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Full text of "History of Princeton and its institutions"

Gc 

974.902 

P93h 

V.2 

1969287 

REYNOLDS HISTORICAL 
GENEALOGY COLLECTION 



"" ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC UBRARY 

3 1833 02236 7459 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center 



http://www.archive.org/details/historyofprincet02inhage 



HISTORY 



OF 



PRINCETON 



JUL 

AND ITS INSTITUTIONS; 



THE TOWN FROM ITS FIRST SETTLEMFNT, THKOUOH THE REVOLU- 
TIONARY WAR. TO THE PRESENT TIME— ITS CHURCHES- SCHOOLS 
— COLLEGE— THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY — LITERATURE, VOLUMES 
AND AUTHORS — NOTICES OF PROMINENT FAMILIES. 
AND CHIEF CITIZENS— THE CEMETERY, ETC. 



ILLUSTRATED WITH STEEL AND WOOD EXGKAVINGS. 



BY 

JOHN FRELINGHUYSEN HAG E M AN. 

COUNSELLOR AT LAW, l-KINCUTON, K. J. 



IN T \V O V O L U M 1-: s . V, Z 

VOL. II. 



PHILADELrHlA: 

J. B. LIPPINCOTT & CO 

1S79. 



lS692a? 



COFVRIGHT, 1878, liV J. B. LlIllNCOTT & Co., PllIl.ADELrHIA, 



WStw^-^ 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

PRINCETON AS A MUNICIPALITY. 

PAGE 

The Original Charter of 1813 — Tlie Poll List of 1817 — The Revised Charter 
of 1S73 — Taxation — List of Mayors — Borough Jail — The Streets — The 
Fire Department — The Market — Post Office and Mails — The Telegraph 
Office — Gas-Light Company — The Bank — Savings Bank — Mutual Fire 
Insurance Company — Divers other Incorporations and Associations— The 
Order of Masons i 



CHAPTER XV. 

INNS AND TAVERNS. 

Their History would make an interesting Volume: Tavern Signs: '• Hudi- 
bras " — " Confederation " — " Washington " — " College " — " Red Lion " — 
" City Hotel" — " Nassau Hotel" — " ALinsion House" — Prominent Land- 
lords : Jacob Hyer, John Gifford, George Follet, John Joline — A List of 
others. The several Hotels kept in Princeton for the last Century — " The 
Lay of the Scottish Fiddle" conceived and partly written at Joline's Hotel 
in Princeton — Extracts from it relating to Princeton 36 



CHAPTER XVI. 

THE UNIVERSITY HOTEL, 

Long felt Want of such a House — Eligible Situation — Built by Joint Stock 
Company — Capital Stock, $100,000 — Extends on two Streets 2S8 feet — 
Built of pressed Brick — Brown Stone Facings — Four Stories high — 
Victorian Gothic Style — One hundred Rooms above the lust Floor — 
Eastlake P'inish — Beautiful Furniture — No l?ar for Retail of Liquor 
• — HoubC unlicensed — Elegant, luxurious, and first-class in all its 
Appointments — An Attractive Resort for Families in all Seasons of 



the Year. 



49 



IV CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XVII. 
NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES OF PRINCETON. 

PAGB 

Princeton Packet, 17S6 — Religious and Literary Gazette — New Jersey Patriot 
— Series of Tracts — American Journal — American Magazine — Princeton 
Courier — American System — Journal of Education — Princeton Whig — 
Princeton Press — Merc<^r Co. Mirror — Princeton Stcandard — Princetonian 
— Biblical Repertory and Princeton Review — Princeton Magazine — The 
Missionary Review ' 54 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

THE FRIENDS' SOCIETY AND MEETING HOUSE AT 
STONY BROOK. 

The House has outlived the Society — The Creed of the Quakers — First House 
built of Wood in 1 709 — Present House of Stone built in 1760 — Quaker 
School — Its Rules and Regulations for Teachers and Scholars — Pri<jr to 
1757 it was the only House of Worship in the Neighborhood — The Centre 
of a thrifty and intelligent Quaker Community for several Generations — 
Recent Decadence of the Society — Extinction of the School— No Quaker 
Children — House seldom opened for Worship— Queries as to the Nature 
of the System 



66 



CHAPTER XIX. 
THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF PRINCETON. 

Sec. I. Early History of the Church, 1750-176S — Presidents Burr, Edwards, 

Davies and Finley, the Preachers 73 

II. Its History continued, 1768-1795, under Presidents Witherspoon and 

Smith 85 

III. Pastorate of the Rev. Samuel Finley Snowden, 1 795-1804 94 

IV. Pastorate of Rev. Henry Kollock, I S04-10 97 

V. Pastorate of Rev. William C. Schenck, 1810-20 105 

VI. Pastorate of Rev. George S. WoodhuU. 1820-32 117 

VII. Pastorate of Rev. Benjamin II. Rice, 1832-47 133 

VIII. Pastorate of Rev. William E. Schenck, 1847-52 143 

IX. Pastorate of Rev. James M. Macdonald, 1852-76 153 

X. Real Estate and Miscellaneous Matters of the Congregation 171 

CHAPTER XX. 

THE PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH. {Tutiity.) igi 

CHAPTER XXI. 

THE METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH 195 



CONTENTS. V 

CHAPTER XXII. 

PAGE 

THE BAPTIST CHURCH 197 

CHAPTER XXIII. 
THE SECOND PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH 202 

CHAPTER XXIV. 
THE WITHERSPOON STREET CHURCH 209 

CHAPTER XXV. 
THE AFRICAN METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH 212 

CHAPTER XXVI. 
THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH 2i3 

CHAPTER XXVII. 
ACADEMIES AND SCHOOLS •. 217 

CHAPTER XXVIII. 
PRINCETON COLLEGE. 

The College of New Jersey— Nassau Hall — Frincelon College — First Charter 
in 1746 — Second Charter in i74S~Unity of the College under both 
Charters — Object, to promote Piety and sound Learning ; Procured by 
Presbyterians but open to all 228 

Sec. I. Administration of President Dickinson 233 

II. Of President Burr 237 

III. Of President Edwards 249 

IV. Of President Davici 253 

V. Of President Finley 256 

VI. Of President Witherspoon 260 

Vn. Of President Smith 264 

VHI. Of President Green 271 

IX. Of President Carnahan.. . .S 274 

X. Of President Maclean 285 

XL Of President McCosh 291 

XII. Ofiicers and Alumni 298 

XIII. Buildings 202 

XIV. Library and Appliances -jn 

XV. Endowments and Funds 314 

XVI. Miscellaneous College Items 316 



vi CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XXIX. 
PRINCETON THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 

PAl.B 

Sec. I. Its History 3^4 

II. Its Buildings and Grounds 335 

ni. Its Investments, Funds, and Library 34° 

IV. Its decea.sed Professors, Dr. Archibald Alexander, Dr. Samuel Miller, 
Dr. Charles Hodge, Dr. Addison Alexander, Dr. John Breckin- 
ridge, Dr. James W. Alexander — a saintly group 341 

V. Present Faculty and Officers 37i 

VI. Liberal Benefactors 374 

CHAPTER XXX. 
PRINCETON AUTHORS AND THEIR VOLUMES 377 

CHAPTER XXXr. 
WOMAN'S CHAPTER IN PRINCETON HISTORY 406 

CHAPTER XXXH. 
THE CEMETERY 4^4 

CHAPTER XXXHI. 

THE CENTENNIAL YEAR, 1876. 

Religious Revival — Visit of Moody and Sankey — Opening of University Hotel 
— Centennial Celebration — Centennial Anniversary af the Battle of 
Princeton celebrated — Full tide of Prosperity 433 

CHAPTER XXXIV. 

PROFESSIONAL AND OFFICIAL. 

Physicians, Lawyers, Clergymen, Official Representatives 438 



HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

PRINCETON AS A MUNICIPALITY. 

The Original Charter of 1813 — The Poll List of 1817 — The Revised Charter of 
1873 — Taxation — List of Mayors — Borough Jail — The Streets — The Fire De- 
partment — The Market — Post-Office and Mails — The Telegraph Office — Gas- 
Light Company — The Bank — Savings Bank — Mutual Fire Insurance Company 
— Divers other Incorporations and Associations — The Order of Masons. 

Princeton became incorporated as a borough while it wa.s 
yet a small village. It is hardly probable, as we have already 
stated, that an application would have been made or granted at 
so early a day, had not the town been divided by a county line, 
and had not its good order, which was affected by the presence 
of the students, rendered some special legislation and police 
force necessary at the Commencements and in the multi- 
plied exigencies which are liable to arise in such a com- 
munity. 

An act entitled " An Act for the incorporation of the town 
of Princeton," was passed by the Legislature, February 11,1813. 
It was preceded by the following preamble, viz. : 

" Whereas sundry inhabitants of the town of Princeton 
have, by their petition to the Legislature, prayed that they may 
by law, be incorporated and formed into a body politic, with 
such powers, privileges and immunities as will most conduce to 
the good order and regulation of the citizens thereof, and for 
the interest of those institutions of learning and piety estab- 
lished within the same: and as the Legislature think it reason- 
able that the prayer of the said petitioners be granted, there- 
fore," etc. 



2 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

The boundaries were nearly the same as tliey are at the 
present time, except tiiat they did not extend quite so far to 
the south-west ; the line was just west of Richard Stockton's 
house, and did not include the Edgehill property — then owned 
by Dr. Van Cleve ; but it went as far eastwardly as the present 
charter extends. The charter provided for a Mayor, Recorder, 
three Aldermen, all having the powers of a Justice of the Peace, 
ex-officio ; and six Assistants, to be elected by the people year- 
ly. The former were to be appointed as Justices were then 
appointed, and to hold their office as long as Justices held 
their office. The charter allowed an appeal to council in case 
of conviction for violating ordinances, and it extended for ten 
years. 

In the year 1814, a supplement was passed, authorizing 
offenders against the laws of the State, the United States, and 
the ordinances of the council, to be committed to the respec- 
tive county jails, as the borough then had no immediate pros- 
pect of procuring a place of security for such convicted persons, 
provided, that the necessary expenses of supporting the pris- 
oners be paid by the corporation — but this act was to continue 
only two years, though in 1816 it was again extended two years. 

In the year 1822 the town was re-incorporated by a charter 
with the same preamble, and conferring substantially the same 
powers as the original charter and its supplement had conferred. 
Its territorial jurisdiction was somewhat enlarged, and com- 
prised portions of the township of Montgomery, in Somerset 
County, and of West Windsor, in Middlesex County, embrac- 
ing the same area which the present charter describes and 
bounds, that is to say : 

" Beginning easterly on the turnpike road at the westerly 
line of Zebulon Morford's farm, and crossing the same south- 
erly five hundred yards to the north-west corner of Joseph 
Schenck's orchard; thence westerly in a straight line, passing- 
south of the town to the southeasterly corner of a let «.f 1 !i>.-,iias 
(Jlden, adjacent to lands of the late Giles W. Olden ; ihence 
along said lot, upon an ancient road, and northerly across the 
old stage road upon the lands of the late Captain Job Stock- 
ton, two thousand yards ; thence easterly in a straight line 
passing north of the town, to a former line of Elijah Black- 



PRINCETON ASA MUNICIPALITY. 3 

well's land ; thence along the same six hundred yards to the 
place of beginning." 

It provided for the appointment by the joint meeting of the 
Legislature, of a mayor, a recorder, and three aldermen, all cx- 
officio Justices of the Peace ; and for the election by the people, 
of six assistant aldermen, a collector and an assessor — all to hold 
their office for one year. " The Mayor, Recorder, Aldermen, 
and Assistants of the Borough of Princeton " constituted the 
Common Council as a body politic, with the usual powers to 
make by-laws, ordinances and regulations in writing, not re- 
pugnant to the laws and Constitution of this State, nor of the 
United States, and to enforce, alter and amend, etc. Fines 
were limited to twenty dollars, and an appeal was granted to 
the Common Council; in civil suits an appeal to the Common 
Pleas was allowed. Exclusive jurisdiction was conferred on 
council, in matters of licensing taverns and sale of liquors ; 
and authority was given to the inhabitants to raise by tax suck 
sum of money yearly as they viight think necessary for the ex- 
igencies of the borough. 

The charter was extended from time to time, and amend- 
ments were added ; and provision was made for raising money 
for specific objects and for widening and opening streets. But 
except in a few specified cases, money could only be raised 
by tax for the exigencies of the borough. All offices finally 
became elective by the people, and none of the members 
of council received a salary or compensation, under the 
charter. 

The council chamber and jail were erected at the end of the 
old Market House, in the middle of the main street, opposite 
Mercer Hall. That old building was torn down forty years 
ago, and a new market house was erected in its place, in 1850. 
This was not cordially patronized b}' the people, and it stood 
for several years deserted, until Dickinson Hall was erected, 
and then it was sold and removed from the street. 

In the earlier years of the borough we find that a better 
class of citizens were induced to serve in council than many 
of those who in recent years have aspired to the place. Then, 
men who were distinguished in professional life — lawyers and 



4 HISTORY OF PRINCETOM. 

physicians, merchants and educated business men, and repre- 
sentatives of the first families in the community, bore their 
part in administering the municipal government. Even among 
the clerks of council we find the names of such young men as 
Richard Stockton, Jr., R. S. Field, W. C. Alexander, Abram 
O. Zabriskie, C. Houston Van Cleve, William B. Maclean, 
David N. Bogart. 

There are no full minutes of the proceedings of the Com- 
mon Council preserved until the year 1817. There is an entry, 
however, in a leaf of the first volume, of the first organization 
of the council, in 1813. The town meeting to elect Assistant 
Aldermen, Assessor, Collector, and Clerk, was held at Follet's 
tavern, April 18, 18 13, Dr. Ebenezer Stockton being the Mod- 
erator. Those who were elected Assistants were : 

Thomas P. JoiiNsoN. Isaac Hoknor. 

Thomas White. Joseph II. Skici.ton, 

Samuel Nicholson. Robert Davison. 

Assessor, Perez Rowley. 

Collector, Wn.LlAM Hight. 

CUrk, Richard Stockton', Jr. 

There was a protest presented by Assistant Alderman 
Thomas P. Johnson and the other five, against the powers 
claimed to be exerci.sed by the mayor, recorder and aldermen, 
for not having been duly qualified and inducted into office ; but 
there is no minute to show how the matter was disposed of. 
The first name on the list of mayors is Samuel Bayard. He 
was acting as Mayor in 1817, with John S. Wilson, Recorder, 
and Dr. Ebenezer Stockton, Alderman. 

As proof that the best citizens of the town took a lively 
interest in the borough government, and went to the polls to 
vote, although then only a portion of the council was elective, 
we give a copy of the poll list for the year 1817, showing that 
the professors of the college and seminary, the lawyers and 
physicians and all the prominent men of the town, went to the 
hotel and voted : 

"At a meeting of the inhabitants of Princeton, held at the house of Perez Row- 
ley on the third Monday in April, in pursuance of notice for the election of six 
Assistants, one Assessor, one Collector and Clerk for the year 1817, the lollowing 
peisons voted ; 



PRINCETON ASA MUNICIPALITY. 



1 Francis D. Janvier, 

2 Stej)lien Morford, 

3 Josias Ferguson, 

4 Tiioinas P. Johnson, 

5 James S. Green, 

6 Matthew Griggs, 

7 John Davison, 

8 Samuel Bayard, 

9 John A. Hudnut, 

10 John Napton, 

11 Lewis Runyan, 

12 Benjamin Maple, 

13 Isaac Ilornor, 

14 John Wykofif, 

15 Wni. Cool, 

16 Isaiah Moger, 

17 William Compton, 

18 James Higgins, 

19 Samuel Scott, 

20 Jesse Scott, 

21 Isaac J. Manning, 

22 John Van Cleve, 

23 Richard Voorhees, 

24 Charles Campbell, 

25 Daniel Cool, 

26 Peter Ilollingshead, 

27 Richard Warren, 
23 James Moore, 

29 James G. Ferguson, 

30 Andrew Burke, 

31 John Hamilton, 

32 John S. Wilson, 

33 Jacob Gray, 

34 Doct. Alexander, 

35 Peter Bogart, 

36 Robert Davison, 

37 David Johnson, 

38 Lewis Olden, 

39 Peter McCoy, 



4c James Long, 

41 Isaac Cool, 

42 Arthur Wykoff, 

43 Henry Clow, 

44 Samuel Hamilton, 

45 Henry Higgins, 

46 George Hamilton, 

47 William Hamilton, 

48 John Skilhnan, 

49 Henry Voorhees, 

50 John McGregor, Sr., 

51 John Booth, 

52 Herman Dildine, 

53 Michael Riley, 

54 Thomas White, 

55 John S. Robertson, 

56 John S. Nevius, 

57 William Van Doren, 

58 Stacy Morford, 

59 Perez Rowley, 

60 James Hamilton, 

61 Mahlon F. Skelton, 

62 Isaiah R. Scott, 

O3 Richard Stockton, Esq., 

64 John 11. Couover, 

65 Flijah Slack, 

66 Isaiah Downey, 

67 Philip Lindsley, 

68 Doctor S. .Miller, 

69 Doct. E. Stockton, 

70 James Leonard, 

71 Doctor A. Green, 

72 Joseph H. Skelton, 

73 John Thompson, 

74 Robert Voorhees, 

75 Cornelius Terhune, 

76 Joseph Sutton, 

77 John Norris. 



For several years after the Common Council was organized 
that body held their meetings at the public inns, and paid for 
the use of them. 

In 1818, council met to inquire into certain riotous pro- 
ceedings within the borough, wherein Mahlon Skelton came 
to his death. 

In 1 8 19, some one atrociously set fire to the tavern 



6 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

of D. Smith, and a public meeting was called to provide 
against fire. 

In 1823, a Town-House consisting of council chamber and 
prison underneath, with a cupohi on the top, was erected after 
a plan reported by Assistant Aldermen Hart Olden and Charles 
Steadman, a committee of council, at a cost of $431.90. This 
building stood in the street nearly opposite the old City Hotel, 
and near which the market houses were built at that time 
and since. This council chamber was used for many public 
purposes; at one time for a Sunday school ; also in 1823, for a 
night school upon the application of John Maclean. In 1826 
the use of it was extended to the Colonization Society and to 
the Princeton Bible Society; and in 1827, the Princeton P"ire 
Company obtained the leave of council to use it for their 
meetings. 

Col. Erkuries Beatty, while holding the office of mayor of 
Princeton, died in 1823, and resolutions of condolence and in 
memory of his valuable public services and estimable character, 
were adopted by council. William Cole and William llight 
were among the early marshals of the borough. 

In 1827, a memorial signed by Rev. Dr. Carnahan, Dr. 
Archibald Alexander, Dr. Samuel Miller, Prof. Robert B. Pat- 
ton, Prof. Luther Halsey, and Prof. John Maclean, asking for 
an ordinance forbidding stages, wagons, etc., from passing 
through the town on the Sabbath, was presented to the coun- 
cil, and referred to a committee consisting of Samuel J. Bayard, 
John Lowrey, Henry Clow and Jas. S. Green. The committee 
reported adversely, whereupon the council instructed the com- 
mittee to report an ordinance according to the memorial, which 
was done. 

There was an effort made to enforce this ordinance. Vio- 
lators of it were arrested, trials had, judgments rendered, and 
appeals to council decided against the violators. At this time 
the staging was at its highest pressure. The travelling through 
Princeton, across the State, was immense, and though greatly 
checked on the Sabbath, it was not wholly suspended on that 
day. The United States Sunda}' mails of course could not be 
stopped by local police laws. The efforts made by the friends 
of the Sabbath to vindicate its sanctity were not without in- 



PRINCETON AS A MUNICIPALITY. 7 

fluence. But the day of staging was nearly over. Railroads 
were preparing to supersede the old coach, and the next war 
for the Sabbath, in Princeton, was a dozen years later when 
efforts were directed to prevent the driving of great droves of 
beef cattle to market on the Sabbath. That business was 
driven off of this route, and now the droves go by rail. As 
early as 1822 the Mayor of Trenton had applied to the Common 
Council of Princeton to unite in efforts to prevent stages and 
wagons from being driven through on the Sabbath, but the 
council then decided that they had nothing to do with the mat- 
ter, but it belonged to the duty of the officers of the borough. 

William B. Maclean, clerk of the council, died in 1829, and 
a suitable paper drawn by W. C. Alexander and John R. Thom- 
son, was adopted by council and presented to his brother, Prof. 
John Maclean, who wrote a reply. 

It may not be uninteresting to note the names of many of 
the prominent men who were members of the Common Coun- 
cil, once or oftener during the first fifteen years after the crea- 
tion of the borough, or prior to 1830. They were: 

Samuel Bayard, Col. Beatty, Dr. Ferguson, James S. Green, 
Thomas P. Johnson, Robert Bayles, Henry Clow, Robert Voor- 
hees, Dr. Ebenezer Stockton, Ralph Sansbury, John Joline, 
John Passage, Joseph H. Skelton, William Van Doren, Samuel 
R. Hamilton, John Thompson, Dr. Van Cleve, Henry Higgins, 
Hart Olden, Charles Steadman, Emley Olden, John Davison, 
Isaac Hornor, Robert E. Hornor, Col. John Lowrey, Samuel 
J. Bayard, James Vandeventer, John S. Wilson, Major Stephen 
Morford, John R. Thomson, Wm. C. Alexander, John A. Per- 
rine, Ager F. Thorne, Samuel D. Honey man, C. D. Terhune, 
William B. Maclean, Wm. B. Stockton, John C. Schenck, Isaac 
Baker, Dr. J. I. Dunn, Gerardus Skillman, John Hamilton, 
Philip Simmons, Lewis Runyan, Charles M. Campbell. 

The Revised Charter of 1S73. 

The old charter, which was simple and general in its grant 
of powers, but which answered the purpose it had in view for 
a long period, failed at length to satisfy modern ambition and 
restlessness. The public did not comprehend how broad and 
elastic its provisions were, nor how unlimited was the power it 



8 niSTOA'Y OF PRINCETOM. 

conferred on council to meet the exigencies of the borough. 
The limitation of the right of council to raise money by taxa- 
tion was so stringent as to check expensive improvements 
without first obtaining special leave of the Legislature ; and 
perhaps the short and unpaid services of the mayor and other 
officers, subject to change every year, detracted from the dig- 
nity and influence of the municipal government. The lack of 
earnest and judicious action on the part of the council and its 
supporters was mistaken for a lack of working power in the 
charter; and after some agitation on the subject, a revised 
charter with a full enumeration of express powers, after the 
form of our complicated city charters, was obtained. It con- 
tains forty-nine sections, and specifies twenty-nine objects of 
legislation. 

The revised charter was obtained in 1873. The boundaries 
of the corporation are now the same as they were in the previ- 
ous charter. The corporate name of the borough is changed to 
" The Mayor and Council of the Borough of Princeton." The 
officers now consist of a mayor, eight members of council, one 
assessor, one collector, who is borough treasurer, a borough 
surveyor, a borough solicitor, one judge of elections, three 
commissioners of appeal in cases of taxation, one marshal, and 
one pound-keeper. All these, except the marshal, surveyor and 
solicitor, are elected by the people. These latter, with the po- 
licemen, are appointed by council. The mayor is elected for 
two years, and members of council are elected for two years in 
classes of four each year. Other officers are chosen annually. 

The salary of the mayor is to be fixed by council, but must 
not exceed $300 a year. Members of council can receive no 
compensation for official duties, but they fix the salaries of the 
other officers. The president of council is to act as mayor 
when that oi'ficer is absent or unable to act. 

The council have the right to raise money by tax xvithout a 
vote of the people, but not for a larger sum than $5,000 at one 
time; and no debt can be contracted by counril binding the 
borough beyond $5,000. If a sum requiring more than five 
mills on the dollar on the valuation of property to be taxed, is 
desired, the object must be advertised and receive a majority 
of the legal popular vote in its favor. 



PRINCETON ASA MUNICIPALITY. 9 

This charter is too complex for so small a town, whose 
municipal interests are too unimportant to command a careful 
study and a strict enforcement of its provisions by the people. 
And it necessarily involves litigation and expense to maintain 
and enforce the ordinances that are attempted to be framed in 
accordance with it. It is gradually becoming more and more 
onerous by increasing the burdens of taxation. There are, 
however, some advantages secured by it. It is like a garment 
cut much too large for the person who is to wear it, but the 
town ma)^ grow up to the dimensions of this charter in time. 

The growth and multiplication of the educational institu- 
tions on whose account the original charter was granted, with 
their increased endowments and enlarged real estate, and their 
important bearing upon the question of taxation, ought to im- 
press the "City Fathers" with a sense of the increased dignity 
of their official position. 

The recent attempt made under this revised charter to sub- 
ject the whole of the real estate and the endowments of the 
college and .seminary,' to an equal assessment with all other 
property, for general taxes, resulted as might have been ex- 
pected, in an appeal to the Legislature, which passed a supi)le- 
ment to the charter, exempting these institutions from all taxa- 
tion, except such as is assessed against other similar institutions 
by the State law. 

It is not unjust nor unreasonable that these institutions 
which own such large and valuable real estate in the town, and 
which not only share the benefit of street improvements, with 
pavements and gas-lights, protection from fire, and the advan- 
tages of general police regulations, but which to a large extent 
instigate and invoke such improvements and benefits, should 
also share the cost of them. But experience has proved that 
it is not safe to lodge the discretion of assessing all the property 
and all the endowment funds of the institution, in a popular 
vote or in the council of the borough without legal restriction, 
against endo\veci institutions with large possessions. It is due 
to the college to state that, though by law exempt from 
liability to taxation, it pays, voluntarily, a certain percentage 
(10 per cent) of the borough tax. 

It cannot be disguised that the question how far these great 



lO 



HISTORY OF PRINCETOM. 



charities and educational trusts .should be taxed, if at all, has 
not been quite fully and finally settled yet. In the recent 
amendments made to the Constitution of New Jersey, the Legis- 
lature struck out the reported clause that required such prop- 
erty, including that of churches, to be taxed, but it did not in- 
sert a clause prohibiting the imposition of taxes upon such 
property, thus leaving it open for the Legislature to tax or not 
to tax this class of property. There does not seem to be any 
honor or justice in subjecting the property or funds bestowed 
by the charitable friends of the institution, principally non-resi- 
dents in the State, for promoting education and religion, to 
taxation for the maintenance of the State. Property given and 
used for charitable purposes, which does not yield any rental, but 
which is used for the benefit of the citizens of this State, should 
not be subjected to diminution by being taxed for the support 
of the State or county. Yet it would be inost unjust to com- 
pel the owners of property in a small college town, whose prop- 
erty may not constitute a majority of the wealth of the place, 
to pay the whole of the local tax which may be demanded 
chiefly by or on account of the institutions which are themselves 
exempt from tax. The subject is one of grave importance and 
demands a calm and impartial consideration and adjustment in 
relation to local or borough taxes. 



THE LIST OF MAYORS. 

The oflice of Mayor of the borough has been filled by ilie following persons, viz. 

Samukl Bayard, 
Erkuries Beatty, 

KoiiKRT VOURHEKS, 

John Lowrey, 
Hen'ry Clow, 
Alexander M. Gumming, 



Jared I. Dunn, 
Abram J. Berry, 
John T. Robinson, 
Richard Stockton, 
^John Conover, 
George T. Olmsted, 



Alexamjer M. Hudnut, 
James T. L. Anderson, 
Oliver II. Bart in e, 
Augustus L. Martin, 
Hezekiah Mount, 
Eli R. Sionaker, 
Richard Runyan, 
Martin Voorhees, 
Leroy II. Anderson, 
Frank S. Conover, 
Charles S. Rouinson. 



Several of the above named served more than one term. 
The last three were elected under the revised charter. 



princeton asa municipality. ii 

The Borough Jail. 

A new Borough Jail was erected in the year 1840. It is a 
small stone building two stories high, on Hullfish Street. It 
contains two cells below and one large room above. The 
upper room was designed for a lodging room for the transient 
I)oor, The township, having joined in defra}'ing the expense 
of the building, entered into an agreement with the borough 
council for the use of this room for such purpose. The jail is 
not well adapted to the use that should be niade of it. It is 
not a fit place to detain prisoners, or violators of the borough 
ordinances, as a temporary lock-up, much less for any pro- 
tracted period of time. It needs improvement and some en- 
largement. 

Commitments after conviction, under the ordinances of the 
borough ma)',- under the charter, be, and almost universally are, 
made to the Mercer County jail, at Trenton. This ought not 
to be so, because, first, it is proper that the violation of borough 
ordinances should not be charged to the county but be borne 
by the borough which made the ordinances ; and, secondly, be- 
cause offences against the borough ought to be atoned for in 
the borough. Citizens of the borough ought not to be trans- 
ported beyond the borough for borough offences, but only for 
offences against the State laws. If the borough jail were im- 
proved and adapted to its legitimate use and design, it could 
serve not only as a wholesome penal institution of the borough 
but as a reformatory workshop to be used in executing the 
vagrant and disorderly acts. 

The first borough prison, under the first charter, was built 
under the town house in the street, and when that was taken 
down there was none until the present one was erected. It is 
important to a good police department to have a suitable and 
secure place of confinement at hand. 

The Streets. 

There are about thirty streets in the borough, bearing the 
following names: Nassau, Mercer, Stockton, Steadman or 
Library Place, Edgehill, Bayard Avenue, Canal, Dickinson, 
Railroad Avenue, Witherspoon, Chambers, John, Washington, 



12 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

William, Charlton, Harrison, Murphy, Mocre, Wiggins, Hull- 
fish, Jackson, Green, Quarry, Maclean, Lytle, Baker, Chestnut, 
Park, Van Deventer Place. 

Nassau Street is the principal or main street through the 
town, and upon which Nassau Hall fronts and from which in- 
stitution it derives its name. It was often designated as Main 
Street, and is so yet in many of the deeds for lots on said street. 
In one of the unexecuted deeds for the first church lot it was 
described as High Street. It was the old original road through 
Princeton, which was the boundary or division line between the 
Counties of Somerset and Middlesex, prior to the erection of 
Mercer County. The liotels, bank, stores and business places 
were all on this street, and with few exceptions are still so. Its 
direction is nearly east and west. It is the broadest street in 
the town. 

Merecr Street is named after Gen. Mercer, who was killed at 
the battle of Princeton. It forms a junction with Stockton 
Street, at the west end of Nassau, and is the same with the 
Princeton and Kingston Branch Turnpike road, which passes 
through the Princeton battle-field just be}-ond the limits of the 
borough. It is a very cheerful and beautiful street, having the 
Theological Seminary and many beautiful residences on it, and 
is adorned with large elms overspreading it. 

Stockto7i Street is a continuation of Nassau, southwest of 
Bayard on the Lawrenceville road. It was the old line of the two 
counties, and received its name from the Stockton mansion and 
grounds which are on the west side of it. This is a beautiful 
and quiet street, having some of the most interesting and beau- 
tiful pri\'ate grounds and residences which are found in the town. 

Steadman Street connects Mercer with .Stockton, and is the 
base of a triangle of streets. This street is built up with resi- 
dences on one side, the other side being the Seminary propert}', 
and until the present }'ear had no building on it except the 
beautiful Gothic library of the Seminary known as Lenox Hall ; 
and this suggested to this street the appropriate name of 
Library Place. It was called Steadman after Charles Stead- 
man, who owned the land and opened the street. This triangle, 
formed by Mercer, Stockton and Steadman Streets, contains so 
many handsome residences, grounds, buildings, trees and other 



PRINCETON AS A MUNICIPALITY. 1 3 

objects of interest that it is often called " the beautiful trian- 
gle," and strangers, who would get an adequate idea of Prince- 
ton as a place of residence, if not able to look farther, should 
take the short walk around the triangle. 

Edgchill Street runs parallel with Steadman frona Stockton 
to Mercer. It was called Edgehill from the Edgchill High 
School, through whose land the street was opened. The old 
brick " Barracks," supposed to have been the residence of 
Richard Stockton, the first settler here, is the most notable 
structure on this street. 

Bayard Avoiue, formerly called Bayard Lane, ran in a 
northerly direction from where Nassau and Stockton Streets 
meet. It was named after Judge Bayard, whose residence was, 
for many years, the only important one on it. It has recently 
been widened by the owner of Morven and several handsome 
houses have been erected on it, and it is likely to become more 
attractive. 

Canal Street was opened by Commodore Stockton on the 
Springdale farm, when the basin at the canal was built. It 
opened a direct communication from Princeton to the canal 
and was called Canal Street. It was a livel)- and dusty street 
when the railroad was on the canal bank, and passengers were 
conveyed in hacks to and from the depot. Most of the houses 
on this street are not large. Stuart Hall fronts on this street. 

Dickinson Street, laid out on the Dr. Miller tract of land, 
extends from Railroad Avenue to Canal Street. It is a new 
but handsome street and is rapidly being built up with hand- 
some and valuable dwellings. Though opened only four years 
ago, there are but two or three vacant lots in the market. It 
was named after Jonathan Dickinson, the first President of the 
College of New Jersey. 

7v'^//r^;^rt'y^'Z'r//;/^ was opened from Nassau Street over the 
lot which was, for many years, the home o{ Peter Scudder, 
a colored man, who was called Peter Polite, and who blacked 
boots at the college and sold ice cream and apples to the 
students and to the citizens for many years. Mr. Richard 
Stockton purchased this lot, and when the railroad was brought 
from the junction to this place he opened this street to the 
depot in the Miller tract, and it was extended by the heirs of 



14 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

Dr. Miller through their land at the time they laid out Dickin- 
son Street. It has been rapidly built up with first class houses 
and it is becoming a very attractive and beautiful portion of 
Princeton. The property is so high and costly that none but 
substantial families are likely to occupy the houses that are 
erected there. 

Withcrspoon Street runs north from Nassau, opposite the 
College. It was named after Dr. Witherspoon, who was ac- 
customed to pass over it to go to Tusculum, his country seat. 
It was an ancient road, opened long before the Revolutionary 
War. Dr. Thomas Wiggins lived on this street and his home 
became the Presbyterian parsonage, and the burying ground is 
on it. Many years ago it was called Guinea Lane because there 
were so large a number of negroes living on it. 

Chambers Street is a cul-de-sac, extending from Nassau 
northwardly along the Second Presbyterian Church. It was 
called after Robert Chambers, of Trenton, who was agent for 
the heirs of James Hamilton, who owned the land through 
which it was laid. Mr. Chambers himself became owner of a 
portion of the land when the street was opened. 

John Street, originally John's Alky, so called after John 
Scudder, who lived on the corner of it, where Dr. Wilson, the 
dentist, now resides. It has been extended and is now called a 

Street. 

WasJiington 5/rr^/,'which was the Penns Neck road, by the 
old corner of Wilson's store, has long been a public road. It 
was named after Gen. Washington. 

Williavi Street was a short street which ran from the col- 
lege, or the old college lane, eastward to Washington Street. 
It was called William after William Clow, who kept the cheap 
refectory of the college in the frame building on this street. 
It is now extended farther east. 

Charlton Street extends from Nassau southwardly to Wil- 
liam. Its name was fanciful. 

Moore Street is nearly opposite Charlton and extends from 
Nassau northwardly to Wiggins Street. Its name was derived 
from Capt. Moore, through whose land it passed. 

Murphy Street is the name of a short street or cul-de-sac, 
running northwardly from Nassau, opened by John Murphy, 



PRINCETON AS A M UNTCIFALITY. I 5 

and Mr. Murphy has projected and opened one or two others 
near it, one of which he calls Chestnut Street. These streets 
are on the north side of Nassau towards Oucenston. 

Harrison Street is the street at Queenston, the old road 
from Scudder's Mills to Jugtown. This name was given to it 
in honor of John Harrison, deceased. The Queenston chapel 
is on this street. 

Wiggins Street extends eastwardly from W itherspoon Street 
along the cemetery to Moore Street. It was so called in re- 
spect to Dr. Thomas Wiggins, by the Trustees of the First 
Church, who opened the street over the land given by Dr. 
Wiggins to the church. 

HullfisJi Street extends from Witherspoon, opposite the 
gas works, westwardly to John Street. The borough jail is on 
this street. 

Jackson Street is named after President Jackson. It ex- 
tends from Witherspoon to John Street and is wholly built up. 

Green Street is next to Jackson, on the north, with the 
same extension. It was named after James S. Green, who was 
one of a company which opened Jackson, Circen and Quarry 
Streets, over the Ferguson tract of land. 

Quarry Street, whicli lies next north of CJrecn, received its 
name from a stone quarry along its side. 

Several streets have been opened from Witherspoon Street 
westward, through the Bayard land, more recently the Dr. 
Torrey land. One of those streets is called Maclean Street 
after Dr. John Maclean; another is called L)-tle, after the old 
surveyor, William Lytle. 

Baker Street is a narrow street extending from Nassau to 
Hullfish, opened or projected by Isaac Baker, who owned the 
land which was given for the street. 

Van Deventer Place is the name given to a street opened by 
the college on land purchased of Mr. Van Deventer, to which 
some of the college houses were removed. It extends from 
Nassau northward along the east end of Dr. Kbenezer Stock- 
ton's brick house, to a new street projected by Mr. Van Deven- 
ter to run parallel with Nassau to Moore, and which, from the 
lake and grounds near it, he calls Park Street. 

There is a new and beautiful street opened or about to be 



1 6 HISTORY OF PRINCETON: 

opened on the hill east of Prospect, through the farm of Joseph 
Olden. Professor Young's residence and observatory have 
been erected on it by the College. The situation commands 
a fine prospect. The land originally belonged to John flornor 
and afterwards to Jonathan vSergeant. It could very appropri- 
ately be named either Sergeant or Prospect Avenue. 

The principal streets of the town are Nassau, Mercer, 
Stockton, Canal and Witherspoon. More money has been ex- 
pended on these than all the others combined. They have 
been hardened with stone and gravel, but their improvements 
have not kept pace with other improvements of the town. 
If they could be properly graded and covered with the best 
quality of the asphaltum preparation it would be a grand im- 
provement, such as the character and beautified grounds and 
buildings of the town demand. 

Pavements of the sidewalks have received much but not 
enough attention. There is a continued stretch of brick and 
flag pavement from the Preparatory School, on the eastern line 
of the borough, through the main street, to the western bound- 
ary line, a distance of about two miles. This aftbrds a long 
walk for exercise in mid-winter. 

When it is remembered that Princeton is an educational 
town and that its streets are more filled with pedestrians than 
with carts and carriages, it will occur readily to an observer, 
that the sidewalks of the principal streets are not ample 
enough. More width should be given to them wherever it is 
possible, even if it should be necessary to encroach upon the 
bed of the road. This defect would be in some measure re- 
lieved if both sides of the walking thoroughfares were provided 
with equally good pavements. Street commissioners should 
bear in mind, that it is more important to accommodate the 
many who walk than the few who drive through our streets. 

The principal streets are lighted at night with gas, and those 
which are not within reach of gas are lighted w'>h oil. 

The Princeton and Kingston Branch Turnpik incorporated 
Dec. 3, 1807, coming in from Trenton, over what ^ now known 
as Mercer Street, enters Nassau Street at the o.d Princeton 
Bank Mouse, and then occupies Nassau Street till it passes be- 
yond the borough limits towards Kingston. The most, if not 



PRINCETON ASA MUNICIPALfTY. 1 7 

all, of this road, lying .within the limits of the borough, has 
been surrendered to the common council, and is worked by the 
borough as other streets are. The franchises of the company 
are held by the Camden and Amboy Railroad Company, or by 
the Joint Companies, having been sold to them by a judicial 
sale. It is not any longer a toll road. We have referred to 
its history in a former chapter. 

The Fire Department. 

We find no record of a fire company established by the 
citizens of Princeton prior to the one that was formed Febru- 
ary II, 1788. There had been in College, among the students, 
an engine and apparatus and an organization to help extinguish 
fires, before that day. But this organization by the citizens 
was a prominent one, and was kept up for more than thirty 
years with great vigor. The best men in the town joined the 
company and attended the meetings. A book of minutes of 
the proceedings extending from the organization in 1788 to 
18 17 is extant, and does much credit to the officers of the 
company. The meetings were held quarterly and the names 
of all the members present were recorded. The clerks of the 
company were among the best business men of the place and 
their names would guarantee all that the book proves as to the 
orderly character of the record. Those who served as clerks 
were Dr. John Beatty, Isaac Snowdcn, Jun., John Harrison, 
John N. Simpson, Isaac liornor, N. C. Everett, Francis D. 
Janvier. 

Among the fundamental rules adopted by the Association 
at its organization were the following : 

"8tli. Each member shall furnish himself with and keep in the most conspicu- 
ous part of his house two buckets and one basket or bag marked with his name and 
Co., and the company shall appoint a committee of two members to act quarterly, 
whose duty it shall be to examine that each member is supjjjied with and has in 
good order his number of buckets, etc., and report, etc." 

"gth. The members composing the company shall be distributee -thrown into 
the following order or classes, viz.: 

" Class the First shall contain si.x men whose duty it shall be to en> the dwell- 
ing houses and other buildings that may be on fire and attend to the ren. jval of the 
goods and other property therein contained. 

" Class Second shall contain thirteen men who are to have the sole direction and 
management of the fire engine. 
z 



i8 



HISTORY OF PRINCETOy 



" Class Third shall contain five men who are to be provided with ladders, fire 
hooks and axes, and shall attend to the unroofiny;, tearinj^r down and removini; such 
part or parts of buildings on fire, as may, in the opinion of the Director, be proper 
to obstruct the progress of the fire. 

'' Class Fourth shall contain the remainder of the company, who are to attend to 
the supplying with water the engine, and such ])ersons as may be otherwise em- 
ployed in extinguishing the fire by hand." 

A fine of one shilling was imposed upon every failure to at- 
tend the quarterly or other meetings of the company, and a 
like fine for neglecting to keep in good repair his bucket, bag, 
or basket. A fine of seven shillings and sixpence was imposed 
upon any member who should neglect to repair to the fire when 
an alarm was made, or to discharge his duty when present at 
the fire. Members were elected by ballot. 

Captain John Little was elected Director of the company, 
Dr. John Beatty, Clerk, and Enos KcLsey, Treasurer. 

The original members who subscribed to the articles of as- 
sociation when adopted were the foUowinf^: 

Aaron Mattison, 
Joseph Leigh, 
Noah Morford, 
Samuel Stout, Jun., 
Zebulon Morford, 
Enos Kelsey, 
James Hamilton, 
Christopher Stryker, 
Stephen Morford, 
JamesMoore, 
Andrew McMackin, 
Jacob G. Bergen, 
John Lane, 
John Little, 
John Hamilton, 
James Campbell, 



Conant Cone, 
Isaac Anderson, 
Jared .Sexton, 
David Olden, Jr., 
John Jones, 
Isaac Snowden, Jr., 
David Hamilton, 
Samuel S. Smith, 
Robert Stockton, 
John Jjcatty, 
George Henry, 
John Barlow, 
John Dildine, 
'Ihonias Wiggins, 
John Schureman. 



The membership was soon increased. Dr. Walto Minto ap- 
plied to be admitted and was elected. Also Dr. Ebenezer 
Stockton, Daniel Agnew, John McClellan, John Morgan, Felix 
Herbert, John Thompson, II. Pierey and others were immedi- 
ately elected members. 

Capt. Little, Robert Stockton and Enos Kelsey were ap- 
pointed a committee to request of the trustees of the college 
the use and sole direction of the fire engine, the property of 



PRINCETON ASA MUNICIPALITY. 1 9 

that corporation, and to assure the trustees that the said en- 
gine shall be put and kept in proper repair at the sole expense 
of the company and directed as well to the use of the college 
as the other buildings of the town, the property to the said en- 
gine still remaining in the corporation. This request was 
granted. The engine was repaired at an expense of ^6 i6s. 3d., 
paid by the company, each member volunteering to pay his 
proportion of that sum. 

A committee, of which Dr. Wiggins was chairman, was ap- 
pointed to obtain a place to which the engine house should be 
removed. 

The committee of inspection reported and the company '* re- 
solved that the place where Mr. Kelsey hangs his buckets was 
not the most conspicuous part of his house." 

Dr. Beatty was fined ten shillings for using one of the lad- 
ders belonging to the company and keeping it from its proper 
place all night, contrary to the rule. Dr. Minto was elected 
treasurer in 1793. 

The rule requiring the members to repair to the building 
on fire, when the alarm was given, was amended by limiting 
the houses on fire to those which belong to some member of 
this company, l^ut this was soon restored to its original form 
which required the members to act on every alarm of fire. In 
1796 the 8th article was amended so as to require every mem- 
ber to deposit his bucket, bag, etc., in the engine room, and 
not to keep them in their own houses. 

Among the new members added afterwards, from time to 
time, were Thomas P. Johnson, Richard Stockton, John Leon- 
ard, Samuel Snowden, Josiah Skelton, Col. Erkuries Beatty, 
David Godwin, Josias Ferguson, John N. Simpson, Joseph 
Olden, John Gifford, Dr. John Vancleve, John I. Craig, Robert 
Voorhees, Job Stockton, Andrew Hunter, William Napton, 
John Robeson, John S. Wilson, John Passage, Cornelius Ter- 
hune, Samuel Bayard, John Joline, Perez Rowley, Jacob Keen, 
Peter Bogart, Ralph Sansbury, John Maclean. George Follct, 
John Norris, Benjamin Olden, Thomas White, Joseph H. Skel- 
ton, John S. Nevius, James S. Green, Richard Stockton, Jr., 
Dr. James G. Ferguson, David Clarke, Henry Clow, Peter 
Stryker, Samuel R. Hamilton, Charles Steadman and others. 



