountain ranges, high and steep, 
Were pastured o'er with flocks of sheep ; 
While herds of kine, with restless feet. 
Roamed hill and dale in freedom sweet. 

It possesses picturesque scenery as well, being chiefly 
known to the tourist as the home of Mount Cook, which, 
from out many minor snow-clad peaks, lifts its head to 
the giddy height of 12,849 feet above the sea level, mantled 
by glaciers that rival those of the Alps of Europe. An, 
therefore, it has played in the past, so it must continue to 
play for many years to come, a prominent part in the 
records of New Zealand. 


The Rev. George Barclay, now of Waimate, has prob- 
ably left deeper marks, ecclesiastical, educational and 
social, on the history of its early days than any person now 
living or dead. His name is a household word in South 
Canterbury. There are few churches, and scarcely a 
school in this wide area that he has not had a hand in 
building. Previous to his day, which began in 1865, the 
district had been cursorily visited by Rev. C. Fraser, of 
Christchurch, whose church extension fame was in all the 
churches, and by Rev. John Thorn. The latter was an 
eccentric, though earnest, evangehst, and is chiefly remem- 
bered for his frequently breaking out into involuntary and 
uncontrollable fits of laughter, when in preaching some- 
thing suddenly tickled his fancy. Timaru and Waimate 
being on the way to Dunedin, ministers often called there, 
stopped for the night, and gave the few scattered settlers 
of the neighbourhood the benefit of their services. That 
was all. No attempt at ecclesiastical organization before 
his time was made. The services rendered by Mr. 
Barclay to education and religion have been often 
recognised. He has been from their first inception, some 
twenty years ago, and is still a member of the South 
Canterbury Board of Education, and of the Timaru and 
Waimate School Boards. In formulating the regulations 
and in carrying on the practical work of these educational 
institutions, Mr. Barclay has had a large directive hand. 
Setting up the establishments in the interests of the 
people, he has always sought to keep them under popular 
control. The life membership on the Board of Governors 
of the Timaru High School, which the Government gave 
him some time ago, he voluntarily exchanged for an elec- 
tive one. Many a battle in the cause of secondary and 
higher education has been fought and won by him, while not 
neglecting the interests of the primary schools. The State 


also recognised his talents and services by appoint- 
ing him in 1880 Justice of the Peace, at a time when 
the position was regarded with more honour than at 
present. His own congregation and friends showed the 
esteem in which he was held by making him the recipient 
of a flattering address and the sum of £600, on the occa- 
sion when, owing to his arduous labours, his sight gave 
way, and necessitated a visit to Mr. White Cooper, of 
London, the eminent occulist to the Royal Household. The 
supreme court of the Church, too, conferred on him the 
highest honour in its gift. The General Assembly which 
met in Wellington in 1877 called him to the Moderator's 
chair. Though, owing to impaired vision and the chronic 
rheumatism that threatened him, he resigned his large 
and cumbrous parish about the end of 1889, after a 
pastorate of 25 years, he is still vigorous, and preaches 
occasionally for his brother ministers. The lectures, also, 
which he gives show much thought and erudition, and 
always secure large and appreciative audiences. 

Archbishop Magee's classification of preachers is : 

First, the preacher you can't listen to ; 
Second, the preacher you can listen to ; 
Third, the preacher you can't help listening to. 

Mr. Barclay, as a lecturer, belongs to the latter class. 
We make no apology for prominently introducing his 
name. To write the ecclesiastical history of South 
Canterbury without mentioning the father of its educa- 
tional system and its Presbyterianism would be like 
detailing the history of Corinth or Ephesus and leaving 
out the name of Paul. 

Mr. Barclay was educated partly at University College, 
London, and partly at other Home institutions. There he 
acquired the groundwork of those scholarly attainments 


for which he has always been distinguished. Having 
studied at the Presbyterian Collegp of the English capital, 
and become a licentiate of the London Presbytery, he was 
considering an overture to enter the Mission field of India, 
where his erudition should have had ample scope, when a 
call from a charge in North Canterbury came to him in 
Edinburgh. His medical adviser strongly recommended 
him in the then state of his health to go to New Zealand. 
Accordingly Mr. Barclay set sail in a ship bound for this 
Colony, and, after nearly six months' tossing at sea and 
caUing at intermediate ports, landed at Lyttelton on the 
first day of the year 1865. Finding Amuri, for which he 
was at first designated, already occupied by Eev. W. Hogg, 
he was led to turn his thoughts to Timaru and its 
surroundings as his Colonial field of labour. This district 
offered him a stipend of £300. Now-a-days it is not 
considered a great feat to run down from Christchurch to 
Timaru, but in those days it was a tedious and somewhat 
hazardous journey. The newly-arrived young minister 
was therefore ordained over his South Canterbury charge 
in St. Paul's Church, Christchurch, on March 8th 1865. 
Shortly afterwards he set out for his future sphere of 
work to inaugurate a new era, religious and educational, in 
South Canterbury. The duties that lay before him might 
have appalled a less courageous mind. It was difiicult to 
reach his new sphere of labour. There was then no break- 
water at Timaru to furnish refuge for ships, or food for end- 
less controversy as to its capabilities in the way of resisting 
the encroaching shingle. The loading of the first wool ship, 
the " May Queen " in 1865 must, therefore, have been a 
difficulty. To come ashore from the " Maori " or the 
" City of Dunedin " in one of the old surf-boats, on the 
crest of a surging sea, was a perilous undertaking. Rocks 
on the one hand and the raging waves on the other 1 


Scylla and Cbarybdis of Homeric fame were nothing com- 
pared to it. Once landed, the next difficulty was to 
traverse the wide district that was to form his new parish. 
Mr. Barclay himself used facetiously to say that his 
pastorate was bounded by the Rangitata River on the 
north, by the Waitaki on the south, by the Pacific Ocean 
on the east, and by the Southern Alps on the west. Within 
this area eighty miles square, or nearly seven thousand 
square miles, it will be admitted by all that there was 
ample work for both man and horse. He had no reason 
to say, 

" But now I am cabin'd, cribb'd, confin'd, bound in." 

Over this vast territory, destitute of roads and intersected 
with dangerous, unbridged rivers, Mr. Barclay roamed at 
his sweet will preaching the Gospel, sometimes in private 
houses, sometimes in woolsheds, and sometimes in the open 
air. Those were not the days of fine churches and elegant 
lecture halls, and comfortable manses. There were none 
of them, and, as a consequence, no regular service could 
be held. Whatever settlers were in the district attended 
his services irrespective of the denomination to which they 
belonged, members of other Churches partaking even of 
the Lord's Supper dispensed by his hands. The popu- 
lation, however, was exceedingly sparse. Timaru itself 
which has now about 800 buildings and 4000 persons 
living in them, had then only a few houses. Amongst 
these was a Bank of New Zealand, whose respected 
manager, Robert A. Chisholm, Esq., gracefully extended 
his hospitality to the new minister, and did what he 
could to uphold his hands. Miss Chisholm, afterwards 
the wife of the Rev. T. S. Stanley, was in those days the 
minister's right hand worker. She seemed to be elder, 
deaconess, co-visitor, and local guide, all comprised 


in one individual. The city was in embryo. The 
tussock grew undisturbed in the streets. Temuka had 
scarcely an existence. Geraldine had a tenement or two, 
with a few important residences clustered around. 
Pleasant Point and Waimate had each a smithy, an 
accommodation house, and one or two other necessary 
adjuncts. Other places, such as Burke's Pass and Fairlie, 
had hardly " a local habitation and a name." Between 
these districts, now amply provided with facilities for 
communication, there were then no regularly formed roads. 
Even the main roads were tracks which, like the rivers 
in flood-time, were continually shifting, as waggons, 
bullock teams, and horses made the old tracks impas- 
sable; Until the telegraphic poles were erected on 
the chief lines of route, the traveller often found it 
difficult to know whether or not he was turning 
his back on his place of destination and jurneying 
to the place from whence he came. It was no un- 
common thing for a wayfarer to single out a cabbage 
tree in the distance as a land-mark and take as straight a 
course as possible for it. This accounts for the numerous 
accidents and hairbreadth escapes which the minister of 
this parish experienced in early days. We have referred 
to these elsewhere. On this subject we believe Mr. 
Barclay could write a volume that would read like a novel, 
and whose dramatic details 

" Would harrow up thy soul, freeze thy young blood, 
Make thy two eyes like stars start from their spheres ; 
Thy knotted and combined locks to part, 
And each particular hair to stand on end, 
Like quills upon the fretful porcupine." 

The wonder is that he lives to tell the tale. The seven 
ministers in regular charges who now occupy this field, 


and pop out of the manse into the church, or make short 
appetising drives to hold a service, know little of this 

When arrangements were somewhat advanced he 
usually conducted worship in the morning at Timaru in 
the Mechanics' Institute, the first service being held in 
that place on March 19th, 1865 ; and in the afterpart of 
the day he officiated at the schoolhouse, Georgestown, 
Temuka, or in the house of the late Captain Macpherson, 
Geraldine, or in the residence of Mr. Austin, Orari, or m 
some suitable place at Pleasant Point. At the beginning 
of his ministry he visited every part of the Mackenzie 
Country, and continued to do so regularly throughout the 
the whole period of his pastorate. There were many 
difficulties and dangers to be encountered on these journeys, 
which often extended over a month, but the kindness he 
experienced on all hands from that hospitable people, and 
the manner in which his services and sacrifices were 
appreciated by them, seemed an ample compensation. 

The question of a church early came up for considera- 
tion at Timaru, and the congregation resolved to build a 
substantial one of stone on a quarter-acre section given to 
the Church by Messrs. Rhodes. This church was capable 
of seating 220 persons, and had therefore less than 
one-third the accommodation possessed by the present 
spacious building. It was opened for worship on July 
7th 1867 by Rev. John Hall, who was at that time 
supplying Lyttelton and Banks Peninsula. 

Though 1868 was a year of earthquakes, floods, a tidal 
wave, the Poverty Bay Massacre, and much disturbance by 
sea and land, in nature and in society, the work of 
organisation went on at Timaru. In connection with 


the appointment of office-bearers the ordinance of the 
Lord's Supper was dispensed early in 1868, " and thus 
afforded " an opportunity of ascertaining the strength and 
prosperity of the church." There was no difference of 
opinion in the congregation regarding the desirability of 
selecting elders forthwith, and Messrs. Hart, Hutton, and 
McKnight were appointed the first members of Session on 
July 8th 1868. Messrs. Hart and Hutton are still useful 
and respected members of the court. The election of 
other office-bearers, however, gave rise to discussion. 
Some advocated the setting apart of deacons, and some 
the selection of a Provisional Committee of Managers, 
who without ordination should discharge the same duties. 
The majority decided in favour of managers, but ruled that 
they must be communicants. There being some difficulty in 
filling the office even on these terms, the latter provision 
was cancelled, and the following persons connected with 
the congregation were, about the time the elders were 
appointed, elected members of Committee : — Messrs. Cull- 
man, Philps, Fyfe, Thompson, P. Todd, and Dr. McLean. 
Mr. R. A. Chisholm was appointed secretary and Mr. W. 
P. Monro treasurer, but, by mutual agreement, they 
exchanged offices soon afterwards. The Session subse- 
quently decided in favour of a Deacons' Court, and 
that class of officers which seems necessary to complete our 
Church polity came into existence twenty years' ago, 
and has continued ever smce to be one of the admirable 
distinguishing characteristics of this congregation. A 
number of them retire periodically, only they never cease to 
be deacons. It would be well if all our New Zealand 
churches, instead of one here and there, followed in the 
same footsteps. The Churches of New Testament times 
had deacons regularly ordained, under Divine guidance. 


and we have reason to believe that not a Httle of their 
prosperity was due to this circumstance (Act vi., 7). 

Behold, to obey is better than sacrifice. 
Elders were also chosen at Temuka, and managers at the 
other outlying stations, and everything possible done to 
organize and compact the unwieldy charge, but in spite 
of this the disintegrating process set in to which Mr. 
Barclay's sphere of labour has been repeatedly subjected. 
Immigrants were pouring in from the Old Country, while 
not a few colonists came from other parts of New Zealand : 
and Timaru having grown considerably in people and im- 
portance objected to its minister being so often absent, 
supplying outlying districts, especially as some of those 
districts were dilatory and parsimonious in sending in their 
contributions to headquarters. 

The office-bearers at Timaru had repeatedly urged the 
the people of Temuka and their friends to provide them- 
selves with a minister. The town congregation had gone the 
length of discontinuing the fortnightly services at Temuka. 
On being urged in April 1870 to re-establish them for 
another year, the Session and Committee of Timaru con- 
sented, on condition that Temuka congregation should erect 
a suitable place of worship, and "take steps, in conjunction 
with Mr. Barclay, to obtain a minister " for themselves. 
The following year Temuka fulfilled its contract. It 
erected a church, and, after consulting with Mr. Barclay, 
invited the minister of Timaru to be its pastor. The 
latter considered this the best way out of the difficulty. 
To put the matter on a proper basis, Temuka and adjoin- 
ing districts made out a call in favour of Mr. Barclay, and 
appointed Mr. W. Macdonald to support it at next meeting 
of the Canterbury Presbytery. The Presbytery considered 
Mr. Barclay ought to have the right to decide to 
what district he should minister ; and Mr. Barclay, 


having chosen Temuka and outlying regions, it appointed 
the Rev. W. Hogg of Amuri to induct him at Temuka 
on January 21st 1872. In the evening of the same 
day he was to preach at Timaru, and declare the pulpit 
there vacant. Mr. Hogg tells us that on the occasion 
he was not at all captivated with Timaru, and still less 
with Temuka. This, when we consider his rough ex- 
periences at Amuri, is very suggestive. The railway, now 
such a convenience between Timaru and Temuka, had only 
been commenced. The Canterbury Plains, at present so 
distinguished for their network of water-races, supplied by 
the Opihi, Rangatata, and other rivers, and which intersect 
the main roads at many points, were that year so dry that 
Cobb and Co.'s coachman had to carry water with him for 
his horses. There were few trees to be seen anywhere in 
a country whose many homesteads to-day are cosily em- 
bosomed in beautiful clumps of these tall, leafy members 
of the vegetable kingdom, brought from Europe or Aus- 
tralia. The native bush, which had given importance 
to Georgestown, was cut down; and at Temuka there 
was, when Mr. Hogg visited it in 1872, a miserable little 
hamlet of a few houses. 

On leaving Timaru, Mr. Barclay took up his residence 
in a house near Geraldine, on the Temuka side, consider- 
ing that a central place from which to work his extensive 
parish. Here he lived for more than a year, until a manse 
in course of preparation was ready, and preached in 
Geraldine Presbyterian Church, erected soon after that 
of Temuka, in Temuka Presbyterian Church, and in many 
other places. 

It soon became evident that Mr Barclay's superin- 
tendence of so wide an area must be only temporary. As 
a means of relief, it was proposed that Temuka and Wai- 
mate be formed into a charge, and unitedly call a minister. 


These congregations, however, soon took independent 
courses. Terauka erected a church in 1871, the year in 
which the first sod of the railway between Timaru and 
Temuka was cut, and began to put its house in order. 
Waimate, lying on the extreme southern border, did not 
expect much from the minister of Temuka and Geraldine, 
and commenced at once to shift for itself. Not content 
with Mr Barclay's coming down to hold a service now and 
again in a schoolhouse, long since removed, a Committee 
formed there in February 1871, got supplies from the 
Christchurch Evangelistic Association. Rev. Mr. Ewen 
having arrived from Scotland, it engaged his services, 
and during the two years he was in Waimate he 
did much to consolidate the church in that place. En- 
couraged thus the congregation set about the erection 
of a building for worship, which was opened on August 
22nd 1874 by the Rev. A. B. Todd of Oamaru, 
who had as a neighbouring minister done much to 
foster the charge. Mr Ewen having left for Otago, the 
Waimate people turned their eyes towards Mr. George 
Lindsay, a young divinity student connected with the 
Dunedin Presbytery. He was appointed by the Timaru 
Presbytery to supply Waimate for six months, examined, 
in due time licensed, and on February 5th 1876 was 
ordained as minister of this charge. 

Settlement now rapidly progressed within the bounds 
of Mr. Barclay's charge, greatly increasing his labours. 
Like Timaru Geraldine complained of his frequent 
absences. It found, from subscription lists sent out, that 
Pleasant Point was willing to promise £187, and Temuka 
£140, towards the support of a minister, and, on its 
recommendation, the charge was divided by the Presby- 
tery in April 1879 into three, i.e., Pleasant Point, 


Temuka, and Geraldine, the latter including Mackenzie 
Country. Effect was given to this decision, when Rev. A. 
Alexander was inducted at Pleasant Point, and Rev. D. 
Gordon at Temuka. 

On December 3rd 1889 Mr. Barclay retired from the 
active duties of the ministry, his congregation on the 
occasion presenting him with a valuable gold watch and 
chain, and a flattering address, and Mrs. Barclay with 
some handsome articles of jewellery. 

Considermg the trying experience, physical and 
mental, through which Mr. Barclay has passed, it is not to 
be wondered at if he lost something of the buoyancy and 
hopefulness that characterised his early life. This is a 
tendency of our nature. Francis Bacon, living in the 
Golden Age of English literature, was of opinion " that 
they were somewhat on the descent of the wheel." 
Ruskin and Carlyle have not done justice to the Victorian 
Age. In spite of pessimists the events of the world are 
making for righteousness. Mr. Swinburne speaks strongly, 
but with some truth, when he says : " Every age is one of 
decadence in the eyes of its own fools." Pessimism 
seriously detracts from a minister's usefulness. If he is 
not hopeful himself , how can he expect to instil faith, hope, 
and enthusiasm, into the people. " We have nothing 
left but God," is with some the height of destitution. 
We want all to learn with Pope — 

" All Nature is but art unknown to thee, 
All chance direction which thou canst not see, 
All discord harmony not understood, 
All partial evil universal good ; 
And, spite of pride, in erring reason's spite, 
One truth is clear — whatever is is right." 

Mr. W. R. Campbell, a probationer of the Presbytery 
of Edinburgh, selected in Scotland by Commissioners acting 


on behalf of the Timaru congregation, was at once sent 
out by the Free Church to occupy the vacant field. The 
Presbytery of Christchurch thought this a favourable 
opportunity for complying with the wishes of the General 
Assembly and organising a local Presbytery. It sent down 
Rev. Mr. McGowan, of Lyttelton, for that purpose. 

The Timaru Presbytery met for the first time on 
September 2ith 1873, in the vestry of the Presbyterian 
Church, Timaru, the sederunt being : — 

Rev. W. S. McGowan, Moderator. 

Rev. Geo. Bakclay, minister of Temuka, Geraldine, &o. 

Mr. W. Stewart, elder of Temuka. 

Mr. a. Hart, elder of Timaru. 

Revs. C. Fraser and A. T. Douglas being present 
were associated. At this meeting Mr. Campbell presented 
himself, was taken on trial, examined, approved of, and 
ordained all upon the same day. 

Mr. Campbell's pastorate in Timaru was very short. 
He resigned in September 1874, and departed for Amuri, 
where he is still carrying on without ostentation a most 
successful work. During the eight months' vacancy that 
followed, the Timaru congregation was supplied from 
various quarters. 

Rev. William Gillies, who was destined to play so 
prominent a part in the history of the Church, now came 
on the scene. He is a well-known figure on the floor of 
Presbytery and General Assembly, and makes as many 
speeches and frames as many resolutions as any of its 
members. His opinions are always listened to with 
respect. Few have a better knowledge of ecclesiastical 
law, or know how to use it in the Church Courts to more 
advantage. He has rendered eminent service to " the 


Widows and Orphans Fund," conferring on this Church 
much the same benefit he conferred on the Church of 
Otago and Southland, where he initiated a similar scheme. 
The Aged and Infirm Ministers Fund has also had the 
advantage of his legal mind. He had a large hand in 
seeing the present Book of Order through the press. He 
is a keen controversialist, and the many who have crossed 
swords with him have reason to view him as a foeman 
worthy of their steel. His controversy with Mr. Kerr, 
Chairman of the Timaru Licensing Bench, in the crowded 
theatre, will long be remembered. His motto in the fight 
is : — 

" Wha' for Scotland's King and law 

Freedom's sword will strongly draw ? 

Freeman stand, or Freeman fa', 

Caledonia! on wi' me." 

At the time we write he was minister of West Taieri 
in Otago. His reputation had reached the people of 
Timaru, looking this way and that way in vain for a 
pastor. They had heard that he was an old colonist, who 
had come out with his parents to Otago in 1852, and 
pushing himself forward by his own perseverance had 
returned to the Old Country to study for the ministry, 
being the first New Zealand colonist who entered the 
ministry of this Church ; that he had studied at the 
University of Glasgow, and the Presbyterian College of 
London, had come back to Otago in April 1864 a 
licentiate of the London Presbytery ; and that his ministra- 
tions in the Taieri were meeting with much acceptance. 
Notwithstanding, they made an efi'ort to get him to preach 
in Timaru, and failing in that, they sent a deputation, 
who reported favourably, and Mr. Gillies was inducted at 
Timaru on April 21st 1875. Dr Stuart on the occasion 
expressed the hope, by letter, and the Rev. Mr. Ryley, of 


Otepopo, Rev. Mr. Todd, of Oamaru, and others, gave vent 
to the expectation in their speeches, that Mr. Gillies* 
coming across the Waitaki into South Canterbury would 
be a step towards a united Church. This natural hope 
bas not yet been realised. The concluding remarks of 
Rev. C. Fraser, at the soiree in the evening, are worthy 
of being quoted, as showing the strength of the Pres- 
byterian Church in Canterbury at the time : — 

The Presbyterians numbered about one-sixth of the popula- 
tion of the Province. Including Mr. Lindsay of Waimate, there were 
13 Presbyterian clergymen, and if the clergymen of other denomina- 
tions were as numerous in proportion to the number of their people, 
there would be 78 ministers in Canterbury. There was not this 
number of ministers, and the fact spoke well for the strength of the 
Presbyterians. The Presbyterians in Canterbury were about equal 
in number to those of Dunedin alone. He mentioned the foregoing 
facts to show that the Presbyterians here, though comparatively 
weak, were making an onward movement. 

Immediately after his induction Mr Gillies was 
appointed Clerk of the Timaru Presbytery, an office he had 
held in the Presbytery of Dunedin, and when he resigned 
16 years afterwards in favour of a younger man, he 
received the cordial thanks of the Presbytery for his 
" unfailing courtesy " and his keeping of the records 
" with punctuality and regularity." His own congre- 
gation prospered under his ministry. The present church, 
with its massive, classical architecture, and capable of 
seating 700 worshippers, cost £5000, and was opened on 
October 15th 1876. The building of the manse in 1879 
completed the church property. It cost, with site, £2300. 
If the town has grown greatly in modern times, the 
congregation has also had its increase. In 1868 there 
were only 32 communicants, and this small number fell 
off somewhat until the commencement of Mr. Gillies' 
ministry, in 1876 the number recorded is 66 ; in 1877, 


121 ; ill 1880, 175 ; in 1883, 195; in 1886, 207 ; and the 
number has gradually increased until, in 1898, the average 
attendance at the Communion table was 239, while the 
membership on the roll was 350. During Mr. Gilhes' 
pastorate of 23 years the revenue for ordinary purposes 
has averaged about £1000 per annum, while the amount 
which has been received from all sources exceeds ^630,000. 

Mr. Gillies, however, would be himself the first to 
confess that he had come far short of his own ideal. 
He covered the period of his sojourn in Timaru, when 
he wrote, not in the vigorous prose of his numerous 
pamphlets, but in smoothly flowing rhyme, re the Otago 
Jubilee celebrations, words which we heartily endorse : — 

" Aud now, at close of fifty years, 
No vain regrets, no useless tears. 
We waste o'er changes unforeseen 
Or sigh for things that might have been ; 
But joining in a song of praise. 
Our hearts and voices we upraise, 
With fellow settlers great and small, 
To Him who ruleth over all : 
For every blessing of our lot, 
In this fair land and favoured spot!" 




Settlement in Westland— Mr. A. Scott writes the Presbytery — Rev. 
John Gow's Visit to Westland— Hokitika Charge Organised— Mr. 
Gow's Settlement— Great Undertakings — A Noble Group of Officc- 
Bearers, Messrs. A. Bonar, C. E. Button, A. Scott, Mueller, &c.— 
Greymouth — Rev. Jos. Mcintosh with his Wife Shipwrecked on 
their way— His Work at Greymouth — Mr Gow's Success in 
Westland— Rev. James Kirkland— Mr. D. W. Virtue— How Rev. 
W. Hogg Came to Assume the Pastorate of Ross — Failure of 
Ross Mining— Dangerous Journeys— The First Presbytery- 
Stafford— Kumara Leaps into Prominence— Mr. Hogg Leaves for 

Settlement in Westland is not governed by the rules that 
regulate population in agricultural districts. It partakes of a 
character quite its own. Few of the advantages enjoyed 
by the Canterbury Plains, for example, are possessed by 
Westland. The difficulty of approaching it in early days 
by sea or land, the broken nature of its surface, the 
magnitude of its glaciers and snow fields, the fluctua- 
tions of its rivers, the general poverty of its soil, and 
the moisture of its climate, all combine to make it for 
immigrants a somewhat undesirable place to live in. 
Notwithstanding, it has to-day, though only twenty- 
five miles wide, a population of 15,000. Besides a 
a goodly number of people in other districts have 
resided in it for a longer or shorter period of time. Its 
towns in their origin have been mostly of mushroom 
growth, and in their subsequent history some have shown 
strong similarity to the same perishable fungus. A few 


have collapsed as suddenly as they have sprung into life, 
like flowers in a garden swept by a Canterbury nor'-wester, 
and some have survived to lead a precarious existence. 
Ministers of charges, like those of Reefton and Ross, after 
entering on their labours with high expectations, have had 
to stand by and see their flocks grow thinner day by day, 
while perhaps some of their fellow labourers in other 
districts were welcoming home-returning prodigals, whose 
absence they had long deplored. Fluctuation, bad 
enough elsewhere, is here the predominant and only sure 
factor. The love of money, which is the "root of all evil," 
constitutes the disturbing element. Home, school, society 
church, and everything else, must give place to the gold 
that, as a quaint writer puts it, " hath wings which carry 
everywhere, except to heaven." Not that gold-seekers are 
sinners above all others. Rivarol truly remarks, " Gold, 
like the sun which melts wax and hardens clay, expands 
great souls and contracts bad hearts." Just as the 
most eminent Christians are found among soldiers and 
sailors, so some of the finest characters, as we shall see, 
have been met with in Westland. The grace that keeps 
them from being submerged by the waves of selfishness, 
worldliness, and avarice, makes them strong and vigorous 
swimmers in the ordinary sea of humanity. The Golden 
Coast forms a good harvest field for the missionary in spite 
of the 

" Gold, father of flatterers, of pain and care begot : 
A fear it is to have thee, a pain to have thee not." 

Hokitika has been called the centre of the Golden 
Coast. It owes its birth to the gold rush of March I860, 
commonly known as " the Hokitika rush." Prior to this 
there were a few tents occupied by stray adventurous 
pioneers on the bank of the river. News of rich gold finds 
on the West Coast had gone out in the beginning of 1865, 


and thousands from Otago and other parts of this Colony, 
and even from Victoria, came pouring in by land and sea 
about March of that year. Vessels crowded with gold-seekers 
might have been seen almost daily essaying the treacherous 
bar. The beach became strewn with wrecks, and gave to 
Hokitika an unenviable notoriety in those days. Many 
tried to reach it by a not less dangerous land route, 
crossing from Christchurch the unopened mainland. 
What barrier will stop those in quest of gold? Revell 
street sprung up as if by magic on a sand-bank running 
along the north side of the river. Side streets were added 
with similar rapidity. The temporary tenements were run 
up with either canvas or timber, and almost every other 
one was a grog shop, dignified with the name of an hotel. 

In Revell street, long the chief business street of the 
city, might now have been seen at times a motley throng. 
There were men of various denominations and of no 
denomination. Englishmen, Scotchmen, Irishmen, and 
persons belonging to races other than the Anglo-Saxon. 
Over the intoxicating cup many a heated discussion took 
place about the prospects of this and that mining claim. 
Occasionally it ended in blows. Gold furnished an inex- 
haustible theme. Some, in their endeavour to acquire it 
by a short cut, added the vice of gambling to their other 
delinquencies. Many of the more disreputable class, 
however, soon left the district. The majority of the gold 
diggers, when matters settled down a little, were intelligent 
and law-abiding men, who brought much knowledge and 
skill to bear upon a vocation which they eagerly and 
enthusiastically pursued. 

" There are dreams in the Gold of the kowhai ; 
And when ratas are breaking in bloom, 
I can hear the rich murmur of voices 
In the deeps of the fern-shaded gloom." 



In most of the inland mining centres libraries 
and reading rooms were very early established, and 
many can testify to the reading habits and the wide 
general knowledge of the diggers as a class. Their 
occupation required at least a partial knowledge of scien- 
tific lore. As a rule they were favourably disposed towards 
the Gospel, and most hberal in its support. The first 
ministers in Greymouth and Hokitika were paid 4'400 
per annum ; Stafford paid a stipend of £300 ; and when 
the church was established in Kumara the same ministerial 
support as at Stafford was afforded. Such was the field 
in which the Presbyterian cause came into existence on 
the West Coast. 

Mr. Archibald Scott, now the respected Manager of 
the Standard Insurance Company, Christchurch, had the 
honour of being the first to 
move in the direction of pro- 
viding ministerial services for 
the Presbyterians of Hokitika. 
He wrote a letter in the 
beginning of 1865 to the 
Canterbury Presbytery, set- 
ting forth the rapid growth 
and pressing needs of the 
members and adherents of 
the Church in and around 
Hokitika. The result was 
a visit from the Kev. C. Fraser 
of Christchurch, who thought 
the best way to test the 
intensity of their desire for / 

ministers in Westland was to solicit contributions from 
the West Coast people for the bringing o/ them out from 




Home. He must have been satisfied of a strong wish on 
their part for the ordinances of religion, for on July 11th 
of that year we find him reporting to the Canterbury 
Presbytery that he had remitted £100 to the Old Country for 
a minister on behalf of Hokitika, and would shortly remit also 
on behalf of Grey mouth. After Mr. Fraser there came 
various other ministers to temporarily supply ordinances, 
amongst whom were the Rev. J. Campbell, of Lincoln 
and Prebbleton ; the Rev. Geo. Grant, of St. Paul's, Christ- 
church ; the Rev. John Gow, of Lyttelton ; and Rev. 
John Hall. 

The Rev. John Gow's visit was to be attended with 
results important for Westland. Early in 1866, or a few 
months after his settlement in Lyttleton, he was sent by the 
Presbytery to organise a congregation in Hokitika. On 
that occasion he preached for a month in the Brigade 
Hall, Revell street, administered the Lord's Supper, formed 
a communion roll of 66 members, and held a congrega- 
tional meeting at which, for the purpose of building a 
church, there was elected a Committee consisting of 
Messrs. J. A. Bonar, J. McHaffie, A. Scott, J. S. Johnstone 
(solicitor), J. M. Aitken, and M. Sprott ; Mr Bonar being 
Treasurer, and Mr Scott, Secretary. This Committee 
was a strong one. It was composed of energetic and 
experienced business men, in whose hands the building of 
a church soon made good progress. Hokitika has always 
been blessed with excellent ministers and office-bearers. 

Some difficulty was experienced over the selection of 
a site. Two sites had been set apart by the Provincial 
Government of Canterbury for church and school purposes, 
as if it were haunted by the consciousness that, neither of 
them being of much value, the Presbyterian congregation 
ought to be accorded a choice. As a matter of fact, the 


one was a swamp and the other out of the way. Both 
together comprised about two acres, while larger areas, 
with better land, were reserved for other denominations. 
The site on which the church and manse now stand was 
originally set apart as a reserve for a Congregational 
church and school. After the other Churches had made 
a beginning the Rev. B. Drake came to Hokitika in the 
interests of Independency, and built a small wooden house 
on the reserve. He had only been resident for a few weeks 
when he came to the conclusion that it was hopeless to 
establish there a branch of his Church. Overtures having 
been made to him by the Presbyterian Committee he agreed 
to surrender all Congregational Church rights to the 
reserve in favour of the Presbyterian Church, and the Com- 
mittee on its part agreed to pay him the sum of £50 in 
view of his outlay. With the assistance of the Hon. J. A. 
Bonar, who was then Gold Fields Secretary, the transfer 
was sanctioned by the Government, duly gazetted, and in 
due time made over to the trustees appointed by the con- 
gregation, viz., Messrs. James A. Bonar, W. S. Reid, A. 
Scott, and W. Jack. The church has no reason to 
regret the action of the Committee. 

Here, eight months after the first congregational meeting 
was held, the church was erected at a cost, exclusive of 
spire which was added afterwards, of £700. During three 
months of this important period the congregation enjoyed 
the wise counsel and stimulating ministrations of Rev. 
John Hall. He had come out from the Irish Presbyterian 
Church, been labouring for sometime in Vancouver's 
Island, had received instructions from the Home Mission 
Board to proceed to Auckland with the view of ministering 
to the Waikato people, but at the urgent solicitation of 
the Church Extension Committee, he came to Hokitika. 


In building up the first Westland Presbyterian congregation 
he rendered most efficient service. 

Possibly a call would have been given to hira had ho 
not thought he could do better work in organising charges 
throughout the Church. The eyes of the congregation 
then turned towards Mr. Gow, and not in vain. The 
Presbytery having received a memorial signed by 67 com- 
municants and 69 adherents, asking for a moderation in 
favour of the minister of Lyttelton, on November 7th 1860, 
Mr. Hall was instructed to moderate in a call. The result 
was that a call in favour of Mr. 
Gow, duly signed and certified, 
reached the Presbytery at its 
meeting on January 9th 1867. 
Two circumstances, amongst 
others, weighed with Mr. Gow in 
accepting it. One was that the 
storm raised over the rejection 
of Mr. Ferguson of Lyttelton, 
which had found its way into 
the supreme court of the Church, 
had not quite subsided. The other ^^^' '^^^ °°*- 

was, that the Hokitika people 

offered a stipend of £450. The latter were determined 
that, since for lack of a settled minister they wore some- 
what late entering the field as a congregation, they would 
now offer such an inducement as should at once secure an 
acceptable pastor. Besides, it was the time of a gold 
boom. Mr. Hall having left Hokitika, and no other 
minister being available, Mr. Gow inducted himself. For 
a similar reason he opened the new church on February 
8rd 1867, and ever since that time the congregational year 
has begun with the lat of February. 


Some fears were entertained lest the Presbyterians 
who had gone to swell the Church of England and 
Wesleyan congregations should be lost to the Church. No 
sooner, however, was the old blue banner of Presby- 
terianism unfurled by the strong hand of Mr. Gow 
than these former sons and daughters of the Church 
bravely and loyally rallied round it. From that day till 
the present the Hokitika congregation has held a con- 
spicuous place among the Christian churches in advancing 
the Redeemer's cause in Westland. 

The next step was to purchase a manse. Here there 
is a disappointing faUing off. The ministerial residence 
was not at all on a scale with the church finished or the 
stipend promised. It was a small cottage of four rooms ; 
yet, though it was the only accommodation afforded Mr. 
Gow's family for years, no complaints were made. 

Almost every year for a number of years, the congre- 
gation, in addition to meeting current expenses, initiated 
some building or embellishing scheme. Towards the close 
of 1867 a vestry was provided for the church, Mr. M. 
Sprott, father of the wife of Rev. E. Mackintosh late of 
Temuka, lecturing to raise the necessary funds. In 1868 
the church was lined at a cost of f 230, and two rooms 
added to, and sundry repairs effected upon, the manse at 
a cost of £150. In 1869 it rendered assistance, pecuniary 
and otherwise, to Greymouth. In 1870 the paddock in 
which the church stood was taken in hand, and the huge 
stumps that covered it, the remains of the gigantic trees of 
early days, were rooted out. This entailed considerable 
labour. A feature of the proceedings was a " stump 
concert," which in spite of the name offered a sumptuous 
bill of musical fare, and netted £50. In 1871 the sum 
of £122 was expended in completing the spire of the 


church. The motto of the congregation seemed to be: — 

" Strengthen the wavering line, 
'Stablish, continue our march 
On to the bounds of the waste, 
On to the City of God." 

The prosperity of Hokitika congregation, of which 
Eev. W. Douglas is now the efficient minister, has been 
largely due to its excellent staff of office-bearers. As a 
rule, they have been men of the right stamp, who put their 
whole heart and soul into their work. The first Session 
was composed of as noble a band of workers as any 
minister could desire to have. Their names were Messrs. 
A. Bonar, A. Scott, G. Mueller, J. Crerar, Andrew Orr, 
Joseph Anderson, and Andrew Peebles. A few words as 
to the more prominent of these will not be out of place. 

Mr A. Bonar, whose photograph appears in the 
Hokitika group, has an interesting history. He is said to 
have represented the Elgin Borough in the Established 
Assembly at Home, and to have been the first Free Church 
Treasurer, a distinguished office which he held for four 
years. He is credited with having sought out his suc- 
cessor, Mr John Macdonald, who discharged the duties 
of the Treasurership for 40 years. Dr. John Bonar, 
afterwards Secretary for the F. C. Colonial Committee, 
was a brother of his, while Drs. Horatius and Andrew 
were cousins. He was an elder in Dr. Gordon's church, 
Edinburgh, and was on most intimate terras with 
Dr. Andrew Thomson, Merle D'Aubigne, Duchess of 
Gordon, and all the giants of those days. His grandson 
is called Merle after D'Aubign^. 

A man bringing such traditions with him to New 
Zealand was sure to infuse a good spirit into the Hokitika 
congregation. He was a prime mover in starting the 



Presbyterian cause there, and a chief spoke in the wheel of 
its progress. Reverence for the Word of God was one of his 
pronounced characteristics. His reading of the lOOlh 
Psalm was said to have been majestically solemn and 
impressive. He was also one of the originators of the 
local Benevolent Society. 

Mr. C. E. Button, now of Auckland, rendered good 
service to the congregation in many ways. He was a 
man of ability, who was 
brought to the knowledge 
of the truth under the 
ministry of Rev. Mr. Gow 
and who cheerfully after- 
wards devoted all his ener- 
gies and talents to the 
furtherance of the Gospel 
in Hokitika. Lectures 
were sometimes given by 
him when funds to meet 
some of the many build- 
ing schemes inaugurated 
were required. He wasn't 
above starting a psalmody 
class and himself for a 
time acting as precentor. 
A great enthusiast in 
musical matters he had 
a large hand in modernis- 
ing this part of divine service in tlie congregation. Pos- 
sessed of excellent speaking gifts, and a good character, he 
was always most acceptable to the people, was often pressed 
into taking a service at Hokitika, and regularly supplied such 
outside preaching stations as Blue Spur, Woodstock, Szc. 




The following incident will furnish an example of the 
diffidence of true worth. Rev. Mr. Gow had to open 
the new church at Stafford, and Mr. Button was appointed 
to conduct the evening service at Hokitika. While the 
latter service was proceeding Mr. Gow arrived in town 
and quietly slipped into a corner of the church, desirous 
tliit his presence should be unobserved. The preacher, 
however, observing him felt disconcerted, and as he 
himself put it afterwards, " steadied himself by giving 
out the intimations." 

Mr. A. Scott we have 
already referred to as 
moving the Presbytery to 
organise a congregation, 
acting as Secretary to the 
first Committee, and fill- 
ing for years the office of 
honorary precentor. His 
chief work, however, was 
done in the Sabbath 
School, where he nobly 
served the church by act- 
ing for 13 years in the 
capacity of Superinten- 
dent, ably assisted by a 
most efficient band of 
Sabbath School teachers^ 

Mr. Mueller, now of 
Auckland, also rendered 
invaluable service by con- 
ducting a Bible Class, by occupying the pulpit in the 
minister's absence, and by preaching all around the 
accessible outlying districts. 



All the members of the Kirk Session were impressed 
with a sense of the largeness and importance of the 
field of labour they had been given to superintend, and 
the fewness of the spiritual labourers at work in it. 
Instead, therefore, of complaining of the minister's 
frequent enforced absences from the pulpit, they very 
cordially afforded him every facility for visiting the outlying 
districts, that he might preach the Gospel, administer the 
Sacraments, and organize new congregations. Every man 
gave ungrudgingly what help he could. " All true men," 
says Carlyle, "are soldiers in the same army to do battle 
against the same enemy, the empire of darkness and 

" United we stand, divided we fall ; 
It made and preserves us a nation." 

Greymouth had a minister settled in it soon after 
Hokitika. The Rev. John Hall had been there holding 
services, that were much appreciated, in billiard rooms 
of the hotels. So had the Eev. John Gow and the Rev. C- 
Fraser, but we need hardly say that the spiritual wants of 
the district were not met. Grumblings loud and deep 
reached Christchurch from that place in 1869 about no 
minister being forthcoming, although £98 had been locally 
collected by Mr. Fraser for the purpose. Rev. Joshua 
Mcintosh was sent to supply them with ordinances for a 
time. Being an acceptable preacher the Greymouth 
people took to him at once, and requested the Presbytery 
of Canterbury to moderate in a call. The request was 
granted, and a call to Mr. Mcintosh, moderated in by Mr. 
Gow of Hokitika, and signed by a large number of Presby- 
terians at Greymouth, was placed by the Presbytery in the 
hands of the minister of Lyttelton at its meeting in 
Christchurch, January 1870. It was at once accepted by 


him, whereupon the Moderator did there and then induot 
him into the pastoral charge of Grey mouth, investing him 
with presbyterial powers for carrying on pastoral work in 
the large and isolated district of Grey Valley. 

Mr. Mcintosh was anxious to get to his new field of 
labour as soon as possible, and in those days it was some- 
what difficult to reach. So early in February 1870 he 
almost chartered a small steamer called the " Charles 
Edward." The arrangement was that the little boat 
should take Government stores and other supplies to men 
who were engaged on some public works not far from 
Martin's Bay on the West Coast, and then go on to 
Hokitika. But the " Charles Edward " sank as far as 
the bottom of Martin's Bay would permit, and destroyed 
most of the property belonging to Mr. Mcintosh. All 
on board got safely to land, though not without some 
difficulty. Mrs. Mcintosh, especially, had good reason to 
remember the occurrence while she lived. On the bleak 
shore, with no woman or other person possessed of even a 
smattering of medical skill present, she gave birth to a 
daughter. The child was called, after the district, 
Martinette Percy Whitworth. In this place they were 
found by the crew of a boat sent round to search for 
them by the Government. Being rescued by the steamer 
" Kennedy," they reached Greymouth on the morning of 
Sabbath March 20th 1870. How true what Dr. G. 
MacDonald says : 

" Fair is this out-world of Thine, 
But its nights are cold, 
And the sun that makes it fair 
Makes us soon so old." 

For some months Divine service was conducted 
morning and evening in the Volunteer Hall, and in the 


afternoon at Pareoa and Cobden. A few months after- 
wards a church site was procured in Hospital street, where 
a beautiful church, capable of seating 200 persons and 
costing £600, was opened for worship on Christmas Day. 

With the inauguration of services in the new church 
began the conduct of a Sabbath School by Mr. James 
Savage, a teacher of great experience in the work, and one 
whose services in the district were greatly appreciated. 
He commenced the year with 11 pupils and ended it with 
about 100. The school has been extremely fortunate in 
always having a staff of godly and devoted teachers under 
zealous and able superintendents. Mr. James Ring, the 
present superintendent, has held the position for 16 years, 
and the school to-day bears testimony to his efficient 
management. The teachers number about 20, and are 
all on the Communion roll of the church. 

A young ladies' Bible class has for years been con- 
ducted by Mr. John Bain, and so close is the bond of union 
between teacher and pupils that the members only sever 
their connection with the class when they join the teach- 
ing staff of the school, remove from the town, or enter the 
married state. 

On the 19th October 1873, the first Session was formed 
by the ordination of Messrs. Thomas Wright, Joseph 
Anderson, F. H. Geisow, William Moutry, Samuel Hill, 
and Thomas Jolly ; but, on account of the many changes 
which inevitably take place through the flight of time, 
not one of these is now a member of Session. A manse, 
situated on Preston road was purchased for £400, but 
afterwards was found to be unsuitable. It was, therefore, 
sold, and in March 1877 the present manse in Tainui 
street was bought at a cost of £540. As might have been 
expected, Mr Mcintosh had a good deal of rough work to 


do in those pioneer days. He visited the various mining 
centres inland, when, there being no roads, travelling was 
a work of extreme difficulty. Monthly services were held at 
Marsden, where a good congregation was gathered and 
maintained through the fostering care of Mrs. Russell, 
Mr. John Bain, and Mr. H. Hewett. Ordinances were also 
afforded at No Town, where a neat church was built and 
opened free of debt through the exertions of Messrs. 
Livingstone, Hastie, and M' Death. Many other places 
also were visited, and thus the good seed, with patient 
labour and sacrifice, was sown far and wide. 

" But all through life I see a cross, 
Where sons of God yield up their breath. 
There is no gain, except by loss ; 
There is no life, except by death ; 
There is no vision, but by faith ; 
Nor glory, but by bearing shame ; 
Nor justice, but by taking blame. 
And that eternal passion saith : 
' Be emptied of glory, and right, and name.' " 

How were matters meantime in Hokitika ? Mr. 
Gow's ministry there was not of long duration. The 
attractions of a city charge, and the education of his 
family, induced him to accept a call to St. Andrew's, 
Dunedin, in October 1871, and he left amid the sincere 
regrets of an attached people. He had been less than five 
years settled on the West Coast, but they were years of 
earnest, honest, and hard work. As the father of Presby- 
terianism in that part of the world he did much by his energy 
and organizing zeal to place the church on a good foundation. 
His preaching was solid, evangelical, and practical, and 
brought blessing to many. Perhaps the fortiter in re came 
occasionally into evidence, as when a complaint was once 
made to the Presbytery that he had excommunicated, of 


his own authority, a troublesome opponent. A bold and 
courageous reformer of the Lutheran stamp, was much 
needed in those days. A gentle Melanchthon on the West 
Coast in early times would have been quite out of place. 
He would not have accomplished half the work. Mr. 
Gow had some of the qualities that go to make a man a 
leader of men. He gathered around him many persons 
of intellectual gifts and good social standing. Several 
who now occupy leading positions in the Colony were once 
connected with the Hokitika congregation, such as the 
Solicitor- General of New Zealand. Few congregations 
have had so many enterprising and talented members. 
Some may explain this circumstance on the principle that : 

" Maidens, like moths, are ever caught by glare, 
And mammon wins its way where seraphs might despair." 

We prefer rather to see in it the grace that consecrates 
great natural talents and energies to Christ. 

After a vacancy of eleven months the congregation 
called the Rev. James Kirkland, of the Clutha Presbytery, 
and he was inducted on September 10th 1872. Like his 
predecessor he was an earnest and vigorous worker, who 
kept the congregation well together. His preaching was 
evangelistic as well as evangelical. Many during his 
ministry were saved from wrath to come, and proved 
themselves afterwards to be steadfast followers of Christ. 

It was during his pastorate that Mr. D. W. Virtue, 
now of Wellington, became attached to the Church. Like 
Mr. Button he had excellent preaching gifts, which he 
was always willing to exercise for the benefit of the con- 
gregation, either in Hokitika or in the outlying districts. 
The present manse was erected in Mr. Kirkland 's day; 
but he never occupied it. He accepted a call to the Taieri 
on October 4th 1875. 



Ross about this time came to have a settled minister. 
Tidings reached the Canterbury Presbytery that ecclesias- 
tical matters there were 
not in a satisfactory con- 
dition. A Mr. Sutherland, 
had been holding services 
in Ross, but had gone. In 
their difficulty the people 
had engaged a Mr. Porter, 
who had been a Baptist 
minister ; and a rumour 
was abroad that he was 
seeking to alienate the 
Church property. Accord- 
ingly, the Presbytery sent 
Rev. W. Hogg, of Amuri, 
to visit the district and 
report. Mr. Hogg, wearied 
with his constant saddle 
duties in North Canter- 
bury, was not unwilling 
for a change. Taking a 
seat in Cobb's coach, he 
proceeded by the overland route, and was overwhelmed with 
admiration at the wondrous scenery of the ranges, 
especially of the grand and terrific ruggedness of the 
Bealey, and the wild luxuriance of the Teremakau avenue. 
On the evening of the second day he reached Hokitika, 
crossed the river and the Hospital lagoon to Jemmy Rea's 
hostelry, mounted Jemmy's waggon, and, going by the 
edge of the sea part of the way, soon reached Ross. 


Mr. Colin Campbell, manager of the New South 
Wales Bank, received him on arrival, and showed him no 


little kindness. Having preached in the church morning 
and evening on the Sabbath after he arrived to good 
congregations, Mr. Hogg visited some of the miners in the 
home of their operations. He was much struck with the 
desolation that always attends the footsteps of the gold 
digger. Trees of vast size lay heads and points ; while 
boulders great and small washed clean of clay lay thickly 
scattered over the ground. Indeed no clay could anywhere 
be seen. Everything of that nature had been washed 
away down to the solid rock, except in the neighbourhood 
of the sluicing drains, which narrow and deep crossed and 
recrossed in various directions. He found the miners as 
eager for a yarn as they were for gold, especially about 
other districts and other days. He experienced them, also, 
in spite of their failings, quick to respond to the appeal 
of distress, and comparatively free from the grosser vices. 

After a few weeks the people of Ross expressed 
to Mr. Fraser, then in Hokitika supplying the pulpit 
vacated by Mr. Gow, a desire to call Mr. Hogg, and 
requested him to moderate in a call. This he did on May 
24th 1872. The call was signed by 167 individuals ; but 
in six months afterwards a dozen of them were not to be 
found in the Church. Now for the reason. Gold mining 
in and around Ross was first what is called surfacing, i.e., 
washing away all the sand and clay on the surface. 
Afterwards deep shafts descending as low as 300ft. were 
sunk, and the debris sent up to the top to be put through 
sluice boxes. " The Cassius " was one of the chief 
of these, giving access to a mine rich in gold. It 
was 850ft. deep, and drained by a powerful pump, which 
worked incessantly day and night. On July 26th 1872 a 
miner working below incautiously struck his pick into the 
wall that separated this mine from an old claim, when, lo ! 


a huge volume of water rushed in and submerged every- 
thing, the workmen barely escaping with their lives. The 
steam whistle which was set agoing on that occasion 
sounded the death knell of the Ross goldfield. Many a 
good cause has been injured in a similar way. 

" Evil, like a rolling stone upon the mountain top, 
A child may first impel, a giant cannot stop." 

Not anticipating that prosperity was about to vanish 
from Ross the congregation had set about the enlargement 
of the four-roomed cottage that served for a manse, and 
Mr. Hogg had brought over his family in September. 
Seeing how matters stood, he worked hard to keep a congre- 
gation together, but it was not to be. Gold being no longer 
found in payable quantities, the people at Ross and all 
down the coast began to flock out of the district, many taking 
tbeir houses with them. Two years previous to this, when he 
first came over, there were in the region south of Hokitika 
more than 1000 people. Now you might travel for miles 
without seeing a human being. It seemed that, just 
as the Anglican and Wesleyan clergymen had to flee 
from Ross, so the Presbyterian minister should have to beat 
a retreat. Determined, however, not to give in easily, Mr. 
Hogg betook himself to work among the " Beach 
Combers." These were men who scattered themselves 
over the beach, especially near the mouths of the great 
rivers, and after a storm washed the sand thrown up by 
the action of the waves and deposited along high water 
mark. Tbe few old diggers who had found payable gold 
in the bush, and who were engaged making aqueducts and 
bringing powerful jets of water to bear upon their claims, 
also received his attention. 

In those days when Presbyterial business fell to be 
transacted, the Canterbury Presbytery would adjourn to 


meet at Hokitika on a certain date. The day specified 
coming round. Revs. Gow and Mcintosh with Mr. A. 
Bonar, elder, met and transacted the business, and after- 
wards adjourned to meet at Christchurch. This trans- 
ference of authority had the recommendation, at least, of 
obviating the difficulties of travel, and was adopted as a 
provisional arrangement. One naturally asks, if the 
Westlanders could suitably uphold the dignity of the 
Presbytery of Canterbury, what was to prevent them from 
forming themselves into a Presbytery of Westland ? And 
so they eventually did. The first meeting of the Westland 
Presbytery took place on January 7th 1874. 

The members who constituted the court were : — 

Eev. J. KIRKLAND, minister of Hokitika. 
Rev. JOS. McINTOSH, minister of Greymouth. 
Rev. W. HOGG, minister of Ross. 
Mr. ANDREW ORR, elder, Hokitika. 
Mr. F. H. TUESSON, elder, Greymouth. 

At a meeting of the Westland Presbytery, held 
soon after its formation. Rev. W. Hogg tendered his 
resignation of Ross. His brethren thought that things 
were at their worst, and were likely soon to mend. 
It was agreed, therefore, that his resignation should 
lie on the table, and that he should turn his attention to 
the district of which Staiiord was the centre. So Mr. Hogg 
got enlarged a little manse at Stafford, in which an 
evangelist, Mr James Laughton, who was working the 
district, had been living, and removing his family thither, 
toiled here for two more years. The prospects of gold did not 


brighten. Long before the end of that period the Stafford 
and Waimea diggers had begun to think that tlieir work 
was done. 

Kumara at this time leaped into prominence. It 
happened in this way. Thoroughly discouraged, the 
Stafford people began to ask, " How are the Houlahans 
getting on at the Teremakau ?" If report was correct they 
were getting on exceedingly well. It was said they were 
acquiring gold in more ways than one. A confidential 
whisper reached Stafford that they were engaged in the 
illicit distillation of poteen. Instantly there was a 
stampede for the Teremakau, and again Mr. Hogg was left 
high and dry. He tried Reefton for three months, but 
that place was not yet ripe for a charge. Like his English 
Church predecessor, Rev. Mr. Cross, he had to give up 
the attempt. Coming back he selected a site for a church 
and manse at the scene of the recent rush. This was a 
short time afterwards exchanged for one in the heart of 
the new diggings, on which a small church was built, 
while a manse in keeping was erected some distance from 
it, up on the Hokitika and Greymouth roads. The huts 
and tents in the new township increased rapidly, forming 
a considerable street which ran down to the selection of 
Mr. Seddon, now the Hon. Dr. Seddon, Premier of New 
Zealand. Mr. Hogg tells us that the new goldfield, which 
is now probably the largest hydraulic-sluicing mining 
centre in New Zealand, got its name through Mr. Mueller, 
the Chief Surveyor. 

