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Full text of "The history of the princes, the lords marcher, and the ancient nobility of Powys Fadog, and the ancient lords of Arwystli, Cedewen, and Meirionydd"

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1368309 V 



3 1833 00729 9503 







J. Y. W. LLOYD, OF Clochfaen, Esq. 

M.A., K.S.G. 

VOL. V. 







Geological — 

Geology of Kentish Town 
The Earth and its Changes 
Tremeirchion Bone Caves 

Megalithic Structures — 

Stonehenge and the Wiltshire Downs 

Avebury and Silbury Hill 

Acropolis of Tiryns 

Cyclopes of Sicily 

Titanic Structures in the Caroline Isles 

Tumuli — 

Oval and round Tumuli in Wales 
Carreg y Llech 
Bryn yr Ellyllon 
Prehistoric Cemeteries . 
Esgair Clochvaen 

Ebligion — 

Anglican and Scotch Predestination 

A Dog Sacrifice 

Tribunal of Rhadamanthus 

The Bible 

Decree of the Vatican Council with regard to the Bible 

Religion of Savage Nations 

Christianity in Wales 

The Vestal Virgins 

Marriage Ceremonies, Ancient and Modern 

Spread of Mahommedanism 

Fate of Sacrilege 

The State of the Departed — 

The Rev. William Greenlaw, his Account of 
Ovid's Elegy on the Roman Knight Tibullus 
Poems by Tibullus 
Elysion or Paradise 
Tribunal of Rhadamanthus 
Influence of the Invisible World 
Spiritualism in Venice . 







10, 463 











Apparitions — 

Rev. AVilliam Greeulaw 

Warrior in Golden Armour 

The Princess Alice 

A Message from the Departed 

The Earl of Arundell 

Apparition of a Lady in her Coffin 

On Man — 

Descent of Man 

Antiquity of Man 

Generations of Man, by Sanchouiathon 

Primitive Condition of Man 

Religion of Primitive Man 

State of Society during the Middle Ages 

Chivalry and Nobility . 

Roman Antiquities — 

Roman Chargers and Vases found at Stonehenge 
Roman Antiquities recently discovered in Rome 

Mythology — 

Myth of Heracles and Phoibos Apollon 
Myth of Procris 

Genealogy — 

Powys Wenwynwyn 

Arms in Oswestry Church 

Earldoms of Mar, remarkable Prophecy about them 

Meirionydd — 

Prince Cadwgan, Lord of Nannau 

Nannau of Nannau 

Nannau of Cevn Deuddwr 

Gwyor of Llanidloes 

Maurice of Llangurig 

Cil Talgarth in Penllyn 

Lloyd of Cwm Bychan . 

Vaughau of Caer Runwch 

Gwyn of Dolau Gwyn . 

Powys of Vaner Abbey 

Lloyd of Nant Mynach in Mallwyd 

Lloyd of Peniarth, in the Parish of Llanegryn 

Owen of Dolgelli and Peniarth 

Wynn of Ynys y Maengwj'n 

Matthews of Esgair Voel Eirin 

Jones of Plas yn Ddol Edeyrn and Craflwyn 

Owen of Treveilir 

Owen of Ty Gwyn and Havod Dywyll 



34, 435 







58, 397 

















Ial — 

Manors in the Lordship of Ial . 

Llywelyn Eurdochog, Lord of Ial, Ystrad Alun, and 

Yr Hob 
Llywarch Hen, Prince of the Strath Clyde Britons 
Ithel Velyn, Lord of Ial and Ystrad Alun 
Parish of Llantysilio 
Parish of Bryn Eglwys . 
Parish of Llandegla 
Parish of Llanarmon 
Cyrys o Ial 
Wynn of Llanveris 
Wynn of Y Vanechtyd . 
Richard Davies, Bishop of St. David's 
Hughes of Llanveris 
Lloyd of Llanarmon 
Blaen Ial and Gallt Vaenan 
Bod Idris 
Lloyd of Bod Idris 
Lloyd of Llys Vassi and Gelli Gynan 
Rhyd Onen in Cymo 
Maes y Groes 

Yale of Plas yn Ial or Yale 
Yale of Plas Gorouwy, near Wrexham 
Wynn of Bryn Tango 
Lloyd of Plas Einion and Coedrwg 
Lloyd of Plymog 

Ystrad Alun — 

Davies of Gwysanan and Llanerch 

Eyton of Coed y Llai or Leeswood 

Cynwrig Evell, Lord of Eglwysegl 

Parry of Cravlwyn 

Wynn of Coed y Llai or Leeswood 

Evans of Coed y Llai 

GrufFydd of Coed y Llai . 

Williams of Plas On in Arddynwynt 

Bron Coed Tower 

Wynn of the Tower 

Lloyd of Plas yn Hersedd 

Lloyd of Tre'r Beirdd . 

Lloyd of Fferm in Glyn Berbrwg 

Lloyd of Llwyn Yn 

Edwards of Rhual 

Evans of Treuddyn 

Wynn of Nercwys 

Bithel of Llwyn Egryn , 































Yk Hob— 

Parish of Llanestyn 
Yonge of Bryn lorcyn . 
Trevor of Plas Teg and Argoed 
Mathey of Llanestyn 
Griffith of Plas y Bold . 
Ravenscroft of Bretton . 
Whitley of Aston 

Monasteries and Chukch Lands — 
Monasteriura de Valle Crucis 
Valle Crucis Abbey 
Monastery of Valle Crucis 
Vaner Abbey . 
Yspytty leuan 
Eidda in Nant Conwy . 
Maenan Abbey 

Castles — 

Harddlech Castle 
Castell Caer Gwrle 

Anglesey — 

Jones of Bryn Hyrddin . 

Hendreveinws and Pen y Berth 

Lewys of Prysaddved 

Lewys of Cemlyn 

Lewys of Trysglwyn 

Hughes of Plas Coch and Bryndu 

Bulkeley of Bryuddu and Coedan 

Owen of Treveilor 

Ellis of Bodychan 

Denbighshire — 

Lloyd of Rhanhir 

Mainwaring of Gallt Vaenan 

Salusbury of Gallt Vaenan 

Bulkeley of Coedan and Plas Bulkeley 

Meredydd of Pentref Bychan 

Griffith of Gam and Plas Newydd 

Griffith of Pengwern 

Lloyd of PontrufFydd and Pengwern 

Anwyl of Garth Garmon 

Lloyd of Wickwar 

Lloyd of Vaenol 

Wotton, Thomas, Lord, of Bocton Malherb 

Crucis Abbey 
Wynne of Dytfryn Aled . 
Wynne of Garthewin 


112, 408 


280, 290 




and Valle 




Marl, Pant Glas, and Park, Lady Prendergast of, 

sad fate .... 
Wynne y Coed Coch 
Madocks of Vron Tw, and Glan y Wern 
Williams of Aberchwiler 
Williams of Vron Iw . 
Ty Gwyn in Llan Ychan 
Rhiw Isa' in Llan Ychan 
Cunedda Wledig, King of Manau Gododin 
Lloyd of Gwrych in Abergeleu 
Lewis of Wrexham, Abbot 
Lloyd of Cefn Meriadog . 

Vaughan of Vron Haulog in Llanvair Talhaiarn 
Powell of Holt 
Powell of Horslli 
Maenan Abbey 

Wynne of Melai and Maenan Abbey 
Maenan Hall 
Kyffin of Maenan 
Ffoulkes of Eriviat 
Ashpoole of Plas Ashpoole 
Chambres of Llys Meirchion 
Bwlch y Beudy 
Havod y Maidd 
Price of Giler 
Trevor of Esclus Hall 

Owen of Garth y Medd in the parish of Abergeleu 
Holland of Teirdan 
Holland of Wickwar 
Lloyd of Havod Unos . 

Dispensation granted to Madame Mary Trevor 
Descendants of David I, King of Scotland 
Ellis of Croes Newydd . 
Ellis Wynne of Maenan Abbey, and Llanvaes 

Caernarvonshire — 

Humphreys of Cesail Gyvarch 

Wynn of Ystymllyn {note) 

Vaughan of Talhenbont and Plas Hen 

Thomas of Coed Helen . 

Vaughan of Pant Glas in Nant Conwy 






67, 397 

382, 407 


Arwystli and Cyveiliog — 

Gwynn of Llanidloes 
Maurice of Llangurig 
Owen of Rhiwsaeson 
Owen of Gelli Dywyll 
Wynn of Gelli Dywyll 








Williams of Peutref Cynddelw 

Morgan of Caelan 

Lloyd of Bcrthlloyd 

Matthews of Glandvilas, in Llanidloes parish 

Pugh of Aberffrydlan 

Derwas of Cemaes 

Owen of Machynlleth and Morben 





Walls of Tiryns 

East View of Valle Crucis Abbey 

Valle Crucis Abbey looking East 

Llwyn Yn 

East View of Llanrhaiadr Hall 

Llwyn Yn 

South View of Llanrhaiadr Hall 

Clochvaen Memorial, Llangurig 

Bronze Kelt found near Clochvaen 

Hirlas Horn belonging to the Clochvaen Family 

To face page 74 



Under the very comprehensive title of " The History of 
Kentish Town from the Creation", the Rev. Edward White 
lately delivered an extremely interesting and instructive 
lecture to a large and thoroughly appreciative audience at 
the hall of the Tolmers Square Institute, in Drummond 

The chair was taken by Mr. Churchwarden Bolton, sup- 
ported by the Rev. Frederick Hastings, president ; Messrs. 
H. Devenish, J. N. Gall, hon. secs.j and a number of other 
well-known friends of the Institution. 

The rev. gentleman (who was repeatedly applauded in the 
course of his addi-ess) commenced by saying that although the 
denizens of the more aristocratic parts of the metropolis might 
affect not to think much of the district of Kentish Town, he 
was prepared to show that from the earliest times it had, at 
all events, been a rising place, for at some remote period it 
had risen no less than 10,000 feet from the bottom of the sea. 
Previous to that wonderful upheaval (i.e., when it formed a por- 
tion of the German Ocean) its first inhabitants were flat fishes, 
who, as they swam about with that enormous mass of water 
above their heads, little dreamt that the muddy ground beneath 
them would one day be the site of "The Red Cap", of Camden 
Town, of the " Brecknock", the "Assembly House", of the 
Belle Isle Mission ; in fact, of a large and populous disti-ict, with 
the usual trams, shams, and other ordinary accompaniments of 
modern civilisation. 

His audience would naturally ask how he came to know that, 
and who was the historian of that long transitive state ex- 
tending over probably hundreds of thousands of years ? The 
answer was. Nature herself, who wrote her history on tablets 
of her own manufacture, and stored them away (like the 

> From The St. Pancras Gazette, February 16th, 1884. 

VOL. V. 1 


Nineveh marbles) in dai-k underground treasure-houses, there 
to remain till ages after, for those who were fortunate enough 
to obtain possession of that key of knowledge which could 
alone give access to their mysteries. 

In 1852, the French engineers, employed, under Mr. Prest- 
wich, upon the Hampstead Water Works, were the first, he 
believed, to peneti-ate into the secret cellars beneath their feet, 
and by the light of science to read the marvellous story told 
upon the ancient tablets upon which Nature had inscribed the 
ancient history of this suburb, and the wonderful chain of 
events that united the incalculably distant epochs of the St. 
Pancras Yestry and the flat fishes of former times. 

In the Highgate Road, beyond the Grove in Kentish Town, 
in a field nearly opposite the Roman Catholic convent, those 
ingenious Frenchmen bored one of the first Artesian wells in 
England, the hope being that they should get down to deep, 
hidden sands, whence would be derived a continuous spring 
and fiow of water. That hope was, unfortunately, not realised ; 
but what they did succeed in opening was a fountain of know- 
ledge that to geologists and lovers of nature was considered 
as valuable as any amount of water that might have rewarded 
their enterprise. Forcing down by steam pressure their ten- 
inch boring tubes, pieced together like the modern chimney- 
sweep's ramoneur, and armed at the end with a transverse 
steel chisel, they toiled night and day with their apparently 
never-ending boring rod, until at last, when they had reached 
a depth of 1,300 feet, came the greatest bore of all — their 
engines would not turn it any more, and their fruitless labours 
were brought to a close. But, as some compensation for their 
patience and perseverance, what a wonderful record of the 
ancient histoiy of Kentish Town and the vicinity was unfolded 
in the wonderfully varied strata of clays, chalks, rocks, sands, 
and fossils thus revealed to view ! The first course to be got 
through was a thinnish bed of glacial clay and gravel ; then 
they went down through 236 feet of London clay ; then 
through 88 feet of mingled clay and sand ; and next through 
the fearful depth of 586 feet of pure white chalk and fossils. 
They then struck the green sand, through which they bored 
72 feet; under this was 130 feet of hard blue clay, and beneath 
that 188 feet of alternate beds of sandstone, 1 foot; red clay, 
12 feet; loose rounded stones, 2 feet; including porphyry, 
trap, quartz, selenite, syenite, granite — in fact, an ancient sea- 
beach. Then came more clay, and finally, 126 feet of sand- 
stone, when, after passing through strata and sub-strata to the 
number of no less than 08, the panting engine could turn the 


enormous rod no more. The borer broke in the rock, and 
thus not even hope was left at the bottom of their well. 

Commencing-, however, from the lowest stratum reached — 
the sand, and rock, and boulders being still beneath the feet of 
the present dwellers in Kentish Town — it was evident that 
that had been at one time the bed of a shallow ocean that 
probably flowed all over England, with the possible exception 
of the trap and granite hills of Wales. The incessant rolling 
of pieces of broken rock and gravel produced hundreds of feet 
of sand, which, in the course of ages, has been hardened by 
pressure into sandstone. Upon this foundation of 126 feet 
had arisen a mass of mud and clay, deposited by the rivers, 
which, upon the main land of Europe rising to the surface, 
carried it into an estuary on the borders of the sea, because 
next above that came an ancient beach of rolled stones, from 
one to four inches in diameter, formed of fragments of primary 
rocks, syenite, greenstone, porphyry, trap, quartz, selenite 
from Norway, Sweden, and the eastern hills of Scotland, the 
aggregation of unknown ages of the ceaseless rolling of an 
ocean that had at length swept them up on this shore. 

After this the sea sank again somewhat, and this was fol- 
lowed by the land pouring in nearly 200 feet of blue clay and 
sand, that buried the old beach beneath it. Then the whole 
country sank to a prodigious depth, and the German and 
Atlantic Oceans flowed all over the seashore portions of Eng- 
land. At the bottom of this profound abyss there began, and 
continued for ages, the deposition of the chalk, in exactly the 
same kind of process as is now going on in the bed of the 
Atlantic. Minute shell- fish of the Glohigerince and Foraminifera 
species existed in the water in myriads, and their shells fell to 
the bottom and formed a limy ooze that slowly accumulated, 
century after century, and millennium after millennium, till a 
thickness had been piled up to the height of St, Paul's Cathe- 
dral with the Monument on top of it. Embedded on this were 
fossil relics of marine creatures that lived in a sea world now 
long passed away. Upon this the bed of the ocean once more 
began to rise — rose, in fact, till the chalk, and its covering 
clays and gravels, came up above the water level, and formed 
the inland hills and the famous " White clifis of Old England". 
We had then in Kentish Town a surface of chalk, and the 
name of Chalk Farm, had it then been known, would have 
been quite appropriate. Chalk Farm Station, however, was 
not to be yet for a long while. 

Vegetation now began to cover the surface, in the forms of 
grass, ferns, and trees, but the atmosphere drenched all Eng» 



laud with vast torrents of rain. Inland springs broke forth 
and formed brooks and rivulets, that rushed hither and thither 
all over England to reach the shrunken sea. Then from the 
north came torrents of sandy water, which tore an enormous 
valley through Middlesex, Kent, and Essex. These were suc- 
ceeded by softer floods, bringing blue clay, which settled in 
that deeply traced valley, filling it up to a depth of 300 feet. 

At last the water, hemmed in between the hills, formed a 
mighty river, and the damp, wet earth began to dry under the 
rays of a comparatively tropical sun. An Indian summer pre- 
vailed all over the broad valley of the Thames, now full to 
the brim ; all over the district now Regent's Park ; and far 
away to the Nore ; and animals common to so hot a climate 
roamed our foi^ests. Groves of palm-trees reared their straight 
and graceful stems, thirteen species having been found in the 
Isle of Sheppy alone ; and crocodiles and alligators swam in 
the vast muddy river, of which far-off period Primrose Hill 
still remains as a memorial monument, the clay around having 
been washed away. 

When the tunnel for the North- Western Railway was cut 
through it, innumerable fossil remains of this old English 
summer time were disclosed to view. Cowries and other 
tropical shells were found in the Channel ; the nautilus swam 
in the Thames ; the anaplotherium and other monsters roamed 
the woods of Highgate ; while the rhinoceros basked in the 
sun at Gravesend. 

This fine weather was, however, as we say in England, " too 
good to last^^; and once more (for the last time, let us hope) 
down went Kentish Town to the bottom of the sea. Then 
came weather of quite another kind. All the north of Europe, 
with England, became one mighty Greenland, covered with 
glaciers ; and there was a vast icy ocean in which floated 
stupendous icebergs 2,000 feet in depth, which went ploughing 
and scraping their way along and carrying huge boulders of 
rock from the distant hills ; loads of gravel, the spoil of far-off 
lands ; and depositing them, as now, when they reached that 
point where the temperature melted the ice into water as it 
went down. Thus was formed that last coating of yellow 
boulder glacier-clay that covers the old London clay round 
Higbgate and Finchley, the Regent's Park, the Marylebone 
cemeteries, Muswell Hill, and the northern heights of London. 
There, also, were to be found curious mixtures of mud, clay, 
chalk, limestone, volite, and granite, torn away from the distant 
rocks of Lincolnshire by those vast ice-ploughs. Only the 
other day he picked two fossils out of a trench in the ceme- 


tery, of the Gryphice incurva, and the belemnite, and the 
skeleton of a species of cnttle-fish, a distant cousin of the 
formidable octopus, probably 200,000 years old. 

Lastly, when the long winter began to wear away, England 
rose once more to the surface, and there ensued a vast creation 
of terrible animals, such as the hyena, the cave bear, the 
machordus, the woolly mammoth, and the great elephant, 
skeletons of which are found in the ooze all over the valley of 
the Thames. Numbers had been found at Erith, and eighty 
years ago one was dug up at Battle Bridge. Still England 
was not a cheerful place to live in, being little else but mud, 
swamps, and marshes, all unsuited for the yellow ^buses now 
running from the "Red Cap^'. In fact, a great work had to be 
done to put our world in order — Man had to be created. So, 
either the monkeys, after repeated efforts, managed to get rid 
of their furry coats, prehensile tails, and horribly silly faces ; to 
get new heads and new brains ; to learn to stand upright ; to 
think, and still more, to talk; and the gorilla became Adam, 
and his partner in life the beauteous Eve ; or (which was much 
the least embarrassing theory), God created man upon the 
earth, though at first but little better than his predecessor, the 
cave-bear. The eai'th, we are told, was "filled with violence", 
and at length that part of Asia, where Eve lived and multi- 
plied, was put under water for some months, and all but one 
family perished. These latter multiplied and spread east and 
west, and the first to come into our ancient woods were the 
Cymri, Kelts, or Welshmen ; who, clad in skins, and their faces 
painted blue, came fishing in the Hampstead ponds, or made 
war upon other savages and barbarians from Pimlico and 

Thus ages rolled on till the land got peopled, and was 
divided into little kingdoms, villages, and homesteads, and 
mining for tin, lead, and iron in Cornwall, and a few other 
trades began to be taught. Then Julius Ctesar " came, saw, 
and conquered'^, followed by more powerful armies under 
Suetonius and other generals, who routed the assembled 
Britons at Colchester, and also at Battle Bridge. Boadicea 
being defeated, they burnt her wooden London, and built a 
Roman Loudon, beautified with temples and palaces, and 
villas with inlaid floors, and for 400 years afterwards the 
Italians held this country. 

At that time Kentish Town was doubtless all forest, with 
perhaps a road over the northern heights, and the strong and 
swift Fleet river running down to the Thames. Then came 
the Roman missionaries, and the Britons were taught to put 


aside their Druidical superstitions and worship the living God. 
St. Alban's, where human sacrifices are known to have been 
offered up to their idols with fearful rites and yells, was not so 
far off, and it was just possible that similar terrible tragedies 
might have been enacted in the woods of Highgate and 
Kentish Town. 


{See vol. ii, p. 363.) 

No county in England possesses more numerous or more 
interesting remains of its aboriginal Celtic inhabitants and of 
tlieir temporary successors and conquerors, the Romans and 
Saxons, than Wiltshire. We learn, therefore, with little sur- 
prise that, not many days since, a party of workmen engaged in 
levelHnw the inequalities of the ground in the neighbourhood 
of the house of Mr. Alexander Taylor, at Manton, near Marl- 
borough, came upon a couple of ancient human graves sunk 
about two feet below the surface of the wold. For nearly 
forty years Mr. A, Taylor has resided upon the edge of the 
Marlborough Downs, where in his time he has trained scores 
of famous racehorses, among them being included Teddington, 
who won the Derby for Sir Joseph Hawley in 1851 ; Sefton, 
who gained the same race for Mr. W. Stirling Crawfurd in 
1878 ; St. Albans, who won the St. Leger for the Marquis of 
Ailesbury in 1860 ; and Craigmillar, who carried it off in 1875 
for Mr. Crawfurd. 

The whole of that bleak and wild down-country, which is so 
well adapted for training of racehorses and for coursing-matches, 
in which the stout and sinewy hares often outrun the pursuing 
greyhounds, is singularly rich in mighty and mysterious monu- 
ments of an inscrutable antiquity. It also bears evidence 
that the Romans, during an occupation of these islands which 
extended over four hundred years, had constructed one of their 
imperishable trunk roads from London toAquse Solis, or Bath, 
the traces of which are as clearly marked to-day as they were 
in the first four centuries of the Christian era. In addition, 
Stonehenge and Avebury are to Great Britain what the 
Pyramids are to Egypt ; and these two Wiltshire monuments, 
as to the origin of which Sir John Lubbock and our best 
modern antiquaries are as much puzzled as Sir Richard Colt 

1 From The Standard, January 29th, 1884. 


Hoare and William Cunningtou were before them, have abso- 
lutely no parallel in any other part of the island. Over the 
downs are scattered in profusion British or Roman camps and 
earthworks, together with boundary ditches and fosses, and 
the deep-seated foundations of houses and villages. 

Sir E-ichard Colt Hoare, in his magnificent work called 
Ancient Wiltshire, gives elaborate sketches of the sepulchral 
mounds or barrows abounding in the southern half of the 
county, which established the fact that it was long occupied by 
the Celtic tribes who are supposed to have first colonised 
Britain. The Romans and the Saxons have also left unmistak- 
able traces of their permanent sojourn in this part of the West 
of England. ^' Among the meritorious labours of Sir Richard 
Hoare^^ says a reviewer of Ancient Wiltshire, " not the least 
valuable was his indefatigable exploration of many hundred 
barrows among the Wiltshire hills, the position and contents 
of which are duly chronicled in his great work/' 

These earthen mounds, or tumuli, are believed by the same 
authority to have been the burying-places of distinguished 
personages through many stages of society, from the rudest 
and most primitive to those marking a certain progress in civili- 
sation. " In these ancient repositories, together with bones of 
individuals of both sexes and of all ages, weapons of several 
kinds in bone, stone, brass, and iron have been profusely 
found, together with ornaments of horn, glass, jet, amber, 
brass, pewter, and occasionally of gold. The contents of some 
of these indicate a Saxon and perhaps a Christian origin, but 
the great bulk are unquestionably British or Roman.'' There 
can be little or no doubt that to the last-named category — that 
is to say, the Roman era — belong the remains which the spade 
has just turned up at Manton, near Marlborough. 

These relics consist of a couple of human skeletons, buried 
in very shallow graves, and protected with covering stones or 
slabs. In immediate proximity to the unknown dead, a number 
of ceramic fragments have been discovered, which are evidently 
of Roman origin. The spade has also unearthed a quantity 
of coins, belonging, it is believed, to the Lower Empire of 
Rome, many of them being of silver. 

A few yards distant from the spot where the skeletons were 
laid bare, twelve magnificent metal chargers or dishes have been 
found, placed or packed one above the other, together with a 
tazza-formed vase, and a vessel shaped like an amphora, which, 
like those still to be seen at Pompeii and Ostia, was probably 
used by the ancient conquerors of the world for the storage of 
grain. The largest of these circular metal chargers is about 


two feet in diameter, and the remainder are of a gradually 
diminishing size, like the boxes within boxes enclosed in 
a Chinese puzzle. The upper surfaces of the broad margins 
of these dishes have sharply incised and exceedingly graceful 
ornamental borders, while their centres are embellished with 
various designs of ordinary Roman workmanship. The articles 
are almost perfect and unblemished in their condition, and the 
metal called " argentarium^' by the ancient Eomans, of which 
they are composed, has a very silvery appearance, somewhat 
resembling the Britannia metal in the production of which 
the artificers of Birmingham are such proficients. 

It is impossible to comtemplate the results of this last 
upheaval of the Wiltshire downs without regretting that Sir 
Richard Colt Hoare was not spared to feast his eyes upon 
treasures which he would have regarded with such peculiar 
interest. During the first quarter of the present century the 
greatest of Wiltshire antiquaries was in the habit of sur- 
rounding himself with a knot of congenial friends, who were 
ardent lovers of topography and archaeology. In his well- 
stocked library at Stourhead — that library which has lately 
been dispersed under the hammer — the erudite Sir Richard 
was wont to pass his time surrounded by the works of men 
like Cunnington, Arundel, Bowles, Harries, Benson, Hatcher, 
Black, and Nichols — men whom future generations of archae- 
ological explorers will never cease to hold in grateful remem- 

The stone circles of Avebury and of Stonehenge afibrded 
to these delvers in the mines of the forgotten past a host of 
never-failing themes for study, speculation, and research. 
Close to the stone encampment at Avebury lies that wonder- 
full barrow called Silbury Hill, which will be recalled by those 
old enough to have travelled along the highroad from Bath to 
Marlborough. Silbuiy Hill is a truncated cone rising to the 
height of one hundred and thirty-five feet, and covering an 
area of about five acres. It is the largest barrow in England, 
and endless have been the debates upon the knotty question 
whether Silbury Hill is posterior or anterior to the Roman 
occupation of Britain. The ancient mound, or tumulus, re- 
fuses to yield up any evidences as to the men by whom it was 
originally erected. It has been repeatedly and in vain opened 
by modern explorers; and in 1663, John Aubrey, a Wiltshire 
antiquary, had the honor of conducting Charles II and his 
brother the Duke of York to the top of the imposing monu- 
ment. A few years earlier, the " Merry Monarch", upon his 
escape from the fatal battle of Worcester, passed some hours at 


Stonehenge. He amused himself, with characteristic frivolit}^, 
by counting the stones over and over again, in order to test 
the absurd assertion that no one could reckon them twice alike. 
It is impossible to stand in the middle of those gigantic 
stone circles at Stonehenge and Avebury without musing upon 
the strange and inscrutable mystery which, despite the re- 
searches of man}^ generations of antiquaries, still hides from 
our inquiring ken their origin, their purpose, and the date of 
their birth. After stuvlying the investigations of Aubrey, 
Stukeley, J. Kemble, Fergusson, Hoare, Long, and of a host of 
still living archaeologists, we are forced to the conclusion 
expressed in Pope's well-worn line, 

" 'Tis but to know how little can be known." 

We are told, indeed, by the writer of an excellent article in 
the Quarterly Review, of January 1858, that, "in spite of all the 
learned lucubrations that have been expended upon the 
attempt to solve these problems, from the profound Stukeley 
to the imaginative Mr. Duke, they remain to this day as doubt- 
ful as ever.'^ 

The quarter of a century which has elapsed since these dis- 
appointing words were written leaves us still enveloped in pro- 
found and perplexed ignorance. Who shall decide whether 
Avebury and Stonehenge are Druidical remains or Celtic 
temples to the sun, or " stone-almanacs, zodiacs, and orreries 
all in one" ? Stukeley assigns to them both a very remote 
date, and says they were built or reared " about the time of 
Abraham." The Reverend Mr. Lisle Bowles believes Avebury 
to be Phoenician. In his learned work on The Worship of the 
Serpent, Mr. Deane asserts it to be a serpent temple. The 
Reverend E. Duke regards it as part of a vast planetarium, 
or astronomical circle, founded by the Druids upon the Wilt- 
shire downs ; while Mr. Herbert is of opinion that it was 
erected after the Romans had quitted these islands. 

" The discoveries of similar remains in India^', remarks the 
compiler of Mr. John Murray's Handbook to Wiltshire, "appear 
to throw a light upon the history of Avebury, and lead us to 
attribute it to a people who had migrated from the East.^' 
The investigators of the buried treasures which have just been 
disinterred at Manton appear to be of one mind in regarding 
them as of Roman origin. If so, what strange thoughts are 
suggested by the sight of coins and dishes which were last 
handled by the stern soldiers of the ancient mistress of the 
world, and have not been seen or touched by man for more 
than fourteen centuries ! The ancient Saxo)t Chronicle tells us 


that, in the year 418 of the Christian era, ''the Romans 
collected all the treasures that they had brought with them to 
Britain, and some they hid in the earth, so that no one has 
since been able to find them, and some they carried with them 
into Gaul." 

Eoman coins found within these islands are not so scarce 
as to forbid the hope that skilled numismatists of the British 
Museum may be able to pronounce authoi-itatively upon the 
date and nationality of the ancient pieces of money which have 
just been exhumed in Wiltshire. In the meanwhile, English- 
men may reflect with satisfaction upon the unmeasured delight 
with which the learned of newer countries would hail the dis- 
covery of treasures buried ages ago beneath the surface of 
their soil, and which in themselves testify to the antiquity 
and dignity of the history of Great Britain. 


On the Welsh hills are many barrows of earth and stone, 
but almost all with which I am acquainted are round — varying 
in diameter from 20 to 100 feet. There are a few oval ones. 
Would it not be well to collect a list of these latter, as in the 
opinion of antiquaries they belong to a different and earlier 
race — the dolicocephalous — which is supposed to have preceded 
the Celtic race in these islands ? There are hundreds of 
barrows, earth and stone, on the mountains to the south of 
the river Teivy, but all I have seen, with some doubtful excep- 
tions, are round. I have been present at the opening of some 
dozen of the smaller ones, and those that have not been dis- 
turbed have generally a "cist^' in the centre. This is formed 
by placing large slab stones in an upright position, so as to 
enclose a space about 2 ft. in width and varying in length from 
6 ft. to 3 ft. Generally it is covered by a cap-stone. The 
smaller ones were used for burial by cremation, as the burnt 
bones and ashes found in them still bear witness, and the 
larger ones for inhumation. The burial arrangements in the 
oval mounds are generally more elaborate than in the round 
ones, having frequently large chambers and walled passages 
leading to them from the outside. [ believe that only one or 
two specimens of this class have yet been exposed in Wales. 
There is a very large oval cairn — some 150 ft. by 80 ft. — 
within the ancient fortress of Carn Goch in Carmarthenshire, 
and another on the hills near Abergwessin in Breconshire. 




{Continued from vol. iv, p. 427, and vol. iii, p. 315.) 

In an article entitled " Eeligion", in the January num- 
ber of the Nineteenth Centuy^y for the present year, Mr. 
Herbert Spencer says that — 

" The cruelty of a Fijian god who, represented as devouring- 
the souls of the dead, may be supposed to inflict torture during 
the process, is small compared with the cruelty of a god who 
condemns men to tortures which are eternal ; and the ascrip- 
tion of this cruelty, though habitual in ecclesiastical formulas, 
occasionally occurring in sermons, and still sometimes pic- 
torially illustrated, is becoming so intolerable to the better 
natured, that while some theologians distinctly deny it, others 
quietly drop it out of their teachings. Clearly this change 
cannot cease until the beliefs in hell and damnation disappear. 
Disappearance of them will be aided by an increasing repug- 
nance to injustice. 

" The visiting on Adam^s descendants, through hundreds of 
generations, dreadful penalties for a small transgression which 
they did not commit ; the damning of all men who do not 
avail themselves of an alleged mode of obtaining forgiveness, 
which most men have never heard of; and the efiecting a recon- 
ciliation by sacrificing a son who was perfectly innocent, to 
satisfy the assumed necessity for a propitiatory victim, are 
modes of action which, asci'ibed to a human ruler, would call 
forth expressions of abhorrence ; and the ascription of them to 
the Ultimate Cause of things, even now felt to be full of difficul- 
tieSj must become impossible. So, too, must die out the belief 
that a Power present in innumerable worlds throughout infinite 
space, and who, during millions of years of the earth's earlier 
existence needed no honouring by its inhabitants, should be 
seized with a craving for praise, and having created mankind, 
should be angry with them if they do not perpetually tell him 
how great he is. As fast as men escape from that glamour of 
early impressions which prevents them from thinking, they will 
refuse to imply a trait of character which is the reverse of 

" These, and other diflSculties, some of which are often dis- 
cussed but never disposed of, must force men hereafter to drop 
the higher anthropomorphic characters given to the First 


Cause, as tliey have long since dropped the lower. The con- 
ception which has been enlarging from the beginning must go 
on enlarging until, by disappearance of its limits, it becomes 
a consciousness which transcends the forms of distinct thought, 
though it for ever remains a consciousness 

" That internal energy which in the experiences of the primi- 
tive man was always the immediate antecedent of changes 
wrought by him — that energy which, when interpreting ex- 
ternal changes, he thought of along with those attributes of a 
human personality connected with it in himself; is the same 
energy which, freed from anthropomorphic accompaniments, is 
now figured as the cause of all external phenomena. The last 
stage reached is recognition of the truth that force as it exists 
beyond consciousness cannot be like what we know as force 
within consciousness ; and that yet, as either is capable of 
generating the other, they must be different modes of the 
same. Consequently, the final outcome of that speculation 
commenced by the primitive man is that the power manifested 
throughout the universe distinguished as material is the same 
power which in ourselves wells up under the form of con- 

" But those who think that science is dissipating religious 
beliefs and sentiments seem unaware that whatever of mystery 
is taken from the old interpretation is added to the new. Or 
rather, we may say that transference from one to the other is 
accompanied by increase ; since, for an explanation which has 
a seeming feasibility, science substitutes an explanation whicli, 
carrying us back only a certain distance, there leaves us in 
presence of the avowedly inexplicable. 

"Under one of its aspects scientific progress is a gradual 
transfiguration of Nature. Where ordinary perception saw 
perfect simplicity, it reveals great complexity ; where there 
seemed absolute inertness, it discloses intense activity ; and in 
what appeal's mere vacancy it finds a marvellous play of forces. 
Each generation of physicists discovers in so-called ' brute 
matter' powers which, but a few years before, the most 
instructed physicists would have thought incredible ; as 
instance the ability of a mere iron plate to take up the compli- 
cated aerial vibrations produced by articulate speech, which, 
translated into multitudinous and varied electric pulses, are re- 
translated a thousand miles off by another iron plate and again 
heard as articulate speech. When the explorer of Nature sees 
that, quiescent as they appear, surrounding solid bodies are 
thus sensitive to forces which are infinitesimal in their 
amounts — when the spectroscope proves to him that molecules 


on the earth pulsate in harmony with molecules in the stars — 
when there is forced on him the inference that every point in 
space thrills with an infinity of vibrations passing through it 
in all directions, the conception to which he tends is much less 
that of a universe of dead matter than that of a universe 
everywhere alive — alive, if not in the restricted sense, still in a 
general sense 

"While the beliefs to which analytic science thus leads are 
such as do not destroy the object-matter of religion, but 
simply transfigure it, science under its concrete forms enlarges 
the sphere for religious sentiment. From the vei-y beginning, 
the progress of knowledge has been accompanied by an 
increasing capacity for wonder. It is not the rustic, nor the 
artisan, nor the trader, who sees something more than a mere 
matter of course in the hatching of a chick; but it is the biologist, 
who, pushing to the uttermost his analysis of vital phenomena, 
reaches his greatest perplexity when a speck of protoplasm 
under the microscope shows him life in its simplest form, and 
makes him feel that, however he formulates its processes, the 
actual play of forces remains unimaginable. 

"Neither in the ordinary tourist, nor in the deer-stalker climb- 
ing the mountains above him, does a Highland glen rouse ideas 
beyond those of sport or of the picturesque ; but it may, and 
often does, in the geologist. He, observing that the glacier- 
rounded rock he sits on has lost by weathering but half an 
inch of its surface since a time far more remote than the 
beginnings of human civilisation, and then trying to conceive 
the slow denudation which has cut out the whole valley, has 
thoughts of time and of power to which they are strangers. 

" Nor is it in the primitive peoples who supposed that the 
heavens rested on the mountain-tops, any more than in the 
modern inheritors of their cosmogony, who repeat that ' the 
heavens declai'e the glory of God', that we find the largest 
conceptions of the universe or the greatest amount of wonder 
excited by contemplation of it. Eather, it is the astronomer, 
who sees in the sun a mass so vast that even into one of his 
spots our earth might be plunged without touching its edges ; 
and who by every finer telescope is shown an increased multi- 
tude of such suns, many of them far larger. 

" Hereafter, as heretofore, higher faculty and deeper insight 
will raise rather than lower this sentiment. At present the 
most powerful and most instructed mind has neither the 
knowledge nor the capacity required for symbolising in 
thought the totality of things. Occupied with one or other 
division of Nature, tlie man of science usually does not know 


enough of the other divisions even rudely to conceive the 
extent and complexity of their phenomena ; and supposing- 
him to have adequate knowledge of each, yet he is unable to 
think of them as a whole. Wider and stronger intellect may 
hereafter help him to form a vague consciousness of them in 
their totality. 

" We may say that just as an undeveloped musical faculty, 
able only to appreciate a simple melody, cannot grasp the 
variously entangled passages and harmonies of a symphony, 
which in the minds of composer and conductor are unified 
into involved musical effects awakening far greater feeling 
than is possible to the musically uncultured ; so, by future 
more evolved intelligences, the course of things now appre- 
hensible only in parts may be apprehensible all together, with 
an accompanying feeling as much beyond that of the present 
cultured man, as his feeling is beyond that of the savage. 

" And this feeling is not likely to be decreased, but to be 
increased, by that analysis of knowledge which, while forcing 
him to agnosticism, yet continually prompts him to imagine 
some solution of the Great Enigma which he knows cannot be 
solved. Especially must this be so when he remembers that 
the very notions, beginning and end, cause and purpose, are 
relative notions belonging to human thought, which are pro- 
bably irrelevant to the Ultimate Reality ti^anscending human 
thought ; and when, though suspecting that explanation is a 
word without meaning when applied to this Ultimate Reality, 
he yet feels compelled to think there must be an explanation. 

" But amid the mysteries which become the more mysterious 
the more they are thought about, there will remain the one 
absolute certainty, that he is ever in presence of an infinite 
and Eternal Energy, from which all things proceed.^^ 


The scapegoat celebrated in the religious annals of the Jews is 
replaced in the ecclesiastical code of the Red Indians by an 
animal of quite a different species. The dog — the friend of 
man — is chosen for this humiliating office, and bears away 
every year, not into the wilderness, but into the happy hunt- 
ing-grounds of another world, the sins and offences of the 
people. Only a short time ago this annual celebration was 
carried out with much pomp amongst the Onondaga tribe, and 
was watched by a civilised American, who has given a graphic 
account of it in one of the Transatlantic papers. 


The tribe was assembled in a large hall or council-chamber, 
furnished with benches all round the wall, upon which the 
chiefs squatted in the style familiar to us in pictures of Red 
Indian domestic life. After some preliminary formalities, the 
head man of the tribe went out into an adjoining room, and 
returned shortly, bringing in a white dog upon his shoulders 
and a packet of tobacco in his hand. The dog being deposited 
on the ground, a prayer was offered, and the evil deeds of all 
persons present being called to mind by them, were confided 
to the animal for safe escort to the other world. The wretched 
dog was then decorated with festoons of ribbon and feathers, 
and stained and painted in various colours, while the sacrificial 
fire was lighted in a grate between the hall and the adjoining 
room. Next followed a dance round the victim, and then the 
chief, seizing the unfortunate creature, cast him, together with 
the packet of tobacco, into the midst of the flames, where he 
was left to be consumed. The company, after feasting reli- 
giously, then retired much refreshed in mind and body, having 
got rid of the whole debt of repentance incurred during the 
preceding twelve months. 


Mr. William Smellie, F.R.S. and F.A.S., author of the 
Philosophy of Natural History, was a great friend of 
the Rev. William Greenlaw ; they had entered into a 
solemn compact, in writing, signed with their blood, that 
whoever died first should return, if possible, and testify 
to the survivor regarding the world of spirits ; but if the 
deceased did not appear within a year after the day of 
his death, it was to be concluded that he could not 
return. Greenlaw died on the 26th of June 1774. As 
the first anniversary of his death approached, and he had 
made no sign, Smellie became extremely anxious, and 
even lost rest during several successive nights, in expec- 
tation of the appearance of his friend. At last, fatigued 
with watching, and having fallen asleep in his arm-chair, 
Greenlaw appeared to him, stating that he was now in 
another and better world, from which he had found great 
diflSculty in communicating with the friend he had left 
behind ; and adding, as to that world, " that the hopes 


and wishes of its inhabitants were by no means satisfied, 
for, like those of the lower world, they still looked for- 
ward in the hope of eventually reaching a still happier 
state of existence."^ 


From the beautiful elegy by Ovid, upon the death of 
Albius Tibullus, a Roman knight and poet, we learn what 
was thought of the state of the departed in the Augus- 
tan age : — 

" If bright Aui'ora mourned for Memnon's fate, 
Or the fair Thetis wept Achilles slain, 
And the sad sorrows that on mortals wait. 
Can ever move celestial hearts with pain, 

" Come, doleful Elegy ! too just a name ! 
Unbind thy tresses fair, in loose attire, 
For he, thy bard, the herald of thy fame, 
Tibullus, burns on the funereal pyre. 
* * * * 

" Live a pure life ; — yet death remains thy doom : 
Be pious : — ere from sacred shrines you rise. 
Death drags you heedless to the hollow tomb : 
Confide in song — lo ! there Tibullus lies. 

" Scarce of so great a soul, thus lowly laid. 
Enough remains to fill this little urn — 
O holy bard ! were not the flames afraid 

That hallowed corse thus ruthlessly to burn ? 

" These might devour the heavenly halls that shine 
With gold — they dare a villany so deep : 
She turned who holds the Erycinian shrine/ 

And there are some who say she turned to weep. 

^ Memoirs of the Life and Writings of William Smellie, F.R.S. and 
F.A.S. By Eobert Kerr, F.RS., Edinburgh, 1811, p. 187. 

^ See Lempriere's Classical Dictionary. 

^ Eryx i& a mountain in Sicily, near Drepanum. On its summit 
stood a famous temple of Venus Erycina, who is supposed to be 
identical with the Astarte or Ashtaroth of the Phoenicians, who 
founded the town of Eryx, now called St. Giuliano. 


" Yet did not the base soil of a stranger land 
Not hold him nameless ; as the spirit fled. 
His mother closed his eyes with gentle hand, 
And paid the last sad tribute to the dead. 

" Here with thy mother's woe to wait, 

Thy sister came, with loose dishevelled hair ; 
Nemesis kissed thee, and thy earlier mate — 

They watched the pyre when all had left it bare. 

" Ah ! yet if any part of us remains 

But name and shadow, Albius is not dead ; 
And thou, Catullus, in Elysian plains, 
With Calvus see the ivy crown his head. 

"Thou, Gallus, prodigal of life and blood. 
If false the charge of amity betrayed, 
And aught remains across the Stygian flood, 
Shalt meet him yonder with thy happy shade, 

" Refined Tibullus ! thou art joined to those 
Living in calm communion with the blest ; 
In peaceful urn thy quiet bones repose — 

May earth lay lightly where thy ashes rest !" 

Tibullus is said to have been born at his father's mansion 
at Pedum, between Praeneste and Tibur, about the year 700 
A,u.c. As a Roman knight, he must have been in fair circum- 
stances, if not in comparative affluence, as the express state- 
ment of Horace would lead us to suppose. 

At an early age he was admitted to the intimate society of 
the illustrious Marcus Valerius Messala Corvinus, whose favour 
and friendship he enjoyed through life. He was solicited by 
that General, who had previously served in the army of Cas- 
sius, to join his standard, and accompany him to the war 
which was being waged against Antony by Augustus, and 
which was brought to a close by the decisive battle of Actium 
(fought September 2, a.u.c. 722) — an invitation which the poet 
declined ; but a year later he went with him in the capacity of 
contuh er nails , or aide-de-camp, in a campaign against the rebel 
tribes of Aquitania, and was present at the battle of Atax 
{Aude), a portion of the glory of which he claims for himself 
in a most spirited Elegy, in which he celebrates the exploits 
and subsequent triumph of his patron, who enjoyed the 

VOL. V. 2 


liononrs of a triumph^ for his victories in Gaul, on the 27th 
September, A.u.c. 72G, an event mentioned again and again 
by the poet with feelings of exultation and pride. In regard 
to his j)eysonnel,-we learn that Tibulliis was dark-haii-ed, beau- 
tiful, handsome, and of knightly bearing.^ 

Tibullus, when prostrated by sickness in A.u.c. 724, 
and being then twenty-four years old, and compelled 
to remain at Corcyra (Corfu) while Messala continued 
his journey to the East, whither he had been despatched 
on a mission by Augustas, wrote his third Elegy, in 
which he says : — 

" Thou'lt cross the ^gean waves, but not with me, 
Messala, yet by thee and all thy baud 
I pray that 1 may still remembered be. 

Lingering on lone Phoeacia's foreign strand. 

" Spare me, fell Death ! no mother have I here 
My charred bones in sorrow^s lap to lay ; 
Oh spare ! for here I have no sister dear 
To shower Assyrian odours o'er my clay, 

" Or to my tomb, with locks dishevelled, come 
And pour the tear of tender piety ; 
Nor Delia, who, ere I quitted Rome, 

'Tis said, consulted all the gods on high. 

" But me, the facile child of tender Love, 

Will Venus waft to blest Elysium's plains. 
Where dance and song resound, and every grove 
Rings with clear-throated warblers' dulcet strains. 

" Here lands untilled their richest treasures yield — 
Here sweetest Cassia all untended grows — 
With lavish lap the earth, in every field, 

Outpours the blossoms of the fragrant rose.^ 

' A Roman general, when celebrating a triumph, had his brow 
wreathed with laurel, and was di-awn by snow-white horses in a 
chariot adorned with gold and ivory. 

2 The Elegies of Alhius Tibullus. Translated by James Cranstoiin, 
B.A. Edinburgh and London : Blackwood and Sons. 

3 See vol. i, pp. 222, 223, 226. 


" Here bands of youths and tender maidens chime 
In love's sweet lures, and pay the untiring vow — 
Here reigns the lover, slain in youthhood's prime, 
With myrtle garland round his honoured brow." 

In another Elegy, when he thought that his end was 
near, and addressing his mother and those who loved 
him, he says : — 

" Their pious hands in water let them bathe, 

And lift the scattered remnants once were mine, 

And in discinctured sable vestments swathe 
The whitened relics from grim Pluto's shrine: 

First let them wash thein well with mellow wine. 
Anon with milk a-cream with snow-white foam, 

And wipe them o'er with linen kerchiefs fine. 

Cleansing with care the clammy dews therefrom, 
And place my dry remains within their raai-ble home ; 

" Then o'er them shower what rich Panchaia rears, 
Assyrian oils and gums of Araby, 
And mingle them with memory's tender tears, — 
So turned to ashes, would I wish to lie/'^ 

Tibullus died B.C. 14 ; and in this Elegy we have 
a minute and detailed information on all the cere- 
monies connected with the preserving of the ashes of the 
dead. To trample on graves, or otherwise violate them, 
was looked upon as a species of impiety, calling for the 
special vengeance of the gods. See the prayer of the 
rustic at the Palilia, Ov., Fast., iv, 747-750. 

" ' Consule' die * pecori pariter pecorisque magistris : 
Effugiat stabulis noxa repulsa meis. 
Sive sacro pavi, sedive sub arbore sacra, 
Pabulaque e bustis inscia carpsit ovis'." etc. 

" Alike to herd and herdsman, bounteous Pales, give regard. 
And far from every taint of plague my roaming cattle 

Whether o'er holy ground I've grazed or sat 'ueath sacred 

Or ewe of mine hath browsed on grass o'er graves unknown 

to me." 

1 The Elegies of Albius Tihidlus. Translated by James Cranstouu. 



Pales was the Latin goddess of flocks and shepherds. 
Her emblem was a pillar, oblong stone, Maen Hir, or 
obelisk, and represented the vivifying power of God in 
nature. This pillar generally stood upon a Yoni, or cir- 
cular altar of stone, as seen in India to this day.^ 


Winter braming, summer flaming, 

There relax their blustering ; 
And sweet roses, gaily blooming, 

Make an everlasting" spring : 
Lily blanching, crocus blushing, 

And the balsam perfuming. 

Pasture glowing, meadows blowing, 

Honey streams in rivers fair ; 
While with aromatic perfume 

Grateful glows the balmy air ; 
Luscious fruits that never wither, 

Hang on every thicket there. 

There they live in endless being ; 

Passingness has passed away ; 
There they bloom, they thrive, they flourish, 

For decayed is all decay ; 
Lasting energy hath swallowed 

Darkling Death's malignant sway.^ 

It is believed in Japan that birds of paradise are the 
souls of doves. 

Ill the bright ftibles of an Eastern land, 

Where song and moral travel hand in hand, 

They say, the dove laments not as alone, 

That lingers here, her sweet companions gone; 

She knows that, denizened in brighter skies, 

They shine as glorious birds of Paradise ; 

And though she may not see their sportive rings. 

Nor the fleet glancing of their rainbow wings 

' See Cox's Mythology of the Aryan Nations, vol. ii, p. 112. 
2 S. Peter Damian. 


(For earthlier vision clogs her earthlier eye), 

To know and feel them near is ecstasy. 

And so, methinks, comes such a season, fraught 

"With heav'nlier communing" and purer thought, 

AVhat time we linger o'er the quiet rest 

Of those, the lovely once, and now the blest ! 

O'er the dark wave two homes of old were made, 
And all must seek at last the fatal shore ; 

To one is borne foul Clytemnestra^s shade. 
And the mad mother of the Minotaur. 

Yon flower-crowned bark for happier realms is bound — 
Elysian rose-bowers by soft breezes fanned, 

Where the stringed lyre and the round cymbals sound, 
And Lydian lutes delight the mitred band.^ 


After leaving their earthly bodies, the departed spirits 
are summoned one by one before the dread tribunal of 
Rhadamanthus.^ Each has to strip for examination. For, 
burnt in upon the breast of every man, patent now to the 
Judge of Souls, though invisible to mortal eyes, will be 
found the marks left by the sins of his past life.^ Cyniscus 
presents himself first, cheerfully and confidently. Some faint 
indications there are upon his person of scars, healed over 
and almost obliterated. He explains that these are the 
traces of great faults committed in his youth through ignor- 
ance, which, by the help of philosophy, he has amended 
in his maturer years. He is acquitted, and bid to take 
his place among the just, after he shall have given evidence 
against the tyrant Megapenthes. Micyllus, the poor cobbler, 

^ Propertius, v. vii, 55-62. 2 gge vol. iv, p. 207. 

3 This is from Plato. In his Gorgias (524) Rhadamanthus finds 
the soul of the tyrant "full of the prints and scars of perjuries and 
wrongs which have been stamped there by each action". Tacitus 
{Ann. vi, 6), speaking of Tiberius, introduces the idea as that of 
Socrates : " If the minds of tyrants could be laid open to view, scars 
and wounds would be discovered upon them ; since the mind is 
lacerated by cruelty, lust, and evil passions, even as the body is by 
stripes and blows." (See vol. i, pp. 226-227 ; vol. iv, pp. 222-223.) 


who has had few temptations, shows no marks at all. But 
when Megapenthes, hanging back in terror from the scru- 
tiny, is hurled by Tisiphone into the presence of the Judge, 
Cyuiscus has a terrible list of crimes to charge against 
him. He has nbused his power and wealth to the most 
atrocious deeds of lust and cruelty. In vain he tries to deny 
the accusations ; his bed and his lamp — the unwilling wit- 
nesses of his debaucheries — are summoned, by a bold and 
striking figure of impersonation, to bear their evidence 
against him ; and when he is stripped for examination, his 
whole person is found to be livid with the marks impi^inted 
on it by his crimes. The only question is, what punishment 
shall be assigned him. The Cynic philosopher begs to sug- 
gest a new and fitting one : — 

Cyniscus : It is the custom, I believe, for all your dead here 
to drink the water of Lethe ? 

Bhadamantlivs : Certainly. 

Gyniscus : Then let this man alone not be permitted to taste 

L'hadamanthus : And why so ? 

Cyniscus : So shall he suffer the bitterest punishment in 
the recollection of all that he has been, and done, and all the 
power he had while on earth, and in the thought of his past 

BJiadamanilms : Excellently well advised ! Sentence is 
passed. Let him be fettered and carried away to Tartarus, 
there to remember all his past life.^ 

We find from this that Lucian could appreciate the 
awful truth of a moral hell which the sinner carried 
always within hira.^ 

" No vultures rend the breast of Tityos, 
As his vast bulk lies tost on Acheron's wave -, 

* * * :fc 

But he is Tityos, whose prostrate soul 
The fangs of guilty love and vain i^egret. 
And fruitless longings ever vex and tear.^'^ 

This is the punishment which Milton imagines for 
Satan : — 

Lucian's Dialog^les of the Dead. 
See vol. iv, pp. 219-224. 
Lucretius, ill, 997. 


" Horror and doubt distract 
His troubled thoughts, aud from the bottom stir 
The Hell within him j for within him Hell 
He brings, and round about him now from Hell 
One step, no more than from himself, can fly 
By change of place : now conscience woi-ks despair 
Thus absorbed, — wakes the bitter memory 
Of what he was, what is, and what must be."^ 


In ancient times theology was based upon such science as 
existed at that time ; and science and theology were con- 
sequently in harmony with each other. This harmony has 
long ceased to exist, in consequence of the rapid progress 
which science has made, while theology has remained un- 

The better instructed among the ancients, whether Jews 
or pagans, never believed in the literal meaning of their 
sacred books and mythological traditions. Maimonides, the 
most learned of the Rabbis, says of the Book of Genesis : 
" We ought not to take literally that which is written in the 
Book of the Creation, nor entertain the same ideas of it as 
ai'e common with the vulgar. If it were otherwise, our 
learned ancient sages would not have taken so much pains 
to conceal the sense, and to keep before the eyes of the 
uninstructed the veil of allegory which conceals the truths 
which it contains. Taken literally, the work contains the 
most extravagant and absurd ideas of the Deity. Whoever 
can guess at the true meaning should take cai'e not to 
divulge it. This is a maxim inculcated by our wise men, 
especially in connection with the work of the six days." 

Origen {PJdlocal., p. 12) asks: "What man of good sense 
will ever persuade himself that there has been a first, a 
second, and a third day, and that these days have each of 
them had their morning and their evening, when there was 
as yet neither sun, nor moon, nor stars ? What man is 
there so simple as to believe that God, personifying a gar- 
dener, planted a garden in the East ? that the Tree of Life 
was a real tree, which could be touched, and the fruit of 
which had the power of preserving life V etc. He com- 

1 Par. Lost, iv, 18 


pares the story of the Temptation to the mystic fable of the 
birth of Love, whose father was Porus. the father of Abun- 

Mosheim says that all the Fathers of the second century 
attributed a double sense to the words of Scripture : the 
one obvious and literal^ which they treated with the utmost 
neglect ; the other hidden and mysterious. This includes, 
among others, Papias, Justin Martyr, Ireneeus, and Clemens 
Alexandrinus, to whom may be added Gregory of Nazianzen, 
Gregory of Nyssa, and Ambrose^ who all held that the Mosaic 
account was an allegory. 

Dr. Geddes says of Genesis iii, 15, " And I will put enmity 
between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her 
seed : it shall bruise thy head^ and thou slialt bruise his 
heel": — "Whoever thou beest that understandest the first 
elements of the Hebrew dialectj and the first elements of 
logic, say if thou findest in it any vestige of a seducing 
devil, or a redeeming Saviour; then mayest thou turn to 
Calmet's Commentary, or any other commentary of the 
same brand, and keep thyself from laughing if thou canst." 
Dr. Geddes also says : " The Fall is an excellent mythologue, 
or an Egyptian allegory, judiciously selected by Moses, in 
order to enable him to account for the introduction of evil, 
and of man's antipathy to the reptile race." This learned 
Hebraist concludes his commentary on the third chapter of 
Genesis as follows : ^' We have now got to the end of the 
Mythos of Moses, or whoever else was the author of this 
wonderful production. I trust I have done something like 
justice to its beauties ; and that it will appear, on the whole, 
to be a well-devised, well-delineated, well-executed piece ; 
nay, that it has not its equal in all the mythology of anti- 
quity ; I mean, if it be considered not as real history, nor 
as a mere mystical allegory, but as a most charming political 
fiction, dressed up for excellent purposes in the garb of 
history, and adapted to the gross conceptions of a rude, 
sensual, unlearned, and credulous people." And this is the 
story on which the Christian religion is based — the supposed 
Fall of Man, and the Atonement. 

The Hebrew text fixes the creation of the world as having 
taken place B.C. 4121. The earth, which had been made out 
of nothing, " was without form and void, and darkness was 
upon the face of the deep", for the ancient authors who have 
written on cosmogony held that Night begat Chaos. The 
modern Jewish computation is that the world was created B.C. 
3760 ; and that the Deluge took place B.C. 2104. The Exodus, 


according to them, took place B.C. 1312, thus giving exactly 
792 years for the foundation and existence of the mighty 
empires of Assyria and Babylonia ; for the wonderful struc- 
tures and advanced civilisation of the Egyptians ; and for 
the civilisation of the whole world. The received chronology 
makes Abraham to be contemporary with Noah for fifty-eight 
years of his life, and to die thirty-five years before Shem, 
who did not die till B.C. 1846, and sixty-four years before 
Eber, who did not die till B.C. 1817. Isaac was born only 
forty-two years after the death of Noah, and was contem- 
porary with Shem 110 years, yet there is not the slightest 
mention of Abraham^s having seen or heard of Noah, or Shem, 
or any of their descendants, or of the Deluge. Again, Ham, 
who was the father of the Egyptians, according to the Hebrew 
text, and his son Mizraim, must have been worshipping the 
true God in Egypt; while Terah, the father of Abraham, 
though contemporary with Noah for 128 years of his life, was 
not only a worshipper of idols, but a manufacturer of them.^ 

The vulgar Jewish chronology makes Shem die b.c' 1602, 
and Peleg B.C. 1573, only fifty-one years before the descent 
into Egypt. Abraham, according to this chronology, was 
born forty-eight years before the confusion of tongues The 
Septuagint version makes Methuselah live fourteen years 
beyond the Deluge ; and our (the Protestant) Masoretic 
version contains an equally extraordinary statement, for it 
makes Methuselah to be drowned in the Deluge. We are 
told that he was 187 years old when he begat Lamech, and 
that Lamech was 182 years old when he begat Noah. 
Methuselah, therefore, was 369 years old when Noah was 
born ; and as he lived 969 years, he must have lived 600 
yeai's after that event, and consequently must have been 
still alive when Noah entered into the Ark. 

It is scarcely necessary to say that all the dates above 
given are untenable. In the historical period alone we find 
that Lepsius traces the dynasties of the Egyptians back to 
B.C. 4242. Lesueur, a pupil of Champollion, and author of 
a very learned work, considers that the first dynasty of civil 
rulers in Egypt corresponded with B.C. 8986, thus making 
the historical period in this part of the world to have com- 
menced 10,858 years ago. Plato (in Tim.) says that every- 
thing that had occurred for 8,000 years was written in the 
sacred books at Sais ; and the priest who gave this informa- 

' Mankind, his Origin and Destiny. London : Longmans and Co. 


tion said that he would give an abridged account of what 
had happened during 9,000 years. Plato also says {De Leg., 
i, 2) : " Works of painting and of sculpture are to be found 
among the Egyptians which were executed ten thousand 
years ago (this is not to be taken as a vague assertion, but 
literally), which were not inferior to those of the present 
day, and which have been executed in conformity with the 
same rules as the modern ones.'^ Diogenes Laertius says 
that the priests had preserved records of 373 solar and 832 
lunar eclipses, which must have extended over an immense 
period of time. Diodorus Siculus says the Pyramids wei^e 
built about 3,400 years before our era, but that the Egyptians 
carried their dynasties back 15,000 years, and that they only 
began after Hermes and the gods had regulated legislation, 
worship, and morals. An Arabian manuscript {Trans. Phil. 
Abreg., t. i, p. 252), fixes the period of the building of the 
Pyramids eighty years earlier, that is, about B.C. 3482, at which 
period Taurus was at the vernal equinox, as he appears on the 
Mithraic monuments, and on the top almost of all the ancient 
obelisks, where he has the Accipiter above him, which denoted 
that equinox {Glem. Al. Strom., 1. v).^ 

The Pentateuch is affirmed to have been written by Moses, 
under the influence of Divine inspiration. Considered thus, as 
a record vouclisafed and dictated by the Almighty, it commauds 
not only scientific but universal consent. 

But here, in the first place, it may be demanded, Who or 
what is it that has put forth this great claim in its behalf ? 

Not the work itself It nowhere claims the authorship of 
one man, or makes the impious declaration that it is the writing 
of Almighty God. 

Not until after the second century was there any such ex- 
travagant demand on hunian credulity. It orginated, not 
among the high ranks of Christian philosophers, but among 
the more fervid Fathers of the Church, whose own writings 
prove them to have been unlearned and uncritical persons. 

Every age, from the second century to our times, has offered 
men of great ability, both Jewish and Christian, who have al- 
together repudiated these claims. Their decision has been 
founded upon the intrinsic evidence of the books themselves. 
These furnish plain indications of at least two distinct authors, 
who have been respectively termed Elohistic and Jehovistic. 
Hupfield maintains that the Jehovistic narrative bears marks 

' Manlcmd, his Origin and Destiny. London : Longmans and Co. 


of having been a second original record, wholly independent 
of the Elohistic. The two sources from which the narratives 
have been derived are, in many respects, contradictory of each 
other. Moreover, it is asserted that the books of the Pen- 
tateuch are never ascribed to Moses in the inscriptions of 
Hebrew manuscripts, or in printed copies of the Hebrew 
Bible, nor are they styled " Books of Moses^^ in the Septua- 
gint or Vulgate, but only in the modern translations. 

It is clear that they cannot be imputed to the sole authorship 
of Moses, since they record his death. It is clear that they 
were not written until many hundred years after that event, 
since they contain references to facts which did not occur until 
after the establishment of the government of kings among the 

No man may dare to impute them to the inspiration of 
Almighty God — their inconsistencies, incongruities, contradic- 
tions, and impossibilities, as exposed by many learned and 
pious moderns, both German and English, are so great. It is 
the decision of these critics that Genesis is a narrative based 
upon legend ; that Exodus is not historically true ; that the 
whole Pentateuch is unhistoric and non-Mosaic ; it contains 
the most extraordinary contradictions and impossibilities, suffi- 
cient to involve the credibility of the whole — imperfections so 
many and so conspicuous that they would destroy the authen- 
ticity of any modern historical work. 

Hengstenberg, in his Dissertations on the Genuineness of the 
Pentateuch, says : " It is the unavoidable fate of a spurious his- 
torical work of any length to be involved in contradictions. 
This must be the case to a very great extent with the Penta- 
teuch, if it be not genuine. If the Pentateuch is spurious, its 
histories and laws have been fabricated in successive portions, 
and were committed to writing, in the course of many centuries, 
by diflFerent individuals. From such a mode of origination, a 
mass of contradiction is inseparable, and the improving hand of 
a later editor could never be capable of entirely obliterating 

To the above conclusions I may add that we are 
expressly told by Ezra [Esdras, ii, 14) that he himself, 
aided by five other persons, wrote these books in the 
space of forty days. He says that at the time of the 
Babylonian captivity the ancient sacred writings of the 
Jews were burnt, and gives a particular detail of the 
circumstances under which these were composed. He 
sets forth that he undertook to write all that had been 


done in the world since the beginning. It may be 
said that the books of Esdras are apocryphal ; but in 
return it may be demanded, Has that conclusion been 
reached on evidence that will withstand modern 
criticism 1 In the early ages of Christianity, when the 
story of the Fall of Man was not considered as essential 
to the Christian system, and the doctrine of the Atone- 
ment had not obtained that precision which Anselm 
eventually gave it, it was very generally admitted by 
the Fathers of the Church that Ezra probably did so 
compose the Pentateuch. Thus St. Jerome says : " Sive 
Mosem dicere volueris auctorem Pentateuchi, sive 
Esdram ejusdem instauratorem operis, non recuso." 
Clemens Alexandrinus says that when these books had 
been destroyed in the captivity of Nebuchadnezzar, 
Esdras, having been inspired prophetically, reproduced 
them. Irenseus says the same. 

The incidents contained in Genesis, from the first to 
the tenth chapters inclusive (chapters which, in their 
bearing upon science, are of more importance than 
other portions of the Pentateuch), have been obviously 
compiled from short, fragmentary legends of various 
authorship. To the critical eye they all, however, 
present peculiarities which demonstrate that they were 
written on the banks of the Euphrates, and not in the 
Desert of Arabia. They contain many Chaldaisms. An 
Egyptian would not speak of the Mediterranean Sea 
as being west of him ; an Assyrian would. Their 
scenery and machinery, if such expressions may with 
propriety be used, are altogether Assyrian, not Egyptian. 
They were such records as one might expect to meet 
with in the cuneiform impressions of the tile libraries of 
the Mesopotamian kings. One such legend, that of the 
Creation, has already been exhumed and published by the 
late Mr. Smith.' 

From such Assyrian sources, the legends of the Crea- 
tion of the earth and heaven ; the Garden of Eden ; 

' The Chaldean Account of Genesis. By George Smith. London : 
Sampson Low and Co. 


the making of man from clay, and of woman from one 
of his ribs ; the temptation of the serpent ; the naming 
of animals ; the cherubim and flaming sword ; the 
Deluge and the Ark ; the drying up of the waters by 
the wind ; the building of the Tower of Babel, and the 
confusion of the tongues, were obtained by Ezra. He 
commences abruptly the proper history of the Jews in 
the eleventh chapter. At that point his universal history 
ceases ; he occupies himself with the story of one family, 
the descendants of Shem. 

In direct contradiction to all this, the late Vatican 
Council decreed as follows : — " The Holy Mother 
Church holds that God can be known with certainty 
by the natural light of human reason ; but that it has 
also pleased Him to reveal Himself and the eternal 
decrees of His will in a supernatural way. This super- 
natural revelation, as declared by the Holy Council of 
Trent, is contained in the Books of the Old and New 
Testament, as enumerated in the decrees of that Council, 
and as are to be had in the old Vulgate Latin edition. 
These are sacred, because they ivere written under the 
inspiration of the Holy Ghost. They have God for their 
Author, and as such have been delivered to the Church." 

Among other canons the following were promulgated : — 

" Let him be anathema — 

" Who does not acknowledge that the world and all 
things which it contains were produced by God out of 
nothing ; 

" Who shall say that man can, and ought to, of his 
own efforts, by means of constant progress, arrive at last 
at the possession of all truth and goodness ; 

" Who shall refuse to receive, for sacred and canoni- 
cal, the Books of Holy Scripture i^i their integrity, with 
all their parts, according as they are enumerated by 
the Holy Council of Trent, or shall deny that they are 
inspired by God ; 

" Who shall say that Divine revelation cannot be ren- 
dered credible by external evidences ; 

" Who shall say that no miracles can be wrought, or 


that they never can be known with certainty ; and that 
the Divine origin of Christianity cannot be proved by 

(Science turns away from the incomprehensible, and 
rests herself on the maxim of Wyclif, " God forceth 
not a man to believe that which he cannot understand." 
In the absence of an exhibition of satisfactory creden- 
tials on the part of her opponent, she considers whether 
there be in the history of the Papacy, and in the bio- 
graphy of the Popes, anything that can adequately sus- 
tain a Divine commission ; anything that can justify 
pontifical infallibility, or extort that unhesitating obe- 
dience which is due to the vice-God.^ 

Passing over the first nine plagues of Egypt as 
inventions, or exaggerations of natural phenomena, we 
will dwell a little on the circumstances of the tenth 
plague. In this plague we are told (Exod. xii, 29) that 
the Lord smote all the first-born of the Egyptians, and 
the first-born of animals shared the same fate. Now, the 
Jews who left the land of Goshen were 600,000 men 
able to bear arms, which supposes 600,000 families. 
The land of Goshen occupies about the fortieth part of 
Egypt ; the rest of Egypt, therefore, must have con- 
tained 24,000,000 families. We are thus required to 
suppose that God slew with His own hand this fright- 
ful number of first-born children, and a much larger 
number of animals. And this, after the lohole of the 
animals had already been once destroyed — once in 
the fifth plague (Exod. ix, 6), when "all the cattle of 
Egypt died"; and again in the sixth plague, when, 
notwithstanding that '"all the cattle" had just been de- 
stroyed, those that were in the field were killed by the 
hail (Exod. ix, 19-21). 

The account of the Exodus by several authors of this 
event is that the Israelites spread leprosy, with which 
they were infected, among the Egyptians, to whom 
they had also lent money at usurious interest. King 

' Conflict of Religion and Science. By Draper. Loudon : Kegan 
Paul aud Co. 


Bocchoris (according to Diodorus) consulted the oracle 
of Ammon as to Avhat he had better do. The oracle 
advised him to drive them out of the country, and he 
accordingly drove them into the desert, where they 
would have perished of thirst if some wild asses had 
not shown them where there was a spring. After 
seven days' march they invaded Palestine (the distance 
not being more than 200 miles), and God knows, say 
they, how bloody the invasion was. 

It would seem as if this was really the cause of their 
being sent out of Egypt, and that the account in 
Exodus was contrived either to conceal the fact, or for 
religious purposes. Josephus [Contra Apion, 1. r, cap. 
ix, 11, 12) says that Manetho and Cheremontes, the 
Egyptian historians, assert that the Jews were driven 
out of Egypt for this reason ; that they chose for their 
leader a priest of Heliopolis named Moses ; and that 
this took place in the reign of Amenophis. Josephus 
also says that Lysimachus, the historian, was of the 
same opinion. Tacitus [Hist., 1. v, cap. iii) says that the 
Jews were driven out on account of their leprous con- 
dition, and that Moses, a priest of Heliopolis, was their 
leader. Justin (1. xxxvi, cap. ii) repeats this without 
alteration. Strabo merely says that the Jews left Egypt 
under the guidance of Moses, who was an Egyptian 

The Bible also tells us that the king pursued the 
Israelites with 600 chariots (notwithstanding that all 
the animals, and consequently all the horses, had been 
slain by the fifth plague) ; and God Himself having taken 
ojf the chariot ivheels (Exod. xiv, 25), Moses lifted up 
his rod, upon which the east wind ceased to hloiu, and 
Pharaoh with all his host was drowned in the sea, after 
which Israel saw their dead cast upon the shore. 

Merenptah I, fourteenth son of Rameses II (who 
was the son of Seti I, the son of Rameses I, the first 
king of the 19th dynasty), succeeded to the Egyptian 
throne at the death of his father. His magnificent pre- 
decessor, Rameses Sesostris, was the acknowledged builder 


of the treasure cities Eaarases and Pithom, in the con- 
struction of which the Israelitish people were forced to 
take an active part under circumstances of considerable 
severity. Hence it happens that Rameses is accepted as 
the "oppressor" of the Jews, and his son Merenptah, the 
present king, has been regarded as the Pharaoh of the 
Exodus. A full account of the kings of Egypt will be 
found in a most interesting work called The Egypt of the 
Past, by Sir Erasmus Wilson, F.R.S.^ 

" The canonicity of the pi'eseut gospels was not established 
till the Council of Nice, in the year 325 of the Christian era. 
Pappus, in his Synodicon to the Council, tells us how it set 
about choosing the gospels which it intended to adopt out of 
the immense number of gospels then in existence. He says : 
' Having promiscuously put all the books that were referred 
to the Council for determination under the communion table in 
a church, they besought the Lord that the inspired writings 
might get upon the table while the spurious ones remained 
underneath, and that it happened accordingly.'' The gospels 
which Gelai'ius ought to burn remained, we are told, under- 
neath the table, and the four inspired ones got upon it, and 
were declared canonical ! Subsequently to this Council, how- 
ever, a general revision and correction of these inspired gospels 
was made at Constantinople in a.d. 506, by order of the Em- 
peror Anastasius. This extraordinary order runs as follows : — 

"'Messala V.C. Consule, Constantinopoli jubente Anastasio 
Imperatori sancta evangelia tanquam ab idiotis evangelistis 
composita, reprehenter et emendantur.' 

" * The illustrious Messala being Consul, by order of the 
Emperor Anastasius, the holy gospels as having been written 
by idiotic evangelists, are censured and corrected.' Signed, 
Victor, Bishop of Tunis, in Africa/^ (See Cave, Hist. Lit., vol. i, 
p. 415.) 

" The Council of Nice was composed of the mystical number 
of 318 bishops, and pi'esided over by the "pious" Constantino. 
Sabinus, the Bishop of Heraclea, affirms, however, that " ex- 
cepting Constantino liimself and Eusebius Pamphilus, they 
were a set of illiterate and simple creatures, that understood 
nothing''. With regard to the Old Testament, Eabbi Michel 
Weill says : " What is certain, what results from several tradi- 

London : Kegan Paul and Co. 1881. 


tional passages {Talmud, MeguUla, fols. 3 and 7), which have 
never been the subject of any serious doubt^ is, that the holy 
books were first arranged in the time of Ezra/^ Irenfeus 
(1. Ill, c. xv), Eusebius (1. i, c. viii), Clemens Alexandrinus 
(Stromata, 1. i, c. ii), Tertullian (De hahitu Mulierum, 1. i, c. iii), 
Basil {Letter to Ghilo), and others of the Fathers, go much 
beyond this, for they hold that the Books of the Law had been 
burnt by Nebuchadnezzar, and that Ezra was really the author 
of these books. It is certain that the law of Moses is not 
once alluded to in the Old Testament till the time of Malachi, 
who wrote in the time of Nehemiah, and is not mentioned 
again until Dan. ix, a chapter which speaks of the repair of 
the fortifications of the Temple and of Jerusalem, sixty-nine 
weeks, or 490 lunar years, after the sentence had been issued 
that the Jews might return from captivity. The books which 
Moses wrote, according to the references to them m the Penta- 
teuch, differ from any of the five books now ascribed to him. 
They are, " The War against the Amalekites", which we are told 
(Exod. xvii, 14) that Moses wrote by God's command; ''The 
Book of the Agreement'^ (Exod. xxiv, 4, 7) ; and " The Book 
of the Law of God'^, subsequently augmented by Joshua by an 
account of another covenant (Josh, xxiv, 25, 26). The Book 
of the Agreement, which has perished, was to be esteemed 
imperative upon all, and even posterity (Deut. xxix, 14, 15) ; 
and Moses, it is said, ordered the book of this second covenant 
to be religiously preserved for future ages. 

" The oldest evangelical tradition began^ not with the birth 
of Jesus, but with the preaching of John, as is evident from 
Acts i, 22, and x, 37. We are also told {Epiphan. Hesr., xxx, 
§ 13, 4) that the Ebionites and primitive Christians made use of 
a gospel which did not contain the genealogy of Christ. Mr. 
Sharpe, in his treatise on Egyptian Mythology (p. 89), has 
pointed out that we have historic evidence that the first two 
chapters of Matthew^s and Luke^s Gospels, which receive no 
support from the other two Gospels or from the Epistles, 
formed no part of the original Gospels, and that they are of 
Egyptian origin, being all but identical with the Egyptian 
ideas of the miraculous conception of their kings, and espe- 
cially with the miraculous birth of Amunothph III, as shown 
in a series of sculptures on the wall of the temple of Luxor, 
which contain the annunciation, the conception, the birth, and 
the adoration of that king. The account of the Mother of 
Christ being found with child of the Holy Ghost (Matt, i, 18), 
is contradicted by the passage in c. xii, 46, of that Gospel, in 
which His hrethrcn {not His JtalfhrotJiers) ax-e spoken of; and by 

VOL. V. 3 


that in c. xiii, 55, 56, in which His sisters are also spoken of, 
and in which He is called " the Carpenter's Son.'^ It is impos- 
sible also to reconcile the account in c. iii, 16^ of the Holy 
Ghost descending upon Jesus for the first time after His baptism 
by John, with His being the Sou of the Holy Ghost in the first 
chapter. The life of Christ, therefore, begins, strictly speak- 
ing, with His baptism by John.^ 


Mr. Darwin, in his late work on the Descent of Man, has said 
that " the similarity between man and the lower animals in 
embryonic development, as well as in innumerable points of 
structure and constitution — the i^udiments which he retains, 
and the abnormal reversions to which he is occasionally liable 
— are facts which cannot be disputed. They have long been 
known, but until recently they told us nothing with respect to 
the origin of man. Now, when viewed by the light of our 
knowledge of the whole organic world, their meaning is unmis- 
takable. The great principle of evolution stands up clear 
and firm, when these groups of facts are considered in con- 
nection with others — such as the mutual affinities of the mem- 
bers of the same group, their geographical distribution in 

past and present times, and their geological succession 

We are forced to admit that the close resemblance of the 
embryo of man to that,for instance, of a dog — the construction of 
his skull, limbs, and whole frame, independently of the uses to 
which the parts may be put, on the same plan with that of other 
mammals — the occasional reappearance of various structures, 
for instance of several distinct muscles, which man does not 
normally possess, but which are common to the quadrumana, 
and a crowd of analogous facts, all point in the plainest manner 
to the conclusion that man is the co-descendant with other 
mammals of a common pi'ogenitor."^ 

We certainly cannot escape from such a conclusion without 
abandoning many of the weighty arguments which have 
been urged in support of variation and natural selection, 
considered as the subordinate causes by which new types 
have been gradually introduced into the earth. Many of the 

1 Critical Examination of Gospel History. London : Longmans 
and Co. 

2 Descent of Man, vol. ii, p. 385, 187L 


gaps wliich separate the most neai^ly allied genera and orders 
of mammalia are^ in a physical point of view, as wide as those 
which divide Man from the mammalia most nearly akin to him ; 
and the extent of his isolation, whether we regard his whole 
nature or simply his corporeal attributes, must be considered 
before we can discuss the bearing of transmutation upon his 
origin and place in the creation.^ On these subjects an elaborate 
and faithful summary has been drawn up by the late Isodore 
GeofFroy de St. Hilaire.^ _ 18G83Q9 

Professor Agassiz, after declaring that as yet we scarcely 
possess the most elementary information requisite for a 
scientific comparison of the instincts and faculties of animals 
with those of Man, confesses that he cannot say in what the 
mental faculties of a child differ from those of a young chim- 
panzee. He also observes that the i-ange of the passions of 
animals is as extensive as that of the human mind, " and I am 
at a loss", he says, " to perceive a difference of kind between 
them, however much they may differ in degree, and in the 
manner in which they are expressed. The gradations of the 
moral faculties among the higher animals and Man are, more- 
over, so imperceptible, that to deny to the first a certain sense 
of responsibility and consciousness, would certainly be an ex- 
aggeration of the difference between animals and Man. There 
exists, besides, as much individuality among animals as among 
Man, as every sportsman, or every keeper of manageries, or 
every farmer and shepherd can testify, who has had a large 
experience with wild, or tamed, or domesticated animals. This 
argues strongly in favour of the existence in every animal of 
an immaterial principle, similar to that which, by its excellence 
and superior endowments, places Man so much above animals. 
Yet the principle exists unquestionably ; and whether it be 
called soul, reason, or instinct, it presents, in the whole range 
of organised beings, a series of phenomena closely linked to- 
gether, and upon it are based not only the higher manifesta- 
tions of the mind, but the very permanence of the specific 
differences which characterise every organ. Most of the argu- 
ments of philosophy in favour of the immortality of Man, apply 
equally to the permanency of this principle in other living 

' The Antiquities of Man. By Sir Chai'les Lyell, Bart. London : 
John Murray, Albemarle Street. 

2 Histoire Naturelle Generale des Regnes Organiques, vol. ii. Paris, 

3 Natural History of the United States of America, vol. i, Part i, 
pp. 60, 64. 


Mr. Darwin admits that the difference between the mind of 
the lowest man and the highest ape is immense, although he 
maintains that it is one of degree, not of kind. " The belief in 
God", he says, "has often been advanced as not only the greatest, 
but the most complete of all the distinctions between man and 
the lower animals. It is, however, impossible, as we have seen, 
to maintain that this belief is innate or instinctive in man. 
On the other hand, a belief in all-pervading spiritual agencies 
(many of them cruel and malignant) seem^ to be universal; 
and apparently follows from a considerable advance in the 
reasoning powers of man, and from a still greater advance in 
his faculties of imagination, curiosity, and wonder. . . . The 
idea of a universal and beneficent Creator of the Universe does 
not seem to arise in the mind of man until he has been elevated 
by long-continued culture."^ 

From a passage from Sanchouiathon, quoted by Eusebius, 
Sir John Lubbock extracts the following passages from his 
description of the first thirteen generations of men : — 

" Generation 1. — The first men consecrated the plants 
shooting out of the earth, and judged them gods, and wor- 
shipped them, upon whom they themselves lived. 

" Oen. 2. — The second generation of men were called Genus 
and Genoa, and dwelt in Phoenicia ; but when great droughts 
came, they stretched their hands up to heaven towards the 
Sun, for him they thought the only Lord of Heaven. 

" Gen. 3. — Afterwards, other mortal issue was begotten, 
whose names were Phos, Pur, and Phlox (i.e., Light, Fire, and 
Flame). These found out the way of generating fire by the 
rubbing of pieces of wood against each other, and taught men 
the use thereof. 

" Gen. 4. — The fourth generation consists of giants. 

" Gen. 5. — With reference to the fifth, he mentions the exist- 
ence of communal marriage, and that Usous " consecrated 
hvo inllars to Fire and Wind, and bowed down to them, and 
poured out to them the blood of such beasts as had been 
caught in hunting. 

" Gen. 6. — Hunting and fishing are invented. 

" Gen. 7. — Chrysor, whom he affirms to be Vulcan, discovei'ed 
iron and the art of forging. ' Wherefore he also was wor- 
shipped after his death as a god, and they called him Dia- 
michius (or Zeus Michius).' 

" Gen. 8. — Pottery was discovered. 

^ Descenf of Man, vol. ii, p. 395. 


" Gen. 9. — Now comes AgruSj ' who had a much-worshipped 
statue, and a temple carried about by one or more yoke of 
oxen in Phoenicia.' 

" Gen. 10. — Villages were formed, and men kept flocks. 

" Gen. 11. — Salt was discovered. 

"Geyi.\2. — Taautus, or Hermes, discovered letters. The 
Cabiri belong* to this generation. 

" Thus, then, we find mentioned in order the worship of 
plants, heavenly bodies, pillars, and men ; later still comes 
idolatry, coupled with temples."^ 

Sir William Jones {Diss. VI on the Persians) says: "The 
primeval religion of Iran, if we may rely on the authorities 
adduced by Monsani Farii, was that which Newton calls the 
oldest (and it may justly be called the noblest) of all religions ; 
a firm belief that one supreme God made the world by His power, 
and continually governed it by His providence ; a pious fear, 
love, and adoration of Him ; and due reverence for parents 
and aged persons ; a fraternal affection for the whole human 
species ; and a compassionate tenderness for even the brute 


The condition under which man lived in Europe in the 
Pleistocene age was that of a savage. " There is no trace of 
the knowledge of pottery or of spinning ; nor at this time were 
domestic animals or cultivated seeds or fruits known in our 
quarter of the world. The Paleeolithic tribes led a wandering 
feral life under feral conditions, and had not learned the arts 
of moulding plants and animals to their various needs, and 
thus freeing themselves to some extent from bondage to their 
natural conditions. Man appears in two phases of the huntei'- 
stage of human progress — the older and lower, or that of the 
River-drift, and the newer and higher, or that of the Cave- 
man. The River-drift man was a hunter of a very low order, 
but not lower than the modern Australian, and from his wide 
range over the Old World was probably of vastly greater anti- 
quity than his successors in Europe. There is no reason for 
the belief that he possessed any artistic skill. The Cave-man, 
on the other hand, possessed a singular talent for representing 
the animals he hunted, and his sketches reveal to us that he 

^ The Origin of Civilisation. By Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., 


had a capacity for seeing the beauty and grace of natural form 
not much inferior to that which is the result of long-continued 
civilisation in ourselves, and very much higher than that of his 
successors in Europe in the neolithic age. The hunter who 
was both artist and sculptor, who reproduced with his imper- 
fect means at one time foliage, and at another the quiet repose 
of a reindeer feeding, has left behind the proof of a decided 
advance in culture, such as might be expected to result from 
the long continuance of man on the earth in the hunter-stage 
of civilisation.'^^ 

In his interesting woi'k on the Origin of Civilisation and the 
Primitive Condition of Man, Sir John Lubbock states that " the 
facts and arguments mentioned in this work aflford strong- 
ground for the following conclusions, namely : — 

" That existing savages are not the descendants of civilised 

" That the primitive condition of man was one of utter 

" That from this condition several races have independently 
raised themselves." 

With regard to religion, he says ^' that the deities of the 
lower races, being subject to the same passions as man, and 
in many cases, indeed, themselves monsters of iniquity, re- 
garded crime with indifference, so long as the religous cere- 
monies and sacrifices in their honour were not neglected. 
Hence it follows that through all these lower races there is no 
idea of any being corresponding to Satan. So far, indeed, as 
their deities are evil they may be so called ; but the essential 
character of Satan is that of Tempter ; hence in the order of 
succession this idea cannot arise until morality has become 
connected with religion. 

"Thus, then, I have endeavoured to trace the gradual de- 
velopment of religion among the lower races of man. 

" The lower savages regard their deities as scarcely more 
powerful than themselves; they are evil, not good; they are to 
he propitiated by sacrifices, not prayer ; they are not creators ; 
they are neither omniscient nor all-powerful ; they neither re- 
ward the good nor punish the evil; far from conferring im- 
mortality on man, they are not even in all cases immortal 

'' Where the material elements of civilisation developed 
themselves without any corresponding inci'ease of knowledge, 

' Early History of Man in Britain. By W. Boyd Dawkins, Esq., 
M.A., F.K.S., F.G.S., F.S.A. 


as for instance in Mexico or Peru^ a more correct idea of 
Divine power, without corresponding enlightenment as to the 
Divine nature, led to a religion of terror, which finally became 
a terrible scourge to humanity. 

" Gradually, however, an increased acquaintance with the 
laws of nature enlarged the mind of man. He first supposed 
that the Deity fashioned the earth, raising it out of the water, 
and preparing it as a dwelling-place for man ; and subsequently 
realised the idea that land and water were alike created by 
Divine power. After regarding spirits as altogether evil, he 
arose to a belief in good as well as in evil deities, and, gradually 
subordinating the latter to the former, worshipped the good 
spirits alone as gods, the evil sinking to the level of demons. 
From believing only in ghosts, he came gradually to the recog- 
nition of the soul ; at length uniting this belief with that in a 
beneficent and just Being, he connected Morality with Religion, 
a step the importance of which it is scarcely possible to over- 

" Thus we see that, as men rise in civilisation, their religion 
rises with them. The Australians dimly imagine a being, 
spiteful, malevolent, but weak, and dangerous only in the 
dark. The negroes deity is more powerful, but not less hate- 
ful — invisible, indeed, but subject to pain, mortal like himself, 
and liable to be made the slave of man by enchantment. The 
deities of the South Sea Islanders are, some good, some evil ; 
but, on the whole, more is to be feai'ed from the latter than to 
be hoped from the former. They fashioned the land, but are 
not truly creators, for earth and water existed before them. 
They do not punish the evil nor reward the good. They watch 
over the affaii^s of men ; but if, on the one hand, witchcraft 
has no power over them, they require to share the crops or 
the booty of their worshippers. 

" It appears, then, that every increase in science — that is, in 
positive and ascertained knowledge — brings with it an eleva- 
tion in religion. Nor is this progress confined to the lower 
races. Even within the last century, science has purified 
the religion of Western Europe by rooting out the dark belief 
in witchcraft, which led to thousands of executions, and hung 
like a black pall over the Christianity of the Middle Ages. 

" The immense service which science has thus rendered to the 
cause of religion and of humanity, has not hitherto received 
the recognition which it deserves. Science is still regarded 
by many excellent, but narrow-minded, persons as hostile to 
religious truth, while, in fact, she is only opposed to religious 
error. No doubt her influence has always been exercised in 


opposition to those who present contradictory assertions under 
the excuse of mystery, as well as to all but the highest con- 
ceptions of Divine power. The time, however, is approaching 
when it will be generally perceived that, so far from science 
being opposed to religion, true religion is, without science, 
impossible; and if we consider the various aspects of Chris- 
tianity as understood by different nations, we can hardly fail to 
see that the dignity, and, therefore, the truth of their religious 
beliefs, is in direct relation to their knowledge of science and 
of the great physical laws by which our universe is governed."^ 
"With advancing civilisation the divergence of the super- 
natural being from the natural being becomes more decided. 
There is nothing to check the gradual de-materialisation of the 
god ; and this de-materialisation is insensibly furthered in the 
effort to reach consistent ideas of supernatural action : the god 
ceases to be tangible, and later he ceases to be visible or 
audible.'^ For instance, we are told in the Bible that Moses 
having desired to see the gloiy of God, the Lord answered that 
He would not show His face, but that He would show him His 
back parts. In the Vulgate it is translated : " Tollamque 
manum meum, et videtis posteriora mea." In Numbers xii, 8, 
it is said that " with him (Moses) I (God) will speak mouth to 
mouth, even apparently/' . . . . ^' And the similitude of the 
Lord shall be beheld'^ ; and in Exodus xxxiii, 2, it is said, 
" And the Lord spake unto Moses face to face, as a man 
speaketh to a friend.'' In after times, however, when the 
Jews had advanced in civilisation, we find it stated in the New 
Testament, 1 Tim. vi, 16, that "God is He whom no man hath 
seen or can see." Along with this differentiation of physical 
attributes from those of humanity, there goes on more slowly 
the differentiation of mental attributes. The god of the savage, 
represented as having intelligence scarcely, if at all, greater than 
that of the living man, is deluded with ease. Even the gods of 
the semi-civilised are deceived, make mistakes, repent of their 
plans, as we find that Jehovah did, for it is stated in Gen. 
vi, 6, that " it repented the Lord that He had made man on 
earth, and it grieved Him at His heart. And the Lord said, I 
will destroy both man and beast, and the creeping thing, and 
the fowls of the air ; for it repenteth Me that I have made 
them." " And only in course of time does there arise the con- 
ception of unlimited vision and universal knowledge. The 
emotional nature simultaneously undergoes a parallel trans- 

' 7%e Origin of Civilisation and the Primitive Condition of Man. 
By Sir John Lubbock, Bart. London : Longmans and Co. 1875. 


formation. The grosser passions, originally conspicuous and 
carefully ministered to by devotees, gradually fade, leaving only 
the passions less related to corporeal satisfactions : and even- 
tually these, too, become partially de-humanised.'^ 

" These ascribed characters of deities are continually adapted 
and re-adapted to the needs of the social state. During the 
militant phase of activity, the chief god is conceived as holding 
insubordination the greatest crime, as implacable in anger, as 
merciless in punishment; and any alleged attributes of a 
milder kind occupy but small space in the social consciousness. 
But where militancy declines, and the harsh, despotic form of 
government appropriate to it is gradually qualified by the 
form appropriate to industrialism, the foreground of the 
religious consciousness is increasingly filled with those as- 
cribed traits of the divine nature which are congruous to the 
ethics of peace: divine love, divine forgiveness, divine mercy, 
are now the characteristics enlarged upon. If we contrast the 
Hebrew God described in primitive traditions, manlike in 
appearance, appetites, and emotions, with the Hebrew God as 
characterised by the prophets, there is shown a widening range 
of power along with a nature increasingly remote from that of 
man. And on passing on to the conceptions of Him which are 
now entertained, we are made aware of an extreme transfigura- 
tion. By a convenient obliviousness, a deity who, in early 
times, is represented as hardening men's hearts so that they 
may commit punishable acts,^ and as employing a lying spirit 
to deceive them,^ comes to be mostly thought of as an embodi- 
ment of virtues transcending the highest we can imagine. 

*' Thus, recognising the fact that in the primitive human mind 
there exists neither religious idea nor religious sentiment, we 
find that in the course of social revolution and the evolution of 
intelligence accompanying it, there are generated both the ideas 
and sentiments which we distinguish as religious ; and that 
through a process of causation clearly traceable, they traverse 
those stages which have brought them, among civilised races, 
to their present forms. "^ 

• Gen. xiv, 4, 8, 17. 

2 Vol. iv, p. 213. 

^ Nineteenth Century , January 1884, p. 3. 




(Garadog of Llancarvan.) 

Prince GrufFydd,^ the second son of Maredydd ab Bled- 
dyn, Prince of Powys, bad for his share of his father's 
territories the countries of Arwystli, Cyfeiliog, Llan- 
erch-Hudol, Caer Einion, Mochnant Uwch Rhaiadr, 
Mechain Uwch Coed, Mawddwy, Deuddwr, Ystrad 
Marchell, and Teir Tref, and by Henry I, created Lord 

He married Gwerfyl, daughter of Gwrgeneu ab 
Hywel ab leuaf, Lord of Arwystli (see vol. i), by whom 
he had issue Owain, surnamed Cyfeiliog.^ This Owain 
enjoyed his father's estates entire, and married Gwen- 
llian, the daughter of Owain Gwynedd, Prince of 
North Wales, who bore him one son, named Gwen- 
wynwyn or Wenwynwyn, from whom that part of 
Powys was afterwards called Powys Wenwynwyn. He 
had, moreover, a base brother called Caswallawn, upon 

' GrufFydd ab Maredydd bore or, a lion's gamb, bend dexterwise, 
erased gules {Harl. MS. 1973), and died vita patris, 1125. He 
married, after the death of his first wife, Joanna, daughter of Prince 
lago ab Gruffydd ab Cynan, by whom he had a son named Meurig, 
who, the Brut y Tywysogion states, escaped from prison in 1153, 

2 Owain Cyfeiliog founded the Cistercian Abbey of Strata Marcella 
in the year 1170, and died at a very advanced age, and was buried 
in the abbey in 1197, having previously joined the Order. See vol. i, 
and Mont. Coll., vol. i. 


whom were bestowed the countries of Swydd Llanerch 
Hudol and Broniarth/ 

Gwenwynwyn^ succeeded his father in all his estate, 
saving what Caswallawn enjoyed, and married Mar- 
garet (the daughter of Rhys ab Tewdwr, Prince of 
South Wales), by whom he had Gruffydd'^ ab Gwen- 
wynwyn, who, succeeding his father in all his posses- 
sions, had issue six sons, and so the entire estate of 
Gruffydd ab Maredydd ab Bleddyn, Lord of Powys, 
became shattered, and torn into divers pieces, 

Owain ab Gruffydd ab Gwenwynwyn, the eldest son, 
had for his part, Arwystli, Cyfeiliog, Llanerch Hudol, 
and a part of Caer Einion. 

Llywelyn^ had Mochnant Uwch Rhaiadr, and Mechain 
Uwch Coed. 

John, the third son, had the fourth part of Caer Einion.^ 

William had Mawddwy. For an account of his des- 
cendants, see Mont. Coll., vol. i. 

Gruifyth Fychan had Deuddwr, Ystrad Marchell, and 
Teir Tref. 

^ Caswallawn had the lordships of Llanerch Hudol and Broniarth 
for life. He was in the King's service in 1190, and in the following 
year was made Constable of Stretton Castle. — Mont. Coll., vol. i. 

2 Gwenwynwyn bore or, a lion's gamb, dexterwise, erased gules, 
and died in 1218, He married Margaret, daughter of Robert, Lord 
Corbet of Caurs. She was living November 23, 1228. — Mont. Coll., 
vol. i, p. 20 ; see also History of Powys Fadog, vol. i. 

3 Gruffydd ab Gwenwynwyn bore or, a lion rampant, guhs. He 
married Hi wys, daughter of Sir John I'Estrange of Ness Strange and 
Cheswardine, Knt. (gules, two lions passant, argent). Prince Gruffydd 
died in 1289, and was buried in the church of the Franciscans or Grey 
Friars in Shrewsbury. 

4 Llywelyn, who died in 1295, married Margaret, daughter of 
Maredydd Goch ab Maredydd ab lorwerth Fychan, Lord of Main in 
Meivod, son of lorwerth Goch, Lord of Mochnant, son of Maredydd 
ab Bleddyn, Prince of Powys, by whom he had two daughters, co- 
heirs, — 1, Eva, who married, first, Madog, Baron of Hendwr in Edeyr- 
nion, who bore argent, on a chevron, gules, three fleurs-de-lys or ; 
secondly, she married lorwerth ab leuaf ab Alo of Trefnant in Caer 
Einion (see vol. iv, 175). And, 2, Catherine, who married Gilbert 
Pool, by whom she had a son, Owain Pool. 

^ Containing Llystynwennan, Blaen Coed Talog, and Llangadfaa. 




David, the sixth, and youngest son, had the oth 
fourth part of Caer Einion.^ 

The history of the descendants of Owain ab Gru- 
ifydd ab Gwenwynwyn is full}?' given in the first 
volume of the Montgomeryshire Collections of the 
Powys-land Qub. 


Prince Cadwgan, the second son of Bleddyn ab 
Cynfyn, Prince of Powys, was lord of the Cantref of 
Penllyn ; the Cantref of Cynan, which contained the 

^ David's share of the lordship of Caer Einion contained the 
manors of Pentyrch, Celli Caswallawn, Penarth, and Rhiwarth. He 
married Elen, daughter and heiress of Howel, third son of Madog ab 
GrufiFydd Maelor, Prince of Powys Fadog, by whom he had a daughter 
and heiress, Margaret, who married Howel Grach, fourth son of Lly- 
welyn ab Gruffydd ab Cadwgan, Lord of Eyton, Erlisham, and Bora- 
sham (see vol. ii, p. 156). The Cwmwd, or lordship of Caer Einion 
is in the Cantref of Llys Wynaf. 

The parish of Llanfair yn Ngaer Einion contains the townships of 
Bryn Glas, Dolged, Gelli Gasson, Gwaunynog, Heniarth, Llan, Llau- 
lloddian, Penarth, Rhiw Hiriaeth, and Rhos Alio. 

The parish of Llangadfan in Caer Einion contains the townships of 
Blawty, Bryn Gwaeddan, Cawny, Cyffin, Llangadfan, Maes Llymysten, 
and Moel Feliarth. 

The parish of Llanerfyl in Caer Einion contains the townships of 
Coed Talog, Llyssin, Cefn Ll^s Isaf, Cefn Ll;fs Uchaf, Cran, and 

The parish of Llangynyw in Caer Einion contains the townships of 
Cwningfa, Gwaunynog Isaf, Llan, and Mathrafal, the ancient seat of 
the Princes of Powys. 


Comots of Mawdclwy and Cyfeiliog ; the Cantref of 
Meirion, which contained the Comots of Tal y Bont, 
Pennal, and Ystym Aner ; the Cantref of Arwystli, 
which contained the Comots of Uwych Coed, Is y 
Coed, and Gwarth Rynion or Heinion; and lord also 
of Ceredigion and Ystrad Tyvvy, in South Wales. 
This prince, called by Camden " the illustrious Briton", 
bore or, a lion rampant, azure, and resided at Nannau, 
from which circumstance he has been generally styled 
Cadwgan of Nannau. This place, which is a man- 
sion and park in the township of the same name, is 
in the parish of Llanfachraith, in the manor or Comot 
of Tal y Bont, and is still in the possession of the prince's 
descendant, .... Vaughan, Esq., the representative of 
the Nannaus, and Vaughans of Nannau. 

Prince Cadwgan married three times : his first consort 
was the Princess Gwenllian, daughter of Gruffydd ab 
Cynan, who was King of Gwynedd from 1082 to 1137 
{gules, three lions passant in pale, argent), by whom he 
had issue three sons, of whom presently. He married, 
secondly, Frances, daughter of the Lord Pigot de Say, of 
Stoke Say, by whom he had issue two sons, Henri and 
Gruffydd ; Gruffydd married Angharad, only daughter 
and heir of David ab Owain, Prince of North Wales {vert, 
three eagles displayed in fess, or). Prince Cadwgan 
married thirdly Gwenllian, daughter (by Morfydd his 
wife, daughter of Goronwy ab Ednowain Bendew, chief 
of one of the noble tribes) of Owain, eldest son of Edwin 
ab Goronwy, Prince of Tegeingl. Prince Owain bore 
gules, three men's legs, conjoined at the thighs in triangle, 
argent, and died of consumption in 1102. 

It is probable that it was about the time of his third 
marriage, with Gwenllian, daughter of Owain ab Edwin, 
that Prince Cadwgan conferred the Cantrefs of Penllyn 
and Meirion, and the Comots of Mawddwy and Cyfeiliog, 
upon his consort's uncle, Uchtryd, the second son of 
Edwin ab Goronwy ab Einion, Prince of Tegeingl, in 
Gwynedd. Edwin, who was one of the royal family of 
South Wales, obtained the Cantref of Tegeingl through 


his mother, Ethelfleda, the daughter and heiress of Edwin, 
Earl of Mercia, and relict of Edmund Ironside, King of 
England. These Cantrefs were conferred upon Uchtryd, 
upon condition of his rendering faithful service to Prince 
Cadwgan himself, and his family, but instead of doing 
this he became their enemy ; in consequence of which, 
in 1113, Einion ab Cadwgan ab Bleddyn and his cousin, 
Gruffydd ab Meredydd ab Bleddyn, fought with Uch- 
tryd and his sons and dispossessed them of the Cantrefs 
of Meiriou and Penllyn and the Comots of Mawddwy 
and Cyfeiliog, which the conquerors divided between 
them. In this division Gruffydd got Cyfeiliog, Mawddwy, 
and half of Penllyn, which thus become a portion of that 
part of Powys which was named Powys Wenwynwyn, 
after Gruffydd's grandson, Gwenwynwyn, Prince of 
Upper Powys, who bore or, a lion's gamb, erect, gules. 
Einion ab Cadwgan and his brother got the other half 
of Penllyn and the Cantref of Meirion. In 1284, how- 
ever, the Cantref of Penllyn was, together with the 
Cantref of Meirion, the Comot of Ardudwy in Cantref 
Dunodig, and the Comot of Edeyrnion, united, so as to 
form the county of Merioneth. The Statutes of Wales, 
12 Edw. I, 1284, enact as follows : — 

"Volumus etiam et statuimus quod Vicicomitis Coro- 
natoris et Ballivi Commotorum sint in Snaudon, et terris 
nostris partium eandarum. 

" Vicecomes de Meyrionnyth sub quo Cantreda de 
Meirionith, Commotum de Ardudo et Commotum de 
Penthlin et Commotum de Dereynan, cum metis et 
Bundis suis." 

By a statute of the 27th Henry VIII, 1536, the lord- 
ship's marches were divided into the present counties of 
Denbigh, Montgomery, Radnor, Brecknock, and Mon- 
mouth ; and the lordship, town, and parish of Mawddwy 
was taken from Cantref Cynan, and added to Meirionydd, 
which had been formed into a county in the 12 Edw, III. 
By his third wife, Gwenllian, Prince Cadwgan had issue 
three sons. 1. Owain, Lord of Powys, called also Sir 
Owain Farchog. He was knighted by Henry I, in Nor- 


mandy, with which monarch, although he and his father 
had had great wars, he was now at peace ; he was slain 
in 1 1 1 4. 2. Llewelyn, slain by the men of Brycheiniog, 
in the interest of Bernard Newmarch, in 1098 ; and — 
3. Goronwy. 

Prince Cadwgan had issue by his first consort, the 
Princess Gwenllian of Gwynedd, four sons, viz. — 1. 
EiNiON, lord of Meirionydd, who died without issue in 
A.D. 1121. — 2. Meredydd, who succeeded him as lord 
of Meirionydd, and was killed by his brother Morgan. — 
3. Madog, lord of Nannau, and — 4. Morgan. In a.d. 
1074, Llewelyn and Goronwy, the youngest sons of 
Prince Cadwgan, together with Caradog ab Gruffyd ab 
Rhydderch ab lestyn ab Gwrgant, determined to avenge 
the death of their grandfather, Bleddyn ab Cynfyn, who 
had been slain in battle by Prince Rhys ab Owain ab 
Edwyn ab Howel Ddu, in a.d, 1072. Accordingly, they 
fought a pitched battle with Rhys ab Owain, and gained 
a glorious victory, but the arrival of GrufFydd ab Cynan, 
the rightful heir of Gwynedd, with a strong army from 
Ireland, compelled the sons of Cadwgan to return and 
defend their own territories against the attack of GrufFydd 
ab Cynan. A short time after this, Trahaiarn ab Caradog, 
who had usurped the throne of Gwynedd, and Gwrgeneu, 
King of Powys, went against Gruffydd ab Cynan, and 
compelled him to return to Ireland, and then the sons of 
Cadwgan led an army a second time against Prince Rhys 
ab Owain, who met them, and a severe battle was fought 
at a place called Pwllgwtig, in which the sons of Cadw- 
gan overcame Rhys ab Owain, who fled ; and Trahaiarn 
ab Caradog pursued him so closely that he captured him 
and his brother Hywell besides, and put them to death 
in revenge for the slaughter of his uncle, Bleddyn ab 

In A.D. 1089, the sons of Cadwgan attacked the Nor- 
mans, who had invaded Dyfed and Ceredigion and ravaged 
their lands ; but in spite of all their eff'orts Earl, Roger de 
Montgomerie, upon whom William the Conqueror had 

' Brut y Tytvysogion. 


conferred the Palatinate of Shrewsbury in 1071, took the 
greatest portions of the lands of Powys, Fferlys, and Cere- 
digion, and his son Aruulph took a great portion of Dyfed, 
and Bernard Newmarch established himself in Brecheiniog, 
and others took lands in other parts of Wales, and made 
castles and walled towns in every place to defend them- 
selves against the men of the country, taking spoil from 
one and giving it as a reward to another, thus deceiving 
the simple and those that were not well affected to their 
native princes. Thus the Normans worked more by arti- 
fice than manliness, in the same manner as the Saxons 
did before them, in such a manner that they disfranchised 
the Cymry of their govern nients, their territories, and 
their lands, and corrupted the men of the country with 
their gifts. In a.d. 1090, Roger de Montgomerie took 
the Castle of Baldwin, and made it very strong, and 
called it by his own name Montgomery. 

In A.D. 1094 Prince Cadwgan ab Bleddyn and Gruf- 
fydd ab Cynan, King of Gwynedd, marched their forces 
into Dyfed and Ceredigion, and defeated and slew many 
of the Normans, for the Cymry could no longer bear the 
injustice, privation of privilege, and arrogance the Nor- 
mans exercised over them, and thus the country acquired 
much of its privilege and liberty. 

At this time the Normans invaded Gwynedd with a 
great force, and Prince Cadwgan marched against them, 
and a battle was fought at Coed Yspys, in which Cadw- 
gan defeated the Normans and killed many of them ; 
then Cadwgan, together with Gruffydd ab Cynan, invaded 
England, and ravaged Hereford, Shrewsbury, and Wor- 
cester, and slew an immense number of the English ; and 
when William Bufus, King of England, understood this, 
he went against them, but to little purpose, for the Cymry 
enticed him to the mountains, and there, w^ithout a regular 
battle, they killed half his men, and he was forced to retire 
with great loss and shame. 

In A.D. 1095 Uchtryd and Hywel, the sons of Edwin 
ab Goronwy, Prince of Tegeingl, and the sons of Prince 
Cadwgan, came into Dyfed and Ceredigion, and devas- 


tated the lands and castles of the Normans, and slew 
them unsparingly whenever they found them, and then 
returned home with an immense booty. 

In A.D. 1096, William Rufus came to Wales to revenge 
the slaughter of his nation committed by the Cymry, but 
the Cymry prayed with confidence to God, bestowed 
alms, and did justice, and went to meet the great army 
of the king, and slew them without trepidation, until he 
was obliged to return empty-handed and with great 

In the same year the nobles of Mona revolted against 
their lawful prince, Gruffydd ab Cynan, and put them- 
selves under the protection of Hugh, Earl of Chester, and 
Lord of Aberlleiniog, and were joined by the men of the 
country and many of the army, for treachery subsisted 
in that country ever since the time of Edwin, King of 
the Saxons. Then the nobles of the country held their 
lands under Earl Hugh ; and the Princes Gruffydd ab 
Cynan and Cadvvgan ab Bleddyn were obliged to flee 
to Ireland and leave them to do as they pleased. Then 
the Normans and English came to the Island of Mona, 
and made Owain ab Edwyn, a fictitious prince there, to 
reconcile the Cymry. Owain bore gules, three men's 
legs, conjoined at the thighs in triangle, arge^it, and was 
the eldest son of Edwyn ab Goronwy, Prince of Tegeingl. 

In A.D. 1097, Gwrgeneu, King of Powys, was slain by 
Tudor, Elidur, and Iddon, the sons of Phys Sais, Lord of 
Chirk, Maelor Saesneg, and Nanheudwy. In the end of 
the year 1098, Gruffydd ab Cynan and Cadwgan ab Bled- 
dyn, returned from Ireland to Wales ; and Gruffydd, with 
an army of Scots from Ireland, regained Mona, and Cad- 
wgan regained Ceredigion, Arwystli, and Meirionydd. 

In A.D. 1105, Owain, one of the younger sons of Prince 
Cadwgan ab Bleddyn, killed Meurig and Gruffydd, the 
sons of Trahaiarn ab Caradog, King of Gwynedd. In 
this year Meredydd ab Bleddyn escaped from prison, and 
recovered his territory without competition. 

In A.D. 1107, Cadwgan ab Bleddyn made an honour- 
able feast, and invited the chieftains and nobles of the 

VOL. V. 4 


country, from every district in Wales, to Cardigan Castle, 
where he resided ; and to show the greatest respect to the 
guests, he invited the bards and the best vocal and instru- 
mental minstrels to be obtained in Wales, and placed 
chairs for them, and emulatory productions, according to 
the customs of the feasts of King Arthur; and at that feast 
he gave to them customs, privileges, and honourable gifts, 
and dismissed them with donatory rewards and honourable 
privileges to each on his departure to the place of his 
abode. And at that feast, Owain ab Cadwgan saw Nesta, 
the daughter of Rhys ab Tewdwr, and wife of Gerald, 
seneschal of the Castle of Pembroke, and loved her greatly 
for the beauty of her aspect and form and the gentle 
bearing of her manners ; and in a short space of time he 
collected companions, and by their assistance he laboured 
until he obtained admission into the castle and carried off 
Nesta by violence, and against her will, to Powys, and kept 
her there, notwithstanding all his father and King Henry 
could do to persuade him to restore the lady to her hus- 
band. The King, seeing that, incited the chieftains of 
Powys against Owain, who expelled him from the country, 
and likewise expelled Cadwgan, his father, from his terri- 
tory, and devastated his lands, until he was obliged, with 
his son Owain, to flee to Ireland. 

In A.D. 1108, Cadwgan came back from Ireland, and 
put himself under the King's safety, and represented to 
him that he was not concerned in the deed of his son 
Owain. Then he made his peace with the King for a 
hundred pounds, and had possession of his territory. Be- 
fore the end of the year, Owain came from Ireland to 
Powys, and endeavoured to make his peace with the King, 
but could not. Then he became reconciled with his cousin 
Madog ab Rhirid ab Bleddyn, for previously there had 
been hatred and enmity between them ; and they made a 
mutual compact. Then they ravaged the country, and 
committed devastations wherever they went, and neither 
the counsel nor advice of their relatives and friends could 
induce them to do otherwise. 

In A.D. 110.9, lorwerth, Lord of Powys, a younger son 


of Bleddyn ab CjDfyn, who had been most unmercifully 
and unjustly thrown into prison in 1101 by King Henry, 
on a false charge of treason having been brought against 
him by the Earl of Shrewsbury, purchased his freedom 
and territory for three hundred pounds, and after coming 
to his territory, he expelled his nephews, Owain and 
Madog, from his country, who fled to Ceredigion and 
Dyfed, doing all the mischief in their power in their pro- 
gress, and carried the whole of their spoil to the territory 
of their uncle lorwerth ; and a short time afterwards they 
killed some of the King's officers, on which account the 
King was greatly enraged against Cadwgan, because he 
did not control his son Owain, and took his country from 
him and forbad him his country. The territory was 
bestowed on Gilbert, son of Richard, and Cadwgan was 
honourably entertained in London, without being put in 
prison, but was not allowed on any account to go back to 

A short time afterwards, Madog ab Rhirid returned 
from Ireland to Powys with some outlaw Irishmen, 
and took up his abode in the territory of his uccle 
lorwerth ; and, when lorwerth knew that, he harassed 
him so that he was obliged to hide in rocky caves ; and 
Llywarch, the son of Trahaiarn ab Caradog, who hated 
lorwerth, confederated with Madog and his Irish follow- 
ers, and they watched lorwerth, and discovered him in 
the house of a relation of his at Caer Einion, where they 
came upon him and killed him, and burnt the house and 
everything in it ; and when King Henry heard that, he 
gave Powys to Cadwgan, and placed him in his country 
and territory, and sent to Owain in Ireland, and made 
peace with him, on condition that he delivered Madog 
and his men to his disposal, to be dealt with according 
to law ; and when Madog understood that, he projected 
treachery against Cadwgan, and shortly came upon him 
unawares and mercilessly killed him. This occurred at 

After this Owain went to the King, and purchased 

his land and territory from him for the value of a hun- 



dred pounds in oxen and horses. Then Madog procured 
peace from the King by purchase, and obtained his land 
and territory for the value of a hundred pounds in raoney ; 
but in A.D. 1110, Prince Meredydd ab Bleddyn seized 
Madog and gave him to Ovvain, who pulled out his eyes 
and then set him at liberty, and Meredydd and Owain 
shared his territory between them. 

During this time Owain ab Cadwgan was ravaging 
without remorse all around him, being so habituated to 
crimes that he had no inclination to do otherwise ; and 
Gruffydd ab Cynan determined upon recovering his law- 
ful rights from the hands of Hugh, Earl of Chester. Upon 
which the King collected a mighty army from every dis- 
trict of his kingdom, and came against the Cymry, upon 
which Gruffydd and Owain withdrew to the mountains 
of Eryri ; and the King's soldiers in following them, were 
miserably slaughtered without being able to injure the 
Welsh. Upon which the King sent messengers to Gruf- 
fydd to propose conditions of peace ; which conditions 
Gruffydd did not consider right, and rejected. But Owain, 
from fear of the King, accepted his peace, and afterwards 
went to the King's court, and was made a knight, and 
accompanied the King to Normandy, and received great 
honour from him. 

In A.D. 1112, Sir Owain ab Cadwgan returned from 
Normandy with the King, and came to Wales, where the 
King visited him honourably. 

In A.D. 1113, the sons of Cadwgan ab Bleddyn, for 
some displeasure conceived against the sons of Uchdryd 
ab Edwyn, took and dismantled the Castle of Cymmer, 
which had been built by the sons of Uchdryd upon a bank 
near the monastery of Cymmer, called y Pentref. This 
castle, as also the monastery, was situate in the township 
of Nannau, in the parish of Llanfacraith, in the Comot 
of Tal y Bont, which Comot, with that of Ystumanner, 
formed the Cantref of Meirion. 

In A.D. 1114, Sir Owain ab Cadwgan went at the 
request of the King, together with Llywarch ab Tra- 
haiarn, against Gruffydd ab Rhys, Prince of South 


Wales. And when Gerald, the seneschal of the Castle of 
Pembroke, heard of the arrival of Owain in Ceredigion, 
calling to mind what Owain had done to his wife Nesta, 
he meditated revenging that injury, and marched with 
the army of Prince Gruffydd against Owain ; and early 
in the battle Owain was slain by an arrow ; and so it 
happened to him, for the injuries he had done to the 
Welsh nation, greater than had ever been inflicted before 
him by the worst traitor ever known. From him originated 
the Mawddwy Banditti, who for years after continued to 
rob the country far and near. 

In A.D. 1115, there was a war between Hywel ab Ithel 
ab Rhirid ab Bleddyn, Lord of Rhos and Rhufoniog,^ and 
Llywarch ab Edwin ab Goronwy, and as it could not be 
settled, Hywell sent to Prince Meredydd ab Bleddyn, 
and the sons of Cadwgan ab Bleddyn, for assistance, who 
came with four hundred horsemen to Dyffryn Clwyd ; 
and there a severe battle took place, in which the best of 
the men of Gwynedd and Powys were slain. And by 
the assistance he received, Hywel ab Ithel conquered his 
enemies, and there Llywarch was slain ; and before long 
Hywel died from a wound he received in battle. Then 
the sons of Cadwgan returned to the country of Meiriou, 
and took immense spoil with them in corn and cattle. 

In A.D. 1122, Morgan ab Cadwgan ab Bleddyn, killed 
his brother Meredydd, Lord of Meirionydd, with his own 
hand; but in a.d. 1126 he began to feel the compunc- 
tions of conscience, upon which he determined to go on 
a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and on his return he died in 
the island of Cyprus in the Levant. 

In A.D. 1126, Llewelyn ab Sir Owain slew lorwerth, 
son of Llywarch ab Trahaiarn ab Caradog ; and soon 
afterwards Llewelyn's eyes were pulled out by Meredydd 
ab Rhirid ab Bleddyn. 

In the same year leuan ab Sir Owain was killed by the 
same Meredydd.^ 

In A.D. 1129, lorwerth ab Sir Owain was killed by 
Cadwallon, son of Gruffydd ab Cynan, King of Gwynedd. 

^ Rhiwfawniog. ^ Brut y Tytvysogion. 


Then Einioii ab Sir Owain sought to revenge his brother's 
death on Cadwallon ; in conjunction, therefore, with 
Cadwgan ab Goronwy ab lorwerth, knowing where Cad- 
wallon was to come in Nanheudwy, he lay in ambush ; 
and when Cadwallon came that way, he rushed upon him 
and killed him and gave his body as meat for dogs. 

Madog, the third son of Prince Cadwgan ab Bleddyn, 
was Lord of Nannau in Meirionydd. He married, first, 
Eva, daughter and heiress of Madog ab Philip, one of the 
sons of Uchtryd ab Edwyn, Lord of Cyfeiliog, by whom 
he had a son named Meurig, who succeeded his father as 
Lord of Nannau, and was the ancestor of the Nannaus of 
Nannau, Vaughans of Nannau, Hengwrt and Caerynwch, 
the Derwases of Cemmaes, and the Lloyds of Cwm 
Bychan and Blaen Glyn. He married, secondly, Jane, 
daughter of Cynwrig ab Bhiwallon, Lord of Maelor 
Gymraeg, by whom he was father of Khiwallon, who was 
the ancestor^ of the families of Gwynns of Llanidloes, 
Jones of Treweithan, Jones of Clegyrddwr in Llanbryn- 
mair (1698), Meredydd of Gowres (1699) Pryse, Lords 
of Llanllugan, Maurice of Llandinam, Powel of Maes- 
mawr, Hughes of Llanlloddian (1699), Maurice of Llan- 
gurig, and Wynn of Gungrog and Trelydan in Guilsfield 
(1699). Madog married, thirdly, Eva,^ daughter of Einion 
ab Seisyllt, Lord of Mathafarn, by whom he had a son 
named Einion, who was the father of Madog Hyddgam of 
Cil Talgarth, in the parish of Llanfor, who bore azure, a 
bow and arrow, distended and pointed downwards, argent. 
—(See Cil Talgarth.) 

1 Harl. MSS. 1969, 2299; Add. MSS. 9864-5; Lewi/s Bxvnn, 
vol. i. 

2 Her brother Goronwy was one of the witnesses to a charter of 
Prince Gwenwynwyn to the Abbey of Strata Marcella in a.d. 1185. 
— Mont. Coll., vol. viii, p. 27. 



(Lewys Dtvnn, vol. ii.) 

Madog ah=j=lst, Efa, d. and heiress of=j=2nd, Jane,j3. of Cyn-=:p3rd, Eva, d 

Cadwgan, " ' " ~ .._..-. 

Lord of 

Madog ab Philip ab Uch- 
dryd, Lord of Cyfeiliog, 
ab Edwin ab Goronwy. 

wrig ab Ehiwall- of Einion ab 
awn. Lord of Maelor i Seisyllt, 
Gymraeg. i Lord of 


Meurig, Lord=j=Gwenllian, d. and heiress of Rhiwallawn. Einion ab Madog 
of Nannau. I lorwerth ab Peredur ab See p. 59. of Gil Talgarth. 
I Ednowain ab Bradwen. See p. 64. 

Ynyr, Lord of Nannau. =pGwerfyl, d. and heiress of Madog ab Llywarch. 

Ynyr Fychan,i Lord of=j=Gwenllian, d. of Gruffydd ab Gwen ab Goronwy ab 
Nannau. I Einion ab Seisyllt. 

1 Amongst the petitions preferred to Edward, Prince of Wales, at 
Kennington, 23 Edw. I, is one from this Ynyr, stating that the King 
had given to him the office of Raglor of the Comot of Tal y Bont, for 
his service in taking Madog ab Llywelyn, who in the last war had 
made himself Prince of Wales, and had delivered him up to the King 
(Record of Caernarvon, p. 220). The petition was not granted, inas- 
much as Ynyr could show no charter or title to the office. He, and 
various others, were charged, in the Parliament of 15th and 16th 
Edw. II, with attacking, on the next Wednesday after the Feast of 
S. Gregory, 15th Edw. IT, the Castle of John de Grey, at Ruthin, 
setting fire to the town, and killing two men {Rolls of Parliament, 
vol. i, p. 397). 



I a 
Meurig,! Lord of= 
Nannau. l 

=Angharad, d. of GiufFydd ab Owain ab Bleddyn ab Owain 

Meurig Llwydj= 
Lord of 


=Mallt, d, of Howel Pickell ab David ab Goronwy ab lorwerth 
ab Howel ab Moreiddig ab Sanddef Hardd, Lord of 


Howel =f=Mali, d. of Einion ab GrufFydd ab Lly- 


Lord of 


welyn ab Cynwrig ab Osbern Wyddel 
of Cors y Gedol. 

GruflPydd Derwas of Cem- 
niaes. Esquire of the 
Body to King Henry 

Meurig =y=Angharad, d, of Dafydd ab Cadwgan of Llynwent in the parish 
Fychan, of Llanbistair, co. Radnor, ab Philip Dorddu ab Howel ab Madog 

Lord of ab Howel ab Gruffydd ab Goronwy ab Gwrgeneu ab Hoedlin 

Nannau. Goch ab Cadwgan ab Elystan Glodrhudd, Prince of Fferlis. 
See vol. ii, p. 323. 

The above-named Angharad was sister of Dafydd Fychan of 
Llynwent, who was slain in an ambuscade, together with leuan 
ab Gruffydd ab Howel Lloyd of Clochfaen, in the reign of Henry 
VI. See vol. ii, p. 274, and note, p. 275. 

David ab Meu- 
rig', Lord of 

=Elen, d. of Howel ab Ehys ab Dafydd, Lord of E<ig, ab 
Howel ab Gruifydd ab Owain ab Bleddyn ab Owain 
Brogyntyn, Lord of Dinmael and Edeyrnion. 

Howel Nan-=j=lst, Elen, d. of Eobert=2nd, Lowry, dau. of William ab 
nau. Lord of I Salusbury of Lleweni, Gruffydd ab leuan ab Ehys ab 
Nannau. | ab Thomas Salusbury Tudor of Ehiw Goch in Traws- 
I Hen. fynydd. 

Lord of 

=Jane, d. of Humphrey 
ab Howel ab leuan 
of Ynys y Maengw- 

of Cefn 

|3 |4 

Dafydd Lloyd of Lewys 

Cwm Bychan. See Gwyn. 

vol. iv, p. 381. 

Hugh : 
Lord of 

=Annest, d. of 
Rhys Vaugh- 
an of Cors y 

John Nannau. He 
married Elizabeth, d. 
of Dafydd Lloyd of 
Trawsfj'nydd, and had 
issue two daughters, 
Elen and Jane. 

Margaret, ux. Wil- 
liam ab Tudor ab 
Gruffydd abEdny- 
fed of Egryn 




^ His tomb, on which is the following inscription, is still to 
be seen in Dolgelli Church: — " Hic iacet meuric filius ynyr 



Gruffydd Nan-= 
nau, Lord of 
Nannau, M.P. 
for CO. Meiri- 
onydd in Nov. 

:Elen, d. of John Wynn ab Cadwaladr Robert 

of Plas yn Ehiwlas, Esq., ab Robert, Nannau, 

son of Rhys ab Maredydd of Voelas, in 

Standard Bearer to Henry VII at London, 
the battle of Bosworth. See vol. 

iv, p. 102. 

d I e 
06. s. p. 

Richard Nannau, Rector 
of Llangelynin, and 
Vicar of Towyn. 

Edward Nannau, married Eliza- 
beth, d. of Lewys Gwynn of 
Dolau Gwyn,i and was ances- 
tor of the Nannaus of Maes y 


Lord of 

Nannau, High 

Sheriff for co. 


1627 and 1638; 

06. 1647 or 


-Anne, dau. of Gruffydd 
Vaughan of Cors y Gedol. 
High Sheriff for co. Mei- 
rionydd, 1588 and 1603, 


William Nan- 
nau, married 
Elen, d. of 
Edward Ed- 

06. s.p. 

Catharine, born 12th Dec. 1594;=f=Robert Vaughan of 
ob. 25th Jan, 1662-3. V Hengwrt, the Anti- 

quary. See vol. iv. 

Colonel Hugh Nannau, Lord of Nannau.= 
He died M.P. for the county of Meirion- 
ydd, and Vice-Admiral of North Wales, 
in 1701-2. and was buried at Llanfach- 

=Catharine, d. of William Vaugh- 
an of Cors y Gedol, Esq., and 
relict of Gruffydd Wynn of 
Bodeon, Esq., co. Caernarvon. 

Anne, 06. Catha- =p William Vaughan of Cors 

s. p., rine, y Gedol, Custos Rotu- 

1729, married lorum, and M.P. for co. 

aged 37. 1732. Meirionydd. 

Janet, =f=Robert Vaughan 
heiress V of Hengwrt, 
of Esq. See vol. iv. 


Anne, ux. David Jones Gwynn of Taliaris, co. Caermardden, Esq. ; ob. s. p., 

Sept. ], 1767. 

^ Lewys Gwyn of Dolau Gwyn^ in the parish of Towyn, was the 
second son of John Wynn ab Humphrey ab Howel ab Jeukyn ab 
lorwerth of Ynys y Maen Gwyn, ab Einion ab Gruffydd ab Llywelyn 
ab Cynwrig ab Osborn Wyddel of Cors y Gedol. 




Ricbard Nannau of Cefn Deuddwr,=j=Elizabeth, d. of the Baron Lewys 
son of Howel Nannau of Nannau. | Owen of Dolgelli. 


:Eliw, d. of Rhys Hughes, Sheriff for co. Meirionydd, 1582, son 
of Hugh ab Rhys of Maes y Pandy, in the parish of Tal y 
Llyn, ab leuan ab Gwilym ab Rhys Lloyd ab Adam ab Rhys 
ab Howel ab Einion Sais.^ 

Gwen, ux. Howel ab Rhys ab Hugh 
of Maes y Pandy. 

Margaret. Mary. 

