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BX 9211 .N44 V37 1886 
Vass, Lachlan Gumming, 1831 

History of the Presbyterian 

church in New Bern, N.C. 


















EEV. L. C. YASS, A. M., 



Whittet & Shepperson, Printers, 1001 Main Street. 




Rev. L. C. Vass, 


PRELnnx.vRY Statement, 


North Carolina, 


Settlement of Eastern Nortli Carolina, 


Testimony of John Lawson, 1708, . 


The Proinietary Government, . 


Religious Aspect of the Colony, 


Col. Byrd, 


Quakers ; Fox and Edmundson, 


General Character, .... 


Eeligious Liberty, .... 


An EstabUshed Church, . 


Presbj'terian Influence, .... 


Mecklenburg Declaration, 1775, 


Hugh WiUiamson and others, . 


Presbyterian Settlements, 


Highlanders, ...... 


IVIinisters Scarce, 


The First Call : James Campbell, . 


Hugh McAden, .... 




Robinson and Stanford, . 


Classical Schools, 


Old Princeton College, 


New Bern, 




Claude Phlippe De Richeboui'g, 


Christopher Emanuel De Graffenriedt, 


The Palatines, 


The Swiss, 


Their Ecclesiastical Chai'acter, and Reasons for 1 


ing to Carolina, .... 



De Grafifenried's Letter, . 

De Graffenried's Capture, and his Manuscript, 

Founding of New Bern, . 

Craven County, — its Name, 

Other Immigrants, . 

New Bern Data. 

First Printing Press, 

Bevolutionary Privateers, 


Memorable Items, 
Earliest Churches, 




Baptists, . 

Other Churches, 
New Bern in 1798, 

Two Old Accounts, 

Watson's Journey, in 1777-78; 
Tryon's Palace, 
New Bern in 1818 and 1819, 

New Street, 

Washington's Letter, 
Presbyterianism in New Bern in 1800-1817, 

Benjamin H. Eice, . 

W. L. Tui-ner, . 

James K. Burch, 

Subscription in 1808, 

James Waddy Thompson, 

Jonathan Otis Freeman, M. D 


The Thirteen, 

J. N. Campbell, 

Palmy Days, 


Fu-st Meetmg, 

Lot Bought, 

Foundation Laid, 

Address, by Eev. J. Nicholson Campbell, 

Exhuming the Corner Stone, . 













































Sale of Pews, . 

Plan of Pews, . 

Sketches of E. Hawes; R. Hay; J. Jones 
Eunice Hunt; J. C. Stanly 

Description of the Cliurcli, 
Succession of Pastobs : 

Lemuel Durant Hatch, 

Michael Osborne, 

Samuel Hurd, . 

Drury Lacy, D. D., . 

Moses Drury Hoge, . 

1837 and 1838, 

Daniel Stratton, 

Roanoke Presbytery, 

Thomas Eraser, 

Thomas George Wall, 

Moses T. Harris, 


Lachlan Cumming Vass, a. M„ 

Repair's, . 

Einancial Work, 

Membership, . 

Spiritual Building, . 

Systematic Benevolence, 

Olden Records, 

Recent Records, 
, Financial Summaiy, 

Personal Sketch, 

Property Data, 


Session House, 


Deacons, . 

Recent Renovation, . 
Sundry Memoranda, 

Sabbath School, 

Ministers from the New Bern Church, 

S. N. Chester 




Euling Elders and Deacons, .... 


Ebenezer Presbyterian Church, 

Ministers from Hanover Presbytery, 

Growth of Presbyterianism in Eastern Carolina, 

Conclusion, ....... 

Addenda, . . . . . . • . 






1. New Bern, Frontispiece 

2. Marriage License by Go'V'ernor Trton, 1769, ... 30 

3. Old Princeton College, ....... 47 

4. Communion Gathering in Olden Times, .... 80 

5. Tbyon's Palace, ........ 90 

6. Seal and Autographs, ....... 92 

7. First Presbyterian Church, 116 

8. Plan of the Pews, with Names of the Original Holders, 126 

9. Eev. Drury Lacy, D. D., 148 

10. Eev. Daniel Stratton, ....... 160 

11. Eev. Lachlan C. Vass, 176 

12. Open Bible, ......... 181 

13. Ebenezer Presbyterlan Church, . . . . . 183 


OEANGE PRESBYTERY laid on me the preparation of 
the history of the Presbyterian Church in New Bern, 
N. C. All the Records of the Church were unfortunately lost 
in the evacuation of the city, 14th March, 1862. On 1st Jan- 
uary, 1827, all the Records of Orange Presbytery were consumed 
in tlie burning of the residence of Rev. John Witherspoon, 
the Stated Clerk, in Hillsboro, except one volume, containing 
its proceedings from 18th November, 1795, to 26th September, 
1812. A committee, consisting of Rev. Messrs. Witherspoon, 
McPlieeters, Jos. Caldwell, E. B. Currie, and Wm. Paisley, was 
appointed to recover, as far as possible, the history embraced 
in those burnt Minutes. They prepared a book of statistics, 
necessarily brief and unsatisfactory. My work has thus been 
very difficult. My search has been wide and laborious to gain 
any accurate data, and sometimes has utterly failed. 

So it seems best to begin with a succinct resum6 of the ec- 
clesiastical and religious status of Eastern North Carolina, and 
especially of Craven Precinct, from the earliest colonial set- 
tlement; and a brief history of New Bern itself, with tlie 
special design to discover any elements of Presbyterianism that 
may have existed hereabout in the past century, or in the open- 
ing of this century ; and to understand the surroundings of the 
birth of the First Presbyterian Church in this ancient City of 
Elms by the sea. No minute or exhaustive investigation is 


proposed, nor would it be appropriate here. But it is hoped 
that the review will be comprehensive and luminous. 

I am greatly indebted for kind and sometimes laborious as- 
sistance given me by Rev. B. M. Smith, D. D., of Union The- 
ological Seminary, Ya. ; to the loved and lamented model 
Stated Clerk of Orange Presbytery, and of the Synod of ISTorth 
Carolina, Rev. Jacob Doll, and to his worthy successors. Rev. 
F. H. Johnston D. D., and Rev. W. S. Lacy; to the Rev. W. 
E. Schenck, D. D., the veteran Secretary of the Presbyterian 
Board of Publication, Philadelphia ; to the accomplished an- 
tiquarian of New Bern, Hon. J. D. "Whitford ; to Rev. E. F. 
Rockwell, D. D., Col. R. M. Saunders, Secretary of State of 
North Carolina, and many other kind friends. Among the 
authorities upon which my statements are based are histories of 
Nortli Carolina, by Zawsou, Martin, Williarnson, Hawks, Whee- 
ler, t'aruthers, Sewell (or ^^Shocco''^) Jones, Wiley and Foote 
Burnet's ''Hlstorij of His Oivn Time'' (Edition of 1734) 
Hume's England; Gillies' Historical Collections of 1754 
Byrd's Westover Manuscripts o/1728 to 1736; Lossing's i^zeZc^ 
Book of the Revolution ; Bancroft's History of United States; 
Foote's Huguenots; Weiss's Huguenot Refugees; Maury's 
Memories of a Huguenot Family; Bernheim's Lutheran 
Church of North and South Carolina ; Rumple's Roioan 
County ; MWier's Bench and Bar of Georgia ; Duyckinck's Cy- 
clo])ccdia of American Literature; Craighead's Scotch and 
Lrish Seeds ; McTyeire's Methodism. ; Histories of Yirginia, 
by Chas. Campbell and by J. W. Campbell, in 1813, with 
many fugitive articles in newspapers and pamphlets about New 
Bern. All this, old traditions, unpublished diaries, and other 
material I have used as best served my aim to get and give in- 


3t$ Scttrcrs. 

l^ORTH CAROLINA was settled by men "of gentle 
_L 1 tempers, of serene minds, enemies to violence and blood- 
shed," These noble pioneers were tlie freest of the free, some 
of them doubtless escaping severe restraints and unholy l)rn- 
talities; and in their new homes of balmy airs and virgin 
beauty, they dift'iised gentle eliarities as richly as the flowers 
on their smiling savannahs, while they grew strong and sang 
in the manly vigor of a muscular and benevolent independence. 
Many unjust slurs have been freely cast upon this province as 
the notorious refuge of the criminal, and the congenial asylum 
of the fugitive debtor, a veritable " Botany Bay," the welcom- 
ing "Arcadia" of universal and blooming wickedness. All 
this is gratuitous slander. Doubtless evil characters did some- 
times escape just vengeance for their law-breaking, by passing 
over the Carolina border. But some of these early colonists 
fled from ungodly assaults in Massachusetts and Virginia on 
their rights and liberties, while tlie majority were enterprising 
immigrants, seeking broader acres and larger fortunes, or ani- 
mated by the varied practical or romantic motives that sway the 
same class of persons to-day. In the " Westover Manuscripts" 
of 1728, the fun-loving, free-spoken, sometimes unjust, but not 
malicious author. Col. Wm. Byrd, talks about " the distemper of 
laziness" on the men who relied on the bounty of nature, and 
reaped the " Carolina felicity of having nothing to do." "The 
men, for their parts, just like the Indians, impose all the work 
upon the poor women. They make their wives rise out of 
their beds early in the morning, at the same time that they lie 
and snore, till the sun has risen one-tliird of his course, and 


dispersed all the unwholesome damps. Then, after stretching 
and yawning for half an hour, they light their pipes, and 
under the protection of a cloud of smoke, venture out into the 
open air; though, if it happens to be never so little cold, they 
quickly return shivering to the chimney corner. When the 
weather is mild, they stand leaning with both their arms upon 
tlie corn-field fence, and gravely consider whether they had 
best go and take a small heat at the hoe ; but generally find 
reasons to put it off until another time. Thus the}^ loiter away 
their lives, like Solomon's sluggard, with their arms across, and 
at the winding up of the year scarcely have bread enough to eat. 
To speak the truth, it is a thorough aversion to labor that makes 
people file off to North Carolina, where plenty and a warm 
sun confirm them in their disposition to laziness for their whole 
lives." "Every one does what seems best in his own eyes." 
He charges the government of North Carolina with encourag- 
ing the unneighborly policy of slieltering "runaway slaves, 
debtors and criminals," and makes merry at the lack of all 
religion in these borderers. He forgets that, as to many of 
them, his survey is to determine wliether they are in Virginia, 
Arahy the hlest, or in unsanctified Carolina! 

But the planters of Albemarle were neither robbers, rebels 
nor fanatics, notwithstanding the rough assertions of Governor 
Spottswood, Colonel Byrd, and others. Tliey were searchers 
for freedom of conscience, as well as quiet living and untram- 
meled political privileges ; a home, where non-conformity was 
no dishonor, and a "meeting-house" as sacred a temple of God 
as the lordliest cathedral of the lordliest ecclesiastic. Bancroft 
says, " Are there any who doubt man's capacity for self-govern- 
ment, let them study the history of North Carolina; its in- 
ha1)itants were restless and turbulent in their imperfect sub- 
mission to a government imposed on them from abroad; the 
administration of the colony was firm, humane and tranquil, 
when they were left to take care of themselves. Any govern- 
ment but one of their own institution was oppressive." George 
Fox, the distinguished father of the Quakers, testifies that he 
found the people " generally tender and open," and had made 


among them "a little entrance for truth." Amid these sylvan 
scenes were growinji; in clearness and power those immortal 
principles which so sturdily stood forth from these peopled 
wastes in armed resistance to stamped paper in Wilmington, in 
the prompt capture of cannon before the governor's palace in 
New Bern, and in the formulated doctrines of the Mecklen- 
burg declaration. 

In March, 1GJ:3, the Virginia Assembly forbade all teaching 
or preaching not "conformable to the orders and constitutions 
of the Church of England, and the laws therein estal)lislied." 
Governor Berkley, in entire sympathy with the act, enforced 
it by proclamation. In his answer to inquiries of the commit- 
tee for the colonies, in June, 1671, he said, "We have forty- 
eight parishes, and our ministers are well paid, and by my 
consent would be better, if they would pray oftener and preach 
less; but as of all other commodities, so of this, tlie worst are 
sent us, and we have few that we can boast of, since the per- 
secution in Cromwell's tyranny drove divers worthy men hither. 
Yet I thank God there are no free schools, noi' pi'inting, and I 
hope we shall not have these hundred years ; for learning has 
h'Oiight disobedience and heresy and sects into the world, and 
printing has dividged them, and libels against the best govern- 
ment^'' Doubtless from Nansemond, Ya., where were many 
dissenters, there came individuals and squads as refugees and 
settlers, under the impulsion of adverse legislation.* But the 
earliest autlientic date of any settlement is 1662. In this year, 
George Durant, who had probably been banished from Nanse- 
mond, in 1648, by Governor Berkley, secured a grant from the 
Yeopim Indians of the tvvngue of land on the north side of 
Albemarle Sound, between Little River and the Perquimons, 
It is still known as "Durant's Neck." He stands the oldest 
landholder in Albemarle. Mr. Durant is said to have been a 
Scotch Presbyterian elder, a godly man in his congregation.^ 
Like a Scotchman, he brought his Geneva Bible with him; and 

• J. W. Campbell's Hist, of Ya., p. L'SG-'T. 

t Chas. Campbell's Hist, of Va. ; Scotch and Irish Seeds, 267 ; Bancroft's 
U. S. 


it is the first known to have been in Carolina, and is preserved 
as a precious relic in the Historical Society of North Carolina, 
at Chapel Hill. 

In 1663, George Cathmaid came with his emigrants, and the 
growth began. Yerj soon the Cape Fear settlements were 
securely established. The country between Albemarle and 
Clarendon, on the Cape Fear River, was more slowly occupied, 
the first settlers being the French Protestant refugees, who 
were Calvinists from the colony on James River, Va., and who 
located in Pamlico, near Bath, in 1690. In 1707, another 
colony of Huguenots settled on the Neuse and Trent rivers, in 
Craven County. 

John Lawson wrote his history in 1708. He was Surveyor- 
General of North Carolina, and travelled extensively over both 
Carolinas. He describes the country with enthusiasm, as "A 
delicious country, being placed in that girdle of the world 
which affords wine, oil, fruit, grain and silk, with other rich 
commodities, besides a sweet air, moderate climate and fertile 
soil — these are IJessings (under lieaven's protection) that spin 
out the thread of life to its utmost extent, and crown our days 
with the sweets of health and plenty, which, when joined with 
content, renders the possessors the happiest race of men on 
earth." After speaking of the failure of Sir Walter Raleigh's 
settlements, he says, " A second settlement of this country was 
made about fifty years ago, in that part w^e now call Albemarl 
County, and chiefly in Chuwon precinct, by several substantial 
farmers from Virginia and other plantations, who, finding mild 
winters, and a fertile soil beyond expectation, producing every- 
thing that was planted to a prodigious increase, their cattle, 
horses, sheep and swine breeding very fast, and passing the 
winter without any assistance from the planter, so that every- 
thing seemed to come by nature, the husbandman living almost 
void of care, and free from those fatigues which are absolutely 
requisite in winter countries, for providing fodder and other 
necessaries; these encouragements induced them to stand their 

lawson's testimony. 13 

ground, althougli but a handful of people, seated at great dis- 
tances one from another, and amidst a vast number of Indians 
of different nations, who were then in Carolina. Neverthe- 
less, I say, the fame of this new discovered summer country 
spread through tlie neighboring colonics, and in a few years 
drew a considerable number of families thereto, Avho all found 
land enough to settle themselves in (had they been many thou- 
sands more), and that which was very good and commodiously 
seated, both for profit and pleasure. And indeed most of tlie 
plantations in Carolina enjoy a noble prospect of large and 
spacious rivers, pleasant savannahs and fine meadows, with 
their green liveries interwoven with beautiful flowers of most 
gorgeous colors, which the several seasons aflbrd, hedged in 
with pleasant groves of the ever famous tulip tree, the stately 
laurels and bays, equalizing the oak in bigness and growth, 
myrtles, jessamines, \voodbines, honeysuckles, and several other 
fragrant vines and evergreens, whose aspiring branches shadow 
and interweave themselves with the loftiest timbers, yielding a 
pleasant prospect, shade and smell, proper habitations for the 
sweet singing birds, that melodiously entertain such as travel 
through the woods of Carolina." 

Lawson says that it was remarkable as a particular provi- 
dence of God, handed down from heaven to these people, so 
irregularly settled, that they "continued the most free from 
the insults and barbarities of the Indians of any colony that 
ever yet was seated in America. And what may well be looked 
upon for as great a miracle, this is a place where no malefac- 
tors are found deserving death, or even a prison for debtors, 
there being no more than two persons, as far as I have been 
able to learn, ever suflered as criminals, although it has been 
a settlement near sixty years — one of whom was a Turk that 
committed murder, the other an old woman, for witchcraft. 
These, 'tis true, were on the stage and acted many years l)efore 
I knew the place." This does not seem to be a population of 
violent characters. These planters lived a free and easy life — 
were poor farmers, rejoicing in the exuberant and inexhausti- 
ble richness of the soil, yielding annually without any manur- 


ing — were "kind and hospitable to all that come to visit them, 
there being very few housekeepers but what live nobly, and 
give away more provisions to coasters and guests who come to 
see them than they expend amongst their own families." " As 
for those women that do not expose themselves to the weather, 
they are often very fair, and generally as well-featured as you 
shall see anywhere, and have very brisk and charming eyes, 
which sets them off to advantage. They marry very young, 
some at thirteen or fourteen ; and she that stays till twenty is 
reckoned a very indifferent character in that warm country. 
The women are very fruitful — most houses being full of little 

ones Many of the women manage canoes with great 

dexterity. They are ready to help their husbands in any ser- 
vile work, as planting, when the season of the weather requires 
expedition; pride seldom banishing good housewifery. The 
girls are not bred up to the wlieel and sewing only, but the 
dairy and the affairs of the house they are very well acquainted 
withal, so that you shall see them, whilst very young, manage 
their business with a great deal of conduct and alacrity. The 
children of both sexes are very docile, and learn anything with 
a great deal of ease and method; and those that have the ad- 
vantages of education write very good hands, and prove good 
accountants, which is most coveted, and, indeed, most neces- 
sary in these pai-ts. The young men are commonly of a bash- 
ful, sober behavior, few proving prodigals to consume what the 
industry of their parents has left them, but commonly improve 
it." The easy way of living in this new and plentiful country 
fostered negligence. Lawson writes, "The women are the 
most industrious sex in that place, and by their good house- 
wifery make a great deal of cloth of their own cotton, wool 
and flax, some of them keeping their families, though large, 
very decently appareled, both with linens and woollens, so that 
they have no occasion to run into the merchant's debt, or lay 
their money out in stores for clothing." The lands, too, were 
about one-fiftieth the price of those in Virginia and Maryland. 
So we are not surprised to read, "We have yearly abundance 
of strangers come among us, who chiefly strive to go southerly 


to settle, because tliere is a vast tract of rich land betwixt the 
place we are seated in and Cape Fear, and upon that river, and' 
more southerly, which is inhabited by none but a few Indians,. 
who are at this time well affected towards the English, and very 
desirous of their coining to live among them." ..." And as- 
there is a free exercise of all persuasions amongst Christians, 
the Lords Proprietors to encourage ministers of the Church 
of England have given free land towards the maintenance of a 
church, and especially for the parish of St. Thomas, in Pamp- 
ticough."* The advantages of this colony were, in Mr. Law- 
son's opinion, largely above those of any other in many im- 
portant respects; and this could not be so reported to Lord 
Craven, Palatine and the Lords Proprietors, concerning a pro- 
vince, whose inhabitants were generally, or to any considerable 
degree, constituted of fugitives from justice, or other disrepu- 
table and disorderly persons. 

BcftQtous (totiCktttott^ 

The proprietary government, after sixty-six years of blun- 
dering misrule, was closed by sale to the Crown in 1729. The 
population of the province was scattered and small, amounting, 
perhaps, to 13,000. Scarcely a school existed in the colony. 
In 1709, Pev. Mr. Gordon wrote, "The people, indeed, are ig- 
norant, there being few that can read, and fewer write, even of 
their Justices of Peace and vestrymen." His field had been 
Perquimons, Chowan and Pasquotank. There were two or 
three rude Episcopal churches, and a few C^ualier meeting- 
houses, but not one clergyman living in 1729 in the "un- 
blessed" colony. On the Boundary Commission of 1728, there 
was a Virginia Chaplain, Pev. Peter Fontaine, an Episcopal 
minister,i' appointed partly that people on the frontiers of North 
Carolina might get themselves and children baptized. "There 

• LawBon'B Hist, of Carolina, pp. 109, 127, 13"), 14.S, 272, Ac. 
t An uncle of the author, removed four generatiouH backwardK. He was 
Rector of Westover Parish, Va. 


were Quakers in the lower end of Nansemond," said Colonel 
Byrd, "for want of ministers to pilot the people a decenter 
way to heaven." So when the chaplain "rubbed us up with a 
seasonable sermon, this was quite a new thing to our brethren 
of North Carolina, who live in a climate where no clergyman 
can breath, any more than spiders in Ireland." "For want of 
men in holy orders, both the members of the council and jus- 
tices of the peace are empowered by the laws of that country 
to marry all those who will not take one another's word ; but for 
the ceremony of christening their children, they trust that to 
chance. If a parson come in their way, they will crave a cast of his 
office, a,6 they call it, else they are content their offspring should 

remain as arrant pagans as themselves They have the 

least superstition of any people living. They do not know 
Sunday from any other day, any more than Kobinson Crusoe 
did, which would give them a great advantage were they given 
to be industrious. But they keep so many Sabbaths every 
week that their disregard of the seventh day has no manner 
of cruelty in it, either to servants or cattle." 

The religious aspect of the colony is further shown by " our 
chaplain taking a turn to Edenton, to preach the Gospel to the 
infidels there, and christen their children. He was accom- 
panied thither by Mr. Little, one of the Carolina commis- 
sioners, who, to show his regard for the Church, offered to 
treat him on the road to ?^fricai<see of rum. They fried half a 
dozen rashers of very fat bacon in a pint of rum, both of 
which being dished up together, served the company at once 
both for meat and drink. Most of the rum they get in this 
country comes from New England, and is so bad and unwhole- 
some that it is not unfrequently called kUl-dev'iV In Eden- 
ton "there may be forty or fifty houses, most of them small, 
and built without expense. A citizen here is counted extrava- 
gant if he has ambition enough to aspire to a brick chimney. 
Justice itself is but indifferently lodged, the courthouse having 
much the air of a common tobacco house. I believe this is the 
only metropolis in the Christian or Mahometan world, where 
there is neither church, chapel, mosque, synagogue, or any 


other place of worship of any sect or religion whatsoever. 
What little devotion there may happen to be is nnich more 
private than their vices. The people seem easy without a min- 
ister, so long as they are exempted from paying him. Some- 
times 'the Society for Propagating the Gospel' has had the 
charity to send over missionaries to this country; but unfortu- 
nately the priest lias been too lewd for the people, or, which 
oftener happens, they too lewd for the priest. For these rea- 
sons these reverend gentlemen have always left their flocks as 
arrant heathen as they found them. This much, however, may 
be said for the inhabitants of Edenton, that not a soul has the 
least taint of hypocrisy or superstition, acting very frankly 
and above-board ia all their excesses." Here Mr. Fontaine 
" preached in the courthouse, for want of a consecrated place, 
and made no less than nineteen of Fatlier Plennepin's Chris- 
tians." At another place he says, " We christened two of our 
landlord's children, which might have remained infidels all 
their lives, had we not carried Christianity home to his own 
door. The truth of it is, our neighbors of North Carolina are 
not so zealous as to go much out of their way to procure this 
benefit for their children, otherwise, being so near Virginia, 
they might, without exceeding much trouble, make a journey 
to the next clergyman, upon so good an errand. And, indeed, 
should the neighboring ministers, once in two or three years, 
vouchsafe to take a turn among these Gentiles, to baptize them 
and their children, it loould look a little apostolical, and they 
might hope to be rcipiited for it hereafter, if that he not thought 
too long to tarry for their reward ^ On the survey, Sommer- 
ton Chapel was tlirown two miles over the Virginia line ; so 
Col. Byrd wrote, "There was now no place of public worship 
in the whole province of North Carolina." As was shown 
above, this was a mistake, though not far from the truth. 
These copious excerpts from a rare contemporaneous diary 
throw light on the spiritural condition of the province. 

An occasional minister of the Church of England was sent 
to Carolina, and remained a short time, but none before 1700. 
Several were so utterly unworthy that great harm resulted. 


Dr. Hawks, himself a New Bernian and an Episcopalian, says^ 
that in the Proprietary times the Episcopal Church was a 
"helpless victim, dragged into an unnatm-al association with 
the dirty strifes of still dirtier parties, mixed up with the law- 
less deeds of clamorous and drunken partizans." Undoul)tedly 
religion in Eastern Carolina was at a low ebb from lack of 
stated ministers, regular church services, and secular schools. 

Judge Martin says that, at the opening of the eighteenth 
century, the population of the colony was composed of differ- 
ent nationalities and various sects — Scotch Presbyterians, Dutch 
Lutherans, French Calvinists, Irish Catholics, English Church- 
men, Quakers and Dissenters, emigrants from Bermuda and 
the West Indies. And while the first settlers preserved some 
sense of religion, the next generation, reared in the wilderness, 
where divine service was hardly ever performed, was lament- 
ably degenerate in religious principle and practice. At this 
juncture. Governor Johnston arrived, and under the influence 
of Lord Granville, now Palatine of Carolina, made the de- 
termined and partially successful effort — hereafter referred to — 
for establishing and sustaining by law the Church of England. 


To the honest Quakers- belongs the high honor of holding 
the first formal religious service in this colony, and organizing^ 
the first religions government. Churchmen in Virginia and 
Puritans in Massachusetts had caused them to fly the pillory, 
the cart-tail and the bloody knout. Historians have generally 
aflfirmed that thus many Quakers early fled for a quiet retreat to 
Eastern Carolina. In 1709, they themselves claimed that they 
were the first settlers. It is altogether probable that some 
Quakers were among the very first to enter Albemarle from 
Nansemond, Virginia. There is nothing, however, to show 
that large numbers came. Most information yet accessible is 
from the brief journals of Edmundson and Fox.* In 1672, 
William Edmundson, an eminent English Quaker, was sent by 
George Fox from Maryland, where they had recently arrived,. 

* Colonial Eecords, i., 215, 216, 226, 250, 571, 686, &c. 


to North Carolina. Accompanied by two friends, after a dis- 
tressing journey of two days tlirough a wilderness, with no 
English inhabitants, and no path-ways, he reached "the place 
where we intended, viz., Henry Phillip's honse, by Albemarle 
Kiver" (Perquimon's River, says Martin), "lie and his wife 
had been convinced of the truth in New England, and came 
here to live; and not having seen a Friend for seven years be- 
fore, they wept for j )y to see us." Phillips and his w'ife were 
the only two Friends he mentions meeting in this brief visit 
of three days. Warmly welcomed, he here celebrated the first 
puUie rites of Christian ivorshiji in Carolina. Others now re- 
ceived the truth, and were enrolled at this meeting on the Lord's 
da}', and another held on the morrow at Justice Tems. Many 
attended the services. They had little or no religion, or sense 
of the proprieties of divine worship, for they sat smoking their 
pipes ; but the Word of God was with power on their hearts. 

In the Fall of the same year, the distinguished George Fox 
made a preaching tour of eighteen days in the Albemarle re- 
gion; but Edmundson was not with him, as Dr. Hawks states. 
Fox, the envoy of humanity, with the charming simplicity of 
Solon and Thales, travelled with Governor Stevens on foot 
through the ancient woods — the trees being blazed to mark the 
roads between the sparse settlements, — or was guided by others 
in canoes towards " the north part of Carolina," and making a 
little entiance for the truth there and among the Indians, 
returned to Bonner's (Bonnet's) Creek, where the horses had 
been left. The people were " tender and much desired after 
meetings," "and they were taken with the truth." Ashe 
"opened many things concerning the light and Spirit of God 
that is in every one," his eloquence reached the hearts of these 
hermits of the woods, and impressed them anew with the value 
of their heritage of freedom of conscience, and of the truth of 
God with benevolent reason to guide them in the happy paths 
of hospitality, virtue and piety, that are still trodden by their 
children in the old North State. As this venerable apostle of 
humanity and equality was closing his exile on earth to go 
home, his vivid memory recalled such episodes of the forest 


glades, and his last words were, ^^ Mind poor Friends in Amer- 
ica.'''' How beautiful his brief epitaph by his peer, William 
Penn, "Many sons have done virtuously in this day, but, dear 
George, thou excellest them all!" 

In 1676, Edmnndson "was moved of the Lord to go to Car- 
olina" on a second visit. His short journal of the trip ends 
thus: "I had several precious meetings in that colony, and 
several turned to the Lord. People were tender and loving, 
and there was no rooin for tJie priests^ for Friends v)ere fnely 
settled^ and I left things ivell among themr While in 1672, 
neither of these preachers met all the Quakers in the province, 
it seems certain they were not numerous. Considerable growth 
had occurred before Edmundson's return. In the Shaftesbury 
papers, in the British Public Record Office, is a remonstrance, 
sent to the Lords Proprietors, and signed by twenty-one 
Quakers, some of whom were prominent men, members of the 
Assembly. Most of them had been living in Carolina since 
1663 and 1664, and they were vindicating themselves as " a 
separated people, who are in scorn called Quakers," but had 
" stood single from all seditious actions in Albemarle," in 1677. 
They and others may have entered Carolina as Friends. 
In later years, Thomas Story, an English Quaker, and Gover- 
nor Archdale, also one, increased greatly the influence of the 
body. Henderson Walker, who was at different times member, 
clerk and President of council, Attorney-General and acting 
Governor, says, in a letter to the Bishop of London in 1703, 
"We have been settled near fifty years in this place" (Caro- 
lina), "and, I may justly say, most part of twentj'-one years, on 
my own knowledge, without priest or altar, and before that 
time, according to all that appears to me, much worse. George 
Fox, some years ago, came into these parts, and, by strange in- 
fatuations, did infuse the Quaker principles into some small 
number of people, which did and hath continued to grow ever 
since very numerous, by reason of their yearly sending in men 
to encourage and to exhort them to their wicked principles." 
They fortunately continued to grow, and formed the nucleus 
around which gathered mainly friends of liberty and foes to a 


Church establishment. In these early days Dissenters outnum- 
bered Episcopalians. There are not many Churchmen recorded 
as coming to the communion of the Lord's Supper — even Colonel 
Pollock was sluggish about it. In 1708, Rev. James Adams an- 
grily wrote that the Quakers, " though not the seventh part of the 
inhabitants," in conjunction with the rresbytorians, coTitrolled 
the government, and absolutely turned out patriots, because 
they were Churchmen, that "shoemakers and other mechanics 
should be appointed in their room, merely because they are 
Quaker preachers and notorious blasphemers of the Church !" 
Dr. Hawks estimates that, in ITIO, the Quakers composed about 
one-half of the Albemarle settlement, and that the whole popu- 
lation of the province was not seven thousand. From these 
Quakers has come valuable Presbyterian stock. 

Martin (I., p. 155) says that before Edumndson left, he es- 
tablished a (juarterly meeting in Berkley for proper govern- 
ment and discipline. Of the eight Quarterly Meetings, which 
constitute the present North Carolina Yearly Meeting, four 
were established, as follows: in 1689, 1759, 1780 and 1790. 
The otiiers arose in this century. At present the Quakers in 
this State number about 5,000, and are most valuable citizens. 
In colonial days they were not as quiet as their principles re- 
quired, and doubtless troublous times brought insincere acces- 
sions to their ranks. They were not perfect, neither were the 
Clnmthmen or others who roundly abused them. At first their 
strength lay chiefly in Pcrquimons and Pasquotank; l)ut they 
multiplied and spread. When Judge Iredell, as a young man, 
came from England to North Carolina, in 1768, he was com- 
mended by his relative, Henry E. McCulloch, to a prominent 
and substantial Quaker merchant, named Williams, in New 
Bern, " who will supply you with what money you want, and 
show you every civility."* 

Of the settlers for the first hundred years, it may be said, 
there were many highly educated citizens scattered throughout 

♦ Life of Iredell, Vcl. I., 21. 


the province, who lived with considerable style and refinement. 
Sturdy, honest and liospital)le agriculturalists gathered around 
themselves elements of large future development, and their 
premises showed industry and care. Yet there was a vast 
amount of ignorance, and perhaps even prejudice, against learn- 
ing. Many were very lazy and shiftless, and there were some 
transported criminals, and some fugitives from justice. But 
80 scattered was the population that it was extremely difficult 
to organize either churches or schools, and there were few of 
either.* Ignorance and lack of religious culture and social in- 
tercourse ensure narrow views and dangerous degeneration. 
It is not surprising that we read such contemporary statements 
as this, written by Rev. Peter Fontaine in a private letter, 17th 
April, 1754, about North Carolina: " They have no established 
laws, and very little of the Gospel, in that whole colony." He 
had two married nepliews living then in New Bern, with whom 
he was in communication, and whom he was begging to move 
*' where they may be under the protection of the laws as to 
property, and have their children educated in the fear of God." 
The nephews did not emigrate, but bought considerable pro- 
perty in New Bern, which I have traced out and identified, as 
that in part, upon which now stand the residences of Messrs. 
James Bryan and C. E. Foy, and the Boman Catholic Church. 
Middle and Western North Carolina were filling up, and the 
stock, though neglected, was good, and improvement was be- 
ginning. "Sombre enthusiasm, and iron-hearted ambition," 
royal looseness and luxury, and too large a measure of religious 
narrowness, had characterized the past age, and yielded a 
strange medley in public and private history. Yet in these 
secluded plains and sylvan retreats, a subtle transformation was 
going on, and a light kindling, whose result was a people cau- 
tious, but not stolid, with simple tastes, but clear and inflexible 
opinions, with no fabulous wealth, but comforts and self-re- 

* In 1736, Governor John&ton deplored before the Legislature in Edenton 
the sad lack of schools and churches. Some of the wealthy citizens seat their 
eons to be educated in England, or at William and Mary in Virginia, or 
Princeton in New Jersey. 


liance, with unquenchable love of liberty, unflincliing bravery, 
and tender hearts Ireely opened to the Gospel of the Lord Jesus, 
whenever brought to them in public by the godly, though in- 
frequent herald of the cross. 

Some misunderstanding has existed, through a spirit of con- 
troversy or otherwise, about the posture of ecclesiastical af- 
fairs in colonial times. With a great blare of trumpets, the 
Lords Proprietors professed, in settling North Carolina, to 
have pious zeal for Christ's cause in the conversion of the 
heathen natives. But Oldmixon, a distinguished English au- 
thor, who died in 1742, says that the only instruction which 
the Indians received, previous to 1701, was from a French 
dancing master, who settled in Craven County^ and taught the 
natives to dance and play upon the lute. Certainly very little 
attention was given to the conversion of the Indians. A few 
were tauglit in Chowan parish. This illustrates the complexion 
of the charter piety. Religious liberty, or rather toleration as 
to conscience and worship, was guaranteed to all comers, even 
heatlien, but under restrictions — not expressed in t/ie charters — 
but to be regulated by the Lords Proprietors, with the Parlia- 
ment and Crown, however, still holding supervisory power. So 
it may be denied that the Episcopal Church ever was fully es- 
tablislied here in exactly the same manner as in lingland, or 
that it was pecuniarily supported by the English Parliament. 
Yet English funds, througli the "Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel," and from private sources in England, were en- 
listed in its maintenance. Further, it seems to be certain, from 
the best authorities, tliat, unless for a short time in the early 
proprietary period, the Episcopal Church was never in the nu- 
merical majority in the cohmy as a whole, but it had prominent 
and zealous adherents and leaders, like Mosely, Gales, tlie Pol- 
locks, and generally the deputies of the Lords Proprietors, and 
the Governors, and this naturally gave many advantages and 
increased influence and power to the weaker party. 


The Church of England was the established Church of the 
colony. It is folly to fence against this fact by alleging that 
the only effective act establishing the Church was that of 1765, 
under Governor Tr3^on. That act would probably have fared 
w^orse than its predecessors in a few years. Now, unquestion- 
ably both charters of Charles II., and Locke's Constitutions, in 
section 96, added by the Lords Proprietors, regarded the 
Church of England as the establishment in the Carolinas.* 
Indeed, there was apparently a common sentiment among 
Christians, that there ought to be some legal establishment of 
the Christian religion in any State, as to its fundamental prin- 
ciples, and as against the Papal claims; and the Thirty-nine 
Articles of the English Church, with a few excluded, were 
generally considered as a satisfactory exposition. Put outside 
of Episcopalians and Papists, there was just as unanimous op- 
position to establishing any special church with any peculiar 
privileges. This is clear from the instructions given to the 
Mecklenburg delegates to the Provincial Convention in 1775, 
that they were to "consent to the establishment of the Chris- 
tian religion, as contained in the Scriptures of the Old and 
New Testaments, and more briefly comprised in the Thirty- 
nine Articles of the Church of England" (with specified ex- 
clusions), "and clearly held forth in the Confession of Faith 
compiled by the Assembly of Divines at Westminster," etc. 
They were further "instructed to oppose to the utmost any 
particular church, or set of clergymen, being invested with 
power to decree rites and ceremonies," etc. ; ..." to oppose 
the establishment of any mode of worship to be supported," 
etc.; .... "to oppose the toleration of Popish idolatrous 
worship." By this time Episcopalians themselves were uniting 
with their fellow Christians of other churches in determination 
to secure both civil and religious liberty. So it is said that 
Churchmen joined with Dissenters in the Halifax Convention 

♦Hawks, Vol. II., pp. 166, 190, 357, 506, Slc. ; Bancroft, II., 150; Colonial 
Records, Vol. I. , 202, &c. 


of 1776, which established the State of North Carolina, in 
throttling a proposition, introduced by an Episcopalian, to re- 
cognize in some form Episcopal doctrines. 

Now, though in a large minority, the Episcopal faction suc- 
ceeded, by astute management, as early as 1701, in passing an 
act, regarded as oppressive and tyrannical, establishing by ex- 
plicit colonial legislation their church. This act was in force 
only two years, having been repealed on an appeal to England. 
In 1704, the famous, or rather, the infamous, act establishing 
the Church of England in South Carolina, was obtained by 
Governor Johnston, according to Dr. Hawks, by "political 
trickery" and "dexterous management of the rulers," against 
the wishes of the people. Governor Johnston's deputy, Daniel, 
following his instructions, " by his address and skilful political 
manipulation," secured the pagsage of a similar law by the Al- 
bemarle Legislature for North Carolina. It is only necessary 
to examine, in a revisal of the laws of North Carolina by Davis 
or Martin, the Acts in 1715, 1741, 1754, 1759, 1764-'5, to 
learn the unquestionable fact, that a fixed and persistent effort 
was never relaxed to fasten on an unwilling people, by effective 
legislation, an Episcopal establishment xoith an adequate sup- 
2)ort by taxation. How often was the endeavor made by va- 
rious legislation to estop the divers evasions of the Vestry Acts ! 
Taxes were imposed for purchasing ample glebes, building 
comfortable churches, and paying stipends to ministers, all of 
the establishment. By a bare majority — ohtained vydli dif- 
ficulty — dissenters were disfranchised by requiring members 
of the Legislature to conform to the worship of the Church of 
England, and to receive the communion after its rules.* In the 
"Collections of the Historical Society of South Carolina," is 
this illustrative statement, from an address by James Lewis 
Pettigru : " The elective franchise was liberally diffused ; but 
the test and corporation acts guarded with jealousy the steps of 
the provincial assembly, as they did those of the imperial pai-- 

* Some, however, think this provision prevailed in South Carolina only ; but 
in Daniel's time all holding any place of trust or profit were required to take 
certain purging oaths. Bancroft, iii. 21 ; Martin, i. 217-L'2.3 ; Hawks, ii. lOG, 
190, 358, 506-512; Williamson, i. 15S, 1(;7, etc. ; Moore, .">]. 


liament; and the avenues to office were closed to all but the 
dominant sect. This state of things existed until 1778, — a le- 
gislative fact strangely ignored in the voluminous collection of 
Cooper." A similar spirit was abroad in this province. 

Through the kindness of Col. W. L. Saunders, Secretary of 
State of North Carolina, I have carefully examined the advance 
(proof) sheets of tlie invaluable "Colonial Records," now in 
press under his care, as far as November, 1718. The records 
of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, addresses 
and memoi'ials to Parliament and to others, the minutes of the 
Chowan Vestries from 1701, Col. Pollock's letter-book, records 
of courts, and a vast variety of other heretofore hidden docu- 
ments, all confirm these statements. Here we get the exact 
date of the early and, perhaps, fii-st act of Assembly for estab- 
lishing religious worship, vestries, churches, and glebes, by 
public taxation, viz.: November 12, 1701."" An insight is ob- 
tained into the spirit and character of the colonists, and the 
working of the early Proprietary legislation before we liave 
public official records. The support for the clergy was both 
meagre and reluctant; often withheld. Their complaints were 
loud, lacking in grace, frequently bitter and unreasonable be- 
cause of their own conduct. One writes: "I never received 
the value of a Bushel of Corn since 1 was concerned here, but 
what 1 got by weddings. . . . The difficulties I have gone 
through are almost inexpressible, and one distemper or another, 
like the Thunder and Lightning, continually disturl)ing me." 
Another says: "I did once hope to have Pork and Bacon of 
my own, but shall not have a morsel save wheat I feed with In- 
dian Corn, which is very scarce with me. I have not enough 
to keep me with Bread six months — no Beef, Butter or Cheese, 
no fat to butter one nor make soap, no Tallow to 

make me a few candles, so that we shall have a tedious winter 
long and Dark nights, hungry bellies, and dirty linen. I have 
nothing to buy with, let one's wants be what they will ; swamp 
water goes down worse in Winter than in Summer. . . . 'Tis 
strange living when a man is continually cracking his Brains 
how to get a Belly full of meat." Again, "I have had no 

* Vol. i., 543. 


Beef in my house these six months nor anything else save fat 
poriv and that ahnost gone. I got by chance a barrel which 
has been in salt 18 months; it is protitable victuals, a little 
goes a great way: I have no other eatables; Peas and Beans 
I am like to have some but neither Bacon or Butter to eat 

with them — Jovial living If I must linger out my 

days here I must have a couple of Negroes and a woman all 
born among the English, the woman used to house- work. 
.... I went this winter 7 times to the Church in the 
neighborhood (/ e that is four miles distance) and met not a 
congregation; so indifferent are our Gentry in their Religion 
they had rather never come to church tlian be obliged to pay 
me anything, they cannot endu;-e the thoughts of it."* Yet 
the Rev. William Gordon says himself, in 1709, that troubles 
arose from the "ill example and imprudent behaviour of the 

The Church of England was claimed emphatically and com- 
monly as established by law, and entitled to support by the 
general public. While some of these preaeliers of Proprietary 
days were good men, and did, or meant to do, a fair work in 
a hard field; yet the general impression about their labors, 
from extant documents, is not very favorable. They were im- 
pelled by a burning agony to l)aptize the children, that the 
people might be kept froni becoming heathens and infidels. 
One would almost infer that infant haptisiix was the prime ob- 
ject of Christ's mission on earth. Sharpest comment is made 
on the people's "obstinate aversion to god-fathers and god- 
mothers; neither sense nor reason could prevail with them." 
What reprol)ates! What reason could tliey give? "There- 
fore, in anywise will not have their children baptized others 
think nobody more fit than their parents; to tell them of the 
orders of the Church avails not they'll not hearken to the or- 
dinances of man l)ut will have expr^ess scnpture fur all they are 
to do or ohi>erveP This looks like the people were sensible, and 
that the preacher thought of something else more than of God's 
Word. Governor Eden, in 171G-'17, testified that tlie people 
'•^ are not so Hack as they have been painted^'' but would be 

* Vol. ii., 54, 248, 279, etc. 


found well enongli inclined 'if the ministers ''''are gentlemen of 
good lives and affable hehaviour and conversation.''^ Here was 
another proof that the majority of the population was opposed 
to the Established Church, as is positively declared in a formal 
address to the Parliament in England in 1705.* 

In Kowan County, about 1764-'5 probably, a petition was 
sent to the Governor, Council and Burgesses, in which " the pe- 
titioners complain, that his majesty's most dutiful and loyal sub- 
jects in this county, who adhere to the liturgy and profess the 
doctrines of the Church of England, as by law established, have 
not the privileges which the rubrick and canons of the Church 
allow and enjoin on all its members." They recite the fact 
that the inhabitants hold a "medlay of most of the religious 
tenets" in the world, and '■''from dread of sxibmitting to the na- 
tional Chnrch,^'' refuse to elect a lawful vestry, who will take 
the oaths; ^'■whence we can tiever expect the regular enlivening 
beams of the Holy Gospel to shine upon us^ So they pray for 
compulsion of this unwilling multitude, that the godly seed may 
get an Episcopal Church, under the provision of what William- 
son terms a " shameful law," (Vol. ii., 118,) and a system which 
Hawks characterizes as " infatuated folly," and kindling " the 
torch of discord" (ii., 506). Now, Williamson says, "There 
were thirty four subscribers to this petition; six oi them made 
their marks, and some of the other signatures are hardly legi- 
ble. Whe7i thirtyfour such persons could propose that six or 
seven hundred should be taxed for their accomm,odation, they 
certainly had need of the Gospel that teaches humility.^'' The 
largest supposition made by a recent historian t of Rowan 
County is, that the adherents of the Established Church may 
have been one-third of the whole population. Evidently Dr. 
Williamson, writing within a few years of the time when the 
petition was presented, did not estimate them as so many. 