Mr. Hogg had enough of the West Coast. His was an 
isolated position. Clergy and laity both deserted him. 
When Mr. Kirkland departed for the Taieri and Mr. 
Mcintosh returned to Canterbury, he was the only minister 
left in Westland. Other labourers came to the Province ; 


but hig work he viewed as done. On October 8th -1876 
he sailed by the Wakatipu for Sydney, ready to say, in spite 
of all his trying experiences in Amuri and Westland, 

" Old memory may bring me her treasures 
From the land of the blossoms in May, 
But to me the hill daisies are dearer 
And the gorse on the river-bed grey. 
The speargrass and cabbage-tree yonder. 
The honey-bell'd flax in its bloom, 
The dark of the bush on the sidelings, 
The snow-crested mountains that loom 
Golden and grey in the sunlight. 
Par up in the cloud-fringed blue 
Are the threads, with old memory weaving, 
And the line of my life running thro' ; 
And the wind of the morning calling 
Has ever a voice for me 
Of hope for the land of the dawning 
In the golden years to be." 




Undefined Parishes— Trudging On Foot — Bullock Riding — Clerical 
First Attempts at Riding — A Probationer's Troubles- Fording 
Rivers — Stuck Fast on a Bridge — Lost in the Bush— Places of 
Worship — Wairau Massacre — Attack on the Pukekohe Church — 
How Dr. Elmslie got his War Medal— A Mixed Membership — 
The Wild Grapes of Judah. 

This chapter is intended as a pleasant break in the 
monotony inseparably associated with ancient history, 
while presenting, as in a picture, important features of 
early times. Numerous references have already been made 
to the trying experiences of our ecclesiastical pioneers, but 
perhaps it will be interesting to gather together here a few 
specimens of the difficulties with which they had to 
contend. Modern church workers may learn what they 
owe to them, and how comparatively smooth their own 
path is. It would give a feeble conception of their trials 
to say that their paths were studded with thorns or to 

" Had you seen these roads before they were made 
Y'ou'd lift up your hands and bless General Wade." 

They had no such luxuries. Precedent did not hamper their 
movements. Walking in the footsteps of those who had 
gone before while threading dangerous ways was a pleasure 
denied them. Physically and metaphorically they had to 
carve out new paths for themselves. The country was 
well-nigh impassable. In very many places it was covered 


with dense, tangled, primitive bush. This bush was com- 
posed of giants of the forest, intermingled with smaller 
trees, shrubs, creepers, and climbers, supplejack and bush- 
lawyers, parasites and epiphytes, the whole forming a dense 
mass of exuberant, matted vegetation that made a passage 
through it next to impossible. The manuka, that grew 
profusely in the open, was harder to penetrate than the bush. 
Fire and the settler's axe are rapidly making these difficulties 
things of the past ; and in forestless land, perhaps, creating 
others of a different kind to take their place. Once all the 
gorges were filled with this native bush and the hills clothed 
with verdant foliage from base to summit. In the low-lying 
plains travellers had to encounter the marshes and raupo 
swamps, the Maoriheads, the flax bushes, and all the rank 
vegetation that delights in the lowlands of an undrained 
country. There were no roads through its rugged, untamed 
wilderness. There were no bridges over its many wide and 
dangerous rivers. Of what Europeans would call civilised 
dwellings there were none. Few and far between were the 
spots of which an explorer might sing at sundown, after a 
weary tramp, in the words of Moore : 

" I knew by the smoke that so gracefully curled 
Above the green elms that a cottage was near, 
And I said, " If there's peace to be found in the world, 
A heart that was humble might hope for it here." 

A little of such a country would have been to our pioneers 
a feast. What circumstances allotted to them proved a 
surfeit. The Eev. Mr. Macfarlane ministered to all denomi- 
nations in the Wellington district, and crossing Cook's 
Strait, paid an occasional visit to the South Island. 
The Rev. D. Bruce found in the scattered units of the 
Presbyterian Church about Auckland a similarly wide 
field awaiting him, and took the care of all the Presby- 


terian churches on his shoulders. The Rev. C. Eraser's 
parish for a time was the Province of Canterbury. The Rev. 
G. Barclay, who took South Canterbury off his hands, was 
accustomed to say that his parish was bounded on the north 
by the Rangitata river, on the South by the Waitaki, on the 
West by the Southern Alps, and on the East by the Pacific 
Ocean. Indeed he had doubts sometimes whether there 
was not an obligation resting on him to risk his life in the 
mountain torrents, and, crossing some saddle of the snow- 
clad ranges, to find out what the neglected settlers were 
doing on the West Coast. The Rev. W. Hogg, who took over 
Amuri district, at the northern end of Mr. Eraser's first 
parish, viewed his field of labour as extending from the 
Upper Clarence to the Hurunui, and from the Spencer 
Range to the sea. Seven new charges have been formed 
out of Rev. T. Norrie's original parish. In fact the early 
ministers of New Zealand were like the shining orbs of 
heaven, whose spheres of illumination are determined 
by the intensity and volume of their own light, and the 
atmospheric conditions of the dark worlds by which they 
are surrounded. 

We need only mention a few specimens of the leading 
difficulties with which they had to contend. Eirst in order 
will come trudging on foot. Now-a-days, in moving from 
place to place, the minister has often great difficulty in making 
up his mind whether he shall go by train, or coach, or 
bicycle, or taking his own horse drive or ride, or walk the 
distance on foot. Eifty years ago he was delivered from 
all worry of that kind. He had only to choose between 
ridmg and walking. In many cases he was mercifully 
preserved from even that mental strain, and, by force of 
circumstances, tied down to the most primitive method of 
progression. The minister of Amuri itinerated for years 



through his extensive parish on foot with his staff in his hand 
and his swag on his back, travelling often fifteen and some- 
times twenty miles a day. Frequently he was absent for 
a month, leaving the occupant of a cob house that served 
for a manse, singing by times in pathetic tones : — 

" For there's nae luck aboot the house, 
There's nae luck ava ; 
There's little pleesure in the hoose 
When oor guidman's awa." 

Rev. D. Hogg's experiences, therefore, at Wanganui 
were not exceptional. His clothes were often torn by bush 
lawyers, or covered with a 
tenacious clay that it was 
difficult to brush off without Jl^'' ' 

bringing away the face of the 
cloth. He came not to care 
what sort of lower garments 
he had on, if they were strong 
and hung well together. If 
he happened to be wearing 
anything respectable, such as 
his Sunday trousers, he stuffed 
them down into great boots. 
Even then the mud would get 
in. Sometimes the mud got into 
the boots, and sometimes the 

boots got into the mud. It was easy for him to plant his 
foot down, but it was often very difficult to lift it up. 
Frequently the foot came away without the boot. His 
early riding experiences were not much of an improvement. 
He used to say that his first horse was a bullock, and that 
he was the most faithful and sure-footed animal he ever 

" Better is the ass that carries us than the horse that throws us." 



He never reared, nor plunged, nor shied, nor bolted, nor 
was guilty of any of the wanton acts for which his fellows 
of the undivided hoof are distinguished. As for stumbling, 
he had a strong aversion to that. He only slid from one 
hole into another. But when his master had enumerated 
all his good qualities, he generally added the rider, " he 
was uncommonly slow." The time was not altogether lost. 
Most of the minister's study was done on the bullock's 
back. There books were read and sermons were written. 
Little other opportunity of doing so existed. Much of 
the pastor's time was spent in the saddle. His house 
was a four-roomed cottage, filled with romping children, 
who made meditation difficult. He was always well pleased 
when he could on his bullock accomplish both the outward 
and return journey in one day. Frequently it took him the 
greater part of a week to pay one distant visit. Sometimes 
the driver wanted to go one way and the bullock another, 
and it was some time before they came to an understanding. 
In most cases the bullock was right. He knew by 
instinct the right path to take better than his master. 
This bullock was curiously caparisoned. We are sorry 
that we cannot treat our readers to a photograph of 
the turn-out. An old sack served for a saddle. The 
stirrups were made of plaited flax. The bridle was formed 
of the same material. If it broke there was no danger ; 
the animal simply stood still till another was obtained 
from a flax bush by the wayside. A huge stick of manuka 
in the hand of the driver completed the curious outrig. 

Some young ministers just from Home created great 
merriment in the early days by their awkward attempts 
at learning the art of riding. Some of them came 
from the city, and had never been on a horse's back. 
Mr. A. was a fine young man socially, intellectually, 


and spiritually. He had all the qualifications that go to 
make up a successful Colonial minister and missionary 
but one, and it was very important. He knew nothing 
about riding a horse. He was sent to an out-district of 
Wellington Presbytery where ability to ride was a sine qua 
non. With a little oats he caught his steed, and after a 
few ineffectual efforts to mount, got into the saddle with 
fear and trembling. As he passed through the village at a 
slow walk, with his trousers up and his legs bare, holding 
on by the mane with both hands, the boys going to school 
cried to one another, " My eye, can't that cove ride ?" 
" But finding soon a smoother road 

Beneath her well-shod feet, 
The snorting beast began to trot, 

Which galled him in the seat." 

At that moment the horse heard or fancied he heard 
something in the bush, and sprung suddenly forward. 
Alas for the new chum parson ! He lost his hat, he lost 
his seat, he lost his horse, he lost his way, and after 
wandering about for a time, found his road home, where the 
first question he asked was, " My horse is lost, how shall 
we manage to find him?" As a matter of fact, the horse 
had arrived hours before, exciting a good deal of anxiety at 
the manse as to the fate of his rider. Some time afterwards 
he had occasion to pay a pastoral visit, and got safely to his 
destination, knocked, and was invited in by the lady who 
opened the door. " But what about the horse?" said the 
minister. •' Oh, just throw the bridle over a post," she 
said, " and there will be someone here directly who shall 
look after him." "But," rejoined the minister, with a 
puzzled air, " I don't know exactly how you mean me to 
fasten the horse. Will you do it for me ?" There 
happened to be some young ladies in that house who were 
up to all kinds of mischief. They proposed next morning 


to give him a lesson on riding. They brought him at a 
break-neck pace over the roughest country they could find, 
and " stayed not for brake and stopped not for stone," the 
young gentleman thinking every moment would be his 
last. When he got home, he went straight to bed. Next 
morning he made no appearance at the breakfast table. 

A Westland minister used to make excursions down 
the coast that were attended with considerable danger. 
If the bluffs were sanded, he considered himself fortunate. 
Riding was then comparatively easy ; though on one 
occasion in these circumstances he found himself enveloped 
in a big breaker, his garments drenched, and his pockets 
filled with sea sand. The levelling propensities of the 
sand he then found carried rather far for his personal 
comfort. If there was no sand thrown up upon the 
shore matters were much worse. To round the blufifs 
under these conditions meant leaping his horse from 
crag to crag and boulder to boulder. Unless the horse 
was used to it, the feat was attended with risk, and 
the horse soon became thoroughly exhausted. 

" Riding and Tying " was on the main roads a common 
mode of progression, when two men had only one 
horse between them. One would ride on quickly for say 
twenty minutes, tie up the horse by the side of the road, 
and push forward on foot. When his fellow came up to 
the horse he mounted, rode on, passed the traveller in 
advance, and tying up the horse again left it for him, and 
so on. Each took his turn at riding and walking, and 
good progress was made. They needed, however, to be 
agreeable companions who were disposed fairly and 
amicably to portion out the use of the animal between them. 

The Westland mimister's experiences at accommodation 
houses were often trying, if not amusing. Once the food 


was served up in the pot in which it had been cooked. The 
plates were of rusty tin, the knives were without handles, 
and the drinking cups were tin pannikins. The bed was 
in an outhouse, and was formed by placing " a little straw 
on a hard board, where insect powder would have been a 
desideratum, and from which a man rose in the morning, 
less rested than when he lay down." 

Yet those early days had their pleasures. Everywhere 
he was kindly received. Everywhere he preached the 
Gospel as opportunity offered, and left the result with God. 

" We micht be kind o' towzy in the days o' auld langsyne, 
Yet we had hamely customs that we couldna thole to tine ; 
Our meat was braxy, tattie, an' brose', while to oor faith we clung, 
The Highland creed was staunch and leal, when Jock and I were 

The probationer has always had his troubles. Mr. B. 
was no exception. He had no need to draw upon the 
equine species for the discipline of life. Getting through 
the six years' work and worry of his collegiate career was 
a struggle, pecuniary and otherwise. With little Greek 
and less Hebrew he got licensed, and resolved to show 
vacant congregations that he had not a vacant or unsettled 
mind. When preaching in his student days, he used to 
receive many flattering compliments. Somehow or other 
these all now ceased. He began to make anxious inquiry 
about vacancies, but, strange to say, no vacancy made 
any inquiry about him. He managed to get together 
three sermons, which he carried about with him. Their 
good points were not appreciated. They were not even 
seen. One on " The Withered Hand " seemed only to 
illustrate the paralysis of the limb into which Jesus put 
life. Another on " The Higher Criticism," which cost him 
much trouble, made many look as fierce as a Canterbury 


farmer who has a hundred acres of wheat out in a raging 
nor'-wester, and led many to ask, " Does the fellow suppose 
that a farmer cannot use his dray until he learns who put 
it together and what woods were used in its construction, 
and in what proportion ?" A third, on " The Judgment 
Day," instead of turning his auditors, as he anticipated, 
into the channel of answering for their own imperfections, 
set them wondering, " How will this man hold up his head 
at last and say that he preached the Gospel." He tried 
all sorts of candidates' tricks in vain. He quoted from 
Burns when he preached to Scotchmen, and made a 
handsome reference to the Green Isle as, 

" First flower of the earth, first gem of the sea," 

when he addressed a congregation in which Irishmen 
prevailed. He even carried lollies for the children. All 
to no purpose. To his chagrin he saw other licentiates 
receive the call he longed for, and settle down and get 
married. One congregation thought his voice a trifle weak, 
another, his delivery feeble, another would have liked 
him better if be had not stuck so closely to the bit of 
paper. Some heard that he was delicate in health, some 
that he preached in other places and was rejected, until 
he concluded that if a candidate could only drop down 
from the moon, preach, and then return into the woods 
until after the congregational meeting, he would stand a 
good chance of being elected. 

It seemed a pity that to his other hardships should be 
added those of horsemanship. Yet so it was. In the 
beginning of his protracted probationeering career, the task 
was set him of riding sixteen miles on a warm day inside 
two hours. He was dressed in his Sunday best. The 
sexton caught, groomed, and saddled the horse, and the 


elder instucted him bow to elevate out of danger, with pins 
and strings, his long coat tails. But just as he was about 
to be hoisted into the saddle, he suddenly remembered that 
he had on his best black trousers. For this his chaperon 
was puzzled to find a remedy. The minister's wife, 
however, was equal to the occasion. She came out and 
suggested the pinning of sheets of brown paper over them. 
That day the people who saw him never forgot. That day 
he never forgot himself. His experiences were such, that 
he vowed, should he never get a congregation, not to 
accept a call to one which necessitated riding. A motto 
of his ever afterwards was : 

" Horses and poets should be fed, not pampered." 

Fording rivers was another difficulty. New Zealand 
is a well-watered country. It is intersected with streams. 
Its high mountains swept with storms that bring sometimes 
snow, sometimes rain, and sometimes hot north- westers, 
mean numerous and fluctuating rivers. Anyone who has 
been to Mt. Cook in the early part of the excursion season 
will know that the many " creeks " that cross the road 
leading thither may be innocent-looking streams one 
moment and half-an-hour afterwards may be raging 
torrents, rolling huge boulders along as if they were pebbles, 
with a sound like thunder, and endangering trap, horse, 
and human life. There and elsewhere fords are constantly 
changing. Often they disappear altogether, and a new 
one, with careful experiment, has to be found. Frequently, 
what is more dangerous still, the old one is broken up into 
deep holes that are unknown even to the experienced and 
frequent passer-by. There are snags, too, and shifting 
sands, and other dangers to be encountered. In recent 
times many of these rivers have been bridged. Many 
of them are at present being made safe for traffic by 


engineering skill, but fancy the solitary wayfarer, in ante- 
pontine days, being obliged in all seasons and in all weathers 
to find and cross a ford as best he could. Every district 
has stories of accidents met with and lives lost. The minister 
who had to pay a visit to a dying man, or hold a service 
on the other side of the river, and who was desirous to 
fulfil his engagements was exposed to special danger. 
The more conscientious and faithful he was the more 
daring he became, and the greater risks he ran. A few 
examples will suffice. 

A minister, who is still living, and has a wholesome 
dread of New Zealand rivers, as well as a lively sense of 
the providential care of God, had to cross a snow river far 
from the hills. It was summer time. The sun was 
shining brightly, and all nature was still. There had been 
no rain for many weeks. No danger wliatever was antici- 
pated by the joyful traveller. He knew the ford well, and 
had crossed it again and again. When he neared it he saw 
that the water was muddy, and then he realised for the first 
time that a north-wester had been blowing on the hills 
above. Not fearing any danger, he urged his horse forward 
and entered the stream. He had not gone more than 
half-way across when the water began to come into the 
trap, but fancying the worst was passed, he pushed on. 
Then the horse's fore feet lost the bottom, and he began 
to swim. The faithful animal who was used to the water 
would have taken his driver out all right under ordinary 
circumstances, but a wheel of the vehicle struck a sub- 
merged root and turned it over in a strongly flowing 
stream seven feet deep. As the wheel rose the occupant 
leaning hard on that side managed, he knew not how, to 
keep uppermost, and when the lower wheel rested on a 
portion of the obstruction below and the upper wheel spun 


round with the current at the surface in a horizontal 
position, the minister perched on the top spun round 
with it like a coin on a wheel of fortune. Fortunately he 
held on to the reins. This helped to steady his seat and 
to save the horse from drowning by keeping his nose out 
of the water. In this awkward predicament he remained 
for half-an-hour until a man who was ploughing on the 
farther bank slowly loosed his horses, leisurely rode 
down to the margin, and with a rope brought out the man, 
the horse, and the vehicle. As the latter was safely dragged 
up on the dry shingle minus cushions, rug and all baggage 
and loose belongings, the matter-of-fact rescuer who was 
accustomed to such occurrences at that crossing exclaimed, 
" That's worth two quids," i.t;., two pounds sterUng. Shortly 
after the minister resumed his journey meditating in 
soaked garments on the uncertainty of life and all things 
here below. 

Take another instance. Rev. W. Hogg of Golds- 
borough wears a scar on his head the result of a wound he 
received in a river nearly forty years ago. The Waiau 
has always been known to be a dangerous river. He was 
riding across it one day fearing nothing, having crossed it 
a short time previously lower down. All he remembers is 
that the bottom suddenly sheered down and the horse was 
swept off his feet and himself washed out of the saddle. 
When he became conscious he found himself clinging to 
the bridle and stirrups, kicking with his feet and vainly 
trying to touch the bottom. Partly he struggled ashore 
and partly he was washed ashore, wet, cold, stunned and 
bleeding, and more dead than alive. For a long time after- 
wards a stream two feet deep was to him a source of terror. 
Rev. Mr. McKinney says : — 

" In returning from Waipu I came home by the West Coast, 
visiting on my way many solitary families. I came by a new track, 


which was lately cut, and when I reached a certain tidal river I 
missed the proper crossing, and met in consequence with considerable 
difiSculty. I put my horse into the river, intending to let him go 
over first, and then swim after him, dragging my things on an 
impromptu raft. But the horse sank in the mangrove swamp, and 
all my efforts proved in vain to rescue him. I sat down gloomily 
enough, watching the rising tide and my poor old horse, as I 
conceived, hopelessly drowning. But after I had sat for three hours 
and just as I had given up all hope of saving him, although the road 
is one you might not meet a traveller on for weeks, there came up 
three men, provided with a long rope and everything fitted for the 
rescue of a horse, and soon he was safe and sound on dry land 

Darkness coming on Mr. McKinney slept that night 
in the open fern without any supper, nay with the mos- 
quitoes vigorously making a supper of him. 

Few have more tales to tell of awkward predica- 
ments in the crossing of rivers than Rev. G. Barclay, the 
father of South Canterbury Pres- 
byterianism. The streams that 
flow out from the Mt. Cook Range 
were many a time nearly the '•''■*^ 

death of him. Once when going - f 

from Geraldine to the Mackenzie 
Country with a pair of horses, one 
of the animals became restive in 
the flooded Opihi and got his foot 
entangled in the wheel of the 
vehicle. No one was near, and Mr. ^^^' °- b^RCLay. 
Barclay after getting out stood in 

the foaming torrent and did Avhat he could to extricate 
the limb. When this proved futile he held up the horse's 
head as long as he could, but was obliged at last to let him 
go under and drown. Detaching the other horse from his 
dead companion, he mounted him and rode to his place of 


destination as if nothing unusual had happened. On 
another occasion he went phmging over a steep embank- 
ment six feet deep into the river, and escaped himself but 
horse and gig were swept like brushwood down the stream, 
On still another his life was saved by his noticing just in 
time the danger he was running and jumping out as his 
horses plunged down a steep incline into a swollen river. 
Once he was found lying insensible in a paddock by the 
road side with his horse grazing quietly at a distance after 
clearing a high fence and throwing its rider. Sometimes 
it was the horse that went over the fence and left the rider 
and sometimes it was the rider who went over the fence 
and left the horse. Though good enough friends on the 
whole there was often a considerable distance placed 
between them. Such was pastoral work in those days. 
It was carried on under difficulties. Mr. Barclay often 
preached with torn garments and bleeding hands and the 
water pumping up out of his boots as he emphasised with 
the lower limb some weighty truth. Whatever may have 
been thought of the sermon delivered on those occasions, 
the preacher was far from being dry. 

Rev. John Macky had many similar experiences. 
His faithful horse "Jack," given him by his brother 
James, often sank in the mud to the saddle girths and set 
his bespattered rider ruminating that " a horse is a vain 
thing for safety." Once he sank through the planking of 
a bridge. Bridges were not so carefully constructed in 
those days as they are now. On the way to Howick to 
conduct a Sabbath service his horse's legs stuck fast in 
one of the bridges over which he had to pass, and out of it 
he could not be got. Here was a predicament. All who 
intimately knew Mr. Macky can fancy his vexation at the 
thought of breaking his appointment. In his extremity 


be appealed for help to a Maori who with his wife 

happened to be near. The Native answered " How much 

the utu?" Mr. Macky handed him two shillings, and 

they applied their united strength to relieve the horse. 

This failing his wife was appealed to. Her response was 

similar, "How much the ^Uu T' The minister having 

disbursed his last two shillings, the three together managed 

to place his horse on terra firma, and the Presbyterians 

of Howick had their service that day as usual. Mr. 

Macky used to tell this story with glee. It will be well 

if through it we learn to shun the mercenary spirit of the 

two aborigines, and copying the perseverance of this 

faithful pioneer to resolve : 

" We will not from the helm to sit and weep, 
But keep our course, though the rough winds say, no." 

Perseverance amid difficulties in those days was not 

confined to the male sex. The Rev. D. Bruce, who had 

many a lively adventure in his early Church Extension 

tours, was once preaching at Papakura, before Mr Norrie's 

arrival, when a woman from a distance presented her 

child for baptism. She turned out to be Mrs. M'Nicol of 

Wairoa, the wife of the pioneer settler of that place. Her 

husband, who, with the rest of the first settlers, reached 

their home by water, had told her that he had brought her 

to that district to make sure that she w'ould not run away 

from him. He evidently had not reckoned on the metal 

of which she was made. On this occasion she carried her 

baby through a dense bush, over unbridged creeks and 

rivers, and across muddy swamps, and after baptism 

trudged back again. Wairoa was afterwards one of the 

fields whicli the Rev. Mr. Norrie found most difficult to 

reach, and being reached most difficult to leave. He has 

lively recollections of having spent a night in the bush, 

while returning from one of his distant pastoral tours. 


To be lost in the bush was once in New Zealand no 
uncommon occurrence. Sometimes as in the following 
instance it was attended with loss of life under melancholy 
circumstances. Rev. David Hamilton, son of Rev. D. 
Hamilton, the saintly minister of York street, Belfast, and 
brother of Rev. Dr. T. Hamilton, President of the Queen's 
College, Belfast, was a minister of Avondale near Auck- 
land. He was greatly beloved for his personal character 
and for his work's sake. 

" He had kept 
The whiteness of his soul, and thus men over him wept." 

On Wednesday July 9th 1873, he left home on horseback 
for a preaching and visiting tour in the ranges between 
Avondale and the Manukau Heads. He conducted service 
at Huia distant fifteen miles from Avondale on the 10th, 
and proceeded to Manukau Heads five miles further on the 
following day, Thursday, but never reached them. As he 
did not turn up at Avondale to conduct service next 
Sunday morning, alarm was excited. 

Two settlers at once started off in search of their 
missing pastor. On Monday morning these were followed 
by two others. During the day a meeting was held at 
Avondale at which four additional persons volunteered 
their services. Two constables joined in the search, and 
twenty men from the sawmills at Cornwallis, Huia, and 
Manukau Heads scattered themselves all over the bush. 
Eventually the horse was found entangled in supplejacks, and 
tracks were discovered leading from it which were soon lost. 
Not hoping to find Mr. Hamilton alive in such weather the 
searchers grew discouraged and returned to their homes. 
On Thursday, exactly a week after he disappeared, Rev. D. 
Bruce and Mr. Buchanan rode to Huia and ofifered a 
reward of £25 to anyone who should find Mr. Hamilton 


dead or alive. Stimulated by this a number went out 
who had not yet taken part in the search, and on the 
following Sabbath, July 20th, three men found his body 
in a stream within half-an-hour's walk of the mill at 
Manukau Heads. One arm was broken and the remains 
considerably bruised and decomposed. Some suppose 
that the deceased left his horse and going forward in 
search of the path heard the sound of the mill and made 
for it, but in the darkness fell over a precipice on a rock 
and was killed, and that his body was washed by a flood 
to the place where it was found. Others fancy that he 
died from exposure, and that his body received the injuries 
afterwards, when it was being swept along by the torrent. 
The weather was now so stormy that it was found im- 
possible to get the body conveyed by water to Auckland. 
Ten men, however, volunteered to carry it overland to 
Avondale, a distance of 20 miles. The road being a mere 
bush track through wild and unbroken country, the 
journey was accomplished by these settlers with their 
burden under considerable difficulties. A sorrowing 
people erected a monument over his grave at a cost of 
£107, upon which they carved the following inscription: — 

" In memory of Rev. David Hamiltoa, clergyman of the pariah, 
who, after a pastorate of 15 months, died from exposure in the 
Manukau forest, in the month of July, 1875 ; aged 29 years. 

" Erected by his parishioners in affectionate remembrance of 
hia goodness as a man and his devotedness as a Christian minister." 

" For me to live is Christ, and to die is gain." — Phil. 1., 21. 

How true what Kingsley says, 

" But men must work and women must weep 
Though storms be sudden and waters deep 
And the harbour bar be moaning." 


The task of finding a suitable place in which to hold 
religious services was a serious difficulty in early days. The 
school-houses, now so numerous and so useful in outlying 
districts, had at first, of course, no existence, and for a long 
time were few and far between. To erect permanent 
structures for worship even in considerable centres of 
population was a work that required much planning. 
Suitable material wasn't always at hand. The necessary 
mechanical skill wasn't always available. Worse than all, 
the early settlers, who at the beginning were few and widely 
scattered, had a large outlay and slow returns, and could 
give but httle pecuniary help. The first church erected at 
Wanganui was built of toi-toi, some of the builders like the 
Natives living in whares constructed of the same material. 
Other churches, though more enduring, were of a very primi- 
tive and inartistic chararter. Private houses were largely 
drawn upon, settlers, like Mrs. Brown of Akaroa, sometimes 
taking down the middle wall of partition to accommodate 
the few Colonists who came from the district round about 
to worship God according to the custom of their fathers. 
Then pioneering ministers utilised the block houses of the 
military, the court-houses of the civil authorities, school- 
houses when available, and when all else failed fell back 
upon the house not made with hands, which Nature has 
herself with inimitable skill lighted, ventilated, carpeted, 
and canopied. 

Many an interruption in the labour of our early 
missionaries and ministers took place through the Maori 
disturbance. Attacks by the Natives were made, property 
plundered, much needed gospel work brought to an end, and 
lives often lost. The Wairau Massacre as initiating the 
Maori War may be taken as a fair specimen of the savagery 
of the aborigines and the danger run by the pioneers of 
civilisation and the gospel. 


The immediate cause of the first unfortunate collision 
with the Natives was the survey of lands in the Wairau 
Valley on the part of the New Zealand Company. Te 
Kauparaha accompanied by his fighting chief Rangihaeata, 
a most ferocious specimen of humanity, appeared on the 
scene, and claiming the soil by right of conquest protested 
against the survey, and said the lands were not included 
in the original agreement. Captain Wakefield said they 
were and that the survey must go on, using threats, it is 
said, as to what should happen to Rauparaha if it was 
interfered with. This proceeding was contrary to the 
established rule by which all action was to be stayed till 
disputed titles were investigated by Mr. Spain, the 
Government commissioner. Failing to get redress of their 
grievances, these chiefs burned down some of the surveyors' 
huts, which were built and thatched with material gathered 
from the disputed territory. This led to an appeal to Mr. 
F. A. Thompson, the pohce magistrate, who issued a 
warrant for their arrest and came himself with four 
constables. The force was increased to forty-nine by the 
addition of labourers, most of whom did not know how to 
to fire a gun. Some were armed, and some were not. 
The idea was to overawe the Maoris by a display of force. 
It was only a display, and the Natives had already grown used 
to an exhibition of rusty swords and old firearms. On the road 
they meet Pauha, nephew of Rauparaha, who undertakes, 
if the members of the expedition return, to bring both chiefs 
down to the beach, but his offer is refused. They follow up 
the Maoris into their retreat. A few unarmed cross the Tua 
Marina River, a branch of the Wairau on the left bank, over 
a bridge of punts suppHed by the Natives. An altercation 
ensues between Mr. Thompson and Rauparaha. The latter 
refuses to allow himself to be arrested. The Natives say 
that they are waiting for Mr. Spain, and Mr. Clark, Chief 


Protector of the aborigines, and do not want to fight. 
The police magistrate produces handcuffs. Some of 
the Maoris threaten to shoot. Captain Wakefield calls 
over the armed men. The Maoris thereupon fire with 
effect from the adjoining bush and the men on the bridge 
ineffectually reply. What could the latter do ? They 
were badly armed, and badly led, and the Natives had the 
advantage of a dense bush, from which unseen they 
poured a deadly fire on the advancing troops. Meantime 
the unarmed attempt to recross, and collide with those 
coming from the other side. Among the Englishmen 
there is a general stampede. The armed labourers rush 
back up the hill firing wildly as they retreat, and would 
not form on the hill, or be amenable to any control. 
Maori bullets now tear up the ground and lay many a 
white man low. A company composed mostly of the 
leaders of the expedition finding themselves left behind 
with scarcely any arms consider it their best plan to 
surrender to the Natives, and show a white flag. 
Threatening Maoris surround them. Rauparaha comes 
up and in response to the request of the Englishmen cries 
kail (peace), but the fighting chief afterwards arrives, and 
reminding Rauparaha of the death of his daughter Te 
Ronga, whom a shot during the second volley of the 
Englishmen had laid low, brains with his consent the 
entire company. The fact that the Europeans had 
surrendered and begged for mercy counted for nothing. 
Was it any wonder that a reign of terror was at once 
established in every settlement in New Zealand? 

Perhaps the siege stood by the settlers in Pukekohe 
Church in 1863 will as much as anything show that 
office-bearers and members of the church did not in days 
gone by sleep on a bed of roses. 



In the eavly sixties Pukekohe was one of the out- 
posts of European settlement in Auckland The roads 
leading thither were mere bridle-tracks through the dense 
forest, yet as early as 1857 Rev. T. Norrie visited the 
district and held service in Mr. Dearness's house. In 

■'^./.^f*J ?;<^; 


1863 a church was erected, a wooden building 28ft. x 18ft. 
with a small porch and surmounted by a belfry. The 
Maori War was then on the eve of breaking out afresh. 
The Natives of Taranaki had succeeded in gaining the 
sympathy of the people of the Waikato in their land 
troubles, and the idea was again taking possession of the 
Natives that they could and would drive all the Europeans 
into the sea. On the European side large forces were being 


gathered, and extensive preparations made for the coming 
struggle. The first definite advance was made on Sunday, 
12th July 1868, when General Cameron with 2000 men 
crossed the Maungatawhiri from the Queen's Redoubt. 
Rev. T. Norrie went to the Redoubt that morning but 
could hold no service as so few men were left in camp. 
Having been assured that steps had been taken to protect 
the settlers, he rode over to Pukekohe and held service in 
the afternoon. As the people were leaving the church a 
detachment of about 300 soldiers marched past and 
occupied Tuakau that evening. The next day the Maoris 
made a hostile demonstration at Meri Meri, and on the 
Wednesday they shot a settler and his son, named 
Meredith, on the outskirts of the Pukekohe settlement. 
News of this was hurriedly sent round, and the settlers 
gathered into Mr. Runciman's house, and the next day 
left for Drury where the Presbyterian Church was pressed 
into service, a great many families being crowded into it. 
On the Friday an escort was attacked and cut to pieces at 
Shepherd's Bush, the dead and wounded being brought to 
Drury, and a battle was fought at Pokeno Valley. War 
had begun in earnest. Seldom has a congregation 
assembled under more affecting circumstances or pre- 
sented a more peculiar appearance than that which met 
in the Drury Church on 19th July, a miserably cold, 
wet day, when the Rev. T. Norrie conducted Divine 

Having removed their families to Auckland, some of 
the settlers agreed to return to Pukekohe. Sergt. Perry 
with ten special constables was sent to command, and the 
party, 29 in all, took possession of the church and began 
to erect a stockade of logs and slabs surrounded by a ditch. 
The work was completed on three sides only, with a screen 


of boards on the fourth, when the splitting party were 
fired on in the bush. The return fire was foohshly kept 
up for over an hour, wasting precious ammunition and 
leading a number of men to come from Martyn's Farm 
only to find it was a false alarm and to vow never to 
return. The position was felt to be quite unsafe and 
Messrs Roose and Comrie were sent to Auckland to ask for 
more men and ammunition. Before they returned, on 
Monday, 14th September, the Natives set fire to Mr. 
Comrie's house within half a mile of the church hoping 
to draw the men out of the stockade. The ruse was not 
successful and shortly after 9 o'clock they attacked the 
church. Had the iMaoris charged when they fired the 
first volley no white man would have been left to tell the 
tale, as most were outside and unarmed. A hot fire was 
kept up by the Natives from the cover of the bush about 
40 yards distant, and about 11 o'clock it was thought 
they were about to charge, as they came very near and 
made the place ring with their savage yells. Their leader 
advanced into the open and called out in good English, 
" Come out, you cowards, and be men I do not stop behind 
the logs." He was brought down, and a display of fixed 
bayonets had some efi"ect in inducing them to retreat back 
to cover. About noon the firing slackened and it was seen 
that the Maoris were cooking their dinners. It was then 
found there were only ten rounds of ammunition left per 
man, and water was scarce. No wonder that the spirit ot 
the defenders sank low. 

Meantime the two deputies were returning from 
Auckland. Mr. Comrie was detained at Drury to guide 
an oflQcer, and Mr. Roose came on alone. Finding the 
attack going on he turned and rode rapidly to Springfield 
for assistance. About 12.80 the men in the church were 


delighted to hear the sound of a bugle, and responded 
with three ringing cheers. It proved to be a small detach- 
ment from Springfield, who joined those inside to their 
very great relief, it being now known that further help 
would soon arrive. Both sides kept up a steady fire until 
about 3 o'clock, when 200 or 300 men arrived from Drury, 
and in less than half-an-hour the fight was practically 
over. It was brought to an end by a gallant charge of the 
relieving soldiers. The loss on the British side was three 
killed and seven wounded. No one had been mjured inside 
the stockade, though there were some very narrow escapes. 
The Maoris left six dead behind them. These were buried 
in the churchyard the following morning. Many years 
after Rewi stated that their loss was 26 killed and 56 
wounded, 25 of whom died of their wounds. 

The war being over, the settlers returned to their 
homes the following year, and in 1865 the stockade 
was removed and the church repaired, the upper part 
of the walls having been riddled with bullets. Some 
signs of the fray may still be seen, one of the 
most noticeable being a bullet hole in the porch. Several 
of the defenders on that memorable day now sleep 
in the churchyard, not far from the Maoris' grave. 
Looking around on the now thriving and peaceful home- 
steads it is hard to realise that such deeds were done and 
hardships undergone by the early settlers. 

"War, he sung, is toil and trouble ; 
Honour but an empty bubble ; 

Never ending, still beginning. 
Fighting still, and still destroying, 

If all the world be worth the winning. 
Think, O think it worth the enjoying." 


The Rev. T. Norrie of Papakura writes : — 

" The officer commanding, being applied to for an escort, 
cautiously replied, ' I cannot send a large body with you, lest we 
ourselves should be attacked, nor a small force, lest it should be cut 
off.' Even riding with an escort was dangerous. The mounted 
orderlies, armed with revolvers, used to ride between Drury and 
Queen's Redoubt at such a pace through the dense forest, up hill 
and down dale, that Bishop Selwyn and myself often risked an attack 
from the Maoris rather than run the danger of ourselves breaking 
our own necks. The Rev. Mr. Ashwell used to put on his bands 
and call them his escort ; but the murder of the Rev. Mr. Volkner, at 
Opotiki, with all its harrowing details, showed that even clergymen 
were not safe in those troublous times. . . . Sometimes we had 
a guard in the house, and sometimes I was supplied with a rifle to 
fire off in the way of warning, if we should be attacked." 

Dr. Elmslie got a war medal for being under fire 
with the troops in the field towards the end of the sixties. 
War then swept over the West Coast from New Plymouth 
to Wanganui, and many of the people were drafted 
for the battlefield. Through a dispute between the 
Clerk of Works and the contractor the Presbyterian 
Church at Wanganui was burnt down, and though 
services were held in the Oddfellows' Hall, the meet- 
ings were poorly attended. Under the circumstances 
Mr. Elmslie thought he might do more good by 
going and preaching to the volunteers and armed con- 
stabulary in the field. The sanction of Colonel Whitmore 
having been obtained, he started in 1868 for the nearest seat 
of war, i.e., Goodall's redoubt, with a private escort of five 
or six person, s among whom were Rev. Mr. West then an 
elder of Wanganui, and Mr. D. Bell, uncle of Mrs. Tread- 
well of Lyttelton. As the path led through the bush and 
an attack by the Maoris was feared, this escort carried 
carbines. When they arrived at their place of destination 
they found that just opposite the redoubt erected by the 


British the Natives had thrown up an earth work, and were 
sending shots across now and again. Mr. Elmslie never 
supposed for a moment that he should be permitted to 
preach, but when he came on the scene he saw the soldiers 
all drawn up in a square waiting. He at once made up 
his mind that if they were prepared to hear he was 
prepared to preach. So going to the place assigned 
him he stood to his guns all through the service amid 
frequent shots from the enemy, fearlessly waging a goodly 
warfare in the church militant. It was like preaching on 
the brink of eternity. He knew not when a ball might lay 
him or one of his auditors low. As a matter of fact one 
man was knocked over but not seriously injured, while 
he was delivering his message of peaee. Years rolled by 
and his services on the occasion went unrequited but 
about ten years ago through the voluntary intervention of 
Colonel Newall the war medal he now possesses was 
awarded him. 

Divisions in the Presbyterian Camp itself had aspects 
more appalling than war without. ' ' United we stand, 
divided we fall," is a well-known and true proverb. Yet 
most of our congregations have at one time or other 
aflorded evidence of cleavage on account of differences of 
nationality and ecclesiastical training on the part of their 
members. Many of our ministers have had to complain 
of this. It meets us in this Colony again and again. 
In view of the jealousies and heart-burnings which 
have been generated at Home by the many divisions 
into which Scotch Presbyterianism has been split up, 
it is not a cause of wonder that when the fragments 
find themselves side by side in the same Colonial con- 
gregation a little friction should result. The fact is 
greatly to be deplored. Time, however, is on the 


side of fusion, and it is to be hoped that through a 
continuance of brotherly love these Old Country land- 
marks will entirely disappear. Nobody will ever be cursed 
for removing them. The battle of Culloden was lost and 
the hope of the House of Stuart extinguished through the 
childish jealousies and contentions that pervaded the High- 
land army. 

Two other sources of difficulty met with by pioneering 
ministers may also find a place here : Some Colonists when 
starting for New Zealand were led to believe they should 
find here grapes hanging by the wayside waiting to be 
plucked. In this expectation they were disappointed, 
but they found in abundance everywhere the wild 
grapes referred to by Isaiah, i.e., love of wealth and 
love of wine (Is. v., 8-24). These ever grow side by 
side. In all ages the two main passions of the human 
heart seem to have been love of money and love of 
pleasure, a craving to gather and a craving to squander. 
Greed and prodigality are not mutually exclusive. They 
go hand in hand. A miner may give liberally for the 
support of the Gospel and yet possess a heart oaten out 
with a love of gold. No one will deny that they are 
great hindrances to the spread of the gospel. The 
ministers who preceded us found them in an aggravated 
manner blocking the path to spiritual reform. 

The fulminations of messengers of God like Isaiah 
and the organisations formed by a roused people have done 
much to lessen the evil of intemperance in modern times. 
Lord Salisbury said with truth the other day : — 

" I am satisfied that unless Temperance Associations existed 
we should be immersed in such an ocean of intoxication, violence, 
and sin, as would make this country uninhabitable." 


In the matter of intemperance things are not so bad 
now as they were in 1874 when a committee of the 
General Assembly of this Church reported that in some 
districts there was one public-house to every sixty inhabi- 
tants, and that the average was one to 260. Fancy a 
minister struggling to induce men to "walk soberly, 
righteously, and godly in a small place like Hokitika with 
its 200, or like Greymouth with its 100 public shanties, in 
days when temperance sentiment had not been formed, 
or temperance associations organised. 

If report be true facihties for getting strong drink on 
the West Coast were not confined to the licensed houses. 
It is said, for example, that before Kumara came into 
notice a company of gold diggers had made an excavation 
underneath their hut for the manufacture of poteen, and 
caused the smoke from both apartments to escape by one 
flue. They had also it was rumoured, arranged with 
Sandy Stewart, the keeper of the accommodation house 
on the main road above, that he was to strike up a 
well-known tune outside his door on the bagpipes, when 
Charlie Brown the detective came along. The conse- 
quence was that when the officer of the law appeared on 
the scene all were quietly working away at their gold claim. 
Some of the Staflbrd folk could not resist the temptation 
of going down to share in the good things. They pegged 
out, however, claims rather near for the comfort of the 
Houlahans. The latter, who would have preferred to have 
been left like pelicans in the wilderness, objected and 
brought the dispute into the Warden's Court in the 
Waimea. There one of the party stated on oath that 
each of them was worth about £5 per week. Immediately 
there was a rush for the Teremakau, and the Presbyterian 
minister at Staflbrd was left " a voice crying in the 
wilderness." This was the origin of Kumara. 


The gold fever, the yoke-fellow of intemperance, like- 
wise wrought more havoc in caily days than now. The 
population had not settled down to the ordinary lawful 
and legitimate trades. If the rumour got abroad that 
gold in large quantities was being found at the Thames, 
or in Otago or the West Coast, or Australia or even 
California, a rush immediately set in for that El Dorado. 
Men sold out immoveable property for what it would 
bring, bundled up and hastened off in a wild state of 
excitement to the gold diggings, often leaving churches 
and ministers high and dry. Many a district has been 
thrown into the ferment which Mr. W. H. Cutten, the 
Commissioner of Lands, represented as happening to 
Dunedin and neighbourhood in July 1861. 

" Gold, gold, gold, is the universal subject of conversation. . . . 
The fever is running at such a height that if it continue there will 
scarcely be a man left in town. An anecdote is told of Geelong, that 
upon the breaking out of the Australian diggings there was but one 
man left, and he had a wooden leg, which the ladies threatened to 
saw oft if he attempted to get away, as they were determined not to 
be completely deserted. As things go there appears every probability 
of the Dunedin ladies coming to the same pass. The Tokomairiro 
Plain is positively deserted. Master and man have gone together. 
... On last Sunday the congregation at church consisted of the 
minister and precentor." 

New congregations, of course, sprang up in the gold- 
fields as suddenly as Jonah's gourd, but they were 
likewise subject to great fluctuations. In Church-life as 
elsewhere money brings with it an evil as well as a 
blessing. Men speak with rapture of " the golden age." 
They tell us with pride of the time when on the gold-fields 
half-a-crown was offered for a penny in vain, when 
nothing of less value than sixpence was given or received 
in exchange, when a sum of £10 was cheerfully gifted for 
the celebration of a marriage, and when, if a subscription 


list to raise money for some church or charitable object was 
presented by you to anyone, he would say, " Here's a 
pound. I don't want to see it," and rush on. They forget 
the avarice and selfishness and pride and love of accumu- 
lating and squandering that lay behind all this liberality. 

" Yet gold all is not that doth golden seem." 

There were good men, plenty of them, who pegged out 
their claims and washed out their gold, but in too many 
instances it is to be feared these generous givings which 
the world applauds so much were sops to Cerberus, 
palliatives for an uneasy conscience, and may be classed 
with what Ruskin in his "Lamp of Truth" calls plaster 
work, " surface deceits." It has been well said, "crimes 
sometimes shock us too much ; vices almost always too 
little." We may well commiserate the men who preached 
the gospel in those early days and looked for fruit meet for 
the Master's use. If an angel from heaven had come down 
and proclaimed the truth, what influence could it have had 
with men, who on the goldfields or elsewhere, braved 
dangers to make a fortune somewhere, anyhow, and go 
hence ; who worshipped "the golden calf ; " and whose con- 
tinual cry was, 

" Gold ! gold ! gold ! gold ! 
Bright and yellow, hard and cold." 




1. The First Meeting of the General Assembly. 2. A Minimum 
Stipend and an Aged and Infirm Ministers Fund. 3. The 
Legislative Recognition of the Presbyterian Church of New 
Zealand. 4. An Examination Board for Theological Students 
and their Course of Study. 5. The Principle of the Barrier Act 
to be Adopted in Important Cases. 6. Marriage with a Deceased 
Wife's Sister. 7. An Authorised Hymnal. 8. The General 
Assembly and Ministers of Other Churches Applying for 
Admission. 9. A Book of Order. 10. Tenure of Ministerial 
Office. 11. A Marked Temperance Deliverance. 12. A New 
Departure in the Foreign Mission Field. 13. Increase of the 
Scholarship Endowment Scheme. 14. Adoption of the Declara- 
tory Act. 

We have not in these lands to chronicle the strik- 
ing ecclesiastical events in which the Home Churches 
have moved and had their being. We have not lived 
long enough nor done enough evil to have a Re- 
formation like that of the 16th Century, and to quarrel 
over the lines on which it should proceed. We have not 
been exposed to dire persecution at the hands of prelatic 
Churches, Romish or Protestant. Neither royal absolutism 
on the one hand nor State interference on the other has 
encroached upon our spiritual rights. Ages of moderatism 
and of evangelical revival wo are scarcely old enough to 
know in their intensity. The sorrow of large secessions 
and the joy of great reunions have been alike denied us. 
None of us have been obliged for conscience sake to 
surrender our manses, glebes, and livings, or to seal our 


testimony with our blood. Many of the battles for truth 
and for civil and religious liberty have been fought and 
won for us. It may be that at some future time some of 
them shall have to be fought over again. At present we 
are merely reaping the spoils. In New Zealand, therefore, 
we are chiefly concerned with the events incidental to the 
establishment of an old Church in a new land. 

(1) The Fikst Meeting of the General Assembly. — 
This memorable Assembly was held at Auckland in 
November 1862. It is important as marking the gather- 
ing together of the Church's spiritual forces. Previously 
the Church existed in detached fragments, and had no 
unity, and little power for good either in the State or 
amongst its own people. It has an interest apart from 
this. No subsequent Assembly of a like kind has ever 
been held. It was the meeting of a united Church. 
Otago for the first and last time had representatives in it 
as members. All those who took part in its proceedings 
seem to have been impressed with the magnitude of the 
occasion. For some time a correspondence had been 
going on among the leaders in both Islands. As a result, 
a conference of ministers and elders was held in Dunediu 
in November 1861, "to ascertain the practicability of 
effecting a union of the different branches of the Presby- 
terian Church in New Zealand," and " to adopt a basis 
on which such a union might be consummated." Dr. 
Burns was in the chair, and the Rev. D. M. Stuart and 
other ministers of Otago took a leading part. Of the 28 
members that comprised the conference 19 belonged to 
the Southern Church, and eight to the Northern. That con- 
ference, after adopting a basis of union, recommended the 
holding of a convocation in Auckland in November 1862. 
This convocation met at the time and place appointed, and 


resolved itself into the First General Assembly of the 
Presbyterian Church of New Zealand. The comprehensive 
title assumed was at the time perfectly justified. Reports 
were received from the Presbyteries of Otago, Wellington, 
and Auckland, approving the basis of union, and of 18 
ministers and elders present two at least, viz.. Rev. A. 
B. Todd, clerk, and W. Will, belonged to Otago. 
Distance and lack of travelling facilities accounted for the 
absence of the others. Mr. Will, as a representative from 
Otago, seconded the resolution proposed by Mr. Bruce, 
by which they constituted themselves a united Church. 
Rev. John Macky, the wise and much-respected minister 
of Otahuhu, was selected to preside over this historic 
Assembly. He preached and gave an address full of 
wisdom and power, in which, of course, many references 
were made to the question of union. " We cannot but feel," 
he says, " that this is a day, the record of whose pro- 
ceedings as transacted by us will be handed down in the 
history of the Presbyterian Church of New Zealand to the 
latest period of its existence." Simple minded man, he did 
not see far. The record of the time has come down, but it 
is one of unworthy suspicions, petty misunderstandings, and 
broken engagements. At the Assembly the Lord's Supper 
was dispensed, committees set up, a loyal address to Her 
Majesty the Queen prepared, and everything done to 
preserve the best traditions of the Presbyterian Church. 

This Church has never been wanting in loyalty to the 
throne. It is the friend of law and order. It harbours 
no anarchists and no revolutionists in its ranks. In 
1863 it despatched an address to Her Majesty on the 
occasion of the marriage of H.R.H. the Prince of 
Wales. In 1867 it instructed a Committee to pre- 
sent one to H.R.H. the Duke of Edinburgh when 


visiting this Colony. Congratulations were ofifered 
the Queen on the occasion of tlie 50th anniversary 
of her accession to the throne. The addresses sent to 
Governors have been as numerous as the occupants of 
that office. On this occasion the Church was doubly 
loyal. It presented an address both to Her Majesty and 
to Sir George Grey. An Assembly looked upon as historic 
must begin well. 

The place of future meeting presented a difficulty, as 
it always has done when the Union question cropped up. 
It was settled by a compromise, the way in which the 
whole matter must be finally disposed of. The annual 
meetings were to be held successively in Wellington, 
Ofeago, Christchurch, and Auckland. 

The instrumental music question also bristled with 
thorns. It, too, was the subject of a compromise. It was 
" left to the judgment of each congregation," but the 
Assembly stipulated that a " very large amount of 
unanimity should exist " before instrumental music was 
introduced. The Southern brethren could take no offence 
at this. Napier was the first congregation dealt with under 
this rule. This subject, which in the Home Churches has 
been prolific of many heart-burnings, being thus dealt with 
at the beginning, has never given any trouble in the New 
Zealand Presbyterian Church. 

The Church's Foreign Mission was then inaugurated. 
From the New Hebrides, even in those days, was heard 
the cry, " Come over and help us." The Committee on 
Foreign and Maori Missions recommended that the New 
Hebrides be selected as the Church's Foreign Mission field, 
and thought there was enough enthusiasm in the United 
Church to employ there one missionary. How the mis- 
sionary spirit has grown since those days ! Each of the 


Churches, at present standing obstinately apart, has three 
regular missionaries in this field, and maintains trained 
Native teachers in vast numbers. The Northern Church 
has also tried successfully the experiment of lay mis- 

As we might expect from a young Church in a grow- 
ing Colony, Church Extension received a large share of 
attention. The Assembly was so deeply impressed with 
the importance of this subject that it unanimously adopted 
the report of the Home Mission Committee, and recom- 
mended the Presbytery of Auckland to release Rev. D. 
Bruce for a time from his charge, with a view to his visiting 
the neglected districts specified, and placed Rev. John 
Thom at the disposal of the Northern Presbytery. It is 
sad to think that some of the districts then reported as 
lacking ordinances have not yet been adequately supplied 
for the want of men and means. Advantage was also 
taken of Mr. Will's paying a visit to Europe to commission 
him to represent the General Assembly of the Presbyterian 
Church of New Zealand, and to plead its claims upon the 
sympathy of the Home Churches. With Mr. Will came 
out afterwards a number of ministers for Otago. 

On the subject of Temperance, many a strong resolu- 
tion has been passed in the supreme court of this Church. 
Few equal in stringency the following then agreed to : — 

"That inasmuch as intemperance is a widespread evil in this 
land, and a great hindrance to the advancement of vital religion, the 
Assembly instructs all the ministers of the Church to direct the 
attention of their congregations to this important subject at their 
earliest convenience, and to use all available vieans in their power for 
the suppression of this evil." 

You cannot suppress intemperance without suppress- 
ing the drink traffic. Considering the subsequent growth 
of Temperance sentiment we must admit that it was a 


vigorous resolution. The havoc wrought by strong drink 
in both lay and clerical ranks called loudly even then for 

Thus ended after six Sessions and three days' 
deliberations the most remarkable Assembly the New 
Zealand Presbyterian Church has ever seen. In the 
matter of Union we seem to be a long way yet from 
realising the ideal which it placed before it. 

" Once to every man and nation comes the moment to decide, 
In the strife of truth with falsehood, for the good or evil side." 

Perhaps the right decision will come some day. 
Meantime, let not the grass grow on the path of friend- 

(2) A Minimum Stipend and an Aged and Infirm 
Ministers Fund. — At Auckland in November 1866, the 
following recommendations of the WeUington and Auck- 
land Presbyteries were passed into a standing law of the 
Church ; — 

(a) " No minister ought to be settled in any district without an 
income being provided of at least £200 per annum, with a house or 
equivalent, of the suitableness of which the Presbytery of the bounds 
shall judge. 