Richard =rElizabethj d. of William 


ab David Lloyd of Gwyn 

David = Elizabeth, d. of Howel ab 
Nannau. David Lloyd, 

Lewys ^Gwen, d. of Robert Lloyd of Rhiw Goch in Trawsfynydd, M. P. 
Nannau, j " -..^ • ■ 1 1 ■- ^-^^ ^.-, -^-.a ^^^ ci ^ _.. 


for CO. Meirionydd in 1586 and 1614; High Sheriff in 1596, 
1602, 1615, 1625 ; and was living in 1636. Her mother was 
Margaret, d. of Hugh Nannau of Nannau, Esq. Argent, a 
chev. sable, inter three Cornish choughs ppr., each with a 
spot of ermine in their beaks. 



The last lineal representative of this family died in the 
present century, when his estates passed under his will 
to his nephew, David Ellis of Gwynfryn, co, Caernarvon, 

^ Einion Sais bore argent, three cock% gules, crested and wattled or. 
He was the son of Rhys ab Howel ab Trahaiarn ab Gwgan ab Blaid- 
gywrydd ab Bleddyn ab Maenarch, Lord of Brecknock, son of Caradog 
Freichfras, King of Brycheiniawg {sable, a chevron inter three spears' 
heads argent, imbrued gules. 



Esq., who assumed, in consequence, the additional surname 
of Nannau. He died without issue in 1819, leaving the 
united properties of Gwynfryn and Cefn Deuddwr to his 
sister's son, Owen Jones of Brynkir, co. Caernarvon, Esq., 
who has taken after his own surname those of Ellis and 


(Add. MS. 9864.) 

Madog, Lord of Nannau, ab Cadw-= 
gan of Nannau, Prince of Powys 
(or, a lion rampt. azure), ab Bledd- 
yn. Prince of Powys ; or, a lion 
rampt. gules. See voL i. 

Sian, d. of Cynwrig ab Bhiwallawn, 
Lord of Maelor Gymraeg and Yr H61, 
and for some time King of North 
Wales by usurpation (ermine, a lion 
rampt. sable). He was slain in 1074, 
and was bviried at Wrexham. See 
vol. i. 

Ehiwallawn ab Madog of=f=Annesta, d. of Idnerth ab Cadwgan ab Elystan 
Cydewain. | Glodrhudd, Prince of Fferlis. See vol. ii. 

Dolphwyn ab=j=Jane, d. of Hywel ab leuaf. Lord of Arwystli. Argent, a 
Ehiwallawn. I lion rampt. sable, crowned or; but, according to others, 
I he bore gules, a lion rampt. argent, crowned or. See vol. i. 

Cynfelyn ab Dolphwyn, Loi'd of Manafon. "Cynfelyn oedd=f=Julian, d. of Sir 
yn dal y tair Manafon, Glyn Cogan, Duyrhiw, Dol Cyn- Roger Morti- 
felyn, oil Yngedewen; Llanllugan a Manafon; ac Maes- mer, Knt., 

raawr yn Arwystli, heb na mal na chilun ac am ei fod Earl of March, 
dat yn erbyn Arglwydd Cedewen y gelwyd ef yn fradwr." 
— James Dwnn. 



Einion ab Cyn-^ 
felyn. Lord of 

Azure, a lion 

passant, aryent. 

=Alson, d. of Maredydd ab Eotpert, Lord of Cydewain, son 
of Llywarch, eldest son of Trahaiarn ab Caradog, King 
of North Wales, who was slain in the year 1080. Mared- 
ydd ab Eotpert bore gules, a lion rampt. argent, crowned 
or, and did homage to Henry III, in 1241, for this lord- 
See vol. i. 

Maredydd Ddu of Maesmawr in^Annesta, d. of Einion Fychan of Moch- 
Arwystli. | dref. See vol. ii, p. 324. 

Gruffydd ab Mared-=pAlice, d. of Alo ab Ehiwallawn Llwyd of Trefnant. 
ydd of Maesmawr. | See " Pryse of Y Glewysegle", vol. iv. 

Adda Dhu of Maesmawr .=pEva, d. of Meilir ab Aaron Pen. 

Howel ab Adda of Hen-=f=Annest Gethin, d. of Dafydd ab Gruffydd Danwyn 
faes in Kerry. I of Hirgoed in Maelienydd. 

Adda ab= 
Howel of 

:Lleuci, d. of Philip Fychan ab Philip ab lorwerth ab Maredydd 
ab Madog Danwr of Llangurig. Ermine, a lion rampt. sable, 
in a border gules, charged with eight mullets or. See vol. ii. 

Ehys ab 
Adda of 

Angharad, ux. leuan ab Gruffydd Goch ab Philip ab lorwerth 
ab Maredydd ab Madog Danwr. See vol. ii, p. 270. 

=Isabel, d. and heir of David Lloyd ab David ab Howel Ddu ab 
Gruffydd ab Philip ab Owain Poel ab lorwerth ab Gwrgeneu 
ab Uchdryd ab Aleth, King of Dyfed. Azure, three cocks 
argent, crested and wattled or. 

leuan ab= 
Rhys of 

:Angharad, d. and heiress of Ehys ab Llywelyn ab Dafydd 
Chwith ab Ehys ab lorwerth of Cynwyl Gaio [sable, a wolf 
passant, argent, head and nails imbrued). Her mother was 
Anghared, d. and heiress of Llywelyn ab Philip ab Llywelyn 
ab lorwerth ab Gruffydd of Cefn yr Hafodau, ab Maredydd 
ab Madog Danwr of Llangurig. See vol. ii, p. 268. 

Maurice ab Ehys 

of Llangurig. 

See p. 63. 

David ab Ehys of= 

=Goleubryd, d. of leuan 
ab Gruffydd of Cloch- 


Llywelyn Lloyd=T=Angharad, d. of Jenkyn Goch ab leuan ab Gruffydd ab 
of Llanidloes. Howel Lloyd of Clochfaen, ab Llywelyn ab lorwerth ab 

I Maredydd ab Madog Danwr of Llangurig. See vol. ii. 

Owain =j=Catharine, d. and heiress of Lewys ab David ab Llywelyn of PwU 
Gwyn I Glas in Trefeglwys, ab Gruffydd Hirfain ab Gruffydd Llwyd ab 
of V Gruffydd Frasllwyd ab Gruffydd ab Meilir ab Selys ab Brochwel 
Llanid- ab Aeddan, Lord of Llanerch Brockwel {sable, three horse's heads 
loes. erased, argent). Her mother was Elen, d. of leuan Goch ab Lly- 

welyn y Cymro ab Llywelyn ab Adda ab Howel ab Gwrgeneu ab 
Gwrgeneu Fychan ab Hoedliw ab Cadwgan ab Elystan Glod- 


Owain Gwyn of Llanidloes had issue by his wife 
Catherine five sons and two daughters : — 

I. Morgan Gwyn, of whom presently. 

II. Jenkyn Gwyn, who married Elizabeth, daughter of 
Sir Thomas Gamage, Lord of Coetu in South Wales, by 
whom he had a son, Henry Gwyn. 

III. Gruffydd Gwyn, who married Angharad, daughter 
and heir of leuan ab Jenkyn Glynn ab leuan Llwyd, by 
whom he had issue three daughters, coheirs : — Margaret, 
ux. Owain ab David a,b Thomas of Llanidloes parish ; 
Elizabeth ; and Catherine, ux. Rhys ab David ab Llewelyn 
of Llandinam. 

IV. John Gwyn, M.A., Vicar of Llangurig, living 1.5 
Elizabeth, 1573. He married Margaret, daughter of 
Meredydd of Llandinam ab John ab Maredydd ab Khys 
of Glanmeheli in Kerry, descended from Elystan Glod- 
rhudd, Prince of Fferlis (see vol. iv), by whom he had six 
sons : — 1, Miles Gwyn ; 2,' Owain ; 3, Morgan ; 4, Ed- 
ward ; 5, John ; and 6, Lewys ; and three daughters : — 
1, Joyce ; 2, Margaret ; and 3, Catherine. For a further 
account of John Gwyn, see vol. ii, p. 292. 

I. Lowri, ux. David Lloyd Jenkyn of Berthlloyd, 
Sheriff for co. Mont., 1576. "(See Berthlloyd.) 

II. Margaret, ux. Jenkyn ab Jenkyn ab William of 
Cynwyl Gaio, ancestor of the Williamses of Llwyn yr 
Hyrddod in Llangurig, and descended from Meurig Goch, 
Lord of Cil y Cwm in Caermarddenshire, who bore sable, 
a wolf argent, his head and claws imbrued. (See vol. ii, 

Morgan Gwyn of Llanidloes, married Mallt, daughter 
and heiress of Lewys ab Maurice ab David ab Llewelyn 
ab leuan Llwyd ab Gruffydd Llwyd of Arwystli, ab 
David ab Howel Ddu ab Gruffydd ab Philip ab Owain 
Foel ab lorwerth ab Gvvrgeneu ab Uchdryd ab Aleth, 
King of Dyfed, who bore azure, three cocks argent, 
crested and wattled or, by whom he had issue five sons 
and one daughter : — 

I. John Gwyn, of whom presently. 

II. Lewys Gwyn, who married Mallt, daughter ol 


Lewys ab Howel ab leuaii Goch, and heiress of her 
brother, John ab Lewys, by whom he had issue two 
daughters, coheirs : — 1, Catherine, ux. Matthew Pryce of 
Park, second son of John Pryce of Newtown Hall, ab 
Matthew Pryce ab Thomas Pryse ab Rhys ab David 
Lloyd of Newtown Hall, Esquire of the Body to Edward 
IV, who fell at the battle of Banbury, 1469 ; and 2, Lowri, 
ux. David Blayney ab Ehys Blayney. 

III. Miles Gwyn. 

IV. Grufiydd Gwyn. 

V. Owain Gwyn, who married Catherine, daughter of 
leuan of Clochfaen Isaf, second son of Jenkyn ab Maurice 
ab Jenkyn Goch of Clochfaen, by whom he had two 
sons: — 1, Jenkyn Gwyn, who married Margaret, daughter 
of John Scourfield of the Moat, co. Pembroke, Esq. {gules, 
three greyhounds courant, argent, collared or), oh. s, p. ; 
and 2, Lewys ; and one daughter, Mallt, who married 
Jenkyn Vaughan of Llynwent in Llanbistair. (See vol. ii, 
p. 275.) 

John Gwyn of Llanidloes, married Joice, daughter of 
Robert Gamage, Esq., ab Sir Thomas Gamage, Knt., 
Lord of Coetu, by whom he had issue two sons and one 
daughter : — 

I. Edward Gwyn, of whom presently. 

II. Lewys Gwyn. 

I. Elizabeth, ux. Edward Lloyd of Talgarth in Trefeg- 
Iwys [sable, three horse's heads erased, argent). 

Edward Gwyn of Llanidloes, married Mallt, daughter 
of David Lloyd Jenkyn of Berthlloyd, High Sheriff for 
CO. Mont., 1576. 

Of this family was Richard Gwyn, alias White of 
Llanidloes, an account of whose martyrdom at Wrexham 
in 1584 has been given in vol. iii. 




{Earl MS. 1973; Add. MS. 9865.) 

Maurice of Llangurig',=pGwenllian, d. of Maurice ab David Tabarn ab David 
second son of Rhys I Llwyd ab Llywelyn ab Gruffydd Ddu of Ddwyrhiw, 
ab Adda ab Howel | ab GruflFydd of Maesmawr, ab Maredydd Ddu ab 
of Henfaes. I Einion ab Cynfelyn, Lord of Manafon. 

Llywelyn ab Maurice= 
of Llangurig; living 
5 Edward VI, 1552. 
See vol. ii, p. 293. 

=lst, Golenbryd, d. of= 
Thomas ab Rhys, 
second son of Gruff- 
ydd ab Howel Lloyd 
of Clochfaen. 

=Elen, d. of Maurice ab Jen- 
kyn Goch of Clochfaen. 

"n I 

David Lloyd. Morgan. 

1 1 


Jenkyn ab Llywelyn=i 

pMary, d. 


= Mary, d. G\ 

of Llanyfyni in Llan- 

of Wil- 


of John 

gurig. On Grand 



Jury List for Llanid- 



loes, 10th Elizabeth, 

of Park. 


Gwenllian, ux. John 

ab Thomas ab 

Rhys ab David 


Maurice ab Jenkyn of^ Jane, ux. Richard Williams Elizabeth, ux. Jenkyn 
Llanyfyni. of Llwynrhyddod. ab David. 

Richard Maurice of Llanyfyni,=T=Catharine, d. of Edward ab Maurice ab John 

ab leuan Gwynn. 

Edward Maurice. 







{Harl. MSS. 1969.) 

Cadwgan of Nannau {or, a-pGwenllian, d. of GrufiFydd ab Cynan, King of 
lion rampant, azure) ; p. 1 Grwynedd. Gules, three lions passant in 
203. I pale, argent. 

Madog, Lord=f=Eva, d. of Einion ab Seisyllt, Lord of Mathafarn {argent, a 
of Nannau. lion passant, sable, inter three fleurs-de-lys, gules). Third 

I wife. 

Einion ab Madog of Gil Talgarth.=j= 

Madog Hyddgam of Gil Talgarth. He bore azure, a bow and arrow dis-= 
tended, pointed downwards, argent. He sold a certain portion of his 
lands in the Manor of Gil Talgarth to the monks of the Gistercian 
Monastery of Ystrad March ell. The boundaries of these lands are given 
in the "Inspeximus" Gharter of Edw. T, dated 12th March 1287. — (See 
Mont. Coll., vol. V, p. 109.) 

Cadw gan of Gil Talgarth = j=^ 

Ma dog of Gil Talgarth .=;= 

Gru ffydd of Gil Talgarth.= p 

leuan of Gil Talgarth, surnamed " Y Gott"; from this circumstance his= 
descendants were called "Y Cottiad". 

leuan Fychan of Cil Talgarth. 

David of Cil Talgarth. 

Madog of=F=Mali, d. of Tudor ab Goronwy Margaret, heiress, ux. David 


ab Howel Y Gadair of Gadair 
Benllyn, ab Madog ab lorwerth 
ab Madog ab Ehirid Flaidd, 
Lord of Penllyn. 

ab leuan Llwyd ab Goronwy 
ab Tudor ab Goronwy ab 
Howel y Gadair. 



]a, \b \ c \ cl \e 

David of=j=Mallt, d. of leuan. Meredydd, Gwerfyl, ux. Angharad, ux. 

CilTal- I leuan ab Ehys Lloyd of 

garth. I Meredydd ab Gydros.i 


Thomas of Gil Talgarth. =p 

Hugh of=f=Margaret, d. of Thomas Lloyd Gethin of Y Ddwyfaen in Din- 
Cil Tal- mael, eldest son of Howel Lloyd ab David ab Meredydd of 

garth. Bala. Vert, a chev. inter three wolf's heads erased argent. 

I See vol. iv, p. 120. 

William of Gil Talgarth. 


Evan Lloyd ab Edward Lloyd ab Richard ab Edward 
ab Humphrey ab Edward ab Dafydd ab Robert ab Howel 
ab Dafydd Lloyd, who fought at the battle of Bos worth, 
third son of Howel Nannau ab Dafydd, Lord of Nannau. 
John Lloyd of Cwm Bychan, Esq., is the present repre- 
sentative of this ancient family. (See p. 56.) 


Tudor Fychan ab Dafydd Llwyd, second son of Tudor 
Fychan, second son of Gruffydd ab HoweP ab GrufFydd 
Derwas. Robert Vaughan of Caerynwch, third in de- 
scent from the first-named Tudor Fychan, died in 1693. 
He married Margaret, one of the daughters of Robert 
Vaughan of Hengwrt, " the Antiquary", by whom he had 
an only daughter and heiress Grace, who married John, 

^ Rhys Lloyd of Gydros, was the son of Gruffydd ab Einion ab 
Rhys ab David of Garth Garmoii, ab Rhys Fychan ab Rhys of Garth 
Garmon ab Ednyfed Fychan, Lord of Bryn Ffanigl. 

^ Howel ab GrufFydd Derwas was farmer, under the Crown, of 
Pennantigi, Gwanas, and Llanfihangel, in co. Meirionydd, 9th, 10th, 
and 11th years of Edward IV, 

VOL. V. 5 


fourth son of Captain William Humphreys of Maerdy in 
Gwyddelwern, by Dorothy his wife, daughter of Peter 
Meurig of Ucheldref, Esq., who died and was buried at 
Kuthin in 1630. The great-grandchild of the above- 
named Grace, Catherine, only child of Eobert Vaughan 
Humphreys, Esq., Sheriff for co. Meirionydd in 1760, 
married the late Right Honourable Sir Richard Richards, 
Knt., Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer. Their eldest 
son, Richard Richards of Caerynwxh, was M.P. for co. 
Meirionydd in 1836. 


In this castle, Margaret, Queen of Henry VI, found 
refuge after the battle of Northampton ; and it has been, 
by a writer in the Cambrian Quartey^ly, with great proba- 
bility, conjectured that the song of Ffarwel iti Peggi/ 
Ban {i.e., exalted Peggy) was composed on account of 
her quitting it for France. Dafydd ab leuan ab Einion, 
its brave Constable in 1468 (see vol. iv, p. 369), for a 
long time withstood all the attempts of Sir Richard Her- 
bert, brother of the Earl of Pembroke, to take it, answer- 
ing to the summons — " that he had kept a castle in France 
so long that all the old women in Wales talked of him, 
and that he w^ould maintain this Castle of Harlech until 
all the old women of France should talk of him". 







(See vol. iv, p. 121.) 
Elystan Glodrhudd, Prince of Fferlis, Founder=j=Gwenllian, d 

of the Fourth Eoyal Tribe. 

of Einion ab 
Ovvain ab Howel Dda. 

Cadwgan, Lord of Maesyfed=[=Elen, d. of Brochwael ab Aeddan, Lord of 
and Biiallt. | Llanerch Brochwael in Powys. 

Lly welyn , Lord=j=Elen, d. and co-heir of Rhys ab Ai-on, Lord of Llangathan, 
of Buailt. I in CO. Caermardd , three stag's heads. 

Owain of=j=Alicej d. of Pas- 

Llanga- I gen ab Gwyn 

than. I ab Gruffydd. 

Elidur of Llangathan.=f= 

Sir Gruffydd ab Elidur,^ 
Knight of Rhodes. I 

Gwrgeneu, Lord of= 
Llangathan. j 

Elidur Goch, Lord of=f= 
Llangathan. | 


Elidur Fychan, Lord=j= 
of Llangathan. I 

Arddun, d. of Rhys 
Grug ab Yr Arglw- 
ydd Rhys, and she 
had all the Lordship 
of Llangathan for 
her portion. 

Owain ab Sir Gruffydd of Llangathan,= 
Esquire of the Body to Edward III. 

Goronwy Goch, Lord of Llanga- 

Llywelyn Ddu of Llangathan.- 
Llywelyn Foethus of Llan-=p 

=Elen, d. of Gwrwared, Lord of all Cemaes, ab 
Cyhelyn Vardd ab Gwynfardd Dyfed. Azure, 
a lion rampant or, in a border of Roses of 
the second. 

Gruffydd of Llangathan.=f 

Rhys of Llangathan.=j= 

Rhydderch of Llangathan. = 

Rhys ab Llywelyn.=j= 


Rhydderch. Lewys Glyn Cothi 
dressed an Ode to him. 


Thomas of Llangathan. He married Maud, d. of Jenkyn Lloyd Fychan of 
PwU Dyfach, ab Jenkyn Lloyd ab leuan Lloyd ab Llywelyn ab leuan 
Lloyd ab Llywelyn Voel ab Moreiddig ab Blegwryd ab Cadifor, Lord of 
Castell Howel. leuan Lloyd ab Llywelyn Voel married Elen, d. of Madog 
Voel ab leuan of PwU Dyfach, co. Pembroke, son of Llywelyn ab Cynwrig 
Efell. — Lewys Dwnn, vol. i, p. 143. 

5 2 



leuan Fychan ab Madog Fychan ab Adda Fychan ab Llda ab Hoedliw,=j= 
descended from larddur, Lord of Llechwedd Uchaf and Creuddin. 
See vol. iv, p. 82, and note at page opposite. I 

Maredydd ab leuan.^Margaret, d. of Llywelyn ab David, to Hedd Moelwy- 
I nog. 

Dio of Llantysilio.=j=Margaret, d. of Maredydd ab leuan Fychan. 


Howel ab Dio.=p 

John ab Howel.=pAnn, d. of Marchin ab Meurig Hir. 
Robert Jones. =p Joyce, d. of John Powys. 
David Jones.=f=Margaret, d. of Ehys Jenkyn. 
John Jones of Beaumaris.=p 

Richa rd Jones of Beaumaris. = r 

Hugh Jones of Beaumaris, 1650.=f = 

Hugh Jones of Bryn Hyrddin, Beaumaris ;=p Jane, d. of Richard Wynn of 
living in 1725. | Defas, Anglesey. 

Hugh Jones of Bryn Hyrddin=j=Margaret, d. of Thomas Bulkeley of Pyllan 
and Bangor. | Biedron. 

Hugh Jones, M.A., of Bryn Hyrddin,=r=Grace, only d. and eventual heiress 

Vicar of Caer Rhun, and Rector of 
Llanbedr-y-Cenin, instituted 1735; 
ob. 23rd January 1754 Will proved 
at Bangor, 1755. 

of Piobert Davies^ of Caer Rhun, co. 
Caernarvon, and Margaret his wife, 
d. of the Rev. Arthur Wynn of 
Vaenol, Bangor. 

26 I Ic I 2d I 3e 

^ Robert Davies of Caer Rhun was thirteenth in descent from Sir 
GrufF^'dd Liwyd, Knt., of Tref Garnedd, Anglesey, and Dinorwig, co. 



Hugh Jones of Caer 

Ehun and Bryn 
Hyrddin, took the 

name of Davies 
only, on succeeding 

to the Caer Ehun 
estate; High Sheriff 
for CO. Caernarvon 

in 1754, and for 
Anglesey 1755. Ob. 
2Uth Feb. 1771, s. p. 

1 6 








beth, ux, 

..., d. of 

first, Hugh 

... Bir- 

... Parry 

of Bentog; 







Parry of 




Catharine, succeeded 

to the estates of 

Caer Rhun and Bryn 

Hyrddin, under the 

will of her brother, 

Hugh Davies of 

Caer Ehun, and 

married Ealph 

Griflfith of Bron Gain. 

See vol. iv. 


The surface of the continent was for the most part covered 
with pathless forests ; here and there it was dotted with 
monasteries and towns. In the lowlands and along the river- 
courses were fens, sometimes hundreds of miles in extent, 
exhaling their pestiferous miasms, and spreading agues far and 
wide. In Paris and Loudon the houses were of wood, daubed 
with clay, and thatched with straw or reeds. They had no 
windows, and, until the invention of the saw-mill, very few 
had wooden floors. The luxury of a carpet was unknown ; 
some straw or rushes, scattered in the room, supplied its 
place. There were no chimneys ; the smoke of the ill-fed, 
cheerless fire escaped through a hole in the roof. In such 
habitations there was scarcely any protection from the weather. 
No attempt was made at drainage, but the putrefying garbage 
and rubbish were simply thrown out of the door. Men, 
women, and children slept in the same apartment ; not un- 
frequently domestic animals were their companions. In such 
a confusion of the family it was impossible that modesty or 
morality could be maintained. The bed was usually a bag of 
straw ; a wooden log served for a pillow. Personal cleanliness 

Caei'narvon, who was knighted by Edward I, on the occasion of his 
bringing to that monarch the first tidings of the birth of his son 
(afterwards Edward II) at Caernarvon Castle, in 1284. Hugh Davies 
of Caer Rhun, the only son of Robert, was SlierifF for co. Caernarvon 
in 1713, and died without issue in 1721. 

The Arms of the Joneses of Bryn Hyrddin are — Azure, in base a 
mount vert, thereon a stag statant argent, attired and unguled or ; 
Crest — a dexter arm vested azure, cuti'ed argent, hand or, holding a 
battle-axe argent, handle gules. 


was utterly unknown ; great officers of State, even dignitaries 
so high as the Archbishop of Cantei'bury, swarmed with vermin. 
Such, it is related, was the condition of Thomas k Becketj the 
antagonist of an English king. To conceal personal impurity, 
perfumes were necessarily profusely used. The citizen clothed 
himself in leather, which, with its ever-accumulating impurity, 
might last for many years. He was considered to be in cir- 
cumstances of ease if he could procure fresh meat once a week 
for his dinner. The streets had no sewers ; they were without 
pavement or lamps. After nightfall, the chamber-shutters were 
thrown open, and slops unceremoniously emptied down, to the 
discomfiture of the wayfarer tracking his path through the 
narrow streets with his dismal lantern in his hand. 

-^neas Sylvius, who afterwards became Pope Pius II, and 
was therefore a very competent and impartial writer, has left 
us a graphic account of a journey he made in the British 
Islands about 1430 (temp. Henry VI). He describes the houses 
of the peasantry as constructed of stones put together without 
mortar; the roofs were of turf; a stiffened bull's-hide served 
for a door. The food consisted of coarse vegetable products, 
such as peas, and even the bark of trees ; in some places they 
were unacquainted with bread. Cabins of reeds, plastered with 
mud ; houses of wattled stakes; chimneyless peat-fires, from 
which there was scarcely an escape for the smoke; dens of 
physical and moral polution, swarming with vermin ; wisps of 
straw twisted round the limbs to keep ofi" the cold ; the ague- 
strickened peasant with no help except shrine-cure. 

Such was the condition of the peasantry and of the common 
inhabitants of cities. Not much better was that of the nobles. 
William of Malmesbury, speaking of the degraded manners of 
the Anglo-Saxons, says : — '^ Their nobles, devoted to gluttony 
and voluptuousness, never visited the church, but the matins 
and the mass were read over to them by a hurrying priest in 
their bedchambers, before they rose, themselves not listening. 
The common people were a prey to the more powerful ; their 
property was seized ; their bodies dragged away to distant 
countries ; their maidens were either thrown into a brothel or 
sold for slaves. Drinking, day and night, was the general 
pursuit ; vices, the companions of inebriety, followed, efiemi- 
nating the manly mind." The baronial castles were dens of 
robbers. The Saxon chronicler records how men and women 
were caught, and dragged into these strongholds, hung up by 
their hands or feet, fire applied to them, knotted strings twisted 
round their heads^ and many other torments inflicted to extort 


All over Europe the great and profitable political offices were 
filled by ecclesiastics. Documents were dated on such or such 
a day of the week after the festival of one or other of their 
saints. In every countxy there was a dual government — 1, 
that of a local kind, represented by a temporal sovereign ; 2, 
that of a foreign kind, acknowledging that of the Pope. This 
Roman influence was, in the natui-e of things, superior to the 
local; it expressed the sovereign will of one man over all the 
nations of the Continent conjointly, and gathered overwhelm- 
ing power from its compactness and unity. The local influence 
was necessarily of a feeble nature, since it was commonly 
weakened by the rivalries of conterminous states, and the 
dissensions dexterously provoked by its competitor. On not 
a single occasion could the various European states form a 
coalition against their common antagonist. Whenever a ques- 
tion arose, they were skilfully taken in detail, and commonly 
mastered. The ostensible object of Papal intrusion was to 
secure for the different peoples moral well-being ; the real 
object was to obtain large revenues, and give support to vast 
bodies of ecclesiastics. The revenues thus abstracted were 
not unfrequently m.any times greater than those passing into 
the treasury of the local power. Thus, on the occasion of 
Innocent IV demanding provision to be made for three hun- 
dred additional clergy by the Church of England, and that one 
of his nephews (a mere boy) should have a stall in Lincoln 
Cathedral, it was found that the sum already annually abstracted 
by foreign ecclesiastics from England was thrice that which 
went into the coffers of the king. 

While thus the higher clergy secured every political appoint- 
ment worth having, and abbots vied with counts in the herds 
of slaves they possessed — some, it is said, owned not fewer than 
twenty thousand — begging friars pervaded society in all dii'ec- 
tions, picking up a share of what still remained to the poor. 
There was a vast body of non-producers, living in idleness, 
and owning a foreign allegiance, who were subsisting on the 
fruits of the toil of the labourer. Outside the monastic insti- 
tutions no attempt at intellectual advancement was made. 

An illiterate condition everywhere prevaihng, gave oppor- 
tunity for the development of superstition. Europe was full of 
disgraceful miracles. On all the roads pilgrims were wending 
their way to the shrines of saints, renowned for the cures 
they had wrought. For the prevention of diseases, prayers 
were put up in the churches, but no sanitary measures were 
resorted to. From cities reeking with putrefying filth, it was 
thought that the plague might be stayed by the prayers of the 


priests ; by theua rain and dry weather might be secured, and 
deliverance obtained from the baleful influences of eclipses 
and comets. But when Halley^s comet came, in 1456, so 
tremendous was its apparition, that it was necessary for the 
Pope himself to interfere. He exoi-cised and expelled it from 
the skies. It slank away into the abysses of space, terror- 
stricken by the maledictions of Calixtus III, and did not ven- 
ture back for seventy-five years. ^ 


{See vol. i.) 

Harl. MSS., No. 2017, is an odd volume filled with clever 
pen-and-ink sketches of coats of arms. " J). J." says : " I take 
it to be a general illustration of British heraldry." At page 
84 is given a couple of shields, prefaced with — " These cots 
in the church at Oswastrie, 1586 — September the 18th." The 
arms in question may be thus described : — 1st and 3rd gules, 
a lion rampant or (Fitzalan), 2nd and 4th, chequy or and azure 
(Warren), impaling the arms of Portugal, argent, five escut- 
cheons in cross azure, each charged with as many plates in 
saltire; the whole within a bordure gules, upon which seven 
castles or. These were the arms borne by Beatrice of Portu- 
gal, Countess of Arundel and Surrey (temp. Henry Y), the lady 
who gave the name to one of our Oswestry streets. The other 
shield, stated to have been in Oswestry Church in 1586, was 
also that of Fitzalan and Warrene quarterly, but impaling the 
arms of the See of Canterbury. Thomas Fitzalan, or Arundel, 
Archbishop Cantuar 1396-1414, was the son of Robert Fitz- 
alan, thirteenth Earl of Arundel. 


{See vol. iv, p. 277.) 

In Prebendary Havergal's Monumental Inscriptions in the 
Cathedral Church of Hereford occurs the following record : — 
Humphrey Humphreys, ob. a.d. 1712. Buried in the choir 
beneath a black marble slab which was placed in the south- 

^ Conflict of Religion and Science. Draper. 


east transept when the new pavement was laid down [during 
the restoration of the Cathedral] a.d. 1861. 

Hie jacet 

HuMPHREDUs Humphreys, S.T.P. 

Primo decanus ) mdclxxx f ■„ 

,^ . } < Bangorensis. 

Mox episcopus j mdclxxxxix ( " 

Inde Herefordiam translates mdcci. 

Tandem vitse satur et cselo maturus 

Obit xxo die Novembris a.d. mdccxii. 

^tatis suEe LXiii. 

Cujus ad exemplnm si vixeris, amice Lector, mori non timebis. 

In a note it is added that '^ the Arms of this Bishop are well 
cut on the stone — Quarterly, 1, gules, a lion rampant argent; 
2, three eagles displayed in fesse ; 3, three lions passant; 4, 
three children's heads couped at the neck with a sei'pent 



{See vol. iv, p. 388.) 

In a printed list of the descendants of Hedd Moelwynog, 
the Lloyds of Rhandir are given. By the following inscrip- 
tion, it appears that this place was called Rhanhir. 

On the side of a raised tomb of freestone in the churchyard 
of Llangerniew, is the following inscription. The letters are 
raised in relief: — 

" Here lyeth the body of Harry Lloyd of Ehanheire, Gentleman, 
ye Sonne of Roger Lloyd, Esq^^^ husband to Mary Lloyd, daughter of 
Thomas Lloyd of Kymddel in Llansannan, Esq^^e, who died y^* 14*^ of 
April, Ano D 1665, aged 72 six months and live days." 


At a meeting recently held in the English Wesleyan Chapel, 
Aberystwyth, the Rev. E. Lloyd Jones delivered a somewhat 
remarkable address, in the course of which he expressed his 
regret that he had to depart from the town. " My supreme 
purpose'', he said, '' was to make this a Methodist Chui^ch — 
not a Salvation Army on the one side, or a Church of England 
on the other. It has not pleased God to allow me to carry 

^ Oswestry Advertiser, April 23rd, 1884. 


out that design ; I hope my successor will be a man who will 
try not to mix what will not mix. You cannot mix oil and 
water. You cannot mix blood and fire with sweetness and 
light. The motto of my ministry has never been ' Blood and 
fire'. I do not believe in one or the other. The motto of my 
ministry has always been ' Sweetness and light'. Now, I am not 
criticising any form of Church government, any mode of con- 
ducting Church worship. A man may stand on his head if he 
thinks he will do more good by standing on his head than on 
his feet. I have nothing to say to it ; but when I came here, 
what made me feel that I had come to the wrong place was 
the fact that the motto of this Church was ' Blood and fire'. 
The difficulty I have had to contend with in this place has been 
simply to strike another key. A great deal is said to-day, and 
the world is going mad upon one subject. It is mad on the 
subject of how to raise the masses, its cry is the bitter cry 
of the outcast ; but I hear cries other than those of the out- 
cast. I hear cries from the thoughtful middle classes. I hear 
cries from the intellectual and the thoughtful in our congrega- 
tions. I hear people who say, and say with all sincerity and 
earnestness, that the tambourine is not going to solve every 
problem, that some one must be a student, that some one must 
think before he speaks, that some one must try to solve the 
honest doubts and the sincere questions that are surging up 
in the minds of many in this town of Aberystwyth .... If 
any man asks me what is a perfectly religious man, I say, a 
perfectly candid man. Class meeting or not class meeting, 
church or no church, noisy prayers or not noisy prayers, give 
me a candid man. I have received great kindness from people 
in this town who do not call themselves Christians. I have 
been very much on the look-out for gentlemen. I do not mean 
wealthy men. A gentleman cannot be mean : a ' Christian' 
can. Many gentlemen cannot be hypocritical : a ' Christian' 
can. But from ladies and gentlemen in Aberystwyth I have 
received kindness that will fetch me back to Aberystwyth any 
time you want me to come." 


Dr. Schliemann has added another spray to his already 
luxuriant laurels. " Three cheers for" — or, as he prefers to 
express it — "to Pallas Athena!" he has just written from 

1 Daily Tdegra-ph, April 26th, 1884. 


Tiryns to a friend. " In fact, I have succeeded here in a won- 
derful way, having brought to light an immense palace with 
innumerable columns, which occupies the entire upper Acro- 
polis of Tiiyns, and of which the floor and all the walls are 
well preserved.'^ The spot on which the great explorer has 
made this remarkable " find^^ was already one of the highest 
interest to classical archaeology. The ruins of Tiryns — or, 
rather, of the citadel, for, from their limited extent, they can 
hardly represent more than this^are situated about two miles 
from the gate of Nauplia, on the main road to Argos. Its 
walls, which are nearly perfect, are among the best specimens 
of the military architecture of the heroic ages, being generally 
some twenty-five feet thick. The town is supposed to have 
stood on the south-west side of the citadel, where a plain of 
about two hundred yards in breadth separates the ruins from 
a marsh which extends a mile further towards the sea. 

It is on the site of this ruined Acropolis that the German 
archgeologist has let the long-excluded daylight into the moul- 
dering halls of his " immense palace'^ and a perfect mine of 
ancient treasures it seems to be. Its wall-paintings, which 
Dr. Dorpfeld, the architect and collaborator of Dr. Schliemann, 
is engaged in copying in the same colours, ai^e described as of 
the highest interest. So, too, are the vase-paintings, with 
their specimens of the " most primitive representations of men 
and animals". A capital has been found '' of the most ancient 
Doric order ever discovered"; and, in fact, the '' whole of this 
wonderful historic palace", of which a plan can be made with 
the greatest accuracy, will, we are told, '' excite universal 
astonishment^^ " Nothing like it", declares its enthusiastic 
discoverer, " has ever turned up." 

The discovery seems, indeed, to be one on which Dr. Schlie- 
mann deserves hearty congratulation ; but we must really pro- 
test, in the name of justice, as between the Immortals, against 
his having addressed his quaintly modern ejaculation to the 
blue-eyed goddess. His " three cheers" should have been 
given, not to Pallas Athena, but to Heracles ; for it is in the 
" eponymous" city of the sinewy demi-god that he has lighted 
upon this hidden treasure. The son of Zeus and Alcmena is 
the ^'Tirynthian hero" of classic myth. Born at distant Thebes, 
it was to Tiryns that he was sent to be brought up — no doubt 
with the view of avoiding local scandal — by the frail spouse of 
Amphitryon. Here, it is to be supposed, the youthful Heracles 
passed the first years of his boyhood ; nor was it, we believe, 
until he had reached adolescence that he left Argolis for Thes- 
saly to place himself under the tuition of the most famous of 


ancient " coaches" — unless, indeed, it be regarded as putting 
the cart before the horse to apply such an expression to a 
centuar. Chiron, it is well known, was the Routh of his day ; 
Achilles was another of his distinguished pupils; and even 
yEsculapius is said to have " read with him". Yet, though it 
is by its Thessalian period that the youth of Heracles is best 
remembei'ed, the name of his earlier place of nurture has 
nevertheless clung to him, and it is with the " perpetual 
epithet" of " Tirynthius" that the Roman poets have sung his 
mighty deeds. 

This protest having been recorded against the form of Dr. 
Schliemann's adjuration, let us turn once more to his discovery. 
Whose was the '' immense palace" which he has unearthed, 
and what barbaric king and court held revel there in the 
twilight times before the first reddenings of the dawn of his- 
tory ? Very ancient indeed, to judge by the above description 
of it, must have been the era of its builders and its lord ; for 
it is clearly coeval with the ruins of the citadel, and they are 
of the most primitive order of Greek architecture. Proetus, 
the legend ran, was the founder of Tiryns — Proetus, the brother 
of Acrisius, King of Argos, and uncle of Danae, that type of 
our modern inercenary damsel, so far as regards the form of 
the wooing to which she succumbed — and when Proetus re- 
solved to build a city which should be a worthy neighbour of 
royal Argos, nothing would serve but that he must hire the 
most renowned and powerful masons of his fabulous day. The 
Cyclopes he determined should be sent for to be its builders, 
and sent for they accordingly were. Tradition — or rather one 
tradition — says that they were fetched from Lycia; but the 
lover of poetry and of music, of Homer and of Handel, will 
indignantly reject so inaccurate a story. For is not Sicily the 
immortally consecrated island of Cyclopean legend? Was it 
not here that the rejected lover of the milk-white Galatea con- 
soled himself with song, lamenting, as we know from Theo- 
critus, that " his mother bore him not a finny thing", that he 
might have gone down to the Nereid and "kissed her hand, 
if her lips she would not suffer him to kiss"? Was it not 
here, too, that the love-sick giant showed himself in his less 
engaging character of truculent cannibal, destroying the com- 
panions of Ulysses, and very nearly that " much-enduring" 
man himself; so that the vei-y rocks which he hurled at the 
fleeing Ithacan may be seen to this day off the coast near Aci 
Reale — dedicated to the river god Acis, but not the less de- 
voted to the sulphur-cure to witness to the truth of Homer's 
tale ? 


Of course it is possible that the Cyclopes may have emi- 
grated, and that it was only with change of soil that they 
abandoned, like the Irish, their rural pursuits. Sicily may 
have known them merely as a race of shepherds ; and Lycia as 
the gigantic workers in stone, bending the '' long unbroken 
eyebrow^' over the huge blocks of their masonry, and rough- 
hewing them into the shapes they wear to-day. Or, again, 
the alternative Sicilian legend may be preferred by the in- 
quiring student, and we may hold that these primeval masons 
learnt their first handicraft at the forges of Jjltna, and upon no 
less important journeywork than the fashioning of the thunder- 
bolts of Jove. This, after all, may perhaps be "the true truth" 
of the matter. The Cyclopes may quite conceivably have been 
the hammermen of Vulcan, before they started in business on 
their own account. A few ages of training in that terrible 
workshop, with its crypt of perpetual fire and its roof of 
eternal snow, would have been no bad preparation for the 
stupendous architectural labours of which the Cyclopean 
masons have left imperishable traces behind them in many a 
ruin of the ancient Hellenic world. 

Fantastic, however, as is the mythical region in which these 
legends detain us, we can pass from it with no very violent tran- 
sition to the domain of history, by merely pausing for a moment 
upon the material wonders of these architectural remains 
among which Dr. Schliemann is working. Assuredly it is no 
matter for surprise that the name of "Cyclopean^^ should have 
attached to such a Titanic style as this, and that men should 
have feigned colossal and superhuman builders to account for 
the stupendous masses of masonry of which these prehistoric 
structures are composed. No doubt they are Pelasgian in 
their origin ; and to the archagologist who holds forth upon 
this theme we are quite ready to listen no less dutifully, if not 
more attentively, than Lord. Tennyson^s " Northern Farmer" to 
the parson. We think '' he has said what a owt to a' said"; 
but, after all, " Pelasgian^' is a word with little more prac- 
tical meaning for us than the word '' Cyclopean"; and there is 
an end of the matter. 

It may be that the latter epithet, as one of the acutest and 
most judicial of the historians of Greece has put it, " expresses 
nothing more than the wonder excited by these gigantic works 
in the Greeks of a more refined age''; but it conveys neither 
more nor less to the modern mind than is expressed by the 
alternative name of a prehistoric race who had perished from 
the face of the earth before " Hellas", in the sense in which 
literature understands the word, had so much as come into 


existence. In either casOj it is enough that the eat-liest and 
vastest of these Cyclopean remains are manifestly the woi'k of 
a people too rude to possess anything more than a capacity 
confined to undertakings which demand much toil and little 
skill ; and yet that they belong to a state of society just suf- 
ficiently settled to encoui-age such exertions. In this respect, 
of course, it matters little whether they were productions of 
free labour, or tasks imposed by a foreign master. The real 
point of interest is that it is possible to have a gradual pro- 
gress for these shapeless masses to regular and well-contrived 
buildings ; thus showing apparently that the sense of sym- 
metry, the most distinguishing feature in the Greek character, 
was only suppressed in the struggle of an untaught people 
with the difficulties which beset the infancy of Art. 

Nor, after all, is the space to be thus traversed by the march 
of prehistoric progress so very broad. The "interval^', it has 
been well said, '' between the style — if it may be so called — 
of the most Cyclopean wall and that of edifices like the Trea- 
sury or Tomb of Atreus, is, perhaps, not so wide as that which 
separates these of the latter class from the simplest form of 
the Doric temple, though they were much further removed 
from that stage in which necessity is still the parent of inven- 
tion, utility its only guide, beauty its unsought and seemingly 
accidental result." 

It is something more than interesting to recall, after a perusal 
of the above passage, the announcement of Dr. Schliemann 
that beneath the soil encircled by this wall of Cyclopean ruins 
he has, it fact, found a fragmentary specimen of the " simplest 
form of the Doric temple." The two stages of development 
thus contrasted in the above observations of Bishop Thirlwall 
are actually brought together, and the interval between them 
is bridged over, by this discovery of Dr. Schliemann's among 
the ruins of the Acropolis of Tiryns. 


In the Homeric Hymn, we ai-e told that Leto, the power of 
forgetfulness and sleep, gives birth to the lord of light, in Delos. 
His coming was preceded by the pale Twilight, who in mythical 
times drove his cows to their pasture ; but in the Odyssey his 
herds feed at Tainaron or in Phrinakia far away, where Phae- 
thousa and Lampetie, the bright and gleaming daughters of 
Neaira, the early morning, tend them at the rising and the 


setting of the suu. Helios gazes with delight on his cattle 
(the clouds) at the beginning and the close of his daily course, 
and when they are slain, his indignation prompts him to hide 
his light in the regions of the dead. But the Sun loves not 
only the clouds, but the Dawn, who is their leader ; and so the 
Dawn comes before us as followed by him, and flying from 
his love, or else as retui^ning it. The phrase, " The dawn flies 
from the sun", is embodied in the legend of Daphne, who 
flies from her lover and vanishes away as he seeks to embrace 
her. In the tale of Orpheus she appears, under the name of 
Euridike, as the bride of the Sun, loved by him and returning 
his love, yet falling a victim to it; for whether to Daphn^ or 
Euridike, the brightness of his glance is fatal as he rises higher 
in the heaven. 

The same feeling is manifest under a form, if possible, more 
intense, in the tale of Kephalos and Prokris, " The sun loves 
the dew", was the old mythical phrase ; and it is reproduced 
in the love of Kephalos (the head of the sun) for Prokris, 
the glittering dewdrop. But " the morning loves the sun". 
Eos seeks to win Kephalos for herself; and her jealousy of 
Prokris is at once explained. But again the dewdrops each 
reflect the sun ; and Prokris becomes faithless to her lover, 
while she grants him her love under a new disguise ; and 
finally, when her fault has been atoned, she dies by the spear 
of Artemis (the fiery ray), with which the Sun unwittingly 
strikes her down. It is the old tale of Daphne and Euridike : 
and Kephalos goes mourning on his solitary journey, labouring 
not for himself, but for men who need his help, until he sinks 
to sleep beneath the western sea. 

As the labours and toils that Apollon had to undergo are so 
well known, it is useless to repeat them here ; but nowhere is 
his unutterable toil and scanty reward brought out so promi- 
nently as in the whole legend, or rather mass of unconnected 
legend, which is gathered round the person of Heracles. 
Doomed before his birth to be the slave of a weak and cruel 
master, he strangles, while yet in his cradle, the serpents of the 
night, which stung to death the fair Euridike. His toils begin. 
His limbs are endued with an irresistible power, and he has 
a soul which knows no fear. He may use this power for good 
or for evil, and his choice for good furnishes the groundwork 
for the apologue of Prodikos. He goes on his way, and is 
hurried on through many lands. In all he has mighty works 
to do, and he fails in none. The remembrance of lole may 
linger in his memoiy, but there are others who claim his love 


in the days of his strength and power, and it would seem as 
though he had forgotten the daughter of Eurytos. 

It is the same story as that of Dapbue and Prokris, with this 
difference only, that the legend of lole belongs to the middle 
heats of summer. For the sun looks down on the earth, and 
the earth answers to his loving glance by her teeming and 
inexhaustible fertility. In every land she yields her special 
harvest of fruits and flowers, of corn and wine and oil. Her 
children are countless, but all spring up under the eye of the 
sun as he journeys through the wide heaven, for, as Shelley 
tells us — 

" The sunlight clasps the earth, 
And the moonbeams kiss the sea." 

And again, as the poet tells us — 

" Nothing in the world is single, 
All things by a law divine 
In another's being mingle." 

So Zeus, the Vedic Dyaus, who is but another form of Ouranos, 
the veiling heaven or sky, looked down on Gaia, and brooded 
over her in his deep, unfailing, life-giving love. 

The union of Heracles with Deianeira, the daughter of the 
Kalydonian chief, brings us to the closing scenes of his troubled 
and tumultuous career. After his last labours were over, and 
when the evening of his life was come, Deianeira received the 
tidings that her husband was returning in triumph from the 
Euboian Oichalia, not alone, but bringing with him the beau- 
tiful lole, whom he had loved since the hour when he first put 
the shaft to his bow in the contest for that splendid prize. 
Then the words of the Centaur Nessos, who in his last moments 
bid her pi-eserve his blood as the sure means of recovering her 
husband's love if it should be transferred to another, came back 
to the memory of the forsaken wife, who steeps in his blood 
the white garment which, at the bidding of Heracles, Lichas 
comes to fetch from Trachis. The hero is about to offer his 
sacrifice to the Kenaian Zeus, and he wishes to offer it up in 
peace, clad in a seemly robe of pure white, with the fair and 
gentle lole standing by his side. But so it is not to be. 
Scarcely has he pub on the robe which Lichas brings, than the 
poison begins to course through his veins and rack every limb 
with agony unspeakable, as the garment given by Helios to 
Medeia comsumed the flesh of Glauke and of Kreon. Once 
inore the suffering hero is lashed into madness, and, seizing 
the luckless Lichas, he hurls him into the sea. Thus borne at 
last to the heights of Oita, he gathers wood, and charges those 


who are around him to set the pile on fire, when he shall have 
laid himself down upon it. Only the shepherd Poias ventures 
to do the hero's will ; but when the flame is kindled, the 
thunder crashes through the heaven, and a cloud comes down 
which bears him away to Olympos, there to dwell in everlasting 
youth with the radiant Hebe as his bride. 

It is a myth in which " looms a magnificent sunset^', the 
forked flames, as they leap from the smoke of the kindled wood, 
being the blood-red vapours which stream from the body of 
the dying Sun. It is the picture of a sunset in wild confusion, 
the multitude of clouds hurrying hither and thither, now 
revealing the mangled body of the Sun — of a sunset more 
awful, yet not more sad, than that which is seen in the last 
hours of Bellerophon, as he wanders through the Aleian plain 
in utter solitude, — the loneliness of the Sun who has scattered 
the hostile vapours, and then sinks slowly down the vast ex- 
panse of pale light with the ghastly hues of death upon his 
face, while none is near to cheer him, like lole by the funeral- 
pyre of Heracles. 

The moral aspect which this myth may be made to assume 
must be that of self-denial. The smooth road of indulgence 
is the easiest on which to travel : he who takes the rugged 
path of duty must do so from deliberate choice ; and thus the 
brave Heracles, going forth to his long series of labours, sug- 
gests to the sophist Prodikos the beautiful apologue in which 
Arete and Kakia, virtue and vice, each claim his obedience, as 
Aphrodite and Athene each claim the golden prize which Paris 
must adjudge. The one promises endless pleasures here and 
hereafter ; the other holds out the prospect of hard days fol- 
lowed by healthful slumbers, and warns him that nothing good 
was ever won without labour, nothing great ever done without 
toil. The mind of Heracles is made up at once ; and the 
greatest of all mythical heroes is thus made to enforce the 
highest lessons of human duty, and to present the highest 
standard of human action. The apologue is full of beauty 
and truth, and the images of self-restraint, of power used for 
the good of others, are prominent in the lives of all, or almost 
all, the Zeus-born heroes.^ 

^ Mythology of the Aryan Nations. By Sir George Cox, Bart. 
London : Longmans and Co. 

VOL. v. 



This myth explains itself. Kephalos is the head of the sun, 
and Kephalos loves Prokris — in other words, the Sun loves 
the Dew. But Eos also loves Kephalos — i.e., the Dawn loves 
the Sun ; and thus at once we have the groundwork for her 
envy of Prokris. So, again^ when we are told that, though 
Prokris breaks her faith, yet her love is still given to the same 
Kephalos, different though it may appear, we have here only a 
myth formed from phrases which told how the dew seems to 
reflect many suns which are yet the same sun. The birth- 
place of Prokris is Athens, the city of the Dawn ; and her 
mother is Herse, the Dew, while her own name denotes also 
simply the sparkling drops. The gifts of Artemis are the 
rays which flash from each dewdrop, and which Prokris is de- 
scribed as being obliged to yield up to Kephalos, who slays 
her as unwittingly as Phoibos causes the death of Daphne, or 
Alpheios that of Arethousa. The spot where she dies is a 
thicket, in which the last dewdrops would linger before the 
approach of the midday heats. ^ 

' Mt/tJiology of the Aryan Nations. By Sir George Cox, Bart. 
London : Longmans and Co. 




This cantref contains the three comots of — 1, Ial ; 
2, YsTEAD Alun ; 3, Yr Hob. 


This comot is divided into two parts, viz., Ial Reglaria 
and Ial Praepositura. 141 Reglaria contains the seignorial 
manors of — 

Llys y Oil. 
Cymo y Deuparth. 
Allt y Gymbyd. 

Tal y Bedwal. 
Bodidris y Deuparth. 
Creigiog is Glan. 

Bryn Eglwys. 

Ial Prsepositura contains the seignorial manors of — 

Gwaun y Ffynnon. 


Llandynan or Glandeunant. 

Erw Yrys. 

Cymo y Traian. 

Bodidris yr larh. 
Bodidris y Traian. 
Gelh Gynan. 
Bryn Tangor. 

All this lordship, as well as that of Ystrad Alun, was 
formerly held by Llyweljn Eurdorchog, who bore azure, 
a lion rampant gardant, his tail between his legs and re- 



fleeted over his back 01% armed and langued p^wZes ; others 
say that he bore azure, a lion rampant or, armed and 
langued gules. He was the son of Coel ab Gweryd ab 
Cynddelw Gam ab Elgnd ab Gwrisnadd ab Dvvywg 
Lythyr Aur ab Tegawg ab Dyfuarth ab Madog Madogion 
ab Sanddef Bryd Angel, the son of Llywarch Hen, Prince 
of the Strathclyde Britons, who, when driven from his 
dominions by the Picts and Scots, was with his family 
hospitably welcomed and received by Cynddylan, King 
of Powys, who was slain at the battle of Tren in 

Llywarch Hen had a mumerous family of sons, whose 
names were — 1, Gwir ; 2, Llawr ; 3, Machydd ; 4, Pill ; 
5, Maen ; 6, Dwyog ; 7, Nevydd ; 8, Sandde Bryd Angel ; 
9, Selyv ; 10, Dilig ; 11, Lliver ; 12, Deigr ; 13, Nudd ; 
14, Madog; 15, Medd ; 16, Heilin ; 17, Gwell; 18, 
Sawyl ; 19, Llorien ; 20, Cenau ; 21, Llychedwy ; 22, 
Cenllwg ; 23, Llywenydd ; 24, Gorwynion ; and 25, 

He had also six daughters, whose names were — 1, 
Gwen ; 2, Rhiell ; 3, Cainvron; 4, Bhagaw ; 5, Ceindeg ; 
and 6, Gwladys. 

Of these sons, the eighth, Sandde Bryd Angel, was 
the ancestor of Llywelyn Eurdorchog. He, it is recorded 
in the IViads, with Glewlwyd Gavaelvawr and Morvran 
Ail Tegid, were the only three who escaped from the fatal 
battle of Camlan, and the circumstance was owing to the 
peculiarity of their persons. Sandde was so beautiful 
that a passage was opened for him, without a hostile hand 
being raised up, as everyone thought that he was an 
angel (Myv. Arch., ii, 18, 70). 

Gwell, the seventeenth son of Llywarch Hen, was slain 
in a battle fought at Bhiw Felen in lal, and was there 

Sawyl, another son of Llyv^arch, was slain in battle, 
and buried at Llangollen in Nanteudwy. 

Cynddelw, the last of his numerous issue, was slain in 
a battle fought at Bhiwaedog in Penllyn. Of this son 
Llywarch remarks, in his Elegy : — 

lAL. 85 

" Cynddelw, defend thou the brow of yonder hill, 
Let the event of the day be what it will. 
When there is but one son left, 
It is vain to be over-fond of him." 

Having, therefore, lost all his sons and friends in 
battle against the Saxons, he retired to a hut at Aber 
Cuog, now called D61 Guog, near Machynllaith in Cy- 
feiliog, to soothe with his harp the remembrance of 
misfortune, and vent in elegiac numbers the sorrows of 
old age and distress. He died there, at the great age 
of nearly a hundred and fifty years, about the year 634, 
and was buried at Llanfor, near Bala in Penllyn'; and 
there is his grave, as is proved by a stone inserted in 
the wall of the church.^ It is said that he occasionally 
resided at Llanfor, near which place is a circle of stones 
which is cahed Pabell Llywarch Hen — that is, Llywarch 
Hen's Pavilion.^ 

Llywelyn Eurdorchog, Lord of lal and Ystrad Alun, 
married Eva, the daughter of Cyufyn ab Gwrystan, 
King of Powys, and sister of Bleddyn ab Cynfyn, by 
whom he had six sons who were legitimate. He had also 
two illegitimate sons — Ithel Goch and lorwerth Fychan. 

His six legitimate sons were — 1, Ithel Felyn, of whom 
presently ; 2, lorwerth, ancestor of the Wynns of Der- 
wen Anial ; 3, Idris, who was ancestor of the Owens of 
Ysgrwgan in Mochnant is Bhaiadr and Tref Geiriog, the 
Hanmers of Pentref Pant in the lordship of Oswestry, 
the Lloyds of Llangollen Fechan, the Lloyds of Cawnwy 
in the parish of Llangadfan, and the Evanses of Khyd y 
Carw ; 4, Dolfiyn ; 5, Ednowain Eurdorchog, the father 
of David Esgid Eur, the father of Idnerth, the father of 
Bradwen, Lord of Dol Gelli, the father of Ednowain ab 
Bradwen, Lord of Dol Gelli, chief of one of the Fifteen 
Noble Tribes of Gwynedd, who bore gules, three snakes 
ennowed in triangle argent. He was the ancestor of the 
Lloyds of Nant y Myneich, in the parish of Mallwyd in 

' Carlisle's Diet. Top. 

^ Leivi/s Dvmn, vol. ii, p. 104. 

^ Vaughan of Hengwrt. 


Mawddwy ; and William ab David Llwyd of Peniarth, in 
the parish of Llanegryn, who is now represented by 
the Wynns of Peniarth. And 6, Llwelyn Fychan, the 
ancestor of Trahaiarn, Lord of Garth mael (who bore 
argent, three lions passant gardant gules), the son of 
lorwerth ab Einion ab Ehys Goch ab Llwelyn Fychan ab 
Llywelyn Eurdorchog. The Prince of Powys gave Tra- 
haiarn the manor of Garthmael and the coat of arms 
above mentioned for his services in battle. He was the 
ancestor of the Walcots of Walcot, co. Salop ; Madog y 
Twppa of Plas y Twppa, in Bettws y Cedwg ; the Lloyds 
of Berth Lwyd, in the parish of Llanidloes, in Arwystli ; 
the Joneses of Garthmael, in Aber Rhiw, in Cydewaen ; 
the Maurices of Ucheldref, in Bettws, in the parish of 
Aber Rhiw ; the Humphreys of Ty'n Calch, in the same 
parish ; and Gruffydd ab Richard of Llandiloes, ab Gruf- 
fydd ab John ab Hugh ab Llywelyn ab lorwerth ab 
Gwgan ab Trahaiarn, Lord of Garthmael.^ 

Ithel Felyn, the eldest son of Llywelyn Eurdorchog, 
succeeded his father as Lord of lal and Ystrad Alun. 
He bore sahle, on a chevron inter three goat's heads 
erased or, three trefoils of the field. He had the manors 
of Llys y Oil, Allt y Gymbyd, Bodanwydog, and Coedrwg 
in lal ; the manors of Llwyn Egryn, Gwern Affyllt, and 
Cil Rhydin in the manor of Hendref BifFa in Ystrad 
Alun ; Caer Fallwch, Hendref Figyllt, Pentref Hyfaidd, 
Castell Meirchion in Tegeingl ; Nantclwyd, and Garth y 
Neuadd in Dyffryn Clwyd ; Traian in the lordship of 
Trefwen or Whittington ; Arnan Mab, in the lordships 
of Croes Oswallt and Cynllaith ; a great portion of Glyn 
Dyfrdwy ; and Y Gaerddin (not the camp itself), and 
other lands in Maelor. He married Lleucu, daughter 
and heiress of Howel ab Brochwel ab Bledrws (who bore 
sable, three roses argent), by whom he had issue three 
sons — 1, Hwfa ; 2, Llywelyn ; and 3, Ystwg. 

Hwfa, the eldest son of Ithel Felyn, became Lord of 
lal and Ystrad Alun. He married Elen, or Alswn, 
daughter of Gruffydd ab Cynan, King of Gwynedd 
1 Harl. MS. 1973. 

lAL. 87 

(who bore gules, three lions passant in pale argent, armed 
and langued azure), by whom he had issue six sons, — 1, 
CaswalJawn ; 2, Y Gwion ; 3, lonas ; 4, Goronwy ; 5, 
Howel Foel of Cymo ; and 6, leuaf. 

Y Gwion, Lord of Ystrad Alun and part of lal. He 
was slain in a battle fought at Y Gw^ydd Grug, Mons 
Altus, or now corruptly Mold, by Robert, a Norman 
baron, who took possession of the lordship of Ystrad 
Alun and the fort of Y Gwydcl Grug, and became the 
first Baron de Monte Alto, as related in the first volume, 

p. 112. He married , daughter and heiress of 

Maredydd, a younger son of Cadwgan ab Bleddyn, Lord 
of Nannau {or, a lion rampant azvTe), by whom he had 
a son and heir — 

Cadwgan Goch, Lord of part of lal, who was witness 
to a deed, dated December 5th, 1247. This document 
relates to a dispute between the sons of leuaf ab Mare- 
dydd of " Alhdkenbeber" (Allt y Gymbyd) on the one 
part, and the Lord Madog, the Abbot, and the convent 
of Yalle Crucis on the other part, relative to the 
boundaries of Allt Kenbeber and " Crevauc" (Creigiog), 
which last township belonged to the abbey. He married 
Dyddgu, daughter of Ithel ab Howel ab Moreiddig ab 
Sanddef Hardd, or the Handsome, Lord of Mortyn, or 
Burton, and Llai, by whom he had issue a son and heir, 
Cadwgan Ddu. The Harl MS. 2299, states that Cad- 
wgan Goch of lal married Nesta, daughter and co-heiress 
of Howel, Lord of Khos and Rhiwfawniog, son of Ithel 
ab Madog ab Rhirid ab Bleddyn ab Cynfyn, Prince of 

Cadwgan Ddu, Lord of part of lal, married Mali, 
daughter and co-heiress of Sir Grufiydd Llwyd of 
Dinorwig, by whom he had issue four sons — 1, lorwerth, 
who was the ancestor of the Bithels, and Evanses of 
Llwyn Egryn, the Griffiths of Hendref BifFa, and many 
other families in Ystrad Alun and lal ; 2, Madog of 
Bhuddullt, in the manor of Bhiwabon ; 3, Cadwgan 
Frych of Y Gaerddin, in the manor of Bhiwabon ; and 
4, Einion of Coed y Llai in Ystrad Alun. (See vol. ii, 
p. 345.) 


The lordship of Ml contains the parishes of Llantysilio, 
Bryn Eglwys, Llandegla, Llanarmon, and Llanferis or 

Parish of Llantysilio. 

This parish contains the townships of Tref Maes yr 
Ychain, Cymo y Deuparth, Cymo y Traian, Llandynan 
or Glandeunant, and Coedrwg, and has an area of 7,920 

The monastery of Valle Crucis lies in the township of 
Maes yr Ychain, which township, together with those of 
Creigiog, Bandhadlan, and Buddigre yr Abad, were given 
to the abbey of Valle Crucis in 1200 and 1202 by 
Madog ab Gruffydd Maelor. The monumental cross 
erected to the memory of Eliseg, King of Powys, who 
was slain in 773, is also in this township, in a hollow 
formerly known by the name of Pant yr Ychion. 

The parish of Llantysilio is bounded on the east by 
the brook which runs through Glyn y Gwystl, and sepa- 
rates it from the parish of Llangollen. This brook — 
which rises in Cyrn y Brain, a mountain in the parish of 
Llangollen, the summit of which is 1,844 feet above the 
level of the sea — runs from north to south, and empties 
itself into the Dyfrdwy, or Dee river, at Pentref y Felin, 
which was anciently the abbey mill. On the north-west, 
the parish of Llantysilio is bounded by the Nant Morwy- 
nion, which divides it from the parish of Bryn Eglwys. 
The Morwynion has its source in the northern side of 
Cyrn y Brain, and, running in a southerly direction, 
enters the barony of Glyn Dyfrdwy at Blaen lal. On 
the south this parish is bounded by the Dyfrdwy, or river 
Dee. The scenery of the parish of Llantysilio is well 
wooded and very beautiful, for a chain of conical hills, 
which commence at Bwlch Rhiw Felen, which intervenes 
between them and Cyrn y Brain, runs in a south-westerly 
direction through the centre of the parish. Commencing 
from Bwlch E-hiw Felen on the north, the chief of these 
hills are Moel Faen Gorran, where the slate quarries are ; 
Cribyn Oernant ; Moel y Gammelin, which rises to the 

lAL. 89 

height of 1,897 feet above the level of the sea ; Moel y 
Gaer, at the foot of which is Bwlch y Garnedd ; Moel 
Forfydd, w^hich rises to the height of 1,804 feet, to the 
west of which mountain is Hendref Forfydd, anciently 
belonging to a family descended from Llywelyn Eurdor- 
chog. The other places of interest in the township of 
Maes yr Ychain are the parish church, Llantysilio Hall, 
Hafod yr A bad, which lies at the foot of the north- 
western slope of Bwlch Rhiw Felen, on the banks of the 
Morwynion and Ffynnon Gollen, near the summit of 
Bwlch Bhiw Felen, on the eastern or Llangollen side. 
Gwell, one of the sons of Llywarch Hen, was slain in 
the battle of Rhiw Felen, and there his body lies buried. 
In the township of Cjaiio is a place called Y Fynech- 
tyd, near which is a fountain called Fynnon Benyw. 

Parish of Bryn Eglwys. 

This parish contains the townships of Bryn Tangor, 
Tal y Bedwal, Gwythrania, Tre r Llan, and Bodanwydog. 

Parish of Llandegla. 

This parish is divided into the townships of Tre'r Llan 
and Trefydd By chain, and contains about 3,390 acres. 

In the parish, at a place called Gwern Degla, is a 
celebrated holy well called Ffynnon Degla. "In this well, 
people that are troubled with convulsive fits or falling 
sickness, called ' Clwyf Tegla', do use to wash their 
hands and feet, going round the well three times, saying 
the Lord's Prayer thrice, carrying in a hand-basket a 
cock if a man, and a hen if a woman, offering fourpence 
in the said well. All this is done after sunset ; then 
going to the churchyard, after the same manner, go about 
the church, saying the Lord's Prayer thrice, getting into 
the church, sleep under the communion table, with the 
church Bible under their heads, and the carpet to cover 
them all night till break of day. Then offering a piece 
of silver in the poor-box, and leaving the cock or hen in 
the church, they again repair to the well and perform as 


above. They say several have been healed thereby."^ 
(See Ashkpeios, vol. i.) 

Parish of Llanarmon. 

The parish of Llanarmon contains the townships of 
Bodidris y Deuparth, Bodidris y Traian, Buddugre yr 
larll, Buddugre yr Abad, Chwyleiriog, Gelli Gynan, 
Creigiog uwch Glan, Creigiog is Glan, Allt y Gymbyd, 
Tre'r Llan, Banhadlan, Cyfnant, Gwaun y Ffynnon, and 
Erw Yrys. 

Parish of Llanferis. 

The parish of Llanferis, which is in the manor of Llan 
y Cil, is not divided into townships. 

The Lloyds of Plymog and the Lewyses of Glan yr 
Afon, in this parish, are both descended from Ednyfed 
Fychan, Lord of Bryn Ffanigl. 


Cyrys o lal, otherwise called Yr Hen Gyrys o lal, is 
celebrated as a collector of proverbs and maxims that 
were current among the Cymry, to which he added many 
of his own composition. It is uncertain whether he lived 
in the eleventh or twelfth century. His work, Mad- 
waith Hen Gyrys o lal, otherwise called Bach Buddugre 
and Gwynfarch Gyvarwydd, was transcribed by the poet 
Gruffydd Hiraethog about the year 1500 ; by Dr. John 
Davies about 1590 ; by William Maurice of Llansilin 
in 1675; by E. Evans in 1775; and finally printed 
in the third volume of the Myvyrian Archaiology, 

1 History of the Diocese of St. A sajjh. 

2 Williams's Eminent Welshmen, s.v. Gyrys. 




{Add. MS. 9864.) 

Caswallawn, Lord of Llys y Cil, eldest== 
son of Hwfa ab Ithel Felyn, Lord 
of lal and Tstrad Alun. 

= Agnes, d. of Cowryd ab Cadvan, Lord 
of Cinmeirch. Argent, three boar's 
heads couped sable. 

lorwerth ab Caswallawn. He was= 
one of the witnesses to the grant 
of manors and lands, by Prince 
Madog ab GruflFydd Maelor, to Valle 
Crucis Abbey, in 1202. 

^Gwenhwyfar, d. of Cuhelyn 
ab Ehun ab Einion Efell, 
Lord of Cynllaith. 


Cynwrig = 


Lord of 



:Janet, d. of Henry de Laci, Earl of Lincoln, who died in 1310; 
and Johanna his wife, d. of William Martyn, Baron of Cemaes 
in Dyfed. Janet married, secondly, Grnifydd Fychan ab 
GrufFydd ab Einion ab Ednyfed, Lord of Broughton, second 
son of Cynwrig ab Rhiwallawn. 

Goronwy ab Cynwrig,=j=Angharad, d. of Howel ab David ab Gruffydd ab 

Lord of Llys y Cil. 

Caradog of Holt in Maelor Gymraeg. 
eagles displayed in fesse or. 

Vert, three 

Madog ab = 


of Llys y 


=Alice, d. of 




Goronwy Gethin, an- 
cestor of Kichard 
Davies, D.D., Bishop 
of St. David's. 
(See p. 94.) 

Annesta, ux. =1, leuaf ab 
Hwfa ab Madog yr Athro 
(see vol. ii). She married, 
secondly, Gruffydd ab 
lorwerth ab Howel of 
Ehiwabon (see vol. ii). 

Geoffrey ab Madog of Llys=pMary, d. of David Holland, 
y Cil. I 

leuaf ab Madog. 
(See p. 93.) 

Oliver ab Geoffrey of Llys=pElen, d. of lorwerth Sais of Llanynys ab lur- 
y Cil. I werth ab Llywelyn, Lord of Cinmeirch. 


Llywelyn Fychan of Llys=pLucy, d. of Gruffydd Goch of Ehuddin and 
y Gil. I Bachymbyd. 

Tudor ab Llywelyn of Llys=pAnne, d. of Simon Thelwall Hen of Plas y 
y Gil. I Ward. 

Gruffydd ab Tudor of Llan-=pJane, d. and heir of Rhys Gruffydd of Caerwys. 
veris in the Manor of Llys 

John Wynn of Llanveris.=T=Margaret, d. of John Wynn Thelwall of Batha- 

farn Park. 

Lewys Wynn of Llanveris.=pElen, d. of John Lloyd of Llys Fassi. 



John Wynn of Llanveris.=pMary, d. of Edward Hughes of Ysgeiviog, and 
I sister of Sergeant Hughes. 

Edward Wynn of Llanferis.=j=Gwen, d. of David ab Rhys of Llanrhaiadr, and 

sister and heir of John Davies, D.D., Parson 
of Mallwyd. 

Gruffydd Wynn of Plas^pElizabeth, d. of Edward Pugh. 
Uchaf in Mallwyd; living I 
18th James I, 1621.1 | 

j \ \ \ \ \ \ ^1 


John Edward Wynn of Roger. Gruffydd. Evan. Dowse. Bridget. Eliza- 

Wynn. Plas Uchaf. beth. 

• Arms — 1, Ithel Felyn ; 2, Llywelyn Eurdorchog ; S, Argetit, & 
chev. inter three boar's heads couped sable ; 4, Argent, three boar's 
heads couped sable, langued gules. 




leuaf ab Madog ab Goronwy ab Cynwrig ab lorwerth ab Caswallawn ab=p 
Hwf a ab Ithel Felyn, Lord of lal. | 


lolyn ab=j=Elen, d. of lorwerth Sais of Llanynys, ab lorwerth ab Llywelyn 
le uaf. I ab lorwerth ab Heilin ab Cowryd ab Cadvan, Lord of Ceinmeirch, 

Llywelyn =pLleicu, d. of Grruffydd Goch of Ehuddin ab leuan ab David 
ab lolyn. | Fychan of Ceinmeirch. 

Llywelyn Fychan. =t= 

Tudor ab Llywelyn=j=Annes, d. of Simon Thelwall ab David Thel- leuan. 
wall ab John Thelwall of Plas y Ward. 

Eobertab=p David lal, Gruffydd.=p 
Tudor. Warden of i 

Ehuddin. John Wynn. 

John Wynn,= 


Hugh Wynn^p , heiress of 

of Y Fan- 

lands in Ehiwa- 
bon, which her 

Ieu an.=p Simon. 

Tudor. = Margaret, d. of John 
Lloyd ab John Lloyd 
ab Deicws Fongam 
of Llwyn y Cnotiau 
in Maelor Gymraeg. 

Ann, ux. John Wynn Lloyd of lal, ab 
EJissau of Allt Llwyn Dragon; 
third son of Gruffydd ab Einion of 
Cors y Gedol. 

John Wynn, Captain in the Army of the Commonwealth; living in 1697. 




{Gae Cyriog MS.) 

Deio ab Edward ab Goronwy Ddu ab Goronwy Gethin ab Goronwy ab Cyn-=j= 
wrig ab lo rwerth ab Caswallawn ab Hwfa ab Ithel Felyn. (See p. 91.) j 

Goronwy ab Deio.=j=..., d. of Gruffydd ab Llywelyn ab leuan ab leuan Gethin. 

David ab=j=Janet, d. of David ab Eicbard ab Cynwrig ab Eobert ab Bleddyn 
ab Robert Goch ab Rhirid ab lorwerth ab Madog ab Ednowain 
Bendew. Her mother was Nest, d. of Llywelyn Fychan, one 
of the sons of leuan ab David ab Cynwrig ab leuan ab Gruffydd 
ab Madog Bdt of Cop y Goleuni, 


Richard Davies, Esgob Llan Dewi. " Efe a scrifenoedd yr Epistol Cymraeg 
a breintiodd gyda 'r Testament Newydd, 1567." 


(Harl. 3IS. 1969.) 

David ab Cynwrig ab leuan ab Gruffydd ab=i=Angharad, d. of Bleddyn Fy- 
Madog Ddu of Cop y Goleuni. | chan ab Ble ddyn of Hiraddig. 

Bel ab David of=T=...,d. of Madog ab David Llwyd ab leuan, ancestor of the 
T Nercwys. | Madog Goch of Gwern Affeld. Wynns of Cop y 

;— : ~ I A Goleuni. 



\a \b 

Llywelyn ab Bel.=i= GrufFydd ab Bel, ancestor of the Wynns of Y Nercwys. 

Rhys ab Llywelyn. =p 

Eichard ab Rhys.=p 

Hugh ab Richard.=j= 

Gruffydd Hughes of Llanferis, Deputy=f=Margaret, d. of John ab Roger of 
of the OflBce of Arms. | Llys y Cil or Llanferis. 


{Harl. M.S'. 1981.) 

Y Gwion Gam ab leuaf, sixth son of Hwfa ab Ithel Felyn, Lord of lal and=j= 

Ystrad Alun. i 

Ithel ab= 


Gwilyn = 
ab Ithel. 

=Annesta, d. of Rhys ab Cynwrig ab Rotpert of Cinmael, ab Gruff- 
ydd ab Sir Howel, Knight, ab Gruffydd of Henglawdd ab Edny- 
fed Fychan. Her mother was Gwladys, d. of Madog Llwyd of 
Bryn Cunallt, son and heir of lorwerth Foel, Lord of Chirk, 
Maelor Saesneg, and Nanhendevy. (See vol. iv. ) 

=Gwen, d. of Madog ab lorwerth, Lord of Mechain Isgoed. 

ydd ab 

=Gaenor, d. of Howel ab Rhys ab Maredydd 
ab Tudor of Y Voelas, in Yspytty leuan. 
Gules, a lion rampant argent, holding in 
his paws a rose argent, seeded or, stem 
and leaves ppr. 

Cadwgan ab Gwil-=f= 
ym. (See | 
" Coedrwg"). v 

Rhys ab= 

=Gwenhuyfar, d. of Robert ab leuan ab Tudor of Pen Porchill, in 
the parish of Henllan, descended from March weithian. Lord of 
Is Aled. Gules, a lion rampant argent. 


David =i=Gwenllian, d. of William^ ab Maredydd ab David ab Emion 
ab Rhys. | Fychan of Dyffiryn Melai, in the parish of Llanfair Dolhaiarn. 

Sir David Llwyd, "Vicar of=pAlis, d. of leuan ab Thomas ab David Fychan of 
Llanarmon yn lal. | Pen Machno, descended from Marchudd. 

Thomas ab David of Llanarmon.=f=Margaret, d. of John ab Madog of 

I Llanferis. 

David Lloyd=f Elizabeth, d. of Lewys ab David ab Robert of Buddigre. Her 
of mother was Janet, d. of Karri Salusbury Goch of Llan- 
Llanarmon. rhaiadr in Cinmeirch, by his second wife, Liws, d. of Harri 
ab John ab Gruffydd Goch o Goel^ 

Gruffydd =j=Elizabeth, d. of Jane, ux. Gruff- Catharine, ux. Margaret, 

Lloyd of 
mon, 1607. 

Pyers ab Rhys ab ydd ab Tudor David ab Gruff- ux. David 
Ithel of of Llanarmon. ydd of Lloyd. 

Ysgeiviog. Llanarmon. 

Gabriel Lloyd=fElizabeth, d. of John Roger John Eliza- Mary, Alice. 

of Llanarmon 

Ffoulkes of Ereifiad, Lloyd. Lloyd, beth. 

in the parish of 


Gri ffith Lloyd of Llanarmon.=p Mary, d. of Edward Jones of Fron Deg. 

Edward Lloyd of Llanarmon yn lal, = Barbara, d. of Robert Elis of Coed y 
1697. Cra. 


{Oae Cyriog MS. ; Harl. MS. 2299.) 

leuan ab David ab Einion of Blaen lal, in the parish of Bryn Eglwys, ab=j= 
Cadwgan ab Gwilym ab Ithel ab Y Gwion Gam ab leuaf ab Howel Poel I 
ab Hwfa ab Ithel Felyn, Lord of lal and Ystrad Alun. (See p. 95.) | 

1^^ [b \c 

' He had a son, John Wynn of Melai, who was ancestor of the 
Wynnes, Lords Newborough, and of the Wynnes of Garthewin. 



lolyn of= 
Tal in 


David of= 



=Gwenllian, d. 
of Deicws ab 

leuan ab 

Deio of Llan- 


-- Lowri, d. of 
Howel ab 
leuan ab 
David ab 

Madog Goch 
of Gwern 

Ddu in G wy- 
ddelwern ; 

fi'om Tudor 

Rhys of Ty Celyn^ 
in Bryn Eglwys. 

^Margaret, d. of David Gocb 
ab Y Bady of Maelor Gym- 
raeg. Her mother was 
Lleicu, d. of Thomas de 
Weild of Holt. 

John of=f= d of David Lloyd ab David ab 

Ty I Robin ab Gruffydd Goch of Dol 
Celyn. | Edeyrn. 

David of Deuparth = Elizabeth, d. of Rhys ab 
yn lal. David of Blaen lal. 

Madog of=p 
Cymo. V 

Gruffydd of Bryn=p 
Eglwys. V 

David of Coed- 


Rhys of- 



=Margaret, d. of Richard of Maerdy in Gwyddelwern, son of Elissau 
ab Gruffydd ab Einion of Allt Llwyn Dragon, now called Plas 
yn lal. 

David =pA.lis, d. and heiress of David 

Lloyd of 



ab Elis ab Madog of Cefn 
Rug ; descended from 
Ti-ahaiarn Goch of Lleyn. 
Azure, a chevron inter 
three dolphins naiant 
embowed argent. 

Elizabeth, ux. 

David of Deu- 

parth yn lal ab 

John ab Rhys of 

Ty CelyA. 

Gwenhwyfar, ux, 

Edward ab John 

ab David ab 

Twna of Llan- 

santffraid Glyn- 


Gwen, = 
3rd co- 
heir. She 

:Hugh Lloyd, 

3td son of 


Lloyd ab 

Robert Lloyd 

of Llwyn y 


Elizabeth, 1st co- 
heir, ux. John Wynn 

ab Iloger ab John 

Wynn of Bryn Tan- 

gor, son of Elissau 

ab Gruffydd of Allt 

Llwyn Dragon. 

Jane, 2nd co- 
heir, ux. John 
ab ReignfiUt 
ab Ithel of 


4th co-heir, 

ux. Robert 

Wynn of 

Gwnodl in 



Edward =FJaDet, d. of Elis Vaughan of Bryn Llech, co. Merion- John. 

Lloyd of 




Mary ■ 



of Blaen 


VOL. V. 

edd, thii'd son of Howel Vaughan ab David Lloyd 
of Glan Llyn Tegid. She married, secondly, 
Thomas Pugh of Aberffrydlan, co. Montgomery. 
Her mother was Catharine, d. of Robert Wynn of 
Bryncyr or Bryn y Ceirw, co. Caernarvon. 

:Owain Thelwall, son (by Dorothy, his second wife, d. of John 
Owen Vaughan of Llwydiarth in Upper Powys) of Simon Thel- 
wall of Plas y Ward, High Sheriff for co. Denbigh, 1612. Gules, 
on a chevron inter three boar's heads couped argent, three 
trefoils sable. 





Andrew Tliel-=i=Catharine, d. 
wall of Blaen I of ... 


Simon = . 

.., d. and heir of ... 

Lloyd of Ebud y 
Sarn in St. Martin's. 

V I 2 (/ 
Edward = 

Simon Thel- 
wall, born 
2()th, bapt. 
28th Got. 
1689; s.p. 

David Thel-= 

wall of Blaen 

lal ; bapt. 

13th March 

1692; buried 

21st April 


=Mary, d. of. . . Davies Mary, 

of Wrexham ; mar- bapt. 5th 

ried 1730 ; ob. 13th, Sept. 

and buried 20th 1 690. 
Sept. 1793, aged 92. 


Ann, bapt. 

20th Dec. 


buried 12th 

May 1694. 

Mary, ux. John Pules- 

ton of Llwyn y 


Elizabeth, ux. Robert 
Wynn of Eyarth. 

Simon Thel- 
wall of 
Blaen lal ; 
ob. s. p. 

Ann Thelwall, heir-=pJohn Lloyd, son and heir of Critchley 

ess of Blaen lal 

died Sept. 13th, 

buried Sept. 20th, 

1793, aged 92. 

I Lloyd of Rhyd Wrial in Llanrhudd, 
and of Pen Aner, Penyfed, and Pant y 
Mel in Dinmael, son of Godfrey Lloyd 
ab Robert Lloyd ab John Lloyd of 
Rhyd Wrial and Bryn Eglwys, ab 
David ab Robert ab Richard. 

Colonel John Lloyd of Rhyd Wrial, etc. He suc-=j=Anna Maria, only d. of 

eeeded to the Blaen lal estate on the death of his 
cousin, Humphrey Thelwall Jones, who was an 
Undergraduate at O.^ford at the time of his death, 
and took the name and arms of Salusbury on suc- 
ceeding to the Gallt Faenan estate, at the death 
of his relative, Mrs. Jones of that place. (See 
" Penyfed". ) Ob. 27th March 1852, and is buried at 

John Mostyn of Seg- 
rwyd and Llywesog, 
Esq. ; ob. 8th Dec. 
1846, and is interred 
at Henllan, 

11.. . I 

Anna Maria, heiress=j=Townsend Mainwaring, Esq., Frances. 

of Gallt Faenan, 

Blaen lal, Penaner, 

Penyfed, and Pant 

y Mel. 

M.P. for Denbigh Boroughs, 
J. P. and High Sheriff for 
CO. Denbigh, 1840 ; 2nd son 
of Rev. Charles Mainwaring 
of Oteley Park. 

^Charles Ky- 



of Oteley 

Park, Esq. 

I ! I I 

Charles Reginald Amicia Susan. 

Kynas- Kynaston Mary. 

ton Main- 
Main- waring, 

Salusbury Ky- 
naston Main- 
waring of 
Oteley Park. 

= Edith Sarah, d. 

of Sir Hugh 

Williams of 





{Hurl. MSS. 1971, 1972.) 
Sir John Salusbiu-y of Llyweni, Knt.=pKatharine Seymour. 

Sir Henry Salusbury of Llyweni,=f=Nest, d. of Cynwrig Sais ab Itbel Fycban, 
Knt.. I Lord of Mostyn. See p. loi, vol. iv. 

i I 

Alexander Salusbury. =p William Salusbury of Llyweni. 

John Salusbury of Galltfaenan.=pCatharine, d. of Thomas. . . . 

Eobert Salusbury of Galltfaenan.=f=Elizabeth, d. and heir of John Henbury 

I of Denbigh. 

Alexander Salusbury of Galltfaenan.=pMargaret, d. of Gruffydd ab Llywelyn 

I Fychan. 

Robert Salusbury of Gallt-=f=Annej d. and heir of John Marsbe. Sable, a 
faenan. | lion rampt. or. 

Alexander Salusbury of Galltfaenan,=pAlice, d. of John Jones of Helygen, 
1591. I Esq. 

Eobert Salusbury of Galltfaenan, married = Elizabeth, d. of Edward Gruff- 
1639. ydd. 

The last heir male of this family was Edward Salus- 
bury of GalltfaenaD, High Sheriff for co. Denbigh in 

1726, whose only daughter and heiress, married 

Dr. Jones of Penyfed in the parish of Llangwm, and of 
Bryn Banon in the parish of Llanfor in Penllyn, She 
died without issue, and left Galltfaenan to her husband's 
great-nephew, Colonel John Lloyd of Blaen I a] and Ehyd 
Wrial in Llanrhudd, on condition of his takino- the name 
and arms of Salusbury. (See " Pen Yfed in Dinniael".) 

7 ^ 




Idnerth ab David Ysgydeui' ab Owain Eurdorchog ab Llywelyn Eurdor-==|= 
chogr. Lord of lal and Ystrad Alun. | 

Paradwen or Bradwen, Lord of Dolgelli.=p 

Ednowain ab Bradwen, Lord of Dolgelli. He bore gules,- 
three snakes in triangle a'gent. He owned all the 
comot of Tal y Bont except the Prince's demesnes and 
Nannau, and most part of the coraot of 'Xstym Aner. 
The ruins of his house, Llys Bradwen, are to be seen 
in the township of Crugenan in the comot of Tal y 
Bont Iscrugenan. 

=Jane, d, of Philip 

ab Uchdryd, 

Lord of (lyfeiliog, 

son of Edwin ah 

Goronwy, Prince 

of Tegeinel. 

Grnffydd ab Ednowain. =f 
David Goch ab Gruffydd. 

leu an ab David= 

=Janet, d. of Meurig ab Adda ab Madog 
ab Maelgwyn, one of the Chieftains 
of Ceri. See vol. ii, p. 303. 



Gwenllian, d. of Einion ab Howel Qethin 
ab Maredydd ab Howel ab Rhys ab 
Owain Fychan of Cyfeiliog, ab Owain 
ab Oruffydd ab Gwen ab Goronwy ab 
Einion ab Seisyllt, Lord of Mathafarn. 

Adda ab David 

Goch, ancestor of 

the Lloyds of 


Rhys ab leuan, ancestor 
of Gruffydd ab leuan aU 
Maredydd ab Rhys nb 
leuan ab David Goch 
of Caelan in Llanbryn- 
raair. See vol. i, p. 111. 

David ab Madog. = 

xVngharad, d. of Llywelyn ab Einion ab Celynin of Llwy- 

David Lloyd.=pTudr, d. of David ali Grnffydd ab David ab Howel ab Rhys 
I ab Owain Fychan of Cyfeiliog, as above. 



John ab: 

=Mallt, d. of Maredydd ab leuan ab Gruflfydd ab Einion ab David 
ab Trahaiarn ab Gruifydd ab Madog Goch ab lorwerth Goch, 
Lord of Mochnant, one of the sons of Maredydd ab Bleddyn, 
Prince of Powys. 

David =j=Gwenllian, d. of Maurice ab Gwilym Fychan ab Gwilym ab Gruffydd 
ab Derwas of Cemaes, son of Meurig Llwyd ab Meurig Fychan, Lord 

John. of Nannau. Her mother was Catharine, d. of Gruffydd ab leuan 
Ddu ab leuan Gethin ab Madog Cyffin. 


=Mari, d. of Richard ab Ehys ab David Lloyd of Gogerddan. Her 
mother was Elliw, d. and co-heireas of William ab Jenkyn ab 
lorwerth ab Einion of Ynys y Maengwyn. 

Richard Lloyd. =j=Jane, d. of Richard ab Hugh ab leuan of Mathafarn. 

John Lloyd. 

Samuel Lloyd. 





Adda ab David Goch ab Gruifydd ab Ednowain ab Bradwen.=f= 

Goronwy ab Adda.=p 

Peredur ab Goronwy .=f= 
Gwyn ab Peredur. =p 

Tudor ab Gwyn.^ 

Llywelyn ab Tudor of Peniarth. He did homage for his lands to Edw. I,=y= 
with the Lords and Gentry of Wales, as appears by the King's I 
records. I 

Ednyfed ab Llywelyn of Peniarth. =pGwonllian, d. and co-hciress of Gruffydd 

I al) Adda ab Gruffydd of D61 Goch. 



Aron ab E(iny-=f=Gwetilliaii, d. and co-heiress of Gruffydd Dew ab leuan ab 
fed of I Einion of Llanfendigaid, ab Lly warch ab Rhys ab Aeddan, 

Peniarth. Lord of Grismwnt, fourth son of Gwaethfoed, Lord of 

I Cardigan, who bore or, a lion rampant regai'dant sahle} 

Ednyfed ab Aron of Peniarth. =j=Lowri, d. of leuan Lloyd Fychan ab leuan 

He concealed Owain Glynd- 
yfrdwy in a cave by the 
sea-shore, in the parish of 
Lianegryn, still called Ogof 

ab Llywelyn ab leuan Lloyd Fychan of 
Pwll Dyfach, descended from Cadifor ap 
Dyfnwal, Lord of Castell Howel. See 
Lewys Divnn, vol. i, p. 143. 

Grnffydd ab Ednyfed of= 
Llanfendigaid and Pen- 
iarth, Raglor of the co- 
mot of Tal y Bont, 32nd 
Henry VI, 1452. 

=Gwenhwyfar, d. of Sir Grufiydd Fychan of 
Powys, Knight Banneret of Agincourt (sable, 
three horse's heads erased argent). Her mother 
was Margaret, d. and co-heiress of GrufFydd 
ab Jenkyn, Lord of Broughton or Brochdyn 
{sable, three owls argent). 

Rhys ab =j=Angharad, d. of Howel ab Tudor ab Goronwy of Penllyn, 
Gruffydd | descended from Rhirid Flaidd, Lord of Penllyn. Vert, 


a chevron inter three 
See vol. iv, p. 119. 

wolf's heads erased argent. 


John ab Rhys of Peniarth, living 2nd=j=Angharad, d, of David ab Meurig 
Henry VII. I Fychan of PMs y Nannau. 

William ab= 
John of 

=Elizabeth, d. of Howel ab Jenkyn ab lorwerth of Ynys y Maen- 
gwyn, ab Einion ab Gruifydd ab Llywelyn ab Cynwrig ab 
Osbern Fitzgerald of Cors y Gedol. Her mother was Mary, 
d. of Sir Roger Kynaston, Knt. 

David =j=Nest, d. of Gruffydd ab John ab GrufFydd of Cefn Amwlch in 

Lloyd of 


Will dated 

11th July 


Lleyn, ab David Fychan ab leuan of Benllech, second son of 
leuan Goch of Penllech and Graianog in Lleyn, ab David Goch 
of Penllech, ab Trahaiarn Goch of Lleyn. Azure, a chevron 
inter three dolphins naiant embowed argent. 

William = Margaret, d. of Hugh ab John ab 
ab David Howel ab Philip Dorddu ab Howel 
Lloyd of ab Madog ab Howel ab GrufFydd ab 
Peni- Goronwy ab Gwrgeneu ab Hoedliw 

arth. Goch ab Cadwgan ab Elystan Glod- 

Ob. s. p. rhudd. Prince of Fferlis. 

Elizabeth, =j=Grufiydd Owen 
heiress of of Tal y Bont, 
Peniarth. fourth son of 
the Baron 
Lewys Owen 
of Dolgelli. 

Lewys Owen of Peniarth, ob. \Q'i3. See p. 105. 

' Gwaethfoed Fawr, Prince of Ceredigion, was the son of Eunydd 
ab Cadifor ab Peredur Peiswrydd ab Einion ab Eunydd ab Pwll ab 
Sanddef ab Gwyddno Goron Anr, Prince of the Cantref y Gwaclod. — 
See vol. ii, p. 389. 




[Leivys Dwnn, vol. ii, p. 236.) 

leuan ab Madog ab Cadwgan Fawr of Kidweli, ab Gruffydd= 
ab Cadwgan ab Llywelyn' ab Ivor ab Llywelyn ab lestyn 
ab Gwrgant, Prince of Glamorgan, founder of one of the 
Eoyal Tribes of Wales, Gules, three chevronells argent. 

" Cadwgan ab leuan, married a gentlewoman of North Wales, = 
ye daughter of Dafydd ab leuan Van, of Gwythel Fynydd 
in the parish of Towyn, one of the greatest men in his 
countrey, and he sold his lands in Kidweli, and came to live 
in North Wales, to his wife's friends, where he bought 
lands in the hundred of Tal y Bont and Ystym Aner, and 
left the same to leuan, his son by his sayd wife." 

^Isabel, d. of 

Howel ab 

Philip ab Uch- 

dryd, Lord of 


= Gwenhwyfai', 

d. of Dafydd 

ab leuan ab 

Dafydd Wyn 

Wyddel ab 

Ednowain ab 


leuan ab Cadwgan of Tal y Bont.=f=Lleucu, d. of Rhys Fychan ab Rhys 

I Goch ab Dafydd ab Rhydderch. 

Gruffydd Ddu of Tal y Bont.=j=Gwenllian, d. of Rhys ab Maredydd. 

1 Another genealogist deduces this line from hence, thus : Lly vvelju 
ab Ifor ab Gwrgan ab Gvvyn, whose descent is traced to a chieftain 
named Meurig, Lord of Dyfed. Nearly all the branches of this family 
have borne the arms attributed to Meurig, viz., azure, a chevron 
inter three cocks argent ; and the best authorities allege its descent 
from him. Meurig is represented to have flourished about the year 
600, but unless many generations are omitted in the descent of Lewys 
ab Owain from him (only twenty-three are mentioned), it must have 
been later; or that the real descent is the one above given, from Gwrgan 
ab Ithel, Prince of Glamorgan, who died in 1030. I have, indeed, 
seen the ancestry of the Owen family traced to lestyn ab Gwrgan, 
one of the Five Royal Tribes of Wales. — Ed. Lewys Dvmn. 



Lly welyn ab GrufiFydd Ddu. He " sould his lands and tenements= 
in Kevn y Ehos, called Llawegros, Tyddyn Einion Gryc, and 
divers other lands in Ystym Aner, to Tudor ab Teuan ab Tudor 
ab GrufFydd of Caethle, as by ye Eecords and evidences of yt 
house is manifest." 


ab Gruff- 



Howel ab Llywelyn of= 
Tal y Bont. 

-Gwenhwyfar, d. of Meurig ab leuan Llwyd ab Grufif- 
ydd Goch, descended from Ednowain ab Bradwen. 

Owain ab= 


=Gwenhwyfar, d. of Meurig ab leuan ab Einion ab Gruffydd ab 
Rhys Fychan, descended from Ednowain ab Bradwen. Robert 
Vaughan of Hengwrt says that Gwenhwyfar was daughter and 
heiress of Meurig. See vol. iv, p 284. 

Lewys Owen, Baron of the Ex- 
chequer. He lived at Cwrt 
Plas yn Dref Dolgelli. See 
vol. iv, p. 285. 

^Margaret, d. of Sir Robert Puleston, Clerk, 
Parson of Gresford. He was brother of 
Sir John Puleston, Knt., ab John ab John 
ab Madog Puleston of Bers, See vol. iii. 

1 1 



1 41 

5 1 6 1 

John =j 



Ed- Gruffydd=r Eliza- 

Robert Simon 

Lewys . 

d. of 


ward Owen 

1 beth. 

Owen Owen^ 




Owen of Tal 

1 sister 

of Bron of 


of Caer 


y Bont 

V and 

yClyd- Garth 

Lord of 



n- in the 


wr. At- Angh- 




rt. parish 


torney arad. 

wy ab 


See of 

of Wil- 

in the 




iv. Llane- 



ab Tho- 

See vol. 



of the 







7 1" 









Catha- Mary, ux. John Wynn 



beth, ux. rine, ux. 

ab Rhys Wynn ab 

He had Lloyd ab 

Richard leuan ab 

John Wynn of Llw- 

no male Tudor 



yn Yn and Caer 




of Cefn Lloyd of 

Ddineu. See vol. 



iv, p. 186. 




b 1 


1 d\ 


/I <J\ \ 

^ Simon Owen married Margaret, d. and sole heiress of Gruftydd 
ab Howel ab GrufFydd ab Howel, by whom he had issue two sons, — 
1, Lewis of Hafodtywyll, in the parish of Dolgelli ; and, 2, Robert 
of Garth Angharad ; and one daughter, Elizabeth. 



H 1 



1 3 

e ! 1 

/I 2^ 

1 3|4| 

Lewys = 

= Elen, d. of Hugh 



Elen, ux. 




Gwyn Bodvel, son 



John Powys 




of JohnWynn, Esq., 

ab Edward 



Lord of Bodvel in 
Lleyn, who had a 

grant of the Isle of 
Bardsey or Ynys 

Enlli, and demesne 

house of the Abbot 

of Bardsey, near 

Aberdaron, called 

the Cwrtwith ; 

descended from 

CoUwyn ab Tangno. 

Powys of 
the Monas- 
tery of 
Vaner or 
Cymer, in 
the pai-ish 
of LlanuU- 


Gruffydd Owen, the fourth son of the Baron Lewys 
Owen, was of Tal y Bont, in the parish of Llanegryn ; 
which place, with extensive privileges attached to it, 
under the name of the demesne lands of Llanegryn, or 
manor of Tal y Bont, he obtained by purchase from the 
Crown, He was living in the twelfth year of James I 
(1615). Through his marriage with Elizabeth, one of 
the sisters of David William Lloyd of Peniarth, Esq., 
Lewys, his eldest son, who died in 1633, became pos- 
sessed of that estate. Upon Hugh, the second son of 
Gruffydd Owen, his father settled Tal y Bont. Hugh 
died in March 1651, and w^as founder, by will, of the free 
school of Llanegryn. Another son, named Henry, was 
father of the celebrated Dr. John Owen, Dean of Christ 
Church, Oxford. 

Lewys Owen, the eldest son of Gruffydd Owen, suc- 
ceeded to the Peniarth estate, and died in 1633, leaving 
no male issue. Margaret, the eldest of his two daughters, 
succeeded him. IShe was married, first, to Richard Owen 
of Morben (who died about 1627), son of John Owen of 
Machynlleth, Esq. ; and, secondly, to Samuel Herbert, a 
cousin-german to the celebrated Edward, Lord Herbert 
of Chirbury. Her eldest son (by her first husband), 
Lewys Owen of Peniarth, Esq., M.P. for Meirionyddshire 
in the Parliament of 1659, was owner of the original 
MS. of Lewys Dwnn's Visitation. In his family the 
estate continued for three subsequent generations. Jane, 
eldest daughter and heiress of his grandson, Lewys Owen 


of Peniarth, Esq., Gustos Kotulorum for Meirionycldshire, 
was married, first, to Richard, Lord Viscoimt Bulkeley, 
of Cashell ; and, secondly, to Edward Williams, Esq., 
a younger son of John, one of the younger sons of 
the Right Honourable Sir William Williams, Bart., 
Speaker of the House of Commons in the reign of King 
Charles H. By her first husband she had no issue, by 
her second three daughters. The Viscountess Bulkeley 
died in March 1765, and was succeeded by her eldest 
daughter and heiress, Jane, married in 1772 to William 
Wynne of Wern, Esq., in the county of Caernarvon. 
Their eldest son, the late William Wynne of Peniarth, 
Esq., High Sheriff for Meirionyddshire in 1812, died on 
the 8th February 1834. For the pedigree of the Wynnes 
of Peniarth, see Burke's Landed Gentry. 


Hugh ab leuan ab David Lloyd of Mathafarn (see 
"Rug") had issue, besides his eldest son John, a third son- — 

Humphrey ab Hugh, who had Aberffrydlan for his 
share of the property. He married, first, in 1553, Jane, 
daughter of leuan ab Maurice ab David, by whom he had 
issue : — 1, Thomas, of whom presently, and four daugh- 
ters — 1, Margaret; 2, Catharine; 3, Elizabeth; and 4, 
Jane, ux. Lewys ab Richard of Ttdgarth, co. Meirionydd. 


Humphrey ab Hugh married, secondly, Anne, daughter 
of Wilham de la Hay, by whom he had issue, besides a 
third son Oliver, a second son — 

John Pugh of Glanmerin, who married, first, Eleanor, 
daughter of Eichard Pugh of Mathafarn, and relict of 
Maredydd ab Ehys of Abergwydol ; secondly, he married 

daughter of Thomas Wynn, and relict of Thomas 

Pryse of Glanfraed ; thirdly, he married Elizabeth Pur- 
cell, relict of Eichard Pugh of D61 y CorsUwyn. John 
Pugh's eldest daughter, Anne, heiress of Glanmerin, 
married Walter Pryse of Tynohir, in the township of 
Is-y-Garreg, Machynlleth, son of Thomas Pryse of Glan- 
fraed (by his first wife Bridget, daughter and heiress of 
John Griffith of Glanfraed, in the parish of Llanfihangel 
Geneu 'r Glyn), and sou of John Pryse of Gogerddan, 
Esq. Walter Pryse and his wife Anne had issue two 
sons : — 1, Thomas Pryse of Tynohir ; and 2, John Pryse 
of Glanmerin. 

Thomas ab Humphrey Pugh of Aberffrydlan married, 
first, Catharine, daughter of Oliver Herbert of Machyn- 
lleth, by whom he had a son and heir, Humphrey Pugh. 
He married, secondly, Jane, daughter of Elis Vaughan 
of Bryn Llech, co. Meirionydd, and relict of Edward 
Lloyd of Blaen lal, by whom he had no issue. 

Humphrey Pugh of Aberffrydlan married Catharine, 
daughter of Edward Pryse of the Eoft, now called Esgair 
Weddan, co. Meirionydd, by whom he had issue : — 

I. Thomas Pugh, of whom presently. 

II. John Pugh, married Jane, daughter of Hugh 

III. Gabriel, married Susan, daughter and heir of 
William Pugh ab John Pugh of Esgair Angell. 

IV. Isaac Pugh, married Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas 
Owen of Llynlloedd, and relict of Harry ab Eichard of 

I. Bridget, ux. Eowland Maredydd of Croft, living a 
widow in 1625. 

II. Jane, ux. Thomas Vaughan of Aberystwyth. 

III. Margaret, ux. Eowland Lloyd of Llanvechain, in 
the parish of Llanwrin. 


IV. Janet, ux. Thomas ah Hugh ab Maurice ab 

Thomas Pugh of AberfFrydlan married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Maredydd ab Rhys of Abergwydol, in the 
parish of Darowen, and co-heir to her brother, John Pryse,^ 
and relict to Edward ab Richard ab GrufFydd, her first 
cousin, by whom he had issue, besides three daughters, 
Anne, Mary, and Elizabeth, a son and heir — 

Humphrey Pugh of Aberffrydlan, who died in 1668 or 
1669. He married Lowry, daughter and heiress of Derwas 
Griffith of Glyntwymin, in the parish of Cemmaes, and 
by her, who married, secondly, Howel Vaughan of 
Hengwrt, Gwengraig, and Vaner, High Sheriff for co. 
Meirionydd in 1672 (see vol. iv), he had issue : — 

I. Thomas Pugh, oh. s. p. 

I. Elizabeth, heiress of Aberffrydlan, oh. 1738, and 
was buried at Llanegryn. She married, about 1662, 
Richard Owen of Peniarth, High Sheriff for co. Meirionydd 
in 1695, of Montgomeryshire, 1694, and of Caernarvon- 
shire in 1702. He died in 1714, and was buried at 

ir. Mary, ux. John Nanney of Maes y Pandy. 

III. Bridget, ux. Thomas Parry, M.A., Vicar of 

IV. Anne, ux Ingram. 

The above-named Richard Owen of Peniarth, by his 
wife Elizabeth Pugb, was father of Lewis Owen of 
Peniarth, who died in 1729. 

1 John Prj'se of Abergwydol was the son and heir, by Elen his wife, 
daughter of John Wynn ab Humphrey of Ynys y Maengwyn, of Mare- 
dydd ab Rhys of Abergwydol in the parish of Darowen, ab leuan ab 
Lewys ab Howel ab Madog ab GruflPj^dd ab Llywelyn ab Gruffydd ab 
Llywelyn ab lorwerth of Abergwydol, ab David ab Howel Darowen 
ab Philip ab Uchdryd, Lord of Cyfeiliog, ab Edwyn ab Goronwy, 
Prince of Tegeingl. 




1st, Mabli.d. and=pGfi''^iffy<l<i Derwas of Ceraaes, E3quire=p2nd,.Angliara(3, d. of 
heiress of lenan 
Llwyd ab leuan 
Blaeny ab leuan 
ab Cunillin ab 
Or, a lion rampt. 
regardant sable. 

of the Body to Henry VI ; living 
in 1416. Second son of Meurig 
Llwyd of Nannau. 

Rhys ab Tudor ab 

Goronwy ab Edny- 

fed Fychan. 

Howel ab Gruffydd, was fanner of Pennantigi,Gwanas, 
and Llanfihangel, co. Meirionydd, 9th, 10th, and 
11th years of Edward IV, and was ancestor of the 
Vaughans of Caerynwch. 

Gwilym ab Gruffydd of Cemaes, Fore-= 
man of the Jury at Dolgelli, 36th 
Henry VI. 

:Elizabeth, d. of David Lloyd ab David 
ab Einion of Newtown Hall. See 
vol. iv, p. 374. 

Gwilym Fychan of Cemaes, father of 
Maurice, father of Gruffydd, father 
of Thomas Lloyd of Cemaes, whose 
dau. and co-heiress Gwen married 
Rowland Pugh of Dol y Corsllwyn in 
Cemaes. See vol. iv. 

Janet, ux. Howel Mawddwy 
ab Gruffydd Mawddwg ab 
Llywelyn ab David, third 
son of leuan Llwyd, Lord 
of Mathafarn. See "Rug". 

Gruffydd ab=j=Jane, d. and heiress of Llywelyn ab Maredydd, second son of 
Gwilym of I David Lloyd, Lord of Mathafarn, Esquire to the Body to 
Cemaes. | Henry VII. 

Ednyfed Derwas of=j= Maurice. Robert ab=f=Mabli, d. of Mavirice ab Owen 

Glyntwymyn in 

Cemaes; living 26th 

June 1583. 



of Rhiwsaeson in Llanbryn- 
maer ; descended from Ely- 
stan Glodrhudd, Prince of 

Gruffydd of Glyn-=j=Elizabeth, d. of 
twymyn, 1677. | John ab Richard. 

Derwas =j=Margaret, d. of Gruffydd 

of Glyn- 

Kyffin of Cae Coch, 2nd 
son of John Kyffin of 
Glasgoed. See vol. iv. 


Edward Her-= 
bert of 


=John Herbert, son of Sir 
Richard Herbert of 
Montgomery, Knt. 

^Mabli, d. of Richard 

ab Hugh ab leuan of 

Dol y Corsilwyn, See 

vol. iv, p. 156. 



\a \b 

Gi'ufFydd Lowvy, = 
Derwas. heiress of 

-Hu mphrey Pugh 

of Aberffrydlan ; 

ob. 1668-9. 

Elizabeth, heiress=pRichard Owen of 

of Aberffrydlan 
and Glyntwymyn. 

Peniarth ; ob. 

Lewys Owen of= 
Peniarth, Gus- 
tos Rotulorum 
for CO. Meirion- 
ydd; ob. 1729, 
aged 43. 

=Margaret, eldest sis- 
ter of Sir Watkin 
Williams Wynn of 
Wynnstay, Bart. ; 
ob. 1719. 


=Williara Lewys Anwyl of Park, 
in the parish of Llanfro- 
then, Esq., High Sheriff for 
CO. Meirionydd in 1611 and 
1624. Vert, three eagles 
displaced in fess or. 


Lewys Anwyl of Park, mar. Robert 
Frances, d. of Sir William Anwyl 
Jones of Castellmarch in of 

Lleyn, by whom he had an Park.^ 
only daughter and heiress, 
Catharine, who married William 
Owen of Clenennau, and she had 
the Herbert estates, which are now 
possessed by her repi'esentative. 
Lord Harlech of Bi'ogyntyn, 

Jane, sole heiress of Peniarth and Aberffrydlan, married, first, to Richard, 
fifth Viscount Bulkeley, by whom she had no issue ; and, secondly, to her 
kinsman, Edward Williams, a younger son of John Williams of Chester 
and Bodelwyddan, and grandson of the Right Hon. Sir William Williams, 
Bart., Speaker of the House of Commons in the reign of Charles 11. Jane, 
the eldest daughter and sole heiress of Edward Williams and his wife 
Jane, married William Wynne of Wern, co. Carnarvon, Esq., High Sheriff 
for CO. Montgomery in 1773, and for co. Meirionydd in 1772. Their eldest 
son, William Wynne of Peniarth, Esq., sold Aberffrydlan to the late Sir 
John Edwards, Bart. 

1 Robert Anwyl of Park, Esq., married Catharine, daughter of Sir 
John Owen of Clenennau, in the parish of Penmorva, in Eivionydd. 
He was Sheriff for co. Meirionydd in 1650, and died 11th October 
1653. Park and its extensive possessions descended eventually to 
Robert Anwyl's grand-daughter, Catharine, daughter of his second 
son Owen. She was married on the 7th of April 1697, to Sir Griffith 
Williams, Bart., of Marl, near Conwy. Their only son. Sir Robert 
Williams, Bart., dying without issue, the great property of the two 
families passed to his sister Anne, the wife, first of the Right Hon. 
Sir Thomas Prendergast, Bart., and secondly of Captain Terence 
Prendergast. In her time she had been maid of honour to Caroline, 
Queen of George 11, and was pi'obably the wealthiest heiress of her 
day. The estates were alienated, and she died in great poverty — it 
has been said in a poorhouse, at Eglwys Wen or Whitchurch, near 




Llywelyn ab Cynwrig=pNest, d. and co-heiress of Griiffydd ab Adda of 

ab Osbern Wyddel of 
Cors y Gedol. 

Ynys y Maen Gwyn ab Gruffydd ab Madog ab 
Cadifor ab Cunillin ab Gwaethfoed, Lord of 
Ceredigion. Or, a lion rampt. regardant sable. 

Gruffydd ab Llywelyn of Cors y Gedol.= 
He was a firm adherent of the 
House of Lancaster, and one of the 
defenders of Harlech Castle under 
his valiant cousin, David ab leuan 
ab Einion. See " Pengwern", vol. 

=Efa, d. of Madog ab Elissau of Cry- 
niarth, son of lorwerth, Lord of 
Llangar, third son of Owain Brog- 
yntyn. Lord of Dinmael and Ede- 
yrnion ; and sister and co-heir of 
Llywelyn ab Madog ab Elissau, 
Bishop of St. Asaph from 1357 to 

Einion ab Gruffydd of Cors= 
y Gedol, and Ynys y 
Maen Gwyn. 

^Pangwyrth, d.of Ehydderch ab leuan Llwyd of 
Gogerddan ab leuan ab Gruffydd Foel ab 
Gruffydd ab lorwerth ab Cadifor ab Gwaeth- 
foed. Lord of Ceredigion. 


lorwerth ab=f=Gwenllian, d. 

Einion of 

Ynys y 


of Cynwrig ab 
Eotpert of 



of Cors y 


leuan, ancestor of the Lewys,es of 
Pengwern in Ffestiniog, and the 
Wynnes of Peniarth. See vol. 

Jenkyn ab lorwerth of Ynys y Maen Gwyn. He=j=Elin, d. of Gruffydd 
was farmer (lessee under the Crown) of the Mills | Derwas of Cemaes. 
of Keving and Caethle, and the Ferry of Aber- See p. 109. 

dovey, 36 Henry VI ; living in 1494. | 

Howel ab Jenkyn of Ynys= 
y Maen Gwyn ; died of 
the plague in 1494. 

=Mary, d. of Sir Roger Kynaston of Hordley, in 
Shropshire, Knt., Constable of Harlech Castle, 
and Sheriff for Shropshire in 1 462. 

Humphrey ab Howel of Ynys y Maen=f= Anne, or Agnes, d. of Sir Eichard 
Gwyn. Ob. 1545. | Herbert of Montgomery, Knt. 

i \ I 

John Wynnof Ynys=pElizabeth, d. of Jane, ux. Gruff- Elizabeth, ux.Mor- 

y Maen Gwyn. V Ehys Vaughan of ydd Nannau of gan ab Thomas of 

jCors y Gedol. Nannau. Crogen. 


The above-named John Wynn liad issue, by his wife 
Elizabeth, two sons and four daughters : — 

I, Humphrey Wynn, of whom presently. 

II. Lewys G-wyn of Dolau Gwyn, in the parish of 
Towyn, Sheriff for co. Meirionydd in 1617. He married, 
first, Jane, daughter of Hugh Nannau of Nannau, and 
relict of Elis ab William Lloyd of Rhiwaedog, by whom 
he had a daughter and heiress, wife of Gruffydd Nannau 
of Nannau, Esq. He married, secondly, Anest, daugh- 
ter of Hugh Gwyn ab leuan ab Gruffydd, by whom he 
had four daughters : — 1, Mary ; 2, Elin ; 3, Elizabeth ; 
and 4, Margaret. 

I. Mary, ux. Edward Powys of Vaner Abbey, son of 
John Powys, Sheriff for co. Meirionydd in 1543. The 
site of the dissolved monastery of Vaner, or Cymmer, 
with the greater part of its possessions, was granted in 
perpetuity, or leased to him, on the 19th April 1550. 
He is styled, in the charter of the reign of Edward VI, 
" John Powes de Hospitio suo, gent." (the king's house- 
hold) ; and in the accounts of the Chamberlain for North 
Wales (1st and 2nd Philip and Mary), 1554, "Johannes 
Powes, Arm', ball' nuper Mon' Kymmer". He was 
Sergeant-at-Arms to Henry VIII, and was the eldest 
son of Reignallt ab John Vychan ab John ab David ab 
Maredydd ab leuan ab Gruffydd ab Gwyn ab Gruffydd, 
Lord of Cegidfa and Deuddwr. Mary married, secondly, 
Harri Vaughan of Machynlleth, ab David Lloyd ab Lly- 
welyn ab Maurice ab Howel ab Llywelyn ab Howel ab 
Llywelyn ab Cadwgan ab Howel ab Llywelyn ab Gruffydd 
ab Maredydd ab Philip ab Uchdryd, Lord of Cyfeiliog, 
ab Edwyn ab Goronwy. 

II. Elin, ux. Maredydd ab Rhys of Abergwydol, ab 
leuan ab Lewys ab Howel ab Madog ab Gruffydd ab 
LlyM^elyn of Abergwydol, ab lorwerth ab David ab Howel 
Darowen, ab Philip ab Uchdryd, Lord of Cyfeiliog. 

III. Anne, ux William ab Lewys Gethin of Dolgelli, 
of the same line as Caerynwch. 

IV. Margaret, ux. Cadwaladr ab Rhys of Bala. 
Humphrey Wynn of Ynys y Maengwyn, married Jane, 


daughter of Khys Hughes of Maes y Pandy, Sheriff for 
CO. Meirionydd in 1582, descended from Einion Sais 
(argent, three cocks, gules), by whom he had two daugh- 
ters, co-heirs : — 

I. Elizabeth, heiress of Ynys y Maen Gwyn. 

II. Catharine, co-heiress, ux. John Owen ab Owen 
Lewys Owen, Esq. 

EHzabeth Wynn, the heiress of Ynys y Maen Gwyn, 
married Sir James Pryse, Knt. (son of John Pryse of 
Gogerddan, Esq.), who was Sheriff for co. Meirionydd in 
1608. She died 17th May 1642. Bridget, only child 
and heiress of Sir James Pryse and Elizabeth Wynn, was 
married, first, to Robert Corbet, third son of Sir Vincent 
Corbet of Morton Corbet, co. Salop, Knt, She married, 
secondly, Sir Walter Lloyd of Llanfair Clydogau, Knt. 
The Ynys y Maen Gwyn estates remained in the male 
line of the Corbets till the death of Vincent Corbet, Esq., 
who left two daughters, co-heirs : — 

I. Anne, the heiress of Ynys y Maen Gwyn, married 
to Athelstan Owen of Rhiwsaeson, Esq. 

II. Rachel, co-heir, married to Love Parry of Penarth 
and Rhydolion, co. Caernarvon, Esq., M.P., by whom 
she had a son and heir. Love Parry of Penarth, Rhydo- 
lion, Wernfawr, and Madryn, whose eldest daughter and 
co-heir, Margaret, married, in 1780, Thomas Parry Jones 
of Llwyn On, in the parish of Wrexham, Esq. (See vol. 
ii, pp. 124, 125.) 

Mrs. Owen, the heiress of Ynys y Maen Gwyn, died on 
the 16th July 1760, aged seventy-six. By her an entail 
was created, settling Ynys y Maen Gwyn and its exten- 
sive possessions upon the descendants of her youngest 
daughter (her two sons died without issue), Anne, wife 
of Pryse Maurice of Lloran, co. Denbigh, Esq., upon con- 
dition of their assuming the name of Corbet. Under 
this entail, these estates eventually were vested in the 
late Athelstan Corbet (previously Maurice), Esq., who 
died on the 26th December 1835. This fine estate has 
now been sold. 

VOL. V. 8 




Ethelstan Glodrhudd, Princen=Gwladys, d. and sole heiress of Ehun ab Cy- 
of Fferlis. See vol. ii. I nan Veiniad ab Gwaethfoed, Lord of Cere- 
I digion. 

Cadwgan, Lord of Radnor, Buallt, Kerry ,=pEva, sister of lestyn ab Gwr 

and Cedewain. William the Conqueror *■ ^- — -' '''' """ 

fell upon this Cadwgan, and took all the 
English country from him. 

gant, King of Glamorgan, 
founder of the Fourth Eoyal 

Idnerth, Lord of Radnorshire. ^Dyddgu, d. of Aaron Poen ab Payne ab lo. 

ab Meirchion. 

Ednyved.=T= Jane, d. of lefaf. Lord of Arwystli. See vol. i. 

GruflFydd.=f=Arddyn, d. of Llywarch ab Lloen ab Cilmin Troedtu. 
Howel.=FAnnes Goch, d. of leuan ab Y Moelwyn, Lord of Buallt. 


Ithel Aur Gledde of^fAnnesta, d. of Owain Cyfeiliog, Prince of Powys. 
Khiwsaeson, Esq. I Three portions of land in Ehiwsaeson were given 
I with this Annesta. 

Henwyn ab Ithel of^Eva, d. of lorwerth ab Trahaiarn, Lord of Garthmael, 
Ehiwsaeson. | See p. 120. 

Meilir ab Henwyn of^pMorvyth, d. of Einion ab Cynfelyn, Lord of Manafon. 

Ehi wsaeson. | 

leuan ab Meilir ofT=Eva, d. of Llywelyn ab Gruffydd ab Maredydd ab Philip 
Ehiwsaeson. | ab Uchdryd, Lord of Cyfeiliog. 

Gruifydd of ^Margaret, d. of Howel ab Ehys ab David of Gilfachwen, ab 
Ehiwsaeson. I Howel Fychan ab Howel Fawr ab Ehys Voel ab Rhydderch 
I ab Cadi for ab Dyfnwal, Lord of Castell Howel. 

Owen of Ehiw-^pEva, d. and co-heir of Llywelyn Gogof, second son Mor- 
saeson. | of leiian Llwyd ab Llywelyn ab Tudor of Matha- gan 





1 i a 2 I 6 

Llywelyn ab=T=Gwenllian, d. of David ab Ehydderch ab leuan Howel ab 

Owen of I Llwyd of Glyn Aeron, in Cardiganshire. Owen. 

Owen ab Lly-=j=Tangwystl, d. of David ab Llywelyn ab leuan Blaeney ab 

welyn of 

Maurice Owen= 


Philip ab leuan Fychan ab leuan ab Rhys ab Llawdden, 
Lord of Uwch Aeron. Gules, a griffon segreant or, des- 
cended from Edwyn ab Goronwy. 

=Mary, d. of Howel Vaughan of Llwydiarth, and Elen his 
wife, d. of John ab Maredydd of Ystym Cegid. 

Richard Owen=FElen, d. of John Vaughan ab Ehydderch of Glanlery, ab 


Ehys ab Maredydd ab Owain, Lord of the Towyn. 

I I I 

Maurice Owen^Lucy, dau. of David Mary, second wife of Edward 

of I Lloyd Blaeney of David Lloyd Blaeney. Owen. 

E hiwsaeson. | Grugynog. 

Athelstan=j=Elizabeth, d. of Matthew Herbert of Dolguog, ab EondleOwen 

Owen of 

Edward Herbert of Montgomery, ab Sir Richard of Gelli 
Herbert of Montgomery, Knt. Dywyll. 

Eichard Owen of Ehiwsaeson.=j=Elizabeth, d. of Eichard Oakeley of Oakeley. 

I [ 
Athelstan —Elizabeth, d. of Wil- Eichard=f=Martha, d. of John New- 
Owen of liam Vaughan of Cors Owen. | ton, Esq. 
Ehiw- y Gedol. j 
s a^eson. Herbert Owen, 1699. 


Athelstan Owen of Ehiwsaeson,=pAnne, d. and co-heiress of Vincent Corbet 
1735. I of Ynys y Maen Gwyn j ob. 17th July 1760. 

I I I 

Corbet Rowland Anne, heiress of Ynys = Pryse Maurice of Lloran, Esq. 
Owen, Owen, y Maen Gwyn. See vol. iv. 

ob. s. p. ob. s. p. 


(Add. MS. 9865.) 

Eondle Owen, younger son of Maurice=j=Elen, d. and heiress of Humphrey 
Owen ab Eichard Owen of Ehiw- Wynn of Gelli Dywyll, in the 
saeson. | parish of Llanbrynmair. 

Andrew Owen of Gelli Dywyll.=pUrsula, d. of Evan Glyn of Glyn Clywedog, 
I in the parish of Llanidloes. 

Eo ndle Owen of Gelli Dy wyU. =j=Mary, d. of Harry Parry of Machynll eth. 

Andrew, 1700. Thomas. Eondal. Harri. Elizabeth, Jane. Dorotliy. 





Howel, younger son of Owen ab GrufFydd=T=Maud, d. of Maredydd ab Adda 

of Rliiwsaeson. 


David ab^lst, Marred, d. and heiress of Ieuan=f=2nd, Mallt, dan. of David 
Howel. I ab Gruffydd ab Jenkyn of Llwyd- | Llwyd ab Llywelyn ab 
iarth, | Gruffydd of Mathafarn, 

of Gelli 

^Catharine, d. 
of leuan ab 
David Lloyd 
ab Llywelyn 
ab Gruffydd. 

Morgan.=pLowry/ d. of David Anwyl ab Ehys 
Fychan of Llangyby. 

Elen, ux. 


ab Owain ab 



Margaret, ux. 
leuan ab 
John ab 

Guttyn Bach 
of Penllyn. 


ab David Hir 

ab leuan ab 

Madog ab 


Catharine, ux. Llywelyn ab Gwilym ab Llywelyn. 

I I I 

Thomas =f=Elizabeth, d. of Owain ab Morgan. Gwen, ux. Cadwaladr ab 

of Gelli I John ab Maredydd of Ehys ab leuan ab David 

Dywyll. j Ystym Cegid. Vol. iv, Lloyd. 

I p. 296. 

Humphrey Wynn of Gelli Dy wyll.=j=Elizabeth, d. of . . Herbert of . . . David. 

Elen, heiress of Gelli=pRondle Owen, younger son of Maurice Owen of 
Dywyll. V Ehiwsaeson. 

1 Lowry, d. and heiress of David Anwyl ab Gruflfydd ab Ednyfed 
ab Gruffydd ab Aron of Peniarth.— //ar/. MS. 1969. 







{Add. MS. 9865.) 

Madog Hir, younger son of GrufFydd=pAgnes, d. of Howel ab GrufFydd ab 
ab leuan ab Meilir of Ehiwsaeson. | Adda Moel ab Adda Mawr. 

Dio ab Madog. =f-G wen, d of Einion ab leuan ab Madog. 

Gutto ab Dio.=j=Angharad, d. of Maredydd ab Jeukyn ab David ab llhirid ab 
I David ab Ehirid of Caer Einion. 

Bedo.=pGwenllian, d. of leuan ab Madog Fychan. 

Gwilym of=j=Mallt, d. and heiress of Llywelyn ab leuan ab Deio Bwll ab 
Cemaes. i leuan ab Madog ab Gruffydd Ckwith ab Philip ab Uchdryd, 
I Lord of Cyfeiliog. 

David of Pentref Cynddelw in Llanbrynmair.=p 

John.=pLowri, d. of Gruffydd ab Ednyfed ab Howel ab Maredydd ab Gruff- 
I ydd Derwas of Cemaes. 

Thomas. =j=Catharine, d. of Morgan ab Llywelyn ab Thomas ab Eobert ab 
I Tudor, des. from Marchweithian. 

William .=pMargaret, d. of Evan Lloyd of Ceiswyn, Esq. 

Thomas.=pMary, d. of John Jenkyns. 

William=T=Margaret, d. of Humphrey Jones of Clegyrddwr in Llanbrynmair, 

of " ' 


ab Gruffydd Jones ab Humphrey Jones of Clegyrddwr, ab John 
ab leuan ab Maurice ab leuan Goch ab Maredydd Fychan of 
Maesmawr in Arwystli, ab Maredydd ab Philip ab Gruffydd ab 
Maredydd ab Einion ab Cynfelyn, Lord of Manavon. See p. 60. 

Humphrey Williams of Pentref =Mal)el, d. of Jenkyn Lloyd of Clochfaen, 
Cynddelw. 1698. 




(Harl. MSS. 1969, 2299.) 

Uchdryd ap Edwyn, Lord of Cy-=j=Agnes, d. of Llywelyn Eur Dorchog, Lord 
feiliog. ^1 of lal and Ystrad Alun, See p. 85, 

Philip of Cyfeiliog.^Janet, d. of Ehys ab Howel ab Trahaiarn, 

Howel Darowen.^Angharad, d. of Llywelyn Fychan, Baron of Main. 

Maredydd of CyfeiUog. One of the witnesses to a 
charter of Gwenwynwyn, Prince of Upper Powys, to 
the Abbey of Strata Marcella, in the year 1199. 


David of Dar-=j=Jane, d. of Howel ab David Tudor of Gruffydd. Llywelyn. 
owen. I of Trevor. Penegoes. 

lorwerth of=f=Arddun, d. of Trahaiarn ab Cynwrig, second son of Pasgen 
Abergwydol I ab Gwyn ab Gruffydd, Lord of Cegidfa, Broniarth, and 
in Darowen. | Deuddwr. 

Lly welyn of Abergwydol.=f =Janet, d. of Sir John Scudamore, Knt. 

Gruffydd of=pDyddgu, d. of Llywelyn Fychan ab Llywelyn ab Gruffydd ab 
Abergwy- Gwen ab Goronwy ab Einion ab Seisyllt, Lord of Matha- 

dol. farn. 

Llywelyn of Aber-=pMary, d. of Llywelyn ab Madog ab Tudor of Penegoes, 
gwydol. I ab Howel Darowen. 


Madog • 


=Elizabeth, d. of Owen ab Maredydd ab David Llwyd 
of Neuadd Wen, ab Gruffydd Fychan ab Gruffydd 
Vyrgoch ab Einion ab Ednyfed ab Sulien ab 
Caradog ab CoUwyn ab Y Lies Graff of Meivod, ab 
Maredydd ab Cynan, Lord of Rhiwhirieth, in Llan- 
fair Caer Einion, and of Neuadd "Wen and Coed 
Talog in Llanerfyl. Cynan was one of the sons 
of Owaiu Gwyuydd. Maredydd ab Cynan bore 
quarterly argent and gules, four lions passant 





David Bwl.=pTangwystyl, d. of Lly welyn Gogof, second son of leuan Llwyd 
I ab Llywelyn ab Tudor, Lord of Matliafarn. 