20 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

This array of names connected with this Princeton fire com- 
pany exhibits quite fully the substantial citizens of Princeton, 
some of whom were active in public life before and during the 
Revolution, and others, surviving until within the last live 
years past. It is interesting to know that the prominent men, 
the professors and the professional men, were not merely hon- 
orary members but attending members, who shared in the duties 
and oftlces of the company. 

There seems to have been a strict enforcement of the fines 
and penalties for non-attendance and for not keeping their 
buckets, bags and other things in the condition and place 
directed. There was much difficulty in keeping the ladders 
from being taken and used without leave. They were finally 
secured by lock and chain, on motion of Thomas P. Johnson. 

On motion of Thomas P. Johnson a committee was ap- 
pointed to procure a machine for the purpose of letting people 
down from the upper stories of buildings when on fire. Col. 
E. Beattv, Thomas P. Johnson, Josias P'erguson and Stephen 
Morford, were appointed on said committee. John N. Simp- 
son and Stacy Mornor were afterwards added to it. We can- 
not learn that such a machine was ever procured. The com- 
pany discouraged the practice of making bonfires in the 
streets. On motion of Dr. John Vancleve a committee was 
raised to procure a light ladder, a hammer and basket of nails 
for the purpose of nailing blankets, etc., on the sides and roofs 
of houses, adjoining those on fire, in order to prevent the further 
progress of the fire. The company appeared to be well supplied 
with ladders, fire-hooks, fire-buckets, bags, speaking trumpets, 
hammer and nails, etc., and most intelligent directors. Theii 
engine was one which belonged to the college until 1819, when 
they bought a new one for $500. The engine house was in College 
Lane. But the supply of water was deficient, only one or two 
cisterns or reservoirs could be depended upon besides the wells. 

An effort to purchase a new fire engine was attempted 
through the years from 1812 to 1815, by subscription, and an 
application for aid was made to the college, but it did not meet 
with success. Mow much later than 181 7 this company main- 
tained its organization we cannot learn. The only book of 
minutes we have seen closes with that year. 



oc 



PRINCETON ASA MUNICIPALITY. 21 

In the year 1825 a charter of the "Princeton Fire Com- 
pany," with a capital of $1,000, was granted to Peter Bogart, 
Thomas White, James G. P^rguson, Robert Voorhees, Einley 
Olden, and James S. Green, corporators. This company was 
organized. 

In the year 1833 "The Resolution Fire Company, of 
Princeton," was incorporated with a capital of $1,000, tiie cor- 
porators being C. M. Campbell, James Powell, John l'. Thomp- 
son, David N. Bogart, Wm. R. Murphy. Abram Stryker, John 
Scudder, Charles G. Hollingshead and William Joline." 

It is quite recently that the common council have taken the 
control and regulation of the fire department, providing en- 
gines, hose, hooks and ladders, engine houses, etc., by taxation. 
The revised charter authorizes the council to pass an ordinance 
"to establish, regulate and control a fire department, with 
power to exempt its members from serving as jurors in the 
courts for the trial of small causes and from militia duty in time 
of peace; to provide fire engines, hose and hook and ladder 
carriages and all apparatus and houses needful therefor. 

There are at present two fire engine companies and one 
hook and ladder company well organized and equipped, in 
Princeton, and with good houses. The hook and ladder house 
is in Mercer Street and has a fire bell. The engine company 
No. 3 have a house and engine room in Chambers Street and 
have a bell, and the other company and house arc at Queens- 
ton. ^ 

The companies are all in good working condition, and the 
multiplication of cisterns through the streets affords a much 
better supply of water than in former years. An annual appro- 
priation is made by council to maintain the department. The 
steam engine has not yet been introduced. The chief engineer 
is appointed by the council. The companies are mostly com- 
posed of young men of the town. The members are exempt, 
by law, from military and jury duty. 

The Market. 
As early as 1782 there was a market house in Princeton, for 
we have learned that a public meeting was called to be held at 
the market house in that year. It was probably at the same 



22 HISTORY OF PKINCETOX. 

place in the street where subsequent market houses were built. 
Since the last market house was abandoned and taken down 
the ordinances relating to the market have not attracted much 
attention or respect, but have generally been inoperative. 
Meats, vegetables and provisions are now sold in shops and 
stores^and in wagons, from door to door, without license. 

There is so much fluctuation in the demand and supply 
that a uniformity of prices is not strictly maintained in the 
stores, except for flour and imported provisions. Consumers 
are frequently compelled to resort to the large cities for sup- 
plies. Meats, butter, eggs, fruits and vegetables usually com- 
mand high prices in Princeton, and so do wood and coal. A 
little more system in adjusting the supply to the demand, and 
a little more capital invested in the business would improve the 
market, and the subject is one which should receive the favora- 
ble consideration of the council, without prohibiting free 
trade. 

Princeton Post Office and Mails. 

Princeton being situated on the post road between New 
York and Philadelphia, has always been favored w^ith the ad- 
vantage of regular mails. The Colonies were indebted to Col. 
John Hamilton, son of Gov, Andrew Hamilton, of New Jersey, 
for the scheme by which the post-office was established. This 
was about the year 1694. A bill for the settling of a post-office 
in the province was passed by the Provincial Legislature at 
Perth Amboy, which was approved by his excellency, John 
Lovelace. From 1720 to 1754 the post was carried from New 
York to Philadelphia, through Princeton, once every week in 
summer and once in two weeks in winter. Then Dr. Franklin 
became superintendent and improved the post-office system, 
and the post left each city three times a week, and in 1764 it 
began to run every other day, making the trip in twenty-four 
hours, till the Revolution interfered with its regularity. Notice 
was given, Sept. 19, 1734, of the establi.shment of a post-office 
in Trenton, where all persons could receive their letters if 
directed to that county. 

The precise time when a post-office was first established in 
Princeton we cannot state. It would seem, from the fact that 



PRINCETON AS A MUNICIPALITY. 23 

in the list of letters in the Trenton post-office advertised in 
March, 1755, there were letters there directed to persons at 
Kingston, Rocky Hill, Princctown, Hopewell and Maidenhead, 
there may not have been at that time a post-office in any of 
those places. In 1791, it is stated, there were only six post- 
offices in New Jersey, viz.: at Newark, Elizabethtown, Brid<,re- 
town (now Railway), Brunswick, Princeton and Trenton. 

There are now, and have been for nearly fifty years, two 
mails a day, except Sundays, a morning and evening mail, 
both from the North and the South, besides local cross 
mails. 

Major Stephen Morford kept the post-office in Princeton 
for many years on the corner of Nassau and Withcrspoon 
Streets, in the building now H. B. Duryea's store, and after his 
death his daughter. Miss Fanny Morford, kept the ofiice in the 
same place for a long time, and when she removed from Prince- 
ton Major John A. Perrine was appointed post-master and kept 
the office in the same place until Robert E. Hornor was ap- 
pointed in his place by Gen. Harrison, in 1S41. The office was 
then removed by Mr. Hornor to his old frame building stand- 
ing on the Skelton property where the residence of Miss Julia 
Smith now stands. 

Dr. Berry, the successor of Mr. Hornor, removed the office 
to the Mercer Hall building of James VanDeventer. Mr. Abram 
Stryker succeeded Dr. Jkrry, and removed the office to the 
property of Isaac Baker, where Cox and Grover's saloon is now 
kept. Captain Wm. R. Murphy succeeded Mr. Stryker and 
removed the office to the Mercer Hall building. Robert Clow, . 
his successor, removed the office to the room now Edward 
Sweeney's stove store. John T. Robinson, the successor of 
Mr. Clow, opened the office where Mr. Bergen's grocery is now 
kept. Isaac Baker succeeding him, took the office to the little 
shop on the corner of Baker's Alley and Nassau Street. Mr. 
Baker's successor was William C. Vandewater, the present in- 
cumbent, who provided a larger and better room than ever before 
had been occupied as a post-office, in the present building next 
to the Press building in Nassau Street. 

The presence of the institutions of learning necessarily gives 
peculiar importance and responsibility to such an office. The 



24 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

correspondence through it, of course, is very large, and the sal- 
ary of the post-master amounts to about $2,000. 

For the last twenty-five years and upwards certain families 
and institutions in the west end of the town have employed a 
private carrier, who calls at their houses for letters to be mailed, 
in the morning and evening, and who delivers the distributed 
mail to them also every morning and evening. This secures, 
at little expense, the full advantage of a city delivery post- 
office. 

The Telegraph Office 

was first opened, in Princeton, February 27, 1863,. in the store 
kept by J. T. L. Anderson, then Ma)'or of Princeton, in the 
brick property of the Hart Olden family, now occupied by Mr. 
■Dohn. It was a connection of the Portland, Maine and Wash- 
ington line. It was afterwards removed to George Thomp- 
son's bookstore ; thence to the Press building of C. S. Rob- 
inson, and it is now in the University Hotel. 

The Princeton Gas Light Company 

was incorporated in 1849. The corporators were John F. 
Hageman, Peter V. DeGraw, Alpheus C. Dunn, Isaac Baker, 
and John T. Robinson, with a capital of $25,000. 

The company organized with Richard S. P'ield, president. 
A lot of land, a portion of the old Wiggins parsonage prop- 
erty, in Witherspoon Street, was purchased of James Van De- 
venter, and the works were constructed by Messrs. Hoy, Potts 
and Perdicaris, of Trenton, who took largely of the stock. 
The works were at first adapted to the manufacture of resin 
gas. The war raised the price of resin so high that it became 
necessary to alter the works so as to manufacture coal gas. 
This was done and the price of light was reduced. The works 
have been enlarged and improved from time to time, at much 
cost, and are now capable of supplying the increased demand 
of the institutions which, until quite recently, did not use gas 
in their public buildings. Owing to the frequent large outlays 
of capital, to give adequate efficiency to the works, the stock 
has not been remunerative to the stockholders. The dividends 
have been very meagre. The company has recently bought 



PRINCETON- ASA MUNfCIPALITY. 2$ 

more land, including the old Wigt,n'ns parsonage house, and 
have otherwise added to the capacity of their works, by which, 
it is believed, they will be able to answer all demands upon 
them, and soon raise the value of the stock. The enter- 
prise has been of great value to the town if not to the stock- 
holders. Mr. Perdicaris, of Trenton, is now the president, 
Lyman S. Atwater, treasurer, and Ignatius Hoff, superintend- 
ent. There are five directors. The price of gas has been 
reduced to about $4 per 1,000 feet. 

The Princeton Rank. 
In 1834 a charter to incorporate "The President, Directors 
and Company of the Princeton Bank" was obtained, with a 
capital of $90,000 paid in. The charter was to expire Janu- 
ary I, 1855. It had been petitioned for in 1827. The names of 
the corporators were Robert Voorhees, William Cruser, Wil- 
liam Gulick, Robert Bayles, John Gulick, Abraham Cruser and 
John S. Van Dike. The company was organized with Robert 
Voorhees, a well known and responsible merchant of Prince- 
ton, for its president, and Louis P. Smith, cashier. A large 
and handsome building was erected for the use of the bank and 
the residence of the cashier on the Norris lot next to the resi- 
dence of Mr. Voorhees, the president, at the head of Nassau 
Street, in which the bank has been kept until its recent removal 
into the University Hotel building. Robert Voorhees died in 
1838 and Richard S. iMeld was elected president in his place, 
and was continued the attorney of the bank and one of its 
directors and the president till the expiration of the charter, 
except the years 1848-49-50, during which George T. Olmsted 
was the president. The health of Louis P. Smith failed, and, 
in 1851, he resigned and Mr. Olmsted was elected cashier and 
Mr. Field was re-instated president. 

As we have hereinbefore stated, this institution gave an 
impulse to the growth and improvement of Princeton. The 
board of directors included the most enterprising and solid men 
of the community, and inspired confidence in its management 
and in its stock as a safe investment. The officers were men 
of character, obliging and full of public spirit and enterprise, 
and their accommodating treatment of those who had applied 



26 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

for assistance, at their counter, had won a large degree of sym- 
pathy and favor from the pubhc. 

]3ut at the expiration of its charter in 1855, when its history 
began to unfold itself to those who had furnished the capital for 
banking purposes, a dark cloud fell upon it, as upon many other 
monetary institutions before and since that time. It had paid 
its regular dividends to the stockholders semi-annually through 
all the years of its existence. It had made its regular reports 
to the legislature, under the prescribed stringent oath of its 
officers, in which it had disclosed no loss of capital until a few 
years before its charter expired, when it suggested a probable loss 
of about $30,000. Still its stock was bought and sold at par, or 
nearly so. And now, when the charter expired and the stock- 
holders called for a statement from the directors, with a return of 
their paid-in capital and its earnings, a long and minute report 
was prepared and read by a committee of the directors to the 
stockholders and to the public, declaring that the whole cap- 
ital of the bank had disappeared, had been lost ; that there 
were no assets or property in hand from which anything could 
be realized unless, possibly, something might be made out of 
$10,000 worth of Arkansas lands which the bank owned; that 
it would be able to redeem its outstanding circulation, but to 
do so it would be compelled to sell the banking house. 

The stockholders were indignant and the community was 
amazed at the exhibit contained in this report. Several meet- 
ings of the stockholders were called, which resulted in the 
employment of a committee to takethe report and test its cor- 
rectness. This committee, after a protracted investigation, 
reported that the directors' report was wholly unreliable in its 
particular statements and its general results. They an- 
nounced that not more than $30,000, or one-third of the cap- 
ital stock, had been lost, that another third had not been lost, 
and the remaining third was involved in uncertainty, but they 
believed that a more thorough investigation would secure it to 
the stockholders. They exonerated tiie officers from any fraud- 
ulent intent to abstract or waste the funds of the bank, but 
characterized their negligence in conducting its business as 
gross and criminal. 

Only about one-third of the stock was held by persons who 



PRINCETON AS A MUNICIPALITY. 2y 

were not directors, or closely related to them and to others upon 
whom responsibility for the loss would legally fall. The most 
of those who were not implicated, and whose friends were not, 
agreed to waive suit and accc-pt of one-third the par value of 
their stock, and this was paid to them by the president, who 
took a transfer of their stock. The great bulk of the stock- 
holders submitted silently to the loss. 

In 1854, just before the charter of the first bank expired, a 
new bank was organized under the general banking law of the 
State, with the same officers and directors, and a large number 
of the old stockholders, who had lost all, were indirced to try 
to regain their loss by taking new stock in the new bank. 

In 1S55 a special charter was given to this association by 
the legislature, and after eight or ten years it became a national 
bank, assuming the name of the Princeton National Bank, Mr. 
Olmsted continuing to be the cashier through all its changes' 
Mr. Fi'eld resigned the presidency and was succeeded by Jolia- 
than Fish, of Trenton, who was soon succeeded by David H. 
Mount, of Rocky Hill, who was succeeded by Edward Howe.' 
The Princeton National Bank has recently removed into the 
handsome rooms in the east end of the University Hotel, with 
Edward Howe, president, Thomas Scger, cashier, (Mr. Olmsted 
having resigned on account of bad health,) and Abram Stryker, 
teller and notary. It pays good dividends and seems to be a 
sound institution, which it is reputed to be. The capital is 
$100,000. 

The Princeton Savings Bank 
was organized under a charter granted in 1873, with Joseph H. 
Bruere, president, and Crowell Marsh, treasurer, with a board of 
directors, and is now in operation. It has no banking house, 
but its business is transacted at the Treasurer's place ^of busi- 
ness in the Press building in Nassau Street. Its success thus 
far has exceeded the expectations of its founders. 

The Princeton Mutual Fire Insurance Company 
was incorporated in 1856, and has gone on safely in a moderate 
business. It has the confidence of the community after a trial 
of twenty years. Henry D. Johnson has been, from its be-in- 



28 HISTORY OF PRLVCETON: 

ning, till his death, April 30, 1878, the president of the com- 
pany, and Abram Stryker has served most of that time as 
secretary. George O. Vanderbilt is now Secretary. 

The Princeton Lumber and Improvement Company 

was incorporated in 1868, as a joint stock company. It has 
confined its business chiefly to traffic in coal, lumber, fertilizers 
and building material. Its office and centre of business is at 
the Princeton Basin. J. W. Fielder is the President. 

The Princeton Silver Mining Company, of Colorado, 

was incorporated in 1870, but has not supplied us with any 
history of its success. 

The Princeton Copper Company, 

organized at Trenton in 1847, '^"K^^^r the general law, has no 
historical importance to Princeton, except its name, so far as 
we are able to learn. 

The Robbins Wood Preserving Company, New Jersey, 

was incorporated in 1868. as a joint stock company, with a cap- 
ital of $120,000. Its object was to season and preserve wood 
and textile fabrics from mould and deca)% under the " Robbins 
patent." It originated in Princeton. Its works were con- 
structed at the Princeton Basin. Several disasters by fire and 
explosions have checked the progress and prosperity of the 
company, but it is still in operation. Martin Voorhees, of 
Princeton, was the leading man and officer in the company, 
and his life was sacrificed by an explosion of gas in the prose- 
cution of the enterprise, at Brooklyn, N. Y. 

The Princeton Water Company. 

A charter was granted in 1872 authorizing the organization 
of a company for supplying Princeton with pure water. This 
subject is beginning to agitate the public mind, and a supply 
of water for the use of the town and the institutions cannot 
much longer be obtained from wells and cisterns. Sewerage 
and a supply of water are now among the most important sub- 
jects that claim public attention in the borough. The increased 



PRINCETON AS A MUNICFPAUTY. 29 

number of public buildings connected with the institutions of 
learning and the increasing number of students who live to- 
gether and require a large supply of water at one time and 
place, for common use, cannot much longer be denied a full 
and unfailing supply of good pure water. The water from 
most of the wells in Princeton is excellent, but it is not easily 
forced to the tops of our high buildings, nor can it be drawn in 
quantities to answer the demands of the public. 

In looking for a source of supply some have directed atten- 
tion to the springs on the Tusculum farm on Rocky Hill : 
others have suggested the springs which supply Lake Van De- 
venter, in the centre of the town. The college authorities have 
set their engineering corps at work on the subject and they 
seem to think that it will be necessary to rcsurt to the Mill- 
stone River for a sufficient supply of good water, such as Stony 
Brook is not able to afford. 

How refreshing it will be to see our houses and public build- 
ings fully supplied and our streets and lawns filled with foun- 
tains pouring out streams of pure water upon plants and flowers. 
The council and citizens generally will be blind to the pub- 
lic and to private interests, if they are not prompt to aid any 
generous movement that shall be made by the institutions, or 
by some of Princeton's princely benefactors, to secure this in- 
valuable blessing. Princeton, as a community by itself, cannot 
aspire to accomplish such a great work, but the sympathy and 
capital of the friends and patrons of our institutions, at home 
and abroad, which have wrought such wonders in our town, 
will not be exhausted while any great need remains unsupplied. 

The Princeton Building and Loan Association. 

There is now, and there has been for many years, such an 
association in successful operation, in Princeton, incorporated 
under the general law of the State. The loans of money, how- 
ever, have not been advanced exclusively, nor perhaps chiefly, 
with a view of having new buildings erected. 

"The New Jersey Iron Clad Roofing, Paint and Mas- 
tic Company." 
This was a company incorporated by special charter, April 
16, 18G8, for the purpose of manufacturing iron-clad roofin"- 



30 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

and paints, with a capital stock of $25,000. The corporators 
were Alexander Gray, Jun., John W. Fielder, James VanDc- 
venter, Alfred W, Martin, Henry B. Duryee, Henry W. Leard, 
Edward Howe, Aaron L. Green, Charles O. Hudnut, and John 
Cox, 

A company was organized in Princeton, and the business 
was carried on at the Princeton Basin, and is still carried on 
there. 

A Military Company, 

of some kind, has almost always been maintained in Princeton. 
As early as September 13, 1743, Governor Lewis Morris com- 
missioned William Fish, Esq., captain of a company for 
" Princetown in a Somerset County regiment" of foot militia. 

There was an infantry company organized in 1796 which 
continued until about 1820. This company having dwindled, 
a new one was organized in 1824 to serve in the reception of 
Gen. Lafayette, by Captain John Lowrey, and was known as 
" lyte Frinccion Blues." Whether this name was borne by a 
company prior to 1824 we are not informed, but the Princeton 
Blues were a handsome company and had a good reputation in 
the State for more than twenty-five years after that date. 
Captain Lowrey was a good officer; he had a fine military step 
and bearing, and was much respected by his company and by 
the community. From 1825 to 1835 the company was in its 
highest prosperity and contained the best young men in the 
town among its members. 

After Capt. Lowrey was made colonel in the militia his place 
was filled by Capts. John A. Perrine, Van Dyke Bergen, A. F. 
Allen, and A. L. Green, successively. Capt. Murphy com- 
manded the Mercer Guards. 

When the late civil war broke out the " Princeton Blues" 
had become disbanded as a company, and a new company, under 
the revised militia law of the State, was formed and known as 
" The Governor s Guard," with William V. Scudder as its 
captain, until he enlisted in the 1st New Jersey Cavalry of vol- 
unteers, when Aaron L. Green, who had been an officer in the 
" Princeton Blues," became its captain. The only military com- 
pany which has a visible existence in Princeton at this time 



PRINCETON AS A MUNICIPALITY. 3 I 

is that of the " Continentals^' organized for centennial cele- 
bration, and which appeared first at the Princeton Centennial 
celebration on the 27th of June, 1876. 

There was a light-horse company formed in 1861, but it 
was disbanded when the war closed. 

There were other military companies, under the militia laws 
of the State, which required military duty and drill from all 
the citizens of the State not exempted, of which many of the 
citizens of Princeton were members, but the companies first- 
mentioned were select and, in a sense, private volunteers. 

Many bands of martial music have been established in 
Princeton from time to time, but they have all been short- 
lived. 

"The Trustees of the Princeton Charitable Institu- 
tion." 

This is a corporation granted by the Legislature, March 13, 
1866. It is declared to be a " charitable institution to aid and 
assist indigent youth in obtaining a liberal and Christian educa- 
tion zvithout regard or reference to their future profession, occu- 
pation or cniployuicnt, and for other like benevolent purposes." 

The names of the incorporated trustees were Charles S. 
Olden, Charles Hodge, John Maclean, Stephen Alexander, John 
S. Schanck, Lyman H. Atvvater, and John T. Duffield. 

The entire management of its funds and affairs is vested 
in a board of trustees, not less than seven nor more than fifteen 
in number, a majority of whom shall always be citizens and 
residents of this State. It has a small yearly income, which 
ought to be greatly augmented. Dr. Maclean has generous- 
ly devoted the profits of his " History of the College" to this 
object. 

Mercer Mall, 

a large frame building, was erected on the property occupied 
and owned by Col. John Lowrcy at the time of his decease, 
on the north side of Nassau Street, opposite the old market- 
house, by James VanDevcntcr, in or about the year 1846. It 
has stores and rooms under and in the front part of the build- 
ing, but above and in the rear there was a large audience room 



32 HISTORY OF PRINCETOM. 

capable of seating four or five hundred people. It was the 
first public hall ever provided for the town, and it was used for 
public meetings, lectures, concerts, etc., for twenty-five years. 
The enterprise and public spirit which prompted Mr. VanDe- 
venter to erect such a building entitle him to be remembered 
as a public benefactor. Within a few years past the property 
has passed into other hands, and the large audience room has 
been changed into a billiard room. 

Cook's Hall 

is the building which was formerly the Second Presbyterian 
Church edifice. When that congregation removed into their 
new and beautiful church they sold the old building to Alfred 
S. Cook, who kept it for public meetings, concerts, balls, etc. 
It is just now converted into cottage residences. 

There is hope that a large and handsome public hall will 
soon be erected in the centre of the town, adapted to the wants 
of such a community as Princeton, for public meetings, lectures, 
concerts, with rooms for courts, elections, library and other 
kindred uses. 

The Poor who are residents in the town are provided for 
by the township, under the poor laws of the State. The poor 
house farm is at Mt. Lucas, but the transient poor are handed 
over to the borough authorities, and a lodging place and a meal 
are provided for them, in winter especially. When work has 
been provided for them, and the vagrant laws have been en- 
forced, the community has been agreeably relieved from the 
annoyance of excessive street beggary. 

Much is done constantly by the religious and charitable as- 
sociations of the town, and by private alms, to save indigent 
persons from adjudicated pauperism. 

Skating Parks. 

The young people of Princeton have, for the last twelve or 
fifteen years, been supplied with accommodation for skating in 
the town, without resorting to the Stony Brook or the canal for 
the purpose. ]\Ir. James VanDeventer was the first man to 
construct a lake or pond for this purpose, on his garden and 



PRINCETON ASA MUNICIPALITY. 33 

nursery land lying on the little ravine below the gas works, on 
Witherspoon Street, land which was formerly a part of the 
Wiggins Parsonage tract and of the Dr. Ebenezer Stockton 
land. The situation was central and the pond was large enough 
to answer the demands of the skaters. Subsequently the skat- 
ing club rented the privilege of constructing a still larger pond 
on the land of John Conover, a little below Mr. VanDeventer's, 
and have kept up a skating park there every winter, making 
the sale of tickets pay for the expense of filling the pond and 
keeping the ice in good condition and under proper regulation. 
The art of skating has been brought to a high degree of success 
in Princeton, the young ladies as well as the young gentlemen 
exhibiting as much taste and skill in this fine art, as it may be 
designated, as the champion skaters of Central Park, in New 
York, There has been rather less interest manifested in this 
amusement, for the last year or two, than there was for several 
years before that time. The subject has not yet received any 
attention or legislation from the council but it has been wholly 
governed by private voluntary arrangement. 

The Princeton Driving Park. 

For little more than a year past a portion of the Castle- 
Howard farm, now belonging to the estate of the Rev. H. M. 
Blodgett, deceased, has been rented and appropriated to the 
use of a driving park, as such institutions are in these days 
designated. A good half mile track has been prepared with 
proper enclosures by an association of gentlemen who keep 
fast horses, and who take an interest in promoting their speed, 
principally in trotting. It has required no little decision and 
persistency in the majority of its directors to restrain the 
abuses which the turf almost of necessity involves, especially 
those evils which arise from extending its use to professional 
sportsmen from abroad. It will probably be found impossible 
to maintain it within those local neighborhood limits which 
alone can secure it from becoming a public nuisance by its 
demoralizing influence. While the old fashioned race course 
has been abolished by law, it is doubtful whether this modern 
institution to increase the speed of horses can be divorced from 
the attendant evils of pool selling, gambling and disorder, 
3 



34 HISTORY OF PRINCETON/. 

which would hardly be tolerated in such a community as this, 
notwithstanding the spirit of championship in exciting games 
is nurtured and stimulated among our youth at the present 
time with extreme zest. Time will test its strength and its 
usefulness. The association has not yet been incorporated by 
law. 

The Order of Masons. 

The Masonic order has not been without representatives in 
Princeton, from a very early period in its history. 

A lodge bearing the name of St. John was constituted here 
as early as 1763. It became extinct, and a warrant for a new 
one was issued upon the petition of Thomas P. Johnson and 
others, which was organized in the early part of the present 
century, as "Princeton Lodge No. 30." 

This lodge failing, after a few years, to be represented in 
the communications of the Grand Lodge of New Jersey, was, 
for such neglect, stricken from the list of lodges, and also be- 
came extinct. 

A third lodge was chartered in 1856, known as "Princeton 
Lodge, No. 38." 

In the printed by-laws of this lodge, we find a brief histori- 
cal sketch of Masonry in New Jersey, which we are permitted 
here to insert. 

On the 27th day of December, 1763, at the celebration of the festival of St. 
John the Evangelist, a petition was granted by the St. John's Grand Zl of Mas- 
sachusetts, under the Grand Mastership of R. W. Jeremy Gridley, " for constituting 
a [Zl by the name of St. John's [Z] at Princetown (Princeton) in New Jersey. 

No record of the transactions of this ZH has been discovered. By personal in- 
quiry at the office of the Grand Secretary of Massachusetts, it has been ascertained 
that it was duly organized and did Masonic work. The archives of the Grand [Z! of 
Massachusetts contained some documents in connection with it, but these were un- 
fortunately destroyed l)y the fire which consumed the Masonic Temple in Boston 
a few years since. * 

At the yearly communication of the Grand Z^ of New Jersey, at the city of 
Trenton on the 9th day of November. A. L. 5813, a petition, presented by Thomas 
P. Johnson and four others, all Master Masons, praying that a warrant may be 
granted unto them to form a new CZ at Princeton, to be called Lodge No. 30. was 
read, whereupon, after due consideration it was 

Ordered, That a warrant do" issue to Thomas P.Johnson, Master, Perez Rowlev. 
Senior Warden, John Lindsay, Junior Warden of said Z:. 

The C^ was represented at the annual meeting of the Grand ZH for the next ' 
three years, when it ceased. 



' ;■ ■-, I 



PRINCETON ASA MUNICIPALITY. 35 

At the annual meeting held November 13, A. L. 5S21, it was 
Ordered, That Princeton [Z; No. 30, for neglect in being represented at the com- 
munications of the Grand IZj etc., be stricken from the list of HU HH. 

Princeton LoJge No. 38. 

A dispensation was granted by the M. W. Grand Master Edward Stewart, 
dated August 2rst, A. L. 5855. to Robert S. Green, John Van Tilhurg, Henry 
Clow, John H. Margerum, John A. Perrine, W. T. .Stout and John I. Craig, upon 
which the work was commenced, and progressed until the meeting of the Grand IZZl 
at Trenton on the ninth day of January, in the year of Masoiiry 5856, when a war- 
rant w.as issued to Robert .S. Green, W. M., John II. Margerum, S. W., Wessel T. 
Stout, J. W. 

The membership of this lodge has grown until now, twenty- 
years after its organization, it numbers seventy members. Its 
lodge room is in the building known as Mercer Hail, in Nassau 
Street. 



1SS9287 



\ L^w,\L.^ 



CHAPTER XV. 

INNS AND TAVERNS. 

Their History would make an interesting Volume: Tavern Signs: ''Hudibras" — 
" Confederation " — " Washington " — " College " — " Red Lion " — " City Hotel " 
— "Nassau Hotel" — " Mansion House" — Prominent Landlords : Jacob Hyer, 
John Giflord, George Follet, John Joline — A List of others : The several Hotels 
kept in Princeton for the last Century — " The Lay of the Scottish Fiddle" con- 
ceived and partly written at Joline's Hotel in Princeton — Extracts from it re- 
lating to Princeton. 

The public inn often becomes, from age and association, an 
interesting landmark in local history. Established by law 
under the pressure of public necessity, as a temporary home 
for the stranger and traveller, and ever open to the public for 
business and entertainment, its history is frequently associated 
with remarkable personages and events, and sometimes embel- 
lished with rare anecdote. What an interesting little volume 
the history of Princeton hotels, from the first rude structure 
raised by the first settlers, down to the present magnificent 
University Hotel, would furnish ! It would exhibit to us the 
ancient mode of entertainment, the table with its plain but 
substantial bill of fare, and the lodging room with little or no 
privacy, and the little corner bar, the most important feature 
of the legalized institution. It would carry us back into colo- 
nial times, before the war, and bring us down through the 
thrilling scenes of the Revolutionary period, while the Provin- 
cial and State legislatures and the American Congress were sit- 
ting here. It would describe the days of stage-coaches, when the 
constant arrival and departure of passengers by day and night 
kept the whole village astir; and it would introduce us to the 
variety of guests dining, hungry, and hurried, and to the parlor 
scenes where distinguished soldiers, statesmen, divines, lawyers, 
scholars and poets would casually meet and mingle for a few 
hours. It would reveal to us the bar-room, where wit and 



lATNS AND TAVERNS. 37 

humor, story and song, drunkenness and broils, made up the 
daily routine ; and also the old ball-room and jury-room, neither 
of which would be devoid of interest in the hand of a humorist. 
And then there would be the character and history of some of 
the landlords, so widely known in their day, for their wit and 
humor, and always ready to tell a good story and sing a good 
song. But scanty are the records which perpetuate the history 
of the stranger's home. We meet with the names of " Tavern 
Signs," such as '* Hudibras^' " Confederation^' " Gen. Wcxsh- 
ington^' " TJie College^' ''Red Lion,'' " City Hotel," ''Nassau 
Hotel," " Mansion House," none of which now exist except the 
Nassau Hotel. And among the scores of Princeton inn-kccpers 
some of whom have understood well their vocation and some 
have been equal only to the keeping of a low tippling shop, 
the names of Jacob Hycr, John Gijford, George Follet and JoJin 
jfoline stand out as prominent and historic landlords, with gifts 
and characteristics admirably adapted to the business; and 
these have passed into the history of Princeton. 

It would be very difficult, if at all possible, to trace with 
certainty the several taverns and the signs they severally hung 
out, as one house would sometimes change its sign, with a 
change of landlord ; and so, too, different houses would be 
kept by the same landlord at different times. 

We are not able to give the date of the first licensed tavern 
in Princeton. It was about 1750 when John Stockton saw the 
notorious Tom Bell "at a tavern in Prineetoti," and addressed 
him as Mr. Rowland. We have no means of ascertaining what 
tavern this was, but it was probably the house now occupied by 
Waite and Streeper for stores. 

In 1774 John Adams, on his way to Congress at Philadel- 
phia, spent a Sabbath in Princeton. In his diary he says, 
"August 27, 1774. About 12 o'clock we arrived at the tavern 
in Princeton, which holds out the sign of ' Hudibras,' near 
Nassau Hall College. The tavern keeper's name is Hire," 
(Hyer). This house was afterwards known as the Red Lion, 
and lastly as the City Hotel, by the Market. 

After the Revolutionary War, among a large number of inn- 
keepers in Princeton, we find the following names of persons 
who were licensed, and the years when we first find them in 



38 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

the business, viz: Christopher Beekman, prior to 1781 ; Jacob 
G. Bergen, 1788; John Lane, 1788; Adam Shaw, 1789; David 
Hamihon, 1793; Joseph Crane, 1796; Captain WilHam Jones, 
1797; Josias Ferguson, 1798; David Godwin, 1798; John Gif- 
ford, 1800; Christopher H. Stryker, 1803; Jacob C. Ten Eyck, 
1804; Mrs. Ruth Stryker, 1 806; John Joline, 1810; Perez 
Rowley, 18 10; George Follet, 1S12. 

After this the names of Gilbert Taylor, Aaron Bergen, 
Samuel Pettit, Levi Howell, John Napton, Zebulon Morford 
and Joseph J. Thompson appear as inn-keepers in Princeton, 
the latter in 1826. 

The minutes of the board of trustees of the First Presbyte- 
rian church state that the congregational meeting was held at 
Mr. Reading's large room in 1786, and at the house of Christo- 
pher Beekman in 1787, and meetings of the trustees and the 
congregation were held at the house of David Hamilton in 
1792 and 1793, and at Captain Jones' tavern in 1801. Mrs. 
Theobald Wolfe Tone, in a letter to Dr. Maclean, about 1796, 
mentions " Mr, Gifford, the hotel keeper in Princeton, at whose 
house the stages were wont to stop." 

It is certain that Hyer kept the south side house, opposite 
the market, during the war, known as the Hudibras Plouse 
when he first took it, and that Follet afterwards kept it while 
its sign was the " Red Lion." It is also certain that Gifford 
kept the College Hotel, now Nassau, followed by John Joline, 
the two covering nearly fifty consecutive }-ears. 

COL, Jacob Hyer was the most prominent inn-keeper in 
Princeton before and during the Revolutionary War. He kept 
the "Hudibras" House in 1774, when Mr. Adams stopped 
over Sabbath with him. And it was at his house that Brigadier 
General Heard held a court martial in 1781, to try Lieut. Col. 
Fisher, of Col. Scudder's regiment, for disobeying orders in ref- 
erence to marching to Morristown. We find his name among 
the subscribers for repairing the Presb)'tcrian church, in 1784. 
His name frequently appears in the minutes of the Council of 
Safety while sitting in Princeton, as helping in the cause of in- 
dependence. He was a man of responsibility and yet of gener- 
osity. No man seems to have been more ready than he to 



INNS AND TAVERNS. 39 

become bail for his neighbors when they were arrested for re- 
fusing to take the oath of abjuration and allegiance, and were 
held to appear at the Sessions. He was evidently a popular 
man and held in respect by his respectable fellow citizens, in- 
cluding the Quakers. What was his history before and after 
the ten years to which we have referred we have no knowledge. 

How long the sign of" Hudibras" was kept up we cannot 
ascertain, but it probably was changed while Col. Hyer kept 
the house, for we read of hotels having the signs of " The Con- 
federation " and the "Washington House," with the sign of 
Gen. Washington painted on it, both of which probably origi- 
nated during the war. 

The old tavern on, the north side of the street, probably the 
first and oldest one in Princeton worthy of notice (the property 
now of Messrs. Waite and Streeper), was kept by Christopher 
Beekman in 1787, how much earlier we do not know. It was 
known as the "Washington House" during and after the war. 
This property at one time belonged to Josias Ferguson, who 
kept it until he exchanged it for the Stryker property next 
west of the Nassau Hotel. Christopher Stryker^ kept the 
hotel for some years and died, and his widow then kept it. She 
married Perez Rowleyf and he kept it for several years. It re- 
mained in the hands of the Strykers until they discontinued the 
hotel and sold the property to John L. Thompson, who sold it 
to Isaac Baker. This house, built of stone, must be more than 
a hundred years old. It has been enlarged and stuccoed within 
the last twenty-five years, and is used for stores and residences. 

George Follet was an Englishman widely known as an 
excellent landlord. He came to Princeton about the year 1812 
and took the tavern on the corner of Nassau Street and Col- 
lege Lane, which had formerly been kept by Col. Hyer, but 
which, for the two years next preceding, was kept by John 
Joline. He put out the sign of the ''Red Lion," which he 

* Christopher Stryker was the father of Thomas J. Stryker, late cashier of the 
Trenton bank, and of Samuel S. Stryker, tk-txased, of Trenton, and James D. 
Stryker, of Lambertville. 

f Miss Catharine Rowley, daughter of Perez, was married to the late Rev. 
Symmes C. Henry, D.D., of Cranberry ; her mother was the widow of Col. Wm. 
Scudder. 



40 HISTORY OF PRINCETON: 

always adopted. He was a good caterer and knew how to 
please his guests. The first town meeting held to elect officers 
under the borough charter, in 1813, was held at his house. He 
afterwards kept tavern at Somerville, where Jacob Fritts now 
keeps, and later at the brick hotel in Albany Street, New 
Brunswick. 

The next prominent keeper of this house was JOSEPH J. 
Thompson, who succeeded Zebulon Morford in 1826. Mr. 
Thompson had before that time kept the City Tavern in 
Trenton. He fitted up this house in what was then elegant 
i^tyle, and put up the new sign of the " City Hotel," and ad- 
vertised it in the Trenton Gazette as especially attractive for 
boarders and those who had sons in college. After he left it, it 
was occupied by numerous landlords, some being only tenants 
for a year, until about ten years ago, when the whole building 
and its surroundings were bought and taken down by John C. 
Green for the School of Science, and the ground was thrown 
into the college campus. There was no other tavern on the 
south side of the main street that we can locate or name, thoueh 
the Rev. Mr. Cooley, in his reminiscences in 1802, mentions 
that a tavern once existed on or near Miss Passage's lot. 

The Nassau Hotel, now kept by Atwood and Co., in 
Nassau Street, is the only ancient hotel in the town, all others 
of prior date having disappeared. This has been kept as a 
public house for more than a hundred years. It was originally 
the private residence of Judge Thomas Leonard, who built it 
in 1757, of Holland brick. It was regarded as the finest house 
in the village at that time. It has since been enlarged greatly 
beyond its original dimensions. After the death of Judge 
Leonard, and prior to 1769, it was sold by the sheriff of Somer- 
set in a suit against Mr. Leonard's estate, for a claim in which 
the college was interested. The property was bought by 
Robert Stockton, it is believed, for the college. In 1769 the 
assignees and creditors of Thomas Leonard, the nephew and 
devisee of Judge Leonard, applied to get the House of Assem- 
bly to vacate the sale of this property made to Robert Stockton 
by the sheriff, on the ground of alleged fraud in concealing 



IXNS AND TAVERNS. 4 1 

facts affecting the title, in obtaining the sheriff's deed. The 
appHcation to the Assembly was heard by the House, in a com- 
mittee of the whole, and it was decided that no fraud had ap- 
peared in said Robert Stockton, and the petition was dismissed 
nent. con. The house then became a hotel, and was known as 
the College Inn, having the sign of the College on it. 

It was a hotel during the Revolution and was kept by Chris- 
topher Beekman during and after that period, and has con- 
tinued a hotel to the present time. 

The title afterwards passed from Richard Stockton, it is al- 
leged, on behalf of the College, to Gen. John N. Cumming and 
Major John Gulick, who became largely interested in the sta- 
ging business, and to facilitate that business they ihut!;.;. ,| tin-. 
hotel. The title of Cumming and Gulick was afterwards pur- 
chased by a company consisting of James S. Green, John S. 
Van Dike, William Gulick and others, and from them by A. C. 
Schanck, Dr. J. V. D. Joline and others — to the present owners, 
Leigh and Cook, who have renovated it, and the present pro- 
prietors, Atwood and Co., have greatly elevated its character, 
so that it is superior to any ordinary hotel in country towns, 
and is almost entitled to be ranked in the first class generally. 

John Gifford, son of Archer Gifford, a noted hotel keeper 
in Newark, N. J., came to Princeton prior to the year 1800 and 
kept the Nassau Hotel from twelve to fifteen years. He was 
an intelligent and respectable citizen, and raised a respectable 
family. One of his daughters married a son of Thomas P. 
John.son, Esq., the distinguished lawyer of Princeton. Another 
married the brilliant lawyer, William W. Miller, brother of the 
late J. W. Miller, U. S. Senator of New Jersey. All married 
well. Archer Gifford, a prominent lawyer, late of Newark, and 
the father of Judge C. L. C. Gifford, of that city, was his son. 

Mr. Gifford's name is found among the most liberal sub- 
scribers to the salary pledged to the Rev. Mr. Kollock when 
called to the pastorate of the Presbyterian Church in Princeton 
in 1804. He bought the Sergeant lot in 1809 and sold it to 
the Rev. Dr. Samuel Miller in 18 14, when he built his residence. 
He kept the Nassau House till about 18 12, when he was suc- 
ceeded by John Joline. He subsequently removed to Newark. 



42 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

His father, Archer Gifford, never Hved or kept tavern in Prince- 
ton, His oldest daughter, Mary Gifford, died recently in New- 
ark at an advanced age, remembering the College at Princeton 
in her will. 

John Joline, who had kept the Hudibras House from i8iO 
to i8i2, took charge of the Nassau Hotel and kept it from 1812 
to 1835-6. He had the College painted on the sign by V. D. 
Janvier, when he took the house. He was one of the most 
notable of all the landlords of Princeton ; he was widely cele- 
brated as a jovial host, who could tell a good story and sing a 
good song. He kept good horses, set a good table, and was a 
favorite with the students, giving them good suppers and clan- 
destine sleigh rides. He was a native of the neighborhood of 
Princeton. His father, John Joline, lived in an old house re- 
cently standing on the farm, and not far north of the William 
Gulick residence, now Alexander Gulick's, between Princeton 
and Kingston. 

A letter from Princeton, in 1783, to Col. Beatty, from An- 
thony Joline, an uncle perhaps of John Joline, has been sent to 
us by Miss Beatty, of Trenton, through Dr. J. V. D. Joline, of 
Camden. It was written while Congress was sitting in Princeton. 
It being of some public interest we insert a copy hereunder. 

ANTHONY JOLINE'S LETTER. 

Priiuelon, 17 July, 1783. 

Dear Sir: We are yet ignorant of the intention of Congress, whether they 
will remain here or where they will remove to. Trenton seems to be the jjlace they 
have in view, tho' Philadelphia has, on second thoughts, and second thoughts they 
say are best, given Congress the most friendly and generous invitation to return, 
which I think honor must forbid them accepting. I do not, however, expect they 
will leave this (place) before October. 

Mr. Cape, who, I informed you, was about taking Mr. Woodruff's house, has 
given up the plan, as Congress did not give him suflicient encouragement. Since 
his departure Mr. Prentice, the stage driver, has been in treaty for it, and an agree- 
ment is partly concluded between us. The conditions — He takes it for three years 
at ^100 per annum, -possession given 1st September. Should this t.ike pl.ice I in- 
tend going with Mrs. Joline to Chatham until I can get into a house in Elizabeth 
tow n, which I hope will be in season to open a store of fall goods. 

My celery is now forward enough to set out. If you will prepare your ground 
I will send by the stage, whenever you please, one hundred or more fine plants. 

Mrs. [oline joins in compliments to Mrs. Beatty and yourself, with your friend 
and servant, Anthony Jolink. 

Col. BiiATTY. 



INNS AND TA VERNS. 43 

The public travel through Princeton grew into an immense 
business while John Joline kept the Nassau House, and the 
competition in the business increased yearly. The old low 
coaches with door in the rear used at first, gave place to the 
handsome three seated coach, holding nine passengers within 
it and three on the top, and had doors on the side. As many 
as fifteen stages together would often start off each way at the 
same time. A hundred horses \yould stand waiting at Prince- 
ton 'to take the place of the wearied ones upon their arrival. 
Meals and often lodgings were furnished at Joline's, then still 
known as the College hotel. There were several competing 
lines, — Stockton, Howell, Gumming, lUillock, Gibbons, Stevens, 
Bayles, Gulick, Vanderbilt and others were interested in the 
various rival lines, and Joline was the right man for his place 
in this hotel. The business was brisk and remunerative. Mr. 
Joline, like his predecessor, Gifford, was much respected as a 
citizen, and he reared a respectable family. He had three sons 
and three daughters, who survived him, all well educated, viz., 
William Joline, in Princeton, Dr. J. Van Dyke Joline, in Camden, 
both graduated at Princeton, the former with the first honors, 
and Charles Joline, in New York, and Mary, who was married 
to Ashbel Green, son of Dr. Ashbel Green, the president of the 
College, a lawyer; Catharine, who was married to Mr. Morris, 
of Peekskill, N. Y., and Cornelia, who was married to the Rev. 
Mr. Billings, of Virginia. Dr. J. V. D. Joline has obtained 
much of the reputation of his father as a good landlord. He 
kept the " Nassau Hotel," in Princeton, for many years, and 
the " American," in Trenton, where he made hosts of friends. 

