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3 1833 02256 0194 




Presbyterian Church 





Prepared for the observance of the Two Hundredth Anniversary of the 

First Church, with much supplementary material collected 

by Dr. Hall during his Pastorate 

MacCrellish & QuiGEEY, Printers 






T WILL be at once noticed that this volume introduces nuany per- 
sons, places, and incidents, as well as churches, that do not come 
strictly within the scope of its title. But I thought that it would 
contribute to the interest and usefulness, not to say the circulation of 
the book, to make it contain as much information as without positive 
incongruity could be collected from the materials that came before 
me, and which would probably not fall so easily into other hands. 

I take the opportunity of asking to be apprised of the errors or omis- 
sions that may be discovered, and of any additional facts or documents 
relative to the history, which would make it more complete. 

Having now fulfilled the request of many esteemed friends in the 
church and city, I leave the work in their hands, hoping that none will 
be wholly disappointed, and praying that the result may show that the 
time it has occupied has not been spent at all inconsistently with the 
obligations of my sacred office and my particular charge. 

Trenton, March 23, 1859. 



A FTER the publication of his History, in 1859, Dr. Hall continued 
the collection of all manner of interesting illustrative material, 
which he wrote out at length in a book to which he gave the title "Sup- 
plement to the History of the Presbyterian Church in Trenton, by John 
Hall, New York, 1859." This manuscript book he deposited in the 
archives of the church. In the preparation of this second edition the 
bulk of this supplement has been added to the book of 1859, in the 
form of an appendix. Dr. Hall's preface to his supplementary collec- 
tion is as follows : 

"It should be remembered that the History was, avowedly, not 
exclusively that of the First Church (as sometimes noted in books 
and pamphlets), but of the 'Presbyterian Church in Trenton,' and 
'from the first settlement of the town.' Also, that, as declared in the 
Preface, 'many persons, places and incidents, as well as churches,' 
were introduced, because of the opportunity which I then had, and no 
one might have again, of obtaining the information, even though the 
facts had no direct connection with the name of the work. I have 
taken the same license in the Supplement, and hope to forestall objec- 
tions by foretelling on this page that it has purposely included many 
names and occurrences which have only an indirect or casual associa- 
tion with the title, but which are not without some interest in them- 
selves, and will demand no apology." 

No changes in either the text or the form of Dr. Hall's unique 
and invaluable book have been made, except that a very few of the 
footnotes, essential to the correctness and accuracy of the text, have 
been incorporated with it, and others of a general illustrative character 



have been transferred to the appendix, where they appear in connec- 
tion with the other material of the Supplement. A very few errors, 
pointed out by Dr. Hall himself in his notes, have been corrected. It 
is believed that this second and enlarged edition of Dr. Hall's work 
will prove not less interesting and valuable, to readers of a later time, 
than was the first book to his friends and fellow-townsmen of 1859. 

I gratefully acknowledge the aid of the Rev. John Dixon, D.D., the 
Rev. Lewis Seymour Mudge, D.D., and the Rev. Henry Collin Minton, 
D.D., who have written the history of the church during their pas- 
torates, but especially am I indebted to the Rev. Walter A. Brooks, 
D.D., who has most happily combined the Supplementary Collections 
with the first published text in a continuous narrative, the original 
authorship of each being exactly preserved. Also am I indebted to 
the Hon. Garret D. W. Vroom for his generous interest in the super- 
vision of the book through the press, for his valued suggestions, and 
for his interest in securing some of the historical facts and illustra- 
tions for the book. 





Presbyterian Settlement oe Central New Jersey — Falls of 
Delaware — 1682-1700, i 

The Churches oe Hopewell and Maidenhead — 169S-1736, 13 

The Trenton Church— The Rev. David Cowell— 1714-1738, 3i 


Rev. Mr. Cowell and Rev. M!r. Tennent — Schism oe Synod — 
1736-1760, 47 


Trenton in 1748 — Episcopal Churches — Trenton Names and 
Places — 1 746-1 760, 57 


College of New Jersey — Cowell, Burr, Davies, Finley — 
1746-1760, 69 

Mr. Cowell's Death and Burial — 1 759-1760, 81 

The First Charter of the Church — Trustees — 1756-1760, 93 


Ministry of the Rev. Wm. Kirkpatrick — His History — 1760- 
1766, 99 





Trustees — Trenton and Maidenhead — 1764-1769, 117 

EwHu Spencer, D.D. — His Previous History — 1721-1769, 125 

Dr. Spencer's Congregation — 1 769-1 773, 139 


Dr. Spencer's Ministry — Revoi,utionary Incidents in Trenton 
— 1773-1780, 159 

Ceose of Dr. Spencer's Ministry — His Death — 1780-1784, 171 


The Rev. J. P. Armstrong — Previous History and Settlement 
— 1750-1790, 179 


The General Assembly — New Constitution of the Church — 
Notes, 1785-1790, 193 

Public Occasions in Trenton — Notes — 1789-1806, 201 

The New Brick Church — Notes — 1804-1806, 213 


Theological Seminary — Mr. Armstrong's Death — Notes — 
1807-1816, 223 


Samuel B. How, D.D. — William J. Armstrong, D.D. — Rev. John 
Smith — Notes — 1816-1828, 237 




James W. Alexander, D.D.— John W. Yeomans, D.D.— John 
Hall, D.D.— 1829-1859, 249 

Supplementary Items— 1859-1884, 265 

John Dixon, D.D.— Lewis Seymour Mudge, D.D.— 1884-1901, ... 271 

Henry Collin Minton, D.D 283 



I. Dr. Hall's Supplement, 291 

II. History of the Proposal to make TkENTON the Capital 

OF THE United States, 365 

III. Deed of Basse and Revel, 371 

IV. List of the Pastors, Elders, Deacons and Trustees of Tren- 

ton Church, 373 

V. List of Burials Made from Inscriptions on the Headstones 

in the Church-Yard, 377 

VI. Inscriptions on Tombstones Under the First Presbyterian 

Church, 393 



Presbyterian Settlement oe Central New Jersey- 
Falls OE Delaware. 

1682^ — 1700. 

The territory occupied by the present city of Trenton lies 
so near the boundary between the Berkeley and the Car- 
teret, or the east and the west sections of the Province of 
New Jersey, that the history of its settlement is connected 
with that of both the original divisions. The advance of 
the Quaker colonists from the south and west, and of the 
Dutch and Puritan from the north and east, gradually peo- 
pled this central region. It is, however, to the policy which 
invited to East Jersey the inhabitants of Scotland and Ire- 
land that we owe the immigration, which, in the course of 
time, gav€ Presbyterian features to the religious character 
of its inhabitants, and made it "the cradle of Presbyterian- 
ism in America."* In the year 1682, when Carteret's in- 
terest in New Jersey was purchased by William Penn and 
his eleven associates, the Society of Friends, of which they 
all were members, was the smallest religious denomination 
there. The few settlements that existed at the time — the 
whole population was not more than five thousand — ^were 
composed chiefly of families that had emigrated from New 
England, Holland and Scotland. As West New Jersey and 
Pennsylvania were sufficient to absorb the Quaker interest, 
it was a matter of policy to place the new enterprise on such 

Hildreth's "United States," vol. ii, Chapter 17. 

I PRES { I ) 


a foundation as would be inviting to persons of all creeds. 
For this purpose the twelve original proprietors determined 
to share their interest with an equal number of new adven- 
turers. The leading varieties of ecclesiastical connections 
then prevailing in the mother countries of England, Scot- 
land and Ireland, seem to have been represented in the new 
body of proprietors, but most of them, whether Protestants 
or Romanists, and even the leading Quakers, were connected 
with Scotland. The second set were a motley collection. 
The earls of Perth and Melford (Drummond) had apos- 
tatized to Romanism from the Church of Scotland on the 
accession of James II. "They did this," says Macaulay,* 
"with a certain audacious baseness which no English states- 
man could hope to emulate." They were, at the time of 
becoming proprietors in the land of toleration, persecuting 
in Scotland such as refused to testify against the Presby- 
terians. Barclay was a native of Scotland, became a Roman 
Catholic in Paris, was thereupon recalled by his father, and 
both became Quakers. The Scotch and Irish Presbyterians 
and New England Puritans (many, perhaps most, of whom 
were P'resbyteriansf), made the moral character of the 
Province. In July, 1684, a vessel from Leith carried one 
hundred and sixty passengers, and another from Montrose 
one hundred and thirty tO' East Jersey. In that year Gawen 
Lawrie, the Deputy Governor, wrote from Elizabethtown : 
"The Scots and William DockwTa's^ people, coming now 
and settling, advance the Province more than it hath been 
advanced these ten years." In closing a glowing account 
of the Province, he says : "I have none to write for me, but 
you must send a copy of this to Scotland." In another letter 
of the same month, the same writer remarks : "The Scots 
have taken a right course. They have sent over many ser- 
vants, and are likewise sending more. They have likewise 

* "History of England," chapter 6. 

t See Hodge's "Constitutional History," part i, 22-39. 


sent over many poor families, and given themi a small 
stock." James Johnston writes tO' his brother in Edin- 
burgh : "It is most desired there may be some ministers 
sent us over; they would have considerable benefices and 
good estates ; and since it would be a matter of great piety, 
I hope you will be instrumental tO' advise some over to us." 
There appears to have been an early provision in some 
places for the ministry. Oldmixon says :* 

"A year or two after the surrender [of the patents of the proprie- 
taries to the Crown, 1702], Sergeant Hook purchased 2,750 acres of 
land in West Jersey, and gave the tenth part of it as a glebe to the 
Church. He was a Presbyterian ; but I suppose glebe is as consistent 
with that denomination, as any other." 

Peter Watson writes tO' a friend in Selkirk (August, 
1684) : "We have great need of good and faithful minis- 
ters, and I wish that there would come over some here; 
they can live as well and have as much as in Scotland, and 
more than many get. We have none within all the Prov- 
ince of East Jersey, except one who is preacher in New- 
ark ; there were one or two preachers more in the Province, 
but they are dead, and now the people meet together every 
Sabbath day and read, and pray, and sing psalms in their 
meeting-houses." In January, 1685, Fullerton writes from 
Elizabethtown to Montrose : "By my next I hope to insure 
sixty or seventy pounds to the parson, for we want a min- 
ister." In March, 1685, Cockburn writes tO' Scotlan.d : 
"There is nothing discourages us more than want of min- 
isters here ; but now they have agreed about their stipends, 
there is one to be placed in New' Perth, Piscataway, Wood- 
bridge and Elizabethtown. They have a mind to bring 
them, from Scotland." Among the emigrants who left Scot- 
land in 1685 was George Scot, Laird of Pitlochie. It was 
the first year of the reign of James II., when already the 

British Empire in America, i. p. 294. 


non-conformists of England and Scotland perceived that 
they had nothing to expect under the new monarch but a 
continuance of the persecutions of which their country, for 
its faith's sake, had been the bloody field. "Never," says 
Macaulay, "not even under the tyranny of Laud, had the 
condition of the Puritans been so deplorable as at that time. 
* * '^ Through many years the autumn of 1685 was 
remembered by the non-conformists as a time of misery 
and terror. ^' * * In Scotland the King had demanded 
and obtained new statutes of unprecedented severity against 
the Presbyterians."* "Severe as the sufferings of the non- 
conformists in England were at this period," says another 
historian, "they were nothing compared with that was en- 
dured by the poor Presbyterians of Scotland."! 

George Scot advertised his project in the following terms : 

"Whereas, There are several people in this kingdom, who, upon 
account of their not going that length in conformity required of them 
by the law, do live very uneasy ; who, beside the other agreeable ac- 
commodations of that place [East New Jersey] may there freely enjoy 
their own principles without hazard or the least trouble ; seeing there 
are ministers of their own persuasion going along with the said Mr. 
George Scot ; who, by the fundamental constitution of that country 
are allowed the free exercise of their ministry, such as Mr. Archibald 
Riddel, brother to Sir John Riddel, of Riddel; Mr. Thomas Patter- 
son, late minister of Borthwick, and several other ministers ; it is 
hereby signified to all, who desire this voyage, that the Henry and 
Francis, of Newcastle, a ship of 350 tons, and twenty great guns, 
Richard Hutton, master, is freighted for the transportation of these 
families, and will take in passengers and goods at Leith, and passen- 
gers at Montrose, and Aberdeen, and Kirkwa, in Orkney, and set sail 
thence for East New Jersey, against the 20th day of July, God willing." 

Scot sailed about the time specified, with nearly two 
hundred of his countrymen, but himself and wife died 

* "History of England," chap. 5, 7. 

t Orme's "Life of Baxter," i. 294. And see Wodrow's "History of the Suffer- 
ings of the Church of Scotland." 


on the voyage.^ Previous tO' his embarking he pubHshed at 
Edinburgh a volume of 272 pages, entitled : "The Model 
of the Government of the Province of East New Jersey in 
America; and Encouragement for Such as Design to be 
Concerned There."^ The Scottish Presbyterian, or one 
knowing he was writing to such, is at once detected in the 
elaborate and learned argument, which precedes all his 
statistics, tO' prove a warrant for colonization from the 
word of God. Among his points is that the wonderful 
openings to- the discovery of America, and the encourage- 
ments offered to Protestant nations, indicated the purpose 
of Providence that "he might at length cause the glorious 
Gospel of Jesus Christ shine out to them as it did to other 
nations, after the sharp times of the bitter desolations 
thereof betwixt the Romans and them." In bolder terms 
than in the more public advertisement of his undertaking, 
he thus appeals to the religious jealousy of his fellow- 
churchmen : 

"You see, it is now judged the interest of the government altogether 
to suppress the Presbyterian principles ; and that in order thereto the 
whole force and bensill [violence] of the law of this kingdom are 
leveled at the effectual bearing them down ; that the vigorous putting 
those laws in execution hath in a great part ruined many of these, 
who, notwithstanding thereof, find themselves in conscience obliged to 
retain these principles; while, on the other hand, Episcopacy is, by the 
same laws, supported and protected. I would gladly know what other 
rational medium can be proposed in their circumstances, than either to 
comply with the government by going what length is required by law 
in conforming, or to retreat where by law a toleration is by his 
Majesty allowed. Such a retreat doth at present offer itself in America, 
and is nowhere else to be found in his Majesty's dominions." 

We find in this connection an allusion to the north of 
Ireland, which was fully realized in subsequent years, in 
the contributions made from that quarter to the Presby- 
terian population of America. 

"I had an account lately from an acquaintance of mine, that the 
Province of Ulster, where most of our nation are seated, could spare 


forty thousand men and women to an American plantation, and be 
sufficiently peopled itself. The gentleman who gave me this informa- 
tion is since settled in Maryland ; the account he sends of that country 
is so encouraging that I hear a great many of his acquaintances are 
making for that voyage."* 

But it was not contemplated to establish the Kirk in New 
Jersey. "Presbyter" of Britain was not, according to 
Milton, to be "Priest writ large" in America. "Liberty in 
matters of religion," said Scot, "is established in the full- 
est manner. To be a planter or inhabitant, nothing is 
required but the acknowledging of one Almighty God;' 
and toi have a share in the government a simple profession 
of faith of Jesus Christ, without descending intO' any other 
of the differences among Christians ; only that religion may 
not be a cloak for disturbance, who ever comes into the 
Magistrature, must declare they hold not themselves in 
conscience obliged, for religion's sake, to make an altera- 
tion, or toi endeavor to turn out their partners in the gov- 
ernment, because they differ in opinion from them ; and 
this is no more than to follow the great rule, to do as 
they would be done by." 

Mr. Bancroft, after following the remark, "this is the 
era at which East New Jersey, till now chiefly colonized 
from New England, became the asylum, of Scottish Presby- 
terians," with an eloquent sketch of the sufferings of that 
people under the attempt of the Stuarts to force Episcopacy 
upon themi, asks: "Is it strange that Scottish Presb3^terians 
of virtue, education and courage, blending a love of popu- 
lar liberty with religious enthusiasm, hurried to East New 
Jersey in such numbers as to^ give to the rising common- 
wealth a character which a century and a half has not 
effaced?" "In a few years," he adds, "a law of the com- 
monwealth, giving force to the common principle of the 
New Ensfland and the Scottish Calvinists, established a 

* See "History of the Church of Ireland," Biblical Repertory, April, 1844, Octo- 
ber, 1859. 


system of free schools. * * * Thus the mixed character 
of New Jersey spring's from the different sources of its 
people, Puritans, Covenanters and Quakers met on her 
soil; and their faith, institutions and preferences, having 
life in the common mind, survive the Stuarts."* 

Robert Barclay was the first Governor under the new 
proprietary administration (1683). Although the office 
was given him for life, he was not required to reside in 
the Province, and, in fact, he never saw it, but was repre- 
sented by deputies. Mr. Grahame, in his "Colonial His- 
tory," says, under 1685 : "As a further recommendation 
O'f the Province to the favor of the Scotch, Barclay dis- 
placing a deputy (Lawrie), whom he had appointed of his 
own religious persuasion, conferred this office on Lord 
Neil Campbell, uncle of the Marquis O'f Argyle, who re- 
paired to East Jersey and remained there for some time 
as its Lieutenant Governor." Campbell was followed by 
another Scotchman, Andrew Hamilton. 

While Presbyterians were thus finding homes in the 
northern and eastern parts of the Province, others mingled 
with the settlements that were creeping up the Delaware 
on both banks and scattering between the river and the 
ocean. The first church in Philadelphia (less than thirty 
miles from Trenton) was organized about 1698. There 
was a Dutch Presbyterian Church at Neshaminy (twenty 
miles) in 1710. But the church in Monmouth county, 
originally called "the Scotch Meeting-House," better 
known to' us as the "Tennent Church" (thirty miles), was 
formed of Scottish materials about 1692. Its first pastor 
was from' Scotland.^ 

I have indulged in the foregoing retrospect for the pur- 
pose of showing the origin and general progress of the 
population that at length reached the more central region 
where the capital of the Province came to be established. 

* Bancroft's "Colonial History," chap. 17. 


And here I introduce, as a curious local memorandum, the 
earliest record to be found of a journey on what is now 
one of the two great thoroughfares between New York 
and Philadelphia, by Trenton, but eight years before Phila- 
delphia was laid out by Penn, and when the site of Tren- 
ton was only known as at "the Falls of the Delaware." 
William Edmundson, a minister of the Friends from Eng- 
land, made the following entry in his journal of 1675, after 
leaving Shrewsbury and Middletown : 

"Next morning we took our journey through the wilderness towards 
Maryland, to cross the river at Delaware Falls. Richard Hartshorn 
and Eliakim Wardell would go a day's journey with us. We hired 
an Indian to guide us, but he took us wrong, and left us in the woods. 
When it was late we alighted, put our horses to grass, and kindled a 
fire by a little brook, convenient for water to drink, to lay down till 
morning, but were at a great loss concerning the way, being all 
strangers in the wilderness. Richard Hartshorn advised to go back 
to Rarington river, about ten miles back, as was supposed, to find out 
a small landing place from New York, from whence there was a small 
path that led to Delaware Falls. So we rode back, and in some time 
found the landing place and little path ; then the two friends committed 
us to the Lord's guidance, and went back. We traveled that day, 
and saw no tame creature. At night we kindled a fire in the wilder- 
ness and lay by it, as we used to do in such journeys. Next day, about 
nine in the morning, by the good hand of God, we came well to the 
Falls, and by His providence found there an Indian man, a woman, 
and boy with a canoe; so we hired him for some wampampeg to help 
us over in the canoe ; we swam our horses, and though the river was 
broad, yet got well over, and by the direction we received from friends, 
traveled towards Delawaretown [probably Newcastle], along the west 
side of the river. When we had rode some miles, we baited our 
horses and refreshed ourselves with such provisions as we had, for- 
as yet we zvere not come to any inhabitants."* 

As "the Falls of the Delaware" was not only the first 
name given to the part of the river where Trenton was 
afterwards built, but was for more than a century used to 

* "A Journal of the life, travels, sufferings, and labors of love in the work of 
the ministry of that worthy elder and faithful servant of Jesus Christ, William 
Edmundson, who departed this life the 31st of the sixth month, 1712." London. 
1715. (Philadelphia Library, No. 668. 8vo.) 


denote the general locality, it may be well to notice that 
what is dignified by the term, is no more than the rapids 
of the current in the descent of about eighteen feet in six 
miles.^ The association of the term has often led to the 
confounding of the Trenton ripples with the truly grand 
falls of West Canada creek in New York, which are called 
"Trenton Falls" from a village in their vicinity. This has 
given occasion to some ludicrous disappointments with 
travelers.^ It was probably the cause of the illusion of 
the English tourist in 1797, who "entered the State of 
New Jersey and slept at Trenton, which we left before 
sunrise the next morning; a circumstance I regretted, as 
I wished tO' see the falls of the river Delaware in that 
neighborhood, which, I am informed, are worthy the at- 
tention of a traveler."* The translator of the work of 
Kalm, to be more fully quoted hereafter, raises the humble 
rapids mentioned by the Swede, to "the cataracts of the 
Delaware near Trenton. "f Another Englishman, and 
president of the Royal Astronomical Society, pronounced, 
in 1796, that "these do not deserve the name of falls, being 
nothing more than a ledge of rocks reaching across the 
river, and obstructing the navigation for large vessels."! 

Wansey, the "Wiltshire Clothier," says in 1794: "In 
passing the Delaware with our coachee, we ferry within 
ten yards of one of the rapids, by which we are to under- 
stand that part of a river where the bed is almost filled up 
with rocks, chiefly below the surface of the water, which 
occasions the current to pass very quick and make it 
dangerous to those who are not acquainted with the navi- 
gation.** In a work by Dr. Douglas, a Scotchman, but 
for thirty years a resident of Boston, the following de- 

* "Priest's Travels, 1793-7." London. 

t "Kalm's Travels, by Forster." London. 1770. I. 49. 

t "Journal of a tour in unsettled parts of North America in 1796 and 1797. 
By the late Francis Baily, President of the Royal Astronomical Society." London. 
1856. P. IIS. 

** "Journal of an Excursion," p. 106. 


scription is given of the navig-ation of the Delaware river 
in 1749-53: "From Philadelphia to Trent-Town Falls are 
thirty-five miles; these are the first falls in the river, and 
the tide reaches up so high ; these falls are practicable, and 
the river navigable with boats that carry eight or nine tons 
iron, forty miles higher to Durham' iron works. * * * 
From' Trent-Town Falls this river is practicable upwards 
of one hundred and fifty miles for Indian canoe navigation, 
several small falls or carrying places intervening."* 

It was at the Falls that Mahlon Stacy, a Yorkshireman, 
found the tract of land that commended itself as the most 
suitable site for a new settlement. He was one of the 
emigrants to Burlington (or Bridlington) in 1678, and 
being; a creditor of Byllinge, he obtained from his assignees 
eight hundred acres, lying on both sides of the Assanpink, 
a creek which empties intoi the Delaware at Trenton. Here 
he took up his own abode and built a grist mill."^ If, 
according to Smith's "History of New Jersey," the first 
name given to the settlement at the Falls was "Little- 
worth," the disparaging title must have been disdained by 
Stacy, who pronounced it "a most brave place, whatever 
envy or evil spies may speak of it."^ 

In letters dated from "the Falls of Delaware" in 1680, 
Stacy extols the fertility of the whole region, the abund- 
ance of fruit ("peaches in such plenty that some people 
took their carts a peach-gathering. I could not but smile 
at the conceit of it"), berries, game and fish, whilst he "hon- 
estly declares there is some barren land, as (I suppose) 
there is in most places of the world, and more wood than 
some would have upon their lands ; neither will the country 
produce corn without labor, nor cattle be got without some- 
thing to buy them, nor bread with idleness; else it would 
be a good country indeed." The good Friend would not 

* ("A Summary, historical and political, of the first planting, progressive im- 
provements, and present state of the British Settlements in North America." By- 
William Douglass, M.D. Boston. Vol. I. 1749. Vol. II. 1753. Vol. II., p. 312.) 


overlook the guidance of Providence in his own case, nor 
encourage his Yorkshire correspondents to follow him 
over the sea, unless they felt the same inward direction. 
"When I am walking alone, and the sense of the Lord's 
good dealings is brought before me, I cannot but admire 
him for his mercies, and often in secret bless his name 
that ever he turned my face hitherward, and gave me con- 
fidence in himself, and boldness by faith to oppose all gain- 
sayers, though never so strong. * * * jf ygy have clear- 
ness to come to' New Jersey, let nothing hinder; but if you 
have a stop within yourself, let not anything farther you^ 
until the way clears to your full satisfaction.," 


The Churches of HopEwelIv and Maidenhead. 

1698 — 1736. 

y y M T 

i ® ji 

This little map will serve tO' explain the topography of 
the region embraced in the history of the united churches 
of Hopewell and Maidenhead, which is the history of the 
churches of Trenton.^ In 1694 the Assanpink was made 
the northern boundary of the county of Burlington; and 
in 1 7 14 the new county of Hunterdon was formed, reach- 
ing from the Assanpink, as its southern line, to the north- 
ern extremity of West Jersey. Of this large and for the 
most part unsettled territory, now divided into several of 
the most populous and important counties of the State, 
Hopewell and Maidenhead were adjoining townships. It 
is reasonable tO' suppose that the Presbyterian inhabitants, 
scattered over the twin townships, were for some time de- 
pendent on itinerant or missionary preachers for the oppor- 



tunities of public worship', and that, when such opportunities 
opened, the people would congregate from long distances 
in schoolrooms, or private houses, or in the shade of woods, 
in different neighborhoods, as convenience or some system 
of rotation might appoint. ^ It is not strange, on this sup- 
position, that the names "Hopewell" and "people of Hope- 
well," should be used in the ecclesiastical records in refer- 
ence to different neighborhoods, and even parishes, so that 
after the lapse of a century and a half it would not be pos- 
sible to determine in every instance what particular locality, 
if any, is designated. The present churches of Ewing, Pen- 
nington and Trenton were in Hopewell ; that O'f Lawrence- 
ville was in Maidenhead. It is not improbable that the 
Presbyterians in the latter township were sometimes in- 
cluded in the general reference of "Hopewell." 

Some of my readers may need to be reminded of a New 
England peculiarity which then obtained in this Province, 
and will still further account for the confusion. I may ex- 
plain it in the words of Colonel (afterwards Governor) 
Lewis Morris, in 1700, when referring to the "towns" of 
East Jersey. "These towns are not like the towns in Eng- 
land, the houses built close together on a small spot of 
ground, but they include large portions of the country of 
four, five, eight, ten, twelve, fifteen miles in length, and as 
much in breadth; and all the settlements within such state 
and bounds is said to be within such a township ; but in most 
of those townships there is some place where a part of the 
inhabitants set down nearer together than the rest, and con- 
fine themselves to smaller portions of ground, and the town 
is more peculiarly designed by that settlement."* 

The first authentic notice of any effort on the part of the 
inhabitants of the two' townships to provide a permanent 
place of worship is found in a deed dated March 18, 

"The Papers of Lewis Morris." N. J. Hist. Soc, 1852. 



1698-9.* In that instrument, Jeremiah Basse, Governor 
of East and West Jersey, and Thomas Revell, "Agents for 
the Honorable the West Jersey Society in England," con- 
veyed one hundred acres "for the accommodation and serv- 
ice of the inhabitants of the township of Maidenhead, 
within the liberties or precincts of the said county of Bur- 
lington and the inhabitants near adjacent, being purchasers 
of the said society's lands there, for the erecting of a meet- 
ing-house, and for burying-ground and school-house, and 
land suitable for the same."t The names of many of the 
grantees will be recognized as still represented in this region. 

Ralph Hunt, 

John Bainbridge [or Ban- 
Johannes Lawrenson, 
William Hixon, 
John Bryerly [Brearley?],^ 
Samuel Hunt, 
Theophilus Phillips, 
Jonathan Davis, 
Thomas Smith, 
Jasper Smith, 
Thomas Coleman, 
Benjamin Hardin, 
William Akers, 
Robert Lannen [Lanning], 
Philip Phillips, 

Joshua Andris [sometimes 
Andrus and Andrews, 
and Anderson], 

Samuel Davis, 

Elnathan Davis, 

Enoch Andris, 

Cornelius Andris, 

James Price, 

John Runion, 

Thomas Runion, 

Hezekiah Bonham, 

Benjamin Maple, 

Lawrence Updike, 

Joseph Sackett, 

Edv/ard Hunt. 

The strong presumption is, that from the beginning this 
was a Presbyterian congregation, and that although the pre- 
cise year in which a church was erected on the ground thus 
conveyed, cannot be ascertained, the first house of worship 

* In this part of my researches I have availed myself of the collections kindly 
placed at my disposal by the Rev. George Hale, pastor of Pennington. 
t Recorded Book B., No. 2, p. 653. in the State House at Trenton. 



for any denomination in the two townships was that at 
Maidenhead, now Lawrenceville. John Hart, a signer of 
the Declaration of Independence, was baptized by the Rev. 
Jedediah Andrews, at Maidenhead, December 31, 171 3. 
As Edward Hart, his father, lived in Hopewell, three miles 
below Pennington, it is probable that there was a church at 
Maidenhead to which the child was taken. There were ten 
baptisms at Maidenhead in April, 171 3, which goes to in- 
crease the probability of a permanent place of worship 
being there at that date. There is positive evidence of its 

existence three years later, for in the records of the Court 
O'f Sessions for Hunterdon county, dated Tuesday, June 5, 
1716, is the entry: "Proclamation made and the court ad- 
journed to the meeting-house in Maidenhead in half an 

I regret that I am not able to produce views of any of 
the original churches. The engraving here presented is a 
copy of the Lawrenceville Church as it now stands, but 
excluding the lecture and school building, which stands at 
the extremity of the front of the lot, and excluding also 


the extensive graveyard which surrounds the church. The 
present front (forty-five feet) and about thirty-two feet of 
the depth, is the same structure that was raised in 1764. 
The church was enlarged in 1833, to- the dimensions of 
forty-five by sixty feet, and in 1853, fifteen feet were added 
to the length. I may add that in 1819 this congregation 
came into possession of a valuable farm, and parsonagfe 
devised to them by Jasper Smith, Esq-, an elder of the 

The earliest sign of preparation for a church in Hope- 
well is found in two deeds of April 20, 1703.* In the first 
of these, John Hutchinson conveyed to Andrew Heath, 
Richard Eayre,^ Abiall Davis and Zebulon Heston, a lot 
of two' acres, in trust. The second and concurrent deed 
declares the purpose of the trust. It is addressed, "To all 
Christian people to whom these presents shall come,'' and 
sets forth that the trust is "for the inhabitants of the said 
township of Hopewell and their successors inhabiting and 
dwelling within the said township forever; for the public 
and comm.on use and benefit of the whole township, for 
the erection and building of a public meeting house there- 
on, and also for a place oi burial, and for no other uses, 
intents or purposes whatsoever." The ground thus con- 
veyed is within three miles of Trenton (marked "Old 
Church" on our map), a short distance beyond the State 
Lunatic Asylum. A church was erected on this site which 
seems to have become the exclusive property of Episco- 
palians,^ as that denomination occupied it until St. 
Michael's Church was built in the town, and the congre- 
gation sold the ground in 1838 — ^the house having long be- 
fore disappeared. 

It is probable that if the history of this church could be 
ascertained, it would read somewhat like the following 
record in the Minutes of the Presbytery of New Bruns- 
wick, September 19, 1738: 

* Deed Book AAA, 105 and 114. State House. 


"The affair of Cranberry concerning the Meeting-house was opened 
up before the Presbytery, wherein it appeared that the people of the 
Presbyterian and Church of England persuasion have a conjunct inter- 
est in the Meeting-house, by virtue of an agreement between such of 
the Presbyterians as assisted the building of it, and their neighbors 
of the Church of England ; and therefore upon the proposal of the 
rest of our persuasion who' are not willing to have any concern with 
the said house upon that foundation, the Presbytery do advise and 
judge it most proper that the gentlemen of the Church of England do 
either buy or sell their interest, that so the Presbyterians may all 
have a house for worship by themselves alone, and so that this whole 
body may be united." 

When St. Michael's Church made the conveyance of 
1838, by which the old church plot was added to a sur- 
rounding- farm, reservation was made of an inclosure 
measuring thirty-two feet by twenty-seven, occupied by 
graves. The inclosure is made by a stone wall, now falling" 
into ruins, and has the appearance of having been designed 
for a family cemetery. The only gravestones remaining 
are those of Samuel Tucker, 1789, and Mrs. Tucker, 1787, 
which will be described hereafter; one "in memory of 
John, son oi William^ and Elizabeth Cleayton, who- died 
November 6, 1757 [possibly 1737], aged 19 years"; an- 
other of "Ma — ' — [probably Margaret], the wife of John 
Dagworthy. Esq.,''^ who died May 16, 1729, aged 37 
years" ; and a few more which cannot be deciphered beyond 

*'Grace Da ," or "Hend ," etc. It is said that the 

widow of William Trent, whose name was given to' the 
town, was buried here, but there is no trace of the grave. 

In less than six years from Hiutchinson's deed to Heath 
and others, the Hopewell Presbyterians took measures for 
the erection of a church for themselves, within three miles 
of the one just described. This was the beginning of the 
congregation, which, after the foundation of the township 
of Trenton (1719-20), was called the "Trenton First 
Church," but which now takes the name of the new town- 
ship of Ewing. The original deed was dated March 9, 


1709, and conveyed two acres of land from Alexander 
Lockart, a Scotchman, to 

Richard Scudder,^ Jacob Reeder,^ 

John Burroughs,'^ Cornelius Anderson, 

Ebenezer Prout, John Silerons [or Siferons, 
Daniel Howell, Severance, Severns], 

John Deane, Simon Sacket/^ 

John Davis, George Farley, 

Jonathan Davis, Caleb Farley, 

Enoch Anderson, William Reed, 

William Osborne, Joseph Sacket.^" 

There are no original records or documents to remove 
the obscurity that surrounds the first action under this 
deed; but in the following minute of the Presbytery of 
Philadelphia, May n, 1709, Hopewell may refer to this 
people — perhaps in connection with those of what is now 
Pennington : 

"Ordered, that Mr. [Joseph] Smith go to the people of Maidenhead 
and Hopewell, and confer with them on such matters as shall be 
propounded to him by them, concerning his being called to be their 
minister; and that Mr. Smith preach to the people aforesaid on his 
way to New England, or return from it, or both ; and that this be in- 
timated to Mr. Smith, and the people aforesaid be writ to by Mr. 

The first church on this ground was built of logs (1712) ; 
this made room, about 1726, for a frame building, which 
was used until 1795/^ when one of brick was erected. In 
1839 the church was remodeled. The cut represents the 
church of 1795 before alteration; and here I take the liberty 
of quoting a few verses from a poem, written for the amuse- 
ment of her grandchildren by an estimable member of this 
church,^- and prompted by the destruction of one of the 
two old oaks in the churchyard in 1852. 


"Two hundred years, or more, the storms you braved 
Unharmed, while round your head the tempest raved. 
A faithful guard, for all that time, you kept, 
Above the throng that 'neath your shadow slept. 
The wild tornado's breath hath o'er thee past, 
And prostrate on the earth you lie at last. 

"And here they stood when the forefathers came, 
To build an altar to their Maker's name. 
Men from afar — perchance across the deep, 
This place they chose their Sabbath rest to keep. 

They built an altar of materials rude, 
Unhewn the stone, and roughly dressed the wood, 
'Twas blest of Him, whose promised dwelling place 
Is where His people meet to seek His grace. 

% * H: * :)< * * 

"Once in three weeks the stated pastor came 
With gracious message in his Master's name. 
Reciprocated all the greetings kind, 
Rejoiced in health and peace his flock to find. 
The morning service o'er, beneath your shade 
They ate their bread, and kind inquiries made : 


'How fared it with the brother pioneers, 

What were their prospects, what their hopes and fears; 

What news from home, afar—beyond the sea — 

Fight Hampden, Cromwell, still for liberty? 

Or to his kingdom is King Charles restored? 

Has promised, but again to break his word? 

Has Scotland sheathed the sword, or does she still 

For conscience sake oppose her sovereign's will 

Worship the faithful still in caves and dens, 

In forest deep, or wild secluded glens? 

For Wales who strikes to put oppression down? 

Who nobly dares to wear a martyr's crown?' 

"One to the other thus the tidings bore. 

Of clime and kindred they would see no more. 

That duty done, once more to praise and pray, 

The church they entered — thus they spent the day. 


" 'Time levels all,' the old church passed away, 
It served a holy purpose in its day ; 
And faithful men a new foundation laid. 
Offerings of patient toil and substance made ; 
Well wrought, the building rose by careful hands. 
Memorial of their zeal, the church now stands. 

"Now, many a mossy stone the name discloses 
Of faithful Reeds and Scudders, Howells, Roses, 
Reeder, Clarke, Hart, Carle, Furman, and the Moores, 
Fish, Welling, Hendrickson, Temples, Greens by scores, 
Lanning, Hunt, Cook, Burroughs, and Jones and Lott, 
And hundreds lie without a stone to mark the spot." 

At the time of the formation of this venerable church, 
the Presbytery of Philadelphia was the only one in America. 
It was formed in 1704 or 1705, and included seven min- 
isters, who were pastors in Pennsylvania, Maryland and 
what is now Delaware. In 1706 a member was added from 
New Jersey. To' this body the Presbyterians, whether or- 
ganized or not into congregations, or represented on the 
roll, would naturally look for counsel and aid, especially 
for the obtaining of the ordinances of worship. In Sep- 


tember, 1710, the Presbytery, writing to the Presbytery of 
Dublin and Synod of Glasgow, in entreaty for their help 
in furnishing- ministers, say that they have but twO' con- 
gregations "in the Jerseys" ; "the number of our ministers 
from the respective Provinces is ten in all — three from 
Maryland, five from Pennsylvania and two from East Jer- 

Under date of September 27, 171 1, the following minute 
appears : 

"Upon the desire of the people of Maidenhead and Hopewell, signi- 
fied by Mr. William Yard, for our assisting them in getting a min- 
ister, it was agreed that in case the people of Maidenhead and Hope- 
well are not engaged with Mr. Sacket, that they use all opportunities 
they have for a speedy supply, and apply themselves to the neighboring 
ministers for assistance in getting a minister for them."" 

There is no further reference in the Records of Pres- 
bytery to the congregations O'f this neighborhood until 
September, 171 5, when Philip Ringo presented a call from 
Maidenhead and Hopewell to Mr. Robert O^rr, which was 
approved by Presbytery, accepted by him, and his ordina- 
tion appointed for October 20. This took place on the day 
specified, when Mr. Orr was "solemnly set apart tO' the 
work of the ministry, by Masters Andrews, Morgan, Dick- 
inson, Evans and Bradner, at Maidenhead, before a numer- 
ous assembly."* 

As an old tablet, now in the wall of the first church in 
the city of Trenton, gives 1712 as the year in which the 
Presbyterian church was "Formed," that is supposed to 
be the date when the parent congregation was formally or- 
ganized in view of taking possession of the ground con- 
veyed by Eockart in 1709. This, then, would be one of 
the centers of Mr. Orr's ministry for Hopewell. He ap- 
pears to have resided on what is now the boundary line be- 

* Letter Book of Presbytery. Printed Records, p. 41. 


tween the townships of Lawrence and Ewing. A son of 
his, who died during his pastorate, was buried in the Lock- 
art ground, and the gravestone is visible from the present 
church. Mr. O'rr remained in this charge nearly four years. 
His name occurs for the last time in ecclesiastical records, 
in the minutes of the Synod, September 19, 1719, where 
he is spoken O'f as "having at present no pastoral charge," 
and the usual testimonials were given to him and another 
minister, it "being uncertain how and where Providence 
may dispose of them." 

The age of the Hopewell church at Pennington^^ is not 
precisely known, but the building was used in 1725-6, as the 
township records of March 9 of that year show that it was 
"agreed upon by the majority of the town, to hold their 
town meetings ensuing at the new meeting-house by John 
Smith's." Smith is known to have been owner of the land 
adjoining the lot which is still the site of the church. There 
is a tradition that prior to the building of a church, a school- 
house was used for some time, which stood on what is now 
the southern part of the graveyard, and long known as "the 
school-house lot." This lot was conveyed by John Smith 
for the consideration of ten pounds, to Nathaniel Moore, 
William Cornwell, John Everitt, Ralph Hunt, Jonathan 
Furman, Reuben Armitage and Stephen Baldwin. 

The Rev. Robert Orr was followed in the Hopewell 
charge by the Rev. MosES Dickinson, a younger brother 
of the first president of the College of New Jersey, and a 
graduate of Yale when the whole senior class numbered 
but five, all of whom entered the ministry. This was in 
17 1 7, the year in which the college was removed from 
Saybrook to New Haven. The history of Mr. Dickinson's 
Presbyterial connection cannot be given, as the records of 
that period are not extant; but according to the minutes 
of the Synod he attended the sessions of that body in 1722, 
1724 and 1725. Among the delegates of those three 


years appears the name of Einoch Ajrmitage, who was a 
ruling elder of Hopewell. Mr. Dickinson removed to the 
Congregational Church of Norwalk, Connecticut, in 1727, 
and continued to be its pastor until his death, May i, 1778, 
in the 83d year of his age, and 51st of his ministry. In 
his seventieth year he took a colleague from the Presbytery 
of New Brunswick, the Rev. William Tennent, Jr. There 
are two printed sermons of Mr. Dickinson's : one of them 
was preached at the ordination of the Rev. Elisha Kent, 
grandfather of the distinguished Chancellor of New York. 

Mr. Armitage, who was a native of Yorkshire in Eng- 
land, was an active elder. He officiated in Hopewell when 
no minister was present, not only in reading "the works of 
approved divines," as our elders and deacons are author- 
ized to' doi in such an emergency, but occasionally reading 
his own compositions. The Rev. Mr. Hale has in his pos- 
session a manuscript of the usual length of a sermon, in 
the handwriting of Mr. Armitage, headed, "Some Medita- 
tions 'Upon the 15th, i6th and 17th verses of the 27th 
chapter of Numbers, occasioned by the removal of Mr. 
Dickinson, and delivered at Hopewell meeting-house by 
E. A., 1727." The text of the "meditations" is: "And 
Moses spoke unto the Lord, saying. Let the Lord, the God 
of the spirits of all flesh, set a man over the congregation, 
which may go out before them, and which may go in be- 
fore them, and which may lead them out, and which may 
bring them in : that the congregation of the Lord be not as 
sheep which have no shepherd." 

The discourse opens in these modest terms : 

"Beloved Friends: I having no book of any subject suitable to the 
present outward circumstances of the congregation, and being some- 
thing more than ordinarily aflFected with our present desolate condition, 
I thought meet to deliver my own meditations on the forementioned 
subject, though I know not whether they will be of any use to you, 
or meet with acceptance from you ; yet hoping they may at least do 
no harm to any, and presuming on your favorable construction, and 


being encouraged by your kind acceptance of what I have been enabled 
to do in your service, since Divine Providence cast my lot amongst 
you, I therefore humbly proceed to deliver my meditations on these 

I quote the annexed paragraph from the Meditations 
for the sake of the intimation it contains that tbere was 
more than one place of worship within reach oi the people 
of Hopewell — the reference beingf probably tO' Maidenhead; 
Mr. Armitage's farm was within a mile of Pennington. 

"Now this being the case of this congregation, we are as sheep that 
have no shepherd by the removal of our minister from us : and whether 
the same Providence that removed him, notwithstanding all our en- 
deavors to the contrary, will permit his return, as some hope, I know 
not : but as however that may be, as affairs now stand, it seems likely 
that some part of the congregation will be as sheep that have no 
shepherd, therefore I hope," etc. 

Mr. Dickinson was followed in 1729 by the Rev. Joseph 
Morgan. He is supposed to have come from Wales, but 
was educated at Yale, and was one of the six first gradu- 
ates in 1702. President Woolsey, in a letter to Mr. Hale, 
remarks that "some interest is attached to Mr. Morgan 
from the fact that he was not only one of the members 
of the first class in Yale College, but also the only one of 
the class who did not also take his degree at Harvard,, 
that is, the only one veritably educated at Yale alone."* 
He came into New Jersey from Greenwich, Connecticut, in 
1 710, and was pastor at Freehold from that time until 
called to the united congregations of Hopewell and Maid-, 

In the "Presbyterian Magazine" of November, 1857, is 
preserved a long letter from Morgan to Dr. Cotton Mather, 
written at Freehold in September, 1721. It is wholly in 

* Mr. Morgan was never an undergraduate of Yale College. He received an 
honorary degree in 1719. See letter of Prof. Dexter, of Yale University, quoted 
by Judge Lanning in "Sketch of Ewing Presbyterian Church," Journal of Presbyt. 
Hist. Soc, Vol. VI., No. 5, p. 173. 


Latin, and in such Latin as might be expected from the 
circumstances it describes. "For," he says, "I spent only 
three years in the study of languages and the arts, and for 
twenty-five years I have labored almost constantly with my 
hands. A Latin, Greek or Hebrew book I have sometimes 
not had in my hands for a whole year. I have scarcely 
any books : possess no dictionary but an imperfect Rider. 
I have no commentaries, nor theological systems nor his- 
tories. I have no- leisure for reading, nor for writing dis- 
courses for the church, and often know not my text before 
the Sabbath." The letter is chiefly in reference to some 
physical and metaphysical arguments against Deists, 
Socinians and other heretics, which Morgan had sent to 
Mather some months before, but which had not been ac- 
knowledged. He incidentally mentions that '*in Hopewell 
and Maidenhead, thirty miles distant, where the Rev. 
Moses Dickinson preaches, there is a great increase of the 

Whether there were any unfavorable rumors in regard 
to Mr. Morgan when he came from New England, is not 
certain ; but he seems to have been received by the Presby- 
tery with some caution. On the 21st September, 17 10, 
a committee was appointed "to inquire into^ Mr. Morgan's 
and [Paulus] Van Vleck's affair, and prepare it for the 
Presbytery." In the afternoon the committee reported on 
"Mr. Morgan's case," and "after debating thereon," he 
was admitted to the Presbytery. There was "serious de- 
bating" upon Van Vleck's case before he was received. 
Within two years Van Vleck (who was settled with the 
Dutch Presbyterian congregation at Neshaminy), was 
found guilty of bigamy and other ofifenses. Mr. Morgan's 
irregularities begin to be noticed in 171 6, when his "ab- 
sence this and several years by-past being inquired into, it 
was resolved that a letter should be writ, informing him 
that if he comes not, nor sends sufficient reasons against 


next year, we shall take it for granted that he has alto- 
gether deserted us." It was at this session that the Presby- 
tery of Philadelphia divided itself into three (Philadelphia, 
New Castle and Long* Island), and formed the Synod of 
Philadelphia, and there being no minutes of the Presby- 
tery extant after 17 16 until 1733, the further history of 
this part of Morgan's delinquency is not traceable. He 
appeared at Synod in 17 17, and was a punctual and active 
attendant for several years. In 1728 "divers papers of 
complaint" against him were presented tO' the Synod by 
some members of his church. Of the seven charges one 
related to astrological experiments, another tO' dancing and 
a third to intemperance. The Synod judged that, though 
Mr. Morgan may have been imprudent in some particulars, 
the accusations proceeded from a "captious and querulous 
spirit" ; and as to the charge of intemperance, "it appears 
to the Synod to^ be a groundless prosecution against one 
who has ever been esteemed a temperate man." But on 
this head the Synod were probably too' charitable, as in 
1736, when Morgan had been settled in Hopewell for 
some seven years, he was tried by the Presbytery and 
found guilty of intemperance and suspended. A reference 
from the Presbytery to the Synod in May, 1737, led to 
the directing of the Presbyteries of Philadelphia and East 
Jersey^^ to meet as a committee at Maidenhead in August, 
and review the case. After this resolution was adopted, a 
paper was presented by Enoch Armitage, the preacher of 
the "Meditations," "signed by many hands of the congre- 
gations O'f Hopewell and Maidenhead, requesting that 
since Mr. Morgan is not likely to^ be useful any more as a 
minister among them, from his repeated miscarriages, if 
the Synod should see cause to restore him to his ministry, 
he might not be reinstated as their minister." Upon this 
the Synod came to the decision : "That the people of Hope- 
well and Maidenhead be left at their liberty to entertain 


Mr. Morgan as their pastor or not. even supposing- the 
committee appointed tO' meet on his affair in August, should 
see cause to restore him to the ministry; only the Synod 
enjoins the people to pay toi Mr. Morgan what arrears are 
due to' him for time past."* The committee left him under 
suspension, which continued until 1738, when the Presby- 
tery restored him, but his name is not found again on the 
records as present after 1739. 

During Mr. Morgan's pastorate — 1 729-1 736 — his resi- 
dence was near Maidenhead church. In the course of that 
time the people of Hopewell opened a subscription for the 
purchase of a parsonage, or, as they expressed it, "a planta- 
tion to be a dwelling-place at all times" for the minister of 
"the Presbyterian society in that town" [township]. If 
the subscription sho'uld admit of it, a Latin school was to 
be founded on the plantation. Mr. Hale, from whose col- 
lections I obtain these facts, thinks it "provable that this 
resulted in the purchase of the parsonage- farm on the west 
side of the Scotch road, where for so many years resided 
the Rev. John Guild and the Rev. Joseph Rue, successively 
pastors of the First Presbyterian Church of Hopewell at 

As names^^ help to identify localities, and preserve other 
historical traces, I subjoin a list of the subscribers to the 
parsonage : 

Timothy Titus, Edmund Palmer, 

William Lawrence, Alexander Scott, 

Thomas Burrowes, Jr., Edward Hunt, 

John Branes, Thomas Hendrick, 

Cornelius Anderson, Robert Akers, 

Benjamin Severance, Peter La Rue, 

Francis Vannoy, John Fidler, 

Jonathan Moore, Andrew Milbourn, 

* Records of the Presb. Church. The minutes of the committee are inserted 
under the date of the Synod's session of May 24, 1738. 



Roger Woolverton, 
Benjamin Wilcocks, 
Johannes Hendrickson, 
Henry Oxley, 
Roger Parke, 
John Parke, 
Ralph Hunt, 
Joseph Hart, 
Abraham Anderson, 
Bartholomew Anderson, 
Joseph Price, 
Ephraim Titus, 
Robert Blackwell, 
Ralph Hunt, Jr., 

Richard Bryant, 
Jonathan Stout, 
Jonas Wood, 
Thomas Read, 
John Hunt, 
Jonathan Furman, 
Samuel Furman, 
John Carpenter, 
Samuel Hunt, 
Nathaniel Moore, 
George Woolsey, 
Jonathan Wright, 
Caleb Carman, 
Elnathan Baldwin. 


The Trenton Church : The Rev. David Coweee. 
1714— 1738. 

Heretofore the principal settlements of Hopewell were 
at some distance from the "Falls of the Delaware." But 
now the enterprise of William Trent opened the way for the 
secular and ecclesiastical progress of the township in an- 
other direction. Mr. Trent had come to Pennsylvania from 
Inverness, in Scotland, but belonged to the Church of 
England. He was a merchant in Philadelphia, and, not- 
withstanding his unprofessional occupation, was for many 
years a Judge of the Supreme Court of the State, and 
Speaker of the House of Assembly, and withal is called 
"Colonel. "1 Mr. Trent, in 1714, bought Mahlon Stacy's 
tract of eight hundred acres, on both sides of the Assanpink 
creek, and some time afterwards removed his residence 
thither. He soon fell into the same lines of public life 
which he had left in the sister province, for he represented 
Burlington county in the Legislature of 1721 ; was Speaker 
in 1723; and in the same year was appointed Chief Justice 
of the Supreme Court. He died, however, in the first year 
of his office, December 25, 1724. 

That "Trent's-town," or "Trent-town," was growing to 
a respectable condition is indicated by the direction of the 
Governor in 17 19, that the county courts should be held 
here, and it became the seat of the Supreme Court in 1724. 
As the population thickened, the convenience of the people 
would call for a church within reach of a walk; and it is 
reasonable to suppose that before the time had come for 
building a new church the Presbyterians in and near the 



town would hold religfious meetings there, and might even 
erect some temporary structure which would afterwards be 
properly regarded as the foundation of the new church. In 
tracing the deeds of the lot now occupied by the State-street 
church, there is an appearance of its having been long de- 
signed, if not partially used, for church purposes. In May, 
1684, Mahlon Stacy ^ conveyed to Hugh Standeland sixty 
acres on the north side of the Assanpink. His heir-at-law,, 
in 1707, conveyed to Joshua Anderson one-fifth of the same. 
This fifth, or twelve acres, Anderson, in November, 1722, 
conveyed to Enoch Andrus. On April 10, 1727, Andrus 
conveyed a portion of his lot — one hundred and fifty feet 
square — for the nominal sum of five shillings, to 

John Porterfield, William Yard, 

Daniel Howell, William Ho£f, 

Richard Scudder, John Severns, 

Alexander Lockart, Joseph Yard.^ 

The witnesses to the conveyance are John Anderson, Francis 
Giffing and Daniel Howell, junior. 

Now, Enoch Andrus was one of the trustees in the deed 
of Basse and Revell of 1698-9 for the Maidenhead church ; 
five of his eight grantees were signers of the call of the first 
pastor of the town church in 1736, which they subscribe as 
"inhabitants of Trenton belonging to the Presbyterian con- 
gregation" ; Joshua Anderson was an active Presbyterian, 
living near the town ; Lockart was the grantor, S'cudder and 
Howell were among the grantees of the country church. 
All this looks as if a church plot in town may have been 
long in view, although no specific object is mentioned in the 
conveyances. This, indeed, does not appear in the deeds 
until August 24, 1763, when Joseph Yard, sole survivor of 
the joint tenants, conveys the same lot to "the Trustees of 
the Presbyterian Church of Trenton, for the special uses 
and trust following, that is to say, to be and remain forever 


for the use of public worship and as a burial place for the 
Presbyterian congregation of Trenton forever."'* The joint 
tenancy was undoubtedly for the purpose oi holding the lot 
for the congregation, which was not incorporated until 


Another portion of the lot was purchased in 1759. A 
deed O'f July 23, of that year, from Moore Furman, Sheriff 
of Hunterdon, conveyed to the Trustees a lot described as 
follows : 

"Being lot No. 3, beginning at the corner of the Presbyterian Meet- 
ing-house lot of land on the north side of the street or road that leads 
towards the old iron works, and from thence runs along the line of 
the said meeting-house lot north three degrees west, 2 chains and 14 
links to the land of William Morris, Esq., and from thence runs along 
his line N. 87° E. one chain, 23 links to a post, being a corner of lot 
No. 4; and from thence runs along the line of the same S. 3° E., two 
chains and 14 links to the aforesaid street or road, and from along the 
same one chain and 23 links to the first mentioned corner or place of 

This part of the present grounds was bought for ten 
pounds proclamation money, being sold under execution, at 
the suit of James Hazard and Richard Alsop, Executors of 
Nathaniel Hazard, against Benjamin Stevenson, Executor 
of Enoch Anderson.^ The trustees took it "for the use and 
benefit of the said Presbyterian Church of Trenton, to bury 
their dead in, and for other public uses of the said Church." 

From this it appears that the purchase of 1759 was of a 
lot about eighty feet front; making, with the lot of 1727, 
a front of two hundred and thirty-one feet. 

The present dimensions of the lot, as surveyed in 1840, 

South line (the front), 247 feet 9 in. 
North " 241 " 

East " 142 " 

West " 126 " 



Over one of the doors of the church is a marble tablet, 
thus inscribed : 



Formed 17 12, 

Built 1726, 

REBUILT 1805." 

This memorial was transferred to its present place, from 
the brick church taken down in 1805; and the first two 
dates were copied from a similar inscription found in the 
stone building which preceded the brick. The date of 17 12 
is presumed tO' apply to the organization of the country 
church. There is more difference of opinion about the 
second line — some supposing it to be the date of the frame 
church on Lockart's ground, which superseded the log 
building first erected. But while the matter is not certain, 
the weight of probability appears to be in favor of the 
supposition that some kind of building was erected on the 
Andrus ground a year before he made the formal convey- 
ance of 1727, and that this is the explanation of "Built 

I am: strengthened in this conclusion by finding that sixty- 
six years ago- the tradition of the day was to the same effect. 
In a note prepared April 25, 1792, by the Rev. James F. 
Armstrong, in compliance with the call of the General 
Assembly for historical documents, and in which he refers 
to "Mr. Chambers and Mr. Benjamin Yard," as his author- 
ities, in this statement: 

"The first Presbyterian congregation in the county of Hunterdon 
was formed in the township of Trenton, and the church called the 
Old House was built about the year 1712, where the Rev. Robert Orr, 
a Scotsman, preached part of his time during three or four years ; the 
remainder of his time he preached at Maidenhead, where a church 
was built about the year 1716. * * * The congregation of Trenton, 
in or about the year 1726, built a church in the village of Trenton, not 
as a different congregation, but for the convenience of that part of 
congregation in and near the town." 



In this place may be appropriately inserted a description 
of the original town church, furnished for this volume by 
my lamented friend and fellow elder, Francis Armstrong 
Ewing, M. D., whose departure from this life before the 
publication, will call upon me to introduce his name and 
character more fully in a later chapter. The engraving is 
taken from a drawing made by Dr. Ewing from the descrip- 
tions of those who remembered the first church. 



"The old stone church, built in 1726 — the first of the 
series — stood on the southwest corner of the church lot, 
oil the same site as its successor, the brick one, but not 
covering so large a space. It fronted south on Second 
street (now State), standing a little back from the line of 
the street, and having a large flat stone before the door. 
Its front presented in the center a large doorway, closed 
by two half-doors, on each side of which was a pretty large 
window^, square-headed, as was the door ; and probably over 


the door another window, though on this point there is a 
difference of recollection. The stones of the building, free 
of wash or plaster, shoi^^ed only their native hue, or that 
acquired by long exposure to the weather. The roof, with 
gables to the street, was of the curb or double-pitched kind, 
and was covered with shingles, each neatly rounded or 
scalloped. Entering the front door, a middle aisle, floored 
with wood, led towards the pulpit, which was at the opposite 
or north end. The first object reached was a settle, occu- 
pied during service by the sexton. Raised one step from 
the floor was an inclosed space with desk in front, where 
stood the minister while administering the sacraments or 
hearing the catechism. Behind and above was the pulpit, 
of wood, unpainted, as was all the woodwork in the build- 
ing, except the ceiling, having a soundboard over it, fast- 
ened against the rear wall. In this wall, on each side of 
the pulpit, was a window corresponding to those in front. 
The pulpit stairs rose from the pastor's pew, which was 
against the rear wall on the east side of the pulpit. A gal- 
lery ran around the front and two' sides, the stairs to which 
rose in the front corners. Between the front door and these 
corner stairs were two square pews on each side, of unequal 
size, over the one of which, nearest the stairs, was one of 
the front windows. Before these pews was a cross-aisle, 
leading tO' the stairs and to the side-aisles. These were 
narrower than the middle one, and led to the north wall. 
All the pews against the walls were square, and, like all 
the others, had the usual high, straight backs of the time. 
Sitting in church was not then the easy, cushioned affair 
of modern da3^s. Two square pews against the rear wall; 
four on each side, the fourth from the front being in the 
corner, and the four on the front completed the number of 
fourteen. The rest oif the floor was occupied by narrow 
pews or slips, opening into the side and middle aisles. The 
ceiling was wooden, curved in four ways (the lines of June- 


tion rising from the corners), and painted in a sort of 
clouded style, blue and white, intended to represent the sky 
and clouds, if the childish impressions of one of my in- 
formants have not thus mistaken the mottled results oi 
time and dampness. 

"While the old church was standing, there was a tradi- 
tion that there was a vault under the building, but it was 
not known where. When the house was taken down the 
vault was discovered, containing twO' coffins with plates, 
and other evidences that the bodies were those of persons 
of standing and importance. In the brick church, in the 
floor within the railing before the pulpit, was a trap door, 
which was said to lead to this vault. The vault was cov- 
ered over when the present church was built, and is em- 
braced in one of the burial lots in the space where the old 
house stood. '^ 

"The old church was- rich enough to own a bier, which, 
except during service and when not in use, was kept in 
the middle aisle. There was no pulpit Bible; the pastor's 
family Bible supplied its place, being taken to church in 
the morning and carried back after the afternoon service. 
This return being once neglected, and the book being needed 
in the evening, 'Black George,' the minister's boy, was sent 
to bring it. After a long absence he came running back, 
alarmed and agitated, saying he had stumbled over the 
'pall-bearers,' meaning the bier. There was seldom service 
in the evening, and no provision for it; when needed, two 
large brass candlesticks, belonging to the pastor's wife, 
Avere put in requisition to enlighten and decorate the pulpit. 

"In the yard behind the church stood a fine apple tree, 
much resorted to for its shade, its blossoms, and its fruit, 
by the children from the school-house, which was on the 
eastern part of the same lot. This school was taught by 
Mr. Nicholas Dubois, who united in himself the offices of 

The mystery of the vault will be explained in a later chapter. 


elder, teacher and chorister; in which last capacity he had 
a place with his choir in the gallery. 

"In the pews of the old church I have described, were 
gathered every Sabbath, to listen to the preachers of the 
olden time, the principal families of that day. Of these 
a few relics still linger among us, treasuring up the memory 
of others ; while even the names of most of them are al- 
most unknown to our present people. There were Hunt 
and Milnor, the leading merchants of their time, whose 
names were for many years attached tO' the corners they 
respectively occupied (now Norcross' and Britton's). There 
was Leake, learned in the law, but of extreme simplicity 
and guilelessness ; Smith, eminent as a physician and judge; 
Belleville, from France, at the head of the medical profes- 
sion, and esteemed by the highest authorities in the neigh- 
boring cities; the elder, Judge Ewing; and besides these, 
the Gordons, Ryalls, Haydens, Calhouns, Yards, Moores, 
Collins, Chambers, Woolseys and others whose names and 
memories have nearly passed away. In another place will 
be found the names of eminent preachers, whose voice at 
times filled the old house. 

"But all things come to an end, and so did the old stone 
church. Having stood for nearly eighty years witnessing 
the growth of the town almost from its beginning, and the 
stirring events of the Revolution, it was at length taken 
down in the year 1804, to make room^ for its successor. On 
the last Sabbath before its destruction, besides the installa- 
tion of two new elders, the communion was administered. 
The solemnities of that occasion must have been deeply 
impressive, for the language and manner of the pastor, and, 
indeed, the whole scene, are still spoken of, by some who 
were present, with strong emotion." 

The Rev. Mr. Armstrong's memorandum, already quoted, 
proceeds to say: "After the founding of the two places of 
worship in the township of Trenton, Messrs. Hubbard, Wil- 


son and Morgan, unsettled ministers, preached in succession 
at Trenton and the old house; but their first settled pastor 
was the Rev. David Cowell." Morgan has already been 
mentioned in connection with the other Hopewell churches 
and with Maidenhead. Of Hubbard and Wilson, the date 
and duration of their ministries, nothing is known beyond 
Mr. Armstrong's record. It has been suggested to me that 
the first-named person may have been the Rev. Jonathan 
Hubbard (the family name is sometimes spelled Hobart), 
of Connecticut, who graduated at Yale in 1724, and died in 
1765. He was a fellow collegian and townsman of the Rev. 
Dr. Richard Treat, of Abington, Pennsylvania. Dr. Treat 
was at the Synod of 1733, when the Trenton people applied 
for supplies, and the conjecture is that he may have obtained 
the services of Mr. Hubbard, who about that time discon- 
tinued his connection with the church of E^stbury, Con- 

There was a Rev. John Wilson, who, on September 19, 
1729, according to the minutes of the Synod of Philadel- 
phia under that date, "coming providentially into these 
parts, signifying his desire of being admitted as a member 
of the Synod, his credentials being read, and the Synod 
satisfied therewith, was unanimously received." He was 
afterwards employed at Newcastle, where some misunder- 
standing arose between his congregation and the Presby- 
tery, which was referred to the Synod (September 18, 
1730), who "judged that, as far as things appear to us, they 
(the Presbytery) are not chargeable with any severity to 
him, but the contrary." There was another Rev. John Wil- 
son, a Presbyterian pastor in Chester, New Hampshire, in 
1734, who died there in 1779, aged seventy-six, and is sup- 
posed to have been a son of the first named.* One of these 
may have been the Trenton supply. 

* Webster, p. 405. 


The township of Trenton was set off from Hopewell by 
the Hunterdon County Court of Quarter Sessions in March, 
1719-20. The new township included the country (now 
Ewing) and town churches, so that the name of Hopewell 
did not properly apply to either of the parts of the joint con- 
gregation after that date, although from habit the term may 
have continued to be used, especially of the country church. 
The call of the Rev. David Cowell was made on behalf of 
the united Trenton church. The original document, in its 
ample sheet, and well engrossed by a clerkly hand, is before 
me, and runs as follows :* 

"Whereas we, the subscribers, inhabitants of Trenton, belonging to 
the Presbyterian congregation, being desirous to settle a Gospel min- 
istry amongst us, and having had the experience of the ministerial 
abilities, and the blameless life and conversation of the Reverend Mr. 
David Cowell, do hereby unanimously call and desire him to settle 
amongst us, and to take the charge of this congregation as their min- 
ister. And we, the said subscribers, do hereby promise and oblige our- 
selves to support the said Mr. Cowell with a maintenance, and other- 
wise to assist him as we may to discharge his ministerial function 
amongst us; as witness our hands the seventh day of April, 1736. 

Joseph Higbee, Joseph Jones, 
William Hoff, Isaac Joens, 

William Worslee, David Howell, 

William Reed, Robert Lanning, 

Jonathan Purman, Joseph Green, 

William Lartmoor, William Green, 

Richard Purman, Francis Giffing, 

Jacob Anderson, Samuel Hooker, 

Isaac Reeder, John Scudder, 

John Porterfield, Henry Bellergeau, 

William Yard, Andrew Reed, 

Richard Scudder, Ralph Smith, 

Ralph Hart, Arthur Howell, 

Charles Clark, Peter Lott, 

Cornelius Ringo, James Bell, Jr., 

Samuel Johnson, EHakim Anderson, 

Joseph Yard, William^ Yard, Jr., 

* For this and other papers I am indebted to Mr. John V. Cowell, elder of the 
Central Church, Philadelphia, who is a great-nephew of our pastor. 


Ebenezer Prout, Neal W. Leviston, 

Clotworthy Reed, John Osburn, 

Christopher J. Cowell, * Daniel Bellergeau, 

Richard Green, William Peirson, 

David Dunbar." 

On the call is this indorsement : 

"Trenton, April the 7th, 1736. The following persons, viz., Richard 
Scudder, Ralph Hart, Charles Clark, Samuel Johnson, CorneHus Ringo, 
and Joseph Yard, were appointed by the Presbyterian congregation 
present at Trenton the day above, to be a committee to present the 
within-named call to Mr. Cowell, and to discourse with him in behalf 
of the congregation, and his settling among us. 

"Jos. Yard, Clerk, S." 

There is also on the back of the call a memorandumi by 
the hand of Mr. Cowell, "Recepi. May i, 1736," denoting 
the day on which he was waited on by the committee. 

Mr. Cowell, although then in the thirty-second year of 
his age, was only four years from college, and was still a 
licentiate. He was born in Dorchester,''^ Massachusetts, 
December 12, 1704, and was graduated at Harvard in 1732, 
the seventh year of the Presidency of the Rev. Benjamin 
Wadsworth. Mr. Cowell was in college in disorderly times. 
In the September of his last year a committee of the cor- 
poration closed an eight-months' investigation oif the causes 
of the low condition of morals and study. The commence- 
ment had become the occasion of so' much dissipation in the 
town and neighborhood, that for some years about this 
time it was held on Friday, and then with a very short 
public notice, so' as to allow but the end oi the week for its 

I find no record of Mr. Cowell' s reception to the care of 
the Presbytery of Philadelphia, nor of his licensure. They 
were probably in the lost minutes of 1732-3. On the 20th 
of July, 1736, the people of Trenton supplicated the Presby- 

Quincy's "History of Harvard University," i. 388-392. 


tery of Philadelphia, to which they then belonged, for the 
ordination of Mr. Cowell. This was granted, and accord- 
ing to appointment, a committee of Presbytery met at Tren- 
ton on the second of November of that year. The com- 
mittee, as present, were the Rev. Messrs. Jedediah Andrews, 
David Evans, Eleazer Wales and Richard Treat. The Rev. 
William Tennent and Hugh Carlile were absent. The Rev. 
Jonathan Dickinson and John Pierson sat as correspond- 
ents, having been delegated on other business. In the fore- 
noon of the first day Mr. Cowell was carried through his 
examination in theolog)^ In the afternoon he preached 
his trial sermon from Romans 3 : 25, read his exegesis 
("An lex naturse sit sufficiens ad salutem"), and was con- 
versed with on personal religion and his motives for the 
ministry. The next day was observed by the congregation, 
according to the directory, with fasting and prayer. At 
two o'clock the services of ordination and installment took 
place "in the public meeting house, at Trenton, in the pres- 
ence of a numerous assembly," Mr. Jedediah Andrews, of 
Philadelphia, preaching from 2 Timothy 2 : 2. 

At this Presbyterial meeting an inquiry being instituted 
as to what provision could be made for the vacant congre- 
gations of Hopewell and Maidenhead (Pennington and 
lyawrenceville) , Mr. Cowell was appointed to supply the 
former as often as he could, and Mr. Wales the latter. 

Mr. Cowell established his residence in the town. He 
was then, and continued through life, unmarried. In May, 
1737, he was received in Synod, and at that session a sup- 
plication coming in from Trenton for an appropriation 
fromi the fund for the assistance of the feebler congrega- 
tions, the sum! of five pounds was allowed for the year. 

I would be glad to give some notice of each of the signers 
of Mr. Cowell's call, but find it impossible to collect ma- 
terials to any extent. 

CoRNi^L,ius RiNGo was of the German family which gave 
name to the village of Ringoes, in Amwell. Philip Ringo, 


oi Amwell, in 1757 left four sons, Albertus, Henry, John 
and Cornelius. Cornelius died at Maidenhead, in 1768.^ 

Peter Lott was a name of several generations. In 1721 
one of them died, leaving- five children, to one of whom, 
Peter, he bequeathed "six shillings" more than to the rest, 
and made him executor. He was of Hopewell. Peter Lott 
was a witness before Presbytery in Rev. Mr. Morgan's case 
in 1737. In 1755, Peter Lott, of Trenton, had (as appears 
by his will) a nephew, Peter, son of his brother, Hendrick, 
and a nephew, Peter Rappleje, and a third nephew, Peter 
Schanck. He had a brother, Mewrice, or Maurice. He 
desired "to be buried in Long Island, where my father and 
mother were buried." In 1762 a Peter Lott, Junior, died 
at South Amboy, leaving sons, Peter, Daniel and Gershom, 
and a daughter, Ruth; and in 1764, the legatees of Peter 
Lott, of Middlesex, were his grandson, Gershom, and his 
sons, Henry, Abram., George and Charles. 

John Portereieed^ died in 1738. His will, dated three 
years before, describes him "of Trenton, merchant," and 
devises a thousand acres on the south branch of the Raritan, 
and other property in East New Jersey, "late recovered 
from John, Earl of Melfort," one of the noble proprietaries. 
It mentions his brother, Alexander, of Duchall, in Scotland, 
and a nephew, William Rollston, of the shire of Air, and 
"Boyd Porterfield, grandson to my brother." He be- 
queathed to another nephew, William Farquhar, "chirur- 
geon of Brunswick, all my interest in one third part of the 
forge at Trenton." John Kinsey, of Philadelphia, Joseph 
Peace, of Trenton, and William Farquhar were his exec- 

Francis Giefing. A blacksmith of this name died at 
Trenton in 1749. His children were John, Martha, and 
Rebecca. His wife, Margaret, and Joseph Yard were the 

The BeelERJEAus are of French descent, and have their 
representatives still in Trenton. The name of Samuel Bel- 


lerjeau occurs hereafter, in 1770. One of the family was 
a physician. 

Richard ScuddEr came from Long Island in 1704, and 
established himself on a farm on the Delaware, about five 
miles above Trenton, which is still possessed by his lineal 
descendants. His children were Hannah, Mary, Richard, 
John, Abigail, Joseph, Samiuel, Rebecca, and Joanna, all 
of whom were baptized by the Rev. Jedediah Andrews, 
eight of themi, together with their father, at one sclemnity.^° 
He died March 14, 1754, at the age of eighty-three. 

His son, JoHN^ whoi also signed the call, died May 10, 
1748, at the age of forty-seven. His children were Daniel, 
Am'os, Prudence, Jemima, Jedediah, and Ephraim. 

Daniel, the eldest son of John, died June 5, 181 1, aged 
seventy-five. He was a trustee in 1786 and subsequently. 
His children were Rachel, Keziah, Abner and Elias. 

EiviAS, the youngest child, died February 20, 181 1, at 
the age of forty-four. His children were D'aniel, John, 
Jasper Smith and Abner. The third of these is the present 
treasurer of the city congregation, being of the fifth gen- 
eration of the family. 

Andrew Reed was a merchant in Trenton, and is prob- 
ably the person mentioned in Governor Morris's papers, as 
having caused an excitmient in 1744, in consequence of his 
having been elected loan officer, with some informality by 
the justices of Hunterdon.* He was the first treasurer 
of the borough of Trenton upon its incorporation in 1746.^^ 
He was made a trustee of the church by the charter of 
1756, and served until 1759, when he removed to Amwell, 
where he died, December 16, 1769. He was the' father 
of General Joseph Reed, of the Revolution, who followed 
him in the trusteeship in 1766. Mr. Andrew Reed resided 
for some time also in Philadelphia, and was a trustee of 
the Second Presbyterian Church in that city. He had a 

* Papers of I,ewis Morris, pp. 275, 303, 317. 


brother, Joseph, who died at Amwell, in 1774, whose will 
mentions the children of his late brother, Andrew, namely, 
Joseph, Boaz,^2 John, Sarah (wife of Charles Pettit), and 
Mary. He (Joseph) left a legacy to Margaret, "the wife 
of Clotworthy Reed, of Trenton,"^^ a name which is 
found among the signers of the call. He also left thirty 
pounds to Princeton College, in addition to twenty already 
subscribed, and fifty to the united Presbyterian congrega- 
tions of Amwell, directing that his body should be interred 
in "the old English Presbyterian meeting-house graveyard 
in Amwell," or in any other Presbyterian graveyard nearer 
which he might be at the time of his death. 

In the Register of Baptisms, by the Rev. Jedediah An- 
drews, pastor of the First Church of Philadelphia, some of 
the names of the signers are found. ^* August 2, 171 1, 
Mr. Andrews baptized in Hopewell, Richard Scudder, 
and his eight children, Hannah, Mary, Richard. John, 
Abigail, Joseph, Samuel and Rebekah. At Maidenhead, 
March 6, 171 3, Rebekah, daughter of Ebenezer Prout, 
and Daniel, son of Robert Lanning. At Hopewell, April 
21, 1 713, Susanna, daughter of Richard Scudder, and 
Alexander, son of Charles Ceark. At Maidenhead, 
December 21, 171 3, Abigail, daughter of Ralph Hart. 
At Hopewell, July 28, 17 14, Eunice, daughter of EbEnezEr 
Prout. At Maidenhead, April 17, 171 5, Edward, son of 
Ralph Hunt. July 13, 171 5, Joseph and Anna, children 
of Eliakim Anderson; Frances, daughter of Robert 

The year 1738 is notable in the history of New Jersey, 
as the first in which the Province had a Governor exclus- 
ively its own. Heretofore the crown had united it with 
New York in the commissions of the successive Governors ; 
but now Colonel Lewis Morris, a native of Morrisania, in 
New York, was appointed for New Jersey alone. The 
Legislative Assembly of the Province was accustomed to 


meet alternately at Perth Amboy and Burlington. Gover- 
nor Morris was anxious to fix upon a permanent and more 
central place for the seat of goivernment. In 1740 he writes: 
"I have hired Dagworthy's house at Trenton." In 1742 
he negotiates with Governor Thomas/^ of Pennsylvania, 
for a lease of his estate called Kingsbury — the property in 
the lower part of Warren (then King) street, subsequently 
occupied by other provincial governors — and which, after 
a long interval, became the executive mansion during the 
incumbency of Governor Price. Lewis describes it in 1744 
as "about half a mile from Trenton; a very healthy and 
pleasant place, parted by a small brook (Assanpink) from 
Trentown, the great thoroughfare between York and Phila- 
delphia." He was not able to obtain a change in the seat 
of government; but in accommodation to his bad health 
the Legislature was summoned to meet at Trenton, and 
once at least at Kingsbury, in order to be dissolved in per- 
son by the Governor. He died there. May 21, 1746. 

Governor Morris belonged to the English Church, and 
while a resident at his estate of Tintern, or Tinton, in Mon- 
mouth county, when President (1700) of Council, had 
recommended to the Bishop O'f London, as necessary "to the 
bringing over to the Church the people in these countries," 
that none but "churchmen" should be placed in the high 
offices; that members of that Church should have "some 
peculiar privileges above others," and that no man should 
be admitted to a great benefice in England who had not 
preached "three years gratis in America." But his secta- 
rian zeal had disappeared when he made his will : "I forbid 
any man to be paid for preaching a funeral sermon over me ; 
those who' survive me will commend or blame my life 
as they think fit, and I am not for paying of any man for 
doing of either; but if any man, whether Churchman or 
Dissenter, in or not in priest's orders, is inclined to say any- 
thing on that occasion, he may, if my executors think fit to 
admit him to do it."^® 


Rev. Mr. Cowei^l and Rev. Mr. T^nnent. Schism oe 


1736 — 1760. 

Mr. CowEEE's name appears in the minutes of Presby- 
tery, first of Philadelphia, afterwards of New Brunswick, 
as a punctual attendant down to 1746. From that year to 
1762 there is a hiatus in the records, and there is no means 
of ascertaining- what part he took in that judicature during 
the remainder of his life, beyond what transpires through 
the minutes of the Synod. 

It is only from the proceeding's of this court that we 
obtain information of a theological controversy between 
Mr. Cowell and the Rev. Gilbert Tennent, of the Presby- 
tery of New Brunswick, that is first mentioned in May, 
1738, at which time a large correspondence had already 
passed between them. From the tenor of the proceedings 
in three successive sessions of the Synod, it appears that 
Mr. Tennent suspected Mr. Cowell of holding that doctrine, 
or some form of it, which makes the happiness of the indi- 
vidual the chief motive of religion. Not satisfied with the 
result of the correspondence, Mr. Tennent brought the sub- 
ject to the notice of Synod May 27, 1738, with a request for 
an expression of their opinion. The Synod appointed a 
committee, composed of Rev. Messrs. J. Dickinson, Pierson, 
Pemberton, Thomson, Anderson, Boyd and Treat, to con- 
verse with the two controvertists together, "that they may 
see whether they so widely differ in their sentiments as is 
■supposed ; and if they find there be necessity, distinctly to 
consider the papers ; that Mr. Tennent and Mr. Cowell be 



both directed to refrain all public discourses upon this con- 
troversy, and all methods of spreading it among the popu- 
lace, until the committee have made their report to the 
Synod, and that no other member take notice of and divulge 
the affair." The committee, finding that the debate was not 
to be settled by conversation, obtained leave to defer their 
report until the next Synod, and the Rev. Mr. Cross was 
added to their number. 

On the second day of the next year's session (May 24., 
1739), the committee were not prepared to report. On the 
25th the subject was again deferred — the committee being 
probably engaged in private conference with the parties. 
On the 29th the report was presented; upon hearing which 
the Synod expressed their great satisfaction in finding the 
contending parties fully agreed in their sentiments upon the 
point in controversy, according to^ the terms in which the 
overture of the commiittee had embodied the doctrine. The 
committee preface the theological statement to which they 
had secured the assent of the disputants, with this somewhat 
caustic intimation: 

"Though they apprehend that there were some incautious and un- 
guarded expressions used by both the contending parties, yet they have- 
ground to hope that the principal controversy between them flows from- 
their not having clear ideas of the subject they so earnestly debate 
about, and not from any dangerous errors they entertain." 

The committee then proceeded toi harmonize the views- 
which each of the polemics took of his favorite side of the 
problem,. The substance of their statement is, that God 
has been pleased to connect the highest happiness of man 
with the promotion O'f the divine glory, and therefore the 
two designs must never be placed in opposition. 

The decision was made at the last sederunt of the meet- 
ing, when Mr. Tennent had not much time to' weigh the 
terms of the report; but upon the reading of the minutes 


at the opening of the session of 1740, he expressed his 
dissatisfaction and asked for a reconsideration of the 
subject. After much debate upon this request, it was 
refused by a great majority.* Mr. Tennent's disposition 
was not towards concession. Neither his pen nor voice as 
yet gave promise of the future "Irenicum." As Dr. Finley 
said at his funeral, if an end seemed to be attainable, "he 
would not give up the point while one glimpse of hope 
remained." He subsequently alluded in the harshest terms 
toi what he conceived to be the heretical standing of many 
of the Synod on the point of his controversy with Mr. 
Cowell. "His natural disposition," says Dr. Alexander, 
"appears to have been severe and uncompromising; and he 
gave strong evidence of being very tenacious of all his 
opinions, and not very tolerant oi those who dissented from 
his views, as appeared by the controversy which he had 
with the Rev. Mr. Cowell, of Trenton, and which he 
brought before the Synod. "f 

Our whole Church was now approaching one of the most 
exciting and tumultuous epochs in its history — an epoch 
signalized by the discordant epithets of "The Great Re- 
vival," and "The Great Schismi," to which might be added, 
as their sequel,"The Great Relapse" — the times of Edwards, 
Whitefield, Wesley, Tennents, Dickinson, Blair, Davenport, 
and the parties, sects, and controversies with which their 
names are associated ; times of fanaticism and censorious- 
ness, yet also- of awakening and reformation ; the good of 
which has overbalanced the mischief — the Divine wisdom 
neutralizing the fooilishness of men. A full and candid 
survey of the period from' 1740 to 1758, and a discriminat- 
ing view of what is pure and what spurious in the character 
oi a "Revival," may be foimd in Dr. Hodge's volumes on 

* Records, pp. 138, 142, 143, 146, 149, 150. The proceedings are given in Dr. 
Hodge's Constitutional History. Part I., pp. 235-239. 
t "Log College," chap. iv. 



the "Constitutional History of the Presbyterian Church." 
All that pertains tO' my limited purpose may be compressed 
in a few paragraphs.* 

Both in this country and Great Britain, the piety of the 
Church, its ministry and laity, was in a languid condition. 
In some parts this was accompanied with, or caused by, a 
looseness in doctrinal opinion. The first marked symptoms 
of improvement appeared at Freehold, New Jersey, in the 
congregation under the care oi the Rev. John Tennent, and 
throughout his brief ministry from; 1730 toi his death in 
1732. Under the itinerating ministry of the Rev. John 
Rowland, in Maidenhead, Hopewell, and Amwell, similar 
effects appeared a few years later, and most conspicuously 
in 1740. In Elizabeth town, Newark, New Brunswick, and 
other parts of New Jersey, as well as in the neighboring 
Provinces, and in Virginia and New England, the "awaken- 
ing" was remarkably extended and decided. In the year 
1738, Whitefield first appeared in America, and repeated 
his visits at intervals until his death at Newburyport in 
1770. His extraordinary preaching and inexhaustible 
enthusiasm served tO' increase and diffuse the religious 
fervor that had already made its appearance, while the 
irregularities of his measures, and the marks of fanaticism! 
that characterized his language and conduct, excited the 
mistrust O'f some of the most pious and judicious, as to the 
ultimate effect of his course. 

It was the excitement, both good and bad, attending the 
movements just referred to, that led some of the most zeal- 
ous ministers to disregard formalities and regulations which 
they supposed were impediments in the way of attempting 
what the times required. In 1737, the Synod of Philadel- 
phia, the only Synod and the highest court of the Church, . 
prohibited the intrusion of the ministers of one Presbytery 
within the bounds of another. The main object of this law 

For the documents and records see Baird's Digest, 2d edition, pp. 592-617. 


was to prevent itinerant ministers from producing confusion 
by preaching in parishes uninvited by the proper minister. 
Again, in 1738, the Synod directed that every candidate for 
the ministry should present to the Presbytery to which he 
applied a diploma of graduation, or an equivalent certifi- 
cate of scholarship from a committee of the Synod. In that 
year the Synod had formed out of the Presbyteries of New 
York and Philadelphia the Presbytery of New Brunswick. 
All the churches and ministers to the north and east of 
Maidenhead and Hopewell, with some others, were united 
in the new Presbytery. On the first day of its constitution 
it deliberately disregarded the latter rule, and licensed a 
candidate without diploma or certificate. The Synod pro- 
nounced this act disorderly, and refused to recognize the 
licentiate. In reply, the Presbytery, led by the Rev. Gilbert 
Tennent, stated their objections to both of the above-named 
rules, as infringing on Presbyterial rights and transgressing 
Synodal authority.^ The Synod slightly modified the rule 
of examination, but adhered to its principles. The Presby- 
tery persisted in their contumacy, ordained the very proba- 
tioner (Rowland) that they had irregularly licensed, and 
continued to license in the old way. 

The Hopewell family of churches became involved in the 
schismatic proceedings. Hopewell and Maidenhead, still in 
the Presbytery of Philadelphia, supplicated the new Presby- 
tery for Mr. Rowland as their supply, which was granted. 
The Presbytery of Philadelphia, which had, through Mr. 
Cowell, informed Rowland that they adhered to the Synod's 
view of his defective standing, and advised him not to 
preach at Hopewell, now refused to allow him to minister 
in their jurisdiction. Thereupon the people who favored 
Rowland asked the Philadelphia Presbytery to form them 
into a separate congregation. This was consented to, pro- 
vided they would not erect a new church without the consent 
of the other part of the congregation to its location.^ Upon 


this agreement they were set off. The new congregation at 
once asked to be dismissed to the more congenial Presbytery 
of New Brunswick. The Presbytery insisted upon their 
first complying with the condition on which they were set 
off. The people complained of this decision to Synod, 
which (1739) wholly sustained the Presbytery, and pro- 
vided for their (the Presbytery's) fixing the place of the 
new house, but none of the parties submitted to its judg- 

Matters became still more complicated as the Synod en- 
deavored to compromise the points in debate. Gilbert Ten- 
nent, with his characteristic harshness and uncharitableness, 
formally attributed the objectionable rules of the Synod, 
and its adherence to them, to doctrinal unsoundness and 
want of piety. Mr. Blair followed in the same strain. 
Tennent encouraged the schismatic tendencies of the 
Synod's opponents by a bold sermon at Nottingham, excit- 
ing the disaffected to withdraw from the ministry of those 
whom he condemned. It was fruitful in alienations and 

The Synod met in 174 1. A violent protest against recog- 
nizing the Tennent party as members O'f Synod was read, 
and then signed by a majority. Scenes of disorder ensued. 
The Presbytery of New Brunswick, regarding themselves 
excluded by this unconstitutional measure, withdrew in a 
body from the house. The next day it divided itself into the 
Presbyteries of New Brunswick and Londonderry, and 
took measures for organizing a new Synod. In 1742 the 
old Synod was occupied with ineffectual plans of reconcilia- 
tion. In 1743 Mr. Cowell being Moderator, and in 1744, 
the discussion went on, and no union taking place, the dis- 
owned members, and others who sympathized with them as 
unjustly dealt with, met as the Synod of New York in 
Elizabethtown, September, 1745. In the references to this 
schism the Synod of Philadelphia is called historically the 


Old Side, and the other Synod the New Side. The separa- 
tion continued until 1758.^ 

Through these agitations Mr. Cowell stood by the old 
Synod; and though after his experience of Mr. Tennent's 
qualities as an antagonist he may not have felt any personal 
prepossession for the side on which he was leader, his char- 
acteristic moderation and self-command were doubtless pre- 
served. According to President Davies, perhaps alluding 
to these times, "in matters of debate, and especially of relig- 
ious controversy, he was rather a moderator and compro- 
miser than a party." There is no reason to believe that he 
was carried away, as many were, by their admiration of the 
zeal of Whitefield, to overlook the serious perils of the 
excitement oi his visits. Whitefield was, of course, a 
favorite with the "New Side." He was onle oi those men 
towards whom a broad charity is extended by the humble 
minds who honor in another the zeal in which they regard 
themselves to be defective, and overlook extravagancies for 
the sake of the good which they hope they will be the means 
of producing. Whitefield's history stands in need of this 
charity, and we should be slow in suspecting those men O'f 
•coldness to a true work of Divine grace who were consci- 
entiously restrained from giving their countenance to his 
methods of procedure. 

In the first year of his American travels Whitefield 
preached at the towns between Philadelphia and New York. 
His own journal of November 12, 1739, says: "By eight 
o'clock we reached Trent-town 111 the Jerseys. It being 
dark, we went out of our way a little in the woods ; but God 
Sent a guide to' direct us aright. We had a comfortable 
refreshment when we reached our inn, and went to bed in 
peace and joy in the Holy Ghost." He left town early the 
next morning. After preaching in the neighborhood he was 
brought back to Trenton in the same month, by the pros- 
pect of a great gathering of people to view an execution. 


"November 21, 1739. Being strongly desired by many^ 
and hearing that a condemned malefactor was to suffer that 
week, I went in company with about thirty more to Trent- 
town, and reached thither by five in the evening. Here 
God was pleased to humble my soul, and bring my sins to 
remembrance, so that I could hardly hold up my head. 
However, knowing that God called, I went out, trusting 
in Divine strength, and preached in the court-house; and 
though I was quite barren and dry in the beginning of the 
discourse, yet God enabled me to speak with great sweet- 
ness, freedom', and power before I had done. The unhappy 
criminal seemed hardened, but I hope some good was done 
in the place." 

Whitefield, it appears from this, preached according to 
English custom, in the presence of the condemned man.^ 
Mr. Cowell improved the same occasion by a sermon in 
his own church, on the repentance of the dying thief, which 
looks as if he did not offer his pulpit to the eloquent itin- 
erant. A' letter of Jonathan Arnold, who appears to have 
been an Episcopal minister, perhaps a missionary, in Con- 
necticut, dated, "East Chester, November 27, 1739," and 
addressed to Wmi. Smith, Esq., of New York, refers to an 
incident of that visit. "When Mr. Whitefield came with 
me from' Trenton, we agreed to search and examine each 
other. He had the preferance. I past his examination till 
we came tO' Brunswick, after which I was tO' have the same 
liberty with him. He escaped by turning aside to preach for 
the famous Mr. Tennent." 

In November, 1740, Whitefield was here again, as his 
journal speaks of having had at Trenton "a long confer- 
ence with some ministers about Mr. Gilbert Tennent' s com- 
plying with an invitation to go and preach in New Eng- 
land." It is probable that he visited Trenton during his 
other tours in America, from; 1744 tO' 1770. On the 30th 
of July, 1754, one of his letters says : "To-morrow I preach 


at Newark; on Wednesday, at two in the afternoon, at 
New Brunswick, and hope to reach Trent-town that nig-ht. 
Could you not meet me there quietly, that we might spend 
one evening together?" He was advertised in the Phila- 
delphia papers tO' preach, at Trenton on the 13th and 14th 
September, 1754.^ 

Mr. Co well was an active member of Synod. In 1738 
he was on a committee tO' meet at Hanover, to adjust a diffi- 
culty between two parishes. At the same session he was 
placed on a committee of seven to examine candidates for 
the ministry. This committee had charge of the students 
in the Presbyteries tO' the north of Philadelphia, and a cor- 
responding one had charge of those to the south. In 1743 
he was Moderator, and elected on the Synod's commission 
for the year. For before the present constitution of our 
church was adopted, the Synod followed the usage of the 
General Assembly of Scotland, in annually appointing a 
convenient number of its members to sit as a commission in 
the interval of its stated convenings, and perform any 
Synodal business that required immediate dispatch.^ The 
Moderator of 1743 was also added to a committee tO' an- 
swer a communication from Governor Thomas, of Penn- 
sylvania, in regard to a pamphlet by the Rev. Alexander 
Craighead, which the government considered seditious, and 
which the Synod disavowed, both as to its sentiments, and 
as having any jurisdiction over its author.''^ 

In 1749 the Synod of New York sent a delegation to the 
Synod of Philadelphia, with a proposal that each Synod 
should appoint a commission to meet and deliberate upon a 
plan of reunion. This movement towards reconcilation 
was acceded to by the sister Synod, and on the 25th of 
May they appointed a commission of nine members, of 
whom Mr. Cowell was one. The united meeting was ap- 
pointed to be held in Trenton, on the first Wednesday of 
the ensuing October. The meeting took place accordingly 


on the 4th and 5th of October, and Mr. Cowell was chosen 
to preside. The negotiations initiated at this meeting were 
prolonged in various shapes until May 29, 1755, when a 
commission of conference was again appointed by the 
Synod of Philadelphia, and Mr. Cowell was one of its 
seven m'embers. They met in Philadelphia on the same 
afternoon. He was also on a committee of five, in 1756, 
to answer a minute then received from the other Synod; 
and on another committe tO' obtain a charter for the Wid- 
ows' Fund from the Messrs. Perm, the Pennsylvania Pro- 
prietors, and also on the Synod's Commission and Fund.^ 
In May, 1757, another joint conference was held at Tren- 
ton, of which Mr. Cowell was a m^ember. He was on the 
Commission of the Synod, and Committee for the Fund, 
for 1758, in which year the two Synods were at length 
combined under the title of the Synod of New York and 

At the first mieeting of the new Synod (May 30, 1758) 
Mr. Cowell and Mr. Guild (of Pennington) were trans- 
ferred from the Presb3rtery of Philadelphia tO' that of New 
Brunswick, and from that time the respective churches have 
retained the connection. The last mention of Mr. Cowell's 
name on the Synod's records is under the date of May 22, 
1760, when, although not present, he was placed on a com- 
mittee to dispose of the fund for the relief of poor and 
pious youth in the College of New Jersey.^ 


Trenton in 1748 — Episcopai, Churches — Trenton 
Names and Peaces — 1722-1768. 

1746 — 1760. 

On the sixth of September, 1746, at the instance of 
Governor Morris, Trenton was, by royal charter, constituted 
a borough-town. Thomas Cadwalader was the first Chief 
Burgess ; Nathaniel Ward, Recorder, with twelve Bur- 
gesses. But in April, 1750, the inhabitants having found 
that the disadvantages of incorporation preponderated, sur- 
rendered the charter through the hands of Governor Bel- 

For the sake of the impression it may convey of what 
the town was at this period, I will here make an extract 
from the journal of a traveler who saw it in the year 1748. 
This writer was Peter Kalm-, Professor of Economy in 
the University of Abo, in Swedish Finland; who visited 
North America, as a naturalist, under the auspices oi the 
Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences. It was in honor O'f 
his botanical researches that Linnaeus gave the name of 
Kaimia tO' our laurel. U'pder the date of October 28, 
1748, Kalm enters his observations as follov/s : 

"Trenton is a long, narrow town, situate at some distance from the 
river Delaware, on a sandy plain. It belongs to New Jersey, and they 
reckon it thirty miles from Philadelphia. It has two small churches, 
one for the people belonging to the Church of England, the other for 
the Presbyterians. The houses are partly built of stone, though most 
of them are made of wood or planks, commonly two stories high, 
together with a cellar below the building, and a kitchen underground. 