Continual resistance was made to these acts. Appeals were 
sent to England, and time and again, after long delays, they 
were pronounced illegal, and quashed; but the attempts were 

♦ Colonial Records, Vol. i., pp. 543, 559, 571, 601, 636-9, 714, 767, etc. 
tRumple's Eowan, p. 383 ; Williamson, ii., 258. 


regularly renewed, and were even partially submitted to. How 
many churches, glebes and stipends were obtained in whole 
or in part, under this legislation, will, perhaps, never be known. 
Old records will disprove assertions that little was collected. 
Accidentally, I found the following record in the written min- 
utes of Craven County Court, June 20th, 1740 : 

"it was ordered that John Bryan Esq', receive the remaining jiart of 
the Levys laid for the church by the former vestry, and he gives Se- 
curetys, Col. Wilson and John Fonveille Jun' . in the sum of 500£ Prod 

A similar entry is made at September court following. The 
amount received is not given ; nor can it be ascertained how 
long the levy was continued here; but probably for years, as 
the Episcopal Church was not completed until near 1750, and 
there was no rector until about 1754. Sometimes there was 
no Episcopal preacher in the whole colony. In 1725, there 
was only one for eleven parishes ; there were only from seven 
to ten here altogether during tlie Proprietary period, and three 
of these did great harm to morals and religion; in 1704, there 
were only six to supply twenty-nine parishes, each embracing a 
whole county. From 1662 to 1775, only about fifty-two Epis- 
copal clergymen had ever been in North Carolina. 

Hardships and injustice, and in a few cases, perhaps, bodily 
sufferings, were thus inflicted on dissenters. This was not done 
by ecclesiastical courts, but by civil, under the laws of England, 
or of the Colonial Legislature ; illegal laws sometimes, but the 
fruit of churclily plans, desires and efforts. No spirit of perse- 
cution prevailed, but wrong ideas about the relation of Church 
and State, and true religious liberty. So, doubtless, the Colo- 
nial Estal)Hshment was always a mongrel affair, unsatisfactory 
to both churchmen and dissenters, and never complete. 

Governors were instructed to maintain the ecclesiastical au- 
thority of the Bishop of London. Even a school-master was 
required to have his license from the Bishop of London to teach 
geography, aritlnnetic and writing; and only in 1760 or 1770 
■was the law repealed which forbade Presbyterian minisster to 


perform marriage ceremonies for members of their own flocks, 
though civil magistrates had been authorized so to do. 

I have found an original marriage license, issued by Governor 
Tryon, and illustrating the change in the law ; and give a copy 
of it on the opposite page. 

In England, Americans were told that, in spite of all tlie Pres^ 
byterian opposition, bishops would he settled in America. No 
wonder the people actually rejected tlie word " church" as odious, 
and substituted for it — as we shall see — the term "meeting- 
house," which is the consecrated name given by God himself to 
his tabernacle, where he promised to meet with his people. Of 
course, resistance was made to many of these regulations, and 
witli success, by the dissenting majority. After the "Revolu- 
tion, a portion of the property thus unjustly wrung out of the 
pockets of reluctant dissenters was, by appropriate legislation, 
rightly converted to public uses. 

This seems to be an accurate general summary of facts about 
the "Colonial Established Church." It is not intended to cast 
any reproach whatever upon the Episcopal Church of this day 
by a recital of the sad story of so much trouble, but merely to 
body forth the color and temper of those early formative days. 
Episcopalians stand now on the same platform with Presbyte- 
rians, Methodists, Baptists, and other churches, in repudiating 
church establishments in the United States, condenming these 
colonial schemes, and defending the doctrine of religious liberty 
and equality. 

Nevertheless, Presbyterian influence increased steadily, and 
became powerful, if not dominant, in North Carolina. This 
was, indeed, chiefly through that section of the State with which 
we are not at present particularly concerned. In the East, 
Presbyterianism has liad but few strong centres until recent 
times. But Sir Wm. Berkley, one of the proprietors, and the 
Governor of Virginia, in 1663, appointed William Drummond, 
an old-fashioned Scotch Presbyterian,* " a man of prudence and 

* Craighead's Scotch aud Irish Seeds in America, pp. 267, 319 ; Maclean's 
History of Princeton College. 



'KJiT^L^ t4^a.i^i^n^ 


Captain-General, Governor and Corn- 
mander in Chief, in and over his Maj- 

efty's Province o{ North-Carolina, 

To any Orthodox MINISTER of the Church of Encrland, or for 
Want thereof, to any reg-ular Hcenced Minifter of the diffent- 
ing Presbyterian Clergy, or lawful Magiftrate within the 
fame. Greeting. 

BY Virtue of the Power and Authority to Me Given, as Governor and 
Commander in Chief, in and over this Province, (Certificate having 
been made to Me, by ^tanct^}. Jfaa/i, Clerk of £>ianae County 
Court, that the Bond as by Law required, hath been taken and filed by 
him in his Office) I DO hereby Allow, Admit, and Licence you, or any of you, 
to Celebrate and Solemnize the Rites of Matrimony between S^ov£. tyYac€ 
^ %yf&atma K/mc?iau , and to join them together, as Man and Wife, in Holy 

GIVEN under my Hand and Seal at <^c//aVctou^d this SAl/i Day of 
^tc/f/^ in the Year of our Lord 1769 and in the v^^ivZ/^Year of his Maj- 
efty's Reign. 

Note.— The name of "John Hawks" Bbould not appear on this document, with the Seal of Trj'on above. 


popularity, deeply imbued with the passion for popular lib- 
erty," to be the lirst Governor of Albemarle. Dr. Briekell, 
whose history was published in Dublin in 1737, and includes his 
observations on the province from 1730 to 1737, refers to the 
Presbyterians as an important element then. Dr. Hawks testi- 
fies that the Presbyterians in Albemarle, though not numerous, 
^^ had real religion atnid those without God i?i the world.'''' 
Their influence for good in every direction was most marked, 
and was combined with that of the Quakers in moulding the 
character of the infant State. Looking down on the other side 
of New Bern, along and East of the Cape Fear, we admire the 
uplift given to Carolina's fame by a healthy, robust, truth-lov- 
ing and liberty-loving Calvinistic faith. 

Passing over some years, a few notable facts will signalize 
the sweep, dignity, and worth of this influence. 

The Eastern Shore of Maryland was the cradle of American 
Presbyterianism. Rev. Francis Makemie, from the Presbytery 
of Laggan, near Londonderry, Ireland, was the apostolic Bishop 
who presided over and guided its young life, about 1683, at 
Snow Hill, Maryland. He was a hero fresh from the dragon- 
ades of the loyal churchman and incarnate fiend, Claverhouse. 
When the first Presbytery, tluit of Philadelphia, was organized, 
in 1705, four of its ministers were from this Eastern Shore, 
Mr. Makemie being one. In 1743, Kev. William Robinson, 
who was of Quaker stock, though himself a Presbyterian and a 
man of distinguished ability, was preaching in North Carolina. 
A supplication was made to the Synod of Philadelphia, in 1744, 
from Carolina, showing their desolate condition, and petitioning 
for help. Rev. Samuel Davies, the future President of Prince- 
ton College, speaks, in 1751, of the fewness and savage igno- 
rance of the inhabitants as causing Mr. Robinson much hard- 
ship, and robbing his visit of much success. But, in 1755, 
several ministers having spent some time among them in mis- 
sionary labors, whereas there had been hardly any appearance 
of pul)lic worship, the tide was changing; congregations were 
growing, and eager zeal was manifested to be supplied with 
Gospel ministers. Continual appointments were made by the 


Synods, then the supreme judicatories of the Church, for preach- 
ing in the Carolinas; and in several instances, New Bern, Wil- 
mington, and Edenton are specially designated as objective 
points to be visited and cared for. Messrs. C. Spencer, Lewis, 
Bay, Caldwell, C. T. Smith, McWhorter, Chestnut, and many 
others, were assigned to this mission from year to year.* 

On the Eno, a branch of the Neuse, a church was erected in 
1736 on ground, the deed to which bears date 9th of George 
II. Out of Hanover Presbytery, which was constituted in 
1758, and embraced North and South Carolina, was erected, in 
1770, Orange Presbytery . Its seven original ministers were 
Hugh McAden, Henry Patillo, James Creswell, David Cald- 
well, Joseph Alexander, Hezekiah Balch, and Hezekiali James 
Balch. Mr. Patillo was a member of the Provincial Congress 
of North Carolina in 1775 ; was its Chaplain, and also the hon- 
ored Chairman of the body, in committee of the whole, in con- 
sidering arrangements for confederation. Mr. Caldwell was a 
member of the State Convention of 1776, which drew up the 
" Bill of Eights," and framed the constitution, and he was the 
reputed author of the Thirty-second Article, which declares, 
" That no person who shall deny the being of God, or the truth 
of the Protestant religion, or the divine authority of either the 
Old or New Testament, or who shall hold religious principles 
incompatible with the freedom and safety of the State, shall 
be capable of holding any office, or place of trust or profit, in 
the civil department within the State." 

This memorable document was drawn up by a convention 
in Charlotte, N. C. Its date, according to the best authorities, 
is 20th May, 1775. The town of Charlotte was pronounced 
by Lord Cornwallis ^HhehorneCs nest of North Carolina^ 
Bancroft says it was " the centre of the culture of that part of 

♦Gillies' Hist. Col., pp. 432, 506; Records of Presbyterian Church, 173, 
263; Webster's History of Presbyterian Church, 209, 2-t.o, 574; Hodge's 
Constitutional History, Vol. ii., 288; Bancroft's United States History, ii., 
172, 181, etc. 


the province." Here was " Queen's Museum," the most cele- 
brated seminary of learning, except William and Mary, south 
of Princeton. Its able president. Rev. Dr. McWhorter, and 
Dr. E. Brevard, were both graduates of Princeton. A few 
days before the Convention met, a political meeting assem- 
bled in this Presbyterian College, and entertained some re- 
solutions, presented by Dr. Ephraim Brevard. These were 
read to the convention, and referred to a committee, consisting 
of Dr. Brevard, Mr. Kennon and Pev. H. J. Balch, for revision; 
and when reported were adopted by a universal "aye," and 
constitute the immortal "Mecklenburg Declaration," of which 
Bancroft says, "The first voice publicly raised in America to 
dissolve all connection with Great Britain, came from the 
Scotch-Irish Preshyteriansi!'' It is remarkable that this famous 
convention was composed of one Presbyterian minister^ Mr. 
Balch^ nine Presbyterian ruling-elders^ and other persons who 
were all somehow connected with the seven Presbyterian 
congregations in Mecklenburg County. Another memorable 
fact is that, as late as July, 1YT5, a petition to the King of 
Great Britain was signed by every member of Congress, 
praying in humble terms, as British subjects, for redress of 
grievances, and declaring, "We have not raised armies with 
the ambitious design of separating from Great Britain, and es- 
tablishing independent States." And on Nov. 16th, 1775, the 
bearer to England of this congressional document, Pichard 
Penn, the grandson of the celebrated William Penn, and him- 
self an ex-governor, appeared before the House of Lords, and 
testified, that in his opinion "no design of independency had 
been formed by Congress." All lienor to North Carolina for 
the pronounced and vigorous spirit of liberty that had long 
been growing witliin her borders, and had its congenial home 
in the bosoms of her sturdy Calvinistic settlers. 

HuQtt iUUImmsou aiiCi (Olft<M'$* 

Dr. Williamson was born of estimable, pious Scotch-Irish 
parents, in Pennsylvania, December 6, 1735. His mother, 
Mary Davison, of Derry, wlien a girl three years old, with her 


parents on tlieir voyage to America, was captured by the !N ortlr 
Carolina pirate, Blackbeard, or Teach. After being phindered, 
they were released. Hugh was taught by Rev. Francis Alison, 
a Presbyterian minister, and the best Latin scholar in America ; 
graduated at the University of Pennsylvania, and became a 
Licentiate in the Presbyterian Church. Ill health prevented 
his continuing to preach, or obtaining ordination. He then 
studied medicine in London, Edinburgh and Utrecht, and 
travelled extensively in Europe. It has been claimed that 
through him Dr. Benjamin Franklin obtained the famous 
Hutchinson correspondence, whose revelations of British false 
dealings precipitated the War of Independence. On hearing 
of the Declaration of Independence, Dr. Williamson returned- 
home, and the army medical staff having been organized, he 
awaited an opportunity of serving his country. While prac- 
tising medicine in Philadelphia, he served as a ruling elder in 
the First Presbyterian Church of that city. 

During the war, when on a mercantile voyage from Charles- 
ton, S. C, to Baltimore, his vessel had to run up to Edenton, 
]^. C, to escape the English fleet in Chesapeake Bay. Dr. 
Williamson promptly offered his services to the Governor of 
this State. He came to New Bern to inoculate for the small- 
pox such persons as had not had the disease, and thus laid the 
foundation of that confidence soon shown him in North Caro- 
lina. He settled in Edenton. Governor Caswell, being as- 
signed as Major-General to the command of the North Caro- 
lina troops, ordered to the relief of Charleston, appointed Dr. 
Williamson chief of his medical staff, wdiere he rendered essen- 
tial service. In the State Legislature and Congress he repre- 
sented his district with distinction; and in 1787, with Richard 
Dobbs Spaight and William Blount, signed the Constitution 
of the United States. He was an eminent scholar in mathe- 
matics, astronomy, natural science, medicine and divinity ; ac- 
cording to Mr. Thomas Jefferson, "a very useful member of 
Congress, of acute mind, and a rich degree of erudition;" a 
man of fine appearance, imposing elocution, lofty integrity, 
broad philanthropy, noble patriotism, and untarnished purity. 


Though commencing his career in North Carolina as an entire 
stranger, all obstacles to his advancement speedily melted away. 
He was chosen to successive places of honor, trust and influ- 
ence, and he largely moulded public opinion and State policy. 
He wrote many valuable, practical, literary and philosophical 
papers; and in 1S12, published in two volumes his History of 
North Carolina, a most important contemporary contribution. 
On May 23, 1S19, in the eighty-fiftli year of his age, while 
riding out with his niece in New York city, in the full vigor 
of his faculties, and crowned with worthy honors, he suddenly 

Samuel Spencer, one of the three judges of the Supreme 
Court ; Alexander Martin, three times Governor of the State, and 
at his death Senator of tlie United States from North Caro- 
lina ; Richard Caswell, Brigadier-General of New Bern District 
during the Revolution, Major-General of the North Carolina 
State Line, the first Governor of the State, and twice called to 
that high ofiice by an admiring people; William Richardson 
Davie, the distinguished lawyer, accomplished orator, member 
of Congress, and Governor of his State, — these are a few 
specimens of the kind of men who were trained in the bosom 
and great principles of the Presbyterian Church of tliose early 
days, and were thereby fitted to wield controlling and beneficent 
power for liberty and virtue in this grand Commonwealth. 

Of course, in signalizing these few illustrative facts, there is 
no intention of unduly exalting Presbyterian influence, and 
undervaluing the noble patriots and men of illustrious labors 
connected with other Christian bodies. Thanks are due to God 
for every one. But it is neither within my limits or scope of 
thought to trace out their histories here. It will be well if 
some one is stimulated so to do. 

presbyter tan Scttlcmotifs. 

These results were, however, the natural outgrowth of the 
scattered early Presbyterian pioneers, and of the repeated and 
large colonies of Scotch and Scotch-Irish, and other Presbyte- 
rians that poured into the State before and soon after 1700. 


Notice some of theso in the middle and Eastern sections. Al- 
ready the testimony of Dr. Hawks has been mentioned about 
their presence, high character, and wholesome settlement in 
the Albemarle domain. Before 1729, they were settled in 
numbers in Cumberland County, near the site of Fayetteville. 
The time of their advent is unknown, Henry McCulloh, from 
the North of Ireland, (a grand uncle of Judge James Iredell,) 
was secretary of the province of North Carolina, and had been 
appointed his Majesty's Surveyor-General, Inspector and Comp- 
troller of the revenue and grants of land. He speculated 
largely in the crown lands on the Clarendon or Cape Fear, 
Pedee and Neuse rivers, and was vitally interested in planting 
colonists on them, thereby to reap a fortune. The transactions 
of himself and son, Henry E. McCulloh, are said to have been 
very "crooked," However, about 1T36, Henry McCulloh be- 
gan to fulfil the stipulations of his grant, by introducing a 
colony of Irish Presbyterians from Ulster into Bladen and 
Duplin counties, near us. The numbers swelled to three 
or four hundred, and he thus secured 64,400 acres of 
choice land, it is said, without paying a dollar. McCulloh's 
large fortune was reported to have been greatly embarrassed 
by furnishing transportation to these settlers. The descendants 
of this band are indicated by their family names in Duplin, 
New Hanover and Sampson counties. This is the oldest Pres- 
byterian settlement in the State, and their principal place of 
■worship was " Goshen," from which the "Grove" congregation, 
"whose church is three miles southeast of Duplin Courthouse, 
traces its origin. Another settlement, near Wilmington, on 
the northeast of Cape Fear, was the " Welch Tract," originally 
founded by Welch emigrants. Other families joined them, 
-and together they formed anotlier strong Presbyterian congre- 

The year 1745 was a dark era to Scotland, The bloody 
rout of Cnlloden was a fatal disaster, not only to all hopes of 
Charles Edward, but to Lovat and Kilmarnock, Tullibardine 

* Williamson, ii. 62-65 ; Foote, 78 and 159 ; McRee's Life of Iredell, i. 7, 8, 


and Balmerino, MacDonald of Glengaiy, and Cameron of Lo- 
cliiel, with their thousands of brave but misguided clansmen. 
A harsh government, satiated with unjust trials, barbarities 
and bloody executions, exempted nineteen out of every twenty 
from trial and punishment — the doomed one to be decided by 
lot. Upon taking the oath of allegiance, the others were al- 
lowed to be transported to America. The "Coercion Bill" 
and "Disabling Act" were added, inflicting severe penalties on 
Highlanders wearing the national kilt, or found in possession 
of weapons of war. So the Cape Fear co'imtry became the 
happy Canaan for the oppressed of Scotland. Here the stern 
veterans of Preston-Pans, the stalwart broad-swordsmen of Lo- 
chiel, and the rugged Highlanders wlio swept over Culloden's 
fatal field like their mountain storms, were turned into quiet 
farmers, isolated by their uncouth Gaelic tongue, among the 
pines and the plains of Eastern Carolina, but in a land of 
freedom. Hector McNeill, Alexander Clark, and others, even 
"John Smith," had long lived here, and had doubtless sent 
home encouraging accounts of their welfare. In 1746 and 
1747 many ship-loads of the refugees arrived in Wilmington. 
During the "rising" in Scotland, Neill McNeill, a native of 
Argyleshire, had been prospecting in America, and had ex- 
plored the Cape Fear section, and the neighborhood of Cross 
Creek, known then as Heart's Creek or the Bluff, afterwards 
Campbelton, and now Fayetteville. Tall and muscular, bold 
and daring, he entered land for himself and colonists, and in 
1749 brought over about three hundred immigrants, who were 
placed in Brunswick, Bladen, Cumberland and Harnett Coun- 
ties. Baliol of Jura (one of the Hebrides Islands) ran a vessel 
yearly between Wilmington and Scotland, and regularly 
brought in additional Scotch immigrants.* These various 
colonists were reared almost within hail of classic lona, the 
hallowed home of primitive Presbyterianism, under apostolic 
Columba, his coadjutors and godly successors. So they proved 
good seed from a worthy stock. 

♦Hume's Euglaod, viii. 847, etc.; Foote, 12o-131, 1G9, etc.; Martin, ii. 
46 ; WilliamRon, ii. 78 ; Ceuteuarj' Sermon, by Neill McKay, D. D. ; and 
Historical Address by J. Banks, Esq., at Bluff Church, 1858. 


Ministers Scarce* 

No clergymen were with these Scotch. This seems singu- 
lar, since they were thorongh Presljyterians, and so well 
versed in their Bibles and the doctrines and usages of the 
Church, that a minister needed to be very careful in preaching to 
avoid their criticism. Rev. J. McLeod said " he would rather 
preacli to the most polished and fashionable congregation in 
Edinburgh than to the little critical carls of Barbecue." But 
the manner of the forced exile, and the actual lack of preachers 
in the Highands, explain the anomaly. Few could preach in the 
Gaelic language ; and these people spoke notliing else. When 
Kev. Hugh McAden was on his missionary tour in North and 
South Carolina in 1756, lie states in his journal, that at Hector 
McNeill's he " preached to a number of Highlanders, — some of 
them scarcely knew one word that I said, — the poorest singers 
I ever heard in all my life." Neither did he find them all 
godly. Their spii'itual destitution so affected him that, on his 
return to Pennsylvania, he induced Rev. James Camph'ell to go 
and reside amongst them. Mr. Campbell was born in Cam- 
belton, on the peninsula of Kintyre, Argyleshire, Scotland. 
About 1730, he was a licensed Presbyterian preacher, and 
landed in Philadelphia. He took charge of a congregation of 
Scotch emigrants, perliaps in Lancaster County, Penn., where 
Mr. McAden visited him, and was duly ordained. Yielding to 
the claims from Carolina, he removed thither in 1757, bought 
a plantation on the Cape Fear, opposite the Bluff Church, and 
a few miles from Fayetteville, and began to preach under the 
shadow of his own oaks, in the Gaelic language, in a most un- 
promising field. But the glad tidings spread. Great enthusi- 
asm was kindled throughout the Scotch settlement. He pro- 
claimed a crucified Saviour for the lost sinner with blessed re- 
sults; served several churches, and secured the erection of 
several " meeting-houses " ; and ceased not his faithful labors, 
which knew no bounds but his strength, until, under the weight 
of more than three score and ten years, he fell on sleep in Je- 
sus, and was laid beside his dear wife, in the quiet of his own 


The call for Mr. Campbell's services is in the shape of a con- 
tract (for there was no organized church yet), and appears in 
the Register's office, (Book A, page 349,) of the County Court 
of Cumberland. As the lirst recorded formal call for the pas- 
toral services of a Presbyterian minister in North Carolina, and 
in view of the light it throw.s on the times hv its accompani- 
ments, it will be well to copy it: 

" Know all men whom these presents do, or may concern. 
That we, whose names ai-c underwritten, for and in considera- 
tion of the due and faitliful ministry of the Gospel (according 
to the Doctrines and Discipline of the Church of that part of 
Great Britain called Scotland, by law established,) for some 
months past, and hereafter to be administered to us and other 
good people of our communion in the county of Cumberland, 
in the Province of North America, by the Kev. Mr. James 
Campbell, a well qualified minister of the principles of the said 
established church, and for divers good causes and considera- 
tions moving us thereto, have covenanted, promised, granted 
and agreed, and by these presents do each of us covenant, 
promise and agree to and witli the said Mr. James Campbell 
to pay conjointly, or cause to be paid the- sum of a hundred 
pounds in good and lawful money of North Carolina to the 
said Mr. James Campbell, his heirs, executors, administrators, 
or assigns, to connnence from the twenty-second day of June 
last, (providing the said Mr. James Campbell doth, as soon as 
his convenience permit, accept of our call, to be presented to 
him by Kev'd Presbytery of South Carolina, and be by them 
engaged to the solemn duty of a pastor for us,) and this to be 
paid to him, liis heirs, executors, administrators, or assigns 
yearly, and every year during his faithful ministry with us. 
In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hands and seals, 
this eighteentli day of October, in the year of His Majesty's 
reign XXXIInd and of our Lord one thousand seven hundred 
and tifty-eight. 


" Signed, sealed and delivered in presence of Arch'd Mc- 
Neill and Arch'd D. Clark. 

" Signed, sealed and delivered 
before us. 

" Archibald Mc!N"eill, 

"Archibald Clark, 

" Hector McNeill, [Seal.] 

"Gilbert Clark, [Seal.] 

"Thomas Gibson, [Seal.] 

"Alex. McAlister, [Seal.] 

"Malcom Smith, [Seal.] 

"Archibald McKay, [Seal.] 

" Jno. Patterson, [Seal.] 

"DusheeShaw, [Seal.] 

" Neill McNeill, [Seal.] 

"Archibald Buie, [Seal.] 

"Anguish Culbreath, [Seal.] 

" John McPherson," [Seal.] 

Endorsements show that this bond was proved by oath of A, 
McNeill in open court and admitted to record, August Inferior 
Court, 1760. A duplicate was afterwards executed and proven^ 
with some change of signatures. 

But now Episcopacy and Koyalty, in the persons representing^ 
the king, enforce the subscription and test acts, as the follow- 
ing entries on the Minutes of the court, January term, 1759,. 
show : 

" The Rev. James Campbell came into open court, and took 
the test-oath prescribed by law, and subscribed the test." 

" Court adjourned till 3 o'clock. Court met according to 
adjournment. Present: William Dawson, Samuel Howard, 
Arthur Donnally and James Thornton, Justices." 

" The Rev. James Campbell in open court read and subscribed 
such of the Articles of the Church of England as the law re- 
quiries." * 

* Centenary Addresses, mentioned before. 


Tlic test-oath was this: "I — (A. B.) — do declare tliat I do 
believe that there is not any transuhstantiation in the saciranient 
of the Lord's Snpper, or in the elements of bread and wine at 
or after the consecration thereof by any person wliatsoever/' 

The act of toleration permitted the following; of the Thirty- 
nine Articles to be excepted to — a part of the 20th, about de- 
creeing rites, etc.; the 27th, on baptism; the 34th to 36th, of 
traditions, homilies, and consecration of clergy, t 

All this squints wonderfully towards an established Church. 

Mr. Campbell preached in both Gaelic and English every 
Sabbath, and this practice prevailed in a few congregations 
down to a few years before our late war. His connection was 
with an independent Presbytery in South Carolina, where Pres- 
byterian churches had been organized as early as 1682 and 1686. 
About 1773 he united with Orange Presbytery. lie was an 
ardent and outspoken patriot, though the Highlanders, under 
a sense of the binding obligation of their oaths, fought against 
the colonies in the disastrous battle of Moore's Creek. Mr. 
Campbell was threatened with a bullet through his head, unless 
he kept quiet. He even refused to baptize the children of 
royalists ! 

Already spoken of, was of Irish parentage, through born in 
Pennsylvania. He was graduated at Nassau Ilall in 1753; 
licensed in 1755, and ordained in 1757, by New Castle Presby- 
tery, and dismissed in 1759 to Hanover Presl)ytery, which 
swept indefinitely southward from Virginia. His journal indi- 
cates that, in 1755, the uneasy year of Braddock's defeat, he 
made a missionary tour over Korth and South Carolina, partly 
in company with Rev. Andrew Bay, who had been commis- 
sioned for a preaching service in Carolina by the Synod of Phil- 
adelphia and New York, and was several times ordered to visit 
JYeio Jjern. Mr. McAden (or "McCadden") preached on the 
Neuse, Contentenay, Pamlico, and Tar rivers, and in Edgecoml)e 
County sometimes in Presbyterian churches, and sometimes in 

+ Neil's Puritans, Vol. II. 345, 483 ; gchaff's Creeds, I. 619— Burnet: Mac- 



Baptist, to mixed congregations of Presbyterians, Churchmen, 
Baptists, and Quakers — good and honest Quakers — as he terms 
them. Tlie Baptists were very kind and liberal. Great reli- 
gious destitution prevailed everywhere. One Sabbath, Aj)ril 
4, 1756, he remained at Mr. Thomas Little's, near Salter's 
Ferry, Pamlico. He had not heard a Presbyterian minister in 
tlie twenty-eight years he had lived in Carolina; so he kept Mr. 
McAden until Wednesday, and gathered the neighbors to hear 
another sermon. Presbyterians were scattered through tliis 
section, but there were no organized churches. 

At Mr. Dickson's, the Clerk of Duplin County, he preached 
to a considerable congregation, chiefly Irish. These people 
made out a hearty call for his pastoral services, as did also 
"the Welch Tract," before mentioned, and promised him a 
proper support. This call antedated that of Mr. Campbell, 
given as the first, because we have it in its entirety. In 1759, 
Mr. McAden returned and settled amid the Pres])yterians of 
Duplin and New Hanover, and on the ISTeuse. Here he labored 
for ten years, respected and beloved by all. He was a man of 
thoughtful face, in the prime of life, polite, and of easy manners. 
Doubtless he sometimes visited and preached in 'New Bern, the 
neighboring city and seaport of the section. Ill health caused 
him to remove to Caswell County, where he died, on January 
20, 1781, and was buried in the grave-yard of Red House 
Church, near Milton. McAden and Campbell were the noble 
and blessed patriarchs of Presbyterianism. in Eastern Carolina 
and in other portions of the State. Let their manes be held in 
continued honor. 

Hobinson nn5 Stanford. 

After some years of precarious ministei-ial supply, these 
congregations, in 1793, secured the services of Bev. John 
Bobinson, who remained witli them to their edification until 
1800, when he removed to Fayette ville. Be v. Samuel Stan- 
ford, of Orange Presbytery, succeeded him, and conducted a 
classical academy at the Grove. This school, or one near their 
homes, was maintained for many years by succeeding pastors 


with great advantage to the citizens. Mr. Stanford wore out 
his strength and days in serving the people of Duplin, and 
passed to his reward in 1828. lie was officially in New Bern, 
as will hereafter appear, at an ordination and installation in 
1808. The annual introduction from 1754 of hardy, intelli- 
gent and industrious Scotch gave enlarging and stimulating 
work to faithful pastors in these fields. In the single year, 
1764, a thousand families of Irish or Scotch-Irish Presbyte- 
rians jyassed through the Nortliern colonies to this State. La- 
borers for the harvest, by divine blessing, increased too, so that 
before, and just after, 1800, the following clergymen were 
reaping the ripened sheaves : John McLeod, Dougal Crawford, 
William Bingham, John Robinson, James and llobert Tate, 

W. D. Paisley, John Anderson, McCaasa, Colin Lindsay, 

Samuel Stanford, Angus McDiarmid, John Gillespie, Murdock 
Murphy, Allan McDugald, James K. Burch, David Kerr, An- 
drew Flinn, William Leftwich Turner, Malcolm McXair, and 
William Peacock. A goodly company this of soldiers of the 
cross, with a cheering band of candidates pursuing their studies 
preparatory for the Master's great work of saving souls.* 

Cfa$stcn( Scfiools. 

The Lords Proprietors discounted printing-presses and learn- 
ing. In an interesting address delivered at Chapel Hill, in 
1S27, by Hon. Archibald D. Murphy, of the Supreme Court 
of Xorth Carolina, he says there were few books in the colony. 
The library of a connnon man consisted of a Bible and a spell- 
ing book. The laivyers had a few law books, and the minis- 
ters a few on theology, and sometimes a few Greek and Roman 
classics; for they, particularly the Presbyterian ministers, were 
generally the school-masters, and with them the poor young 
men who wished to preach the Gospel or plead the law, re- 
ceived their humble education. Even after the Revolution, 
when he was a student at Dr. Caldwell's famous classical school, 
he says, " The students had no books on history or miscella- 
neous literature. ... I well remember, that after completing 

♦ Foot's Sketches of North Carolina, 80, 131, 170, 301, 490, r.Ol, Ac 


my course of studies under Dr. Caldwell, I spent nearly two 
years without finding any books to read, except some old works 
on tlieological subjects. At length I accidentally met with 
Voltaire's History of Charles the Twelfth of Sweden, an odd 
volume of Smollett's Roderic Random, and an Abridgment of 
Don Quixote. These books gave me a taste for reading, which 
I had no opportunity of gratifying until I became a student 
in this University," in the year 1796. Few of Dr. Cakhvell's 
students had better opportunities of getting books than my- 
self." A few libraries of value had been sent into the colony j 
e. g.., that at Batli, worth £100; and those of Rev. Messrs. 
Gordon, Adams and Urmstone, and the one bought by Mr. 
Moseley. But they were all lost, and did little good. 

A few roving teachers, with a monopoly of learning and 
love of whiskey, wandered about. Three months constituted 
a term, and two terms completed one's education. There was 
an occasional pedagogue of this class in Craven County. About 
the close of the Revolution, a noted Scotchman taught in this 
county. His name was James Alexander Campbell Hunter 
Peter Douglas. He would flog a whole class because they 
spelt "corn" as he pronounced it, "kor-run." Histoiy fails 
to tell whether he flogged them for not remembering his 

In the North Carolina Gazette of July 24, 1778, I find 


"Mr, Joseph Blyth has opened school iu the public schoolhouse, and 
will teach Latin, English, Arithmetic, Geography, Geometry, Trigonome- 
try, and several other of the most useful branches of the Mathematics, 
according to the best and most approved methods. Gentlemen and ladies 
■who favor him with theu' children may depend he will be diligent, and 
pay proper attention to their education, 

"New Bern, Jaly 24." 

In the same paper is an advertisement of Mr, George Har- 
rison's school, opposite Mrs. Dewey's, for instruction in the 
English and French languages. 

Judge Martin is mistaken in saying that when the Revolu- 


tionary War began there were but two schools in Korth Caro- 
lina. Others have fallen into similar errors. 

Great attention was paid to establish ini^ schools in Presby- 
terian settlements. It was esteemed a mark of vulgarity not to 
be able to repeat the Shorter Catechism. So diligent efforts 
were made to teach all chiklren to read, and few grew up 
unal)le to do so. Rev. James Tate, a Presbyterian minister 
fj'om Ireland, opened a classical school in Wilmington in 1760. 
In 17S5, Rev. William Bingham, also from Ireland, preached 
in Wilmington and thereabouts, and sustained himself by a 
classical school, whicli attained great rclat, was afterwards 
maintained elsewhere, is now owned and conducted by his 
grandson, near Mebaneville, jST. C, and is perhaps the largest, 
most successful and most celebrated classical and military in- 
stitute in the South. Such schools were numerous, notwith- 
standing some different statements by persons not fully in- 
fer Qied, after the Revolutionary War, under the management 
of Presbyterian clergymen. Rev, Dr. Caldwell, in Guildford, 
educated lawyers, statesmen and clergymen. Five of his pupils 
became governors of States, a number rose to the bench, many 
were physicians, and fifty became preachers. It used to be 
said that Dr. Caldwell made the scholar, and Mrs. Caldwell, 
by her motherly zeal and piety, made the preacher. Dr. Hall, 
from "Zion Parnassus," sent forty-five students to the pulpit. 
There wei-e Hall's famous "Clio's Nursery," and his "Academy 
of Sciences," with its philosophical apparatus; Patillo's classi- 
cal school in Granville; the celebrated "Crowfield" Institute; 
^' the Grove " in Duplin, and the Wilmington schools. Nor 
must the memorable " Queen's Museum," in Sugaw (Sugar) 
Creek congregation be forgotten. Established probably in 
1766, it was twice chartered by the Colonial Legislature, but 
each time the charter was revoked by the king and council, and 
tlie second time hy proclamation. It flourished, however, with- 
out a charter, refused hecnnse these Presbyterians would not 
put a tneniher of the established Church of England as master 
of their own school. Tliis was the explicit proviso made in the 
charter of the New Bern Academy, and accepted. The king's 


fears that the college would become the fountain of Republi- 
canism were perhaps quickened into reality by his repeated re- 
jection of the charter, for Queen's Museum became the rally- 
ing point for literary societies and political clubs, preceding 
the Revolution ; and in its hall were held the significant and 
decisive debates preceding the adoption of the Mecklenburg 
Declaration. But 1777 brought the coveted charter to this 
seminary as '•'' Liherty HaliP All these institutions did inesti- 
mable service in their day. The historian of these immortal 
epochs and toils tells how deeply Presbyterian women were 
concerned to secure an education for their sons, as illustrated 
by the exclamation of Mrs. Skillington. Looking upon the 
shell of the old family log-house, within rifle-shot of Poplar 
Tent Presbyterian meeting-house, she said, "Many a day have 
I worked for Charley with these hands, when we lived there, 
to help him through college ; and I don't mind the work, for 
we all loved Charley." * 

Wherever a pastor was located, the custom was to have a 
classical school. Patillo and Hall wrote text books, for there 
were few then attainable. Only two schools were incoiyorated he- 
fore Queeri's College^ viz. New Bern and Edenton. Royal provi- 
sion had been made to give a salary of twenty pounds to any 
who would come to tlie colony as lay-reader and teach school; 
and the Assembly passed an act before 1759, according to 
Judge Martin, to raise a fund for common schools. Still schools 
were scarce. Little favor seems to have been bestowed on edu- 
cational work, until the light of Geneva and the Culdee prin- 
ciples of Lindisfarne and lona beneficently shone in North 
Carolina. Thus the classic muses and winsome graces were 
brought into chastened fellowship with clear-eyed Christian 
virtues, and the State was lifted to elevated heights of refine- 
ment, comfort, progress and piety. These vital forces gave 
power to those wielding them, and their benign reign still 
blesses the good old North State. This grand educational 
movement may be said to have its crown of honor in those 
times, in the establishnent of "the University of North Caro- 

* Foote's Sketches, Chaps, 35 and 36. 



lina" — opened for students in 1795, — and its thorough organ- 
ization by that noble educator and Presbyterian divine, by uni- 
versal consent, ilia father of this useful and famed institution, 
— the Right Reverend Joseph Caldwell,, D. D. For forty years 
this illustrious scion from Huguenot stock presided over its 
destinies, and was its inspiring genius, successfully combating 
the serried assaults of infidelity, and leading the institution in 
a career of healthy and increasing prosperity, with great honor 
to himself, and incalculable advantage to the Commonwealth. 
It is an interesting fact, too, that the ladies of New Bern and 
Raleigh presented the University with mathematical instru- 
ments, and promised that its welfare should ever enlist their 
hearts and hands. 

COId JJriuccfott CfHoIIcgo* 

It is appropriate to insert here a picture of Old Nassau Hall, 
Princeton, N. J., where so many laborers in Eastern Carolina 
and the New Pern Church were educated. This historic Hall 
has been modernized, and now forms the centre of the magni- 
ficent buildings of this great University. 

-^.. -\^ I 

STTini ^^^Jn|!-^'lI P:M-3- ' '^-^ ^ " ^- '- ^- -:? 



THIS preliminary survey brings us to the presentation of 
such particulars as are accessible about the settlement and 
history of this city, and the beginning and progress of the 
Presbyterian Church herein. 

^i\i^ Huguenots. 

Wonderfully and intimately are French Huguenots inter- 
woven in the beginnings of our national history. The first 
Protestant settlement in the United States — nay, on the North 
American continent, — was that made by Jean Ribeaut (sent 
out by Admiral Coligni) in Carolina, in 3 562. Disembarking, 
they first worshipj^ed God ; then set up, not superstitiously 
a Papal cross, but a stone pillar, inscribed with national lilies, 
and named the territory Carolina, after their king.* So when, 
in later years, their brethren settled at New Paltz, N. Y., after 
unhitching their teams, their first act was to read the forty- 
sixth Psalm, and then on bended knees in faith and prayer, 
to consecrate themselves and their posterity, and their wilder- 
ness home, to their covenant God. The first child, Jean 
Yigne, born in New York City, and the first, Sarah Papelyea, 
born in Albany, were Huguenot children. I^riscilla, the his- 
toric Puritan maiden, who came over in the Mayfloicer in 
1620, and abides with immortal beauty and renown, with 
Miles Standish and John Alden, in the radiance of Longfel- 
low's poetic genius, was Priscilla Molines, daughter of William 
Molines, the Huguenot. The first church organized on Man- 
hattan Island was the Reformed Dutch, composed of Hugue- 
not refugees and Dutch, in 1627. The Dutch Church was 

* Bancroft's U. S. History, Vol. I. page 62. 


modeled on that of France, and both were Presbyterian ; and the 
Hngnenot Governor, Minuit, was one of its two ruling elders. 
The first Presbyterian preacher and the first Preshyterian con- 
gregation in North Carolina^ were Richebourg and his colony 
— the first body of settlers on the Trent. The first church or- 
ganized in the Carolinas was the old Hngnenot Church, 
founded in Charleston in 1G81-S2. This noble stock was 
among the first settlers in South Carolina, and we will trace 
them at an early day in our State. 

One-fourth of the invading army of William of Orange, 
when he entered England in 1688, were Huguenots, and his 
veteran commander-in-chief w'as the Huguenot, Frederick Ar- 
maud de Schomberg. Moved by gratitude and sympathy, 
King William favored their settlement in his new dominions 
in America. Large numbers came to Yirginia, and an exten- 
sive colony entered upon ten thousand acres of land, twenty 
miles above Richmond, on the James River, wliere the extinct 
Manakin Indians had lived. From this colony, in 1690, a 
body emigrated to the Pamlico River, near Bath, and spread 
out thence as far as the Neuse River. The whole population 
of North Carolina was then 5,000. About 1707, another nu- 
merous band of these Calvinistic Huguenots from Manakin (or 
Manikin) town settled on the Trent River, where the old 
county bridge stood, two miles above the site of Xew Bern ; 
and they spread through Onslow, Jones and Carteret, where 
French names still perpetuate this advent. Lawson writes 
thus: "Most of the French who lived at Manakin town on 
James River are removed to Trent River, in North Carolina, 
where the rest were expected daily to come to them when I 
came away, which was in August, 1708. They are nnich 
taken with the pleasantness of that country, and, indeed, are a 
very industrious people. At present they make very good linen 
cloth and thread, and are very well versed in cultivating hemp 
and flax, of both which they raise very considerable quantities, 
and design to try an essay of the grape for making of wine." 
Williamson says of this colony, "They were sober, frugal, in- 
dustrious planters, and in a short time became independent citi- 


zens," Carroll's Hist. Collections (Vol. I. 101) says that 
Governor Lndwell had instructions in 1692 "to allow the 
Trench colony of Craven County the same privileges and 
liberties with the English colonists.'' Jealousies existed be- 
tween the French and English, so that the French were re- 
fused representation in the Legislature. It was so under 
Governor Archdale in 1695. 

In his History of Virginia, John Esten Cooke says (p. 309), 
after noting how near Oliver Cromwell, Queen Henrietta 
Maria, and Charles II., were to becoming residents in Virginia: 
" What was better for the country was the arrival in 1699 of 
the good Claude Philippe de Richebourg with his colony of 
Huguenots, who settled at Manakin, on the upper James 
River, and infused a stream of pure and rich blood into Vir- 
ginia society." Not entirely satisfied with their situation, a 
part of this colony, led by their noble, godly, exiled pastor,- 
Richebourg, migrated to the Trent River. Richebourg was a 
decided French Presbyterian, of unobtrusive manners, fervid 
piety, exalted character, and devotion to the cause of Christ. 
His life was filled with toils, poverty, hope, faith and charity, 
and his example of suffering patience encouraged his refugee 
banished countrj'men bravely to bear their multipled hard- 
ships. Unsettled by the horrid Tuscarora massacre of 1711, 
he and some others of the Trent colony inoved southward to 
South Carolina, and settled on the Santee River. For two or 
three years he seems to have been without charge, and in 
straitened circumstances. He then succeeded the aged Rev. 
Pierre Robert, as pastor of the Huguenot Church on the San- 
tee River. Although this church had conformed to the "Es- 
tablished Church," Mr. Richebourg never accepted Episcopal 
ordination. Though the charters of Charles 11. from policy 
granted liberty of conscience, great pressure was brought to 
bear on French Protestants and others, to bring them into con- 

*Foote's Tluguenots, pp. 526-534; Howe's Presbyterian Church in South 
Carolina; Kev. C. S. Vedder, D. D., Huguenots of South Carolina, etc. 


formity with the Church of England. Subjected to many an- 
noyances and disabilities; denied membership in the Legisla- 
ture; the organization of their Clmrch and ministry, the legal- 
ity of their marriages, and the legitimacy of their children im- 
pugned, while they were too poor to sustain their own ordi- 
nances with regularity, but were offered sujiport for loth 
ChxircJi and minister hy the Government; some of these congre- 
gations slowly yielded their cherished convictions. Many, 
however, stood firm, and conquered at last. 

De liichebourg died, serving the Santee Church, about 1717. 
His will breathes the spirit of true Christianity, and exhibits 
this faithful servant of the cross still resigned to the dispensa- 
tions of Providence, steadfast in the faith, and triumphant at 
approaching death. This will was long preserved in Charles- 
ton, S. C. Recently I searched for it in the Probate-Judge's 
office in that city. The general index recorded its existence 
and location ; but alas ! with many other priceless treasures, re- 
moved inland for safety, the unbound package containing it had 
been consumed in the great fire, kindled by General Sherman 
in fated Columbia. 

Surveyor-General Lawson* testifies thus about these Fi-ench 
Protestants: "They live as decently and happily as any plan- 
ters in these southward parts of America. The French being 
a temperate, industrious people; some of them bringing very 
little of effects, yet, by their endeavors and mutual assistance 
amongst themselves — (which is highly to be commended) — have 
outstripped our English, who brouglit with them larger for- 
tunes, though (as it seems) less endeavor to manage their talent 
to the best advantage. 'Tis admirable to see what time and 
industry will, with God's blessing, effect." An effort was 
made to introduce silk-culture, and eggs wei'e shipped to Caro- 
lina; but they hatched during the voyage, and, there being no 
food for their support on board the ship, they all died. "Mon- 
sieur Philip de Pixbourg," says Lawson, " assured me, that 
their intent was to propagate vines, as far as their present cir- 
cumstances would permit." 

♦Lawson's Hist. N. C, pp. 28-30, 141, 187. 