Gruffydd. ^fJane, d, of leuan ab Madog ab Gruffydd ab leuan ab Maredydd 
I ab Howel Goch of Darowen, ab Madog ab Gruffydd ab Howel 
I Darowen. 


=Angharad, dau. of 

leuan Llwyd ab 

David ab Einion 

ab Adda ab leuan 

ab Y Moelglas of 

Cawg in Llanbryn- 


Llywel- =f=Mabli, d. of leuan 

yn of 

Fychan ab leuan 
ab Cadwgan ab 
Llywelyn ab Gruff- 
ydd ab Maredydd 
ab Philip ab UcL- 
dryd. Harl. MSS. 
1969, 2299. 

Howel, an- 
cestor of the 
Joneses of 


Evan in 


uiair. See 

Mont. Coll., 

vol. xvii. 

leuan of Llanbrynmair.=p 

David of Llanbrynmair.^p 

Morgan of Llanbrynmair.= 

Gwilym ot 

:Gwen, d. of leuan ab David of 
Wenallt, ab Llywelyn ab Cad- 
wgan ab Llywelyn ab Gruffydd 
ab Maredydd ab Philip ab 

Eichard Morgan of=pSarah, d. of John Jones of 
Caelan in Llan- Cawg in Llanbrynmair. 


Mallt, ux. Jenkyn Lloyd 
of Clochfaen. 

Sarah, heiress of Caelan ;=f=Morgan Lloyd, second son of Jenkyn Lloyd of 
o6. 1696. Clochfaen. Will dated 12th Nov. 1702. 

The Eev. Little- 
ton Lloyd; 
oh. s.p. 

Sarah, ux. Edward Pritchard of Ceniarth, Esq., de- 
scended from Einion ab Seisyllt, Lord of Mathafarn. 

Llywelyn : 
of Llan- 

:Catharine, d. and co-heiress of Morgan ab Ehys of Llan- 
David of Llanbrynmair, ab Howel ab Owain brynmair. 

ab Gruffydd of Ehiwsaeson. See p. 115. 

Owen of Llan- = Mallt, d. of Thomas ab leuan ab David Goch of 

brynmair. Carno, ab leuan ab David Lloyd ab Maredydd 

ab Llywelyn Fychan ab Llywelyn ab Gruff-. 

ydd ab Gwen ab Goronwy ab Einion ab 

Seisyllt of Mathafarn. 


Owen. Maredydd. leuan. Mary. Gwenllian. 




Llywelyn Eurdorchog, Lord of 141 and Ystrad=f=Eva, d. of Cynvyn ab Gwr- 

Alun, Prime Minister of Grnffydd ab Llywelyn 
ab Seisyllt, King of Wales. Azure, a lion 
passant gardant, bis tail between bis legs 
and reflected over his back or. See p. S-i, 
and vol. ii, p. 345. 

ystan, King of Powys, 
and sister of Bleddyn 
ab Cynwyn, Prince of 

Llywelyn Fychan.=f Agnes, d. of Cadwgan ab Elystan Grlodrhudd, Prince of 
^1 Fferlis. 

Rhys Goch.=f=Lleucu, d. of Llywelyn ab Meilir Grflg, Lord of Trefgynon and 
I Westbury. 


Einion.=f=Jane, d. of Einion ab Seisyllt, Lord of Mathafarn. 

Iorwerth.=f=Jane, d. of David Fychan ab David of Bachelldref. 

Trahaiarn, Lord of Garthmael, which= 
was given him by the Prince of 
Powys for his bravery in battle, 
together with a new coat of arms, 
anjent, three lions passant in pale 

=Agnes,d.of leuan ab Madog ab Einion 
ab Cynfelyn, Lord of Manafon. 
According to Lewys Dwnn, vol. i, 
p. ill, Trahaiarn married Dyddgu, 
d. of Maredydd ab Rotpert, Lord of 

Y Gwion=f= Rhys. lorwerth. 


=j=Jane, d. of Sir Peter 
I Corbet, Knt. 



lorwerth. i 

lorwerth Fychan. =p Howel. 

Madog y Twppa of Plas 
y Twppa in Bettws y 

Jonas, ancestor of Madog.=j 
the Maurices of |~ 

Ucheldref.i Mared- 



1 John Maurice of Ucheldref in Bettws y Cedwg in Cedewain, ab 
Maurice ab Rowland ab Howel ab David ab Gruftydd ab Jonas Fychan 

ab Jonas. 



Llywelyn, ancestor of 
Eichard ab Gruffydd of 

Llanidloes, 1 and Hum- 
phrey ab Gruffydd of Tyn 
y Caleb. 2 

Ieuan.=f=Alson, d. of Rhiwallawn Pychan ab Ehw- 
allawn Llwyd ab Ithel ab Rhys ab 
Ivor of Cantref Selyf, ab Howel ab 
Morgan, Lord of Ewias, ab Morgan 
Hir, Lord of Misgin, sixth son of lestyn 
ab Gwrgant, Prince of Glamorgan. 
Gules, three chevroneils argent. 

Madog.=i=Eva, d. of Adda. 

Maredydd.=f^Eva, d. of Howel ab lorwerth ab Trahaiarn ab lorwerth ab 
I Einion ab Rhys Goch. Argent, three lions passant in pale 
I gules. 


leuan ■ 

=Catharine, d. of Einion ab Madog ab Einion ab Gruffydd Fychan ab 


^Margaret, d. of Rhys ab Maredydd ab David Chwith ab Rhys ab 
leuan of Cynwil Gaio, ab Rhys ab lorwerth ab Gruffydd ab Meurig 
ab Gruffydd ab David Fongam ab Gruffydd ab Cadifor, Lord of 
Cil y Cwm. See vol. ii, p. 2-34. 

Philip ab leuan, jure uxoHs of Berth-^Gwenhwyfar, d. and heiress of David 
Uoyd, near Llanidloes. V Lloyd of Berthlloyd. 


(Add. MS. 15,017.) 

David Lloyd of Berthlloyd, ab Gruffydd ab Einion ab lorwerth ab Mared-- 
ydd ab Madog Danwr, Lord of Llangurig. Ermine, a lion rampt. sable, 
in a border gules, charged with eight mullets or. See " Clochfaen", 
vol. ii. 

* Gruifydd ab Richard of Llanidloes, ab Gruffydd ab John ab 
Hugh ab Llywelyn ab lorwerth ab Gwgan, or Y Gwion, ab Trahaiarn, 
Lord of Garthmael. 

2 Edward Humphreys of Ty'n y Caleb in Bettws, ab Grufiydd ab 
John ab Hugh ab Llywelyn ab lorwerth ab Gwgan, etc. 



Gwenliwyfar, =T=Philip ab leuan Bwla ab leuan ab Maredydd ab Madog ab 

heiress of 

leuan ab lorwerth ab Y Gwyon ab Trahaiarn ab lorwerth. 
Lord of Garthmael. Argent, three lions passant in pale 
gules. See p. 120. 

leuan ab= 
Philip of 

-Angharad, d. of Maurice ab David ab Llywelyn of Creuddyn in 
Ceredigion, ab Ehys ab Llywelyn ab Ehys ab lorwerth ab Rhys 
ab GrufiFydd ab Collwyn ab Tangno, Lord of Eivionydd and 
Ardudwy. Sable, a chev. inter three fleurs-de-lys argent. 

Jenkyn ab leuan of Berth-- 
lloyd. His name appears in 
the list of the Exchequer 
Subsidies for the Hundred 
of Llanidloes, 37th Henry 
VIII, 1546. See vol. ii, p. 

David =f^Lowry, d. of wain Gwynn 
Lloyd of V ab Llywelyn Lloyd of 
Berth- Llanidloes, Esq. Quar- 
lloyd, terly, 1st and 4th, azure. 
High a lion passant argent, for 
Sheriff Einion ab Cynfelyn, Lord 
for CO. of Manavon ; 2nd and 3rd, 
Mont- or, a lion rampant azure, 
gomery, for Cadwgan of Nannau, 
1576. Prince of Powys. 

=Gwenhwyfar, d. of Maredydd (or Matthew, 
according to the Wynnstay MS. } ab Lly- 
welyn ab leuan ab Maredydd ab Madog 
Goch of Glandulas, ab Madog Fychan ab 
Madog ab leuan ab Gruffydd ab Mared- 
ydd ab Madog Danwr. Her mother was 
Arddun, d. of Llywelyn ab Gruffydd of 
Bettws in Cedewain. 

Mallt, ux. David 
Lloyd of Llanid- 
loes, ab Maredydd 
ab John ab Mared- 
ydd ab Rhys of 
See vol. iv. 

Margaret, ux. 
Cadwaladr Glynn 
of Glyn Clywed- 
og. Azure, three 

cocks argent, 
crested and wat- 
tled or. 

David Lloyd of Berthlloyd had issue, by Lowri his 
wife, three sons and four daughters : — 

I. Jenkyn Lloyd, of whom presently. 

II. Edward Lloyd of Trefeglwys. He married Ursula, 
daughter of Hugh Owen of Caerberllan, in the parish 
of Llanfihangl y Pennant, co. Meirionydd, who bore 
azure, three cocks argent, crested and wattled or, by 
whom he had two sons : — 1, David Lloyd, LL.D., of All 
Souls' College, Oxford, Eector of Llanfair and Winwick, 
and Warden of Kuthin, from which last place he was 
ejected in the time of the Commonwealth, and to which 
he was restored and promoted to the deanery of St. Asaph 
in the year 1660. He died at Euthin in 1663. 2, Oliver 
Lloyd, LL.D., Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford, whence 
he was ejected in 1648, restored in 1660, and died in 
London in 1662. 

III. Oliver Lloyd, of the Court of Arches. 

I. Elizabeth, ux. Edward Blaeney of Maesmawr, ab 


Thomas ab leuan Blayney of Grt^lgynog. Suhle, three 
horse's heads erased argent. 

II. Margaret, ux. Evan Vaughan of Trawscoed, co. 
Cardigan, ancestor of the Earls of Lisburne. Sable, a 
chev. inter three fleurs-de-lys argent. 

III. Catherine, ux. Richard Bowen of Pen yr Allt 
Goch, near Llanidloes. 

IV. Mallt, ux. Edward Gwynn of Llanidloes, ab John 
ab Morgan Gwynn ab Owain Gwynn, Esq., descended 
from Cadwgan of Nannau, Prince of Powys. 

Jenkyn Lloyd of Berthlloyd, Steward of the lordship 
of Arwystli, High Sheriff for co. Montgomery, 1588, 
and again in 1606 ; oh. 1626, and was buried in the 
chancel of Llanidloes Church. He married, first, 
Dorothy, daughter of Edmund Walters of Ludlow, 
Chief Justice of South Wales, and of the Council for 
the Court of the Marches ; and at his death was buried in 
Ludlow Church, where his tomb is still to be seen. He 
bore sable, a fess indented inter three eagles displayed 
argent, membered gules ; and he married Mary, daughter 
of Thomas Hackluit of Eyton, co. Salop, Esq. Jenkyn 
Lloyd married, secondly, Joyce, daughter of Edward 
Herbert of Montgomery, Esq., ab Sir Richard Herbert, 
Knt., by whom he had one daughter, Elizabeth, who was 
married to John Blayney of Grugynog, Esq. 

Jenkyn Lloyd had issue by his first wife, Dorothy 
Walters, five sons and eight daughters : — 

I. Sir Edward Lloyd, Knt., of whom presently. 

IL James Lloyd of the Inner Temple. 

III. Richard Lloyd, a parson in South Wales. 

IV. John Lloyd. 

V. Jenkyn Lloyd, a parson. 

I. Dorothy, born in 1640. She married David Hol- 
land of Kinmael, Esq., by whom she had two daughters, 
co-heiresses : — 1, Mary, ux. William Price of Rhiwlas, in 
Penllyn, Esq., who bore gules, a lion rampant argent, 
holding in its paws a rose of the second fronded vert ; 
and 2, Elizabeth, who had Kinmael, and married Sir 


John Carter, an officer in Cromwell's army,^ who bore 
azure, a talbot passant inter three buckles or. Sir John 
died 25th November 1676, leaving one son, Thomas 
Carter, who succeeded to Kinmael. (Vol. iv, pp. vi, 344.) 
n. Mary, ux. William Herbert of Park. 

III. Margaret, ux. Ehys Lloyd of Clochfaen ; marriage 
settlements dated 1627. 

IV. Ffrances. 

V. Martha, ux. — 1st, David Maurice of Maesmawr in 
Arwystli (azure, three cocks argent, crested and wattled 
or); and ux., 2nd, of Hugh Pugh of Llanbedr, Warden of 
Ruthin, who previously had been parson of Trefeglwys. 
She died in 1678. 

VI. Jane. She was the second wife of Evan Glynn of 
Glyn Clywedog, near Llanidloes, descended from Aleth, 
King of Dyfed, who bore azure, three cocks argent, 
crested and wattled or. She died in 1635, and was 
buried at Llanidloes. 

VII. Lowri, ux. Maurice ab Jenkyn of Llanwnog. 

VI [I. Blanche, ux. Edward Wynn ab Ehys Wynn of 

Sir Edward Lloyd of Berthlloyd, Knight, High Sheriff 
for CO. Montgomery, 1629 ; made Burgess of Denbigh in 
1632 ; buried 2nd March 1666 at Llanidloes. He mar- 
ried Ursula, daughter of Sir Henry Salusbury of Lly weni, 
Knight and Baronet, by Hester his wife, daughter of Sir 
Thomas Myddleton of Chirk Castle, Knight. The arms 
of the Salusburys are gules, a lion rampant ducally 
crowned or, inter three crescents argent. By this lady 
Sir Edward had issue seven sons and four daughters : — 

I. Edward Lloyd, of whom presently. 

II. Salusbury Lloyd ; and five other sons who died 
without issue. 

I. Dorothy, ux. Robert Brixton, D.D., of Dedford in 

Ti. Anne, ux. — 1st, Edward Thelwall of Llanbedr 
Hall, in DyfiVyn Clwyd, Esq. ; and, 2nd, Thomas Wil- 
liams of Helygen, Esq. 

1 Add. MS. 14,896. 


iiT. Elizabeth, ux. Robert, second son of Robert 
Wynn of Voelas, Esq. Gules, a lion rampant argent, 
holding in its paws a rose of the second, leaves and stem 

IV. Ursula, ux. Roger Mostyn of Cilcain, Esq. 

Edward Lloyd of Berthlloyd, oh. 6th October, and 
was buried at Llanidloes on the ninth of the same month, 
1696. He married, first, Dorothy, daughter of Thomas 
Booker of Over Peover, in Kent, Esq. {o7\ an eagle dis- 
played vert, crowned argent, in a border azure, charged 
with eight fleurs-de-lys or), by whom he had issue one son 
and four daughters : — 

I. Edward Lloyd, of whom presently. 

I. Margaret. 

II. Dorothy, ux. John Lloyd, Warden of Ruthin, 
Rector of Llanynys, and Vicar of Llaneurgain, or Hope. 
She died in 1700, aged 39, and was buried at Llanynys. 

III. Jane, ux. Humphrey Lloyd of Aberbechan, who 
died in 1705. She died in 1737 ; and both are buried in 
the Lady Chapel of Old St. Chad's, in Shrewsbury. 

IV. Ursula. 

Edward Lloyd of Berthlloyd, who married Elvira, 
daughter of Major David Parry of Middlesex ; and, 
secondly, Catharine, daughter of Sir John Wittewrong of 
Harpenden, co. Herts, Bart., High Sheriff for Hereford- 
shire in 1658, and Elizabeth, his second wife, daughter of 
Timothy Myddleton of Stansted Mountfitchet, co. Essex, 
Esq. Bendy of six, argent and gules, on^a chief azure, a 
bar indented or, for Wittewrong. Sir John's first wife 
was Mary, daughter of Sir Thomas Myddleton, of Chirk 
Castle, Knt. Mrs. Catharine Lloyd by her will left £50, 
the interest thereof to be paid yearly out of Pantpoeth, 
in the parish of Llandinam, for the use of the poor of 
that parish. 

This last Edward Lloyd of Berthlloyd had a son and 
heir named Edward, and three daughters, one of whom 
married Mr. Clun of Clun, who then owned Grandulas 
Isaf, in the parish of Llanidloes, Edward, the only son, 
married the daughter of a merchant in London, which so 


annoyed his father that he determined never to see 
him again. One night, when this young gentleman was 
asleep in bed with his wife, in London, he was awakened 
by hearing some one knocking at the door, and, thinking 
it might possibly, as he told his wife, be somebody from 
Wales bearing a message of forgiveness from his father, 
rushed downstairs and opened the door, and was never 
heard of afterwards. After some years had passed away, 
his sisters, having given up all hopes of ever hearing of 
their unfortunate brother, sold the Berthlloyd estate to 
the late Sir Edward Lloyd of Pengwern, Bart., the 
ancestor of the present Lord Mostyn, who afterwards 
sold the estate to Mr. Morris of Oxton, near Shrews- 

On a mural tablet in the Church of Helygen, or 
Halkin, is the following inscription : — 

" Here lyeth the Body of Anne Williams, eldest daughter of 
Sir Edward Lloyd of Berth Lloyd^ Knt., and Dame Ursula his 
wife, eldest daughter of Sir Henry Salusbury of Lleweny, Bart. 
She was first married to Sir Edward Thelwall of Llanbedr, 
Esq., by whom she had one son and two daughters, now living. 
She was afterwards married to Thomas Williams of Halkin, 
Esq., by whom she had three sons, all died before her, and two 
daughters, yet surviving. She was religious, charitable, and 
obliging, well beloved in all places where she lived. She long 
endured a languishing illness with great patience and resigna- 
tion. She lived full of good works, and dyed much lamented 
in the 69th year of her age, April the 16th, 1703.^^ 

On a tablet in the Church of Llanynys, in Dyffryn 
Clw^yd, is the following inscription -. — 

" Charissimse Uxoris Dorothae Lloyd Fili^ secundae genitae 
Edwardi Lloyd de Berthlloyd in gegro Montgomeri Armigeri 
Feeminse vita integerima, Moribus admodum modestis Animo 
erga Deum devoto Quge cum nuptiale Fasdus annis pene viginti 
et uno Sanctissime servasset Hujusque non minus undecim 
Quorum septem supersunt pigniora peperisset violenta febri, 
proh ! dolor ! correpta 8vo die lunii Ex hac vita ad coelestem 
quam in terris anhelavit placide emigravit Et reliquise hie 
infra depositEe anno getatis suae 39no Salutis 1700. Johannis 
Lloyd Guard : Ruthin ; et Hujus Ecclesiae Vicarius Conjugalis 
suae ei (?) ergo Maerens maestus posuit. 



(Wynnstay MS., Wills, Parish Registers, Family Records.) 

Gruffydd of Cefn yr Hafodau, ab Maredydd ab Madog Danwr.=f= 

lorwerth ab Gruffydd of leuan ab Gruff-=f=Annesta, d. of Maredydd ab leuan 
Cefn yr Hafodau. ydd. 

See voL ii. 

ab Madoff of Manafon. 

I I 

Ma dog ab Ieuan.= p Philip ab leuan, ancestor of Jenkyn ab Llywelyn=j= 

I of Esgair Graig, 1588. See voL ii, p. 269. V 

Madog Fychan.=p 

Madog Gocb of Arwystli.=f: 

Maredydd ab Madog. 


leuan ab Maredydd of Glandulas.=p 

Llywelyn ab leuan of Glandulas.=y= 

Matthew ab Llywelyn=f=Arddun, d. of Llywelyn ab Gruffydd of Bettws yn 
ofGlandulas. | Cedewaen; descended from Tudor Trevor. 

I f 

Eichard ab Matthew=pElen, d. of Rhys ab Gwenhwyfar, ux. Jenkyn ab 

of Glandulas ; 
living in 1546. 

leuan ab David leuan ab Philip of Berth- 

ab Ehys. Uoyd. 

leuan ab Eichard of Glandulas.=p 

David ab Ieuan=f=Elen, d. of Ehys ab Maurice ab Llywelyn of Llanywared, 
of Glandulas. I second son of leuan ab Gruffydd ab Howel Lloyd of 
I Clochfaen. See vol. ii, p. 265. 

Matthew Goch.=pElinor, d. of Dafydd ab leuan ab Maurice (will proved 
! 1661). 



Eichard Matthews,=pCatharine Pryse. At Esgair Voel Eirin is a beautifully 
nat. 1660, 06, 1692; I carved oak cupboard, bearing her initials. 

m. 1682. I 

Ezekiel Matthews, nat. 1685, ob. (will proved) 1770 ;=rElizabeth Philips, 
devised houses in Llanidloes to his son Richard. | from Berthlloyd. 

Richard Matthews, nat. 1729.=j=Margaret. 

Thomas Matthews. 

Richard Matthews, nat. l758.=T=Anne, d. of Maurice Oliver Morris of Esgair 

I Voel Eirin, co. Meirionydd. 

Richard Matthews of Esgair Voel Eirin,=pIVIary, d. of John Jones of Esgair 
23rd (Royal Welsh Fusiliers) Eegi- I Ieuan,i in Llanbrynmair. 

ment I 

Eichard Matthews, ob. s. p. 

Mary Anne.=f=Lawrence Euck, Esq. 

I I 

Arthur Ashley Euck, Majoi-=j=Eleanor, 2nd d. of Captain Eichard Matthews 

8th Regiment. I R. W. D'Arcy, Bombay Ruck, Captain, 

Grenadiers. E.E. 

Oliver Lawrence Ruck. 


(From tlie MS of leu an Lloyd ah Geoffrey of Patau, Esq., 


Ednowain Bendew= 

of Llys Coed y 

Mynydd, in the 

parish of Bodvari, 

Chief of One of the 

Noble Tribes of 

Gwynedd. Argent, 

a chev. inter three 

boar's heads 

couped sable. 


d. of 




Cloddien abGwy-=pMorfydd, d. and heiress of 

dyr Hir, Lord of 

Odwyn ab Teithwalch, 

Lord of Ceredigion. 

Sable, a lion salient argent. 

Gwaithfoed, Lord=pMorfydd, d. and co-heiress 

of Ceredigion. 
Or, a lion rampt. 
regardant sable. 

of Ynyr, King of Gwent. 
" Y Tri Chastell a gad 
gida hon." Party per 

pale azure and sable, three 
fleurs-de-lys or. 

' John Jones of Esgair Evan, ab Thomas Jones ab John Jones ab 
Thomas Jones ab John Jones, ab Thomas Jones ab John ab Morgan 
ab Gwilym ab Howel ab Gruffydd ab David ab Madog ab Llywelyn 
ab Gruffydd ab Llywelyn ab lorvverth ab David ab Howel ab Philip 
ab Uchdrjal, Lord of Cyfeiliog, ab Edwyn ab Goronwy, Prince of 




=Arddun, d. of Pyr- 

adwen, and sister 

of Ednowain ab 

Pyradwen, Lord of 

Dol GeUi, and Chief 

of one of the Noble 

Tribes. Gules,ihvee 

snakes ennowed in 

triangle argent. 

Cunillin ab Gwaethfoed, Lord of the Cwm.=f= 

Cadifor ab Cunillin.=r 

Madog = 


^Dyddgu, d. of Llywelyn Fychan ab 
Llywelyn ab Meilir Grug, Lord of 
Trefgynan and Westbury. Sable, 
three horse's heads erased argent. 

Iorwerth.=f=Arddun, d. of Llywel- 
yn ab Owain ab 
Edwin, Prince of 

David ab Madog, ancestor Gruffydd=j= 

of the Lloyds of Ceis- ab 

wyn and Pen y Lan. Madog 
See vol. ii, p. 389. 

Rhirid. =pNest, d. of Goronwy ab Einion ab 
I Seisyllt, Lord of Mathafarn. 

Adda ab Gruffydd of D61=f= 
Goch. I 

Madog of= 

of Bodid- 

Gruffydd ab Adda of Dol Goch= 
and of Ynys y Maen Gwyn, 
Eaglor of the Coinot of Ystym 
Aner at Michaelmas (1333), 7th 
Edw. III. His tomb remains 
in Towyn Church. 

Angharad, d. of Goronwy 
ab Adda ab David Goch 
ab Gruffydd ab Ednowen 
ab Paradwyn, Lord of 
Dol Gelli. 

leuaf of= 

=Morfydd, Nesta, co-heir, married, 1st, Llywelyn Gwenllian, 

co-heir. ab Cynwrig of Cors y Gedol ; 2ndly, co-heir, ux. 

leuaf Llwyd ab David Fychan ; and, Ednyfed ab 

Srdly, Einion ab Grufifydd of Bron y Llywelyn ab 

Foel Ystymllyn and Chwilog, Sheriff Tudor of 

for Caernarvonshire for three years, Peniarth. 
I Oct., 25 Edw. Ill (1352). 

Tangwystl, d. and heiress of leuaf ab Maredydd of = Grufiydd Llwyd ab Lly- 
Bodidris. She was buried at Valle Crucis Abbey. welyn ab Ynyr of Gelli 
At the time of the destruction of the Abbey her 
stone coffin was taken to Bryn Eglwys Church, 
where it is still to be seen in the Yale Chapel, 
with this inscription : — " Hie jacet Tangwystl 
fil. Yeuaf ab Maredud." 

Gynan. Buried with 
his wife in Valle Crucis 

VOL. V. 




(Add. MS. 9864.) 

Ynyr, Lord of Grelli Gynan yn lal, one of the sons of Howel ab Moreiddig^ 
ab Sanddef Hardd, Lord of Mortyn and Llai in Maelor Gymraeg. He 
greatly distinguished himself at the battle of Crogen in 1165, and for his 
services he had a grant of the Manor of Gelli Gynan, together with the 
grant of a new coat of arms, from Gruffydd Maelor, Prince of Powys 
Fadog, which were, gules, three pales or, in a border of the second 
charged with eight ogresses. The Prince drew his bloody fingers over 
the shield of Ynyr, and told him to bear these marks for his armorial 

Llywelyn ab Ynyr, Lord of Gelli Gynan. He was one of= 
the witnesses to a deed dated December 5th, a.d. 124-7, 
which relates to a dispute between the sons of leuaf ab 
Maredydd on the one part, and the Lord Madog, the 
Abbot, and the Convent of Valle Crucis, on the other 
part, relative to the boundaries of the Manors of Crevauc 
{Creigiog) and Alhdkenbeber (AlU y Gymbyd). 

=Margaret, d. of 

Gruffydd ab 

lorwerth ab 

leuaf of Llwyn 

On, in Maelor 

Ermine, a lion 
rampt. sable. 

Gruffydd Llwyd of Gelli Gynan, and=pTangwystl, d. and heiress of leuaf ab 

jure uxoris of Bodidris . Buried in 
Valle Crucis Abbey, with his wife. 

Maredydd ab Madog of Bodidris. 
She was buried in Valle Crucis 

Llywelyn ab Gruff-^ 

ydd Llwyd of 

Bodidris and Gelli 


-Margaret, sister of Einion Benfras, and d. of Llywelyn 
ab David ab Madog Fychan of Maes Maen Cymro in 
Dyffryn Clwyd. Argent, three cock's heads erased 
sable. See " Coedrwg". 

leuan ab Lly-= 
welyn of Bod- 
idris and 
Gelli Gynan. 

=Mali, d. of Tudor ab Gruffydd Llwyd ab Heilin Frych of 
Berain in Llan Nefydd {gxdes, a lion rampt. argent). Her 
mother was Janet, d. of Bleddyn ab Einion Fychan ab 
Einion of Coed y Llai, ab Cadwgan Ddu ab Cadwgan 
Goch ab Y Gywion, Lord of lal and Ystrad Alun. 

! b 




Tudor = 
Lloyd of 
and Gelii 

David - 
Lloyd of 


=Mali, d. of Gruffydd 
ab leuan Gethin 
ab Madog Cyffiii. 

=Mallt, d. and heiress of 
Goronwy ab leuan ab 
David Lloyd of Hafod 
second son of Madog 
ab Llywelyn, Lord of 
Eyton, Eslisham, and 
Borasbam. Ermine, 
a lion rampt. azure. 

Jenkyn of Allt Ll\v-= 

yn Dragon, now 
called Plas yn lal. 

He had a natural 
son nn med Gruffydd, 

by his concubine, 
Margaret, d. of Lly- 
welyn Goch ab 

Ednyfed of Glyn 
Dy frdwy, descended 
from David Holbais, 

who bore gules, a 

chevron engrailed 

inter three boar's 
heads erased argent. 

See"Ehyd Onen" 
(Pale MS.). 

'- Lleicu, 
d. of 
yn ab 

See p. 

Margai'et, heiress 
of Plas yn lal, ux. 
Elissau, second 
son of Gruffydd ab 
Einion ab Gruff- 
ydd of Cors y 

I 2 


.Catharine, d. of 
John ab lorwerth 
or Edward of Plas 
Newydd in Chirk- 


Lloyd of 


I 1 

Lloyd of 


Sir Lewys 
Parson of 

John Lloyd, 

Abbot of 



Deili, ux. John Maud, ux. John ab Alice, ux. Khys Wynn 

Erddigof Erddig. Edward ab Madog of ab Robert Salusbury 
Cristionydd. of Llanrwst. 

John Lloyd= 
of Bodidris, 
High Sheriff 
for CO. Den- 
bigh, 1551. 

^Catharine, d. of Harri Salusbury Goch of Llawesog in Llan- 
rhaiadr in Ceinmeirch, ab Harri Salusbury, second son of 
Thomas Salusbury Hen of Llyweni. Her mother was the 
d. and heiress of Tudor Pychan of Y Gynudfa, in the town- 
ship of Aberalwyn, co. Meirionydd, who died 28th June 149f>; 
the son of Tudor, one of the sons of Gruffydd ab Einion of 
Cors y Gedol. 

Sir Evan Lloyd= 
of Bodidris, 
Knt., High 
Sheriff for co. 

Denbigh, 1583. 

:Elizabeth, dau. of 
Thomas Mostyn of 

Mostyn, Esq., and 
relict of John Wynn 

lal of Plas yn lal. 

12| 3 14 
Lewys Lloyd. 
John Lloyd. 
William Lloyd. 

I i 

Margaret, ux. John 

Pryse of Y Glwy- 

segl, one of the 


Catharine, ux. John 

Trevor Fychan of 

Croes Oswallt. 

Jane, ux. John Ey- 
ton of Coed y Llai 
or Leeswood. 

Ann, ux. Ed- 
ward Brereton 
of Borasham. 

Sir John Lloyd of Bodi-^ 
dris. Knight Banneret. 

=Margaret, d. of John 
Salisbury of Rug. 

Catharine, ux. Cadwaladr 
Pryse of Plas yn Rhiwlas 
in Penllyn. 

Evan Lloyd of Bodidris, Captain in the Royal=j=Mary, d. and co-heiress 
Army, and a Magistrate and Gustos Rotulorum I of Sir Richard Trevor 
for the county of Denbigh. He died at Pyrsadd- | of Trefalun, Knt. 
fed in Anglesey, in 1637, and was interred in the 
Church of Llanarmon yn lal. | 


9 2 



John Lloyd of=pMarofaroh, d. of Sir Bevis Thelvvall of Llanrbudd, Knt., ab 
Bodidris. I John Wynn Thelwall ab John Thel wall Hen of Llanrhudd 

Sir Evan Lloyd of Bodidris, Knt., ci-eated=f=Anne, d. of Sir Charles Williams 
a Baronet in 1646. I of Llangibby, Bart. 

Sir Evan Lloyd of Bodidris, Bart. ;=j=Mary, d. and co-heiress of Rhys Tanat 
ob. 1700. I ". of Abertanat. 

Mai'garet, heiress of Bodidris.=pGruify(M Vaughan of Cors y Gedol. 
\ _^ 

I I 

Catharine =f=E,ev. Hugh Wynn, D.D., of Bodysgallen Evan Vanghan of 

Vaughan, and Berthddu. Vert, three eagles dis- Bodidris and Cors 

heiress of played in fess or. y Gedol, Ob. s. p. 


Margaret Wynn, heir of Bodysgallen and Berthddu, and=pSir Roger Mostyn 
heir of her maternal uncles, William and K van Vaughan | of Mostyn, 
of Cors y Gedol, Plas Hen, and Bodidris. V Bai-t. 


Gruffydd, one of the sons of leuan= 
Llwyd ab Llywelyn ab Gruifydd 
Llwyd of Bodidris. 

=Lleuci, d. of leuan ab Y Gwion Llwyd 
of Hendwr in Edeyrnion. 

Tudor ab= 

^Nest, d. of Gruffydd ab leuan ab 
Maredydd of Yr Hob. 

Rhys ab Gruffydd. 

Elis ab=j=Agnes, d. of John ab Gruffydd Pychan 


ab Llywelyn of Pant y Llwyn Du 
(argent, a chev. inter three boar's 
heads coujjed sable). Her mother 
was Margaret, d. of Pyers Stanley 
Hen of Ewlo Castle. 

Tudor ab= 

^Catharine, d. of 

Richard ab 

How el ab 

M or gran. 

Elis ab Tudor.= 

Lancelot Elis of Court, 
near Wrexham. 

Nest, co-heir. = William Lloyd ab John Catharine, = John Eyton ab Gruffydd 
ab Richard of Halch- co-heir. ab Nicholas of Coed y 

dyn. Llai or Leeswood. 




(Add. 3IS. 9864.) 

Lcvvys Lloyd of Gelli Gynan, eldest= 
son of David Lloyd ab Tudor of 
Gelli Gynan and Bodidris. 

^Gwenhwyfai', d. of Edward Lloyd ub 
David Lloyd ab Bleddyn of Plas 
yn Hersedd in Ystrad Alun. 

Edward Lloyd of Gelli=pGwenliwyfar, d. and heiress of Tudor of Llys Fassi, 
Gynan. smd jure uxoris I son of Elissau ab Gruffydd of Allt Llwyn Dragon, 
of Llys B'assi. | now called Plas yn lal. 

John ==Elen, d. 




bury of 

I I I I |1 12 |3 14 

Robert. Jane, ux. Ann, ux. Elizabeth, Catharine, 

David. Lewys William ux, ux. Lewys 

Tudor. ab Rhys Brassey. Thomas ab ab David 

Lewys. Wynn. Rhys ab Lewys. 


Mallt, ux. John ab 

Elen, ux., 1st, leuan ab 
Howel; 2nd, John ab 
Kdward ab Maredydd. 

Catharine.ux. Tho- 
rn as ab Rhys ab 

Edward =j= Jane, dan. of John. 

Lloyd of 

Simon Thel- Pyers. 
wall of Plas y 

Gwen, ux. Lowri, ux. 
William ab Richard 
leuan ab Lloyd Rosyn- 
Richard. dale of 



ux. Hugh 


Rosyndale of 


John nr Alice, d. of Thomas Thomas =pLowri, d. and heiress Simon 



Powel of Plas yn Lloyd. I of Robert ab David Lloyd, 

Horslli. I Lloyd of Llanelidan. M.A. 

I — 1 P. 134. 

A son, s.p. Elen. 

I I I I I I 

Eubule Lloyd.=j=Catharine, d. of Gruffydd ab Robert. Elen. 

I William of Ffynogion. Gabriel. Gwyn. 
I i Eleanor. 

Jane. Dorothy, 

Edward Lloyd of Llys Fassi. =f=Mary, d. of Hugh Brooker of Southwark. 

John Lloyd ot Llys Fassi, had two sons, John and Edward, who died young. 



Simon Lloyd, M.A., Parson of Newtown, = 
CO. Montgomery, third son of Edward 
Lloyd of Llys Fassi. 

=Elizabeth, d. of Evan ab David 
of Tref CasteU. 

Edmund=j=Elizabetb, d. 


of Richard 
Simons of 
Hakbon in 

Simon Lloyd, 
in Llanfyllin, 
and Vicar of 

John Lloyd, 
Saddler in 

Edward Lloyd. 





Vicar of 







Gruffydd, natural son of Jen-=f=Gwen, d. of Howel ab Rhys ab Goronwy of 
kyn ab leuan of Plas yn lal. Gwaun y Ffynnon in lal ; descended 

I Iroin Llywarch y Bran. 

leuan ab GrufFydd,=j= Howel=f=Anna, d. of Edward, younger son of Tudor 

William ab leuan 

of Rhyd Onen, 

which house he 

built on the lands 

in Cymo that he 

purchased i'rom 

William ab Howcl 

ab Gruffydd of 


ydd of 


William ab Howel.=p 
He, or his son John 
ab Williams, sold 
the lands in Cymo 
to William ab leuan 
ab Gruffydd, being 
copyhold lands. 

ab Gruffydd ab Rhys of Plymog in Llan- 
feris. Her mother was Catharine, d. of 
David, second son of Ithel Wynn ab 
Nicholas of Coed y Llai in Ystrad Alun. 

I 3 
Gruff- ==Catharine, d. of Ed- 

ydd ab 

of Y 


John ab William. 

ward ab Maurice ab 
John ab leuan of Y 
Glwesegl; descended 
from Cynwrig Efel. 
Her mother was Mar- 
garet, d. of David 
ab Gruffydd of Coed- 
rwgy, ab Ithel ab 
Gruffydd ab David 
ab Madog Fychan of 
Wepra ; des. from 
Edwyn ab Goronwy. 

David ab Gruffydd=f=Anne, d. of David of Deuparth yn lal, ab John ab Rhys 

of Dol in Edeyr- ] of Ty Celyu, in Bryn Eglwys, ab leuan ab David ab 

nion. j Einion of Bryn Eglwys ; descended from Ithel Felyn 

I (see " Blaen lal"). Her mother was Elizabeth, d. of 

I Rhys ab David ab lolyn of Blaen lal, 

Pyers ab David, or Pyers Davies of Chester, Linendraper and Weaver ; 
living in Barnland in Chester in 1635. 




{PaU MS.; Add. MS. 15,017.) 

Maredydd ab Uchdryd ab Edwyn= 
ab Goronwy, Prince of Tegeingl. 

Madog ab Maredydd .=f^ 

lorwerth ab Madog.=?= 

Khirid ab lorwerth. =f 

Einion ab Ehirid.= 

Madog ab Einion. 

Madog Wyddel. He bore argent, 
on a chevron inter three cock's 
heads erased sable, three roses of 
the field; the upper heads af- 

Madog Fychan of Wepra.=p 

David ab Madog.=j= 

I i 

Gruffydd ab=j= Lly welyn of Maes 
David. I Maen Cymro in 
I Llanynys. 

Hwfa ab Ithel Felyn, Lord of Ial= 
and Y strad Alun. 

Howel Foel ab Hwfa of Cymo.=j= 

leuaf ab Howel Foel.=p 

Y Gwion Gam ab leuaf. ^ 

Ithel ab Y Gwion=j=Generys, dau. ot 
Gam. Gwilym ab 


^ _ I 

Gwilym ab Tthel.= 

I I 

Cadwgan ab=p Gruffydd, ancestor 

Gwilym. I of the Lloyds of 

I Llanarmon yn lal. 

Einion ab Cadwgan.=j= 

David ab Einion of Bryn Eglwys. 


leuan ab David. = 

Ithel ab Gruffydd.^ 

David ab leuan of Coedrwg.=[= 



Gruffydd ab Itbel, jure uxons of Coedrwg.=j=Morfydd, heiress. 

David ab Gruifydd- 
of Coedrwg. 

Isabel, d. and heir of Llywelyn ab Robert ab Deicws 
ab David of Hendref Forfydd ; descended from Lly- 
welyn Eur Dorchog. 

Howel ab=i=Catharine, d. of Gruffydd ab leuan ab Margaret, ux. Edward 

David of I David of lal. Her mother was Gwlad- ab Maurice ab John ab 

Coedrwg. | ys, d. and heiress of David ab John leuan of Y Glwysegl ; 

I of Llanfair Dytfryn Clwyd. descended from Cyn- 

I wrig Efell. 

i \ I 

Thomas ab = Margaret, d. of John ab David Powell, D.D., Vicar GruflFydd, 
Howel of Maui-ice. of Rhiwabon. See"Powel ob.s.p. 

Coedrwg. of Rhuddallt". 


Howel Foel of Cymo, ab Hwfa ab Ithel Felyn, Lord of lal and Ystrad= 


Einion of Maes y Groes.= 
Madog of Maes y Groes.= 
Y Dai of Maes y Groes.=j 

leuan of Castell Meirchion.= 




Gruffydd ; sold Castell Meirchion to Tudor Mul, Margaret, ux. Tudor Mfil 
or Moyl Hen, his brother-in-law. Hen of Rhuddin. 




Llywelyn ab Cynwrig ab=pNest, d. and co-heiress of Gruifydd ab Adda ab 

Osbern Wyddel of Cors 

y Gedol. Ermine, a saltier 

engrailed gules. Crest, 

a wild boar m armour. 

GrufFydd ab Madog ab Cadifor ab Cunillin ab 
Gwaethfoed, Lord of Ceredigion (or, a lion 
ranipt. regardant sa6Ze). She married, secondly, 
leuaf Llwyd ab David Fychan. Thirdly, Einion 
ab Gruifydd of Chwilog, Sheriff for Caernarvon- 
shire for three years, 25th Edward III. 

Gruffydd ab Llywelyn of Cors= 
y Gedol, a firm adherent of 
the House of Lancaster, and 
one of the defenders of Har- 
lech under his valiant cousin, 
David ab leuan ab Einion. 

=Efa, d. of Madog ab Elissau of Cryniarth, ab 
lorwerth. Lord of Llangar, third son of 
Owain Brogyntyn, Lord of Dinmael and 
Edeyrnion, and sister and co-heir of Lly- 
welyn ab Madog ab Elissau, Bishop of St. 
Asaph from 1357 to 1375. 

Einion ab=pTangwystl, d. of Ehyddarch ab leuan Llwyd of Gogerddan, ab 
Gruifydd ] leuan ab Gruffydd Foel ab Gruifydd ab lorwerth ab C'.adifor 
of Cors y V ab Gwaethfoed, Lord of Ceredigion. Or, a lion rampt. re- 
Gedol. gardant sable. 

Einiou ab GrufFydd ab Llywelyn of Cors y Gedol 
had issue, by his wife TaDgwystl, three sons and two 
daughters : — 

I. Gruffydd ab Einion, of whom presently. 

II. leuan ab Einion of Cryniarth in Edeyrnion. He 
was ancestor of the Lewyses of Pengwern in Ffestiniog 
and the Wynnes of Peniarth. He was one of the 
jurors on an inquisition held at Bala, 6th October 1427. 

III. lorwerth ab Einion, ancestor of the Wynns of 
Ynys y Maengwyn. 


T. Mali, ux., 1st, Howel Sele of Ntinnau ; 2n(]]y, Owairi 
ab Mareclydd ab Dafydd ab Gruffjdd Fycbaii of Neuadd 
Wen, CO. Montgomery, who was living 9th December 

II. Tibot, ux., 1st, Howel ab leuan ab lorwerth of 
Cynllaith ; 2ndly, leuan Fychan ab leuan Gethin of 
Cynllaith ; and 3rdly, Howel ab Tudor ab Goronwy of 

GrufFydd ab Einion of Gors y Gedol married Lowri, 
daughter and co-heiress of Tudor^ ab Gruffydd Fychan, 
Lord of Gwyddelwern and brother of Prince Owain 
Glyndyfrdwy (see vol. i), by whom, besides other issue, 
he had a third son — 

Elissau, Baron of Gwyddelwern, who married Mar- 
garet, daughter and heir of Jenkyn of Allt Llwyn 
Dragon, now called Plas yn lal, a younger son of leuan 
ab Llywelyn ab Gruffydd Llwyd of Bodidris. Her 
mother was Lleucu, daughter of Llywelyn ab Ednyfed 
of Sonlli (see vol. ii). By this lady Elissau had seven 
sons — 

I. Gruffydd ab Elissau, ancestor of the Lloyds of 
Carrog and Rhagad. 

II. John Wynn of Bryn Tangor. 

III. Richard of Meardy in Gwyddelwern. He married 
Gwen, daughter of leuan ab Dafydd ab leuan ab Gwin 
of Branas Isaf, one of the Barons of Edeyrnion. Argent, 
on a chev. gules, three fleurs-de-lis or. 

IV. Jenkyn. 

V. Tudor of Llys Fassi, who married Eleanor, daughter 
of John Conwy of Bodrhuddan, by whom he had an 
only daughter and heiress, Gwenhwyfar, v^ho married 
Edward Lloyd of Gelli Gynan, ancestor of the Lloyds 
of Llys Fassi. 

VI. leuan Lloyd of Rhagad in Edeyrnion. 

^ He was upwards of twenty-four years of age on the 3rd Sep- 
tember 1366, 10 Richard II, when, under the designation of Tudor de 
Glendore, he appeared as a witness in the celebi'ated Scroojie and 
(jlrosvenour controversy. 


VII. David Lloyd, of whose line we have to treat. 
Some authorities say that he was the eldest son. 

David Llwyd lal, the seventh son, had Plas yn lal. 
He married Gwenhwyfar, daughter of Richard Lloyd ab 
Robert Lloyd of Llvvyn y Maen, in the lordship of 
Oswestry, by whom he had issue five sons and three 
daughters — 

I. John Wynn lal, of whom presently. 

II. Thomas lal, or Yale, D.C.L., Dean of the Court of 
Arches and Chancellor of the University of Cambridge, 

III. Gruffydd Llwyd. 

IV. Hugh lal, or Yale, of Oswestry, married Dorothy, 
daughter of Eoger Roydon of Burton. 

V. Roger Lloyd of Bryn Eglwys, ancestor of the 
Lloyds of Plas Einion. His wife was Catharine, de- 
scended from Owain Brogyntyn. 

I. Jane, ux. Edward Trevor of Bryn Cunallt. 

II. Catharine, ux. Lewys Lloyd ab Thomas Lloyd. 

III. Elen. She married, 1st, John Rogers; 2ndly, John 
Hanmer of Llys Bedydd ; and 3rdly, Robert Lloyd of 
Bryn Halchdyn, in Hanmer parish. (See vol. iii.) 

John Wynn lal, or Yale, of Plas yn lal,^ married. 
Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Mostyn ab Richard ab 
Howel of Mostyn, by whom he had a son and heir — 

Thomas Yale of Plas yn Yale, who was living in 
1589, married Alice, daughter and co-heiress of Roger 
Roydon ab William Roydon ab John ab William ab 
Richard Roydon, who first came into Maelor with 
Lord Abergavenny, by whom he had issue, besides two 
daughters, Elizabeth and Dorothy, a son and heir — 

Thomas Yale of Plas yn Yale, who was living in 1617, 

1 John Wynn ab David Lloyd had by Agnes, daughter of John 
Lloyd, a son, David Lloyd, D.C.L., who married Frances, daughter of 
John Lloyd ab David Lloyd of the same descent of John Griffith of 
Llcyn, by whom he had six sons: — 1, Thomas Vale ; 2, George ; 3 
David ; 4, John ; 5, Hugh ; and 6, Richard Yale ; and three daughters, 
Mary, Dorothy, and Elizalieth (Cae Cyriog MS.). 


and married Dorothy, daughter of Lancelot Bostock of 
Bostock Hall in Cheshire, by whom he was father of — 

Thomas Yale of Plas yn Yale, Captain in the army of 
King Charles I. He married, in 1649, Dorothy, daughter 
of Humphrey Hughes of Gwerclas, Baron of Cymer in 
Edeyrnion, by whom he had a son and heir — 

Humphrey Yale of Plas yn Yale, who by Susannah 
his wife, daughter of Thomas Lloyd of Domgay, had, 
besides a daughter, Dorotliy, ux. John Wynn of Courts 
in Chirk, a son and heir — 

David Yale of Plas yn Yale, who married Margaret, 
daughter and heiress of Edward Maurice of Cae-Mor in 
Llansantffraid Glyn Ceiriog, by whom he had issue, 
besides an elder son Thomas, who died unmarried, and 
three daughters, Margaret, Dorothy, and Elizabeth, a 
second son — 

John Yale of Plas yn Yale, clerk, who married Frances, 
daughter of John Jones of Llwyn On, Esq., by whom 
he had issue : — 1, John, oh. s. p. ISOO ; 2, Edward, oh. 
8. p. 1787, aged 30 ; and one daughter, Sarah, who died 
unmarried 13th June 1821. By her will, which was 
proved in 1821, Miss Sarah Yale entailed the Plas yn 
lal estates upon William Parry, fourth son of Thomas 
Parry Jones Parry of Madryn and Llwyn On, Esq., M.P., 
grand-nephew^ of Miss Sarah Yale's mother. William 
Parry Jones Parry, in compliance with the above will, 
assumed the name of Yale, and was the late Lieutenant- 
Colonel William Parry Yale of Plas yn lal and Gorph- 
vvysfa near Bath, who, dying without issue, the Plas 
yn lal estate went to the eldest son of John Jones 
Parry (youngest son of T. P. Jones Parry of Madryn), 
under the will of Miss Sarah Yale. 

Mr. Hugh Yale of Oswestry, by his will proved the 27th 
May 1660j gave all that his messuage, or burgage and garden 
adjoining to the churchyard of Oswestry, commonly called Y 
Ty, or Tydden yn y Fronwen, and all that his cottage, com- 
monly called Bullen, and all his croft, being between the chapel 
fields and the horse-mill, late of John Lloyd, Esq., and all the 


reversion of that his house and garden, then in the possession 
of Robert ab Edward Glover, adjoining to the school-house of 
Oswestry, certain trustees and their heirs, to the use of the 
poor of the town of Oswestry for ever, viz., to be by them, 
the said trustees, together with the bailiffs and overseers of 
the poor of the said town of Oswestry for the same time being 
of or the greatest number of them, set and let at and for 
such yearly rent as the same should be yearly worth, over and 
besides the reparation thereof, and the same yearly rent to be 
by them, or the gi^eater number of them, upon the first day of 
January yearly, and publicly impleyd and bestowed upon such 
of the poor people of the said town of Oswestry as in their 
judgment and conscience should stand in the most need 
thereof; and nevertheless it is his will that if any preacher, 
lawfully licensed, should upon the same day yearly make a 
sermon in the Welsh tongue in the said parish church of 
Oswestry, then he should receive for the same yearly six 
shillings and eight pence, to be deducted and out of the said 
yearly rent of the last-mentioned premises; but if the trustees 
fail in performing his will, he gives the said promise to his 
next of kin.^ 

In Osiuestri/ Church. 

" In memory of Mr. Hugh Yale, Alderman of this town, and 
Dorothy his wife, daughter of Roger Roden, Esq., of Burton, 
in the county of Denbigh, whose bodies are interred within 
the chancel of this church, called St. Mary's, before its demoli- 
tion in the late wars, anno 1616. They gave to the poor of 
this town the yeai^ly interest and benefice of one hundred 
pounds, to continue for ever, besides other good acts of 

" Underneath are interred the remains of Margaret, the 
wife of David Yale, Esquire, daughter and heiress of Edward 
Maurice of Cae-Mor, Gentleman. She departed this life the 
20th day of December 1754 ; aged Q6." 

" Also lye the remains of David Yale, Esq., who dyed 
January the 29th, 1763 ; aged 81.'' 

This was erected by her son John Yale, Clerk of Plas 
yn Yale. 

Among the descendants of Osbern Wyddel were the 
Vaiighans of Cors y Gedol, now represented by the Lord 

1 Andrew Rogers, 1805. 


Mostyn ; the Vaughcans of Bron Haulog, and Cae Grono ; 
the Yales or lals of lal ; Lloyds of Phxs Einion ; Wynus 
of Glyn in Ardudwy ; Wynns of Pen Morfa ; Wynns of 
Maes y Neuadd ; Jones of Rhyd Llanfair and Pant Glas ; 
and Humphrey ab David ab Thomas of Llandecwyn. 


David Yale of Plas Goronwy, Esq., who died 14th 
January 1690, aged 76, and was buried at Wrexham, 
appears by a monument in Wrexham Church, and by the 
parochial registers, to have been father, by Ursula, " the 
widowe of Plas Gronwy", buried at Wrexham in 1698, 
aged 74, of — 1, David Yale, Esq., who died 26th January 
1690, aged 45; and 2, Thomas Yale, Gent., who 
died 12th October 1697, aged 37. This branch of the 
Yale family was seated at Plas Goronwy by Elihu Yale, 
whose father, Thomas Yale, Esq., a " pilgrim father", one 
of the first settlers of Newhaven, in Connecticut, America, 
where he proceeded in 1638, is stated to have been 
descended from an ancient family which possessed Plas 
Goronwy (History of Yale College, Neivhaven, small 4to., 
1766). The son of Thomas Yale, viz.: — 

Elihu Yale of Plas Goronwy, Esq., High Sheriff for 
CO. Denbigh in 1764, was born at Newhaven, Connecticut, 
5th April 1648 ; came to England when he was ten 
years old, and when he was thirty he went to Lidia, 


where he lived twenty years, succeeding Mr. GifFard as 
President of Fort St. George in 1686-7, and succeeded 
in 1691-2 by Mr. Higginson. While Governor, and, as 
Pennant observes, most probably a very arbitrary one, 
he hanged his groom for riding out with his horse for 
two or three days to take the air without his leave. He 
was a benefactor to Newhaven College, Connecticut, on 
which, in commemoration of his generosity, the trustees, 
12th September 1718, conferred the name of "Yale 
College", and the college obtained from his family from 
England, in 1790, his portrait, which was placed in the 
library. He bestowed on the church of Wrexham the 
altar-piece, with the picture of the Institution of the 
Sacrament, which he brought from Rome ; also the 
picture of King David. A merchant of great enterprise, 
he realised great wealth, and it is stated that he "brought 
such quantities of goods from India, that finding no one 
house large enough to stow them in, he had a public sale 
of the surplus, and that was the first auction in England 
or Wales". The original diamond ring of Mary Queen 
of Scots, upon which are engraved the arms of England, 
Scotland, and Ireland, quartered, and which was produced 
in evidence at the Queen's trial as a proof of her preten- 
sion to the crown of England, given by Charles I on the 
scaffold to Archbishop Juxon for Charles II, and by the 
latter pawned in Holland, was bought there by Governor 
Yale, and sold at his sale for £320, for, it was supposed, 
the Pretender. Governor Yale died in London on the 
8th, and was buried in Wrexham Churchyard on the 
22nd July 1721, under a monument, restored some years 
ago and again requiring repair, with an inscription com- 
mencing with the lines — 

" Born in America, in Europe bred. 
In Africa travell'd, and in Asia wed. 
Where long he lived and thrived ; at London dead.-" 
He married leronima de Paiba, widow of his prede- 
cessor. Governor Henieres of Fort St. George, and by 
her, who was buried at the Cape of Good Hope, had 
issue : — 


I. Charles Yale, born at Madras in India ; oh. at the 
Cape of Good Hope, 23rd January 1711-12, aged 22, 
and buried at the Cape of Good Hope, where there is a 
monument recording his burial, and that of his mother. 

T. Ursula, daughter and co-heir, mentioned as " Mrs. 
Ursula Yale", daughter of Elihu Yale, Esq , in the list 
of benefactors to the poor of Wrexham. 

II. Catharine, daughter and co-heir, who married 
Dudley North of Glemham, co. Suffolk, son and heir of 
Sir Dudley North, Knight, third son of Dudley, third 
Lord North, and had, with Dudley and Elihu, who pre- 
deceased their sister, a daughter and heir — 

Anne, heiress of Glemham, who married the Honour- 
able Nicholas Herbert, jure uxoris of Glemham, Secretary 
for Jamaica, M.P. for Newport, and subsequently for 
Wilton, seventh son of Thomas, eighth Earl of Pem- 
broke. This lady, who died 25th December 1775, by 
Mr. Herbert, who predeceased her on the 1st February 
in the same year, had, with several sons and daughters, 
who appear to have died young, a sole surviving daughter 
and heir — 

Barbara, born July 1742; married, in 1765, Edward, 
second Earl of Aldborough, and oh. s. ^o. in 1789. The 
Earl died s. p. 2nd January 1801. 

III. Anne, daughter and co-heir, who married Lord 
James Cavendish of Staley Park, co. Derby, M.P. for 
Derby, Auditor of the Revenue in Ireland in 1741-2, 
third son of William, first Duke of Devonshire. Of 
this marriage there was one son and one daughter — 

William Cavendish, Esq., who married Barbara, 
daughter of Edward Chandler, Bishop of Durham, and 
died 5. p. 30th June 1751. 

Elizabeth, sister and heir, married Bichard Chandler 
Cavendish, Esq., which last name he assumed by Act of 
Parliament in 1752, son and heir of Richard Chandler, 
Bishop of Durham. This gentleman died .9. p>- in ^"7^9, 
and Mrs. Cavendish died 4th August 1779. 




John Wynn of Bryn Tangor, 2nd son=pMargaret, d. of William Lloyd ab 

of Elisau ab Gruffydd of Plas yn 

Madog Fychan of Llvvyn Dyrys, 
CO. Caernarvon. 

Eoger ab Jolin= 
of Bryn 

Jolin Wynn of= 
Bryn Tangor. 

=Helen, d. of Ffoulk Salusbury of Plas Isaf in Llanrwat, ab 
Robert Salusbury of Plas Isaf, fifth son of Thomas Salus- 
bury of Llyweni. 

^Elizabeth, d. and co-heir of David Llwyd ab Rhys ab David 
ab lolyn of Blaen lal. 

John Eogers=pCatharine, d. of John Lioyd of Plas Einion in Llanfair D.C. 

Wynn of 


(by his wife Gwen, d. and heiress of Thomas ab Roger of 
Plas Einion), ab Eoger ab Roger Lloyd of Coedrwg and 
Bryn Eglwys, fifth son of David Lloyd ab Elisau of Plas 
yn lal. See next page. 

Magdalene, heiress = 1st, Humphrey Hughes of Gwer- = 2nd, William Wynn 

of Bryn Tangor ; clas, Baron of Cymer yn Edeyr- of Maes y 

b. 2 1 st August 1602. nion. Neuadd, 

CO. Merioneth. 

1 John Wynn married, secondly, Anne, daughter of Tudor ab 
Llywelyn Fychan ab lolyn ab leuaf ab Madog ab Goronwy ab Cyn- 
wrig ab lorwerth ab Caswallawn ab Hwfa ab Ithel Felyn, by whom 
he had a son Grulfydd Lloyd, Baron of the Exchequer of Chestei-, 
who married and had issue two sons, — 1, Robert Lloyd of Caer Gwrle, 
who married a daughter of Samuel Cawley of Gwersyllt ; and 2, 
Richard Lloyd of Alynton, who married Mary, daughter of Henry 
Lloyd of Hersedd. 

VOL, V. 






Rogfer Lloyd ab Roger of Coedrwg and Bryn=j=Catharino, d. of William ab 
Eglwys, fifth son of David Lloyd ab Elisau I Gruffydd Pychan ; desc, 
of Plas yn lal. | from Owain Brogyntyn. 

John Lloyd of Coed-=j=Gwen, d. and co-heir of Thomas ab Roger ab Llywel- 
rwg and Bryn Eglwys. | yn of Plas Einion. See vol. iv, p. 181. 



Thomas = 

..., dan. of John 





Lloyd of 

Thehvall of 

lene, ux. 

rine, ux. 


Bathafarn Park, 




ab John Wynn 





Wynn of 


Gwen, ux. John Mathews of Pentre Cnhelyn in Llanfair 
D.C., son of John Mathews by his wife Lowry, dan. 
and heiress of Hugh Lloyd of Pentre Cuhelyn, ab 
leuan ab Gruffydd ab Robert ab Gruffydd ab Adda ab 
Howel ab leuaf ab Adda ab Awr of Trevor. (See vol. 
iv, p. 127). 






-..., d. of Goronwy Llwyd ab Y 
Peiiwyn of Melai. Gules, 
three boar's heads ei'ased in 
pale argent. 

Cynwrig Brawd ab Cynwrig- Fychan ab= 
Cynwrig, third son of Ednyfed Fychan, 
Lord of Bryn Ftanigl. Gules, a chevron 
ermine, inter three Englishmen's heads 
couped at the neck in profile ppr. bearded 
and crined sable. 

Ednyfed ab^Elen, relict of lolyn ab leuan of lal, and d. of lorwerth Sais 
Cynwrig I ab lorwerth of Llanynys. ^rgfewi, three greyhounds passant 
Brawd. sable. 

Ehys ab Ednyfed. =f= 


Gruffydd ^ 



^Margaret, d. and heir of Rhys ab Gruffydd ; descended John ab 
from Sanddef Hardd, Lord of Morton or Burton and Ehys. 
Llai. Vert, seme of broomslips a lion rampt. or. 

Tudor ab Gruffydd of Plymog,= 
in the parish of Llanferis, and 
Manor of Llys y Gil ; living 
27th Henry VII, 1506-7. 

=Elen, relict of David ab Ehys ab Eeignallt 
of Pentref Hobyn, and d. of Gruffydd 
Fychan ab Gruffydd of Cors y Gedol. 
Ermine, a saltier gules, a crescent or, for 

John Lloyd of=pGwenhwyfar, d. of Llywelyn ab Gruffydd ab Howel of Llan- 
Plymog. I armon yn lal. 

Eobert Lloyd of=pGvvenhwyfar, d. of Edward ab Bell Lloyd of Treflownydd. 
Plymog. I 

Hugh Lloyd of Plymog ; buried at Llandyrnog=j^Catharine. d, of Cynwrig ab 
8th April 1636. ^| David of Golstyn-Argoed. 

Nicholas Lloydnf=Jane, d. of Edward Pryse of Ffynnogion in Llanfair Dyffryn 
of Plymog. I Clwyd. GifJes, a chev. inter three stag's heads caboshed 
I argent. 

Andrew Lloyd of Plymog ; ob. 1695.=j=Elizabeth, d. of 

10 '■^ 



Lloyd of 
Plymog ; 
ob. s.p., 
23 March 


Robert = 

Lloyd of 



at Llan- 


4th Feb. 


=Anno, dau. and co-heir of 
Edward Davies of Den- 
bigh, a cadet of the 
family of Davies of Wig- 
fair. Argent, a chev. in- 
ter three boar's heads 
couped sable. 


Dorothy, ux. John 
Hughes, younger 

son of Thomas 

Hughes of Gwer- 

clas and Cymer yn 


Edward Lloyd of Plymog, High Sheriff for= 
CO Meirionvdd in 1732, and for co. Den- 
bigh in 1736; ob. 16th May 1742. 

=Dorothy, d. and eventually sole 
heiress of Hugh Hughes of 
Gwerclas, Baron of Cymer yn 

Hugh Hughes= 
Lloyd of Ply- 
mog and G wer- 

clas. High 

Sheriff for co. 

Meirionydd in 

1747. 'Oh.^l 

March 1788. 

-Margaret, d. and heiress of Richard Walmesley of Cold- 
coates Hall, co. Lancaster, and of Bashall, co. York, Esq., 
son and heir of Richard Walmesley of CoLlcoates Hall, by 
Dorothy his wife, sister and co-heir of William Ferrers of 
Bashall, grandson and representative of Edward Ferrars 
(derived from William de Ferrars, seventh Earl of Derby), 
and of Jane his wife, heiress of Bashall, d. and heir of 
William White of DufEekl, co. Derby, Colonel in Crom- 
well's Army, by Margery his wife, co-heiress of Bashall, 
d. and co-heir of Thomas Talbot of Bashall, last male 
representative of the knightly and historic family of 
Talbot of Basball, senior line of the great house of Shrews- 
bury. Ob. 26th May 1800. 

Richard Hughes Lloyd of Plymog, Gwerclas, and= 
Bashall, Major in the Royal Merioneth Militia. 
Ob. 21st Jan. 1822. 

^Caroline, dau. of Henry 
Thompson, Esq. Ob. 
23rd Nov. 1SI6. 


ley Lloyd of 
Plymog, Gwer- 
clas, andBasball; 
b. 3rd Aug. 18(11. 

:Emma, d. of 



of Linacre 

House, CO. 













ob. 27th 

=pJohn Hughes 
of the Inner 


(>ee " Gwer- 

Edward Walmesley 
Lloyd ; ob. s. p., 
25th Feb. 1848. 

Em ma Margaretta ; 
ob. s.p., 22nd May 

Talbot de Bashall Hughes, b. 15th 
Dec. 1836, an Officer in the Cape 
Mounted Rifles. 


This abbey was founded by Madog ab Gruffydd 
Maelor, Prince of Powys Fadog, for monks of the 
Cistercian Or<ler, in 1200, as before stated. It stands in 
the valley of the Cross of Eliseg, King of Powys, in 
Glyn y Gwystl, or as it is called in the charter, Llyn- 
hequestyl, the whole of which, with all contained within 
its limits, with various other manors and townships, he 
conferred on this monastery. (See vol. i.) 


The monks of Valle Crucis belono;ed to the Cistercian 
order, and followed the same rule as that observed by 
St. Bernard in the Abbey of Citeaux, from which it takes 
its name, which, again, was in all essential respects the 
same as that constituted by S. Benedict for his spiritual 
sons at Monte Cassino in Italj^, witli some modifications 
intended to increase rather than diminish its severity. 
In process of time, however, growth in wealth and in- 
fluence led to dispensations from the full and primitive 
observance, and dispensations again led to relaxation of 
some of the rules ; so that, in tlie fifteenth century, it is 
far from improbable that the practice of all but perpetual 
silence, and some other austerities, had come to be not so 
fully adhered to by some of the brothers as heretofore, 
while still so far in advance of the world without as to 
set a shining example of obedience to the highest pre- 
cepts of our Lord in the Gospel. Though not actually 
in solitude, their lives were attuned to the holy contem- 
plation of God, with wdiom they habitually conversed, 
" singing and making melody in their hearts to the 

The following is a list of the abbots from its foundation 
to the dissolution : — 

1200. Philip. 

1:240. Adam (Adda Vras). He built the west end of 
the abbey, was a bard, and a few of his compositions 
called Brudiau are extant in MS. 

1247. Madoc. 

1254. Anian I, Bishop of St. Asaph. 

1270. Gervasius (lorwerth). (See vol. i, p. 174.) 

1330. leuan or John Trevor. He built Llangollen 
Bridge in 1335. Consecrated Bishop of St. Asaph in 
1352 ; oh. 1357. (See vol. iv, p. 135.) 

1410. Robert de Lancaster, Consecrated Bishop of 
St. Asaph, June 28th, 1411 ; oh. 1433. 

1448. Richard Mason {Mont. Coll., October 1883). 

1485. John Lloyd (fourth son of David Lloyd ab 
Tudor of Bodidris). He was one of the three com- 
missioners appointed to reform the Welsh houses. He, 


with Dr. Owen Pool, Canon of Hereford, drew up the 
Welsh pedigree of Henry VH. 

14.... John ab Richard. (See vol. iii, p. 385.) 

1498. Dafydd ab lenan ab lorwerth (see vol. i, p. 311, 
and vol. iii, p. 385). He was the patron of the Bard 
Gutyn Owain (see " Traian"). 

1499. Dafydd ab Owain. Consecrated Bishop of St. 
Asaph, 26th April 15U0 ; oh. 1503/ 

1528. Robert Salisbury. 

15.... John Dereham. 

1530. John Heme, the last Abbot of the Abbey of 
Valle Crucis, which was suppressed in 1535. The Abbot 
received an annuity of £23, and £10 VSs. -id. was paid 
in 1553 to the surviving Monks. According to Camden 
it was wholly decayed in 1586. 

The abbey was suppressed in 1535, and in 1538-9 (29- 
30 Henry VHI) was granted to Sir William Pickering, 
Knight, for the term of twenty-one years, and confirmed 
4-5 Edward VI (1551-2). 

This Sir William Pickering died on the 4th January 
1574, and by his will he left his lease of the manor of 
Valle Crucis, of which he had then forty-four years, to 
his daughter Hester, who married Edward Wotton, 
Arniiger, afterwards Sir Edward Wotton, of Bocton 
Malherb in Kent, K.B., and in 1583, 25 Elizabeth, the 
Queen confirmed the grant made by Henry VHI to Sir 
William Pickering, Knt., to Edward Wotton, Armiger. 
Hester died on the 8th of May 1592. 

On the 13th May 1603, Sir Edward Wotton, K.B., 
was created Lord Wotton of Marley, and in 1616 
Treasurer of the Royal Household. He married, 
secondly, Margaret, daughter of Philip, Lord Wharton. 

In 1612, James I granted the monastery of Valle 
Crucis to Edward, Lord Wotton of Marley, and his 
heirs for ever. At his death he left the monastery to his 
widow, Margaret, Lady Wotton, who was a recusant, 
and the abbey was confiscated by the Commonwealth. 

^ It has been contended that this Bisho]) was the Abbot of Ystrad 
Marchell of that name, afterwards Abbot uf Conway. — Mont. Coll., 
vi, 360, 383. 



Eobert Wotton of Bocton Mal-=pAnne, d. and co-heir of Henry Bel- 
herb, co. Kent. | knap. 

Sii- Edward Wotton, 

Nicholas Wotton, D.C.L., and one of the executors 
of the will of Henry VIII. 

Sir Thomas Wotton of Bocton Malherb, Knt. 

Sir Edward Wotton, KB., created: 
Lord Wotton of Marley, co. Kent, 
13 th May, 1 James I, Treasurer of 
the Eoyal Household, 1616. 

Note — We find, from the Ex- 
chequer Lay Subsidies, 18th James I, 
1621, that Richard Mathew, Gent., 
lived in the parish of Llandysilio. 
He was the son of David Wynn of 
LlysTrevor, and lived at the Abbey, j 
See " Trevor of Llys Trevor". 

:1, H ester, d. and co- 
heir of Sir William 
Pickering of York- 
shii-e, Knt. Oh. 
May 8th, 1593, and 

was buried at 
Bocton Malherb. 

= 2, Margaret, d. 
of Philip, Lord 
Wharton, and 

Frances his 
wife, daughter 
of Henry, Earl 
of Cumberland. 

Sir James Wot- 
ton, Knt. 


Sir Henry 



Thomas, Lord Wotton, of Boc- 
ton and Valle Crucis Abbey ; 
died at Bocton Malherb, 2nd 
April ] 630, aged 43. 

=Mary, d. and co-heir of Sir Arthur Throck- 
morton of Panlers-Perry, co. Northamp- 
ton, Knight. Mary, Lady Wotton, 
being a recusant, the Abbey was seques- 
tered by order of the Parliament. 

Countess of 

Hester, ux. 
Baptist, Vis- 
count Camp- 

Margaret, ux. Sir 
John Tufton of 
Kent, Knt. 

Anne, ux. Sir Edward 
Hales of Tunstal in 
Kent, Knt. 

The above-named CathariDC, who was created Countess 
of Chesterfield, and died in 1667, married, first, Henry, 
Lord Stanhope, son and heir of Philip, Earl of Chester- 
field, by whom she had a son, Philip, Earl of Chesterfield, 
and two daughters. He ohiit vita jxitris, 29 Nov. 1634, 
and was buried at Bocton Malherb. 


The Countess married, secondly, John Poliunder de 
Kirkoven, Lord of Henfleet in Holland, by whom she 
had a son, Charles Henry Kirkoven, created Lord Wotton 
of Wotton in Kent, and Earl of Belmont in Ireland, 
22nd August, 2 Charles II, and died s.p., and the 
Countess married, thirdly, Daniel O'Niel, one of the 
Grooms of the Bedchamber to Charles II. 

The following additional information relative to the 
abbey, and also to Sir William Pickering, is given by 
Thomas William King, Esq., York Herald, in the 
Archceologia Camhrensis of January 1849, No. xiir. 

"The family from whom Sir William Pickering de- 
scended had resided for many generations at Oswaldkirke, 
in Yorkshire. His father, Sir William Pickering, was 
Knight Marshal, and died in 1542; he was buried in 
Great St. Helen's, in London, where a monument is 
erected to his memory. His son, the immediate subject 
of this notice, died at his residence, called * Pickering's 
House', in the parish of St. Andrew, in London, on the 
4th January 1574, and was also buried in Great St. 
Helen's, his funeral being conducted by Clarencieux King 
of Arms and the Heralds, and attended by Lord Keeper 
Bacon and Lord Treasurer Burleigh. His wnll bears 
date 31st December 1574, and was proved in London 
27th January 1574, in which he gives his lease of the 
manor or late monastery of Valle Crucis, in the county 
of Denbigh, of which he had then forty-four years, and 
was of the value of almost £300 yearly, to his daughter 

" The funeral certificate of Sir William Pickering, pre- 
served in the College of Arms, describes him of Oswald- 
kirke, but mentions no issue or any relation. He seems, 
however, to have died unmarried, and was buried 29tli 
January 1574, in the fifty-eighth year of his age, as 
stated on his monument in Great St. Helen's Church. 
His daughter Hester, to whom he gives his lease of Valle 
Crucis, stands in the pedigree as ' filia notha et hseres 
virtutc doni Willi Pickeringe, do Oswaldkirke, co, Ebor. 
militis, though he does not in his will allude to her 

mois^astp:kium de valle grucis. 153 

illegitimacy. After Lcr father's decease, she married Sir 
Edward Wotton, K.B., the son of Thomas Wotton, of 
Bocton Malherb in Kent, who was one of the executors 
of Sir William Pickering's will. 

" In connection with this subject, it may be added, as 
some mistakes have arisen about the arms of the abbey, 
that they were emblazoned in colours in a MS. now re- 
maining in the College of Arms, just previous to the 
suppression of abbeys in the time of Henry VIII, and are 
thus delineated : Gvles, between three crosslets fitche 
or, a lion rampant argent, charged with three bars sahle, 
armed and langued azure, with this note, ' Arma 
abbe de Valle Saint Trinita' cruc's vocat Wallea lane- 

" Say, ivy'd Valle Grucis, time decayed, 

Dim on the brink of Deva's wandering flood ; 
Your viv'd arch glimmering' through the tangled glade, 

Your gay hills towering o^er your night of wood ; 
Deep in the vale's recesses as you stand, 

And, desolately great, the rising sigh command." 

Miss Seivard. 

On the 1st Sept. 1651, the monastery and lordship 
of Valle Crucis were sold by the Parliament to Michael 
Lea of London, Gent, and John Lawson, Citizen and 
Grocer, of London, for £3,036 Qs. 7^d. farthing and 
half farthing, of which sum £2,845 Is. 7^d. farthing 
and half farthing was paid down, and the remaining 
portion of the money they were excused from paying, as 
that had to pay £5 per annum to each of the chaplains 
who served the chapels of Llansaintffraid, Llantysilio, 
and Bryn Eglwys, which had been allowed out of the 
rent and paid b}^ the fee-farm since the dissolution of the 

In the 18th of James I, 1621, Richard Mathew, Gent, 
lived at the abbey. 



The original of the following document is now at 
Peniarth, having come into the possession of the late 
W. W. E. Wynne, Esq., from Rng, where it was found 
among the papers belonging to the families of Vaughan 
and Salisbury of that place. It purports to be an inden- 
ture made between Robert Salisbury, " by the long- 
suffering of God, Abbot of the Monastery of Blessed 
Mary the Virgin, of Valle Crucis, and the convent of the 
same place, on the one part, and Robert, the son of 
Ednyved, son of GrufFydd, on the other part. And it 
testifies to the grant to Robert, by the Abbot and con- 
vent, of a tenement in the vill of Mystwyr (probably 
identical with Mwstwr, now a tov^nship in Corwen 
parish), for 5s. annually for 99 years, with a heriot of 
7s. 6cl., and the usual feudal services, with provision 
against alienation, except on payment of 5s. on entrance 
to the Abbot and convent. It is dated at the Chapter 
House, 10th May 1528. The deed has two endorse- 
ments, the first of which, only partially legible, relates to 
the enrolment. The second is in English, dated in 1592, 
and records the surrender of the lease by Iloger Gruffydd 
to Robert Salisbury, Esq., and is subscribed by seven 
witnesses, two of them of the Thelwall family. As it is 
agreed by all that John Hearne, or Heme, v^as the last 
abbot, it follows that Salisbury must have immediately 
preceded, or succeeded, Dereham in the abbacy. 

" Hjbc Indentn' ftu' inter Reliososos D'nos Roberta Salisbury 
Dei patientia Abbem monast'ii b^ Marie Virginis de valle crucis 
et eiusdem loci Conventus^ ex una parte et Robert 'm ap 
Ednefed ap Gr ex altera parte testatur quod preedictu' Abbas 

^ Monasterium refers to the building, Conventus to the religious 
society inhabiting it. 


& Conventus una cum assensu et consensu^ diraiseruut conces- 
serunt et firmum tradiderunt; prsefato Eoberto ap Eden, unum 
teneraentum in quo idem Robertus jam habitat in villa de 
Mystwyr infra Comitatum de Merioneth cum omnibus terris 
pratis & boscis eidem tenemento spectantibus integre prout 
in tenura Johannis ap David ab Gruff, ab Deio nuper fuerunt et 
solebant reddere per annum quatuor solidos habendum et 
tenendum prsedictum tenementum cum omnibus terris pratis 
et boscis eisdem tenementis spectantibus et suis pertinentiis 
pi'eefato Roberto ap idem Edenefed heeredibus et assignatis 
suis de prEefato Abbate et Conventu ac successoribus suis 
a die confectionis prffisentium usque ad finem & termiuuui 
nonaginta novem annorum proximo futurorum & plenarie 
complendorum reddendo inde annuatiui praifato Abbati & 
Conventui ac successoribus suis quinque solidos legalis 
monetae Anglise ad terminos ibidem usuales cum vijs. & 
\id. de herieto cum accesserit insuper faciendo servitia alia 
secti & servitii prout alii tenentes Domini ejusdem ville facere 
tenentur & si preedictus Robertus aut heredes sui statum suum 
predicta tenementa terras prata & boscos aut in aliqua inde 
parcella ex consensu prsedictorum Abbatis & Conventus seu 
eorumalicui alienaverint aut dimiserint ille cum statu sicfuerit 
dimissus solvet eisdem Abbati & Conventui aut successoribus 
suis quinque solidos ad ingressum in cujus rei testimonium 
partes predicti hii sigilla sua alternatim apposuerunt. Datum 
in domo capitulari dicti Monasterii decimo die mensis Maii 
Anno Domini Millesimo quingentesimo vicesimo octavo & Anno 
Regni Regis Henrici Octavi post Conquestum Anglioe vice- 
simo, etc." 

Endorsed. — "Irr't per Ro. .... .11 super. Edenefed ap Gruff." 

Second Eridorsement. — " This lease is surrendered by Roger 
Gruff, to Robert Salesbury Esq. the eighteenth January 1592, 
in the presence of Edward Thelval, Meredith ap Tuder de 
Nanclyn, Roger Salesbury (clerk), Robert Salusbury, Richard 
Thelval, William Lloyd, Robert ap levan ap Robert, irrotu- 

^ No names are given here, probably because the consent of none 
was required in the usual form. 



By E. p. LOFTUS BEOCK, Esq., F.S.A. 

The charming valley surrounded with pleasant hills which 
shut out the world beyond, the hardly audible ripple of the 
flowing streamlet, and the absence of any prospect save of the 
enclosing hills, alike tell us that this is the site of a monastery 
for monks of the Cistercian order. They would alone be 
almost sufficient to record it, were the voice of history silent, 
and the ruins before us untraceable. Scenes of loveliness like 
this, upon which nature has bestowed so many charms, indeed 
breathe of peace and contentment ; and we cannot but be 
sensible of their magic influence, which is enhanced by the 
thouglits of the white-robed monks wandering through the 
Gothic arches of their sacred home during the long period of 
the past. Let us hope that their lives were full of peace, and 
give all praise to this devoted order of reformed monks, whose 
influence tuned many minds powerfully for good at the period 
of their foundation, and for long afterwards. 

The picture has a sadder and a sterner aspect which we 
must not forget. These monks were bound by their vow to 
rules which, to the temper of our day at least, seem to be of 
terrible and needless severity ; and it is painful to think that 
the men whose lives were passed within these walls, and whose 
bones still lie beyond them, spent their days amid the awful 
silence enforced by the monastic rule. They met at the frugal 
meal, they walked beside each other in the cloister, they 
worked together in the field, and slept in the dormitory ; but 
no words were to pass their lips, no words of encouragement 
from the elder to the younger, — none of sympathy. In the 
church alone were their voices raised in the service of their 
simple ritual, and in ordinary conversation for one single half- 
hour on the Sunda}'^, and in the common parlour. At other 
times a monk could only speak by permission, and in the 
presence of the abbot. The naturally uneventful succession 
of lives thus spent, century after century, doubtless occasioned 
the scanty record of the history of monastic houses, for they 
had none ; and I need not remind such an audience as this of 

^ Reprinted from the Journal of the British Archceological Asso- 
ciation, by permission of the Council. 

ifer:Sv^v^^>^-<- f ^"^ '^^ 


the number of those of which we have little more record than 
that of their foundation and their dissolution. 

The foundation of Valle Crucis and its date even have been 
subjects of much doubt. Sir W. Dugdale, on the authority of 
Leland/ rightly ascribed the foundation to Madoc ap Griffith 
Maylor, Prince of Powys, but could only assume that this was 
about A.D. 1200. We are indebted to our associate Mr. Morris 
C. Jones, the active Hon. Sec. of the Powys-Land Club, for a 
discovery of no small importance with reference to the history 
of the Abbey. By a process of close reasoning, he has de- 
monstrated that one of the charters supposed by Dugdale to 
have referred to another building, in reality is the foundation 
charter of this abbey, granted by Madoc. ^ We learn by this 
discovery that Valle Cracis was an offshoot from the less cele- 
brated but parent abbey of Strata Marcella, and that a few 
monks of that house were the first occupants here. Philip is 
spoken of as being then the Prior, showing that before the 
granting of the charter much preliminary work had been done. 
We may accordingly with confidence consider him as the first 
Prior, and place him at the commencement of the scanty list 
of those whose names have been recorded. 

The foundation charter is undated, and we are therefore left 
no nearer to the verification of Dugdale^s guess, while Mr. 
Jones is led in support of his argument to devote much of his 
reasoning to prove that this spot was known then, and later, 
by the old sounding title of Llan Egwestl. It may be worth 
while here to say that one of the latest seals of the abbey, 
extant in the Heralds' Office, of a date early in the sixteenth 
century, has this name on its legend, thus indicating that even 
at this late date Valle Crucis was known by its original name. 

It is my pleasing duty to adduce evidence, as my contribution 
to the history of this house, which will effectively determine, 
not only the date of the foundation, but the original name of 
the locality ; and while it confirms Dugdale's suggestion, it 
strengthens Mr. Jones^ argument. Mr. W. de G. Birch, in 
1870, published in the pages of the Journal of the British 
Arch^ological Association, for the first time, two^ manuscripts 

' Collectanea, vol. ii, p. 303. 

2 This is discussed in a paper in vol. xii oi Archceologia Camhrensis, 
one of the goodly volumes of the Cambrian ArcliEeological Association, 
a society to which all antiquaries are deeply indebted for more than 
thii-ty years' active and profitable work. 

3 MS. Cotton., Faustina B. vii, ful. 36; MS. Cotton., Vespasian A. 
vi, f. 54b. 


in the British Museum, which had not previously been noticed. 
The first is remarkable as being probably a contemporary 
transcript from some central registry of the foundation of, 
perhaps, almost all the houses of the Cistercian order through- 
out Europe. The second is another transcript, in many respects 
confirmatory of the first, and of a date apparently towards 
the close of the first half of the thirteenth centurj^ The 
second has this entry under the date 1199, ^' De Valle Crucis 
in Cambria", but the first list, under the date 1200, ''^ V. Kal. 
Februarii. Abbatia de Valle Crucis." We thus obtain not 
only the date of the year, but the actual day of the month. 
Interesting as are these entries, I am able to adduce a third. 
The old Welsh chronicle, the Brut y Tijwysogion, has been 
published by the Record Commission, and is one of the not 
least important of their volumes. It is therefore readily 
accessible, and the more so from the translation which ac- 
companies it, by the Rev. J. Williams ab Ithel. Nevertheless, 
it is not frequently quoted in evidence of Welsh history, 
teeming as it does with notices of almost contemporary events 
and references to buildings ; and I have some belief that, 
except to scholars, it is not so generally known in the Princi- 
pality as it deserves to be. Under date of the year a.d. 1200 
there is the following recoi^d : " The same year Madog, son of 
Gruffudd Maelor, founded the monastery of Llanegwestl, near 
the old cross in Yale.'^ We have in this important entry not 
only the year, but the earliest record of the old name Llan- 
egwestl, but direct reference to the old cross (Eliseg's Pillar), 
whence comes the modern name of the Vale of the Cross. I 
may add that the discrepancy between the two above-named 
dates, 1199 and 1200, is readily accounted for. We have seen 
that at the period of the granting of Madog's charter, the 
work of the foundation had already gone so far that the prior 
of the new community was actually elected. The first date is 
probably that of his election, which would naturally determine 
the foundation. The second is probably the missing date of 
Madog's charter. 

The buildings of the Abbey afford a perfect model, so far as 
they remain, of the arrangements of a Cistercian house, and 
we will survey these in order ; but it may be as well to 
announce that, since no complete plan of these remains has yet 
been published, the Council of this Association has determined 
to have engraved one which was carefully prepared by the late 
Mr. J. C. Buckler, and which exists amongst many other 
papers of considerable interest which he bequeathed to the 
British Museum. 


The church is of the usual cruciform type, an aisleless pres- 
byteiy, transepts with two chapels forming an eastern aisle to 
each. There has been a low square tower over the crossing, 
and a nave of six bays, with two side aisles. The extreme 
length is 165 ft. ; length of transepts, from north to south, 
98 ft. ; width of nave and aisles, 67 ft. 6 ins. ; width of chancel, 
30 ft. ; and of transepts, 30 ft.^ It will be seen that the east 
and west gables are nil but perfect, and that the north and 
part of the south walls of the chancel remain. Also those of 
the south transept, with part of the vaulting of its two chapels, 
while there is left the lower portion of the walls of the north 
transept, and of the north aisle of the nave. The south wall 
of the nave is almost perfect, but is hidden by the luxuriant 
ivy, which here and elsewhere adds so greatly to the beauty of 
the building in its state of ruin. 

The bases of the nave piers are traceable, thanks to the 
careful clearance of the ruins by Viscount Dungannon and 
Mr. Wynne in 1854. The east end and the transepts are 
designed in a severe style of First Pointed architecture, and 
the peculiar pilaster buttresses of the exterior are more 
curious than beautiful. The treatment certainly indicates 
some local influence, but whether we should consider it as 
derivable from Dublin, as a late writer suggests, or as evidence 
of a Welsh school of architecture, is open to question. The 
Principality is full of peculiar treatment of architectural detail, 
both of early and of late work, which seems to afford evidence 
that the old Welsh builders were not content to copy the styles 
prevalent in England, but impressed upon them their own 
peculiar treatment. The lofty eastern lancets spring from a 
bevel, which must always have been, for the size of the church, 
remarkably small in relation to the pavement; and there is 
just a trace of a moulded arched label over the two upper 
lancets. This arch probably indicated the line of the presbytery 
ceiling, whether of arched boarding or of vaulting. 

The external corbel table around the presbytery and transept 
walls is bold and peculiar, and is of two patterns. The shafts 
internally afford some evidence probably of an intention of 
vaulting the ceiling, which was never carried out, and the 
sloping line of stone, visible inside and out in the wall, just 
east of the tower, seems to be indicative that the west end of 
the chancel was once covered by a hipped roof. This could 
only be prior to the erection of the central tower. The other 

1 The arrangement of the plan in squares of 30 feet, less thickness 
of walls, is very apparent. 


sloping line crossing it is that of the roof of the sacristan's 
passage to the little slit window. The slit, on the south side, 
is from a curious little room and passage, commencing at the 
back of the monks' dormitory. A great many guesses have 
been made to determine the use of this passage, and the loop- 
hole, probably from its resemblance to the position of the 
abbot's oriel in St. Bartholomew's, London, has been called 
the abbot's closet. It is, however, that for the sacristan, from 
which he would watch the perpetual lamp of the sanctuary at 
night. The high altar has not stood touching the east wall, 
but away from it, as at Fountain's Abbey and many other 
places. The aumbry in the south wall has a semicircular arch, 
and has been double. The bases of the four altars of the 
transept chapels are very apparent, and they have been 
covered with arcading. They are attached, as is usual in these 
positions, to the east wall. The intermediate arches dividing 
the chapels have probably been filled in only to a certain 
height, to allow of the picturesque effect of the vaulting seen 
through them being preserved. Each of these altars is 
furnished with a piscina. The northern altar of the north 
transept has a detached pillar piscina, the others have lockers 
in the wall in several instances, and the elegant and early 
carving of the brackets of the piscina will be observed with 
interest. There are two floor drains to the north-east chapel. 
The remaining arches of the transepts are designed in a very 
severe style, and the capitals are a tradition of some of earlier 
date. The three orders of the arches are simple rectangles, 
without even a chamfer, but the effect is excellent. 

We may, in the sheltered stonework of these chapels, observe 
that the whole surface of the wrought stone has been covered 
with a film of plastering, upon which coloured decorations are 
still traceable here and there. This use of colour was forbidden 
in Cistercian houses ; and I am, for one, glad to think that in 
some cases their rules were sometimes more honoured in their 
breach than in their observance. The same is observable at 
Old Cleeve Abbey. These traces of colour have not, I believe, 
hitherto been noticed ; and another feature of interest may 
have some attention directed to it, — many of the stones have 
masons' marks. I collected readily a large number of different 
examples, besides others slightly different, or reversed, and 
they deserve comparison with those which have been noted in 
other buildings elsewhere. They appear only in the stone- 
work of the transepts, chancel, and nave-piers, and I have not 
been able to find any in the west wall of the nave, or in the 
monastic buildings, except in the position which will be noted 


The doorway for the passage of the monks from their dormi- 
tory into the church, for the services of matin vigils, remains 
in the south transept^ but the stairs are gone. From there 
being no trace of them, they were probably of wood. 

There is in the south wall of the south chapel a recess, low 
down, for a tomb. It is arched, and with a pediment over, 
the latter having lai^ge crockets. The whole is greatly decayed ; 
but the architectural style is so much later than that of the 
chapel, that we cannot admit the local tradition of this being 
the tomb of the founder. The recess, which has been filled in 
with open, arched panelling, and small shafts in the north- 
west angle of the presbytery, is probably the right position to 
be assigned to this. 

The remains of the piers of the central tower are of much 
interest. Those on the south side, which remain, indicate the 
systematic way in which the shafts of the bearing arches were 
carried on corbels (which are of much beauty) in order to 
allow the whole of the wall-surface of the piers to be free for 
the monks' stalls. The cracks, which are apparent, indicate 
trouble for the safety of the central tower; and we find that 
here, as at Furness and elsewhere, the old builders had to take 
vigorous measures to keep it standing. 

The eastern bay of the nave has been walled up with solid 
masonry. To afford greater support, the west window of the 
transept has been removed, and its space built up ; and several 
other works of buttressing are very evident, including a curious 
reduction of the width of the east arch into the south transept. 
These works are of interest, for they show that the old archi- 
tects did sometimes carry up their work with too little regard 
for their foundations ; and sweeping blame to modern ones is 
as unfair as universal praise to the older craftsmen. 

The efforts here to save the tower were successful ; for if we 
are to take Churchyard's poem literally, the tower was still 
erect above the ruined building in the days of Elizabeth ; but 
we have no evidence whether or not it fell later, or was 
demolished. There is a very charming piece of early carving 
below the corbel which supported the south-east arch of the 

A little peculiarity of style in the base of the north transept 
door is worth observing. It has many circular mouldings 
rather than shafts. This is usual in Wales ; but here they 
spring, not from bases, but from a line of foliage. 

The ritual choir probably extended originally more west- 
wardly into the nave than appears by the present foundations 
of the rood-loft, and its staircase against the western pier of 

VOL. V. 11 


the central tower. This appears to mark a contraction of its 
space. No trace, except part of the northern wall, remains of 
the ritual choir ; and this and the rood-loft are probably of the 
date of the works for the support of the tower. The base of 
a nave-altar still remains on the south side. 

The broad piers of the nave are the only remains of the 
nave-arcade; but the recent excavations have brought to light 
several fragments of capitals plainly shaped rather than carved. 
These are stacked along the base of the side walls, and we may 
have no difficulty in concluding that they are the remains of 
those of the nave-piers. 

There is evidence of the existence of a clerestory, for one 
deeply splayed jamb and part of the sill, with a string-course, 
of one window remains in the west pier of the central tower. 
We learn by it the heights, and that the clerestory windows 
were single lancets. They were rebated for glass. One corbel, 
for a principal of the nave-roof, also remains, proving, as 
might be expected, that the nave had a timber roof. 

The tablet fixed in the south wall, with its inscription, dated 
] 852, is an interesting record of the investigations, and our 
praise is due to the executors of this work, not only for the 
result which has made these ruins, apart from their picturesque 
beauty, amongst the most interesting for study in the United 
Kingdom, but for the tablet itself The date of any such 
work as this, fixed on the building itself, affords valuable 
evidence of its history, and the practice should be held up for 
imitation. The west front was repaired by Sir Gilbert Scott 
in 1872. 

The charming west front has three windows of similar 
pattern, the central one being somewhat higher, each having a 
mullion and a foliated circle ;^ and the western entrance is 
formed by a doorway of much beauty. The gable has a small 
rose-window; and above this is the well-known insci'iption 
carved in bold, projecting Gothic letters, now somewhat worn ; 
but they can still be made out when the sun helps us by a 
slight shadow. It records that this part of the work was 
perfarmed by Abbot Adam.^ The gable and rose-window are 
of later date, as is evidenced by the inner arch, designed 
originally to enclose the three windows internally, which has 
never been completed. The stone work is also different work- 

^ The mullion of the central window is gone. 

2 ADAM ABBAS FECIT HOC OPUS 1 PACE ; and in a line above the end 
of this part of the inscription, as if the writer had found that there 
was not room enough for his lettering, quiescat ame. 


manship internally ; and we may conclude, from the insertion, 
that Abbot Adam is commemorated by his successor rather 
than by himself. The deep splays of the windows add greatly 
to the amount of light derived from them, and the telling 
design of the mouldings is worthy of careful study. There is 
no useless work bestowed, while the effect from what cannot 
be called elaborate execution is most excellent, and unlike 
much modern work, where the effect is frittered away from the 
useless but costly multiplication of mouldings. 

There is a staircase in the south angle of the nave. Whether 
or not this was only for access to the roofs, etc., or to the 
monastic buildings always abutting upon the west end of 
the church, it is impossible to say, for there is no evidence 
remaining. It is probable that it did, as at Old Oleeve Abbey ; 
but "we are not able to throw light as to whether the building 
was a "Domus Conversorum", or guest-house, since it has 
disappeared entirety, and nothing has yet been done to throw 
light upon the subject by endeavouring to find the foundations. 

Taking the conventual buildings in order, we find the whole 
of those occupying the east side of the cloister quadrangle 
remaining. They are in a line with the south transept. The 
north side is occupied by the south wall of the church, against 
which a farm- shed has been built. The buildings of the south 
side have disappeared, and a small modern house is ei'ected at 
the west coi-ner. The west side is also vacant. 

Next to the south transept is the slype, still retaining its 
circular barrel-vault, and having its arch of opening from the 
cloister of a very early type. The carving of its capitals 
shows, however, that it is of the same date as the presbytery. 
The bands of torus-mouldings are very common in early works 
in Wales, but more frequently without the capitals. Next is 
the chapter house, vaulted in nine square compartments ; next, 
still going southwards, was the entrance to the cemetery, to 
the east;^ and beyond this still, the common parlour. 

Over all these buildings extends the monks^ dormitory, a 
spacious building, 60 feet long and 22 feet wide, and which 
we appi-oach by the monks' day-stairs, which still remain. 
Sufl&cient of the floor remains to indicate that it was paved 
with flags, above the vaulting of the rooms beneath. It is 
lighted by a series of small single-light, trefoiled windows 
with wave-mouldings. It will be noticed that the neatly 

^ The Rev. Preb. Walcott has shown that the monks' graves were 
partially dug, and kept so. The aspect of these from the dormitory 
overlooking tliem must have been deplorably cheerless. 

11 ^ 


jointed stonework of the walls has never been plastered. The 
cold stone paving and the unplastered walls must have been 
sufficiently uncomfortable for the occupants ; but it is satis- 
factory to find that two arrangements are apparent, showing 
that something was done for their well-being, — all the windows 
are rebated for glass, to exclude the elements, and there is the 
unusual luxury of a fireplace ; but then this building is of 
later date than the church.^ The fireplace has a chimney of 
elegant design externally. 

At the south end of the dormitory is a small apartment 
opening from it, and which has been covered with a pent- 
house roof, apart from, and abutting upon, the south gable 
of the dormitory. It is probably the sleeping apartment of 
the custodian of the dormitory rather than the abbot ; and 
its small niche commanding a view of it, shows that the room 
was in some way designed for the oversight of the dormitory. 
At Old Cleeve a building in a similar position is considered by 
the Rev. Mackenzie E. Walcott to have been the novices' 
dormitory. From its small dimensions it is hardly likely that 
it could have served a similar purpose here. 

At the back of the dormitory fireplace is a narrow room, 
parallel with the former. It is probably the muniment-room ; 
while I would assign to the sacristan another small apartment 
at right angles, since it communicated by a passage over the 
vaulting of the south transept chapels with the slit window 
before alluded to. The cloister-space has no traces of the 
cloistei'-buildings ; but from the position of the corbels for 
the roof-timbers, etc., and from the absence of remains, it is 
probable that here, as in many cases elsewhere, they were 
formed of wood. 

It has sometimes been stated that all the buildings are of 
the same date; but a small amount of inspection will assure 
us that the east end of the church is the oldest, — say of a 
date within the first twenty years following that of the founda- 
tion ; the transepts a little later ; and the west front, as repre- 
sented by its style, is about 1260.^ The ground-floor of the 
conventual buildings is of the same date as the transepts ; the 
slype possibly older, but with the insertion of much later 
work ; but the dormitory floor above is at least one hundred 

^ At Old Cleeve is a fireplace, but the windows have never been 

2 I give the date of the style. It is probable, however, that it was 
executed in harmony with the design somewhat later. The gable 
above, and the rose-window, are later still. 


and fifty years later than the foundation, since we cannot 
assisrn an earlier date than the middle of the fourteenth 
century. The square-headed doorways have the same flowing 
mouldings as the windows. At this time the arches and 
flowing tracei"y of the chapter house were added into the older 
openings, as well as the whole of the internal arches and 
vaulting.^ The western lancet of the south transept is filled 
in with tracery of fifteenth century date, into the older 

There are traces of the use of stonework of earlier date 
than that of the buildings. The fireplace in the muniment- 
room has an inscription which has often been given, which 
shows that it was once part of a tombstone, and the carving 
is of great beauty. The sill of the little unglazed niche 
looking from the room at the end of the dormitory into it, 
has been part of an incised slab ; and there is another with 
an eai^ly cross, forming the roof, just within the door of the 

The present rough roof of the dormitory is modern ; but 
the water-tables in the south transept gable show that it is 
of the same pitch as the original one. The door in the south 
side of the refectory is an unusual feature. It was probably 
for hoisting up the trusses of straw for the monks' beds, and 
for the passage of articles which could not be brought up the 
narrow day- stairs. 

The brothers Buck give two views, which show the aspect 
of the ruins in 1742, and I am glad to say that they have 
altered but very little since. They have, however, in some 
respects. A five-light window is shown in the south transept 
gable. The foundations of the buildings on the south side of 
the cloister were in existence, and are partly shown. Several 
rectangular apartments are indicated, and it is probable that 
the refectory extended north and south. These features 
no longer remain, but just a trace of a wall at right angles to 

^ These arches have continuous wave-mouldings from base to apex 
of vaulting, a peculiarity observable in many Welsh buildings, notably 
in the nave-arches of St. Asaph. It occurs also in later works in the 
Chester churches. The junction of newer to older work is very ap- 
parent at the east side of the chapter-house, and above it. The 
cemetery passage has an arch of First Pointed work enclosed in a 
later one, while the later walls of the muniment-room have blocked 
up some of the corbel-table and the arches of the dormitory, them- 
selves later than their substructure, as we have already seen. 


the day room, goiug west, may be observed amongst the farm 
apphances at this corner, and also an angle buttress. All the 
walls are constructed of thin dark blue slaty stone^ with 
dressings of reddish fi-eestone : all of great durability and 
excellent workmanship. The main windows of the chui'ch are 
not rebated for glass, and it is probable that they were fitted 
in with stained glass, secured to the iron stanchion bars, which 
have been numerous, and wedged into the stonework. Since 
these would not be furnished with open casements, the ventila- 
tion of the building has been assisted by several small square 
apertures — the original putlog holes of the builders, but which 
are formed quite through the walls. They are so numerous 
that we must conclude that many were designedly made, as 
well as those which had been formed for the putlogs. 

The income of Valle Crucis at the dissolution was £188 clear, 
and £214 : 3 : 5 gross, and the largest of any Cistercian house 
in Wales; that of the parent abbey of Ystrad Marchell was only 
£04 : 14 : 2. The surrender was in the twenty-sixth Henry 
VIII, and was thus among the lesser monasteries. We have 
references to various benefactors who were buried here. The 
Brut y Tyivysogion records that in 1269, " the 7th day of the 
month of December, Gruffudd, son of Madog, lord of Maelor, 
and Madog the Little, his brother, died, and were buried at 
Llanegwestl.'^ He was lord of Dinas Bran. 

The recent excavations revealed a few geometrical tiles, but 
in such small numbers as to afford an additional evidence of 
the scarcity of this class of decollation in the churches of the 
Principality. They were probably imported, since the same 
patterns have been met with at Strata Florida Abbey, and at 
Acton Burnell, in Shropshire. It is a peculiarity attendant 
upon the demolition of Welsh abbeys that any feature of 
importance in the neighbouring churches is spoken of by 
local tradition as being a portion of the destroyed building 
re-used. This occurs with respect to every abbey, and we hear 
that the roof of Llangollen Church came from Valle Crucis; 
but this is very unlikely, since the slope of the roofs is so 
different, and the roof appears to have been made for its 
position. The lectern is at Wrexham Church, so we hear, but 
it bears a date 1528, and a record that it is the gift of a donor 
who is mentioned. The elaborate candelabra of the fourteenth 
century is said to be at the church of Llanarmon in Yale, 
where is also the effigy of Gruffudd ap Llewelyn ap Ynyr, 
brother to Llewelyn, Bishop of St. Asaph, who was buried at 
Valle Crucis. Another tomb, that of leva ap Meredydd, is 
said to be at Bryn Eglwys ; and another, a fragment, at an old 


house at Pengwern, near Llangollen, is that of Goronwy ap 
lorwerth. (See vol. iv, p. 147.) 

There is a record in the Book of Visitors to the English 
College at Rome of the arrival of Richard Bromley, a monk 
of Valle CruciSj as a pilgrim^ in 1504. He was charged, 
doubtless, with some mission, since by the Cistercian rule no 
monk could perform a journey to Rome without being accom- 
panied by a bishop of his order. The right rendering of the 
arms of the abbey has been given by Mr. T. W. King, York 
Herald, from MSS. in the Heralds' Office, of a date just prior 
to the Reformation, in the volume of the Arch^ologia Gam- 
hrensis for 1849 (p. 24), and need not be repeated here; but 
reference may be made to the fact that various renderings 
with certain changes exist. The same has been observed with 
respect to the arms of Llanthony Abbey. The old name, 
Llan Egwestl, points to the existence here of a church long 
prior to the foundation of the monastery, but, for the sake of 
brevity, I must omit all notice of the tradition with respect to 
it, and also of the old cross, Eliseg's pillar. The fishpond 
remains almost perfect due east of the church. A lovely view 
of the ruin is obtained from this position. The cemetery is 
known to have been in its usual place, east of the conventual 
buildings. A spring of clear water now flows close to the 
door of the monks' day-room, but no use is made of it. I 
have been unable to find any masons' marks on the stone- 
work of the conventual buildings. The exceptions already 
alluded to may now be noted, but they can hardly be masons' 
marks. The fylfut cross is neatly cut, exactly central, and 
therefore designedly, over a small loop window in the monks' 
day-stairs, and also over the larger opening close to it. I am 
unable to offer any explanation of the occurrence of this 
mysterious sign in these peculiar and prominent positions. 



Sir, — Three years ago, being at Llangollen, I visited for the 
first time the venerable ruins of Valle Crucis Abbey, and 
made notes of the interesting sepulchral effigies which are 
preserved there. I then went on to examine that monument 
of late British, but pre-Norman antiquity, the famed Pillar of 
Eliseg. Of this I had previously seen engravings in Pennant's 

1 Given in Collect. Top. et Genealog., ii, p. 255. 


Tours in Wales (vol. ii, p. 7), and in Owen and Blakeway's 
History of Shreivsbury (vol. i, p. 15). I was therefore surprised 
to find one feature about this pillar unnoticed by either of the 
writers 1 have mentioned, viz., the entasis or swelling, as in 
columns of Roman or classic architecture. With the excep- 
tion of the inscription on this pillar, all British sepulchral 
inscriptions of post-Roman origin I have met with, the greater 
part of "which exist in Wales, some in Cornwall and Devon, 
and one in Scotland, have been rudely cut in ill-formed letters, 
on irregular-shaped monoliths, totally unlike the regular- 
shaped monuments, with the inscriptions cut by skilled work- 
men, of the Romans. 

After the departure of the Romans from Britain in the fifth 
century, materials from their buildings appear to have been 
worked up in many Anglo-Saxon structures. Ifc is not, there- 
fore, singular that those who had to prepare a more lengthy 
sepulchral inscription than any of the kind which had hitherto 
appeared, should look out, not for an irregular-shaped block, 
but a worked columnar stone, perhaps from the ruins of the 
ancient Roman city Deva, Chester; perhaps from those of 
TJriconium, Wroxeter ; perhaps from some intermediate 
Roman station. It was by regarding it from this point of view 
that 1 affirmed it was a Roman pillar, believing at the time I 
was the first who had noticed it as such. I subsequently found 
I was mistaken in priority of notice, for my friend Mr. 
Tregellas, of a department in the Horse Guards, made a 
drawing of it in 1865, of which he has obligingly sent me a 
tracing, in which the entasis of the column, as of Roman or 
classic art, is clearly portrayed. 

The inscription on this column is, I think, the longest and 
most important of any lapidary inscription in Britain, subse- 
quent to the departure of the Romans and prior to the eleventh 
century. It contains the earliest Welsh pedigree of which we 
have any authentic record, and in its family and historical 
relations it may fairly be compared with those lapidary inscrip- 
tions which have of late been exhumed from the ruins of 
Babylon and Nineveh. 

It commences with the pedigree — 

" Conceim filius Cattell, Cattell 
Filius Brohcmail, Brohmail filius 
Eliseg, Eliseg filius Guoillauc 
Concenn itaque pronepos Eliseg 
Edificavit hunc lapidem proavo 
Sue Eliseg." 

Thus translated — " Concenn the son of Cattell, Cattell the 


son of Brohcmail, Brohmail the son of Eliseg, Eliseg the son 
of Guoillauc. Concenn, therefore, the great-grandson of Eliseg, 
set up this stone to his great-grandfather, Eliseg/^ 

Then follows the historical matter, much of which was 
obliterated when this stone was first noticed in the seventeenth 
century. We are, however, informed of the name of the 
workmen who engraved the inscription : — 

" Conmarch pinxit hoc 
Chirografu rege suo poscente 

That is, " Conmarch engraved this writing at the request of 
his king, Concenn." 

If Eliseg was — it has been so supposed — born in the early 
part of the eighth century, circa a.d. 720, we may attribute 
the erection of this pillar by his grandson to the latter part of 
the eighth or early part of the ninth century. 

Pennant speaks of this pillar as having been formerly 12 feet 
high, but in his time (a.d. 1810) reduced to 6 feet 8 inches. 
The best account of it appears in Owen and Blakeway^s 
History of Shreivsburi/, where the whole of the inscription, so 
far as it could be made out in the seventeenth century, is 
inserted, together with a facsimile plate from an ancient 
transcript, showing it to have been cut in a cursive hand. 
Archbishop Usher is the first person known to have noticed it, 
then Mr, Eobert Vaughan, the well-known antiquary of 
Hengwrt, who in 1662 saw, and transcribed as far as he could, 
the inscription. 

I know of no one, however, except Mr. Tregellas and myself, 
who has noticed that the pillar on which the inscription is cut 
is of Eomau origin, i.e., independent of the inscription, a 
E/oman pillar or column. Whether I am right in my assertion 
I leave for others competent to judge to pronounce their 

Every summer during the last eight years I have made 
excursions into the Principality. I have noticed sepulchral 
monuments in churches which appeared to me not to have 
received hitherto that minute attention they deserved. 

Whilst leaving the churchyard at Ruabon on the 25th of 
August last, on my way to that most hospitable mansion at 
Wynnstay, two sepulchral effigies, which must, I think, have 
been removed from the church many years ago, were pointed 
out to me lying under two tomb slabs of the seventeenth 
century, resting on imposts placed at each corner as sup- 
porters. Of these effigies, which are of the fourteenth century, 


I had but a momentary glance, hoping at some future time to 
revisit Ruabon and note them down at my leisure. They are 
of a type to be found in Wales, but not in England. One is 
peculiarly interesting: it is the effigy of a knight with his 
sword by his side, his shield in front, and his right hand 
grasping a spear or lance. I have not met with any English 
sculptured effigy thus repi'esented. 

Matthew Holbeche Bloxam. 
Rugby, 2Wi September 1874. 

A.D. 1538-9, 29-30 Hen. VIII. No. 151. m. 7. 


Compotus Willelmi Pykeryng militis firme ibidem per tempus 

Nulla prout patet in pede ultimi Compoti anni proximi 
precedentis. Summa nulla. 

Terre et possessiones ijertinentes nvper monasterio predicto. 
DccjZt. xviijs. xc?. provenientes de diversis percellis terre ib- 
idem tam temporalibus quam spiritualibus, videhcet pi'O Scitu 
predicto viij^t. xvijs. iiijfL Lanegwest xxiij7i". xjs. oh. villa de 
Wrexham, xiiijZi. viiJ5. xc?. villa de Halton, \n]li. xJ6'. iijtZ. oh. 
Rectoria de Churke, xU. Rectoria de Wi-exham, Mi., Rectoria 
de Ruabon xxixR xvis. viijc?., Rectoria de Llangolhlyn xx/i. 
vj,s. viijd, Capella de Llansanfrawde, \\]li. xiijs. \\\]d., Capella 
de Landysilio, xij7i. ijs. iiijd, Capella de Brynglust, viij7i. 
xjs. iiijc?. Et terra dominicalis de Churk, C's molendinum de 
Wrexham, C's et molendinum de LlangoUyn, xls. non recepit 
his eo quod dimittitur ad firmam Willelmo Pykeryng militi, 
per Indenturam pro termino xxj annorum sub sigillo domini 
Regis Curie Augmentacionum Revencionum Corone sigillo 
sigillatam prout in proximo titulo subsequente plenius et 
particulariter patet. Summa nulla. 

Firme terrarmn dominicalium cum omnibus terris et tenementis 
dicto miper monasterio spectante. 

Sed recepit Compotum de cc']U. xviijs. xd de redditibus 
terrarum dominicalium ibidem cum omnibus et singulis suis 
pertinentiis predicto nuper monasterio spectantibus et perti- 
nentibus sic dimissis Willelmo Pykeryng militi per Indenturam 


sigillo Curie Augmentacionum Revencionum Corone domini 
regis sigillatam cujus tenor sequitur in hec verba. Hec 
Indentura facta inter excellentissimum principem et dominum 
Dominum Henricum viij dei gratia Auglie et Francie regem 
fidei defensorenij dominum Hibernie et in terra supremura 
Caput Anglicane Ecclesie ex una parte et Willelmum Pykering 
niilitem ex altera parte, Testatur quod idem dominus rex per 
advisamentum et concensum Consilii Curie Augmentacionum 
revencionum Corone sue, tradidit concessit et ad firmam 
dimisit prefato Willelmo domum et scitum nuper monasterii 
de Vala Crucis infra Episcopatum Assaph, auctoritate par- 
liamenti suppressim et dissoluti ac omnia terras, tenementa, 
molendina, prata et pastura subscripta ibidem cum pertinentiis 
eidem nuper monasterio spectantibus et pertinentibus, 
videlicet, unam clausam terre vocatam Kellyworgan, unam 
alium clausam vocatam le Cownter tenen' cum una dorao 
ibidem unam aliam clausam terre vocatam le Walker 
close, unum molendinum fullonicum et unum tenementuru 
cum pertinentiis, unam clausam terre vocatam le Mosse feyld, 
cum una parva clausa terre eidem annexa et unam clausam 
terre vocatam Blake acre, unam clausam terre vocatam Mark 
crose, unam clausam terre vocatam le Polo ffeyld, unam clausam 
terre vocatam caerpistell' juxta monkes sete, unam aliam 
clausam terre vocatam Handyng close unum pratum vocatum 
Great Meddovve juxta Hurdyng close unam aliam clausam terre 
vocatam Macebryngtede unam aliam clausam terre vocatam 
Churchell close et unam aliam clausam terre vocatam delev- 
bebant, que quidam premissa in manibus, cultura et occupa- 
cione propria nuper Abbatis dicti nuper monasterii tempore 
dissolucionis et suppressionis inde reservata et occupata fuerint, 
et ulterius dictus dominus Kex per advisamentum et concen- 
sum consilii predict! tradidit, concessit et ad Firmam dimisit 
prefato Willelmo manerium de Lanegwest infra dominium de 
Yale et manerium de Wrexham infra dominium de Bromfeyld 
cum eorum pertinenciis ac unum molendinum aquaticum ibidem 
ac omnia mesuagia, terras, tenementa redditus et servicia 
cum pertinenciis in Lanegwest, Yale, Wrexham et Bromfeyld, 
necuon omnia mesuagia, terras tenementa, prata, pasturas, red- 
ditus et servicia cum pertinenciis in Churk balivata in Halgtone 
infra dominum de Churk, ac duo molendina ibidem cum per- 
tinentiis, dicto nuper monasterio simili modo spectantia et per- 
tinentia, ac eciam dictus dominus Rex per advisamentum et 
concensum consilii predicti, tradidit concessit et ad Firmam 
dimisit prefato Willelmo, Rectoriam de Wrexham et decimas 
glebarum ville de Resolen ac Eectorias de Ruabon Llangollen 


et Churk, necnon Capellam de Llansanfraud Landysilio et 
Biynglust cum suis pertinenciis dicto nuper monasterio spec- 
tantem et pertinentera una cum omnibus mesuagiis,terris, glebis, 
decimis, oblacionibus proficuis, obventibus, emolumentis et 
oomoditatibus quibuscunque eisdem Rectoriis et Capellis seu 
eorum alicui quovisraodo spectantibus sive pertinentibus, ex- 
ceptis tamen et dicto domino Regi heredibus et successoribus 
suis omnino reservatis omnibus advocacionibus, vicariis, grossis 
arboribus, et boscis premissorum, Ac omnibus libertatibus et 
liujusmodi edificiis infra Scitum et precinctura dicti nuper 
monasterii, que dictus dominus Rex ibidem imposterum pros- 
terni et auferri mandaverit. Habendum et tenendvim omnia 
predicta scitum, maneria, mesuagia, tenementa, Rectorias, 
Capella, et cetera omnia et singula premissa cum pertinentiis 
exceptis preexceptis prefato Willelmo ex assignatis suis a festo 
Annunciacionis beate Marie Yirgiuis ultimo preterite usque 
ad finem tei-mini, et per terminum xxj aunorum ex tunc proxime 
sequentium et plenarie complendorura. Reddendo inde an- 
nuatim dicto domino Regi heredibus et successoribus ducentas 
una libras xviijs, xd. legalis monete Anglie, videlicet, pro pre- 
dicto scitu, ac mesuagiis, terris, tenementis, molendinis, pratis 
et pasturis in manibus, cultura et occupacione nuper Abbatis 
dicti nuper monasterii tempore dissolutionis et suppressionis 
inde inde existentibus et reservatis, terris, tenementis redditi- 
bus et serviciisin Lanegwest et Yale predictis viij^i. xvijs. iiijc?., 
et pro predicto manerio de Langewest ac mesuagiis, xxiij7i. xj\s. 
oh. Et pro predicto manerio de Wrexham ac mesuagiis, terris, 
tenementis, redditibus et serviciis in Wrexham et Bromfeyld 
preter molendinum aquaticum ibidem xiiij?i. viijs. xd. et pro 
eodem molendino C. Et pro predictis mesuagiis, terris, 
tenementis in Halghtone et Churk preter duo molendina 
ibidem, ix^i. xjs. iijcL ob. Et pro eisdem ij molendinis xls. Et 
pro predicta Rectoria de Churke \xli. Et pro predicta capella 
de Lansandfraud, vijii. xiijs. iiijc?., et pro predicta capella de 
Landesilio, x.\jU. ijs. iiijc?. Et pro predicto capella de Bryn- 
gluste, yiijli. xis. iiiid. ad festa Sancti Michaelis Archangeli, et 
Annunciacionis beate Marie Virginis per equales porciones, 
solvendas durante termino predicto. Et predictus dominus 
Rex vult et per presentes concedit quod ipse, heredes et suc- 
cessores sui, dictum Willelmum et assignatos sues tarn de 
xvli. pro vadis et stipendiis triura capellanorum 

divina celebrantium et curam animarum observancium in 
capellis de llansanfraud Uandisilio et brynglust predictis, quam 
de omnibus redditibus serviciis, ffeodis, annuitatibus, pencioni- 
bus, porcionibus et denariorum summis quibuscunque de pre- 


missis seu eorum aliquo exeuntibus seu solvendis, preterquam 
de redditibus superius reservatis versus quascunque personas 
de tempore in tempus exonerabunt, acquietabunt, et defendent 
ac omnia domos et edificia premissa tarn in raaeremiis quamin 
coopertui'is tegulorura et slate de tempore in tempus tociens 
quociens necesse et oportunura, bene et sufficienter reparari, 
sustentari et manuteneri facient, durante termino predicto, 
Et predictus Willelmus concedit per presentes quod ipse et 
assignati sui coopertura straminis ac omnes alias necessarias 
reparaciones premissorum prater reparaciones Maeremii et 
coopertura tegulorum et slate predictas, de tempore in 
tempus bene et sufficienter sustinebunt, supportabunt et 
manutenebunt durante termino predicto. Et predictus 
dominus rex ulterius vult et per presentes concedit quod 
bene licebit prefato Willelmo et assignatis suis de tempore 
in tempuSj capere, percipere et habere de in et super 
premissiSj competenter et sufficienter heyebote, fierbote, 
ploughbote et cartbote ibidem et non alibi annuatim expen- 
dendis et occupaudis durante termino predicto. In cujus Rei 
testimonium uni parti liujus Indenture penes prefati Willelmi 
remanenti predictus dominus Rex sigillum suura Curie pre- 
dict! ad hujusmodi scriptum sigillandum deputatum mandavit 
apponi, alteri vero parti ejusdem Indenture penes eundem 
dominum Regem resedenti predictus Willelmus sigillum suum 
apposuit. Data apud Westmonasterium iiij die Julii^ anno 
regni regis predicti, xxix°. Summa ccjli. xviijs. xd. 

Summa totalis oneris ex ccjZi. xviijs. xd. De quibus allo- 
catur ei cxxiiij xvj7^. vs. vjd., ut pro tantis denariis per pre- 
dictum compotum Willelmo Stumpe receptori particular! do- 
mini regis Ibidem deliberatis xix. die octobris, anno Regni 
regis Henrici viij. xxxmo. ut patet per billam manu dicti 
Receptoris signatam et inter memoranda hujus anni remaneu- 
tem. Et debet cxiijs. iiijd. ex' [examinata?]. 

Respectuatur : Et cxiijs. iiijc?. pro vadis sive stipendiis di- 
versis ballivis et Collectoribus redditis ibidem, videlicet, pro 
vadis sive stipendiis Edwardi ap Rice ballivi de Wrexham xls. 
pro feodis Griffini Liu' Collectoris de Haltone, xxs. pro feodis 
Edwardi ap Robert, collectoris Reddituum de Llangollen, x\s. 
et pro feodis Ricardi Johns ballivi de Churke, xiijs. iiijtZ. in 
toto ut supra et sic in respectu positi quousque decretum et 
determinatum est per Cancellarium et Consillium Curie 
Augmentacionum Revencionum Corone domini Regis, &c. 

Summa Respectuatur, cxiijs. n^}d., ex et remanet ultra nil. 


4-5EDW. VI. No. 67. Denbigh. 1551-2. 

Vala crucis nuper monasterium in dicto comitatu. Compotus 
Wiilelmi Norrice Militis et Thome Massey armigeri, Deputati 
Willelmi Pickringe Militis, Firmarii Domini regis, ibidem, pro 
uno anno integro finito ad festum Sancti Michaelis Archangeli, 
anno regni Domini regis nunc Edwardi sexti dei gratia Anglie, 
Frauncie et Hibernie regis, Fidei Defensoris et in Terra Ec- 
clesie Anglicane et Hibernice supremi capitis Quiuto. 

Summa, iiij^^. iij/i. xiiijs. viijt/. 

Firma scitus nuper monasterii predicti cum Terris dominica- 
libus ac omnibus aliis possessionibus quibuscunque dicto nuper 
monasterio pertinentibus. Summa ccjli. xviijs. xd. (recites the 
indenture of 29 Hen. VIII). 

Annualis Redditus : Et de xiiijcL de quodam annuali redditu 
sive xma. regie majestati reservato de et pro uno mesuagio et 
tenemento cum pertinenciis in Llannegwestl predicto nuper in 
tenura Roberti Salisbury^ ad xjs. viij. per annum concessa per 
literas domini Regis nuper Henrici viij7^. patentes datas xmo. 
die Julii anno regni sue majestatis xxxvijmo Rogero Lese- 
more et Johanni Strangman heredibus etassignatis suis imper- 
petuum. Tenendum de domino rege heredibus et successoribus 
suis ut de manerio suo de Stalebridge in comitatu Dorsetsio 
per fidelitatem tantum, et Reddendo inde annuatim eidem 
domino regi heredibus et successoribus suis, nomine redditus 
reservatis xiiijtZ. ad curiam augmentacionum revencionura 
corone domini regis singulis annis ad Festum Sancti Michaelis 
archangeli tantum solvendis, quorum quidem jus et interesse 
in premissis Robertus Salesbury nuper habuit et recepit per 
annum ut supra. Et de xiijs. xd. de consimili annuali redditu 
sive xma. Domino regi reservato pro omnibus illis mesuagiis, 
terris, tenementis, pratis, pasturis, pasturagiis cum eorum pei'- 
tinenciis universis scituatis jacentibus et existentibus in villa 
de Halton infra dominium de Chirk in Comitatu Denbigh ac 
una vaccaria cum terris, pratis, pascuis et pasturis eidem per- 
tinentibus aut cum eadem dimissis scituatis, jacentibus et 
existentibus in parochia de Llandissilio in Comitatu Denbigh 

'• Probably Robert of Hug, son of Piers Salisbury of Rug, to whom 
a grant of the Lordship of Glyndyfrdwy was made in 5 Edward VI. 
If so, he must have resigned the Abbacy before the Dissolution. — 
Arch. Camb., 1878, p. 285. 


predicto ac dicto nuper monasterio de Vala Crucis dudum spec- 
tantibus et pertinentibus, concessis per literas domini nuper 
regis Henrici viij patentes datas secundo die Octobris, anno 
regui sue majestatis xxxvijmo. Thome Marse^ heredibus et 
assignatis suis imperpetuum. Tenendum de dicto domino 
rege heredibus et successoribus suis in capite per ser-vicium 
xxme. partis uuius feodi militis ac reddendum inde annuatim 
eidem domino regi heredibus et successoribus suis de et pro 
predictis mesuagiis, terris et tenementis ac ceteris premissis in 
Haltone predicta ixs. ijd. et de et pro predicta vaccaria cum 
suis pertinenciis iiijs. viijcl., ad curiam augmentacionum reven- 
cionum corone domini regis singulis annis ad Festum Sancti 
Michaelis archangeli tantum solvendis per annum in toto ut 
supra. Sum ma xvs. 

Sum ma totalis oneris predicti cum arreragiis, cciiij^^. vjli. 
viiJ5. vjt^. 

PATENT ROLL. 3 James I. Pars. 4. (No. 1,666) m. 

(Last but three). 

De concessione firme per dominum Wotton, 1606. 

Rex omnibus, etc. Cum dominus Henricus nuper rex Anglie 
Octavus per Indenturam suam sub magno sigillo suo Anglie 
Augmentationum revencionum Corone sue confectam ge- 
rentem datam apud Westmonasterium, quinto die lulii anno 
regni sui vicesimo nono, tradidit, concesserit et ad firmara 
dimiserit Willelrao Pickeringe militi^ domum et scitum nuper 
monasterii de Valle Sancte Crucis, infra Episcopatum Assa- 
vense, etc., etc. 

(Indenture of Henry is recited here.) 