The Charter is in book AAA of Commissions, p. 266 : the surrender on p. 306. 



close to the cellar. The houses stand at a moderate distance from one 
another. They are commonly built so that the street passes along one 
side of the houses, while gardens of different dimensions bound the 
other side. In each garden is a draw-well.^ The place is reckoned 
very healthy. Our landlord told us that twenty-two years ago, when 
he first settled here, there was hardly more than one house; but from 
that time Trenton has increased so much that there are at present 
near a hundred houses. The houses were, within, divided into several 
rooms by the partitions of boards. The inhabitants of the place car- 
ried on a small trade with the goods which they got from Philadelphia, 
but their chief gain consists in the arrival of the numerous travelers 
between that city and New York, for they are commonly brought by 
the Trenton yachts from Philadelphia to Trenton, or from thence to 
Philadelphia. But from Trenton further to New Brunswick, the trav- 
elers go in the wagons which set out every day for that place. Several 
of the inhabitants, however, likewise subsist on the carriage for all sorts 
of goods which are every day sent in great quantities either from 
Philadelphia to New York, or from thence to the former place, for 
between Philadelphia and Trenton all goods go by water, but between 
Trenton and New Brunswick they are all carried by land, and both 
these conveniences belong to people of this town. 

"For the yachts which go between this place and the capital of Penn- 
sylvania (Philadelphia), they usually pay a shilling and sixpence of 
Pennsylvania currency per person, and every one pays besides for his 
baggage. Every passenger must provide meat and drink for himself, 
or pay some settled fare. Between Trenton and New Brunswick a 
person pays 2s. 6d., and the baggage is likewise paid for separately. 

"On the road from Trenton to New Brunswick I never saw any 
place in America, the towns excepted, so well peopled. An old man, 
who lived in the neighborhood, and accompanied us for some part of 
the road, however, assured me that he could well remember the time 
when between Trenton and New Brunswick there were not above 
three farms, and he reckoned it was fifty and some odd years ago."^ 

When it is said that the landlord told Kalm that in 1726 
there was hardly one house in Trenton, either the Swede 
did not understand the Jerseyman, or the host spoke at 
random; for if as early as 17 19 the courts sat in Trenton, 
it is not probable that such a selection would be made 
seven years before there was "hardly a house." 

The statistical guesses or reports of travelers are not to 
be relied on, especially if the reporters doi not speak the 
language of the country. The Rev. Andrew Burnaby, an 


English clergyman, describes Trenton, in 1759, as "contain- 
ing about a hundred houses. It has nothing remarkable : 
there is a Church (of England), a Quaker's and Presby- 
terian meeting-house, and barracks for three hundred 
men."* These barracks, which are now in part occupied 
by the "Home for Widows," were erected in 1758, simul- 
taneously with those at New Brunswick and Elizabethtown,^ 
Elkanah Watson, who was here in 1777, says: "Trenton 
contains about seventy dwellings, situate principally on 
two narrow streets running parallel."! In the travels of 
the Duke de la Roche fo^ucault Liancourt, in 1795-7, Tren- 
ton is said to "contain about three hundred houses; most 
of which are of wood. Those oi the high street are some- 
what better in structure than the rest, yet still but very 
moderate in their appearance."! In the same year an Eng- 
lish visitor says: "Trenton contains about two hundred 
houses, together with four churches. The streets are com- 
modious, and the houses neatly built." § Melish, in 1806-7, 
makes it "a handsome little town, containing about two 
hundred houses." || The Rev. Mr. Burnaby "went to Sir 
John Sinclair's, at the Falls oi Delaware, about a mile 
above Trenton, a pleasant rural retirem'ent."'* Sir John Sin- 
clair's knighthood was of the order known in English 
heraldry as a Baronetcy oi Nova Scotia. He was the first 
occupant of the mansion that afterwards belonged to^ 
"Lord" Stirling, and then to Mr. Rutherford, a short 
distance west of the State Hlonse, and on the river. The 
three families were connected. The house was subsequently 
tenanted by Robert Lettis Hooper, and the walls of "the 

* Travels through the Middle Settlements in North America etc., in 1759 and 

t Memoirs, p. g. 

t Travels; Translated by Newman. London, 1799, i. 594. 

§ Travels through the States of North America, etc., in 1795-7. By Isaac Weld,. 
Jr. London, 1799. 
II Travels, i. 143. 


Green House," remained to give name to the site long after 
the dwelling itself had been demolished. A correspondent 
of the Trenton "Federalist," of March 30th, 1802, states 
that the first ice-house in the State, "in our recollection, 
was erected by Sir John St. Clair (so written), about the 
year 1760."^ 

I would here enlarge the notices already given incidentally 
of the foundation of the Episcopal Church in Trenton and 
its vicinity. I have mentioned the building erected on the 
ground conveyed by Hutchinson in 1703, and its occupation 
at intervals, if not jointly, by the Presbyterians. In 
Humphreys' "Historical Account of the Gospel Propaga- 
tion Society," we have the following statenient : 

"Hopewell and Maidenhead are two neighboring towns, containing 
a considerable number of families. The people of Hopewell showed 
a very early desire of having the Church of England worship settled 
among them; and in the year 1704 built a church with voluntary con- 
tributions, though they had no prospect then of having a minister. 
The Rev. Mr. May was there some short time, but Mr. Talbot, from 
Burlington, often visited them. This church was for ten years vacant. 
In 1720 the Rev. Mr. Harrison was appointed missionary there, with 
the care of Maidenhead, but soon wrote the Society word that he was 
not able to undergo the fatigue of constantly riding between two 
places, and in 1723 he removed to a church in Staten Island." 

In the Society's "Account" for 1706, it is said: "Many 
other public letters were continually sent over, by which it 
appeared that the inhabitants of Hopewell and Maidenhead 
were building a church, and desired a minister and some 
subsistence for him." In 1709 Mr. Talbot writes from 
Burlington : "Poor Hopewell has built a church and have 
had no minister yet."^ In a manuscript, headed, "State of 
the Church of England in America in 1705," probably a 
copy of some English document, it is said that a minister is 
wanted "at Hopewell, between Crosswicks and Maidenhead, 
where they are building" a church ; and one "at the Falls, 
thirty miles above Philadelphia, where a church is building." 


In collating these notices, Hopewell and the Falls would 
seem to indicate different localities; and if the former be 
the name of the "Old Church" of our map, in Chapter 
II., the latter may denote some other place — perhaps 
in Pennsylvania — to which the general neighborhood title 
of the Falls may have been applied.^ 

In 1749 a lottery "for finishing the church at Trenton," 
was drawn in Pennsylvania. Of the Trenton Episcopal 
Church, however, we find nothing definite until June, 1750, 
when the Rev. Michael Houdin is reported in the Society's 
Accounts as "invited by the inhabitants of Trenton and 
other places in New Jersey to go and officiate among them." 
Upon this he addressed a letter to the Society, dated Tren- 
ton, November i, 1750, which begins: "Having my resi- 
dence at New York, I heard of repeated complaints made by 
gentlemen and principal inhabitants of this place, Allen's 
Town and Borden's Town, it being for many years past 
destitute of a Church of England minister; and, without 
any sort of application of mine, about five months ago some 
of them were pleased to press me by letter to come amongst 
them. * * * When I waited on them: I really found 
they were destitute indeed, there not being a minister of the 
Church of England nearer than Burlington." The Ab- 
stracts of the Society for 1753 say : "The Rev. Mr. Houdin, 
having for some years officiated at Trenton and the neigh- 
boring places in the Province of New Jersey, among the 
members of the Church of England, upon such slender sup- 
port as they in their poor circumstances could afford him," 
the Society appointed him their "itinerant missionary to 
officiate in Trenton and the parts adjacent." 

Michael Houdin, whose name has been usually given 
nearer to its pronunciation, as Udang or Eudang, in which 
latter form it actually appears in the first minutes of the 
Vestry of St. Michael's Church (April 30, 1755) — born in 
France in 1705 — was originally a priest in the Church of 


Rome and Superior of a Franciscan Convent in Montreal. 
He renounced that faith and entered the Episcopal Church 
in New York in 1747, and thence came to Trenton as the 
Society's "itinerant missionary in New Jersey," on a salary 
of fifty pounds. In 1759 Houdin accompanied General 
Wolfe to Quebec, as his guide; and in October "intreats the 
Society that his absence from his mission may not bring 
him under displeasure, as he was in some measure forced to 
it, in obedience to the commands of Lord Loudon and the 
succeeding commanders, who depended much on his being 
well acquainted with that country." After the reduction of 
Quebec, Houdin asked leave to return to^ his missionary 
post, but General Murray retained him in the army. He 
complained that he had lost much by the death of Wolfe, 
"who promised to remember his labor and services." From 
Canada he appears to have been sent as missionary to New 
Rochelle, Westchester county. New York, where were many 
French refugees. He died there in October, 1766.* The 
Rev. Mr. Treadwell was the successor to Houdin. In May, 
1769, the Rev. William Thomson produced to the Vestry 
the Society's letter appointing him to the mission of "Tren- 
ton and Maidenhead," to which the Wardens gave their 

The nearest newspaper offices accessible to Trenton for 
half a century after its foundation were those of Philadel- 
phia. Through all that period the want of a local press and 
the obstacles to correspondence kept the affairs of the town 
in their native obscurity. Such notices and advertisements, 
however, as are found in the Philadelphia journals aflford 
some idea of the population and business of Trenton, and 
give some names of its early inhabitants, not otherwise to 
be found. From a cursory inspection of a series of Brad- 

* Anderson's History of the Colonial Church of England. Ivondon, 1856, vol. 
iii. Bolton's History of the Episcopal Church in Westchester County. New York, 
^855, p. 453-471. O'Callaghan's Documentary History of New York. Vol. iii. 955. 


ford's Weekly Mercury, and Keimer's and Franklin's Penn- 
sylvania Gazette,* I have made the following miscellaneous 
notes. A number of the names are among the signatures of 
Mr. Covvell's call in 1736. 

November, 1722. — William Yard, of Trenton, advertises the escape 
of a negro servant. 

August, 1723. — Joseph Peace" offers for sale tw^o dwelling houses 
belonging to Peter Pummer, near Trent's Mill. Inquiry to be made of 
Mr. Peace, at his residence in Trent Town. 

September, 1723. — A line of transportation for goods and passengers 
is advertised as running between Trenton and Philadelphia, once a 
week each way. The agent in Trenton was John Woolland. The 
office in the city was at the celebrated "Crooked Billet." 

March, 1728. — A large stone house, with a good smith-shop, to be 
■sold at vendue at the house of William Hoff. 

December, 1729. — John Severn's stable and seven horses burnt. 

October, 1731. — For sale a plantation, adjoining the town of Tren- 
ton, 130 acres ; also one three miles above Trenton, near the ferry 
above the falls, one mile from Yardley's old mill, and three from his 
new one, 500 acres. "Inquire of Capt. James Gould, at Trenton, and 
be further informed." 

December, 1731. — ^A bolting-house and store, belonging to Benjamin 
Smith, took fire, "but was seasonably prevented." 

June, 1732. — Enoch Anderson, "at the Falls' ferry." 

July, 1732. — Enoch Anderson, Junior, sub. sheriff. 

August, 1732. — The house of Ebenezer Prout, "near this place," was 
struck by lightning. William Pearson was hurt, a boy killed. 

September, 1732. — Eliacom [kim] Anderson, "now living at Trenton 

February 1732-3. — A fresh carried away the dam of the iron works, 
also the dam of the grist-mill, bridge and dyeing-house. 

September 19, 1734. — Notice is given of the establishment of a post 
■office at Trenton, "where all persons may have their letters, if directed 
for that county ; also where they may put in their letters directed to 
any parts, and due care will be taken to send them." The postmaster 
was Andrew Reed, and the office was at the house of Joseph Reed.^" 

The first advertisement of uncalled-for letters, which I 
have seen, is under the date March 25, 1755, and is as fol- 
lows : 

* In the Philadelphia Ivibrary is a series of the Mercury from 1719 to 1746, 
and of the Gazette from 1728 to 1774. The latter appeared at first under the ex- 
traordinary title of The Universal Instructor in all Arts and Sciences, and Penn- 
sylvania Gazette. 


"A list of letters now in the post office at Trenton. 

William Carnegie, near Kingston, 
John Clark (Attorney,), Trenton. 

John Hyde, Hopewell. 

Joseph Morton, Princetown. 

Richard Patterson, Princetown. 


John Stevens, Rocky Hill. 

Ares Vanderbelt, Maidenhead. 

"Letters not taken up within three months from this date will be 
sent to the General Post Office at Philadelphia." 

September, 1734. — Isaac Harrow, an English smith, has lately set 
up at Trenton a plating and blade-mill, where he makes axes, car- 
penters' and coopers' tools, tanners' and skinners' knives, spades, 
shovels, shears, scythes, mill and hand-saws, frying-pans, etc., "likewise 
all sorts of iron plates, fit for bell making or any other use." 

May, 1736. — AppHcation for a stone house and a lot of three quarters 
of an acre, to be made to Cornelius Ringo in Trenton. It "lies in a 
very convenient part of the town for any manner of business, being near 
the mill." 

February, 1737. — There will be a stage-wagon from Trenton to- 
Brunswick twice a week and back; will set out from William Atlee's 
and Thomas Hooton's, in Trenton. 

October, 1737. — Servants absconded from Benjamin Smith and 
Richard Noland. 

November, 1737. — A Scotch servant-man absconded from Mr, 

Januarj^ 1738. — Servant absconded from Joseph Decow. 

August, 1739. — To be let, the grist-mills at Trenton, with two tene- 
ments adjoining, now in the tenure of Joseph Peace. 

December, 1739. — Andrew Reed receives subscriptions in Trenton for 
Whitefield's Sermons and Journals, to be published by Franklin. 

March, 1740. — William Atlee proposes to continue to keep a store 
with John Dagworthy, Junior, until his partnership with Thomas 
Hooton is settled. 

II, May, 1744. — To be sold, by Benjamin Smith, a corner lot; also a 
stone house, fronting King street ; sundry lots on Queen street. 

September, 1745. — To be sold, "the iron plating works, smith's shop, 
and all the tools and moulds for making frying-pans, dripping-pans^ 


etc., said works being now fit for use;" also a good dwelling-house — 
all of the estate of Isaac Harrow, deceased. Apply to Anthony Morris, 
Philadelphia, or William Morris, Trenton." 

January, 1745. — For sale, dwelling, malt-house, brew-house, and all 
utensils, and a quarter of acre of land in King street, estate of William 
Atlee. Enquire of James Atlee, Trenton, or Thomas Hooton, Trenton 

March, 1746. — Sundry lots offered by William Morris and William 
Morris, Junior, on both sides of Hanover street 45 feet front and 147 
feet deep. 

October, 1746. — A fair for three days will be held in the borough 
town of Trenton for cattle of all kinds, goods, wares, and merchandise. 

1746. — William Morris, Junior, at his store opposite to John Jen- 
kins's, advertises rum by the hogshead, and salt by the hundred bushels. 

June, 1748. — Enoch Anderson offers for sale a house "fronting the 
street that leads directly to New York," also "two lots opposite the 
Presbyterian meeting-house, on one of which is a very good stable." 

April, 1750. — House of William Douglass, at Trenton landing. 

1750. — For sale by Benjamin Biles, a well-accustomed tanyard. with 
vats enough for 800 hides, and dwelling adjoining the tanyard, on the 
west side of King street, near the middle of the town. 

May, 1750. — Thomas Cadwalader offers 900 acres of woodland, a 
mile and a half north of the town, watered by fine streams, "one of 
which the Trenton mills stand on." Also a plantation of 700 acres, 
on the Delaware, where William Douglass now lives, north of Trenton 
about two miles, adjoining the plantation where Mr. Tuite lately lived; 
also a large corner brick house in Queen street, in a very public part 
of the town; also 25 acres of pasture land in the upper end of Queen 

June, 1750. — For sale, plantation, 447 acres, late in possession of 
Alexander Lockhart, Esq., between three and four miles from Trenton. 
on Scot's road, and adjoining the old meeting-house lot, and the plan- 
tation of Charles Clark, Esq. Enquire of John Cox, Trenton. 

April, 1751. — John Evans, cooper. 

January, 1752. — James Rutherford's house robbed. 

April, 1752. — Elijah Bond's stable and fourteen horses, and some 
adjoining houses burnt. 

September, 1753. — For sale, Nathaniel Moore's mills and plantation, 
six miles above Trenton, 400 acres ; apply to William Clayton, or 
William Pidgeon, Trenton. 

1754. — Several men for sale by "Reed and Furman." 

May, 1754. — Tickets in the lottery in Connecticut for the benefit of 
College of New Jersey, for sale by Rev. Mr. Cowell, and Reed & 

July, 1754. — Edward Broadfield has removed from Bordentown to 



1756. — The Philadelphia and New York line. John Butler's stage 
starts on Tuesday from Philadelphia, to house of Nathaniel Parker at 
Trenton Ferry, thence over the ferry to house kept by George Moschell, 
where Francis Holman will meet John Butler, and exchange pas- 
sengers, and proceed on Wednesday, through Princeton and New 
Brunswick to Perth Amboy, where will be a boat to proceed to New 
York on Thursday morning. 

" 1757- — Subscriptions for the New American Magazine, about to be 
published in Philadelphia, may be left with Moore Furman, Postmaster 
of Trenton. 

April, 1758. — Andrew Reed, of Trenton, advertises tract of 200 
acres at Amwell, and in Trenton two good stone houses, with garden, 
well, etc., one of which now lets for £8 los. per annum, and the other, 
having a cooper's shop on the lot, for £12 ; also three lots on the west 
side of King street, 45 by 140. 

April, 1758. — William Douglass, sign of the Wheatsheaf, or at the 
house of John Cummings, is authorized to enlist a regiment of one 
thousand men for the King's service. 

July, 1758. — For sale by executors, the seat of Joseph Warrell, Esq., 
late deceased, well known by name of Bellville, on the Delaware, 
three-fourths of a mile from Trenton, with gardens, orchards, etc. 
Also a plantation of 300 acres, within one-fourth of a mile of the above, 
on the Delaware, with a patent for a ferry. 

May, 1759. — Robert Lettis Hooper has laid out lots 60 by 181, for a 
town in Nottingham township, beginning on the Delaware at Trenton 
ferry, running as the road runs to the grist mills opposite Trenton, 
thence down the stream of the mills to the Delaware, thence down the 
river to the ferry, being the head of navigation, "where there is a 
considerable trade extended from the city of Philadelphia, and great 
parts of the counties of Hunterdon, Morris, Middlesex, Somerset, and 
Bucks, in Pennsylvania, deliver their produce," and rafts of timber, 
staves, etc., come from 120 miles up the river. Offered for sale, or on 
lease for sixty years. Apply to advertiser or his sons Robert L. 
Hooper and Jacob Roeters [or Rutters] Hooper, "living at his mills 
opposite to Trenton." 

May, 1764. — Samuel Tucker, Sheriff, will sell that well-accustomed 
tavern, the lot 67 feet on Front street, and 174 on Market, adjoining 
lands of William Morris, Junior, Wm. Cleayton, James Smith, and 
Robert Singer; house 35 feet square, having a "genteel assembly- 
room, with a door opening into a fine balcony, fronting Queen street," 
late the property and now in possession of Robert Rutherford. 

March, 1765. — For sale, a settlement on the river called Lamberton, • 
about half a mile below the ferry near Trenton, with utensils for cur- 
ing herring and sturgeon. 

March, 1768. — For sale, "Hermitage" on the Delaware, one mile 
from Trenton, 220 acres. Apply to Benjamin Biles. 


I have taken the trouble of making this collection for the 
sake of the local interest it may possess with the inhabitants 
of Trenton, and to corroborate what was said in the begin- 
ning of the chapter as to the probable size of the town in the 
first quarter of the century. 

CoivLEGE OF New Jersey — CoweivL, Burr, Davies, 


1746 — 1760. 

Oe the College of New Jersey, the Rev. Mr. Cowell was 
so early and active a friend, that he may be counted among 
its founders. The College was, indeed, projected by mem- 
bers of the Synod of New York, as one of the means of 
strengthening themselves after the disruption of 1741, and 
not unlikely as a means of removing the taunt connected 
with the inadequacy of the Neshaminy school. But as it 
was to be established in New Jersey, and for all that he 
knew, in Trenton or its neighborhood, Mr. Cowell was not 
so bigoted a churchman as to- withhold his influence from 
a scheme which, while it had no- positive connection with 
any party, promised such important advantages to the re- 
ligious and educational condition of the whole Province.^ 
He had learned the value of college training from his own 
career at Harvard, and must have shared the indignation of 
the friends of David Brainerd against Yale, when he was 
expelled in 1742, for saying of one of the tutors, "he has 
no more grace than this chair," which incident is said to 
have had its influence in encouraging a new college. 

The College of New Jersey received its first charter in 
1746, and was opened with eight pupils, at Elizabethtown, 
under President Dickinson, in 1747. Upon his decease that 
same year, the pupils were removed tO' Newark, and placed 
under the Rev. Aaron Burr, who had a classical school in 
the town. In 1748 a more enlarged charter was obtained. 



Of the trustees named in this instrument, Mr. Cowell was 
one, and he was deputed to wait on Governor Belcher with 
an address from: the corporation, acknowledging their ac- 
ceptance of the trust.* 

The Governor was regarded so much in the light of a 
founder O'f the College, that upon the completion of the 
edifice they formally asked his permission to call it Belcher 
Hall. He declined the honor, professing to "have always 
been very fond of the motto of a late great personage, pro- 
desse quam conspici — to be useful rather than conspicuous"^ 
— but asked the liberty of naming the College Nassau Hall, 
in memory of William III., "who was a branch of the 
illustrious house of Nassau, and who, under God, was the 
great deliverer of the British nation from those two mon- 
strous furies. Popery and Slavery. "f Mr. Burr was chosen 
President, and the first class, seven in number, was grad- 
uated.^ At the first regular meeting of the trustees after 
the correspondence it appears that President Burr fre- 
to apply to the Legislature for pecuniary aid, and to re- 
ceive subscriptions in Trenton. From the few remains of 
the correspondence it appears that President Burr fre- 
quently and familiarly consulted with Mr. Cowell about the 
affairs of the College. In July, 1753, he presses him to 
be at a certain meeting of the Board: "Besides discharg- 
ing your duty as a trustee, you might consult about pro- 
viding for your school in the best manner. I find myself 
a great deal in your debt as to the article of letters, and, 
like other bankrupts, though I never expect fully to' pay, 
yet I would make som€ attempts, that I may retain my 
credit a little longer. I will do my best in providing you 
a schoolmaster, but have some fears whether I can quite 
suit you or me. One of the best I must keep for my own 
use ; one or two more that I could recommend are otherwise 

* Maclean's "History of the College of New Jersey." 1:62, 90. 
t Dr. Green's "Notes," pp. 274-^- 


engaged. I have three in my mind, and am: a little at a 
loss which tO' send." The compensation offered for a 
teacher at that time was twenty-five pounds and boarding. 

From the allusion in this and other letters, it appears that 
Mr. Cowell was looking for a good teacher for Trenton, 
and that the school referred to had a connection with his 
own parish, or at least had been built on the church grounds, 
and conducted under some general control of the congrega- 
tional authorities. 

Some light is thrown upon this enterprise by an adver- 
tisement which is found in the Philadelphia newspapers of 
May, 1753, and which is not without interest for other 
reasons : 

"We, whose names are hereunto subscribed, sons of some of the 
principal families in and about Trenton, being in some measure sensible 
of the advantages of learning, and desirous that those who are de- 
prived of it through the poverty of their parents, might taste the sweet- 
ness of it with ourselves, can think of no better or other method for 
that purpose, than the following scheme of a Delaware Island* Lot- 
tery, for raising 225 pieces of eight [Spanish dollars] towards build- 
ing a house to accommodate an English and grammar school, and pay- 
ing a master to teach such children whose parents are unable to pay 
for schooling. It is proposed that the house be thirty feet long, twenty 
feet wide, and one story high, and built on the southeast corner of the 
meeting-house yard in Trenton, under the direction of Messieurs Ben- 
jamin Yard, Alexander Chambers, and John Chambers, all of Trenton 
aforesaid. * * * f ^g managers are Reynald Hooper, son of Robert 
Lettis Hooper, Esq. ; Joseph Warrell, Junior, son of Joseph Warrell, 
Esq. ; Joseph Reed, Junior, son of Andrew Reed, Esq. ; Theophilus 
Severns, Junior, son of Theophilus Severns, Esq. ; John Allen, Junior, 
son of John Allen, Esq. ; William Paxton, son of Joseph Paxton, Esq., 
deceased ; and John Cleayton, son of William Cleayton, Esq." 

The drawing was to take place June nth, "on Fish 
Island in the river Delaware, opposite to the town of Tren- 
ton, and the money raised by this lottery shall be paid into 
the hands of Moore Furman, of Trenton, who is under 
bond for the faithful laying out of the money for the uses 
above. * * * And we the Managers assure the adven- 


turers upon our honor, that this scheme in all its parts 
shall be as punctually observed as if we were under the 
formalities used in lotteries ; and we flatter ourselves, the 
public, considering our laudable design, our age, and our 
innocence, will give credit to this our public declaration." 

The lottery of the innocents was drawn on the 2d July, 
1753, and the building was doubtless erected immediately 
afterwards on the spot indicated. The minutes of our 
trustees record that in 1765, Alexander Chambers and Ben- 
jamin Yard were elected by the congregation "Directors of 
the School-House." In a lease of 1800 to the "Trenton 
Academy," the premises are described as "a certain brick 
building, which was erected on the lot belonging to the 
trustees of the said church for the purpose of a school 
house." The lessees added a story to the building, and it 
continued to be used for school and church purposes until 
it was taken out of the way at the erection of the present 

To return to the College. In 1753 the Reverend Samuel 
Davies and Gilbert Tennent were sent to Great Britain to 
solicit contributions for building a suitable edifice for the 
institution. Princeton was selected as its place. It was 
while making his final arrangements for the voyage that 
Davies first made his personal acquaintance with Cowell. 
In his journal of September 18, 1753, Davies writes: 
"Rode solitary and sad from Philadelphia to Trenton. 
Spent the evening with Mr. Cowell, an agreeable gentleman, 
O'f the Synod of Philadelphia; but my spirits were so ex- 
hausted that I was incapable of lively conversation, and 
was ashamed of my blundering method of talking." It was 
a bachelor's home. The next evening was enlivened by his 
visit to the family of the gentleman who succeeded Mr. 
Cowell in the pastorship of Trenton. "Rode on and came 
to Mr. Spencer's, at Elizabethtown, where I was most 
kindly received, and my spirit cheered by his facetious con- 


At various dates in 1754, President Burr writes from 
Newark to Mr. Cowell, who was on the building committee. 
''I hked Mr. Worth's (the mason) proposals very well on 
first view, and think with you it is necessary to have a 
meeting- of the co'mmittee, and as many others as can attend, 
as soon as may be. * * * Yesterday I received letters 
from Messrs. Tennent and Davies, dated April 30, which 
bring the agreeable news that they have in hand and 
promises £1400 sterling," "Let me know if you think I 
had best bring a man with me to Princeton that understands 
quarrying." "They ask double the price for carting at 
Princeton to what they do this way; so I believe it would 
not be best they should cart much sand." "We must be- 
gin a barn, buy a wagon, etc., immediately." "It pleases 
me to find the College lies so much on your mind. I have 
a hundred things to say that must be deferred to our meet- 
ing, and can only add that I am ut semper yours affection- 
ately." "We appointed the committee to meet at Princeton 
on the third Tuesday of November, but I fear, things will 
suffer in the meantime. We depended on Mr. (John) Brain- 
erd's going^ to see how things went on, but he is sick. I 
wish your affairs would admit oi your visiting the building ; 
and if you think there is need of it, you may appoint our 
meeting sooner; but if nothing will suffer, it is best the 
other appointment should stand. * * *There should be 
the utmost care that the foundation be laid strong. We 
ought to have had a man to oversee the work de die in diem, 
though I put great confidence in Mr. Worth. I know how 
much you have the affair at heart." 

The trustees, by a vote on the 29th September, 1756, 
directed the removal to Princeton to be made "this fall." 
President Finley, in 1764, wrote: "In the year 1757 the 
students, to about the number of seventy, removed from 
Newark." President Green, writing in 1822, believed it 
took place in the vacation succeeding the commencement of 


1756. Dr. Griffin, at Dr. Macwhorter's funeral in 1807, 
said the removal was in October, 1756, and this is confirmed 
by a memorandum O'f Nathaniel Fitz Randolph, made in 
1758. The commencement of 1757 fell on the 26th Sep- 
tember; President Burr died in Princeton on the 24th of 
the same month. Before leaving the town, after the funeral 
and comemncement, the trustees elected the Rev. Jonathan 
Edwards, St., to the vacant chair. Mr. Edwards not com- 
ing immediately, the trustees in December appointed Mr. 
Cowell to act as President of the College until their next 
meeting.''' "The choice of the said Mr. Cowell," according 
tO' the minutes of the trustees, "being made known to him, 
he was pleased to accept of the same, and was qualified as 
the charter directs." Upon his election it was "voted that 
President Cowell provide, as soon as possible, an Usher for 
the grammar school." He served until February 16, 
1758, when President Edwards took his seat; but held it 
scarcely a month, falling a victim to^ the small-pox on the 
22d of March. 

Mr. Davies was elected his successor on the 19th April, 
being then but thirty-four years of age. Mr. Cowell was 
appointed an alternate to the Rev. Mr. Caleb Smith, to 
act at the next commencement, and was placed on the com- 
mittee to attend to Mr. Davies' removal from^ Virginia, 
import books from^ England, and attend to the completion 
of the President's house and the College. 

Mr. Cowell had been corresponding with Mr. Davies on 
other matters, before his election to the presidency. In 
a letter of February 20, 1758, after lamenting the loss which 
the College and the church had suffered in the recent re- 
movals by death of Governor Belcher, President Burr, and 
the Rev. Mr. Davenport, Mr. Davies indulges in what he 
calls a reverie, as follows : 

"As the death of these good men was undoubtedly gain to them,, 
may we not modestly conjecture that it will also prove an advantage 


to the world, though we are apt to lament them as lost? I cannot 
conceive of Heaven as a state of mere enjoyment without action, or 
indolent supine adoration and praise. The happiness agreeable to vig- 
orous immortals must consist, one would think, in proper exercise, 
suitable to the benevolence of their hearts and the extent of their 
powers. May we not then suppose that such devout and benevolent 
souls as these, when released from the confinement of mortality, and 
the low labor of the present life, are not only advanced to superior 
degrees of happiness, but placed in a higher sphere of usefulness, em- 
ployed as the ministers of Providence, not to this or that particular 
church, college, or colony, but to a more extensive charge, and perhaps 
to a more important class of beings, so that the public good, as the 
good of the universe of creatures taken collectively, to which the 
interests of private persons and inferior communities must always be 
subordinate under a wise administration, may be promoted by their 
removal from us, and from their narrow sphere of beneficence in this 
imperfect world. And if, when they cease to be useful men, they 
commence angels, that is, ministering spirits, we may congratulate 
them and the world upon this more extensive beneficence, instead of 
lamenting them as lost to all usefulness. Thus, sir, I sometimes per- 
mit my imagination to rove; but I must confess, sense prevails against 
speculation and conjecture, and as an inhabitant of this world I deeply 
feel the loss. Forgive me, dear sir, this reverie, which seems to sug- 
gest a new thought; if it should be new to you, I should for that very 
reason suspect it not to be just. 

"I heartily rejoice in the choice the Trustees have made of a suc- 
cessor to Mr. Burr. Mr. Edwards has long been very high in my 
esteem as a man of very great piety, and one of the deepest thinkers 
and greatest divines of the age. May the Lord long continue his life, 
and his capacities for action !" 

Mr. Davies was much perplexed as to his duty, when in- 
formed of his own election as successor of President Ed- 
wards. Upon referring the matter to his Presbytery they 
recommended his remaining- in Virginia, and he yielded to 
their judgment. His later resolution, and the state of mind 
which led to it, are described in a letter which he wrote on 
the 14th of September, 1758, to Mr. Cowell, and which, 
notwithstanding its want of direct connection with our nar- 
rative, I think, needs no excuse for its insertion here, es- 
pecially as this correspondence has not before been edited.* 

* See "Biblical Repertory." July, 1840. 


"Though my mind was calm and serene for some time after the 
decision of the Presbytery, and I acquiesced in their judgment as the 
voice of God, till Mr. Smith [Rev. Caleb Smith, of the Committee] 
was gone, yet to-day my anxieties are revived, and I am almost as 
much at a loss as ever what is my duty ; nor can my conscience be 
easy without sending this postscript to my former letter at a venture, 
though I have no other medium of conveyance but the post, which is 
often uncertain and tedious. I can honestly declare, sir, I never was 
so much concerned about my own estate as I have been and still am 
for the prosperity of the College. And the very suspicion that I may 
possibly have done it an injury by not accepting the honor the Trustees 
were pleased to confer upon me, causes me to appear almost an unpar- 
donable criminal to myself. This suspicion haunts me night and day, 
and I can have no ease till I am delivered from it. It received a 
terrible confirmation when I found that though the Presbytery could 
not positively determine, it was my duty to leave Virginia and accept 
the invitation. Yet they were very skeptical about it, and wished I 
could have determined the matter for myself. I am also apprehensive 
the generous error of their excessive personal friendship for me, and 
their excessive diffidence of their own abilities to manage affairs in 
a concern of so much difficulty without my conduct and assistance, 
had no small influence upon their determination. I am likewise con- 
vinced, that if I had been able to form any previous judgment of my 
own, it would have turned the scale, and theirs would have coincided 
with mine. 

"I have indeed a very large, important congregation; and I am so 
far from having any reason to think they are weary of me, that it is 
an agreeable misfortune to me, that they love me so well. But I make 
no scruples even to tell themselves that they are by no means of equal 
importance with the College of New Jersey; and some of them, whose 
pubHc spirit has the predominancy over private friendship and self- 
interest, are sensible of it. I am sure if I had appeared in the same 
light to your Board as I do to myself, I should have escaped all this 
perplexity. It is the real sentiment of my heart, without affectation 
of humility, that I am extremely unfit for so important a trust, the 
most important, in my view, that an ecclesiastic can sustain in 
America ; and I have never as much as suspected that it would be my 
duty to accept it, except upon the supposition of its being a desperate 
case, if I should reject it; and it is my fear, that it may be so, 
consideratis consider andis, that makes me so extremely uneasy. When 
I reflect upon such things as these, I am constrained to send you this 
answer, though I am afraid out of season, that if the Trustees can 
agree to elect my worthy friend, Mr. Finley, with any tolerable degree 
of cordiaHty and unanimity, I shall be perfectly satisfied, and rejoice 
in the advantageous exchange. But if not, I shall think it my duty 


to accept the offer, if the Trustees judge it proper to continue or renew 
my election. 

"If this should come to hand before another election, I give you 
leave, sir, though with trembling hesitation, to communicate it to the 
Board ; if not, I beg you would forever conceal it, for the real diffi- 
culty of the affair, and the natural caution and skepticism of my mind, 
have given my conduct such an appearance of fickleness that I am 
quite ashamed of it. My life, sir, I look upon as sacred to God and 
the public; and the service of God and mankind is not a local thing, 
in my view. Wheresoever it appears to me I may perform it, to the 
greatest advantage, there, I hope, I should choose to fix my residence, 
whether in Hanover, Princeton, or even Lapland or Japan. But my 
anxieties in the present case have proceeded from the want of light to 
determine where the sphere of my usefulness would be the most ex- 

"If matters should turn out so as to constrain me to come to Nassau 
Hall, I only beg early intelligence of it, by Mr. Smith, who intends 
to revisit Hanover shortly, or by post, and I shall prepare for my 
journey and the removal of my family with all possible expedition. 
The honor which you, sir, and the other gentlemen of the Trustees, 
who are in other instances such good judges of merit, have done me, 
is such a strong temptation to vanity, as requires no small degree of 
self-knowledge to resist. 

"I shall always retain a grateful sense of it, and I pray God it may 
have no bad influence upon a heart so deeply infected with the un- 
creaturely vice of pride."* 

After dispatching- this letter, "extorted from him," as 
he said, "by irresistible anxieties," a second messenger 
(Halsey) from the trustees, appears to have intimated 
to Mr. Davies, that in the event of his declining the chair, 
the Rev. Samuel Finley would be the choice of the board, 
and that he was, by some, already preferred to himself. 
Accordingly, on the i8th October, Davies writes ag'ain 
to Cowell, to urge Finley's election: 

"Since you and a majority of the Trustees have thought me fit to 
fill so important a seat, you must also think me in some measure fit 
to judge of the proper qualifications of a President; I therefore beg 
you would not only believe me sincere, but also have some little regard 
to my judgment, when I recommend Mr. Finley, from long and inti- 
mate acquaintance with him, as the best qualified person in the corn- 

See Davies' Farewell Sermon at Hanover. Vol. iii., p. 359. 


pass of my knowledge in America for that high trust; and incom- 
parably better qualified than myself. And though the want of some 
superficial accomplishments for empty popularity, may keep him in 
obscurity for some little time, his hidden worth, in a few months, or 
years at most, will blaze out to the satisfaction, and even astonish- 
ment, of all candid men. A disappointment of this kind will certainly 
be of service to the College ; but as to me, I greatly fear I should 
mortify my friends with a disappointment of an opposite nature; like 
an inflamed meteor, I might cast a glaring light and attract the gaze 
of mankind for a little while, but the flash would soon be over, and 
leave me in my native obscurity. 

"I should be glad you would write to me by post, after the next 
meeting of the Trustees, what choice they shall have made ; for though 
I never expect another application to me, yet I feel myself interested 
in the welfare of the College, and shall be anxious to hear what con- 
clusion may be formed upon this important affair." 

When the Trustees met in November (1758), after con- 
ferring and comparing letters, it was P'Ut to vote whether 
Mr. Davies' refusal was tO' be regarded as final. Upon two 
ballots, the voters of "not final" and "non liquet" had the 
majority, but to remove the embarrassment, they yielded ; 
upon which the Rev. Jacob Green, of Morris county, father 
of Dr. Ashbel Green, was chosen Vice-President, and the 
election of President postponed till the next May. I find 
these particulars in a letter from Mr. Cowell tO' Mr. Davies, 
dated at Trenton, December 25, 1758, to which he adds: 

"If I may be allowed to guess, I think : 

"i. That you will be elected next May; 

"2. That if you are not, Mr. Finley will not be. 

"I think with you, dear sir, that the College of New Jersey ought to 
be esteemed of as much importance to the interests of religion and 
liberty as any institution of the kind in America. I am sensible your 
leaving Virginia is attended with very great difficulties, but I can not 
think your afifairs are of equal importance with the College of New 

At the May meeting Messrs. Davies and Finley w^ere both 
nominated. Davies was elected, and in July arrived in 
Princeton. Mr. Cowell's interest and activity as a trustee 


did not abate upon the accession of his friend and favorite 
candidate ; but scarcely had eighteen months elapsed from 
the President's inauguration, before both were in their 
g"raves. The last relic of their correspondence shows that 
Mr. Cowell's medical skill (for he had studied and on emer- 
gencies practiced medicine) was valued in Princeton. Under 
date of February 15, 1760, Mr. Davies writes: 

"Doctor Scudder has inoculated a number of the students, who are 
all likely to do well, except one, who was taken with the pleurisy about 
the time of his inoculation, and had an inveterate cold for some time 
before. The Doctor's own family and his father-in-law were inocu- 
lated about the same time, and one of them is so ill that he has not 
been able to give good attendance here. I made an explicit reserve of 
liberty to consult any other physician upon the appearance of any other 
alarming symptom, therefore I send for you at the request of many, 
as well as my own motion. I beg you would come immediately, for 
the young man's life is in evident danger, and my dear Mrs. Davies 
is so afifected in her mouth, etc., with the mercurial and antimonial 
preparations, that she has been in exquisite agony, and stands in great 
need of immediate relief. I long to hear from my promising pupil 
under your care." 


Mr. CoweWs D£;ath and Burial. 

1759— 1760. 

In June, 1759, Mr. Cowell was present in the Presby- 
tery, which met at Trenton, but his health was probably 
then failing, as a request was made from the congregation 
that his pulpit "might be supplied at least in part during 
his illness." He was present again at the meeting in Prince- 
ton, July 25, 1759; at which time his friend. President 
Davies, was received from Hanover. At Basking Ridge, 
October 30 of that year, another petition was brought from 
Trenton, "praying that as Mr. Cowell is unable through 
sickness to attend the ministerial function, Mr. Guild might 
be ordered to supply themi every third Sabbath." In com- 
pliance with this, Mr. Guild, pastor of the Hopewell (Pen- 
nington) church was directed to "suppl)^ as much of his 
time as he can at Trenton." Mr. Cowell was present at 
the meeting of Presbytery, held at Nassau Hall, March 11, 
1760. The regular Moderator being absent, Mr. Cowell 
was chosen in his place, and President Davies acted as 
clerk. O'ne of Mr. Cowell's successors, William Kirkpat- 
rick, was at this meeting, and another, Elihu Spencer, sat 
as a corresponding member. 

"Mr. Cowell represented to the Presbytery that he has been long 
indisposed in body, and unable to discharge the duties of the pastoral 
relation to his congregation in Trenton, and therefore requested that 
he might be dismissed from it; and the congregation also by their 
petition, and the declaration of their commissioners, intimate their 
acquiescence in it. 

6 PRES (81) 


"The Presbytery therefore consent to the request, and do hereby dis- 
miss Mr. Cowell from said congregation; yet they affectionately recom- 
mend it to him that, if it should please God to restore him to an ability 
to exercise his ministry, he would preach as often as he can in that 
congregation while vacant, and in other vacancies as he shall have 

The last session of Presbytery which Mr. Cowell attended 
was at Lawrenceville (Maidenhead), September 17, 1760, 
the sixth meeting held in that year. On the 28th of October 
Messrs. Kirkpatrick and Treat were deputed to supply 

Mr. Cowell's decease took place on the first day of De- 
cember, 1760, at his residence in Trenton. He was in the 
fifty-seventh year of his age, having served the Trenton 
people in the town and country congregations nearly twenty- 
four years. 

His beloved friend D'avies, who was then in the middle of 
the second year of his presidency of Nassau Hall, was called 
upon to preach in the church on the day of the interment. 
He fulfilled this office with great affection and fidelity, and 
it adds interest to the narrative to know that in a few weeks 
afterwards (February 4, 1761) that most eminent preacher, 
just past the thirty-sixth year of his age, was himself sud- 
denly removed by death from the new sphere of usefulness 
and fame upon which he had entered ; so that on the page of 
the Synod's Minutes of May 20, 1761, is found the sen- 
tence : "The Presbytery of New-Brunswick further report, 
that it has pleased God to remove by death, since our last, 
the Rev. Mr. President Davies and the Rev. Mr. David 

In his fatal illness Mr. Davies remarked that he had been 
undesignedly led to preach his own funeral sermon. He 
alluded to the fact that he had delivered a discourse on New 
Year's day (1761) from the words in Jeremiah, "Thus saith 
the Lord, this year thou shalt die." He took this text, how- 
ever, after having been informed that President Btirr had 


preached from it on the first day of the year in which he 
died. Davies' sermon at the College on the first day of the 
preceding year is entitled, "A New Year's Gift." The text 
of that is : "And that knowing the time, that now it is high 
time to awake out of sleep, for now is our salvation nearer 
than when we believed." It is the fifty-ninth in the pul> 
lished collection. 

The autograph, from which Davies preached at Mr. 
Cowell's funeral, is now before me. It is a sermon on the 
words of the Epistle to the Hebrews, "Let us labor, there- 
fore, to enter into that rest," adapted to the occasion by a 
new introduction, and by what appears tc be an impartial 
and discriminating estimate of the character of the deceased. 
As these parts of the discourse are interesting as relics of 
the great preacher, as well as for their descriptions of a 
prominent person in our history, I shall quote them in full. 

The new opening was thus : 

"While death reigns in our world, and spreads its pale trophies so 
often before our eyes, how gloomy and dismal would our prospect be, 
especially at funeral occasions, if Jesus had not brought life and im- 
tnortality to light by the Gospel ! And how intolerable would be the 
doubtful struggles, the toils and fatigues of life, if we had no prospect 
of rest ! Add an everlasting duration to them, and they become too 
oppressive for human nature. But blessed be God, there remaineth a 
rest for the people of God ; a rest that may be obtained by hard labor, 
though lost by unbelief. 'Let us labor, therefore, to enter into that 
rest.' Here heaven is represented under the agreeable idea of a time 
of rest; the way to obtain it pointed out, namely, by hard labor, and 
the necessity of laboring hard implied. These are the several topics 
I now intend to illustrate for the religious improvement of this melan- 
choly occasion." 

Having completed this plan in the usual fullness of his 
manner, the discourse closed with the new matter prepared 
for the day, as follows : 

"What remains of the present hour, I would devote more immed- 
iately to the memory of the dead. To pronounce a panegyric on the 


dead is supposed to be the principal design of funeral sermons; and to 
praise the dead is a debt which envy itself will allow us to discharge. 
But it is not a regard to ancient custom, nor an apprehension that the 
eulogium will not be envied nor disputed, that excite me at present to 
take some particular notice of the character of our worthy friend, who 
now lies a pale corpse before us. It is rather my desire to concur 
with the sentence of heaven, and to praise the virtue which I cheer- 
fully hope has ere now received the approbation of the Supreme 
Judge. It is my full conviction that the character of the deceased was 
in many respects worthy of the imitation of the living, and that in 
recommending it, I shall recommend virtue and religion with advan- 
tage, as exemplified in life. 

"Indeed, it would have relieved me from some anxiety, if my worthy 
friend had nominated some one to this service, whose long acquaint- 
ance with him would have enabled him to do justice to his memory, 
and exhibit a full view of his character. During the short time that 
I have been a resident of this Province, he has been my very intimate 
friend, and I have conversed freely with him in his most unguarded 
hours, when his conversation was the full image of his soul. But I 
had only a general acquaintance with him for ten of the years before, 
and of the earlier part of his life I had no personal knowledge, and 
have received but a very imperfect account from his earlier acquaint- 
ances. But from what I have heard from persons of credit, or have 
known myself, I shall give you the following general sketch of his 
character ; and as I would by no means incur the censure of flattery, 
or risk the reputation of my veracity, you may be assured I fully 
believe myself in the account I give of his character. 

"The Rev. Mr. David Cowell was born at Dorchester, in the govern- 
ment of Massachusetts Bay, and educated at Harvard College. I am 
informed by one of his early friends, that the characteristics of his 
youth were a serious, virtuous, and religious turn of mind, free from 
the vices and vanities of the wild and thoughtless age, and a remark- 
able thirst for knowledge. The study of books was both his amuse- 
ment and serious business, while he was passing through his course 
of collegiate education, and even before he entered upon it, and I am 
witness how lively a taste for books and knowledge he cherished to 
the last. 

"I am not able to give you an account of the sensations and impres- 
sions of his mind from divine things in early life, which were the 
beginnings of his religion. But as every effect must have an adequate 
cause, from what I have observed in him of the Christian temper, I 
conclude he had been the subject of such impressions. 

"He appeared to me to have a mind steadily and habitually bent 
towards God and holiness. If his religion was not so warm and 
passionate as that of some, it was perhaps proportionally more evenly 
uniform and rational. He was not flighty and visionary, nor yet dull 


and senseless. His religion was not a transient passion, but appeared 
to be a settled temper. 

"Humility and modesty, those gentle virtues, seemed to shine in him 
with a very amiable lustre. Far from being full of himself, far from 
taking airs of superiority, or giving himself the preference, he often 
imposed a voluntary silence upon himself, when he could have made 
an agreeable figure in conversation. He was fond of giving way to his 
brethren, with whom he might justly have claimed an equality, and 
to encourage modest worth in his inferiors. He was not impudently 
liberal of unasked advice, though very judicious, impartial, and com- 
municative when consulted. He had an easy, graceful negligence in 
his carriage, a noble indifference about setting himself off. And though 
his intellectual furniture, his experience and seniority might have been 
a strong temptation to the usual foible of vanity and self-sufficiency, 
I never have seen anything in his conduct that discovered a high 
estimate of his own accomplishments. Indeed, he seemed not to know 
them, though they were so conspicuous that many a man has made a 
very brilliant appearance with a small share of them. 

"He had a remarkable command of his passions. Nothing boisterous 
or impetuous, nothing rash or fierce, appeared in his conduct, even 
in circumstances that would throw many others into a ferment. Had 
I not been told by one who has long and intimately known him, that 
he was capable of a manly resentment upon proper occasions, I should 
have concluded that he was generously insensible to personal injuries, 
for I can not recollect that ever I heard him speak a severe word, or 
discover the least degree of anger against any man upon earth. He 
appeared calm and unruffled amidst the storms of the world, peaceful 
and serene amidst the commotion and uproar of human passions. 

"Far from sanguine, prattling forwardness, he was remarkably cau- 
tious and deliberate ; slow to pronounce, slow to determine, and espe- 
cially to censure, and therefore well guarded against extremes, and 
the many pernicious consequences of precipitant conclusions. 

"In matters of debate, and especially of religious controversy, he 
was rather a moderator and compromiser than a party. Though he 
could not be neuter, but judged for himself to direct his own conduct, 
yet he did not affect to impose his sentiments upon others, nor set up 
his own understanding as an universal standard of truth. He could 
exercise candor and forbearance without constraint or reluctance ; and 
when he happened to differ in opinion from any of his brethren, even 
themselves could not but acknowledge and admire his moderation. 

"His accomplishments as a man of sense and learning were very 
considerable. His judgment was cool, deliberate, and penetrating. 
His sentiments were well digested, and his taste elegant and refined. 
He had read not a few of the best modern authors, and though he 
did not often plod over the mouldy volumes of antiquity, he was 
no stranger to ancient literature, whether classical, philosophical, or 


historical. He could think as well as read, and the knowledge he 
collected from books, was well digested, and became his own. He had 
carefully studied the Sacred Scriptures, that grand accomplishment 
for a divine, and had a rational theory of the Christian system. 

"He had an easy, natural vein of wit, which rendered his conver- 
sation extremely agreeable, and which he sometimes used with great 
dexterity to expose the rake, the fop, the infidel, and the other fools 
of the human species. But never did his humanity allow him to use 
this keen weapon to wound a friend, or the innocent, whether friend 
or foe. His wit was sacred to the service of virtue, or innocently 
volatile and lively to heighten the pleasure of conversation. 

"He was a lover of mankind, and delighted in every office of benevo- 
lence. Benevolence appeared to me to be his predominant virtue, 
which gave a most amiable cast to his whole temper and conduct. 
Did he ever refuse to give relief or pleasure to any of his fellow- 
creatures, when it was in his power to do it? I never had reason ta 
think he did. 

"That he might be able to support himself, without oppressing a 
small congregation, he applied some part of his time to the study and 
practice of physic, in which he made no inconsiderable figure. In this 
he was the friend of the poor, and spared neither trouble nor expense 
to relieve them. 

"As I never had the happiness to hear him in the sacred desk, I 
can say but little of him in his highest character as a minister of the 
Gospel. But from what I know of his disposition, theological knowl- 
edge, and other religious performances, I doubt not but his sermons 
were judicious, serious, well-composed, and calculated to show men 
the way of salvation. 

"In prayer, I am sure, he appeared humble, solemn, rational, and 
importunate, as a creature, a sinner in the presence of God ; without 
levity, without affectation, without Pharisaical self-confidence. 

"In the charter of the College of New Jersey he was nominated one 
of the trustees, and but few invested with the same trust discharged 
it with so much zeal, diligence, and alacrity. His heart was set upon 
the prosperity of the infant institution, and he exerted himself in its 
service, nor did he forget it in his last moments.^ 

"This church has lost a judicious minister of the Gospel, and, as 
we hope, a sincere Christian ; the world has lost an inoffensive, useful 
member of society ; this town an agreeable, peaceable, benevolent in- 
habitant ; the College of New Jersey a father, and I have lost a friend ; 
and I doubt not but public and private sorrow and lamentation will 
be in some measure correspondent, and express the greatness of the 

"Let us endeavor, my brethren, to copy his amiable character, and 
make his virtues our own. The character, indeed, is not perfect. The 
friend, the scholar, the minister, the Christian was still a man ; a man 


of like passions with ourselves; and, therefore, he undoubtedly had 
his blemishes and infirmities. He is at best but a sinner sanctified 
and saved. However, I shall not describe his faults, because I hardly 
knew them, and because greater can be found almost everywhere. His 
virtues and graces are not so common, and therefore I have exhibited 
them to your view for imitation. 

"With him the dubious conflict of life is over, and we hope he has 
entered into rest, and sweetly fallen asleep in Jesus. Let us also labor 
to enter into that rest, lest any of us fall by unbelief." 

Mr. Cowell's body was deposited in the church-yard at 
Trenton, and the grave, which is within a few feet of the 
western wall of of the church, is designated by a head-stone 
with the following inscription : 

"In memory of the 


Born in Dorchester, 1704. 

Graduated in Harvard College, Cambridge, N. E., 1732. 

Ordained at Trenton, 1736. 

Died December the ist, ^tatis suae 56, 1760. 

"A man of penetrating wit; solid judgment; strong memory; yet 

of great modesty, piety, and benevolence.'"' 

Mr. Cowell was an industrious preacher. There lies 
before me a memorandum, kept by him, of the places and 
texts of his preaching, from June, 1735, to October, 1757.^ 
In those twenty-two years there is seldom a Sabbath with- 
out its record of service, besides the extra duties of sacra- 
mental seasons and funerals. On a very few Sabbaths is the 
entry of "non valui" (not well), and but one or two ''pro- 
cellosiis" (stormy). The only observable blank is from 
April 10 to June 5, 1748, which is accounted for by the line, 
"went to New England." He frequently administered the 
Lord's Supper at Maidenhead and Hopewell. Occasionally 
he supplied Fisher's Island, Rocky Hill, Bristol, Borden- 
town, Whippany, Elizabethtown, Abington, Norrington, 
Shrewsbury, Neshaminy. The few notes of funerals in this 
little register may be of some chronological use or family 


1736, July 7. Mary Eli. 
1739, January 31. Armitage. 
1739, February 6. George Snow. 

1741, December 26. Mrs. Green. 

1742, January 10. Widow Furman. 
1742, April 14. Slack's wife. 

1742, July II. Higbee. 

1742, September 6. Margaret. 

1743, June 16. Jones's child. 

1744, March 21. Widow Reed. 
1744, December 8. Mr. Yard. 

1746, June 17. Stephen Rose. 

1747, September 22. Mrs. Snow. 
1747, October 21. Mrs. Yard. 
1749, July 30. Hart. 

1749, November 7. Howell's wife. 

1749, December 19. Mr. Griiifin. 

1750. July 18. Susan Osborn. 

1750, September 17. Mr. Paxton. 

1751, January 7. Mr. Taylor. 

1752, May I. John Green. 
I753> January 2. Rose's wife. 
1754, December i. William Green. 
1756, September 5. Mr. Dagworthy.° 

The "widow Furman" in the list is commemorated by- 
Pro fesor Kalm, who, among other instances of Atnerican 
longevity, states that "on January 8, 1742, died in Trenton 
Mrs. Sarah Furman, a widow, aged ninety-seven years; 
leaving alive at the time of her decease five children, sixty- 
one grandchildren, one hundred and eighty-two great- 
grandchildren and twelve great-great-grandchildren."*^ 

The sermon of January 31, 1739, was preached at Pen- 
nington, at the interment of the Elder Enoch Armitage, ''^ 
and I quote a passage as a specimen of the preacher's style. 
The text was : "Now lettest thou thy servant depart in 
peace, according to thy word." 

"The words of our text Mr. Armitage adopted as his own, and de- 
sired they might be discoursed upon at his funeral. Those most 
acquainted with him testified his disposition for peace. God had given 

* Kalra's Travels, vol. ii. S- 


him by nature a calm and quiet spirit, whicli was his ornament and 
glory. He was not subject to anger-heats and passions, as many others 
are, and this happy natural talent, assisted and improved by a religious 
principle and the love of God, was so bright and shining, that his 
moderation was known to all men who had the happiness of an intimate 
acquaintance with him. In his dealings he was strictly just and honest; 
to those in distress charitable, and ready to help and assist. In his 
conversation he was grave without moroseness, and pleasant without 
levity. From the quickness of his wit, and the strength and clearness 
of his judgment, he was ready on all occasions to bring out of the 
good treasure of his heart things new and old. The sum of his religion 
was love to God and his neighbor, without being rigid and contentious 
for things indifferent. The government of his family was with the 
greatest economy and religious order. His stated times for prayer, 
both private and secret, his times for instructing his family, for taking 
refreshment, and his times for following the works of his calling, fol- 
lowed one another so constantly by turns, and in the revolution of 
such certain periods, that they seldom interfered, much less jostled out 
each other ; and such a vein of religion ran through the whole, that 
his life was like the life of Enoch, whose name he bore, a walking with 
God. If we consider him at church, we shall find he was constant and 
devout in attendance upon God's public worship. In the management 
of church affairs, which was early committed to him, and continued to 
the last, he deservedly obtained that character of a good steward to 
be faithful ; and as his management was the product of religious prin- 
ciples and a sound judgment, he had the satisfaction to see them ap- 
proved by the wisest men and the best Christians. Such a religious, 
honest, and just walk in his own house, and in the house of God, 
procured to him the esteem of persons of all persuasions and all char- 
acters. If he was maligned by any self-conceited brethren, who run 
their own ways, and give liking unto nothing but what is framed by 
themselves, and hammered on their anvil, as their ignorance was the 
cause, so that only can plead their excuse. A sovereign God gave him 
such a fiducial sight of Christ, and his own interest in him founded 
on the divine promises, that he adopted the words of good old Simeon 
for his own. He made it the business of his life to follow peace with 
all men, and it was his grief his endeavors succeeded no better. He 
desired to die in peace, and to have a hopeful prospect of peace after 
his death. With respect to himself, his prayer was eminently an- 
swered. When he passed through the valley of death, God was with 
him. Death gave one friendly stroke, and it was over — so that he 
rather seemed to conquer, than to be overcome." 

One of the sermons is marked as preached on Friday, 
November 23, 1739, from the text of the crucified thieves, 


and a note is appended, "Execution, Trenton." This was 
the execution which brougfht Whitefield tO' Trenton on the 
2 1st oif November, as ah-eady quoted from his journal. 

The only names of ministers that appear as relieving 
him in his own pulpit through all those years, are Guild, 
Huston, Leonard, Miller, Phillips of Boston, Munson of 
New England, and Spencer. 

Mr. Cowell bequeathed fifty pounds to "the Presbyterian 
congregation o^f Trenton ; the principal toi remain good, and 
the interest thereof tO' be applied for the benefit of the con- 
gregation forever." He left an equal sum to the College of 
New Jersey. The will was signed only four days before 
his death, "being sick and weak in body, but of perfect mind 
and memory," and was witnessed by Samuel Tucker, Jr., 
Arthur Howell, Benjamin Yard,^ and George Davis. Many 
of the wills recorded at that time have the same religious 
phraseology as that of Mr. Cowell, the testamentary part of 
which begins thus : "Principally and first of all I give and 
recommend my soul into the hands of God that gave it; and 
for my body, I commit it to the earth, to be buried in a Chris- 
tianly and decent manner, nothing doubting but at the gen- 
eral resurrection, I shall receive the samie again by the 
mighty power of God." It is to be feared that the scrive- 
ners' pious formulas are not always subscribed by testators 
with as much sincerity, as they doubtless were in this good 
man's case.^ 

Among the few extant manuscripts of Mr. Cowell is a 
fragment of notes of a funeral sermon, marked as preached 
April I, 1744, at the "burying of Mr. Home." It con- 
tains an expression O'f the preacher's intention "not to make 
encomiums on the Honorable person to whose remains we 
have been paying the last friendly o-ffice. That is a task to 
which I am on several accounts unequal. Besides, I 
humbly conceive the proper use to be made of instances O'f 
mortality, is to instruct and exliort the living, according ta 


that of the wise men, Eccles. 7:2." This defunct was 
undoubtedly Mr. Archibald Home/*^ who was Deputy Sec- 
retary of the Province in the time of Governor Morris, and 
whoi upon his recommendation to the Lords of Trade (Ot- 
tober 18, 1740) was appointed to a seat in the Council, 
made vacant by the death of Robert Lettis Hooper.* 

When the church was taken down in 1805, a vault was 
discovered under the broad aisle, containing" the remains of 
two bodies in their respective coffins, the "dress and furni- 
ture" of which (according to the papers oi the day), "and 
the habiliments of the corpses, denoted them to have been 
persons O'f distinction."t A year after the discovery, an- 
other newspaper made this publication : "A gentleman, on 
whom we can rely, and who^ says he will vouch for the 
authenticity oi his statement, informs us, that the name of 
one O'f the persons found in the vault was Freeman, a man 
of considerable connections in the West Indies, who' re- 
moved to and resided at Bloomsbury with his family, and 
was interred about seventy years ago. The other was 
Archibald Hume, Esquire, a Scotchman oi very consider- 
able literary acquirements, and brother to the celebrated 
Sir John Hume,^^ who came over and resided in Trenton 
some months after the decease of his brother."^ 

I have seen the will of Archibald Home,^^ which was 
made February 24, 1743. The device of the testator's seal is 
an adder holding a rose, which is the crest oi a Home 
family, in which there are several baronets named Sir John ; 
but I cannot find any trace o-f such a resident in Trenton. 
Mr. Archibald Home bequeathed all his property tO' his 
brother James Home, Esq., of Charleston, South Carolina. 

* The Papers of Lewis Morris, pp. 122, 137, 219, 283. Analytical Index, 180,. 
181, 182, 193, 194. New Jersey Archives, vol. vi., 109, 127, 237. 

t Trenton Federalist, April 22, 1805. 

t Trenton True American, April 21, 1806. "Home," or "Hume," is the same 
family-name. "My father's family is a branch of the Earl of Home's or Hume's." 
(Autobiography of David Hume.) 


His executors were Robert Hunter Morris, Thomas Cad- 
walader, and the legatee. The witnesses to the will were 
Joseph Paxton and Moreton Appleby. The probate was 
certified October 5, 1744, by "J^^^s Home, Secr'y." 
This suggests the conjecture that he was the brother re- 
ported in the newspaper as "Sir John," and that upon re- 
moving from Charleston to Trenton, upon Archibald's de- 
cease, he was put into the vacant secretaryship. 

There is a tradition that connects one of the bodies in 
the vault with the family of Governor Cosby. I supposed 
this to be a mistake of the name of Cosby for Morris, and 
that the person referred to was Mr. Home, until I found 
the following item in the Pennsylvania Gazette^ of March 
7-14, 1737-38- 

"We learn from Trenton that Thomas Freeman, Esquire, son-in-law 
to the late Governor Cosby, died there on Saturday last after a few 
hours' illness." 

This would reconcile the tradition with the newspaper 
paragraphs, and appears to identify the body. It is part of 
the old report, that one of the interments was by torch-light. 
Mr. Cowell's memorandum shows, that Mr. Home's funeral 
sermon was on Sunday, and was a second service on that 
day. On the removal of the site of the church in 1839, the 
vault was a second time examined, before it was carefully 
closed, but neither the inscription nor arms upon the mould- 
ering plate that was found in it, could be deciphered. That 
could scarcely have been a family vault, in. which any con- 
nections of such enemies as Morris and Cosby would be 

* Governor Cosby's wife was a daughter of Lord Halifax. Their eldest daugh- 
ter was married to a younger son of the Duke of Grafton. See "Autobiography 
and Correspondence of Mrs. Delany," i : 442. 


The First Charter oe the Trenton Church — 

1756 — 1760. 

'It was during the pastorate of Mr. Cowell that the first 
charter of incorporation was obtained, and his name stands 
first among the corporators. The date of this instrument 
is September 8, 1756. It runs in the name of George the 
Second, through the Provincial Governor Belcher, and in- 

The Rev. David Cowell, 

Charles Clark, 

Andrew Reed, 

Joseph Yard, 

Arthur Howell. 

William Green, 

Alexander Chambers, 

and their successors, by the name of "The Trustees of the 
Presbyterian Church of Trenton." The charter follows the 
phraseology of others given to our churches under the same 
administration,* in the preambulary acknowledgment that 
"the advancement of true religion and virtue is absolutely 
necessary for the promotion of the peace, order and pros- 
perity of the State, and that it is the duty of all Christian 
Princes and Governors, by the law of God, to do all they 
can for the encouragement thereof" ; and also that "the 
known loyalty of the petitioners, and the Presbyterians in 
general, to us, their firm affection tO' our person and gov- 

See Murray's "Elizabethtown," p. 62. Steam's "Newark," p. 193. 



ernment, and the Protestant succession in our royal house, 
gave the petitioners hopes of all reasonable indulg-ence and 
favor within the same colony, where the religious rights of 
mankind are so happily preserv^ed, and where our equal 
grace and bounty to all our Protestant faithful subjects, 
however differing in opinion about lesser matters, has 
hitherto been sO' sensibly felt and enjoyed." 

Of the lay members of the first Board O'f Trustees I 
herewith furnish all the information within my reach. 

Charlies Clark came to Trenton from Long Island, 
and occupied a farmi in the township near the country 
church. He is recorded as present at every meeting of 
the Trustees from 1757 to 1775. On the night of the 
battle of Trenton, December 26, 1776, he met his death by 
falling into the fire of his own hearth.^ In 1777 his son, 
Benjamin, was elected a Trustee in his place. Another son, 
Daniel, was in the Board with his father from 1766 to 
1788. At the annual meeting of i777r "Daniel Clark and 
Benjamin Clark informed the B'oard that their father, 
Charles Clark, Esq., deceased, had left the congregation 
twenty pounds, to be put at interest, the interest to be an- 
nually applied towards the support of their minister. They 
produced the will of their late father, and paid the twenty 
pounds to Mr. Alexander Chambers, who' put the same to 
interest to Mr. John Howell, at six per cent." 

Benjamin died November 25, 1785, in his fifty-fifth year. 
The Gazette of the week says : "He served in the magis- 
tracy with reputation, both before and since the Revolu- 
tion. The estimation he was held in by the neighborhood 
was manifest from the numerous and respectable attend- 
ants on his funeral, and his loss will be sensibly felt, not 
only by his family, but by the Church, and the county in 
which he lived." 

Of Andrew Reed, the next on the list of Trustees, I 
have given all I know in a previous chapter. There are 


stones in the Trenton church-yard marked Sarah, wife of 
Andrew Reed, March 15, 1739; Ann, daughter of Andrew 
Reed, July 4, 1757, ^et 14; and three infant Reeds, Francis, 
September 12, 1747; Thomas, February 7, 1754; Andrew 
Jr., July 7, 1758. 

Joseph Yard belonged to a family which appears among 
the earliest settlers of Trenton, and spread intO' numerous 
branches.- It is said that there was a doubt whether the 
name of Yard had not a superior claim to that of Trent 
for the new locality. Our trustee came from England 
with his four brothers, Benjamin, William, John and Jethro. 
Benjamin was an elder of this church in 1765, and it is 
probably his death which is recorded as having taken place 
in October, 1808, in his ninety- fourth year. Joseph acted 
as trustee until 1762, and was Clerk of the Board. 

Arthur HowelIv's name appears on the minutes of 
May 8, 1762, for the last time. On the sixth of Decem- 
ber of that year his will was before the surrogate. His 
^'trusty and beloved friend, Obadiah Howell," was one 
of his executors. 

William GrEEn was in office until 1764. This family, 
like the Howells and Yards, is too ramified to be traced 
for any object of the present work. 

Alexander Chambers, the last-named corporator, be- 
longed to a family which has its fifth and sixth generations 
to represent it at this time. I avail myself of a paper pre- 
pared by Mr. John S. Chambers, to furnish all the informa- 
tion necessary tO' my purpose. 

"John Chambers, the ancestor of the Chambers family of Trenton, 
came to America from the county of Antrim in the north of Ireland, 
about the year 1730. 

'"His tombstone stands near the present church edifice in good pres- 
ervation, by the inscription on which it appears that he died September 
19th, 1747, at the age of seventy years. 

"He had several children, of whom his son Alexander continued to 
live in Trenton. Alexander was his second son, and was born in Ire- 


land in the year 1716. He was one of the first trustees named in the 
Charter of the Presbyterian Church of Trenton, given from the King 
through Governor Belcher, and held the office from September 8th, 
1756, until his death, September i6th, 1798, a period of forty-two years, 
during all which time, as is shown by the Trustees' Book of Minutes, 
his name is recorded as present at every meeting of the Board. He 
was elected Treasurer of the Board May 6th, 1766, and performed the 
duties of that office till August ist, 1796, a period of thirty years, 
when he resigned on account of his advancing age. He was also 
chosen President of the Board on the 5th of May, 1783, which office 
he filled till his death, a period of fifteen years. 

"He was by occupation a turner, spinning-wheel and chair-maker. 
He built the brick house on the corner of State and Willow streets, 
for many years used as a store, and known as Chambers' Corner, and 
carried on store-keeping in the old mud house built by his father, 
which stood adjoining. 

"He died September i6th, 1798, at the age of eighty-two, and lies 
buried near his father in the churchyard. The first bequest in his will 
is in these words : 

" 'Item. I give unto the Presbyterian Church in Trenton, Thirty 
Pounds, to be put at interest, and the interest to go towards the sup- 
port of a minister, said Thirty Pounds to be paid to the Trustees one 
year after my decease.' 

"Alexander Chambers left several children. Two of the sons, John 
and Alexander, remained in Trenton. John carried on the trade of 
his father at his own shop at the head of town in Warren street. 
Alexander converted the brick house built by his father on the corner 
of State and Willow streets into a store, and carried on an extensive 
business for many years. He was the first to establish Bloomsbury 
as a port for sloops, and built a wharf and storehouse there about 
the year 1803; the transportation business having been previously con- 
ducted at Lamberton, about a mile below. 

"On the 7th of August, 1799, about a year after the death of his 
father, he was chosen a Trustee, and so continued till his death in 
1824, a period of twenty-five years. John S. Chambers, son of the 
last-mentioned John Chambers, was chosen a Trustee November 24th, 
1823, and so continued till his death in November, 1834, a period of 
eleven years ; for the last two of which he was also President of the 
Board, having been elected to that office October 13th, 1832." 

To this I may add that the son of the last-named, who 
furnishes this paper, is the present Clerk of the Board. 
There was a John Chambers in the eldership in 1760-4.^ 
My correspondent says : 


"I have not yet ascertained who the elder, John Chambers, was. It 
is evident from the dates he could not have been the ancestor who 
first came over, as I at first supposed." 

According- to the terms of the charter, the seven trustees 
were to hold their office until the first Tuesday of June, 
1757, when and thereafter the trustees were to be elected 
by "the Minister, Elders, and Deacons of the said Presby- 
terian Church and Cong-regation." This unpopular feature 
of ecclesiastical corporations passed away in due time, to- 
gether with the loyalty to the house of Hanover; but the 
minister, elders and deacons continued, until after the in- 
dependence, to elect the trustees, of whomi the minister 
himself was usually one, and also President of the Board. 
As such, he was constituted by the charter keeper of the 
books, seal and all papers of the corporation.* In 1760 the 
pastor was Treasurer as well as President. 

In 1760, June 12, John Chambers, John Hendrickson and 
Stephen Rose were "chosen elders," and on the same day is 
this entry on the trustees' minutes : "Memorandum, that it 
is agreed by the congregation now met, that the Presby- 
terian Congregation of Trenton shall annually meet on the 
first Tuesday in June to choose elders, and that then the 
minister, elders and deacons shall proceed to the choice of 
trustees of said Presbyterian church." From this provision, 
and occasional subsequent records, it seems that there was 
for a time a departure from the principle of our church that 
the lay-eldership, like the clerical, is perpetual, and is not 
open, even as to the exercise of the office, to repeated elec- 
tions, as is the custom of our sister Presbyterian Church, the 
Reformed Dutch. It must be remembered that this was 
nearly thirty years before the constitution of our American 
Church was framed. 

* The original Charter is still preserved. It is recorded in Book Q, p. 163, 
State House. 



In 1760 the name of Moore Furman appears in the Board 
in the place of Andrew Reed. In 1762 Obadiah Howell 
filled the vacancy made by the death of Mr, Cowell. A 
personal notice of Mr. Furman will come in more appropri- 
ately under a later date. Obadiah HowELIv was a trustee 
until 1770. He lived on a farm which is still in the family 
on the Scotch road on the borders of Trenton. 


Ministry of the Rev. Wileiam Kirkpatrick — His 

1760 — 1766. 

Soon after the Rev. Mr. Cowell's withdrawal from the 
pastorate, and before his decease, the attention of the people, 
perhaps at his suggestion, was turned towards Mr. WiE- 
EiAM Kirkpatrick as his successor. 

Neiher the place nor time of Mr. Kirkpatrick's birth is 
known. Judging from his age, as given without dates on 
his grave-stone, he was bom about 1726. He probably had 
not a liberal education at the usual age, as he was at least 
thirty years old when he took his Bachelor's degree at 
Princeton.^ This was with the class of 1757, which was 
graduated in the year after the college was removed from 
Newark to Princeton, and in which its distinguished Presi- 
dent, Aaron Burr, died. Among his classmates were the 
young men afterwards eminent Governor Joseph Reed, of 
Pennsylvania, and the Rev. Alexander Macwhorter, D.D., 
and in the class next below his were John V. and William 
Tennent, sons of the Rev. William Tennent, Jr. It was in 
the March of that year that the College was blessed (accord- 
ing to the language of Gilbert Tennent) with "an extra- 
ordinary appearance of the divine power and presence 
there."^ In the next year (June 13 and 14, 1758), at the 
meeting of the Presbytery of New Brunswick, which was 
the first after the union of the Synods of New York and 
Philadelphia, and when Messrs. Cowbell and Guild had been 



transferred to it from the Presbytery of Philadelphia, Kirk- 
patrick^ and Macwhorter were taken under trials as candi- 
dates for the ministry. Upon their preliminary examination 
the Presbytery pronounced themselves "well pleased that 
they can with so great freedom encourage them in their 
design." The theme for Kirkpatrick's exegesis was "an 
certitudo subjectiva salutis sit de essentia fidei justificantis'' ; 
his trial text was Rom. 3 : 28. On the 25th of the next 
month the Presbytery met at Princeton, when no other 
business was attended to but the hearing and approving of 
the compositions of the two candidates, and giving them 
texts for further exercises. These were heard on the 15th 
August, at Princeton; Kirkpatrick's second trial text was 
Philippians 4:5; and the course of trials being completed, 
they were licensed, and both of them were immediately sent 
out to supply vacant congregations till the Fall Presbytery. 
Kirkpatrick's appointments were to Oxford, Forks of Dela- 
ware, Greenwich, Bethlehem, Kingwood, and wherever else 
he should find opportunity. In October he was appointed 
to the same circuit, with Shrewsbury added to the places 

In the early part of 1759 he wrote the following letter to 
Dr. Bellamy, of Connecticut:* 

"Newark, Feb. 12, 1759. 

"Rev. and worthy Sir: I think, if I remember right, I came under 
a promise of writing to you, which, if made, I am now about to fulfill. 

"I remember we had some conversation about George's Town on 
Kennebeck river when I was with you. I have since seen a man who 
once lived on the spot, who seems to be an intelligent, sober man, and 
his account of that people discourages from thoughts of settling there. 
He says they are a remarkably contentious, brawling, difficult people, 
and that no minister can have any comfort, or be long useful with 
them. I have had an invitation from the Presbytery of New Castle, 
(of which Mr. Finley is a member,) to come under their care, and 
settle among them, should Providence open a way for it. Likewise I 

* In the manuscript collections of the Presbyterian Historical Society, Phila- 


have had a probationary call from a place under the care of our own 
Presbytery, (viz.. New Brunswick). And another of the same kind 
from a congregation near EHzabethtown in York Presbytery bounds. 
I have not yet seen my way clear to accept of an invitation from any 
of these places, but continue to itinerate among the small vacancies 
towards the frontiers of this Province. If any door of more extensive 
usefulness opens with you, I would be very glad if you would take 
care to inform me ; my inclinations lead me much to New England. 
If you can send a letter to this place from whence I write, or to Mr. 
Hazard's in New York, directed to me at Princeton, it will soon come 
to hand. However the matter stands, I would, be very glad of a letter 
from you, at least before the sitting of our Presbytery, (the third week 
in June). 

"I am lately informed that some of the trustees of our College have 
sent a messenger yesterday to Mr. Davies, a third time to invite him 
to the Presidentship of our College, after two former denials — we wait 
the event. Mr. Green presides pro tempore. I have lately heard from 
good Mr. Finley that he is well. 

"Religion is here at a low ebb. Truth is fallen in the streets, and 
equity can not enter. Christians fallen from their first love, and vice 
triumphant. A spirit of deadness prevails. How long. Lord, how long? 

"But being in great hurry, I can not add any more, but salutations to 
Mrs. Bellamy, best respects to Mr. Wells and Mr. Day, with affec- 
zlonate duty and regard to yourself from 

"Rev. sir, your unworthy son and servant, 

"Wm. Kirkpatrick." 

In June, 1759, the united congregations of Bethlehem 
and Kingwood brought a call for Mr. Kirkpatrick. There 
was also a request or "supplication," as such petitions were 
called, from the people of Tohikan (or Tehicken or Tini- 
cum) that he should supply their pulpit. But the Synod, 
which in those days often exercised what are now con- 
sidered Presbyterial prerogatives, had, in its sessions a 
month before, made other arrangements for the Presby- 
tery's probationer.'* It "ordered, that Messrs. Macwhorter, 
Kirkpatrick, and Latta, take a journey to Virginia and Caro- 
lina, as soon as they can this summer, or ensuing fall, and 
spend some months in those parts" ; and the Synod "fur- 
ther considering the destitute condition of Hanover, and the 
tincertainty of their being supplied, if suppliers are left to 


their own discretion, respecting the time of their going to 
Virginia," directed that Kirkpatrick should be at Hanover 
by the third Sabbath of July, to be followed by the two 
other licentiates in September and November; and their 
respective Presbyteries were counselled to "take care that 
these gentlemen fulfill this appointment, and neither pre- 
scribe nor allow them employment in our bounds, so as to 
disappoint this our good intention." The direction of their 
work was to lie with the Presbytery of Hanover, which be- 
longed toi the same Synod. Deferring to^ the superior au- 
thority, the Presbytery took no order upon the Tohikan 
supplication, but directed their two probationers to^ supply 
vacancies as far as they could before their journey South, 

In view of their mission, the Presbytery determined to 
hasten their ordination. They gave toi Kirkpatrick for his 
trial sermon the text, "The poor have the Gospel preached 
to them" ; and for a Latin exegesis, the perseverance of the 
saints.^ These were presented at Cranbury, July 4, 1759, 
and both Kirkpatrick and Macwhorter were ordained on 
that day. After all, none of the three fulfilled the Synod's 
appointment; but whatever were their reasons (Macwhor- 
ter's was his call to Newark), they were admitted to' be 
sufficient by the Synod, at their annual meeting in 1760. 
Mr. Kirkpatrick, in the meantime, had declined the Bethle- 
hem and Kingwood call; and had received one from Han- 
over, Virginia. 

The Trenton congregation noiw first signified their in- 
clination to him. On the day (March 11, 1760) on which 
the Presbytery released Mr. Cbwell from that charge, they 
were petitioned to send Mr. Kirkpatrick to supply the pulpit, 
and he was accordingly directed to preach there "as many 
Sabbaths as may consist with his other obligations between 
this and the next Presbytery." 

But another and different kind of field was inviting him. 
The French war, though near its close, was still calling out 


the loyal colonists to the frontiers. Kirkpatrick, through 
his associations with Hanover Presbytery, may have caught 
the martial spirit of such sermons of Davies, as the one we 
read "on the curse O'f cowardice," preached "at a general 
muster, May 8th, 1758, with a view to raise a company for 
Captain Samuel Meredith," or the one "preached to Cap- 
tain Overton's independent company of volunteers." But 
in the French and Revolutionary wars our clergymen re- 
quired no special stimulus to accompany the troops, at least 
as chaplains. All we know of Kirkpatrick' s engagement is 
derived from this entry on the minutes of his Synod, May 
21, 1760: 

'"Tis allowed that Messrs. Alexander McDowel and Hector Alison 
go as chaplains to the Pennsylvania forces, and that Mr. Kirkpatrick 
go with the New Jersey forces, the ensuing campaign."" 

That his absence was not expected to be long, is intimated 
by the recommendation subjoined by the Synod, "that Mr. 
Kirkpatrick pay a visit tO' the people of Windham on his 
return." If he went at the time mentioned, he was back in 
season for the meeting of Presbytery in Princeton, Febru- 
ary 3d, 1 761, at which he was clerk. 

Supplications were made to Presbytery from varioius 
quarters for his services as a supply, or as a candidate for 
settlement; and on the 28th April, 1761, a regular call was 
presented from the Trenton congregation. No^ further 
order was taken in regard to it at that meeting, but it was 
probably with a view of affording an opportunity of making 
up his mind, that the Presbytery appointed Mr. Parkhurst, 
a new licentiate, to supply four Sabbaths at Trenton, and 
deferred giving Kirkpatrick any appointment till the meet- 
ing in the intervals of the next Synod. 

At that Synod (May, 1761) we find Mr. Kirkpatrick one 
of a committee of nine to whom was referred the considera- 
tion of what was to be done for the better support of John 


Brainerd, who had left Newark at the solicitation of the 
Indians, made destitute by the death of his brother David, 
and had become his successor in the mission. Crosswicks, 
a place hallowed in the memory of the whole Church by 
these associations, is but eig"ht miles from Tirenton, and 
Mr. Kirkpatrick appears to have had the leading of the 
business devolved on him, as, though last-named on the 
committee, the overture, urging an addition to the mission- 
ary force as well as the funds, is minuted as coming from 
him. The Synod, however, concluded that as, after all their 
inquiry, nO' new missionary presented himself, they could 
do no more than direct a hundred and fifty pounds tO' be 
raised for Mr. Brainerd for the ensuing year. Two years 
after this (May, 1763), when the Synod appointed Messrs, 
Brainerd and Beatty to- visit "the distressed frontier inhabi- 
tants and to report their distresses," and also- what oppor- 
tunities were opened for the Gospel among the Indian na- 
tions, Mr. Kirkpatrick was made the alternate O'f either 
who might fail.'^ 

Between the hours occupied by the Synod at the session 
of 1 761, the Presbytery had a special meeting, in the pro- 
ceedings of which Mr. Kirkpatrick was an interested party. 
The minutes, drawn probably by his own hand, as he was 
clerk, are thus : 

"Applications were made from EHzabethtown, Brunswick, and Deer- 
field for the labors of Mr. Kirkpatrick till our next Fall Presbytery. 
The Presbytery conclude to leave the disposal of his time entirely to 
himself, as he is supposed to be best acquainted with the necessity of 
these vacancies ; and the Presbytery advise these vacancies not to 
insist upon his tarrying long among them, unless they design to put 
in a call for him ; as they declare this to be their design, and he appears 
disposed for settlement." 

It would seem from this, though there is no record to 
the effect, that the Trenton call had not been accepted. 
Neither was it declined. From the complexion of the pro- 


ceedings all through these years, and from the subsequent 
transactions, I should judge that Mr. Kirkpatrick preferred 
Trenton, but that the congregation were so backward en 
the point of salary or other arrangements, that he held the 
matter in suspense. Perhaps the minute last copied was 
ingeniously worded by himself so as to suggest motives to 
the people of Trenton to be more in earnest, if they wished 
their call to be preferred above the others that were coming 
in at every Presbytery. That that people supposed they had 
a special claim upon him, is seen in the tenor of the pro- 
ceedings of a special meeting summoned for August 11, 
1 76 1, at Trenton, to dispose of a fresh invitation. 

"A call was brought in by Capt. Samuel Morris and Capt. Wm. 
Craighead, commissioners from the congregation of Hanover, in Vir- 
ginia, soliciting the settlement of Mr. Kirkpatrick among them as their 
minister, which was objected to by the congregation of Trenton; and 
the Presbytery, having deliberately heard and maturely considered the 
arguments and reasons offered by both parties, and having likewise 
had a declaration by Mr. Kirkpatrick of his sentiments and inclina- 
tions relative to the case, came to the following conclusion, namely, 
that, although they would gladly concur with the congregation of Han- 
over in their call, yet as they can not think it their duty to appoint 
Mr. Kirkpatrick contrary to his own inclination and judgment to settle 
among them, they judge that it is inexpedient to present him the said 

It appears, therefore, that he continued to serve the 
Trenton congregation without installment ; but took his 
share with the other members of the Presbytery and Synod 
in giving an occasional Sabbath to the numerous vacancies 
in their extended bounds. Among the places thus visited 
by him from time to time were Mount Holly, Hardwick, 
S'mithfield, Springfield, Blackriver, Burlington, Bristol, Am- 
well, Williamsburgh (Virginia), Second Church, Philadel- 
phia, Bound Brook, Tehicken. At one time (November 2, 
1763), the Presbytery of Philadelphia, being applied to by 
the Rev. Gilbert Tennent for a supply for his pulpit during 
a winter, on account of his ill health, the Presbytery advised 


the congregation to ask the Presbytery of New Brunswick 
to allow Messrs. Kirkpatrick and Enoch Green to supply 
them as much as they can. 

Towards the end of the year (1761) commissioners from 
the Trenton congregation appear to have proposed to the 
Presbytery some advance on the amount of salary pre- 
viously offered to Mr. Kirkpatrick. The Presbytery ex- 
pressed their gratification at the exertion made to this end, 
but pronounced the "medium proposed" to be insufficient. 
As the commissioners, however, had given their reason to 
hope that a still further effort would be made for "said 
medium's being increased," Presb)d;ery advised Mr. Kirk- 
patrick to officiate among them until the next Spring meet- 

At this meeting (December i, 1761) President Finley 
was received from' the Presbytery of Newcastle, and he 
and Mr. Kirkpatrick were deputed to draw up and present 
an address to Governor Hardy, on his accession to the 
administration of the Province. 

In the spring (April 20, 1762) no better proposals were 
received from Trenton. The Presbyter}^ confessed great 
embarrassment as to their course, but finally gave their 
unanimous advice to Mr. Kirkpatrick to accept the call. He 
complied with the advice, but no direction was given for in- 

An important measure, however, was taken by the congre- 
gation, immediately after this meeting, towards encourag- 
ing the permanent settlement of their minister. This was 
the purchase of a parsonage. The people bought a lot on 
the north side of Hanover street, which runs in the rear of 
the church, sixty-five feet front, and about one hundred and 
sixteen feet in depth, containing twenty-eight perches of 
land, on which was a dwelling house. This property was 
conveyed to the trustees by deed of Stacy Beaks, and his 
mother, Mary Beaks, a widow. May 3, 1762, for the con- 


sideration of two hundred and seventy pounds, proclamation 
money, "to be and remain for a parsonage for the Presby- 
terian congregation of Trenton forever, and the use, benefit 
and profits thereof, to be held and enjoyed by the Presby- 
terian minister of Trenton, that shall be regularly called by 
the Presbyterian congregation of Trenton, and approved 
by the Presbytery of New Brunswick." 

May, 1763, brought another trial of the strength of Kirk- 
patrick's attachment to Trenton. This was in the shape of 
a petition from the congregation of Huntington, Long 
Island, that he should be allowed to settle there as the as- 
sistant or colleague of the Rev. Mr. Prime, who was disabled 
by age and infirmities for the pastoral service. The decision 
of this application was deferred till June, when he was al- 
lowed to relieve Mr. Prime for two Sabbaths in July. This 
was followed in August by an application in person by Dr. 
Zophar Piatt, on behalf of the Huntington congregation. 
To this oral call the Presbytery objected that it was too in- 
formal and indefinite ; there was no liberty from the Pres- 
bytery of Suffolk, no mention of the capacity in which Kirk- 
patrick was desired, whether as stated supply, sole pastor, or 
colleague. Moreover, the Trenton difficulty existed here 
also; "the Presbytery look upon the proposed medium of 
support to be insufficient," and, therefore, could not encour- 
age Mr. Kirkpatrick to make a change. Immediately after- 
wards, however, upon a petition from Loudon county, Vir- 
ginia, for a candidate or supply, Kirkpatrick, among others, 
was directed to "pay a visit there as soon as possible, and 
tarry a number of Sabbaths at discretion." The Rev. 
Messrs. McKnight, Hait, Tennents, Senior and Junior, and 
Guild were appointed to supply his pulpit five Sabbaths. 

The Synod of 1763 brought to a final issue a series of 
investigations into certain erroneous opinions of the Rev. 
Samuel Harker, and of conferences with him, which had 
occupied some portion of their attention at every meeting 


since that of 1758, when the case was first brought to the 
Synod's notice by the Presbytery of New Brunswick, of 
which he was a member. Finding him the more mischievous 
and obstinate for their forbearance, the Synod pronounced 
him disqualified from exercising his ministry. This de- 
cision coming to the Presbytery, they directed Mr. Kirk- 
patrick to go as soon as possible to Mr. Barker's congre- 
gation [Blackriver], "warn them not to receive his doc- 
trines, or receive his ministrations, vindicate the conduct of 
the Synod, signify the paternal care of the Presbytery over 
them, and inquire whether they are resolved to abide under 
our care; that if so, we may order them supplies." At the 
next meeting Kirkpatrick reported that he had fulfilled his 
appointment, and that the congregation were in such a con- 
fused and divided state they were unable to form a deter- 

At the October meeting o^f 1763 the Trenton congrega- 
tion is again before Presbytery with an application for the 
installment of their favorite minister, now in the fourth year 
of his service as their supply. He declined to accede to the 
proposition ; but no clew is given to his reasons beyond the 
statement "that he could not in the present situation of 
affairs." At the same time he gave no intimation of with- 
drawing from the place, or of a willingness to yield to any 
of the numerous invitations that had come to him from other 
quarters. The Court was perplexed. They declared they 
could advise neither the people nor their called minister to 
proceed any further towards the installation, but rather in- 
clined to the opinion that by mutual consent both parties 
should allow "things by a natural and easy channel to return 
to their former state and situation." What follows in the 
minute does not help to throw light upon the difficulties of 
the case. "If this advice be complied with by the said par- 
ties, the Presbytery foresee that a congregation will become a 
vacancy of whom they had entertained hopes that they might 


have been happily and permanently settled, which is to them 
a very disagreeable prospect. But if this should finally be 
the event, the Presbytery do recommend it to the people 
to pay ofif the arrears to Mr. Kirkpatrick in proportion to 
what they have hithertO' done; and in the present exigence 
of affairs do advise Mr. Kirkpatrick to supply the congrega- 
tion of Trenton at discretion, as much as he and they may 
agree upon till our next Presbytery." 

The charter of the congregation, as we have before seen, 
vested in the minister, elders and deacons the power of 
electing trustees. As long as Mr. Cowell lived after the 
charter was received, he was one of the trustees. There 
was nO' election in 1761. In 1762-3 the 'Trustees were all 
laymen. But in 1764 Mr. Kirkpatricck was elected Trustee 
and Clerk of the Board ; an evidence that his relation was 
not considered that of a transient supply. In those times a 
formal installment was sometimes dispensed with as un- 
essential to the constitution of the pastoral connection. In 
1736 the Presbytery ratified a decision of their commission 
(for Presbytery as well as Synod sat in those days in in- 
terims by commission) that the Rev. William: Tennent was 
to be considered "the proper Gospel minister and pastor" 
of the congregation of Neshaminy, though he had never 
been regularly installed, on the ground that he had accepted 
their call; that in the preamble of their subscription for 
his salary, they had spoken oi him. as their minister; that 
the body of them once owned him as such when the ques- 
tion was openly proposed to them in the church, and that 
he had for ten years carried on all parts of the Gospel 
ministry without opposition. An appeal from this de- 
cision was carried to Synod in the same year, but the Pres- 
bytery was sustained; the Synodal decision declaring that, 
though the omission of a formal installment was not to be 
justified, it was far from nullifying the pastoral relation.* 

* "Records,' p. 125. 


The people of Huntington, not discouraged by previous 
failures, and having repaired the informalities of the year 
before, renewed their application for Mr. Kirkpatrick at 
the October session of 1764. At this time his position 
in Trenton, as inferred from the records, takes a more 
definite phase. The congregation appeared by their repre- 
sentatives, and expressed their opinion that Mr. Kirkpat- 
rick should be either installed or dismissed; but "earnestly 
desired the former." On the other hand, a paper was pre- 
sented with the signatures of fifteen members of the con- 
gregation, charging their minister with using the people 
ill, especially in his delays about a permanent settlement, and 
concluding with a disavowal on their part of any further 
obligations to him as their pastor, or for his future main- 

The Presbytery considered these allegations and pro- 
nounced them groundless. They likewise assured the mal- 
contents that the obligations between the congregation and 
Kirkpatrick remained in force "while he continues their 
regular minister," They proceeded to say that in the pres- 
ent confusion the way was not clear for the installment 
and deferred final action tn the premises till their next meet- 
ing, which was to be held in a few weeks in Trenton. Mean- 
while, Mr. Kirkpatrick was at liberty to spend two or three 
Sabbaths in Huntington. 

Accordingly, on the 4th December, after ordaining 
Mr. James Lyon as a minister to Nova Scotia, it was de- 
termined, when the parties had been fully heard, first, that 
the opposition of some of the congregation tO' the settlement 
of the pastor was without just cause; secondly, that there 
was no satisfactory evidence that he could be duly sup- 
ported in the execution of his office, if settled; thirdly, that 
the way is not clear for the installment ; fourthly, that Kirk- 
patrick was under no obligation to settle in the place ; fifthly, 
that as the body of the congregation were in his favor, he 


might supply them for the present season; sixthly, that 
he should be paid his salary and arrears; seventhly, that 
he should have liberty tO' preach for vacant congregations ; 
and, eighthly, if he should wish to leave the bounds of the 
Presbytery, Dr. Finley was authorized to give him the usual 

From all this, it appears that no advance or change in the 
position of affairs was accomplished, and Mr. Kirkpatrick 
retained his place. 