"With regard to their religion he remarks, " They are all of 
the same opinion with the Church of Geneva, there being no 
difference among them concerning the punctilios of their Chris- 
tian faith; which union hath propagated a happy and delight- 
ful concord in all other matters throughout the whole neighbor- 
hood, living amongst themselves as one tribe or kindred, every 
one making it his business to be assistant to the wants of his 
countryman, preserving his estate and reputation with the same 
exactness and concern as he does his own, all seeming to share 
in the misfortunes, and rejoice at the advance and rise of their 
brethren." They were trne Presbyterians in their forms of 
M''orship, their government, and the order of their clergy ; and 
in their creed followed their renowned countryman, John 
Calvin. In polite and elegant manners, severe morality, wise 
charity, frugal and successful industry, they were evidentl}' far 
above the English settlers. Bancroft well says: " The children 
of the French Calvinists have certainly good reason to hold the 
memory of their fathers in great honor." The admixture of 
Huguenot blood in our body politic has been an admirable 
blessing. It has been compared to the gold which tlie Rus- 
sians cast into the molten mass of metal for the great bell of 
Moscow. Though they did not in numbers so greatly increase 
American population, or alter its salient features, yet they did 
give a finer tone to character, and a richer melody to the drama 
of living; the refinement of elegant courtesy to society, and 
lofty chivalry for right and liberty. There is power in noble 
traditions, and enduring life in tlie blood of the true, the pure, 
and the brave. Who does not feel this, as his pulse throbs with 
honest exultation at the mere mention of such monumental 
names as those of the Huguenots, Henry Lanrens^ the first Presi- 
dent of the Continental Congress ; Matthew Fontaine Maury ^ the 
High Priest of the seas, pathless before he marked their high- 
ways; Gabriel Manigaidt^ who at seventy-five years of age laid 
his fortune at the command of his State — South Carolina — and 
his struggling country; Francis Marion, prince of partizan 
leaders in the wai* of liberty ; and many others, whose fame 
lives as a diadem for their admiring land i Though, in the 


Indian Massticre, these Huguenot colonists were victims, yet 
they have descendants who hold up the hlue banner of their 
forefathers' nuirtyr-faith. 

Our attention is next challenged by 

He was a citizen of Bern, Switzerland, the elder son of An- 
tony De Griiaffenried, Lord of Worb, and descended from a 
" De Griiaffenriedt," or Graffenried, a follower of the great 
Duke Berchthold V., the founder of the city of Bern. This 
ancestor built the family castle of " Worb," six miles from 
Bern, and inherited by Christopher in 1730, after his return 
from Carolina with broken fortune. It is still in good preser- 
vation. Christopher is described as a handsome and fascinating 
man, a great favorite of Queen Anne, of England. Upon 
his purchasing a large body of land, with certain privileges, 
from the Lords Proprietors of Carolina, she made him a Baron 
of England and Landgrave of Carolina. His patent of nobil- 
ity, written in Latin on parchment, and his insignia of rank, 
his golden star, with its obscure heraldic devices, and his seal, 
are in possession of one of his lineal descendants in Dougherty 
Comity, Ga. Tradition, fond of the romantic, has long woven 
around the " star " the pretty story, that when he was a prisoner 
among the fierce and implacable Indians, he saved his life by 
its exhibition in proof that he was a king, and they dared not 
kill him. 

De Graffenried had been "Bailli," or Mayor, or (tovernor 
of Yverdon, in Xeufchatel, under commission from the Senate 
of Bern. Here he met financial reverses, and seeing no chance 
of recuperation at home, he — against the wishes of friends and 
relatives — leaving his private affairs in confusion, secretly started 
for England, with the design of building up his fortune in far- 
off America. Long had he been attracted thither from previous 
association with the deceased Duke of Albemarle. He seems 
to have been a mere adventurer, ready for any money-making 
scheme. With himself he associated Ludwig Michel, or Lewis 
Mitchell, also from Bern, and possessing considerable know- 


ledge of America. Lawson, in his history, speaks of "my in- 
genious friend, Mr. Francis Louis Mitchell, of Bern, in Switz- 
erland, who has been for several years very indefatigable and 
strict in his discoveries amongst those vast ledges of mountains 
and spacious tracts of land lying towards the heads of the 
great bays and rivers of Yirginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania, 
where he has discovered a spacious country, inhabited by none 
but savages, and not many of them, who yet are of a very 
friendly nature to the Christians. This gentleman has been 
employed by the Canton of Bern to find out a tract of land in 
the English America, where the republic might settle some of 
their people, which proposal, I believe, is now in a fair way to- 
wards a conclusion between her Majesty of Great Britain and 
that Canton, which must needs be of great advantage to both." 

Prof. Loher (History of the Germans) describes them both 
as bold and shrewd men. Williamson, near their day, says 
they regarded the Germans as objects of speculation. They 
are pictured as enthusiasts, who believed that North Carolina 
was the real El Dorado. Such emigration agents, dressed 
splendidly, traversed Europe, and offered poor people most fasci- 
nating inducements to emigrate. The " Journal of the House 
of Commons" says, "There were books and papers dispersed 
with tlie Queen's picture, and the title page in letters of gold, 
which, on that account, were called 'the Golden Book,' to en- 
courage the people to come to England to be sent to the Caro- 
linas.^'' Pemembering the tactics of agents to-da}^, we can un- 
derstand what power was then wielded by such canvassers over 
the ignorant, poor and oppressed, as well as those of romantic 
and adventurous dispositions; and can also measure the bitter 
disappointment that frequently bowed down newly arrived emi- 
grants, whose voyage had been filled with rosy dreams. Tlie 
same system was pursued by John Peter Purry, of I^eufchatel, 
in 1731, in his descriptive pamj^hlet about South Carolina, which 
he scattered in Switzerland to gather his people, as he success- 
fully did, for that colony. 

It is diflScult to get accurate information about the Palatine and 
Swiss colonists brought by De Graffenried and Mitchell, and 


-especially about their ecclesiastical affairs, before and after their 
arrival. I have made very laborious search after this know- 
ledge, and had an extensive correspondence with the most 
learned and best informed men and women in this State and 
country, with this result in the main, the belief that such light 
can be gotten, if obtainable at all, only from hidden old man- 
uscripts hereabouts, or from documents in European libraries. 
Yet some facts, new to most persons, will be stated in connec- 
tion with others of general history. Also valuable and en- 
tirely new matter will be given from a yet unpublished and 
extended contempoi-ary manuscript history of his colony by 
De Graffenried. Tiiis document, written in barbarous French, 
has recently been copied from the original in the public library 
of Yverdon, Canton de Vaud, and will fill eighty pages in the 
Colonial Records^ now in press. 

The Palatinate was a fine province on both sides of the up- 
per Rhine. Its capital was Heidelberg, on the I^eckar, with 
its picturesque castle, and its famous university. The Elector 
Palatine, Frederick III., surnamed "the Pious," who died in 
1576, was one of the noblest and purest German princes, — the 
German Alfred, — and was devoted to the advancement of the 
political, educational and ecclesiastical prosperity of his people. 
The crowning achievement of his reign was the preparation 
by those learned and pious theologians and reformers, Zacha- 
rias Ursinns and Caspar Olevianus, of the Heidell)erg Cate- 
chism. This is one of the most celebrated formularies of doc- 
trine ever composed, and stands to day side by side with the 
Westminster Confession of Faith. It was called "The Pala- 
tine Catechism"; stood as the symbol of the Palatine Churcli, 
and formed the foundation of family instruction. It was 
adopted in St. Gall, Schaffhausen and Pern ; was the first Pro- 
testant catechism planted on American soil, viz. : on Manhattan 
Island, in 1009; and was the banner of The Refonned i'hurch. 
To the youthful Ursinus Calvin presented, in Geneva, his 
works, and wrote in them his best wishes. Lutherans, how- 


ever, were numerous in the Palatinate. But the elector Fred- 
erick, though reproached and threatened, made before the em- 
peror, at the diet of Augsburg, in 1566, as manly a confession 
of his Reformed Creed as Luther at Worms, and evoked the ad- 
miration of his opponents, and the applause of the Lutheran 
Elector of Saxony: "Fritz, thou art more pious than all of 

In 1613, Elizabeth, daughter of James I of England, was 
married to Frederick, Protestant Elector Palatine, and after- 
wards King of Bohemia. George IL of England was their 
grandson ; and so Queen Victoria is descended from Elizabeth, 
who was also the great aunt of Queen Anne. After several 
changes in the Palatinate, Charles, Elector Palatine, died 
without issue, and the electorial dignity went, in 1685, to the 
house of Newburg, a bigoted popish family. This upper Pala- 
tinate of the Bhine suffered untold horrors from a long series 
of desolating wars, and the merciless ravages of Tilly, Turenne, 
and Louis XIV. of France, and the unremitting persecutions by 
the popish Elector of these decided Protestant subjects, who 
would die rather than recant. In 1622, 1634, 1688 and 1693, 
Heidelberg was taken, and desolated with Mohammedan cru- 
elty. The beautiful land was cursed by the rage of man. 
Houses were burned, scores of cities sacked, and in Winter, the 
whole population were driven into fields covered with snow 
and ice. Encouraged by a proclamation by Queen Anne, and 
favorable reports from countrymen who had gone before, 
12,000 Palatines went to England in the summer of 1709, and 
encamped in tents near London. Here they were pitiable ob- 
jects of English charity, and at the same time creators of se- 
rious discontent among the English poor ; for bread was scarce, 
and commanding double price, while these foreigners were 
supported by public collections and by the Queen. Twenty 
thousand pounds were paid into the treasury for them. So the 
native sufferers grumbled, and the House of Commons even 
voted that all who encouraged the Palatines to come to Eng- 
land were enemies to tlie nation. Hence they must be removed. 
Ireland and the American colonies afforded appropriate out- 


lets. De Graffenricd estimated that, at the very time of his 
arrival, more than 20,000 Palatines came to England, but 
"intermingled with many Swiss and people of other German 
provinces." He and Mitchell were looking for a profitable 
speculation, and ready to grapple with this problem for a 
consideration. It was understood that "the Queen would not 
only assume the expense of their transportation, but also be- 
stow upon them considerable assistance. This really took 
place; and this last sum amounted to o£-i,000 sterling." Other 
advantageous promises gilded the enterprise. Between De 
Graffenried and the Lords Proprietors was drawn up an elabo- 
rate contract, which still exists. His pay was five and a half 
pounds apiece for six hundred and fifty Palatines transported 
to North Carolina — more than $18,000. Liberal provision 
was made for their comfort on arrival, and for their sup- 
port for a year in their new homes. This agreement bears 
date October, 1709. Young people, healthy and laborious, 
and of all kinds of occupations, were selected, and ample provi- 
sion was made for their comfortable voyage in well-equipped 
ships. De Graifenried appointed three directors, notables 
from North Carolina, tlien in London, one of whom seems to 
have been Lawson, the surveyor-general; for he could not 
himself sail with them, as he had to await his colonists from 

On the day before sailing, he went to Gravesend, on the 
Thames, with Rev. Mr. Cesar, a German reformed minister of 
London, who preached a feeHng and appropriate sermon to the 
departing emigrants. On account of the war, Rear-Admiral 
Noris was permitted — as a signal favor — to escort the two ves- 
sels with his squadron as far as the latitude of Portugal. They 
sailed in mild weather, in January, 1710; but were overtaken 
by such terrible storms that the voyage lasted tliirteen weeks. 
All suffered, and more than half died at sea, and many after 
lauding died from eating imprudently. One of the vessels, 
containing tlie best goods and colonists, was plundered by a 
French captain at the mouth of James River. They landed 
in Virginia, not daring to go by sea to Carolina on account of 


privateers, and the bars at the mouths of the rivers. The rem- 
nant, being recruited a little, travelled by land to Colonel Pol- 
lock's, in Albemarle, on the Chowan. Thence they crossed the 
Sound into Bath County, and "were located (in May or June) 
by the Surveyor-General" (Lawson) "on a tongue of land be- 
tween the News and Trent rivers, called Chattawka^ where 
afterwards was founded the small city of New Bern." (Note: 
This is the way De Graflfenried writes the name.) He says that 
Lawson cheated them terribly, by putting them on his own land, 
on the southern bank of Trent, " at the very hottest and most 
unhealthy place," and selling them the before-mentioned tongue 
of land at a heavy price and as uninhabited, whereas it was not 
his, and Indians still lived there. De Graffenried afterwards 
bought this tongue from the Indian King Taylor. 

With faith in their leaders, and committing their money to 
De Graffenried, tliese "poor Palatines" (as the3' were termed) 
had come to the new world. They "were forced to stay until 
September in the greatest poverty, and to sell nearly all their 
clothes and movables to the neighboring inhabitants, in order 
to sustain their life." 

^rriual ol i\i\^ Sttiiss. 

The Swiss embarked in Holland, under contract with the 
•owner of a ship from Boston, and sailed for Newcastle, in the 
northeast of England, where De Graffenried joined them and 
sailed for Yirginia at the beginning of June, 1710. Only one 
ship-load is mentioned, so the number of Swiss could not have 
been as large as sometimes stated. They had a happy passage, 
in want of nothing, and pursued the same journey the Pala- 
tines had traversed, by Col. Pollock's, and so on to New Bern. 
There "a sad state of things, sickness, want, and desperation 
having reach their climax," greeted them. De Graffenried's 
life was in danger. The troubles of Cary's rebellion were upon 
him, too. He set to work energetically to establish the colony 
in comfort. He says that in eighteen months they "managed 
to build homes and make themselves so comfortable, that they 
made more progress in that length of time than the English 


inhabitants in several years." There was only one water-mill 
in the wole province ; rude mortars and hand-mills were used 
for breaking their corn. But his colonists arranged wheel- 
works on the brooklets to pound their grain, and he began the 
construction of a water-mill. But as after " such cross-accidents, 
misliaps, and inconveniences," a happy state of things was dawn- 
ing upon them, the desolating Indian massacre and long war 
burst in fury over their homes, and he was captured by the 
savages. Before giving a condensation of his account of his 
captivity, and the close of his connection with the settlement, 
we will further consider the colonists. 

3:ccle$ia$tical Affairs. 

Some of these Palatines were doubtless Lutherans. But 
judging from facts already given, and from their well known 
history in Xew York and Pennsylvania, large numbers, if not 
the body of them, must have been Reformed or Calvinists. 
When, in 1746, Eev. Michael Schlatter (who was from St, 
Gall, Switzerland,) was sent by the Synod of Holland to look 
after the Eeformed German churches, he ti'avelled in his in- 
vestigating and organizing tour from the Delaware to beyond 
the Potomac, and found forty-six churches and 30,000 Re- 
formed population. These were largely from the Palatinate. 
In the manual of the Reformed Church in America, by Rev. 
E. T. Corwin, D. D., it is stated, that "the full tide of emi- 
gration did not fairly begin" (from the Palatinate) "till about 
1709. In this year four thousand Palatinates embarked for 
Kew York, but seventeen hundred died on the passage. They 
were invited to settle on the Livingston Manor, and many of 
them did so. Others settled in Schoharie and in the valley of 
the Mohawk. The following year large numbers of the same 
cl&ssjfed to North Carolina (where some French Protestants 
had already settled on the banks of the !Xeuse), and founded 
Neio Bern. They had preachers among them. But in 1713 the 
settlement was broken up by the Indians. The remnant fled 
to South Carolina." 

The "Ilistoric Manual of the Reformed Church," by Prof. 


Jos. H. Dnbbs, D. D., of Lancaster, Pa., states that " Hemy 
Hoeger, a Keformed minister, appears to have accompanied 
De Graff enried's Swiss colony, which, in 1710, founded Kew 
Bern, N. C. When the settlement had been scattered by the 
Tnscarora Indians, he accompanied about fifty of the survivors 
to Yirginia, where they were employed by Governor Spottis- 
woode. A cotemporary document, preserved in Perry's 'His- 
toric Collections,' relates ' that there went out with the first 
twelve families one minister, named Henry Hoeger, a very 
sober, honest man, of about seventy-five years of age. But 
he being likely to be past service in a short time, they have 
empowered Mr. Jacob Christ ofle Zollikofer, of St. Gall, in 
Switzerland, to go into Europe, there to obtain, if possible, 
some contributions from pious and charitable Christians to- 
wards the building of their church, and the bringing over with 
him of a young German minister to assist the aforesaid Mr. 
Hoeger in the ministry of religion, and to succeed him when 
he shall die, and to get him ordained in England by the Rt. 
Rev. Bishop of London, and to bring over with him the liturgy 
of the Church of England, translated into high Dutch, which 
they are desirous to use in public worship. They also seek 
the support of a minister from the Venerable Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel.' It seems, they felt themselves too 
weak to stand alone, and consequently 'conformed' to the Es- 
tablished Church. They were organized into an Episcopal 
Parish, with the reserved r?(/ht to emjdoy their own ?ninisters, 
and on their own terms.'''' Acting under dire stress of adverse 
circumstances, they were still unwilling to bind themselves 
blindly and inextricably. In Western Carolina the Reformed 
Germans entered Granville County in 1740 under better aus- 
pices, with ministers Tobler and Zuberblihler. 

The sin of these Germans was their Protestantism. They 
brought with them across the ocean their B'lUes, hymn-hooks^ 
catechisms^ and other religious hooks. 

I have found and copied the following interesting item from 
the old records of the Court of Quarter Sessions in Craven 
County, December, 1740. Present: George Roberts, Joseph 


Haniiis, and James Macklwaine, Esqrs : " A petition of the 
Palintines or High Germans praying that they may have 
Liherty to hnild a Chaple on trent for a phice of worship etc — 
granted — " 

This looks as if these poor ^^ Palintines'''' had not forgotten 
the great embodiment of their heroic faith, tlie Heidelberg 
Catechism of 1563. In 1729, there were 15,000 of these 
Germans and Swiss in Pennsylvania; and in 1731, eight hun- 
dred exiled Palatines passed through Dordrecht, while the 
Synod of Holland was in session there, to embark at Rotter- 
dam for America. This Presbyterian Synod visited them in 
a body, held worship with them, ministered to their necessi- 
ties, and promised future aid to these brethren of the common 
Reformed faith. 

I'fie Swiss. 

What were the causes of the large Swiss emigration to 
America ? Many from Switzerland were refugees there. That 
republic was the common refuge for persecuted Protestants in 
the Reformation period. The tires of bloody Mary in England, 
tlie relentless fury of the Spanish in the Netherlands, the dia- 
bolical revocation of the edict of Nantes by France, drove 
numbers of English, French and Dutch to this mountain re- 
treat, where Italians joined them in holy exile and noble suf- 
fering for Christ. John Knox and John Calvin are illustrious 
examples. By an agreement between the Protestant Cantons, 
Bern was to receive and aid one-half of the needy fugitives. 
At one time nearly every well-to-do family in tlie Canton Zu- 
rich had one or more refugees quartered upon it by order of 
the government. Antintes Hess says (Tercentenary Volume, 
Zurich, 1819), "From 1682 to 1685 many hundreds of French 
exiles settled in Zurich. In 1686, one thousand Piedmontese 
refugees arrived. In 1688, there were more than 3,000. In 
1687, the Swiss confederation sent delegates to the Palatinate^ 
Brandenburg, Hesse, and Holland, requesting the governments 
of these countries to aid Switzerland in providing for the exiles 
of tlie Reformed Church." In 1687, in five weeks, 8,000 Pro- 
testant refugees entered Geneva; 28,000 had passed through 

62 Nj:W BERN. 

seeking some asylum, and ordinarily there were 3,000 in the 
city. The French Protestant Refugee Fund, established in 
1545, and having 8,000 crowns capital, was exhausted. In 
1696, there were in the Canton of Bern, including its depen- 
dency, the Pays du Yaux, 6,500 male refugees, of whom 2,000 
were paupers, dependent on public support. Some German- 
Swiss objected to the billeting refugees on them ; and guards, 
with halberds in hand, had to force the hospitality. Legacies, 
donations, collections in churches, appeals of the Waldenses, 
and public subsidies, were given to maintain the suffering 
of Christ's persecuted people. Still earnest efforts were made 
to facilitate their departure. Thousands were helped to leave, 
but many were driven back by the army of Louis XIV. In 
1703, many came from the Principality of Orange. Many of 
these refugees were l)lessings to Switzerland ; but their num- 
bers were too large. Such was the stoi-y year after year, until 
the burden became ruinous, and the hospitable Cantons were 
compelled to find homes for their homeless and unbidden guests. 
Moreover, many refugees were skilled mechanics, and took 
work away from native artizans, so that great distress ensued.* 
Einhjration was relief. 

The religious war in Switzerland, in 1703 and onward, caused 
sore disturbances and ruin. Switzerland depended for its politi- 
cal existence on fidelity to the treaty of Westphalia, made in 
1638. Catholics, Lutherans and Reformed were the only reli- 
gious bodies recognized by that settlement. Anarchical Anabap- 
tists were not to be tolerated; so a violent persecution arose 
against the Mennonites in Zurich and Bern, which reached its 
culmination in 1710. Many of this sect went to the Palatinate, 
and thence to Pennsylvania. (Seidenstecker's Gedachtnissblat- 
ter, page ^^^) Tliere were also Swiss who quit their country be- 
cause they could not conscientiously subscribe to the " Helvetic 
Consensus Formula," directed against certain errors of the 
French Church, and prevailing for half a century after its 
adoption by the Reformed Cantons in 1675. (Mosheim, III. 
435 ; Schaff's Creeds, I. 477, &c.) 

* Weiss's Prot. Ref ugeep, Vol. II. pp. 163, &c. 


Tliese influences, united to the movements of the skilful em-- 
igration agents before recited, sufiiciently account for a wide 
spread willingness to seek new homes. 

l-ccfesiasficnl (C\\avntitv. 

Switzerland was the birth-place and home of the Reformed 
Church This was the State Church. In form it was Presby- 
terian, and in doctrine Augustinian, as set fortli in its Isiceno- 
Constantinopolitan C^rced. Its great theologians were Calvin, 
and Francis Tnrrettine, with the lesser, jet brilliant liglits, 
Oecolampadius, Farel, Zwingli, and Bullenger. The Palatinate 
Confession was accepted in Switzerland; and the second Helve- 
tic Confession, prepared by Pnllenger, in 156G, and adopted by 
eight Swiss Cantons, was also adopted by the Palatinate. Bern, 
the most conservative, aristocratic and influential Canton in 1528, 
led by Zwingli, promulgated her famous " Ten Conclusions," 
which were approved by all the leading Swiss reformers. This 
was clearly the Calvinistic faith, professed by tlie South Caro- 
lina Swiss at Pnrrysburg, with their pastor, Kev. Jos. Btirgnion ; 
by the Swiss pastors. Christian Theus, in the Congaree settle- 
ment, and John Ulrich Giessendanner, at Orangeburg. In 
worship and doctrine, then, the Swiss were doubtless Presbyte- 
rian and apostolic, and seem generally to have been sincerely 
attached to their creed and clmrcli. 

Great difficulties existed in obtaining ministers for the Ger- 
man Peformed churches, and supporting them. The Classis of 
the Palatinate was " The Church Under the Cross," persecuted 
and poor, and appealed to the Synod of Holland for help for 
its American emigrants. The Classis of Amsterdam agreed to 
help them, provided they adhered to the Heidelberg Cate- 
chism, the Palatinate Confession of Faith, and the Canons and 
Kules of Church Government of Dort. Mr. Schlatter, in 1746, 
found only four regularly ordained ministers for forty-six 
churches and 30,000 people. It was deemed necessary for a 
long time to get tlieir clergy from Europe, or to send their 
candidiites on tlie long and expensive voyage acrot-s the ocean 
to be ordained. These difficulties, and desires to have some 

64: NEW BERN. 

ministrations of the Gospel, gave a fine opportunity for the Es- 
tablished Church of England, with its wealth, position and 
prestige, to proselyte the newcomers. In some cases they were 
successful; but generally they were earnestly resisted and fully 
thwarted. Illustrations may be seen in Corwin's " Manual of 
the Reformed Church," in accounts of Scliiatter, John H. Goet- 
schey, Michael Weiss, — all Swiss preachers, — and others. 

A fulsome, cringing, disgusting letter was written from 
New Bern in 1711, by De Graifenried to the Bishop of Lon- 
don, "humbly requesting your lordship to accept of me and my 
people, and receive us into your Cluirch, under your lordship's 
patronage, and w^e shall esteem ourselves happy aoiis of a let- 
ter stock,^^ and more of that sort. Nothing save a recommen- 
dation seems to have resulted from this petition. De Graifen- 
ried writes as if he had the consciences of men made of martyr 
stuff in his pocket, as he had their money and the titles to 
their lands. His moral integrity, illustrated in his treach- 
erously failing to give them titles to their lands, and causing 
them to appeal to the crown for relief, and his speculation in 
bringing them over, were scarcely so attractive as to exalt him 
to spiritual leadership. It seems improbable that these emi- 
-grants, as a body, authorized that letter, and recanted apostolic 
principle, for which they were so lately willing to die. Nei- 
ther does it appear, so far as the history of this people can be 
followed in their children, that any large portion of them en- 
tered the Estal)lished Church. Lack of religious privileges 
and organization resulted in scattering those who survived the 
Indian massacre, and remained in this section, into various 
churches as they were established. 

He (Sraflcnriei's OHapfurc. 

In September, 1711, taking fifteen days' provision, two ne- 
groes to row, and, for safety, two well-known Indian neigh- 
bors, one of whom spoke English, De Graffenried started up 
the Neuse River with Lawson for general exploration. He 


-wished to know whether the river was navigable higher up, 
how far it was to the mountains, and whether a new and bet- 
ter road to A^irginia could be laid out. No danger was appre- 
hended, for no savages lived on the river. One Indian went 
on the Baron's horse by land, and, being compelled at one 
place to cross the river, came to the Indian King Hencock's 
village, Catechna. The Indians questioned him, were alarmed, 
kept the horse, and sent the rider to warn the boating parties 
that they would not be permitted to advance, but must return. 
It being late when the bad news was received, they landed at 
the next spring, not far from another village, Coerntha, to 
pass the night. A number of armed Indians met them, plun- 
dered their things, and took them prisoners. They were proud 
of the capture, for they took De Graffenried to be Governor of 
the Province; ran them all night through the woods, thickets 
and swamps, and about three o'clock in the morning reached 
Catechna, where King Ilencock was sitting in state on a plat- 
form, with his council around him. Their case was discussed, 
but no conclusion was reached. Vengeance was wanted "for 
the rough dealings of a few wicked English Carolinians who 
lived near the Pamptego, Neuse and Trent Rivers." It was 
also to be ascertained what "help they could expect from their 
Indian neighbors." 

By ten o'clock at night, the neighboring kings, with their 
retinues, had come in; and the "assembly of the great, consist- 
ing of forty elders sitting on the ground around a tire, con- 
vened, with King Ilencock presiding, examined the prisoners, 
and consulted. They complained of abuses by the whites, and 
especially of Surveyor-General Lawson. After a vote it was 
determined that they could be liberated on the morrow. Dur- 
ing some delay the next day in getting their canoe, some other 
distinguished Indians arrived, and a second examination was 
held at King Hencock's cabin, two miles from the village. 
The king of the village. Core, reproached Lawson for some- 
thing, and the two had a violent quarrel, which De GrafFenried 
vainly tried to arrest. He sharply upbraided Lawson for his 
imprudence in such delicate circumstances. Suddenly three or 


or four of the "Great" pounced upon them, threw their hats 
and periwigs into the fire, led thera to the Council-ground, con- 
demned them to death without assigning any cause, kept them 
sitting in one position on the ground until daylight, and then 
led them to the execution ground. Bitterly did the Baron re- 
proach Lawson as the cause of their misfortune, and with 
great zeal set about making his peace with God. Seeing a 
savage dressed like a Christian, who knew English, he asked 
the cause of their condemnation. He reluctantly answered: 
"Wh}^ Lawson had quarreled with Cor Tom? That we 
had threatened that we would avenge ourselves on the In- 
dians." He took this Indian aside, explained matters to him, 
and offered large rewards if he would show his innocence to 
some of the " Great." 

Bound hand and feet, undressed, and bare-headed, they with 
the larger negro were seated in the centre of the exoviution- 
ground. Before them burned a fierce fire ; near by stood the 
grizzled highpriest, then a wolf skin, and a motionless savage 
"in the most dreadful and horrible position, with a knife in one 
hand and an axe in the other." A great dancing rabble, beat- 
ing drum, mournful singing, guns discharging, dreadful bowl- 
ings, faces painted black, red, and white, hair greased and 
sprinkled over with small pieces of cotton or with feathers and- 
flying out, all dressed like a set of devils, and darting in and 
out of the wood, combined to make a fearful scene, premonitory 
of horible agonies. De Graffenried prayed fervently, recalled 
what lie had read in the Scripture and other good books, and 
" prepared himself to a good and salutary death." Especially 
did Christ's rtiiracles comfort him. Again night approached, 
another immense fire was kindled in the woods, and the Coun- 
cil once more assembled. Knowing that one of them under- 
stood English, he addressed them, asserted his innocence, threat- 
ened the vengeance of the powerful Queen of England if they 
shed his blood, and made promises for his liberation. One of 
the notables, a relative of King Taylor, from whom the site of 
New Bern had l)een bought, spoke earnestly in his favor. A 
delegation was thereupon sent to their neighbors, the Tusca- 


roras, to consult King Tom Blunt. He says: "I spent that 
whole night in great anguish, awaiting my fate (always bound 
in the same place) in continuous prayers and sighs. Mean- 
while I also examined my poor negro, exhorting him in the 
best way I knew, and he gave me more satisfaction than I ex- 
pected ; — htit I lei Sarmyor-General Laioson o-ffer his own 
prayers^ as being a man of understanding^ and not ovev-reli- 
giousP Towards morning the delegates returned, and De 
Graftenried was unbound and told he had nothing to fear, but 
was forbidden to speak to Lawson, who took leave of him, and 
told him to say farewell in his name to his friends. The negro 
was also liberated, and the Baron was led away. His record 
states, "They executed that unfortunate Lawson; as to liis 
death, I know nothing certain ; some Indians told me that he 
was threatened to have his throat cut with the razor which was 
found in his pocket, — what also acknowledged the small negro, 
who was not executed, — Init some said he was hung, some said 
he was burnt. The Indians kept that execution very secret. 
God have mercy upon the poor soul!" Chief-Justice Gale, 
however, understood from the Indians that " they stuck him full 
of fine splinters of torch-wood^ like hogs' bristles^ and so set 
them gradually on fire.'''' 

De Graffenried was kept a prisoner for six weeks, while live 
hundred Indians were murdering and plundering the colonists,, 
and women and children were brouglit in as prisoners with great 
booty. A boy he knew from his own German settlement told 
him the sad tale. At length he made a treaty with the Tusca- 
roras, Marmusckits, and Cors ; and, by a promised ransom, and 
a threatening message from Governor Spottiswood, he was car- 
ried to Tasqui, a palisaded Tuscarora village; where a great 
council was held around the big fire in their town circle. Dan- 
gers threatened liim still, and especially from an advance of 
sixty English and Palatines on the village of Catechna. The 
colonists were repelled with loss. Two days afterwards two 
notables escorted him on a horse two leagues, gave liim a piece 
of Indian-bread, and warning him of danger in the forest from 
foreign Indians, advised him to run as fast as he could for two- 

■68 NEW BERN. 

Lours. So he did till nigbt, and went on for two days without 
arms, a knife, or anything with which to strike fire. Nearly 
dead with cold and exposure, his legs and arms stiff and swollen, 
supporting himself on two sticks, and tanned by exposure, as he 
aj^proached his fortified^house, he looked so much like a ghost 
or an Indian spy, that his people did not at first recognize him ; 
soon, however, men, women and children met him with sur- 
prise, shouting and weeping, that moved him to tears. 

Troubles now multiplied around the New Bern Colony. Sixty 
or seventy Palatines and Swiss had been killed ; many had run 
away; some had been seduced to join the English in a garrison; 
half tlie Palatines had deserted during the Baron's imprison- 
ment ; fifteen were prisoners, waiting ransom ; provisions and 
ammunition were exhausted ; and with a crowd of women and 
children, he had only forty men able to bear arms. Brice and 
A turbulent Palatine blacksmith destroyed the effects of his 
treaty with the Indians, so that houses marked with "N," ac- 
cording to its stipulations, were sacked. He supported the 
remnant for twenty-two weeks at his own expense. But the 
end was near. Disorganization, dissension, cowardice and 
destitution, were everywhere. His credit was gone, and his 
drafts were protested. An astonishing and almost incredible 
series of mishaps attended everything he attempted. Gary de- 
fied all the injunctions of the Lords Proprietors, and all their 
fair promises failed liim. He hurls about very liberally his 
denunciations of ignorance, cowardice, incapacity and rascality, 
while he classes himself as " an honest man and a good Chris- 
tian." Mitchell is charged with grave deception about the 
mines, and dishonest practices. A writ of arrest was issued 
against himself for a protested bill of exchange. He skulked in a 
friend's house ; tried to run ofl:" his slaves ; thought once of mov- 
ing the " remainder of the faitliful Palatines and the small band 
of Swiss" to the mines in Virginia; mortgaged his property to 
Colonel Pollock ; then abused his colonists as the cause of their 
own disasters, being deserters from their king and from him, 
and such ungodly people — " thieves, lewd fellows, profane fel- 
lows, slanderers" — "that it is no wonder if the Alniiglitv has 


punished tliera by irieuns of the heathen, — for they are worse 
than tliese, .... I was more sorry to leave such a beautiful 
and good country than such wicked people. There were, how- 
evei*, some little good grain, 1 mean a few persons fearing God, 
who loved me and whom I loved ; I wish them all kind of 
prosperity. May God convert the balance !'' So he grew 
angry, bitter in his disappointment, prejudiced, and unjust. 
Slipping off to New York, — which he found a " nice place," — he 
sailed thence to England, where he arrived in the spring of 
1713, and reached Bern on the day of St. Martin, 1713. He 
dared not take a passport in London from fear of arrest by his 
American creditors. The cold shoulder was given him by old 
friends, — " many people bloated up ^^■ith pride or arrogance !" 
he says. His " company " abandons him, " and so, I was com- 
pelled to abandon that colony." And now comes the conclud- 
ing pious retlection of this tried Bernese-Palatine speculating 
philanthropist ; " since fate will not favor me any more in this 
world, there is no better remedy than to leave it and to seek 
the treasure from above, where moth and rust doth not con- 
sume, and where thieves do not break through nor steal." 

3^outtdttt(s of Iteiu Bern* 

De Graffenried spoke to the Indians of the proof of his good 
intentions given "by the gentleness and civility of my behavior 
towards them, and by the payment which I made to them of 
the lands where I had settled at first, and w/iere I had foxinded 
the small toicn of JS^eio Bern, although I had already paid 
double their worth to the surveyor Lawson." It was probably 
laid off by Lawson and Col. Pollock in May or June, 1710, and 
was called XewBcrn, in compliment to Bern, the birth-place of 
both the Baron and Mitchell, leaders of the colony. At the 
foot of Broad street, on the Ilseuse, was formerly a hill, called 
" Council Bluff." Here in solemn assemblage, around their 
fiercely blazing council fires, the revengeful savages, under 
King Taylor, deliberated on war, peace, or vengeance. Be- 
tween this dread spot and the foot of Craven street is said to 
lie the location of the original settlers of the City of Elms. 


So was born the second town in North Carolina, Bath having 
been laid out in 1705. Bath never grew. In Novemb^er, 1723, 
Kew Bern was made a township, covering two hundred and 
fifty acres, and soon became the Capital of the colony. The 
old deeds in the clerk's office contain this singular provision, 
that if the purchaser of the town lot died without heirs, or a 
will, the property would escheat to Cullen Pollock, his heirs 
or assigns. Purchasers also pay a pepper-corn rent, if de- 

^ratii^n Cotttttgt 

Was named after WiUia^i, Earl of Cr'aven, one of the Lords 
Proprietors, and called in the charter, " our trusty and well be- 
loved William Lord Craven." In the interesting gallery of 
paintings in Kensington Museum, London, I recently saw a 
portrait of the Earl, painted by Honhorst, and presented by 
the Earl of Craven, in December, 1868. His face is remark- 
ably fine. Beneath the picture runs this legend : 


" 1606-1692, Son of Sir "William Craven, Merchant Tailor and Lord 
Mayor of London, 
" Served with distinction under Gustavus Adolphus, and afterwards entered 
the service of the Prince of Orange. He aided with the wealth at his com- 
mand the exiled members of the royal family, more particularly Elizabeth, 
Queen of Bohemia. He was created Earl of Craven in 1665, and succeeded 
Monck as colonel of the Coldstream Guards. 

"During the prevalence of the great plague, he remained in London, visit- 
ing the infected and devising means to prevent contagion. In the following 
year, 1660, he successfully exerted himself to subdue the ravages of the great 
Fire. Lord Craven was a most accomplished gentleman. He died unmarried 
at his house in Drury Lane. " 

So the county may well take laudable pride in its honorable 

i^ily^x itnitiigrants* 

About 1710, came a colony of Welch Quakers, and settled 
below New Bern, on Clubfoot and Hancock Creeks, on the 
South side of the Neuse. Among these were Thomas and John 
Lovick, the latter of whom was one of the North Cai-olina 


Boundary Commission in 1728, to settle the line between Vir- 
ginia and Xortli Carolina. Roger and Evan Jones were also 
among- them. The name of tlie last appears in tlie ofticial list 
of freeholders and jurymen in the laws of 1723. Another 
German cluster of immigrants landed at New Bern in 1732, 
among whom were John Martin I'vancks, James Blachshear 
and PJdlvp Miller. These ascended the Ti-ent twenty miles, 
and liaving no hoi'ses or other stock, then packed their goods 
on their backs, and heroically plunging into the virgin forest, 
unscarred by an axe, settled in that part of Craven now known 
as Jones County. 

Had I the means of tracing out genealogies and intermar- 
riages, and changes of names generally, as I have in a few cases; 
and were lists of the early members of the Presbyterian Church 
accessible, it could doubtless l)e shown that not a few of the de- 
scendants of tlie old stock stood true in devotion to the tried and 
apostolic faith of the early German, Welch, Swiss, Huguenot, 
and Scotch-Covenanter colonists. The names of the descend- 
ants of the following are still recognized in the church in Isew 
Bern, or its vicinity, as substantial Presbyterians : Isler, Cox- 
daille (from whom, on the mother's side, come the Stanlys), 
Francks, Bryan, Bray, Watson, Hatch, Clark, Everett, Noble, 
Shine, Jones, Moore, Lamb, and others. Hence came one of 
the original elders, the wife of the present pastor, and the wife 
of one of the present ruling elders, and one, if not more, of the 
original female members from the French Blanchard stock. 

In the dreadful Indian massacre of September, 1711, Martin 
says that most of the Swiss and Palatines, who had flattered 
themselves with having found in the deserts of Craven a safe 
asylum against distress and oppression, and all of the Hugue- 
nots around Bath, fell under the tomahawk or knife. Sixty 
or more were murdered around New Bern. The Indians do 
not seem to have gotten into the town. This stunning carnage 
and the Indian war which ensued, together with other grievous 
colonial difficulties, caused a large exodus from the colony. In 
1717, it is thought that there remained only 2,000 taxables 
(all freemen of sixteen years were taxable), and one-third of 


these were slaves. Still there are many representative names- 
of this era in this section. It should be remembered that De 
Graffenried, while a prisoner among the Tuscaroras, just before 
the massacre began, effected an advantageous treaty with the 
Indians, which protected his Palatines in many ways. 

Hem Bern iJnta^ 

On account of the increase of population southward, and the 
inconvenience of crossing Albemarle Sound to Edenton, the 
General Assembly, 6th March, 1738, met in New Bern, and 
continued its sessions there for years. It soon became the es- 
tablished place for meeting of the various courts. 

3^irst Printittg Press. 

In 1749, James Davis, from Virginia, established in 'New 
Bern the Jirsi printing 2^''<^ss in iSTorth Carolina. The laws 
hitherto had been only in manuscript, and much confusion had 
resulted. After careful revision by the Legislature, they were 
printed, in 1752, by James Davis, and bound in a small folio 
volume, in yellowish and unskilfully tanned leather, hence al- 
ways known as " Yellow Jacket." This was the first book 
printed in North Carolina. In 1764, the laws were printed by 
Andrew Stewart, a Scotchman in Wilmington, on a press he 
set up there. Mr. Davis then issued, 1st June, 1764, in New 
Bern, " The North Carolina Magazine^ or Universal Intelli- 
■gencer^'' the first periodical paper attempted in the province. 
It was a demi-sheet, in quarto pages, and for a long time very 
dry. His printing office was on the corner of Broad and East 
Front streets, where a gentleman and lady inform me they have 
in recent years picked up the old type. I have before me a 
bound volume of this paper, beginning with No. 383, July 4, 
1777. Its headlines are as follows in 1777: 


July 4, 1777. THE Number 383. 


With the lateft ADVICE^, Foreign and Domestic. 


It contains interesting accounts of the 

Fitted out bj r/r;///i ^y right St<inU/ irom this port. ^^ Sturdy 
Beggar,'''' with fourteen can-iage guns and one hundred men, 
was the significant name of one, whicli rej3oi-ts two pi'izes, 
worth £70,000 sterHng. Others are also mentioned : tlie Nancy , 
Capt. Pahner ; the sloop Ly</i<i, Capt. Appleton, witli twelve 
guns and fift_y men ; the Belloixi, Capt. Pendleton, with sixteen 
guns — all report large captures for Mr. Staidy, and the Bellona 
brought in also a privateer with six guns. The Lydia was af- 
terwards captured. Manv cargoes of salt and di-y-goods, that 
had run the blockade, are advgi-tised for sale in N'ew Bern and 
Beaufort. In July, 1777, a number of Scotch gentlemen,, 
being unwilling to take the oath of allegiance, sailed from Xew 
Bern. But when outside the Ca])es, they were overhauled by 
a Virginia privateer, and captured with all their wealth, and 
two hundred hogsheads of tobacco. 

Capt. Charles Biddle's autobiography preserves some inter- 
esting facts of this period. lie was from Philadelphia, but 
married Miss Hannah Shepard,the daughter of Jacob Shepard, 
a New Bern merchant. In September, 1778, the ship Coriid'Hi, 
with six iron and fourteen wooden guns and seventy men, was 
fitted out in Xew Bern for a trading voyage to the AVest Indies, 
and sailed under Capt. Biddle's command. Off Cape Lookout 

74: NEW BEKN. 

he took a privateer with eight guns and fifty men, and sent it in 
to Beaufort, He made a safe voyage to tlie Island of St. Eus- 
tatia, sold his cargo well, and took on a valuable one; bought 
a pair of six-pounders there, and in eight weeks, on November 
16th, cast anchor successfully in Beaufort Harbor. In her next 
voyage, under Capt. Cook, the Cornelia was captured by a Provi- 
dence privateer. Mr. Biddle made a successful run to the West 
Indies in ^'The Three Sisters,^^ and made Beaufort Harbor on 
the return. In August, 1779, he made another good run to St. 
Thomas with the Eclipse^ loaded with tobacco, and returned 
20th September. 

When he was a member of the Assembly, in session in New 
Bern, in 1779, at dinner one day at Governor Nash's, it was 
reported that a British privateer was within the bar of the 
Neuse, and doing much mischief. Capt. Biddle proposed to fit 
out some vessels at the wharf, and capture her. Many gen- 
tlemen at the table offered to go with him. By four o'clock 
the next day all was ready, and the gentlemen were notified, 
but all made excuses, except Mr. Spaight and Mr. Blackledge. 
^'Some were sick, others had particular business; one of them, 
who had always behaved like a brute to his wife, sent me word 
she would not consent to his going. He was the only one I 
sent a second time to, and tbat was to inform him that I would 
call up and endeavor to persuade his wife to let him go. Fear- 
ing that I would, and knowing that his wife would readily con- 
sent to his going anywhere, so that she was rid of him, he rode 
out of .town." He had several times beat her, and she detested 
the sight of him. This expedition lasted two wrecks; but 
the privateer got wind of the plan, and made her escape to 

In 1761, was passed the first eft'ective act for the encourage- 
ment of literature, by the erection of a school-house in New 
Bern. This school was incorporated in 1766 — the first incur- 
porated academy in North Carolina. It rested for some years 
under the incubus imposed by the established ecclesiastical 


*' oligarchy,"* prohibiting any Principal save a "churchman." 
The tirst "large and conimodions building," erected at great 
expense, was burned down accidentally in 1795, when, by an 
act of Assembly, a room in the " Palace " was used for the school- 
room. The present old brick academy was erected in 1806; 
the corner stone of the additional elegant graded school build- 
ing was laid in 1884, just one hundred and twenty years after 
the lirst act of the Legislature already mentioned. In that older 
building, Gaston, Stanly, Badger, Spaight, Hawks and many 
other distinguislied sons of Carolina were educated for future 
careers of honor and usefulness. 

Tliis old square, two storied brick academy has had intimate 
connection with the etablishment of the Presbyterian Church 
here. The first building was of wood ; in it the lower house 
of the Legislature sometimes met.t 

lltiMnorabfe 5tetn$. 

The first political representative assembly ever convened in 
North Carolina, independent of royal authority, and indeed in 
face of the Governor's prohibition, met 25tli August, 1774, in 
New Bern. It is known as the '" l^t'ovivcidl Co7t(/ress.^^ It in- 
quired into the the encroaclnnents of England upon the rights 
and liberties of America; recommended holding a Continen- 
tal Congress in Philadelphia, 20th September, and appointed 
William Hooper, Joseph Hews and Richard Caswell deputies 

The first "General Assembly" of the State, under the con- 
stitution adopted at Halifax by the Provincial Congress, 18th 
December, 1776, met in New Bern in April, 1777. 