Ac cum dominus Edwardus nuper Rex Anglie Sextus, per 
literas suas patentes, magno sigillo suo nuper Curie Augmen- 
tacionum, etc., ad tunc Corone sue sigillato, gerentes datam 
apud Westmonasterium, septimo die Augusti anno regni sui 
quinto, per considerationem in eisdem expressam et contentam 
dimiserit prefato Willelmo Pickeringe militi, predictum domum 
et scitum nuper monasterii, 

(Grant of Edward given here, followed by the grant of 

Sciatis quod nos per et in consideracione boni veri et accep- 
tabilis servicii nobis per prefatum Edwardum dominum Wotton 
antehac multipliciter facti et impensi, de gratia nostra speciali 
ac ex certa scientia et mero motu nostris, tradidimus et con- 
cessimus et ad firmam dimisimus ac per presentes pro nobis 


et heredibus et successoribus nostris tradimus, concedimus et 
ad firmara dimittimus eidem Edwardo domino Wotton pre- 
dictam domum et scitum dicti nuper monasterii de Vala 
Crucis infra predictum Episcopatum Assaphense in pi-edicto 
Comitatu nostro Denbigh. Ac omnia terras, molendina, prata 
et pasturas subscripta ibidem cum pertinentiis eidem nuper 

monasterio spectantibus, videlicet Exceptis tamen 

semper et nobis heredibus et successoribus nostris omnino 
reservatis omnibus advocacionibus, vicariis piscariis, grossis 
arboribus, boscis et subboscis premissorum. Habendum et 
tenendum omnia et singula predictum domum et scitum, 
Maneria, Rectoi'ias, Capellas terras dominicales, terras glebatas, 
decimas Molendina, terras, tenementa, prata, pasturas, clausas 
communias ac cetera omnia et singula premissa per presentes 
dimissa cum eorum pertioenciis universis, exceptis per presentes 
preexceptis, prefato Edwardo domino Wotton executoribus 
et assignatis suis a fine et expiracione dictarum dimissionum 
et termini triginta annorum inde prefato Edwardo domino 
Wotton, sicut, prefert per literas patentes dicte nuper regiue 
Elizabethe facta et concessa usque ad finem, terminum et per 
terminum centum annorum ex tunc proxime sequencium et 
plenarii complendorum. Reddendo anuuatim nobis heredibus 
et successoribus nostris de et pro predicto scitu dicti nuper 
monasterii, terris, tenementis, clausis et ceteris premissis in 
tempore dicti nuper Abbatis monasterii predicti tempore 
dissolucionis inde ut prefertur cum terris et tenementis in 
Yale et llangwest predictis, octo libras septemdecim solidos 
et quatuor denai'ios. Ac de et pro predicto manerio de llan- 
gwest cum pertinenciis novemdecim libras sex solidos quatuor 
denarios et uuum obolum. Ac de et pro predicto manerio 
de Wrexham ac predictis mesuagio, terris, tenementis red- 
ditibus et serviciis in Wrexham et Bromfeilde predictis, preter 
molendinum aquaticum ibidem quatuordecim libras octo solidos 
et decem denarios. Ac de et pro eodem molendino centum 
solidos. Ac de et pro predicto molendino in Halghton 
et Chirke predictis quadraginta solidos. Ac de et pro predicta 
Rectoria de Wrexham cum decimis glebarum ville de 
Rosolen cum pertinenciis quinquaginta libras. Ac de et pro pre- 
dicta Rectoria de Ruabon cum pertinenciis, viginti novem libras 
sexdeciui solidos et octo denarios. Ac de et pro predicta Rec- 
toria de Llangollen cum pertinenciis viginti libras sex solidos 
et octo denarios. Ac de et pro predicta Rectoria de Chirke, 
decem libras. Ac de et pro predicta capella de Llansaiifraid 
cum pertinenciis, septem libras tresdecim solidos et quatuor 
denarios. Ac de et pro predicta capella de Llandisilio cum 


pertinenciis duodecim libras daos solidos quatuor denarios. 
Ac de et pro predicta capella de Bi-ingelust cam pertinenciis 
octo libras undecim solidos et quatuor denarios legalis moaete 
Anglie ad Festa Sancti Michaelis arcliangeli et Annuuciacionis 
beate Marie virginis ad mauus Ballivorum vel receptorura pre- 
missorum pro tempore existente per equales porciones, solven- 
dos durante termino predicto per presentes preconcesso. Et 
volumus et per pi-esentes pro nobis heredibus et successoribus 
nosti^is concedimus prefato Edvvardo domino Wotton, execu- 
toribus et assignatis suis quod nos heredes et successores nostri 
euudem Edwai'dum dominum Wotton, executores et assignatos 
suos tarn de quindecim libris de premissis exeuntibus ac pro 
stipendiis sive salariis trium capellanorum divina celebrantium 
et curam animarum observantium in seperalibus capellis de 
llansanfraid llandisilio et Bringelust predictis, annuatim sol- 
veudis, quam de omnibus aliis redditibus serviciis, feodis, 
annuitatibus, pencionibus, porcionibus et denariorum summis 
et oneribus quibuscunque de premissis exeuntibus seu solvendis 
vel super inde oneratis seu onerandis,preterquam de seperalibus 
redditibus superius per presentes reservatis, versus quascunque 
personas de tempore in tempus exonerabimus, acquietabimus 
et indempn'os conservabimus durante termino predicto per 
presentes concesso. Et predictns Edwardus dominus Wotton 
executores et assignati sui Cancellas Ecclesiarum parocbialium 
et capellarum predictarum, ac omnia raolendina domes et 
ed ificianecnon omnia sepes, fossatas, inclausura, littora, I'ipas 
et muros marittimos ac eciam omnes alias necessarias repara- 
ciones premissorum in omnibus et per omnia de tempore in 
tempus tociens quociens necesse et opportune fuerintj sump- 
tibus suis propriis et expensis bene et suflficienter reparabunt, 
supportabunt, sustinebunt, escurabunt, purgabunt et mauu- 
tenebunt durante termino pi'edicto per presentes concesso. 
Ac premissa sic sufficienter I'eparata et manutenta infinem 
termini predicti per presentes preconcessi. Et volumus ac per 
presentes concedimus prefato Edwardo domino Wotton execu- 
toribus et assignatis suis, quod bene licebit eis de terapoi^e in 
tempus capere, percipere et habere de in et super premissis 
crescentes, competenter et sufficienter housebote, hedgebote, 
fierboote, ploughboote et cartboote ibidem et non alibi annua- 
tim expendendis et occupaudis durante termino predicto per 
presentes concesso. Et quod habeant maeremium in boscis et 
terris premissis crescentem ad et versus reparaciones Caucel- 
larum, domorum et edificiorum per assignacionem et super- 
visionem senescalli seu subsenescalli aut Officiariorum nostro- 
rum heiedum et successorum nostroi'um ibidem pro tempore 

VOL. V. 12 


existencium, durante termino predicto per presentes precon- 
cesso. Aliquo statuto, etc. In cujus rei, etc. Teste Rege 
apud Westmonasterium tricesimo primo die Mail. 
Per breve de privato sigillo, etc. 

CLOSE ROLL, 1651. 
Part 43, No. 1. 

This Indenture made 1st Sept. 1651. Between Tho. 
Coke, Will. Bossevile, John Sparrow, Will. Kenrick, Ralph 
Harrison, Will. Scott, esquires, Will. Steele, Recorder of 
London, Silvanus Taylor, Thomas Hubbard, Cornelius Cooke, 
esqrs., John Hunt, gent.. Sir Edw. Barkham, Baronett, Sir 
Will. Roberts, knt., Tho. Ayres, John White, James Stocall, 
esqrs., Edw. Cressett, gent., Sir Richard Saltonstall, knt., 
Daniell Searle, merchant, Nicholas Lampriere, Nicholas Bond, 
Richard Sydenham, and Robt. ffenvvick, esqrs., no'i'ated in an 
Act of this present Parliament intituled an Act for selling the 
fee farme rents belonging to the Com'onwealth of England 
formerly payable to the Crowne of England Dutchy of Lane. 

and Dutchy of Cornw. or any fine or more of them 

and also by one other Act of this p'sent parliamt. intituled an 

Act for the further explanation of the former Act 

of the one part and Michaell Lea of London, gent., and 
John Lawson, citizen and grocer of Lond. on the other 

Whereas the late King James by letter patent Westr. 
29 April, 9 of his reigne, did amongst other things grant to 
Edw. Lord Wotton of Marley his heirs &c. for ever All the 
house & style of the late Monastery of Valla Crucis within the 
bishopprick of Asaph in Co. of Denbigh with all rights 

&c. &c. All which p'miss 

were formerly in the occupation of the late Abbot 

of the said late monastery at the time of the dissolution. And 
the Manor of Langwest in the Lordship of Yale, Wrexham, 

lordship of Bromfield, &c., &c (Rents, etc., in 

grant of James given here.) 

Now this indenture witnesseth that the said Trustees before 
nominated by the seu'all Acts. And in consideration of the 
sum £3306 6s. 7 id. farthing & halfe farthinge good and 
lawfull money of England where the sum of £2845 Is. 7|c7. 
farthing half farthinge. Sir John Wollaston, knt., and Thomas 

Andrews, Aldermen of London have certified to 

be paid by the said Michael Lea & John Lawson. And the 


remainder of the said sura, the said trustees haue repryzed to 
the said Mich. Lea & John Lawson for that £15 per anu' 
hath been allowed out of the rent since the dissulution & paid 
by the fee farm' to three curates or chapplins for officiating in 
the said Churches and Chapels following. To the Curate of 
Llansanfraid £5 Os. Od. To the Curate of Llansililio £5 Os. Od. 
And to the Curate of Bringlast 5 pounds. Do grant alien 
bargain sell & confirm vnto Mich. Lea & John Lawson their 
heirs & assigns for ever the aforesaid fee farm rents, &c. 

In as full ample manner as any king or queen of England 

And that the same feefarme Rent or yearly Rent of 
£23 2s. 10 pence halfe penny shall be liable for eu' for the 
payment of the said 3 seueral sums of £5 . 

And be it remembered that the 25 Feb. in the year aboue 
written Cornelius Cooke and John Hunt came before the keepers 
of the lib'ty of England by authority of Parliarat. in Chancery 
and acknowledged the indenture aforesaid. Inrolled the 25 
Feb. in the year aforesaid. 


Several interesting works of art, relics of Valle Crucis 
Abbey, are preserved in different places. One is a 
curious painting on panel, said to be the only portion 
saved of the altar-piece, in the possession of Lord Harlech 
at Brogyntyn. Another is a crucifix, found in clearing 
away rubbish from the ruins of the church, and now the 
property of Lady Willoughby D'Eresby. The painting 
is said to have become so much obscured by the action 
of time, that the subject is a matter rather for conjecture 
than of certainty. A third is a dove, apparently of 
silver, which the late Miss Lloyd, who resided for many 
years at the Abbey, informed H. F. J. Vaughan, Esq., 
to whom the author is indebted for this and the following 
interesting particulars, had been found and taken away 
by some unknown person. Some fragments of carvings 
on slabs of alabaster have been removed from Llangollen 
to High Lee, near Oswestry, where they are placed in 
niches in the hall, and are carefully preserved by the 
owner, Mr. Rogers. They were found by Miss Strang- 

12 2 


ward of God man Chester in a cavity in the floor of the 
upper story of the house of Plas yn y Pentre at that 
place. The larger one is 25 in. by 10 in. in breadth, the 
smaller 1 6 in. by 1 1 in. The first is a representation of 
the dead Christ, the feet bound with cords, and on either 
side of them a skull. Out of the socket of the left eye 
of that on the dexter side creeps a worm, the body of 
which is continued beneath. On the upper part of the 
dexter side are the sceptre and the spear. On the 
sinister side at the top is the ladder, and below is the 
scourge. The head is encircled by a thick wreath. 

On the smaller slab is represented the legend of a 
saint, who is kneeling, and has a nimbus round his head. 
He is clothed in armour, with spurs, having large rowels. 
Over it is a monastic habit, on which the scapular is 
well shown. With his riofht hand he holds in a leash a 
strange kind of animal, with two legs, and feet like those 
of a bird ; the head has a forked tongue. In the left 
hand he holds a bag or purse. He is on his knees before 
a crucifix, which is placed on the bank of a river, above 
the waters of which appears the head of a dragon or 
monster. In the background behind the kneeling figure 
are seen the battlements of a castle with gable roofs, and 
over them a chimney. On the opposite side of the 
stream are the turrets of another tower. The river flows 
in a semicircular direction, becoming broader at its base. 

H. W. Ll. 

Among the collections of Welsh poetry in the British 
Museum and elsewhere, there are some addressed, in 
the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, to the abbots of 
several great abbeys. They speak for the most part in a 
strain of hyperbole of their love of hospitality, and the 
magnificence of their numerous banquets. From some 
of them we learn that the High Festivals of the Catholic 
Church, especially those of Christmas, Easter, and Whit- 
suntide, were solemnised by gatherings of the people of 
all classes from the surrounding country, during which 


the monks kept open house, entertaining each class 
suitably to its degree. The mornings were devoted to 
the religious duties of the festival, of which it appears, 
from the allusions to the eloquence and learning of the 
abbots, that preaching to the assembled concourse formed 
no small or unimportant part ; while the afternoons were 
occupied with the supply of material wants, supple- 
mented, doubtless, by games and amusements, conspi- 
cuous among which would be the representation of reli- 
gious stage-plays, or interludes, restrained from undue 
license by the presence and authority of the clergy ; and 
of which we may be sure that music, vocal and instru- 
mental, formed a predominant element, under the 
guidance and superintendence of the " clerwys", the bards 
or minstrels, who delighted to frequent such assemblies, 
and to recite or sing their compositions, principally pane- 
gyrical of their hosts or patrons, to the accompaniment 
of the crowd (crwth), or harp. 

We have here one by Gutyn Owen, the famous bard 
and historian of Basingwerk Abbey, and bard also, by 
special appointment, to that of Valle Crucis. Thirty of 
his compositions are found in a folio MS. volume, in the 
British Museum, of which we know, from his autograph 
at the end, commemorating the fact, that the greater part 
was written by himself, prior to the year 1488. Of these, 
as many as six were addressed to the Abbot David of 
Valle Crucis, and seven to his predecessor. Abbot John. 
Of the latter, the purport is to request the present, or the 
loan, of a horse from the abbot, with whom he claims 
near kinship, and begins as follows : — 

Cywydd I OFYN Maech I SiON AB Rhisiart, Abad Llan 
Egwestl, o waith Gutyn Owain. 

Yr Arglwydd, rhwydd o'r rhoddion, 
O lu 'r Saint, a elwir Sion ; 
Mab Rhisiart, ymhob presen, 
Meistrolaeth, llywodraeth Lien. 
Gwledd Edwin Arglwydd ydwyd, 
Ys da Ig; Glyn Egwestl, wyd ! 


Llaw Derfel, y lihiw Felen 

Llawr y gras yw, lie 'r Groes hen. 

Liu o Saint yw gwyr llys Sion, 

I'w alw Nef, ar Ian afon ; 

Un Duw ar lu yn dy wledd, 

A gwerin y drugavedd ; 

Un fonedd Marthin Fynach, 

Sion o Riwabon yw ^r ach ; 

O'r Barwniaid, a'r Brenin, 

Yr wyd well i roi dy win. 

Un waed rieni ydwyf, 

Nai i chwi, o'r un ach wyf ; 

Meredydd o Ruffydd rym, 

O'n teidiau cerynt ydym ; 

Wyr Ednyfed a lorwerth, 

flodau Nannau a'i nerth. 


A Poem to ask kor a Courser of John ab RicharDj Abbot 
OF Valle Crucis, by Gutyn Owen (see Traian, v. iii). 
John, of the saintly host, whose name 
For lavish gifts is known to fame, 
Of all the learned, Richard's son. 
Where'er he be, 's surpassed by none. 
Of feasts the Edwin, 'tis thy lot 
To rule Egwestl, favour'd spot. 
With hand hke Dervel's thou dost fill 
With grace the ancient Cross' hill. 
For holy men a Heav'n you'd think 
The dwelling on the river's brink. 
And at the banquet that you see 
The Lord of Mercy's company. 
In blood, Rhiwabon's John, you mount 
To Martin's old monastic fount : 
Nor Kings nor Barons can excel 
The wine thou dost bestow so well. 
My parentage is of thy stock ; 
Thy nephew, chipped from off thy block ; 
From Griffith's and Meredydd's strength 
Our grandsires give our kinship length ; 
Thro' lorwerth's and Ednyved's course. 
We grandsons bloom with Nannau's force. 

The thirty-six remaining lines of the poem are occu- 
pied with a poetical description of the points and good 


qualities of the courser, encliDg with the bard's promise 
to become the abbot's man-at-arms, in the event of his 
petition being granted. 

The two following poems, by Gutyn Owain, are pane- 
gyrics addressed to the Abbot David ab lorwerth, the 
successor of John : — 


Pab lal, bendith pob aelwyd 

Pasio Nudd, mewn pais wenn wyd; 

Dafydd, galondid Ifor^ 

Dy fawl fain rhwng dau for : 

Dy glod yw rhoi da a gwledd, 

Dy Ras enwog dros Wynedd. 

Dwr nid oes, na darn o dir, 

Na thy dyn, ni^th adwaenir ; 

Mwya son, am haelioni, 

D;^n o'ch iaith am danoch chwi ; 

Abadau^ a'r gwyr bydol, 

Hwynt o air da_, aent a'r d'61. 

Pab y Glynn, a farn pob gwlad 

Nid tebyg neb yt, Abad ; 

Y tri penn haelioni pur 

Yn un wy t ynn' o natur ; 

A'r tri pheth amlaf, Dafydd, 

Yw d'air da, a Dw'r, a Dydd. 

Dy wleddau rif dail oeddynt, 
Trwy 'r gost a wnai 'r trywyr gynt; 
Arthur, a'r Hall Caswallon, 
A'r trydydd Merwydd, ym Mon : 
Pab un dwf, pawb yn d'ofyn, 
Pedwerydd, Dafydd, wyd ynn'. 
Ni fynny fy Naf anwyl, 
Na dydd gvvaith, na diwedd gwyl ; 
Beunydd gwledd newydd a wnai, 
Nadolig ynn' a dalai. 
Traul fawr, at rol a fwriwyd, 
Aur y hangc ai ar y Bwyd; 
Os dy rodd ar gost drwyddi, 
Ni fwriai neb f'arian i. 
Echdoe, a doe, y deuwn 
I'r byd da, a'r bywyd hwn ; 
Heddyw, ni'th oedaf, Dafydd, 
Yn fore dof, ar y dydd ; 


Fy mywyd fi, a'm Awen, 
Sydd arnad, fal treftad hen. 
Darperaist^ o aur parod, 
Groesaw fyth^ gras yw ei fod. 
Dy swydd deg, o'r da sydd dau, 
Yw dwyn gair y dyn gorau ; 
Dwg aur ynn' dy goroni, 
Dwyn ystad fo d'einioes di. 


Thou Pope of Yale, the blessing of all hearths, 

Who Nudd surpassest in thy robe of white ; 

Thy heart as Ivor^s, David, is enlarged, 

From sea to sea not slender is thy praise. 

Thy fame is wealth and banquets to bestow, 

RenownM all Gwynedd over is thy grace. 

No water is there, nor small patch of land. 

Nor house of man exists, but there thou 'rt known. 

It comes of thee that those who speak thy tongue 

For lavish bounty are most noised abroad. 

Let abbots, aye, and men, too, of the world, 

Of good repute, all get behind thy back. 

Pope of the Glen, who judgest every land. 

Abbot, there is not one resembles thee ! 

Of liberality the chiefest three^ 

By nature art thou to us, all in one ; 

And the three best of things in all the world, 

Are Light, and Water, David, and thy fame. 

Thy feasts, in number many as the leaves. 

Rival in cost the three great men's of yore ; 

First those of Arthur, and Caswallon's next. 

And Mervvydd's last, in Mona, stands the third : 

Of equal growth art thou, the fourth, a Pope, 

David, to us, whom all men seek to know. 

Thou wouldst, my lord beloved, that there should be 

No work-days left, or end to holiday. 

Each day wouldst thou produce a banquet new, 

One to us all that might for Christmas count. 

So vast the sum conceived for all the fare. 

Scarce would the bank provide for it in gold. 

Yet since 'tis all thy gift, the cost throughout. 

Not one can say in thought, " The money's mine ! " 

For my part I would come, each day in turn, 

^ Nudd Hael, Rhydderch Hael, and Ivor Hael. 


To the good cheer and living that is there ; 

Nor will I baulk thee, David, of to-day, 

But to the hour will come, and early too : ■ 

I feel my life, my fortune, and my song, 

Hang, like an ancient heritage, on thee. 

A ready welcome, with thy ready gold. 

Thou e'er providest — grace ^tis that is so. 

Thy function fair it is to use thy wealth, ) 

So as to bear the name of best of men ; 

Give us the gold to crown thee, and thy life * 

Henceforward be to live in high estate. 



Oediog fo 'r enwog o Frounydd y Groes 
Mewn Gras, a llawenydd : 
Oedran Addaf ar Ddafydd 
Y rhoer, y Fwyalch, a'r Hydd. 

Dafydd, oed yr Hydd ar hwn, \ 

Mwnai a roes, mwy na'i ran ; ( Proest Cyf- 

Ei glod ymhob gwlad am hyn C newidiog. 

A rifvvyd, fal gro'r Afon. ' 

Afon o Lasfedd, i'w yfed a gawn 
Gwin, Osai, a Chlared ; 
Meddyglyn, rhwydd ynn' y rhed, 
Fob da esmwyth, pob dismed. 


Dismed, ag yfed a gaf, 
Wttres Gwin, ni ad tros gof : 
A chael Aur rhodd, iiwchlaw rhif, 
A byd yn ail bod yn Nef. 

Fw Nef, y gwyl ef, ag i'w wledd, y daw 
Dwy BowySj a Gwynedd ; 
Rhif y graian i'w Annedd^ 
Ehif gwlith y w'r fendith a fedd. 



Y fendith, drwy gyfiawnder, 
A gafas Nuddj ag Ifor, 

Ar Ddafydd, rif sydd o Ser, 
Ag a roir mwy na gro'r Mor. 


E-hif y gro a fo ar fy wyd ei oes ■ 
Heb eisiaUj na chlefyd : 

Y govsiu, uwch law'r gweryd, 
Am aur, o Abadau'r byd. 


Aur fynychle yw'r Fynachlog, | p, , 

A'i chor sy well na Chaer Sallog ; j °^ 
A drud dorriadau, ^ 

Y dail, a^r delwau, Vlliosog. 
A lleisiau j 


Adeiliadaist Dduw dyledog, 

A theg crysau, i'w thai croesog, 

A brynodd Brenin, ^ 

Cy waethog ei win, >- neu Bowls enwog. 

Ail ei Sin, j 


Aur Ty lesu, a'r tywysog, 
A gyfrennir, yn gyfrannog ; 

Y gwaitli main, a'r gwydd, ^ 

Yr a,, a llys rbydd, > Sydd Swyddog. 

Os Dafydd j 


foliannau Nef fal Enog 

Y pwysai fydr Powys Fadog ; 
O eiliad lolo, ^ 

Ar fawl y gwyr fo r addefog. 
Weddio 'n j 


Ei D^ addas Glan, diddos glog, 

A'i Nenn gywraint a wnai 'n gaerog : 

Yr Haul yn y rhiw, ^ 

A'i Adail ydyw, >-fal gwen Hog. 

A gwyn lliw, J 



Oesrhyw faenwaith, is Rhyfonio^, 
A'i wenllys hoyw, win llysieuog ? 

A'r byd, a'r bwydau, \ 

A gair o'r gorau, >- trugarog. 

A geiriau J 


bedwar cwrs yw bwydau'r cog, 
A'n gwirodydd o Win gwridog ; 
Ei Lyn fal Ynyd, J 

1 bob rhai, bob pryd, vFedd hafog. 
Oedd hefyd J 


Arglwydd gvasol, gwleddau gwresog, 
A gar dynion yw'r Gwr doniog : 
Y Gwr i'w garu, \ 
A roes yr lesu, Vhir oediog. 
I'w adu 'n J 


Ode to David, Abbot of Valle Crucis, by Gutyn Owain. 

Long live in grace and joyfulness, the illustrious David of the 
hills of the Cross ; may he be granted the lifetime of Adam, of 
the Blackbird, and of the Hart ! 

David — may the age of the Hart be his ! — hath bestowed 
money more than was his portion j his praise, therefore, in 
every land has been reckoned like the gravel of the stream. 

A stream of blue mead do we obtain, wine, liquor, and claret ; 
of Metheglin, that freely flows to us, every luxurious comfort, 
every dish of meat. 


Dishes of meat, and drink do I receive ; the flow of wine, it 
shall not be unremembered ; and gifts of gold, out of number, 
and a life that is next to being in Heaven. 


To his Heaven, and to his feast, will he watchfully provide 
that Gwynedd and the two Fowyses shall come ; in number as 
the sand to his abode ; in number as the dew, are the blessings 
which he possesses. 



The blessings, thro' righteousness, that Nudd and Ivor 
obtained, are bestowed on David, in number as the stars, in 
number greater than the pebbles of the sea. 


May the days of his life equal those of the pebbles, without 
or want or sickness : the best of all abbots in the world for 


A place where gold is freely current is the monastery, and 
its choir excels Caer Sallog^s (Old Sarum), and rich are the 
carvings of the leaves, and of the statues, and numerous are 
the voices. 


Thou hast built a noble fabric for God, with fair flowing 
robes, for His Cruciform House, which a king hath purchased 
who is rich in his wine. It is equal to Sheen or the renowned 
St. Paul's. 


The gold of the House of Jesus, and of its superior, is dis- 
tributed, so that all participate ; the work of stone, and of 
timber, and the dwelling-bouse, will all go on freely, so David 
be in office. 


In the praises of Heaven, like Enoch, he outweighs all Powys 
Vadog j with the constructive harmony of lolo is he acknow- 
ledged to be familiar in praise and in prayer. 


Like a cloak is the shelter of his house, comely and pure 
with its skilfully wrought roof, which he has walled about : 
with the sun on the hill, and its bright hue, his edifice is like 
a holy sanctuary. 


Is there any stonework on this side of Rhuvoniog to be 
compared with this, with its bright, fair mansion, and luscious 
wine ? and its world of meats, and its passing fame, and its 
compassionate speech ? 


In four courses come the dainties of the cook and the blush- 
ing wine of our cellarman ; his liquor, as in Shrovetide, is for 
everyone, at all times, and mead also in plenty. 



A gracious lord, warm-hearted in banquets, who loves man- 
kind, is the gifted man; a man to be beloved, whom Jesus 
hath given, to be left to us in length of days. 

The two following poems, by Guto'r Glyn, are ad- 
dressed to the Abbot David ab lorwerth. There appears 
to be no direct statement in his writings to show that, 
like Gutyn Owain, he held a special appointment as 
domestic bard to Valle Crucis Abbey, in the neighbour- 
hood of which he was born, at Llan St. Ffraid Glyn 
Ceiriog, whence he derived his appellation of Guto 
(Griffith) of the Glen. But that he was in high favour 
with the monks is apparent from the poems, seven in 
number, extant, addressed by him to the abbots ; six to 
David ab lorwerth, and one to John ab Richard. And that 
he held such an appointment would seem almost certain, 
from the fact that he was selected to compose the well- 
known poem, published, with a translation, in the lolo 
MSS., with the view to obtain a loan from the Abbot of 
Neath of the Semt Greal for the Abbot of Valle Crucis. 


Yr eryr llwyd ar wyr lien 

Maelor, ac allor Collen ; 

Mae plas i 'r mab hael lesu, 

Mae yngwlad lal un Angel du. 

Mae anrhydedd yn rhedeg, 

Mae gras Duw yrahant y Groes deg. 

Yno y tyfo oed Dafydd 

Abad hwy na bywyd hydd, 

Yn dderwen ir o dri north, 

goed aur, a gwaed lorwerth. 

Gwra yw fo i 'r gaer falch, 

Glyn Egwestl galonawg gwalch. 

Oes wr well is awyr iach ? 

Oes un tyddyn santeiddiach ? 

Ar deir gwlad yr wyd arglwydd, 

Abad am aur rhad mor rhwydd. 

Euthym a deuthym o 'r daith 

I'w fro 'r Wyl, a fry'r eilwaith. 


Bwriodd i'm, ni bu rodd wall, 
Bedeir-rodd Abad arall. 
Cefais arf cofus Hiriell, 
Clwyd dJur o fwcled oedd well. 
y mae wybren i 'm obry, 
A gwaith gwe fraith y go' fry ; 
Olwyn y cledd ar lun clo, 
Urddas clun yw 'r ddesgl bono. 

Y drych o lal, a' i dri clycb, 
A dyr egin drwy ei oglych. 
Mae lie nytb i 'm Haw ynol, 
Maneg wen, mewn ei ganol. 
Annedd i 'm bysedd barawd, 

Ar gefn dwrn, rhag ofn dyrnawd. 
Pennau i freichiau o 'r fron, 
Pelydr haul plaid yr boelion. 
Pob gordd yn pwyaw heb gam, 
Prikswng y siop o Wrecsam. 
Teg yw 'r anrlieg a roes, 
Cynglirair o Bant yr hen Groes. 
Ag ni bu fwcled gwyn bach 
Ar frenin arf wirionach. 

Y llafn oedd i Ruffydd Llwyd, 
O waith ymladd ni theimlwyd. 
Mae byrr gledd i 'r mab o 'r Glyn, 
A chryn dorch ni chur undyn, 
Nid af i drin, nid wyf drwch, 
Heb y rhodd a bair heddwch. 

Nid af fi, nid wyf annoeth, 
I'm haiarn wisg a'm hyrn noeth. 
Nid er gwg y doir ag ef, 
Nid er ymladd, neu dromlef ; 
Er ei ddwyn arwydd einioes, 
A'i roi 'n grair ar wain yn groes. 
Lleuad yr Abad a' i rodd. 
Lien wych a'm llawenychodd. 
Llawenydd llywin einioes, 
Llawer rhent i 'r Haw a 'i rhoes. 
Ni werthaf fwcled Dafydd, 
Nis rhof ddeunaw oes yr hydd. 
Ni chraifiF bwngler o glerwr, 
Nis gwisg ond hy was a gwr. 
Mae i mij gydag ysgien, 
Des dlws yn Llan Egwestl wen ; 
Ei hoffrwm oil, hoff yw r' fan, 
A wnaf yno, neu' i Faenan ; 


Mae Adda Fras ym medd fry, 
Minnau yn lal mynwn wely ; 
A'm bwcled, a'm bywiog cledd, 
Yn arfau maen^ ar fy medd. 

Guto'e Glyn ai cant. 


A Poem in which David ab Ieuan ab Iorwerth, Abbot of 

Valle CbuciSj is thanked for the Gift to the 

Bard of a Buckler and Sword. 

'Tis an Eagle who presides over the learned men 

Of Maelor and the Altar of Collen. 

In the munificent son of Jesus T possess a sable-robed angel ; 

In the land of Yale is his mansion. 

Thine honour hath rapid advancement, 

In the fair dell of the Cross is the grace of God. 

There may the life of Abbot David 

Grow longer than the age of the Hart ! 

A vigorous Oak is he, of three periods of strength, 

Of a golden forest, and of the blood of Iorwerth. 

To the proud fortress is he wedded — 

The large-hearted Falcon of Egwestl's Vale. 

Is there a man more excellent, a habitation 

More holy, under the pure heaven ? 

Thou art lord over three territories, 

An Abbot so generous in largess of gold ! 

I went, and I returned from my travel. 

To his country, and went up a second time to the Feast. 

Not scant was his bounty — he bestowed upon me 

The gift fourfold of another Abbot. 

I received a weapon that would call to mind the angel Uriel, 

A plate of steel for a buckler better than his. 

Beneath I have the sky, 

And the fret-work of the smith above. 

The hilt of the sword is like a lock ; 

Its disk adorns my thigh ; 

In it is mirrored Yale, with its three bells, 

And thro' its rim doth vegetation burst. 

Behind, in its centre, is a place. 

Like a white glove, for my hand to nestle in, 

A ready retreat for my fingers, 

From the risk of a blow, on the back of my fist. 

From my arms to my breast do the heads 

Of the nails reflect the sunbeams. 

All striking true as a mallet. 


The pricksong^ of Wrexham's shop.^ 

Fair is the present he hath made me, 

A token from the Vale of the ancient Cross.' 

Ne'er has been a truer weapon worn by a King 

Than my buckler bright and small. 

To Gruffydd Llwyd the blade belonged, 

Ne'er hath it felt the work of war. 

The Sou of the Glyn^ owns a short sword 

That will harm no one, with a waving chain. 

I am not fierce, I go not out to fight. 

Save with the gift that will ensure me peace. 

I will not go — I am not silly — 

Into ray iron dress, with my bald pate. 

The Abbotts gift hath made me glad, 

Shaped like the moon, a noble protection. 

May many a rent fall to the hand that gave it. 

The joy of the sunset of my age ! 

I will not sell the buckler of David — 

Not for the hart's nine lives will I give it. 

No bungler of a minstrel shall grasp it, 

None but a man — and a bold one — shall wear it. 

In fair Llan Egwestl do I possess. 

Together with the sword, a string of beads ;^ 

On that spot will I offer them all. 

For I love it, or else at Maenan ;^ 

There hath Adda Fras'^ a raised monument, 

In Yale would I also have my bed, 

And my buckler, and my sword, living still, 

As my arms, cut in stone, over my grave ! 

1 '^ Pricksong, a song set to music." — Johnson's Diet. "He fights 
as you sing pricksongs, keeps time, distance, and proportion." — 
Borneo and Juliet. 

2 Leland speaks of "Wrexham treuly caullid Wrightelsham", as 
having in it " good Bokeler Makers". 

^ Eliseg^s Pillar. 

* The Bard himself, a denizen of the Glyn. 

* In plain prose — " I will say my Rosary". 

^ Maenan Abbey, whither the monks of Conway migrated by 
order of Edward I. 

7 Anglice, "Adam the Stout". Probably he is to be identified with 
Adam the Abbot, a fragment of the inscription on whose tomb is 
given in the account of Valle Crucis Abbey, in vol. i of Archoeologia 
Cambrensis. He has left some poems called " Brutiau" or " Presages" 
behind him, which may be inferred to have been more highly 
esteemed by his contemporaries than by posterity, from the frequency 
with which they refer to them. 



The last poem furnishes a pleasing confirmation of a 
personal anecdote, which is precious to us not only 
from the glimpse which it supplies into the character 
of the man, whose calm, holy, and mortified features 
are still visible through the dilapidated lineaments of 
his features as portrayed in the monumental eftigy 
preserved to us in its puritanical disfigurement, pre- 
sumably during the civil war of Charles I, in the Cathe- 
dral of St. Asaph, but also from the rarity of such 
anecdotes of the Abbots of our ancient monasteries. 
Tradition says that the Abbot, walking one morning in 
the garden of the Abbey, came upon the Bard sitting in 
an arbour ; and that to his inquiry what were his 
thoughts, the Bard replied, " I am composing an ode in 
honour of yourself." "Oh, then", said the Abbot, "let it 
not be in honour of me, but compose one rather to the 
glory of God." We may gather, perhaps, from the 
internal evidence of the poem, evinced in the change of 
the subject, which at the outset is the praise of the Abbot, 
and suddenly developes into a sublimer and more spiritual 
strain, that this is the very composition referred to in 
the story which, with some slight variation, is actually 
introduced into it. 


Mae un cyn yma yii cynal 
Yn moli Saint ym Mhlas lal, 
Oen ei fevned yn farnwr^ 
A naddur gerdd a wnair gvvr, 
O gwna Dafydd gywydd gwiw, 
Ef a' i rydd i Fair heddyw. 
Gwae a wyddys gywyddol, 
Gwae ni aeth gan yniol. 
Moli y bum ymylau byd, 
Main son melus enyd, 
A chablu, er yn chweblwydd, 
Erchis i'm eiriach y swydd. 
" Taw'^ heb hwn, " atteb henaint ; 
" Tro, fal Sawl, trwy foH Saint." 
Erchi i'm, a 'i orchymyn, 
Foliannu Duw o flaen dyn, 
VOL. V. 13 


A rhoi'r gerdd — rhywyr yw 'r gwaitli — 

I IVenin Nef ar unwaith. 

Rhanaf, rhag byrhau f einioes, — 

Rhy fj^r i'r hwyaf ei oes^ — 

Ranu a dygymu yn gall, 

Ean i Dduw o'r hen ddyall. 

Rannodd Nef o'i rodd yn fi-ai, 

Rown dal i'r hwn a'i dylai, 

Tad, a Mab, ac Ysbryd ir, 

A Duw oil y dyellir. 

Duw o Nef, dan yniol, 

Duw ei Hun diwahanol. 

Da fu'r anrheg ar chwegair 

Dyfu'r Mab Duw o fru Mair. 

Duw a wnaeth o'r gwyndraeth gynt 

Dcuddyn, a rhoi'r byd iddynt ; 

Daear gwyllt, gwar, gwellt, a gwydd, 

Dwr dwfn, a'r pedwar defnydd, 

Duw a roes draw, drwy ais drom, 

Ar wayw dur Ei waed erom. 

Rown ninnau galonnau glan 

I Hwn oil o hyn allan. 

Llyna Grist ar llyn o grau, 

Llun Duw yn Uawn adwyau, 

A ddaw, ddiwedd braw, ddydd brawd, 

I'n eywain oil yn ein cnawd. 

Troes Duw Dad tristyd a wn, 

Tri meddwl trwm a wyddwn, 

Marw fyddaf, i'm arfeddyd, 

Ni wn ba awr yn y byd, 

Ac ni wn, ar gynhauaf, 

Ebolydd yw, i b'le ddaf. 

Dduw ! gwyn feddyg enaid, 

Mor werthfawr yw wrth fy rliaid. 

Gorfod fy mhechod a'm haint, 

Gad farw ag edifeiriant ! 

Ar y Creawdwr a criaf, 

Wylo 'r nos lawer a wnaf, 

O draserch Duw a'r lesu, 

Ac ofn fyth mor gyfion fu ; 

Ofn y grog o fewn ei grys, 

A'r iawn farn ar yr enfys ; 

Ofn Eryr nef, a'i nawradd, 

Ofn y Ices a fu 'n ei ladd. 

Mae corn y frawd i'm cern fry 

A'm geilw yma o'm gwely. 


Am a wneuthym fo'm noethir, 
Yn nhal ar ysgrifen hii\ 
Wrth y Mabj a'i wyrtliiau maitli, 
Ym tnrig aberth mae'r gobaith. 
Y Drindod hi a wrendy 
Arnaf o'r arch y nef fry. 
F'un ceidwad, fy Nuw cadarn, 
Fy nawdd fydd Ef yu uydd fai'n ! 
Fy noddfa, fy niweddfyd, 
Fo nef, a'i gartref i gyd. 

To THE Abbot David ; or, a Poem on praisixq God only. 
There is one who supports us heretofore 
In praising the Saints in the mansion of Yale, 
As judge he has been judged a lamb. 
And [by him] is a man made to construct a song. 
If on David he shall make an excellent poem, 
To Mary he will offer it to-day. 
Woe to one known to be a poet ! 
Woe if his song have no vigour ! 
I have been praising the four corners of the world, 
Grinding forth sweet sounds for a space of time. 
And railing, these six years past. 
He has requested me, in depreciating my office, 
"Cease", quotli he, the answer of old age : 
" Change thy life, like Saul, thro' praising the Saints." 
He requests, nay, he commands me, 
To praise God rather than man, 
And my song — too late is the work — 
Is given at once to the King of Heaven. 
I will apportion, lest my life be shortened, — 
— Too short for the oldest of us is his life — 
Apportion, and wisely decimate 

To God a portion of the understanding matured by age. 
Freely by His gift hath He apportioned Heav'n to us. 
Let us make to Him the return that is His due. 
Father and Son and sti-engthening Spirit, — 
And they are all understood to be God, — 
The God of Heaven, an energetic Fire, 
God Himself, indivisible. 
In six^ words, — good hath been the gift — 

' In the original this is expressed in six words only : — " Dyfu'r 
Mab Duw fru Mair." 



The Son of God bath come from Mary's womb. 
God made, of old, out of the holy ground, 
Two persons, and on them He bestowed the world ; 
The earth cultivated and uncultivated, corn and wood, 
The deep water, and the four elements. 
God, through His heavy rib, and the spear of steel. 
Gave His blood for us on the Cross : 
Let us, too, render pure hearts 
To Him, one and all, from this time forth. 
Lo ! there the Christ, in a pool of gore. 
The form of God full of open wounds ; 
Who will come in the end with fear on the Judgment- 
To gather us all together in one flesh. 
God, I know, hath turned aside our sorrow. 
Of these weighty thoughts am I sensible ; 
I shall die — it is my destiny, 
At what hour in the world I know not. 
And I know not, at the reaping, 

— There is a hindrance to it — to what place I shall go. 
O God, blessed Physician of the soul, 
How precious art Thou to my need ! 
My sin and disease overwhelm me. 
Grant to me to die with repentance! 
On the Creator do I cry, 
In the night-time I weep exceedingly, 
From excess of love to God and Jesus, 
And constant fear because he is so just. 
Fear of the Cross embroidered on His robe, 
And the just Judgment upon the rainbow,^ 
Fear of the King of Heav'n and His nine ranks,^ 
Fear of the wound that slew Him. 
The trump of the Judgment above is in my ear, 
That shall call me forth here from my bed. 
All that I have done shall be laid bare, 
On my forehead, in a long scroll. 
In the Son, and His never-failing marvels, 
In His uplifted Sacrifice, is my hope. 
The Trinity will hearken to me 
From the arch of Heaven above. 
My only Protector, my mighty God, 
My defence will He be in the Day of Judgment. 

1 Christ's coming in the clouds. 

2 Namely, of the Angels. 


My safe abode, my world's-end, 
Be Heaven and its home for ever ! 

H. W. Ll. 

There are four more poems extant addressed to this 
abbot by Guto'r Glyn, one to the abbot John Lloyd, and 
one to the abbots of Shrewsbury and Strata Florida 

That the bard lived to a good old age, and that he 
became blind, or nearly so, appears from the following, 
addressed to the abbot David, probably not the last of 
the name. It is pathetic in its allusions to his blindness, 
and other infirmities of age, and the outpouring of his 
heart in thankfulness for the bounty of the abbot, who 
appears from it to have invited him to pass his declining 
years at the abbey, where in all probability he peacefully 
passed away, 

CowYUD I Abad Davydd Lan Egwest.^ 

Mae 'r henwyr ? ai meirw y rheini ? 
Hynaf oil henw [r] wyf fi. 
I minnau rhoed mwy na rhan 
Anynadrwydd neu oedran. 
Siaradus o wr ydwyf, 
Son am hen ddynion yddwyf, 
Ymofyn am bob dyn da, 
A bair i^m y berw yma. 
Blin iawn megis blaen awen 
Yw natliau pob anoetli ben. 
BUnach, oni bai lonydd^ 
Cadw dall rhag hyd y dydd. 
Tyngs a wna teulu'r ty, 
Mae galw a wnaf o ^m gwely, 
Galw yn fy nghof, a'i ofyn, 
Fy iawn swydd, Tanwes yw hyn. 
Galw Sant ar bob Gwyl sydd, 
Galw yddwyf arglwydd Ddafydd. 

^ From Hengwrt MS. 253, in the possession of W. R. M. Wynne 
of Peniarth, Esq. 


Er cased gan rai cysou 

Fy swydd, ni thawaf a son. 

O gariad mawr, a gwrid medd, 

Galwaf ar fy ymgeledd. 

Dy loyw win, dy lawenydd, 

A bair y son ar berw sydd. 

Tadmaeth, a^m maeth yma fu, 

Fm erioed Mair i'w adu. 

Mammaeth yn fy myw yma 

Yw teml Dduw, i'm teimlo i dda. 

I'w seler af i'm seilio, 

Af tra fwy' i'w fwtri fo. 

Lie at Ddafydd llwyd dyfal, 

Af i'r nef, i fro wen lal. 

Y mae miloedd, mwy molwn, 

Yn cael Abad hael y byd hwu, 

Ysta Arglwydd ystorgwych, 

A gostia Lan Egwestl wych. 

Gweiniaid y tir a gynnal, 

Tref a droes ef ar draws lal. 

Gwe gerrig yw ei guras, 

Gwydr plwm yw godre 'r plas. 

Clera ym Mon cael aur a medd, 

Gynt, a gawn Gwent a Gwynedd; 

Clera yn nes cael aur a wnaf, 

Yma yn lal mwy ni welaf. 

Od wyf lien i dyfu haint, 

Ni chwynaf nycli a lienaint, 

O gad Duw Abad diwall, 

A dan Sion i'm uid oes wall. 

Sel ar ddwy Bowys yw liwn, 

Sion Trefor sant a rifwn. 

Sion Edward nis newidiaf, 

A dau o'r leirll, iV dai 'r af. 

Llys Dafydd, dedwydd yw 'r daith, 

Llwyd o lal, lie da eilwaitli. 

Fwyfwy, fal y brif afon, 

Ffo ei urddas ef ar ddau Sion, 

Y tri phennaeth, trwy ffyniant, 

A'r un y sydd i'w roi 'n sant. 

Yr un Duw, graddau 'r iawndad, 

Tri ag un trwy wiw gennad. 


A Poem to Abbot David of Valle Crucis. 

Where are the old men ? Are those men dead ? 

The oldest old man am I of them all ! 

To me has been given more than my share 

Of peevishness, or of length of days. 

I am a loquacious fellow, 

I am chattering about old men, 

'Tis the looking after good people all 

That causes me all this hubbub. 

Very tiresome, like the first promptings of the muse, 

Are the workings of every old dotard. 

More tiresome still, if he would not be quiet, 

Is it to watch a blind man the livelong day. 

The household shall find their tongues — 

Call them will I from my bed. 

To call them to my remembrance, and ask for them, 

Is my proper oflSce — my peevishness that is. 

One calls on a Saint on every Feast that comes, 

It is the lord David that I call upon. 

Odious to steady people as may be 

My office, I will not hold my tongue. 

Out of gi-eat affection, and the flush that comes from mead, 

I will call upon my protector. 

Thy bright wine, thy joyfulness, 

Is that which produces the hubbub. 

Here have been my foster-father, and my foster-mother 

Mary, to be left to me for ever. 

A foster-mother, in my living here, 

Is the temple of God, to make me sensitive to good. 

To his cellar will I go to be sealed. 

To his buttery, while I live, will I go. 

To grey David, permanent is the place, 

To the blest land of Yale, I go to Heaven. 

Thousands there are — the more the praise — 

Who have a generous Abbot in this world. 

How good is the lord who loves to store his wealth. 

And spends it on EgwestVs noble Church ? 

The wretched of the laud he supports, 

A town has he turned in the direction of Yale. 

A web of stones is his cuirass, 

The place is skirted with leaded glass, 

Mona of old, to gain gold and mead. 

And Gwent and Gwynedd, would I visit as a minstrel. 


I gain gold now in a nearer circuit, 

Hei'e in Yale, more I ne'er shall see. 

If I am old enough to engender disease, 

I shall not complain of numbness and old age, 

If God leave me a wealthy Abbot, 

And under John there is lack of nothing. 

Keen is his sight to look o'er either Powys ; 

A saint do we reckon John Trevor. 

John Edward I will not exchange 

For two Earls — to his house will I go. 

The mansion of grey David, happy is the journey, 

Of Yale, a second time will be an excellent spot. 

More and moi'e, like the principal stream, 

May his dignity speed on to two Johns, 

The three superiors, with prosperity. 

And the one that is to be made a saint. 

Like the one God be the promotion of the just father, 

Three in One, by His gracious permission. 

H. W. Ll. 


The comot of Ystrad Alim contains the parish of 
Y Wyddgrllg, in Latin Mons Altus, the lofty or con- 
spicuous mount, from which the Norman barons derived 
their title of Barons de Monte Alto, now corrupted into 
Mold. This mount is situate at the northern extremity 
of the town, and is partly natural and partly artificial ; 
it is now known as the Bailey Hill, from the Latin word 
Ballium, or castle-yard. This fortress was demolished 
about the year 1267. 

The parish of Mold contains the townships of Mold, 
Gwysanau, Llwyn Egryn, Argoed, Bistre, Hersedd or 
Hartsheath, Coed y Llai or Leeswood, Broncoed, Ar- 
ddynwynt, Hcndref Biffa, GweruafFyllt, and Y Nercwys 
and Treuddyn, which last two townships have each a 
chape] of ease to the mother church. There was formerly 
another chapel of ease in this parish called Capel y Spon, 
a small part of the wall of which was standing in 1698. 
The church of Mold formerly belonged to Bisham Abbey, 
but the rectorial tithes belong now to the families of the 
late Duke of Bridge water and the Gwysanau flimily. 




In the township of Treuddyn is a large Maen Hir, 
called Carreg y Llech, five feet high, seven broad, and 
eight inches thick, set erect on a tumulus, coarsely 


On this plain the Britons, under the guidance of Gar- 
mon or Germanus, the Pope's Legate, w^on the celebrated 
victory, called the Victoria Alleluiatica, over the Saxons, 
who, emboldened by the departure of the 20th Legion from 
Caer Lleon, or Chester, had penetrated thus far into the 
country. This Legion left Chester, as before stated, 
previous to a.d. 44.5. 


Cynwrig Efell, Lord of Eglwy-= 
segl. Gules, on a bend argent, 
a lion passant sable. 

Goleubryd, d. and heiress of Gruffydd ab 
Howel ab Ednyfed ab Idnerth ab Cad- 
wgan ab Elystan Glodrudd. See vol. ii, 
p. 323. 

Llywelynab Cynwrig,^Eva, d. of Bleddyn Fychan ab Bleddyn ab Gwion of 
Lord of Eglwysegl. I Uwch Aled, descended from Hedd Moelwynog. 
I Pee vol. iii, p. :i2. 

GrufiFydd ab Llywelyn.=f=, 

d. of David Goch ab David, 
Lord of Denbiorh. 

leuaf of Eglwy- 
segl. See p. 206. 



Goronwy ab Gruffydd of=i=Annest, d. of leuaf ab Cuhelyn, Lord of Trefor. 
Gwysanau.. | 

Meilir ab Goronwy of=j=Annest, d. of Cadwgan Goch ab Y Gwion, Lord of 
Gwysanau. j Ystrad Alun and part of lal. 

Einion ab Meilir, by a deed " dat' apud Wissandi"=T=Gwenhwyfar, d. of 

(Gwysanau), under the designation of Eignion filius 
Meilir ab Goronwy, is a grantee of land in the town- 
ship of Sychdin in Tegeingl, together with his brother 
lorwerth ab Meilir, ancestor of the Eytons of Lees- 
wood), 2 Edw. II. 

Adda Wyddel of 

D61 Edeyrn, ab 

lorwerth ab David 


Cynwrig, by the designation of " Kynric ab Eignion ab Meilir,=j=Gwenllian, 

p'petarius in villis de Gwysaneg et Wrenwrich", he granted 
in tail to his sons Gruffydd, Bleddyn, Madog, and Goronwy, 
in succession by Gwenllian his wife, all his lands and tene- 
ments in Montalto, in the township of Gwysanau, by deed 
d ated 37 Edw. Ill (1363). 

Goronwy ab Cynwrig of Gwysanau.=p 

of leuan 

Einion ab Goronwy of Gwysanau.=p 
Goronwy ab Einion of Gwysanau.=f= 

David ab Goronwy=j=Angharad, d. of David ab lorwerth Fychan ab lorwerth 

of Gwysanau. 

ab Bleddyn of Caer Fallwch, in the parish of Llan- 
eurgain in Tegeingl, ab Gruffydd ab David ab Goron- 
wy of Trefryd, ab Maredydd ab Uchdryd ab Edwyn 
ab Goronwy, Prince of Tegeingl. 

Llywelyn ab David=i=Mali, d. and heir of Madog ab Bleddyn of Coed y Llai, 

of Gwysanau. Will 
dated in 1467. 

ab Einion Fychan ab Einion ab Cadwgan Goch ab Y 
Gwion ab Hwfa ab Ithel Felyn. 

Gruffydd ab Llywelyn of=j=Emma, d. of Jencyn ab Tegyn ab leuan of Kin- 

Gwysanau. \ nerton, co. Flint, 

_ I 

David ab Gruffydd=pAngharad, d. of Edward Lloyd John ab Gruffydd, an- 

of Gwysanau. 
Will dated in 1548. 

of Hersedd and Catharine his 
wife, d. of Pyers Stanley of 
Ewlo Castle. 

cestor of the Wynns 
of Bron Coed Tower. 

JolinDavies=j=Jane, d. of Thomas Salusbury of Lleprog 



in Tegeingl, third son of Sir Thomas 
Salusbury of Llyweni, by Margaret, d. of 
John Hook of Lleprog. 

leuan, ancestor of 
the Edwardses of 
Cil Ystryn, in the 
comot of Cynsyllt 
in Tegeingl. 

Eobert Davies=pCatharine, dau. of John, ancestor 

of Gwysanau ; 
ob. 1600. 

George Eavens- 
croft of Bretton. 

of the Davieses 
of Marrington. 

Catharine,ux. Edward 
Morgan of Gwylgref, 
in the parish of Llan- 


Td \e 


I 6 \c \A \e 

Robert — Anne, only d. and heiress of Thomas, Lieut.- John. Dorothy. 

Davies John Heynes, Esq., co. Colonel in the 

of Gwy- Salop, Receiver to Queen Royal Army, and 

sanau, Elizabeth of her revenues Constable of 

High in Wales, and Elizabeth Hawarden 

Sheriff his wife, d. and co-heir of Castle in 1643. ; 
for CO. Lancelot Lowther of Holt, 
Flint ; Esq. 
'&. 1633. 

The above-named Robert Davies and Anne, his wife, 
had issue a son, Kobert Davies of Gwysanau, born Feb- 
ruary 19th, 1616. He was High Sheriff for co. Flint in 
the years 1644-5-6, and 1660. He was a staunch 
Cavalier, and garrisoned the old mansion of Gwysanau 
during the civil wars, and defended it till the 12th of 
April 1645, when Sir William Brereton, the Parliamentary 
general, compelled it to surrender. At the Restoration 
his name appears among those deemed qualified for the 
knighthood of the Royal Oak, his property at that time 
being valued at £2,000 per annum. He married Anne, 
eldest daughter and co-heiress^ (by Elen his wife, daughter 
of Edward Williams of Faenor, co. Caernarvon) of Sir 
Peter Mytton of Llanerch Park, in Dyffryn Clwyd, Knt., 
Chief Justice of North Wales, M.P. for co. Caernarvon, 
and for co. Denbigh in 1603, by whom he had issue one 
son, Mytton Davies, and three daughters — 1, Catharine, 
ux. Simon Thelwall of Llanbedr Hall, High Sheriff for 
CO. Denbigh in 1692 ; 2, Anne, second wife of John 
Thelwall of Plas Coch, High Sheriff for co. Denbigh in 
1672 ; and 3, Margaret, ux. John Holland of Teirdan, 
son and heir of Thomas Holland of Teirdan, High Sheriff 
for CO. Denbigh in 1680. 

Mytton Davies, the son and heir, succeeded his father 
at Gwysanau. He was born in 1634, and succeeded to 
the estates on the death of his father in 1666, inheriting 
Llanerch from his mother. He was a great traveller, and 
resided for some time in Italy ; upon his return he made 

^ Eleanor, the second daughter and co-heiress of Sir Peter Mytton, 
married Sir Cynwrig Eyton of Eyton, Knt., Justiciary of Meirionydd, 
Caernarvon, and Anglesey, son of Sir Gerard Eyton of Eyton, Knight 


great alterations in the house and gardens at Llanerch. 
He was appointed Alderman of Denbigh in 1668, and 
was High Sheriff for Flintshire in 1670, and for co. Den- 
bigh in 1671. He was buried November 6, 1684, By 
his wife Elizabeth, only daughter of Sir Thomas Wilbra- 
ham of Woodhey, co. Chester, Bart., he had issue five 
sons and five daughters — 1, Bobert, his heir ; 2, Thomas, 
who married Margaret, daughter of Owain Madog, esq., 
and had issue ; 3, Boger, buried March 30, 1677 ; 4, John 
Davies, D.D,, Eector of Kingsland, precentor of St. 
David's, and prebendnry of Hereford and St. Asaph ; he 
was twice married, and left issue four sons — John, Sneyd, 
D.D,, Thomas, and William ; and 5, Bichard Davies, 
Canon of St. Asaph, Bector of Erbistog, and Vicar of 
Bhiwabon in 1706. In 1740 he built four almshouses 
in Bhiwabon, and endowed them with an estate in Llan- 
gynhafal, worth £30 per annum. He left by will £200, 
the interest of it to be thus distributed, half to the school- 
master of Bhiwabon, and half to be applied to the 
apprenticing of poor children of that parish. 

The five daughters of Mr. Mytton Davies were — 1, 
Anne, oh. s.p. ; 2, Mary, ob. s.p. ; 3, EHzabeth, ux, Thomas 
Eyton of Coed y Llai ; 4, Catharine, second wife of Sir 
William Williams of Plas y Ward, Bart., High Sheriff 
for CO, Denbigh in 1696, by whom she had no issue ; and 
5, Grace, who died s.p. in 1693, Elizabeth, the wife of 
Mr, Mytton Davies, was buried April 3, 1678. 

The eldest sou, Kobert Davies, succeeded his father at 
Llanerch and Gwysanau, He was an able naturalist, 
and a Welsh antiquary of great repute. He collected 
the valuable library of Welsh manuscripts at Llanerch. 
He was appointed alderman of Denbigh, " vice Mytton 
Davies, Esq., deceased", in 1685. He was High Sheriff 
for CO. Denbigh in 1687, and for co. Flint in 1704. 
About December 2nd, 34 Charles II (1681-2), he married 
Letitia, daughter of Edward Vaughan of Trawsgoed, co. 
Cardigan, ancestor of the Earls of Lisburne (who was 
afterwards the wife of Peter Tennant of Bychton and 
Downing in Tegeingl, Esq.), by whom he had issue two 


sons — 1, Robert, of whom presently; and 2, John, who 
died s.p. in 1695, and three daughters, Anna and Jane, 
who both died s.p., and Jane, ux. Rosendale Lloyd, Esq., 
the ancestor of the Lloyds of Aston. Mr. Eobert Davies 
died in 1710, at the age of fifty-two, and was buried at 
Mold, where there is an inscription to his memory on his 
grandfather's monument. He was succeeded by his 
eldest son — 

Robert Davies of Llanerch and Gwysanau, who married 
Anne, daughter and eventual heiress of John Brocholes 
of Claughton Hall, co. Lancaster, Esq., by whom he had 
issue four sons and three daughters, and was succeeded 
by his eldest son — 

Robert Davies of Llanerch and Gwysanau, High Sheriff 
for CO. Denbigh in 1745. He married, and had issue one 
son and heir, John Davies, and two daughters. 

John Davies of Gwysanau and Llanerch Park, High 
Sheriff for co. Denbigh in 1767, and died unmarried in 

I. Letitia, ux. Broughton Whitehall of Broughton in 
Maelor Saesneg. 

II. Mary, heiress of Gwysanau, ux. Philip Puleston of 
Hafod y Wern in Maelor Gymraeg. 


lorvvei-th, son of Meilir ab Goronwy of Gwy-=pGwenllian, d. of leuan ab 
sanau, ab Gruffydd ab Llywelyn ab Cynwrig I Howel ab Maredydd 
Efell. See p. 201. | 

I « \b i '^ 



\a \b 

Gruffydd=pEva, d. of David ab Goronwy Meilir, ancestor 


ab lorwerth ab Howel of 
Morton or Burton in Maelor 

of the Parrys 

of Craflvvyn, 

p. 207. 

lorwerth, an- 
cestor of the 
Williamses of 

Goronwy ab Gruffydd.=j=..., d. of Jencyn ab lorwerth of Maelor is y Coed. 

Deicws ab=pMali, d. of lorwerth ab Gwilytn ab Goronwy ab Llywelyn ab 
Goronwy. I Einion ab Cadwgan ab Goronwy ab Owain ab Uchdryd ab 
I Edwin ab Goronwy. 

Nicholas ab Deicws.=f=Morfydd, d. of leuan ab Rhys Gethin. 

Gruffydd ab Nicholas of Coed y Llai.=j=Margaret, d. of John ab Elis Eyton of 

I Ehiwabon. 

John Eyton=pCatharine, d. and co-heir of Elis ab Tudor Elen, nx. GruflFydd 
of Coed y ab Gruffydd of lal, ab leuan ab Lly- ab Edward ab 
Llai. ' welyn ab Gruffydd Llwyd ab Llywelyn Morgan of Plas 
ab Ynyr of lal. y Bold. 

John Eyton of Coed y Llai.' 

-Jane, d. of John Lloyd of Bodidris yn lal, and 
sister of Sir Evan Lloyd, Knight. 

John Eyton of= 

Coed y Llai, 
1597. He mar- 
ried, secondly, 
Jane, d. of Ed- 
ward Kynaston 
of Pant y 

:Jane, d. of David aVj 

John ab Gruffydd 

ab Hugh of Hely- 



Elis Eyton, 

ancestor of 

the Eytons 

of Maes y 


I 5 I 6 I 

Gruffydd. Catharine, ux. Robert 
ab Gruffydd ab Ed- 
ward of Brynbwa. 

Anne, ux. Edward 

Lloyd of Plas Madog 

in Rhiwabon. 

John Ey- 
ton of 
Coed y 

^Susan, d. and heir of 
Thomas Puleston of 
Lightwood Green, ab 
Roger ab Sir Kdward 
Puleston of Emral, 

Barbara, ux. 
Peter Pen- 
nant of 


ux. Ed- 
Evans of 
Coed y 


John Eyton 


^Dorothy, d. of William Herbert 
of Ceri and Trefeglwys. 

Mary, ux. John Trevor 

of Llys Trevor in 


John = Dorothy, d.of 



Davies of 
and relict of 
George Hope 
of the Bryn 
and Dudly- 
ston, Salop. 


Eyton of 




for CO. 







d. of Sir 


ux. Robert 

ux. Ed- 


Trevor of 


Powel of 


Lloyd of 

Plas yn 








Thomas Eyton of Coed y Llai or Leeswood,= 
High Sheriff for co. Flint, 1712. 

-Margaret, d. of Mytton Davies 
of Gwysanau and Llanerch 

1 1 |2 
Thomas Thomas Eyton, Rector=T=Elizabeth 

only d, of Elizabeth, ux. Eo- 

Eyton ; of Westbury, co. George Hope of bert 

Wynne of 

ob. s. p. Salop. Hope, 

30. Salop. Garthewyn. 

Hope Eyton of Coed y Llai or Lees-=i=Margaret, d. of Robert Wynn of The 



1 1 1 2 1 3 

1 4 


JohnWynne = Jane, d. Thomas= Eobert = 

= ..., d. of William 


Eyton of of Wynne Wynne 

Sir Wynne 


Coed y Llai Eobert Eyton. Eyton, 

Alured Eyton. 


and The Lloyd of M.A., 



Tower. Swan Vicar 



Ob.s.p., Hill, Os- of 

of Jesus 

c. 1857. westry. Llan- 





Louisa Elizabeth. 

Margaret Elin Letitia. 

Cynwrig Efell, Lord of Eglwysegl.= 
Gules, on a bend argent, a lion 
passant sable. 

=Goleubryd, d. and heiress of Oruffydd 
ab Howel ab Ednyfed ab Idnerth 
ab Cadwgan ab Elystan Glodrudd. 

I I I I I 

Llywelyn =p Eva, d. of Bleddyn Gruffydd. = Madog. = lorwerth. = Howel. 




ab Y Gwion of Uwch 

Aled; descended 

from Hedd Moel- 


leuaf of Eg-=j=Eva, d. and co-heiress of loi'werth ab Gruffydd ab Heilin ab 


leuan ab Adda of Fron Goch in Powysland, ab Meurig ab 
Cynwrig ab Pasgen. 





Madog r 

Foel of 





d 1 

e| f 

-Angbarad, d. 


= Erddylad, 


Lucy, ux. Gruff- 

of David ab 



ux. Howel 

ydd ab lorwerth 

Goronwy ab 

yn ab 

ab leuaf 

Fychan ab lor- 

lorwerth of 

David of 

of Trefor. 

werth ab leuaf 

Morton ab 

Morton, ab 

ab Niniaf. 

Howel ab 


Moreiddig ab 

. ab lor- 



Hardd, Lord 

of Morton. 

I I 

Tangwystl, Angharad, ux. Llywelyn 

ux. David ab Gwion (or Owen) 

ab Mered- ab Ednowain of Mae- 

ydd ab ... lor Saesneg. 

Gwenhwyfar, married, 
1st, Einion Goch of 
Sonlli; 2nd, lorwerth 
Goch ab lorwerth. 

I I I 

Llywelyn.=f= Madog =j=Mallt, d. of Goronwy ab Howel. 




lorwerth ab Madog 
ab Llewelyn. 



Gwladys, ux. leuan ab Ednyfed Gam of Peng- 
wern, ab lorwerth Foel. 

Lucy, ux. 





=Margaret, d. and heiress of Gruffydd ab Llywelyn ab Ednyfed 
Lloyd ab lorwerth Fychan ab lorwerth ab Awr. See " Plas 
Madog ", vol. ii. 

John.=Elen, d. of David Lloyd ab leuan Fychan of Stansty. 


Lewys Dwnn ; Earl. MS. 1972, f. 117; Add. MSS.; Randle 
Holmes' Pedigree of the Parrys of Warfield, Llanrhaiad,r, 
and Llwyn Yn ; and Yorke's Royal Tribes of Wales. 

Cynwrig Efell, Lord (or Prince) of Y Glwysegl, twin 
brother of Einion Efell, Lord of Cjnllaith. They were 


the illegitimate sons of Madog ab Maredydd, Prince of 
Powys (who died a.d. 1160), by Eva, daughter of Madog 
abUrien of Maengwynedd, descended from Idnerth Ben- 
fras, and ranked equally with his other children. Madog 
ab Maredydd was grandson of Bleddyn ab Cynfyn, who 
reigned over all Wales in the time of William the Con- 
queror, and was murdered in 1073.^ His great-grandson, 
Cynwrig Efell, bore gules, on a bend argent, a lion 
passant sable. (See vol. i.) 

Cynwrig=j=Goleubryd, d. and h. of Gruffydd ab Howel ab Ednyved ab Idnerth 


Lord of 

y Glwys- 


ab Cadwgan ab Elystan Glodrydd, Prince of Fferlis,^ by his wife 
Dyddgu, d. and heiress of Caswallon ab Owain Cyveilioc, Bard, 
and Prince of half Powys, who died 1197. See p. 42. 

Llywelyn ab Cynwrig, =j=Efa, d. of Bleddyn Vychan ab Bleddyn ab Y Gwion 

Lord of Y Glwysegl. ab Uadfarch ab Asar ab Gwrgi, son of Hedd 

I Molwynog, founder of the Fifteenth Noble Tribe. 

Gruffydd ab=p..., d. of David Goch of Pen Machno in Nant Conwy, who bore 

of Gwy- 

sable, a lion rampant argent, in a border engrailed or. He 
was the natural son of Prince David, Lord of Denbigh and 
Frodsham, whose trial and cruel death at Shrewsbury, in the 
year 1283, has been related in vol. i. See vol. iii, p. 32.' 

Goronwy ab Gruffydd^pAnnest, d. of leuaf ab Cuhelyn, Lord of Trevor. 

of Gwysanau. 

Party per bend sinister ermine and ermines, a lion 
rampant or, in a border gules. See p. 108. 

1 " Bleddyn ap Kynfin was Prince of North Wales in ye time of 
William ye Conqueror, and after he had governed Wales werthylye 
13 yeares, he was Traytorouslye murthered by Rees ap Owen ap 
Edwyn and the ' Gentilmen' of Ystrad Tywy, a.d. 1073." — Extract 
from the Illuminated Pedigree of the Parrys of Warfield, etc., now of 
Craflwyn and Llwyn Yn, etc. 

2 Elystan Glodrudd, Chief of the Fourth Royal Tribe, was King 
or Prince of Gloucester and Hereford, and by conquest of Fferlys. 
He died 1010. 

2 David Goch married Angharad, daughter of Heilin ab Sir Tudor 
of Penmynydd in Mon ab Ednyfed Fychan. He was great grand- 
father of Baron Howel Coetmore of Gwydir, one of the knights of 
Agincourt, whose effigy in armour is in Llanrwst Church. 

VOL. V. 14 


Meilir ab Goronwy=f=Arinost, d. of Cadwgan Goch ab Y Gwyon, Lord of I&l 
of Gwysanau. I and Ystrad Alun, Sable, on a chevron inter three 
I goat's heads erased or, three trefoils of the field. 
I See vol. ii, p. 349, and the " Lordship of lal", p. 192. 

lorwerth =pGwenllian, d. of leuan ab Howel ab Einion ab Meilir ab 


Maredydd ab Collwyn ab Tangno, Goronwy, ancestor of 

Lord of Evionydd Ardudwy, in the the Davieses of Gwy- 

cantref of Danodig, and Chief of One sanau. 
of the Noble Tribes. 

Meilir ab=j=Jane, d. of Tudor ab Llywelyn ab ab Goronwy ab Cynwrig 

lorwerth. I ab lorwerth. 

Howel ab=f=Elen, d. of Eowland ab Maz-edydd of Trefalnn. Azure, a lion 
Meilir. 1 salient 07\ See vol. iii, p. 224, 

David ab Howel. =j=Margaret, d. of Llewelyn ab Richard. 

John ab Harri of Rhu-=pElen, d. and heiress of David ab John, younger son 

ddin and Pwll 

Halawg, in the parish 

of Cwm. 

of Twna ab leuan of Ti'ef Eyarth in Llanfair Dyff- 
ryn Clwyd ab leuan ab Gruffydd ab Ehys ab Ma- 
dog Lloyd to Tudor Trevor. 

E.ichard Parry of Pwll Halawg, made Bishop of St. Asaph, December 30th, 
1604. He was a pious and learned divine, educated at Westminster under 
the celebrated antiquary, William Camden, and took at Oxford the degree 
of D.D. His arms were those of Cynrig (or Kenrick) Efell. 

Richard Parry, the above famous Bishop of St. Asaph, 
lived during the great period of Queen Elizabeth's reign, 
and of the full establishment of the religious Reformation 
in Britain. The times were difficult and unlettered, and 
Bishop Parry made a noble use of the influence he derived 
from his superior birth and education and his episcopal 
office. He promoted piety and learning among his 
countrymen, and at one time assumed the office of Head 
Master of the then important foundation, the Grammar 
School of Ruthin, in succession to Dr. Gabriel Goodman, 
Dean of Westminster, by whom it was founded in 1595, 
and who was its first Head Master. 

Bishop Parry published in folio in 1620, with a Pre- 
face written by himself, a revised and corrected edition 



"'■ ^'J'l'^BM 

4 A Ik =.#I^^^Pf-.t€C4l1tf ^: 



of the Holy Bible, which, with the assistance of others, 
Bishop Morgan, his predecessor in the see, had trans- 
lated into Welsh, and published in 1588. This is 
the translation now in use. Doubly descended from 
his country's ancient princes, Bishop Parry and his 
numerous children allied themselves with the principal 
families of North Wales, and there is scarcely a line of 
true noble Welsh descent in which the blood of this 
eminent Cambrian worthy does not mingle. He was 
born at Ruthin, a.d. 1560, in the third year of Queen 
Elizabeth's reign, and educated at Westminster School 
under the learned antiquary, Camden, then the head 
master. He was elected student of Christ Church, Oxford, 
in 1579, Chancellor of Bangor Cathedral and Vicar of 
Gresford, 1592, Dean of Bangor, 1599, and consecrated 
Bishop of St. Asaph, December 30th, 1604. He founded 
a pension of £6 per annum at Jesus College, Oxford, for 
a poor scholar born in the town of Ruthin or in his 
diocese. He died at Diserth, September 26th, 1623, 
and was buried on Sunday, October 12th, in his own 
cathedral, without a monument. That he contributed 
so largely to the spread and understanding of the Holy 
Scriptures in Wales, may be considered as his noblest 
monument. He had married, about 1598 or 1599, 
Gwen, daughter of John ab Rhys Wynn^ of Llwyn Yn 
and Caer Ddineu in Llanfair Dyffryn Clwyd,^ ab John 
Wynn ab David ab Gruffydd, etc., etc., to Edwin ab 
Goronwy, Prince of Tegeingl (who died 1073), by 
Mary, daughter of Baron Lewys Owain of Cwrt Plas 
in the town of Dolgelley and of Hengwrt, who was 
murdered at Dugoed Mawddwy on the 11th of October 



1 When surnames began to be used in Wales, the family of John 
ab Rhys Wynn assumed the surname of Pryse of Llwyn Yn, 

2 Llwyn Yn and Caer Ddinen (or Ddinog) are still in the possession 
of Bishop Parry's descendants. 

^ " Lewis Owen the Baron was the most important man in Merion- 
ethshire during a great part of the reigns of Henry VIII and 
Edward VI, and Philip and Mary. He was Vice-Chamberlain of 

14 2 


Lowri, sister to Bishop Parry, married Ffoulke Prys 
(Price), grandson of Rhys Wyn of Nantmawr and Gar- 

After the death of Bishop Parry, his widow, Gwen, 
became, on the 27th of September 1624, the second wife 
of Thomas Mostyn of Rhyd, Esq., second son of Sir 
Thomas Mostyn of Mostyn; and on the same day the 
Bishop's eldest son and heir, Richard Parry, espoused 
Mr. Mostyn's daughter Mary, while the Bishop's fourth 
daughter, Anne, was united to Mr. Mostyn's son and 
heir, William Mostyn of Rhyd, Esq. — a curious instance 
of three unions between the two families of Mostyn and 
Parry taking place on the same day. 

The above-named bishop, Richard Parry, had issue by 
his wife Gwen (who died 1643), four sons and six 
daughters — 

I. Richard, of whom presently. 

II. William, of whom presently. 

III. John, ob. s. p. 

IV. Edward, 7iat. Dec. 28th, 1612 ; oh. s. p. 1637-8. 

I. Mary, ux. Francis Herbert of Dol Guog, Esq., near 
Machynlleth. (See Earls of Powys.) They were married 
at St. Asaph on March 12th, 1618-14. 

II. Catharine, ux. William Thomas of Coed Helen, 
eldest son of Sir William Thomas of Coed Helen, co. 
Carnarvon, descended from Rhys Thomas of Coed Helen, 
High Sheriff for that county 1574, whose father was 
son of Sir William Thomas of Aberglasney, Knight 
Banneret, and High Sheriff for Carmarthenshire in 
1539, descended from Elystan Glodrudd, Prince of 

III. Ffrances, ux. John Puleston of Llwyn-y-Cnotiau 
(a branch from the Pulestons of Emral, co. Flint), Esq., 
and after his death, of John Kyffin of Cae Coch. She 
died in 1637, and was buried at Wrexham. 

North Wales, and Baron of the Exchequer at Carnarvon. His grand- 
daughter, the heiress of Hengwrt, was the mother of Robert Vaughan 
the antiquary." — Arrh. Cambrensis, No. 26, April 1876. 


TV. Anne, ux. William Mostyn of Rhyd, Esq., son 
and heir of Thomas Mostyn of Rhyd, third son of Sir 
Thomas Mostyn, Knight of Mostyn, by his first wife 
Anne. {Supra, iv, 151.) 

V. Margaret ; she married, first, George Coetmor of 
Coetmor (his second wife) ; and secondly, William Bulke- 
ley of Coedan. (See Bulkeleys of Baron Hill, Anglesey.) 

VI. Jane, who married in 1628 Boger Holland of Hen- 
dref Fawr, High Sheriff for co. Denbigh in 1640, and died 

Richard Parry of PwU Halawg, eldest son of the bishop, 
and aged twenty-three at the time of his father's death, 
High Sheriff for co. Flint in 1633-4, died July 1649, 5. p., 
and was buried in St. Asaph Church.^ He married, 1624, 

1 We transcribe from an extract {Harleian MS. No. 2299, in the 
British Museum) the funeral order of Richard Parry, eldest son of 
the Bishop, under the direction of the then Chester Herald, Randle 
Holme : — 

" Order of funerall of Rich. Parry, of Cwm, where he dyed, and 

buried at St. Asaph Church, July 1649. 

50 poore in white cotes w'th his name [i.e., his initials] R.P., 

before and behind, carringe pencells. 

Randle Holme, Juni-., 

Robt. VVyn, the penon of Armes 

Evan Dauid, the helme and crest 

Mr. Hugh Thomas, the cote of Armes 

Mr. Euans, the preacher. Mr. Edwards, parson of Cwme 

the corpes, carried by gent' 

Mr. John Parry, alone. 

Mr. Will'm [Parry], and Mr, Rich. Parry 

Mr. Morgan Morgans, Mr. Robt. Greene, 

the gentlemen of blood, etc." 

*' The ' 50 poore in white cotes', are recorded as 'carringe pencells', 
otherwise penonceals, small banners bearing heraldic devices. Gower 
writes of these pencells in the following terms : — 

" ' Endelonge [lengthwise of] the schippes borde to schewe 
Oi 2^^'^onceals a riche re we.' 

" Of the two clergymen named by Randle Holme, ' Mr. Euans, the 
precher', was most probably Mr. Richard Evans, Rector of Llanrwst, 
1618-9, Vicar of Dymeirchion, 1619-23, Vicar of Pool, 1622-6, Rector 
of Halkin, 1626-33, Prebendary of Meifod in St. Asaph Cathedral, 
and Vicar of Llanasaph from 1633 until his death, and in this last- 


Mary, daughter of Thomas Mostyn of Rhyd, by whom 
he had no issue, and was succeeded by his brother, the 
Be V.William Parry of Pwll Halawg, "parson of Dolgelli", 
who had issue by his wife, Lucy Tyckle, three sons — 

I. John, of whom presently, 

II. William Parry, who married Jane, daughter of 
Edward Wynn of Bodewryd, by whom he had issue two 
sons, John and Richard, and one daughter, Lucy. 

HI. Richard Parry, who married Jane, daughter and 
heiress of John Kyffin. 

John Parry of Pwll Halawg, High Sheriff for co. Flint 
in 1654, grandson of Bishop Parry, died March 27, 1679, 
and was buried at Cwm. He married, first, Catharine, 
daughter of William Conway of Bodrhyddan^ (by his 
wife Lucy, daughter of Thomas Mostyn of Mostyn), by 
whom he had issue, — 1, Richard Parry (of whose line 
we have to treat) ; 2, William ; 3, Henry; 1, Lucy ; 2, 
Anne, ob. s. j9. 

John Parry of Pwll Halawg married, secondly, Mar- 
garet,^ relict of Maurice Jones of Ddol, in Edeyrnion, 
and daughter of Edward Thelwall of Plas y Ward, by 
whom he had two sons, — John (who died about 1696), 
and one daughter, married to John Ashpool of Llan- 
ddyrnog, Esq. 

The above John Parry died in 1679, and was buried 
at Cwm. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Bichard 

named church he lies buried. ' Mr. Edwards, parson of Cwm', was 
appointed in 1633, having previoiasly been Rector of St. George, and 
Vicar Choral of St. Asaph Cathedral." 

1 William Conwy of Bodrhyddan inherited, a.u. 1641, the estates of 
his brother, Sir John Conway, Kt., of Bodrhyddan (who married 
Mary Morgan of Golden Grove). William Conwy married Lucy, 
daughter of Thomas Mostyn of Mostyn, and left by her a son, Harry, 
created a baronet in 1669, and brother of Catharine, wife of Richard 
Parry. He was siicceeded by his son. Sir John Conway, Bart., of 
Bodrhyddan, who died in 1721, leaving two daughters, when the 
baronetcy became extinct. 

2 Her eldest brother, Simon Thelwall of Plas y Ward, married the 
Lady Margaret, daughter of Edmund Sheffield, Lord Sheffield, and 
Earl of Mulgrave of Botterwick, K.G., by whom he had issue. (See 
vol. iv, p. 310,) 


Parry of Pwll Halawg, born 1650, died 1708, who married 
Jane, daughter of the aforesaid Maurice Jones of Plas yn 
Ddol, in Edeyrnion, and of Craflwyn, etc., etc., co. Car- 
narvon, by Margaret his wife, daughter of Edward Thel- 
wall of Plas y Ward, by whom he had issue, besides four 
daughters, Margaret,^ Catharine, Sydney, and Anne, three 
sons, of whom presently.^ 

It may be mentioned here that the great-grandfather 
of the said Jane, who married Eichard Parry, was Maurice 
Jones of Ddol, in Edeyrnion (who died 1604), whose wife 
Agnes, who died 1619, was daughter and heiress of leuan 
ab Robert of Craflwyn, and thus brought that property 
into the family.^ 

The sons of the above Eichard Parry were — 
1. John Parry of Pwll Halawg, born 1677, and died 
1713, aged 36. He married his first-cousin, Lettice, 
daughter of Humphrey Jones of Plas yn Ddol, Merioneth- 
shire, and of Craflwyn, Meillionen, Bwlch Mwlchan, etc., 
CO. Carnarvon, and sister of the last Maurice Jones of 
Ddol, and of Llanrhaiadr Hall, co. Denbigh."^ He was the 

^ Margaret married Robert Trygarne of Plas Tirion, co. Denbigh, 

2 The executors and trustees to the will of Richard Parry, dated 
July 1704, were (his first cousin) Sir John Conway of Bodrhythan, 
in the co. of Fflint, Baronet, Edward Vaughan of Llwydiarth, co. 
Montgomery, Esq., William Lloyd of Halkin, in the co. of Flint, 
Esq., and Thomas Lloyd of Gwernhaylod, in the co. of Flint, Esq. 

* An old coat of arms in the hall of Craflwyn displays the follow- 
ing charges : — Quarterly, c/ules, three chevronels argent, for Maurice 
Jones, in right of lestyn ab Gvvrgant ; argent, a cross fleury engrailed 
sable, inter four Cornish choughs ppr. ; argent, a chevron sable, inter 
three Cornish choughs with a spot of ermine in their bills ppr. ; and 
a chevron inter three horse's heads erased argent. 

* The descent of the Joneses of Ddol, Craflwyn, etc., and later of 
Llanrhaiadr, traced back only to Maurice Jones and his wife Agnes, of 
Craflwyn, is as follows : — Maurice Jones, Baron of the Exchequer, 
died 1604, married Agnes, heiress of Craflwyn, etc., who died 1619. 
Their son, Humphrey, Receiver-General of North Wales, married 
Anne, daughter of Humphrey Maredydd of Clynog Fawr, High 
Sheriff" for Carnarvonshire 1614, whose wife, Elizabeth, was daughter 
of Thomas INIadryn of Madryn, High Sheriff" for co. Carnarvon in 
1587, and descended from Collwyn ab Tangno. The son of Hum- 


last of a long line descended from lestyn ab Gwrgant, 
Prince of Glamorgan, Chief of the Fifth Boyal Tribe, 
whose arms they bore, viz., gules, three chevronels argent. 
This Maurice Jones, who was nephew to John Parry the 
elder, Esq., of Pwll Halawg, married his kinswoman Jane, 
daughter of Sir Walter Bagot of Blithfield, co. Stafford, 
by his wife Jane, daughter and sole heiress of Charles 
Salusbury of Bachymbyd, Esq., co. Denbigh.^ He lived 
at Llanrhaiadr Hall, died 1702, aged thirty, and was 
buried at Llanrhaiadr Church, where a conspicuous 
monument was erected to his memory. 

The estate of Llanrhaiadr had belonged to the Salusbury 
family, but passed into that of Sir Evan Lloyd of 
Bodidris, who sold it to his relative Maurice Jones, of 
Ddo], whose widow, Jane, possessed it for her life, by 
marriage settlement. She married, secondly, John 
Roberts, Esq., of Hafod y Bwch, etc., etc., and died in 
1730, when Llanrhaiadr HalP passed to the first-cousin 
and sole heir of Maurice Jones, viz., to Humphrey Parry 
of Pwll Halawg, who was also heir to his eldest brother 
John, who died in 1713, whose son John, by his wife 
Lettice, had died before him. 

phrey Jones,Esq., and Anne Maredydd was Maurice Jones of Ddol. He 
died 1649, having married Margaret Thelwall of Plas-y-Ward, who 
afterwards became the second wife of John Parry of Pwll Halawg. The 
issue of Maurice Jones, Esq., and Margaret Thelwall was Humphrey 
Jones of Ddol and Craflwyn, etc., who married Jane, daughter of Eubule 
Thelwall of Nant Clwyd (she died 1711) and Jane, wife of Richard 
Parry of Pwll Halawg, who died 1708. The son of Humphrey Jones 
and Jane Thelwall of Nant Clwyd, was Maurice Jones of Ddol, etc., 
and Llanrhaiadr Hall (who died 1702), brother of Lettice Parry, wife 
of John Parry the younger, of Pwll Halawg. (See p. 228.) 

1 Jane Bagot, wife of Maurice Jones, was born September 24th, 
1676. An elder sister of hers, Elizabeth Bagot, married the E,t. 
Hon. the Earl of Uxbridge. 

2 The house at Llanrhaiadr Hall is a handsome Tudor or Jacobean 
erection, in excellent preservation. A modern addition (sadly out of 
character), but which included a handsome dining-room, was made 
to the house by Mr. Parry (of Warfield) soon after he came into pos- 
session of it, and it stood then in the midst of a magnificently-tim- 
bered park. 


Ti. Maurice Parry ; oh. s. p. 

111. Humphrey Parry of Pwll Halawg, Llanrhaiadr Hall, 
Plas yii Ddol, Craflwyn, Meillionen, etc., and Llwyn Yn, 
Havod y Bwcb, Hendref Fawr, Plas Newydd, etc., etc., was 
born 1686. He was High Sheriflf for co. Denbigh in 
1735, and for co. Flint in 1736 ; died 1744, aged fifty- 
eight, and was buried at Cwm. He married, in 1714, 
Catharine, only child and heiress of John Roberts, Esq., 
of Havod y Bwch in Maelor Cymraeg, y Plas Llwyn 
Yn and Pl^s Newydd in Llanfair Dyffryn Clwyd, and 
of Hendref Fawr, in the parisb of Abergele, who was 
High Sheriff for co. Denbigh in 1705, and M.P. for the 
Denbighshire boroughs in 1710-15. Catharine's mother 
was Susannah, daughter of William Parry of Plas Llwyn 
Yn, Esq.,^ near Kuthin, High Sheriff for co. Denbigh in 
1668, and "Deputy Comptroller of His Majesty's Mint in 
the Tower of London", and heiress of her brother, David 
Parry, High Sheriff for co. Denbigh in 1695 and 1697, 
and who died at Llwyn Yn in 1706. Their mother was 
Catharine, dauo;hter and heiress of Poo-er Holland of 
Hendref Fawr, who was married to William Parry of 
Llwyn Yn in 1643. She died in 1705, and was buried 
at Abergele. Her mother was Jane, sixth daughter of 

^ William Parry of Llwyn Yn, Esq., Deputy-Comptroller of the 
Mint, etc.. was the son of Dr. Gabriel Parry, who married Mary, 
eldest daughter of Edward Pryse, Esq., of Llwyn Yn, and co-heir of 
her brother John of Llwyn Yn. Dr. Gabriel Parry was a nephew of 
Bishop Parry. He was Head Master of Ruthin School, 1607 ; S.R. of 
Llanrhaiadr in Mochnant, 1G08 ; Vicar of Henllan, 1G09 ; Vicar of 
Abergele, 1613; S.R. Llansaunan, 1616; S.R. LlansantfFraid yn 
Mechain, 1617; R. Llangynhafal and Precentor of Bangor, 1632. — 
Harl. MS. 2299. Here it may be worth observing that in the times 
of which we are treating, church preferment in Wales was held 
almost exclusively by members of its best and noblest families, in 
direct contrast to what has prevailed since. The Welsh landed pro- 
prietors then spoke the same language as their tenants and peasantry, 
and lived and died among them ; and if the clergy of the reformed 
church were respected it was not as pastors and teachers of the 
new creed, but as scions of the old lords of the soil, whom they were 
accustomed to honour, and with whom they felt in sympathy. 


Bishop Parry, married in 1628 to Roger Holland of 
Hendref Fawr,^ and buried at Abergele in 1641. (See 
supra, iii, 51.) 

Catharine Roberts, wife of Humphrey Parry of Pwll 
Halawg and Llanrhaiadr Hall, etc., died in 1 751, and was 
buried at Cwm. For the Havod y Bwch pedigrees, see 
vol. iii, pp. 41, 45, 48, 50. 

A deed in the possession of the family, dated Sep- 
tember 29, 1743, 17th of George the Second, enumerates 
some of the manors and estates devised to his first-cousin, 
Humphrey Parry of Pwll Halawg, Esq., by the last will 

' The Hollands were an ancient Anglo-Norman family, settled in 
Wales from the time of Henry IV, fourteenth century, when Thomas 
Holland, Earl of Kent, and John Holland, Earl of Hvmtingdon, were 
attainted of high treason, for conspiring in favour of Richai'd II. 
They came from a place in Lancashire called " Holland", according 
to Camden, who, speaking of Wiggin (Wigan), observes : " Hard by 
it, Holland sheweth itselfe, out of a younger brother, whereof that 
most noble and renowned race of the Hollands, Earls of Kent, Dukes 
also of Surrey and Excester (Exeter), fetched both their original and 
their surname." Among the Hollands settled in Wales, were the 
families of Teirdain, Kinmel, and Hendrefawr near Abergele. At 
Abergele Church is a monument of the last male of the race, Roger 
Holland, whose daughter and heir, Catharine Holland, married. May 
11th, 1643, William Parry, of Llwyn Yn, Denbighshire, and there is 
also a monument in the same church to her, on which is the following 
inscription : — " Here lies the body of Catherine, daughter and heir of 
Roger Holland, of Hendrefawr, in the county of Denbigh, and relict 
of William Parry, of Llwyn Yn, in the foresaid county, Esqr., by 
whom she had issue, six sons and five daughters, whereof two survived 
her only, David Parry, late of Llwynynne, Esqr., and Susannah, 
married to John Roberts, uf Havod-y-Bwch, in the coimty of Denbigh, 
Esq. She was a person devout, without affectation, serving God 
strictly according to rules established among us. Frugal in the 
management of her time, of which her Maker always had the first 
fruits, and those temporall blessings which He did plentifully pour 
upon her, often praying not for these, but for grace to use them. 
Her convei'sation was plain without art, and prudent without jealousy. 
Her justice universall, but her charity discreet, seasonable on due occa- 
sions, bountifull, and often secret. She lived to a good old age, much 
beloved, and no less esteemed, and having discharged the relative 
duties of a daughter, wife, and mother successively and faithfully, she 

departed to a better life the day of , a.d. 170-5, aged , 

a good old age." — Ancient and Modern Denbigh, by John Williams. 


and testament of Maurice Jones of Ddoland Llaurhaiadr, 
who died 1702. These were as follows: — Meillionen, 
Havod Kyfjdd Ucha, Havod Kyfydd Issa, Tyr Melys, 
Tan y Clogwyn, Glan y Morva, and Verglodd Fawr, 
situated in the parishes of Beddgelert and Llanarmon, in 
the CO. of Carnarvon ; and nineteen messuages, etc., as 
follows : Plas Newydd, Mivod, Nant Mawr, Bwlch Mwl- 
chan, Goppa, Tyddin y Felin Ucha, Tyddin y Felin Issa, 
Llwynderw, Vron y Kellog, Tyddin y Sais, Aberffryth, 
Henger, Llannerch, Garth Gwyn, Tyddyn y Garreg, 
Nant Newmarch, Ty Mawr, Tyn y Kelin, and Bryn Saeth 
Marchog, situated in the parishes of Llanrhaiadr, Bedd- 
gelert, Trawsfynydd, Llanvawr, Maentwrog and Gwydd- 
elwern, in the several counties of Denbigh, Caernarvon, 
and Merioneth. 

Thus, all the old estates of Richard Parry, Bishop of St. 
Asaph, under King James I, and of the ancient lines of 
Llwyn Yn, Plas yn Ddol, Havod y Bwch, Hendref Fawr, 
etc., were centred, at the beginning of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, in Bishop Parry's direct male representative, Hum- 
phrey Parry of Pwll Halawg, first of Llanrhaiadr, and 
descended, in 1744, to his son, Robert of Llanrhaiadr, at 
whose death, in 1 759, they passed to his grandson, Richard 
Parry of Llanrhaiadr and Llwyn Yn, Denbighshire, and of 
Warfield Hall, Berkshire, whose last direct representative 
in the male line is the present Mr. Parry of Craflwyn, 
his great-grandson. 

Reverting to Humphrey Parry of Llanrhaiadr, he 
had, by his wife Catharine, five sons and eight daugh- 
ters — 

I. William, born 1716, ob. 1726, buried at Llanfair 
DyfFryn Clwyd. 

II. Rohert, baptised April 21st, 1723, of whom more 

III. Maurice, baptised at Cwm, 1729. 

IV. Roger, baptised at Cwm, 1732. He married, and 
had a son, the Rev. David Parry of Kemerton, 

V. David, fifth son of Humphrey Parry of Pwll tialawg 
(and first of Llanrhaiadr), etc., etc., baptised 1733, died at 


Bath 1793. He was Major in the 20th Eegmient of 
Foot, and, later, was Governor of Barbadoes under George 
ILL He married, in 1774, Catharine Jane, daughter and 
heiress of Colonel Edmond Okeden of Little Critchell, co. 

Dorset, by his wife daughter of Charlton, 

Esq., of Apley Castle, Shropshire. She (Catharine Jane) 
died 1788. Their eldest son, David Okeden Parry, of 
Little Critchell, assumed the name of Okeden in addition 
to his own. He died October 28, 1833, having married, 

first ; and secondly, in 1817, Harriett Jane, sister of 

the sixth Earl of Essex. He left issue, George Fitzmaurice 
Parry Okeden of Turnworth, co. Dorset, who married 
the eldest sister of the late General Sir Edward Greathed, 
K.C.B., of Uddens, co. Dorset, and is now represented 
by his eldest son, Uvedale Parry Okeden, Esq., of Turn- 
worth, CO. Dorset, late 10th Hussars, who married, first, 
Miss Rose Lee- Warner of Walsingham Abbey, co. Norfolk ; 
and secondly, Miss Hambro of Milton Abbey, co. Dorset, 
and has several children. 

The eight daughters of Humphrey Parry of Pwll 
Halawg and Llanrhaiadr were — • 

1. Jane, baptised at Llanfair, 1715. 
II. Catharine, ditto at ditto, 1717. 

III. Mary, ditto at ditto, 1719. 

IV. Susan, ditto at ditto, 1720. 
V. Henrietta, ditto, 1729. 

VI. Dulcibella, buried 1731. 
VII. Anne. 

VIII. Aliza. 

Robert Parry, the second son of the above Humphrey, 
succeeded to Pwll Halawg, Llanrhaiadr Hall, and all the 
Welsh estates. He sold Pwll Halawg in 17.51. He was 
High Sheriff for co. Merioneth in 1746, for co. Carnarvon 
in 1747, and for co. Flint in 1757. He was born 1723, 
and died at Isleworth, where he possessed a villa, and was 
buried in 1 759, aged 36. He left two sons, Richard and 
Edward, and two daughters, of whom more presently, by 
his wife, Maryland ia Hart-Cotton of Warfield, Berkshire, 
heiress of her brother, John Hart-Cotton, Esq., of War- 


field. Their father was Thomas Hart, Esq.,^ of Warfield 
Hall, where he died in 1755, and who married in 1741 
Jane, one of the four daughters and co-heiresses of Sir 
John Cotton of Strattou Hall, in the county of Bedford, 
Bart., in right of whom the family assumed the name of 
Cotton in addition to their own.^ 

The grandfather of Marylandia, wife of Robert Parry 
of Llanrhaiadr Hall, was John Hart, Esq., of Warfield, 
Governor of the Province of Maryland, America, under 
Queen Anne (his commission bearing date 12th of her 
reign), who died at Warfield about 1741.^ 

Her brother, John Hart-Cotton of Warfield (whose 
arms were — argemt, a bend gules, inter three fleurs-de- 
luce, charged with an eagle displayed on an escutcheon of 
pretence azure; crest, a heart and flame gules, springing 
from a tower ; motto, " Coeur Fidele "), died at Warfield 
about 1785, when this property descended to his nephew 
and heir-at-law, Richard Parry of Llanrhaiadr Hall, etc., 
eldest son of Robert Parry of Llanrhaiadr, etc. Soon 
after that date Richard Parry, first of Warfield, sold 
Llanrhaiadr Hall, and came to reside at Warfield. 
He also sold Plas Newydd and Hendref Fawr in the parish 

^ A monument in Warfield Church describes him as " The Father 
of the Poor, etc." 

■^ Sir John Cotton had married Jane, daughter of Sir Robert 
Burdett of Bramcote, Bart. The Cotton family were a branch of the 
Cheshire family of Cottons. Their arms were, Azure an eagle displayed 

^ He was the third and youngest son of Merricke Hart, Esq., of 
Crover, co. Cavan, Ireland, whose will, dated March 14, 1680, leaves 
his lands at Canlin, and all his real estate in the barony of Clan- 
maghan, to his wife. Mistress Lettis Hart, to his nephew, Henry 
Hart of Muffe, Esq., co. Donegall, and to the Most Rev. the Arch- 
bishop of Tuam, as his trustees and executors, for his eldest son, 
Thomas Hart, now of the Middle Temple, London, Esq., and his 
younger children, viz., Lettis, Jane, Anne, Mary, Elizabeth, Henry, 
and John, this last being eventually the Governor of Maryland, after 
whom his grand-daughter was named Marylandia. 

The Archbishop of Tuam at that date (viz., 1680) was Dr. John 
Vesey (appointed in 1679), a learned prelate, three times Lord 
Justice of Ireland, and direct ancestor of the Viscounts de Vesci. He 
died 1716, aged seventy-nine. 


of Abergele, and Havod y Bwch. He was High Sheriflf 
for CO. Merioneth in 1771, for co. Carnarvon 1772, and 
for CO. Denbigh in 1775 ; born 1744, died at Warfield 
1828. He married, in 1773,^ Mary, daughter of the Very 
Rev. Hugh Thomas, Dean of Ely (whose other two 
daughters married severally George Rous, Esq., of Moor 
Park, Herts, and of Courtyrala, co. Glamorgan, and 
General D'Oyly of Sussex. 

The issue of the marriage of Richard Parry of Llan- 
rhaiadr Hall, Llwyn Yn and Warfield, etc., was numerous, 
of whom more presently. 

His two sisters were Jane, married to Jeffrey Mere- 
weather Shaw, Esq., of Ashford House, Middlesex, who 
died at an advanced age, about 1833, s. p., and Anne, 
married to Walter Nisbet, Esq., of Mount Pleasant, in 
the Island of Nevis, and of Carfin,^ Lanarkshire, and 
left a numerous posterity. 

His younger and only surviving brother was Edward, a 
director and twice Chairman of the Hon. East India 
Company. He married Emilia, daughter of Henry 
Vansittart, Esq., of Shottesbroke Park, Berkshire, and 
Governor of Bengal (who was lost in the Aurora, on his 
voyage home from India), and sister of Lord Bexley, 
Ambassador to Denmark 1801, and Chancellor of the 
Exchequer from 1812 to 1823. The issue of this marriage 
was a son, who died when at the University of Cambridge, 
and three daughters, of whom one only married, viz., Eliza, 
who married, about 1810 or 1812, John Thornton of 
Clapham, Esq., eldest son of Samuel Thornton, Esq., of 
Clapham, and of Albury Park, Surrey, M.P. for Surrey, 
whose sister, Jane, married, 1784, Alexander, tenth Earl 
of Leven and Melville, and whose daughter Harriett mar- 

1 They were married at eight o'clock in the eveuing by special 
licence, at Lambeth Palace, by the Archbishop of Canterbury. 

2 The estate of Carfin was held for many generations by the family 
of Nisbet, and a deed dated February 10th, 1696, shows a grant of 
the property of Carfin from the Duchess of Hamilton to " Archibald 
Nisbet of Carfin". 



riecl, 1812, the Hon. John Thornton Melville, brother of 
David, eleventh Earl of Leven and Melville.^ The issue 
of the marriage of Eliza Parry with Mr. Thornton was 
numerous, and they have numerous descendants. 

The descendants of Richard Parry, who inherited War- 
field Hall, and married Mary, daughter of the Dean of 
Ely, were as follows, two sons and eight daughters: — 

I. Mary. She died young. 

II. Kichard of LI wynYn, Denbighshire, and of Hereford 
Street, Park Lane, London. Born at Cambridge, October 
12, 1775 ; educated at Rugby, then at a private tutor's 
(under Dr. Parr), and later as a Fellow Commoner at the 
University of Cambridge, where he took high honours. 
He was a member of Brooks's Club, and one of the 
founders of the old Four-in-Hand Club. He died un- 
married in 1834. He sold Plas Newydd, in the parish of 
Llanfair, near Ruthin, and. Garth Gwyn, and Goppa in 
Merionethshire ; but left the estate of Llwyn Yn, co. 
Denbigh, and some others co. Merioneth, under trust to 
the late Lord Mostyn and his other trustees and executors, 
for the benefit of his nephew, Francis Haygarth, eldest 
son of his youngest sister " Frances", and to other heirs 

^ The father of Mr. Samuel Thornton of Clapham, and Albury 
Park, was John Thornton, Esq. of Clapham, who died in 1790. He 
was one of that remarkable social circle, referred to in the Life of Lord 
Macaulay, the Essays of Sir James Stephen, and other writers, as 
"The Clapham Set", whence emanated the abolition of the British slave 
trade, and other noble measures. Among this group of men, eminent 
in literature, in commerce, and in political and social influence, but, 
above all, characterised by their high and manly standard of Christian 
duty and practice, Mr. Thornton was distinguished for his many 
virtues and noble beneficence. He gave away, " in acts of love and 
mercy", during his lifetime, upwards of £150,000, and died worth 
£150,000, He left the patronage of several livings to the disposal of 
three clergymen as trustees, in order to secure proper incumbents. 
Funeral sermons were preached in several churches at his death. The 
great and good Mr. Wilberforce spoke of him with the tenderest rever- 
ence, and their mutual friend, Henry Venn of Huddersfield, records 
that : " Few men did more to feed the hungry, clothe the naked, and 
help all in adversity." — See Life and Letters of the Rev. Henry Venn 
of Huddersfield. 


in succession, to the exclusion of the regular male 

III. Jane, born at Cambridge, December 28, 1777; mar- 
ried E. Morris, Esq., of Chorley Wood, Rickmans worth, 
Herts ; no issue left now. 

IV. Anne Dorothy, born at Cambridge, May 13, 1779 ; 
died unmarried at Hawthorn Hill, Berks, September 5, 

V. Charlotte, born at Llanrhaiadr Hall, April 22, 1781 ; 
married, in 1819, at St. George's, Hanover Square, Sir 
Henry Light, K.C.B., late Governor and Commander- 
in-Chief of British Guiana, descended from the ancient 
family of Lyte of Lyte's Gary, in Somersetshire, a Cap- 
tain in the Royal Artillery at the time of his marriage, 
author of Travels in Egypt, etc. Was a member of the 
Travellers' Club. Lady Light died in the year 1869, in 
the same week as her husband, leaving one son. General 
Light of the Royal Artillery, and two daughters, — 
Elisabeth Georgina, widow of Sir William Holmes, of 
Scriblestown, co. Dublin ; and Charlotte, unmarried, of 
Hawthorn Hill, Berks, and of Bryn Llywelyn, Festiniog, 

VI. Caroline, born at Llanrhaiadr Hall, May 6, 1783. 

VII. Laura, born 1784, at Llanrhaiadr Hall; died un- 

VIII. Auielia, born 1785, at Llanrhaiadr Hall; died un- 

IX. Edward Parry, of whom presently. 

X. Frances, born at Warfield Hall, June 1st, 1794 ; 
now living. She married William Haygarth, Esq., of 
Holly Lodge, Hants, author of Poems 07i Greece, etc., and 
has issue, now living, three sons — 

I. Francis Haygarth, born 1820, Colonel in the Scots 
Fusilier Guards, and severely wounded at the battle of 
the Alma in 1854. He married Blanche, daughter of 
Colonel the Right Hon. George Lionel Dawson Damer, 
Privy Councillor, and third son of John Earl of Portar- 
lington.^ He has no issue. 

' Her brother is heir-presumptive to the Earldom of Portarlington. 




II. William Haygartb, Vicar of Wimbledon, and Hon. 
Canon of Rochester Cathedral. He married Emma, 
daughter of Colonel Powell of Dringstone Park, Essex, 
and of Eaton Square, by whom he had one son, Harry 
Evelyn, who died 1882, aged twenty-one. 

III. Arthur ; unmarried. 

Edward Parry, the second son of Richard Parry of 
Llanrhaiadr and Warfield,was born at Warfield Hall, May 
30th, 1786. He entered the East India Company's 
Civil Service, and married, at Paris, November 1825, 
Miss Catharine Harriett Isaac, by whom he had issue one 
son, viz., Richard, educated at Rugby and Cambridge, 
and an officer in the Regiment of Scots Greys. Richard 
inherited Craflwyn and the other entailed estates in Car- 
narvonshire, on the death of the four Misses Parry of 
Warfield, as heir-at-law to his grandfather, Mr. Parry of 
Warfield, who had settled this portion of his estates on 
his unmarried daughters, for their lives, in succession, and 
to whom he had also left the estate of Warfield Hall, 
Berks, sold by them to General Sir John Malcolm, K.G.C.B. 

Richard Parry of Craflwyn, married, June 23rd, 1855, 
Louisa, daughter of Field- Marshal Sir Richard England, 
K.G.C.B., by whom he left one son, viz., Sj^dney Llewelyn 
England Parry of Craflwyn, educated at Rugby and 
Oxford, who married, February 3rd, 1880, Mary, daughter 
of Sir Richard Puleston of Emral, Bart., by Catharine 
Judith, daughter of Richard Fountayne Wilson, Esq., of 
Melton Park, Yorkshire, M.P. for the West Riding, 1825, 
and Colonel of the 1st West Yorkshire Militia. Mr. 
Parry has by this marriage two daughters, — Ruby, born 
February 1881 ; and Pearl, born 1883. It is remarkable 
that an alliance between the families of Puleston of Emral 
and Parry of Warfield should have been repeated at an 
interval of some 260 years — Ffrances, third daughter of 
Bishop Parry of St. Asaph, having married a Puleston 
before her father's death in 1623.^ 

1 This additional information was kindly sent nie by Miss Light 
of Bryn Llywelyn, Ffestiniog, daughter of the above-named Sir Henry 
Light, K.C.B. 

¥0L. V. 15 



Lewys Bwnn, vol. ii, p. 290.^ 

lorwerth ab Lleision ab Morgan ab Caradog^pAlis, d. of Rhys Grug" ab Yr 
ab lestyn ab Gwrgant.' | Arglwydd Rhys.* 

Gwrgeneu ab Idnerth.=j=Alsiwn, d. of Cadivor ab Dyfnwal.^ 

* The following statement in Welsh is prefixed to the pedigree : — 
" Morys Johns, Clerk o'r Finz mewn 4 Sir dan Sir George Bromeley, 
Marchog ag Ustus Caerlleon. Agnes G. Reginald de Sulby, Mr. 
degwm;" i.e., Morys Johns was Clerk of the Fines in four counties 
to Sir George Bromley, knight and Justice of Chester. Agnes 
(Annest) was wife of R. de Sulby, tithe-master (collector'?) 
(see next page). The coat on the Garter -plate of Sir John Sulby, 
K.G., temp. Rich. 11, is Ermine, four bars gules. He is probably 
the same as the Sir John Sully, stated in Beltz's Me^norials of the 
Order of the Garter, to have been created K.G. by Edward III, ob. 
1388. In Barry's Encyclopoidia Heraldica the coat is given as Barry 
of eight ermine and gules. A Sulby is also mentioned as connected 
with the CO. of Worcester. The name does not appear in Ormerod's 
Hist, of Cheshire. 

2 Rhys Grug was Lord of Llanyniddyvri. He bore argent, a lion 
rampant sable, armed, langued and crowned gules. 

^ lestyn ab Gwrgant, Prince of Glamorgan, founder of the fifth 
Royal Tribe, married the daughter of Bleddyn ab Cynfyn, who reigned 
over Wales at the time of the Norman Conquest. His arms were : 
gides, three chevrons argent. 

* Yr Arglwydd Rhys, or the great Lord Rhys, reigned over South 
Wales at the time of Henry II, whom he successfully resisted. He 
died of the plague, a.d. 1197. 

^ Cadifor ab Dyfnwal, Lord of Castell Hy wel. 


Gwrgeneu Fychan.=j=Annest, d. of Ivor ab Idnerth ab Cadwgan ab Elystan 
I Glodrudd.1 

Gruffydd ab Gwrgeneu.=i=Jane, d. of David ab Ebys ab David Vychan. 

David ab Gruffydd.=pAnnest, d. of Llewelyn ab David ab Llewelyn ab lor- 
I werth Drwyndwn.^ 4 lions. 


leuan ab David.=pAlson, d. of Gruffydd ab Gwilym Hir of Ehos. 

David Bangor,^ Master=j=Angharad, dan. of David Gethin ab Llywelyn ab 

of Arts. I Madog ab Philip ab lorwerth ab Cadwgan. 

David Filwr ab David=j=Jane, dan. and heiress of David Ddu ab David 
~ ?or. I Wyn ab leuan Goch of Powys. 

lolyn ab David Filwr.=j=Elen, dau. of JWeurig ab Maredydd leuan. William 
I ab Meurig of Nannau. 

Robert ab=j=Margaret, dau. and heiress of leuan ab Sir Howel ab Howel 
lolyn. I Fychan ab David o Llanvihangel y Traethau o'r Faenor y 
I Beryw. 

Robert. =j=Alsiwn,'' d. of Madog ab leuan ab Deikws ab Y Gwyn ab Maredydd 
of Dolwyddelan (sahle, three fleurs-de-lys argent). The mother 
of Alsiwn was Sioned, d. of Goronwy ab Einion Peris ab 
Owain Goch ab Gruffydd ab Llywelyn ab lorwerth Drwyndwn. 
The mother of Einion Peris was ..., d. of Llywelyn ab Gruffydd 
ab Llywelyn ab lorwerth Drwyndwn. 

Richard ap Ehys.=T=Margaret, d. of leuan ab Llywelyn ab Maredydd of the 
I family of the Gorswenol or Reged. 

^ Elystan (or Athelstan) Glodrhudd, Prince of Fferlys, founder of 
the fourth Royal Tribe. Our Saxon King Athelstane was his god- 

^ lorwerth Drwyndwn was the eldest son of Owain Gwynedd, who 
reigned over all Wales from 1137 to 1169. His son Llewelyn II, 
surnamed the Great, reigned fifty-six years, and died a.d. 1240, and 
was buried iu the abbey of Aberconwy. His great grandson 
Llewelyn III, was the last reigning sovereign of Wales. 

3 He is called, in Willis's Survey of Bangor, David Daron. He 
held the Deanery in 1399, and was outlawed by King Henry IV in 
1406, for taking part with Owain Glyndwr, whose conspiracy against 
that prince is said to have been contrived in this David's house. — 
See Willis's Survey of Bangor, p. 1 22. 

•* The descent of Alsiivn on her mother's side was from Llewelyn 
the Great 

15 2 


John ab=j=Elin,i d. of Jolin ab Maredydd ab leuan ab Robert (vert, tbree 
Ricliard. eag^les displayed in fess or, in a border argent). " The mother 

of Elin was Sioned, da. of Howel ab Rhys ab David ab Cynddelw 

ab leuan ab Ynyr ab lorwerth ab Madog ab Rhirid Vlaidd. 

( Maredydd ab leuan ab Robert ab Maredydd came from Cesail 

Gyfarch.)" — L. Dwnn, vol. ii, p. 158. 

Maurice Jones,=Annest,2 d. and heiress of leuan ab Robert ab leuan 

jtire uxoris of 

and Steward at 
Bellot, Bishop 

of Craflwyn, by Angharad, d. of Howel ab Madog. 
(Craflwyn is close to Beddgelert.) 

Richard Jones, Clerk of the=p John. Cadwaladr. 
Peace. | 

^!,?^a^?l' J^^i^ Jo"^s of Dol yn=Ann, d. of John ab Hugh ab John 

6. Ib04. I Moch, Ffestiniog.^ V ab Robe rt of Braich y Bi. 

1 a r^ I c \d 

^ Elin's father was the son of Maredydd (or Meredith) ab levaa of 
Cesail Gyfai'ch, who was a man of great note in the time of Henry VIT. 
He pvarchased Dolwyddelan Castle, and resided there surrounded by 
a numerous retinue of armed men. He was the ancestor of the 
Wynns of Gwydir, which estate he purchased of David ab Howel 
Coetmore; and in 1515 he began building the present house of 
Gwydir, not completed at the time of his death in 1525. The 
mother of Elin was descended from Rhirid Flaidd, Lord of Penllyn, 
etc., in the 12th century, who bore: ve^-t, a chevron inter three 
wolf's heads, erased ardent, langued guiles. Elin's father, John ab 
Maredydd, first took the name of Wynn. He bore the arms of Owain 
Gwynedd, King of North Wales, from whom he was descended. The 
celebrated Sir John Wynn of Gwydir was his grandson. The power- 
ful family to which he belonged were known as " The Claii or House- 
hold of levan ab Meredydd". He owned Cesail Gyfarch, Ystumcedig, 
Gwydir, and a gi'eat district in the Snowdownian country. He died 
1559. His father, Maredydd, left twenty-six children. 

2 Annest (or Agnes) was of the family of the above Maredydd ab 
levan of Cesail Gyfarch, and Gwydir and Dolwyddelan Castle. She 
brought Craflwyn and other estates near Beddgelert into the family 
of her husband. She died 1619. 

' Hugh Bellot was third son of Thos. Bellot of Moreton, co. 
Chester, Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, Vicar of Gresford 
and Wrexham, Bishop of Bangor 1585, of Chester 1595. Buried at 
Wrexham. For the pedigree, see iii, 230. 

* The ancient and interesting mansion of Dol-y-Moch belonged in 
1588 to a descendant of Howel Coetmore, whose arms are displayed 
thei'e. It subsequently came into possession of a brother of Maurice 
Jones of Craflwyn. One wing of the old house was pulled down 
some thirty years ago, and subsequent repairs have destroyed many 
of the old coats of arms which still surround the hall. A date, 1643, 
shows on an external wall. A daughter of John Jones of Dol-y- 
Moch (Elisabeth) married Robert Wynn of Maes Mochnant (who 
died 1669) fourth son of Sir John Wynn of Gwydir. — See vol, iv. 



Humphrey Jones of Craflwyn, Eeceiver= 
of the King's revenvies in North 
Wales. He purchased Plas yn Ddol 
Edeyrn from Piers Lloyd, Esq., High 
Sheriff for co. Meirionydd in 1628. 
Ob. 7th January 1649. 

I b 
=Ann,i d. John. 


ydd of 
She died 16il. 



Maurice Jones of=i=Margaret, d. of Edward Thel- 

Plas yn Ddol and 
Craflwvnj ob. 
16 Nov. 1653. 

waU of Plas y Ward. She 
married, 2ndly, John Parry 
of PwU Halawg, High Sheriff 
for CO. Flint in 1654, and 
was his second wife. 

Elizabeth, ux. Howel 
Vaughan of Glanllyn 
Tegid, ab John Vaugh- 
an ab David Lloyd of 

Humphrey Jones of=pJane,^d. of Eu- 

Plas yn Ddol Edeyrn, 
Craflwyn, and M.A. 
of St. John's Coll., 
Cambridge ; oh. Nov. 
1676, aged 25. 

bule Thelwall 
of Nantclwyd. 

She died in 
Chester, 23rd 
Feb. 1711-12. 

Jane, ux. Rich- 
ard Parry of 
Pwll Halawg 
in the parish 
of Cwm.'* 



Maurice Jones of Dol, Craflwyn, = 
Meillionen, Plas Newydd, near Ru- 
thin, and Llanrhaiadr Hall in Cein- 
meirch, which last place he bought 
from Sir Evan Lloyd of Bodidris, 
Bart. He was High Sheriff for co. 
Denbigh in 1702, and died at Plas 
Newydd 10th January the same year, 
and was buried at Llanrhaiadr on 
the 26th of the same month, aged 
80. His will at Somerset House, 
dated 8th January 1702, was proved 
by his widow and sole executrix in 
Nov. 1703.5 

1st wife, Christiana, d. of John 
Myddleton of Gwaunynog, who 
died s. p. 2nd wife, Jane, d. of 
Sir Walter Bagot of Blithfield 
and Bachymbyd, by whom he 
had a daughter who died an in- 
fant. Mrs. Jones married, 2ndly, 
John Roberts of Hafod y Bwch 
and Plas Newydd, High Sheriff 
for CO. Denbigh in 1705, and 
M.P. for Denbigh Boroughs 
from 1710 to 1715. She died 
in 1730. 

1 Ann was the daughter of Humphrey Maredydd ab Thomas of 
Clynog Fawr (who died 1528) by his wife Elizabeth, daughter of 
Thomas Madryn of Madryn, descended from CoUwyn ab Taiigno, of 
whom Pennant says: "His posterity were always the noblest and 
best men in Evionydd and Ardudwy, nest to the Princes and their 
issue." — See vol. iv. 

^ She was the grandmother of Ann, sole heiress of Glanllyn Tegid, 
Llwydiarth and Llangedwin, who married Sir Watkin Williams 
Wynn, Bart. 

3 Eubule Thelwall of Nantclwyd, Esq., was a grandson of John 
Thelwall of Bathafarn Park and Plas Coch, Esq., who died in 1664. 

4 Richard Parry of Pwllhalwg, Esq., born 1650, died 1708, was 
the father of Humphrey Parry of Pwllhalawg, Esq., and ancestor of 
the Parrys of Llanrhaiadr, Craflwyn Llwynyn, and Warfield. 

^ Maurice Jones of Llanrhaiadr, left to his cousin Humphrey 
Parry of Pwllhalawg, upwards of twenty-seven farms and manors in 


1« I * 

Eubule Jones. Lettice,i ux. John Parry of PwU Halawg, ab Richard 

Parry. See p. iil5. 


Gwyn ab Gruffydd ab Goronwy Sais ab Einion ab GrufFydd ab Llywelyn= 
ab Ithel Dalfrith ab Trahaiarn Goch of Lleyn, ab Madog ab Ehys Gloff, 
Lord of Cymytmaen, ab Rhys Fychan^ab Rhys Mechyll ab Yr Arglwydd 
Rhys, Prince of South Wales. Azure, a chevron inter three dolphins 
naiant embowed argent, for Trahaiarn Goch of Lleyn. 

Nicholas ab Gwyn.=f Margaret, d. of leuan ab Rhys Owain. leuan. 
I Gethin. See p. 232. 

Ithel "Wynn.=i= Janet, d. of Hugh Conwy of Llys Bryn Euryn in Llandrillo 
I Uwch Dulas, one of the King's Privy Chamber. Argent, a 
I griffon segreant gules. 


\c \d \e 1/ 

Merionethshire and Carnarvonshire, in addition to the estates of 
Llanrhaiadr near Denbigh and Plas yn Ddol near Corwen. The lineal 
male representative now of his ancient race is Mr. Parry of Craflwyn, 
great grandson of Mr. Parry of Llanrhaiadr and Warfield. By his will, 
Maurice Jones left fifty pounds to his " loving mother"; " to Paul 
Davies, Esq., one guinea"; to his "Aunt Jane Parry, wife of Richard 
Parry, one guinea"; to his " Cousin Margaret Vaughan, one guinea"; 
and a life-interest in everything to his wife, Jane Jones, with remainder 
to his " Cousin Humphrey Parry". There is no mention of his 
brother Eubule, or of his sister. 

^ Elisabeth (or Lettice), sister of Maurice Jones, married her first 
cousin John Parry, who died 1713, elder brother of Humphrey 
Parry of Pwllhalawg. 

2 Rhys Fychan married Margaret, d. and lieiress of GrufFydd, Lord 
of Cymytmaen. Her arms were assumed by Trahaiarn Goch, her 



\ c \d 

John =f=Morvydd, d. of leuan David. 


ab Rhys Gethin, de- 
scended from Llywelyn 
the Great. 

Elizabeth, ux. Thomas 
ab Howel ab Tudor. 




Ithel Wynn=pMary, dau. of Pyers John. 

of Coed y 

Mostyn of Talaere, 

third son of Richard 

ab Howel, Lord of 


= Eleanor, d. 
of Thomas 
ab Owain 
of Maelor. 

Jane, ux. John 
Lloyd ab Rhys 
Lloyd of Ffern. 

Pyers Wynn of=j=Mary, d. of Roger Kynaston of Light Edge. 
Coed y Llai. | 

Ffrances, ux. 

I I 

Pyers or Petei'=f=Elizabeth, d. of Richard Thelwall of Llanrhudd in Mary. 

Wynn of Coed 
y Llai or Lees- 

Dogfeilin, Recorder of Ruthin, fourth sou of John 
Wynn Thelwall of Bathafarn Park. Gules, on a 
fess or, inter three boar's heads couped argent, 
three trefoils sable. 

John Wynn of Coed y Llai or Leeswood. 

The above-named John Wynn of Coed y Llai or Lees- 
wood had two sons, George and John. George, the 
eldest, succeeded his father at Leeswood, and having dis- 
covered a rich mine on his estate, was enabled to take a 
leading position in his own county, and became M.P. for 
Flint. In 1732 he was created a baronet, 5 George II, 
and, in default of issue male of his body, with remainder 
to John Wynn of Leeswood, Esq., and the heirs male of 
his body. Sir George married JMiss Lloyd of Halchdyn, 
CO. Flint, who died April 25, 1747, by whom he had issue 
one sou, George, who died unmarried in his father's life- 
time, and two daughters, Esther and Margaret. In 
1736, Sir George was Constable of Flint Castle, where 
it is said that he died. He was also M.P. for the 
Flintshire Boroughs. He it was who erected the mag- 
nificent iron gates at the entrance to Leeswood. As he 
left no male surviving issue, he was succeeded in his title 
and estate by his brother, Sir John Wynn of Leeswood, 
second baronet, who died in 1764, and was succeeded by 
his son. Sir John Wynn of Leeswood, third baronet, who 
was livino; in 1 771. At his death the title became extinct, 
and the estates reverted to Margaret, the second daughter 



of Sir George Wynn.^ This lady married Richard Hill- 
Waring, Esq., High Sheriff for co. Flint 1778-9, and 
either by her or her trustee the estates were sold. She 
died in 1793, and was buried in Mold Church, where a 
monument is erected to her memory. 





David ab Ehys ab Eheignallt ab Gruffydd ab David Gocb ab Heilin Fychan=fi 
ab Heilin ab leuaf ab Gruffydd ab Llywelyn ab Owain ab Edwyn ab 
Goronwy. See " Pentref Hobyn in Merffordd", vol. iii. 

leuan of Coed= 
y Llai. 


Rhys ab: 

leuan of 

Coed y 


=Margaret, d. and heir of Howel ab Gruffydd Edward of 
ab Howel. Gules, on a bend argent, a lion Pentref 
passant sable. Hobyn. 

:A.nnesta, d. and sole 
heir of Thomas ab 
David Lloyd. 



^Catharine, d. of Philip 
o'r Wyddgrflg. 


See p. 240. 


Edward Evans of Coed y==f=Eleanor, d. of Hugh 
Llai. I Lloyd of Denbigh. 

Edward Evans of = Catharine, d. of John Eyton of= 

Coed y Llai. 

Coed y Llai or Leeswood. 

Margaret, ux. Gruffydd 
ab Heilin of Llwyn 

=Janet, d. and sole heir 
of Robert ab Richard. 




' For a further account of Sir George Wynn, see Historic Notices 
oj Flint, by Henry Taylor. London: Elliot Stock, Paternoster Row. 




Gwyn ab Gruffydd ab Goronwy Sais ab Einion ab Gruffydd ab Llvwelvn= 
ab Itbel Dalfrith. 

leuan ab Gwyn of Coed y Llai. 

Nicholas ab Gwyn of Coed y Llai. See 
supra, p. 230. 

Ehys ab leuan of=f Eva, d. of Gruffydd ..., ux. David ab Llywelyn ab Gruff- 
Coed y Llai. Goch. ydd ab leuan of Arddynwynt. 
I See p, 234. 

Gr uffydd of Coed y Llai.=f=Ann, d- of David ab Jen kyn Corbyn. 

Eichard Anthoni = Elizabeth. Thomas = leuan Gruff- = ..., d of ... 
Gruffydd. Gruffydd. Gruffydd. ydd. Bingley. 

Mary, ux. John Cocks. 

Margaret, ux. John ab Howel. 

(Lewys Dwnn, vol. ii, p. 320.) 

Llywelyn ab Gruffydd ab leuan ab lorwerth ab Einion ab Meilir ab= 
Goronwy ab Gruffydd ab Llywelyn ab Cynwrig Efell. 



David ab Lly-=j=..., d. of leuan ab Gwyn ab GrufFydd ab Goi-onwy Sais of 


Coed y Llai. Azure, a chevron inter three dolphins naiant 
embowed argent. See p. 23'i. 

John ab=pMawd, d. of leuan ab Llywelyn Fychan ab Llywelyn ab lolyn ab 

David. I leuaf ab Madog ab Goronwy ab Cynwrig ab lorwerth ab Cas- 

I waHawn ab Hwfa ab Ithel Pelyn, Lord of lal and Ystrad Alun. 


Owain.=j=Catharine, d. of Reignallt 
I ab leuan ab Rhys of 
The Tower. 

Grnffydd ab=|=Catharine, d. of NLcho- 
John. I las ab John of Hen- 
I dref Biffa. 


Catharine, ux. John ab William ab Wil- = 
John, second son of Gruifydd ab liam. 
Llywelyn ab David of Gwysanau. 
See " Wynn of the Tower". 

=Margaret, d. of Pyers Gruffydd 
of Caerwys. Argent, a chev. 
inter three boar's heads 
couped sable. 

David ab William of Arddynwynt.' 

^Catharine, d. of Lewys ab John ab 
Madog of lal. 

Gruffydd Williams — Catharine, d. of John Wynn of Y Nercwys. 
of Arddynwynt. argent and sable. 

Palii of six 


This singular building appears to have been designed 
for a fortified residence. In the year 146.5 it was the 
residence of Rheignallt ab Gruffydd ab Bleddyn, who 
took Robert Byrne, Mayor of Chester, prisoner, and then 
slew him. ■ This caused the greatest exasperation at 
Chester, and 200 men were sent to seize Kheignallt ; he, 
however, being aware of their design, retired to the 
adjoining wood, and permitted a portion of them to enter 


the Tower, when he rushed forth, fastened the door^ and 
burned them to death. He then attacked the remainder, 
who fled to the sea-side, and were either slain or drowned. 
Rheignallt received pardon for these exploits from Thomas, 
Lord Stanley, which was afterwards confirmed by Henry 
VI. See Lewys Glyn Cothi's Ode to him, Givaith L.G. 
Cothi, Dosp. V, vi. 

Another story is told of Rheignallt. Four cousins 
having met at an inn, began to boast to each other of their 
various exploits. The first was David ab Siencyn ab 
David Crach of Nant Conwy,^ who began : " This is the 
dagger with which I slew the Red Judge on the bench at 
Denbigh." The second, David ab leuan ab Einion, who 
had been Constable of Harlech Castle, said : *' This is the 
sword, and this the ashen spear with which I slew the 
Sheriff at Llandrillo." The third, Rheignallt ab Gruffydd 
ab Bleddyn of the Tower, said : " This is the sword with 
which I slew the Mayor of Chester when he came to 
burn my house." Then they inquired of the fourth, 
Gruffydd Fychan ab leuan ab Einion, a quiet and 
peaceable man, " What daring deed he had ever per- 
formed'?" when he replied : " This is the sword with which, 
had I drawn it in dishonour, I should have accomplished 
as much as the best of you did." 

Rheignallt was the son of Gruffydd ab Bleddyn ab 
Einion Fychan ab Einion ab Cadwgan Ddu ab Cadwgan 
Goch, Lord of part of lal, and son of Y Gwion, Lord of 
lal and Ystrad Alun, who was slain in battle by Robert, 
a Norman baron, who took the fortress of Y Wyddgrug 
Mons Altus, or Mold, and his title of Baron de Mont' Alto 
from that place. The mother of Rheignallt was Gwerfyl, 
daughter of Howel ab Tudor ab Goronwy of Penllyn, ab 
Gruffydd ab Madog ab lorwerth ab Madog ab Rliirid 
Flaidd, Lord of Penllyn. Rheignallt was a Lancastrian, 
and, according to Yorke, in his Royal Tribes of Wales, 
one of the six gallant captains who defended Harlech 
Castle in 1468 against Edward IV. In two pedigrees at 
Nannau, however, it is recorded that he died at the age 

' See vol. iv, 274, for a further account of this wai'rior. 



of twenty-eight, in the year 1466, at Llandderfel, near 
Bala, in Penllyn, before the surrender of the Castle by 
David ab leuan ab Einion ab GrufFydd ab Llywelyn. 
Rheignallt's maternal grandmother was Tibot, daughter 
of the above-named Einion ab Gruflfydd ab Llywelyn of 
Cors y Gedol. Ermine, a saltier gules, a crescent or for 

Subsequently the Tower became the property of a 
family of the name of Wynn, whose pedigree is as fol- 


John, 2nd son of Gruffydd ab Llywelyn ab=j=Catharine, d. of Gruffydd ab 
David of Plasau Gwysanau. | Belyn of T Nercwys. 

Eoiaert Wynn,=j=Margaret,d. and heir of leuan 

jure uxoris of 
the Tower. 

ab Ehys ab Kobin of the 

Wil- Catherine, ux. Ed- 
liam. ward ab William 

Lloyd of Tre'r 


John Wynn. Leland, in his Itinerary, mentions "John Wynn=j=Elizabeth, 
ab Robert dwelled at a stone tower called Broncoit, alias | d. of 
EegnauUt's Towere, three quarters of a mile from Molesdale | Robert ab 
toune." 1 Edward. 

John Wynn: 
of the 

:Margaret, d. of 
leuan ab Ithel 
ab Gruffydd of 
Llwyn Egryn. 

Pyers = Catharine, d, 
Wynn. of John ab 
Howel ab 

Margaret, ux. 

Lewys Wynn 

ab Maurice of 

Cwmmwd Y 


Elizabeth, married, 1st, John Wynn ab Thomas; and, 2nd, 
Georsre Lee. 


David =pUrsula, d. of Thomas Pyers 
Wynn. | Jones of Pengwern. Wynn. 



I I 

Reginald Wynn. 

Alexander Wynn. 



The Tower remained in the possession of the Wynns 
until the direct Hne of the family was terminated by 
the death of Eoger Wynn, Esq., about the middle of the 
last century, who dying without issue, left the Tower to 
his widow, from whom it passed to her niece, the wife of 
the E-ev. Hope Wynn Eyton of Coed y Llai or Lees wood. 
It then passed to his eldest son, John Wynn Eyton of 
Leeswood, Esq. 