In the Synod, as well as in the Presbytery, the minister of 
Trenton was a punctual and active member. He was often 
clerk, and his name is found in connection with much of 
the prominent business. In the Synod of 1763, he was on 
the co-mmittees for the education of pious students at 
Princeton, and for the direction and support of mission- 
aries on the frontiers, and seems to have been generally in 
request as a practical worker in the financial and judicial 
transactions of Church courts. On one occasion he is re- 
corded as having left town without leave; but it was for 
the two tedious days, in which the roll of Synod was called, 
that each member might express his opinion on the question, 
whether a candidate should be required to narrate his re- 
ligious experience before a judicature, as a ground of de- 
ciding upon his reception.* 

New Brunswick and Metuchin, White Clay Creek and 
Christiana Creek and Walkill, applied to Presbytery in 
1765 for the services of Kirkpatrick, with a view to settle- 
ment, or as a supply; but without resulting in any change. 

In April, 1766, there cam:e once more a formal call from 
Trenton, and at the same time one from Amwell. The 
former of these is spoken of in the course of the proceed- 
ings as his "re-settlement," probably meaning a renewed 
effort for his settlement, as his work as pastor, in every 
thing but the name, had been continued without suspension. 

"Records," p. 317-8. 


Both congregations made their pleas before the Presbytery. 
It would seem from> the Minutes, that, after both the min- 
ister and people of Trenton had signified their assent that 
the Amwell call should be prosecuted, both were disposed 
to retract, when the time of separation approached; for this 
is the deliverance : 

"That there was some degree of imprudence on the part of Mr, 
Kirkpatrick, or the people of Trenton, or both, in proceeding so far 
in their call, without the advice of Presbytery, and that, after they 
had jointly and severally given encouragement to the people of Amwell 
to invite him among them. 

"As the above congregations are places of importance, and equally 
dear to the Presbytery, and said congregations, together with Mr. 
Kirkpatrick, have submitted the final determination of the affair to 
the Presbytery, they do therefore judge, upon the whole, that it is 
most expedient for Mr. Kirkpatrick to accept the call from Amwell." 

But neither was this the close of this protracted business. 
Mr. Kirkpatrick's dilemma was not relieved by the decision 
he had invoked. The matter went on undecided for another 
month, when a new influence interposed. The Synod met 
in May, in New York. In the course of their meetings, the 
Presbytery held a session. At this, two members of the 
Presbytery of Philadelphia — the Rev. Andrew Hunter, and 
Williami Ramisey — were present, and in their capacity as 
correspondents, urged the reconsideration of the vote in 
April. They apprehended the most serious consequences 
to the interests oi religion in Trenton, if Kirkpatrick should 
be removed. They pleaded, that from the happy union 
of "all societies" in the last call, and the extraordinary ex- 
ertions that had been made in view of its acceptance, a 
happy prospect opened of "an important congregation being 
gathered there," if he was settled among them. "But if 
not, that the hearts of the people would be sO' sunk and 
discouraged, that they would be effectually prevented from 
future applications, especially considering the unhappy 
prejudices they have conti"acted against the Presbytery, 


for the aforesaid judgment." "It was therefore earnestly 
overtured by these brethren" (and Mr. Kirkpatrick, if not 
the reporter, was the recorder of their language), "that the 
matter should be reviewed, in order tO' prevent the ruin of 
that growing society, which, on account of its situation, 
etc., is really important; and the rather, as the number of 
ministers present at said determination, was but small." 

The subject being thus opened afresh, the Presbytery, 
at six o'clock in the morning of the following day, resumed 
the discussion, and consented to adjourn to the next month 
at Trenton, and there reconsider their decision. The con- 
gregations of Amwell and Trenton were to be notified of 
the opportunity of being heard. 

On the 24th June, the parties were again present; and 
the judicatory, perhaps tired of the subject, turned the 
whole responsibility upon the candidate, by putting both 
calls into his hands, and requiring him to make his own 
choice. Thus constrained, Kirkpatrick decided for Am- 
well, and the Presbytery immediately appointed the second 
Wednesday of the following August for his installment 
there, which was accomplished.^ 

Kirkpatrick had but a short career left. In 1767 he was 
elected a Trustee of the College of New Jersey. He was 
among the supplies for Trenton for that year. He was 
Stated Clerk of Presbytery, and Clerk of Synod, a member 
of the Commission of Synod, one of the Synod's deputation 
to meet the Consociated Churches of Connecticut at New 
Haven in September, for a plan of union, in view of the 
prospect of the establishment of Diocesan Episcopacy in 
America by the Church of England.^ ° In 1768 he supplied 
five Sabbaths in Trenton; is again on the Synod's Com- 
mission; a delegate to the General Convention or Union 
meeting with the Connecticut Consociation at Elizabeth- 
town ; in May a correspondent for the Presbytery with the 
Rev. Job Prudden in Connecticut, and in October for the 



Synod with ministers of Dublin, according to a system of 
intercourse with foreign churches. In 1769 he was Mod- 
erator of the Synod in Philadelphia, and a member of the 
Presbytery's committee to draft a memorial to obtain funds 
for the College at Princeton. This memorial is recorded on 
the minutes. Among its statements is this : "It is with 
pleasure they observe some very eminent departments of a 
civil nature already filled with the sons of this College, and 
that in the year 1767 not fewer than eighty of them were 
ministers dispersed through the several colonies ; since which 
time there has been a considerable addition." In the 
archives of the Assembly is a copy of this memorial in a 
printed folio-sheet, signed by Mr. Kirkpatrick as Moderator. 
There is also preserved in the same collection, and in the 
same form, with his signature as clerk, the Synod's circular 
of 1767, recommending congregations to provide glebes for 
their pastors — a greater care for widows, orphans and the 
poor, the avoidance of law-suits, the appointment of masters 
to teach the catechism and psalmody, the disuse of spirituous 
liquors at funerals and the establishment in each congrega- 
tion of a society for the reformation of morals. 

In 1769 Kirkpatrick was both Treasurer and Clerk of 
Presbytery. On the 15th of June of that year his familiar 
name appears for the last time among its living members. 
He died in Amwell on the eighth of September, not yet 
forty-three years of age. His body was buried in front of 
the pulpit of the First Church of Amwell, or "Old House," 
between the villages of Ringoes and Reaville. The church 
has been since taken down and a new one built at Reaville, 
but the tomb remains in its first position, and is thus in- 
scribed : 

"Here lieth the body of the 

Late Pastor of this church. 
Who died in the 43d year of his age. 


Reader, wouldst thou know his character for thy good? 
Think what a Man, a Christian, a Minister of the Gospel, 

A Friend, a Husband, a Father, a Master should be ; 
For in imitating this pattern (if justly drawn) thou shalt 

imitate him, and with him shalt with distinguished 
honor attain to the resurrection of the just." 

"Near him" (says a correspondent of The Presbyterian), "lie the 
remains of a daughter who survived him, and whose name is found 
on the records of Amwell First Church as a member in full com- 
munion. We give the inscription on her tombstone: 

"In memory of 

Hannah, daughter of the late Rev. William Kirkpatrick. 

Pastor of this church. 

Who died August 7th, 1786, in the nineteenth 

year of her age. 

The dust beneath 

Proclaims this solemn truth : 
The young are fading, 

Frail's the bloom of youth ; 
Life's a short dream, 

A false and empty show, 
And all is 

Fleeting vanity below. 
O reader ! speak, 

Can you believe too soon. 
The fairest morn of life 

Will not insure the noon." 

"Mrs. Margaret Kirkpatrick, his widow, was afterwards married 
to the Rev. John Warford, who having been called by the Amwell 
people April 3, 1776, was ordained and installed their pastor. The 
man of God, who is the subject of this sketch, fulfilled his course in 
about eleven years ; but short as that course was, it left an abiding 
impression in the region where he closed his labors. Testimony to 
this effect has been frequently given to the writer by a highly intelli- 
gent parishioner, who was born in 1760, and lived to enter his ninety- 
first year. There is now living [1857] a venerable mother in Israel, 
aged ninety-seven, who, though only eight or nine years old at the 
time, has a distinct recollection of Mr. Kirkpatrick's personal appear- 
ance. She describes him as being above the ordinary size, but not 
corpulent ; grave, dignified, and commanding in his aspect, and of most 
engaging address. But by no survivor was he more loved and revered 
than by a slave, whom he owned to the time of his death, New Jersey 


being then a slave-holding State. This slave lived to be about one 
hundred years of age. To old Cato his master was the model of a 
man and a Christian minister, and but for his greater love to the Lord 
Jesus Christ, his profound veneration and deep-rooted affection might 
have been looked upon as idolatry."" 

I am sorry to find, not only in the Records of our Trus- 
tees, but of the Presbytery, that there was, both before and 
after Mr. Kirkpatrick's death, some irregularity and delay 
in the discharge of his salary.^ ^ Insufficiency of stipend 
and unpunctuality in receiving it have long been among the 
trials of pastors, especially of those settled in rural districts, 
where the people, accustomed to maintain their own families 
from their farms, or by barter, have an inadequate idea of 
the necessity of money to those who have nothing else to 
live upon. In the times of which I am writing, these evils 
frequently engaged the attention of the Presbytery, and for 
awhile reports of such delinquencies were statedly called 
for and acted upon. In regard to Mr. Kirkpatrick's case, 
inasmuch as the subject stands upon the Records, it ought 
to be said that, according to the church books, it appears that 
there was a difficulty in determining the claims for arrears 
due on the last six months' salary, and that the committee 
of the Trustees, appointed for the purpose, could not get 
access to the accounts of Mr. Kirkpatrick, so as to ascer- 
tain what amount, or whether, in fact, any remained unpaid. 
The subject was dismissed from Presbytery with the conclu- 
sion, "that all has been done that can conveniently be done 
relating to the Trenton arrears." One source of the diffi- 
culty probably was that the salary was collected by a com- 
mittee in each church, who may have handed their collec- 
tions to the minister without the agency of the treasurer. 
Thus in March, 1765, is a minute in the Trustees' book: 

"Appointed to collect the six months' salary for Mr. Kirkpatrick: 
"In town : John Ely, Hezekiah Howell. 
"In the country : Isaac Green, Richard Palmer." 


Trustees — Trenton and Maidenhead. 

1764 — 1769. 

From Mr. Co well's death, until Mr. Kirkpatrick's re^ 
moval, the Trenton Board of Trustees remained unchanged, 
at the annual elections, except that in 1762 the name of 
Obadiah Howell appears in the place of Mr. Cowell's; in 
1764, the names of Mr. Kirkpatrick, James Cumines, and 
Abraham Hunt, come in the places of Arthur Howell, 
Joseph Yard, and Moore Furman; in 1766, the names o^f 
Joseph Reed, Jr., Samuel Tucker, and Daniel Clark, suc- 
ceed those of Mr. Kirkpatrick, William Green, and James 
Cumines. In 1764, John Chambers, John Hendrickson, and 
Joseph Green, were elected Eldei's; in 1765, Benjamin 
Yard, Hezekiah Howell, and William Tucker were elected, 
apparently to succeed them. 

James Cumines, or Cumine, or Cumins, died February 
21, 1770, aged sixty-six. He bequeathed ten pounds to 
the Trustees, to be invested for the support O'f the pastor. 
This was not payable until the death of his wife, at which 
time the rest of his property was to be divided among 
James, William, Samuel, and Joseph, sons of William 
Cumines, o^f Nottingham, Chester county, Pennsylvania. 
A Mrs. Jean Cumins signed the call oi Mr. Spencer, in 

Abraham Hunt was, for many years, the most promi- 
nent and opulent merchant of the town. He was in the 
Board from 1764 till his death, at the age of eighty-one, 
October 27th, 1821, a space of fifty-seven years. He was 



regular in his attendance at the meetings, down tO' 1818. 
In that year he made his will, bequeathing one hundred 
dollars to this church, and the same amount to the Epis- 
copal. Mr. Hunt was Pbstmaster of Trenton, both before 
and after the Revolution. His grandson, Mr. Wesley P. 
Hunt, has in his possession one of his commissions, dated 
January 10, 1764, by which "Benjamin Franklin and 
Jo'hn Foixcroft, Postmasters-General oi all his Majesty's 
Provinces and Dominions in the continent of North 
Am'erica," appoint Abraham Hunt, Deputy Postmaster in 
Trenton, for three years; and another, dated October 13th, 
1775, also for three years, from "Benjamin Franklin, Post- 
master-General O'f all the United Cblomies on the continent 
of North America." 

The tradition is now on record, that Colonel Rahl was 
spending a late evening at Mr. Hunt's house, in Christmas 
festivities, the day before the battle O'f Trenton, in which he 
fell, and that his hilarity caused himi to leave unopened a 
note that warned him of the approach of Washington's 
army.* Mr. Hunt was the father of Pearson, Wilson, John 
W., and Theodore Hunt. Of his first wife, Theodosia, who 
died March 4, 1784, at the age of thirty-nine, her tomb- 
stone declares: "Such was the cheerful, uninterrupted 
benevolence oif her heart, such was the gentleness and 
purity of her manners, that she never made an enemy, nor 
ever lost a friend. To know her once, was tO' love her 
forever." His second wife was Mary Dagworthy, who 
died April 4, 18 14, in her sixty- sixth year. 

Joseph Rei^d, Jr., is well known in American history, in 
connection with the public positions enumerated in the title 
of the two volumes of his "Life and Correspondence," as 
"Military Secretary of Washington at Cambridge, Adju- 
tant-General of the Continental Army, Member of the Con- 
gress of the Ulnited States, and President of the Executive 

I,ossing's Field-Book of the Revolution. 


Council of Pennsylvania." In 1767 he was Deputy Secre- 
tary of the Colony O'f New Jersey.* He was also- (1777) 
elected Chief Justice of Pennsylvania, but declined the 
office. Mr. Reed was born at Trenton, August 27, 1741. 
Of his father, Andrew Reed, who^ was one of the original 
Corporators and Trustees, I have already made mention. 
Joseph Reed graduated at Princeton, in 1757; studied law 
with Richard Stockton, and was admitted tO' the bar in 
1763. He then went to^ London, and prosecuted his pro- 
fessional studies in the Middle Temple, until 1765, when 
he returned and cormmenced practice in Trenton. Accord- 
ing to a letter of 1766, his family in Trenton, at that time, 
consisted of himself, his father, sister, two brothers, his 
half-sister (Mrs. Charles Pettit), and her three children. 
In the same year he writes : "There are sixteen courts 
which I am obliged to attend from home, oftentimes near 
a whole week at each, besides attending the assizes once a. 
year through the whole province, which contains thirteen 
counties." His dwelling, according toi an advertisement 
O'f the property, in 1779. was near the market-house, hav- 
ing nearly two acres of ground attached toi it, extending 
two hundred feet on Market street, and commanding a 
beautiful view of the Delaware, including the Falls. 

In 1770, Mr. Reed re-visited London, and was married to 
a daughter of Denys de Berdt, after which he took up 
his residence in Philadelphia, and his public life thence- 
forward was identified with his adopted State. ^ 

Mr. Reed was a Trustee of the congregation from 1766 
to 1769. On his removal to Philadelphia, he attended the 
Pine Street (third Presbyterian) Church. His biographer 
says : He "was firmly attached to the Presbyterian Church, 

* Life and Correspondence of Joseph Reed, by his grandson William B. Reed, 
2 vols., 1847. Memoir of the same, by Professor Henry Reed, in Sparks' Ameri- 
can Biography, vol. viii. The Life of Esther de Berdt [Mrs. Joseph Reed], by 
W. B. Reed; privately printed. Colonel Reed's commission is in "Documents, 
Colonial History of New Jersey," 1886, vol. x., pp. 5, 6. 


in which he had been educated." In one of his pubHcations, 
he said of it: "When I am convinced of its errors, or 
ashamed of its character, I may perhaps change it; till 
then I shall not blush at a connection with a people, who, 
in this great controversy, are not second to any in vigorous 
exertions and general contributions, and to whom we are so 
eminently indebted for our deliverance from the thraldom 
of Great Britain." 

In the Pennsylvania Packet of April 22, 1779, is an 
address, presented to President Reed, from the officers of 
the Scots' Presbyterian Church of Philadelphia, applauding 
his administration. The Pine Street congregation, for 
whom Mr. Reed had acted as counsel, in settling a differ- 
ence about property with the Market Street, or First 
Church, presented him. with a pew. It was to the pastor 
of Pine Street, that the direction of Mr. Reed's will re- 
ferred in saying: "If I am of consequence enough for a 
funeral sermon, I desire it may be preached by my old 
friend and instructor, Mr. Duffield, in Arch street, the next 
Sunday after my funeral," 

When John Adams was attending Congress in Philadel- 
phia, he often attended the Arch and Pine Street churches 
with Mr. Reed. Thus in his diary of 1774: "September 
10 [which was Saturday, and preparatory to the com- 
munion], rambled in the evening with Jo. Reed, and fell 
into Mr. Sproat's meeting [Arch street], where we heard 
Mr. Spence preach. September 1 1 . Mr. Reed was so kind 
as to wait on us to Mr. Sproat's meeting." "October 24, 
1775. Heard Mr. Smith, of Pequea. This was at DuiSeld's 
meeting." Mr. Adams pronounced Sproat to be "totally 
destitute of the genius and eloquence of Duffield."* 

Colonel Reed was with General Cadwalader's division 
when Washington crossed the Delaware, in 1777. In 1782 

* Life and Works of John Adams, vol. ii. In 1777, Mr. Adams boarded with 
the family of Mr. Sproat. 


he was one of the professional representatives of Pennsyl- 
vania, before the Comimiissioners of Congress, who^ met at 
Trenton to decide the dispute between that State and Con- 
necticut, in regard to the Wyoming lands. ^ In one of his 
letters he writes of having received a letter "under cover 
of Mr. Spencer," then the pastor at Trenton. He was a 
Trustee of the College of New Jersey from 1781 until his 
death. In 1783, visiting England for his health, he was 
associated with Dr. Witherspoon, who went out in the same 
vessel, on a mission to obtain subscriptions for the College 
abroad. He died in Philadelphia, March 5, 1785.^ 

SAMUEiy Tucker served in the Trusteeship from 1766 
to 1788, and for most of the time was Clerk of the Board. 
He held many public stations. He had been Sheriff of 
Hunterdon, and when as a member of the Provincial As- 
sembly of 1769 he took an active part in the investigation 
of alleged professional abuses of lawyers, there was a re- 
crimination in regard to his own fee bills as Sheriff.* He 
was President of the Provincial Congress of New Jersey, 
which sat in Trenton from October 4 to 28, 1775, and 
officially signed the Constitution which it framed, July 2, 
1776. On the 4th September of that great year, he was 
appointed a Justice of the Supreme Court. He was also 
for a time Treasurer of the new State, and in that relation 
there will be occasion to introduce his name hereafter. In 
1776 he was Chairman of the Provincial Committee of 
Safety,'* but in the subsequent panic he took advantage of 
the offer of British protection.! Perhaps some of this 
weakness was attributable to the family connection of Mr. 
Tucker — his wife being an English lady. It is said that 
Mr. Tucker and John Hart (afterwards a signer of the 
Declaration) were competitors for the Assembly, in 1768; 
Tucker was supported by the Episcopalians, Methodists and 

* Field's Provincial Courts of New Jersey, p. 169. 

t Journal of Assembly of New Jersey, Dec. 17, 1777. Sedgwick's Eife of Gov- 
ernor Eivingston, p. 194. 


Baptists ; Hart by the Presbyterians. "During the first and 
second days of election, Hart was ahead, but on the third, 
one Judge Brae, coming up with a strong reserve of Church 
of England men, secured Tucker's return."* 

Mr. Tucker died in 1789. By his will he left fifty pounds 
to "the Trustees of the Presbyterian Church of Trenton and 
Lamberton," as it is named in the will, to distinguish the 
town from the country church ; the interest was to be paid 
annually "to the minister, to attend divine service in the 
Presbyterian Church in Trenton, towards his support." He 
left thirty pounds to the Episcopal Church. His will made 
judicious provision for the emancipation of his slaves, either 
immediate or at a conditional time; as, upon learning a 
trade, adding a legacy of money to that of liberty. 

Mrs. Tucker's maiden namie was Gould.^ In 1766 she 
inherited from' Elizabeth Gould, of Exeter, Devonshire, 
some property, which, by her own will, in 1787, she be- 
queathed to her nieces. White and Murgatroyd. 

Mr. and Mrs. Tucker were buried in the old grave-yard 
described already as lying inclosed but desolate, in the midst 
of cultivated fields. The two large stones that cover their 
graves are the only ones in the little inclosure that remain 
unmutilated. The inscriptions are as follows: 

1. "Underneath this stone lie the remains of SamuEL Tucker, Esq., 
who departed this life, the 14th day of January, 1789, aged d"] years, 
3 months, and 19 days. 

"Though in the dust I lay my head, 
Yet, gracious God, thou wilt not leave 
My soul forever with the dead, 

Nor lose thy children in the grave." 

2. "In memory of Elizabeth Tucker, the wife of Samuel Tucker, 
Esq., of Trenton, and daughter of James and Ann Gould, who departed 
this life on Sunday, the 13th day of May, 1787, aged 57 years, 8 months^ 
and 14 days. 

Sedgwick's I,ivingstone, p. 143. 


"This life's a dream, an empty show, 
But the bright world to which I go 
Hath joys substantial and sincere; 
When shall I wake and find me there? 
Then burst the chains with sweet surprise. 
And in my Saviour's image rise." 

At the meeting' of Presbytery, in the fall of the year in 
which Mr. Kirkpatrick left Trenton, the congregation ap- 
plied for supplies, "and in particular for the Rev. Mr. Mc- 
Knight, in case of his dismission from his present charge 
which, they inform us, they have heard is probable." This 
was the Rev. Charles McKnight, who was the pastor of 
Allentown, but who at the same meeting was, at his request, 
dismissed from that charge. AJt that time, also', a call for 
him was presented from Shrewsbury, Shark River and 
Middletown Point, which he subsequently accepted. 

The people next turned their attention to Mr. Jonathan 
Edwards, son of the eminent President of Princeton Col- 
lege, and himself afterwards distinguished as President of 
Union College, at Schenectady. Mr. Edwards graduated 
at Princeton after his father's death, and in 1767 was em- 
ployed there as tutor. He had been licensed by the Litch- 
field Congregational Association in 1766, but in April, 1767, 
he applied to be taken under the care of the Presbytery of 
New Brunswick, which was done, and among the vacancies 
assigned to him was Trenton, which he was directed to 
supply for three Sabbaths. On the 20th October, 1767, a 
call was brought for him from the congregation. As Mr. 
Edwards was not present, the matter was deferred, but "in 
the meantime the Presbytery cannot help expressing their 
pleasure to see such a harmony among said people in the 
call aforesaid, and that they have exerted themselves so far 
for the support of the Gospel ; and we assure said people we 
will concur with them in their prosecution of said call ; and 
we appoint Mr. Edwards, to supply at Trenton as much as 
he can do, till our spring Presbytery." 


The exertion, for which the people are commended, refers 
to a subscription for the support of the pastor-elect, which 
accompanied the call, and the lack of which — added, per- 
haps, to the want of the same unanimity in the people — had 
been the main cause of preventing the installment of their 
late minister. The application, however, was ineffectual, 
and on the 19th Ajpril, 1768, the entry is : 

"Mr. Edwards, having been chosen a Professor of Languages, etc., 
in the College of New Jersey, and being now employed as a tutor 
there, could not see it to be his duty to break his connections with the 
college aforesaid; and therefore, as he would not accept the call from 
Trenton, it was returned."* 

The College was often looked to for ministers. Just 
before calling Mr. Edwards, Trenton was one of three 
vacant congregations that applied for Mr. James Thomp- 
son, a recent licentiate, to supply them statedly, "but Mr. 
Thompson's connections with the College of New Jersey as 
a tutor so embarrass him that it appears inexpedient to the 
Presbytery to lay him under any positive appointment, but 
only recommend it to him to supply as much as he can at 
these places, at discretion." (Minute of June 23, 1767.) 

In the year 1769 the two congregations of Trenton united 
with the Maidenhead congregation in an arrangement by 
which one pastor could serve the three societies. There 
must have been some strong necessity, financial or other- 
wise, for a measure that would reduce the share of each 
congregation from one-half of a minister's care to one- 
third. The first evidence of the union is in a minute of 
October 18: 

"A petition was brought into the Presbytery, from the congrega- 
tions of Trenton and Maidenhead, signed by the respective elders, 
requesting them to invite the Reverend Mr. Spencer, a member of the 
Presbytery of Newcastle, to settle among them; which the Presbytery 
unanimously complied with." 


The Reverend EivIhu Spencer, D.D. — His Previous 


1 72 1 — 1769. 

Eeihu Spencer, thus introduced into our history, was a 
son of Isaac and Mary (Selden) Spencer, and was born in 
East Haddam, Connecticut, February 12, 1721. He entered 
Yale College in 1742, and commenced Bachelor of Arts in 
1746, in the class with President Stiles and John Brainerd. 
The families of Spencer and Brainerd were doubly con- 
nected, for Hannah Spencer, a sister of Dr. Spencer's grand- 
father, was the grandmother of David and John Brainerd; 
and their sister, Martha Brainerd, was the wife of General 
Joseph Spencer, brother of Elihu. In the Life of David 
Brainerd, President Edwards relates that when David was 
on his deathbed, his youngest brother, Israel, came to see 
him; "but this meeting," he says, "was attended with sor- 
row, as his brother brought him the sorrowful tidings of 
his sister Spencer's death at Haddam.^ A peculiarly tender 
affection and much religious intimacy had long subsisted 
between Mr. Brainerd and his sister, and he used to make 
her house his home whenever he went to Haddam, his 
native place." 

Mr. Spencer had entered college with the design of 
preparation for the ministry, and soon after his licensure 
he was chosen by the American Correspondents, or Com- 
missioners, of the Scottish Society for propagating the 
Gospel in New England and parts adjacent, as a suitable 
missionary to the Indian tribes. At this time David Brain- 



erd was the most prominent evangelist among the Indians, 
and it was partly owing to his favorable opinion that young 
Spencer was engaged for the same work. Under date of 
September, 1747, in the Life of Brainerd, it is said that, 
"Brainerd having now, with much deliberation, considered 
the subject referred to him by the Commissioners, wrote 
them about this time, recommending two young gentlemen 
of his acquaintance, Mr. Elihu Spencer, of East Haddam, 
and Mr. Job Strong, of Northampton, as suitable mission- 
aries to the Six Nations.^ The Commissioners on the 
receipt of this letter, cheerfully and unanimously agreed to 
accept of and employ the persons whom he had recom- 

But upon David's death, in 1747, hi& brother John be- 
came the principal agent of the Society, and it was with 
him that Mr. Spencer and Mr. Job Strong spent a winter 
(1748) in studying Indian languages, and otherwise avail- 
ing themselves of the Brainerd experience. Jonathan Ed- 
wards was himself an active friend of the Indians, and 
after his removal from Northampton, in 1750, accepted, at 
the samie time, a call to the church at Stockbridge, and an 
appointment of the Boston Commiissioners as missionary 
to the Indians living in that part oi Massachusetts Bay. 
Spencer passed a summer with Edwards, and accompanied 
him to Albany tO' witnless a treaty with the aborigines, many 
of whom, spent their winters about Stockbridge, and the 
rest of the year near Schoharie, beyond Albany. What 
it was to travel from; Stockbridge to' Albany a century 
agO', may be learned from the Rev. Gideon Hawley's nar- 
rative of such a journey in 1753.* Mr. Hawley was a 
teacher and minister of the Indians, under Edwards' in- 
structions, and says O'f the great metaphysician : "To^ In- 
dians he was a very plain and practical preacher; upon no 

* In Massachusetts Historical Collections, and in the Documentary History of 
New York (vol. iii, p. 1033). 


occasion did he display any metaphysical knowledge in the 

Thus prepared, Spencer was ordained in Boston, Sep- 
tember 14, 1748, and went to the Oneida tribe — the chief 
of the Six Nations of the Mohawks, or Iroquois. His sta- 
tion was at Onoquaqua (afterwards Unadilla), at the head 
of the Susquehannah, one hundred and seventy miles south- 
west of Albany, and one hundred and thirty beyond any 
white settlement. One of the results of his mission was a 
vocabulary of the Oneida language, which he prepared. 
Hawley says he "could not surmount the obstacles he met 
with." These obstacles are indefinitely described elsewhere, 
as difficulties connected with his interpreter, and other 
causes frustrating his usefulness. He soon withdrew from 
the mission, and going tO' Elizabethtown he received a call 
from the Presbyterian Church left vacant by the death O'f 
President Dickinson. Having accepted the call he was re- 
ceived by the Presbytery of New York, and installed Feb- 
ruary 7th, 1749. Recording that date in his family Bible, 
he writes : "This day was installed E. Spencer, and took 
the great charge (onus himneris angelorum formidandmn) 
of the ministry in Elizabethtown; setatis suae 28. The 
Lord help me." Mr. Spencer gave part of his time to 
Shrewsbury. In 1848 two m'en were living in that town, 
one in his ninety-seventh, the other in his eighty-ninth year, 
who remembered Mr. Spencer, and showed the house he 
occupied on his visits.* He took his place in Synod, Sep- 
tember, 1750, at their meeting at Newark, and was placed 
on a committee of five for drafting proposals for a reunion 
with the Synod of Philadelphia. He was often on the 
commission for the interim. In 1753 he was on a commit- 
tee to settle difficulties in what was then our only church 

* Letter of the Rev. Rufus Taylor, of Shrewsbury, to the Rev. Dr. Miller. 
In October, 1750, Mr. Spencer was married to a daughter of John Eaton, of 
Eatontown, in the neighborhood of Shrewsbury. 


in the city of New York; the subject of discord being the 
introduction of Watts's Psalms the use of anthems, and 
prayer at burials.* In 1753, Spencer was appointed to take 
his part in supplying Mr. Tennent's pulpit in Philadelphia, 
during his abs'ence in Europe for the College, the Synod 
directing at the same time that, "Mr. Spencer's congrega- 
tion be supplied in his absence the whole of the time, at the 
request of his excellency, the Governor" (Belcher). 

When Mr. Davies was preparing for his voyage with 
Tennent, in September, 1753, he saw much of Spencer. 
After passing a night at his house in Elizabethtown, and 
proceeding the next day toi Newark, Davies writes in his 
journal : "The Governor insisted that I should preach for 
Mr. Spencer next Sunday come se'nnight, that he might 
have an opportunity of hearing me." On the following 
Saturday he "sailed to Elizabethtown: was pleased with 
the company of my brother Mr. Spencer, and Mr. James 
Brown." The next day Davies preached ; and on Tuesday 
returned toi Philadelphia to m^et the Synod, in company 
with Messrs. Spencer, Brainerd and Brown, "and spent 
the time in pleasing conversation, principally on the affairs 
of the Indians." 

At the Synod of October, 1755, various petitions having 
been presented fromi North Carolina, "setting forth their 
distressing circumstances for want of a preached Gospel 
among them," the Synod resolved to extend what relief 
was in their power, and appointed Mr. Spencer with Mr. 
John Brainerd to- take a journey thither before winter, and 
supply the vacant congregations for six mionths, or as long 
as they should think necessary. This is a specimen of the 
manner in which Synods then exercised their authority over 
settled ministers, and of the manner in which congregations 
yielded to the necessity which called for the missionary 

* See "Alexander Gumming," in Dr. Sprague's Annals, vol. i. 462. "Records,"" 
Sept. 26, 17.^4. 


services of their pastors. No objection from any of these 
quarters prevented a comphance with the Synod's direc- 
tion; the entry of September, 1756, being that "the diffi- 
culties and dangers of the times rendered it in a great 
degree impracticable for Messrs. Spencer and Brainerd to 
answer the end of their appointment tO' the southward, and 
for that reason said appointments were not fulfilled." The 
difficulties were those which arose from, the French and 
Indian incursions. At the same session "the Synod agree 
that an address be prepared and presented to Lord Loudoun, 
Commander-in-Chief of all His Majesty's forces in North 
America, and they do appoint Messrs. Aaron Burr, Elihu 
Spencer, David Bostwick, and Caleb Smith, or some one of 
them, to prepare and present it, in the name of this Synod, 
on the first proper opportunity." 

In 1756 Mr. Spencer was released from Elizabethtown, 
having accepted an invitation from the church at Jamaica, 
Long Island, in the Presbytery of Suffolk, vacant by the 
removal of Mr. Bostwick to New York. After a ministry 
of about twO' years there, as stated supply, he embraced 
an offer from Governor Delancey, of New York, of a 
chaplaincy to the troops of the Province then detailing for 
the French war. The Synod made provision for the 
Jamaica pulpit, "in case Mr. Spencer shall go out as chap- 
lain with the New Yo^rk forces."^ I do not know the 
nature or duration of his services in this connection, but 
"Jamaica, July 2, 1759," is the date of a published letter 
of his to Dr. (afterwards President) Ezra Stiles, on "the 
state of the dissenting interest in the Middle Colonies of 
America;" and "Shrewsbury, November 3," of the same 
year, is the date of a postscript added to it. In May, 1761, 
he w^as deceived by the Presbytery O'f New Brunswick from 
the Suffolk Presbytery,* and was clerk at another meeting 
in the same month in Princeton, and in August in Trenton. 
In October he was appointed to supply three Sabbaths at 


Amboy Southward, Middletown Point, and neighboring 
places; in April, 1762, the same places, "as much as he 
can;" in October, 1762, and May, 1763, one-fourth of his 
time at South Amboy; and in April, 1764, four Sabbaths 
along the seashore towards Egg Harbor. 

The day on which the Synod of New York provided for 
Mr. Spencer's absence with the army (May 27, 1758), was 
the last but one of the separation or schism. The two 
bodies assembled in Philadelphia, May 29, and constituted 
"The Synod oif New York and Philadelphia." The num- 
ber of our ministers in all the Colonies was then nearly one 
hundred. Mr. Spencer first appeared in the new organiza- 
tion in May of the next year, when he was again put on 
the Synodal Commission. In the session of 1761 he was 
Moderator, and was added by the house to a committee ap- 
pointed to devise means for obtaining funds to support John 
Brainerd in his Indian mission. As has been already stated 
in the notice of his predecessor, it was Mr. Kirkpatrick 
who reported an overture from this committee, upon which 
it was determined to raise one hundred and fifty pounds 
for the maintenance of Mr. Brainerd another year. Mr. 
Spencer opened the sessions of 1762, in the First Church, 
Philadelphia, with a sermon f romi Acts 20 : 28. The matter 
of the Rev. Mr. Marker's heretical opinions, the issue of 
which has been mentioned in the course of our notice of 
Mr. Kirkpatrick, came before this meeting, in consequence 
of Harker's having, "without the approbation of the Synod, 
printed a book containing his principles," and Mr. Spencer 
was first on a committee to examine and report on the pub- 
lication, which was next year condemned. 

We have seen that Dr. Macwhorter was associated with 
Mr. Kirkpatrick in college; that they were candidates and 
licentiates together, and with Mr. Latta were commissioned 
to itinerate in Virginia and North Carolina.^ The same 
excellent man was also connected with Mr. Spencer on 


another important mission. The Synod meeting- in Eliza- 
bethtown in May, 1764, learning that many cong^regations 
in the South, particularly in North Carolina, needed a 
proper organization, deputed Messrs. Spencer and Mac- 
whorter to visit that region, as general overseers and coun- 
sellors for the welfare of the Church. They were to form 
and regulate congregations, adjust their bounds, ordain 
elders, administer the sacraments, instruct the people in 
discipline, direct them how to obtain the stated ministry, 
and do all things which their inchoate or feeble condition 
required; not failing tO' assure the people everywhere of 
the Synod's interest in them, as the hig-hest judicatory of 
the Church, and its readiness to do all in its power for their 
assistance. Under the date of May 16, 1765, we have the 
Synod's record as follows: "Messrs. Spencer and Mac- 
whorter fulfilled their mission to the southward. Mr. 
Macwhorter's pulpit was supplied during his absence, and 
the Presbytery o^f Brunswick were satisfied with the care 
taken to supply Mr. Spencer's people." Mr. Macwhorter 
contracted a disease during- this journey, from which he did 
not fully recover for two years, A journal oi this apostolic 
tour would be of great interest and value. The influence 
of two ministers of such piety, prudence, and talents must 
have been as happy as it was welcome. The effects of their 
visit are partly developed in the proceeding's of their Pres- 
byteries and Synod after their return. In Synod a commit- 
tee, at the head of which were Doctors Alison and Finl'ey, 
^^"ere appointed to converse with the two missionaries, not 
only with reference to their expenses, which Synod had 
assumed, but "for the settlement of Gospel ministers in 
Carolina." At a meeting held by the Presbytery during the 
same session of Synod at which they made their report a 
call was presented for Mr. Spencer from the people of 
Hawfields, Eno, and Little Run, in North Carolina; but 
"upon the whole he declared he could not see his v^ay clear 


to accept of it, and returned it toi the commissioner." Im- 
mediately another call was presented from Gather's (after- 
wards Thyatira) and Fourth Creek settlements, in North 
Carolina, for Mr. Spencer, and to this he returned the same 
unfavorable answer.^ It appears that the same calls were 
introduced into Synod by the committee for overtures, who 
also report'ed a supplication for supplies from the inhabit- 
ants between the Yadkin and Catawba rivers ; "particularly 
for the removal of Mr. Spencer and Mr. Macwhorter to 
settle among them ;" two other supplications for supplies 
from Bethel and Poplar Tent, in M'ecklenburg county; the 
same from New Providence and Six-mile Spring; a call 
for Macwhorter from Hopewell and Centre congregations; 
and supplications from Long-lanes, in South Carolina. The 
Synod proceeded to mieet, as far as was in their power, the 
numerous opportunities opened through their judicious 
measures, by appointing six ministers to visit North Caro- 
lina, and each of them to tarry half a year in the most 
destitute neighborhoods. 

Next year Sugar Creek, Fishing Creek, Bethel, the 
Jersey Settlement, Centre congregation, Poplar Tent, and 
Rocky River united in a petition "for one or more of the 
Rev. Messrs. Spencer, Lewis, Macwhorter, and James 
Caldwell to be sent there, promising that the sum of eighty 
pounds be paid by any of these congregations in which he 
shall choose to spend half of his time, and another eighty 
pounds by the vacant congregations he shall supply." The 
record proceeds : "This petition being read, the several 
gentlemen mentioned in it were interrogated whether they 
would comply with this request, to which each of them 
returned a negative answer." Petitions for supplies were 
poured in at the same meeting from various sections of 
Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia, but all the Synod 
could do was to nominate seven ministers to make journeys 
throughout those districts, as their other engagements 
would permit. 


In his notes on this mission of the Synod, Mr. Foote, 
after mentioning that the report of the two deputies has not 
been preserved, remarks: 

"We are not left at a loss for the names of part of the congrega- 
tions whose bounds they adjusted, as in that (1765) and the succeed- 
ing year, calls were sent in for pastors from Steele Creek,' Providence, 
Hopewell, Centre, Rocky River, and Poplar Tent, which entirely sur- 
rounded Sugar Creek, besides those in Rowan and Iredell. These 
seven congregations were in Mecklenburg, except a part of Centre, 
which lay in Rowan (now Iredell), and in their extensive bounds com- 
prehended almost the entire county." "This mission was fulfilled to 
such entire satisfaction, that these gentlemen were importuned to set- 
tle in Carolina, and Mr. Macwhorter was ultimately chosen President 
of the College erected at Charlotte. From the term of this visit we 
may consider the bounds of the old churches in Orange and Concord 
Presbyteries as settled, and the sessions as generally duly organized. 
Previous to this, the settlements acted independently in their religious 

In January, 1765, the Rev. John Rodgers, the pastor at 
the town of St. George's, Delaware, accepted a call from 
the first church in the city of New York. Both Mr. 
Rodgers and the congregation appear to have considered 
Mr. Spencer as a desirable successor; for in Synod on the 
20th of May, 1765, "at the request of the Rev. Mr. 
Rodgers, and of the congregation of St. George's, Mr. 
Spencer is appointed to supply that congregation four 
weeks before Mr. Rodgers removes from them." In the 
following September, the proper steps having been first 
taken in the Presbytery of Lancaster, to which St. George's 
belonged, that congregation and Apoquiminey,^ which was 
connected with it under Mr. Rodgers, presented their call, 
and upon Mr. Spencer's expressing his acceptance, he was 
transferred from New Brunswick to Newcastle — the 
bounds of Newcastle and Donegal having been changed for 
a single year, and the names of Lancaster and Carlisle 
substituted, but the original ones being now restored. On 

Foote: North Carolina, ch. xiv. xxiv. 


the seventh January, 1766, Spencer was received by New- 
castle, and took his seat, together with Mr. Valentine 
Dushane as the elder of St. George's. On the seventeenth 
of the following April he was installed over the united con- 

Mr. Spencer was one of the witnesses of the serene and 
happy close of the life of President Finley, which took 
place in Philadelphia, July 17, 1766. On the day before 
that event, Mr. Spencer said to him: "I have come tO' see 
you confirm by facts the Gospel you have been preaching." 
In reply to his friend's inquiries, the dying minister said 
he felt full of triumph : "I triumph through Christ. 
Nothing clips my wings but the thoughts of my dissolution 
being prolonged. Oh ! that it were to-night ! My very soul 
thirsts for eternal rest." Mr. Spencer asked him what he 
saw in the future to excite such strong desires. "I see," 
said he, "the eternal love and goodness of God; I see the 
fullness of the Mediator. I see the love of Jesus. Oh ! to 
be dissolved, and to be with him ! I long to be clothed with 
the complete righteousness of Christ." At his request Mr. 
Spencer prayed : "Pray to God," said he, "to preserve me 
from evil — 'to keep me from dishonoring his great name in 
this critical hour, and to support me with his presence in 
my passage through the valley of the shadow of death." 

The Rev. Mr. Dubois, the present Clerk of the Pres- 
bytery of Newcastle, has kindly furnished me with the an- 
nexed notes from the books in his charge. 

"Between April 16, 1766, and March 22, 1769, there are a number 
of long minutes, the substance of which is that overtures were made 
to have the congregations of Drawyers and Pencader^" united with 
St. George's and the Forest ; that the Presbytery seeing that this 
would require too much labor for one minister, agreed to it on condi- 
tion that they would procure an associate pastor, to which they all 
consented. But either a suitable associate could not be found, or the 
plan did not work well, and accordingly, at the suggestion of Drawyers 
and Pencader that 'the said union was not for the edification of the 


Church,' and 'the people of St. George's and the Forest making no 
objection against having said union dissolved,' it was dissolved March 
22, 1769. 

''The same day — 'A petition, by a representative from the Forest 
congregation, under the care of the Rev. Mr. Spencer, was made to 
the Presbytery, requesting that they would confirm a line lately drawn 
between them and the congregation of St. George's, and also give the 
people of the Forest congregation leave, according to terms stipulated 
in their subscription for the Rev. Mr. Spencer, to try to raise their 
subscription, in order to obtain more of the labors of their minister ; 
the Presbytery grant the petition, so far that the Forest congregation 
may try their strength, according to said line, and that both they and 
St. George's lay their subscriptions before this Presbytery at their next 
meeting, at which time the Presbytery will more fully judge of, and 
settle the whole afifair.* 

"This is not referred to again, and seems not to have been done, 
but soon after comes this minute : 

"October 19, 1769. 'The Rev. Elihu Spencer informs the Presbytery 
that the place where he now lives does not agree with his own and 
his family's constitution, so that his health has been much impaired, 
and, should he continue there, is likely to be wholly destroyed ; there- 
fore he is under the disagreeable necessity of requesting a dissolution 
of his pastoral relation to the congregations of St. George's and the 
Forest. A commissioner from St. George's agrees with Mr. Spencer 
respecting the necessity of his request; upon the whole, the Presbytery 
judge that they have clearness to dissolve Mr. Spencer's pastoral rela- 
tion to the aforesaid congregations, and hereby do dissolve it.' 

"After this he was not present at any of the meetings, and I can 
find no mention of him, until at a meeting in Philadelphia, during the 
sessions of the Synod, he was present, and this minute occurs : 

"May 16, 1771. 'Mr. Spencer, having removed out of the bounds 
of this Presbytery into the bounds of the Presbytery of New Bruns- 
wick, requests a dismission from us in order to join them, which is 
granted.' " 

In a Philadelphia newspaper of the day, it is mentioned 
that Mr. Spencer preached at the funeral of the wife of the 
Rev. Joseph Montg"omery,^^ of Kent county, Maryland, 
March, 1769, in the Presb5rterian church, Georgetown. 

It was on the eig"hteenth of October, 1769 — the day be- 
fore his separation from Delaware — ^that the congregations 
of Trenton and Maidenhead obtained permission from their 
Presbytery to call Mr. Spencer; and although he was not 


dismissed by Newcastle, nor received by New Brunswick, 
until the spring of 1771, he was elected a Trustee of the 
Trenton church and President of the Board, May 7, 1770. 
His salary was fixed to begin from October 17, 1769, which 
was probably the time of his taking charge of the congre- 

Until his actual reception in Presbytery he is only "re- 
quested" to open a subscription for the college in Trenton, 
Hopewell and Cranbury. After that he is "ordered" to do 
it. Fromi the year 1752, till his death, Mr. Spencer was 
a Trustee of the College of New Jersey.^^ He was on 
the committee in the first year of his office to negotiate with 
the people of Princeton in view of establishing the College 
there. The short distance between Princeton and Trenton, 
and his relation tO' the College, often secured, as in the case 
of his predecessor, Cowell, and successor, Armstrong, ex- 
changes of pulpit services. The record of one such visit 
is preserved in the blessing it was instrumental in bringing 
tO' a student who became an eminent minister. This was 
James Feuilleteau Wilson, who was a miember of the Col- 
lege in 1772, when there was a general awakening on the 
subject of religion among the students. Wilson for some 
time decidedly, and even rudely, resisted every effort to 
draw his attention tO' his spiritual condition, and was the 
more averse in consequence of his prejudices as a member 
oi the Church of England. But it was one evening while 
Mr. Spencer was preaching in the College Hall that his 
conscience became deeply, and for a time, hopelessly affected. 
After gaining relief, he became a humble, zealous Christian. 
Upon his graduation, in 1773, he went to London, where his 
father resided, intending to take orders in the English 
Church, but further reflection and inquiry led him> to return 
to Princeton, and to the study of theology under Dr. With- 
erspoon. After the interruption of his course by the war, 
during part of which time he studied and practiced medi- 
cine, he was licensed by the Presbytery of Orange, and 



became pastor of Fourth Creek (the church established by 
Mr. Spencer) and Concord, in North CaroHna. He died in 
1804. Two of his sons were in the ministry.* 

' Foote's North Carolina, chap. xxv. 


Dr. Spencer's Congregation. 

1769— 1773. 

The town and country congregations of Trenton still 
preserved their union. The people of Maidenhead had their 
distinct corporation, but shared the services of the same 
pastor with Trenton. Each of the Trenton houses had its 
own spiritual officers. Thus May 6, 1771, Samuel Hill 
and Ebenezer Cowell were chosen "Elders for the town;" 
Jacob Carle, John Howell, and Timothy Hendrickson, "for 
the old house," and Benjamin Smith "a deacon for Tren- 
ton." The Trustees acted for both. Thus, at the meeting- 
just mentioned, it was "ordered by the Board that the 
Treasurer pay eight pounds out of the interest due on the 
fifty pounds left to the congregation by the Rev. Mr. 
Co'well, deceased, to the Rev. Mr. Spencer, to make up the 
Old House subscription for the year 1770, and that the 
members belonging* to Trenton meeting-house have liberty 
to apply the like sum' out of the interest aforesaid, on the 
like occasion." 

The subjoined document will show the relation in which 
Mr. Spencer stood to the three congregations. The signa- 
tures will serve to record the names of the heads of the 
families in the town charge as they existed in November, 
1769, and a few years afterwards. 

"Whereas it is mutually agreed between the townships of Trenton 
and Maidenhead, to raise one hundred and fifty pounds as the annual 
salary of the Rev. Mr. Elihu Spencer, during such time as he shall 
be and remain as their settled minister, and to preach one Sabbath in 




the town meeting-house, one Sabbath in Maidenhead meeting-house, 
and every third Sabbath at the old house in the upper part of the 
township of Trenton, and so to continue one third part of the time at 
each meeting-house ; and whereas, the congregation belonging to 
each of the meeting-houses aforesaid, have agreed to raise by way of 
subscription, the sum of fifty pounds, as their part and share of the 
annual salary aforesaid, we, the subscribers, being desirous to en- 
courage and support the ministry of the Gospel, and as members of, 
and belonging to the meeting-house in the town-spot of Trenton, do 
hereby severally promise and engage to pay unto the Trustees of the 
Presbyterian congregation of Trenton the sums by us herein respec- 
tively subscribed; to be paid half-yearly, in two equal payments during 
each and every year the said Mr. Spencer shall be and remain their 
settled minister, and preach alternately one third part of his time at 
each house as aforesaid. In testimony whereof we have hereunto set 
our hands with the several sums subscribed this eighteenth day of 
November, Anno Dom., 1769: 

Samuel Tucker, 
Alexander Chambers, 
Benjamin Smith, 
John Chambers, 
Ebenezer Cowell, 
William Tucker, 
Benjamin Yard, 
Elijah Bond, 
William Bryant, 
A. [Abigail] Coxe, 
Archibald Wm. Yard, 
David Pinkerton, 
James Paxton, 
Abraham Cottnam, 
Hezekiah Howell, 
Isaac Decow, 
Mica j ah How, 
Mrs. [Jean] Cumines, 
Dunlap Adams, 
Joseph Higbee, 
Hannah Merseilles, 
Isaac Smith, 
Isaac Pearson, (1770,) 
Daniel Coxe, 
John Wigton, 
David Bright, 
Samuel Bellerjeau, 
Richard Collier, 

Godfrey Wimer, 

Lott Dunbar, 

Hugh Campbell, 

John Reeder, 

William Von Veghter, 

Samuel Anderson, 

Richard Howell, 

Benjamin Woolsey, 

James Mathis, 

William Pidgeon, 

George Creed, (June, 1770,) 

R. L. Hooper, (Sept. 1770,) 

Jeremiah Anderson, 

Samuel Hill,' 

Robert Singer, (Sept., 1771,) 

Job Moore, (1770,) 

John Courtnay, (1771,) 

John Chambers, Jr., 

John Ely, 

Lewis Case, 

Abraham Hunt, (1772,) 

Craghead Ryle, (1773,) 

Joseph Clunn, 

Andrew Wilson, 

Hugh Runyon, 

John James, 

John Clunn, 

Henry Drake, 


Richard Tennent, James Ashmoor, 

William Reeder, John Fitch, 

Samuel Ellis, Mrs. Livesey, 

James Wilson, Joseph Brittain, 

William Smith, Samuel Henry, 

Robert Booth, Andrew Reed, 

Elizabeth Bell, John Yard, 

George Brown, Stephen Lowrey." 

The Trustees at the date of this agreement were Charles 
Clark, Alexander Chambers, Abraham Hunt, Joseph Reed, 
Jr., Samuel Tucker, Obadiah Howell, and Daniel Clark. 

Of the names thus brought before us, which have not 
already been the subject of notice, I proce!ed to give such 
particulars as I have been able to find, and as are consistent 
with the general purpose. 

Jacob Carle (elder in 1771) died on his farm in 1800. 
He left sons, John and Israel; a grandson, Jacob; daugh- 
ters, Hannah, wife O'f Aaron Vancleve, and Elizabeth, wife 
of John Van Mater. In a minute of the Trustees, March 
31, 1787, it was "agreed that Mr. Jacob Carle, or his son, 
Captain Israel Carle, attend Mr. Armstrong to the Presby- 
tery." In the church porch is a stone marking the death 
of Eliza, wife of Israel Carle, March 12, 1790, aged 29 
years. Carle is a Huguenot name ; Jean Carle was minister 
of the French Protestant church in the city of New York 
in 1763.* 

Benjamin Smith's name will be commemorated in a 
future chapter. 

EbenEzer CowEEL was a brother of the pastor, and his 
residuary legatee.^ He was chosen an elder for the town 
church, May 6, 1771. In 1782-4 he was a member of the 
"Committee of the West Jersey Proprietors," with Joseph 
Reed, Jr., Jonathan D. Sergeant, Clement Biddle, and 
Daniel Ellis. He died May 4, 1799. His wife, Sarah, 
died in 1774. His children were John, Ebenezer, Joseph, 

Documentary History, vol. iii. p. 489. 


Robert, Eunice, and Sarah (Bowlsby). The eldest of these 
was a physician, and died in 1789. A "Robert Cowell" 
died very suddenly, July 5, 1808; and a "Joseph Cowell" 
died September 30, 180S, aged 63; and at Broadway, 
Warren county, July 30, 1829, died, "Eunice Cowell, at 
an advanced age, formerly of Trenton." 

William Tucker was brother of Samuel Tucker, the 
trustee, and died January 16, 1790, aged 55. His wife's 
name was Mercy ; his sons William and Ellet ; his daughter 
Mary, who was married to James B. Machett, a native of 
Trenton, and a member of the congregation. Mrs. Machett 
died at St. Charles, Missouri, July 20, 1833, in her 71st 
year; Mr. Machett, at the same place, August i, 1833, 
in his 80th year. 

Elijah Bond was probably an Episcopalian, but one of 
a number who had pews in the Presbyterian Church as well 
as their own.^ By his will, proved in 1786, he bequeathed 
five hundred pounds to St. Michael's Church, the interest 
of which was to be paid to the minister, in addition to his 
salary, provided one should be appointed and should offici- 
ate within sieven years after his decease. 

In the Trenton Gazette of June, 1784, Elijah Bond ad- 
vertises at public sale a farm on which Major William 
Trent had lately resided, within two miles of Trenton, and 
containing about seven hundred acres. This property is in 
the vicinity of Lamberton, and was purchased by Barnt De 
Klyn, and in November, 1785, the mansion was destroyed 
by fire. It is not much out of place in this connection to 
mention that Mr. De Klyn, who was a member of our 
church, was of a Huguenot family, bom in BoiSton, October 
31, 1745, and died on his farm, September i, 1824. A 
daughter oif Mr. De Klyn — the widow of General John 
Beatty — is among the living members O'f our church.^ In 
October, 1857, this venerable lady, "as a memorial of love 
to this church," presented a valuable silver flagon, inherited 


from her parents, which, according to her desire, the session 
accepted for the use of the comniunion table, and to be 
kept without alteration. 

William Bryant was a physician, and in his more ad- 
vanced years, associated with him in practice the well- 
remembered Dr. Belleville.^ Dr. Bryant was a son of 
Captain William Bryant, of Perth Amboy, whose tomb- 
stone in that town records that he made fifty-five voyages 
between New York and London, and died in 1772, at the 
age of 88. His wife survived him. "It is presumed," says 
Mr. Whitehead, "that they left two children — one son. 
Dr. William Bryant, who was living at Trenton in 1776, 
and thence supplied his mother's wants; and one daughter, 
Mary, who crossed the Atlantic with her father in early 
life, and resided some time in London, where she became 
acquainted with the Rev. Dr. Watts, under whose instruc- 
tions she received those religious impressions w^hich in after 
life 'brought forth fruit abundantly,' being eminent for her 
piety and benevoilende. She became the wife of the Hon. 
Wm. Peartree Smith, of New York, and subsequently of 
New Jersey — a scholar and a Christian."* 

Archibald William Yard was one of the sons of 
Joseph Yard, the Trustee He died March 8, 1810, at the 
age of 78. Benjamin, another subscriber, was Joseph's 

Mrs. Abigail Coxe and Daniel Coxe w^re of the family 
of that name which was one of the earliest and most re- 
spectable among the large land-owners. Their more im- 
mediate membership was with the Church of England, and 
their loyalty to the mother country surv^ived the Revolu- 
tion. In the case of Coxe vs. Gulick, in 1829, it was con- 
tended that on the third July, 1776, Daniel Coxe, resid- 
ing in Trenton, was a subject of Great Britain, that he with- 
drew from the State in 1777, at the time of his decease lived 

* History of Perth Amboy, p. 145. 


under the British Government, and never acknowledged 
allegiance to New Jersey.* 

David Pinkerton^ is supposed to have died in 1781^ 
leaving a family of children named David, Jane, Ann, John, 
Samuel, Joseph, William and Mary, to whom, with his wife, 
he bequeathed his "shop-goods, cows and horses," dwelling 
house and lot, "with my two orchard lots and meadow lot, 
and my little farm where Joseph Roberts lives. * * * x 
thus take my leave of a troublesome world." The witnesses 
of his will were three of his co-signers in the congregation — 
Howe, Moore and Woolsey. Another of themi, Decow, 
was an executor, and a fifth, Paxton, was the Surrogate 
before whom it was brought to probate. Mr. Pinkerton's 
son and namesake was a clerk in the Trenton Bank, and is 
remembered for his passion for fishing in the Delaware 
after bank hours. The only stone in our yard that bears 
the name of Pinkerton is that of a child (John) who died 
February 9, 1769. In August, 1794, there was a John 
Pinkerton, Jr., "intending shortly to remove to Philadel- 

Joseph Paxton was the Surrogate just named. In the 
portico of the church are memorials of Paxtons, namely, 
Joseph Paxton, who died September 15, 1750; aged 48. 
(The Rev. Mr. Cowell was one of his executors.) Jane 
Paxton, June i, 1768; 2^ years. Qiildren of Paxtons 

Abraham Cottnam was a magistrate. In April, 1778, 
his executors (Robert Hoops, his son-in-law, and George 
Cottnam, his son) advertise for the recovery of his dockets. 
taken from, the office of Ebenezer Cowell, Esq., when the 
enemy were in Trenton. They offer for sale what had 
probably been the testator's residence, "Dowsdale, near 
Trenton, on the Hopewell road." His will, which was 

* Halsted's Reports, v. 328. Sabine's American IvOyalists, p. 232. Whitehead's 
Perth Amboy, p. 201. Field's Provincial Courts, p. 185. 


proved in February, 1776, directs his body to be "laid in 
Trenton church yard, as near to my first wife and children 
as may be convenient, * * * -v^ith as little expense as 
possible, consistent with decency." Robert Lettis Hooper 
and Benjamin Smith were two of the witnesses of his will, 
and Hon. Daniel Coxe was an executor. He desired and 
entreated his friend, William' Pidgeon, Esq., to assist the 
executors with his advice. His wife was a daughter of 
Joseph Warrell, Sr.''' He gave to his son, Warrell Cottnam, 
all his law books, including those which he claimed under 
the will of Joseph Warrell, Esq., the elder, and to the same 
"his mother's family-pedigree roll by her mother's side, 
being of the Bradshaw family." 

The senior Warrell here alluded to, was Attorney-General 
in the administration of Governor Morris, and died in 1758. 
He left his own pedigree-roll to his son ; his wife's to Mrs. 
Cottnam. David Cowell and Peter Kemble were witnesses 
to the will. 

Joseph Warrell, Jr., died in Trenton in 1775. His will 
directed that his body be buried as near as possible to his 
parents, in the Trenton church yard, but if he should hap- 
pen to die a considerable distance from Trenton, "I will that 
by no means my estate shall be put to the expense of a 
conveyance thither." His grave is in our ground, near 
the church, and is thus inscribed : 

"In the memory of Joseph Warrell, Esq., who departed this life 
March 6th, 1775; aged 36 years. This stone is erected, not from pomp, 
or pageantry, but from true affection. 

"For other thoughts employ the widowed wife ; 
The best of husbands, loved in private life. 
Bids her with tears to raise this humble stone, 
That holds his ashes, and expects her own." 

Hezekiah Howele. "An aged and respectable inhabi- 
tant," of this name, died October 15, 1800. 

Isaac Decow was for a time the High Sheriff of Hunter- 
don.^ Isaac Decow, Alderman, died June, 1795, and was 
10 PRES 


buried in the Friends' Meeting ground. Perhaps it was 
an ancestor of the family, of whom Dr. FrankHn's Atito- 
biography makes mention, when he says that among the 
principal people of New Jersey, with whom' he made ac- 
quaintance in 1727, when he was printing paper money for 
the Province, was "Isaac Decow, the Surveyor-General, 
* * * a shrewd, sagacious old man, who told me that he 
began for himself when young by wheeling clay for the 
brickmiakers, learned to^ write after he was of age, carried 
the chain for surveyors, who taught him surveying, and he 
had now by his industry acquired a good estate; 'and,' said 
he, 'I foresee that you Avill soon work this man [Keimer] 
out of his business, and make a fortune in it at Philadel- 
phia.' He had then not the least intimation of my intention 
to set up there or anywhere." 

MiCAjAH How was the second who bore the name of 
the old prophet. The first, a shoemaker, died in 1740, who 
had a son Samuel, and a kinsman, Israel Hewlings. Of 
this family was the Rev. Thomas Yardley How,^ for a 
time Rector of Grace Church (Episcopal), New York, 
who had a share in the celebrated church controversy with 
Hobart, Linn, Beasley, Mason, Miller and others in the 
early part of the present century. The Trenton newspaper 
of January 14, 1799, announces the death of Micajah How, 
Esq., fo^rmerly Sheriff of the county of Hunterdon, and 
one of the Judges of the Court of Common Pleas of the 
county. In July, 1807, Dr. William Innesly, of Chester 
county, Pennsylvania, was married tO' "Mary, daughter of 
the late Micajah How, Esq., of this place." January i, 
1831, died, "Mary, wife of Dr. Inslee, and daughter of 
Micajah How, Esq., deceased, formerly O'f Trenton." 

Six of the subscribers seem to have lived in the same 
neighborhood in February, 1772, as at that time a fire broke 
out in the house of Dunlap Adams, and spread to those of 
Merseilles, Cumings, Moore, Pinkerton and How. 


Jose;ph Higbee died in 1796, at the age of seventy-six. 
Another of the name died December 12, 1829, in his sixty- 
fifth year. 

MerseiIvLES is a French family which has had its repre- 
sentatives with us for a century. Peter MerseUis^ — as the 
name is on his grave — died June 25, 1764, set. forty-three. 
He was a carpenter. His wife was Hannah, and he had a 
son Edin, Eden, Edon, Edow or Edo, according to the whim 
of the scrivener or copyist^*^ — perhaps, after ah, a French 
termination attempted in English, like Eudang and Udang 
for Houdin, the rector of St. Michael's.^ ^ Edin or Edo 
Merseilles' will was proved in April, 1800; he was then 
residing in Prekness, Bergen county, and his wife's name 
is given as Aurenche and Arreanche. He left sons Peter, 
Edo, Cornelius, John and Garret. His sisters were Rachel, 
Mary and Elizabeth. His daughters, Anna, Caty, Arre- 
anche and Jenny, a grandson, Adrian Van Houten. An 
Eden Merseilles, merchant, died at Bridgeton, January 13, 
1808, in his forty-ninth year. "He had been in business 
longer than any other person in town." Henry Marselis 
was a brewer in Trenton until his death, in 1753. His will 
mentions a sister Catherine, and brothers Peter and John. 
There was a John Merselous, of Hopewell, whose will, in 
1784, requires that fifteen geese should be kept on the farm 
to supply feathers for the beds which he bequeathed to his 
daughters. He had a son, John Holder. 

Isaac Smith was at first a physician, and perhaps never 
wholly relinquished the profession; but at a time when the 
constitution of the highest judiciary department of the State 
allowed of lay-judges, Mr. Smith was placed on the Su- 
preme Court bench (February 15, 1777). Hence, when he 
was elected a trustee of the congregation, March 12, 1788, 
his name is entered as "Doctor Isaac Smith, Esquire." His 
titles might have been extended, for he was Colonel-Com- 
mandant of the militia in the neighborhood of Trenton in 


the campaign of 1776. He was the first President of the 
Trenton Banking Company, having been elected to that 
post on the institution of the bank, February 13, 1805, and 
continued in it until his death. He served eighteen years on 
the bench, "during which time," according to his obituary, 
"he was also elected by the suffrages of the people of New 
Jersey, at a general State election, to the honorable station 
of a member of the House of Representatives of the United 
States, where his high character for political wisdom and 
tried integrity was known and duly appreciated by all his co- 
patriots, and particularly by the illustrious Washington and 
Adams, with whom he enjoyed the intimacy of particular 
friendship." His epitaph is : 

"Isaac Smith, Esq., died August 29th, 1807, in the sixty-eighth year 
of his age. With integrity and honest intentions, as a physician and a 
judge, to the best of his abiHty, he distributed health and justice to 
his fellow-men, and died in hopes of mercy through a Redeemer."" 

Of his wife, who' died in 1801, the comprehensive char- 
acter is graven on an adjoining stone: 

"She was what a woman ought to be." 

It appears by other inscriptions that three sons preceded 
their parents to the grave: Edward, lost at sea, in 1791, at 
the age of twenty-five; John Pennington, in 1797; and 
Charles, Lieutenant of the first United States Regiment, in 
1800, aged thirty-two. One oif the bequests of Dr. Smith's 
will was as follows: "To the Trustees of the Presbyterian 
Church in the city of Trenton, one hundred dollars, with 
the inter»est that may arise thereon, to be applied towards 
building a new church; and provided, also, that they keep 
the tombstones of myself and family in good repair. I 
have no descendants to perform this duty." His executors 
were Lydia Imlay, of Trienton, Richard Stockton, of 
Princeton, and Edward Pennington, of Philadelphia. 


S'AMUE^iv BkLtI^ERJEau^^ was a nephew of Samuel Tucker. 
His wife was Achsah; daughters, Hannah Gee and Sarah 
Brearley; sons, Henry, Benjamin, John, Samuel, Thomas, 
and Daniel. He died July 8, 1795, at the age of fifty-six, 
and his gravestone is one O'f those that pave the portico of 
the present church. 

Godfrey Wimer. I find no more than that a person of 
this name died in Nottingham township, June 5, 1801.^^ 

Beee. The only traces of this family are in the church- 
yard: Jani'Cs BelP^ (probably the signer o^f Mr. Cowell's 
call), September 10, 1747; age, seventy. John Bell, No- 
vember 10, 1788; age, forty-six. 

VoN or Van Veghten and Veghte occur frequently in 
the Dutch churches of Somerset county, as commemorated 
in the "Pastor's M'emorial" of the Rev. Dr. Messier, of 
Somerville (1853). 

WooLSEY has long been a highly respectable family in 
the township and town. Benjamin was elected elder in 
1797, but declined. Dr. Jeremiah Woolsey, "formerly of 
Trenton," died in Cincinnati, February 9, 1834, in his 
sixty-fifth year. 

Mathis, sometimes Mathias, and probably also Mathews. 
The house of Captain James Mathis, deceased, at Lamh 
berton, was advertised for sale in 1796. 

WiELiAM PiDGEON, already named in the notice of Mr. 
Cottnam, died at Stafford, Monmouth county, January 5, 
1780. Elizabeth Cottnam appears in his will, among his 
relatives. He left fifty pounds to the Methodist Society of 
Trenton, "for the repair of their meeting-house." He also 
put three thousand pounds at the discretionary disposal of 
his executors, for charitable purposes, and "for the relief of 
my negroes as they may merit it." To the registration of 
his will is appended this paragraph : "Note, that the within- 
named Williami Pidgeon was so burnt by getting out of his 
house when on fire, that he could not hold a pen to write 


his name, but a mark as above, and escaped in his shirt." 
From the testimony before the Surrogate, and from the 
newspapers, it appears that two children of Captain Isaac 
Andrews, two men-servants, and a hired man, were burnt 
to death at this time, and that the fire was the cause of 
the fatal illness of Pidg'eon himself. 

George Creed was a physician. He removed to New 
Jersey from Jamaica, Long Island, of which town William 
Creed was one of the patentees in 1686. Dr. Creed was 
born in Jamaica, October i, 1735, and resided for some 
time in Flemington, before coming to Trenton. He 
married Susanna Coleman, of Maidenhead, in 1762, who 
died in Trenton, September 24, 1835, in her ninety- fourth 
year. Dr. Creed died suddenly, of apoplexy, on a visit to 
Jamaica, about the year 1775. His daughter, Mrs. Rebecca 
Creed Ryall, still survives (1859), ^^ the ninety-first year 
of her age, having been a communicant of our church for 
about sixty-three years. ^^ 

Robert LETTis Hooper.^ "^ The first person of this name 
was Chief Justice of the Province from 1724 to 1728, and 
again from 1729 till his death in 1739. In an advertisement 
of February 18, 1752, occurs the name of "Robert Lettis 
Hooper, now living at Trenton;" and that of his son, 
Reynald, is in the lottery prospectus of 1753, copied in our 
Sixth Chapter. Robert L. Hooper, Jr., had a store in 
Philadelphia, in December, 1762; was Deputy Quarter- 
master-General in 1778, and was a Judge of the Common 
Pleas of Hunterdon in 1784. Robert Lettis Hooper died 
April 25, 1785, in his seventy-seventh year, and was buried 
in the Episcopal ground in Trenton. In August, of the 
same year, the death of a stranger (Ebenezer Krskine) is 
announced "at the seat of Robert Lettis Hooper, near 
Trenton," and Mr. Hooper was one of his acting executors. 
A paper of November 7, 1785, says: "Since our last the 
Hon. Robert Lettis Hooper, Esq., has been elected Vice- 


President of the Legislative council, in the room of John 
Cleves Symmes, appointed to Congress." In 1796, "Died 
at Belville, near Trenton, Mrs. Elizabeth, wife of Robert 
L. Hooper, Esq." July 30, 1797, died "the Hon. Robert 
Lattice [so spelled sometimes] Hooper, formerly Vice- 
President of this State, in his sixty-seventh year." Soon 
afterwards is advertised for sale "that elegant seat called 
Belville, late the residence of R. L. Hooper," on the Dela- 
ware, and containing one hundred acres. Belville was the 
Sinclair and Rutherford country-seat already mentioned. 
It is advertised in September, 1806, by John Rutherford, 
as "the summer residence of the subscriber in the city of 
Trenton," having three hundred and thirty acres on both 
sides of the river, and one of the lots between the new 
street and Colhoun's lane, including "Prospect Hill." This 
exhausts my memoranda of this name in the list of the 
contributors to Mr. Spencer's salary. 

Robert Singer^^ was at one time connected in mer- 
chandise with Bernard Hanlon, and at another in the 
auction business with Francis Witt. Witt kept a public 
house ; at one time "the Blazing Star," at another, "an 
ordinary at the sign of Dr. Franklin, near the market." 
The Trustees sometimes held their meetings at his inn.^^ 

John Clunn lived in Lamberton. In August, 1781, the 
Gazette mentions the death of the widow of John Clunn, 
aged eighty-three, "and in the evening of the same day, 
the weather being vei*y warm, her remains were interred 
in the (Episcopal) church burying-place."-° 

Joseph Ceunn^^ appears in the Revolution as "Captain 
in the State Regiment." In 1785 "Captain Clunn" kept an 
inn which bore the sign of Alexander the Great. In the 
Episcopal ground are the graves of Joseph Clunn, Sen., 
who died in 1798, aged fifty-nine; and of John H. Clunn, 
1798, aged twenty-eight. In the Presbyterian ground is 
the grave of Amey Clunn, December 12, 1834; aged 


John Fitch is one of the historical names of America, 
in connection with the invention or introduction of naviga- 
tion by steam. He was a native of Connecticut, where his 
father was "a most strenuous Presbyterian." In May, 
1769, he came to Trenton, and Matthew Clunn, a tinman, 
employed him in the manufacture of brass buttons. He 
also picked up some knowledge of the watchmaker's trade. 
Clunn's next door neighbor was James Wilson, a silver- 
smith, who employed Fitch as a sort of apprentice ; but in a 
short course of time Wilson failed, and became Fitch's 
journeyman. One of his biographers says: 

"His skill and perseverance soon enabled him to master the diffi- 
culties of his calling, and money began to flow into his pockets. WTien 
the war of the American Revolution commenced, he was well estab- 
lished, doing an extensive business. The faculty of acquiring property 
appears to have been in him as strong as his disposition to spend it 
when acquired. His shop and its contents were estimated at three 
thousand dollars when the British army entered the village of Tren- 
ton. The troops were attracted to it, because he had large contracts 
for the repair of American, arms. Tliey proceeded to burn the estab- 
lishment, and destroy the tools and all his visible property." 

When the first military company was formed at Trenton, 
in support of the Revolution, Fitch was one of the lieuten- 
ants, and had that rank in the cantonment at Valley Forge. 
The Committee of Safety afterwards made him, their gun- 
smith, or armorer, and he was expelled from the "Method- 
ist Society" for working at that business on the Sabbath. 
He had a quarrel with Alexander Chambers, in the Com- 
missary department, and with John Yard, about military 
rank. When the enemy entered Trenton, in December, 
1776, Fitch removed to Bucks county. He attended the 
Presbyterian church of Neshaminy, of which the Rev. 
Nathaniel Irwin was for many years the minister, and who 
appears to have taken much notice of his ingenuity. It was 
on his return afoot from that church, lame with rheu- 
matism, that the passing of vehicles caused him to feel the 


contrast with his own difficult locomotion, and suggested 
the idea of "gaining a force by steam," that would relieve 
pedestrians of their disadvantage.^^ After making the 
first draft of a steam-power, Mr. Irwin showed him, in 
"Martin's Philosophy," that the steams engine had been 
already invented, and that the desideratum was to apply it 
to navigation. It was to the Neshaminy pastor that Fitch 
addressed his autobiography, which was deposited under 
seal in the Philadelphia library, with injunctions that it was 
not to be opened until thirty years after the inventor's 
death. Stacy Potts was one of the company formed to 
asssist Fitch in his experiments, and he, with Isaac Smith, 
Robert Pearson, Jr., Samuel Tucker, Abraham Hunt, and 
Rensselaer Williams,-^ John and Charles Clunn, and others 
of Trenton, gave their names to the application tO' the 
Legislature of 1790, which obtained for him fourteen years' 
exclusive privilege on this side of the Delaware. His boat 
Perseverance made several trips between Philadelphia and 
Trenton in that year.^^ 

Fitch visited the Western States, and was for some time 
in captivity among the Indians. In Collins's Trenton 
Gazette, of July, 1785, is the following advertisement: 

"John Fitch having traversed the country northwest of the Ohio, 
in the several capacities of a captive, a surveyor, and a traveller, as 
the result of his labors and remarks has completed, and now wishes to 
sell, a new, accurate Map of that country, generally distinguished by 
the Ten New States, including Kentucky, which opens immense sources 
of wealth and advantageous speculation to the citizens of the United 
States, and therefore is an object of general attention. Having per- 
formed the engraving and printing himself, he is enabled to sell at the 
very small price of a French crown. 

"N. B. — They are also to be sold by Enos Kelsey, in Princeton, and 
by the printer hereof." 

It is said that this map, projected and engraved by him- 
self, was printed also by him in a Bucks county cider-press. 
In May, 1785, he wrote to his patron. Potts, from Bucks, 


that his map is so far formed that he "shall want paper for 
it thirty inches by twenty-three, and would wish to see you 
on the occasion, but am. so engaged that I can not spare the 
time to go over to Trenton." 

In November, 1785, Fitch gave to the Governor of Vir- 
ginia (Patrick Henry) a bond for three hundred and fifty 
pounds, "conditioned for exhibiting his steamboat" on the 
waters of that State, "when he receives subscriptions for 
one thousand of his maps, at 6s. 8d. each." 

From the Methodists and Presbyterians, Fitch went over 
to the Universalists. One of his biographers says he was 
"a drinking man" in his later years, "but it is believed he 
was not a drunkard." Another says he was "a man of ex- 
tremely temperate habits for that time." The latter writer 
attributes his death to "gradual suicide" by the use of 
spirituous liquors, and says that he "foretold the length of 
time that his constitution would survive, by a mathematical 
ratio of debility."^ But the version of the other, and latest 
author, is that being ill, he purposely made one dose of 
twelve opium pills, which had been directed to be taken at 
intervals.! He died at Biardstown, Kentucky, in 1798. 
"Will a delay of half a century," asks his biographer of 
1847, "i^ rendering public justice tO' the watch-maker and 
gunsmith of Trenton, weaken the obligations of his country- 
men to admire his genius ?" 

James Wilson was probably the silversmith mentioned 
in the preceding article. His father had prospered in Perth 
Amboy ; and Wilson, having some patrimony, neglected his 
trade and became intemperate. It was upon his becoming 
involved in some responsibility in Wilson's business, that 
Fitch undertook to pay the debt, by taking his tools, when 
the master and journeyman exchanged places. 

* Memoir by Charles Whittlesey, in Sparks's Library of American Biography^ 
vol. xvi. 1847. 

t Life, drawn from his Autobiography in the Philadelphia Library, by Thomp- 
son Westcott, 1857. 


'W1LI.IAM Smith was the name of the landlord of whom 
Fitch hired a room in Trenton where he carried on the 
manufacture of silver and brass buttons for peddling. The 
only place in which I find the name is in an inscription in 
the grave-yard, the age of the subject of which is rather too 
young for a subscriber in 1770. 

"In afifectionate remembrance, from a bereft consort and fatherless 
ofifspring of William Smith, who died April nth, 1799, aged forty 

Joseph Brittain was a shoemaker, and a man of prop- 
erty. He was the principal owner of the lot on which the 
State House is built. In January, 1792, he conveyed two 
and a quarter acres to the Commissioners of the State for 
the nominal price of five shillings, and in February, of the 
same year, three-quarters of an acre for sixty-seven pounds 
and ten shillings. ^^ Mr. Brittain was a member of this 
church from 1809 to 181 3, when his connection ceased in 
consequence of his having embraced doctrines too much at 
variance with those of our communion for his comfortable 

Samuel Henry-^ was a large owner of real estate in 
Trenton and elsewhere. He devised to his children exten- 
sive tracts in Nottingham, and Trenton, including "the old 
iron-works," and in Pennsylvania. His children (men- 
tioned individually as son or daughter of "Mary Ogilbee") 
were George, Samuel, Frances, and Mary. He left a prop- 
erty in Trenton to Mary Yard, daughter of William Yard, 
on condition of her keeping it as a comfortable home for 
his children during their minority; making special refer- 
ence to the vacations of his sons when they should be stu- 
dents at Princeton College. Their names, however, are not 
on the Catalogue. Mr. Henry had a brother Alexander in 
Ireland, whose son Arthur H. is prominent as the first 
legatee in his will, but is disposed of with five shillings. He 


left a contingent legacy of three hundred pounds "to the 
Trustees or managers of the English Church in Trenton, 
for the maintenance and support of an orthodox minister." 
In the yard of that church are the tombstones of Samuel 
Henry, January 9, 1795, twenty-four years ; Samuel Henry, 
May 10, 1784, sixty-seven years; George Henry, October 
23, 1846, seventy-six years. The wives of George Henry 
and Aaron D. Woodruff, Attorney-General, were sisters — 
Mary and Grace, daughters of Thomas Lowrey.^'^ There 
is a fourth stone in the group, marked Mrs. Mary Henry, 
January 23, 1804; twenty-nine years. There died in 
Bloomisbury, January 5, 1832, "Katy Willis, a native of 
Africa, aged one hundred and twelve years. She was for- 
merly a domestic in the family of Samuel Henry, Sen., of 

Hugh Run yon, or Runyan, built one of the few good 
houses now standing in Lamberton, lately of the estate of 
John E. Smith, probably included in fifty acres in Notting- 
ham township, which Runyon conveyed to Elijah Bond in 
1777. He removed tO' Kingwood, and died there. I have 
seen a deed of 1799, in which he conveyed land to his son, 
Daniel C. Rtinyon, of Nottingham. 

Stephen LowrEy married Sarah, daughter of the Rev. 
Mr. Spencer. He had been a merchant in Maryland, but 
after his marriage in Trenton resided there, and for some 
time, at least, at the parsonage ; as there are advertisements 
of "Stephen Lowrey, at the Rev. Mr. Spencer's," offering 
"the highest price for loan office bills on the Commissioners 
in, France." He appears also to have been connected with 
the Commissariat Department in the Revolution; as in 
November, 1779, he offered a reward of a thousand dol- 
lars (Continental currency) for nine barrels of flour stolen 
from "the Continental store-house at Trenton." Mrs. 
Lowrey's grave is next to that of her father. Elsewhere in 


the church-yard is a stone marked Thomas Lowery, Jr., 
March 11, 1803; age, thirty-one. 

Of this sort was the congregation tO' which Mr. Spencer 
came to minister. At a time when neither the EpiscopaHans 
nor Presbyterians were strong enough to maintain pastors 
for the exclusive service of their town churches, a number 
were accustomed to hold pews in both, that they might have 
the opportunity of worship in one or the other place every 
Lord's day. There seems to have been no difficulty even 
in holding offices alternately in both. Of the subscribers 
to the agreement when Mr. Spencer was called, the names 
of Pidgeon, Bond, Coxe, Hooper, Cottnam, How, Decow, 
Singer, Witt, Clunn and Adams are to be found among the 
Wardens and Vestrymen of St. Michael's between 1755 and 
1783. From July 7, 1776, to January 4, 1783. that church 
was not opened at all for divine services. ^^ 


Dr. Spencer's Ministry — Revolutionary 
Incidents in Trenton. 


In the year 1773 there appears to have been a rearrange- 
mient of the pew-holding, probably in consequence of some 
addition to the number of pews. A meeting of the congre- 
gation took place on the seventeenth of May, "for regulat- 
ing and granting seats and pews in the mieeting-house." 
Certain pews — from one to twenty- four — are directed to 
be "numbered," and they are "rated," from £1 los. in the 
gallery, to £3 10^. below. It was ordered that 

"Every person, or persons, entitled to a pew by original purchase or 
grant, be continued in their right, on his or their paying their annual 
subscription or rate, in proportion to the size of the pew such person 
maj' possess ; not under forty shillings, nor exceeding three pounds 
ten shillings." ''William Patterson made application for one-half of 
any pew below stairs.'' "James Peak applied for one-half of Mr. 
Pidgeon's pew in the gallery ; in case Mr. Pidgeon should give it up, 
he would give fifteen shillings per annum for the half." 

There is no record to show when, if at all, Mr. Spencer 
was installed in Trenton. At his reception by the Presby- 
tery, in 1 77 1, it was without the mention of any particular 
charge. One cause that prevented this may have been the 
confusion and uncertainty arising out of the state of public 
affairs in colonies approaching a revolution. His patriotic 
spirit may have forethought that he should be called, if not 
like his co-Presbyter, Witherspoon, tO' the public councils, 
3^et to a return to his chaplaincy in the army. In 1775 such 



an oppcrtunity of serving both his country and Church 
was presented, and it originated in the impressions made 
during his missionary visit to North Carolina.^ In Decem- 
ber of that year a special meeting of the Presbytery was 
summoned at Princeton, to hear an appHcation from him. 
He then stated that in consequence of a resolution of Con- 
gress, he had been invited by the delegates of North Caro- 
lina to take a journey thither, "and preach and converse for 
some time among those people, as their case is extremely 
critical." Dr. Witherspoon was Moderator of the meeting,' 
and the minute is that "the Presbytery most cheerfully 
acquiesce with the motion, and appoint Mr. Spencer to 
comply with the request; and appoint supplies for his sev- 
eral congregations during his absence ; and ordered that 
the Moderator furnish Mr. Spencer with proper testimoni- 
als to the churches of Christ in North Carolina." 

In the Journal of the Continental Congress, of December 
20, 1775, is this minute: 

"Resolved, That orders be drawn on the Treasurers, in favor of the 
Rev. Mr. Elihu Spencer and the Rev. Mr. Alexander Macwhorter, 
who have undertaken to go to North Carolina, for the sum of one 
hundred and twenty dollars each, being three months' advance, they 
to be accountable." 

The late Mrs. Biddle, of Carlisle, Pennsylvania, a daugh- 
ter of Dr. Spencer, who' survived him until 1858, gave to 
me in 1841 the following memiorandum^ of this mission: 

"In the beginning of the Revolutionary contest my father and Dr. 
Macwhorter, of Newark, were appointed by Congress to visit the 
more remote parts of Virginia, Georgia, North and South Carolina, for 
the purpose of informing the settlers there, who were at the time 
exceedingly ignorant, of the cause of the Revolution and the necessity 
of standing forth in defense of their right and country. This circum- 
stance made my father very obnoxious to the British, who suffered 
his library with all the writings of his whole life to be burnt and 
entirely destroyed." 


A daughter of Mrs. Biddle has since written to me that 
she has frequently heard her mother relate the incidents of 
that period, and their serious consequences to the zealous 
advocate of Independence, after his return to Trenton, 
which was soon in the centre of warfare. His interference 
was considered rebellion, and the authorities of the royal 
government offered a reward of a hundred guineas for his 

"This was known," says my correspondent, "to the American officers, 
and one of them (I think General Mercer) sent a messenger to him 
in the night to say that the British army were near, and that he must 
fly for his life. My mother was about nine years old, and recollects 
perfectly the panic and flight in the middle of the night. They went 
to St. George's, in Delaware, where they were treated with the utmost 
kindness and affection. My grandfather preached there until it was 
safe to return to Trenton. On the return of the family they found 
their furniture, books, and papers destroyed, and the house itself so 
much injured that it was scarcely habitable. My mother has often 
told me that her father was so discouraged by the loss of his papers, 
that from that time he never wrote another sermon ; preaching merely 
from short notes."^ 

In 1 78 1 the Legislature of N'ew Jersey appointed Com- 
missioners toi "procure an estimate of the damages sus- 
tained by the inhabitants of this State from the waste and 
spoil committed by the troops in the service of the enemy, 
or their adherents." Peter Gordoin, Sidney Berry, and 
Joseph Phillips were the Commissioners for Hunterdon 
county. From their report we can ascertain minutely the 
loss suffered by Dr. Spencer, and also that oi the Church 
corporation. In the return of the fo^rmer are given, "five 
hundred and twenty-four panel fence, four rails with post ;" 
"one hundred and sixty-seven panel of red cedar post and 
rail-fence, good as new;" agricultural implements, wheat in 
the stalk and in the ground, cattle, furniture, maps, clothing, 
china, glass, three spinning-wheels, provisions ; "stable 
totally destroyed." To this inventory Dr. Spencer adds : 



"A large chest and barrel of books, packed close, but the particular 
volumes I can not remember or fully recollect. Among them were all 
the school-books and classics in Greek and Latin; a large collection of 
Hebrew books, French dictionary, grammar, and Bible, and several 
other books in French ; Pool's Annotations on the Bible, Bates' Works 
in large folio, Willard's Works, with his Body of Divinity ; six large 
volumes of Caryl upon Job ; Pope's, Swift's, and Addison's Works ; 
Mr. Edwards's Works, of Northampton, with a number of mathe- 
matical and philosophical books ; Dr. Witherspoon's Works, a good 
many of Wall's Works, several volumes of Doddridge's Works, be- 
sides his Family Expositor, and a great number of volumes on different 
subjects, which I can not recollect. The estimate of these books I 
leave to the discretion of the Commissioners, not being able to give a 
more particular account, but beg leave to say, I have always estimated 
the loss of the hbrary to be one hundred pounds at the least." 

His affidavit was made September 6, 1783. Putting 
the books at eighty pounds, the total of the Commissioners' 
appraisement was ^£387 lys. gd. 

The parsonage was used by the Hessians for an hospital. 
The communion plate was plundered. The particulars of 
the lo'ss sustained are given as follows: 

"An inventory of damages done to the Presbyterian Church in Tren- 
ton, and public property destroyed by the enemy in December, 1776: 

"303 feet of board fence three feet high, 45 round posts and 

rails, which was round the burying-ground, £6 00 

1 1 panel post and 4 rail fence, i 20 

140 panes glass, 4 i 8 

Large gates, hooks, and hinges, i 100 

A silk damask curtain and hangings, 12 00 

A silver can with two handles, and large plate, 20 00 

Damages done to the parsonage house whilst an Hessian hos- 
pital, (app'd by Miss Axford,) 19 50 

1400 feet of boards stript oif the stable, 5 50 

310 feet board fence, five feet high, 40 posts and rails, round 

the parsonage garden, 6164 

2 large front gates, hooks, and hinges, i 00 

I well-curb, bucket, and chain, i 10 

I table-cloth and about ten yards diaper, 2 00 

i8o 10 o 


"Alexander Chambers being duly sworn, deposes and says, that the 
within inventory is just and true, to the best of his knowledge, and that 
no pay or compensation hath been received for the same or any part 

"In behalf of the congregation, 

"Alexander Chambers, Trustee." 

"Sworn this seventh day of September, 1782. 

"Jos. Phillips." 

On the second January, 1777, Cornvvallis entered Tren- 
ton. One of the members of our Presbytery was a victim 
to the barbarity of the troops under his command. This 
was the Rev. John Rosborough, pastor of Allentown, Penn- 
sylvania, who was received as a candidate May 22d, 1762; 
licensed a probationer, August 16, 1763, and ordained 
December 11, 1764. He was Moderator of the Presby- 
tery in 1776. According to the report made to Synod, he 
was "barbarously murdered by the enemy at Trenton on 
January second." In a letter tO' Richard Henry Lee, of 
January 14, Dr. Rush wrote : "The savages [Hessians] 
murdered a clergyman, a chaplain to a battalion of militia, 
in cold blood, at Trenton, after he had surrendered himself 
and begged for mercy. His name was Rosborough."* It 
ought, however, to be mentioned that before he was com- 
missioned as chaplain, Mr. Rosborough had united with his 
neighbors in forming a company to recruit Washington's 
forces on their retreat through New Jersey, and from a 
sentence in a letter to his wife, a few days before his cap- 
ture, it seems probable that he was even then "riding with 
a French fusee slung at his back."^ 

The particulars of the outrage are given by Dr. Sprague 
as follows: 

"Mr. Rosborough proceeded with his company to Trenton; and, as 
he was going towards the river in search of his horse, he was met by 
a company of Hessians under British command. He immediately gave 
himself up as a prisoner, but begged, for the sake of his wife and chil- 

* Memoirs of R. H. Ivee, voL ii. i6s. 


dren, that they would spare his life. He quickly found, however, that 
his request was to be denied, and that the bloody deed was to be per- 
formed without delay. He instantly knelt down, and, in imitation of 
his blessed Master, prayed for the forgiveness of his murderers, and 
scarcely had this prayer passed from his lips before a deadly weapon 
pierced his body, and he lay struggling in death. They then took his 
watch, and part of his clothing, and left him weltering in his blood. 
The wretched creature who had committed the act, or had had a prin- 
cipal part in it, went immediately after, with the fury of a madman, 
into one of the hotels in Trenton, and profanely boasted to the woman 
who kept it, that he had killed a rebel minister, and showed her his 
watch ; but he added that it was too bad he should have been praying 
for them when they were murdering him. A young man by the name 
of John Hayes, of Mr. Rosborough's congregation, took charge of the 
corpse, and buried it the next day in an obscure place in Trenton. 
The Rev. George Duffield, of Philadelphia, having heard of the sad 
event, took measures to have the body removed to the churchyard for 
its final interment."* 

Mr. (afterwards Dr.) Duffield, mentioned in this extract, 
was one O'f the chaplains oi the First Congress. He would 
occasio'nally leave his congregation for a short time to serve 
as a missionaiy toi the troops when they were within easy 
reach. It was probably during such an errand as this that 
he became acquainted with Mr. Rosborough's death ; for, 
according to the annalist just quoted : 

"He was with the army in their battles and retreat through Jerse}^ 
and was almost the very last man that crossed the bridge over the 
stream immediately south of Trenton, before it was cut down by order 
of the American General. For this preservation he was indebted to a 
Quaker friend, whom he had essentially aided in his hour of trial — 
though of politics opposed to his own — and whose deliverance he had 
been the means of securing. The British officers had put a price 
upon his head, and were particularly anxious to destroy him, because 
of the influence he exerted among the soldiers of the American army. 
After the retreat from Princeton, he had retired to a private house in 
Trenton to seek repose, and was not aware that the American army 
had taken up their line of march, and had nearly all crossed the 
bridge, until his Quaker friend sought him out and gave him the 
alarm, just in time for him to escape, before the bridge was destroyed 
by the retreating army of Washington."* 

* Annals, vol. iii. 254. I am sorry to say that there is no trace of the chap- 
lain's grave in our grounds. 


From the blanks in the minutes of the Trustees, it ap- 
pears that there was no meeting of the Board in 1776. In 
that eventful year the Presbytery held five sessions : at 
Bound Brook in April, at Philadelphia (during Synod) in 
May, at Princeton in June (tO' receive Mr, Armstrong as a 
candidate), at Amwell in July, at Basking Ridge in Octo- 
ber. The State was the seat of war. In the beginning oi 
December, Washington and a large body of troops were at 
Trenton. Later in the month a brigade of three Hessian 
regiments, one of them^ Colonel Rahl's, was stationed here. 
The Colonel kept the town in commotion, even before he 
thought of being attacked, 

"The cannon," said one of his lieutenants in his journal, "must be 
drawn forth every day from their proper places, and paraded about the 
town seemingly only to make a stir and uproar. There was a church 
[the Episcopal] close by his quarters, surrounded by palings ; the officer 
on guard must march round and round it, with his men and musicians, 
looking like a Catholic procession, wanting only the cross, and the 
banners, and chaunting choristers. The hautboys — he could never have 
enough of them,"* 

On the twenty-sixth was the famous battle. Rahl was 
carried mortally wounded to his quarters in Warren street^ 
— the residence of Stacy Potts. ^ 

The journal of his Lieutenant, as translated in Mr. Irv- 
ing's work, says: 

"He died on the following evening, and lies buried in this place 
which he has rendered so famous, in the graveyard of the Presby- 
terian Church. Sleep well ! dear commander ! The Americans will 
hereafter set up a stone above thy grave with this inscription : 

"Hier liegt der Oberst Rahl, 
Mit ihm ist alles all!" 

"Here lies Colonel Rahl; all is over wath him." The 
Americans have delayed the fulfillment of the prediction 
until it has become impossible to identify the "hier" for 
the epitaph. 

* Irving's Life of Washington, ch. xliii. 


The first mention of celebrating" the anniversary of the 
battle of Trenton which I have found is in 1806, December 
26, when the Trenton Light Infantry had a parade and a 
dinner, and in the evening the Rev. Mr. Stamford preached 
in the Baptist Church, from the text, "I was free-born." 
The observance afterwards degenerated intoi an annual 

Mr. Spencer was present at the election of Trustees of 
the congreg-ation, September 2, 1777, "at the house of Mr. 
John Chambers." He attended the sessions of Synod and 
Presbytery in Philadelphia, May, 1776, and of Presbytery, 
at Amiwell, July 31, on which day he presided and preached 
at the ordination of Mr. Warford, and his installment over 
the contgregation of Amiwell. In April, 1782, this minute is 
found : 

"The Presbytery thinks it proper here to note that the trouble 
occasioned by the war has been the general reason why the members 
of Presbytery have attended with so little punctuality for a number 
of years past — this State having been either the seat of war, or con- 
tiguous to it, since the year 1776." 