John Joline retired from the Nassau Hotel, better known 
perhaps as Joline's, in 1835 or '36, and died in a year or two 
after that in Princeton. 

It was at the Nassau Hotel, kept by John Joline, where 
" The Lay of the Scottish Fiddle " was conceived and partly 
written. This is a poem in five cantos. The copy before us 
purports on its title page to be the " first American from the 
fourth Edinburgh edition; London: printed for James Caw- 
thorn, Cockspur Street, 1814, and supposed to be written by 
W S , Esq." In the preface it is stated that it was in- 



44 ni STORY OF PRINCETOA'-. 

tended to be In general a parody of Scott's style, but made sub- 
servient to a burlesque romance, in which he meant to raise a 
laugh at the war then existing between England and the 
United States. The writer did not only parody the style of 
the poet of Melrose, but soared beyond the sphere of imitation 
and proved himself to be a poet. 

In the preface to the American edition it is stated that, 

The reader will doubtless smile when he comes to that part of the poem in 
which our old friends. Archy Gifford and John Joline, are mentioned with such dis- 
tinction, and honored with the title of lords, to which, however, they may, for aught 
we know, be as fully entitled as some of the distinguished heroes of modern chivalry. 
Everybody in the world knows that Archy Gifford was and John Joline is as arrant 
a tavern keeper as any in Christendom ; yet has Mr. S., with a singular sort of per- 
verseness, dubbed them both lords and traced their lineage into the very bowels of 
the Crusades. 

In the introduction we have the blind Scotch fiddler, led by 
a dog, coming from Jersey City to Princeton : 

Winding their way in silent toil, 
O'er bridge, through turnpike-gate and stile, 
Our weary travellers pass along, 
Cheered by the wild wood's merry song. 
Till faint with hunger, tired and lame, 
With blistered feet they faltering came, 
To where old Princeton's classic fane. 
With cupola and copper vane, 
And learning's holy jionors crovvn'd. 
Looks from her high hill all around. 
O'er such a wondrous fairy scene. 
Of waving woods and meadows green, 
That, sooth to say, a man might swear, 
Was never seen so wondrous fair. 
Here many a sign-post caught the view 
Of our poor dog, whose instinct knew 
Those fanes, by wandering minstrels sought. 
Where liquor may be be^'gcd or bought. 

****** 
But here stern bigotry abides, 
Which lovely Charity derides, 
Save that which vulgar bosom wins. 
That which at home with self begins. 
Fiddling and dancing they abhorr'd 
And drove the minstrel from their board. 

****** 
Even now he reached the welcome door 
That ne'er was shut against the poor. 



INNS AND TAVERNS. 45 

Where Lord Joline his merry cheer 
Deals out to all from far and near. 

In the third canto there is a humorous description of a con- 
vivial party of students from the college, who were always well 
entertained by this noted landlord : 

Around the tal>le's verge was spread 
Full many a wine-bewildered head, 
Of student learii'd, from Nassau Hall, 
Who, broken from scholastic thrall, 
Had set him down to drink outright 
Through all the livelong merry night. 
And sing as loud as he could bawl. 
Such is the custom of Nassau Hall. 
No Latin now, or heathen Greek 
The Senior s double tongue can speak. 
Jtmiors, from fam'd Pierian fount, 
Had drank so deep tliey scarce could count 
The candles on the reeling table. 
While emulous Freshmen, hardly able 
To drink, their stomachs were so full, 
Hiccupp'd and took another pull, 
Right glad to see their merry host 
Who never wine or wassail crost. 
They will'd him join the merry throng 
And grace their revels with a song. 

Then follows the song. We give one stanza : 

" LORD JOLINE'S SONG." 

" Professors are always a preaching and bawling 
And drinking good liquor, sheer beastliness calling. 
They say that the headache and tavern bills float 
In each glass of good stingo that flows down the throat. 
Yet whoop, boys ! a fig for your musty professors, 
They are all no better than father confessors." 

Next a humorous notice is taken of a party of young peo- 
ple who came in from the country at a late hour of the night. 
Their arrival, with the travelling fiddler, was announced by a 
Freshman. 

" And many lads and lasses too, 
A buxom, witching, merry crew. 
As love's true granary ever knew. 
From country round have come, they say. 
To dance the livelong night away. 



46 HISTORY OF PRINCETON-. 

Flew ope the door, and in there came 
Full many a dancing, loving dame, 
With chintz shoit-gown and apron check'd 
And head with long-ear'd lawn cap deck'd, 
. . And high heel'd shoe and buckles sheen, 

And bosom prank'd with box-wood green. 
With these, well jjair'd, came many a lad 
With health and youthful spirits glad, 
To caper nimbly in Scotch reel 
With toes turn'd in, and outward heel." 

The fourth canto is occupied with an amusing description 
of that dance, in which Lord JoHne took a part, but we have 
no space for selections therefrom. 

At the close of the fifth canto of this witty Lay, a farewell 
is taken of the minstrel : 

" Ilush'd is the strain, the Minstrel gone. 
But did he wander forth alone? 
No — close by Princeton College gate, 
Even to this day he holds his state. 
When well his bearing you may know, 
By sightless eye, and head of snow. 
His little garden flourishes, 
With salad rare and radishes ; 
Cabbage and cucumbers are seen 
And turni])s with their tops so green 
And of the common garden stuff 
The Minstrel has more than enough ; 
His faithful dog is often seen, 
Waddling across the college gi-een, 
And not a little Freshman there, 
But pats his head with pious care. 
At summer eve there gather round. 
The student lads, who stand astound. 
And listen with attentive glee 
To tales of modern chivalry, 
And gallant feats of younger times. 
And various wild and witching rhymes ; 
Once in the year he deigns to play, 
First fiddle on Commencement day, 
When in Joline's high stately hall 
Is held the students' annual uall. 

Appended to this parody are notes explaining many of the 
things referred to in the poem. These notes occupy about one 
hundred pages, and are full of sparkling wit and humor. Those 



IN'A'-S AND TAVERNS. 47 

which refer to the name and family of Gifford and of Joh'ne, and 
to the influence of the ancient classics upon college students, 
would be most interesting to our readers, perhaps, after the few 
selections we have made on those subjects, if we could insert 
them. 

There is no doubt whatever that Jas. K. Paulding, assisted 
by Washington Irving, was the author of this clever little book ; 
and the reason why Princeton was the scene which occupies 
the largest part of the poem is found in the well known fact, 
that Irving and Paulding, congenial souls, met and spent a 
night or two together at Joline's Hotel in Princeton in the 
year 1814 or thereabouts, and that they witnessed, on that oc- 
casion, the things which were described in this little poem, as 
pertaining to Princeton — the blind Scotch fiddler and his dog — 
the hilarious conviviality of the students in the hotel at night — 
the dancing party of the country lads and lasses with the music 
of the fiddle the livelong night, and the peculiar gifts and jolli- 
ness of the landlord. The impression of some persons who 
have heard of the circumstance, is that these poets wrote the 
book while at Princeton, on that occasion, together. Whether 
actually written out then and there or not it was unquestion- 
ably then and there inspired, and the occasion afforded a rare 
entertainment of wit and humor for these gifted sons of poetic 
genius.* 

The Mansion House adjoining the Nassau Hotel, and oppo- 
site the P^irst Presbyterian Church, is a three story brick house, 
erected in 1836, by Elijah Black well, and it was kept as a 
public house from that time till 1875, when it was rented for 
the use of the students, etc. It was a commodious house and 
was sometimes well kept ; but it has no interesting history as 
an inn. 

The Eagle Hotel is a small licensed inn, in Witherspoon 
Street, of five years standing, owned and kept by Michael 
O'Brien. 

In former j'ears there was a hotel kept at Queenston. The 
old building there on the north side of the street, used for that 

* It h.is been suggested that the marriage at Morven of Miss Mary Stockton to 
Mr. Harrison was the occasion which brought the poets to Princeton at that time. 



48 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

purpose fifty years ago, when it was kept by Ager Thorn, Tre- 
blecock and others, has disappeared, and the house on the east 
corner of Harrison Street was subsequently kept as a hotel. 

It has been the custom of late years for the common council 
to grant licenses to oyster and ale shops also. The year 1875 
is the only year in the history of Princeton hotels when there 
was no license' granted lor selling liquor at hotels or elsewhere 
in the borough. 

Prior to this year the then existing hotels in Princeton had 
become disreputable and inadequate to meet the demands of 
the public; had, indeed, degenerated into mere tippling shops, 
the main interest and source of revenue centering in the bar, 
while the table and the rooms for lodging were greatly neg- 
lected. They failed to answer the purpose of their origin ; 
and the common council, in regard to what they understood to 
be the will of the people expressed through the election, refused 
to issue licenses to any of the applicants. It was not by any 
means, evident that any less liquor was sold and drank in the 
town during that year than under the licensed houses. But it 
resulted in a loss to the owners of the houses, which led to the 
conversion of the Mansion House into private use, and to the 
thorough refitting of the Nassau House and raising its charac- 
ter, with new furniture and a new landlord, which commanded 
a license in 1876. But before the renovation of the Nassau 
Hotel was decided upon, a hotel company had been incorpo- 
rated, chiefly under the auspices of the friends and patrons of 
the college, who felt the strong necessity growing out of the 
institutions of learning here, to have a suitable place where 
strangers and friends of the students could be entertained com- 
fortably while here. Hence that noble enterprise, the Univer- 
sity Hotel, long the desideratum of Princeton. 



CHAPTER XVI. 



THE UNIVERSITY HOTEL 



Long felt Want of such a House — Eligible Situation — Built by Joint Stock Com- 
pany — Capital Stock, $100,000 — Extends on two streets 28S feet — Built 
of pressed Brick — Brown Stone Eacings — Four Stories high — Victorian Gothic 
Style — One hundred Rooms above the first Floor — Eastlake Finish — Beautiful 
Furniture — No Bar for Retail of Liquor — House unlicensed — Elegant, luxuri- 
ous, and first-class in all its Appointments — An attractive Resort for Families 
in all Seasons of the Year. 




UNIVERSITY norm., 



The long felt want of a public house in which the guests 
could be comfortably entertained and by wliich visitors might 
be induced to abide in the town for a few daws, especially stich 
as were interested in the institutions, either as parents of the 
students or as patrons of learning, became so oppressive that 
it took form of action in 1874, and led to the incorporation of 
the " Princeton Hotel Company." 
4 



50 HISTORY OF PRINCE TOY. 

The charter, which bears date March ii, 1874, names as 
corporators Ashbel Green, Henry M.Alexander, Edward Howe, 
James VanDeventer, Lyman H. Atwater and William Harris. 
Its object is to hold real estate and to erect and maintain a 
hotel and other improvements thereon for the accommodation 
of the public, with a capital stock of fifty thousand dollars, with 
liberty to increase it to a hundred thousand, in shares of $500 
each. The number of directors is five, who shall be stock- 
holders and hold their office till others are elected and qualified 
in their stead, and all vacancies shall be filled by the remaining 
members of the board of directors. No debt shall be contracted 
beyond the amount of capital stock subscribed and paid in. 

Under this charter a company was organized and directors 
were elected in 1875. The friends and patrons of the institu- 
tions residing in New York became the largest stockholders. 
Rev. William Harris, treasurer of the college, was chosen 
president of the board of directors. It was very difficult and 
very expensive to procure a suitable situation. But one of the 
very best places was finally secured on the corner of Nassau 
Street and Railroad Avenue, by buying the land and removing 
the houses of Dr. A. Alexander and Edward Stockton. This 
lot was not as large as was desirable, but it was in other re- 
spects a most eligible situation, as to the depot, the college, 
the seminary, the centre and west end of the town. The 
architect who drew the plan of the building was William E. 
Potter, of New York. 

The house is built of red pressed brick with brown stone 
facings in the order of architecture called the Victorian Gothic. 
It extends one hundred and forty-two feet, fronting on Nassau 
Street, and about the same distance on Railroad Avenue, with 
a broad piazza along the whole front except so much of the 
building on the east end as is occupied by the Princeton Na- 
tional Bank and the College treasury. There is also a piazza 
along the whole building on the Avenue. The main entrance 
is on Nassau Street. There is also a c in tiiic nl uiie on the 
Avenue. The style of interior finish of the whole building is 
Eastlake, and the furniture is of the best quality and style in 
harmony with it. The parlors, the dining-rooms, smoking-room 
and office on the first floor, are finished and furnished in ex- 



THE UNIVERSITY IIOTEf.. 51 

quisite taste and are ample in size, impressing- every one who 
enters the house with the luxurious comfort and elegance of 
the establishment. There is an air of refinement, neatness and 
quiet immediately perceptible upon entering the house, unlike 
any other large public house in the countr)'. The rooms on 
the upper stories are equally attractive in their finish and furni- 
ture. There are about one hundred of them, and fifteen are 
parlors connecting with sleeping apartments. The building is 
four stories high with a basement, and is heated by steam 
and lighted with gas. The rear end, on Railroad Avenue, 
was originally adapted to the use of students, having a very 
large dining-room on the first floor capable of seating five 
hundred persons, with beautiful rooms in the upper stories for 
lodging such students as were able to take them. This part 
of the house was kept somewhat separate from the other, 
though there was really no separation in the structure of the 
building. The table was less expensive than the one for the 
guests of the hotel, in the other part of the house, though 
served by the same force of cooks and waiters and from the 
same kitchen. The cooking is done by steam, and the laun- 
dry also is worked by steam. 

This branch of the house for the first year was supported 
with some promise of success, but the old difficulty of satisfy- 
ing two or three hundred students at the same table with one 
moderate rate of charge for board, manifested itself so palpably 
that the directors of the hotel company have determined to 
abandon the student's separate table and convert the whole 
house, with all its rooms, into the hotel proper, maintaining 
but one table, and treating all guests alike. 

Too much cannot be said in praise of this beautiful and 
magnifice'nt public house. No outlay of money has ever done 
so much for Princeton, as a locality, as that which has given to 
it this University Hotel. While it is ornamental and imposing 
in its appearance, comparing favorably with the numerous 
grand public buildings of the college and seminary, it is of 
special benefit and attraction, to the stranger and visitor — to the 
friends of the institutions, who desire to come with their fami- 
lies and spend a day or a season with them. It is the pride of 
Princeton. Such an institution would have been unobtainable 



52 HISTORY OF PRINCETON'. 

by the citizens of Princeton without the material aid of non- 
residents. It was fortunate that the enterprise was felt by the 
friends of the college and seminary, residing in New York, to 
be a supreme desideratum in Princeton. The aid of Messrs. 
William Libbey,John A. Stuart, and Henry M. Alexander, of 
New York, trustees and friends of the college, secured the erec- 
tion and completion of the establishment. Though built by a 
joint stock company at the cost of about $100,000, it is under- 
stood that Mr. Libbey took the great bulk of the stock, and 
thereby became not only the real founder of this institution, 
but also, the princely benefactor of Princeton, whose memory 
will always be cherished with honor and gratitude. 

The government of this house has thus far been energetic 
and liberal. It is not left wholly to the manager, but the com- 
pany look after it with commendable vigilance. The first 
manager, Mr. Goldie, master teacher of gymnastics in college, 
gave the house at the start a good reputation for its cuisine as 
well as for its cleanliness and good order; but under his suc- 
cessor, Mr. Niebuhr, its present manager, whose instructions 
require a more economical administration of its affairs, a more 
assured promise has been raised that a permanent business can 
be established here which, in time, will not only save the in- 
vestment from loss but make it remunerative; and this with 
undiminished reputation. 

There is one peculiarity about this house which is singular. 
It is not strictly a public inn. It is not a licensed house. Nor 
does it stand upon the grade of temperance hotels, under the 
license laws of the State. It has no bar Avhere liquors are re- 
tailed. Guests of the house may obtain wines and liquors at 
their meals if they wish them, to drink as they would do in 
their own homes, but there is no tippling, no treating and wait- 
ing to be treated with intoxicating drinks, no line of degraded, 
tipplers and drunkards lounging in or about the house. The 
atmosphere is free from the flavor of a bar-room. The halls 
and parlors are exempt from the intemperate and baser sort of 
men. Married women and maidens of the greatest delicacy 
and reserve may have the range of the house, its halls and 
piazzas, without encountering anything offensive or anybody 
disorderly, which would compel them to retreat to their own 



THE UNIVERSirV HOTEL. 53 

private rooms. The fact that this is not a licensed house gives 
the proprietors or the manager the right to admit and refuse 
guests at win. No person, though able to pay his bill, can in- 
sist upon becoming a guest and inflicting his presence in the 
public parlor, or at dinner, or even on the piazza without the 
consent of the manager. This feature of the establishment 
protects it from the unpleasant agitation which sometimes 
arises in regularly licensed inns from the application of obnox- 
ious persons, who seek to test their legal rights to go and 
stay where they please. While this house has these advantages 
in not securing license, it has the disadvantage to guests, per- 
haps, of not being held liable for loss of baggage, etc., under 
the law applicable to inn-holders. But when a house is con- 
ducted by such a company and manager as this one is, guests 
would sooner confide in them for protection and security than 
they would in most landlords under the law^ regulating licensed 
houses. This mode of conducting a large and first class public 
house without legal license is novel, and it is possible that 
its future may require some legislation, either for the benefit 
of the house or its guests. Experience will determine what, if 
anything, shall be demanded. It is, as it now stands, the per- 
fection of a first-class public house. The bank is in one end 
of it ; the telegraph office is in the centre of the hall, and it 
has every convenience for public or private receptions. 

This house stands about fifty feet back from Nassau Street, 
with the ground in beautiful sward, enclosed with a neat iron 
fence, and quite near the railroad depot. It is admirably 
adapted to boarders, either in winter, when the institutions are 
in session, or in summer, when the town is quiet and shady. 
After what has been written, no one will ask why it was called 
the University Hotel. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES OF PRINCETON. 

Princeton Tacket, 1786 — Religious and Literary Gazette — New Jersey Patriot 

Series of Tracts— American Journal — American Magazine — Princeton Courier 
— American System — Journal of Education— Princeton Whig — Princeton Press 
— Mercer Co. Mirror — Princeton Standard — Princetonian — Biblical Reperto- 
ry and Princeton Review — Princeton Magazine — The Missionaiy Review. 

Princeton had almost won the honor of issuing the first 
weekly newspaper that was published in the State of New Jer- 
sey. The intelligence which characterized the early settlers 
and their descendants in the eighteenth century, and the pub- 
lic influence which emanated from this place would naturally 
justify the expectation that the printing press would have been 
employed to disseminate through newspapers, pamphlets and 
books, the opinions and views of the prominent public men of 
Princeton, even as early as the revolutionary period. But the 
situation of Princeton was too conspicuous, lying as it did in 
the track of the marching and counter-marching of the con- 
tending armies in the Revolution, to hold with safety a news- 
paper printing press. There was a monthly magazine pub- 
lished at Woodbridge, in this State, the first periodical pub- 
lished in the Province and the second on the Continent. It 
was called the American Magazine. Its first number appeared 
in 1758, but it was discontinued in 1770 for want of patrona"-e. 

The first weekly neivspaper published in this State was the 
Nciv Jersey Gazette, commencing Dec. 5, 1777, by Isaac Col- 
lins, at Burlington. It was printed on a folio sheet 12 by 8 
inches. It was discontinued in 1786. 

It is stated in the History of Elizabeth that a paper called 
the New Jersey Jojirnal, was established in Elizabethtown in 
1785, and has been continued until the present time. It was 
first issued at Chatham, N. J., for greater safety, the enemy 



NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES OF PRINCETON. 5S 

never liaving penetrated that section. The first number was 
dated Feb. lo, 1779- Its editor was the patriotic Shepherd 
Kollock. He estabhshed it to aid his countrymen in their 
patriotic work, by the advice of General Knox. 

That paper was of great service to the patriot cause, and 
continued till the close of the war. It was then removed to 
the city of New York, and took the name of the New York 
Gazetteer and Country Joiirnal. It was discontinued in 1786. 
Mr. Kollock also published a weekly paper in New Brunswick, 
N. J., as early as 1784, which he transferred to Elizabethtown 
in 1785. It took the name of the '' Netv Jersey Journal and 
Political Intelligencer," dropping the latter part of the name 
in 1792. 

The " Princeton Packet and General Advertiser " 
was the first newspaper published in Princeton. It was estab- 
lished in May, 1786, and published weekly by James Tod. It 
was neatly printed on a sheet lO by 18 inches in size with three 
broad columns on a side. It had a neat head letter, with a vign- 
ette of Nassau Hall between the words Princeton Packet. We 
have seen but two numbers of this paper, one was number 36, 
vol. I, dated A. D, 1787. It contained a notice that F. C. 
Focke (late from Cleves in Prussian Netherlands) had, on the 9th 
inst., been examined in Physic and Surgery by Dr. John Beatty 
and Dr. Nicholas Belville, agreeable to law, and had given sat- 
isfactory proofs of his knowledge and skill therein, and was 
licensed to practice in said Faculties throughout the State of 
New Jersey, by the Honorable the Justices of the Supreme 
Court of New Jersey. 

There were a few local advertisements, showing that among 
other citizens then here, were Richard Stockton, Joseph Stock- 
ton, John A. Schenck, John Cox, Thomas Wiggins, Dr, Wither- 
spoon, Ezekiel Smith, Aaron Longstreet and Rev, A. H. Green. 
The other was number 52, vol. ii., dated June 28, 1787, and 
is in our possession. It is occupied with correspondence from 
other States, and a list of the delegates to the Federal Conven- 
tion for framing the Constitution of the United States. It has 
also a Poet's Corner, filled with the effusion of a Princeton po- 
etess, bearing marks which seem to connect her with Morven, 



$6 '■ HI STONY OF PRINCETON. 

and it has various local advertisements. The subscription price 
was ten shillings per annum. The paper, in its execution, com- 
pares favorably with the local papers of the present day, and is 
free from the trashy advertisements which too generally char- 
acterize the latter. 

How long the Princeton Packet was continued we have no 
means of ascertaining. We have not seen any later numbers 
than those above mentioned. We hear nothing more of it. It 
was established after the war and must have been designed as 
a medium through which the influential opinions of the prom- 
inent men of this community could still further serve their 
country in promoting and establishing a constitutional gov- 
ernment. It can hardly be doubted that such men as Dr. 
Witherspoon, Dr. S. Stanhope Smith, Dr. Minto, Ashbel 
Green, Enos Kelsey, Dr. Wiggins, Robert Stockton and 
others must have been instrumental in originating this paper, 
and must have contributed to its columns ; and yet we can 
glean nothing to show their connection with or interest in it. 
It was at least third in priority of the New Jersey weekly 
papers, the iV. J. Gazette, the second one, having been dis- 
continued as the Packet commenced. 

We learn nothing more of the work of the printing press in 
Princeton until May, 1824. We are inclined to believe that 
James Tod's printing office must have been removed from 
Princeton, for, at this time, it would seem that a new print- 
ing press had made its advent to this place. Dr. James W, 
Alexander, in a letter to Dr. Hall under date of May 14, 1824, 
written from Princeton, says, " Our printing press, though a 
little thing, is yet a mighty wonder here. The children, great 
and small, are turning up their eyes and expanding their palms 
at the novel sight of " PRINCETON " at the foot of a title-page 
of a Report just printed."'^' 

Again on the 2lst^of May, 1824, in another letter. Dr. Alex- 
ander refers to proposals by Borrenstein for publishing a week- 
ly paper under the title of the " Princeton Religious and 
Literary Gazette." He sent a copy of the proposals to 

* Forty Years Correspondence, p. 45, vol. i; Dr. Hall. 



NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES OF PRINCETON. 57 

Dr. Hall and said, " You will no doubt be pleased with the 
specimen of Princeton typography on the other side." 

This paper was not long continued. It was conducted by 
the Rev. Robert Gibson, of Princeton. 

In 1825 a newspaper was published in Princeton called the 
"New Jersey Patriot," printed and published by D. A. 
Borrenstein. Its motto was " The safety of the people is the 
supreme law." It was a quarto sheet, moderate size, well 
shaped, closely printed. Dr. Addison Alexander wrote much 
for it. It was a political paper at first, but in 1827 it ceased 
to be political, was enlarged and the editorial charge was given 
to Addison Alexander and one of his brothers. In addition 
to public matter and current news he almost crowded the broad 
sheet with essays, poems, tales and communications. The 
Patriot soon ceased for want of patronage. A protracted dis- 
cussion on dancing was carried on in it between a clergyman 
and a distinguished layman, and the editor brought it to a 
close by curtly suggesting that the spirit of St. Vitus himself 
must be satisfied by this time with what had been written on 
both sides of the question. ■'^' 

A " Series of Tracts," issued monthly, Princeton : printed 
for the publisher by D. A. Borrenstein, 1 824. Terms 62^ cents a 
year. It contained selections from the writings of Baxter, Bol- 
ton, Frank, Flavel, Howe, Leigiiton, Newton, Owen, Scongal, 
etc., and biographical sketches, etc., making a small yearly 
volume of 300 pages. 

"American Journal" of Letters, Christianity and Civil 
Affairs. Motto : " In necessariis, Veritas ; in non necessariis 
libertas ; in omnibus, charitas." — Augustine. 

This paper was edited by Rev. Robert Gibson, and was pub- 
lished by T. Callaghan Gibson, in Princeton, every Saturday. 
The prospectus of the paper shows that its object was 
the promotion of education, cliristianity and civil affairs. It 
was recommended by the professors of the college and semi- 
nary and patrons and teachers of the town. Its first number 
was issued April 2, 1825. It was a sheet of four pages, with 

* We have gathered the above facts from the life of Dr. Addison Alexander. 



58 HISTORY OF PRINCETON-. 

four columns on each page. Each page was 14 by 19 inches. 
It was a well printed journal, with few advertisements. It was 
filled with solid reading matter, but was too heavy for a popu- 
lar newspaper. The second number contained a favorable re- 
view and notice of '' Moigwc, A tale of the frontier, a poem, 
printed by D. A. Borrenstein, of the Princeton press, 1825," 
written by a Princetonian. 

The " American Magazine of Letters and Christianity." 
Published by T. C. Gibson, printed by Borrenstein, of Prince- 
ton. Monthly, at $3.00 a year. 

This magazine seems to have taken the place of the Ameri- 
can Journal. The prospectus of the Journal was appended to 
this periodical. It contains 68 pages. The first number 
was issued Jan. i, 1826, and contains, among other matter, an 
outline of the introductory lecture by Professor Samuel Miller, 
of the Theological Seminary of Princeton, at the opening of 
the session at that time. Also a notice of a stated meeting of 
the " Literary atid Philosophical Society of Nczv Jersey," in the 
chapel of Nassau Hall, Ch. Justice Ewing presiding, and a 
lecture by Professor Patton on Education, showing the defects 
of the system of public education in this country. 

Chief Justice Ewing delivered the lecture in January, on 
Trial by Jury, and Professor Alexander in I'^ebruary, on the 
" Relation of Cause and Effect" 

The Princeton Courier and Literary Register, a weekly 
newspaper, was published about four years from 1831, first by 
Dr. West and Connolly, then by Baker and Connolly, and lastly 
by Bernard Connolly alone. It had a vignette of Nassau Hall 
and adjoining buildings; price $2.00. It was about of the size 
of the N". J. Patriot, and had five columns on a page. It es- 
poused the cause of Jackson and Van Buren in the presidential 
campaign of 1832. 

The editor, Mr. Connolly, removed to Freehold and the 
Courier was discontinued ; the only paper in Princeton then 
being the American System, which soon became the Prince- 
ton Whify, 



NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES OF PRINCETON. 59 

The American System and Fanners and Mechanics Ad- 
vocate was a weekly newspaper, was edited by Dr. L. V. New- 
ton, now living in New York, and was published by Robert E. 
Hornor. First number Sept. 7, 1832. In about three months 
Dr. Newton withdrew and the paper assumed the name of the 
Princeton Whig, with Mr. Hornor editor, and J. T. Robinson 
and Co., publishers. The paper was conducted, while Dr. 
Newton was editor, as a campaign journal, in the interest of 
the Whig party, with Henry Clay and John Sergeant on the 
presidential ticket. 

Monthly Journal of Education, edited by E. C. 
Wines. Printed by Moore Baker, Princeton. Vol. i. No. i, 
January, 1835. $2.00 a year. 

Mr. Wines was an educator of high reputation, and suc- 
ceeded Professor Patton as head of the Edgchill high school. 
He is now the secretary of the American Prison Reform 
Society. His paper was not long continued because he did 
not long remain in Princeton. 

The Princeton Whig, into which the American System 
was merged, was owned and edited by Robert E. Hornor. It 
was Whig in its politics, and its character was strongly partisan 
and spicy. Mr. Hornor was a son of Isaac Hornor, of Queens- 
ton, and a descendant of the original Quaker family of Hornors 
numbered among the first settlers of Princeton. He was a 
kind and obliging citizen, possessing a good share of public 
spirit and being a most indefatigable and self-denying servant 
of his party. He was appointed postmaster of Princeton by 
President Harrison, and was removed by President Tyler under 
circumstances which caused a good deal of indignation among 
his numerous friends, as has been stated in the preceding vol- 
ume, (p. 266) for he was a good and obliging officer. He pub- 
lished in the Princeton Whig ^ severe exposure of the men and 
measures which had supplanted him. No man in Princeton, 
since Mr. Hornor's death, has been so efficient and unflinching 
a party worker and organizer as he was, till his death in May, 
185 1. He was widely known over the whole country. He 
sold his paper to John T. Robinson shortly before his death. 



6o HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

His printing office was where Miss Julia Smith's house now 
stands, and afterwards was on the lot where the Second Pres- 
byterian church is erected. 

The Princeton Press was only another name of the 
"Princeton Whig." It was bought by John T. Robinson of 
Mr. Mornor, and was edited by him until 1861. It retained 
the same political complexion as the Whig, but lent its influ- 
ence to the Know Nothing or American party when that or- 
ganization loomed into prominence. Spencer's N. J. Law Re- 
ports were printed at this office, and also the Princeton Review 
was for a short time printed here. 

Mr. Robinson was a native of Princeton, a printer by trade. 
He was a very industrious and good citizen, a quiet and unas- 
suming man. He made himself what he was, and rose to re- 
spectability in a community which secured to him, besides 
township offices, the office of Judge of the Mercer County 
Common Pleas and Mayor of the borough of Princeton, both of 
which offices he filled creditably. He was, at the time of his 
death, postmaster of Princeton, having been appointed by 
President Lincoln ; and he was also a ruling elder in the Second 
Presbyterian Church of Princeton. He was a man of some in- 
ventive genius, and exhibited it, with wonderful perseverance, 
in his invention of a power press, which he manufactured at 
his own foundry and machine shop, which he himself erected 
for that purpose, in connection with the present Press hiilding 
on Nassau Street, now owned by his son, Charles S. Robinson. 
He had a long and hard struggle in perfecting his new inven- 
tion and in manufacturing his presses. He sold several of them 
in different States and printed his own paper on one of them, 
and when he was about to make his triumph sure, and to reap 
his reward, his buildings, including his printing office, machine 
shop, pattern room, foundry and their contents, were burned 
up in a midnight conflagration of a few hours. He rebuilt 
them in part and resumed the work, but imder great embar- 
rassment and want of money. His health failed and he died 
in 1862 much lamented. He was a son of Robert Robinson, 
and left four sons surviving him. 



NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES OF PRINCETON. 6l 

The Mercer County Mirror was a weekly newspaper, 
established in 1855, by Howard V. Hullfish,a practical printer. 
The paper was neutral in politics and the office was chiefly de- 
voted to job work. The office was first kept in a room in the 
Mansion House and afterwards in the Hullfish House in With- 
erspoon Street. Mr. Hullfish died in 1856, and the paper was 
soon after discontinued. Mr. Hullfish was a son of David 
Hullfish, long known and respected as the chief police officer 
of the borough and overseer of the poor. Howard learned his 
trade with Mr. Robinson. 

The Princeton Standard was a new weekly newspaper, 
established in 1859. After the death of Howard Hullfish, and 
the suspension of the Mercer Co. Mirror, the materials and 
presses of that office were purchased by John F. Hageman, 
who sought to raise the character of Princeton journalism, and 
established a new weekly paper which he called the Princeton 
Standard. It was not designed to be in opposition to the 
Princeton Press, nor in any degree to interfere with the interest 
of that paper. It was an independent but not a neutral paper; 
It was political, religious and literary, perfectly untrammelled 
by party obligations and platforms or sectarian creeds, yet was 
in sympathy with the Republican party and was justly re- 
garded by the public as a Republican paper. 

It was a large sheet, printed on excellent paper, with an 
impersonal editorship. It was in much favor and received val- 
uable contributions from many good writers in the community. 
It was commenced in the upper room of the building now oc- 
cupied by Margerum's stove store, in Mercer Street, and was 
published at first by John Briest, the recent Mayor of Trenton, 
and then by John R. Hedden. who afterwards edited and pub- 
lished the " Millstone Mirror.'^ 

In 1861 the proprietor of the Standard purchased of Mr. 
Robinson the Princeton Press and united the two papers, re- 
taining the name of the ''Standard" and dropping the name 
of the ''Press,'" and Mr. Robinson became the publisher of it, 
in his building, with the same editors. The " Standard " was 
zealously loyal throughout the war, giving all its influence 
to the support of the National Government in the great strug- 



62 



HISTOR V OF PRINCE TOM. 



gle, and fearlessly denouncing disloyal sentiments when ex- 
pressed by influential persons in this community, and ever 
watchful of the success of the national cause. It did much to 
form and strengthen a loyal public opinion in Princeton during 
the war. 

In 1863 the publisher, John T. Robinson, died, and his son, 
John A. Robinson, took his place. Many country papers, dur- 
ing the war, were discontinued on account of the high price of 
paper and labor, but the " Standard " bore itself through the 
conflict without even a change in its rates of charges. 

In 1867 the proprietor sold his interest in the paper and 
office to Charles S. Robinson, a younger brother of John A. 
Robinson, who had recently died, leaving a good name and ex- 
ample; and he withdrew from all responsibility and connection 
with the paper, as proprietor and as one of its editors. Young 
Mr. Charles Robinson continued the Standard until he sold the 
good will of the paper to Stelle and Smith, in 1870. 

The Princetonian was the new name given to the old 
" Standard," published by Stelle and Smith, printed by Charles 
S. Robinson and edited by the Rev. Dr. Moffat, Professor in 
the theological seminary in Princeton, It was handsomely 
printed on a double sheet, and the names of the contributors 
of articles to its columns were disclosed. It was predominant- 
ly literary in its character. Its adaptation to the popular taste 
was not quite proportionate to the expense of conducting and 
publishing it, and the publishers, impatient of receiving remun- 
erative returns, proposed to reduce it to the Standard size and 
modify its character, whereupon, before a year had expired. 
Professor Moffat withdrew from the editorial chair, and the 
paper was continued and conducted by the same publishers 
until 1873, when it was transferred to Charles S. Robinson, 
who thus became its proprietor, publisher, printer and editor. 
Mr. Robinson, faithful to the memory of his father, purchased 
the Press building, which his father once owned, and restored 
to the paper the former name which his father had chosen for 
it and by which his father's invention has been designated, viz., 
The Princeton Press, the only newspaper published in Prince- 
ton at this time, a paper which has been maintained for forty 



NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES OF PRINCETON. 63 

years in Princeton, under various names, and during this time 
the printing has been done, except in some collateral issues, 
by the Robinson family, and for the most part of the time the 
editing as well as the publishing of it was done by the father 
and the sons successively. The Robinson family may justly 
be called the printing family of Princeton. 

The Princeton Journal was a weekly newspaper, estab- 
lished by a Mr. Blanchard in 1S65, but it lived for only a few 
months and then died for want of support. 

The Biblical Repertory and Princeton Review was 
commenced in 1825, and was edited by Charles Hodge, Pro- 
fessor in the Princeton Seminary. Its object, as disclosed in the 
original proposals, was "for the periodical publication of a col- 
lection of dissertations, principally in Biblical literature." It 
had hardly commenced before it was deemed wise to enlarge 
its scope and add to its title that oi Princetoji Review. It was 
a Quarterly, and it has been maintained, without intermission, 
in uniform numbers, from the date of'its first number until the 
present time. The Rev. Charles Hodge, D.D., was its sole 
editor until 1870, when the Rev. Lyman H. Atwater, D.D., 
Professor in the college, was associated with him. It has gen- 
erally been published in Philadelphia, though for a short time 
it was published in Princeton. This venerable and excellent 
magazine has reflected an imperishable honor upon Princeton. 
It has been one of the richest and purest streams of moral and 
religious influence that has flowed from the Princeton fount- 
ains. Its every number, from its budding life to its ripest age, 
has been freighted with the choicest and rarest fruits of wis- 
dom and grace. A bulwark of defence to sound doctrine, a 
learned and modest expositor of the sacred oracles, a judicious 
critic and reviewer of books and publications ; always replete 
with the evidence of scholarship ; always respectful to the 
rights and opinions of others ; free, with very rare exceptions, 
from bitterness and bigotry in the articles of its contributors ; 
catholic and liberal in the great doctrines of Christianity, while 
vigilant and courageous in holding up the banner of old-school 
Presbyterianism, it has been not only the organ of Princeton 



64 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

theology and criticism, but it has spread its fame and its in- 
fluence and the fame of Princeton among all the nations. 
Princeton College and Princeton Seminary never would have 
attained their present strength and position in the affections 
and confidence of Christian men if the Princeton Rii'iiW had 
never been what it has been. 

After the re-union of the disrupted Presbyterian Church, 
this Quarterly was transferred to New York for publication. 
Dr. Hodge had withdrawn from the editorship. Its name 
was changed to the ''Presbyterian Onarter/y aitd Princeton 
Rcvieiv!' Like a conquered territory ii h.ul been made the 
subject of partition, securing to each of the old parties an 
equal share in the printed matter and in the editorial room; 
like the unfortunate old Province Line separating East from 
West Jersey, which is ever and anon suggesting divisions 
which do not exist and creating jealousies out of a mere fiction. 
Our Princeton pride would have retained this old well tried 
organ. It was treason to Princeton, to Princeton Theology 
and to Princeton Seminary to surrender it as it was surrendered, 
and that without Dr. Hodge's cordial approval. It was not an 
Ecclesiastical Journal, that needed to be disturbed or changed 
by the re-union of the two branches of the Presbyterian Church. 
A recent change has restored to it the sole title o'i Princeton 
Reviezv, and we now may claim it again as the Princeton 
Review. 

The Princeton Magazine, a Monthly, pp. 48, established 
in 1850, printed by John T. Robinson, was edited by William 
C. Alexander. He was assisted by his brothers, Drs. James and 
Addison Alexander, and his father. Dr. Archibald Alexander, 
contributed the first article, " Princeton in 1801." As might 
be expected from the pens of such ready and racy writers, the 
articles were read with a relish. One by Professor Addison 
Alexander, a satirical poem on the" Reconstruction of Society," 
attracted a good deal of public attention and was copied into 
many of the newspapers. It did " not exclude scientific, classi- 
cal, erudite, sportive, or Jersey articles." Twelve numbers 
were published and it was discontinued. Price, $2.00 a year. 

The Missionary Review, published in Princeton semi-month- 



NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES OF PRINCETON. 65 

\y by the Rev. R. G. Wilder, formerly and for many years a 
missionary in India, was established in April, 1878. It is inde- 
pendent of all church boards and ecclesiastical dictation. It is 
quite new and original in its scope and design. It is broad and 
catholic in its views, and aims to sustain all denominations in 
their missionary efforts, but is bold to point out all abuses and 
mistakes of Christian churches of all denominations in the mis- 
sionary work. It is well edited and handsomely printed and is 
growing in favor. It may be regarded as a new organ of re- 
form in conducting missionary operations, and at the same 
time as an instructive review of whatever pertains to the mis- 
sionary field. Its price is only $1.50 a year in advance. 

We have thus enumerated nineteen different periodicals 
which have been published in Princeton, without including 
those which arc strictly college papers, such as the Nassau 
Literary Magazine, Nassau Herald, etc. Some have been 
short-lived while others have survived many years, though it 
may have been under some change of name. It will not prob- 
ably be long before a University Press will be established in 
Princeton, where all the books written by Princeton authors 
as well as others, may be published with the imprimatur of 
Princeton upon them. In the line of newspapers no effort 
made as yet has proved to be permanently successful as to high 
character and financial prosperity. It has seemed that when 
talent and learning have been enlisted in their behalf capital 
lias been lacking, and when capital has not been wanting, the 
right kind of editors and writers have not been obtainable. 

Princeton is not a bad locality for a good newspaper which 
would combine politics, religion and literature. Such a paper 
should receive the sympathy and support of such a community. 
It should be made, in every respect, worthy of the place. 

5 



CHAPTER XVIII. 



THE FRIENDS SOCIETY AND MEETING HOUSE AT STONY 

BROOK. 

The House has outlived the Society — The Creed of the Quakers — First House built 
of Wood in 1709 — Present House of Stone built in 1760 — Quaker School — Its 
Rules and Regulations for Teachers and Scholars — Prior to 1757 it was the 
only House of Worship in the Neighborhood — The Centre of a thrifty and intel- 
ligent Quaker Community for several Generations — Recent Decadence of the 
Society — Extinction of the School— No Quaker Children — House seldom 
opened for W^orship— Queries as to the Nature of the System. 




QUAKER MEETING-HOUSE. 

The little Quaker Meeting House at Stony Brook, hoary 
with age, seems to be outliving the society which established it. 
It stands Hke a mute sentinel, guarding the ashes of the dead. 
The fathers who built it and planted their families around it, 
connecting with it a school-house for their children and a burial 
place for themselves and their descendants, after half a dozen 
generations, have scarcely a representative among the living in 
the neighborhood. The old school is closed. The meeting 
house is seldom opened and there are but few new graves made 
in the old burying ground which belongs to it. 

The act of 1693, restricting the toleration act in the colony 
of New Jersey, required from an incumbent of office a declara- 
tion of fidelity to the king, renunciation of popery and the fol- 
lowing profession of the Christian faith: /, A. B., profess faith 



FRIENDS' MEETING HOUSE AT STONY BROOK. 6y 

in God the Father and JESUS CHRIST, his eternal Son the 
true God, and in the Holy Spirit, one God blessed forever more, 
and do acknoivledge the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New 
Testament to be given by Divine Inspiration.'' 

This would seem to have been the Quakers' creed, as the 
Quakers in the West Jersey Assembly would not have assented 
to such an enactment if it had not represented their views. It 
is not in conflict with William Pcnn's confession. Superadded 
to these cardinal or fundamental doctrines, the Quakers held 
that water Baptism and the Lord's Supper were only com- 
mp" 'co for a time. 
^' They held also to these moral precepts, viz., 

1. "That it is not lawful to give to men such flattering titles as Your Honor, 
Esquire, Your Lordship, etc., nor use those flattering words called compliments. 

2. " That it is not law ful for Christians to kneel or prostrate themselves to any 
man or to bow the body or to uncover tiie head to them. 

3. " That it is nc;t lawful for a Christian to use such superfluities in apparel as 
are of no use save for ornament and vanity. 

4. " That it is not lawful to use games, sports or plays among Christians, under 
the notion of recreations, which do not agree with Christian gravity and sobriety, 
for laughing, sporting, gaming, mocking, jesting, vain talking, etc., are not Chris- 
tian liberty or harmless mirth. 

5. " That it is not lawful for Christians to swear at all, under the Gospel, not 
only vainly and in their common discourse, which was also forijidden under the law 
but not even in judgment before the magistrate. 

6. " That it is not lawful for Christians to resist evil or to war or to fight in any 
case." 

The Friends who first settled at Stony Brook held sub- 
stantially to the principles above stated, and they desired to 
perpetuate them among their children. 

On June i, 1709, Benjamin Clarke conveyed by deed nine 
acres and sixty-hundredths of an acre of land to Richard Stock- 
ton and others, in trust, to build a meeting-house on it and for 
a burying ground for the Society of Friends. This was about 
twelve years after the settlement at Stony Brook by the fami- 
lies of Clark, Olden, Worth, Stockton and Hornor, all of whom 
were reputed to belong to the Society of Friends, This lot of 
land, so set apart, still remains occupied for the purposes for 
which it was dedicated by the grantor. In the latter part of 
the summer of 1709 a small frame building was erected on said 
lot for a meeting-house in which meetings for worship and 



68 HISTORY OF rA'/.VC£VO:V. 

business were regularly held till the year 1760, when, being 
small and somewhat out of repair, it was removed or torn down 
and the present stone building was built on its site, for a meet- 
ing-house, in the summer of that year. Members of Burling- 
ton, Chesterfield and Little Egg-harbor Monthly meetings cour 
tributed funds towards paying the expense ; the latter meeting 
(held at Tuckerton) contributing £1^ for that purpose. 

Before a meeting-house was built at Stony Brook the fami- 
lies and members of the Society, in the neighborhood, held 
their religious meetings on the Sabbath for worship at their 
private dwelling houses alternately. This place of religious 
worship has remained for ofw huiuircd and sixty-nine years ! 
The present stone building has stood for one hundred and 
eighteen years. It is probably older than the church at Maid- 
enhead, though the grant of land to that congregation bears 
date about ten years prior to the deed for the Quaker meeting- 
house at Stony Brook. The burying ground is annexed to the 
meeting-house. Though used as a place of sepulture for five 
generations there is not a grave named by a monument within 
its enclosure. The house of worship is small, and its interior 
resembles an ancient country school-room more than a house 
of worship. The society was careful to provide education for 
their children, and generally maintained, until recent years, a 
school under their exclusive control. They have a fund for 
this purpose. 