John Wynn of the Tower was High Sherifif for co. 
Flint in 1715. 


Heilin ab Bleddyn ab Madog ab Khirid ab Einion ab Cadwgan ab Goronwy=f= 
ab Owain ab Edwyn, Prince of Tegeingl. | 

Gruffydd.=pMali, d. of Cynwrig, one of the sons of leuan ab GrufFydd ab 
I Madog Ddu of Copa'r Goleuni, ab Ehirid ab Llywelyn ab Owain 
I ab Edwin ab Goronwy. Palii of six pieces argent and sable, 
I for Madog Ddu. 



= Jane, d. and sole heiress of Twncyn of Shockledge ( argent, three 
fish conjoined at the heads in triangle argent). Her mother was 
Margaret, d. of Maredydd of Yr Hob, ab Gruifydd ab Llywelyn 
ab Ynyr of lal. 

David Lloyd of Hersedd ;=j=Mary, d. of Howel ab Llywelyn ab lorwerth of 
ob. 1472. I Llwyn On. Ermine, a lion rarapt. sable. 

I 2 

I 1 

Edward Lloyd= 
of Hersedd. 

=Catharine, d. of Pyers Stanley 
of Ewlo Castle. 

Kobert Lloyd of=FElen, d. of John Almor of 
Hersedd. | Pant locyn. 

Robert Lloyd of Ffern 
in Glyn Berbrwg. 
See p. 239. 

I 2 
William Lloyd of Tre'r 
Beirdd. See p. 238. 



Edward Lloyd of Plas= 
yn Hersedd, 

-Eleanor, d. of Edward ab Maredydd ab How el of 
Croes Oswallt, ab Maurice Gethin of Garth, Esq., 
in Mochnant, descended from Madoe Cyffin. 

Robert Lloyd= 
of Plas yn 

:Alis, d. of John 
ab Elis of 


Cyn wrig 


Elen, ux. 

Margaret, ux. 




Harry Lloyd of Plas=7=Catharine, d. of Robert Davies of Jane, ux. George 
yn Hersedd. I Plasau Gwysanau. Powel. 

Edward Thomas. Jane, ux. John Wynn of 
Lloyd. Y Nercwys, then a 

Student at Gray's Inn. 

Elizabeth. Mary. Ffrances. 


{Rarl. MSS. 1969, 1971 ; Add. MSS. 9864.) 

William Lloyd of Tre'r Beirdd,=f^Catharine, d. and heiress of David ab Lle- 

2nd son of Edward Lloyd ab 
David Lloyd of Plas yn Her- 
sedd, by his wife Catharine 
Stanley (see p. 237). 

welyn ab Gwyn ab Howel ab Gwyn Hagr 
ab Llewelyn Sais ab Einion ab Gruffydd ab 
Llewelyn ab Ithel Talfrith ab Trahaiarn 
Goch of Lleyn. Her first husband was 
Howel ab Madoc ab Adda of Northop. 

Edward = 
Lloyd of 


^Catharine, 5th d. 

of John ab 
John ab Robert 
ab John Gruff- 
ydd ab Llywelyn 
of the Tower. 



ux. Edward 
ab leuan. 

Margaret, ux. Piers 

ab Maredydd of 

Dyffryn Aled, from 

March udd. 






\c \ d 

1 e 

Robert =pElizabeth, d 

. Mary 

ux.Ieuan Alice.ux. Jane, vix. 


Lloyd of 

of Robert 

Wynn of Y 

Rhys ab Ithel 

ux. Reign- 


Wynn ab 


Rhys ab Wyn 

allt ab 



William, ab John 

Gruffydd ab 

of Voelas. 

from ab Gwyn 
Madoc ab 
Cyffin. Howel. 
See p. 


Edward Lloyd=pAmy, 

dau. of 


1 1 
John Grace, ux. Gru- 


of Tre'r 




Lloyd. flfydd Lloyd of 

ob. s. p. 


of Ffern. 




Margaret, ux. 

Mary, ux. leuan ab John ab David Lloyd 
ab Gruffydd ab Rhys ab Belyn, from 
Madoc Ddu to Edwin, Prince of 

Thomas Lloyd of Tre'r Beirdd. 

... d. and heir of=Edw. Lloyd,^ 2nd son of Edw. Lloyd of Plas Llangwy- 
Tre'r Beirdd. van (oh. 1660), Esq., by his wife Lucy, d. of Richard 

Heaton of Lleweni Green, and jure uxoris of Tre'r 


^ In the family archives of Vron Iw is a draft of a deed of convey- 
ance to John Madocks of Vron Iw, Esq., by this Edward Lloyd, 
described as "of Rhydonen, son of Edward Lloyd, late of Llangwyfan", 
of lands in Llangwyvan, Keidio, and Spethyd, purchased by him of 
Edward Lloyd for £225. The deed is dated 30th March 1678, and 
executed 1st January 1680-1. This Edward must, then, have suc- 
ceeded to the unsold remnant of the Llangwyvan estates on the 
death of his nephew Edward Lloyd, son of his elder brother Thomas, 
which Edward oh. s. p., 30th November 1680, leaving a widow, 
Elizabeth, daughter of John Madocks I, of Vron Iw, who was living 
at Denbigh on 1st February 1713-14, when she was appointed by 
John Madocks II, jointly with Ursula, his third wife, guardian of his 
son Edward Madocks, and executrix of his will. 




(Lewys Dwnn, vol. ii, p. 318; Vron Iw MS.). 

Eobert Lloyd, second son of=T=Gwenliwyfar or Gwerfyl, d. and sole heiress of 
David Lloyd of Hersedd. Gruifydd Goch ab Gruffydd ab Cadwgan 

I Ddu ab Cadwgan Goch of lal. 


David ==Annesta, d. of John 


John = 

=Elizabeth, relict of leuan 


ab Gruffydd Fychan 



ab David ab Madog of 


of Pant y Llongdu. 



Galchog in Llaneur- 


Argent, a chev. inter 



gain, and d. of James 

or T 

three boar's heads 



Conwy of Ehuddlan, 


couped sable. 


2nd son of John Aer 

in Glyn 


Conwy Hen of Bodrhy- | 


ddan. 1 



Catharine, ux. John ab Eobert ab Gruffydd ab Howel of Croea 
Foel in Maelor Gymraeg. 

Rhys Lloyd of=i=Margaret, d. of Humphrey Ellis of Alrhey, and relict of Ed- 
Ffern, 1642. j ward Puleston of Hafod y Wern. Or of Robert ab John 
I ab Gruffydd ( Vron Iw MS.) She died March 1, 1696. 

John Lloyd of Fern.=f=Jane, d. of John ab Ithel Wynn of Coed y Llai (p. 231). 

Rhys Lloyd of=T=Dorothy, d. of Richard Myddleton of Plas Newydd, in the 
Pfern I township of Bodlith in Llansilin, High Shei'iff for co. Den- 

bigh in 1619. 

Dorothy, heiress of Ffern, 
ux. John Puleston ab 
John ab Robert Pules- 
ton of Hafod y Wern. 

Mary, ux. Lewys 

Yonge of Bryn 


Amy, ux. Edw. Lloyd ab 
Robert ab Edward ab 
William of Tre'r Beirdd. 

Frances, co-heir, ux. John Powell of Celstryn, ab Richard ab Thomas ab 
Howel (who married Margaret, d. of Richard ab Howel ab leuan Vychan 
of Mostyn) ab Gruffydd ab Davydd ab Ithel Vychan, by his wife Marcely, 
d. of John Aer Conwy of Bodrhyddan. 




Elis Lloyd, 2nd son of Robert Lloyd= 
ab David Lloyd of Hersedd. See p. 

=Alis, d. of William ab Grutfydd ab 
John Lloyd ab David ab leuaf 


rMargaret, d. of Rhys Wyn ab John ab Howel of Ehanberfedd 
yn Yr Hob, ab Madog ab leuan ab Madog Ddti ab leuan 
Goch ab Einion ab loi werth ab Philip of Yr Hob, ab Conias 
ab Osbern Wyddel of Cors y Gedol. Her mother was Gwen- 
hwyfar, d. of John Eyton Hen of Coed y Llai. The mother of 
Rhys Wyn was Morfydd, d. of Edward Lloyd ab David 
Lloyd of Plas yn Hersedd. 

John Lloyd. William Lloyd=..., d. of Thomas ab John ab 


Humphrey Lloyd of Llwyn Yn.=f=Mary, d. of William Lloyd of Plas Madog 

in Rhiwabon, and Catharine his wife, d. 
of Owain Brereton, of Borasham. See 
vols, ii and iii. 

Owain Lloyd of Llwyn Yn.=Alis, d. and heiress of John ab Robert ab Harri. 

VOL. V. 





fidward, 1606, third son of leuan ab David= 
ab Ehys of Coed y Llai. See p. 232. 

=Gwen, d. of Eward Pryse of 
Y Glwysegl. 

Thomas Edwards= 
of Rhual, 

=Alis, d. of Lewys ab David 
of Abergeleu. 

William Edwards, Vicar of 
Mold and Llanestyn, 1606. 

Evan Edwards of Khual, Baron of= 
the Exchequer in Chester. He 
built Ehual in 1634. 

=Margfaret, ux. Thomas Pryse of Maes 
y Groes, ab John Wynn ab Rhys 
ab John of Helygen in Tegeingl. 

Thomas Edwards of Rhual, married in 1672, Jane, daughter of Robert Davies 
of Gwysanau, by whom he had an only daughter and heiress, Mary, ux. 
Walter Griffith of Llanfyllin. 




David ab Ednyfed ab Gruffydd ab Siencyn ab Llywelyn ab Einion, son= 
of Cadwgan Udu of Treuddyn, ab Goronwy ab Owain ab Edwin ab 

Llywelyn ab=pAngliarad, d. of Gwyn ab Gruffydd ab Goronwy Sais ab 

David of 

Einion ab Llywarch ab Llywelyn ab Ithel Dalfrith ab Tra- 
haiarn Goch of Lleyn. 

John. : 

Gruffydd of Treuddyn.=j=Margaret, d. of leuan ab Llywelyn ab 


John of Treu-=j=Margaret, d. of Gruffydd ab Howel ab Deicws ab Gruffydd 
ddyn. I Fychan ab Gruffydd ab Llywelyn Sais ab Einion ab Lly- 

I welyn ab Ithel Dalfrith. 

leuan of Treu-=j=Janet, d. of Ehys ab John ab 
ddyn. I Einion of Mold. 

Lowri, ux. David Lloyd ab 

Mawd, d. of John ab=j=lst, Richard^ 
Ithel ab John ab Evans of 
leuan ab Gyttyn Treuddyn. 

:2nd, Ann, 

d. of 




George Evans. 


Edward = 


Vicar of 


=Annest, d. of Elis 

ab Gruffydd ab 

Rhys ab Gruffydd 

ab Howel. 

Richard Evans, Parson = ..., d. of John Ffach- David. Edward. Eleanor, 
of Helygen (Halkin ), nallt of Ffachnallt. 

16 2 





Madog Ddu of Cop'r Goleuni in Tegeiugl (palii of six pieces argent and=jp 
sable), son of Khirid ab Llywelyn ab Owain ab Edwin ab Goronwy. | 

Gruifydd of Cop'r=pGwladys, d. of Owain ab Bleddyn ab Owain Brogyntyn. 
Goleuni. | 

leuan of Cop'r Goleuni,= 

afterwards Vicar of 


=Margaret, d. of Cyn- 
wrig ab Cyuwrig. 

Llywelyn Goch, ancestor 

of the Davieses of 



of Cop'r 

=Tangwystl, d." of Eobert ab lorwertb ab Ehirid of Llaneurgain, 
ab Madog ab Ednowain liendew of Llys Coed y Mynydd in 
Bodvari, Chief of One of the Noble Tribes [argent, a chev. inter 
three boar's heads couped sable). Her mother was Alls, d. of 
Ithel Fychan ab Ithel Llwyd ab Ithel Gam, Lord of Mostyn, ab 
Maredydd ab Uchdryd ab Edwin ab Goronwy (azure, a lion 
statant argent). 

David ab Cynwrig=F=Angharad, d. of Bleddyn Fychan ab Bleddyn ab Goronwy 

of Cop'r Goleuni. 

Goch of Hiraddug, descended from Llywarch Hol- 
Ijwrch, Lord of Meriadog. Vert, a stag trippant argent, 
attired or. 

BelynofY=j= d. of Madog ab 

Nercwys. l David Llwyd ab 

I Madog Goch of Gwern 
I Affyllt. 

leuan of Cop'r Goleuni. ancestor of the 
Wynns of that placCj^the Edwardses 
of Gallt y Celyn and Glyn, and the 
Griffiths of Garn in Henllan parish." 

I b 

1 John Wynn of Cop'r Goleuni, 1697, ab John Wyun ab John 
Wynn ab John Wynn ab Edward ab John Wynn ab Robert ab leuan 
ab Cynwrig ab leuan ab David ab Cynwrig ab leuan ab Gruffydd ab 
Madog Ddu of Cop'r Goleuni. Catharine, the daughter and heiress 
of John Wynn, married John Lloyd of Rhagad ab Maredydd Lloyd, a 
younger son of Lewys Lloyd of Rhiwaedog in Penllyn. (Vol. iv, p. 298). 

2 Edward Gruffydd of Garn, ab Thomas Gruff3'dd of Garn, 1679, 
ab Edward Gruffydd ab Thomas ab Gruffydd ab leuan ab Llywelyn 
Fychan ab Llywelyn ab leuan ab David ab Cynwrig ab leuan ab 
Gruffydd ab Madog Ddu of Cop'r Goleuni. (Cae Cyriog MS.) 



Gruffydd of^ 
Y Nercwys. 

=Angharad, d. of Madog ab Lly- 
welyn Fychan of Y Galchog 
in Llaneurgain, ab Llywelyn 
Foel of March wiail in Maelor 
Gymraeg. Ermine, a lion 
rampt. in a border azure. 

Mwyn-=j=Catharine, dau. of 
Howel ab Llywelyn 
ab Adda ab Howel 
ab leuaf of Trevor. 


Sir Gruffydd, Vicar of Cilcain. 

David Lloyd. 

John Wynn of^Margaret, d, of David Lloyd ab Nicholas ab Goronwy ab 

Y Nercwys. | Gwilym ab Maredydd of Yr Hob. 

John Wynn of=^Grwen, d. of Edward ab David Lloyd ab Nicholas of Caer 

Y Nercwys. j Fallwch in Llaneurgain. 

leuan "Wynn of=T=Mary, d. of Edward Lloyd of Tre'r Beirdd, and Catharine 

Y Nercwys. j his wife, d. of Robert ab John ab Gruffydd of the Tower. 

I P. 33. 

John Wynn: 

Y Nercwys. 

.Catharine, d. of Ithel= 

ab Robert ab Elisau 

of Mold. 

=2nd, Elen, d. of Ieuan=f=3rd, Anne,d. of 

ab Ithel ab Gruffydd 

ab Heilin of Llwyn 


Robert Griffith 
of Yspytty, 
i-elict of Her- 
bert Thelwall, 

David Wynn. BitheL 

Robert Wynn. 

John Wynn of=f=Jane, d. of Harry Lloyd of Catharine, ux. Griffith Williams 
Y Nercwys. =^- 1 Plas yn Hersedd. P. 238. of Plas On in Arddynwent. 
s. p. -P- 233. 

The present house, called Nerquis Hall, was built by 
John Wynn, Esq., in 1638. Miss Wynn, the heiress of 
this place, married Thomas Pindar, son of Sir Paul 
Pindar, Knt., and their son Paul was created a 
Baronet in 1662, who dying s. p., the estate devolved, in 
right of his mother, to Paul Williams of Pant y Gwyddel, 
Esq. On the death of Edmund Williams, Esq., in 1737, 
it passed to his sister, who married Eobert Hyde, Esq., 
and afterwards devolved upon her grand-daughter, the 
late Miss Giffard, who left it to the Rev. Maurice Wynn 
of Llwyn. (See vol. iii, p. 359.) 





Cadwgan Deccaf ab lorwerth ab Cadwgan ab lovwerth ab Cadwgan Ddu= 
ab Cadwgan Goch ab Y Gwion ab Hwfa ab Ithel Felyu (Cyffcenedl o 

Heilin ab Cadwgan of Llwyn Egryn=pGwen, d. of David ab Madog Fychan 
in the parish of Mold. I ab Madog. 

GrufFydd ab Heilin of Llwyn=pMargaret, d. of Ehys ab Rheignallt ab Gruff- 
Egryn. | ydd ab David Goch of Coed y Llai. 

Ithel ab Gruffydd of Llwyn Egryn.=f:Janet, d. of David ab Robert Lloyd. 

leuan ab=T=lst wife, Elizabeth, dau. of=f=2nd wife, Catba- 

Ithel of 

Pyers ab Gruffydd ab David 
ab Ithel Fychan of Caer- 
wys ; descended from Ed- 
nowain Bendew. 

rine, d. of Nicho- 
las ab John ab 

Rhys =Jane, d. 

ab of 

Ithel. Harry 

Margaret, nx. John Edward = Elizabeth, d. of Ithel. Elen, 2nd wife 

Wynn ab John Bithel of John Lloyd of John Wynn of 

Wynn of Broncoed Llwyn Helygen, now Y Nercwys. 

Tower, Egryn Halkyn. 

The Pryses and Griffiths of Gwern AfFyllt (or Gwern- 
affield), the Evanses of Llwyn Egryn, and Griffiths of 
Hendref BifFa, were likewise descended from Ithel Eelyn, 
Lord of 141 and Ystrad Alun. 



About a quarter of a mile from Y Wyddgrug or Mold, 
on the Chester road, is a tumulus called Bryn yr EllylloD, 
with regard to which the following story is told. In 1 830, 
a respectable woman was returning home on horseback, 
on a fine summer's evening, after having finished her 
marketing^ at Mold. When she came near the tumulus 
she perceived some of the trees in a wood on the opposite 
side of the road to be illumined, as we see the blades of 
grass to be lit up by the phosphoric light of a glow-worm. 
As she looked intently on this phenomenon, she perceived 
an apparition of unusual size, and clothed with a suit of 
golden armour, emerge from the wood, and approaching, 
cross the road, and disappear in the tumulus. She was 
so struck by this extraordinary occurrence that she deter- 
mined to return to Mold and tell the circumstance to the 
then vicar, the Rev. C. B. Clough. That gentleman 
wrote down what she told him, and got three other 
respectable persons to witness it. 

Nothing occurred to elucidate this mystery till, in 183:3, 
the farmer who rented the land where the tumulus is 
situate, one day told his men to take the soil of the 
tumulus to fill up a large hole that had been made in the 
field by persons in Mold taking aAvay gravel for their 
garden walks. While the men were engaged in this work, 
the pickaxes of some of them struck upon a large stone,^ 
and on lifting it up they discovered a grave with a golden 
corselet lying at the bottom, at the depth of four or five 
feet from the top of the mound, and apparently on the 
original surface of the field. The corpse lay in a recum- 
bent position, but only the skull and the smaller bones 
and vertebrse remained. 

The corselet was composed of a thin, solid plate of 

1 This statement is made by the writer from his own recollection 
of the process of excavation, of which he was an eye-witness. It is 
said, however, by "Ab Ithel", that " the men found the corselet at the 
depth of about four feet from the top of the mound, and, as it evi- 
dently appeared, from the nature of the soil, upon the original sur- 
face of the field. — Arch. Cavihr., 1848, vol. iii, p. 99, 1st Series. 


gold, three feet seven inches long, eight inches wide in 
the centre, and weighing about seventeen ounces. It 
had a figured pattern, consisting of raised curves with 
channels between, in most of which is a variety of orna- 
ments in relief, punched, and finished with tools of diffe- 
rent sizes. Two series of ornaments, one of which par- 
takes of the character of the nailhead, have ridges in fine 
dotted, lines embossed ; and all the curves, as well as the 
other ornaments, excepting the smaller pellets, have at 
their base a border of fine dots indented. Upon it, in 
rows, lay a quantity of beads, evidently made of amber, 
or some kind of resin, as they broke bright and clear, and 
burned well, with the smell of that substance. There 
were also the remains of coarse cloth, or serge, which, as 
it appeared to be connected with, or to enclose the beads, 
very probably formed their covering, being fastened round 
the edges, or upon parts of the corselet, as a braiding. 
There were also several pieces of copper, which seemed to 
have served as a stiffening or inner case of the armour.^ 

The farm where the tumulus lies belonged to the late 
Colonel Lloyd Salusbury of Gallt Faenan, and the manor 
belonged to William IV, who took possession of the 
corselet as treasure-trove, and gave it to the British 
Museum, where it at present remains. 

The wearer of the golden corselet has been, not im- 
probably, identified with Catigern, the second son of 
Vortigern, who is stated by Roger of Wendover to have 
been slain by Horsa at the battle of Episford, supposed 
to be Hapsford, in Cheshire, two miles from the Dee. 
This battle followed close upon the famous Alleluiatic 
victory, which the Britons followed up by the pursuit of 
their discomfited enemies to Episford. On seeing the 
death of his brother, King Vortimer rushed upon Horsa 
and killed him, and drove the rest of his cohort back 
upon Hengcest.^ 

' Arck. Camhrensis, April 1848, p. 98. 

2 Conquest of Britain by the Saxons. By Daniel H. Haigh, Lon- 
don, 1867, pp. 237-9. 



" The story that Prince Leopold had had a ' warning' of his 
approaching death from his sister Alice, and that he more than 
half believed in the sign, has been repeated in every form since 
its first narration. Its truth is now vouched for by Mr. 
Frederick W. H. Myers. He wrote some account of the Duke 
of Albany for the Duchess. It was, I believe, laid before the 
Queen, and she desired it to be published. It appears in the 
FortnigJitly . There is little in it worth quoting; the strain is 
too high ; Mr. Myers is a poet, not a biographer, and says 
pretty things where he should relate facts. But he puts a fact 
or two in notes. The final note tells the story in another way. 
It gives an extract from a letter from Cannes. ' The last time 
I saw him to speak to', says the writer, ' two daj's before he 
died, he would talk to me about death, and said he would like 
a military funeral ; and, in fact, I had great difficulty in getting 
him off this melancholy subject. Finally I asked, "Why, sir, 
do you talk in this morose manner ?" As he was about to 
answer, he was called away, and said, " I'll tell you later." I 
never saw him to speak to again, but he finished his answer to 
me to another lady, and said, '^ For two nights now Princess 
Alice has appeared to me in my dreams, and says she is quite 
happy, and that she wants me to come and join her. That's 
what makes me so thoughtful." ' The lady to whom the Duke 
did speak was Lady Garvagh." 


Apropos of an interesting correspondence which appeared in 
our columns some time ago on the subject of angelic appear- 
ances, the Rev. F. E. J. Lloyd (S. P. G. Missionary, Flowers 
Cove, Newfoundland) vouches for the following, which, he 
thinks, may be of interest to our readers : — 

^'On the 2nd of December 1883 there died in a settlement 
of my mission, called Savage Cove, an old man of ninety years, 
George Gaulton by name. He was confined to bed for several 
months before his death, during which time I visited him as 
frequently and regularly as possible. I repeatedly begged him 
to unburden his mind to me if his conscience were troubled 
with any weighty matter ; but he as often assured me that all 
was right. On the 4th inst. we committed his body to the 

^ Church Times, May 16, 1884. 


grave. On the 15th inst., George Gaulton verily appeared in 
the flesh to a former acquaiutance named James Sheuicks at 
Port au Choix, fifty miles from where he died. Shenicks told 
everyone of George Gaulton's death a considerable time before 
the actual tidings of it arrived. The following is the account 
of the strange occurrence given by Shenicks. ' I was in the 
woods cutting timber for a day and a half During the whole 
of that time I was sure I heard footsteps near me in the snow, 
although I could see nothing. On the evening of the second 
day, in consequence of heavy rain, I returned home early. I 
knew my cattle had plenty of food ; but something forced me 
to go to the " hay pook" (a small haystack). While there, in 
a few moments, I stood face to face with old George Gaulton. 
I was not frightened. We stood in the rain and talked for 
some time. In the course of the conversation, the old man 
gave me a message for his eldest son, and begged me to deliver 
it before the end of March. Immediately afterwards he dis- 
appeared, and then I was terribly afraid/ The man Shenicks 
since that time has journeyed to Savage Cove, delivered the 
message entrusted to him in so strange a manner, and only a 
few moments ago he called at my lodgings on his homewai'd 
journey. I was, unfortunately, some distance away when George 
Gaulton died ; but his eldest son now says that a few moments 
before he died, his father made several unsuccessful attempts 
to say something to him, and in doing so passed away. 

" The above is authentic. I will make no comments upon 
the extraordinary occurrence, but will leave it thus with your 
readers. I may, however, add that the nature of the strange 
communication has not transpired, nor, I think, is it likely to 
be known by any but those whom it concerns." 


Richard Earle of Arundell (a noble patriott, of an heroicke 
spirit, of greate power and com'aund, beinge of the Royall 
blood) ioyninge w'th the Duke of Gloucester the kings vnckle 
and others for the kings hon'ble weale & publiq' good of the 
kingdome, was neu'thelesse through suboi^nac'on of some 
vpstart fauorites of the kinge & his flatterers (p^fessed 
enimies of the men of antient nobility) by the kings p^cur- 
ment condemned to death in the p'liaraent held the xxi*^^ 
yeere of that kings Raigne, where the Prelatts deputed the 
house because they would not be p^sent att the ludgm't of 
blood. And there it was ordained that the County of Chester 


should be a principality (soe the kinge for his affec'on there- 
vnto would have it). And for the encrease of the hono' and 
state of Princes w'ch should be there & for the ease and 
tranquility of the people of the said principality & of the 
Counties of Flint and Shropshire & of the Seigniories w'ch 
be wyninge to the same. The Castle of Lyons (nowe called 
Hoult) w'th the Seigniories of Bromefield and Yale to the said 
Castle belonginge. The Castle of Chircke w^th the seigniory 
of Chirck-land to the said Castle belonginge. The Castle of 
Oswaldestree w'th the Towne Well, walled w'th stone, & the 
hundi^ed, & the Eleven Townes to the said Castle belonginge. 
The Castle of Isabell w'th the seigniorie of the same 
belonginge to the Castle of Dallilay w^th th' app'ten'nces in 
the County of Shropshire & the reverc'on of the seigniorie of 
Clone (Clun) w'th all their app'ten'nces w'ch Edward Earle of 
Rutland houldeth for tearme of his life. 

All w'ch Townes, Castles & seigniories affores'd were to 
Eichard late Earle of Arundell, & w'ch by force of ludgment 
giuen against the said Earle in the said p'liament be forfaite 
to our Sou'aigne Lord the Kinge, w'ch shalbe from hencefourth 
an'exed vnited and incorporat to the said principality of 
Chester, & shall whoely abide & Remaine to the said princi- 
pality as p'cell & member of the same for euer. Soe that the 
said resiants land-tenants & all the Inhabitants of the said 
Castles, Segniories & Towns shall have vse and enioy all their 
antient Lawes, Rights & Customes there of ould time reason 
ablie hadd & vsed. 

Vpon this prouiso in the said Statute the Inhabitants of 
Oswestry sued the Kinge Richard for this Ch're, & obtained it 
at his beinge att Oswestry as some say when hee went for 
Ireland (for his beinge att Oswestry wee haue onely a bare 
tradic'on) but the Ch're beares date att Weston'. This Richard 
Earle of Arundell after his death (as afores'd) was reputed a 
martire, and pilgrimages were daily made to his Tombe, w'ch 
Kinge Richard caused to be demolished. And it was constantly 
reported (saieth my Author) that the Kinge was much dis- 
quieted in his dreames w'th the said Earle, whoe did often 
seeme to appe' vnto him in so terrible & truculent a manor, 
that breakinge his fearfull sleepes the kinge would curse the 
time that euer hee knewe him. 

The crie of this Earles in'ocent blood so causelessly shedd, 
did call for vengeance & a curse vpon the kinge, w'ch fell 
incontinently after vpon him by the losse of his kingdome, & 
after of his life ; for Kinge Richard was first deposed, & then 
afterwards murthered. (See vol. i, " The Lords Marcher"; and 
Historic Notices of Flint, by Henry Taylor. London : E. Stock.) 




In Don Quixote there is a good story of a man who possessed 
what he beHeved to be a large and perfect diamond. He was 
advised by his friends to test it by placing it on an anvil and 
striking it forcibly with a hammer ; if it had any flaw it would 
be shattered — if it were perfect, it would remain unscathed. 
After much thought he avoided the ordeal ; he preferred his 
jewel to remain as it was, trusting that all was right. The 
Psychical Research Society, we observe, take the opposite 
course ; they bring all their diamonds to be tested. They 
deal, in fact, with the stories poured in upon them as an 
official analyst does with samples of food ; they collect, sift and 
examine, ready to report, if necessary, that all are adultei^ated, 
and to persevere with their research even if it should end 
in the complete disestablishment of all ghosts. 

The thoroughly scientific spirit in which the Society pursues 
its work has attracted to it new recruits of considerable in- 
fluence and value. Lord Rayleigh, who is President of the 
British Association for the year, is now one of its Vice-Presi- 
dents, and Professor Adams has also joined it. The names of 
Balfour- Stewart, Schuster, and Lodge indicate the adhesion of 
three Professors of Physics at Northern Universities, to whom 
may be added Professor Barrett of Dublin. Moral science is 
represented by Professor Sedgwick, and Physiology by Pro- 
fessor Macalister of Cambridge. These names alone supply a 
guarantee for continued and careful experiment, and for the 
avoidance of all premature or precipitate theorising. 

The caution which inspires the proceedings of the '' Re- 
searchers^^ is very necessary at the present time. Tlie mass of 
mankind move back and forward under waves of emotional 
influence which ebb and flow with every epoch. In old times 
the believers burned the non-believers. Then came up a 
scepticism which soon developed into such agnostic intolerance 
that for a time all faith in all accounts of the supernatural 
was set down by scientific scorners as a proof of imbecility. 
Now there is a fashionable fervour the other way. In London 
society to-day one lady may be an esoteric Buddhist and 
astound her neighbour with tales from the East of marvellous 
Mahatmas, who appear in shining raiment to people pure 
enough to behold them, and who rule the world — not very 
well, it must be pointed out — from inaccessible sanctuaries in 
the mountains of Tibet. Another lady tells weird tales of 


spectx'al ancestors who haunt her home. A third is a convert 
to Rome, who relates the marvels wrought by a bottle from 
Lourdes ; while a fourth leaves early because she has to attend 
six o'clock matins the next morning at her favourite church. 
"With so much readiness to believe among even educated men 
and women just now, it is well that there are some, like the 
members of this Society, to keep cool heads, and refuse faith 
until facts are proven and theories tested. 

Messrs. Gurney and Mj^ers, in the Nineteenth Century for 
the present month, resume their report on some of the stories 
of apparitions they have collected. Why they call them "visible 
apparitions" we cannot discover. Are there such things as 
" invisible" apparitions ? We should like also to ask, is there 
any authority for the word '^ objectified^^'' This is no doubt a 
new word, necessary to express that something " subjective'^ is 
made " objective^^ Photographers, when they speak of paper 
as rendered sensitive, say that it is " sensitised", and one who 
is made a " subject" is spoken of as subjected ; but for '' ob- 
jectified" we remember no analogy, Passing that, we may note 
the main or ruling idea of these gentlemen in the paper before 
us. They point out that many stories of the shapes of dead 
men appearing to distant friends, at the very hour when they 
died far away, do not, even when most thoroughly authenti- 
cated, establish the fact that there was any ghost at all. There 
was simply a mental image called up so vividly by the friend 
or relation at home that it took outer form — was, in fact, a 
visual hallucination, and had no kind of substance or life of its 
own. But why did this hallucination, it may be asked, coincide 
with the death ? The answer is that it pi-obably rose from a 
mental impression conveyed from the mind of the man dying 
to the mind of his distant friend. 

The experiments of the Society go to prove that this thought 
transference is possible. There are persons who can impress 
others without speaking to them or even without contact, and 
there are other persons who are impressionable in that way. 
The power of conveying impression is not common, the power 
of receiving it is rare ; a certain condition of excitation must 
exist on the one side and of excitability on the other, and then 
thei'e probably must be some bond of sympathy or, so to speak, 
moral relation between the two. This will account for the in- 
frequency of all such incidents. Millions die and make no sign ; 
millions lose friends, and see or hear nothing. Yet occasion- 
ally we have cases where the facts go to prove this mental 

One story given in the paper before us is unusually clear : 


it is related by Lieutenant-Colonel Jones^ an oflBcer in Her 
Majesty's service, wlio is now living in London, and gives his 
address. He writes : — 

"^In 1845 I was stationed with my regiment at Moulmein,in 
Burmah. In those days there was no direct mail, and we 
were dependent upon the arrival of sailing vessels for our 
letters, which sometimes arrived in batches, and occasionally 
we were months without any news from home. On the evening 
of the 24th of March 1845, I was, with others, dining at 
a friend^s house, and when sitting in the verandah after dinner, 
with the other guests, in the middle of a conversation on some 
local affairs, I all at once distinctly saw before me the form of 
an open coffin with a favourite sister of mine, then at home, 
lying in it apparently dead. I naturally ceased talking, and 
everyone looked at me with astonishment, and asked what 
was the matter, I mentioned, in a laughing mannex', what I 
had seen, and it was looked upon as a joke. I walked home 
later with an officer very much my senior — the late Major- 
General George Briggs, Retired, Madras Artillery, then Captain 
Briggs — who renewed the subject, and asked whether I had 
received any news as to my sister's illness. I said no, and 
that my last letters from home were dated some three months 
prior. He asked me to make a note of the circumstance, as 
he had before heard of such occurrences. I did so, and showed 
him the entry I made opposite the day of the month in an 
almanack. On the 17th of May following I received a letter 
from home announcing my sister^s death as having taken place 
on that very day — viz., the 24th of March 1845." 

The explanation suggested of this and of many other cases 
like it is that the dying sister, thinking intently of her absent 
brother, was able to excite in his mind the image of herself. 
She thought of herself as she would be when dead, and that 
image was impressed on his mind so forcibly that it raised a 
visual hallucination. We are here, it will be seen, on the track 
of a new and interesting investigation, thoroughly scientific in 
its character and conditions — the influence of mind on mind at 
a distance. Perhaps all ghost stories cannot be thus explained 
away, but many narratives of appearances at the point of death 
suggest this line of inquiry.^ 

It may be asked by the impatient materialist, Why investi- 
gate such matters at all ? All the light, however, we can let 
in on unusual or obscure conditions of the mind helps the 

See vol. i, p. 230. 


cause of suffering humanity. It is the duty of men of science 
to hunt down, capture, and examine all kinds of facts, for they 
never know when they may be able to evolve a general law 
from the mass observed by many minds and recorded by many 
pens. No drudgery of dredging, exploring, observing was 
despised by Darwin, until after thirty years' patient toil he 
deduced the law of evolution from the mountain of material 
before him. Even researchers who start with wrong theories 
discover and record for the benefit of more cautious persons 
many useful facts which they have picked up by the way. 

The medieeval quest for the elixir of life and the philosopher's 
stone enormously advanced man's knowledge of nature's secrets, 
and we never know when honest inquirers may be on the 
track of a beneficent discovery. Some friends of religion are 
alarmed at this tendency of the day to " prove all things" ; 
but we have high authority for the attempt. 

That there is a law behind the varied group of facts is not 
only possible but probable. Archbishop Trench — and in this 
he only followed many eminent theologians — maintained that 
'^an influence is exercised by the invisible on the visible world, 
but that it is exercised according to laws which, though un- 
known to us, do in fact regulate and determine the action of 
higher intelligences whose volition thus intervenes in human 
affairs in a fashion as strictly conditioned as any volitions of 
our own." 

We may never be able to discover this law, but there is no 
impiety in a reverent endeavour to find it out. On the other 
hand, science has no right to turn aside from any path of 
research because it has hitherto been haunted by inaccuracy, 
imposture, and credulity. To rescue narratives of unusual 
events from the illiterate, the uninquiring, and the super- 
stitious — to examine them carefully, rejecting the weak, and 
retaining only the residuum of well-established accounts — is a 
thoroughly scientific work. To what conclusions the inquiry 
may lead is no concern of those who have a passion for vera- 
city, and who delight in the search after truth. ^ 

1 The Daily Telegraph, July 3rd, 1884. 




This comot contains the parish of Llanestyn, and is 
divided into the townships of Yr Hob, Hob Owain, 
Shordly, Caer Gwrle, Cyman, Rhan Berfedd, Uwch y 
Mynydd Uchaf, and Uwch y Mynydd Isaf. 

In this comot is the ancient camp of Caer Estyn, and 
the Castle of Caer Gwrle. 

The greater part of this comot, and a great deal of land 
in other places, formerly belonged to Maredydd of Yr 
Hob, second son of Gruffydd ab Llywelyn ab Ynyr of 
Bodidris yn lal. His eldest son, David of Yr Hob, was 
father of Llywelyn, whose estates in this comot were for- 
feited for his adherence to Owain Glyn Dyfrdwy in the 
reign of Henry IV, and were granted to Jenkyn Hope 
of Hawarden, great-grandson of Hugh Hope of Hawarden. 
Another branch of this family, the Lloyds of Yr Hob, 
kept possession of their lands down to the year 1595, at 
which time David Lloyd ab Kobert Lloyd ab Gruffydd 
Lloyd ab Gwgan ab Goronwy ab Gwilym ab Maredydd 
of Yr Hob, was the representative of the family. Gules, 
three pales or, in a border of the second charged with 
eight ogresses ppr. 

This place belonged to Madog Foel, another son of the 
above-named Gruffydd ab Llywelyn ab Ynyr of Bodidris 
yn lal. Tudor, the son and heir of Madog Foel of Bryn 



lorcyn, had an only daughter and heiress named Mallt, 
who married Jenkyn Yonge ab Morgan Yonge ab 
lorwerth ab Morgan of Maelor Saesneg, third son of 
lorwerth Foel, Lord of Chirk, Maelor Saesneg, and 

Morgan of Maelor Saesneg, third son of lorwerth Foel.=i= 

lorwerth of Maeloi'= 

^Margaret, dau, and co-heiress of William Yonge of 
Sawerdeg and Croxton in Hanmer parish in Maelor 

Morgan Yonge of Croxton and Sawerdeg.=pGwenhwytar, d. of Ithel ab Bledd- 
I yn ab Ithel. 

of Croxton. 


Jenkyn Yonge=f=lst wife, Mallt, relict of David ab— 2nd wife, Gwladys, d. 
I Madogab David Goch of Brynbwa, and heiress of Tudor 

ab Madog Foel of 

Bryn lorcyn, ab 

GrufiFydd ab Lly welyn 

ab Ynyr of Bodidris 

yn laL 

Lewys Yonge, 
ancestor of the 
Yonges of Crox- 
ton, vol. iii, p. 376 

Madog ab David Goch of Brynb wa, 
and daughter and heiress of Deio 
ab David ab Madog Ddu ab lor- 
werth ab Gruffydd of Caer Fallwch 
in Llaneurgain. See " Plas y 
Bold", infra. 

Maurice Yonge of Bryn Iorcyn.=f=Alis, d. of Jenkyn of Yr Hob. 

Kichard Yonge=pMargaret, d. of Ednyfed ab lorwerth ab John Yonge of 
of Bryn I Einion. Ermine, a saltier gules, a Ystrad Alun. 

lorcyn. | crescent or for difference. 

Edward Yonge of=j=Anne, d. and co-heiress of Philip Burd of Pentref Madog 
Bryn lorcyn. | in Dudlyston. Ermine, a lion rampt. sable. 

Elis Yonge of=j=Lowri, d. of Lewys ab leuan ab David ab Madog ab Lly- 

Bryn lorcyn. 

welyn Fychan of Y Galchog in Llaneurgain, ab Llywelyn 
Foel of Marchwiail in Maelor Gymraeg. Ermine, a lion 
rampt. in a bordure azure. 

Lewys '■ 
of Bryn 

=Mary, d. and co-heiress of 
John Lloyd ab Rhys Lloyd 
of Ffern in Glyn Borch or 
Glyn Berbrwg, p. 239. 

Sir Richard Yonge 

of Denham, co. 


Kat. ; created a 



oh. s. p. 
Edward of Lon- 
John Yonge. 

Richard Yonge of Bryn=j=Dorothy, d. of Sydney Ellis of 

lorcyn, 1604. He mar- Picill, ab Elis, fourth son of 

ried, secondly, Martha, Elis ab Richard of Alrhey, 

d. of Edward Pryse of Standard-bearer to Owain 

Llwyn Yn. Ob. 18th Glyndyfrdwy. ^rmme, a lion 

Dec. 1654 : buried at passant gardant gules. 

Frances, ux. Ed- 
ward Humph- 
reys of Bodel- 

Elis Yonge of Bryn lorcyn. High Sheriff for co. Flint, 1690.^ 

William Yonge of Bryn lorcyn. High Sheriff, 1717. =f= 

Ellis Yonge of Bryn lorcyn, High Sheriff in 1750. 
VOL. V. 



The last heir-male of this family, the above-named 
Ellis Yonge, Esq., purchased Acton and Pant locyn, in 
the parish of Wrexham, from the trustees of John Robin- 
son of Gwersyllt, Esq. He married Penelope, daughter 
and co-heiress of James Pussell Stapleton, Colonel in 
the Guards, second son of Sir William Stapleton, Bart., 
and Penelope his wife, daughter and heiress of Sir John 
Conway of Bodrhyddan in Tegeingl, Bart., who died in 
1721. By this lady, who died in 1788, Mr. Yonge had 
issue two daughters, co-heirs, of whom Barbara, the 
youngest, died unmarried in 1837, and Penelope, the 
heiress of Bryn lorcyn and Bodrhyddan, married William 
Davies Shipley, Dean of St. Asaph, who died in 1826. 
Mrs. Shipley died in 1789, aged thirty-one, leaving issue 
an elder son and heir, William Shipley, Lieutenant- 
Colonel in the Army, and M.P.for the Flintshire boroughs, 
who died in 1819, leaving issue by Charlotte his wife, 
second daughter of Sir Watkin Williams W3mn of 
Wynnstay, Bart., one son, William Shipley, who took the 
name of Conway, on his grandfather's death in 1826. and 
one daughter, Charlotte, who married Colonel the Hon. 
E-ichard Bowley, second son of Lord Langford, and suc- 
ceeded to the Bodrhyddan and Bryn lorcyn estates on 
the death of her brother. She died June 24, 1871, leav- 
ing issue one son, Conway Grenville Hercules Bowley, 
late Captain 2nd Life Guards, who, on succeeding to 
the Bodrhyddan estate, assumed the name of Conway ; 
and two daughters, — 1, Gwenwedd Frances, who married, 
first, Captain H. S. Pakenham, and secondly, Hugh 
Henry, third son of Sir David Erskine of Cambo, Bart. ; 
and 2, Evah, to whom her mother bequeathed the Bryn 
lorcyn estate, and who married Captain Leveson E. H. 
Somerset, R.N., son of Lord Granville Somerset. 




Robert Trevor, the eldest son of John Trevor Hen, the 
second son of lorwerth ab David, the thuTl son of Edny- 
fed Gam of Llys Pengwern (see " Trevor of Trevalun"), 
married Catharine, daughter and heiress of Llywelyn ab 
Ithel of Plas Teg, and died in 1487, in his father's life- 
time, and was buried in Valle Crucis Abbey ; and his 
widow Catharine married, secondly, Rhys ab Howel ab 
Bhys ab Howel of Bron y Foel Ystymllyn in Evionydd, 
descended from Collwyn ab Tangno, Lord of Evionydd 
and Ardudwy, who bore sable, a chevron inter three 
fleurs-de-lys argent. Robert Trevor left issue two sons, — 
1, Robert Trevor, who died s. p. in 1512 ; and 2, John 
Trevor, of whom presently ; and two daughters, — 1, 
Elizabeth, uxor Thomas Lloyd ab David ab Howel ab 
Maurice ; and 2, Maud, ux. Howel ab Gruffydd ab Rhys 
ab leuan ab Llywelyn Ddu of Crogen in Edeyrnion. 

John Trevor of Plas T^g married, first, Angharad, 
daughter of Robert ab Gruffydd ab Rhys ab David of 
Maesmor in Dinmael, by whom he had issue two sons, — 
1, Robert, his successor ; and 2, Hugh Trevor ; and two 
daughters, — 1, Margaret, ux. Thomas ab Rhys ; and 2, 
Gwenllian, ux. Ithel ab John Aire of Coed y Llai. John 
Trevor married, secondly, Janet, daughter of Gruffydd 
Lloyd ab Gwyn, by whom he had Robert Trevor and Elen. 

Robert Trevor of Plas Teg, the eldest son, married 
Dowse, daughter of William Stanney of Oswestry, by 

17 2 



whom he had issue, besides two daughters, Margaret and 
Gwenhwyfar, four sons — 

I. Edward Trevor of Plas Teg, who married Catharine, 
daughter of Gruffydd Yonge of Bryn lorcyn, by whom 
he had two sons, John and Eobert, who died 5. p., and 
two daughters, — 1, Blanche, ux. William Edward ; and 
2, Dorothy. 

II. Hugh Trevor,^ who married Mallt, daughter of 
Richard ab David. 

III. Elis Trevor, who married Margaret, daughter of 

IV. David Trevor, who married Elizabeth, daughter of 
John Hope of Hawarden, by whom he had no issue. He 
sold Plas Teg to Sir John Trevor, Knt., second son of 
John Trevor of Trefalun. He had an illegitimate son, 
named David. 


{Lewys Dwnn, vol. ii; Cae Gyriog MS.) 

David Hen of Burton yn Mortyn and Llai, ab Goronwy ab lorwerth ab= 
Howel ab Moreiddig ab Sanddef Hardd or the Handsome, Lord of Burton 
and Llai. Vert, seme of broom slips a lion rampt. or. 

1 He left a natural son, John Trevor, who married Catharine, 
daughter of William Bolton of Mold, by whom he was the father of 
Captain Hugh Trevor of Argoed, who married Margaret Yardley of 


I a 
Llywelyn.=pErddylad, d. of leuaf ab~Llywelyn ab Cynwrig Efell, Lord of 
I Y Glwysegl. 

David.^Gwenllian, d. of David Goch ab Heilin Fychan, descended from 
Hwfa ab Ithel Felyn, Lord of lal and Ystrad Alun. According 
to Lewys Dwnn, Gwenllian was the daughter of Madog Goch ab 
Heilin Fychan. 

Gruffydd.=f Janet, d. of Eobert ab Bleddyn ab Robert, descended from Ed- 
I nowain Bendew. 

David of Trefalun ;^Margaret, second d. and co-heiress of leuan ab Lly- 

ob. 1476. 

welyn ab lorwerth of Llwyn On in Maelor Gymraeg 
{ermine, a lion rampt. sable). Her mother was Mar- 
garet, d. of David Eyton of Eyton Uchaf, Constable 
of Holt Castle, 

Gruffydd of=f=Alis, d. of Eobert ab leuan Jenkyn ofTref- William of Tref- 
Llanestyn, | Fychan. alun. alun. 


U |2 |3 |4 I I 

John of=i=Jane, d, of Gruffydd David. Elis. John Wynn. Elen. Annest, 
Llanes- Llwyd ab David ab ux. 

tyn. leuan. Moi'gan. 

I I 

Mathey of Llanestyn.=pMaud, d. of John ab Lly welyn Mallt, ux. Thomas 
I ab Jenkyn. Adderton. 

I I I 

John Mathey=:Jane, d. of Eichard Lancelot =Gwenhwy- Gwenhwyfar, 

of Llanestyn. <■ Langford. Mathay. far. ux. David ab 

I Richard. 

I I 

Catharine, ux. Gruffydd ab Margaret, vix. Robert ab 
Edward. Elis. 

John Mathey of Llanestyn. Extinct. 




{Gae Gijrioc] MS.) 

This place, which lies in the township of Caer Gwrle, 
belonged to Sir Eichard Bold, Knt., who bore quarterly, 
first and fourth, argent, a griffon's head erased sable ; 
second and third, barry of six argent and azure. He 
Lad a son and heir, liichard Bold, whose daughter and 
heiress, Janet, married Geoffrey Whitford, who left a 
daughter and heiress, JVIargaret, who married Morgan ab 
David ab Madog of Brynbwa in Maelor Gymraeg, seventh 
son of David Hen ab Goronwy Hen ab lorwerth ab Howel 
ab Moreiddig ab Sanddef Hardd, Lord of Burton and 
Llai. Vert, seme of broomslips, a lion rampt. or. 

By this marriage with the heiress of Plas y Bold 
Morgan ab David had issue a son and heir, Edward, the 
father of Gruffydd of Brynbwa and Plas y Bold, who 
settled the latter estate upon his second son, Koger 

Koger GriflSth of Plas y Bold married Gwen, daughter 
of Edward ab Owain of Rhos Dudlyst, by whom he had 
a son and heir, 

Edward Griffith of Plas y Bold, who was living in 1595. 
He married Margaret, daughter of Gruffydd Yonge ab 
Ehs ab Maurice Yonge of Bryn lorcyn, by whom he had 
issue six sons,- — 1, Gruffyd ; 2, William ; 3, John ; 4, 
Kichard ; 5, Edward; and 6, Lewys ; and two daughters, 
Jane and Mary. 


GrufFydd Griffiths of Plas y Bold. He married Elen, 
daughter of John Boodle of Wrexham. 


This fortress is situate on the summit of a hill in the 
township of the same name. The most important portion 
of the present ruins is Boman work, of excellent character. 
The exterior face of the wall is lined with well-cut ashlar. 
In the inside of the work, where there is no ashlar, the 
bonding courses, of thin stones in the place of bricks, are 
very conspicuous. Part of an arch of the same date still 
remains. The other portions of the ruin are probably of 
the Edwardian period, but are too fragmentary to enable 
any satisfactory plan of the original arrangement to be 
made out.^ On the surrender of the castle to Edward I 
in 1282, he bestowed it, with all its appurtenances, on 
his consort, Queen Eleanor, from which circumstance the 
parish acquired the name of Queen's Hope or Hob ; and 
in this castle she stayed on her way to Caernarvon, where 
she was proceeding to give the Welsh nation a prince 
born among them. 

Here, in Camden's time, was found a hypocaust built 
with bricks bearing the stamp of the 20th Legion, 
and proving it to have been a Koman station. Several 
Roman roads diverged from this place ; one by Mold and 
Bod Vari (Varis), vid Henllan, Gwytherin, and Caerhun 
to Caernarvon ; another towards Pennarth Halawg, and 
another by Nant y Ffridd and Bwlch Gwyn, towards 
Bala, on the south-west, whence it proceeded by Carn 
Dochan, Pen y Stryt, and Ardudwy, to the same ultimate 

The first charter granted to Llanestyn yn Yr Hob, or 
Hope, was by Edward the Black Prince, dated from 
Chester, in 1351, in which he orders that the Seneschal 

^ Arch. Camh., October 187 i, p. 355. 



or Constable of the Castle of Caer Gwrle for the time 
being should be Mayor, and that he should choose two 
bailiffs out of the burgesses annually on Michaelmas Day.^ 

In 1307 this castle and manor were granted by Edward 
II to John de Cromwell, on condition that he should 
repair the castle, then in a ruinous state ; and in 1 3 1 7 he 
was directed to raise fifty foot soldiers for the wars in 
Scotland out of his lands in this country. 

In 1388 Richard II made a grant of Yr Hob or Hope- 
dale to John de Holland, Earl of Huntingdon, who, after 
the deposition of his master, was beheaded by the populace 
at Plessy in Essex. He bore the arms of England in a 
bordure of France, and was created Duke of Exeter by 
Richard II in 1338. Subsequently this manor was 
granted to the Stanley family, who were afterwards 
created Earls of Derby. 

(Haod. MS. 1971, fo. 98.2) 

In the account of this family in Ormerod's History of 
the County and Palatinate of Chester, Waren de Biver- 
lie is stated to have been the first to assume the name of 

^ Carlisle's Topographical Dictionary. 

^ See also Historic Notices of the Borough and County Toivn of 
Flint, London, 1883. 


Eavenscroft, a place where he settled, near Middlewich 
in Cheshire, and which he had acquired by an exchange 
of lands with the abbey of Dieulacres. He had issue 
Roger, "Richard, and other sons, from the eldest of whom, 
through a lady named Margaret, were descended the 
Croxtons of Croxton, From one of these came — 

William Ravenscroft of Ravenscroft, co. Chester. Argent, a chev. inter=p 
three raven's heads erased ppr. i 

Thomas de Ravenscroft. 

Warren de Ravenscroft. =p 

William de Ravenscroft, 11 Edw. II, 1318.=f 

William de Ravenscroft, 12 Edw. Ill, 1339.^ 

I I I 

Hugh de Ravenscroft, received money for William=j= Edward, Ro^er 

Dualbot of Kinderton, 12 Henry IV, 1411. 

20 R. II. 

Hugh de Ravenscroft, second son, jure uxoris, Lord of Bretton. 

The above-named Hugh de Ravenscroft was Steward 
of Hopedale, and of the lordships of Hawarden and 
Mold. He married, c. 1440, Isabel, daughter and heir 
of Ralph Holland of Denbigh^ (;wre iixoi^ishoid of Bretton, 
in the comot of MerfFordd), and Rose his wife, daughter 
and heiress of John Skeffington, Lord of Bretton^ (arc/en^, 
three bull's heads caboshed erased sable, armed or), by 
whom he had issue a son and heir — 

1 Son of Sir Robert Holland, Knt., and Maud his wife, daughter 
of Alban de la Zouche. 

2 Son of John Skeffington, son of William Skeffington, and Mary 
his wife, daughter and heir of Hugh de Brickhull of Bretton. 1. /Sable, 
three garbs or, within a bordure of the last ; 2. Argent, on a bend 
vert, three spades of the field, in sinister chief a mullet sable (Swetten- 
ham). Hugh de Brickhull Mas Mayor of Chester in the years 
1292-4-5-6, 1300-2-3-5-6-7-9-10-11-12; and Sheriff in 1288.— ^?'5^oWc 
Notices of Flint. 


Henry Kavenscroft of Bretton, cousin and heir of 
Thomas do Svvettenham. He married Joanna, daughter 
of Sir John KadclifFe of Ordeshall, Knt., and Margaret 
de TrafFord his wife, by whom he had issue, besides a 
younger son, Kobert, who was living 3 Richard HI, a 
son and heir — 

Ralph Ravenscroft of Bretton, who married, first, Anne, 
third daughter of John Stanley of Weiver, brother to the 
Earl of Derby ; and secondly, a daughter of George 
Hurleston, by whom he had issue. 

By his first wife, Anne, he had two sons, — 1, George, of 
whom presently ; and 2, John Raveuscroft of Hawarden, 
who was living 8th Henry VHI ; and three daughters, — 
Eleanor, ux. Ralph Rodishe of Cropenhall in Chester ; 
Cicily, ux. Gibeon Woods of London ; and Alice, ux. 
Adrian Des Ewes, co. Suffolk. She died in 1579. 

George Ravenscroft of Bretton, High Sherifi* for co. 
Flint, 1579, who was living 8th Henry VHI (1517), 
married Eleanor, daughter of Richard ab Howel ab leuan 
Eychan, Lord of Mostyn (party per bend sinister ermine 
and ermines, a lion rarapt. or), by whom he had issue, 
besides a daughter, Anna, ux Rodishe de Cropen- 
hall, and a younger son, Peter Ravenscroft of Horsham 
in Sussex, a son and heir — 

Thomas Ravenscroft of Bretton, High Sheriff for co. 
Flint, 1595, who married Catharine {oh. July 27th, 1612), 
third daughter of Richard Grosvenor of Eaton, and 
sister of Sir Thomas, ancestor of the Dukes of West- 
minster, by whom he had issue three sons and three 
daughters, — 1, George, of whom presently ; 2, Ralph 
Ravenscroft of the Bolles (Bias yn Balls), co. Flint, who 
died 2nd November 1604, and was buried at Flint. 
He married, first, Catharine (or Elizabeth^), daughter of 
Thomas (or Richard^) Massey of Coddington, and relict 
of Thomas Salusbury of Leadbrook, Flint,^ by whom he 
had no issue ; his second wife was Anne, daughter of 
Pyers Mostyn of Talacre (third son of Richard ab Howel 
ab leuan Fychan, Lord of Mostyn), and relict of Harri 
1 liar!. MS. 8019. 


ab leuan ab Lewys of Sychdyn in Llaneiirgaiu, and of 
Edward Bellott, Esq., and by whom also he had no issue; 
and 3, Richard Ravenscroft, s. j). The three daughters 
were, — 1, Elizabeth, ux. Sir Thomas Egerton of Brack- 
ley, created Baron of Ellesmere 17th July 1603, and Vis- 
count Brackley, 7th November 1616, Lord Chancellor 
of England in 1596^ ; 2, Maude, ux. John Hope of 
Broughton ; and 3, Alice, ux. Richard Massey of Aide- 

George Ravenscroft of Bretton, M.P. for co. of Flint, 
1563, ob. 1593, married Dorothy, daughter and heir to 
John Davies of Brodloune (Broadlane, co. Flint), Con- 
stable of Hawarden Castle [sable, a chevr. inter three 
dolphins, argent), by whom he had issue eight sons 
and three daughters, — 1, Thomas, of whom presently; 
2, Ralph, ob. s. p. ; 3, Harry, ob. s. j)- \ 4, Edward, 
who married, first, Margery, daughter of Peter 
Hokenhull, and secondly, Anne, daughter of William 
Greffer of Aston ; 5 (or, according to others, the second 
brother), William Ravenscroft of Lincoln's Inn, Chief 
Clerk of Petty Bag Office, and Bencher of Lincoln's Inn, 
ob. at Bretton, 27th October 1628, and w^as buried at 
Hawarden ; he represented the county in three Parlia- 
ments, those of 1586, 1597, and 1601, and the borough 
of Flint in two, viz., of 1620 and 1624 ; 6, Henry, ob. 

s. p.; 7, Roger of in Cheshire, married Beatrice, 

daughter and heir of Legar, co. Berks, by whom 

he had a son, Thomas, and a daughter, ux. Owain ; 

and 8, Anthony, a Captain in the Army, who was left heir 
to his brother William, who died without issue. The 
three daughters were, — Catharine, ux. Robert Davies of 
Gwysanau, and Elizabeth and Mary, who died s. p. 

Thomas Ravenscroft of Bretton, ob. 1630. He married 
in 1588 Catharine, daughter of Roger Brereton of Halgh- 
ton. She died in 1627. He had issue by her five sons, 
— 1, Robert, of whom presently ; 2, Thomas Ravenscroft 

' Both buried at Doddleston. He was the founder of the Bridge- 
water family, and was a natural son of Sir K. Egerton, of Ridley, co. 
Chester. — See Hist. Not., p. 125. 


of Pickhill in Maelor Gymraeg, High Sheriff for co. 
Denbigh in 1649. He married Margaret/ daughter of 
Sir Thomas Williams of Vaenol, Bart., by whom he 
had issue, besides a daughter, Dorothy, three sons, — 1, 
Thomas Kavenscroft of Pickhill, oh. 1699. He married 
Sarah, daughter of Thomas Style of Merton in Surrey, 
by whom he had a son and heir, Thomas, aged twelve 
years, in 1699 ; 2, William Havenscroft, High Sheriff for 
CO. Denbigh in 1686. He married Elizabeth, daughter 
of Robert Venables of Antrobus, by whom he had no 
issue ; and 3, Thomas. 

George, Koger, and John, three other sons of Thomas 
Ravenscroft of Bretton, and Catharine his wife, all died 
s. p. Their three daughters were, — 1, Dorothy, the 
first wife of Thomas Whitley of Aston, in the parish of 
Hawarden, Esq., High Sheriff of Flint 1637, by whom 
she had a son, Thomas, and a daughter, Catharine, 
ux. Luke Lloyd of the Bryn, in the parish of Hanmer 
(see vol. iii); 2, Elizabeth, ux. John Salusbury of Bach 
y Graig, or Bachegraig, in the parish of Tref Meirchion, 
bv whom she had a son, John Salusbury^ of Bach y 
Graig, the ancestor of the celebrated Mrs. Thrale, after- 
wards Mrs. Piozzi, and of Sir Charles Salusbury of 
Llanwern, co. Monmouth, Bart. ; and 3, Maria, ux. 
Roger Wilbraham of Darfold, near Nantwich. 

Robert Ravenscroft of Bretton, oh. April 1639. He 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Randal Mainwaring 

1 To this period belongs the following entry in Peter Roberts' 
Diary, p. 168. It seems to refer to the same persons as those in 
this Pedigree by Randle Holmes : — 

^'■Bretton, Vaynol, ] M'd that upon Thursdaie, being the xvith dale 

1636, mariage > of February, 1636, Thomas Ravenscroft the 

portion, 14 cli. j younger, gent., and Margaret W'ms, sister of 

Mr. Henry W'ms of Maes y Castell ar', were 

maried in the Cathedrall Church of St. Asaph by my Lord Bushop, 

vizt., D'c'or John Owen." 

^ John Salusbury was the son and heir by Anne, his wife, daughter 
and co-heir of Sir Richard Clough of Bach y Graig, Knt., of Roger 
Salusbury, D.C.L., of Jesus College, Oxford, sixth son of Sir John 
Salusbury of Llyweni, who was Constable of Denbigh Castle in 1530. 


of Peover, in Cheshire, Knt. ; she married, secondly, Sir 
Francis Gamul, Knt., and died at Chester in 1661. By 
this lady he had issue seven sons and eight daughters, — 
1, Thomas, of whom presently ; 2, George, a Captain in 
the Army, oh. s. p. ; 3, Randall ; 4, Robert, a Captain in 
the Army ; and Edmund, William, Philip, and Ralph, who 
all died young. Of the daughters, Jane, the eldest, mar- 
ried, first, Edward Hardware of Peet, by whom she had 
no issue ; she married, secondly, Colonel Marrow ; and 
thirdly. Sir Thomas Powel of Plas yn Horslli, Bart. ; 2, 
Elizabeth ; 3, Anne, ux. Nathaniel Booth ; 4, Catharine ; 
5, Mary ; 6, Frances ; 7, Sidney, ob. s. p. ; and 8, 

Thomas Ravenscroft of Bretton married Margaret, 
daughter of William Salusbury of Rug, by whom he had 
issue eight sons, — 1, Edward ; 2, William ; 3, Robert ; 
4, Owain; 5, Edward('?); 6, George ; and 7, Thomas, s. p.; 
and five daughters, — 1, Dorothy; 2, Margaret; 3, 
Catharine ; 4, Jane ; and 5, Frances. 

This representative of the family was, in all probability, 
the Governor of Hawarden Castle referred to in the Life 
of the Duke of Ormond, quoted by Pennant^ as "a neigh- 
bouring gentleman of the name of Ravenscroft", who, early 
in the war, betrayed the castle to the Parliament. In 1 643 
it was garrisoned by 120 men of Sir Thos. Myddelton's 
regiment, when it was invested by some troops with- 
drawn from Ireland, and landed at Mostyn, under Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Marrow (probably Thomas's brother- 
in-law), who summoned it ineffectually to surrender. 
After some characteristic correspondence, it was again 
summoned in a letter by "Thomas Sandford, Captain of 
Firelocks", written from '' Broad Lane Hall, where I am 
now, your near neighbour", where probably Thomas 
Ravenscroft then actually resided. After a fortnight^s 
siege the castle was surrendered to the royalists for want 
of provisions, but was retaken by Mytton in 1645, and 
"by vote of Parliament ordered to be dismantled, with 
four other castles, in this part of North Wales." "These 

1 Tours in Wales, i, 132-136, ed. 1810. 


orders", says Pennant, "extended only to the rendering 
it untenable; but the further destruction was effected by 
the owner, Sir William Glynne, the first baronet of the 
name, between the years 1665-1678." 

That Thomas gained promotion by his treachery, and 
served in the Parliamentarian army at the siege of 
Denbigh, so gallantly defended by his father-in-law 
the Governor, William Salisbury of Rug, seems certain, 
not only from the fact that his name appears as High 
Sheriff for 1649, but also on a commission, in company 
with that of Colonel Wm. Carter and others of that 
faction, dated 17th November 1648, appointed in pur- 
suance of a resolution of the Town Council of Denbigh, 
to the effect that "in order to carry out the object of an 
Inquisition of Charles I into the Public Charities of the 
Borough, Mr. John Madocks be desired to sue out a 
commission for pious uses, for the use of this Cor- 
poration".^ His eldest son — 

Edward Ravenscroft of Bretton, ob. 24th December 
1678. He married Anne, dauojhter and co-heiress of 
Sir Richard Lloyd of Esclys or Esclusham, Knt. ; 
she married, secondly, John Grosvenor. By this lady he 
had issue a son and heir — 

Thomas Ravenscroft of Bretton, High Sheriff for co. 
Flint, 1693, and M.P. for the co. of Flint in 1697; 
married in 1691, Honora, daughter of Ralph Sneyd, of 
Keel Hall, co. Stafford, Esq., by whom he had issue one 
son Thomas, and three daughters, Honora and Catharine, 
co-heiresses, and Ann. Honora married, in 1716, Henry 
Conway of Rhydorddwy, son and heir of Sir John 
Conway of Bodrhyddan, Bart., by whom she had a 
daughter, Honora, uxor Sir John Glynne, Bart., M.P. 
for CO. Flint in 1741. Both husband and wife died the 
following year.^ He was the son of Sir Stephen Glynne, 
the first baronet (the son of the Chief Justice Sir John 
Glynne, Kt), the unscrupulous lawyer of the Common- 
wealth and reigns of Charles I and II, who so continued 

^ Ancient and Modern Denbigh. 
^ Bhuddlan Register. 



to change his coat with the times, as not only to escape 
scot free for his treason, but to acquire and keep 
possession of Hawarden, which he had purchased from 
the sequestrators of the Parliament after the execution 
of its then owner, the Earl of Derby, in 1651. The 
present mansion house was built by Sir John in 1752 on 
the site of Broad Lane House, where the last Sir Thomas 
Ravenscroft had resided, and which his son and successor. 
Sir Stephen Glynne, in 1804, by diverting the turnpike 
road to the back of the house, enclosed in the park, 
together with the ruins of the ancient castle; since when 
it has exchanged its name of Broad Lane for that of 
Hawarden Castle/ 


John Ravenscroft of Hawarden, 2nd=j=Margaret, d. of William Dodd of 

son of Ralph Ravenscroft of Bret- 
ton, and Anne his wife, d. of John 
Stanley of Weiver. 

Broxton, co. Chester, by his 

wife, d. of Roger Bird of Clapton, 
CO. Chester. 
I I I 2 13 I 4 

John, William, Henry, George Ravenscroft of Hawar-=j=Margaret, d. of 
s. p. s. p. s. p. den. Registrar of St. Asaph ~ 

in 16rj9. 

William Fowler 
of Hawarden. 

John Ravens-: 
croft of 
Deputy Regis- 
trar of St. 
Asaph in 

:Jane, dau. of Thomas 
Fox of K..., CO. Flint 
(1622). Argent, on a 
chevron inter three 
foxes or, five estoiles 



■ Eleanor, d. of 
John Mouls- 
dale of Hun- 
den, CO. 

Potter, Rector = Maude, d. of John 
of Aston. Lache of Brough- 


Jane, ux.Thos. Sparke 
of Aston, CO. Flint, 
by whom she had 
issue four sons. 


^ Pennant's Tours in Wales, i, 138 and following. Hist. Notices, 
p. 170. 

M'd that upon Wednesday, being the xxixth day of 
May 1639, John Ravenscroft, Deputie Register 
of St. Asaph under George Ravenscroft, his father, 
was buried." — Peter Roberts' Diary, p. 186. 

2 "Hawarden, 



I la 
George E.avens-=f=Mary, d. of John 
croft of Stevens of Graf- 

Hawarden. ton, co. North- 

I ampton. 


ob. s. p. 

Thomas Eavens- 
croft of London. 

I 26 I 3c I 4(Z 

John, Thomas of Haw- Roger, ob. 

ob. s.p. arden, ob. 1630, 23rd Feb. 

s.p. 1668-9, s.p. 

Jane, married, first, Richard John- 
son of Chester, Apothecary ; and, 
secondly, ... Poole, younger son of 
Francis Poole of Chester. 


(Lewys Dwnn, vol. ii, p. 323.) 
Richard Whitley ab Richard.=pEllen, d. of Thomas Venables of Whitton in 

1, Azure, three garbs, or; 

2, Argent, a chevron inter 
three bull's heads caboshed 
sable, for Mesham. 


John Whitley of Aston.=pEllen, d. of John MinshuU. 

John Whitley of Aston,=f=Constance, d. of Pyers Stanley of Ewlo Castle, 
living 34thHenry Vlil. I 

I I I I I I 

Thomas=pCatharine, d.of Elis Edward Jane, ux. Robert Anne. Dorothy, 

■"" ■" '^ oT^i^ Whitley. Twyn ab John Mary. Alice. 




Evans of Plas 


See vol. iii. 

Thomas Whitley of Aston. 

The above-named Thomas Whitley of Aston, who died 
2nd January 1650, married twice. By his first wife 
Dorothy, daughter of Thomas Ravenscroft of Bretton, he 
had issue, according to Lewys Dwnn, one son and one 


daughter, Catharine ; but according to the Harl. MS. 
1971, p. 91, he had an elder daughter named Catharine. 
I. Robert Whitley, of whom presently. 

I, Dorothy, ux. Captain n Lloyd of Chester. 

II. Catharine, ux. Captain Luke Lloyd of the Bryn in 
Hanmer parish. (See vol. iii.) 

Robert Whitley of Aston, married Catharine, daughter 
of Kobert Morgan of Gwylgref, co. Flint, Esq. [gules, a 
Saracen's head erased at the neck ppr., wreathed about 
the temples argent and sahle), by whom he had issue 
five sons and four daughters — 1, Thomas Whitley of 
Aston, who married Mary, daughter of Henry Kelsall, 
and relict of Sir Thomas Bunbury, Bart., by whom he 
had issue one daughter named Mary ; 2, Morgan ; 3, 
Robert, oh. s.p. ; 4, John ; and 5, Roger ; 1, Dorothy ; 
2, Kate ; 3, Priscilla ; and 4, Anne. 

The above-named Thomas Whitley of Aston, who died 
in 1650, married secondly, Elizabeth, daughter of Roger 
Brereton of Halchdyn, or Haughton, living in 1650, by 
whom he had issue five other sons and five daughters, 

I. Roger, of whom presently. 

II. Ralph, who married Letitia, daughter and co-heir 
of Sir Henry Gamul, Bart. 

III. Peter, who married Jane, daughter of Thomas 

Grey of Langley, co , Esq., by whom he had a son 

named Thomas. 

IV. John, slain in the king's service ; and v, Thomas, 
slain in the same service, anno 1645. 

I. Eleanor, ux. John Robinson, minister of 

II. Mary, ux. Dr. Robert Angell ; in, Anne, oh. s.p. ; 
IV, Sidney ; v, Elizabeth, ux. Edward Morgan of Gwyl- 
gref, CO. Flint, Esq. 

Roger Whitley, called of Westminster. He bore 
argent, on a chief gales three garbs or, on an escut- 
cheon of pretence gules a lion passant or. He married 
Charlotte, daughter of Sir Charles Gerard of Halsall, co. 
Lancaster, and sister of Charles Lord Brandon, by whom 
he had issue two sons and three daughters — 

I. Thomas Whitley of whom presently. 

VOL. V, 18 


II. Roger Whitley, who married Margaret, daughter 
and co-heir of Colonel Eichard Scriffen (sic) of Fordesley, 
CO. Salop. 

I. Elizabeth, ux. Sir John Mainwaring of Peover, co. 
Chester, Bart. 

II. Mary, ux. Sir Nicholas Biddulph of Elmhurst, co. 
Stafford, Knt. 

III. Charlotte. 

Thomas Whitley of Peel, co. Chester. He married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Lewis of London, and 
Wickham or Stanford, co. Notts, who died 15th August 
1696, by whom he had issue a son Roger, and a daughter 
Elizabeth. (Harl MS. 1971.) 


Mr. Willett, in his History of Hawarden, relates that 
the earliest records of the Whitleys of Aston state that 
Richard Whitley married Margery, daughter and heiress 
of William Messam, son of Robert Messam, son of Harry 
de Messam, by his wife, the daughter and heiress of 
Richard Aston of Aston, who was living in 1268. John 
Whitley, the third in descent from the said Richard, 
married Constance, daughter of Piers Stanley of Ewlo 
Castle,^ and Jane his wife. His eldest son, Thomas, 
married Catharine, daughter of Elis Evans, of Plas Llan- 
eurgain or Northop Hall, descended from Ednowain 
Bendew, and had a son Thomas, whose first wife was 
Dorothy, daughter of Thomas Ravenscroft of Bretton : 
by her he had a son Thomas, and a daughter Catharine, 
who married Luke Lloyd of the Bryn, in the parish of 
Hanmer (see vol. iii). He was High Sheriff for co. 
Flint in 1637. He married, secondly, Elizabeth Brereton, 
by whom he had Roger Whitley the member for Flint. 
Roger was a distinguished Colonel in the Army of King 
Charles I, and afterwards knight and harbinger of Charles 
II, in 1671. Subsequently, not approving of the policy 

1 Vol. iii, p. 242. 


of the Court, lie was returned M.P. for Chester, as a 
Whig. He entertained King William at Peel Hall, on 
his way to Ireland. He filled the office of Mayor of 
Chester in the years 1692-1695. He became possessed 
of the Llys estate, adjoining Bryn Edwin, perhaps from 
the Stanleys, which estate descended to the Earl of Ply- 
mouth, who sold it to Robert, Earl Grosvenor, in the 
beginning of this century. The Aston estate passed by 
marriage into the Dundas family,^ who, a few years ago, 
sold it to the present Premier, the Right Hon. W. E. 

The following is the inscription on the monument to 
the memory of Colonel Whitley, placed in the old Church 
at Hawarden : — 

" Near this place lieth interred the Body of Colonel Roger 
Whitley, late of Peel, in the County of Chester, eldest son of 
Thomas Whitley of Aston, Esqr., in this parish, by Elizabeth 
Brereton, his second wife. He married Charlotte, sister of the 
Right Honourable Charles Gerrard, Earl of Macclesfield, and 
had issue by her, three sons and six daughters, viz., Gerrard, 
Thomas, Roger, Elizabeth, Charlotte, Henrietta Maria, Pene- 
lope, Jane, and Anne. He died July 17th, 1697. The monu- 
ment was erected to his memory by his Granddaughters, Char- 
lotte and Elizabeth Mainwaring, daughters of Sir John Main- 
waring, of Peover, in the County of Chester, Bart., and Eliza- 
beth Whitley, 1722. 

From the Calendar of State Papers, we have the fol- 
lowing : — 

1664, September. Grant to Ralph Whitley, in reversion 
after Thomas Edwards, of the office of Constable of Flint 
Castle, fee £10, and for the Keepership of the Gaol, fee 
£6 Is. M. 

^ James Whitley-Deans-Dundas of Barton Court, co. Berks, Vice- 
Admiral, R.N., born 4th Dec. 1785, married first, 28th April 1808, 
his first-cousin, Janet, only daughter of the late Charles Dundas, Lord 
Amesbury, by Anne his wife, daughter and sole heir of Ralph 
Whitley of Aston Hall, by whom she had issue a son and heir, Charles 
James, late of the Coldstream Guards, born 15th Jan. 1811, M.P. for 
the Flintshire Boroughs in 1838. (See Burke's Landed Gentry ) 

18 2 




The Trevors of Esclys Uwch y Clawdd lived at 
Upper Esclys Hall for many generations. The name of 
Thomas Trevor occurs for the first time in the parish 
register in 1661. 

Thomas Trevor, 2nd son of Matthew Trevor of Trevor=j=Ann, dau. of 

Hall, Esq., by his wife Margaret, d. of Thomas 
Wynne of Dyffryn Aled, Esq. Went to Virginia. 
Buried at Wrexham, April 6, 167J. See vol. iv, p. 112. 

buried at Wrex- 
ham, June 26, 1680. 

Matthew Trevor, bapt.: 

Sept. 21, 1629; buried 

at Wrexham, Sept. 14, 


:Elizabeth, sister of Francis 
Manley of Erbistock, Esq. ; 
buried at Wrexham, Sept. 25, 

Elizabeth, bapt. 
Feb. 23, 1636 ; 
buried at Wrex- 
ham, June 9, 

Richard, bapt. July 18, 1641 

Eobert Trevor. = Elizabeth, dau. of Hugh Meredith of Penbrebychan, Esq.; 
buried at Wrexham, Feb. 14, 1733. 

1 The above information relative to these and other families has 
been kindly sent me by Alfred Neobard Palmer, Esq. He states also 
that — 1. The family of Edwards of Stansty did not end with Mr. 
John Edwards (vol. iii, 81), but was succeeded by others, the last of 
whom, Peter Edwards, Esq., died in 1783. The names of nearly all 
of them are extant, but their relation to each other, in every case, is 
not yet clearly made out. They appear to have lived at the farm- 
house called Stansty Uchaf, and perhaps Stansty Isaf also, at least for a 
time. According to the transcripts at Wynnstay from John 
Salisbury's Pedigrees, this John Edwards was succeeded at Stansti 


This pedigree has not been carried any further, because 
about the end of the seventeenth century the family 
became Roman Catholic, and their children were no 
longer baptised at the parish church. There are thus no 
entries in the parish register from which the relationship 
of the successive owners of Upper Esclys may be fur- 
nished. There is, however, extant a nearly complete 
list of those owners from 1699 downwards. They are, 
in 1699-1709, Mr. Matthew Trevor and Mr. Eobert 
Trevor, jointly. After 1715, Mr. Matthew Trevor alone. 
1722-1732, Mr. Robert Trevor. 1742-1752, Mr. Thomas 
Trevor. 1758-1791, Mr. Richard Trevor. Mr. Richard 
Trevor lost in 1755 the greater part of the estate, which 
fell to a Mr. John Hughes, and he was himself the last of 
the name who was connected with that portion which 
remained. How this Mr. Hughes obtained a share of 
the Upper Esclys estate is not certain, but it may pos- 
sibly throw some light upon the transaction, to say that 
on October 13th, 1673, Ellis Hughes and Mary Trevor 
were married in Wrexham Church. There are, besides, 
a great many other particulars told relating to these 

by his son John Edwards, who was born in 1619, was a captain in 
the army of King Charles I in 1645, and died in 1673. He had 
issue two sons — ^John, born 1686, and Robert, born 1718; and a 
daughter Frances, buried in 1675. This John Edwards of Stansti had 
two sons — John Edwards, born in 1712, and Thomas, born in 1718; 
also a daughter Elizabeth, born in 1713. 2, Mr. Humphrey 
Lloyd was not, in all probability, an ancestor of the Lloyds of 
Plas Power. He himself lived apparently at Plas ym Mhers, 
not at Plas Power. A copy of the greater part of his will is 
still in existence, and is very interesting. Mr. Humphrey Lloyd's 
son, Fulk, appears to have left no legitimate male issue. The Lloyds 
of Plas Poiver are first heard of at the beginning of the eighteenth 
century. Where they came from and who they were are facts as 
yet unknown. Plas ym Mhers stood probably where Upper Bers 
Farmhouse now stands. 3. The family of Ellice of Croes Newydd 
can be cai-ried down about a century later than the published lists. 
Mrs. Joyce Ellis was married to Mr. Fulk Vaughan of Bron High- 
loke, on December 30, 1699, who is doubtless identical with Foulk 
Vaughan of Bron Haulog in Llanvair Talhaiarn, co. Denbigh. (See 
vol. iv.) 



These Bulkeleys were settled at Plas Bulkeley, Esclys 
Uwch J Clawdd, before they migrated to Anglesey. 
" Thos. Buckley, Gent.", described in the MS. as " of 
Wrexham", acquired, it is believed, the estate afterwards 
called Plas Bulkeley, on the attainder of Edward Jones 
of Plas Cadwgan, Esq. From 1671 to 1674 Mr. Richard 
Bulkeley and his sister, Mrs. Ann (or Martha) Bulkeley, 
are returned as joint owners of the property. From 
1699 to 1715 Mr. Thomas Bulkeley was living at Plas 
Bulkeley. At the latter date he seems to have let the 
estate to a tenant farmer, and retired to a house in Hope 
Street, Wrexham, where he lived until his death, which 
took place about the year 1757. In 1716 Plas Bulkeley 
passed entirely out of his hands. This Mr. Bulkeley 
married Margaret Dymoke of Marchwiel. 

Sir Richard Bulkeley of Baron Hill, in Anglesey, Knt.=j= 

Eev. Arthur Bulkeley, jure 'Mxoris=f=Jane, d. and heir of Rhys ab William of 
of Coedan. | Coedan, in Anglesey. 

Thomas = Elizabeth, eldest d. and co- William Bulkeley=j= Anne, d. of Rhys 
Bulkeleyi j^gij. Qf John Brereton of of Bryn Ddu. 

of Esclusham. She died 

Coedan. Feb. 26th, 1656. See vol. 

iii, p. 94. 

Wynn of 

Llwydiarth in 


William Bulkeley of Bryn Ddu=i=Margaret, d. of Richard Parry, Bishop of St. 
I Asaph. See p. 212. 

William Bulkeley of Bryn Ddu = Jane, d. of Ambrose Lewys of Cemlyn. 

See p. 286. 

' This must be the person who built Plas Bulkeley. (See vol. iii, p. 94.) 



William Bulkeley of Bryn Ddu, the last heir male 
of this family, had an only daughter and heiress, Mary, 
who married Fortunatus Wright of Liverpool, and their 
daughter and heiress, Anne, married William Hughes of 
Plas Coch and Plas yn Llangoed, father of the late Sir 
William Bulkeley Hughes of Plas Coch and Bryn Dd^, 
Knt. (See " Pms Coch".) 


[Continued from vol. iii, pp. 82^ 224.) 

Richard Meredydd of Pentref Byclaan, a younger son=f=Jane, d. and co-heir of 
of John Meredydd ab Rowland of Trefalun. j Morgan ab David ab 

I Robert. 

I 3rd son. 

Hugh Meredydd of Pentref Bychan. He was entrusted with=|=Elizabeth, d. 

the keeping of the original seal for the counties of Denbigh 
and Montgomery, and thus acquired the honorary title of 

of John 
Trott, Esq. 

Ellis Meredydd of Pentref Bychan.=FAnne, d. of ... Myddleton of Plas Cadw- 
1 gan. 

Hugh Meredydd of Pentref Bycban.^ Mary, d. of T, Yardley of Macclesfield. 

Ellis Meredydd of Pentref Bychan.=f=Elizabeth, d. of Hugh Currer of Kild- 

I wick, CO. York. 

Thomas Meredydd 
of Pentref Bychan. 

.., Meredydd, 

grandson of 


-Elizabeth, d. and heir of Richard 
Myddleton of Bodlith. See vol. iv, 
p. 50. 



Thomas Maredydd of Pentref Bychan.=pMargaret, d. of Thomas Newton of 
I of Liverpool. 

Eichard, Thomas, Margaret, heiress of=T=Joseph Warter of Sibberscott, 
ob. s. p. ob.s.p. Pentref Bycha n. j co. Salop. 

Henry Warter of Pentref Bychan, who assumed the=j=Elizabeth, d. of Mun- 
name and arms of Meredydd by Eoyal sign manual, I go Park, the 

June 15th, 1824. | traveller. 

Henry Warter Meredydd of Pentref=pHenrietta Sophia, d. of Thomas Parry 
Bycban, Colonel in the Army. | Jones Parry of Llwyn On. See vol. ii. 
Henry. Alice. 


{Leivys Bimin, vol. ii, p. 173 ; and Gwnfryn, vol. iv, p. 96.) 

Goronwy ab leuan ab Einion, descended from CoUwyn ab=pEleanor, dau. of 
Tangno. Sable, a chev. inter three fleurs-de-lys argent. I Eobert Puleston. 

John ab Goronwy.=f=Annest, d. of Gruffydd ab Lly- 

I welyn of Castellmarch ; des. 

I from Meirion Goch of Lleyn. 

Gwenhwyfar, ux. John 
ab Maredydd of Ys- 
tymcegid. See vol. iv. 

Gruffydd Wynn ab John. He=7=Mary, d. of Maredydd ab leuan Llwyd of 
jwas shot at Bron y Foel. | ' Llanfair Fechan. 



of Gwn- Wynn 
fryn. of Pen y 

Thomas=pLowry, d. of Wil- 
liam Madog Fy- 
chan of Llwyn 

of Plas 

Margaret, ux. 
Eobert ab 

Gwen, ux 


Ehys of 





John = 
of Pen 

^Catharine, d. of John 
ab Eobert ab Llywel- 
yn of Castellmarch. 
See Lewys Dwnn, vol. 
ii, p. 15. Argent, a 
chevron inter three 
horse's heads, erased 

Gruffydd = 

^Catharine, d. of Griffith 
Madryn of Madryn. 
Sable, a chev. inter 
three fleurs-de-lys ar- 

David Lloyd had Hendrefeinws, which 
descended to Thomas Lloyd of Hendre- 
feinws, He left it to his great-niece 
Mary, who married Edward Owen 
of Caerberllan, and was the grand- 
mother of Mrs. Jones-Parry of Aberdu- 
nant. See vol. iv ; also vol. v, at a future 
page . 

Anne, married first Hugh Lewys, and, 
secondly, she married Eichard Hum- 
phreys, by whom she was mother of 
Bishop Humphreys of Cesail Gy- 
farch. See vol. iv. 

John Wynn. = Margaret, d. of Thomas Wynn of Penmaen, ancestor of Sir 
John Wynn of Glyn Llifon, Bart. 


Hwfa ab Cynddelw, Lord of Llys- 
Llivon in Mon, Chief of One of the 
Noble Tribes of Gwynedd. Gules, 
a chevron inter three lions rampt. 

=Ceinvryd, d. of Ednowain Bendew, 
Chief of One of the Noble Tribes 
of Gwynedd. Argent, a chevron 
inter three boar's heads couped 
sable, tusked or, and langued c/ules. 





T '' 

leuan. = 


Bledrws or 



Gwenhwyfar, heiress, ux. Llywelyn ab 
Madog ab Einion. 

Iorw"erth.=p GruflFydd. = 

Gruffydd.=f=Gwenllian, d. of Khirid Flaidd, Lord of Penllyn. Vert, a chevron 

I inter three wo lf's heads erased argent. 

a I 61 ~\ d'\ Tj 7 1 



a I 

-Gwladys, d. and heir of Howel 
Goch ab lorwerth ab Cad- 
wgan, descended from Lly- 
warch ab Brdn, Lord of 
Cwmwd Menai. Argent, a 
chevron sable, inter three 
Cornish choughs ppr., each 
with an ermine spot in their 

h\ c\ d 

Gruff- Lly wel- = Angharad, 

ydd yn. d. of Lly- 

Fy- welyn ab 

chan. Madog ab 


Sir Howel y Pedolau. 


Ehys, ob. s. p. 


I 1 
lorwerth =pGwenllian, d. and heir of 

Maredydd Ben Hir, ab 
Maredydd ab Llywelyn 
of Aber Alaw in Angle- 
sey ; descended from 
Howel ab Owain Gwy- 
nedd. Vert, three eagles 
displayed in fess or. 



I 3. 




Gwenhwyfar, ux. Howel ab Teg- 
wared ab Madog Goch. 


I 7 


Who all left issue. 

ob. s. p. 

Howel. =T=Angharad, d. of Howel ab Cynwrig Fychan of Tref Brys 
and Hiraethog, ab Cynwrig ab Llywarch ab Heilyn Gloff 
of Carwed Fynydd; descended from Marchweithian, 
Lord of Is Aled. Gules, a lion rampt. argent, armed and 
langued azure. 

I 13 
Gwervyl, ux. 
Llywelyn ab 

leu an 
Wydde l. 


Hwlkyn. He = 
was living on 

the next Mon- 
day after the 
Feast of the. 
21st Eichard 
II, 1398. 

:Erddylad, d, 
and heir of 
Davydd ab 
lorwerth ab 

Llwyd, de- 
scended from 
Llywarch ab 



Llywelyn =Mallt, d. of 

of Bodew- 
ryd Tref 
See p. 287. 

Dafydd ab 
Ednyfed ab 

Llwyd, desc. 
from Lly- 
warch ab 

Cwnws. =Mallt, d. and heir of Dafydd 
Fychan ab Dafydd Llwyd, 
descended from Llywarch ab 

Margaret, ux. 

Dafydd ab 

Gruffydd of 


Llywelyn of Prysaddfed.=f 

Hugh Lewys= 

of Prysadd- 


Janet, d. of William 

Bulkeley ab 

Eichard Bulkeley. 

1 I 3| 4| 

Meurigof Bodeon Dafydd, Gruffydd 

and Bodsilin, an- ob. s. p. of Y 

cestor of the Chwaen 

Owens of Orielton, Barts. Isaf. 

Ehys of Bodychan. 

Elin, ux. Gwilym ab Dafydd ab leu an 

of Llwydiarth in Anglesey. 
h~\ Tj k] 



John =i=Elizabeth, d. of Watkyn 



Fychan ab Thomas ab 
Roger Fychan ab Roger 
leuanc ab Roger Hen 
of Hergest. 

h I 1 

Elin, ux. Owen 

ab John ab 

Rf aredydd of 

Tstum Cegid. 

See vol. iv, 

p. 296. 

i j 2 fc I 3 
Eliza- Alice, ux. John 
beth, ux. Puleston of 
John ab HafodyWern. 
Owen See vol. iii, 
p, 121. 

Hugh Lewys of= 

=Anne, d. of Sir William GruflFydd of Pen- Watkyn 

rhyn, Knt., ab Gwilyn Fychan of Pen- Lewys, oh. s. p. 
rhyn, Chamberlain of Gwynedd. See 
vol. iv, p. 342. 

Margaret, d. of Sir=lst, William Lewys=y=2nd, Elin, d^of Edward ab Hugh 

John Puleston, "~ ----- 

Knt., Chamberlain 
of Gwynedd, and 
Constable of Caer- 
narvon Castle. 
See vol. iii, p. 28. 

of Prysaddfed, High 
Sheriff for Angle- 
sey in 1549, 1557, 
and 1572. He re- 
presented the 
county in two 

Gwyn of Bodewryd, descended 
from Gweirydd ab Rhys Goch, 
Chief of One of the Noble Tribes 
of Gwynedd. Argent, on a bend 
dexter sable, three leopard's 
faces of the first. His residence 
was Henllys in Anglesey, which 
place was granted to William 
Hampton, Deputy- Governor of 
Beaumaris Castle, in 1460. 

Robert Lewys of Cemlyn. See p. 285. 

Margaret, ux. Robert Pugh of 
Penrhyn Creuddyn, Esq. 


{Tai Croesion MSS., p. 263.) 

William Lewys of Prysaddfed, by his first wife Mar- 
garet, daughter of Sir John Puleston, Knt., had issue 
two sons and seven daughters — 

I. Hugh Lewys, of whom presently. 

II. Richard Lewys, M.A., according to Lewys Dwnn 
(ii, 199). 

III. William Lewys, M.A. 

I. Jane, ux. Owain Wood of Rhosmor ap Wm. 

II. Elizabeth, ux. Phys Wynn ab David ab Rhys ab 
David ab Gwilym of Llwydiarth in Anglesey. 

iiL Grace, ux. William Hampton of Porthael...Esq. 

IV. Margaret, ux. Pichard Bulkeley ab Rowland of 
Porthaml, by whom she had issue Powland Bulkeley 


and Grace, ux. Owain Hughes of Hendref in Tref 

V. Mary, ux. William Coetmor ab William of Coet- 
mor, descended from larddur of Penrhyn. Gules, a 
chev. inter three stag's heads caboshed argent, attired or. 

VI. Annest, ux. Dafydd ab Owain ab Tudor of Pen- 

vii. Gay nor, ux. William Hampton of Henllys. 

Lewys Dwnn states that Hugh Lewys of Prysaddfed 
married Margaret, daughter and sole heiress of William 
ab John ab Rhys of Llynon, by whom he had issue 
two sons, — John Lewys of Prysaddfed, and Stewk- 
ley Lewys, who married Alice, daughter of Harri ab 
John ab Phys of Llanamlwch, and then adds : " Mam 
y rhain Margaret, v. AVilliam ab John ab Ehys ; o Anne 
y bu William, John, Margaret. Mam y rhain alis v. 
Harri uchod a vuase priod ag Owain ab Sion ab leuan 
ab Llywelyn ab Dafydd ab Deio o Rhosgolyn ai phlant 
o hwnnw oedd Sion, Marseley, Elin. I John Lewys o Pry- 
saddfed, Esq., y bu Margaret, 1608. Mam hono Anne v. 
Syr Huw Owen, Knt." 

According to the Egerton MS. 2586, Hugh Lewys 
married secondly Mallt, daughter to David John ab Phys 
ab Howel ; and by her had John, who married Ann, 
daughter of Hugh Outes (? Woods) ; 2, Wm. S. J. (sic) ; 
3, Stukley. 

The Tai Croesion MSS., however, state that Hugh Lewys 
had issue by his wife Margaret, the heiress of Llynon, 
five sons, — 1, William, oh. s. 'p. ; 2, Hugh Lewys of 
Prysaddfed, who married Anne Owen, of whom presently ; 
3, Owain Lewys ; 4, Stewkley^ Lewys ; 5, John Stewkley 
Lewys of Neuadd Wen, who married Elen, daughter 

of Pichard of Bodorgan, by whom he had an 

only daughter and heiress, Margaret, who married 

1 Hinton Ampner Manor House, in Hampshii'e, had been for many 
generations in the possession of the Stewkeley family, and on the 
death of Sir Hugh Stewkeley, the last male heir, passed, by right of 
his wife, to Edward, Lord Stowell. 


Richard Williams of Bodlith, by whom she had a son 
and heir, Richard Lewys Stewkley of Neuadd Wen. 

John Lewys of Prysaddfed, High Sheriff for Anglesey 
in 1606 and 1618, called Hugh Lewys in the Tai 
Croesion MSS., married Anne, daughter of Sir Hugh 
Owen of Bodowen or Bodean, Knt. {gyles, a chevron 
inter three lions rampt. or), by whom he had a son and 
heir — 

John Lewys of Prysaddfed, who by Catharine his wife, 
daughter of Evan Lloyd of lal, had issue an only 
daughter and heiress — 

Anne Lewys. She married, first, John, eldest son of 
Sir Hugh Owen of Orielton, Bart., who oh. s.p. in his 
father's life- time; and secondly, Mark Trevor, Lord Viscount 
Dungannon, in Ireland, by whom she had issue two sons, 
— 1, Lewys Trevor; and 2, Mark Trevor, Lord Viscount 

The aforesaid Anne Lewys, Viscountess Dungannon, and 
Mark Trevor her son, sold Prysaddfed to John Owen 
of Cromlech, Esq., barrister-at-law. The said John 
Owen, father to John Owen, the last of Prysaddfed, who 
was M.P. for co. Anglesey 15th George II, died 16th 
February 1754. 


Robert Lewys of Cemlyn, the eldest son by his second 
wife of William Lewys of Prysaddfed, Esq., p. 283, 
married Gaynor, daughter of William Roberts of Caerau, 
by whom he had issue four sons — 

I. William Lewys, of whom presently. 

IT. Samuel Lewys, who by Jane his wife, daughter of 
David ab Maredydd of Llanrwydrys, had issue a son, 
William Lewys, M.A. 

III. John Lewys, M.D. 

IV. Ambrose Lewys of Wrexham. 

William Lewys of Cemlyn married twice. By his first 


wife, Ann, daughter of Howel Lewys of Gwaredog, he 
had no issue, but by his second wife, Anne, daughter of 
William Bulkeley of Bryn ddu, son of the Rev. Arthur 
Bulkeley of Coedan, son of Sir Richard Bulkeley of 
Baron Hill, Knt., and relict of Richard Hughes, parson 
of Llanfair, he had issue, besides a daughter named Sage, 
the wife of John Bulkeley of Bwlchanan, three sons — 

I. Robert Lewys, who married Jane, daughter of 
Robert Bulkeley of Dronwy, and oh. s. p. 

II. Hugh Lewys ; died young. 

III. Ambrose Lewys, parson of Llanrhyddlad, who 
died 8th November 1 729, aged 73 ; and, by Martha his 
wife, daughter of Hugh Humphreys, parson of Tref- 
draeth (which lady died in 1725), had issue four 
sons, besides two daughters, — 1, Anne, ux. Wilham 
Lewys of Trysglwyn ; and 2, Jane, ux. William Bulke- 
ley of Bryn ddu — 

I. William Lewys of Llysdulas and Madryn, who mar- 
ried Elizabeth, daughter of William Meyrick of Bodorgan, 
Esq. (y Bardd Goch), and ob. s. p. 

II. Hugh Lewys, who married Jane, daughter of 
Roger Hughes of Plas Coch, Esq., and relict of Owen 
Williams of Marian, oh. s. p. 

IIL Owen Lewys, oh. s. p. 

IV. Robert Lewys, Chancellor of Bangor, died 1738. 
He married Margaret, daughter of Hugh Price of Beau- 
maris, by whom he had three daughters, co-heirs — 

I. Sydney Lewys, heiress of Madryn, who married 
Love Parry of Wernfawr, Esq. (See Jones Parry of 
Llwyn On and Madryn, vol. ii, and Wynn of Cesail 
Gyfarch, vol. iv.) 

II. Anna Maria, 1765. 

III. Mary Lewys, heiress of Llysdulas, who married 
the Rev. Edward Hughes of Kinmael, M.A., the father 
of the first Lord Dinorben, and Hugh Robert Hughes 
of Bache Hall, co. Chester, Esq., father of Hugh Robert 
Hughes of Kinmael and Dinorben, Esq., the present Lord 
Lieutenant of Flintshire. 



Llywelyn of Bodewryd Tref lorwerth, in Cvvniwd 
Llivon, the fourth son of Howel ab lorwerth Ddu (see p. 
282), married Mallt, daughter of Dafydd ab Ednyfed ab 
Dafydd Llwyd, descended from Llywarch ab Bran, Lord 
of Cwmwd Menai {argent, a chevron sahle, inter three 
Cornish choughs ppr., each with a spot of ermine in its 
beak), by whom he had a son and heir^- 

Howel "y Bharf" of Bodewryd Tref lorwerth. He 
married Mallt, daughter of Bhys ab leuan, descended 
from CoUwyn ab Tangno, Lord of Eivionydd and Ardu- 
dwy {sable, a chevron inter three fleurs-de-lys argent), 
by whom he had issue a son and heir — 

lorwerth ab Howel of Bodewryd Tref lorwerth, who 
married Mallt, daughter of Maredydd ab lorwerth ab 
Einion ab Madog, by whom he had issue, besides one 
daughter, Gwenhwyfar, six sons, — 1, Howel, of whom 
presently ; 2, William ; 3, Hugh ; 4, Lewys ; 5, John ; 
and 6, Robert of Bryn Gwyran. 

Howel ab lorwerth of Bodewryd Tref lorwerth, 
married Morvydd, daughter of Llywelyn ab Dafydd, 
descended from Cyfnerth, the second son of Hwfa ab 
Cynddelw, by whom he had issue four sons, — 1, Lewys, 
of whom presently; 2, Edward of Rhos Peirio; 3, Morgan; 
and 4, Gruffydd. 

Lewys ab Howel of Bodewryd Tref lorwerth, married 
Annest, daughter of William Wood of Llangwyfan in 
Anglesey, by whom he had issue five sons and five 
daughters, — 1, Hugh Lewys of Llechylched, certified 
his pedigree 5th November 1588 ; High Sherifi" for 
Anglesey, 1616, ob. 1618 ; he married, first, Elin, 
daughter of Hugh Conwy of Bryn Eurin, and relict of 
Hugh Gwyn of Bodewryd, which lady died 5. _p., 1589 ; 
he married, secondly, Jane, daughter of Richard White 
of " The Friars", and relict of Gruffydd Lloj'-d of Carne ; 


2, Sir Edward ; 3, Owen ; 4, Richard ; 5, Howel Lewys, 
of whom presently. 1, Janet, ux. John ab William of 
Tref Dolphyn ; 2, Elin, ux. Hugh ab Dafydd Morgan of 
Towyn ; 3, Jane, ux. Owen ab Rhys Owen of Pen 
Traeth ; 4, Elizabeth ; and 5, Anne. 

Howel Lewys, jure uxoris of Trysglwyn. He married 
Anne, daughter and heiress of William, third son of 
Rhys^ ab leuan ab Dafydd Fychan of Y Ty Mawr yn y 
Trysglwyn ab leuan ab Madog ab lorwerth,^ by whom he 
had issue, besides four daughters, Jane, Anne, Elin, and 
Margaret, a son and heir — 

Howel Lewys of Trysglwyn, who, by Dorothy his wife, 
daughter of Maurice Jones of Wern, Penmorfa, ancestor 
of the Wynnes of Peniarth, besides a daughter Anne, ux. 
William Lewys of Cemlyn, had twelve sons, — 1, Maurice 
Lewys, of whom presently ; 2, Lewys Powel (ab Howel), 
barrister-at-law ; 3, John ; 4, Edward Lewys of 
Gwaredog ; 5, Hugh ; 6, Owen ; 7, Rowland Lewys, 
apothecary in London ; 8, Richard ; 9, Howel ; 10, 
Pyers ; 11, Robert ; and 12, William Lewys, D.D. 

Maurice Lewys of Trysglwyn, High Sheriff for Angle- 
sey in 1686. He married Grace, daughter of William 
Mostyn of Bodowyr, M.A., Chancellor of Bangor, by his 
second wife, Anne, daughter and heiress of John Lewys 
of Bodowyr, Esq. (see Mostyn of Llewesog and Segrwyd, 
vol. iv), by whom he had issue five sons and three 
daughters, — 1, Howel, died young ; 2, William, of whom 
presently; 3, Maurice Lewys, barrister-at-law; 4, John 
Lew^ys, B.A., oh. 1722; and 5, John Lewys, who married 

daughter of Edmund Morton of Dubhn. 1, Anne, 

ux. Edward Lloyd of Berth, in the parish of Llanbedr, 
CO. Denbigh, oh. January 17th, 1746-7, (see vol. iv) ; 2, 
Margaret, ux. Hugh Wynn of Tref lorwerth ; and 3, 
Dorothy, ux. Robert Bulkeley of Gronant. 

WilHam Lewys of Trysglwyn, 1723, High SheriiF for 
Anglesey in 1710, married Anne, daughter of Ambrose 

* William ab Rhys of Trysglwyn married twice. 
2 Lewys Dxvnn, vol. ii, pp. 196, 197. 


Lewys of Cemlyn, M.A., Rector of Llanrhyddlad, by 
whom he had a son and heir — 

Ambrose Lewys of Trysglwyn, whose only daughter 
and heiress Anne married John Bodychan Sparrow of 
Redhill in Anglesey, Esq., High Sheriff for Anglesey in 
1781, Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant of the Anglesey 
Local Militia, by whom she had issue a son and heir, 
William Wynne Sparrow of Kedhill, High Sheriff for 
Anglesey in 1822, and seven daughters, the eldest of 
whom, Barbara, married Hugh Robert Hughes of Bache 
Hall, CO. Chester, the father of Hugh Robert Hughes of 
Kinmael and Dinorben, Lord Lieutenant of Flintshire. 


David ab Rhys ab Robert ab Tudor^ ab Robert,^ alias Hob y Dili, ab David=p 
ab Tudor ab Einion ab Cynwrig Fycban ab Cynwrig ab Llywarch of 
Car wed Fynydd, ab Heilyn Gloff ab Tegid ab Tangno ab Ystrwyth ab 
Marchudd ab Marchweithian, Lord of Is Aled. Gules, a lion rampt. 


1 He was the ancestor of John Jones, junior, of Cromlech, who 
died s. p., son of John Jones of Cromlech, ab John of Portreuddeu, 
ab Robert ab GrufFydd ab John ab William ab leuan ab Rhys, second 
son of Tudor ab Robert, alias Hob y Dili. 

2 Robert, alias Hob y Dili, had another son named Thomas, who 
was ancestor of David Davies of Llaethwryd in Caer y Drudion, ab 
John Davies, ab David ab John of Llaethwryd, ab David of Tref 
Brys, ab leuan ab Rhys ab Llywelyu ab Thomas ab Robert, alias 
Hob y Dili. 

VOL. v. 19 



leuan ab=j=Elliw, d. of leuan ab Howel ab leuan ab Madog. She was heiress 
David. I of Hendref Gelli Dowyll, Hafod y Wern, and Bryn Llydan. 

Maurice ab leuan. =pElizabeth, d. of Gruffydd ab Y Bedo. 

Maurice Humphreys.=pLowri, d. of Elisau ab Dafydd. Vert, three eagles 
j displayed in fess or. 

Richard Humphreys=f=Margaret, sister and heir of Robert Wynn of Cesail 
of Hendref I Gyfarch, Esq. Vert, three eagles displayed in fess or. 

Gwenllian. | 

Humphrey Humphreys, Bishop of Bangor. See " Cesail Gyfarch", vol. iv, 
p. 277, and ante, p. 72. 


(See Lewys Bwnn, vol. ii, p. 173; and Gwynfryn, p. 96, xliv; 

Tai Croesion MS. ; Pen y Berth, p. 161 ; and ante, 280.) 
Howel ab Maredydd ab Einion ab Gwgan ab Merwydd=f=Gwenllian, dau. of 

Goch ab Collwyn ab Tangno, Lord of Eivionydd and 
Ardudwy. Sable, a chev. inter three fleurs-de-lys 
argent. See " Rhfig in Edeyrnion". 

Gruffydd, the 2nd 

son of Ednyfed 

Fychan. See 

It Tregayan", vol. ii. 

Gruffydd ab=i=Angharad. 
Howel. I See Rhftg. 

leuan of Cefn y Fan, now called Ystum Cegid, 
He had three daughters, co-heiresses. 


=Negta, d. of Gruf- 
fydd ab Adda. 
Seep. 129. 

Sir Hywel y Fwyall, Knt. ; ob. sans 
issue legitimate. 


leuan, temp. Richard II, of Bron y=j=Gwenhwyfar, d. Rhys^ ab Nesta. 

Foel, Ystymllyn. | ofYnyr Vychan, Einion. 
I Lordof Nannau. 

a \ b \ c \ d \ 

1 Ancestor of Evan Lloyd of D61 y Penrhyn, ab David ab leuan ab 
Howel, son of the above-named Rhys ab Einion. 


a I 3rd son. b | 1st son. c | 2nd son. d 

Goronwy,=rEleanor, d, and Howel =pAngharad, Rhys of = Gwerfil, 

heiress of Fychan V d. of Lly- Chwilog. d. of 

Robert Pules- of Bron welyn ab Rhys 

ton of Gwynfryn y Foel. Howel, Gethin. 

uxoris of 

fryn. See 
ante, p. 

and of Emral. 

I 4th son. 
Madog ab Ieuan.=pGwerfil, d. of Ehys ab Tudor ab Goronwy. 
See p. 292. V 

Johnof Gwyn-=j=Annest, d. and heir of Gruffydd ab Lly welyn ab Gruffydd of 
fryn. I Castellmarch in Lleyn ; descended from Meirion Goch of 

I Lleyn. Argent, a chev. inter three horses' heads erased 
I sable. 

Gruffydd of=pMargaret, or Marsley, dau. of leuan Llwyd ab Gruffydd ab 
Gwynfryn. I Goronwy ab Howel of Llanfair Pechan. 

I 3rd son. ; 1st son [ 2nd son. 

Thomas "Wynn of^pLowri, d. of William ab Mad- Eichardi ab William of 
Pen y Berth. | og Fychan of Llwyn Dyrys. Gruffydd of Plas Gwyn 
I Gwynfryn. Abererch. 

I 2nd son. | 1st son. 

David Lloyd. He had Hendreveinws.=r John Wynn of Pen y Berth.2 

I See p. 281. 

1 He was ancestor of John Wynn of Gwynfryn in Llanystyndwy, 
ab Owain ab John ab Richard ab John, sou of the above-named 
Richard ab Gruffydd. Mary, the eldest daughter and co-heir of the 
last John Wynn of Gwynfryn, had this estate, which she conveyed to 
her husband, David Ellis of Bodychan. (See "Bodychan" at a future 

2 He was the father, by his wife Catharine, daughter of Robert ab 
Llywelyn of Castellmarch in Lleyn (see p. 281), of Gruffydd Wynn, 
father of John Wynn, father of Gruffydd Wynn of Pen y Berth, who 
was churchwarden of Crugieith in 1692, and mai-ried Margaret, sister 
and sole heiress of Owain Ellis of Ystymllyn, ab Owain Ellis ab Ellis 
Ellis ab Owain Ellis, ob. 1622, ab Ellis, oh. 1597, ab Cadwaladr ab 
Thomas ab Rhys ab Howel ab Rhys ab Howel Fychan of Bron y 
Foel, Ystymllyn. By his wife Margaret, the heiress of Ystymllyn, 
Gruffydd Wynne had a son, Ellis Wynne of Ystymllyn, who was buried 
at Crugieith, 18th May 1718 ; and, according to the Crugieith Register, 
this Ellis was the eldest son of Gruffyth Wynne, " Elizeus Wynne, 
filius primo Genitus Gritfini Wynne, de Stymllyn, Armigeri, et Mar- 

garettse uxoris ejus, Baptizatus fuit die Aprilis, 1675", and the 

following inscription is on his tombstone, "Here Lyeth Ellis Wynne, 
Barrister-at-Law, eldest son of Griffith Wynne of Ystymllyn, Esq., and 
Margaret his wife." He was father of ElHs Wynne of Ystymllyn, buried 
Dec. 7th, 1759, who married Margaret Moyn, daughter of Capt. S. 
Wynne and Catharine his wife, daughter of John Rowlands of Nane, 
by whom he had a daughter, Frances Montague, who was buried May 
14:th, 1760. Mrs. Margaret Wynne married secondly, Nov. 21st, 1767, 

19 ^ 



William Lloyd of Hendreveinws.=T=Catharine. 

Thomas Lloyd of Hendreveinws, n. 1621, 06, 1715.=i=Catharine, n. 1647, ob. 
\ 1733. 

William Lloyd=f=Elizabeth, d. of Saython, or Saethon, of Saethon, de- 
scended from Trahaiarn Goch of Lleyn (azure, a chevron 
inter three dolphins naiant embowed argent). She sur- 
rendered the property, being then a widow, to her son, 
Thomas Lloyd, in 1733. 


Thomas Lloyd of Hendreveinws.= 

Anne Lloyd, ux. Gruffydd. 

Thomas Lloyd of Margaret, or Mary, heiress==j=Eiev. Evan Ellis of Llan- 
Hendreveinws, of Hendreveinws. I drillo yn Rhos, n. 1728, 

ob.s.p. 1 06. 1816. 

Mary Ellis, heiress of Hendreveinws. = Rev. Edward Owen. See vol. iv, 

p. 284-289. 


Madog of Talhenbont, fourth son of=f=Gwenhwyfar, d. and heir of Ehys ab 
leuan ab Einion ab Gruffydd of Tudor ab Goronwy ab Ednyfed 
Bron y Foel. See p. 291. ] Fychan. See vol. ii, "Tregayan". 

Howel of Talhenbont.=pErddylad, dau. of the Baron Howel Coetmore. See 
I vol. iv. 

Gruffydd =pLowri, d. of David ab 

of Tal- 

Rhys ab leuan, Baron 

of Cymer, in Edeyr- 


Madog, ancestor of 

the Wynnes of 

Peniarth and the 

Bodvels of Bodvel. 

Ehys of Abercain, 

ancestor of the 
Vaughans of Aber- 
cain and the Prydd- 
erchs of Tref 
Gay an. 

Robert Fychan of-^Lowri, d. of Hugh Conwy of Llys Bryn Eurin ab Robin 
Talhenbont. V ab Gruffydd Goch, Lord of Rhos. Or, a griffon gules. 

The above-named Robert Vychan, or Vaughan, by his 
wife Lowri, had issue ten sons and four daughters — 

I. Gruffydd Vaughan, of whom presently. 

II. Hugh, who married Elizabeth, daughter of Madog 
ab Llywelyn ab Morgan of Edeirnion. 

Ambrose Lewys of Beaumaris, Gent., who died in 1792, and she was 
buried at Crugieith, Dec. 5th, 1 799. She sold Ystymllyn to Humphrey 
Jones, Solicitor, of Machynlleth. 


III. John of Tryfan, who married Margaret, daughter 
of Teuan ab John ab Maredydd, of the family of Neigwl 

IV. leuan, who married, first, Elin, daughter of leuan 
Carreg ab John Carreg of Carreg [azure, a chevron inter 
three dolphins naiant embowed argent), and secondly he 
married Isabel, daughter of Thomas Gruffydd of Pen 
y Berth. 

V. Henry, who married Elizabeth Johnson of Beau- 

vr. Thomas Vaughan of Nyffryn, who married Cath- 
arine, daughter of Grufiydd ah John ab Gruffydd of Cefn 
Amwlch in Lleyn [azure, a chevron inter three dolphins 
naiant embowed argent), by whom he had issue two sons, 
Robert Vaughan of Plas Hen, and Richard Vaughan, 
Bishop of Bangor, Chester, and London, who died in 

1607, and whose daughter Dorothy was the wife of 

Bishop of Norwich. 

VII. Rhys, who married Magdalene, daughter of 
William Glyn of Pwllheli. 

VII [. David, married in Llanbadarn ; ix, Rhydderch, 
oh. s. p.; and x, Morgan, who died in the service of the 
Earl of Denbigh. 

I. Mabel, ux. Rhys Wynn ab Robert of Gwernengay. 

II. Alice, ux. Robert Gruffydd of Gwynfryn. (P. 291.) 

III. Elizabeth, ux. David ab Rhys ab Robert of Tal 
y Cafn. 

IV. Lowri, ux. Gruffydd Lewys of Chwilog. 
Gruffydd Vaughan of Talhenbont married Elizabeth, 

daughter of Uwen ab John ab Maredydd of Ystym 
Cegid, formerly called Cefn y Fan [vert, three eagles 
displayed in fess or), by whom he had issue — 

I. Robert Vaughan, of whom presently. 

II. Richard Gruffydd of Glandwyfor. 

III. William ; iv, John ; v, Robert ; vi, Edward ; vii, 
Humphrey, parson of Llanystyndwy. 

I. Elizabeth, ux. Rowland ab Robert of Mellteyrn. 

II. Janet, ux. Gruffydd Madryn of Madryn. 
Robert Vaughan of Talhenbont. He married Lowri, 



daughter of Hugh ab John ab Madog Bodvel, by whom 
he had a son and heir, — Richard Yaughan of P14s Hen, 
CO. Meirionedd, whose only daughter and heir, Anne, was 
heiress of Plas Hen, and married William Vaughan of 
Cors y Gedol, Esq., whose line is now represented by the 
Lord Mostyn. (See vol. iv, ^jp. 153, 384.) 


(Cae Cijriocj MS.; Harl. MS., 1969 and 1971.) 
leuan ab Llywelyn Fychan ab Llywelyn, second son of=j=Anne, d. of Ehys 

leuan ab David of Copa'r Goleuni, ab Cynwrig ab 
leuan ab Gruifydd ab Madog Ddu of Copa'r Goleuni 
in Tegeingl (palii of six, argent and sable). See p. 244, 
and vol. iv, p. 99. 

ab Cynwrig ab 


See p. 297. 

Gruifydd ab leuan of Lleweni Isaf =T=2nd wife, Alice, d. of John Owen of 
I Llansaintffraid. 

Thomas ab Gruffydd. See p. 298.=]= 


Edward Griffith of Garn.=j=Frances, d. of Gawen Goodman of Ruthin. 

j Vol. iv, 187. 

Thomas Griffith of Gain.=f= 

Edward Griffith of Garn, living 1643.^=f=Prances, married c. 1621. 

1 As appears from a stone let into the wall of the part still standing 
of the old house which was burnt down in 1 738, with the letters 


E F. In vol. iv, p. 374, it is stated that the daughter and heiress 

J643 ' r J o 

of David Morris, D.D., Vicar of Abergele and Bettws yn Rhos, 
married Edward Griffith of Henllan parish, Barrister-at-Law, who is 
styled in Harleian MS. 1971, f. 72, of Plus Ncwydd or Henllan. 



Robert Griffith of=f=Jane, d. and heiress of John 

Gam, married 
13th April 1642. 

Prichard of Cwybr, in the 
parish of Rhuddlan. 

Ellen, ux. Captain Charles 
Chambers of Plas Cham- 
bers. Married c. 1640; 
ob. Dec. 1652. See Cwtta, 
p. 210. 

John Griffith=pMary, eldest d. of Ffoulk Myddleton of Gwaunynog, 

of Garn and 

Cwybr J ob 


CO. Denbigh, Esq. (argent, on a bend vert, three 
wolfs heads erased of the field) ; ob. 1711. 


Edward Griffith=f=Margaret, d. of Holland Williams of 

of Garn; buried 
at Conwy 13th 
October 1700. 

Aberconwy, and Jane his wife, d. of 
Edward Edwards of Llwyn Du. 
Holland and Jane were married 
2nd May 1693. 

I I I I 
Jane, ux. ... Ben- 
Lucy, ux. ... 

John Griffith of Garn ; born=pMai'y, d. of John 

Jan. 1695. He rebuilt Garn 
in 1739, after it had been 
burnt down, and died sud- 
denly at Shrewsbury, about 
April in 1758, and was 
buried in the vault of the 
Owens of Brogyntyn in Old 
St. Chad's in that town. 

Davies of Tresi- 

llan Colffryn, co. 


married 1723 ; 

buried at Hen- 

Uan, 1740. 

I I 
Edward, ob. 
inf. 1693. 

Edward, b. 


Minister of 


Buried at 

Conwy, 1732; 

aged 34. 

Jane, ux. 

Wynne of 

c. 1716. 

born 1700. 

John Griffith of Garn, born llth=pjane, d. of John Hughes of Weeg, co. Caer- 

April 1737; ob. 30th March 
1791 ; buried at HenUan, 

John Wynne Griffith of Garn ;=f 
born 1st April 1763, at Weeg ; I 
M. P. for Denbigh Boroughs, | 
Colonel of the Denbighshire V 
Local Militia, and Chairman 
of the Quarter Sessions for co. 
Denbigh. Ob. 16th June 1834. 

narvon, and Caer Berllan, in Llanrwst, 
CO. Denbigh. Married in 1762; ob. at 
Denbigh, 1811. 

Jane, d. of Robert Wynne of Garthmeilio, 
Cwm Mein, and Plas Newydd, now called 
Plas Heaton, and Mary his wife, d. and 
heiress of Humphrey Roberts of Bryn y 
Neuadd, co. Caernarvon. Married 16th 
February 1785; ob. 8th March 1814. 
Argent, six bees ppr. 3, 2, 1. 

The above-named John Wynne Griffith, Esq., by Jane 
his wife, had issue nine sons and four daughters — 

I. John Wynne Griffith, n. 1786. Ensign 2nd Eegi- 
ment of Infantry ; died of the plague at Gibraltar, 22nd 
October 1804. 

IL Eobert Griffith, n. 1787. Clerk; ob. April 1818. 

III. Thomas, n. 1788. Lieutenant 20th Bengal Native 
Infantry ; died at Barrackpore, 13th August 1813. 

IV. George, who succeeded to the estates, of whom 


V. Edward Humphrey Griffith, 7i. 1792, ob. 1872, 
built a new house called P14s Newydd, and was 
buried at Tl'efnant. He married Maria, daughter of 
William Parry of Ty Newydd, by whom he had issue, 
besides a daughter, Charlotte Eliza, one son, Edward 
Wynne Griffith, n. 1837, who married, in 1871, Emma 

Frances Marianne, daughter of Park, of Ince Hall, 

CO. Chester, Esq., by whom he had issue, — 1, Edward 
Waldegrave, n. 1871 ; and 2, Humphrey James, 7i. 1872, 
ob. 1873 ; and one daughter, Frances, 7i. 1874. 

VI. Charles, n. 1794, ob. 1797 ; vii. Richard Augustus, 
Clerk, ob. 1831, s. p. ; viii. Frederick, Rector of Llangar, 
CO. Meirionydd, ob. 1838, s. p. ; ix. William Henry, 
Barrister- at-law, ob. 1836, s. p. 

Of the four daughters, the third, Harriet, alone, who 
was born in 1801 and died in 1859, married, and had 
issue. She became the wife of John Price of Llanrhaiadr 
Hall, in Ceinmeirch, Esq., who died 1872, and by whom 
she had issue six children, the eldest of whom, John 
Griffith Price, who was born in 1828, was Major in the 
2ud Dragoon Guards, and died s. p. at Lucknow, 12th 
May 1858. The second son, Pobert Wynne Price, who 
was born in 1830, was Captain in the 15th Regiment, 
married Laura Fitzroy, daughter of Mr. Cartwright, the 
eminent dentist, of The Hazels, co. Kent, and died, s. p. 
1879. Their two daughters, Harriet Jane and Anne 
Eliza, are unmarried. 

George Griffith of Garn, n. 1790, ob. 1877, married, 
20th September 1836, Charlotte Maria, daughter of John 
Douglas of Gym Castle, co. Flint, Esq., which lady died 
28th December 1842, by whom he had issue, besides two 
sons, who died infants, a son and heir — 

Wilham Douglas Wynne Griffith of Garn, 7i. 1840; 
married, January 1872, Jessie, youngest daughter of John 
Heaton of Plas Heaton, Esq., and the Hon. Anne Eliza- 
beth his wife, daughter of John, Lord Henniker, by whom 
he has issue three sons, — '1, John Douglas Wynne, 7i. 
1874 ; 2, George Heaton, w. 1879; and Goronwy Robert, 
n. 1881; and three daughters, — Jessie Charlotte, ?i. 1873; 
Anne Eliza, n. 1879; and Gwladys Ermine, n. 1885. 




{Harl. MS. 1969 and 1971.) 

Llywelyn Fychan ab Llywelyn, second son of leuan ab 
David of Copa'r Goleuni, ab Cynwrig ab leuan ab GrufF- 
ydd ab Madog Ddu of Copa'r Goleuni (see p. 294, and 
vol. iv, p. 99), married Janet, daughter of Dafydd (or 
leuan ab Davydd) ab leuan ab Ithel Vychan of Llan- 
eurgain, by whom he had two sons and three daughters — 

I. leuan ab Llywelyn Fychan, of whom presently ; ii, 

I. Angharad, ux. leuan ab Dafydd Llwyd ab Gruffydd; 

n, ux. Khys ab Cwnws ; iii, ux. Thomas ab 

Llywelyn ab E-hys Llv^^yd. 

leuan ab Llywelyn of Lleweni Isaf, married Agnes (or 
Anne), daughter of Rhys ab Cynwrig ab Rotpert ab lor- 
werth ab Rhirid ab Madog ab F^dnowain Bendew {argent, 
a chevron inter three boar's heads couped sahle, langued 
gules), by whom he had issue seven sons and one 
daughter, Catharine, ux. John ab Benet ab Dafydd — 

I. Gruffith ab leuan of Lleweni Isaf, of whom pre- 

II. David Lloyd, married Elen, daughter of Robert of 
Twysog in the parish of Henllan, second son of leuan 
ab Tudor ab Gruffydd Llwyd of Beraiu. (See vol. iv 
p. 343.) 

III. Thomas, married Margaret, daughter of Rhys ab 
Benet of Bodelwyddan. 


IV. leuan ; v, Hugh ; vi, Robert. 

VII. Sir Rhys ah leuan of Dinmeirchion, married Mar- 
garet, daughter of John ab Gruffydd ab Dafydd ab Ithel 

Gruffydd ab leuan of Lleweni Isaf, married twice. By 
his second wife, Alice, daughter of John Owen of Llan- 
santffraid, he had issue three sons and two daughters — 

I. Edward Griffith, who oh. s. p., and conveyed his 
lands to Sir Peter Mutton of Llanerch, Knt., his sister's 

II. Thomas Griffith, ancestor of the Griffiths of Garn 
in Henllan parish. (See p. 294.) 

III. John Griffith, who by Susan his wife, daughter of 
William Roane of Bristol, had one son, William 
Griffith, and one daughter, Mary, ux. Piers Mostyn of 

I. Anne, ux. first, John Mutton, and secondly, John 

II. Lowry, ux. John Panton of Henllan. 

GrutFydd ab leuan of Lleweni Isaf, married, first, Janet, 
daughter of Richard ab Howel ab leuan Fychan, Lord 
of Mostyn (see vol. iv, p. 149), by whom he had issue, 
besides two daughters, Catharine, ux. John ab Lewys ab 
Tudor ab leuan, and Alice, ux. David Lloyd ab Rhys, 
two sons — 

I. Lewys ab Gruffydd, who by Agnes his wife, 
daughter of John ab Owen ab John ab Robin ab Gruf- 
fydd Goch, had an only daughter and heiress, Catharine, 
who married, first, Thomas Salusbury of Flint, and 
secondly, Robert Mostyn, 

II. Robert Griffith, ^t^re itxom of Pengwern, o6. 1609, 
aged 92.^ He married Alice Wen, daughter and heiress 
of Hugh ab Edward ab Howel ab Jenkyn ab Davydd 
Crach ab Madoc ab Gronow ab Cynwric ab Iddon ab 
lorwerth ab Edryd ab Enathan, of Pengwern, to Mar- 
chudd. By this lady, who died 4th February 1595, he 
had issue two sons — 

I. Edward Griffith, who by his wife, daughter of 

^ See Peter Roberts' Diary, p. 11. 


Robert Wyn ab John ab Rhys of Wickwar, had issue 
one son, John Edward, oh. s. p., and one daughter, Mar- 
garet, who married in 1639 Robert Salusbury of Gallt 
Vaenan. (See p. 99.) 

II. leuan Griffith of Pengwern, ob. 1616. He married 
Ellen, daughter of Edward Williams of Aberconwy, and 
sister of John Williams, Bishop of Lincoln, Lord Keeper, 
and Archbishop of York. She married, secondly, in 
1623, Sir Peter Mutton of Llanerch, Knt. By this lady, 
who died at Plas Isaf in 1643, leuan Griffith had issue 
three sons, Robert and John, twins, and Thomas. 

Robert Griffith of Pengwern, born 1612, oh. 1659. 
He built Pengwern Hall in 1636, but, according to a 
memorandum preserved at Pengwern, the bouse was built 
by his mother, Ellen, sister of Archbishop Williams, for 
her use. He married Mary, daughter and heiress of John 
Price of Giler, by whom he had, besides four sons who 
died s. p., three daughters, of whom Anne, the second, 
married John Lloyd, third son of John Lloyd of Wickwar, 
by Jane his wife, third daughter of Evan Lloyd of Cefn, 
by whom she had a son and heir- 
Evan Lloyd of Pengwern, who married Lucy Paget, 
the daughter of a London merchant, and by her, who 
was buried in St. Asaph Cathedral in 1742, he had an 
only daughter — 

Anna Maria, heiress of Pengwern. She married Sir 
Edward Lloyd, jii7'e uxoris of Pengwern, and, by pur- 
chase, of Berthlloyd, in the parish of Llanidloes, and of 
Pwll Halawg, co. Flint. Created a baronet, August 
22ncl, 1778. He married, secondly, Amelia, daughter of 
Sir William Yonge of Escott, co. Devon, Bart. He was 
the second son of John Lloyd of Pontruffydd (see 
p. 300). He died at Pengwern May 26, 1795, aged 85 
years and six months. He was eleven years Under- 
Secretary at ^Yar, under the late Sir William Yonge, 
Bart., afterwards under Lord Holland and Lord Barring- 
ton, which office he held some years. Thenceforward he 
was Secretary at War for Scotland. He served the office 
of High Sheriff for the several counties of Flint, Meir- 
ionedd, Denbigh, and Montgomery. 