Governor Martin became greatly disturbed by the daring 
conduct of the people, and the gathering storm of revolution, 
and began to fortify the palace, and arranged for a military 

♦Bancroft, Vol. iii. pp. 13, 14, says, "Those styled 'the nobility,' together 
with the High Church party, constituted a colonial oligarchy against the great 
mafis of the people." " The larger part of the settlers were DiKseuters, bring- 
ing with them the faith and the staid sobriety of the Calvinists of that age." 

t Martin, ii. 3'J5. 


body-guard. An intercepted letter of liis to General Gage, at 
Boston, revealed his plans, and precipitated a breach. On 
24:th April, 1775, while the governor and council were in ses- 
sion, alarm having spread among the New Bernians at the 
Governor's proceedings, leading whigs, among whom were Dr. 
Alexander Gaston, Richard Cogdell, James Coor, and Jones 
Slates, seized and removed the six pieces of cannon that had been 
planted in front of the Palace. That night Governor Martin 
fled from New Bern to Fort Johnston, near Wilmington, and 
soon joined Lord Cornwallis. So ended English sway in North 
Carolina. At this time the population of New Bern, the 
largest of the only three towns in the State, — Wilmington and 
Edenton beinii; the other two, — was al)out six hundred. 


THE Quakers, their early appearance in Albemarle, their 
rapid increase, and their usefulness in moral and reli- 
gious affairs, have been already sufKciently spoken of. 

^l\t episcopal Cftuicit* 

No Episcopal Church was built in the colony l)efore 1702, and 
the increase was slow. In 1703 we hear of the first settled 
preacher, and he did not tarry long. In 1740 an act was passed by 
the Legislature for building an Episcopal church in New Bern. 
Why did the Lecjhlature provide for building churches for only 
one denomination, if there was nothing like a State Estal)lish- 
ment ? It has been thought that the bricks for this old church 
were brought from England. But this act states that during 
the preceding year the vestry had made 100,000 bricks for the 
church. It does not appear when this vestry was chosen; but 
it must have been under the act of 1715. B}' the act of 1741, 
we learn that the vestry had laid a tax to support a minister, 
though one had not been obtained; also, that Craven County 
was nuvde a parish, witli the name of "Christ Churcli Parish." 
Further legislation was had in 1745 and 1751 upon the same 
matter. In 1754, an act was passed confirming an agreement 
between the vestry and Kev. James Reed for his services. A 
letter was forwarded by the vestry of Christ Church, New 
Bern, in 1760, to the Society for the Propagation of the Gos- 
pel, in which it is said that Mr. Reed had faithfully attended 
Christ Church and eight chapels for six years. So he must 
have settled in New Bern in 1754; and the church edifice was 
probably completed not long before that date. He was the 
first incumbent of this church, and his connnissiou is said to 


have been signed by Governor Tryon and Lord Howe. He 
was known and respected as "Parson Reed." Like tlie Esta- 
blished clergy generally at the time of the Kevolution, he 
was a decided royalist ; and tradition tells how he persisted in 
praying for "his King George" among the rebels. Bnt his 
devotions were not nninterrnpted ; for the lads of the congre- 
gation, prompted by their parents, at the moment "the royal- 
ist parson" began the offensive petition, would vehemently 
beat the drum at the cliurch door, and shout, "Off with his 
head ! " 

During the Revolutionary contest. Episcopal congregations 
in this State were generally disintegrated ; for their clei-gy, be- 
ing mostly of English birth and sympathy, and deprived of 
support, I'eturned home. Some, however, proved faithful, and 
continued their sacred offices. These were Rev. Messrs. Petti- 
grew, Cuppels, Blount and Micklejohn ; perhaps, also, Rev. 
Mr. Taylor, in Halifax. For years after the war they were 
few, feeble and despondent. About 1790, Dr. Hailing, of New 
Bern, was ordained by Bishop Madison of Virginia; and 
in May, 1794, Rev. Charles Pettigrevv was elected, at a 
convention in Tarboro, Bishop of the Diocese of North 
Carolina; but he was never inducted into that office. For 
twenty-three years — from 1794 to 1817 — all was dark and 
dreary, and no cheering star appeared to relieve the gloom op- 
pressing this Church. Then Rev. Messrs. Adam Empie and 
Bethel Judd, " two heaven-sent heralds of the everlasting Gos- 
pel," came to Wilmington and Fayetteville, and there laid the 
foundation of the restoration of the Episcopal Church and 
cause in North Carolina. Since that period, this denomination 
of Christians has greatly grown in numbers. Rev. John Stark 
Ravenscroft, of Virginia, was consecrated the first Bishop of 
North Carolina, 23d May, 1823. In 1822, there were only 
nine Episcopal ministers in the diocese. One of these was 
Rev. Richard S. Mason, then in New Bern. The records of 
Christ Churcli were burned up in 1818. The oldest record on 
their present parish register is dated May 4th, 1818, in Dr. 
Mason's hand-writing. 


Rev, George AVhitefield arrived in New Bern on Christmas 
Eve, 1789. He received the sacrament — from whom I cannot 
discover — and preached on Christmas day, with his woiidrons 
eloquence, in the Court-house. ''Most of the congregation was 
melted to tears. Here he was grieved to see the minister 
encouraging dancing, and to iiud a dancing-master in every lit- 
tle town. "Such sinful entertainments," he said, "enervate the 
minds of the people, and insensibly lead them into effeminacy 
and ruin." In November, 1TG4, he was again here, and spent 
the Sabbath. From New Brunswick, Carolina, he writes: "At 
New Bern, last Sunday, good impressions were made. From 
that place to this, I have met with what the)' call New Lights. 
Almost ever J/ stage I have the navies of six or eight of their 
preachers. This, with every other place being open, and ex- 
ceedingh' desirous to liear the Gospel, makes me almost deter- 
mined to come back early in the Spring," 


The first Methodist preacher in North Carolina was James 
Pilmoor, in 1772; the first circuit was formed by Robert Wil- 
liams, in 1773; and the first conference was held near Louis- 
burg, 20tli April, 1786, at which were present Bishops Asbury 
and Coke. New Bern was soon in a district, and visited. From 
1785 to 1807, there preached here Bishops Asbury and White- 
coat; Jonathan Jackson and Reuben Ellis, presiding elders; 
Philip Bruce, or De Bruise, of Huguenot descent, and perhaps 
from the flock of Jiichehourg on the Trent; and C. S. Moor- 
ing, who served New Bern in 1801, In 1803, many large 
camp-meetings were held in the New Bern district, with signal 
blessing. Like those great Presbyterian protracted services 
and communions held amid the quiet forests, where popula- 
tion is scattered and the means of grace are limited, these ex- 
traordinary meetings proved valuable in saving souls and build- 
ing up the Redeemer's kingdom. These great sacramental ser- 
vices — after Scotch and Irish customs — were first established 



and maintained by the Presbyterians for the sparse population 
in Western Carolina. The illustration gives a vivid idea of 
the meetings. In Rev. Mr. Plurd's pastorate, we will see that 
he engaged here in these protracted services. 

"Not to the dome, where crumbHug arch aud column 
Attest the feebleness of mortal hand, 
But to the fane, most catholic and solemn, 
Which God hath planned." 


Andrew Chapel, on Hancock Street, was the second church 
built in New Bern, and dates from the beginning of this cen- 
tury. It has been long occupied by the colored Methodists. 
The new Methodist sanctuary on Neuse Street has been re- 
<5ently handsomely enlarged and relitted, and gathers there the 
largest congregation in the city. This denomination has grown 
wonderfully in the State, and is doing a great and good work 
for the Master. 



At an early date a few Baptists were about New Bern, hut 
without organization. This is manifest from a curious record, 
which I have taken from the original Minutes of the June 
Court, in Craven County, 174:0. In the hound manuscript is a 
duplicate record, with some differences. Court being in session 
on Thursday afternoon, 19tli June, the following Minute occurs: 

"Read a petition of the people who call themselves first day 
anabaptists Refered till to-morrow that the law he produced." 

In the above, before the last sentence, appear the words " it's 
granted so far as the act of Toleration b}'^ law will allow;" but 
they are erased by having a line drawn through them. The 
Justices present were George Roberts, Daniel Shine, Thomas 
Masters, John Bryan, and Joseph Hanniss. 

On June 20th, 174:0, Esquires present, George Roberts, John 
Brj'an, James Macklwaine, Thomas Pearson. 

" a motion and petition read made by a sect of decenting 
people called Baptists that they may have the Liberty to build 
a house of worship and being duely examined by the Court 
acknowledged to all the Articles of the church of England 
except part of the 27th and 36th they Desireing to Preach 
among themselves — Referr'^ — " -' 

Just before the last word, two words are blotted out. They 
seem to be " but Rejected." Then follows a copy of their names, 
and recognizances to appear at next September Court; but this 
is crossed over. The clear second minute for Friday, 3 P. M., 
20th June, is as follows : 

f George Roberts '] 

II v) i. John Bryan -r, 

"Present / . I Esqrs 

I James Macklwaine 

[ Thos. Pearson J 

*' A Motion and Petition Read by y*" sect of decenting people 

♦These quotntious, aud others elsewhere, are given without correction, in 
their original dress. 


which call themselves Babtists prays that they may be admitted 
to build a House of Worship Reefs Price William Caruthers 
and John Bryan Esq made oath to several misdemeaners com- 
mitted by the s'^ Petitioners contrary to and in contempt of the 
laws now in force upon which it was ordered by this court the 
s'^ Petitioners be bound by Recognizance for their appearance 
at the next court of assize and Goale delivery to be held at this 
Town then and tliere to answer to such things as they shall be 
charged with and in the meantime be of Good behaviour to all 
his Majesties Liege People." 

"John James came into open court and acknowledged him- 
self to be Indebted to our Sovereign Lord the King in tlie sum of 
40X Sterl money William Fulsher and Frances ayers also 
acknowledged themslves to be Indebted to our Sovereign Lord 
the King in the sum of 20X Sterl money each security for 
his appearance at the next court of assize and Goale Delivery 
to be held at tiiis Town of Newliern. the several sums to be 
Levied on these Several Goods and Chatties Lands and Tene- 
ments &ca " 

Similar bonds were given by William Fulsher, Francis 
Ayers, Lemuel Harvey, Nicholas Purify, and John Brooks ; the 
securities being divided mutually among .themselves. 

September Court convened in New Bern on Tuesday, 16th 
September, 1740. On 22d inst. there were present: Justices 
Geo. Roberts, John Powel, Jos. Hannis, John Fonville, John 
Simons, and John Bryan. After an hour's adjournment the 
body reassembled. Present: Justices Geo. Roberts, John 
Powel and John Simons. 

"After Proclamation made 

Read the Petition of Several De- 
senting protestants called Baptists in these words vitz pray- 
ing the benefit of the act commonl3' called the act of Tolera- 
tion — Granted — " 

"The following Desenting Protestants appeared vitz John 
Brooks John James Robt Spring Nich Purify and Tho& 


Fulclier came into court and took the Oatlies of alegiance and 
Supremacy and Subscribed to the Tests and the thirty-Nine ar- 
ticles of Religon being distinctly Read to them the following 
of which they desented from to-wit tlie Thirty-Sixth and the 
latter part of Twenty-Seventh" 

The Test. 
"I, A: B do Declare that I do believe that there is not any 
Transubstantiation in the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper or 
in the Elements of Bread and Wine at or after the Consecration 
thereof by any person whatsoever.'' 

It is further claimed by eminent citizens of New Bern that 
there was a record, which has mysteriously disappeared from 
the Clerk's Office, which certified that certain persons, viz., 
Messi'S. Brinson, Fnlshire and Purifoy, were indicted for hold- 
ing to the "-Biipt'ist fa'dh^'' and were wliipped, and imprisoned 
for three m.onths in Craven County jail. One gentleman pro- 
poses to make affidavit to the fact that he read that record, 
shown to him by the Clerk, Mr. James Stanly. 

These acts of the Court are fully explained by reference to 
English history. The Oath of Allegiance Avas framed upon the 
discovery of Guy Faux's Gunpowder Plot, in the reign of 
James I, Tlie Test Act was passed in 1663, under Charles II. 
It included the Oaths of Uniformity, Supremacy, and Transub- 
stantiation. It was only finally abolished by the Belief Acts 
of 1828 and 1829, in George IV. 's reign. There were several 
Acts of Uniformity, designed to assimilate all Dissenters witli 
the Estal)lished Church ; but the crowning one was that of 
1662, by which 2,000 godly Presbyterian Clergy were expelled 
from their rightful livings. As these sweeping Acts could be 
pretty generally applied, tliey involved many painful disabili- 
ties and shameful persecutions. But though not formally re- 
pealed, they were beneficently modified by the Act of Tolera- 
tion, under William and Mary, 24th May, 1689. This was the 
Great Charter of Religious Liberty, though it left persecution the 
rule, and toleration the exception. Its provisions were an in- 


consistent and cumbrous chaos, if scientifically measured, and 
failed to recognize the sound principle of religious liberty; yet 
it was a practical, remedial, successful measure that stopped 
bloody persecution, heralded substantial peace to a disturbed 
empire, and won support alike from Bates and Baxter, Ken 
and Sherlock, Burnet and Nottingham, Subscription to the 
Thirty-Nine Articles in the Universities was only abolished by 
the University Tests' Act of 1871, except for divinity students, 
fellows, professors and heads of colleges. 

All these laws prevailed in North Carolina. Any place of 
religious meeting for a Dissenting Congregation must necessa- 
rily be by permission of the Supreme Ecclesiastical Authority, 
or by the recorded act of the Court of General or Quarter Ses- 
sions ; and the applicants were entitled to a certificate for the 
sum of sixpence.* Therefore the application of the Baptists 
came properly before Craven Court of Quarter Sessions. What 
violations of the law these persons may have been guilty of does 
not appear. But if they had been holding services without 
complying with the Act of Toleration, they were properly re- 
quired to give recognizances, and there was no unseemly usage 
under the law. As this incident has not been understood, it 
seems advisable to endeavor to clear it from its obscurity; for 
the County Court does not appear to desire to restrain religious 
freedom, seeing that, as previously stated, the same Court in 
December following readily granted permission to the German 
Palatines to build a chapel. 

Not until 1812, however, do we hear of a Baptist Meeting- 
House in New Bern, when the old Church near Cedar Grove 
Cemetery was built. The late Zaccheus Slade, an honored Baptist 
deacon, when a boy drove the oxen that hauled the lumber for 
this house. For years this was the gloomy Baptist home ; and it 
was also closely associated with Presbyterian progress through 

* See Maoaulay'B History of England, Vol. I. 208 ; Vol. III. G4, &c. ; Neal's 
Puritaus, Vol. I. 76 and 245; II. 278, 345, 483, 505; Schafif's Creeds, I. GlO ; 
Schaff-Herzog Cyclopiedia, "Articles," '"Test Act," "Uniformity;" Green's 
Hist. Eng. People, IV. 413, V. 61; Burnet's Own Time, I. 171, &c.; II. 6, 


the Christian kindness of its owners. Their first and highly 
esteemed pastor was Rev. Thomas Meredith. After some years 
they huilt their present commodious and beautiful Church on 
Craven Street, where regularly gathers their increased and 
vigorous membership. Services were inaugurated in this build- 
ing on Sunday, 2d July, 1848, when the pastor, llev. M. R. 
Forey, preached the dedicatory sermon. 

iEarlior Baptist Churches** 

According to the most reliable information accessible, the 
first Baptist Church in Eastern North Carolina was formed by 
Paul Palmer, with thirty-two members, in Perquimons County, 
in 1727. The next was at Shiloh, Pasquotank Count}', in 1729. 
Meherrin, now Murfreesboro Church, followed in 1735, and 
Kehukee, in Halifax County, in 1742. At the last named 
church, in 1765, was organized the famed Kehukee Associa- 
tion, embracing seven churches with twelve ministers. Very 
soon this Association embraced the whole Baptist strength in 
Eastern North Carolina; and their standpoint of doctrine and 
organization was that still occupied by the Old School or Prim- 
itive Baptists. A few years after the close of the Revolution 
the first statistics of the Baptists in North Carolina gave them 
ninety-four churches, eighty-five ministers, and seventy-six 

(Otfti^t Cft^tcft^^s* 

It may be here added, that the Roman Catholics have in 
New Bern a small, neat chapel. Their worsliip was formerly 
conducted in tlie house of Judge Gaston, their membersliip 
being small. Here, in 1822, Hon. Stephen Miller witnessed 
the services on one Sabbath. About the same period the Papal 
Bishop England preaclied in the Courthouse, and also in the 
Presbyterian Cliurch here. 

Among the negro population there are flourishing Methodist, 
Presbyterian, Baptist and Episcopal Churches. 

* Wheeler's Reminiscences, «tc., § 3, xxviii ; Letters of Rev S. Hassell, 
A. M. ; Moore's Hist. N. C. ; N. C. Baptist Almanac, 1883. 

NEW BERN IN 1798. 

MORSE, in 1792, says : " New Bern is the largest town in 
the State — contains about 400 houses, all built of wood 
excepting the palace, the church, the gaol, and two dwelling- 
houses, which are of brick. The Episcopal church is a small brick 
building, with a bell. It is the only house for public worship in 
the place. A rum distillery has been lately erected in this town. 

Itis the county town of Craven County The court-house is 

raised on brick arches, so as to render the lower part a con- 
venient market-place ; but the principal marketing is done with 
the people in their canoes and boats at the river side." In his 
American Gazetteer^ Boston, 1798, he adds: "In September, 
1791, near one-third of the town was consumed by fire. It car- 
ries on a considerable trade to the West Indies and the different 
States, in tar, pitch, turpentine, lumber, corn, etc. The exports 
in 1794 amounted to $69,615." 

A large cypress tree stands near an old wharf on the Keuse, 
on the premises of Mr. Samuel Smallwood, but originally the 
property of the Spaights. Under this monarch, tradition says 
that the first vessel in North Carolina was built. Under its 
shade have stood General Washington. General Nath. Greene 
during trying times to his command, John Wright Stanly, who 
lost fourteen vessels during the Bevolution,* the Spaights, Hon. 
Edward Everett, and many of the noblest of men. 

Further down the Neuse, where it joins the Trent, grew two 
live oaks, until destroyed in the desolating fire of April, 1841. 
Undei' these De Grafifenried and Mitchell met the native Indians 
and made a treaty, when New Bern was commenced, one hun- 
dred and seventy-six years ago. On the grounds of the Epis- 
copal church a venerable hickory rears its noble proportions, and 

* Another statement is that the firm Turner & Stanly lost thirty vessels. 


■dates back to the stirring days, when the original colonists re- 
-clined beneath its friendly shelter. At t]ie corner of these 
premises is planted, half-way in the ground, the "Lady Bless- 
ington Cannon," whicli was presented to a British cruiser by 
Her Ladyship, but was captured by one of Mr. Stanly's priva- 
teers, and brought hither. 

Ship-building was carried on extensively here at this epoch. 
The whole of a vessel's e(i\iipment — (except its canvas,) — ropes, 
iron-work and timber, were of h(,»me manufacture, thus leaving 
the wliole profit liere. Wagons and boats distributed the im- 
ports to the interior of the State, and large fortunes were made. 
The population must have been about i^,000. 

^tuo (OICi :^ccouut$. 

It will be interesting to read the accounts of two rare old 
■writers about affairs in Eastern North Carolina during and just 
after the Revolution. In '•'•The American Geography''^ for 
1792, which is perhaps almost identical with the first issue in 
1789, Jedidiah Morse says that the western part of tlie State 
had been settled within the past thirty-five years chiefly by 
Presbyterians, attached to the worship, doctrines and usages of 
the Church of Scotland; tliat they were a regular, industrious 
people, in general well supplied with a sensible and learned min- 
istry. There were also settlements of German Luthei-ans and 
Calvinists; Moravians, Quakers, Methodists and Baptists, and 
a numerous body of " Nothingakians" as to religion. The 
inhabitants of Wilmington, New Bern, Edenton, and Halifax 
Districts, making about three-fifths of the State, once possessed 
themselves of the Episcopal Church. The clergy in these dis- 
tricts were chiefly missionaries, and almost univei'sally declared 
themselves in favor of the British Government, and emigrated. 
There may be one or two of the original clergy remaining, but 
at present they have no particular charge. Indeed, the inhabi- 
tants in the districts above-mentioned seem now to be making 
the experiment, whether Christianity can exist long in a coun- 
try where there is no visible Christian Church. Thirteen years' 
experience has proved that it probably cannot; for there is very 

88 A JOURNEY IN 1777-78. 

little external appearance of religion among the people in gen- 
eral. The Baptists and Methodists have sent a number of mis- 
sionary preachers into these districts, and some of them have 

pretty large congregations In the lower districts the 

inhabitants have very few places for public and weekly worship 
of any kind ; and these few, being destitute of ministers, are suf- 
fered to stand neglected. The brick Episcopal Church in Eden- 
ton has for many years been much neglected, and serves only to 
show that the people once had a regard, at least, for the ex- 
ternals oi religion. "The Sabbath . . . is generally disregarded, 
or distinguished by the convivial visitings of the white inhabi- 
tants, and the noisy diversions of the negroes." Temperance 
and industry were not reckoned among the virtues of North 
Carolinians, but gaming, drinking, cock-fighting, horse-racing, 
and boxing-matches, made memorable by shameful feats of 
gouging eyes out of tJielr sockets, too commonly engaged their 
time, and hindered all true progress. There was as little taste 
for the sciences as for religion. Still, Morse says, amazing 
progress in population was made, and distinguished statesmen 
and patriots, as well as a gallant soldiery, marked the Revolu- 
tionar}' history of North Carolina. 

lHatson s 3ourtteij in 1777-78. 

Mr. "Watson was a youth of nineteen years of age, in the 
emplojanent of John Brown, an eminent merchant of Provi- 
dence, and the founder of Brown University. He has left a 
valuable record of a southern journey he made in 1777-'8. At 
"Williamsburg, Va., he associated himself with a Captain Har- 
wood, proceeding also to Charleston. Passing by the Dismal 
Swamp, then dangerously infested by concealed royalists and 
runaway negroes, they i-eached Edenton, containing then one 
hundred and thii-ty-five dwellings and a brick court-house, and 
defended by two forts. TJience they traveled over a most deso- 
late sandy plain, with here and there a miserable tar-burner's 
hut, to Bath. Crossing the Sound, they proceeded through 
gloomy sands and majestic pines, amid cheerless and painful 
silence, seeing only the timid deer, and a few inhabitants, until 

A JOl'RNEY IN 1777-78. 89 

nearly dark, when tliey reached the Neuse. " Having crossed, 
"we again mounted our liorses and proceeded on to New Bern, 
the capital of North Carolina, groping our way in the dark, 
along unknown roads, and drenched l)y the heav}' rains. 

"On our arrival, excessively wearied, and needing repose and 
Bhelter, we wandered in pursuit of quarters, from street to 
street, and were turned from tavern to tavern, every house 
being filled by French adventurers. At one of these taverns, 

kept by one T , M'e were repulsed by the landlord with so 

much rudeness as to produce a severe quarrel in the piazzi, 
where we stood soliciting quarters. New Bern was the me- 
tropolis of North Carolina, situated at the confluence of the 
Neuse and Trent rivers, and contained about one hundred and 
fifty dwellings. It was defended by a strong fort and an 
armed ship. Previous to the war it exported corn, naval stores, 
beeswax, hams, and deer-skins, to a considerable amount. 

" The next morning Harwood proceeded to a barber's shop 
to be shaved. I soon after started in pursuit of the same bar- 
ber. I had not gone far before I met Harwood, his pace some- 
what quickened, and with one side only of his face shaved. He 
soon informed me tliat the barber had been impertinent, and 
that lie had knocked him down, and left him sprawling on the 
floor. We agreed that to avoid troul)le he should push on, and 
that I should follow. He was soon on the way through the 
streets of the capital of Nortli Carolina, in the ludicrous pre- 
dicament I have described. I left New Bern soon after upon 
Harwood's track, and crossed the Trent by a rope ferry seventy 
feet wide." The journey was then through a wilderness of 
pines, sands and swamps, night exposure, and apprehensions 
of wild beasts, heightened by the sight of the slow-pacing bear, 
until it ended in Wilmington. 

Sufh contemporary pictures of the physical and moral con- 
dition of the country are not attractive, neither are they sur- 
prising under the light of the jireceding historical summary. 
But glorious possihilities were there; the substantial material 
that awaited the moulding power, and could be, and would soon 
be, developed into noblest types of manhood and womanhood. 


'IV'TO sketch of New Bern would be satisfactory, however 
Jl_ 1 brief, without some account of this building, which ex- 
ercised so important an influence on moral and political af- 
fairs in the State. 

Several acts of the Legislature were passed with regard to 
its erection. Appropriations were obtained with great difli- 
culty. Policy, perseverance, cajolery, covert threats, and nota- 
bly the unusual and powerful fascinations of the beautiful and 
accomplished Miss Esther Wake, and the skilful manoeuvres 
and dinners of her sister. Lady Tryon, finally secured, in 
two separate sums, fifteen thousand pounds, from a province 
scarcely able to raise the ordinary expenses of the government. 
"With school funds Governor Tryon is said to have unscrupu- 
lously seized and used in the work, its cost is estimated at not 
less than $80,000, Heavj^ and intolerable taxation was in- 
volved in all this, A square of six acres was condemned and 
selected, bounded by Eden, Metcalf and Pollock streets, and 
Trent River, Bricks and prepared material were imported 
from England, and John Hawks, a Moor from Malta, who was 
educated in England, was employed on a salary of $600 as the 
architect. The contract was made 9th January, 1767, and the 
Palace was completed October, 1770. The original drawings, 
with many details, such as sections of the drawing-room, chim- 
ney-breasts, etc., were in possession of Rev. Frances L. Hawks, 
D. D., a New Bernian, a grandson of the architect, and the 
rector of Calvary Church, N. Y. From these Mr. B. J. Los- 
sing made the pictures here given of the Palace and the seal 
and signatures to the contract, and accompanied them witli ex- 
planations in his " Field Book of the Revolution." From this 
source and others, traditions in New Bern, and personal know- 
ledge, are gathered the following statements: 

TRYOn's palace, new BERN. 91 

The main or centre bnildins; is the Palace. By contract it 
was to he two stories high, of brick, eii;hty-seven feet front, 
and fifty-nine feet deep. The buihliiig on the right of the 
picture was the secretary's office and the Liundry, while that 
on the left served for kitchen and servants' hall. Some say 
that the left wing was the private residence of the Governor, 
and the right was the laundry and servants' quarters. Covered 
curved colonnades, of five columns each, connected wings and 
Palace. In the main building were the legislative halls and 
public rooms for government use. "Between these buildings, 
in front of the Palace, was a handsome court. The rear of the 
building was finished in the style of the Mansion-House in Lon- 
don." Ebenezer Hazzard, Postmaster-General of the United 
States, visited it in 1777, and says, " Upon entering the street- 
door you enter a hall in which are four niches for statues." 
Lossing states that the chimney-breasts for the council cham- 
ber, dining hall and drawing-room, and the cornices of these 
rooms, were of white marble. The chimney-breast of the 
council chamber was the most elaborate, being ornamented by 
two Ionic columns below, and four columns with Composite 
capitals above, with beautiful entablature, architrave and frieze. 
Over the inner door of the entrance hall, or ante-chamber, was 
a tablet with a Latin inscription, showing that the Palace was 
dedicated to Sir William Draper, "the conqueror of Manilla;" 
also the following lines, in Latin, which were written by Draper, 
who was then on a visit to Governor Tryon: 


Judge Martin in his history translates thus: 

" lu the reign of a monarch, who goodness disclos'd, 
A free happy people, to dread tyrants oppos'd. 
Have, to virtue and merit, erected this dome ; 
May the owner and household make this the loved home, 
Where religion, the arts and the laws may invite 
Future agts to live, in sweet peace and delight." 



Judge Martin adds that the building was superior to any- 
thing of the kind in British North America ; and that in 1783 
he heard the renowned and unfortunate Don Francisco Miranda, 
when visiting the palace with him, say it had no equal in South 
America. It is said in New Bern that the third story, shown 
in the plate, was omitted, and that the roof had parapet 
walls with a balustrade around it ; was made flat for a prome- 
nade, and had an aquarium on it. At present only the right 
wing is standing. 

The contract was signed with the private seal of Tryon, and 
his signature and that of the architect. A fac-simile of seal 
and signatures is here given, as made by Mr. Lossing. 

Morse's Gazetteer of 1798 has this account, which was fur- 
nished by Mr. Wm. Atmore, of New Bern, and originally ap- 
peared in Morse's first edition in 1789, in Elizabethtown, N. J., 
then in his American Geography of 1792, published in Picca- 
dilly, London: "The palace was erected by the province be- 
fore the Revolution, and was formerly the residence of the 
governors. It is large and elegant, two stories high, with 
two wings for offices, a little advanced in front towards the 
town; these wings are connected with the principal building 
by a circular arcade. It is nuich out of repair; and the only 
use to which this once handsome and well furnished building 
is now applied is for schools. One of the halls is used for a 
school, and another for a dancing room. The arms of great 
Britain still appear in a pediment in front of the building." 
In 1795 the Academy was burned, and the Legislature allowed 

TRYOn's palace, new BERN. 93 

the Palace to be used for this school, of wliich Eev. Thos, P. 
Irvine, an Episcopal minister, was principal. Ho kept wood 
and hay in the cellar or basement under the Conncil Chaml)er,. 
and resided with his family in the upper part. In 1798, a 
negro woman went to look for eggs in the hay,* She carried 
a lightwood torch, and some sparks falling on the dry hay 
kindled a fierce blaze. Unfortunately a hole was cut in the 
floor above, through which to pour water; but it acted as a 
flue, and the flames became uncontrollable. Only the right or 
west wing was left, though the burnt foundation walls still re- 
main. That wing has been used as a stable. There General 
Washington's war-steeds were stabled when he visited New 
Bern in 1791. For a long time it was used as a storage room 

• After diligent search I failed to fiud any contemporary record of the time 
when Tryou's palace vmn burned, or any person who could fix the date. It has 
been erroneously stated as 1800. I have been able to discover the year, but 
not the month of the burning thus. While teaching in the palace, Mr. Irving 
sent the following rhyming order : 

"Palacf, New Been, Nov. 11, 1797. 

"Messrs. George and Thomas Ellis : 

" I peud you, sirs, a little boy 
To buy nie neither robe nor toy, 
Nor rum, nor sugar, nor molasses, 
Coffee, tea, nor empty glasses ; 
Nor linen cloths, nor beau cravats, 
Nor handkerchiefs, nor beaver hats ; 
Nor anything, or less or more 
Of all that constitutes your store, 
Save only this, a noon-day taper. 
And one thing more, a quire of paper. 
Of these pray send the exact amount, 
And charge them both to my account; 
And rest assured my prayer shall be, 
Kind sirs, for your prosperitee. 

"Thop. p. Irvino." 

On December 3 and 4, 17;t7, the Senate and House of Commons considered 
a bill appointing commissioners to sell the palace and building. But in 1798 
an act was passed, reciting the fact that "the palace in New Bern had been 
destroyed by fire," and appointing commissioners to sell the "lots, and the 
bricks remaining of the palace." It must have been burned in 171)8. 

94 tryon's palace, new bern. 

for hay, grain, etc., by Mr. Frederick J. Jones The United 
States troops during tlie late war tried to pnll i": down for the 
brick but the cement proved so strong, I am told, that they 
could not get whole brick, and therefore left it. It has since 
been repaired, and used by the Episcopal Church for a parish 
school-house and a chapel for a short time, but is now unused. 
Sundry relics of the Palace and Tryon are preserved in New 
Bern, such as a fine clock, a silver tea-kettle, a curious child's 
chair, a marble and rosewood table. Governor Tryon's writing 
desk, dresses worn at the Palace balls, etc. 

Its Situatiott. 

It was charmingly located. The statements and traditions 
of aged citizens long dead, the careful researches and memo- 
ries of Colonel John D. Whitford and others, restore the 
scene. From the rear of the Palace a fair terrace sloped down 
to the Trent River. One sauntering along the guarded prome- 
nade on the roof, in the Autumn when the work was finished, 
would look through the hazy veil of Indian Summer upon the 
Trent, with its cultivated fields between masses of virgin forests, 
its broad marshes dotted with green and brown trees, and wild 
" flowers on a green carpet, stretching up to Cleremont, the home 
of the Moores and the Spaights ; beyond it the home of the Bryces 
and Gastons, with the division of a creek only, Pembrooke, the 
home of the Nashes." On tlie leit the Trent, three-quarters of a 
mile wide, joins the Neuse, expanded to a width of one mile and a 
half, and tlie wharves on both streams are filled with vessels, 
and bustling with active labors, and cheery songs of hardy steve- 
dores. Like a line of silver, the Neuse runs through the land- 
scape as far as the eye can reach. 

" Fair river not unknown to classic song — 
Which still in varying beauty roU'st along, 
Where first thy infant fount is faintly seen, 
A line of silver 'mid a fringe of green ; 
Or "where, near towering rocks, thy bolder tide, 
To win the giant guarded pass doth glide, 
Or where, in azure mantle, pure and free, 
Thou giv't-t thy cool hand to the washing sea." 

tryon's palace, new hern. 95 

Beneath laid the town of New Bern, nestled amid its grand 
old trees, glowing in autinnnal tints beyond painter's skill. 
From its homes are beginning to twinkle the lights, betokening 
loving reunions after toils of the day. From the North front 
of the Palace runs George street, called after the king. It is 
eighty-two feet broad, and passes — a splendid avenue — chiefly 
through the original forest for more than a mile to Core Point 
Ferry on the Neuse. Here was a splendid drive, continued 
through the "string of woods" (as this body of primeval growth 
was called, that the late war destroyed), along the charming 
Neuse and then beside the Trent, in a circuit of three miles, 
back to the Palace. "At this season the maples and ash would 
there be glowing with purple and gold. The myrtle, too, loved 
this shore, and the red berries would be peeping through the 
bright green foliage of the holly, while the darker green pines 
were there, ever waving their tops and sighing in the gentlest 
winds." The flitting and the song of tuneful tenants of field 
and forest gave life to the peaceful sylvan scene. " Imagine a 
long stately row of cypress trees towering above a snowy belt 
of sand, and back of them cedars, darker green, shading the 
grass reaching from the sand up the slope fifty or sixty feet, 
and back to a footpath skirting the enclosed fields, — they checked 
off with rows of cedars, — beyond oak groves, and the river roll- 
ing on in front one mile and a half in width, and you have some 
idea of the Neuse shore as it was in the. olden time." Upon 
this scene, partly unchanged when in his boyhood Rev. M. D. 
Hoge, D. D., lived with his uncle. Dr. Lacy, he then looked 
with pleasure, and of it writes, "The blue Neuse, the sandy 
white shore, the old-fashioned houses, the kind hearted people, 
all dwell in my memory and make a beautiful romance, colored 
with the rosy liglit which the imagination of boyhood throws 
around the happy past. 

"My old friend, Tom Watson, wrote a little poem on New 
Bern while I lived there, in which he described the river as 
lingering fondly beside the town, which it was unwilling to 
leave, the last lines running thus: 


" Regretful wave?, well may you weep and sigh 
For this br ght Eden as you pass it by, 
For wander where you may, you ne'er will kiss 
A shore so bright, so beautiful as this." 

Here was the focus of a royal display, and illusive fasliion- 
able dissipation. Atticus, or Judge Maurice Moore, satirized 
Gov. Tryon for "the arrogant reception you gave to a respect- 
able company at an entertainment of your own making, seated 
with your lady by your side on elbow chairs, in the middle of 
the ball-room." He charged that all the existing mischiefs in 
the impoverished colony, which could not afford such an outlay,, 
were caused by tlie appropriations for this Palace ; and that 
Tryon merely gratified his vanity, and made an elegant monu- 
ment of his taste and political influence, at the expense of the 
interest of the province, and of liis personal honor in changing 
the plan of a provbice-house to that of a Palace, worthy the 
residence of a prince of the blood. 

The balance of the poem on the Neuse, to which Dr. Hoge 
refers, is as follows. It was written Iiy his friend Tom, — now 
the Kev. Thomas Watson, of Dardenne, Mo., — about 1838, in 
his ITtli year : 

" I've been where the waters are sparkling and pure, 
I've watched them roll gallantly on to the sea. 
And I loved their sweet murmuring voice, but I'm sure 
I never as Neuse thought them lovely to me. 

'Tve stood on the breast of a hill-shaded vale, 
And listened with joy to full many a rill, 
That sported around me all sparkling and pale, 
And then have I said, Neuse is lovelier still. 

"I've gazed, when the moon lent her magical light, 
On a field of clear waters, all tranquil in rest. 
With a mirror of heaven, as blue and as bright, 
And then bave I vowed that I loved Neuse the best. 

"Thy waters, fair river, have flowed by the shore 

Where my fathers are sleeping, since first thou were free 
From the kind hand of Nature, that never made more 
So bright, so enchanting, so lovely as thee." 

NEW BERN IN 1819. 

" r I lIIE American. Universal Geography'''' for 1819 says: 
1 "The public buildings are three houses of religious wor- 
ship, for Episcopalians, Baptists, and Methodists ; a handsome 
court-house and jail, all of brick ; a theatre, an academy, and two 
banks. The houses formerly were almost wholly of wood, and 
indifferently built; but since the destructive fires," which have 
happened here, the new buildings are of brick, and handsome. 
The town is thriving, having increased in the last eighteen years 
from 2,500 to 6,000 inhabitants. It owns and employs in a 
brisk commerce about 5,000 tons of shipping; which carries 
to market lumber, tar, and other naval stores, pork, corn, etc. 
A steamboat intercourse is established between New Bern and 
Norfolk. A passage from the latter by the former to Charles- 
ton, S. C, a distance of 800 miles, is now easily performed in 
seven days." There is some error here as to the population. 
By the census of 1850 it was only 4,681, and 6,445 in 1880. 
'Worcester'' s Universal Geography for 1817 gives it as 2,167, and 
the tonnage in 1810 as 7,413; but his estimate may be that of 
1810 for inhabitants. About the latter date its prospects grew 
bright, and its trade was large with the West Indies and interior 
of the State. One of the oldest citizens has told me that he 
remembered when one hundred and ten vessels were owned 
here. Its citizens, John and Asa Jones, brothers, were among 
the first to introduce the distilling of turpentine into the town 
and State. Scrapers were not then used on the pine-trees, but 
they were hacked with the hatchet. 

* I have read auacconut, in au old newspaper, — the lialeigh Ueginteroi Sep- 
tember, 1808,— of a destructive fire iu New Bern, in which the brick 
building of Mr. Isaac Taylor was with difficulty preservel. and Maj. George 
Ellis was mortally wounded, in the blowing up of one of the houses, by a 
windoA frame falling on him. He died the next day. 


An account in 1818 says: "There are three houses of pub- 
lic worship in New Bern, and at present three congregations 
supplied with pastors. The Episcopalians, who are a numer- 
ous and respectable body, have a decent brick church, at pre- 
sent supplied with a clergyman. The Methodists, the most 
numerous society of Christians in the place, have a very large 
and convenient chapel, and are supplied with a regular succes- 
sion of able and evangelical preachers. The Baptists have a 
meeting-house, at present out of repair. They have no regu- 
lar preacher. Besides these, a Presbyterian congregation 
meet at the Academy for public woi'ship." Upon the advent 
of the steamer Norfolk' on our waters in 1819, some enthusiasm 
and rivalry in building began, and some substantial edifices 
were erected. 

Many of the great men of North Carolina and the United 
States were born or lived liere. This fact, with its previous 
history and influence, gave to New Bern the honorable soubri- 
quet, " The Aihe?is of North Carolina^ 

Beta Strcijf. 

This street, whose name was recently changed to Nevse^ be- 
gins on the Neuse, and was one of the most famed as the resi- 
dence of men of distinguished talent. Here were the man- 
sion of Hon. William Blackledge, the house and law-office of 
Judge William Gaston, the residence of the younger Gov. 
Bichard D. Spaight (the Mitchell House), and opposite to it 
the imposing house of John Stanly and his law-office. In the 
Stanly building, begun before the Revolution, but not com- 
pleted, were fitted up rooms for the entertainment of General 
Washington, when here in 1791. A notable public reception 
was given him in the Palace. Mr. Stanly also here enter- 
tained General Nathaniel Greene, when his army was famished 
and half naked, and General Greene knew not what to do. 
Then Mr. Stanly patriotically loaned him forty thousand 
pounds for his suffering heroes. Hon. Edward Everett, when 
here to deliver his celebrated oration on Washington, on pass- 
ing this house, lifted his hat, and said, " Ondi the liome ^f pa- 

Washington's LE-rrER. 99 

triots and statesmen.''^ On the square beyond the Presbyterian 
Church (which stands opposite to the Stanly Building) is the 
Academy, already mentioned, with its modern additions. Next 
to it is the Roberts' House, formerly occupied by Hon. J. L. 
Taylor, Chief Justice of the State. His law-office was on John- 
son Street, parallel with New, in a small building opposite Mr. 
John Lane's carpenter shop ; but recently it has been enlarged 
to a dwelling-house. At the beginning of New Street lived 
Judge M. E. Manly, also on the Supreme Court Bench. His 
residence M'as the noted "Emory House," where Presiden 
Monroe and Hon. John C. Calhoun were entertained when 
visiting the city. 

While he was in New Bern, the citizens addressed a letter 
of welcome to General Washington, to which he returned the 
following rcj)ly: 

" To THE Inhabitants of the Town of New Bern. 

" Gentlemen: I express with real pleasure the grateful sentiments ^hich 
your address inspires. I am much indebted, in ever personal regard, to 
the polite attentions of the inhabitants of New Bern, nor am I less grati- 
fied by the patriotic declarations on the situation of our common country. 
Pleasing indeed is the comparison which a retrospect of the past scenes 
affords with oiir present happy condition — and equally so is the anticipa- 
tion of what we may still attain, and long continue to enjoy. A bounti- 
ful Providence has blest us with all the means of national and domestic 
happiness ; to our own virtue and wisdom we are referred for their improve- 
ment and realization. 

"That the town of New Bern may eminently participate in the general 
prosperity, and its inhabitants be individually happy, is my sincere 
wish. G. Washington." 


taoo to tatz. 

IN 1800 there could not have been enough Presbyterians 
here to organize a church. Dr. Elias Hawes was here in 
1798, perhaps earlier; and Kobert Hay, a staunch Scotch 
Covenanter, settled here about the opening of the century. 
Both of these gentlemen were afterwards ruling elders in this 
church. Mr. Hay worshipped with the Methodists, but de- 
clined to connect himself formally with those bretln-en, though 
he was solicited publicly from the pulpit to do so. About 
1806 or 1807, it is probable that James K. Burch was teaching 
a school here for boys and girls in the oflBce of Hon. John 
Wright Stanly across the street from the present Presl)yte- 
rian lecture-room. 

In this work he was assisted by Benjamin H. Rice and Wil- 
liam Leftwich Turner. 

Was born in Bedford County, Virginia, 29th ISTovember, 1782, 
and converted under the ministry of Rev. James Turner. 
He pursued his classical course and theological studies for six 
years under his distinguished brother. Rev. John H. Rice; 
came to North Carolina and taught school in New Bern, then 
in Raleigh; was licensed by Orange Presbytery in 1810, in 
Raleigh; in 1811 sent by the General Assembly to the sea- 
shore of North Carolina as a missionary ; ordained by Orange 
Presbytery 4th April, 1812, and sent as commissioner to the 
General Assembly; dismissed September 26, 1812, and went 
to Petersburg, Ya., where he organized a church, of which he 
was pastor for seventeen 3'ears, and to which I preached a short 
time; in 1829 he was Moderator of the General Assembly. 


After some other changes, he took cliarge of College Church, 
Prince Edward County, Ya., where he was attacked by paraly- 
sis while in the pulpit, January IT, 1856, and died 24th February 

Was the son of Rev. James Turner, Bedford, Ya. His early 
liistory and the time of his ordination are unknown to me. He 
was principal of the academy and pastor of the church in 
Raleigh for some time; went to Fayetteville in 1809, and 
taught scliool, as well as preached. His j)a8tciral services there 
were greatly blessed; but on the IStli of October, 1813, in his 
thirtieth year, in the midst of usefulness, and the tears of an 
affectionate people, he died. He was a man of marked talents 
and character, unaffected piety, and beauty of life. 

Was a native of Albemarle County, Ya. He was received by 
Orange Presbytery, as a candidate for the ministry, at Ala- 
mance, 25th September, ISOG. He pi-esented his certificate of 
classical and scientitic attainments from Rev. Geo. A. Baxter, 
D. D., principal of Washington Academy, now Washington 
and Lee University, Ya. On 24th September, 1807, at Buf- 
falo Church, he was licensed, by the same Presbytery, to preach 
the Gospel; and at Buffalo Church, Moore County, X. C, on 
Thursday, 7th April, 1808, the following minute occurs in the 
records of Orange Presbytery : 

"Mr. James Burch received a call from New Bern, and the 
Rev. Messrs. Stanford, Turner, Robinson, and Murphy, were ap- 
pointed an intermediate Presbytery to meet in New Bern, on 
Friday, tlio 27th of I^Iay next, to ordain Mr. Burch. 

"The Rev. Wm. L. Turner to preach the ordination sermon, 
and Mr. Stanford to pi-eside, and give the charge. 

" Mr. Burch is ordered to prepare a lecture on the 23d Psalm, 
and a sermon on Luke 18: 13, and be examined on theology, 
-chronology, and church history, previous to ordination." 


This order was carried out, as we learn from the Minutes of 
Presbytery at its seventy-seventh session, at Alamance Church, 
29th September, 1808: 

" Tlie Minutes of the Intermediate Presbytery appointed to 
meet at Kew Bern were read, and are as follows : 

"New. Bern, 3fmj "iWi, 1808. 