It is quite probable that prior to 1757, when the college 
was removed hither, the Friend's school at Stony Brook was 
the principal if not the only school in the neighborhood. We 
have no particular account of such a school prior to the year 
1781. At that time a committee appointed by the preparative 
meeting to have the care and oversight of the Friends' school, 
adopted the following rules and regulations for the good 
government thereof, to wit : 

1. " The master shall keep a fiai ticular account of employers' names, number of 
scholars and time of entrance and a particular account of all transient scholars and 
the time they come. 

2. '■ No scholar shall be admitted into the school who will not comply with the 
rules and orders. 

3. " No distinction shall be shown to the children of rich or poor, but the strictest 
impartiality shall be observed by the trustees and teacher to all. 



FRIENDS' MEETING HOUSE AT STONY BROOK'. 69 

4. " The hours of teaching shall be from 8 o'clock to 12 and from 2 to 6 from 
the rst day of the 4th mo. to the ist day of the 10th mo., and from half after 8 to 
half after 4 from the 1st of the lOth mo. to the ibt of the 4th nio., allowing two hours 
at noon. 

5. "The master shall be careful to speak the grammaticnl plain Scripture lan- 
guage and require it on all occasions, and shall give the strictest attention to pre- 
vent evil words and actions and vice of every kind. Every scholar is to behave 
him or herself orderly and becoming, on pain of being expelled the school, but the 
master shall not dismiss any without a sufficient cause, approved by a majority of 
the trustees ; and where any employer is dissatisfied with the master's conduct in 
school, he or she shall lay it before the trustees, that it maybe settled in a friendly 
manner, as becomes people professing Christianity. 

6. " The master shall suffer no scholar in the school who hath the itch or any 
other infectious distemper. 

7. " It is expected that the master will attend our own religious fourth day meet- 
ings, accompanied by his scholars. 

8. " In future no scholars to be admitted without the approbation of a majority 
of the trustees. 

g. " The master is not to withhold correction from any when needful, l)ut is to 
be careful not to strike in any improper or tender place, especially the face." 

The following rules were approved and directed to be kept 
up in a convenient public place in the school, to be observed 
by the scholars. 

" RULES TO BE OBSERVED BY SCHOLARS." 

1. Fail not to be at school precisely at the time appointed unless good reason 
can be assigned to the master. 

2. Be always silent at your studies so that your voices be not heard unless when 
saying your lessons or speaking to your master. Hold no discourse with your 
school fellows during the time of study unless to ask something relating to your 
learning and then in a low voice. Be careful on all occasions to use the plain 
grammatical Scripture language ; at no time use the word ^'<7« to a single ])erson. 

3. Behave yourselves always in a gently obliging manner to your school fellows, 
tenderly affectionate, never provoking one another, contending nor complaining 
about frivolous matters, but courteously use kind expressions one towards the other. 

4. Be not forward to divulge any thing passed in school. 

It would be interesting to know the names and the numbers 
of those persons who belonged to this society and who were in 
the habit of worshipping at this ancient place of worship for at 
least the first century of its existence. It was the only place of 
public worship in Princeton prior to the building of the college 
in 1757 ; and before that event the most prevalent type of 
Christian faith and worship, in this community, was that of the 
Society of Friends. The Clarkes, the Hornors, the Worths, 



/O HISTORY OF PRINCETOy. 

the Oldens, and the Stocktons, in succeeding generations, 
greatly multiplying in number, were all, with i^w exceptions, 
attendants upon the worship of tliis little Stony Brook meet- 
ing-house. It has been the centre of a large geographical cir- 
cuit of a Quaker population ; no other such place of worship 
ever being nearer to it than Trenton. It has attracted Quaker 
families for three or four miles distant from it on every side ; 
and its situation along the Stony Brook and in the Clarke 
tract of land, near to Worth's mills and the Battle-field, in the 
very midst of thrifty and religious farmers of the Friends' 
Society, made it prominent as a good field to develop and 
prove the excellence of this Christian system. 

There has been but one uniform testimony borne by all 
classes of society in this community, from its first settlement 
till the present time, as to the intelligence, high moral charac- 
ter and pure citizen life which have characterized the members 
of this religious Society of Friends. Yet this little meeting- 
house, built one hundred and eighteen years ago, has continued 
to be large enough to accommodate all who have resorted to it 
on the Sabbath for worship, requiring no enlargement or re- 
building to adapt its capacity to the natural increase of their 
descendants through successive generations ; nor yet has there 
been formed out of this venerable association any new organi- 
zation of the same society within its own geographical circuit. 

On the contrary, this Society of Friends at Stony Brook, 
so flourishing and influential in years long passed away, has 
been declining, especially within the last generation, until now 
it can hardly be said to have an existence. There are not 
probably more than half a dozen members of this society who 
attend an ordinary meeting at Stony Brook on the Sabbath, 
when the house is open. So far as meetings for worship are 
concerned there are none except what may be described as a 
family meeting occasionally at a private house. Among the 
descendants of the ancient Quaker families of Stony Brook and 
Princeton, who do not attend Presbyterian or some other 
church, but who adhere strictly to the worship of the Friends, 
we know of but one such in this neighborhood. It is true that 
the old Quaker men and women who were accustomed to con- 
form to the rules of worship and the habits of life prescribed 



FRIEN'DS' MEETING HOUSE AT STO.VY BROOK. 7 1 

by their society, have disappeared from among us. Their 
children and descendants, though few in number, have grad- 
ually withdrawn or been cut off from the society and joined the 
Presbyterian or Episcopal churches, some by open profession 
of faith and others only by attendance upon public preaching 
in the churches. The distinctive Quaker dress is rarely seen 
any more in our streets or public assemblies. Among our 
young people there are none who claim to be strict Friends. 

We do not propose to attempt to explain the decadence of 
this religious society, which was once so strongly implanted in 
this community. It cannot be ascribed to persecution for they 
have been treated with respect amounting almost to reverence. 
It was not due to the want of material prosperity, for while 
their system demands but little they have been the most thrif- 
ty and well to do of all classes of our citizens. Nor has it 
been because other religious fraternities growing apace of them 
in numbers, education and public activities, have refused to fel- 
lowship with them ; for while all other Christian associations 
would always have welcomed most cordially this class into 
their common and social life, it has been a rigid rule character- 
istic of the vital principles of Quakerism to segregate its mem- 
bers from all outsiders wholly as to intermarriages and almost 
so as to social intercourse. 

The history of this case may find its counterpart in the 
history of other similar Societies of Friends in other communi- 
ties where a similar decadence may be witnessed, and while 
there may be many arguments urged touching the self perpet- 
uating power in the system in question, the intelligent, practi- 
cal Christian worker will not fail to inquire whether sacraments, 
though not vital to salvation, are not essential ligaments in a 
permanent Christian association ; and whether regular preach- 
ing by a learned and paid ministry is not indispensable to per- 
petuate and quicken Christianity without the aid of supersti- 
tion. Can any system, however divine, perpetuate itself with- 
out having men set apart and paid to defend and propagate 
its principles? It is due to the association at Stony Brook to 
say that they never joined the Hicksite division but adhered 
rigidly to the old Orthodox society. Among the latest families 
which were prominent and devoted in their adherence to this 



72 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

society were those of Thomas Lavender, who lived on the 
Castle-Howard farm, Daniel Fletcher, who lived in Mercer 
Street in the house of his wife (Phebe Clarke), and Chalkley 
Wills, of Penn's Neck. None have come to take their vacant 
places. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF PRINCETON. 

Section I. — Early history of the Church, 1750-1768 — Presidents Burr, Edwards, 
Davies and Finley, the Preachers. — II. — Its History continued, 1768-1795, un- 
der Presidents Witherspoon and Smith. — III. — Pastorate of the Rev. Samuel 
Finley Snowden, 1795-1804 — IV. — Pastorate of Rev. Henry Kollock, 1S04-10 
— V. — Pastorate of Rev. William C. Schenck, 1810-20 — VI. — Pastorate of 
Rev. George S. Woodhull, 1820-32 — VII. — Pastorate of Rev. Benjamin H. 
Rice, 1832-47 — VIII.— Pastorate of Rev. William E. Schenck, 1S47-52 — IX. 
— Pastorate of Rev. James M. Macdonald, 1852-76. — X. — Real Estate and 
Miscellaneous Matters of the Congregation. 

SECTION I. 

EARLY HISTORY OF THE CHURCH, 1750-I768— BURR, ED- 
WARDS, DAVIES, FINLEY. 

The earliest agitation in the Presbytery of New Brunswick, 
foreshadowing a movement for a Presbyterian church in Prince- 
ton, arose on the third day of September, 1751. An applica- 
tion was made at that time in behalf of the congregation at 
Kingston for supplies, and thereupon some member, it is not 
stated who, moved " tJiat the supplies granted sJiould be equally 
divided betzvecn Kingstozvn and PrincetownJ' 

The subject was laid over till the next day when, after due 
deliberation, the following minute was adopted, viz: 

" The Presbytery, taking into consideration the case of Kingstown and Prince- 
town, do judge it not expedient that tliere be two places of meeting upon the Sab- 
bath, but do recommend it to those that supply them, that they preach a lecture at 
Princetovvn if they can." 

The Presbyterian church, at Kingston, had just lost its 
minister, the Rev. Eleazer Wales who, after a long pastorate 
at that place, probably twenty years, died in 1749.* The Pres- 

* The church at Kingston was organized about, perhaps before, the year 1730. 
The first log cabin church was built in 1732, the second building in 1792, and the 



74 HISrORY OF PRINCETON. 

byterian inhabitants of Princeton and its vicinity liad been ac- 
customed to attend public worship either at Kingston or at 
Maidenhead (Lawrenceville), more at the former than at the 
latter place. The early records of the Kingston church, if they 
had not been lost or negligently kept, would show a large 
church membership of persons residing in Triuccton, prior to 
the building of a Presbyterian church in Princeton. 

No meeting of the Presbytery had ever been held in Prince- 
ton until December, 175 1, when 'a pro re nata meeting was 
held for the purpose of addressing their letter to the British 
Government in favor of Governor Belcher, which has been in- 
serted in a previous chapter. The people waited patiently, the 
village grew, and the fact of the removal of the college to this 
place had become fixed, not only by a resolution of the trustees 
closing with the overtures from Princeton, but by the actual 
execution of the deed for the college ground. Just two months 
before the work of digging the cellar for the college edifice com- 
menced, and a little more than a year after the deed for the 
college ground was executed, the Presbytery met at Maiden- 
head. It was on the 27th of May, 1755. 

At this meeting an application was made in behalf of 
Princeton " for supplies and for liberty to bni/d a meeting-house 
there'' On the 29th the subject was acted upon and the result 
was declared by the following minute : 

" The afiair of Princeton being considered tlie Presbytery DO GRANT LIBERTY 
TO TiiK PKOrLE OK SAID TOWN TO BUH.D A MEE'i'iNG-iiousE, and also Conclude to 
allow them supplies." 

The Rev. Mr. Davenport and the Rev. Mr. Kennedy were 
directed to supply Princeton with preaching for three Sabbaths. 
From this time Princeton became an ecclesiastical place. The 
next year a commission of synod, to whom the call to the Rev. 
Mr. Bostwick of Jamaica, from the church of New York, had 
been referred, selected Princeton as the place of their meeting 
and held their convention here accordingly. 

The Presbytery of New Brunswick has continued to meet 
here yearly almost from that time to the present, except dur- 
ing the Revolutionary War. The record, prior to the war, 

present one in 1852. Mr. Wales was succeeded by Mr. Van Arsdalcn, Mr. Voor- 
hees and Mr. Comfort. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CI/URCII—iTio~i-]G?,. 75 

indicates their meeting here twenty-one different times between 
1757 and 1776, two and three times a year for several years, 
and then some years not meeting here at aU, Frequently those 
meetings were held in Nassau Hall. 

Although, in 1755, leave had been given to the people of 
Princeton to build a church, no definite step had been taken 
for executing the work before 1762. The college, which was 
erected and fit for use in 1757, contained a chapel nearly forty 
feet square, with a gallery in it, and an organ. In this hall or 
chapel there was public worship on the Sabbath ; and with the 
students who came here with President Burr, seventy in num- 
ber, several of the families residing in and near Princeton united 
in worship. They rented pews in the chapel, as it appears 
from the minutes of the college, which disclosed a provision 
for forfeiting them for non-payment of rent. These Sabbath 
assemblies congregated in the college chapel for worship, at- 
tending to the preaching of the word of God, from the lips of 
the early presidents, constituted the germ of the Princeton 
church. No wonder that the people of Princeton did prefer 
to worship here instead of driving several miles to Kingston 
or Lawrenceville. Could any supplies which Presbytery might 
send be so worthy of a hearing as those eloquent, learned and 
godly men. Presidents Burr, Edwards, Davies and Finley? 
It was indeed a rare privilege to sit under the ministrations of 
these extraordinary men. 

As President Burr was the first preacher who was re- 
quired to preach every Sabbath in Princeton, in the college 
chapel to the students, and to the families of the town who 
rented pews in that place of worship, we ought to record some- 
thing of the fruits of his labors during his short ministry here. 
He came to Princeton with his students in November, 1756, and 
he died September 24th, 1757. He had been preaching but a 
few months here in the new college chapel when a remarkable 
revival of religion occurred. Its first subject was the case of a 
very sick student, who was aroused under a conviction of sin 
and his conversation impressed others until the awakened feel- 
ing became contagious among the students before the president 
knew anything of it. The young men strove to counteract the 



7^ HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

influence of the spirit, but with little success. The Rev, Wil- 
liam Tcnnent was present assisting President Burr during the 
progress of the gracious work, and no man was more compe- 
tent to describe it than he. In a letter written by him to 
the Rev. Dr. Finley, under date of Feb. 27, 1757, and pub- 
lished in the " Log College," he says : 

" I went to the college last Monday, having heard that God had begun a work 
of the Spirit there, and saw as astonishing a display of God's power and grace as I 
ever beheld or heard of in the conviction of sinners. Not one member in the house 
missed it, in a greater or less degree. The whole house was a Bochini. A sense of 
God's holiness was so impressed on the hearts of its inhabitants that there were only 
two who were esteemed to be religious, that I know of, whose hoj)es were not great- 
ly shaken. Tiie glorious ray reached the Latin School and much affected the mas- 
ter and a number of the scholars. Nor was it confined to the students only ; some 
others were awakened. I spoke with all the members, personally, except one that 
I providentially found, the most of whom inquired with anxious solicitude what they 
should do to be saved, according to the example of the tremljling jailor. I never 
saw any in that case who had more clear views of God, themselves, their duty, de- 
fects, their impotence and misery, than they had in general. Every room had mourn- 
ing inhabitants ; their studies witnessed their prayers. You will want to know how 
they behaved. I answer as solemn mourners at the funeral of a dear friend. It 
pleased the Lord so to order it, that there were no public outcries. I believe there 
never was in any house more genuine sorrow for sin and longing for Jesus. The 
work so far exceeded my most enlarged expectations that I was lost in surprise, and 
constrained often to say, Is it so? Can it be true? Nor is my being eye and ear 
witness from Monday to Friday, at two o'clock, able to recover me from my aston- 
ishment. I felt as the Apostles when it was told them the Lord had risen. They 
could not believe through fear and great joy. Surely the good, the great Jehovah 
is wise in counsel and wonderful in working. I can truly say that my reverend 
brethren and myself felt no small degree of that pleasing surprise that possessed 
the Israelites in their return from the Babylonish captivity, mentioned in Psalm 
cxxvi, when the Lord turned again the captivity of Zion. We were like them 
that dreamed. The Lord hath done great things for us whereof we are glad ! 

"This glorious work was gradual, like the increasing light of the morning. It 
was not begun by the ordinary means of preaching, nor have any alarming methods 
been used to promote this religious concern ; yet so great was the distress that I did 
not think proper to use any arguments of terror in public lest some should sink 
under the weight of their distress. Notwithstanding, I found by conversing with 
them that a wise and gracious Providence had brought about a concurrence of dif- 
ferent incidents which tended to engage them to a serious thoughtfulness about their 
souls. These things considered in connection, I humbly conceive, manifest singu- 
larly the finger of God ; the freeness of which grace will equally appear by consid- 
ering that, a little before this gracious never to be forgotten visitation, some of the 
youth had given a greater looseness to their corruptions than was common among 
them — a spirit of pride and contention, to the great grief and almost discourage- 
ment of the worthy president. There was little or no motion of the passions in the 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— \T^o-\-](i%. 7/ 

preachers during their public performances, nor any public discourses in the hours 
allotted for study, but at the morning and evening prayers ; and these brief, con- 
sisting of plain scriptural directions, proper to persons under spiritual trouble. 
The president never shone in my eye as he does now. His good judgment and 
humility, his zeal and integrity greatly endeared him to me. IJefore I came away 
several received something like the spirit of adoption, being tenderly affected with 
a sense of redeeming love and thereby disposed and determined to endeavor after 
holiness in all things. 

" I cannot fully represent the glorious work. It will bear your most enlarged 
apprehensions of a work of grace. Let God have all the glory. My poor children 
through free grace partook of the shower of blessing. Eternally praised be my tiod 
and Father who has herein pitied the low estate of his most mean and worihless 
servant in graciously granting me my desire. This to me is a tree of life ; yea it is 
to my soul as if I had seen the face of God. I left them in distress ; iliey are in 
the hands of a gracious God to whom I have long since devoted them wiili all my 
heart and soul. Seeing you desire to know their names they are John and William. 
Perhaps a few lines from you, dear brother, might be blessed to them. Praying our 
.«incerest affection to Mrs. Finley, I greatly need your prayers that I may be 
thankful and faithful unto death. 

" I am yoiii's, 

"Wm. Tennent, Jr." 

■The death of so excellent and distinguished a schohir and 
preacher as President Burr was a severe loss to the church as 
well as to the college. His remains were entombed in the 
Princeton cemetery, his monument standing at the head of 
the monumental row of the college presidents. 

The Rev. Jonathan Edwards, the greatest thinker and 
theologian of ages, was elected to fill the place made vacant by 
President Burr. He came to Princeton in February, 1758. 
He preached a few times, but with great power and acceptance. 
He died in March of that year, greatly lamented by the church 
and by all the schools of learning. He was buried by the side 
of President Burr's grave in the Princeton cemetery. 

The Rev. John Carmichael, a student in college in 1758, 
writes in a letter under date of Feb. 23d of that year, published 
in Sprague's Annals, vol i. p. 239, as follows : 

" Doubtless you have heard that Mr. Edwards has taken the presidentship of 
our college. A dear gentleman, greatly beloved of all the students, one whose piety 
and learning are too well known to need my commendation. I will oidy say this 
much, that my highest expectations have been moie than answered in everything. 
He delivers the clear and awful truths of our holy religion with a solemnity becom- 
ing their importance, and as one who is really intrusted with the souls of his fellow 



78 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

mortals. I hope he will be to this society as the cherishing rays of the sun which 
will expel the heavy gloom and nocturnal darkness which seemed impending over 
Nassau Hall, on the hiding from view that bright luminary, by the death of Presi- 
dent Burr." 

In November of the same year he writes again : 

" I have seen another very dear president (Edwards himself) breathing out his 
last expiring breath in the agonies of death. Oh, my soul, forget not the holy forti- 
tude, the Christian magnanimity with which he grappled with the tyrant, and his 
unshaken faith in the great Mediator." 

The Rev. Dr. Chalmers wrote of President Edwards thus : 

" On the arena of metaphysics he stood the highest of all his cotemporaries, and 
that too at a time when Hume was aiming his deadliest thrusts at the foundations 
of morality and had thrown over the infidel cause the whole eclat of his reputation 
* * * and we know not what most to admire in him, whether the deep philosophy 
that issued from his pen, or the humble and child-like piety that issued from his pul- 
pit : whether when as an author he deals forth upon his readers the subtilties of 
profoundest argument, or when as a Christian minister he deals forth upon his 
hearers the simplicities of the Gospel." 

The reputation of Edwards is imperishable, and he will 
come under observation again, in connection with his presi- 
dency of the college. 

The death of the great Edwards was followed by the choice 
of the Rev. Samuel Davies, of Virginia, to the presidency of 
the college. He was celebrated as a popular and eloquent 
preacher. He came to Princeton in July, 1759, ^"cl took the 
oath of office in September of that year. He was a popular 
president, bringing the number of the students up to about 
one hundred. He was in the first rank of pulpit orators, per- 
haps excelling Whitefield, Saurin and Massilon. 

In 1759, Nov. 20th, at a meeting of the Presbytery held at 
Princeton, an application was made in behalf of Princeton that 
the sacrament of the Lord's Supper might be administered 
among them, and the Presbytery looked upon it " as reasona- 
ble and did appoint Mr. Tennent to adminish r it, and the 
Rev. Mr. Davies to assist." It was at the meeting of March 1 1, 
1760, at Nassau Hall, when the Rev. Mr. Cowell resigned his 
charge at Trenton on account of health, and James Caldwcil 
offered himself for trial for the ministry. The Rev. Elihu 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— i-]SO'ilb?>. 79 

Spencer sat as a corresponding member. At a meeting, May 
6, 1760, at Nassau Hall, when the Rev. Samuel Davies was 
present, the following paper, on a subject which, at the present 
day, frequently calls forth discussion, was adopted, viz.: 

"Whereas, the College of New Jersey lies in the bounds of this Presbytery and it 
is probable tiiat several youths will, from year to year, prosecute the study of Divin- 
ity in said college, who may incline to offer themselves upon trials in this Presljy- 
tery, and whereas it is not expedient that the several Presbyteries should examine 
and license those candidates that intend to join wiiii them and settle in their bounds, 
and this Presbytery would by no means encroach upon the rights nor undertake, 
without necessity, a work of so much difficulty and importance, they therefore agree 
and resolve that in ordinary cases they will receive upon trial none but such as have 
statedly resided in the bounds of the Presbytery before their entrance into said col- 
lege, or who declare they have no special connections in other places, but for what 
they know they are likely to continue in this Presbytery." 

The Rev. David Bostwick, of New York, in rapturous 
eulogy of Davies, in the preface to one of the editions of Da- 
vies' Sermons, writes thus : 

" Whenever he ascended the sacred desk he seemed to have not only the atten- 
tion but all the various passions of his auditory entirely at his command. And as 
his personal appearance was august and venerable yet benevolent and mild, so he 
could speak with the most commanding authority or melting tenderness, according 
to the variations of his subject. With what majesty and grandeur, with what ener- 
gy and striking solemnity, with what powerful and almost irresistilile eloquence 
would he illustrate the truths and inculcate the duties of Christianity. Mount 
Sinai seemed to thunder from his lips when he denounced the tremendous curses of 
the law and sounded the dreadful alarm to the guilty, secure, impenitent sinners. 
The solemn scenes of the last judgment seemed to rise in view when he arraigned, 
tried, and convicted self-deceivers and formal hypocrites. And how did the balm 
of Gilead distil from his lips when he exhibited a bleeding, dying Saviour to sinful 
mortals, as a sovereign remedy for the wounded heart and anguished conscience. 
In a word, whatever subject he undertook, persuasive eloquence dwelt upon his 
tongue and his audience was all attention. He spoke as upon the borders (jf eter- 
nity and as viewing the glories and terrors of an unseen world, and conveyed the 
most grand and affecting ideas of these important realities." 

Davies expresses his own experience and sense of preach- 
ing in a private letter to a friend, which was made public by 
Dr. Gibbons, of London, in a sermon relative to the death of 
the former. He wrote: 

"To imbibe the spirit of Christianity, to maintain a secret walk with God, to be 
holy as he is holy — this is the labor, this is the work. Perhaps in three or four montlis 
I preach in some measure as I could wish, that is, I preach as in the sight of God, 



8o HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

and as if I were to step from the pulpit to the supreme tribunal. I feel my subject. 
I melt into tears or I shudder with horror when I denounce the terrors of the Lord. 
I glow, I soar in sacred ecstacies when the love of Jesus is my theme, and as Baxter 
was wont to express it, in lines more striking to me than all the fine poetry in the 
world, 

' I preach as if I ne'er should preach again. 
And as a dying man to dying men.' 

But alas ! I soon flag, my devotions languish and my zeal cools. It is really an af- 
flictive thought that I serve so good a Master with so much inconstancy; but so it 
is, and my soul mourns on that account." 

President Davies labored in Princeton for about a year and 
a half. He died in peace Feb. 4, 1761. He Avas the first oc- 
cupant of the new house for the president of the college, now 
occupied by President McCosh, Plis pious mother gave utter- 
ance to words of sweet submission as she stood gazing upon 
his coffined remains in that house. " There is the son of my 
prayers and of my hopes, my only son, my only earthly sup- 
porter, but there is the will of God and I am satisfied." 

To have sat under the preaching of President Davies for a 
year and a half was a privilege enjoyed by the people of 
Princeton as well as by the students, a privilege which could 
not have been barren of precious fruit, manifested in genera- 
tions afterwards. 

The Rev. Dr. Samuel Finley, the successor of Davies, 
was installed president of the college in September, 1761, and 
he preached to a mixed congregation of students and citizens 
in the chapel as his predecessors had done. But the prosperity 
of the college and the growth of the village revived the pros- 
pect of building a church both for preaching and for college 
uses on Commencement occasions. To accomplish this object 
the citizens cooperated with the college, and a subscription 
paper, bearing date January 20, 1762, was circulated to raise 
funds. That paper, with the names of the subscribers and the 
amount subscribed, is still preserved ; and in order to learn who 
were the friends and supporters of this church enterprise we in- 
sert here a copy of the original paper, which we believe was in 
the hand-writing of Richard Stockton. 

" We, the subscribers, do each for himself, his executors and administrators, cov- 
enant and promise to and with the Rev. Mr. Samuel Finley, president of the Col- 
lege of New Jersey, that we and each of us will pay unto the said Samuel Finley, 



THE PRESBYTERIAN (T/Zt^A'C//— 1750-1768. 



81 



his executors and administrators, the sum affixed to eacli of our names, to be applied 
towards building a Presbyterian church in Princeton, one-half of said sum to be paid 
when the foundation of the church is laid, and the other half when it is covered. 
In witness whereof we have hereunto set our hand this 20th day of January, Anno 
Domini 1762. 



Richard Stockton, (one acre of land to 
set the church on) 

Ezekiel Forman ;^50 

Derrick Longstreet 50 

Job Stockton 25 

Newell Furman 20 

Jacob Scudder 20 

Nathan Furman 10 

Thomas Van Dike 3 

Jonathan Baldwin 20 

Samuel Hornor 10 

Jonathan Sergeant. 10 

Richard Patterson lo 



Thomas Wiggins £\o 

Patrick Barber 5 

Samuel Brunson 5 

Stephen Truesdell 6 

Gilbert Gaw. . , 3 

Thomas Randolph 10 

William Hammell 6 

William Whitehead 20 

Isaac Van Dike 15 

John Schenck 15 

Paul Randolph 3 

Wilson Hunt 3 



It was very reasonable that the college should feel an inter- 
est in the proposed church and have something to say as to its 
location and structure. Hence we find that there were nego- 
tiations between the trustees of the college and those of the 
church, resulting in a contract between them, which has kept a 
union between them until the present time, a union which is 
not generally understood by the congregation at this day. 

By this agreement the college consented that the church 
edifice should be built on land belonging to the college; that 
the college should loan the trustees of the church, towards 
erecting the building, ;^700, but which was to be repaid and 
which was subsequently done; that one side of the church gal- 
lery should be reserved for the students, and that the college 
should have a right to the use of the church for three days at 
Commencement and at other times, for public speaking, when 
the president should desire it. This agreement was made in 
1762. There was no conveyance of the land made to the 
church at that time. Afterward, in 1783, when the church 
needed repairing from the damage done to it by the soldiers of 
the Revolution, the relation of the college to the church, under 
the original agreement, was revived, and a large committee of 
the congregation was appointed to treat with the trustees of 
the college on the subject ; and it was agreed that the trustees 
6 



■i 



82 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

of the college should convey a legal title to the church for the 
lot which they had purchased of Nath. l-'itz Randolph, and 
also for the lot on which the church then stood adjoining it. 
The same reservations in favor of the college as before, were 
made, with the addition that no persons should be buried with- 
in the bounds of said lot, on the outside of the church walls. 
]^ut this agreement was not really put into execution nor was 
the title conveyed to the church until 1816, when Dr. Green, as 
president of the college, executed the deed, with its reserva- 
tions and conditions, which Mill be particularly stated as we 
progress, chronologicallv-, in the history of the church. 

The church edifice was probably commenced in 1762. Dr. 
John Woodhull, late of Freehold, states that in September of 
that year, when he came to college, " the walls of the church 
were up or partly up." The work of erection was slow. The 
congregation was small and weak ; and notwithstanding the 
aid they received from the college, it is alleged that there was 
some talk in 1763 of the church surrendering the work to the 
college. But the struggle resulted in success, and the building 
became fit for use in the year 1766, a few months before the 
death of President Finley, who, it is believed, had preached in 
the new church for a {aw months before his death. 

The original church was built on the same lot of land on 
which the present church stands, but it was built with its side 
to the street and not its end as this one is. The pulpit was on 
the side of the audience room. There were 57 pews, 23 of 
them were squares around next to the wall. There were three 
aisles running in one direction and two in another. It was 
built of brick and with galleries on three sides. In 1792 Dr. 
Witherspoon erected a large canopy over the pulpit, with am- 
ple drapery of dark colored stuff hanging about it in festoons, 
fastened by a large gilded, radiating, star-shaped ornament. 

Princeton was again visited, during Dr. Finley's administra- 
tion in the college and church, with a gracious revival of re- 
ligion. The Rev. William E. Schenck, in his historical thanks- 
giving discourse, delivered in Princeton in 1850, thus describes it : 

" In the fall of the year 1762, just after the erection of the cluirch had been com- 
menced, it pleased God again to pour out his Holy Spirit wiih an uncommon i)owcr. 
Of this revival Dr. Woodhull, when he had become one of the aged fathers in the 









^. 1 








♦ ' 








1 V J 




THE PRESBYTERlAh' CnURCH-i-i^(^i^L%. 83 

Presbyterian church and had witnessed many and blessed revival scenes, writes 
that it was the greatest he ever saiv. Its power, he informs us, was felt not only in 
college but throughout the whole town, and extended .some distance into the adja- 
cent country. It especially extended throughout Mapleton, from Scudder's Mills 
to Kingston, a considerable number of families in that quarter Ijeing then connected 
with the Princeton congregation. He remarks that probably not a member of the 
college remained unaffected, while many in the town were brought under deep im- 
pressions. The revival lasted for about a year. It began in the Freshman class, 
of which Dr. WoodhuU was then a member. Almost as soon as the session com- 
menced this clase met once in the week for prayer. One of the members became 
deeply impressed and this affected the whole class. The other classes and the 
whole college soon became much impressed. Every class became a praying society 
and the whole college met once a week for prayer. Societies were also held by the 
students in the town and in the country around, especially at Mapleton. There 
were two members of the Senior class who were considered as opposers of the good 
work at first, yet both of these were afterwards preachers of the Gospel. It was 
afterwards found that about fifty of the students, or one-half of those then in the 
institution, had been hopefully converted and brought to make a profession of re- 
ligion. Of this number a large proportion afterwards devoted themselves to the 
Gospel ministry. What number was brought in from among the other portion of 
the congregation does not appear, but there is every probability that it was quite 
considerable. It was a very precious and very solemn season." 

Those were the days of the celebrated Whitefield, whose 
preaching: was attended with such wonderful power through- 
out the church both in this country and in Great Britain. Mr. 
Whitefield made a visit to Princeton just after this revival, in 
1763. and spent several days here with President Finley, and 
preached several times " Avith much approbation and success," 
as he describes it. 

Dr. Woodhull says that " Dr. Finley, in the pulpit, was al- 
ways solemn and sensible and sometimes glowing with fervor. 
His learning was very extensive." Ebenezer Hazard, Esq., 
another of his pupils, says that " he was remarkable for sweet- 
ness of temper and politeness of behavior." Flis death was so 
remarkably triumphant that Dr. Mason wrote an eloquent ser- 
mon, contrasting it with that of Hume. 

Dr. Finley undoubtedly rendered valuable assistance in 
procuring the erection of the church in Princeton. He acted 
as the pastor of the congregation, received the contributions 
for the church, and by his labors of love in the ministry greatly 
endeared himself to the people. He was distinguished for the 
unction of his piety even more than for his learning. He died 
in July, 1766, in Philadelphia, and was buried there. His re- 



84 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

mains have recently been removed to the burying ground of 
the Abington church, Pa. The trustees of the college have 
erected a cenotaph to his memory in the president's row, in 
the Princeton cemetery. A fuller notice of him is given in the 
chapter on the college. 

It was in 1766, just after the death of President Finley, that 
Rev. Mr. Tennent, at a meeting of Presbytery at Amwell, moved 
" that some supplies might be appointed for Princctown, in its 
present destitute state." Messrs. Green, Guild, Kennedy, Kirk- 
patrick, McKnight and Smith were appointed. 

After President Finley's death the Rev. William Tennent 
had charge of the college for six months and undoubtedly 
preached in the church to the congregation of citizens and 
students, as Dr. Finley had done. And he was succeeded by 
the Rev. John Blair, who had come as professor of theology in 
the college, and who was its vice president and performed all 
the duties pertaining to the office of president and preacher 
until the installation of Dr. Witherspoon in 1768. 

We have thus traced the church from its origin, through 
its slow and struggling history. We have directed attention 
to a handful of people supplicating the Presbytery for supplies, 
for the privilege of having the Word of life preached unto them 
and for the privilege of building a church edifice, both of which 
were at first refused, but afterwards granted. We have seen a 
nucleus congregation of citizens gathering with the students in 
the college chapel, on Sabbaths, to hear the eloquent Burr, 
Edwards, Davies and Finley preach. We have seen the new 
church edifice slowly rise under the benediction of Finley, and 
in return for the use of the chapel for several years, the 
students and faculty uniting with the families of the town and 
adjacent country, within its walls. We have referred to at 
least two powerful revivals which attended the preaching of 
Burr and Finley, and which enriched the town as well as the 
college in gifts of grace. And yet, during those years of church 
development, there was really no church in Princeton, no eccle- 
siastical organization. The Presbytery had allowed them to 
build a church in 1755, and occasionally gave them supplies, 
but nothing more. 

The sacrament of the Lord's Supper was, by special dispen- 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— i-]t?>-i-]()S. 85 

sation of Presbytery, administered in 1759 in the college chapel 
by the Rev. Wm. Tennent and President Davies. Dr. John 
WoodhuU states that while at college he was admitted to the 
communion of the church at Princeton by President Finley, in 
1763. There was no session in the church at that time nor 
were there any elders chosen before 1786. For over twenty 
years this church had a peculiar existence, somewhat like an 
Independent .or Congregational church, and yet unlike that, in- 
asmuch as its acting ordained ministers, never formally installed 
over the congregation, represented the congregation in Pres- 
bytery. The Honorable Richard Stockton, the signer of the 
Declaration, is stated, by President Smith, in his funeral dis- 
course, to have been a member of this church. This was in 
1 78 1 and before ruling elders had been chosen, and before the 
date of any record of the church which is extant. 



SECTION II. 



I768-I795 — UNDER PRESIDENT WITHERSPOON AS PREACHER 

AND PASTOR. 

The Rev. John Witherspoon, D.D., was elected President 
of the College of New Jersey, and came from Scotland to 
Princeton in 1768. After his inauguration as president he as- 
sumed, as matter of course, the pastorate of the church, that 
is, he preacheci for the students and the congregation in the 
church which had recently been built with tin- ;L^sistance of 
the college. Professor Blair, who had been i)reac;hing since 
President Finley's death, now withdrew and preached at Maid- 
enhead and Kingston for a season and relinquished a portion 
of his salary, which he had formerly received from the col- 
lege for preaching. Dr. Witherspoon had the reputation of 
being a learned theologian, a distinguished scholar, a profound 
preacher and a man of eminence among eminent men. He 
readily fell into the work of preaching as well as teaching, and 
for many years he seemed to have things in the church as well 
as in the college in his own way. The college prospered and 



86 HISTORY OF PRIXCETON. 

the church and town took a stride onward and upward under 
his energetic and judicious administration of affairs. He was a 
live man and attracted the attention of all the American colo- 
nies. But the shock of war soon checked the progress of let- 
ters and religion. Dr. VVitherspoon was not indifferent towards 
the country of his adoption, but with extraordinary prompt- 
ness he made this country his own, and gave his sympathies to 
those patriots who struck for liberty and independence. 

In connection with the duties of President, Dr. Witherspoon 
discharged with fidelity those of a Christian minister. A revi- 
val of religion of some power took place in Princeton, after he 
had been preaching here three or four years, and men who 
afterwards became prominent in the country had had a share 
in the work while at college. He sustained the relation of 
pastor to the church and congregation at Princeton, while he 
was president, for almost twenty-five years ; and he preached 
twice on the Sabbath, regularly, and performed other duties of 
a pastoral character. On one occasion, while in the midst of a 
discourse in the church, he was seized with an affection of the 
brain, which brought him to a sudden jjausc, and supposing 
himself able to leave the church he opened the pulpit door, and 
almost immediately fell helpless into the pew at the foot of the 
pulpit stairs in which his family were sitting; the violence of 
the fit soon subsided, followed however by a dizziness which for 
some time produced embarrassment in public speaking. 

On the 17th of May, 1776, a day appointed by Congress as 
a day of fasting, in reference to the state of the country, Dr. 
Witherspoon preached a sermon in the church at Princeton on 
"The Dominion of Providence over the Passions of Men." . It 
was published and addressed to John Hancock, President of 
Congress, and widely circulated in this country and in Great 
Britain. It gave much offence to the royalists, but it placed 
the author prominently before the liberty men, as a bold and 
able advocate of independence. 

The Revolutionary War now broke upon the country. The 
distinguished president preacher of the Princeton church 
yielded to the public call to serve his country in the councils 
of the State. The Declaration of Independence was now 
made and made with the votes of the minister and a member 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CH URCH—i-]h?>-iic)<i. 8/ 

of the Princeton church, Dr. VVithcrspoon and Richard Stock- 
ton. Tlic soldiers of Lord Cornwahis had now reached Prince- 
ton and quartered in the college and in the church, convertin^j 
thcni into barracks. College was suspended. Preaching in 
the church was suspended. The pews in the church and the 
gallery were torn out and burned — a fire-place was tiuilt in it, 
and a chimney carried up through the roof Shortly after the 
enemy had been dislodged from the church, in 1777, it was oc- 
cupied by the American army until 1781. But it was not until 
peace and the independence of the country had been secured, 
that an effort was made to repair and restore the church edifice 
for the resumption of public worship. P^-om 1776 to 1779 
there does not seem to have been any clergyman in Princeton. 
The Rev. Dr. S. Stanhope Smith returned from Virginia to 
the college in 1779. In 1784 an effort was made to repair the 
church. At this period a book of minutes of the trustees of 
the church was opened and kept, and we have less difficulty 
hereafter to learn the history of the church. The citizens who, 
for seven years, had been dispersed and subjected to the dread 
evils of war, are again at home, quietly arranging for the re- 
storation of their church privileges. Let us see what was done 
and who did it. 

A meeting of the congregation was held, March 8, 1784, 
when it was agreed 

" That it was necessary immediately to open a subsciiiition for repairing the 
ehurch in this town, and for discharging in part the jirincipal debt upon it, for 
which a committee of this congregation stand bound to the trustees of the college 
in the sum of about £100. That all the subscriptions sliould be taken on one paper, 
payable in two payments, into the hands of Enos Kelsey, who was chosen treasurer 
for this purpose, and was directed to pay all orders for this service drawn on him 
by Messrs. Robert Stockton, James Hamilton and Jolin Little, managers chosen to 
purchase materials, employ workmen and superintend the whole of the repairs 
and report through an examining committee to the congregation. That the whole 
church shall be put into decent repair — the lower part pewed in the same manner 
as it was before the war — the breastwork of the gallery decently finished ; the front 
of the gallery pewed as formerly for the use ol the college ; the [)evvs t>) be rented 
at the discretion of the committee, in such manner as to discharge tlu annual in- 
terest due to the trustees, with a surplus if possible to go to the disciiarging the 
principal debt, the highest subscriber to have tlie first election in the pews, and so 
in succession according to the several subscriptions." 

A subscription paper prepared in conformity with the fore- 



88 



HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 



going directions, dated the nth of March, 1784, was drawn 
and signed by the following persons: 



>: 



Robert Stockton 15 

Isaac Anderson 20 

Aaron Longstreet 20 

Wm. Scudder 15 

James Moore 15 

James Hamilton 15 

Elias Woodruff 10 

Thomas Stockton 10 

Enos Kelsey.. 15 

Jon. Deare 12 

Aaron Mattison 7 

Samuel Smith 15 

George Morgan 15 

John Little 25 

Isaac Van Dyke 20 

Abram Cruser 20 

Matthew Van Dyke 3 

John V;in Dyke 3 

John Schenck, Jr, 2 

Garret Schenck 3 

Thos. Blackwell 3 

David Hamilton 10 

Christopher Beekman 11 

Samuel Knox 6 

Lewis F. Wilson 7 

William Millette 10 

Richard Stockton 7 



Samuel Stout, Jr 3 

Wm. Hight 3 

John Daniels i 

Zilpah Montero 3 

John Harrison 4 10 11 

Stephen Morford 2 15 

William Bayley 176 

Thomas Prentice 3 

James Saxton — 

Joseph Leigh 3 

Peter Lott 3 

Jas. Finlay 7 10 

Noah Morford 3 

Jacob Hyer 3 

Richard Seaburn I 10 

Zebulon Morford 3 

John Scureman 2 5 

Ilezekiah Lott I 10 

John Dildine I 

Mary Rosegrants i 

Alex. McLeod i 

Sarah Martin i 2 6 

Richard Scott 2 3 

Josiah Harned i 15 

Felix Herbert 2 5 



^375 5 



Here were fifty-two persons who put their hands to the 
work of refitting their house of worship. The list affords us 
some knowledge of the principal families residing in and near 
Princeton at that time. Only one or two of these names were 
attached to the first subscription for building the church in 
1762. Many of them, however, are children of the original 
donors. 

The repairs of the church were completed within the year, 
the subscriptions gradually paid in and the pews were taken. 
The impoverishing effects of the war made it necessary for the 
congregation to study economy in supporting the gospel, and 
led to a proposal of uniting this church with the Kingston 
church in the joint maintenance of public worship, by employ- 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— i-]t%-\-]()^. 89 

ing one minister for both churches. A committee from this 
church, consisting of Richard Longstreet, Mr. Mattison, Mr. 
Lane, Dr. Wiggins, Col. Scudder and Dr. Beatty was ap- 
pointed to meet a committee from the Kingston church to 
confer on the proposed union. The joint committee met and 
discussed the question, and the result was reported by Dr. 
Beatty. The parties failed to agree because Princeton insisted 
upon two-thirds of the ministerial services upon paying two- 
thirds of the salary, while Kingston claimed that each church 
should receive the services of the minister in proportion to the 
amount of salary paid. Both parties professed to be very de- 
sirous to effect a union and have an act of incorporation so 
framed as to allow each church an independent separate gov- 
ernmentof its own affairs, yet have a general joint government 
over the united bodies. Through the good sense of the people 
or the good providence of God the proposition for union mis- 
carried and the committee was discharged. 

In February, 1786, Dr. Beatty was instructed by the con- 
gregation to draw a bill for the incorporation of the Princeton 
congregation, providing for the election, tri-annually, of seven 
trustees ; that the trustees should be re-eligible ; that the board 
shall fill vacancies, with the assistance of the church session ; 
that the name adopted should be the " Congregation of Prince- 
ton, in the counties of Somerset and Middlesex." 

And now for the first time we hear something about ruling 
elders in this church. The congregation at the same meeting 
resolved that at the next meeting ''four elders should be 
chosen by ballot, zvho should continue in office during the pleas- 
ure of the congregation," and notice should be given on the 
next Sabbath of the election of both the trustees and elders. 
James Hamilton and Isaac Anderson were requested to con- 
duct and take charge of the music in the church. 

On the 2 1 St of February, 1786, the draft of the incorporating 
act reported, was approved by the congregation, and the fol- 
lowing trustees were elected, viz.: Richard Longstreet, Robert 
Stockton, Enos Kelsey, James Moore, Isaac Anderson, Wil- 
liam Scudder ; and the following persons were elected by the 
congregation ruling elders: Richard Longstreet, James Hamil- 
ton, Thomas Blackwell, John Johnson. 



QO ■ HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

The election of ruling elders, though not conducted accord- 
ing to strict Presbyterial rules, gave the church a more regular- 
ly ecclesiastical character. It is presumed that Dr. Wither- 
spoon was instrumental in thus completing the organization 
of the church by securing a bench of ruling elders, as he was 
still acting as pastor, though the minutes do not show his 
agency in the matter. 

The congregation, at the same meeting, also voted unani- 
mously, 

•' Tlmt the thanks of tliis congregation be presented to the Rev. Dr. Witherspoon 
for his lung and important services towards tliem, and ihat lie be requested to con- 
tinue his public labors and exercise a pastoral care over the same ; and that as a 
compensation for his services we will personally subscribe to the trustees for his 
use, a sum to be paid in quarterly or half-yearly payments." 

Dr. Beatty, Mr. Deare and Richard Stockton were ap- 
pointed a committee to tender the thanks and report his an- 
swer. 