To the ravages of war is probably owing the order of 
the Trustees in August, 1780, that "a subscription be opened 
in town and country for repairing the parsonage house, 
which at present is in a ruinous condition." A committee 
of 1792, tOi search for missing records, reported "that none 
were to be found, and that there is much reason to believe 
that those minutes were lost during the late Revolution 
among the papers of Dr. Spencer and Mr. Halsey." And 
in their reply, through the Rev. Mr. Armstrong, to the 
requisition of the General Assembly for historical materials, 
the Presbytery of April, 1793, report: "They labor under 
peculiar difficulties, in this respect, from the extent of the 
ravages of the enemy in the State of New Jersey during 
the late war. The minutes of the Presbytery have been 
lost with the papers of the late Dr. Spencer, down to a late 
date." As early as 1779, Mr. Spencer himself, 


"As Standing Clerk, is requested to collect all the papers belonging 
to this Presbytery, from the several members or others in whose 
hands they may have been heretofore deposited ; to be complied with 
by our next Presbytery." 

Nine years after Spencer's death, 

"Mr. Woodhull informed the Presbytery that the old minutes, [prior 
to 1771,] so long searched for in vain, were known to be in the posses- 
sion of Mr. Warford, of the Presbytery of Albany, and it was ordered 
that Mr. Woodhull take suitable measures to procure them," (Sep- 
tember 18, 1793). 

As a further illustration of the hazards of ecclesiastical 
records of the times, and a probable explanation of the 
fate of many documents of the Trenton congregation, I 
produce the substance of an affidavit presented to the New 
Jersey Legislature, in February, 1777, by Samuel Tucker, 
who was both a Trustee and Clerk of the Board. As 
Treasurer of the State he had a large amount of the paper 
currency, and other valuable public property in his custody. 
Hearing that the British army, under Howe, was likely 
to pass through Trenton, he removed his effects to the 
house of John Abbott, five miles off. Howe arrived in 
Trenton December 8, 1776, and next day Lieutenant-Col- 
onel Abercrombie sent Lieutenant Hackshaw with a detach- 
ment to Abbott's under the guidance of one Mary Pointing, 
where they captured Tucker's property and carried it to 
New Brunswick. On the 14th of December, Tucker, on 
his way to Trenton, was met near Crosswicks by a party 
of horsemen, who took him prisoner, and detained him until 
a protection was obtained from the Hessian Colonel Rahl. 
He lost all the papers, public and private, which were thus 
removed. This statement of Tucker's was the cause of a 
controversy between him and Governor Livingston (who 
wrote under the signature of "Scipio") in the Nezv Jersey 
Gazette of 1784. 

I suppose they were our pastor and trustee whose names 
occur in the diary of John Adams, September 19, 1777, 


when Congress were withdrawing from Philadelphia on 
the approach of the enemy. He says : "We rode to Tren- 
ton, where we dined. Drank tea at Mr. Spencer's ; lodged 
at Mr. S. Tucker's, at his kind invitation." 

The journal of the next day may have its local interest 
for some of my readers : 

"20th. Breakfasted at Mrs. J. B. Smith's. The old gentleman, his 
son Thomas, the loan officer, were here, and Mrs. Smith's little son 
and two daughters. An elegant breakfast we had, of fine Hyson, 
loaf-sugar, and coflfee, etc. Dined at Williams's the sign of the Green 
Tree; drank tea with Mr. Thomson [Charles Thomson?] and his lady 
at Mrs. Jackson's; walked with Mr. Duane to General Dickinson's 
house, and took a look at his farm and gardens, and his green-house, 
which is a scene of desolation; the floor of the green-house is dug 
up by the Hessians in search for money. Slept again at Tucker's." 

Mr. Adams's first sight of Trenton was in August, 1774, 
when his diary records : 

"Rode to Trenton [from Princeton, where he heard Dr. Wither- 
spoon preach] to breakfast. At Williams's, the tavern at Trenton ferry, 
we saw four very large black walnut trees, standing in a row behind 
the house.^ The town of Trenton is a pretty village. It appears to 
be the largest town we have seen in the Jerseys. We then crossed 
the ferry over the Delaware river to the province of Pennsylvania."* 

In the Presbytery of August, 1776, a singular complaint 
was presented against Mr. Spencer, arising out of his visit 
to North Carolina. Mr. John Debow, who had just been 
called to Eno and Hawfields, submitted a letter from the 
Presbytery of Orange, in North Carolina, complaining that 
Mr. Spencer had baptized a child of the Rev. Mr. Lisle, a 
minister from Scotland, who, without joining the Pres- 
bytery, was preaching in some of their vacant congrega- 
tions and gathering a new parish out of them. The minutes 
proceed to narrate that: 

"After diligent inquiry of Mr. Debow, concerning what he knew of 
the life and conversation of Mr. Lisle, and having received all the 
light he was able to give them, the Presbytery judge that Mr. Lisle 


hath a right to Church privileges, and that Mr. Spencer, in baptizing 
his child, has done no more than what the laws of charity and church- 
fellowship required of him, and that the complaint against him is 
without foundation." 

The States were divided into three military departments. 
The middle department comprised New York, New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, the lower counties on the Delaware (now 
the State of Delaware), and Maryland. In October, 1776, 
William Shippen, Jr., was directed to provide and superin- 
tend an hospital for the army in New Jersey, and on Octo- 
ber, 20, 1777, 

"Congress proceeded to the election of a chaplain for the hospital 
in the middle department, and the ballots being taken, the Rev. Elihu 
Spencer was elected." 

In May, 1780, Mr. Spencer was afflicted by the death of 
his daughter, Mrs. Sarah Lowrey, in her twenty-fifth year. 
She was buried from her father's house. She was one of 
the ladies of Trenton who sympathized in the measures 
which originated in Pennsylvania for the relief of the 
suffering troops by raising contributions to add to their 
slender wages. Active measures were taken here on the 
fourth of July of that year, to effect this object. A gen- 
eral committee was then appointed, composed of Mrs. 
Coxe, Mrs. Dickinson, Mrs. Furman, and Miss Cadwalader, 
and another committee for each county. That for Hunter- 
don consisted of "Mrs. Vice-President Stevens, Mrs. 
Judge Smith, Mrs. Charles Coxe, Mrs. R. Stevens, Mrs. 
Hanna, Mrs. T. Lowrey, Mrs. J. Sexton, Mrs. B. Vancleve, 
Mrs. Colonel Berry, Mrs. Doctor Burnet." Mrs. Moore 
Furman was Treasurer, and Miss Mary Dagworthy, Secre- 
tary. A letter is preserved in Washington's correspond- 
ence, from Miss Dagworthy, dated at Trenton, July 17, 
1780, which transmitted to the Chief the sum of $15,488 — 
allowing for the depreciated currency, actually about $390.* 

* Sparks's Writings of Washington, vol. vii. 90. 


C1.0SE OF Dr. Spencer's Ministry — His Death. 

1780— 1784. 

Throughout the years of Mr. Spencer's ministry in 
Trenton he was a prominent member of the different 
church-courts, and often served as Moderator, Clerk, 
Treasurer, and Committee man. When the Synod (1769) 
regarded the College of New Jersey so much of a church 
institution as to divide themselves into committees for col- 
lecting donations from all parts of their territory, Mr. 
Spencer and Mr. McDowell, had Chester and parts of 
Lancaster county, in Pennsylvania, assigned to them. In 
1770 and the five consecutive years Spencer was a delegate 
from the Synod to the Congregational and Presbyterian 
Convention, which met alternately in Connecticut and New 
Jersey. He was frequently called to take part in collect- 
ing and disbursing the Students' Fund, and Widows' Fund, 
and was an official visitor of Mr. Brainerd's Indian School. 
In the absence of the Moderator he opened the Synod of 
1782 with a sermon. His name then appears for the first 
time with the title of Doctor of Divinity, which degree was 
given him by the University of Pennsylvania, in March, 
1782, at the same time with the Rev. William White, who 
was afterwards so distinguished as a Bishop of the Protes- 
tant Episcopal Church.^ 

In 1782 Dr. Spencer was associated with Dr. Wither- 
spoon and Joseph Montgomery, in a committee "tO' prepare 
an address to the Minister of France, congratulating him 
on the birth of a Dauphin, son and heir to the crown of his 
royal Master; expressing the pleasure the Synod feel on 



this happy event. "^ The last office assigned to him by the 
Synod was in 1784, the year of his death, when he was made 
one of the committee of conference and correspondence with 
the Synod of the Reformed Dutch Church. 

There being' extant no record of the proceedings of the 
Session during Dr. Spencer's ministry, nor any registry of 
the communicants of that period, it is not in my power to 
furnish such statistics as might show the progress of the 
three churches in those relations. The minutes of the Trus- 
tees have been preserved, but are meager in their details. 
The following persons were members of the Board during 
Dr. Spencer's incumbency : 

Charles Clark, Obadiah Howell, 

Alexander Chambers, Daniel Clark, 

Abraham Hunt, Joseph Tindal, 

Joseph Reed, Jr., Nathaniel Furman.^ 

Samuel Tucker, Moore Furman. 

These Trustees served for the country and town congre- 
gations, but not for Maidenhead. Their meetings were held 
in town, and either at the church or parsonage. Mr. Cham- 
bers was uniformly chosen Treasurer, Mr. Tucker, Clerk, 
and Mr. S^pencer, President, until May, 1783, when he ceased 
to be a Trustee, and Mr. Chambers was both President 
and Treasurer. The proceedings were not of much greater 
importance than to build "a shed between the parsonage- 
house and the stable, out of the six pounds rent put at in- 
terest ;" "to repair the roof O'f the stable," "to rent out and 
agree for the several pews that at this time are vacant, and 
get the two long seats made into four small pews, and rent 
them out also ;" to order "that all the pews shall pay the 
annual assessment as they may be stated — not under forty 
shillings per annum the smallest." 

The heirs of Daniel Howell and Joseph Green claimed a 
right to the pews "built by their ancestors, without being 


liable to pay the annual assessment;" on this question the 
yeas and nays were called at two different meetings, and 
both times the claim was refused by the casting vote of the 
President. The salary accounts of the two churches were 
separate: "Ordered, that the Treasurer do pay the Rev. 
Mr. Spencer fifty-five shillings towards the deficiency of 
his salary for last year for Trenton, and fifteen shillings 
towards the salary for the last year for the old meeting- 
house." There were "collectors" for each house. 
On the sixth of June, 1781, it was resolved, 

"To petition the Legislature to confirm by law the charter granted 
by Governor Belcher ; a memorial was accordingly drawn and signed 
by the President and all the Trustees. The President being desired, 
readily agreed to wait on the Legislature, and took with him the 
original charter to lay before them." 

On the twenty-fifth March, 1782, 

"The President informed the Board that agreeably to the order of 
this Board, of the sixth of June, 1781, he waited on the Legislature, 
and took with him the original charter, which he has since returned 
to the Clerk, which was laid before the Board this day, and that the 
Legislature told him they did not think proper to take the same into 
their consideration at present." 

I do not find any note of this application in the Journals 
of either branch of the Legislature. On the seventh June, 
1 78 1, an act incorporating the Second Presbyterian Church 
of Newark, which had passed the Assembly, was brought 
into the Council, and after a second reading, was postponed 
until the next sitting; immediately after which it was "Or- 
dered that Mr. Frelinghuysen and Mr. Caldwell be a com- 
mittee to prepare and bring in a bill upon a general plan 
for incorporating religious societies." On the next day, a 
petition from the Baptist Church of Pittsgrove, Salem 
county, was read, "praying a law to^ incorporate them as 
well as all other religious societies," which was referred to 


yesterday's commiittee. The general law was not passed 
until March i6, 1786, when it was adopted under the title 
of "an act to incorporate certain persons as trustees in every 
religious society or congregation in this State, for transact- 
ing the temporal concerns thereof." 

As the Treasurer was directed in 1771 to fund and loan 
any sums that might come into his hands, it looks as if there 
were occasionally some receipts beyond the pew-rents, of 
which there was certainly no surplus for investment. Sev- 
eral small legacies were realized besides those already men- 
tioned. By the will of Jethro Yard, proved February 16, 
1 761, seven pounds were left "to the Presbyterian Congre- 
gation of Trenton, to be paid to the overseers of the poor 
of said town." In 1780, John Howell, one of the executors 
of his brother Daniel, gave notice that the testator had given 
twenty pounds for the use of the congregation.'* 

Dr. Spencer's name is usually found in connection with 
such patriotic demonstrations of his times as were consistent 
with his profession. When the surrender of Cornwallis was 
celebrated in Trenton, October 27, 1781, the Governor, 
Council, Assembly, and citizens, went in procession to the 
Presbyterian Church, where Dr. Spencer delivered a dis- 
course. On the fifteenth April, 1783, similar ceremonies 
were observed upon the conclusion of peace with Great 
Britain. The Governor, Vice-President of the State, Mem- 
bers of the Legislature, Judges, and other public officers 
met at Williams's hotel ; the trustees, teachers, and students 
O'f the Academy joined them there, and proceeded to the 
Court-house, where the Governor's proclamation of the 
cessation of hostilities was read. At noon divine service 
was attended, when a discourse was delivered by Dr. Spen- 
cer. Public dinners followed at Witt's, Williams's and 
Cape's hotels. A few days afterwards, when the Governor 
(Livingston) was about tO' leave the capital for his resi- 
dence at Elizabethtown, Dr. Spencer's name was at the head 


of a committee of citizens who presented him a valedictory 

Dr. Spencer preached at the opening of Presbytery at 
Freehold, October 21, 1783. He was present in that court 
for the last time, in Pennington, June 15, 1784, when he was 
appointed to preach at the ordination and installment of 
Mr. William Boyd, at Bedminster, on the nineteenth 
October. This proved to be within a few weeks of his de- 
cease, but his failure to take the part assigned to him was 
not owing to his final illness, for that was an inflammatory 
fever of a few days' continuance. He died December 27, 
1784, in the full support of the Christian hope. His re- 
mains lie on the western side of the church yard under a 
tomb inscribed as follows : 

"Beneath this stone lies the body of the Rev. Elihu SpEncer, D.D., 
Pastor of the Presbyterian Church in Trenton, and one of the Trus- 
tees of the College of New Jersey, who departed this life on the 
twenty-seventh of December, 1784, in the sixty-fourth year of his age. 

"Possessed of fine genius, of great vivacity, of eminent and active 
piety, his merits as a minister and as a man stand above the reach of 

"Having long edified the Church by his talents and example, and 
finished his course with joy, he fell asleep full of faith, and waiting 
for the hope of all saints. 

"Mrs. Joanna Spencer, 

^'Relict of the above, died November ist, 1791, aged sixty-three years. 
"From her many virtues she lived beloved and died lamented. The 
cheerful patience with which she bore a painful and tedious disease 
threw a lustre on the last scenes of her life, and evinces that with true 
piety death loses its terrors." 

The late Dr. Miller declares that the eulogy of Spencer's 
epitaph is not exaggerated : 

"His piety was ardent, his manners polished, attractive, and full of 
■engaging vivacity ; his public spirit and activity in doing good inde- 
fatigable, and his character as a preacher singularly prompt, popular, 
and impressive. To all this may be added that in the various relations 
of life he was peculiarly amiable, exemplary, and beloved." 


The venerable father who wrote these sentences was con- 
nected by miarriag-e with Dr. Spencer's family; for the 
widow of Dr. Miller is the granddaughter of Dr. Spencer, 
by the marriage of the Hon. Jonathan Dickinson Sergeant 
to Margaret Spencer. The late Hon. John Sergeant, the 
Hon. Thomas Sergeant, and the late Elihu Spencer Ser- 
geant, Esq., of Philadelphia, were children of the same 
marriage. Dr. Spencer's ancestors came from England to 
Massachusetts early in the seventeenth century. Of the 
five brothers whO' established the family there, one was a 
forefather of the late Chief Justice Ambrose Spencer, of 
New York; from another brother was descended, in the 
seventh generation, the late Rev. Ichabod Smith Spencer, 
D.D., of Brooklyn; and General Joseph Spencer, whose 
name often occurs in the Revolutionary history, was an 
elder brother of our pastor. 

Dr. Spencer bequeathed to his five surviving daughters, 
and the children of a deceased one, three thousand acres 
of land in Saltash, Vermont,^ and to his son, John Eaton, 
one thousand acres in Woodstock, Vermont. There still 
remains in the possession of his descendants a lot of ground 
in the city of Trenton, which has in the lapse of time be- 
come more valuable than all the Vermont acres. 


Governor William Livingston resided three years in Trenton, and 
was, undoubtedly, a regular attendant on Dr. Spencer's ministry. His 
previous life had brought him into prominence as an ecclesiastical con- 
trovertist. His ancestors were of the Dutch Church in New York, but 
the Governor had early united with the party which, for the sake of 
having English preaching, had merged into the Presbyterians. The 
dispute, which arose in 1751, between the adherents of the Church of 
England and the other churches in reference, at first, to the claims 
of the former to have the College (then King's now Columbia,) which 
was founded in that year, under their control, was warmly espoused by 
Mr. Livingston in defense of those who were threatened with exclu- 


sion. He wrote largely and vehemently for his side in "The Inde- 
pendent Reflector" and "The Watch-tower." He entered into the sub- 
sequent controversy on the attempt to establish the English episcopacy 
in America, and in 1768 published a letter to the Bishop of Llandaff, 
which was reprinted in London. His opposition, it should be noted, 
was not to the liberty of any church, but to the proposal to establish 
a particular denomination in the Colonies, as in England, Mr. Liv- 
ingston must have departed from his habits in those days, if he were 
not punctual in his pew at Trenton; for, according to his biographer: 

"Actively engaged during the week, in discharging the duties of a 
laborious profession, [the law,] or in an angry warfare in defense of 
his civil and religious rights, three times on every Sabbath, surrounded 
by his numerous family, he went up to that church, [Wall Street,] 
formerly contemned and oppressed, but for which his exertions had 
procured respect ; of which he was one of the brightest ornaments and 
chief supports."* 

In his first address to the Legislature, as Governor, (September 13, 
1776,) Mr. Livingston had used the expression, "setting our faces like 
a Hint against that dissoluteness of manners and political corruption 
which will ever be the reproach of any people." From this phrase and 
the religious tone of the whole passage, the Governor was for some 
time nicknamed "Doctor FHnt." This gave rise to an amusing con- 
tretemps at a dinner-table in New York, when Fisher Ames, addressing 
Livingston, said unconsciously : "Doctor Flint, is the town of Trenton 
well or ill-disposed to the new Constitution ?"t 


In December, 1783, died David Cowell, M,.D., who has been men- 
tioned in a previous chapter as a student in Princeton College at the 
time of the death of his uncle, the pastor, who bequeathed him an 
annuity of twenty pounds for three years. Upon his graduation, in 
1763, he studied medicine in Philadelphia, took his degree and came 
to Trenton, where he practiced until his death. For two years he 
was senior physician and surgeon in military hospitals. Dr. Cowell 
undertook to draft an outline of his will while suffering under an 
attack of quinsy, and within a few hours of its fatal termination. 
Unable to articulate, he hastened to make a rough outline of his inten- 
tions, which he doubtless hoped to have had put into form by another 
hand ; but he was compelled, by the force of the disease, to have the 
paper copied in the incomplete terms in which he had drawn it. It 
began: "I, Doctor David Cowell, being of sound judgment, but not 
able to talk much." One of the first items was, "my negro man, Adam,, 

* Sedgwick's Memoir of Livingston, chap. iv. 
t Sedgwick, chap. vii. 

12 PRES 


and the whole afifair to the Presbyterian Congregation." In equally 
brief and informal phrases stood a hundred pounds to "the Grammar 
School in Trenton" — the same amount to the College of New Jersey, 
and "to the Congress of the United States of America, one hundred 
pounds, if they settle themselves at Eamberton." He appointed Major 
William Trent one of his executors, and made John Trent, probably 
a son of the Major, his residuary legatee. As he drew towards the 
close of his painful task he throws in a hurried remark: "Had not I 
been on many public matters, it's likely I should had a more particular 
will before this time." By the time the copy was ready for his signa- 
ture, he must have felt unable to write, for it was subscribed by his 
"mark." But having the pen in hand, he seems to have made a last 
effort, and having made the customary cross between his Christian 
and surname, scribbled the incoherent or illegible sentence : "But 
I believe I am not quite so clear to me as my own D. C. our connection 
is now dissolved." Ebenezer Cowell, Jr., entered a caveat against the 
probate of the will, but after taking evidence, the Surrogate admitted 
it. The documents of the Trustees do not discover whether the legacy 
of the negro became available. "The whole affair" appended to it was 
probably a law-point; for in the New Jersey Gazette of 1780, there are 
inserted, first, an advertisement by Dr. Cowell, of a negro man to be 
sold, or exchanged for a boy; and immediately under it, another, cau- 
tioning all persons against making any such purchase or exchange, as 
the man was entitled to his freedom, and ending with an expression 
of his hope for 

"That freedom, justice, and protection which I am entitled to by the 
laws of the State, although I am a negro. 


These missives are followed by the Doctor, with a denial of Adam's 
averment; and this by a rejoinder in Adam's name, which in turn is 
answered by Cowell, who alleges that the negro is acting under the 
instigation of two very respectable citizens, whom he names. 

The New Jersey Gazette of the week announces Dr. Cowell's death 
as having taken place early in the morning of December 18, 1783, and 
his burial on the following day, in the Presbyterian church-yard, at- 
tended by the "Trustees, tutors, and students of the Academy in pro- 
cession, and a verj' large concourse of respectable inhabitants." An ad- 
dress was made at the grave by the Rev. Dr. Spencer. After men- 
tioning the legacy to the Government, the Gazette adds : "The above 
is the first legacy we recollect to have been given to the United States, 
and is respectable for a person of moderate fortune." In the same 
paper Dr. John Cowell advertises that he has been prevailed upon by 
the friends of his deceased brother to establish himself in Trenton as 
a physician. But he had a short time, as his gravestone marks his 
death "January 30, 1789, in the thirtieth year of his age."^ 


The Rev. James Francis Armstrong — Previous 
History and SetteEment. 


Dr. Spencer's successor in the Trenton churches was the 
Rev. James Francis Armstrong", and the history of his 
pastorate will be introduced by a sketch of his previous life. 

Mr. Armstrongs was bom in West Nottingham, Mary- 
land, April 3, 1750. His father, Francis Armstrong, was 
an elder of the church in that place. Part oi his education 
was received at Pequea, but his chief training was at the 
celebrated school founded by the Rev. Samuel Blair, at 
Fag-g's Manor, or New Londonderry, Chester county, Penn- 
sylvania, where President Davies, Dr. Rodgers, and Dr. 
Finley had preceded him as pupils. When Mr. Armstrong' 
was in the school it was under the Rev. John Blair, a 
younger brother of its fo'Under, afterwards chosen as Vice- 
President and Professor of Theology in Princeton College. 

In the autumn of 1771, Armstrong entered the junior 
class at Princeton, and had the advantage of residing- in 
the family of President Witherspoon. Several of his class- 
mates are now known from the public stations they were 
called to fill; such as Governor Henry Lee, of Virginia, 
Governor Morgan Lewis, of New York, Governor Aaron 
Ogden, of New Jersey, President Dunlap, of Jefferson 
College, President Macknight, of Dickinson, President John 
Blair Smith, of Hampden Sidney and Union, and President 
William Graham of Liberty Hall (Washington College), 
Virginia. Aaron Burr, the unworthy son of the Princeton 



President, was one of his contemporaries in college. Mr. 
Armstrong himself had the ministry in view when he en- 
tered college, and accordingly, upon his graduation in the 
autumn o£ 1773, he commenced a theological course under 
Dr. Witherspoon. On the sixth Jim,e, 1776, he was recog- 
nized by the Presbytery of New Brunswick as a candidate 
for the ministry. It was. not easy at that period of Ameri- 
can history for Presbyteries to assemble in full number, and 
the only members present at this meeting, which was held 
in Princeton, were President Witherspoon, Rev, Williami 
Tennent, Rev. Elihu Spencer, and Mr. Baldwin, an elder 
of the Princeton Church. The subject assigned for Mr. 
Armstrong's exegesis was, "De veritate Christiance relig- 
ionis," and i Timothy 1:15 the text for a sermon. On the 
first of the following August, at Amwell, those exercises 
were heard and sustained. His trials were continued at 
Basking Ridge in October, when he passed the examination 
on scholarship and theolo'gy, and was directed to prepare a 
sermon on Romans 12: 2, to be delivered at the next meet- 
ing, which was appointed to' be held in Shrewsbury, in 
December.^ But great events happened between the June 
and the December of 1776. According to' the minutes, the 
"appointment could not be fulfilled, as the enemy were on 
their march through, this State." Another minute of the 
same session (April 23, 1777) postpones the prosecution 
of a plan for the education of poor and pious youth, on 
account of "the great difficulties of the times, arising from 
the ravages of the British army within our bounds." In 
consequence of this confusion, the regularity of Mr. Arm- 
strong's progress as a candidate was interrupted, and acting 
upon the best advice, he was transferred to another Presby- 
tery, in the manner stated as follows: 

"The Presbytery [of New Brunswick] is informed by one of the 
members present, that in November last, about the time that the 
British army made an irruption into New Jersey, Dr. Witherspoon 


gave Mr. Armstrong a letter of introduction to the Presbytery of 
Newcastle, informing them of the progress he had made in his trials, 
and of the difficulties in the way of the Presbytery's meeting to receive 
his popular sermon in December last, according to appointment ; in 
consequence of which letter the Presbytery of Newcastle admitted 
him to finish his trials before them, and licensed him to preach as a 
candidate for the Gospel ministry." 

He received his license as a probationer in January, 

Even before that date (which was the month of the battle 
of Princeton) the war had approached so near the region of 
his residence, that Mr. Armstrong thought it to be his duty 
to unite with its armed defenders, and took a musket in a 
company of volunteers commanded by Peter Gordon, Esq., 
afterwards an elder with him in the session of the Trenton 
Church.^ This was, probably, only for an emergency; but 
he felt that his patriotic ardor could be indulged in a better 
consistency with his duties as a Christian minister, by serv- 
ing as a chaplain in the American army. With that view 
the Newcastle Presbytery admitted him to' ordination in 
January, 1778. When this was reported tO' the Synod in 
May, the higher court hesitated about approving an ordina- 
tion which appeared to be sine titulo, that is, before his be- 
ing called to some particular charge. The misapprehension 
arose from the absence of the official records; upon the 
production of which, in May, 1779 (when Mr. Armstrong 
took his seat), the Synod made this minute : 

"By the report now made by the Newcastle Presbytery, it appears 
that there was a mistake in the report of last year respecting Mr. 
Armstrong's ordination; that he was not ordained sine titulo, but in 
consequence of his having accepted a chaplaincy in the army."* 

The Newcastle records, as furnished me by their obliging 
clerk, the Rev. Mr. Dubois, are as follows: 

"December 2, 1777, Mr. James Armstrong, a probationer of this 
Presbytery, being chosen chaplain for General Sullivan's brigade or 


division, applied for ordination to the work of the Gospel ministry, 
having produced a certificate of his moral conduct from General Sulli- 
van. The Presbytery, after examining Mr. Armstrong at some length 
upon experimental and systematic divinity, were satisfied with his 
answers, and having had a good report of his labors, appointed Mr. 
Armstrong to deliver a discourse at our next meeting, with a view 
to his ordination." 

The ordination took place at Pequea, the place cf his 
early education, January 14, 1778, and the official record 
of it gives these particulars: 

"Mr. Armstrong having accepted the Westminster Confession of 
Faith and Catechisms, as received in our Church, as the confession 
of his faith, and the Directory for Discipline, Worship, and Govern- 
ment as the plan for substance constituted by Christ; and given satis- 
factory answers respecting his views in entering upon the Gospel 
ministry, and to other questions, the Presbytery conclude that we have 
clearness to set him apart to the work of the ministry. And, accord- 
ingly, after a sermon preached, suitable to the occasion, by the Rev. 
Mr. Robert Smith, he was solemnly set apart to the Gospel ministry, 
with fasting, prayer, and imposition of hands. The charge was given 
by the Rev. Mr. Foster, and Mr. Armstrong now becomes a member 
of Presbytery, and having received the right-hand of fellowship, takes 
his seat." 

In consequence of the unsettled life into which he was 
thrown by the duties of the chaplaincy, and by other inci- 
dents of the state of the country, it was not in Mr. Arm- 
strong-'s power to maintain the punctual correspondence with 
his Presbytery, required of all its members. In 1784 offi- 
cial inquiry was made of him on this account, and his rea- 
sons were received as satisfactory. He retained his connec- 
tion with the Newcastle Presbytery until his dismission to 
that of New Brunswick, April 26, 1786. 

The minute of his appointment appears in the Journal 
of Congress, of July 17, 1778: 

"In consequence of a recommendation, resolved, that the Rev. James 
Francis Armstrong be appointed chaplain of the Second Brigade, of 
Maryland forces."" 


Before receiving his commission he had accompanied the 
troops on the Southern campaign, and probably remained 
in the service until the decisive victory of Yorktown, O'cto- 
ber, 1 78 1. During this period Mr. Armstrong communi- 
cated to the New Jersey delegates in Congress his observa- 
tions of current events, and from a few of those addressed 
to the Hon. Wm. Churchill Houston, I introduce some 
passages, showing at once a glowing and intelligent interest 
in the cause of his country, and a strong abhorrence of the 
evils of the most justifiable war.^ 

"Wilcock's Iron Works, Deep River, North Carolina, July 8, 1780. 
We have marched five hundred miles from Philadelphia, ignorant as 
the Hottentot of the situation or numbers of the enemy. Though it 
was long known that we were marching to the assistance of the South, 
not the least provision was made to hasten or encourage our march. 
Wagons to transport the baggage, and provisions to subsist the troops, 
have both been wanting. We have for some time depended upon the 
precarious and cruel practice of impressing horses from post to post. 
We have also been driven to the disagreeable alternative of permitting 
the men to murmur and languish for the want of meat, or seizing 
cattle on the march ; not knowing whose property they were unless 
the owners came to camp to complain of the injury. Horrid war I 
Heaven's greatest curse to mankind ! We are told things will grow 
better, the further we proceed south ; but the hope must be pre- 
cariously founded which depends upon the complaisance of Gen. Lord 
Cornwallis. I would not write such plain truths, did you not know 
that I am not given to despondency; and I have the same providence 
to call forth my hopes, which exerted itself so miraculously when. 
Howe was in New Jersey." 

"River Peedee, Masque's Ferry, August 3, 1780. What the troops,, 
officers, as well as privates have suffered is beyond description. The 
corporal of Gen. Gist's guard has returned for the second time to-day 
from the commissary's without being able to draw any provisions, and 
declares to me that for seven days they have only drawn two days' 
beef, but not a particle of meal or flour. The eye of the most rigid 
justice must wink at plunder in such circumstances; and such is the 
scarcity which reigns upon the Peedee, that provisions cannot be ob- 
tained even by unjustifiable methods. Apples have been the only 
support of the troops for several days at a time. Indeed I thought 
it impossible for human nature to have subsisted so long as I have 
known it to do upon green fruit. Fortunately green corn has sue- 


ceeded apples, but, without some less precarious and more substantial 
supplies, the effect must be dreadful. The hopes of final success never 
forsake me for a moment, but everything discouraging dwells around 
our little army. We have not much, I believe, to fear from the enemy, 
but troops must be more or less than men who can long endure what 
we now suffer." 

He wrote as follows of the panic then prevailing" in the 
Southern States, and the injury done to the American 
cause by the conduct of the militia : 

*'The march of Howe through Jersey spread not half the terror 
which has been inspired by our defeats at the South. Those who 
escaped spread universal terror. All was conquered, ruined, undone! 
Even the dominion of Virginia must fall ! And, by the by, had Clinton 
entered it with his army, they must have made a temporary submission, 
at least until our army could have marched to their assistance. We 
scarcely meet a man who has not taken the oath of allegiance to his 
majesty of Britain, or given his parole that he would be neuter, and 
give himself up a prisoner when called upon. The common people 
of the Carolinas are not to blame. Looking upon every thing as 
lost, what could they do? The appearance of an army with lenity 
would, in a short time, have called all such to the American standard, 
were they not prevented by the militia, who take them prisoners, use 
them unmercifully, plunder and destroy their effects, and leave their 
helpless women and children in the utmost distress; so that many of 
them have left their families and carried off their negroes and cattle, 
some to the enemy and some to escape the route of our army. We 
have passed whole neighborhoods deserted by the inhabitants, and the 
few who remain trembling alive from the horrid accounts which have 
been spread of our army as a number of banditti, plundering all before 
them, and hanging forty or fifty at a time of those who had taken the 
oath to the King: though false, very laughable." 

A letter dated at Hillsborough, the headquarters of the 
army, October i6, 1780, is resumed after a few lines, on 
the thirty-first of the same month. The explanation of 
the interval fixes the beginning of the disorder which 
afflicted Mr. Armstrong during the remainder of his life: 

"The blank between the dates has been filled up with the most 
violent pains through my bones. To what species they belong, I can 
find no one wise enough to inform me. They have at times been so 


violent, that insensibility by the use of opium has been my only 
resource for rest. They seem to be pretty well removed, but an 
attempt to ride on horseback has once or twice brought them back 
again, which makes me unwilling to renew the experiment until their 
light flying parties completely take themselves off." 

"I am highly delighted," he remarks to his correspondent, 
*'with your sentiments on universal liberty. They have 
long been mine. I was instructed in them before I could 

The last letter of the campaign which is extant, is dated 
at Charlotte, December 8, 1780, when Gen. Greene had just 
taken the chief command. In it he says : 

"There is not a single department of our army which has, for some 
time past, maintained the least regularity, unless we are permitted to 
call it regular confusion. Think then what must be the situation of 
our present Commander-in-Chief, with few regulars, and those in 
such circumstances as often to stagger my faith whether desertion be 
a crime, especially in a person of no more refined sentiments than a 
soldier of the common level, and with militia whose conduct has been 
one cause of our common disasters. The want of provision, which 
lays the foundation for the distressing necessity of permitting the 
troops often to cater for themselves, has prostrated every idea of 
discipline, and given the reins to the most licentious conduct. An 
unremitting supply of food alone can restrain, and in time correct our 
dangerous manners. General Greene has already taken measures 
which promise everything. The heads of the Roanoke, Dan, Catawba, 
and the Rocky river, which have hitherto been considered as useless in 
the creation, are to transport our provisions from Virginia." 

"I have made an observation since I came South which I did 
not advert to before. The inhabitants of a State necessary for its 
defense in time of war, or even on a sudden invasion, must treble 
or quadruple the number immediately necessary for the field. With- 
out establishing this proportion, when those necessary to cultivate the 
land, the timorous, the disaffected, and delinquents of all orders, 
whom it is out of the power of government to bring to the field, are 
laid aside, no country can defend itself. This appears to me to be 
the condition of Virginia and North Carolina, unless the blacks are 
called in to their assistance. I really pity the gentlemen of Virginia, 
of enlarged and liberal minds. They are as good theoretic politicians 
as any on the continent; but when they meet in Assembly and make 
the best laws in the world for the defense of a State, there are not 
white subjects sufficient in the State for the laws to operate upon."^ 


We find Mr, Armstrong returned to New Jersey in 1782, 
as in the June of that year he began to supply the church 
of Elizabethtown, made vacant by the assassination of the 
Rev. James Caldwell. In the month of August he was 
married, by Dr. Witherspoon, to Susannah Livingston, a 
daughter of Robert James Livingston, whose widow, Mrs. 
Armstrong's mother, was residing at Princeton for the 
education of her sons, three of whomi, William Smith, Peter 
R., and Maturin, graduated at that college. Mr. Arm- 
strong's service at Elizabethtown was terminated in 1783, 
by an illness which required him to suspend his labors. 

Upon Dr. Spencer's death in Trenton, in December, 
1784, Mr. Armstrong preached his funeral sermon, and 
afterwards frequently supplied the vacant pulpit. At a 
meeting of the Trustees, October 17, 1785, they "agreed to 
present a call to the Presbytery at Pennington, to-morrow 
for the Rev. Mr. Armstrong to settle in this congregation, 
and appointed Mr. Benjamin Smith [one of the elders] 
to present the call to the Presbytery." It is probable 
that there had been a previous election by the congre- 
gation, at which the Trustees were empowered to take the 
regular steps for effecting the call. The minutes of the 
meeting at Pennington were never recorded. When the 
Presbytery met in Trenton,^ April 25, 1786, Mr. Armstrong 
being present as a corresponding member, it is recorded : 

"On the call oflfered to the Rev. Mr. Armstrong at the last meeting 
of Presbytery, Mr. A. informed the Presbytery that several steps have 
been taken towards obtaining his dismission from the Presbjiiery of 
Newcastle, and preparing the way for his settlement in the congre- 
gation of Trenton; and that he hoped soon to give his final answer." 

On the day he made this statement the Newcastle Pres- 
bytery complied with his request, and on the seventeenth 
October, his name appears among the members of the New 
Brunswick Presbytery, without any preceding record of his 
formal reception. The question of the call being up: 


"Mr. Armstrong being not yet prepared to accept this call from the 
congregation of Trenton, requested longer time to consider the matter, 
which was granted." 

The impediment seems to have been indefiniteness as to 
the salary. Mr. Armstrong was, however, considered so 
far committed to the congregation that as early as Feb- 
ruary 14, 1786, his name appears in their minutes as present 
as "the minister," who, according to the charter, was united 
with "the elders and deacons" in the election of Trustees.^ 
It was not until April 26, 1787, that, 

"The congregation of Trenton having informed Presbytery of the 
sum annexed to their call, presented to Mr. Armstrong some time ago, 
and having given written obligation for his support, Mr. Armstrong 
accepted of their call." 

There is no record of the installation. 

From the earliest date of his residence here, the church 
was open for the commiemoration of the national anni- 
versary, and other acknowledgments of the divine provi- 
dence in public affairs. In the Gazette of July, 1786, it is 
published that on the fourth instant the inhabitants at 
eleven o'clock attended the Presbyterian Church, where 
they heard "an animated address by the Rev. Mr. Arm- 
strong; after which they met at the house of Mr. Drake, 
partook of a cold collation, and retired to their several em- 

In August, 1786, a subscription of one hundred pounds 
was directed to be undertaken for the repairing of the par- 
sonage for the new pastor.^^ Two thirds of the sum were 
assessed on the town church, and the other third on the 
country church, and in this proportion the two divisions of 
the congregation were to receive the Sabbath services of 
their minister. The salary was two hundred pounds, pay- 
able in the same ratio. In April, 1787, "the old house con- 
gregation" informed the Board of Trustees that they could 


not raise their third of the salary for only a third of the 
pastor's time; whereupon the town congregation offered to 
pay one hundred and fifty pounds salary, and have the ex- 
clusive services of the minister. In the following October 
a motion was made in the Board, 

"By Mr. William Burroughs, Mr. John Howell, and Mr. Ebenezer 
Rose, for a separation; and that we join with the country part to give 
up the present charter, and endeavor to get each a separate charter, 
and divide the property belonging to the present congregation; which 
was postponed for further consideration." 

When the Board met, March 12, 1788, 

"The gentlemen of the country part of the congregation agree to 
give their answer on Wednesday next, the nineteenth instant, what 
they can and will do with the town part." 

On that day, it being reported to the Board that "fifty 
pounds can not be raised in the country part of the congre- 
gation belonging tO' the Old House," a new modification was 
suggested, namely, that "the congregation of Trenton" 
should pay the pastor one hundred dollars yearly for one- 
half of his time, and consent "that he may dispose of the 
other half between Maidenhead and the Old House, as he 
and they may agree." 

By an Act of March 16, 1786, the Legislature of New 
Jersey changed the law of corporations (which had hitherto 
required a special application for each new charter) so that 
any Christian society, numbering at least thirty families, 
upon the election of trustees, and their qualification by oath, 
and the filing of a certificate to that effect with the County 
Clerk, should, by that process, be admitted to be fully in- 
corporated. The town part of the Trenton congregation 
soon took advantage of this provision to obtain a charter 
to supersede that of George H. ; and for which they had 
ineffectually applied to the Legislature of 1781, through Dr. 
Spencer. The congregation met May 4, 1788; "having 


previously agreed to admit and receive the inhabitants of 
Lamberton, and those between that and Trenton, who may 
at any time join said congregation, as entitled to all the 
rights and privileges of their Act of Incorporation ;" and 
elected as their Trustees, Alexander Chambers, Samuel 
Tucker, Abraham Hunt, Moore Furman, Isaac Smith, Ber- 
nard Hanlon, and Hugh Runyon. The corporate title as- 
sumed was, "The Trustees of the Presbyterian Church of 
Trenton." The device adopted for the seal (1790) was an 
open Bible with a burning lamp suspended over it, and the 
motto, "Light to my path." Around the edge is, "Pres- 
byterian Church of Trenton." 

In September, 1788, "The Board of Trustees from the 
country" met with the town Board, for the purpose of an 
equitable division of the bonds and other securities of the 
old corporation ; and in April, 1790, the town church bought 
the third of the parsonage of their late co-partners for one 
hundred pounds. ^^ 

On the twenty-third April, 1790, the congregation were 
called together in reference to a proposal f romi the Maiden- 
head church ; the result of which is seen in the proceedings 
of the Presbytery of the twenty-eighth April: 

"A call from the congregation of Maidenhead, in due form, signed 
by their Trustees, stipulating the payment of one hundred pounds in 
gold or silver, in half-yearly payments, for half of the ministerial 
labors of the Rev. James P. Armstrong, accompanied with a certifi- 
cate from the congregation of Trenton, of their willingness that he 
should accept of it, was laid before Presbytery, and the Presbytery 
having presented the said call to Mr. Armstrong, he declared his 
acceptance thereof." 

This arrangement continued until 1806; the pastor resid- 
ing in Trenton and giving his attendance on the Lord's day 
alternately at the two churches. In assenting to the plan, 
the Trenton people stipulated for "the privilege of present- 
ing a call at some future time to Mr. Armstrong for the 


whole of his labor, if Providence should continue him in 
this part of his vineyard." 


In August, 1785, the Trenton Gazette announced the death of 
"EeenEzer ErskinE, nephew to the late Robert Erskine." He died 
"at the seat of Robert Lettis Hooper, near Trenton, and was interred 
in the Presbyterian ground." In his will, made in his last illness, he 
describes himself as "late of the city of Glasgow, in Scotland." 
"Being weak in his hand, he had not strength to write his Christian 
name," but after a legacy to a poor boy at the Iron Works in New- 
foundland, Morris county, he bequeathed his property to his sister, 
Nancy Erskine, of Edinburgh. Mr. Hooper and Samuel W. Stockton 
were his executors. 

The will of the uncle, Robert Erskine, is somewhat of an autobiog- 
raphy. It was made in New York, Ringwood, and Philadelphia in 
1776-9, and proved at Gloucester, N. J., November 21, 1780. It begins : 
"I, Robert Erskine, son of the Rev. Ralph Erskine, author of the 
Gospel Sonnets, etc., by the providence of God at present in America 
for the purpose of directing, conducting, and taking charge of several 
Iron Works, and other lands and property belonging to gentlemen in 
England, who style themselves the Proprietors of the New York and 
New Jersey Iron Works." It further transpires through his will, that 
the testator, having sunk his patrimony in his London trade, became 
a surveyor and engineer, and was the author of several inventions, 
especially of a centrifugal engine, of the success of which he was so 
sanguine as to leave detailed directions how his widow should share 
the profits with his old creditors. Mr. Hooper was connected with 
these Iron Works. Advertisements in 1782-3, signed by him, in be- 
half of "the American Ringwood Company," in Bergen county, refer 
to Ebenezer Erskine as on the premises at Ringwood, and to Robert 
Erskine as "the late agent for said company."" 

In the Trenton Gazette of October 18, 1780, is this notice: "Died 
the second instant, at his house at Ringwood, Robert ErskinE, E.R.S., 
and Geographer to the Army of the United States, in the forty-sixth 
year of his age." Some of the military maps in Mr. Irving's Life of 
Washington give credit for their origin to Mr. Erskine's manuscripts, 
which are now in the possession of the New York Historical Society. 

The memoir prefixed to the two great folios of the Glasgow edition 
(1764) of the Rev. Ralph Erskine's Works, opens thus: "The Rev. 
Mr. Henry Erskine, the author's father, was amongst the younger 
of the thirty-three children of Ralph Erskine, of Shielfield." The 
celebrated sonnetteer had three sons in the ministry : "his only son now 


in life is Robert, a merchant in London," who died in New Jersey, as 
stated above. Lord Campbell (himself a son of the celebrated Pres- 
byterian divine, Dr. George Campbell, of Aberdeen), in his Life of 
Lord Chancellor Erskine, says : "The Earl's [Buchan, the Chancel- 
lor's father] great-grandfather had suffered in the Covenanting cause 
in the preceding century; and those pious men, Ralph and Ebenezer 
Erskine, who had recently seceded from the establishment, and whose 
sentiments have been adopted and acted upon by the Free Church of 
Scotland, were his 'far-away cousins.' " (Lives of the Lord Chancel- 
lors, chap, clxxvi.) 


The General Assembly — New Constitution 
oE THE Church — Notes. 

1785— 1790. 

Mr. Armstrong was active, both in Synod and Presby- 
tery, in the measures which resulted in the formation of 
the General Assembly. 

In the year 1785 the Synod of New York and Philadel- 
phia was the Supreme Judicatory or Court of our whole 
Church in the United States. It comprised fourteen Pres- 
byteries ; namiely, Suffolk, Dutchess, New York, New Bruns- 
wick. First Philadelphia, Second Philadelphia, Newcastle, 
Donegal, Lewes or Leweston, Hanover, Abington, Orange, 
Redstone and South Carolina. Every minister and one 
ruling elder from each session were then, as now, entitled 
to seats in the Synod ; but the list shows how distant were 
the extremies of its bounds, and the roll of that year's session 
in the central city of Philadephia shows how this distance 
prevented a full representation ; for on the first day there 
were thirty ministers present and sixty-eight absent, not 
counting six entire Presbyteries without a single commis- 
sioner. There were only six elders ; and during the session 
no more than twelve of both orders dropped in. The over- 
ture was therefore timely which was then presented, pro- 
posing a division of the existing Synod into several, and 
the formation of a new delegated body, as a General Synod, 
Council or Assembly, out of the whole. The subject being 
deferred until the session of 1786, a resolution Avas in that 
year passed in favor of the overture, and a committee ap- 

13 PRES (193) 


pointed to report a plan of division. Their report recom- 
mended a new arrangement of the bounds of the Presby- 
teries and the formation of four Synods, to be subordinate 
to a General Assembly. The proposed alterations in the 
Presbyteries were adopted, and the remaining- suggestions 
postponed for another year. At the same session a com- 
miittee was raised to digest a system of govermnent and 
discipline, which was to be printed and distributed among 
the Presbyteries for their opinion.^ This pamphlet was 
introduced into the New Brunswick Presbytery April 25, 
17S7, when it was referred for examination to Dr. Wither- 
spoon and Mr. Armstrong, together with James Ewing, 
Esq., an elder of the Trenton Church, and Mr. Longstreet, 
an elder of the Princeton Church, to report in the next 
month; but the elders not attending the committee, the 
clerical members did not offer any report. On the seven- 
teenth May, 1787, the committee of Synod reported the 
draught of the governmient and discipline, and it was daily 
discussed by paragraphs until the twenty-eighth, when a 
thousand copies of the work, as amended, were ordered to 
be distributed before final action. The same committee 
were directed to revise the Westminster "Directory for 
Public Worship," and add it to the printed volume to be 
submitted to the judgment of the churches.^ 

The last meeting held by the Synod of New York and 
Philadelphia was opened in Philadelphia, May 21, 1788. Mr. 
Armstrong was clerk, and was one of a committee to select 
and publish the most important proceedings of the two 
closing sessions of the Synod, with certain statistics of the 
churches. On the twenty-third the draught of the new 
system came up for consideration, and on the twenty-sixth 
it was completed. On the twenty-eighth it was ratified and 
adopted as "the Constitution of the Presbyterian Church 
in America." A correct copy was ordered to be printed, 
together with the "Westminster Confession of Faith, as 
making a part of the Constitution." 


The Synod proceeded to consider the draught of the 
"Directory for the Worship of God," contained, Hke the 
basis of the parts already adopted, in the standard books 
of the Church of Scotland, and after revision this was 
adopted. The Westminster Larger and Shorter Catechisms 
were then sanctioned as they stood, excepting a slight 
amendment of the former on a point referring to civil 
government, and were ordered to be inserted in the same 
volume with the confession, form of government, and dis- 
cipline — ^the whole to be considered "as the standard of 
our doctrine, government, discipline and worship." 

Dr. Duffield, Mr. Armstrong and Mr. Ashbel Green^ 
were made the committee to superintend the publication of 
the whole work. Mr. Armstrong was also^ associated at 
this time with Dr. Witherspoon, Dr. S. S. Smith and others 
on a delegation to the convention, with corresponding dele- 
gates from; the Synods of the Associate Reformed and the 
Reformed Dutch Churches, which had been already hold- 
ing several conferences with a view to some systematic 
intercourse of those three Presbyterian bodies. 

On the twenty-ninth day of May the Synod was dissolved. 
It had then one hundred and seventy-seven ministers, eleven 
probationers, and four hundred and nineteen congregations. 
Fifteen ministers and twenty-six congregations were in 
the Presbytery of New Brunswick. 

By the new arrangement the Presbyteries of Dutchess, 
Suffolk, New York and New Brunswick constituted the 
"Synod of New York and New Jersey." It held its first 
meeting in New York, October 29, 1788, when Mr. Arm- 
strong was one of the clerks. The Synod taking "into con- 
sideration the distressed state of the people of the Presby- 
terian denomination on the frontiers," resolved to send 
missionaries among them the next summer, and appointed 
Dr. Macwhorter and Mr. Armstrong to spend three months 
in this service. For satisfactory reasons the first appoint- 


ment was not carried into effect, but for several sessions 
an annual delegation of missionaries was made. In 1794 
the Synod resolved to establish "a standing and continued 
mission on the frontiers of New York," and Mr. Arm- 
strong, who was the Moderator of that year, was by the 
house placed upon a committee to initiate it.* 

The three other Synods into which the parent body was 
divided were named Philadelphia, Virginia and the Caro- 
linas. "The General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church 
in the United States O'f America," which was the style given 
to the chief judicatory, was required to be composed of 
delegates from' each Presbytery, in proportion to their num- 
bers. The first Assembly met in the Second Church (Arch 
Street) of Philadelphia, on "the third Thursday of May" 
(twenty-first), 1789. 

The first ratio of represenitation in the General Assembly 
was one minister and one elder, where a Presbytery con- 
sisted of not more than six ministers; double the number 
where it consisted of more than six, but not more than 
twelve, and so on. New Brunswick, consisting of fifteen 
ministers, was entitled to three commissioners of each 
order, and their first representatives in the Assembly were 
Dr. Witherspoon, Dr. S. S. Smith, and Mr. Armstrong, 
with elders John Bayard of New Brunswick, John Carle 
of Baskingridge, and Nehemiah Dunham of Bethlehem. 

Mr. Armistrong's associations with the Presidents With- 
erspoon and S. Stanhope Smith were those of neighbors and 
strong personal friends. The names of the three constantly 
occur on the same committees of the ecclesiastical bodies of 
which they were fellow-members. The ancient custom of 
making a formal acknowledgment of the civil authority 
was continued, for some time after the Republic was 
founded; and in 1790 the three friends were part of a dele- 
gation of Presbytery to present a congratulatory address 
to Governor Paterson on his accession. In 1799 Smith, 


Hunter and Armstrong were appointed to report on a 
recommendation fromi the superior judicatories favoring 
the formation of societies to aid the civil magistrate in the 
suppression of vice. The next year a majority of the com- 
mittee reported adversely to the proposition, on the ground 
that the civil and religious institutions of our republic being 
totally separate, the best way left for ecclesiastical bodies 
and men to aid the laws is fidelity in pastoral duties and in 
strengthening moral and religious principles by the exten- 
sion of religious knowledge. Mr. Armstrong entered his 
dissent, not from the principles of the report, but because 
he regarded it as contravening the recommendations of 
Synod and Assembly. 

In the classical Academy which was founded by the 
^'Trenton School Company" in 1781, Mr. Armstrong took 
an active interest. In 1786 he furnished the trustees with 
a draught of laws for the government of the schools. In 
June, 1787, he was engaged, on a salary, to take the gen- 
eral superintendence of the Academy, giving direction to 
the studies and discipline, attending in person as occasion 
required, and employing a master. This plan was relin- 
quished in September, 1788, but resumed in March, 1789, 
and continued until his resignation in January, 1791. Upon 
his withdrawal the Trustees granted him the privilege of 
sending two of his children to the school ; and in the news- 
paper of January 6, 1797, is printed an oration delivered at 
a late public examination of the Academy by his son, 
Robert Livingston Armstrong. 



"The Trenton School Company" originated in a meeting of citizens, 
"held February 10, 1781. The original capital was seven hundred and 
twenty dollars, divided into thirty-six shares. Part of the lot still 
occupied by the Academy in Hanover (then Fourth) street was pur- 


chased, and a stone building erected, one story of which was occupied 
in 1782.° The next year it was enlarged, and the endowment increased. 
In 1785 it was incorporated, and in 1794 its funds were aided by a 
lottery. In 1800 the girls' school of the Academy was removed to the 
school-house belonging to the Presbyterian Church. The grammar- 
school attained a high reputation under a succession of able masters. 
The public quarterly examinations were usually closed with exercises 
in speaking in the church. The newspapers tell of the "crowded and 
polite audiences" which attended, usually including the Governor, 
Legislature, and distinguished strangers. Among the latter, in 1784, 
were the President of Congress, the Baron Steuben, and members of 
the Congress and Legislature. A full history of the Academy down to 
1847 may be found in ten successive numbers of the State Gazette of 
April and May of that year. 


. One of the most useful and worthy citizens of Trenton in this part 
of its annals was Isaac Collins, a member of the Society of Friends, 
and an enterprising printer. He came from Burlington to Trenton in 
1778, and resided here until his removal to New York in 1786. His 
wife, Rachel Budd, was great-granddaughter of Mahlon Stacy, the 
original proprietor of the land. Mr. Collins was one of the active 
founders of the Academy, and although nine of his children were 
pupils, he would not take advantage of his right as a stockholder to 
have them instructed without further charge. It is a remarkable fact 
in the history of his family of fourteen children, that after the death 
of one in infancy, there was no mortality for the space of fifty years. 
His eldest daughter (still surviving, 1859) was the wife of Stephen 
Grellet, whose singular career as a convert from the faith of Rome and. 
the position of body-guard of Louis XVI., to a devoted Quaker minister 
and missionary, has been commemorated in a printed discourse by Dr. 
Van Rensselaer. The first newspaper in this State, "the New Jersey 
Gazette," was issued by Mr. Collins at Burlington, December 5, 1777. 
It was then transferred to Trenton, and published there from February 
25, 1778, to November 27, 1786, (excepting a suspension of nearly five 
months in 1783,) when it was discontinued. Mr. Collins was the con- 
ductor as well as proprietor of the paper. Indeed the title of editor 
had not then superseded that of "the printer." 

Collins's paper was established to counteract the anti-republican 
tendency of Rivington's "Royal Gazette" in New York. Governor 
.Livingston was a correspondent of the Trenton Gazette as long as it 
remained in Collins's hands.'^ 

The publication of the entire Bible was, at that period, so adven- 
turous an undertaking for the American press that it was necessary 


to secure extraordinary encouragement in advance ; and the first 
edition of the Scriptures, that of John Aitkin, was recommended to 
the country by a resolution of Congress. This was on September 12, 
1782, just five years after the report of a committee on a memorial 
had stated that to import types and print and bind thirty thousand 
copies would cost £10,272 10s., and therefore recommended the im- 
portation of twenty thousand Bibles, which was adopted. 

In 1788 Isaac Collins issued proposals to print a quarto edition of 
the Bible in nine hundred and eighty-four pages, at the price of "four 
Spanish dollars, one dollar to be paid at the time of subscribing." The 
Synod of New York and New Jersey (Nov. 3, 1788,) earnestly recom- 
mended the undertaking, and appointed Dr. Witherspoon, President S. 
S. Smith, and Mr. Armstrong, to concur with committees of any other 
denominations, or of our own Synods, to revise the sheets, and, if 
necessary, to assist in selecting a standard edition. This committee 
was authorized to agree with Mr. Collins to append Ostervald's Notes, 
if not inconsistent with the wishes of other than Calvinistic subscribers. 
In 1789 the General Assembly appointed a committee of sixteen (on 
which was Mr. Armstrong) to lay Mr. Collins's proposals before their 
respective Presbyteries, and to recommend that subscriptions be 
solicited in each congregation, and report the number to the next 
Assembly. The recommendation was reiterated in 1790 and in 1791. 

Thus sustained, the quarto edition (five thousand copies) was pub- 
lished in 1791.^ Ostervald's "Practical Observations," which added 
one hundred and seventy pages of matter, were furnished to special 
subscribers. ColHns's Bible was so carefully revised that it is still a 
standard. Himself and his children read all the proofs; and it is 
stated in the Preface of a subsequent edition, after mentioning the 
names of several clergymen who assisted the publisher in 1791, "some 
of these persons, James F. Armstrong in particular, being near the 
press, assisted also in reading and correcting the proof-sheets." 

As an instance of the weight which the most incidental acts of the 
Assembly carried at that early period of its existence, I would allude 
to a letter to the Moderator of 1790 from the Rev. David Rice, often 
called the Presbyterian pioneer, or Apostle of Kentucky, in which he 
states that having received from Mr. Armstrong, as Clerk of the As- 
sembly, a notification of the action in reference to the Collins Bible, 
he had procured the calling of a special meeting of the Transylvania 
Presbytery, "that we might be in a capacity to obey the order of the 
General Assembly." "Such is our dispersed situation," that it was 
some weeks before the meeting could convene. "After two days' delib- 
eration on the subject," they found that a compliance was impracti- 
cable, and on Mr. Rice was devolved the office of explaining the cause 
of the delinquency. One of the difficulties was that of sending a mes- 
senger to Philadelphia in time for the Assembly, to carry the advanced 


subscription money; "the want of horses sufficient for so long a jour- 
ney, or of other necessaries, laid an effectual bar in our way."* 

There was a paper-mill in Trenton before the time of the publica- 
tion of Collins's Bible. In December, 1788, it was advertised by its 
proprietors, Stacy Potts and John Reynolds, as "now nearly com- 
pleted." The manufacturers issued earnest appeals for rags ; in one 
of their publications, presenting "to the consideration of those mothers 
who have children going to school, the present great scarcity of that 
useful article, without which their going to school would avail them 
but little." In January, 1789, "the Federal Post, or the Trenton Weekly 
Mercury," printed by Quequelle and Wilson, was obliged to have its 
size reduced "on account of the scarcity of demy printing-paper." 

Green and Hazard MSS. 


PuBuc Occasions in Tre:nton — Notes. 
1789 — 1806. 

The twenty-first of April, 1789, was a memorable day 
in the history of Trenton. On his journey from Mount 
Vernon to New York, for the purpose of being inaugurated 
as the first President of the United States, General Wash- 
ington rode through the town, and was received at the 
Assanpink bridge in the manner which has become too 
familiar to require repetition here.* In the procession of 
matrons who met the President, was the wife of Mr. Arm- 
strong; and one of "the white-robed choir" who sang the 
ode was their daughter, afterwards the wife of Chief Jus- 
tice Ewing. Washington's note acknowledging the compli- 
ment was first delivered to Mr. Armstrong, and read to a 
company of ladies at the house of Judge Smith. The auto- 
graph is now in possession of the family, who also preserve 
the relics of the arch or arbor under which the illustrious 
traveler was received.^ 

It was formerly required that the names of all persons 
duly proposed as candidates for Congress should be adver- 
tised by the authority of the Governor. In the list of 1792 
is the name of Mr. Armstrong, but from what nomination 
or whether with his consent, I have no information. 

On the seventeenth June, 1795, Mr. Armstrong preached 
in Basking Ridge, at the ordination of Robert Finley and 
Holloway W. Hunt, when the former was installed minister 
of that congregation.^ In August of that year we find Mr. 

* Marshall's Life of Washington, vol. v., ch. 3. Sparks's Writings of Washing- 
ton, vol. xii., p. 150. Irving's Washington, vol. iv., ch. 37. 



Armstrong taking a prominent part in a public meeting in 
reference to an expression of popular opinion on the recent 
treaty between the United States and Great Britain. There 
were, indeed, few objects of public interest, whether political 
or philanthropical, with which his name was not found con- 
nected.^ It even stands on the roll of the ''Union Fire Com- 
pany" (instituted February 8, 1747), which included the 
most respectable citizens among its working members. The 
few minutes that are extant (1785-94) show that the 
clergyman's membership was more than nominal.* 

When the "Trenton Library Company" was founded, in 
May, 1797, Mr. Armstrong was immediately among its- 
supporters and directors. The same interest was evinced 
by him in the "Christian Circulating Library," established 
by the excellent Daniel Fenton, in 181 1. 

The third General Assembly (1791) began to take meas- 
ures, through the Presbyteries, for collecting materials for 
a history of our Church in North America. The New 
Brunswick Presbytery directed each of its pastors to furnish 
the history of his own parish, and assigned that of the 
vacant congregations to committees. Mr. Armstrong was 
appointed the collector for Amwell. 

In 1792 Dr. Witherspoon and three others were ap- 
pointed to write the history of the Presbytery; in ApriL 
1793 (before the discovery of the old minutes), Mr. Arm- 
strong reported that, "either through inattention in the first 
ministers and congregations, or the loss of records during 
the war, no documents are to be found from which to fur- 
nish materials respecting the first formation of congrega- 
tions, or the early settlement of ministers." The order, 
however, was renewed, and the historical committee con- 
tinued. In I 801 — 

"The Presbyteries of New Brunswick and Ohio reported that, agree- 
ably to order, they had drawn up histories of their respective Pres- 
byteries, which were produced and laid on the table."° 


On the eleventh of May, 1794, Mr. Armstrong preached 
at the first opening of the new church at Flemington. In 
1797 he was on the Assembly's delegation to the General 
Association of Connecticut, which met at Windham, and 
again in 1806 to the same body at Wethersfield. 

The enthusiasm of the Revolutionary soldier and chaplain 
was never wanting on the public occasions which appealed 
to it. The New Jersey branch of the Society of the Cin- 
cinnati, of which Mr, Armstrong was a member (and for a 
time Secretary), usually made it a part of their celebration 
of the Fourth of July to hear the Declaration read at his 
Church, in connection with devotional services. On the 
anniversary of 1794, according to the Gazette of the week, 
that Society proceeded to the Church, 

"where an elegant and well-adapted discourse was delivered by the 
Rev. James F. Armstrong, in which the citizen, the soldier, and his 
brethren of the Cincinnati were addressed in a strain truly animated 
and pathetic, as the friends of freedom, of government, and of 

A fast-day was observed, by appointment of President 
Adams, in May, 1798, on account of the warlike aspect of 
our relations with the French Republic. The Trenton 
pastor appears to have aroused his audience on the occasion 
to a mode of response not common in our churches. Ac- 
cording to the newspaper report, the sermon, 

"while it deprecated the miseries of war, yet unequivocally showed 
that our existence and prosperity as a nation depended, under God, on 
the union of our citizens, and their full confidence in the measures 
adopted by our government ; to which all the congregation, rising with 
him, said, Amen !" 

A few months later there was a still more vociferous 
demonstration in the same place. I take the account of it 
from "The Federalist and New Jersey Gazette" of July 9, 


"We should do injustice to the Rev. Mr. Armstrong, orator of the 
day, [Fourth of July] were we to pass in silence the universal appro- 
bation with which was received his animated, patriotic, and elegant 
address, delivered before the Order of Cincinnati, and the most 
crowded audience we ever remember to have seen on any former 
occasion in this place. One circumstance demands our peculiar atten- 
tion: the orator, in closing his address, observed in substance, that as 
in defense of the American Revolution they had pledged their honors, 
their lives and fortunes, to defend the American cause, it might be 
expected that the Government would again solicit their aid to preserve 
and defend her from tributary vassalage ; and then called on his 
brethren of the Society again to join him in pledging their sacred 
honors, lives and fortunes to defend the government and laws of their 
country. With animated firmness and glow of patriotism the orator 
then pronounced, 7 resolve to live and die free;' to which the whole 
Society, as with one voice, made the response; and three animated 
cheers heightened the scene of sublimity and grandeur, far better to 
be conceived than expressed." 

It appears from another column that the Cincinnati re- 
peated the emphatic sentence after the orator, and that 
*'the whole military and audience" joined in the cheers, and 
afterwards in singing the chorus "Hail Columbia."'^ 

TwO' days after this celebration Mr. Armstrong, with 
Generals Dayton, Bloomfield, Beatty, and Giles, as a com- 
mittee of the Cincinnati, presented to President Adams, in 
Philadelphia, an address appropriate to the politics of the 

In 1799 and several subsequent years Mr. Armstrong's 
health was so much impaired that he was obliged to ask for 
supplies for his two pulpits. There were intervals in which 
he was able to officiate, but during the remainder of his life 
he suffered severely from the rheumatic disorder contracted 
during his service in the camp, and he was frequently de- 
prived of the free use of his limbs. Among those often ap- 
pointed in these emergencies were President Smith, Dr. John 
Woodhull, Geo. Spafford Woodhull, Robert Finley, Andrew 
Hunter, David Comfort, Samuel Snowden, Matthew L. Per- 
rine, Joseph Rue, John Hanna. In a written exhortation 


sent to the people during one of these illnesses, Mr. Arm- 
strong, after enumerating some of the reasons for their 
gratitude, said : 

"Added to this, if variety of faithful preaching is to be esteemed 
an advantage, you have enjoyed it in a signal degree. Though I am 
bold to say that no congregations were less neglected in the stated 
administrations of the Gospel ordinances while I was well, so also 
during the many years of sickness and inability to preach, you have 
enjoyed the abundant labors of love and of friendship of mj' brethren 
in the ministry, with all that variety of faithful preaching with which 
the best-informed mind or the most curious ear could wish to be 
indulged. Paul has planted — Apollos watered." 

The newspaper of Monday, Diecember 30, 1799, preserves 
another instance of a communication made by Mr. Arm- 
strong to the people on one of the Sabbaths in which he 
must have peculiarly lamented his inability to be in the 
pulpit : 

"The Rev. Mr. Hunter, who officiated yesterday for Mr. Armstrong,, 
after reading the President's proclamation respecting the general 
mourning for the death of General Washington, gave the intimation,, 
in substance as follows, by the particular request of Mr. Armstrong:* 

" 'Your pastor desires me to say on the present mournful occasion,, 
that while one sentiment — to mourn the death and honor the memory 
of General Washington — penetrates every breast, the proclamation 
which you have just heard read, he doubts not, will be duly attended 
to ; yet believing, as he does, that he but anticipates the wishes of 
those for whom the intimation is given, Mr. Armstrong requests the 
female part of his audience in the city of Trenton and Maidenhead, 
as a testimony of respect for, and condolence with Mrs. Washington, 
to wear for three months, during their attendance on divine service, 
such badges of mourning as their discretion may direct.' "^'* 

Mr. Armstrong's ill health now often interrupted his 
habitual punctuality at the church courts ; but he continued 
to take an active part in their work whenever present. He 
was one of a committee that endeavored in vain from 1803 
to 18 1 2, to obtain a charter of incorporation for the Pres- 
bytery — a measure that was desirable in consequence of two 


legacies (Miller's and Patterson's) that had been left to the 
Education Fund.^^ In 1805 he was appointed to receive 
from the Assembly's Committee of Missions the Presby- 
tery's share of certain books and tracts for distribution on 
the seaboard of the State, and in the counties of Sussex, 
Morris, and Hunterdon. In June, 1804, he preached at the 
installation of the Rev. Henry Kollock in Princeton, and in 
18 10 presided at the ordination and installation of the Rev. 
William C. Schenck in the same church. He sat as a Com- 
missioner in most of the General Assemblies from the first 
in 1789 to that of 181 5. In 1804 he was elected to the 
chair of Moderator, and, according- to rule, opened the 
sessions of the following year with a sermon. The text was 
John 14: 16. He also' preached the sermon at the opening 
of the Assembly of 1806, in consequence of the absence of 
Dr. Richards, the last Moderator. On that occasion his 
text was John 3 : 16, 17. 

Mr. Armstrong was elected a Trustee of the College of 
New Jersey in 1799, and Dr. Miller observed at his funeral 
that, "few of the members of that Board, as long as he en- 
joyed a tolerable share of health, were more punctual in 
their attendance on its meetings, or more ardent in their zeal 
for the interests of the institution." 



A public commemoration of the death of Washington was observed 
in Trenton on the fourteenth January, 1800. By invitation of the 
Governor and Mayor, with the Rev. Messrs. Hunter, Waddell, and 
Armstrong, on behalf of the citizens. President Smith delivered the 
oration, and it was published. The late Dr. Johnston, of Newburgh, 
who was then in college, relates in his Autobiography (edited by Dr. 
Carnahan, 1856) that a large number of students walked from Prince- 
ton to hear the oration. A procession was formed opposite the Epis- 
copal Church, from which a bier was carried, preceded by the clergy, 
and all passed to the State House, where the ceremonies were per- 


formed. At a certain stanza in one of the elegiac songs, "eight beau- 
tiful girls, of about ten years of age, dressed in white robes and black 
cashes, with baskets on their arms filled with sprigs of cypress, rose 
from behind the speaker's seat," and strewed the cypress on the mock 


Some idea of the appearance and condition of Trenton at the date 
of this chapter may be formed from the observations of passing trav- 

Brissot, the Girondist, who died by the guillotine in 1793, was here 
in 1788. "The taverns," he writes, "are much dearer on this road 
than in Massachusetts and Connecticut. I paid at Trenton for a dinner 
2s. 6d. money of Pennsylvania. We passed the ferry from Trenton 
at seven in the morning. The Delaware, which separates Pennsylvania 
from New Jersey, is a superb river. The prospect from the middle 
of the river is charming. On the right you see mills and manufac- 
tories; on the left two charming little towns which overlook the 
water. The borders of this river are still in their wild state. In the 
forests which cover them there are some enormous trees. There are 
likewise some houses, but they are not equal, in point of simple ele- 
gance, to those of Massachusetts."* 

In 1794 an English tourist says of our town: "The houses join 
each other, and form regular streets, very much like some of the 
-small towns in Devonshire. The town has a very good market, which 
is well supplied with butcher's meat, fish, and poultry. Many good 
shops are to be seen there, in general with seats on each side the 
entrance, and a step or two up into each house." The market prices 
on the day of this visit were, beef Sd., mutton 4d., veal 4d. "This 
was dearer than common on two accounts : the great quantity lately 
bought up for exportation upon taking off the embargo, and the As- 
sembly of the State being then sitting at Trenton. Land here sells, 
of the best kind, at about ten pounds [twenty-seven dollars] an 

The Duke de la Rochefoucault, about the same time, makes this 
entry in his journal: "About a quarter of a mile beyond Trenton is 
the passage over the Delaware by a ferry, which, though ten stage- 
coaches daily pass in it, is such that it would be reckoned a very bad 
ferry in Europe. On the farther side of the river the retrospect to 
Trenton is, in a considerable degree, pleasing. The ground between 
that town and the Delaware is smooth, sloping, decorated with the 
flowers and verdure of a fine meadow. In the environs of the town, 

* Nouveau Voyage dans les Etats-unis, fait en 1788. J. P. Brissot de Warville. 
i. 148. 

t Journal of an Excursion to the United States in the summer of 1794, by 
!Henry Wansey, F.A.S. A Wiltshire clothier. 


too, are a number of handsome villas which greatly enrich the land- 

The celebrated French naturalist, F. A. Michaux, son of A. Michaux, 
sent over by Louis XVI. for botanical research, passing in 1802, gives- 
us this paragraph : "Among the other small towns by the roadside, 
Trenton seemed worthy of attention. Its situation upon the Delaware, 
the beautiful tract of country that surrounds it, must render it a 
most delightful place of abode."^^ 

The situation of the town seems to have something that takes the 
French eye. In 1805 General Moreau established his residence on 
the opposite bank of the river, and Joseph Bonaparte was disap- 
pointed in the purchase of a site adjoining (now in) the town, before 
he settled a few miles below." It may have been the reputation of 
the river scenery that gave the hint to the wits of Salmagundi, in 
the journal of an imaginary traveler : "Trenton — built above the 
head of navigation, to encourage commerce — capital of the State — 
only wants a castle, a bay, a mountain, a sea, and a volcano, to bear a 
strong resemblance to the bay of Naples."* 

An Englishman found nothing to remark of Trenton in 1805, than 
an exemplification of what he calls the American "predilection for 
wearing boots." "At Trenton I was entertained with the sight of a 
company of journeymen tailors, at the work-board, all booted as if 
ready for mounting a horse. "f 

An Italian savant, crossing the State, takes time only to say : 
"Although Trentown is not very large, nor very populous, it is to be 
regarded as the capital, where the Council and the Assembly con- 


In the Trenton newspaper of July, 1799, is an advertisement by 
Mr. Armstrong, relative to a suit in the English courts, the latest 
report of the progress of which is given as follows in the London papers 
of May, 1856: 

Equity Court, London, May 7. 
Before Vice-Chancellor Kindersly. 


"About the middle of last century there lived in the north of Ireland 
a family of the name of Rutherford. Between the sons a quarrel 
arose, and the father, conceiving that the younger, Robert, was in. 

* Salmagundi, by Irving, Paulding, etc. 1807. 

t Travels in some parts of North America in 1804-6, by Robert Sutcliff. 

t Viaggio negli Stati Uniti, 1785-7. Da Luigi Castiglioni, Milan, 1790. 


fault, chastised him. Robert Rutherford thereupon quitted his father's 
house, and shortly afterwards enlisted in Ligonier's troop of Black 
Horse. After a time he came to England, but he soon quitted the 
Kingdom and settled at the village of Trenton, in the United States, 
where he opened a tavern, which he called 'The Ligonier or Black 
Horse.' In the course of his migrations he had married, and the year 
1770 found him settled at Trenton, at the 'Black Horse,' with a family 
consisting of one son and four daughters. About that period there 
one day drove up to the tavern, in a carriage and four, an English 
officer, by name Colonel Fortescue. Colonel Fortescue dined at the 
tavern, and after dinner had a conversation in private with one of 
Rutherford's daughters. Within two hours after this conversation 
Frances Mary Rutherford had, notwithstanding her sister's entreaties, 
quitted her father's house in company with Colonel Fortescue. With 
him she went to Paris, where after a few years he died, leaving her, it 
is supposed, a considerable sum of money. On his death she quitted 
Paris and came to England; and here she married a gentleman of 
considerable property, named Shard. In 1798 Mrs. Shard had a great 
desire to discover what had become of her father's family, whom she 
had quitted nearly thirty years previously, and through her confidential 
solicitor inquiries were made of Mr. Armstrong, the Presbyterian 
minister at Trenton. The inquiries were fruitless — her brother and 
all her sisters were dead ; it appeared hopeless to expect to find a 
Rutherford, and the matter was dropped.^° Mr. Shard died in the year 
1806, and in 1819 Mrs. Shard died a widow, childless and intestate. 
No next of kin appearing, the Crown took possession of the property. 
In 1823 an attempt was made to set up a document as the will of Mrs. 
Shard, but it was declared a forgery. In 1846 the present plaintiff 
made a claim to the property, setting up that claim through a Mrs. 
Davies, who was alleged to be first cousin of the deceased. It turned 
out that Mrs. Davies was not first cousin; but further evidence having 
been procured, the claim was again made, through the same Mrs. 
Davies, who was now alleged to be a second cousin of the deceased. 
The Vice-Chancellor now delivered judgment, and came to the con- 
clusion that as between the Crown and the claimant the latter made 
out a case. It was sufficiently proved that Mrs. Davies was a second 
cousin of the deceased Mrs. Shard ; but as it did not follow that 
there might not be a still nearer relative than the claimant in existence, 
and as the evidence on this latter point was not conclusive, the matter 
must go back to chambers for further inquiries." 


Public morals were in such a low state in Trenton in 1804, that on 
the third of August a public meeting was held to consider measures 
for reform. Intemperance, obscenity, noisy assemblages on the Lord's 
14 PRES 


day, brawling, fighting, and throwing stones in the streets were named 
among the signs of disorder. The causes assigned were the unlicensed 
selling of spirituous liquors, especially on Sunday, and "the relaxa- 
tion of discipline in family government." In August, 1806, Stacy 
Potts, the Mayor, publicly solicits Christians of all denominations, 
■who as parents, guardians, masters or mistresses have charge of the 
young, to restrain them from vice and temptation. The same officer 
made a similar appeal to "the serious and prudent inhabitants of 
Trenton," in April, 1810, and trusts that the public authorities may be 
so assisted by the citizens "that religious people abroad may no longer 
be deterred from placing their children apprentices in this city, lest 
they become contaminated with the vicious habits which have too 
much prevailed among the rising generation in the city of Trenton." 

Half a century ago, as now, political animosity was ready to take 
any handle to create prejudice against an opponent. Thomas Paine 
was a strong partisan of Jefferson." Having rode up (Feb. 28, 1803) 
from his residence in Bordentown to Trenton, to take the stage for 
New York, the proprietors of both the stage offices, being Federalists, 
refused with strong oaths to give a seat to an infidel. When he set 
out in his own chaise, accompanied by Col. Kirkbride, a mob sur- 
rounded him with insulting music, and he had difficulty in getting out 
of town. The author of "Common-sense" showed neither fear nor 
anger, and "calmly observed that such conduct had no tendency to 
hurt his feelings or injure his fame, but rather gratified the one and 
contributed to the other." 

Mr. Lyell, the geologist, gives a better account of the temper of 
Trenton politicians as he saw it in the processions of October, 1841. 
(Travels, 1841-2, vol. i, p. 82.) 


The incidental reference to Mrs. Washington on p. 205, may recall 
a record in the Trenton nev/spaper of December 29, 1779: "Yesterday 
Mrs. Washington passed through this town on her way from Vir- 
ginia to Head Quarters at Morris-Town ; when the Virginia troops 
present (induced through respect) formed and received her as she 
passed, in a becoming manner."" 


I may add, as one of the illustrations of those times, a translation of a 
letter in French which I find in Mr. Armstrong's papers. The writer 


was the widow of one of the several French-Canadian Roman Catholic 
families who found their way to Trenton as refugees from the bar- 
barities of the revolution in St. Domingo. On one of the tablets in 
the church vestibule which contain the names of persons whose graves 
are covered by the present edifice, is the line "Simeon Worlock, July, 
1792, 39 yr." He is said to have resided in the Kingsbury mansion 
mentioned on p. 46. 

Philadei^phia, November 3, 1792. 
"Sir: I leave to-morrow for St. Domingo without having the satis- 
faction of knowing that the marble which I caused to be made is placed 
on the grave of my husband. I have earnestly impressed on a mer- 
chant of this city named Wachsmath to spare no pains to have it fin- 
ished as soon as possible. I rely on his promise to give every atten- 
tion, but, sir, in addition to all the obhgations I have already incurred, 
may I venture to beg you to assist me in a matter so essential to my 
repose, viz., when you have received the marble in which he is to be 
placed, to write to me to inform me. I shall not be at ease until I am 
sure that no strange dust shall mingle with that of the adored hus- 
band whom I shall lament all my life. Remember, sir, your promise 
that whilst you live these dear remains shall be respected. I trust and 
conjure you not to forget it, and to join your prayers with mine for 
the eternal happiness of my poor friend [mon malheureux ami] ! 

"Accept, sir, for Mrs. Armstrong, also the assurance of my remem- 
brance and my mother's-. Miss Gobert, Mr. and Mrs. Sigoigne, Adele 
and Charles are well, and send their love to your dear children. 

"Farewell, sir, beheve the esteem and perfect consideration with 
which all my life I shall remain your very humble servant. 

"M. Worlock. 
"My address is Mme. Mime. Worlock, Cape Francais." 


The Rev. William Frazer, rector of the St. Michael's Protestant 
Episcopal Church from 1788 to 1795, kept a boys' school in Trenton 
for a considerable time. To this school the sons of many prominent 
families of Burlington, Philadelphia, &c., were sent. Rev. Mr. Frazer, 
and after him his widow, kept a diary of daily events, in which may 
be found mention of very many names, incidents and occurrences 
which illustrate vividly the social life of Trenton during that period. 

The Rev. William Frazer was rector or missionary of the Episcopal 
Church in Amwell, and on July 2, 1787, was engaged by the wardens 
and vestry of St. Michael's Church in Trenton "to preach at said 
church every other Sunday, and agreed to give him the rent of the 
pews in said church, to be collected and paid quarterly." On the fol- 


lowing 8th of December, 1788, Mr. Frazer accepted the position and 
was formally inducted, the connection of Mr. Armstrong with the 
Presbyterian Church beginning about the same time, and the two con- 
gregations, as well as their respective pastors and families, maintain- 
ing much of religious as well as social fellowship — greatly promoted 
by the fact that for many years both ministers were absent from 
Trenton at other settlements, on alternate Sabbaths, and the people 
were much in the habit of worshipping together. Entries in the diary 
like the following serve to show something of the intercourse : 

February 3, 1788. — Went to Trenton in two and a half hours. Day 
before attempted it, but found it too bad and turned back. 

February 23 and 24. — Mr. Armstrong here. (At Amwell.) 

December 8. — Mr. F. inducted into St. Michael's Church, Trenton. 

April 3, 1790. — Mr. Armstrong called here. 

September 16, 1792. — (In Mrs. F.'s hand, Mr. F. being absent.) 
Went to Mr. Armstrong's church. 

September 17. — Drank tea at Mr. Armstrong's in company with Mrs. 
Barton and several other ladies. 

September 28. — Went to Presbyterian meeting. 

December 13. — Mr. and Mrs. Armstrong, Woodruff, Lowrey, DeCou, 
Rogers, Reed, drank tea. 

December 30. — Heard Mr. Armstrong preach a Thanksgiving sermon. 

March 20, 1794. — (Mr. F.) Attended the Presbyterian meeting in 
the morning and preached in the church in the afternoon to a crowded 

January i, 1795. — Went to the Presbyterian meeting. 

January 11. — Went to Mr. Armstrong's meeting in afternoon. 

I have a sermon of Rev. Mr. Frazer's on Affliction, Job 5:6, 7, 
with the following note by his widow : 

"The last sermon my dearest and ever beloved Mr. Frazer preached 
in his church in Trenton in the forenoon of the 28th of June, Samuel 
Stockton, Esq., being buried in the afternoon and a sermon preached 
on the solemn occasion by the Rev. Mr. Armstrong. 

"This sermon was the first object that presented itself to my view 
as it lay on my dear husband's desk in his study, the first time I 
entered that room after his death ; and which I could not help thinking 
was put there for my comfort, as it afforded me great consolation, as 
it appeared to me that although he was taken from me, he yet spoke 
comfort to my afflicted heart. R. F." 

The sermon was preached in St. Michael's Episcopal Church on 
June 28, 1795. — See S. D. Alexander's "Princeton in the Eighteenth 
Century," p. 270. 

The New Brick Church — Notes. 

1804 — 1806 

The Trenton congregation, which had so long felt 
obliged to associate itself with one or other O'f its neighbors 
for the support of a pastor, at length found itself able to 
assume an independent position. Accordin,g to the under- 
standing which was had with the Maidenhead Church, when 
Mr. Armstrong divided his care between it and Trenton, 
he became the exclusive pastor of the latter in October, 
1806. About the same tim'e that congregation accomplished 
the erection of a new house of worship. 

The stone building then in use was nearly eighty years 
old. The want of a better edifice had long been felt. In 
1769 there was a subscriptioon for repairs. It was probably 
w^ith a view tO' rebuilding or enlargement that the Trustees, 
in 1773, proposed to the vestry of the Episcopal Church 
a joint application to the Legislature for a lottery. The 
vestry appointed a committee of conference on the lottery, 
"and to be managers thereof,"* but the project seems to 
have dropped until 1791 (Nov. 18-23) when "an act to 
empower the Trustees of the Presbyterian Church, and 
the ministers, wardens and vestry of the Episcopal Church 
in Trenton to have a lottery for the purpose therein 
noticed," after passing the Council and being ordered to 
a third reading in the House, was lost. Another experi- 
ment in this line was attempted in December, 1793, when 
the Trustees appointed a committee to unite with the Epis- 

* Minutes of Vestry of St. Michael's, February 28, 1773. 



copalians in a lottery for the benefit of the two congrega- 
tions; but nothing further is said on the subject. However 
unequivocal the immorality of such an expedient may seem 
to us, the lottery has been a frequent resource of churches, 
as well as other institutions, even less than sixty years ago. 
At the same meeting in which the last lottery suggestion 
was made, Maskell Ewing and Alexander Chambers were 
appointed "to take about a subscription paper for the pur- 
pose of raising money to build a new Presbyterian Church 
in Trenton." In 1796 the price of building materials was 
so high that the design was abandoned. It was not until 
May, 1804, that the successful measures were taken. The 
building was now represented tO' be "in so ruinous a state 
that it can not long continue to accommodate those w^ho 
worship there, in a comfortable manner." The subscription 
was headed by four names giving two hundred dollars 
each. By the twenty-fourth August nearly four thousand 
dollars had been subscribed, and it was determined to build 
in the ensuing spring. Moore Furman and Aaron D. 
Woodruff were appointed to obtain a plan; Benj. Smith, 
John Chambers and Peter Gordon were the Building Com- 
mittee or "Managers." It was determined that the size 
should be forty-eight by sixty feet, in the clear; with a pro- 
jection or tower in front of four by ten, with a cupola. 
The four largest contributors were Abraham Hunt, Benj. 
Smith, Alex. Chambers and Moore Furman. 

The corner-stone was laid April 15, 1805; the old house 
having been first taken doAvn. The newspaper of the time 
has this report: 

"On the fifteenth instant were laid the corner-stones of the founda- 
tion of a new Presbyterian Church in this city. The Elders, Trustees, 
and Managers of the building, with a respectable number of the citi- 
zens attending, an appropriate prayer was made by the Rev. Mr. Arm- 
strong, minister of the congregation. The scene was solemn, impres- 
sive, and affecting. A plate of copper, inscribed April, 1805, with the- 
minister's name, was laid between two large stones at the foundation) 


of the southeast corner. The foundation, though much more extensive, 
is laid nearly on the site of the old church, which stood about eighty 

While the building was in progress, Mr. Armstrong 
preached on every alternate Sabbath in the Episcopal 
Church, the rector of which (Dr. Waddell) had a second 
charge at Bristol, as Mr. Armstrong had at Maidenhead. 

The new church was opened for its sacred uses August 
17, 1806. The pastor conducted the services in the morn- 
ing, and President S. S'. Smith in the afternoon.^ 

The pastor preached from! part of Solomon's prayer at 
the dedication of the temple: i Kings 8:22, 23, 27-30. 
At the next public service in which he officiated, he preached 
on the conduct becoming worshippers in the house of God, 
from Hebrews 10:25 and Job 13: 11. This subject was 
pursued in a third discourse on public worship as a duty to 
God, to society, to ourselves. For the services of the dedi- 
cation, Mr. Arm'strong prepared a prayer; and in the be- 
lief that on its own account, as well as for its historical 
associations, it will be read with interest and benefit by 
the people who worship in a house, which, though not the 
same as the one then dedicated, was included in the refer- 
ences of its supplications, I here insert it : 


"Holy, holy, holy Lord God Almighty. There is no God like thee 
in heaven above, or on earth beneath, who keepest covenant with thy 
servants that walk before thee with all their heart. Thou art our 
God, and we would praise thee ; our father's God, and we would exalt 

"Thou art the God who hearest prayer. Where shall we go but to 
thee, who art the way, the truth, and the life? 

"We adore thee for all the mercies and benefits which thou hast 
conferred on us through our lives. But especially we adore thee for 
the everlasting Gospel, and those gracious privileges to which we are 
called in thy Church on earth, and in thy Church in heaven. We 
adore thee that thy Church is founded on the rock Christ Jesus, and 
that the gates of hell shall never be able to prevail against it. We 


adore thee for the promise of thy presence to thy Church and people, 
that where two or three are met together in thy name, thou wilt be 
with them to bless them. We adore thee, O Lord, that when the place 
where our fathers had long worshipped was decaying with age, and 
the congregation of thy people needed room and accommodation in 
thy house, thou didst put it into our hearts to build a house for thy 
worship and service, and where thy people may meet and enjoy thy 
presence. We adore thee that thou hast permitted us to meet to set 
it apart, and dedicate it to the Lord our God by preaching, prayer, and 

"And now, O Lord, our God, we thus ofifer this house to thee; that 
thy people may here meet for purposes of reading, preaching, and hear- 
ing thy word; of prayer and praise; of fasting and thanksgiving; of 
the administration of baptism and the Lord's supper, agreeably to the 
word of God and the constitution of our Church. 

"And now, O Lord, make this house continue to be the habitation 
of the God of Jacob forever ; a place where prayer shall be ever made 
to thee, and where Gospel worship shall be fixed and stated as long 
as it shall last for this purpose ; and that there never may fail a people 
and a congregation to worship thee in this place throughout all genera- 

"We pray that thou wilt be pleased to give success to the labors of 
the ministers of the Gospel in this place ; accompanying the means 
of grace with divine power and energy, making the administration of 
the Gospel effectual to convince and convert, establish and sanctify thy 

"And now, O Lord, our God, make it good for us that we have built 
a house for thy worship. But as the most sumptuous works of our 
hands can not communicate any holiness to the worshipper, make it 
good for us to draw near to God in the assembling of ourselves to- 
gether at all commanded, fixed, and proper times in this place. Enable 
us, thy people of this congregation, and all who may worship with us 
in this place, collectively and individually, to dedicate ourselves unto 
the Lord; to present our souls, and our bodies, and our spirits unto 
the Lord as living sacrifices, holy and acceptable, which is our reason- 
able service ; to concentrate our time, our talents, our privileges, and 
opportunities, with all we have and are, to thy service ; that each of 
us, and each of our families, with all who are near and dear to us, 
may prepare an habitation in our hearts and souls for God, and that 
our bodies may be the temples of the Holy Ghost. 

"And we do most earnestly pray that all our offenses may be blotted 
out ; that we may be washed in the blood of Christ ; that the vows 
and offerings, the prayers and the praises which we and our posterity 
offer up now, and in all future time, may be accepted through the 
merits and intercession of our Lord and Saviour, Jesus Christ, and 
made effectual for our and their salvation. 


"Let thy grace and thy Spirit, O Lord our God, be with us to direct, 
assist, and strengthen us in all the prayers and supplications that we 
now and in future may offer in this place. Be graciously pleased to 
vouchsafe us thy presence herein continually. Hearken, O Lord, to 
the prayers and supplications of me thy servant, and of these thy people, 
in all times and in all circumstances, and in all places where we may 
pray in, or as towards this place; and when thou hearest answer us 
in mercy. 

"If we sin — for no man liveth and sinneth not — and turn and repent, 
hear and forgive our sins, O Lord ! 

"If the love of thy people wax cold; if our grace languish, faint, 
and be ready to expire, give renewed faith, grace, and love. 

"Hear us, O Lord, if we pray to be delivered from drought, famine, 
war, pestilence, disease, or death. 

"Hear us, O Lord, if we pray to be delivered from blasting, mildew, 
and whatsoever might threaten to prevent or destroy the harvest. 

"Hear us, O Lord, when we pray for all schools, colleges, and semi- 
naries of learning; 

"For our nation and country ; 
"For all who bear rule and authority over us ; 
"For peace and prosperity ; 

"For all missionaries and missionary labors throughout the world; 
that the Jews may be gathered, and the fullness of the Gentiles may 
come in; that the land of Ethiopia and the heathen may be given for 
an inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for a possession 
to Christ Jesus. 

"Hear, O Lord, and hasten the time when all the families of the 
earth shall be blessed in Christ our Lord, and when his knowledge 
and his righteousness shall cover the earth as the waters cover the sea. 
"Now, therefore, arise, O Lord God, into Thy resting place, Thou 
and the ark of Thy strength. Let Thy priests, O Lord, be clothed 
with righteousness, the ministers of Thy religion with salvation. Let 
Thy saints shout for joy, and Thy people rejoice in goodness. 

"Blessed be the Lord God— Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. As He 
was with our fathers, so let Him be with us. Let Him not leave us 
nor forsake us ; and incline our hearts to do all things according to 
His holy will. 

"Pray for the peace of Jerusalem; peace be within these walls, 
prosperity within this place. For my brethren and companions' sakes 
I will now say, peace be within thee. Because of the house of the 
Lord our God, I will seek thy good. 
"The Lord bless thee and keep thee ! 

"The Lord make His face to shine upon thee, and be gracious unto 

"The Lord lift up his countenance upon thee, and give thee peace. 
"And in testimony of the sincerity of our desires, and in humble 
hope of being heard, let all the people say. Amen." 


A sketch of the new Church was made from memory^ 
by the late Dr. F. A. Ewing, who wrote of it : 

"Elevation seemed to be the great object to be attained, and so the 
walls were carried up to a height which would now be thought exces- 
sive. Its galleries were supported on lofty columns, and in conse- 
quence its pulpit was so high as sometimes to threaten dizziness to 
the preacher's head. Above the gallery the vaulted ceiling afforded 
almost room enough for another church. It had its tower, its belfry 
and bell, still sweet and melodious,^ its spire, which, had it been pro- 
portioned in height to the tower supporting it, would have ascended 
needle-like almost to the clouds. With all its architectural defects, 
however, it was a fine old building, well adapted to the purposes of 
speaking and hearing; filled an important office, both to the congre- 
gation and on public occasions ; stood for years the chief landmark 
to miles of surrounding country, and at last resisted sternly the efforts 
of its destroyers. Its site, on the southwest corner of the grave- 
yard, is well defined by the old graves and tombs which clustered 
close to its northern and eastern sides, and is the only part of the 
ground divided into burial lots." 

Alas ! before this manuscript could be brought to the 
use for which it was prepared, the body of its accomplished 
writer was occupying a grave in the very part of the church- 
yard described in its closing sentence.^ 

The building was of brick, and cost ten thousand eight 
hundred and twenty dollars. It had seventy-two pews on 
the floor, divided by two aisles, and thirty-six in the gallery. 
Forty-six were put at the annual rent of twelve dollars ; 
eighteen larger ones at fourteen dollars. The gallery pews 
were free, and one side was reserved for colored persons.^ 


MaskELL Ewing, named in this chapter, belonged to what is now 
the widespread family of Ewing in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, 
and Maryland. Thomas Maskell, of England, married Bythia Parsons 
in Connecticut, in 1658. Thomas Stathem, of England, married Ruth 



Udell, in New England, in 1671. Maskell's son married Stathem's 
daughter. Their daughter was married in 1720 to Thomas Ewing, 
who had recently come to Greenwich, West Jersey, from Ireland. 
Their eldest son was M^askell (1721), who was at different times, 
Justice of the Peace, Clerk and Surrogate of Cumberland county. 