"Intermediate Presbytery met according to appointment, 
viz., the Kev. Messrs. Samuel Stanford, Wm. L. Turner, and 
Mnrdock Murphy. The Rev. Samuel Stanford was chosen 
Moderator, and Murdock Murphy, Clerk. 

"Mr. James Burch delivered a sermon and lecture on the 
su])jects assigned him by Presbytery, and was examined on 
chronology and church history, which were sustained. 

"The Rev. Wm. L. Turner preached the ordination sermon, 
and Mr. Burch having answered the questions our Form of 
Government requires in such cases, he was ordained to the 
holy office of the ministry, by the laying on of the hands of 
the Presbytery, and prayer, and a charge was given suitable to 

the occasion. 

" Concluded with prayer. 

"MuKDOCK Murphy, Clerk.''^ 

In 1809 Messrs. Burcli and Turner were appointed commis- 
sioners to the General Assembly, The following record is 
copied from the Presijyterial Minutes of September 27, 1810: 
" The Rev. James K. Burch applied by letter to be dismissed 
from his jxfstoral charge, and also from this Presbytery, to join 
the Presbytery of Phihadelphia. Said charge informed Pres- 
bytery by their representatives of their willingness tliat Mr. 
Burch should resign his pastoral charge. The Presbytery ac- 
cepted his resignation, and he was also dismissed to join the 
Presbytery of Philadelphia." 

Dr. Gillett, in his "History of the Presbyterian Church," 
says, "The church at New Bern was gathered but a short time 
previous to 1809, and in that year James K. Burch was its 
pastor. For a long time subsequent it must have remained in 


a feeble state, even if it retuined its organization." He says 
that Mr. Burch preached for some time at New Bern, and af- 
terward at Washini^-ton. The Minutes copied above, however, 
seem to show that there was an organization in New Bern be- 
fore April, 1808, as a call was given and presented to Presby- 
tery for pastoral services in April. Nothing in the Minutes 
of Presbytery warrants the statement that Mr. Burch preached 
in Washington, as on the dissolution of his relation to New 
Bern he went to Phihidelphia. This transfer seems to have 
been through the influence of Dr. Alexander. Mr. Burch's 
name stands in the Presbyterial Minutes opposite to New Bern 
in 1808 and 1809, under the heading ''names of congrega- 
tions;"" but under the head "communicants," New Bern is 
marked '■'' unknown ^ Dr. Gillett says that Mr. Burch was "a 
man of mure tlian ordinary eloquence, but greatly lacking in 
stability, he was quite unfitted to secure the confidence in him- 
self or his measures which was necessary to build up a prosper- 
ous congregation." He died about 1859-'G0. 

From an old copy of "7%^ Morning Herald'''' of New Bern, 
in 1808, the following is copied, which shows activity and zeal 
on the part of the Presbyterians: 


For the purpose of Erecting a 

P R F. S B Vr E R I A N M F. E T I N G - H O U S E, 

Has lately been let on foot in the town of Newbern, and a number 
of names obtained. 

Papers are left at tlie Bank, Printing Office, Book Store, and in the 
hands of ieveral gentlemen in the Town and Country, of which the 
following is a Copy : — Christians of every denomination are reipect- 
fully invited to yield their aid. 

THI'^ Subscribers severally promise to pay the sums of money op- 
posite their respective Namks for the purpose of purchasing a Lot in 
Newbern with such improvements thereon as may be converted into 
a Presbyterian Meeting-House, and for the completion of the same, 
or for purchasing ground and erecting thereon a suitable building for 
such Meeting-House — or for purchasing or otherwise accjuiring an in- 
terest in a House or other buikling, or part of such building to be 


converted into a Meeting- House as aforesaid, and for the occasional 
performance of Divine Service by such Minister of the Christian Reli- 
gion as the Presbyterian Pastor for the time being, or other persons 

having charge of the said building shall think proper to admit We 

also severally promise to deliver and make titles for such property 
specifically subscribed by us respectively for said purposes: the sums 
of money to be paid in one year, in quarterly payments to the person 
or persons whom the commissioners to be appointed as hereinafter 
provided for, or a majority of them shall direct. — And the property 
specifically subscribed to be delivered and titles made to said Com- 
missioners in trust for the purposes and to the uses contemplated by 
this subscription ; and it is agreed that a majority of the subscribers 
hereto, after forty shall have subscribed, shall have authority at a 
meeting of a majority of said forty subscribers, or a majority of those 
who do meet, after notice be given, to appoint five Commissioners, 
who, or a majority of them, shall have power to make contracts for 
fulfilling the objects of this Subscription. 

Neivbeni, December lo, 1807. 

The result of tliis appeal is not now known. 

The teachers before named, were succeeded about 1812 by 
Rev. J. W. Thompson, who was a Presbyterian minister from 
Yirginia, and a relative of Mr. Burch. He taug-ht in the Aca- 
demy building, where lie also preached, as well as in the old 
Baptist meeting-house, at the corner of Metcalf and Johnson 
Streets, near Cedar Grove Cemetery. He married Miss Me- 
hetabel Blanchard Carney, a daughter of one of the "original 
thirteen members" of this church, and of Huguenot ancestry. 
It is probable that at this period Presbyterian services, at least 
prayer-meetings, were held at the house of Mrs. Minor, on 
Craven Street near Pollock, and at the residence of Mrs. Robert 
Hunt, which was the Brissington House, on East Front Street 
above Broad, and now the residence of Henry R. Bryan, Esq. 
Mr. Thompson was a consumptive, and remained here only a 
short time. He probably died in Raleigh in 1815, and was 
followed here by 


Who was teaching in New Bern abont 1816. Dr. Freeman 
was born in Sandwicli, Biirnstnble Comity, Mass., April 6th, 
1772. He was the third son and iiftli child of lion. Nathanael 
Freeman, who was twi<-e married, and was the father of twenty 
children. He was probably edncated in his native State, and 
took his degree of Doctor of Medicine. On the 10th of De- 
cember, 1794, he married Lncy Crocker, of Falmouth, Mass. 
Dr. Freeman first practised medicine in association with his 
father in his native town, wliere he was also a Justice of tlie 
Peace. Subsequently he settled in Falmouth, Mass., whence 
he came to Edenton, N. C, in 1805, and taught school. 
Thence he moved to New Bern, and became principal of the 
New Bern Academy. Associated with him were his two bro- 
thers, Frederick and George W., who were or became Episco- 
pal ministers. The latter became rector of Clirist Church, 
Raleigh, N. C, and afterwards the Bishop of Arkansas. 

Eev. J. O. Freeman was a distinguished educator. He taught 
also in Salisbury, Kaleigh, and Washington, N. C, and gave 
many of our promineiit men their classical training for college, 
and to his faithful teaching they attributed their future honors. 
His school in New Bern numbered nearly two hundred, and 
some of his pupils still remain, who have spoken to me about 
him. He pursued and popularized the Lancastrian system. 
An aged lady recently said: "If there ever was a Christian, 
he was one ; and we all loved liim so much." He preached in 
the Academy, and his unaffected piety and gentleness won uni- 
versal favor with all classes. During liis ministrations here we 
have the first record of the formal organization of the Presby- 
terian Church ; but the formation was not by him, and I cannot 
ascertain what part he had in it. Dr. Freeman removed to Salis- 
bury, N. C, in 1820, and opened a school. He was dismissed 
from Orange to Concord Presbytery in April, 1821 ; and Angust 
4th, 1821, he organized the Salisbury Cliurch with " thirteen " 
members, and remained its pastor until 1826, during which 
period the corner-stone of the present church building was laid, 


and the church well started on its career of usefulness. He then 
labored in Virginia and in Orange Presbytery, and died in 
Washington, N, C, November 2d, 1835, in his sixty-third year. 
His oldest son, Edmund B. Freeman, was Clerk of the Supreme 
Court in Ealeigh from 1836 to 1868. At his house Mrs. J. O. 
Freeman died. May 27, 1844. Dr. Freeman was esteemed as 
a physician, honored as a clergyman, eminent as an instructor 
of youth, and enjoyed in a remarkable degree the sincere re- 
spect and warm aflfection of many filling high places, as their 
learned and beloved preceptor. 

#r0mti2:nf ton* 

Rev. John Witherspoon was born in New Bern, and was 
educated at Princeton College. He preached here frequently. 
In his younger days his fame as a preacher was upon every 
tongue. His father, Dr. Witherspoon, a physician, was the son 
of the distinguished Revolutionary patriot, and signer of the 
Declaration of Independence, President John Witherspoon, 
D. D. of Princeton College, and married the widow of Gov. 
Nash, of New Bern ; so Rev. Mr. Witherspoon was half-brother 
of Judge Frederick Nash. He lived in Hillsboro, founded the 
Presbyterian Church there, and was its first pastor. He died 
in 1854. 

It has already been stated, that in 182T nearly all the Min- 
utes of Orange Presbytery were consumed by fire with his 
house in Hillsboro, N. C, and that a committee was raised to 
recover as much as possible of the lost history of the church. 
In this book of statistics, thus compiled, it is recorded that the 
New Bern church was organized on the 1th of January, 1817, 
ly Rev. John Witherspoon ; that it then consisted of nine raetn- 
bers, and that Dr. EUas Ilavjes and Robert Ilay were made 
ruling elders. 

From other trustworthy sources we learn, that this organi- 
zation was effected in the liouse and parlor of Mrs. Elizabeth 
Minor, on Craven Street, near Pollock. The daughter of Mrs. 
Minor, Miss Julia Minor, still living, says that her mother 
always stated this as the birthplace of the New Bern church. 


Uiiiforni tradition, and the mural tablets in our church (placed 
there many years aij;o), affirm that tlicre were thirtceii ori^jinal 
)ueniber6. It may be tliat, on the foi'uial gathering as a church, 
and after the election, ordination and installation of elders, 
four other persons were received and enrolled as of equal 
standing and date witli the nine spoken of in the Presbyterial 
minute ; for I have been told that Mr. Witherspoon received 
Mrs. John Jones into the church ; or it may be that, in the ten 
years that elapsed between the organization of the church and 
the destruction of the Minutes, his memory erred as to the 
original number. 

Dr. Elias Ilawes and Robert Hay, ruling elders ; Mrs. Eunice 
Hunt, a daughter of President Jonathan Edwards, D. D., of 
Princeton College ; Mrs. Lydia Stewart, Mrs. Sarah Webber, 
Mrs. Lucretia Bell, (afterwards Mrs. John Jones,) John Jones, 
Mrs. Jane Carney, Mrs. Frances Devereaux, Mrs. Mary Dewey, 
Mrs. Elizabeth Minor, Mrs. Luisa Morning, and Mrs. John C. 
Stanly, a colored meml»er. 

Was this the first gathering of the church in New Bern ? 
The facts already adduced about the call laid before Presby- 
tery in April, 1808, and the jxisionUe of Rev. J. K. Burch, 
seem to show an organized and working church then ; and after- 
wards, when the tie was severed by Presbytery, the charge signi- 
fied their assent by their representatives. The New Bern con- 
gregation again appears on the Assembly's Minutes in 1813 as 
contributing ten dollars to Missions. Life was still manifested, 
though no pastor led the flock. There can be little doul)t as to 
both of the elders named, and other adherents, being in the 
city during all the silent years. So it must be that here, as in 
many of our early churclies, a sturdy cluster of Presbyterians 
gathered and acted as if organized, getting what ministerial ser- 
vice they could, and watching for an opportunity of securing a 
pastor, and effecting a permanent crystallization. This was ac- 
complished, after some years of trial to faith and hope, on the 
ever memorable 7^A January., 1817. Mr. Witherspoon preached 


in the old Baptist church. In this movement Dr. Freeman 
must liave assisted; but it doubtless was consolidated, and 
thoroughly established for an onward and successful career, by 
the valuable labors of the Rev. J. N. Campbell, who was the 
next preacher after this formation. The date of his advent is 
unknown; but he continued here until some time in 1820. 

"Was born in Philadelphia, March 4th, 1798. His maternal 
grandfather was Ilobert Aitken, a Scotcli Seceder immigrant 
in 1769, and the publisher of the lirst English edition of the 
Bible in this countr3^ Mr. Campbell entered the University of 
Pennsylvania, but did not graduate; studied theology and the 
classics under Rev. Ezra Styles Ely, D. D. ; was a while Pro- 
fessor of Languages in Hampden Sidney College, Ya. ; was 
licensed to preach by Hanover Presbytery, May 10th, 1817; 
and commenced his ministry in Petersburg, Va., where he some- 
times preached for Dr. Benj. Rice, then pastor of Tabb Street 
Church. Here he married his first wife, (a daughter of Robert 
Boiling, Esq.,) who died in a few years. He subsequently mar- 
ried Miss E. T. Tilghman, of Maryland, who still survives him. 

From Petersburg Mr. Campbell came to New Bern, where 
Rev. W. B. Sprague, D. D., says he was instrumental in estab- 
lishing the first Presbyterian Church; and Mrs. Campbell 
writes me, "I have frequently heard my husband speak of 
New Bern, and say that he was instrumental in establishing 
there the first Presbyterian Church; but so many years have 
passed since then, tliat I cannot i*ecall any particulars about it. 
My husband did not remain there long. I think the climate 
did not agree with liim."' It is prubaMe that Dr. Rice, who 
had formei-ly lived in New Bei-n, directed Mr. Campbell thither. 

In the autumn of 1820, Mr. Campbell was chosen Chaplain 
to Congress ; and though only twenty-two years old, discharged 
his diflicult ofiice in a highly satisfactory manner. In 1823 he 
was the assistant of Rev. Dr. Balch in Georgetown; and in 
1824 or 1825, took charge of New York Avenue Presbyterian 
Church, Washington, D. C. Soon the church was crowded, 


and his reputation spread widely. Here he was intimate Avith 
Hon. William Wirt, and associated with the great men of that 
day. President Andrew Jackson was a member of his conirre- 
gation. When the famous imbroglio about Mrs. Eaton oc- 
curred, and broke up the President's Cabinet, Mr. Campbell 
came in conflict Mitli the President, who tried to control the 
Church's action. Mr. Campbell spoke to him with the utmost 
plainness, and proved to be a man of as iron will as "Old 
Hickory" himself, and as inflexible in the line of duty; so a 
breach occurred between them. Through Chief-Justice Spen- 
cer, of New York, Mr. Campbell was introduced to tlie First 
Presbyterian Church in Albany ; was called thither, accepted 
the pastorate thereof, and was installed in office on Sept. 11th, 
1831. This position he retained till his death, March 27th, 

Mr. Campbell was one of the Regents of the State Univer- 
sity, and was identified with all the public charities of All»any. 
On Sabbath, March 20th, he filled the usual services, and 
preached with his accustomed vigor. On Monday he attended 
the meeting of Regents in the Capitol. But on the next Sab- 
batli, Easter, as his congregation — most of whom scarcely knew 
that he was sick, or seriously so, — were assembling for their 
communion service, they were startled to learn that Dr. Camp- 
bell's spirit was passing to the sanctuary above, there to cele- 
brate the marriage supper of the Lamb whh the ransomed, and 
witli the glorified Redeemer. His health had nearly always 
been infirm, but his constitution Mas elastic, and his strength of 
purpose indomital)le, so that his labors were prodigious and un- 
remitting. His funeral was attended by the Governor and his 
stafi^, and by both Houses of the Legislature, which adjourned 
for the purpose. The flag on the State Capitol was lowered to 
half-mast from respect to his memory, and on account of the 
public loss sustained by his death. 

Dr. Campbell was a man of regal presence, with manners 
suited for a court ; of large executive and financial abilities, 
and profound knowledge of human nature ; of quick, keen, 
and vigorous intellect, and a retentive memory, stored with 

110 PALMY DAYS. 181S. 

vast, varied, and practical knowledge about almost every phase 
of life. He Lad a fine flow of spirits, a pleasant and w'inning 
address, and the power of administering the keenest and most 
withering rebuke witliout giving offence. His taste was exact 
and classic, Ijoth as to his own person and to large architectural 
superintendence. Adorned with these gifts and powers, with 
an open heart and open hand, frank, yet firm, it is not surpris- 
ing that he was called " the pope " in his church. 

He was always a graceful and impressive speaker, preach- 
ing — after the Scotch fashion — in gown and bands; a Chris- 
tian without austerity, bold, manly, liberal, yet a decided 
Presbyterian ; a man of mark and great usefulness in his gen- 
eration. The aged and honored Rev. Tlieodoiic Pryor, T>. D., 
who probal)ly heard him preach in both Petersburg and Albany, 
writes me, that Mr. Campbell " was a handsome man ; a man 
of great culture, and one of the most eloquent pulpit orators 
that I ever heard." This is the clergyman whom God sent 
at this epoch to be the leader of the gathering Presbyterian 
band in this city. 

Palms Ma^s.^lBlB. 

About the year 1818 is considered the palmy day of tliis 
ancient Borough, then more than one hundred years old. Many 
of those whom North Carolina deliglits to honor had walked, 
or still walked, these beautifully shaded avenues, graced society, 
and fostered successful political and commercial enterprises. 
Others were soon to stand before the Commonwealth and 
receive their palms and laurels, won l)y beautiful integrity of 
character, Cln-istian virtues, brilliant intellectual powers, all 
illustriously devoted to philanthropic labors and patriotic states- 
manship. The names of Coor, Hatch, Bryan, Xavier Martin, 
Gov. Nash, the two Governois Spaight, Stanly, Gaston, Sit- 
greaves, Graham, Shepherd, Badger, Manly, will not soon lose 
their fragrance, or cease to be cherished as a goodly heritage. 
New Bern had attained to an enviable reputation in the State, 
and its social refinement was one of its marked features, that 
both adorned and fascinated. 

PALMY DAYS. 1818. Ill 

Tlie first steam-mill in New Bern had been erected by Wil- 
liam Shepherd in 1812, from prize-money he had received from 
successes of the celebrated privateer ^^Snaj) Dragon T It was on 
the Trent. Soon another sprang up at Union Point. Then there 
were Capt. Blaney's celebrated limpid castor oil factory, the 
Harvey cordage works, turpentine and rosin-oil distilleries, 
grist-mills, saw-mills, a tannery, a rum-mill, and ship building, 
all adding greatly to the material prosperity of the city. Old 
Mrs. Bartlet and her daughter, Mrs. Emery, kept in the 
Badger House, near Christ Church, the best public table in 
North Carolina, where as true a band of single gentlemen as 
were then extant on the south side of the Potomac, daily dis- 
cussed ham and turkey, or venison and jelly, in the identical 
hall where once convened the venerable Senate, constituted by 
the King to legislate for the colony. An extract from some 
rattling and amusing rhymes of Mr. Stephen M. Chester, in 
1818, will pleasantly picture some of the surroundings: 

"But turn we to the classic school, 
Where science holds her transient rule, 
Where culture trims the tender shoot. 
And grafts the stock with future fruit : 
The mausion daily gathers there 
Two hundred minds its smiles to share, 
Though architecture has not spread 
Her splendors round the tyro's head. 

•'The jail I well-nigh had forgotten, 
In truth the fabric's almost rotten ; 
The doughty prisoners get out 
Once every month, or thereabout I 
And every convict for Jack Ketch 
The poor militia have to watch. 


•'Tis true the town guard every night 
Consists of four good ' gemmen white,' 
But should you seek its cautious keepers. 
You'd find them snoring 'mong the sleepers. 

112 PALMY DAYS. 1818. 

"The stocks and pillory hard by- 
Have witEessed mauy a piteous cry, 
And many a sable back has smarted 
With comfort from the lash imparted. 


"Along the banks where Trent and Neuse 
Their sparkling waters wide diffuse, 
Industrious art rears other piles, 
And growing wealth its toil beguiles. 
There, from a hundred stills dispensed, 
Spirits of pine are fast condensed ; 
Beneath that fabric rude and large. 
The fiercest mastiffs guard their charge 
Of various hides for leather steeped. 
In vats with bark astringent heaped. 

Rope Walks. 

"The narrow house which there protrudes 
Its awkward length for many roods. 
Shelters the twisting rope that forms 
The cable to contend with storms ; 
Here the strong screw expresses oil 
The griping cholera to foil ; 
And there from grain its essence flows, 
A lethe for unnumbered woes. 


" The people of this curious town 
Are of all hues, black, white, and brown,. 
And not a clime beneath the moon 
But here may find some wandering loon. 
Welsh, Irish, English, French, and Dutch, 
Norwegians, Portuguese, and Scotch, 
And other aliens, claim attention. 
Whose very names would tire to mention. 
Each State is also represented. 
Some satisfied, some discontented ; 
A host of Yankies, 'mong the rest, 
Like birds of passage build their nest^ 
And having wasted all the land. 
Fly off to some more distant strand. 



" Such is the picture fresh from nature, 
And true, I thiuk, in every feature ; 
Drawn to amuse, perchance to tease you ; 
This is New Bern, how does 't please you?" 

Uii6iglitly and uncared-for small tenements marred tlie town 
more then perhaps than now. But a spirit of improvement 
was beginning, it may be partly from rhyming satire; and one 
of the fruits of it was the brick Bank of the State (^f North 
Carolina, soon followed by its rival, the Bank of New Bern. 

The churches were in shal)by condition. Our poet says: 

EpiscoPAii Chuech, 

"A church of George the 2d'8 reign 
Still flings its shadow o'er the plain. 
But mouldering on its ancient base, 
Must soon resign its resting place. 

Methodist CnrRCH. 

" Next comes a house without a name — 
To that of church it has no claim, 
And yet the long misshapen pile 
Contains a throng 'twixt either aisle, 
And in the galleries perch'd above. 
To join in prayer and feasts of love ; 
Its various worshijjers can tell 
Why they reject a spire or bell. 

Baptist Church. 

"The Baptist Barn comes next to view 
Where winter winds turn noses blue. 
And shiv'riug devotees retire 
Eight glad from worship to tbe fire : 
But Presbyterians in tlie lurch, 
Too poor, or mean, to build a clturch. 
Are glad to find admittance here 
When its own priests don't interfere." 

Bev. Mr. Campbell was an eloquent anil popular preacher. 
Traditions linger here still of his great power as an orator. He 


was also an enterprising gentleman, and liad a valuable coadju- 
tor in Mr. Chester. He and Mr, Meredith, the able Baptist 
preacher, used alternately the "Old Baptist Church." I quote 
again the contemporary Mr. Chester : " The Baptist Barn " was 
at that time the established patronymic of the nutshell that 
subsequently became the present pretty church of that denomi- 
nation. It was unglazed, and wholly destitute of casements ; 
had nothing l)ut plain shutters to exclude the winds of heaven, 
which were of course necessarily admitted with the light. The 
framework of the gallery was an unclothed skeleton of bones. 
The whole interior of the building without any lining to its tim- 
bers, and four-legged benches all the accommodation in the shape 
of seats afforded by the unfurred, unceiled, unplastered and un- 
painted edifice." 

"Notwithstanding its rude state, however, it long furnished 
to the Baptist and Presb^^terian societies alternate opportunity 
to worship God ; and the Rev. Mr. Campbell and the Eev. Mr. 
Meredith officiated interchangeably in the apology for a pulpit. 
The favor of the Presbyterians, thus propitiated, contributed 
not a little to the gradual transformation of the building to its 
present neat and comfortable shape." Tlie two congregations 
united in renovating the "barn." 

In the newspaper-carrier's address on New Year, 1819, writ- 
ten by Mr. Chester, allusion is made satirically' to " buhhles 
ixirsV^ in the past twelve months. One was the steamhoat 
admiration and expectation, when the steamer Norfolk arrived 
to establisli a route to Elizabeth City, and so North and South ; 

" Hundreds flocked down to see the wonder, 
In spite of rain and even thunder ; 
And such their rapture to possess it, 
'Twas not in language to express it. " 

In three short months the golden dreams failed, and the Nor- 
folk was sold. 

" Then building churches was the theme, 
The tottering old one urg'd the scheme ; 


And Presbyterians, who had none, 
Were certainly in need of one. 
'Twas wonderful to mark the zeal 
Each congregation seemed to feel ; 
Devotion saw its altar rise, 
As if by magic, to the skies ; 
Tho' both the noble piles were finished, 
The stock continued undiminished, 
For lo ! the pews were sold for more 
Thau tlie whole churches cost before ; — 
All this bad castle-building done, 
Yet avarice has not yet begun. 
And much I fear our niggard place 
Has not, and never will have grace 
To look above the narrow views 
Ascribed to infidels and Jews." 

Thus the church huhhle seemed to burst. Presbyterians, how- 
ever, evidently felt the importance of securing a churcli of 
their own; had probably increased in numbers and ability; 
were aroused by occasional satires; and had now a capable and 
popular leader in Rev. Mr. Campbell. Hence, I am not sur- 
prised to find in the " Carolina Centhiel^ New Bern^ October 17, 
1818," the following 


"These persons disposed to unite themselves as a Presbyterian con- 
gregation in this place, are requested to meet at the court-house at three 
o'clock this afternoon, for the purpose of organizing said society by the 
appointment of 

" Tkustees. 

" There are other important objects, which will be fully explained at 
the place of meeting ; and it is earnestly requested that all who wish to 
be considered members of said congregation, or are willing to lend their 
aid in support of its worship, will attend. — Oct. 17." 

Mr. Chester says this "was the first meeting ever assembled 
in the place regularly to organize a Presbyterian congregation.''^ 
How to reconcile this statement witli that given already from 
the Minutes of the Presl»ytery, in the keeping of Mr. Wither- 
spoon, dues not at this distance appear. No record of the 
action of the meeting — called above — lias been found. 


In the earlier movement to assist the Baptists in finishing 
their church near Cedar Grove Cemetery, Mr. Chester had been 
efficient. He was especially zealous and lielpful in now advising 
and assisting to raise funds to erect the church edifice used by 
our people to-da}'. Then, as since, the ladies must have been 
faithful and fruitful in godly labors, for Mrs. Minor is said to 
have headed the subscription list, and her efforts and interest 
were so great, that Dr. Hawes, the ruling elder, used to call it 
*^ Mrs. Minor''' s Churchr 

'^\xxx\\tx%t^ of Xot* 

Trustees were doubtless elected at the meeting held in the 
court-house; and in 1819 they bought the premises on which 
the church stands from Mr. Edward Graham for $1,200. (See 
particulars under " Property Data," page 179.) Ground sold at 
large prices then apparently. This lot is located on IS'ew (now 
Neuse) Street, between Hancock and Middle. 

Wednesday., the ^th day of June^ 1819, loas the memorable 
time when the corner-stone of the first Presbyierian Church in 
New Bern, N. C, vxis laid. Judge James H. Hutchins, now 
a ruling elder in Austin, Texas, was raised and then living in 
New Bern. He attended the Sabbath-school when it was held 
in the lower East-room of the " New Bern Academy " as early 
as 1819. He told me that the Church had a meeting in that 
room on the day above named, and came thence in the after- 
noon to lay this corner-stone. 

Fortunately I am able, from an old copy of the " Carolina 
Centinel, New Bern, June 12th, 1819," to give an account of 
this interesting event, and present the handsome address made 
on the occasion by Be v. J. Nicholson Campbell.- 

From the Carolina Centinel, Newbern, June 12th, 1819: 

" The Trustees of the Presbyterian congregation in this place 
have commenced the erection of a House of Worship, to be 70 
feet in length and 52 in breadth, and capable, by computation, 



of accommodating 800 persons. We have been favored by a 
friend with the following notice on the subject: 

" On Wednesda}^ evening last, the interesting ceremony of lay- 
ing tlie foundation corner-stone of the iirst Presbyterian Meet- 
ing-IIouse in Newi)ein, took place in pi'esence of a respectable 
concourt-e of citizens. The Keverend J. Nicholson Campbell 
officiated in the religit)us services of the occasion. After a pre- 
fatory comment on the duty of Christian Associations to invoke 
the favor of Heaven upon all their undertakings, he addressed 
the Throne of Grace in prayer, imploring the Almighty to 
vouchsafe his blessing upon the commencement of the work, 
and the continuance of his smiles on its prosecution until it 
should be completed ; a lit Temple for his praise. The corner- 
stone was then deposited by the Master Masons present, and 
the solemnities concluded with the following address: 

" Brethren : But a few centuries have elapsed since our coun- 
try was discovered by an enterprising European. We are all 
acquainted with the long period of darkness, during which it 
had remained unknown to the civilized inhabitants of the 
Eastern Continent, and we all know how short an interval has 
succeeded the interruption of its obscurity; yet, when we look 
around us, we are t-carcely able to believe that so few years 
have passed since the foot of Columbus first trod the shores of 
our happy land. It seems but yesterday, in the annals of the 
world, that our fathers fled from religious persecution in their 
native country, and conmiitting themselves to all the dangers 
of the ocean, steered for a more propitious clime, in which they 
might erect new altars, and adore their God according to the 
dictates of their consciences, and none 'to molest or make 

"Brethren, how wonderful has been the progress of civiliza- 
tion since that auspicious era! Who, at this moment, when the 
discoverer of America first beheld, with rejoicing eyes, the rude 
and native grandeur of the Western world, would have ven- 
tured to predict that in a period so short, changes so vast, and 
to our enterprise so honorable, could possibly occur? Our fa- 


thers trod its shores, and the desert seemed to retire at their 
approacli. The sound of the adze was heard, and the habita- 
tions of civilized men arose in the solitary wilderness. Almost 
as by the magic power of charm, the trackless forest was swept 
away, and the crowded, busy, bustling city occupied its room. 
Almost as by miracle, the idle plains of this peaceful continent 
were furrowed by the ploughshare, and the fruitful crop sprung 
forth to reward the labor of the husbandman. Where glitter 
yonder spires, as it would seem but yesterday the towering 
trees of the forest waved their lofty heads. Where now one 
notices the pursuits of active commerce, but yesterday the sav- 
age tenants of the woods pursued the pleasure of the chase. 
Where now, within the limits of our sight, are heard, at stated 
periods, the strains of heavenly melody to the worship of Jeho- 
vah, but yesterday was heard the whoop to battle or the yell of 
Indian carnage. And where this day we have laid the founda- 
tion of the House of God, but yesterday was erected the altar 
of a demon, and in his honor was the blood of human victims 

"Brethren, 'no one knoweth what a day may bring forth.' 
Who among our number, even one year ago, would have pre- 
sumed to stand upon the place which I now occupy, and assert 
that on this day we would here commence the building of this 
house? And yet not only are we indulging this privilege, but 
other denominations, of the same universal Church, have been 
excited to new diligence in the same holy cause ; and ere long 
we may hope that in this place the sun will shine on four tem- 
ples dedicated to the worship of our common God. Is not this 
an animating prospect? And sliould it not warn you to un- 
wearied diligence in the execution of the work you have com- 
menced? Yes, brethren, proceed but in the fear of God, and 
he will not leave unfinished his own w^ork ; and by his mighty 
power shall you be enabled to elevate its topmost spire with 
long and echoed shouts of praise. 

" Brethren, some have thought it honorable, with a desolat- 
ing army to ravage neighboring States, and to reduce to the 
condition of vassals the haughty monarchs of a hostile land; 


others have deemed it glory to erect g-orgeons paLaces and no- 
ble buildings for the adorning of their country, and for the ad- 
vantage of its citizens; and others, with much more reason, 
have thought their characters exalted by promoting the com- 
fort of their fellow-nicn, and by endowing institutions to ame- 
liorate the circumstances of tlie miserable. But how much 
more honorable — how truly noble is it — to he engaged in a de- 
sign which has for its end the promotion of God's glory ! If 
jou are desirous of distinctions, here is the work which shall 
bestow upon you all that you can ask — even the distinction of 
assisting to ei'ect his altars who is the Eternal Sovereign of the 
universe. If you are ambitious of immortal honor, here is the 
labor in which you should be employed; for when the achieve- 
ment of a C*sar and a Napoleon shall be buried in oblivion, 
and wlien the palaces and capitals of Europe and America shall 
smoulder in the blazing ruins of the world, this deed, the build- 
ing of a temple to the Lord of Hosts, shall stand recorded in the 
annals of Heaven's empire, and be emblazoned in the indestruc- 
tible, the eternal columns of the skies. 

"Brethren, the prospect before us is one of the most exalted 
nature, and it should cheer and animate our hearts. This day, 
if we look around us, may we behold, erected and erecting, the 
temples of Jehovah in the sands of Carolina — those sands from 
wliicli is hardly yet effaced the track of the wild beast, or the 
pursuing footsteps of its hunter, scarcely less ferocious. This 
day, if we will listen, we may hear the anthems of God's praise 
floating on that air which, a little while since, was rent with 
the hideous cries of the savage, as he celebrated the orgies of 
idolatry. If, brethren, our country lias thus been visited, let 
the past demonstrate to us that the truth proclaimed in the Re- 
velation of God is not impossible — that all nations shall be 
visited w^ith salvation. Oh ! yes. I anticipate the time, and 
my heart l)ounds at the prospect, in which the blessings of a 
preached Gospel siiall be extended from the rising to the set- 
ting of the sun, and from the Northern to the Southern Pole. 
I anticipate the blissful period in which Asia and Ethiopia 
shall stretch forth their hands to God, and in which the songs 


of Zion shall arise to the Almighty from the Eastern to the 
Western Continents. I look forward to the speedy arrival of 
that day in which all peoples, and kindreds, and nations, and 
tongues shall send one general Hallelujah to the skies. No, 
brethren, the period is not far distant in which the idolatrous 
nations of the East will relinquish their superstitions, toss their 
idols to the moles and bats, and worship the true God, whom 
to know is eternal life. Ere long the Crescent shall fade away 
before the Sun of Eighteousness, and the Temple of the cruci- 
fied Nazarene be erected on the ruins of the mosque. Ere 
long the idols of the Brahmin shall totter before the ark of the 
Lord, and in the sanctuary of their worship shall be proclaimed 
the truths of Holy "Writ. And ere long shall the Jews be brought 
in with the fulness of the Gentiles, and the enlightened de- 
scendants of the patriarchs worship the King of Glory, whom 
their blinded fathers slew. 

"Brethren, suffer me, before I close my address, to remind 
you that the blessings, which with such pleasure we anticipate 
shall flow to other nations, already belong to us ; and while I 
call to your recollection tliis truth, permit me to beseech you 
that you will endeavour to improve them. Yain is it to build 
a house for God's worship, so far as your salvation is con- 
cerned, unless you also be builded together, a spiritual temple 
in the Holy Ghost. It is not by bowing in adoration to the 
Almighty at liis earthly altar, that we are to be saved ; but it 
is by elevating our hearts to his throne, and adoring him in 
the beauty and perfection of holiness. And oh ! my beloved, 
if we are enal)led thus to serve him in the temple we erect 
with our ow^n hands to his honor, we shall be admitted, after 
we shall have closed our eyes for ever on the world and all its 
objects, to adore him in his own habitation, in the temple not 
made with hands, eternal in the heavens. And after the de- 
stroying power of time shall have mouldered all the works 
of mortals to the dust, and when tlie earth and its old pillars 
totter to their base, we shall triumphantly soar above the fu- 
neral pile of nature, and reign forever in unchanging glory. 
God grant that this may be the happy consummation of our 



toils; mid may the Messing of Jehovali, the Father, the Son, 
and the Holy Ghost, rest on all of you for ever. Amen." 

3Fxfiiiming i\\t Corner Stone* 

It was thought that the exact early history of the Church 
could he recovered hy digging up the corner-stone, and getting 
the docmnents \vhich are usually deposited in it on such occa- 
sions. Accordingly, after much searching and labor, it was 
found at the south-east corner, the front of the church, and at 
the boUovi of the corner brick pillar. It was of red sand-stone, 
such as was used about the "Palace;" in dimensions, two feet 
by one, and three to four inches thick. But to our great dis- 
appointment, there was no inscription of any sort on it, nor 
any excavation in it for the slightest record. Neither could 
any buried box or bottle be discovered l)y probing the ground 
beneath. So we builded it back where we found it, and as we 
found it — blank. But a place was left at the top of the pil- 
lar for the future placing of a stone with suitable inscription 
and contents. 


The contractor and builder of the church was Mr. Uriah 
Sandy. He was assisted by Mr. John Dewey and Mr. Martin 
Stevenson. Mr. Dewey's son, Charles, was one of the trustees, 
a member of this church, and afterwards a ruling elder in the 
Raleigh Presbyterian Church, and a prominent bank officer in 
that city. Mr. Stevenson's son, Martin, became a ruling elder 
in this church, and was active and useful. 


While the church was building, two cards appeared in the 
newspaper, which showed that some people will whisper dis- 
agreeable things, and that in all ages little annoyances will nuir 
peaceful scenes awhile. But they soon pass away, and we too, 
and so they can be laughed at. The first shows a "hitch" 
about the 



"The singers of the Presbyterian congregation are respectfully in- 
formed, that in consequence of an injunction, or more properly a menace 
of injunction against their meeting at the Academy, they will hereafter 
be better accommodated at Mrs. Emory's long room, the use of which has 
with characteristic liberality been gratuitously offered them. Weather 
and other circumstances permitting, they will meet hereafter on Wednes- 
day evening until further notice. The singers of sister societies are cor- 
dially invited to attend on these occasions, as a union of exertion, on 
the part of the different choirs in cur little village, will conduce much 
more to general improvement than is possible by different efforts. 

'' Febntary 1Q>, 1822." 

In reply to this appeared 


"The singers of the congregation of the Presbyterian Church are re- 
spectfully informed, that they are not menaced with an injunction against 
meeting in the Academy, nor are they more than singers in other congre- 
gations prevented from assembling in that building ; but the trustees of 
the New Bern Academy, taking into consideration the dangers of fire 
from night meetings, thought it expedient, some time ago, to pass a 
resolution forbidding the holding in the Academy night meetings of 
every description. They were more especially induced to this measure, 
because it was fresh in their recollection, that one academy had been 
burnt in consequence of night meetings ; and that it had cost much 
money to the institution to erect another. They wished to avoid all 
danger. This resolution had recently been disregarded, and at the last 
meeting of the Board, the proper officer was instriacted to give notice of 
it, and see that it was carried into effect. This explanation is given to 
prevent the malicious effects, which the publication in the last Centinel 
is evidently intended to produce. 

"New Been, Feb'y 20, 1822." 

Another report brought out the following vindication of 
Baptist liberality. It is said to have been written by Judge 
Gaston, while sitting on the bench in the Court-house, at the 
request of Mr. Clark, who stated to him what he wished to 


"Being again informed by respectable friends of a report in circulation 
that the Presbyterian clergy are deprived of the privilege of preaching 
in the Baptist meeting-house, and that I am the principal cause, I feel 
it a duty I owe the church to which I am attached to contradict it in the 


most distinct terms. It is true no other than our owu minister bas 
preached iu our meeting-house for some time past, but it is because 
others have not asked the privilege. This is intended, however, barely 
to contradict a report known by the members of the Presbyterian Chiu-ch 
not to be true ; and to remove any improper impression it may have left 
on the minds of others, and those perhaps who may have been the most 
liberal towards us. Our meeting-house, when not iu the immediate use 
of our own minister, has been at all times open (on proper application 
being made) to the clergy of every Christian sect; and in ihis instance, 
on either the morning or evening of each Sabbath, our own minister has 
been willing to give place to another. 

"Elijah Ci/Ark, 
"New Bern, Jan'y Vith, 1821." 

onomplotton of \\\^ it\\uvt\\. 

Doubtless desire was stimulated by these things for the 
speedy finishing of the bnilding. Mr. Chester says: 

"Its erection i-edeeined the character of tlie sect from the 
poet's reckless charge of poverty or meanness ; and its com- 
pletion in ^omct/ii)ig like a twelve viontli proved triumphantly 
to the public tlie injustice of the sneers of Jonathan Prit^e and 
John Stanly, who l)oth said they had no wish to live any longer 
than till it was finished. They both outlived the limits of their 
impious wish, and have been long since gathered to their fa- 
thers. The enterprise of the Presbyterians, and the thriving 
indications of the Baptists, roused the slumbering spirit of the 
Episcopalians, and the propliccy of the poet was soon realized 
in the demolition of their ancient place of worship, and the 
erection of a new and far more modern, spacious, and expen- 
sive one." 

The colonial Episcopal Church referred to was then stand- 
ing in the south-east corner of the glebe, enclosed by a tight 
board fence, six feet high. The new bnilding was completed 
by Bennet Planner in 1824. It was afterwards burned on 
Tuesday evening, 10th January, 1871, and rebuilt as at present 
it appears. The new Baptist Church on Middle street was first 
used and dedicated on Simday, 2d July, 1848. The Methodist 
Chnrch on Xew street was built in 1842-43. 

Mr. Chester speaks of the Presbyterian Church being com- 


pleted in little more than a year. His memory must be at 
fault. Mr. Clark's card proves that it was not ready for wor- 
ship in January, 1821. No documents are obtainable to show 
the exact date of completion. A private diary, kept by Catha- 
rine G. Stanbj, a colored member of the congregation, ])nt un- 
fortunately onl}' beginning 1st January, 1822, gives the exact 
date of the 


She writes, January 6th, 1822, "Sabbath evening: To-day 
the Presbyterian Church was dedicated to the worship of God; 
a very interesting and appropriate discourse delivered by the 
Rev. Mr. Hatch ; again I have been blessed with the privilege 
of hearing the Word of God faithfully preached." This is the 
first notice of Mr. Hatch's ministrations to this Church, though 
he was ordained the September previous. It is probable that 
the Church was finished in the latter part of 1821. The cost 
of the building was $7,000. Many in the community, who were 
not connected with the Church or congregation, kindly assisted 
in the erection of this House of God. Thus, too, some pews 
were owned by subscribers to the building fund, who were not 
members of the congregation. The following notice appeared 
in the " Centhiel :'' 


" The new Presbyterian Church in this place will be dedicated, 
with divine permission, on Sunday, the sixth of January. The pub- 
lic are respectfull}^ invited to attend. 

"New Bern, December Idth, 1821." 

Soon afterwards was issued this announcement : 

" The people are respectfully informed that the Presbyterian 
Church will be opened for religious worship on the next Lord's 
Day, 20th January, 1822. The exercises will commence at the 
usual hour, and the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper will be admin- 
istered during service in the morning. 

" No appropriation of the pews having yet been made, the whole 
wiU continue open for public use. The four largest next the door 


are intended to be hereafter reserved expressly for the accommoda- 
tion of strangers and visitors from sister congregations, and are 
■designated for the piu-pose by a suitable inscription on each door. 
"New Bern, January Vdth, 1822." 

A f'^w days later came oat this 


" The pews in the Presbyterian Church will be publicly offered 
for sale or rent on Monday, the 28th instant, at 4 o'clock P. M., on 
the premises. 

" Notes with approved security, payable in installments at six, 

twelve, and eighteen months, will be required in payment for the 

fee simple — and similar at twelve months for the rent. 

" By order of the Board, 

" S. M. Chester, Sec'y. 

" Saturday, January 2Gt/i, 1822." 

These pews were sold at various prices ; tlie centre ones 
ranged from $300 to $350, and the side pews, from $150 to 
$200, according to situation. Subscribers purchased to the 
amount of their subscriptions. Some owned several pews. 
Printed deeds were given, in wliich it was stated that eacli pew 
was subject to a tax, according to its valuation, for the support 
of the ministry. The following is a copy of one as its blanks 
were originally filled : 


"This indenture, made this 28th day of January, A. D. one thou- 
sand eight hundred and twenty-two, between the 7Vustees of the 
Presbyterian Congregation q/ Neio Bern, of the one part, and 
Elias Hav;es of the same place, of the other part, witnesseth : — that, 
for and in consideration of the sum of three hundred and ffty-six 
dollars to the said Trustees, before the sealing and delivery of these 
presents, paid by the said ^Has Ilawes, the payment whereof the 
said Trustees do hereby acknowledge, and thereof acquit the said 
EUas Hawes, they the said Trustees have bargained and sold, and 
by these presents do bargain and sell unto the said JiJlias Ifaices, 
his heirs, and executors, a certain PEW in the Presbyterian 
Church, in New Bern; known and distinguished in the origi- 


nal sales of said Pews, and by the numbers marked thereon at the- 
date of these presents, by the number 4, to have and to hold the 
said PEW with its ajDj)urtenances ; subject to be taxed for the sup- 
port of the ministry of said Church, etc., by the mutual agreement 
of a majority of the Proprietors of the PEWS of the said Church, 
according to an original valuation set on said PEWS before the sale 
thereof, and filed among the records of the Congregation, unto the 
said Elias Havocs, his heirs and executors. In witness whereof,^ 
the Trustees aforesaid have hereunto set their hands and common 
seal, the day and year first above written. 

" Sealed and delivered in " Elias Hawes, 

" presence of " Edwaed Graham, 

" Will'm Harkee. " Isaac Taylor, 

" John Jones, 
" Wm. Hollister, 
" Vine Allen, 
" Robert Hay, 
" S. M. Chester, 
" Robert Primrose,. 
" Silvester Brown, 
" Ed. C. King, 
" Chas. Dewey." 

The accompanying ground-plan of the pews with the names 
of the original purchasers was printed on the deed. The stran- 
gers' pews were large square ones, with seats running around 
three sides. These have since been altered. 

The trustees' seal was a neat one, with an impression of the 
front of the church in the centre, — the whole being about the 
size of a silver dollar. 

It is worth while to notice here the names of Crooni from 
the German Palatine stock ; Handcock and Jones from the 
primitive Welsh Quakers ; Primrose and Hay from the Scotch 

A glance at the constituent elements in this organization 
will exhibit its standing in the community. 

The two elders first in office were remarkable men, Elias 
Haices, M. D. , and Robert Hay. 