On the i6th day of March, 1786, a general law of the State 
was passed, entitled, "An act to incorporate certain jiersons as 
trustees in every religious society or congregation in this 
State." A similar act had become a law in the State of New 
York, in 1784, and this congregation now went into an election 
of trustees in conformity with the State law, and chose the 
same persons whom they had before elected trustees, with the 
addition of John Little. 

This board of trustees adopted a corporate seal, which is 
still retained in use. Its motto is appropriately classical and 
at the same time expressive of a hopeful feeling for better 
times now that the war cloud had passed over. The device — 
on afield the church of Princeton proper; above it, sundry 
rays of light emanating from an eye above and dispelling the 
clouds hanging over the church, with the motto " Spercmus 
Meliora." "We hope for better things." 

In 1787 Enos Kelsey resigned as treasurer of the congrega- 
tion, and John Harrison was elected in his place. In March, 
1792, the session of the church began to keep a separate record 
from that of the trustees, according to the direction of the 
Presbytery. On the nth of that month Dr. Thomas Wiggins 
and James Fihley were ordained ruling elders. We find no 



THE PRESBYTERIAN C//i//v'C7/— 1768-1795. 9I 

record of election of elders in the minutes of the trustees of 
congregational meetings. The elders' book alone contains min- 
utes of their election. 

The congregation met at the house of David Hamilton, July 
2, 1792, when a letter from Dr. Witherspoon was laid before 
them, stating that he, " Dr. Witherspoon had, at his own 1 
expense, erected a pulpit and canopy in the I^rinceton meeting : 
house in the years 1783 and 1792, and requesting the trustees 
to reimburse him the exj^ense of the same." Whereupon it 
was resolved, 

"That wliereas the said pulpit was put up previous to tlie trustees of tlie college 
having disposed of said meeting-house to the congregation of Princeton, they do 
not conceive any legal demand can now be made on them for the same ; but as 
the canopy has been made since the purchase of said house, and as they consider 
it as a necessary appendage to the jiulpit, ordered that Mr. James Moore, present 
collector of pew rents, pay to Dr. John Witherspoon the sum of;^X5, price of said 
canopy." 

This action of the congregation at this remote day does 
not seem very generous either towards the venerable president 
who had served the congregation so long without their paying 
any salary, unless perhaps a mite in the way of pew rents ; or 
towards the college that had done so much towards providing 
a house of worship for them. Whether he was reimbursed by 
the trustees of the college for the expense of the pulpit we can- 
not state. This is the only unpleasant incident that meets us 
on the records, touching the relation of Dr. Witherspoon to 
the Princeton congregation. Perhaps it may not be so viewed 
by others looking at it in a strictly business point of view. 

Dr. Witherspoon continued to minister in the church until 
about a year before his death. Pie became blind, and for a 
year, while blind, he continued to preach. Pie was led into the 
pulpit, and having a good memory and accustomed to preach 
memoriter, he could get through with a sermon without much 
difficulty. His son-in-law. Dr. Smith, the vice president, often 
relieved him by preaching for him and moderating the session, 
and doing other pastoral labor. 

It is difficult to ascertain the degree of success which at- 
tended his ministrations in this church during the long period 
of his pastoral care over it. The session only began to keep 



92 



HISTORY OF PRTNCETOr^. 



a record in 1792, and there are no admissions to the church en- 
tered from that time to the termination of Dr. Witherspoon's 
labors. There was a Hst of communicants in the church taken 
and registered by the session on the 3d day of November, 1792, 
It zoViX2\x\'S, fifty-three members; and as Mrs, Witherspoon's 
name stands 14th on the list it is reasonable to infer ihat all 
below that number were received into the membership of the 
church during Dr. Witherspoon's pastoral connection with it. 
This was a revised list, containing the names only of such as 
were then members, and not those who had been members and 
removed. 

The roll of chur.ch conimunicants, Nov. 3, 1792, contained 
the following names, viz : 



Peter Morrison, 

Widow Charity Millette, 

John Johnson, Sen., 

Ruth Smith, 

Eleanor Stockton, 

Widow Annis Stockton, 

Polly Stockton, 

Suckey Stockton. 

AVife of 1'homas Stockton, 

The Widow Sproule, 

The wife of Cornelius Blue, 

John Stockton, mason, 

Elizabeth Anderson, 

Mrs. Witherspoon, 

Doctor Thomas Wiggins, 

Aaron Mattison, 

Mrs. Huggins, 

James Hamilton, 

Sarah Hamilton, 

Martha Hamilton, 

Doctor Minto, 

Mrs. Minto, 

Mrs. Knox, 

Sarah Martin, 

Dr. Samuel Smith, 

Mrs. Smith. 



Mrs. Mountier, 
Mrs. Morgan, 
Mrs. Little, 
Hetty Gar, 
John Lyal, 
John McGriggor, 
Zebulon Morford, 
Richard Longstreet, 
Ann Longstreet, 
James Finley, Sen., 
James Finley, Jun., 
Mrs. Finley, 
Mrs. Sebring, 
Israel Everit, 
Mrs. Everit, 
Mrs. Rock, 
Mrs. Wood, 
Mrs. Abeel, 
Mrs. Stout, 
Phebe King, 
Dinah Johnson, 
Selah Johnson, 
Mark Davis, 
Joe Lake, 
Toney Little. 



—53 



The bodily infirmities of Dr. Witherspoon were now dis- 
qualifying him for further duties to the church. On the 23d 
of April, 1793, a petition from the congregation of Princeton 
•was presented and read in Presbytery at Oxford, reciting: 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— iiG^^-i-jc^S- 93 ! 

" That for a long time past they had the Gospel preached and the sacra- 
ments administered to them constantly by the president of the college, although 
not connected with him in a pastoral relation ; that tlie jjresident has now declined 
performing these ministerial duties on account of his advanced age and bodily in- 
firmities, and seeing that they were destitute of the stated means of grace, they ex- 
pected the supplies usually given to vacant churches ; a doubt arising whether Dr. j 
Witherspoon was not actually their pastor, and therefore it would be irregular to j 
pronounce them a vacant church without some communication fropa him. The 
business was postponed for consideration to the next stated meeting, and supplies 
in the meantime ordered." I 

The next meeting was held in Princeton on the ist of Sep- i 

tember of that year, when the Presbytery decided the question 
thus : I 

" It appearing that Dr. Witherspoon had never been the regular pastor of the 
church of Trinceton, and that through his bodily infirmities he has recently been 
obliged to decline the constant performance of ministerial duties, that church is de- 
clared vacant." 

Dr. Witherspoon died at Tusculum, his country scat, a ht- 
tle way out of town, on the 15th of November, 1794, in pos- 
session of his mental faculties, in full hope of eternal blessed- 
ness through Christ, in his seventy-third year ; Dr. Rodgers, 
of New York, preached his funeral sermon. He was buried in 
the cemetery by the side of his predecessor's cenotaph, in the 
Presidents' row. His name is indelibly stamped upon the his- 
tory of the Princeton church, the college and the country. 

The church, during the last year or two of Dr. Wither- 
spoon's life, and even before that, received the offices of Presi- 
dent Smith, who often preached and moderated the session and 
performed pastoral duties. He was a popular and eloquent 
preacher, always welcome among the people of Princeton. 

A call from the Princeton church was made upon Mr. John 
Abeel, a probationer in the Dutch Synod, to become its pastor, 
in 1793, but he declined it. The congregation was supplied, 
however, in the interval, by Presbytery, the chief ministerial 
and pastoral labors being rendered by the Rev. Samuel Stan- 
hope Smith, D.D., until the Rev. Samuel Finley Snowden was 
elected pastor in 1795. 



94 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 



SECTION III. 

1 795-1 804 — THE TASTORATE OF THE REV. SAMUEL FINLEY 

SNOWDEN. 

The election of ruling elders gave to the church a session — 
a body in which the people were represented — which had real- 
ly not existed during the first quarter century of this church's 
history. The meetings of the session, before which the duties 
of visitation and discipline pressed themselves upon the 
notice and conscience of the elders, created a desire if not a 
necessity to secure a pastor exclusively devoted to the interest 
of the congregation; and on the 14th day of September, 1795, 
the congregation voted a call to the Rev. Samuel Finlcy Snow- 
den, and the session, consisting of Dr. Thomas Wiggins, James 
Finley and James Hamilton, elders, moderated by the Rev. S. 
S. Smith, put the call in due form and prosecuted it. 

Samuel Finley Snowden was a son of Mr. Isaac Snowden, 
of Philadelphia, who was treasurer of that city before the Rev- 
olution, and was at one time a ruling elder in Dr. Sproat's 
church at that place, and was a warm friend and helper of 
David Brainerd. He was a trustee of the college at Princeton 
from 1782 till 1808; he was obHged to flee from the city dur- 
ing the war, for safety from the British army, and came to 
Princeton and spent several years here. While here he was 
elected an elder in the church in which his son was the pastor. 
He returned to Philadelphia, but closed his life at Cranberry, 
where another of his sons, the Rev. Gilbert Tennent Snowden, 
was then pastor.* Isaac Snowden's father was John Snowden, 
of Philadelphia, and his mother was Ruth P'^itz Randolph, 
daughter of Benjamin Fitz Randolph, of Princeton, and a 
widow of Pldward Harrison, of Griggstown, when she was mar- 
ried to Mr. Snowden. 

The Rev, Samuel P'inley Snowden was born Nov. 6, 1767. 
He graduated at Princeton college in 1786, and studied law with 

* Rev. Gilbert Tennent Snowden married Ruth Lott, of Princeton. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— REV, S. F. SNOWDEN. 95 

Thomas Bradford, an eminent lawyer in Philadelphia, at that 
day ; he afterwards abandoned the law for the ministry and 
studied theology in Princeton with Drs. Witherspoon and 
Smith, and was licensed to preach on the 24tli of April, 1794, 
by the Presbytery of New Brunswick. 

He accepted the call from the Princeton church and was 
ordained and installed pastor thereof, on the 25th of Novem- 
ber, 1795. The Rev. Dr. Joseph Clark preached the sA-mon 
on the occasion and the Rev. Dr. Stanhope Smith presided 
and gave the charges. 

The church now, with a pastor called, ordained and in- 
stalled, and with a bench of ruling elders for the first time in 
its history, enters upon a somewhat new career of ecclesiastical 
discipline and supervision. Weak and erring members, es- 
pecially those who were grossly immoral and disorderly, re- 
ceived the attention of the elders as soon as they had been set 
apart in their office. And this young pastor, in conference 
with his elders, proposed special action in reference to two 
subjects, viz: faiiiily visiiation and /;-/rv?/r baptism. 

The pastor, with some degree of timidit}' and caution, sub- 
mitted to the session for their opinion and counsel, whether it 
would be advisable immediately to commence the visitation of 
families in due form by minister and elder for the purpose of 
learning the state of religion in them, agreeably to the practice 
in the Presbyterian church ; whereupon the session gave it as 
their unanimous opinion that as the congregation had never 
been formed to the habits of an organized church and were not 
yet ripe for adopting them in their full strictness, it would be 
better to introduce a system of private instruction and visitation 
in families, with catechising in private houses in the different 
quarters of the congregation, with a lecture in each place suita- 
ble to the occasion. We have no knowledge of the extent to 
which this plan was carried out, but we have reason to believe 
that family visitation was soon introduced, according to the old 
Presbyterian usage — the minister taking with him an elder and 
going from house to house through^iut the congregation. 

So, too, we soon find the new pastor looking after the lambs 
of his flock, and calling the attention of his session to the prev- 
alent practice of administering baptism to children privately 



9^ HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

instead of publicly in the church — a habit not. uncommon in 
places where many clergymen, who are not pastors, reside. 
He asked the advice of his session whether it would be consist- 
ent with order and the rules of the church to baptize, in private 
houses, the children of parents who allege no other reason but 
their poverty in excuse for not bringing them to attend the 
public ordinances of the church. The session declared " it 
would be irregular and improper, and that it would not be at- 
tended with benefit to the children or with credit to th^ 
church." This was followed by a resolution that " all the bap- 
tisms performed in the congregation, and by the pastor of it, 
in any other place, should be entered in the session book." 

There is but little to be gleaned from the records of the 
church to illustrate its progress during the short pastorate of 
Mr. Snowden. Only three persons seem to have been ad- 
mitted to the church on examination during his ministry here, 
and one of those was connected with the college. He held the 
pastoral relation to this church till April 29, 1801, when, 
in failing health, he was released; and on April 28, 1802, he 
was dismissed to the Presbytery of Albany, to take charge of a 
church at New Hartford, N. Y., having by rest and travel for 
a year, regained his health. He was well settled at ,New 
Hartford, near Utica, where he built up a large and flourishing 
church. After preaching there almost fourteen years he re- 
moved to Sackett's Harbor and organized a church there in 
which his labors were eminently blessed. He remained there 
until May, 1845, when, one morning, having risen in his usual 
health and sitting in his chair, attempting to stoop he fell to 
the floor and died without a struggle or a groan, at the good 
old age of seventy-eight years. He had expressed a desire to 
die suddenly when his appointed time should come.* 

He is represented to have been a good writer, a faithful and 

1 industrious pastor, and an agreeable man in social life, excel- 
ling rather in the social than in pulpit duties. 

The Rev. Mr. Snowden lived a part of the time, if not the 

whole time, while he was pastor in Princeton, on the beautiful 

( farm now owned by Leavitt Howe, Esq., and which, for many 

*'''^'- years, was occupied by Elijah Blackwell. It is said by the 

* Rev. W. E. Schenck's Historical Discourse, p. 43. 



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descendants of Mr. Snowdcn that he built the old stone house 
which the Blackwc!! family occupied so long, and which a few 
years ago Mr. II owe took down lo build his present elegant 
stone mansion in place thereof. 

A dauglUer of Mr. Snowden married the late Rev. Mr. 
Gallagher, of Bloomfield, New Jersey, the father of Mrs. Pro- 
fessor Packard, now of Princeton. 

After the vacancy in the pulpit, caused by the Rev. Mn. 
Snowden's resignation, the Rev. S. Stanhope Smith, D.C,. 
president of the college, was employed as a stated supply by 
the congregation, and served as such from January i, i8or, to 
January i, 1804; and he was paid for such service by a general 
subscription among the members of the congregation. For 
three years this church listened to this eloquent and distin- 
guished preacher. We find no record of his success in his min- 
isterial labors. 



SECTION IV. 

1804-1 8 10 — PASTORATE OF THE REV. HENRY KOI-LOCK. 

On the eleventh day of January, 1804, a call from the 
Princeton church was prepared and signed by the elders and 
trustees to the Rev. Henry Kollock of Elizabethtown, to be- 
come their pastor, with a salary of five hundred dollars a year, 
payable quarterly, to be raised by subscription. The elders 
who signed the call were Dr. Thomas Wiggins, James Piamil- 
ton, Daniel Agnew and Professor William Thompson. The 
trustees were Robert Stockton, Thomas Wiggins, James Moore, 
Isaac Anderson, James Hamilton and John Harrison. 

The Rev. Henry Kollock was born December 4, 1778, 
in Essex County, N. J. His father. Shepherd Kollock, was a 
widely known editor and publisher of a newspaper in New Jer- 
sey, and also active in the scenes o{ the Revolution. He was 
a pioneer journalist of that period. The " New Jersey Journal " 
commenced in 1779, published at Chatham, was owned and 
edited by him. He was a zealous patriot and continued in the 
printing business till 1818. Henry Kollock was an uncommon- 
7 



98 



HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 



\y bright youth and graduated at Nassau Hall in 1794, in the 
sixteenth year of his age. He became a tutor in Princeton 
college, and was an intimate friend of liishop Hobart, who was 
his contemporary in college. He was licensed to preach, May 
7, 1800, and his first pulpit efforts attracted unusual attention. 
He continued for a time to preach at Princeton every Sabbath 
afternoon, greatly admired and drawing the largest audiences, 
a popularity that followed him through life. He had been 
honored by an appointment to preach a missionary sermon be- 
fore the General Assembly in Philadelpl^a in 1803, which he 
did from the text, " He must increase." His sermon was ap- 
plauded and published, and his reputation as a preacher was 
thereby spread through the country. The trustees of the col- 
lege at Princeton desired to secure his presence and services 
at Princeton, and, young as he was, they appointed him profes- 
sor of theology ; and this church at Princeton called him to be 
their pastor at the same time. At that time he was pastor of 
the church at Elizabethtown where he was very popular. 

He accepted the Princeton calls to the church and to the 
college. He had received several other prominent calls. He 
was installed as pastor of the Princeton church on the 12th 
day of June, 1804, when Dr. Armstrong preached the sermon 
and Rev. Mr. Clark gave the charges to the pastor and people. 
He was soon after this honored with a degree of Doctor of 
Divinity both from Union College and Harvard University, 
although he was only twenty-six years of age. 

The subscription paper for the salary of the new pastor was 
signed by loi persons, subscribing in sums from thirty dollars 
to one dollar, amounting in the aggregate to $666. 

The following is the subscription paper referred to : 



Isaac Anderson $20 

Daniel Agnew 20 

M. and Wm. Agnew 5 

Daniel Agnew, Jr 5 

Erkuries Lieatty 15 

Elijah Biackwell 5 

James Banyan 15 

Nancy and Polly Booth 2 

Abrani Cruser 3 

John Cruser 3 



Barton Morford $ 3 

Noah Morford 3 

Andrew McMakin.. 4 

Stephen Morford 4 

Wni. Napton 5 

Mary Norris 2 

Sam. Nicholson 4 

David Olden 2 

George Philips 5 

John Passage 4 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— REV. H. KOLLOCK. 



99 



Hannah Campbell $ 2 

Margaret Cozine S 

Charles Crawford 2 

Isaac Coole 3 

Robert Davison 2 

Josias Ferguson lo 

Wm. Gaw 4 

John GifTord lo 

Divid Gilliland 2 

Jacob Gray 2 

James Hamilton 14 

John Harrison 20 

John Hamilton 10 

Richard Hunt 3 

Oliver Hunt 8 

Wm. HoUinshead, Jr * 2 

Jacob Hynicha 2 

Francis Huff. 5 

Francis D. Janvier g 

Caleb Johnson 4 

Ralph Johnson 3 

David Johnson 4 

John Johnston 2 

Thos. Jennings 3 

David Cooper Johnston 2 

George Jobs. i 

Enos Kelsey 20 

John Kerr 2 

Grace Little 10 

Ralph Lane 2 

Joseph I,eigh 5 

John Louf berry . 5 

Aaron Longstreet 5 

Jas. Moore 10 

Elisabeth Mattison 4 

John Maclean 12 

Zebulon Morford. 8 

Charles Morford 6 

Edward Moi ford 4 

Mary Minto 8 

Sarah Martin 3 

Princeton, March, 1804. 



John Robeson % 8 

Wm. Ross 6 

Ephraim Ryno 2 

Perez Rowley 8 

James Runyan 3 

Richard Stockton 30 

Robert Stockton 10 

John N. Simpson 15 

Jacob Stryker 5 

Christoplier H. Stryker 12 

Job Stockton 10 

Josiah S^elton 5 

Lydia Stelle 8 

F.lisha Salter 2 

Ebenezer Stockton 10 

Garret Sclienck 4 

Joseph Schenck 7 

Wm. Thompson 12 

John Thompson 8 

Mr. Teisseire 4 

Jacob TenEyck 5 

Peter Updike 3 

Wm. Updike 4 

Robt. Voorhees 12 

John VanCleve 6 

Julius Voorhees 4 

Thos. Wiggins 20 

John Wilson 6^ 

Hugh Wilson 5 

Adna Wood 2 

Jacob Keene 6 

Mrs. McCuUough i 

Cornelius Terhune 2 

Mrs. Chapman '. i 33 

Mary Voorhees 2 

John Craig 8 

John Dildine 2 

Peter HoUinshead 2 

Stephen Anderson 2 



Total $666 33 



During the year 1804 a new cedar roof was put on the 
church, and the money to pay for it was, by order of the con- 
gregation, assessed on the pews. 

Some alteration was also proposed to the trustees of the 
college in regard to their use of the gallery. The front gallery 



lOO HISTORY OF PRINCE TOAT. 

had been found insufficient to accommodate the students, and 
the trustees of the church offered to give them the whole west 
side gallery, provided Dr. Smith would release to the congre- 
gation a portion of the front gallery. This was done. Seats 
were then made on the gallery. One pew was given to Mr. 
Kollock for his family to use, and Thomas P. Johnson, Esq., 
bought one for his family. 

The session kept a vigilant eye upon disorderly members, 
and cases of church discipline were numerous in those days, 
the majority of the subjects being slaved. Miss Annis Ogden 
Stockton applied to the session for admission to the ordi- 
nances of Baptism and the Lord's Supper, and to be examined 
at home if not inconsistent with the views of the session. The 
session granted her request and the moderator and Dr. Van- 
Cleve,' elder, were appointed to wait on her and examine her 
and if satisfied to admit her. The same course was adopted 
soon after in the case of Peregrine Janvier, who was admitted 
by the moderator alone. This practice has been continued, in 
exceptional cases, down to the present time in this church; 
the general rule requires the applicant, if not physically unable, 
to appear before session to be examined, for admission to the 
ordinances. 

It was during the same year that the trustees of the church 
prescribed rules to govern the sexton of the church.* 

It was in the year 1804 that Dr. Thomas Wiggins, one of 
the ruling elders and trustees, died, leaving a will in which he 
devised his house and little farm of above twenty acres, on 
Witherspoon Street, for the use of the minister of this church. 
The tract of land includes the land now inclosed in the new 
cemetery and land east of it, and the land occupied by the gas 

* lie was required "to open the church on Sunday morning for worsliip, when 
the bell rings ; always ready to conduct strangers to vacant pews ; supply water in 
the proper place for baptism ; sweep the church and the congregational part of the 
gallery ; dust the pulpit and seats at least once a month ; scrub the aisles twice a 
year ; keep fire in the stoves in v inter ; keep doors shut in ^\ inter ; keep gate shut 
and yard in order; attend church in divine service and keep order; take care that 
the black people sit in their proper places, and if any misbehave to report — if free 
to the trustees, and if slave, to their master or mistress — their names and conduct, 
and attend in week as well as Sabbath when a sermon is preached. That he have 
charge of the burying ground, keep the key and dig graves." 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— REV. DR. KOLLOCK. lOI 

company's works and a portion of James Van Deventer's 
meadow and lake garden. The mansion is now held by the 
gas company. 

Legal difficulties were suggested as to the validity of the 
title passed by this devise, on the ground that there was no de- 
visee named capable of holding the legal estate, and also be- 
cause the Rev Mr. Kollock, then being the minister to whose 
use the devise was first to be applied, was a subscribing witness 
to the will. 

The subject was brought before th^ congregation and dis- 
cussed, and steps were taken to negotiate with the legal heirs 
of the testator, for the extinguishment of their title by paying 
them something for their release. John N. Simpson, an intel- 
ligent and respectable merchant in this place, had married a 
niece of Dr. Wiggins, and he was employed to effect a settle- 
ment with the heirs. A full and satisfactory settlement was 
made. The heirs released to the trustees of the church and the 
church paid to each of them about $600. It was several years 
before the claim of Sarah Wiggins, the infant grand niece of 
the testator, which had been at interest, was paid. The Rev, 
Mr. Kollock also executed proper papers whereby the use and 
possession of the property, inured to his benefit, while the title 
was held in the trustees. 

The property was occupied as the parsonage from that day 
to the close of Dr. Rice's pastorate in 1847. Though this gift 
was a valuable one and ought to be ever gratefully remembered 
by the church, it was, while held as a manse, a constant source of 
agitation and complaint. The call for repairs was unceasing ; 
sometimes the congregation would respond promptly to it, and 
at other times they would demur and insist that the minister 
was bound to keep the property in repair at his own expense 
and that the trustees had nothing to do with it. There were 
frequent attempts made to have it sold, which was finally ac- 
complished, the particulars of which sale, etc., will be found in a 
subsequent section. 

The trustees of the church honored this generous benefactoi 
and pious elder and physician by erecting a marble monument 
to his memory over his tomb, in the cemetery. Dr. Wiggins 
had been an elder of this church since 1792. 



102 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

Dr. Kollock's ministry in Princeton was prosperous and at- 
tractive, but short. He resigned his call in October, 1806, after 
holding it for less than three years. The number of communi- 
cants enrolled in 1792, we have hereinbefore shown to be fifty- 
three. The report to the Presbytery in April, 1805, from this 
church, gave it seventy-five members ; the Kingston church 
106; Freehold, 259, and Cranberry 196. During Dr. Kollock's 
pastorate at Princeton there were thirteen persons admitted 
to the church on examination. Among them were Annis 
Ogden Stockton, Peregrine Janvier, Mrs. Phebe Hamilton, Wil- 
liam Hamilton, Zebulon Morford, Phebe Davis, Mr. McClure, 
of Pa., (divinity student) and William C. Schenck, who became 
the next pastor of the church. 

The trustees of the church learning, in September, 1806, of 
Dr. Kollock's intention to resign and remove to Georgia, pre- 
sented an address to him, on behalf of the congregation and 
session, expressing their deep regret in parting with him as 
their minister, and the great satisfaction tl^ey had experienced 
under his preaching and their warmest wishes for his health 
and prosperity. 

The treasurer paid him his salary in full to 1st October and 
also for the repairs he had done to the parsonage house. 
• Dr. Kollock accepted a call from the Independent Presby- 
terian church in Savannah and removed thither in the fall of 
1806. He was much admired there. He was invited to take 
the presidency of the University of Georgia, but he declined. 
He took a tour to Europe. After his return he continued to 
preach in Savannah, but his affection was a disease of the heart 
which terminated his life by paralysis. His death-bed was a 
scene of thrilling interest. Admiring friends manifested their 
interest in him and their grief at his death. His reputation for 
eloquence had never waned. He died December 29, 18 19, 
thoroughly established in the habits and life of a godly minis- 
ter ; and the confidence of his people and friends seems to have 
been bestowed upon him with the most passionate love and 
admiration. The shipping in the harbor placed their colors at 
half mast, by direction of the mayor. 

His wife was Mehetable Campbell, a widow of Alexander 
Campbell, of Richmond, Va. She survived him and they had 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH-REV. DR. KOLLOCK. I03 

no children. A cenotaph has been erected to his memory in 
the pastors' burial lot in the Princeton cemetery by the trus- 
tees of the church. Dr. Kollock published four volumes of 
excellent sermons. 

There was now a vacancy in the pulpit of the Princeton 
church, which continued until 1810. Application was made to 
the Presbytery for supplies, but President Smith took the prin- 
cipal charge of the congregation and performed ministerial 
duties in the church. The members of session were active. 
They increased their number to eight. Their names were 
Prof. Wm. Thompson, Samuel Bayard, James Moore, Zebulon 
Morford, John Davison, P^rancis D. Janvier, Peter Updike, and 
Dr. John VanCleve. Capt. Moore, Zeb. Morford and F. D. Jan- 
vier had the duties and business of deacons assigned to them. 
Messrs. Bayard, Morford and VanCleve were appointed a com- 
mittee on public instruction to attend to the public religious 
instruction of the children. Mr. Osgood, a licentiate of Mas- 
sachusetts, supplied the pulpit for a time in 1807. 

The trustees were Erkuries Beatty, James Moore, Richard 
Stockton, James Hamilton, Ebenezer Stockton and Samuel 
Bayard. 

In September, 1807, the trustees took action to prevent 
the ground of the church being occupied on days of Com- 
mencement by persons erecting booths or fixing wagons there-/ 
on for the selling of liquor and refreshments, whereby the free! 
passage to and from the church was interrupted and the exer- 
cises of the day were much impeded. The trustees of the college 
had invoked this action ; and with the aid of the civil officers 
the beer and gingerbread wagons and booths were forced to 
take their position down between the middle gate of the cam- 
pus and the old market house, then standing in the street. 

During the year 1808 the trustees, who seemed to be more 
anxious than the session to obtain a pastor, recommended, in 
order to provide for the salary of a minister to be called and 
settled permanently, that two papers be circulated, one agree- 
ing to a small yearly assessment on the pews and another for 
the usual subscription of money. 

At the same time the session had appointed Mr. Bayard to 
memorialize the trustees of the college on the subject, express- 



104 



HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 



ing the inability of the congregation to support a minister of 
such talents as would give satisfaction to both the college and 
the congregation, and also to request their aid in the promo- 
tion of that desirable object, if compatible with the state of 
their funds. A call was made to the Rev. Geo. S. Woodhull 
to become the pastor, but the Presbytery having advised him 
not to accept it, he declined it. 

Mr. Billings, a student' from Georgia, came to Princeton to 
study divinity and applied to the session to be admitted to the 
Lord's Supper, but was advised '^ to wait till by study and self- 
examination he should acquire more precise and correct ideas 
on leading points of divinity." The next year he was admitted. 
In August, 1809, the trustees of the church leased to the 
trustees of the academy a strip of ground six feet wide for the 
purpose of enlarging the lot upon which they had allowed the 
academy to be built at the east end of the church. 

There were several cases of church discipline by the session, 
of members, for profanity, intemperance and other immoralities! 
The number of persons received into the church since Dr. Kol- 
lock resigned, up to the call of his successor, was only six. 
The list of communicants made Jan., 1807, was as follows: 



Mrs. Millet, 

Polly McComb, 

Mrs. Morris, 

Mrs. Little, 

Hetty Garr, 
James Hamilton, 
Sarah Hamilton, 

Martha Hamilton, 
Mrs. Ferguson, 
Phebe Davis. 
Sarah Martin, 
Eliza Anderson, 
Mrs. Crawford, 
Mrs. Voorhees, 
Mrs. Rock, 
Hannah Campbell, 
Mary Skillman, 
Capt. James Moore, 
Mrs. Moore, 
Mr. Francis Janvier, 
Mrs. Janvier, 



Mrs. VanCleve, 
Mrs. Knox, 
Mrs. Hunt, 
Mrs. Loufifberry, 
Mrs. Johnson, 
Peter Updike, 
Mrs. Updike, 
Richard Hunt, 
Ralph Lane, 
Nancy Stockton, 
Mrs. McGregor, 
Mrs. Hollinshead, 
Joseph Campbell, 
Mrs. Campbell, 
Al)ram Cruser, 
Mrs. Rowley, 
Henry Cruser, 
Samuel Bayard, 
Mrs. Bayard, 
John Davidson, 
Mrs. Davidson, 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— REV. W. C. SCHENCK'. 



105 



Mrs. Beatty, 
Mrs. Totten, 
Zebulon Morford, 
Mrs. Morford, 
Mrs. John Smith, 
William Thompson, 
Rev. Dr. S. S. Smith. 
Mrs. Smith, 
Mrs. Minto, 
Mrs. Andrew Hunter, 
Dr. John VanCleve, 



Mr. Hageman, 
Mrs. Hageman, 
William Schenck, 
Mrs. Mary Walter, 
Rev. Mr. Cooley, 
Mrs. Cooley, 
Mr. Gailand, (student) 
Mr. Whittlesey, 
Henry Dwight, 
Helen Morford. 



SECTION V. 

1810-1820— PASTORATE OF THE REV. WILLIAM C. SCHENCK. 

In the spring of 18 10 the Rev. WiLLIAM C. ScHENCK, a son 
of Joseph Schenck, (a pious farmer in the vicinity of Prince- 
ton,) and who had been admitted to the church, in 1806, by the 
Rev. Mr. Kollock, and had studied divinity with President 
Smith, was elected pastor of this church. He had been li- 
censed by the Presbytery of New Brunswick about two years 
before this, and had preached for a time at Cooperstown, N. Y., 
as a supply, and had supplied the Princeton pulpit for a part 
of a year, preceding this call. He was ordained and installed 
at Princeton on the 6th of June, 18 10, being only twenty-two 
years of age. His ministry continued here for nine years and 
was greatly blessed. The church grew in numbers and influ- 
ence (see Dr. W. E. Schenck's Hist. Discourse, pp. 53, 54). 
The parsonage property, devised by Dr. Wiggins, was assigned 
by the trustees to Mr. Schenck, and he entered upon it. 

The desecration of tombstones in the burying-ground began 
as early as the year 181 2. The trustees took action to prevent 
it in that year. Their minutes read thus : 

" vVhereas, there have been some malicious and evil disposed persons entering 
the burying ground belonging to this congregation and broke and abused some of 
the tombstones therein much to the injury of individuals and society in general. 

Resolved, that Mr. Eayard and Mr. Hamilton be a committee to inquire for the 
particulars of this atrocious injury and mischief, and if possible ascertain who the 
persons are that have been guilty, and if so to immediately call a meeting of tlie 
board that they may be brought to condign punishmcmt." 



I06 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

The theological seminary, in 1812, was established here and 
Dr. Alexander, with his family, removed here in that year, 
and Dr. Miller in the year after. The religious interest of 
Princeton began now to assume a new and important aspect 
in the church, under the zealous ministry of Mr. Schenck. 
Twenty-two new members had been received when a sad 
calamity befell the congregation in the destruction of the chiircJi 
edifice, in 1813, by fire. On the ist of March of that year the 
trustees appointed a committee to make inquiry into the cause 
of the fire, and they reported that after examining sundry wit- 
nesses and into the circumstances attending the fire, they were 
of opinion that it arose from the indiscretion of Michael Riley, 
doing the duty of sexton, in putting hot embers into a cask on 
Saturday afternoon and leaving it in a closet under the stairs, 
whence the fire was communicated to the body of the church. 
This unfortunate circumstance ha])pening early in the evening 
and the fire continuing, was not discovered until near daylight 
on Sunday morning, too late to avoid the melancholy result. 
This report was read to the congregation and published in the 
Trenton and New Brunswick papers. 

A meeting of the congregation was held on the same day; 
Col, Erkuries Beatty was president and Samuel R. Hamilton, 
secretary. A plan for rebuilding was adopted. 

1. A general subscription for rebuilding on the s.ime ground, with improvements. 

2. Former pew holders to have pews on same sites with the old ones as near as 
possible, and to be allowed the value of their old ones in equalizing the cost. 

3. Money subscribed to be allowed on the new pews. 

4. Pews not thus taken to be sold at auction subject to assessments. 

5. Purchasers at auction, if subscribers to rebuilding, to be allowed for theii 
subscriptions to be taken'out. 

6. If a debt remains it shall be assessed equitably on all the pews according to 
their relative value ; pews liable to forfeiture for it. 

7. Pews to be classified and the residue of the debt and the income to be raised 
accordingly. 

Col, Beatty, Dr. Stockton and Mr. F. Janvier were appointed 
committee to solicit money at home, and Dr. Green, Dr. Alex- 
ander, Rev. Mr. Schenck, Richard Stockton and Samuel Bay- 
ard to solicit abroad. The building committee were John 
Hamilton, James Hamilton, Peter Bogart, Dr. Stockton and 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— REV. W. C. SCHENCK. lO/ 

Mr. Beatty. Robert Voorhees was treasurer of the building 
committee, 

James Hamilton and Peter Bogart were a sub-committee and 
allowed $2 a day, with request to be as economical as possible. 

The congregation were invited by the college to use one of 
their recitation rooms for worship, which they did, while the 
church was rebuilding; and the students who had been accus- 
tomed to worship in the church now returned to the colico-e 
chapel, and have, from that time to the present, continued to 
hold a separate morning service on the Sabbath by themselves. 

The congregation again looked to the college for assistance, 
and on the 29th September, 18 13, through the trustees, treated 
with the college for land and money. 

The trustees of the church, on that day, appointed Dr, 
Ebenezer Stockton to confer with a committee of the trustees 
of the college on the subject of the claims they may have to 
the church, and solicit a sum of money from the trustees of 
the college to assist in rebuilding the same and enter into any 
contract or agreement they should think proper respecting the 
future rights the college shall possess in the church, also solicit 
the trustees of the college for a new deed for the land on which 
the church stands, as the present title is not sufficient in law. 

This committee reported Nov. 17, that they met Andrew 
Kirkpatrick, Esq., a committee from the trustees of the college, 
to confer with them, and entered into the following agreement : 

r. The trustees of the college will advance $500 on demand for the rebuilding 
of the church. 

2. That the trustees of the college will give a good and sufficient title for the 
land upon which the church stands according to the original agreement. 

3. The trustees of the church will forever hereafter appropriate one half of the 
gallery of the church fur the use of the officers and students of the college on Sab- 
bath days during divine service, to be furnished in a plain decent manner and to be 
kept clean and in repair at the expense of the college. 

4. The trustees of the college to have the whole use and direction of the church 
on Commencement days and two days previous, to prepare ; and are to have llie 
church properly cleaned out and put in order before the next Sabbath and repair 
all damage that may be done to the church during said lime. 

5. The officers of the college may have public spealving in the church when the 
president thereof may desire it, by giving information to the trustees of the church 
that they may order their sexton to attend to keep order ; afterwards the churcii to 
be cleaned at the college's expense, which is to be accountable for all damage done. 



108 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

This report was accepted. The trustees of the church at 
this time were CoL Erkuries Beatty, James Hamilton, James 
Moore, Dr. Ebenezer Stockton, Richard Stockton and Samuel 
Bayard. 

The building committee struggled on without sufficient 
funds to finish the work. The trustees recommended the pub- 
lication of a volume of original discourses, prepared by Drs. 
Smith, Green, Alexander and Miller, and the sale of the same 
as a source of revenue ; and also recommended John Harrison, 
then in Philadelphia for his health, to solicit money there for 
the object. But neither of these methods was carried out. 

In April of 1814, the trustees directed the president of 
the board to draw a memorial to be presented to the trustees 
of the college to meet next week, for a further supply of 
money to enable the building committee to finish the church, — 
the same to be presented by Mr. Bayard to the trustees. 

Mr. Bayard reported that after looking upon the complex- 
ion of the trustees and taking advice from several members 
of the board, he considered it inexpedient to present the 
memorial as desired. 

On the 29th of June, 18 14, the new edifice was ready for 
use, except that it was not fully pewed. The Washington 
Society applied to the trustees for the use of the building in 
the celebration of the ensuing fourth of July, promising to be- 
have in a proper and becoming manner. 

The request was granted on condition, 

1. That all damage should be repaired. 

2. That neither ftfcs nor drums should be played in the church, nor any dis- 
play of Jla^s of any kind made in it. 

Perhaps the fear of another conflagration caused the trus- 
tees to keep a close watch over the new building, for they 

" Resolved, \\\oX x^o person not being a member of this congregation be per- 
mitted to enter the walls of the church in Princeton, or on the grounds contig- 
uous to the same, belonging to the trustees, (excej^t on Sundays or other times of 
public Avorship) without a written permission from one of the members of this 
board ; and if there be such trespass, the president is requested to prosecute, etc." 

The building committee made their report and resigned. 
A new contract was made for finishing the interior of the 
church. The trustees agreed to allow each carpenter working 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— REV. W. C. SCHENCK. IO9 

at tlie job, tlirce half gills of lozv priced spirits a day at the 
expense of the church, cxckisivc of their stated wages of $1.00 
and board. The wages of the carpenters were afterward 
raised to $1.50 a day. N. M. Scott, of Six Mile-Run, agreed 
to do the plastering — and all to be done by Commencement. 

The church stood as before, parallel with the street, but 
it was differently seated. The pulpit was in a semi-circular 
projection at the east end of the building. The doors, as be- 
fore, at the east and west corners, next to the street, and two 
large aisles, and pews next to the wall. The debt due for 
building the church, when finished, was $5400. The salary of 
the pastor was $650, to be raised by assessment of 12 per 
cent, on the valuation of the pews. 

The rules and regulations for the sale of the pews were pre- 
pared by Dr. Green, who received the thanks of the board for 
his services. He had made the subject of pew rents and as- 
sessments a special subject of study in Philadelphia, and he 
first introduced here the raising of salary by assessments. 
There was one remarkable provision adopted here in the rules, 
which was, " Tliat no person shall hold a pew or part of a pew 
either in /us own right or by descent or assignment, xvho, or some 
one of his or her family, to ivhom the same might legally descend 
or be assigned, shall not be an inhabitant of Princeton aforesaid." 
There is also a minute showing that the thanks of the trustees 
were tendered to Dr. Elias Boudinot, of Burlington, for his 
present of an elegant chandelier for the use of the church, and 
to Mrs. Kelsey and Mrs. Cuthbert for their services in obtaining 
the same. 

The trustees appropriated " the half of the gallery in the 
church, on the south side, to the students of the college agree- 
ably to contract," and " the whole of the west end of the north 
front of the gallery to the black people of the congregation." 

Capt. James Moore was allowed $108 for superintending 
the building of the church from Sept. 8, 1814, to Jan. 16, 1815. 

The trustees repealed the fees of the Sexton allowed for dig- 
ging graves, passed in 1804, and adopted new rates, viz.: for a 
grown person, $1.63, for middle sized person, $1.30, for a 
child, $1.00. Rules were also prescribed to the sexton, and his 
salary was fixed at $30 ; and Stephen Leard was appointed. 



no HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

A public meeting was held in the academy on the 21st of 
October, 18 14, to take action for the removal of the school 
building, which seems not to have burned down with the church, 
though on the church lot. 

Sunday Schools had an early origin in the church, and 
what is remarkable is the fact that thev had money to loan. 
On the 23d of September, 181 5, application was made to the 
board of trustees by E. W. Gilbert, Chas. P. Mcllvaine and 
Nicholas Patterson, a committee from the board of teachers of 
Sunday schools in the town, to loan to them $250 upon inter- 
est to be paid semi-annually. The trustees resolved to receive 
it in trust for the use of the Sunday schools and gave their cor- 
porate obligation to Dr. Ashbel Green, in trust, accordingly. 
The bond was dated Oct. 5, 181 5. 

Robert Voorhecs was elected treasurer in place of J. Harri- 
son, resigned. Cornelius Terhune, of Rocky Hill, applied for 
compensation as clerk (singing). They remitted his pew rent. 

When the year 181 5 opened, with the new church finished 
and its membership revived and enlarged during the preceding 
year, a great revival of religion marked the winter months of 
this memorable year in Princeton. The most amazing exhibi- 
tion of divine grace was connected with the college. The num- 
ber of students in the college at that time was one hundred 
and five, of whom twelve only were professors of religion. 

Dr. Ashbel Green, the president of the college, in his ac- 
count of the gracious work and of the personal influence of a 
few pious youth who were students before the revival and who 
were instrumental in promoting it, says : 

" They had for more than a year been earnestly engaged in praying for this 
event. When they perceived the general and increasing seriousness, several of 
them made an agreement to speak privately and tenderly to their particular friends 
and acquaintances on the subject of religion. And what they said was, in almost 
every instance, not only well received, but those with whom they conversed became 
immediately and earnestly engaged in those exercises, which it is hoped have issued 
in genuine piety. A public profession of religion, made by two students who had 
been a good while thouglitful, had also at this time much influence apparently, both 
in producing and iu deepening impressions in many others." * * " The revival 
commenced or ratiier became apparent in the second week in January, without any 
unusual occurrence in providence, without any alarming event, without any extra- 
ordinary preaching, without any special instruction or other means which might be 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— REV. W. C. SCHENCK. Ill 

supposed peculiarly adapted to interest the mind. The divine influence seemed to 
descend like the silent dew of heaven ; and in about four weeks there were very few 
individuals in the college edifice who were not deeply impressed with a sense of the 
importance of spiritual and eternal things. There was scarcely a room — perhaps 
not one, which was not a place of earnest secret devotion. For a time it seemed as 
if the whole of our charge was pressing into the kingdom of God ; so that at length 
the inquiry in regard to them was, not who was engaged about religion, but who 
was not. After this state of things had continued without much variation for about 
two months, it became manifest that a change was taking place." * * "The result 
is that there are somewhat more than forty students in regard to whom, so far as 
the time elapsed will permit us to judge, favorable hopes may be entertained that 
they have been made the suljjects of renewing grace. Perhaps there are twelve or 
fifteen more who still retain such promising impressions of religion as to authorize 
a hope that the issue may be favorable." 

Another writer, who was an eye-witness of the scene, wrote 
just after its beginning, to a distant friend as follows: 

"Our blessed Lord is manifesting his power to save by making bare his arm for 
the salvation of a number of the most gay, thoughtless and dissipated students of the 
college, where he is carrying on a glorious revival of his work. I believe it is a very 
extraordinary work, free from the objections that are usually made on such occa- 
sions, viz: that it is all enthusiasm, effected by working up the passions to an ex- 
traordinary pitch. Drs. Green, Alexander and Miller have, in rotation, preached 
in the hall every Sabbath forenoon since the commencement of the present session, 
without any visible effect other than a solemn attention. There were six or eight 
pious students who agreed on the late public fast day to visit the different rooms and 
converse with their brethren on religious subjects, and to their astonishment they 
found a number laboring under conviction, but supposing their cases to be singular 
they had not made them known. They immediately established a praying society, 
and the work became notorious. I believe there are at this time as many as twelve 
or fourteen who are rejoicing in the love of Jesus and the hopes of immortal glory ; 
and as many as forty appear to be earnestly seeking the salvation of their souls." 

The fruits of this revival were very precious. The church in 
Princeton received an accession of forty new members, among 
which were not a {q.\\ who became distinguished as ministers in 
subsequent years. But there were many others connected with 
the college who subsequently united with other churches and 
shone with peculiar lustre in various fields of Christian labor. 
Those who united with this church arc mentioned in the list 
hereinafter inserted and to which we call special attention. 