Sheriff, and Judge of the Pleas, and died in 1796. One of his ten 
children was the Maskell Ewing, of Trenton. He was born January 
30, 1758; in his youth he assisted his father in the clerkship in Green- 
wich, and before he was twenty-one was elected Clerk of the State 
Assembly. This brought him to Trenton, and he filled the office for 
twenty years. He was for a time Recorder of the city, and also read 
law in the office of WiUiam C. Houston. In 1803 he removed to 


Philadelphia, and in 1805 to a farm in Delaware county, Pennsylvania. 
He represented that county in the State Senate for six years. He died 
on a visit to Greenwich, August 26, 1825. His son Maskell was born 
in 1806, was a lieutenant in the army, and has died within a few years. 

Among the branches of the Ewing stock was the family of the 
Rev. John Ewing, D.D., Provost of the University of Pennsylvania 
(1779-1803), and pastor of the First Church of Philadelphia. On 
our session records of September 17, 1808, are the names of "Mar- 
garet and Amelia, daughters of the late Rev. Dr. Ewing," as then 
admitted to their first communion, and May 6, 1808, "Mrs. Dr. Ewing" 
to the same. 


Not long after the establishment of the congregation in their new 
house, two of the oldest Trustees, both corporators of 1788, were 
removed by death, namely, Moore Furman and Isaac Smith. A 
notice of Mr. Smith has already been given. 

Mr. Furman was one of the successful merchants of Trenton. In 
the Revolution he served as a Deputy Quartermaster-General. He was 
the first Mayor of Trenton, by appointment of the Legislature, upon 
its incorporation, in 1792. 

Mr. Furman was elected a Trustee June 12, 1760, and Treasurer in 
1762. Soon after that year he removed to Pittstown, and afterwards 
to Philadelphia. He returned to Trenton, and was re-elected to the 
Board in 1783, and continued in it until his death, March 16, 1808, in 
liis eightieth year. His grave-stone is in the porch of the present 

Though so long connected with the temporal affairs of the congre- 
gation, Mr. Furman was not a communicant until November i, 1806. 
He made a written request of Mr. Armstrong that in case he should 
be called to officiate at his funeral he would speak from the words: 
"Into thine hand I commit my spirit: thou hast redeemed me, O Lord 
God of truth." (Psalm 31.) This request was faithfully followed in 
the body of the discourse, to which the Pastor added as follows : 

"This congregation well know his long and faithful services as a 
zealous supporter and Trustee of the concerns and interests of this 
Church. In the revolution he was known as a faithful friend of his 
country, and was intrusted by government and the Commander-in- 
Chief of our revolutionary army— whose friendship was honor indeed 
—in offices and in departments the most profitable and the most im- 
portant. When bending beneath the load of years and infirmities, 
how did it gladden his soul and appear to renew his life, to see this 
edifice rising from the ruins of the old one and consecrated to the 
service of his God! And did you not see him, shortly after its con- 
secration, as a disciple of his Redeemer recognizing his baptismal 


vows, and in that most solemn transaction of our holy religion, stretch- 
ing his trembling hands to receive the symbols of the body and blood 
of our Lord and Saviour, and in that act express the sentiment of the 
words selected by himself for the use of this mournful occasion: 
'Into thine hand I commit my spirit : thou hast redeemed me, O Lord 
God of truth.'" 


One of the Trustees elected to supply the vacancies made by the 
death of Moore Furman and Isaac Smith was Peter Hunt, whose wife 
was a daughter of Mr. Furman. Mr. Hunt had a large storehouse at 
Lamberton when it was the depot for the trade of Trenton, and at 
the time of his death was in partnership with Philip F. Howell. He 
resided on the estate now occupied by his son, Lieut. W. E. Hunt, of 
the navy. General Hunt (he was Adjutant-General) died at Charles- 
ton, S. C, March 11, 1810, at the age of forty-two, having spent the 
winter there on account of his health. The Rev. Dr. HoUingshead 
had a highly satisfactory conversation with him on the day of his 
death, when he said : "He had no reluctance nor hesitation to submit 
to all the will of God in the article of death ; freely committed his 
soul into the hands of his Redeemer, and left his surviving family to 
the care of a holy and gracious Providence."* He was buried, with 
military honors, at Charleston, after sendees in the Circular Church, 
and there is a cenotaph commemorating him in our church porch.' 


The newspapers of the day record the burial, in the Presbyterian 
ground, of William Roscoe, who died Oct. 9, 1805, in his se\^enty-third 
year, "a first cousin of, and brought up by the celebrated Wm. Roscoe, 
of Liverpool, author of the Life of Leo X., etc. In the Revolution 
he was express-rider to Governor Livingston, and for many years 
Sergeant-at-Arms to the Court of Chancery."^ 


January 18, 1806, a public dinner was given in Trenton to Captain 
(afterward Commodore) Bainbridge, upon his return from Barbary. 
The commodore's family were of this locality and church. Edmund 
Bainbridge was an elder from the united churches of Trenton and 
Maidenhead in the Presbytery of October, 1794. John Bainbridge was 
one of the grantees in the church deed of 1698 (p. 15), and that 
name is still visible on a tombstone in a deserted burying-place in 
Lamberton, marked, "Died 1732; aged seventy-five years." 

'Letter from Dr. H. in Trenton True American, March 26, 1810. 


TheoIvOGicai. Seminary — Mr. Armstrong's Death — 


1807 — 1 81 6. 

Mr. Armstrong had the happiness of seeing the first 
Theological School of our Church established within ten 
miles of Trenton, and in the village so much associated with 
the earlier scenes of his academical and domestic life.^ He 
was in the General Assemibly of 18 10, which agreed upon 
the policy of one central institution; and in that of 1813, 
which established it at Princeton. With Dr. Alexander and 
Dr. Miller, the first professors, his intercourse was inti- 
mate during the few years of life that remained to him after 
their coming into the neighborhood, and both of them fre- 
quently supplied his pulpit during his protracted infirmity. 
It was an additional mark of providential favor that he 
lived to see the first fruits of the Seminary, and to give his 
voice for the licensing of its earliest graduates. The last 
time he appeared in Presbytery was at the session of April, 
181 5, which was held in Trenton. On that occasion Messrs. 
Weed, Pamiele, Stanton, and Robertson, of the first class, 
were licensed.^ 

The records of each session are annually reviewed by a 
committee of Presbytery. In the meeting of April, 181 3, 
the committee (Drs. WoodhuU and Alexander), reporting 
favorably on the Trenton minutes, add, 

"That in one particular especially, the utmost care and attention 
have been paid to the purity and edification of the Church, and to 
:guard against errors in doctrine and practice." 



This commendatioon refers to an act of the session ex- 
cluding from church privileges a member who had adopted 
and was promulgating the Universalist heresy, vilifying 
the communion to which he belonged, and refusing to 
■attend its worship. In April, 1816, the general approval 
of the book was qualified by some exceptions as to the sum- 
mary measures pursued by the session in suspending one 
of their own number, uipon his declining to take their 
advice to discontinue his service as an elder. Upon this, 
exception the session reversed their judgment, and the 
elder withdrew from the exercise of his office; but he 
appears afterwards to have been reinstated. 

When the New Jersey Bible Society was organized in 
1 810, Mr. Armstrong was elected a manager.^ In 181 3 
the anniversary of the Society was held in his church,, 
when Dr. Wharton, the Episcopal minister of Burlington, 
preached, and the Rev. Wm. H. Wilnier, of Virginia, read 
the liturgy. This courtesy was extended in consequence 
of the Episcopal Church being under repair. 

On the anniversary of Independence, in 1808, Mr. Arm- 
strong was again the orator at the celebration by the Cin- 
cinnati, and citizens.^ He acted as chaplain on that day in 
11812, when the "Washington Benevolent Society of Tren- 
ton" made their first public appearance, and the concourse 
in the church was swelled by the members of a political con- 
vention opposed to the war, which was then meeting in the 

The suffering, and incapacity of freely moving his limbs,, 
produced by his tedious disease, were now depriving Mr. 
Armstrong of the prospect of ever resuming his pastoral 
duties. The mere ascending into the pulpit cost the most 
painful exertion. He suppressed, as far as possible, the 
exhibition of his anguish, that he might perform the work 
in which he delighted; and although the act of writing 
must have been peculiarly distressing to his distorted hands,. 


I have seen more than one discourse from his pen, indorsed 
as prepared to be read to the congregation by a substitute, 
when too ill to leave his house.^ One of these (not dated) 
begins thus : 

"Unable, through the dispensation of Divine Providence, to address 
you in public, I embrace the only means in my power to convey a por- 
tion of that instruction which, I trust, has often been administered to 
our mutual edification. During the space of many years I have not 
for any whole day been free from pain. Reduced at times to the 
borders of the grave, and reviving, contrary to all human expectation, 
I have ardently desired to address you as one rising from the dead. 
A person on the verge of twO' worlds, contemplating the dread realities 
of eternity, standing equal chances to be the next hour an inhabitant of 
time or eternity, must have most impressive sentiments from the rela- 
tions which they bear to each other. In these moments, and under 
these impressions, I have wished for strength and opportunity, if it 
were but for once, to appear in the assemblies of the people of God, as 
I was wont to do. But on a conscientious review of the matter and the 
manner of my public instructions, I am constrained to ask what could 
I do more than I have done? All I could hope for would be that your 
sympathy, excited by my long and painful affliction, and heightened 
by an unexpected restoration to health, might, through the aids of 
divine grace, awaken a more lively attention, and give a more im- 
pressive solemnity to eternal things." 

This touching preface was followed by an earnest and 
tender application of the lessons of our Lord's parable of 
the fig tree that remained unfruitful after years of faithful 

In April, 181 5, the congregation authorized the session 
to engage an assistant minister, and they chose Mr. David 
Bishop, a licentiate, and at that time a teacher in the Trenton 
Academy — afterwards pastor in Easton. In the summer 
of that year Mr. Arm'Strong performed his last public ser- 
vice, and many still remember an affecting incident con- 
nected with it. Though emaciated and worn down by pain, 
there was no reason at that time to suppose that he might 
not yet, as for years past, make his way to the pulpit and 
assist in the services. But on that Sabbath it was noticed 
15 PRES 


that the only psalm used in the singing was the third part 
of the seventy-first; the first half (or to the "pause") being 
sluing at the beginning, and the remainder at the close of 
the devotional exercises. His text was "Woe unto me if I 
preach not the Gospel." There could not have been many 
unmoved hearts as the feeble pastor, verging on three-score 
and ten, read — • 

"The land of silence and of death 
Attends my next remove ; 
Oh ! may these poor remains of breath, 
Teach the wide world thy love. 

"By long experience have I known 

Thy sovereign power to save ; 
At thy command I venture down 
Securely to the grave. 

"When I lie buried deep in dust, 
My flesh shall be thy care ; 
These withered limbs with thee I trust, 
To raise them strong and fair." 

In a few months this faith was realized, and he entered 
on his rest, January 19, 18 16, in the sixty-sixth year of his 
age, the thirty-eighth of his ministry, and (counting from 
the date of his call) the thirty-first of his pastorship. 

On the twenty-second the remains of the deceased pastor 
were followed to- the church by a large concourse, and, be- 
fore they were committed to the earth, an instructive 
discourse was delivered by the Rev. Dr. Miller. The 
preacher closed as follows : 

"With respect to the character and success of his labors among you, 
my brethren, there needs no testimony from me. You have seen him 
for nearly thirty years going in and out before you, laboring with 
assiduity, and during a great part of the time under the pressure of 
disease, for your spiritual welfare. You have seen him addressing 
you with affectionate earnestness, when his enfeebled frame was 
scarcely able to maintain an erect posture in the pulpit. You have 
heard him lamenting, in the tenderest terms, his inability to serve 


you in a more active manner. And you have seen him manifesting 
with frequency his earnest desire to promote your best interest, even 
when weakness compelled him to be absent from the solemn assembly. 

"But why enlarge on these topics before those who knew him so 
well? or why dwell upon points of excellence in his character which 
all acknowledged? The warmth of his friendship; his peculiar urban- 
ity ; his domestic virtues ; his attachment to evangelical truth ; his 
decided friendliness to vital piety ; his punctuality, as long as he had 
strength to go abroad, in attending on the judicatories of the Church; 
these, among the many excellent traits of character exhibited by the 
pastor of whom you have just taken leave, will no doubt be remem- 
bered with respect and with mournful pleasure, for a long time to 

"More than once have I witnessed, during his weakness and decline, 
not only the anxious exercises of one who watched over the interests 
of his own soul with a sacred jealousy, but also the affectionate 
aspirations of his heart for the eternal welfare of his family and flock. 
Farewell ! afflicted, beloved man, farewell ! We shall see thee again ; 
see thee, we trust, no more the pale victim of weakness, disease, and 
death, but in the image and the train of our blessed Master, and in 
all the immortal youth, and health, and lustre of his glorified family. 
May it then, oh ! may it then appear that all thine anxious prayers 
and all thine indefatigable labors for the spiritual benefit of those 
who were so dear to thine heart, have not been in vain in the Lord.'" 

The epitaph on the tomb of Mr. Armstrong, in the 
church-yard, was written by President S. Stanhope Smith : 

"Sacred to the memory of the Reverend James Francis Armstrong, 
thirty years pastor of the church at Trenton, in union with the church 
at Maidenhead. Born in Maryland, of pious parents, he received the 
elements of his classical education under the Rev. John Blair; finished 
his collegiate studies in the College of New Jersey, under the Rev. 
Dr. Witherspoon, and was licensed to preach the Gospel in the year 
1777. An ardent patriot, he served through the War of Independence 
as a chaplain. In 1790 he was chosen a Trustee of the College of 
New Jersey. A warm and constant friend, a devout Christian, a 
tender husband and parent; steady in his attendance on the judicatories 
of the Church ; throughout his life he was distinguished as a fervent 
and affectionate minister of the Gospel, and resigned his soul to his 
Creator and Redeemer on the nineteenth of January, 1816. 'Blessed 
are the dead who die in the Lord. Amen : even so come Lord Jesus.' " 




For the years of Mr. Armstrong's pastorate before 1806, there is no 
official record of statistics. In a memorandum made by him, he says 
that when he first came to Trenton "the number of communicants did 
not exceed perhaps eight or nine in that church, exclusive of Maiden- 
head. The numbers increased slowly and gradually. At every com- 
munion season, which was twice a year, a few were added ; generally 
of such as had been under serious impression for some time before 

In 1806 the whole number of communicants in Trenton was sixty- 
eight. Two only of these are known to be surviving in 1859. At the 
two communions of 1808 seventeen persons made their first profession 
at one, and thirteen at the other. In 1809 seventeen more were re- 
ceived. Among the manuscripts of Mr. Armstrong is a series of ser- 
mons on the divine being, attributes, and perfections, marked by him 
as having been preached "just before so many were added to the 
church in 1808 and 1809."' In 1810 the whole number of communicants 
was one hundred and twenty-four; in 1815, one hundred and eleven. 


I throw into this note some miscellaneous items collected from the 
books of the Treasurer and Trustees at the close of the last century. 

The windows of the church appear to have been exposed to extra- 
ordinary casvialties, as there are constant entries of payments for 
glazing, and sometimes subscriptions for that object. Evening ser- 
vices were only occasional, as we learn from such entries as, "1786, 
March 18, paid for candles when Mr. WoodhuU preached in the 
evening, 2s. 6d." There were collections on every Sabbath ; their 
amount varied from 2S. 4J. to £1 iS^. 2d. That the old prescriptive 
coin was freely used on these occasions is revealed in such entries 
as, "By old coppers" ; "to amount of old coppers on hand that won't 
pass." The collections were sometimes for other than church pur- 
poses. "1788, collection for Rev. Samson Occom."* "1789, collection 
raised for a poor traveler, 27s. 6d." In 1792, £2 ys. 6d. were collected 
"for Lutherans to build a church at Fort Pitt." In 1806, five mahogany 
"poles and [velvet] bags for collecting at church," were provided, ac- 
cording to a fashion long since superseded by boxes. For several 
years there is an invariable charge of i.y. 6d. for "sweeping meeting- 
house," every fortnight. The supplies for the pulpit, and the expense 


of their horses, seem to have been regularly paid. "1779, paid Rev. 
Mr. Grant, as a supply, being a young man unsettled, £1 2s. 6d." 
1785, "Supply one day and a half, 45.?." "Half a day, 15.?." The 
oflfice of Deacon was performed by the pastor and elders at their dis- 
cretion, out of funds in the Treasurer's hands. "Paid Mr. Arm- 
strong for a sick woman at Mr. Morrice's." "Shirt for ." 

^'Relieving her distress." "Paid Bell that was scalded." "Seth Babbitt, 
a stranger that was in distress, being castaway, as he said." Fuel 
was often distributed. December 20, 1799: "Bill for sundries to put 
the pulpit in mourning for G. Washington, and Mrs. Emerson for put- 
ting it on." The expenses of Presbytery were sometimes borne by 
the church treasury. "To Presbytery's expenses at Mr. Witt's," one 
of the hotels, means probably the keeping of their horses ; but I must 
not conceal that in 1792 there is this charge, "for beer at Presbytery, 
4s. lod." In the same year the other congregation were more liberal 
in their entertainment, as appears by this entry : "Bought of Abraham 
Hunt, for the use of the congregation when Presbytery sat in Maiden- 
head : 

"8 gal. Lisbon wine at js. 6d., £3 

"5 " spirits, gs., 25 

£S 5" 

Ten years before — "half gallon of rum." The last, we may suppose, 
was for the use of workmen about the church, according to the cus- 
tom then universal. In building the church of 1805, "spirits" were 
bought for this purpose by the barrel. The churches were sometimes 
repaid for this branch of their expenditures; as in 1798, Mr. Bond 
(probably a magistrate), divided between the Presbyterian and Epis- 
copal churches a fine collected by him from some unlicensed vender 
of spirituous liquors. 

In November, 1786, the purchase of "an elegant, large Bible for 
the use of the Trenton Church," was authorized. The sexton's fee 
for digging a grave, inviting to the funeral, and tolling the bell, was 
fixed at two dollars. In 1799 it was increased to three dollars and a 
half. As late as 1842 it was the custom for the sextons to go from 
■house to house and make verbal notice of funerals at the doors. 
There were not then, as now, three daily newspapers to supersede the 
necessity of publishing notices of this kind from the pulpit or other- 

The Trustees appear to have provided for the conveyance of the 
pastor to the places of the meeting of the Presbytery. At one time it 
was "agreed that Mr. Jacob Carle or his son, Capt. Israel Carle [neither 
elder nor Trustee] attend Mr. Armstrong to the Presbytery." At 
another time (1787) James Ewing, Esq., [then in no church office,] 


was designated to this service. There may have been that deficiency 
of acting elders (at least in the town) at this time, to which Mr. 
Armstrong refers in a note of 1813, in which he speaks of his having 
had charge of the charity-fund : "I am inclined to beheve before there 
were any elders in the congregation." The expenses of the session in 
attending judicatories were paid by the Trustees. 

The pew-rents in town were received by a collector annually ap- 
pointed by the Trustees out of their own number, or from the con- 
gregation. Delinquents were sometimes threatened with the last resort. 
In 1788 it was ordered, "that no horses or other creatures be put in 
the graveyard." It is presumed that this was a prohibition against 
hitching the animals there on the Sabbath, or pasturing them at any 
time. The sexton, however, had "leave to pasture sheep in the grave- 

In 1788, "the present meeting taking into consideration the great 
defect in public worship in the congregation, by want of a regular 
clerk, and Mr. John Friend, a member of the congregation, having 
voluntarily offered himself steadily to supply that office, the congre- 
gation accepted of his offer and desire the Trustees to make any agree- 
ment they may think proper with said Friend on that subject." 

In 1799, (at a congregational meeting,) "whereas applications are 
often making for the burial of strangers in the ground belonging to 
this congregation, by which means it is filling up very fast, therefore 
it is ordered that no stranger be permitted to be buried in said ground 
hereafter, without paying what may be agreed upon by the Trustees 
of said church; and for relief in the premises it is agreed that pro- 
posals be made to the other societies of Christians in this place, and 
to the inhabitants in general, to open and promote subscriptions for 
the purpose of purchasing a piece of ground for a Potter's field." The 
Trenton "Potter's field" is on the New Brunswick road, and was 
probably purchased by the town about 1802. One of the graves is 
designated as follows : "Sacred to the memory of Judy, wife of Wil- 
liam Field ; faithful and favorite Christian servants of the late Robert 
Finley, D.D., of Basking Ridge, New Jersey. Erected 1839." 

In 1799 the Trustees "ordered that the minutes and proceedings of 
the congregation and Trustees be read by the minister or clerk of the 
church the next Sabbath, or as soon as convenient after their meetings, 
in order that it be generally known how the business of the Society 
is conducted." 

Some precedence seems to have been accorded to the Governor of 
the' State. He was allowed the first choice of a pew in the new church 
of 1806. The incumbent at that time was Joseph BloomFiexd, known 
by the titles both of Governor and General. He resided in Trenton 
during the successive terms of his administration, (1801-12.) Mrs. 
Bloomfield was a communicant of the church, and her nephew. Bishop 


Mcllvaine, remembers the visits of his childhood to the then new, but 
now demoHshed church. 

In the earlier part of Mr. Armstrong's ministry he conformed to 
the custom, then common in our pulpits, of wearing a gown and bands. 
The practice seems to have fallen gradually into disuse, more from its 
inconveniences than from any rise of scruples. The variety of English 
academical gowns seems to have been known in our State as late as 
1800, for in that year a Burlington tailor advertises in the Trenton 
Gazette: "D.D., M.A., and other clerical robes made correctly."" 


In 1815 the church lost one of its ruling elders. His epitaph is: 
"In memory of Nicholas Dubois,'" many years teacher of the Young 
Ladies' Academy, and an elder of the Presbyterian Church of this 
place. Died November 4, 1815. An. set. forty-four. A man amiable, 
pious, and exemplary ; a teacher, able, zealous, and faithful ; an elder 
ardently devoted to the welfare of his Father's flock." 


The interval between Mr. Armstrong and his successor is marked 
in our history by the commencement of the Sunday-school of the 
church. The earliest school of this description was instituted by mem- 
bers of the Society of Friends, for the instruction of colored persons. 
It was called the "Trenton First-day School," and the primary meet- 
ing of the Society was called for "the second second-day of the second 
month," i8og. This failed, as it would appear, from want of means 
to pay a teacher; and in May, 181 1, a society of all denominations 
formed "a first-day, or Sunday-school, for the instruction of the poor 
of all descriptions and colors."" I am indebted to John M. Sherrerd, 
Esq., of Belvidere," for the following interesting memoranda as to 
the introduction of the more strictly religious, or church Sunday- 
school : 

"While a student of law in the office of the late Chief Justice 
Ewing, in the winter of 1815-16, I became a member of the Trenton 
church, under the preaching of Dr. Alexander, who chiefly supplied 
the pulpit after the death of Mr. Armstrong. There was some 
awakening among the churches in that winter. We held a union 
prayer-meeting, weekly, for some time, and at one of these it was 
mooted whether we might not do good by starting a Sunday-school. 
Several of us had read about such schools in England, and heard that 
they had been begun in Philadelphia, but none of us had ever seen one. 
Our prayer-meeting was composed of about a dozen young men who 
had just united with the different churches, and a few others who 
were seriously disposed. I recollect the names of Gershom Mott, 


John French, and Mr. Bowen, Baptists; John Probasco, a Methodist ;^^ 
Lewis Evans, who was brought up a Friend. At first I was the only 
Presbyterian, but others soon joined me. I was appointed to visit the 
schools in Philadelphia, and accordingly spent a Sabbath there, during 
which I visited the old Arch Street, Christ Church, and St. John's 
Schools, which were all I could find. The teachers furnished me with 
all the desired information, and gave me specimens of tickets, cards, 
books, etc. On my return we determined to make the experiment, 
and obtained the use of the old school-room over the market-house 
on Mill Hill, which then stood nearly opposite the present Mercer 
court house, and eight o'clock on the next Sunday morning found us 
assembled there — six teachers and twenty-six scholars. 

"We kept up our weekly prayer-meeting at different places, in the 
Baptist, Presbyterian, and Methodist connection — chiefly in the first 
two. Every Sunday the school was dismissed in time to attend the 
three churches, on alternate days, each teacher accompanying his class 
and occupying a part of the gallery. We seldom failed of having a 
word of encouragement from the officiating minister, and I well 
remember the address of Dr. Alexander, the first Sabbath we met in 
the Presbyterian Church. At the end of three months, the room 
becoming too small for us, we formed a school in each of the three 
churches, and each soon became as large as the original one. The 
Presbyterian was held in the school building on your church lot. The 
others in the Baptist Church and Trenton Academy. I continued there 
about nine months, and until I left Trenton, during which time we 
kept up our union prayer-meeting, and the visits of all the schools 
alternately at the different churches on Sunday mornings. Towards 
the last they almost filled the gallery of each church. After the sepa- 
ration on Mill Hill female teachers, for the first time, took part. We 
followed the old plan of each scholar committing as much as he could 
during the week — receiving tickets, redeemed, at a certain number, 
with books. One factory boy, I remember, who, although twelve hours 
at work daily, committed so many verses that I could not hear him 
in school-hours, but took the time for it after church." 

From a document in a Trenton newspaper (August 8, 1817) it ap- 
pears that the three schools mentioned by Mr. Sherrerd were organ- 
ized under the title of "The Trenton and Lamberton Sunday Free- 
School Association." The date of its beginning is there given as March 
9, 1816. "From April to October the school consisted of ninety 
scholars. On the twenty-seventh October it was divided into three." 
"It is with peculiar pleasure the Association notice those two nurseries 
of mercy, the Female and African Sunday-schools, which have arisen 
since the establishment of their own." A column of a newspaper of 
October 4, 1819, is occupied with a report of the "Trenton Sabbath- 
day School," which opens with saying, "Nine months have now elapsed 
since, by the exertions of a few gentlemen, this school was founded." 


The report is signed by James C. How, afterwards the Rev. Mr. How, 
of Delaware, a brother of the Presbyterian pastor. In February, 1821, 
the same Society reports that it had four schools, the boys', the girls', 
the African, and one at Morrisville." The last school had, in Novem- 
ber, 1819, eleven teachers and one hundred and sixteen scholars. The 
"Female Tract Society" furnished tracts monthly to the schools, and 
the "Juvenile Dorcas Society" supplied clothing to the children. 

Six female members of our congregation (Ellen Burrowes, Mary 
Ann Tucker," Mary A. Howell, Hannah E. Howell, Eliza R. Cham- 
bers, and Hannah Hayden) originated "The Female Sabbath Asso- 
ciation," October 4, 1816. To these were soon added Sarah M. Stock- 
ton (afterwards wife of Rev. W. J. Armstrong), Rosetta C. Hyer, 
Jane Lowry, EHza C. Palmer, Lydia Middleton (afterwards wife of 
Rev. Henry Woodward), Ellen E. Burrowes (Mrs. Stacy G. Potts), 
Catherine Schenck, Mary Creed, Abigail Ryall, Juliette Rice,^" Susan 
Armstrong, Anna Jackson (wife of Rev. Jos. Sanford)." The ses- 
sion granted the use of the gallery of the church, as a place of teach- 
ing. The school was opened October 20, and was held for an hour 
and a half in the afternoon. A boys' school was afterwards formed, 
of which Mr. James C. How was the first Superintendent. There are 
eight hundred and twenty-two names on the roll of female pupils from 
1822 to 1839. 


In the minutes of the Trustees, March 19, 1814, is this entry : 

"Benjamin Smith, Esq., who has for a long time been a Trustee 
and President of the Board, as also Treasurer for the church, all 
which offices he has filled with faithfulness, but expecting shortly to 
remove to Ehzabethtown, and make that his final place of abode, begged 
for said reason to resign his trusteeship." 

Mr. Smith was elected "a Deacon for Trenton," May 6, 1777, and 
was an elder in 1806, and probably for some years before. He died 
in Ehzabethtown, October 23, 1824, and a sermon was preached at his 
funeral by his pastor, the Rev. Dr. John McDowell, from the words : 
"Lord, I have loved the habitation of Thy house, and the place where 
Thine honor dwelleth." This text had been selected by himself for 
the purpose, and his will directed the same to be inscribed on his 
tomb. By the kindness of Dr. McDowell, I am enabled to present a 
copy of the statements in the funeral discourse, which show how 
applicable was its inspired motto : 

"Our departed friend loved the house of the Lord, and he has told 
the speaker that this evidence has often encouraged and comforted 
his soul, when he could get hold of scarcely any other. His conduct 
in this respect corresponded with his profession. Through a long life 


he manifested that he loved the Lord's house. It was taught him, 
I have understood, from his childhood. At an early age he became 
the subject of serious impressions, and hopefully of divine grace. He 
was first received into this church under the ministry of the Rev. 
James Caldwell, in the year 1765, when he was about eighteen years 
old. He afterwards removed to Trenton, and connected himself with 
that church, where he spent most of his days. There he long acted 
in the office of ruling elder. During the latter part of the time of 
his residence in Trenton, the congregation erected a new house of 
worship. In this he took a deep and active interest. He bestowed 
much of his time, contributed liberally of his means, and went abroad 
soliciting aid for its completion. About ten years since he removed 
to this town, and in the decline of life again connected himself with 
this church. He was soon elected a ruling elder, which office he exe- 
cuted with fidelity until his decease, in the seventy-ninth year of his 
age. He manifested his love to the house of God by his constant 
attendance on its worship until his last short illness ; and he mani- 
fested it in his will, by leaving a bequest for the support of its wor- 
ship, and remembering other congregations in the town. His last 
words were : 'Welcome, sweet day of rest.' " 

Among the legacies of Mr. Smith's will was one of twenty-five 
hundred dollars for the endowment of a scholarship in the Theo- 
logical Seminary at Princeton, which was realized in 1839, upon the 
decease of his widow. It stands the twenty-sixth on the list of scholar- 
ships, and bears the name of its founder. 


(Added from Dr. Hall's Supplement.) 

Rev. Mr. Waddell, mentioned in the account of the New Jersey 
Bible Society in the Appendix, p. 355, was the rector of St. Michael's 
Church. Another of Mr. Armstrong's friends was Rev. Thomas 
Pictou, of Westfield, Essex county, New Jersey, for a time pastor 
in Woodbury, N. J., and afterwards chaplain at West Point (1820). 
He was a Welshman by birth. His daughter married Edwin Stevens, 
of Hoboken, where Mr. Pictou for a time resided. His wife was a 
Zantzinger. He is mentioned in E. D. Mansfield's "Personal Memo- 
ries," 1803-1843, published in Cincinnati, 1879, pp. 88-91. 

In our baptismal records, in the handwriting of Mr. Armstrong, is 

"1806, Nathaniel Sayre Harris, born September 24, 1805, son of 
Rev. Nathaniel and Catherine Harris, baptized by Rev. Thomas Pic- 
tou, of Westfield, Essex county." 


Rev. Nathaniel Harris married the widow of Samuel Witham 
Stockton (p. 243), who was the daughtetr of Col. (John?) Coxe. Mr. 
Harris was a Presbyterian, and Principal of the Trenton Academy, 

Nathaniel Sayre Harris was a cadet at West Point (afterward 
Professor of Tactics), and then an Episcopal minister. In 1878, when 
he was on a visit at J. G. Stevens', in Trenton, I showed him the 
baptismal entry above, a copy of which I had previously given to his 
son. Rev. J. Andrews Harris, of Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia (an Epis- 
copal minister). 



Samuei. B. How, D.D. — WiIvIvIam J. Armstrong, D.D. — 
The Rev. John Smith.' — Notes. 

1816— 1828. 

On the nineteenth of August, 18 16, the congregation met 
and elected for their pastor the Rev. Samuee Beanchard 

Mr. (now Dr.) How, a native of Burlington, graduated 
in the University of Pennsylvania (1811) ; was tutor for a 
short time in Dickinson College; then a master of the Gram- 
mar School of his University; was licensed by the Presby- 
tery of Philadelphia in 1813; then passed a session at the 
Princeton Seminary, and on November 10, 18 14, was or- 
dained and installed pastor at Solebury, Bucks county. 

Mr. How was installed over the Trenton congregation 
December 17, 1816, on which occasion Dr. Miller presided. 
Dr. Alexander preached (2 Cor. 3 : 16). Dr. Miller gave 
the charge to the pastor, and the Rev. I. V. Brown the 
charge to the congregation. This pastorship was happily 
and usefully continued until April, 1821, when a call from 
the First Church of New Brunswick was laid before the 
Presbytery, and he was installed in that city in the follow- 
ing June.^ The additions to the communion of the church 
in these five years were fifty-six on their first profession, and 
thirty on certificates from other churches.^ 

Dr. How was followed by the late Wieeiam Jessup 
Armstrong, D.D., son of the Rev. Dr. Amzi Armstrong, 
of Mendham and Bloomfield. Mr. Armstrong graduated at 
Princeton College in 1816; studied theology under his 



father, and for a year in the Princeton Seminary ; and upon 
his licensure in 1819 (by the Presbytery of New Brunswick) 
entered on two years' service of the Board of Missions in 
Virginia, in the course of which he founded the Presbyterian 
Church in Charlottesville. Mr. Armstrong returned to New 
Jersey in 1821, and on the twenty-eighth September he was 
unanimously elected pastor of Trenton.^ On the twenty- 
seventh November the Presbytery of New Brunswick, meet- 
ing in Trenton, the session was opened, according to a cus- 
tom then prevailing, with Mr. Armstrong's trial sermon for 
ordination. On the next day, together with Charles Hodge 
and Peter O. Studdiford, he was ordained, and himself 
installed.^ At this service Dr. Miller presided ; Rev. George 
S. Woodhull preached (2 Tim. 4 : 12) ; Rev. E. F. Cooley 
gave the charge to the ministers, and Rev. D. Comfort that 
to the congregation. The date of Mr. Armstrong's actual 
entrance upon the duties of the pastorate is October 20, 

During his short residence of about two and a half years, 
fifty-three new communicants were received on their pro- 
fession, and fourteen on certificate. 

While residing here Mr. Armstrong was married to 
Sarah Milnor, daughter of Lucius Horatio Stockton. 

When Dr. John H. Rice was called to relinquish the 
church at Richmond, Virginia, he recommended Mr. Arm- 
strong as his successor, and a call from that congregation 
was put into his hands February 3, 1824 — ^the same day on 
which one of his successors in Trenton (James W. Alex- 
ander) was received by the Presbytery as a candidate for 
the ministry. At the following April meeting the pastor 
read to the Presbytery a statement he had previously made 
to the Trenton parish, of the reasons of his favorable inclin- 
ation to the Richmond call. The Rev. Jared D. Fyler (then 
residing in Trenton) and Joshua Anderson, one of the 
elders, presented a written statement of the views of the 


people, expressive of their reluctant submission to the 
wishes of their pastor in the matter, and accordingly the 
dissolution took place. 

Dr. Armstrong remained ten years in Richmond, when 
he entered the service of the American Board of Commis- 
sioners for Foreign Missions, first as agent, then as secre- 
tary ; and it was on his passage from Boston to New York, 
on the business of the Board, that he wias wrecked in the 
steamboat Atlantic, November 27, 1846. The last scene of 
that catastrophe of which there is any account presents him 
reading the Gospel, praying with, exhorting and comforting 
his fellow-passengers, so long as the fatal event was de- 

The characteristics of Dr. Armstrong's preaching have 
been stated by two good judges. The Rev. Dr. James W. 
Alexander wrote to the compiler of his Memoir : 

"While he was at Trenton I often listened to his sermons, and there 
was no man whom at that day I heard with more impression. His 
sermons were carefully prepared, and were pronounced with a degree 
of warmth and emotion which are quite unusual. My recollection is 
vivid of his appeals to the heart, as being of a high order. When at 
a later period I was called to labor among the same people, I found 
that he had left that good name which is 'better than precious oint- 
ment.' There were manifest tokens of his faithfulness in public and 
in private." 

Mr. Theodore Frelinghuysen, now President of Rutgers 
College, then a member of the bar, says in a letter in 185 1 : 

"I very often enjoyed the privilege of hearing him while he was a 
stated minister at Trenton, and the impression made upon my mind, 
deep and unfading, was that of uncommon earnestness, sincerity, and 
power. He commenced in his calm and solemn manner ; he rose with 
his subject; his mind kindled and his heart warmed as he discoursed; 
and towards the conclusion he poured his whole soul into it, as if he 
thought he might never speak again, and as if some impenitent friend 
before him might never hear again the voice of warning and the invita- 
tions of mercy."° 


The Rev. J. C. Smith, of Washington City, says : "One of 
our own elders knew him as a pastor in Trenton, and he 
blesses God that through him he was converted to God."^ 

The congregation was without a settled pastor for about 
twenty months, when having united in the choice of the 
Rev. John Smith, of Connecticut, that minister began to 
supply the pulpit regularly in December, 1825.''' He was 
not received by the Presbytery until the following February ; 
and on the eighth March he was both ordained and installed 
in Trenton. In that service Dr. Carnahan presided, Dr. 
Hodge preached (i Cor. i : 21), and both the charges were 
given by the Rev. E. F. Cooley. Mr. Smith was a native 
of Wethersfield ; a graduate of Yale College (1821) and of 
the Andover Theological Seminary, and a licentiate of the 
Congregational Association of East Fairfield. 

Mr. Smith continued in this charge less than three years, 
but in that time fifty-nine persons made their first profes- 
sion. Twenty-six of these were received at the communion 
of April, 1827; two of whomi afterwards entered the min- 
istry, namfily, Mr. George Ely, pastor of Nottingham and 
Dutch Neck, who died August 14, 1856, and George Bur- 
rowes, D.D., pastor of Kirkwood, in Maryland; Professor 
in Lafayette College, and pastor in Newtown, Pennsylvania. 
One of eleven new communicants in April, 1828, is com- 
memorated in the following inscription in our church-yard : 

"Here lie the remains of JerEmiah D. Lalor, who departed this life 
March 8th, A.D. 1845, aged thirty-two years. To those who knew 
him the remembrance of his virtues is the highest eulogy of his char- 
acter. He had devoted himself to the service of God in the ministry 
of reconciliation, and when just upon the threshold of the sacred ofifice 
was removed by death from the brighest prospects of usefulness, to 
serve his Maker in another sphere." 

Some confusion was created during Mr. Smith's ministry 
by the indiscreet, however sincere, zeal in what they called 
the cause of Christ, of two or three superserviceable min- 



isters and candidates, who' wished to introduce those meas- 
ures for the promotion of the work of a pastor, that had, 
then at least, the apology of being too new to have taught 
their warning lessons. An attempt was made to form a 
distinct congregation, and separate meetings were held for 
a time, and even a small building erected, which was put 
into connection with the German Reformed Church; but 
the Presbyterians gradually returned, and nO' effort was 
made, or probably designed, to produce a schism. Mr. 
Smith, however, in August, 1828, requested a dissolution of 
the pastoral relation, which was granted by the Presbytery, 
and in February of the next year he was detached from that 
body and took charge of a Congregational Church in Ex- 
eter, New Hampshire. He has since exercised his ministry 
in Stamford and other towns of Connecticut, and large 
numbers have become united with the churches he has 
served. While resident in Trenton, Mr. Smith was married 
to a daughter of the late Aaron D. Woodruff, Attorney- 
General of the State. 


During Dr. How's residence in Trenton several useful public enter- 
prises were undertaken, in which he, together with the other ministers 
of the town, participated. In January, 1817, he was of the committee 
(with Colonels Beatty, Bayard, and Frelinghuysen, and Mr. Wm. 
Coxe) to prepare a constitution for the New Jersey Colonization 
Society, then formed. In 1820, the Presbyterian and Episcopal clergy- 
men were associated with Samuel L- Southard, George Sherman, 
Charles Ewing, and other philanthropic citizens, in encouraging the 
institution of a Savings Bank. The same persons were active in found- 
ing the Apprentices' Library in April, 1821, and Mr. Ewing delivered 
a discourse in the Presbyterian Church on the last day of that year, 
in view of the opening of the Library on the following day. In 1816 
"The Female Tract Society of Trenton" began the useful ministry 
which it still continues. In 1822 the ladies of the congregation formed 
a "Missionary and Education Society," which met once a fortnight to 

16 PRES 


provide clothing for theological students and for children at mission 
stations. Whilst the work of the hands ;»vas going on, one of the 
ladies read missionary intelligence. Two associations for the circula- 
tion of the Scriptures were formed in 1824; in May "The Apprentices' 
Bible Society," of which Wm. P. Sherman was Secretary, and in 
August "The Bible Society of Delaware Falls, Auxiliary to the Ameri- 
can Bible Society." The latter was organized in the State House, and 
among the speakers were the late Rev. Dr. Milnor, of New York, and 
"Mr. Bethune, a theological student." 

On the twenty-fourth June, 1817, died Aaron Dickinson Wood- 
ruff, who had been a Trustee from May 4, 1789.^ He was born Sep- 
tember 12, 1762; delivered the Valedictory at the Princeton Com- 
mencement of 1779; was admitted to the bar 1784; was made Attorney- 
General of the State in 1793, and annually reelected, except in 1811, until 
his death. He also served in the Legislature, and was influential in 
having Trenton selected for the State capital. He was buried in the 
Trenton church-yard, where his epitaph records that, 

"For twenty-four year he filled the important station of Attorney- 
General with incorruptible integrity. Adverse to legal subtleties, his 
professional knowledge was exerted in the cause of truth and justice. 
The native benevolence of his heart made him a patron of the poor, a 
defender of the fatherless ; it exulted in the joys, or participated in 
the sorrows of his friends." 

Mr. Woodruff's successor was Samuel L. Southard, who signed 
the triple oath required by the charter, (of allegiance to the State, to 
the United States, and of fidelity as a trustee,) May 11, 1818. Until 
called from Trenton, in 1823, to the cabinet of President Monroe, he 
was one of the most punctual and active officers of the congregation. 
He was a Manager and Vice-President of the "Education Society of 
the Presbytery of New Brunswick," formed in 1819, and a Vice-Presi- 
dent in the Board of Trustees of the Theological Seminary at Prince- 
ton. Mr. Southard's public life as Legislator, Judge, Attorney-General, 
and Governor in his own State, and as a Senator, Secretary of the Navy, 
and President of the Senate at Washington, needs no record here. He 
died in Fredericksburg, Virginia, June 26, 1842, at the age of fifty-five. 

The name of Lucius Horatio Stockton having occurred in this 
chapter, it deserves commemoration as that of a prominent member of 
the congregation and church. He was a son of Richard Stockton, the 
signer of the Declaration of Independence, and a nephew of Elias 
Boudinot. Mr. L. H. Stockton was for some time District-Attorney 
of New Jersey, and his nomination to be Secretary of War, within a 
few weeks (Jan., 1801) of the close of the administration of President 
Adams, was one of the causes of umbrage to Mr. Jefferson. He died 
at Trenton, May 26, 1835. Mr. Stockton was eccentric, and a very 


■earnest politician, but did not deserve to be called "a crazy, fanatical 
young man," as Wolcott wrote.' In a long series of articles in the 
Trenton Federalist of 1803, Mr. L. H. Stockton defends himself and 
Ms deceased uncle, SamuEL Witham Stockton^ from attacks in the 
Democratic True American. Mr. S. W. Stockton went to Europe in 
1774, and was Secretary of the American Commission to the courts 
of Austria and Prussia. He negotiated a treaty with Holland, and 
returned to New Jersey in 1779, where he held various public offices. 
In 1792 he was an Alderman of Trenton; in 1794 Secretary of State; 
and his monument in our church-yard records that he died June 27, 
1795, (in his forty-third year,) in consequence of being "thrown from 
his chaise."^" The Rev. James P. Armstrong, who was "long on the 
most friendly and intimate terms with him," preached at his funeral 
from I Sam. 20 : 3. 

While Dr. How was pastor another of the prominent citizens of 
Trenton and members of this church was removed by death. Samuel 
Leake was born in Cumberland county, November 2, 1747. He 
received his preparatory training in the two celebrated schools of 
Fagg's Manor and Pequea. The Rev. John Blair, Dr. R. Smith, and 
Enoch Green gave him certificates, 1767-g, of proficiency in different 
"branches, and of his high religious character. After teaching three 
years in Newcastle, he received (May, 1772) testimonials from Thomas 
McKean and George Read (two of the three Delaware signers of the 
Declaration of Independence), George Munro, John Thompson, and 
the Rev. Joseph Montgomery. He then entered Princeton College, 
and took his Bachelor's degree in September, 1774. In the following 
March President Witherspoon gave a written certificate of his quali- 
fications to teach Greek, Latin, and mathematics, to which he appended : 
"I must also add that he gave particular attention to the English 
language while here, and is probably better acquainted with its struc- 
ture, propriety, and force than most of his years and standing in this 

Mr. Leake, however, did not resume the employment of teaching, 
but entered upon the study of the law, first with Richard Howell, Esq., 
afterwards Governor of the State, and then with Charles Pettit, Esq., 
of Burlington, and with their certificates, and that of Thomas McKean 
(afterwards Governor of Pennsylvania), he was Hcensed as an attorney 
in November, 1776. He began practice in Salem, but in October, 1785, 
removed to Trenton, where he pursued his profession so successfully 
as to be able to retire before he was enfeebled by age. He paid 
unusual attention to the students in his office; regularly devoting one 
hour every day to their examination. I have before me an example 
of his systematic ways, in a document engrossed in a large hand, 
beginning thus : 

"I. Be it remembered that Samuel Leake, on Sunday, the thirteenth 
day of October, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred 


and eleven, in the Presbyterian Church in Trenton, received the Lord's 
Supper; James F. Armstrong then being minister of the Gospel, and 
administering the Supper in that church." 

Entries in the same form, with the proper dates, follovi^ as to each 
of the semi-annual communions until October i, 1815, when the record 
is that, "Dr. Miller preached the Action Sermon; Dr. Alexander ad- 
ministered the ordinance. Mr. Armstrong was sick and absent." The 
paper continues to make a formal register of each attendance at the 
Lord's Supper until it closes with that on January 2, 1820, two months 
before his decease. He prepared similar documents for each of his 
daughters as they became communicants. Mr. Leake died on the 
eighth of March, 1820, in his seventy-third year. The Supreme Court 
being in session at the time, the bar not only resolved to attend the 
funeral, but recommended to their brethren throughout the State to 
wear the customary badge of respect. His epitaph is as foUov/s : 

"Sacred to the memory of Samuel Leake, Esquire, Sergeant at Law. 
Died eighth March, A. D. 1820, A. E. 72. Educated to the bar he 
attained the highest degree of eminence; distinguished for candor, 
integrity, zeal for his clients and profound knowledge of jurisprudence, 
he fulfilled the duties of his station with singular usefulness, 'without 
fear and without reproach.' Deeply versed in human literature, and 
devoutly studious of the words of sacred truth ; he lived the life of 
a Christian, and died the death of the righteous."^^ 


In the term of Dr. Armstrong's ministry the session and church 
were painfully concerned with a public affair in which one of their 
members was implicated. Peter Gordon, Esq. (who was elected an 
elder in March, 1797, and a Trustee in September, 1804), after eighteen 
years' tenure of the office of State Treasurer, was found to be in 
default. While the matter was in course of investigation by the 
Legislature (1821-2) Mr. Gordon voluntarily withdrew from the com- 
munion, and from his place in the session, but was restored in June, 
1825, and the next month took a certificate of dismission to New York. 


During the time of the Rev. John Smith, two of the elders of the 
church died. 

Benjamin Hayden was in the session in September, 1806 — how 
long previously to that date cannot be ascertained. He was also a 
Trustee from September, 181 1, till his death, which took place Feb- 
ruary 28, 1827, in his seventy-fourth year. This venerable and excel- 
lent man left a son of the same name, who died a member of this 
church, April 11, 1858, in his eighty-fifth year. 


John Beatty was a son of the Rev. Charles Beatty, the successor 
of Wm. Tennent, at Neshaminy. His mother was a daughter of 
Governor Reading, and his grandmother was of the family of Clinton, 
so distinguished in the history of New York. Mr. Beatty was a 
native of Bucks county; graduated at Princeton 1769; was educated 
in medicine under Dr. Rush, but entered the army of the Revolution, 
where he soon became a Lieutenant-Colonel. He was among the cap- 
tured at Fort Washington, on the Hudson, and afterwards rose to the 
rank of Major, and was Commissary-General of prisoners." After 
the peace he practiced medicine in Princeton, and was Secretary of 
the New Jersey Medical Society; but in 1783 and other years was in 
Congress; in 1789 was Speaker of the State Assembly; and from 1795 
to 1805 was Secretary of State. From May, 1815, until his death, he 
was President of the Trenton Banking Company. He was President 
of the company which built the noble bridge that unites Trenton to 
his native county in Pennsylvania.^^ General Beatty was a Trustee 
of the church from 1799 to 1804, and again from 1822 till his death. 
He was received to the communion May, 1808; ordained to the elder- 
ship September, 1817, at the same time with James Ewing, Robert 
McNeely, and Joshua Anderson." Chief Justice Ewing wrote his 
epitaph : 

"Sacred to the memory of General John Beatty; born December 10, 
1749; died May 30, 1826. Educated as a physician, he became early 
distinguished for benevolence, assiduity, and skill. In the War of 
Independence, in important military stations, he faithfully served his 
country. By the public voice he was called to the discharge of emi- 
nent civil oflfices. In the State and National Legislatures repeatedly a 
representative, always active and influential. For many years a ruling 
elder of this church. In every walk of life amiable, honorable, and 
useful. He crowned the virtues of the man, the patriotism of the 
soldier, and the sagacity of the statesman by the pure piety and sin- 
cere religion of the devout and humble Christian." 

Colonel Erkuries Beatty, of Princeton, was a brother of General 
Beatty, and father of C. C. Beatty, D.D., of Steubenville. He died 
in Princeton, February 23, 1823. 


In the summer of 1821 the Rev. John Summerfield, the English 
Methodist preacher whose visit to this country produced an impres- 
sion still vividly retained by many of his hearers, passed a few days 
in Trenton, and occupied the Presbyterian pulpit for two successive 
evenings. Abstracts of both his sermons are given by his latest 
biographer, who was one of the large audience that crowded the 
church. He says : "Mr. Summerfield received the most marked 


attention from every class during his brief stay in Trenton ; and 
though suffering all the while from sickness (for he was attacked 
the day after his arrival), he strove to entertain and edify the various 
company that sought his society." "A New Life of Summerfield, by 
William W. Willett." Philadelphia, 1857. 

The most notable public event of 1824 was the visit of General 
Lafayette to the United States. In his tour he arrived in Trenton on 
Saturday, the twenty-fifth of September. Next morning he attended 
pubHc worship in our church; afterwards^^ he visited Joseph Bona- 
parte at Bordentown, and returned to spend the night. He break- 
fasted here again July 16, 1825. 

President Monroe (who was wounded in the battle of Trenton), 
on his tour of 1817, arrived here on Saturday, June 7th, and attended 
worship the next day in the Presbyterian Church. 


James Ewing, father of the Chief Justice, and the tenth child of 
Thomas and Mary Ewing (p. 218), first came to Trenton as a repre- 
sentative of Cumberland county, in the Legislature in 1774, and re- 
moved his residence there in 1779. He was afterwards, under Con- 
gress, Auditor of Public Accounts, Commissioner of the Continental 
Loan Office for New Jersey, and Agent for Pensions. He was Mayor 
of Trenton, 1 797-1803. For some years he was a partner of Isaac 
ColHns (p. 198) in merchandise, and there is a letter of condolence 
from him to Mr. Collins, on the death of his wife, in the Memoir of 
Mr. C. He was one of the founders of the Library and the Academy. 
He was a corporator, commissioner, and secretary of the Society in- 
corporated March 15, 1796, to make the Assanpink navigable from 
the "Trenton Mills" to "the place where it intersects the stage road 
from Burlington to Amboy" ; and doubtless was in the company who 
on the third February, 1797, descended the creek in the boat Hope, 
from "Davidstown," where the upper lock was situated, to Trenton, in 
three hours, and so opened one half of the proposed line of naviga- 
tion.^" Mr. Ewing was elected a Trustee of the church September 5, 
1808, and ordained an elder September 21, 1817. He continued in both 
offices until his death, which took place October 23, 1823. In accord- 
ance with his known objections to the practice, no stone was placed 
to mark the spot of his interment, which was in our church-yard." 


It may be placed among the miscellaneous items of 1828, that on 
the fourteenth July the church was struck with Hghtning; but the 
conductor answered its purpose so well that no mischief was done be- 
yond the shattering of a few panes of glass. 

In October, 1827, the celebrated JoseIph Lancaster established his 
residence here, and opened a school. In the next year a girls' school 


was taught by Mrs. Lancaster. For a quarter the public schools were 
under their joint direction. Their contract was to teach eighty children 
for one year, and supply books and stationery, for two hundred and 
seventy-five dollars. 

In October, 1828, the Synod, meeting in Trenton, united in a general 
convention, which assembled in the church. Chief Justice Kirkpatrick 
presiding, and the present Chief Justice Green being Secretary. A 
project for raising forty thousand dollars in two years, for erecting 
school-houses and supplying teachers and missionaries through the 
State, was recommended, as were also the objects of the "General Sab- 
bath Union," the American Temperance Society, and the Sunday- 
school enterprise. In November, 1817, a convention met at Trenton 
and formed a State Society for the suppression of vice and the pro- 
motion of good morals, principally by aiding the civil authorities in 
executing the laws, and by diffusing a knowledge of the statutes and 
their penalties. 


Copy of an inscription on a stone in the pavement of the church- 
porch : 

"To perpetuate the memory and the modest worth of Mrs. Mary 
Dunbar, this marble is placed over her grave, a tribute of the grateful 
and affectionate remembrance of her pupils, whom for three suc- 
cessive generations as school-mistress she had taught in this city. Ever 
attentive to the pious nurture of her pupils in private, and to the duties 
of religion in public, she closed an exemplary and useful life, December 
9, A.D. 1808 : aged 76 years." 



James W. AIvExander, D.D. — John W. Yeomans, D.D. 
— John Haee, D.D, 

1829 — 1859. 

The successor of Mr. Smith was the Rev. James Wad- 
dee Alexander; who graduated at the Princeton College 
in 1820; entered the Seminary 182 1 ; was licensed 1825; 
installed at Charlotte Court House, Virginia, 1827, and 
over the Trenton Church, February 11, 1829. On the last 
occasion Dr. A. Alexander presided. Dr. Miller preached 
(Matt. 4:19), Rev. Eli F. Cooley and Henry Perkins gave 
the charges. 

The services of this pastorship began January 10, 1829, 
and terminated October 31, 1832; during which period 
fifty-one new co^mmunicants were received, and thirty 
others on certificate. Dr. Alexander having complied with 
a request which I made of all the ex-pastors surviving at 
the time oi preparing this volume, for such reminiscences 
O'f their residence here as would com,e within the scope of 
my work, I gladly incorporate his letter in this stage of 
the narrative.^ 

"New York, February 10, 1859. 

"My Dear Friend: The retrospect of my ministerial life brings to 
view so many defects, and such unfruitfulness, that I have never been 
able to take pleasure in numbering up sermons preached, visits made, 
and members added; nor have I any anniversary or autobiographical 
discourses to which I could refer. At your request, however, I can 
not refuse to give you a few reminiscences of my connection with 
the church of which you are the pastor. 

"A great intimacy subsisted between my father and our predecessor, 
the Rev. James F. Armstrong, and the friendship between their re^ 



spective descendants continues to this day. Mr. Armstrong had been 
the friend of Witherspoon, Smith and Kollock. He was laid aside 
from preaching by a disabling and distressing rheumatism, before I 
ever entered his delightful and hospitable house — rich in good books, 
good talk, and good cheer — where old and young were alike made 
welcome and happy. But this brought me acquainted with Trenton, 
with that family, and especially with Chief Justice Ewing, by whose 
means and influence, more than any other, I was afterwards led to 
settlement among them. The family of Mr., afterwards Judge, Ewing, 
was the home of my childhood and youth ; which led that distinguished 
and excellent man to look upon my early performances in the pulpit 
with undue partiality. By him, and by the late General Samuel R. 
Hamilton, who was a Princeton man, my name was brought before 
the congregation, and I was installed as their pastor, by a committee 
of Presbytery, on the eleventh day of Febrxiary, 1829. I had, however, 
begun my labors with them on the tenth of January, when I preached 
from I Cor. 11 : 28. My strictly pastoral labors ended on the last 
day of October, 1832. when I preached from Ezekiel 16 : 61, 62; 
though I continued to supply the pulpit until the end of the year. 
My term of settlement may therefore be called four years. The 
records of the Church session will show the number of accessions to 
the communion of the church; these were few. There was nothing 
like a revival of religion during my continuance with them, and it was 
cause of painful thought to me that my labors were so little owned 
to the awakening of sinners. Neither am I aware that there was any 
remarkable addition to the number of hearers. But the people were 
forbearing and affectionate towards their young and inexperienced 
minister, who for most of the time was feeble in health, and was sub- 
jected, as you know, to some unusual afflictions in regard to his early 

"In those days we worshipped in the old church, which was suffici- 
ently capacious, with one of the old-time high pulpits. The congrega- 
tion had been trained to habits of remarkable punctuality and atten- 
tion. Notwithstanding some inroads of new measures during the 
previous period, under the labors of a so-called Evangelist, the church 
was as sound and staid a Presbyterian body as I have ever seen. It 
comprised some excellent and experienced Christians, and among these 
the valued elders whose names you have recorded. Good Mr. Mc- 
Neely was slow but sure; an upright man, of more kindness than 
appeared at first; of little vivacity, and no leaning towards risks or 
innovation. Mr. Voorhees and Mr. Samuel Brearley came later into 
the session; both, in my judgment, judicious and godly men. Mrs. 
Armstrong, the venerable relict of the pastor first named, does not 
belong particularly to my part of the narrative, except that she chose 
to treat me with the regard of a mother for a son. She was then in 
health and strength, and lived to exhibit a dignified, serene, and beauti- 


ful old age. Having come of a distinguished family, the Livingstons 
of New York, she never ceased to gather around her fireside some of 
the most elegant and cultivated society. Her conversation, though 
quiet, was instructive, turning often upon the heroes of the Revolu- 
tion. She was, I think, at Princeton during the battle ; indeed she 
was a native of that town. From that excellent family I received 
support and encouragement of the most useful and delicate kind, during 
a time of manifold trials. My term of service was marked by no 
striking external events, no great enlargement, excitement, or disaster. 
The long-suffering of God was great towards a timid and often dis- 
heartened servant, who remembers the period with mingled thankful- 
ness and humiliation. 

"At this time the Trenton church contained some excellent speci- 
mens of sohd, instructed, old-school Presbyterianism. I shall never 
forget the lessons which it was miy privilege to receive from aged 
and experienced Christians, who must often have looked with wonder 
and pity on the young minister who undertook the responsible task 
of guiding them. The dying scenes which a pastor beholds in his 
early years make a deep impression; and I recall some which were 
very edifying, and which attested the power of the doctrines which 
had been inculcated. Among my most valued parishioners was a 
man in humble life, who has lately gone to his rest, I mean James 
PoLiyOCK. At a later day he was most wisely made an elder. At that 
time he lived in a small house on Mill Hill, and worked as a dyer 
in one of the woolen factories on the Assanpink. His figure was 
somewhat bent, and his hands were always blue, from the colors used 
in his trade. But his eye was piercing and eloquent; his countenance 
would shine like a lantern from the light within; and the flame of his 
strong and impassioned thought made his discourse as interesting as 
I ever heard from any man. He had the texts of Scripture, as many 
Scotchmen have, at his finger ends, and could adduce and apply pas- 
sages in a most unexpected manner. The great Scottish writers were 
familiar to him. I think his favorite uninspired volume was Ruther- 
ford's 'Christ Dying and Drawing Sinners to Himself.' I lent him 
Calvin's Institutes, which he returned with expressions of high admira- 
tion for Mr. Caulvin. His acquaintance with the reformation his- 
tory of his native land, in both its great periods, was remarkable, 
being such as would have done credit to any learned clergyman. 
Unlike many who resembled him in attainment, Mr. Pollock was 
inwardly and deeply affected by the truths which he knew. His speech 
was always seasoned with salt, and I deemed it a means of grace to 
listen to his ardent and continuous discourse. He was certainly a 
great talker, but without assumption or any wearying of competent 
hearers. His dialect was broad, west-country Scotch, for he was 
from Beith, in Ayrshire ; and while I was resident his sense of the 


peculiarity kept him from praying in the meetings, though none could 
otherwise have been more acceptable. Having from my childhood 
been used to Scotch Presbyterians, and knowing how some of the 
narrower among them will stickle for every pin of the covenanted 
tabernacle, and every shred and token, as if ordained in the decalogue, 
I was both surprised and delighted to observe how large-minded Mr. 
Pollock was, in respect to every improvement, however different from 
the ways of his youth. I have witnessed his faith during grievous 
illnesses, and I rejoice to know that he was enabled to give a clear 
dying testimony for the Redeemer whom he loved. Such are the men 
who are the glory of our Presbyterian churches. 

"During the term of my incumbency it is remarkable that the two 
persons who had most influence in congregational affairs were not 
communicants, though they were closely connected with all that occur- 
red in the church ; these were Chief Justice Ewing and Mr. Southard, 
afterwards Secretary of the Navy. It deserves to be noted, among 
the traits of a Presbyterianism which is passing away, that Judge 
Ewing, as a baptized member of the church, always pleaded his rights, 
and once in a public meeting declared himself amenable to the disci- 
pHne of church courts. (Discipline, chap, i, § 6, page 456.) There 
is good reason tO' believe that he was a subject of renewing grace 
long before his last illness in 1832. During this brief period of suffer- 
ing he made a distinct and touching avowal of his faith in Christ. 

"Judge Ewing is justly reckoned among the greatest ornaments of 
the New Jersey bar. His acquaintance with his own department of 
knowledge was both extensive and profound, closely resembling that 
of the English black-letter lawyers, who at this moment have as many 
imitators at the New Jersey bar as anywhere in America. He was 
eminently conservative in Church and State; punctual in adherence to 
rule and precedent, incapable of being led into any vagaries, sound 
in judgment, tenacious of opinion, indefatigable in labor, and incor- 
ruptibly honest and honorable, so as to be proverbially cited all over 
the State. In a very remarkable degree he kept himself abreast of 
the general literature of the day, and was even lavish in regard to 
the purchase of books. He was a truly elegant gentleman, of the 
old school ; an instructive and agreeable companion, and a hospitable 
entertainer. He deserves to be named in any record of the church, 
for I am persuaded that there was no human being to whom its 
interests were more dear. As the warm and condescending friend 
of my boyhood and youth, he has a grateful tribute from my revering 

"In one particular the people of Trenton were more observant of our 
Form of Government (see chap, xxi) than is common. When from 
any cause there was no one to preach, the service was nevertheless 
carried on by the elders, according to the book, and a sermon was 


read. The reader on these occasions was always Mr. Ewing, and the 
discourse which he selected was always one of Witherspoon's ; the 
choice in both cases being significant. I have often been led to con- 
sider how much better this is, for instance in country congregations, 
than the rambling away to hear some ignorant haranguer, perhaps 
of an erroneous sect, or the listening to a frothy exhortation from 
some zealous and forward brother, without gifts and without au- 

"The name of Dr. Francis A. Ewing, son of the Chief Justice, 
naturally occurs to our thoughts here. Space is not allowed for that 
extended notice which might elsewhere be proper, for the Doctor's 
was a character well deserving close study. Though a professional 
man by title, he was in fact and of choice much more a man of 
letters and a recluse student of science. His attainments were large 
and accurate, though made in an irregular way, and though he never 
seemed to others to be studying at all. In the classical languages, in 
French, in the natural sciences, and in all that concerns elegant 
literature and the fine arts, he was singularly full and accurate. In 
matters of taste he was cultivated, correct, and almost fastidious. 
Music was his delight, and he was equally versed in the science and 
the art. It was after the term of my pastorship that he developed 
his skill as an organist, but at a much earlier day he devoted himself 
for years to the gratuitous instruction of the choir; and though I 
have heard many noted precentors, I can remember none who had 
greater power of adaptation and expression. Though his own voice 
was slender and uninviting, he long made his influence felt in ren- 
dering all that was musical subservient to the spirit of worship. 

"Dr. Ewing professed his faith in Christ during my years of min- 
istry. His early religious exercises were very deep and searching, 
and the change of his affections and purposes was marked. He had 
peculiarities of temper and habit which kept him much aloof from 
general society, and thus abridged his influence. His likes and dis- 
likes were strong, and if he had more readily believed the good will 
of others towards himself, he would have been more useful and more 
happy. I should sin against truth if I did not say that towards me 
he was for forty years a warm, forbearing, tender, and at times most 
efficient friend. I have been with him at junctures when it was im- 
possible not to detect, through all his extraordinary reserve, the work- 
ings of a heart agitated and swayed by gracious principle. 

"Samuel L. Southard was also a member of the congregation, and 
a friend of all that promised its good. More sprightly and versatile 
than Mr. Ewing, he resembled a tropical tree of rapid growth. Few 
men ever attained earlier celebrity in New Jersey. This perhaps tended 
to produce a certain character which showed itself in good-natured 
egotism. Mr. Southard was a man of genius and eloquence, who made 


great impressions on a first interview, or by a single argument. He 
loved society, and shone in company. His entertainments will be long 
remembered by the associates of his youth. It is not my province to 
speak of his great efforts at the bar ; he was always named after Stock- 
ton, Johnson, and Ewing, and with Frelinghuysen, Williamson, Wood 
and their coevals. Having been bred under the disciphne of Dr. Fin- 
ley, at Basking Ridge, he was thoroughly versed in Presbyterian doc- 
trine and ways ; loving and preferring this branch of the Church to the 
day of his death. Defection from its ranks gave him sincere grief, as I 
am ready more largely to attest, if need be. In those days of his prime, 
Mr. Southard was greatly under the salutary influence of the Chief 
Justice, who was his Mentor; I think he felt the loss of this great 
man in some important points. So earnestly and even tenderly did he 
yield himself to divine impressions, that his friends confidently ex- 
pected that he would become a communicant. During this period he 
was an ardent advocate of the Temperance Society, then in its early 
stage. I remember attending a meeting at Lawrenceville, in company 
with my learned friend, the present Chief Justice, where Mr. Southard, 
following Mr. Frelinghuysen, made an impassioned address in favor of 
abstinence and the pledge. In regard to religious things, the change 
to Washington did not tend to increased solemnity or zeal. I have been 
informed that Mr. Southard felt the deep impression of divine truth 
at the close of his days. As a young minister, I received from him the 
affectionate forbearance of an elder brother, and I shall always cherish 
his memory with love. 

"Before closing this hurried letter of reminiscences, let me note that 
the ruling elders during my day were Robert McNeely, Nathaniel Bur- 
rowes, John Voorhees, and Samuel Brearley, all good and believing 
men, and all gone to the other world. The Trustees were Messrs. Rose, 
Chambers, Ewing, Burroughs, and Fish; of whom likewise all are gone, 
except my esteemed friends, Messrs. Burroughs and Fish. 

"Before taking my pen from the paper, let it be permitted to me to 
give expression to a feeling of personal regard to the late Mrs. Rice 
and her family, under whose roof my years of early ministry in Tren- 
ton were passed. She was a woman of a meek and quiet spirit, and 
was honored and beloved, during a long life, for the benignity of her 
temper and the kindliness of her words. Juliette Rice, her daughter, 
was a person who in some circumstances would have become distin- 
guished. To sincere piety she added more than usual cultivation, 
delicacy of taste, refinement of manners, and a balance of good qualities 
which elevated her to a place among the most accomplished and even 
the exclusive. Under the disadvantage of a deafness almost total, and 
a pulmonary disease which slowly wasted her away, she manifested a 
sweet, uncomplaining disposition, and a steady faith in Christ. Amidst 
the kindnesses of these good people I spent the first months of my 



married life, and welcomed the tender mercies of God in our first-born 
son, long since taken to be with the Lord. 

"Thus I end my rambling letter, (which, by-the-by, is only the last 
article of an epistolary series extending through forty years,) and am, 
as always, 

"Your faithful friend, 

"James W. Alexander.^ 
"The Rev. Dr. Hall." 

For nearly two years after Mr. Alexander's removal the 
pulpit was supplied by transient ministers. Among those 
who were most frequently engaged were the Rev. Asahel 
Nettleton and Truman Osborn. The minutes of Presbytery 
for 1834 and 1835 show that efforts were then proposed 
by some of the congregation for enlarging the means of 
religious instruction, either by employing an Evangelist or 
the erection of a Free Church. An "Evangelical Society" 
liad been formed which sustained Mr. Osborn as a mission- 
ary in Trenton, Morrisville and Millham, but after his de- 
parture, and the settlement of a pastor, things gradually 
returned to their old channel. 

On the sixteenth March, 1834, the Rev. Symmes C. 
Henry, of Cranbury, was chosen pastor, but he declined 
the call. On the sixth of June, following, the Rev. John 
Wii^iviAM Yeomans was elected, being then pastor of a 
•Congregational Church in Pittsfield, Massachusetts. Dr. 
Yeomans is a graduate of William's College (1824) and of 
the Andover Seminary.^ He was duly received by Pres- 
bytery, and on the seventh October, 1834, was installed. 
In that service the Rev. David Comfort presided, the Rev. 
J. W. Alexander preached (from i Cor. 11: i) and Drs. 
B. H. Rice and A. Alexander gave the charges. The actual 
ministry of Dr. Yeomans is to be dated from September 
II, 1834, to June I, 1 84 1, when he entered on the Presidency 
of Lafayette College, Pennsylvania. To his energy and 
influence not less than to the enterprise of the congregation 
is owing the erection of the commodious church which is 
now occupied by the congregation. The corner-stone of 


the new building was laid May 2, 1839, and services were 
held for the first time on the Lord's day, January 19, 1840.^ 
On the afternoon of that day Dr. How preached, and Dr. 
A. Alexander administered the Lord's Supper. On that 
occasion also three elders and three deacons were ordained.^ 
In the evening the Rev. J. W. Alexander preached. 

In the April of 1837 a church was organized by a commit- 
tee of Presbytery in Bloomsbury, then a suburb of Trenton, 
and the place of worship was the building erected by those 
who followed the Rev. Wm. Boswell in his secession from 
the regular Baptist denomination, and which was vacated 
upon his death in 1833. This mission was diligently con- 
ducted for a year by the Rev. Charles Webster,^ begin- 
ning on the second Sabbath of 1837, and was then sus- 
pended until the present "Second Church" of Trenton was 
formed there. 

D'r. Yeomans had a seat in the General Assembly of 
1837, when the decisive acts were adopted which resulted 
in the division familiarly known as the Old School and 
New School — the latter portion forming a distincct organi- 
zation. No disturbance was produced in the Trenton con- 
gregation by this revolution; with entire unity it remained 
in the ancient fraternity of the churches of the New Bruns- 
wick Presb)d:ery. In the letter written at my solicitation,. 
Dr. Yeomans, after mentioning separatel}^ the elders already 
introduced in this chapter as composing the session of his 
time, thus proceeds: 

"As then constituted, the session was in all respects the most inter- 
esting one I have ever known. It was a great pleasure and benefit 
to be with them in our frequent meetings (sometimes held every 
week). I remember those brethren with grateful respect and love^ 
and for their services in the Church can commend themj, as I have 
always done, for an example. 

"The erection of the new house of worship was an interesting occa- 
sion for that congregation. The whole process was conducted in a 
manner and spirit unusually commendable. The congregation felt 
the awakening enterprise of their venerable city, and the moment the 


business of the place showed signs of revival, they were ready to 
conduct the motion into their measures for rehgious improvement. 
The building of the church fairly led the way to the construction 
of tasteful architecture in the place. The Court House was built at 
the same time, but the draft of the Church helped to determine the 
form of that ; and the row of cottages beyond the canal, and some 
other handsome dwellings which followed in the course of improve- 
ment, were built by the men who came there to build the church. 

"I shall never forget the cordial and earnest way the Trustees and 
others of the congregation, and indeed the whole body, engaged in 
the work. I have scarcely known a people who resolved to appro- 
priate so much to the erection of a house of worship in proportion 
to their means at the time. They went through the work without 
one case of personal disaffection arising out of their proceedings, and 
their zeal and labor have since proved a great blessing to them and 
to others. It is also a gratification to remember the harmony and 
energy with which, when they got ready, they paid off the debt; and 
with what liberality they have supported their minister, and con- 
tributed to the extension of Christian influence in their growing and 
important city. I consider the history of that house of worship, from 
first to last, a very great credit to the congregation. 

"We had during my ministry there no occasion which was signal- 
ized as a revival. The accessions to full communion were, if I rightly 
remember, more or less at every sacramental celebration of the Sup- 
per. Sometimes, perhaps the records will show, twenty or thirty in 
a year ; perhaps even on a single occasion twenty.' 

"It was probably one of the defects of my labors there, that they 
were attended with so few striking results. But many are far more 
decisive than I am inclined to be, in aiming at the kind of awaken- 
ings which are frequent in some parts of the Church, and published 
with so much avidity in the papers. But the fact in the history of 
my ministry in Trenton is as stated above. The duties of the pulpit, 
though very imperfect, were performed with very few interruptions 
through the period ; and the excellent spirit and active co-operation 
of the session were a great help to the efficacy of the divine ordi- 

"Among the signs of improvement which appeared during that 
term, was that of increased attention to the baptism and religious 
training of children. The subject, when brought up in public instruc- 
tion and private conversation, appeared acceptable and profitable. In 
following up the labors of Brother Alexander there, I recollect no 
evidence of improvement with more interest than that. As to general 
progress, the growing activity and intelligence of the leading members 
of the congregation, together with the increase of their number, would 
enable any discerning observer to foresee the progress made there 

17 PRES 


since, under the incitements of a growing population, and of expand- 
ing business, and the impulse and guidance of a faithful and effective 

On the third May, 1841, the congregation unanimously 
resolved to recall Dr. Alexander, who was still in the pro- 
fessorship in the College at Princeton, to which he had been 
transferred from his charge in Trenton; but upon being 
assured that it would not be in his power to comply, it was 
prosecuted no further. A new election on the last day of 
May resulted in the choice of Mr. John Hali,, of Phila- 
delpia, who immediately took charge of the congregation, 
and was both ordained and installed August 11, 1841. The 
Rev. Dr. Cooley presided, Dr. Yeomans preached (Ephe- 
sians 4: 11^), Dr. J. W. Alexander and Dr. S. C. Henry 
gave the charges.^ 

The incidents of the last eighteen years' history of the 
Church in Trenton must be despatched in a few particulars. 

The statistics are as follows: 

Communicants received on examination, 217 

Communicants received by certificate, 262 

Communicants dismissed by certificate, 262 

Present number of communicants, 312 

Infants baptized, 290 

Adults baptized, 1 14 

Funerals, 335 

Marriages, 216 

The Brick Church, already spoken of as once occupied by 
Mr. Boswell's congregation, was purchased, refitted, and 
opened for public worship with a sermon by Professor Al- 
bert B. Dod, July 24, 1842. The Second Presbyterian 
Church was organized there November 15, 1842, and the 
Rev. Baynard R. Hall was its first stated supply. The Rev. 
Daniel Deruelle, of Pennsylvania, was installed its pastor 
May 21, 1843. Ii^ September of the same year a small 
lecture-room was built adjoining that church. Mr. Deru- 


elle's pastoral relation was dissolved February i, 1848, and 
on the ninth October the Rev. Ansley D. White, of Indiana, 
was installed. In 1851 the church was enlarged to twice its 
original size, and was reopened September 27. In 1857 a 
spacious building was erected, of two stories, for a lecture- 
room: and Sunday-schools. The church was oirganized with 
eleven members from the First Church ; the present number 
of communicants is two hundred and sixty-five. 

In the year 1846 there remained a debt of six thousand 
seven hundred dollars for the building of the First Church. 
By a general subscription in th'e congregation at the close of 
that year, the entire sum was at once obtained, and all 
obligations cancelled. 

In April, 1849, thirteen communicants O'f the First 
Church, and foiir from; other churches, were organized as 
the Third Church. Twenty-five others fro'm the parent 
body were soon afterwards added. The new congregation 
first met for public worship June 17, 1849. '^^^ Rev. 
Theodore L. Cuyler was installed pastor October 3, 1849, 
and their house of worship was opened November 7, 1850. 
Mr. Cuyler resigned the charge April 27, 1853, and the 
Rev. Jacob Kirkpatrick, Jr., was ordained, and installed 
November 3, 1853. The decline of his health compelled his 
resignation February 2, 1858. The communicants then 
numbered about two hundred. A parsonage was provided 
during Mr. Kirkpatrick's incumbency. On the eighth of 
February, 1859, the Rev. Henry B. Chapin, of Ohio, was 
installed as pastor. 

A mission chapel, built (at the cost O'f twenty-two hun- 
dred dollars) in the northen extremity of the city, on 
ground given by Mr. John S. Chambers, was opened for 
religious services January 8, 1854, and a Sunday-school 
organized. Worship w^as conducted on the afternoons oif 
the Sabbath by the pastor of the First Church, with occa- 
sional assistance, until May, 1856, when Mr. John H. 
Sargent served statedly as the chaplain for one year. 


In 1853 the First Church was extensively improved by 
the building of an iron fence and laying a stone pavement 
along the entire front of the lot, introducing gas, painting 
the interior walls, and other repairs, at a cost of thirty-four 
hundred dollars, mostly defrayed by private subscription. 
While the work was in progress, the congregation worship- 
ped with the Third Church, then without a pastor. 

On the sixth Novemlber, 1858, the Fourth Church was 
organized, with a few members from the First, and sixty 
from the Third Church. On the twenty-fifth February, 
1859, the Rev. EdwarD' D. Yeomans, son of Dr. John W. 
Yeomans, was installed their pastor. 

In 1845 ^^- Hall, finding many German families of the 
Lutheran faith whoi attended no^ church, many O'f them 
unable to understand English, wrote to Rev. Dr. Demme, 
of Philadelphia, suggesting a visit from him to explore, 
or the sending of a missionary. In 1848 services were held 
in the First Church lecture-roO'm by German missionaries, 
and the work thus begun resulted in the organization of 
the German Lutheran church. 

The following ruling elders have been elected and or- 
dained, in the First Church, during the present pastorate : 

Samuel Roberts, ^ ^ ^ r. ^ 

-r ^, ^. , Uanuary 16, 1846. 

Jonathan Fisk, y j -r 

George S. Green, ^ 
A r^ T^- ^ Uune 6, i8s8. 

Augustus G. Richey, y ^ 


Nicholas Jacques Emanuel de Belleville was born at Metz, France, 
in 1753; studied medicine under his father; passed seven years in 
the schools and hospitals of Paris, ^^ and came to Trenton under the 
circumstances related in the following note furnished to me by Phile- 
mon Dickinson, Esq., as heard from the Doctor's lips; 


"He happened to be, in the spring of 1777, on a visit to a gentleman, 
an acquaintance of his father, who lived in the south of France, whither 
Tie usually repaired in the winter season, on account of the delicate 
state of his health. He there met and was introduced to Count 
Pulaski, who had just come from Italy, where he had been obliged to 
take refuge on account of the active part he bore in the well-known 
attempt to restore the liberties of Poland. 

"The Count was then on the eve of his departure for this country, 
and having taken a liking for the Doctor, invited him to accompany him. 
For some time he hesitated, by reason of his want of money, but the 
gentleman at whose house he was, when informed of this fact, told 
him if a hundred guineas would be sufificient for his purpose he would 
supply him, and that his father could reimburse him. He further sup- 
plied him with every thing necessary for the voyage, and on the last 
day of May, 1777, he left Paris, and embarked at Nantes on the ninth 
of June, for the United States. 

"The vessel in which he sailed was a sloop-of-war, mounting fourteen 
guns, with a crew of one hundred and five men. She had on board 
about sixteen hundred stand of arms for the American troops. On the 
twenty-second July they arrived in Massachusetts, and the first town 
he entered was Salem, where he staid some days and afterwards went 
to Boston. 

"He attended the Count, in the capacity of surgeon, in the different 
parts of the country to which he went for the purpose of recruiting a 
legion, which the Count was authorized to raise by the Provincial Con- 

"Pulaski remained some time at Trenton for that purpose, where 
Belleville became acquainted with Dr. Bryant, a physician of eminence, 
who took a fancy to him, treated him kindly, and endeavored to per- 
suade him to give up the army and settle in Trenton ; offering to do all 
in his power to introduce him into practice. Dr. Belleville, however, 
attended Pulaski to the South, and while stationed there he received 
a pressing letter from his friend. Dr. Bryant, repeating his offer, and 
urging his leaving the army; representing the improbability of his 
succeeding there so well as by settling down to the practice of his pro- 
fession. This letter he showed to Pulaski, who told him it was not his 
wish to stand in the way of his advancement, and if he thought he 
could do better, to accept the offer of Dr. Bryant. He did so, and in 
the fall of 1778 took up his residence in Trenton, where he remained 
until his death." 

Dr. Belleville was eminent in his profession, and highly esteemed for 
liis social qualities. He was sometimes called to attend the exiled King 
of Spain at Bordentown, and was his almoner on at least one occasion, 
(February 5, 1831,) when the Female Benevolent Society of Trenton 
acknowledged fifty dollars "from the Count de Survilliers, by Dr. Belle- 
ville." Mrs. Belleville was a communicant ; the Doctor was a pew- 


holder and occasional attendant, but was too fond of his elegant edition 
of Voltaire to rehsh the Gospel. He was buried in our church-3'ard, 
and one of his pupils, Dr. F. A. Ewing, in addition to a discriminating 
obituary in the State Gazette of Dec. 24, 1831, furnished the inscription 
for his tomb : 

"This stone covers the remains of Dr. Nicholas Belleville. Born 
and educated in France ; for fifty-four years an inhabitant of this city. 
A patriot warmly attached to the principles of liberty ; a physician emi- 
nently learned and successful ; a man of scrupulous and unblemished 
integrity. On the seventeenth day of December, A.D. 1831, at the age 
of seventy-nine years, he closed a life of honor and usefulness ; by all 
respected, esteemed, lamented." 


For a more extended notice of Chief Justice Charles Ewing, than 
I can find room for now, I must refer to the eulogy, pronounced in the 
church at the united request of the Council of Trenton and the bench 
and bar of the State, by his intimate friend, Governor Southard, and 
to the memoir furnished by the same hand to Longacre's "National 
Portrait Gallery."" He was born July 8, 1780; prepared for college at 
the Trenton Academy, when it was under Mr. Armstrong's direction; 
took the first honor at Princeton College at his graduation in 1798; read 
law under Mr. Leake, and was admitted to the bar in 1802. The 
next year he was married to a daughter of the Rev. James F. Arm- 
strong. He was appointed Chief Justice in October, 1824, and reap- 
pointed in 1831. He died of cholera, August 5, 1832. Mr. Ewing was 
a punctual and leading member of the board of Trustees, and of the 
congregation, from his election, April, 1814, till his sudden death. Mr. 
Southard declared in his public discourse that he was in the habit of 
holding up the entire character of the Chief Justice as a model for 
aspirants after professional honors, and said that "his exposition of 
the system of jury-trial, before the Literary and Philosophical Society 
of New Jersey, [January 28, 1826,] is the most finished and beautiful 
exhibition of its merits which is to be found, in the same compass, ia 
our language." 

The epitaph on his monument, written by President Carnahan, of 
Princeton, is as follows : 

"Beneath this marble rest the mortal remains of Charles Ewing, 
LL.D., Chief Justice of the State of New Jersey. 

"In intellect, vigorous and discriminating. In industry, assiduous 
and persevering. In integrity, pure and incorruptible. In manners^ 
affable, dignified, and polished. In morals, spotless. A profound jurist 
and upright magistrate. An accomplished scholar, and patron of litera- 
ture and science. The advocate and supporter of benevolent institu- 


tions. He won, in an eminent degree, the respect, the love, and confi- 
dence of his fellow-citizens. Happy in his domestice relation, home 
was the theatre of his most endearing virtues, and the sphere in which 
he loved to move. He reverenced the doctrines and practiced the pre- 
cepts of the Christian religion. In the vigor of his mental and bodily 
powers, surrounded by blessings, cheered by the approbation of his 
fellow-men, with an extended prospect of service and usefulness before 
him, he was attacked with a violent disease, which suddenly terminated 
his life on the fifth day of August, A.D. 1832, in the 53d year of his 


The Rev. Wm. BoswEll had been for sixteen years pastor of the 
Baptist congregation of Trenton and Lamberton, when (1823) he 
issued an address to its members, on account of his adoption of some 
new tenets, which leaned to Swedenborgianism. His address was 
answered by a longer letter from the Rev. John Burtt (first editor of 
"The Presbyterian'' in Philadelphia), who was then preaching in 
Trenton. Mr. Boswell died June 10, 1833, at the age of fifty-seven. 
His grave is in the rear of the building where he last preached — now 
the Second Presbyterian Church. Near to it is that of another prom- 
inent Baptist minister, the Rev. Burgess Aluson, D.D., who died 
on a visit to Trenton, February 20, 1827." 

The First Baptist Church of Lamberton was opened November 26, 
1803 ; when the sermon was preached by Dr. Staughton. 

Mr. Boswell's was called "The Reformed General Baptist Meeting- 
House." It was built (of brick) in eleven weeks, and was opened 
October 19, 1823. The dimensions were fifty-four feet by forty. 


Thomas Wilson, an intelligent colored man, was received to our 
communion on certificate from New York, November, 1839. He was 
a shoemaker, but was bent upon becoming qualified as a missionary 
in Liberia. For this purpose he removed to Easton, and studied 
under the direction of his late pastor, the President of the College. 
He sailed for Africa, as a missionary of our Board, in April, 1843. 
His wife and infant died soon after their arrival, and a second child 
not long afterwards. Wilson's station was Sinoe, where he opened 
a day-school and Sunday-school, and preached every week. In 1845 he 
opened a small building as a church, and undertook to teach a school 
of native children in a neighboring town, and an evening school of 
adult colonists. He persevered manfully through great hardships till 


September 8, 1846, when he died of an illness of a few days. In the 
artless language of one of his children who sent me the intelligence: 
"I hope he is resting, for when he did labor he labored hard, and 
suffered much from want of food and clothing." The Annual Report 
of the Board in the next year, says : "His death is a great loss to 
the Church and to Africa. His experience and knowledge, his indus- 
try and perseverance, fitted him' for usefulness in this important 
sphere of labor." 

Another colored member of our church, Elymas P. Rogers, was 
ordained by our Presbytery, March 6, 1845, and became pastor of a 
large congregation in Newark. He afterward went to Liberia, to 
investigate the colony, and died of the acclimating fever in 1861. 


By the will of Miss Jane Lovtoy, who died November 1851, the 
sum of two hundred dollars and her pew were bequeathed for the 
benefit of the poor of the church. By the will of Mr. James Brearley, 
who also died November, 1851, the sum of five hundred dollars was 
left to the Trustees, without specific directions. 


A newspaper of August 2, 1868, contains the following notice, 
headed "Eighty Years a Communicant" : 

"Mrs. Janet Davis, who died at Trenton, New Jersey, on the 2d 
inst., was two months over ninety-six years of age. She went to 
her first communion in Paisley, Scotland, when she was sixteen, was 
received by the First Church of Trenton in 1819, and continued there 
till her death ; consequently she was eighty years a communicant. 
Can your correspondents furnish a parallel instance of ecclesiastical 
longevity? It is pleasing to be able to add that Mrs. Davis retained 
in her memory the Scriptures and hymns with which her long Chris- 
tian life had made her familiar, and that her faith, like her faculties, 
though not childish, was eminently childlike." 

1859— 1884. 

(Collated chiefly from Dr. Hall's supplementary notes.) 

In 1870 it was thought desirable to renovate the in- 
terior of the church by an entire change in the style of the 
pews, frescoing the walls, attaching a small room to the 
pulpit, and other improvements. From September 18 to 
Decemiber 1 1 the congTegation worshipped in the morning in 
a large public hall, and in the evening in the church lecture- 
room. On the 1 8th of December the use of the church 
was restored. The improvements left an outstanding debt 
of nearly three thousand dollars. Knowing how such debts 
become troublesome by delay in providing for them, the 
pastor, without revealing his purpose to anyone, adopted a 
plan of prevention which proved entirely successful. On 
the Sabbath of January ist, 1871, his sermon was on "Re- 
deeming the Time," in the closing pages of which he slightly 
alluded to the suitable opportunity of the new year to can- 
cel the cost of the renewal of the house. When he had fin- 
ished he requested the gentlemen of the congregation to 
remain after the service, without stating the purpose. When 
they had been arrested, the proposal was made that the con- 
gregation should practically obey the doctrine of the sermon 
by redeeming the debt of the past year, and in a few minutes 
it was pleasantly, somewhat amusingly, accomplished, to the 
surprise of all. 

It was at this time that the first organ, placed in the 
church of 1840, was replaced by the large one, built by 



Erben, of New York, which has assisted our worship sq 
appropriately during the past years. 

On the Sabbath after the paying of the debt, January 8th, 
a room annexed to the chapel, for the separate use of the 
infant-school, was used for the first time. 

A strong temptation to begin a permanent endowment 
fund, for the financial benefit of the corporation, was felt in 
1875-6, when an offer of thirty thousand dollars for sixty 
feet of ground on the eastern side of the church-plot was 
received. The Trustees submitted the proposal to a, meet- 
ing of the congregation, October 5, 1875, but as the plot, 
although seldom used for burial at that time, contained the 
graves of several generations, the sale was refused. 

The volume we are supplementing closed its history at 
the date O'f its publication, March, 1859. Our churches had 
increased from: the single one of the first chapters to the 
Fourth, which was opened in that year. According to the 
location of these churches, two were near the center of the 
population, the others nearer the southern and eastern 
boundaries of the city, and the mission chapel mentioned in 
the preceding chapter was growing into the organized Fifth 
congregation of 1874. In October, 1864, Rev. Ansley D. 
White, who had been pastor of the Second Church for a 
time, but had, serving elsewhere for some years, returned 
tO' Trenton and was invited to supply regularly the congre- 
gation assembling in the chapel. So prosperous was the 
work done there that the Presbyter}^, on February 23, 1874, 
organized the Fifth Church with twenty-eight members,, 
three of whom were from the First Church. Mr. John S. 
Chambers, who had been an elder of the First Church, and 
Mr. Albert S. Drake, were elected and installed elders, and 
on October 26 Rev. Ansley D. White was installed pastor. 

The location of these five churches left the western sec- 
tion of the city to be provided for. Members of the First 
Church living in that part of the city interested themselves 


in the organizing and conducting of a Sunday-school, 
which met in unoccupied houses on West State street, until 
the desirability of a new church organization became ap- 
parent. On August II, 1874, the cornerstone of a church 
building, at the corner of Prospect and Spring streets, was 
laid, and on April 25, 1875, the Presbytery organized the 
Prospect Street Presbyterian Church, with seventeen mem- 
bers from the First Church, six from the Third and twelve 
from other churches. Augustus G. Richey, an elder of the 
First Church ; John T. Nixon, an elder of the First Church 
of Bridgeton, N. J.; Samuel C. Brown, an elder of the 
South Reformed Church of New York, and Frederick J. 
Slade, an elder of the Third Church of Trenton, were 
elected and installed elders. On October 14, 1875, Walter 
A. Brooks, a licentiate of the Presbytery of Bloomington, 
was ordained and installed pastor. 

Whilst the churches were thus increasing with the popu- 
lation of the city proper, the suburb of Chambersburg had 
rapidly grown from a farming district to an incorporated 
borough of many thousand inhabitants. The name given 
in its charter was that of Robert Chambers, the original 
owner of much of the land, and a member of one of the 
oldest families in the First Church. A number of Pres- 
byterians, finding that the city churches required a long 
walk to reach them, determined to make an experiment for 
their greater convenience. Beginning with a Sunday- 
school and occasional preaching in a convenient school- 
building, the encouragement soon appeared to warrant the 
organization of a church and the erection of a substantial 
building. The Bethany Presbyterian Church was organ- 
ized by the Presbytery, on November 15, 1886, with three 
members from the First Church, and sixty-three from other 
churches. Professor George H. Voorhis and Mr. Thomas 
S. Morris were elected and installed elders. On November 
29th the Presbytery transferred Rev. Daniel R. Foster 


from the pastorate of the Penningfton Church to that of the 
Bethany Church. The new building, on the corner of 
Hamilton and Chestnut avenues, was occupied for services 
on the 6th of March, 1888. This may properly be called 
the seventh church of Trenton. 

We mig-ht with some propriety make an eighth, not in 
numerical order, but in the total, from the church at Morris- 
ville, Pennsylvania, which is separated from Trenton only 
by the Delaware, and which was established and main- 
tained, in great part, by the Trenton churches, until it was 
transferred to the Presbytery of Philadelphia North, where 
it naturally belonged, but after which change it continued 
to receive neighborly assistance from Trenton. Mr. Samuel 
Roberts, an elder of the First Church, superintended the 
Morrisville Sunday-school, with scarcely a day's failure, 
for twenty years. 

In 1880 the congregation of the First Church became 
interested in measures taken to establish a church and school 
for the emancipated colored population of Carthage, Moore 
county, Nbrth Carolina. The minister and teacher upon 
whose hands had devolved this undertaking had been a resi- 
dent of Trenton, where he had won the confidence of the 
most respectable families by his meritorious character and 
faithful service. Henry D. Wood entered Lincoln Uni- 
versity in 1872, and was graduated from the theological 
department of that institution in April, 1878. He was 
placed in Carthage by the Missionary Board for Freedmen. 
He found a church of thirty-five m^embers and a Sabbath- 
school of twenty-jfive, numbers which rose to 168 and 175, 
respectively, besides two schools in country settlements. 
Mr. Wood was enabled by his friends to build, at the cost 
of a thousand dollars, a neat and commodious church, 
which was opened for religious services October 19, 1884, 
under the name of "John Hall Chapel," and in connection 
with the Yadkin Presbytery of our General Assembly. The 


Minutes of 1887 report forty communicants received in that 
year at Carthage. 

During some months of the year 1883-4, Mr. Richard 
A. Greene, a Hcentiate of the Presbytery of Philadelphia, 
was employed as assistant to the pastor, and fulfilled a use- 
ful service in that relation. 

Early in 1884 the pastor notified the congregation of his 
purpose to apply to the Presbytery for the dissolution of his 
pastoral relation to the First Church, after a pastorate of 
forty-three years. On April 8, 1884, the Presbytery com- 
plied with this request, and Dr. Hall became pastor emeritus. 


I now subjoin the statistics of the entire period from the installa- 
tion in 1841 to the resignation of 1884: 

Communicants received on examination, 465 

Communicants received on certificate, 435 

Communicants dismissed on certificate, 485 

Infants baptized, 463 

Adults baptized, 190 

Funerals (estimated) , 1,000 

Marriages, 408 

During the same period the pastor preached in the First Church, 3,452 

Wednesday lectures, 1,631 

He preached in other churches, 723 

These figures do not include the many years' services every Friday 
evening, which were more or less expository as well as devotional, or 
the Bible classes of several winters. 