(h) That efforts should be made to raise the minimum stipend 
throughout the Church to £300 per annum. 

In exceptional cases Presbyteries have broken through 
this enactment, but always with the understanding that 
when circumstances permit the stipend shall be raised to 
the required amount. In a country where the common 
workman receives six shillings per day, few will consider 
the minimum fixed by the Church as too high. " The 
labourer," says Christ, " is worthy of his hire," and the 
labourer well and regularly paid his hire and freed from 
all pecuniary care will in spiritual things far more than 


compensate his people for their carnal things. Here the 
Solomonic proverb holds good, 

"There is that scattereth and yet increaseth, 

And there is that witholdeth more than is meet, but it tendeth to 

An Aged and Infirm Ministers Fund seemed also 
necessary to place ministers on a proper footing. If 
sickness or old age overtook them, what had they to fall 
back upon ? It was urged in favour of it by a committee 
appointed to consider the matter that five per cent, of the 
ministers in the Home Churches are more or less disabled 
for active duty, and that, owing to " the more exhausting 
climatic influences and clerical labours which ministers in 
this Colony have to undergo," six per cent, at least in 
New Zealand would have to be assisted in this way. 

Such a Fund, therefore, was got under weigh, 
and as a tiny barque started on its long and precarious 
voyage. It has turned out that about six per cent, have 
to be assisted by this scheme. The Convener in 1898 
reported that the capital was £4200, the income £408, 
and the expenditure £300, paid to six beneficiaries out of 
a ministry of about 100. One of the regulations requires 
that until tlie capital reaches £6000, only two-thirds of 
the income may be paid out in annuities. Owing to the 
increased number of beneficiaries the Assembly adopted 
last year the recommendation of the Committee, " that £1 
shall be given instead of £2 for term of service, and 
that the maximum shall be £80 instead of £120." 
Out of this Fund the aged and infirm minister can 
draw the allowance he bargained for without losing any of 
that self-respect which Sir John Herschel calls " the 
corner-stone of all virtue." 


(3) Legislative Eecognition OF THE Presbyterian Church 
OF New Zealand.— After much agitation on the part of 
the Church and many delays, there was passed by the 
Legislature on 21st September 1878, an Act whose 
preamble runs : — 

" And whereas, in many cases, real and personal property for 
purposes connected with the Presbyterian Church of New Zealand, 
is held in tiust under titles indicating a connection with Churches in 
Scotland, and which connection has no existence ; and whereas it 
is expedient that the legal position of the said Presbyterian Church 
in New Zealand should be defined by law, and that provision should 
be made enabling persons in whom Church properties are vested to 
deal therewith, as hereinafter provided." 

The second clause reads : — 

2. The Presbyterian Church now existing within the provinces 
aforesaid shall henceforth be known as " The Presbyterian Church of 
Ntw Zealand." 

(4) An Examination Board for Theological Students. 
— Originally the oversight of these students was left 
to individual Presbyteries. In 1880, in order to secure 
uniformity and make the best provision in her power for 
testing the literary acquirements of her students before 
entering on their theological course, and their subsequent 
training and culture before joining the ministry, the 
Church initiated the practice since continued of yearly 
appointing an Examination Board composed of representa- 
tives of various Presbyteries. This Board, which prescribes 
courses of study and holds annual examinations, must 
certify as to the fitness of a candidate prior to his receiving 
license to preach the Gospel. It is one of the most 
important pieces of machinery in connection with the 
Church. Under the able presidency of Dr. Sidey, the 
Clerk of Assembly, it has been maintaining a high standard 


of education for the ministry. In this effort the hands of 
its members are upheld by the Church. The Book of 
Order enacted that : 

" All students in the ministry of this Church are required to 
take a University course in one of the Colleges of the Colony before 
entering on their theological course of study ; the right of dispensing 
with this in special cases is reserved for the Assembly itself." 

In 1891 a Committee of Assembly appointed to con- 
sider how the spiritual wants of outlying districts might 
be supplied proposed to modify this wise provision. It 
recommended for the consideration of Assembly three 
schemes. No. 1, for student evangelists, was a remarkable 
one. It not only proposed to dispense with University 
training but with the study of Hebrew and the classical 
languages. This it did in face of the fact that Hebrew is 
the original language of the Old Testament, Greek of 
the New, and that some of the most eminent authorities 
have eulogised the study of Latin. We quote a few, 
because on this subject there is much misapprehension 
everywhere. The idea has become common that the time 
spent in learning Latin inside or outside the Church is 
simply wasted. Professor Laurie, in his lectures on the 
the linguistic method, says : — 

" We teach Latin because the study of Latin gives (to an 
Englishman at least) more than any other language can do, a training 
in words — the relative values and functions of words, and, conse- 
quently, training in the thought-things which words denote. The 
shades of meaning in vocables are brought into high relief. Latin is 
to a very large extent (to the extent of two-thirds at least) our own 
tongue. In studying Latin, therefore, we are studying our own 
tongue in its sources, and getting all the discipline and nutrition of 
mind which flows from the study of the origin and history of words. 
Latin enables us to revivify our own tongue for ourselves. Nay, we 
are studying our own language in much of its syntactical mould also, 
as may be seen by reading our early prose writers, and even those of 
the eighteenth century." 


He quotes the opinion of Dr. W. T. Harris, Education 
Commissioner for the United States, who says : — 

" One may say that of 100 boys, 50 of whom had studied Latin 
for a period of six months, while the other 50 had not studied Latin 
at all, the 50 with a smattering of Latin would possess some slight 
impulse towards analysing the legal and political view of human life, 
and surpass the other 50 in this direction. Placed on a distant 
frontier with the task of building a new civilisation, the 50 with a 
smattering of Latin would furnish lawmakers and political rulers, 
legislators, and builders of the State. In studying Latin we are 
taking possession of the key of the Romance languages, shortening 
the time needed for acquiring those by at least one half." 

The American Committee of Ten advocated a few 
years ago the teaching of it to every boy in the secondary 
schools. Sir Joshua Fitch, until recently one of Her 
Majesty's Chief Inspectors of Schools, in his " Lectures 
on Teaching," says he would have Latin taught in the 
primary schools as well, to show its bearings on the 
structure of English words. 

Professor Jowett, of Balliol College, Oxford, is no 
mean authority. Many on this committee, who did not 
wish to lower the standard of ministerial education, had 
the idea that the dropping out of classics could be com- 
pensated for by requiring an increased knowledge of 
English. Professor Jowett was not of that opinion. He 
asserts that for a student to be able to convert a piece of 
Latin into English is a higher accomplishment of the mind 
than the simple writing of the best piece of English. 

As for Greek and Hebrew, some acquaintance with 
them is necessary to enable ministers to have an intelli- 
gent grasp of the Bible. Robertson of Brighton it is well 
known owed the strength and beauty of his style to a 
knowledge of the former language. Many owe to it more 
than they can compute. 


We are not surprised, therefore, to find that on this 
occasion No. 1 scheme was rejected, and that No. 2, 
called " The full subject scheme," which included Latin, 
Greek, and Hebrew, but dispensed with a University 
training, and placed students under the supervision of 
Presbyteries, received much attention, but little favour. 
After one of the keenest debates ever seen in the Assembly 
it was sent back to the Committee for reconsideration. 
Another Committee, after consulting the Presbyteries, 
reported in 1892 : — 

" That to adopt Scheme II., opening the door to the ministry 
without any University or Hall course, would tend to lower the 
standard of education, and would not be in the interests of the 
Church. They therefore submit that the Regulations remain sub- 
stantially as they are at present." 

This recommendation, based upon the collective wisdom 
of the Church, was wisely adopted by the General Assembly. 
The ministry was thus saved from a real danger that 
threatened it at the hands of its own friends. It has been 
often noiiced that ministers without culture soon lose their 
hold on even the poor and unlettered of their congregations. 
Most wise men will say, " Let necessitous stations be supplied 
by lay agents, or whatever help may be available, but keep 
the ministry in a high state of efficiency." This the 
general needs of Christ's Church require. For this the 
Presbyterian communion has always been distinguished. 
Nothhig equally with it will attract students of ability, 
and keeping the ofiice-bearers abreast of the age, secure that 
the Presbyterian Church shall be the Church of the future, 
in the day when every man shall realise, 

" Were I so tall to reach the Pole, 
Or grasp the ocean with my span, 
I must be measur'd by my soul; 

The mind's the standard of the man." 


5. The Pkinciple of the Barrier Act to be Adopted 
IN Important Cases. — A majority of the Presbyteries had 
approved of an overture to the effect : — 

" That before any General Assembly of the Church shall pass 
any Acts which are to be binding rules and constitutions to the 
Church, the same Acts be remitted to the consideration of the 
several Presbyteries of this Church, and their opinions and consent 
be reported by their Commissioners to the next General Assembly 
following, who may then pass the same into Acts, if the more 
general opinion of the Church thus had agree thereto." 

In 1882, a motion that the Assembly adopt the 
Barrier Act as thus set forth was rejected, and the follow- 
ing amendment carried : — 

" That the Assembly do not adopt the Barrier Act, the Assembly 
in the meantime acting in all important cases on the general principle 
of the Act." 

Another attempt in 1885 was made by the Hawke's 
Bay Presbytery to have the Barrier Act adopted in its 
entirety, but it also failed. Those who opposed seemed to 
think that under its hard and fast provisions not only 
might valuable time be unnecessarily wasted in many 
cases, but that a majority of Presbyteries, though repre- 
senting a minority of ministers and elders, might com- 
pletely block a desirable reform. As it is, the General 
Assembly decides what change is to be viewed as altering 
or modifying the constitution of the Church, and is 
therefore to be sent down to Presbyteries and Sessions, 
and reserves to itself a free hand in subsequently dealing 
with it. This is the spirit of paragraph 249 inserted in 
the Book of Order in 1887 :— 

" Every proposal by overture or otherwise, involving an innova- 
tion on the constitution of the Church, in matters of doctrine, 
discipline, government, or worship, must be sent down by the 
Assembly to all the Presbyteries and Sessions for their consideration 
and report thereon before it can be passed into a standing law." 


6. Marruge with a Deceased Wife's Sister.— What 
a bone of contention this subject has formed in the Home- 
land ! What thunderbolts have been forged out of the 
Westminster Confession of Faith, which declares such 
marriages to be " incestuous " ! What arguments for and 
against have been based upon Leviticus xviii., 18, or 
drawn from social expediency. Ever since Lord Lynd- 
hurst's Act of 1835 declared all future marriages of the 
kind to be ipso facto null and void, an agitation increasing 
in strength year by year, and whose object is to repeal that 
portion of the statute law of England, has existed. The 
agitators could point to the fact that almost every State in 
Europe and in the British Colonial possessions had 
abrogated all prohibitory laws on this subject. They 
could call to their aid the inconvenience and inconsistency 
drawn attention to by the late Lord Cairns : — 

"If a man being domiciled in a colony in which it is lawful to 
marry his deceased wife's sister do marry her, his marriage will be good 
all the world over ; whereas if a domiciled Englishman, merely resident 
in such colony, do so marry, his marriage will be bad everywhere." 

They have been able, too, to boast of the enthusiastic 
support of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales and other 
distinguished magnates. Notwithstanding they have not 
yet succeeded in removing the feature objected to from the 
British statute book. This has been chiefly owing to the 
opposition of the Christian Churches. 

In New Zealand the Presbyterian Church found itself 
peculiarly situated. As the outcome of " progressive 
legislation " in vogue, marriage with a deceased wife's 
sister had been conceded by the Legislature. The ques- 
tion arose, ought this Church to come into collision with 
the law of the land, or place its impriwatur on the change 
effected, or leave the whole matter an open question. It 
adopted the latter course, and peace has been the result. 


In 1883 attention was called to the anomalies of the 
case by an overture of the Timaru Presbytery, and relief 
asked for those office-bearers who had signed the Confession 
of Faith and had conscientious scruples in regard to the 
strong position that document had taken up on the 
question, and for those office-bearers and members who 
bad entered into the prohibited relationship or contem- 
plated doing so. By an overwhelming majority it decided 
as follows : — 

" That as the law of the land does not contravene ' anything 
expressly laid down in Scripture,' and there is diversity of opinion . . 
it shall be left to the individual conscience of ministers and members 
to determine what course they shall pursue as to celebrating and 
entering upon such marriages as they have to give account to God." 

It was feared that this would be a bar to the Union 
of the Northern and Southern Churches of New Zealand, 
but a few years ago the Church of Otago and Southland 
in a most conciliatory manner followed the example of its 
Northern neighbour and passed a similar enactment. 

(7) The Adoption of " Church Praise." — We cannot 
afford to despise the influence for good that music 
exercises in the services of the sanctuary. Though 
harmony is technically the science of discord, yet as 
Congreve says, "music has charms to soothe the savage 
breast." Under its disciplinary inspiration many an army 
has moved forward to victory. If it be true that 
ballad poetry has had more to do in forming the 
characters of many nations in early days than those 
who made their laws, what shall we say of the 
direction and force which hymns have given to the 
life of the Church. The hymns of the ancient Temple 
became a model for the early Christian Church, and for 
1400 years the Christian Church has been the patron of 
the musical art. Owing to the Romish and Ritualistic 


uses to which it had been turned, Presbyterians for a time 
neglected its culture. The pendulum, however, has been 
swinging back. They have come to realise that it has its 
uses as well as abuses, and that though, 

" Some to church repair, 
Not for the doctrine, but the music there," 

still they may remain to hear and to pray. One reason 
why the singing should receive special attention in the 
Presbyterian Chuich is that it is almost the only part of 
the worship in which its members can audibly take part. 
" Church Praise " was adopted in 1884, the Assembly 

" Congregations to be careful in introducing the book, so as to 
ensure harmony and avoid pressing unduly on the circumstances of 
individuals and congregations." 

It was a great improvement on " Psalms and Hymns for 
Divine Worship " previously in use among many congre- 
gations of the Church. It was compiled by a committee 
of the Presbyterian Church of England, which was 
appointed by the Synod in April 1881. It rightly gives 
to the Psalms a first place, contains 575 hymns carefully 
selected with a view to the needs of the young as well as 
the old and the requirements of different times and 
seasons, and is supplied with music adapted to the 
words under the supervision of a musical expert, Mr. 
E. J. Hopkins, Mus. Doc. A more uniform and appro- 
priate rendering of the service of praise has been the result. 
How long " Church Praise " shall hold the fort will 
depend on circumstances. Last year a committee was 
appointed to report on the new Hymnary recently pub- 
lished by the united committees of the Establishecl, Free, 
and United Presbyterian Churches of Scotland and of the 
Presbyterian Church of Ireland. 


(8) The General Assembly reserves to itself the 
right to admit unattached ministers, and ministers and 


Presbyterian Church of New Zealand. A rule to this 
effect passed in 1882 and amended in 1886 reads : 

" Any minister or probationer belonging to any other Church 
(except those regularly accredited from Home, by commission from 
the Colonial Committees of the Churches authorised to give such 
commission, and those called from Churches from which ministers 
may be called) who desires to be admitted as a minister or 
probationer of this Church must apply, in the first instance, to the 
Presbytery within whose bounds he has his residence ; the Presbytery 
to report to the Assembly by whom alone admissions shall be made." 

This was a wise enactment. Its evident design was 
to maintain in efficiency the ministry of the Presbyterian 
Church of New Zealand. 

(9) A Book of Order. — Prior to 1887 the want of a 
properly authenticated Manual of Church Procedure was 
greatly felt. Diverse ways of transacting the business of 
the Church existed, and complaints of irregularity were 
frequent. To many congregations the Victorian Rules 
and Forms of Procedure served as a temporary guide till 
that book went out of print. The General Assembly then 
appointed a Committee to deal with the matter. After 
some delay the present Book of Order was adopted at 
Wellington in February 1887. The greater part of the 
book is a reprint of " The Book of Order of the Presby- 
terian Church of England," the thanks of the Assembly 
being given to the authorities of that Church for their 
kind permission to make such copious use of it. 
Considerable assistance was also received from the Rules 
and Forms of Procedure of the United Presbyterian Church 
of Scotland. After the Assembly had gone over the Book 
of Order clause by clause and settled the form it was to take, 


thanks were given to the Rev. W. Gilhes " for the great 
diligence, learning, and tact " which he had brought to 
bear on its preparation, and he was appointed Convener 
of the Committee that was to see it through the press. 
The Assembly having decided that ministers and elders 
should sign the Confession of Faith, the text of the latter 
document was bound up with it, and 2000 copies issued, 
the cost being 2s 6d each. The proceeds after expenses 
were paid were handed over to the Assembly Expense 
Fund. Every office-bearer should provide himself with a 
copy, which may now be had for one shilling. 

There has been a good deal of discussion from time 
to time over the interpretation of this Book of Order, and 
some have expressed themselves freely as to its faults of 
omission and commission. This of course was to be 
expected. Those who have had the largest hand in 
shaping it would be the first to admit that it was not 
infallible. It has, however, conferred a great benefit on 
the Church by furnishing a fair representation of the 
common law of the Church, by bringing about uniformity 
of procedure in the Church courts, and by securing that 
" all things be done decently and in order." 

10. Tenure of Ministerial Office. — Here we reach 
a most pronounced feature of the Presbyterian Church of 
New Zealand. Members of Churches in other lands will 
consider the legislation advanced which entitles the 
Presbytery to dissolve the pastoral tie between a minister 
and his congregation simply on the grounds that the ends 
of the ministry are not served. It will seem, perhaps, like 
granting a divorce on account of incompatibility of tempera- 
ment. The new departure came about in this way. Rev. 
W. Gillies, of Timaiu, believing that the ministry existed 
for the Church and not the Church for the ministry, and 


that congregations from time to time had suffered through 
being saddled with ministers who, from one cause or 
another, were not suited to the spheres of labour in which 
they were placed, approached the Assembly by an overture 
of his Presbytery. In it he suggested that the pastorate 
be limited to seven years. He probably did not expect 
this sweeping innovation to be adopted by a Presbyterian 
Church, but with his usual astuteness he got an influential 
Committee set up to deal with the question, and an 
agitation set on foot which prepared the way for the 
following rule of the Book of Order laid down in 1887 : — 

" 216. When the Presbytery has reason to believe that in any 
case the ends of a Gospel ministry are not being fulfilled, and that a 
congregation is in consequence suffering, a Presbyterial visitation of 
the congregation should be held to examine into the circumstances ; 
and if it appears that from any inefficiency, remission of duty, or 
unsuitableness to the sphere, the spiritual and general interests of 
the congregation are being sacrificed, the Presbytery is entitled to 
dissolve the pastoral tie, and declare the charge vacant, or may 
report the case to the General Assembly for its decision there- 

The Book of Order secures also that at all ordinations 
and inductions the minister, among other things, shall be 
asked : " Do you admit the right of the Presbytery to 
dissolve the pastoral tie at any time, on being satisfied 
that the ends of the ministry are not being served ?" 
Procedure under this rule requires no libel or other pro- 
tracted method of settling the difficulty. By a coup de 
grace it effects the happy despatch. The washing of 
dirty linen in public in connection with the matter is 
prevented. Only one case has been directly dealt with 
under this rule. Indirectly, however, it has had a 
powerful moral effect in obviating the necessity for the 
Presbytery in this way issuing the case. 


(11) A Marked Temperance Deliverance. — Resolu- 
tions of a more or less stringent nature had been previously 
passed, but in 1889 the Church made a conspicuous 
forward movement. Rev. J. K. Elliott of Wellington, 
who had denounced what he designated " the do-nothing 
policy " of the Committee on Intemperance, and 
who had been appointed Convener of a new Committee, 
formulated his first Temperance Report. That report 
which was adopted by the Assembly of 1889 in its entirety, 
recommended the formation of " a Ministers' Total Ab- 
stinence Association," composed of pastors, licentiates, 
and students. To this Society the majority of the 
Church's ministers now belong. After pointing out that in 
seven years only 25 public-houses out of 1500 had been 
suppressed, the report went on to declare : — 

" In favour of a direct veto at the ballot-box for suppression of 
the liquor traffic, and also in favour of according the privilege of 
voting to women." 

This was a complete endorsement of the New Zealand 
Prohibition movement. All that the strongest Prohibi- 
tionist aims at is the suppression of the liquor traffic by 
the direct vote of the people, male and female. A 
democratic measure like this it well became a democratic 
Church to take the lead in advocating. A liberal principle 
of this kind is now embodied in the legislature of 
this country, but as yet it has not realised expectations, 
partly owing to a three-fifths majority being required to 
suppress the traffic, and partly to the failure of Christian 
men and women to rise to the necessities of the occasion. 
The Church of Christ cannot be too intolerant of wrong 
doing, and yet, all over the world, for one that is striking 
at the root of evil, a dozen are probably hacking away at 
the branches. 


To make the Temperance work of the Church 
more effective, the Assembly that year, at the suggestion 
of the Committee on Intemperance, appointed a Temper- 
ance agent in each Presbytery, whose duty was " To see 
that the recommendations of the Assembly are carried out 
in his Presbyterial district, and generally to co-operate 
with the Committee." 

(12) A New Departure in The Foreign Mission 
Field.— Rev. Robert Lamb, A.M., M.B., CM., B.D., 
having offered himself for Foreign Mission work to this 
Church, the Assembly ordained him in February 1892 
during its sittings at Auckland. Much interest centred in 
this appointment. Dr. Lamb was the first son of the Church 
in New Zealand who entered this field, being a member of 
St. Paul's, Christchurch. The medical mission itself, of 
which he was the head, although as old as the time of 
Christ, had not as yet by any Presbyterian Church been 
established in the New Hebrides. There was another 
novel feature in the movement. That year the Foreign 
Mission Committee with the approval of the Assembly 
appointed two lay missionaries to be associated with Dr. 
Lamb as his assistants. This also was a new departure 
in the New Hebrides Mission. Such agents had been 
successfully employed by even conservative Churches, not 
only in the Dark Continent of Africa and the degenerate 
East, but also in China and India, where subtle philo- 
sophies had grown up and become hoary with the age of 
centuries, but prior to this period there were no lay 
missionaries in the New Hebrides. This medical mission 
established at Dip Point, Ambrym, has supplied a much 
felt want in the islands, and is much appreciated by both 
Natives and traders. The success that has attended it is 
gratifying to the whole Church, and should stimulate its 
sons and daughters to come to its help and meet its 
growing necessities. 


(18) Increase of Scholarship Endowment Scheme. — 
The Scholarship Committee of 1895 reported that three 
holders of the Sommerville Scholarship had complied with 
the conditions, and had been paid their scholarships, but 
that a number of apparently suitable men desirous of 
studying for the ministry were prevented by want of 
means, and that the question of remedying this was one 
of the most vital that could engage the attention of the 
Church. The Assembly thereupon called the attention of 
Presbyteries, Sessions, and congregations to " the necessity 
for a speedy and extensive increase of the Scholarship 
Fund of the Church." A satisfactory response was made. 
The following year the Committee reported a scholarship 
of £25, from St. John's, Wellington ; one, " the Whyte 
Scholarship " of £20 for three years, from Auckland; two 
from the Christchurch Presbytery of £25 per year for 
three years ; and intimated that more were forthcoming. 
It is to be hoped that our rich congregations and wealthy 
members will keep prominently before them a matter that 
so closely concerns the best interests of the Church. 

(14.) Adoption of the Declaratory Act. — This Act was 
adopted by the Synod of Otago and Southland in 1895. 
The General Assembly of this Church, meeting soon after, 
thought if the Northern Church followed its example a 
better basis should exist for further Union negotiations, 
and that difficulties and scruples felt by not a few in 
signing the Confession of Faith would be removed. 
Accordingly it sent the Act down to Presbyteries and 
Sessions for their consideration. As only one Session, out 
of 23 Sessions and 6 Presbyteries which reported, raised 
any objection, the Declaratory Act was adopted in 
February 1897, " as exhibiting the sense in which the 
office-bearers of this Church may interpret the Confession 


of Faith." It emphasises " the love of God, Father, Son, 
and Holy Ghost, to sinners of mankind," while holding 
by " the Divine purpose of grace towards those that are 
saved." It teaches that tlie natural man is " capable of 
affections and actions which in themselves are virtuous 
and praiseworthy," although believing in " the corruption 
of man's whole nature." By it the Church disclaims 
teaching " the fore-ordination of men to death irrespective 
of their own sin," that " any who die in infancy are lost," 
" that God may not extend His mercy for Christ's sake, 
and by His Holy Spirit, to those who are beyond the 
reach " of the means of grace, or " any principles incon- 
sistent with liberty of conscience and the right of private 

It winds up by saying : — 

" That while diversity of opinion is recognised in this Church 
on such points in the Confession of Faith as do not enter into the 
substance of the Reformed faith therein set forth, the Church retains 
full authority to determine, in any case that may arise, what points 
fall within this description, and thus to guard against any abuse of 
this liberty to the detriment of sound doctrine, or to the injury of 
her unity and peace." 

Thus the Church has gone on from year to year 
perfecting her machinery and adapting herself to place 
and time, while holding on by the inflexible principles of 
truth and righteousness, and thus she shall continue to 
live and move and have her being : — 

" Lasting her lamp, and unconsumed her flame, 
Her nature and her office still the same, 
In deathless triumph shall for ever live, 
And endless good diffuse and endless praise receive." 




The Duty of the Church— The Strong Helping the Weak— The 
Danger of Looking Back — Legislation of the First General 
Assembly — Rev. D. Bruce's Church Extension Tour — Rev. C. 
Eraser's Work — Liberal Congregations — The Canterbury Church 
Extension Association — Aims of the Church Extension Scheme 
— A Sustentation Fund Tried — Work Done — Large Districts 
Unsupplied with Ordinances— A Call to Arms. 

In a young country like New Zealand, which is being 
gradually occupied, it is highly desirable that the extension 
of the Church with its ordinances and influences should 
keep pace with the advance of settlement. It is incumbent 
on the Church of Christ to follow with the Bread of Life those 
enterprising settlers, who with their families are constantly 
pushing their way into remoter districts. Often these 
colonists make their way into the very midst of the dense 
bush in order to occupy new territory and make for them- 
selves new homes. Thither, even before the primeval forest 
is turned into a I'ich pasture land, or the swamps are con- 
verted into cultivated fields, it becomes a faithful Church 
to send them the Gospel. It is able to secure that " the 
wilderness and the solitary place shall be glad for them, 
and the desert shall rejoice and blossom as the rose." The 
beginning of the life of a community is not unlike that of 
an individual. Opportunities of moulding the character 
once lost can never be recalled. If these energetic settlers 
are not immediately followed up with the means of grace 
they are apt to sink down into a state of worldliness, un- 
godliness, and sin, from which it is difficult to move them. 


The Bible becomes a neglected or forgotten book ; the 
Sabbath is utilised like other days for secular work, or 
turned into a day of mere pleasure seeking. As a 
result a low tone of social and moral life exists in the 
district. No one realises the depth of his spiritual 
destitution. Not only does there grow up a feeling 
of indifference to the Church and her ordinances, but 
one even of hostility. When a minister is at length 
sent to them, it is no uncommon thing to hear them say, 
" We do not want him. We can get on well enough 
without church or minister." Adequate ministerial 
support, as a consequence, is not forthcoming. All this 
but proves the truth of the words of Lewis Morris : — 

" For knowleitge is a barren tree and bare 
Bereft of God, and duty but a word, 
And strength but tyranny, and love desire, 
And purity is folly." 

Such a state of matters should not be allowed to exist in 
a Christian country. It will not, if the Church realises 
her duties, and is true to her mission. Those who 
luxuriate in the enjoyment of Gospel ordinances have 
great responsibilities. 

Ruskin says : — 

" The strength and power of a country depends absolutely on 
the quantity of good men and women in it." 

If they are few and disunited in a community, then 
woe betide that land. If they are many and united, they 
will be a great power for beneficence, truth, and righteous- 
ness. Ben Jonson designates good men " the planets of 
the ages." Their work is to shine upon, and dispel, the 
darkness of their times. Multitudes profess to belong to 
this class, but professions count for nothing till they are 


translated into living, self-sacrificing deeds. The more 
doing the more life. Action is a characteristic of life. If 
our actions cost us something, then they have in them all 
the more evidence of vital godliness. Almost anyone will 
do a kind office if it comes in his way. It is the going 
out of one's way to do it that makes the deed meritorious. 
Even Reiian holds : — 

" So soon as sacrifice becomes a duty and a necessity to man 
I see no limit to the horizon which opens out before him." 

He will certainly not lack a boundless mission field 
within the borders of the Presbyterian Church of New 
Zealand. Underlying the whole Church extension scheme 
of this communion is the principle, that those who have 
the means of grace established in their midst should send 
to those who have not, or as Paul put it for the Romans, 
" We that are strong ought to bear the infirmities of the 
weak and not to please ourselves." What a hopeful pro- 
spect there would be for Church extension if all our 
congregations that are organised into self-sustaining 
charges acted on this principle, and realised : — 

" The strong must build stout cabins for the weak, 
Must plan and stint ; must sow and reap and store ; 
For grain takes root, though all seems bare and bleak." 

The Presbyterian Church of New Zealand has been 
moving along these lines from the very beginning, and 
must continue to do so to the end. We cannot with safety 
do otherwise. It has often been remarked that the Empire 
which ceases to defend and maintain her outposts, nay, 
which no longer makes new conquests, rapidly loses her 
prestige and influence. Other nations threateningly sur- 
round her, like vultures spying out a wounded animal and 
darkening the air with ominous flapping of wings. For 
the Church, as for the nation, that puts its hand to the 


plough there must be no looking back. Her motto must 
be, " On to the bounds of the waste, on to the city of 

Church extension as we have been trying to picture 
it had its origin as a scheme with the birth of an organised 
Church. At the first meeting of the General Assembly, 
held in Auckland in 1862, and representative of the whole 
of New Zealand, it was resolved : — 

" That a General Church Extension Fund be established for 
the purpose of promoting the interests of the Church throughout 
New Zealand, and temporarily aiding weak congregations, and that 
for this end an annual collection be appointed to be made in all 
congregations and at all stations." 

Regulations for the administration of the Fund were 
framed. Amongst others it was enacted : — 

" That as a general rule no minister should be settled in any 
charge which does not raise at least £100 per annum towards 

" That though the amount of supplement cannot be absolutely 
fixed, the minimum stipend should be regarded as £200 per annum." 

" That as a general rule no more than £100 be granted in aid 
to one congregation, and that the grant be diminished £10 at least 
every year after the first till the charge becomes self-sustaining." 

Districts where resident clergymen were urgently 
required were indicated, and application was to be made 
to the Home Churches for assistance in men and means to 
enable the Church to meet those requirements. The 
better to initiate the working of this Mission the Assembly 
agreed to a recommendation that one of the ministers of 
the Church should be released for a time from his charge, 
in order that he might visit the districts more urgently 
requiring attention, and prepare the way for the settle- 
ment of resident pastors. The Rev. David Bruce, of St. 


Andrew's, Auckland, now the Rev. Dr. Bruce, of Sydney, 
was accordingly released. In every way Mr. Bruce was 
admirably qualified for this work. Possessing great 
ability, sound judgment, fine tact, gentlemanly bearing, 
thorougli loyalty to the Church, and enthusiasm for Church 
Extension, he rendered services in this department which 
were invaluable. 

Starting on the tour arranged for him by the Assembly, 
at the end of January, 1863, he found numbers of 
Presbyterians, averaging from 150 to 250, and forming in 
the aggregate about 1500 souls, who were receiving no 
spiritual instruction from the Church to which they 
belonged, and, in some instances, scarcely any religious 
visitation or superintendence worthy of the name from 
other denominations. 

By expounding the Assembly's Church Extension 
Scheme, and by carrying round blank calls ready for 
signature, with a view to their being sent to some of the 
Home Churches, he did good service. Many a similar 
tour in the interests of Church Extension was made by him, 
especially after he was appointed General Church Agent, 
by the Assembly in December, 1875, the Established, Free, 
and United Presbyterian Churches of Scotland having 
joined with the Presbyterian Church of Ireland in offering 
each a £150 for one year for this purpose. A book on his 
travelling experiences in those days, written by him, would 
be exceedingly interesting, and make us all more thank- 
ful for our roads and bridges, our churches and manses, 
and our enlightened and peaceful times. 

Rev. C. Fraser of Christchurch also rendered yeo- 
man service in the cause of Church Extension. Being 
a martyr to sea sickness he made as few journeys 


as possible to the North Island; but mountains, rivers, 
or other land difficulties did not prevent him going 
into the remotest corners of Canterbury, North and 
South, and Westland, preaching the Gospel, organising 
charges, and settling ministers. The good Church Exten- 
sion work that he has done remains to this day. 

For a time Church Extension was carried on by indi- 
vidual ministers, individual congregations, and individual 
Presbyteries. We have mentioned some of the ministers who 
led the van in these labours in order to extend the Presby- 
terian Church of New Zealand. Among the congregations 
in early days were those of Auckland, Napier, Wanganui, 
Wellington, Nelson, and Christchurch. Of £100 raised 
for the fund in 1863. Auckland contributed £23, Napier 
and Nelson £21 each, Welhngton £7, and Wanganui £6. 
St. Andrew's, Christchurch, which did nobly, used its 
energies to supply local and district needs. St. Andrew's 
in Auckland City, of which Rev. Mr. Bruce was minister, 
was at that time by far the largest and most influential 
congregation in the Church. Connected with it were a 
number of wealthy, hberal, and leal-hearted men, who 
loved the Presbyterian Church, valued her services, and 
were proud of her history. They were zealous, and 
generous in helping to extend her ordinances to their 
fellow colonists. Population was then extending into 
the remoter districts north and south of Auckland, 
and in those places as they became settled, churches 
were planted by them. 

In earlier years, before the Church Extension Scheme 
was inaugurated or had got well on its feet, Presbyteries 
Hke Auckland and Christchurch put forth most laudable 
efforts to supply the spiritual wants of their respective 
districts. Unfortunately, however, the need was greater in 


those regions where no strong Presbytery existed to cope 
with them. There were other associations at Auckland 
and Christchurch which also gave a helping hand. 

The Canterbury Presbyterian Church Extension 
Association was one of the most important of these. It 
was inaugurated in 1871, and for its organisation owed 
much to Rev. A. F. Douglas, of St. Paul's, Christchurch, 
whose zeal and energy in the matter was very conspicuous. 
The lay element, however, was its backbone. To hard- 
headed, practical, business men, who managed it wisely and 
who themselves gave liberally, it owed much of its success. 
Men like Messrs. J. Anderson, R. S. Higgins, W. Gavin, 
D. Craig, W. Dymock, R. Sutherland, and others were in 
it a power for good. Mr Andrew Duncan, as Secretary, 
rendered good service, until in August 1873 he departed 
for Europe as Provincial Immigration Agent. We cannot 
say that his mission to the Old Country benefited much 
this scheme, or the country generally. The lack of 
intelligence and enterprise and want of moral stamina 
displayed by many of those brought out with the money of 
the Colony at that time are in evidence at this moment in 
many districts. This Church Extension Association held 
monthly meetings, sent deputations to other districts on 
special occasions, formed in many places branch commit- 
tees, supplied vacant congregations, and brought ministers 
from Home. It had an arrangement with the Free 
Church Colonial Committee to act for it in choosing and 
sending out men, to whom it guaranteed £200 per year. 
The agents whom it sent into neglected districts of the 
South Island, as a rule, speedily got calls and settled down 
to do efficient work. Some of the ministers are now faithfully 
serving the Church who were brought to New Zealand by it 
between 1871 and 1876, and with one or two exceptions 


all the moneys expended in this way were recouped by the 
congregations benefited. It came to an end when Mr. A. 
F. Douglas departed, and Presbyteries grew in strength 
and perhaps in jealous watchfulness over their privileges, 
and the Church to secure uniformity of practice required 
the concentration of its energies on the work of a com- 
mittee appointed by its authority and labouring under its 
direct supervision. Some are of opinion that these 
associations might still do immense good, if subordinated 
to the Presbyteries and to the Assembly's Larger Church 
Extension Scheme. 

Two objects were contemplated in establishing this 
Church Extension Scheme : (1) to aid in planting new 
congregations in recently settled districts, and (2) to assist 
with grants weak charges already existing. By the Assembly 
of 1877 these two objects were separated, and the latter, 
i.e. assisting weak charges, was entrusted to a Sustenta- 
tion Fund Committee, of which the Rev. James Paterson 
of Wellington was made convener. It was found, however, 
that the new congregations which were planted under the 
auspices of the Church Extension Committee soon came 
to depend for their maintenance on aid from the 
Sustentation Fund. The two objects were so intimately 
connected, and in the practical carrying out ran into one 
another to such an extent, that after a few years' experi- 
ence it was considered better to unite them once more in 
one scheme, managed by one committee. This was done 
by the Assembly of 1882, and Mr. Paterson became 
convener of the committee appointed to take charge of 
" The Church Extension and Supplemental Fund." 
Since that time, ably assisted by Rev. C. Ogg as treasurer, 
he has continued to bring great wisdom and tact to bear 
upon the management of this important scheme. Much 
of the success to which it has attained is due to him. 


The subject of a Sustentation Fund with equal 
dividend, as in the Free Church of Scotland and in some 
of the Colonial Churches, has been often discussed in our 
ecclesiastical courts, but has never issued in anything 
practical. In the sister Church of Otago and Southland 
a Sustentation Fund has existed from the very beginning, 
but that Church had a great advantage over us in getting 
it under weigh. The Southern Church was an off-shoot 
from the Free Church of Scotland. The settlement itself 
was a class settlement. Ministers and members, coming 
almost exclusively from the Free Church, brought with 
them the traditions and usages of that ecclesiastical 
organisation. They knew what a strength the Sustenta- 
tion Fund was at Home, and they were accustomed to its 
working. It was comparatively easy for them, therefore, 
to introduce it at once into their ecclesiastical arrange- 
ments in this Colony. But the Church in the North had 
quite a different origin and history. Its ministry and 
members were drawn from all the Presbyterian Churches 
of the Home land, and came with their various predilec- 
tions for Church organisation and methods of ministerial 
support. For many years, too, the Church in the NorLh 
laboured under great disadvantage owing to the scattered 
and isolated condition of many of its congregations, as well 
as to the mixed character of their membership. This 
hindered, no doubt, anything like a uniform system of 
ministerial support such as the Sustentation Fund secures. 
But through the great increase of population, and the 
growth of the Church, and the greater facilities for com- 
munication, these disadvantages have to a large extent 
passed away. The Church has now become more con- 
solidated, and can much more easily adopt uniform 
methods. It certainly would not be so difficult now as in 
former years to give practical effect to the idea of a 


Sustentation Fund. However the Church Extension 
scheme serves substantially the same purpose and is 
worked to all intents and purposes on the same lines. 
It aims at organising and fostering new congregations 
where there is a reasonable prospect of their being soon 
self-supporting, and at assisting weak charges by direct 
grants from the fund, upon the recommendation of the 
Presbytery of the bounds. Everything is done with the 
concurrence and co-operation of the Presbytery. 

Much in this way has been accomplished to extend 
and consolidate the Church. During its existence the 
Presbyterian Church of New Zealand has increased from 
15 charges to about 100. More would have been effected 
if the scheme had not been hampered for money and men. 
The income for 1897, exclusive of donations of £100 
each from the Church of Scotland and the Irish Pres- 
byterian Church, was £509 12s 6d. Of this sum six 
of our congregations contributed £250 or one half, St. 
John's, WeUington, leading the way with £84 6s 9d. 
When will the Christian Church as a whole realise its 
responsibility to this fund, which in many respects is the 
most important scheme of this young and growing 
Colonial Church. It would be a delusion to suppose that 
the Church Extension Fund has done all that it might 
have done, or that the spiritual needs of this new land 
have been adequately met. In many places it has only 
touched the fringe of its obligations. 

North of Auckland there are six counties (Mongonui, 
Whangaroa, Hokianga, Bay of Islands, Hobson, and 
Otamatea), with an area of 4000 square miles and a 
population of 14,000, which has no minister or 
missionary. In this district there is a place called 
Kaipara, whose cry for ordinances was heard in 1862, 


and whose pathetic appeal is still heard in vain. The 
Rev. R. Ferguson of Devonport, who like some of 
the other ministers of the Auckland Presbytery have 
in pity been lately paying flying visits to this region, 
reported recently that in one public school in Kaipara he 
found 19 children who had never seen a Bible, or heard 
of Christ or of God, 17 of these being white and two 
half-caste ; and that an itinerant missionary in that 
neglected district would be of the greatest advantage. 
The country north of Auckland generally is, from a 
spiritual point of view, exceedingly necessitous. The 
whole of that part of New Zealand extending from within 
12 miles of the city to the North Cape, with an area of 
6650 square miles, a population of 36,000, including 8000 
Maoris, and 82 public-houses, has only three ministers 
and one missionary connected with our Church. 

Across the middle of the North Island there are eight 
counties (Raglan, Kawhia, Clifton, West Taupo, East 
Taupo, Whakatane, Waiapu, and Wairoa), which have 
21,000 people, 12,250 being Maoris. To supply this tract of 
country with alcoholic spirits, there are 84 publicans who do 
a " roaring" trade, and one solitary Presbyterian missionary 
to counteract their evil influences and meet the district's 
real moral needs. Ah I it is the spiritual, not the 
spirituous, interests that here suffer. 

In the Thames district there are four counties 
(Thames, Piako, Coromandel, Ohinemuri, and Thames 
borough), which, being rich in gold, have attracted a large 
white population, of whom a good proportion are Presby- 
terians. But how two ministers and three missionaries 
are to undo the mischief of 64 grog shops and dispel the 
avarice, worldliness, and ungodliness of its 22,500 
inhabitants, no one in our communion has ever been able 
to say. 


The Taranaki district on the West Coast is a little 
more advantageously situated. For its five counties 
(Taranaki, Stratford, Hawera, Patea, Waitotara), its three 
boroughs (New Plymouth, Hawera, and Patea), its 38, COO 
souls, and its 62 man-traps, there are five ministers only. 
Rev. S. S. Osborne, of New Plymouth, writing of this 
region says : — 

" In Inglewood, a town of 500 inhabitants, we have never broken 

ground Round Mt. Egmont we will require three more 

men, students or Home missionaries : one in Inglewood, one in 
Eltbam, and one in Opunake, and this would mean £300 for a year 
or two till they got established. To my mind it is really a money 
question. The Church is not doing its duty financially in the 

Lastly in the Wellington Province, out of a popula- 
tion of 29,000, scattered over four counties (Pahiatua, 
Wairarapa North, Wairarapa South, and Horowhenua), 
and three boroughs (Masterton, Carterton, and Pahiatua), 
and regaled at 48 public bars, there are 10,000 people 
outside of Presbyterian influence. Some of these are 
almost in heathen ignorance. Between 1891 and 1896 
there was an increase of 6500 persons, but we have still 
only three ministers to care for the spiritual concerns of 
this wide district. 

As to the South Island, settlement has not advanced 
there so rapidly, though it, too, has its clamant needs. We 
shall not, however, weary our readers with a further 
rehearsal of the doleful tale. The entire Presbyterian 
Church of New Zealand ought to weep in sackcloth 
and ashes over the situation. Our rich members 
ought to be ashamed of it. Spurgeon, in one of 
his sermons, remarks, " Money is like an icicle, soon 
found at certain seasons, and soon melted under 
other circumstances." Would that love for the tens of 


thousands of dark and benighted souls at our doors caused 
a great thaw to set in for the quickening of the Church's 
life and the glory of God. Talk of a foreign missionary 
field ? Is there not one here ? Could some of those 5000 
volunteer missionary students of the universities of Europe 
and America, who have signed the declaration, " 1 am 
willing, if God permit, to become a foreign missionary," 
do better than devote themselves to work in this field ? 
We do not promise them large stipends to begin with. 
No true missionary will look for that. As Carlyle points 
out, no man should ever expect to be paid for his real 
work. All work worthy the name is an appeal from the 
seen to the unseen, a devout calling upon the higher 
powers, and except they stand by us it will be not a work 
but a quackery. We can promise them a beautiful 
climate, numerous kind and hospitable hearts who are 
willing to hear the Gospel preached, much hard but 
healthful riding, many degenerate souls to win, many 
difficulties to overcome, and much honest toil that will 
bring in due time, for a man of tact, energy, and spiritual 
power, a sure reward. A wise man will not expect : 

" No eye to watch and no tongue to wound us, 
All earth forget, and all heaven around us." 

Our past experience goes to show that he who casts him- 
self unreservedly in faith upon God, and His people in 
New Zealand, will not be allowed to go long without even 
his pecuniary reward. Here, as elsewhere, he who goeth 
forth weeping, bearing precious seed, shall return rejoicing, 
bringing his sheaves with him. 




The Presbyterian Church Constitutionally a Friend of Education — 
The Church of the People— The Churches of the Reformation 
and the Bible — John Knox's Scheme of Education for Scotland 
— Education in the Mission Field — The First High School in 
Canterbury — Champions of Education Past and Present — 
Educational Work of Rev. G. Barclay in South Canterbury — 
Difficulties of the Northern Church— The Church's First Pro- 
nouncement on Education in 1863— A Theological Hall for Both 
Churches — Her Efforts to raise the Standard of Education in 
the Colleges and University — A National and Undenominational 
System of Education — The Bible in the Public School — 
University Honours. 

Education as the discipline of the intellect, the regulation 
of the heart, and the development of the whole man, 
has always found a warm friend in the Presbyterian 
Church. Our communion's sympathy with it is not of 
a half-hearted nature. She has not befriended education 
as a matter of convenience. She has not espoused it 
because the tendency of the age is in that direction, and 
it has become evident that if the Church did not keep pace 
with the march of progress, her hold over her people, and 
her prestige before the eyes of the world, should be gone. 
Policy has had nothing to do with the attitude she has 
taken up. Principle lies at the bottom of it all. Her 
constitution is such that she cannot do otherwise. As 
Dean Stanley points out, the Confession of Faith, more 
than the creed of any other Church, emphasises the 
Freedom of the Will. Her appeal is to a free and 
enlightened people. In no country of the world has she 


sought to enslave the human intellect for ulterior ends. 
In no age has she considered it desirable to stand between 
her people and the fullest enlightenment and culture 
which it was in their power to possess. Founded on truth 
and herself a lover of truth, her motto has always been 
" Truth is mighty and will prevail." Providence has so 
ordered it that this opening of the windows to the East 
results in her ever receiving fresh accessions to her 
strength, but this she does not seek so much as the glory 
of her risen Lord, who is " the Way, the Truth, and the 
Life." Some Churches have little by little been yielding 
up the rights of the people, as more and more pressure 
has been brought to bear upon them, but the Presbyterian 
Church never at any time occupied that unenviable 
position. She commenced her career by according them 
their rights at the outset, and ever since she has been 
known as the Church of the people. Extending to the 
laity the fullest representation in her ecclesiastical courts, 
the Presbyterian Church has always set before her as one 
great end of her mission the enlightenment and elevation 
of the masses, and the civil and religious liberty of the 
people. She remembers the words of her Master, *' Ye 
are the light of the world. A city set upon a hill cannot 
be hid." She therefore believes not in 

"Bioh windows that exclude the light 
And passages that lead to nothing." 

If, as the great dramatist says, it be true that 
" Ignorance is the curse of God, Knowledge the wing 
wherewith we fly to heaven," then it is a sound principle 
to put every man in possession of the latter. It was a 
great discovery, that the key of knowledge could turn both 
ways, and open, as well as lock, the door of power to the 


To this may also be traced in some degree the 
reverence of the Presbyterian Church for the Word of 
God as distinguished from human tradition, and her efforts 
to have it translated into all known tongues, and placed in 
the hands of every individual of Adam's race. When the 
Reformers of the sixteenth century addressed the people 
and cried, " Back to the Word of God," the Presbyterian 
Church rejoiced, and put on its armour for the conflict. 
Her set time had come. Every reformed communion 
untrammelled by political influences assumed the dis- 
tinctive features that are now known to characterise 
the Presbyterian Church. As a result there came 
good times for the million. The feudal spirit of the 
Middle Ages took its departure. The power it had lodged 
in the hands of the nobility and of a few ecclesiastics 
ceased to be a monopoly. The Reformers had no ulterior 
ends to serve. They simply sought to lift men up every- 
where into the region of a virtuous and consecrated 

Nowhere did this spirit show itself more grandly than 
in Scotland, where our forefathers did so much to give 
tone to everything Presbyterian. When John Knox, 
George Buchanan, and their coadjutors began their work 
in Scotland, the people there, especially in the Highlands, 
were lower in intelligence and in character than the in- 
habitants of England. Before a century had passed the 
tables were completely turned. Scotchmen rose in character 
and mental equipment, and soon led the way in the regions 
of literature, commerce, and missionary enterprise, and 
from that time to this they have continued to stand 
in the forefront of much of the world's progress. This 
was unquestionably the result of the steps taken by Knox 
and his fellow-workers to educate the Scottish people. 


John Knox, in some quarters not well informed, is 
looked upon as a compound of ignorance, fanaticism, 
bigotry, and perhaps savagery, a man without a spark 
of love in his nature for the aesthetic and beautiful, and 
one who never experienced with Cowper that, 

" Wisdom is a pearl, with most success 
Sought in still water and beneath clear skies. " 

Nothing could be farther from the truth. Himself 
trained in a university, he very early in his career provided 
a system of education for Scotland, which, in view of the 
destiny of man and the character of the times, has not 
been excelled by any modern system with all the 
advances since made. His plan was to set up a school in 
every parish, where the elements of a sound education that 
did not exclude a knowledge of the Latin tongue, written 
and spoken freely by himself, were carefully taught. In 
these schools, unlike many of our modern institutions, 
the culture of the moral faculty was not neglected. He 
laid special stress on the teaching of the Geneva 
Catechism and of the Word of God. In every town of 
any importance he set up a secondary school, with a very 
liberal curriculum. Here were to be taught the " arts, at 
least logic and rhetoric, together with the tongues, by 
sufficient masters." Provision was made by which the 
poor and the landward people might share in the advantage 
of these secondary schools. 

He also made arrangements by which life and energy 
were brought to the three universities which existed 
in Scotland, and which had fallen into sad decay. 
There were to be taught the arts and the sciences, 
philosophy and law, the Greek and Hebrew tongues, and 
divinity worth them all. His plan was that the universities 
should be replenished from the secondary schools. Scots- 


men who were in sympathy with the Reformation, and 
who had gone to the Continent of Europe to pursue their 
studies he brought back to Scotland to act as professors 
in the universities, and as rectors and teachers in the 
secondary schools of the towns. His openly avowed pur- 
pose was to secure cultivated men for the offices of State, for 
the pulpits of the Church, and for business occupations. 

At first circumstances compelled him to employ 
readers for churches and schools in country districts, 
under the care of superintendents, but that measure was 
purely of a tentative character and only to continue 
till suitable men could be trained to take up the chief 
functions of the Christian ministry. His object was to 
keep the latter in a high state of efficiency. 

For all these schools, churches, and universities 
he proposed an adjustment of the funds previously 
devoted to ecclesiastical purposes, so that all the workers 
within them should simply secure a " decent mainten- 
ance." Knox's scheme was wide and discriminating, and 
had he been left untrammelled in carrying it into force 
the blessing to his country that would have followed 
would have been largely increased. Unfortunately the 
nobility and barons, aided materially by the clergy whom 
the Scottish Church had been compelled by the State to 
receive into her pale from the Episcopal section of the 
community, appropriated to their own purposes a large 
portion of the revenues. This considerably retarded the 
work of education, both in its lower and higher aspects. 
Still a force was set in motion and reached considerable 
development, which has largely affected the Protestant 
world, and contributed mightily to secure a widely-diffused 
education for the young of all classes, and a highly- 
cultivated order of ministers for the edification of grown-up 
people in all lands. 


There is another factor in the enlightenment of Scot- 
land, also of an educational character, which it would be 
a mistake to leave out. We may well exclaim, as the 
celebrated Hugh Miller dealing with this sentiment some- 
where says in substance, " Yes I Scotland doubtless does 
owe much to her parish schools, but that fact should 
always be associated with another which helped materially 
to give it efifect, namely a clear and thorough-going incul- 
cation of the Calvinistic faith from her pulpits." It was 
that which chiefly contributed to the enlargement of 
intellect, to the quickening of conscience, and to the 
development of those properties among the Scottish people 
which brought about the watchword, 

" Duty, the command of heaven, the eldest voice of Gbd." 

The minds and imaginations of men were roused by the 
ministrations of her pulpits to seek after for themselves 
and their children, growth in knowledge, and increase in 
wisdom and power, as the best product of the love and 
goodness of God to the world. The double process of 
education in the highest sense of the term for men and 
women, and education for the children went on together 
and mutually helped each other. Scotchmen did not 
ignore even the emotional in religion, but they were 
always careful to have it resting on sound judgment, and 
carried into life in union with thorough conceptions of 
duty and of Christian truth. 

The views of Knox and his co-workers on the subject 
of education continue very largely to be the opinions of 
Presbyterian people in every English-speaking country of 
the world. Presbyterians have always sought light for 
young and old as a matter of first importance to mankind, 
and, in the interests of the dissemination of light itself, 


they require a specially-educated class of men for their 
pulpits, and, as far as they can in the changed times, 
for the schools of every country. 