The trustees of the church had not, at this time, re- 
ceived a proper deed for their lot. A small gore of land then 
in possession of Mrs. Dr. Minto, was supposed to belong to the 
church lot. Samuel Bayard "was appointed by the board 



112 HISTORY OF PRINCETON, 

\ with the president, to procure an execution of the deed from 
\ the college, ^nd then to call upon Mrs. Minto to show her 
'title, and in case of her refusal, to bring a suit of ejectment 
' against her. The deed from the college was obtained, and in 
its description of the boundaries, it included the gore in ques- 
tion, or a part of it. The committee then waited upon Mrs. 
Minto, but she refused to slioiv her title to them, but averred 
that she had a deed for it from the trustees, which she would 
exhibit to Richard Stockton in the course of a few days, and 
he being a trustee, could inform them of her title. Mr. Stock- 
ton subsequently reported, that Mrs. Minto had shown a deed 
from Enos Kelsey, John Little and others, trustees of the 
church, to Dr. Witherspoon, for the land in dispute, and 
that her title acquired through her husband from Dr. Wither- 
spoon, was valid. Thus a lawsuit was avoided. A recent 
survey of the church lot, according to the boundaries described 
in the deed held by the trustees, raised a similar question as 
to that gore of land, now included in the college property, oc- 
cupied by Prof. Stephen Alexander, and the error in the de- 
scription has been rectified by a readjustment of boundaries, 
mutually effected by the college and the church trustees, by a 
compromise deed. 

The pastor, Mr Schenck, in April, 1816, applied to the trus- 
tees to have the ministerial property, the Wiggins parson- 
age, whereon he lived, repaired ; or he was willing that it 
should be sold and the interest of the proceeds applied to his 
use as pastor. The trustees after mature consideration were 
of opinion that they could not in their corporate capacity 
either repair or sell the parsonage property. They considered 
themselves trustees only for the minister for the time being, 
and as such had no right to change the nature of the estate by 
converting it into money ; and as for repairs, the property 
really belonged to the incumbent minister, "and might be 
repaired by him with such assistance as the people of the 
congregation may afford — this board having nothing to do with 
such repair in their corporate authority." 

On the 6th of Jmie 1817, two students of the senior class 
of college applied for the use of the church for public speak- 
ing on the ensuing 4th of July. The trustees replied that ac- 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— REV. W. C. SCHENCK. II3 

cording to the agreement the church could be had for pubhc 
speaking whenever the president desired it. If he would ask 
for it in writing he could have it ; and this was done. 

In August of that year the trustees offered to light the 
church at night for service if wanted, and ordered a subscrip- 
tion in cash for that object ; and instructed the treasurer to 
buy candles by the box for the winter. 

April nth, 1818. The president laid before the board of 
trustees of the church, a letter from the pastor, with a reso- 
lution of the session, asking the trustees to erect a session 
house as soon as practicable. Mr. Bayard and Dr. Van Cleve 
were a committee to apply to the college for a lot of land 
adjoining the church on which to erect the building. Dr. 
Van Cleve reported that the college had granted the use of 
a lot, back of the church, next to Mrs. Minto's, for such a 
house, until called for. But the building was not erected. A 
committee was appointed to raise money to repair the par- 
sonage. 

It was on the 17th of October, 1818, when this "burning 
and shining light" was extinguished by death, after a short 
illness from typhus fever, in the 31st year of his age. In the 
midst of his years and usefulness, while growing in the love 
and confidence of his people; and adding yearly larger and 
larger numbers to the church, and while rejoicing in the rich 
fruits of that remarkable revival, which a few years before had 
refreshed Princeton, this earnest, devoted, beloved young min- 
ister of the church was called to give up his stewardship here, 
and enter upon a higher ministry in the spirit-world. In the 
place of his nativity, surrounded by his kindred, and by those 
who had been his educators and spiritual guides, he resigned 
his holy commission, and his lips were sealed in death. His 
venerated teacher of divinity, Dr. S. Stanhope Smith, survived 
him about a year. The consecration which Mr. Schenck made 
of himself when he joined the church under his predecessor, 
Mr. Kollock, and when he entered the ministry, was unusually 
full and solemn. " His style of preaching was at first quite im- ,' 
aginative and ornate, but amidst the pressure of ministerial 
duties, he soon acquired one that was more compact, direct, 
energetic. He was as occasion demanded, the friend, the ad- 
8 



114 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

viser, the reprover, the comforter of his flock, and it is be- 
lieved that rarely has a pastor been more beloved than he was. 
Yet with all his labors of an out-door kind, he managed to be 
a faithful and constant student." * 

Judge Bayard, who was a prominent elder in the church 
during the whole of Mr. Schenck's pastorate here and for 
twenty years afterwards, speaks of him thus: 

•" He has left a name untarnished by a solitary spot that could raise a blush on 
the face of friendship or extort a sigh from the bosom of affection. Before lie at- 
tained the prime of life he has been called from a scene of trial to receive the rewards 
of sincere faith and active zeal. He has descended to the grave after a short service 
in the vineyard of his Lord, but the service, though short, was diligent and exem- 
plary. The modesty and prudence of his general deportment, his ardent devotion 
to the duties of his office, his peculiar and affectionate attention to the youth of his 
congregation, and his efforts to train them up in the nurture and admonition of the 
Lord, render his loss a subject of deep and general sorrow. Intelligent, amiable 
and assiduous, his highest ambition was to serve the best of Masters with zeal and 
fidelity. He has-left many sincere and affectionate friends to mourn his loss, with- 
out leaving one solitary enemy to cast a shade over his unsullied name." 

It is needless to say that the death of Mr. Schenck was 
deeply mourned by his church and congregation. The trustees 
directed his funeral and the draping of the church edifice, and 
paid the expenses thereof and continued his salary and the use 
of the parsonage to his widow until the next spring. Dr. 
Samuel Miller preached the funeral sermon, which the session, 
in voting him thanks for it. described as "very impressive and 
consolatory." 

The congregation, at a public meeting, by their secretary, 
Samuel R. Hamilton, conveyed an address to the widow ex- 
pressing their love and veneration for the memory of the de- 
ceased and their high regard for her ; in reply to which she 
recognized their tribute of respect to deserved excellence, and 
her sense of obligation for their liberality to his bereaved fami- 
ly, closing her communication by this allusion to her deceased 
husband : 

" Should his beatific spirit be permitted to have a view of terrestrial scenes, surely 
it must be gratified by these acts of kindness. Accept, sir, my assurance of esteem. 

" Respectfully yours. 
Samuel R. Hamilton, Esq., Eliza T. Schenck." 

Secretary, etc. 



*Rev. W. E. Schenck's Hist. Discourse. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— REV. fV. C. SCHENCK. II5 

The session of the church also caused a marble monument 
to be erected over his remains in the old burying ground on 
Witherspoon Street. This monument and the remains have 
since, at the request of the family, been removed to the pas- 
tors' lot set off in the new adjoining cemetery. 

His widow, a most devout Christian, was a daughter of 
Joseph Scudder, Esq., a lawyer of Freehold, and Maria John- 
ston his wife, ancestors of the Missionary Scudder family, and 
she survived him about thirty years. She was buried beside 
her husband in Princeton. They had two children, one the 
wife of the Rev. Asa S. Colton, now living in Princeton, and 
the other a son, William C. Schenck, who graduated at Rut- 
gers College ; was for a while in the theological seminary in 
Princeton, then read law in Mr. ilageman's office, and died in 
Princeton. 

During Mr. Schenck's pastorate the membership of the 
church was greatly increased. The number of those added was 
one hundred and forty-five, about a dozen of whom were ad- 
mitted upon certificate, the others upon examination. Above 
twenty of them were students and thirty-one were colored per- 
sons, some free and some slaves. 

We may notice among the number received the following 
familiar names: in 1810, Lewis Bayard, son of Samuel Bay- 
ard ; in 181 1, Thomas Skinner, theo. student, Nicholas G. Pat- 
terson, college student, Eliza Ann Schenck, wife of the pastor, 
Mrs. Schenck, wife of John C. Schenck; in 18 12, Mrs. Janette 
Alexander, wife of Dr. Archibald Alexander, Thos. J. Biggs, 
coll. student ; in 1814, Mrs. Napton, wife of John Napton, Mrs. 
Stockton, wife of Richard Stockton, Mrs. Hamilton, wife 
of J. Ross Hamilton, Phebe, Elizabeth and Catharine Hunt, 
daughters of Richard Hunt, Miss Ellen Joline, Miss Maria 
Ross, Miss Elizabeth Hamilton, daughter of James Hamilton, 
John Harrison, James Hamilton, Jr., Mrs. Phebe Maclean, 
Mrs. Stephen Morford, Jeremiah Chamberlain, theo. student ; 
in 1815, Mrs, Sophia Slack, wife of Professor Slack, Charles 
Hodge, Kinsey VanDyke, Wm. James, Charles Stewart, John 
Johns, Ravaud K. Rodgers, Benjamin Richards, James Mur- 
ray, John Ludlow and Ezra Young, college students; in 1816, 
Mary W. Ferguson, John Wilson, Elias Updike, Jacob W. 



■f 



Il6 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

Lane and wife, Mrs. Benjamin Clarke, Sarah and Rebecca Ham- 
ilton, daughters of James H., Mrs. Margaret Lindsley, wife of 
Prof. L., William Snodgrass, theo. student, Betsey Stockton, 
col'd, in Dr. Green's family, afterwards missionary to the Sand- 
wich Islands, Mrs. Ann Callender, Mrs. Susan Salomans, Mr. 
Boardman, coll. student; in 1817, Aaron Updike, Mrs. Abby 
Field, Mrs. Nancy Teisseire, Mrs. Alice Moon, Jacob Green, 
Miss Mary Ann Witherspoon, John Maclean, Jacob Stryker, 
Evelina B. Linn, Alice Ten Eyck, Ann Hamilton, John Breck- 
inridge, Charles C. Beatty, Thomas Kennedy, Mary Ann Teis- 
seire, Sarah Gray by certificate ; in 1818, Miss Maria Gulick, 
Amy, Charity and Lottisa Ann Millette, by certificate from 
Kingston, Alice Leard, Frederick Cruser, Julia Stockton and 
Annis Dunbar, and many others. 

These names, enrolled during this short pastorate of nine 
years, represent the best families in Princeton. Those who 
know the character of the men and the women above named, 
and the high and influential position they afterwards occupied, 
in the church and the community, will adore the grace of God 
that turned their feet into the paths of religion. 

After the death of the Rev. Mr. Schenck, the session re- 
solved thenceforth to take charge of the religious insiruction 
of the youth and children of the congregation as long as they 
should be destitute of a pastor. John S. Wilson and Joseph 
Schenck were added to the session. The theological students 
were asked to aid in teaching Bible classes. The session also 
recommended the Rev. Archibald Alexander as a suitable per- 
son for pastor of the church, and they called a joint meeting 
of the trustees and session, to unite in a call to him, if they 
approve it. They afterwards recommended the Rev. William 
Allen, of Hanover, late president of University of Dartmouth, 
N. H., for pastor. He declined the call. 

The trustees granted the application of the college for the 
use of the church tlie Sunday previous to Connncnconeiit. 

The subject of the sale of the parsonage again came up in 
the board of trustees ; the suggestion of repairs or sale had 
been made by the Rev. Mr. Schenck about two years before 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— REV. G. S. WOODHULL. WJ 

this time, as we have seen. Now the trustees decide that it 
is expedient to sell the real property left by Dr. Wiggins to I 
the church, and invest the proceeds in some permanent fund 
for the use of the pastor of the church for the time being, and 
that application should be made to the Legislature to carry 
the same into effect, and that the congregation be called to con- 
sider this question. A public meeting of the congregation 
was held on Thanksgiving day. Dr. Alexander presided. 
S. R. Hamilton was secretary. 

The resolution to sell was supported by Mr. Bayard, and 
opposed by Dr. Green and others. The meeting adjourned 
to hear a report of the circumstances and condition of the prop- 
erty. At that adjourned meeting the will of Dr. Wiggins — • 
the action of the congregation — the releases of the heirs, etc., 
were read. 

The question of sale was taken by yeas and nays, and lost 
by seven to seventeen. 

The sum of $1340 was directed to be assessed upon the 
pews, to pay Sally Wiggins and to repair the parsonage. 
But this was not fully carried out. 

The parsonage was rented for $250 ; application was made 
to the Presbytery for supplies ; and they offered to pay $6 a 
Sabbath. 



SECTION VI. 



182O-1832 — THE PASTORATE OF THE REV. GEORGE SPAFFORU 

WOODHULL. 

On the 28th of February, 1820, the congregation met and, 
upon a unanimous recommendation of the session and trustees, 
proceeded to vote for the Rev. George S. WoodJuill, of Cran- 
berry, N. J., for pastor. The Rev. Dr. Miller presided and James 
S. Green was clerk. Col. Beatty nominated Mr. Woodhulland 
S. R. Hamilton nominated the Rev. Mr. McFarlane. Mr. 
WoodhuU received a large majority of votes. The written 
votes of Richard Stockton and Mrs. Hamilton were sent and 
offered, but were objected to as not within the rule. The ob- 



Il8 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

jections were, however, overruled by the congregation. Dr. 
Miller addressed the minority and all but three yielded their 
assent to the election. The sum of $600 and the use of the 
parsonage were voted as the salary of Mr. Woodhull. 

Mr. Woodhull accepted the call and met with the session 
on the 31st of March, 1820, but he was not installed till July 
the 5th. Col. Erkuries Beatty was admitted into church mem- 
bership at that time. 

The session of the church in May, 1820, adopted the follow- 
ing minute in reference to the lectures which had been given 
by the professors of the seminary to the congregation, viz : 

"The session, deeply impressed with a grateful sense of the peculiar privileges 
the people of this place have, for several years past, enjoyed from the edifying in- 
structions of the professors of the seminary in the evening lectures in the church, 
in the name and behalf of said congregation, beg leave to reiterate their acknowl- 
edgment of their obligation and at the same time, from a deep persuasion of the 
many and weighty reasons for continuing said lectures, do earnestly request that 
they may be continued as heretofore in the church." 

The installation of Mr. Woodhull took place July 5, 1820. 
The Rev. John Woodhull, of Freehold, presided. The Rev. 
Isaac V. Brown, of Lawrenceville, preached the installation 
sermon. The charge to the minister was given by the Rev. 
Dr. Archibald Alexander, and the charge to the people by the 
Rev. Dr. Samuel Miller. Messrs. Collins & Co., of New York, 
presented to the church, through Mr. Bayard, an elegant quarto 
Bible for which thanks were tendered. 

The wants of the theological seminary were presented to 
the session, with a request that a contribution for that object 
should be solicited agreeably to a recommendation of the 
synod. The session did not seem willing to appeal to the peo- 
ple again so soon after they had responded to a similar appeal, 
and assigned as reasons in their apology that they had given 
much to the seminary at its formation and lately had given 
$430 for the professor's house, and had been giving $100 an- 
nually for the support of a student in the seminary, and also 
have a public collection in the church once a year for the sem- 
inary. Besides they contributed towards the Bible Society, 
Missionary Society, Education Society, Sunday schools and 
Benevolent Society, therefore they did not think it advisable 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— REV, G.S.WOODHULL. I I9 | 

to call upon the people for a contribution at this time for the I 
seminary. j 

The new pastor soon after having entered upon his minis- 
try in Princeton, received a little rough treatment from some 
of the boys of the town, on the evening of the 12th Novem- 
ber, 1 820. While he was at prayer in the clerk's desk, two snow- 
balls were thrown into the church windows, and went very 
near to the pastor. It was regarded as a great offence, and 
the trustees took the matter up with great zeal, Mr. Bayard 
informed them that he had reason to suspect two boys of the 
town, and they resolved that their whole number would at- 
tend to the prosecution of the case before the justice on the 
next Friday. The president of the board, with Dr. Stockton 
and Mr. Bayard, were appointed to conduct the prosecution, 
which they did, having arrested and bound over two appren- 
tice boys to appear at the next Middlesex Sessions to answer 
for disturbing divine worship. And nothing more was done. j 
The next year was characterized by other disorders by the 
boys, which also received the attention of the trustees. 

The church was now the recipient of a legacy of $500, be- '; - 
queathed to it by one of its useful members, who had held the 
office of church treasurer and trustee, viz : John Harrison, who 
was a merchant, and who was owner of the farm on the east 
side of the road leading from Queenston to Scudder's Mills — 
now owned by Mr. Segur, and for many years by the Rev. 
Daniel Deurelle, deceased. 

The subject of the session house was now again agitated. 
The trustees through a committee, reported a plan to raise a 
fund to build a suitable house, but the congregation refused to 
adopt the plan, and voted by a large majority, against erect- j 
ing one, either for Sunday school, or general purposes. 

The spirit of improvement caused the church fence to be , 
removed out to the gravel walk, and the engine house also to 
be removed to another place, and posts to fasten horses to, to be / { 
put up at the east end of the church. Mr. Pratt, a theological ■' j 
student, was allowed the use of the church for a singing school, 
but was to find his own fire and candles. ' It may be interest- i 
ing to those who now enjoy the church brilliantly lighted with ^ i 
gas, to note at that time when special effort was made to give 



120 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

attraction to the ministry of this new pastor, that the number 
of candles which had been allowed to the sexton to light 
the church with for two nights, was now increased to 
tJiirty-tzvo ! 

In 182 1 there was a Female Missionary society in Princeton 
in prosperous condition, and liberal contributions were made 
by it to the Western and Foreign missionary societies. A 
missionary for six weeks at Groveville, Bordentown and 
Whitehorse, in the county of Burlington, with a special mis- 
sion of establishing Sunday schools, in addition to the ordi- 
nary duties of a missionary, in 1822, was sustained by the ses- 
sion of the church. Mr. Campbell was employed at Groveville 
and was paid $30 for his services for six weeks. The object of 
the Princeton P'emale Missionary Society was to support a 
female school in India; and this was tlone for many years. 
Their constitution was published in the Christian Advocate in 
1823. A collection was ordered to be taken in the church for 
the Greeks in their struggle with the Turks. 

It was in the year 1822 that the Rev. Charles Hodge bought 
a pew, No. 48, in the old church, and it was in this year that 
the Rev. Dr. Ashbel Green resigned the presidency of the col- 
lege, and removed from Princeton. Dr. Green having rendered 
much valuable and acceptable service in the church, the trus- 
tees addressed a letter of thanks to him, of which the follow- 
ing is a copy : 

" Rev. and Dear Sir : — The trustees of the Princeton congregation, in the 
borough of Princeton, liaving heard with regret that you are about to leave our vil- 
lage, beg leave to express their feelings to you on this occasion. 

" Upon your first removal to Princeton you united yourself to this congregation 
and after the destruction of their church edifice by fire you contributed liberally to 
its rebuilding and enabled its members, by your experience and counsels, so to ar- 
range its concerns as to ensure its subsequent welfare and respectability ; for these 
services, dear sir, we beg you to accept our unfeigned gratitude. Never, while life 
is spared, can the present members of this congregation forget those solemn exhor- 
tations which you have addressed to them on many occasions, but especially at the 
Sacramental table ; nor those impressive weekly lectures whicli, although intended 
chiefly for your pupils, you have jjermitted the inhabitants of this Ijorough to 
attend. 

" Whatever maybe the Station or condition which Providence may hereafter allot 
you, be assured you will be followed by our affectionate gratitude and benedictions. 
We shall endeavor to recollect and profit by the many excellent instructions you 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— REV, G. S. WOODHULL. 12 1 

have given us, and shall often pray for your welfare in life, and that when your 
trials below are finished you may depart in all the triumphs of Christian hope and 
be received to the enjoyment of a happiness without measure and without end. 

" We are, etc." 

[Signed by all the trustees.] 

DR. green's reply. 

" To the Trustees, etc. : 

"Christian Brethren : Your address to me under date of the 28th ult., which was 
put into my hands to-day, I received with great sensibility. I desire to be humbly 
thankful to God that he has enabled me, in addition to my arduous official duties, 
to perform those imperfect ministerial services for the people you represent, which 
you acknowledge, and acknowledge in a manner so kind and obliging as to be in 
itself more than a compensation for all I have done. That the sacred truths that 
I have labored to inculcate in this place may be productive under the divine bless- 
ing of some fmit to the glory of God and the salvation of those to whom they have 
been delivered ; that the precious Ordinances of the Gospel of Christ which you so 
richly enjoy, may be long continued to you and be abundantly blessed to the eternal 
benefit of yourselves and your dear offspring ; and that, although my ministrations 
among you should now entirely cease, we may mutually endeavor so to live that we 
may hereafter meet and rejoice together in the heavenly kingdom and in the imme- 
diate presence of our common and adored Saviour ; this, Christian brethren, is 
the earnest prayer of your friend in the Gospel of Christ, 

"AsHBEL Green." 
Princeton, Oct. 10, 1822. 

Betsey Stockton, a colored member of this church, went as 
a missionary to the Sandwich Islands with the family of the 
Rev. Charles Stewart. She returned to Princeton after a few 
years, and for many years after that time taught a school of 
colored children, in Witherspoon Street, till her death. She 
was much respected and was a good educator for the colored 
boys and girls of Princeton. The Rev. Dr. Ashbel Green was, 
in his lifetime, one of her warmest friends. He published in 
the Christian Advocate a long letter of hers, written on the 
ship Thames, on her voyage to the Sandwich Islands in 1823. 

In 1824 the question of building a session house again arose -■ 
in the session and board of trustees. Those bodies resolved 
that it was expedient to raise funds to erect one on the lot 
designated for that object in 181 8. 

In 1S25 the pastor laid before the session the resolution of 
the faculty of the seminary in which the professors declined 
continuing the Sabbath evening lectures in the church. Dr. 



122 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

John VanCleve, one of the ruling elders, died and the session 
was enlarged by the addition of several new members, among 
whom was Professor Robert B. Patton. 

In 1826, Mr. Patton, ruling elder, was appointed by session 
to inquire whether it is proper for students who are members 
of a church, to become connected with this church. The Fac- 
ulty of the college opposed it ; and no further action seems to 
have been taken on the subject. 

In the next year a committee of the congregation was ap- 
pointed to inquire what had caused a depression in the value 
of the pews, and to suggest and report a plan to increase the 
funds of the church. This committee consisted of Samuel 
Bayard, Rev. Dr. Carnahan, Robert F. Stockton, Robert Voor- 
hees and Robert Baird. A committee had been appointed 
to make an arrangement with the professors to preach every 
Sabbath morning in rotation with the pastor. The former 
committee by Samuel Bayard, chairman, reported at length, 
the substance of which report was, that the congregation had 
become warmly attached to the plan of having the professors 
preach in the church in the evening, and that its discontinu- 
ance had diminished the interest of the congregation in the 
church. They recommended that the professors should be 
.invited to preach in rotation, with the pastor, every Sabbath 
morning, and that the students of the seminary should worship 
in the church with the congregation. It was alleged that the 
pastor had given his consent to this arrangement. The report 
was not wholly adopted by the congregation. There was a 
good deal of feeling manifested. A letter addressed to the 
pastor by a committee raised for that purpose, reciting an un- 
willingness on the part of the people to pay pew rent, and 
asking him for a frank cooperation with, or approval of, the 
plan of having the professors to share in preaching, with the 
pastor, indicates no very cordial relation between the pastor 
and a portion of the congregation. The proposed measure 
failed to be adopted at that time ; and the matter was left 
without any further action. 

In 1829, a letter from Mrs. Dr. Samuel Miller and Mrs. 
Salomans, a committee of the Female Bencvoletit Society of 
Princeton, was received by the trustees of the church, request- 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— REV. G. S. WOODHULL. 1 23 

ing permission to erect a building for the use of a free school 
on part of the premises devised by the late Thomas Wiggins 
for the use of the pastor. The trustees in their individual ca- 
pacity gave a certificate as follows : 

" Know all men by these presents, that the trustees of this congregation in the 
counties of Middlesex and Somerset, do as far as we legally can, give our full as- 
sent to the use and occupation of a lot next adjoining Mr. Henry Voorhees, not ex- 
ceeding 50 feet in front and lOO feet in depth, on which to erect a suitable building 
for the free school of the Ijorough of Princeton, to the managers of the Female Be- 
nevolent Society, provided the said Ijoard shall first obtain the approbation in writ- 
ing of the Rev. Geo. S. Woodhull hereunto added : and this to continue so long as 
it may meet the approbation of the person who may hereafter be elected the minis- 
ter of this congregation. Witness our hands the 4th day of May, a. i>. 1829." 

[Signed by the several trustees.] 

In October of that year the session of the church adopted 
the following minute respecting the session house: 

"That the Female Benevolent Society continue to hold the right in the lot 
given them by the session, and taking the money already subscribed, and as 
much more as can be raised by subscription — that they build a house 40 feet long 
by 20 in width ; the lower story shall be appropriated to the free school, and a 
large room above to the use of the session, reserving only to themselves in this, the 
privilege of holding public meetings whenever they do not interfere with the busi- 
ness or views of the church." 

The session and the Female Benevolent Society each paid 
$250 towards the building."^^ 

The plan of securing the cooperation of the professors with 
the pastor, in preaching, was again revived. The congregation, 
at a public meeting in 1821, resolved that the temporal and 
spiritual interests of the congregation would be greatly pro- 
moted by such an arrangement; and also that the addition of 
the students of the seminary to the congregation would greatly 
improve the devotional music of the church and preserve order 

* The missionary spirit of the church was still alive at this time. A letter from 
Robert Baird, then in the theological seminary in Princeton, dated March 18, 1829, 
shows that he was engaged in missionary work in the Pines of New Jersey, and was 
aiding in building a church at Turkey, near Squankum, and at Butcher's Woiks, 
about twenty miles from Englishtown, and in other places in that region of 
country. 

The session of the church also responded to an appeal from Mary B. Maclean, 
secretary of the Princeton Female Missionary Society, in 1830, to aid in sustaining 
two schools in India. 



124 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

and decorum in the gallery, and also that it was expedient to 
lower the galleries and make seats in them for the students ; 
that the expense be defrayed by voluntary subscription. The 
pastor was requested to favor the plan. The measure was in- 
dorsed by a vote of three to one. This action of the congre- 
gation was disapproved by the Presbytery in 1832, when the 
minutes came before that body, as contrary to order and dis- 
cipline. 

A FUGITIVE SLAVE CASE, in the church ! A communication 
was received, by this church, from the Rev. Dr. McDowell, of 
the First Presbyterian church of Elizabcthtown, requesting in- 
formation respecting Matty, a colored woman, who had joined 
the church in 1815, but had been suspended from the privileges 
of this church and who had been absent from this place for 
several years and had recently made application to be received 
by the church at Elizabeth. This session considered the sub- 
ject and declined to give Matty a dismission at present to 
another church " because, ist, she is still a slave of Dr. Ebenczcr 
Stockton, from whose service she absconded several years ago; 
and 2d, no pains have been taken, that the session knows of, on 
Matty's part to be liberated from her master in a fair and legal 
manner." Dr. McDowell wrote, July 16, 1830, that upon ex- 
amination of Matty, they were satisfied and were willing to 
receive her. This session finally agreed to it, in consideration 
that Matty had made two visits here and had procured her 
emancipation as recommended by session, and acknowledged 
her guilt and penitence. 

Venetian blinds were first procured for the church in this 
year. The legacy of $500, from John Harrison to the church, 
was paid. 

In the year 1831 there was a revival of religion in the 
churches in the neighborhood of Princeton, and in Princeton 
itself. The session of the church invited the Rev. Dr. Nettle- 
ton, the great revivalist, to visit Princeton. 

The congregation adopted a rule, in September, 1831, that 
the trustees should hold office for three years and then to be re- 
eligible, but should hold until others are elected. This rule 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— REV. G. S. WOOD HULL. 1 25 

was observed for some years, but as it was ascertained to 
be a matter regulated by the statute, and that the congrega- 
tion cannot enforce such a rule, the trustees held accord- 
ing to law. There was some desire to have a cupola and bell 
on the plain old church, and they were ordered as soon as the 
money could be raised for that purpose, which was not done. 

Captain Robert F. Stockton was elected trustee. The ses- 
sion having applied to the trustees for $50 to pay to the chor- 
ister, the trustees replied that it should come out of the session 
fund, but that they would help pay the balance if not enough 
in that fund. This arrangement is still recognized by the trus- 
tees and session sharing the payment of the chorister's salary at 
the present day, although the session have the jurisdiction and 
control of the music of the church. 

The church, during this year, organized an association aux- 
iliary to the Presbytery of New Brunswick, in aid of the Board 
of Education of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian 
church. The elders and trustees with the pastor were its board 
of managers. They pledged themselves to support at least one 
beneficiary for the year, at $100. Mr. Billings, of the seminary, 
was appointed chorister, and was to teach music in the church 
at a salary of $50 a year. He was distinguished for his musi- 
cal taste and talent, and did much to improve the music of the 
church. 

The year 1832, which was the last year of the pastorate of 
the Rev. Mr. Woodhull, exhibited a growing discontent among 
his people. A communication signed by fourteen of the male 
members of his church on the state of religion in the congrega- 
tion was received and read by the session. Elders Patton and 
Lowrey were authorized to select a suitable person to be em- 
ployed for a limited time to aid the session in promoting the 
spiritual interests of the congregation. Mr. Flavel S. Mines, 
of the theological seminary, was selected and declined the ap- 
pointment, but consented to labor for a short time under the 
direction of the session. He was an awakening young preacher 
and resorting to some means which the old school divines of 
Princeton denominated " new measures," such as the " anxious 
seat," etc., he produced a good deal of commotion in this con- 
gregation and others in the surrounding country where he oc- 



126 HISTORY OF PRINCETOM. 

casionally labored. He had the sympathy of a part of the 
session but not of the pastor. 

In March of this year a petition signed by thirty-six 
college students requesting that a protracted meeting might 
be held in this place, was received by the session. The pa- 
per was discussed, and on the next day the subject was, by 
vote, postponed. But on the 14th day of April the ses- 
sion resolved to hold such a meeting, of which we have no 
account. 

During the summer of this year a communication, signed 
by tiventy-ihree persons, requesting the countenance and aid of 
the session in forming and organizing a SECOND PRESBYTE- 
RIAN Church in Princeton, was presented to the session. Its 
consideration was postponed till the next meeting. Mr. Bay- 
ard was deputed to prepare a reply to it, which he did on the 
4th of August in a long and well written paper. He treated 
the petitioners with due respect, controverting the allegations 
that there was not room enough in the present edifice for all 
who wished to attend worship, suggesting that the professors 
were about to withdraw from attending the stated services of 
the church, which will afford ample room in the galleries ; that 
the session could not be expected to favor a division in their 
own church, but referred their petitioners to Presbytery for ad- 
vice and relief. While conceding the right of the petitioners to 
build another church when they cannot be edified and spirit- 
ually built up in the present one, with the approbation of Pres- 
bytery, it is the hope of the session that they may continue to 
be a united and happy congregation, etc. 

On the nth of August, 1832, the pastor requested the ses- 
sion to call a meeting of the congregation to unite in asking a 
dissolution of his pastoral relations. His request was acceded 
to and the dissolution was in due form effected. 

In his letter of resignation Mr. Woodhull expressly dis- 
claims any complaint against the congregation or fault in them. 
The reasons he assigns are, ist, that he had been advised by 
members of Presbytery to seek a dissolution, and, 2d, that a 
movement to organize a second church, if carried into effect, 
would divide and injure this church, and he believes such move- 
ment will be abandoned if he should withdraw. 



PRESS Y TERIA JV CH UR CH- REV. G. S. WO ODH (ILL. 1 2 7 

The ministry of the Rev. Mr. Woodhull, in Princeton, was 
marked by a larger increase of the church than that of any of 
his predecessors. It was twelve years in duration. There were 
two hundred and eighty-nine members added to the church 
while he was the pastor, all by examination, except fifty-two, 
who were received upon certificate. There were twenty-five 
students of the institution received upon confession of their 
faith. The spirit of missions at home and abroad took strong 
hold of the membership of the church, both male and female. 
The benevolent contributions were increased and multiplied. 
The general population of the town was brought more and 
more under the power of the preached gospel, and the triumphs 
of divine grace in bringing large numbers of young people, as 
well as others, from the various families in the congregation, 
into the church, and marshalling them into the ranks of Chris- 
tian workers, may be clearly traced at the present day, in their 
descendants, who now stand out as representative Christian 
families, not only in Princeton, but in many places throughout 
our country. While the church was prosperous under the pas- 
torate of Mr. Woodhull, receiving an annual average increase 
of twenty-four in its membership, and while personal religion in 
the community was raising its standard higher and higher, and 
striking its roots deeper and deeper in the Christian life, there 
was, nevertheless, manifested among a considerable portion 
of the congregation, an awakened zeal, especially among the 
recent converts, which, in its restlessness, and perhaps im- 
prudence, impaired the usefulness of the pastor in some degree, 
or certainly disturbed his happiness and pleasure in his minis- 
try. Enthusiasm in religion is so rare in the Presbyterian 
church, til at it is pleasant to witness a band of earnest Chris- 
tian men, discontented with present attainments, and pressing 
on to a higher life in the service of their Master ; and when 
they feel that their wings are clogged and they cannot get out 
of the old way, cannot soar into more spiritual regions, cannot 
get hold of, and save all the souls that they see around them 
in jeopardy, they are apt to distrust, if not to denounce, the 
imperfect machinery of organized ecclesiasticism. They re- 
gard the ordinary means of grace insufficient, and propose to 
multiply them, and add new ones ; and when thwarted in their 



128 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

purpose, they resort to the formation of a new church, in which 
they trust that a new and better service can be rendered, and 
where more liberty of action will be accorded to individual 
Christian workers. It is quite evident from the statistics of 
the church, that during the close of Mr. WoodhuU's pastorate 
here, and while the session were receiving from the congrega- 
tion complaints and lamentations of the coldness and dead- 
ness of the church, and were called upon to allow and organize 
further means of grace, there was really an awakened spirit in. 
the church. It was this awakened spirit which complained, 
which was discontented with the old state of things. It was due 
to this awakened spirit that the interesting religious exercises 
were sustained at Oueenston, and that a new chapel or meeting- 
house was erected there as this pastorate was drawing to a close. 
It was also due to this awakened spirit that the theological stu- 
dents were so active at that time, and became such efficient 
helpers to the pastors in this neighborhood. 

The application for a second Presbyterian church by a por- 
tion of this church, to which we have already referred, and 
which was so well answered by the session through Mr. Bayard, 
at that time, did not originate through schismatic motives or 
malignant feelings, but rather through a zealous desire to be- 
come more useful, and to promote the interests of the Christian 
religion in this community. 

The membership of the church was large. At the end of 
Mr. WoodhuU's pastorate there were 455 members enrolled. 
After making allowance for those who had died or removed 
from the town, there was probably an actual membership of at 
least 350 in this church ; a church then about half a century 
old, with the college and seminary established and in prosper- 
ous condition here. It is by no means clear when we see that 
shortly after this application was rejected an Episcopal church 
was established here, and that a few years later a Methodist 
church was also here established, both drawing and appropri- 
ating Presbyterian families to aid them, — it is not clear, we 
venture to affirm, that a second Presbyterian church ought not 
to have been organized in Princeton at that time, or soon after. 
Presbyterian ground was lost through the want of another 
church. Such want does not always depend upon the fact of 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— REV. G. S. IVOODIIULL. I 29 

there being room enough or not enough in the present church 
to seat more persons if they will apply. 

By reference to the minutes of the session we find that in 
the year 1S20, from July 5th of that year, there were tivcnty- 
five new members received into the church. In this number 
there were the following students of the college upon examina- 
tion, viz.: Alfred A, Sowers, of Staunton, Va.; James H. Stuart, 
Phila.; William Ramsay, Mifflin, Pa.; James Holmes, Carlisle, 
Pa.; Wm. H. Woodhull, James B. Hyndshaw, Jacob TenBrook 
Beekman, Sidney Paige Clay, Henry VanDyke Johns, Del.; 
Albert B. Dod. In 1821 there were 35, among whom were John 
B. Clemson, John W. S. Wager, Alex Aikman, John W. Ward, 
James W. Alexander, Edward D. Smith, Caleb I. Good, stu- 
dents. In 1822 there were ii, including Martyn Tupper and 
Edward Norris Kirk, students. In 1823 there were 13, including 
George Washington Boiling, of Petersburg, Va., and Samuel A. 
Bumstead, students. In 1S24 there were 18 ; in 1825 there 
were 18; in 1826 there were 18; in 1827 there were 42; in 
1828 there were 16; in 1829 there were 5 ; in 1830 there were 
14, among them J. Addison Alexander; in 1831 there were 41 ; 
in 1832 there were 32. 

The Rev. George Spafford Woodhull was a native 
of Pennsylvani 1. He was born on the 31st day of March, 
1773. His father, the Rev. Dr. JoJui Woodhull, who was for 
more than half a century a distinguished and venerated min- 
ister of the Presbyterian church, was at that time established 
in a pastorate in the town of Leacock in Lancaster County, 
Pa., the place of his son's birth. His mother was Miss 
Spafford, of the city of Philadelphia, a step-daughter of the 
Rev. Gilbert Tcniicnt, one of the most eminent, devoted and 
successful ministers that ever adorned the American church. 
She was an excellent woman, of a sound practical mind and of 
ardent, active piety. 

In 1779 his father removed to Freehold, N. J., to take 
charge of the church, made vacant by the death of the Rev. 
William Tcnncnt, " whose praise is in all the churches." There 
he established an academy at which his son George was edu- 
cated, until in the i6th year of his age, he entered Princeton 
9 



130 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

college, in the junior class, and graduated in 1790. His char- 
acter was blameless, his father incidentally remarking of him 
shortly before his death, " that he had no recollection of hav- 
ing ever had occasion to reprove him in his life." 

After graduating, Mr. George S. Woodhuil commenced the 
study of the law and continued it for about two years, and then 
relinquishing the law, he studied medicine for a year with Dr. 
Moses Scott, in New Brunswick. Through the influence of a 
sermon preached by his father he was led to study theology 
with his father in 1794. 

He was licensed by the Presbytery of New Brunswick to 
preach the gospel, on the 14th day of November, 1797. He 
was called, ordained and installed pastor of the church at Cran- 
berry, June 6th, 1798, and in the next year he was married to 
Miss Gertrude Ncilson, the eldest daughter of Col. John Neil- 
son of New Brunswick, — a gentle, refined and. handsome young 
woman, who had been educated at Bethlehem, Pa. 

Mr. Woodhuil continued to be the pastor of the church at 
Cranberry for twenty-two years, during which time his minis- 
try was faithful, noiseless, and dignified. lie was distin- 
guished for his public spirit. He was a trustee of the College 
of New Jersey, and zealously labored for the interest of that 
institution. 

In the month of April, 181 1, he was one of a little band of 
patriotic and pious gentlemen who assembled in Princeton, 
and formed the Neiv Jersey Bible Society. In this he was an 
active member during his life. In 181 5 he first suggested the 
system of Bible-class instruction, which, after having tried 
it among the youth of his own church, he brought before the 
Presbytery and received for it the sanction of that body; and 
thence by his zealous labors, it was carried to the Synod of 
New York and New Jersey, and by that body made the sub- 
ject of an overture to the General Assembly, which recom- 
mended it to all the churches under its care. The Rev. Dr. 
Green had introduced it into the college several years before 
this, but its introduction into the churches on its present plan 
is due to Mr. Woodhuil. 

In the year 1818, Mr. Woodhuil began to labor against the 
use of ardent spirits ; though it was eight years before the 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— REV. G. S. WOODHULL. I31 

American Temperance Society was formed or proposed, he 
brought the subject before the Presbytery and caused an over- 
ture to the General Assembly, which the same year passed an 
act, solemnly " recommending to all ministers, elders and 
deacons of the Presbyterian church, to refrain from offering 
ardent spirits to those who might visit them at their re- 
spective houses, except in extraordinary cases." Was not 
this the first organized and official movement in the Temper- 
ance Reform ? Mr. WoodhuU practiced " entire abstinence" 
long before the Temperance Reform commenced. At his 
death a temperance pledge bearing date as far back as 1815, 
signed by several of his congregation, was found among his 
papers. 

A few years before he left Cranberry he was very ill with 
fever, so that his life was despaired of for several days. In 
this extremity he desired his friends in Princeton to assemble 
and pray for his recovery. This was done. Five or six clergy- 
men with the elders and a number of the members of the 
church assembled in one of the apartments of the college build- 
ing, and spent an hour in intercessory prayer for his recovery ; 
and it is alleged as an undoubted fact, that at or near the time 
when his friends were thus interceding for him, his disease 
took a favorable turn and his recovery commenced. He was 
ever deeply impressed with this event as an instance of re- 
markable answer to prayer. 

He left Cranberry in 1820, to accept a call to Princeton. 
He had received a call about ten years before, to Princeton, 
but upon advice, declined it as before stated. 

In 1832, after leaving Princeton, he received a call from the 
church at Middletown Point, N. J,, where he spent the last two 
years of his life. He died of scarlet fever, on the 25th of De- 
cember, 1834, in the sixty-second year of his age, and thirty- 
seventh of his»mi.nistry — calm and holy to the last. 

The Rev. Dr. Samuel Miller preached a funeral discourse in 
the church at Princeton, in 1835, in memory of the Rev. George 
S. Woodhull, at the request of the congregation of Princeton. 

He took for his text, Acts xi. 24, " He was a good man." 
When he came to speak of his ministry of twelve years in 
Princeton, he said, " his ministry through the whole of that 



132 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

time was marked with the same steadiness, prudence, dilif^ence, 
dignity, and punctuality which have always characterized his 
labors. One fact is unquestionably certain, that during the 
twelve years of his pastoral service, this church received a 
greater number of members to her communion, than in any 
preceding period of twelve years since the commencement 
of her existence." 

He continued, in speaking of him personally: 

" His history is his portrait. I will only say that it has been my lot, within the 
last forty years of my life, to be acquainted with many hundred ministers of the 
Gospel of various denominations, and with not a few of them to be on what might 
be called intimate terms ; and although I have known a number of more s[)lendid, 
of more profound attainments, and of more impressive eloquence than your late pas- 
tor, yet in the great moral qualities which go to form the good man, the exemplary 
Christian, the diligent and untiring pastor, the benevolent neighbor and citizen, 
and the dignified, polished, perfect gentleman, I have seldom known his equal, 
and I think never on the whole his superior. No one, I can confidently assert, ever 
heard from his lips a censorious remark or a harsh sentence concerning any human 
being. No one ever witnessed, even in his most unguarded moments, any other 
deportment than that which was characterized by Christian urbanily. No one ever 
heard from liim one of those rough epithets or coarse jests which sometimes escape 
even from those deemed pious and exemplary. In short, the whole texture of his 
mind and all the habits of his life were marked \\ith a degree of inoffensiveness, 
purity, respectfulness, dignity, gentleness and unceasing benevolence which I never 
expect to see exceeded by any other man in this world. So remarkably indeed were 
his feelings held in subjection to principle, and so habitually guarded against the 
expression of any irascible emotion that, even under unfriendly and ungenerous 
treatment, in most cases like his Master, he opened not his mouth; and when he 
did give a momentary utterance to painful feeling it was with that tender and sub- 
dued tone which showed that he was more anxious to govern himself than to cast 
odium on others. Indeed I have often thought ihat he carried his caution, reserve 
and forbearance to an extreme ; to a length which interfered with firmness and en- 
ergy, and that his dread of controversy and reluctance to contend sometimes led 
him to yield to judgments inferior to his own. He never made ambitious claims; 
never put himself forward ; seldom asserted what was his due ; and in a word, in 
meekness, in modesty, in retiring, unassuming gentleness, and in a prudence which 
seemed never to sleep, he set before his professional brethren and his fellow Chris- 
tians a noble example." 

Mr. and Mrs. Woodhull had four children who grew up to 
adult age— the Rev. William H. Woodhull, who graduated 
at Princeton college in 1822, and who after leaving the seminary 
was settled in Upper Freehold and died in 1834; Cornelia, 
who died unmarried ; Alfred A. Woodhull, M. D., and John N. 



PRE SB V TERIA N CHURCH— RE V. DR. RICE. I 3 3 

Woodhull, M. D., both physicians, who died in Princeton and 
have been noticed in the previous volume. None of them are 
now living. Mrs. Woodhull lived till 1863, ever exhibiting a 
beautiful Christian life and greatly beloved wherever known. 
For many years before her death, having returned to Prince- 
ton with her maiden sister Miss Neilson, she lived with her son 
Dr. John N. Woodhull, till her death. 



SECTION VII. 

1832-1847 — PASTORATE OF REV. BENJAMIN HOLT RICE, D. D. 




Rev. B. H. Rice, D. D. 

Upon the resignation of the Rev. Mr. Woodhull an effort 
was immediately made to elect another pastor. Several meet- 
ings were held by the congregation, and among several candi- 
dates Dr. John McDowell, of Elizabethtown, was elected, but 
declined. It was then proposed to elect an evangelist, and 
Mr. John Adger, of the seminary, was chosen for six months. 
He was able only to serve for three months, and was not able 
to render pastoral duties ; and therefore he was not employed. 
Another balloting for pastor took place on the 28th of May, 
1833, when the Rev. Dr. Benjamin H. Rice, formerly of Vir- 
ginia, was elected. He had been voted for at the previous bal- 
lotingrs. 