Original Purchasers of Pews. 


u. o 

42. O 

Frederick Jones. 41. 

John Franklin and ^^. E" 

Thos. Sparrow. 38. O 

George Keid. 37. 

Wm. Handcock. 36. O -yV 


Strangers' Pews. 

34. J. C. Stanly. 

33. J. C. Stanly. 

O 32. 

31. Mary M'Kinlay. 

O 30. 

29. Silvester Brown. 

O 28. Jno. T. Boyd. 

27. George A. Hall. 

S. O 26. Moses Bears. 

25. J. G. Cuthbert. 

O 24. 


J. o Strangers' Pews. 




Nos. 3 to 9, and 14 to 20, inclusive, l<35o 
Nos. 2, 10, II, 12, 13, 21 and 22, 300 

Nos. 23 to 30, and 35 to 42, inclusive, 200 
Nos. 31 to 34, and 43 to 46, " 150 


Dr. Hawes came to New Bern from the North about 1798. 
Physicians here kept and sold medicines. He owned the prin- 
cipal drug-store in 1822; it stood near the corner of Hancock 
and Pollock streets, on the lot now owned by Mr. Thos. Green. 
He was a man of pronounced and fervent piety, and active and 
useful in tlie connimnity. He soon sold out his drug business, 
and was appointed by the County Court to superintend the 
Poor House ; and he was a true spiritual pastor to the suffei-ing 
ones there. Dr. Hawes seems to have been a Latin, Greek 
and German scholar, and an earnest student of his Bil)le and 
Catechism, and a faithful, all-weathers'' attendant on religious 
services. His wife was the widow of Mr. Benj. Wood, who 
had been the teacher of the children of Plon. John Wright 
Stanly, and was afterward a lawyer at this bar. Anecdotes 
showing his peculiarities linger with the old citizens. Once 
he put up this sign at his drug-store: ^^ sicks xoeaks peazs far 
sail hear.'''' A countryman passing by looks up, pauses, and 
asks, " What is that ? " Dr. Hawes gravely replies, " Can't you 
read?" "Yes." So the man spells and pronounces the mysti- 
cal signs, "six weeks peas for sale here," and as it seems plain, 
remarks, " AVell, it did not seem right ; but I suppose it was 
the graimnar of it ! " 

Dr. Hawes taught a free school once in New Bern, which is 
said to have been t\\Q first ahsolutely free school in North Caro- 
lina. In the yard he kept a pile of bricks and a wheel-barrow ; 
and every day he made the children move that pile in the 
wheel-barrow across the yard for exercise, and to teacli them 
how to work. He believed in a manual labor system. One 
day he told the scholars that if the}' would go to sleep for 
twenty minutes, he would show them something they had never 
seen before. They obeyed to the best of tlieir ability! On the 
awakening, he struck a lucifer match and lighted a tire ; it was 
tlie first matcli ever seen by some, if not all, as it was a new 
thing under tlie sun. 

He was a great temperance advocate and worker; an anti-to- 


bacconist ; a lover of music, and enthusiastic in practicing with 
any willing to sing ; a helper to his pastor, and a praying man 
in public as well as private. He was the only elder, I think, 
who attended Presbytery, and he was several times chosen 
Commissioner to the General Assembly by the Presbytery. 
In 1836 the Presbytery of Roanoke met in Washington, N. C, 
31st March. The members had to pass through ]S"ew Bern. 
Dr. Hawes being a delegate, was urged to secure his seat in 
time in the stage, but always replied " I'll get there in time." 
He started on Wednesday, 30th March, and walked to Wash- 
ington, thirty-five miles, and arrived before the stage. After 
adjournment of tlie Court, he footed it back to New Bern. It 
would be good for the Church to have more elders like him. 
In his old age he was greatly reduced in pecuniary matters, 
as his accumulations were swept away in the collapse of the 
United States Bank. He attended Church twice on Sabbath, 
7th February, 1841, when Rev. Mr. Owen, of Washington, 
]Sr. C, preached in the Presbyterian Church ; then went to the 
night prayer-meeting at Mr. Thomas SjDarrow's. This was his 
last Sabbath but one here ; for on Wednesday, 17th February, 
1841, in his seventy-third year, he fell on sleep in Jesus. 

Was a Scotchman, who came to New Bern about 1800. He 
united with the Presbyterian Church near Kelso, Scotland, 
wlien about thiHeen years of age. His certificate of member- 
ship — brought to this church — is as follows : 

" These certify that the bearer hereof, Robert Hay, an unmarried 
person, has lived in this parish of Gordon mostly from his infancy 
until February last, and removed free from public scandal or ground 
of church censure known here ; so that he may be received into any 
Christian society where his lot may be cast, and partake of chm'ch 
privileges as found qualified. Given at Gordon, this 17th of May, 
1786, by a sessional appointment, and subscribed by 

"Alexk. Duncan, Min'r. 

"Wm. Wilson, Sess. Clk." 


His pious mother tenderly trained him in the Bihle and the 
"Westminster Catechism; and thus he was early established in 
sound principles of moral duty and God's providence. His 
piety was intelligent, based on constant and practical study of 
the Holy Scriptures, and fed through never ceasing prayer to 
and communion with his God and Saviour, tlie Lord Jesus 
Christ. So it was consistent, uniform, controlling, pervading 
his whole life, in all its departments; and was especiall}' /^OiS-i- 
tive and Jixcd in its character. A martyr spirit was his. He 
was a most decided Presbyterian, with a " thus saith the Lord" 
for his faith ; yet he was no bigot, witli sanctimonious, up- 
turned-eye Phariseeism or boastfulness, remandin'ji; all others 
to uncovenanted mercies of God, and denying their Church 
character. He fellowsliipped with his brethren in a common 
Saviour, but loved his own apostolic home the best. AVhile 
he studied the peace, unity, and purity of the Church, he 
^'continually spoke to the most worldly, even to infidels who 
visited his shop," (and all, from highest to lowest, loved to 
visit Father ILiy,) of "the dear Saviour who gave his life for 
our sins," of " that blessed Mary who chose the blessed part," 
of "John, that gentle, favored man, beloved of Christ," of 
"Peter, the sad, presumptuous wight, depending on his own 
righteousness, which was but filtliy rags." So Mr. Stephen 
Miller, who knew iiini, testifies and adds, that "a more devout 
or better man than Itohert ILiy has scarcely lived on earth. 
Leading a life of hard manual labor, his thoughts and com- 
munings seemed always to be of heaven." He began here as 
a house builder, or finisher of the inner wood-work; and first 
labored on the Harvey building, now the Central Hotel ; after- 
wards he engaged in the manufacture of veiiicles of all sorts, 
in his shop near the old Palace. 

His eye-sight so failed him in old age that he could only 
read when he sat in his chair wliere the full blaze of the sun 
could fall on the sacred page. Said he, " If I were an idolater, 
I would worship the sun." So that kindred spirit, the good 
Archbishop Usher, used to follow the sun around the house, 
that he might still commune with his God in his Word. When 


he could not walk to the hallowed house of God, he was borne 
thither that he might sit down at the table of his Saviour. 
Though he could not hear a word, yet he feasted upon the 
spiritual blessings which are sealed and applied to believers, 
and rejoiced in the speedy approach of that day wlien, in tbe 
upper sanctuary, he should, with the blood-washed throng from 
every kindred and clime, partake of the Marriage Supper of 
the Lamb. 

On the Lord's Day he gathered his family for prayer three 
times, besides the morning and evening hours of worship, and 
much time was spent in private in his closet. Plis consecra- 
tion to God was eminent in all the relations of a hallowed life, 
and his integrity unimpeachable. An incident has been told 
me, that illustrates his stern nobility. Through the insolvency 
of a bank officer, for wdiom he was unfortunately security, all 
the hard earnings of a long life were swallowed up. A pro- 
minent lawyer, Mr. Geo. Atmore, his friend, and rej)resenting 
the universal sympathy felt for the honest and innocent victim 
of this calamity, called on him at his work-shop. Mr. Hay, 
his head silvered by eighty winters, his body bowed by fail- 
ing vigor, deep wrinkles on his brow — full of legends of care — 
was industriously plying his toil. Mr. Atmore said tenderly, 
"This will never do, Mr. Hay. Your house at Least must be 
saved. You cannot in your old age be deprived of a shelter 
for yourself and family. We must save your house." The 
old man seemed resolute that all should go. Pausing in his 
work, thinking, and resting on his tools, he turns quickly to 
the legal friend, and in his broad Scotch brogue says, "Weel, 
George, my mon, save my hoose if you can, George; but, mon, 
save iuy eojiscience first.'''' Lnpressive picture for an artist! 
Fruit of a life hid with Christ in God. 

His prayers were somethnes too long. A contemporary 
says of a service, where an elder on Sabbath read a sermon, 
" Mr. Hay prayed seventeen minutes with fervor ! A little 
too long for the congregation." But on another Sabbath (Oc- 
tober 2, 1836), in another Church he was called on to pray, and 
this record appears : " Brother Hay prayed so fervently after 


sermon, as to cause groaning and some shouting among the 
blacks, and some knockings and amens among the whites." 
His end was peace. In view of death he said, "I have no fear 
of dying; I shall never be readier. I would die; my trust is 
in my glorious Saviour — in his atonen)ent. It is a wonder on 
earth, and it shall be a wonder in lieaven. He is the chiefest 
among ten thousands. I shall see him. I am a poor, guilty, 
helpless sinner." A few moments before his death, when 
racked with pain, he exclaimed, "I must be content; for 
blessed are the dead that die in the Lord." Thus at the age 
of ninety-six, December 5, ISoO, was translated one of the 
original thirteen founders of this Clnirch on earth to the Heav- 
enly Jerusalem. 

One of the original pew-owners, one of the founders of the 
Church, and after a while also a ruling elder therein, died on 
Saturday evening, 4th January, 1840, aged seventy-six. On 
Monday, 6th January, after a sermon by Kev. D. Stratton, 
from Ps. xc. 10, in the church, his remains were borne to Cedar 
Grove Cemetery, the following gentlemen being the pall- 
bearers: Kobert Hay, Jeremiah Brown, Saml. Oliver, Jolm 
"VV. Giiion, Thos. Sparrow, and Elias Hawes. 

About 1710, Roger and Evan Jones, Quakers, came to North 
Carolina from Wales, and settled near New Bern, as before 
mentioned. Wliile these bi'others were burning a tarJviln, they 
were surprised by the Indians — perhaps in the massacre of 
1711 — who caught Boger, cut off his head, and knocked it 
around the tar-kiln with a stick. Evan escaped, lived, died, 
and was buried on his plantation on Clubfoot and Hancock 
Creeks, on the south-side of Neuse Biver. He married a 
daugliter of Col. Thomas Lovick, the Collector of Customs at 
Beaufort. Mr. Lovick came also from Wales with his brother 
John. Mr John Jones was the third of eleven children from 
this marriage. He married Susaimah Saunders; was an active 
and successful business man in New Bern, and died respected 
and honored in the Church and community. 


John Martin Franks has been mentioned as one of the early 
German settlers in Craven, As an illustration of the sturdy- 
pith of these colonists, and the rough life they were forced to 
lead, this family tradition is current: As the immigrants were 
on their way from the Trent Kiver, as hereinbefore described 
— compelled to be their own burden bearers — one of the fe- 
males was furiously attacked by a half grown bull. She was 
carrying on her head a medley of culinary utensils, which 
seemed to excite the brute's special ire, and cause him incon- 
tinently to rush at her. But she was equal to the occasion. 
Apparently endowed with strength like Peter Francisco's 
daughters, she seized her assailant by the horns, and twisted 
him over on his back, quietly and reprovingly remarking, 
^^ See that ugly calf P"* Victory remained with her; young 
"Taurus" was satisfied. Bai'hara, a daughter of Mr. Franks, 
(was she this heroine of tlie rural game?) married Mr. Daniel 
SAi?ie, one of the original freeholders reported in Craven 
County in 1723. When Gen, Washington was on his southern 
tour in 1791, they had the honor of entertaining him at their 
house. In this section, during the Revolutionary War, there 
was a desperate and fatal battle between a band of Tories and 
one of Whigs, or patriots, in which the latter, commanded by 
the gallant Capt. Yates, gained a bloody success. The son of 
Mr. Shine, Col. Jas. Sliine, married Leah, a daughter of Capt. 
Yates; and in 1819, at their beautiful and aristocratic mansion 
on their estate, President Monroe, with his distinguished suite, 
including Hon. John C. Calhoun, Secretary of War, were en- 
tertained with splendid North Carolina hospitality. Hannah 
Ann Shine, the daughter of this marriage, became the wife of 
Frederick J. Jones, the son of Mr. John Jones. Of this m'ar- 
riage one of the daughters is the wife of the pi-esent pastor, 
and another married one of the elders, Mr. George Allen. 
This sketch is given, because it shows how connections might 
be established between early immigrants and present families, 
if there were any means of tracing them. 


Stcpftcn 3U. Chester anb COtftcts* 

Mr. Chester wes a member of an extensive shipping firm — 
Devereux, Chester & Ormc — whose brick business house has 
been transformed into the Gaston House. He was one of the 
polislied leaders of social life, with Richard Dobbs Spaight, 
F. L. Hawks, and Geo. Pollock Devereux; possessed extended 
literary culture, and was an earnest Christian gentleman, ^e 
wrote largely in the newspapers, and engaged in many current 
discussions, but always with elegance of scholarship, the dig- 
nity of a gentleman, and the purity of a Christian. AVhile he 
threw off many playful rhymes, he also wrofe most graceful 
poetry with classical taste. The following beautiful epitaph, 
written by him on the death of Capt. W. Harker, who died in 
1822, I copied from the tomb-stone in our cemetery: 

"The form that fills this stilly grave 
Once toss'd on ocean's roaring wave ; 
Plung'd through its storms without dismay, 
And careless, welter'd in its spray : 
Wreck, famine, exile, scathless bore, 
Yet perished on this peaceful shore. 

" No tempest whelm'd him 'neath the surge; 
No wailiug seabird scream'd his dirge : 
But fever's silent, hidden flame 
Cousum'd, by stealth, his hardy frame; 
And softly as an infant's breath. 
He sank into the arms of death. 

"The weather-beaten Bark no more 
Hangs shivering on a leeward shore ; 
But wafted by a favoring wind 
Life's stormy sea hath left behind. 
And into port securely pass'd, 
Hath dropp'd its anchor there at last." 

Mr. Chester was a notable singer, with a fine "l)asso" voice; 
and around him was gathered an etiicient choir, in which were 
Mr. Charles Dewey, the two Misses Graham, Miss Wilkins, 
and Miss Mary Hall, the most beautiful woman in the city. 


He did much to break down old prejudices against steeples, 
bells and instrumental music. He afterwards transferred his 
business to New York, where he died in 1836. 

Messrs. E. Graham, Vine Allen — the father of Rev. Monroe 
Allen, a Presbyterian minister — and I. Croom, were all lawyers 
of wealth and distinguished standing. Mr. Allen also repre- 
sented Craven in tlie State Senate as early as 1813. Dr. Boyd, 
not a communicant, but a supporter of the Church, was a dig- 
nified and accomplished gentleman, the leading physician in 
New Bern, with an extensive practice. The Sparrows were 
shipbuilders; Martin Stevenson, John Dewey and Allen Fitch, 
ingenious and leading mechanics; F. J. Jones and C. Dewey, 
bank officers; Isaac Taylor, a wealthy retired merchant; Messrs. 
Primrose, Webb,' HoUister, Cuthbert, Hall, Slover, and King, 
were active and prosperous merchants. Messrs. Franklin, Han- 
cock, and Jas. McKinley, thougli contributors to building the 
Church, and thus pew-holders, were not members of the con- 
gregation. It will not be necessary to enumerate all the zeal- 
ous members, some of them widows, who gave character and 
strength to the Church. Perhaps two others of the royal thir- 
teen should be spoken of, viz. : 

Mrs* ^Eunice Mnni^ 

Mrs. Hunt was Miss Eunice Edwards, the seventh daughter 
and eighth child of that great divine, Jonathan Edwards, 
D. D., president of Princeton College. Prof. H. C. Cameron, 
D. D., of Princeton, has sent me the following copy from the 
family record, made in Mr. Edwards' own handwriting, in the 
family Bible: 

"My daughter Eunice was born on Monday morning, May 9, 
1743, about half an hom- after midnight, and was baptized the Sab- 
bath following." 

About 1767 she married Mr. Thomas Pollock, a great-grand- 
son of Col. Pollock, to whom De Graifenried mortgaged his 
claims. Until after the Revolution she resided in New Jer- 
sey, where, during the war, Mr. Pollock died. They had 


four children: George, one of the wealthiest men in North 
Carolina, owniniz; many plantations, and some 1,500 slaves; 
Thomas and Elizalieth — all three of whom died childless — and 
Frances, who manied Mi-. John Devereux, of New Bern, 
in 1793. Mr. Devereux was a Kothschild in hnsiness circles 
then. They left three children, Thomas Pollock Devereux, 
a lawyer in Raleigh, George, and Frances, who married Bishop 
(General) Leonidas Polk. 

Mrs. Pollock was married the second time, ahout 1800, to 
Mr. Robert Hunt, of New Jersey. They resided in New 
Bern, and had one child, a daughter, who married Mr. John 
F. Burgwyn, an Englishman, living here. Mrs. Hunt died in 
New Bern, August 11, 1822, aged seventy-nine. Her daugh- 
ter, Mrs. Devereux, as well as herself, was one of the original 
members of this Church. 

One other remarkable family claims our notice, viz.: that of 

3ofin CaruUicrs Stanltjt 

Or "Barber Jack," as he was called, from having been at first 
a barber, and to distinguish him from the eminent lawyer. 
Barber John was originally a slave, owned by Miss Lydia Ca- 
ruthers,* who was afterwards Mrs. Alexander Stewart. His 
mother was from tiie '•'•Ebo^'' African tribe, whose members 
were endowed with such excellent qualities that many would 
not buy a slave from any other. He was born in 1772, and re- 
puted to be the natural son of John Wright Stanly. Captain 
and Mrs. Stewart, his owners, emancipated him for meritori- 
ous services, and the deed was confirmed by act of Legislature, 
in December, 1798, giving him evei-y right, privilege and im- 
munity as if free-born. By his industry and speculations he 
acquired a large property, consisting of two or three planta- 
tions, al)Out sixty slaves, and some houses in New Bern. Two 
of his slaves kept his barber-shop in good repute by their skill. 
He owned and lived in the house on the corner of Hancock 
and Neuse Streets, now the residence of Mr. George W. 
Bishop, and afterwards in the house now used for the Metho- 

* Auotber old colouial uame in the legal list of 1723. 


dist parsonage. Mrs. J. C. Stanly, his wife, whom he bought 
and had legally emancipated, was one of the original members 
of the New Bern Church, and the family occupied and owned 
two pews. His children were well educated, and always made 
a creditable appearance, and were well received. "Barber 
John" is described as a man of dignified presence, always 
courteous and unobtrusive, respected, associated with by the 
best citizens, and maintaining his family in fashionable style. 
His oldest son was a large merchant here. A diary, kept 
by one of his daughters, Catherine G., is in my possession, and 
it manifests intelligence and piety. The family were greatly 
attached to Mrs. Stewart, as the passage about lier death in 
this diary shows, in 1822. 

" The Lord has been pleased to afflict with a severe illness oui* 
beloved friend, Mrs. Stewart. She has seen her three-score years 
and ten. I humbl}- hope she is clothed in the wedding garment, 
with her lamp trimmed and burning, ready to enter into the mar- 
riage supper of the Lamb ; and yet I feel so reluctant to part from 
her. O Lord, make me more resigned to thy will." 

"Oct. 10, ten o'clock at night. At two o'clock this afternoon, 
my beloved and affectionate friend, Mrs. Stewart, departed this 
life, in her seventy-eighth year. She has left a world of sin and 
sorrow, and, I trust, is now at rest in the arms of her Saviour." . . . 

"I have followed to the silent tomb the body of my dear de- 
parted friend. I have seen it committed to its mother earth, soon to 
become food for devouring worms ; but her better part has, I humbly 
trust, winged its flight to those mansions of eternal rest, which 
God has prepared for those who love him. Solemn indeed is the 
sight to see the body of a fellow mortal committed to the grave, 
and one, too, with whom we were closely and intimately connected, 
the siucerity of whose friendship we never for one moment doubted. 
Oh! my friend, hast thou indeed left us ?■ — art thou gone? Shall 
we never again hear your kind inquiries after our health? Shall 
we never again feel the affectionate pressure of your hand? We 
shall meet, I trust, in that country where there will be no more 
sickness, no more death, but all jDcace and happiness. 

" 'Tis God that lifts our comforts bigh, 
Or sinks them in the grave, 


He gives and, blessed be his name ! 
He takes but what he gives. 

"Peace all our angry passions then; 
Let each i-ebellious sigh 
Be silent at his sovereign will, 
And every murmur die." 


By these brief sketches, which it seems expedient to rescue 
from oblivion, it is manifest that the constituent elements 
of tliis Church, at its formation or revival, were sucli as to 
ensure its stability, under God's blessing. Men of the first 
talents in the various walks of life, honorable mechanics, enter- 
prising merchants, men of profound legal attainments and 
popular political record, women of standings beauty and cul- 
ture, as well as of business occupations, altogether formed a 
body of members or adherents that prophesied a career of vigor 
and genuine prosperity. 

Bcscttptton of tfie CfTfturcfv 

The building is TO feet in length by 55 feet in width. The 
engraving presents a general view of the exterior, but fails fairly 
to show the front. Three doors open into the ample vestibule, 
whence two open into the audience-room. Over the central 
outside door is a large arched and leaded light. The four lofty 
round pillars supporting the portico, are crowned with hand- 
Bome Ionic capitals, and the entire architectural arrangement 
of the front gives it a very neat and pleasing appearance. The 
steeple rises to the height of 125 feet. 

The grounds are extensive, ornamented with a variety of 
desirable shade trees, and through the assiduous care of Mr. 
George Allen for many years, are covered by a beautiful, well 
set, verdant grass sward. 

Galleries extend around three sides of the interior of the 
Church; and the organ stands in the gallery opposite to the 
pulpit. Contrary to the usual custom, the pulpit is between 


the two doors at the entrance into tho audience chamber. There 
is one row of pews on each side of the Church, and a solid 
centre block of two rows of pews. The pillars supporting the 
galleries rise from the middle of the aisles ; and the floor 
gradually ascends towards the rear of the Churcli, and so ele- 
vates the pews that no obstruction of vision towards the pulpit 
maj exist. Thus the congregation possesses a delightful house 
for worship — the acoustic properties of which also are favor- 
able for both easy speaking and good hearing. 


Iteti. Xemuel Hurnnt Hatcli* 

MR. HATCH Avas the first Pastor of the New Bern Cliurch 
after the reviviii<r already suggested. He was the son 
of Gen. Dnrant Hatch and Elizabeth, his wife, and was horn 
near Brice's Creek, Craven County, N. C, the lOth June, 1793. 
The Hatch family was wealthy and prominent. Lemuel Hatch 
was a meml)er from Craven County in the General Assenil)ly 
of Deputies of the province of North Carolina, that met in 
New Bern, 15th August, 1774, and the Held officer for the 
county in 1775. Ednnind Hatch was in the Assembly at Hills- 
borough, 21st of August, 1775. Lemuel, the subject of this 
sketch, graduated at the Universit}' of North Carolina, in the 
Class of 1815, with Willie P. Mangum, John H. Bryan, Rich- 
ard Dobbs Spaight, and Francis L. Hawks, all men of mark in 
history. He was himself also a man of vigorous mind. While 
at Chapel Hill he professed conversion, and probably joined that 
Church. He studied at Princeton Theological Seminary be- 
tween two and three years, 1816-1819; was licensed to preach 
by Orange Presbytery, 2d of October, 1819; ordained Sep-' 
tember 2d, 1821 ; and installed pastor of the New Bern Church, 
June 15th, 1822. Li the '■'■ CaroUna Ceut'inel^'' published in 
New Bern, "Saturday, June 22, 1822," is the following notice 
of this last event : 

"Installation. — The Eevd. Lemuel D. Hatch Avas installed as 
pastor of the Presbyterian Church and congregatit)n in this i)lace, 
on Saturday evening last. The Rev. Dr. McPheeters of Raleigh 
preached the sermon; Rev. Dr. Caldwell, President of the Uni- 
versity at Chapel Hill, addressed the charge to the bishop, and the 
Kev. Professor Kollock, of the same institution, the charge to the 


people. The services were extremely solemn and appropriate, and 
a very numerous audience bore witness to the uncommon unanimity 
with which Mr. Hatch was welcomed to his pastoral charge. 

"The Orange Presbytery, under whose auspices the installation 
was conducted, has been represented on the occasion by the Rev. 
Drs. Caldwell and McPheeters, the Rev. Professors Mitchell and 
Kollock, the Rev. L. D. Hatch and Dr. Elias Hawes. ReUgious 
service was performed three times a day while they were here, and 
considerable accessions to the Church have given much interest to 
the present session." 

From a remarkable contemporary diary, already mentioned 
as kept by Catherine G. Stanly, the following extract is made ; 
dated June 16, 1822, Sabbath: 

"Last evening, the Rev. Lemuel D. Hatch was installed pastor 
of the Presbyterian Church. An appropriate discourse was deHv- 
ered by Dr. McPheeters. Dr. Caldwell addressed the minister, 
and the Rev. S. Kollock the jieople. It was a very interesting cere- 
mony and conducted with great solemnity. O! that our beloved 
pastor may continue a zealous advocate for the cause he has es- 
poused, and be the humble instrument in the hands of the Al- 
mighty, of tm-ning many sinners from the error of their ways to 
serve the only true and living God; who shall be seals of his min- 
istry and crowns of his rejoicing in the day of the Lord. O that a 
merciful God may make ?ne one of that happy number!" 

She states that the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper was ad- 
ministered on Sabbath, and nhie new communicants were re- 
ceived ; and sorrowfully adds : 

" O, if they were nine new creatures, what a glorious day it was to 
them ! But I was not of the happy number ; I stiU remain behind." 

No record of the membership of tlie young Church can be 
obtained before 1825, when it was fifty-four; and in 1828, it 
was sixty-six. During Mr. Hatcli's incumbency, or that of 
Mr. Campbell, the following important additions were made to 
the Church, viz., Capt. E. Harding, a sea-faring man, Darius 
C. Allen and Thomas Watson, the first two of whom became 
Presbyterian clergymen ; Thomas Sparrow, George Reid, Mrs. 


Patsy Dixon, and Misses Elizabetli Taylor and Elizabeth Tor- 
rance. In 1829 the membership was sixty-eight. This pas- 
toral relationship continued six and a half years nearly, and was 
dissolved by Orange Presbytery, at Spring Grove Church, Fri- 
day, 13th December, 1828. 

Mr. Hatch was married 15th January, 1828, in Dnplin County, 
N. C, to Miss Martha Dixon, who was an orphan daughter of 
Lewis Dixon and Catherine Dixon {^Nee Hill), and was living 
with Dr. Buck Dixon, near Faison, a town on the Wilmington 
and Weldon Railroad On leaving New Bern he resided in 
Duplin County, and is reported as Stated Supply a part of the 
time at Red House Church. In 1833 lie moved to Alabama; 
and October 9th, 1834. was dismissed to South Alabama Pres- 
bytery, and lived near Greensboro, Ala., until his death, at 
Blount Springs, Ala., after a short sickness, October T, 1866, in 
the seventy-third year of his age. He was one of the original 
members of the New Presbytery of Tuscaloosa, organized in 
1835. Becoming unexpectedly burdened in the management 
of some large pecuniary interests, he was greatly hindered in 
ministerial work, and never had another pastoral charge after 
leaving New Bern. He preached in Greensboro and neighbor- 
ing churches when they were vacant, and during the latter years 
of his life (perhaps ten), labored largely and acceptably, without 
remuneration, among the colored people. Rev. Dr. C. A. Still- 
man, of Tuscaloosa, who knew and loved him well, has written 
to the author, that "he was a man of tine mind, well educated, 
and he had a large and valuable library. He was blessed with 
a very genial spirit and an amiable disposition. We all loved 
him. . . . He was a good man, in whom we all had confidence." 
Reports and traditions in New Bern say that he was a good 
and popular young man; and as a preacher, not lirilliant, ar- 
gumentative in style, and not uninteresting. His daughter 
writes me that many conversions occurred under his ministry, 
but no remarkable revivals. He lived a consistent Christian 
life. At the time of his death, the following notice appeared 
in the Alahama Beacon^ Greensboro, Ala., over tlie signature 
"A Friend": 


"Eev. L. D. Hatch died at Blount Springs, Ala., on tlie 7th of 
October, 1866, in the seventy-third year of his age. Mr. Hatch was 
a native of North Carolina, and he moved to this State about the 
year 1833. He graduated at Chapel Hill, N. C, and afterwards in 
the Theological Seminary at Princeton, N. J. He began his minis- 
try in the Presbyterian Church in New Bern, N. C. The latter part 
of his Hfe was devoted to the noble and self-sacrificing work of a 
missionaiy among the negroes in the bounds of Tuscaloosa Presby- 
tery. He was hale, hearty, vigorous and cheerful up to the day of 
his last illness, which was but of short duration. In all the rela- 
tions of life, as husband, father, friend, neighbor, citizen, and min- 
ister, his Hfe was beautiful and commendable, and with his friends 
and relations he left a good example, worthy of imitation. Kind, 
generous, noble, and devout, he lived among us without reproach 
as a gentleman, patriot, and Christian, held in imiversal esteem; 
and when called to a higher and better world, he died without fear, 
amid the miiversal regrets of a community in which there was not 
one who bore towards him the least ill-will." 

In 1828, Mr. Hatch was Moderator of the Synod of Korth 
■Carolina, in Raleigh. 


Mr. Osborne was born in Essex Co., N. J., 21st Marcli, 1796, 
and was educated for the ministry. Pie probably graduated at 
Nassau Hall; then spent three full years at Princeton Theo- 
logical Seminary; was ordained by Elizabethtown Presbytery 
on 23rd February, 1825; served the Second Church in Wood- 
bridge, N. J.; then the Metuchen Church to 1827; forwarded 
by letter his certificate of dismission from Elizabethtown Pres- 
bytery to Orange Presbytery, and was received therein at Haw- 
fields, N. C, 7th October, 1829. At a session of the Presby- 
tery, during the meeting of Synod, in Fayetteville, 14th No- 
vember, 1829, — the New Bern Church being represented by Dr. 
Elias Hawes, — a call was presented for the services of Mr. Os- 
borne as Pastor of that Church, and accepted by him. On De- 
cember 12th, 1829, he was dul}-^ installed in New Bern. Rev. 
Thomas P. Hunt preached the sermon ; Pev. L. D. Hatch 
charged the Pastor; and Rev. J. Wetherby charged the people. 
Mr. Osborne was probably preaching in New Bern a short time 
before his installation. This pastoral connection was dissolved 
at Presbytery in Greensboro, 15th August, 1831, having con- 
tinued less than two years. 

A revival in New Bern is referred to by the narrative of the 
General Assembly for 1830, when fifteen were added to the 
Churcli ; and during Mr. Osborne's pastorate, tliere were seven- 
teen additions and twenty-seven baptisms. Yet, in 1831, the 
number of members is the same as in 1829, viz.: sixty-eight 

After the dissolution of his relation with New Bern, Mr. Os- 
borne continued his connection with Orange Presbytery, and 
engaged possibly in missionary work for awhile; supplied the 
Raleigh Church in 1833-'35; and was dismissed on 9th Octo- 
ber, 1835, to the Presbytery of New York. During his con- 


nection with Orange Presbytery he was its Treasurer, and was 
three times chosen its Commissioner to the General Assembly. 
He was pastor of the P. R. Dutch Church in Schraalburg, 
1834-'37; Stated Supply to Cub Creek Presbyterian Church, 
in Hanover Presbytery, Va., 1842-48; Pastor in Farmville, 
Va., from 1848-'62, and died there on 3rd July, 1862. I 
knew Mr. Osborne when I was in Union Theological Seminary. 
He was quite a small man, with a "big" voice, active, pro- 
nounced in his opinions, and accustomed to exceedingly plain 
speaking, so as sometimes to offend. He called a spade " a 
spader He was a good man, who did good service in his gene- 
ration. As a brother beloved said in response to my query 
about Mr. Osborne and New Bern, "Whence came he, and 
whither did he go ?" " He came from Kew Jersey, and he went 
to Heaven." 


Of Mr. Hnrd's liistory little has l)een discovered. AVliat is 
liere stated has been gathei-ed from tradition and part of a brief 
diar}' kept by Dr. Elias llawes, one of the ruling elders, and 
kindly given to nie by the widow of Kev. D. Stratton. This 
interesting document begins on Sabbath, 8th April, 1832. Mr. 
Hnrd was then preaching here, and probably came soon after 
Mr. Osborne left; for this amusing entry occurs on April 21, 
1833, about a sermon Mr. Hurd preached that Sabbath: " in 
tlie main, the same sermon he preached for the first time about 
a year and a half ago, and very good, and much to the pur- 
pose." Diaries will keep the preacher's traditional "barrel" 
from being turned over too frequently! In 1832 and 1833 
New Bern is reported as having a Stated Supply, but no name 
is added. Mr. Ilurd was here from some unknown date in 1831 
until April, 1833, but was not a member of Orange Presbytery 
till November 14, 1833, when he was received on certificate 
from West Hanover, and was dismissed, the same day, to the 
Presbytery of Indianapolis. He was a consumptive, too unwell 
sometimes while in New Bern to preach, and died in Missis- 
sippi, about 1846. 

During his labors here there must have been consider- 
able religious interest and activity ; for in the Assembly's 
Minutes in 1832 are reported twenty-eight additions on exam- 
ination, and one on certificate, with thirteen infant baptisms, 
raising the membership from sixty-eight to ninety-three; and 
the next year shows fourteen received on profes>ion, and a total 
membership of one hundred. Mr. Osborne joined Mr. Hurd 
on April 29, 1832, in meetings that evidently were of great 
interest ; and the fervor of prayer and work for the Redeemer 
iind lost souls nmst have prevailed for a considerable period. 
Dr. Hawes says: 


" Friday evening, May 4th. Prayer-meeting at my room. A 
few. Saturday evening, May 5th. The male members met at 
Mr. James Y. Green's for prayer and religious conversation, 
and resolved to pray for and converse with thirty persons, most 
of whom worship constantly or occasionally in our Church, and 
to persevere in this until God by liis Spirit shall convert their 
hearts and forgive their sins. Their names were spread before 
us, and each one agreed to pray for and converse with such 
and such, if possible." 

"Lord's Day, 6th May, 1832. Prayer-meeting at 1-2 after 
5 in tlie morning, at the ringing of the bell. Worship at 10. 
Mr. Martin Stevenson read one of President Davies' sermons. 
... In the afternoon Mr. H. C. Graham read a sermon from 
the Southern Preacher. . . . Pi-ayer-meeting at Mr. O. Dewey's 
in the evening. Monday, May 7t]i, 1832. Conversed with 
Mary Dewey, Mr. Wliicthcoat Wliite, Mr. Barland, a word 
with Sylvester Brown, Cicero Hawks, Mrs. Mary McKinley, 
and Mr. Edward E. Graham. Mr. White would be glad to 
have Mr. Hurd call on him." 

Prayer-meeting was held at Mr. John Jones's on Tuesday. 
Mr. Hurd had been absent some days attending a fonr days' 
continued meeting — so common and notable in the beginning 
of the century — at Lake Phelps, but returned to the Thurs- 
day's prayer-meeting at Mr. J. Jones's, and continued his regu- 
lar ministrations. Among those received into the Church by 
him were Messrs. Charles Slover and Martin Stevenson ; and 
on April 14, 1833, Mrs. King, Mrs. C. Slover (who was bap- 
tized on 17th March, after a sermon on the "duties of parents 
to their children,") Mr. Jeremiah Allen, and Captain Anthony 
Ferguson, who had been baptized on January 29. Tlie Sacra- 
ment of the Lord's Supper was administered on Sabbath, 
April 14, in the morning; and in the afternoon Mr. Hurd 
preached from 1 Tim. v. 17, and ordained to the office of ruling 
elder the following brethren, who had been previously elected, 
viz., Messrs. John Jones, Charles Slover and Martin Stevenson. 

After Sabbath, July 29th, till November 1, 1832, Mr. Hurd 
was absent with his wife. He then resumed his service, and 


with intermissions from sickness and preaching in Wasliington, 
N. C, he preached Christ and llini crucified to tliis Church till 
Monday, 22d April, 1833, when he sailed with Mrs. llurd and 
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Slover for New York. So ended his 
career in New Bern. In 1834, the statistics show five addi- 
tions, but the menihership was only niuety-eight. The Church 
reniained without a Pastor imtil the advent of Rev. Drury 
Lacy, in 1834. 

Regular services were maintained in the Church on Sabbath 
by the reading of sermons, and the occasional help of a minis- 
ter. On one Sabbath Mr. Osborne preached, on two Rev. 
Philo. Calhoun, Pastor of AYashington Church. The readers 
at this time were Messrs. H. C. Graham, James Stevenson, 
Elias Hawes, Rol^ert Hay, Chas. Slover, Allen Fitch, Edward 
Graham, and Martin Stevenson, This admirable custom and 
strict perfttrmance of duty long prevailed here. It is calcu- 
lated to maintain the esprit du corps^ the growth and the spirit- 
uality of a vacant Church, and should never be neglected. The 
custom seemed to be generally in this Church to have a sermon, 
both morning and afternoon ; and in the evening, either a third 
sermon, or more frequently a prayer-meeting at a private house. 
Two or three prayer-meetings were held during the week at 
different houses in the congregation. One service was usually 
for males only. These social gatherings were, for example, at 
the homes of Thos. Sparrow, Jno. Jones, E. Hawes, O. Dewey, 
Robt. Hay, J. Y. Green, C. Slover, M. Stevenson, Wm. Tay- 
lor, and Capt. R. Fisher. In this pastoral intermission these 
exercises on Sabbath seem to have been omitted only once, 
(May 12, 1833,) when such constant rain fell that there was no 
service in any Church. 



On Wednesday, 4th September, 1833, Mr. Lacy arrived in 
New Bern on a visit to the Church. On Thursday he conducted 
the meeting at Mr. Slover's, and on Saturday attended the male 
prayer-meeting at Mr. Sparrow's, where he was domiciled. He 
remained, preaching and visiting, for three Sabbaths. Dr. 
Hawes's comments are unique: "His manner very emphatic 
and energetic — not confined in the least by his notes (45 min- 
utes ! !)" This was the criticism on the first sermon. On the 
second and third only " (45 !)" The next discourse he charac- 
terizes as an '•'- extraordinai^y biographical lecture of our Sa- 
viour, John the Baptist, Herod, Herodias, and her dancing 
daughter, Salome (50!)" Mr. Lacy conducted the funeral of 
Mr. Rich'd Grist, at the house of Mr. John Washington, and 
administered the Lord's Supper while here, and left on Mon- 
day, 23d September, on "the steamboat Jolui Stoney for Eliz- 
beth, Norfolk, Petersburg, and Prince Edward in Virginia. 

On Sabbath, 29th September, 1833, "notice was given in 
our church that the Presbyterian congregation were requested 
to meet to-morrow afternoon at 4 o'clock to elect a pastor, min- 
ister, or bishop for our congregation." Accordingly, the meet- 
ing was held, and the call made out on 30tli September, with 
the promise of $600 in quarterly payments, and as much more 
as could be raised. Dr. E. Hawes moderated the meeting, and 
the call was signed by a committee, consisting of Messrs. 
Robert Hay, John Jones, Thomas Watson, Robert Primrose, 
Elias Hawes, Wm. Hollister, and Thomas Sparrow. It was 
forwarded to some minister, perhaps Mr. Osborne, as the ac- 
companying letter will sliow : 





"NewBekn, Oct. 3d, 1833. 
"Rev'd Sm: The Presbyterian Chui-ch in New Bern has been for 
almost six months without a stated minister. The Rev. Drury 
Lacy, of New Hanover Presbytery, Virginia, by oiu' invitation, has 
been with us and preached for three Sabbaths, and attended many 
prayer-meetings, and administered the L(»rd'8 Supper. WhUe 
here he visited almost every member of the church and congrega- 
tion, and we are so weU pleased with him, that the preceding call was 
unanimous. We are anxious to have it jDrosecuted, that if the re- 
sult should not be favorable, we might seek for some other pastor 
to be installed over us. We know that the last Orange Presl^ytery 
held their session at New Bern ; but where the next was appointed, 
or if there is to be a called Presbytery, as is sometimes the case, 
before the stated one, we know not. We take the liberty to for- 
ward the call to you, that if you attend the Presbytery, you may 
put this in the proper direction ; or if you do not attend, that you 
will commit it to the care of some other member of Orange Presby- 
tery to be completed. Please to inform us where the next Presby- 
tery will sit, or if any will be constituted for extra business within 
oiu- bounds. By the authority and request of the committee of the 
congregation. THo^L\s W.^.tson." 

On November 14tli, 1833, at a meeting of Orange Presby- 
tery during Synod, New Bern Church appeared by its com- 
niissioner, and obtained permission to prosecute this call before 
East Hanover Presbytery. 

In view of tliis call, Mr. Lacy began his work liere January 
Ist, 1834. Orange Presbytery convened in New Bern on 
28th April, 1834, received Mr. Lacy from East Hanover Pres- 
bytery, put into his hands tlie above mentioned call, wliicli he 
accepted, and at 11 A. M. on Monday, 3d May, installed him 
as Pastor. Rev, James Wetlierby, Moderator of Presby- 
tery, presided. Rev. N. H, Harding preached the sermon. 
Rev. A. Wilson gave the chai-ge to the minister, and Rev. 
M. Osborne to the people. Mr. Lacy remained with tliis 
charge three years, as he left in December, 1836, The re- 
lationship, however, for some unknown reason, was not dis- 
solved by Roanoke Presbytery until September 15th, 1837. 
During this time there is no report for the year 1835, \\\ the 


other two years there were seven additions, three by examination, 
and four by certificate ; and two infant baptisms. But, accord- 
ing to the statistics for 1837, the communicants had decreased 
to eighty. The contributions in 1836 for Missions were re- 
ported as $90, and for Education $110; and for 1836-37, 
Missions, $130, and Education, $130. A visit in January, 
1835, from Rev. J. Armstrong, Agent for the American 
Board Commissioners of Foreign Missions (I suppose), and 
Rev. Mr. Brown, of Virginia, for the Assembly's Board of 
Domestic Missions, in April, 1836, seems to have awakened un- 
usual interest in these causes. From 1820 to 1860, the only 
contributions made were for Domestic and Foreign Missions, 
Education, — including the Theological Seminary, — and the 
Commissioner's fund. Other departments of Church work 
seem to have been ignored. 

Mr. Lacy was sick in 1836, and was convalescing at Mr. 
John Jones's, where he counselled with the elders about keep- 
ing tlie Church open during his contemplated absence. He left 
on September 5th, and returned 31st October. He then at- 
tended Synod at Fayetteville, and on his return thence addressed 
the subjoined letter to the officers of the Church: 

" To THE Session of the Presbyterian Church in New Bern. 

"My Dear Brethren: It is with a heart full of sorrow that I now 
address you. You have heard me declare in private and in public 
Ttiy full intention of living and dying in the 7nidst of you. I was 
sincere in these declarations. I have promptly refused to accept 
several offers and several solicitations for my services in other places. 
I have neither sought nor desired any office but that of being your 
pastor. And I am now doing one of the most solemn and painfvil 
duties that I have ever been called on, in the providence of God, to 
perform. I am tearing myself from a dearly beloved people — the 
most affectionate and attached that I ever expect to find in this 
world. And it is with the utmost reluctance, and with deep anguish 
of spirit, that I now announce to you the resignation of my pastoral 
office. The reasons which have influenced me in this matter are 
many, and appear to me to be weighty. I cannot detail them here. 
I will only say that an imperious and overpowering sense of duty 


alone has forced me to this decision, opposed as it is to all the feel- 
ings of my heart. 

"Permit me to express heie what I hope for an opportunity of 
doing more fully and more publicly, the deep feehng of gi'atitude 
3'ou have laid upon me, for all the kindness I have received from 
you. And now, with earnest prayer that it may please the great 
Head of the Church to bless you and the Church which you repre- 
sent, in giving you very soon a pastor after his own heart, who may 
go in and out before you, and teach you the way of righteousness 
and peace, I am, m}' dear brethren, 

"Most sincerely yoiu's, etc., Drury Lacy. 

"New Bern, 29^A yov., 1836." 

To this letter the following reply was returned, after a united 
meeting and conference of the elders and trustees at the house of 
Mr. C. Slover, on Tuesday evening, 6th December: 

"New Bern, Dec. 7, 1836. 
"Kev. D. Lacy, 

"De.\r Sm: The undersigned, a Committee on behalf of the Trus- 
tees of the Presbyterian Chiu'ch, ai"e authorized to give the follow- 
ing response to your letter, resigning your pastoral charge of the 

"It is with feelings of unmingled I'egret that the Trustees receive 
the announcement of the dissolution of the pastoral relation be- 
tween yourself and our Congregation. Not being in possession of 
the reasons that ha^ e urged you to a separation so unexpected and 
painful, they are incompetent to pass judgment on their sufficiency; 
but the confidence which they place in your motives and character 
induces them to believe that they must be of high and paramount 
consideration. They therefore accept your resignation. 

"Permit us, in behalf of the Trustees, to express their unabated 
affection and esteem for yourself and family', and their fervent wish 
that your life of usefuhiess and devotion to your calling, of which 
80 bright a specimen has been afforded by your labors amongst us, 
may be long spared to our Church. 