In harmony with these views, the missionaries of the 
Presbyterian Churches carry an educational policy with 
them into their Foreign Mission undertakings. The 
school is always the first point of interest with them. 
So soon as the pupils show any fitness for it, the 
secondary school is brought into requisition, and then 
comes the college. To the preaching of the Word 
at the beginning, and all the way through, they join a 
keen care for education. The reason of this is obvious. 
A heathen nation in its entirety, as such missionaries 
soon discover, are not likely to be constrained to embrace 
the Christian faith by men of another nationality. 
That can only be brought about by the earnest efforts 
of its own people. Foreigners may get a few of the 
better spirits under their influence. These they must 
educate into a clear and warm apprehension of the 
Christian faith, and watch over them with untiring 
zeal, until their Christian character becomes maturely 
formed. When that stage is reached they send them 
forth, with large confidence and hope, to the work 
of winning their nation for Christ. The first concern ot 
all missionaries is to find and qualify Native teachers for 
their schools, and preachers for their pulpits. They follow 
very much the same course that Knox did when he set 
himself to win Scotland for the Lord. They begin with 
the primary school, then pass to the secondary, and then 
rise to the college. Witness the work of Dufi' in Calcutta, of 
Wilson in Bombay, of Mateer of the American Mission, 
and indeed of the Presbyterian missionaries in every 
foreign field ; and you always find Presbyterian missionaries 


working on the educational ground. The men sent forth 
to the Foreign Mission field are all widely educated men, 
and their aim is always to raise up an educated people. 
Objection has now and again been taken to this method 
of work in the Foreign Mission field by men of peculiar 
emotional temperament. They say it is slow and expen- 
sive, and often disappointing, and maintain that a better 
work would be achieved by the simple evangelistic method 
of preaching the Gospel. About 1877 this question 
was keenly discussed in the General Assembly of the Free 
Church of Scotland, and under the inspiriting influence of 
Dr. Duff and others the present method of work in the Free 
Church mission field was triumphantly defended and 
maintained. That method is very elastic. It draws 
sometimes on the elementary, and sometimes on the higher 
education. Dr. Duff always recognised that the "nature 
peoples " and the " culture peoples " must be treated 
somewhat differently. It does not exclude even the evan- 
gelistic presentation of the Gospel ; but in all cases it 
seeks to lay a good foundation in a suitable Christian 
education through men who are themselves possessed of 
high culture and intelligence. Other discussions subse- 
quent to that time have been carried on in the Press and 
on the platform by members of the British Parliament 
and other persons, calling in question the educational 
method adopted in the foreign mission field, but they have 
never made the slightest impression on any Presbyterian 
community. So important has this educational form of 
mission work been found in India, that other Christian 
denominations have contributed financially to one of the 
colleges founded by the Free Church of Scotland in that 
part of the world, and the Methodist Church has provided 
an ordained missionary as one of its professors. The 
purely evangelistic mission found they had to fall back on 


the Mission College for the education of their converts, 
and especially for the training of their native candidates 
for the ministry. Every Board of Foreign Missions of the 
Presbyterian Churches, the world through, has carried 
out this policy of the Presbyterian Church, and places 
a sound and liberal education for young and old at the 
very base of its operations. Its members say very 
justly, " if that has been the pathway to real and effective 
Christian work in our various homelands, it is equally 
the proper course to follow in the foreign mission field." 
Such has been, and such, we are thankful to say, is the 
present attitude of the Presbyterian Church to education 
at Home, in the Colonies, and in the heathen world. 

" 'Tis education forms the common mind, 
Just as the twig is bent the tree's inclined." 

On these lines the Northern Church has been laid 
down in New Zealand. Carrying with them the genius of 
their communion, and the traditions of the past, her early 
ministers and members kept before them in this land the 
advantages of a good education. At first it was a matter 
for individual action, and men like Mr. Bruce of Auck- 
land and Mr. Fraser of Christchurch exerted their energies, 
and struggled with the difficulties of their times, in laying 
a sound educational basis for the Church and country of 
their adoption. As proof of this it may be mentioned 
that teachers were brought out by them from Scotland, 
through the ecclesiastical authorities at Home, with 
as much care as if they had been ministers. The 
Presbyterian churches were placed at their disposal for 
their week-day work. The times have become changed 
since then. Now the Church often holds services by favour 
of the school ; then the school met and conducted its business 
by favour of the Church. Many of these schools formed 


the nuclei for flourishing congregations. Some of them 
were of a very high order. Of such a nature was " the 
academy " established by Mr. Fraser, and afterwards 
turned by him and his Presbyterian friends (Dr. Lillie 
from Tasmania, Dr. J. T. Turnbull, Messrs. Wilken, 
Duncan, and Anderson), into the first High School in 
Canterbury after the pattern of the High School, Edin- 
burgh. Mr Fraser for a time took the higher classes 
himself, and watched over the interests of the institution 
with anxious concern. The Lyttelton High School had 
also a high standing, and almost every large centre had 
its first-class school, under the superintendence of Presby- 
terian influence. 

Prior to 1877 when the National System came into 
vogue education was largely in the hands of the leading 
denominations and managed by their representatives. On 
this basis the Provincial Governments made rules and 
regulations. Presbyteries received reports of the day 
schools as well as of the Sabbath schools. One handed in 
to the Auckland Presbytery in 1872 by the Rev. T. Norrie, 
who has done much for education, may be taken as typical. 
It stated that their were 27 day schools in operation, 
" either aided or under the auspices of the various congre- 
gations," that there were 1227 children on the roll, giving an 
average attendance of 870, and that tiie amount received 
during the year was £1510 8s 4d from fees, £914 4? lid 
from the Central Board of Education, or £2824 8s 3d 
in all, for the support of the teachers. Some of those 
who represented the Presbyterian Church in those 
early unsettled days, and did battle for the cause of 
an undenominational and liberal education, hke Rev. 
D. Bruce, Auckland, Rev. C. Fraser, Christchurch, 
Bev. P. Barclay, Napier, and Mr. Campbell and Rev. 


P. Calder, Nelson, have either gone to their account 
or departed for other lands. Some, like Rev. J. Paterson, 
Wellington, Rev. J. Ross, Turakina, Rev. T. Norrie, 
Auckland, Rev. Dr. Sidey, Napier ; Rev. G. Webster, 
Christcburch, and Rev. G. Barclay, Waimate, are still 
with us serving on public educational boards and 
advancing to the best of their ability the cause of 
education. Take South Canterbury as an example. 
No man has exerted such influence in shaping its 
present educational system, and placing it on a sound 
undenominational basis, as Rev. George Barclay. There 
is scarcely a schoolhouse or teacher's residence in all 
that well-equipped district he has not had a hand in 
building, or a bye-law of the South Canterbury Education 
Board he has not had a share in framing. The whole 
working of primary education he has at his finger ends, 
and he employs his knowledge for the advantage of the 
remotest country district. Many a battle, too, he has 
fought in the cause of higher education. The District 
High School of Waimate, now so efficient, may be said to 
owe its origin to him. The same is true of the Temuka 
District High School. As to the Timaru High School, it 
was born and cradled in a storm of virulent opposition, 
and -Rev. W. Gillies had the honour of piloting it to a safe 
haven in 1880, and for some time acted as the chairman 
of its first Board, rejoicing in the triumph over jealousy 
and false parsimony he had achieved. Persons of high 
social position might chafe and fume, he was satisfied to 
have a school that admitted the children of the poor as 
well as the rich to the advantages of secondary education. 

The Presbyterian Church of New Zealand has always 
laboured under exceptional difficulties. Unlike her 
Southern sister, the Church of Otago and Southland, and 


the English communion that founded the Canterbury 
settlement, she has not had the advantage of rich en- 
dowments for establishing and equipping schools and 
colleges. Her people, too, instead of being drawn from 
one section of the Church animated throughout with 
the same instincts educational and otherwise, have 
come from all branches of the Presbyterian Church in 
the Homeland. Some of them have belonged to Churches 
whose doctrine and government are different from those of 
the Presbyterian Church, but which as separate communions 
have not established themselves in New Zealand. Still 
the spirit of true Presbyterianism has always been 
present. When fully organised she did not lose sight of 
her duty towards the cause of education. In the report o' 
the Committee appointed in 1862, and given in at 
the second meeting of the General Assembly, we read of 
the members hoping for better days and saying : — 

" They advise that in the meantime much attention should be 
paid to the establishment of really good schools, both common and 
intermediate, and that the Church should urge on the various 
Governments, General and Provincial, the importance of establishing 
on a broad and unsectarian basis such intermediate schools and 
colleges as should give an education at once scientific, classical, and 

The report, which was unanimously adopted, went on 
to express the opinion that this line of action would tend 
to prevent the lowering of the ministerial standard and 
pave the way for the Church's laying down a platform of 
purely theological instruction. The evident design was to 
secure a high grade of secular education in the State, and 
then to establish theological halls in connection with her own 
communion. One circumstance alone seems to have pre- 
vented the carrying out of the latter intention. Union 
with the Southern Church was not only in the air, but 


apparently on the eve of being consummated. All the 
facilities for theological training possessed by the latter 
Church, it was thought, would be open to the former. 
Moreover, a request came from the Otago Presbytery that 
the Northern Church should co-operate with it in establish- 
ing a theological hall in Dunedin for the benefit of both 

Accordingly, in 1864, the Assembly of this Church 
passed the following resolution on the training of the 
ministry : — 

" That the facilities for attaining this important object are 
much greater in Otago than many other parts of New Zealand, and 
that the Assembly desire to express its willingness cordially to 
co-operate with the Otago Presbytery in the prosecution thereof." 

The practice of sending theological students to the 
Divinity Hall, begun in early days, has continued to the 
present. The only fault one can find with the Church in 
the matter of following this good old custom is that 
there has appeared in the Assembly a tendency to relax 
this rule in case of students who are supplying neces- 
sitous districts and appeal to its clemency. The special 
grace consists in exempting them from attendance on 
classes held in the Divinity Hall. The fewer such 
special indulgences are granted the better for the Church, 
though they are given apparently in the Church's interests. 

In accordance with the policy laid down in 1863 we 
find the College Committee reporting in 1874. It received 
the thanks of the Assembly for taking up the attitude that 
"Governors of Colleges must be informed that those 
institutions according to their present constitution do not 
afford the means of obtaining such a curriculum of literary 
and scientific study as this Church has hitherto required 


on the part of all her students." It was commended for 
holding out a threat that if an improvement did not take 
place students should be obliged to study arts as well as 
theology in Otago or give up the idea of the ministry 
altogether. For many years neither Auckland nor Canter- 
bury would listen to representations made. No philo- 
sopbical chair was set up and our students have been 
obliged to go to Duuedin for a philosophical training. 
Canterbury, however, now contemplates setting up a chair 
of philosophy. 

There is another fact which shows the service that 
the Presbyterian Church has rendered in promoting the 
cause of higher education in New Zealand It was the Otago 
University, so largely under its influence, which induced 
the New Zealand University to raise its educational 
standard. The latter, to secure popular support, had 
lowered its standard to that of the higher schools. 
Otago, unmoved by the clamour for immediate results, 
determined to raise the level of general education by 
maintaining a high standard in its establishment. It 
advocated the policy of levelling up instead of that of 
levelling down. On this condition the Otago University 
became incorporated with what has become a national 

In 1875 the Assembly declared in favour of the 
establishment of a national and undenominational system 
of education, giving as its reasons for opposing a denomi- 
national one, 

" The insufficiency of the education secured, the misappropria- 
tion of the public funds, dangerous favouritism, and the jealousies 
and heartburnings engendered among ecclesiastical bodies in the 


On this subject the Presbyterian Church of New 
Zealand has given no uncertain sound. At the same time 
it condemned the dropping out of the Education Act of 
1877 the clause that made provision for the repeating of 
the Lord's Prayer and the reading of a portion of Scripture 
at the opening of the school, and has always strongly and 
consistently advocated the introduction of the Bible into 
the public schools of the Colony. Many a strong resolu- 
tion has been passed for this purpose, and she will never 
rest satisfied until the Bible gets its due place in the public 
and national institutions of the country. Wellington, 
who knew something of the power of discipline, once 
remarked, " Educate men without a religion and you make 
them clever devils." Kuskin, the apostle of culture, was 
of opinion, 

" Education does not mean teaching people to know what they 
do not know, it means teaching to behave as they do not behave." 

Such is the deep interest which the Presbyterian 
Church of New Zealand has ever taken in the cause of 
education, and such the clear and decided stand for which 
she has always been distinguished. It is not by chance 
but rather as a result of the Presbyterian Church's 
constitution, teaching, and encouragement, that the Pres- 
byterian students of New Zealand have carried off so 
many of the honours provided by the New Zealand 
University. Presbyterians in this country constitute only 
22 per cent, of the population. According to this one 
might reckon that m that proportion their students would 
figure in the National University. But what is the fact ? 
Anyone who looks down the honour list of the last New 
Zealand University Calendar for students in Arts, will 
find that during the decade beginning in 1887 and ending 
in 1896, which is a sufficiently long period to form a good 


test, almost one-half of the honour men have been 
educated in the Presbyterian Church. This fact which 
can be easily established may well be considered a credit 
to any Church. As a result the majority of the head- 
masters in many of the leading educational districts, which 
are exercising such an influence upon the community^ 
belong to the Presbyterian communion. 




The Value of a Free Press— The Press with no Gospel of Its Own — 
The Restraints of Public Opinion -The Growth of the Press— A 
Newspaper Reading Public— The Power of the Press— The 
Advantages of a Sympathetic Attitude— What New Zealand 
Presbyterian Church has Here Done — The Outlook— Other 
Ways of Utilising the Press. 

The spirit of indifference which the Presbyterian Church 
in the past has shown towards the modern developments 
of the Press, especially as regards questionable tactics and 
tendencies, is not unaccountable. Presbyterians are 
among the best educated and most enlightened citizens of 
the State, and have been trained by history and experi- 
ence to liberal ideas, a large outlook, and a free expression 
of opinion. They believe that a free and outspoken Press 
is a better safeguard for liberty than a standing army. 
Moreover, the Church has nothing to fear from the Press. 
In the spiritual sphere it is omnipotent. There the Press 
cannot compete with it. The Press has no gospel of its 
own to offer the world. Bereft of God it must become as 
the country over which Byron sang his mournful dirge : — 

*' Such is the aspect of this shore ; 
'Tis Greece but living Greece no more ! 
So coldly sweet, so deadly fair, 
We start, for soul is wanting there." 

Any gospel it proclaims is borrowed from the Church. 
Its success depends on the measure in which it faithfully 
expounds and practically applies the life-giving truths of 
the religion of Jesus Christ. Renan somewhere remarks 


that the Apologists recognised that religion lies at the 
basis of all human life, and then lie adds, " and they are 
right." So they are. For this religion the Press must 
draw upon the Church. The latter has a Law, a Faith, a 
Gospel, a Life. Behind it stands God. It possesses a 
standard of appeal to which all human actions must con- 
form, and is in a position to defy the platform, the 
Press, and public opinion combined, when these teem with 
error, or embody a mere passing whim. With the 
advantage of a pure Gospel and a living sympathetic 
voice to expound it, there is no fear of the power of 
the pulpit passing over to the Press. In municipal and 
Parliamentary elections, and at times of Revolution and 
Reformation, the multitude is swayed, not by the Press, 
but by the human voice. 

That much evil is wrought by an ungodly Press few 
will deny. It is sad to think that in this new country, 
where there is such an opportunity for throwing aside evil 
traditions and laying afresh and well the foundations of 
a healthy nation, a leading newspaper should devote ten 
times as much space to sporting news as to literature and 
science. This is surely catering for depraved tastes, and 
fostering the gambling spirit that unfortunately pervades the 
community. The power of the Press for evil, however, is 
limited by public opinion, and public opinion is largely shaped 
by the pulpit. Buckle says, " The history of Scotland is 
the history of its pulpits and its General Assemblies." 
John Bright once told the teachers of a country Sabbath 
School in the North of England that they were doing 
more to mould the character of the nation than he and his 
friends were in the House of Commons. We have not far 
to go for proof that the Press is not omnipotent in wrong- 
doing. When on the 3rd of May, 1095, the Press of 


England was emancipated, it might have been tliought 
that it would have rioted in all manner of excess. Such 
was not the case. There was a law of libel, of course, but 
the purgation of the Press was effected not by magistrates 
but by public opinion. During 200 years the liberty of 
the Press has been growing more and more complete and 
the restraints on writers more and more strict, so that 
foreigners cannot understand how it is that the freest 
Press in Europe is also the most moral. When Emerson 
said of the London Times, " No power in England is more 
felt, more feared, or more obeyed," his words must be 
taken with a qualification. It is all powerful only as a 
faithful exponent of the best traditions of the people, or as 
a shrewd and far-seeing advocate of great moral reforms to 
which society in its march of progress is tending. Its 
power grows with the power of the people, and its influence 
with the progress of education. The Times holds a leading 
place among English newspapers because it has ears 
everywhere, and its information is earliest, completest, and 

If in a newspaper truth is sacrificed to party prejudice, 
and political opponents are treated to vile epithets and all 
their good deeds ignored or ascribed to evil motives, people 
will be sure to set it down to the exigencies of party politics. 
If a paper panders to popular sentiment when that senti- 
ment reveals a depraved taste, readers will know to set it 
down to a desire to make the venture at all hazards a 
paying concern. If so-called society journals and other 
prints of a low type, are spiced with the sensations of the 
hour ; if the records of the Police Court, the filthy gossip 
of the club, sporting-house, and gambhng hell, are served 
up in them with unfeeling brutality ; then the nati^ral 
instincts of most men will induce them to turn away 


with loathing from such literary pabulum. Readers will 
not forget : — 

" Of all the passions that possess mankind, 
The love of novelty rules most the mind ; 
In search of this from realm to realm we roam, 
Our fleets come fraught with every folly home." 

If a religious magazine teaches questionable doctrine, 
or hounds down a Dods, or a Bruce, or a Drummond, or an 
" Ian Maclaren," every independent man worthy of the 
name will examine the subject of discussion in the light 
of his own conscience and of the Word of God. 

On the other hand, the Church would do well to 
recognise that the Press, in the capacity of a friend and 
ally, is undoubtedly a power for good, as it may also become 
a power for evil. We need to reconsider our relationship to 
the Press, Its growth in modern times is simply marvellous. 
Instead of the old hand-press with its 250 pages per hour, 
the modern press can print its 384,000 per hour. In 1857 
there were 711 newspapers published in the United King- 
dom. In 1891 there were 4000, with an annual circula- 
tion of about a thousand million. Forty years ago the 
Post Office carried 36,000,000 newspapers, now it carries 
250,000,000. In the United States in 1850 there were 
235,000,000 copies of dailies issued. In 1890 there were 

This Colony will compare favourably with any country 
of the world in regard to the number of its newspapers. 
It has 60 dailies, 28 tri-weeklies, 30 bi-weeklies, 63 
weeklies, 3 fortnightlies, 26 monthlies, or 200 in all. Of 
the circulation of these it is difficult to speak with 
certainty, but there can be no doubt about its being larger 
in proportion to the population than in Great Britain. In 


New Zealand there is a newspaper to every 3700 inhabi- 
tants, while in Great Britain and Ireland there is only one 
for every 10,000. By the Post-Office in this country there 
were carried in 1897 11, 261, 345, or at the rate of 17-36 
per head of the population. By the Post Office at Home 
there were carried only 6 per inhabitant. It may be that 
newspaper readers in New Zealand, man for man, buy 
more papers to peruse than in the Home Land, where 
one paper often serves for many, but this alone will not 
account for the difference. We have undoubtedly a ncAVs- 
paper reading public. The Press here exercises a marvel- 
lous power, in reaching the people, in carrying ideas and 
information, in moulding opinion, in determining char- 
acter, in influencing men, and in initiating measures for 
the good or evil of the community. 

The power wielded by the Press is acknowledged by 
all. Carlyle thinks that the writers of Paris were the real 
authors of the French Revolution, and designates such 
penmen " the powerfuUest of all, the least recognised of 
all," and speaks of the great powers that are adapting 
themselves to the new times and its destinies. Every Free 
Churchman knows that the Witness, under the editorship 
of Hugh Miller, was a mighty force in bringing about the 
Disruption. Dr. Bayne says : — 

" Of the influence exerted upon the public mind of Scotland by 
Hugh Miller's articles in the Witness on the Church question there 
are thousands still living who can speak. A year or two before the 
Disruption I passed a winter in a Highland manse. I was too 
young to form a distinct idea of the merits of the dispute, but there 
was a sound then in the air which I could not help hearing. It 
seems as if it were in my ears still. Never have I witnessed so 
steady, intense, enthralling an excitement, and I have no difliculty, 
even at this distance, in discriminating the name which rung loudest 
through the agitated land. It was that of Hugh Miller — the people's 
friend, champion, hero !" 


The Press lias also grown in cleverness. Men of 
talent are put into the editorial chair ; energetic reporters 
are sent to every public meeting ; striking headlines are 
used to catch the eye ; serial stories run through many 
numbers ; matter to amuse and entertain as well as in- 
struct is inserted ; newsboys cry it up in the street ; and 
copies embellished with all the skill of modern art are 
sent into every home as regularly as the contents of the 
milk cart. It is foolish to close one's eyes to the fact that 
the modern Press is a mighty power in the land, and that 
it has come to stay. 

What attitude ought the Church to take up towards 
the Press ? Undoubtedly it ought to be one of friendliness. 
The Church will gain nothing by looking on it as hostile, 
which as a whole it is not. It ought to get into fuller 
sympathy with it, taking for its motto : 

" Still in thy right hand carry gentle peace. 
To silence envious tongues." 

It must not be too strait-laced in regard to modern 
methods of disseminating information. Just as we con- 
form to many of the rules of modern society although we 
do not believe that there is much in them, so it becomes 
the Church to respect the etiquette of the Press in matters 
indifferent. Nay, it is incumbent on her to remember 
the well-known truth given expression to by Pope ; 

" Who ever thinks a faultless piece to see, 

Thinks what ne'er was, nor is, nor e'er shall bo." 

The Church ought to seek to guide the movements of 
the Press, purifying its matter, elevating its tone, and 
converting its opinions into principles. Here is a new and 
little cultivated field that will yield an abundant crop. 



What has the Presbytei'ian Church of Ne^\ Zealand done 
to cultivate it ? The record insignificant as it is must be 

The efforts of this Church have been chiefly directed 
towards supplying for its own people a religious magazine 
of a high tone and character. In most Churches and 
countries such an undertaking has been an uphill task. 
In the United States of America, the Colonies of Great 
Britain, and indeed all over the world, the experience of 
the Church is that it is somewhat difficult to get the 
support for an exclusively religious paper that will keep its 
Editor from starving, and give it a long, strong, and 
vigorous life. New Zealand is no exception. 

Although the first General Assembly appointed a 
Committee on the " Establishment of a Periodical," which 
recommended before the close of its sittings in 1862, 
*' That a religious periodical be established in connection 
with the Presbyterian Church as soon as possible," and 
instructed it to find out what support could be calculated 
on, nothing was done for many years. The Committee, 
having effected nothing, wq,s dissolved in 1867, when 
it was reported that the Rev. C, Eraser had started in 1866, 
on his own responsibility, a small magazine called The 
New Zealand Presbyterian, and that it was serving a good 
purpose. This periodical was published quarterly, contained 
about 40 pages, and although distinctively Presbyterian, 
and careful to give prominence to topics of interest within 
the Colony, it aimed at being Catholic and evangelical in 
its sympathies and aspirations. The name of the publica- 
tion was afterwards changed to The Canterhury Presbyterian 
and Record of Church News, its size being 5^ x 8 J, and con- 
tents remaining very much as before. It was the organ 
of the " Canterbury Church Extension Association," and 


as an 1873 issue expresses it, found it " exceedingly 
difficult to maintain a denominational periodical under 
the control of a Committee." 

Meantime the Presbyterians in Auckland, thinking 
that their corner of the vineyard would receive more 
attention at the hands of a magazine published in 
their midst, determined to follow the example of Christ- 
church. They brought out on January 1st 1872 The New 
Zealand Presbyterian Magazine. It size and plan were 
similar to those of its Canterbury contemporary, and its 
Editor was the Rev. R. Sommerville. One of its special 
features was that each number contained for a time an 
historical sketch of the rise and progress of one of the 
congregations of the Auckland Presbytery or some Presby- 
tery adjoining. It also had usually a sermon from a pen of 
a minister of the Church, which it carried with it into 
scenes of retirement where a preacher's voice was not 
heard. Not the least interesting part of it was " The 
Children's Column." In 1873 Mr. Sommerville changed 
its name to The Presbyterian Church Neirs, and its dimen- 
sions from 5^ x 8| to 9 x 11. Notwithstanding, it does 
not seem to have met with the desired success, although 
supplying a great want, for in 1876 we find the Editor 
complaining of being left by the subscribers for want of 
funds too much at the mercy of the printer. Strictly 
speaking, as it frequently reminded its readers, it was not 
the organ of the Church, and yet many availed themselves 
of it as if it were. 

In 1886 the General Assembly recommended the 
Committee on a " Church magazine " to form a publishing 
company, thinking that course would be preferable to 
having an organ which every member of the Church might 
fancy he had the right to comment upon. The Committee, 


however, found that the formation of such a company 
would entail a legal manager, and a heavy registration fee. 
Instead, it entered into correspondence with Rev. M. 
Watt, of Green Island, the responsible Editor of The 
Neiv Zealand Presbyterian established by the Synod of 
Otago and Southland in 1880, and of which Professor 
Salmond had been Editor for a time. Mr. Watt proposed 
to place half the space of the periodical at the disposal of 
the Northern Church on condition that one of the brethren 
of that Church in each of the leading provincial centres 
gathered up the ecclesiastical intelligence of the district, 
and forwarded a digest of it for publication. The Assembly 
agreed to this proposition, and appointed Rev. W. Gillies, 
Timaru, Sub-Editor for the Northern Church, and a number 
of correspondents suitably situated to assist him. In spite 
of this management complaints continued to be made as 
to the manner in which the interests of the Church were 
served, and more than one committee formed for the 
purpose turned its eyes in various directions to find a 
remedy. At length in 1894 the Assembly passed a 

" That the Christian Outlook, the new paper of the Otago 
Church, receive the cordial support of the whole Church." 

How true it is that, 

" Light flashes in the gloomiest sky, 
And music in the dullest pain." 

Under the able editorship of the Rev. R. Waddell, 
M.A., D.D., the Christian Outlook has attained to a high 
place in religious journalism. 

The Christian Outlook is the latest and ablest effort 
our Church has made to supply the homes of our people 
with the freshest and best that consecrated talent and 


Christian literature can produce. It has given forth no 
uncertain sound on the master sins of our social life. Its 
special issues on " Gambling," " Temperance," and "The 
Bible in Schools" have been of the highest ability and 
the utmost value. Its Notes on " The Week " are 
marked by clear insight, wide culture, and rare wisdom. 
Public measures, as they present themselves, are weighed 
by it in an impartial spirit, with care proportioned to 
their importance, and with reference not to the party with 
which they may chance to originate, but to the principles 
they are found to involve. Its mission is to elevate public 
opinion, cultivate Christian character, create a truer spirit 
of consecration, and make the ideals of Jesus Christ the 
spirit and experience of every Christian. It is the organ 
of righteousness, the advocate of purity, the champion of 
progress, and the friend of all spiritual men and moral 
movements that make for the glory of God and the good of 
man. The British Weekly, the Free Church Monthly, and the 
Southern Cross praise it, while the Australasian Editor of the 
Review of Reviews says it is the best religious journal in the 
Colonies. It contains reading for old and young, and is a 
great help to ministers, teachers, parents, and children. 
The General Assembly urges every loyal Presbyterian to 
support it. Out of a Presbyterian population of 150,000, 
its present circulation is less than 4000, whereas it ought 
to be 40,000. Look at what the Salvation Army has done. 
In one year its printing presses have issued 51,000,000 
publications. It has 53 distinct newspapers and magazines 
published in fifteen difi'erent languages. These are circu- 
lated by voluntary workers, and produce a revenue of 
about £200,000 a year. 

Clearly the present duty of the Church is to place the 
Christian Outlook on a sound financial basis. This is the 


first requisite, and it is easy to accomplish. A little united 
effort is all that is required. With the organisation at 
their disposal, the Presbyterian Churches of New Zealand 
ought to make this weekly as prosperous from a financial 
point of view, as it is from a literary and religious. It 
ought to be placed beyond the reach of pecuniary anxiety. 

Great improvements are being made in the Outlook. 
Its enlargement to 32 pages makes it the largest and 
cheapest weekly paper of the kind in the Colony. It will 
be a marvel if its subscribers continue to number only 
between three and four thousand. Every member of the 
Church, and especially every office-bearer, ought to feel it 
incumbent on him to accord it a hearty support when he 
knows that the reception accorded to it during the coming 
year will determine how long it shall be issued by the new 

Then the Church ought to see that the business of her 
various courts is well and faithfully recorded in the leading 
Colonial papers, and ought to encourage her office-bearers 
and members individually to make a larger use of the 
Press than they have hitherto done. Many in this 
Church, it is to be feared, hide their light under a bushel 
instead of placing it on a candlestick that it may give 
light to all that are in the house. It would be well if, for 
the sake of the people who live in this Colonial house and 
whose eyes are not dazzled with religious light, our 
ministers got rid of a little of their modesty and reserve. 
A big effort, it is said, is being made just now by the 
Romish Church to capture the Press, and the columns of 
leading newspapers all over the world have been teeming 
of late with information regarding its teaching and work, 
and not without fruit. In that direction we might 
accomplish much without " Vaticanising history " or 


throwing dust in the air. The plain facts of a noble past 
and an honest present have only to be told. Arrangements 
might be made in many districts to have a portion of the 
local paper set apart weekly in the interests of Temperance, 
Christian Endeavour work, pulpit utterances, and other 
information regarding the life and working of the Church. 
Ministers of strong congregations might with much benefit 
follow the example of the late Rev. Mr. Treadwell, who 
in "Wanganui for many years edited The Messen[/er, with 
great relish to himself and not without profit to others. 
He found that he could say many things there which were 
unsuitable for the pulpit, or for which there was not room 
in the ministrations of the sanctuary. Such a publication 
might grow to be a light for a whole Province. Congre- 
gations who feel inclined might provide a supplement 
containing local information which could be added to any 
other reputable religious journal selected. 

Something deeper than ecclesiastical rivalry ought to 
stimulate us to bestir ourselves. The interests of truth 
are at stake. How can Editors of the agnostic class, who 
seem to be increasing in number, do justice to the religious 
verities of life ? The world wants qualified pressmen as 
well as qualified preachers of the Gospel. 




(1) The Foreign Mission — The Story of the Dayspring. (2) The 
Maori Mission. (3) The Chinese Mission. 

(1) P^oREiGN Mission. 

The London Missionary Society was the first to attempt 
mission work in the New Hebrides. For a considerable 
time little was accomplished. In the year 1889, John 
Williams and Mr. Harris, on landing upon Erromanga, were 
killed and eaten by the savages. In 1842, Messrs. Turner 
and Nisbet began work on Tanna, but about six months 
after landing they had to escape for their lives. Native 
teachers from Samoa and Raratonga were placed on 
different islands of the group, but they were murdered by the 
cannibals, or died from fever, or were removed in a dying 
state. The first effective occupation was in 1848, when 
the Rev. John Geddie, afterwards Dr. Geddie, com- 
menced labouring on Aneityum. The success that 
attended the labours of the first missionary in the Islands 
is briefly but strikingly recorded on a tablet erected behind 
the pulpit of the church at Anelgauhat, Aneityum," when 
he (John Geddie, D,D.) landed in 1848, there were no 
Christians here, and when he left in 1872 there were no 

" Sound the loud timbrel o'er Egypt's dark sea, 
Jehovah has triumphed, His people are free." 

1898 was thus the year of Jubilee for the New Hebrides 
Mission. The beginning of the second half-century of 
mission work in these islands is an appropriate time for 


drawing attention to the part that this Church has played 
in their evangelisation. In 1852 the Rev. John Inglis, of 
the Reformed Presbyterian Church of Scotland, after eight 
years' missionary work among the Maoris on the Mana- 
watu River, and pastorless Presbyterians in various parts 
of New Zealand, sailed for Aneityum in the " Border 
Maid," which was kindly placed at his disposal by Bishop 
Selwyn. Thus the first connection between New Zealand 
and the New Hebrides group was established. Messrs. 
Geddie and Inglis soon felt the need of something better 
than an open boat, if they were to extend their labours 
beyond Aneityum. So a small schooner of some 15 tons, 
named the "John Knox," was provided by the Reformed 
Presbyterian Church of Scotland. Her running expenses 
were defrayed by kind friends in Auckland, headed by Mr. 
Archibald Clark. From that day to this New Zealand 
has assisted in the maintenance of inter-island com- 
munication in the New Hebrides Group. In the first 
published account of the "Dayspring," issued in 1864, we 
find that a sum of £81 was sent from Auckland. In 
1865 the Rev. Joseph Copeland, the first New Hebrides 
missionary to visit New Zealand, made a tour of this 
Colony. Besides creating a deep and lasting impression 
by his addresses, he obtained a considerable sum of 
money, which formed the nucleus of what has since been 
known as the " Dayspring Insurance Fund." 

The General Assembly of 1862 selected the New 
Hebrides as a Foreign Mission field, and thought that the 
faith of the united Presbyterian Church of New Zealand 
ought to be equal to the maintenance of one missionari/ in 
the Islands. When the prospects of Union with her 
Southern sister vanished into thin air, she still clung to 
the ideal of one missionary for the New Hebrides, but for 


years nothing practical was done beyond accumulating a 
Foreign Mission Fund at the rate of £100 per annum. 
Stirred up by Mr. Copeland's earnest addresses, the Church 
resolved to engage more directly in the work. At the 
suggestion of Mr. Copeland, a correspondence was opened 
up with the Reformed Presbyterian Church of Scotland 
with a view to the transfer of one or more of its six 
missionaries then labouring in the New Hebrides to the 
care of the Presbyterian Church of New Zealand, just as 
the Victorian Church had adopted Mr. Paton, and Mr. 
Geddie (one of four Nova Scotian missionaries in the same 
group). The instruction given by this Church to the Com- 
mittee on Foreign and Maori Missions was to procure if pos- 
sible, without delay, the services of Mr. Copeland of Futuna, 
Mr. Inglis of Aneityum, or both, for Mission work in the 
New Hebrides, under the superintendence of this Church. 
Each missionary, it was understood, would cost £150 per 
annum. Mr. Kay, the Convener of the Reformed Church, 
loath to part with the services of so distinguished mission- 
aries, except they themselves desired it, suggested the name 
of a worthy theological student, Mr. William Watt, whose 
offer of service in the foreign field was then in the hands 
of the Foreign Mission Committee. To the arrangement 
this Church at once gave its assent. Mr. Watt's theo- 
logical course not being finished, and medical classes 
having to be attended, it was not until the beginning of 
1868 that he was ordained, and with his young wife 
started for the future scene of his labours. They embarked 
on board the " White Star" at Liverpool on June 8th 1868, 
and arrived in Melbourne in the end of August. Finding 
that there was no prospect of getting to the New Hebrides 
at once, they were advised to proceed to New Zealand and 
await the " Dayspring," which was to visit this Colony at the 
end of that year. Taking passage on board the ' ' Rangitoto, ' ' 


they landed at Wellington about the same time as the 
Rev. James Paterson of that city, who was afterwards 
for a time Convener of the Foreign Mission Committee. 

The pecuniary arrangement made with Mr. Watt was 
that he was to get an allowance for house building of £30 
and a salary of J6120. The latter was raised in 1871 to 
£150, and afterwards to £200. 

According to appointment, the " Dayspring" arrived at 
Dunedin at the close of 1868, and there Mr. Watt, afte*^ 
visiting as many parts of the Church as time would 
permit, joined her. Here he met Rev. Mr. Inglis and Dr. 
Macdonald of Melbourne, who came to New Zealand to 
raise additional money for the Dayspring Insurance Fund. 
The sum contributed by the Northern Church for this 
purpose was at that time £625. 

Reaching the New Hebrides early in April 1869, our 
first Foreign missionary was settled on Tanna by the 
Mission Synod, which met in that island the following 
month. Mr Watt was not the first to attempt breaking 
ground in this portion of the group. In 1858, the Revs. 
Messrs. Paton, Copeland, and Matheson, and in 1860, Mr. 
Johnston, had been placed on Tanna. Their missionary 
career there was short. Mr. Copeland, after a few months, 
was removed to Aneityum. Mr. Johnston died after a 
savage attempt to take the life of himself and that of Mr. 
Paton. Mr. Paton, now Dr. Paton, who fled taking 
only the clothes he stood in with him, and Mr. and Mrs. 
Mathieson, the last of the band, left the island in 1862, and 
no missionary had since occupied it. The name, " Dark 
Tanna" had already been well earned. Mr. Watt's 
station was named Kwamera. For a short time he 
was assisted by Mr. Neilson, to whom a few months 
previously had been assigned a station at Port Reso- 


lution. When the latter left in 1882, the two stations 
were combined under one missionary. From 1868 till 
1885, Mr. Watt was the only representative of our 
Church in the New Hebrides. During that period his 
labours were of a most arduous kind. "Without were 
lightings ; within were fears." Often the lives of himself 
and wife were in danger. Their aim was to take the more 
intelligent Natives into their household, and train them as 
teachers at Kwamera, where a Native church was built and 
Mission buildings erected, and then to station the teachers 
at the villages and other centres of population in the 
interior of the Island, where they might open schools and 
conduct religious services. In this way he sought to spread 
a network of Scripture agencies under his superintendence 
all over the Island. The plan was a good one, but unfortu- 
nately internecine war has often stepped in to break up 
these outposts, and compel the withdrawal of the teachers. 
Mr. and Mrs. Watt well earned their furlough in 1878. 

In 1885, a fellow labourer in the Mission field was 
provided by the Church for Mr. Watt, but designed to take 
up work on a separate Island, that of Ambrym, vacant 
by the death of the Rev. W. B. Murray, M.A. The 
Rev. Charles Murray, M.A., brother of Ambrym's late 
missionary, had his attention, when quite a lad, drawn 
to the Mission field. Dr. Moffat's "Travels and Mission 
Work in Bechuanaland " impressed him with the claims of 
Africa in particular ; but the Church not being prepared to 
send him there, at the suggestion of Dr. Inglis, who was 
acting for this Church, he chose his late brother's field of 

Mr. Murray, with his wife, arrived in New Zealand in 
January, 1885, and was at once ordained by the General 
Assembly in Christchurch, and, subject to the approval of 


the Mission Synod, appointed to Ambry m. In that year 
this Church took over from the Church of New South 
Wales at a valuation whatever property the latter had in 
the Island. Ambrym thus became the second Mission 
field of the Church. The kindness shown to his brother was 
at once extended to him. The Natives were delighted to 
have a missionary once more amongst them. In March 
1886 a severe blow fell upon Mr. Murray and the Mission 
in the death of his wife. She was eminently qualified 
through a Normal School training and years of experience 
in teaching to interest and instruct the Natives, and when 
she passed away was greatly missed and lamented. It 
shows the aptitude of some of the Ambrymese youth, that 
a lad, now a teacher at the old Mission station of Ranon, 
learned the alphabet in about half an hour. 

For some time Mr. Murray laboured on alone, but 
having been repeatedly attacked by fever and ague and 
greatly prostrated, as a means of saving his life he was 
obliged to leave the Island in May, 1887. He is now 
minister of Feilding. 

On April 26th, 1894, Mr. Watt was visited with an 
affliction similar to that experienced by Mr. Murray. On 
the morning of that day ho lost his wife and invaluable 
helpmate, "the mother" of the Tannese Mission. For 
nearly twenty-five years she laboured earnestly and 
lovingly to win the hearts of " dark " Tanna's nihabitants 
to Christ. Quarterly Jottin<js, referring to her, says : — 

" She was one of the cheeriest of spirits, and at the same time 
one of the most devoted workers for the salvation of these Islands 
that Christ ever gave to the New Hebrides. Her circular letters, 
year by year, were full of the finest touches of human love and 
kindly humour, and yet at the same time imbued with an intense 
devotion to the poor heathen, and a perfectly w )nderful and iuspir- 


ing application of the words of Scripture to all their needs and trials, 
hopes and fears. . . . The women and girls clung to her as 
their mother, and she will have many of them for her crown in the 
day of the Lord." 

Undaunted, Mr. Watt remained at his post, and put 
forth renewed efforts for the conversion of the heathen 
over whom his wife yearned. With a self-denial worthy 
of all praise, he declined to avail himself of the furlough 
granted to him, and made up his mind to labour as a 
missionary of this Church idthout salary, in order that 
the Church might be enabled to appoint another missionary 
to Tanna, the most difficult of all the New Hebrides 
mission fields. A few years elapsed before that appoint- 
ment was made. Meantime the Church appreciated the 
sacrifice made by its oldest missionary. Future history 
will record that he hath done this. 

Turning to Ambrym, we find the Chief of Ranon 
and others applying for a missionary in vain. Efforts 
made to supply Mr. Murray's place were for a con- 
siderable time fruitless. At length Dr. Robert Lamb, 
a son of the New Zealand Church, was appointed 
second missionary, and being ordained by the General 
Assembly of 1892, at Auckland, he arrived in the group in 
April of that year. After visiting several islands to find a 
suitable place for the establishment of the first medical 
mission in connection with the New Hebrides, he selected 
Ambrym. He had the old Mission house removed from 
Ranon to Ranior, beheving the latter to be a more 
healthy site. It seemed as if God meant at the outset to 
try the faith of Ambrym's missionaries and of the whole 
Church. A series of disasters came in quick succession. 
A hurricane swept over the island on March 4th 1893, 
levelling the Mission Buildings at Dip Point, entailing the 
loss of Dr. Lamb's two young twin sons, and leaving ruin 


everywhere in its track : the next year a fire burnt down 
the structure erected by the houseless missionaries out of 
the debris of the storm : a volcanic eruption following soon 
after threatened to leave Ambryni without an inhabitant : 
all this in addition to the usual sickness and death fell 
upon the island and its inhabitants. Notwithstanding we 
find Dr. Lamb pleading in New Zealand for a hospital 
establishment, and writing in a spirit of true heroism to 
the General Assembly of 1895, through its convener, Rev. 
W. Grant :— 

Yet we are quite pi'epared to go forward in Christ's strength 
and to do our best if the Church will say the word. 

The Church said the word and Dr. Lamb, and his co- 
workers prepared to return to the scene of so many trials 
with unabated enthusiasm. The diificulty of raising the 
£1000 required for the Hospital Buildings was soon sur- 
mounted. The Church made a liberal grant out of the 
Mission Funds ; warm-hearted members of our communion 
sent in donations ; Mr. Mansfield toured New Zealand 
with his magic lantern, eliciting sympathy everywhere ; 
Dr. Lamb solicited aid in the Homeland ; settlers and 
traders in the islands contributed liberally ; and other 
Churches directly interested in the New Hebrides Mission 
made small grants. Not the least to profit by this mission 
are the missionaries themselves throughout the Group 
with their wives and children. Following as it does 
the lines laid down by Christ Himself when He was on 
earth, this medical mission has become most popular, and is 
destined to become a most powerful agent in the evangeli- 
zation of the Islands. The cure of their physical maladies 
is often the shortest way to the hearts of the heathen. 

The Church had the honour of making another new 
departure when, as helpers to Dr. Lamb, it appointed at 


the same time two lay missionaries, one of whom, Mr. 
Mansfield, late of Timarn, is still doing a good work in 
Ambrym, being left in temporary charge of the Mission. 

Events on Ambrym suggest the words of Paul, 
" How unsearchable are His judgments, and His ways 
past finding out." Just at the time when most en- 
couraging reports of Dr. Lamb's work were coming from 
the Island, the sad news reaches us that Dr. Lamb him- 
self, the chief spoke in the Mission wheel, is obliged 
through sickness to leave Ambrym and for a time seek 
health in one of the warm dry climates of the Australasian 
Colonies. Whether he shall ever return to the work he 
loves must depend upon circumstances. He is the third 
missionary on Ambrym whose labours have been inter- 
rupted by disease or death. Now comes the further sad 
news that Mr Mansfield has been obliged to come to Sydney 
to receive medical treatment for an accident to his eye. 
These calamities, accompanied by Nature's convulsions, 
constrain assent to the thoughts of Cowper : — 
" God moves in a mysterious way 
His wonders to perform ; 
He plarfts His footsteps on the sea, 
And rides upon the storm." 

Seeing that Ambrym is so fertile and so thickly populated, 
and that the great bulk of the heathen of the group is in 
its neighbourhood, it is satisfactory to know that the 
Medical Mission has got a firm hold there, and that there 
are 14 Native churches and 28 teachers, trained or in 
training. Many of the latter are "boys" returned from 
Queensland. In this respect it differs from Tanua which 
reports a dearth of teachers. The supporting of these 
teachers, who cost £G each, and the providing of cots for 
the Hospital has been a means of grace to many a 
congregation throughout the Church. 


At last Mr. Watt got his heart's desire. After fruitless 
negotiations in more directions than one, Mr. Alexander 
Gillies, son of the Eev. David Gillies, of Orphir, Orkney, 
was secured as a second missionary for Tanna. It is 
interesting to note that Mr. A. Gillies acted for a time as 
Home Missionary in connection with the same mission 
that Dr. Patou served before he came to the same Island. 
Having finished his theological course, he was ordained in 
his father's church, and with his wife reached Tanna 
in the end of October 1897. This addition to the 
missionary staff necessarily entailed considerable ex- 
penditure not only in connection with passage and 
outfit, but also the preparation of a second suitable 
residence on Tanna, and will in future add greatly to the 
responsibilities of this Church. It is to be hoped it will 
nobly rise to the occasion. Self-denial like that of Mr. 
Watt should shame the whole Church into doing its 
duty and loyally standing by its devoted New Hebrides 
missionaries. The day is at hand. Even Tanna is show- 
ing signs of the dawn : — 

" Sing, ye islands of the sea ; 
Echo back, ye ocean waves : 
Earth shall keep her jubilee, 
Jesus saves ! Jesus saves I " 

The Stoky of the " Dayspring." 

Prior to 18G1 contributions both in money and kind 
had been sent from New Zealand to the New Hebrides, 
part of which was used in meeting the expenses of the 
Mission schooner " John Knox." This small vessel of 15 
tons paid frequent visits to the four southern Islands of 
Futuna, Tanna, Aniwa, and Erromanga. To this restricted 
sphere her humble services were confined. 


In 1861 the movement began which resulted in the 
" Dayspring." In that year a proposal came from the 
missionaries on the Loyalty Islands for a larger vessel. 
They felt the need of some means of visiting their teachers 
regularly, and so they proposed to the missionaries on the 
New Hebrides that both should unite and get a vessel to 
do the work of the two Missions, which then, and for some 
time after, were worked together. In response, the 
missionaries of the New Hebrides resolved : — 

" That an appeal be made to the children of the two Churches 
and to the children of the various Presbyterian Churches in the 
Colonies of Australia and New Zealand to aid in raising funds 
necessary for her purchase and support, and that Messrs. Geddie and 
Copeland be appointed to address them on the subject." 

This resolution was passed under a deep shadow. 
Wave after wave of trial had broken over the Mission. 
Messrs. Paton and Mathieson had been driven from 
Tanna. Of the little band labouring in the Islands, 
Johnston and G. N. Gordon had fallen, the former having 
gone to his rest after a brief service of seven months 
on Tanna, and the latter with his wife having been 
barbarously murdered by the Natives of Erromanga. 
Mr. Inglis was in Britain, and so Geddie, Copeland, 
Mathieson, and Paton were all that were left. Although 
thus sorely stricken, they courageously took further 
measures for the advancement of the cause that was so 
dear to their hearts. In February 1862 it was resolved, 
" That Mr. Paton be sent to visit the Australian Colonies, 
and bring the claims of the New Hebrides Group as a 
Mission field before the Presbyterian Churclies there, and 
also to invite the co-operation and aid of the Sabbath 
School children in the purchase and support of a missionary 
ship." Dr. Paton presented the claims of the mission 
as they had never been presented before. He travelled 


thousands of miles, addressed hundreds of meetings, and 
in about fifteen months had raised £5000, besides paying 
all expenses. Of this sum £3000 was devoted to building 
a mission vessel, and £2000 to providing outfit, passages, 
&c., for additional missionaries. To Nova Scotia was 
given the honour of building the new vessel, and the 
" Dayspring " was launched in September 1868. It was 
a brigantine whose length of keel was 78 feet, breadth of 
beam 2-i feet, depth of hold 10 feet, and whose cost was 
£3800. On her first trip to the Islands she had three 
new missionaries on board, one of them being the Rev. 
J. D. Gordon, who went forth in Christ's name to convert 
the murderers of his brother and his brother's wife on 

The trials that had befallen the New Hebrides Mission 
were thus overruled for the furtherance of the Gospel in 
the Group far beyond what the most sanguine could have 
expected. In 1864 the Mission had at its service a vessel 
capable of going anywhere and doing any work required 
of her. When the " Dayspring " put in her first appearance 
in Port Philip waters, the young people there were taken 
captive by her ; she was '* beautiful and buoyant as a sea- 
gull." She was a brigantine, when altered in the Colonies, 
of 120 tons register. She was built under the superintend- 
ence of Captain Fraser, who brought her out and sailed 
her for eight years. With alterations she cost about £4000. 
Even when this money had been raised and the vessel was 
at work, Dr. Paton's anxieties were not over. When the 
" Dayspring " returned to Sydney from the New Hebrides in 
1864 it was found that she was £1400 in debt, and that 
there was not a penny to meet it. The crew were threaten- 
ing to sue for wages. No arrangements had been made 
to meet the running expenses, and the Doctor had to 


come to the rescue. How he did so his autobiography 
tells in its own inimitable way, and need not be re- 
peated here. He lent the captain £60, or one-half of his 
salary, to meet urgent demands, and set about raising 
the money needed. At length satisfactory arrangements 
were made, and the future of the vessel was assured. 

Whatever differences of opinion exist now, all admit 
that in those days a vessel like the " Dayspring " was 
indispensable to the successful prosecution of Mission work 
on the Group. As one of the Mission reports puts it : — 

"What ships from other countries are; what steamers and 
coasters are ; what railways, canals, and roads are ; what cabs and 
Cobb's coaches are ; what drays and horses are ; what Post-offices, 
postmen, and telegraphs are to you in Australia, New Zealand, and 
Great Britain and Nova Scotia— all these the " Dayspring " is to us, 
the missionaries and teachers in the New Hebrides." 

On January 6th 1873 the first "Dayspring," after a 
short but very useful career, was wrecked at the entrance 
to Anelgauhat Harbour, Aneityum. Owing to the heavy 
character of the work of the preceding year, she was 
delayed until she was in January caught in one of 
the severest hurricanes that have visited the Group, 
and became a total wreck. The headquarters of the 
Mission vessel had just been shifted from Melbourne to 
Sydney, and the gentlemen there who had agreed to act 
as a " Dayspring Board " were equal to the emergency. 
Soon after the wreck they chartered, to do the work 
of the Mission, the " Paragon," a three-masted schooner 
of 159 tons register, built and just launched at Bal- 
main, Sydney. She was in the market, and after trial 
bemg considered suitable by the missionaries, was pur- 
chased by the Board at the end of the year for £3000, 
altered internally to suit the work of the mission, and 
named the Dayspring. 


The second * ' Dayspring " was much larger than the first, 
but within about ten years she was found to be too small, 
and although she sailed fairly well either with fair wind or 
beating up against a head wind, she proved too slow to 
overtake the work that was required of her. Time and 
again when she left the Colonies goods had to be left 
behind, to the no small disappointment of those expecting 
them. In 1883 a movement was begun to get a larger 
and faster vessel. The Mission Synod were making 
enquiries as to the practicability of a steamer, and that 
same year Dr. Paton was sent to Britain by the Victorian 
Church to raise the needed funds. As on his previous 
visits to the Australian Colonies to raise the money for the 
first "Dayspring," and on his visit to New Zealand to raise 
the money for the second, so now in Britain his efforts were 
crowned with success, and soon £6000, the sum aimed 
at, was in hand. He was also put in possession of funds 
to the extent of £4000 to equip and send out additional 

At this juncture, when the difficulty in meeting the 
annual expenditure of the steamer "Dayspring" was felt, 
the wants of the Islands began to be met in another way. 
Up to 1889 the New Hebrides Group was practically cut 
off from the civilised world. In the end of 1889, however, 
an arrangement was made with the Australian United 
Steam Navigation Company whereby their Fiji steamers 
were to call at the Group. A small steamer was also put 
on to do the inter-Island work. After various arrangements 
were made by a trading company with the A. U.S.N. Co., 
at length a single steamer owned by Messrs. Burns, Philp, 
& Co. of Sydney has been put on to do the whole work, 
making round trips from and to Sydney every two months. 
So well has this arrangement wrought that already a much 


larger boat than that originally employed has had to be 
put on, and it seems as if there could be no doubt now about 
the permanence of the service. The danger was, and is, 
that the presence of a Mission vessel might prove injurious 
to the best interests of the Mission by necessitating the 
withdrawal of the English steamers from the Group, and 
affording an opportunity for some foreign Company aided 
by a subsidy from its own nation to step in and injure, if 
not destroy, the missionary work. 

Although the condition of affairs was thus materially 
altered, an effort was made to continue the policy of owning 
a Mission vessel. In 1894 Dr. Paton was able to announce 
that he had received promises of £1000 per annum towards 
the cost of running a Mission steamer, and also an additional 
£1000 to be used in adding to the size and comfort of the vessel. 
With the approval of a number of the Churches support- 
ing the Mission, the Victorian Church ordered the new 
steamer to be built. John Stephens, Esq., of Glasgow, 
gratuitously drew her plans and supervised the building. 
She arrived in Melbourne on 31st December 1895. After 
a deck-house and chart-room were added, and some neces- 
sary changes made, her cost was about £7000. She was 
157 feet long and 33 feet broad, and considered a model of 
beauty. On her fourth trip, however, she ran on a coral 
reef to the north of New Caledonia on October 16th 1896, 
and became a total wreck. She was heavily laden with 
Mission supplies, those of the Victorian Mission being un- 
insured, but no hves were lost. The Company's service 
was then again drawn upon. Whether another Mission 
vessel will be procured is still under discussion. On hear- 
ing of her loss the friends in Britain, who gave her to the 
Mission, subscribed £-i000 to be added to £2000 of 
insurance, and £2000 still in the Building Fund, for the 


building of another steamer. The/ also offered to con- 
tinue the £1000 per annum towards helping to meet the 
running expenses. After this liberality it seems a pity 
that the maintenance difficulty should stand in the way. 

It appears, however, that a Mission steamship must 
either be much smaller and slower than the vessel 
at present at our service, or run at such an expense 
that any benefit to be gained from it must be pur- 
chased at an enormous cost. In 1897 our own Church 
for this reason gave its voice against the building and 
running of another " Dayspring." As, however, it has 
only a small hand in maintaining the service, this did 
not settle the matter. Since then both the New Heb- 
rides Mission Synod and the Victorian Presbyterian 
Assembly have declared in favour of giving the ** Day- 
spring " another trial, and it appears as if an attempt 
once more would be made to acquire a Mission vessel. 
Certainly if the difficulty of maintenance can be overcome, 
a steamer supported by the various Presbyterian Churches 
and run solely in the interests of the New Hebrides 
Mission, would bring many advantages. Not the least of 
these would be the strong appeal to the sympathies of all 
the Sabbath Schools of our Church, which assist in main- 
taining the present maritime service. 