John Dixon, D.D., Le:wis Seymour Mudge, D.D. 

1884 — 1901. 

On February 21, 1884, the Rev. Dr. John Hall gave 
notice to the Session that on account of impaired health 
and the increasing infirmities of age he felt it to be his 
duty to shortly resign the pastorate. On May 4, following, 
Dr. Hall formally tendered his resignation, which, after 
much hesitancy, was reluctantly accepted. The Presby- 
tery of New Brunswick dissolved the pastoral relation and 
constituted Dr. Hall pastor-emeritus as requested by the 
congregation. Thus was brought tO' an end the active 
ministry of Dr. Hall, which he had fulfilled soi long, so lov- 
ingly and with marked distinction and success. 

While the dissolution of the pastoral relation released the 
congregation from its legal financial obligation to Dr. Hall, 
yet voluntary pledges were made towards a salary for him 
as pastor-emeritus, which amounted to over $2,100 per 
annum. The passing years wrought many changes by 
death and removal in the list of subscribers, yet such were 
the love and devotion of the people to himi that the salary 
was fully kept up until the time of his death, which occurred 
Alay 10, 1894. 

On June 11, 1884, the committee which had been ap- 
pointed to seek out and recommend to the congregation a 
successor to Dr. Hall made report naming the Rev. John 
Dixon, of Yonkers, N. Y., who was chosen pastor. Mr. 
Dixon signified his acceptance of the call and began work 
on September 11, 1884. Arrangements were made by the 
Presbytery of New Brunswick for the installation services 



to be held on October 15. On that occasion the Rev. Dr. 
S. M. Studdiford presided; the sermon was preached by 
the Rev. J. O. Murray, D.D. ; the charge to the pastor 
by the Rev. WilHam Henry Green, D.D., and the charge 
to the people by the Rev. John Hall, D.D. 

After some two years spent by Mr. Dixon in the neces- 
sary study of the congregation and of the spiritual needs 
of the city, it was thought best to endeavor tO' interest our 
people in some form of Christian work outside of the 
church. Accordingly the attention of the congregation 
was directed to the manifest need of a Sunday-school in 
East Trenton, known as Millham. The Session, at a meet- 
ing held November 18, 1886, took action as follows: 

"That as the attention of the Session has been seriously turned to the 
necessity of Sunday-school work in Millham in view of the spiritual 
destitution of that population, and after careful consideration of the 
subject, the Session recommend that such work be taken up by this 
church, and that the matter be referred to a meeting of the congrega- 
tion to be held on Wednesday evening next, following Thanksgiving 
next, for consideration, and that the pastor be requested, instead of the 
ordinary service, to present at such meeting the needs of such work, 
such statistics and other data upon the subject as he may think proper. 

"Resolved further. That a committee consisting of Elders Elmer and 
Hamill be requested to consider, and at such meeting report, what 
would be the best location for such Sunday-school building, and what 
would be the probable cost of organization and accommodation." 

The interest of Judge Caleb S. Green in the project is 
shown by the offer he made as set forth in the following 
letter : 

"Trenton, December 20, 1886. 
"To the Pastor and Session of the First Presbyterian Church. 

"My Dear Friends — In order to avoid any misunderstanding in re- 
lation to my proposal to aid in establishing the 'Millham Mission,' I 
desire to state in writing my several offers more in detail for the 
guidance of the Session in arriving at a safe conclusion. 

"i. Should the Session be in favor of what I termed an aggressive 
policy in carrying on the mission v/ork, that is, in addition to the 
Sabbath-school, to make provision for maintaining regular religious 


services for the adult population on the Sabbath, and if deemed ad- 
visable occasionally during the week, I am willing and offer to purchase 
a suitable lot to be selected by a committee of the Session and myself, 
and to lease the same for the purposes of the mission at a nominal rent 
for a term of years (not exceeding ten), with the privilege on part 
of the lessees of purchasing the lot at any time during the term at the 
price paid by me therefor. The lessees to erect on the premises within 
six months from the date of the lease a suitable building for the 
Sunday-school work and religious services, to cost, with furnishing, 
not less than $2,000. The lessees to pay all taxes and assessments on 
the property during the term. Should the mission fail and the Session 
neglect to maintain the school and religious services for the period of 
six months, the lease to terminate and be at an end. 

"2. But should the Session deem it advisable first to try the experi- 
ment of establishing the school alone, before expending so large a 
sum of money and pledging themselves to the continuance of the 
work, I will, if a suitable house for the purpose can be obtained, 
pay a reasonable rent therefor for one or two years and aid in defray- 
ing the expense of any alterations necessary to be made for the 
accommodation of the school. 

"Although the foregoing is to be considered as the substance of my 
proposal, I will cheerfully consider any modifications the Session may 
deem desirable. 

"Caleb S. Green." 

The proposals contained in Judg*e Green's letter were 
then carefully considered and discussed by the Session, and 
on motion it was determined that the interests of the 
church will be most surely promoted by declining- the first 
and accepting* the second proposal, and the Clerk was 
directed to write to^ Jndg'e Green, expressing to him the 
thanks of the Session for the very liberal proposals he has 
made for promoting the work in Millham, and informing 
him that the second proposal contained in his communica- 
tion of the 20th inst. is accepted. 

The Sunday-school was begun February 13, 1887, ^^'^ 
its sessions were held in the public school building by the 
permission of the authorities. Mr. Moore Dupuy was 
elected Superintendent and Mr. Barton B. Hutchinson, 
Assistant Superintendent. The school grew rapidly, and on 

18 PRES 


October 14, 1887, the Session considered plans for the pur- 
chasing of property and the erection of a building. Dr. 
William Elmer and Mr. Hugh H. Hamill were appointed 
a committee to confer with Judge Caleb S. Green. As a 
result of the conference Judge Green purchased the lot 
coimer O'f North Clinton and Olden avenues at a cost of 
$5,000. The erection O'f the building and its furnishing 
cost $6,313.50, miaking the total cost oif ground and build- 
ing $11,313.50. The building was dedicated on December 
26, 1887. Preaching in the evening was soon begun with 
such encouraging results that on the first of May, 1889, 
Mr. D. R. Warne, a student at the Theological Seminary, 
of Princeton, was engaged for a period O'f five months to 
spend his entire time on the field. Mr. Warne' s services 
were warmly appreciated and the chapel continued to make 
steady and rapid progress. 

On May 23, 1890, the Rev. Edward Scofield, of Newark, 
N. J., was called by the Session to give his whole time to 
the field, preach morning and night on the Sabbath and 
maintain a prayer meeting during the week. Mr. Scofield 
remained one year and then the Session invited the Rev. 
Frank B. Everitt, of Kansas City, Mo., to take charge of 
the chapel. Mr. Everitt took vigorous hold of the work 
and under his energetic leadership every department of 
church effort was pushed with vigor. He began his min- 
istry January 15, 1892, and at every communion there were 
regular, and sometimes large, additions made to the mem- 
bership. While our Session gave close as well as constant 
supervision to the work carried on at the Chapel, yet a 
separate roll of the members was kept and a separate report 
made to Presbytery. When under Mr. Everitt's ministry 
it had been so prospered as to be able to care fully for all 
its ordinary financial responsibilities it was deemed advis- 
able to apply to Presbytery for organization. This was 
done and the Presbytery gave favorable consideration to 


the petition O'f the people and the request of the First 
Church Session and organized the East Trenton Presby- 
terian Church on April 21, 1899. While the formal 
relation hitherto existing between the First Church and 
the Millham Chapel was thus brought tO' a close, yet our 
church maintains to this hour a deep and smypathetic in- 
terest in the activities and welfare of the church in East 
Trenton. From the very beginning of this enterprise our 
people supported it with enthusiasm, not only giving all 
needed financial aid, but workers in church. Sabbath-school, 
Industrial school and Club were never lacking. The story 
of its beginning and progress constitutes the brightest page 
in the history of the First Church during the pastorate 
of Mr. Dixon. 

The Rev. C. A. R. Janvier, pastor of the Fifth Presby- 
terian Church, of Trenton, announced his purpose to return 
to India as a missionary under the Foreign' Board. Mr. 
Janvier's early life had been spent in India, where his father 
had been a missionary. When the congregation of the 
First Church learned O'f Mr. Janvier's purpose they resolved 
to provide for his salary in addition to making their annual 
offering for the general work of the Board. On July 15, 
1887, the Session gave the pastor permission to secure from 
individuals such gifts as they might be disposed tO' make 
for this purpose. The salaiy as determined by the Foreign 
Board was fixed at $1,000 per annum. There was practi- 
cally no difficulty in raising this sum year after year. Mr. 
Janvier was located at Fatehgarh, N. W. P., India, and his 
reports, from time to time, kept the congregation informed 
as to his work and maintained the interest of the church 
in him. After several years absence Mr. Janvier returned 
to> this country for a brief visit. He addressed the congre- 
gation several times on the need and character of his work. 
He returned to India, where he continued to labor for a 
considerable time and then returned to this country to look 


after the education of his only son, who specially required 
his parents' attention because of seriously impaired eyesight. 
Mr. Janvier became pastor O'f the Holland Memorial Pres- 
byterian Church, oi Philadelphia, where he still labors. It 
is interesting toi note that young Mr. Janvier graduated 
from Princeton University with honor and has returned to 

For many years the congregation was interested in the 
work of the Rev. Henry D. Wood, of Carthage, N. C. Mr. 
Wood and his wife were well known to^ many of the older 
families of the congregation, and when they went to begin 
work amongst their own people (colored) of Carthage, 
they carried with them- the substantial good-wishes of our 
people. In December, 1888, the sum^ of $820 was raised 
by Mr. Wood's personal canvass of our people, which en- 
sured the erection of a church building. Out of gratitude 
for the interest so^ long shown by the congregation in Mr. 
Wood and his work, Mr. Wood and his people called the 
church the "John Hall Chapel." The school and industrial 
work carried on by Mr. and Mrs. Wood also required a 
building, and this being secured it was named "Dayton 
Academy," because of the special interest taken by the late 
Mrs. Wm. L. Dayton in this work. The young people of 
our church have kept up their devotion to this special enter- 
prise and for more than a quarter of a century have sent 
Christmas boxes and money to Mr. Wood's people. 

On April 3, 1887, Miss E. B. Johnson resolved to show 
a practical interest in the religious welfare of the China- 
men in this city. Permission was given her to start a school 
on Sunday evenings in the lecture-room. Miss Johnson 
secured the co-operation of fourteen others and each had 
a class of one or more Chinamen. Quite a number of these 
teachers were young women connected with the Model and 
Normal Schools. This class was maintained for several 
years. From time to time the men were addressed by 


ministers and others who could speak to them in their own 
language. Amongst these was the Rev. Benjamin C. 
Henry, D.D., who was for many years a missionary in 
China under the Foreign Board. What were the permianent 
results of this bit of foreign missionary work at home may 
never be fully known in this life, but it is interesting to 
remember that at least one of these mien, Joe Wong, by 
name, was converted and united with the church on con- 
fession of faith. His life and spirit were in every way 
exemplary and he gave abundant evidence that his conver- 
sion was both intelligent and thorough. 

For many years the Women's Foreign^ Missionary So- 
ciety of the church provided the money necessary tO' pay the 
salary of Mrs. Hepburn, wife of Dr. James C. Hepburn, of 
Japan. Mrs. Hepburn's letters to the society were so 
interesting that she had gained for herself the deep affection 
of the women who fully appreciated the privilege of being 
brought into such close relationship with such a distin- 
guished missionary. When, then, it was learned that Dr. 
and Mrs. Hepburn proposed returning to this country, it 
was decided not only to invite them to' Trenton, but alsoi 
to give them a public reception which should suitably mark 
the esteem in which they were held. The reception 
occurred on May 31, 1889, was loyally attended and resulted 
in bringing up the interest of the entire congregation in 
Foreign Missions to a higher level than ever before reached. 

On April 20, 1891, a joint meeting of the elders and 
trustees was held, to arrange for the suitable observance of 
the Fiftieth Anniversary of Dr. Hall's ministry. On Sun- 
day, May 31, Dr. Hall preached his fiftieth anniversary 
sermon. Characteristically enough the sermon contained 
very little about himself or about his work. It was an 
affectionate and earnest setting forth O'f the gospel. On 
the following evening a public reception was given him in 
the lecture-room of the church and a purse of $1,000 in 


gold was presented to him. The whole occasion not only 
called forth the warmest appreciation of Dr. Hall and of 
the love and devotion of his people to him, but also stirred 
most profoundly the tender sensibilities of the congregation, 
many of whom had grown to manhood and womanhood 
under his ministry. 

At a meeting of the Session held January 25, 1893, it 
was resolved toi recommend the church to elect additional 
elders and deacons, and accordingly at a meeting of the 
church held on February 26, 1893, the following persons 
were chosen elders, viz., John S. Chambers, Edward T, 
Green, Lewis C. Wooley, and Henry D. Oliphant; also, 
Thos. S. Chambers and Barton B. Hutchinson were chosen 
deacons. Both Mr. John S. Chambers and Thomas S. 
Chambers desired to be excused from' accepting the offices 
to which they had been elected, and on Sunday, February 
26, 1893, the remaining brethren were duly ordained and 
installed. By reason O'f subsequent deaths and changes 
among both elders and deacons another election was held 
December 13, 1897, when John H. Scudder, Moore Dupuy 
and Oscar Woodworth were chosen elders and Benjamin 
M. Phillips, Henry W. Green and G. Abeel Hall were chosen 
deacons, and on the following Sunday were duly ordained 
and installed. At this point it may be proper to' note that 
at the time when Mr. Dixon began his pastorate the Board 
O'f Trustees was constituted as follows, viz. : Hon. Caleb 
S. Green, President; Barker Gummere, Chas. E. Green, 
Hon. William L. Dayton, Gen. William S. Stryker, Aboer 
R. Chambers, and Edward Grant Cook. The secretary of 
the Board at that time was Mr. Benjamin F. Chambers, and 
the treasurer Mr. Thos. S. Chambers. To fill vacancies 
caused by death the following gentlemen were elected 
trustees between 1884 ^^^ 1898, viz. : Mr. F. O. Briggs, 
Mr. Elm'er E. Green, Mr. John S. Chambers, and Mr. 
Charles Whitehead. The presidents of the Board follow- 


ing Judge Caleb S. Green were Barker Gummere, William 
L. Dayton, Charles E. Green and Judge Elmer E. Green. 
The secretaries succeeding Mr. Benjamin F. Chambers were 
Mr. Lewis W. Scott and Mr. Nelson L. Petty. 

On May 10, 1894, Dr. Hall died at his residence 224 
West State street, in the eighty-ninth year of his age. 
The funeral services were held in the church. The whole 
city was affected by the sad event and in various ways 
showed its deep appreciation of the long life, the noble 
character and the many and great services he had rendered 
to the church and the community. The address was de- 
livered by the Rev. John Hall, D.D., pastor of the Fifth 
Avenue Presbyterian Church, of New York, The body 
was taken to Philadelphia for interment, and on the follow- 
ing Sunday Mr. Dixon preached a memorial sermon from 
Hebrews 13:7: "Remember them which have the rule 
over you, who have spoken unto you the word of God : 
whose faith follow, considering the end of their conversa- 

The following resolution, prepared by the committee 
appointed for the purpose, was adopted by the Session : 

"The Session of the First Presbyterian Church of Trenton, N. J., 
hereby makes formal record of the death of the Rev. John Hall, D.D., 
the pastor-emeritus of this congregation. It occurred on the tenth 
day of May, last past. 

"Nothing could be more foreign to our purpose in making this sad 
minute than to spread upon this record mere eulogium of him who was 
so dear to us as our Pastor, Associate and Friend. 

"Silence born of sorrow is more suggestive of our loss than would 
be the eloquence of studied praise. And we are well assured that we 
are in thorough accord with his own oft-expressed wish when we 
restrain, as best we may, the impulse to speak the words of tender 
commendation and loving regard which our saddened hearts do con- 
tinually suggest. 

"Yet we cannot refrain from confessing our sense of painful be- 
reavement that has followed the sundering of the tie which knit us 
together, nor fail to record our personal love for him; nor, as well, 
to express our gratitude to our Father in Heaven, who permitted him 
to labor among us and with us and for us for so many years. 


"Dr. Hall's thorough faithfulness in the discharge of his duties ; his 
high appreciation of his sacred office; his witnessing for Christ boldly 
and always in his everyday life, made him a power not only in his 
own church but, as well, in the community in which he lived. While 
the unsulHed honesty of his life, the purity and unselfishness of his 
purposes and the love and tender sympathy which impulsed every act, 
forever enshrine him in the hearts of this congregation. 

"He has left us to go to his eternal home. In his Father's house 
of many mansions prepared for him by his Lord and Saviour, he is 
at rest. While the unbidden tear will flow, we rejoice that he has 
won the victory and has gained the crown." 

The work of the church was carried on with regularity 
and steady progress was made in every department. Noth- 
ing of note occurred after Dr. Hall's death until Mr. Dixon 
notified the congregation O'f his intention to resign the 
pastorate, which he did on September 19, 1898. The Pres- 
bytery of New Brunswick, upon request of the pastor and 
congregation, dissolved the pastoral relation which had 
existed for fourteen years and the Rev. James O. Murray, 
D.D., was appointed to preach and declare the pulpit vacant. 

The Rev. Lewis Seymour Mudge was unanimously called 
to the pastorate on May 24, 1899. On June 27, 1899, ^^ 
was received into the Presbytery oi New Brunswick, the 
call was placed in his hands and he having signified his 
acceptance, September 27, 1899, was appointed as the time 
for his installation. On that date Mr. Mudge was duly 
installed as Pastor, the following taking part in the service : 
The Rev. Samuel McLanahan presided and asked the con- 
stitutional questions. The sermon was preached by the 
father of the pastor, the Rev. Lewis W. Mudge, D.D., the 
charge to the PlastOT was delivered by the brother-in-law 
of the pastor, the Rev. James D. Paxton, D.D., and the 
charge to the people by the former pastor, the Rev. John 
Dixon, D.D. Thus was initiated a delightful, though a 
brief pastorate. Nominally, the relation thus established 
continued for twenty-six months, but in reality Mr. Mudge's 


term of service ended on December 13, 1900, when, because 
of ill health, he was compelled to ask for a leave of absence 
which was finally extended to October i, 1901. The health 
of the pastor not having been sufficiently restored by this 
time to justify his return to his duties, he regretfully pre- 
sented his resignation to the Session on October 18, 1901. 
O^n November 4, 1901, the congregation reluctantly 
acquiesced in the pastor's wish that the pastoral relation be 
terminated and at the joint request oi pastor and people the 
Presbytery directed that the pastorate should end on 
November 24, 1901. 

Although Mr. Mudge was in active service but fourteen 
months, marked progress was made in several directions. 
The adjustments in membership required by the formation 
of the East Trenton Chapel into an independent organiza- 
tion were completed, the roll of members thoroughly re- 
vised, and sixty-four new members, sixteen on. profession 
of faith and forty-eight by letter, were added. The Sun- 
day-school, under the direction of Mr. Edward S. Wood, 
who was appointed Superintendent by the Session on No^ 
veraber 22, 1899, ^^^' who assumed charge of the school 
on December 10, 1899, grew rapidly in numbers and in- 
terest, a factor in its success being the large Bible class 
conducted by the Pastor. On November 22, 1899, the 
envelope system was adopted for use in connection with 
the benevolences O'f the church with most gratifying results, 
a much larger number of contributors being secured as well 
as greatly increased gifts. The publication of a weekly 
Church Bulletin was begun and proved a decided success 
in reducing toi a minimum' the giving of notices from the 
pulpit and in disseminating information concerning the 
church's activities. 

On December 6, 1899, a new hymn book was adopted for 
use in the Mid-week Service and plans looking toward a 
change in the hymnal in use in the church services were 


considered. The varioius Missionary Societies oif the church 
all showed healthy growth, the Golden Hour Circle more 
than doubling- its membership. The Christian Endeavor 
Society continued its faithful work and the Chinese Sun- 
day-school maintained its helpful ministrations. 

Just previous to the departure oi the pastor on his leave 
O'f absence, at a conference held at his residence with a 
representative of those interested in the remodeling of the 
church and Sunday-school rooms, and with the architect,, 
the plans for thhis remodeling, which were ultimately 
adopted, were practically agreed upon in outline. It is 
greatly to the credit of the congregation that in spite of the 
handicaps placed upon the church, first, by the illness and 
then by the resignation of the pastor, these greatly-needed 
improvements were soon pushed to completion. 

It will thereforei be seen that Mr. Mudge's pastorate, 
though so brief, was not without its permanent results. 
And it is a cause for profound gratitude that pastor and 
people alike can look back upon the few months of labor 
which they enjoyed together with unalloyed satisfaction 
and to the early sundering o^f the ties which boamd them 
officially with sincere regret. 

Henry ColIvIN Minton, D.D. 

The contribution tO' the history of this venerable church, 
to be expected from its pastor, will be, of course, short 
and insignificant. Makers of history are poor writers of 
the history which they make. As the soldier in the thick 
of the fight is too intent upon his own struggle to see how 
the battle goes, much less the war; or as the workman 
on the wall is too busy with his own task to realize how 
the splendid building rises, much less how the great city 
grows; so they whoi are busy doing their own day's work 
have not yet gained the clear and true perspective which 
discloses itself to the eye that surveys the field in the calm 
light of to-morrow's sim. 

We can only add a little foot-note to the chronicles of 
the past. 

The present pastorate began in November, 1902, and, 
accordingly, covers the last decade oif the 200 years of the 
church's history. First of all, we have to thank a covenant- 
keeping God for his constant mercies that have never failed 
us in these short years oi happy but unworthy service in 
His Name. These years have been filled with incidents and 
events which have left their indelible marks not only on 
the lives of us all but also on the life of the church itself. 

Some pastors are careful tO' prepare and preserve statis- 
tics of their work as it g^oes on. Others find this practice, 
if not distasteful, at least somewhat irksome and of doubt- 
ful profit. During the present pastorate, as we learn from 
the official records, 260 have, up to the time when this is 
written (February, 1912, a little more than nine years), 



been received into the memibership of this church. During 
this time 91 have died and 47 have been dismissed, includ- 
ing a few names which, for sufficient and appropriate 
reasons, have been dropped from, the roll. It will thus be 
seen that during these ten years many changes have been 
brought about, and these changes have been more import- 
ant than at first glance might appear. 

In this staid old community it is somewhat remarkable 
that nearly one-half of the present congregation should be, 
as such, less than ten years old. Every local church has its 
own distinct individuality and in the course oi two centuries 
the marks of that individuality have had ample time to 
become deeply fixed and well known toi the community. 
This church has long been conspicuo^us for its intelligence 
in Christian doctrine, its fidelity to every trust, and its 
generous leadership in the support of all good works. It 
has not been swift to depart from the ways of the fathers 
or to forsake the familiar landmarks of the past. 

It has been the prolific and fostering mother of neighbor- 
ing churches, until now there are in Trenton ten English- 
speaking, fully organized churches. It is easy to believe 
that this colonizing policy has been carried out as far as 
the present or prospective developments of the community 
have as yet warranted. Possibly, if their number were 
smaller their strength, in the aggregate, would be greater; 
but while the offspring have been scattered throughout the 
city, surrounding and circumscribing the sphere of this 
church, they leave the venerable mother at the old home- 
stead in the center. It is perhaps but natural that the 
younger and possibly more vigorous elements of the city's 
population should set up their residences in the outlying 
districts, thus making it more convenient and more natural 
that they should find their church homes also with these 
younger churches, rather than with the old First in the 
center of the city. Thus the familiar difficulties of the 
down-town problem have begun tO' emerge. 


And yet the central churches of Trenton, by reason of 
the pecuhar geography oi the city and of its converging 
trolley lines from every direction, are not likely tO' suffer 
from: the down-town tendencies as do the central churches 
of many larger cities. And, in any case, the affectionate 
interest that centers in this ancient location, with its his- 
toric church-yard and its hallowed burial-ground, and the 
fond attachment for this very building itself, which is 
cherished by those to- whom this church through all their 
life has meant so much, are, under God, a pretty safe 
guarantee that a good many years must yet pass by before 
the old First will face the exigencies of a change of loca- 

We may content ourselves with merely mentioning a 
few of the outstanding features in the life and work of 
this church. 

In the first place, it is perfectly obvious that this old 
church is passing through a period of transition. It can 
never again be what it was when the sainted Dr. Hall, of 
blessed memory, ministered to it, or even when Dr. Dixon 
came to be its pastor. There were giants in those days 
that made this State, and this city, and this church famous 
everywhere. These saints have departed, and with their 
sons have come conditions which their fathers never knew. 
The very generosity of their unstinted beneficence may have 
taught the great body of the congregation, by undue reli- 
ance upon their gifts, to be impotent and dependent. This 
is always the peril that is incident to such large and well- 
meant liberality on the part of a generous and deeply 
interested few. 

The result of the changes thus induced, however, will not 
be unfavorable if the transition can be success fullly accom- 
plished. To this delicate and difficult work, much thought 
and great care have been devoted and we believe that with 
a growing sense of responsibility, the effect will be a 


Strengthening' of the forces in respect both of material re- 
sources and spiritual energies, as well as a more democratic 
spirit in that the burdens of self-support and the gifts for 
the furtherance of the Kingdom of God elsewhere will less 
and less be felt to be burdens, for the reason that they will 
be more widely and more equally distributed throughout 
the membership oi the entire congregation. 

Second, with such new policies of work, it will be noted 
that those policies must largely be committed to new hands. 
There are to-day in the Session of this church only two 
ruling elders who were in it ten years ago. It is a striking 
and melancholy fact that within a period of about three 
years five faithful and beloved elders of our Session were 
called toi lay down their work. Of the seven members of 
the present Session, not one is a native child of the church 
in which they serve. This is fairly indicative of the changes 
in the membership of the church itself. Many family names 
that were most prominent in former generations have 
entirely faded out from the records of this church and, 
with the new century with its new conditions and new de- 
mands, the pews are to be occupied and the work is to be 
done in large measure by those who' will not be influenced 
by old associations and drawn by ancestral traditions and 

It is equally obvious that with the exigency comes its 
own opportunity. Few churches ever had a finer field or a 
more inviting opportunity for aggressive evangelistic en- 
deavor. The prestige of these two hundred years is an 
invaluable asset in the work for which this church is set. 
The present is the past, capitalized and at work. The past 
must lend itself to' the present for the sake of the future. 
Those who have the heritage of ancestral associations and 
those who freely select for themselves this church as the 
home and field of their Christian service, must join hands 
in the common work with a common zeal and tO' a common 


purpose. Only thus will the future be worthy of the past. 
Only thus will the prayers of the fathers in a half dozen 
generations be answered. Only thus will this church, 
planted in virgin soil by the hand of faith and sacrifice and 
kept by the Grace of God during all the vicissitudes of the 
years, go on to coming generations, rich in blessing, fruit- 
ful in labors, and faithful even unto the end. 



19 PRES 



1. "William Dockwra, of London, to whom London owes the useful 
invention of the penny-post." (Oldmixon, "British Empire in Amer- 

2. Of the company brought over by Pitlochie, seventy-two are said to 
have been "prisoners, banished to the plantations," and "made a pres- 
ent to the Laird." Their crime was non-conformity ; and on the pas- 
sage, "when they who were under deck attempted to worship God by 
themselves, the captain would throw down great planks of wood in 
order to disturb them." The Rev. Mr. Riddel had already been im- 
prisoned several years in England. After the revolution he sailed 
for England (June, 1689), but was "captured by a French man-of- 
war, and after twenty-two months' imprisonment in France, he was 
at length exchanged for a Popish priest." (MS. History; citing 
Crookshank's Church of Scotland, vol. ii., no, 428. Cloud of Wit- 
nesses, App. 337.) 

3. Only four copies of the original work are known to be extant, 
but it has been reprinted entire in the first volume of the collections 
of the New Jersey Historical Society, as an appendix to Mr. White- 
head's "East Jersey under the Proprietary Governments." The facility 
and satisfaction of reading this interesting document are much im- 
paired by its being printed in the obsolete orthography and abbrevia- 
tions of the original copy — a custom of our Historical Societies which 
seems to have very little to recommend it, even to the antiquary. In 
the edition of Evelyn's "Dairy," London, 1850, "in compliance with 
a wish very generally expressed, the spelling of the Diary has been 

4. His grave is in the church-yard, with a Latin inscription, signify- 
ing: "The ashes of the very pious Mr. John Boyd, pastor of this 
church of Calvin, are here buried, whose labor, although expended 
on a barren soil, was not lost. They who knew him well, at the same 
time prove his worth as rich in virtues. Reader, follow his footsteps, 
and I hope thou wilt hereafter be happy. He died August 30, 1708, 
the 29th year of his age." Mr. Boyd completed his trials with the 

■Presbytery of Philadelphia September 27, 1706, and was ordained ten 
days afterwards. On the minutes of May 10, 1709, the following ex- 
pressive record is found : "The Rev. Mr. John Boyd being dead, 
what relates to him ceases." 



The tombstone is now removed to the rooms of the Presbyterian 
Historical Society, Philadelphia, and a commemorative monument is 
erected at the place. 

5. Some pleasant associations must have lingered about the old name 
as late as 1824, when a Bible Society being formed in Trenton, the 
name was adopted of "The Bible Society of Delaware Falls." 

6. In 1867 the Long Island Historical Society published the "Journal 
of a Voyage to New York and a Tour in Several of the American 
Colonies in, 1679-80, by Jasper Danker s and Peter Sluyter, of Vieward 
in Friesland," translated from the Dutch manuscript by Henry C. 
Murphy. (They were Labadists.) "November 17, 1679. The road 
from here (near Piscataway) to the falls of the South (i. e., Dela- 
ware) river runs for the most part W. S. W. and then W. It is 
nothing but a foot-path for men and horses. — We saw many deer 
running before us. — As it was still daylight, and we had heard so much 
of the falls of the South river, or at least we ourselves had imagined 
it, we went back to the river to look at them, but we discovered we 
had deceived ourselves in our ideas. We had supposed it was a place 
where the water came tumbling down in great quantity and force, 
from a great height above, over a rock into an abyss, as the word 
falls would seem to imply, and as we had heard and read of falls 
of the North river and other rivers. But these falls of South river 
are nothing more than a place of about two English miles in length, 
or not so much, where the river is full of stones almost across it, which 
are not very large, but in consequence of the shallowness the water 
runs rapidly and breaks against themi causing some noise, but not 
very much. The place, if it were necessary, could be made navigable 
on one side. As no Europeans live above the falls, they may so 
remain." — pp. 170-3. 

7. From the "Journal" quoted above, at the same pages : "Resum- 
ing our route we arrived at the falls of the South river about sun- 
down, passing a creek (Assanpink?) where a new grist mill was 
erected by the Quakers, who live hereabouts in great numbers, and 
daily increase, but it seemed to us as if this mill could not stand long, 
especially if the flow of water were heavy, because the work was not 
well arranged. We rode over here and went directly to the house 
of the person who had constructed it who was a Quaker, where we 
dismounted and willingly dismiss^ed our horses. The house was very 
small and from the incivility of the inmates and the unfitness of the 
place, we expected poor lodgings — this miller's house is the highest up 
the river hitherto inhabited. Here we had to lodge, and, although 
we were too tired to eat, we had to remain sitting upright the whole 
night, not being able to find room enough to lie upon the ground. 
We had a fire, however, but the dwellings are so wretchedly con- 
structed that if you are set so close to the fire as almost to burn 


yourself you cannot keep warm, for the wind dIows through them 
everywhere. Most of the EngHsh and many others have their houses 
made of nothing but clapboards, as they call them here (describes 
how they are made). When it is cold and windy the best people 
plaster them with clay. Such are most all the English houses in the 
country, except those they have which are built by people of other 
nations. Now, this house was new and airy; and as the night was 
very windy from the north, and extremely cold with clear moonshine, 

1 will not readily forget it. About 10 o'clock, after we had breakfasted, 
we stepped into a boat in order to proceed on our journey down the 
river. The water was then rising, and we had to row against the 
current to Burlington. Before arriving at this village we stopped 
at the house of one Jacob Hendricks, from Holstein, living on this 

On their return (December 29, 1679), at or near Bordentown, "we 
crossed over about one o'clock, and pursued a foot-path along the 
river, which led us tO' a cart-road, and, following that, we came to 
the new grist-mill at the falls, which, in consequence of the great 
flow of water, stood in danger of being washed away. Cro-ssing here, 
we began our journey w the Lord's name, for there are no houses 
from this point to Peskatteway, an English village on the Raritans." 

"When we passed by the mill, a Quaker was there who gave us a 
letter, and told us it was difficult traveling on account of the height 
of waters in the creeks; that about eight miles further on some 
Indians had come to live, a little off the path on the left hand. We 
thought we could reachi there by evening. We left the falls about 

2 o'clock, following the ordinary path, which is the same for men 
and horses, and is grown up on both sides with bushes, which wore 
our breeches, stockings and shoes as much as all the woods in Mary- 
land together. The road runs from here E. N. E." 

A map is given with the above history, made by the travelers, en- 
titled (in Dutch) "The South river from its source to Burlington." 
The Rancocas is there "the Ohepiessing creek." Mill creek (Molekill) 
is the As.sanpink. The names of property owners or holders, at the 
falls, are Richard Ridgway, 218 acres; Wm. Biles, 309: Gilbert 
Wheeler. 205; Johan Uncas, 149; Robert Scolis, 206; Thos. Sibeley (?), 
108 ; Johan Ackerman and son, 394. 

8. The only positive evidence I have ever found that the name 
Littleworth was actually used, is that of the Rev. Dr. Cooley, who 
states that he had seen a deed of two lots, lying east of Greene street, 
between Second street (now State) and the Assanpink, which were 
described as "being in Littleworth." The date of the deed is not 
given. It was probably the designation of some portion of the land 
too much exposed to the freshes of the creek to be as valuable as 
other parts. Smith's History, in the account of the great flood at 
Delaware Falls in 1692, says: "The first settlers of the Yorkshire 


tenth in New Jersey had several of them built upon the low lands nigh 
the falls of Delaware, where they had now lived and been improving 
near sixteen years. It is to be hoped that there was nothing in the 
character of the settlers that suggested the application of Solomon's 
epithet: "The heart of the wicked is little worth." Proverbs 10:20. 

Smith's language, when he mentions the death of Wm. Trent, Dec. 
29, 1724, is: "Being a large trader at Trenton, when that place was 
laid out for a town, it from him took its name, being before signifi- 
cantly called Little-Worth." (History of New Jersey, chap, xxii.) 

In 1726 the Legislature granted to James, son of Wm. Trent, the 
exclusive use of the Delaware for a ferry, "twO' miles above and two 
below the falls." 

Smith's History, under date of 1765, says : "The courts are held 
at Trenton, a place of concourse and lively trade. It stands at the 
head of the tide, and in a high, pleasant situation. The inhabitants 
have a public library. Of places of worship [in Hunterdon county], 
the Presbyterians are nine, the Low Dutch do. one, German do. one, 
Episcopalians three, Quakers two, Baptists two." 

In a letter from Wm. Franklin (afterwards Governor) to his father, 
Burlington, June 10, 1767, he says : "Governor Wentworth [of New 
Hampshire] visited me on his journey home, and lay a night at my 
house. I next morning accompanied him as far as Trenton Falls, 
where we spent the day a fishing, and supped together." (Franklin's 
Correspondence, by Duane, p. 35.) 

"The first falls in Delaware river in Trent Town are opposite to 
the forty-seventh mile of this divisional line" — that is, Lawrence's line 
between East and West Jersey, run in 1743, and starting from Little 
Egg Harbor. {Douglass' Summary, ii., 282.) 



1. One of the most prosaic downfalls in the history of the change of 
names, took place when the ancient English term for maidenhood was 
converted by the Legislature, in 1816, on the petition of the inhabitants, 
into Lawrence for the township and Lawrenceville for the town, in 
honor of the hero of the frigate Chesapeake. It would be a parallel 
improvement if the people of Virginia should drop the name of their 
State for one that would embalm the name of Captain John Smith. 
The original Maidenhead is a small town on the Thames, in Berkshire, 
and is partly in the parish of Bray; one, at least, of whose vicars is 
an historical personage. Not far from the town is Salt Hill, famous 
with scholars for the Eton Montem. 

On January 6, 1816, the inhabitants of the township of Maidenhead 
were convened to consider the proposed change of name. The meeting 
ordered the clerk of township to call a special meeting on the next 
Saturday (Jan. 13). At that meeting the proposal was negatived 
"by a majority of at least 3 to i" — not less than 60 against, not more 
than 20 for the measure. A committee of three was appointed to con- 
tract the proposed measure, who presented to the Legislature a remon- 
strance, stating that the township has borne the name for more than 
120 years, and that the change was the suggestion of "men whom the 
inhabitants consider as aliens in the township." The statements of this 
page would be more exact by inserting, that by act of Assembly Jan. 
22, 1709-10, Burlington county was made to include Maidenhead, Hope- 
well, and Amwell. The portion of Trenton, now above the Assanpink, 
was then in Hopewell. Hunterdon county, as set off in March, 1713-14, 
included what are now the counties of Morris, Sussex, Warren, and 
Hunterdon, and the present townships of Trenton, Ewing, Lawrence, 
and Hopewell, in Mercer county. 

2. The two townships would have been a small circuit for a mission- 
ary, compared with some that were assigned in the last century by 
Presbyteries to Supplies and even to Pastors. In 1739 the Presbytery 
of New Brunswick directed one of their ministers to divide his time 
among the people of Allentown, Cranbury, Pepack, Lebanon, and Mus- 
kinicunck. In 1740 Mr. McCray accepted a call from Lametunck, Leb- 
anon, Pepack, Readingtown, and Bethlehem ; and Mr. Robinson was 
directed to supply Middletown, Shrewsbury, Shark-river, Cranbury, 
Crosswicks, the Eorks, Green's, and Pahaqually. In 1749 Mr. Chesnut 
was appointed to supply Amwell for four weeks, then Penn's Neck, 
then Woodbury, then seven Sabbaths at Cape May. 

3. January 18, 1806, a public dinner was given in Trenton to Capt. 
(afterwards Commodore) Bainbridge, upon his return from Barbary. 


The Commodore's family were of this locality and church. Edmund 
Bainbridge was an elder from the united churches of Trenton and 
Maidenhead in the Presbytery of October, 1794. John Bainbridge was 
one of the grantees in the church-deed of 1698, (page 15,) and that 
name is still visible on a tombstone in a deserted burying-place in Lam- 
berton. The inscription on Bainbridge's grave stands thus : 

"In memory of 

lohn Banbridge who di'd Febry. 

the I4tli. 1732. In ye 75111 Year of his Age." 

The first i in his name was inserted after the name had been cut. 
The family name in England had another variety, as is found in an 
epigram quoted in Bayle's Dictionary, beginning — 

"Doctor Cambridge came from Cambridge." (Art. on John Bain- 
bridge; born 1582.) 

4. There is "Thomas Byerly," 1712, in "New Jersey Archives," ist 
series, vol. iv., p. 169, and "T. Byerley," 1717, p. 310. 

5. Richard Eayre. This is probably the same family that has since 
been better known as Eyres and Eyre. In our church-yard is the grave 
of "Sophia, relict of Capt. Richard Eyres, formerly of Philadelphia" ; 
February 9, 1801 : aged 60. 

6. Concerning an Episcopal Church in Hopewell, John Talbot, of 
Burlington, writes, October 28, 1714, "The church at Hopewell has 
been built these ten or twelve years, and never had a minister settled 
there yet, though they have sent several petitions and addresses to the 
Society (for the Propagation of the Gospel), but I understand since 
that Hopewell, Maidenhead, &c., are kept under the thumb for Cotton 
Mather and the rest of the New England Doctors to send their emis- 
saries ; and these hirelings have often come there, and as often run 
away, because they are hirelings, and care for no souls but themselves." 
Hills' "History of BurHngton Episcopal Church," p. 126. 

Also, Talbot writes September 20, 1723, "I have been this month at 
Trenton, at Hopewell and Amwell, preaching, and baptizing nineteen 
persons in one day." (Hills', p. 175.) 

J. Bass (Hills' "History," p. 131) — no date — speaks of the "church 
at Hopewell, in the upper part of the county of Burlington, which hath 
since been finished, which was for some time supplied by the Rev. Mr. 
May, but is now without any minister." 

Jona. Odell, missionary at Burlington, July 5, 1768, is quoted in 
Hills' "History," as follows : "I think it my duty to represent to the 
Society the importance of a mission at Trenton. There is no other 
Episcopal church on the great road between Burlington and Bruns- 


wick, a distance of more than forty miles. Within the memory of 
many persons yet Hving, the inhabitants of Trenton and the country 
for some distance round it were chiefly members of the Church of 
England, and the few Dissenters that were among them were mostly 
Quakers." See "New Jersey Archives," ist series, vol. iv., pp. 156, 225. 
The Trenton "State Gazette," May, 1881, contained the following 
article descriptive of the church property held by the Episcopalians : 

The document, of which the following is a copy, represents the first 
establishment of the Episcopal Church of Trenton, New Jersey. It 
was located on a part of the 5,000 acres taken up by Thomas Hutchin- 
son, known as "Hutchinson's Manor," which had then, by the death of 
Thomas, fallen to his only son, John Hutchinson. Part of its walls 
are still standing on a hill a short distance beyond the State Lunatic 
Asylum. It was used by the Episcopalians until the building of their 
church (St. Michael's) in Trenton. 

It is worthy of note that Thomas Tindall was most prominent in its 
establishment and erection, and was one of its first Wardens. 

Thomas Hutchinson (the proprietor) had only one son, "John" 
here named. John had two sons, Marmaduke and Isaac. Marmaduke 
did not attain manhood. Isaac was living in Trenton in 1749, after 
which all trace is lost of him, and of the descendants of Thomas 

"Richard Ingoldsby, Esquire, L,ieut. Governor of Her Majesties 
Provinces of New Jersey, New York, and all the Territories, &c, 
depending thereon, in America &c. — 

To Thomas Tindall, Roger Parke, Robert Eaton and Andrew 
Heath, Greeting. — 

Whereas several of the Inhabitants of the Township of Hope- 
well, in her Majesty's Province of New Jersey, out of a pious designe, 
to promote the honour of God, and the advancement of the Protestant 
religion, and Church of England, as by law established ; and in order 
thereunto, have purchased a convenient Tract of Land of John 
Hutchinson, deceased, as by the deed of sale thereof, bearing date, 
the twentieth day of April Anno Dom. 1703, for the erecting and 
building a house for the more decent worshipping of God, accord- 
ing to the usage aforesaid ; and have by voluntary contributions begun 
to erect and build the same; for which they have also desired my 
Lycense, — 

These are therefore to Lycense, authorise or empower you, or any 
three or more of you, to erect and build, upon the said Tract of Land, 
as purchased, as aforesaid ; a church or place for the more decent 
worshipping of God, according to the forms and worship of the 
Church of England as by law established ; and also to take and receive 
such gifts and Contributions as well-disposed people shall voluntarily 
bestow, for the said pious designe. — 
Hereby appointing ye the said Thomas Tindall and Robert Eaton 


to be church wardens, of the said church; to be called by the name 
of "Christ Church", for the year next ensuing. — 

Giving hereby and Granting unto you; in Conjunction, with the 
minister and vestry, of the said church, all such power and privileges 
as the minister. Church wardens and vestrymen, usually have and 
enjoy in the Kingdom of England. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and scale, the 
third day of April, Anno Reg. Regn Anna Nunc Anatic &c. — Anno 
Dom. 1705. 

By his honners Commd. Rich. IngoIvDSBy. 

J. Bass." 

7. "John Dagworthy," 1732, New Jersey Archives, vol. v., p. 317. 

8. Richard Scudder and Jacob Reeder, whose names are at the head 
of the list on page 19, were lineal ancestors of Jasper S. Scudder 
and wife, their great-great-grandfathers respectively. The great-great- 
grandfathers, great-grandfathers, grandfathers and fathers of each are 
buried in the Ewing church-yard ; and Jasper S. Scudder and wife 
have a son and grandson there — seven generations (including J. S. 
S. and wife, living in 1867). 

9. The genealogy of the family of Burroughs may be found in 
Riker's Annals of Newtown, Queen's County, New York, published in 
1852. The first of the name came from England to Salem, Massa- 
chusetts, in 1637, and died in 1678. His name was John. His son, 
Joseph, "a liberal supporter of the Presbyterian ministry in Newtown," 
died in 1738. Joseph's son, John, who married Margaret Renne in 
1721, "owned land at Trenton," and died at Newtown, July 7, 1750. 
Mr. Charles Burroughs, who has been a trustee of our church since 
1826, is a great grandson of the grantee in Lockart's deed. His father, 
John Burroughs, died in Trenton, April 28, 1842, in his eighty-ninth 

10. In Mr. Riker's work there is also given a history of the Sacket 
family, which appears to have been that with which the two grantees 
of the name, and also the clergyman hereafter mentioned, were con- 
nected. Simon was a family-name. 

11. The Ewing Church of 1795 was begun that year, but not finished 
until October 7, 1797. The first sermon in it was by Mr. Rue, October 
I5> 1797- (See sermon by Rev. David Judson Atwater at the last 
service in that church, March 3, 1867, previous to its being removed 
for a new one.) The new stone church was dedicated November 20,. 
1867. Dr. J. Hall preached, Ps. 96 : 9. 

12. Mrs. Esther Mcllvaine, who died in Ewing, October, i860. 

13. For fuller history of Hopewell, see "A History of 'the Old Pres- 
byterian congregation of the people of Maidenhead and Hopewell^ 


more especially of the First Presbyterian Church of Hopewell at 
Pennington, N. J." By George Hale, D.D., Philadelphia, 1876. 

14. Pennington "was first named Queenstown, in honor of Queen 
Anne." "The settlement of the village began near 1708." "As 
early as 1747 it began to be called Pennington." "The old congrega- 
tion was known in its earliest history as 'the people of Maidenhead 
and Hopewell.' " Hale, p. 47. 

15. The Presbytery of East Jersey was formed by the Synod in 
I733j by dividing the Presbytery of Philadelphia. In 1738 the Presby- 
teries of East Jersey and Long Island were united as the Presbytery 
of New York. In a subsequent day of the same sessions (May 25, 
1738), the Presbytery of New Brunswick was formed out of the 
Presbytery of New York. Its bounds were "all to the northward and 
Presbytery of New York. Its bounds were "all to the northward and 
also Staten Island, Piscatua, Amboy, Boundbrook, Basking Ridge, 
Turkey, Rocksiticus, Minisink, Pequally, and Crosswicks." (Printed 
"Records," pp. 104, 134, 136.) This left our churches in the Pres- 
bytery of Philadelphia. 

16. In 1886 I found in possession of Mrs. Cook, of Trenton, a volume 
of Records of Hopewell Church, which Dr. Hale had not seen until 
I showed it to him, with various items from 1730 to 1785. I made a 
memorandum of these, the most important being a list of com- 
municants of "Trenton" (Ewing), from 1733 to 1737, at the end of 
the Session book of the First Church (1806 to 1838), pp. 263-g, which 



1. In that inexhaustible entertainment for the local antiquary, "Wat- 
son's Annals of Philadelphia," is a history and engraving of the house 
occupied by Col. Trent in Philadelphia from 1703 to 1709. It is the 
house still standing (1858) at the corner of Second street and Norris' 
alley, and was first inhabited by William Penn; (Annals^ Edition of 
1850, vol. i., 164.) In a Trenton nev^^spaper of 1840 I have marked this 
announcement : "Died at her residence near this city, December 20, 
1840, Mary, vi^idow of Nathan Beakes, in her 79th year — the last per- 
son that had borne the name of Trent." 

In Hills' "History of the Episcopal Church in Burlington," I find 
reference as follows : "I waited on the Governor on Sunday morning 
with Mr. Trent, the chief man in the church." (Letter of Talbot to 
the Bishop of London, October 12, 1715), p. 141. 

From Trenton, September 20, 1723, Daniel Coxe and William Trent 
write to the Secretary of the S. P. G. about the church in Burlington, p. 


A facsimile of Trent's signature is in the "New Jersey Archives," 1st 
series, vol. v., p. 77. 

2. A facsimile of Stacy's signature is in the "New Jersey Archives," 
1st series, vol. v., p. 317. 

3. The deed is in the possession of our trustees. It is recorded in 
book AT., p. 108. The grant is described as "a certain piece or lot of 
land lying on the north side of Second street, that goes to the iron- 
works in Trenton, containing in length 150 feet, and in breadth 150 
feet; with all the mines, minerals, woods, fishings, hawkings, huntings, 
waters, and water-courses." The iron-works were about a mile east- 
ward of the church. 

4. The original is with the trustees ; it is recorded in book AT., p. 
114. There is a tradition that Andrus gave the lot for the church. 
The church first went by the name of "Anderson's Meeting-house," 
but Andrus was offended about letting of pews. The fourth and fifth 
generations in descent from Enoch Andrus, (Anderson,) are now mem- 
bers of the city church. 

5. Enoch Anderson is mentioned in a letter of Theos. Severns, Tren- 
ton, May 29, 1750, in "New Jersey Archives," vol. vii., p. 546, as "a 
person intended to be appointed sheriff of Hunterdon county by your 
Excellency, upon which Mr. John Coxe replied 'the Governor dare not 
do it.'" 

In the "Pennsylvania Gazette" of June 15, 1758, is the following: 
"To Be Sold. The House and Lot of Land wherein Enoch Anderson, 


Deceased, lately lived ; as also several other Lots of Land, situate in 
Trenton, in the county of Hunterdon, belonging to the Estate of the 
said Enoch Anderson. The Titles to the same are indisputable. Any 
Person or Persons inclinable to purchase the same, or any Part thereof, 
by applying to John Anderson, in Maidenhead, or to Abraham Cott- 
nam, in Trenton aforesaid, may be informed of the Conditions, &c." 

In the present church-porch is a grave-stone, "In memory of Enoch 
Anderson, who departed this life April 15th, 1756. Aged 59 years." In 
the church-yard hedge is the grave of "Margaret Anderson ; 1733.'' 
Among the oldest is that of Robert Archbold, who died September 2, 
1734. Aged 25 years. 

In the minutes of the Philadelphia Synod, September ig, 1733, is this 
record : "Upon a supplication of the people of Trenton, presented to 
the Synod by the committee of the Synod, it was recommended by said 
committee that the commission of the Synod do allow something out 
of the fund to Trenton, as to them shall appear needful, when they are 
settled with a minister : which overture being read was approved by 
the Synod nemine contradicento." 

6. In the records of the Presbytery of Philadelphia, Sept. 19, 1734, 
"a letter from the people of Trenton desiring care to be taken to pro- 
cure a minister for them was read ; but nothing was or could be done 
to purpose about it at that time." 

7. A letter from William W. Cowell to J. Hall, dated Wrentham, 
Mass., Nov. 16, 1871, says : 

"Hon. Ezra Wilkinson is collecting materials for a history of this 
town: and as the descendant of Joseph Cowell he purchased the old 
homestead in the town where his sons Joseph, David and Ebenezer 
lived, and where the first Joseph, the second Joseph, Samuel, son of 
Joseph II, my father William, the son of Samuel, all lived and died, 
where I was born and lived some thirty years, and where my sister 
now resides, and where seven generations of the Cowell race and name 
and blood have gathered from time to time." 

"Joseph Cowell married Martha Fales in 1701, and lived the first 
nine years of his life in the then town of Dorchester, but which was 
soon annexed to Wrentham. In fact it was within two miles of the old 
homestead and some twenty-five miles from Dorchester proper. The 
record of his marriage, the birth of all his children, including my great- 
uncle David, do not appear at all upon the records of that town, but 
upon the records of Wrentham." 

Mr. W. W. Cowell sent me the engraved family-tree : the root, "John 
Cowell came from England" ; the main stem, "Joseph settled in Wren- 
tham, U. S., A.D. 1690" — father of David, Ebenezer and Joseph. 

David L. Cowell wrote me in 1874, from Brockton, "that David 
Cowell was born December 12, 1704," as recorded in the Wrentham 
records. "Whether the spot on which he was born was really within 


the limits of Dorchester and subsequently annexed to Wrentham, or 
whether it was only supposed to have been in Dorchester until a more 
accurate survey decided that it belonged to Wrentham, I cannot posi- 
tively say. I have, however, seen an old list of taxpapers, dated as 
early as 1704, where his name appeared as of Wrentham. * * * j^- 
would seem that it would be more appropriate to credit his birthplace 
to Wrentham." 

8. Cornelius Ringo's name is in the advertisement quoted on p. 64. 
A meeting of the inhabitants of Hunterdon county was held "at the 

house of John Ringo in Amwell," July 8, 1774, Samuel Tucker in the 
chair, expressing loyalty to George III, but protesting against inter- 
ference with colonial rights, and appointing a committee to unite with 
the other counties in choosing delegates to Congress. The committee 
were, Samuel Tucker, John Mehelm, John Hart, Isaac Smith, Charles 
Coxe, Joachim Griggs, Benjamin Brearley, Abraham Hunt, John Emley. 
"Minutes of Provincial Congress and Council of Safety of New Jer- 
sey," Trenton, 1877, p. 13. 

9. I have a writ of summons, dated Sept. 6, 1720, commanding Henry 
Venhook (Verbrook?), Francis Kaine and Hezekiah Bonham, junior 

(see p. 15), and Hezekiah Bunill to appear at the next General Quarter 
Sessions of the Peace at Trenton, witness, John Porterfield, "one of 
our Justices of the Peace of the county (Hunterdon)": Signed Wm. 
D. Yard, clerk, and addressed to Nathaniel Moor, constable. The seal 
is a crown and legend, "Tout pour — " the rest illegible. 

ID. An article in the New York Obso-ver, a few years ago, said, "In 
the register of baptisms by the first pastor of the First Presbyterian 
Church of Philadelphia, Rev. Jedediah Andrews, are found the names 
of Richard Scudder and his nine children, living on the river five miles 
above the 'Falls of the Delaware,' as the site of Trenton was then 
called. Richard Scudder had come from Long Island in 1704, and 
purchased a tract two miles in extent on the Delaware river, a por- 
tion of which is still possessed by his descendants. Rev. Jasper Scud- 
der Mcllvaine, for some years missionary of the Presbyterian Board 
at Shantung, China, is the seventh in lineal descent from Richard 
Scudder and William Mcllvaine, one of the first elders of the First 
Church of Philadelphia." 

Rev. Jasper Scudder Mcllvaine, who died in China in 1881, was a 
grandson of Jasper Smith Scudder, the Treasurer of the First Church, 
Trenton, in 1859, and died in 1877. 

11. Andrew Reed was possibly the first postmaster of Trenton. (See 
note on p. 63.) 

12. "Boaz" is so written in the will, but Prof. Henry Reed, of Phil- 
adelphia (grandson of General Joseph), writes to me, October 27, 1876: 
"His mother's name being Theodosia Bowes, who was a daughter of 
Francis Bowes." 


"Lieutenant-Colonel Bowes Read" is mentioned in "Minutes of 
Provincial Congress," pp. 470, 573, 575. 

For Andrew Reed's daughter, Mrs. Montgomery, see page 135. 

13. In "The Presbyterian," of August 17, 1861, is an obituary of 
Upton Reid, who died in Harford county, Maryland, July 17, 1861, 
aged 81 years. "He was the sixth of nine children of Clotworthy Reid 
and Mary Alexander, of County Antrim, Ireland." 

"His mother died when he was five years of age, and his father 
when he was thirteen. He came to this country when very young. 
For some years he lived in Chester county, Pennsylvania, but for more 
than forty within a mile of where he died." Rev. A. B. Cross, of 
Baltimore, writes me that "the above Clotworthy Reid and Mary 
Alexander were married January 18, 1770, and he died May 2, 1793, 
aged forty-three." 

14. Ralph Smith's name follows that of Andrew Reed, and Samuel 
Johnson that of Cornelius Ringo. Both are in a list of subscribers 
of the "Province of New Jersey," to the first edition of Edward's 
"Life of Brainard," 1749. In a letter of Theophilus Severns to Gov- 
ernor Belcher, Trenton, May 29, 1750, he relates conversation of Johi? 
Coxe, unfavorable to the Governor "when I was in company with Mr. 
John Coxe, Judge Nevill, Ralph Smith and others." 

15. "Mr. Thomas's interest in Trenton had been bought by Robert 
Lettice Hooper for £2,900 sterling— thought a good sale." Letter of 
Governor Belcher, June 8, 1751, "Analytical Index." 

16. "The papers of Lewis Morris," vol. iv. of Collections of the New 
Jersey Historical Society, pp. 9, 325, etc. Morris's rent in Trenton was 
sixty pounds ($160), the landlord expending £200 "in putting of it 
into repair and building a wing for a kitchen to lodge servants." "The 
lessee might cut his fire-wood, but not of timber-trees." "Our house is 
good," writes the Governor in 1744, "and not one chimney in it smokes. 
I have not yet got into ploughing and sowing, having but little ground, 
and that but ordinary, and much out of order, but shall try a little at 
it, when I get it into something better fence, which I am doing." 



1. Mr. Tennent's warmth was undoubtedly increased by his belief that 
the cautiousness of the Synod in regard to the scholarship of candidates 
arose from a want of confidence in the accomplishments of the pupils of 
the Neshaminy Academy, established by his father. The arts and 
sciences were not thought to be as well taught there as the classics. 
Thus, Dr. Alexander remarks that the schism "was actually produced 
by the Log College." (Log College, p. 57.) Rowland was educated 
there, and, of course, by the Synod's rule, was subject to examination. 

2. The old congregation were represented by Enoch Armitage, Thomas 
Burrowes, Edward Hart and Timothy Baker; the "new erection" by 
Benjamin Stevens, John Anderson, Samuel Hunt, and Joseph Birt. 
"We had the privilege," wrote Rowland, "minister at Hopewell," "of 
Maidenhead meeting-house [1738], and my people built a meeting- 
house in Hopewell. There is another town [township] lying contiguous 
to Hopewell, which is called Amwell. They petitioned for a part of 
my time, viz., one Sabbath in three." William Tennent writes in Octo- 
ber, 1744: "About four weeks since I gathered a church, and celebrated 
the Lord's Supper at a new erected congregation in the towns of 
Maidenhead and Hopewell." ("Gillies' Collections," ii., 137, 323.) This 
was a mile west of Pennington^ and was but a temporary secession, 
both parties reuniting afterwards in the old church, probably in 1766. 

3. The unhappy personal effects lingered still longer. Dr. Green was 
ordained in Philadelphia in 1787, and says: "The arrangements for my 
ordination had been made with a view to mingle, and, if possible, to 
harmonize the old side and the new side members of the Presbytery. 
For although twenty-nine years had elapsed, since in 1758 the rival 
Synods had become united, twO' Presbyteries of Philadelphia had 
existed, composed severally of the litigant parties ; and the aged mem- 
bers of both sides had retained something of the old bitter feelings 
towards each other." ("Life," p. 154.) 

Tlie church where Dr. Green was ordained and installed had the less 
favorable associations for the purpose mentioned, as it was the one 
built by the exertions of Gilbert Tennent, for a people described by 
Dr. Franklin as "originally disciples of Mr. Whitefield." In com- 
pliance with the philosopher's advice, Tennent "asked of everybody; 
and he obtained a much larger sum than he expected, with which he 
erected the capacious and elegant meeting-house that stands in Arch 
street." (Franklin's Autobiography: Sparks, i., 168.) 

4. The custom in Newark as late as 1791. Whitehead's Perth Am- 
boy, p. 319. 


5. The Friends were also traveling about from meeting to meeting 
during this period. From "John Griffith's Journal," London and Phil- 
adelphia, 1780, pp. 55 and 56, we take these items : 

"About the latter end of the year 1744 — I went into West Jersey to 
visit the following meetings, as I found my mind drawn thereunto, 
viz. : Haddonfield, Chester, Evesham, Mt. Holly, Ancocas, Old Spring- 
field, Trenton and Burlington quarterly meetings." 

"In the fifth month (1746) I visited the county of Bucks, and had 
meetings at Middletown, Smith, the Falls," etc. 

6. The sessions of the Commission appear to have been opened as 
formally as those of the Synod. I have before me, in a pamphlet, "A 
Sermon preached before the Commission of the Synod at Philadelphia, 
April 20th, 1735. By E. Pemberton, Pastor of the Presbyterian Church 
in the City of New York." The dedication "to the Reverend Com- 
mission of the Synod," refers to its having been "preached in obedience 
to your commands." 

7. The address to the Governor, signed by Cowell, and the Gov- 
ernor's reply, are in the Pennsylvania Gazette of June 9, 1743. 

8. The Synod's "Fund" was for such "pious uses" as were desig- 
nated from time to time. 

The "Analytical Index" gives the heads of several communications 
that passed between Governor Franklin and the Royal authority in 
England in reference to a petition of the Presbyterian clergy in New 
Jersey, for a charter for the Widows' Fund. See index under dates 
of May II, 1772; February 27, April 10, June 2, October 18, 1773. TTie 
charter was granted. 

9. It may have been expected that some notice should be found 
in this chapter of the celebrated case which was before the Supreme 
Court at Trenton, in 1742, in which the Rev. William Tennent was 
arraigned for perjury, on account of the evidence he had given to prove 
that the Rev. John Rowland was far from Hunterdon county when Bell, 
assuming his name, stole a horse. But I trust that an authentic account 
of that whole affair will soon be furnished by a more competent hand, 
and I believe that it will be made to appear that there is no foundation 
for the story of the supernatural mission of witnesses from Maryland 
to Trenton. A paper to this effect, by Mr. Richard S. Field, has 
already appeared in the "Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical 
Society." (Vol. vi., p. 31.) 

An article upon "The Trial of the Rev. William Tennent," by Hon. 
Henry W. Green, in the "Princeton Review," July, 1868, concludes : 
"We assert, therefore, with perfect confidence, that his deliverance 
was not effected by supernatural means, and that the attendance of 
the witnesses was not procured by a dream." 

21 PRES 



1. Among the debits of the Treasurer's book, in account with the 
Trenton parsonage, are frequently to be found such items as, "to hoops 
for the well-bucket," "for cleaning the well," "to a rope for the well." 

2. In a letter of 1730-1, quoted in Whitehead's History of Perth 
Amboy (p. 155), the writer remarks that in 1715 "there were but four 
or iive houses in the thirty miles between Inian's Ferry (New Bruns- 
wick) and the Falls of Delaware; but now the whole way it is almost 
a continued lane of fences and good farmers' houses, and the whole 
country is there settled or settling very thick." 

3. The barracks are frequently mentioned in the minutes of the 
Provincial Congress. January 13, 1776, "The prisoners of war, now 
in the barracks at Trenton" are ordered to be removed by the Com- 
mittee of Observation, "in order that the Continental forces may 
occupy the said barracks." February 2, Abraham Hunt and Alexander 
Chambers were requested to value the blankets in the barracks, and 
appropriate them to the use of the Continental forces. At the same 
session Alexander Chambers and William Tucker were appointed 
barrack-masters, and instructed to repair the barracks for use. It was 
as early as 1758 that the Colonial Legislature provided for barracks at 
Trenton and four other points, each capable of holding 300 men. 
A full relation of the particulars is given by a member and trustee of 
our First Church, Adjutant-General William S. Stryker, in the "Pro- 
ceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society," January, 1881. 

In a letter of Governor Franklin to the British Secretary of State, 
1766, the statement is made that many of the king's troops "acknowl- 
edge that they are better accommodated here than they had ever been 
at barracks in Europe." See "Archives of New Jersey," first series, 
vol. ix., p. 577. 

In the Pontiac War, 1763-4, the persecuted Christian Moravian 
Indians, on their way from Pennsylvania to New York, were allowed 
quarters at the barracks in the towns through which they passed. 
"They spent the first night at Bristol and the second in the barracks 
at Trenton. Here (Joseph) Fox and (William) Logan took leave 
of them." "The Indians spent eight days in the barracks at Amboy." 
De Schweinitz's "Life of Zeisberger," chap. xv. 

4. Items collated since the completion of the text of chapter v., are 
as follows : 

"I have seen several of the principal towns of the government, and 
have not seen one that has in it 200 dwelling houses." Governor 
Belcher, in "New Jersey Archives," vol. vii., p. 66 (1747). 

"Trenton, with 130 houses. Near to this lie the valuable copper 


mines, for the use of the one-third of which Governor Morris within 
eighteen months, in 1755, paid five thousand pounds." Israel Acrelius, 
in "Description of Swedish churches of New Sweden," Stockholm, 
1759, reprinted by the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

"Two other large and thriving towns, which make much more use 
of the post, * * * viz., Trenton and Brunswick." Dr. Franklin, 
Deputy Postmaster-General, April 23, 1761. In "New Jersey 
Archives," ix., p. 267. 

In the "letter addressed to the Abbe Raynal," by Thomas Paine, in 
answer to the Abbe's account of the American Revolution, Phila- 
delphia, 1782, referring to the battle of Trenton, he says of the town: 
"Trenton is situated on a rising ground, about three-quarters of a 
mile distant from the Delaware, on the eastern or Jersey side, and cut 
into two divisions by a small creek or rivulet." "The upper division, 
which is to the northeast, contains about seventy or eighty houses, 
and the lower about forty or fifty. The ground on each side this 
creek, and on which the houses are, is likewise rising, and the two 
divisions present an agreeable prospect to each other, with the creek 
between, on which there is a small stone bridge of one arch." 

Rev. Manasseh Cutler's description (1787) in "Proceedings of New 
Jersey Historical Society," 1873. p. 93, is as follows : "We made our 
first stage to Trenton (from Princeton, via Maidenhead), thirteen 
miles, at Vandegrift's tavern, at the ferry. This town is spread over 
a considerable space of ground. There are parallel streets that pass 
through the body of the town, and are connected by cross streets at 
right angles. There are no considerable buildings. The town is at a 
small distance from the Delaware river, and is situated on a river 
(Assanpink creek), that comes in from the northeast and unites with 
the Delaware at this place. There is only one small meeting-house 
and one church in this town. I therefore conclude that the people 
are not much disposed to attend public worship, for the two houses, 
I presume, are not sufficient to hold one-third of the inhabitants. Over 
the river in the compact part of the town is a spacious stone bridge, 
supported by arches built with stone and lime, and with a high wall on 
each side handsomely laid. At the foot of the bridge are mills for 
grinding and bolting wheat. These mills are contained in a very large 
stone building three stories high, and are remarkable for the prodigious 
quantity and excellent quality of the flour which is ground in them 
every twenty-four hours. The houses in this, and indeed in all the 
towns in New Jersey, are built in a style very different from that of 
New England. But I think it far less elegant, and by no means so 
good an effect on the eye. The want of large meeting-houses and 
towering steeples is a great defect. Neither are the houses so 
spacious or so well-built." 

"This town, with Lamberton, which joins it on the south, contains 
upwards of 200 houses, besides public buildings. In the neighborhood 


of this pleasant town are several gentlemen's seats, finely situated on 
the banks of the Delaware and ornamented with taste and elegance." 
From "An Historical, Geographical, Commercial and Philosophical 
View of the American United States," by W. Winterbotham, London, 
1795, four volumes. 

In the same words "Guthrie's Geography," first American edition, 
Philadelphia, 1794-5, with the addition of "and about 2,000 inhabitants." 
Both say, "The inhabitants have lately erected a handsome court- 
house, 100 feet by 50, with a semi-hexagon at each end, over which 
is a balustrade." 

Also in "Nathaniel Dwight's Geography," Hartford, 1795. "Q. What 
is the capital of New Jersey? A. Trenton; it is the largest town in 
the State, though it does not contain more than 200 houses." 

In Goldsmith's "Easy Grammar of Geography," Philadelphia, 181 1 : 
"Trenton, which is the seat of justice, contains but about 2,000 in- 

S. There was a Sir John St. Clair in Braddock's army, who arrived in 
January, 1755 ; was Lieutenant-Colonel of the 22d Regiment, and 
Deputy Quartermaster-General for all the forces in America. In 1762 
he was made a full Colonel. On the list of the wounded at the defeat 
(July 9, 1755) he was put down as "Sir John Sinclair, Baronet, Dep. 
Q. M. Gen." (Winthrop Sargent's History of Braddock's Expedition; 
Pennsylvania Historical Society, pp. 136, 143, 285.) The death of 
"Hon. Col. Sir John St. Clair, Bar't," is announced in the newspapers 
of the day as having taken place at Elizabethtown, December, 1767. 
There was a "Captain Rutherford" with St. Clair in the Expedition. 
From some references and correspondence, it would appear that Sir 
John was a petulant officer. See "Letters and Papers relating to the 
Provincial History of Pennsylvania," principally from papers of the 
Shippen family, privately printed. Philadelphia: pp. 36-8, 61, 151. In 
one letter Sir John speaks of "Betsey — I mean. Lady St. Clair." 

W. A. Whitehead (Newark, July 7, 1859) writes about "a letter 
which I found among some MSS. added to my collection a few days 
ago." "The letter is dated at 'Belville,' Sept. 16, 1765, but references 
in the letter indicate a location near Trenton, its purport being that 
a certain old woman had, in his absence, intruded herself into his 
Greenhouse, where Lady St. Clair 'lay in' and was then confined to 
her bed ; and afterwards went to his dwelling-house and stole 'four 
pair of Lady St. Clair's silk stockings,' and two silver spoons, but 
although caught, the Justice before whom she was taken allowed her 
to go off, ordering 'a constable to see the thief over Trenton Bridge.' 
The letter is addressed to Cortlandt Skinner, the Attorney-General, 
and he threatens to "look out for another place of abode 'if the 
Justices are not restrained from conniving at robberies,' signing himself 
'John Sinclair.'" 


The "Historical Magazine" of May, 1862, says : "Sir John St. Clair, 
baronet, was from Argyleshire. He had been Lieutenant-Colonel of 
the 22d Foot, then appointed Deputy Quartermaster-General of this ex- 
pedition (battle of Monongahela, July, 1755) with the rank of Colonel 
in America only. In this defeat he was shot through the chest. On 
January 6, 1756, he was commissioned Lieutenant-Colonel of the 3d 
Battalion, Royal American or 60th Foot, and served with his regiment 
until the peace of 1763, when the 3d and 4th Battalions were disbanded, 
and he retired on half-pay, having been previously made Colonel in 
the army (February 19, 1762). He died towards the end of 1767, at 
Elizabethtown, New York (sic), according to the Gentleman's Maga- 

Concerning the baronetcy, "Chambers' Miscellany," vol. 6, p. 2, 
(Stirling case), says: "To induce British subjects, especially Scots- 
men of rank, to take land in the district, the new dignity of baronets 
of Nova Scotia was created. It was to be conferred on acceptable 
persons who paid for and received a grant of 10,000 acres of land in 
the colony." 

"Maritime Provinces," Boston, 1875, p. 76, also says : "The order 
of the baronets of Nova Scotia was founded by King Charles I. in 
1625, and consisted of 150 well-born gentlemen of Scotland, who re- 
ceived witb their titles and insignia presents of 18 square miles each, 
in the wild domains of Acadia. These manors were to be settled by 
the baronets at their own expense, and were expected to yield hand- 
some revenues. But little was ever accomplished by this order." 

Hills' "History of Episcopal Church in Burlington," p. 273, "March 
17, 1762, Sir John St. Clair, baronet, and Elizabeth Moreland, married 
in Burlington by Rev. Colin Campbell." 

"I wrote him (Dr. Johnson) one letter to introduce Mr. Sinclair 
(now Sir John), the member for Caithness, to his acquaintance." 
Boswell, A. D. 1782. 

From a Boston paper, 1768: "Philadelphia, Dec. 7, 1767. — On Wed- 
nesday, the 23d November, at his home in Elizabethtown, New Jersey, 
died Sir John St. Clair, baronet, Colonel of His Majesty's Regiment, 
and Quartermaster-General of the Army in North America, in which 
station he has acted for 13 years with great honour and integrity. 
His death was occasioned by a wound he received through the lungs, 
on the banks of the Monongahela, in July, 1755, at Braddock's un- 
fortunate defeat, of which wound he never recovered. He was be- 
tween 50 and 60 years of age, and has been near 40 years in His 
Majesty's service. He acted on all occasions with a firmness of spirit, 
resignation and dignity becoming his profession and character. His 
remains were interred on Saturday, the 26th, with all military honours. 
His Excellency, General Gage, accompanied by the gentlemen of his 
suite from headquarters, and the officers from the adjacent garrisons 
in New York and New Jersey attended the solemnity. 


"His only son, now Sir John St. Clair, succeeds to his title and 

6. In the first edition (1708) of Oldmixon's British Empire in Amer- 
ica, it is said there are "but two Church of England ministers in both 
the Provinces" of East and West New Jersey. 

The most comprehensive account of the denominations existing in 
the middle of the century, which I have seen, is in "A digression con- 
cerning the various sectaries in religion, in the British settlements of 
North America," contained in Dr. Douglass' "Summary, Historical 
and PoHtical." Boston, 1753, vol. ii., pp. 1 12-157. 

7. In a map in Humphreys' Historical Account of the Gospel Propa- 
gation Society, 1730, I find the following topography: 

° Hopewell, 
° Maidenhead, 
° Burlington. 
If this was the understanding in 1705, the Hopewell of the manu- 
script could not be so near Trenton as the "Old Church." 

8. In 1732 "the inhabitants of Amwell and Hopewell" applied to the 
Society for a Missionary. In 1739, Colonel Daniel Coxe made his will, 
devising one hundred acres in Maidenhead, "known as the town-lot, 
for the use of an Episcopal Church erected, or to be hereafter erected, 
in the township of Maidenhead." The minutes of St. Michael's Vestry, 
of 1775, mention "the glebe of Maidenhead." 

9. Joseph Peace owned land near the barracks. He was the father 
of Mrs. Sarah Chubb, from whom the lot was purchased under the 
law of 1758. It consisted of one acre, and was part of a tract of 36 
acres, purchased by Peace from James Trent, in 1732, for 170 pounds 
in silver money. 

10. November i, 1861, I saw in the Post Ofiice Department at Wash- 
ington, the thin httle folio which includes the entire account current 
or ledger, of Dr. Franklin, while Postmaster General. In it is the ac- 
count of "The Post Office at Trenton," which places the revenue of 
the ofiice in 1776 at £10. 16. 11. See the account given at large in 
"Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society." 1862, vol. 9, pp. 

11. April 5, 1744. Dr. Franklin mentions "Mr. John Coxe, of Tren- 
ton, and Mr. Martyn, of the same place," among the first members of a 
Philosophical Society in Philadelphia. Sparks' "Life of Franklin," 
vi : 29. 

12. Wm. Morris and Richard Salter were Justices of the Peace at 
Trenton. Gov. Belcher (Dec, 1755) disapproved of their course in 
committing a number of Susquehannah and Delaware Indians to jail, 
as they belonged to Pennsylvania. An. Index, p. 330. See also p. 280. 


Nov. 2. Saltar was the name of the Treasurer of the State who, in 
October, 1803, was seized in his house in Trenton, and robbed of the 
pubhc funds to the amount of eleven thousand dollars. 

13. April 5, 1757, is the date of a letter of Dr. Franklin in Trenton, 
on his way from Philadelphia to New York, to take passage for Eng- 
land. "My kind friend Mr. Griffith's carriage being too weak in the 
wheels, I have accepted Mr. Master's obliging offer and take his car- 
riage forward from this place, and he will return to town in Mr. Grif- 
fith's. About a dozen of our friends accompanied us quite hither to 
see us out of the province, and we spent a very agreeable evening to- 
gether." Sparks' "Franklin," vii : 131. 



1. Dr. Green, in his "Notes," overlooked the pastor of Trenton and 
the Rev. Mr. Guild, when he wrote : "In the Province of New Jersey 
it is not known that there was a single clergyman who belonged to the 
Synod of Philadelphia." (Discourses and Notes, p. 281-2.) 

2. This motto of the House of Somers was adopted, probably from 
the Governor's answer, by the Cliosophic Society of the College, in- 
stituted in 1765. It was the theme of the striking oration before the 
rival societies, by the Rev. Baynard R. Hall, D.D., in the commence- 
ment week of 1852. 

3. There is a particular report of the first commencement in the Penn- 
sylvania Gazette, for December 13, 1748. 

4. I have seen (I suppose now in the State House Archives) a Peti- 
tion of the Trustees of Princeton College, dated May 23, 1753, signed 
Caleb Smith, to the House of General Assembly at Burlington, asking 
for permission to open a lottery for the benefit of the college. 

Also, an application of the "Trustees of the College of New Jersey 
at Newark," to the Assembly at Perth Amboy, November 9, 1748, for 
"assistance toward defraying the necessary charges of it." Mr. Cowell, 
John Pierson, Tim. Johnes and Thos. Arthur were the committee of 
the Trustees to wait upon the Assembly, but the petition is signed only 
by the last three. 

5. The interesting and valuable journal of Davies, from 1753 to 1755, 
is given entire in Dr. Foote's Sketches of Virginia, first series, chap, 
xii. It adds to my personal interest in this part of the history, to find 
that it was possibly my ancestor, Matthew Clarkson, of Philadelphia, 
whom Davies mentions as a fellow-passenger to London, and certainly 
it was the great-grandfather of my great-grandfather, who is referred 
to in Davies' journal of January 27, 1754, when having preached in 
Berry street, Davies says : "When I entered the pulpit it filled me with 
reverence to reflect that I stood in the place where Mr. Clarkson, Dr. 
Owen, Dr. Watts, and others had once officiated." 

6. I have the original of the following: 

"ReVd Sir, "Bordentown, December, '55. 

I intended to have seen you in my way to Philadelphia, but the 
business I am upon naturally led me to Freehold, AUenton, &c., and 
now to go by Trenton would be too much out of the way. I have used 
and dispersed these pages (like the enclosed) in the best manner I 
could, and am still prosecuting the design. You will please to accept 


of this, and use it as your wisdom and sincere concern for the good of 
the college shall direct. I hope to see you in my return, which per- 
haps may be some time next month, and conclude for the present with 
subscribing myself, 

Rev'd Sir, 

Your humble serv't, 

John Brainerd. 
To the Rev'd Mr. Cowell." 

Addressed "To the Rev'd Mr. David Cowell, at Trenton— per Mr. 
Jas. Bell." 

On the back is this memorandum: 

"Feb. 16, 1756, Rec'd of Jno. Wellin for Princeton subscn. 2-10." 

7. "The Treasurer was directed to pay the Rev. David Cowell, for 
his inspection of the College from the 14th of December to the time 
of President Edward's arrival in Princeton the sum of eleven pounds.' 
Maclean's "History of the College of New Jersey," i : 174. 



1. Mr. Cowell bequeathed fifty pounds to the College. 

2. In August, 1874, the congregation placed a marble monument on 
his grave, inscribed: 

"Rev. David Cowell, 

First Pastor of this Church, 

1736 — 1760. 

Born near Boston, Dec'r 12, 1704; 

Died in Trenton, Dec'r I, 1760." 

(The old headstone still remains.) 

3. Something more might be made out of this "memorandum" 
(which is in our archives) by a deciphering of the shorthand. 

4. I have a leaf of notes on the text "Death — is yours," with six 
heads, twenty-eight sub-heads and two applications, marked "Sept. 
7, 1740, Maidenhead, Thos. Moore's wife's burying." 

5. In the church-yard is the headstone of John Dagworthy, Esq., died 
Sept. 4, 1756, aged 70 years. 

6. Total, 260; not equal to Mrs. Honey wood, noticed by Puller, who 
had at her decease (living?) 367 descendants; nor to Dame Hester 
Temple, who lived to see 700. (Cited in Southey's "Life of Cowper," 
chap. 17.) 

August 2, 1868, Janet Davis, widow, died in Trenton, who was 96 
years old the previous June. She was admitted to her first communion 
in Paisley, Scotland, when she was 16, and had, therefore, been 80 
years in communion. She was received to the Trenton Church in 1819. 

7. For more about Armitage, see Hale's "History," pp. 18-24. 

8. Benjamin Yard has a "plateing forge at west end of Trenton, and 
furnace for making steel," Governor Belcher, 1750, in "New Jersey 
Archives," vii : 558, 560. 

9. I had a letter from David Cowell, July 14, 1782, Trenton, to 
"Benjamin Cornwill, near Penny-Town," which I sent to Wm. W. 
Cowell, Wrentham, Mass. He says, "I talked with Jacob Blackwell 
about your affair, and assured him that you are willing to have your 
money matters settled by the Table." (See p. 291.) 

I also sent to W. W. Cowell (Nov. 1871) four small sheets of notes 
of sermons by Rev. David Cowell, preached 1738-1746. 

10. A letter of Dr. Franklin, April 5, 1744, mentions among the 
members of a Philosophical Society in Philadelphia, "Mr. Morris, 


Chief Justice of the Jerseys ; Mr. Home, Secretary of do." Sparks' 
"Life of FrankHn," vi., 29. 

11. It has been suggested to me by Rev. John Miller, May, 1874, 
that the difficulty about Sir John's being in Trenton may be removed 
by supposing the meaning of the sentence on page 91, to be given by 
putting "and brother to the celebrated Sir John Hume" in parenthesis. 

12. A letter from William Nelson, Esq., Secretary of the New Jer- 
sey Historical Society, July 22, 1890, says: "I have just received from 
a London bookseller a handsome quarto volume in manuscript, con- 
taining about 150 pages of Poems of Archibald Home, late Secretary 
of His Majesty's Province of New Jersey. It has evidently been 
copied with the greatest care; I should judge by a professional pen- 
man, for some devoted friend of Mr. Hume, and evidently about the 
time of his death, in 1744." 



1. In Cooley's "Genealogy of Early Settlers of Trenton and Ewing," 
Trenton, 1883, p. 39, it is said that "Mr. Clark bought and lived till 
his death on the night of the battle of Trenton, December 26, 1776, on 
the place near the church, now owned and occupied by Edward Ship- 
pen Mcllvaine. He was in a room whose floor was covered with 
weary, worn and sleeping soldiers. He was supposed to have been 
in the act of hanging his watch over the mantel when he fell into 
the open fire, and there burned to death. His condition was first dis- 
covered by a negro servant. He died aged 88. 

2. May IS, 1872, I officiated at the funeral of Joseph Yard, great- 
grandson of this Joseph (the same, 1 suppose, as on pp. 54, 55, 68, etc.). 
At this time were living two of his brothers, Jethro and Archibald 
William (see this name, p. 143). May 29, 1874, I attended the funeral 
of Jethro, and May 26, 1880, that of Archibald WiUiam. 

3. It may now be added that Mr. Benjamin Fish Charnbers, named 
here as "the present Clerk of the Board" of Trustees, died August 22, 
1885. John Chambers (elder 1760-1764) was brother of the grandfather 
of the present Robert Chambers of our church (1859). "The Robert 
Chambers family" pedigree is given in Cooley's "Genealogy," p. 29-34. 



1. In several of the manuscript sermons of Mr. Kirkpatrick which 
I have seen, the texts (sometimes several verses) are written in 
Greek, an indication that his college studies were not useless. 

2. Preface to Sermons. Rev. Wm. Tennent, of Freehold, wrote an 
account of the state of things to Dr. Finley, which is printed in Dr. 
Alexander's "Log College," pp. 367-9. In that letter he mentions that 
both of his sons, John and William, were partakers "of the shower of 

3. His name is written Killpatrick in the earlier minutes. 

4. Presbyteries would act for Sessions, too. Thus in October, 1756, a 
request was presented by Jacob Reeder, a member of Hopewell and 
Maidenhead congregations, "that for the sake of the conveniency of his 
family, the Presbytery would please to dismiss him from the aforesaid 
congregation (which yet he professed a regard to), that he may join 
with Amwell; and the Presbytery taking into consideration said re- 
quest, judge it to be reasonable, and grant it." 

5. A second exegesis used to be required of candidates, besides the 
one given for licensure. The Minutes of the Presbytery of New Bruns- 
wick for October, 1761, providing trials for certain licentiates in view 
of ordination, state "that these three young gentlemen represented to 
the Presbytery their great fatigue and continued hurry in riding from 
place to place, and begged to be excused from making exegeses, as 
usual before ordination, and these their requests were granted." In 
the last century a branch of trial was sometimes introduced which 
would scarcely be considered reverent now. In the licensure of Charles 
Tennent, by the Presbytery of Philadelphia in 1736, record is made of 
"a previous test of his ability in prayer." The examinations on scholar- 
ship were more specific than with us ; for example, Latta and Ander- 
son, at one sederunt, were examined on "Logic, Pneumatics, and 
Ontology." (Second Presbytery of Philadelphia, 1765.) 

6. I have seen a letter from the Rev. David Bostwick, New York, 
November 3, 1760, "to the Rev. Wm. Kirkpatrick, chaplain to the Jer- 
sey Regiment at Albany." In it he says, "Being just now informed 
that the people of Elizabethtown are about to apply to you as a candi- 
date for settlement in the ministry since the dismission of Mr. 
Kettletas, I should rejoice to see them so happily supplied," but goes on 
to request him to engage nowhere till he (Mr. B.) sees him. "There 


are certain reasons for this which I do not choose now to mention. 
Only, I will request the favour of you to come to New York as soon 
as you can. I depend on preaching a few sermons here. I rejoice 
to hear that God has preserved your life and health through the diffi- 
culties and dangers of a campaign." 

There is in the papers shown me by Mr. Kirkpatrick's grandson 
(Donald Kirkpatrick, of Syracuse, N. Y.), an unfinished letter or 
draught of the Rev. Mr. Kirkpatrick, dated Montreal, September lo, 
1760, as follows (no address) : 

"Dear Sir: 

"I received your kind letter of the 13th of July per post, for which 
I heartily thank you. In return for it I have the pleasure of informing 
you of the reduction of Montreal and of all Canada to the obedience 
and subjection of his Britannic Majesty, which happened on the 8th 
inst. You will, sir, no doubt have accounts from the public prints 
of this affair better than I can give, and perhaps before this comes to 
hand ; yet it may not be disagreeable to have something from the 
hand of your friends. 

"I gave my dear, good friend, Mr. McWhorter, an account of the 
reduction of Fort Levy on He Royale, which very probably he has 
communicated to you, as I may desire you to do this to him, for 'tis 
very seldom I am able to command so much time as to write to you 
both at the same time, having engaged correspondence with so many. 

"On the 30th of August our army decamped from the He Royale 
and embarked in their batteaux, proceeding down the river towards 
Montreal having left about 300 men to garrison that fort. The diffi- 
culty of the Rapids, together with bad weather that we met with, 
detained us four days before we came to the inhabited country of our 
enemy. On the 5th of September our whole army were collected to- 
gether on He Perro (Perreau?) about twenty miles above Montreal. 
The inhabitants of that island had left their houses, and many of them 
retired into the woods, and in the evening great numbers came and 
took the oath of fidelity, and had liberty to return to their habitations. 

"On the morning of the 6th our army re-embarked for Montreal, 
being distant from the upper end of the island about five or six miles. 
We knew not in what shape we should find our enemy, whether on 
the shore to dispute our landing, or in ambuscade to surprise us, or 
entrenched, or in the field, or in the city." 

7. I am told that it is stated in "Clark's History of Onondaga", that 
Mr. Kirkland was induced to settle among the Oneida Indians by the 
influence of Rev. W. Kirkpatrick and Mr. Wheelock. "Trenton, June 
21, 1761," is the date of a letter, from John Brainerd to the Rev. Enoch 
Green, written "in a minute or two, as I passed through town" — 
printed in the Presbyterian Magazine, October, 1852. 


8. I have seen in MS. "A state of the accounts between the Rev. 
W. K., deceased, and the cong'n of Trenton, from- December i, 1761, 
to May, 1766," "containing three years before his dismission and one 
year and five months after it." 

9. I have seen a considerable number of Mr. Kirkpatrick's manu- 
script sermons, dated from 1760 to 1768. Among them is one marked 
"Pennington, October 15, 1764," and "Bedminster, September 20, 1766." 
At one or both of these places the sermon was applied to rousing the 
congregation to the duty of rebuilding their church. He was requested 
to preach on the day appointed to open a subscription, or as he says, 
"to be your monitor." "It is a standing reproach to you to live in 
houses lined with cedar, and that the house of God not only lacks 
every decent ornament, but be inferior even to your barns for your 
grain and houses for your cattle." 

Another is marked "Pennington, March 16, 1766, preached on occa- 
sion of the funeral of Mr. Elijah Hunt" (possibly Hart). In it he 
says, "Not long since we were called together in this place to pay the 
last tribute to the memory of a dearly beloved sister, Mrs. Guild." 

In this year also he preached at the dedication of the second church 
•edifice of the Hopewell (Pennington) congregation. 

The list of sermons and dates is as follows : 

1. April 10, 1760. "Tn. O." (Trenton old.) 
March 21, 1761. Trenton. 

Aug. 26, 1764. Trenton. 

2. Nov. 22, 1761. Amwell, July 17. (No year.) 

3. Nov. 29, 1 761. Trenton. 
Oct. 16, 1763. T. O. 

July 10, 1769. (This sermon was also marked in another hand, 
"April, '82," with others bearing marks of having been used 
after his death.) 

4. August 29, 1762. 
Feb. 12, 1769. A. O. 

5. March 13, 1763. Trenton. 

6. May 15, 1763. Trenton. ("The last week has brought us the 

definitive treaty of friendship and peace concluded by the prin- 
cipal contending powers in Europe." Text, Ps. 110:2.) 

7. July 17, 1763. Trenton. June 12, 1767. A. O. 

8. Nov. 27, 1763. 

9. Dec. 3, 1763. ("At the baptism of John Reeder." No place men- 


10. Sept. 2, 1764. Trenton. 
Oct. 15, 1764. Pennington. 

11. Sept. 20, 1766. Bedminster. 

12. Sept. 8, 1765. Trenton. 

J3. Nov. 17, 1765. Trenton. May 3, 1767. A. O. July 3, 1768. A. N. 


14. Feb. 9, 1766. Trenton. 

15. March 16, 1766. Pennington, funeral of Elijah Hunt. 

19. Jan. I, 1767. Am. N. (Amwell New?) He mentions two instances 

of mortality in the last week, Wm. Pierson and Wm. Ely, 

20. Sept. 25, 1768. "A. M." 

21. Aug. 25. Date of year obliterated, but it was on the death of Rev. 

Mr. Treadwell, rector of the Episcopal Church of Trenton, 
who was settled here in 1763, and his successor in 1770. 

ID. The Convention had annual sessions alternately in New Jersey 
and Connecticut, until 1776. See Minutes by Dr. Field. 

11. The name of the Rev. Jacob Kirkpatrick, D.D., is so much 
identified with the churches of Amwell, where he is now [1858] ac- 
tively passing the forty-eighth year of his pastorate, that it will meet 
a natural inquiry to state, that Dr. Kirkpatrick does not know that he 
has any family connection with his predecessor and namesake. 

On June 20, i860. Dr. Kirkpatrick delivered An Historical Discourse 
at Amwell, on the fiftieth anniversary of his ministry in that church. 
It was printed by order of the Presbytery of Raritan, by Martien, 
Philadelphia. Dr. Kirkpatrick died in May, 1886. 

12. According to the MS. account mentioned at p. (183) the salary 
was "iioo, fire wood, hay to winter a horse, per annum." The town 
congregation paid two-thirds, the country one-third. The account 
ends with a balance due "to the time of his dismission, exclusive of 
wood and hay, £123, 7. i." Add "interest from May i, 1766, till Feb. 
I, 1786, exclusive of three years and nine months, for depreciating 
times, containing sixteen years." 139. 2. 8. 

123. 7. I. 

£262. 9. 9. 

"Proposed to the Trustees of Trenton as due on the three years 
before dismission." "He was also a stated supply for one year and 
five months=£i4i, 13, 4." "His salary was as before by order and 

The Committee of Presbytery on the question of salary due (met 
Aug. 3, 1786) were Dr. Witherspoon, Edward Bainbridge and John 
Miehelm and "upon the whole are of the opinion that no suffi- 
cient ground appears to suppose that there are any arrears due, 
from the Trenton part of the congregation, before the time of Mr. 
Kirkpatrick's dismission, Dec. i, 1764; but that they think a sum not 
less than £27 of arrears at that time was due from the country con- 
gregation. They are also of the opinion that for the year and five 
months in which Mr. Kirkpatrick served as a stated supply before 
his removal to Amwell, there is due from the town congregation £84, 


8, 10, and from the country congregation iyj^ all these sums exclusive 
of interest, which seems to us to be claimed on equitable principles." 

In a will made by Mrs. Kirkpatrick before her remarriage (Nov. 7, 
1769), she mentions "my two daughters, Lettice Charlton and Han- 
nah," "my son, WilHam." She leaves to the latter "his deceased 
father's watch, silver-plated shoe buckles, silver stock buckle, shirt 
buckle, gold sleeve buttons." Her brother-in-law, James Evans, and 
friend, Thomas Charlton, and his wife, Lettice, are her executors. 

William's son, Donald Kirkpatrick (grandson of our pastor), called 
to see me in August, i860, with his stepmother, Mrs. Hollister, and 
went ^^o Amwell and had the monuments put in repair. 

22 PR^S 



1. May II, 1769, Governor Franklin writes: "Mr. Reed, our Deputy- 
Secretary, has, I understand, let his house in Trenton and intends 
soon for England, to marry De Berdt's daughter." "Colonial Docu- 
ments of New Jersey," x: 114. 

2. The commissioners held their court at Trenton from November 
I2th to December 30th, 1782. Their decision, which was in favor of 
Pennsylvania, is known as "the Trenton decree." (HoUtster's History 
of the Lackawanna Valley, p. 59.) The Commissioners were Wm. 
Whipple, Welcome Arnold, David Brearley, William C. Houston and 
Cyrus Griffin. The Agents for Pennsylvania were Joseph Reed, Wm. 
Bradford, James Wilson and Jona. D. Sergeant. Those for Con- 
necticut were Eliphalet Dyer, Jesse Root and Wm. Samuel Johnson. 
Henry Osborne was Solicitor. 

3. Imputations upon the loyalty of Colonel Reed were made in 1782 
(supposed to proceed from Dr. Rush), and repeated by Bancroft in 
volume IX of his History. This gave rise to a controversy between 
Bancroft and William B. Reed in 1867. William S. Stryker, a mem- 
ber of this church, Adjutant-General of New Jersey, discovered in 
1875-6 documents which clearly show that the person actually con- 
cerned in the original charge was Col. Charles Read, of Burlington. 
Mr. Bancroft accepted the correction and published it in the centenary 
edition of his History. The facts are given in a pamphlet published 
by General Stryker, entitled "The Reed Controversy. Further Facts 
with Reference to the Character of Joseph Reed, Adjutant-General 
on the Staff of General Washington." Printed for private distribu- 
tion, Trenton, 1876. 