134 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

Dr. Rice was born near New London, in Bedford County, 
Virginia, November 29th, 1782. His father, Benjamin Rice, 
was a lawyer by profession, but for several years filled the 
office of deputy clerk of the county. He was a ruling elder 
in the Presbyterian church of which his brother, Rev. David 
Rice, was pastor. Benjamin H. Rice received his education 
chiefly under the direction and by the aid of his brother, the 
Rev. John Holt Rice, D. D. He married Martha Alexander, 
a sister of Rev. Dr. Archibald Alexander. He taught school 
for some time in North Carolina. He received license to 
preach the Gospel from the Presbytery of Orange, North Caro- 
lina, September 28, 18 10, and for some time was employed as 
a missionary along the seaboard counties of that State by the 
General Assembly. In 181 2 he was ordained sine titulo, and 
the next day sent as a commissioner to the General Assembly 
in Philadelphia. During the next year he was elected pastor 
of a new church which he gathered in Petersburg, Va., over 
which he was installed in 18 14. He labored there for seven- 
teen years, and it became a large and flourishing church, blessed 
with several revivals, in which large numbers were added to its 
membership. His ministry there was eminently successful. 
In 1829 Dr. Rice was elected moderator of the General Assem- 
bly, and in that year he received a call from the Pearl Street 
church in the city of New York, and reluctantly accepted it. 
His health had become impaired at Petersburg, and after a lit- 
tle less than three years, he gave up his charge in New York 
and became associate secretary of the Home Missionary Socie- 
ty. He held this position for nearly a year. He received the 
degree of Doctor of Divinity from the College of New Jersey, 
in 1832. 

In 1833, he accepted a call to the church at Princeton, 
and was duly installed, August 15th, 1833. On that occasion 
the sermon was preached by Rev. Symmcs C. Henry of Cran- 
berry ; the charge to the pastor was given by Rev. Dr. Samuel 
Miller, and the charge to the people was given by the Rev. Dr. 
Carnahan. His salary was fixed at $1000 besides the parson- 
age. 

Dr. Rice multiplied the times of communion to six times 
in a year ; and he enlarged the session. An elders' prayer 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— REV. DR. RICE. I 35 

meeting was held every Sabbath morning, in the Sophomore 
recitation room of the college, which was then used by the 
church for weekly religious meetings. A paper was read by 
the pastor to the session, assigning the causes for the declen- 
sion of religion in the church, which was directed to be read 
from the pulpit. We cannot find this paper, nor give its con- 
tents. 

But just as the new pastor was getting his people aroused 
and his session at work, a new calamity fell upon them ; a 
second conflagration laid the church edifice, which had been 
rebuilt about twenty years before, again in ashes ! It was 
burnt on the 6th day of July, 1835. This blow upon the 
church was the more severe, because there was an old debt 
pressing upon it at the time. 

An Episcopal church had been built in the village, and its 
Vestry promptly sent a letter of condolence to Dr. Rice and 
the church, and kindly tendered the use of Trinity church 
to the Presbyterian congregation, during their privation of a 
building, when not using it themselves. But the seminary 
chapel was also offered, and was accepted as a place of worship 
by the congregation while rebuilding the church. 

A committee was appointed by the trustees to inquire into 
the cause of the conflagration, and they reported on the 13th 
of July, after diligent inquiry, "that the fire commenced about 
five o'clock P. M. of the 6th day of July, 1835, on the north 
side of the roof, near a small chimney— that the fire originated 
from a sky-rocket, which had been exploded on that after- 
noon." The rocket had been procured for celebrating the 
natal day of the nation. Measures were also taken to rebuild. 
The congregation resolved to pay the same rent towards the 
salary, as before the fire ; and that all claims arising from rights 
in the old pews, were extinguished by the fire. They decided 
to erect a neat, plain, and commodious edifice, adapted to the 
circumstances of the congregation. Application was made to 
college for assistance. The trustees decided to build the new 
church of brick, rough cast, without basement, and sixty by ; 
eighty feet. The old debt of the church, incurred principally 
for repairs of parsonage, was $1145. 

By November 27, 1836, the new church was ready to be 



-1 



136 HISTORY OF PRINCETON: 

used, with temporary seats. About $4,000 had been disbursed 
for this purpose, all of which had been received on subscrip- 
tion and by donation. Mr. Steadman, through Prof. Dod, of- 
fered to finish the building, outside and inside, excluding paint- 
ing, stone-steps and pavement in front, for $4,500 ; this offer 
was accepted. Prof. Dod drew the plan of the gallery and the 
pulpit. In April, 1837, the congregation returned to the sem- 
inary chapel while the interior of the church was finished.. A 
zinc roof had been put on the building, which proved worthless 
and was replaced by a tin one. The upholstery was done by 
Abram Voorhees, 51 Maiden Lane, N. Y., through John Van 

j Dorcn. The linings and cushions were blue. The cost 
was $1187.95. The ladies procured the carpets and lamps. 
Dr. E. C. Wines gave a plan of the valuation of the pews, 
which amounted to $11,450, and an assessment of 12 per cent 
was imposed. The old pew liolders relinquished their rights, 
and the subscribers waived their right to take pews out of their 
subscriptions. 

The new church was not built parallel with the street as 
the previous one was, but with the end to the street. It was 
the same building that is now used, but which has been en- 
larged by an extension in the rear, and modified and orna- 
mented within the last two years. It was in Grecian style of 
architecture, without spire or cupola, with galleries on the end 
and two sides, with four aisles, about eighty by sixty feet, with 
a handsome pulpit ; the building was of brick, rough cast, and 
'-^ had two Corinthian pillars in the front vestibule ; and the 
audience room being handsomely upholstered with blue, the 
wood and ceiling white, and the blinds the natural color of the 
wood varnished. It was a very handsome and much admired 
church, a model of simplicity and good taste; and for a period 
of forty years it had been the theatre of many crowded and 
brilliant assemblages, gathered for religious and educational 

4. purposes. Since 1847 there was a lecture room in the rear, 
but now it is on the west side far back. 

In December, 1835, the following minute was adopted on 
the subject of temperance, by the session : 

"That the session of this church do most earnestly recommend to all the mem- 
bers of this congregation to abstain from the use of ardent spirits except as a med- 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— REV. DR. RICE. I37 

icine, and that they discourage the use of it as a drink, even in a moderate deoree, 
in their several families, and in all cases do use their utmost influence to check this 
most destructive evil." 

A committee was appointed to confer with the colored 
members of the church in reference to their returning to this 
church or worshipping in a new one by themselves. This pro- 
posal did not seem, at first, to be acceptable, but in October, 
1837, the trustees resolved to make one more effort to induce 
them to organize for themselves, which ultimately prevailed. 
The Sunday school occupied the gallery of the church for its 
exercises. 

The old willow tree in the church yard, remembered by 
many persons still living, was ordered to be cut down and re- 
moved in April, 1843. 

In 1840, January 3, an application was made to the session 
of the church to relieve the Queenston chapel from a debt which 
was in execution against that building, incurred in its erection. 
It was an outpost or preaching station and Sunday-school room, 
etc., of this church, built by the contributions of the members 
of this church chiefly, and used by the seminary students and 
members of this congregation for religious worship, and was 
generally regarded as an appurtenance of this church. The ses- 
sion resolved to pay off the execution in the hands of the sheriff, 
and applied, as far as was necessary for that purpose, a portion 
of their semi-centennial contribution, amounting to $264, direct- 
ing the balance, after paying the execution, to be placed at the 
disposal of the trustees of the church. 

John Lowrey, elder, applied to session in behalf of the col- 
ored members of this church, to allow them a separate com- 
munion in their own ghurch, on Witherspoon Street, — which 
was granted on the second Sabbath of September, 1840. The 
membership of this church as represented to Presbytery in 1841, 
was five hundred and twenty- seven whites, one hundred and 
thirty-one colored, but as revised and corrected, only three 
hundred and fifty — whites two hundred and seventy, colored 
eighty. 

In 1844, the trustees gave Dr. Rice leave of absence for 
six months, on account of his health. His pulpit was supplied 
by the clerical professors. 



138 HISTORY OF PRINCETOM. 

March 10, 1846, the colored members of this church, who 
were worshipping in their own church in Withcrspoon Street, 
then numbering ninety-two, were dismissed, to form a church 
under the name of the " First Presbyterian elinreh of color of 
Princeton,'' and the church was organized by Dr. Rice, Dr. 
John Maclean, and Joseph H. Davis, elder, a committee of the 
Presbytery of New Brunswick. This church is noticed in a 
subsequent chapter. 

From 1843 to 1847, '^^^ finances of the church gave a good 
deal of trouble to the trustees. The expenses were above the 
income, S325 a year. The old parsonage property was a con- 
tinual charge on the trustees. They desired to have it sold, 
and a new parsonage bought. Frecjuent meetings of the con- 
gregation were held on the subject. Professor A. 15. Dod, 
president of the board of trustees, was very active and urgent 
in his efforts to effect a sale. The will of Dr. Wiggins was 
again and again examined. Pews of the church ^v'cre for- 
feited for non-payment of rent. Money was borrowed to pay 
the salary and current expenses. Trustees discouraged, 
resigned ; others were elected. Statements of the church af- 
fairs were repeatedly laid before the congregation, which was 
perplexed to know what ought to be done with the parsonage, 
and the debt accruing for its repairs. 

In the months of July and August in 1846, things seemed to 
be coming to a crisis. The finances of the church \\ere com- 
manding the attention of its most influential members. Among 
those who attended the congregational meetings, were Pro- 
fessor Henry, Professor Torrey, Commodore Crabbe, Dr. John 
Maclean, Dr. Miller, Dr. Alexander, William Gulick, James S. 
Green, J. I". Hageman, Dr. J. S. Schanck, Philip Hendrickson, 
Joseph H. Davis, George T. Olmsted, John Davison, Alexan- 
der M. Gumming, John T. Robinson, J. W. Lane, Isaac Baker, 
P. V. DeGraw, Daniel Bowne, Wm. R. Murphy, James Van 
Deventer, Emley Olden, Professor Hope and others, Pro- 
fessor Dod having died in 1845, niuch lamented by the con- 
gregation and church. 

At the congregational meeting on July 12, 1846, the 
subject of the parsonage, and the will of Dr. Wiggins, etc., 
were again referred to a committee consisting of Messrs. J. F. 



PRESBYTERIAN CIIURCH-REV. DR. RICE. 1 39 

Hageman, J. S. Green, and Wnn. R. Murphy, with instructions 
to report at the next meeting. This committee reported to a 
meeting on the 3d of August following ; they reported having 
exammed the will of Dr. Wiggins, the call of the pastor, 
and the legal aspect of the case, they found that the same 
question had arisen before; and reported that in their judg- 
ment, treating the estate in the property as one derived by 
will and not by deed from the heirs, the trustees are under 
no legal obligation to repair the parsonage property ; this is a 
duty which the law devolves upon the tenant of the estate 
who has the use of it. The report was accepted ; and on mo- 
tion of Dr. Miller, the committee was enlarged and continued, 
with a view of determining what should be done with the par- 
sonage. The old board of trustees, in the mean time resigned 
and a new board was elected. Professor Henry became the 
president, and Dr. Schanck the secretary. James S. Green 
consented to act as treasurer for a year without a salary. 
Various devices were employed to raise money. A Liquidat- 
ing Society was formed in the congregation ; lectures were 
delivered ; and the ladies got up festivals, by which several 
hundred dollars were realized for the church. The last source 
was the most remunerative of all. 

On the 26th of April, 1847, Dr. Rice sent the following let- 
ter to the session, tendering his resignation as pastor: 

" To the Session, Trustees and Members of the Presbyterian Congreoation of Prineeton- 
"Dear Brethren, it is with emotions which I sh.ill not attempt to express that 
I request your concurrence in the application which I propose to make to 
the Presbytery of New Brunswick at their meeting on Tuesday next, for a dissolu- 
tion of the relation which I have now for nearly fourteen years sustained to you as 
your pastor. While I had suflicient health and strength to serve you in the Gospel 
of Lhrist It was cheerfully done, but now I am growing old and becoming so infirm 
that I cannot do the work of this place with satisfaction with myself or profit to you 
The burden has become so heavy that I feel it to be due to you and to myself to 
seek relief from it. 

•' My prayer is that the gracious Head of the church may very soon supply you 
with one far more efficient, whom He will employ for his glory and your present 
and eternal good. .. Very affectionately yours 

^P'-^^-^'^^M- "B.H.RicE." 

The congregation met on the 26th of April, 1847, and hav- 
ing heard the letter of Dr. Rice read, adopted the following 
resolution offered by Rev. Dr. Samuel Miller, viz.: ^ 



I40 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

1. " That we cordially and respectfully sympathize with our reverend pastor on 
the feebleness of his health and his inability to undergo the labor which his oftice 
is demanding. 

2. " That while we cherish towards Dr, Rice the highest respect, confidence 
and affection, and while we deeply regret the circumstances which induce him to 
seek to be released from his pastoral charge, we feel constrained however reluc- 
tantly to acquiesce in his wishes and to concur with him in an application to the 
Presbytery to dissolve his pastoral relation to this church ; and we do hereby in- 
struct the elder appointed to represent this church at the approacliing meeting 
of the Presbytery to offer no opposition in that body to a compliance with his 
request. 

3. '' That the parsonage now in the occupancy of Dr. Rice and his family be 
still at their disposal until the use of it shall be required by another occupant,- and 
that his salary be continued until the rst of July next, and that any further arrange- 
ment in regard to the crops be left to the board of trustees." 

His pastoral relation was dissolved by Presbytery, April 26, 
1847, and he returned to Virginia. 

Dr. Rice's ministry in Princeton, nearly fourteen years, was 
not a barren but a fruitful one. The number of new members 
received by him diiring that time into the church, upon exam- 
ination, was 271. The roll was unusually swelled during the 
winter of 1840-41 and in 1843-44, when revivals- blessed his 
ministry. Dr. Rice possessed fine natural talents. His preach- 
ing was direct and spiritual. There was no admixture of spec- 
ulation or false philosophy in his sermons. He was earnest 
and solemn, yet kind and persuasive. He did not read his ser- 
mons, though he generally used brief notes in preaching. 
The infirmities of body generally depressed his spirit, but 
in seasons of a revival when he descried the working of the 
spirit, he was at once aroused and forgot his ailments, and 
preached with great power and success. His happiest min- 
istrations were in his week-day social prayer-meetings. He 
loved to see Zion increase and was vigilant in his vineyard 
for souls. While Dr. Rice had a full share of native talent 
and eloquence, his health did not permit him to study as 
closely and systematically as was required in order to furnish 
him adequately for such a pulpit as he here occupied. In the 
common salutations of the day, when he was asked how he was 
he invariably answered, " not at all well." And some persons 
who were inclined sometimes to believe that he was not as 
unwell as he imagined himself to be, his appearance being 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— REV. DR. RICE. I4I 

SO robust, must have regretted their uncharitable doubts as they 
read the history of his sudden death. 

Dr. Rice was a Virginian, and he was not happy in any 
other atmosphere. He never found in New York or in Prince- 
ton that freedom and hospitaHty in social life, to which he 
had been accustomed in his native State. The style of address 
and the structure of sermons which delighted and satisfied a 
Virginia congregation, would not always please a Princeton or 
a New York audience. The leisure hour in Virginia society, 
even among men of studious pursuits, so congenial to the 
taste of literary and refined men there, can seldom be found 
here, where the library, and not the drawing-room, claims 
and exhausts all the time of literarv men. Dr. Rice's own 
family was distinguished for its hospitality, and for its refined 
welcome to visitors in true Virginia style. Mrs. Rice, his wife, 
was a model woman ; her manners were as simple as those 
of a child ; her piety was as pure as grace could make it; her 
prudence and condescension and generosity and good sense 
were such as to make her helpful to her husband in his ministe- 
rial as well as in his private life. Her death, March 6th, 1844, of 
congestive fever, triumphant as might be expected, was a sore 
affliction to her family and to the church. The congregation 
erected a marble monument over her grave in the cemetery, as 
a token of their respect for her memory. Their daughters 
were the charm of Princeton society. The sudden death of their 
lovely daughter, Anna, wife of the Rev. Ezckiel P'orman, of 
Kentucky, which occurred a few months before the death of 
her mother, cast a gloom over a large circle of admiring friends 
here and elsewhere. Dr. Rice was the last of the pastors who 
occupied the old Wiggins parsonage ; and many pleasant asso-"'] 
ciations are connected with it and his interesting family, 
where such generous hospitality had been dispensed. After 
the dissolution of his pastoral relation to the Princeton church, 
Dr. Rice removed to Virginia, and accepted a call to the college 
church at Plampden Sydney. Here, it is said, he felt once 
more at home. He purchased a little farm near his church ; 
and his agricultural pursuits, in connection with free and easy 
pulpit duties, seemed to benefit hini in both body and mind, 
and to restore him to his former and early vigor of speech. 



..\.. 



142 HISTORY OF PRINCETOiW 

and buoyancy of spirit. In his last days, his early popularity 
and influence, it is said, returned to him. He was always 
heard in the judicatories of the churcli with respectful 
attention. 

For some months before his death, his failing health gave 
alarm to his friends. On the 17th of January, 1856, he was 
preaching from the text, " Speak to the children of Israel, 
that they go forward," and was making an animated ap- 
peal, when his voice became too subdued to be heard over the 
house. Pausing, he made a sign for a glass of water, and as 
he took it, he remarked that his tongue was becoming para- 
lyzed, and his son, Dr. A. A. Rice, immediately went to him. 
Apprehending this to be his last opportunity, he leaned for- 
ward on the pulpit, and said, " I wish to say a word to my 
Christian brethren. Are you all going forward in the divine 
life? Are you growing in grace and in fitness for heaven? " 

This was uttered with great difficulty, and was scarcely in- 
telligible beyond the vicinity of the pulpit. He was sup- 
ported back to the seat, and it was found necessary to lift him 
from the pulpit, whence he was borne out amidst the sighs and 
tears of his afflicted and bereaved people, never more to return 
alive. He lingered until Sabbath, February 24th, 1856, when 
he entered into his rest. His faith remained strong to the 
very last. He died peacefully in the work of the ministry, 
with the harness on. He was buried at Willington, about 
three miles from the church, beside the remains of his brother, 
Dr. John H. Rice, who had preceded him to the grave over 
twenty-five years. 

The session of this church, upon hearing of the death of 
Dr. Rice, their former pastor, passed resolutions of respect and 
condolence, and requested the Rev. William E. Schenck, D.D., 
his successor in the pastoral office here, to preach a funeral 
discourse in this church, which was done, and published, and 
from which the most of the biographical statements in this sec- 
tion have been taken. 

While Dr. Rice was the pastor of the church in Princeton, 
five ruling elders of the church died in office, viz.: John S. 
Wilson, Robert Voorhees, Samuel Bayard, Zcbulon IMorford, 
John Lowrey and John C. Schenck, a former elder; and four 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— REV. DR. SCHENCK. 1 43 

trustees, viz.: Dr. Alfred A. Woodhull, David N. Bogart, Esq., 
Prof. Albert B. Dod, N. L. Berrien. 

Dr. Rice had six children ; Anna, Mrs. Forman, did not 
survive him ; but those who survived him were, Mary, who 
was married to the Rev. Drury Lacy, D. D. ; John H., who first 
studied law and afterwards theology, and is now a distinguished 
clergyman ; Archibald Alexander, a physician and a preacher ; 
and Catharine, and Martha, both married — and all living at 
the South. 



SECTION VIII. 

1 847-1 852— PASTORATE OF REV. WILLIAM E. SCIIENCK, D.D. 

After the Rev. Dr. Rice had been released from his pas- 
toral relation to this church, several attempts were made to 
elect his successor; but there was so much diversity of senti- 
ment in the congregation that after frequent adjournments it 
became necessary to abandon the effort. A temporary pro- 
vision was made by the employment of Wm. Henry Green and 
Abram Gosman, both licentiates in the seminary, as a supply 
for six months. These young brethren preached alternately 
every Sabbath very acceptably. The former has become pro- 
fessor in the theological seminary in this place, and the other is 
pastor of the church in Lawrenceville, in this county. 

It was during the year 1847, ^"^ while there was no pastor, 
that the subject of the sale of the parsonage house and land— 
a subject which had been discussed and voted upon several 
times, through a period of thirty-five years, — again came up 
before the congregation. The motion " that the parsonage 
should be sold, in whole or in part," was made by James S. 
Green, who had, before that time, been opposed to its sale. 
This motion was adopted at a meeting of the congregation, on 
the loth of August, 1847, ''^"^ ^ committee consisting of J. S. 
Green, J. F. Hageman, and J. VanDeventcr, was appointed to 
report how much, when, and in what manner the property 
should be disposed of. This committee, on the 6th of Sep- 
tember, reported in favor of laying out a street to be called 
Wiggins Street, reserving ground for burial purposes in the 



144 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

rear of the present burying" ground and in favor of selling the 
remainder of the land. The report was accepted, and the 
committee continued. The particulars of the sale, and the 
reservation for a cemetery, and the provisions to secure the 
proceeds of the sale to the object for which the property was 
devised originally, are all given in a subsequent section. It is 
only necessary here to state that the whole property left to 
the church by Dr. Wiggins, after reserving tJirce acres for the 
cemetery, and the old session school building lot, belonging 
to the church, was sold. Before selling the parsonage, the 
congregation resolved to make the salary of the next minister 
to be chosen, $ioco a year, with the annual proceeds of the 
parsonage. A committee was appointed by the trustees to ap- 
ply to the Legislature to aid and confirm the sale of the land, 
if necessary. As the legal title was derived by purchase from 
Dr. Wiggins' heirs, and not wholly under the will, such aid was 
probably not deemed necessary. 

Dr. Rice was the last ministerial tenant of the Wiggins 
parsonage. It had been occupied by his predecessors, Mr. 
Henry Kollock, Mr. William C. Schenck, and Mr. Woodhull, 
covering in all a period of a little over fifty years. Sacred old 
house! notwithstanding its disfavor in the financial depart- 
ment of the church. It was the home of a succession of godly 
ministers. Its walls still stand, inclosing an ancient, but ren- 
ovated habitation. Its majestic trees are still full of vigor, and 
promise yet to outlive many generations of men. While the 
acreage of the cemetery has increased, and generation after 
generation of men have succumbed to the King of Terrors, 
the old buttonwoods. ash and elms bravely buffet the storms, 
and still extend their protection about this old parsonage 
on Witherspoon Street. 

After Dr. Rice had resigned his call at Princeton, the pro- 
ject of organizing a second Presbyterian church in the place 
was revived, and on the 23d of December, 1847, nine of the 
members of this church were dismissed, to unite in that enter- 
prise. It was not any disaffection to^vards the minis-' 
ter of the first church, that prompted this new organization ; 
for it was during a ministerial vacancy in the pulpit of this 
church, that the second church was formed. 








y:^^i^>^^-^'7^L^ 



^i- 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— REV. DR. SCHENCK. I45 

On the 31st day of January, 1848, the congregation, under 
a rule which had been adopted and adhered to since Dr. Rice 
retired, requiring a two-third vote to elect a pastor, elected on 
a second ballot, the Rev. William Edward Schenck, of the 
Hammond Street church, New York, as pastor, to succeed Dr. 
Rice, in Princeton. 

Mr. Schenck was a native of Princeton, born in the year 
1 819. His father was John C. Schenck, a farmer residing at 
Queenston, who had formerly been a merchant in the place, 
and a ruling elder in the same church by which this call was 
made. His mother was Ann Brooks Hutchinson. William 
E. Schenck was a nephew of the Rev. William C. Schenck, a 
former pastor of this church. He was thoroughly prepared 
for college at the academy, under the direction of Robert 
Baird, D. D., and also under Professor Patton, at the Edgehill 
high sphool in Princeton. He was graduated at Nassau Hall, 
in the class of 1838 ; read law in the office of James S. Green, 
for one year or more; united with this church upon profession 
of his faith in 1839, "^t the age of twenty years ; then adopting 
the ministry as his choice, he entered and graduated at the the- 
ological seminary at Princeton, and was licensed by the Pres- 
bytery of New Brunswick, April 27th, 1842. He was pastor 
of the Presbyterian church at Manchester, N. J., before he was 
called to the Hammond Street church in New York City. 

He accepted the call to Princeton, and was installed pastor 
here. May 8th, 1848. The Rev. Archibald Alexander presided 
and proposed the constitutional questions ; Rev. Symmes C. 
Henry preached the sermon ; Rev. Dr. Miller gave the charge 
to the pastor, and Rev. Dr. Carnahan to the people. 

The newly installed pastor standing now on his native soil, 
in a pulpit which had been occupied by a succession of distin- 
guished ministers, in a church where he had professed his faith 
and been baptized, over a congregation made up of critical 
hearers, embracing with the resident families, students and 
professors of the college and seminary; surrounded with such 
circumstances, and such a cloud of witnesses, buckled on 
his armor afresh for the contest, fully sensible of the arduous 
field of labor he had entered. He commenced his ministry 
here with zeal and system. Pie enlarged his session, and ap- 
10 



146 HI STONY OF PRINCETON. 

portioned to the elders, districts of the congregation for their 
special supervision. He arranged a series of monthly collec- 
tions for the boards of the church, as recommended by the 
General Assembly. Parochial schools were then looked upon 
with favor by the church courts, and were recommended to the 
congregations, Mr. Schenck and his session established one, 
which was at first taught in the Witherspoon Street session 
house, and afterv/ards in the old academy, in Washington 
Street. The school of Miss Lockart, under the Female Be- 
nevolent Society, \\'2i^ pro forma adopted by the session also, 
as a parochial school.- These schools were sustained by their 
quota of the public school fund, and by the fund of the Board 
of Education of the Presbyterian church. The school of Miss 
Lockart, which is still continued, depends now wholly, and then 
it depended chiefly, on the resources of the society which es- 
tablished "it, aided by the church ; the other one was not con- 
tinued after Mr. Schenck resigned his call. The public school 
funds were afterwards withheld from this class of schools, 
under legal advisement that such appropriations were a diver- 
sion of the public money from the true object for which it was 
raised by law. When the session established the parochial 
school, there was no good public school in the town, but when, 
afterwards, the present excellent public school was established 
under the influential cooperation of Professor Phelps of the 
normal school at Trenton, the interest in the church schools 
was diminished, and has not revived since. 

The pastor was faithful in his pastoral duties, and his 
work was prosperous. His church showed signs of increase, and 
its outward condition was improving wonderfully. 

The trustees adopted the following rule respecting the secu- 
lar use of the church edifice, in 1848, viz :■ 

" Whereas a commodious building has recently been erected in this town, 
called Mercer Hall, 

Resolved, that it is expedient that we restrict the use of our church for secular 
purposes as much as possible, in future." 

It was also during the year 1848, that the session of the 
church sent a communication to the trustees, representing 
'* that in the opinion of the session, our church stands in 
urgent need of a building for use as a lecture and Sunday- 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— REV. DR. SCHENCA'. 1 47 

school room, and other purposes connected with our efforts as 
a church ; and it is the very earnest wish of the session that 
such a house may be built at the earliest possible day," etc. 
The trustees referred it to the congregational meeting to be 
held on the 25th of June, and appointed Mr. Hageman to pre- 
sent the subject to the meeting. Such a meeting was held on 
that day, and the committee on the sale of the parsonage re- 
ported that they had surveyed and sold all the land of the 
parsonage, except the parsonage house lot, and had also sold 
the mountain wood lot ; and that the net proceeds were 
$2079.58 ; and that they had reserved the lot on which the old , 
frame session house stood, and also, a parcel for the cemetery. 
The report was accepted. Plans for laying out the cemetery ' 
and selling lots were referred to the trustees with powers. ' 

IMr.. Green, the treasurer, also submitted a report of the 
financial condition of the church, stating that when he entered 
into that office in June, 1845, ^^^^ o^^ ^'^^t of the church was 
$2500, but that it had been reduced to about $300, and this 
had been accomplished principally through the association 
called the " Liquidating Society." * 

The presentation of the subject of the new lecture-room 
was followed by a resolution of the meeting, that it was expe- 
dient that the congregation should erect such a building, and 
referred it to the trustees to proceed in the matter, and report 
plans, etc. Dr. Schanck was elected by the trustees, president 
of that board, in the place of Professor Henry, who had re- 
moved to Washington. 

Six different plans for a lecture-room were presented by 
the trustees to the congregation at their meeting on July 31st, 
1848. The plan finally adopted was to build one of brick, in 
the rear of and adjoining the church, there not being land 
enough elsewhere on the lot, upon which they could build 
a suitable one. The room was to be 32 feet by 60 feet, 
with two small rooms partitioned off at the east end. The 
contract was given to Holcombe & Dunn for $1595, the pews 

*The amount realized from the weekly dues $260 13 

" from ladies' fairs and refreshments 803 41 

" from lectures 275 00 

" by collection 57250 

" from surplus — pew rents 200 00 



148 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

to be with shifting backs, adapted to Sunday School classes. 
The room was built and paid for before the 25th of May, 1849.* 
It was a very comfortable room, and necessary addition to 
the church. The weekly lecture which had been held in the 
sophomore recitation room of the college, and the prayer 
meetings which were formerly held from house to house in 
the town, among the families of the congregation, were now 
transferred to this new lecture room ; and the Sunday school 
which was held in the gallery of the church, was also removed 
to this room. Thus was obtained a long desired lecture-room 
without entailing a lingering debt. 

The committee on the sale of the parsonage reported the 
sale of the old parsonage house and lot for $1363, which sale 
was approved by the trustees, and a deed ordered to be execu- 
ted for the same. 

The, years 1850 and 1852 were marked for the spiritual as 
well as the temporal prosperity of the church. The little re- 
maining debt of the church was being fast liquidated, the 
parsonage matters were being closed up, the cemetery was, 
opened, and its rules and regulations were adopted. Gas-light 
was introduced into the church and lecture-room ; the church 
edifice and grounds were repaired and put in order ; a new iron 
fence was put up in front of the church ; a cistern for supply 
of water in case of fire was built in the church yard, by the 
Common Council with leave of the trustees ; 2. gracious re- 
vival of religion visited the congregation and the town, and a 
large accession was made to the membership of the church. 
At the communion season in January, 1850, not a single mem- 
ber was added to the church. The pastor and ruling elders of 
the church called the congregation to observe the 7th day of 
February, 1850, as a day of fasting and special prayer for the 
outpouring of the Holy Spirit. A narrative of this revival 
soon after appeared in \\\& Presbyterian, which was understood 
to be from the pen of the pastor, and which we here insert : 

* The money was raised as follows : Proceeds of lectures, $50. Refreshment 
tables by the ladies, $300. Borrowed of the bank, $600. The balance was 
raised by subscription, of which $300 were given by the Rev. Edward N. Kirk, D. D. 
of Boston. The bank loan was soon paid off, principally by a festival given by the 
ladies. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— REV. DR. SCHENCK. 149 

" Agreeable to your request, I send you some account of what the Lord has re- 
cently wrought in the church and congregation with which the writer is connected. 
He hath indeed done great things for us, whereof we are glad. His is the work ; 
and I trust that all who have been so honored as to be used in any degree as hum- 
ble and unworthy instruments in promoting it, may ever be ready to give unto him 
all the glory and the praise. " He hath not dealt with us after our sins, nor re- 
warded us according to our iniquities." 

Early in the winter past an unusual religious interest appeared among the col- 
ored people of the place, and more than a dozen hopeful conversions occurred 
among them. About the same time, as it since appears, although the fact was then 
not known beyond themselves, several of the most intelligent and pious among the 
female members of the First Presbyterian church, became in an unusual degree 
concerned about the interests of religion and the salvation of souls, and were 
drawn to the mercy-seat in wrestling prayer. At the communion season in Janu- 
ary, not a single new communicant was received by the session, which fact was ad- 
verted to, and made the foundation of a solemn appeal to the church members 
assembled at the communion table, by a venerated father, who assisted on that oc- 
casion. It was felt to be a time of man's extremity. God was soon about to show 
that it was his opportunity. It is remarkable that although all were then fdled 
with gloom and sadness at the apparent absence of the Spirit's converting power, 
there has'since been brought to light abundant evidence that a large number of 
unconverted persons were at that very time under His blessed influences. The 
seed of truth was already germinating underground, but the blade had not yet ap- 
peared above the surface. A few weeks afterwards the pastor and ruling elders, 
moved (as they now trust) by a divine impulse, agreed to call the congregation to 
the observance of a day of fasting and special prayer, for the outpouring of the 
Holy Spirit. 

That day, which was Thursday, the 7th of February, will long be remembered, 
by some at least, as a day of the power of God's right hand. Religious services 
were held in the forenoon, afternoon, and evening, in the lecture-room. The au- 
diences were large and solemn, and a spirit of deep and earnest prayerfulness 
seemed to have descended upon the assembly. As in the case of Eliezerof Damas- 
cus, "before they had done speaking in their hearts," the answer came. On that 
very day unmistakable evidences of seriousness appeared in several unconverted 
persons, and on the following days the pastor was enabled to visit family after fam- 
ily, where members of it were ready to inquire earnestly what they must do to be 
saved. 

From that time onward the work rapidly extended. The people all at once 
seemed in a remarkable degree gifted with a hearing ear and an appetite that hun- 
gered for the tnith. Preaching was for seven or eight weeks maintained every 
evening except Saturday evening. A part of the time, prayer meetings were held 
in the forenoons at ten o'clock, and frequent inquiry meetings were appointed at 
the pastor's study, to which large numbers resorted for instruction. I'he general 
character of the preaching was instructive, very direct, and practical, with very 
little that was adapted to terrify, or even to excite greatly. Efficient and abundant 
aid was rendered in the preaching labors by several of the Professors and of the 
neighboring jiastors, for which aid the pastor and congregation will ever have 
cause to be giateful. 



150 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

For some weeks after this gracious work had been in progress in ihe town, 
there were no decided evidences of revival in the College. On the contrary the 
raass of the students seemed to be in a more disorderly and irreligious state than 
usual. Although constant prayer \\as offered for the College, it was not until the 
last Thursday in February, the day widely observed as a day of prayer for colleges, 
that the Spirit of God manifestly began an extraordinary work there. On that 
day a religious service was held in the morning in the lecture-room of the church, 
and in the evening in one of the college recitation rooms. From subsequent reci- 
tals of personal expeiicnce, the writer is satisfied that the Lord condescended on 
that day to hear and answer prayer in behalf of the students. Almost immediately 
afterwards the influences of God's Spirit were in their results manifest in the col- 
lege also. 

As the fruits of this blessed season of revival, it is hoped that in the neighbor- 
hood oi one /;?<«fl';ri/ persons have been made subjects of converting and sanctify- 
ing grace, in the congregation of the First Presbyterian chiirch. Of these, sezynty- 
/ourha\e been recently welcomed to the communion table, while between twenty 
and thirty more are expected to apply for tlie privilege of coming to it at the next 
opportunity. In the college it is hoped that between thirty and forty of the stu- 
dents have experienced conversion. The larger part of these will delay uniting 
with any ch.urch until they return home at the approaching vacation. 

This precious season of revival has extended to every portion of the town, and 
to every class and variety of persons in the community. That it was widely felt 
among those families which were in past years not in the enjoyment of a regular 
church connection, may be inferred from the fact that of the seventy-four above 
mentioned us having been received into communion, t-u>eiiiy-six received adult 
baptism. 

The Second Presbyterian church, the colored Presbyterian church, the Protest- 
ant Episcopal, and the Methodist Episcopal churches have also received some ac- 
cessions, in what numbers the writer is not fully infomied except that at its recent 
communion season the Second church received an addition of fifteen by exami- 
nation. 

The experience of those who have been hopefully converted is widely various. 
Some have imdergone a deep and pungent lav.'-work ; others have been "entlv led 
to look to and hope in a crucified Redeemer. Some h.ave been brought to bitter 
lamentations over their actual sins; others have been mainly convicted of hard- 
ness and insensibility of heart. Some have had their hearts filled with overflowino- 
peace and j<^y in the hope of salvation through Christ ; others have only dared, 
with a trembling faith, to touch the hem of Jesus' garment. In several cases pro- 
fessors of relig'on of some years' standing have been convicted deeply of sin, and 
hopefully re-converted. Those who were weak in faith have had iheir faith 
strengthened. Those who had been lying almost inert, have been excited to an 
active zeal in tlic cause of Christ. And beyond what I have before seen, Chris- 
tians have abounded in love toward one another. 

We earnestly hope and pray that the blessed impulse whicii has been given to 
the caube of Christ in this town, and in these institutions, may prove to be no 
tr.msient impulse. \Vc pray that the reviving now enjoyed may be continuous and 
prrm-\ncnt. And as Princeton is a point of more than ordinary interest by reason 
of the litcraiy and religious influences, which for good or (or evil go out hence 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— REV. DR. SCHENCK. I5I 

year by year, may we not hope that many among your readers who love Christ and 
Zion will be found ready to join with us in this prayer? Who can estimate the 
power upon the church, the country and the world, of a warm, active, humble, 
vital piety, prevailing at a centre of such imjiortant influences? I.et those then 
who love Zion, not only join with us in ascribing praise and glory to our gracious 
God for what he has aheady done, but let them join with us also in supplicating 
that these heavenly influences may long be perpetuated and enjoyed ui this place." 

W. E. S. 

On the 1 2th of December, 1850, the day of national thanks- 
giving, the pastor preached in the church a historical discourse 
which was published by the trustees. It was a very interesting 
and valuable discourse, and we have derived no inconsiderable 
assistance from it in the preparation of portions of this volume. 
On the same day, after the religious services were over in the 
church, the congregation heard a report of the finances of the 
church, read by Dr. Schanck, president of the board of trustees. 
It recited the debt of the church in 1835 to have been $1,145, 
and then the burning of the church edifice required an outlay 
of about $16,000 to rebuild it ; that in 1845 the church was in 
debt about $2,77$, and the expenses were exceeding the receipts 
by $325 a year ; that the parsonage had been sold and the pro- 
ceeds, amounting to $3,306.58, had been invested to apply to 
the benefit of the minister and no other object ; that after pay- 
ing for all the improvements of the church, the lecture-roomi, 
etc., the indebtedness was reduced to $90. And on the .15th 
day of December, 1851, trustees reported that the cJiurch was 
then, for the first time in EIGHTY Yl^AR^, free from debt J 

It was on the 29lh of March, 1852, just as this tidal wave 
of prosperity had flown in upon the church; when its member- 
ship was enlarged and quickened into activity ; when its tem- 
poralities were unembarrassed ; with a treasury for the first 
time in the history of the church, out of debt; when, without 
a note of warning, the pastor sent a letter to the elders, deacons, 
trustees and other members of the congregation, asking them 
to unite with him in a request to the Presbytery to dissolve 
the pastoral relation which, for four years past, liad existed 
between them, in order that he might enter upon the duties of 
Superintendent of Church Extension in the city of Philadelphia, 
to which lie had been appointed. He deeply regretted to 



152 HISTORY OF PRINCETON: 

sever his pleasant relations to this church, which was so dear 
to him, but he felt that his duty indicated to him that he 
ought to accept this new field of labor ; yet he was willing to 
be guided by the advice of this church and Presbytery, which 
latter body was to meet on the next day. 

The congregation met and adopted resolutions urging 
Presbytery to pause and duly consider the subject before de- 
priving this church of so faithful and beloved a pastor, whose 
ministry, for four years, had been abundantly fruitful and who 
had shown himself approved of God, " a workman that needcth 
not to be ashamed," and holding the affections of his flock to 
a greater degree than most pastors are permitted to enjoy; 
that during his pastorate 199 members had been added to the 
church: by examination in, by certificate 88; and that the 
temporalities of the congregation had been unusually pros- 
perous — the amount of money contributed, exclusive of sal- 
aries, was, during the four years, $7,509, viz.: $4,273 for con- 
gregational purposes and $3,236 for benevolent objects. 

A committee consisting of elders Hageman and Baker, and 
Dr. Schanck of the trustees, was appointed to represent the 
sentiments of the congregation to the Presbytery. The Pres- 
bytery heard the parties and advised the dissolution of the pas- 
toral relation, as requested by the pastor. The trustees 
directed the proceeds of the parsonage fund to be paid to him 
until another pastor should be installed, provided the time 
should not exceed one year. He was dismissed March 30, 1852. 

The pastorate of the Rev. Dr. Schenck was the shortest 
one in the history of this church, except that of the Rev. Dr. 
KoUock, and yet it was the most successful one. It was dur- 
ing his four j'ears' ministry here that the finances of the church 
were put into a proper condition and the incubus of a church 
debt was removed from the congregation, True, the incipient 
measures had been organized for liquidating the debt before 
Mr. Schenck was called here, but much of the credit of success 
was due to his earnest and systematic effort. Everything was 
done for the outward prosperity of the church that was desira- 
ble, except the acquisition of a new parsonage, and that project 
could hardly have been cordially espoused until the prejudice 
against the expensive and troublesome old one should have had 




REV. JAMES M. MACDONALD, D.D. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— REV. J. M. MACDONALD. 153 

time to wear away. The announcement that the church was 
out of debt was music to a people who had been accustomed 
to hear every year and whenever any good measure was pro- 
posed, the same lamentation of the old debt as " a lion in the 

way." 

As Dr. Schenck is still living and laboring with much use- 
fulness for the Presbyterian church at large as Secretary of the 
Board of Publication, in Philadelphia, we forbear to say more 
of him than as a tree is known by its fruits so the fruits of his 
ministry in Princeton are his best memorial. The industry 
with which he prepared his sermons and the earnestness with 
which he delivered them while pastor in Princeton, as well as 
his systematic and administrative skill in business are still ex- 
hibited in his present labors. The degree of Doctor of Divinity 
has been conferred upon him by Jefferson College since he left 
Princeton. He holds the pen of a ready writer and has pub- 
lished, besides the historical discourse already noticed, sev- 
eral commemorative discourses, among which are " God our 
Guide," " The Fountain for Sin and Uncleanness," " Aunt Fan- 
nie's Home," " Children in Heaven," " Nearing Home." 



SECTION IX. 



1852-I876— THE PASTORATE OF THE REV. JAMES M. 
MACDONALD, D. D. 

At an early day after the resignation of Mr. Schenck nom- 
inations were made for his successor in the pastorate of the 
Princeton church. But the election was postponed, as the old 
proposition to have the theological faculty and students aban- 
don their chapel service and unite with the church in public 
worship was revived. The resolution adopted on the 31st of 
May, 1852, was as follows : 

"Resolved, that a committee be appointed to propose to the professors and 
directors of the theological seminary that the pulpit of that institution be supplied 
with the preaching of the Gospel and the administration of the sacraments in this 
church, and that the professors be solicited to aid in furnishing such supply, and 
that said committee report as soon as they shall be able the terms upon which such 
arrangement can be effected, if at all." 



154 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

At a congregational meeting, July 26, 1852, among other 
nominations for pastor was that of the Rev. IVilliajn B. Weed, 
of Stratford, Ct., a Congregational minister. Upon the first 
ballot he was elected, and Prof. Stephen Alexander and Mr. 
Hageman were appointed to prosecute the call. Mr. Weed was 
an eccentric man but a powerful preacher, preeminently so. A 
volume of his pubHshed sermons confirms tliis high estimate of 
him. He had intimated his desire to change his pastoral rela- 
tions at Stratford, and looked with some favor towards Prince- 
ton, where he preached, by invitation, four very able sermons. 

An interesting correspondence took place between him and 
the commissioners relative to the call ; and finally he referred 
the question to an ecclesiastical council, called by letter missive 
from the congregation of Stratford. That council consisted of 
the Rev. David L. Ogden, of New Haven; Rev. Noah Porter, 
of Yale College; Rev. Stephen Hubbell, of Avon; Rev. David 
B.Austin, of Norwalk ; Rev. Charles S. Sherman, of Naugatuck. 
They met at Stratford, December 7, 1852. 

The commissioners from Princeton presented their commis- 
sion and their case in favor of the call, and the Stratford con- 
gregation presented their objections in a written communica- 
tion, and a general discussion of the matter took place, in which 
much interest was manifested. 

The council decided, after due deliberation, that while deep- 
ly sensible of the great importance of the field of usefulness at 
Princeton, and of the desirableness that a preacher so eminent 
as Mr. Weed for power in the pulpit should be secured to oc- 
cupy it, they did not feel justified in advising Mr. Weed to ac- 
cept the call ; and assigned the following reasons : 

1. Their doubts whether the doctrinal views of Mr. Weed were fully understood 
by the church and congrc}i;ation of Princeton. 

2. Deliciency of evidence whether they are suftkiently acquainted with his pe- 
culiarities of temperament and character. 

3. The very strong repugnance expressed by Mr. Weed himself at leaving the 
field of labor in which he was so well understood and had been so successful and 
happy. 

After this there was an attempt made to induce a reconsid- 
eration, but it did not succeed, and all hope of obtaining him 
■ was abandoned. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH-REV. J. M. MACDONALD. I 55 

On the 25th day of April, 1853, the congregation met and 
elected the Rev. James M. Macdonald, of the 15th Street 
Presbyterian church of New York, pastor of this church, offer- 
ing a salary of $1,000 a year and proceeds of the parsonage 
fund, which was afterwards amended to make it $1,200. 

The seminary union plan was again called up and the com- 
mittee having it in charge was urged to press the matter to an 
issue before the directors and report at an early day. 

In the meantime a letter was received from the Rev. Mr. 
Macdonald, expressing his doubts whether the salary offered 
would prove sufficient to support his family, but he would hold 
the call for a few days. 

The congregation made an effort to increase the salary, but 
it was, at that time, unsuccessful. The committee on the sem- 
inary arrangement reported that it had been presented to the 
directors and that they referred the whole subject to the pro- 
fessors, with full power to make the proposed arrangement if 
they wished to do so ; that the professors were absent and that 
only the cooperation of the pastor was wanted to complete 
the arrangement. Professor Hope, of the college, had been 
chosen as a stated supply, April 4, 1853. On the 20th of June 
a letter from Mr. Macdonald was received declining the call. 
The Rev. Dr. Moftat, of the college, was now supplying the 
pulpit. 

On the 28th of September of the same year, at a meeting 
of the congregation for the election of a pastor, it was intimated 
that the Rev. Mr, Macdonald was willing to withdraw his let- 
ter declining the call, and thereupon the commissioners to pro- 
secute the call were requested to renew their efforts and to offer 
to advance him $150 to defray his expenses in removing to 
Princeton if he should accept it. The pastor elect withdrew 
his declinature and accepted the call. 