David Lloyd of Fforest, ab John Lloyd ab William Lloyd ab D^vid Lloyd= 
of Fforest, third son of Maredydd ab Goronwy ab Gruffydd Gethin ab 
Dafydd Llwyd ab Ednyfed ab Tudyr ab Dwywg ab Gwilym ab Ehys ab 
Edryd ab Jonathan ab Japhet ab Carwed ab Marchudd ab Cynan, Chief 
of one of the Noble Tribes of Gwynedd, and Lord of Uwcb t)ulas, Aber- 
geleu, and Bryn Ffanigl. Gules, a Saracen's head erased at the neck 
ppr. wreathed argent and sable. 

John Lloyd of Pontruffydd,= 
which place he purchased 
from John Madocks, Esq., 
of that place, cir. 1710. 
See Fron Iw. 

-Eebecca, d. and heiress of William Owen of 
Pentref Gwyddel, and Elizabeth his wife, d. 
and co-heir of Robert Wynne of Plas Isaf, in 
Edeyrnion, descended from Owain Brog- 
yntyn and Catharine his wife, d. of John 
Lloyd of Ehagad, descended from Osborn 


Lloyd of 




Frances, d. and heir of 

Bell Jones of Plas 

Mawr, CO. Flint, by 

Catharine his wife, d. of 

Eobert Conway of 

Pwll y Crochan.i 

Su" Edward Lloyd, jure 

uxoris of Pengwern, 
created a Baronet Aug. 
22nd, 1778, with rever- 
sion to his nephew, Bell 
Lloyd, should he have 
no male issue. See 
p. 299. 

Margaret, ux. 
Josiah Mor- 
rall of Plas 

lolyn and Cil 

Buried at St. 
Asaph, 1766. 

* " Robert Conway of Pwll y Crochan (by his wife Ellen, daughter 
of William Hookes of Conway), was son of Davydd Llwyd (by his 
wife Catharine, daugliter of Hugh ab William of Graianllyn), son of 
Reignallt Conway, son of Hugh Conway ab Robin ab Gruffydd Goch, 
Lord of Rhos and Rhuvoniog."— //"aW. MS. 1969, p. 313. 



Bell Lloyd of Pontruffydd, and jwre=pAnne, d. and heir of Edward Pryce 

uxoris of Bodfach, etc. , High Sheriff 
for CO. Montgomery, 1784; 06. 1788. 

of Bodfach, Glanmeheli, and Bolte- 
brook, Esq. See vol. iv, p. 410. 

|1 |2 

Sir Edward Pryce Bell. 

Lloyd, second 
Baronet. Created 

Baron Mostyn 
in 1801. 06.1854. 
See Burke's Peerage. 





Frances, ux. Thomas 

Mostyn Edwards of 

Cilcain Hall ; married at 

Bodfari 15th April 

1784. See vol. iv, 

p. 327. 



leuan ab Rhys ab Gruffydd Llwyd of Kinmael. See vol. iv, p. 345.= 

David Anwyl of Garth Garmon.=i= 

Robert Anwyl.=f=Elizabeth, dau. of Sir Robert Price ab Maredydd ab Rhys 
[ of Plas lolyn. See vol. iv. 

Thomas Anwyl.=pElizabeth, d. of William ab leuan Llwyd of Llansannan. 

William Anwyl.=pGrace, d. of Cadwaladr Wynne of Yoelas, Esq. 

Rhys Anwyl.=f= Alice, d. of John Ellis of .. .^ 

William Anwyl of Garth Garmon.=Margaret, d. of John Lloyd of Gwrych. 

See post. 

1 " John Ellis, son of Moses and Catharine ElHs, grandson of John 
Lloyd of Gwrych, first mate of the Fort George, Tndiaman, was 
drowned at sea in sight of the home he was born in, 8th August 1733, 
aged 31." — Abergele Register. 




(Harl. MS. 1969, 1977; Add. MS. 9865; Transcripts by Joseph 
Morris from the Pedigrees of John Salusbury of Erbis- 
tock ; Cwtta Oyfarwydd of Peter Roberts, etc.) 

Ehys ab Einion ab Madoc ab Bleddyn (whose sister Eva was ux. Mered-=p 
ydd ab Bleddyn, Prince of Powys) ab Bledrws, third son of Ednowain 
Bendew, Lord of Tegeingl, Chief of one of the Fifteen Noble Tribes of 
Gwynedd, by his wife Gwervyl, d. of Lluddoccaf ab Tudor Trevor, Chief 
of the Noble Tribe of the Marches, Prince of Hereford and Gloucester. 
Argent, a chevron gules, inter three boar's heads couped sable, for Bledrws 
ab Ednowain. 

Ithel ab Ehys,=p Alice (or Mallt), d. of Gruffydd ab Ehys of Llanddewi. 

Tudyr=fNest, d. of Tudyr ab Gronow ab Bleddyn ab Cynwric ab Ithel 
ab I Llwyd ab Cadwgan ab Llywarch Vychan ab Llywarch Holbwrch, 
Ithel. I Lord of Meriadoc. Vert, a stag trippant argent, attired and un- 
I guled or. 

Gruflfydd =i=Mallt (or Jonet), d. of Llewelyn ab Bleddyn of Pant Llwyd (Pant 
ab Tudyr. | y Llongdy. — J. M.). (The order of these two marriages is 
I reversed by Joseph Morris.) 

Davydd ab=f=Margaret, d. and heir of Davydd ab Llewelyn ab Tudyr ab 
Gruffydd Davydd ab Cynan ab Cynwric ab Cynwric ab Gwgan ab 

of Idnerth ab Edryd ab Jonathan ab Japhet ab Carwed ab 

Wickwar. Marchudd, Chief of one of the Noble Tribes of Gwynedd. 

Gules, a Saracen's head erased ppr. wreathed about the 
temples argent and sable. 



1st, Gwen, d. of Sir Gruffydd ab Einion, Par- = Ehys ab: 
son of Llannevydd, s. p. Davydd. 

Davydd Hynav, a natu- = 
ral son of E-hys ab Da- 
vydd, by his second 
wife Mallt, with whom 
he cohabited for seven 
years before the death 
of his first wife Gwen, 
by whom he had also 
a natural dau. named 
Catharine. Harl. MS. 

= Catharine, d. and h. of Wil- 
liam Llwyd of Havod y 
Maidd in Cerrig y Drudion, 
ab Eobert ab Maredydd ab 
Tudor ab Howel ab Cyn- 
wric Vychan, descended 
from Marchweithain. Gules, 
a lion rampant argent, arm- 
ed and lansrued aziire. 

=2 ad, Mallt, d. of 
leuan ab Ehys 
ab Gronow ab 
Cynwric ab Ble- 
ddyn Llwyd of 
Havod Unos, 
descended from 
Hedd Moelwy. 
nog. Chief of 
One of the 15 
Noble Tribes of 
Gwynedd. Sable, 
a hart argent, at- 
tired and un- 
guled or. 

1 I I I 
leuan Lloyd = Margaret, 

of Wickwar, 
ob. IfilO. 

3. Thomas. 

4. Gruffydd. 
1. Margaret. 

d. of 
John .. 

David Lloyd= Alice, d. of Gruffydd ab leuan ab 
of Vaenol. Llyweiyn Vychan, a poetess. 

See p. 306. descended from Edwin ab Gor- 

onwy, Prince of Tegeingl. 

The above-named leuan Lloyd had issue by his wife 
Margaret, besides a daughter, Elizabeth, who died a 
widow in 1644, three sons : — 

I. John Lloyd, of whom presently. 

II. Robert Lloyd, Vicar of Wrexham, with several 
other preferments, oh. 1640 (see p. 306). 

III. David Lloyd, married Alice, daughter of David 
ab Robert, burgess and mercer, of Denbigh, by whom he 
had issue three sons — John, William, and Bobert. 

John Lloyd of Wickwar,^ burgess and recorder of Den- 
bigh, ob. 1618. He married Alice, daughter and heiress 
of Robert ab John Wyn ab leuan ab Rhys of Bryn 
Cynwric, who died in 1625 (see vol. iv). She was 
buried Jan. 11th, 1625-6. By her he had issue four 
sons and five daughters : — 

I. Edward Lloyd, of whom presently. 

^ " Primo die Mali, 1617, John Lloyd of Wickwer, gentleman, 
being a clerke attending his Ma'ties Counsell of the Marches, and 
one of the Attornies of the Great Sessions, was admitted ' a burgess 
of the town of Denbigh', in consideration that he hath been always 
willinge and reddie to defend the state of this town." — A. and M. 
Denbigh, p. 108. 


II. John Lloyd, mercer at Denbigh. Party to a deed 
with his wife, Anne, 4th Oct. 1618, and 6 April 1631. 

III. Robert Lloyd, married Elizabeth, daughter of 
David Wynne of Llangynhafal. 

IV. Ffoulke Lloyd, married Elizabeth, daughter of 
John Lloyd, Marshal. 

I. Margaret, ux. John "Williams of Carv^ed Fynydd, 
Proctor of the Consistory Court of St. Asaph. 

II. Elizabeth, ux. John ab Pichard ab Piers of Cwybr, 
in the parish of Henllan, oh. 1637, by whom she had a 
daughter and heir, Jane, who married Edward Griffith 
of Garn, in the parish of Henllan, to whom she carried 
the estate. 

III. Anne, ux. John Ffoulkes of Vaenol. 

IV. Catharine, ux. Thomas Burchinshaw ab John 
Burchinshaw of Arllwyd, in Llansannan. 

V. Mary, ux. Thomas Price of Pwll Gwyn. 
Edward Lloyd of Wickwar, Notary Public, Proctor of 
the Consistory Court of Chester, ob. 1615 v. p., and was 
interred at Whitchurch (Eglwys Wen). He married 
Catharine, daughter of Cadwaladr Wynne of Hafod y 
Maidd, by Elliw his wife, daughter of Cadwaladr Price 
of Rhiwlas, ab Robert ab Rhys ab Maredydd, by whom 
he had issue three sons and three daughters — 

I. John Lloyd of Wickwar, " the Attorney" (P. 
Roberts's Diary), who married, Jan. 19th, ] 618-9, Jane, 
third daughter of Evan Lloyd of Cefn, in Meriadog. 
She died 26th July 1661. 

II. David Lloyd of Tyrddin, who married Dorothy, oh. 
1671, daughter of Edward Wynn of Ystrad and Llwyn 
(see vol. iii), by whom he had a son, Edward Lloyd, who 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Henry Cornish, Knt., 
Alderman of London, who was beheaded 2 James II, 
by whom he had issue four sons, who all died s. p. — 1, 
Edward, oh. 1776; 2, Thomas, who died at Fort Marl- 
borough in Sumatra in 1715, aged 33 ; 3, Henry ; and 
4, Ellis ; and six daughters, who all died s. p., of whom 
Grace, the eldest, married John Chambres of Plas 
Chambres, in Henllan parish, oh. s. p. 

III. Robert Lloyd, who died at Naples, s. p. 



I. Alice, ux. John Lloyd of Beitli, in Llunbedr 
Djffryn Clwyd (see vol. iv). 

IL Dorothy, ux. Ellis Lloyd of Ehanhir, in Llanger- 

III. Elin, ux. Hugh Ffoulkes of Llechryd in Llan 
Nefydd, ob. 1686, wt. 78. 

The above-named John Lloyd of Wickwar, by his wife 
Jane had issue eight sons — 1, Evan Lloyd, of whom 
presently ; 2, Ithel ; 8, Thomas of London ; 4, John ; 
5, Edward ; 6, Owen ; 7, Eobert ; and 8, David ; and 
six daughters — 1, Catharine, ux. John Salusbury of 
Dinorben ; 2, Anne, ux. John Vaughan of the Lodge ; 
3, Jane ; 4, Sydney ; 5, Mary, ux. Richard Lloyd of Llan- 
ynys ; and 6, Elizabeth, ux. Henry Hughes of Pentref. 

Evan Lloyd of Wickwar, n. 1623, married Dorothy, 
daughter of William Wynne of Melai, Esq., Colonel in the 
Army (see "Khug"), by whom he had a son and heir — 

John Lloyd of Wickwar, n. 1653, ob. 1680, who 
married Margaret, daughter of Howel Lloyd of Croes 
locyn, by whom he had, besides two sons, John, o6. 1715, 
cet. 37, and Thomas, ob. 1715, (Bt. 34, and two daughters : 
1, Susannah, n. 1678, ob. 1750; 2, Margaret, ux. John 
Vaughan of Caer Gai, Esq., whose daughter and heir 
sold Caer Gai to Sir Watkin Williams Wynn, Bart., of 
Wynnstay, a son and heir — 

Howel Lloyd of Wickwar, ob. 1729, cet. 48, who married 
Phoebe, daughter and heir of Hedd Lloyd of Hafod Unos 
in Llangerniew, Esq., ob. 1760, by his wife Mary, daughter 
of Thomas Lloyd of Halchdyn, Esq., by whom he had 
issue four sons and two daughters — 

I. John Lloyd, of whom presently. 

II. Howel Lloyd of Hafod Unos and Wickwar, who 
succeeded his brother John. He married Dorothea, 
daughter of Benjamin Conway, Clerk, Warden of Christ's 
Hospital in Ruthin. (See "Hafod Unos", vol iv.) 

III. Hedd, living in 1774, Clerk, of Hope, Rector 
of Bodfari, and Halkin, co. Flint, and afterwards of Bagillt 
Hall He married Margaret Wicksted of Whitchurch, 
CO. Salop. 

VOL. V. 20 



IV. Hugh Lloyd, vicar of Mold/ who married Lucy, 
daughter of Eichard Lloyd of Llanynys, by whom he 
had a daughter, Catharine Lloyd. 

I. Mary, who lived at P14s Coch in Llanychan, oh. 
s. p. 

IT. Ursula, ux. Hugh Lloyd of Berth in Llanbedr 
Dyffryn Clwyd, Esq. (See vol. iv.) 

John Lloyd of Hafod Unos and Wickwar, oh. 1746-7. 
He married, first, Barbara, daughter of John Wynne of 
GarthmeiHo, and Plas Newydd, now called Plas Heaton, 
by whom he had issue one son, Hedd, oh. infans, 1748. 

He married, secondly, Susannah, daughter of 

Whitehall of Broughton (see vol. iii), by whom he had 
no issue, and was succeeded by his brother. (See " Havod 
Unos", vol. iv, 387.) 


David Lloyd of Vaenol, ab Ehys ab Darid= 
of Wickwar, elder brother of leuan Lloyd 
of Wickwar (see p. 300). Quarterly, 1st 
and 4th, vert, a stag trippant arg., armed 
or; 2nd and 3rd, arg., a chevron inter 
three boar's heads conped sable. 

^Alice, a poetess, d. of Gruffydd 
ab leuan ab Llywelyn Fy- 
chan; descended from Edwin. 
See vol. iv, p. 99. 

,1 I 2 I 3 
John Lloyd=pMargaret, d. of Thomas Thomas William Lloyd, Par- 
Lloyd of rias Llangwy- Lloyd. son of Llanrhaiadr, 
van, in Dogveilin. See Llanvechain, Llan- 
vol. iv. wrin, and Wrexham."-' 

of Vaenol, 

St. Asaph. 

Lloyd, M.D. 

Edward Lloyd, Proctor of the Consistory Court of St. Asaph j 
ob. 1638-9, aged 90. 

Anne Lloyd, sole heir- = John Price of Rhiwlas in Penllyn, Esq., nb Cad- 
ess of Vaenol ; mar- waladr Price ab John Wyn Price ab Cadwaladr 
ried 1596; ob. 1608. ab Robert ab Ehys ab Maredydd. See vol. iv. 
Buried at Llanvor, " Plas lolyn". 
CO. Meirionydd. 

^ Hugh Lloyd was Vicar of Llanasa' 1716, Mold 1717, Llangyn- 
haval 1729, Prebendary of Meivod 1730. 

2 According to Joseph Morris. But, according to Randle Holmes, 
all these benefices were held by Robert Lloyd, second son of leuan 
Lloyd of Wickwar. (See p. 303.) 




Piers or Peter ab Robert ab Harri ab John ab Robert 
ab Harri ab Piers ab John ab Piers ab John ab John. 
( Vron Iiv MS. 23.) 








(Gontiimed from p. 67.) 

Thomas ab Rhydderch ab Rhys ab GrufFydd of Aber- 
glasney, in Llangathan, married Maud, daughter of 
Jenkyn Lloyd Fychan of Pwll Dyfach (see p. Q7), by 
whom he had issue, besides other children, a son and 
heir — 

Sir William Thomas of Aberglasney, Knight Banneret 
and High Sheriff for co. Caermarthen in 1539, who mar- 
ried Jane, daughter of Sir William Herbert of Colebrook, 
Knight, by whom he had issue six sons : — 1, Rhys 
Thomas of Coed Helen, of whom presently ; 2, Bar- 
tholomew of Cemmes ; 3, John ; 4, Thomas ; 5, James ; 
and 6, George; and four daughters — 1, Catharine, ux. 
William Morgan of Moddlescomb ; 2, Elizabeth, ux. 
Thomas Bromwich of Herefordshire ; 3, Dorothy, ux. 

20 2 


David ab Rhydderch ab Hywel of Llanymddyfri ; and 
4, Mary, ux. John Vychan of Tywyn Meirionydd. 

Rhys Thomas of Coed Helen, co. Caernarvon, and of 
Tir Mon (Anglesey), was High Sheriff for Caernarvon- 
shire in 1574. He married Jane, daughter of Sir John 
Puleston of Tir Mon and Hafod y Wern, Knight, by 
whom he had issue two sons and three daughters — ■ 

I. Captain Sir William Thomas, of whom presently. 

II. John Thomas, who had Bryn Rhin in Caernarvon- 
shire, and married Jane, daughter of Robert Gruffydd of 
Aber Dwyffri, by whom he had a son, William Bach, 
the father of John, who, by his wife Mary Grufifydd, had 
a son named William. 

I. Gaynor; she married, first, Robert ab Hugh ab Row- 
land ab Hugh of Mathafarn, and secondly, she was the 
second wife of John Owen of Machynlleth, Esq. (See 
p. 105, and Lewys Dwnn, vol. i, and Addenda.) 

II. Jane, ux. Hugh Gwyn of Bodwrda, ancestor of 
the Bodwrdas of Bodwrda, descended from Trahaiarn 
Goch of Lleyn. Azure, a chevron inter three dolphins 
naiant embowed argent. 

III. Margaret, ux. John Grufifydd of Tref Arthur. 
Captain Sir William Thomas of Coed Helen was slain 

in Flanders in the year 1586. He married Jane, 
daughter of William Grufifydd of Caernarvon, by whom 
he had three sons and four daughters — 

I. Sir William, of whom presently. 

II. Rhys Thomas, Parson of Aber and Aberfifraw, oh. 

III. Grufifydd Thomas, who, by his wife Margaret 
Arrowsmith, had, besides other children, a son and heir, 
William Thomas, Alderman of Caernarvon, who had issue 
three daughters, the eldest of whom married William 
Williams of Llandegwning, and Dorothy and Eleanor 
died s. p. 

I. Elen, ux. Richard Foxwist. 

II. Jane, ux. Hugh Lloyd Rosindale of Foxhall, or 
Ffoulk's Hall, in the parish of Henllan, near Denbigh. 


III. Gaynor ; she married, first, Robert Grufi'ydd of 
Llanfair, and secondly, John Lloyd of Rhiw Goch in 
Trawsfynydd, descended from Llywarch ab Bran, Lord 
of Cwmwd Menai. Argent, a chevron sahle inter three 
Cornish choughs ppr,, each with a spot of ermine in 
its beak. (See p. 58.) 

Sir William Thomas of Coed Helen, Knt., High 
Sheriff for co. Caernarvon in 1608, ob. 1653. He mar- 
ried Gaynor, daughter of Sir William Maurice of Clen- 
eneu, Knt, descended from Owain Gwynedd, Prince of 
North Wales (see "Brogyntyn", vol. iv), by whom he 
had issue four sons and three daughters — 

I. John Thomas, the eldest son, was disinherited. He 
married Jane, daughter of Dr. Glynn, by whom he had 
issue one son, Richard, who died s. p., and two daughters, 
Elizabeth, oh. s. p., and Martha, who married John 
Rowlands, by whom she had an only daughter, Margaret, 
who was living in 1723, and married Robert ab Richard 
Owen, by whom she had three sons, John, Richard, and 

II. William Thomas of Coed Helen, High Sheriff for 
Anglesey in 1679. He married Catharine, second 
daughter of Richard Parry of Pwll Halawg, Bishop of 
St. Asaph (see p. 212), by whom he had issue two sons, 
Richard and. Gruffydd, who both died 5. p., and Margaret, 

who married, first, Tanad of Glantanad (see vol. iv, 

p. 199), and secondly, Sidney Bonner, by whom she had 
no issue. 

HI. Robert ab William Thomas, of whom presently. 

IV. John Thomas of Aber, who married Jane Lloyd. 

I. Elizabeth, ux. John ab 

II. Catharine, ux. Ezekiel Williams, Trewd, by whom 
she had two sons, William and John. 

III. Elen, ux. John Owen of Trefeilir, Esq. (See post.) 
Robert ab William Thomas, the third son, married 

, daughter of Gwynn of Monachdy Mawr, in 

Cardiganshire, by whom he had a son and heir — 

Joseph Thomas, who married Jane Blodwell, by whom 


he had issue two sons — Eice Thomas, of whom presently, 
and John — and three daughters, Prudence, Mary, ux. 
William WiUiams, Parson of Newhirch, and Elizabeth, 
ux. Henry Ellis, an attorney. 

Ptice Thomas, the eldest son, succeeded to Coed Helen, 
and was High SheriflPfor Anglesey in 1720. He married 
Gaynor, daughter and heiress of Owain Wynn of Glas- 
coed, relict of Maurice Williams of Dafod, by whom he 
had a son and heir — 

William Thomas of Coed Helen, High Sheriff for 

Anglesey in 1747, He married , daughter of 

Thomas Wynne of Dyffryn Aled (see p. 317), descended 
from Marchudd ab Cynan, Lord of Uwch Dulas and 
Abergele (gules, a Saracen's head erased at the neck ppr., 
wreathed about the temples argent and sable), by whom 
he had a son and heir — 

William Thomas of Coed Helen, who married Dorothy, 
daughter of Sir Thomas Wynn of Bodvean, Bart.,^ by 
whom he had a son and heir — 

Bice Thomas of Coed Helen, High Sheriff for Anglesey 
in 1777, who married Margaret, youngest sister and sole 
heiress of Trevor Lloyd of Trevor Hall, Esq. (see 
vol. iv, p. 114), and had issue one son, Eice Thomas, ob. 
s. p., and six daughters, of whom Elizabeth, the second 
daughter and co-heir, married Sir William Bulkeley 
Hughes of Plas Coch and Bryn D^, Knt. 

1 See Burke's Peerage, art. " Newborough". 



Llyvvarch ab Bran, Lord of Cwmwd Menai, who 
flourished in the twelfth century, bore argent, a chevron 
ermine (according to others, sable) inter three Cornish 
choughs ppr., each holding in its beak an ermine spot. 
This chieftain, who was the head of one of the Noble 
Tribes, married Rymel, daughter of Goronwy, son of 
Owain ab Edwyn, Prince of Tegeingl, by whom he had 
issue three sons — 1, Llywarch Goch : 2, lorwerth ab 
Llywarch of Porthamel, progenitor of the family of 
Porthamel, represented by the Bulkeleys of Porthamel ; 
the house of Rhosgolyn ; Prices of Bodowyr, represented 
by the FitzGeralds of Bodowyr ; Wynns of Mwsoglen ; 
house of Berw Uchaf, represented by Griffith of Carreg 
Lwyd, Trygarn, and Berw ; the houses of Plas Gwyn, 
Bryn Celh, Carrog Wydrin, Gelli Llydan ; the Lloyds of 
Rhiw Goch in Trawsfynydd ; of Hendref Mur, co. Meir- 
ionydd ; of Maes y Neuadd ; of Brynkir ; of Coed y 
Rhegyn ; of Cae Adda ; and the Owens of Trawsfynydd, 
CO. Meirionydd : and 3, Cadwgan ab Llywarch. 

Cadwgan ab Llywarch was of Porthamel, in the parish 
of Llanedwin, in Cwmwd Menai, as indicated by the 
designation "Gwely Cadwgan ab Llywarch", in that 
locality, derived from his name, which Gwely was in- 
herited by his descendant, Howel ab Gwyn, as co-heir, 
26th Edward IIL By Eva his wife, daughter of Einion ab 


Seisyllt of Mathafarn and Lord of Cautref Meirion (see 
"Edeyrnion"), Cadvvgan had two sons — 

I. lorwerth ab Cadwgan, of whom presently. 

II. Maredydd ab Cadwgan of Bodorgan, whose only 
daughter and heiress, Eva, married Einion Sais ab Dafydd, 
Usher of the Palace of Sheen, temp. Henry V and 
Henry YI, descended from Cadafael yr Ynad, Judge of 
the Court of Powys, which at that time was held at 
Castell Dinas Bran. Cadafael bore sable on a chev. argent 
between three brands erect raguly or, inflamed ppr. 
a fleur-de-lys gules, inter two Cornish choughs re- 
specting each other, also ppr. His descendant Einion ac- 
quired the appellation Sais by serving with the English 
in the wars of Henry V. By Eva his wife he had issue a 
son and heir, Heylin ab Einion of Bodorgan, living in 
1645, who was the father of Llywelyn, the father of 
Meurig ab Llywelyn of Bodorgan, Esquire of the Body 
to Henry VII and Henry YIII, who, by Margaret his 
wife, daughter of Kowland ab Hywel of Caer Ceiliog, 
had (with three daughters and five younger sons) — 1, 
Eichard, his heir, ancestor of the Meyricks of Bodorgan ; 
and 2, Rowland Meyrick, Bishop of Bangor in 1559, 
ancestor of the Meyricks of Goodrich Court, co. Hereford. 

lorwerth ab Cadwgan of Porthamel, the eldest son, 
married Jane, daughter of Maredydd ab Phys ab Mare- 
dydd Hen, and had issue — ■ 

I. Llywelyn ab lorwerth of Myfyrian, ancestor of the 
Prytherchs of Myfyrian, whose heiress married Piers 
Lloyd of Llugwy. (See vol. iv, p. 56, note.) 

II. Gwyn ab lorwerth, of whom presently. 

III. Philip, ancestor of the Wynns of Llanedwin ; 
Lloyds of Henblas, represented by the Morgans of H^n- 
blas; and William Lloyd, successively Bishop of St. 
Asaph, Lichfield, and Worcester. 

IV. Adda, ancestor of the Lloyds of Plas Bach and 
Meirion Heylin, and Williams of Trivet. 

Gwyn ab lorwerth, the second son of lorwerth ab 
Cadwgan, was living on Tuesday, the morrow of the Feast 
of St. Hilary, 2ad Edward II, the date of a deed given 


at "Eliossur" (Newborough), whereby, by the description 
of "Gwyn ab lorwerth ab Cadwgan liber tenens de villa 
de Porthamel", he makes a grant of certain lands. He 
married Janet, daughter of leuan ab Cynwrig, descended 
from Marchudd, Lord of Uwch Dulas, by whom he had 
a son and heir — 

Howel ab Gwyn, who was one of the jurors for taking 
the extent of the Cwmwd of Menai, at Rhosfaer, 
Monday in the second week of Lent, 26th Edward III, 
and, as appears by the same extent, then co-heir of Gwely 
Cadwgan ab Llywarch, in Porthamel. Howel ab Gwyn 
married Arddj^n, daughter of Maredydd. Ddti ab Goronwy 
(he was party to a deed dated Tuesday, the morrow of 
the Feast of St. Hilary, 2nd Edward II), descended 
from Llywarch ab Bran, Lord of Cwmwd Menai (see 
vol. iv, p. 79), by whom he had a son and heir — 

leuan ab Howel of Porthamel, living circa 1375, who 
married Annest, daughter of Howel ab Cynwrig of Llwyd- 
iarth ym Mon, by whom he had a son — 

Madog ab leuan of Porthamel, living circa 1400, 
married Jane, daughter and heir of Dafydd ab Hvvfa, 
descended from Llywarch ab Bran, by whom he was 
father of — 

lenan ab Madog, witness of a grant of land to be held 
from the Feast of All Saints, 2 Edward IV (1462), and 
of a grant of lands in consideration of four marks to be 
paid on the Feast of All Saints, 4 Edward IV (1464). 
By a deed dated 12 Edward IV (1472), lauds were 
granted him, by the designation of leuan ab Madog ab 
leuan ab Howel, free tenant of the Lord the King in the 
Vill of Porthamel, in the Court of Menai; and by his 
will, dated 10 Nov. 1482, he directs that he shall be 
buried in the church of Llanedwin. He married Maude, 

daughter of Madog, third son of Hwlkyn of Llys 

and Plas Newydd in Porthamel, descended, through the 
house of Bodowyr, from Llywarch ab Bran, by whom he 
had a son and heir — 

Llywelyn ab leuan of Porthamel Isaf, who was living 
20th January, 18 Edward IV (1479), the date of letters 


patent, dated at Caernarvon, of grant and appointment 
by Edward, Prince of Wales, of the office of Ehingill of 
the Cwmwd of Menai, to (among others), Llywelyn ab 
leuan ab Madog. He was also grantee of land by a deed 
dated at Porthamel, 1 May, 17 Henry VII (1502). He 
married Elin, daughter of Tudor Lloyd ab Dafydd of 
Penwnllys, in Tindaethwy, co. Caernarvon, ab Robert ab 
Dafydd ab E-hys ab Howel ab Tudor ab Madog ab 
larddur ab Cynddelw, Lord of Llechwedd and Creu- 
ddyn, and was succeeded by his son — 

Hugh ab Llywelyn of Porthamel Isaf, grantee, with 
others, of the office of Bhingill of the Cwmwd of Menai, 
under letters patent of Arthur, Prince of Wales, dated at 
Caernarvon, 8th February, 13 Henry VII ; his will, dated 
12 April 1557, and proved at Bangor the 30lh of the 
same month, directs that he shall be buried at Llanedwin. 
He married Mallt, daughter of Dafydd ab leuan of 
Myvyrian, co. Anglesey, and by her, whose will, dated 
2 Feb. 1561-2, was proved at Bangor 22 May 1562, he 
had an eldest son — 

David Lloyd ab Hugh of Porthamel Isaf, party to a 
deed dated 15 Nov., 33 Henry VIII, 1541, whose will, 
dated 11th March 1574, was proved at Bangor, 26 April 
in the same year. He married Agnes, or Annest, 
daughter of John Owen of Llanfaethle, co, Anglesey, 
ancestor of the Owens of Bodsilin, and subsequently of 
Cleneneu, co. Caernarvon, and Brogyntyn, co. Salop 
(see vol. iv), younger brother of Owen ab Meurig ab 
Llywelyn of Bodsilin and Bodean, ancestor of the Owens 
of Orielton and Bodean, Barts. By this lady, who was 
executrix of her husband's will, David Llojd ab Hugh 
had an eldest son — 

Hugh Hughes of Porthamel Isaf. He rebuilt, 1569, 
the family residence, which, from the colour of the stone, 
acquired the name of Plas Coch (Red Hall), and has been 
since substituted for that of Porthamel Isaf. He was 
High Sheriff for Anglesey, 1581, 1592, 1600, and repre- 
sented that county in the Parliament assembled at West- 
minster 9th Elizabeth; was a bencher of Lincoln's Inn, 


Attorney-General to Queen Elizabeth for North Wales, 
and was appointed by James I Lord Chief Justice for 
Ireland, but died in London before he proceeded to that 
country. He married Elizabeth, daughter and co-heir of 
Simon Montague, Esq., brother of Edward, Lord Mon- 
tague of Boughton, and of Henry, Earl of Manchester, 
by whom he had a son and heir — 

Eoger Hughes of Plas Coch, Barrister-at-Law, whose 
will, dated 29 May 1646, was proved 1 May 1650. He 
married Mary, daughter of David Owen of Llandegfair, 
by whom he had a son and successor — 

Hugh Hughes of Plas Coch, living 1645, father, by 
Jane his wife, daughter of Owen Wynn of Glasgoed, of 
a son and heir — 

Boger Hughes of Plas Coch, High Sheriff for Anglesey 
in 1685, who married Margaret, daughter and heir of 
Henry Jones of Plas yn Llangoed, by whom he had 
issue, besides three daughters, several sons — 1, Hugh, of 
whom presently ; 2, Henry, oh. s. jp. ; 3, Boger, 06. s. p. ; 
4, David ; 5, Owain ; and 6, Robert Hughes, B.A., who 
married Jane, daughter of James Kelsall of Bradshaw 
Hall, CO. Chester, and died in 1756, leaving issue — 1, 
Bobert, oh. s. p. ; and 2, William, heir to his uncle. 
Roger Hughes died in 1716, and was succeeded by his 
eldest son — 

Hugh Hughes of Plas Coch, High Sheriff for Anglesey, 
1719, who married, in 1718, Emma, daughter of William 
Griffith of Careg Lwyd, but dying s. p., was succeeded 
by his nephew — 

William Hughes of Plas Coch and Plas yn Llangoed, 
who married Anna, daughter and heir of Fortunatus 
Wright of Liverpool, Merchant, and Mary his wife, 
daughter and heir of William Bulkeley of Bryn Du, co. 
Anglesey (see p. 270), by whom he had issue, besides 
four daughters — 1, Mary, oh. s. p. ; 2, Anne, oh. s. p. ; 
3, Jane ; and 4, Margaret — four sons — 

i;, Sir William Bulkeley Hughes, Knt., of whom 

II. Rev. Hugh Bobert Hughes, B.C.L. His father, 


William Hughes, left him the estate of Plas yn Llangoed, 
and the impropriate rectory, advowson, and patronage 
of Llaniestyn, with the chapelries of Llangoed and Llan- 
fihangel tyn Sylvv. He died 4 May 1804, and was suc- 
ceeded by his brother Kobert, 

III. Robert Hughes, Lieutenant in the Royal Navy, 
succeeded his brother in the Plas yn Llangoed estates, 
and was High Sheriff for Anglesey in 1815. He married 
Dorothy-Philadelphia, fifth daughter of Herbert Jones of 
Llynon, co. Anglesey, by whom he was father of Robert 
Jones-Hughes of Plas yn Llangoed, High Sheriff for 
Anglesey in 1845. 

IV. John, oh. s. p. 

Sir William Bulkeley Hughes of Plas Coch and Bryn 
Du, Knt., n. 7th Dec. 1766, married Elizabeth, second 
daughter and co-heir of Rice Thomas of Coed Helen, 
Trevor Hall, Valle Crucis Abbey, Pentref Hobyn, and 
Glanhafon, and by her, who died in 1839, he had issue — 

I. William Bulkeley Hughes, of whom presently. 

II. Rice Robert Hughes, B. A., of Jesus College, Oxford, 
Rector of Newborough and Vicar of Llanidan, co. 
Anglesey, n. 10th March 1800, married, 5th Dec. 1838, 
Charlotte, second daughter of the Very Rev. John 
Warren, Dean of Bangor, and left issue three sons — 
Rice William, n. 1 Nov. 1841, who has taken the name 
of Thomas, and is the present Rice William Thomas of 
Coed Helen, Trevor Hall, and Valle Crucis Abbey ; 
Lloyd Warren-George-Hughes, n. 27th August 1846 ; 
and Trevor-Charles, 7i. 1 Oct. 1848. 

III. General Robert-George Hughes, late Lieut.-Colonel 
52nd Foot, n. 1 Nov. 1804, married, 5th August 1830, 
Hannah, second daughter of John Jordan of Shrewsbury, 
and has issue a son, George William Bulkeley Hughes, 
Captain, 52nd Foot, iv, Thomas, died young. 

I. Elizabeth, married, 1817, Pierce Wynne Yorke of 
Dyffryn Aled, co. Denbigh. 

II. Mary, married, 1821, Osgood Gee of Earl's Colne 
House, CO. Essex. 

III. Ellen Catharine. 


IV. Sidney Jane, ux. Frederick-Charlton Marsden, 
Major, Bengal Native Infantrv. 

Sir William Bulkeley Hughes died 28th Nov. 1836, 
and was succeeded by his son — 

William Bulkeley Hughes of Plas Coch and Bryn DA, 
n. 26th July 1797, M.P. for the Caernarvon Boroughs 
since 1837. He married, 1.9th April 1825, Elizabeth, 
widow of Harry Wormald of Woodhouse House, co. York, 
and daughter and heiress of Jonathan Nettleship of 
Mattersey Abbey, co. Nottingham. 


Dafydd Llwyd ab Ednyved ab Tudyr ab Dwywg ab Gwilym ab Ehys ab=y 
Edryd ab Inathan ab SiafFeth ab Carwed ab Marchudd ab Cynan^ Lord 
of Uwch Dulas, Abergeleu, and Bryn Ffanigl, Chief of One of the Noble 
Tribes of Gwynedd. Gules, a Saracen's head erased at the neck ppr., 
wreathed about the temples argent and sable. 

Gruffydd=j=A]swn, d. and heir of Jenkyn Pigot ab Howel Pigot, one of the 
Gethin, English families who followed Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, 
on whom Edward I conferred the Castle and Lordship of Den- 
bigh. This family of Pigot was settled at Plas Pigot, near 
Denbigh. Argent, three picots^ in fess sable. 

Goronwy.=pIsabel, d. of Gruffydd ab Einion, descended from Marchweithian, 
I Lord of Is Aled. Gules, a lion rampt. argent. 

1 Bolts for crossbows. They are still borne by the families of 
collateral descent in England of the name, and furnish a natural 
explanation of its origin. 



Maredydd.=pAnna, d. by Grace, his wife, d. of John Conway of Bodrhy- 
I ddan, of Robert Vychan ab Tudor ab leuan ab Tudor of 
I Berain, in Llan Nevydd. Gules, a lion rampt. argent. 

Robert ==Annesta, d. of leuan Llwyd ab Dafydd ab Maredydd ab Dafydd 





Llwyd ab Gruffydd of Havod Unos. 

I 1 



= Margaret, d. of 
William Lloyd 
of Tre'r Beirdd 
(supra p. 238). 

Dafydd Llwyd, an- 
cestor of the 
Lloyds of Fforest 
Pontruffydd and 
See p. 300. 

Lloyd of Llanger- 
niew, eldest son of 

leuan Lloyd of 

Hafod Unos. See 

" Roberts of Hafod 

y Bwch", vol. iii, 

pp. 42 and 45. 

Thomas ==lst wife, Catharine,d. of Robert Wynn e=j-2nd wife, Catharine, d. of 





ab Cadwaladr ab Maurice Gethin of 
Voelas. Gules, a lion rampant ar- 
gent, holding in its paws a rose of 
the second, stem and leaves ppr. 

John Wynn Thelwall of 
Bathafarn Park, and re- 
lict of Lewys Lloyd of 
lal. See vol. iv. 

I I I 

Mary, ux. John Griffith Margaret, ux. Mat- Anne, ux. Samuel 

of Brynbwa or thew Trevor of Powel of 

Brymbo. See vol. iii. Trevor Hall. Cefynys. 

See vol. iv. 

Robert Wynne=pJane, d. of Lewys Lloyd, second son of Sir Evan Lloyd of 

of Dyffryn 

Bodidris, Knt , High Sheriff for co. Denbigh, 1583. See 
page 131. 
2ud wife, Dorothy, d. of John Puleston of Bers. See vol. iii. 

Thomas Wynne of= 

Dyffryn Aled, 

oh. 1610. 

^Grace, d. and heir of John, son of Robert Salusbury of 

Robert Wynne of Dyffryn Aled, o6.=f=Dorothy, d. of Ffoulk Lloyd of Hafod 
March 16fch, 1637-8. | Unos. See vol. iv. 

Robert Wynne of= 

Dyffryn Aled, 

born Dec. 1639; 

oh. May 30th, 


=Susan, d. of John Trevor 
ab Matthew Trevor of 
Trevor Hall and Valle 
Crucis Abbey. See vol. 
iv, p. 113. 

Anne Wen, ux. in 1630 of 
Ffoulk Roberts, son and 
heir of Robert ab Ffoulk 
ab leuan ab Maredydd of 



1 The contemporary poet of the neighbourhood, Edward ab RaiF, 
states in his elegy on Richard Parry ab John ab Harri of Ruthin 
(iii, 347), that Catharine was his first wife ; he was, therefoi'e, her 
second husband. He says, also, that Richard married secondly, Mar- 
garet Prys, and thirdly, Mary Lewis of Prysaddfed in Anglesey. 
His brothers — 1, Thomas; 2, James; 3, Edward ; 4, William. His 
heir, " yn y mars", John Parry of Llanbedr. 

2 Alice, d. of Ffoulk ab Teuan ab Meredydd, and aunt of Robert 



Thomas = 
Wynne of 


^Dorothy, d. ol John Wynne of Melai and Maenan Abbey, by 
Dorothy his wife, d, of Hugh Gwyn Gruffydd of Berth Ddu ; 
descended from Sir John Wynn of Gwydir, Bart. 


Eobert Wyn. 


Susan. Maudlin. 

=Elizabeth, sole d. and heir of Piers Ffoulkes of Plas New- 
ydd in Meriadog, who died 1717, aged 49 ; and Lucy his 
wife, d. of ... Shaw of Denbigh. 

Robert Wynne of= 

Dyffryn Aled 
and, jure uxoris, 
of Plas Newydd. 

Piers Wynne of=f=Margaret (born 1722), d., and, in her issue, sole heir of the 

Dyffryn Aled ; 

married 7th 

May 1747. 

Rev. EobertWynne of Garthewin, son of Robert Wynne ab 
Eobert Wynne, second son of John Wynne of Melai and 
Maenan Abbey. Gules, three boar's heads erased in pale 
argent. See Ehiig in Edeyrnion. 

DianaWynne,=Eidgeway Owen Meyrick,^ 

heiress of 1st husband, 
Dyffryn Aled. s. p. 

=2nd husband, Philip Yorke 
Erddig, Esq. Argent, on 
saltier azure, a bezant. 


Pierce Wynne Yorke=f=Elizabeth, d. of Sir William Bulkeley Hughes Philip, 

of Dyffryn Aled, 

High Sheriff for co. 

Denbigh, 1817. 

ofPlasCoch and BrynDu, Knt., and Eliza- 
beth his wife, second d. and co-heir of Rice 
Thomas of Coed Helen, Trevor Hall, Valle 
Crucis Abbey, and Pentre Hobyn. See 
p. 316. 




Lucy Margaret, ux. George Gum- 
ming, M.D., by whom she had issue 
a son, Brownlow Wynne Gumming, 
who took the name of Wynne on 
succeeding to the Garthewin estate. 

PierceWynneYorke = Lucy- Penelope, eldest dau. of Sir Trevor Wheler of 
of Dyffryn Aled, Leamington Hastings, co. Warwick, Bart. Or, a 

High Sheriff for co. chev. inter three leopard's faces sable. 
Denbigh, 1853. 

Diana Elizabeth, ux. Alexander William Francis Alexander, 



(buried at St. Asaph on March 18th, 1637-8), was the wife of Thomas 
Lloyd of Berth in Llanbedr D.C., son of David, by his wife Ehzabeth 
Lloyd of Llaugwyvan {P. Roberts' Diary, pp. 126, 129, 178). The 
name of Ffoulk ab leuan ab Meredydd appears as one of the defend- 
ants to a suit in Chancery, in 1572, 12th Eliz., instituted by Thomas 
ab David ab Robert ab Rhys of Plas lolyn (ancestor of the families 
of Rhiwlas and Voelas), to recover certain lands, etc., leased to his 
grandfather by David Owen, Abbot of Conway, in 1506, but forcibly 
entered upon and occupied by Ffoulk and others in 1536, the year 
of the Dissolution. Anne Wynne, ux. Ffoulk Roberts (married Feb. 
9th, 1629-30), son and heir of Robert Ffoulk ab leuan ab Meredydd, 
Gent., of Meriadoc (buried in May 1629). 




John Wynne of Melai and Maenan Abbey ; descend- 
ed through Goronwy Llwyd ab T Penwyn of 
Melai, who bore gules, three boar's heads erased 
in pale argent, from Marchudd ab Cynan, Lord 
of Uwch Dulas, Bryn Ffanigl, and Abergeleu. 
Gules, a Saracen's head erased at the neck ppr. 
environed about the temples with a wreath 
argent and sable. Ob. 14th April 1682. 

^Dorothy, dau. of Hugh 
Gwyn Gruffydd of Berth 
Ddii ; descended from 
Sir John Wynn of Gwy- 
dir, Bart. Vert, thi-ee 
eagles displayed in fess 
or. See vol. iv, p. 384. 

I 2nd son. 
Eobert Wynne, jure uxoris of Garthewin. He= 
was an officer in the Army of King Charles I, 
and was in the engagement at Wem. 

=Margaret, only d. and heir- 
ess of John Price of 
Garthewin. 1 

Eev. Eobert Wynne, M.A., Rector of=T=Catharine, d. of Richard Madryn of 

Llaniestyn and Llanddeiniolen, and 
Canon of Bangor; o&. 25th Jan. 1672, 
aged 43. 

Rev. Eobert Wynne of= 
Garthewin, D.D., Chan- 
cellor of St. Asaph J 
ob. 26th June 1743. 

Llanerch Fawr, ab Owain Madryn 
ab Eichard Madryn ab Owen 
Madryn ab Eichard ab David ab 
Hugh Lloyd ab John Madryn Hen 
ab Madog ab leu an ab Ehys ab 
leuan of Madryn, ab Gruffydd ab 
ab Howel ab Maredydd. See vol. 
iv, p. 383. 

=Margaret, d. and heir of = 2nd, Margaret, dau. of 
Hugh Lloyd Rosendale John Owen of Penrhos, 
of Segrwyd, and relict and relict of Owen Bold 
of William Wynne of of Llangwyfan. 

1 Margaret was daughter and heiress of John Price of Nantmawr 
and Garthewin, co. Denbigh, ap Owen ap John ap Owen ab leuan ab 
Khys Wyn ab Llywelyn ab leuan ab Davydd Llwyd ab Gruffydd 
Llwyd ab Bleddyn Llwyd ab Bleddyn Vychan of Havod Unos. 
(Vol. iv, pp. 182, 385.) 



Robert Wynne of Garthewin,Bamster-= 
at-Law. He married, secondly, 
Elizabeth, d. of Thomas Eyton of 
Leeswood, by whom he had no issue ; 
ob. 11th September 1773, aged 78. 

=DianaGos- Margaret.=j= Piers Wynne 
ling of of Dyffryn 

London. Aled, Esq. 

(See p. 319.) 

Robert Wynne of Gar-= 
thewin; o6. 25th July 

=Elizabeth, d. and sole heir of William 
Dymoke of Acton ; ob. 29th Decem- 
ber 1816, 

Robert WilliamWynne of Garthewin,=Letitia, d. of Rev. John 
Lieutenant- Colonel of the Den- Fleming Stanley j ob. 
bighshire Militia: ob. 30th Novem- 28th June 1831. 
ber 1844, s. p. 

Diana Wynne, heiress of Dyffryn=j=Philip Yorke of Erddig, Esq. Argent, 
Aled. I on a saltier azure, a bezant. 

Lucy Margaret Yorke, married May 1814.=j=George Gumming, M.D. 

Brownlow Wynne Wynne of Gar-= 
thewin; «. 23rd March 1815. 
Succeeded by will to the estates 
of his cousin Robert William 
Wynne, and assumed by Sign 
Manual the surname and arms 
of Wynne; ob. s. p., 1st May 

Mary Anne 


Lucy Caroline, 



ux. William 


ux. Rev. 

Smith, Esq., 

8th Decem- 

H an-y 


ber 1836. 


Law,i ob. s.p. 


Dec. 14th, 1881 

ob. Dec. 



By the will of Lieutenant-Colonel R. W. Wynne, 
Mr. B. W. Wynne is succeeded at Garthewin by Mr. 
Wynne, son of the late Robert Wynne of Bron y Wel- 
don, CO. Denbigh, Esq., whose father claimed to be a 
distant relative of the family. 

^ Author of Thorndale, and other works of high literary excel- 

VOL. V. 





Dafydd ab Rhys ab Jenkyn ab Llywelyn ab Thomas ab Dafydd Gam ab= 
Cynwrig Llwyd ab Einion ab Goronwy Foel ab Cynwrig, third son of 
Gwgan ab Idnerth, Lord of Bryn Ffanigl, ab Edryd ab Inathan ab laffeth 
ab Car^ved ab Marchudd ab Cynan, Lord of ijwch Dulas, Abergeleu, 
and Bryn Ffanigl. Gules, a Saracen's head erased at the neck ppr. 
environed about the temples with a wreath argent and sable. 

Richard "Wynne of Trofarth.=f=Jane, d. of Thomas Conwy of Nant, and Jane 
I his wife, d. of Edward Pennant. 


Thomas = 


of Tro- 


Anne, d. of Hugh Llwyd 
ab Lewys of Llangws- ■ 

William Wynne 
of Cilgwyn. 

John Wynne, father of 

Henry Wynne of 

Bryn Ffanigl. 

Richard Wynne of Trofarth.=T=Winefrid, d. of Cadwaladr Wynne of Voelas. 

John Wynne of Plas yn Trofarth.=j=Elizabeth, d. of ... Lloyd of Bodnod 

Richard Wynne of Plds yn=f=Gaynor, d. and heir of John Wynne of Coed C6ch, 
Trofarth. I co. Denbigh. 


John Wynne of Coed C6ch ; 
oh. 1788. 

-Dorothy, sister and co-heir of John Wynne of 
Rhos and Plds Uchaf, ab John Wynne. 



John Lloyd Wynne of Coed Coch and ColomeAdy,=f=Mary, eldest d. and co-heir 
High Sheriff for co. Denbigh, 1801, and co. I of John Holland of 
Flint, 1825. Teyrdan. 

John =j=Mary Anne Frances, d. of the Eev. 






John Haggitt of Ditton, co. Cam- 
bridge, and Frances his wife, d, 
of Sir Henry Peyton, Bart. 

William Mary, ux. Eichard 
Holland, Lloyd Edwards of 
ob. s. p. Nanhoran, co. 

18-35. Caernarvon.! See 
Burke's Landed 

Henry John Lloyd, 2nd Life= 
Guards ; n. 14th June 1834. 

Edward William, Captain Grenadier 
Guards; n. 15th February 1836. 



(From B.'Vaughan of Hengwrt's Pedigrees; Salishury Pedigrees 
at Wynnstay ; Add. MSS. 9865, fol. 102; and the Family 

Sir Eobert Pounderling, Knight Banneret, Captain of 
Englefield (Tegeingl), and Constable of Diserth Castle, 
temp. Edward II, lived at Siambr Wen, a house yet known 

"■ Nanhoran and Llwyn Dynis in Lleyn, were the patrimony of 
GruflFydd ab Madog ab Llywelyn Fychan abGruffyddab Sir leuan ab 
Sir Gruflfydd Llwyd, Knt., of Tref Garnedd and Tref Nant Bychan 
in Anglesey (see vol. iv, p. 182), from whom Nanhoran has descended 
from father to son, almost uninterruptedly, dovfu to the present time. 
Gules, a chief ermine, and chevron or. 

21 2 


by that name in the parish of Diserth, and possibly also 
at Pont Gruffydd, or Pontruffydd, the seat of his descen- 
dants, in the township of Aberchwiler, and parish of 
Bodvari, co. Flint. His recumbent effigy in complete 
armour is still to be seen on his stone monument at the 
west end of Tremeirchion Church, and is in excellent 
preservation. An anecdote is preserved of him, to the 
effect that, having had one of his eyes knocked out at a 
tournament by a Welsh gentleman, on being asked why 
he had not challenged another Welshman who had in- 
sulted him at Court, he replied that he had no wish to 
lose his other eye. The name of his wife is not recorded ; 
but from the fact that all his descendants have Welsh 
names and connections, it may be inferred that she was 
of Welsh descent, and carried to him his estates, as he 
has been sometimes described as of Aberchwiler. Or he 
may have acquired them by a grant from Edward I, or 
one of his nobles, for distinguished military service. He 
bore my e7it, Si ha.vvest-^y gules (paleways), inter three roses 
of the last, in the centre chief, between the two upper 
roses and over the head of the harvest-fly, a crown 07\ 

John Madocks "the Elder" w^as, so to speak, the 
second founder of the family, and a man of remarkable 
energy and ability, as is testified by the precision and 
lucidity of the many extant legal documents drawn up 
by him, by the public offices which he held, and by his 
numerous purchases of landed estates, occasioned probably 
by the impoverishment of several of his neighbours caused 
by the Civil War. His marriage articles, dated 22 April 
1644, 20 Chas. I, are not a little curious. After settling 
upon " Jane Williams of Bankar", his second wife, all his 
lands purchased from William Smith, clerk ; John Parrie, 
gent.; Robert Jones, gent.; and Bichard ab Jenkin and 
Anne his wife, in Llewenie, Aberchwiler, and Bankar, 
with a proviso for redemption of a mortgage and payment 
to Jane of £600 accruing therefrom, he appoints that 
" Edward Jones, his son and heir apparent, shall marry 
Ann Williams," Jane's younger sister, ** daughter of 
Elizabeth Lloyd (then a widow), if they consent". Eliza- 


beth's father, David Lloyd ab John Wynn, was to give 
£120 out of a debt due to him to Jane, to be made 
over by her to Edward and Ann for her marriage por- 
tion, and in discharge of all her claim to her father's 
and brother Richard's estates, Edward Jones was to 
receive to his use £100 in money and land, and other 
lands also in Flintshire to be entailed on him and 
his heirs. John Madocks engaged to pay to David 
Lloyd £8 yearly for his life. Jane's Bankar estate was 
devised to trustees to the use of herself and her husband, 
sons and daughters in tail, and in default, similarly to 
Ann and her heirs. He also covenanted to pay to her 
sister Catharine £200, if Jane died without issue. The 
other estates in Bankar were to be for the use of Eliza- 
beth Lloyd and Catharine for four years, to raise a portion 
for the latter. The "household stuff" of John Madocks 
was to go to Edward Jones, for his mansion house Pont- 
ruffydd, and that of Elizabeth Lloyd to Jane " as heir- 
looms in the capital house in Bankar", namely, Vron Iw. 

By his last will, executed 16 March 1656, and proved 
in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury 18 Feb. 1662, 
" John Madocks of Bodvarrie" bequeathed his property 
in Bodvarrie, purchased of Robert ab Eobert, to his sons 
William and David and their heirs, or to his son Edward 
Jones, if he pay to them £240 within forty years. To 
his son John Madocks, his lands, etc., in Aberchwiler, 
Bankar, Astrad, Keidiog, Llangwyven, Llandyrnog, and 
Llangynhaval. To Edward Jones the furniture, etc., 
" at my house in Bodvarrie". To his daughter Grace 
205.; but to his wife Jane and his daughter Elizabeth 
" all my goods, cattle, chattels, and household stuff, and 
implements of husbandry". 

Of this will Jane and Elizabeth were executors ; and 
by another deed, bearing the same date as the will, the 
testator bound himself to his children by the second 
marriage in £2,000 " not to execute any other will, 
whereby to frustrate any devise of the said will", the 
property devised whereby was to be enjoyed " without 
the hindrance of Edward Jones, his eldest son and heir 


Sir Robert Pounderling. np 



Robert. =f=Gwlady8, d. of Bleddyn ab Dafydd ab Madog ab Mabon Glochydd 
of Creuddyn, ab Gwenfawr ab Gwynvryw ab Pigyn of Mynyw 

(St. David's). 

Madog Ewth.=pGwenllian, d. of Ehys ab Ednyved Fychan. Gules, a chevron 
I ermine, inter three Englishmen's heads in profile couped 


Bleddyn.=p Howel. Marred.=plthel Goch ab Cynwric ab leaan ab Deicws 

I Herod ab Cowryd ab Pervarch ab larddur 
I (or leuan) ab Llewelyn ab Mentur Vawr 
I ab Hedd Molwynog. See vol. iv, p. 184. 

Howel Goch. 



lolo Goch of Llechryd in Llan Nevydd, 
the Bard of Owain Glyndyfrdwy. 



Ieuan.=f= John ab Ithel. 




Eawlin.=^Catharine, d. of Madog Alis, ux. Owain ab Maurice 
ab Deio ab lorwerth ab Dafydd Llwyd ab Daf- 
ab Gruifydd ab Cyn- 
wrig Ddu. 

ydd ab leuan Vychan of 
TalyLlynMeingul. {Arch. 
Cambr., ix, 175, fourth 
series. ) 

leuan. =T= 

Thomas. Margaret, ux. leuan Llwyd ab Gruffydd Catha- 
... Llwyd. ab Robert of Pentref Cuhelyn. See rine. 

"William. vol. iv, p. 127. 

leuan Gannaid. A fragment of a poem is extant addressed to him by= 
Howel Cilan, cir. 1470. 

William. =p 

Madog ab=FDyddgu, d. of Bennett 'ab Dafydd Llwyd, and Tibot his wife, 


d. and heir of Twna ab Alyn ab Cwna. 

Dafydd Goch.-f= 

Edward ab Madog ab William, ancestor of the 
Williainaes of Aberchwiler. See p. 329. 



Thomas. = 

Madog ^Gwensi, d. of Rhys ab Dafydd ab Eoger ab Ednowain ab Gruffydd 
of Dy- ab lorwerth ab Rhirid ab lorwerth ab Madog ab Ednowain 

meir- Bendew, Chief of One of the Noble Tribes of Gwynedd, who 

chion. lived at Llys Coed y Mynydd in Bodvari. Argent, a chevron 

inter three boar's heads couped sable. 

John Madocks= 
of Bodvari, 
ob. 1632. 

=Angharad, d. of Thomas ab Ellis of Hendre Figillt, co. 
Flint. Ob. 1606, buried December 14th, 1606. Probably 
of the family of Pennant of that place. See vol. iv, 379. 

1st, Grace, d. of= 

Piers Williams of 

Caervvys ; buried 

March 1st, 


2nd son. 
=John Madocks of= 
Bodvari,born 160 1, 

Sheriff 1638, 
Coroner and Capi- 
tal Burgess of 
Denbigh 1661 ; 
ob. 1662. 


ocks (alias 
Jones, from 
his father's 
name John), 
born 1627, a 
Clerk in the 
Office at Den- 
bigh, in 1664. 

= Anne, 
of Jane, 

in 1644. 

David, born 

Grace, born 

John Madocks of Pont-=p Mary, 
ruffydd, which he sold | 
to John Lloyd, Esq., of 
Fforest, cir. 1710. See 
p. 300. 

I I 11 

Jane. Elizabeth. Anne. Mary. 

=2nd, m. in 

Jane Williams, 
sister and heir of 
Richard Williams 

of Vron Iw (ob. 

s.p., 1641), and 

d. of William ab 

John ab William 

ab Bleddyn 

(party to a deed 

1st son. I 
1644, Edward 
slain at 

battle of 

hill, 23rd 


in 1593) ab Dafydd ab Simon ab 
Gwilym of Vron Iw in Llandyrnog; 
desc. from Marchweithian. Gules, 
a lion ranipt. argent, armed and 
langued aziire. 

She married, secondly, the Rev. 
Thomas Jones, Rector of Llangwy- 
fan in 1665, and afterwards of 
Clocaenog; also made a Burgess of 
Denbigh on condition of preaching 
quarterly at St. Hilary's Chapel in 
Denbigh. They lived at Ty Gwyn 
in Llan Ychan parish. He was 
living in 1681. Ob. s.p. 

ocks of 

=Ursula,d.of B.David: 

Thelwall of 

Hall, Mar- 
riage settle- 
dated 1679. 


don in 

lErmine, eldest 
d. of Thomas 
Puleston of 
Pickhill, CO. 

Denbigh, Esq. 

I 1 



Lloyd of 


Esq., born 

1651. See vol. 

iv, p. 166. 



ux. John 

Ffoulkes of 



2. William, Rector of Llangwyfan; born 
1650. See p. 329. 




Edward Madocks = Jane,d.of EvanWynne William lVrad-=j= Anne, d. 

of Vron Iw. Ob. 

s. p., 1758; and 
left his estates to 

his cousin John. 

of Garthmeilio, Esq., 
and relict of John 
Thomas of Llechwedd- 
garth, CO. Montgo- 
mery, Esq. 

ocks of 

Euthin, and 

Llai, CO. 

Flint, ob. 

29th Feb. 


of John 
of Pick- 

ob. s.p. 

John Madocks^=j=Frances, d. of Joseph Whitechurch, Esq., of 
of Vron Iw. I Twickenham, by his wife Frances, d. of 
Samuel Pratt. 


John Ed-=f=lst wife, Frances, d. of Sir=j=2nd wife, Elizabeth, d. of William, 

of Vron 


Eichard Perryn, Kt., of 
Trafford, near Chester, 
Baron of the Exchequer, 
son of Benjamin Perryn, 
Esq , of Flint. 

eleventh Lord Craven, by Eliza- 
beth, d. of Augustus, fourth Earl 
of Berkeley. She married, 2ndly, 
Frederick, Margrave of Branden- 
burg Anspach and Bayrouth. Ob. 

John Mad-=f=Sidney.d. of Abraham 3. Charlotte Maria, ux. Edward Wil- 


Eobartes, Esq. 

1. Frances, ux. Edward Lloyd, 

Esq., of Berth and Ehagat. 

2. Mary, ux. Martin Williams, 

Esq,, of Bryngwyn, co. Mont- 
gomery, and of Hope Pen, 

liam Smythe Owen, Esq., of Con- 
dover Hall, co. Salop. 
Eliza Maria, ux. Edward Black- 
burn, Esq., Chief Justice of Mau- 

John Edward 



Sidney. Louisa. Mary. Emily. Sophia. 

^ "John Madocks of Vron Iw, co. Denbigh, a lawyer. He became 
a King's Counsel. He sat in seven Parliaments for Westbury, Wilts. 
For a great many years together he made £10,000 a year by the 
effort of his brain. He married, in 1758, Miss Whitechurch of South- 
gate, heiress to a fortune of £20,000. Mr. Madocks might have 
been knighted, but, just as the sword was about to be held over 
him, he rose up, and said he had rather not. He might have been 
promoted in his profession, but said that he should thereby lose his 
independence, so never would be. He was one of the most inde- 
pendent-minded men that ever was born, and the most liberal." — 
JIS. Memorandum in the possession of the family. 



William Madocks, second son of John Madocks, =F Mary, d. of John Lloyd of 
born 1650, Rector of Llangwyvan. See p. 327. j Maes Annod. 

William rp Jane. T John Jones. 


I ' I 

John. Sarah. 

1. Jane, ux. ...Kimmer, 2. Mary, ux. ... Jones 3. Sarah. t... Wainhouse. 

of Liverpool. of Llanrwst. 

Marriage arti- 
cles dated Sept. 
29, 1772. 

Marianne, ob. innupt. 1850, cetat. c. 80. 


Thomas ab Edward ab Madoc ab^pGwen, d. of Thomas ab Robert ab Daf- 
William ab leuan Gannaid. I ydd of Maesmynan. 

See p. 82fi. I 

William Thomas of Aberchwiler.=j=Jane, d. of John ab Rhys Wyn of Aber- 

I chwiler. 

Thomas Williams of=j=Elizabeth, d. of John ab Robert of Ner- Anne. 

Aberchwiler. | quis. 

William Williams of=pMargaret (or Mary), d. of David ab David ab Llywelyn 
Aberchwiler. | of Llanvair Dyffryn Clwyd. 

1 I I 

A son. Mary. Anne. 




(From the Family Archives.) 

Bleddyn ab Dafydd ab Simon ab Gwilytii, descended from Marchweitbian,= 
Lord of Is Aled, Chief of One of the Fifteen Noble Tribes. Gules, a lion 
rampant argent, armed and langued azure. 

William ab Bleddyn ofBankar,= 
a township in the parish of 
Llandyrnog. Received con- 
firmation of his tenure of 
lands in Bankar from Am- 
brose, Earl of Warwick, as 
Chief Lord, on 10th March 
1572-3. Living Nov. 10th, 

Roger ab Bleddyn 



of Tyddyn Vechan 


ydd ab 

in Bankar, settled 



after on his nephew. 

living in 


John ab William. 


living in 

ob. ante 1597. 


John ab William. Settle-=7=Elizabeth, d. of William ab 

ment after marriage 
dated April 22nd, 1593. 

John ab Ithel ab Edward of 
Rhiw Isaf in Llanychan 
parish, and township of 

Richard ab=j= 
William. | 

i 77 

William, living 
in 1611. 

I 1 
William ab John of Lle-=T=Elizabeth, dau. of David 

Lloyd ab John Wynn of 
Lleweni and Aberch wiler 
in Henllan parish. 

weni, in the parish of 
Henllan; married about 
1609, oh. 1038. 

|2|3|4 I 1 |2 

Richard . Elizabeth. 

John, Mary. 

Richard ab William of= 
Vron Iw, styled in his 
father's will Richard 
Williams, oj.s.p. 1641. 

=Elen,d. of Rich- 
ard ab John ab 
William of 
Living a widow 
Oct. 14th, 1642. 

I 1 I 3 I 4 I 6 
Grace, o 6. 1634. 
Lowry,o6. 1639. 

Catharine, oh. 
s. p. 

Anne, ux. Ed- 
ward Jones, 
eldest son of 

by his first 
wife Grace. 

Jane Williams,=f=lst, John Madocks, =2nd, Thomas Jones, Rector of Llan- 

lieiress of Vron | Gent., of Pontru- gwyfan, with whom Jane lived at Ty 

Iw. V ffydd in Bodvari. Gwyn, in the township of Khyd- 

elldeyrn in Llanychan ; purchased 
by her grandfather, David Lloyd, from John ab Richard of Ty Gwyn, 
whose family had held it in fee under the Crown from a date prior to 
A.D. 1446, and sold by him to John Madocks of Vron Iw. Ob. s. j}. 

TY GWYN. 331 


Some early documents, discovered among the family 
archives of Vron Iw, are interesting for the light thrown 
by them, not only on the history of several families 
among the old Welsh gentry of the lordships of Ruthin, 
Denbigh, and the Yale of Clwyd, but also upon the 
tenures whereby they held their lands under the regime, 
long regarded by them as foreign, which displaced that 
of their own princes and nobles after the conquest of 
Wales by the English under Edward I, the primary era 
of which may be taken roughly as commencing in 1284, 
the date of the Statute of Rhuddlan. The earliest of these 
are here given in extenso, with a brief summary only 
of the rest, followed by a tabular genealogy of the persons 
to whom they principally relate, which has been con- 
structed from the names found in these and other legal 
documents among them. 

" 1446. In the 14th Court of the Commot of Dogvylan 
(Dogveilin) and Aberchwelar (Abercliwiler or Aber Wheeler) 
bolden afore Thomas Salisburye on Tuesday next after the 
Feast of St. Swythen the 24 year of Harry the sixth. 

" John Barker^ ap David came here in the Court and shewed 
a Bill put to the Lord in these words. To his gracious and 
noble Lord Edmond Grey Lord of Hastings Wayford and 
Ruthin Shews your poor tenant and perpetual Orator John 
Barker how that he tooke a parcell of Land of your Officers 
here for ten years Term yeilding to you yearly 16s. of rent 
whereas it was set for 7s. & Sd. afore Time Please it to your 
gracious Lordship to grant the said parcell of Land to your 
said Suppliant for Term of 40 years or more And it please 
your Lordship yeilding you the same rent of 16s. by year And 

1 Probably a Welshman, his English surname being merely in- 
tended to denote his occupation of a tanner, yet, very possibly, a 
tribesman of the blood of one of the ancient princely families of 
Marchweithian, Cowryd ab Cadvan, or Ednowain Bendew, reduced 
by the fortune of war to earn his maintenance by the exercise of a 


that at tlie Reverence of God and for your Soul and the honour 
oT Charity The which bill is indorsed in Manner following 
We will that the said Suppliant within written have his Land 
yeilding to us and to our heirs 16s. yearly of him and his heirs 
Given under our Signett at our Castle of the Ruthyn the 9th 
day of July in the year of King Henry the 6th after the 
Conquest the 24th By virtue of the which bill and the Indors- 
ment of the same he is admitted To have and to hold the sM 
Lands to the said John and his heirs by the Licence as afore 
taken Yeilding therefore yearly 16s. at the Terras tised 
And seizin was then delivered saving to every man his 

"Done by the LMs Bill & Command.'' 

Same date. A Latin Exemplification of the above. 

" 1470. 9 Edw. 4.— The 13th Court of Dogveilin held at 
Ruthin before EdwM Lucy Steward there on Fryday next 
after the feast of the Ascention in the ninth year of 
Edw'd 4th. 

" John Barker an English tenant^ of the Lord died. Lately 
came David ap Dio and Angharad his wife the Daughter and 
sole heir of the said John, & Jenkin ap Grono ap David and 
Luce his wife the other heir of the said John and prayed that 
they might be admitted to the Lands hereditary late of their 
father in the Commot aforesaid to whom it is granted to have 
and to hold to them and their heirs & Assigns in English 
tenure for ever rend' ring therefore yeai^ly 15s. to the af's'd John 

by bill of the Lord granted at the usual And he has done 

fealty & therefore Seisin is given to them saving the right 
of every one. And they give for a fine for having English 
licence 7d. And for a relief 15s. by the hand for the s'd 

David of John ab ab David and for Jenkin of the af's'd 


" 1477. — The eleventh Court of Doggvilin held before 
Edward Lucy Steward there Wednesday next after the Feast 
of St. George the Martyr in the 16 year of the Reign of King 
Edward the 4th after his Accession, it is inrolled thus, 
Angharad surrenders her 3rd part of the above Lands of her 
father John in Rhydeldern to the use of Jenkin ap Grono ap 
David ap Thomas & Lleucke his wife their heirs &c. in English 
Tenure for 7s. & 6d. annually. Fealty done & Seizin del'd 
as before. Fine for a Relief" 

" 1483. — At the 8 Court of the Commot of Dogvelen held 

1 I.e., holding by English tenure. And paying, it is to be observed, 
more than double the amount of the former valuation. 


TY GWYN. 333 

at Euthin before Peter Stanley junr. Steward of Djfifrencloyd 
on Tuesday the 26th after the Feast of St. Agatha the Virgin 
in the first year of King Richard the 3rd after his accession it 
is thus inroUed. 

"Jenkin ap Grono ap David ap Thomas comes^here into 
Court before the afores'd Steward and shews a certain Bill 
presented to the Lord and signed with the Lord's sign manual 
the Tenor of which follows in these words To his most 
honourable & gracious Lord the Earl of Kent Sheweth meekly 
your poor Tenant Jenkin ap Grono ab David ap Thomas 
insomuch as your said poor Tenant hath taken a Tenement of 
Lands in the Comot of Dogvilin in the Township of E-hydel- 
derne the which was at 6s. & Scl. of rent in English Tenure of 
old Time and now your sM poore Tenant took it before your 
Steward in your Court for los. of rent yearly to him and to 
his heirs in English Tenure for ever Please it unto your good 
Grace to grant him this said Tenem. of Lands according to 
your Court Rolls and this for gods sake. Which bill is 
indorsed in these Words My Lord granteth the suppliant 
within written his petition. Given at Ampthuil the 14th Day 
of January the 1st year of King Rich'd the 3rd. — Signat sic 
E. Kent." 

" data pro copia." 

20 February 1508. Release from Ithell ap David ap 
Dio of Llanuchan in the Lordship of DelFrencloit, yeoman, to 
Jenkin ap Grono of the same place, yeoman, of all actions 
personal and real ; and especially for a Moiety of a certain 
Tenement formerly belonging to the Mother of the said 
Ithell in the Yill of Rhydelderen, and of all right and claim 

In 1516, 7. H. 8, John ap Jenkin ab Grono ap David ap 
Thomas came before the 8th Court of the Commot of Dog- 
veilin at Ruthin and took from the Lord the King...parcell of 
Land late of Griflith ap Gwillym and formerly in the hands of 
John ap Dio ap Meredith and late in the hands of Jenkin ap 

John ap whose rent was 2s. 4(i., to whom it was granted to 

hold of the Chief Lord of the fee by the rents and services 
until the right heirs should come and recover, when he was to 
satisfy John of all expenses by the discretion of arbitrators. 
And he gave to the King a fine of \2d. for having the land 
by the hands of Richard ap David ap Wyn. 

On 10th Febr. 1517, John, son and heir of Jenkin ap Grono 
granted to John ap Grifl&th ap Nicholas and David ap Griffith 
ap David ap Jenkin, all his Lands, etc., in the Vill of Rhydel- 
dern, to hold to the said John and David and their heirs of the 


Chief Lord of the fee by the rents and services due and 

On the 10th February 1517, John ap Jenkin ab Grono was 
secured by a bond in £200, from John ap Griffith ap Nicholl and 
David ap Griffith ap Jenkin Taylor, for the dowry of his wife 
Lucy, daughter of Ithell ap Edward, and maintenance of their 
childi-en, to be forfeited by them in the event of refeoffment of 
the Charter bearing the same date. 

On the 29th Sept. 1521, John ap Richard ap Grono and 
Margaret vercli E,ys his wife, grant to John ap Jenkin ap 
Grono and Luce his wife 6 acres of Land in Rhydeldern and 
Dogveilin, between Cae Newydd on the E., and the highway 
from Llandurnog to Ruthin on the W., and a river called 
Hir Wen (written also Hir Wyn) on the S., and a tenement 
of Agnes verch Richard ap Grono on the N., for a yearly 
payment of 14c?. 

On the 19th Oct. 1534, John ap Jenkin ap Grono sur- 
rendered the lands in Rhydeldern of his late father Jenkin ap 
Grono, to John Ashpule, who again surrendered them to the 
use of John ap Jenkin ap Grono and his wife Elizabeth, daughter 
of Thomas Ashpule. 

On the 18th May 1552, by Deed Poll, the lands of John ab 
Jenkin were vested in Trustees for the security of the Marriage 
Settlement of Robert, his son, and Mallt his wife, to hold of 
the Chief Lord, as before. 

On 31st Jan. 1557, Edward, son of John ap Jenkin ap 
Grono demised 3| acres of land called Y Kae Glas, and one 
Chamber adjoining, in the Township of Ruissa (Rhiw Isa), to 
John ap Jenkin ap Grono for his life, for a yearly payment 
of \4:d.; also a heriot of 7 pence, if the said John die upon the 

On the 4th Febr. 1560, at the 2nd Court of the Com mot, 
held at Ruthin, Tuesday next after the feast of St. Ulfran 
the Bishop, before John Salisbury, Esq., the Steward there, 
John ab Jenkin ab Grono and Elizabeth Aspule his wife, sur- 
rendered the lands of Jenkin, their late father, to the use of 
his son John ap John ap Jenkin ap Grono, saving the right 
of every one, and giving a relief to the Queen. 

On the 26th May 1565, Edward ap John ap Jenkin ap Dio 
of Llanbedr, co. Denbigh, gives his bond in £40, to perform 
the award of John Lloyd ap John ap David, John ap Griffith 
ap Nicholl, Richard ap Griffith ap Dio, and Ithell ap Griffith 
ap Dio. 

On the Feast of St. Mary Magdalen 1564, the award was 
made respecting 8 acres of land and a parcell called Cae 
Griffith in Rhiw Isa, between the said parties. 

TY GWYN. 335 

Thus the property descended for more than two 
centuries from father to son. Each tenant, when his 
son married, appeared before the Steward in the Court 
of the Commot at Ruthin, and surrendered in his favour 
the title to the estate, providing also by dowry for the 
contingency of widow and children. The Chief Lord 
assented by bill and sign manual to the transfer, saving 
the services due to himself, and the rights of all con- 
cerned, on payment of a fine by way of relief, and of the 
customary heriot. The latter was commuted for a money 
payment ; in the case of a burgess of Ruthin, in lieu of 
the best chattel, it was 7d., which was to be the heriot for 
John ab Jenkin, " if John dies on the premises", implying 
that it would be taken in kind if he died away from his 
home. The lands, however, were still alienable at the 
pleasure or convenience of the tenant, by sale or mort- 
gage, or for a yearly rent, saving that due to the Chief 
Lord, and his service to be rendered by the purchaser. 
Disputes as to title or limits of lands were settled by 
arbitration. The arbiters in a dispute settled in 1565 
were John Lloyd ab John ab David, John ab Griffith ab 
Nicholl, Eichard ab Griffith ab Dio, and Ithel ab Griffith 
ab Dio; in 1566, John Salesburye, Esq.; in 1606, 
Edward Th el wall, Esq. 

In a Rental copied from the Dogveilin Court Rolls, 
and taken at Ruthin on 3rd November 1638, it is stated 
by the Jurors that " the rents of the Free Tenants and 
quit rents have been by custom paid to the Lord of this 
Lordship at two payments, viz. : one at the Feast of St. 
Phillip and Jacob, and the other of St. Michael the 
Archangel, by equal portions." Also " that they paid to 
the Chief Lord an Heriot custom of the goods of each 
Tenant, if he be not a Burgess of the Town of Ruthin"..., 
" in such case they do not pay to the Lord but 7 pence, in 
the name of an Heriot for all their Lands in the Lord- 
ship." Again, "the Chief Lord... hath for time beyond 
memory kept a Court Baron every 3 weeks in the year, 
and ye free Tenants in the s'd Manor ought customarily 
to do suit and service at the s'd Court. Mills held of 
the Crown at the yearly rent of 2O5." 


By the action, in all probability, of the civil war, the 
family of Ty Gwyn became impoverished ; for, by a deed 
of release dated 31st March 1645, it appears included in 
the sale and purchase of lands, etc., to Kobert Griffith of 
Pengwern in the co. of Flint, gent., and Elizabeth Lloyd 
of Bankar in the co. of Denbigh, widow, to the use of 
John Madocks of Vron Iw and of Jane his wife for her 
life, to Edward Jones and Ann his wife for her life, 
to Thomas and Edward Williams, and the heirs of 
all of them, with remainder to David Lloyd and his 
heirs. Here Jane Madocks resided after her second 
marriage with her husband, the Rev. Thomas Jones, 
Kector of Llangwyvan and Clocaenog, and preacher at 
St. Hilary's, Denbigh, in consideration whereof he was 
made a Capital Burgess of that town. 

In these documents are given the names of four of 
the Chief Lords of Kuthin and of Denbigh, viz.: Lord 
Edmond Grey, in 1446 ; the Earl of Kent, in 1477 ; Am- 
brose, Earl of Warwick, K.G., in 1573 ; and Robert, Earl 
of Leicester, Baron of Denbigh, in 1574. Also of nine 
of the Stewards of the lordship of Ruthin, viz.: John 
Eltonhede, 1441; Thomas Salisbury, 1446; Robert 
Salesbury, 1449 ; Edward Lucy, 1470 ; Peter Stanley, 
1483 ; John Pulestone, 1507 ; Peter Salisbury, 1530; 
Robert Salisbury, 1540 ; John Salisbury, 1560. To 
these may be added Simon Thelwall of Plas y Ward, 
who died April 18th, 1586, spoken of as Steward of 
Ruthin in his Elegy by a contemporary poet, Edward 
abRaff Also Simeon Thelwall, 1418; John Thelwall, 
1464 ; Eubule Thelwall, 1492 ; Thomas Salisbury, 1502. 
(See vol. ii, p. 297.) 

John Barker, " English Tenant", T Grono ab David ab Thomas,=i= 

1446, oh. ante June 1470. | Yeoman. | 


I II. I 

Angharad, :p David ab Luce (ornpJenkin ab Grono, Richard ab Grono. ^ 

living in 


Dio. Lleucu. 

ob. ante 1534. 

John ab Eichard. = Margaret, d. of 



Ithel ab David 

ab Dio, living 

in 1508. 

2n<J wife, Eliza- T John ab Jenkin of^plat wife, Luce, d. of 

beth, d. of 
Thomas Ash- 
pool; married 

Llanychan and 


deceased on 20th 

January 1586-7. 

Ithel ab Edward of 

Rhiw Isa', ob. ante 


Edward Piers Morgan ab John, called Robert ab John ofTMallt, d. 
ab ab by Lowry, d. of William Llanychan, ob. ante I of John. 
John. John. ab John, in her will, January 1576. | 
her uncle. P. 330. [ 

John ab Robert of RhydeUdeyrn, ob. anfe^r^Gwenhwyvar Wen, ob. ante 1606. 
1605. I 

Richard ab John ab Robert of Hhydelldeyrn. T 

John ab Richard. Marriage articles = Elizabeth, d. of Thomas David ab 

dated August 6th, 1621. He sold the 
fee simple of his mansion house, Ty 
Gwyn in RhydeUdeyrn to David Lloyd 
ab John Wynn for ^420, on 21st Nov. 
1642, who resold it to John Madocks. 

Rhys of Llanbedr, by his wife 
Agnes, d. of David, a widow in 
1621. See vol. iv, p. 230. 


Ithel ab Edward (? of Maesmaen Cymro). Deed of June 18th, 1610. T 

I I I 

John ab Ithel, junr., of Rhiw Isa', Yeoman. ^ Ehys. Luce, ux. John ab 

His bond dated July 18th, 1608. Paid a I Jenkin of Rhyd- 

fine on April 15th, 1611. | elldeyrn. 


William ab John ab Ithel, Yeoman. =F 

Ffoulkab William. =f 

Elizabeth, ux. John ab William. 


William ab Ffoulk. 

VOL. r. 




The two succeeding genealogies are those of families 
whose descent is derived in direct succession from father 
to son from Cunedda, a prince whose career exercised a 
most important influence on Welsh history, and whose 
era has been variously estimated at periods ranging from 
A. D. 360 to A. D. 540. It is conceded, however, by the best 
authorities, that he flourished at a time subsequent to 
the abandonment of Britain by the Romans, and prior to 
the resistance made by the historical King Arthur to the 
invading forces of the Saxons, that is, between the years 
A.D. 410 and 440. The earliest intimation of his career is 
found in the document known as the " Genealogies of 
the Saxon Kings", appended to Nennius's Historia Bri- 
tonum, composed at the end of the 7th, and first occur- 
ring in a MS. of the early 12th century [Harl. 3859), 
thus : — "Maelcun,a great king, was [then] reigning among 
the Britons, that is, in the region of Guenedotia, for his 
great-grandfather, that is, Cunedag, with his sons, whose 
number was eight, had come previously from the North, 
that is, from the region which is called Manau Guo- 
todin, one hundred and forty-six years before Maelcun 
reigned; and they expelled the Scots with immense 
slaughter from those regions, and they never returned 
again to dwell there." These Scots were the Irish 
Gwyddel, anciently written Goidel, called " Scoti" by 
Latin writers, a name which they carried with them 
from Ireland, where they lost it, into Scotland, so called 
after them to this day. Manaw Gododin was the strip 
of country stretching along the south bank of the Forth, 
between Stirling and Edinburgh, and it subsequently 
appears in history as chiefly inhabited by the Picts, and 
one of the chief battle-fields of Picts, Scots, Welsh, and 
Saxons in their long contest for supremacy over Scot- 
land. Maelcun, or Maelgwn, was the King of Gwynedd, 
famous in Welsh romance, as well as history, for his 


power, his wicked deeds, and his death of the Yellow 

The unique Welsh genealogies appended to Nennius 
in Harl. MS. 3859, compiled about the end of the 
10th century, furnish additional information regarding 
Cunedda's invasion, and give the names of his sons ; and 
these are so important to our purpose, as will presently 
appear, that we write them in the original orthography ; 
but here, it is to be observed, their number is made, 
not eight, but nine. "1. Typipaun, who died in the 
country which is called Manau Guotodin, and came not 
here [to Wales] with his father and brethren. His son 
Meriaun shared his possessions among his brethren" ; an 
expression which seems to mean that his uncles gave 
him his father's share of the conquered lands, " 2. Os- 
mail. 3. Rumaun. 4. Dunaut. 5. Ceretic. 6, Abloyc. 
7. Enniaun Girt. 8. Docmail. 9. Etern." To which is 
added, " This is their limit ; from the river which is called 
Dubr duiu (Dee) as far as another river Tebi (Teivi); 
they held very many districts in the western part of 

In one of the Genealogies of Saints in the lolo MSS. 
is a list of Cunedda's sons differing not a little from the 
above, pp. 121 and 522. Here the number is not nine, 
but twelve, and the orthography has been unfortunately 
modernised, so as to preclude the formation of a critical 
judgment concerning them. " Typipaun" (so mis-spelt for 
Typiaun) here becomes "Tybiawn," and he is said to have 
been slain in Gwynedd, instead of dying in the North ; 
but it is added that his son, Meiriawn, gave his name to 
Meirionydd. Of the rest, these six, viz., Ceredic, Dunawd, 
Edeyrn, Dogfael, Rhufawn, and Einion Yrth, may be 
taken as standing in later orthography for Ceretic, 
Dunaut, Etern, Docmail, Rumaun, and Enniaun Girt. 
Osmail has been altered into Oswal, clearly for the reason 
that will be stated presently; Arwystl, Mael, Clwyd, 
and Gwron are independent additions ; and one, Abloyc, 
does not appear at all, nor is it easy to see what name it 
could properly be represented by in modern Welsh, but 

22 2 


for that very reason the iiame may all the more probably 
be genuine. In the " Life of St. Carannog" {Cott. Vesp. 
A. xiv, f. 91^), the name of the sixth son of Cunedda is 
written Abalach. In Harl. 3859, f. 193, col. 3, 
" Aballac, map Amalech", is given as one of his ancestors. 
The two first names would now be written Afallach, the 
name, by the way, of the legendary founder of Glaston- 
bury, Ynys Afallach. In this, the first MS., moreover, 
we have the true reading of the Harl. MS.'s Osmail, viz., 
Ismail ; but the third son's name is written " Kumaun" 
for "Rumaun," and " Dunaun" stands for " Dunaut". 
This comparison has been entered upon to show that, 
while the Harl. MS.'s account of Cunedda's sons differs 
from the others, yet it is the oldest, and therefore the 
most authentic. Of lolo's Genealogy we know no 
more than he has told us — that he copied it from the 
Long Book of Thomas Truman of Pant Lliwydd, in 
Llansannor, Glamorganshire. Of the date, orthography, 
or history of the " Long Book" itself he says nothing 
at all. Besides the names, this makes most important 
additions to the meagre statement of Nennius; but the 
question remains how far they may be received as history. 
Whatever its value, it seems to have been to some 
extent independent of the Harl. MS. Genealogies, and 
perhaps (thus far) derived from documents v»diich have not 
come down to us, since, in one statement already adverted 
to, it not only adds to, but contradicts the older authority. 
" Tybiawn", it says, " acquired the Cantref by putting the 
Gwyddyl to flight, and in that battle he was slain, and the 
nobles of the land conferred Supremacy and Princedom 
upon Meiriawn his son, and from his name that land is 
called Meirionydd, as he too is called Meirion of Meir- 
ionydd." In like manner Arwystli is said to be so called 
from Arwystl, Ceredigion from Ceredig, Dunoding from 
Dunawd, Edernion from Edern, Maelienydd (ungram- 
matically) from Mael (but elsewhere it is Dinmael), 
Dogveilin from Dogvael, Bhuvoniog from Bhuvawn, 
Oswestry from Oswal, and the Yale of Clwyd from 
Clwyd. To these another son, " Corwn" (" Corun", 


Jesus Coll. MS. No. 20, f. 37^), is incidentally added, 
for which Gwron is merely a mistake. Corwn, a grand- 
son, was son of Ceredig, and father of St. Carannog. 
Besides these another has been given by Sir John Price 
in his Description of Wales, " Coel", from whom, he says, 
comes Coleigion (spelt also Coelogion, Colyan, Coleion, 
Colian, and Golygion), a Commot in the Vale of Clwyd. 
Now the least that can be said of these divisions is 
that at the best there is a suspicious aspect about them. 
Of Chvyd, Oswal, and Arwystl, the Harl. MS. says 
absolutely nothing. The names look like inventions to 
account for the respective localities, coming to us, as they 
do, without facts or testimony to support them, and 
partly contradicted by facts. Arwystl is a name of no 
uncommon type, and Oswestry was named from St, 
Oswald. How, then, can this authority be accepted 
as authentic for the others? A king called Ceretic 
may have given his name to Ceredigion, but was 
he the son of Cunedda ? Indeed, the Genealogy itself 
would seem to supply its own refutation, for it dis- 
tinctly names Gwynedd as the only part of Wales 
whence Cunedda's sons expelled the Gwyddyl and 
the Picts, of which it need scarcely be said that Car- 
digan and Maelienydd were never component parts. 
Yet the writer sums up as follows : — "And so Cyn- 
eddaf Wledig obtained sovereignty over Wales 
(though long since dead?), and the lands above men- 
tioned v^^ere acquired by his sons." The same writer, 
again, who tells us of the conquests of the sons of 
Cunedda, tells us also that the conquered people were 
the Gwyddyl who had subdued (not Wales, but) Gwy- 
nedd, since the time of the Emperor Maximus. Confined, 
then, as the statement is by the hypothesis to Gwynedd, 
it gives little support to the theory, which, however, has 
some other arguments in its favour, that the Irish, whose 
lands they seized, were not new comers from Ireland, 
but the remnant of a primitive population, driven into 
the remote West by the irruptions of later invaders of 
the island. The statement that they were expelled from 


Gower by some one (not Urien Rheged, who, we know, 
was slain in the North), in conjunction with the sons of 
Cunedda, seems confirmed by the name of a hill near 
Cydweli, which is still known as " Allt Cynedda". If so, 
it would seem quite possible that they mny have in like 
manner overrun Ceredigion also, and that some one of 
Urien's family and Ceredig may have agreed to a parti- 
tion of the conquered territory between them. The res- 
toration of religion generally, if not indeed its first esta- 
blishment in many places, is ascribed to them, w^hence 
doubtless originated their designation of one of "the 
Holy Families of the Isle of Britain", those of Bran the 
Blessed and of Brychan Brycheiniog being the other two.^ 
Tradition, in fact, represents their influence in Wales as 
rather ecclesiastical than secular, although a combination 
of both is implied in the statement, to be accepted with 
limitation, of an old Triad, that Cunedda was the first 
to confer land and privilege, ''tir a hraint'\ upon the 
Church in Wales. 

Whether the Gwyddyl they expelled were the remnant 
of the old inhabitants or fresh invaders, it is certain that 
their expulsion by the sons of Cunedda produced effects 
which long left their mark upon the religious and social 
condition of the country. The statement that they were 
sent by Cunedda for that object is probably destitute of 
any foundation ; in fact, Cunedda was slain in the North, 
in a battle on the Roman Wall with a people of the 
same race as those over whom they were victorious in 
the West ; and it was his death, in all probability, that 
forced them to turn their arms in that direction, when 
no longer able to hold their own against them in their 
own country. 

Still, although some of these Cuneddian settlements 
may be fictitious, it by no means follows that others of 

1 The family relations of Brychan, as given in the Genealogies, not 
obscurely intimate his Gwyddelic, or Pictish, descent. Was it because 
of their Christian profession that they were suffered to remain and to 
connect themselves by marriage with the conquei'ing race of the 
Cymry ? 


them, in Gwynedd at least, may not still have to be 
accepted as genuine, when confirmed by extrinsic facts. 
Here local tradition and genealogy may furnish important 
evidence. In the Cantrev of Rhuvoniog, so called, it has 
been said, from Rhuvawn, Cunedda's son, are still two 
landed properties extant, those of Gwrych and Cevn, 
whose proprietors claim Cunedda for their progenitor. 
Plas yn Gwrych, now Gwrych Castle, was so called 
probably from its hog's-back hill, and there is neither 
deed, nor record, nor tradition extant to show that 
any other family had ever possessed it save that of 
the Lloyds of Gwrych, now merged in that of Hes- 
keth by the marriage of the last heiress. That of 
Cevn, bearing the same ancient coat ascribed to Arthen 
ab Seisyllt, in the direct male line of Cunedda, repre- 
sents another branch of the same family. The line, 
as given by Lewys Dwnn, stops short at Rothani (sic) 
ab Seiriol, the first abbot and founder of the mon- 
astery of Penmon ; here, therefore, its continuation has 
been supplied from other sources. This name, spelt also 
Serguil (Harl 3859, f. 195, c. l) and " Seruuel", 
may be from the Latin " Servilius". The name of 
"Eotham" is suggestive of historical coincidence. It 
is spelt "Botlian" in the MS. said to have been copied 
by Meyrick for his edition of Dwnn ; but in early MSS. 
"B" is often indistinguishable from "E,"; and in lolo 
MSS., p. 526, the name appears as Brothan, but as the 
son of another Seiriol, whose father was Ussa, the son of 
Ceredig, also a son of Cunedda. The true reading, 
doubtless, is "Bothan", or, as it would now be spelt, 
Rhyddan. The ancient house of Bodrhyddan is very 
near to Gwrych, and its name signifies that it was once 
the dwelling of Bhyddan. We have also in Llanddoged 
the name of Doged, a son of Ceredig, and grandson of 
Cunedda. Here, then, we have within a few miles 
of each other the Cantref of Bhuvoniog, the Com- 
mot of Dogveilin, and perhaps also that of Coleigion, 
the Church of Llanddoged, and the House of Bod- 
rhyddan : a group not hitherto adverted to in its col- 


lective aspect by historians, but surely more indicative 
of the presence and power in the neighbourhood of the 
descendants of Cunedda, than mere fanciful associations 
originating in the imaginations of early but uncritical 

The subject is by no means exhausted ; but to pursue it 
further would be foreign to the scope of this work. Those 
who would know more of the national hero Cunedda 
must accordingly be referred to that delightful little work 
entitled Early Britain — Celtic Britain, in which it is 
shown by Professor Rhys how that, by the voice of his 
countrymen, he succeeded to the authority held over 
them, prior to their abandonment by the Romans, by 
the Duces Britanniarum, and the " Counts of the Saxon 
Shore", to which they may have held him entitled by the 
Roman descent of ancestors, as exhibited in their names, 
one or more of whom may have held such an office in 
person ; how his imperial jurisdiction was embodied in 
his title of "Gwledig", and symbolised by his golden 
belt and purple robe ; how he held his court at Carlisle ; 
how his escort consisted of nine hundred horse, a number 
suggested by that of the auxiliary squadron of a Roman 
legion ; how he defended the great Southern Wall from 
Tyne to Sol way against the northern invader ; and how 
his elegy was written by Taliesin, "Chief of Bards", telling 
in rude yet spirited verse how he fell hard by that Wall, 
fighting bravely to the last against the ruthless spoilers 
of the land that had once been his own. 

The genuineness of this Elegy, which is here given in 
modern orthography, has now been acknowledged by 
such authorities as Stephens, Skene, and Rhys ; but the 
difficulty of reconciling it with chronology has occasioned 
considerable controversy. One proposed solution is the 
existence of two Cuneddas ; another, of two Taliesins. 
As to the latter, we will but remark that the Bard is 
believed to have lived at least 120 years, perhaps con- 
siderably longer : and that, however this may be, 
chronology has to be harmonised with the poem, not the 
poem with chronology. It is not to be supposed that 


the text, the earliest known copy of which is in the Hook 
of Taliesin, a late thirteenth century MS., should not 
have undergone corruption, through the modification of 
language and spelling, in the course of seven or eight 
centuries. The translation has been based partly on 
those of Stephens and Williams ; and the few emenda- 
tions which are suggested of the text, copied from that 
MS., of The Four Ancient Books of Wales, are explained 
in the notes. 

O Waith Taliesin Ben Beirdd. 

Mydwyf Taliesin derydd^ 
Gvvawd goddolaf Fedydd, 

Bedydd rhwydd rhyfeddau^ eiddolydd. 

'^[Gwawd feii'dd a oganon^ oganaf, 

Ac eraill a refon^ a rifaf. 5 

Cyndderchyn' y gwin i gywydd, 
Cyfachedwyn' a choelyn carennydd 
Gwisgawd beirdd cywrain canouydd.^] 

Cyfrwnc allt ac allt ac echwydd, 
Ergrynawd Cuneddaf creisserydd, 10 

Ynghaer Weir a chaer Lliwelydd. 
Ergrynawd cyfuddawd cyfergyr 
Cyfanwaneg ton tra mur,'* 
Ton llwybrawd^ gw^r glew i gilydd ; 
Can cafas y chwel uch elfydd, 15 

Mai uchenaid gwynt wrth onwydd. 

^ ' Rifeden', Skene ; ' rifedeu', LI. T. 

2 The first couplet of these five lines are lines 34 and 35, and the 
next three are lines 12, 13, 14 in LI. T. Their sense is strikingly 
incongruous with the rest of the poem, and must certainly have been 
interpolated from another, and probably later composition. They 
are, therefore, enclosed in brackets. ' A ogon', ' a ogaf, LI. T., but 
the marks of contraction are lost. For 'i gyfyl', read 'i gywydd', 
which fits both rhyme t-nd sense. 

^ ' Kanonhyd', the laws of bardic poetry. 

* For 'tan', S. 'Myr', S.; but ' mur', Lat. nmrus, seems to be 
intended, i.e., the Roman Wall from Tyne to Solway, near the two 
extremities of which are Durham and Carlisle. 

^ ' Llupawt', LI. T., probably a corruption of ' llwybrawd'. Gwfr, 
probably di'opped out of the line in MSS. 


Marw Cuueddaf a gwynaf a gwynid, 
Cwynitor tewdor tewdyn diarchar. 
Dychyfal dycliyfun dyfynfeis/ 

Dyfyngleis dycliyfun. 20 

Ymadrawdd cwddedawdd caledlwm, 
Caledach wrtli elyn nog asgwrn, 
Esgynial Cuneddaf cyn cwys a thydwedd. 
Ei wyneb^ a gadwyd 

Canwaith cyn bu llaith ; y^ ddorglwyd 25 

Dychludent gwyr Brynaich ym mhlymwyd. 

Fe'i ganed rhag ei ofn a'i arswyd oergerdded, 
Cyn bu daear dogyn ei duedd.^ 
Haid hafal am wyddwal own ebrwydd, 
Rhyfeddawd yu erflawdd a naw cant gorwydd.^ 30 

Gweiniaw gwaeth llyfred nog adwyth. 

Addoed^ hun Difiau a gwynaf, 
Am lys, am grys Cuneddaf, 
Am ryaflaw'^ hallt, am rydyrfa'r mor, 
Am braidd a fFwrn^ a ballaf. 3o 

Cyn cymun Cuneddaf, 
'E, i'm a fai biw blitli yn liaf, 
'R i'm a fai eddystrawd y gauaf, 
^R i'm a fai win gloyw ac olew, 

^ ' Djfynveis' seems compounded of ' dyfn' and ' mais', used as a 
simple noun by later poets. See Pughe's Lex., s.v. 

2 ' Wyneb', lit. bis face. Facing the foe, he warded off their 

3 ' Yn' omitted in S. ' Dorglwyt', from dor, a door, and chvj/cl, 
a hurdle ; improvised as a bier for Cunedda. 

-t 'D6et', S.; ' y dvet', LI. T. 

'^ This line has been clearly misplaced. 

6 'Adoet' may be 'a ddoeth' of M.W., or O.W. of ' addoed', 
the time appointed, or proper for any event. ' Dimya6', I think 
must be O.W. or M.W. for 'Difiau', the last syllable of which, how- 
ever, might properly have been 'Ion', L. dies Jovis. The day of the 
week on which persons died, or were slain in battle, is named some- 
times in their poems by later bards, and generally, if I rightly 
remember, is a Thursday, as though that day were auspicious. 

7 ' Ryaflaw'. ' Rhy', an intensive particle prefixed to substantives, 
adjectives, and verbs by the old bards. The epithet ' hallt' shows 
' gaflaw', a sea-trout, or salmon, to be the word intended. Hydyruer, 
for Mod. W. ' hydrfer', would be here used figuratively for all that 
the sea provides. So all the MSS., but 'rydyrfa' seems the true reading. 

8 ' Ffwrn', an oven, betokened wealth in a princely mansion in 
rude times. Another reading is ' beirdd a swrn', but 1 


'E i'm a fai torf^ caeth rhag un tvew, 40 

Ef dyfal o gresur o gyflew gweladur. 

Pennadur pryd Hew ! lludw y byddai gwlad 

Rhag mab Edern cyn edyrn anaelew. 

Ef dywal, diarchar, dieding, 

Am ryfrau angau dycliyfing. 45 

Ef goborthai aes y man rhagorawl^ 

Gw^r gwrawl oedd ei unbyn. 

Dymun/ a chyfadgan, a thai gwyn cam, 

Da dyna hyn o goelyn. 

The Death-Song of Cunedda. 

I am Taliesin the Fervid ! 
With praise- song I glorify Baptism, 
— To the worshipper Baptism rife with wonders. 

'Tween hill and hill and on plain 
Cunedda the Burner was dreaded, 
In Caer Weir, and in Caer Liwelydd. 
Dreaded the shock, as it gathered, 
In unbroken wave o'er the Wall, — 
Wave of tramping of brave men together ; 
When it held on its path o'er the moorland, 
'Twas as howling of wind in the ash-trees. 

They grieved — I grieve too — that Cunedda, 
The mighty fort's mighty defender, 

' 'Torof , LI. T. The reading 'toros' or 'tors', L. torus, a couch, 
might be suspected, but for the next verse, which seems to have 
reference to the slaves, or familia, as pressing to receive (gyflew, 
improperly for gyfleu) the bard as a guest. 'Vn trew', LI. T. 

2 ' Dymhun' is not ' dyfn hun', deep sleep, but the stem of modern 
'dymunaw', to desire, in its substantive form. It seems here used 
for prayer before death, among other signs of repentance. These 
two lines, and the words ' Cymun Cunedaf ', in 1. 36, show that 
the hero survived his death-wound long enough to enable him to 
receive the last sacraments of the Church. 'A chyfatam', S., would 
yield 'a chyfaddef, and confession in Modern VV., but this reading 
is supported by neither MSS. nor Edd. The Book of Taliesin, for the 
collation of which with the text of The Four Ancient Books of Wales 
the present translator is indebted to Professor Rhys, has ' a chyfatcun', 
or ' a chyfatcim', words which appear to correspond to none in 
Modern W. precisely. But ' cyfadgan' is found, the equivalent for 
which in O.W. would be ' cyfatcan', which copyists may have 
mistaken for 'cyfatcun', expecting a rhyme to ' dymhun', a word 
which may well signify recantation, or expression of sorrow for sin. 


The grief is — Cunedda is dead ! 

With him the deep plot was familiar — 

Familiar the deep-gashing stroke. 

His speech cheerM the friendless and naked, 

To an enemy harder than bone. 

How exalted, ere came sod and furrow, 

Cunedda ! Ofttimes was his person 

Preserved till, in death, on a hurdle 

Men of Bryneich bore him in battle. 

Of his fear and his dread was engeuder'd. 
Like a pack of swift hounds round a thicket, 
A lagging of gait, ei'e the earth 
Was the end of his destined course. 
Admired was he in the uproar 
Of battle with nine hundred horse ! 

A cowardice worse than ill fortune 
Is sheathing the sword ! For the slumber 
Appointed on Thursday I grieve ; 
For the court, for the belt of Cunedda, 
For many a salted salmon, for many a shoal from the sea. 
For the spoil and the oven I miss. 

Before Cunedda's communion. 
Mine the milch kine of the summer. 
Mine were the steeds of the winter, 
Mine the clear wine and the oil, 
Mine the slave-throng to keep but from sneezing, 
Pressing hotly to seat me as guest. 

A lion-like chief ! a country 
Before Edern^s son would be ashes, 
Ei-e the ruler of terrors o'ercame him. 
Fierce was he, headlong and feai'less : 
Now the bonds of death restrain him. 
He bore his shield full in the foreground, 
Men valiant were his princes. 
Prayer, with recantation, 
And pure reparation of wrong, 
Lo, there is a thing of good omen ! 

These lines are foreign to the subject, and clearly 
interpolated :— - 

[The song of Bards gibing 1^1 gibe at. 

And will count them, crowd others who may. 

They will lift up the wine to the verse, 

They will guard with the token of love 

The vesture of Bards of strict rules.] H. W. L. 




Hengwrt, Harleian, and Wynnstay MS8.; Lewys Dwnn, vol. ii, 
p. 339 ; and other documents.) 

Cynwrig ab Dafydd ab Goronwy ab Howel ab Tudyr ab Artben ab Seisyllt=j= 
ab Clydawg ab Arthrwys ab Aeddan ab Eothan ab Seiriol (ab lusaig 
ab Ceredig, Harl. 3859) ab Owain Danwyn ab Einion Yrth ab Cunedda 
Wledig. Sable, three roses argent, leaved vert, seeded or, for Arthen ab 
Seisyllt ; quartering gules, a chevron ermine, inter three stag's heads 
caboshed argent, for larddur ab lorwerth ab Cynddelw of Penrhyn, Lord 
of Llechwedd Uchaf, and Grand Forester of Snowdon to Llewelyn the 

Llewelyn ab Cynwric.=j=Mali, d. of Tudyr ab leuan Goch of Plas y Stiwart 
I in Abergele.^ 



=Morvydd, d. of 1st wife, ..., d. of=Goronwy=j=2nd wife, Lleuci, 

Jenkin ab Rhys ab Howel ab Lie- d. of leuan ab 

Davydd ab y Coetmor. welyn. Davydd Holland 

Crach.^ Hen. 

^ Thus in the Salusbury MS. It was probably so called because 
built for his own residence by a steward (originally seneschal) of 
the lordship of Denbigh or Ruthin. In the parish of Abergele there 
is a field called " Cae Stiwart", where tradition speaks of a " Plas" 
having once stood. The name has been written corruptly " Tiorst", 
and " Straiart" in old pedigrees. 

2 " Crach", in Davies' Welsh-Latin Lexicon, is a substantive mean- 
ing "scabies". But it is also used as an adjective for a weak, puny 
person, and is therefore not a proper name, but a nickname. "Jenkin 
ab Davydd ab y Crach", is probably an error for Jenkin ab Davydd 
Crach, an ancestor of Alice Wen, wife of Robei't Griffith of Pengwern 
(see p. 298), and descended from Marchudd. 





Hugh in 

leu an, 



ydd in 




John. David. 

c I d 

Wil- ^ 







John.=j= Evan Lloyd. 

I 1st wife. 2nd wife. 

Elizabeth. ==pleuan Lloyd,=i= Catharine 

d. of 
Grigor ; 
ob. 1596. 

Clerk of 
oh. at Lud- 
low, Jan. 31, 
1631. From 
whom de- 
scend the 
Lloyds of 
Cevn in 
P. 354. 

Wen, d. and 

heiress of 

John ab 

Hugh Gwyn; 


1597, ob. 

1046, oet. 72. 

1st wife. 
=Agnes, d. of= 

leuan ab 
Rhys Lloyd 
ab Gruffydd 

Lloyd of 


2nd wife. 

= Mallt Ve- 

chan, d. of 


ab Madoc 

Vychan of 


Thomas =Jane, dan. of 



Ffoulk ab 
Robert Salis- 
bury of Plas 
Isa' in Llan- 

2nd wife, = John 

Gwen, d. 

of Owen 

ab Sion 
ab Robin, 

relict of 

Wyn ab 




:Catharine, d. of John GriiBth of Y Chwaen in Llan- 
ddyfnan, Anglesey, by Anne, d. of Edward Salus- 
bury, ab Thomas Salisbury. 

Hugh.=T=Lleucu, d. of Davydd 
I ab Maredydd ab 
I Davydd Llwyd. 

Tho- =Jane, dau. of 
mas. Robert Salis- 

Gruff- = Margaret, d. 
ydd ab of leuan 
Hugh. Llwyd ab 

Ffoulk, Par- 
son of 

Mallt, ux. Dav- 
ydd ab Thomas 
ab leuan. 

Gruff- = Ellen, d. of 
ydd. Gruffydd 
Leia^ of 

1. Mallt, 
ux. Ed- 
ward ab 

Robert ab 
Rhys of 


Annes, ux., 1st, of 
Rhys ab Davydd ab 
Llywelyn ab Dav- 
ydd ab Madoc of 
Abergeleu. 2nd, of 
John ab Davydd ab 


1 "Lleiaf" signifies literally "least", but as a genealogical term, 
" youngest", as " Vychan" does " younger". 



e\ I 
David = 
first to 








■Jane, d. and heiress of Rhys ab Howel ab Robert ab Llewelyn of 
Carreg Las and Ucheldre Ucha' in Anglesey ; descended from 
larddur, Lord of Arllechwedd in Caernarvonsliire,Grand Forester 
of Snowdon, a.d. 1330. Gules, a chevron ermine, inter three 
stag's heads caboshed argent. See vol. iv, p. 82, note 1. 

George.=j=Catharine, d. and heiress of 
I Sion ab Davydd ab Tudyr. 

John = Grace, sole d. of William 

Wynab Holland of Hendre Vawr, by 

George his wife Margaret, d. and 

ab heiress of Thomas Davies, 

Sion. Bishop of St. Asaph. 

Richard ab=pElizabeth, d. of John ab 
George ab I David Lloyd of Aberge- 
Sion. I leu. 

Morris ab=pEllen, d. of Ffoulk Vaughan 
Richard, j of Bronhaulog in Llanvair 

! Talhaiarn, Esq. P. 356. 

David =pAles, d. of John Parry of Llan- 
Morris. I vair. 


1. Ellen, ux. Rhys ab 
Benet ab Rhys ab Dav- 
ydd of BodoryninBryn 

2. Margaret, ux. Rhys ab 
William ab Thomas ab 
Gruffydd Goch of Cloc- 

3. Jane, ux. Richard ab 
Piers ab John ab Gruff- 
ydd of Rhiw Dymeir- 

4. Mallt, ux. Gruffydd 
Llwyd of Bryn Ffanigl. 

5. Ales, ux. Gruffydd 
Llwyd ab Thomas ab 
Sion ab Robin. 

6. Catharine, ux. Ffoulk 
ab leuan ab Maredydd 
of Meriadoc. See p. 

Frances Morris, d. and heiress, ux. Edward GriflBth of Plas Newydd 
in Henllan, ab Thomas Griffith. See p. 294. 

I 1 , 
John Lloyd,= 
oh. Sunday, 
1st March 
1617, buried 
in Aberge- 

leu the 

=Dorothy, d. of Gruffydd 
Wynn of Berth Ddu, ab 
Sion Wynn ab Mared- 
ydd; oh. 1609. See vol. 
iv, 384. 

William Lloyd,=j 
inherited his | 


property in 


=Anne, dau. of 

Gruffydd ab 

Davydd ab 


from Cadrod 


Ellen Lloyd, sole child=i= William Owen ab Thomas, heir of 
and heiress. | Glyn in Llanbedr, co. Merioneth. 



1. Morvydd, 

ux. William 

ab Gruffydd 

ab Davydd 

ab Sion of 


hangel Tre'r 

Beirdd in 


2. Ellen, ux. Piers ab 

Hugh Lloyd of 

Isallt by Llysvaen. 


Edward Lloyd, son 

and heir ; married, 

12th November 1632, 

Margaret, youngest 

d. of Hugh ab Edward 

Lloyd of Glasgoed in 

Bodelwyddan, by his 

wife Dorothy Heaton. 

See p. 355. 

I I 

3. Anne, ux. 
Richard Robin- 
son of Aber 


4. Catharine, 
us. John Lloyd 
ab Hugh Lloyd 

of Llysvaen. 



Griffith Lloyd of^^^Catharine, 6th d. of Edward Mor- 

h I 2 


Gwrych, married 

August 28th, 


gan, Esq., of Gwlgre (Golden 
Grove), the famous lawyer. 
She was buried 30th July 1620. 

John Lloyd=T=Anne, eldest d. of John Vaughan of Pant Glas, in Yspytty, 
of Gwrych.^ I co. Caernarvon, Esq., by his wife Joan, d. of Sir Henry 

I Townsend, Kt., Chief Justice of Chester. John Vaughan, 

I ob. 1654, as also his eldest son. 

bapt. at 
leu, 5th 



? Died 




:Catharine, d. of William, buried at Diserth, Henry, 

...Griffiths of the 25th July 1691. Stated bapt. 

City of Chester ; on his tomb to be second 6th 

married in June brother to John Lloyd, April 

1682. Esq., of Gwrych. 1654. 

Margaret, bapt. 18th December 1656, Evan, bapt. 12th 
innupt, buried at Abergeleu, 19th Sept. 1658. 

September 1716. 

William=pMargaret, 2nd 

Lloyd of 

d. to John 

Lloyd, Esq., of 

Downing, co, 


Thomas, born 19th July 
1684, Vicar of Llandrillo 
yn Rhos, 1718; of Llan- 
sannan, 1726 ; and of 
Llysvaen, 1737. Ob. 1750. 

David, =..., d. of 
born ...Salus- 

9th Jan. bury of 
1687. ...; ob. 

Hugh, born 6th Dec. 

John, born 1693. Rec- 
tor of Llandulas, 
1722; Vicar of Llan- 
vair, 1735. 06.1749. 

1. Anne, born 1685. 

2. Elizabeth, born 1686. 

3. Grace, born 1689. 

4. Jane, born 1690. 

5. Margaret, born 1691, ux. William An- 

wyl of Garth Garmon. See p. 301. 

6. Catharine, born 1700, ux. Moses Ellis 

of Hendregwydda. See p. 301. 

7. Sarah, born and ob. 1701. 

John Lloyd of Gwrych, Clerk,= 
Curate of Wrexham till 1759, 
where he married on Sept. 24, 
1740, and where all his children 
were born. Vicar of Llanasa, 
1759; ob. 1775, Buried at Aber- 

^Eleanor, d. of Am- 
brose Lewis, gent., 
of Wrexham Abbot, 
descended from the 

Lewises of Prys- 

addfed in Anglesey. 

Ob. 1804. 

David Lloyd,named 
in the will of his 
maternal grand- 
father, John Lloyd 
of Downing, Esq., 

John Lloyd of 

Gwrych, Esq., 

born 1759, ob. 

s.p. 1781. 

born 1749, 
ob. innupt. 

Born 1753, 

ob. 1761. 

Frances, co- = Robert Bamford Hesketh 

heir, born 1751, 
ob. 1795, 

married 1787. 

ux. Mr. HoU of 

Chester, s.p. 

of Bamford Hall, co. 
Lancaster, Esq. ; born 
1747, ob. ICth January 

1 John is the only recorded issue of Griffith Lloyd. Either he or 
his son John was sworn a Burgess of Denbigh, and also was High 
Sheriff in 1675. 

2 Marriage licence (in Chester) dated 27th June 1682. 




The following information respecting this family has 
been kindly furnished by Mr. Alfred Neobard Palmer. 

Ambrose Lewis, the Master of the Grammar School at 
Wrexham, was the son of another Ambrose Lewis, who 
was probably the fourth son of Mr. Robert Lewis of 
Cemlyn, eldest son by his second wife of William Lewys of 
Prysaddfed, in Anglesey, but it is unknown whether the 
father lived at Wrexham.^ The son was a man of cul- 
ture and piety, an intimate friend of Philip Henry, and 
a candidate for the Presbyterian ministry ; but though 
he afterwards conformed to the Establishment, and be- 
came Master of the Grammar School, he is said to have 
continued at heart a Presbyterian to the end of his life. 
By his wife, Catharine, daughter and co-heir of E,oger 
Davies of Erlys (vol. iii, p. 109), he had issue : 
John, n. 1666; Samuel, n. 1676; and probably also 
Ambrose, of whom presently, the two Ambroses being 
distinguished as Senior and Junior in contemporary 
documents. And three daughters: 1. Grace, n. 1664, 
oh. 1671; 2. Dowse, ob. 1668; 3. Mary, ux. Robert 
Puleston, of the family of Havod y Wern. Ambrose 
Lewis the Second had six children: 1. Mary, n. 1681, 
oh. in/cms; 2. Ambrose, n. 1670, of whom presently; 
3. Martha, 7i. 1702 ; 4. Edward, 7i. 1704 ; 5, Elizabeth, 
n. 1706 ; 6. Thomas, n. 1712, oh. infans. His widow, 
Eleanor, married secondly, on March 23, 1722-3, Major 
John Lloyd, oh. at Wrexham, 1737. His son, Ambrose 
Lewis the Third {sepult. at Wrexham, Nov. 8, 1728), 
had, by his wife Martha {sepult. Jan. 3, 1754), daughter 

of , four children : 1. Eleanor, ux. E,ev. John Lloyd 

of Gwrych ; 2. Elizabeth, oh. infans ; 3. Martha, n. 
1726, oh. inniipt. ; 4. Anne, n. 1728. 

^ See p. 285. 

VOL. V. 




{Vron Iiv MS., p. 46 ; Gwtta Gyvarivi/dd of PHer Boherts ; and 
Family Archives.) 

John ab Rhys ab leuan ab Edward ab Llywelyn ab 
Cynwrig ab Dafydd ab Goronwy ab Howel ab Tudor ab 
Arthen ab Seisyllt {sable, three roses argent, leaved 
ve7't, seeded or), see p. 350, descended from Cunedda 
Wledig. (See vol. iv, pp. 44, 116.) 

The above-named John ab Rhys had issue a son and 
heir — 

Evan Lloyd of Cevn, Clerk of the Council of the 
Marches of Wales, who lived first at Cevn and after- 
wards at Wick war, in Meriadog. He married twice, 
and by his first wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas 
Grigor, who died in 1596, be had no issue. 

Evan Lloyd married secondly, in 1597, Catharine, 
daughter and heir of John ab Hugh Gwyn of Wick war, 
who died at her own house in Wickwar in 1646, aged 
72, by whom he had issue four sons and six daughters — 

I. Thomas Lloyd, of whom presently. 

II. Ffoulk Lloyd, oh. 1632. 

III. John Lloyd, n. 1612, oh. 1639. 

IV. William Lloyd, n. 1614, oh. 1637. 

I. Anne, ux. John Ffoulkes of Vaenol. 

II. Catharine, who in 1615 married Thomas ab 
Robert Wynne ab Thomas of Llwynau in Llanrwst. 


III. Elizabeth, ux. Thomas ab Richard ab Piers of 
Cwybr in Rhuddlan parish, oh. 1637. (See p. 295.) 

IV. Jane, ux. (married 1626) John Lloyd of Wickwar, 
ab Edward Lloyd ab John Lloyd. She died 26th July 

V. Ellen, n. 1608, oh. 1609. 

VI. Mary, ux. (married 1633) Thomas Pryse of Pwll 

The above-named Evan Lloyd died at Ludlow, Jan. 
31st, 1631-2, and was succeeded by his eldest son — 

Thomas Lloyd, Clerk of the Marches, who in 1618 
married Mary, eldest daughter of Hugh ab Edward 
Lloyd of Glasgoed in Bodelwyddan (oh. 1615), by his 
wife Dorothy Heaton. He died at Wickwar on the same 
day as his father at Ludlow, Jan. 31st, 1631-2, leaving 
issue, besides two daughters, Jane {?%. 1622) and Mary 
{n. 1629), a son and heir — 

Edward Lloyd of Glasgoed in Bodelwyddan, who 

married — 1st, in 1648, Margaret, daughter of , by 

whom he had a daughter Jane, ux. (married in 1652-3) 
of William Kyffin of Maenan ; and secondly, Jane, 

daughter of Butler of Cornist,^ co. Flint, by whom 

he had, besides two daughters, Mary (n. 1650) and 
Elizabeth {ii. 1653), a son and heir — 

Thomas Lloyd of Cevn, Registrar of St. Asaph in 1671, 
and High Sheriff of Flintshire in 1703, who in 1682 
married Anne, second daughter of Robert Morgan, D.D., 
Bishop of Bangor, and Anne his wife, eldest daughter 
and heiress of William Lloyd of Henblas, co. Anglesey. 
She died in 1722, and was buried in St. Asaph parish 
church. Thomas Lloyd died in 1712, leaving issue, 
besides three daughters, Jane, Anne, and Margaret, who 

married in 1737, Price of Aelwyd Uchaf (palii of 

six, argent and sahle), three sons — - 

I. Rev. William Lloyd of Cevn, who married in 1718 

'' See Historic Notices of Flint, by Henry Taylor; London, 1883. 

^ The pedigree of this family is thus given in the Vron ho MS. : 
" John Price ab Robert ab John ab Robert ab Rhys ab Sir David 
Anwyl" of Cil Owen, from Madoc Ddu to Edwin. 

23 2 


Anne, widow of and sister of Catharine, wife of the 

Rev. William Bulkeley, who resided at Plas y Ward, and 
died s.p.'m 1732-3, ceL 50. 

IT. Rev. Richard Lloyd, ob. 1736. 

III. Rev. Robert Lloyd of Cevn, born in 1697, suc- 
ceeded to the estates of his elder brother William, who 
died in 1733. He married Susannah, daughter of Henry 
Butler of Ty Mawr, Llysfaen, co. Caernarvon. She 
died in 1800, aged 82, having had issue, besides a 
daughter, Jane [ob. 1827, aged 83), ux. Rev. Richard 
Evans, Prebendary of Bangor and Hereford, and Rector 
of Kingsland, co. Hereford (see p. 363, and Burke's 
Landed Gentry, " Evans of Eyton and Trefeilir"), a 
son and heir — 

Edward Lloyd of Cevn, High Sheriff of Caernarvon- 
shire and Denbighshire, who married Anne, daughter and 
heiress of Thomas or Robert Jones of Golfftyn, co. Flint, 
by whom he had a son and heir — 

Edward Lloyd of Cevn, who married Lettice Owen, 
daughter of William Pritchard of Trescawen, co. Anglesey, 
Esq., by whom he had issue two daughters — 

I. Anna, the heiress of Cevn, ux. Lieut.-Colonel Her- 
bert Watkin Williams Wynn, second son of Sir Watkin 
Williams Wynn of Wynnstay, Bart., by whom she had 
issue — 1. Edward Watkin, drowned near Windsor on 
September 8, 1880 ; and 2. Herbert Edward Watkin, 
who, by his marriage in 1884 with Louisa Alexandra, 
surviving daughter and eventual heiress of the late Sir 
Watkin Williams Wynn, Bart., of Wynnstay (ob. May 
1885), succeeded to the baronetcy and the estates, 
thus reuniting this ancient line of Gwydir and Owen 
Gwynedd with the branch which he represents through 
his mother, so long divergent, of the parent stem of 

II. Helen Jane, second wife of P. W. Godsal of Iscoed 
Park, CO. Flint, Esq., and has issue. 




{Vronliu MS.) 

William Vaughaii ab Edmund Vaughan, Barrister-at- 
Law, who died Jan. 1st, 1634-5, ab Ffoulk Vaughan ab 
Morgan Vaughan (who married Lowry, the heiress, 
descended from "Y Penwyn", p. 370) ab Lewys 
Vychan ab leuan, son of Dafydd ab leuan ab Einion 
of Ardudwy, the brave Constable of Harddlech Castle. 
(See vol. iv, ''Ffestiniog" and Melai.) William Vaughan 
married Jane, daughter of Richard Parry of Ruthin, 
and sister of Dr. Gabriel Parry. He was her second 
husband. His son, Edward Vaughan (see vol. iii, 
pp. 347-8) of Vron Haulog, married Jane, daughter 
of Evan Lloyd of Dulasau and sister of Barbara, 
ux. William Wynne of Melai and Maenan Abbey 
(see vol. iii, p. 34). Among the poems of the contem- 
porary bard, Edward ab Raff, is an Elegy on Morgan 
Vaughan, in which is named his wife, Lowry Wen, his 
three daughters, Gwen, Agnes, and Catharine, his son 
Ffoulk, a grandson Robert, and his father, " Lewys 
hael". The following are two of the couplets — 

" Lie bii Vorgan gyvannedd, 
Yn rhovvioglau, yii rhoi gwledd, 
A'i goel ar Grist eglurgrog, 
Vryu hael yu y Vronheulog." 

In the church of Llanvair Talhaiarn is a monument with 
an inscription, now nearly obliterated, to " The Honble. 
Ffoulk Vaughan of Bronhaulog in tliis parish". On it is 
a shield bearing the arms of Osborn Wyddel. (P. 366.) 



For the following correction and additional informa- 
tion the writer is indebted to the kindness of Mr. Ellison 
Powell, of 44, Coleman Street, London/ 

In Sii' Samuel F. Meyrick's edition of Lewys Dwnn's 
Heraldic Visitations of Wales, vol. ii, p. 356, the Powell 
Pedigree gives Thomas Powell, eldest son of Thomas and 
Katharine ; and Roger Powell, the second son, married to 
Margaret. At Chester, proved 15th Oct. 1593, is the will 
of this Roger Powell of Mollington, Bannister, and Birken- 
head, in the county of Chester, which will is a very pretty little 
family history. It leaves no possible doubt of his identity, as 
he leaves his sister, Ursula Coates of Chirk, a gelding, 
value £6. His will also proves further that his father, 
Thomas Powell of Horsley, Constable of Holt, had a brother, 
and that this brother had issue a son William, to whom 
Roger left one-third of his landed property at Mollington and 
the Faire Birkenhead. At Chester is also the will of this 
William Powell's brother, which clearly shows that Thomas 
Powell of Horsley had a brother, John Powell,^ who lived 
at Holt, and who had, besides other issue, a son William ; 
and it is this John Powell, the brother of Thomas Powell ab 
Howel ab David, from whom both Joseph Powell of Chester 
and Mr. Ellison Powell are descended. 


(See Fowys Fadog, vol. iii, p. 256.) 
Thomas Powell.=f=Winifrede, 2nd wife. 
Samuel. Winifrede.=i=Edward Lloyd. 

Maria. = Edward Lloyd of Llwynymaen.=Bridget, 2nd wife. 

I ~ i 

Edward Eichard Lloyd. Frances Phcebe Lloyd. 

1 See vol. iii, p. 253-4. 

2 It appears fi-om Norden's Survey in 1620 that there was a John 
Powell, who was a Burgess of Holt in that year. 

^ This additional information was kindly furnished by William 
Trevor Parkins of Glasfryn, Esq. 


The descendants of Thomas Powell appear to have be- 
come extinct upon the death of Maria Lloyd. Her hus- 
band, and her husband's children, by a second marriage, 
succeeded to the estate of Horsley, which was subse- 
quently purchased from Edward Lloyd's representatives 
by John Hughes, Esq., the father of Francis James, Esq., 
M.D., sheriff of Denbighshire in 185L Mrs. Hughes, 
the widow of Dr. Hughes, sold Horsley to the present 
owner, Frederick Potts, Esq., who has rebuilt the house. 

In addition to the Gresford Registers, the Court Kolls 
of the Manor of Merford and Hoseley furnish consider- 
able information about the Powell family. 

Sir Thomas Powell, the last Baronet, was buried at 
Gresford, Sept. 28, 1706. 

Thomas Powell, his eldest son, was buried at Gres- 
ford, April 16th, 1689, and by his second wife left two 
children, who survived him — 1, Samuel; 2, Winifrede. 

Sept. 19th, 1707. Edward Lloyd,^ Esquire, and Wini- 
frede his wife, sister and next heir of Samuel Powell, 
Esquire, deceased, appeared at a Court Baron of the 
Manor of Merford and Hoseley, and Winifrede was ad- 
mitted tenant of two customary tenements of which her 
brother Samuel had died seized. 

October 8th, 1714. The death of Edward Lloyd, 
seized in right of his wife Winifrede (before dead), was 
found ; and Maria Lloyd, only daughter and heir of 
Winifrede, about four years of age, was admitted tenant 
at a Court Baron. 

' According to Reynolds, Edward Lloyd, the husband of Winifrede 
Powell, was an attorney-at-law, and a younger son of the same family 
as the other Edward Lloyd. He was buried at Gresford. Edwai'd 
Lloyd, the husband of Maria Lloyd, as it will be seen, survived her, and 
married another wife, whose Christian name was Bridget. This 
Bridget was the mother of Richard Edward Lloyd and Frances 
Phoebe Lloyd. The line of Winifrede Powell must, therefore, have 
become extinct on the death of her daughter, Maria Lloyd ; and the 
estate surrendered by Maria Lloyd in 1732 became the property of 
her husband, Edward Lloyd, and descended from him in succession 
to Richard Edward Lloyd and Frances Phoebe Lloyd. On the death 
of Frances Phoebe Lloyd, the descendants of Edward Lloyd's two 
sisters, Ann and Catharine, inherited the estates. — W. T. P. 