4. When the news of the battle of Lexington (April 19, 1775) was 
expressed to Philadelphia, the following notes were made : 

Princetown, Monday, Apl 24 6 o'clock and forwd to Trenton 
Tho. Wiggins ) Com. 
Jon. Baldwin f Members 
Trenton Monday Apl 24 9 o'clock in the morng. 

Reed the above pr Express and forwarded the same to the Com- 
mittee of Philadelphia. 

Sam Tucker 

Isaac Smith ^ 


On January 10, 1776, the New Jersey Committee (Samuel Tucker, 
President) meeting at Princeton complied with suggestions of the 
Continental Congress for promoting the more rapid carrying of in- 
telligence of public events, by directing "that a man and horse be 
kept in constant readiness by each of the several committees of New- 


ark, Elizabethtown, Woodbridge, New Brunswick, Princeton and Tren- 
ton, whose business shall be to forward all expresses to and from 
the Continental Congress ; and that the aforesaid Town Committees 
shall, on every intelligence of any invasion or alarm, send expresses 
to the neighboring Town Committees, who are directed to provide ex- 
presses to forward the same from town to town." "Minutes of Pro- 
vincial Congress," 327, 328. 

Samuel Tucker, Abraham* Hunt, Joseph Ellis and Alexander Cham- 
bers were appointed, October 28, 1775, "Commissioners for the West- 
em Division" of the Colony to receive and expend money for arms 
and subsistence of the troops. One of the measures for obtaining 
ammunition was to "collect all the leaden weights from windows and 
clocks, and all leaden weights of shops, stores and mills, of one pound 
weight and upwards; also all other lead in and about houses or other 
places," paying "at the rate of sixpence. Proclamation money, the 
pound weight." "Minutes of Provincial Congress," 246, 417. 508. 

There are thirty-one references to the name of Samuel Tucker in 
the index of the Minutes. A sketch of his career and that of John 
Hart, is given in the "New Jersey Archives," vol. x., 269. 

5. There was a "Captain Gould" in Trenton, in 1725, with whom 
Thomas Chalkley, the Quaker minister, lodged — "who treated me very 
politely." A brook, running through the meadows, near the old ceme- 
tery where the Tuckers were buried, is called Gould's or Gold's run. 

6. Mr. Edwards, on the 20th April, 1768, was appointed to supply at 
Allentown and New Brunswick at discretion ; and this is the last time 
his name appears in the records of the Presbytery. He did not accept 
the Professorship, and on January 5, 1769, was ordained over the Con- 
gregational Church of White Haven^ Conn. It may be doubted whether 
his coming under the care of the Presbytery meant more than asking to 
be employed by them during his continuance in the College ; but the 
Minute of April, 1767, is, "Being desirous to be taken under the care of 
this Presbytery, we do gladly receive him according to his desire." In 
1807, there was a case of this kind : "Mr. Enoch Burt, a licentiate of 
the Southern New Hampshire Association, appeared in Presbytery, and 
being asked whether he was willing to accept of appointment to preach 
in our vacant churches the ensuing summer, answered in the affirma- 
tive. The Committee of Supplies was directed to take notice of the 



1. From Brainerd's "Life of John Brainerd," 1865, note on p. 127. 
"The Rev. Dr. Hall, in his 'History of the Presbyterian Church of 
Trenton. New Jersey,' supposes the sister Spencer above referred to 
was the wife of General Joseph Spencer of the Revolution. This is 
a mistake. Two of Brainerd's sisters, Jerusha and Martha, married 
Spencers. Jerusha married Samuel Spencer, of East Haddam. 
Martha was the wife of the General." 

In the "Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society," 1886-7, 
is preserved "a sketch of the life of Col. Oliver Spencer," copied from 
"The Western Spy." He was a son of Samuel, who was brother of 
EHhu and of General Spencer; born at East Haddam, Connecticut, 
1736; resided for some years at EHzabethtown, N. J., then removed 
to the Miami country, Ohio, where he died in 181 1. 

2. In the first edition of Edwards' "Life of Brainerd," Boston, 1749, 
"Rev. Elihu Spencer" is on the list of subscribers prefixed. 

3. "The Suffolk Presbytery on June 14, 1758, ordered its members 
in succession to supply Mr. Spencer's pulpit during his absence from 
his people as 'a chaplain in the army the present campaign,' and the 
period of supplies extends from the third Sabbath in June until the 
fourth and last of November." Letter of Rev. Epher Whitaker, clerk 
of Long Island Presbytery, October 10, 1883. 

4. "The Rev. Elihu Spencer being about to remove from Jamaica 
to Shrewsbury, we (upon his request) recommend him to New Bruns- 
wick Presbytery as one of good standing in this Presbytery." "He 
was united to Suffolk Presbytery by order of Synod, and became 
enrolled as a member the day before he made his request of a transfer 
to the New Brunswick Presbytery." Minutes of Suffolk Presbytery 
in session at Old Man's, October 10, 1759. (Long Island Presbytery is 
successor of Suffolk Presbytery.) 

5. In 1803 Dr. Macwhorter published in Newark two volumes of 
sermons. In the list of subscribers in vol. 2, is a large number from 
North Carolina, viz.: from Orange, Mecklenburgh, Center, Thyatira, 
Lincoln, Salisbury, Salem, Chapel Hill, Charlotte, Caswell, Halifax, 
Lewisburg, Edington, Coddle-Creek, Rowan, Cabarus ; also a number 
in South Carolina. 

6. The Church at Hawfields became distinguished in the religious 
history of North Carolina, in the end of the last century and the 
beginning of the present, by the efficient ministries of its successive 
pastors, James McGready and William D. Paisley. The latter died in 
Greensborough, March, 1857, in his 87th year. "The first camp-meet- 


ing held in the South was held at Hawfields, in October, 1802, and 
grew out of the necessity of the case." "Fourth Creek Church was 
organized by Mr. Elihu Spencer, and embraced the inhabitants between 
the South Yadkin and the Catawba rivers." Foote's North Carolina, 
chap, xvi., xxiv., where will also be found a history of the churches 
of the Haw and Eno. 

7. "It is probable that the church on Steele Creek was organized by 
Messrs. Spencer and Macwhorter." Foote, chap, xxviii. The same 
is said of Poplar Tent. Chap. xxx. It was called Tent from the tem- 
porary shelter used before a church was built. lb. 

8. "Apoquiminey is the corporate name of the Forest Church, now 
called Middletown. It is not to be confounded with the old church 
of Apoquiminey from which it broke off in the great revival, and 
which is now called Drawyers." MS. letter of late Rev. Richard 
Webster, 1848. 

9. May 30, 1766. Mr. Spencer, as Moderator, signed the Synod's 
pastoral letter ordered "to be dispersed among all our societies," call- 
ing upon them to acknowledge the interposition of Providence in 
leading the Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act, and thus probably 
preventing a civil war between the colonies and the mother country, 
"Records of the Presbyterian Church," p. 362. 

10. "The services of religion have been observed in Pencader for 
nearly 170 years (1877), and conducted by eighteen ministers * * * 
Dafydd Evans, Thos. Evans, Timothy Gryffydd, Elihu Spencer, etc." 
"Pennsylvania Historical Society Magazine," vol. ii., p. 345. 

11. "I am a great-grandson of the Rev. Joseph Montgomery, who 
is mentioned on pp. 135, 171. My mother, now in her eighty-seventh 
year, is the daughter of John Wright and Rose Chambers, the latter 
a daughter of one of the early settlers of Trenton and member of the 
First Church." Letter of J. H. from John Montgomery Forster, 
Insurance Department of Pennsylvania, Harrisburgh, November 26, 

[Note by John S. Chambers: "Rose Chambers, daughter of Alex- 
ander Chambers and Rose Craig, married John Wright."] 

In a letter to John S. Chambers, December 22, 1877, Mr. Forster 
says : "Rev. Joseph Montgomery's wife was the daughter of Andrew 
Reed, of Trenton, and sister of General Joseph Read. So you see that 
my ancestors on both sides of the house were from Trenton, and 
among the earliest settlers of the place. We (Forster and Chambers) 
both stand in the same relation to Alexander Chambers, he having 
been our great-grandfather." See "A Sketch of the Life of the Rev. 
Joseph Montgomery, by John Montgomery Forster, Harrisburgh (for 
private distribution), 1879." 


Mr. Montgomery's second wife was the widow of Angus Boyce and 
sister of Dr. Rush. "Pennsylvania Historical Magazine," ii : 474. 

12. In the "History of Eastern Vermont," by Benjamin H. Hall, 
New York, 1858, p. 700, it is said that Micah Townsend, born 1749, 
"entered at the age of fourteen the College of Nassau Hall, in Prince- 
ton, New Jersey, during the presidency of Dr. Elihu Spencer." 

At the commencement of 1766 Mr. Spencer presided and conferred 
degrees in place of President Finley, then dying in Philadelphia. 
See Dr. Green's "Discourses and Notes on the College of New Jersey," 

p. 365, 331. 

Dr. Maclean's "History," i : 265-6, records the appointment of Mr. 
Spencer, in the illness of President Finley, "to preside at next com- 
mencement and confer degrees." After Finley's death the trustees 
presented ten pounds to Spencer for presiding and conferring degrees 
at commencement. 

The same, p. 314, records that in the absence of Dr. Witherspoon 
in the West Indies, Mr. Spencer was appointed to act as Vice- 



1. The name of Samuel HiIvI< is in the graveyard: "Born Septem- 
ber 14, 1716: Died May 5, 1785." An adjoining stone is marked, 
"Smith Hill: Died January 9, 1822, aged 71 years." 

2. The paragraph on Ebenezer Cowell should be corrected as fol- 
lows : 

There were two of the name of Ebenezer Cowell. The signer was 
born December 7, 1716, and died May 4, 1799. His children were David, 
Ebenezer (born 1743), Joseph, Sarah (Mrs. Bowlsby), Lois and Eunice 
(twins), Robert, John. David was a physician and died in 1789 (see 
p. 177). Ebenezer, a lawyer in Trenton, died unmarried. John suc- 
ceeded his brother David in the practice of medicine in Trenton (p. 
178). The first Ebenezer graduated at Princeton, 1766. 

The father of our first pastor was Joseph Cowell (1673-1771). 
There is a letter written by him to his son, dated Wrentham (Mass.), 
April 29, 1752, addressed to "The Rev'd Mr. David Cowell, Pastor of 
a Church of Christ in Trenton, New Jersey." 

In the manuscript collections of Mr. John M. Cowell, of Philadel- 
phia, are some interesting documents in relation to the first Ebenezer 
Cowell, son of Joseph, and brother of the pastor, who came from 
Wrentham to Trenton soon after 1761. He was a gunsmith at Cam- 
bridge, Mass., for more than twenty years. In 1770 he was deputy 
to Daniel Smith, Surveyor-General of New Jersey. 

The inscription on a stone in the Trenton church-yard, closes the 
history, as follows : 

"In memory of Ebenezer Cowell, who departed this life May 4, 1799, 
aged 82 years : 

My flesh shall slumber in the ground 

Till the last trumpet's joyful sound; 

Then burst the chain with sweet surprise 

And in my Saviour's image rise." 

3. A deposition of Ralph Smith, May, 1750, speaks of his being on 
a certain occasion "At the house of Elijah Bond in Trenton, in com- 
pany with John Coxe and Samuel Navel, Esq., and Mr. Theophilus 
Severns." "New Jersey Archives," vii., 544. 

4. Mrs. Catherine Beatty died in Trenton, January 27, 1861. She 
was born April 19, 1773. 

5. Dr. Bryant appears to have belonged to the house represented in 
our day by the celebrated writer, William Cullen Bryant. In his life 
by Mr. Parke Godwin, the Perth Amboy epitaph is quoted as that of 
"a son of Stephen Bryant and brother of Ichabod." Vol. i., p. 51. 


In the Pennsylvania Historical Society's Magazine, vol. v., is a 
journal of Miss Eve, 1772-3. Under date of November 2, 1773, she 
recorded a visit in Philadelphia to "a lady from Trent Town, who 
lodged at Dr. Duffel's" (Duffield). "Her name is Brayen; her hus- 
band is a doctor and a man of fortune." One who took a name from 
the sound only might easily write Brayen for Bryant. 

6. "David Pinkerton, of Trenton," was a Commissioner for the 
Western Division, in 1776. "Minutes of Provincial Congress," pp. 
459, 508. 

7. In 1732 Joseph Warrell, Esq., was recommended to the Duke of 
Newcastle by Governor Cosby as "one who was so well recommended 
to me by Lord Malpas before I left England that there is little more 
for me to say in his behalf than that since my acquaintance with him 
his behaviour has, in every particular, confirmed the character given 
by his lordship, and one whom. I can presume to answer for to your 

"New Jersey Archives," v., 324. 

In 1751 Joseph Warrell, as "His Majesty's Attorney- General for the 
Province of New Jersey in America, and Notary and Tabellion Pub- 
lick, dwelling at Belleville, near Trenton, in the county of Hunterdon," 
gives a certificate in favour of the character of Samuel Tucker, Jr., 
"of Trenton, merchant; that I have known him from a child, and since 
he has grown up to man's estate (upwards of ten years), all which 
time he has been my neighbour." 

"Archives," vii., 639. 

In 1848, M|r. Warrell, as Attorney-General, attested the legality of 
Governor Belcher's charter of the College. 

In the "Pennsylvania Historical Society's Magazine," 1883, p. 456, 
is a "journal of a campaign from Philadelphia to Paulus Hook in 
August, 1776," by Shallop. At Bristol some of the travelers took to 
land for the rest of the journey. Arriving at Trenton, they took their 
provisions "to a church-yard at the upper end of Trenton, where we 
cooked them." "After dining, all who kept journals got journalizing on 
a tombstone erected to the memory of Joseph Warrell, and inscribed 
with the following inscription" — copying inaccurately the epitaph on 
p. 145 of this "History." 

8. At a meeting of the Provincial Congress in Trenton, July 5, 1776: 
"Isaac DeCou, Esquire, having resigned his commission as Second 

Major of the First Regiment of foot militia in the county of Hun- 
terdon, whereof Isaac Smith, Esq., is Colonel, ordered that his resig- 
nation be accepted." "Miinutes of Provincial Congress," 492. 

9. Mr. Thomas Y. How was deposed from the ministry of the Epis- 
copal Church. His wife, Elizabeth, died in New Brunswick, July 28, 
181 1, and was buried in the First Presbyterian church-yard in Trenton,. 


but I have not been able to discover through what connection her burial 
was made here. 

In December, 1830, Dr. J. W. Alexander wrote from Trenton : "Dr. 
Thomas Y. How, once so famous for his pulpit eloquence, and his con- 
troversy with Dr. Miller, is here delivering lectures on political and 
moral subjects, with a voluntary collection at the close. I have not 
heard him, as his first lecture only has been delivered, and that on 
Sunday evening." "Forty Years' Letters," i., 155. 

10. There was an "Edo Merselius" in the Provincial Congress at 
Trenton from Bergen, 1775. "Minutes," 169, 183. 

11. None of these blunders is so remarkable as one upon a marble 
now standing in Northampton, Massachusetts, on the grave of a 
"daughter of the Rev. Jonathan Edwards, President of Prenceta Col- 
lege, New Jersey." Nor does this equal a professed quotation from a 
sermon of Edward Irving, in a work of Mr. Wilks, London, 1854, 
where the Presbyterial exegesis is called an "ecce Jesum"! This is 
noticed in the "Edinburgh Review" (Art. Ecce Jesu), 1862, American 
edition, p. 221. 

Another similar blunder is that in the Travels of the Marquis de 
Chastellux in North America, 1780-1782, in which he says he was 
shown over Princeton College by the President Wederpurn (Wither- 
spoon). "Voyages, &c.," Paris, 1786, vol. i., 139, 141. 

12. In Dennie's Monthly "Portfolio," Philadelphia, 1809, is a sketch of 
Isaac Smith's life and a portrait. Philemon Dickinson, Esq., in April, 
1871, presented a framed copy of this portrait to the church. Mr. 
Smith graduated at Princeton, 1755, and was a tutor there, with John 
Ewing and Jeremiah Halsey, for a few months before the induction 
of President Edwards. (Maclean's "History," vol. i., p. 177.) 

Mr. Smith was a Presidential elector in 1801. Of the epitaph quoted 
the "Portfolio" says : 

"Of this tribute to departed worth we are ignorant of the author ; 
but we should be cold to another and unjust to ourselves, if we did 
not describe the epitaph as a successful specimen of the lapidary 
style." (See II Samuel 18: 18.) 

See references to Isaac Smith, in Index of "Minutes of Provincial 
Congress," and Whittaker's "Historical Sketch of Trenton Banking 
Company," page 7 ; also, S. D. Alexander's "Eighteenth Century," p. 2,7. 

13. The French name of Bellerjeau found many experirrjents in the 
way of writing it. The Provincial Congress made several appropria- 
tions to Daniel Bellingeau, for attendance as doorkeeper, for example : 

"To Daniel Bellingeau, doorkeeper, for his attendance 14 days at 
Trenton, £2, iGshill." "Minutes of Provincial Congress," 1776, 574, 255. 

14. Godfrey Wimer was grandfather of Samuel Evans, who died in 
our communion January, 1881, aged 89, and great-grandfather of John 


O. Raum, historian of New Jersey and of Trenton, whose grandfather 
of that name married Godfrey Wimer's daughter. 

15. A letter of Rev. John Brainerd to Rev. Mr. Cowell was sent "per 
Mr. Jas. Bell." 

16. Mrs. Rebecca Ryall died May 12, 1859, at the age of 91. Her 
daughter, Mrs. Susan C. Brearley, died January 7, 1884, aged ninety- 
six, having been sixty-seven years a communicant. Her sister, Rebecca 
Ann Ryall, died in August, 1866, age 82. 

17. Governor Burnett writes. New York, Jan. 2, 1724, that Chief 
Justice William Trent is dead, and "Mr. Robert Lettice Hooper" has 
been nominated by the Governor to the Lords of Trade as his suc- 
cessor. "New Jersey Archives," vol. v., p. 97. His commission does 
not appear to have been issued until February 29, 1727, the first year 
of George II. The original is in the library of the New Jersey 
Historical Society, and printed in the "Archives," vol. v., 182, with a 
facsimile of the royal signature. December 7, 1734, Governor Cosby 
recommended to the Lords of Trade to move his majesty "that 
Robert Lettice Hooper, Chief Justice of the Province, may be ap- 
pointed Councillor to succeed Lewis Morris," who had been removed. 
"Archives," vol. v, 402. 

18. "April 8, 1787. Baptized Susannah, third child of John and 

Singer of Trenton." Note in the diary of Rev. Mr. Frazer, rector 

of St. Michael's. 

19. Job Moore, the next name to Singer, was the name of the 
father of Mrs. Vandegrift. 

20. "March 17, 1788. Baptized Adrian, Charlotte and Charles, chil- 
dren of Capt. Charles and Rachel Clunn, of Burlington." Rev. Mr. 
Frazer's note in his Diary. 

21. Joseph Clunn, ensign of a company in Trenton, whereof Isaac 
Smith, Esq, is colonel ; William Tucker, captain ; John Fitch, second 
lieutenant. "Minutes of Provincial Congress," 1776, p. 464, 482. 

22. "I do certify that I was returning with John Fitch from the 
Neshaminey meeting, some time in April, 1785, as near as I can recol- 
lect the time, when a gentleman and his wife passed by us in a riding- 
chair; he immediately grew inattentive to what I said. Some time 
after he informed me that at that instant the first idea of a steam- 
boat struck his mind. James OgilbeE." (Fitch's Pamphlet, Phila- 
delphia, 1788; reprinted in Documentary History of New York, vol. 

23. Rev. Mr. Frazer makes this note in 1786: "December 4th, buried 
a daughter of Rensselaer Williams, Esq., at Trenton." The Dutch 
name is printed "Rensselier" in the "Minutes of Provincial Congress" 


and the "Minutes of the Council of Safety," 1879. On July 6, 1776, 
"Ordered, Tliat the President do take the parole of honor of Mr. John 
Lawrence, of Monmouth county, not to depart the house of Mr. 
Rensselier Williams; and if Mr. Lawrence should refuse to give the 
same, that the President order him to be confined under such guard 
as he may deem necessary." On August 21, 1776, "To Rensselier 
Williams, six pounds six shillings, in full of his account." (Ordinance 
for payment of incidental charges "during the sittings of this Con- 

Rensselaer Williams was a Justice of the Peace. In 1781 he was 
Librarian of the "Trenton Library Company." He was one of the 
founders, in that year, of the "Trenton School Company," or Academy. 
He was found dead in the street, opposite the State House, December, 
1796. His grave is in the Episcopal ground, where his age is given at 
sixty-four. Adjoining it is the grave of Rensselaer Williams, Jr., 
who died at the house of Abraham Hunt, in 1801 ; aged thirty-three 
years. He was in mercantile business in Cooperstown, New York. In 
James Fennimore Cooper's "Chronicles of Cooperstown," it is stated 
that Rensselaer and Richard Williams "arrived between the years 1792 
and 1797." 

24. It was one of Fitch's or Rumsey's experiments that Franklin 
wrote of in Philadelphia, October, 1788: "We have no philosophical 
news here at present, except that a boat, moved by a steam-engine, 
rows itself against the tide in our river, and it is apprehended the con- 
struction may be so simplified and improved as to become generally 
useful." (Sparks' Franklin, x., 363.) I have seen a letter of Fitch to 
Stacy Potts, Philadelphia, July 28, 1786, in which he expresses the 
greatest satisfaction in his prospects. "We have now tried every part, 
and reduced it to as certain a thing as can be, that we shall not come 
short of ten miles per hour, if not twelve or fourteen. I will say four- 
teen in the theory and ten in practice." 

An advertisement in the "Philadelphia Gazette" is as follows : 
"The Steamboat sets out to-morrow morning at ten o'clock, from 
Arch street ferry, in order to take passengers for Burlington, Bristol, 
Bordentown and Trenton, and return next day. Philadelphia, July 
26, 1790." 

In the "Trenton Gazette," Aug. 7, 1809: "The Steamboat" is adver- 
tised to start for Philadelphia three times per week. "For passage 
apply at the Indian Queen, or to the Captain on board, at Beatty's 
wharf, Bloomsbury." 

25. On the same day William Reeder (which name is also among 
the signatures) conveyed one quarter of an acre for the same pur- 
pose, at the price of sixty-two pounds ten shillings ; and George Ely 
half an acre for one hundred and twenty pounds. 


26. Samuel Henry was under suspicion of disloyalty in 1776. A 
"report of the Committee of Trenton" was made to the Provincial 
Congress, July 10. Mr. Henry appeared before the Congress to hear 
the charges July 16. The next day he was "committed to the common 
gaol of Hunterdon" to be kept "in close confinement until the fur- 
ther order of this Congress, or future legislature of this State." On 
the 20th he made such acknowledgment that the Congress, "for the 
contrition expressed in the above petition," discharged him from 
confinement, on his giving bond in the sum of 2,000 pounds, "for the 
faithful performance of his parole, to remove to his mills in Trenton, 
and there, or within a circle of two miles thereof, continue and not 
to depart said bounds unless with leave of this convention, or the 
future legislature of this State." "Minutes," 498, 508, 511, 515. 

27. In 1775, "Thomas Lowrey" petitioned the Provincial Congress 
for recommendation to the Continental Congress as "Commissary to 
the two battalions recommended to be raised in this colony." His 
request was granted. In 1776 "Thomas Lowrey" was appointed Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel of the Third Battalion of foot militia in the county of 
Hunterdon." "Minutes," 237, 265. 

28. It may be added to this chapter that in 1771-2, Mr. Spencer was 
associated with Dr. Witherspoon, on behalf of "the Presbyterian 
clergy in communion with the present established Church of Scotland 
residing in the Province of New Jersey," in obtaining from the Colo- 
nial Council a charter for incorporating the "New Jersey Society for 
the better support of the widows and education of the children of 
deceased Presbyterian Ministers." The draught of the charter as first 
proposed presented as corporators the names of Richard Stockton, 
Elias Boudinot, WiUiam Livingston, William Burnet, Robert Ogden, 
Nathaniel Scudder, Witherspoon, Spencer and others. After amend- 
ments in form, as proposed by the Attorney-General Skinner, the 
King allowed the charter, and Governor Franklin wrote to the Earl 
of Dartmouth, October, 1773, that "the Presbyterian Ministers are 
much pleased with the permission his Majesty has given me to pass 
the charter they had requested; which will be done at the next meet- 
ing of the Council." "Analytical Index," 427, 431. "Archives," 339, 



1. In May, June and August, 1775, the Provincial Congress of New 
Jersey met in Trenton, May 24th. The President, Hendrick Fisher, 
of Somerset, was directed to write the ministers of the town to alter- 
nate in opening the Congress with prayer each morning at 8. Rev. 
Mr. Spencer officiated on October 4, 1775. A resolution of thanks to 
Rev. Messrs. Spencer and Panton "for their polite attention and serv- 
ices" was adopted. "Minutes of Provincial Congress," pp. 170, 198, 

2. In the "Life of Rev. Dr. Samuel Miller," by his son, vol. i., 
chapter xi, fuller particulars are given of the disturbance created in 
the pastor's family at this period of the war. Mr. Spencer, on being 
informed by Dr. Witherspoon of the enemy's approach to Trenton, 
took his family the same night to Howell's ferry, and then to Mc- 
Conkey's ferry, for two or three weeks, until General Mercer sent 
him word he was not safe there. "This was the Sunday before the 
battle of Trenton. He preached that day at Newtown (Pennsylvania). 
Afterwards, he went on slowly to Fagg's Manor, where he remained 
until the people of St. George, Delaware, hearing that their former 
pastor was a fugitive, and being themselves without one, sent for him. 
He accepted th-eir invitation, and on his arrival found a house ready, 
well supplied with furniture and provisions, the wood cut, the fires 
made, and everything prepared for the comfort of his family. Here 
they remained until the July following, when, St. George's being 
sickly, and Trenton free from the British soldiery, he returned home." 

3. In Dr. Witherspoon's Works (vol. 2, Philadelphia edition, 1800, 
p. 451) is a sermon "delivered at a Public Thanksgiving after peace," 
in which, speaking of "particular acts of barbarity," is this sentence : 
"I shall therefore omit everything of the kind, except one of the earliest 
instances of their barbarity, because it happened in one of the streets 
of this place, viz., massacring in cold blood a minister of the Gospel, 
who was not, nor had been, in arms, and received his death wound 
while on his knees begging mercy." It is not said where the sermon 
■was preached. 

The proper spelling of the name is Rosbrugh. Rev. John C. Clyde, 
D. D., Bloomsbury, read an exhaustive paper on him before the New 
Jersey Historical Society, at Trenton, Jan. 15, 1880, afterward pub- 
lished under the title of "Rosbrugh, a Tale of the Revolution." Easton, 
1880, p. 92. 

4. From Sprague's "Annals" I find that the Rev. Mr. Macwhorter 
was in the camp of Washington, opposite Trenton, at the time of the 
battle of 1776; and that William Paxton (afterwards D. D.) was in 
the ranks on that occasion, iii, 210, 554. 


5. Then King street, as the present Greene (Broad) was Queen. 
The former was also familiarily called Front, and the latter Back 
street. The "Federal Post or Trenton Weekly Mercury," was printed 
in 1788, by Quequelle and Wilson, "on the north side of Front St., 
opposite the English Church," the neighborhood of Rahl's death. 

6. This house is advertised for rent in the Trenton Gasette, Decem- 
ber, 1784, where it is said to have been lately occupied by the President 
of Congress. It was provided for his use by James Ewing, Moore 
Furman, and Conrad Kotts, by the direction of the Legislature (August 
25, 1784). The lease, which is before me, stipulates also for "'the hay- 
house nearly full of very good hay, with the stables on each side 
thereof, together with a ten-plate stove belonging to the front part of 
the said house," but "reserving the use of the road as it now goes to 
the tan-yard, and so much of the lot as Samuel Phillips may have 
occasion for, adjoining his shop." The lease was for one year from 
October 30, 1784, at one hundred and fifty pounds in gold or silver 
(four hundred dollars). The house was the residence of Stacy Potts, 
and not a tavern, as is stated in Lossing's "Field Book." It was taken 
down in 1857. 

7. Williams's tavern is also mentioned by the Marquis de Chastellux, 
at the time of whose visit an addition seems to have been made to the 
emblems of its sign ; for he says it represented a beaver at work with 
his teeth to bring down a large tree, and had the motto "Pcrseverando."' 
(Travels in North America, 1780-2). The tree, beaver and legend con- 
stituted one of the devices printed on the Continental currency of 1776 ; 
the money which fell so much below the promise on its face, that in the 
Trenton advertisements of 1780 may be found offers of a thousand dol- 
lars reward for an absconding servant — fifteen hundred for a stolen 
mare — ten thousand for the detection of the incendiary of a barn. The 
subscription of the Weekly Gazette, of that year, was fourteen dollars 
by the quarter. 

8. To President John Adams' notice of Trenton in 1774 may now be 
appended that of his son and successor in the Presidency seventy 
years afterwards. On his passage home to Quincy from Congress, 
July II, 1844, John Quincy Adams made this entry in his joiu-nal: 
"At five in the afternoon we left Walnut street wharf and came to 
Bristol, twenty miles, and there landed and proceeded in the train 
of cars through New Brunswick, Elizabethtown and Newark to Jersey 
City. The sunset between Trenton and New Brunswick was glorious, 
and equal to anything I ever beheld. As I witnessed the departing 
luminary, and the peace and quiet and felicity of all around me, I 
thought of Washington and Trenton and the 25th of December, 1776^ 
and a feeling of inexpressible joy filled my soul." "Memoirs," xii.,. 


In the year 1774 Governor Franklin reported "The tide in this river 
(Delaware) goes no higher than Trenton in New Jersey, which is 
about thirty miles above Philadelphia, where there is a Rift or Falls, 
passable, however, with flat-bottomed boats which carry five or six 
hundred bushels of wheat. By these boats, of which there are now a 
great number, the produce of both sides the river for upwards of one 
hundred miles above Trenton are brought to Philadelphia." 
"Archives," x, 438. 



1. In the minutes of the Trustees of the University, Mr. Spencer is 
called EKsha. The same mistake is made in the first edition of Thomp- 
son's History of Long Island, where also his great-grandfather Jared 
is called Gerard. 

2. The Minister was the Chevalier de la Luzerne. The Dauphin was 
son of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, and died in childhood. The 
birth was formally announced to Congress, and by Congress to the 
Governors of the States. It was celebrated in Trenton, May 24, 1782, 
when the "town artillery paraded at the market-place," and a dinner 
was attended by the officers of the State at "the French Arms." 

3. In Rev. James F. Armstrong's MSS. is a fragment like an obit- 
uary, beginning: "Died on Monday, the 28th ult., Miss Rachel Fur- 
man, daughter of Mr. Nathaniel Furman, of Trenton, in the twenty- 
fourth year of her age." 

Mr. Furman was in the Board from 1780 to 1788. I suppose that 
it is his death which is published as having taken place April 27, 1831, 
in his eighty-eighth year. Mr. Tindal's is an old and respectable fam- 
ily. The other Trustees are spoken of in detail in other chapters. 

4. Daniel Howell's will was proved in 1778; the legacy was payable 
in two years. He was brother of Hezekiah, John, Abigail, Eunice 
(Phillips), and Phebe (Phillips). His children were Rhoda, Sarah 
and Elizabeth. A relative of his, David Howell, died in 1785, leaving 
three daughters — Prudence, Patience, Charity. 

Jethro Yard (as I gather from his will) was a carpenter. He was 
a son of WilHam Yard. 

5. Mr. Jefferson, in his Autobiography, says : "I left home on the 
sixteenth of October [1783], arrived at Trenton, where Congress was 
sitting, on the third of November, and took my seat on the fourth, on 
which day Congress adjourned, to meet at Annapolis on the twenty- 
sixth." This statement has been followed by his biographers, Tucker 
and Randall, but Congress was sitting at Princeton, not Trenton. 

6. Saltash was granted to sixty-four proprietors in 1761, settled in 
1777, and in 1797 the name was changed to Plymouth. Plymouth 
and Woodstock are in the same county, Windsor. B. H. Hall's "His- 
tory of Eastern Vermont," p. 113. 

7. An advertisement in a Philadelphia newspaper of July 16, 1776, 
calls on "the good people of this city and province, and of the province 
of New Jersey, to send all the old sheets and other old linen they can 
possibly spare, to Doctor Shippen, junior, for the use of the militarj"- 


hospitals in New Jersey.'' The people of New Jersey are requested 
to send their donations to Doctor Cowell in Trenton, Doctor Bain- 
bridge in Princeton, Doctor Cochran in Brunswick, Mr. Pettit in 
Amboy, and the Rev. Mr. Caldwell in Elizabethtown. Dr. Cowell and 
his brother Ebenezer, the lawyer, both bachelors, lived in a large 
house on the Pennington road. On a grave-stone in the Presbyterian 
church-yard we read : 

"In memory of Doct. David Cowell, who departed this life Dec. 18, 
1783, aged 43 years." 

I have seen a letter of David Cowell (the M.D.) to "Mr. Benjamin 
Cornwill, near Pennington," as follows : 

"Trenton, July 14th, 1782. 

"Sir — Agreeable to your request, I have took an opportunity and 
talked with Jacob Blackwell about your affair and assured him that 
you are willing to have all your money matters settled by the Tables. 
The Assembly have made a law for the settlement of all such matters. 
He says he is willing to the same thing, and on its being done so he 
will make you a deed agreeable to your bargain. Or if you do not 
like your bargain on account of the title or any other thing, you shall 
have your money which you have paid paid back to you by the 
same Table, on your giving up the premises ; so that if you come 
down I can see no reasonable objection to the whole matter's being 
finally settled, without cost or trouble, in the very exact way they 
would be settled were it done by court — to which good purpose you 
may always command your friend and very humble servant, 

"David Cowell." 

23 PRES 



1. A candidate who had been examined with Mr. Armstrong, up to 
this point, was not so successful; and for the sake of illustrating the 
proper care of a Presbytery in the matter of licensure, and the manner 
in which it is performed, I copy the minute in this case : 

"The Presbytery then proceeded to consider Mr. W.'s examination 
and sermon; and after the most mature deliberation are unanimously 
of opinion that they cannot sustain either his examination or his ser- 
mon as parts of trial, inasmuch as in his examination, although he 
manifested a competent skill in the languages, yet he appeared almost 
wholly unacquainted with several of the most important of the liberal 
arts and sciences, and also greatly deficient in his knowledge of divin- 
ity; and although his sermon contained some just and pious senti- 
ments, yet there appeared in it such confusion in the arrangement of 
the thoughts, such obscurity in expression, and inaccuracy in many 
of the sentiments, that they cannot consider it as an evidence of his 
capacity to be useful as a public teacher in the Church of Christ. 

"Therefore the Presbytery agreed to recommend to Mr. W., if he 
choose to prosecute his trials further with a view to the Gospel min- 
istry, then he apply himself diligently to the study of logic, natural and 
moral philosophy, and divinity, for one year from this time, as in these 
branches he appeared to be most deficient; also that he study compo- 
sition with care, and labor to acquire a more clear and perspicuous 
method of communicating his ideas. And as they entertain a favorable 
opinion of Mr. W., for his modest, decent, and humble deportment, 
will always be ready to give him all due encouragement, provided he 
make such improvement in the above articles as shall remove the 
difficulties that now lie in the way of their admitting him into the 

The candidate probably withdrew from this Presbytery ; but he must 
have found some way to licensure, as in 1784 the Presbytery of New- 
castle began to call him to account for neglecting to preach, and in 
1785 dropped him as their probationer, on evidence that he had devoted 
himself to a secular life. 

2. In the archives of the church is the certificate of his licensure 
dated "Elk Meeting House, Jany 15, 1777," attested by "Jas. Ander- 
son, Presby Clerk." It states that Mr. Armstrong being under trials 
in the Presbytery of New Brunswick, he now appears with a letter 
from Dr. Witherspoon, "Prof, of Divinity and a member of said 
Presby," certifying that he "had passed the greater part of his trials" 
"but by reason of the public distress of the State would not proceed to 
license him and requests this Presby to hear his popular discourse, 


the only remaining part of his trials, and if the way be clear, to pro- 
ceed to his licensure." They did so, "and considering his circumstances 
very peculiar, judge their way clear," etc. 

3. The following document is in possession of Mr. Armstrong's 
family : "I do hereby certify that Mr. James Francis Armstrong bore 
arms in the year 1776, in an expedition formed for the defense of 
Staten Island against the British troops, and served as a volunteer 
private in my company of Militia wholly at his own expense, without 
drawing any of the subsistence due to a Volunteer, from the time the 
troops were raised until they were regularly discharged. 

"Peter Gordon, Qr Master, Trenton. 
"November 28th, 1778." 

4. "Sine titulo," "in retentis," "pro re nata," "sederunt," "non 
liquet," "nemine contradicente," "ad futuram rei memoriam," "inter- 
loquitur," "pro tanto," "in defenso," "in hoec verba," "de novo," and 
other Latin substitutes for plain English (sometimes even "Janitor" 
for Sexton), are freely used in the ecclesiastical records of the last 
century. The old Presbyteries and Synods used to date their sessions 
in Latin : "Die Jovis," "Die Saticrni," "Post Merid. Sessione $ta. 
Precibus peractis." They habitually employed the learned tongue to say 
that after prayer the members named took their seats. Some of the New 
Brunswick clerks ventured on writing "present after prayer," and 
"present as before," but in April, 1798, this innovation was checked 
by the following direction : "Resolved, that the Presbytery in future, 
for the sake of greater uniformity, make use of the old technical terms 
tibi post preces sederunt, in recording the first session of their meetings, 
and at any subsequent session, post preces sederunt qui supra." It 
was, however, considered lawful to give only the initials of the 
formula, and many a clerk spent more time and room in an elaborate 
execution of the capitals U. P. P. S. and U. P. P. S. Q. S., than would 
have answered for the words in full. The act of the Presbytery was, 
perhaps, a testimony against the course adopted by the Synod of 
1795, when it "Resolved, that the Synod will discontinue the use of 
Latin terms in their records to express the opening of their session, 
and their attendance on prayer, and that the same in future be ex- 
pressed in English." 

5. Since this History was published I have seen in MS. a sermon 
by Mr. Armstrong, marked by him thus : "Delivered in the spring of 
the year 1779, to his Excellency Gen'l Washington and the Guards at 
Middlebrook." The army was on both sides of the North river during 
the winter of 1778-9. More than 7,000 were at Middlebrook under 
the immediate command of Gen'l Washington. The army left Middle- 
brook May 29, 1779. Marshall's "Life of Washington," vol. iv., 57. 

The text of the sermon was Proverbs 14 : 34, and probably had been 
previously delivered on one of the Fast Days appointed by Synod. 


I have placed it in the archives of the church. I also sent an abstract 
of it to the Netv York Observer, February 22, 1877. 

6. In a Thanksgiving sermon (not dated, but probably at the close 
of the war) he says : "it will be sufficient to my present purpose to 
assure you that I have seen the hour of danger when the whole six 
Southern States were not able to bring 500 men into the field to oppose 
a victorious enemy." 

In the same (on the battle of Bunker Hill), "I have been informed 
that General Howe never could erase it from his mind ; it haunted 
his pillow and disturbed his slumbers. Whenever he had a battle in 
prospect, Bunker Hill was painted in his imagination, and he could not 
be induced to risque an action where there was the least appearance of 
breastworks, or unless he had such appearances of superiority or 
advantage as would ensure success. This doubtless gave that wary 
complexion to all his conduct which gave time to our army to learn 
experience and discipline." 

7. WiLWAM Churchii,!, Houston, Mr. Armstrong's correspondent, 
and afterwards a parishioner in Trenton, was a native of South Car- 
olina. After the age of twenty-one he entered Princeton College as 
a Freshman : while himself a student he assisted in teaching the Gram- 
mar School. He graduated 1768. In 1769, being then Master of the 
School, he was elected Senior Tutor of College, and in 1771.- Professor 
of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy. He resigned the chair 1783, 
at which time he was also Treasurer of the Trustees. Two years 
before his resignation he had been, after the requisite course of study, 
admitted to the bar. He removed to Trenton, and had a large prac- 
tice, notwithstanding his rigid adherence to the detennination that 
he would never undertake a cause which he did not believe to be 
just. Mr. Houston held several public offices, such as Receiver of 
Continental taxes (1782-5), and Clerk of the Supreme Court (1781-8). 
He was five times (first in 1779) elected to the Congresses of the 
Confederation. He was one of the three delegates of New Jersey 
to the body of Commissioners which met at Annapolis (1786), which 
resulted in suggesting the Convention which formed the Constitu- 
tion. He was appointed a member of that Convention, but declining 
health seems to have prevented his attendance. In 1788 he left Trenton 
to try the benefit of his native climate, but before he reached Phila- 
delphia illness compelled him to stop, and he died at an inn in the 
village of Frankford. His body was taken for burial to the ground 
of the Second Presbyterian Church in Philadelphia. For most of 
these particulars I am indebted to a notice communicated by my 
friend, William C. Alexander, Esq., to the New York Observer of 
March 18, 1858. 

"A letter from William Ch. Houston, captain of a company in the 
2d Battalion of Foot militia in the county of Somerset, setting forth 


that from his connexion with the College, in the absence of Dr. 
Witherspoon and other circumstances, he cannot pay the due atten- 
tion to his company, and begging leave to resign his commission." 
"Minutes of Provincial Congress," 395, 541, 542. 

See, also, Maclean's "History of the College of New Jersey," i: 
313, 314. 

8. For several years the Presbytery met at New Brunswick, Prince- 
ton, and Trenton in rotation. The efforts to repeal the rule were not 
successful until April, 1801. 

9- The business meetings were not always held in sacred places. 
This one was "at the house of Francis Witt, in Trenton." At the 
next stated meeting of the Trustees, "the weather being severe, they 
adjourned to the house of Francis Witt, inn-keeper." At other times 
the place was "the house of Henry Drake, inn-keeper." 

10. The actual cost exceeded the estimate by seventy-five pounds. 

11. The parsonage deeds may be found in Book AT. 103, 106. The 
Trustees of "the First Presbyterian Church of Trenton," which was 
the title taken by the country church upon the separation, were Daniel 
Scudder, John Howell, Ebenezer Ross, Timothy Howell, William' 
Green, James Burroughs, and Benjamin Johnston. Mr. Kirkpatrick 
was probably the first occupant of the parsonage. In 1768-70, "Mrs. 
Sarah Trent" was credited for the rent. The Rev. Dr. How (1816-21) 
was the last of the pastors who resided in it before it was sold. 

In the Trenton Emporiuvi, December 15, 1821, the parsonage is 
advertised for sale. "The house is of frame, 32 by 30, two stories; 
three rooms and a large hall, all of which have fireplaces in them, 
on the first floor; four chambers with fireplaces in them and a good 
store-room on the second floor; one room in the garret; a dry stone 
cellar under the whole, divided into suitable apartments, and a large, 
convenient frame kitchen in the rear. The lot is sixty-five feet front 
by one hundred and twenty-five feet deep, having a well-arranged 
stable and carriage-house, with a hay-loft over both: a well of excel- 
lent water in the yard and a garden of convenient size." 

12. Marquis de Chastellux, "Voyages dans I'Amerique," 1780-2, 
Pans, 1786, vol. i., 285, speaks of visiting Ringwood, "a hamlet of 
seven or eight houses, formed of the manor of Mrs. Erskine and the 
forges she was concerned in. Mr. Erskine had been two months 
dead. Mrs. Erskine was nearly forty years of age. One of her 
nephews was at the house, and Mr. John Fell, a member of Congress." 

Erskine and the iron works are mentioned in the "Proceedings of 
the New Jersey Historical Society," vol. vi., 148, &c. 

Rev. A. Messier, D.D., of Somerville, furnished me the following 
copies of inscriptions at Ringwood, Passaic county, New Jersey: 


"In memory of Robert Erskine, F.R.S., Geographer and Surveyor- 
General to the Army of the United States. Son of the Rev'd Ralph 
Erskine, late Minister of Dunfermline in Scotland. Born Sep. 7th, 
1735- Died Oct'r 2, 1780, aged 45 years and 25 days." 

"In memory of Robert Monteith, Clark to Robert Erskine, Esq., 
born at Dunblain in Scotland. Died Dec'r 2, 1778, aged 33 years." 



1. One of Mr. Armstrong's sermons, from I Corinthians 14: 15, 
was on Singing, and was "Preached by particular request in the year 
1786 or 7, at Dr. Woodhull's church in Freehold, Monmouth." 

2. Mr. Armstrong's family gave me a paper, in his own handwriting, 
at the close of which he had written : "The above is a copy of the 
paper, rules, and articles which were laid before the religious society 
formed in the Presbyterian congregation in Trenton at its institution, 
for their free and full discussion, and were unanimously agreed to 
by said Society somewhere in the beginning of the year 1790. James 
F. Armstrong." 

The week-day evening service, now generally called "Lecture," was 
at the date of this paper and long afterwards, usually termed "So- 

The paper in full is as follows : 

"Associations, Meetings, Conferences, or Societies, call them by 
what name you please, for religious or moral purposes, have often 
been attended with the happiest advantage to Society and have often 
been visited with the divine blessing and the divine presence. Asso- 
ciations for the promotion of Virtue and Religion and for discoun- 
tenancing and suppressing vice and immorality have often been pro- 
ductive of great good to Society in general, and these associations, 
when united with meetings or societies for the express purpose of 
humiliation and Prayer to God for spiritual blessings upon Church 
and Land have been abundantly useful and done much good for the 
advancement of serious Religion, and these united societies religiously 
and prudently conducted are often highly beneficial and helpful under 
the exercises of a faithful Ministry and may tend to promote the com- 
fort and profit of both Pastor and People in their congregational 

"As those who meet for the purpose of imploring the Father of 
Mercies for spiritual blessings must also have in view the advantages 
resulting from both institutions, viz. : For Prayer and the suppressing 
of Disorders. The principles upon which both are founded and the 
efifects naturally to be expected should be fully and freely discussed — 
and rules and articles for the good management and government of 
both shall be laid before those who meet in this Society for their dis- 
cussion and adoption. 

A prayer Society ought certainly to be under the direction and Gov- 
ernment of those who in the Judgment of Charity are friends to 
serious Religion, and their lives should correspond with their pro- 
fession, and whatever exercises are performed should be performed 


by such — at the same time so soon as the Society is well established 
none ought to be refused the privilege of attending to whom the 
exercises carried on might be expected to be productive of any good. 
The attendance upon this Meeting must be purely voluntary — no obli- 
gations upon any person but such as are imposed by their own opinion 
or feelings, and if any should attend it only at times, — or if after 
attending sometimes should choose to absent themselves, no opinion 
of religious character ought to be formed from such conduct. In 
■short, attendance upon such meetings ought not to be made a term 
of communion, as it is in some societies — such terms lay an unlawful 
as well as unchristian burthen upon the conscience, often wound the 
peace and harmony of Society, and create real disorder and confusion, 
as well as prevent the good which they may be intended to promote." 

Rules and ArticIvEs for the Society. 

"I. When the Pastor of the congregation in which the Society is 
formed attends, it will be natural to expect that he should begin 
the Exercises by Prayer or singing, give an exhortation. Lecture, or 
exposition of a part of scripture or catechism as may appear good 
to him, and then call upon someone of those who profess religion, 
as may be determined among themselves, to conclude the exercises 
by singing and Prayer, — always remembering that both religion and 
prudence dictate that the exercises should be short, — perhaps the 
whole not exceeding an hour, unless something particular or un- 
common should justify it. 

"II. If the Society should at times indulge themselves in devotional 
conversation, which may be thought profitable, no subject, whether 
giving opinions upon the sense of passages of Scripture, or religious 
principles shall ever be admitted which may lead to disputations. 

"III. No person, except the Pastor, shall ever pretend to exhort, 
instruct or Lecture to the Society. 

"IV. When the Pastor is absent, one or more of those agreed upon 
by the Society shall sing or pray — read passages of Scripture — ap- 
proved devotional writings — or short sermons, and conclude by sing- 
ing and prayer." 

In a sermon, without date, by Mr. Armstrong, on prayer, he said : 
"There are other stated times which ought to be attended to, such as 
prayer meetings and religious societies, where people meet sometimes 
to converse together about the things of God, but more commonly 
for social prayer and praise, for reading the Holy Scriptures and 
such books of practical piety and devotion as may tend to the in- 
struction and edification of God's people. Such societies and meetings 
with us, are and ought to be voluntary, and attendance on them ought 
not to be made terms of communion or discipline, at the same time 


it is highly discreet and becoming to attend them as regularly as our 
circumstances and our callings and private concerns will admit." 

In another sermon, no date : 

"It is no new custom in our churches to have divine service once 
a month, beside the stated weekly service. It has long been practiced, 
and continues to be practiced by many. Yet, my brethren, I enter 
upon it with trembling because I know ye propensity of the human 
heart to view human institutions * * * as of equal importance with 
the word and command of God. This day is not appointed to be ob- 
served as a day of fasting and prayer in a congregational way; but 
rather to fix in our remembrance the importance of this commanded 

3. This name has become so venerable and familiar that it strikes one 
with surprise to find that in the sermon preached by Provost Ewing at 
his ordination and installment (May 15, 1787,) it is given both on the 
title page and in the resolution of the corporation of the Second Church 
calling for its publication, as Ashbald Green. 

4. The region of New York around the Cayuga and Seneca Lakes 
was named sixty years since, "the north-western frontiers" of our 
Church. In 1798 Mr. George Scott, of the Presbytery of New Bruns- 
wick, was sent to that region to "itinerate for at least five months as a 
missioner." The minutes of 1805 contain an interesting historical docu- 
ment in a "general report concerning those districts within the juris- 
diction of the Synod of New York and New Jersey which most par- 
ticularly require the labors of missionaries and the distribution of pious 
tracts among the people." 

5. The Academy was in Academy street on the ground now (1912) 
occupied by the Public Library. See the History of the Academy 
written by Dr. Hall in the State Gazette, April and May, 1847, ten num- 
bers. Also, "An Historical Sketch of the Trenton Academy" read at 
the centennial anniversary of its foundation, February loth, 1881, by 
Hon. William L. Dayton. 

6. Sedgwick's Life of Livingston, ch. vii., viii. The Legislature (Dec. 
9> '^777>) exempted Mr. Collins "and any number of men, not exceeding 
four, to be employed by him at his printing office," from militia service 
during the time they were occupied in printing the laws or the weekly 
newspaper. The pacific but courageous printer vindicated the liberty of 
the press by refusing to give the name of a political correspondent 
(1779) on the demand of the Legislative Council. "In any other case, 
not incompatible with good conscience, or the welfare of my country, I 
shall think myself happy in having it in my power to oblige you." 
(Selections from Correspondence of Executive, 1776-86, published by 
Legislature in 1848, p. 199.) 


7. The American historiographer of printing makes no mention of 
this edition but speaks only of ColUns's octavo New Testament of 1788, 
and Bible of 1793-4. {Thomas's History, ii., 124.) Collins printed in 
Trenton two thousand copies of Sewel's History of the Quakers, of 
nearly a thousand pages folio ; Ramsay's South Carolina, two volumes, 
and other large works. 

In 1848 the surviving family of Mr. Collins printed for private use a 
memoir of their venerated parents, for the help of which I am indebted 
to my friend Isaac Collins, of Philadelphia. See also Blake's Bio- 
graphical Dictionary, i^th edition. 

I find in a Philadelphia newspaper, Sept., 1867, notice of the death 
of a son of Mr. Collins, as follows : 

"Joseph B. Collins, President of the United States Life Insurance 
Company, died yesterday morning at his residence in Eleventh St., in 
the 74th year of his age. He was born in Trenton, N. J., where his 
family have dwelt nearly two centuries. His father, Isaac Collins, was 
the founder of the noted publishing house of ColHns and Co., whose 
books were once reckoned among the standard publications of the 
country and are still regarded by our old families as precious heir- 



1. "In the graveyard at Cape May Court House, N. J., there is a 
tombstone to the memory of Sarah Hand, widow of Jonathan Hand, 
born at Trenton, N. J., July 22, 1778, died April 3, 1871. This lady 
was daughter of Nathaniel Moore, of Trenton, and in her eleventh 
year, with several other little misses, strewed flowers in the path- 
way of General Washington at Trenton, in 1789." "Pennsylvania 
Historical Society Magazine," vol. i., 473. 

Another of the party was Mrs. Sarah Vandegrift (then Miss ), 

who died November 30, 1864, in her ninety-fifth year, for forty-eight 
years a member of this church. Irving says of the incident at Tren- 
ton : "We question whether any of these testimonials of a nation's 
gratitude afifected Washington more sensibly than those he received 
at Trenton." 

2. Among the sermons left by Mr. Armstrong is the one used at the 
ordination of Finley (the Colonizationist) and Hunt. The subject is 
Ministerial Zeal, and the sermon was used on more than one occa- 
sion. One of the leaves has this endorsement : "First page of the 
sermon preached at the Mr. F. and Mr. Hunt's ordination in 1795." 
It was again used, in part, at the ordination and instalment of 
George Spafford WoodhuU, at Cranbury, June 6, 1798. Mr. Arm- 
strong said to the new minister: "You have succeeded two pastors, 
both lately, suddenly and unexpectedly called away by death, men of 
upright hearts and irreproachable lives. The memory of a Smith, 
whose accents were those of gentleness and love; the memory of a 
Snowden, who was all zeal and activity ; these yet live in the hearts 
of a people who esteemed them highly for their works' sake." Thomas 
Smith, pastor of Cranbury, died in 1789, and Gilbert T. Snowden, 
February 20, 1797. 

There was a coincidence of names about that time. Dr. Samuel 
Stanhope Smith being in the Princeton pulpit, as President of the 
College, and Samuel Finley Snowden, brother of Gilbert, as pastor 
of the Princeton congregation (1795-1802). 

Mr. Armstrong gave the charge at the ordination of Cyrus Gilder- 
sleeve, as evangelist, at Trenton, September 9, 1792, and preached at 
the instalment of Henry Kollock, in Princeton, June 12, 1804. He 
was appointed to preside and preach at Rev. Thomas Grant's instal- 
ment at Amwell Second Church, December 15, 1791, but was prevented 
from fulfilling the service by absence. Mr. Grant was the pastor of 
Flemington in 1794, when Mr. Armstrong preached at the opening 
of the new church, as mentioned on page 203. Mr. Grant died in 
March, 181 1, and in a sermon at the time, Mr. Armstrong spoke of 


"being early and long intimately acquainted with him and enjoying his 
friendship from his entrance into the ministry to his death." 

3. To the instances of Mr. Armstrong's character as a philanthropist 
may be added a sentence incidentally dropped in a sermon referring 
to prisoners condemned to death : "I have more than once in my life 
been instrumental in procuring pardon for persons in such a situa- 

The prevalence of the yellow fever in Philadelphia, at the close of 
the last century, gave occasion for many efiforts of the Trenton pastor 
to call attention to its warnings. In one sermon (on Isaiah 9: 12, 26: 
9, Micah 6:9) he said he would not presume to call that pestilence 
a judgment for special sins, "yet there is one thing I beg leave to 
mention. In all my recollection I do not remember to have read or 
heard that ever the Saviour of sinners was insulted in a public news- 
paper, except in the city of Philadelphia not long since." 

It appears from Matthew Carey's "Short Account of the Maloignant 
Fever lately prevalent in Philadelphia," fourth edition, 1794, that the 
people of our town and neighborhood were much alarmed by the 
danger of persons flying from the city in this direction. He says : 
"The inhabitants of Trenton and Lamberton associated on the 13th 
of September and on the 17th passed several resolutions to guard 
themselves against the contagion. They resolved that 'a total stop 
should be put to the landing of all persons from Philadelphia at any 
ferry or place from Lamberton to Howell's ferry, four miles above 
Trenton ; that the intercourse by water should be prohibited between 
Lamberton, or the head of tide-water and Philadelphia; and that all 
boats from Philadelphia should be prevented from landing either 
goods or passengers anywhere between Bordentown and the head of 
tide-water ; that no person whatever should be permitted to come from 
Philadelphia or Kensington while the fever continued ; that all per- 
sons who should go from within the limits of the association to either 
of those places should be prevented from returning during the con- 
tinuance of the fever ; and finally, that their standing committee should 
inquire whether any persons, not inhabitants, who had lately come 
from places infected, and were therefore likely to be infected them- 
selves, were within the limits of the association, and if so, that they 
should be obliged instantly to leave the said limits.' " Mr. Carey 
gave his opinion "that the exercise of the duties of humanity towards 
the fugitive Philadelphian would not have been attended with the 
danger universally imagined," as although, "in defiance of all resolu- 
tions, many of the infected citizens took refuge outside the city, in 
very few instanced cases was the infection communicated." He after- 
wards modified this opinion upon hearing of several cases by communi- 
cation; among them "three people, of one family in Trenton, took it 
from a sick person from Philadelphia, and died of it." 


4. "Ordered, that Mr. Armstrong, Mr. Singer, and Mr. Tajdor work 
the large engine in time of fire, and that Conrad Kotts and Isaac 
Barnes work the small engine." "Ordered, that Mr. Armstrong and 
Mr. Taylor be a committee to have good trail ropes put to both 
engines, and a necessary harness for one horse for the large engine." 
The members being at one time required to give account whether 
they had done their duty, it is entered that "Mr. Armstrong, ladder- 
man No. I, attended, and brought forward his ladder and hook to 
the late fire." 

5. I have looked in vain for the New Brunswick history in the 
archives of the Assembly. 

6. In an interleaved almanac of 1794, I find a memorandum of Rev. 
Mr. Weems' preaching in the evening in the Presbyterian church. 
This was the author of the poor but widespread "Life of Washing- 
ton." I have a poem of his with his autograph, "Mrs. Frazer, from 
M. L. Weems." Mrs. Frazer was the wife of the rector of St. 
Michael's Elpiscopal Church. 

7. The result of the experience of such uses of the Church as are 
related on this and other pages, was given by Mr. Armstrong in his 
sermon at the opening of the new church in 1806. The position taken 
by him in the annexed paragraph is now an established rule of our 
Trustees. "I know," said the preacher, "that superstition has often 
conferred upon churches a degree of sanctity which can only belong 
to the object of all religious worship. But I know also that in the 
attempt to wipe out this vestige of superstition, too many have swept 
away with it that respect and veneration which we ought to cultivate 
for places where God has promised his presence to his people. The use 
of churches, for purposes not immediately connected with religious 
exercises, though innocent in itself, must have a tendency to weaken 
our respect and veneration for them. Civil, political, or literary scenes 
and exhibitions, mingled at intervals, though not on the Lord's day, 
will more or less weaken a sense of that seriousness and solemnity 
which is associated with a house set apart for the worship of God. 
Nothing, therefore, but urgent unavoidable necessity should open the 
doors of our sanctuaries for exercises which are not immediately 
subservient to the purposes of religion or devotion." 

8. At that time, and for many years, the custom obtained in Trenton 
of adorning the windows and fronts of the houses on the Fourth of 
July with flowers and evergreens, instead of the former practice of 
illumination. It was also a custom' to spend the evening at the State 
House, where the usual entertainments of an evening party were pro- 
vided by the ladies. 

9. The Rev. Andrew Hunter, D. D. (already mentioned on p. 204), 
was a personal friend, and in the pulpit a frequent assistant, of Mr. 


Armstrong. He graduated at Princeton, 1772; was chaplain in the 
Revolutionary army; taught a classical school at Woodbury; cultivated 
a farm on the Delaware near Trenton; was professor of Mathematics 
and Astronomy in Princeton, 1804-8; head of an Academy in Borden- 
town, 1809; afterwards a chaplain in the Washington Navy Yard, and 
died in Burlington, February 24, 1823. His second wife was Mary, 
a daughter of Richard Stockton, signer of the Declaration. Dr. 
Hunter had an uncle who was also the Rev. Andrew Hunter, and was 
pastor in Cumberland county, N. J. (about 1746-1760). He married 
Ann, a cousin of Richard Stockton, the signer. He died in 1775. His 
widow was buried in the Trenton church-yard, October, 1800, and 
the funeral sermon was by President Smith. 

In the Trenton Emporium, March i, 1823, "Rev. Dr. Andrew Hunter, 
a chaplain in the U. S. Navy," is among the deaths as "at Wash- 

For Andrew Hunter, the uncle, thirty years pastor at Greenwich, 
in Cohansey, see Allen H. Brown's "Outline History of the Presby- 
terian Church in West or South Jersey," Philadelphia, 1869. 

ID. In this year the national offices were removed to Trenton for some 
weeks, in consequence of the prevalence of the yellow fever in Phila- 
delphia. The Secretary of the Navy urged the President (Adams) 
to follow his Cabinet, remarking that "the officers are all now at this 
place, and not badly accommodated." The President was reluctant 
to come. He had written in 1797 of the "painful experience" by which 
he had learned that Congress could not find "even tolerable accommo- 
dation" here. However, he promised to go by the middle of October, 
submissively assuring his correspondent, "I can and will put up with 
my private secretary and two domestics only, at the first tavern or 
first private house I can find." He arrived on the tenth, and on the 
next day was greeted with fireworks. He found "the inhabitants of 
Trenton wrought up to a pitch of political enthusiasm that surprised 
him," in the expectation that Louis XVIII. would be soon restored 
to the throne of France. {Works of John Adams, vols, ii., vii., ix.) 
Adams had at this time a conference of six days with Hamilton and 
other members of his Cabinet before they could agree on the French 
business. {Randall's Life of Jefferson, vol. ii., 496-8.) 

II. Three columns of the True American, of Trenton, for Novem- 
ber 23, 1807, are filled with the Presbytery's petition to the Legislature 
of that year, in which the two objections to former applications are 
ably met, namely, that the incorporation would endanger civil liberty, 
and that it would be granting an exclusive privilege. The political 
prejudice of the times had probably more to do with the refusal than 
these pleas. The democratic newspapers of the day contain many 
bitter articles against the Presbyterian clergy, who were generally 
Washington Federalists. Among other delinquencies they were charged 
with omitting to pray for President Jefferson. In February, 1813, the 
Presbytery received a charter for ten years. 


12. Travels in 1795-7, vol. i., 549. In April, 1795, Peter Howell ad- 
vertised a "two-horse coachee" to leave Trenton for Philadelphia every 
Wednesday and Saturday, at eleven o'clock. Fare for a passenger, 
J2S. 6d.; fourteen pounds of baggage allowed. 

13. Travels of Francois Andre Michaux. By act of March 3, 1786, 
the Legislature granted Andre, the traveler's father, permission to hold 
land, not exceeding two hundred acres, in any part of the State for a 
botanical garden. There is a Memoir of Francois (who was the author 
of the "North American Sylva") in the Transactions of the American 
Philosophical Society, vol. xi. Three years before the above-mentioned 
act, the French Consul for New Jersey offered in the King's name all 
kinds of seeds whenever a botanical garden should be established. The 
Legislature (Dec. 10, 1783) made the ingenious reply that as soon as 
they established such a garden they should be glad to receive the seeds. 

14. Moreau's mansion was burnt down on Christmas day, 181 1. The 
stable is now a manufactory. Upon his first arrival the General resided 
"at the seat of Mr. Le Guen at Morrisville." By virtue of an act of 
Legislature (March 5, 1816) the estate of one hundred and five acres 
was sold by Moreau's executor, three years after his fall at Dresden. 

15. In connection with this matter the following advertisement ap- 
peared in a Trenton paper of 1855-6, and Dr. Hall made deposition as 
to the existence of (no record of marriage,) for the writ in chancery : 

"Frances Mary Shard — next of kin. Pursuant to an order of the 
High Court of Chancery of England, made in the matter of the estate 
of Frances Mary Shard who died in the year 1819, and the personal 
representatives of any of such next of kin, as may since have died, are 
by their solicitors, on or before the 15th day of March, 1856, to come 
in and prove their claims at the Chambers of the Right Honorable the 
Vice Chancellor Sir Richard Toun Kindersley, No. 3 Stone buildings, 
Lincoln's Inn, London, or in default thereof they will be peremptorily 
excluded the benefit of the said order. Mrs. Shard was the widow of 
William Shard, Esq. (who resided at Torbay House, Paignton, in the 
county of Devon, and in Harley street, London, and died in the year 
1806) and was a daughter of Robert Rutherford and Margaret his wife, 
who, it is believed, were natives of Ireland, but who were residing at 
Trenton, in the State of New Jersey, in the United States of America, 
where the said Robert Rutherford kept an hotel called the 'Legonier 
Tavern' (and afterwards the Black Horse), at the time of the birth 
of Mrs. Shard. Mrs. Shard died in the 60th year of her age, at Torbay 

16. Paine was in Philadelphia in 1777, when the British were ap- 
proaching the city. "I stayed in the city till Sunday, having sent my 
chest and everything belonging to the Foreign Committee to Trenton 
in a shallop." (He was Secretary of the Committee.) Letter of Paine 


to Dr. Franklin, "Pennsylvania Historical Society Magazine," vol. 2: 
287, 290, 293. 

17. In 1789 (May 25) Mrs. Washington slept at Trenton on her way 
from Mt. Vernon to New York. See Griswold's "Republican Court,"' 



1. It appears that some assistance in building the new church was 
obtained outside of Trenton. Mr. Armstrong left a "memorandum of 
sundry persons who subscribed in New York, etc., towards the finish- 
ing of the Presbyterian Church in Trenton, February, 1806." It is 
headed "Rev. Dr. Rodgers, $10; Col. Rutgers, $20; Mr. Edgar, $20." 
In the list that follows are the well-known names of Robert Lenox, 
J. B. Rodgers, M.D., Arch'd Gracie, D. Bruce, John J. Astor, Maturin 
Livingston and Dr. Livingston (brothers of Mrs. Armstrong). D. 
Phoenix, Dr. Miller, Bishop Moore, Col. Wolcott, etc. Total, $369.31; 
and Newark, $136 =: $50S.3i. 

2. From the Trenton "Federalist" of Monday, August ir, 1806: 
"Notice. Divine service will be performed for the first time in the 

new Presbyterian Church in this place, next Lord's day. Service will 
begin at eleven o'clock in the forenoon and three in the afternoon. 
Collections will be raised after each service, to be appropriated for the 
expenditures incurred in finishing the house." 

3. From a Trenton newspaper of July 29, 1807 : 

"On Saturday, the twentieth instant, was hung in the steeple of the 
New Presbyterian Church in Trenton, a new bell, weighing four hun- 
dred and seventy-eight pounds, cast by George Hedderly, bell-founder 
and bell-hanger of the city of Philadelphia, which does its founder 
much credit, both for the neatness of its casting and its melodious 
tone. "B. Smith, ^^ 

"P. Gordon, ^Managers." 

4. Dr. Ewing's epitaph, now in Riverview Cemetery, is as follows : 
"In memory of Francis Armstrong Ewing, M.D., who died in 

Trenton, his native place, December 10, 1857, in the 52d year of his 
age. An accomplished scholar, an intelligent and conscientious 
Christian : tender in his affections : faithful in his friendship : his 
character combined many high and rare virtues. This church had in 
him a devoted Elder and firm adherent." 

5. The salary was eight hundred dollars. Mr. Armstrong was suc- 
ceeded in Maidenhead by the Rev. Isaac V. Brown, at whose ordina- 
tion and installation (June 10, 1807) he gave both the charges. 

6. Beside the gravestone of Mr. Furman is that of his wife Sarah, 
who died January 6, 1796, in her 53d year; and of his daughter, Anna 
Maria, widow of Gen'l Peter Hunt, October 8, 1816, in her 42d year, 
and also of her husband. Mr. Furman's son, Moore Furman, gradu- 
ated at Princeton in 1794, died at Lawrenceville, April 18, 1804. 

24 PRES 


Mr. Furman's will is dated October lo, 1806. It describes him "of 
Lamberton, in the county of Burlington." Witnesses are P. F. Howell, 
Jas. P. Hunt and Gershom Mott. It is proved April 13, 1808. He left 
to his son-in-law, Peter Hunt, and his wife, Anna Maria, the estate 
called Pittstown, Hunterdon county, about seven hundred acres and a 
lot of limestone land, about half an acre, near the North Branch of 
the Raritan. 

I have a MS. receipt given by Mr. Furman, as follows : 
"Aprill 8th, 1754. Received of Mr. Nathaniel Moore Ten Shillings 
for his Annual Payment to the Library Company of Trenton. 

"Moore Furman, Tr." 

7. Jonathan Doan (now written Doane) having contracted to erect 
a State Prison at Trenton, Messrs. Hunt and Furman (1797) conveyed 
the ground on which the jail (now the arsenal) was built. The 
measurement was more than eight and one-quarter acres; the con- 
sideration £369 IS. 

I have in my possession Mr. Doan's receipt for the last payment of 
the contract alluded to : 

"Received Novr 14, 1798, of James Mott, Treas'r, four hundred and 
seventeen pounds, twelve shillings and two pence, being the balance 
of the sum allowed to me by an 'act to appropriate a further sum of 
money for completing the State Prison,' passed November 7, 1798. 

"Jonathan Doan." 

8. April 7, 1848. I attended the funeral of Jesse Roscoe. He lived 
in the old house opposite the church which Mr. Fish bought (adjoin- 
ing his house). He was the grandfather of Mrs. Upton and Mrs. 
Miller. On March 15, 1879, Samuel Roscoe died, aged eighty-four. 
I was unable to attend the funeral 



1. April 28, 1807, Mr. Armstrong preached before Presbytery at New 
Brunswick, from Hebrews 12:10, and on June 10, gave charges to 
pastor and people at the ordination and installation of Isaac V. Brown. 

2. Dr. Wm. A. MtDowell's name is first in the catalogue of Alumni, 
having been licensed in 1813 by the New Brunswick Presbytery, but he 
had entered in an advanced stage of his studies. The first three students 
were Wm. Blair, John Covert and Henry Blatchford. The Presbytery 
of April, 1813, which sat in Trenton, received both Drs. Green and 
Alexander, from Philadelphia ; the former having been elected Presi- 
dent of Princeton College in 1812. 

3. Among Mr. Armstrong's papers I found a pamphlet of si.x pages, 
entitled "A plan for the Establishment of a Bible Society in the State 
of New Jersey. New Brunswick. Printed for the Committee by 
Ambrose Walker." It gives proceedings "at a meeting of the ministers 
of New Brunswick, with a number of other gentlemen, in the city 
of New Brunswick, on the 4th day of Oct., A. D. 1809," when "the 
New Jersey Bible Society" was formed. A contribution of three 
dollars was to constitute a member and one dollar annually was to be 
paid in. Twenty-five dollars would constitute a life member. Bibles 
were to be obtained from the Philadelphia Bible Society. Subscribers 
were to meet at Princeton, on the first Tuesday of December, to 
choose managers. Then follows a Hst of gentlemen throughout the 
State who were requested to obtain subscribers and donations. Among 
these are Rev. Dr. Wharton and Isaac Collins, of Burlington ; Rev. 
Mr. Armstrong and Messrs Waddell and Harris, of Trenton; Dr. 
Smith and Samuel Bayard, of Princeton ; Messrs. Clark and Cross, 
of New Brunswick ; Rev. Mr. Brown and Charles D. Green, of Maiden- 
head ; Finley, of Basking Ridge ; Vredenburg, of Raritan ; Cannon, of 
Six-Mile-Run; Labach (gh?), of Sourland — worthy representatives in 
this catholic body, of the Reformed Dutch, Presbyterian, Protestant 
Episcopal and Quaker denominations. 

To this was added a leaf of signatures of subscribers : "J. F. Arm- 
strong, Gov. Bloomfield, B. Smith, Peter Gordon, A. Chambers, Nath'l 
Burrowes, Jas. F. Wilson, E. Howell, Chas. Higbee, J. Oram, Sam. 
Dickinson, L. (Lambert) Cadwalader, Henry Waddell, Robt. Mc- 
Neely, Garret D. Wall, Lucius H. Stockton, A. D. WoodrufiF, Jas. 
Ewing, Ogden Woodruff, Dr. Beatty, Daniel Fenton, Saml. Paxson, 
Geo. Sherman, Eliz'th Stockton, Ellet Howell." 

The pamphlet is now in the library of the American Bible Society. 

4. In 1809 Air. Armstrong preached twice on II. Corinthians. This 
memorandum is on the MS. : "The last preached, June 18, 1809, on a 


particular dispensation of Divine Providence, — a professor of religion, 
under great fear of mind, having, as supposed by some, been accessory 
to his ovirn death, tho' uncertain." 

5. There are MS. "Notes for the day of Fasting, Humiliation and 
Prayer appointed by the General Assembly, July 30, 1812," and the 
same MS. "for the day of humiliation and prayer appointed by the 
President of the United States, Aug. 20, 1812." 

6. On April 7, 1881, Miss Mary Armstrong (age 93) gave me the 
printed slip of which the following is a copy, which she said was writ- 
ten by her father on a child of a parishioner : 

"an acrostic 
upon a child born blind. 

Sovereign benign, of love, of life, of light ! 
At whose command I'm born deprived of sight, 
'Midst darkness and 'midst dangers ever nigh. 
Unseen a father's face, a mother's watchful eye. 
Eternal ! who 'midst darkness mak'st the light arise. 
Lighten my mind, and give me heavenly eyes. 

Rise, Sun of Righteousness, with feeling light. 
Oh ! grant me Faith's unerring, saving sight ; 
Shine inward, that my enlight'ned soul may raise 
Eternal anthems to my Saviour's praise." 

7. Mrs. Armstrong survived her husband until February 13, 1851, 
when she peacefully and triumphantly departed, in the ninety-third year 
of her age. I had the privilege of the friendship of this most estimable 
lady for ten years after becoming pastor of the church, and the dis- 
course delivered on the Sabbath after her funeral has been published 
under the title of "The Divine Promise to Old Age." One of the 
daughters of Mr. and Mrs. Armstrong, was the wife of Chief Justice 
Ewing, who died in Trenton, July 4, 1816. Their son, Robert L,. Arm- 
strong, a member of the bar at Woodbury, died in Trenton, September 
22, 1836. Three unmarried daughters long survived both their parents ; 
Frances, who died June 22, 1868, aged 75 years ; Susan, May 18, 1878, 
aged 87 ; Mary Maturin, March 21, 1882, aged 94. 

8. Occam was a Mohegan (Connecticut) Indian, and the first of his 
race educated by Dr. Wheelock at Lebanon. In 1766 he collected more 
than iiooo in England for the Wheelock School. His agency is men- 
tioned in the celebrated case of Dartmouth College : Wheaton's Re- 
ports, vol. iv. See Sprague's Annals, vol. iii., 192. 

9. In 1765 the Supreme Court required lawyers to wear bar-gown 
and band as in England. This was repealed in 1791. "Proceedings of 
New Jersey Historical Society," 1862, vol. 9, p. 66. 


10. For Mr. Dubois's genealogy, see the "Record of the Family of 
Louis DuBois, who emigrated from France to America in 1660," — only 
150 copies printed, i860, p. 38. 

Mr. Nicholas Dubois bequeathed $100 to the church, which was 
realized on the death of his widow in 1861. 

11. The "Narrative" of the General Assembly of 181 1 mentions the 
establishment of a Sabbath-school for poor children in New Brunswick. 

12. Mr. Sherrerd died at Belvidere May 26, 1871, aged seventy-seven. 

13. I have since been informed that Mr. Frobasco was a Baptist. Rev. 
James Briggs Bowen, another of the first teachers, called on me June 
18, 1868. He said he was a Baptist minister, settled in the West. 

14. For Bishop Mcllvaine's account of the first Sunday-school in 
Burlington, see Hills' "History of the Burlington Church," p. 393. 

15. Mary Ann Tucker married James Wright in 1820, and died, his 
widow, Dec. 14, 1877, aged eighty-two. Mary A. Howell married John 
R. Vogdes, of Philadelphia. Catherine Schenck married Wm. Morse. 
At her death she bequeathed $100 to her pastor. Hannah Hayden died 
Sept. 21, 1867. 

16. Miss Rice maintained her active interest in the School until her 
death in May, 1855. She served the general cause as a writer. Two 
of her books, "Alice and her Mother," and "Olive Smith," were pub- 
lished by the American S. S. Union; three others, "Consideration, or 
the Golden Rule," "Florence Patterson," and "Maria Bradford," by the 
Massachusetts S. S. Society. 

17. Miss Jackson's name and Trenton associations frequently occur 
in the Memoir of Mr. Sanford, by Dr. Baird, pp. 28, 63, 66, 86, 97, 118, 



1. In October, 1823, Dr. How became pastor of the Independent 
Presbyterian Church of Savannah; in 1830 President of Dickinson 
College ; and subsequently returned to New Brunswick upon a call 
to take the pastoral charge of the First Reformed Dutch Church in 
that city. He died in New Brunswick, March i, 1808, having resigned 
his pastoral charge there June 14, 1861. He received the degree of 
D.D. from Union College in 1830; 

2. As throwing somewhat amusing light on the comfortable and 
simple manners of the time, William Cobbett's Journal, March, 1818, 
says : "I am at the stage tavern, Trenton, New Jersey, where I have 
just dined upon cold ham, cold veal, butter and cheese, and a peach 
pie ; nice, clean room, well furnished, waiter clean and attentive, plenty 
of milk ; and charged a quarter of a dollar. I thought that Mrs. Joselin 
(Joline?) of Princeton, Mrs. Beesler, at Harrisburg, Mr. Slaymaker, 
at Lancaster, and Mrs. McAllister were low enough in all conscience; 
but really this charge of Mrs. Anderson beats all. I really had not 
the face to pay a quarter of a dollar, but gave the waiter half a dollar 
and told him to keep the change." 

3. So far as known, there is no record of when or how often he 
preached in the church before his election. 

4. It is pleasant thus to meet with names, now well known, while 
in the uncertainties of their novitiate. Mr. Armstrong preached at 
the ordination of "C. C. Beatty," in 1822; and at the same meeting of 
Presbytery trials were assigned to "Mr. Albert Barnes." "M'r. Francis 
McFarland" preached his trial sermon, and was ordained. "Messrs. 
Robert Baird and John Breckenridge" were licensed. 

5. Memoir and Sermons, edited by Rev. Hollis Read, 1853, pp. 31 
and 104. A visitor in Trenton thus wrote, November 4, 1822: "I 
heard Mr. Armstrong preach a most eloquent sermon yesterday morn- 
ing. He is one of my favorites. At night Mr. L , the Methodist, 

a very good preacher ; the coolest Methodist I ever heard. The Tren- 
tonians say that the Presbyterians have got the Methodist preacher, 
and the Methodists the Presbyterians." 

6. The excellent man here referred to, was Mr. John VoorheES, 
who was admitted to the communion in Trenton in April, 1822; and 
elected a ruling elder in 1829. He emphatically discharged the duties 
of his office "well," until the removal of his residence to Washington, 
in 1843, where he died October 28, 1849. 

Concerning Mr. Armstrong's strong character, see also Rev. Dr. 
James W. Alexander's letter in "Forty Years' Letters," vol. 2, p. 59. 


7. Mr. Smith was born at Wether sfield, Sept. 2, 1797, licensed April 
20, 1822, married Esther Mary, daughter of Attorney-General Aaron 
D. Woodruff, Sept. 11, 1826, and died in Stamford, Conn., at the 
house of his son, James D. Smith, Feb. 20, 1874, in his seventy-sev- 
enth year. He was buried from the Presbyterian Church of Stam- 
ford, Feb. 23d. 

8. George Whitefield Woodruff was a brother of Aaron Dickinson 
Woodruff. He died at the family farm, near the Asylum, in 1846, at 
the age of eighty-two. He was an Episcopalian. See S. D. Alexan- 
der's "Princeton in the Eighteenth Century," p. 218. 

9. Gibbs' Federal Administrations, ii. 468. In Mr. Jeremiah Evart's 
journal of April 18, 1827, he mentions a meeting in the Theological 
Seminary at Princeton on the subject of Foreign Missions, when Dr. 
Alexander "was followed by Mr. Stockton, a lawyer of Trenton, who 
spoke with great feeling." {Tracy's Life of Evarts.) 

10. Not many steps from this monument are those of two brothers, 
(Douglass and Philip F. Howell), on one of which it is said that the 
deceased "lost his life by a fall from his horse" (1801), and on the 
other that the deceased was "thrown from his gig, and died in a few 
minutes" (1833). 

11. Mr. Leake's widow survived him until March 13, 1843, when she 
died in her eighty-ninth year. Two of their daughters long survived 
both their parents in the family mansion and in the communion, Sarah 
dying Nov. 25, 1858, an adult member of the church from May, 1815 ; 
Clara dying Jan. 16, 1870, a member of the church from October, 1815, 
a period of fifty-five years. 

Dr. Maclean's "History of the College of New Jersey" produces a 
minute of the Trustees of April, 1774, from which it appears that Mr. 
Leake, whilst a Senior, was engaged in some pranks that were re- 
garded as too disorderly an outbreak of the rising of the American 
spirit of independence to pass without censure, and hence they passed 
a resolution that "the Board being informed that the said Samuel 
Leake, notwithstanding his conduct, hath been appointed by the Faculty 
to the honor of the Salutatory Oration at the coming Commencement, 
this Board doth highly disapprove of his designation to that honor, 
and do hereby vacate that choice, and direct the President of the 
College to appoint another Orator in his room." Dr. McLean's com- 
ment on the proceeding is that the Faculty sympathized, to some ex- 
tent at least, with their pupils in the patriotic demonstration they had 
made, and were not willing to deprive young Leake of his claim to a 
position at the Commencement, as "the first scholar in his depart- 

There was another Samuel Leake, a native of Virginia, in the Prince- 
ton class of 1764, a Presbyterian minister in Albemarle county. 


12. Major Beatty is mentioned by Washington in a letter of May, 
1788, and there are letters from the Commander-in-Chief to him, of 
1779, in Sparks's Writings of Washington, v., 393; vi., 295, 351. 

13. The foundation stone of the first pier was laid by General Beatty, 
May 21, 1804, and on the thirtieth January, 1806, the completion of the 
bridge was formally celebrated with a procession, an address by the 
President, and a dinner. The Duke of Saxe-Weimar (1825) was 
"sorry for the great hurry" in which he had to take the boat for Phil- 
adelphia, "because I should have liked to have examined Trenton; it 
is a very handsome place * * *_ There is, moveover, at Trenton a 
remarkable bridge crossing the Delaware. It consists of five great 
suspended wooden arches, which rest upon two stone abutments and 
three stone piers. The difference between this bridge and others con- 
sists in this, that in common bridges the road runs over the tangent, 
but in this bridge the roads form the segment of the arch." (Travels 
through North American, vol. i., 136. 

In contrast with this description of the bridge, we have this entry 
in the journal of the Rev. Jeremy Belknap, historian, of New Hamp- 
shire, who in October, 1785, visited his friend, Ebenezer Hazen, in 
Philadelphia : "We passed through Princeton about noon, and got to 
Trenton to dinner, then passed the Delaware in another scow (the 
first was at New Brunswick, 'open at both ends and the scow was 
propelled across by a rope') which was navigated only by setting- 
poles." "Life of Jeremy Belknap," Harpers, New York, 1847, p. 115. 

14. It appears from the following letter from Gen. Beatty to the 
Rev. Mr. Armstrong that he had declined a nomination for the elder- 
ship, in 181 I : 

"Bloomsbury, Sat'y morning, Oct. 5th, 181 1. 
"Rev. and Dear Sir: 

"The proposition of my becoming one of the Ruling Elders of the 
church at which you preside has been the subject of much serious 
meditation through the week. Were I to be governed solely by the 
opinion of other persons, the pride of office so incident to human 
nature might have led me to have accepted the appointment. But as 
often as I came to commune with my own heart, and to view the 
little progress it had made in the Divine life, and especially its de- 
ficiency in those attainments, gifts and graces which would qualify 
me to fulfil the high and responsible duties which attach to the office 
of an Elder (who ought to walk as a light in the church, in all things, 
adorning the doctrine of our Lord and Saviour, Jesus Christ) I felt 
abased and discouraged. Believing, then, as I sincerely do, my un- 
worthiness as well as unfitness to minister in holy things, I cannot 
reconcile it with my duty to enter on the appointment, even though 
the nomination should meet the general acceptance of the congrega- 
tion. In communicating this determination to the Session, I pray them. 


and you, sir, to be assured that I shall retain a grateful sense of this 
distinguished mark of their attention towards me. 
"With sentiments of respect and esteem, 

"I am your friend and humble servant, 

"J. Beatty." 
Fuller notice of the Eeatty family may be found in the "History 
of Neshaminy Presbyterian Church," by Rev. Douglas K. Turner, 
Philadelphia, 1876. 

15. "Apres I'office divin que nous entendimes dans 1' eglise Presbyte- 
rienne." Levasseur's Lafayette en I'Ameriqiie. 

On the occasion of Lafayette's presence Mr. Peter O. Studdiford, of 
Lambertville, preached. In his prayer he said, "Let us remember that 
we are here to worship God and God alone." Mr. Tyler made one of 
the prayers. 

The following is from an article by Dr. Coleman in the Trenton 
"Public Opinion," February 14, 1874 : 

"Sunday morning the General attended Presbyterian Church in 
Market street, now State street. The minister at that time was 
William J. Armstrong, a thin, bilious, nervous and energetic man. 
He was a good preacher, and his wife was an estimable lady. She 
was a Stockton, daughter of Lucius Horatio Stockton, Esq., whose 
position — •" 

"May I ask friend Pepys what that has to do with Lafayette?" said 
Clunn. "True, very true, nothing," replied Pepys. 

16. It may have been a revival of this scheme that was contemplated 
in November, 1814, when a public meeting was called to form an 
association "to supply the town with fire-wood by water." 

17. The remains of Judge Ewing have been removed from the 
church-yard to Riverview Cemetery, and the grave is designated by 
this inscription : 

"In memory of James Ewing, Esq., one of the Judges of the Com- 
mon Pleas of the County of Hunterdon. Born at Greenwich in the 
county of Cumberland, the 12th of July, A. D. 1744 (O. S.). Died 
at Trenton the i6th day of October, A. D. 1823." 



1. The ruling elders during Mr. Alexander's term were : i. 
Nathaniel Burrowes; first an elder in Pennington, and received into 
the Trenton session December 24, 1815. His monument is inscribed: 
"A memorial of Nathaniel Burrowes, who died January 29, 1839, aged 
seventy-one years. An elder of the Presbyterian Church for forty 
years." 2. Robert McNeely, who came to Trenton in 1791, was 
ordained to the eldership 1817; died January 27, 1852, in his eighty- 
fifth year. He was for eighteen successive years annually elected 
Mayor of Traiton. 3. John VoorhEES, who is mentioned in the pre- 
ceding chapter. 4. SamuEl BrEarlEy, elected with Mr. Voorhees in 
1829, and died May 27, 1848. 

Mr. McNeely was Presidential elector in 181 7. See an article 
respecting him in "Beecher's Magazine," Trenton, vol. i., 1870. Mr. 
McNeely was born in Bucks county, Pennsylvania, not far from the 
site of the "Log College," February 23, 1767. 

2. Dr. Alexander did not live to see this History. When he wrote 
the letter of February', 1859, he was pastor of the congregation whose 
church stood at the corner of Fifth avenue and Nineteenth street, 
New York, now Fifth avenue and Fifty-fifth street. Soon after- 
wards his declining health led him to try the climate of Virginia, and 
he died at the Red Sweet Springs, July 31, 1859, in the 56th year of 
his age. 

3. Mr. Yeomans was licensed while a tutor at Williams College, 
October, 1826, by the Berkshire Association, and was pastor at Pitts- 
field in the spring of 1831. 

4. The preceding structures stood upon the western part of the 
church lot. The present one was placed in the central part. The 
dimensions are one hundred and four feet length ; sixty-two feet 
breadth; steeple one hundred and twenty feet. Dr. Yeomans' dedica- 
tion sermon was published. For the very accurate and artistic sketch 
of the church from which the frontispiece was engraved, I am indebted 
to the kindness of Mr. J. Fletcher Street, of the Normal School. 

In the "Emporium" and "True American," of January 18, 1839, is 
a "Notice to Builders," for proposals for the erection of the new 
church, signed by Messrs. B. Fish, T. J. Stryker, Armitage Green, 
C. Blackfan, J. S. Scudder, and S. Evans, Building Committee. 

In the same, August 23, 1839, is an advertisement of a fair to be 
held in the City Hall, September 3, "to raise a fund for the purchase 
of furniture for the church." 

On January 3, 1840, there is a notice that "Pews will be sold on 


January 13. The church will be dedicated on the 19th. S. G. Potts, 
Chairman of the General Committee." 

The text of Dr. Yeomans' dedication discourse was Psalms 65:4, 
"Blessed is the man whom thou choosest, and causest to approach 
unto thee, that he may dwell in thy courts : he shall be satisfied with 
the goodness of thy house, even of thy holy temple." 

The people were slow in giving their consent to introduce an organ 
into the public worship of the new church. Much of the success in 
securing this innovation is ^ue to the influence of Elder Francis A. 
Ewing, and to the ingenious manner in which, by his own playing on 
the instrument, he confined its use to a quiet accompaniment of the 
voice, without interlude or flourish. The reconciliation of the scruples 
of some of the worshippers became so entire, by habit, that in 1871 the 
first organ was superseded by a larger one, with a paid organist and 

5. The elders were James PoIvLock, Aaron A. Hutchinson, and 
Francis A. Ewing, M.D. The deacons were John A. Hutchinson, 
Benjamin S. Disbrow, and Joseph G. BrearIvEy. 

In the year 1836 Thomas J. Stryker and Stacy G. Potts were 
elected and ordained elders. 

6. "I preached in the church" says Mr. Webster in a letter written at 
my request, "in the morning and evening; in the afternoon attended 
the Sabbath-school. Once a month I took my turn of preaching in the 
State prison and visiting the cells. One evening in the week I lectured 
at private houses in Bloomsbury, Lamberton, or Mill Hill, and occa- 
sionally at Morrisville (on the Pennsylvania side of the Delaware) in 
the afternoon." 

Mr. Webster died at Middletown Point, N. J., December 28, 1862, in 
his seventieth year. 

7. The total additions to the communion in Dr. Yeomans' pastorate 
were seventy-two on examination, eighty-five on certificate. Dr. Yeo- 
mans died in Danville, Pa., June 22, 1863. 

8. The substance of the sermon (on "the pastoral ofiice") appeared 
in the Biblical Repertory for January, 1842. 

9. I insert with great satisfaction a paragraph from a letter of Dr. 
Yeomans, of August 15, 1859, after the pubUcation of the "History": 

"There was one little item in the history of the transition of the 
church from my pastoral care to yours which is of a kind so unusual 
and in itself so interesting as to be worthy of notice. It was the fact 
that your ministry there began on the Sabbath after the termination of 
mine, so that the congregation was not without a virtual pastor any 
Sabbath and the pulpit was not declared vacant." 


10. Dr. Belleville was in Paris in 1774 when Louis XVI. came to the 
throne and used to tell of his hearing the populace cry, (in allusion to 
the tradition of Henry IVth's wish that every peasant might have a 
fowl for his pot-pie,) "Poule-au-pot! poule-au-pot!" 

11. There is also an extended notice of his character in an address 
by Lucius H. Stockton, published in the New Jersey Gazette, Sept. 15, 
1832. For further matter concerning the life of Chief Justice Ewing, 
see "Life of Dr. Miller," ii., 168-171. 

12. An obituary notice of Dr. Allison is in the Trenton Bmporium, 
February 24, 1827. He was born in Bordentown, Aug. 19, 1753, was 
educated under Dr. Samuel Jones of Lower Dublin, Pa., and received 
the degree of Doctor of Divinity from Brown University, in 1804. He 
was a member of the American Philosophical Society and for some time 
its secretary. He was for four years chaplain to Congress. 


History of the Proposal to Make Trenton the Capital of the 
United States. 

In the notice of Doctor Cowell's will, on page 292, it was stated 
that one of his legacies was to the United States, in case Congress 
should make Lamberton — then a precinct of Trenton — the seat of 
the National Government. Although this gives the subject a very 
slender connection with the title of this volume, I depend on the 
local interest it possesses, to make acceptable what I have digested 
from the Journals of the Congress of the Confederation. 

The Congresses before the Constitution held their sessions in 
different places, but principally in Philadelphia and New York. 
In June, 1783, preparation was begun to select what was called a 
"permanent residence" for Congress, by appointing the first Monday 
of the following October, to take into consideration such offers as 
might be made from the places that aspired to that distinction. In 
the same month in which the resolution was passed by Congress, the 
Legislature of New Jersey agreed to offer to yield to the United 
States, jurisdiction over any district to the extent of twenty miles 
square, and to grant £30,000 in specie for the purchase of lands and 
the erection of buildings. 

On the sixth of October, 1783. the question was taken, "In which 
State buildings shall be provided and erected for the residence of 
Congress ; beginning with New Hampshire, and proceeding in the 
order in which they stand." Upon this vote all the States were suc- 
cessively negatived. On the next day a motion was made by Mr. 
Gerry, "That buildings for the use of Congress be erected on the 
banks of the Delaware, near Trenton, or of the Potomac near George- 
town, provided a suitable district can be procured on one of the rivers 
aforesaid, for a federal town." By amendment the names of the towns 
were stricken out, and the rivers left ; and it was finally resolved on 
that day, first, that the federal town should be erected on the banks 
of the Delaware; and then, that the site should be "near the falls," 
that is, near Trenton on the New Jersey side, or in Pennsylvania 
on the opposite. A committee of five was appointed to view the re- 
spective situations, and report. 

The question of locality now became a subject of agitation be- 



tween the North and the South. On the day after the appointment 
of the Committee, a motion was made to reconsider the proceedings, 
"in order to fix on some other place that shall be more central, more 
favorable to the Union, and shall approach nearer to that justice which 
is due to the Southern States." This failed. On the tenth, a motion 
of Mr. Williamson, of North Carolina, was unsuccessful, which pro- 
posed that the present Congress (then in session at Princeton) should 
adjourn at once to Philadelphia, sit there till June, and then adjourn 
to Trenton. A motion of Mr. Duane. of New York, also failed, which 
called for an immediate adjournment to Trenton. On the eleventh, 
Mr. Ellery, of Rhode Island, moved for an adjournment to Annapolis 
till June, and then to meet at Trenton. The latter clause was stricken 
out, and the words, "for the place of their temporary residence," were 
joined to "Annapolis ;" but the amended motion was lost* 

The selection of Trenton, or its immediate vicinity, seemed now 
to be most probable ; but the minority against the Delaware loca- 
tion was so large and influential, that Mr. Gerry proposed as a 
compromise that Congress should have two residences, to be occu- 
pied alternately; the one to be on the D'elaware, as already deter- 
mined, and the other on the Potomac, at or near Georgetown. On 
the twentieth, Mr. Gerry further proposed, that until the buildings on 
the Delaware and Potomac were prepared, the residence of Congress 
should be alternately in Trenton and Annapolis. On the twenty-first, 
Mr. Gerry's entire motion was adopted.f 

In December, 1783, Congress met at Annapolis, and the question 
of the Federal city was reopened. Mr. Jefferson and Mr. Monroe en- 
deavored to have Alexandria substituted for Georgetown, as the 
Southern capital, but Virginia was the only State that voted aye.t 

Congress met in Trenton, November i, 1784. On the tenth Decem- 
ber, South Carolina moved that : "It is expedient for Congress to 
adjourn from their present residence." This was negatived on the 
eleventh, and on the twentieth it was resolved to take measures for 
procuring suitable buildings for national purposes, and a sum, not 
exceeding $100,000, was appropriated for that object. It was also 
determined to be inexpedient to erect such buildings at more than one 

* "Trenton was next proposed, on which question the votes were divided by 
the river Delaware." "The vicinity of its falls is to become the future seat of 
the Federal Government, unless a conversion of some of the Eastern States can 
be effected." Madison to Randolph, October 13, 1783. (Madison Papers, vol. i., 

t This act was the occasion of one of Judge Francis Hopkinson's humorous pub- 
lications, in which, under the title of "Intelligence Extraordinary," he described the 
new mechanism of government as a pendulum vibrating between Annapolis and 
Trenton. (Hopkinson's Works, vol. i., 17S.) 