"Very respectfuUy yours, 

"Haaulton C., \ 

"M. Stevenson, Jr., > Committee." 

"Charles Slover, ) 


In the afternoon of Sabbath, December 25th, at three o'clock, 
Mr. Lacy preached and made his farewell address, founded on 
2 Cor. xiii. 11: "Finally, brethren, farewell. Be perfect, be 
of good comfort," etc. Dr. Hawes says: "Wednesday morn- 
ing, four o'clock, 28th December, 1836, Rev. Drury Lacy and 
his family — his wife, Williana; mother, Mrs. Elizabeth Wil- 
kinson; daughter, Miss Elizabeth Lacy, or rather, Lady Bess; 
eon, James Horace Lacy — and servant maid, went to Raleigh in 
the stage.'' 

It is understood that failure of health was the moving cause 
of Mr. Lacy's change of residence. Years afterwards he per- 
petrated an Irishism on the floor of Presbytery by saying, "If 
I had lived in New Bern until now, I should have been dead 
twenty years ago.'''' As an evidence of his ready wit, it is told 
that once, during some excitement here, he was making an ad- 
dress, when some dissentient cried out, "Don't hear him; he's 
a Virginian." Quickly Mr. Lacy exclaimed, " Listen to me, 
friends ; true, I am a Virginian ; and I love Virginia as I love 
my mother; but I love North Carolina as I love m}'^ wife!" 
A unanimous acclamation arose, " Hear him ! hear him ! ! " 

While he was in New Bern, the interest in both Bible-class 
and Sabbath-school are said to have increased. 

Contietsion of Mr. ICacg. 

In December, 1862, Rev. W. S. AYhite, D. D.,of Lexington, 
Va., gave me the following account of the conversion of Rev, 
Drury Lacy during Dr. Nettleton's visit to Prince Edward Co., 
Va. His cousin. Rev, J. H. Rice, D. D., was then at Union 
Theological Seminary, Mr. Lacy, being deeply convicted oi 
sin, had a conversation with Dr. Nettleton, and went home 
but he was so distressed that he saddled his horse, and in the 
night rode three miles to the Seminary, and, rousing the ser- 
vant, went to Dr. Rice's chamber door, and told him he wanted 
to see Dr. Nettleton, A candle was gotten, and he was shown 
to Dr, Nettleton's room, where he was wrapped up and asleep. 
On being waked, he said, rubbing his eyes, "Is that you, Mr. 
Lacy? Why, what in the world do you want at this time of 


niglit?" Mr. Lacy replied, "I want to talk to you." "What 
in the world do you want to talk to me about?" "I want you 
to tell me how I can be saved." "What! Yon, the son of a 
distinguished Presbyterian divine, ask me such a question? 
You! reared in the lap of the Church? I have told you 
already all that I know." After a few more words, he then 
said, in solemn and tender tones, "Mr. Lacy, I have only this 
to say: ''Go home, and give your conscience fair play.'' ^"^ 

Feeling himself harshly treated, Mr, Lacy left, vexed, mad. 
But finally he began to think that if clergymen thus slighted 
him, thei-e was no hope for liim in man ; and he lifted up his 
voice and cried, "Lord, Lord," until the woods rang with the 
sound. The Lord heard the plea of despair, lifted the cloud 
and the burden, and gave rest to the humbled penitent. So 
Mr. Lacy said, "Tliat night there was not so happy a man in 
Prince Edward. 1 found Mr. Ntttleton was in the ivay hetween 
me and ChristP 

A number of the leading members of the congregation 
agreed to have catechetical instruction by the Pastor, a few min- 
utes before sermon, on the Larger Catechism. Dr. Hawes 
consulted Eobert Hay, Mrs. Hannis, Mr. and Mrs. Wm. Tay- 
lor, Mrs. Watson, Mrs. Vipon, Mrs. Eliz. Lee, Capt. D. Scott 
and wife, Mrs. Em. Ilall, and Mrs. Fitch, about this arrangement. 

Ittferc$ttu0 3^iict$. 

At the time Mr. Lacy was installed here. Rev. J. Leighton 
Wilson was present, being on a visit to his native land from 
the mission he had founded and been conducting on the Western 
coast of Africa. He addressed the Presbytery, which passed 
resolutions commendatory of his w^ork. Dr. Wilson bectame 
the able and honored leader of our young Churcli in her noble 
work of Foreign Missions as the Assembly's Secretary of For- 
eign Missions. 

At this session also, Wm. A. Shaw, M.D., who became Pas- 
tor of the church in Washington, N. C, was examined and li- 
censed to preacli the Gospel. 


Ben* llioses larurij flogct B* B* 

Tliis lionored and eloquent clergyman, now Pastor of the Se- 
cond Presbyterian Church, Richmond, Ya., is a nephew of Dr. 
Lacy. When a youth of, perhaps, fourteen years of age, after 
a long and trying journey on horseback, during which he suf- 
fered much and met with much kindness, he reached New 
Bern, to make his home with his uncle. lie was a Sabbath- 
school scholar of Mr. Charles Slover, whom he remembers with 
affection. Here doubtless the ingenuous lad's spiritual life was 
fostered, and good seed sown, which have not disappointed hope 
and prayer. He seems to have formed and cherished an inti- 
macy with the eccentric, but zealous, educated and pious ruling 
elder. Dr. Elias Hawes. In his journal Dr. Hawes speaks of 
this youth several times. On Fi-iday, February 20th, 1835, he 
went, according to his commendable habit, to visit an estimable 
and famous character in those days — Betsey Always, sick at 
the county Poor House, Poplar Grove, near New Bern. " Moses 
Drury Hoge, who was with me, carried my gun and shot a 
sparrow." Was this the beginning of a sportsman's experi- 
ence? It shows the pleasant relations existing between the 
youth and the man of nearly three-score and ten,so that weare 
not surprised to read afterwards this entry: "Mr. M. D. Hoge 
called at the iisual hQin\ and we vent on vntli our customary 
study of the Larger Catechism, tagetlicr. We have arrived to the 
191 question." Again, on Saturday, April 4th, 1885, preceding 
the communion of the Lord's Supper on Sabbath afternoon, we 
learn of the tender solicitude of the affectionate uncle from this 
significant note: "Male prayer-meeting at Brother Oliver 
Dewey's. Mr, Lacy expressed his anxiety for his nephew, 
Moses Drury Hoge, and entreated us to pray for him," The 
Lord is the covenant-keeping God, the hearer and answerer of 
prayer, and did not forget these united prayers of faith, or this 
child of an illustrious and pious ancestry. Long have his wide- 
reaching labors in the Redeemer's kingdom caused many souls 
to praise God's redeeming gi-ace, presented tenderly and elo- 
quently by this servant of the King. It is a pleasure for the 


New Bern Church to have had sometliiiig to do in preparing 
such a workman for the Master's use. On Tliursdaj, April 
28th, 1836, Mr. Iloge sailed from New Bern, a passenger on 
the Malachi B. Robertson^ and does not appear here again. 

After leaving New Bern, Mr. Lacy l)egan his woric in Raleigh 
January 1st, 1837. His ministry there, for nearly nineteen 
years, was signally blessed in establishing and strengthening 
tliat small organization His installation as Pastor was not until 
November, 1837. Beginning with thirty-nine members, and a 
dilapidated church-building and congregation, and the Session 
house for his services, he was so helped of God, that he received 
into the Church about two hundred members, and left it num- 
bering one liundred and sixteen, with a repaired sanctuary and 
resuscitated in all church activities. 

Davidson College received, in February, 1855, a legacy of 
$250,000 from Maxwell Chambers, of Salisbury. Mr. Lacy 
was unanimously elected its President, accepted the position, 
And from April, 1855, to July, 1860, successfully administered 
its aifairs in a new and expanding career. During this time he 
received eighty-eight members into the Church. Having re- 
signed the Presidency he returned to Baleigh, and with his wife 
opened a girls' school, which in 1872 was incorporated into 
Peace Institute, in the same city. He served as a Chaplain in 
the Confederate army to the close of the war, and was after- 
wards engaged in the supply of vacant churches and in mis- 
sionary labor in Orange Presbytery, while opportunity and the 
infirnn'ties of age permitted, though often he could only preach 
while sitting down. His loss of hearing in his seventieth year, 
and his growing bodil}' infirmities, prevented much active ser- 

Dr. Lacy was born in Prince Edward County, Va., August 
5th, 1802. His father, Drnry Lacy, was a distinguished Pres- 
byterian minister and scholar in the last centiu'y and early part 
of this; who, having lost one hand when a boy, and using an 
artilicial one, was celebrated as the preacher with " the silver 


hand and the sih^er voice." Drury, his youngest son, graduated 
at Hampden Sidney College, Ya., when twenty years of age, 
and began teaching school; and at the old liomestead, Ararat, 
revived the Classical Institute of his father. In Dec, 1824, 
he was married to Miss Williana Wilkinson. He was con- 
verted under the preaching of Dr. Nettleton in Prince Ed- 
ward in 1828, and immediately entered Union Theological 
Seminary, walking in daily from Ararat, distant three miles. 
April 11th, 1831, he was licensed by West Hanover Pres- 
bytery, labored efficiently in its mission fields, and built three 
fair churches therein, having raised most of the funds himself. 
In April, 1833, he was ordained Evangelist by East Hanover 
Presbytery. Soon after this, as we have seen, he came to New 
Bern. In May, 1846, after twenty-one years of Jiappy married 
life, he lost his wife in Raleigh, N. C. In November, 1849, 
he married Mary Ritchie Rice, eldest daughter of Rev. Benja- 
min H. Rice, D. D., who in his early days lived and taught 
in New Bern. This union lasted for nearly thirty-one years, 
when Mrs. Lacy, after a beautiful and useful life, fell on sleep 
in Jesus, and left her husband in a lonely and infirm old age. 
His closing days, were spent with his son. Rev. William S. 
Lacy — the honored Stated Clerk of the Synod of North Caro- 
lina — in Jonesboro, N. C. There, August 1st, 1884, after en- 
tering his room, he quietly, peacefully, and suddenly passed 
from all earthly scenes — alone with God — to the rest and joy of 
the faithful servant. 

In his many afflictions he rejoiced in the consolations of that 
Gospel he ministered to others. He wrote, " I feel the afflic- 
tion most severely, but strange ! He gives me grace to bear it. 
Somehow I can lift up my head and my eyes to heaven and re- 
joice in my tears!" " One thing I know, one who is infinitely 
wise, powerful and good, orders everything, even to the falling 
of a sparrow, and what he does is right." " I can do nothing. 
I can only suffer. The last line of Milton's beautiful sonnet on 
his blindness comforts me, ' they also serve who only stand and 
wait.' " 

In personal appearance Dr. Lacy was tall and of remarkably 


imposing presence in his old age. His voice was strong and 
deep, and he was an excellent singer. The accompanying por- 
trait represents him while at Davidson College, and the expres- 
sion is sweet and attractive, reminding one of Doddridge, or one 
of the olden and primitive bishops, ready for translation. The 
following are some observations made at the time on his preach- 
ing in New Bern : " The sermon was tremendously pointed and 
alarming. May God add an abundant blessing !" On a rainy 
afternoon, when only about sixty persons were present, "Mr. J. 
Backiiouse and Mr. William Beers sat with me. The preacher 
was animated, luminous, clear, searching. We were richly paid 
for turning out in the rain." "Andrew Kichardson and James 
Taylor, Esq., sat with me. The sermon seemed to make the 
one to handle the hymn book, and the other to chew tobacco 
very diligently and unconsciously." 

Orange Presbytery adopted the following Minute unani- 
mously : 

" On August 1, 1884-, Rev. Drury Lacy, D. D., in the 82d 
year of his age, entered into the rest that remaineth for the 
people of God. 

" After a long life of activity in responsible positions, he was 
granted, in the congenial home of his son, a period of quiet 
and happy waiting for the summons, which, though coming sud- 
denly, yet came so gently as to leave on his face a prophecy of 
the everlasting peace to which it welcomed him. 'So he 
bringeth them into their desired haven.' The Presbytery of 
Orange desires to put on record its appreciation of him as a 
man and as a preacher, of his gifts and of his graces; to thank 
God for the example he has given us of consecration to the 
Master, of enthusiastic zeal in church work, and of lively and 
intelligent interest in all questions of concern to the kingdom 
of God — an interest preserved unabated to the last. 

"The Presbytery also hereby expresses its sense of personal 


bereavement in liis death, and tenders its prayers and its sym- 
pathies to those most nearly affected. ' But when the fruit is 
ripe^ immediately he putteth in tlie sickle, because the harvest 
is come.' 

'■^Resolved, That a copy of this paper be sent by the Stated 
Clerk to the family of the deceased, and offered for publication 
in the North Carolina Presbyterian, the Central Presbyterian^ 
and the Christian Observer.'''' 

A paper, similar in affectionate appreciation of the venerable 
and beloved deceased brother, was ado^^ted by the Synod of 
North Carolina. Dr. Lacy was the Moderator of the Synod 
in 1846, in Greensboro. 

1837 AND 1838. 159 

1837 an6 1808. 

Little can be gleaned about tlie affairs of the church during 
these years. Rev. J. O. Steadman, of Fayetteville, N. C, 
visited the church by invitation, and preached in January and 
March, 1837, several times. In February and May, Rev. Mr. 
Shaw, Pastor of the Washington Church, held a number of 
services, and administered the Lord's Supper. Washington 
and New Bern were always holding up each others hands in a 
most brotherly spirit. In February, also, Rev. J. D. Mitchell, 
the Secretary of the American Board of Commissioners of 
Foreign Missions, was here and preached on Sabbath and in 
the week. He was a man of mark and pulpit power, and evi- 
dently impressed the people most favorably. After consulta- 
tion by the oflBcers of the Church and some of the members, 
and finding that they could easily raise a salary of $800, at a 
called meeting of the congregatitm, Mr. Wm. Ilollister, chair- 
man, on Friday, March 3, 1837, a unanimous call was given to 
Mr. Mitchell to become the pastor of this Church. This call 
was forwarded through Rev. Dr. Lacy, and Mr. Mitchell re- 
plied tln-ough him, asking for farther time to consider the mat- 
ter concerning the adequacy of the salary, etc., and expressing 
his high estimate of the people. His services were solicited 
at this time in Wilmington, N. C, and in Philadelpliia. No 
other particulars have been gathered about tliis l)usiness; and 
it is presumed that he finally declined the hivitation. 

The Rev. Rankin was probably supplying the pulpit 

some part of this vacancy. 


Mr. Stratton was the next pastor; He was born in Bridge- 
ton, N. J., September 28, 1814, Daniel P. Stratton, his father, 
was an elder in that church. While an infant his mother died, 
having dedicated him anew — on her death-bed — to the Chris- 
tian ministry. Being piously reared, he made a public profes- 
sion of religion in the Presbyterian Church in Bridgeton, when 
thirteen years old. With pleasure he reverted to his Sabbath- 
scliool teacher, Judge L. Q. C. Elmer, of New Jersey, as one 
of the means of his conversion. He graduated at Princeton 
College in 1833, at the age of nineteen; taught for a year in 
Salem, N, J,; entered Princeton Theological Seminary in 1834, 
but on account of failing health came to Union Theological 
Seminary in Virginia, where he finished his course in 1837, 
He was then licensed by West Hanover Presbytery, Ya., April 
13, 1837, At once he returned to the scenes of his boyhood, 
being strongly drawn thither, for he was soon ?na)'?'ied. But 
his feeble health demanding a milder climate, he set out in the 
Autumn with his wife to seek a southern field of labor. He 
walked by faith; and the Lord God directed his steps to New 

I do not know the date of his arrival in this city, or of his 
call to this Church ; but these events occurred the same Fall, or 
in the Winter of 1837-'8. Roanoke Presbytery held an ad- 
journed meeting here May 4, 1838. Mr. Stratton was then 
received as a licentiate from West Hanover Presbytery ; the 
call was placed in his hands and accepted, and he was ordained 
and installed at 3 P. M., 5th May. Kev. Samuel P. Graham, 
D. D., presided, aud gave the charge to the Pastor; Rev. Drury 
Lacy preached the sermon; and Rev. W. A. Shaw, M, D,, 
charged the people. During this meeting Rev. Solomon J. 
Love, of the Presbytery of Armagh, Ireland, sat as a cor- 
responding member. 

x.AuiiAViMJ)y J.^AHiAiA' 




Mr, Stratton's pastorate continued a little over fourteen 
years. It was dissolved by Orange Presbytery, 28tli July, 
1852, when he was dismissed to the Presbytery of West Jersey. 
During this time Roanoke Presbytery met in New Bern, as 
stated ; and Orange Presbytery held two sessions here, one on 
April 27, 1841, and the other April G, 1848. In 1838, when 
Mr. Stratton was installed, the membership was eighty-one; 
in 1852, it was ninety-eight; and during his incumbency it had 
l)cen one huiuh-ed and two. The total ininibcr of additions 
during his pastorate was forty-eight; the largest number re- 
ceived in any one year being Hfteen (/. <?., ten on examination, 
and five by certificate,) in 18;3S-'9. His health was exceed- 
ingly feeble. Judging from a private diary in my possession, 
that covers nearly two years (May, 1839 to February, 1841), 
and records nearly every service he held, he was very faithful, 
often pj-eaching with great ditficulty, and frequently compelled 
to omit a service. 

At twenty-three years of age his head was already grey, 
and the appearance of age was strangely mingled with the 
freshness of youth. He had an exceedingly sweet expression 
of countenance — as seen in his excellent portrait — very gentle 
manners, and a manly form. His naturally lovely character 
was beautified and purified by grace, and mellowed Ijy much 
suffering, so that he was indeed a son of consolation to all af- 
flicted sairrts. Full thus of tenderness and experimental sym- 
pathy, he was truly loved by alL He was a sound preacher, 
with something of sameness in his sermons, wliich were con- 
solatory, practical and edifying, rather than warning or reprov- 
ing, yuch a rich unction pervaded his discourses, that it was 
said in New Bern, as well as elsewhere, of him, " 'Uiat man 
fills my ideal of ike lelnved disciple.''^ His life-ministry was 
eminently blessed; his very infirmities becoming an element of 
power, l»y the sympathy and attention they aroused in the 
hearer. One custom of his, pleasantly remembered in New 
Bern, was to stand on the steps by the pulpit, after tlie bene- 
diction, and shake lumds with the congregation. The children 
all liked to shake his hand then, though he never said a word ; 


but his expressive and genial smile was the attraction and the 
reward. He made liis Bible-class pleasant, and so far as his 
weakness allowed, was a model Pastor. 

Mr. Stratton was called to the Presbyterian Church in Salem, 
N. J., 23d June, 1852, and was installed there as pastor on 
14th October ensuing. His ministry continued fourteen years, 
until his death, on Friday morning, 24:th August, 1866. He 
had written his fourteenth anniversary sermon, and had given 
notice at his services on 5th August that he would preach it 
on the next Sabbath. After his death it was read to the con- 
gregation on the evening of 26tli August. On his death-bed 
Mr. Stratton "spoke of New Bern, and said that he had never 
received an unkind word there, but had always been treated 
lovingly." Among his last expressions were, "God knows 
best ;" " whatever God does is best ;" " as thy day so shall thy 
strength be." At 11 o'clock Friday night he repeated, "He 
has been with me in six troubles; in the seventh he will not 
forsake me." Then he recited the Lord's prayer, and pro- 
nounced the apostolic benediction. His last words were, 
" What thou doest, do quickly." 

He enjoyed the rich consolations of the Gospel in his own 
soul, and his end was peace. He died almost in the midst of 
a glorious work of grace, in which nearly forty were added to 
his fold, as the Master's under shepherd. "The crown fell 
upon his brow almost before the armor was laid aside." 

tribute of tftc lletu Bern CCturcfi> 

After the close of the war, when the New Bern Church was 
reorganized, the following tribute to the memory of Mr. Strat- 
ton was adopted by the session : 

"Whekeas, the Presbyterian Church of New Bern, N. C, 
has heard with profound sorrow of the death of Rev. Daniel 
Stratton, of Salem, N. J., who for fourteen years was their 
beloved and honored Pastor ; 

'■^Resolved^ That while we recognize the hand of a wise and 
holy God, in removing him from earth to the enjoyment of 
that higher and nobler life beyond the grave, we feel that 


deatli has taken from us a friend, a brother, yea, a spiritual 

^^Jiesoli'sd, That we the Session of this Church liereby record 
our appreciation and affection for one so dearly beloved by our 
Church and coniinnnity, for his gentle, pure, and benevolent 
life as a citizen; for his deep and ardent piety as a Christian; 
for his zeal and usefulness as an ambassador of Jesus Christ; 
for, by l)Oth precept and example, he exhibited and taught the 
divine power and priceless worth of the religion he professed, 
and called forth from all who knew him this endorsement, 
*Mark the perfect man, and behold the upright.' 

'■'■Resolved^ That we tender to the family and friends of the 
deceased our heart-felt sympathy for their irreparable loss, and 
commend them to our Heavenly Father, who smiteth us for 
our eternal good. 

'■'■Resolced^ That the above resolutions be spread upon our 
Minutes, and that a copy be sent to the family of the deceased, 
and that they be published in the Philadelphia Preahyteriany 
and in the North Carolina Presbyterian ^ 

In October, 1835, all that portion of Orange Presbytery lying 
East of the western boundary lines of Granville and Wake, and 
a part of Cumberland Counties, was set off into a new Presby- 
tery, called Koanoke. In October, 1839, this ephemeral crea- 
tion was dissolved, and its territory restored to Orange again. 
This will account for the mention of the dissolution of Dr. 
Lacy's pastorate, and the constitution of Mr. Stratton's by 
Poanok'e Presbytery, while in all other cases Oraixje only is 



After Mr. Stratton's departure in 1852, the Church was sup- 
plied for a short time by Rev. Thomas Fraser, now living in 
Oakland, California, without any charge. In April, 1854, the 
membership had fallen from ninety eight to seventj'-five, of 
whom twelve were colored. 

Was the next Pastor. Mr, Wall, a native of Nova Scotia, 
graduated at Nassau Hall, Princeton, N. J., in 1848, and en- 
tered Princeton Theological Seminary. His ministry began 
about 1850. I have been unable to obtain liis portrait and a 
specific sketch of his ministerial career. For a while he 
preached to churches in Fauquier County, Ya. He came to 
New Bern in 1854. On December 8th, 1854, Orange Presby- 
tery installed him Pastor of this Church. Rev. James Phillips, 
D. D., presided and preached the sermon. Rev. A. Wilson, 
D. D., charged the Pastor, and Rev. Drury Lacy, D. D., 
charged the people. He was received from Winchester Pres- 
bytery, Ya. 

In 1825, he married Miss Janet Hollister, of New Bern. In 
April, 1857, he made a trip with his family to Europe, and 
was absent until August, 1858. During this absence the 
Church was supplied by 


Ben. illo$c$ W. liiirrts. 

Whoso name was changed afterwards to Edward Harris. In 
1858-'9 Mr. Harris was the assistant editor of the North Car- 
olina Presbyterian . He was a very eccentric man, and amus- 
ing traditions perpetuate his oddities while here. His home 
was Newburyport, Mass., wliere he lived for some years, and 
recently died, (jld and inlirm in body and mind. 

After his return from Europe, Mr. Wall continued his pas- 
torate here until the Summer of 1861. After the secession of 
North Carolina, and the breaking out of the late war, he re- 
turned to the ISToi'th, and at the Fall Meeting of Orange Pres- 
bytery applied by letter foi- a dissolution of the pastoral rela- 
tion with the New Bern Church. On account of the Presby- 
tery having to wait to hear from the Church, this dissolution 
was not formally effected until April 10th, 1862, though the 
actual pastorate had ceased the previous Summer or Fall. In 
April, 1857, the membership was eighty-four, of whom eight 
were colored; in 1858 and 1859, it was seventy-five; in 1860, 
it was eighty. There are no statistics for 1861. 

For some years Mr. Wall resided in Euglewood, N. J., 
where he conducted a female school. He preached for some 
time to a Church in Tenefly, an adjoining settlement. Since 
1878 he has been the Superintendent of the Presbyterian Hos-. 
pital in New York City. He is about sixty-two years old. 

166 1861-1866. 


From the Summer of 1861 until the advent of the present 
Pastor, tlie Church was without regular services, except for a 
few months, — after Mr. Wall's departure to the North, — when 
Rev. John F. Baker supplied the pulpit. He left on the fall 
of New Bern, 14th March, 1862. Indeed, at that time the 
citizens who could do so left their homes, and the congrega- 
tion was practically destroyed. The Church, lecture-room and 
manse were all taken possession of by the United States gov- 
ernment authorities, and used in connection with the extensive 
Hospital, whose wards covered the quiet and umbrageous pre- 
mises. On Johnson Street, between the manse and Mr. 
George Allen's, stood the dead-house, on the ground of both 
properties, wliile the manse served for surgeon's quarters. 
In the Winter and Spring of 1865, the Church itself w-as fitted 
up as a hospital for the wounded. Mr. Thomas A. Henry, now 
a member of this Church, and Mr. Roswell Mills, now of 
Brooklyn, N. Y., were successful in preventing the proposed 
tearing up the pews, and in having them planked over for the 

At the close of the war, an effort was made by some Con- 
gregationalists here to establish their Society, as there were 
some preachers among them. They were granted the use of 
our Church, while there were no Presbyterian supplies. At the 
urgent request of the Session, Orange Presbytery directed sev- 
eral ministers to visit and preach for the New Bern Church 
until some permanent arrangement could be made. Under 
this plan, services were secured once a month by Rev. J. 
Henry Smith, D. D., Rev. P. H. Dalton, and other clergy- 

After long and annoying delay on the part of the civil au- 
thorities, the last hospital building was pulled down in Septem- 

KEY. L. C. VASS. 167 

ber, 1866. From ill-usage, destruction of fences, natural de- 
cay of property without the o\\nei''s supervision, and the usual 
recklessness of soldiers, the whole property, when fully re- 
covered, was in very bad condition. Kelief was sought from 
tlie Government for the long use and injury of the premises, 
and the petition was recommended and enforced by Hon. 
David Heaton, who had represented the District in Congress, 
was cofirnizant of all the facts from residinii; in New Bern dur- 
ing the troublous scenes, and was himself a member of the 
congregation ; but the application failed. 

Nothing now remained but resolutely to face the difficult 
situation, secure a leader as soon as possible, and gathering up 
every energy, with earnest prayer to the great Head of the 
Clnirch for wisdom, favor and strength, proceed to i-el)uild the 
fallen walls of Jerusalem, as far and as fast as possible. Just 
then Mr. Emmet Cuthbert, an elder of this Church, but who 
liad been residing in Petersburg, Va., recommended to the con- 
gregation the 

Who is the present Pastor, was then a member of West Han- 
over Presbytery, and was called to take charge of this Church 
on the 28th of May, 1866. He accepted the call, subject to 
the action of the Presbyteries, June 9tli, arrived in New Bern 
on Friday, July 6th, 1866, and preached his first sermon, after 
that acceptance, at 10 A. M., on the first Sabbath in July, in 
the Lecture-room. 

The Church was then undergoing repairs, which were greatly 
needed from long neglect and ill usage. When Mr. Vass first 
visited the Church l)y invitation on the third and fourth Sab- 
baths in May, 1866, three faithful and warm hearted members, 
viz., Mrs. Abigail B. Lewis, Miss Henrietta N. Dewy, and 
Miss Mary E. Jones, with many apprehensions but commend- 
able cheerfulness and faith, began to canvass the congregation 


with a subscription-paper to raise $500. This M^as quite an in- 
snfEcient sum; but such was the pecuniary prostration of the 
whole community, that it was not deemed prudent to try for 
more. But such a hearty welcome M-as accorded to the ear- 
nest and popular committee, that before Mr. Vass left New 
Bern, the caption of the paper was changed to $750. The 
money was raised, repairs were liegun at once upon the Church, 
and the Pastor elect preached in it on the second or third Sab- 
bath after his return in July. These early labors sprung from 
a sanctitied spirit of true self-sacrifice and love for God and 
his cause; and as the Church has grown, it has continued to 
work in this same happy Gospel spirit. God has blessed them 
in their lal)ors, according to his stable promise to reward his 
faithful servants. Queen Elizabeth of England having desired 
one of her subjects to undertake a foreign mission, when he 
sought to excuse himself therefrom on plea of his own press- 
ing affairs, said to him, "Do you attend to my business, and I 
will attend to yours." God thus speaks to his own ; seek ye first 
the kingdom of God : trust him, and he will always and infal- 
libly watch and bless the obedient and the diligent. 

An abstract of the monetary operations for a few years of 
this formative period will emphatically illustrate the worthy 
zeal of a small band of earnest Christians. In 1866, only one 
half of which year did the Church have a Pastor, there was 
raised $3,340,89. About $2000 was spent on repairs; $100 
was given by resolution of the Session, "That in view of the 
desolate condition of our sister Church in Washington, N. C, 
and our sincere sympathy therewith, we will take up a collec- 
tion to aid in rebuilding their burnt sanctuary;" $111, were 
spent on the Sabbath-school; and $160 for the poor, Presby- 
terial assessment, etc. At this time the furnace, at a cost of 
$300, and carpets and cushions, were procured. 

In J 867, the amount raised was $2,406. Of this $200 went 
to the Assembly's committees; $706 for further repairs of the 


Church, sustaining tlie poor, Sabbath-school, and current ex- 
penses; and the balance for the Pastor's salary. 

In 1868, the income was $2,558, about $300 of which was 
sent to the Pastor by some friends of the work. This year 
nearly $500 were expended in repairs; $87 for Sabbath- 
school; for Missions, Education, etc., nearly $300; and the bal- 
ance on the poor, cui-rent expenses, and Pastor's salary. For 
the first six months of 1809 the receipts were $985, which 
were disbursed in Pastor's salary, Sustcntation, Foreign Mis- 
sions, Publication, gas-iixtures and fencing. 

By the close of the first three years of tliis pastorate, on 1st 
Jul}', 1869, this exhibit shows a total contribution from the 
congregation of $9,252.99, or more than $3,000 a year as the 

When Mr. Vass took charge of this congregation, there 
were only twenty-nine (29) communing members present. 
Four of these were males, viz.: Charles Slover and George 
Allen, ruling elders, and Alexander Miller, Sr., and Alexander 
Latliam; the last named gentleman living in the country 
across the Neuse River. Fourteen more members could be 
counted, who were in different parts of the United States, but 
unlikely to return to New Bern. As previously stated, 
all sessional records had been lost. After a while six more 
names of members were discovered. It was this gallant 
little band that, strong in faith and hope, began to build the 
fallen temple of the Lord. The spirit of Lydia and Priscilla, 
as well as of Nehemiali, Apollos and Paul, animated them ; 
nay, the zealous spirit of the blessed Redeemer kindled their 
Christian devotion. 

Sptrttttnl BttKCktng. 

God's Spirit was vouchsafed to this working Churdi, and in 
these three years there were added to the communion list fifty- 
seven (57) men)ber6, chiefly on examination and profession of 


faith. Thus the reg;ister showed one hundred and six (106) 
names. But seven had died, and fourteen had been dismissed, 
so the actual membership was eighty-five (85). 

The first meeting of the Session was in the Pastor's study, 
on the evening of Monday, August 20th, 1866. Tlie first 
communion since tlie close of the w^ar was administered by 
Mr. Yass on Sabbath morning, 11th Noveinber, 1866, when 
four members were received on certificate, viz.: Misses Harriet 
K. Slover, Elizabetli Slover, and Mary E. Jones, and Mrs. 
E. W. Bissell, and three on examination as to their faith in a 
crucified and atoning Saviour, Jesus Christ, viz.: Mrs. Mary J. 
Wallace, Mrs. Sarah K. Ilollister and Miss Henrietta Dewey. 
During the whole history of the Churcli, the largest accession 
at one time was during a gracious outpouring of God's Holy 
Spirit, in February, March and April, 1867. Assistance was 
rendered the Pastor in this season of grace by Rev. J. Henry 
Smith, D. D., of Greensboro, N. C, and Rev. George D. 
Armstrong, D. D., of Norfolk, Va. On Sabbath, 7th April, 
thirty (30) publicly declared their love for Jesus, and for the 
first time came to feed on the emblems of our dear Lord's 
broken body and shed blood. At the same time four were 
also received by certificate, making the whole addition thirty- 
four (31). The total number received in 1867 was thirty-nine 
(39). In this period were baptized three adults and twenty- 
four children. 

From the organization of the Church to 1861, there were 
only five years when more than from one to eight additions 
were made to the membership, viz.: in 1830, Mr. Osborne, 
Pastor, fifteen were ]'ecei\ed; in 1832, twenty -nine; and in 
1833, fourteen, Mr. Hurd being supply and Mr. Osborne help- 
ing; in 1839, fifteen, Mr. Stratton, Pastor; and in 1857, 
twelve, Mr. Wall, pastor. 

Continuing this bi'ief review to the present, another large 
outpouring of the Holy Spirit occurred in 1876, when twenty- 
seven (27) were added on profession of their faith. The 
Lord has signally blessed this vine of his own planting. Yet 
sometimes Christian graces have been low indeed, and Zion's 


ways have mourned, while few have songlit the Lord. In 
these sad hours what can God's children do? They are 
■called to renew their lirst love and their early vows, to wrest- 
ling prayer, to watchfulness and earnest work, and kindling 
hope. Great cause of thankfulness exists, that since this pas- 
torate hegan up to the last Preshyterial Report, the total addi- 
tions to the Church have been one hundred and tifty-six (156), 
iind the number of baptisms one hundred and forty-three. 
After deaths and removals are deducted, the register shows one 
hundred and fourteen mcmbei'S — a larger number than ever 
before in the church's history. In Mr. Stratton's administra- 
tion, its membership ascended to one hundred and two (102); 
but from 18-18 it decreased, until it was only seventy-live (75) 
in 1853, and eighty (80) in 1860. It is also worthy of men- 
tion, that in the special services held on conmiunion seasons, and 
at other times during the present pastorate, most valuable assis- 
tance has been rendered by Rev. B. F. Marable, D. D., Rev. E. M. 
Green, D. D., and other brethren in the North Carolina Synod. 
Especially does Mr. Marable live in the hearts of the people 
of New Bern, by reason of his genial manners, and his clear, 
tender and eloquent presentations of the claims of the Gospel 
of Christ, to the full and instant acceptance by lost sinneis. 

Stjsfetnatic 53 cniMio rente* 

The annual reports to the General Assembly make manifest 
the liberality of this Church, as a body, in contrilnitions to all 
the general operations of Christ's kingdom. Since our resus- 
citation, Davidson College and Union Theological Seminary, 
Virginia, have eat^h had a room fitted up by this Chui-ch, and 
have also received contributions to their funds. A scholarship 
has been bought in Davidson College, giving the privilege of free 
tuition for a student "/// perpetuo^'' but it has never been used. 
Under a proposition made by Rev. J. Leighton Wilson, D. D., 
Secretary of Foreign Missions, the Sabliath-school has regularly 
given, besides its other offerings, $40 annually since lS67-'8 
to sustain and educate a scholar in China: and accordiuir to the 


records of the Foreign Mission ofHce, this school and that of" 
Prytania-Street Church, New Orleans, are the only ones in the 
whole Church wliich liave maintained their contrilmtions with- 
out a break to the present time. Many others have given, and 
some more largely, but there have been lapses. The children 
of the Sabbath-school, numbering seventy-live, are trained to 
contribute regularly in the school to the great causes repre- 
sented b}^ the committees of the Church, and to other worthy 
benevolencies. While they are instructed carefully in the 
nature of tlie cause before them, and taught to give on prin- 
ciple, there is a laudable spirit of emulation among them, and 
many liave denied themselves some gratification, or have worked 
diligently, that they might be able to give to the Lord. Effi- 
cient and loving effort has been devoted to accomplish this re- 
sult by the two elders, who have been its Superintendents since 
1865, viz., George Allen and William Hollister, the latter of 
whom is now in office. For the year 1885, the school raised 
(omitting cents) $156 ; and gave for the Chinese Mission School 
$40; Sustentation, $8; Publication, $6; Foreign Missions, $10; 
Invalid Fund, $11 ; Evangelistic, $4 ; Education, §6 ; and Thorn- 
well Orphanage, $23; i. e., about $108 for outside benevolent 
work of the Church. Here is evidence of what can be done 
by littles, and how children can be induced to engage cheer- 
fully in the noblest schemes of tho Church by a little prayer- 
ful, persistent, and painstaking endeavor. 

In 1813 New Bern has the first credit of a contribution^ 
viz., $10, for Missions. In 1820 the Assembly's Minutes re- 
port $5 for Missions and $15 for Commissioners' Fund. No 
Church gave more than this last sum, and few as much. In 
1822, $3 Missions; $22 Commissioners' Fund; and $50 for 
Princeton Theological Seminary, given by the Ladies' Society, 
who in their holy zeal began thus earl}^ their noble work, 
and set a notable example for their daughters in succeeding 
generations. In 1823, $150 was given to "Education," which 
probably was to make, with the preceding gift, $500 for South- 


ern Professorship in PriiicetOTi Theological Seminary. From 
this year to 1835, the contributions, so far as recorded, ranged 
from $2 to $38 to Commissioners' Fund, Missions, Education, 
and the Theological Seminary, each, l)ut not with regulai-ity. 
In 1836, Missions received $90, and Education $110; and in 
1837, Missions $130, and Education $130. From 1838-1854, 
$10-$17 are credited annually to Commissioners' Fund, and 
$10-$05 each to Domestic and Foreign Missions, with some 
breaks; and $82 in two years to Education. In 1855, Domes- 
tic Missions, $68; Foreign Missions, $70, and special for Edu- 
cation, $700, and $154 more for the same the next year. For 
Domestic and Foreign Missions, each $100, in 1858; and the 
following year, |200 for the former, and $241 for the latter; 
and in 1860, $72 for the first, and $711 for the last object. 
All the causes were not remembered. The data for the con- 
gregational expenses are not at hand, except for 1857, when 
they were $1,025. The two large contributions of $700 and 
$711, arose partly from legacies left by Mrs. Janet Hollister, 
who devised $50<> to each of the following societies, viz., Bible, 
Education, Colonization and Home Missions. Mrs. Hollister 
also left the interest of $ 1 ,000 annually for the Pastor of the 
New Bern Presbyterian Church; but this last sum was lost 
by the late war, as also was $1,000 bequeatlied to the Church 
by Mrs. Lucretia Jones, at her death, August, 1860. 

According to the official statistics of the General Assembly, 
the advance of this Church in its liberality and its general etH- 
ciency since the late war, with all its necessarily disorganizing 
and distressing results, has been both extraordinary and exem- 

The accompanying tabular exliibit will clearly present the 
progress and state of the Ciuircirs tinancial life during this 
period. Much of this headway has sprung from tlie hearty 
adoption by the Church of the envelope .syUevi of contributing, 
which was first introduced into Orange Pi-esbytery l)y the New 
Bern Church, and also through the thoroughly business man- 



agement of the new plan by Mr. Geo. Allen, who has been the 
Clmrch's treasurer and financial factotum since 1860. 































































The "Total" iu the uext to the last cohiinn indicates the whole sum 
given each year for general benevolent church woi'k. 

The amounts under "Congregational" embrace Pastor's salary and all 
other money spent. 

Collections for "Tuskaloosa Institute," for the education of a colored 
ministry, were only begun recently as a separate cause ; hence that col- 
umn is not filled up. 

A new spirit, too, seemed to be infused into the membership, 
and they were zealous to devise liberal things. Especially 
have the female members exerted themselves to be forward 
in good works, and so have been worthy inheritors of the zeal 
of the early "Ladies' Society" of 1822. All the various en- 
terprises of the Church are remembered, as well as the Thorn- 


well Orphanage, S. C, Oxford Orphan Asylum, N. C, and 
other casual appeals. It will be manifest from the table, tiiat 
there has been a steady and reliable regularity in general work 
and the benevolent contributions of the Congregation as a whole. 
Its numbers have never been very large, neither has this city been 
a gi'owing commercial centre. Yet the exhibit can be pointed 
at, not in any boastful or Pharisaic spirit, but with commend- 
able thankfulness to God, and reasonable satisfaction that so 
much has been done by the Church in its situation. It can be 
hailed as a happy augur}' of larger future usefulness, under 
the stinmlus of past success, and the hoped-for sunshine of in- 
creasing membership, commercial advance in our city, and 
richer blessings from the covenant-keeping God of our salva- 
tion. If all in any Church will do what each can do and ought 
to do, every organization would accomplish far more. Besides 
the lack of true Christian consecration, one signal impediment 
oftentimes is, that some who do or give nothing, or very little, 
argue that the Church gives too nuich, and sends too much 
away for the Lord's work, when the money ought to be spent 
selfishl}' at home. These critics forget the sin of withholding 
tithes from God to whom all things belong; that large annual 
results are due to open-handed liberality of others, who bear 
the burden, if burden there l)e, while they receive no honor 
from men for the grace given to them ; and further, that great 
things can be done, as was illustrated by our Sabbath-school 
report, by everybody doing something, however little. AVes- 
ley's motto, "All at it, and always at it," and the apostolic in- 
junction to be "diligent in business, fervent in spirit, always 
serving the Lord," enshrined in tlie heart with our Saviour's 
parables of the pounds and the talents, and a thankful memory 
of the precious blood that saves lost sinners, will hush every 
selfish thought, and elevate every individual and every Church 
into wider spheres of heavenly endeavor, aTid nobler and loftier 
aspirations after the honor and reward of a "good and faithful 

176 KEY. L. C. VASS. 

Mr. Vass was born in Fredericksburg, Ya., 20th March, 1831. 
His father was James Yass, a native of Forres, Scotland, and a 
grandson of the Laird of Skiis, belonging to tlie historic High- 
land clan of "Cuniming." His mother was Elizabeth Braine 
Maury, daughter of Col. Abram Maury, of the Revolutionary 
army, and lineal descendant of the Huguenot families of De 
La Fontaine and Maury, who escaped from France on the re- 
vocation of the Edict of Nantes, in 1685. John De La Fon- 
taine was a commissioned officer in the Royal military house- 
hold of Francis I. of France, and of Henry XL, Francis XL, 
and Charles XX. He was a staunch Protestant. Xncurring the 
hatred of the enemies of God and true piety, because of his 
exalted position as a Protestant, he with his wife and valet were 
brutally murdered in the night, on his paternal estate in Maine, 
in 1563, by armed assassins sent from tlie City of La Maus. 
His descendants suffered terrible persecutions, and found refuge 
in Great Britain and America. His great-grandson, Rev. James 
De La Fontaine, escaped from France in 1685, and his family 
emigrated to America ; one daughter marrying another refugee 
Huguenot, Rev. Matthew Maury, of Castel Mauron, Gascony. 
Mr. Yass from his birth was dedicated by pious parents to the 
Gospel ministry. He was graduated from Princeton College, 
N. J., after two years' study, in a class numbering eighty-three, 
in 1850, with the English Salutatory, or second honor; then 
studied law in Fredericksburg, Ya.; made a profession of reli- 
gion and united with the Presbyterian Church in Warrenton, 
Ya., in 1857; was taken under charge of Winchester Presby- 
tery as a candidate for the Gospel ministry, and went to Dan- 
ville Theological Seminary, Ky., the same year ; went thence 
to Union Theological Seminary, Ya., in the Fall of 1858, and 
was graduated tliere in 1860; was received from Wincliester 

^^. ^^ 

*■ V ^ « 

«t\.v01"<?t. 9«\HtVHG CO . aOSTOH 

REV. L. C. VASS, 177 

Presbytery, and examined and licensed as a probationer for tlie 
ministry by AVcst Hanover Presbytery, in Charlottesville, Va., 
on Saturday, 2d June, 1860, and went by invitation to Amherst 
Church, Va., as Stated Supply, on a salary of $800. At the 
session of AVest Hanover Presbytery, at Trinity Church, New 
Canton, Va., 22d August, 1860, a call to the Amherst Cluirch 
as Pastor was accepted, and he was examined by the Presbytery 
at Amherst Coni-thout^e, and ordained and installed over that 
Church on Friday, I9th April, 1861. He was appointed by 
the Confederate Government Cimplain of the Twenty-seventh 
Virginia Pegiment of Infantry, in the Stonewall Brigade, in 
the Winter of 1862-'3, and joined his command in winter- 
quarters at Moss's Neck, near Guiney's station, below I^'red- 
ericksburg, before the battle of Chancellorsville ; and continued 
in the army until the war closed; was left with three surgeons 
by Gen. Earlj', after the battle of Monocacy, in charge of six 
hundred wounded Confederates in the hospital at Frederick 
City, Md., but returned in a few months under flag of truce to 
duty, and was ordered to Petersburg, Va., as Chaplain of the 
Post, serving in the hospitals both Federal and Confederate 
wounded and sick. This was only a few months before the 
fall of Petersburg, and the close of the war. 

Tiie pastoral relation with the Amherst Cliurch was dissolved 
15th April, 1864. After the fall of Petersburg Mr. Vass 
preached a short time for the Second Presbyterian Chui'ch in 
that city; and then for one year supplied Tal)b Street Church 
in the same city, until June, 1866, on a salary of $1,500. 
During this year there were seventeen additions to the Church. 
He entered on his work in New Bern in July, 1866; was re- 
ceived from West Hanover Pi-eshytery by Orange Presl)ytery 
at VV^entworth, N. C, 6th October, 1866 ; accepted the call of the 
New Bern Church, and was installed in New Bern as Pastor, at 11 
A. M., on the tirst Sunday in December (2d instant], 1866. liev. 
J. H. Smith, D. D., preached the sermon, charged the Pastor, 
and proposed the constitutional questions; llev. H. G. Hill, D. 
D., charged the people. The congregation was large, and deeply 
interested, although the services were unusually protracted. Al- 

178 KEV. L. C. VASS. 

ready this pastorate has continued nearly twenty years, and is 
by far the longest one in this Chnrch's history; the next longest 
being that of Mr. Stratton, which was about fourteen years. 