May 19th, 1732. Edward Lloyd and Maria his wife 
appeared at a Court Baron. Maria surrendered, and 
Edward Lloyd was admitted tenant for life, remainder 
to Maria for life, remainder to the heirs of their bodies, 
remainder over to the heir of Edward Lloyd. 

Oct. 21st, 1756. The death of Edward Lloyd was 
presented at a Court Baron. 

Oct. 19th, 1758. Edward Richard Lloyd, of the age of 
nine years or thereabouts, son and heir of Edward Lloyd, 
late of Llwynymaen, in the co. of Salop, Esquire, appeared 
by Bridget Lloyd, his mother, at a Court Baron, and was 
admitted tenant. 

Oct. 16th, 1764. The death of Edward Richard Lloyd 
was presented at a Court Baron, and the jury found 
that Frances Phcebe Lloyd, his sister, was his heir. 

Oct. 30th, 1771. The death of Frances Phoebe Lloyd 

May 12th, 1772. The jury at a Court Baron present 
the death of Edward Lloyd of Llwynymaen in the county 
of Salop, of his son Edward Richard Lloyd, and his 
daughter Frances Phoebe Lloyd, and find that he had 
two sisters, Ann and Catharine, Avhose issue or descen- 
dants are the heirs-at-law, and entitled to the said cus- 
tomary tenements (to wit) : 

" William Jones of Wrexham, in the county of Den- 
bigh, Esquire, eldest son of the said Ann, one of the 
sisters of the said Edward Lloyd, by William Jones her 
husband, deceased, is entitled to a moiety, etc., as heir-at- 
law to his said mother, also deceased; and Owen Roberts 
of Wem, in the county of Salop, Esquire, eldest son of 
Margaret, who was one of the daughters of the said 
Catharine, the other sister of the said Edward Lloyd, is 
entitled to one-third part of the other moiety of the said 
premises, as heir-at-law to his said mother ; and Mary, 
the wife of Thomas Whilton of Ellesmere, in the said 
county of Salop, Gent., only daughter and heir of Mary, 
who was another daughter of the said Catharine, the other 
sister of the said Edward Lloyd, is entitled to another 
third part of such moiety as heir-at-law to her said 


mother ; and Eichard Lloyd of Osbaston, in the said 
county of Salop, Esquire, eldest son of Dorothy Lloyd 
his mother, another daughter of the said Catharine, the 
other sister of the said Edward Lloyd, is entitled to 
another third part of such moiety of the said premises as 
heir-at-law to his said mother." 




(Lewys Dwnn, vol. ii, p. 202.) 

Llyvvelyn ab Adda ab Llywelyn Vychan ab Llywelyn ab Madog Goch of=j= 
Mawddwy, a natural son of lorwerth Goch, Lord of Mochnant, ab 
Maredydd ab Bleddyn, Prince of Powys. Madog Goch bore argent, a 
chevron party per pale gules and azure, between three falcons sable, 
their beaks and right legs of the third, their left legs lifted up, and a 
trefoil over the head of each azure. These were the arms of Llywarch 
ab Cadvan; and Madog Goch wore them when he killed Llywarch; and 
Llywelyn ab lorwerth. Prince of Wales, gave these arms, as well as the 
lands of Llywarch ab Cadvan, to Madog Goch.^ 

GrufFydd ab=j=..., d. of Y Gwion Vychan ab Y Gwion ; descended from Meilir 
Llywelyn, I of Treveilir, ab Mabon ab Arddur ab Mor. 

Davydd=f=Gwenllian, d. of Llywelyn Moel ab Howel ab Tegwared Vychan 
Goch. ab Tegwared y Bais Wen, an illegitimate son of Llywelyn ab 

lorwerth. Prince of Wales. Argerit, on a chevron sable, three 
mullets of the field. Her mother was Gwladys, d. of Bleddyn 
Vychan ab Bleddyn ab Y Gwion ab Radvach ab Arsedd ab Gwrgi 
j ab Hedd Moelwynog, of Havod Unos. 

Llywelyn ab=j=Mallt. d. and heiress of Own was ab Davydd Fychan of Tre- 

Davydd Goch 
of Treveilir 

veilir, ab Davydd Llwyd ab Goronwy ab Cynwrig ab 
Goronwy ab lorwerth of Trev lorwerth in the jjarish of 
Bodedeyrn, fourth son of Hwva ab Cynddelw, Lord of Llys 
Llivon. Gules, a chev. inter three lions rampant or, See 
p. 281. 

Cae Ci/rio(j MS. 



leuan ab- 


=Nest, d. and heiress of=Angharad, d. and heiress of Tudor 

Llywelyn ab Howel Ddu 
ab Ednyved ab Einion ab 
lorwerth Goch ab Heilin 
ab GrufFydd ab Morgan- 
eu ab Madog ab Gwrydr 
ab Dyvnaint ab Iddon 
ab Iddig ab Llywarch ab 
Lleon ab Cilmin Troetu. 

The mother of Nest 
was Annest, d. of leuan 
ab Howel ab leuan Goch 
ab David Goch ab Tra- 
haiarn Goch of Lleyn. 

1st and 4th argent, an 
eagle displayed with 

ab Einion ab Gwalchmai ab Meilir 
of Treveilir in Cwmwd Malldraeth, 
ab Mabon ab larddur ab Mor ab 
Tegerin ab Haelawg ab Greiddef 
ab Cwnws ab Cyllin Ynad. 

Einion ab Gwalchmai of Treveilir 
was an eminent poet who flourished 
from 1170 to 1220. He bore argent, 
three saddles sable, stirruped or. 

The mother of Einion was Gen- 
hedles, d. of Ednowain ab Ithel, 
Lord of the Bryn, in the parish of 
Llanvihangel ym Mlodwel in Mech- 
ain, See vol. iv, "Chirk Castle and 
Lloyd of Llys Trevor." 

two heads, sable. 2nd 
and 3rd argent, three brands, ragule sable, fired ppr. with an 
escutcheon of pretence argent, charged with a human leg and 
thigh couped sable, for Cilmin Troed Du of Glyn Llivon. 

Rhys ab==Margaret, d. of Meurig ab Llywelyn ab Hwlcyn of Bodsilin, and 
leuan Bodeon ab Howel ab lorwerth Ddu ab lorwerth ab Gruffydd 

of ab lorwerth ab Maredydd ab Mathusalem ab Hwva ab Cyn- 

Tre- ddelw. See p. 282. 


Sir William. 




|6 |7 

John. Grutfydd. 

John ab- 
Rhys of 

=Janet, d. of Robert ab Maredydd ab Hwlcyn Llwyd of Glyn Llifon, 
ab Tudor Goch ab Goronwy ab Einion ab leuan ab lorwerth 
Goch ab Ystrwyth ab Ednowain ab Gwrydr ab Dyfnaint ab 
Iddon ab Iddig ab Llywarch ab Lleon ab Cilmin Dx'oetu. 

Owain ab= 

John of 


^Margaret, d. of John ab Rhys of Bodychan, third son of Llywelyn 
ab Hwlcyn of Bodeon, in the parish of Llanveirian in Cwmwd 
Malldraeth, ab Howel ab lorwerth Ddu ab lorwerth ab Gruff- 
ydd ab lorwerth ab Maredydd ab Mathusalem of Prysaddved, 
in the parish of Bod Edeyrn, ab Hwva ab Cynddelw, Lord of 
Llys Llivon. See p. 282. 

John Owen=j=Elin, d. of Maurice ab Gruffydd ab Robert Gruffydd ab Robert 

of I Gruffydd ab Rowland Gruffydd ab Robert Gruffydd of Plas 

Treveilir. | Newydd in Trev Borthaml, second son of Gwilym Vychan of 

I Penrhyn, ab Gwilym ab Gruffydd ab Gwilym ab Gruffydd 

I ab Heilin ab Sir Tudor, Knight, eldest son of Ednyved 

I Vychan. See " Trev Gaian", vol. ii. 

John Owen of =F Jane, d. of Rowland ab Richard ab Rowland ab Owain ab 
Treveilir. | Meurig. 


John Owen^Elen, d. of Sir William Thomas of Coed Helen, co. Caernarvon, 
of Knight, High SheriiF for co. Caernarvon in 1608, and Gaenor 

Treveilir. his wife, d. of Sir William Maurice of Celynenau, Knight, by 

Margaret his wife, d. and heiress of John Lacon ab Thomas 
Lacon of Llanddin in Nanheudwy. See vol. iv. 

William Owen of Treveilir. =F Jane, d. of John Parry of Amlwch. 

John Owen of T Penelope, d. of William Glyn of Glynllivon, and Jane his wife, 
Treveilir. | d. of Ellis Brynkir of Brynkir. 


John Owen of Treveilir. T Anne, d. of John Williams of Bodwerdin. 
David, an infant in 1C88. 

Treveilir was sold by David Owen, who was living in 
1766, to William Evans of Vaenol, great-grandfather to 
Edward Evans of Eyton, co. Hereford, Esq. 


This abbey, which is not to be confounded with 
Maenan Hall, the ancient residence of the Kyffins of 
that place, was created by the removal thither from 
Conway of its Cistercian community after the conquest 
of Wales by Edward I, who, however, scrupulously left 
them in possession of their lands and revenues, with 
certain necessary exceptions, for which they received 
others to the full value in exchange. Scarcely one stone 
is left upon another to mark the site known now only 
by the name, the traditio loci, and a broken avenue of 
stately trees presenting a melancholy reminiscence of 
pristine peace and departed glory. In 1506 Sir Robert 
ab Rhys of Plas lolyn (ancestor of the families of Rhiw- 
las, Voelas, Cerniogau, Giler, Pant Glas, and others) had 
a lease from David Owen, " Abbot of the monastery of 
our Blessed Lady St. Mary of Conwey", for 99 years of 
many of the abbey farms at a reserved rent of 336'. 
and id. ; and these again were devised by him to his 
son David, his nephew Robert Gethin of Cerniogau, and 
other relatives. Richard ab Rhys, a brother of Sir 
Robert, is known to Welsh tradition as the last Abbot 


of Conway, as it continued to be called, who surrendered 
his sacred trust into the sacrilegious hands of Henry 
VIII, receiving, as the devil's payment for his bartered 
faith and defiled conscience, his worthless life, the licence 
of the Crown to break his priestly engagement and 
monastic vow of celibacy, and the living of Cerrig y 
Drudion. The site of the abbey itself seems frequently 
to have changed hands, being sold probably, according 
to the practice of the despoilers of Church property, to 
cover the defectiveness of title by frequency of sale. 
Dugdale states that it was granted by Elizabeth to 
" Elizseus Wynn". Before 1570, however, it is found in 
the possession of Sir Hichard Clough, by the marriage of 
whose daughter Mary it passed to Sir William Wynne 
of Melai, the father of Ellis Wynne of Plas Bella, the 
only person answering to " Elizseus" to be found in the 
pedigrees. From him it descended to Lord Newborough, 
whose lineal representative is the lay impropriator of this 
ill-gotten property, and of the mean modern house built 
out of the ruins of the famous ecclesiastical establishment 
founded by the great Llewelyn for the honour of God, 
the service of religion, and the support of the poor. 

Prince Llewelyn was entombed at Conway, in the 
Abbey which owed its primary existence to him. The 
community, on its removal to Maenan, carried his coffin 
with them, reverently attended, doubtless, by the 
whole body of Religious, and accompanied by the 
chanting of psalms and hymns, after the previous solemn 
celebration of High Mass for the soul of the departed, 
preceded by the customary Dirge according to the 
Catholic rite. Long after the final destruction of the 
Abbey, the cofl&n reappears on the floor of the parish 
church of Llanrwst, lidless and sacrilegiously rifled of 
the sacred remains of the patriot monarch, which it was 
designed, alas vainly, to preserve. " His bones are not 
dust, nor his good sword rust," at least in the original 
acceptation of the words; still, despite the " Reforma- 
tion", it is open to us to say, " His soul is with the 
Saints, we trust," 




Marchudd ab Cynan, Chief of one of the Fifteen 
Noble Tribes of Gwynedd, and Lord of Abergeleu in 
Uwchdulas, is said to have been contemporary with 
Rhodri Mawr (Roderick the Great), King of Britain, and 
to have resided at Bryn Ffanigl, a mansion in the parish 
of Bettws Abergeleu, in Denbighshire. The place is still 
in existence as a farmhouse, known by the slightly 
changed name of Bryn Ffenigl (Fennel Hill). According 
to the ancient genealogies, he was fourteenth in descent 
from Coel Godebog, himself the seventeenth from Beli 
Mawr, the reputed father of the famous Cassivelaunus. 
The arms ascribed to his family are, gules, a Saracen's 
head erased ppr. wreathed or, first borne, possibly, by a 
Crusader of the family who slew a Saracen. He had a 
son, Carwed, of whom nothing further is known ; but 
there is a township in Llannevydd called Carwed Vynydd 
(Carwed Hill), which may have been named from him, 
although connected by tradition rather with the noble 
tribe of Marchweithian than of Marchudd. His son 
Inathan, J'nethan, or Jonathan, is the first of the family 
to be actually noted in history, being styled in Annates 
Camhrice " princeps Opergeleu" (Prince of Abergeleu). 
He died about a.d. 856. Of his son Edryd, again, there 
is historical mention. The words " Gwyr Rhos yn 
Nghaernarvon", and " Pedwar Gwely Llwyth Edryd", 
aie referred to him in Hengtvrt MS. 96, and Extent, 


Denbigh, 8 Edw. III. To his son Ithel, or Idnerth ab 
Edryd, allusion is made in the same Extent, in the same 
year, in the words " Wele Ithell ap Edryd" (the family 
heritage of Ithel son of Edryd), being a subdivision of 
the Vill of Bettws Abergeleu. Ithel had three sons, 1, 
Ithon (of whom presently) ; 2, Hoedliw, who had a 
daughter, Genilles, ux. Goronwy ab Owen ab Edwin, 
Prince of Tegeingl. Goronwy's sister, Angharad, was 
Queen of Gruffydd ab Cynan, King of Gwynedd, 
A.D. 1078. 3, Gwgan, whose son lorwerth had a son, 
Cynwric, who, by his wife Angharad, daughter of Hwva 
ab Cynwric ab Rhiwallon (descended from Tudor Trevor), 
by Gwenllian, daughter of Owain Gwynedd, was the 
father of Ednyved Vychan, the celebrated minister and 
general of Llewelyn the Great. This nobleman was 
married first to Gwenllian, daughter of Rhys, Prince of 
South Wales, through whose issue he became ancestor of 
the Poyal Family of England. Secondl}^ he married 
Tangwystl,^ daughter of Llywarch ab Bran, Lord of 
Cwmwd Menai in Anglesey, chief of one of the Fifteen 
Noble Tribes of Gwynedd (arg. inter three choughs 
with ermine in their bills a chevron sa.). By this lady 
he had three sons, Llywelyn, Lord of Creuddyn, co. 

^ According to Randle Holmes (Harl. 1969), Gwenllian was the 
second wife of Ednyved, and relict of Cynan ab Rhodri ab Owain 
Gwynedd. Of Ednyved he tells ns that " he was in great estima- 
tion with Llewelyn, the son of lerwerth Drwyndwn (Edward the 
Broken-nosed), Prince of North Wales, and [one] of his Chief Counsel- 
lors, leader of his array against y^ English nation : And for his 

valiant Prowes he advaunced him both w^^ honor and armes " 

After that Ednyved Vychan had given the overthrow to the English 
nation in fight, he sung thus : — 

" Lhawer bron yn Ihai i'r brenin — hedhiw 
Hawdh y galon chwerthin ; 
Lhawer Sais Iheubus Ihibin, 
A'r gro yn do ar ei din." 

Ednyved Vychan ai Kant. 

" To-day the king is short of many a breast ; 
Now to the heart 'tis easy to be gay ; 
The length of many a Saxon licks the ground, 
Where lies the gravel heap'd upon his back." 


Caernarvon ; Sir Tuclyr, Kt., of Nant and Llangynhaval ; 
and Howel, Bishop of St. Asaph. Sir Tudyr married 
Adlais, or Adehcia, daughter of E-ichard ab Cadwalader 
ab Gruffydd ab Cynan, King of Gwynedd, c. 1078, by 
whom he had a son, Heilyn, grantee in a charter dated at 
Dolwyddelan in 1281, who, by his wife Agnes, daughter 
of Owain abBleddyn abOwain Brogyntyn,hada daughter, 
Angharad (R. Vaughan's Pedigrees, Hengwrt MS. 96), 
who married 1st, lorwerth, surnamed "Y Penwyn" (the 
White Head), and secondly, Davydd Goch, son of the 
unfortunate Prince David ab Gruffydd, brother of 
Llewelyn, the last sovereign Prince of Wales, who was 
so barbarously executed at Shrewsbury by order of 
Edward I, not without some justification, it must be 
admitted, in the repeated tergiversations and violation 
of solemn compacts on the part of his victim. That the 
conduct of David, however, was considered by his own 
countrymen to have been paUiated, at the very least, by 
the tyranny and breach of faith of his English antagonist, 
may be inferred from the respect and even sympathy 
with which his memory was cherished by them, an instance 
of which is exhibited in the following Eyiglyn, or perhaps 
fragmentary stanza of an elegy, preserved in the Vron 
Iiv. MS. of Twm o'r Nant, and entitled " To Prince 
David, who was slain by King Edward I of London": 

" Coffa pen perchen parchedig o lys, 
A las Nos Nadolig ! 
Coffa 'r CoUwyddi o'r Mwythig, 
O dan y'th doddai^ nad dig." 

The last two lines are obscure, but the meaning seems 
to be this : — " Remember the head of the venerated 
possessor of a palace, who was slain on Christmas Eve ! 
Remember the hazel-wood of Shrewsbury, made to reduce 
thee to ashes by fire, not by wrath !" (See vol. i, p. 188.) 

The first husband of Angharad bears an infamous 
reputation in history as the traitor who betrayed the 

1 " Coll wyth", in original. 

- " tan 3'thodclei", in original. 


unhappy Prince to Edward. This is testified by the follow- 
ing lines printed in the Cambrian Quarterly (iii, 460) : 

" Y Penwyn, pen hir arbennig — unben 
Am un punt ar bymtheg, 
Llonaid buai'theg o wartheg 
IsTewyddj a werth Ddavydd deg." 

" The white-headed, long-headed, high-headed Chief, 
For fifteen pounds and one, 
A new cow-yard filled with cattle. 
Sells David the fair/^ 

Some confusion, however, created by the application 
to the sons, as well as the father, of the same surname of 
" Y Penwyn", may perhaps render it doubtful whether 
the stigma may not more justly be attached to one of the 
former. In some pedigrees Davydd is the Christian 
name of " Y Penwyn", in others Grono. But Y Pen- 
wyn had two sons, Davydd and Grono. And the grant 
to him of a pension of thirty shillings per annum for life 
by Edw. I, in a.d. 1290, by the style of "Yereward 
Penwyn", proves beyond a doubt that his name in Welsh 
was lorwerth ; and in the Extent of Denbigh and other 
records, one of his sons is styled " David ab lorwerth", 
and the other " Gronw ap lorwardi". Nor is it said that 
the betrayal was the act of David Penwyn, but of " Y 
Penwyn" only. The grant of a life-pension would also 
go to show that his recompense was not confined to the 
cow-yard full of cows and the paltry sum of £16. He 
was, in 3 Edw. IT, Rhaglot of Nanconwy, where he 
resided, for which he had petitioned in 33 Edw. I, an 
office which he held till his death, c. 1320. It is remark- 
able that his widow should have taken for her second 
husband the son of the prince on whom, through the 
betrayal of her first, had been perpetrated the horrible 
tragedy of his execution. It seems to betoken her resolve 
to display to the world her abhorrence of that deed by 
such proof as lay in her power, even to the bestowal 
of her person on the youthful offspring of his victim. 

The pedigree will now be continued in a tabulated 
form, as best calculated to convey, by a bird's-eye view, 



the future fortunes of the family, as well as that of 
Ffoulkes of Ereiviat, to follow on a subsequent page. 
In the compilation of both the writer desires here to 
acknowledge his obligation to William Wynne Ffoulkes, 
Esq., for much valuable information derived, with his kind 
permission, from the printed pedigree of his family. 

lorwerth, surnamed "Y Penwyn", of^Angharad, d. of Heilin ab Sir Tudor 

Bettws. Gules, three boar's heads 
erased in pale argent; gules, a Sara- 
cen's head, erased at the shoulders 
proper, wreathed about the temples 
argent and sable. Granted a pen- 
sion of 30s. per annum, 18 Edw. I. 
Mort. ante 1320. 

of Nant and Llanganhaval in Mon, 
ab Ednyved Vychan, Prime Minis- 
ter of Llywelyn the Great. (R. V.'s 
Pedigrees, Hengivrt MS. 96, p. 602.) 
She married, 2ndly, Davydd Goch 
ab Davydd ab Gruffydd ab Lly- 
welyn the Great. 

Grono ( Goron- 

wy) Llwyd ap 

" Y Penwyn" 

or " Grono 

Penwyn" of 

Bettws (Rec. 

Caen, p. 10). 

Grantee of the 

"raglorie" of 

Nanconwy and 

"avoterie" of 


and Mill of 


with their 

demesne lands. 

A.u. 1351; 

living 1356. 

ip Lleuki (or Gwen- 
hwyvar),d. and 
heiress (Hengiort 
MS. 19^, fo. 36) 
of Madoc ab 
Elisse ab lor- 
werth ab Owain 


Baron of Eder- 

nion. Madoc did 

homage to the 

Black Prince as 

Baron of Eder- 

nion, 17 Edw. Ill, 


Davydd =f Nest, 

ap "Y 
lands in 


1393 and 




p. 10.) 

d. of 

ap Y 



- lorwerth 

Dew ap Y 



lands, part 

of the 

" Gavell 

Eigu ap 

Ken", in 

the Vill of 

Melai, in 


Davydd ab 

MS. 419). 

leuan. =f 

lorwerth ab leuan ab Y 
Penwyn. Living 1399. 
{Pleas Co., Caern.) 

Tegwared. ^ 

I ' 
leuan ab Tegwared ap 
Penwyn. Amerced 
Qs. 8cJ at Caern., in 

Ednyved of= 

Ereiviad, ' 


of the 

family of 


of Ereiviat 

"(see below). 

Howel. Davydd. Madoc, = Alls, d. 


of Ho- 


for rebel- 


And 13 daughtei's. 

Madoc, living= 


VOL. V. 

Rhys Wyn of Melai =F Margaret, d. of Robert ab lorwerth 
and Vron Haulog. | ab Madoc ab Ednyved Vychan. 




Davydd ab Madoc ab Dav- 
ydd ab Y Penwyn, living 
A.D. 1399 (Onsf. Pleas, Co. 

leuan of Melai and T Angharad, d. of Heisgyn 

Vron Haulog. 
{Hengwrt MS. I'iOd.) 

Holland of Plas Y Merw 
in Llanidan, Anglesey, 

Einion Vycban of Melai and Vron^Angharad, d. of Gruffydd ab Cynwric 
Haulog (" iach DyfFryn Melay", I ab Bleddyn Llwyd of Havod Unos. 
Hengwrt MS. 419). | See vol. iv, p. 182. 

Davydd :p Lleuci (Lucy), d. of Gruffydd ab Howel Coedmor ab Rhys. =F 

Llwyd of 





Gruffydd Vychan ab GruSydd ab Davydd Goch, 
great-grandson of Llywelyn the Great. Azure, a 
chevron inter three spear's heads argent, imbrued 
gules. See vol. iv, p. 371. 

Lleuki (or Annes), ux. Owain Kyffin. See p. 374; also vol. iv, 
p. 83, where she is said to have married GruflFydd ab Owain of 
Garth y Medd. 

Maredydd of Melai ^Mallt (or Maud), eldest d. and co-heir of Gruffydd ab 
and I Madoc, descended from Sir leuan Llwyd, Knt. — to 

Vron Haulog. | Ednyved Vychan. 

Robert ab^ Margaret, William 
Maredydd 1 d. of Pyers Wynne 

of Vron j Stanley ab Mared- 
Haulog. I of Evvlo ydd of 

Castle. Melai. 

Alice, d. of 
William ab 
Maredydd ab 
Rhys of Llan- 
vair Vechan. 

Richard t Anne, d. of 
ab I Robert ab 
Mared- | leuan ab 
ydd. I Tudor. 

Foulke :p Elizabeth, John Wynne =p Dame Eliza- 


of Vron 

d. of 

Owain ab 


of Melai, 

Esquire of 

the Body to 

Queen Mary. 

beth, d. of John 
Puleston Hen 

of Emral, Esq., 
and widow of 

Sir John Salis- 
bury of Llew- 

of Hen- 
bias, in 

:p Mary, 
d. of 


p. 182. 

Jane. Lowri,=F Morgan Vychan, Williams 1, Ellen, = 2,Gwen 

" " Vaugh- 



Oct. 21, 






2nd son of Lewys 
ab leuan ab 

Davydd ab leuan 
ab Einion of 
Pengwern in 

Ffestiniog. See 

vol. iv, p. 369; and 
V, p. 357. 

of Melai 






2nd ux. 
of Mau- 
rice Kyf- 
fin of 

d. and 
heir of 
ab Rich- 
ard ab 
ydd of 


widow of 
" Bishop 
of St. 
(P. R.'s 
pp. 86-7). 
Nov. 23, 

Ob. Feb. 
3, 1035. 
{Ihid., p. 163.) 




Ffoulk Vaughan of 
Vron Haulog, liv- 
ing Aug. 23, 1594. 
He was ancestor 
of the Vaughans 
of Vron Haulog, 
and the Joneses of 
Maes y Garnedd, 
CO. Merioneth. See 
p. 357. 

William Wynne =F Mary, d. and co-h. of Sir Morgan. 

of Melai (the 
elder, P. E.'s 
Diary, p. 214), 
and jure uxoris 
of Maenan Ab- 
bey. Ob. at 
Melai, Aug. 25, 

Eichard Clough, 
Knight of the Holy Gabriel, 

Sepulchre. Ob. 1632. ob. 1635-6 
See " Wynne of Garth- (P. R.'s 
meilio", and insci'iption Diary, 
on monument in Nant- p. 163). 
glyn Church. See 
vol. vi. 




Ob. 1st 




:p Dorothy, da. of 

Hugh Gwyn 

GruflFydd of 

Berth Ddu, co. 

Caern., Esq., 

descended from 

Sir John 

Wynne of 

Gwydir, and 

maternally from 






Bella' " 



=F Catharine, 

sole d. of 



Esq., of 


and jure 

uxoris of 

Vaenol, co. 




a Lieut. 

in the 


Ob. 29 



(P. R.'s 


p. 129.) 

Cathai'ine, ux. 

1st, Ffoulk 

Lloyd of 

Havod TJnos, 

Esq. 2nd, 

Robert Wynne 

of Voelas, Esq., 

for his 1st wife. 

She ob. Nov. 8, 

(P. Roberts's 
Diary, p. 214). 


William Wynne :p 


of Melai and 


Maenan Abbey, 

Esq., Colonel in 


H.M. Army. 


Slain in an 


attack made on 


the Parliament- 


ary garrison at 


Wem, and 


buried at St. 


Chad's Church, 



Oct. 27, 1643, 

cet. 37. (P. R.'s 

Diary, p. 208.) 


d. of 
leuan ab 

Lloyd of 
and sis- 
ter of Sir 

Jan. 2, 

Robert = 
of Gar- 
(p. 3-20), 

as a 


; Marga- 
ret, d. 
of John 
Price of 
father of 

Doro- T Owen ab 


Price of 
Esq., de- 

Lloyd of 
He mar- 
rine, d. of 
Kyffin of 
Hall. See 
p. 375. 

John Price of Nantmawr, Esq. 
John Wynne of Melai and =f Dorothy, d. of Owen Salisbury of Riig, Esq., and 

Maenan Abbey, Esq.; ob. 
Feb. 25, 1688, cet. 58. 

sister of Colonel Wm. Salisbury, Governor of 
Denbigh Castle, in the Civil War of Charles L 
She ob. March 2, 1677. 

William Wynne of Melai and Maenan Abbey, t Margaret, d. of Hugh Lloyd 
Esq., Barrister-at-Law. Born 1663, ob. I Rosindale of Segrwyd, co, 

Feb. 18, 1692^ | Denbigh, Esq. 

a j 6 j d 

24 -^ 


h I c 

John Wynne of Melai and^ Sydney, 2nd d. of Sir Dorotliy.ux. leuan 
Maenan Abbey, Esq., M.P. "William Williams of Lloyd, son of 

Llanvorda', Bart. Thomas Lloyd of 

Buried Aug. 14, 1751. Wickwar. 

High Sheriff, 1712. Born 
1688. oh. 1780. 

Catharine, oh. 1709. 

William, born Jane, co-heir, ux. Sir John Wynne, Bart., Margaret (see 
May 21, of Bodvean. Their son, Sir Thomas Burke's Peer- 
buried June 20, Wynne, was created 1st Lord New- agfe) ; o6. 1734. 
1716. borough. 


This mansion, inhabited by a branch of the Kyffin 
family for about two hundred years, is situated on the 
slope of the vale, about a mile eastward from the Abbey. 
The house, which, if not built, was probably improved 
or enlarged by Maurice Kyffin, has been somewhat 
modernised, but retains a few of its original wainscoted 
rooms, some of the walls and ceilings of which are 
curiously ornamented with heraldic devices, chiefly con- 
sisting of the arms of Queen Elizabeth. The old hall has 
some fine carving, now partially decayed, but at one end 
is still the date of 1582, with the initials M. K. (Maurice 
Kyffin) and E. R. (Elizabeth Regina). This style of 
decoration was in fashion at that period, as may be seen 
in the house of the Gwydir family, and that of Archbishop 
Williams at Conway; also at Vron Iw, built or improved 
by John Madocks (see " Vron Iw", supi^a), in the parish 
of Llandyrnog, Denbighshire. The house has the reputa- 
tion of possessing a haunted room, said to be kept always 
locked, that no one may enter it. The cause, according 
to the traditio loci, is that Sir Thomas Kyffin, Kt., the 
judge, who was the last male descendant of Maurice, in 
this apartment, struck, in a fit of passion, a boy who had 
offended him a heavy blow, which caused his death, and 
that, to conceal the fact. Sir Thomas threw the boy's 
body into a well. 

There w^ould seem to be no historical document extant 
to show how Maurice became possessed of this rich slice 
out of the Abbey lands on which to create for himself 


" a local habitation and a name". Possibly he purchased 
it from Sir Richard Clough, or from Ellis Wynne, said 
by the editors of Dugdale (1819) to have been the original 
grantee of the Abbey from the Queen. Pennant is strangely 
silent on the subject. The name of Maurice Kyffin is not 
once so much as mentioned in his Tours. Yet he must have 
been a man of no little note in his day. He married twice, 
and into two of the best fixmilies in the neighbourhood, 
and, it is not a little remarkable, into families of two dif- 
ferent religions. The first was Mostyn of Mostyn, the 
branch of the family which apostatised, while the other, 
that of Talacre, remained true to the old faith. The second 
was Wynne of Melai, which seems to have continued 
Catholic till about the middle of the last century, and 
ceased to be so only at the death of the heiress who mar- 
ried the first Lord Newborough, whose title, perhaps, was 
received by him in recognition of his secession to the 
Anglican Establishment, which is the creature (in 1558), 
as it is the slave, of the State. In Williams's Eminent 
Welshmen we are told that in his youth Maurice trans- 
lated into Enghsh the Andria of Terence. In 1595 he 
published his Welsh translation of Jewell's AiDologia 
Ecclesice Anglicance, which is said to be " remarkable 
for its elegant and pure idiomatic diction", and " a per- 
fect model for Welsh writers". He wrote poetry, more- 
over, in the Welsh, and also in the English language. 
A rare copy of a poem by him, printed in 1585, 
addressed to Queen Elizabeth, entitled The Blessednes 
of Brytaine (blessed in possessing that paragon of purity 
and mercy for a sovereign), and written in the fulsome 
style of adulation customary in those who fawned on her 
for favours, has just been reprinted, as nearly as possible 
\n facsimile, by the Cymmrodorion Society. From this 
circumstantial evidence, in the absence of any more 
precise, it may be gathered that Maurice cared little for 
religion further than it might favour his worldly advance- 
ment. A Protestant under Henry and Edward, he was 
a Catholic under Mary, a Protestant again under Eliza- 
beth. Having been both by turns, he was only the latter 


long, probably because the former did not again rise 
to the ascendant in time to admit of his being once 
more reconciled to the Church before he came to die. 

According to the Dictionary of Eminent Wels}imen,hj 
the late Canon Robert Williams, Maurice was the second 
son of Richard Kyffin, Esq., of Glascoed in Llansilin. But 
all the old pedigrees agree in stating that he was the son of 
Sir David, a priest, living temp. Henry VIII. He was a 
pluralist, for we find him described as Vicar of Eglwys 
Bach and Rector of Llanddoget and Nannerch, in two dif- 
ferent counties, and Canon of St. Asaph. He may have 
accepted the bribe offered to the clergy by Edward VI, 
in the shape of a licence to marry, in breach of their 
sacerdotal engagement of celibacy, by virtue of the 
pretended assumption by the Crown of the supreme 
spiritual as well as temporal headship over the Church. 

The following tabulated pedigree is taken from Ilarl. 
3IS. 1977, fo. 46, the Vron Iw MS., and two others, 
one belonging to E. Kenrick, Esq., of Farringdon Hall, 
for which the author is indebted to Mrs. J ones- Parry 
as also to Mrs. Pierce, and H. F. J. Vaughan, Esq., for 
much valuable information. 

Davydd Vychan of Gartheryrab Davydd ab Madoc KyfBn of Lloran Ucha',=p 
descended from Einion Evell, twin son of Madoc ab Maredydd, Prince of j 
Powys. Quarterly, 1 and 4, per fess sa. and arg. a lion ramp, counter- j 
changed, armed and langued (/u.; 2 and 3, arg., a chevron gu.,intev 
three pheons pointed to the centre sa. | 

Gruffydd ab Davydd=j=Catharine, d. of Maredydd ab Tudor Geoffry, Abbot 
Vychan(seevol.iv, I ab Grono ab Howel of Penllyn. of Conway. 

p. 238). I 

I I 

Hugh Vaughan of=Tibot or Jane, d. of Owain =j=Lleuti, or Annes, d. 

K^'dweli, and jure Morris ab Owain KyfiSn. of Khys ab Einion 

uxoris of Golden ab Gruffydd Vychan, descended 

Grove, ancestor of ab Nicholas, 2nd | from Marchudd (see 

the Earls of Car- cousin of Sir Ehys I the Melai pedigree, 

bery. ap Thomas (see | p. 370). 

Glyncothi's Poems, \ 
pp. I3i)-140). [ 


Sir Davydd, V. Eglwys=j=Margaret, d. of Maredydd, ancestor of the Wynns 

Bach 1534, 1!. Llan- of Gwydir, ab leuan ab Eobert ab Maredydd ab 

ddoget and Nannerch, | Howel ab Davydd ab Gruffydd ab Caradoc ab 

and Canon of St. I Thomas ab Khodri ab Owain Gwynedd (vol. iv, 

Asaph 1537. | p. 268). 



1st wife. I a 

Margaret,==Maurice Kyffin, Sheriff, 

d. of 


1579; living 1595. 
Poet and Prose Writer. 

Catharine, ux. John 

2nd wife. 
=pAlice, d. of John 
I Esquire of the 
I See p. 370. 

Price of Llewesog. 
p. 1H5.) 

Wynne of Melai, Esq., 
Body to Queen Mary. 

(Hist. P. V.,iv, 

Edward Kyffin,= 

Vicar of Caer- 

wys, 1608. 
Buried Oct. 28, 
162:f. (P. R.'s 

Diary, p. 96.) 

=Winifred, 8th d. 

of Thos. Evans 
of Plas Llaneur- 
gain. (L.Dwnn, 

vol. ii, p. 325. ) 


I I I 
Morris, s. 

Thomas, Vicar 
of Welshpool 
and Berriew, 
and Canon of 
St. Asaph, 

William (?) = ... 
ob. s. p. 

I I I 

Margaret, ux. John 
Vaughan, Earl of 
Carbery (3rd wife). 

Jane, ux. P. Pen- 
nant of Bichton. 

Elizabeth, ux. David 
Holland of Hendre 
Vawr. He died 1611. 
(P. E.'s Diary, p. 
28 ; Hist. P. v., iii, 
p. 51.) 

Richard = 
Kyffin of 

aged 20 
in 1630. 

=Ellen (?), dau. of 


Wynne of Voelas, 

Esq. , Sheriff of 

CO. Denbigh, 


Morris, slain 

on the 
King's side; 
ob. ante 1648. 


Thomas. Margaret, ux. ... 

Mary, ux. ... of Lon- 

1. Jane, d. and heiress of Edward = William Kyffin^ 
Lloyd of Cevn in Meriadog, then of Maenan 
living at Glasgoed; married and Hall, aged 22 
ob., s. p., in March 1652-3. (P. in 1659. 
R.'s Diary, p. 232, 245.) 

Other daughters. 

='2. Ermine (or Catha- 
rine), d. and co- 
heiress of Roger 

Davies of Erlys, Esq. 

{Hist. P. v., iii, 109.) 

s. p. 

I 2 
s p. 

Mor- Catharine, ux. Owen Jane. 

ris. Price of Nantmawr, 

Esq., desc. from Ble- 

ddyn Lloyd of Havod Unos. 

{Harl. MS. 1!J77.) 

Richard Kyffin of Mae-= 
nan Hall; ob. 1693, 

aged 34. Buried at 

Beaumaris, where is 
his tomb, with his 
arms and motto, 

" Cenfigen a ladd ei 

=Jane, dau. of Thomas 
Price of Giler, Esq., 
and sister of Robert 

Price, Esq., Baron of 
the Exchequer. 06. 

ante 1723 (see "Giler", 




Anne, ux. Thomas 

Roberts of Egl- 

wys Bach. 

Thomas Kyffin of Maenan Hall, Barrister-^ 
at- Law, and Attorney- General for cos. 
Anglesey, Caernarvon, and Merioneth. 
Born c. 1678, married 1699, ob. 1745, 
aged 67. A tablet was erected to their 
memory by their son in Llanddoget 
Church in 1752. 

=Ellen, d. of 

Roberts of 
Caerau in 
Esq. ; ob. 
Nov. 20th, 
1739, aged 

Uvedale Kyf- 
fin, named 
in Baron 
Price's will. 







Thomas Kyffini of Maenan Hall.=pElizabetli, d. of 

Sir Thomas Kyffin, Kt., born 1739,^ 
Knighted in 1782. Oh. June 7, 1784. 
A monument to his memory is in 
Llanddos^et Church. 

-Elizabeth, sole d. and heir- John 
ess of Hugh Hughes of Kyffin. 
Coed y Brain, eo. Flint, 


I 1, co-heir. 
Elizabeth, —William 
heiress of 
Hall and 
(see vol. 
vi). Mar- 
ried in 
1789; ol. 
June 1791. 

I 2 I I I I 3, co-heir. 

John Margaret, Anne; she married, in 1795, 

Lentliall, Esq., oh. innupt. the Eev. John Nannau, oh. 

of Bessels 1823. She had Belmont, which 

Leigh and Three at her death she left to her 

Ucheldref, other niece, Elizabeth Kenrick, who ^ 

High Sheriff for daughters, took the name of Kyffin, and i 

CO. Caernarvon oh. ante died in 1879. (See "Maesy I 

in 1796. patrem. Neuadd".) I 

I 4, co-heii". 
Ermine, ux. Col. Richard 

Kenrick of Nantclwyd. 
See vol. iii, p. 339. 

She had 


1 This gentleman was a lawyer. The Tai Croesior pedigree calls 
him "barrister, 1723". But from information given by Mr. A. N. 
Palmer, it appears that Thos. Kyffin, a solicitor, lived at a house 
called " The Office", in Mount Street, Wrexham, in 1742, and that 
for some years after he was rated as owner of Bryn lolyn, a small 
estate adjoining Erlys, which, in 1783-4, belonged to Sir Thomias 
Kyffin. The former was, then, not improbably, the father, or at 
least a relation, of the latter. Canon Thomas says (Hist. D. St. 
Asa2:>h) that a " Thomas Kyffin of Maenan gave to Eglwys Bach, in 
1762, a deed-poll for £100, and, in 1786, added another of £60 on 
the Wrexham, Ruthin, and Denbigh Tiirnpike Trust." The first 
was, perhaps, the father's bequest ; the second must have been the 
son's bequest. Sir Thomas was a Welsh judge, but on his monu- 
ment it is stated only that " in his public character as a Magistrate 
he impartially administered justice, and that to a mind richly gifted 
by nature, and improved by acquaintance with several branches of 
polite literature, he joined a most humane and benevolent heart." 
The above pedigree is not perfectly clear in every part, and some 
names, apparently referable to it, are omitted. Pennant (Toiirs, ii, 
315) gives Richard Kyffin as the last Abbot of Conway, but Browne 
Willis (Hist. Abbeys, ii, 310) says that Richard ab Rhys (see iv, 104) 
was enjoying, as such, in 1553 a pension of £20 per annum. From 
Thomas's Hist, of the Diocese of St. Asaph, it appears that Richard 
Kyffin was Rector of Llan y Myneich in 1537 ; Ellis Kyffin was 
Rector of Llanddoget in 1590 ; George Kyffin in 1686, and Robert 
Kyffin in 1809 ; John Kyffin, Vicar-Choral of St. Asaph, and Parson 
of Meliden, 1628 (P. R.'s Diary, pp. 88, 124); George Kyffin 
was also Vicar of Eglwys Bach in 1702, and J. Kyffin in 1745. 
In Gardd Einion is a poem in praise of the Rev. John Kyffin, on 
his removal from Llanystymdwy to Llanberog in 1837, by Robert 
ab Gwilym Ddu. 



John William Kyffin Lenthall=pMary Anne, dau. of John Anne, oh. 
of Maenan and Bessels Leigh. I Ashton of The Grange, co. 1810, set. 10. 


Edward Lenthall of 

Maenan and 

Bessels Leigh 

Abbey, near Abing- 
don, CO. Berks. 

William Kyffin of 
Belmonfc.took the 
name of Kyffin, 

Frank Lenthall, Barrister-at-Law, 
Recorder of Woodstock. Tbese 
three brothers were unmarried, 
and living together at Bessels 
Leigh Abbey in 1884. 


Ednyved of Ereiviad ab Grono Llwyd ab Y Penwyn (see "Melai" PedioTee,=f= 
p. 369), named in a Rental of 6 Edw IV 1467 ° I 


Einion Llwyd, named as " Eignon Rp=j=..., d. of Ehys ab lorwerth ab Llywel- 

Edenevyd" in Eental 6 Edw. IV, 
of the " Vill de Eruveat". To the 
south of the mansion is a hill still 
known as Tyddyn Einion or Eneon. 

yn of Wigvair, descended from Lly- 
warch Holbwrch of Llys Llywarch, 
Lord of Meriadog. Vert, a stag 
trippant argent, attired and un- 
guled or. See vol. iv, p. 323. 
leuan ab Einion, named in=f=Sabel. d. of Tudyr of Berain ab GruflPydd Llwyd 
Rental of 6 Edw. IV. ab Heilyn Vrych, descended from March wei- 
I thian. (See iv, 102.) 

Grono, or Gorouwy, ab Ieuan,= 
held the escheat lands in 
" Vill of Eriveat", with the 
hamlet of Wenynok Wyn- 
tus, for a term of 7<) years 
from 16 Henry VIL Will 
proved 4th December 1525, 
at St. Hilary's Chapel, Den- 

^Gwenhwyvar, d. of Rhys ab .... 
Will proved at St. Anne's 
Chapel, Denbigh, 29th No- 
vember 1524. According to 
Richard Llwyd of Chester, 
Grono married Margaret, d. 
of Gruffydd Hanmer of Han- 
mer, perhaps another wife. 

I 2nd son 
Davydd =f 




Gwilym Goch=j= 

Rhys held the hamlet of Ereiviat for a term 
of ten years at a rent of 33s. M. per an- 
num, 6 Edward IV. 




Thomas ab Grono (Goronwy), styled= 
" Valectus Domini Eegis" in Tyd- 
derley's Survey of the Lordship of 
Denbigh, temp. Hen, VIIIj when 
he held lands in the " Vill of Ery- 
veot Craban Toyssock & Nanclyn 
Sanctorum". Living 30 Hen. VIII, 
1589. Named in a discharge, 2 
Edward VI. 

=Margaret, d. of Owain ab 
Gruffydd ab Madoc Vy- 
chan of Plas Ucha' in 
Abergeleu ; desc. from 
larddur. Lord of Llech- 
wedd Ucha', Grand For- 
rester of Snowdon. 

I f> 
or Gruff- 
ydd, a 




Ffowk ab Thomas, married in=f= Alice, d. and heiress of Gruffydd ab Rhys ab 

1539; living in 1555. In- 
ventory of goods dated 10th 
February 1581. 

Sir David Anwyl of Gil Owen, near St. 
Asaph; descended from Edwyn, Prince of 

JohnWyn=pMary, 3rd d. of 


of Erei- 


m. c. 1573. 



16th Oct. 


Gawen Good- 
man of Ruthin, 
desc. from 

leuan Goch. 
See vol. iii, p. 49 




of the 




Hugh, ob. 1619 

(P. R.'s Diary, 

p. 77). 

According to L. Dwnn (ii, 334, 3i3), he mar- 
ried, 2ndly, Margaret, d. of Khys Wyn ab David Anwyl, who 
was the mother of his children, but ? 1 

1 1 

1 2 

i 3 

1 4 

1 5 


Anne, ux. 

Alice, ux Ffoulk 

Catharine, ux. 


ux. Wil- 


Lloyd of Fox- 

1. Harriab 

liam (or 


hall, Sheriff in 

Davydd ; 



1567, 1592, and 

2. John ab 



Evan Lloyd. 


{Lewys Dwnn, 


ii, 334.) 

P. R.'s 


p. 159). 

I 6 

Margaret, ux. Howel ab 

Thomas (or John) ab 
Howel. (L. Dwnn, ii, 334.) 

Agnes, ux. Henry Cham- 

bres of Plas Chambres. 

(See below.) 


Piers (Peter) Wynne=pMagdalen, d. of Edw. Bellot 

Ffoulkes of Ereiviad, 
" heretofore of Gil 
Owen"; married c. 
1594. Escheator of 
Denbigh, 1624; ob. 
8th May 1636 (P. 
R.'s Diary, p. 166). 

of Great Moreton, co. Ches- 
ter, by Amy. d. of Edward 
Moston (Ormerod's Hist, of 
Chesh.), or of Peter Mostyn 
of Talacre, Esq. (R. V.'s 
Pedigrees, ife»i(/. 31 S. 96, p. 
1251); ob. ante maritum, c. 
1636; buried at Henllan 
(P. R.'s Diary, p. 138). 

Elizabeth, ux. John 

Wyn Parry of Llan- 

bedr, Esq., desc. 

from Cowryd ab 

Cadvan. Argent, 

three boar's heads 

couped sable, tusked 

or, langued gules. 

(See iii, 46.) 

John Ffoulkes, living at Cil= 
Owen in 1622 (P. R.'s Diary, 
p. 88) ; ob. ante patrem. 

=Jane, d. of Thomas ab Rhys Margaret, ob. 
Wyn of Giler (see p. 393), c. 1670. 

Esq., Sheriff 1624. Desc. 
from March weithian. 




Peter Ffoulkes,=pElizabeth, d. of Eichard Lloyd, D.D., Vicar of 

born c. 1620; 

buried at Hen- 

llan, 6th March 


Ehiwabon and Canon of St. Asaph (see vol. 
iii, p. 34), and sister of Humphrey Lloyd, 
Protestant Bishop of Bangor, man ied 14th 
Feb. 1634-5, at Rhiwabon; oh. 1657-8, buried 
at Henllan. 



1st Jan. 


Robert, D.D., 
Rector of 
1675; of 
near Ruthin, 
1683; Pre- 
centor of 
Ob. c. 1728. 

Catharine, born 1658.- 
youngest d. of John 
Madocks of Bodvari, 
by his 2nd wife Jane, 
heiress of Vron Iw. 
See p. 323, seq. 

= John, living = Catharine, Edward 

7th July 

d. of 

" Piers de 





John, Robert, living 
ob. s. ]). 1709. 


Elizabeth, ux. 

I 1 |2 |3 

Elizabeth. Marsraret. Catharine. 

|4 |5 

Frances. Jane, ux. John Lloyd of Ty 
Mawr, CO. Denbigh, c. 1716. 

Peter rfoulkes,= 
buried at Hen- 
llan, 11 Aug. 

=Margaret, d. of Robert Bet- 
ton of Shrewsbury, niece 
of Lord Chancellor Jeffries ; 
desc. from Bettons of Great 
Betton, CO. Salop ; bui'ied 
5 June 1716. 

Mary, ux. William Lewis, 
M.A, Vicar of Towyn, 
Merioneth ; ob. 2nd Dec. 
1698. Her monument is 
in Towyn Church. 


i 3 

1 4 


1 1 

1 2 

1 3 












born 1697, 

born 1693, 





ob. 1698. 

ob. 1782. 

ob. 1712. 


John Ffoulkes,; 
built a new 
front to the 
in 1732 ; born 
1699, ob. 1758. 

^Catharine, d. and heiress of 
Henry Roberts of Rhydo- 
nen, co. Denbigh, Esq., 
Sheriff, 1722 ; m. 1729 ; 
ob. 1764. She was niece 
and co-heiress of the last 
Mr. Meyrick of Ucheldre'. 

Elizabeth, = 
1718, ob. 

aged 68. 

ton, a non- 
juror ; ob. 28th 
July 1764, 
aged 71. 

James Eyton. 
born 1719. 

John, born 


I 1 
John Ffoulkes^ 
of Ereiviat 
and Rhydo- 

nen, born 

1736, Sheriff 

1778, ob. 1814. 

Buried at 


=Margaret, d. of Hugh 
Clough, Esq., of Plas 

Clough and Glan y 

Wern ; mari-ied 1767, 

ob. 1826. Hugh, ob. 








born 1730. 

rine, born 
and ob. 



|4 |5 

Frances, Margaret, 

born born 

1737, 1741, 

ob. 1816. ob. 1744, 


y, born 1742, 
ob. 1827. 

a I 2nd son. 

Margaret, born 1744, 
ux. Robert Peake of 
the House of Perthewig, 
CO. Denbigh; ob. 1834, 
ag ed 90. He ob. 1814, 
)s I aged 63. 
Catharine, born 1744. 
ob. 1811. 

M3 7] 



Henry, D.D., Principal of Jesus = Mary, d. of John 
Coll., Oxon. Born 1773. Horton, Mer- 
Rector of Besselsleigh, with chant, of Waver- 
Yelford, co. Berks, where tree, co. Lan- 
he was buried. Ob. s. p., cashire. 




Catharine, ux. Evan 

Jones of Evenech- 

tyd, by whom she 

had issue. Born 

1768, ob. 1841, 

aged 72. 

born 17t;9, 
ob. innupt. 

buried at 

Hugh, Lieutenant and 
Surgeon of 1st Royal 
Cheshire Militia ; ob. 
1799, aged 27, at Win- j 
Chester ; buried there 
in the Cathpdral. ] 

Mary Anne, 

born 1779, 

ob. innupt. 

1856; buried 

at Llandyr- 


born 1776, 
ob. innupt. 


buried at 



John Powell^ 
born 1770. 
Lieut. -Col. 

Royal Den- 
bigh Mili- 
tia ; ob. 

1 826, buried 

at Henllan. 

Caroline Mary, 2nd 
d. and eventual heir- 
ess of Robert Jocelyn, 
Capt. R.N., of Stan- 
stead Bury, CO. Herts; 
Bryn y Barcut, co. 
Denbigh, and Maes 
y Coed, co. Flint. 
Born 1779, married 
1810, ob. 1854.1 


born 1775, 

ob. innupt. 


buried at 



Patty=f=Rev.Mascie Domville Taylor of 
Lymm Hall and Moss Hall, 
CO. Chester, and Rector of 
Moreton Corbet, co. Salop, 
widower. Ob. 1845. 

ma, b. 

Henry John Ffoulke£.=j=Helena, 2nd d. 

Taylor of Rouncill, 

CO. Warwick; born 

1827, married 1856, 

ob. 14 June 18H5. 

of Kev. W. T. 
Bree of Alles- 
ley, CO. War- 

Helena Jemima, 
born 1858. 

Evelyn, born 

John Jocelyn Ffoulkes, M.A., of Erei-=j=Mary Ann, eldest d. of Sir Wil- 
viat and Bryn y Barcut, co. Denbigh, liam Beauchamp Proctor of 
and Maes y Coec", co. Flint, Esq. : Langley Park, co. Norfolk, 
Major Royal Denbigh Militia, Sheriff Bart. ; married Oct. 18, 1843, 
1858. Born Sept. 16, 1813. o6. May 1883. 

I I 





Edith Caroline, 
born 1846; ux. 
P. H. Humber- 
ston of Glan y 
Wern, co. Den- 
bigh, only son of 
P. S. Humber- 
ston of Molling- 
ton Banastre, co. 

Chester, Esq. 

He ob. 1884. 







ret, born 

ob. 1885. 







^ This lady represented, paternally, a younger branch of the 
Jocelyns of Hyde Hall, co. Herts (now Earl of Roden), and mater- 
nally, the Powells of Llanvair Vechan, Wynnes of Maes y Coed, co. 
Flint, and Salisbur-ys of Petrual and Bryn y Barcut, a branch of the 
Salisburys of Plas Isa' in Llanrwst, and of Lleweni. 



Henry Powell Ffoulkes, M.A., Arch-^fJane Margaret, fifch dau. of Ed- 

deacon of Montgomery, Canon of 
St. Asaph, Rector of Llandyssul, 
CO. Montgomery, and afterwai'd of 
Whittington, co. Salop. Born 1815, 
married 1861. 

ward Lloyd of Berth, co. Den- 
bigh, and Ehagatt, co. Meri- 
oneth, Esq. See vol. iv, p. 

Gertrude Mary Frances, born December 8, 1863, ob. September 6, 1870, 

I 3 







of Jesus I 
Coll. and 
Vicar of | 
St. I 
Mary's, I 

:Anne, 5th d. of 
Sir Thomas An- 
drew William 

Strange, Kt., 
Chief Justice of 
Madras, son of 
Sir Robert 
Strange, Kt., the 
eminent en- 

dicta, 6th d. of 
Rev. Richard 
Howard, DD., 
Vicar of Llan- 

rhaiadr in 
Canon of Ban- 
gor ; married 
1854, ob. 1859, 
buried at 

1st I 

=P William - 





at-Law of 


Inn, and 

Judge of 


Courts ; 




^Hester Mary, 3rd 
d. of Rev. George 
Heywood (by his 

wife Emma 
Maria, d. of Rev. 

Edward Thel- 
wall of Llanbedr 
Hall, CO. Den- 
bigh), Rector of 

Ideford, co. 

Devon; married 


















ob. 1871. 


dau. of 
Jeffreys of Glandyvi Castle, co. Cardigan, Esq., by his 
wife Clara, eldest dau. of T. Parr of Grappenhall Hayes, 
Esq. Married in July 1881. 

Henry = 





I 2 

John Wynne, 
born 1861. 

Caroline Mary 

Wynne, born 


I '-^ 
Sidney Wynne, 
born 1863. 

Amy Elizabeth Margaret 
Wynne, born 18C6, ob. 




(Harl MS. 1971 ; Zeioijs Divnn ; Eengwrt MS. 324.) 

Robert ab Rhys ab Maredydd of Plas lolyn, descended from March -=j= 
weithian. See vol. iv, p. 103. | 

I 2nd son. 1 2 

Thomas Vaugh-=T=Jane,d. of Sir Roger=pCatharine, d. of Hugh Conway of 

an. Sheriff of 

CO. Merioneth, 


Salisbury of Lle- 

weni, Kt. 
See vol. iv, p. 334. 

Bryn Euryn; descended from Gruff- 
ydd Goch of Rhos. She married, 
2ndly, Maredydd Lloyd of Diserth, 
by whom she had a daughter 
Lowry, ux. Ellis Vaughan of Llys 

an of 

-Lowri (or Jane), 

d. of Maredydd 

Lloyd ab John 

Owen of Diserth, 

ab Hugh ab 
Lewis ab Mared- 
ydd ab John ab 
Robert ab Gruff- 
ydd Goch. 
{Vron Iw US.) 


an. His 
ric hy 
Edw. ab 
Ob. 1654. 

William Vaughan ^ 

=Sybil, d. of John Wyn ab 
Cadwalader of Rhivplas. 

d. of Wil- 
Fowler of 
the Coun- 
cil of the 
and Pro- 
of North 

2. Rhys. 

3. Robert. 

4. Edward. 

5. Hugh. 

ab Wil- 
liam ab 


John, ob. 






a I 2 

John Vaugh-- 
an, ob. also 

6| 1 

=Joan, d. of 
Sir Henry 

Justice of 

I I I 



ob. ante 




a I 2 6 I 1 c I 3 

Tho =1, Marga-==2, Catharine, d. of Henry =pMargaret, d. of Wil 

mas. ret, d. of Thomas ab Ehys Vaugh 

Edward ab M aredydd ab an. 

Wyn of Einion Vychan. 

I 1 |2 

Anne, ux. John Lloyd of Gwrych, Esq. Gaynor. 

Bonham Nor- liam. 
ton of Stretton, 
CO. Salop. 

I I I 

Thomas =y=Lucy, d. of Sir John Vaughan of Trawscoed, Henry. Catha- 

Vaughan. I co. Cardigan, ancestor of Lord Lisburne rine. 

I of Crosswood. 

I i 

John, aged 7 in 1681. Thomas Vaughan of Pant Glas, Esq., c. 1700. 


(Egerton MSS. ii, 100& ; Leivys Dwmi, ii, 351 ; 
Vron Iiu MS.) 

" Adam de Ashpoole, the first that came into Wales with 
the Lord Gray of Ruthin, 2"^^ Edd. primi, to whom y® S(j LM 
granted y^ lands in Corvedweu in Llandurnog by Charter," 
saith a MS. had from Ashpoole of Chelmsford, in Essex [Add. 
MS. 9865, fo. 46). Per fess arg. and gu. three griffon's heads 
counterchanged {Leivys Dwnii), or owls' heads (Stowe MS. 

13, r.).i 

Alan ab William ab Philip ab Hugh ab Alan ab Richard ab Eichard ab=p 
Philip ab Adam Ashpoole. | 

Simon Ash-=pJane, d. of David Thelwall, Esq., ab John Thelwall Hen of 
poole. I Plas y Ward. Gules, a chevron or, charged with three 
I trefoils vert, inter three boar's heads couped argent. Vol. 
j iv, p. 305. 

Thomas Ash-=pAnnest, d. of Huw Conway of Bryn Euryn ab Eobin ab 
poole. I Gruffydd Goch of Ehos. 

^ In Add. MS. 9865 the arms of this family are given as Azuvfi, 
three chevrons or. 



John Wyn,=j=Alice, d. of Harri ab 


John ab Gruffydd 

Jonet, ux. David Lloyd ab John ab 
Gruffydd of Plas Llangwyvan, ab 
Davydd Vwrddais, descended from 
Cowryd ab Cad van. See vol, iv,p.l66. 

Harry Ash- T Janet, d. of Richard Thelwall of Plas y Ward, son of Edward 
poole. I ab Eubule ab Simon Thelwall. See vol. iv, p. 106. 

Simon = 

= Catharine, 



d. of Piers 



Myl, or 
Mul, ab 



Mull, or 
Mule, or 



T Dorothy, dau. of 
Robert Tur- 
bridge, Esq., of 
Llanrudd, son of 

Robert Tur- 
bridge. Argent, 

a bridge em- 
battled ffules, on 
the bridge-end a 
tower of the last. 

Thomas T Alice, dau. of 





Robert Chan- 
nel of Rhudd- 

I 3rd son. 
Rowland ^Catharine, dau. 


of Robert ab 

Edward of 


Elizabeth T John ab Jenkin ab Grono 

c. 1534. 

ab Davydd ab Thomas, 

by his wife Luce, d. of 

John Barker, "English 

Tenant", 1446 (p. 336). 

His first wife was Lucy, 

d. of Ithel ab Edward of 

Rhiw Isa'. 

John ab John ab Jenkin ab Grono 

John =F Margaret, d. of Evan ab Dav- 
Con- ydd, co. Flint ; descended 

way. I from Tudyr Wyn. 


I 2nd son. 
John Conway. =F 

I 2nd son. 
John Con- =F Elizabeth, dau. 

of John 

■way of 
lach (qu, 
llech ?), 
near Den- 

Lloyd of Berth, in Llan- 
bedr parish, co. Den- 
bigh; ob. 1645 (voL iv, 
p. 126), by his wife 
Alice, d. of John Lloyd of 
Wick war, Esq., Regis- 
trar of St. Asaph {Harl. 
MS. 1971). 

I I 

John Ashpoole of Plas Ashpoole, Esq. =FLucy. 

John Ashpoole (Inquisition on estate of John Madocks of t Ellen, d. of 
Vron Iw, 16th December 1706). | 

Dorothy. = Nathaniel Edwards of Ruthin, married c. 1724. 





Azure, a dexter arm embow^ed, couped at the shoulder, in armour or^ 
in the hand proper a red rose, barked, slipped, and leaved vert. 

John de la Chambre of Lleweni came into Wales in 
1275. He was Chamberlain to Henri de Laci, Earl of 
Lincoln, from whom he held, by a charter granted 3rd 
Edward I, two carucates, comprising 180 acres of land 
in Lleweni, w^th liberties and freedoms in the parts and 
forests adjacent, yielding to De Laci and his heirs nine- 
pence a year, for his homage and service, of which land 
part is now held by Philip Henry Chambres, Esq., of 
Llysmeirchion. He was also Burgess of Denbigh. His 
third son, William de la Chambre, in 1282 led a convoy 
of provisions to the English army in Wales. The original 
safe-conduct is now in the Record Office. It is entitled 
" De protectione et conductu pro Willielmo de la 
Chambre et Ricardo de Baunfeld, etc., in ducendo 
victualia ad exercitum Walliae. Apud Denbegh, 3 
Novembris." (Rot. Wall., Memhr. 1.) There is also a 
Charter entitled " De confirmando Henrico de Lacy 
comiti Lincoln. Cantreda de Ros et de Roewynnok (Rhos 
and Rhuvoniog) et commotum de Dynnael (Dinmael) 
cum omnibus pertinentiis. Apud Rothelan, 16 Octobris." 
(Ibid., Memhr. 2.) A branch of this family settled in 
Shropshire and another in Ireland, by both of which the 
older form of the name, Chambre, is retained, derived 
from the office of Chamberlain held by its founder. 

John de la^pJane, d. of Bleddyn Vychan, ab Bleddyn ab Y Gwion ab Ead- 

of Lleweni. 

vach ab Asar ab Gwrgi ab Hedd Molwynog, Chief of one of 
the 15 Noble Tribes of Gwynedd. Sable, a hart at gaze, 
argent, attired and unguled, or. (See vol. iii, p. 43.) 




Catharine, d. of Walter Chambre, William de la Chambro, 

Edward ( or Ed- settled in co. led a convoy as above, 

mund) Cherlton, York. 1282. 
of the family of 
Lord Powis. 

VOL. V. 25 



Joshua^ =f= Margaret, 

Chambre I d. of Lewis 

ofLleweni. de la More. 

Lewis Chambre, settled 

at Ellesmere, co. 


Miles Chambre, alias 

Miles, the Steward of 


1 1 

Mor- =;=Aiine, d. of Peter Le Cice- = 

Quien, s. of John, son ly, ux. 

of Roger, one of the Madoc 

first burgesses of ab 

Denbigh (al. d. of Teuan. 
Henry Ferrers). 

bre of 



3. Cecil de la 
Chambre, ab- 
bot of Haugh- 
mond, co.Salop 
(?). See vol. 
iv, p. 14. 

:..., d. of [Ed- 
ward] (?) ab 

Howel of 


descended from 

Iddon ab Rhys 


I I I 

3. Henry. 

4. Francis, 

5. Gawain, 

\ In 1334, the heirs of John de Camera 
! (de la Chambre) held 160 acres of land in 
[ Lleweni, at a yearly rent of 8d, and are 
) styled bond tenants. 

Samuel = 

=Mary, d. of William Lloyd, alias Rosin- 
dale of Foxhall {al. Thos. Newport, 


I ! 

2. Stephen. 

3. Andrew. 

1. Catha- 

2. Doro- 

John {al. Arthur) Chambre=j=Jane (al. Anne), d. of John {al. Peter) Antony. 

of Lleweni. | Conway. 

(1) I 1 (2) I 2 

d. of ...=p Hugh = Martha, d. of William Ravens- William. 
Salisbury. Chambre croft of Denbigh. 


WiUiam =pCatharine, d. John,D.D., 
Chambre and co-heir Dean of 

of Jenkin Westmin- 
PigotofDen- ster in 
bigh. 1549. 



Sir Hugh, 

Edith (or 


ux. Gruff- 

ydd ab 


Isabel, ux, 
Robert ab 

I 1 


of Plas 

I 2 
: Elizabeth, d. of Robert Chambre, ancestor of=f=Elizabeth, 
William Dutton, Chambre families in co. | d. of 

CO. Chester. Salop and in Ireland. v ... Peake. 

Jenkin of Burlton, co. Salop. 
(John Salisbury of Erbi- 
stock's Book of Pedigrees.) 

J 4 

X. Thomas 

Robert Chambres of Plas Chambres.=pAgnes, d. and h. of Hugh Duckworth. 

Robert Chambres=i=Margaret, d. and heiress of Ffoulke Salusbury, Dean of 

of Plas 

St. Asaph ; living in 1532. Second son of Sir Thomas 
Salusbury of Lleweni made a Knight Banneret at 
Blackheath. See vol. iv, p. 331. 

John Chambres of Plas Chambres.=j=Dorothy, dau. of Edward Goodman of 

I Ruthin. 

^ According to another genealogy, Joshua married Catharine, 
Henry married Jane, and John married Ellen de la More. 



Harry Cliam-=f=Annes, 8tli d. of Ffoulke (living' 

bres of Plas I 1555) ab Thomas ab Goronwy 

Chambres. I ab leuan ab Ednyved of Erei- 

I viat. By his wife Alice, d. and 

I heiress of Griffith ab iiliys ab Sir David Anwyl of Oil Owen 

Mary, ux. Edward ab Piers 
ot Plas Llan Asa'; desc. 
from Ednowain Bendew. 

John Chambres of Plas=j=Ann, d. of Charles Myddleton of Denbigh ; inar- 

Chambres, Burgess of ried 1614, oh. 1643 (P. E.'s Diary, pp. 51, 207). 

Denbigh, 1597; ok Charles Myddleton (ob. 1624) was elder brother 

1635. ( P. E.'s Diary, of Sir Hugh Myddleton, Knt., who made the 

p. 160.) I New River. Descended from Rhirid Vlaidd. 

Charles Chambres of Plas Cham-=FEllen, dau. of Ed- Anne, ux. Harri ab 

bres ; born 1621 (P. R.'s Diary, 
p. 85), married 26th January 
1641-2. Captain for Charles I. 
Was at the siege of Denbigh 
Castle, 1648. Ob. 1659. 

ward Griffith of 

Garn, Esq., in 

Henllan parish ; 

ob. Dec. 1652. See 

under "Garn". 

Thomas Hughes of 

Prestatyn, feodary of 

CO. Denbigh. (P. E.'s 

Diary, p. 7(i.) 

John Cham-: 

bres of Plas 



14th Jan. 

1670-1, ob. 

30th Jan. 


:Mary, d. and co-heiress of = Grace, d. of ... Lloyd 
Humphrey Lloyd of Bers. of Ruthin. 


1 1 

2 1 

3 1 


5 1 

Anne, ux. Wm. 





Slater, Deputy 


ux. Eandle 

ob. s.p. 

ux. James 

Baron of Exche- 

born 13 

Moile, an 


quer, CO. Chester; 



of Wrex- 

ob. 1643. 



Edward Chambres of Plas Chambres, Alderman= 
of Denbigh, 1680 and 1694; ob. 27th October 

=^Jane, d. of Eobert Eoberts 

of Denbigh ; ob. 27th 

February 1699-70. 

John Cham- = Mary, d. of 
bres of Plas Richard 

Sheriff co. 
1713; ob. 
1746, s. p. 

Leigh of 

East Hall, 


Leigh ; 

married in 



■Grace, d. 
died in 

I 3 

Eobert, = 

ob. s. p. 



John Jones of Bryn Eisteddvod (sole son of Thomas=T=Grace Chambres of Pits 

Jones of Cilglasyn ; ob. 1772, aged 89), M.A., 
Rector of Llan St. Ffraid, and of Llanrwst, and 
Canon of St. Asaph; ob. 1778, aged 83. 


Chambres, sole heir; 
ob. 1778, aged 50. 

.1 (2) (3) 

Jane, d. of Maurice=i=John Chambres Jones=Emma, d.=j=Sarah Holland, d. 

Jones of Cevn 

Coch ; ob. 1777, 

aged 54. 

of Bryn Eisteddvod, 
Merchant of Liver- 
pool ; ob. 27th Nov. 
1833, aged 83. 

of Dr. 

of Rev. Edward 

Edwards ; ob. 

1806, aged 41. 

Hugh Chambres Jones, = Helen, eldest d. 

M.A., Archdeacon of 

Essex, Vicar of West 

Ham, Treasurer of St. 

Paul's, London ; ob. 

s. p., 29th Sept. 1864, 

aged 86. 

a |T| ( 

and co-heir of 

John Carstairs of 

Stratton Green, 

Essex; oh. 19th 

January 1861. 


ob. s.p. 





ob. s. p. 

25 - 



Thomas Cham- 

bres, died 

young, 1748. 

Thomas Cham- 

bres, died 

young, 1756. 

Edward Chambers Jones,=f Charlotte, 

assumed the name and 
arms of Chambres, dif- 
ferenced by the arm 
vested or, instead of in 

d. and 

heiress of 
Esq., whose 
estate she 
carried to 
her hus- 

Grace. - 




Robert Cham-= 

bres of Llys- 


=Mary Ann, d. 

of Richard 

Ingleby of 


William Cham-=pMary Ann, d 

bres, sold Plas 

Chambres in 

1788 ; ob. 1859 

and co- 
heiress of 
James Gor- 
don, by Lucy 
d. and co- 
heir of Sir 


John Cham- 

Philip Cham- 
bres, Vicar 

I 1 1 2 I 3 I 4 I 5 I 6 

Rev. Richard = Mary, d. 



Chambres, of ... 

ob. s. p. Waring, 

Robert, ob. eo. Nor- 

s. p. folk. 

John, ob. s. p. 
Edward, ob. inf. 
Charles, ob. s. p. 
William, Merchant of Liverpool. 

11 (1) II (2) . ^ „ 

Mary, =f Philip Henry=T=Louisa, dau. ot 


Chambres of 


chion; born 

1822. Sheriff, 

CO. Denbigh, 


Richard Lloyd 

M.D., of Den- 
bigh ; married 


Henry=f Maria 


phine, d. of 
Birley of 
Carr Hill, co. 


b. 1851, 
now of 

=Martha Ann, 

d. of George 

Crump of 


Grant, near 


i 1 



Henry Jose- 
Birley phine. 

Maria. Robert Noel. Winifred. 

Caryl, Hugh, Maud, 
born born born 
1871. 1874. 1866. 

William Cham- =F Louisa Mellis, 
bres of Willa- d. of Lieut. - 

sey Grange, Col. Maddock. 

CO. Chester. 


Charles Cham-= 

bres of Eyrie 

Wallasey, co. 


=Lucy, d. of John Six 
Bendlay of the daus. 
Slopes, Wallasey. 

|1 |2 I 

Reginald Gordon=j=May, d. of Algernon. Five 
of Charlton, co. M. Bar- daus. 

Chester, Capt. nard of 

Lancashire Essex. 

Militia; born 

Gordon Austin Huldah 

Crewe, Crewe, Crewe, 

born born born 

1861. 1863. 1864. 

Gwendoline May Gordon. 





[Original French.] 
A Toutz ceux qui ceste escrit verront ou orront Henri de 
Lacy, Counte de Nicole et Conestable de Cestre, Seygnui' de 
Roos et de Reweyknol (?) salutz en deu. Sachiez nous aver 
done et graunte et par ceste nostre presente chartre conferme 
a Johan de la Chambre nostre Chaumberlein pour soun homage 
et pour son service deus cliarues de terre ou les apurteuaunces 
en Lewenny qi contient vt foitz vint Acres par la perche de 
vint peez, A aver et tenir a lavantdit Jolian et ses heirs de son 
cors lealmeut engendrez fraunchment quitement et peisiblement 
et one toute manere aysement. Cest a saver housbote et Hay- 
bote en le boys de Lewenny par vine de nos foresters Cest a 
sauer del boys de Garthsnodyok de qes a la terre Madok 
Abaignon et comune de pasture a toute manere de bestes 
parmy tut Ian en le boys avaundit de deuz les deuises avauntdiz 
apurtenant a taunt de tenement en mesme la ville et quite de 
pannage a tons ses pors de sa propre mirine de nous et de 
nous heirs par service de Chivalrie dont les ditz cliarues de 
terre font le fee de Chivaler et fesaunt a nous et nos heirs la 
suite a nostre Court de Duubegh de trois semeins en trois 
semeins. E la garde de nostre Chastel de Dunb[e]gh en tens de 
guere. Cest a sauer chesqun an tant com guere serra vt jours 
a deux chivaus [cou]uertz ou sesse jours a on chival couertz 
le quel qe nous ou nos heirs mentz vodrons tut a lour coustages 
E rendaut a nous et a nos heirs on maile par an pour chesquen 
bouee (boucc ?) a la seint michel pour la garde de nostre Chastel 
avant dit en tens de pees E nous et nos heirs de son cors leal- 
ment engendrez lavauntdit tenement pour les services avauntdit 
garantoms et quiteroms et def[euderons au]xi pleinement come 
nostre Seygnur le Roy et ses heirs nos tenemenz en celes 
parties a nous et nos heirs garauntissent aquitent et defendent 
E Si lavauntdit Johan mureusse (?) saunz heir de son cors 
lealment engendres tut lavauntdit tenement oue tutes les 
apourtenaunces sauns counteredit de nul horame a nous ou a 
nos heirs enterement revertera. En temoinance de quels 
choses nous avoms mis nostre seal a cest presente Chartre. 
A ces temoines. Sire Robert le fiz Roger. Sire Roger de 
Trumpington. Sire William le Vauasour. Sire William de 


Stopphaui. Chivalers. Kenewvek Abllawai' (?). Bledyn 
Vaghan. Madok Gogle et autres. 


To all those who shall see or possess this writing, Henri de 
Lacy, Earl of Nicole (Lincoln), Lord of Ehos and Rhuvoniog, 
salutation in God. Know that we have given and granted, and 
by this our present charter confirmed, to John de la Chambre, 
our Chamberlain, for his homage and for his service two plough- 
lands or the appurtenances in Llewenny, which contains eight 
times twenty acres by the perch of twenty feet. To have and 
to hold to the aforesaid John and his heirs of his body lawfully 
begotten, freely, quietly, and peaceably, and in every way 
easily. That is to know, housebote and Haybote in the forest 
of Llewenny by leave of our foresters. That is to know, of the 
forest of Garthsnodyok, adjacent to the land of Madoc ab 
Eignon,and common of pasture to all manner of beasts among 
all the glades in the forest aforesaid, of the two demises 
aforesaid, appertaining to so much of tenement in even 
the town, and free of pannage to all its swine of its own 
pale, of us and of our heirs by service of chivahy, 
whereof the said plough-lands make the knight's fee, and 
making suit to us and our heirs at our court of Dunbegh from 
three weeks to three weeks. And the guard of our Castle of 
Dunbegh in time of war. That is to know, each one in time 
of war shall serve six days with two harnessed horses, or six- 
teen days with one harnessed horse, whichsoever we or our 
heirs shall desire, all at their own costs. And rendering to us 
and to our heirs one mail yearly for each buck on St. 
Michael for the guard of our Castle aforesaid in time of 
peace. And we, and the heirs of our body lawfully begotten, 
do the aforesaid tenement for the services aforesaid guarantee, 
and will surrender and defend as fully as our Lord the King 
and his heirs our tenements in these parts to us and our heirs 
guarantee surrender and defend. And if the aforesaid John 
should die without heir of his body lawfully begotten, all the 
aforesaid tenements, or all the appurtenances without contra- 
diction of any man, to us or to our heirs shall entirely revert. 
In witness of which things we have put our seal to this present 
charter. To these witnesses. Sir Robert le Fitz Roger. Sir 
Roger de Trumpington. William de Stoppham. Knights. 
Kynwric ab Llavar. Bleddyu Yychan. Madoc Gogledd (Madoc 
of the North), and others. 





(Add. MS. 19,866, fo. 62; Lewijs Bimin, ii, 342; Vron, Iw MS.; 
Rhiwlas Pedigree.) 

Ednyved ab Gruffydd ab Madoc ab Howel ab Llewelyn Chwith ab Cynwric^p 
ab Bleddyn Llwyd ab Bleddyn Vychan of Havod Unos (vol. iv, 182). 
Sable, a hart argent, attired and unguled or. 

Gruffydd ab Ednyved =f Catharine, d. of Cynwric. 

Sir Eichard, Parson of Cerrig y Drudion ^ Lowry, d. of John ab Jenkin. 

Thomas ab^ Jane, d. of Eobert Wyn ab leuan 


Wynne of 

Bwlch y 



Llwyd ab Davydd Hynaf of Havod 
y Maidd, ab Ebys of Wickwar in 
Meriadog, by his wife Elliw, 5th d. 
of Cadwalader ab Eobert of Ehiw- 
las ab Ehys ab Maredydd of Plas 
lolyn in Yspytty. 


Gruffydd ab: 

Eichard (or 



Baron of 


for N. 

Wales ;i 

ob. s. p. 

Cadwalader =F 
ab Thomas. I 


I 1| 2 

I 3|4 

=...8th d. of 
der ab Eo- 
bert ab 
Rhys ab 
of Plas 
lolyn in 
Ysp ytty. 

I 5 

Jane, d. of Simon Parry of Ponty Gof (Nant-^ Thomas Wyn =Catharine, 
clwyd Hall), Counsellor at Law, by his wife I ab Cadwalader. s. p. 
Jane, d. of John Thelwall of Llanrudd. ( 

Margaret, sole d. and h.;^ Thomas Price of Giler, Esq., and (jure uxorisj of 
, ob. 29 Sept. 1723, cet. 89. ) Bwlch y Beudy. 

1. Sir Eobert Price of Giler, Bwlch y^ 
Beudy, and Fosley in Parish of Yazor, 
CO. Hereford, Baron of H.M. Court of 
Exchequer. Born 14 Jan. 1653, ob. 
2 Feb. 1732-3, aged 78. An original 
portrait of him is preserved at Rhiw- 


2. Thomas' 

) Citizens 

eldest d. 

Price. ( 

' of 


3. Charles { 

' London. 


Price, y 



Eodd of 



I d 

'' An oil painting at Rhiwlas, the seat of R. J. Lloyd Price, Esq., 
is probably his portrait. An original deed of arbitration by his 
brother Thomas is extant in MS. 





1 * 



1 ^ 


1. Elizabeth, 

2. Jane, ux. 

3. Anne, ux. 

4. Grace, ux. 

5. Barbara, 

ux. Edmund 


Robert Maes- 

William Bur- 

ux. Evan 

Meyrick of 

Kyffin of 

mor of Maes- 

chinshaw of 

Wynne of 



mor, Esq. 

Plas Isa' in 






(See vol. vi ) 

(See " Maenan" 


CO. Denbigh, Esq. 


(From Vaughan's of Hengivrt and Wynnstay MSS) 

DavyddLlwyd Hynaf, natural son =f Catharine, d.andheir of William(orleuan) 

of Ehys ab Davydd ab GrufFydd 
ab Tudyr of Wick war in Meri- 
adog, descended from March- 
weithan (see p. 303 ), and jure 
uxoris of Havod y Maidd. 

ab Robert ab Maredydd ab Tudor ab 
Howel, Lord of Hiraethog, ab Cynwric 
Vychan, descended from Marchwei- 
thian. Head of one of the 15 Noble 
Tribes, Gu., a lion rampant argent, 
armed and langued azure. 

leuan Llwyd ab Davydd of T Jane, d. Ffoulke Salisbury ab Robert Salisbury 
Havod y Maidd. | of Plas Isa' in Llanrwst (vol. iv, p. 332). 

Robert Wyn Bach^EUiw, 5th d. of Cadwalader ab Robert of Ehiwlas in Pen- 
ab leuan of I Uyn, ab Robert ab Rhys ab Maredydd of Plas lolyn in 
Havod y Maidd. | Yspytty, descended from Marchweithian. 

i ' ■ I 

1. Cadwalader Wynne =f Ellen, d. of Gruffydd Wynn of Berth Ddu, Esq., | 
of Havod y Maidd. I 2nd son of John Wynn ab Maredydd of Gwydir. I 

Robert ipThomasin d. of Cadwalader ab Robert Wynne of Voelas. 
ab Cad- 

2. Thomas ; 

of Maenan. 

3. Morgan, 
o. s. p. 

4. Ellis, 

slain by 

M orris 

Gethin of 


d. of 


Owen of 



Lewis. ^Mar- 

6. John. =Luce, d. 

Peake of 



1. Jane, ux. Thomas 2. Sibyl, 

ab Eichard Wyn of s. p. 
Bwlch y Beudy. P. 391. 

s. ]p. 

1. Harry ab 2. Owen. 

of Maenan. 

3. Eobert. 1. Jane. 2. Anne. 3. Dorothy. 

Cadwalader Wynne of 
Havod y Maidd. 

Catharine, ux. Edward Lloyd of Wick war ab 
John Lloyd, the Eecordcr. 




Ehys Wyn of Giler, 2nd son of Cadwalader ab Morris Gethin ^ Margaret, d. of 

of Voelas by his wife Catharine, d. of John Lloyd ab 
William ab Ehys of Plas y Nant in Gallt Melyden, 
descended from Ednyved Vychan. Oh. 26 Feb. 1606-7 at 
Chester, where buried, at St. Mary's Church. See iv, 1 06, 

Ellis ab Wil- 
liam ab Gruff- 
ydd ab Jenkyn. 

Thomas ab Ehys Wyn of Giler. =f Elizabeth, d. of John of Penmachno, co, 

I Caernarvon. 

Eobert Pricey Elizabeth, d. and h. of Owen Lloyd Jane, ux. John Ffoulkes 
of Giler. | of Dulasau, co. Caernarvon. of Ereiviat, Esq. 

Thomas Price of Giler, ^ Margaret, sole d. and h. of Thomas Wynne of Bwlch 
and jure uxoris of I y Bendy, n. 1634, ob. 29 Sept. 1723, cet. 89. 

Bwlch y Beudy. | 


Sir Eobert Priced of Giler, Bwlch y^ . . . eldest d. 

1 1 
2. Thomas= 

:Anne ... 

Beudy, and Foxley, co. Hereford, 

and co-h. of 


d. of... 

Baron of H.M. Court of Exchequer 


3. Charles 

from 1702 to 1726, and celebrated 

Eodd of 


for his successful opposition in the 

Okey, Esq. 

Both citi- 

House of Commons to the Grant 

zens of 

by William III of the Lordships of 


Bromfield and Yale to his favourite. 

and created 

William Bentinck ; n. 14 Jan. 1653- 

Baronets ; 

4, ob. 2 Feb. 1732-3. V 

ante 1723. 

1. Elizabeth, 

ux. Edmund 

Meyrick of 



2. Jane, ux. 
Ei chard 
Kyffin of 


ob. ante 1723. 

3. Anne, ux. 
mor of Maes- 

mor, Esq. 

A widow in 


4. Grace, ux. 

William Bur- 

chinshaw of 

Plas Isa' in 


5. Barbara, 

ux. Evan 

Wynne of 


and Flas- 

Newydd, Esq. 

^ Baron Price erected a monument to the memory of his mother in 
Cerrig y Drudion Church, inscribed as follows : — " Here lyeth the 
Body of Margaret Price, Daughter and Heir of Thomas Wynne of 
Bwlch y Beudy, Esq., and Widow of Thomas Price of Geeler, who 
had Issue by him Three Sons and Five Daughters." [Here follow 
their names, etc., as above.] "P. M. The Deceas'd was the most 
tender and kind wife ; The most indulgent Parent ; The truest and 
sincerest friend ; Hospitable and Charitable ; Exemplary for her 
Piety, and Goodness ; Thankfully rejoiced in God's blessing to her 
and her family. She lived to the happy old age of 89. And to have 
Great Great Grandchildren descended from Her. She liv'd in Love, 
and dy'd in Peace ; And God's Peace be with her miost Pious and 
Righteous Soul. She departed" (etc., as above). " This Monument 
was erected by Mr. Baron Price, as a dutiful Memorial of the best of 
Mothers ; And that her Good Life may remain A lasting Pattern and 
Example for her Posterity." — " Life of Baron Price. London : Printed 
by the Appointment of the Family, 1734." 




{Aherdunant MS.) 
Simon Owen of Garth Angharad and Ty=|=Margaret d. and sole heiress of 

Gwyn, sixth son of the Baron Lewys 
Owen of Cwrt Plas yn Dref, Dolgelly. 
See p. 104. 

Howel ab Gruffydd ab Howel 
of Hafod Dywyll. 

|1 |2 

Lewys O wen=j=Eobert Owen of Garth Angharad, 

of Hafod 

Dywyll and 

Ty Gwyn, 

ancestor of the Owens of that 
place. See vol. iv, p. 287. 

Elizabeth, ux. Thomas 

Vychan, 2nd son of 

Cadw. Wynne of 

Havod y Maidd. P. 392. 

Owen of Hafod Dywyll and Ty Gwyn= 

Eobert Owen of= 
Hafod Dywyll 
and Ty Gwyn. 
Buried at Dol- 
gelly, Feb. 27, 

:Anne, d. by Jane his wife (d. and co-heiress of Gruffydd 
Lloyd of Maes y Neuadd) of Maurice Wynne of Moel y 
Glo, High Sheriff for co. Meirionydd in 1670-1, who 
died in 1673, and was buried in the chancel of Llan- 
danwg Church. He was the second son of William 
Wynne of Glyn Comarch, co. Meirionydd, and Catha- 
rine his wife, eldest child of William Lewys Anwyl of 
Park, in the parish of Llanvrothen in the same county, 
Esq. Ermine on a saltier gules, a crescent or. See 
Burke's Landed Gentry, " Nanney of Maes y Neuadd" 
and " Wynne of Peniarth". 

Maurice Owen=f=Catharine, d. of Gruffydd Wynn of 

of Ty Gwyn. 
Bur. at Dol- 
gelly, Feb. 4, 
1711. Will 
proved 1713. 
Married at 
Dec. 1698. 

Pen y Berth and Ystymllyn, 
son of John Wynn ab Gruffydd 
Wynn ab John ab Gruffydd 
Wynn of Pen y Berth. Buried 
at Dolgelly, Feb. 1758. Sable, a 
chevron inter three fleurs de 
lys argent. See p. 291. 

Eobert Owen=f: 
of Hafod 


Buried at 


April 1716. 

=p Jane. 

The above-named Maurice Owen had issue by his wife, 
Catharine Wynn, four sons and four daughters — 


I. Kobert Owen, of whom presently. 

II. Owen Owen, M.A., Kector of Llaniestyn, oh. 
March 1, 1765, aged 63, s. p. 

III. John Owen. iv. Gruffydd Owen. 

I. Margaret Owen. ii. Anne, ux Lloyd. 

III. Jane, ux. Eev. Edward Nanney, Master of the 
Free School at Pwllheli. 

IV. Elizabeth, ux. Rev. David Richard, Rector of 
Llanychan in Dyffryn Clwyd. 

Robert Owen of Ty Gwyn, bap. at Dolgelly, Dec. 8, 
1701 ; buried at Dolgelly, Nov. 14, 1767. He married 
Elen, daughter of Elis Wynn {i/ Bardd Cwsg), buried 
at Dolgelly, Sept. 27, 1749, by whom he had issue four 
sons and three daughters — 

I. Maurice Owen, of whom presently. 

II. Rev. Edward Owen, of whom presently, iii. Robert 

IV. Owen Owen, M.A,, of Oswestry, Rector of Llan- 
gyniew in 1794, bap. at Dolgelly, July 22, 1749, oh. s. j)- 
at Bodowen, in the parish of Llanaber, April 10, 1826, 
aged 76, and was buried at Dolgelly. (See Givybedydd, 
vol. vi, 1828, p. 26, and vol. ix, 1832.) 

I. Catharine ; in. Elin, who both died unmarried. 

II. Lowri, ob. Jan. 1800, aged 74, buried at Dolgelly, ux. 
John Evans of Berth Lwyd, Bethgelert, oh. April 1794, 
aged 73 ; by whom she had a daughter, Eleanor Evans, 
oh. at Bodowen, in Llanaber parish, Feb. 1848, aged 81, 
buried at Dolgelly. 

Maurice Owen of Ty Gwyn, bap. at Dolgelly, June 
1731, oh. s. p. at Caernarvon, 1801, aged 70, buried at 
Llanbeblig. He married Margaret, daughter and last 
surviving child of John Owen of Bias yn Ngheidie, High 
Sheriff for co. Caernarvon, 1760. She died January 5, 
1820, aged 81 ; buried at Llanbeblig. 

Rev. Edward Owen, Rector of Llanvwrog in Dyffryn 
Clwyd, and of Llangyniew, co. Montgomery, in 1792, 
bap. at Dolgelly, Nov. 1738, ob. circa 1794. He married, 
and had issue (besides two daughters — 1, ... Owen, oh. 
1838, 5. p. ; and 2, Anna Diana, ux. Rev. Thomas 



Roberts of Hendref Abererch, Rector of Llangybi and 
Llanarmon, by whom she had issue a son, Thomas E. 
Roberts of Plas yn Rhiw, living 1884, who married 
Lucy, second daughter of W. Poole of Pencraig) a 
son and heir — 

The Rev. William Wynn Owen, Rector of Llan y 
Mawddwy. He sold Ty Gwyn, in 1833, to Sir Henry 
Bunbury, Bart., who left it to his third son. Colonel 
Bunbury, C.B., who afterwards sold it for £24,000 to 
Mr. Finlay. The Rev. W. W. Owen married Sarah 
Gibbins, and died 11th May 1834, aged 59, 


Ellis ab John ab William of Bodychan, ab Gruffydd ab Heilyn of Bodyclian,= 
ab leuan ab lorwerth ab leuan ab GruflPydd ab Sir Howel y Pedolau 
(see p. 282), wlio was a celebrated person in his time. His mother, Gwen- 
ilian, nursed Edward of Caernarvon, and Sir Howel being thus his 
foster-brother, was greatly esteemed by that unfortunate monarch, and 
knighted by him. He is reported to have possessed such strength that 
he could straighten horse-shoes ; hence his surname " Y Pedolau'". He 
was lineally descended from Hwva ab Cynddelw, Lord of Llys Llivon, who 
lived at Prysaddved, in Anglesey, in the time of Owain Gwynedd, Prince 
of North Wales, whose steward he was. He was Chief of one of the 
Noble Tribes of Gwynedd, and enjoyed the hereditary office of bearing 
his sovereign's crown, and putting it on the monarch's head, after the 
ceremony of anointing had been performed by the Bishop of Bangor. 
Gules, a chevron inter three lions rampant or. 

Richard Ellis of Bodychan.=|=Jane, d. of ... Glynne of Plas Newydd in Llan- 
I dwrog. 

David Ellis of Bodychan.^Mary, d. and co-heir of John Wynn of Gwyn- 
I vryn, p. 291. 



Eichard Ellis of Body chan and Gwyn-=f Jane, d. of Thomas Ellis of Porthdin- 
vryn. | Ueyn. 

The Eev. David Ellis of Bodychan and= 
Gwynvryn, Eector of Llanengan. 

The Rev. Richard Ellis of Bodychan^ 
and Gwynvryn, Vicar of Clynog 
in 1765, and of Llanaelhaiarn to 

^Catharine (second wife), d. of Zacheus 
I Hughes of Try van. 

^Catharine, d. of the Rev. Eichard Nan- 
ney of Cevn Deuddwr, Vicar of Cly- 
nog in 1723, and Rector of Llanael- 
haiarn in 1765, and sister and heiress 
of Richard Nanney of Cevn Deuddwr ; 
oi. s. p. 1812. 

David Ellis Nanney of Body- 
chan, Gwynfryn, and Cevn 
Deuddwr, Attorney-Gene- 
ral for North Wales ; ob.s.p. 

Richai'd=f:Jane, d. of 
R.Jones of 

Elizabeth Nanney Ellis, ux Rev. 
Hugh Jones of Llangower. 

Elizabeth^;=John Jones 
of Bryn 
Hir, Esq. 
Argent, a 
cross in- 
ter four 

Owen Jones-EUis-Nanney of Cevn Deuddwr= 
and Gwynvryn. Born 1790 j married 1 7th 
November 1843. 

Hugh John, born 16th Febrviary 1845. 

=Mary, d. of Hugh Jones of 
Hengwrt Ucha', co. Meirion- 


Lewys Nanney of Cevn Deuddwr. =T^Gwen, d. of Robert Lloyd of Ehiw 
See p. 58. | Goch. 

Richard Nanney= 
of Cevn Deu- 

■Anne, fifth d. by Margaret his wife, eldest d. and heiress 
of Lewys Owen of Peniarth, Esq. (see p. 105), of Richard 
Owen of Morben, son of John Owen of Machynlleth, 
Esq., descended from Elystan Glodrudd. 



Eobert Nanney of= 
Cevn Deuddwr. 

=Martha, d. of Richard ab Edward of Nanhoran Uchaf. 

The Rev. Richard= 
Nanney of Cevn 
Deuddwr, Vicar 
of Clynog in 
1723, Rector of 
in 1795, and 
Registrar and 
Canon of Ban- 
gor Cathedral ; 

=Elizabeth, d. by Catharine Goodman his wife, heiress of 
Eleirnion, co. Caernarvon, only d. of Gabriel Goodman 
of Beaumaris, by Elizabeth his wife, one of the daugh- 
ters of William Glynne of Eleirnion, Esq. Azure, a 
chevron inter three dolphins naiant, embowed argent, 
for William Wynne of Wern, Esq., ancestor of the 
Wynnes of Peniarth. Ermine, a saltier gules, a 
crescent or, for difference. 

Richard Nanney of Cevn 
Deuddwr, ob. s.p. 1812. 

Catharine Nanney = Rev.Richard Ellis of Gwyn- 
vryn and Bodychan. 


Trevors of Upper Esclus Hall and Cae Glas, in the 
township of Esclusham and parish of Wrexham.^ 

John Trevor of Esclusham ; living in 1634. 

Robert Trevor; living in 1634. = Marie. 

Thomas Trevor ; buried = Anna, d. of Andrew Brereton of Llanfair Isgaer, 
April 6th, 1671, at co. Caernarvon; married about 1634; buried at 

I Wrexham. Wrexham, Jan. 26th, 1680. 


=1, Elizabeth, 

Robert =j 

r2, Eliza- 





sister of 


beth, d. 





Francis Man- 


of Hugh 


July 10, 


Sept. 2], 

ley of Erbis- 



Feb. 23, 




tock ; buried 


dith of 

1630 ; 



at Wrexham, 




Sept. 14, 

Sept, 25, 


bychan ; 

at Wrex- 

1722, at 


in the 




2, Anne, 

estates ; 


June 9, 


buried at ... 

at Wrex- 
March 2, 
1732 or 

at Wrex- 
Feb. 14, 
1733 or 




1 c 

1 d 

^ This information has been kindly supplied by Alfred N. Palmer, 
Esq., of 3, Ar y Bryn Terrace, Wrexham. See p. 276. 




Mary, described 

in 1759 as " of 



Margaret, buried 

at Wrexham, 
May 8, 1771, and 
then described as 
" of Esclusham Alon, Spinster"; and the following children, who 
died young : — Robert (by first wife), buried July 15, 1682 ; James, 
buried at Wrexham, July 27, 1690; Matthew, buried at Wrexham, 
Sept. 8, 1692 ; James, buried at Wrexham, May 17, 1699; Anne, 
buried at Wrexham, Sept. 7, 1712. 

John Trevor, 


Richard Trevor, 




succeeded his 


his father 

his brother 

brother Thomas 

at Wrex- 

Robert in 

John in the 

in the estates. 


the estates ; 

estates ; 

and was the last 

May 24, 

buried July 

buried Jan. 5, 

of the Trevors 


4, 1733. 


to possess them.i 


{See p. 294.) 

Thomas Griffith of Garn, ab Edward Griffith of Garn, ab Thomas, fourth=f 
son of Gruffydd ab leuan of Lleweni Isav. See p. 298. | 

Edward Griffith of Garn and Plas=pFrances, d. and heiress of David 

Newydd, Barrister-at-Law ; mar- 
ried 1621, living 1643, described as 
of Plas Newydd in Harleian MS. 
1971, f. 72; and as of Garn, in the 
Cae Cyriog MS. He may have 
acquired Plas Newydd through his 
marriage. See p. 294. 

Morris, D.D.. Vicar of Abergele and 
Bettws yn Rhos^ son of Morris ab 
Richard ab George ab William ab 
Goronwy ab Llyvp^elyn ab Cynwrig. 
Sahle, three roses argent, leaved 
veri, seeded or. See p. 351, 


I About 1757, Mr. Richard Trevor, whose estate was heavily 
mortgaged, was obliged to dispose of Upper Esclus Hall to Mr. John 
Hughes, son of Mr. John Hughes of Cilnant, in the parish of Llan- 
gollen. He lived at Cae Glas until about 1790, when it passed out 
of his possession. What became of him, and where and when he 
died, I cannot learn. Towards the end of the seventeenth century, 
the Trevors of Upper Esclus became Roman Catholics, and so con- 
tinued. — A. N. Palmer. 



Robert Griffith of Garn and Plas=f=Jane!Pricliard, 
Newydd; married 16th Aprill 642, | etc. Seep. 295. 
and jwre uxoris of Cwybr. 

Ellen, married 1640, 
ob. 1652. 

John Griffith ofT=Mary Myddleton 
Garn, Cwybr, I of Gwaunynog. 
etc. ; ob. 1685. 

A son (query), who probably may=p 
have had Plas Newydd, 

Edward Griffith=f=Margaret 
of Garn ; ob. Williams. 
1700. I 

John Griffith=p Mary 

Edward Griffith of Plas Newydd, Barrister— 

of Garn ; 

born 1695, ob. 

1758. See 

p. 295. 

ob. 1740. 

Elizabeth, d. and= 

heiress of PUs 

Newydd, now 

called Plas Hea- 
ton; married 
June 30, 1713. 

-Robert Wynne of Garth 
Meilio, M.P. ; living July 
2, 1743. (See " Dinmael", 
in vol. vi.) Argent, six 
bees, ppr. 3, 2, 1. 


John Griffith=f= Jane 

of Garn j 
ob. 1791. 


Robert Wynne of=j=Mary, d. and sole heiress of 

Garth Meilio, 

Cwm Mein, and 

Plas Newydd. 

Humphrey Roberts of Bryn 
y Neuadd, co. Carnarvon. 

John Wynne Griffith of Garn ; = Jane 
ob. 1834. See p. 295. Wynne. 

Roi)ert Watkin Wynne of Garth 
Meilio and Plas Newydd. 



(Lewys Bwnn, vol. ii, p. 340.) 

Madog ab GruflFydd ab David ab Tudor ab larddur. Lord of Llechwedd=p 
Uchav and Creuddyn, and Grand Forester of Snowden. Gules, a cheV' 
ron inter three stag's heads caboshed argent. See vol. iv, p. 341. 



Howel Vychan.=f=Catharine, d. and heir of Robin Llvvyd ab GrafFydd ab 
I Goronwy. 

Madoof Vychan.=f=Angharad, d. and heir of Gruffydd ab Bleddyn. 

Gruffydd ab M.adog.=f=Lleuci, d. and heir of Rhys ab Einion Vychan. See 
I " Melai". 

Owen.=^Elizabeth, d. of Tudor ab Teuan ab Gruffydd Llwyd. 
I See vol. iv, p. 103. 

Rhys Wyn. 

John =f^Elen, d. of Piers Coet- leuan. 


mor of Llanllechyd, and 
Alice his wife, d. of Sir 
WilliaraGruffydd of Pen- 
rhyn, Knt. See vol. iv. 

Alice, ux. 

John ab 

Lewys ab 


Anne, ux. 
Robert ab 
ab leuan. 

Elen, ux. 

John ab 



Piers Owen, High= 

Sheriff for co. 
Denbigh in 1584, 
in which year his 
name appears on 
the Grand Inquest 
on Richard Gwyn, 

alias White, of 
Llanidloes, called 
the Proto- Martyr 
of Wales. See vol. 
iii, p. 128, and vol. 
V, p. 59, ante. 

^Catharine, d. of Piers 

Holland of Kinmael, 

son ot John Holland 

of Vaerdrev. See vol. 

iv, p. 344. 

I 2|3 



Grace, ux. 


Alice, ux. 
Hugh ab 


Catharine, ux. David 
Holland of Kinmael, 
Esq., ab Piers Hol- 
land. See vol. iv, 
p. 344. 

Edward =Anne,d. of Edward 

Baron of 


Conwy of Llys 

Bryn Eurin in 

Llandrillo XJwch 

Dulas. Gules, a 

griffon or. 


d. of Ed- 

|3 11 

Hugh=Elen, ux. Rhys 
Owen. ab David ab 

Catharine, ux. Robert 

Grace, ux. Edward Griffith of Caernarvon. 

The arms of this family are — 1, guiles, a chevron inter 
three stag's heads caboshed argent, attired or, for 
larddur ; 2, sable, a chevron inter three spear's heads 
argent, the points imbrued gules, for Caradog Vraichvras ; 
3, gules, three boar's heads erased in pale argent, for 
Y Penwyn of Melai ; 4, Marchudd ; 5, gules, a chevron 
argent, inter three Saxon's heads coiiped ppr, ; 6, 
Marchudd ; 7, Edwin ab Goronwy ; 8, gules, a griffon 
or for Conwy; 9, vert, three eagles displayed in fess or 
for Owain Gwynedd. 

VOL. V. 26 




Piers Holland of Kininael, son of John= 
Holland of Vaerdrev, by his wife Catha- 
rine, d. of Piers Conway, Archdeacon 
of St. Asaph. See vol. iv, p. 344 ; and 
" Holland", in vol. iii. 

■Catharine, d. and heir of Eich- 

ard ab leuan of Kinniael. 

See vol. iv, p. 344. 




1st wife. 


I d. of John 

V Owen of 

Garth y 


Humph- = 
rey Hol- 
land, jure 
uxoris of 
Teirdan ; 
ob. 1612. 

:Annest, d. 
and heir 

of Rhys ab 
David ab 
Howel of 

|2| 3|4 |5 

Piers. John. =j= Lowry 

See I d. of... 
Sir Hugh. p.403. V Mared- 


I 1 I 2 

Catharine, nx. Piers Janet,ux. Piers Hol- 
Owen of Garth y Medd. land of Vaerdrev. 

John Holland of Teir-=T=Dowse, or Dulcibella, d. of Eow- David. Lowry. 
dan ; ob. 1664. I land White of St. Catharine's 
{Cwtta, p. 153) I Abbey, near Beaumaris. 

Humphrey Holland=pJane, d. of Thomas Humphreys of Bodelwyddan, de- 

of Teirdan {Cwtta, 

p. 153) ; married 


scended from Gweirydd ab Rhys Goch of Henllys in 
Mon, one of the Fifteen Noble Tribes. Argent, on a 
bend dexter sable, three leopard's faces of the first. 
{Cwtta, p. 133.) 

Thomas Holland of Teirdan j=f=Jane, d. of John Price of Ehiwlas, Esq. ; ob. 
ob. 1683. ^1 167;J, aged 50. 

John Holland of Teirdan ; o&. 1681-2,=pMargaret, d. of Eobert Davies of 
vita patris. | Gwysanau ; ob. 1717. 

Thomas Holland of Teirdan.=p 

Thomas Holland of Teirdan j=pjane, d. of William Kynaston of Lee and 
ob 174a I Euytonj o6. 1727. 




John Holland of Teirdan; married=j=Mary, d. of ... Ellis of Plas Uchaf, eo. 
1809. I Denbigh. 

Margaret, ^Simon Yoi-ke of Mary, co-heir. She^^John Lloyd Wynne of 
co-heir. Erddig, Esq. had Teirdan. Coed Coch, and jure 

uxoris of Teirdan. 
(Ante, p. 322.) 


John Holland, fifth son of Piers Holland of Kinmael, son of= 
John Holland of Vaerdrev. {Cwtta, p. 57.) 

=Lowry d. of 

"William Holland of Wick war. Coroner^: 
for Denbighshire. He had Tyn y 
PwU, Camre, and other lands ad- 
jacent to Ffynnon Vair (St. Mary's 
Well), in the township of Wickwar 
and parish of St. Asaph. Ob. 1650, 
aged 73. (P. E.'s Diary, p. 103.) 

:Jane, d. of Edward Wynne 
and Jane his wife, d. of 
Piers Puleston of Angle- 
sey. Descended from 
Edwin of Tegeingl. (Hail 

I 2 I 3 I 4 


David Holland, =f=Mary Price, only d. of Ehys 

born 1603, 
married 1624. 

Owen, al. R's ab John 
Owen of Meriadog. 

Ffoulk, living Anne, born 

1613. 1609. 

(P. R.'s Diary, (P. E.'s Diary, 

p. 41.) p. 13.) 

William Holland, born 1630. Eobert Holland, born 1632, ok 1688.=p 

Roger Hol- 

William Hol- 
land, oh. 1719. 

Mary Hol-= 

=John Hum- 

Hoi- I Piers, 


1. Leather- 

Anne Humph- 

=John Parry of Elizabeth. =John Piers 
Plasau Cwm. of Henllan. 


=Hugh Pierce of Meriadog, great-grandfather of Hugh Pierce, 
now of Leamington. 





0^' ^ 




[Lewijs Dwnn, vol. i^ p. 271.) 

Gruffydd ab Goronwy ab Gwrgeneu ab Hoedliw Gocb ab Hoedliw ab=p 
Cadw£^an ab Elystan Glodrudd, Princ e of Fferlis. See vol. ii, p 322. j 

Madog of Plas Madog near Dolver^p-^-rddun, d. of Celynin of Llwydiarth. 
in Ceri. | 

Howel ab Madog.=j=Janet, d. of Cynvelyn ab Dolpbyn ab Ehiwallon ab 
I Madog ab Cadwgan, Lord of Nannau. See p. 59. 

Llywelyn ab Howel.=j= Janet, d. of Eliys ab Howel ab leuav. Lord of Arwystli, 

Gruffydd ab-j-Arddun, d. of Howel ab Madog ab Gruffydd Vychan ab Gruff- 
Llywelyn. I ydd Vele ab Madog ab Idnerth ab Llywelyn ab Cadwgan 
I ab Elystan. 

Madog ab=f=Janet, d. of Cadwgan ab Philip Dorddu of Llynwent in the parish 
Gruffydd. of Llanbistair, ab Howel ab Madog ab Howel ab Gruffydd ab 

Goronwy ab Gwrgeneu ab Hoedliw Goch ab Hoedliw ab 

Cadwgan ab Elystan Glodrudd. 

Philip ab Madog.=p..., d. of Gruffydd Moel ab Adda Mawr of Deuddwr. 

Gruffy dd ab Philip.^ Elen, d. of Llowdden ab John Llwyd. 

Llywelyn =j=Janet, d. and heiress of leuan ab Howel Goch ab Madog ab 
Gruffydd Goch ab Tudor of Penegoes, ab Howel Darowen ab 
Philip ab Uchdryd, Lord of Cy veiliog, son of Edwyn ab Goronwy, 
Prince of Tegeingl. (Harl. MS. 1969.) 

Gruffydd =rGwenllian, d. of Gruffydd Goch Corbet ab Llywelyn ab Einion ab 
Goch. I Thomas Corbet ab Piers Corbet ab Perkin Corbet, Lord of Lee, 
ab Sir Richard Corbet, Knt. 



Howel Goch.=pTangwystl, d. of Jenkyn ab David Ceneu. 

Owen ab= 

=Catharine, d. of Thomas Llywelyn.= 

Pryse of Newtown Hall, {Add. MS. 

ab Rhys ab David Lloyd. 9865.) 
See vol. iv. 

=Gwenllian, d. of Rhys 
ab Lly welyn ab leuan 
ab Howel ab Goronwy. 

John Owen of=j=Mahallt, d. of Eichard ab Hugh ab John of Machynlleth. 


leuan of Dol y Corsllwyn. 
vol. iv. 


Richard =f=Margaret, eldest d. 
Owen of I and heiress of 
Morben; I Lewis Owen of 
06. Feniarth. 


Hugh, father of John Pugh of Cwm Ehaiadr 
Uwch G wrfe, ancestor of the Pughsof Cwm 
Ehaiadr, now represented by Major Wil- 
liams of WaUog, CO. Cardigan. 

Lewis Owen of Peniarth. Seep. 105. 



Hiraethog, or Tir yr Abad, is one of the two comots of 
Cantrev Ystrad, the other being that of Cynmeirch. 

A.D. 1198. — Llywelyn ab lorwerth, Prince of Wales^ granted 
lands in Hiraethog to the monks of Aberconwy. 

A.D. 1450. — Maredydd ab Thomas of Plas lolyn, in the 
township of Trebrys, in Yspytty leuan^ was steward of the 
lands of the monastery of Aberconwy in Hiraethog. 

A.D. 1501. — Maurice Gethin ab Rhys ab Maredydd ab 
Thomas was appointed steward for life of lands in Hiraethog. 

A.D. 1545, March 16th. — Henry VIII granted to the brothers 
Cadwaladr ab Maurice Gethin ab Rhys, and Robei-t Wyn 
Gethin ab Maurice, and their heirs, the lands of Y Voelas, 
Cerniogau, etc., to hold of the manor of Hiraethog, in free 
soccage, by fealty only, and not in capite. 

A.D. 1546, Feb. 8th. — Deed of partition between the two 
brothers, whereby one took Voelas, and the other Cerniogau. 

A.D. 1840.— C. W. G. Wynne of Voelas, Esq., bought Cer- 

The above-named Charles Wynne Griffith Wynne of Voelas 
was the eldest son of the Hon. Charles Finch (second son of 
Heneage, third Earl of Aylesford) and Jane his wife, daughter 
and heiress of Watkin Wynne of Voelas, ab Cadwaladr 
Wynne, eldest son by Sidney his wife, second daughter and 
co-heir of Edward Thelwall of Plas y Ward (see vol. iv), of 
Cadwaladr Wynne of Voelas, ab Robert Wynne ab Cadwaladr 
Wynne, oh. 1622, eldest son by Grace his wife, daughter of Sir 
Roger Salusbury of Lleweni, Knt., of Robert Wynne of Voelas, 
who had a grant of lands from Queen Elizabefch in 1590, eldest 
son of the above-named Cadwaladr ab Maurice Gethin, who 
had a grant of Voelas from Henry VIII in 1545. 



This parish contains three townships — 1, Trev Brys ; 2, 
Tir leuan ; and 3, Eidda, in the comot of Nant Conwy. 

A.D. 1190. — Llywclyn ab lorwerth, Prince of Wales, bestowed 
lands on the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem at Dolg-ynwal. 

A.D. 1291. — In the taxation of England and Wales for this 
year^ the Knights Hospitallers are returned as holding their 
property at Dolgynwal, which was the name of the vale sub- 
sequently designated Yspytty Teuan, 

A.D. 1541. — 32 Henry VIII, this hospital was dissolved, 
and its possessions were seized by the Crown, and leased from 
time to time by individuals. Those portions of them which 
were situate at or near Yspytty are thus described : 

" All that the Rectory of Yspytty Dolgynwal, in the counties 
of Denbigh and Caernarvon, with all tithes, etc., and also the 
Chapel of Peumachno, in the county of Carnarvon, with all the 
tithes, etc., and also that the Lordship and Manor of Yspytty, 
with all its rights, members, and appurtenances, in the afore- 
said counties of Denbigh and Caernarvon, being parcel of the 
late Commeudary, and also the farms and lands now known 
as Tir leuan and Eidda, with the commons, etc." 

A.D. 1560. — In this year these two churches, manors, and 
lands were granted in fee by Queen Elizabeth to Dr. Ellis 
Price of Plas lolyn (see vol. iv), and Thomas Vaughan of Pant 
Glas in Yspytty ; the former taking the manor and lands of 
Tir leuan (St. John's Land), the latter Eidda, with joint pre- 
sentation to the above-mentioned churches. 

The lordship of Tir leuan was sold by Price Jones, Esq., to 
Mr. Hope, who sold it to Colonel Pennant in 1856. 


Thomas Vaughan of Pant Glas in Eidda, descended from Marchweithian,=j= 
received a grant of this manor from Queen Elizabeth in 1560. High I 
Sheriff for co. Denbigh, 1598. See p. 383. j 

1 ^ 

Thomas Vaughan of Pant Glas, High Sheriff, 1628.=,= 

Henry Vaughan of Pant Glas, High Sheriff, 1699. Killed before Hopton=j= 
Castle, temp. Charles I. | 

i \ 

Eichard Vaughan Anne Vaughan,=y=Sir Hugh Williams of Marl, Bart, 

of Pant Glas ; o6. heiress of Pant I See Buvke's Peerage and Baronetage, 

1700. Glas. I "Bulkeley Williams of Baron Hill". 


Sir Griffith Williams of Marl, Bart. ;=pCatharine, only d. and heir of Owen 
oh. 1734. I Anwyl of Penrhyn Deudraeth, Esq. 

Sir Robert Williams, Anne, heiress of Pant Glas, which after her death was 
seventh Baronet; sold to the Mostyn family, from whom it was pnr- 

ob. s. ■p. chased by Col. Pennant. For a further account 

of this unfortunate lady, see p. 110, note. 


Notes from an old paper at Hengwrt {"Arch. Gamhr." vol. i, 

p. 460). 

The eai'liest name in connection with the Abbey is that of 
John Powes {sic), who was, in the time of Edward VI, either 
steward under the Crown, farmer of the abbey lands, or grantee 
of the mouasterv, perhaps all in succession (p. 459, note by 
H. L. J.). See "ante, p. 112. 

"20 June, 22 Eliz. — An Exemplification of the Grant of 
Kymer to John Price, Esq. 

" 29 Sept., 22 Eliz.— A deed of Settlement of Kymer from 
John Price to James Price, his son. 

" The case of R[obert] E[arl] [of Leicester] touching the 
Abbey of Kymer. 

" from John Powes to Sir James Pryse (of Ynys 

y Maengwyn). 

'^3rd May 1859. 2nd Oct. 1600.— A deed Youchr. from 
Richard and James Powes, to others, of Kymer. 

" [No date.] Some advice concerning Yanner, from Th. 
Harres to Sir James Pryse. 

" 20 August, 13 Eliz. (1571). — 'Edwardus Powes, de Manerio 
(query Monasterio ?) de Kymmer', is party to a deed of this 

" 15 Aug. 1656. — A deed of sale of Yanner, from Walter, 
als Sir Walter Lloyd, and Dame Bridgett Lloyd, to H. Y. 
[Howel Yaughan]. 

" The [sic] between Sir Richard Pryse and Sir Walter 
Lloyd touching Yanner. 

"24 Aug. 1656. — An Assignment of a Mortgage on Yanner 
from Robert Owen to H. Y. [Howel Yaughan]. 

"28 May 1657. — A lease of 99 years upon Yanner, from 
H. Y. to Robert Owen, and the bond of performance.* 



John Trevor, Bishop of St. Asaph, was, on the 13th August, 
1399, appointed Chamberlain of Chester, Flint, and North 
Wales, by King Richard II, who had previously appointed him 
Bishop ; but soon after his appointment he pronounced the 
sentence of deposition on his King at Flint Castle, and also 
went as Ambassador to Spain, to justify to that Court the 
proceedings of Bolinbroke. His conduct in this matter 
aroused the indignation of Owain Glyndwvrdwy, who avenged 
himself upon the Bishop by marching to St. Asaph and burn- 
ing down the Cathedral, the Palace, and the Canons' houses. 
Trevor subsequently transferred his allegiance from King 
Henry (who had confirmed his appointment as Chamberlain) 
to Owain Glyndyvrdwy, and remained his faithful supporter 
until his death, in 1410, in Paris. Robert Lancaster, Abbot 
of the Monastery of Yalle Crucis, was appointed his successor, 
and the grant of the temporalities of the Bishopric to him, 
" collation to benefices excepted in aid of the repairs of the 
Cathedral", will be found in the extracted items. 

"Grant, Oct. 16, 1409, to Robert Lancaster, Abbot of the 
Monastery of Yalle Crucis, and Bishop-elect of St. Asaph, of 
the custody of the temporalities of the Bishopric (collation to 
benefices excepted), in aid of the repair of the Cathedral of St. 
Asaph, wholly burnt and destroyed by the Welsh rebels."^ 


Catharine, the wife of Jenkyn ab Maurice ab Jenkyn Goch 
of Clochvaen, was the daughter of Morgan of Corrws in 
Gwinionydd Is Cerddin in Cardiganshire, son of Rhys of 
Corrws, ab Howel of Corrws, second son of Rhys ab David 
ab Howel Yychan of Cilvachwen. (See vol. ii.) 

^ Historic Notes of Flint, p. 95. By Henry Taylor, Deputy-Constable 
of Flint Castle. London : 1883. 



(Vol. iv, p. 385.) 


For " Rhandir'', read " Ehanhir^', iv, p. 385. 

p. 386.— i^or " Henry, baptized at Bangor Is y Coed, 1768", 
read " 1678, ohiit infans." 

P. 387. — Phcebe Lloyd, heiress of Havod Unos, who m. 
Howel Lloyd of Wickwar, was buried at St. Asaph, 1760 
(*S'^. Asaph Register). Their son, John Lloyd of Wickwar and 
Havod Unos, died in 1770. He married first, Barbara, 3rd da. 
of Eobert Wynne of Plas Newydd and Garthmeilio, Esq. 
(descended from Trahaearn of Castell Cwch in Emlyn {arg. 
6 bees ppr., o, 2, and 1), by whom he had a son and heir, 
Hedd, b. 1746-7, d. 1748, whose mother died in childbed. And 
secondly he married Susanna, da. of John Whitehall, Esq., 
of Broughton, by whom he had no issue. 

P. 388. — His brother Howel Lloyd, who succeeded him, had, 
besides John Lloyd, a second son, Benjamin Lloyd, who died 
in 1789 without issue by his wife Catharine Conway, da. 
of the Rev. John Potter of Badgeworth, by his wife Catharine, 
eldest da. and heir of the Rev. Benjamin Conway of Bvenech- 
tyd. Warden of Christ^s Hospital, Ruthin, and Vicar of 
Northop, by his wife Elizabeth, da. of John Conway of Sough- 
ton (by his wife Hester, da. of ... . Thomas of Ruthin, who 
d. 7th February 1688-9), and eventual heiress of her brother 
Edward Conway. She died 8th July 1775. The Rev. John 
Potter, who was Rector of Badgeworth, co. Somerset, and 
d. in 1771, had by his wife Catharine (besides a da. Elizabeth, 
ux. Holland Griffith of Carreglwyd in Anglesey, Esq.) a son, 
the Rev. John Conway Potter, b. 1756, of Emmanuel College, 
Cambridge, who was his mother's heir, and assumed the name 
of Conway in lieu of Potter. He m. Mary Elizabeth, da. of 
Howel Lloyd of Wickwar and Havod Unos, by whom he had 
an only son, the Rev. Benjamin Conway Conway, who lived at 
Soughton Isaf, and died unmarried on 17th July 1855 ) also a 
da., Susannah Benedicta, ux. Robert Howard, a colonel in 
the army, brother of the Rev. Richard Howard, D.D., Rector 
of Llanrhaiadr in Ceinmarch, by whom she had no issue. The 
family is now represented in the female line only by Richard 
Howard, Esq., of Wickwar, who inherited that estate from 
his mother, Dorothy Catharine, da. of the Rev. Thomas Clough, 


Rector of Denbigh, to whom it was bequeathed by her aunts, 
Phoebe and Susanna, of Soughton Hall, who possessed it after 
the sale of Havod Unos by their nephew, the Rev. Thomas 
Hugh Clough, in 1831. 

P. 388, 1. 14, 1. lb.— For " Rhandir", read " Rhanhir." For 
" Cymddel", read " Erw Cymddel". 

P. 297, 391.— "A'i dda osawg urddasol, 

A'i dir i'w ferched i'w ol.'^ 

It has been suggested thai" osawg" is a corrupt form of oesaivg, 
ancient, although the word gosawg (Engl, goshawk) is some- 
times found in W. poetry. If so, the lines must be translated 
'' And his ancient princely property, and his land, to his 
daughters after him", which, it must be admitted, best suits 
the grammar as well as the sense. 

P. 392, ]. 6 from foot of page.— i^or ''1771" read "1701." 

P. 393, note 3.— DyflPryn Erechthlyn. The word "Ethlyn", 
as the proper name of a place, occurs in a poem of the 12th 
century by Cynddelw. But as the letters " c" and '' t" in 
medieval MSS. are often spelt alike, it is very possible that 
Etlilyn may have been confounded with " Eclilyn" by tran- 
scribers. Now, ech is used by bards of the 6th century to mean 
a horse, a word of common origin, perhaps, with the Latin equvs. 
And the modern definite article "y" and "yr" were then, as 
now, in some W. dialects spelt " e" and " er". Hence Erechth- 
lyn may be resolved into its primitive component parts, " er 
Echlyn," the horse-water, horse-pool, or horse-pond. But, on 
the hypothesis that the true orthography is Ethlyn, the name 
is still not without meaning, derived from the natural con- 
figuration of the ground ; for the valley in which it lies 
extends in a northerly direction from a hill, under which is a 
small lake, near the road about midway between Llangerniew 
and Llanrwst, and as eth may be equated with the Latin pre- 
position ex, meaning out of, or from, JDyffryn er Ethlyn may 
signify the Vale extending from the Lake, (lit. out from the 
Lake) expressive of that fact. A similar explanation may be 
given of Eriviat, perhaps O. W. for Y Bhiviad, meaning " The 
Numbering", commemorative of a census, whether of popula- 
tion, or of cattle or sheep, at that spot. Compare Bachegraig 
for Bach y Graig, meaning Nook in the Rock. 



Granted, to Mary, wife of John Trevor of Llijs Trevor, in 
Nanlieudwy , and daugliter of John Eyion of Leeswood, 
Esq., to eat flesh meat} 

Prirao die Mail Dom. Reg. Caroli nunc Angliae, etc. viii ; 
An. Dni. 1632. 

To all people to wliom this present writing shall come. I, 
William Edwards^ Clerk, Vicar of Mould in the Dioces of 
Saint Asaph, according to everie one qualitie worth and 
dignitie yeld due and all manner reverence. 

Whereas one Madame Mary Trevor of Leeswood, in the 
saide parish of Moulde, wief to Mr. John Trevor, is now 
visited with sickness, and therefore desires to eate fleshe for 

the better recoverie of her healthe, I doe the considered 

by these presents license her, the sayd Mary Trevor, to eat 
fleshe meete for and during the continuance of her disease, 
according to the King^s Majesty^s lawes in such cases provided. 
In witness whereof I putt hereunto my hande even the daye 
and yeare firstt above written. 

(Signed) William Edwards, Clk. 

Regis'r primo Maii Anno p.d. 
Copia concordat. . . .original. 

(Signed) D. Jones, Ch. Cura ibii 

Thomas Evans, scriptum et ibii. 


" 1630. — John Trevor of Argoed, beinge a lieutenante, buried 
the same 6 daye of January. ^'^ 

* Copied from Register in Mold Church, by W. Trevor Parkins, 
Esq., 28th April 1883. 

2 See " Plas Teg", p. 260, note. 





David the First, King T Maude, d. ofWaldeoflF, Earl of Northumberland, and 
of Scotland. | Judith his wife, niece of Wiliiam the Conqueror. 

Henry, Prince of Scotland, =f= Adeline de Warren, d. of William, Earl of War- 
oh. vita patris. | ren and Surrey. 

Malcolm, King of William the Lion,: 
Scotland ; ob. King of Scotland ; 
A.D. 1165, s.p. ob. A.D. 1214. 

David, Earl=j=Maud, d. of Hugh 

of Hunting- 

Alexander II, King of Scotland. 

Cyfeiliog, Count 
Palatine of Chester. 

I 1st co-heir. | 2nd co-heir. | 3rd co-heir. | 4th co-heir. 

Margaret-=j= Adam, Lord Isabel. = Robert Maude, Henri— -Ada. =Sir Ralph 
of Bruce. a Nun. de de Brere- 

Galloway. Hastings. ton, Kt. 

S ee vol. iii, 
p. 92. 

Devorgilla. = John de Baliol. 

Margery. =f= John, the Black Comyn, Lord of 
I Badenoch. 

John, the Red Comyn, killed in the Church of the Friars Minor, a.d. 1336, by 
Robert Bruce. See "Gordon-Cumming", Burke's Baronetage. 


Peter Ellis, Attorney-at-Law, of Wrexham, son of Ellis ap Richard; buried 
I at Wrexham, December 13th, 1637. See vol. iii, p. 409. 

RolDert Ellis, the, served under Gustavus Adolphus, and was a Colonel 
I in the Royal Army during the Great Rebellion] bought Croes Ne- 
I wydd. 

Peter Ellis of Croes Newydd; buried at Marchwiel, = Sarah; bm-ied at Wrex- 
I May 26th, 1719. ham, July 5th, 1709. 

Mary Vaughan (of=f=Robert Ellis of Croes Barbara, born July 12th, 1693, 


Vron Haulog ?) ; 
buried at Wrex- 
ham, March 4th, 

a] rr 

Newydd, the second; [June 25th, 1725, Edward 

born July 14th, 1690; Hughes and a Barbara Ellis 

married Mary Vaugh- were married at Wrexham]. 
an, Oct. 30th, 1710. 







a\ h\ 




/I 9 

Maria Mar- Martha 

; Harry 

; Robert Ellis of 


Watkin ; 

garetta ; born 


Wrexham, the 



born June July 



; born 

An jr. 8th, 


23rd, 1714. 13th, 


January 17th, 









at March wiel. 


October 27th, 




Anne ; bapt. 

Honour ; 

Dorothy ; 



Penelope ; 






born Octo- 

17th, 1728; 





ber 9th, 

buried Octo- 



ber 4th, 



ber 28th, 








; bui 

4th, 1724. 

Sarah ; baptised June 

Penelope; b 

ied January 

18th, 1757. 



Note. — It is uncertain whether the Mrs. Catharine Ellis, wife of 
Robert Ellis, Esq., who was buried at Wrexham, February 24th, 
1747, was the second wife of Mr. Robert Ellis the second, or the first 
wife of Mr. Robert Ellis the thiixl. All the later members of this 
family spelt their name thus — " Ellice". In the Parish Register of 
Wrexham, under date Dec. 30, 1699, the marriage of Mr. Fulk 
Vaughan of Bron Haulog, and Mrs. Joyce Ellis of Croes Newydd, is 
recorded. — Alfred Neobard Palmer. 


{Page 365.) 