(2) Maori Mission. 

It was in 1862, when so many schemes were inaugu- 
rated, that the Northern Church began to take an active 
interest in Maori Mission work. The Committee then 
appointed reported in the following year that the Rev. 
Mr. Duncan, of the Manawatu, had been devoting himself 
for many years to the Native race in his immediate vicinity, 
and that, owing to the excitement caused by the insurrec- 
tionary spirit prevalent among most of the Native tribes, 




tliey " did not feel justified in making any attempt to 
increase the Church's agenc_5yn this department of religious 
work." The Committee was instructed to put forth 
missionary efforts among the 
Natives as soon as the circum- 
stances of the country would 
allow. In 1864 they proposed 
that Mr. Duncan should be 
engaged by the Assembly to 
give regular Sabbath Day 
services to the Natives at 
Manawatu and Lower Rangi- 
tikei alternately, and report 
through the Committee to the 
Assembly, and that as a small 
acknowledgment of his services 
he should receive a yearly allow- 
ance of £30. This recom- 
mendation was adopted by the Assembly. For some years 
after this reports from the Maori Mission field were most 

In 1874, the Committee announced that they had 
once more commenced operations on this field, and had 
taken steps practically to recognise the labours of the Rev. 
Abraham Honore, who, having come up from Stewart 
Island, had for some time past been devoting attention to 
the Maoris in the central districts of the North Island, 
especially those of Parawanui, Turakina, and Wangaehu. 
The report was adopted, and a collection ordered to be 
taken up for his support. Mr. Milson was employed by 
the Church as a second missionary to the Natives in 
1881. Both of them laboured faithfully for many years. 
Mr. Honore died suddenly in 1894, and Mr. Milson, on 
account of failing health resigned in 1896. 



In 1889, or seven years before Mr. Milson retired, 
Mr. H. J. Fletcher, who was a member of Rev. James 
Doull's congregation at Bulls, and 
had offered his services for work 
among the Maoris, was engaged 
as junior missionary. He has 
laboured in various districts, and 
has at present under his charge 
the Natives around Taupo, having 
been duly licensed and ordained 
by the Wanganui Presbytery in 
1898. In this district there are 
sixteen pas visited by Mr. Fletcher, 
some of them being sixty miles 
distant from headquarters. It is 
a difficult field to work. There 

are many drawbacks. Considering the Maori War, whole- 
sale confiscation of Native land, the hostile influence 
of the Head Chief, Te Heuheu, and the demoralising 
influence of the Armed Constabulary quartered amongst 
them, and of settlers of bad character generally, one 
would not be surprised if they declined to receive the 
Gospel from Europeans. Nevertheless, there is a pretty 
general desire to have a Bible, and to wait upon religious 
services held by our missionary. The Maori Mission 
Committee have also made a small grant to Mr, Ward, 
who, although a Home missionary working in connection 
with the Church Extension Committee in the Waikato, 
can speak the Maori language, and is doing a good work 
among the Natives of that historic district. Some of our 
ministers who are settled in stated charges also do much 
for the Aborigines. Amongst these are the Rev. Blake, 
now of Halcombe, who was once a Maori missionary in 
Otago, and who loses no opportunity of circulating tracts 




and holding services in their interest ; the Rev. G. B. 
Inghs, of Ashburton, and his wife, who with others employ 
Mr. Morgan, a devoted col- 
porteur, to go from im to ini of 
the South Island ; and the Rev. 
J. Dickson, who has a worthy 
member of his Session, Mr. 
D. Kennedy, conducting a 
Bible class, and himself holds 
an occasional service at the 
Temuka jm. 

Notwithstanding all this, a 
much larger door of usefulness 
exists than our Church turns to 
account. It is of the utmost 
importance that it should be 
entered. Work in the Foreign 
field will never flourish as it 

ought until religion reaches a high tone at home ; and it is 
difficult to see how this latter goal can be reached with 
16,000 Natives living in heathen ignorance in our midst, 
and the rest of 39,854 now in New Zealand, feeling their 
way into the hght. 

(3) The CmNESE Mission. 

Rev. Mr. Douglas, of Hokitika, may be looked upon 
as the father of the Chinese Mission. The existence of 
over 1000 Chinamen scattered up and down the Coast 
uncared for by the Churches long lay like a load upon 
his heart. Through the Westland Presbytery he 
approached the Assembly on the subject. The supreme 
court, sympathetic towards the movement, ordered a 
collection to be made for a Chinese Mission, appointed 
the Presbytery of Westland (with Mr. Douglas as convener) 



a Chinese Mission Committee, and instructed it to secure 
a Chinese catechist as missionary. The Committee failed 
to get a suitable catechist, but distributed Chinese tracts 
in great numbers, and by their yearly reports kept the 
Mission before the Church. Meantime the Christian 
Endeavour movement came into existence, one of whose 
chief features is zeal for Missions. It quite took the 
wind out of the Church's sails. At the suggestion of 
the Rev. R. Erwin, of Christchurch, the Canterbury C.E. 
Union in 1896 got a missionary, Mr. Lem, and full of 
enthusiasm undertook his support. Mr. Douglas on his 
part enlisted the sympathies of the Christian Endeavour 
Societies on the West Coast, and was able to promise 
the Canterbury Union £20 per year towards Mr. Lem's 
support. The greater part of the money is contributed 
by Presbyterian Endeavourers. Though this Mission is 
directly under the auspices of 
the Canterbury and Westland 
C.E. Unions, the General 
Assembly of this Church makes 
an annual contribution to it, 
and the Church's Mission Com- 
mittee is still in existence, and 
every year hands in to the 
Assembly its report. 

Mr. Lem is a vigorous 
and attractive speaker in his 
own language and a man of 
fine Christian spirit. His 
services are always looked 
forward to with much interest. 
spread over a very wide area. 


Unfortunately they are 
Greymouth is viewed as 
the headquarters of the Mission. Chinamen are most 


numerous there and appreciate the Mission school, in 
which Mr. Lem has many valuable helpers, mostly 

In view of the wide area over which the Chinamen of 
the West Coast mining districts are scattered, the tenacity 
with which they cling to ancient and national traditions, 
and their need for patient instruction, another missionary 
among them is urgently required. There is no reason 
why the Church should not still carry out its original 
intention and have a Chinese missionary of its own. 

" Oh ! where are the reapers that garner in 
The sheaves of good from the field of sin ? 
With sickles of truth must the work be done, 
And no one may rest till the ' harvest home.' " 



Want of Uniformity in Titles— Discipline Weakened— A Model Trust 
Deed Inoperative — Mr W. S. Reid's Services — Act of 1875 — 
Church Property Act of 1885— A Central Board of Trustees— 
The Trust Funds. 

As a Church is a united and corporate body it is of the 
utmost importance that its properties should be held by a 
common tenure, and come under the control of the 
supreme court. This is necessary not only to secure the 
properties to the Church as an ecclesiastical body, but also 
to effectually carry out the functions of government 
and discipline. Otherwise difficulties will inevitably arise. 
Threats will be made, by the individual disciplined or 
by the congregation concerned, of separation from the 
communion, and of carrying away the property which 
belongs to the Church corporate. Nothing weakens the 
powers of discipline more than this. 

Trouble has arisen in another way. Church property 
is vested in local trustees. . Dissension arises in the 
congregation. The trustees become partizans, and by 
the means of the power lodged in their hands, sometimes 
create serious difficulties. All this is avoided by having 
all ecclesiastical property vested in one corporate central 
board, under the control of the General Assembly. To 
make confusion worse confounded there was in the earlier 
years no uniformity of title in regard to the Church Avith 
which the property was associated. Some titles declared 
it to be connected with the established Church of Scotland, 
some with the Free Church of Scotland, and some disclosed 



no ecclesiastical connection at all, and set forth no trust, 
absolute power l)eing given to individuals to deal with the 
property as they thought fit. This was felt to be a very 
unsatisfactory state of affairs, and from time to time the 
subject was discussed in the supreme court. Various 
proposals were made to remedy the evil. Amongst others 
a model trust deed was suggested. This was a proposal of 
the Assembly of 1862, which met at Auckland, and at 
which the Union of the Northern and Southern Churches 
took place. But like the Union itself it remained in- 
operative. The diverse and insecure titles of the Church 
properties continued to press on the mind of the Church. 
The Assembly of 1874 instructed the Church Property 
Committee to take such action as might be necessary to 
have an Act of Legislature passed defining the position and 
recognising the distinctive title of the Presbyterian Church 
of New Zealand, and giving 
power to Trustees holding 
Church property under various 
titles to transfer said property 
to the Church under that 
designation. Mr. W. S. Reid, 
the Solicitor-General, on being 
asked, kindly agreed to act as 
legal adviser to the Church, in 
so far as his doing so did not 
interfere with his public and 
official duties. To this gentle- 
man the Church is under very 
great obligation for valuable 
services most kindly and gratui- 
tously rendered during a long 
course of years. His high stand- 
ing in his profession, and his large experience as the legal 

MR. W. S. REID. 


adviser of tlie Government give great weight to hia 
opinions. To him the Convener of the Church Property 
Committee, the Rev. James Paterson, applied for advice 
and assistance in carrying out the instructions of the 
Assembly. These were freely given, Mr. Reid prepared a 
Bill, which passed through both Houses of the Legislature, 
and became the law of the land. This is known as Act 
No. 9, of 1875, the title of it being : " An Act to Define the 
Position of the Presbyterian Church of New Zealand, and 
to Provide for Dealing with Certain Property held in Trust 
for Purposes connected with such Church." 

This Act recited that there was a Church in certain 
Provinces of the Colony known as the Presbyterian Church 
of New Zealand — that it never had any actual connec- 
tion with any Presbyterian Church in Scotland, but had 
independent jurisdiction, and was governed by the doc- 
trines set forth in the Westminster Confession of Faith 
and the Presbyterian Form of Church Government. That 
in many cases real and personal property was held under 
titles indicating a connection with Churches in Scotland, 
which connection had no actual existence, and that it was 
expedient the legal position of the Presbyterian Church 
in New Zealand should be defined. Then the Act pro- 
ceeded to say : 

1. The Presbyterian Church, as before stated, was to 

be known as the Presbyterian Church of New 

2. Its officiating ministers were recognised for the 

purposes of the Marriage Act. 

3. Trustees of real or personal property held in con- 

nection with churches under the circumstances 
set out in the preamble were empowered to con- 
vey the same to Trustees appointed by congrega- 


tions to which such property belonged, to bo held 
upon trust in connection with the Presbyterian 
Church of New Zealand, and upon like trusts as 
those for which the property was originally held 
or might lawfully be declared. 

Such were the provisions of this Act. It served a 
good purpose so far as it went, but it did not go far 

Another Act was required which would lay hold of all 
the properties and trust funds of the Church and vest 
them in the Churcli herself, or in a corporate body of 
Trustees, who should be appointed by the Church and 
responsible to the Church, and who should hold the 
various trusts for the Church. Mr. Reid was again 
applied to under instructions from the General Assembly, 
and he prepared a Bill which met with the approval 
of the Assembly and received the sanction of the Legis- 
lature. This is the existing Church Property Act, 
1885. It is entitled an " Act to Define the Position 
of the Presbyterian Church of New Zealand, and to 
Vest Certain Property held for the Purposes of or 
in Connection with such Church, in Trustees, and to 
Provide for the Management of such Properties." This 
Act, of course, superseded the former of 1875, and was 
more complete. It constituted a corporate body of 
Trustees, in whom all the property and trust funds of 
the Church are vested, and who hold the same for 
the Church. Those Trustees are appointed by and 
removable at the will of the Assembly, due notice being 
given. The Chairman of this Board of Trustees is Mr. 
James M'Kerrow, a gentleman of great ability and of 
large experience in public affairs. Much of the busi- 
ness of the Board falls to the Chairman, and it always 


receives from him prompt attention. By the establish- 
ment of this Board of Trustees, many properties, 
which otherwise would have been lost to the Church, have 
been secured, and title deeds which were in the hands of 
private persons, or which seemed to be a-missing, have 
been recovered and deposited in the Church's safe. The 
properties of the Church are very extensive and very 
valuable. It is to be regretted that sufficient data have 
not yet been collected on which to found even an approxi- 
mate estimate of their worth. The Trust funds, which 
consist mainly of the Widows and Orphans Fund, the 
Aged and Infirm Ministers Fund, the Foreign Mission 
Fund, and the Scholarship Fund, have considerably 
increased within the last few years. The Widows and 
Orphans Fund has now a capital of £5935 16s 6d, and the 
Aged and Infirm Ministers Fund of £4200 6s 5d. The 
other Trust funds amount to between £6000 and £7000. 
There have been some generous donors both of church 
and manse sites, and other additions to the Trust funds. 
It is to be hoped the number of such friends of the 
Church will increase, and that the funds will largely 
benefit thereby. This matter is commended to the leal- 
hearted and wealthy members of the Presbyterian Church 
of New Zealand. 




In addition to numerous "Preaching Stations" there are 
in connection with the Presbyterian Church of New Zealand 
103 sanctioned charges, 101 of which, at one time or 
another in tlieir ecclesiastical history, have enjoyed the 
advantages of a settled ministry. There have been 306 
ministerial settlements, which means that 217 ministers 
at different times have been placed in charge of con- 
gregations according to the formalities of the Presbyterian 
Church at Home and in this Colony ; or, taking up work 
in the period of her infancy, were afterwards recognised as 
ministers of this Church. 18 charges, not a few of 
which, like Papakura and Mahurangi, originated in early 
days, have contented themselves with one minister each, 
25 have had 2, 16 have had 3, 23 have had 4, 8 have 
required 5, 9 have demanded 6, and 2 seem to have reached 
perfection by enjoying in a comparatively short space of 
time, in addition to numerous temporary supplies, the 
perfect number of 7 ministers each, i.e., Prebbleton 
and Lincoln, and Whangarei. Looking at it from the 
ministers' standpoint, we find that of the 217 ministers 
who have been in charge 132 have had one congregation 
each, 58 have had 2, 18 have laboured in 3, and 8 have 
tried their hand on 4. This takes no account of the 
charges ministers had before coming to us or after leaving. 
The inclusion of such would considerably swell the list. 

Those advocates of short pastorates who think we 
should go in for a nearer approach to the " itinerant 


system" of the Wesleyan Church, will be surprised to learn 
that the average length of the pastorate in the Presbyterian 
Church of New Zealand, exclusive of pastorates now 
running, is only 5 years; and that making no exceptions 
but taking account of all pastorates ended and to end, 
lying in troublous and in peaceful times, we find the 
average to be 6 years and 5 months. The highest average 
is possessed by the Wanganui Presbytery, i.e., 7 years and 
4 months, and the lowest is found, as we might expect from 
a fluctuating mining district, in the Westland Presbytery, 
i.e., 3 years and 3 months. The longest ministry is that 
of the Eev. James Duncan, who came to New Zealand as 
a Maori missionary in 1843, who, after the lapse of 56 
years' faithful work among the Natives and among the 
members of this Church, and after reaching 86 years of 
age, is still preaching occasionally at Foxton, and who for 
nearly 40 years has officially received the cordial recogni- 
tion of this Church. Alongside of that deserve to be noted 
the pastorates of Kevs. T. Norrie and K. McKinney, which 
exceed 43 years and 41 years respectively. The shortest is 
that of the Rev. D. McKee of North Belt, Christchurch, who 
suddenly passed away after a brief ministry of 6 months. 

The first minister of any denomination who came out 
from Home expressly to minister to the settlers of New 
Zealand was a Presbyterian minister, i.e., Rev. John 
Macfarlane, of Wellington, who arrived in 1840, and the 
first church of any denomination erected for the use of the 
colonists at Wellington was a Presbyterian church, built 
in 1843, in which the members of all communions 
worshipped for a time. This church has also the honour of 
having received the first minister of any denomination who 
came out to minister to the settlers of the South Island, 
i.e., the Rev. T. D. Nicholson, of Nelson who arrived at 


Port Chalmers on fcbe morning of Wednesday, March 22nd, 
1848, before Rev. Dr. Burns and the Free Church settlers 
of Otago had reached their destination. 

The catholicity of this Church is shown in its having 
received ministers from nearly all points of the ecclesiastical 
compass. The Free Church of Scotland, the great mission- 
ary Church of modern times, naturally comes first. From 
that Church, since the beginning of our history in 1840, we 
have received 104 ministers, besides students, catechists, 
lay evangelists, and many teachers for work both in the day 
and in the Sabbath school, and sometimes in the pulpit. 
The Green Isle has sent us here to the ends of the earth 
some 32 ministers during the same period. Some years 
were specially prolific in bringing additions to the ministry 
of this church. In 1871-72 we received 17 ministers, 12 
of them being the result of Rev. D. Bruce's visit to the 
Old Country. In 1878-79 we received 7 ministers and 10 
students, and in the seventies altogether we welcomed no 
fewer than 38 ministers and 20 students. Some of these 
never got settled. The origin of our present ministry 
will show that we have not been at all bigoted. Of 
the ministers now in charge 43 have come from 
the Free Church of Scotland, 11 from the Irish 
Presbyterian Church, 8 from the Church of Scotland, 5 
from the United Presbyteriau Church of Scotland, 4 from 
the English Presbyterian Church, 5 from the Congre- 
gational Church, and 3 from the Methodist Churches, 
all bringing their peculiar gifts and graces, and all fused 
into a great gospel army marching along Presbyterian 
lines to the conquest of this land for Christ. 

The remainder of the 90 ministers at present in 
charge, outside of vacant congregations, is chiefly made 
up of men trained in this Colony. This latter is a factor 


which it is difficult to estimate, owing to the various 
degrees to which students have availed themselves of 
facilities for education in New Zealand. It is an increasing 
quantity. In the future the Church must more and more 
depend for ministerial recruits on students trained in the 
Colony, while continuing as heretofore to welcome earnest 
and faithful ministers from all parts of the Presbyterian 
horizon. More than 33 ministers who have laboured in 
connection with this Church have, in whole or in part, 
been educated in New Zealand. 

As if to show how short-sighted those few spirits are 
who oppose the Union of the Northern and Southern 
Churches of New Zealand, a good deal of wooing between 
these communions has been going on across the Waitaki 
bridge. Not only have messages of love in the form of 
church certificates, valid on both sides, and church resolu- 
tions, more or less gushing in sentiment, been passing 
between them, but frequent offers of marriage have been 
made by congregations on the one side and accepted by 
ministers on the other. 21 pastors of Otago and 
Southland, being only flesh and blood like their fellows, 
have crossed the Waitaki in response to calls from the Pres- 
byterian Church of New Zealand (Revs. J. Kirkland, W. 
Gillies, J. Gow, J. McAra, A. Blake, D. Gordon, R. C. 
Morrison, J. G. Patterson, B. Hutson, W. Finlayson, J. H. 
Mackenzie, A. B. Todd, R. Wood, J. White, G. B. Inghs, 
H. Kelly, W. Scorgie, J. Skinner, W. J. Comrie, J. Milne, 
and J. A. Asher) ; and not to be outdone in the matter of 
kindness 21 ministers have thrown up their Northern 
charges and gone South to vow tiiat they will love and 
cherish and promote the best interests of congregations 
in the Church of Otago and Southland (Revs. A. B. Arnot, 
J. Kirkland, G. Morice, R. Waddell, J. U. Spence, W. P. 


Brown, P. S. Hay, J. M. Fraser, G. Lindsay, R. J. Porter, 
W. Nicliol, P. Ramsay, J. W. Comrie, B. Hutson, J. 
Mackellar, J. Smellie, H. Adamson, W. White, J. Clarke, 
R. McCully, and W. Scorgie). 

The average stipend in the Wellington Presbytery is 
£263 ; in Tiroaru Presbytery, £260 ; in the Christchurch 
Presbytery, £225 ; in the Hawke's Bay Presbytery, £216 ; 
in the Westland Presbytery, £215 ; in Auckland Presby- 
tery, £208 ; in the Wanganui Presbytery, £205 ; in the 
Nelson Presbytery, £196 ; and over the entire Church, £224. 

Last year St. John's Wellington, raised the largest 
sum for Foreign Missions (£52 12s. 3d,), the largest sum 
for Church Extension (£86 17s. 6d.), and had the largest 
income (£2224 9s. 6d.). Wanganui contributed most 
handsomely to Maori Mission (£9 12s. 9d.). The total 
revenue of the Church is about £41,596. The number of 
communicants is 11,852 ; of churches, 168 ; of church 
attendants, 27,285 ; of Sabbath Schools, 214 ; and of 
scholars, 15,044. 






(Explanation of Contractions ;—E., Elders; Mgrs., Managers ; M., Memhers.) 


(Formed October ISth, 1856). 


This is the oldest Presbyterian congregation of the Auckland 
Province— Rev. W. Comrie, one of the old Moderates, in 1843 began 
services in the Supreme Courthouse, but did not succeed in organising 
a congregation— A Committee was appointed to build a church 
on May 4th, 1847— A Sunday School was established the same 
year by the Hon. Alex. Shepherd (Colonial Treasurer), Superin- 
tendent, and Mr. Whytlaw. (a) Rev. A. G. Panton, sent out by 
the Colonial Committee of the F.C., Scotland, arrived on January 
15th, 1849 ; stipend £150 for the first two years, £300 afterwards 
—A church, after many vexatious delays and some financial troubles, 
was opened on April 7th, 1850; cost, £3500— Mr. Panton began 
well, but owing to a disagreement between him and his office-bearers 
returned to Scotland on October 25lh, 1850— Supply was given 
by Revs. J. laglis, T. Hamer, and A. Macdonald. {b) Rev. D. 
Bruce, ordained in Scotland by the F.C. Presbytery of Aberdeen, 
arrived on June 9th, 1852, and at once vigorously entered upon a 
long and successful pastorate— A debt of £1500 was wiped off in 
three months— Rev. Jas. Hill, late of F.C, Scone, Scotland, arrived 
as colleague in 18G3, but accepted a call to St. James's in July 
18G4 — Mr Bruce was Moderator of Assembly in 1866— He visited 
Scotland April 6th, 1870— In the sixties St. Andrew's was by far 
the most liberal and influential congregation of the Church. It 


had many wealthy members who exerted themselves to supply 
ordinances to their spiritually destitute fellow-colonists round about. 
So far from complaining of Mr. Bruce's frequent absences from his 
pulpit, or throwing obstacles in the way of his itinerant work, they 
were rather a spur to his activity in the cause of Church extension. 
Many a church was planted by them among the settlers who were 
pushing their way into the remoter districts north and south of 
Auckland— Mr. Bruce (now Dr. Bruce, Sydney), to whose noble 
Church extension work reference is made elsewhere, was appointed 
Church Agent January 24th, 1877, after a pastorate of 25 years. 
(c) Rev. a. Carrick, late of Canada, was inducted December 27th, 
1877, and, after an earnest ministry of 18 years, died on June 2nd, 
1895, of typhoid fever— M., 172. {d) Rev. Jas. Milne, M.A., of 
Oamaru, was inducted on March 15th, 1898 — A number left to form 
Knox Church at Parnell. — The church, which is seated for 542 and 
has an average attendance of 400, was renovated in 1898, £560 
having been raised for that purpose — M., 160 ; 61 left and 54 joined 
during 1898 ; revenue, £1200 — Fuller information about this old and 
important congregation will be found elsewhere. 


A church was built on a site given by W. J. Taylor, 
Esq., at West Tamaki in 1850 when it was connected with 
St. Andrew's, Auckland — Services were held at West Tamaki, 
Otahuhu, and Howick by Revs. J. Inglis and D. Bruce for some time. 
(a) Rev. John Macky, M.A., late of Fahan, County Derry, Ireland, 
arrived at Auckland on Sunday, August 20th, 1854, and on the 
Sabbath after preached at St. Andrew's, Auckland, in the morning, 
and in the afternoon began at Otahuhu a long and earnest ministry 
by officiating in Mr. Baird's store on the Tamaki River. He came 
with a grant of £100 per year, from the Irish Presbyterian Churob, 
which continued for some time— A service was held every Sabbath 
morning at Otahuhu and fortnightly at Tamaki and Howick — Week day 
services were occasionally held at Slippery Creek, Wairoa, etc. — On a 
site given by Mr. T. Baird at Otara, near Otahuhu, a building for 
school and church was erected in 1855 and enlarged in 1858 — The 
present church was opened here on May 3rd, 1803 ; in 18G3 Otahuhu 


was the headquarters for the English troops, and Mr. Maeky acted 
as Chaplain, and held services at the encampment now known as 
" Camp Farm " — Mr. S. C. Baird gave 3 acres as a site for a manse 
and for a glebe, and an acre of ground for a cemetery— In 1867 a 
handsome new church was erected at West Tamaki on a site given 
by Mr. George Howard, cost £540, of which Mr. Taylor gave one-half 
— A few years later a new church was built at Howick also — For 25 
years Mr. Macky continued to hold services at Tamaki, Howick, 
Mangere, &a. — On December 5th, 1889, owing to failing sight 
and other infirmities he resigned, the Presbytery passing the 
following resolution: — "That the Presbytery .... cordially 
accede to his request, release him from the active duties of 
the pastorate, and declare him to be from the 1st of January, 
1890, ' minister emeritus ' of the charge of Otahuhu, Tamaki, 

and Howick, with a seat in the Church courts While 

grateful to the Great Head of the Church for the long and honoured 
ministry He has permitted his servant to enjoy, fervently prays that 
he may be yet spared for many years to take part, as his strength 
will permit in the work of that charge where he has so long com- 
manded the confidence and esteem of a loving and attached people," 

After the retirement of Mr. Bruce he was the acknowledged 
father of the Presbytery, whose advice was eagerly sought and much 
respected. He was Moderator of the first General Assembly in 1862. 
He died on January 23rd, 1891. {b) Rev. D. J. Steele, M.A., late 
of Ireland, son-in-law of Mr. Macky, was inducted on November 27th, 
1884. He was Moderator of the Assembly for 1899— E., 5; Mgra., 
21; M., 100; stipend, £250; total revenue, £333 IBs. 

(3) WAIPU. 

The people of this district are nearly all Nova Scotians, 
among whom the memory of Rev. Norman McLeod is greatly 
revered. With the name of this remarkable man, the early history 
of this charge is closely bound up. He was born at Assynt, 
Sutherlandshire, on August 30th, 1780, was educated at Edinburgh, 
differed with the " Moderates," and in 1817 emigrated to North 
America, accompanied by a large number of friends and neighbours. 
A minister of Gaelic people scattered throughout the States, he was 


lioensed and ordained by the Presbytery ot Qlenesee, Western New 
York, in 1819. His name appears on the first roll of members. He 
settled down at St. Auris, Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, where he 
farmed a piece of land for a living, built a church, and gathered a 
congregation of 2000, mostly of the Gaelic race. After 33 years 
faithful labour, he and a large number of his congregation set sail 
in their own ship for South Australia, and, not liking it, came on to 
New Zealand, and settled at Waipu in 1854. Though now 74 years 
of age he set to work with his usual energy, secured the settlement 
for the Nova Scotians, acted as a J.P., built a house to live in, 
erected a church in 1855 which was enlarged in 1859, organised a 
charge, and was more than a father to the settlers. He laboured 
without fee or reward. Old Colonists of Waipu, who never tire 
sounding his praises, remember him as of tall and commanding 
presence and a born orator in his native Gaelic, and do not expect to 
look upon his like again. He had a large share of trials, but died 
peacefully on March 14th, 1866, aged 86. Though he did not him- 
self join the Presbytery, one of his last injunctions was that 
his people should stick together under the leadership of Mr. 
iEneas Morrison until the Presbytery appointed a successor. 
This was done. The present church was built in 1871. Mr. 
Morrison died in August 1883. The Presbytery found it difficult to 
supply Mr. McLeod's place with an acceptable Gaelic-speaking 
minister, (a) Rev. W. McRae, a good Gaelic scholar, brought out 
by Rev. D. Bruce, was ordained and inducted on May 29th, 1872 — 
A manse was built — He found it trying to follow Mr. McLeod — He 
resigned on June 19th, 1883. {!>') Rev. Alex. McLean, B.D., who 
had been ordained by the Congregational Council of America, and 
received here by the Assembly of 1883, was inducted on September 
26th, 1883 — The church was enlarged and transepts added in 1884 — 
He resigned on August 4th, 1886. (c) Rev. G. Jones was inducted 
on April 20th, 1887 — In 1890 a number left to form a new charge and 
get a Gaelic-speaking minister. 


The first services were held in Mr. D. McLennan'g house at 
Papakura by Revs. D. Bruce and John Macky. (a) Rev. Thomas 



NoRRiE. arrived in Auckland on October 17th, 1855, and preached in 
the Wesleyan Chapel, Papakura, on November 4th, 1855 ; he had 
been at Home a fellow-student of Revs. D. Bruce and W. Will, and 
before and after his last session at college had been a missionary in 

his native town of Montrose ; he 
was early inured to difficulty and 
came out prepared to endure hard- 
ness like a good soldier of the 
Cross ; yet his sparsely-populated 
parish somewhat puzzled him and 
Mrs. Norrie, who acted for a time 
as precentor — The first service held 
at Drury was in the house of Mr. 
W. J. Young, and at Wairoa in that 
of Mr. D. McNicol— On November 
26th, 1856, a service was begun 
at Waiuku in Mr. Jenkins' store — 
The first church erected at Drury 
was opened June 20th, 1858, and 
at Wairoa on December 26th, 1858 
—On January 23rd, 1859, Papakura 
Church was opened — In 1860 the 
manse was built, being the first 
house of the proposed village of 
Argyle— On July 15th, 1860, the 
first service was held at Pukekohe 
East, where a temporary church 
was erected in 1861— The present 
church, where the battle was fought, was opened on April 6th, 
1863— On January 4th, 1863, Sabbath services were commenced 
in Papakura Valley Church and School, recently opened- Raglan 
was visited in 1863, the year of the Maori War, Mr. Norrie 
going by the Waikato Heads and, seated in a boat, swimming 
his horse across two rivers, a feat often afterwards accomplished- 
Raglan Church was opened on July 23rd, 1865— In 18G6 Waikato was 
made a charge under Rev. Mr. Taylor, and Waiuku under the Rev. A. 
B. Arnot, where a church was erected by Mr. Norrie the same year— 
On September 23rd, 1866, Ramarama Church was opened— In 1867 
the Maketu Government Building and the Garrison Library Hall were 



bought, each for a church and school — In 1808 a temporary 
church was erected at Pukekohe West — In 1869, Mr. Arnot having 
resigned, Waiuku was again attached — On June 14th, 1870, a 
church was opened at Pollock settlement— In 1871 in Ardmore 
monthly Sabbath services were begun, this entailing five services 
once a month on the same day — Hunua and other stations to the 
number of 12 were supplied this year — In 1872 Ness Valley monthly 
service was begun in Mr. Mackenzie's house, and 18 stations 
supplied — In 1873 Waiuku charge was resuscitated, and six stations 
taken off Mr. Norrie's hands — In 1873 the church at Queen's 
Redoubt, when being used as a schoolroom, was burnt — In 1874 a 
church was built at Queen's Redoubt, and 10 stations supplied— In 
1875 a Sabbath service was inaugurated at Mercer, and Mr. Norrie 
had to preach six times monthly on the same day — In 1875 the 
Hunua church was built, and a Sabbath and day school established 
— In 1878 services began at Brookby and Turanga Creek, and 16 
places in all were supplied — In 1876 with the assistance of Mr. D. 
McLennan, Mungatawhiri Valley and Ararimu stations were opened 
— In 1877 Queen's Redoubt service was interrupted, but Pokeno Hill 
service was begun, and Ness Valley church opened— In 1880 
Tuakau church was erected, and 18 congregations were supplied 
with Sabbath services, entailing on Mr. Norrie four services every 
Sabbath and once in the month five — In this year died Mr. 
McBurney ; Mrs. Runciman whose name was second on the roll of 
members ; Mrs. Veitch, of Wairoa ; and Mr. John Nesbitt, of Drury, 
who was 21 years an elder of Papakura, and only surviving elder in 
New Zealand of St. Andrew's first Session, Auckland ; and in 1881 Mr. 
Jas. Comrie, father of Rev. W. J. Comrie, and an elder for 19 years, 
all distinguished pioneers — In 1881 through the loss of the help of 
Mr. D. Norrie and of Mr. W. Forbes, elder, 11 stations only were 
supplied— This year Mr. Norrie gave instruction in 10 day schools — 
In 1885 four new stations were visited quarterly, making 18 stations 
supplied in all — In 1894 Drury new church was built — In 1896 Hunua 
station was opened — In 1898 Turanga Creek station was begun, and 
with some help 14 places supplied once every month — 19 churches, 1 
manse, and 1 teacher's house, or 21 ecclesiastical buildings in all, 
were erected by Mr. Norrie at a cost of £4500, and mostly free of 
debt — Mr. Norrie was Moderator of Assembly in 1808 — E., 3; Mgrs., 
30; M., 226; stipend, £155 183 4d ; total revenue, £227 lis Id. 



Kev. D. Bruce conducted the first service held in this district in 
1854 at a house occupied by Mr. R. Dodd — Mr. Bruce had a building 
erected at Mahurangi to serve for both churcli and manse, got the 
district formed into a regular charge, and then sent Home for a 
minister, (a) Eev. E. McKinnet, late of Saltersland, County 
Derry, Ireland, the first and only minister of this charge, arrived 
in Auckland on October 8th, 1856, was present at the first meeting 
of the Auckland Presbytery, and was inducted at Mahurangi on 
December 13th, the day on which the new church was opened — In 
1858 a church was built at Matakana Heads and opened by Rev. D. 
Bruce — In 1860 a church was erected at Matakana — In 1862 a new 
church was built at Mahurangi, the old one, now too small, being 
added to the manse ; manse and church stand on a glebe of 14 acres 
given by Captain Daldy, Auckland — In 1864 a church was erected at 
Mahurangi Heads, on a site given by Mr. W. Grant, and opened on 
March 13th by Eev. Jas. Hill— In 1876 St. Columba's Church, 
Mahurangi, was opened by Eev. D. Bruce, cost £600 — In early days 
Mr. McKinney made many missionary tours. One consisted in 
going 60 or 70 miles up the eastern coast and returning by the 
western coast — To reach one station Mr. McKinney has been 
in the habit of pulling himself in his own boat on alternate 
Sabbaths a distance of 11 miles — Mr. McKinney was Moderator of 
Assembly in 1874— Services for many years have been held at 
Mahurangi, Mahurangi Heads, Matakana, Matakana Heads, Pakira, 
Mangawai, Omaha, and a bi-monthly service in the island of Kawau 
in the drawing-room of the late Sir Geo. Grey — In 1894 St. Andrew's 
Church, Matakana, costing £350, was opened by Eev. J. Hill — E., 3 ; 
Mgrs., 9 ; M., 86 : stipend, £150 ; total revenue, £174 2s 6d. 


Rev. John Inglis, afterwards of Aneityum, gave services in 1852, 
and Rev. D. Bruce continued them in 1853. These services were 
held in a pensioner's cottage, transformed into a temporary church, by 
Eevs. Bruce, Macky, etc. The congregation consisted of six families, 
many Presbyterians having joined other denominations who were 
earlier in the field, (a) Rev. G. Brown, M.A., arrived from Scotland 
in January 1860, and took charge of Onehunga and Whau districts — 


Sabbath and day schools were carried on by Mr. Whyte — A neat 
church, seating 250 and costing £400, was opened on November 1st, 
1862, the bell being sent from Aberdeen— The first Session was 
constituted in 1877, the members being Messrs. A. Dunwoodie, A. 
Grant, aud A. Whyte— Mr Brown resigned on March 3rd, 1880. {b) 
Rev. James Bruce was inducted on March 3rd, 1881, Mangere and 
OuehuEga having united to call him. Under the ministry of Mr. 
Bruce, though in feeble health, the charge prospered and became 
self-sustaining — A manse was built for his comfort with much 
enthusiasm — He was greatly assisted by Colonel Carnegie, Rev. Mr. 
Todd, and Messrs. Hunter and Osborne — Mr. Bruce died on Sep- 
tember 20th, 1886. (c) Rev. Thos. Adams, late of Newton Inde- 
pendent Church, was inducted on April 17th, 1888— A handsome 
church, seating 300 and costing £1000, was erected in 1890 by the 
side of the old one — Mr. Adams resigned through ill-health on 
December 1st, 1891— M., 80. (rf) Rev. R. Ferguson, late of Glasgow, 
was ordained and inducted on April 19th, 1892, and translated to 
Devonport July 1st, 1896— M., 106. (e) Rev. Robert Wylie, late 
of Canonbury, London, was inducted on November 25th, 1897— 
E., 3; Mgrs, 8; stipend, £200. 

Efforts to establish a charge were made as far back as 1841, but 
owing to Native war were unsuccessful till 1855, when Rev. D. Bruce 
visited the district. At a public meeting held on June 27th, 1859, 
Messrs. Reyburn, Rust, Taylor, Meldrum, and McDonald were 
appointed to raise subscriptions for a church to be built on a site 
given by Francis Hunt, Esq.— A church was finished at the end of 
1861 — Churches were also soon built at Mangapai and at Kaurihohori 
— Day schools were held in all the buildings — Whangarei was formed 
into a regular charge in 1861. (a) Rev. J. Gorrie was inducted on 
January 8th, 1862 — He built for himself a two-storey house on 17 
acres of Waitangi property overlooking Whangarei River — Owing to 
the illness of Mr. Gorrie, the church was closed for four mouths ; he 
died on March 9th, 1869. (b) Rev. John Wallace, of Devonport, 
was inducted on February 9th, 1870— A manse was purchased for 
£230— The church was enlarged in 1875, and opened in March 1876 
—Mr. Wallace, being ill, resigned on November 14th, 1877, in order 


to take a sea voyage— Mr. James Carruth, an old friend of the 
congregation, supplied during the vacancy, (c) Rev. Alex. McIntosh 
was inducted on February 18th, 1880, and resigned February 7th, 
1883, the congregation suffering much, (d) Rev. J. M. Killen, M.A., 
of Tauranga, was inducted on October 17th, 1883— He resigned on 
December 7th, 1886, in order to give his whole attention to the 
profession of a barrister and solicitor, remaining in the district, 
and giving an occasional service when required, (e) Rev. B. Hutson, 
of Waikato West, was inducted on June 29th, 1887, and translated 
to Ravensbourne, Otago, on April 29th, 1890— During the vacancy, 
Mr Russell, a student from Scotland, and Mr. S. S. Osborne, just 
licensed, supplied, (f) Rev. James Mackie, of United Presbyterian 
Church, was inducted on May 18th, 1892— The old manse was sold 
and removed, and a new manse- erected at a cost of £337, Mr. 
James Carruth having bequeathed £200 for the purpose — Mr. 
Mackie left for Southbridge on January 8th, 1895— M., 85— Services 
were given for a time by Revs. D. Ross and McDougal. (g) Rev. G. 
Y. RoBY was inducted on October 28th, 1896— Services are held at 
Kaurihohori, Mangapai, and Whareora — In the midst of many 
trying vicissitudes, the Presbyterians of Whangarei have remained 
true to the Church of their fathers— E., 2 ; M., 90 ; stipend, £150; 
total revenue, £202 lis 9d. 


A Sunday School was organised by St. Andrew's congregation on 
the western side of the town in 1857— A schoolroom was built in 
Hobson street, costing £450, chiefly through the eilorts and liberality 
of the late Mr, Thomas Macky, brother of the late Rev. John Macky. 
Coming to Auckland more than forty years ago, and settling down as 
a wholesale merchant, Thomas became elder of St. Andrew's, and 
then Session Clerk and Treasurer of St. James'. He was also member 
of the choir, and Bible Class teacher, and may be looked upon as the 
father of the congregation, a man distinguished for his piety and his 
hospitality, and beloved by all his co-workers and by members of all 
creeds. In January 1860, Rev. George Brown, M.A., arrived, and 
with Revs. D. Bruce, John Gorrie, and John Thorn supplied services 
for some time, (a) Rev. Peter Mason, late of Turakina, was inducted 
on August 5th, 1862— In October 1862 the Presbytery gave the 
congregation permission to occupy a site near the schoolroom, but in 
a more commanding position, in Wellington street, on laud bequeathed 


by Mr. W. Gorrie— Active steps to erect a church were taken on 
March 6th, 1864— The congregation informed Presbytery that it was 
unable to maintain ordinances — Mr. Mason resigned on April 6th, 
1864. {b) Rev. James Hill, late colleague of Rev. D. Bruce in St. 
Andrew's, was inducted on July 19th, 1864— The congregation 


inoreasing under his ministry, a church to seat 550, and costing 
£3337, was opened in April 1865 by Rev. John Gorrie, son of the 
gentleman who gave the site — The schoolroom in Hobson street 


was now sold, and a schoolhouse built beside the church, which 
was afterwards transformed into a manse — Mr. Hill was translated 
to the Thames on September 9th, 1868. (c) Rev. R. F. Macxicol, 
recently of New Plymouth, was inducted on February 3rd, 1869 ; 
he has all along enjoyed the co-operation of a most zealous and 
loyal band of workers, and through the blessing of God on their 
united labours the congregation has enjoyed uninterrupted prosperity 
for thirty years. — In 1879 a very commodious hall built of brick was 
erected on a site adjoining the church at a cost of £2270. — Mr. 
Macnicol was Moderator of Assembly in 1880 — E., 12 ; Mgrs., 12 ; 
M., 275 ; stipend, £400; average total revenue, fully £800. 


(a) Rev. Andkew Anderson, a Cameronian who came out with 
the Pollock settlers, was inducted in 1865, and returned to Scotland 
in 1866. (b) Rev. David Hamilton, a brother of Rev. Dr. Thomas 
Hamilton, now President of Queen's College, Belfast, was inducted 
in January 1872 ; after a pastorate of 16 months, during which he 
won the affection of his people in a marked degree, he lost his way 
and died from exposure in the Manukau forest in July 1873; a 
monument was erected to his memory by an attached people, (c) 
Rev. R. Sommerville was inducted in 1876— Attendance at services 
increased — A manse was built on a glebe of six acres of land— Mr. 
Sommerville was Moderator of Assembly in 1883 ; he was translated 
to St. Peter's, Auckland, in 1885. (d) Rev. A. Mackenzie, M.A., 
B.D., was inducted in 1885, resigned in 1887, and left for Australia. 
(e) Rev. C. Woeboys was inducted on May 25th, 1888, and trans- 
lated to Opotiki in April 1893— Members, 87. (/) Rev. Ales. 
McLean was inducted in 1896— There are churches at Avondale and 
Hobsonville— E.,9; Mgrs., 15; M., 91; stipend, £161; total revenue, 
£390 Os 6d. 

(10) WAIURU. 

(rt) Rev. a. B. Aenot was ordained in 1866 — A neat and 
commodious church was erected at Waiuku in 1866, where well- 
attended Sabbath and day schools were held — Services were conducted 
by him at Waiuku, Port Waikato, Waipipi, Awhitu, &c.— Mr. Arnot 


resigned in the beginning of 1869 and Waiuku was again added to the 
Papakura charge — Pollock church was opened in 1870 by Rev. T. 
Norrie. (fc) Rev. James GAiiLowAYwassettledinl873— Mr. T.R.Forbes, 
a student evangelist, was appointed to assist Mr. Galloway in 1877 ; he 
left for Pokeno in 1879 — A church at Awhitu was built in 1877. (c) 
Rev. Alex. Thomson was inducted in October 1880— The manse at 
Waiuku was built in 1881 — Mr. Thomson left on August 
29th, 1883, and supplied Mongonui. (d) Rev. P. J. Riddlk, of 
Wairoa, Hawke's Bay, was inducted on April 25th, 1884 — A church 
at Kohekohe was built in 188G, and opened by Rev. G. B. Monro — 
Mr. Riddle was translated to Rakaia on August 7th, 1888. (c) Rev. 
W. J. CoMBiE was ordained and inducted on May 15th, 1889, and 
demitted his charge on June 2nd, 1891, having accepted a call to 
Kelso, Otago — M., 94. (/) Rev. Robert B.^rr, sent out by the Free 
Church, and sometime a labourer in South Africa, was inducted and 
ordained on March 14th, 1892— E., 9 ; Mgrs., 15 ; M., 103 ; stipend, 
£154 12s 3d. 

(a) Rev. John Wallace, a probationer of the Free Church sent 
out to take charge of North Shore, a rising suburb of Auckland, 
"across the water," and Wade, was ordained and inducted on March 
12th 1866 — A pretty little church to seat 120 was built, and the 
charge grew — Mr. Wallace was translated to Whangarei in February 
1870— Rev. Robert Sommerville, who, having met with an injury at 
Avondale, was seeking health at North Shore, nobly kept the church 
open by holding regular services, and succeeded in wiping off a debt 
of £120. (6) Rev. P. J. McKenzie, provided by Rev. D. Bruce when 
in Scotland, arrived in September 1871, ordained to Devonport, and 
at once took charge. He resigned on October 14th 1873, and left for 
Sydney — During a long vacancy, supply was given by Revs. P. Mason 
and A. McCallum and students, (c) Rev. John McLeod, of Victoria, 
was inducted on July 20th 1882, and resigned on February 27th 1883. 
(d) Rev. A. McCallum was inducted on June 19th 1883, and 
resigned on December 1888— M., 45 (c) Rkv. J. Hill, of 
Lyttelton, was inducted on August 2'2nd 1889 — A handsome and 
commodious church was built during his ministry — He resigned on 
April 7th, 1896. (/) Rev. R. Ferguson, of Onehunga, was inducted 
on July Ist, 1896, and has succeeded in establishing a strong con- 
gregation— E., 4 ; M., 126 ; stipend, £250 ; revenue, £415. 


(12) THAMES. 
This congregation originated in the Thames gold rush of 1867, 
when Rev. Jas. Hill, of St. James', Auckland, visited the district — 
On February 18th 1868, a committee was chosen for the erection of a 
church, Mr. Jas. McKee, afterwards minister of Masterton, acting as 
Convener — A new church which cost £150 was opened by Rev. J. 
Hill on May 3rd 1868 — For some months the pulpit was supplied 
by the ministers of the Auckland Presbytery, (a) Rev. James Hill, 
of St. James', Auckland, was inducted on October 28th, 1868 — 
That year £576 IBs 5d was raised — A more central site was secured, 
and a more commodious church erected ; a manse was soon built on 
a site given by the Maori chief ; and a church put up at Tararu, 
where regular Sabbath services were held all during Mr. Hill's 
fruitful ministry — Mr Hill was Moderator of Assembly in 1873 — He 
was translated to Lyttelton in June 1877. (b) Rev. S. J. Neill, 
of Cambridge, Waikato, was inducted in 1877 — Owing to his 
connection with the Theosophieal Society and his indefinite teaching, 
many forsook ordinances at the Thames — Mr Neill was suspended by 
the Assembly on February 14th 1894. — Members in 1895, 84. (c) Rev. 
John McKenzie, M.A., recently licensed by the Timaru Presbytery, 
was ordained and inducted on October 2nd 1895 — A new church 
seating 500 and costing £2000, was opened on July 24th, 1898, the 
old church having been moved back and called St. James' Hall — 
E., 5. ; Mgrs, 11 ; M., 97 ; stipend, £250 ; total revenue, £622 
17s 4d. 

(m) In response to an open call, the Rev. G. Mokris arrived in 
August 1868— He found that the people not being numerous or 
financially strong could only guarantee a stipend of £93 instead of 
£150 — For lack of adequate support he resigned on July 7th 1869, 
and returned to Scotland— In October 1876 Tauranga asked the 
Presbytery for a minister, (b) Rev. P. S. Hat, M.A., arrived from 
Scotland in January 1877, and was at once settled in Tauranga — A 
church was opened on November 30th, 1878 — Resignation of Mr. Hay 
was accepted on June 1st 1881. (c) Rev. Jas. Killen, M.A., from 
Ireland, was inducted on June 28th 1882, and translated to Whangarei 
on October 17th 1883. (d) Rev. Alexander McLennan, M.A. , was in- 
ducted on April 14th 1885 — A service at Kati Kati was begun on May 


12th 1889, and at Te Puke on November 26th, 1890— Left for Manaia 
August 1891— M., 40. (c) Rev. Thomas Scott, M.A., who came to 
New Zealand for health, was inducted on May 19th 1892, and 
transferred to Cambridge, Waikato, on June 30th 1896 — Tauranga 
has since been supplied by Rev. John Headrick, a Free Church 
minister in New Zealand — A service at Te Puna was commenced in 
January 1894 — Mr. R. Badger, elder, chiefly supplies the outside 
stations — E., 2 ; Mgrs , 7; M., 54; stipend, £180 (including allow- 
ance for manse, £20, and Church Extension grant, £30), total 
revenue, £164 5s Id. 


Cambridge was at first like the rest of the Waikato under the care 
of Rev. T. Norrie, and then of Rev. J. U. Taylor, who supplied from 
Hamilton until his resignation on April 7th, 1869. (a) Rev. T. 
Stewart, from Scotland, was called by Cambridge in September, 1872, 
and inducted. He had pastoral oversight of the Waikato West until 
it got a minister of its own — Mr. Stewart resigned on February 4th, 
1874, and was inducted to the charge of Coromandel. (b) Rev. S. J. 
Neill, from Ireland, was inducted in the Episcopal Church, Cambridge 
on May 2nd, 1875— A neat church to seat 120 was soon built, and a 
six-roomed manse erected on an acre of ground near the church — 
Mr. Neill accepted a call to Thames on February 10th, 1878. (c) 
Rev. W. Evans, of the Welsh Calvinistic Church, was inducted on 
February 10th, 1878, and resigned on April 7th, 1890, after 18 
years' faithful service at Cambridge, and 53 years in the ministry 
of the Gospel — M., 102. ((/) Rev. T. Scott, M.A., of Tauranga, was 
inducted on April 30th, 1896 — Attendances increasing, a now church 
to seat 210, and to cost £650 was built, and opened in 1898 — E., 3; 
M., 119 ; stipend, £200 ; total revenue, £221. 


A meeting to form a congregation was held on March 27th, 
1872, A. Aitken, Esq., C.E., being chairman, when Presbyterians 
were reported to be numerous, (a) Rev. A. M. Tait was inducted on 
December 20th, 1872, services being held in a hall now demolished ; 


at close of first service it was resolved to build a church — A church, 
after many delays in building, was opened on May 18th, 1873, by 
Rev. J. Hill, of Thames, free of debt — Mr. Tait went to England in 1874. 
(b) Rev. Thomas Stewart, of Cambridge, was inducted in 1874, and 
went home for health in 1875. (c) Rev. J. M. Eraser, of Waipawa, 
was inducted in 1878, his ministrations extending to Mercury Bay, 
and left owing to the decrease of the population in 1873 — Mr. W. 
Elmslie, a member of congregation, though a Baptist, and one of 
the early settlers, conducted services and kept the congregation well 
together for 14 years— A Sabbath School is still held in his house, 
Mrs. Elmslie assisting, and sometimes divine service, (d) Rev. T. 
A. NoRRiE was ordained and inducted on September 11th, 1894, after 
a vacancy of 17 years — Mgrs., 9 ; M., 15 ; stipend, £111 8s. 


Occasional services were given by the Rev. T. Norrie and others 
to settlers returned after the war. Rev. Thomas Stewart, called by 
Cambridge, Hamilton, and Ngaruawahia, and inducted at Cambridge 
on September 29th, 1872, had the whole of the Waikato as his 
charge for a time. Cambridge became detached, and Ngaruawahia, 
following its example, resolved to build a church in 1875. {a) Rev. 
T. Scott, late of the Church of Scotland, was inducted on December 
9th, 1875 — A church to seat 150 was begun in 187G and finished in 
1877 — The charge being unable to support a minister, Mr. Scott 
resigned on August 31st, 1876, and returned to Scotland — Services 
were supplied by Mr. A. Barclay, elder, by students, and by Home 
missionaries, under the supervision of the Presbytery, (h) Rev. W. 
Smith, licentiate of Free Church, Scotland, was ordained to 
Ngaruawahia and Huntly on February 22nd, 1898, and shortly after- 
wards translated to Waikato West. 


A meeting to establish a cause at Remuera, Epsom, and New- 
market was held in Newmarket schoolroom September 24th, 1874— 
St. Luke's was erected into a sanctioned charge on January 13th, 
1875 — A church was bought for £500, the present site costing £350, 


removal £349, or in all £1199 ; it was opened May 16th, 1875— A 
Sunday School with Mr McFarlane as Superintendent was started — 
Pulpit was supplied by Revs. Cathcart, Horner, Morice, &c.— A 
communion roll of 66 formed September 1876. (a) Rev. G. B. Monro, 
licentiate of Glasgow Free Church Presbytery, was ordained and 
inducted on July 6th, 1877— A debt of £800 was wiped off before his 
arrival — a Session of five members was formed in 1878 — the income 
of congregation from the beginning averages £670, or £15,000 in all — 
575 members have been added since the first roll was made in 1876 
—There is no debt— Mr. Monro was Moderator of Assembly in 1887 
— E., 9; Mgrs., 13; M., 230: stipend, £360; total revenue, £706 
13s 8d. 


The city having extended rapidly in a north-westerly direction 
and a meeting of Presbyterians in Ponsonby Hall having decided to 
take steps to form themselves into a congregation, the Presbytery 
placed a committee of its members with full Presbyterial powers in 
charge of the district — A new charge was formed on July 18th, 1870, 
which promised a stipend of £250— Rev. D. W. Runciman, M.A., 
being granted two years' leave of absence from Leslie, Scotland, by 
the Church of Scotland for his health, began services in Ponsonby 
Hall in January, 1877 — A Session was now formed, and the 
Presbyterial Committee discharged, (a) Rev. D. W. Runciman was 
inducted on February 14th, 1878, the call being signed by 22 
members and 45 adherents — A church with Gothic architecture and 
a lofty spire was built on a site which cost £300, at the corner of 
Jervois and Shelby Beach roads — This church, which cost £1406 
and seated 250, was opened on January 28th, 1880, by Revs. Bruce, 
Macnicol, and Runciman — Health not improving, Mr. Runciman 
resigned on June 4th, 1889. (b) Rev. T. F. Robertson, formerly of 
Strathblane, was inducted on July 25th, 1889, the call being signed by 
46 members and 62 adherents, and the stipend £250— E., 3 ; Mgrs., 
9 ; M., 146 ; stipend, £250 ; total revenue, £520. 