{August 22, 1784, a memorial was presented to the New Jersey Senate from 
John Coxe and others, citizens of New Jersey and Pennsylvania, praying that ten 
miles square might be laid out on the Delaware, and furnishing the draft of 
such a tract. 


plaee at that time. Mr. Pinckney made an unsuccessful motion to have 
the arrangements for alternate sessions at Trenton and Annapolis 
repealed, and on the twenty-third December an ordinance was intro- 
duced, providing for the appointment of three commissioners, to lay 
out a district of not less than two, nor exceeding three miles square, 
on the banks of either side of the Delaware, not lower than Lamber- 
ton, nor more than six miles above it, for a Federal town. 

The whole discussion was renewed on a motion for the appro- 
priation. An effort was made to substitute Georgetown for Lamber- 
ton, but the ordinance was finally adopted that the Commissioners, 
without delay, should have the Federal city laid out in some district 
not more than eight miles above or below the lower falls of the Dele- 
ware ; and enter into contracts for erecting and completing, "in an 
elegant manner," a Capitol, houses for the President of Congress, and 
principal officers of the government, with a "due regard to the accom- 
modation of the States with lots for houses for the use of their dele- 
gates, respectively," and that Congress should hold its sessions in 
New York until the public buildings were ready for their reception. 
The immediate outlay of the Commissioners was not to exceed $100- 
000. Congress adjourned on the day after the decision, after acknowl- 
edging the attentions of the Legislature of the State, and the exertions 
of the inhabitants of the town in providing the members with accom- 

The order of the day for February 8, 1785, was to elect Commis- 
sioners under the ordinance of December 23, 1784. Various efforts 
were made by the Southern delegates to delay the progress of the 
measure, but the majority persevered, and Philip Schuyler, Philemon 
Dickinson, and Robert Morris were elected Commissioners, and upon 
Mr. Schuyler's declining, John Brown was put in his place. None 
of these were members of Congress. Mr. Dickinson was an inhabi- 
tant of Trenton, and Mr. Morris had an estate on the opposite side 
of the Delaware, now the town of Morrisville.f 

When the first appropriation to the Commissioners was called for 
by the Committee of Supplies (April 5, 1785) — "Federal buildings, 
$30,000" — ^Mr. Grayson, of Virginia, moved its refusal, but he was 
overruled. Then, on motion of Mr. Pinckney, that vote was recon- 

* The landholders near the falls were not insensible to their opportunity. In 
the New Jersey Gazette of May, 1785, and many following months, Joseph Higbee 
offers for sale "a valuable tract of land, containing three hundred acres, situate 
within three miles of Trenton, in the county of Burlington and township of 
Nottingham, and within a mile of Lamberton, where it is expected the Federal 
town will be built." 

t Washington foresaw the disadvantages of Lamberton. On the day of the 
above resolution, he wrote from Mount Vernon, to the President of Congress, 
in a private letter: "By the time your Federal buildings on the banks of the 
Delaware, along the point of a triangle, are fit for the reception of Congress, it 
will be found that they are very improperly placed for the seat of the empire, 
and will have to undergo a second erection in a more convenient one." {Writ- 
ings, vol. ix., 95.) 


sidered, and the report was recommitted. Here the matter rested 
until the twenty-second September, when the appropriation of $30,000 
coming before the house, Mr. Gerry moved to make it the whole sum 
of $100,000, but none of the States except Massachusetts and New 
Jersey voted for it; upon which, on motion of Mr. Hardy, of Vir- 
ginia, the item was entirely stricken out of the bill, which was a 
virtual repeal of the ordinance. 

The question of location was not revived after this until May 10, 
1787, when Mr. Lee, of Virginia, moved that the Treasury Board take 
measures for erecting public buildings, for the accommodation of Con- 
gress, at Georgetown on the Potomac. This was lost. 

In a few months (September, 1787) the Constitution of the United 
States was adopted, and the Congress of the Confederation expired. 
The Constitution contained a provision implying that the seat of Gov- 
ernment should be placed in a district "not exceeding ten miles square," 
which should be ceded to the exclusive legislation of Congress. Offers 
came in from all quarters. The Convention of New Jersey, which 
ratified the Constitution, recommended to the Legislature to enter 
into the competition for the Capital, which they did by a vote, Sep- 
tember g, 1788, offering the requisite territory. 

In September, 1789, Mr. Boudinot, in the House of Representatives, 
once more proposed "the banks of either side of the river Delaware, 
not more than eight miles above or below the lower falls," but it failed 
by a vote of four to forty-six ; and so Dr. Cowell's legacy to the 
United States lapsed. 

I may close the history by stating that the main question was finally 
settled by a compromise between the North and the South. The 
Northern States being anxious for the assumption of the debts of 
the several States by the General Government, and the Southern 
States being opposed to that measure, and the two sections being in 
like manner on opposite sides as to the locality of the Capital, there 
was a mutual bargaining of votes. The scheme is said to have origi- 
nated with Robert Morris and Alexander Hamilton (Secretary of 
the Treasury), and consummated at the dinner-table of Mr. Jefferson 
(Secretary of State) by Messrs. White* and Lee, of Virginia, who 
agreed to change their votes on the assumption question, in considera- 
tion of Morris and Hamilton undertaking to effect a corresponding 
change in the Northern votes for the Capital ; accordingly, the Assump- 
tion measure passed the House by a vote of thirty-four to twenty- 
eight, and the Potomac site by thirty-two to twenty-nine.f In July, 

* "With a revulsion of stomach almost convulsive," says Jefferson in his Ana. 

t Hildreth's United States, vol. iv., 210-216. Mr. Jefferson said in 1818 that he 
was "most ignorantly and innocently made to hold the candle" in this game (Ana., 
Works, vol. ix., p. 92), and again, "I was duped into it by the Secretary of the 
Treasury, and made a tool for forwarding his schemes, and of all the errors of 
my political life, this has occasioned me the deepest regret." (Letter quoted in 
Hildreth, vol. iv., 363.) 


1790, it was determined to have the seat of Government on the Poto- 
mac, and in 1791, Washington selected the spot which now bears his 
name. According to the terms of the act, Congress remained in Phila- 
delphia until December, 1800.* 

* "We are to remove before the first of December to Philadelphia, and, if we 
live so long, in ten years to the Indian place with the long name on the Potomac." 
[Conococheague.] (Oliver Wolcott, July 28, 1790. Gihbs' Federal Administration 
Ch. ii.) 

25 PRES 


Deed of Basse and Revel. 


To all people to whom these Presents shall come : 

The Honorable Jeremiah Basse, Esq., Governor of the Provinces of 
East and West Jersey, and Thomas Revel, of the town and county of 
Burlington, in the Province of West New Jersey, Gentleman, Agents 
for the Honorable the West Jersey Society in England, send greeting: 

Know ye that we, the said Jeremiah Basse and Thomas Revel, (as 
agents as aforesaid,) for the accommodation and service of the in- 
habitants of the township of Maidenhead, within the liberties or pre- 
cincts of the said county of Burlington, and the inhabitants near ad- 
jacent, (being purchasers of the said Society's lands there,) for the 
erecting of a meeting-house, and for burying-ground and school-house, 
and land suitable for the same, for and in consideration of five shil- 
lings to them, the said agents, or one of them in hand paid for the use 
of the said Society by Ralph Hunt and John Bainbridge, of Maiden- 
head aforesaid, as well for themselves as by the appointment and on 
the behalf of the rest of the inhabitants of said township at or before 
the sealing hereof, whereof and wherewith the said agents do hereby 
acknowledge themselves fully satisfied and paid on behalf aforesaid, 
they, the said Jeremiah Basse and Thomas Revel, have given, granted, 
and sold, aliened, enfeoffed, and confirmed, and by these presents, on 
behalf of the said Society, do fully and absolutely give, grant, and sell, 
alien, enfeoff, and confirm unto the said Ralph Hunt, and John Bain- 
bridge, and Johannes Laurenson, Wm. Hixson, John Bryerly, Samuel 
Hunt, Theoph. Phillips, Jonathan Davis, Thos. Smith, Jasper Smith, 
Thos. Coleman, Benjamin Hardin, Wm. Akers, Robert Lannen, Philip 
Phillips, Joshua Andris, Samuel Davis, Elnathan Davis, Enoch Andris, 
Cornelius Andris, James Price, John Runion, Thos. Runion, Hezekiah 
Benham, Benjamin Maple, Lawrence Updike, Joseph Sackett, and Ed- 
ward Hunt, all of Maidenhead aforesaid, one hundred acres of land, 
already taken up, laid forth, and surveyed, within said Society's tract 
of land above the falls, commonly called the fifteen thousand acres, in 
the township of Maidenhead aforesaid, for the use aforesaid ; together 
with all and every the ways, easements, profits, commodities, heredita- 
ments, and appurtenances to the said one hundred acres of land belong- 
ing or appertaining, and all the estate, right, title, interest, possession, 



property, claim, and demand whatsoever, as well of the said Jeremiah 
Basse and Thomas Revel (as agents as aforesaid) as of the said 
Society in law and equity, and either of them of, in, or unto the said 
one hundred acres of land and granted premises belonging or apper- 
taining; and the reversion and reversions, remainder and remainders 
of the same and of every part thereof. To have and to hold the said 
one hundred acres of land and granted premises, and every part and 
parcel thereof, with the appurtenances, unto the aforesaid persons par- 
ticularly mentioned, and to their heirs and successors forever, as well 
to the only proper use and behoof of them the said persons particularly 
mentioned as abovesaid, as to all and every other, the inhabitants of 
the said township aforesaid, and parts adjacent, who are or shall be 
purchasers of the aforesaid Society's lands, and to the heirs, assigns, 
and successors of them and every of them forevermore ; to be holden 
for, by, and under the quit rents thereout issuing unto our Sovereigri 
Lord, the King, and his heirs and successors, and the arrears thereof, 
(if any be). 

In witness whereof the said Jeremiah Basse and Thomas Revel, in 
the name and on the behalf of the said Society, have hereunto set their 
hands and seals the eighteenth day of March, Anno Dom. 169%, Annoq. 
R. R. Gulielm. tertii Angl. etc., undecimo. 

J. Basse, (l. s.) 

Thos. Revel. (l. s.) 

Sealed and delivered in the presence of 

Jno. Tatham, 

Nath. Cortland, Justice. 

Joseph Revel. 

A true copy of a deed recorded in liber B, No. 2, page 655. 

Thos. S. Allison, 

Sec. of State. 


List of Pastors, Elders, Deacons and Trustees of the Trenton Church. 


1736-1760, Rev. David CowELL, D.D., installed November 3d, 1736; 
released March nth, 1760; died December ist, 1760. 

1 761-1766, Rev. Whliam Kirkpatrick, supply April 28th, 1761 ; to 
1766; died September 8th, 1769. 

1769-1784, Rev. Euhu Spencer, D.D., called November i8th, 1769; 
died December 27th, 1784. 

1786-1816, Rev. James Francis Armstrong, called April 25th, 1786; 
died January 19th, 1816. 

1816-1821, Rev. Samuel Blanchard How, D.D., installed December 
17th, 1816; resigned April, 1821 ; died March ist, 1868. 

1821-1824, Rev. William Jessup Armstrong, D.D., installed Novem- 
ber 28th, 1821 ; resigned February 3d, 1824 ; died Novem- 
ber 27th, 1846. 

1825-1828, Rev. John Smith, installed March 8th, 1825 ; resigned 
August, 1828; died February 20th, 1874. 

1829-1833, Rev. James WaddEl Alexander, D.D., installed February 
nth, 1829; resigned October 31st, 1832; died July 31st, 

1834-1841, Rev. John William Yeomans, D.D., installed October 
7th, 1834; resigned June ist, 1841; died- June 22d, 1863. 

1841-1884, Rev. John Hall, D.D., installed August nth, 1841 ; pastor 
emeritus until his death, May loth, 1894. 

1884-1898, REV. John Dixon, D.D., installed October 15th, 1884; 
resigned September i8th, 1898. 

1899-1901, Rev. Lewis Seymour Mudge, installed September 27th, 
1899; resigned November 4th, 1901. 

1902- Rev. Henry Collin Minton, D.D., LL.D., installed Novem- 

ber 19th, 1902. 












John Chambers, 
John Hendrickson, 
Stephen Rose. 
Joseph Green. 
Benjamin Yard, 
Hezekiah HoweIvL, 
Wieliam Tucker. 
Samuee HieEj 
EbenezEr Cowele, 
Jacob Carle, 
John Howele, 
Timothy Hendrickson. 
AlEx\andEr Chambers, 
Jacob Carle, 
Isaac Smith^ 
Benjamin Smith, 
Nathaniel Furman, 
Ogden Woodruee. 
Peter Gordon. 
Benjamin HaydEn^ 
Nicholas Dubois. 
Nathaniel Burrowes. 
John Beatty, 
James Ewing, 
Robert McNeely, 
Joshua S. Anderson. 
John VoorhEES, 
Samuel BrearlEy. 
Thomas J. StrykEr, 
Stacy G. Potts. 

1840, James Pollock, 

Francis A. Ewing, 
Aaron A. Hutchinson. 

1846, Samuel Roberts, 

Joseph G. BrEarlEy, 
Jonathan Fisk. 

1858, George S. Green, 

Augustus G. Richey. 

1866, Henry W. Green, 
John S. Chambers, 
William J. Owens. 

1875, John D. Cochrane, 
William Elmer, 
Robert P. Stoll, 
Julius Johnston. 

1884, Barker GummErE, 
Charles E. Green, 
Edward S. McIlvainE, 
Hugh H. Hamill. 

1893, Edward T. Green, 
Henry D. Oliphant, 
Lewis C. Wooley. 

1898, Moore Dupuy, 

John H. ScuddEr, 
Oscar Woodworth. 

1909, Barton B. Hutchinson, 
Edward S. Wood, 
Frederick T. Bechtel, 
J. WarrEn Covert, 
Ellery Robbins. 




1771, Benjamin Smith. 
1777, William Green, 

Joseph Green. 
1782, John Howell. 
1840, John A. Hutchinson, 

Benjamin S. Disbrow, 

Joseph G. BrEarlEy. 
1846, Stanhope S. Cooley, 

B. Wesley Titus. 
1856, Andrew R. Titus, 

William J. Owens. 
1866, Julius Johnston, 

William R. Titus, 

James H. Clark. 
1875, Enoch G. Hendrickson, 

T. Wallace Hill, 

Samuel M. You mans, 

John C. Owens. 

1884, Joseph T. Ridgway, 

James Hughes, 

William S. Covert. 
1893, Barton B. Hutchinson, 

Benjamin M. Phillips. 
1897, Henry W. Green, 

G. Abeel Hall. 
1909, Charles Howell Cook, 

Charles H. Dilts, 

Sam'l D. Oliphant, Jr., 

Huston Dixon, 

Alex. McAlpin Phillips. 




1756, David Coweli<, 
Charles Clark, 
Andrew ReEd, 
Arthur Howell, 
Joseph Yard, 
William Green, 
Alexander Chambers. 

1760, Moore Furman. 

1762, Obadiah Howell. 

1764, William Kirkpatrick, 
James Cumine, 
Abraham Hunt. 

1766, Joseph Reed, Jr., 
Samuel Tucker, 
Daniel Clark. 

1770, Elihu Spencer. 

1771, Joseph Tindal. 
1777, Benjamin Clark. 
1780, Nathaniel Furman. 
1783, Moore Furman. 
1786, Daniel Scudder. 

1788, Isaac Smith, 
Bernard Hanlon, 
Hugh Runyon, 
Moore Furman. 

1789, Aaron D. Woodruee, 
Benjamin Smith. 

1799. John Beatty, 

Alex. Chambers, Jr. 
1804, Peter Gordon. 
1808, James Ewing, 

Peter Hunt. 
181 1, Benjamin HaydEn, 

Charles Ewing. 

1818, S. L. Southard. 

1822, John Beatty. 

1823, John S. Chambers. 

1825, Amos Hartley, 
Ebenezer p. Rose, 
Benjamin Fish. 

1826, Charles Burroughs. 
1833, Henry W. Green, 

Armitage Green, 
Thomas J. Stryker. 

1838, Samuel R. Hamilton, 
X. J. Maynard. 

1856, George S. Green, 
William G. Cook. 

1865, Barker Gum mere, 
John S. Chambers. 

187s, Caleb S. Green, 

Frederick Kingman^ 
Edward G. Cook, 
William L. Dayton. 

1882, Charles E. Green, 
William S. Stryker, 
Abner R. Chambers. 

1893, Frank O. Briggs. 

1896, Elmer Ewing Green. 

1897, John S. Chambers, 
Charles Whitehead. 

1900, Henry D. Oliphant, 
Barker Gum mere, Jr. 

1901, Thomas S. Chambers, 
Henry W. Green. 

1907, Henry C. Moore, 

A. Reeder Chambers, Jr., 
1912, Wm. E. Green. 


List of Burials Made from Inscriptions on the Headstones in the Church- 
yard by Mrs. Jennie Scudder Reed and Miss Adelia T. Scott, 
in the Month of September, 1911. 

In this record, w.=wife ; wd.=:widow ; s.=son ; d.=daughter, and 
a woman's family name in brackets means her maiden name. 


Name. Date of Death. Age or Date of Birth. 

Joshua S. Anderson, June 17,1840. In 60th yr. 

Jemima Anderson, w. of Josuha 

S. Anderson, Dec. 10,1839. In 58th yr. 

John Fox, youngest s. of Joshua 

S. and Jemima Anderson, May 18,1810. In 19th yr. 

John Anderson, Oct. 5th. 

Sarah, w. of John J. Anderson, . .April i, 1810. 79 yrs. 2 mo. 23 da. 

Robert Archibold, Sept. 2,1734. 35 yrs. 

A. Baker, 

C. Baker, 

Daniel Baker, Sept. 10, 1858. 

Catherine C, w. Daniel Baker, . .Mar. 30, 1867. 

Charles D. Baker, Dec. 15,1849- 

E. Baker, 

R. Baker, 

Jane Bell, June 23, 1835. 

John Bell, Nov. 10, . 

Thomas S. Bell, June 7, 1811. 

Susan C, wd. of Benjamin Brear- 
ley and d. of Thomas and Re- 
becca Ryall, Jan. 7,1884. Sept. 4, 1789. 

Angelina Burroughs, w. of Rev. 
George W. Burroughs, July 22,1850. Sept. 23, 1810. 

Hon. Charles Burroughs, Oct. 29,1861. Jan. 27, 1788. 

Elizabeth, w. of Charles Bur- 
roughs, July 27, 1838. In i8th yr. 

Lydia Ann, w. of Charles Bur- 
roughs, Jan. 18,1864. Mar. 23, 1805. 

Virginia, d. of Charles and Eliza- 
beth Burroughs, July 2,1863. Aug. 28, 1821. 

Mary Ca , July 26, 1801. jy yrs. 


In 78th yr. 
In 84th yr. 
In 30th yr. 

I yr. 
46 yrs. 


Name. Date of Death. Age or Date of Birth. 

Alexander Calhoun, Sr., July 25,1819. 80 yrs. 

Alexander, Calhoun, April 25, 1826. 38 yrs. 

Ann M., wd. of Alexander Cal- 

hoiui, May 7, 1874. 83 yrs. 

Susanna Calhoun, w. of Alex- 
ander Calhoun, Sept. 4, 1821. 63 yrs. 

Alexander Chambers, Sept. 16, 1798. 82 yrs. 

Elizabeth, w. of John Chambers,. June 3, 1821. 74 yrs. 

David R. Chambers, Oct. 21,1785. Sept. 17, 1759. 

David S. Chambers, s. of Alex, 

and Elizabeth Chambers, May 23, 1795. 10 mo. 

David Chambers, 2 yrs. 

Elizabeth Chambers, Oct. 18,1770. — yrs. 

Elizabeth, w. of Alexander Cham- 
bers, July II, 1806. In i8th yr. 

Elizabeth, d. of Alexander and 
Elizabeth Chambers, Nov. 12, 1793 

Hannah, d. of John and Susanna 

Chambers, ...May 7,1759. 3 yrs. 3 mo. 

Hetty Chambers, Mar. 25, 1807. 27 yrs. 

John Chambers, Nov. 13,1813. 72 yrs. 

John Chambers, Sept. 19,1747. 70 yrs. 

John S. Chambers, Nov. 10,1834. In 53d yr. 

James Copper, s. of John S. and 

EHzabeth Chambers, Feb. 25, 1835. 6mo. 20 da. 

Mary, d. of Alexander and Rose 

Chambers, April 13, 1757. 13 mo. 

Mary, d. of Alexander Cham- 

Rose, w. of Alexander Cham- 
bers, Nov. 23, 1780. 

John Chambers, Dec. 4,1778. 

Susanna Chambers, w. of John 

Chambers, Aug. — , 1799. 

William Chambers, Mar. 6, 1777. 

Chambers, 23, 1795. 

Mary, w. of Henry Chumar, ....Dec. 30,1847. 

Charles H., s. of Henry B. and 

Mary Chumar, April 1,1831. 

Sarah Elizabeth, d. of Henry and 

Mary Chumar, Mar. 23, 1843. 9 yrs. 7 mo. 

Rev. David Cowell, first pastor of 

this Church, Dec. 1,1760. Dec. 12, 1704. 










early 2 yrs. 



Name. Date of Death 

Ebenezer Cowell, May 4, I799- 

Mrs. Sarah Cowell, w. of Mr. 

Ebenezer Cowell, Jan. 20,1774 

Dr. John Cowell, Jan. 30,1789 

Cowell, Dec. 10, 1783 

David Cowell, Dec. 1,1760 

James Cumines, Feb. 21,1770 

John Dagworthy, Sept. 4, 1756. 

Sarah, w. of John Dagworthy, . . .July 3, 1783 

John, s. of John and Mary Dixon, 

Nicholas Du Bois, Nov. i, 1815. 

Rose, w. of Sept. Evans and d. 
of John and Elizabeth Cham- 
bers, Jan. 17,1809. 

Robert Emmett, June 10, 1835. 

Charles Ewing, L.LD., Aug. 5.1832. 

James Ewing, Oct. 16, 1823. 

Charles Ewing, Mar. 14, 1872. 

Eleanor G. Ewing, w. of Charles 

Ewing, July — ,1810. 

Elizabeth Tate Ewing, w. of 

James Ewing, Sept. 16, 1818. 

EHzabeth Este, d. of Dr. Francis 

A. and Adeline Ewing, Feb. 19,1861. 

Robert L. A. Ewing, s. of Dr. 

Francis A. Ewing, Sept. 24, 1862. 

Martha Boyd Ewing, w. of James 

Ewing, Nov. 12, 1782 

Charles Henry, infant child of 

John and Margaret Grant, .... Feb. 16,1842. 
Charles Henry, infant child of 

John and Margaret Grant Jan. 1,1843. 

Henry Clay, infant child of John 

and Margaret Grant, July 15,1845. 

John Donald Grant, Jan. 30,1865. 

William C. Grant, April 29, 1869. 

Ann Maria Green, w. of Armi- 

tage Green Sept. 28, 1831. 

Frederick, s. of Armitage and 

Ann Maria Green, Nov. 15,1831. 

Emily Augusta, w. of Henry W. 

Green and d. of Charles Ewing, Jan. 11, 1837. 
Howard, infant child of Henry 
W. and Susan Mary Green, .. .Aug. 5.1842. 

Age or Date of Birth. 
82 yrs. 

In S5th yr. 
In 30th yr. 

43 yrs. 

66 yrs. 

70 yrs. 

33 yrs 

g mo 

In 53d 


July 12, 


June 6, 


May 17, 


In 17th 


ID yrs. 7 


In 29th 


June 30, 


Dec. 31, 


June 21, 


Oct. 29, 


May 5, 


In 33d 


2 mo. 10 da. 


Name. Date of Death. Age or Date of Birth. 

Henry, infant child of Henry W. 

and Susan Mary Green, Sept. i, 1846 

Ellen, infant child of Henry W. 

and Susan Mary Green, Aug. 26, 1846 

Mrs. Susanna Gordon, consort of 

Maj. Peter Gordon, July 18, 1823 

John H. Gordon, 

Foster Hart, Jan. 18,1830. 64 yrs. 

Elizabeth Henderson, Feb. 11,1815. In 65th yr. 

Abraham Hunt, Oct. 27, 1821. In 8ist yr. 

Mary, w. of Abraham Hunt, ....April 4,1814. In 66th yr. 

Theodosia, w. of Abraham Hunt, .Mar. 4,1784. 59 yrs. 

Elizabeth Imlay, d. of John and 

Isabella McKelway, May 14,1827, In 8th yr. 

Lydia Imlay, Dec. 6, 1830. In 78th yr. 

Caleb B., s. of David M. and 

Sybella Irwin, Sept. 20, 181 1 

Sybella, w. of David M. Irwin, . .Mar. 8, 1811 

Rebecca, wd. of Dr. David Jack- 
son, Sept. 12, 1822. 48 yrs. 10 mo. 

Elizabeth Kallam, w. of Elisha 

Kallam, Dec. 14, 1826. 19 yrs. 9 mo. 

M. M. K., 

Clara Leake, d. of Samuel and 

Sarah Leake, Jan. 16, 1870 

Samuel Leake, Esq., Mar. 8,1820. 72 yrs. 

Mrs. Sarah Leake, M,ar. 13,1813. In 89th yr. 

Sarah Leake, d. of Samuel and 

Sarah Leake, Nov. 26, 1858 

Thomas Lowrey, Mar. 11,1803. 31 yrs. 

Sarah Lowrey, w. of Stephen 

Lowrey and d. of Rev. Dr. 

Elihu and Johanna Spencer, . .May 28,1780. In 25th yr. 
Hannah, w. of William Mar- 
seilles, Jan. 11,1849. In 63d yr. 

Latitia, w. of William Marseilles, . April 20, 1855. In S4th yr. 

William Marseilles, May 17,1859. Dec. 25, 1788. 

Peter Merseles, June 25, 1764 

Jane, d. of Samuel and Ann Mc- 

Clurg, Jan. 3, 1834. i yr. 7 mo. 3 da. 

Susan, d. of Samuel and Ann Mc- 

Clurg, Mar. 20, 1828. i yr. 2 mo. 12 da. 

George Miller, Mar. 27, 1855. 82 yrs. 9 mo. 12 da. 

Josephine, d. of John and Martha 

Milledge, Jan. 8, 1827. 6 yrs. 6 mo. 15 da. 


Name. Date of Death. A ^e or Date of Birth. 

Martha, w. of John Milledge, Oct. ^^, 1843. 53 yrs. 

Margaret Matilda, d. of John and 

Martha Milledge, Sept. 2, 1825. 4 yrs. 6 mo. 

Mary, w. of George Miller, Nov. 27,1834. 59 yrs. n mo. 

John Morris, Oct. 20,1844. 79^5. 

Margaret, w. of John Morris, ...Mar. 27,1837. 68 yrs. 

Sarah Morris, Nov. 25, 1816. 51 yrs. 

Catherine, w. of John R. Pear- 
son, Sept. 4, 1832. ZZ yrs. 

Cornelius S., s. of John R. and 

Catherine Pearson, Sept. 4, 1832. 9 yrs. 

John R. Pearson, June 11,1848. In 55th yr. 

Louisa W., w. of John R. Pear- 
son, July 15,1868. 69 yrs. 

Ann, wd. of Daniel Phillips, Jan. 5,1852. yy yrs. i da. 

Daniel Phillips Oct. il, 1839. In 70th yr. 

Daniel, infant child of Wm. and 

Margaret Phillips, Oct. 2,1826. April 22, 1823. 

Robert, infant child of Wm. and 

Margaret Phillips, 

Annie, infant child of Wm. and 

Margaret Phillips, Mar. 6,1827. July 2, 1825. 

John Pinkerton, Feb. 9, 1769. 4 yrs. 

Anna Maria Lloyd, d. of Stacy 

G. and Ellen E. Potts, July 21,1833. 4 mo. 9 da. 

Ann Maria Lloyd, d. of Stacy 

and Ellen E. Potts, June 21,1855. Mar. 12, 1835. 

Cornelia S., d. of Stacy and Ellen 

E. Potts, Jan. 18,1845. 6 mo. 1 1 da. 

Cornelia S., d. of Stacy and Ellen 

E. Potts, Aug. 12, 1848. 20 mo. 2 da. 

Gardner Lloyd Potts, s. of Stacy 

G. and Ellen E. Potts, April 22, 1851. June 6, 1830. 

Stacy G. Potts, April 9, 1865. Nov. 23, 1799. 

Ellen Eliza, w. of Stacy G. Potts,. Aug. 23, 1842. Aug. 7, 1803. 

Stacy G. Potts, Mar. 21, 1858. June 24, 1834. 

William, s. of Stacy and Ellen 

E. Potts, Nov. 4. 1842. April 5, 1841. 

Andrew Reed, July 7,1758. 3 mo. 

Francis Reed, Sept. 12, 1747. 17 mo. 12 da. 

Thomas Reed, Feb. 7, I754- n mo. 25 da. 

Charles Rice, Sept. 29, 1864. Nov. 26, 1807. 

Charles Rice, Nov. 27, 1819. 81 yrs. 

Decius W. Rice, Dec. 15, i860. 59 yrs. 

In i6th 
78 yrs 


87 yrs 
In 19th 
In 23d 
April 8, : 

In 19th 




Name. Date of Death. Age or Date of Birth. 

Juliette Rice, May 5, 1855. 

Laura Rice, Oct. 4, 1819. 

M. Susan Rice, Sept. 11, 1818. 

Susan Rice, Feb 22, 1812. 

William D. Rice, Mar. 25, 1851. 

Ruth Rowley, Mar. 5,1848. 

Charles A. Rozell, Oct. 9, 1826. 

George Rozell, Dec. 21, 1827. 

Mary, w. of John Rozell, April 8, 1842. 

Sarah Rozell, w. of George Ro- 
zell and d. of Charles Anford,. .May 15, 1821. 

Sarah Rozell, Dec. — , . 

John Barkley Runyan, i yr. 

Runyan, Nov. 22, 1817. 21 yrs. 

Abigal Ryall, d. of Thomas and 

Rebecca Ryall, Aug. 25, 1863. In 72d yr. 

Rebecca, d. of George and Sus- 
anna Creed and w. of Thomas 

Ryall, May 12, 1859. In 91st yr. 

Thomas Ryall, Nov. 19, 1843. 77 yrs. 

Rachel Scott, May 22, 1811. i yr. 

Charles, s. of Isaac and Mary 

Smith, Jan. 30, 1800. 32 yrs. 

Edward, s. of Isaac and Mary 

Smith, Sept. 6,1791. 25 yrs. 

Isaac Smith, Esq., Aug. 29,1807. In 68th yr. 

John Pennington, s. of Isaac and 

Mary Smith, Aug 8,1797. 32 yrs. 

Mary Smith, consort of Isaac 

Smith, Esq., May 7, 1801. 69 yrs. 

Sarah Smith, Mar. 20, 181 1. 85 yrs. 11 mo. 

William Smith, Nov. — , 

Rev. Elihu Spencer, D.D., Dec. 27,1784. In 64th yr. 

Joanna Spencer, relict of Rev. 

Elihu Spencer, Nov. i, 1791. 6^ yrs. 

Martha Stansbury, w. of Rev. 

Abraham Stansbury, Jan. 15, 1831. In 51st yr. 

Hannah [Scudder], w. of Thomas 

J. Stryker, 

Hannah Scudder, d. of Thomas J. 

and Hannah Stryker, May 18, 1867. Feb. 2, 1842. 

John Scudder, s. of Thomas J. 

and Hannah Stryker, Dec. 21,1833. 2 yrs. 11 mo. 8 da. 

Thomas J. Stryker, Sept. 27, 1872. June 23, 1800. 




C. s., ... 

E. S., ... 
H. S., ... 
J. S., ... 
M. S., ... 
M. S., ... 
T. S 

Date of Death. 








Margaretta, d. of Anthony Tate,. Jan. 31,1819. 
Stacy G. Potts, s. of Andrew and 

Mary E. Titus, July 3, 1856. 

Ellen Eliza, d. of Andrew R. and 

Mary E. Titus, May 27, 1816. 

Joseph Warrell, Esq., Mar. 9, I77S. 

Mary Y. Waddell, May 13, 1811. 

Oliver, s. of John and Mercy 

Wilson, Dec. 7> 1847. 

Anna Carle, d. of Thomas and 

Ann E. Woodruff, Sept. 19, 1831. 

Aaron Dickinson Woodruff, June 21,1817. 

Grace, w. of Aaron D. Woodruff,. June 23, 1815. 
George, s. of Aaron and Grace 

Woodruff, Sept. 11, 1797. 

Susan S., w. of George W. Thom- 
son and d. of Aaron and Grace 

Woodruff, April 8,1863. 

Ann Woolsey, d. of Benjamin and 

Ann Woolsey, Aug. 18, 18 

Archibald William Yard, Mar. 8,1810, 

Mary Yard, Nov. 28, 1849 

G. M. Y., 1815. 

Albert, s. of Martha , ....Dec. 22,1821 

Ellen, Aug. 26, 1846 

Henry, Sept. i, 1846 

Howard, Aug. 5,1842 

Sophia, w. of Capt. Richard , Feb. 9, 1801 

William, Oct. 6, 17 — , 

James M., Nov. 10, 18 

James B., Sept. — , — 

Age or Date of Birth. 

July IS, 1855. 

2 yrs. 9 mo. 
36 yrs. 
35 yrs. 

In 27th yr. 

In gth yr. 
Sept. 12, 1762. 
Feb. 28, 1766. 

Mar. 22, 1796. 

Aug. 15, 1793- 

Dec. 9, 1779. 
In 78th yr. 
In 94th yr. 
13 mo. 8 da. 

3 yrs. 3 mo. 

60 yrs. 

70 yrs. 

II yrs. 30 da. 



Name. Date of Death. Age or Date of Birth. 
Hannah Smith, d. of Joseph S. 

and Jemima Anderson, Dec. 16, 1807. i yr. 3 mo. 10 da. 

Joseph Broadhurst, Dec. 2,1819. 56 yrs. 

Rebecca Broadhurst, mother of 

Joseph Broadhurst, Jan. 26,1798. 88 yrs. 

Benjamin Le Gay, Jan. 24, 1810. 55 yrs. 

Eliza Ann Hill, d. of Smith and 

Elizabeth Hill, May 6,1814. 11 yrs. 

Elizabeth Hill, w. of Smith Hill, 

Samuel Hill, May 5,1785. Sept. 14, 1716. 

Smith Hill, Jan. 9,1822. 71 yrs. 


Name. Date of Death. Age or Date of Birth. 

Mary, w. of Tho's Langstreth, . .Feb. 9,1827. 47 yrs. 

Caroline Francis, her daughter, .. Feb. 17,1829. 17 yrs. 


Name. Date of Death. Age or Date of Birth. 

Philipina, d. of Phillip and Mary 

Howell and w. of James F. 

Armstrong, April 19, 1854. Feb. 2, 1825. 

Orlando Baird, s. of John B. and 

Ellen Appleget, June 1 1, 1816. 

General John Beatty, May 30,1826. 

Mary, w. of John Beatty, Esq., ..Nov. 5,1815. 
Catherine, wd. of Gen. John 
Beatty and d. of Barnt and Mary 

De Klyn, Jan. 27, 1861. 

Isabella Ann, d. of Richard L. 

and Isabella Beatty, Feb. 4,1808. 

James Bell, May 6, 1835. 

Rachel, wd. of James Bell, Dec. 26,1869. 

Dr. Nicholas Belleville, Dec. 17,1831. 

Jane Boss, Nov. 28, 1835. 

Samuel Brearley, Mav 27, 1848. 56 yrs. 4 mo. 10 da. 

Elizabeth, w. of Samuel Brearley, Aug. 4,1817. 25 yrs. 10 mo. 12 da. 
Sarah, w. of Samuel Brearley, . . .April 18, 1829. 48 yrs. 8 mo. 26 da. 

Dec. ID, 1749. 

Mar. 5, 1736. 

April 19, 1773. 

6 mo. 20 da. 

49 yrs. 

89 yrs. 

79 yrs. 


Name. Date of Death. Age or Date of Birth. 

Mary Ann, wd. of Samuel Brear- 

ley and of Charles Parker, Mar. 9, 1882. 

Amanda H., d. of Samuel and 

Sarah Brearley, July 13,1825. 

Jane, d. of Samuel and Elizabeth 

Brearley, Sept. 21, 1817. 

Theodosia, d. of Samuel and 

Sarah Brearley, Sept. 3, 1820. 

Charles Briest, Sept. i, 1825. 

Henry Briest, Oct. 24, 1822. 

Jane Brook, Nov. — , . 

Nathaniel Burrows, Jan. 29,1839. 

Ann M., w. of Nathaniel Bur- 
rows, Mar. 29, 1857. 

Charity Burrows, Jan. 14,1858. 

Ellen Burrows, Jan. 4, 1852. 

Emma E. Burrows Mar. 24, 1855. 

Stephen Burrows, Nov. 16,1834. 

Alexander Campbell, May 31, 1848. 

Ann, w. of Alex. Campbell, Sept. 1,1836. 

John Campbell, Jan. 24, 1839. 

Robert Cunningham, May 6, 1827. 

Jane, w. of Robert Cunningham,. April 19, 1853. 

Ann, w. of Matthew R. Cu ,. .Jan. 17, 1816. 

Amy Cluim, Dec. 12,1831. 

Henry Drake, Jan. — ,18-9. 

Susanna, w. of Henry Drake, April 18, 1808. 

Samuel, s. of Samuel and Mary 

Evans, April 14, 1838. 

James H. Galbraith, 

Eliza C, relict of Capt. Charles 

Hamilton, April 16, 1819. 53 yrs. 

James Hunter, s. of William and 

Rebecca D. Hart, Sept. 22,1838. 2 yrs. 7 mo. 17 da. 

Nathaniel W. Hart, May 20,1813. In 37th yr. 

Eleanor, w. of Benjamin Hayden, 1822. 

Anna Elizabeth, w. of Mahlon 

Hutchinson, Aug. 20, 1815. 21 yrs. 

Mary EHza, infant d. of Mahlon 

and Anna E. Hutchinson 5 mo. 13 da. 

Aaron Howell, Eeb. 8,1801. 45 yrs. 

Douglass Howell, Aug. 9, 1801. 20 yrs. 6 mo. 

Elliott Howell, April 25, 1821. 61 yrs. 

Hezekiah Howell, Oct. 13,1800. 75 yrs. 

26 PRES 

3 mo. 20 


10 mo. 18 


9 mo. 

3 mo- 

10 mo. 16 da. 

71 yrs. 

56 yrs. 

Nov. 27, I 


In 76th ; 


17 yrs. 

21 yrs. 

65 yrs. 3 mo. 



53 yrs. 7 mo. 



30 yrs. 9 mo. 

26 da. 

In 62d yr. 

In 90th : 


76 yrs. 

56 yrs. 4 mo 

• 7 


19 yrs. 9 mo. 




Name. Date of Death. Age or Date of Birth. 

Hannah, w. of Hezekiah Howell,. July 15, 1815. 86 yrs. 

Marcia Howell, Aug. 15, 1820. 32 yrs. 8 mo. 

Mary Howell, Feb. 18, 1819. 26 yrs. 5 mo. 

Phillip E. Howell, Aug. 21,18—. 31 yrs. 9 mo. 

Mary, wd. of Phillip E. Howell, .. Aug. 10, 1836. 58 yrs. 

William, s. of Phillip and Mary 

Howell, Oct. 11,1818. II mo. 

Susan, w. of Charles Howell and 
d. of Jane and Robert Cunning- 
ham, Feb. 25, 1815. 35 yrs. 

John Anderson Lalor, Dec. 8, 1845. Sept. 27, 1798. 

Richard Langstreth, s. of Richard 

and Isabella Langstreth, Nov. 19,1810. 15 yrs. — mo. 7 da. 

Alexander Lowry, Dec. 17,1810. In 8ist yr. 

Mrs. Mary Lowry, Feb. 12, 1852. 87 yrs. 

Jane Lowry, Nov. 21, 1851. Oct. 1789. 

Robert, s. of Alexander and Mary 

Lowry, Aug. 8, 1806. 5 yrs. 4 mo. 10 da. 

Hannah H., w. of Xenophon 

Maynard, Jan. 19,1813. 36 yrs. 

Sarah, d. of Xenophon and Jane 

Maynard, July 26,1826. 2 yrs. 8 mo. 

Maria, d. of Xenophon and 

Jane Maynard, Aug. 21, 1827 

Annie, w. of Thomas Maires and 

d. of Samuel and Mary Evans,. Oct. 22, 1864. June 24, 1824. 

John McCollum, Mar. — , 1836 

William McKee, Jan. 29,1859. 71 yrs. 5 mo. 12 da. 

Theodosia, w. of William McKee, Aug. 17, 1854. In 69th yr. 

James McKee, Dec. 14,1832. 22 yrs. 9 mo. 14 da. 

John McKee, July 25,1818. 6 mo. 21 da. 

Mary McMonegal, Oct. 12, 1856 In 89th yr. 

Isaac, Meriam, Jan. 5,1821 

John Mershon, Dec 17, 1806. 50 yrs. i mo. 17 da 

Theodosia, w. of John Mershon,. 1822. Dec. 27, 1769. 

Catherine, d. of John and Theo- 
dosia Mershon, July 30,1806. 6 yrs. 

Amanda M., w. of George W. 

Miller, June 5, 1858. z^ yrs. 

Gertrude Maria, consort of Nicho- 
las D. Mount, Oct. 29, 1832. 31 yrs. 6 mo. 10 da. 

Sarah, d. of Nicholas D. and 

Gertrude M. Mount, July 31, 1825. 7 mo. 8 da. 

Mary Ann, d. of N. D. and G. M. 

Mount, Jan. 28, 1832, i yr. 5 mo. 


Name. Date of Death. Age or Date of Birth. 

Jacob Mulford, Mar. 20, 1837 

Mary Osborn, d. of Rev. Truman 

and Eliza Osborn, Feb. 15,1831. 11 yrs. 

Joseph Palmer, Mar. 24, 1831. 71 yrs. 

Elizabeth, w. of Joseph Palmer,. .Oct. 19,1832. 63 yrs. 

Helen Pollock, w. of James Pol- 
lock, Feb. 20, 1827. Aug. I, 1788. 

John Raum, Aug. 6, 1806. In 45th yr. 

Catherine, w. of John Raum, April 12, 1816. 45 yrs. 10 mo. 

Jacob Raum, Oct. 30, 1827. In 34th yr. 

William T. Raum, Sept. 11,1841. 21 yrs. 

Ann Reed, Feb. 1 1, 1815. 52 yrs. 

James Reid, Ang. 11,1806. 11 mo. 18 da. 

Nancy Reed, Mar. 28, 1812. 25 yrs. 

Rebecca Reed, Dec. 11,1845. 61 yrs. 

Nancy Roberts, May 25, 1858. 29 yrs. 

Rebecca Roberts, Oct. 6, 1872. Sept. 6, 1782. 

Elizabeth Rock, Dec. 5, 1826. 65 yrs. 

Henry Rossell, s. of Samuel and 

Mary Evans, Feb. 28,1845. 24 yrs. 9 mo. 22 da. 

Rachel Rulon, w. of John Sut- 

terley, Oct. 24, 1835. Nov. 27, 1766. 

Joseph Ryno, Mar. 7,1828. Oct. 5, 1825. 

Sarah, d. of J. Ryno, 17, 1836 

Charles Smith, Dec. — ,1793. July i, 1792. 

John E. Smith, July 6,1831. May 12, 1790. 

Eliza, w. of John E. Smith, ....June 23,1871. April 2, 1794. 

John, s. of William and Elizabeth 

Smith, Aug. — , 1789. Oct. 12, 1788. 

Samuel Smith, 1822. 

William Smith, April 11, 1799. 10 yrs. 

John Southard, Dec. 27, 1821. Mar. 21, 1813. 

Anna (on same headstone as 

above), 1835. 

Mary Southard, Feb. 22,1823. Mar. 25, 1822. 

Samuel Witham Stockton, June 27,1795. In 45th yr. 

John Sutterley June 27,1811. May 29, 1766. 

Elizabeth Sutterley, d. of John 

and Rachel Sutterley, 1793. Mar. 3, 1792. 

John, s. of John and Rachel Sut- 
terley 1797. 10 mo. 

Lucy Sweet, w. of Palmer Sweet,. June 8, 1829 

David Taylor, Feb. 29,1810. Nov. 21, 1766. 

John Taylor, Jan. 6,1826. 23 yrs. 7 mo. 30 da. 


Name. Date of Death 

Phebe, w. of David Taylor, May 11,1847 

Anna Tindall, May 24, 1858 

Eliza Tindall, Sept. 26, 1868 

Hannah Tindall, Feb. 12, 18 

John R. Tucker, June 20,18 

Abraham Updike, Mar. 3, 1846 

Charles G. Updike, Dec. 3, 1865 

Elizabeth, wd. of Abraham Up- 
dike, July 9, 1861 

Maria M., d. of Abraham and 

EHzabeth Updike, Aug. 19, 1825 

John Updike, July 21, 1836, 

John Voorhees, Oct. 10, 1823 

Keziah, w. of John Voorhees, ...Oct. 2,1821 
Susannah, w. of Jacob Warner,. .Oct. 17,1858 

George Watson, May 25, 1827 

Andrew , Sept. 22, 1819, 

Ellen M., d. of Joseph and Eliza- 
beth , Oct. —,1839 

Unknown, June 10, 1806 

Margaret, d. of John and Mary 
, Feb. 5,1821. 

Age or Date of Birth. 
June 18, 1769. 

76 yrs. 
Jan. 16, 1788. 

82 yrs. 

July 22, 1801. 

54 yrs. 10 mo. 3 da. 

Mar. 3, 1818. 

65 yrs. 5 mo. 22 da. 

8 mo. 15 da. 

April 28, 1815. 

61 yrs. 22 da. 

59 yrs. 

65 yrs. 

In 37th yr. 

21, 1769. 

65 yrs. 3 mo. 
16 mo. 2 da. 


Name. Date of Death. Age or Date of Birth. 

Abner H., s. of Robert and Cath- 
erine Chambers, Sept. 17,1819. 4 yrs. 

Fransina, w. of Robert Cham- 
bers, July 25,1814. 56 yrs. 

Mary F., d. of Robert and Cath- 
erine Chambers, July 20,1830. 9 mo. 

Robert Chambers, Jan. 26,1815. 55 yrs. 

Robert M., s. of Robert and Cath- 
erine Chambers, ; Oct. 10, 1827. 9 mo. 4 da. 


Name. Date of Death. Age or Date of Birth. 

Capt. Robert Bethe, Jan. 27, 1825. In 76th yr. 

Elizabeth, consort of Capt. Rob- 
ert Bethell, Sept. 22, 1825. 75 yrs. 

Henrietta Bouveau, Aug. i, 1820. 20 yrs. 4 mo. 18 da. 


Name. Date of Death. Age or Date of Birth. 

Polly Crowell, w. of Samuel 

Crowell, June 25, 1830. 64 yrs. 

Daughter of and Theo- 

dosia Hunt, Feb. —,1770. 18 mo. 

Huson Langstroth, May 19,1820. 26 yrs. 11 mo 11 da. 

Alonzo Fitz-James Moore, Aug. 27, 1830. 9 mo. 27 da. 

James Elliott Moore, Oct. 3, 1830. In 31st yr. 

Mary Mount, w. of William 

Mount July 30,1829. In43dyr. 

Daniel Orr June 15, 1812. 50 yrs. 5 mo. 5 da. 

Catherine Ross, wd. of John 

Ross Aug. 25, 1830. 70 yrs. 

The wife of Thomas Scott, June 30,1781. 32 yrs. 

Anna Maria Smith 2d, d. of Isaac 

and Mary Smith, Sept. — , 1779. 6 yrs. 

Henrietta, infant d. of Henry and 

Jane N. Studdiford Feb. 15,1830. 11 mo. 7 da. 

Nancy Wilmurt, w. of Daniel 

Wilmurt, June 17, 1806. 29 yrs. 5 mo. 14 da. 

H. S. A., 


Name. L 

Enoch Anderson April 15, 1756. 

Achsah Bellerjeau, consort of 

Samuel Bellerjeau, Oct. 

Samuel Bellerjeau, July 

Eliza, w. of Israel Carle, Mar. 

Mrs. Mary Dunbar, Dec. 

Moore Furman, Mar. 

Sarah, w. of Moore Furman, ...Jan. 

Genl. Peter Hunt, Mar. 

Anna Maria Hunt, relict of Genl. 

Peter Hunt, Oct. 

EHzabeth Ker May 

Joseph Paxton, Sept. 15, 1750 

Jane Paxton, June 

Eliza Rogers, Jan. 

William Tucker, Jan. 

Samuel Tucker, Jr., Nov. 

of Death. 

Age or Date of Birth 

i5> 1756. 

59 yrs. 

2, 1823. 

In 79th yr. 

8, 1795- 

56 yrs. 

12, 1790. 

29 yrs. 

9, 1808. 

76 yrs. 

16, 1808. 

In 79th yr. 

6, 1796. 

In 53d yr. 

II, 1810. 

42 yrs. 

8, 181 6. 

In 42d yr. 

21, 1835. 

71 yrs. 

15. 1750. 

48 yrs. 

1, 1768. 

27 yrs. 

30, 1829. 

In 42d yr. 

16, 1790. 

55 yrs. 

4, 1787. 

27 yrs. 



Name. Date of Death. Age. 

William H. Burroughs, Aug., 1829. 3 mo. 

Polly Crowell, June, 1830. 64. 

Barnt Deklyn, Sept., 1824. 79. 

Mary Deklyn, Mar., 1825. 77. 

Saml. P. Forman, July, 1811. 2. 

Jemima Margerum, July, 1813. 36. 

Mary Minion, May, 1781. 80. 

Julia Ann Randall, June, 1829. 32. 

Esther Rippon, Oct. 1795. 60. 

Catherine Ross, Aug., 1830. 70. 

Robert D. Taylor, Jan., 1822. 2 mo. 

Absalom Woodruff, Nov., 1776. i. 

Amzi Woodruff, ■ Oct., 1782. 9 mo. 

Eliza Woodruff, Oct., 1815. 30- 

Isaac Woodruff, Nov., 1792. 72 yr. 

Isaac Woodruff, Sept., 1823. 32. 

Jacob Woodruff, May, 1820. 26. 

Letitia Woodruff, Sept., 1823. 2. 

Mary Woodruff, May, 1814. 59- 

Ogden Woodruff, Nov., 1821. 68. 

Silas Woodruff, Sept., 1782. 3- 

Simeon Worlock, July, 1792. 39 yr. 


Name. Date of Death. Age. 

Enoch Anderson, April, 1756. 59 yr. 

Hannah S. Anderson, Dec, 1807. i yr. 

Asa Belden, Aug., 1832. 44 yr. 

Asel Belden, July, 1820. 32. 

Hannah Brumley, Feb., 1799. 4i- 

Adrian R. Furman, July, 1794. 26. 

Sarah Furman, Jan., 1796. 53. 

J. Peter Hunt, May, 1829. 22. 

Maria F. Hunt, Sept., 1819. 16. 

M. Furman Hunt, Nov., 1825. 21. 

Sally Ann Hunt, Nov., 1821. 22. 

S. Matilda Hunt, Feb., 1826. 17. 

Charles Morris, Sept., 1833. 32. 

W. P., 


Name. Date of Death. Age. 

E. P., 

B. R. 174s 

Helena D. Ryall, Oct., 1825. 19. 

Jane F. Randolph, Mar., 1838. 74. 

J. R., 1745 

Thomas Stevens, Mar., 1777. ;C. 

Nancy Wilmurt, June, 1806. 29. 

Wm. P. Wilmurt, Sept., 1804. 2. 


Inscriptions on Tombstones Under the Church. 

Made by Thomas S. Chambers at the time the General Alterations 
and Repairs were Made to the Church in 1902. 

This Monument 
IS Erected 



By their Daughter as a mark 

of her affectionate remembrance and of the place 

where all that remains of them on earth reposes 


was born in Boston 

Oct 31st A. D. 1745 

and died on his farm, near Trenton N. J. 

Sepr. ist 1824 

in the 79th year of his age 


was born in New York 

Jany. 29th A. D 1749 

and departed this life 

March nth 1825 

in the yy^"^ year of her age 

No more O pale destroyer boast 

Thy universal sway 
To Heav'n born souls thy sting is lost 

Thy night, the gate of day. 

Immortal wonders : boundless things 
In those dear worlds appear 

Prepare me Lord to stretch my wings 
An in those glories share. 





consort of 

Archibald Randall 

of the City of Philadelphia. 

In the various relations of this life 
she sustained the well merited character 
of an affectionate Daughter and Sister, 
a most exemplary Wife and Mother 
and a faithful and sincere Friend. 
After a painful and long protracted 
illness which she bore with the 
resignation of a true Christian 
she resigned her soul to her God 
on the 17th day of June A. D. 1829 
aged 32 years. 




who departed this life 

March 30 1777 

Aged 58 years 


Born 15th Deci" 1768 
Died 12th July 1794 


who departed this life 

Sepi". 26th 1782 
Aged 3 years & 17 days 




who departed this life 

Ocf. i6th 1782 

Aged 8 months 

& 26 days 

Beneath this Marble 

Lies the Body of 


Born and educated in England 
He went at the age of 19 years 
to St. Domingo where he resided 
until the Insurrection in 1791 when 
he was forced to fly for Safety with 
his Family and friends leaving 
behind an ample Fortune having pur- 
chased the Bloomsbury estate near 
this place, he lived to enjoy it but 
three weeks, departed this life on 
the 23d of July 1792 in the 35th 

year of his age 
At his own request he was buried in 

this Church Yard 
He lived beloved and died lamented. 



who departed this life 

July 2d 1820 

in the 32d year 

of his age. 


Aberdeen, Port of. page. 

Scot's expedition sails from, 4 

Academy, Trenton. 

Lottery of Innocents, 71 

Description of, in lease of 1800, 72 

Rev. Mr. Armstrong's interest in, 197 

Origin of, in Trenton School Company, 197 


Negro left to First Church by Dr. David Cowell, 177 

Adams, John, President. 

Notes in diary, 120 

His visit to Trenton in 1777, and notes in diary, 167, 168 

Presented with an address by Rev. Mr. Armstrong, 204 

Aitkin's, John, Bible. 

First published in this country, recommended by Congress,. . 199 

Akers, Robert. 

Subscriber for parsonage, 28 

Akers, William. 

Grantee in Basse and Revel deed, 15 

Alexander, Rev. A. 

Professor in Princeton Theological Seminary, 223 

Supplies pulpit of First Church after death of Rev. Mr. Arm- 
strong, 231 

Preaches at Rev. Mr. How's installation, 237 

Preaches at installation of Rev. J. W. Alexander, 249 

Participates in cornerstone laying of Church built by Yeo- 
mans, 256 

Alexander, Rev. James W. 

Received by Presbytery, 238 

Estimate of Dr. Armstrong's preaching, 239 

Pastor of First Church, 249 

Letter from, to Dr. Hall 249 

Mention of Chief Justice Charles Ewing and S. L. Southard, 252 

Allison, Rev. Burgess. 

Buried in Trenton, 263 

Alsop, Richard. 

Executor of Hazard, 33 


Calls Mr. Kirkpatrick, Ill 

Acceptance, 113 


398 INDEX. 

Anderson, Abraham. page. 

Subscriber to parsonage, 29 

Anderson, Bartholomew. 

Subscriber to parsonage, 29 

Anderson, Cornelius. 

Grantee in Lockart deed, 19 

Subscriber to parsonage, c8 

Anderson, Elakim. 

Member of Cowell's congregation, 40 

Anderson, Enoch. 

Grantee in Lockart deed, 19 

Mention of, 33 

Anderson, Jacob. 

Member of Cowell's congregation, 40 

Anderson, Joshua. 

Grantee in Basse and Revel deed, 15 

Active Presbyterian, 32 


History of Colonial Church, 62 

Andris, Cornelius. 

Grantee in Basse and Revel deed, 15 

Andris (Andrus), Enoch. 

Grantee in Basse and Revel deed, 15 

Andris (Andrus) (Andrews), Joshua. 

Grantee in Basse and Revel deed, 15 

Andrews, Rev. Jedediah. 

Baptizes John Hart, 16 

Preaches in Trenton, 42 

While in Philadelphia, baptizes some Trentonians, 45 

Armitage, Enoch. 

Delegate, 24 

Active in Church matters, 24 

Opposed to Mr. Morgan, 27 

Sermon preached at funeral of, 88 

Armitage, Reuben. 

Grantee in conveyance of schoolhouse lot in Pennington, ... 23 

Armstrong, Rev. James Francis. 

Note of, concerning First Presbyterian Congregation of 

Hunterdon county, 34 

Birth, parentage and education, 179 

Student for Ministry, 180 

Chaplain for Gen. Sullivan, 181 

Ordained, 182 

Chaplain Second Brigade, Maryland Forces, 182 

Letter to Houston, 183 

INDEX. 399 

Armstrong, Rev. James Francis — Continued. page. 

Return to New Jersey and married, i86 

Call to Trenton Church, i86 

Salary, 187 

Trustees of Church elected 189 

Services in Committee of Synod 19S 

Friendship with President Witherspoon and Dr. S. S. Smith, 196 

Interest in Academy, 197 

Candidate for Congress, 201 

Member of Fire Company, 202 

Interest in Library Company, 202 

Member of the Cincinnati, 203 

Sermon of May, 1798, 203 

Account of his sermon, 204 

Address to President Adams, 204 

Supplies in his pulpit, 204 

Trustee College of New Jersey, 206 

Entries in diary, 212 

Flrayer at dedication of new brick church, 215 

Manager of New Jersey Bible Society, 224 

Death of, 226 

Funeral, epitaph, 227 

Armstrong, Rev. William, Jr. 

Early history, 237 

Ministry in Trenton, 238 

Minister in Richmond, 238 

Death of, 239 

Characteristics described by Dr. J. W. Alexander, 239 

Characteristics described by T. Frelinghuysen, 239 

AssANPiNK Creek. 

Boundary of Burlington and Hunterdon counties, 13 

Reception of Washington, 201 

Bailey, Francis. 

Travels of, 9 

Bainbridge, Commodore. 

Entertained at dinner, 221 

Bainbridge, John. 

Grantee in Basse and Revel deed, 15 

Inscription on tombstone 296 

Baldwin, Elnathan. 

Subscriber to parsonage, 29 

Baldwin, Stephen. 

Grantee in deed of schoolhouse lot, 23 


Bancroj't, Historian. page. 

Speaks of Scottish Presbyterian Emigration, 6 

Baptism, by Rev. Jedediah Andrews, 45 

Barclay, Robert. 

Governor, 7 

Barracks, The, 59 

Bassb; and Revel. 

Deed of, I5, 32 

Basse, Jeremiah. 

Governor, 15 

Battle of Trenton Celebrated, 166 

Beatty, John. 

Sketch of, 245 

Belcher, Governor. 

Names Nassau Hall, 70 

Bell, James, Jr. 

Subscriber to Mr. Cowell's Call, 40 

Tombstone, 149 

Belamy, Dr. 

Letter of Kirkpatrick to, lOO' 

Bellergeau, Daniel. 

Subscriber for support to Mr. Cowell's Call, 41 

Bellergeau, Henry. 

Subscriber to Mt. Cowell's Call, 40 


Sketch of, 43 

Bellerjeau, Samuel. 

Sketch of, 149 

Belleville, Dr. Nicholas J. E. 

Mr. Dickinson's account of his history, 260 


County seat of R. L. Hooper, 151 

Berkeley and Carteret. 

Line, '. . . I 

Bethune, Mr. 

Theological Student, 242 

Bethany Church. 

Organization of, 267 

Bible Printing. 

Collins edition, 199 ■ 

Bible Societies, 242 

BiddlE, Mrs. 

Account of Dr. Spencer's Mission, i6a 

Bishop, Rev. David. 

Assistant to Mr. Armstrong, 225 

INDEX. 401 

Blackwell, Robert. 

Subscriber for parsonage, 29 

BivAiR, Rev. John. 

Celebrated teacher, 179 

Black, George. 

Minister's boy, 2>7 

Bloomfield, Joseph. 

Governor, 230 

Bonaparte, Joseph. 

Settlement of, 208 

Bond, Elijah. 

Sketch of, 142 


Grantee in Basse and Revel deed, 15 

BoswELL, Rev. William. 

Sketch of, 263 

Boyd, Mr. William. 

Ordination of, 175 

Bradford's Mercury. 

Extracts from, 63 

Brainerd, David. 

Expelled from Yale, 69 

Work among Indians, 104, 126 

Brainerd, John. 

Missionary to Indians, 104 

Branes, John. 

Subscriber to parsonage, 28 

Brittain, Joseph. 

Sells site of State House, 155 

Brooks, Rev. Walter A. 

Pastor of Prospect Street Church, 267 

Bryant, Richard. 

Subscriber for parsonage, 29 

Bryant, William. 

Sketch of, 143 

Bryerly, Tohn. 

Grantee in Basse and Revel deed, 15 

BuRNABY, Rev. Andrew. 

Describes Trenton, 58 

Burr, Rev. Aaron. 

President of College of New Jersey, 70 

Burroughs, John. 

Grantee in Lockart .deed, 19 

BuRROwEs, Thomas, Jr. 

Subscriber for parsonage, 28 

27 PRES 

402 INDEX. 

Byllinge, Stacy. page. 

Creditor of, lo 

CadwaladEr, Thomas. 

First Chief Burgess of Trenton, 57 

Campbeli., Lord Neil. 

Lieutenant Governor, 7 

Carle, Jacob. 

Sketch of, 141 

Carlisle, Rev. Hugh^ 42 

Carman, Caleb. 

Subscriber to parsonage, 29 

Carpenter, John. 

Subscriber to parsonage, 29 


Church established, 268 

Chambers, Mr. 

Mentioned by Mr. Armstrong, 34 

Chambers, Alexander. 

Sketch of, 95 

Trustee, 172 

Chambers, John. 

Elder, 97 

Chapin, Rev. Henry B. 

Installation of, 259 


Presbyterian Church in Trenton, 93 

Clark, Charles. 

Subscriber to Cowell's Call, 40 

Sketch of, 94 

Trustee, 172 

Clark, Daniel. 

Trustee, 172 

ClEayton, John. 

Gravestone, 18 

Clunn, John. 

Sketch of, 151 

Clunn, Joseph. 

Revolutionary officer, 151 


Letter of, 3 

Coleman, Thomas. 

Grantee in Bassee and Revel deed, I5 

INDEX. 403 

College of New Jersey. page. 

Foundation of, 6g 

Presidencies of Dickinson and Burr, 69 

Nassau Hall, named by Belcher, 70 

Samuel Davies and Gilbert Tennent go to England to raise 

funds, 72 

Plan for building at Princeton, TZ 

Cowell acting president, 74 

Jonathan Edwards becomes president, 74 

Rev. Mr. Davies called as president, 78 

Collins, Is.^ac. 

Printer, and one of the founders of Trenton Academy, .... 198 

Prints Bible, 199 

Constitution of Church. 

New, 193 

Printed, 194 

CoRNWELL, William. 

Grantee in deed of schoolhouse lot, 23 

CosBYj Governor. 

Tradition as to connection with vault, 92 

CoTTNAM^ Abraham. 

Sketch of, 144 

Covenanters, 7 

CowELL, Christopher, J. 

Subscriber to Cowell's Call, 41 

Cowell, David, M.D. 

Notes on, I77 

Will, 177 

CowELL, Rev. David. 

First settled pastor, 39 

Call of, 41 

Schism of Synod, 47 

Helps found college of New Jersey, 69 

School in Trenton, 71 

Lottery of Innocents, 71 

Acting president of College of New Jersey, 74 

Death of, 82 

Funeral sermon of, 83 

Grave of, 87 

Notes of funerals in register, 88 

Sermon, 88 

Bequests, 90 

CowELL, Ebenezer. 

Sketch of, 141 

CowELL, John V. 

Supplies data for work, 40 

404 INDEX. 

Coxe;^ Daniel. page 

Sketch of, 143 

CoxE, Mrs. Abigail. 

Sketch of, 143 

Cradle of Presbyterianism^ i 

Craighead, Rev. Alexander. 

Pamphlet by, 55 

Cranbury Meeting-house, 18 

Creed, George. 

Sketch of, 150 

Cumins, James. 

Sketch of, 117 

CuYLER, Rev. Theodore L. 

Pastor of Third Church, 259 


House, 46 

Dagworthy, Mr., 88 

Dagworthy, John 

Wife of, 18 

Davies, Rev. Samuel. 

Goes to England to raise funds for College of New Jersey, . . T2 

Called as President, 78 

Correspondence vifith Cowell, 76 

Davis, Abiall. 

Grantee in deed for church at Hopewell, 17 

Davis, Elnathan. 

Grantee in Basse and Revel deed, 15 

Davis, Janet. 

Account of, 264 

Davis, Jonathan. 

Grantee in Basse and Revel deed, IS 

Grantee in Lockart deed, 19 

Davis, John. 

Grantee in Lockart deed, 19 

Davis, Samuel. 

Grantee in Basse and Revel deed, 15 

Dayton Academy, 276 

Deane, John. 

Grantee in Lockart deed, 19 

Decow, Isaac. 

Sheriff, I45 

De Klyn, Barnt. 

Mention of, 142 

Delaware Falls, 8 

Delawaretown, 8 

INDEX. 405 


Deruelle, Rev. Daniel, 258 

Dickinson, Rev. Jonathan. 

Appointed on committee, 47 

President of College of New Jersey, 69 

Dickinson, Rev. Moses. 

Minister at Hopewell, 23 

Dixon, Rev. John. 

Called to First Church, 271 

Installation, 271 

Millham Sunday school, 272 

• Liberality of Judge C. S. Green, 272 

Rev. Edward Scoffield, 274 

Rev. Frank B. Everitt, 274 

East Trenton Church founded, 275 

Rev. C. A. R. Janvier, missionary to India, 275 

Rev. Henry D. Wood, missionary to Carthage, 276 

John Hall Chapel, 276 

Work among Chinese, 276 

Dayton Academy, 276 

Support for missionary in Japan, 277 

Dr. Hall's fiftieth anniversary, 2"]"] 

Elders, 278 

Deacons, 278 

Trustees, 278 

Death of Dr. Hall, 279 

Resignation, 280 

Dr. Murray, supply, 280 

Dockwra, William, 2 

DoD, Rev. Albert B 258 

Douglas, Dr. 

Travels of, 9 

Dubois, Nicholas. 

School teacher Zl 

Elder of Church and teacher in Academy, epitaph of, 231 

DuFFiELD, Rev. Dr. 

Chaplain of Congress, 164 

On committee of Synod to print constitution, 19S 

Dunbar, David. 

Subscriber to Cowell's Call, 41 

Dunbar, Mrs. Mary. 

Epitaph, 247 

Durham Iron Works, 10 

Dutch Colonists, i 

4o6 INDEX. 

Eayre, Richard. page. 

Grantee in deed, 17 

EdmundsoNj William. 

Journal of, 8 

Edwards^ Rev. Jonathan. 

President of College of New Jersey, 74 

Edwards^ REv. Jonathan, the younger. 

Called to First Church, 123 

Ely, Rev. George, 240 

Episcopal Churches. 

In Trenton, 57 

Eli, Mary, 88 

Erskine^ Ebenezer. 

Death of, notes on, 190 

Evans, David. 

Member of Committee of Presbytery, 42 

EvERiTT, John. 

Grantee of schoolhouse lot, 23 

Everitt, Rev. Frank B. 

Establishes East Trenton Church, 274 

Ew^iNG Church, 18 

EwiNG, Chief Justice. 

Prominent in Church during D. Alexander's ministry, 252 

Sketch of career, 262 

Epitaph, 262 

EwiNG, Francis Armstrong, 35 

EwiNG, Dr. Francis A. 

Dr. Alexander's comments, 253 

Ew^ing, James. 

Sketch of, 246 

Ewing, Maskell. 

Sketch of, 218 

Falls oe Delaware, 8 

Farley, Caleb. 

Grantee in lyockart deed, 19 

Farley, George. 

Grantee in Lockart deed, 19 

Fenton, Daniel. 

Establishes Christian Circulating Library, 202 

FiDLER, John. 

Subscriber to parsonage, 28 

FiETH Church. 

Organized, 266 

FiNLEY, Rev. Robert. 

Installed, 201 

INDEX. 407 


TiNLEY, Rev. Samuel, ^-^ 

First Church. 


Fitch, John. 

Inventor of steamboat, ^ 

His map, ^^3 


Church at, ^°^ 

"Flint, Doctor," ^^-^ 

Foster, Rev. Daniel R. 

Pastor of Bethany Church, 267 

Fourth Church. 


Frelinghuysen, Theodore. 

Estimate of Rev. Dr. Armstrong, 239 

Frazer, Rev. William. 

Rector of St. Michael's Church, 211 

Intimacy with Mr. Armstrong, 212 


Buried in vault, 9i 

Related to Gov. Cosby, • 92 


Letter of, ^ 

FuRMAN, Jonathan. 

Grantee of schoolhouse lot, ^^ 

Subscriber to parsonage, 29 

Subscriber to Mr. Cowell's Call, 40 

F'urman, MoorE. 

Conveys land for church, 33 

Member of board, 9° 

Trustee, ^72 

Sketch of, 220 

Furman, Nathaniel. 

Trustee, ^72 

Furman, Richard. 

Subscriber to Mr. Cowell's Call, 40 

Furman, Samuel. 

Subscriber to parsonage, 29 

Furman, Sarah. 

Death of, ^^ 

GiFFiNG, Francis. 

Subscriber to Mr. Cowell's Call 40 

A blacksmith, children of, 43 

4o8 INDEX. 

Gordon, Peter. page. 

State Treasurer, 244 

GosPEi, Propagation Society. 

Historical account, 60 

Abstracts, Oi 

Grahame Coloniai, History, 7 

Green Caleb S. 

Gift to East Trenton Church, 272 

Green, Dr. Ashbel. 

On Committee of Synod to print constitution, 195 

Green, John. 

Death of, 88 

Green, Joseph. 

Subscriber to Mr. Cowell's Call, 40 

Heirs claim right to pew, 172^ 

Green, Mrs. 

Death of 88 

Green, Richard. 

Subscriber to Mr. Cowell's Call, 41 

Green, Wieuam. 

Subscriber to Mr. Cowell's Call, 40 

Death of 88 

Sketch of, 95 

Greene, Rev. Richard. 

Assistant to Dr. Hall, 269 

GrEllet, Stephen. 

Account of his career, 198 

Grifein, Mr. 

Death of, 88 

Guild, Rev. John. 

Parsonage of, 28 

Hale, Dr. John. 

Called to First Church, 258 

Third Church formed, 259 

Mission Chapel built 259 

Fourth Church founded, 260 

Clears debt 265. 

New Organ, 265 

Offer for land refused, 266 

Fifth Church organized, 266 

Prospect Street Church organized, 267 

Bethany Church organized, 267 

Church in Carthage, 26S 

Assistant pastor called, 269 

Becomes Pastor Emeritus, 271 

INDEX. 409 

Hall, Dr. John — Continued. page. 

Fiftieth anniversary, 277 

Death, 279 

Resohition of session, 279 

Hamilton, Andrew. 

Lieutenant-Governor, 7 

Hardin, Benjamin. 

Grantee in Basse and Revel deed, 15 

Harker, Rev. Samuel. 

Discipline of, 108 

Harris, Nathaniel Sayre. 

Sketch of, 235 


Mentioned in Mr. Cowell's register, 88 

Hart, Edward. 

Lived at Hopewell, 16 

Hart, John. 

Signer of Declaration of Independence, 16 

Hart, Joseph. 

Subscriber to parsonage, 29 

Hart, Ralph. 

Subscriber to Mr. Cowell's Call, 40 

Hartshorne, Richard. 

Mention of, by Edmundson, in his journal, 8 

Hayden, Benjamin. 

Trustee, 244 

Hazard, James. 

Title to part of land of First Church secured through suit of, 33 

Hazard, Nathaniel, 33 

Heath, Andrew. 

Grantee in deed of Hopewell Church site, 17 

Hendrick, Thomas. 

Subscriber to parsonage 28 

Hendrickson, Johannes. 

Subscriber to parsonage, 29 

Hendrickson, John. 

Elder in 1760, 97 

Henry and Francis. 

A ship of 350 ions, 4 

Henry, Samuel. 

Sketch of, 155 

Hepburn. Mrs. 

Missionary to Japan, 277 

Heston, Zebulon. 

Grantee in deed of Hopewell Church site, 17 

28 PRES 


HiGBEE, Joseph. page. 

Subscriber to Mr. Cowell's Call, 40 

Death of, 88, 147 

HixoN, William. 

Grantee in Basse and Revel deed, 15 

Hope, William. 

Grantee in Andrus deed, 32 

Subscriber to Mr. Cowell's Call, 40 

Home;, Archibald. 

Seat in Council, 91 

Will of, 91 

Hook, Sergeant. 

Gives land to Church, 3 

Hooker, Samuel. 

Subscriber to Mr. Cowell's Call, 40 

Hooper, Robert Lettis. 

The Green House, history of, 59 

Sketch of, 150 


Church, 18 

Episcopal Church, 60 

Early settlement of, 31 

Hopewell and Maidenhead. 

Churches of, 13 

Houdin, Rev. Michael. 

Called to Trenton, 61 

Guide to Wolfe, 62 

Houston, William Churchill. 

Letter to, 183 

Howell, Arthur. 

Subscriber to Mr. Cowell's Call, 40 

Sketch of, 95 

Howell, Daniel. 

Grantee in Lockart deed, 19 

Grantee in Andrus deed, 32 

Heirs claim pew right, 172 

Legacy to church, 174 

Howell, Daniel, Jr. 

Witness to Andrus deed, 32 

Howell, David. 

Subscriber to Mr. Cowell's Call, 40 

Howell, Hezekiah. 

Sketch of, 145 

Howell, Obadiah. 

Trustee, 98, 172 

Howell's wife, 88 

INDEX. 411 


Sketch of, 146 

How, Rev. Samuel B. 

Early history, 237 

Installed in Trenton, '^i^ 

On Committee to Prepare Constitution of New Jersey Colo- 
nization Society, 241 

Hubbard, Rev. Jonathan, 39 

Hume, Archibald. 

Remains in vault, 9^ 

Hunt, Abraham. 

Sketch of, 117 

Trustee, ^72 

Hunt, Edward. 

Grantee in Basse and Revel deed, i5 

Subscriber to parsonage, 28 

Hunt, Holloway W. 

Ordained, 201 

Hunt, John. 

Subscriber to parsonage, -29 

Hunt, Peter. 

Sketch of, 221 

Hunt, Ralph. 

Grantee in Basse and Revel deed, IS 

Grantee of schoolhouse lot, 23 

Subscriber to parsonage, 29 

Hunt, Ralph, Jr. 

Subscriber to parsonage, 29 

Hunt, Samuel. 

Grantee in Basse and Revel deed, 15 

Subscriber to parsonage, 29 

Hutchinson, John. 

Conveys land for a church, 17 

Hunter, Rev. Mr. 

Sermon by, 205 

Ice House, 60 

Indian Missions, 127 

Irish Immigrants, i. 5 

Irwin, Rev. Nathaniel. 

Rector of Neshaminy Church, 152 

Janvier. Rev. C. A. R. 

Missionary work of, 275 

John Hall Chapel. 

Purpose of, 276 

412 INDEX. 

Johnson, Miss E. B. page. 

Work among Chinese, 276 

Johnson, Samuel. 

Subscriber to Mr. Cowell's Call, 40 

Johnston, James. 

Letter of, 3 

Jones' Chied- 

Mention in Mr. Cowell's register, 88 

Jones, Isaac. 

Subscriber to Mr. Cowell's Call, 40 

Jones, Joseph. 

Subscriber to Mr. Cowell's Call, 40 


Travels of, 9 

Description of Trenton, 58 

Keimer's and Franklin's Pennsylvania Gazette, 63 

Kent, Rev. Elisha, 24 


Legislature meets at, 46 

Residence of Simeon Worlock, 211 

Kirk in New Jersey, 6 

Kirkpatrick, Rev. William. 

His ministry, 99 

On committee to consider support of Branierd, 103 

Ministry, 103 

Epitaph, 1 14 

Widow married Rev. John Warford, 115 

Salary in arrears, 116 

Kirkpatrick, Hannah, 115 


Port of, 4 

Lalor, Jeremiah D. 

Epitaph of, 240 

Lancaster, Joseph. 

Establishes a school in Trenton, 246 

Lanning (Lannen), Robert. 

Grantee in Basse and Revel deed, 15 

Subscriber to Mr. Cowell's Call, 40 

La Rue, Peter. 

Subscriber to parsonage, 28 

Lartmoor, William. 

Subscriber to Mr. Cowell's Call, 40 

Lawrence, Wm. 

Subscriber to parsonage, 28 

INDEX. 413 

Lawrenceville Church. page. 

Copy of engraving of, 16 

Lawrenson, Johannes. 

Grantee in Basse and Revel deed, 15 

Lawrie, Gawen. 

Letter of, 2 

Deputy Governor, 7 

Leake, Samuel. 

A lawyer of ability, 243 


Port of, 4 

Leviston, Neal W. 

Subscriber to Mr. Cowell's Call, 41 


Describes Trenton, 59 


Name of Trenton, 10 

Livingston, Governor William. 

Address to, 174 

Notes on, 176 

Lockart, Alexander. 

Conveys land for church, 19, 32 

LoTT, Peter. 

Subscriber to Mr. Cowell's Call, 40 

Sketch of, 43 

Lottery oe Innocents, 71 

LowREY, Mrs. Sarah. 

Death of daughter of Mr. Spencer, 169 

LowREY, Stephen. 

Marries Miss Spencer, resides in Trenton, 156 

Low^RY, Jane. 

Bequest to Church, 264 

Lyon, Rev. James, no 

MacWhorter, Rev. Alexander. 

Goes to North Carolina, 160 


Churches of, and Hopewell, 13 

First Church at, 16 

Call to Dr. Armstrong, 189 

Map, 13 

Maple, Benjamin. 

Grantee in Basse and Revel deed, 15 


Mr. Cowell's register notes 88 

414 INDEX. 

Mather, Dr. Cotton. page. 

Mention of, 25 

Mathis, Captain James. 

House of, advertised, 149 

Melford, Earl of, 2 

Meredith, Captain Sam'l. 

His company of 1758, 103 


Family of, I47 

MiLBOURNE, Andrew. 

Subscriber to parsonage, 28 

Miller, Dr. 

Speaks of Mr. Spencer, I75 

Sermon at Dr. Armstrong's funeral, 226 

Miller's Legacy, 206 

Millham Sunday-School. 

Established, 272 

Minton, Rev. Henry Coli-in, 

Pastor of First Church, 283 

Needs of Church, 284 

Model of the Government oe the Province oe East New Jer- 
sey, 5 

Monmouth County. 

Presbyterians in, 7 

Montrose, Port oe. 

Immigrants sail from, 2 

Scot mentions in his advertisement, 4 

MooRE, Jonathan, 28 

Moore, Nathaniel. 

Grantee to schoolhouse lot, 23 

Subscriber to parsonage, 29 

Moreau, General. 

Residence of, 208 

Morgan, Rev. Joseph. 

Yale graduate, 25 

Ministry of, 39 

Morris, Governor Lewis. 

Defines town in New Jersey, , 14 

First Governor of New Jersey alone, 45 

Mudge, Rev. Lewis Seymour. 

Called to First Church, 280 

Installation, 280 

Weekly church bulletin, 281 

Period of growth, 281 

Resignation, 282 

INDEX. 415 

MuRSAY, Rev. James O. page. 

Supply at First Church, 280 

McKnight, Rev. Charles, 123 

Nassau Hall. 

Name chosen by Governor Belcher, 70 


Dutch Presbyterian Church in, 7, 26 

Neshaminy School, 69 

New Brunswick Presbytery. 

Minutes of, 17 

Newcastle, 8 

New Jersey. 

Population of, 1682, i 

Newspaper Notes, 6t, 

New Side. 

Synod of New York, so-called, 52 

OccoM, Rev. Samson. 

Collection for, 228 


Letter of, 3 

Old Side. 

Synod of Philadelphia, so-called, 52 

Old Stone Church, 35 

Ors, Rev. Robert. 

Called to Maidenhead, 22 

Preached in Old House, 34 

OsBORN, Susan. 

Mentioned in Mr. Cowell's register, 88 

Osborne, William. 

Grantee in Lockart deed, 19 

OsBURN, John. 

Subscriber to Mr. Cowell's Call, 41 

OxlEy, Henry. 

Subscriber to parsonage, 29 

Paine, Thomas. 

Mobbed in Trenton in 1803, 210 

Palmer, Edmund. 

Subscriber to parsonage, 28 

Paterson, Governor. 

Congratulated, 196 

Patterson Legacy, 206 

Patterson, Thomas. 

Minister at Borthwick, 4 

4i6 INDEX. 

Parke, John. page. 

Subscriber to parsonage, 29 

Parke, Roger. 

Subscriber to parsonage, 29 

Paxton, Joseph. 

Surrogate, sketch of, 144 

Paxton, Mr. 

Mentioned in Mr. Cowell's register, 88 

Peirson, Wieeiam. 

Subscriber to Mr. Cowell's Call, 41 

Penn, Wieeiam. 

Purchase by, i 

Pennington Church, 23 

Perth, Eare of, 2 


Presbyterians in, 7 

Phieadeephia Presbytery. 

Record of Hopewell in minutes of, 19 

Founded 1704, 21 

Aid brought from Glasgow and Dublin, 22 

Phieeips, Phieip. 

Grantee in Basse and Revel deed, 15 

Phieeips, Theophieus. 

Grantee in Basse and Revel deed, 15 

PiDGEON, Wieeiam. 

Will of, 149 

PiERSON, John. 

On Committee of Presbytery, 42 

PiNKERTON, David. 

Sketch of, 144 

Poem, 20, 226 


Grantee in deed of church site, 32 

Subscriber to Mr. Cowell's Call, 40 

Sketch of, 43 

Potts, Stacy. 

Residence of, 165 


Milton's definition, 6 

Presbyterian Church in Tt^enton. 

Charter secured, 93 

Trustees, 93 

Elders, 97 

Trustees of 1788, 189 

New Brick Church, lottery for, 213 

INDEX. 417 

Presbyterian Church in Trenton — Continued. page. 

Committee to raise money and form plans, 214 

Sketch of, by Dr. F. A. Ewing, 218 

Notes on, during Mr. Armstrong's pastorate, 228 

For other topics see other headings, this index. 
Price, Governor. 

Occupied Kingsbury, 46 

Price, James. 

Grantee Basse and Revel deed, 15 

Price, Joseph. 

Subscriber to parsonage, 29 

Priest's Travels, 9 

Prospect Street Church. 

Organization of, 267 

Prout, Ebenezer. 

Grantee in Lockart deed, 19 

Subscriber to Mr. Cowell's Call, 41 

PuL.'VSKi, Count. 

Takes refuge, 261 

Puritan Colonists, 1,7 

Quaker Colonists, 1,7 

Rahl, Colonel. 

In Trenton, 165 

Rarington River, 8 

Read, Thomas. 

Subscriber to parsonage, 29 

Reed, Andrew. 

Subscriber to Mr. Cowell's Call, 40 

Sketch of, 44 

Mention of, 94 

Reed, Clotw^orthy. 

Subscriber to Mr. Cowell's Call, 41 

Reed, Joseph, Jr. 

Sketch of, 1 18 

Trustee, 172 

Reed, Widow. 

Mention of, in Mr. Cowell's register, 88 

Reed, William. 

Grantee in Lockart deed, 19 

Subscriber to Mr. Cowell's Call, 40 

Reeder, Isaac. 

Subscriber to Mr. Cowell's Call 40 

Reeder, Jacob. 

Grantee in Lockart deed, 19 

4i8 INDEX. 

Religious Society, Act. page. 

Consideration of, by 'Legislature, 173 

Revel, Thomas. 

Conveys land for church, 15 

Riddel, Archibald. 

Mention of, in Scot's advertisement, 4 

Riddel, Sir John. 

Mention of, in Scot's advertisement, 4 

RiNGo, Cornelius. 

Subscriber to Mr. Cowell's Call, 40 

Sketch of, 42 

RiNGO, Philip. 

Presents call to Mr. Orr, 22 

Mention of, 42 


Name, how acquired, 42 

Rogers, Elymas P. 

Missionary to^ Liberia, 264 

Rosborough, Rev. John. 

Victim of Cornwallis, 163 

RoscoE, William. 

Express rider, sketch of, 221 

Rose, Stephen. 

Mention in Mr. Cowell's register, 88 

Trustee in 1760, 97 

Rose's Wipe. 

Mention of, in Mr. Cowell's register, 88 

Rue, Rev. Joseph. 

Parsonage of, 28 

Runion, John. 

Grantee in Basse and Revel deed, 15 

Runion, Thomas. 

Grantee in Basse and Revel deed, 15 

Runyon, Hugh. 

Sketch of, 156 


Mention of, in connection with case of Parkinson v. Rey- 
nolds, 208 

St. Michael's Church. 

Foundation of, 17, 18 

Church in Trenton, 61 

Lottery for, 61 

Rev. Michael Houdin called, 61 

Rev. Treadwell called, 62 

Unity with Presbyterian Church, 157 

INDEX. 419 

Sackett, Joseph. p\ge. 

Grantee in Basse and Revel deed 15 

Grantee in Lockart deed, 19 

Sacket, Simon. 

Grantee in Lockart deed, 19 

Schism of Synod, 47 

ScoFFiELD, Rev. Edw^ard. 

Comes to Trenton, 274 

Scott, Ai^exander. 

Subscriber to parsonage, 28 

Scot, George. 

Emigrates, 3 

Advertises proj ect, 4 

Publishes book, 5 

Religious liberty described, 6 

Scotch Immigrants. 

Bancroft speaks of, 6 

Scudder, John. 

Subscriber to Mr. Cowell's Call, - 40 

Scudder, Richard. 

Grantee in Lockart deed, 19 

Grantee in deed of Church site, 32 

Subscriber to Mr. Cowell's Call, 40 

Sketch of, 44 

Severance, Benjamin. 

Subscriber to parsonage, 28 

Severn s, John. 

Grantee in deed of Church site, 32 

Shippen, William, Jr. 

In charge of Hospital, 169 

Slack's Wife. 

Mention in Mr. Cowell's register, 88 

SiLi^RONS, John. 

Grantee in Lockart deed 19 

Sinclair, Sir John. 

Home of, 59 

Singer, Robert. 

Sketch of, 151 

Sixth Church. 

Organized, 267 

Smith, Benjamin. 

Notes on, 233 

Smith, Rev. Caleb 74 

Smith, Dr. Isaac 

Physician, judge and banker, 147 

420 INDEX. 

Smith, Jasper. page. 

Grantee in Basse and Revel deed, 15 

Devise to Lawrenceville Church, 17 

Smith, John. 

Conveys lot for church, 23 

Smith, Joseph. 

Sent to Maidenhead, 19 

Smith, Rai,ph. 

Subscriber to Mr. Cowell's Call, 40 

Smith, Rev. John. 

Installed in Trenton, 240 

Marries Miss Woodruff, 241 

Smith Thomas. 

Grantee in Basse and Revel deed, 15 

Smith, Wii^liam. 

Fitch hired room from, 153 

Snow^, George. 

Mention in Mr. Cowell's register, 88 

Snow, Mrs. 

Mention in Mr. Cowell's register, 88 

Society oe Friends, i 

Soldiers' Relief Committee, 169 

Southard, Samuel L., 242, 253 

Spencer, Rev. Elihu. 

History of, 125 

Connection with Branierd's work, 126 

Career in ministry, 127 

Call to Trenton, ' 135 

Congregation, 139 

Agreement for salary, 139 

Signers, • • . ., 140 

Sketches of congregation, 141-156 

Ministry in Trenton, 159 

Pews in church re-arranged, 159 

Goes to North Carolina, 160 

Loss during Revolutionary War, 161 

Entertains John Adams, 167 

Becomes Doctor of Divinity, 171 

Trustees during his incumbency, 172 

Salary in arrears, 173 

Address to Governor Livingston, 174 

Death, burial and inscription on grave of, 175 

Family history, 176 

Stacy, Marlon. 

Builds mill at Falls, 10 

Trent buys land from, 31 

Conveys land to Standeland, 32 

INDEX. 421 

Standeland, Hugh. page. 

Bought land from Stacy, 32 

Stevenson, Benjamin. 

Executor of Enoch Anderson, 33 

Stockton, Lucius Horatio. 

Politician, 242 

Stout, Jonathan. 

Subscriber to parsonage, 29 

SuMMERFiELD, Rev. John. 

Visits this country, 245 

Taylor, Mr. 

Mention of, in Mr. Cowell's register, 88 

Tennent, Rev. Gilbert. 

Controversy w^ith Cowell 47 

Goes to England to raise money for College of Nevir Jersey. 72 
Tennent, Rev. John. 

Minister at Freehold, So 

Tennent, Rev. William. 

Assists Mr. Dickinson, 24 

On Committee of Presbytery, 42 

Third Church. 

Organized, 259 

Thomas, Governor. 

Residence of 46 

Communication in regard to pamphlet, 55 

TiNDAL, Joseph. 

Trustee 172 


Residence of Governor Morris, 46 

Titus, Ephraim. 

Subscriber to parsonage, 29 

Titus, Timothy. 

Subscriber to parsonage, 28 


Defined, 14 

Treadwell, Rev. Mr. 

Called to Trenton 62 

Treat, Rev. Richard. 

Minister at Abington, 39 

On Committee of Synod, 42 

Trent, William. 

Wife supposed buried in churchyard, 18 

Buys Stacy land, 31 

Trent-Town Falls, 10 

Trenton Falls, 9 

422 INDEX. 

Trenton. page. 

Description of, by Kalm, 57 

Description of, by Rev. Andrew Burnaby, 58 

By Watson and Liancourt, 5g 

Appearance of, in 1788, comments of famous travelers, 207 

Morals in 1804, 209 

Mob against Thomas Paine, 210 

Mrs. Washington passes through the city, 210 

Trenton, Episcopal Church in, 61 

Lottery for, 61 

Rev. Michael Houdin, 61 

Rev. Mr. Treadwell, 62 

Trenton Library Co., 202 

Trenton School Co., 197 

Trustees of the Presbyterian Church of Trenton. 

Take title, 32 

Tucker, Samuel. 

Gravestone of, 18 

Sketch of, '. 121 

Flight of, from British, with currency, 167 

Trustee, 172 

Tucker, William. 

Sketch of, 142 


Rev. Mr. Houdin's name so pronounced, 61 

Union Eire Company. 

Rev. Mr. Armstrong member of, 202 

Updike, Lawrence. 

Grantee in Basse and Revel deed, 15 

Vannoy, Erancis, 28 

Vault in Church, 91 

Van Vleck, Rev. Paulus, 26 

Voorhees, John, 250 

Von Veghten. 

Name found in Dr. Messler's memorial, 149 

Waddell, Rev. Mr. 

Rector of St. Michael's Church, 234 

Wadsworth, Rev. Benjamin, 41 

Wales, Eleazer, 42 

Wardell, Eliakim, 8 

Warford, Rev. John. 

Marries Rev. Wm. Kirkpatrick's widow, iiS 

Warrell, Joseph, Jr. 

Sketch of, 145 

INDEX. 423 

Washington, George. page. 

Visit to Trenton, 201 

Public commemoration of death held in Trenton, 206 

Washington, Mrs. 

Passed through Trenton, 210 


Describes Trenton, 59 

Watson, Peter. 

Letter of, ^ 

White, Rev. Ansley D. 

Pastor of Fifth Church, 266 

Whitefield, Rev. 

Effect of his preaching visit to America, 53 

WiLCocKS, Benjamin. 

Subscriber to parsonage, 29 

Wilson, James. 

Silversmith, ^54 

Wilson, Rev. John, 39 

Wilson, Thomas. 

Work of, as Missionary to Liberia 263 

Wiltshire Clothier, 9 

WiMER, Godfrey, I49 

Witherspoon, Dr. 

Writes History of Presbytery, 202 

Wood, Jonas. 

Subscriber to parsonage 29 

Woodruff, Aaron Dickinson. 

Attorney-General 242 

Wood, Rev. Henry D. 

Missionary work of, 276 

WooLSEY, George. 

Subscriber to parsonage, 29 

WoolvErton, Roger. 

Subscriber to parsonage, 29 

Worwck, M. Simeon. 

Letter to Mr. Armstrong, 211 

WoRSLEE, William. 

Subscriber to Mr. Cowell's Call, 40 

Wright, Jonathan. 

Subscriber to parsonage, 29 

Yard. Archibald William. 

Sketch of, 143 

Yard, Benjamin. 

Referred to by Rev. Mr. Armstrong, 34 

424 INDEX. 

Yard, Joseph. page. 

Grantee in deed of church site, 32 

Subscriber to Mr. Cowell's Call, 40 

Sketch of, 95 

Yard, Jethro. 

Bequest to Church, 174 

Yard, Mr. and Mrs. 

Mention in Mr. Cowell's Register, 88 

Yard, Wii^uam. 

Mention in minute of Presbytery, 22 

Grantee in deed of school site, 32 

Subscriber to Mr. Cowell's Call, 40 

Yard, Wieliam, Jr. 

Subscriber to Mr. Cowell's Call, 40 

Yeomans, Rev. John Wiluam. 

Chosen pastor, 255 

Builds new church, 255 

Letter of, 256