There is a remarkable document in the Record Office entitled 
" A Calendar and Inventory of Particulars for Grants", which 
shows that this gentleman's avidity for the possession of 
Church lands was by no means confined to those of Maenan 
only. It contains upwards of thirty applications, in the first 
year of Elizabeth, for grants of Church property, not in Wales 
only, but in different parts of England also, and the " parti- 
culars'^ are those given by the Queen's Commissioners, or 
auditors, as they are called, of the value of each estate respec- 
tively, with the view, apparently, to framing an estimate of 
the sums to be demanded for the grants of leases for terms of 
years, or in perpetuity. That Ellis Wynne should have 
intended to retain all these grants in his own hands seems 
improbable, nay, there are two certain instances to the con- 
trary, of their being sold by him, doubtless at a profit, to 


others. One of these was that of the property of the Fran- 
ciscan friars of Llanvaes, purchased from him by Mr. Rowland 
White of Beaumaris, from whom it passed to the Bulkeleys ; 
the other that of Maenan Abbey itself, which is found a few 
years later in possession of Sir Richard Clough of Plas Clough 
and Bachegraig. The document is too long to be copied here 
in extenso, or further than sufficiently to specify the locality, 
and the nature of the spoliation of the Church in each 

The applications of Ellis Wynne commence in the first year 
of Elizabeth, and end in the fifth, the year in which he received 
the grant of Maenan Abbey from the Crown, according to 
Dugdale. Request to purchase : 1. Farm of the Scite of the 
late Monastery of Conwey, Caernarvon. 2. Rents in Maenan, 
late of the Monastery of Conwey. Also Bewmaris (Friars of 
House of). Also farms in Oswestre and in Middleton, Aston, 
Mesbury, Swyney, Creketh, Trevii'clauth (Salop), late of the 
Church of Oswestre (Salop), late of the Monastery of St. Peter 
and St. Paul in Salop. Also of Crocheston (Priory of St. Ives', 
Wilts) 22nd May, 5th Elizabeth. Farms in Garthkennan 
(Denb.), late of the Earl of Kent [not, perhaps, Church pro- 
perty]. Rectory, Knaresdall, Northumberland. Geddinge, 
Notts, Chantry Lauds. Whalley, Derby, late of Priory of 
Derleighe. Stanley Woodthorpe, Derby, late of Monastery of 
Grace Dew {sic). Byfeld, North Hants, Priory of Catesby. 
Hackleton, Northampton, Mon' of St. Andrew. Kingspewne, 
Hereford, Monastery of Wormesley. City of Hereford, late of 
Friars Dominican in Hereford. Russheton, Prestvveston, and 
Mucklewich, Salop, Monastery of Cherbury. Stoke, Hants, 
late of Monastery of Clewer, Berks. 

The valuations made of the several estates are contained in 
fifteen membranes of parchment, and bear the ultimate date of 
29th June 1563. 


{Page 385.) 

William Ravenscroft of Denbigh is perhaps to be identified 
with the third son of George Ravenscroft of Bretton, Esq., of 
that name, who, according to Harl. MS. 1971, was a Bencher 
of Lincoln's Inn; oh. 1662. His wife, ..., d. of ... Clarke {qiL., 
an error for Chambres ?) oh. at Bretton, 1628. Sec "Ravens- 
croft,'' p. 264. 



A remarkable article by M. Ramus appears in the current 
number of the Noiivelle Revue, entitled '^ L'Age de la Terre^'; 
but it is not so much a disquisition on the age of the earth as 
an attempt to estimate the number of years during which the 
glacial epoch lasted, and how long a time will elapse before ice 
disappears from the planet again. This is done by some very 
interesting calculations. The paper begins by pointing out 
that, during the whole period of the primary rocks and the for- 
mation of coal strata, tropical heat prevailed from latitude 85° 
to latitude 80° — to the polar regions, that is. The temperature 
was uniform over the whole earth. During the first half of 
the secondary period, that of Jurassic rocks and chalk, the 
climate remained the same ; the same plants and the same 
animals are found all over the globe. During the second half 
of the period, however, the climate began to cool somewhat, 
and deciduous trees made their appearance, though tropical 
plants were still to be found in England and Denmark. Even 
to the middle of the tertiary period there was equality of 
climate in all latitudes ; but the temperature in Europe fell 
very gradually, and, says M. Ramus, "It is certain that at the 
end of the tertiary period there was no ice on the globe, not 
even at the poles or at the top of the highest mountains." 

With the quaternary period a great change took place. The 
reindeer was to bo found in all parts of Europe, the cold was 
excessive, and the great Swiss glaciers extended to the south 
of France. The glacial epoch was in full swing, and the uni- 
formity of temperature formerly prevailing had been entirely 
destroyed. Then a reflex action begins ; the glaciers, and 
with them the reindeer and the mammoth, retreat as slowly as 
they advanced. At the furthest point of the glacial extension 
the cold became so intense that a sea of ice covered half Russia, 
all Prussia, Hanover, Holland, and part of England. 

What, then, was the cause of this change from uniformity to 
excessive cold over so large a portion of the earth's surface ? 
And how is it that the extent of the cold region, after having 
reached its maximum, gradually retreated ? M. Ramus attri- 
butes the change to the deflection of the earth's axis from the 
perpendicular, and then its gradual return towards its old 
position. In the case of a perpendicular axis the climates will 
be nearly equable all over the globe ; there will be some diSer- 

1 St. James's Gazette, 1885. 


ence in different latitudes, owing to the fact that the sun's rays 
are only vertical at the equator, but it will be comparatively 
small. There would be no nights long enough in any part of 
the planet to leave time for the formation of a large quantity 
of ice. Consequently, all we have to do to account for the 
ages of time when the climate, as geology tells us, was the 
same all over the world, is to imagine the earth with a perpen- 
dicular axis in place of an axis at an angle with the plane of 
the ecliptic as it ia now. 

The angle to-day is 23° 27' 9". But the Chinese astronomer 
Choo-Kung, who measured the angle 1,100 years before Christ, 
made it 23° 54'; and subsequent measurements, made in B.C. 350, 
250, and 50, and in A.D. 461, 629, 880, 1000, 1279, 1437, 1800, 
and 1850, by celebrated astronomers, Greek, Chinese, Arabian, 
and French, give the angle as follows at the respective dates: — 
23° 49', 23° 46', 23° 41', 23° 39', 23° 36', 23° 34', 23° 32', 23° 
31', 23° 30', 23° 27' 87", 23° 27' 33". A succession of figures like 
these conveys little meaning to the unraathematical mind ; but 
the meaning is clear nevertheless. The obliquity of the axis 
has diminished steadily for the last 3,000 years, and the diminu- 
tion amounts in all to 26' 27", showing that its tendency now is 
towards the perpendicular at the rate of 48" (forty-eight seconds) 
every hundred years. This means that the Polar Circle is being 
reduced at the rate of 1,333 metres — oi-, roughly, 1,466 yards — 
every century, or 14^ yards every year ; the temperate zone 
being increased proportionately. It will take the axis 176,946 
years to move at its present rate through the distance which 
now separates it from the perpendicular. 

As long as the axis remained perpendicular, the climate, as 
has been said, was uniformly hot, and in Greenland and Spitz- 
bergen pomegranates grew. One day the axis began to change. 
At first this had a slight effect. For ages the modification 
was trifling ; even at the end of the tertiary period there was 
still no ice, and snow when it fell soon disappeared. But. by 
degrees the zones were traced. Round the pole the change 
was already complete, and the radiation of the earth overcame 
the solar heat, and the night the day, so that masses of ice 
were formed. The quaternary period was entered; man ap- 
peared in our continent ; the angle of obliquity of the axis 
being about 15°, and the polar belt, about 1,000 miles in 
extent, finished at the southern part of Spitzbergen. The 
glacial epoch had begun. What then was the maximum of the 
inclination of the axis when our earth was divided into two 
belts of extreme cold (when glaciers covered the greater part 
of Europe) and torrid heat? Not less, certainly, says M. 

VOL. V. 27 

418 ADDENDA.. 

Ramus, than thirty-five degrees — probably nearer forty degrees. 
Taking, however, thirty-five degrees, and assuming that the 
deviation of the axis proceeded at the same rate as its return is 
going on now, then 262,000 years elapsed between the first 
movement and the day when the axis began to return. This 
check seems to have taken place at the end of the quatei'nary 
period, when the earth had assumed much about the same 
general conditions that we see to-day. It necessarily required 
other thousands of years to effect a change of climate in the 
opposite direction. The alteration is clearly manifested in the 
geological strata by the immigration and emigration of the 
reindeer. There would have elapsed, then, since the axis began 
its backward movement until now — assuming 35° to be the 
maximum of inclination — 86,554 years, which, with the 176,946 
years that have still to be traversed ere the axis once more 
becomes perpendicular, would give 262,500 years as the total 
period between the first movement and the moment of extreme 
inclination. Already the glacial period is considered as at an 
end in Southern Scandinavia, and the Swiss glaciers ai'e 
nothing to what they were. Nevertheless, M. Ramus cal- 
culates that 50,000 years must still elapse before glaciers dis- 

As to the age of man upon the earth, assuming that he did 
not appear until the lower stages of the quaternary period in 
which his bones first are found, it is certain that the climate 
was much warmer in Europe then than it is now. On M. 
Ramus's calculations, man has been 223,108 years on the earth, 
and 349,054 years have passed since the axis of the earth first 
moved out of the perpendicular. The exactitude of the figures 
is very amusing. 

According to the San Francisco Courier, the great glacier of 
Alaska is moving at the rate of a quarter of a mile per annum. 
The fronts present a wall of ice 500 ft. in thickness; its breadth 
varies from three to ten miles, and its length is about 150 miles. 
Almost every quarter of an hour hundreds of tons of ice in 
large blocks fall into the sea, which they agitate in the most 
violent manner. The waves are said to be such that they toss 
about the largest vessels which approach the glacier as if they 
were small boats. The ice is extremely pure and dazzling to 
the eye ; it has tints of the lightest blue as well as of the 
deepest indigo. The top is very rough and broken, forming 
small hills, and even chains of mountains in miniature. This 
immense mass of ice, said to be more than an average of 1,000 
ft. thick, advances daily towards the sea. 




Cefn Caves, near St. Asaph, have for many years been visited 
by hundreds of tourists every season. But Cefn no longer 
owns the monopoly of this species of attraction in the district. 
There is every reason to suppose that Tremeirchion, where two 
new caves have been opened up, will in future be a formidable 
rival to Cefn in this particular. Dr. Hicks, president of the 
Royal Geological Societ}^, has been making explorations of the 
two caves in the rear of Ffynnon Beuno, by which name one 
of the caves will be known. This cave is situate on the estate 
of Mr. P. P. Pennant, and the other, Cae Gwyn, although close 
by, is on property owned by Mr. Edwin Morgan. When Dr. 
Hicks discovered the caves, in August 1883, it might fairly be 
said that the event was accidental, at any rate in its results; for 
although Dr. Hicks supposed there was a great likelihood of 
finding some such caves in this ravine, he did not anticipate 
the results which have rewarded his labour. The owner of the 
land offering no objection to the operations, a grant was made 
by the Royal Society, out of which a body of labourers have been 
employed, under the personal supervision of Dr. Hicks. The 
caves penetrate to a good distance from the mouth, and they 
have not been particularly difficult to work. To the question 
which of the caves — Cefn or Tremeirchion — had claim to the 
greater geological interest, Dr. Hicks's reply was in favour of the 
latter. The first substance encountered was a stalagmite floor 
covered with limestone, and beyond this a large variety of 
bones, including those of the mammoth and rhinoceros, some 
of which were embedded in the underside of the stalagmite. 
A few yards from the entrance was a quantity of charcoal, 
which, from its position. Dr. Hicks said was the remains of a 
fire made by primitive man for the purpose of cooking his 
food. The cave has been open to the extent of a few yards 
for generations, and was utilised as a cattle shed, but most of 
the inhabitants of the district were ignorant of the existence 
of the larger tunnels beyond. The mouth of the cave is 280 
feet above sea level, and 42 feet above the stream running 
along the valley. The Cae Gwyn cave is 20 feet above the 
other, and it is supposed they will eventually be found to com- 
municate. Along with some remains of the reindeer a flint 
implement has been discovered. This implement is described 
by Dr. J. Evans as a scraper, bearing similar evidences of wear 
to those found in La Madelaine, a reindeer cave in France. 

27 ^ 


The matrix in which it was discovered was similar to that 
which encased the mammalian remains. A quantity of sand 
is found in the cavities of the bones. Dr. Hicks also shows a 
piece of granite which had evidently been brought down from 
Scotland by glaciers. The quantity of remains of scientific 
and general interest discovered has been very large, a heavy 
load having been removed each evening to the i-esidence of 
Mr. Luxmoore, St. Asaph, who has had Dr. Hicks as his guest. 
The bones have been cleaned, and coated with a preparation to 
prevent their decaying. They will afterwards be sent to the 
British Museum for the authorities to make a selection, after 
which what remains will be distributed amongst the local 
societies. The classification of the bones will be no light task, 
as, in addition to the large quantity to deal with, they include 
remains of both herbaceous animals and beasts of prey. With 
regard to these latter, Dr. Hicks points out the interesting fact 
that the shoulder and the other hard portions of bones had 
been rejected, whilst shins and other parts offering no more 
serious obstacle to mastication had been devoured. 


Archaeology is having a good time, as the Americans say, in 
Eome just now. One discovery follows upon another with 
bewildering rapidity, and befoi-e our satisfaction at the last 
new "find" has abated, attention is claimed by its successor. 
The German Pi'ofessor Jordan is the particular archaeologist 
who has had the good fortune to make the latest contribution 
to the history of the Roman past — a contribution which, 
although it will not compare in point of romantic irony with 
the recent discovery of the urn of Piso and of the fate of its 
contents, is ^-et one of high interest for the classical antiquary. 
The spot — to give it the stx'ictly modern and prosaic descrip- 
tion proper to it — which Professor Jordan's explorations have 
brought to light is neither more nor less than " the dust-bin of 
the Temple of Vesta'\ While excavating the foundations of 
the Temple, the Professor came upon a rectangular hole 
measuring one metre on each side and two metres in depth, 
and lined on the bottom and sides with large slabs of piperino 
stone some twenty centimetres in thickness. Its bottom was 
perfectly closed, and it could thus have had no communication 
with the sewers. The discoverer believes, and there seems no 

1 From the Daily Telegraph, April 23rd, 1885. 


reason to doubt^ that this place is in fact that receptacle for the 
refuse which was allowed to accumulate during twelve months, 
and then on the 15th of June carried out through the Porta 
Stercoraria and thrown into the Tiber. There is no ground 
for supposing, in spite of the nomenclature of the door of exit, 
that this refuse consisted, in fact, of anything worse than the 
ashes of the sacred fire — that everlasting flame which it was 
the duty of the Yestals to guard by night and by day, and the 
extinction of which was considered as the most fearful of all 
prodigies, portending, indeed, the extinction of the State. 
Nor was it a prodigy without meaning of much significance for 
the offending Vestal herself. What it portended for her was 
a scourging by the Pontifex Maximus — in the dark, and with 
a screen interposed — while upon the same high functionary 
devolved the duty of rekindling the fire by the friction of two 
pieces of wood from a fdix arhor. The custody of the 
sacred fire was, however, not the only, although the most 
solemn and momentous, of the Vestals'* offices. They had, at 
stated intervals, to serve the shrine of their goddess, and to 
purify it ever}^ morning with the lustral water. They took a 
prominent part at all the great public rites, such as the festival 
of the Bona Dea, and the consecration of the temples. They 
were invited to priestly banquets, and were present, we are 
told, at the solemn appeal to the gods made by Cicero during 
the conspiracy of Catiline. Next in dignity, however, to their 
guardianship of the ever-burning flame was their care of that 
mysterious sacred relic — whether Palladium, or the veritable 
Samothracian gods of Dardanus, which ^neas carried off" in 
the flight from Troy — which reposed in the sacred Adytum or 
Holy of Holies, whereto no one but the Virgins and the Ponti- 
fex Maximus might dare to penetrate. 

Nothing is stranger and, as it might at first sight appear, 
more alien to the spirit of the ancient religion than the social 
and political status which was enjoyed by the Vestal Virgins. 
In the prevailingly bright and cheerful cultus which Rome had 
inherited from a yet older world of paganism, there seems 
hardly room for a priestly caste at once so powerful in its attri- 
butes, so ascetic in its practices, and so rigid in the obligation 
of its vows, as was that of this religious community. In the 
status of the Roman Vestal we find not only a prefigurement 
of the religieuse of Western Catholicism, but traces also of 
the mysterious awe and reverence attaching to the Oriental 
saint. She was not only a devote held bound by her vows to 
perpetual chastity, and liable upon breach of them to the awful 
punishment of living burial, but she was also herself a sharer, 


and to no small extent^ in the popular homage rendered to the 
goddess whom she served. Even her earthly sacrifices were 
requited to her by maintenance at the public cost, and by a 
beneficial interest in the lands and moneys bequeathed from 
time to time to her religious community. The honours paid to 
her by the State were extraordinary. She could give evidence 
in a court of justice without taking an oath ; she was preceded 
by a lictor when she went abroad ; consuls and praetors made 
way for her ; and the fasces, emblems of the highest magis- 
tracies, were lowered at her approach. If anyone passed under 
her litter he was put to death. In the amphitheatre the box of 
the Vestals was placed in the podium, close to the Senatorial 
seats and to that of the Emperor itself. In the ruins of the 
Coliseum can still be traced the mouldering and grass-grown 
tier from which the Virgins must have looked down, in strange 
contrast with the eager crowd around them, upon the savage 
scenes below. Wills — even those of the Emperors — were com- 
mitted to their charge, being, in their keeping, regarded as 
inviolable; and solemn treaties were deposited in their hands. 
Strangest privilege of all, and one which more than any other 
shows the mysterious reverence which surrounded their office, 
was their casual and, as it were, mechanical exercise of the 
prerogative of mercy. A criminal condemned to death, who 
chanced to meet a Vestal on his way to the place of execution, 
had a right to demand his release, provided always that the 
encounter was accidental. The origin and significance of this 
singular power have never, we believe, been fully made out ; 
but it has no parallel, that we are aware of, in any right attach- 
ing to holiness of person in any other religion, and we find only 
an incomplete analogy to it in that right of sanctuary acquired 
by criminals who fled for refuge to a Christian altar. 

The public honours paid to the Vestals and the public privi- 
leges accorded to them differ, however, for the most part rather 
in degree than in kind from those enjoyed by other sacred 
persons of paganism. It is their character rather than their 
status, it is what they gave up rather than what they received, 
which renders their position unique. Admission to the order 
of Vestals was attended by every mark of self-devotion which 
accompanies the modern monastic vow. Surrender of worldly 
prospects, acceptance of celibacy, enforced seclusion from the 
world, solemn ceremonies of admission, a period of novitiate to 
be passed through before the full dignity of priestess was 
attained — in every one of these respects we find an anticipation 
of the Christian nun. It is true, of course, and a difference of 
immense importance so far as the action of the individual is 


coucerned, that the devotion of the Vestal to the service of the 
goddess was on her part involuntary. The six Vestals were 
chosen by lot between the ages of six and ten from among 
children of free-born parents. As soon as the election was con- 
cluded, the Pontifex Maximus took the girl by the hand and 
addressed to her a solemn formula of consecration. After this 
was pronounced she was led away to the atrium of Vesta, and 
lived thenceforward within the sacred precincts under the special 
superintendence and control of the Pontifical College. During 
the first ten years the priestess was engaged in learning her 
mysterious duties, and bore the title of '' discipula" ; the next 
ten were passed in performing them, and the next in instructing 
novices. At the expiration of thirty years the obligation of 
her vows expired, and she was at liberty to return to the world. 
Yet, though in this respect, as also in her compulsory addiction 
to her religious life, the case of the Vestal differed from that 
of the modern nun, her vows were in most cases only terminable 
in name. Some few Vestals were known to secularise them- 
selves so far as to marry ; but the act, though lawful, was socially 
discountenanced. A superstition prevailed that the Vestal who 
entered the married state wedded sorrow and remorse, and the 
priestesses of Vesta, for the most part, died as they had lived, 
in the service of the goddess. The religious instincts of the 
community which had requii-ed their consecration to thirty 
years of celibacy were adverse to their resuming secular life; and 
there can be little doubt that among the order themselves 
there grew up precisely the same spirit which animates the 
sisterhood of a modern nunnery. They felt themselves as 
thoroughly pledged to renunciation of the world, as irrevocably 
devoted to the service of an unseen deity, as the most devoted 
wearer of the veil in modern convents. A strange and solemn 
fact of this kind should warn us against the error of supposing 
that the religion of the ancients was the mere poetry which it 
is to us j that the shadowy gods and goddesses of Greece and 
Rome were nothing more to their worshippers than objects of 
picturesque ceremony or subjects of graceful myth. To many, 
indeed, to most among the ancients— to all if we exclude the 
rationalising philosopher and the idealising poet — the deities 
of their religion were as real and awful as those clirce fades 
which hovered about the fugitive ^neas through the smoke of 
burning Troy — beings all-powerful to bless or to ban, and who 
demanded not mere adoration from those of the worshippers 
who wished to prosper, but in many instances true humility and 
genuine self-sacrifice. 



Some workmen digging for foundations at Rome, near to 
Monte Testaccio, beyond the Aventine, have come upon a 
number of old warehouses. One of these is filled with elephants' 
tusks, decayed by their burial of fifteen centuries ; another 
with lentils. A few years ago the remains of the colossal em- 
porium, built by that patrician family of the Lepidi who gave 
to Rome so many great oflficers of state — sedile, queestor, and 
pra3tor, pro-consul, consul, pontifex maximus, and triumvir — 
were discovered in the same neighbourhood, and stores of 
marble blocks of rare kinds were found lying on the site of the 
quays just as they came off the galleys in the second and third 
centuries of our era. The whole of the ground thereabouts, 
stretching away from the city walls to the Tiber, was once 
given up to those vast warehouses, public and private, over 
which the horrearii presided, wherein were stored all the 
world's tribute to the Imperial city, and whence, in times of 
scarcity, three hundred thousand citizens drew free rations of 
grain. Right away, indeed, to Ostia the buildings of those 
mighty workers of Old Rome lie above ground and under it, 
and declare in their fragments the gigantic grandeur of the 
commerce of the ancient city. Crowding up the Tiber came 
the galleys from Greece, Asia Minor, and Africa, a strange and 
stately fleet of many nations, brilliant with their coloured sails, 
their lofty gilded prows, beaked or dolphined, their high-raised 
sterns, like little temples, elegant with pillars and roof, gay 
with bright paints, and adorned with statues of the gods who 
favour commerce, control the winds, and save from shipwreck. 
They lay alongside the quays, strangers from all the quarters 
of the great Roman Empire ; and down through the Porta 
Ostiensis came the princes of commerce, the magnates of 
finance, and took stock, as the captains of the ships discharged 
their cargoes, of the stuffs and wares which lay heaped along 
the wharves. Their bargains made, the public porters took the 
merchandise in charge, and stored away in the vast cellars and 
warehouses the fabrics and spices, metals and minerals, and all 
the thousand products that an immense and luxurious city de- 
manded. Ostia itself, a splendid town in the times of the 
Carthaginian wars, is now a ruin, its once fine harbour partly 
choked with sand. Its ruins are not even on the sea-shore 
now, for the Tiber, rolling its sand and mud down, has, in the 

' From the Daily Telegraph, April I880. 


course of centuries, formed two miles of beach bej'ond the old 
town which once had the blue sea rippling up to its quays, 
and lapping on the broad flights of marble stairway that led 
down from the solid spacious wharves to the water's edge. Of 
course, too, the Porta Ostiensis is gone^ for the wall in which 
it was a gateway is gone too, and between the sea and Eome 
nothing but some colossal fragments remain to attest the com- 
mercial activity of the ancient harbour and the site of one of 
the greatest mercantile emporiums the world has ever seen. 

Those that have just been unearthed are filled, the one with 
tusks, the other with lentils. Ivory was a favourite material 
with the Greeks, as early, at any rate, as the days of Homer, 
who tells us how the harness of the war chariots before Troy 
was bossed with it. Nor did it ever lose its popularity. 
Phidias selected it for his masterpieces, the gold-and-ivory 
" chryselephantine" statues of Athene in the Acropolis of 
Athens, of Zeus at Olympia, of ^sculapius at Epidaurus; and 
many another sculptor after him went to the same beautiful 
substance in preference to the more enduring marble. From 
Greece Rome learned the taste, and in her own masterful 
way demanded such quantities of ivory that the Ptolemies and 
their viceroys beyond Abyssinia, the Phoenicians and the 
Numidians, chased the elephant in national hunts, scouring 
whole provinces of forest and plain in search of the tusk- 
bearing brute. They mustered as if for war, and took the field 
in strength that would have sufficed to make an army. The 
great beasts were slaughtered wholesale, and their tusks, 
carried to the Nile or across the Punic deserts by slaves, 
were shipped from Egypt and Carthage to the market of 
Eome. Luxury revelled in ivory. At first too precious 
except for ornament or very small works of art, it gradu- 
ally, by increasing importations from far-away African soli- 
tudes, became the material of furniture. Chairs, couches, 
beds, and tables were made of it for the wealthy. Musical 
instruments were framed in it, floors were inlaid, and walls 
" wainscoted" with it. And now to-day we have suddenly come 
upon the warehouse of a wholesale dealer in tusks, the Roman 
partner, perhaps, of some Phoenician " house" which traded 
with Numidian, Muaritanian, and Gtetulian chiefs, the coun- 
trymen and contemporaries of Jugurtha, and which had, it may 
be, "branches^' at Utica and Leptes, and its agents in the 
Greater and Lesser Syrtes. What effect, we wonder, had the 
coming of Pyrrhus upon the business ? Did the rumours of 
impending complications with Hiero depress the trade in ivory ? 
How the Punic wars must have depressed quotations, and 


Scipio shaken the tusk market ! When the girdle of blood 
and iron was closing round doomed Carthage, did this old 
dealer in dead elephants^ bones make a "corner" on his ivory; 
and what happened to him that he suddenly vanished from the 
earth, leaving a warehouse full of tusks behind him, and 
nobody to claim inheritance to them ? Had ebur become 
such a drug that it was not worth the claiming, or did some 
catasti'ophe of Pompeian completeness overwhelm this flourish- 
ing firm, and wipe them out of the ivory exchange register 
so utterly that no one belonging to them was left who 
knew anything about the buried treasure ? In the next store- 
house are lentils. Did the ivory- dealer also dabble in the grain 
market, or was he only a business neighbour of the worthy 
corn-chandler ? He, too, must have vanished in a spectral 
harry. For the Romans were mighty eaters of lentils. They 
liked field-beans, and the flour of it made into bannocks was a 
staple article of diet. The gods themselves were gratified with 
off'erings of bean-porridge. Then there were those lupins, 
which we in England grow as garden flowers, but all over 
Southern Europe are a field crop ; and the chick-pea, and 
the "French^' bean — the Eomans did not call it French bean; 
they lived too soon for that — but they ate it just as the French 
do, sometimes stewing the beans themselves, at others cutting 
them young and serving up the pods sliced and buttered as a 
course of "legumes", or, as the Romans called it, a dish of 
phaselus. The lentil, however, was of all the leguminous crops 
the most popular. In Egypt, Greece, and Asia Minor it was, 
and is, very largely grown, and, there being always a market 
for it in Rome, shippers used often to take it on as ballast ; so 
that it is quite possible that we have chanced to-day upon an 
interesting fact of old-world commerce, the packing of tusks 
in lentils — or, at any rate, the ballasting of the Egyptian or 
Phoenician ivory-boat with this grain — and discovered for our- 
selves, after an unconscionable lapse of years, that the third- 
century merchant who dealt in ebur hard by the Aventine Hill 
was a thrifty soul, and did a little business, when the chance 
ofiered, in the seeds in which his elephantine spoils were 

Whether he built his granaries for himself or only rented 
them from the State, there is nothing to tell us ; but it is well 
known that Caius Gracchus, and after him several Consuls and 
Emperors, erected public warehouses on this very site — that 
is, between the Aventine and the Monte Testaccio — and kept 
in them the corn which was distributed to the citizens. In 
time the whole space was given over to the same purpose, and 


merchants hired from the State the use of their substantial 
cellarage for storing away the merchandise brought up the 
Tiber from beyond the sea. The remains of the quays at 
which they were landed are still visible, and in 1868 a great 
number of blocks of the once precious substance we call 
"marble^' was found lying as if still waiting for transport to 
the city which had ceased to exist. Ivory and marble, indeed, 
go together in classic reminiscence. Each began as a curious 
rai'ity, and rapidly and contemporaneously rose into favour as 
the choicest materials for beautifying public buildings and 
private homes. 

In the earliest centuries of our era, it was supposed that 
Egypt alone possessed marble, and Italy, which is itself richer 
in beautiful varieties of this stone than any other country, 
therefore imported it at great expense from the Thebaid. 
Numidia and Phrygia also contributed richly-coloured and 
costly marbles, while Damascus shared with Thebes the repu- 
tation of yielding the alabaster, columns of which adorned the 
banqueting-halls of some of the most sumptuous Romans. So 
there they lay, these blocks, quarried by alien bondsmen 
within sight of the towers of Thebes, by Syrian workmen in 
the hills beyond Damascus, by Moors in the mountains of 
Numidia, all heaped together on the wharves of imperial and 
imperious Rome. Some patrician, doubtless, had ordered them 
for his new bath; or a rich freedman, grown great by corruption 
under some Clodius,liad had them brought from distantEthiopia 
and Anatolia. Yet before they were put in place, or ever the 
ropes had been passed round them to lift them from the quay 
where they were laid straight from the red-sailed galleys,' 'some- 
thing^' happened. What it was we never shall know ; but the 
galleys sailed away again, never to come back ; the busy quays 
were deserted ; the blocks of rare marbles lay where they 
were. Was it Alaric the Goth that drove the ivory-dealer so 
precipitately from his business, or Genseric the Vandal, to 
whom we owe this cellarful of antiquated lentils ? Whatever 
it was, the discovery in question takes fancy back with startling 
vividness to a time so remote that, but for the incomparable 
grandeur of its peoples, its memory even had hardly survived 
to our day. 



" An Antiquary" writes : — "There is little new under the sun. 
In Saturday's papers appeared an account of the final ceremony 
of divorce in France which has just been gone through by 
Mme. Patti and the Marquis de Caux. The parties^ we are 
told, seated themselves in the chairs set apart for the use of 
brides and bridegrooms before the mayor ; only, in place of 
sitting side by side, their chairs were separated by a row of 
four others without occupants. Witnesses attended on both 
sides, and the disunited couple formally assented to their 
divorce, and then went their respective ways. Now these 
French ceremonies of marriage and divorce have an exact 
parallel in the oldest mode of forming and dissolving the mar- 
riage tie amongst the ancient Romans. The religious ceremony 
called confarreatio is thus described by Gibbon : ^ A sacrifice 
of fruits was offered by the pontiffs in the presence of ten 
witnesses : the contracting parties were seated on the same 
sheepskin ; they tasted a salt cake o^ far, or rice, and this con- 
farreation, which denoted the ancient food of Italy, served as 
an emblem of their mystic union of mind or body.' Thus 
were couples married more than five hundred years before 
Christ; and even more striking is the parallel to be found in 
the dissolution of such a marriage. This was eflFected by the 
diffarreatio, in which the parties sat on two separate sheep- 
skins, and tasted, presumably, of two distinct salt cakes, with 
the same formalities. Such parallels are always interesting, 
and this one clearly points to a survival." 


During the past five-and-twenty years Mahommedanism 
has made extraordinary pi^ogress in Africa, moving steadily 
inland and southward. Meanwhile, Christianity is stationary, 
and, in spite of every effort to extend it, the fetish-Christianity 
of Abyssinia remains almost the only evidence of the white 
man^s religion in Africa outside of Egypt proper. The later 
Asiatic monotheism is as completely mastering the earlier as it 
did in the first centuries after the promulgation of the faith of 
Mahommed. It is a sad thing to say, but it is true, that a 
Christianised negro is not always a negro improved ; while the 
Moslemised negro becomes a bold, self-respecting man, ready 

^ From the St. James's Gazette, 1885. ^ Ibid. 


to fight to the death foi' his religion, or, iudeed, for any cause 
which he may take up. Some of these men we are now 
encountering in the heart of Africa : cruel and relentless in the 
moment of victory they are, but utterly careless of death them- 
selves when the fight is for the faith. 

What is it in the faith they have adopted that thus emboldens 
them ? There are tribes of splendid fighting negroes in Africa, 
as our experiences with the Zulus, the Ashantees, and other 
races have taught us; but the negro, even of an inferior type, 
develops, after he becomes a Mahommedau, qualities he had 
never shown before. Something on this head was told about 
ten years ago by Mr. Edward W. Blyden, himself a negro, and 
Principal of the Presbyterian High School, Liberia, West 
Africa. By comparing his evidence with that of others who 
have fought side by side with the Houssas on the West Coast, 
or have witnessed the change wrought among certain tribes in 
the neighbourhood of Zanzibar, we can obtain a fair idea of 
what is really going on. To begin with, it is no light matter that 
already Mahommedanism controls nearly all the most energetic 
tribes, and numbers among its adherents the highest social 
organisation on the continent, Futah, Masin, Bornou, Waday, 
Darfour, Kordofan, Sennaar, Timbuctoo, etc., are all Mahom- 
medan, and the religion is respected all over Africa, even where 
the people have not yet accepted the Koran. To quote Mr. 
Blyden (himself a Nonconformist Christian, remember) : — " No 
one can travel any distance in the interior of West Africa 
without being struck by the different aspects of society in 
different localities, according as the population is pagan or 
Mahommedan. Not only is there a difference in the methods 
of government, but in the general regulations of society, and 
even in the amusements of the people. The love of terpsi- 
chorean performances, so noticeable in pagan communities, 
disappears as the people come under the influence of Mahom- 
medanism. It is not a fact that ' when the sun goes down all 
Africa dances' ; but it might be a fact were it not for the 
influence of Islam." The negroes become fanatics, throw 
aside their fetish-worship, and their moral tone is immediately 
raised. In all this the Koran acts a most important part. It 
unites the most widely separated races in a common sentiment 
and in a general antagonism to paganism. From the time 
they embrace Mahommedanism the success of Islam is their 
one idea. IS or have the Mahommedan missionaries any special 
advantages beyond those of their creed in dealing with the 
negroes. They come neither as conquerors nor as wealthy 
men. They find the negroes free, and they go about among 


them in the purest spirit of propagandist fanaticism. The 
Arab missionaries live in poverty, settle down unobtrusively 
among the people they have to convert : the native missionaries 
are traders as well as preachers. No attempt is made to 
destroy the fabi'ic of native institutions. Mahommedanism, 
without changing its teaching, is adapted to the negro; the 
negro is not forced into the Arabian mould of Mahommedanism. 
But the effect upon the individual is the same ; and when the 
Moslem convert is clothed with a white robe, and a sword is 
given into his hand, he becomes then and thenceforward the 
equal of every other Moslem in the world. To him henceforth 
all Mahommedans are brothers. More than this, equality, 
religion, and education come to the Mahommedan negro at one 
and the same time. His whole being is elevated, his mind 
freed, his blackness, which in contact with European Christians 
means inferiority, exposes him to no disability whatever within 
the pale of Islam. In short, the negro, instead of being treated 
as an inferior, at once rises in his own estimation and in that 
of those around him ; and the Arabs, who bring with them the 
religion, intermarry with the tribes whom they convert. These 
are some of the reasons why our officers have found the Houssas 
some of the best troops they have ever led, with no sense what- 
ever of personal inferiority to the Europeans in camp with 
them, and not at all inferior in personal courage. Thus it is 
that negroes who are free to choose Christianity, or who, like 
Mr. Blyden, have chosen it, think so often that Mahommedanism 
is the religion best suited to raise the standard of life and 
morality among their fetish- worshipping fellow-countrymen. 

Nor should we forget that the same effect is produced in 
India. There Mahommedanism gains ground, with the same 
result of on the whole stiffening the backs of the men who 
adopt it. In short, it seems by no means improbable that at 
the time when the Moslem is about to be driven from Europe 
a new and powerful impetus will be given to his faith else- 
where. It is, or has been, the fashion to decry Islam as a 
decaying faith. In Africa, at any rate, the evidence is all to 
the contrary ; and it is certainly well for us to consider whether, 
as the greatest Mahommedan Power in the world, we ought 
not to take account of facts which, whether we like them or not, 
must greatly affect our future policy in two continents. 



The crescent moon is glimmering over the languid lagoons, its 
two horns mirrored in grey-blue water ; while over the domes 
and towers of the Salute Church crimson glories still vibrate iu 
the evening sky. Gondolas steal silently across the broad path 
of light on the waters, and the purple sails of a fishing boat drift 
slowly towards the open. In the dusk^ singing voices come 
plaintively from swarthy rowers, the measured music of plash- 
ing oars beating out a homely rhythm. 

Glupp ! glupp ! says the oozing tide as it swirls round the 
black, slippery stairway of an old palazzo in a crowded part of 
the city, and is sucked away under the ebony piles. Glupp ! 
glupp ! say the black rats as they splash into the dai'k, slimy 
flood. The cold walls rise up all around the water yard, dank 
and chill like the sides of a well, and the only outlet is through 
that narrow, iron-grated water gate, which is now open to admit 
the black, lantern-eyed gondolas which will presently arrive. 

At the top of a winding flight of stone steps, close under the 
projecting eaves of the roof, is a large room, arranged as if for 
a lecture. The green baized table with its bottle of water is 
divided ofi" from the regiment of chairs which face it by some 
deal benches. While the room is filling let us glance at some 
of the strange crowd of shaggy men who have crept up the 
dark staircase by the aid of those wax tapers which every 
dweller in Venice carries. There is a grey-beard yonder who 
has outlived all the friends of his youth, save his books, and 
who is the last of the house of a proud Doge of the golden 
age of Venice. His wife and children are all dead; but, by the 
spiritual aid that is vouchsafed to him from the other world, he 
can at times grasp his dead wife's hand, and feel the small, 
warm fingers of his little children touch his own. With his 
last surviving friend, years ago, he made a solemn compact 
that, whichever of them should die first, should appear to the 
other, were it permitted to spirits to do so. Not long ago, while 
this forlorn old man was with a shooting party in the country, the 
comrade of his youth suddenly appeared to him when returning 
to his inn in a storm of rain. The apparition made such an 
impression upon him that on reaching the inn he determined 
to return home upon the morrow. That evening a letter came 
announcing the gi'ave illness of his friend, and the next morn- 
ing the news came of his death at the very hour at which his 

' From the Fall Mall Gazette, July 24th, 1885. 


spirit appeared some forty miles away ! But let us ask that 
reserved-looking woman yonder why she trusts the spirits. 
Her Russian husband deserted her, and all her children died 
within a few months, and but for strange communications 
which began in Vienna some years ago, she had ceased to 
believe in God or devil. Now, after long patience and " trying 
the spirits", she regularly receives comfortable messages from 
the other world, messages written by the pencil which lies 
inert in her hand until moved by spiritual agency. There is a 
young man here who receives other tokens from the unseen. 
Although but a blacksmith by trade, the great artists of the 
Renaissance choose him as a means of continuing their labours 
in this upper world, and nightly through his willing hand 
Botticelli and Giotto, Fra Angelico and Benozzo Gozzoli, draw 
wondrous Madonnas and Christs, or angels and St. Johns. 
Titian and Paolo Veronese, not to mention Tintoretto, dash off 
a head or two — but to the uninitiated it seems that all these 
great men have got a new manner " down there" which they 
slavishly follow, and which does not resemble their old style ; 
perhaps it is an improvement which it takes a special training 
to appreciate. A German doctor who has just come in, and 
who devotes himself to nerves, pathology, and the spirits, has 
curious tales to tell. On one occasion the spirit of a defunct 
pork-butcher, which had assumed the character of Louis 
Quatorze, but which was immediately discovered by its bad 
language, blasphemed so violently that our doctor rebuked it 
in no measured terms, and sent it back to the shades, humbled 
and thoughtful. Later on, its conversion to a sense of the 
justice of God was completed, and it confessed that in the flesh 
as the pork-butcher it had murdered its mother — some hundred 
and fifty years ago — and been guillotined in consequence. 
This spirit is now incarnated, and dwells in the body of a 
young gii'l destined for the cloister. 

Russians, Spaniards, and Orientals, are here to-night; but 
the business is about to begin, for the president medium and 
other officials ai^e in their places. Silence reigns. A com- 
munication from a very prominent member of the society in 
another city of Italy has been received, and is to be read to the 
meeting. It deals with Spiritualism as revealed by the spirits 
themselves at various times to the writer, and, although not 
verbally inspired, as we learn in answer to a solemn question 
put by a respectable-looking artisan of the company, yet is a 
resnmS of inspiration. Spiritualism, the speaker informs us, is 
confirmed by the miracles of the Bible story. If it existed in 
those times, why not now? But the modern spirits must be 


ti'ied by the standards of Christianity, and it will be found that 
they stand the test. What then do they teach ? They teach 
that the spirits of men coming' from God must return to God, 
who gave them. Sown in imperfection, they must be reaped 
in perfection ; through much tribulation and many trials they 
must enter into the kingdom of Heaven. Hell does not exist 
in the strict sense of the word ; there is no hell but that which 
a man shall make in his own breast. A place for departed 
spirits there is, where spirits of the dead await re-incarnation, 
by which great means man is allowed, step by step, to work out 
his perfection. In this halting-place the significance of past 
lives is apparent to spirits, and all things are seen in their 
right relations. Life by life the spirit works towards perfection 
— delayed perhaps for a time by sin, but never retrograding. 
It is, when a certain purity has been attained, translated to 
higher worlds, from which it shall at last enter spotless into 
the presence of its Maker, to take its part in the government 
of the universe. God, then, is just : apparent inequalities in 
mundane things are reconciled. All spiints in their turn must 
be ignorant, and the bodies they inhabit be poor and misei^able : 
these are but phases. " Little children, love one another,'' 
then, for you are all destined to shining immortality. It is a 
Christian duty, too, to communicate with the spirits, for they 
can teach us the realities. A good medium is a person whose 
moral and physical condition offers exceptional facilities to the 
spirits for communicatioii. Material signs are because of the 
hardness of men's hearts ; but incarnated spirit may com- 
mune with disembodied spirit, as friend with friend, and when 
we seem to be alone we are never less alone. We shall go to 
them, and they can come to us. In an eloquent peroration the 
speaker wai-ns the audience against coldness, and invites them 
to the sacramental duty of communicating with the unseen. 
After a few questions and a little routine of business, the 
chairs are moved to make room for several heavy tables, at one 
of which the medium takes his seat. He is joined by others, 
who, placing their hands reverentially upon the table, make 
the circuit complete, and await communications in solemn 
silence — for are they not in very contact with the unseen ? 
Old men and women, worn with the troubles of life, hang 
anxiously over the table, and listen with affectionate sympathy 
to its enigmatical replies. Their faith is great ; but indeed 
what have they left to live for should they have been deceived ? 
An old fellow explains, with tears of joy in his eyes, how on a 
previous occasion the table had galloped round the apartment 
with all the chairs in the room miraculously heaped upon it — 

VOL. V. 28 

434 ' ADDENDA. 

SO powerful were the spirits ! But let us not intrude further 
upon the solemn mysteries ; the cold, black tide is already 
turning towards the sea, and the echoing bells are tolling 
out the midnight hour. 


The Carolines, on the chart, look like a mere sprinkling of 
dots upon the broad expanse of the Pacific, but in i-eality they 
stretch across the ocean between New Guinea and the Ladrones 
in an almost uninterrupted chain of green and lovely reefs and 
rocky islets, for some two thousand miles. Most of them are 
low, and very often a lagoon reef will comprise scores of 
little islanded knolls rising from the quiet waters inside. Thus 
Hogolu encloses a blue tranquil basin fifty miles in diameter, 
containing a whole swarm of fair and fertile islets in this 
coral girdle. The climate is delicious and constant, tempered 
with perpetual breezes, and very healthy. The scattered reefs 
and volcanic craters ai-e clothed with rich foliage, where grow 
the cocoanut, pandang, and plantain, the areca palm, the 
bamboo, clove tree, orange, sugar-cane, betel-nut, sweet 
potato, and esculent arum. On the low islets the bread-fruit 
flourishes, and supplies a universal diet. The delicious but 
ill-smelling durian thrives at Ponape, and probably all the 
tropical fruits would equally soon become acclimatised. 
The natives, of the brown Polynesian stock, are in number 
about thirty thousand, and by no means ill-disposed or unpre- 
possessing, Their dress is principally tattoo, but they manifest 
the South Sea Islanders' natural love of flowers, and wear 
them in the pierced cartilage of the nostril, as jauntily as any 
West-end exquisite displays his " button-hole". The harbours 
furnished by the encircling reefs are excellent and numerous, 
and at Ponape — which is as large as the Isle of Wight, with 
mountains rising to nearly three thousand feet — there are 
seven entrances to the spacious and placid lagoon. At 
Metalanian Harbour, in the same vicinity, is one of the unex- 
plained wonders of the world, On the bank of a ci-eek, thickly 
clothed with palms and marvellous vegetation, stands an 
immense wall, built of basaltic prisms, three hundred feet 
long and thirty-five feet high. A gateway made of enormous 
basaltic columns opens through this, and leads to a large court, 
enclosed by lofty walls with an encircling terrace, all constructed 

^ From the Daily Telegraph, August 1885. 

ADDENDA. " 435 

with the huge six-sided prisms of basalt. There are closed 
chambers of the same natural masonry, with walls twenty feet 
thick, and some of the stones composing this Titanic building 
are as much as twenty-five feet by eight feet in girth. The 
nearest spot where such basaltic columns are found in their 
original position is ten miles off, on the high north ridge of 
the islandj so that they must have been conveyed to the creek 
by water, and by a race immeasurably greater in resources and 
ideas than the easy-going savages now inhabiting Ponape. 
What, then, were the people whoj ages ago, in these wild and 
lovely paradises, reared such mighty waterside temples or 
palaces of the basalt hexagons ? The question is as puzzling 
as that of the origin of the colossal images and inscriptions of 
Easter Island, to which, however, M. Terrien de Lacouperie 
has just found a clue. They tend to make us more than ever 
believe that man is of vast antiquity, and had sublime and 
stupendous conceptions of worship and of architecture in days 
when Egypt was not yet created by the mud of Nile, and 
when the Assyrian mounds were not reared, nor had any Aryan 
entered India. 


A most important resolution has been unanimously passed 
at Grenoble, by the French Association for the Advancement 
of Science, to the effect that " there can no longer be any 
doubt of the existence in the tertiary period of an ancestral 
form of man''. The ground for this startling expression of 
opinion is the existence in the lower tertiary deposits of flint 
implements showing traces of having been chipped and sub- 
jected to the action of fire, and arguing, therefore, the existence 
at that remote epoch of some species of animal less intelligent 
than existing man, but much more intelligent than existing 
apes. This animal, to which one of the speakers has given the 
name of anthropithecus, or man-ape, was, he contends, " an 
ancestral form of historic man, whose skeleton has not yet 
been discovered, but who has made himself known to us in the 
clearest manner by his works." And, assuming that the flints 
which have been found are, in the first place, veritably " manu- 
factures", and not forgeries, as so many of the more plausible 
flints unfortunately are, and in the second that they were 
really found in the strata asserted, it is not easy to refute the 
alignment. When Robinson Crusoe saw the footmarks on the 

' From the Daily Telegraph, August 1885. 

28 2 


shore he logically inferred that a foot had passed that way. 
Some big extinct bird of unknown kind has left us an egg ; 
and this is enough for us to feel sure that something laid the 
egg, that it was a bird, and of immense size. Yet when it 
happens that the conclusion we have to draw from analogous 
suggestions is nothing less than the existence of a man-ape, it 
is natural we should hesitate immediately to accept the ''flints" 
which these French students have found, and prefer to re- 
member that hoaxes in this very direction — the antiquarian — 
ai'e by no means uncommon. Indeed, we have no doubt that 
a geological Shapira would, if called upon, produce a tertiary 
skeleton. However this may be, the Grenoble savants have 
"unanimously" agreed that the anthropithecus did exist, and 
that his date was the tertiary period. What strange openings 
for contemplation the subject offers ! What unlimited space 
for conjecture ! What was the manner of life in the days 
when tailed creatures and untailed mixed together in the 
primitive village community? What did they do, talk about, 
think of? When reason first began to dawn upon the monkey, 
what effect had it upon him ? And what were the beginnings, 
in the tertiary period, of science and art ? What wonderful 
philosophers they must have been to their neighbours, those 
who first used a stone to crack a nut, or a stick to beat an 
enemy ! How the news of the invention must have passed 
from mouth to mouth ; and what a pounding of stones and 
thwacking with sticks must have ensued ! It is all very curious 
to think of. 

Once upon a time, in the so-called " tertiary period", there 
lived, then, an animal which has just been named by the wise 
men of Grenoble. This was, of course, a long time ago, for 
man had not as yet evolved himself. He was trying hard, 
though, to do so, and had got a little more than half-way. But 
he was still only an ape-man, or, in Greek, an " anthropithecus". 
An intelligent beast, no doubt, far ahead even of the best of 
modern dogs. He had discovered the use of fire and its pro- 
perty of burning, and he sharpened flints to make his weapons 
more eftective, and hardened them in the flames. As we have 
not yet found his skeleton, or any part of it, no one can say 
what he was like. But that he existed the knowing are led to 
infer, from the fact of his flints, chipped into shape and fire- 
hardened, having been found. Though not, perhaps, actually 
a human being, we must assume that he was very intelligent, 
for a wild animal. He had already come to look upon apes as 
an inferior order of being. Not that he entirely disclaimed 
the family connection. The relationship was still too obvious 


for repudiation. But if, when he took his walks abroad, he 
met a baboon, he expected the baboon to take its hat off to 
hiiDj so to speak, and to address him as " Sir". He conde- 
scended loftily to say, " How d'ye do ?" — would stop, perhaps, 
for a minute, if he was an affable old anthropithecus, to ask 
after Mrs. Baboon and the little B.'s. But, all the same, he 
did not ask his poor relation home to dinner or introduce him 
to his best society. The children of the two families, no doubt^ 
were a good deal together, for children have not so many 
social prejudices as grown-up people, and many is the game 
of pre- Adamite hop-scotch and so forth which the long-tailed, 
half-tailed, and no-tailed youngsters had together. In the 
trees the former would have the advantage, but on the ground 
the latter ; and the odds are that the evolving race generally 
managed to get the best of it all round. The children with 
tails had not learned how to make marbles, how to light bon- 
fires, how to set traps for birds, how to shoot arrows. In all 
this the tailless ones were the superiors of their playmates, 
and had to make their toys for them. But when it came to 
scrambling up a tree-trunk or swinging from a branch by their 
hind-legs, the untailed were nowhere. They could hold on a 
little, but could not swing, and running up a tree was some- 
what of a laborious process. But they gradually got tired of 
playing with things that did not know how to do anything, 
and so society grouped itself into cliques. The two-handed 
children played together, and the four-handed ones sat up in 
the trees and watched them. Sometimes they " fagged" for 
them, and sometimes, we regret to think, the small humans 
used to chaff and tease and bully the small apes. They threw 
stones at them when they went on the road, chased them up 
into the trees, caught them and played at " horses'^ with them 
— the apes, of course, being always the horses and the mannikius 
the drivers. As they grew up, the divergence became more 
marked, and there was but little in common between the adult 
anthropitheci and the adult monkey. The latter had to fetch 
berries and nuts, to carry messages, to do all sorts of odd 
jobs about the place. For Man, steadily evolving, was proving 
what Herbert Spencer was to announce some " periods'^ later 
on, that mental capacities and powers are only gradually 
acquired ; and what Charles Darwin about the same time would 
enunciate, that improvements in organism are, similarly, by 
gradation. He found those about him losing a long head and 
getting a calf to their leg. Their tails were shrinking joint 
by joint, and people were not half so hairy as they used to be 
"when he was a boy". Only the chiKireu went about on all- 


fours, or would scratch their ears with their feet. And some- 
how, simultaneously with these physical changes, primeval 
Man found his tastes and sympathies altering too. It was a 
matter of history with his race that they lived on good terms 
with all sorts of animals. But a breach occurred somehow — 
a personal dispute between individuals which got gradually 
taken up by partisans, until it widened into rupture, and 
culminated in positive hostility. He was growing step by 
step to look down upon everything else about him, and the 
sensation of this approaching isolation tilled him with queer 
misgivings as to his own powers of' existence. If, for instance, 
the aurochs came down in a herd upon his encampment, he, 
with every other anthropithecus in the place, had to run for 
their lives, barricade themselves into caves with stones, or get 
up trees. In the same way all the other animals, individual 
for individual, were stronger and swifter than he was. So he 
set to work, the cunning, ingenious creature that he was, and 
devised arrows and spears as a substitute and recompense for 
lost claws and feeble teeth, and dug pitfalls and traps all about 
his habitations. And little by little he found himself superior 
to his assailants, and, growing bolder, attacked the beasts 
instead of merely defending himself, worsted them, and kept 
them at bay. How he came to think of eating them we shall 
never know, but perhaps the instinct which still survives 
among some savage races of celebrating a victory, whether 
over man or beast, by devouring the victims, set our ancestral 
anthropithecus upon consuming the vanquished as an expres- 
sion of exultation, and as, in a way, a festal public ceremonial 
of triumph. Then was "society'^ first developed. For com- 
mon safety the species had to keep together ; and society 
worked out a rough system of ethics, and gradually formulated 
fashions and etiquette. 

If we could but get a glimpse, even from a fragmentary 
fossil, of those '' primal pioneers of tertiary formation", and 
catch a hint of the scene in that remote epoch ! 

" Speak, thou awful vestige of the Earth's creation, 
Solitary fragraent of remains organic ! 
Tell the wondrous secret of thy past existence ; 
Speak, thou oldest primate." 

Thus we should apostrophise the reverend morsel of bone to dis- 
cover to us that dim, vague, old world when Man, struggling into 
identity and individuality, had as yet his sympathies divided 
between the tailed people of the trees and the biped folk who 
had gradually improved their tails off bit by bit, till they grew 


" out of fashion^' altogether. There must have been an interval 
when the social demarcation was still vague, and differences as 
to species very undefined, when man and ape sat together 
round a common fire, and shared, poor souls ! the troubles and 
pleasures of life. Did they converse, these folk ? Of course 
they did. First of all in monkey language, and then, mono- 
syllable by monosyllable, in something less inarticulate. But, 
as we have pointed out, there came an hour of quarrel, never 
to be made up ; and, setting reconciliation behind them, our 
ancestors in that first great race-feud struck such a blow as 
has never been struck again, and once and for ever set man 
apart from the brute. The one party, holding its head erect, 
drove the others, those that looked on the ground, away from 
their society, never, through all the ages, to be readmitted. 
And the one went on improving on its flints, learning more 
and more about fire, while the other as gradually forgot all it 
had been taught, and step by step fell back in the race. When 
the great separation came there must have been numbers in 
both camps who had erred in making the irrevocable choice — 
many gone off with the apes who had already begun to be 
men ; many also allied themselves with the men who were 
really still apes. But they had selected their lot, and had to 
abide by it. And thus, perhaps, it is that we see in human 
society the old mischievous monkey type, " with forehead 
villanous low", cropping up to the surface ; and thus, too, 
that we find among the apes numbers that have no tails, and 
that are still by their savage human neighbours in Africa mis- 
taken for men. 

At the Anthropological Institute, on the 27th of November 
1884, Dr. Carson exhibited and descanted upon a pre-historic 
skull, as it were putting that ancient relic of mortality into the 
witness-box, and extracting from it more or less definite and 
accurate answers to a number of leading questions. What 
those questions were does not much matter, inasmuch as they 
have been asked and replied to many times since the study of 
ethnology first engaged the attention of the scientific world. 
"Man^', said Professor Daniel Wilson, ''may be assumed to 
be pre-historic whenever his chroniclings of himself are unde- 
signed, and his history is wholly recoverable by induction." 
There's the rub ! The pre-historic skull can only reveal its 
secrets in words which we ourselves put into the cavity where 
its tongue once wagged. If we chance to light upon the 


ossified cranium of a remote ancestor among the stratified 
gravel of post-Pliocene formations^ along with rudely fashioned 
flint hatchets and spear-heads, we are enabled to picture the 
original owner in the society of the Siberian mammoth^ the 
musk ox, the reindeer, and that terrible beast the woolly rhino- 
ceros. Yet it would be difiicult to decide off-hand whether the 
silent witness of the past belonged to the first or the second 
elephantine period, the latter of which may have caught a 
glimpse of the first grey dawn of history. Men did exist, so 
it is contended, when the Thames was a tributary of the Rhine, 
and what is now this tight little island formed part of the great 
continent tending northward to the Arctic Circle. At the time 
when the ground which forms the bed of the German Ocean, 
flung upward by the force of central fires, erected the high- 
lands of England and Scotland into glacial mountains, it is 
believed that man was already located upon this planet, and 
shared in its desolate, fierce joy and its unutterable woe with 
the mastodon and the great cave tiger. 

Comparatively speaking, it is a long while since man became 
histoi'ic ; but those thousands of years are only as a single 
day when set beside that other sum dating back to the incal- 
culably distant hour when a sentient, reasoning human being 
first awoke to the awe and wonder of a world in which he had 
everything to conquer and everything to learn. Paleontolo- 
gists discuss the ages of stone and bronze with at least some 
amount of knowledge drawn from their remains ; but how 
about the ages which preceded them, when the wild man of 
the woods, famishing and with murder in his eyes, set upon 
some weaker animal and killed it for food with his naked fists ? 
The stories which Kent's Hole and Brixham Cave yield, though 
dealing with the remains of fossil carnivora, including the 
primeval savage, are circumstantial, and as capable of verifica- 
tion as a modern newspaper report. Buried, exhumed Pompeii 
does not speak in plainer language than the workshop, the 
kitchen, and the parlour of the British troglodyte, with his 
flint weapons, plates of slate, and pots of sun-baked clay. We 
know that our ancestor, though surrounded with many dangers, 
had oysters and periwinkles, with beef to follow, if not every 
day, at least sometimes, for his dinner. 

What pre-historic man was like, and how he lived before 
tools were invented, will probably never be known. Indeed, 
we are only able to form a conjecture as to his existence in 
certain places, which have since changed their climate and 
every oi^ganic surrounding, by relics which denote civilisation 
as compared with man^s natural state — nomadic, defenceless 


yet predatory, and full of fear and wonder. Somewhere, deep 
in the recesses of a virgin forest, or on the banks of some 
dreadful lake or turbid river, or by the margin of the illimitable 
sea, the first reasoning man, ignorant of all things, said, "This 
is I ? What of me ? '' All knowledge and all speculation 
date from that moment. Yet Dr. Carson's pre-historic skull, 
if it could speak, could tell us nothing of that daybreak of 
philosophy. The skull may have belonged to one who lived 
rudely and savagely in a lake-dwelling or in a cave among 
animals which have ceased to exist, and plants which are no 
longer familiar. The man himself, however, certainly in the 
formation of the bones of his head, no doubt very much 
resembled the man to be met with upon the knife-board of an 
omnibus to-day. We already knew, or, strictly speaking, 
shrewdly surmised, that the " Caledonian amphibian hunted 
the gigantic baltena in an estuary which swept along the base 
of the far inland Ochils, and guided his tiny canoe above an 
ocean bed which had to be upheaved into the sunshine for 
many centuries" before it became the arena of Scotland's 
historic page. That dead Irishmen, wrapped in the skins of 
extinct deer, have been dug up from forty feet under the bog, 
we know ; but that is not enough. Bone in plenty, flint chips, 
copper hatchets, moulded of the solid metal before the first 
blacksmith lit the first fire, or the properties of flame were so 
much as imagined, are not suflicient. 

These pre-historic records, in their way as plain as the pages 
of Herodotus or Macaulay, carry us back no further than to 
the period when man had learned to take care of himself and 
his wife and children, to provide them with food, drink, and 
shelter, and to tame and subdue the animal world. The pre- 
histoi'ic man, whether he hail from Toronto or Torbay, from 
the Dordogne caverns or the shores of Shetland, has always 
the same tale to tell, of a hardy hunter with a rudimentary 
knowledge of art. Both the fancy of the poet and the pencil 
of the artist can re-create him as he must have been. He is 
to be plainly seen, lean and sinewy, shaggy, unkempt, cautiously 
skulking after the big game to trap it unawares, or boldly 
beating the jungle for the more timorous and lesser prey. 
When night fell, he and his wild family squatted far within the 
recesses of their cave, eating ravenously at first of the uncooked 
spoils of the chase. So much we know. Yet there is much 
more to learn. 

Can the pre-historic skull exhibited at the Anthropological 
Institute tell us how the men and women of his time communi- 
cated to each other their ideas before language was formed ? 


Or, has language grown side by side with the growth of ideas, 
and did the more or less articulate vocabulary of the pre- 
historic world suffice for the simple needs of the infancy of 
intellect ? The most remarkable of all the mental differences 
between then and now seems to be that then there was 
nothing to know, whilst now the human mind cannot contain 
more than the merest fragments of accumulated knowledge. 

Attempts have been made to compare the most barbarous 
of contemporary savages with pre-historic man, but the attempt 
is futile. There can be no comparison. The lowest savage 
that exists on the face of the earth possesses some language, 
some semblance of religion, some legends of the past, and some 
mechanical skill; but the remotest of pre-historical men 
certainly knew no past, and was probably destitute of the 
other three gifts. There is his skull, set out upon the lecturing 
table of the Anthropological Institute, as there are hundreds 
of such in American and European museums, but the brain 
which was inside it and the thoughts of that brain are lost and 
fled for ever. 

It has been said that " the Eoman colonies along the banks 
of the Rhine and the Danube looked out on the country 
beyond those rivers as we look up at the stars, and actually see 
with our eyes a world of which we know nothing.^' Yet how 
much more wonderful and mysterious must the outer world 
have seemed to the pre-historic man ! Within that shapely 
skull — not much more resembling the skull of the greater ape 
than that of the keenest modern evolutionist — what strange 
imaginings must have seethed, what large hopes and dim aspir- 
ations struggled in the deep gloom of universal ignorance ! 
For with the birth of reason, invention, and imitation, the 
dull nature of the beast ceased to be paramount for ever. 

Those pre-historic men waged a harder fight than any wild 
thing of the woods invited them to attempt. They fought 
manfully for the visionary good which in those days must have 
seemed dreadfully far off. First, they were obliged to conquer 
from cruel Nature the bare necessaries of existence, and then, 
step by step, little by little, they raised the initial structures 
of religion, of language, and of art. We owe every comfort, 
every luxury of life, to the pre-historic man. No wonder, there- 
fore, that we inquire so curiously of his skull. It is an object 
for reverence, if we feel anything of the Chinese respect for 
meritorious progenitors. 

The race owes almost everything to its first forefathers, rude 
and barbarous as they were, and bears in every branch and 
offshoot the record of their achievements and sufferings. The 


first man, if he existed, was truly and grandly the " Head of 
the Human Family^^ His struggles, his troubles, and his 
triumphs are equally consistent with the scriptural and with 
the scientific theories of the creation ; and though pre-historic 
men were of many races and countries, it is highly probable 
that all may have descended from a single stock. 


The Glasrjow Herald says: — About the middle of last week 
a considerable stir was caused among the inhabitants of Dun- 
fermline by the announcement that a discovery of some 
archffiological importance had just been made in their vicinity. 
It appears that the new proprietor of Pitreavie, Mr. Henry 
Beveridge, had occasion some months ago to break the surface 
of a grass field on his estate, while in search of sand for building 
purposes in connection with extensive alterations then being 
made to the old mansion-house. This sand-pit is situated 
about two miles south of Dunfermline, close to the highway to 
Inverkeithing, and on the left-hand side immediately after 
crossing the bridge over the railway. 

Mr. Evan Cameron, a foreman platelayer on the Queens- 
ferry railway, whose occupation led him frequently in this 
direction, happened, about six weeks ago, to look at the strati- 
fied sand in this section of the abandoned pit. He then noticed 
a small corner of one or two protruding stones, which he at 
once conjectured to be portions of a stone coffin, but, not then 
having time or means for making an inspection, he prudently 
kept his thoughts to himself. 

The habit of looking at such recently exposed sections as 
are presented by sand or gravel pits, railway cuttings, founda- 
tions of buildings, etc., is an acquired instinct with all true 
antiquaries and geologists, and in this category we have no 
hesitation in placing Mr. Evan Cameron, who, from his earliest 
3'ears, has devoted his spare time to the development of his 
antiquarian tastes. It was not, however, till Friday, the 7th of 
August, that Mr. Cameron had an opportunity of returning to 
the scene of his supposed discovery, and on this occasion he 
was accompanied by two sui'facemen, who brought with them 
the necessary implements for making suitable excavations, so 

1 From the Morning Post, August 21st, 1885. 


as to clear up the matter. The result entirely justified Mr. 
Cameron's opinion regarding the protruding stones, as they 
turned out to be a small sepulchre cist composed of four flat 
stones set on edge, with a fifth lying flat on the top as a cover. 
The interior was filled with what Cameron describes as black 
mould, and imbedded in it were an urn and a small flint flake. 
According to measurements, which appear to have been taken 
with care, this chamber measured 3 ft. 6 in. long, 1 ft. 6 in. broad, 
and 1 ft. 4 in. deep. Mr. Cameron and his men then proceeded 
to explore the surrounding ground, and in a short time 
succeeded, chiefly by probing the soil with an iron rod, in 
exploring three other cists, which, both as regards size and 
structure, very much resembled the first, and, moreover, each 
of them contained an urn. In the second, in addition to the 
urn, there was lying in the black mould a worked implement of 
flint. The third was without a cover, and its urn, unlike the 
others^ was without ornamentation. While clearing out its 
contents a small fragment of rusty iron, not unlike the blade of 
a penknife, was picked up, but to this object Mr. Cameron 
attached the probability that it might have dropped into the 
grave from the surface soil. This finished the investigations of 
the railway men, and the relics were distributed among them — 
the two surfacemen getting an urn apiece. 

It was not till the following Tuesday that Mr. Beveridge 
became aware of the antiquarian find on his estate, and then 
he at once took measures to ascertain the exact nature of the 
discovery, with the view of prosecuting the search in a more 
systematic manner. Accordingly he instructed Mr. John Ross, 
solicitor, to inquii'e into the facts — the result of which is that 
through the candour and liberality of the discoverer all the 
relics have been given up and placed at the disposal of the 
proprietor. On Thursday and Friday last Mr. Beveridge had 
a number of men digging in search of more graves, but only 
one small cist, about half the size of the others, was discovered. 
It was constructed on the same plan as the larger ones, but, 
unlike them, it contained only a handful or two of burnt bones, 
without any trace of an urn. It was also minus the covering 

On the afternoon of Friday last, in the company of Provost 
Donald, Mr. George Robertson, F.G.A.Scot., and Mr. Ross, we 
had an opportunity afforded us of meeting Mr. Cameron at the 
scene of his discoveries, and from him we received the above 
facts, which, to a large extent, were verified in situ. 

The spot was on a slight ridge, gently sloping to the south, 
and having a small hollow, in which the railway to Queensfei'ry 


lies, on its north side. The graves extended for about eleven 
yai'ds, nearly in a straight line from east to west, with their 
long axles directed to the south. The small cist with burnt 
bones was a couple of yards behind, and to the north of the 
others. They were all superficially buried, the top stones being 
only about eleven inches below the grassy surface of the field. 
No positive remains of a tumulus, if such formerly existed over 
the graves, can now be detected, but the position is peculiarly 
favourable for such a purpose, and supplies all the conditions 
that are generally supposed to have influenced our prehistoric 
forefathers in the selection of the sites of their burial mounds. 
Had such a mound, however, existed, its disappearance is 
readily accounted for. Not only from its being on an eminence 
was it liable to be lowered by ordinary agricultural operations, 
but it appears that the site of the graves was, some sixty years 
ago, part of a garden attached to two cottages which stood 
close by. Not a vestige of these cottages now remains, but it 
is said that the wife of a farm servant at present living in the 
neighbourhood was actually born in one of them, and she 
recollects that there was a tradition to the effect that the 
garden was an old burying-ground. The origin of this tradi- 
tion, as well as an explanation of the missing gravestones, is 
therefore not far to seek. 

The four urns are hand-made, and of the type usually 
known as " food vessels'^, with everted rims, generally orna- 
mented and slightly bulged bodies. They have a reddish 
colour, but the pottery section shows a black interior with a 
mixture of coarse sand, and three of them are ornamented with 
short lines, some of which are arranged herring-bone fashion. 
The largest stands 6 in. high, with a width of 6| in. at the 
mouth, and about half this diameter at the base. Its body is 
encircled by two ridges, the crests of which are ornamented by 
a single line of elongated impressions. There are no squares, 
circles, or any attempt at figures in the style of ornamentation, 
but a succession of groups of short straight lines appear to 
have been made with a stamp. 

The largest of the worked flints is a horse-shoe-shaped 
scraper, measuring 2| in. by 1|^ in. It is made of a dark flint, 
and is neatly chipped all round except adjoining the bulb of 
percussion. The other is a slender flake-knife, being only 1| in. 
long, and | in. broad. It is made of a yellowish flint, and must 
have been originally extremely sharp, but it has been much 

The recovery of these flint implements and of the urns in 
such a perfect condition — only one having a small bit of the 


side knocked off — speaks of the care with which Mr. Cavneron 
conducted his explorations. We cannot, however, but express 
regret that a skilled antiquary was not present to notice their 
relative and exact positions in the cist. It appears that no 
bones were found in any of the graves which contained an urn, 
although we have no doubt an unburnt body had been deposited 
in each of them. In such circumstances there is often the 
greatest difficulty in detecting any traces of human remains, 
which sometimes consist of only a thin layer of greenish mould 
on the merest fragments of the skull bones. 

There are several interesting features attached to this dis- 
covery. In the first place, it is most satisfactory that the 
objects have fallen into the hands of parties who know that 
their real value entii-ely depends on the use that can be made 
of them in illustrating the early history of our country. For 
this purpose their proper destination and only safe place of 
keeping is the National Museum. It is provoking to find how 
frequently in the past such objects have been irretrievably lost 
or wilfully destroyed through sheer carelessness or ignorance. 
Thus, not to go beyond the neighbouring town of Alloa, it is 
recorded that, in 1828, a discovery of a similar kind was made 
there, in the course of which no less than twenty-two urns and 
a pair of gold armlets were discovered. The latter were sold 
to a pedlar, but, after much trouble, they were ultimately 
recovered as treasure-trove, and presented by the Exchequer to 
the Edinburgh Museum. Of the twenty-two urns only one is 
now known to exist, and that one was sent to the Museum at 
the time of the discovery. 

It is comparatively rare to find articles of use or ornament 
associated with such burials. In this case, however, out of 
five burials no less than two have each a flint implement. 
Though the presence of stone-cutting implements alone does 
not actually prove these burials to be of the Stone Age, yet it 
is undoubtedly a primd facie argument in support of this 
opinion. In the year 1878, while making a short branch rail- 
way in Ross-shire, there were encountered two prehistoric 
cemeteries somewhat similar to the one now under considera- 
tion. The first of these contained ten stone cists and the 
second eight. Along with the remains of a human skeleton 
in a grave of the first group there were found a beautifully 
worked flint knife, fifty jet beads, and a stone bracer, while in 
another there was found a spoon-shaped implement of bronze. 
With the other sixteen interments no objects of either stone or 
metal appear to have been deposited. Another feature worthy 
of notice, especially as occurring in the Kingdom of Fife, 


is the predominance in the Dunfermline cemetery of burial 
by inhumation over that of cremation. Judging from the 
whiteness of the calcined bones, and the condition of the stone 
cist in which they are reported to have been found, it is pro- 
bable that these charred remains were originally enclosed in 
an inverted urn, which was probably removed when the grave 
was previously disturbed — an occurrence which is proved to 
have taken place by the absence of its covering stone. In the 
most frequently recorded form of prehistoric burials in Fife 
there is, however, no stone cist at all, but merely a cinerary urn 
containing the ashes or charred remains of the dead. On this 
point Dr. Joseph Anderson, the accomplished Keeper of the 
National Museum of Antiquities, thus writes : — " Little local 
cemeteries, consisting of groups of urns of this special form, 
inverted over the burnt bones at a slight depth under the 
surface of the ground, and unprotected by either cists or cairns 
of stones, have been more frequently recorded in Fife than in 
any other part of Scotland.^' After describing five finds of 
this description, he goes on to say : — " Here, then, are five 
cases in the county of Fife having the following characteristics 
in common : — 1. They are local cemeteries, each containing a 
small group of burials. 2. The burials are all after cremation 
of the body, and the ashes are enclosed in urns. 3. The urns 
are all, or nearly all, of the same typical form — flower-pot 
shaped below, perpendicular or nearly so above, having a 
collar or constructed part immediately underneath the over- 
hanging rim. 4. The ornamentation of the urns is of the same 
character, groups of straight lines differently disposed, and 
confined to the upper part of the urns. 5. The urns were for 
the most part inverted over the burnt bones. 6. They were 
all set in the earth, at slight depths beneath the surface, 
generally unprotected by stones, and always without enclosing 
cists or great superincumbent cairns. 7. In those five ceme- 
teries, including an aggregate of seventy-five separate burials, 
there was nothing found deposited with the burnt bones and 
their enclosing urn except in one solitary instance. In other 
words, no implement, weapon, or ornament occurred with 
seventy-three urns, while two bronze blades occurred with the 

Such being the characteristics of a large and special number 
of the pre-historic interments of the county of Fife, it is, per- 
haps, still more interesting to find the Dunfermline group 
presenting features so markedly difierent. One other point 
remains to be touched upon — viz., the chronological relation- 
ship between the two kinds of interment, cremation and inhuma- 


tion, here so unequally presented to us. According to the 
distinguished Danish archaeologist, Dr. Woresae, cremation 
was the outcome of higher and more advanced religious prin- 
ciples than characterised the people of the Stone Age, who were 
in the habit of burying their dead in dolmens and other mega- 
lithic tombs, with food vessels, weapons, ornaments, and such 
articles as were supposed to be serviceable in the life beyond 
the grave. This innovation appears to have been introduced 
into Denmark towards the beginning of the Bronze Age, and, 
generally speaking, corresponds with the entire duration of the 
period in that countiy. But both forms of burial were preva- 
lent at least at the commencement of the Bronze Age. If this 
was the case in Scandinavia, is it not reasonable to suppose 
that a similar sequence took place in this country ? If so, we 
would justly infer — an inference that we have already made on 
other grounds — that the Dunfermline cemetery belonged to 
the Stone Age at a time when, though cremation was known 
and practised by a few advanced religionists, the general com- 
munity, being like their modern repi'esentatives, conservative 
in their opinions, still adhered to the earliest form of burial, 
and removed the dead simply out of their sight by merely 
digging a hole in the earth, or, what was still easier, in the 
absence of suitable implements for grave-digging, by enclosing 
the body in a cist and covering it over with a heap of earth or 

A Remarkable Prophecy Fulfilled. 

A correspondent writes to a contemporary : — '^ To the oft- 
repeated question, ' Are there two Eai'ls of Mar ?' an Act of 
Parliament, which has very recently decreed that the true and 
ancient earldom, created, as far as it is known, in the eleventh 
century, is still in existence, gives an affirmative answer. This 
remarkable fact completes the fulfilment of a comprehensive 
prophecy which was pronounced 320 years ago, and as it 
alludes to no less than eight events connected with the earldom 
of Mar, it will be, perhaps, interesting to record the various 
prophecies contained therein, and at the same time to state the 
cause of their being pronounced. 

" It was in consequence of an Earl of Mar having taken the 

1 From the Echo, February 2nd, 1885. 


stones of Cambuskenneth Abbey to build a castle in the town 
of Stirling, which was very distasteful to the inhabitants^ that 
this prophecy appeared, to the following effect, viz., that 
Mar's work, as it was called, would never be completed. It 
still stands unfinished. That ' horses should be stabled in thy 
hall, that a weaver should throw his shuttle in thy chamber of 
state.' In the beginning of this century, upon an alarm of 
the French invasion, a troop of thirty horses was stabled in 
the ruined hall of Alloa (the family place), and a weaver, 
unable to pay his rent, set up his loom in the state chamber. 
That ' the dwelling in which a king was nursed shall be burnt, 
that thy children shall be born blind, yet shall thine ancient 
tower stand, for the brave and true cannot be wholly forsaken.' 
In 1801 Alloa Tower, which had been the abode of James VI 
as an infant, was burnt, and several of the family of Mar have 
been born blind, but possessing beautiful eyes, notably the 
present Lord Mar's great-aunt, Lady Jane Erskine, and Henry 
David Erskine, who died in 1848. That 'an ash sapling shall 
spring from the topmost stone of the ancienttowei^', which was 
seen there between 1815 and 1820, and 'then shall thy sorrows 
be ended, that the sunshine of Royalty shall beam on thee 
once more, thine honours shall be doubled, the kiss of peace 
shall be given to thy countess, the days of peace shall return 
to thee and thine, the line shall be broken, but not until its 
honours are doubled and its doom is ended.' 

" The course of events has completely fulfilled the prophecy, 
for the sunshine of Royalty has for the third time beamed on 
the ancient earldom ; first, when Mary Queen of Scots, in con- 
sequence of the usurpation of it by the Crown, restored it to 
its rightful possessor in 1565 ; secondly, when George IV 
restored it from its attainder in 1824; and thirdly, when 
Queen Victoria restored the rights and privileges of the present 
Earl of Mar in 1855, in consequence of a new and hitherto 
unrecorded title of Mar — assumed to have been created by 
Mary Queen of Scots in 1565, and adjudged by the House of 
Lords in 1875 in favour of the Earl of Kellie, but leaving 
untouched the ancient eai-ldom — having had the effect of 
unjustly depriving the inheritor of the ancient dignity of his 
rights and privileges as a Scotch Peer. It was also in con- 
sequence of no less than 104 peers having respectfully 
petitioned the Queen in favour of the rights of the inheritor 
of the ancient earldom that an Act of Parliament, introduced 
by Her Majesty's command, has been recently passed, after 
a searching inquiry into the pedigree and descent of the 
present Earl, from Gratney, Earl of Mar, and his wife, the 

VOL. V. 29 


sistere of King Eobert tlie Bruce, to the present time — an 
inquiry by which it was estabhshed that this time-honoured 
earldom was still in existence, and had never been extinct. 
This act of intervention of the Queen has thus become _ the 
means of completing the fulfilment of the various warnings 
given in this remarkable prophecy and ' doubling the honours 
of Mar.' " 


{Gontinued from Vol. ii, p. 96.) 

Among the great thoughts expressed in the sonorous lan- 
guage of Samuel Johnson is one to the effect that our life is 
given us, not for itself, but for a nobler end ; and that, 
" When inconsistent with a greater good, 
Reason commands to cast the less away ; 
Thus life, with loss of wealth, is well preserved, 
And virtue cheaply saved with loss of life." 

Were Wisdom to cry this in the market-place she would 
hardly draw to it a more practical attention than it now 
receives from the few who dip into Dr. Johnson's poems. 
Truth to tell, life is, in these times, such an absorbing thing, 
and we are all so bent upon making the most of it, that only 
by getting out of the current and meditating in the quiet of 
some backwater can we bring ourselves to conceive of aught 
more valuable. 

Stories come to us bespeaking a different condition in other 
times and climes. We hear and read of people laying down 
their lives as men ease their shoulders of a heavy burden — 
glad to be rid of them, and nob troubled at all by the philo- 
sophic reasoning which gave Hamlet pause. Mayhap life is 
better worth living now and here than then and there ; but be 
this as it may, it would seem that a state of advanced civilisa- 
tion does not, generally speaking, breed a lofty contempt for 
the fate which, sooner or later, must sever us from its enjoy- 
ments. To give the matter a moment's serious thought is to 
acquire an uneasy conviction that the real balance of things has 
somehow been disturbed. Our present life, it is true, is all we 
have, and none can prove to demonstration that we are the 
heirs of a future and a corresponding good. The whole ques- 
tion, however, belongs to those large concerns with which the 
inner consciousness deals, in sublime disregard of what the 
intellect accepts as proof We know of mysteries not a few 

^ From the Daily Telegraph, September 25th, 1885. 


that elude the grasp of reasou, and to find ourselves treating 
the region of mystery as though it were non-existent, in the 
spirit of the Epicurean maxim, "Let us eat and drink, for 
to-morrow we die,''' is to experience a sense of uneasiness so 
threatening that we do our best to be rid thereof with all 
available speed. It fortunately happens that the course of 
human aSairs from time to time offers a startling illustration 
showing of what humanity is capable at the opposite extreme. 
What it can do in the way of enjoying life as the highest good 
we all more or less endeavour to exemplify in our own persons. 
If we fail to learn the other lesson, the order of events is 
assuredly not to blame, since now and then flashes out from 
the dull mass of humanity some " bright particular star'' 
which shines as from the heavens with a native grandeur 
scarcely to be recognised as of earth. 

Only a few days ago the German brig Maria was on her 
way from the Gulf of Bothnia to an English port with a hero 
on board. His name we do not know, but he is described as 
mate of the ship, and a powerful fellow of twenty- two. As 
the Maria started on her — as it proved to him — eventful 
voyage, nothing dreamed he, we may well believe, of the 
sacrifice soon to be required of him, or of the glory into which 
his young life would be absorbed. The sense of heroism, 
perhaps, had never consciously stirred within him, while to 
others he was no more than the mate of a merchantman is 
expected to be. The Maria had another " hand " on board — 
a mere boy, whose part in the forthcoming drama was simply 
to furnish the opportunity to his officer. Not a great part 
this ; but, as Milton said of the angels, " they also serve who 
only stand and wait." On the day appointed for a sublime 
rebuke to human selfishness the boy went aloft to assist in 
reefing a sail, and in the act of doing so lost his hold and fell 
into the sea. The weather was rough, and the mate, who saw 
the boy's plunge into the waves, stood on deck clad in oilskins 
and wearing his heavy sea-boots. Under these circumstances he 
might, without gz^eatly compromising his courage, have given 
orders to lower a boat and put the ship about. The course he 
took, in the nobleness of his self-sacrifice, in the majesty of the 
spirit which dies to save, was a diflerent one. Quick as 
thought the young man, all accoutred as he was, threw him- 
self over the vessel's side and swam for the drowning boy. 
Then began a struggle between life and death, in which life 
had no chance — in which the prize of death was a truer glory 
than ever gilded a warrior's tomb. Before the quickly-lowered 
boat could reach them, both boy and man sank, and were seen 

29 2 


no more ; so the hero of a moment earned an immortality of 
honour. There may be some who can read this story without 
admiration, and without pride in sharing the humanity of that 
brave and unselfish sailor. Assured of their own superior 
prudence under like circumstances, these may even condemn 
the rashness which incited a plunge into the very arms of 
death. Yet others — shall we say most others ? — recognise in 
the sacrifice of that youth and manly vigour an exercise of 
attributes which make man akin to the gods. " Our humanity 
were a poor thing^', remai^ked Lord Bacon, " but for the 
Divinit}'- that stirs within us.'^ We too often lose sight of the 
Divinity, which has so little to do with our mundane aspira- 
tions, struggles, hopes, and fears. From the scene of that 
tragedy in the Northern Ocean, however, it shines out with 
celestial radiance ; hovering, like the nimbus in a well-known 
picture of maiden martyrdom, above the spot where rests the 
iDody of one who was faithful unto death in the highest 
interests of its kind. Our pity is superfluous here ; yet how 
can we be anything but pitiful when thinking of a noble spirit 
extinguished in its prime, and of some mother or sweetheart 
who was wont to see the face of this sailor lad " as it had been 
the face of an angel'^, but who will behold it no more save in 
the glass of memory ? Truth to tell, however, the mate of the 
German merchantman has obtained advancement beyond the 
wildest dreams of young ambition. He belongs henceforth to 
the noble army of those who have laid down their lives to save 
others — an army each member of which shines in his degree 
with the light that streams from Divinity itself The tried 
aristocracy of humanity is there, and its smallest honour out- 
weighs all that " the glories of our blood and state" can put 
into the scale against it. 

Let no one think that the sailor's life was wasted because he 
failed in the immediate object of his sacrifice. Is it nothing 
that so bright a deed should be read of and talked about by 
sympathetic men and women having in them the elements of 
a like heroism ; or that it should be wondered at by others 
whom contact with life has covered with a crust of selfishness ? 
It reveals to every man, more or less, the possibilities of his 
own nature ; inspires him with a deeper respect for it ; and, 
best of all, proclaims in his hearing the grand truth, spoken 
ages ago, that he who would save his life must be prepared to 
lose it. Few of us will ever find ourselves called upon to part 
with life as was the German sailor. The number of martyrs 
to the highest interests of humanity are limited ; but the 
martyr's spirit may be cultivated everywhere, and serve, even 


in the commonest concerns of life, as a countervailing force 
against that which lifts self to the altitude of an idol. In this 
respect no finer example thaii that of the mate of the Maria 
could be desired. There could not have entered into his mind 
a single thought of shrinking from personal risk. The encum- 
bering oilskins were not thrown off; the heavy boots were not 
removed. Thus the act of plunging overboard was purely an 
exercise of the divine instinct which prompts to sacrifice in 
order to save. How^ it may be asked, will the apostles of 
negation treat this case ? Will they reason away the finer 
elements in it, and bring it down to the level of an incon- 
siderate mistake ? Were the gallant sailor's body to fall into 
a coroner's hands, would they suggest a verdict of " temporary 
insanity" or "felo de se" , arguing that a man has no right to 
play fast-and-loose with the only qualification that removes 
him from nothingness ? Be this as it may^ such a proof of 
what men can do in the way of self-abnegation throws a dis- 
quieting light upon the theory that we have nothing but the 
present for which to live. It needs to be explained away, or 
set down as the consequence of a blind impulse. Happily 
most of those to whom comes the story of the young sailor's 
heroism will feel conscious of no such obligation. They will 
instinctively recognise in his brave deed a revelation of a 
higher life — a bui'sting through a inft in the clouds of a ray of 
celestial sunshine. Thus, in all ages, have simple, pious souls 
regarded actions of like nobility, and the more the mind dwells 
upon the present case the clearer does it appear that no feel- 
ings but admiration and reverence are possible. The brave 
mariner is at rest in the depths of the North Sea, but his 
example lives to help create men like himself. Who can doubt 
that his reward is great ? He had long life here, if it be true, 
as Andrew Fuller says, that " he lives long who lives well" ; 
his memory, nameless though he be in the columns that 
record his death, must endure with every man who sympathises 
with true nobility ; while, as for the years that he might have 
lived, no man loses who gives up a long lease for a freehold of 
greater value. 


Xerxes, having ten hundred thousand men in his land army, 
and as many, by estimation, in his navy, intendeth to make 
an absolute conquest of Greece ; and spoiling all Phocis, leaveth 

^ Sir Henry Spellman's History of Sacrilege. 


a part of his army among the Dorians, commanding them to 
invade Delphi, and to fire the temple of Apollo, and to bring 
away the sacred riches of it. The soldiers, marching towards 
it, came to [the Temple of Athene of the Vestibule,] a place 
not far from Delphi, where a wonderful tempest of rain and 
lightning suddenly came upon them, and rending down part 
of the mountains, overwhelmed many of the army, and so 
amazed the rest, that they fled away immediately in all the 
haste they could, fearing to be consumed by the god who, by 
this prodigious miracle, thus preserved his temple. In memory 
hereof a pillar was erected in the place, with an inscription to 
relate it. 

But this seemed not a sufficient revenge for so horrible a 
design, accompanied with other acted sacrileges. Nothing, 
therefore, prospereth with Xerxes ; [his invincible navy is 
overthrown at Salamis, where the ^acidee and Dionysus were 
believed to fight on the side of the Greeks ; he himself, who 
had set forth with splendour, pomp, and luxury from Persia, 
retreats in disorder, distress, and want to the Hellespont. 
Mardonius, whom he leaves behind as general, being also his 
son-in-law, is defeated with great slaughter and slain at 
Platse ; on the same day, a mighty power of Persians is over- 
thrown, not, as it was believed, without a supernatural omen 
of success to the Greeks before the battle began. Thus Xerxes 
ended his wars with inestimable loss, derision, and shame.] 
Vengeance, notwithstanding, still pursued him ; so that after 
many years, Artabanus, the captain of his guard (aspiring to 
the kingdom, though he obtained it not), murdered both him 
and his eldest son, Darius.-^ 

Imilco, a famous general of the Carthaginians, for their wars 
of Sicily, in the time of Dionysius the tyrant, pi-evailed very 
fortunately in all his enterprises, till that, taking the suburbs 
of Achradina, he spoiled in it the temple of Ceres and Proser- 
pina. This sacrilege (saitli Diodorus) brought a just punish- 
ment upon him : for in the next encounter the Syracusans 
overthrew him. And being arrived in his camp, fears and 
tumults rise amongst his soldiers in the night time, and sudden 
alarms as if the enemy had been upon his trenches. Besides 
this, a grievous plague at last [bi'oke out] in his army, accom- 
panied with many fierce diseases that drave his men into 
frenzies and forgetfulness ; so that running up and down the 
army, they flew upon every man they met with. And no 
physic could help them ; for they were taken so suddenly, and 

^ Diodor., lib. xi, 55. 


with such violence, as they died within five or six days, no man 
daring to come near them for fear of the infection. Hereupon 
ensued all other calamities : their enemies assail them both by 
sea and land ; they invade their forts and their trenches, fire 
their navy, and (to be short) make a general confusion of the 
whole army. An hundred and fifty thousand Carthaginians 
lie dead on the ground. Imilco himself, who lately possessed 
all the cities of Sicily (except Syracuse, which he also accounted 
as good as his own), flieth by night back into Carthage, and 
feareth now the losing of it. This great commander (saith 
Diodorus), that in his haughtiness placed his tent on the 
temple of Jupiter, and perverted the sacred oblations to his 
profane expenses, is thus driven to an ignominious flight, 
choosing rather to live basely and contemned at home, than to 
expiate his wicked sacrilege by a deserved death. But he 
came to such misery, that he went up and down the city in a 
most loathsome habit, from temple to temple, confessing and 
detesting his impiety ; and imploring at length some capital 
punishment for an atonement with the gods, ended his life by 
the extremity of famine.^ 

Cambyses, the son of Cyrus the Great, being at Thebes in 
Egypt, sent an army of fifty thousand men to spoil the Am- 
monians, and to burn the temple and oracle of Jupiter Ammon. 
Himself, with the rest of his forces, marched against the 
^Ethiopians : but, ere ever he had gone the fifth part of his 
journey, his victuals so failed him, that his men were forced to 
eat their horses and cattle. And whilst, like a man without 
reason, he still forced them to go on, and to make shift with 
herbs and roots, coming to a desert of sand, divers of them 
were constrained to tithe themselves, and eat the tenth man ; 
whereby his voyage was overthrown, and he driven to return. 
His other army, that went to spoil and fire the oracle, after 
seven days' travel upon the sands, a strong south wind raised 
the sands so violently upon them, as they were all overwhelmed 
and drowned in them.^ 

Cambyses, after this, in despite of the Egyptians, wounded 
the sacred calf Apis (which they worshipped for their god) with 
his sword upon the thigh; derided the image of the god Vulcan ; 
and entering the temple of the Cabiri, where none might come 
but the priests, burnt the images of their gods. Presently, 
upon wounding Apis, he fell mad, and committed divers hor- 
rible facts j as he mounted upon his horse his sword fell out of 
the scabbard, and wounded him in the same part of the thigh 

^ Diodor. Sicul., Hist., lib. xiv, 63. ^ Herodotus, lib. iv. 


wherein lie had wounded Apis, and thereon he died, having* 
reigned but seven years, and leaving no issue, male or female, 
to succeed him in the great empire of his father Cyrus, wherein, 
for securing of himself and his posterity, he had formerly 
murdered his brother Smerdis.^ 

A rich citizen of Egypt, longing to eat of a goodly peacock 
that was consecrate to Jupiter, hired one of the ministers to 
steal it ; who going about to do it, was at the first interrupted 
by a serpent ; and the second time the peacock (that had 
lived by report an hundred years) flew towards the temple, 
and resting a while in the midway, was after seen no more. 
The practice being discovered by a brabble between the parties 
about the hiring money, the minister was justly punished by 
the magistrate for his treachery ; but the citizen that 
longed to eat of the saci"ed fowl, swallowed the bones of 
another fowl, was choked therewith, and died a very painful 

Dionysius the elder rose by his own prowess from a private 
man to be king of Sicily ; and in performing many brave ex- 
ploits both in Italy and Greece, committed divers sacrileges 
upon the heathen gods, and defended them with jests. Having 
conquered Locris, he spoiled the temple of Proserpina, and 
sailing thence with a prosperous wind, " Lo ! (quoth he) what 
a fortunate passage the gods give to sacrilegious persons." 

Taking the golden mantle from Jupiter Olympius, he said it 
was too heavy for summer and too cold for winter, and gave 
him therefore one of cloth. So from jEsculapius he took his 
beard of gold, saying it was not seemly that the sou should 
have a beard, when his father Apollo himself had none at all. 

With such conceits, he robbed the temples of the golden 
tables, vessels, ornaments, and things of price dedicated to the 
gods. Whereupon ensued a change of his fortunes : for after- 
wards he was ordinarily overcome in all his battles, and grow- 
ing into contempt of his subjects, was murdered by them at 
last.^ His son, named as himself, succeeds in his kingdom, 
and ordained as it were to extirpate the family of his father, 
put his brethren and their children to death. He groweth 
odious also to his subjects, and falling into a civil war with 
them, is thrice overcome by them ; and after various events, 
is at last driven out of his kingdom irrecoverably. He seeth 
the death of his sons, his daughter violently ravished, his wife 
(who was his sister) most villainously abused, and in fine, 

^ Herod. , lib. iv. ^ ^lian., De Animal, 1. xi, c. 33. 

2 Justin., lib. XX, 45, 


murdered with his children. His days he cousumed in exile 
among his enemies; where he lived not only despised, but 
odious to all, consorted with the basest people, and in the vilest 
manner : and so ending his tragedy, gave Plutarch occasion to 
say, '' That neither nature nor art did bring forth anythino- in 
that age so wonderful as his fortune.^^-*^ 

Antiochus, the great King of Syria, being overcome by 
the Eomans, and put to great tribute^ not knowing how to 
pay it, thought that necessity might excuse his sacrilege ; 
and therefore in the night spoils the temple of Belus. But 
the country people rising upon the alarm of it, slew both him 
and his whole army.^ 

Q. Fulvius Flaccus Pontifex spoiled the temple of Jano. 
One of his sons dies in the war of Illyricura ; and the other 
lying desperately sick, himself between grief and fear falletli 
mad, and hangeth himself. 

Divers that had spoiled the temple of Proserpina, at Locris, 
were by Q. Minutius sent fettered to Rome. The Romans 
sent them back again to the Locrians, to be punished at their 
pleasure : and caused the things taken out of the temple to be 
restored, with oblations beside for an atonement,^ 

Agathocles, surprising the Lipareaus, imposeth a ransom of 
sixty talents of silver upon them : they made as much toward 
payment of it as they could, and desired day for the rest, say- 
ing, that they had never upon any necessity meddled with that 
Avhich was consecrated to the gods. Agathocles would none 
of that answer, but enforced them to bring him that money, 
it being dedicated part to ^olus and part to Vulcan. Having 
it, he departed ; but in his return Qllolus raised such a tempest, 
that many thought him sufficiently revenged ; and Vulcan 
after burnt him alive.* 

But that which we shall now deliver is most remarkable, both 
for the excessive sacrilege and punishment. And because the 
relation perhaps shall not be unpleasing, I will presume to be 
a little the longer in it. The general Senate (of the chiefest 
pai't of Greece) called the Ampliictyoui^, imposed a grievous 
fine upon the Phocaeans, for that they had taken a piece of the 
Cirrheean territory, being consecrate to Apollo, and had pro- 
faned it to works of husbandry ; adding further, that if the 
fine were not paid to the use of Apollo, their territories should 
be consecrate unto him. The Phocseans, nettled with this 
decree, as not able to pay the fine, and choosing rather to die 

^ Just., lib. xxi ; Plut., in Timohon. ^ Just., lib. xxxii, 2. 

^ Liv., xxxi, 13. ^ Diodov, SicuL, lib. xx, 101. 


than to have their country prosci'ibed ; by the council of 
Philomehas they protest against the decree of the Amphictyones 
as most unjust, that for so small a piece of ground so excessive 
a fine should be imposed ; and pretend that the patronage of 
the temple of Delphi itself (where the famous oracle of Apollo 
was) did of antiquity and right belong unto them : and Philo- 
melus undertaketh to recover it. Hereupon the Phocaeans 
make him their general : he presently draweth into his con- 
federation the Lacedaemonians (whom the Amphictyones had 
bitten with the like decree), and with an army on the sudden 
invadeth and possesseth the temple of Delphi, slaying such 
of the city as resisted him. The fame hereof flew far and 
wide ; and upon it divers cities of Greece undertake in their 
devotion a sacred war against the Phocaeans and Philomelus. 

First, they of Locris give them battle, and are overcome. 
Then the Boeotians prepare an army for their aid ; but in the 
mean time Philomelus, the better to defend his possession of 
the temple, encloseth it with a wall : and though he had 
formerly published through Greece, that he sought nothing 
but the patronage ; yet, seeing many cities to join in force 
against him, he now falleth apparently upon spoiling of the 
temple for supporting of his war, taking from it an infinite 
wealth in precious vessels and oblations. Nor did the progress 
of his fortune teach him to repent it ; for he prevailed still 
against the Locrians, Boeotians, Thessalians, and other their 
confederates, till the Boeotians at last overthrew his sacrilegious 
army, and slaying a great part thereof, drove himself to that 
necessity, that to avoid the tortures incident to his impiety, he 
threw himself headlong down a rock, and so miserably ended 
his wicked pageant. 

Onomarchus (his partner in the sacrilege) succeedeth in his 
room of command and impiety j and after variety of fortune, 
his sacrilegious army is overthrown by King Philip of Macedon : 
and by his command the soldiers that were taken prisoners 
were drowned, and Onomarchus himself, as a sacrifice to his 
sacrilege, hanged. 

Then Phayllus, the brother of Onomarchus, is chosen Gene- 
ral ; who, rotting by little and little whilst he lived, died at 
length in most grievous torture for his sacrilege. 

After him succeeded Phalsecus, son of Onomarchus, who 
beyond all the former sacrilege (wherein some accounted that 
as much was taken as the whole treasure was worth that 
Alexander the Great brought out of Persia) added this, that 
hearing there was an infinite mass of gold and silver buried 
under the pavement of the temple, he^ with Philon and other 


of his captains, began to break up the pavement near the 
Tripos ; but frighted suddenly with an earthquake, durst pro- 
ceed no further. Shortly after, Philo is accused for purloining 
much of the sacred money committed to his dispensation ; and 
being tortured^ nameth many of his consorts^ who with him 
are by the Phocaeans themselves all put to a terrible death. 
And the Boeotians, by the aid of King Philip, put to flight 
divers troops of the Phoceeans, whereof five hundred fled for 
sanctuary into a chapel of Apollo's, seeking protection under 
him whose temple they had so violated. But the fire they 
left in their own tents fired their cabins ; and then taking hold 
of straw that lay near the chapel, burnt it also, and in it them 
that were fled into it. For the god (saith Diodorus) would 
give them no protection, though they begged it upon their 

Now after ten years this sacred war came to an end. 
Phala3cus, not able to subsist against Philip and the Boeotians, 
compoundeth with him for licence to depart, and to carry the 
soldiers he had about him with him. 

The PhocEeans, without all means to resist, are, by a new 
decree of the Amphictyons, or grand council, adjudged to have 
the walls of three of their cities beaten to the ground ; to be 
excluded from the temple of Apollo and the court of the 
Amphictyons (that is, to be excommunicate and outlawed); to 
keep no horses nor armour, till they had satisfied the money, 
sacrilegiously taken, back to the god ; that all the Phocteans 
that were fled, and all others that had their hands in the 
sacrilege, should be duly punished, and that every man might 
therefore pull them out of any place ; that the Grecians might 
destroy all the cities of the Phocgeans to the ground, leaving 
them only villages of fifty houses apiece, distant a furlong the 
one from the other, to inhabit ; that the Phocteans should 
retain their ground, but should pay a yearly tribute of sixty 
thousand talents to the god, till the sum mentioned in the 
registers of the temple at the beginning of the sacrilege were 
fully satisfied. 

The Lacedaemonians also and Athenians, who aided the 
PhocEeans, had their part (and justly) in the punishment. For 
all the Laceda3monian soldiers that were at the spoil of the 
oracle, were afterwards slain, and all others universally (saith 
Diodorus), not only the principal agents in the sacrilege, but 
even they that had no more than their finger in it, were pro- 
secuted by the god with inexpiable punishment. 

Nor did Phalfficus escape it, though he compounded with 
Philip, and lived long after. For his long life was no happi- 


ness unto liim, but an extension of his torture, living perpetually 
in wandering up and down, perplexed with restless fears and 
variety of dangers ; till, at last, besieging Cydonia, and applying 
engines to batter it, lightning falling upon them consumed 
both them and him, and a great part of his army : yet others 
say that he was slain by one of his soldiers.^ 

The residue of his army, that escaped the fire, were by the 
exiled Eleaus hired to serve against their countrymen of Elis ; 
but the Arcadians joining with the Eleans, overthrew their 
exiles, and this their army of sacrilegious soldiers ; and having 
slain many of them, divided the rest (being about four thousand) 
between them. Which done, the Arcadians sold their part to 
be bondmen ; but the Eleans, to expiate the spoil of Delphi, 
put all their part to the sword. Many also of the noblest 
cities of Greece (that had aided the Phocseans), being after- 
wards overcome by Antipater, lost both their authority and 
liberty. And besides all this, the wives of the prime men of 
Phocis, that had made themselves jewels of the gold of Delphi, 
were also punished by an immortal hand : for she that had got 
the chain offered by Helena, became a common strumpet; and 
she that adorned herself with the attire of Eriphyle (taken 
thence) was burnt in her house by her eldest son^ stricken 
mad, and firing the same. 

These fearful punishments fell on them that were guilty of 
misusing sacred things : whereas, on the other part, Philip 
the king (that at this time had nothing but Macedon) by 
defending the cause of the temple and oracle, came after to be 
king of all Greece, and the greatest king of Europe.^ 

In the next age after this, Brennus the Gaul, or, as our 
chroniclers say, the Briton, for the eastern nations did of old 
account the Britons under the name of Gauls, as they do at 
this day under [that of Franks], raising a mighty army of 
Gauls, invaded Greece, and prospering there victoriously, came 
at length to Delphi, with an hundred and fifty thousand foot 
and fifty thousand horse ; where his army, endeavouring to 
spoil the temple standing upon the hill Parnassus, was in 
scaling of it valiantly resisted by four thousand citizens. But 
suddenly an earthquake, tearing off a great part of the hill, 
threw it violently upon the Gauls, who being so dispersed, a 
tempest of hail and lightning followed that consumed them. 
Breimus, astonished at the miracle, and tormented at the 
wounds he had received, slew himself with his dagger.^ 

Another of the captains, with ten thousand of the soldiers 

^ Diodor., lib. xvi. ^ Ibid. ^ Just., xxiv. 


that remained, made all the haste he could out of Greece ; but 
their flight was little benefit unto them : for in the night they 
durst come in no houses, and in the day they wanted neither 
labour nor dangers. Abundance of rain, and frost, and snow, 
and hunger^ and weariness, and the extreme want of sleep, 
consumed daily this miserable remnant : and the nations they 
passed through pursued them as vagabonds, to prey upon 
them. So that of that numerous army, which of late in the 
pride of their strength despised and spoiled the gods, none 
was left to report their destruction. 

Thus Justin affirmeth : but Strabo saith that divers of them 
returned to their country (being Toulouse in Provence), and 
that the plague there falling amongst them, the soothsayers 
told them they could not be delivered from it till they cast the 
gold and silver they had gotten by their sacrilege into the lake 
of Toulouse. 

About two hundred and forty years after, Q. Servilius 
Cepio, the Roman consul, taking the city of Toulouse, took 
also this treasure (then being in the temple, as seemeth by 
Aulus Gellius^), and much increased by the citizens out of 
their private wealth, to make the gods more propitious unto 
them. The gold (saith Strabo) amounted to a hundred and ten 
minas, and the silver to one thousand pounds in weight. In 
truth (saith Strabo) this sacrilege was the destruction both of 
Cepio himself and of his army : and Gellius addeth, that who- 
soever touched any of that gold, perished by a miserable and 
torturing death. Hereupon came the proverb, which this day 
is so usual among scholars, Aurum hahet Tolosanum ; spoken 
(saith Erasmus) of him that is afflicted with great and fatal 
calamities, and endeth his life by some new and lamentable 
accident. See more in Strabo. 

A soldier of Verus, the emperor, cutting by chance a golden 
cabinet [arculam) in the temple of Apollo at Babylon, there 
issued such a pestilent breath out of it, as infected both the 
Parthians, and all other parts of the world wheresoever they 
came, even to Rome.^ 

It were endless to sail in this stream, the heathen authors 
are so "copious in it. But for a corollary to that hath been 
spoken, I desire to add a fable of Ovid's,^ wherein he sheweth 
what opinion the world then had of sacrilege, and what fatali- 
ties it brought upon the offenders in it. Erisichthon, profaning 
the grove of Ceres, cutteth down her sacred oak, and con- 

' Aid. Gell., iii, 9. ^ Jul. Capitolin., in Auff. Hist 

^ Metam.. viii, 780. 


temning his superstition that offered to hinder it, cleaveth his 
head with a hatchet. Ceres striketh him with an unsatiable 
and perpetual hunger ; nothing doth satisfy him, nothing fills 
him, nothing thrives with him ; all his wealth is consumed on 
his belly : and when all is gone, then he is driven to dishonest 
shifts, and forbeareth no wickedness. He pi'ostitutes his own 
daughter^ to one for a horse, to another for a bird, to a third 
for an ox, to a fourth for a deer. And when this is also 
devoured, his hunger at last compelleth him to tear his own 
flesh with his teeth, and by consuming himself in this horrible 
manner, to finish his days most miserably. 


I'w chanu ar yr achlysiir o ddadorchiad y Gofgolofn i'r 
Chevalier Lloyd, K.S.G-., oV Glochfaen. 

Mae amryw foneddigion 

Ar hyd y wlad i'w cael, 
Mae rhai yn gynil ddigon, 

A^r lleill yn symol hael ; 
Llangurig Ion fendithiwyd 

A^r gorau un erioed — 
Tywysog mewn haelioni 

Yw'r dewr Chevalier Lloyd. 
Duw lor a^i cadwo'n fyw 
Yw gweddi^r gwan a'r gwyw, 
Llangurig, llawn o gariad 

At ei Chevalier yw, 


Hyrwydda amaethyddiaeth, 

A'i arolygiaeth wych, 
Ac adeilada bontydd, 

I gadw'n traed yn sych ; 
Prydfertha ein Haddoldai — 

Prif Addurniadau'n gwlad, 
Ac hefyd mangre beddrod 

Gyflwynodd in^ yn rhad. 

Duw lor a'i cadw'on fyw, etc. 

Her transmutation into these sliapes is thus expounded. 



To face p46Z Vol V. 

Lcndcyi Office Belt Sc Phctohtho 

Clochfken Memorial, Llangurig. 


Pur deml i gydymdeimlad, 

A chariad ynddi'n llyw^ 
A dinas noddfa t'lodion 

Ei fynwes eang yw : 
Ehydd falm yn ngblwy'r briwedig, 

A hedd i'r ofnus fron, 
Trawsg'weiina holl Llangurig 

O'r cywair lleddf i'r lion. 

Duw lor a'i cadvvo'n fyw, etc. 


Os lladdwyd gan Napoleon 

Ei fyrdd ar faes y gwaed, 
Os rhoddodd Alexander 

Y byd o dan ei draed ; 
Fe goncrodd ein Chevalier 

Anghenion plwyf ei bun, 
A'i swynol elusenau 

Heb dywallt gwaed un dyn. 

Duw lor a'i cadwo'n fyw, etc. 


Os codir Oofgolofnau 

I arwyr maes y gad, 
Gwympasant yn y rhengau, 

Wrth ymladd dros eu gwlad ; 
Cofgolofn dlos Llangurig 

Nid cof am farw yw, 
Ond pregetli ar rinweddau 

Ein dewr Chevalier byw. 

Duw lor a'i cadwo'n fyw, etc. 

August 9, 1885. J. Briwnant Evans, Llangurig. 



The oblong tumuli or long barrows that are found in almost 
all parts of the kingdom are the burial-places of those 
inhabitants of this island who lived in the Neohthic age. The 
bones found in these tumuli were those of a short, dolicho- 
cephalic race — that is, a race whose skulls were long and 
narrow — and the implements buried with them were either of 
stone or flint. The skeletons resemble in all respects those 
found in the caves of Gibraltar, an account of which has been 
given in a work entitled Gave Hunting, by Professor Boyd 
Dawkins, who states that these remains are those of the 
ancient Iberians^ who in ancient times crossed over from Spain 
and occupied Britain. From the sepulchral discoveries, it 
appears that the Neolithic tribes occupied the whole of Britain 
themselves for perhaps many ages. All the short and dark 
races, such as the Silurians, whether long-headed or round- 
skulled, are treated as descendants of a primitive non- Aryan 
stock, including "the broad-headed dark Welshman, and the 
broad-headed dark Frenchman,^^ and connected by blood not 
only with the modern Basque, but with the ancient and little 
known Ligurian and Etruscan races.^ 

Subsequently, howevei% the Neolithic tribes were invaded 
by men of a different race, whose remains we find buried in 
round barrows. From these remains we find that the invaders 
were a tall race of men, with short, round, or brachicephalic 
skulls, and that all their weapons were made of bronze. These 
bronze weapons are always found buried with them, whether we 
find them buried with the Neolithic race^ or separately in their 
round tumuli. These are the remains of the ancient Keltic 

There are two round barrows made of large stones on the 
highest summit of the western extremity of Esgair Clochvaen, 
in the parish of Llangurig, in Arwystli, which I have erroneously 
described as long barrows, in vol. iii, p. 257. Mr. Howel W. 
Lloyd, when he saw them, at once saw that these tumuli were 
round ; and on my visiting the place, which is called Cist Vaen, 
shortly afterwards, I found that he was right. Six weeks 
ago a bronze kelt was found a short distance from Clochvaen, 
by a man cutting peat in a bog, six feet below the surface, and 
lying on the clay. {See opposite page.) 

Origins of English History. By C. Elton, Esq. London : Quaritch. 



Vol. I. 
P. 111.— Madoc ab Maredydd. For " 1129", read " 1130' 

Vol. II. 
P. 159. — Three lines from top, for " Gwrgeneii ab Madog ab lor- 
werth ab Madog ab Rhirid Flaidd", read " Gwrgeneu ab Madog ab 
Rhirid Flaidd". 

Vol. III. 

P. 202. — Trevor of Trepalun. According to the Trefalun Pedi- 
gree and to the Peerages of Collins and Burke, Ruth Hampden, the 
wife of Sir John Trevor, the Secretary of State, was one of the 
daughters of John Hampden. The fourth Lord Trevor of Trefalun, 
who was created Viscount Hampden in 1775, succeeded to the 
Hampden estate, under the will of the last John Hampden, and his 
son, the third Viscount Hampden, who died in 1 82i, devised his 
estate to his distant cousins of the Dynevor and the Dacre families. 

P. 205.— Grace Trevor Charlotte Rosea wen died in 1871, not 1781 ; 
and for " Bayrigg" read " Rayrigg". 

Pp. 211, 212.— For " Bruer" read " Bruen". 

Vol. IV. 

p. 45.— Five lines from bottom, for "1133", read "1130". 

P. 47. — For " Howerth ab Gwrgeneu", read " lorvverth ab Madog". 

P. 166. — Lloyd of Plas Llangwyvan. Edward Lloyd of Plas 
Llangwyvan had only four daughters, viz., Janet, Catharine, Jane, 
and Elizabeth. Grace, who was the second daughter of Thomas 
Lloyd of Phis Llangwyvan, died in 1647. She married Thomas 
Hughes of Tregastell in Diserth (brother of William Hughes of 
Llewerllyd in Diserth, High Collector of the County of Flint), and 
fifth and youngest son of Hugh ab Piers of Llewerllyd ab William 
ab Ithel Vychan of Llancurgain. Argent, a chev. inter three boar's 
heads couped sable. 

VOL. v. 30 


P. 196.— For " Sir William Prendergast, Bart.", read " Sir William 
Pendarvis, Knt, who oh. s. p. 1726, aged 39." 
P. 289.— For "Bache Hall", read " The Lache". 
Index. — Omitted, Kinmael, p. 344 ; Madryn, p. 383. 

Vol. V. 

P. iv. — Table of Contents (Meirionydd). For "Gwyor of Llan- 
idloes", read " Gwyn of Llanidloes". 
p. vi.— For " Yr Hod", " Yr Hob". 


Abbey of Cymmeb, 52 

Abbey of Strata Marcella, 42 

Abbey of Valle Cruets, 129, 148, 155, 

175, 179, 181, 409 
Abbey of Vaner, 112, 408 
Abbots of Valle Crucis, 149 
Aberchwiler, 325, 329 
Abergeleu, 365 
Aberffrycllan, 106 
Aberglasney, 307 
Abergwydol, 108, 112 
Acropolis of Tiryns, 74 
Aleth, King of Dyved, 60, 61 
Anwyl of Garth Gannon, 301 
Anwyl of Park, 110 
Apparitions, 15, 249, 250, 252 
Arwystli, 42, 45 
Aston Hall, 272, 274 
Avebury, 6, 8 


Banbury, battle of, 62 
Berth, 288, 301, 302, 305 
Berthlloyd, 120, 121 
Bible, The, 23 
Blaen lal, 96 
Bleddyn ab Cynvyn, 47 
Boadicea, 5 
Bodean, 314 
Bodewryd, 287 
Bodidris, 128, 130 
Bodorgan, 312 
Bodrhyddan, 258 
Bodsilin, 314 
Bodvach, 301 
Bodvean, 372 
Bodwrda, 308 
Bodychan, 362, 396 
Bretton, 264 
Broncoed Tower, 234 
Bron Haulog, 277 
Bron y Voel, 280, 290 
Bryn Cynwrig, 303 
Bryn Ddu, 278, 279, 315 

Bryn Eglwys, 89, 96 
Bryn Ffanigl, 365 
Bryn Hyrddin, 68 
Bryn lorcyn, 256 
Bryn Tangor, 145 
Bryn y Neuadd, 295 
Bryn yr Ellyllon, 247 
Bulkeley, 278, 286, 315, 391 
Bwlchy Beudy, 391 


Caelan, 118 

Caernarvon Castle, 69, 283 

Caer Runwch, 65 

Caeserwyd, 307 

Cantrev y Rhiw, 83 

Carn Goch, 10 

Carreg L9,s, 351 

Carreg y Llech, 201 

Carreg of Carreg, 293 

Cartigern, 248 

Castell Caer Gwrle, 263 

Castellmarch, 280 

Castell Meirchion, 136 

Castle of Beaumaris, 283 

Castle of Caernarvon, 69, 283 

Castle of Cymmer, 52 

Castle of Denbigh, 270 

Castle of Diserth, 323 

Castle of Flint, 230 

Castle of Hawarden, 203, 267, 269, 

Castle of Holt, 261 
Castle of Montgomery, 48 
Castle of Pembroke, 50 
Castle of Ruthin, 55 
Castle of Stretton, 43 
Cave Man, 37 
Cemaes, 109 

Cemeteries, Ancient, 443 
Cemlyn, 285 
Cesail Gyvarch, 290 
Cevn Amwlch, 102, 293 
Cevn Deuddwr, 58, 397 
Cevn Meriadog, 354 



Cevn y Van, 290, 293 

Changes of the Earth, 416 

Chivalry, 450 

Chwilog, 291, 293 

Cihnin Droed Du, his Arms, 362 

Cil Talgarth, 64 

Clegyrddwr, 117 

Clochvaen, 56, 60, 62, 63, 409, 461 

Coedan, 278, 286 

Coed Coch, 322 

Coed Helen, 67, 212, 307, 316, 363 

Coedrwg, 135 

Coed y Llai, 205, 230, 232 

Collwyn ab Tangno, 122, 210, 259, 280, 

Constable of Hawarden, 203, 267, 269 
Conwy of Llys Bryn Evirin, 292 
Cop'r Goleuni, 244, 294 
Cors y Gedol, 56, 57 
Cravlwyn, 208 

Cunedda Wledig, 338, 345, 347 
Cwm Bychan, 65 
Cwybr, 295, 304 
Cydewain, 60 
Cymmer Abbey, 52 
Cymmer Castle, 52 
Cynvelyu ab Dolphwyn, 59 
Cynwrig ab Rhiwallawn, Arms of, 59 
Cynwrig Evell, 201, 205, 307, 209, 233 
Cyrys o' lal, 90 
Cyveiliog, 42, 45 

David Holbais, Arms of, 131 
David Goch, 209 
David I, King. 413 
Denbigh Castle, 270 
Departed, Their State, 15 
Derwas of Cemmaes, 109 
Descent of Man, 34, 432 
Diserth Castle, 323 
Dispensation for Meat, 412 
Dog Sacrifice, 14 
Dolau Gwyn, 57 
Dolgynwal, 407 
Dol y Moch, 228 
Dundas of Aston, 275 
Dyfryn Aled, 317 


Ednowain ab Bradwed, Arms of, 100 

Egypt, 30, 31 

Eidda, 407 

Eiuion ab Gwalchmai, 362 

Einion ab Seisyllt, 64 

Eiuion Sais, 58, 113 

Eliseg, Pillar of, 167 

Ellis of Croes Newydd, 413 

Ellis Wynne, 414 

Ellis of Ystymllyn, 291 

Elysion, 20 

Elystan Glodrhudd, 209, 212, 227 

Episford, Battle of, 248 

Eriviat, 377 

Esgair Clochvaen, 46 

Esgair Evan, 128 

Esgair Voel Eu-in, 127 

Evans of Coed y Llai, 232 

Ewlo Castle, 202 

Exchequer Accounts, 170, 174 

Eyton of Coed y Llai, or Leeswood, 

Eyton, Sir Cynwrig, 203 

Flint Castle, 230 
Fynnon Degla, 89 
Fynnon GoUen, 89 


Gallt Vaenan, 98, 99, 248 

Garn, 244, 294, 399 

Garth Angharad, 104 

Garthewin, 320 

Garth Garmon, 65, 301 

Garth Meilio, 295 

Garth y Medd, 400 

Gelli Dywyll, 115, 116 

Gelli Gynan, 133 

Giler, 299, 393 

Glanmeheli, 61, 301 

Glan y Wern, 323 

Glyn Llyvon, 362 

Gogerddan, 113 

Goodrich Court, 31 2 

Grant of Valle Crucis, 175 

Griffith of Coed y Llai, 233 

Griffith of Garn, 244, 294, 399 

Griffith of Pengwern, 297 

Gruffydd ab Cynan, Arms of, 64 

GrufFydd ab Maredydd, Arms of, 42 

Gwaethvoed, Arms of, 1C2 

Gweirydd ab Rhys Goch, Arms of, 283 

Gwenwynwyn, Arms of, 43 

Gwern Afyllt, 246 

Gwrgeneu of Powys, 49 

Gwrych, 301, 349 

Gwyn of Llanidloes, 59 

Gwynvardd Dyved, 67 

Gwynvryn, 290, 291 

Gwysauau, 201 


Harddlech Castle, 66 

Havod y Bwch, 218 

Havod y Maidd, 392 

Hawarden Castle, 203, 267, 209, 271 

Hedd Moelwynog, 209 

HenbMs, 312, 370 

Hendrev Biffii, 246 



Hendreveinws, 2S0, 290 

Heudrev Vawr, 218 

Henllyu, 283 

Heracles, Myth of, 78 

Hiuton Ampner, 284 

Hiraethog, 406 

Holbais, David, Arms of, 131 

Holland Family, 218, 265, 402, 403, 413 

Holt Castle, 261 

Hope of Hawarden, 256 

Hughes of Kuimael, 286, 289 

Hughes of Plas Coch 311 

Humphreys, Bishop, 72 

Humphreys of Cesail Gyvarch, 289 

Hwva ab Cynddelw, 281, 361 

Hywel ab leuan, Arms of, 59 


lal, 83, 94, 128, 132 
larddur ab Cynddelw, 284 
Ithel Velyn, 86, 202 

Jones-Parry, 113, 140, 281, 286 


Kentish Town, 1 
Kinmael, 95.286, 289 
Knights Hospitallers, 407 
Kyffin of Maenan, 374 


Legion, 20th, 201, 263 

Lenthall, 376 

Lewys of Cemlyn, 285 

Lewys of Prysaddved, 281, 283 

Lewys of Trysglwyn, 287 

Lewys of Wrexham, 285, 353 

Light, Sir Henry, 224 


Llaethwryd, 289 
Llanarmou, 90, 95 
Llanbrynmair, 117, 118 
Llandegla, 89 
Llanddin, 363 
Llanegrin, 101, 103 
Llanerch Park, 203 
Llanerch Vaur, 320 
Llanestyn, 260 
Llangathan, 67, 307 
Llangurig, 60, 63 
Llanidloes, 59, 121, 127 
Llanrhaiadr Hall. 216. 296 
LlantysiUo, 88, 93, 135 
Llanveris, 91, 94 
Llanynis, 93 
Llawddyn, Arms of, 115 
Lloran, 113 
Lloyd of Bodidris, 130 

Lloyd of Cevn, 351 

Lloyd of Gwrych, 349 

Lloyd of Havod Uuos, 410 

Lloyd of Llanarmon, 95 

Lloyd of Pengwern, 298 

Llynwent, 56 

Llys Meirchion, 385 

Llys Vassi, 133 

Llys y Cil, 91, 94, 146 

Llywarch ab Bran, 282, 287, 311 

Llywareh Holbwreh, 302 

Llywelyn Eurdorchog, 85, 120 

Llwyn Dyrus, 323 

Llwyu Egryn, 246 

Llwyn On, 261, 286 

Llwyn Yn, 217, 241 

Machynlleth, 404 
Madocks of Vron Iw, 323, 329 
Madog Danwr, Arms of, 21, 50 
Madcg Dd<i, Arms of, 244 
Madog of Hendwr, Arms of, 43 
Madog Hyddgam, Arms of, 54, 64 
Madog Wyddel, Arms of, 135 
Madryn, 320 
Maenan Abbey. 363, 365 
Maenan Hall, 372 
Maes Garmon, 201 
Maes y Garnedd, 371 
Maes y Groes, 136 
Maes y Pandy, 58, 113 
Mahommedauism, 428 
Man, 34, 37, 435 
Mar, Earldoms of, 448 
Marl, 110, 407 
Marriage Ceremonies, 428 
Matthews, Richard, 153 
Matthews, 127 
Maurice of Llangurig, 63 
Mawddwy, 'i2, 45 
Meirionydd, 44, 45 
Melai, 320, 365 

Meredydd of Pentrev Bychan, 279 
Meurig Goch, Arms of, 61 
Middle Ages, 69 
Montgomery Castle, 48 
Mostyn of Khyd, 212 
Mul, Arms of, 120 
Mytton, Sir Peter, 203 
Myvyrian, 312 

Nanhoran, 323 
Nannau, 45, 55 
Nant Mynach, 100 
Neuadd Wen, 118 
Nice, Council of, 32 
Nobility, 450 
NyflFryn, 293 




Osbern Wyddell, 241 
Oswestry Church, 72 
Owain Cyveiliog, 42 
Owen of Garth y Medd, 400 
Owen of Morben, 404 
Owen of Tal y Bont, 103 
Owen of Ty Gwyn, 394 


Pant Glas, 382, 407 

Parry, Bishop, 210, 213 

Parry of Cravlwyn, 208 

Pembroke Castle, 50 

Pengwern, 297, 298 

Peniarth, 101, 103, 105 

Penllyn, 45, 64 

Penmachno, 209 

Pen Porchill, 95 

Penrhyn Deudraeth, 289 

Pentrev Byi"han. 279 

Pentrev Cynd.lelw, 117 

Pen y Berth, 280, 290 

Pillar of Eliseg. 161 

Plas Ashpoole, 385 

Plas Bulkeley, 278, 279 

Plas Chambres, 385 

Plas Coch, 322 

Plas Einion, 146 

Plas Heaton, 297 

Plas On, 233 

Plas Pigot, 317 

Plas Teg, 259 

Plas y Bold. 262 

Plas yu Ddol, 226 

P]as yn Hf-rse.ld, 237 

PJas vu lal, 137 

Plas vn Lliingoed, 279, 315, 316 

Plymog, 147 

Pomrugydd., 300, 301 

Portharcael, 311 

Pound.-rllng, Sir Eobert, 323 

Powell of Holt, 358 

Powell of Horsl). 358 

Powys of Vaner Abbey, 112 

Powys Wenwynwyn, 42 

Predestination, 11 

Procris, Mvth of, 82 

Prysaddved, 281, 283 

Piyse-Maurice, 113 

Pwll Halawg, 210 

PwU y Crochan, 300 

Pyckeriug, Sir William, 149, 154 


Ravenscroft, 264, 271 
Rhadamanthiis, 21 
Rhanhir, 73, 305 
Rhirid Vlaidd, 102, 281 

Rhiw Goch, 58, 309, 311 

Rhiw Isav, 337 

Rhiwlas, 306 

Rhiw Saeson, 114 

Rhiw Velen, Battle of, 89 

Rhos Golyn, 311 

Rhual, 242 

Rhyd Onen, 1 34 

Rhys Grtig, Arms of, 226 

Rhys Sais, Sons of, 49 

River-drift Man, 37 

Roman Antiquities, 7, 9, 424 

Ruthin Castle, 55 


Sacrilege, 453 
Saethon of Saethon, 292 
Salisbury, Abbot, 153 
Salusbury, 98, 99 
Sanddev Hardd, 260, 262 
Siambr Wen, 323 
Silbury Hill, 8 
Sir Hvwel y Vwyall, 290 
Sir Hywel y Pedolau, 396 
Spiritualism, 431 
Stewkeley Family, 284 
Stone Circles, 8 
Stonehenge, 6, 8, 9 
Strata Marcella, 42 
Stretton Castle, 43 


Tal y Bont, 103, 105 

Talhenbont, 291, 292 

Tegwared, Arms of, 361 

Teirdan, 402 

Thelwall, 97 

Thomas, 307, 316 

Tibullus, 16, 17, 18 

Tir leuan, 407 

Tiryns, 74 

Titanic Structures, 434 

Trahaiarn ab Caradog, 47, 60 

Trahaiarn Goch, Arms of, 97, 102, 230 

Trawsvynydd, 58 

Tremeirchion Caves, 419 

Tre'r Beirdd, 238 

Treuddyn, 243 

Trev Brys, 407 

Treveilir, 361 

Trev lorwerth, 287 

Trevor of Esclus, 276, 398 

Trevor of Trevor, 310, 412 

Trovarth, 322 

Trysglwyn, 287 

Tumuli, 10, 464 

Ty Gwyn, 331, 364 



Vaenol, 306 

Valle Crucis Abbey, 129, 148, 155, 175, 

179, 181, 409 
Vatican Council, 29 
Vestal Virgins, 420 
Vron Haulog, 357, 369 
Vron Iw, 323, 329, 330 


Wales, Statutes of, 46 
Walters, Judge, 123 
Warfield Hall, 221 
Welsh Tumuli, 10, 464 
Whitley of Aston, 272, 274 
Wickwar, 302, 403 
Wotton Family, 150, 151 
Wynn of Coed y Llai, 230 
Wynn of Llanveris, 91 

Wynn of Tower, 236 
Wynn of Y Vanechtyd, 93 
Wynne of Melai, 365 
Wynne of Peniarth, 106 
Wynnstay, 356 

Yale Family, 137, 140, 142 

Y Ddwyvaen, 65 

Y Ferm, 240 

Y Nercwys, 244 
Ynyr of lal, 130 

Ynys y Maen Gwyn, 111 

Y Penwyn, 367, 369 
Yr Hob, 256 
Yspytty leuan, 407 
Ystrad Alun, 200 
Ystrad Marchell, 42 
Ystym Cegid, 290, 293 
Ystymllyn, 291 



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