(19) OPOTIKI. 
This district which is on the east side of the Bay of Plenty 
comprises about 10,000 acres of exceedingly rich maize-growing land, 
and has attracted a considerable population, of whom about one half 


are Presbyterians — In 1872 Eev. Jas. Martin, a Presbyterian 
minister, appointed by the Defence Minister as a Native school 
teacher, conducted Divine service each Sabbath for some time, with 
the recognition of the Presbytery — Rev. D. Bruce visited the district 
in 1877. (a) Rev. John Gow, late of St. Andrew's, Dunedin, 
and formerly of Hokitika, was settled here at the end of 1878 
— M., 19 — For five years services were held in the Public Hall 
— A church was erected in 1883 ; Mr. J. Gordon and Mr. Thos. 
Black giving £25 each — The church was enlarged in 1890 — A Session 
was formed in 1885, a member of which, Mr. J. V. Murray, is still 
connected with the congregation — Mr. Gow being nearly 80 years of 
age resigned in 1891 — A manse was built in 1892 — M., 70. (6) Eev. 
C. WoBBOYS, of Avondale, was inducted in April, 1893 — Mr. 
J. B. Gow conducts a Bible class for young men and Mrs. 
Worboys one for young women — E., 3; Mgrs., 7; M., 93; stipend, 
£150 ; total revenue, £196. 


This part of the Waikato was longer without a stated minister 
than the Eastern side. It had at different periods enjoyed the ser- 
vices of Revs. John Hall, Neill McCallum, and T. Blain ; but it was not 
until September, 1872, that an attempt was made to call a minister. 
It failed, and supply was given by students and others. Eev. Mr. 
Mandens having settled in the district began services. He drew up a 
•' Constitution " under which Congregationalists and Presbyterians 
might work and worship together. A glebe of 25 acres and a house 
secured under this agreement was sold in 1898 at the request of the 
congregation by the Church Property Trustees, in order to provide a 
manse in a more convenient locality, {a) Eev. James Bruce was 
ordained and inducted on June 25th, 1879, and was translated to 
Onehunga on March 3rd, 1881 — Students again supplied, (b) Eev. 
B. Hdtson was ordained and inducted on June 16th, 1884, 
and left on April 5th, 1887, for Whangarei. (c) Rev. John 
Macdonald was ordained and inducted on June 8th, 1892, and 
translated to Mangare on February 9th, 1898. (d) Eev. Walter 
Smith, of Huntly, was inducted on June 1st, 1898— E., 2 ; M., 112 ; 
Stipend, £165. 



The first services were begun here by Rev. T. Norrie, of Papa- 
kura in 1857 — A church at Pukekohe East was opened on April 6th, 
1863, and a few months later stockaded and attacked by Maoris —A 
church at Mauku was opened on September IGth, 1866, and at 
Ramarama on September 2,3rd of that year — A church at Pukekohe 
was opened on May 17th, 1868— In 1873 Pukekohe and Tuakau were 
were attached to Waiuku — A church at Queen's Redoubt was opened 
on August 20th, 1874— A manse was built at Pukekohe, and Rev. 
James Galloway came to reside there — Tuakau was again attached to 
Papakura, and a church built there— Students residing at Pokeno 
assisted Mr Norrie — In 1880 Rev. James Galloway died, deeply 
regretted, and the present charge was formed, Pukekohe and Mauku 
being taken from Waiuku, and Pokeno, Ramarama, Pukekohe East, 
and Tuakau from Papakura. (a) Rev. T. R. Fokbes, a student from 
Scotland, who had here been assisting Mr Norrie, was ordained and 
inducted on November 18th, 1880; and through ill-health returned to 
Europe and sent resignation by letter from England, August 3rd, 1881. 
(h) Rev. T. W. Dunn was ordained and inducted on December 1st, 1881 
— A church was built at Pokeno in 1885 and at Puni in 1887 — Mr 
Dunn left for Victoria on April 5th, 18S7-M., 126. (c) Rev. W. F. 
FiNDLAY was ordained and inducted on May 22nd, 1888— A new 
church on a central site was built at a cost of £550, and opened on 
January 2nd, 1898 — Services in 1896 were begun at Onewhero, across 
the Waikato river— E., 6; M., 150; stipend, £166; total revenue, 
£250 133. 


The city extending, a schoolroom was built in 1864 at the upper 
end of Symonds street, and the district worked as an out-station of 
St. Andrew's. Rev. Dr. Wallis, late missionary at Demerara, was 
appointed by St. Andrew's Session in October 1865, and gathered 
a good congregation. Thinking the site not central enough, 
he held Sabbath evening services in the Temperance Hall, 
Newton, and, coming into collision with St. James' Session 
and the Presbytery, resigned on July 1st, 1868, going to Matanana 
Valley, Wanganui. Returning in September, he built a church 
called " Newton Kirk," and established an independent congre- 
gation. As a consequence, the Presbyterian church was closed 


till March 10th, 1878, when the old building, being renovated, was 
reopened. Many of the old residents rallying around, St. David's 
was formed into a regular charge on April 3rd, 1878— Rev. A. M. 
McCallum, of the Free Church, Scotland, then took charge and 
received but declined a call— Mr T. W. Dunn, a student from the 
Church of Scotland, was appointed supply on February 5th, 
1879, for a time — A new church, of Gothic architecture and 
with a lofty spire, was built on the most commanding site 
of all the city churches. It seated 300, and was opened on 
November 14th, 1880. (a) Rev. Thomas Mackenzie Fkaser, 
M.A., formerly of Geelong, was inducted on August 18th, 1881, 
the call being signed by 31 members and 50 adherents— Mr Fraser 
having a large Colonial experience, the charge soon surmounted its 
difficulties and prospered— He died on August 10th 1885— The con- 
gregation now sent calls in various directions, but in vain, (b) Rev. 
R. S. West, a probationer, of Free Church, Scotland, was ordained 
on October 18th 1887, the call being signed by 101 members and 90 
adherents — M., 155 — The charge has greatly increased since then — 
E., 8; Mgrs., 15 ; M., 319 ; stipend, £350 ; total revenue, £842 Os Id. 


Auckland extending westward and Surrey Hill estate being 
broken up, by direction of Presbytery a church was built, and opened 
on December 22nd, 1894, cost, £800. (1) Rev. R. Sommekville 
of Avondale was inducted July IGth, 1885— Population not gathering 
around it as expected, the church was moved to a commanding 
site on the North road, where there is a large population— Mr. 
Sommerville was Moderator of the Assembly that met in Auckland 
in 1883. For many years he has been the efficient Clerk of the 
Auckland Presbytery. No one is better acquainted than be with the 
history of its numerous charges. He also rendered an important 
service to the Church as editor of The New Zealand Presbyterian 
Magazine, which first appeared in January 1872, and was afterwards 
called The Netv Zealand Church News. 

After the war the whole of the Waikato was under the care of the 
Rev. T. Norrie, who visited it as frequently as possible. In October 
1865, Mr J. U. Taylor, of Wanganui, was taken on trial for license by 


the Presbytery, and shortly after was licensed, ordained, and sent to 
to supply the most necessitous parts of the Waikato. He took up his 
residence at Hamilton. The Rev. John Hall was also sent about the 
same time, but after a few months' arduous labours, chiefly on the 
western side, he found the district unable to support two ministers, 
and returned to Auckland, and thence to Wanganui. Mr. Taylor now 
took charge of the whole of the Waikato. He preached each Sabbath 
at Hamilton, his principal station, and at Cambridge and Ngaruawahia 
on alternate Sabbaths, and occasionally at Waikato West and Raglan. 
—The congregation at Hamilton, which met for a time in Mr. Tay- 
lor's house, built a church in 1866— Mr. Taylor, who in spite of many 
difficulties, did good work among the military settlers, resigned on 
April 7th, 1869, and went to Victoria— Hamilton was then supplied 
from Cambridge by Revs. Stewart, Neill, and Evans. During 1891 it 
was supplied as a preaching station by Messrs. Fulton and Raeburn, 
students— On July 1st, 1885, in response to a petition of the congre- 
gation, Hamilton was erected into a separate charge, (a) Rev. J. S. 
Boyd was inducted on October 22nd, 1885, the call being signed by 
35 members and 33 adherents — He resigned on June 7th, 1887— Rev, 
John Hendrie, a retired Indian missionary of the U. P. Church, 
supplied from May 1st, 1888, to February 4th, 1896, and Rev. D.Ross 
until a permanent pastor arrived, (b) Rev. J. M, Mitchell, who was 
sent by the Free Church, to which a strong appeal was made, and 
aided for three years, was inducted on December 16th, 1896 — The 
congregation now shows fresh signs of life and hope— E., 3 ; M., 36. 

(25) MANGARE. 
Most of the well-to-do Scotch farmers of this fertile district 
lying between Onehunga and Otahuhu drive to the church of latter 
place -A church, however, seating 120 erected 1871-72— On April 
1872 Rev. John Macky undertook an afternoon service every alternate 
Sabbath— Mangare disjoined from Otahuhu at request of congrega- 
tion made on July 1st, 1874— A stipend of £200 offered— Rev. G. 
Brown of Onehunga gave afternoon supply till December, 1897 — 
Onehunga paying £170 and Mangare £130 united to call Rev. Jas. 
Bruce, who was inducted to united charge on April 18th, 1881— 
Mangare disjoined from Onehunga on December loth, 1891— Rev. A. 
M. McCallum supplied for a year; and then Rev. John Headrick till 
a minister was called (a) Rev. John Macdonald, of Waikato West, 
was inducted February 2nd, 1898— E., 2 ; M., 40. 



This charge was formed through a section of the Waipu people 
agitating for a Gaelic-speaking minister — Rev. W. Macrae, having 
returned, preached to the dissatisfied in a local hall for a time. The 
Presbytery being petitioned by them, after long and anxious con- 
sideration, formed them into a new charge on December 1st, 18'J6. 
(a) Rev. W. Thompson, M.A., B.D., an excellent Gaelic scholar from 
the Church of Scotland, arrived in March 1897, and being called was 
inducted on June 1st, 1898— He is minister now of a large and 
prosperous congregation. 


A meeting on March 7th, 1898, was held in Sowerby's Hall, 
Auckland, Mr, A. Bell being in the chair, to form a congregation at 
Parnell — Parnell was recognised as a preaching station on March 28 
— The first services were held in the Oddfellows' Hall on April 10th, 
1898. (a) Rev. Hugh Kelly, M.A., of Waimate, was inducted on 
July 21st, 1898 — A Session was formed on October 2nd, and a Com- 
mittee on October 10th — A site was secured on Hobson Park road, 
and on November 29th, 1898, the foundation-stone of a new church, 
to cost £2000, was laid by His Excellency the Governor, the Right 
Hon. the Earl of Ranfurly, K.C.M.G., d'c — E., 9; Mgrs., 12; 
stipend, £300, with £50 in lieu of manse. 








November 3rd, 


(1) ST. ANDREW'S. 

(a) Rev. John 
Macfarlanb, who 
arrived in February 
1840, was the first 
minister of any 
Church who came 
out expressly to 
minister to the sett- 
lers, and for a time 
was the only clergy- 
man in Wellington. 
Services were held 
at first in private 
houses, and then in 
the Exchange, people 
of all denominations 
attending. The first 
New Zealand Church 
built by the settlers 
was opened by Mr 
Macfarlane, assisted 
by Mr Duncan, on 
January 17th, 1844. 
Mr Macfarlane de- 



parted for Scotland by the "Bella Marina "in October 1844, and, 
contrary to his intention when leaving, became parish minister of 
Lochgilphead, in Argyllshire. During the vacancy the Presbyterians 
at Wellington drew upon the services of Revs. John Inglis and James 
Duncan, Maori missionaries, (b) Rev. W. Kirton, another minister 
of the Church of Scotland, arrived on February 16th, 1850, and, 
after 13 years' service in Wellington, accepted a call to Kaiapoi in 
January 1863. (c) The Eev. James Stirling Mdir, son of the 
Rev. Dr Muir, St. James', Glasgow, and minister of Wall Street, in 
the Islington district, London, arrived in Wellington in 1864. He 
was sent out by the Church of Scotland, and brought with him a 
high recommendation from the Rev. Dr Cumming, of prophetic 
reputation. During his pastorate, the church was re-built. His 
stay in Wellington was short. He remained for about six years, and 
then accepted a call to Sydney. An interregnum of a few years then 
ensued, during which the Rev. Mr, Cumming, a Free Church 
minister who had been labouring in the Rangitikei district, took 
temporary oversight, {d) The fourth minister of St. Andrew's, who 
is now in charge, was the Rev. C. S. Ogg, M.A., a graduate of the 
Aberdeen University, and minister of the Church of Scotland. 
He had had charge for a time of a congregation in Canada. 
He reached Wellington on December 15th, 1872. Owing to the 
isolated position of St. Andrew's, he read himself into the 
charge. The present beautiful edifice originated in this way : — 
One night at dinner, Mr Macandrew, Superintendent of the Province 
of Otago, turned suddenly to Mr. Ogg, and said, " Mr. Ogg, your 
church is one of the best business localities in the City, but with no 
special advantages for a kirk. The time is one of great prosperity, 
and land is bringing high prices. Why not sell ? " The matter was 
considered. His advice was taken, and the site and church on 
Lambton Quay sold for a large sum of money to the Colonial Bank, 
whose late offices stood upon it. The price realised was found 
sufficient to erect an elegant new church. It was considered 
important that the Presbyterian Church should be represented 
in the Thorndon end of the town, inasmuch as in that quarter 
there is the residence of His Excellency the Governor, Parlia- 
ment House, and other State buildings. 

It was an important event in the history of St. Andrew's when, 
after an isolation of 34 years, the congregation decided to cast in its 


lot with the New Zealand Presbyterian Church. The former 
reserved to itself the right to administer the properties belonging to 
it for its own benefit according to the trusts set forth, and was able 
to point to an Act of Incorporation passed by the Colonial 
Legislature conferring this power upon it. The General Assembly 
of 1874 cordially received both minister and people on those terms. 
This, as far as our communion is concerned, was the removal of the 
last relic of the Home Country's ecclesiastical strifes. 

When in 1882 the Wellington Presbytery became the Church 
Extension Committee, Mr. Ogg was appointed Honorary Treasurer, 
and has ever since kept a watchful eye on all disbursements and 
faithfully discharged the duties of the office — E., 6 ; M., 127 ; stipend, 
£300 ; revenue, £345. 

(2) HUTT. 

Occasional services were at first given by the Rev. John 
Macfarlane, first minister of Wellington, and Revs. Duncan and 
Inglis, missionaries of the Reformed Church of Scotland to the 
Maoris, (a) The Rev. W. Dkon arrived in 1852, and after laV)uring 
for six years sailed for Home on June 12th, 1858, somewhat 
disappointed regarding Colonial ministerial life, {b) Rev. John 
Thom, late of Turakina, began work on August 9th, 1858 — The 
first church at Lower Hutt was opened in November, 1858, and cost 
about £40 — Mr. Thom left for Auckland and Taranaki at the end of 
1860 — During the vacancy Rev. Jas. Duncan and Mr. Woodward, 
a Congregational preacher, gave supply, (c) Rev. W. McGowan was 
inducted on January 8th, 1866, and translated to Lyttelton, July 4th, 
1870— Rev. John Moir supplied services during 1870-78 ; Mr. George 
Grant, a student, 1878-81, when the present church at Upper Hutt 
was opened in 1880, costing £300 ; and Mr. William Grant 1881-83. 

(d) Rev. D. D. Rouger, who came as a Free Church evangeUst to 
Napier in 1881, and was licensed on March 21st, 1883, was ordained 
and inducted on June 13th, 1883, and after labouring energetically 
for five years accepted a call to Cust and Oxford in June 1888. 

(e) Rev. Joun W. Hope, M.A., late assistant of Rev. John Watson, 
Liverpool, was ordained and inducted on April 29th, 1890 — A new 
church at Lower Hutt, which cost £500, was opened by Rev. G. 
Webster the same year— Mr. Hope died on June 2yth, 1892, the 
Presbytery putting on record the following minute : — 


" His ministry was indeed brief, but earnest and faithful, and 
although carried on amid mucli bodily weakness it was not without 
tokens of success. All who knew Mr. Hope recognised in him a man 
of superior ability, of fine culture, of gentlemanly bearing, and of 
upright Christian character ; a man, too, of faith and courage, 
standing at his post and doing his duty up to the very last," &c. 

Members 64. (/') Rev. Andkew Gray was ordained and in- 
ducted on October 10th, 1893 — The present church at Wallaceville 
was opened in December 1893 ; cost, about £120 — E., 5 ; M., 124 ; 
stipend, £200. 


A memorial signed by 69 persons residing in Wellington was 
sent Home to the Free Church of Scotland during the second year of 
Mr Kirton's pastorate, {a) Rev. John Moir came and began work on 
November 30th, 1853 — A church costing £1000 was erected in Willis 
street in 1856, and a house was soon bought for a manse. 

After ministering to this charge for fourteen years, the Rev. John 
Moir resigned in 1867, owing to one of those misunderstandings that 
sometimes crop up between pastor and people without serious blame 
attaching itself to either side. If there was any discourteous 
treatment of him on the part of the congregation, the latter 
did much to atone for it by allowing him to remain in undisturbed 
possession of the old manse, and regularly paying him the sum of 
£100 till the time of his death, or for almost thirty years. This, at 
a time when the Aged and Infirm Ministers Fund was getting under 
weigh, was a great boon to a senior minister. Though the congrega- 
tion fluctuated a good deal from time to time after the manner of 
Colonial charges generally, it never repudiated the obligation under 
which it had come. 

No minister was immediately forthcoming, but the Rev. John 
Hall, of the Irish Presbyterian Church, now of Westport, who had 
been labouring at Wanganui and the West Coast and was on his way 
home to Ireland, stepped into the breach and for a time elliciently 
supplied the congregation. 


(b) On the resignation of Mr. Moir a request was transmitted by the 
Wellington Presbytery to the Colonial Committee of the Free Church 
to select a minister. Its choice fell on the Rev. James Paterson, who 
had just reached the eleventh year of his ministry in Everton Valley 
Presbyterian Church, Liverpool. The stipend offered was £400. 
When the call was put into his hands by the Lancashire Presby- 
tery, Mr Paterson, in accepting it, stipulated that he should be 
permitted to go out to Wellington to minister to the congregation for 
a time without being bound to them or they to him, but that if after 
trial of each other both parties were satisfied, the call might be 
renewed and accepted. Accordingly, Mr Paterson, accompanied by 
his wife, set sail, and arrived in Wellington on August 24th, 1868. 
Three months afterwards the call was renewed and accepted, and Mr 
Paterson occupies a prouder position to-day than he should other- 
wise have done, and the rights of the people to select their own 
office-bearers have been strictly preserved. Another honour con- 
ferred upon him was that he was inducted by the General 
Assembly then in session in Wellington. The Maori war was 
raging on the West Coast of the North Island. Its 
ravages suggested to the supreme court the appointment of a 
day of humiliation and prayer. The ministers of the Wellington 
Presbytery from Wanganui downwards could not leave their charges, 
and a meeting of Presbytery could not be held. Such was Mr. 
Paterson's energy and the success attendant on his labours in a eity 
whose population was 7000 and daily increasing, that the church had 
to be enlarged. Even thus it proved insufficient to accommodate the 
hearers who flocked to and crowded the place. To meet the 
necessities of the case the congregation decided to pull down the 
existing edifice and build a new church capable of holding 600 
people, at a cost of nearly £4000. The project was enthusiastically 
taken up, and £2400 was at once subscribed. It shows the 
importance of Willis street congregation and the liberal spirit that 
existed in those days that the foundation of the new structure was 
laid by the Governor, the Marquis of Normanby, Rev. Mr. West, 
Congregational minister, giving out the 100th Psalm, and the 
Rev. W. Morley, a Wesleyan, reading a portion of Scripture. It was 
on a par with this that Bishop Suter should invite Mr. Paterson to 
dinner when his ship on the voyage out touched at Nelson. All the 
Churches were then struggling into existence. Each sympathised 
with his neighbour's difficulties. Competition between them was not 


so keen as it is now. Ministers " were like brothers in the brave 
days of old." On the night of May 9th, 1884, the church that cost 
so much and had been only nine years in existence was completely 
destroyed by fire. This seems to have put the congregation on its 
mettle. A year afterwards the foundation stone of a still more 
magnificent church was laid by Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice 
of New Zealand, Mr. James Smith, the Congregational Treasurer, 
intimating at the close of the ceremony that the church was to cost 
£5469, and that of this siim £3140 had been either paid or promised. 
This is the church which now stands on the rising hill, and is an 
ornament as well as blessing to the city. 

Mr. Paterson himself figures prominently in the Church courts, 
where he sways considerable influence as a man of large experience 
and the possessor of a well-balanced mind. He has been entrusted 
successively with two very important offices in the Church. For a 
time he acted as Convener of the Foreign Mission Committee, and 
since 1882 he has been the diligent and laborious Convener and 
Secretary of the Church Extension Committee. In a rising young 
Colony this Committee naturally plays a conspicuous part in 
following settlers into sparsely populated districts and supplying 
them with ordinances and in fostering weak charges into an indepen- 
dent life. His own congregation is by far the largest contributor in 
the Church to this important Fund. 

Since Mr. Paterson took over the pastorate of St. John's, the 
city has grown from 7000 to 38,600 inhabitants, while the Church 
membership has increased from 150 to 498, the sitting accommodation 
from 250 to 900, the stipend from £400 to £600, and the annual 
revenue from £800 to £2224. 

Outside his own congregation and communion, Mr. Paterson 
has taken a deep interest in education, primary, secondary, and 
university, having a seat on the Wellington Education Board, on 
the Board of Wellington College Governors, and on the New Zealand 
University Senate— E., 21; Mgrs., 18; M., 495; stipend, £600; 
total revenue, £2250.— Debt, £1500. 


(a) Rev. P. Mason, late missionary in the West Indies, arrived 
in Wairarapa on February 14th, 1859, and left for Turakina in 
September 1859. (b) Rev. John Ross, recently of Caithness, was 


inducted on October 28th, 1867— A Session was formed on November 
13th, 1807— A church at Masterton was opened on April 25th, 1869— 
A manse was built in 1873— Mr Ross itinerated from Wanganui to 
Castlepoint, supplying Featherston, Waihenga, Lower Valley, 
Greytown, Gladstone, Opoki, and Carterton, &c.— Mr. Ross, who 
did a good work iu Wairarapa, and was greatly beloved by all in that 
wide district, left for Turakina June 14th, 1871. (c) Rev. Jas. Lawrie 
was inducted on February 25th, 1872, and departed for Australia on 
December 14th 1874— M., 35. {d) Rev. Jas. McKee was inducted on 
August 10th 1875 ; stipend, £250 ; and was translated to Waimate 
August 1882 — M., 70. (e) Rev. David Fulton was ordained and 
inducted on June 14th 1883, and demitted his charge April 3rd 
1890, going to New South Wales— M., 110, (/") Rev. Robt. Wood, 
of Wyndham, Southland, was inducted on October 1st, 1890 — 
A new church building scheme was agreed to in October, 1898, 
which embraced removing manse to new site, placing present church 
on manse site and turning it into Sunday School hall, and building 
new church to occupy site of old one ; the estimated cost of this 
work was £2500 ; considerably under 20 members promised sums 
amounting to £1000 — Mr. Wood was for several years Convener of 
Committee on State of Religion and Morals, and having a facile pen 
was for a number of years a sub-editor for the Outlook — E., 8 ; M., 
195 ; stipend, £250 ; total revenue, £436 10s 3d. 


A small church was opened in June 1871, costing £100, by Rev. 
J. Ross, of Masterton. (a) Rev. John Linds.\y was ordained and 
inducted in January 1872— A manse was built in 1876 ; cost £300 — 
He returned to the Old Country in 1877 ; Mr. Johnston Walker, a 
probationer, supplying the vacancy, (b) Rev. W. Panton Brown 
arrived in 1878, and after officiating for some time was inducted in 
1879— There was then a lack of financial organisation. The Church 
Extension Committee gave a giant of £50 in 1880— Mr. Brown 
accepted a call to Otago, in 1880. (c) Rev. John Stewart, who 
came as a lay evangelist to Napier in April, 1877, and who 
had been labouring for two years at Manaia, was ordained on 
April 10th, 1882, and was called to South Australia in 1884— Mr. 
Alex. Thomson, student, supplied services for 4^ years, (d) Rkv. 
Jas. Lymbdrn, late of the Glasgow City Mission, was ordained and 


inducted October 3rd, 1889 — A church, which cost £420, was opened 
in January 1891 — There are also good churches at Morrison's Bush 
and Burnside, and one is expected to be erected during 1899 at 
Featherston— Other stations are Lower Valley, Kaiwaiwai, and 
Pahau — E., 4 ; M. (including Featherston), 52; stipend, £200 ; 
total revenue, £249 Ts. 


At an early date the rapid growth of the city called for increased 
church accommodation on the part of the Presbyterian denomina- 
tion. Many circumstances combined to augment the population and 
ensure the prosperity of the city. It enjoyed a central position in 
the Islands. It had a magnificent harbour where the largest ocean- 
going steamers could float in safety. Two lines of railway opened up 
the country around, and acted as feeders. The last and not least was 
that in 1864 the seat of Government was transferred from Auckland 
to Wellington, a consummation long and devoutly wished. The 
result of this was that a large number of civil servants took up their 
residence in the city, and the city was proclaimed the Capital of New 
Zealand, and enjoyed all the honour and prestige associated there- 

After much consideration and some difference of opinion, it 
was decided that the next church should be at Newtown, in which 
direction many saw that the city, shut in by the hills and the sea, 
must eventually more and more extend itself. A mission station 
was established here by St. Johns', Wellington, and worked for a 
time in connection with it. An acre of ground was purchased on 
Adelaide road for £350, and a small church erected at a cost of 
£200. As the Christian name of three of the four trustees was 
James, it was resolved to call the new church and congregation St. 
James. Mr Jas. McNeil, student evangelist, supplied for a time. 

(a) The Kev. J. K. Elliott was inducted on March 16th, 1885. 
He had come to New Zealand a few months previously commissioned 
by the Irish Presbyterian Church, for the sake of his wife's health, 
and had taken up work vigorously in the new charge. It soon became 
evident that additional space, especially for the Sabbath Schools, 
was urgently required. A conflict of opinion arising over the best 
way to supply the want, Mr Elliott with the consent of bis ofl&ce- 


bearers and a large portion of bis charge, resigned, and was released 
by the Presbytery on the 4th of May, 1886. By this secession the 
congregation was greatly weakened, {b) After a variety of temporary 
supply, the Rev. W. Shireb, a licentiate of the U. P. Church, 
was ordained on September 18th, 1888. During his ministry the 
church was soon enlarged at a cost of £239, a comfortable manse 
built the estimate for which was £500, and a considerable congre- 
gation gathered— Mr. Shirer is clerk of the Wellington Presbytery — 
E., 4 ; Mgrs., 8 ; M., 162 ; stipend, £250 ; total revenue, £524 18s 5d. 


When Mr. Elliott resigned St. James' the object of himself, his 
oflSce-bearers, and friends was to obtain a site for a church nearer 
the centre of population. They believed at the time that Newtown 
was prematurely chosen for that purpose. No time was lost by 
them in carrying out their design. Free from all restraint, they 
purchased a section at the corner of Kent terrace and Pirie street, 
at a cost of £750, and erected on it a commodious hall, costing 
£600, to serve the double purpose of church and Sabbath School. 
While it was being built the congregation worshipped in the Lyceumi 
the decadent infidel section then in charge being glad, in spite of 
their principles, to receive the weekly rent of £1. 

On application, minister and congregation were cordially received 
by the Presbytery, and the former inducted into Kent terrace Presby- 
terian Church on October 5th, 1886, five months after he had 
resigned Newtown charge. Two years subsequently the Presby- 
terial finding, after referring to the rapid increase of the congrega- 
tion and the faithfulness of the pastor and oflice-boarers, wound 

"The Presbytery would express their gratification at the 
erection of a commodious building in which to worship God in a 
quarter of the City of Wellington where a Presbyterian Church wa$ 
much needed.'* 

The congregation now grew apace. In 1897 a beautiful new 
church was erected, costing about £2000, and a suitable manse 
purchased. Attendance at worship has increased since new church 
was built — Kent terrace is noted for its liberality toward the Foreign 


Mission. This is a good sign of a congregation. Minister and 
people pull well together — Mr. Elliott was Convener of the Temper- 
ance Committee for a number of years — There are 360 scholars in 
the Sabbath School, and 41 teachers— In 1898 £250 of debt was 
wiped off, leaving the debt £1900 -E., 13 ; M., 283 ; stipend, £350 ; 
total revenue, £1078. 


Mr. Alexander Whyte, B.D., B.Sc, student of the U. P. 
Church, arrived in September 1888, and began services at Carterton, 
Gladstone, and Greytown, under the auspices of the Church Exten- 
sion Committee. On his returning to Scotland, at the end of ten 
weeks' work, Rev. C. Murray, M.A., late missionary in Ambrym, 
New Hebrides, was appointed in November. Shortly after, it was 
raised to a sanctioned charge, (a) The Rev. Charles Mukbay was 
inducted on January 30th, 1889, as its first minister — Sections of 
land were bought at Carterton and Greytown for building sites, and 
churches, seated for 200 each were erected at Carterton and Grey- 
town — The one at Carterton, built in 1889, cost £376 ; the other at 
Greytown, built in 1890, cost £500 — A two-storey manse was built at 
Carterton, in 1893, at a cost of £481 — Except £100, the Carterton 
property is free of debt ; £150 still remains on the Greytown pro- 
perty — In 1898 there were 6 elders, 127 communicants, and 220 
children attending Sunday School — The stipend given is £200 ; the 
total ordinary revenue for 1896-97 was £268 18s 2d. Mr Murray 
accepted a call to Feilding, where he was inducted on November 
16th, 1898. {b) Rev. Robert Richie, formerly of the Established 
Church, Scotland, has succeeded him — E., 6 ; M., 127 ; stipend, 
£200 ; revenue, £358. 

(9) PETONE. 

At first, services were conducted in the afternoon by the city 
ministers, then by Mr Johnston, a licentiate of the Otago Church, and 
later by Mr. T. M'Donald (now minister of Hawcra), a student of the 
Free Church, who had nearly complettd his theological course when 
he was ordered abroad for his health's sake, and arrived in Wellington 
on February 2nd 1888. (a) Rev. Alexander Tuomson, who had 


served a good apprentioeship on the Glasgow City Mission and as 
student evangelist in Patea and Waihenga, was ordained and inducted 
on August 1st, 1889 — A beautiful church and manse were soon built, 
and a good congregation gathered — E., 4; Mgrs., G; M., 80; 
stipend, £200 ; total revenue, £317 16s 3d. 


Attention was directed to the rising township of Pahiatua, 
services commenced and judiciously fostered there, and a regular 
charge formed in 1893. Among those who helped to consolidate the 
congregation was the Rev. R. Wood, of Masterton, who did some 
pioneering work, Mr. John McKenzie (now minister of Thames), who 
spent six months in organisation, and Mr. Wallace, formerly of 
Danevirke. (a) Rev. W. Philip, who had been for some years a 
minister in the Falkland Islands, was inducted on September 25th, 
1893, and succeeded in establishing a successful cause there. He 
was translated to Manaia in March, 1898, and as no minister was 
available to take up the work Mr. James McCaw, Home Missionary, 
was aiDpointed in January, 1899, for three years. 



(Formed January 26th, 1869.) 


This was the first Presbyterian congregation established in Canter- 
bury—A Committee was formed in 1854, Mr. W.Wilson being secretary. 
(a) Rev, C. Eraser arrived in April, 1856, and officiated for a time in 
the Wesleyan churches of Lyttelton and Christchurch— The stipend 
received was £200— A church costing £900 was opened on February 
1857— A Deacons' Court was formed by Session and congregation in 
July 1858— A commodious manse, that was to be distinguished for 
its hospitality, was erected in 1860— The church was enlarged in 
1862, and subsequently— Mr Eraser's connection with the ministry 
terminated on January 16th, 1883. (h) Rev. W. Dixwiddie, LL.B., 
of North Belt, Christchurch, was inducted November 12th, 1883, 
but, owing to ill-health, resigned on March 30th, 1886, and left for 
the Old Country— Members 150-Rev. Jas. Mcintosh supplied for a 
time, living with his family in the manse, (c) Rev. G. Webster, M.A., 
late of Free Church, Govan, Ayrshire, was inducted December 16th, 
1887, the stipend being £400— The manse was enlarged in 1889, and 
the church was reconstructed in 1892 at a cost of £2000— Mr. 
Webster, who was Moderator of Assembly in 1898, takes a prominent 
part in the business of the Church Courts. His opinions are always 
listened to with respect. As Convener of the Union Committee he 
has done much to smooth the way for the union of the Northern and 
Southern Churches. He is a member of the Judicial and Scholarship 
Committees, and of the Christchurch College Board, and inside and 
outside the Church has done much to promote the cause of education. 
— E., 8; D., 8; M., 216 ; stipend, £400; total revenue, £713 10s.— 
Fuller information about St. Andrew's will be found elsewhere. 

(2) AKAROA. 

Services were begun in 1857 by Rev. C. Eraser in the house of Mrs 
E. Brown, who settled in district in 1844, and has always been a staunch 
friend of the Presbyterian Church— Two years afterwards a building 


for church and schoolhouse was erected chiefly through the exertions 
of Mr. E. Hay, another good friend of the Church who came to the 
district in 1843, and Messrs Gillespie and Stewart — Services con- 
ducted by Messrs Gillespie (son of the elder and first teacher brought 
out by Mr. Eraser), Fitzgerald, and Knowles (now Canon Knowles) — 
Akaroa and Duvauchelles Bay united forces and sent Home £100 for 
passage and outfit of a minister, (a) Rev. George Grant, of the 
Free Church, Scotland, arrived in the end of 1862 — He accepted a 
call to St. Paul's, Christchurch, in April, 1864 — A vacancy of 10 years, 
during which the church had broken windows and a leaky roof, and 
the Hay family entertained various supplies at Pigeon Bay and 
provided them with a horse, (b) Rev. W. Douglas was ordained 
December 2nd, 1874, the call being signed by 18 members and 
73 adherents, and the stipend £250, with manse about to be erected 
— Waimea added to charge — Little River supplied for a time, but 
passed over to the Bible Christians — Mr. Gillespie for 20 years an elder 
at Pigeon Bay, did much to uphold the ministers' hands, and exercised 
a wide influence for good in the district — Mr. Douglas was translated 
to Hokitika March 29th, 1881. (c) Rev. R. C. Morrison, late of 
Otago, was inducted April 3rd, 1882, and resigned May 13th, 1884. 
(d) Rev. D. McLennan, of Pleasant Point, was inducted at Pigeon 
Bay, May 4th, 1885 — A new church opened June 13th, 1887 — 
Through rheumatic fever he resigned on June 4th, 1890, and went to 
New South Wales, (e) Rev. J. B. Finlay, from Ireland, was 
ordained and inducted September 17th, 1890— Not strong enough for 
the scattered charge he resigned on October 10th, 1895, and went 
Home, returning afterwards to Wellington. (J) Rev. D. Jamieson, 
M.A., from Glasgow, was inducted November 23rd, 1897, at Akaroa 
— E., 6 ; M., 106 ; Mgrs., 24 ; stipend, £250 ; total revenue, £303. 

(3) KAIiPOI. 

A school and church building erected in 1860, Rev. C. Eraser 
and others ofiQciating at Kaiapoi occasionally, (a) Rev. W. Kikton, 
of Wellington, accepted a call on February 6th, 1863, to Kaiapoi 
and Rangiora, stipend promised, £200— a manse built in August, 
1865, costing £400— Mr. Kirton died August 27th, 1871. (/>) Rev. 
W. McGregor, of Taradale, was inducted in 1872— Old building sold 
and new church erected in 1874— Rangiora separated from Kaiapoi, 


April 8th, 1880— Mr. McGregor resigned, July 22nd, 1880. (c) Rev. R. 
McGregor ordained and inducted, February 17th, 1881 — Belfast 
attached to Kaiapoi, 1886— He resigned through ill health, February 
5th, 1891. (d) Rev. W. Gow, of Reef ton, inducted, July 2nd, 1891, 
stipend, £240 — Belfast disjoined on May 10th, 1898, reducing 
stipend — E. , 4; communicants, 90; stipend, £200; total revenue, 
£308 16s lOd ; families, 90. 

(i) AMURI. 

A district extending from the Hurunui to the Clarence River, 
and from the Spencer Range to the sea. (a) Rev. W. Hogg, late of 
Bally-James-Duff, Ireland, began to itinerate in this region in 
January 1864, working it from Kaiapoi, and afterwards from Sefton, 
where there was built for him a manse of cob in 1866— In addition to 
monthly journeys through this churchless, schoolless, and bridgeless 
district he carried on work at Leithfield, Salt Water Creek, Mount Grey 
Downs, Ashley Bank, andLoburn, his visitations extending to Rangiora 
and the Cust— Mr. Hogg left for Ross, Westland, in February 1872. (h) 
Rev. W. R. Campbell, B.A., formerly of Timaru, who had been 
labouring at Waiau for the last four months of 1874, was inducted 
on February 2nd, 1875, as minister of Amuri and Cheviot — Services 
at first in Courthouse at Waiau, but soon a church and an acre of 
ground were both presented by the late Mr. G. Rutherford, of Leslie 
Hill, ever a good friend to the Church— A manse was built on five 
acres of land given by the late Mr. Caverhill, then of Highfield — 
Population increasing, a new church was erected at Waiau in 1888, 
the old one being retained as a Sunday School — A church was built 
at Culverden in 1891 — At the Hct Springs, Hanmer Plains, in 1892 
— The latter being overthrown by a hurricane was rebuilt in 1893 — 
A church was built at McKenzie, Cheviot, in 1896— Cheviot for two 
years has been worked by a preacher who receives £100 per annum 
— Mgrs., 10; stipend, £200; total revenue, £230. 


Congregation formed in 1863 and organised in 1864. (a) Rev. 
G. Grant, of Akaroa, was inducted in Town Hall, April 20th, 
1864 — Elders and deacons chosen the same year— Old St. Paul's 


Church, now used for a Sunday School, was built in 1867, costing, 
with site, £1000— Mr Grant, the fragrance of whose ministry is still 
in the congregation, resigned in December 1868, and, leaving 
for Home in the ill-fated ship Motoaka, was never heard of again — A 
vacancy of two years, during which services were conducted by Revs. 
R. Powell, J. D. Ferguson, and W. McGowan. {b) Rev. A. F. Douglas, 
formerly of Alnwick, Northumberland, England, arrived in January 
1871, a stipend of £350 being guaranteed for two years — Mr. Douglas, 
who did much Church Extension Work, left to labour in Westport in 
July 1875— During the vacancy the pulpit was supplied by Rev, J. D. 
Ferguson — M., 250. (c) Rev. John Elmslie, M.A., of Wanganui, was 
inducted May 4th, 1876, the stipend being £700 without manse — 
Present church costing with site £11,300, was opened October 31st, 
1877 — In 1880 a manse was bought for £1500 and stipend reduced to 
£600 with manse — In 1885, at the minister's own instigation, stipend 
was reduced to £500, and in 1888 it became £450, the debt being 
then over £7000 — In 1890 the University of Aberdeen conferred on 
Mr. Elmslie the honorary degree of D.D. — A legacy of £200 was left 
by Miss Fanny Stevens in 1894, of £20 by Mr. J. Kilpatrick in 1895, 
and of £1900 by Mr. Thomas Owen in 1898, which, with other efforts, 
will reduce the debt to £4500— Dr. Elmslie left for Old Country in 
May 1898 on a leave of six or seven months — During last 22 years, 
the period of the present pastorate, the congregation has raised 
£33,000— E., 13; D., 24; M., 410; stipend, £450, with manse; total 
revenue, £1413 10s. 


Rev. C. Eraser's first service in New Zealand was held in 
Wesleyan Church, Lyttelton, on the first Sunday in April 185G, the 
day he landed — A Sabbath evening service was given by him for 
some time — A school and church building, now used for a Sunday 
School, was erected in 1859— Mr. J. D. Ferguson arrived from 
Scotland as teacher in 1860, his salary for teaching and preaching 
being £200 — A Sabbath School was established in February 1862 — 
Lyttelton was recognised as a preaching station July 13th, 1864, and 
the Lord's Supper dispensed January 1865 — A new church was 
opened in January 1865; it cost £2000, £1000 being given by the 
Provincial Government and £1000 raised locally — Mr. Ferguson, 
who gathered a good congregation, was licensed by Presbytery in 


1866. (a) Rev. John Gow, late of Free Church, Cannylie, Scotland, 
waa inducted December 12th, 1865, and accepted a call to Hokitika 
January 9th, 1867. (h) Rev. Jo3. McIntosh, late of Knockando, 
Scotland, and sent out by Prof. Lumsdea, was inducted .January 
2l3t, 1868, and left for Greymouth January 26th, 1870. (c) Rev. 
W. McGowAN, recently of the Hutt, Wellington, was inducted in the 
end of October 1870, and being advanced in years he resigned 
October 12th, 1876. (d) Rev. Jas. Hill, of the Thames, was 
inducted June 14th, 1877 ; the stipend being £400— The manse was 
built in 1880; the cost was £703— Mr. Hill accepted a call to 
Devonport July 24th, 1889. (e) Rev. J. H. Mackenzie, of Wallace- 
town, Southland, was inducted December 12th, 1889, and translated 
to Nelson March 9th, 1892. (/") Rev. A. H. Treadwell, B.A., was 
ordained and inducted June 16th, 1892— He was appointed Clerk of 
Presbytery September 13th, 1893— Charteris Bay and Teddington 
were placed under the care of Lyttelton Session — E., 4; M., 85; 
stipend, £222 ; total revenue, £300. 


Services began in the house of Mrs. Todd, who was the first 
white woman seen at Ricearton, and who came to Lincoln in 1858 — 
In a building now used, after enlargement, for a Sunday School and 
built about 1862, Mr. Bowie, who was brought out by Mr. Fraser, 
taught, and religious services were occasionally held— The church 
at Prebbleton was erected in 1865. {a) Rev. John Campbell, 
of Riwaka, was inducted February 21st, 1866 — The stipend 
paid him was only £60 — John Boyd and Robt. Carghead were 
elected elders — The manse at Prebbleton was built in 1868 — 
Mr Campbell having accepted the headmastership of Christchurch 
High School in 1872, the Canterbury Presbytery divided the charge, 
settling Rev. Mr. Cree in Leeston and appointing Rev. J, D. 
Ferguson to work up the Northern portion, (b) Rev. Jas Wilson 
was ordained September 1st, 1875, stipend being £200 with manse, 
and resigned October 12tb, 1876. (c) Rev. R. Wad dell, M.A., 
licentiate of Irish Presbyterian Church (now Dr. Waddell, Dunedin, 
and editor of the Outlook) was ordained and inducted September 25th, 
1877 — Subscriptions for a new church were set on foot — He accepted 
a call to St. Andrew's, Dunedin, March 13th, 1879. (d) Rev. A. 
Blake, M.A., late of Otago, was inducted July 1st, 1879 — A 


handsome church was built at Lincoln in 1882, which cost £900 
Mr. Blake resigned January IGth, 1883. (c) Rev. R. J. Porter, 
from Ireland, was ordained and inducted May 23rd, 1S83, and 
was translated to Mornington, Dunedin, July 26th, 188G, leaving 
a united charge. (/") Rev. H. Adamson, student from Ireland, 
licensed by the Nelson Presbytery, was ordained and inducted May 
10th, 1887 — The manse at Lincoln was erected in 1889 and cost 
£550— Mr. Adamson resigned through ill health on September 9th, 
1891. (g) Rev. A. M. Wright, M.A., recently of Palmerston 
North, was inducted February 9th, 1892 — The church at Prebbleton, 
which was added to in 1873, was renovated in 1895— E., 3; M., 105; 
stipend, £250; average total revenue for last six years, £409 per 


A Sabbath School was started in 1865 at Brookside, when district 
was a part of Lincoln and Prebbleton charge, by Messrs. J. Stewart 
and J. Cunningham, and at Leeston in 1866 by Mr. and Mrs. John 
IMuirison — Services were held at Leeston by Rev. J. Campbell in a 
sod whare of Mr. J. Low, and then in Road Board office — The 
church at Brookside was built in 1867 on a site given by Mr. John 
Cunningham, at a cost of £152 — The first church at Leeston was 
built in 1870 on a site given by Mr. David Marshall at a cost of 
£196— A Sabbath School was started at Killinchy in 1870 by Mr. 
and Mrs. W. Nixon, and at Dunsandel in 1872 by Mr. Pole. 

Leeston was disjoined from Lincoln and Prebbleton and erecte(j 
into a separate charge in the beginning of 1872. (a) Rev. J. W. 
Cree from En^^land was inducted February 28th, 1872, stipend £300 
— Services were held at Leeston, Southbridge, Brookside, Dunsaudel, 
and Killinchy — An addition to the church at Brookside was made in 
1873 : cost £205— The manse at Leeston, costing £475, was erected 
in 1873— The present church at Leeston was built in 1879; cost 
£930— The schoolroom at Leeston was built in 1884 ; cost £200— 
Southbridge was disjoined in January 1882 — Mr. Cree's connection 
with the ministry terminated December 31at, 1890, he retiring to 
a farm at Rangitata— M., 218. (b) Rev. W. Grant, of New 
Plymouth, was inducted June Uth, 1891. — Mr. Grant is Convener 
of the Committee on Foreign Missions— E., 7 ; M., 236 ; stipend, 
£350 ; total revenue, £664 I63 9d. 


(9) SEFTON. 

Eev. W. Hogg of Amuri, who arrived in January 1864, 
officiated at Grey Downs, Ashley Bank, and Leithfield, living 
first at Kaiapoi, and then in a manse of cob built for 
him near Sefton, in 1866. Services were begun by him in 
Loburn in 1870— A church was built at Ashley in 1872, the 
trustees being Eev. W. Hogg, James Anderson, and David Carr. 
(a) Eev. W. H. Horner from Ireland was inducted June 11th, 1873 
—A church was erected at Sefton in December 1873— Mr. Horner 
resigned early in 1877, and accepted call to Papanui March, 1878. 
(6) Eev. Jos. McIntosh, late of Greymouth, was inducted June 14th, 
1877, the stipend bemg £275, and resigned July 10th, 1870. (c) Eev. 
EiCHARD Tout, after supplying as student for some time, was ordained 
and inducted September 10th, 1883— Fortnightly services were begun 
in Lobuin schoolroom in 1883, and a church erected there, on |-acre 
given by the Carmichael family, and costing £193, was opened on 
October 26th, 1890— A manse was built at Sefton in 1894 which cost 
£300— Mr. Tout retired to a farm in the North Island, March 12th, 
1895— Loburn was now transferred to Eangiora. (d) Eev. E. 
McCuLLY, was ordained and inducted August 27th, 1896— Mr. McCully 
accepted a call to Eiverton May 10th, 1898. (e) Eev. D. A. 
Anderson of Totara Flat was inducted on January 12th, 1899— E., 
3 ; M., 52 ; stipend £165. 

(a) Eev. H. B. Burnett from Ireland was inducted September 
15th, 1875, stipend £250— He had the whole county for his charge, 
and preached in Wakanui, Springburn, Mt. Somers, Longbeach, 
Mayfield— A manse and 10 acres of land were secured and a church 
built in 1876— A session was formed in 1877— Mr. Burnett resigned 
March 13th, 1879— M., 45 ; Adherents, 400. (b) Eev. A. M. Beattie, 
late of English Presbyterian Church, was inducted August 26th, 
1879— He assisted in organising Eakaia, Methven, and Tinwald and 
Flemington, where a church was built in 1880— Leave of Presbtery 
was given in 1891 to reduce stipend from £300 to £250— Mr 
Beattie resigned April 5th, 1893— M., 128. (c) Eev. G. B. Inglis, 
of Warepa, Otago, was inducted September 27th, 1893— E., 3 ; M. 
123 ; families, 96 ; stipend, £250 ; total revenue, £453. 



Originally supplied with ordinances by ministers of Kaiapoi and 
Ranf^iora — A meeting to organise a charge on August 2nd, 1873. 
(a) Rev. N. McCallum, late of Patea, was inducted April 5th, 1877 — 
Services at Oxford, Cust, West Eyreton, Carleton, Stoke, Summer- 
hill, and View Hill — Oxford section first met in Road Board office, 
where a Sabbath School was organised by Mr. J. Ingram, and then 
for years in the Town Hall : the Cust section met in public school, 
and then in the Institute Hall — A Session was formed December 
12th, 1880, Messrs. McClinton and Webster being members — Mr. 
Luke Higgins, a distinguished pioneer of the district, though 
standing out of Session till 1890, did much for minister and 
congregation — The Oxford Church was built in 1880 on a site gifted 
by H. B. Johnstone ; cost £300, Miss Dods and Mr. McCallum 
collecting most of the money — The manse at Cust, costing £300, was 
built in 1882 ; the church at Cust being built by public subscriptions 
collected by Mr. Hunter and his co-workers, including the minister, 
and by gratuitous labour, only cost £250, and was opened on December 
13th, 1885— Mr. McCallum resigned March 9th, 1886, going on a 
trip to Old Country. {}>) Rev. P. R. Monro, late of Westport, was 
inducted August 10th, 1886— Church at Cust enlarged, and members 
increased to 40— He was translated to Sydenham August 11th, 1887. 
((•) Rev. D. D. Rodger, of Lower Hutt, was inducted May 17th, 1888, 
and accepted call to Waikari May 10th, 1898. (d) Rev. F. Stdbbs 
of Feilding was inducted on October 27th, 1898— E., 3 ; M., 108; 
stipend, £200 ; total revenue, £283 9s 8d. 


Services were supplied in 1877 by Rev. W. H. Horner, late of 
Sefton, in a tasteful church recently erected, (a) Rev. W. H. 
Horner was inducted March 14th, 1878 — He resigned July 14th, 
1881. {!)) Rev, F. M. Hauxwell, of Malvern, inducted January 
1882 — He resigned to visit the Old Country September 8th, 1885 — 
Belfast attached to Kaiapoi and Papanui to North Belt in 1886— 
Elders were elected in 1891 — Belfast disjoined from Kaiapoi, and 
Papanui from North Belt, and Belfast, Papanui, and New Brighton 
were formed into a regular charge on May 10th, 1898. (c) Rev. J. M. 
Simpson, B.A., late of Sydenham, was inducted July 28th 1898 — 
E., 2; M., 27. 


(13) MALVERN. 
(a) Eev. J. F. Hauxwell, from Scotland, was ordained December 
23rd, 1878, Malvern having waited long for a permanent pastor — He 
was translated to Papanui in January 1882. {b) Rev. Jas. Maxwell, 
late Congregational minister of Port Chalmers, was inducted October 
17th, 1882 — Leave was given by Presbytery to reduce stipend for a 
time from £250 to £200— Churches were built at Greendale and 
Hororata in 1892— Mr. Maxwell got permission to visit the Old 
Country in March 1898— E., 3; Mgrs., 12 ; M., 86 ; stipend, £210 ; 
total revenue, £221 15s 7d. 

(14) RAKAIA. 
Originally part of the Ashburton charge with occasional 
services— a manse and five acres of land purchased on 10th October, 
1879, cost with land £-175, a large debt remaining, (a) Rev. J. B. 
Westbkooke, late of the Primitive Methodist Church, was inducted 
March 18th, 1880— Services held in a public hall— He left for 
Greymouth in September 1882— Charge vacant for a few years, 
during which it was ministered to by Rev. W. West of Southbridge — 
In March 1885 Mr. E. Stewart, student evangelist, supplied, who 
cleared off £200 debt, and left for Woodville in April 1888— It was 
re-erected into a separate charge, promising £200 and manse. May 
9th, 1888— M., 36. (b) Rev. P. J. Riddle, of Waiuku, inducted 
August 22nd, 1888— A revival of religion in 1890— A debt of £100 
cleared off in 1891 A church built in Eakaia in 1892, cost £400 ; 
and a Sunday School in 1896, cost £100— E., 6 ; M., 110 ; famiUes, 
60 ; stipend, £200 ; total revenue, £277. 


A church was built at Halkett in 1873, cost £150— Services 
were supplied by Revs. Ewing, Murray, and Cumming, and Messrs. 
Taylor and Munro, students— A manse and five acres of ground were 
bought for £250 at end of 1879. (a) Rev. H. B. Burnett, late of 
Ashburton, was inducted March 23rd, 1880, and accepted call to 
Westport February 21st, 1887— Church Extension Committee 
appointed Mr. Cowie, student, who left April 1888, and Rev. N. 
McCallum officiated for nine years from April 15th, 1888, to April 
15th, 1897— Re-erected into an independent charge with Hornby, 

3G0 HlSTOlvY Ui-' N.Z. rilESliYTElllAN CHUllCH. 

May lOUi, 1B'.)8. (h) Hkv. W. Finlayhon, fonnoily of Springburn, 
iiuluotod AiigUHt HOlh, 1898— E., i; M., 70; stipend, £155; families, 
65 ; tutal rovcnuo, £170 and Church Extension grants. 


A Sabbath Soliool was orf^aiiised by D. Duncan, Esq., older of 
St. Paul'a, in 1878 —Formed into a separate charge March i:uh, 
1879 — Services wore hold for six months in tho borough soliool by 
Mr. A. Alexander, and afterwards by Ilov. .T. D. Ferguson, (d) Hkv. 
T. II. Caiunh, formerly of Moy, and then of 13allina, Ireland, was 
inducted March 2.5tli, 1880, in St. Saviour's Schoolroom, kindly 
granted for tho oooasiou, the officiating clorgymen being Revs. H. B. 
Burnett, J. Hill, W, H. Horner, and ,1. Elmnlio, and tho stipend 
X'lOO A .site was ohoaon for a church on March Ith, 1880; the 
foundation stono laid on July 17th, 1880, by John Anderson, Esq.; 
and tho present church capable of holding 500 opened in Colombo 
street on December 2()th, 1880, by Revs. Cairns, Hill, and Gordon ; 
tho site cost £500 and the odifioo £2H00-In May Messrw. A, Lusk, 
W. K. Allison, and Robertson, elders of St. Paul's, wore appointed 
an interim session, and Lord's Supper was dispensed in Juno, M. 
being 86 — Mr. Cairns accepted a call to Ballarat March 9th, 1887 — 
M., 184. {b) Ricv. P. R. Monro, late of Oxford and Oust, was 
inducted August 11th, 1887, and translated to Rangiora March 25th, 
iHStl. ((•) Hkv. J. M. Simpson, B.A., a student from Ireland, and licon- 
tiato of the Wellington Presbytery, was ordained July 30th, 1891, and 
resigned to visit Ireland March 12th, 1896. {d) Rev. R. S. Allan 
was ordained October 10th, 1895— E., 6; M., 140; stipend £200; 
total revenue, £457 IBs 3d. 