On the 9th May, 1867, Mr. Yass married Miss Mary E, 
Jones, daughter of Mr. Frederick J. Jones and Mrs. Hannah 
A. Jones, of New Bern, and granddaugliter of Mr. John Jones, 
one of tlie original members of this Church. In 1877 three 
children of this marriage, all girls, and the eldest nearly eight 
years old, died at short intervals, from violent diphtheria. He 
has now two boys, Lachlan Gumming and Edward Smallwood^ 
and one girl, Sadie Green. 

Four times Mr. Vass has been sent by Orange Presbytery 
as Commissioner to the General Assemblies, meeting in Mo- 
bile, New Orleans, Little Kock and Augusta, Ga. He was a 
delegate from the New Bern Branch Alliance to the World's 
Evangelical Alliance in New York, Oct., 1873; the represent- 
ative of the North Carolina Presbyterian at the Presbyterian 
Council in Philadelphia, Sept.-Oct., 1880; a Commissioner 
from the Southern Presbyterian General Assembly to the 
Ecumenical Presbyterian Council in Belfast, Ireland, June, 
1881; and one of the representatives from the United States 
Evangelical Alliance to the World's Evangelical Alliance, that 
convened in Copenhagen, Denmark, Sept., 1881. Witli great 
liberality the Churcli granted him a vacation of four months, to 
attend the last two European Assemblies; and during the inter- 
val between the meetings, he made a tour in Great Britain, 
France, Switzerland, and Germany. 

Mr. Yass is the Agent for Sabbath-schools in both the Pres- 
bytery of Orange and the Synod of North Carolina ; and the 
author of a volume on "Amusements and the Christain Life, 
in tlie Primitive Churc]i and in Our Day," published l)y the 
Presbyterian Board of Publication, Philadelphia; and other 
smaller works. 


The lot No. 309 on the Pkn of New Bern, and upon which 
the Clnirch is built, was bought from Mr. Edward Graham, for 
the sum of $1200. In 1825 he executed the deed according 
to an agreement entered into in 1819, and the last paj'ment of 
$120 was made by Charles Dewey, Treasurer of the Trustees of 
the Churcli. From the original deed the following list of the 
Trustees is copied, and theise are probably the ones originally 
elected in 1818, or with few changes; viz. Elias Hawes, Ed- 
ward Graham, Isaac Taylor, John Jones, William Hollister, 
Vine Allen, Robert Hay, Stephen M. Chester, Robert Prim- 
rose, Silvester Brown, E. C. King, and Charles Dewy. 

During the incumbency of Mr. Stratton, on 21st April, 
1842, the present manse was purchased from John R. Green 
for $1,800, and was conveyed to the Trustees, who were then 
as follows; William Hollister, Isaac Taylor, Robert Primrose, 
Robert Hay, Tiiomas Sparrow, Martin Stevenson, Jr., Charles 
Slover, Edward E. Graham, Jeremiah N. Allen, Amzi Ayers, 
and Richai-d N. Taylor. 

ScsstDtt 5iou$e> 

March 12th, 1856, in Mr. Wall's time, the lot. No. 308^ 
upon which the present Session-house, or Sabbath-school and 
Lecture-room stands, was bought of Wm. G. Br^-an, Clerk and 
Master in Equity, from the estate of Edward Graham, for $905. 
The building was erected in 1858, and cost $1,500. Changes 
had taken place in the Trustees, who were then as follows: 
Roi)ert Prinu'ose, Charles Slover, Fred'k J. Jones, Edward E. 
Graham, Alex'r Miller, Riciiard N. Taylor, J. Graham TuU, 
Emmet Cuthbcrt, William G. Bryan, George F. Fisher, and 
Jeremiah N. Allen. 


In January, 1886, the Trustees are Charles Slover, W. G. 
Bryan, William Hollister, George Allen, Alexander Miller, Jr., 
Claudius E. Foy, Ami R. Dennison, Asa Jones, John B. Lane, 
Samuel W. Smallwood, Daniel Stimson, Dr. John D. Clarke, 
David N. Kilburn, Thomas A. Henry, and Dr. George Slover. 

This church has never had a Board of Deacons until recently. 
It has not only held its property under the law by Trustees, 
but has conducted its financial affairs by tbe same body and 
the Session. The Treasurer of the Trustees has usually borne 
the burden of the work. Upon the reorganization of the con- 
gregation, in 1866, there was no '•'-deacon thnher ;''"' and there 
was and has continued to be such demand for the most conse- 
crated, active, and skillful business talent for the successful con- 
duct of its general monetary operations and its benevolent 
work, that the Church has preferred to retain the cheerful ser- 
vices of one of its ruling elders, Mr. George Allen, as its Trea- 
surer, during the past twenty-five years. Recently, however, it 
has been deemed best to divide out this work, and bring the 
Church more exactly into full accord with our scriptural form 
of government. So at a recent congregational meeting, a ser- 
mon having been previously preached by the Pastor on the di- 
aconate, six worthy members were elected to the office of dea- 
con. Three only of them accepted the election and agreed to 
serve, viz.: Claudius E. Foy, George N. Ives, and Alexander 
Miller; and on Sabbath morning, 28th March, 1886, they were 
duly ordained, by the laying on liands of the Pai'ochial Pres- 
bytery, or Session, and installed into their office. 

Hcccnt Hcttoxiation* 

Much care has been bestowed on keeping the Church pro- 
perty in nice order. When extensive repairs were made, in 
1866, the old, high, and close box-pulpit was removed, and a 
broad platform with a handsome desk and gas pillars was sub- 



stituted ; and I)ack of the pulpit a recess was made (wliicli lias 
recently been mucii improved by the addition of some hand- 
some woodwork), and the front of the galleries was lowered. 
A few years ago a new roof was put on the Church, perhaps 
the iirst one since it was built. In January, 1886, the active 
and useful Ladies' Working Society completed some necessary 
repairs, had the Church very handsomely repainted within, and 
also the inside walls of the Lecture-room, and the exterior of 
both buildings, as well as the front fence, so that the whole ap- 
pearance of these buildings, and the large and beautifully shaded 
grounds, is very attractive. It should always be a welcomed 
pleasure and desirable honor to care for the Lord's house. This 
recent work has been done at an expense of $905, which, 
together with a balance of $260 due the Treasurer (total, 
$1,165), has been all paid, and the Church is free of debt. This 
is good work, and ground of thankfulness to God for his blessing 
on the Church's efforts. The newly-elected deacons will thus 
enter on their duties under most favorable auspices. 


A Presbyterian Sabbath-school was conducted m the East 
room of the Academy before the Church was built. I cannot 
ascertain how early it was established ; neither have I heard of 
any other begun before this. The name of the first Superin- 
tendent I have recovered is Mr. Martin Stevenson, in 1835. 
How long he had been in office then is unknown. He was fol- 
lowed in 1835 by Mr, Charles Slover. Other Superintendents 

were Messrs. R. N. Taylor, Bogart, William Hay, George 

Allen, and William Hollister. The last named is at present, 
conducting the school efliciently. Brief notes about the school 
from 1833-37 on several Sabbaths sliow an attendance ranging 
up to sixty-two. The Baptists had a school of about the same 
size ; the Methodists had one somewhat smaller ; and the Episco- 
palians had one numbering from sixty to one hundred scholars. 
On Sabbath, June 16, 1833, the Presbyterian children recited 
the names of the books of the Old Testament; and on the next 
Sal^bath they were to recite those of the New Testament, just 
as they have been recently doing. 

M!m$t^t$ Irom tfie ftctu Bern Cf^fturcft* 

The followhig Presbyterian ministers went out from New 
Bern : Rev. Messrs. Lemuel D. Hatch, John Witherspoon,^ 
Monroe Allen, William Neal (or Neil), Thomas Watson, Nehe- 
miali H. Harding, and John W. Primrose. Two of these are 
still living and preaching — Mr. Watson, in Dardenne, Mo.; and 
Mr. Primrose, in the Second Presbyterian Churcli in Wilming- 
ton, N. C. Dr. Harding ministered for many years most ac- 
ceptably to the church in Milton, N. C. 



Messrs. Robert Hay and Elias Ilawes were the first elders 
whose names have reached us. After them came John Jones, 
Thomas Sparrow, Allen Fitch, Martin Stevenson, Charles 
Slover, Richard N. Taylor, Emmet Cuthbert, George Allen, 
William Hollister, and John Hutchinson. The two last-named 
elders were ordained and installed on Sabbath, Fel)ruary 5th, 
1871. Mr. Hutchinson is now an elder in the Wilson Church, 
and Messrs. Slover, Allen, and Hollister constitute the present 
Session of tiie New Bern Church. All the otliers have passed 
to the ministry above. 

The present deacons — the only ones this church has ever 
had — are Messrs. Claudius E. Foy, George N. Ives, and Alex- 
ander Miller. 

In 1854 the pipe-organ was bought for $900. 

For many years the New Bern Church had colored members. 
Mrs. Stanly, an emancipated slave, was one of the original 
members. As far back as 1832 I have records of special, sep- 
arate services held for them by Rev. Mr. Hurd in the Church. 
After the war we M^ere still, during the present pastorate, re- 
ceiving colored members, and at times separate services were 
conducted for them, though they attended the regular minis- 
trations of the sanctuary. It was deemed l)est to attempt the 
organization of a distinct Colored Presbyterian Church. So 
the work was commenced under B. B. Palmer, a colored Licen- 
tiate of Orange Presbytery, about May, 1878. The building 
in which this work was conducted, until their Churcli was built, 
was that known as the Congregational School House, then 
standing on the corner of Johnson and Middle Streets, where 
now stands the residence of Mr. J. F. Ives, The Session of 
the New Bern Church directed the operations. On Sabbath, 


November 24, 1878, a committee of Orange Presbytery, con- 
sisting of Rev. L. C. Yass, and ruling elders G. Allen and "W". 
Hollister, finding the way clear, organized Ebenezer Colored 
Presbyterian Chnrcli, with eleven members, in the Congrega- 
tional School House. Licentiate Palmer retired from the work 
in February, 1879, and was succeeded in the following May by 
Rev. A. A. Scott, of Yadkin Presbytery, who has continued 
here, and is the Pastor. Mr. Scott was born in South Caro- 

Under the leadership of Rev. L. C. Yass, through the gen- 
erous aid of the First Presbyterian Church, and of many good 
friends in this city and in many other places; and with earnest 
effort by the colored congregation, a beautiful Church has been 
erected, at a cost of about $1,800 for Church and lot; and on 
November 7, 1880, it was dedicated to the worship of Al- 
mighty God. The dedication sermon was preached by Mr. 
Yass. Additional work has been done on the property, and it 
is valued at $2,500. The membership is now seventy-four. 
It was found best for the Church to belong to Yadkin Presby- 
tery, and it was therefore dismissed by Orange Presbytery to 
Yadkin, April 13, 1881. Yaluable assistance has been ren- 
deretl to them by the Northern Presbyterian Church. Mr. 
Scott has approved himself to be an excellent, prudent and 
useful servant for the Master among his colored brethren, and 
he commands the confidence and respect of our best white citi- 

The eleven original members were John Randolph, Sr., 
John Randolph, Jr., Caroline Barham, Livinia Willard, George 
H. White, Julius Willis, Caesar Lewis, Wm. O. Randolph, 
Jane Coats, L. Palmer and W. W. Lawrence. Three ruling el- 
ders were elected, viz.: John Randolph, Sr., Julius Willis and 
George H. White. 

TOm!$t^r$ front Hanoticr Prcsbgli^rg* 

It is worthy of note that nearly every minister who has la- 
bored in New Bern came here from Hanover, or, after its di- 
vision. West Hanover Presbytery, viz.: Messrs. B. H. Rice, 


J. N. Campbell, S. Ilurd, M. Osborne, D. Laoj, D. Stratton 
and L. C. Yass. Mr. Burcli also came from the bounds of 
Hanover, when he was taken under the charge of Orange as a. 
candidate for the ministry. 

O«rotutrt of ]^rc$bt|tcrmtt!$m In Irnsfcrn 
lloHIt (titroHtm. 

In the eastern and north-eastern part of North Carolina cov- 
ered by Orange Presbytery, there were before 1865 only the 
Presbyterian Churches at AVashington, organized in 1822, and 
at ]yew Bern. But since tliat date, earnest work, under Di- 
vine blessing, has resulted in the establishment of Churches in 
Tarboro, Rocky Mount, Nahalah (near Scotland Neck), Wil- 
son, Littleton, Henderson, La Grange, Croatan (below New 
Bern), and in the revival of Warrenton Church. Preaching is 
also maintained at other points, where it is hoped that at no 
distant day organizations will Ije effected. Then Wilmington 
Presbytery, embracing South-Eastern North Carolina, con- 
tains thirty-five Churches. So if we add to tliese the Churches 
in the Cape Fear River settlements, now in a part of Fayette- 
ville Presbytery, then looking eastward, in the section first re- 
ferred to as occupied in colonial days by those Huguenot, 
Scotch, German and Swiss settlers, we may now count sixty, or 
perhaps seventy-five, Presbyterian Churches. These embrace a 
large raembersliip, that represents in character, and extensively 
in identical names, the original immigrants. 

There is in these Churches a healthy and encouraging mani- 
festation of aggressiveness in winning souls for Jesus, and es- 
tablishing Churches, modeled, as we believe, after the apostoli- 
cal example and the whole teaching of God's Word. 


*01 UCH is the result of an earnest effort to rescue from oblivion 
'k3 the history of Presby terianism in and around New Bern ; to 
gather in compact and permanent form interesting and important 
facts about our city ; to add to the general fund of information 
some things new to many, if not to all ; and thus to give some 
light to what has been obscure, and perhaps aid some future 
investigator to prepare a better account. 

A review of the record demonstrates the value of persevering 
efforts, and the power of littles. Most clearly does this appear 
in the development of the Church here, and in the successful 
use of the envelope system of finance for weak congregations. 

Great emphasis is given, too, to the inestimable worth of 
female workers in the Church. Because of her godly zeal and 
consecrated liberality, this was called Mrs. Minor'^s Church. 
" Help those women which labored with me in the Gospel " was 
an inspired exhortation. Paul knew their courageous and suc- 
cessful assistance in his ministry. Our ladies' societies, con- 
ducted in a consecrated spirit, should be fostered, and will re- 
ceive honor from God. 

In God's work we should never be discouraged. Prayer, 
faith, hope, toil, and staying force, these must be abiding and 
animating principles. Their uplift, outlook, and result, under 
the promises and guidance of that Lord who is round about 
Jerusalem, cannot be doubtful, inglorious, or unsatisfying. 
Years past have been years of mingled joy and sorrow. We 
have been like those early colonists who walked through the 
broad aisles of ancient woods. Now thev travel across wide. 


briglit stretches of enchanting light ; here is a charming soften- 
ing of garisli day by the trembling and whispering foliage of 
the majestic Gothic archways above; anon the checkered jour- 
ney leads into enfolding gloom ; and the mntterings of storms, 
■with the moving of false fires on the marshes, and the fierce 
flashings on the darkening clouds above, kindle honest appre- 
hensions, call for quickened exertions, and wise preparations. 
Their courage grew. The " eminent domain '' around them 
prophesied a shining, unfolding future, whose happy dawn they 
welcomed, and whose splendid day benignantly beams upon 
their children. So with God's people in their checkered spir- 
itual life and history, their shifting hopes and fears, their 
speechless griefs or sparkling songs. Always there is light 
enough to show that the great Eternal Sun is shining above. 
Before them is their radiant home. Home, sweet home! No 
Idalian bowers with thorny blooms; no dulcet chimes lulling 
elevating sensibilities into destructive inaction; no gleaming 
glories of a hasty summer solstice, to be quickly and forever 
blasted under the icy grasp of wintry disappointment! The 
faithful servant has a sure reward. Amid all the shifting 
scenes of a varying earthly career, in sunshine or shadow, storm 
or calm, apparently miserable failure or Elysian triumph, with 
head erect, heart firm, and girded loins, nuist be heeded the 
voice, " this is the way, walk ye in it ;" and each true Knight of 
the Cross must chivalrously "press toward the mark for the 
prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus." Thus only 
■can be reached 

The Canaan fair, where flowers are 
That ever bloom, and shed perfume 

Fit for heaven, 
A land of bliss, unlike to this — 
For God is there, where saints repair 

To worship Him. 

Blest Church on earth ! Glad place of birth 
For souls from death by holy breath 
Of God himself. 

188 . co^fCLusION". 

His constant love her guard shall prove, 
And free his saints from all complaints 
Through Christ his Son. 

Then rest above prepared by love, 
With harpings sweet, and glories meet 

For pardoned men, 
Shall opened be for Zion free — 

The holy Bride ; 
And we shall see our all in thee — 

Christ Ckxjcified. 


MUCH uncertainty shrouds the history of North Carolina 
before 1700, because of the lack of nearly all early 
original records among the State archives. George Chalmers, 
the historian, made the first search for this information in Lon- 
don in 1780. Notable private efforts have been made since to 
repair this loss. Appreciating this incompleteness, the Gene- 
ral Assembly of North Carolina, in 1827, began efforts to re- 
cover from the British Government copies of all documents 
relating to the State's Colonial history. Many obstacles hin- 
dered the satisfactory accomplishment of this important enter- 
prise, often renewed and still continued. For the past seven 
years our accomplished Secretary of State, Col. W. L. Saun- 
ders, has devoted his energies and archaeological tastes to com- 
piling the results of previous labors in this department, and of 
.his own researches abroad and at home, under legislative en- 
actment. Two volumes of these documentary records, referred 
to on page 26, with valuable prefaces, will soon be pub- 
lished. Many changes will have to be made in writing the 
early history of the State. I have also obtained a copy of a 
most valuable and exceedingly rare pamphlet, entitled " Party 
Tyranny; or. An Occasional Bill in Miniature, as now Prac- 
tised in Carolina. De Foe. London : Printed in the year 
1705." Not having had access to a part of tliese documents 
until after the preceding pages were nearly all printed, some 
additional notes are necessary here, and a few errors need cor- 

Pao;e 11. Dnrant '■'■ stands the oldest landholder''^ of whose 
grant documentary evidence exists. The records of Percjui- 
mans County contain the deed, bearing date 1st March, 16G2. 


In this instrument tlie King of Yeopira, Kilcacenen (or Kisto- 
tanen), "had for a valeiable consideration of satisfaction re- 
ceived with the consent of my people sold and made over to 
George Durant a Parcel of land," bearing the name "Weco- 
comicke," and adjoining " the land I formily sold to Saml 
Pricklove." Various documents, legislation of later date, and 
the iirst Charter of Charles II., show that earlier settlers had 
been holding lands under Virginia grants, or titles by purchase 
from the Indians. So Albemarle contained enough inhabitants 
to warrant the inauguration of a governor and legislature in 
1664 or 1665. (Col. Eec. I., pp. ix. and 19; Carroll's Collec- 
tions, Vol. II., 283.) 

Page 12. " Very soon the Cape Fear settlements were securely 
established^ This refers to the early prosperity of the col- 
ony of 800 under Yeamans. It finally failed, according to old 
historians, in 1690; but later documents seem to fix its aban- 
donment in the latter half of 1667. Still I am not certain, 
from the records, that there were not some settlers on the Cape 
Fear several years later, wliile Governor Yeamans was on tlie 
Ashley River. Unwise Proprietary restrictions arrested the 
successful development of the Cape Fear section until 1724, 
after which date emigration flowed freely westward. (Martin, 
I., 143, 294; Hawks, II., 81, 453 ; Col. Kec. I., x. 36, 75,159, 
&c., 209, etc.; Vol. II., 528-'9; Williamson, I., 96, 118.) 

Page 15. ^^ Sale to the Crown in 1729." According to Mar- 
tin's Digest, the General Assembly at Edenton passed laws in 
the name of " His Excellency the Palatine, and the rest of the 
true and absolute Lords Proprietors of Carolina," 27tli No- 
vember, 1729. The surrender of the Proprietors by bargain 
and sale to the Crown is thought to have taken place in De- 
cember, 1728. Eventually, however, an Act of Parliament 
was found necessary to establish the agreement; and one was 
passed, in the second year of George II., appointing 29th Sep- 
tember, 1729, as the time for the transfer. (Revised Statutes 
of N. C, Vol. II.) But no change in the style of enacting laws 
was ordered until 1730; and the first royal governor did not 


assume bis functions until February, 1731. More data are re- 
quired to iix tbe precise date wben tbe Proprietary rigbts 
ceased. (Cob Rec. II., Preface, 721, 769.) 

Tbe usual estimate of tbe population of Nortb Carolina in 
1729 is probably too low, according to contemporary state- 
ments. It is tbougbt to bave been 30,000. 

Pages 18, 25-28. " Gov. Johnston.'''' Sir Natbanael Jobnson 
("t" generally omitted) was made Governor of Soutb Caro- 
lina in 1703, and bad power to appoint bis Deputy-Governor 
for Nortb Carolina. Tbe pamphlet, " Pai'ty Tyranny," already 
referred to, is tbe elaborate petition presented to tbe Parlia- 
ment of England by Josepb Boone, or Boon, wbo bad been 
sent over from Soutb Carolina to secure redress of grievances. 
He stood in place of Jobn Asbe, wbo bad been commissioned 
for tbe work in 1703, and bad been accompanied by Edmund 
Porter on bebalf of Nortb Carolina: but Asbe died in Eng- 
land. Among otber wrongs complained of were an act passed 
in Soutb Carolina — an unparalleled, barbarous, impudent, tyran- 
nical law — by cbicaner}' and surprise, and a majority of 
only one in tbe Commons, wbereby all dissenters wbo would 
not take communion after tbe rites of tbe Cburcli of England 
and subscribe tbe appointed oatb, were excluded from tbe 
Commons House of tbe Assembly. Also anotber act was 
complained of tbat establisbed tbe Cburcb of England, laid 
out tbe parishes and appointed vestries and cburcb taxes, and 
a Iligli Connnission Court of twenty laymen to try and to turn 
out clergymen from their charges, under certain circumstances. 
Boone handles Lord Granville and bis supporting Lords Pro- 
prietors without mercy before the Parliament. He says that 
tbe Palatine, whose "mock title is none of bis due," is but a 
mountebank prince, an insolent tyrant, with an imperious and 
arbitrary manner — sic volo, sic jubeo ! 

The appeal was triumphantly sustained, and eventually tbe 
Proprietors were declared to bave forfeited their charter. 

I have not found any evidence tbat Gov. Daniel succeeded 
in obeying bis instructions so far as to secure the passage in 


North Carolina of the " Sacramental Test Act." No text of a 
vestry act exists earlier than 1715, and that is less rigid than 
the South Carolina act of 1701. So far tlie statement on page 
25, viz., that Daniel secured the passage of a similar law by 
the Albemarle Legislature, should be modified. He could not 
fetter these stalwart freemen that much. So he only got the 
church established with legal vestry and tax appendages. By 
the testimony of President Henderson Walker, such bills and 
provisions as these were hard to obtain. (Life of Caldwell, p. 63 ; 
Simms' Hist. S. C, p. 78 ; Party Tyranny ; Col. Kec. I., xxv. 
634-610, 613, 572, 598, 690, &c., 709,713, 769, 876; Vol. 
IL, 127, 207, 582, 601, 621; Martin's Digest, p. 99, Tax- 
ation for New Hanover Parish in 1731; Archdaleand Hewitt's 
accounts in Carroll's Col.) 

All meetings of Dissenters must be public and suhjeci to 
<;ertain rules. (Col. Pec. II. , 881; Williamson, L, 168; Mar- 
tin, L, 229 ; Caldwell's Life, 63.) 

Pages 18-2L Quakers. The dates of the quarterly meet- 
tings are given on the authority of the learned Friends, Edwin 
Blackburn, of Baltimore, and W. J. Hall, of Swarthmore Col- 
lege, Pa. 

Dr. Caruthers states in his Life of Caldwell (p. 83), that an 
intelligent Quaker informed him that their first yearly meet- 
ing was held in Perquimans County in 1701. (Williamson, I., 
81, 92.) Quakers were not allowed to testify in criminal cases, 
to sit on a jury, or to hold any government office of trust or 
profit. (Col. Rec. IL, 885.) 

Pages 23 and 50. Craven County here will of course be un- 
derstood to be Craven in South Carolina, and not Craven Pre- 
cinct, elsewhere spoken of in Bath County, North Carolina. 

Page 29, at the bottom, read ministers for '■'■ minisster .'''' 

Marriages. For "1769 or 1770," read 1766. In 1711, at 
Edenton, Gabriel Johnston being Governor, an act was passed, 
providing that those marriages only were lawful which were 
celebrated by a clergyman of the Church of England, or for 


want of such, by a lawful magistrate. Troubles had arisen 
from disregard of this disabling law; so in 1766 the General 
Assembly at New Bern amended the marriage act, and provided 
that "all marriages that have been, or shall be solemnized, be- 
fore the first day of January next, by any of the Dissenting or 
Presbyterian clergy, in their accustomed manner, shall be, and 
are hereby declared to be valid, legal and effectual, to all in- 
tents and purposes, as if performed by any minister of tlie 
Church of England, under a license taken and granted accord- 
ing to the directions of the aforesaid act." 

"And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, that 
from and after the first day of January next, that it shall and 
may be lawful for any Presbyterian minister, reguhirly called 
to any congregation in this province, to celebrate the rites of 
matrimony l^etween persons, and join them together as man and 
wife, in their usual and accustomed manner, under the same 
regulations and restrictions as any lawful magistrate in this 
province might celebrate and solemnize the same." 
Among the provisos occurs this significant one : 
^^ Provided always, that the 7ninister of the Church of Eng- 
land serving the cure of any jJarish shall have the benefit of 
the FEEy^/* ALL marriages in said parish, if he do not re- 
fuse to do the service therecf, although any other person per- 
formed TOE marriage ceremony." 

In a later act for establishing an orthodox clergy, the Epis- 
copal viinister was authorized to demand the fee for ii funeral 
service performed by a Dissenting viinister in his parish ! i. e., 
forty shillings. 

In the vestry act of 1764, every person twenty-one years 
old, and possessing a specified estate, was required to vote for 
vestrymen under a penalty of twenty shillings. (Martin's ife 
Davis's Digests, etc.) 

These few extracts are sufficient to indicate the spirit of 
ante-revolutionary ecclesiastical legislation. 

Page 35, last line, '•'■before and soon after 1700." Tliis is 
correct about Carolina, which meant in the early records South 

1 94 ADDENDA. 

Carolina. Presbyterians had an organized church in Charles- 
ton in 1681-'2. But for Eastern North Carolina this clause 
should read '' soofi after 1729." In 1732 William Gray had 
entered land near Heart's Creek (Fayetteville) ; and Foote say& 
there were enterprising Scotch families there before him. Re- 
cords held by descendants of Alexander Clark, Cumberland 
County, show that he came over and settled on the Cape Fear 
in 1736; that a "ship-load" of emigrants came with him, the 
passage of many of whom he paid ; and that he found " a good 
many" Scotch settlers had preceded him, among whom were 
"Bluff" Hector McNeill, and John Smith with his two child- 
ren, Malcolm and Janet. When, in 1739, Whitefield preached 
in Newton (founded about 1730 as New Liverpool, and now 
known as Wilmington), he observed many Scotch settlers in 
the congregation, and specially exhorted them to lead an ex- 
emplary life in their new homes. (Webster's Hist, of Pres. 
Church, I., 145; Billingsly's Life of Whitefield, p. 133; Cald- 
well's Life, p. 85; Foote, p. 125; and Bank's Address, p. 6; 
Scotch and L-ish Seeds, pp. 268, 276.) 

Col. W. L. Saunders says that Dugald McNeill and Col. 
McAlister came in 1739 with three hundred and fifty Scotch. 
In 1740 these Scotch settlers petitioned the Legislature for aid. 
On 28th February, 1740, the Legislature appointed Duncan 
Campbell, Dugald McNeil, Dan McNeil, Coll McAlister, and 
Neil McNeil, magistrates for Bladen County. They alVdoubt- 
less arrived on the Cape Fear. 

A collection of manuscript communications, received by the 
Raleigh Star in 1810 from intelligent men over the State, arid 
deposited in the University library at Chapel Plill, prove that 
most of the settlers, in 1736, on McCulloh's lands in Duplin 
County, were Presbyterians. (Caldwell's Life, pp. 86, 94.) 

These specifications appear sufticient to sustain the text. 

Page 43. Rev. Samuel Stanford. I have recently obtained 
an old file of " The North Carolina Sentinel., New Bern, N. 
C," from April, 1831, to April, 1834. The date, 1828, given 


for Mr. Stanford's deatli, proves incorrect from the following 
notice in the Sentinel-, Friday, 21st June, 1833: 

« Died, 
"At his residence in the County of Duplin, in the 71st year of 
his age, the Rev. SAMUEL STANFORD, late pastor of the 
Presbyterian Church of the Grove. Mr. Stanford, in early 
life, was actively engaged in the service of his countr3^ He 
was a Kev^olutionary soldier, and appeared in action at Eutaw 
Springs. ISot long after the close of the war, he devoted him- 
self to the ministry of the Gospel, in the exercise of which he 
continued for forty years." 

Page 53. The fact that the letters-patent, by which Queen 
Anne conferred on De Graffenried and his male heirs the right 
and title of a Baron of Great Britain, together with his in- 
signia and many of his letters, are held by John De Graffen- 
ried, a lineal descendant, living in Dougherty County, Ga., is 
stated by S. F. Miller in his sketch of Judge C. B. Strono-, in 
his "Bench and Bar of Georgia," Yol. II., 278, 293. It came 
out in the legal investigation of the rights of his American 
heirs to the large property tlieir ancestor left in Switzerland. 

The Queen's agency in making him a "Landgrave of Caro- 
lina" was only indirect. That title was bestowed under their 
Charter by the Lords Proprietors on certain conditions, which 
were met by De (traffenried. 

Page 55. " The Palatines.'*'^ The following are some docu- 
mentary references to the "poore pallitines," De Graffenried 
and the Indian Massacre, in the " Colonial Records," Yol. I., 
707, 717-737, 756, 775, 784, 791, 808, 810, 815, 825-834, 850, 
890, 905, 986; Vol. II., 147. 

Page 59, second line, read "whole" for "wole." 


The coarseness of their bread, from lack of mills to furnish 
good flour, and the abundance of hogs, from the plenty of corn 
and lack of transportation, gave rise to the expressive phrase 
"hog and hominy," descriptive of coarse but substantial living. 

Page 71, bottom, '-'-TaxdbleP The law in 1715 reads, 
"And It Is Hereby Enacted that all males not being slaves in 
this Government shall be Tythable at the age of sixteen years 
and all slaves male or Female either Imported or born in the 
County shall be Tythable at the age of twelve years." (Col. 
Eec. II., 889.) 

Page 78. Episcopal Clergy. It is possible that Messrs. 
Earle and Burgess also remained in the State; though Burgess 
may have gone to Southampton, Va. Micklejohn was a Tory. 
So an intelligent Episcopal friend, who has kindly examined 
my summary, writes me. (See also CaldwelFs Life, 181.) 

Page 139. Chapel Hill. Early in this century the Pres- 
byterian Church probably had some sort of organization, under 
Drs. Caldwell and Chapman, at this place ; but the minutes 
are lost. 

Page 164. Fourth line from the bottom, read "1855" in- 
stead of "1825." 


By Rev. L. C. VASS, A. M., New Bern, N. C. 

Presbyterian Board of Publicalion, rhihuklphia, I'a. 
Price, 50 Cents. 

The aim of ihis hook is lo illuslrate great principles liy tlie liglu of early his- 
tory for practical effect. Part First discusses the relations of Christians of the 
first three centuries to popular amusements in their day. Part Second presents 
the i)rinciples which must decide what are not lawful Christian amusements? 

R E € E X T C K I T I C I .S M S. 

PrincipalJ. Cairns, D. D., LL. D., Edingburgh, Scotlaud: "It displays more than or- 
<linary research in regard to the relation of the primitive Christians to the amusements of 
their age, and pleads earnestly and successfully for the cultivation of the same unworldly 
spirit in our own times. The clearness and grace Of the style, and the general soundness 
and solidity of the matter, recommend this little work to wide consideration," 

lieo. A. II'. Miller, D. D., Charlotte, N. C. : "It is excellent and timely." 

Rev. Joseph II. ]yiUon, D. D., Prof. S. W. Presbyterian University : " No one who begins 

its perusal will lay it down until he has finished it to the last word The author's 

treatment of his difficult and worn stibject is as notably original as his turns of expression 
are takingly fresh, carrying the reader along whether or no. This little work presents the 
whole discussion in a manner not more fair than convincing — so convincing, indeed, be- 
cause 80 fair." 

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and arranging this material in such a faithful and interesting manner. I heartily com- 
mend it." 

Rev. J. M. Atkinson, D. D., Raleigh, N. C. : " It is creditable to the writer, to his Church, 
and to the State. It is remarkably comiirehensive and thorough." 

Rev. IT. G. Hill. D, D., Fayetteville, N. C. : "In statement it is clear, in arrangement 
happy, in argument convincing, in style iiolished, and in its influence upon religion aud 
morals tends toward purity aud progress." 


Rev. Jno. X. Waddell, D. D., LL. D., Chancellor of the South Western Presbyterian Uni- 
versity, Clarksville, Tenn. : " The author has adopted a novel method of treating this hack- 
neyed subject. The judicious and appropriate selections of illustrations of the opinions 
and practices of the Primitive Church, which is found in this historical sketch, cannot be 
too highly commended. The style also in which the book is written is clear and attractive, 
and the entire volume is one that wiU repay a diligent perusal." 

Rev. R. L. Dabney, D. D., LL. D., Professor in the University of Texas : "The picture of 
the Primitive Christian life is very engaging and just. I wish we had such a standard of 
morals among our church-members now." 


Christian Adooeatc (Methodist), Kaleigh, N. C. : "We need just such literature in the 
hands of old and young. . . . We commend most earnestly this valuable little book to our 
readers. It is undenominational and practical." 

Biblical iJecorder (Baptist), Raleigh, N. C. : "We heartily endorse the book, and com- 
mend it to our readers. There never was a time when a book of this kind was more 

Morning Star, Wilmington, N. C. : "This is a thoughtful, scholarly essay upon a very 
important subject." 

Cumberland Presbyterian, Nashville, Tenn. : "The little book ^vill no doubt aid many a 
pastor in dealing with this perplexing and ever recurring problem." 

Christian Observer, Louisville, Ky. : " It is both interesting and forcible." 

Central Presbyterian, Va. : "We earnestly commend the work to all Christians, and 
should like to see it in every Christian family." 

Philadelphia Presbyterian: "A discussion of a question of vital interest to every sin- 
cere Christian." 

Xorth Carolina Presbyterian : "The appeal is indeed tenderly and logically presented to 
every one's sense of right." 

South Western Presbyterian, New Orleans, La. : "A calm, serious, carefully prepared and 
well considered discussion of an interesting topic." 

Earnest Worker; Richmond, Va. : "The subject very ably and clearly discussed 

We are sure this book will be welcomed, and we triist it may have a wide circulation among 
our peojile." 

The Signal Magazine, Edinburgh, Scotland : "Very valuable little treatise." 

Presbyterian Review, N. Y.: "This little volume gives first an animated and trustworthy 
account of popular amusements in the primitive period, and the attitude of the Church to- 
wards them, and then discusses the amusements of our own day, and the princix)les upon 
which they should be either accepted or rejected. The tone of the book is elevated and spirit- 
ual, and the author has done a good work in presenting the truth clearly, yet without bit- 
terness or extravagance." 

Price, 50 cents, post paid, by the Presbyterian Committee of 
Publication, Richmond, Va., or by 

Rev. L. C. Vass, A. M., New Bern, N. C 






By Eev. L. C. VASS, 1). I)., 

PRICE -"^l.oO, — P(>8TA(rI<: IT) CKNTS. 

This hjiiidsoine octavo, with thirtoon ('noiavings, "Eastern 
North Carolina., New Born Presbyterian Cliurcli, and New 
Bern," contains a Besunie of Early ICcclesiastical Artairs in 
Eastern North Carolina, a Sketch of the Early J)ays of New 
Bern, N. C., and the History of the New Bern Presbyterian 
Clmrch. by K'ev. L. C. Vass, D. D. 

TliE G-EiiEral Verdict 

Prof. PHILIP SCHAFF, D. D., LL. I).: 
" It rests on orijrinal research of the sources, and is an important contribution 
to the history of American Presbj-terianism, especially in North Carolina." 

Prksii>ent JAMES McCOSH, D. D., LL. D. : 
" It is a most valuable contribution. * * * The book is well written, and 
throws lijjht on the history, reliarious and political, of an important district of our 
country. I have sent the work to our collcfje library, that f)ur students may have 
access to it." 

Kkv. a. W. >riL[-Kl{, I). 1)., (HAKi.oTTK, N. C..■ 
"Ihave read it with interest and no les.s admiration; regarding it as the best 
book on Eastern North Carolina I have ever seen ; truly a valuable work,— a 
credit to our Stale, to our Church, to the author, and to the publisher. It deserves 
a wide circulation, and particularly a place in every Presbyterian family in the 

I'lMN. Il"Al, .roHN ( AIRN"^, I). 1).. 1,1,. I).. El.lNlil Kcri, S(<iTI,ANI>: 
" I can quite honestly praise your volume as casting a bright and to me new 
light upon your colonial hi.stoiy, especially on its ecclesiastical side. Not the 
least interesting part is the story of the Huguenot, Swiss, Palatinate, and other 
foreign elements of your composite nation and Church, of which I knew, in 
relation to North Carolina, nothing, but which you have made so vivid. 
***** I congratulate you on having made n real addition to Christian 

Ki;\. \. sPKtNT, IIi:m.i;ks()n, N. (.•.. 
"The store of infornnition it contains is vei-j- gieat, and will be ))rized as 
valuable histoty, very much of which (cannot bi- gotten" 

Hon. J. I). CAMKRON, A.sukvilli:, N. C. . 
" I liave read it with much pleasure and protit. Its contriliuliou tf) the liistory 
of the State relating to Eastern North Carolina is very valuable and intcrestins', 
especially as relates to Ecclesiastical atl'airs." 

Ui:\ . J. lU'MPLE, I). 1)., SALrsuiJiiv, N. C: 
" A noble work. * * * Tlie autlior goes to the beginning. * * * But Mr. 
Vass's version is a new one, and is interspersed witli spicy anecdotes and inci- 
dents that enchain the attention, while conveying instruction." 

Kev. J. HEXRY SMITH, I). D., GiiKENsnouo, N. C. ; 
'■ The book has interested, absorbed me, tascinated me from beginning to end. 
* * * The Church owes a debt of gratitude to Bro. Vass for the labor he lias 
bestowed in gathering and recording so much that would otherwise have been 
lost. * * * The matter, and style of the book, and its paper and general 
'get-up', arc attractive." 

GO\-. A. M. SCALES, llALEKiH, N. C. : 
" Tlie work does credit to your head and heart, and I trust that others of our 
ministers will follow your worthy example." 

.TrixiE .T. II. HUTCIIINS, ArsTiN, Texas: 
"You have admirably jierforniel what you undertook to do. * * * I think 
all denominations of Cliristians in Ea.stern North Carolina will feel greatly 
indebted to you. * * * A gem of exquisite value." 

ItEV. F. n. JOHNSTON, I). 1)., Winston-, N. C. : 
'• Your book will live. ^Vo^k well done thcougiiout. * * * All Narth Carolina 
owes yon thanks." 

IfEV. .T. I). IIIFHAM, D.D., SCOTLAXM Neck, N. C. : 
"You have given a charming freshness and a thrilling interest to >'our narra- 
tive. You have given the clearest and most faithful sket-di of early ecclesiastical 
legislation in North Carolina and of the character ot de GratTcnried, that I have 
vet found." 

TiiE Press 

DAILY .loCRNAL, NEW Berx, N. C. : 
* * * "Mr. Vass has succeeded remarkably well in bringing to light interest- 
ing facta, that would have been lost to future generations. * * *. 


"The author gives graphic sketches of the chief actors in the settlement of 
Eastern North Carolina, the early d:iys of the colony, the foundations of its insti- 
tutions, and the histoi'ic development of civil and religious liberty. * * * His 
careful researches will be valued by all stud.,>nts of American politio.-i and 
history." * * * 

"His book is enriched by illustrations, original letters and documents of the 
olden time, and much other exact historical d ita which will make it of pemia- 
nent value." 

" The book displays a large amount of careful research, and its tone is elevated, 
graceful, and highly instructive. The author lias rescued from oblivion much 
important data, and placed it in comi^act and permanent foi'm for future 


" A Ix'iHitil'iil octavo, well printed ami illustriited, and written in most aproeablo 
style. * * * Tli(> work nowhere in»iir(^sHes the roivder as a task pei'formod, but 
as a privilejri" enthusiastieally nndertaki-n and liappily aeeomplished. * * ''■ It 
will he appreciated * * hy all who llnd jdeasure in studying the development of 
cluirch life in partienlar localities, whert> the inlUience of the trntli can be traced 
as it were alon<jr individnal lines." 

CnAlU.KSTON, S. ('., NKWS AND ('< )IK1 KK : Kiev. C. .S. VEDDER, D. D.^ 
"The antlior has iierfornu'd his work well, and it is a work worth trood per- 
formance. * * =5 Mnch new material abont old atlairs in North Carolina. * * 
lUnstrations many and .admirable. '■ * The thenn! is int(>rcs1inu', the author 
able, and the printers hav(( (hmc their part of the work to perfection." 

•■ .\ remarkable production, a.s there is no volume on the subji-ct that can com- 
pare witli it. * * The store of information it contains will be prized. * * * 
Typoarraphically it is a marvtd of beauty." 

"A thorou.ich North Carcdina book, and apiece of Sonthern workmanship in 
authorship, subject, jiress work an<l bindinjr. * * Mr. Vassffives new historical 
documents never before published. * * In this book, bi'tterthan any other 
soui'ce known to us, is an account of the E.stablished Church in the colonies. * * 
TlK'book will 1)'.' interestinj?to all North Carolinians." 


" One of the most readable and \alaable contributions to our historical litera- 
ture. * * Much material that has never before l)een printed. * * Every North 
Carolinian ouRht to poss;-ss this admirable book, and icsricciALLV .siioiM) it mv: 
IN Kvi:i:v piiii.n: and sriiooL uurarv." 


"AVithont doubt the best and most complete statement of the hi.storic facts in 
early Carolina history, of which it treats, that can now be had." 

"A book of rare res;>areh and a valuable contribution to the histoi->- of the 
State. * * It should find a large sale and be generally read, not only by the 
Presbyterians of North Carolina, but by the Baptists as well." 

" Much in it entirely new, and frathered from sources hidden and rare. We have 
learned tnany things we did not know before. * * A valuable contribution to 
N. C. History * * creditable to the author and to the publishers." 


"From the pen of a thoroughly (pialilli-d Southerner of scholarly ability and 
disposition for patient and painstaking research. * * Pages of rare historical 
value. * ♦ Eully one half the book is new nniti-rial, and the remainder facts 
now set in new surroundings— a i)art, indeed, is galheretl from old and hidden 
books having the sanu- iiracticsil value as new material." 


" Few men in the State are as well i|uali(ieil forsutdi painstaking and in.structive 
wofa. A glance over his brlglit Images reveals many inviting glimi>ses. * * Mr. 
Vass has evidently gone li> the trne sources of history — original documents and 
incitlental discl<isures." 


"This is an interesting and valinible local history, containing a number of 
original documents." 


" The book is one of gi'eat interest." 

"Tbebook iswitlioutapeer. * * EVERY TEACHER OF NORTH CAROLINA 


" Mr. Vass has made no superflcial study of the subject niatter of his book. * * 
The illustrations are well executed. * * Such histories will be of immense 


" Eminently satisfactory. * * A most entertaining, as well as important 


" A [careful study of the history ot Presbyterianism in Eastern North CaroHna. 

* * * His history of New Bern is surticieutly full. * * * The worx possesses 
permanent value." 

"Its researches in the early history of North Carolina are entertaining and 


" Almost any other man would have been deterred by the difHculties. * * * 
A mass of valuable and most interesting information, combined and expanded 
so happily as to form one of the most agreeable contributions to historical 


" We have read with deep interest his account of the first settlements in 
Eastern North Carolina— the organization of churches, and the growth of Pres- 


" It is the most complete in historical facts of the Colonial days of any publica- 
tion that we have ever .seen. * * * THE SMALLEST LIBRARY SHOULD NOT 


"It ranks with the best histories of that period in the facts given; and the 

coloring of the picture is nearer the true one than is presented in any of them. 

* * * He has conferred a lasting benefit upon the State." 

ly Eastern Nokth Carolina, New I3ern Presby- 
terian Church, and New Bern," 

Price '§1.50. If sent by mail, 15i*. extra for postage. 

I^Tlie first edition nearly exhausted, tUougli i)nblislied 
onlv a few inontbs. 

Sent anywhere on receipt of cheek or postal order for 
the price by the Presbyterian Publishing' Committee, liicU- 
mond, Va., or by the Publisher, 

Eev. L. C. VAS8, I). I)., 
Oct. 22d, 1887. New Bern, N. C. 

^ P^mTeton Theoloaical , Semjnanr Ub^^^^^^^