A Sabbath School was established by " St. Paul's Sabbath 
School Association," Mr John Cameron, Suporintondont, on Novem- 
ber 19th 1876, in Montreal street Hall, (a) North Belt was now 
fortunate In scouring at tho beginning of its career the services of 
the Rev. David McKke lately arrived from Ireland. The history 
of this great and good man who suddenly ended his days in New 
Zealand requires more than a passing notice. A sou of the manse, 



he was educated for the ministry at Belfast, and when licensed was 
selected by his fellow-students as their missionary in Boyle, County 
Sligo. After earning a good reputation among all denominations at 
Boyle he was translated to 
Ballywalter, where he soon 
made a home for himself in 
the hearts of the farmers and 
fishermen of that seaport 
town. Here the people of 
the important congregation 
of Rutland Square, Dublin, 
sought him out and called 
him to occupy the pulpit 
vacated by the Rev. Dr. John 
Hall of New York. In the 
capital he preached with his 
usual passion, imagination, 
and prophetic insight. His 
sermons seemed like "visions," 
and his unselfishness, gentle- 
ness, and modesty cast a spell 
over everything he said. Un- 
fortunately his work in Dublin 
proved too much for his deli- 
cate frame. A weakness of 
chest developing itself in the 
summer of 1879, his physi- 
cians advised him as his only 
hope to emigrate to New 

Zealand. He left behind him a sorrowing people, and carried to this 
country splendid credentials, his co-presbyters wishing this Church to 
understand, as one of them put it, that they were sending out to New 
Zealand " the strongest and noblest man they had." He arrived in 
the "Pleiades" at Lyttelton in January 1880, and, his health being 
apparently fully restored, he commenced work under favourable 
auspices at Christchurch. A hearty call, signed by forty-four 
members and forty adherents of this new congregation, was given to 
him, and a stipend of £500 promised. He was inducted in the 
Oddfellows' Hall on April 8th 1880, and at once began, with his usual 
success, to preach, organize, and visit from house to house. A site 



for a church was acquired on the North Belt, and the erection of a 
building capable of holding 500 people was commenced. Mr. MoKee 
died suddenly, in the midst of his usefulness, on October 18th 1880, 
leaving behind him a widow and nine children to the care of his 
adopted country. His death came as a shock to a wide circle of 
friends. Everywhere he was located Mr. McKee kept open house. 
His private acts of kindness will never be known on earth. He could 
not carry money for long in his pocket, or wear an overcoat for any 
considerable period on his back. Some needy one would be sure to 
have them. It was said of him, " He would give away his head if 
you'd let him." It was characteristic of him that when riding 
through Palestine once he took the bit out of the horse's mouth to 
give him more comfort and liberty, and got thrown for his pains. 
And yet with the sympathetic and lamb-like spirit he combined a lion- 
heart, these two qualities fraternising in his character as an earnest 
of millennial times. 

The following extract is taken from the Presbyterial minute 
passed on the occasion of his death : — 

"... During the short period of his residence in Canterbury 
Mr. McKee had endeared himself to a singularly large circle of friends. 
His decided talents, his genial disposition, and his unassuming piety 
were such as to give promise of great usefulness and marked honour 
to the Presbyterian Church. The suavity of his private intercourse 
and his eminent pulpit ability had already surrounded him with a 
large, intelligent, and influential congregation and an able staff of 
ofijce-bearers. The appearance of Mr. McKee in the Presbytery was 
always marked by a lively interest in the aiYairs of the Church, and 
an unusual appreciation of the peculiar circumstances of a Colonial 
Presbytery constantly enlarging its borders, receiving Church members 
from all quarters, and yet labouring to maintain the wonted orderli- 
ness and scriptural authority of presbyterial rule. The Presbytery 
will miss his sagacious counsel and hearty sympathy," &G. 

(b) Rev. W. Dinwiddie was inducted February Ist, 1883, and 
translated to St. Andrew's, Christchurch, September 2.5th, 1883. 
(c) Rev. R. Euwin, M.A., a student from Ireland, and licentiate 
of the Auckland Presbytery, was ordained and inducted in November 
1883— The present church was erected 1880, the cost being £1100 ; 
a spacious class room was opened free of debt in August 1885, cost 


£530 — Papanui attached in 1886. During the last 21 years the 
Sabbath School has raised for foreign missions the sum of £334 10s, 
the contributions of Bible Classes and Sabbath School being last 
year £49— Mr Erwin, when Moderator of Assembly in 1897 was 
honoured by the Assembly's College, Belfast, Ireland, with the degree 
of D.D.— E., 7 ; M., 182 ; stipend, £400 ; total revenue, £708 2s 6d. 


(a) Captain A. Sproul, of Lyttelton, having given a site on 
Ferry road for a new church, and Rev. S. Slocombe, a Congrega- 
tional minister, having, with his entire congregation, come over 
from another denomination and been received by the Presbyterian 
Church of New Zealand, Mr. Slocombe was inducted May 26th, 
1881 — A new church was opened on January 22nd 1882, church and 
manse costing £1550 — The new two-storied manse being burnt, a 
one-storied manse was built — Mr. Slocombe resigned September 
9th, 1884— Communicants, 59. (b) Rev. H. Ikwin, B.A., late of 
Crossroads, Ireland, was inducted October 11th, 1886 ; a minimum 
stipend of £200 being raised by aid of £50 from Irish Presbyterian 
Church, and £30 from the Church Extension Committee— A 
special blessing was received in the city revival of 1887 — Mr. Irwin 
was appointed Clerk of Presbytery on September 11th, 1889 — He 
died August 20th, 1893— M., 89. (c) Rev. W. Scorgie, late of 
Tapanui, Otago, was inducted January 18th, 1894 — In 1895 a com- 
modious Sunday School hall was erected, cost £200, the number of 
children on the roll being 250 — He was translated to Mornington, 
Dunedin, January 10th, 1899— E., 6; M., 104; families, 50 ; stipend, 
£200; total revenue, £300. 


A part of Prebbleton and Lincoln charge when a church was 
opened in 1870, then of Leeston charge, but erected into a separate 
charge in January 1882— stipend, £203 ; M., 80. (a) Rev. W. West, 
of Kumara, was inducted on September 21st, 1882 — The manse 
and eight acres of land were bought for £600 in 1882— Church 
enlarged in 1883, cost £400 — a spiritual awakening in 1886, chiefly 


among the older people, and 1891, chiefly amonp: the younger portion 
of congregation— Mr. West died June 24th, 1894— M., 197. {h) Rev. 
J. Mackie, late of Whangarei, was inducted January 31st, 1895, 
stipend £230— The charge has suffered severely from the hand of 
death and a fluctuating population during last four years— E., 5; 
M., 150; stipend, £230; families, 48; total revenue, £318 14s 4d. 


The first services in the district were held at Mt. Somers by Rev. 
H. B. Burnett, of Ashburton, in 1874— Springburn, Methven, Rangi- 
tata, Alford Forest, and Mt. Somers, formed into a separate charge in 
1883. (a) Rev. A. McLennan was ordained at Alford Forest on April 
1st, 1883, and translated to Tauranga April 14th, 1885— Stipend, £250. 
(b) Rev. D. McNeil was ordained on May 25th, 1885, and resigned 
March 23rd, 1887. (c) Rev. W. Finlayson was inducted March 30th, 
1888— A manse at Springburn was built in 1889; cost, £390— Mr 
Finlayson resigned March 11th, 1891. (d) Rev. B. J. Westbrooke, 
of Greymouth, was inducted July 5th, 1892 — No church in this charge 
— E.,2; M., 71 ; stipend, £165; total revenue, £200. 


Services were conducted for some time at Ashton and Longbcach 
by ministers of Ashburton. (a) Rev. A. Blake, M. A. , late of Lincoln 
and Prebbleton, was inducted June 3rd, 1884, stipend being £225, 
and M., 30 — Mr. Blake resided at Tinwald in a house of his own — 
The church at Tinwald was built in 1885, and atFlemington in 1888, 
both being opened free of debt — Services at Tinwald in the morning, 
at Flemington in the afternoon, and at Longbeach in the evening — 
50 M. added to the roll during his ministry— The late Rev. Mr. West 
reported to Presbytery a special time of grace in congregation — 
Mr. Blake resigned March 14th, 1894— Manse erected at Flemington 
at end of 1894. (h) Rev. J. Skinneu, M.A., of Waitahuna, Otago, 
was inducted January 9th, 1895, stipend, £200 — Old and new stations 
are judiciously and energetically worked by him— E., 5 ; Mgrs., 26; 
M., 128 ; stipend, £200 ; income, £253. 


A church was built in 1872, when congregation was joined to 
Kaiapoi — Disjoined from Kaiapoi April 8th, 1880. (a) Eev. Jas. 
Mackellak, just licensed, was ordained and inducted on November 
2nd, 1885, stipend, £250 ; and resigned August 8th, 1887. (h) Rev. 
J. B. Shellie, late of Free Church, Dunfermline, was inducted July 
5th, 1888— The manse was built in 1888, cost £415— Mr. Smellie 
accepted call to Wyndham, Southland, January 14th, 1891 ; M., 76. 
(c) Rev. p. R. Monro, recently of Sydenham, was inducted March 
25th, 1891— Loburn was attached in 1895— He resigned December 
17th, 1896. (d) Rev. A. Doull, M.A.,was ordained and inducted on 
May 27th, 1897— E., 5 ; M., 110 ; families, 102 ; stipend, £204 ; 
total revenue, £385 17s 6d, including £155 Building Society shares 
realised to pay off debt on manse. 

(23) WAIKARI. 
The pioneers of this congregation are Messrs. Olson, Armstrong, 
McLean, Johnston, Robertson, and James and Alexander Cowie, of 
Mason's Flat, who met together and applied for services to Rev. C. 
Fraser— The first service held in schoolhousc was in 1879— In 1884 
Mr. W. Grant, now of Leeston, supplied for six months— Mr. G. H. 
Moore having given a site, a subscription list was sent out in Mr. 
Grant's time, and a new church opened in 1885, when Rev. J. 
Mackellar was supplying ; cost, £250. (a) Rev. Jas. Mackellar, late 
of Rangiora, was inducted on November 5th, 1889— A manse was 
erected— He resigned October 7lh, 1891— The congregation being 
able to offer only a small stipend, Mr. Guy and Rev. C. Connor 
supplied— Rev. J. K. Stowell on July 9th, 1895, was appointed for 
12 months, and Mr. Bates, student, on January 12th, 1897, for a 
similar period. (b) Rev. D. D. Rodger, of Oxford and Cust, 
accepted a call to Waikari on May 10th, 1898, being long waited 
for by the congregation— There is no debt— E., 2 ; M., 60 ; stipend, 



(Formed December 10th, 186S.) 

(1) NAPIER. 

A meeting of Presbyterians, with A. Alexander, an old settler, in 
the chair, was held on January 9th 1858, when the first committee 
was formed to organise a congregation — A five-acre lot was 
purchased, and a committee formed to build a manse on October 
9th of the same year, (a) Rev. P. Barclay, late of Aberdeen, 
arrived on June 6th 1859 — He preached once each Sabbath day 
in the schoolroom at Napier and once at Clive in the afternoon — 
A church was opened on June 16th 1861 — Mr. Barclay, who did 
much for Church Extension, was Moderator of Assembly when it 
met at Dunedin in November 1865 — He resigned the following year. 
(b) Rev. George Morice was inducted on December 21st, 1866, 
and not being robust in health left for a visit to Scotland in 
January 1872, and returning was inducted at Hokitika on November 
2nd, 1876. (c) Rev. David Sidey, formerly a U.P. minister in 
West Calder, Scotland, was inducted in February 1872 — In 1874 
Members 101; stipend, £250— In 1876 revenue £1298— He was 
Moderator of Assembly in 1879 — Owing to weak health he resigned 
the active duties of the pastorate of St. Paul's, and became senior 
minister in 1883 — Members, 155; stipend, £350— Dr. Sidey is now 
and has been for many years the efficient and much respected Clerk 
of the Assembly and Convener of the " Board of Examiners." {d) 
Rev. J. G. Paterson, late of Invercargill, was inducted on January 
6th 1884 — The church was enlarged in 1886 — the manse was 
purchased in 1872 at a cost of £800 — Mr. Paterson was translated 
to Gisborne on June 12th, 1898, where he has healed division and 
where his ministry gives promise of being as successful as at Napier. 
(<■) Rev. J. A. Asher, M.A., of Gore, Otago, was inducted on 
January 18th, 1899— E., 10 ; M., 340; stipend, £300 to Mr. Asher 
and £50 to Dr. Sidey: revenue, £994 lis 6d. Fuller information 
about the early history of Napier will be found elsewhere. 



As early as 1863 Rev. P. Barclay, of Napier, under whose 
superintendence it was, sought to obtain a minister for Meanee. 
(a) Rev. John McMichael, from Ireland, arrived in April 1865 — 
Disastrous floods in 1867 interfered with his labours — He resigned 
on August 4th, 1868, and left for Victoria, (b) Rev. W. McGregor 
was inducted on September 17th, 1871, and was translated to 
Kaiapoi in 1872— Rev. Mr. Sidey, of Napier, supplied services for a 
time— Under his superintendence Meanee, Port Ahuriri, and Petane 
were soon afterwards joined together, and placed under the care of 
student missionaries — In 1873 the Free Church, not finding a 
minister, sent out Mr. P. J. Riddle, a missionary recommended by Rev. 
P. Barclay, who undertook to raise £50 for two years towards his 
salary here. He was followed at the end of 1876 by Mr. John 
Stewart, another missionary, by Mr. D. Rodger, student, and others, 
(c) Rev. S. Douglas, of Waipawa, was inducted on July 18th 1889, 
and was drowned in a flood on December 5th, 1893— Mr. Robert 
McCully, a student, supplied during the vacancy, receiving a purse o^ 
sovereigns on his resuming bis studies at Dunedin. (d) Rev. C. 
Connor, formerly minister of U.P. Church, Aberdeenshire, and 
recently supply of Waikari, was inducted on May 5th 1895— A new 
church, set on foot in Mr. Douglas's time, was opened free of debt on 
June 21st, 1896 ; cost, £500— The original church, which once 
served for a sanctuary as well as a public school, now serves for a 
church hall— The manse at Taradale, owing to its inconvenient 
position, has been abandoned by the minister for a house rented in 
theport— E., 4; M., 112; stipend, £132 and £20 as Church Exten- 
sion grant ; revenue, £219 15s lid. 


This charge for some time included Waipawa. (a) Rev. Alex. 
Shepherd, M.A., a licentiate of the Free Church of Scotland, was 
ordained in St. Paul's, Napier, on December 10th 1865— A church 
at Waipukurau was erected in 1867— Mr. Shepherd was translated to 
Havelock on June 13th 1869— A vacancy of six years and seven 
months followed, at the end of which] time the Church Extension 
Committee made a grant of £50 towards stipend, and the Scottish 
Free and Established Churches one of £75 each for a Manse 


Building Fund, (b) Rev. Robt. Fraseb, M.A., late of Free Church 
Knockando, Scotland, was inducted in Waipukurau schoolroom on 
February 9th 1876, a student being associated with him in the 
work — Owing to increased population and the intersection of two 
large rivers this large charge was divided on October 15th 1877 — a 
new church was erected in 1878 on a site given by Henry Russell, 
Esq. — A manse was erected in 1880— Mr, R. Fraser left for Queens- 
land on April 20th, 1881. (c) Rev. W. Sherriffs, of Blenheim, 
was inducted on July 6th, 1881, and died in November, 1883, the 
Assembly sending a resolution of sympathy to Mrs. Sherriffs, the 
wife of one " who for many years served the Church so faithfully 
and devotedly both as pastor and Clerk of Assembly." (d) Rev. 
Alex. Grant, late of Free Church, North Ronaldshay, Orkney, 
was inducted in March 1884— A new church was opened at 
Wanstead on January 1888, at Tamurau on May 1889, at Takapau 
on February 1892, and a Sunday School hall on March 20th, 1898 ; 
cost, £260— E., 3 ; M., 62 ; stipend, £230 ; revenue, £305. 


In 1866 the Church Extension Committee thought a Gaelic 
speaking minister should be placed here, but no minister was settled for 
years, (a) Rev. Alex, Shepherd, M.A., of Waipukurau, was 
inducted on June 13th 1869— A church was built in 1871, and 
remitted his charge at the end of 1880. (6) Rev. W. Nichol, of Wairoa, 
was inducted on January 6th, 1881, and resigned in January 1887. 
(c) Rev. Robert Eraser, M.A., late of Waipukurau and recently of 
Warwick, Queensland, was inducted on October 26th, 1887 — A new 
church was opened on July 22ud 1894, by Rev. James Paterson, 
Wellington, £150 being subscribed on the opening day — Mr Fraser 
resigned on March 31st, 1897. (d) Rev. Alex. Whyte, M.A., B.D., 
B.Sc, formerly of Kilwindie U.P. Church, Glasgow, was inducted on 
June 7th, 1898— E., 2 ; M., 80 ; stipend, £200 ; revenue, £359. 


The town is at the mouth of the Turanganui River, close to the 
spot where Captain Cook first landed in 1776, and not far from the 
scene of the Poverty Bay massacre of November 9th 1868. A church 


planted in Metawhero in May 1872, by Rev. G. Morice, of Napier, 
was the only church which escaped the ravages of this time, (a) W. 
H. Root, of the English Presbyterian Church, arrived on February 
26th 1873— Services were held first in the schoolhouse and then in 
the Courthouse — A church, built of kauri in Gothic style, was opened 
in Childer's street on October 25th 1874, by Revs. D. Bruce and D. 
Sidey ; cost, £400 —The manse was built in 1876 ; cost, £.555— The 
church was added to in July 1878— Mr. Root left for Greymouth 
on August 13th 1878. (b) Rev. John McAra, late of Balclutha, 
Otago, was inducted on May 14th 1879, and died on January 26th 
1890, from the effects of a buggy accident, his loss being greatly 
lamented as that of a genial and faithful pastor, (c) Rev. R. M, 
Rybukn, M.A., was ordained on October 19th, 1890— The charge 
being much scattered was now divided by the Presbytery — Mr. 
Ryburn was translated to Wanganui in September 1897. (rf) Rev. 
James Paterson, late of Napier, was inducted on June 12th, 1898 — 
E., 6 ; M., 200 ; stipend, £250 ; revenue, £336 19s. 

(6) WAIROA. 

Situated in the midst of the Maoris of the Hau-hau tribes, this 
district figured in the Maori War, and was for a long time in an unsettled 
state. In 1868 Rev. G. Morice, of Napier, began to visit, regularly 
making a hazardous journey of 70 miles every month with five 
Sabbaths. The late Dr. Boyd continued services till 1876. (a) Rev, 
W. NicHOL was ordained by the Presbytery to Wairoa on June 4th, 
1878— In 1878 a church costing £500 was built— Mr. Nichol was raised 
to full ministerial status by the Assembly of 1880— Services were held at 
Frasertown, and at Mohaka a church was erected— He left for Havelock 
in January 1881. {h) Rev. P. J. Riddle, of Picton, was inducted 
on January 19th, 1881— A house and IJ acres of ground bought 
and improved for a manse at a cost of £430 — Mr. Riddle was trans- 
lated to Waiuku April 25th 1884— Mr. Mackellar, a student, supplied 
from August 25th, 1884, to May 15th, 1885. (c) Rev. W. Raeburn, 
who followed Mr. Mackellar as a student, was licensed and ordained 
on August 29th, 1888, at meeting of Presbytery, owing to difficulty 
of reaching Wairoa, and inducted by Rev. J. G. Paterson through 
Commission on November 12th, 1888— A Sabbath School, independent 
of other denominations was established in 1887— M., 98; stipend, 
£200; revenue, £250. 


Cn WilPAWA. 

This district fonned part of the Wupabnao charge, but was 
ffiqained oo October 15th 1877. (a) Rbt. J. M. Fbascb was indoeted 
in the new ehmeh al Kaikiam on October l-Sth 1877. and left in 
Ifaieh 1878 itar CoromandeL (fr) Ma. J. U. Sfdbcb, a stodent 
evangelist, was ^ant^^afaJ with the minlgjwr of Waipakofan. He was 
ocdained a misaianaiy on Febmaiy 8di 1878, raised to foil minisle- 
iial statms by the Assembly of 1380. and translated to Clinton, Otago. 
on Koreniber lOUi 1880. (e) Ma. W. O. Bobs, a student evangelist, 
fdcmerly of Ireland, and late of Qoeensland, hegm work in the 
iwyiiiiTi^ o< 1831, was ordained in Kaikora on IKovember 3rd, 1881, 
and resigned on June 21st, 1883. (d) Bsr. S. I>cnit0i.»s was 
ordained on October i6th, ISSa— The ehoreh at Waipawa, costing 
£350. was built in 1883, and opoied on MaiehSth 183i— The manse 
and two wm^iw^ of land were porehased for £500 m 1878 — Mr. 
Doi^^ resigned on Jane 30di, 1886, going to Scotland. («) Bxr. 
IbpKKair McLe&s, MA., aprobatioDer of F.C., Scotland, was cndained 
on Jane 7011887, and resigned cm March Slat 1889. f/> Bsr. H. W. 
Jomraiaaa, M.A., was ordained on May 14th, 1839— B.. 4 ; M., 69 ; 
stipend, £134 and £20 Ghareh KTrtnminn ; rerenae, £160. 

{%} S0OD¥1jLL£. 
WoodriDe and Darmerirke, tiHmerly one charge, were di^ded 
in 1888, Mr. B. Stewart, a student, remajniog in charge of tibe fiwmer 
preaehii^ station- (a) Rmr. B. Stzwabt, who came as a stodent in 
1888, and was liii— ««»«» in April, 1390. was ordained and inducted on 
Hovembtf S6th, 1890, and aft» building up this congregation was 
translated to Greymouth in 8^temb», 1893. (6) Bev. T. Walls, 
M \ , of the Cboreh of Scotland, was inducted in 1393. and on 
rooming to the Old Country, resigned on October 33id, 1394 — ^B., 5 ; 
M^ 40 : stipend, £300. (e) Bet. H. Lewis, a Congregationaliat 
mmiai— ■ receiTed by the Assembly, was inducted in 1896. 

This district was niginal'.j s j:-:; :' H .• 
r, Ber. W. Nielu^ be.. 
Befaool::-' .-._-.. .v.. 


opened on February 11th 1883, by Rev. D. Sidey, of Napier, and 
costing £500 — Revs. Nichol, Shepherd, and Fraser all officiated here 
— In 1897 a manse was erected on a site of 2 acres — Student 
evangelists began to supply in February 1886 — Amongst them were 
ilr. J. Lymburn, three years and eight months, being inducted 
at Waihenga on October 3rd 1889 ; Mr. J. Cowie, a licentiate, one 
year ; Mr. A. S. Morrison, M.A., one year and six months beginning 
October 1890; Mr. S. S. Osborne, two years, during which, or in 1893, 
a church, costing with site £300, was built at Clive. (a) Rev. A. S. 
MoRBisoN was ordained and inducted on May 18th, 1894 — In the 
same year, on November oth, a Session was formed, and in June the 
Hastings Church was enlarged by the addition of a side aisle, raising 
the seating accommodation to 230 — Mr. Morrison was translated to 
Waimate on January 31st 1899— E., 6; M., 134; stipend, £150 and 
£25 Church Extension ; revenue, £242. 



(Formed January 13th, 1869). 

(1) NELSON. 
(a) Rev. T. D. Nicholson, formerly of Lowick, England, who 
was sent out by the Free Church on an engagement for three years 
at £300 per year, preached bis first sermon in Campbell's schoolroom 
on June 18th 1848— The first church, seating 350 persons, was 
opened on December 23rd 1849. It was to be of brick, but owing to 
the earthquakes of 1848, the promoters built it of wood. The first 
Trustees were Messrs. D. Sclanders, T. Renwick, M.D., W. Rogerson, 
W. Wilkie, W. Gardiner, J. Mackay, G. McRae, R. D. Mclsaac, A. 
Rankin, and Rev. T. D. Nicholson— The latter in August 1857 left 
for Renwick, Blenheim, where the first minister of the Presbyterian 
Church of New Zealand in the South Island died on July IGth, 18G4. 
(b) Rev. P. Calder, late of the Free Church, Belhelvie, Aberdeen- 
shire, arrived at Nelson on October Gth, 1857 — A manse was soon 
built — Mr. Calder was Moderator of Assembly when it met at Nelson 
in November 18G7 — He resigned on December 3rd 1890, and died on 
July 9th, 1892— A beautiful church seating 440 persons and costing 
nearly £2000 was built in 1891 and opened on January, 1892 — 
by Rev. James Paterson, through whose advice chiefly the work was 
undertaken, and Rev. W. 0. Robb : The old church was transformed 
into a hall : The entire cost was £2554. (c) Rev. J. H. Mackenzie, 
of Lyttelton, was inducted on March 15th, 1892 — A new pipe 
organ was obtained in 1895 — Mr. MacKenzie is Convener of the 
Committee on " Sabbath School Teachers' Examination " and of the 
"Committee on Standing Committees and Collections" — E., 3; M., 
101 ; stipend, £300 ; total revenue, £507 I83 3d. 


(a) Rev. T. D. Nicholson, who began to visit the district in 
1853, came from Nelson to reside at Renwick in August 1857, 
officiating in Wairau Valley, Picton, and Awaterc— A church was 


erected at Eenwick in 1858, being the first ecclesiastical building 
built in the Province of Marlborough — Mr. Nicholson died on July 
16th, 1864. (h) Rev. A. Russell arrived in October 1864, and 
occupied a manse which was ready for his reception — He took charge 
of Picton, Haveloek, Awatere, Kaikoura, Clarence, &c. — A small 
church was built at Picton — A church at Blenheim was opened by 
him on May 24th 1868— A few days afterwards Mr. Russell suc- 
cumbed to diphtheria — A vacancy of two years ensued, (c) Rev. W. 
Shebkiffs, M.A., of Riwaka, was inducted on April 3rd, 1870 — 
Churches were built at Awatere and Kaikoura — Mr. Sherriffs, who was 
clerk of Assembly, an enthusiastic Temperance advocate in early 
days, and an untiring church worker, was translated to Waipukurau 
on March 31st, 1881— B., 2; M., 40; stipend, £200, (d) Rev. 
W. 0. RoBB, late of Waipawa, was inducted on November 8th 
1882 — The church was enlarged and a vestry added in 1883 — 
In 1898 the church was set farther back and converted into 
a Sunday School and Kcture hall, while a magnificent church, 
seating 350 persons and costing nearly £2000, was erected on 
the old site— This church, which is of Gothic architecture, with tall 
spire, was opened by Rev. J. Paterson on October 28rd 1892— Mr. 
Charles Fulton, one of the founders of the congregation, and for 
seventeen years an elder and occasional pulpit supply, died on August 
8th, 1895 — E., 4 ; M., 96 ; stipend, £250 ; total revenue, 
£445 13s 6d. 

(3) RIWAKA. 
(a) Rev. John Campbell, a probationer of the Free Church, 
sent out by Dr. Bonar, in answer to a blank call from Riwaka and 
Moutere, arrived at the end of 1863, and was ordained in March 
1864 by Revs. P. Calder and D. Bruce— A church was erected the 
same year on a site given by Mr. Robt. Pattie, whose wife, Mrs. 
Pattie, superintended the Sabbath School for 14 years— Mr. Campbell 
was translated to Lincoln and Prebbleton on February 21st 1866— A 
vacancy of two years ensued, (b) Rev. W. Sherriffs began work in 
1868, Takaka being alho assigned to him, and was translated to 
Blenheim ou A\ml 3rd 1870— Vacancy of seven years, during which 
Mr. Calder, of Nelson, supplied services occasionally— In 1878 began 
a long series of supplies sent by the Church Extension Committee, 
including Mr. D. Rodger, student, three years ; Mr. S. Douglas, 
M.A., sixteen months; Rev. John Sutherland, from Canada, six 


months; Mr. Robt. Hopkirk, an elder of St. John's, Wellington, 
nearly two years, leaving in January 1885 ; Mr. T. Norrie, student, 
till March 1889; Rev. E. McClean, M.A.,late of Waipawa, one year; 
Mr. John Cowie, M.A., a licentiate of the Free Church, 1890-93; 
Revs. G. K. Stowell, late of Kumara, Alex. Mackenzie, M.A., 
and Robt. McClean, who returned from Europe— E., 1.; M., 12; 
stipend, £50, and £20 Churoh Extension and £4 5s Presbytery Fund. 

(4) PICTON. 

The first committee, a building one, was formed in July 1865, 
and consisted of Messrs. Campbell, Gray, Esson, sen., Henderson, 
Mowat, McCormick, Hill, Baillie, and Allan. Messrs Jamieson, 
Galloway, and Mowat subsequently did much to consolidate the 
congregation — The first church, a mere shell, was opened soon 
after by Rev. A. Russell, of Blenheim, who held service at 
Picton once a month, (a) Rev. Alex. Chalmers Soutar began 
work on June 29th 1868, and resigned on June 27th, 1869. {b) 
Rev. John Bannatyne, formerly of the Lancashire Presbytery, 
England, and late of Takaka, was inducted on November 13th, 
1870, and left in June 1873 — A vacancy of four years ensued, during 
which Rev. W. Sherriffs, of Blenheim, held a monthly week-night 
service, (c) Rev. P. J. Riddle, late of Napier, was appointed by 
the Church Extension Committee in January 1877, having been 
previously ordained a missionary — A manse was bought for £275, 
and the church enlarged in 1878 — Mr. Riddle was raised to full 
ministerial status by the Assembly on March 17th 1880, and 
removed to Wairoa at the end of the year, {d) Mb. G. K. Stowell 
was appointed by the Church Extension Committee as student 
evangelist in April 1881, was ordained and inducted on April 17th 
1884, and resigned on August 18th 1887— M., 29. (f) Rev. R. J. 
Allsworth, recently of Waverley, took charge on September 11th, 
1887, only one Sabbath being vacant, and was inducted on June 25th 
1888 — A more prominent site costing £1.50 was secured in Main 
street, and a church costing £600 was opened there on November 
13th, 1892— In 1893 the entire debt was wiped off — A Sunday 
School hall was erected in 1895, the year in which Mr Allsworth 
was Moderator of Assembly— Services are held in this Highland 


parish by the indefatigable minister in nearly a dozen different 
places— E., 2; M.,.50; stipend, £llo, and £34 10s Church Exten- 
sion ; total revenue, £224. 


Two town sections and 20 acres of land were secured at Kaikoura 
for Church purposes by Rev. Mr. Sherriffs soon aftrr his stttlement 
at Blenheim in 1870 — Mr. W. McAra, formerly a missionary of Wynd 
Church, Glasgow, and a student of Glasgow University, arrived in 
Blenheim as a student evangelist for Kaikoura at the end of October 
1877. He found that Rev. Mr. Sherriffs had been visiting Kaikoura 
three or four times a year, that the Presbyterians, who were not 
numerous, worshipped with the Anglicans, and that even the Anglican 
clergyman had to leave for want of support. Mr. George Rorrison, a 
great friend of the Church subsequently, reported on the spot, "I have 
been down to the village, and nobody wants you." — Mr. McAra's 
first service was on the second Sunday of November 1877 — The 
principal settler at this stage promised, if Mr. McAra remained, to 
see to the erection of a manse and church — Mr. W. McAra, by the 
arrangement of Assembly, was ordained as a missionary on January 
9th 1878— A five-roomed cottage, costing £450, was erected in 1878, 
Mr. Bullen advancing the money— A suburban church at Kohai was 
built at a cost of £240, and opened free of debt in June 1879— A 
church in the town, erected beside the manse and costing £500, was 
opened on November 2nd of the same year— 1879 was begun with 
debt of £800 owed to Mr. Bullen. (a) Rev. W. McAra was raised to 
full ministerial status by the Assembly ou May 17th, 1880 — A session 
was formed on November 28th, 1880, the members being Messrs. 
Jamieson, G. Rorrison, and R. McDonald, and the Lord's Supper 
dispensed to 41 communicants — Three rooms were added to the 
manse in 1881 costing £140 — In 1891 the debt was reduced to £200 
chiefly through the liberality of Messrs. Bullen and Rorrison— A 
beautiful Sunday School of concrete, with a room for social gather- 
ings, was erected in 1892 by Mr. G. F. Bullen at his own expense- 
Messrs. G. F. and F. Bullen, brothers, who lent various large sums of 
money for manse and church purposes, and would receive no pay- 
ment, have been the chief founders and fosterers of this congregation 
— E., 1 ; M., 84 ; stipend, £200 ; total revenue, £503 18s. 



(Formed September 24th, 1873.) 

(1) TIMARU. 

The district was cursorily visited by Ecvs. C. Fraser and John 
Thom. (a) Rev. Geo. Barclay was ordained and inducted March 
8th, 186-5, at St. Paul's, Christchurch— Service was usually held in 
Mechanics' Institute on Sabbath morning, and in the afterpart of 
the day at Temuka, Geraldine, Pleasant Point, or Orari— A stone 
church was opened July 7th, 18G7— A Session was formed July 8th, 
1868— Mr. Barclay left for Temuka, Geraldine, &c., in January, 
1872. (b) Rev. W. R. Campbell, a probationer of the Presbytery of 
Edinburgh, Scotland, was ordained and inducted September 24th, 
1873— He resigned and left for Amuri September 1874. (c) Rev. W. 
Gillies, of West Taieri, was inducted April 21st, 1875— Members, 85 
—Present church, costing £5000, was opened on October 15th, 1876, 
and the manse, costing £2300, was built in 1879 — E., 15 ; 
M., 368 ; stipend, £400 ; total revenue, £920 13s 3d.— Fuller informa- 
tion about Timaru Church will be found elsewhere. 


An occasional service was given by Rev. G. Barclay, of Timaru, 
Rev. A. B. Todd, Oamaru, and passing ministers — A Committee 
formed in 1871 got supplies from Christchurch, and obtained the 
services of Rev. Mr. Ewen for two years — A church was opened on 
August 22nd, 1874, and the Lord's Supper dispensed to 35 members. 
(a) Rev. Geo. Lindsay, licensed by the Timaru Presbytery, was 
ordained and inducted February 5th, 1876 -A Session was formed at 
the end of the year— A manse was erected in 1877 — Mr. Lindsay 
accnpted a call to Otepopo on April 18th, 1882. (b) Ret. Jas. McKee, 
of Masterton, was inducted on September 5th, 1882, the call being 


signed by 51 members and 32 adherents— A Sunday School hall 
was erected in 1892— Mr. McKee resigned August 16th, 1892, and 
left for New South Wales, (c) Kev. H. Kelly, B.A., of Woodlands, 
Southland, was inducted March 23rd, 1893— Waitaki was erected 
into a separate charge on October 10th, 1896— Mr. Kelly, M.A., 
accepted a call to Knox Church, Auckland, in July, 1898— 
(d) Rtv. A. S. MoBRiBON, M.A., of Hastings, was inducted in February, 
1899— Services at Hook, Hannaton, Waihao Downs— E., 3; M., 169; 
stipend, £250 ; total revenue, £352. 

(3) TEMUKA. 

Kev. G. Barclay, who was settled in Tiniaru on March 8th, 
1865, held for many years fortnightly services at Temuka, first in 
Georgestown school and then in Temuka school— a church was built 

in 1871 Timaru was disjoined, and erected into a separate charge 

in January 1872. (a) Rev. G. Barclay, of Timaru, was inducted on 
January 21st, 1872. A session was formed in June 1873 which had 
the superintendence of Temuka, Geraldine, &c. Geraldine and 
Pleasant Point were erected into separate charges on May 1st, 1879. 
(b) Rev. David Gordon, of Clinton, Otago, was inducted January 
8th, 1880, stipend £300— 31a. 2r. 32p. of land bought from Mr 
Holloway on March 8th, 1880, and 11a. 3r. 8p., costing £350, set 
aside for a glebe— Contract for building manse on it let on June loth, 
1880, cost to be £513 17s— Mr. Gordon accepted a call to Invercargill 
on September 3rd 1884. (c) Rev. Eneas Mackintosh, a licentiate of 
Otago and Southland, was ordained and inducted April 15th, 1885, the 
call being signed by 51 members and 59 adherents— Through ill 
health ho resigned on July 27th, 1886— Rev. E. D. Cecil a Congre- 
gationalist, supplied for a time, (d) Rev. John Dickson, M.A., who 
came to New Zealand on a holiday trip, and cabled home his 
resignation of Ballycarry, Ireland, was inducted on September 7th, 
1887— M., 90— Services at Waitohi f ortni;.:hlly— A debt of £200 cleared 
ofl'— Pakihi attached to Temuka, July 3rd, 1894— A monthly service at 
Waitobi, Rangitira Valley, Orton, and Seadown — More than £1000 
has been subscribed for a new church about to be erected— E., 8: 
M., 153 ; stipend, £250 ; total revenue, £350. 


This char^je was originally associated with Timaru, but Timaru 
was disjoined in January 1872, when Rev. G. Barclay came to reside 
at Geraldiue as minister of Temuka, Geraldine, &c. — A church was 
built, on a site promised by Mr. (now Sir Thomas) Tancred, and 
gifted by W. Postlethwaite, Esq. in 1872, and opened in February 
1873— A manse costing £500 was erected in 1872-73 by the General 
Committee, on a glebe of 33 acres given by Messrs. A. and W. 
Macdouald — Geraldine, including Mackenzie Country, was erected into 
a separate charge on May 1st, 1879. with («) Rev. G. Barclay as its 
minister— A Session was formed the same year — Mr. Barclay 
obtained a leave of six months to visit the Old Country to consult an 
oculist in London — Permission was given on June 27th, 1887, by 
the Presbytery to remove church and manse to the township — A 
church at Woodbury was built, the minister gifting the bell, as he 
did the bell at Geraldine Church. Mr. Barclay after 2-5 years of 
service resigned on December 3rd, 1889 — Mackenzie Country was 
erected into a separate charge on December 3rd, 1889. (b) Rev. A. 
B. Todd, late of Macraes, Otago, was inducted on June 4th, 1890 ; 
stipend, £250 with manse ; M., 69— Mr Todd was appointed Clerk of 
Presbytery April 14th, 1891— He is also Convenpr of Committee on 
Widows and Orphans Fund, and Committee on Aged and Infirm 
Ministers Fund — Leave to sell the old church site was given on 
April .5th, 1892— A monthly service at Woodbury, Scotsburn, Rangi- 
tata, and Hilton— E., 5; M., 142; stipend, £250; total revenue, 
£411 lls6d. 


An occasional service was given by the minister of Timaru from 
18»)5 onward- -The church was built in 1875— The congregation was 
erected into a separate charge on May Lst, 1879 -Cannington was 
attached January 14th, 1880. (a) Rev. A. Alkxandeu was inducted 
on July 22nd, 1879, and resigned on April 14th, 1880. (b) Rev. D. 
M'Lennan, who was licensed by the Presbytery of Timaru, was 
ordained on November 11th, 1880, the call having 47 names, and the 
stipend being £200— Albury, disjoin(;d from Geraldine, was attached 
on February 1st, 1881 -The manse was built in the same year— Mr. 
M'Lennan accepted a call from Akaroa on April 15th, 1885 (c) Rev. 


W. White, M.A., licentiate of the Irish Presbyterian Church, was 
crdainedand inducted on November 9th, 1885 — A church was erected 
at Totara Valley in 1890 — Albury joined to Mackenzie Country January 
lith, 1890, and Kakahu Bush attached — Mr. White accepted a call 
to Wallacetowu on December 31st, 1890— (^) Rev. Joseph White, 
of Otago and Southland Presbyterian Church, was inducted April 
5th, 1892 — Services at Kakaku Bush, Totara Valley, Sutherlands, 
Cannington — The manse was enlarged in 1892 — E., 6; M., 130; 
stipend, £225 ; total revenue, £358 16s 3d. 

(6) ST. ANDREW'S. 

Mr. Donald McLennan, a student sent from Auckland by Rev. D. 
Bruce and Church Extension Committee in October 1878, laboured 
in Otaio till settled in Pleasant Point in November 1880 — Beacons- 
field attached to Otaio, and Upper and Lower Otaio, Pareora, 
Otipua, &c., formed into a regular charge on January 14th, 1880 — In 
April 1880 George Gray Russell, Esq., gifted five acres of land at 
Beaconsfield, Otipua, as a site for church and manse, and promised 
£100 for Building Fund, and £25 for four years for Stipend Fund, 
(a) Rev. Joshua McIntosh, late of Sefton, was inducted on August 
9th, 1881 ; stipend £200, with rent of house — He resigned on October 
22nd, 1883— On July 1st, 1884, the manse at Beaconsfield was 
sold by a trustee, without the authority of Presbytery — The N.Z. 
and A. Land Co. gave site and donation for manse at St. Andrew's. 
October 1892— The charge was supplied during vacancy by Messrs. 
Cowie and McCully, students. Revs. Ross, Finlayson, and Campbell, 
and Mr. Mackie, student, &c. — A manse was built at St. Andrew's 
in 1896. {b) Rev. Roeekt Mackie was ordained and inducted on 
July loth, 1897 — Services at Makiki, Upper and Lower Otaio, St. 
Andrews, Southbrook — M. ,64: stipend, £200; total revenue, £430 
(£210 special, being raised for debt on manse and improving property). 


This district was supplied with ordinances by the Rev. G. 
Barclay, first from Timaru from 1865 to 1872, and then from 
Geraldine from 1872 to December 3rd, 1889, when Mr. Barclay 


resigned and Mackenzie Country was formed into a separate charge — 
A church at Burke's Pass was built as a Union Church in 1879 by 
Presbyterians and Anglicans, and opened by Rev. G. Barclay 
(Presbyterian), and Rev. Mr. Cooper (Anglican), and thus it remains ; 
but 30 Presbyterian services were held last year and only 12 Anglican 
— The church at Fairlie was also built as a Union Church on a site 
of an acre gifted by the late Mr. D. McLeau, and opened on March 
30th, 1879, by Revs. D. Bruce and G. Barclay. On the Union 
Committee representing the Presbyterians were Messrs. D. McLeau 
(chairman), A. H. McLean (secretary and treasurer), and James 
Wilson — Mackenzie Country was formed into a separate charge, 
promising a stipend of £200 on December 3rd, 1889— Albury was 
disjoined from Pleasant Point and attached on January 14th, 1890 
— The manse at Fairlie was built in 1891 on a site of 20 acres, a 
gift of Mr. D. McLean, (a) Rev. J.\jiks Clarkk, a probationer from 
Scotland, was ordained and inducted on January 27th, 1891 — Session 
formed the same year — Mr. Clarke accepted a call to Palmerston 
South on April 3rd, 1894. (b) Rev. W. J. Comrie, of Kelso, Otago, 
was inducted on September 11th, 1894 -The Anglican interest in 
Fairlie Union Church being bought out, that church became wholly 
Presbyterian in 1895 — Steps are now being taken to build a Sabbath 
School and vestry — Services are also held at Albury, Tengawai, 
Silverstream, Ashwick Flat, Burke's Pass, with occasional services 
through the Mackenzie Country as far as the Hermitage — E., 4 ; M., 
88; stipend, £250 ; total revenue, £330 os lid. 


Mr. Allan McLean, of Waikakahi, having given 30 acres of laud 
here to the Presbyterians for Church purposes, and the Session of 
Waimatc having made application to the Presbytery, Waitaki district 
was erected into a separate charge on Octobor iOth, 189G — Rev. G. K. 
Stowoll began work in February, 1897— A manse was erected near 
Waihao railway station in 1898— Mr Stowell is still labouring there, 
and living in the manse, having been recently appointed for another 
term — A weekly service is held at Waihao and Glcnavy, and a 
fortnightly at Redcliffe and W. Settlement. 



(Formed January 7th, 1874.) 


This congregation originated in the Hokitika Gold Rush of 
18G5 — Services were huld for short periods by Rev. C. Eraser and 
Canterbury ministers— A Building Committee was formed in April 
1866— A church costing £700 was finished January 1867, when Rev. 
J. Hall was officiating for a few months, (a) Rev. John Gow, of 
Lyttelton, accepted call January 9th 1867 ; stipend, £450— A large 
population in those days- -A cottage was bought for a manse in 1867 
— The church was lined and manse enlarged in 1868, cost £380— 
Mr. 0. Michelsen, now of the New Hebrides, became a member 
September 11th 1868 — Glebe cleared of trees November 1870— A 
good work was done by Mr. A. Scott with a noble band of teachers in 
the Sabbath School— Mr. Mueller rendered invaluable service in 
preaching all round the accessible outlying districts, in teaching the 
Bible class, and in supplying the pulpit in the minister's absence — 
At both Ross and Staffordtown a church and manse were built and a 
minister settled. — A church was built at Hau-Hau and also at Wood- 
stock— Week-day evening services were kept up at Blue Spur, 
Kanieri, and occasionally at South Spit and other places in addition 
to the weekly prayer meetings at Hokitika — Mr. Gow left for St. 
Andrew's, Dunedin, October 1871, amid regrets expressed on all 
sides— Mr. Button, &c., supplied during a vacancy of 11 months. 
{b) Rev. Jas. KirkIjAnu, of Otago, was inducted September 10th 1872 
— Like his predecessor he proved an earnest worker, but was not only 
evangelical but evangelistic, and many were added to the Church of 
Christ — A harmonium was introduced not without some friction — A 
new manse, costing £430, was built and the old one sold— Mr. 
Kirkland accepted call to Taieri, October 4th, 1875. (c) Rev. G. 
MoRicE, formerly of Napier, was inducted November '2nd 1876, and 
health being infirm at Hokitika left for Balclutha July 21st 1879 


— M., 97. (d) Rev. W. Dodqias, M.A.., of Akaroa, was inducted 
March 29th, 1881 — Fifty-oue members were added in 1885 at one 
communion after a series of evangelistic services —Mr. Douglas was 
Moderator of Assembly in 1882, and is Convener of the Chinese 
Mission Committee — Few congregations have been so happy in the 
choice of its ministers and oiTSce-bearers — All the many organizations 
of the congregation are well mamtained, and the services of the 
minister are much appreciated, but population here is declining — 
E., 5 ; M., 170 ; stipend, £300 ; revenue, £424 ISs. lOd. 


Had been visited by Revs. John Hall, John Gow of Hokitika, 
and C. Fraser. (a) Rev. Jos. McIntosh was inducted January 1870 at 
Cbristchurch — Services were held in Volunteer Hall — A church 
costing £600 was opened December 25th 1870 — Sabbath School was 
commenced at once — Session was formed October 19th 1873 — Present 
manse in March 1877 was bought for £540 — Mr. Mcintosh resigned 
September 15th 1875. (b) Rev. A. F. Douglas was inducted March 1870 
— He resigned through ill health of his wife March 6th 1878. (c) Rev. 
W. H. Root, of Gisborne, was inducted October 27th 1878 — He resigned 
October 27th 1881, and severed his connection with the Presbyterian 
Church — A vacancy of 12 months was supplied by Mr. James 
Malcolm, a teacher who in many ways has helped the church, (d) Rev. 
B. J. Westbrooke, of Rakaia, was settled October 1882— Gold mining 
was on the decline — A church was built at Brunnerton, and a good 
congregation of miners gathered — Mr. Westbrook resigned April 
1891. (e) Rev. A. Bakclay, a licentiate of the Free Church was 
ordained August 1891 — He gave much promise, but resigntd through 
ill health, April 1892. (/) Rev. Ronx. Stewart, of Woodville, and 
formerly of Rakaia, was inducted on September 19th, 1892— The 
members were 58 — The church was enlarged within twelve months, 
and the seating accommodation raised from 200 to 300, the cost being at 
once met — To meet the wishes of Mr. Moss, the organist, his efficient 
choir, and the congregation, a two-manual pipe organ was opened on 
May 4th 1898, £400 having been subscribed— The average attendance 
at the morning service is 150, and at the evening service 235 — A Young 
Men's Mutual Improvement Society, established by Mr. Barclay and 
fostered by Mr. Stewart, occupies a prominent position in the town — 


The same may be said of the Christian Endeavour Society, some 
members of which are actively engaged teaching the Chinese to read 
and study the Bible— The Sabbath School liberally supports the 
Foreign Missions — Fortnightly services are held by Mr. Stewart in 
Marsden and Maori Creek, distant from Greyraouth 10 and IG miles 
respectively, another testimony to the usefulness of the bicycle— 
E., 3 ; M., 105 ; stipend, £250 ; revenue, £417. 

(3) KUMARA. 

This congregation, like the township itself, originated in the gold 
rush of July 1876, when the road between Hokitika looked like an Old 
Country fair. Rev. W. Hogg, who was in the district at the time, 
selected a site at the scene of the rush for a church and manse, which 
was afterwards exchanged for one in the heart of the new diggings — 
Rev. G. Morice, of Hokitika, and his otBce-bearers supplied services 
for some time — A church was opened on November 18th, 1877, by 
Rev. A. F. Douglas, of Greymouth, cost about £400. (a) Rev. W. 
West, a teacher at Wanganui, who possessing good evangelistic gifts 
was induced to enter the ministry, was ordained in February, 1879 ; 
stipend, £300 — Not confining his services altogether to Kumara, he 
preached the Gospel up and down the coast, from Ross to Reef ton, 
and, amid general regret, left for Southbridge on August, 1882 — From 
this time onward the charge retrograded, (h) Rev. G. Hay, who had 
been supplying Kumara and Stafford, a joint charge, for eight months, 
was ordained and inducted in October 1884, and, failing to advance 
the interests of the charge, resigned, and left for New South Wales in 
little over a year afterwards, (c) Rev. Peter Ramsay was ordained 
and inducted to Kumara and Stafford in 1887, and was translated to 
Knaj^dale, Otago, in .July 1889. (d) Rev. G. K. Stowell was inducted 
in February, 1891, and resigned in February, 1893 owing to his wife's 
delicate health. Since then the congregation has been supplied by 
Home missionaries, amongst whom Mr. James Dickie with his wife 
did good service. The present occupant of the field is Mr. J. G. 
Chappie — As elder, Sunday School teacher, leader of psalmody, and 
lay preacher, Mr. R. Stewart, now Rev. R. Stewart, has left the charge 
under a debt of gratitude. So has Mr. John Bain, for many years 
elder, in teaching in the Sunday School as well as distributing 
Christian literature all over the Coast. 


This charge was organised by Rev. D. Bruce during a visit of his to 
Westland in November, 1879. (a) Rev. J. M. Eraser, of t'oromandel, 
who commenced to hold services in a public hall on December 12th, 
accepted a call in February 1880, and resigned in January 1881. 
(h) Rev. p. R. Monro, after labouring in the district for a term as a 
student, was ordained and inducted in May 1883 — A church costing 
£400 was erected — Mr. Monro was inducted into Oxford and Cust on 
August 10th, 1886. (c) Rev. H.B. Burnett, of Halkett, was inducted 
on March 16th, 1887 — A Kirk Session was organised on July 7th, 1889 
— Mr. Burnett, who was Moderator of Assembly in 1890, resigned 
through ill health in April, 1891— M., 24— Rev. R. C. Morrison and 
others supplied the vacancy, (d) Rev. John Hall, once of Vancouver's 
Island, formerly an efficient supply, and organiser of congregations 
in New Zealand, late of Waterford, Ireland, during a supply of three 
months, added 20 members to the communion roll. He was 
inducted November 6th 1892— Though Mr. Hall has won his spurs 
in many countries and congregations, in no place has he felt more 
happiness in his work than at Westport. E., 4 ; M., 71 ; stipend, 
£200 ; revenue, £237. 


This mining district was without a minister during its most 
prosperous times. Ministers of Greymouth, Kumara, etc., often 
visited it, but no regular service till Rev. Robert Thornton, then 
headmaster of Reefton Public School, by request, began services in 
the Oddfellows' Hall on September 9th, 1883. (a) Rev. Wiluam 
Gow was ordained on September 2nd, 1884 ; stipend, £240— A 
church costing £600, and seating 200, was opened on August 31st, 
1884, and a Sabbath School commenced the same day — A Session was 
formed in 1888, composed of Messrs Banks, Preshan, Dykes, and Sliep- 
herd, men who had much to do in forming the congregation — Mr Gow 
was translated to Kaiapoi on July 2nd, 1891— M., 60. (/;) Rev, 
B. HuTSON, of Ravensbourne, was inducted on September 22nd, 
1891— Mining becoming depressed he left Reefton in September 1894, 
and some time after was inducted at Stratford — The congregation 
has been a Church Extension charge since, and ministered to by 
students, viz., Messrs. Jamieson, Webster, Spence, and Crawford — 
E., 2; M., 07 ; stipend, £150 ; revenue, £207 123 6d. 



The neighbouring ministers, especially those of Greymouth, gave 
oocasional services for a time. On February 7th 1882, after a 
sermon preached by Rev, W. West, of Kumara, to a congregation 
of 35 in the Globe Hotel, a resolution was passed to build a 
new church, and a committee appointed — On April 15th 1883, a 
church costing £225, and seating 60 persons, was opened by 
E«v. Mr Westbrooke, of Greymouth. Here Rev. W. Gow gave a 
fortnightly service, from January 1884 till February 1890, when 
in response to a requisition, Mr. D. A. Anderson, a Home mis- 
sionary, was appointed by the Church Extension Committee. In 
1893 a cottage manse was built on the same section as church, cost 
£250. (a) Rev. D. A. Anderson was inducted in April 1895, and was 
translated to Sefton in 1898. 


This church originated in 1879 with the visits of Rev. W. H. 
Root, of Greymouth. Services were maintained by the ministers of 
Greymouth and Messrs. Taylor and Malcolm— In 1883 a church 
capable of seating 180 was erected, and in 1885 freed from debt — The 
congregation was constituted a separate charge in 1891 — This church, 
like the district which had once a population of 2000, has suffered 
much from the depression of the Grey Valley mining interest, and 
the variety and uncertainty of ministerial supply, yet the members 
remaining have kept well together — Amongst those who have 
officiated are : Mr. Fairmaid, student of Otago, 1885 ; Mr. D. 
Anderson, lay missionary, 1886-87, and again in 1890 ; Mr. J. M. 
Simpson, student, 1888-90 ; the late Mr. T. Finlay, student, 1892 ; 
Rev. Mr. Hutchison, from Queensland, 1893 ; Mr. Jas. Thompson, 
student, 1894 Mr. E. McDowall, Home Missionary — Members in 
1895, 70. 



(Formed March, 1884.) 

(a) Rev. D. Hoqo, of U.P. Church, Scotland, was inducted in 
January 1853 — The first church was of toi-toi, with an attendance 
of about 30— A new church was built in 1854 — Mr. Hogg, after 
13 years' arduous labour, resigned through ill-health in 1866 — 
Application was then made to the Free Church of Scotland for "a 
minister of talent and experience," who should receive £50 for 
passage out and £300 per year, {b) Rev. John Elmslie, of Kenneth- 
mont, in the Presbytery of Alford, Scotland, was appointed to 
Wanganui. He appears to have been happy in the Home charge, but 
to have been moved by an earnest appeal made in the Free Church 
Assembly by Dr. Cairns, of Melbourne, to give himself to colonial 
work. He arrived in New Zealand in January 1867, and, being 
inducted, at once vigorously entered upon his new sphere of labour. 
Services during the vacancy had been supplied by Revs. Messrs. Taylor 
(Mr. Hogg's son-in-law) and John Hall. Owing, however, to their 
intermittent character and the uncertainty of supply the congregation 
had suffered a good deal. All friends of the cause now rallied around 
Mr. Elmslie. In a few months the old church was found so in- 
adequate that the congregation, full of hope, resolved to build a new 
and more commodious church, and erect a suitable manse, at a cost of 
£3300. The extensive building scheme was on the eve of completion 
and congregational prosperity seemed assured when a series of 
disasters occurred. The old and new churches were both suddenly 
burned down by a fire, which left the manse standing, and the people 
of Wanganui without a place of worship. Before an attempt to 
retrieve this disaster could be made, the last great Maori War broke 
out and ravaged the whole country from Wanganui to New Plymouth. 
This new calamity put a stop not only to church building but to 
nearly all regular church work for almost two years. Occasional 
servioes were held in the Oddfellows' Hall. That was all. A good 


many of the oongregation were drafted for the seat of the disturbance. 
'Unable to do much duty in town Mr. Elmslie in those days often went 
under escort to conduct services for the troops, who were made up of 
volunteers and armed constabulary, and did good service in soothing 
the wounded and dying. It may be said to have been war on a small 
scale, but it had all the devilry of the war spirit. When peace waa 
restored at the end of 1869 the church was built, and regular services 
resumed with more hope and enthusiasm than ever. 

" Our bugles sang truce for the night cloud had lowered. 
And sentinel stars set their watch in the sky." 

Mr. Elmslie was called to the Moderator's chair of the Assembly in 
1872. A happy revival time ensued in the oongregation. As if to 
make up for past reverses patiently borne, God appears to have sent 
down showers of blessings on the heads of the people of Wanganui in 
1875. For sixteen weeks special services were conducted by Mr. 
Elmslie and the Rev. R. Bevan, Wesleyan minister, mostly in the 
Oddfellows' Hall. During this period many souls were added to the 
Church, of those that were being saved, and the communion roll of 
the Presbyterian congregation was greatly increased. The strain of 
that time on mind and body was felt by Mr. Elmslie afterwards, and 
had not a little to do with his acceptance of a call to St. Paul's, 
Christchurch, the following year. When he left, in May 1876, the 
congregation, having met all the expenses of their building operations, 
were entirely free from debt, and the membership stood at 275. The 
congregation had not long to wait for a worthy successor, (c) Rev. 
Jambs Tekadwell was inducted in November 1876. The manner in 
which he became a Presbyterian is very interesting, and no doubt 
accounts for the strong convictions he had on the doctrine, govern- 
ment, and worship of the Presbyterian Church, and the ability with 
which he was able in their defence to enter the lists against all comers. 
By birth he was an English Episcopalian, and brought up in the 
faith of that Church. At the age of twelve years, however, he was 
sent to the Coldstream Boarding School in Berwick. There soon the 
question of Presbytery versus Episcopacy was brought under his notice, 
and with the Bible in his hand and the aid of such controversial 
literature on both sides as he could obtain, he decided once for all in 
favour of Presbytery. What adds to the interest is that it was not a 
mere intellectual conviction. At the same time and place he received 


religious impressions, which a perusal of the " Anxious Inquirer " 
deepened into a saving knowledge of the trutn. Like his two pre- 
decessors he had considerable experience in other fields of labour, 
first as minister of Balmoral and Harrow in the Presbytery of Ballarat, 
whither he had gone for the sake of his health, and again as minister 
of Free Church, Stevenston, Scotland, where he had a small congrega- 
tion, but ample time for study. Of the latter he seems to have eagerly 
availed himself, and this brings out another marked feature in his 
twenty years' ministry at Wanganui. In addition to the faithful 
discharge of the ordinary duties of the pastorate he took the deepest 
interest in the cause of education, doing it good service as a member 
of the local School Committee, and the district Education Board, and 
the Church's " Board of Examiners." He was Moderator of Assembly 
in 1885 — A Lecture Hall was built in 1889 — An organ, costing £500, 
was secured just before his decease — Mr; Treadwell died, after acute 
suffering borne with patience, on January 24th 1897, the Assembly 
minuting: — ". . . For many years the pastor of an important charge, 
where he made full proof of his ministry, he also took a leading part 
in the general work of the Church, especially in that of the New 
Hebrides, education, and Union, in which he gave valuable assistance 
and counsel," &c. 

It is a proof of how the times are changed that Wanganui on the 
occasion of this vacancy no longer looked to the Old Country for a 
minister. It gave a call to one colonial-born and colonial-educated. 
(d) Rev. R. M. Rtburn, of Gisbornfe, was inducted in September 
1897, and is labouring there as minister of a strong and united con- 
gregation, with much promise of success. — Wanganui has been 
fortunate in the choice of its ministers — E., 14 ; M., 236 ; stipend, 
£400 ; revenue, £1329. 


(a) Rev. John Thom began work here in 1857, the Free Church 
of Scotland giving £50 per year for a time — Mr. Jas. Wilson, who 
gave 10 acres of ground for glebe, cemetery, and school purposes, 
may be called the father of this old congregation — Mr. Thom left for 
Hutt August 9th 1858. (h) Rev. P. Mason was appointed in 
September 1859, and resigned on December 81st 1860. (c) Mb. R. J. 
Allswobth, Principal of the Kai Iwi Native Institution and Free 


Church student from Glasgow, was appointed on April 1st 1861, and 
ordained by Rev. D. Hogg, the Free Church giving £50 per year for 
three years — The first elders were Messrs. J. Bruce, sen., A. Milne, 
and J. Wilson, sen. — A church was opened at Bonny Glen in July 
1861, and enlarged in 1865 — The foundation stone of a church at 
Turakina was laid on October 14th 1864 by Rev. Jas. Duncan, 
Manawatu, who first preached here about 1852, Mr. W. Watt, of 
Wanganui, planting an oak to mark the spot ; this church cost £800, 
and was opened on April 2nd 1865 ; the parish was divided in 1864 — 
The Maori War setting in, Mr. Allsworth left in 1869 for Victoria. 

(d) Rev. John Wilson, from Ireland, was settled in the end of 
1869, and after a pastorate of eighteen months left for Australia. 

(e) Rev. John Ross, of Wairarapa, was inducted in July 1871 — A 
debt of £200 was at once cleared off — In 1874, M., 43 — A manse built 
in 1875 has grown into a large educational establishment for ladies, 
conducted by Mr. Ross — A special work of grace begun in 1885 doubled 
the communion roll, caused attendance at weekly prayer meeting to 
equal that of Sabbath Day, and is felt still — About 10 years ago the 
little church at Bonny Glen, then the oldest in the province, gave 
place to a neat structure designed, like many more, by Mr. Ross, and 
opened free of debt— Mr. Ross, in 1899, left for a short visit to 
Scotland. M., 120; stipend, £181; revenue, £227 2s. 

(3) FOXTON. 

(a) Rev. Jas. Ddnoan, a Maori missionary, sent out by the 
Reformed Church of Scotland in 1843, was the first minister of 
this place. He began work among the Maoris in July 1844 and 
among the settlers more particularly at Foxton, in 1801, the 
Presbytery of Wellington directing his attention to the settlers also 
at Rangitikei, Parawanui, and Bulls, where ho held services for ten 
years until a minister was obtained— The church here was built in 
1867, cost £425— Mr. Duncan was twice Moderator of Assembly, i.e., 
in 1863 and 1888, and as an early pioneer missionary and pastor and 
supply for vacant pulpits, has rendered long and faithful service- 
He resigned in 1897, but still preaches once fortnightly, although 
86 years of age. 


(i) MARTON. 

The first services by Rev. R. J. AUsworth in 1862 in Mr. Prince's 
house at Tutaenui, now Marton. (a) Rev, Jas. Gumming, late 
assistant at Montrose, was inducted May 24th 1865, and left in 
1869 -The church at Marton was built in 1871, cost £652. (h) Rev. 
W. Stewart, of U.P. Church, Northumberland, arrived in 1872 — 
A manse costing £500 was built in 1873— Upper Tutaenui church 
was erected in 1874 — Mr. Stewart was inducted in 1876, resigned in 

1883, and died at Marton on August 1st 1894.— M., 50. (c) Rev. D. 
Gordon, late of Conlig, Co. Dov;n, Ireland, was inducted on June 11th 

1884, was Moderator of Assembly in 1894, and is Convener of 
Maori Mission Committee — E., 7 ; M., 81 ; stipend, £210 ; revenue 
£234 78 8d. 


Presbyterianism here has a chequered history — Rev. John 
Thorn coming to the district in 1858, itinerated here for three 
years. (a) Rev. R. F. Macnicol, late assistant of St. Luke's, 
Glasgow, arrived on November 23rd 1865, the Church of Scotland 
guaranteeing £150 a year for some time — He found the military settlera 
gone, but the Independents joined the Presbyterians found remain- 
ing — A church to seat 200 and costing £700 was built in 1866 — He 
left for Auckland January 29th 1869— Rev. T. Blair and Mr. Wells, 
catechist, gave services — A Rev. M. S. Breach came on the scene 
in 1873 and was the cause of much strife- The church was burnt 
down and services suspended — A new church costing £700 was 
built in 1884— Messrs. Grant and Jolly also supplied. (6) Rev. Jas. 
A. Dawson was ordained on August 20th 1885, and resigned through 
ill health on May 19th, 188G. (c) Rev. W. Grant, whose work 
as a student here was appreciated, was ordained on February 7th 
1889, and having drawn the congregation well together left for Leeston 
May 20th 1891.— M., 57. (d) Rev. C. McDonald, a licentiate of Free 
Church of Scotland, was ordained on October 15th 1891— A school- 
room was built — Mr. McDonald resigned through ill health in August 
1894.— M., 69. («) Rev. S. S. Osborne was ordained on October 
3l8t 1894— The congregation is now in a prosperous condition — E., 
3 ; M., 82 ; stipend, £200 ; revenue, £331 9s 2d. 


(6) BULLS. 
(a) Rev. Jas. Doull late of F. C, Fellar, Shetland Isles, was 
inducted in May 1873, a manse costing £380 being ready for occupation 
— A church costing £250 was built in 1875 — Both church and manse 
were enlarged in 1886 at a cost of £350— An afternoon service is held 
at Parawanui where Rev. Jas, Duncan held services previous to 1873, 
and where a church was built about 1864— Mr. Doull was Moderator 
of Assembly in 1884, and has been entrusted with many other 
important offices in the Church— E., 4; M., 48; stipend, £137; 
revenue, £156 17b. 4d. 


The settlers who returned after the war were ministered to by Rev. 
John Elmslie of Wanganui, and then by Rev. N. MeCallum, of Patea, in 
whose time (1875) a church site was secured and a manse built upon it. 
(a) Rev. R. J. Allsworth, late of Victoria and formerly of Turakina, 
was inducted on June 29th 1876, stipend £200— Services at Waverley, 
Maxwelltown, Patea, and Hav9era — A church to seat 250 was opened 
on December 16th 1877, £748 having been subscribed — A bell and 
clock were added in 1878 — the Plymouth Brethren were the occasion of 
a great division in this church— Mr. Allsworth resigned on April 7th 
1885. (b) Rev. Jas. Nevillb was ordained in 1886 — Believing in 
centralisation he held few outside services— He left for Scotland in 
September 1888. (c) Rev. T. MacDonald, who had been supplying 
Petone was ordained on June 13th 1889 — New life manifested itself, 
especially in the prayer meeting — Attendance on ordinances having 
increased, a transept was added to the church — Services at Kohi, 
Waitotara and Maxwelltown. (d) Rev. T. MacDonald, having gone 
Home to Scotland in 1891 and returned, was inducted in March, 1892, 
and was translated to Hawera on December 4th 1894— M., 150. 
(e) Rev. C. McDonald, of New Plymouth, was inducted in August, 
1895— E., 4; M, 172; stipend, £200 ; revenue £270. 


Services were commenced here by Revs. Elmslie and Duncan 24 
years ago in an old sawmill— Mr. R. McGregor, student, took charge 
in 1875, and supplied for a few years — A church to seat 120 was 


built near the Square in 1878. (a) Rev. A. M. Wbight, M.A., who 
had been a supply of Waikato West, and for six months of 
Palmerston, was ordained and inducted in 1879— A wing was added to 
Palmerston church, and a church erected at Awahuri— Mr. Wright 
was inducted in Lincoln February 9th 1892. (h) Rev. W. Thomson, 
a licentiate of Free Church, Scotland, was ordained on May 18th 
1892— The manse was secured in 1882 at a cost of £500— A new 
church was opened on December 10th 1893 by Rev. J. Paterson, 
Wellington — Messrs. Watson and Brownlee, missionaries, travel over 
a radius of 30 miles— E., 12 ; M., 180 ; stipend, £250 ; revenue, £362. 

(9) HAWERA. 

A committee to establish ordinances was held in the Block House 
on April 12th 1874 — Rev. N, McCallum, itinerating on the Coast, 
made Hawera his headquarters for two years — Rev. A. Martin 
supplied for a few months, when on January 14th 1877 a church 
was opened on a site given by Mr. A. Winks, (a) Rev. James 
ToRRY was inducted on November 14th 1879 ; stipend, £200, and 
£26 in lieu of manse— Fatea was disjoined, a church having been 
built there— A church was erected at Normanby— Mr. Torry died 
after a protracted illness July 19th 1885— Mr. W. Grant, a student, 
supplied for eight months, (h) Rev, A. McLean, B.D., formerly of 
Waipu, was inducted November 4th, 1886 — A manse was erected in 
1890, £300 being donated by Mrs. S. Stephenson, of New Brunswick — 
Mr, McLean resigned on January 28th 1891 — Manaia was disjoined 
in 1891. (c) Rev. R. McGregor, late of Kaiapoi, was inducted to 
Hawera, Normanby, and Okiawa, September 9th 1891 — A church at 
Okiawa, costing £150, was built in 1893 — Mr. McGregor resigned 
through ill-health on May 16th 1894— M., 116. (d) Rev. T. 
MacDonald of Waverley was inducted on December 4th 1894 — 
E., 5 ; M., 116 ; stipend, £250 ; revenue, £335 17s 8d, 


(a) Rev. H. M. Murray wag ordained on May 20th 1880— Servicei 
held in a schoolroom — A church opened in May 1882— A manse was 
built in 1887, costing with church £800— The church at Halcombe 


was erected in 1885 ; cost, £300 — Halcombe was disjoined about 
1893 — Mr. Murray, whose stipend was about £90 and £25 Church 
Extension grant, resigned in 1896. — M., 21. (b) Rev. F. Stubbs was 
inducted on August 18th 1896 (stipend, £175), and was called to Gust 
and Oxford on October 27th 1898— M., 86. (c) Rev. C. Mukrat, 
M.A., of Wairarapa South, and formerly missionary at Ambrym was 
inducted on November 16th, 1898— E., 4 ; M., 115; stipend, £208. 

(11) PATBA. 
Rev. N. McCallum began preaching to a few families here in 
1874, his labours extending to Waverley, Wairoa, and Hawera ; but 
losing his wife left in April 1876 — A manse was built in his time at 
Waverley — Rev. James Torry, of Hawera, took charge — A church was 
built in 1878 ; cost, £400— After the death of Mr Torry in 1885, Messrs. 
A. Thomson, now of Petone, and J. B. Finlay supplied — Patea was 
erected into a full charge in November 1887 — M., 15. (a) Rev. A. 
Thomson, recently a supply of Mongonui, and late of Waiuku, 
was inducted in 1887, but population declining he resigned in 1889. 
Patea has since been supplied by students and by Rev. A. M. Beattie, 
who resigned in 1898. M., 40 ; stipend, £125 ; revenue, £139. 

(12) MANAIA. 
Services were held fortnightly by Rev. J. Torry of Hawera in 
Wesleyan Church, and then in Court House, afterwards by the 
Rev. Mr. M'Lean of Hawera — A church was opened free of debt. 
(a) Rev. A. M'Lennan, M.A., of Tauranga, was inducted in October 
1891, and left for Sydney in 1897. (bj Rev. W. H. Philip of Pahiatua 
was inducted on March 16th, 1898 — HeofiSciates at four out-stations, 
viz., Auroa, Kaponga, Otakeho, and Kapuni— E., 5; M., 73 ; stipend, 
£170, including £20 Church Extension grant. 


Services by Revs. Gordon, Ross, and Doull — A church site pur- 
chased in October 1887— The schoolroom was exchanged for Argyle 
Hall in March 1889— A church was opened on December Ist 1889, 


free of debt— The pulpit was supplied by Messrs. Finlay, Fletcher, 
Todd, Barclay, Bates, and Martin, candidates for the ministry, (a) 
Rev. D. Maktin, B.A., a student from Ireland, was ordained on 
October 19th 1893 — A tower was added to the church — A cottage 
manse, costing £300, was built— E., 3 ; M., 32 ; stipend, £160. 


At a meeting held on May 30th 1889 it was resolved to establish 
a church here, and Rev. Joshua M'Intosh began services unde 
Church Extension Committee — A church was opened on May 4th 
1890, and a manse built and partly finished in 1893— Mr. M'Intosh 
died on July 20th 1894. (a) Rev. B. Hotson of Reefton was 
inducted on March 5th 1895 — The communion roll was made up 
that year of 40 members (24 by certificate and 16 by profession). 
The church at Stratford was removed to a more central position and 
enlarged the following year — A church was built at Toko, one of 
the out-stations, in 1898 — At the beginning of 1899 the seating 
accommodation was increased to meet requirements of the congrega- 
tion, and d strong effort is being made to wipe off the remaining £200 
of debt, and build a new church— In 1889, before coming to Stratford, 
Mr. Hutson succeeded in dividing the honours with Dr. MacGregor 
of Oamaru in the competition for £100 offered for the best essay on 
" Socialism in Relation to Christianity" by the trustees of the late 
Mr. John Frazer— M., 83 ; stipend, £175 (including £25 Church 
Extension grant) ; revenue, £189 23. lOd. 





(See also Outline of Contents and Index of Illcstbations 
prefixed to this Volume.) 


In this Index the capital letters indicate the Chiu'ches from which ministers originally 
came, and in most cuaes these were the Churches in which they were educated. F.C., 
stands tor Free Church ; I.P.C., Irish Presbyterian Church ; C.S., Church of Scotland ; 
IT.PJ'., United Presbyterian Church; E.F.C., English Presbyterian Church; I.O., 
Independent Church ; if. C, Methodist Church ; r.O..S., Church of Otago and Southland. 
After the minister's name the numeral with the letter c attached indicates the number of 
charges he has ministered to in this Church, and then follows the number of years 
they cover. In the same way after the name of the congregation the numeral with the 
letter ?n attached indicates the number of ministers it has had, and then follows the 
number of years the ministers unitedly cover. In many cases, owing to delay in calling 
fli'st minister and interregnums, the age of a congregation will be greater than this. To 
help the reader to trace a minister from one charge to another such references are 
chronologically arranged. Computations of time are made up to June, 1899. 

Adams, Rev. T., I.C, 1 c, 3| yrs. 326 
Adamson, Kev. H., I.P.C, 1 c, 

4Jyr8. .. .. 315,356 

Addington Cemetery . . . . 134 

Aged and Infirm Ministers Fund 227 
Alexander, Rev. A., F.C., 1 c, 

i yr. . . . . 360, 378 

Alison, Mr. . . . . . . 19 

Allan, Rev. R. S., F.C. and N.Z., 

1 c, 3| yrs. . . . . 360 

Allsworth, Rev. R. J., F.C, 3 c, 

27f yrs. . . . . 374, 388, 391 

Amuri Charge, 2 m., 22| yrs., 

147-49, 353 
Anderson, Rev. D. A., N.Z., 2 c, 

3J yrs. . . . . 357, 385 

Anderson, Rev. A., R.P.C., 1 c, 

1 yr. . . . . . . 329 

Akaroa Charge, 6 m., 22 yrs. 

141, 351 
Arnot, Rev. A.B., F.C, 1 c, 3yrs. 

314, 323, 329 
Ashburton Charge, 3 m., 23 J yrs. 357 
Asher, Rev. J. A., C.O.S. 314, 366 
Auckland Presbytery . . . . 319 

Avondale Charge, 6 m., 21J yrs. 329 

Badqeb, Mr. B. 
Bain, Mr. J. . . 
Baird, Mr. T. 




Baird, Mr. S. C, . . . . 76 

Bannatyne, Rev. John, F.C, 1 c, 

2iyr8. .. .. ..374 

Barclay, Rev.A.,F.C.,lc., Smths. 382 
Barclay, Rev. G., E.P.C, 3c., 25yrB. 

155-165, 204-5, 267, 376, 377, 379 
Barclay, Rev. P., F.C, 1 c, 7 yrs. 

115, 366, 367, 378 
Barr, Rev. R., F.C, 1 c, 7 yrs.. . 330 
Barrier Act . . . . . . 233 

Beattie, Rev. A. M., F.C, 1 c, 

13| yrs. . . . . . . 357 

" Bengal Merchant " . . 20, 23 

Bible in Schools . . . . 271 

Blake, Rev. A., F.C, 2 c, 12Jyr8. 

303, 314, 355, 364 
Blenheim Chajge, 4 m., 48 yrs. , . 372 
Bonar, Mr. A. . . . . 178 

Book of Order . . . . 237 

Boyd, Rev. J. S., 1 c, If yrs. . . 338 
Brown, Rev. G.,F.C, 1 c, 20 yrs. 325 
Brown, Rev. W. P., F.C, 1 c, 1 yr. 

314, 346 
Brown, Mrs. . . . . 142, 209, 351 

Bruce, Rev. Jas., F.C. and N.Z., 

2 c, 7^ yrs. . . 324, 326, 335 

Bruce, Rev. D., F.C, 1 c, 24^ yrs. 

69-72, 82 85, 110, 248, 319 
Brunnerton Charge . . . . 385 

Bulls Charge, 1 m., 26 yrs. . . 391 



Burnett, Rev. H. B., I.P.C, 3 c, 

15i yrs. . . . . 357, 359, 384 

Button, Mr. C. E. .. .. 179 

Caibns, Rev. T. R., I.P.C, 1 c, 

7yrB. .. .. ..360 

Calder, Rev. P., F.C., 1 c, 33J yrs. 

105, 372 
Calvinism, Testimonies in Favour 

of 13 

Cambridge Charge, 4 m., 24 J yrs. 332 
Campbell, Rev. Johu, F.C., 2 c, 

8 yrs. Ill, 150, 355, 356, 373 

Campbell, Rev. W. R., F.C., 2 c, 

15 yra,, .. ..165,353,376 

Campbell, Mr. . 126, 372 

Canterbury Plains . . . . 122 

Canterbury P.C. Extension As- 
sociation . . . . . . 250 

Carrick, Rev. A,, Canada, 1 c, 

17iyr8. .. .. ..320 

Catholicity of Presbyterian Church 

11, 313 
Cemetery Dispute at Wellington 38 
Chappie, Mr. J. G. . . . . 383 

Chinese Mission . . 303-4 

Chisholm, Mr. R. A. . . . . 158 

Christchurch Presbytery . . 351 

Christian Endeavourers . . 304 

Church Building, Difficulty of . . 209 
Church Extension 82-7, 226, 244-56 
" Church Praise " .. .. 235 

Clark, Mr. A... .. ..66 

Clarke, Rev. J., F.C., Ic, 3^yrB. 315, 380 
Classics in University Training 230 2 
Comrie, Rev. W., C.S. . . 59, 319 

Corarie, Rev. W. J., N.Z., 2 c, 

6| yrs. 314, 315, 330, 380 

Connor, Rev. C, U.P.C, 1 c, 

4 yrs. . . . . 365, 367 

Coroumndel Charge, 4 m., 5 yrs. 332 
Cowie, Mr. John, F.C. and N.Z. 374 
Cree, Rev. J. W., F.C, 1 c, 

18£ yrs. . . . . . . 356 

Cumming, Rev. Jas., F.C, 1 c, 

4 yrs. .. .. .,390 

Cast and Oxford Charge, 4 m., 

20|yrb. .. .. ..358 

Dawson, Rev. J. A., F.C. and N.Z., 

1 0., 9 mths. . . . . 390 

Dayspring, Story of the 294-300 

Deans, Messrs. William and John 123-5 
Deans, jun., Mr. John . . . . 127 

Declaratory Act . . . . 242 

Devonport Charge, 6 m., 21J yrs. 330 

Dickie, Mr. Jas. 

, , 


Dickson, Rev. J., I.P.C, 

1 c.. 

Hi yrs 



Democratic Church 


Dinwiddie, Rev. W., E.P.C 

,2 c.. 

3 yrs. . . 



Disruption in Scotland 


DouRlas, Rev. A. F., F.C. 

2 c. 

6i yrs. . . . . . . 382 

Douglas, Rev. S., F.C. and N.Z., 

2c., 8 yrs. . . 367, 370, 373 

Douglas, Rev. W., F.C, 2 c, 

24J yrs. . . 303, 352, 382 

Doull, Rev. J., F.C, 1 c„ 26 yrs. 

365, 391 
Doull, Rev. A., N.Z., 1 c, 2 yrs. 365 
Dron, Rev. W., F.C, 1 c, 6 yrs. 

52, 342 
Duncan, Rev, Jas., R.P.C, 1 c, 

36 yrs. .. 45-7, 301, 312, 389 
Dunn, Rev. T. W.,F.C. and N.Z., 

lo.,5JyrB. .. 336,337 

" Education Bill " Dispute at 

Auckland . . . . 62 

Education . . . . 136, 257-72 

Educated Ministry . . . . 129 

Elderbhip .. .. 5, 101 

Elmslie, Rev. Dr., F.C, 2 c, 

32J yrs. 
Elliott, Rev. 

13J yrs. 
Erwin, Rev 

15J yrs. . . 
Establishment, Attempted 

Ewen, Rev. R. 
Evans, Rev. W., E.P.C. 

18 yrs. . . 
Examination Board for 

logical Students . . 

216, 354, 386, 391 
K., I.P.C, 2 c., 

347, 348 

Dr., I.P.C, 1 c. 

1 c. 












.. 385 

Farr, Mr., 

S. C. 

.. 144 




i. . . 



, F.C, 

D., F.C. 
.. 354 

2 c, 

.. 326 
355, 360 

Feilding Charge, 3 m., 21| yrs . . 392 
Findlay, Rev. J. B., I.P.C. and N.Z., 

1 c, 5 yrs. .. 352,393 

Finlay, Rev. W. F., F.C. and N.Z., 

1 c, 11 yrs. .. ..336 
Finlayson, Rev. W., E.P.C., 2 c, 

4 yrs. . . . . 314, 360, 364 

Flemington and Tinwald Charge, 

2 m., 13| yrs. . . . . 364 
Fletchei, Rev. H. J., N.Z. . . 302 
Foreign Mission .. 225,241,285-94 
Forbes, Rev. T. R., F.C. and N,Z., 

1 c, 9 mths. .. 330,336 

Foxton Charge, 1 m., 36 yrs. . , 389 
Fraser, Rev. C, 1 c, 26f yrs. 

131-44, 173, 248, 279, 351, 354 
Fraser, Rev. J. M., F.C. and N.Z., 

3 c, 2 yrs. . . 315, 333, 370, 384 
Fraser, Rev. T. M., Victoria, 1 c, 

4 yrs. . . . . . . 337 

Fraser Rev. R., F.C, 2 c, 15 yrs. 

367, 368 
Free Church Ministers . . 313 

Freedom of the Will . . . . 7 

Fulton, Rev. D., F.C. and N.Z., 

lc.,6|yrs. .. ..346 

Galloway, Rev. Ja3., F.C. and 

N.Z., 1 c, 6 yrs. .. 330,336 

General Assembly, First Meeting 

of .. .. 223-27 

Geraldine Charge, 2 m., 19J yrs. 

163, 378 
Gillies, Rev. W., C.O.S., 1 c, 

24 yrs. .. 166-9,314,370 

Gillies, Rev. A., F.C, ., ..294 

Gillespie, Mr. . . 141, 352 

Gisborne Charge, 4 ra., 24 yrs . . 368 
Gold Fever . . . . . . 220 

Gordon, Rev. D., I.P.C, Ic, 15yrs. 390 
Gordon, Rev. D., I.P.C. 1 o., 

4iyr3. .. .. 314,377 

Gorrie, Rev. J., U.P.C, Ic, 7Jyr8. 326 
Gow, Rev. John, F.C, 3 c, 

19| yrs. 151, 174, 176, 184, 314, 
335, 355, 381 
Gow, Rev. W. J., N.Z., 2 c. 

14| yrs. . . . . 353, 356, 385 

Grant, Rev. A., F.C. and N.Z., 

1 c, 16 yrs. .. ..368 
Grant, Rev. G., F.C, 2 c, 6| yrs. 

142-3, 352, 353 
Grant, Rev. W., N.Z., 2 c, 9J yrs. 

356, 365, 390 
Gray, Rev. A., F.C, 1 c, 5^ yrs. 343 
Greymoulh Charge, 6 m., 26^ vrs 

18i-4, 382 

Halkett and Kimbebley Charge, 

2 m., 8 yrs. .. ..359 
Hall, Rev. John, I.P.C, 1 c, 

6J yrs. . . 175, 176, 335, 384 
Hamilton Charge, 2 m., 4 yrs. . . 337 
Hamilton, Rev. D., I.P.C, 1 c, 

li yrs. . . . . 207, 329 

Hart, Mr A. .. .. ..161 

Hastings and C Charge, 1 m., 

5yrs. .. .. ..370 

Hauxwell, Rev. F. M., F.C, 2 c. 

6| yrs. . . . . 358, 359 

Havelock Charge, 4 m., 28 yrs. . . 368 
Hawera Charge, 4 m., 17 yrs. .. 392 
Hawke's Bay Presbytery , . 366 

Hay, Mr. E. .. .. 140-1,352 

Hay, Rev. P. S., C.S., 1 c, 4^ yrs. 

315, 331 
Hay, Rev. G., C.S., 1 c, 1 yr. . . 383 
Headship of Christ . . . . 9 

Headrick, Rev. John, F.C. . . 332 

Hill, Rev. Jas., U.P.C, 4 c, 31^ yra. 

83, 328, 330, 331, 355 
Hogg, Rev. D., U.P.C, 1 c, 13yrs. 

53, 195 6, 386 
Hogg, Rev. W., I.P.C, 2 c, 

12 yrs. 111,147-9,163,186,203, 
357, 383 
Hokitika Gold Rush .. ..171 

Hokitika Charge, 4 m., 28J yrs. 

171-81, 184, 381 
Hope, Rev. J. W., F.C, 1 c, 

2J yrs. . . . . 342, 343 



Horner, Rev. C. W., I. P.O., 2 c, 

8 yrs. . . . . 334, 857, 358 

Hunterville Charge, 1 m., 5^ yrs 393 
Hutson, Rev. B., N.Z., 4 c, 

12i yrs. 314, 315, 327, 335, 394 
Button, Mr. P. W. .. ..161 

Hutt Charge, 6 m., 25i yrs. 52,342 

Influence of the Presbyterian 
Church . . . . . . 16 

Inglis, Rev. John, R.P.C. 

45, 47, 76, 287, 325 

Inglis, Rev. G. B., COS., 1 c. 

6 yrs. . . . . 314, 357 

Instrumental Music Question . . 225 

Irwin, Rev. H., I.P.C, 1 o., 6| yrs. 363 

Jamieson, Rev. D,, C.S., 1 c, 

IJyrs. .. .. .,352 

"JaneGifford" .. ..57 

Johnstone, Rev. H. W., F.C., 1 

c, 10 yrs., .. ..370 

Jolly, B.A., Mr. Isaac, F.C. and 
N.Z. .. .. ..390 

Jones, Rev. G., I.C, 1 c, 12 yrs. 322 

Kaiapoi Charoe, 4 m., 34^ yrs . . 352 
Kaikoura Charge, 1 m., 19 yrs., 

144, 375 
Kelly, Rev. H., N.Z. and C.O.S. 

2 c., 7 yrs. ..314,339,377 
Kent Terrace Charge, 1 m., 

12J yrs. . . . . . . 348 

Killen, Rev. J. M., I.P.C, 2 c, 

4i yre. . . . . 327, 331 

Kirkland, Rev. Jas., C.O.S., 1 c, 

3 yrs. 185, 314, 381 
Kirton, Rev. W., C.S., 2 c„ 

21^ yrs. . . 48, 145, 341, 352 

Knox Charge, Auckland, 1 m., 

lOmths. .. .. ..339 

Kumara . . . . 190, 219 

Kumara Charge, 4 m., 18J yrs. 383 

Lamb, Dr. R., . . 291-93 

Lawrie, Rev. Jas., U.P.C, 1 o., 

2f yrs. .. .. ..346 

Lem, Mr., .. ., .. 304 

Leeston and Brookside Charge 

2 m., 262 yrs. . . . . 356 


Lewis, Rev. H.J., I.C, 1 c, 3 yrs. 370 
Lincoln and P. Charge, 7 m., 

261 yrs. . . . . 160, 355 

Lindsay, Rev. Jas., 1 c, 1 yr. . . 346 
Lindsay, Rev. G., F.C. and N.Z., 

1 c, 6iyr3, .. 315,376 
Loyalty to the Word of God . . 2 
Loyalty to the British Throne and 

Constitution . . . . 224 

Lymburn, Rev. Jas., F.C. and 

N.Z., 1 c, 9|yrs. .. 371 

Lyttelton Charge, 6 m., 31 J yrs. 

145, 151, 354 

Macdonald, Rev. T., F.C and 

N.Z., 3 c„ 12yr3, .. 391,392 

Macdonald, Rev. John, F.C. and 

N.Z. ,2 c., 7 yrs. .. 335, 338 

Macdonald, Rev. C, F.C, 2 c, 

5|^yrs. .. .. ..390 

Macdonald, Mr. W. K. . . 127 

Macfarlane, Rev, John, C.S., 1 c, 

4| yrs. 20, 26, 27, 31-42, 89, 340 
Mackellar, Rev. J., C.S., 2 c, 

2| yrs. . . . . 315, 365 

Mackenzie, Rev. A., C.S., 1 c, 

2 yrs. . . . . 329, 374 
Mackenzie, Rev. J. H., C.O.S. , 

2 c., 9iyrs., .. 314,355,372 

Mackenzie Country . . . . 160 

Mackenzie County Charge, 2 m., 

7|yr8 ..379 

Mackie, Rev. J., U.P.C. and E.P.C, 

2 c, 6| yrs. 327, 364 

Mackie, Rev. R., N.Z., 1 c„ 2 yrs. 379 
Mackintosh, Rev. E., C.O.S., 1 c, 

IJyrs. .. .. ..377 

Macky, Rev. John, I.P.C, 1 c, 

26^ yrs. . . 74-7, 205, 320 

Macky, Mr. T., .. ..327 

Macleod, Rov. Dr. N., .. 18 

Macniool, Rev. R, F., C.S., 2 c, 

34 yrs. .. 119-21,329,390 

Mahurangi Charge, 1 m., 42| yrs. 

79, 81, 324 
Malvern Charge, 2 m., 19J yrs. . . 359 
Mandeno, Rev. Mr. . . . . 336 

Maori Mission . . 300-3 



Manaia Charge, 2 m., 7 yrs. . . 393 
Mangare Charge, 1 m., IJ yrs. .. 338 
Mansfield, Mr. . . . . 292 

Marjoribanks, Mr. . . . , 28 

Marriage with a Deceased Wife's 

Sister .. .. ..234 

Martin, Rev. D., I.P.C. and N.Z., 

Ic, 5i yrs. . . . . 394 

Martin, M.L.C., Dr. . . . . 39 

Martin, Rev. Jas., . . . . 335 

Marton Charge, 3 m., 30 yrs. . . 390 

Mason, Rev. P., F.C., 3 c, 3J yrs. 

327, 888 
Masacres by the Maoris . . 22 

Masses, Elevation of the . . 7 

Masterton Charge, 6 m., 29J yrs. 343 
Maxwell, Rev. Jas., I.C, 1 c, 

16J yrs. . . . . . . 359 

McAra, Rev. John, F.C., 1 c. 

11 yrs. .. .. 314,369 
McAra, Rev. W., F.C. and N.Z., 

Ic, 19 yrs. .. ..375 

McCalium, Rev. A., F.C, 1 c, 

5j^yrs. .. .. ..330 

MoCallum, Rev. N., F.C, 1 c, 

9 yrs. . . 335, 358. 359, 393 
McCaw, Mr. Jas., .. .. 350 

McCully, Rev. R.. N.Z., 1 c. 

If yrs. . . . . 315, 357, 367 

Mcintosh, Rev. Joshua, F.C, 4 c, 

12 yrs. . . 379, 355, 357, 382 
Mcintosh, Rev. A., F.C, 1 c, 

3 yrs, . . . . . . 326 

McGowan, Rev. W., U.P.C, 2 c, 

10| yrs. . . 160, 342, 355 

McGregor, Rev, W., F.C, 2 c, 

9 yrs. . . . . 352, 367 

McGregor, Rev. R., F.C and 

N.Z., 2 c, 12^ yrs. 353, 391, 392 
McKee, Rev, D., I.P.C,, 1 c, 

6 mths. . . . . 360-2 

McKee, Rev. Jas., I.P.C. and 

N.Z., 2 c, 17 yrs. 331, 376 

McKenzie, Rev. John, N.Z., 1 c, 

3J yrs. . . . . 331, 350 

McKenzie, Rev. P. J., F.C, 1 c, 

2 yrs. .. .. ..330 


1 c. 

1 c. 



.. 206 

.. 99 

1 c, 

322, 339 


McKerrow, Mr, Jas. . . . . 390 

McKinney, Rev. R., I.P.C, 1 c, 

421 yrs. . . 79-81, 203, 325 

McLean, Rev. R., F.C, 1 c, 

IJ yrs. . . . . 374, 370 

McLean, Rev. A., I.C. and P.O., 

Canada, 3 c, lOJ yrs. 322, 329 
McLennan, Rev. D., N.Z., 2 c, 

9J yrs. . . . . 352, 378, 379 

McLennan, Rev. A., F.C. and N.Z., 

3 c, 14f yrs. . . 331, 364, 393 
McLeod, Rev. Norman 86, 321 

McLeod, M.D., Rev. John, Vic- 
toria, 1 c, 7 mths. 

McMichael, Rev. J., I.P.C, 

5 yrs. 
McNeil, Rev. D., I.P.C, 

1| yrs. . . 
McNicol, Mrs. 
McRae, Mr. G. 
McRae, Rev. W., F.C, 

11 yrs. . . 
Milne, Rev, Jas., C,0,S„ 1 c„ 1 yr. 

314, 320 
Minimum Stipend . . . . 227 

Mitchell, Rev. J. M., F.C, 1 c. 

2Jyrs. .. .. ..338 

Moir, Rev. John, F.C, 1 c, 14 yrs. 

49, 125, 131, 343 
Monro, Rev. G, B., F.C, 1 c, 

21Jyrs, .. .. ..334 

Monro, Rev. P. R., F.C and N.Z., 

4 c, 13J yrs. 358, 360, 365, 384 

Morice, Rev. G., F.C., 2 c, 7| yrs. 

334, 366, 369, 381, 383 
Morris, Rev. G., CS., 11 mths. . . 331 
Morrison, Rev. A. S., N.Z., 2 c, 

5 yrs. .. .. 371,377 
Morrison, Rev. R. C, CO,S., 1 c„ 

2 yrs. 
Mount Egmont 
Mueller, Mr. . . 
Muir, Rev, J. S., CS 

6 yrs. 
Murray, Rev. H. M., F,C„ 1 c, 

19 yrs, . . 
Murray, Rev, C, F.C, 2c., 

lO.iyrs. .. 289-90,349,393 

314, 352 



1 c. 



Napieb Charoe, 5 

Neil, Rev. S. J., 

18|yrs. .. 
Nelson Presbytery 
Nelson Settlement 
Nelson Charge, 3 


m., 37^ yrs. 

114, 11.5, 366 
I.P.C, 2 c, 

331, 3.32 
. . 88 
m., 49| yrs. 

88-106, 372 
1 c, 
.. 391 

Neville, Kev. Jas., N.Z 

2 yrs. 
New Plymouth Charge, 5 m., 

12|yrs. .. .. 116-21,390 

Ngaruawahia Charge, 2 m., If yrs. 333 
Nicbol, Rev. W.,F.C. and N.Z., 

2 c, 7 vrs. 315, 368, 369, 370 

Nicholson, Rev. T. D., F.C., 2 c, 

16 yrs. . . . . y.5-109, 372 

Norrie, Rev. T., F.C., 1 c, 

43^ yrs. . . . . 78, 216, 267 

Norrie, Rev. T. A., N Z., 1 c , 

4^ yrs. . . . . 333, 374 

North Belt Charge, 3 m., 16| yrs. 360 
Numerical Strength of Preeby- 

terianism . . . . 15 

OoG, Rev. C.S., C.S., Ic, 26Jyrs. 341-2 
Onehunga Charge, .5 m., 34f yrs. 

325, 330 
Opotiki Charge, 2 m., 19 yrs . . 334 
Osborne, Rev. S. S., N.Z., 1 c, 

4^ yrs. . . . . . . 390 

Otahuhu Charge, 2 m., 41 yrs., 

75-7, 320 
"Outlook" .. .. ..281 

Pahiatca Charge, 1 m., 4^ yrs. 3-50 
Palmerstnn North Charge, 2 m., 

14 yrs. .. .. .. 391 

Panton, Rev. A. G., F.C., 1 t., 

If yrs. .. 

64-8, 319 

Papakura Charge, 1 m. 

43i yrs. 
78, 79, 322 

Parishes, Undefined . . 


Papanui and Belfast 
3 m., 8 yrs. 


.. 358 

Parity of Ministers 

.. 3 

Pastorate, Average 

.. 312 

Patea Charge, 1 m., 2 yrs. 



Paterson, Rev. Jas., F.C. and E.P.C., 

1 c, 30| yrs. 251, 267, 344-5 

Paterson, Rev. J. G., C.O.S., 2 c, 

14J yrs. . . . . 314, 366, 369 

Paton, Rev. Dr. . . 295, 298-9 

Petone Charge, 1 m., 9| yrs. . . 349 
" Philip Laing" .. ..98 

Philip, Rev. W. H., F.C, 2 c, 

5i yrs. . . . . 350, 393 

Picton Charge, 5 m., 18| yrs. . . 374 
Pleasant Point Charge, 4 m., 

17iyrs. .. .. ..378 

Port Aburiri and M. Charge, 4 m., 

14Jyrs. .. .. ..367 

Porter. Rev. R. J., I.P.C, 1 c, 

3^ yrs. . . . . 315, 356 

Press and the Church . . 273-84 

Probationer, Troubles of a . . 199 
Property, Church . . 306-10 

Pukekohe and P. Charge, 3 ra., 

17 yrs. ,. .. ..336 

Raebtjrn, Rev. W., CS. and N.Z., 

1 c, 14 yrs. . . . . 369 
Rakaia Charge, 2 m., 13 J yrs. . . 359 
Ramsay, Rev. P., F.C, 1 c, 

2 yrs. .. .. 31.5,383 
Rangiora Charge, 4 m., 12 yrs. . . 365 
Reef ton Charge, 2 m., 9 J yrs. . . 384 
Reid, Mr. W. S. . . . . 307 
Remuera Charge, 1 m., 21| yrs. 338 
Renwick, Dr. . . . . 100 
Ritchie, Rev. R., C.S., 1 c, 

5 mths. .. .. ..349 

Riddle, Rev. P. J., F.C. and N.Z , 

4 c, 19| yrs. 330, 359, 369, 374 
Riding, Clerical . . 196-8 

Ring, Mr. J. . . ' . . . . 183 

Riwaka Charge, 2 m., 4J yrs. . . 373 
Robb, W. 0., I.P.C, 2 c, 

23^ yrs. . . . . 370, 373 

Roborlson, Rev. T. F., F.C, 1 c, 

93 yrs. . . . . . . 334 

Roby, Rev. G. Y.. F.C, 1 c, 2iyrs. 327 
Rodger, Rev. D. D , C.H. and N.Z , 

3c.,16yr8. .342, -iirjS, 365, 367, 373 
Root. Rev. W. U., F.C, 2 c, 

8i yre. . . . . 369, 382, 385 



Koss .. .. 186-9 

Robs, Rev. J., F.C., 2 c, 31| yrs. 

267, 389 
Runeiman, Rev. D. W., C.S., 1 e., 

11^ yrs. .. .. ..334 

Russell, Rev. A., 1 c, 3J yrs. 

373, 374 
Rutherford, Mr G. . . . . 353 

Ryburn, Rev. R. M., N.Z., 2 c, 

8^ yrs. . . . . 869, 388 

Savage, Mr. J. . . . . 183 

Scorgie, Rev. W., C.O.S., N.Z., 

I c, 5 yrs., . . 314, 315, 363 
Scott, Rev. T., F.C., 3 c, 7| yrs. 

332, 333 
Scott, Mr. A... .. 173,180 
Scholarship Endowment Scheme 342 
Sefton Charge, 5 m., 10^ yrs. . . 357 
Shepherd, Rev. A., F.C., 2 c, 

14J yrs. . . . . 367, 368 

Sherrififs, Rev. W., F.C., 3 c, 

15 jrs. . . 368, 373, 374, 375 
Shirer, Rev. W., U.P.C, 1 c, 

lOf yrs. . . . . . . 348 

Sidey, Rev. Dr., U.P.C, 1 c, 

II yrs. . . . . 267, 366 
Simpson, Rev. J. M., I.P.C. and 

N.Z., 2 0., 4| yrs. 358, 360, 385 
Skinner, Rev. J., C.O.S., 1 c, 

4 yrs. .. .. ..314 

Slocombe, Rev. S., I.C., 1 c, 

3iyrs. .. .. ...363 

Smellie, Rev. J. B., F.C., 1 c, 

2^ yrs. .. .. 315,365 

Smith, Rev. W., F.C., 2 c, 2Jyrs. 

333, 335 
Sommerville, Rev. R., U.P.C. and 

N.Z., 2 c, 23J yrs. 329, 330, 337 
Soutar, Rev. A. C, 1 c, 11 mths. 374 
SouUibridge Charge, 2ra., 15|yrs. 363 
Spence, Kev. J. U., F.C. and N.Z., 

1 c, 8 niths. . . 314, 370 

Springburn Charge, 4 m., 14| yrs. 364 
Sprott, Mr. M. . . . . 177 

St. Andrew's Charge, 2 m., 4 yrs. 379 
St. Andrew's,,3m.,40iyrs. 

127-38, 351 

St. Andrew's, Wei., 4 m., 50 yrs. 

31-51, 340 
St. Andrew's, Auck., 4 m., 44| yrs. 

57-70, 249, 319 
St. David's, Auck., 2 m., 15^ yrs. 336 
St. John's, Wei., 2 m., 44| yrs. 

51, 815, 343 
St. James', Auck., 3 m., 36 yrs. 327 
St. James', Wei., 2 m., llf yrs., 847-8 
St. Luke's, Auck., 1 m., 21| yrs. 838 
St. Paul's,, 3 m., 32^ yis. 

143, 358 
St. Peter's,, 3 m., loj yrs. 363 
St. Peter's, Auck., 1 m., 13| yrs. 337 
St. Stephen's, Auck., 2 m.,21|yrs. 884 
Steele, Rev. D. J., I.P.C, 1 c, 

lijyrs. .. .. ..321 

Stewart, Rev. T., F.C and X.Z., 

2 c., 2Jyrs. 332,388 

Stewart, Rev. John, F.C. and 

N.Z., 1 c, 2 yrs. .. 
Siewart, Rev. R., N.Z., 


Stewart, Rev. W., U.P.C, 

11 yrs. . . 
Stipend, Average 
Stowell, Rev. G. K., F.C. 


2 c, 

370, 882 
1 c, 
.. 390 
.. 227 
N.Z., 2 c, 5i yrs., 365, 874, ,S80, 388 
Strang, Mr. R. . . . . 31 

Stratford Charge, 1 m., 4^ yrs. . . 394 
Stubbs, Rev. F., F.C, 2 c, 3 yrs. 

358, 398 
Sustentation Fund . . . . 252 

Sydenham Charge, 4 m., 18 yrs. 360 

Tabulated Facts and Figures 811-15 
Tait, Rev. A. M., F.C, 1 c, 2 yrs. 832 
Taranaki Settlement . . 116-8 

Tauranga Charge, 5 m., 17 yrs. . . 831 
Taylor, Mr. . . . . . . 54 

Taylor, Rev. J. U., 1 c, 3^ yrs, 

323, 332, 837 
Temperance . . . . 218, 226, 240 

Temuka Charge, 4 m., 24|yrs. 162, 377 
Tenure of Ministerial Office . . 237 
Thames Charge, 3 m., 29^ yrs. . . 331 
Thorn, Rev. John, F.C, 2 c, 

8 yrs. .. 55,119,342,388 



Thompson, Rev. A., F.C., 2 c, 

4J yrs. . . . . 330, 393 

Thompson, Rev. A., F.C. and N.Z., 

Ic, 9|yrs. .. 349,393 

Thompson, Rev. W., a Seceder, 

1 c, 1 yr. 339, 392 

Timaru Charge, 3 m., 31f yrs. 

158, 162, 166-69, 376 
Timaru Presbytery , . . . 376 

Todd, Mrs. .. ' .. 150,355 

Todd, Rev. A. B., N.Z. and C.O.S., 

1 c, 9 yrs. . . . . 378 

Torry. Rev. Jas., U.P.C, 1 c, 

5| yrs. . . . . 392, 393 

Totara Flat Charge, 1 m., 2f yrs. 385 
Tout, Rev. R., I.C, 1 c, IJ yrs. 357 
Treadwell, Rev. J., F.C, 1 c. 

20:1 yrs. . . . . 284, 387 

Treadsvell, Rev. A. H., N.Z., 1 c, 

7 yrs. .. .. ..355 

Trust Funds . . . . . . 310 

Turakina Charge, 5 m., 39| yrs. 388 

Union of Northern and Southern 

Churches . . 223-4, 314 

University Honours . . . . 271 

Virtue, Mr. D. W. 

.. 185 

Waddell, Rev. Dr., I.P.C. 1 c, 

l.J yrs. . . 281-2, 315, 355 

Waihenga Charge, 4 m., 13J yrs. 346 
Waikato West Charge, 4 m., 

Hi yrs. .. .. ..334 

Waikarl Charge, 2 m., 3 yrs. . . 365 
Waimate Charge, 4 ra., 23 yrs. . . 376 
Waipawa Charge, 6 m., 23 J yrs. 370 
Waipu Charge, 4 m., 38 yrs. 72, 321 
Waipu North Charge, 1 m., 1 yr. 339 
Waipukurau Charge, 4 m., 26J yrs. 367 
Wairarapa South Charge, 2 m,, 

lOiyrs. .. .. ..349 

Wairau Massacre . . 93, 209-11 

Wairoa Charge, 3 m., 18| yrs. .. 369 
Waitaki Charge . . , . 380 

Waiuku Charge. m., 24^ yrs. . . 329 

Wallace, Rev. J., F.C, 2 c, 

Hi yrs. . . . . 327, 330 

Wallis, Rev. Dr. . . . . 336 

Walls, Rev. T., C.S., 1 c, 1 yr. . . 370 
Wanganui Presbytery . . . . 386 

Wanganui Charge, 4 m., 44 yrs. 

53, 386 
Watt, Rev. W., F.C. . . 287-91, 294 
Waverley Charge, 5 m., 22J yrs. 391 
Webster, Rev. G., F.C, 1 c, 

ll^yis. . . . . 267, 351 

Wellington Presbytery. . .. 340 

Wellington Founded . . . . 30 

West, Rev. R. S., F.C, 1 c. 

Hi yrs. .. .. ..337 

West, Rev. W., N.Z., 2 c., 1.3^ yrs. 

363, 383, 385 
Westbrooke.Rev.B. J.,M.C, 3 c. 

18 yrs. . . .. 359, 364, 382 

Westland Presbytery . . . . 381 

Westland Settlement . . . . 170 

Westminster Assembly . . 5 

Westport Charge, 4 m., 141 yrs. 384 
Whangarei Charge, 7 m., 39 yrs. 

311. 326 
White, Rev. W., I.P.C, 1 c, 5 yrs. 

315, 379 
White, Rev. J., C.O.S., 1 c, 7 vrs. 

314, 379 
Wilson, Rev. John, I.P.C, 1 c, 

liyrs. .. .. ..389 

Wilson, Rev. Jas., F.C, 1 c, 1 yr. 355 
Wilson, Mr. Jas. . . . . 55 

Wilson, Mr. W. . . . . 128 

Wood, Rev. R., N.Z. and CO.S., 

1 c, 8i yrs. . . 314, 350 
Woodville Charge, 3 m., 6 yrs. . . 370 
Worboys, Rev. C, M.C, 2 c, 

11 yrs. . . . . 329, 335 

Wright, Rev. A. M., CS. and N.Z., 

2 c, 20 yrs. . . 356, 392 
Wylie, Rev. R., E.P.C, 1 c, 

ij yrs. . . . . . . 326 

Whyte, Rev. A„ U.P.C, 1 c. 1 yr. 349 

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