He was installed, November i, 1853. The Rev. Dr. David- 
son, of New Brunswick, preached the sermon ; the Rev. Dr. 
Hodge presided ; the Rev. Dr. Watson, of Kingston, gave a 
charge to the pastor, and the Rev. Dr. S. C. Henry, of Cran- 
berry, a charge to the people. 

In the next spring an effort was made to increase the min- 
ister's salary $200, by subscription, but it was not successful. 



^156 HISTORY OF PRINCETOr^. 

It was then, on motion of Mr. Hageman, resolved by the con- 
gregation " that the trustees be directed to lay an additional 
assessment on the pews, so as to insure the payment of $1,500 
per annum hereafter, as salary to the minister, instead of $1,200, 
and to be paid quarterly." The sum of $100 addition was 
also raised and paid to the pastor to supplement the payments 
already made. The salary now became $1,500 a year. In 
1856 it was supplemented again in the amount of $300 by an 
annual subscription, to be continued until a parson.age could 
be provided. 

On the I2th of September, 1857, the session of the church, 
at the suggestion of Mrs. Dr. Samuel Miller, recommended the 
ensuing Friday to be observed by the church and congregation 
as a day of fasting and prayer, with reference to the condition 
of missions in India during the Sepoy Rebellion. An invitation 
was extended to the college and the seminary to unite with 
the church in the observance of the day. The occasion was 
profound'y solemn and impressive. Some of the missionaries 
who were inhumanly murdered in that rebellion had recently 
gone forth from Princeton, followed with the tenderest affec- 
tion and sympathy of friends who were now present at this 
meeting. It was scarcely possible to give expression to the 
anguish which prostrated this large Christian assemblage, in 
humiliation and prayer before the great Head of the church. 
Those who attended that meeting will probably never forget 
it, nor fail to feel its effect in lifting a load of sorrow from their 
hearts. 

The Rev. Alfred Young, of the Roman Catholic church in 
Princeton, renewed an application which had several years be- 
fore been made to the trustees of this church, to sell and set 
off a portion of the cemetery to him for the special uses of a 
Roman Catholic burying ground. The trustees considered the 
matter and denied the application, i. Because they have no 
power to part with the general jurisdiction and superintend- 
ence of any portion of said cemetery. 2. The cemetery is al- 
ready too small. 3. It is no part of the plan to sell large por- 
tions of the ground to any particular persons or religious 
denominations. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— REV. J. M. MACDONALD. I 5/ 

As it was not more than ten years after the church had 
come into possession of the Wiggins parsonage before an ef- 
fort was made to effect its sale, and there was a long struggle 
through many years before such sale was accomplished ; so 
now, ten years had hardly passed since the sale before it began 
to be insisted that every church should have a manse, every 
pastor a comfortable parsonage. 

The subject was brought before the congregation in iS6o. 
The property of Jacob W. Lane, in Steadman Street, was offered 
for $4,000. Mr. Paul Tulane offered to pay $1,000 towards it if 
the trustees would buy it and enlarge it and allow the pastor 
to occupy it at a rental of $250 a year. The offer was accepted. 
The property, with its improvements, cost $5,871.45. The 
trustees applied the Wiggins parsonage fund, $3,306.62, and 
the gift of Mr. Tulane, together with $1,600 raised by mort- 
gage, in payment for the property. In 1866 this mortgage, 
through the efforts of the pastor, was paid (A[ h\ a huhsciiptiun 
in the congregation, and the property became free from incum- 
brance. It has been occupied as a parsonage from that time 
to the present day, and it is a large and commodious one. 

The following rule was adopted by the session for the elec- 
tion of ruling elders, viz.: 

" Resolved, That it be adopted, as the approved mode of electing ruling el- 
ders and deacons in tliis church, that such election shall be held on a week d.iy, and 
that in such election communicant members of the church and no others shall be 
allowed to vote, and that such vote shall be taken by ballot." 

Since March, i860, this rule has been observed. In 1861 
the session made an appropriation to enable the pastor to pre- 
sent a suitable volume to every one of the children of the con- 
gregation who could recite the whole of the shorter catechism 
perfectly to him in the church. This was done and the pastor 
reported the names of fifteen, which were ordered to be en- 
tered on the minutes of the session. This practice was con- 
tinued. 

The introduction of an ORGAN into the church had fre- 
quently been suggested, but several families of rigid Presbyte- 
rian principles and who were slow to yield to any form of in- 
novation upon the simple severities of the old school, had 
always expressed so much opposition to it that no decided 



158 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

action had ever been taken to secure one. But the number of 
such gradually grew less and less, principally by death. The 
subject encountered a discussion at a congregational meeting 
in 1863, which was followed by a resolution offered by Pro- 
fessor Cameron, " that it is expedient that instrumental viusic 
be employed in this church." This was adopted by a vote of 
13 to 6, A committee was appointed to raise the funds. On 
the 4th of January, 1864, the congregation again met and 
directed the purchase of an organ, made by Jardine & Sons, of 
New York. It had been built for a Roman Catholic church in 
Mexico, but was too large to be moved across the country, and 
it was purchased for the sum of about $1,800 — a sum less than 
its original price. The money was raised by subscription, 
lectures, fair, concert, etc., and no debt was incurred by the 
church on account of it. It is a very good instrument and its 
introduction has been acquiesced in by those who did not at 
first jiesire it. The session adopted stringent rules to restrict 
the use of the instrument to what they deemed grave and 
appropriate music for congregational worship. 

In 1873 Dr. Macdonald preached a discourse in the church, 
giving reminiscences of his ministry here for tivcnty years past, 
which was printed in a pamphlet of forty-four pages. Much 
of it contains the general history of church matters and changes 
by death during that time. On the subject of sermons, he says : 

" I am not able to state the number of times I have preached, .is I have often 
preached on other days than the Sabbath and in other places than here. But I 
have preached 1,368 times in this pulpit, the number of my last written sermon 
being 1,265, the most of which have been preached here. A course of written 
lectures on the Pentateuch and of unwritten expositions of the Psalms of David, in 
the lijjht of thos^ incidents and epochs in his life with which their origin has been 
supposed to stand connected, have been delivered in the lecture room. In this 
pulpit I have preached series of written discourses on the Book of Ecclesiastes, on 
the Gospel according to St. John, on the Epistle to the Philippians, on the three 
Epistles of St. John, and on the Apocalypse. The life of Christ has been made 
the subject of critical study, with a class, for the purpose of making out a Harmony 
of the Gospels." 

He says further: 

" The rite of baptism has been administered to 198 persons, 61 of them adults 
on their admission to the Lord's table, 137 infants. * * * Marriage has been sol- 
emnized 106 times. * * * About thirty ladies connected with this congregation 
have married clergymen during the twenty years I havrebeen its pastor. * * There 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— REV. J. M. MACDONALD. I 59 

have been added to the church during this time of my ministry 66i persons — 288 
on profession of faith and 373 by certificate." 

On the subject of benevolent contributions, he added: 

"The amount raised in the congregation for benevolent purposes has exceeded 
on an average, $1,500 annually ; if we add the money raised for congregaiional 
purposes the amount, on an average, considerably exceeds $4,000 annually. * * 
And here I will take occasion to repeat what I have sometimes fell constrained to 
say in private, that I know no place where the doctrine of salvation by grace alone 
without works is more thoroughly inwrought into the religious convictions of the 
people, and I know no place where works, at least those of mercy and care for the 
poor, more abound." 

On the mortuary statistics of the church, Dr. Macdonald 
also bears the following testimony : 

"With the remarkable health of the place I have been greatly struck. In one 
whole yeai- (it was the ecclesiastical year beginning .\pril, 1S6S and ending in 1S69) 
no de:;th is recorded but of one who died from home and was brought here for in- 
terment. No epidemic has visited the place. Scarlet-fever, diphtheria and dysen- 
tery have at times had some prevalence but never epidemically ; and Princeton has 
no endemic disease of any kind. Even that destroyer, consumption, in the fami- 
lies in which I am called to minister, of late years, has scarcely been known. * * 
And the infrequency with which I have been called to minister consolation to those 
bereaved of little-children is perhaps still more remarkable. Several entire years, 
in the course of my ministry, have passed in which I have not been called to stand 
at the grave of a single infant child. From the beginning of 1875, for seven 
years, the whole number of funerals at which I was called to officiate was but fifty- 
seven. Of these thirteen only were children. Of these thirteen but seven belonged 
to parents permanently residing here, several having been brought here for inter- 
ment, and of the seven one at least died away from home." 

The membership of this church is very fluctuating. This 
arises chiefly from students, especially theological students, 
who bring their certificates and remain here only a year or 
two and then remove elsewhere or enter the ministry. Dr. 
Macdonald, in 1866, published a tabular statement exhibiting 
the membership yearly, for twelve years next prior to and in- 
cluding that year, of the several churches of Pennington, 
Bound Brook, Trenton, Cranberry, New Brunswick and Prince- 
ton, from which, he said, it appears that the church at Penning- 
ton had received in these twelve years 146 members — 43 of 
them by certificate; Bound Brook 157—78 of them by certifi- 
cate; Trenton, ist, 239 — 1 14 by certificate ; Cranberry, ist, 333 



l6o HISTORY OF PRINCETON: 

— 73 by certificate ; New Brunswick, 1st, 316 — 131 by certifi- 
cate; Princeton, 1st, 429 — 223 by certificate. 

It thus appears that tlie Princeton church, unHke all the 
others in the table, received for that period more mcinbcrs by 
certificate tJian upon examination. Another peculiarity is seen 
in the fact that while in 1866 the total number of communi- 
cants in the Princeton church was 536, as given by Dr. Mac- 
donald in 1866 ; the total number reported in 1876, at the close 
of Dr. Macdonald's ministry, was 474, and there had been 
added, just before that report was made to Presbytery, 58 new 
members. The average annual accession to the membership 
of the church during Dr. Macdonald's pastorate was about four- 
teen and a half, and by certificate about eighteen. In the year 
1866 there was an addition by confession of forty-four new 
members. This was the largest number received in any year 
of his ministry here. 

In the spring of 1875, the subject of decorating and improv- 
ing the church was discussed among the members of the con- 
gregation, and with much favor, as its appearance had become 
very unattractive. Plans and specimens of decoration were 
exhibited, and there was a general concurrence of opinion that 
something should be done. The main thing proposed had 
reference to frescoing the walls and ceiling. The pastor 
and Professor Cameron seemed to be leaders in the movement. 
Decoration soon developed into enlargement, and Professor 
Cameron became very enthusiastic for enlarging as well as 
beautifying the church. The congregation were called to- 
gether and the whole subject was discussed. The reason given 
for enlarging was not that there was any call at the present 
time for more pews, for the trustees reported a large number 
for rent, though applications had been made for very eligible 
ones ; but it was earnestly argued that the necessity was in 
the future, when another pastor should be called to this 
church ; and that such enlargement could be done now 
better than in the future, and therefore it should now be 
undertaken. 

It was insisted that if the present pastor should die, a suc- 
cessor could not be secured with such an income as could be de- 
rived from the present resources of the church. There should 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— REV. J. M. MACDONALD. l6l 

be more pews to rent, when, hereafter there would be more 
demand for them. A successor would require a larger salary 
than is now paid, and it can be provided for only by increas- 
ing the number of eligible pews. The feeling became general 
that the church was not large enough for special occasions, 
though quite large enough for the ordinary congregation, and 
that if the means to effect both the enlargement and the deco- 
ration, without entailing a debt upon the church, could be ob- 
tained, there could be no objection made to doing both. The 
extension of the audience-room beyond the pulpit involved 
the removal of the lecture-room in the rear, and building a 
new one. 

The congregation instructed the trustees, provided $5,000 
be secured by the 4th of July next, to enlarge the church 
building according to the plan submitted, and to borrow 
$3,500 to complete the work, if needed. The requisite sum 
was subscribed, and a building committee was appointed, con- 
sisting of Edward Howe, Dr. J. H. VVikoff and James Van- 
Deventer, with a consulting committee consisting of Professor 
Cameron, James H. Bruereand Leavitt Howe. The pastor was 
authorized to present the plan and the cost of the work l^ (lie 
trustees of the college, and to ask their aid, and also the use 
of the chapel during the vacation. They granted the use of 
the chapel, but could give no pecuniary aid. The contract 
for doing the proposed work, was taken by J. S. D'Orsay & Co., 
of New York, for about $1 1,000. The contract was abandoned 
before the work was completed, and the building committee 
went on and finished it themselves, within the terms of the 
contract. The total cost of the whole work was $12,185. 

The improvements consisted of extending the audience- 
room back through the old lecture-room to the rear line of the 
lot, securing a large number of new pews ; with a recess behind 
the pulpit for the organ and choir, and a pastor's study and 
infant-school room on either side, also small rooms above 
them. The walls and ceilings of the audience-room were beau- 
tifully decorated, the windows replaced with stained glass, the 
aisles handsomely carpeted, the pews newly upholstered. A 
new and tasteful pulpit was the gift of Mr. Tulane. Gas 
jets were arranged in three circles in the ceiling, so as to 
II 



l62 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

light the church from above, with ornamental painting of the 
wood-work, and provision for Avarming the church both by a 
furnace and stoves. A new and pleasant lecture-room was 
built on the south-west corner of the lot, adjoining the church 
and connecting with it ; and the exterior of the church and 
j lecture-room, rough-cast and painted, and the entrance to the 
church and all the grounds and walks about it were put in the 
most complete condition, as much so as a good buildin^ com- 
mittee with plenty of money could make it. The house was 
ready to use, and was first occupied, Feb, 13th. This new/' ■•.' 
condition of the building and all its surroundings gave o-eneral ^ 
satisfaction to the congregation. The capacity of the audience 
room being so increased as to be able to seat a thousand per- 
sons, was duly appreciated when special exercises attracted an 
extraordinary attendance. 

But how bewildering sometimes are the ways of Providence ! 
The enlargement and decoration of the church and new lecture 
room had hardly been accomplished when the pastor is sudden- 
ly taken away by death, and the contingency for which the en- 
largement had been planned and urged was now realized. 
There was not time enough before his death to work off the 
balance of the debt incurred by the improvements. The at- 
tendance upon the public meetings was large. The spirit of 
religion was revived. The glow of the recent revival and the 
influence of the late visit of Moody and Sankey had not worn 
away. A company of nearly forty persons, old and young, new 
converts, had presented themselves before the session for ad- 
mission into the membership of the church by profession of 
their faith. They were received, some of them at the last 
meeting of the session which the pastor attended before his 
death. The pastor's work was finished. The house was en- 
larged and beautified for his successor. 

When Dr. Macdonald entered upon his ministry here the 
church was in a good condition. It had been freed from debt 
under the pastorate of the Rev. William E. Schcnck, D.D., 
immediately preceding this one. The sale of the parsonage, 
the enlargement of the cemetery, the erection of a large lecture 
room, and the finances of the congregation, in the hands of an 
efficient and prudent board of trustees, with a harmonious 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— REV. J. M. MACDONALD. 163 

bench of ruling elders, combined to assure the incoming pastor 
of a favorable field of ministerial labor. 

The Rev. James Madison Macdonald, D, D., was born 
in Limerick, Maine, May 22, 1812, being the ninth of eleven 
children and the third of five sons of Major General John and 
Lydia (Wiley) Macdonald. General Macdonald, the father, 
was descended in the third generation from John Macdonald, 
who emigrated from the North of Ireland, having originally 
come from Scotland, probably his native land. General Mac- 
donald was a merchant and during the war of 1812 held a com- 
mission of Major General of the militia of Maine, and was in 
active service in defence of the coast of that State. He was 
deacon in the Congregational church and somewhat prominent 
in politics, holding at one time a seat in the Legislature and at 
the time of his death being candidate for Governor of the 
State. Three of the five sons were educated at college ; two 
of those were trained for the bar. 

Dr. James M. Macdonald was left an orphan by the death 
of his father and mother in the year 1826 — his father express- 
ing on his death-bed his desire that James should be a minis- 
ter of the Gospel. He pursued his education after he left 
home at the Phillips Academy at Andover, and while there 
made a profession of his faith by joining the Congregational 
church in that place. He was two years at Bowdoin College 
and two at Union College, where he graduated with honor in 
1832. After being one year at the Theological Seminary at 
Bangor he went to the Yale Theological Seminary, where he 
graduated in 1835. He was licensed to preach and was or- 
dained and installed pastor of the Third Congregational church 
of Berlin, Conn., not then twenty-three years old. He was 
there about two and a half years and was then called to the 
Second Congregational church in New London ; he remained 
there three years and then was called to the Presbyterian church 
of Jamaica, Long Island, where he remained about nine years, 
and then accepted a call to the 15th Street Presbyterian church 
in New York City, where he remained a little more than three 
years and was then called to Princeton, where he was installed 
November i, 1853, as we have before stated, pastor of this 



'^4 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

church.* Soon after he came here he dehvered the annual 
address before the hterary societies of his alma mater and re- 
ceived from her the honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity. 

Dr. Macdonald was rather above medium height, well de- 
veloped, stout, erect, and of fine presence. His dress was 
clerical and becoming. His manners were dignified and cour- 
teous. His appearance indicated perfect health, and great 
physical strength. He was remarkably industrious and eco- 
nomical of time ; prompt in attendance upon his engagements, 
and was scarcely ever tardy at any public meeting in which 
he was expected to be present. He seemed to be fond of 
preaching, and never tired of filling his own pulpit. He was 
seldom absent, and always prepared to preach. His pastoral 
visits among his people were, as a rule, confined to cases of 
sickness, death, or trouble from mental anxiety. His literary 
habits did not allow him to give much time to social life, ex- 
cept where necessary pastoral services were involved. He was 
eminently self-reliant, and generally preferred to work alone 
than to have help. 

Dr. Macdonald possessed a high degree of literary taste and 
culture. He was scholarly in all his ways. He was well read in 
theology, and was a good biblical student. He was fond of poe- 
try, and often introduced it into his sermons with excellent taste. 
A ready* and correct writer, he was easily drawn into author- 
ship. His first published sermon was one on the duel between 
Cilley and Graves in 1838. He next published in 1843, a vol- 
ume on " CreduHty as illustrated by Impostures in Science." 
In 1846 he published a "Key to the Book of Revelation." 
In 1855, after he came to Princeton, he published "My Father's 
House." In 1856, he published " The Book of Ecclesiastes 
Explained." His last, and largest volume which he published, 
or which was published after his death, was *' The Life and 
Character of John the Apostle." He frequently wrote for papers 
and magazines ; several articles in the Princeton Reviezv, and 
in t\\Q Bibiiotheca Sacra; one article in the latter, " Irony in 
History, or was Gibbon an Infidel?" excited a good deal of 
public attention. In Princeton he published several sermons, 
one entitled, " Prelacy Unscriptural," another, " President 

* Rev. Dr. Atwater's Memorial Sermon of Dr. Macdonald. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— REV. J. M. MACDONALD. 165 

Lincoln, his Figure in History," and two historical discourses, -\ 
and several funeral sermons. 

As a preacher, Dr. Macdonald was not eminent. It was 
his habit to preach written sermons. He seldom extempo- 
rized ; he had no gift in that direction. But he was well pro- 
vided with carefully written sermons, and he read them with 
fluency. Few pastors have so many prepared sermons on 
hand as he had. He always avoided preaching doctrinal ser- 
mons, that is, sermons distinctively doctrinal. He aimed to \ 
introduce such matter in a practical way, rather incidentally 
than prominently. This method is more generally adopted by 
ministers, now, than it was in former years. Whether it is to 
be commended, is a question upon which there is a difference 
of opinion. Vital doctrines of every church should be presented 
by ministers to their people, but unless it is done wisely and 
convincingly, it will only tend to disquiet the faith of the peo- 
ple, and weaken their denominational predilections. 

Dr.-> Macdonald conducted the services of the sanctuary 
with commendable brevity. He had good common sense, and 
seldom, if ever, wearied the patience of his people by long 
sermons, or protracted exercises. There was ordinarily in his 
prayers a happy adaptation to outward circumstances, to the 
seasons, to health and husbandry, to rain and drought, to 
trouble in body, mind or estate. 

In preaching, his voice was not good or pleasant. He had 
clear articulation, but so frequently raised his voice to a high 
key, and spoke so loud, that it was painful to strangers unac- i 
customed to it, and even many of his habitual hearers, who 
had sat under his preaching for twenty years, could not become 
reconciled to it. It was one of his greatest faults as a public 
speaker. When he preached funeral discourses or sermons to 
the afflicted, in which he sympathized with the sorrowing, he 
spoke in a subdued tone ; then lie was eloquent and impres- 
sive. When his sermons were descriptive or narrative his 
rhetoric became fine and effective. With all his enthusiasm in 
preaching, and with the utmost pains in preparation, Dr. Mac- 
donald was not an awakening preacher ; his sermons, though 
beautifully written, and earnestly delivered, were not pungent. I - 

When he first entered upon his ministry in Princeton, he 



,l66 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

preached a series of sermons on John the Baptist, and on the 
Book of Revelation, which were of high order and attracted 
a full house. 

In his pastoral ministrations, Dr. Macdonald was never so 
useful and consolatory as when in the house of affliction and 
bereavement. His tenderness and good taste in all his offices 
on such occasions endeared him to his people more than any- 
other of his services. He knew how to touch and comfort the 
sorrowing ; and those families who never had occasion to avail 
themselves of his visits in such circumstances, knew but little as 
to where his strength with his people lay. In administering 
the ordinance of baptism, and the rites of marriage, he was pe- 
culiarly happy and sympathetic in his language and manner. 

No man was more faithful than Dr. Macdonald, in trying 
to keep up the interest of his people in attendance upon 
the church services. He resorted to various expedients, 
sometimes to bible-classes, sometimes to courses of lectures, 
sometimes to meetings for song, or for prayer, or for reading 
the Bible. When one failed, he would devise another and 
another. A few years ago he became alive to the subject of 
temperance, and (ngaiiizcd a congregational Temperance 
Society, and circulated a written constitution, enjoining 
^' total abstinence for the good of others." He kept it under 
his own control, being himself the president, but it was very- 
short lived. 

There was one very rare and admirable trait in Dr. Mac- 
donald's character as a pastor; he did not lend an ear to idle 
and malicious gossip and tale-bearing among his people. He 
studied peace, and repressed scandal. He never got into trouble 
by meddling with strife, or countenancing petty quarrels 
among his people ; and by this judicious course he prevented 
much evil, and kept his church united. 

During the years of the late civil war, Dr. Macdonald 
labored under no little embarrassment and disadvantage in 
his congregation and in the community. He was a man 
of strong will and prejudices. He was deeply imbued 
with a sympathy for the Democratic party, and was especially 
intolerant towards everything savoring of Abolition politics. 

Without entering into particulars, it is enough to say that 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— REV. J. M. MACDONALD. 167 

Dr. Macdonald did not sympathize with the government in 
using coercive measures to preserve the integrity of the 
Union and the constitution. This was painfully evident 
both from what he said and did, and from what he did 
not say nor do. His congregation was loyal, though care- 
ful to avoid an issue which would be divisive in the church. 
It was at the altars of God's house where the fathers and 
mothers of those gallant sons who had volunteered to fight 
for their country and were exposed to the battles which, 
at that moment, were agonizing the nation, that the pastor's 
want of sympathy with these burdened parents became un- 
bearable when those burdens were not carried to the mercy 
seat in the prayers of the great congregation. This state of 
things led to an interview between Dr. Charles Hodge and Dr. 
Macdonald on the subject, which was followed by a published 
correspondence, in which Dr. Macdonald expressed some sur- 
prise at what Dr. Hodge had conveyed to him, and he declared 
himself willing to pray for our soldiers and give thanks for 
national victories. This printed sheet was distributed among 
the families of his congregation, and on the next Sabbath the 
congregation heard with some surprise the pastor, with what 
seemed unnatural emphasis, pray for the abolition of slavery 
throughout the world and for the success of our soldiers, with 
thanks for victories achieved. Every minister experienced 
some difficulty in satisfying all the people during those fearful 
years; and Dr. Macdonald, entertaining views at variance with 
those of the great body of the clergy, professors and people of 
Princeton, held a very trying position in his church. But the 
church retained its unity and the pastor his place. When the 
assassination of President Lincoln took place Dr. Macdonald 
used the occasion to preach a discourse to his people, in which 
he spoke of the deceased in such terms of high eulogy as led 
the most of his people to forgive and forget that wherein he 
had before aggrieved them. 

With the exception of the years of the war, the long period 
of Dr. Macdonald's pastorate was more favorable for the growth 
and prosperity of the church than any which had preceded it. 
Everything in Princeton was marked with progress during that 
time. 



1 68 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

During the enlargement of the church the congregation 
united with the Second Presbyterian church in worship, the 
two pastors, Dr. McCorkle and Dr. Macdonald, alternating in 
preaching. This arrangement was greatly blessed to both 
churches. A revival, unlike any that had ever before been ex- 
perienced in this place, began in the winter of 1876, extending 
to all the churches and the college, when the presence of 
Moody and Sankey, at the invitation of Drs. Hodge, McCosh 
and the clergy generally, of Princeton, gave it a character 
of unprecedented interest. Their visit was an event in Prince- 
ton never to be forgotten. It will be noticed in our chapter 
on the Centennial year. The united services of these churches 
had the effect of uniting more cordially the two churches 
and their pastors. The effect on Dr. Macdonald was most 
marked and happy. He seemed like another man. He 
caught a new spirit. He began to grow popular in the Second 
church, and fell in with all the revival measures and seemed 
aglow with love for all the people of every denomination. His 
presence and part taken in the great united communion service 
in the Second church, on the Sabbath when Mr. Moody was in 
the village, will not be forgotten. It seemed to be one of the 
happiest days in his ministry. 

Dr. Macdonald died at home in Princeton on the 19th day 
of March, 1876, in the 65th year of his age, after a sickness of 
about three weeks. Having been reaching for a book in his 
library and stepping down from a chair upon which he had 
been standing, he felt a pain within him and a weakness which 
compelled him to lie down. His symptoms were peculiar and 
perplexing to his physicians. A post-mortem examination 
showed an internal disease and derangement of vital functions, 
which had never been indicated before this time. He had been 
looked upon as in perfect health and he felt his hold on life for 
many years yet secure. He never after this attack appeared- 
again in the streets or in his church. For the first time in his 
long ministry here he was absent from a communion in his 
church, on the 2d day of April, 1876, when a large accession 
of most interesting converts was received into the membership 
of the church. His death was a universal surprise, deeply 
lamented by his people and by the whole community. He, 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— REV. J. M. MACDONALD. 1 69 

did not seem conscious that he was dying, yet never was he so 
well prepared to die ; never was there a day in his Princeton 
life when he was more highly esteemed and more cordially re- 
spected than he was at the time of his death. It seemed as if 
the scenes of the few preceding months had been his prepara- 
tion for death. He left his church swept and garnished for his 
successor, with clusters of new fruit hanging upon the very 
portals of the sanctuary waiting to be gathered into the garner 
of the Lord's house. 

Dr. Macdonald was buried on the 24th of April. His 
funeral was the most impressive one that had ever taken place 
in Princeton. The newly finished church was heavily and 
beautifully draped in mourning, the bier and pulpit were dressed 
in beautiful floral devices, sent in by the different churches and 
friends ; the congregation composed of all denominations, in- 
cluding the Roman Catholic, with a deputation from his old 
Jamaica church, L. I., and members of the Presbytery and of 
the institutions present, filled the church to its utmost capacity. 
The platform was occupied by Drs. Charles Hodge, At-water, 
Duffield, and Dr. Jos. T. Duryea of Brooklyn. 

Dr. Hodge and Dr. Duryea made addresses on the occasion, 
and after the several exercises were over, the remains were 
borne by the session and officers of the church, followed by a 
long procession of citizens, — the stores and public places being 
closed out of respect to the memory of the deceased, — to the 
cemetery, where he was buried, not in the pastors' plot, but in 
one selected by his family. The trustees erected a costly 
granite monument over his tomb. The session, the congrega- 
tion, and the Presbytery adopted memorial papers and resolu- 
tions in memory of the life and services of the deceased, with 
condolence to the family. The use of the parsonage, and the 
continuance of the salary, were voted by the congregation and 
trustees, to the family. 

Thus ends the pastorate of Dr. Macdonald. It was the 
second one of this church, which was terminated by death — 
the first having been that of the Rev. William C. Schenck, 
in 1818. 

Dr. Macdonald left surviving him, his wife, five sons and 
one daughter. 



I/O HISTORY OF PRINCETOM. 

The members of the session of this church, while Dr. 
Macdonald was pastor, were Ralph Lane, Jacob W, Lane, 
Daniel Bowne, Prof. Stephen Alexander, Isaac Baker, John 
F. Hageman, Ralph Gulick. These were in office when he 
came to Princeton. Those who were added during his pastor- 
ate were Dr. George M. Maclean, David Comfort, John B. 
VanDoren, Henry E. Hale and John V. Terhune. Mr. Ralph 
Lane, Ralph Gulick and Isaac Baker died, and Messrs. Comfort 
and Bowne removed out of the congregation. 

The deacons were Isaac Stryker, John Clarke, Bogart Stryker, 
David A. Hudnut, George T. Olmsted and Philip Hendrickson. 

In reference to the death of Dr. Macdonald, the session of 
the church adopted the following minute : 

" Resolved, that this session desire to record with gratitude to God, their sense 
of the long continued, ever faithful and eminently successful and useful services to 
this church and congregation of their late pastor. Rev. James M. Macdonald, D.D., 
and also to express their profound sorrow and sense of bereavement at his loss." 

A copy was sent to the family, and was also entered on the 
minutes by order. And the Rev. Dr. Atwater was requested 
to preach a memorial discourse, which was done, and is pub- 
lished. Appropriate resolutions were also adopted by the con- 
gregation, commemorative of Dr. Macdonald. The Presbytery 
of New Brunswick, of which Dr. Macdonald was a prominent 
and faithful member, also adopted a minute in respect to his 
memory. 

Soon after Dr. Macdonald's death, Mr. Tulane presented 
to the trustees of the church the sum of $4,000, in extinguish- 
ment of the mortgage debt, which had accrued in the en- 
largement of the church. So that the church with all its im- 
provements was clear of debt. 

In the winter of 1877, a call was made by the congrega- 
tion upon the Rev. Timothy G. Darling, of Schenectady, to the 
pastorate of this church, with a salary of $3,000, and a parson- 
age. Professors Green, Alexander, and Schanck were ap- 
pointed to prosecute the call. The call was declined. 

The congregation now appointed a committee of five to 
visit and hear suitable candidates. That committee consisted 
of Rev. Dr. W. H. Green, Rev. Dr. L. H. Atwater, James H. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— REAL ESTATE. I/I 

Bruere, Prof. S. Alexander and Edward Howe. They visited 
Bridgeport, Ct., and heard the Rev. Horace G. Hinsdale, 
pastor of the Presbyterian church at that place, and a graduate 
of Princeton Theological Seminary. They recommended 
him as a suitable candidate for this church, and he was, upon 
such recommendation, elected pastor, with a salary of $2,500 
and the parsonage, July 17th, 1877. 

Mr. Hinsdale accepted the call and was installed pastor of 
this church, Nov. 2d, 1877. I^^- Sheldon presided ; Dr. A. A. 
Hodge preached ; Dr. Atwater charged the pastor, and Dr. 
Gosman the people. He is now the pastor. 



SECTION X. 



REAL ESTATE AND MISCELLANEOUS MATTERS OF THE 
CONGREGATION. 

I. Tlie Church Lot and Edifice. — When the church edifice 
was first erected, in 1762, there was an agreement between the 
congregation and the college, under which the building was 
placed on the land of the college. The title in the land was 
not, however, conveyed by the college to the church at that 
time. After the war, when the church was to be repaired, the 
college was asked to convey the title of the church lot to the 
trustees of the congregation ; and a deed was executed by Dr. 
John Witherspoon, as president of the college, in behalf of the 
trustees, to John Little, Christopher Beekman, John Harrison, 
David Hamilton, Aaron Mattison, Enos Kelsey, Isaac Ander- 
son, Robert Stockton, James Moore, Thomas Stockton, Elias 
Woodruff, James Hamilton, William Scudder and Aaron Long- 
street, in consideration of £>'J20^ proclamation money, for the lot 
of land on which the church then stood, in trust for the use of 
the congregation. The deed bears &^X.Q:y February' 2^^, 1785, 
signed by John Witherspoon in the presence of two witnesses, 
viz.: Samuel Stout, Jr., and Jona. Dcare, but was never ac- 
knowledged, proved or recorded. The description of the land 
was the same as was contained in a subsequent agreement, and 
a subsequent deed, which will be inserted when we refer to 
that deed soon hereafter. It is somewhat singular to find that 



1/2 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

a written agreement was entered into afterwards, on the 22d 
day of October of the same year last aforesaid, by and between 
Dr. Witherspoon, as President of the College, of the one part, 
and Robert Stockton, James Moore, James Hamilton, Elias 
Woodruff and Thomas Stockton, a committee of the congrega- 
tion, of the other part, in which the college agrees to convey a 
title to this land on which the church stands, to the said com- 
mittee and others, in trust for the said congregation, describing 
the boundaries as in the deed before referred to, but reserving 
to the college the use of the church for commencements, etc., 
and a portion of the gallery for the students to occupy, and 
forbidding the use of the ground for burial purposes outside of 
the church walls. The deed referred to did not contain any 
reservations whatever in favor of the college. So the matter 
rested until March 8, 1793, when those several gentlemen, John 
Little and others, who had received the deed for this church 
lot from Dr. Witherspoon in 1785, conveyed the same to the 
congregation by its corporate name ; the law authorizing the 
incorporation of religious societies not having been passed 
when the first deed aforesaid was executed. This deed was 
never proved or recorded. 

So again the matter rested until the church was burned 
down in 18 13, when the trustees of the church appointed a 
committee to confer with the trustees of the college on the 
subject of the claim of the college in the church property, ask- 
ing for their assistance in rebuilding the church, and proposing 
to enter into an agreement or contract respecting the future 
rights of the college in the use of the church, and also solicit- 
ing a new deed for the lands on which the church stood, al- 
leging that the present title was not sufficient in law. This 
committee met Andrew Kirkpatrick, who was appointed by 
the college for conference with them ; and the college agreed 
to advance $500 towards rebuilding the church, and give a 
good title for the land to the church, according to the original 
agreement; and the college was to have the use of the church 
for Commencement days, etc., as will be found set forth in the 
deed hereinafter described. 

The drawing of the deed was still neglected until, in 1816, 
some dispute arose with Mrs. Dr. Minto about a gore of land, 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— REAL ESTATE. 1/3 

when the trustees directed Mr. Bayard to draw up a deed 
for the church lot agreeably to the contract made between the 
two bodies as before stated, and have it executed. This was 
done, and as it contains the description of the boundaries of 
the church lot, and reservations therein in favor of the college, 
and is the only title deed on record which the congregation 
can rely upon in claiming the said church lot, we here insert it. 
It makes no reference to the former deeds or agreements which 
had been made by the college. 

"THIS INDENTURE, made this eighth day of January, in the year of our 
Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixteen, between the Trustees of the College 
of New Jersey, of the first part, and the Trustees of the Presbyterian congregation, 
in the Counties of Middlesex and Somerset, in tlie State of New Jersey, of the 
second part, IVitnesseth, that for and in consideration of the sum of seven hundred 
and twenty pounds, proclamation money, to them in hand paid by the second part, 
the receipt whereof they the said party of the first part, hereby acknowledge, and 
for divers other good causes and considerations them thereunto moving, the party 
of the first part have given, granted, bargained, sold, aliened, released, enfeoffed, 
conveyed and confirmed, and by these presents do give, grant, bargain and sell, 
alien, release, enfeoff, convey and confirm unto the said party of the second part 
and their successors, All that certain lot of land situate, lying and being on the 
Southerly side of the main street of Princeton : 

Beginning at a stone standing on the south side of the main street through 
Princeton, thence from said stone on a parallel line with the west end of the Presi- 
dent's house south eighteen degrees east, one hundred and fifty-eight and a half 
feet more or less to a stone standing in a line drawn twenty feet southward of the 
south side and parallel to the south side of the present church ; thence from the last 
mentioned stone along the said parallel line about south, seventy-two degrees west, 
one hundred and forty-five feet, more or less, to a stone standing in the line of a 
lot formerly belonging to the late Dr. John Witherspoon, that lies to the eastward 
of and adjoining to a lot formerly belonging to William Mounlier, which two said 
lots are now in the occupation of Mary Minto, widow of the late Doctor Walter 
Minto ; thence along the easterly side of the above mentioned lot formerly belong- 
ing to the said Dr. John Witherspoon, deceased, one hundred and sixty-three feet 
and six-tenths of a foot, more or less, to a stone standing on the south side of the 
street aforesaid, which stone is marked on the easterly side with the letters B, R, 
and on the westerly side N, R ; thence along the south side of said street about 
north seventy-four degrees east one hundred and sixty-three feet and eighteen-hun- 
dredths of a foot, more or less, to the first mentioned stone, always to be bounded 
northerly by Princeton Street, southerly by a line drawn parallel twenty feet distant 
from (to be measured on a liorizontal plane and at right angles with) the south 
side of the present church, easterly by a line drawn parallel to and fifty feet distant 
from the west end of the President's house (to be measured as before); westerly by 

the eastern line of the above mentioned lot of the late Doctor John Witherspoon 
adjoining the lot aforesaid, formerly belonging to William Mountier, deceased, 

Together with the Presbyterian church thereon erected, standing and being with 



1/4 ■ HISTORY OF PRINCETO.V. 

all the commodities, ways, privileges, hereditaments and appurtenances, to the 
same lot of land and premises belonging or in anywise appertaining, and also all 
the estate, right, title, interest, property, claim and demand whatsoever, as well in 
equity as in law, of them the said trustees of New Jersey College aforesaid, and 
their successors of, in and to the above granted lot of land and premises, and of, in 
and to every part and parcel thereof, with the appurtenances ; To have and to hold 
all and singular the above granted and bargained premises with the appurtenances 
unto the party aforesaid of the second part and iheir successors, in trust, and for 
the proper use, benefit and behoof of the Presbyterian congregation of Princeton 
aforesaid and their successors forever in as full and ample a manner as the party of 
the first part held or ought to have held the same : 

Subject nevertheless to the reservations, rights and privileges hereinafter stated, 
that is to say, First, that the party of the first part and their successors shall have 
the full use of the church aforesaid, on the days of Commencement and the two 
preceding days for the public exercises of the college, the said party of the first part 
repairing all damages aad restoring the house in as neat and good a condition as 
when they took possession of it : Second, that the said party of the first part and 
their successors shall have the use of the said church also at all such other times as 
shall be appointed by the faculty of the college, for public speaking, on making ap- 
plication to the party of the second part, the sexton at all these times having the 
care and oversight of the said church and to be paid by the college for his trouble 
and for the expense of repairing and cleaning the same ; Third, that the party of 
the first part shall have one-half of the gallery, to wit : the north half of the front 
gallery and the whole of the north gallery for the use and accommodation of the 
officers and students of the college on days of public worship. 

In testimony whereof the party of the first part have caused their corporate seal 
to be affixed to these presents, and the signature of the President of the college to 
be put to the same at Princeton on the day and year above mentioned. 

(Signed) " AsuiiEL GiiEEN, 

[L,S.] " President of the college" 

Proof of the foregoing deed was made by James Carnahan, 
president of the college, etc., before James S. Green, Master 
in Chancery of New Jersey, on the 5th day of April, 1847, and 
was recorded in the Mercer County Clerk's office, April 6th, 
1847, ''^ Book L. of deeds, page 148, etc. 

The church erected on the above described lot, in 18 14, 
was constructed on the same plan and was of the same size as 
the original one, except that the pulpit, instead of being on the 
south side of the building, was built in a semi-circular exten- 
sion on the east end, the doors being placed on the south-east 
and north-west corners. There was but one central block, in- 
stead of two, and the pews were adapted to the change of 
the pulpit from the side to the end of the edifice. The build- 



: ': T 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— REAL ESTATE. 1/5 

ing Stood with its length parallel to the street, with a gallery 
on three sides. 

By the terms of the aforesaid deed, there was a reserva- 
tion to the college, in the use of the church edifice, then 
standing on said lot of land, and not in the land itself. 

In 1835, the church edifice in which the college had these 
reserved rights, burned down ; and when the congregation 
proposed to rebuild, a committee was appointed, consisting 
of Dr. Alexander, James S. Green and John VanDoren, to 
wait on the trustees of the college and request them to release 
their right to the church lot, and the building to be erected 
thereon, except so far as the college had a right on Commence- 
ment seasons ; and also to request the trustees of the college 
to assist the congregation in rebuilding their church. 

Neither the committee nor the congregation seem to have 
understood at that time, the existence of the above mentioned 
deed, or its nature. The college had only reserved an inter- 
est in the church which was now laid in ashes. What interest 
had the college in the church lot to be released ? 

Mr. VanDoren reported to the congregation on the 8th of 
October, 1835, ^ paper signed and sealed by the trustees of the 
college concerning the request to release, etc. - So the minutes 
of the trustees of the church state; but no paper or deed on 
the subject is described in the minutes or found on file among 
the church papers. 

The new church was built on the same lot, and was 60 by 
80 feet^ — gable to the street, as it now stands, but by the recent 
enlargement, as before stated, it has been made to extend over 
100 feet in length, and the lecture-room has been removed to the 
side of the church in the rear. Application has been made by 
the church to the college to purchase or rent a strip of land 
in the rear of the church, for a place for the horses and car- 
riages of country members. There are many considerations 
why this should be done, and they affect the college as well as 
the church. 

The present church edifice and the lecture-room are both in 
good repair and are attractive. There is no bell attached, nor 
spire. The college bell is depended upon, but a church bell 
would be a useful and much desired appendage. This property 



176 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

may be estimated in value at about $50,000. There is no in- 
cumbrance upon it. Its situation is central on Nassau Street, 
and is bounded by college property on three sides. 

II. The Manse. — In 1861, the congregation purchased of 
Jacob W. Lane, the house and lot in Steadman Street, ad- 
joining the property of the theological seminary, occupied by 
Dr. McGill, and second door from Stockton Street, for a parson- 
age. The house was built by Charles Steadman, and was oc- 
cupied for several years by the Rev. George Hare, D.D., when 
he was rector of Trinity church in this place. It has been en- 
larged since the congregation bought it. It is a commodious 
dwelling with modern improvements, pleasantly situated, with 
the grounds of the Lenox Hall Library open in front ; and 
making what might be called a first-class manse. The original 
cost of the property was $4,000, the improvements and addition 
to it, made the entire cost about $6,000. The property is 
worth at present about $10,000. There is no incumbrance on 
it. It was occupied by the Rev. Dr. Macdonald from 1862 
till his death, and is now occupied by the Rev. Mr. Hinsdale, 
the present pastor. 

III. TJie old Session House on WitJierspoon Street. — This 
building was erected on the old Wiggins parsonage land on 
Witherspoon Street, with leave of the trustees of the church, 
by the session and the Princeton Female Benevolent Society. 
It was built in the year 1829, with two stories. The session once 
used the upper part of it as a lecture-room, for church pur- 
poses, but it was not a pleasant situation, and it has for many 
years been used for school purposes ; and at the present time it 
is exclusively devoted to the use of the school of the Princeton 
Female Benevolent Society, and the teacher, Miss Lockart. 
It is still under the control of the church. Its value is about 
$1,000. 

IV. Tlie Queenston Chapel. — For many years prior to 1832, 
Queenston, a name recently given to the easterly end of Prince- 
ton, formerly called Jugtown, was an outpost of the Presbyte- 
rian church, where there had been maintained a Sunday school, 
a prayer meeting and religious lectures. A Sunday school 
was held at a very early day in the old pottery building and 
was conducted by Messrs. Mcllvaine, Newbold and other stu- 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— REAL ESTATE. 1 77 

dents of the seminary. Prayer nneetings were held in the private 
houses in the neighborhood, weekly, and the students would 
hold religious meetings, called sometimes " society,'' in the pot- 
tery building and in the private houses. 

The general religious interest which was awakened in 1831 
-32, at the closing period of the Rev. Mr. WoodhuU's pastorate, 
gave an increase of life and interest to those religious exercises. 
Large numbers of persons were attracted to the meetings. The 
students of the seminary took an active part in the labor, and, 
often assisted by the professors in stirring addresses and lectures, 
on Sabbath afternoons, they made the preaching at Oueenston 
a popular resort for members of the Princeton congregation 
who resided in the central and eastern part of the village. 
The small room which had before been occupied for these 
meetings and for Sunday school, became inadequate for the in- 
creased attendance, and a new building or church, as it was 
called, was projected and built by money raised by subscription, 
almost the whole of which was contributed by members of the 
Presbyterian congregation of Mr. Woodhull, as the subscrip- 
tion paper shows. There was no denominational church or 
society in Princeton at that time but the old first Presbyterian 
church. The deed for the lot on which this chapel or little 
church was built was dated April 23, 1832. It was given by 
John C. Schenck, who was a merchant keeping a store in 
Queenston, a member of the Presbyterian church, and who be- 
came a ruling elder therein. He had loaned the use of a room in 
his store building for a while to the Sunday school and prayer 
meeting. He conveyed, in that deed, the lot of land on which 
the present chapel was erected. It is described in the deed as 

"The lot of land situate in the borough of Princeton in that part which was 
then in Middlesex County, "Beginning at a stone in the southwest side of the 
road leading from Queenston to Scudder's Mills and a corner of land of Samuel R. 
Hamilton, Esq., thence S. W. 129 feet 6 inches to a stone for a corner ; thence 
northwest 40 feet to a stone corner to other land of the said John C. Schenck ; thence 
N. E. 124 ft. 6 inches to a stone in the line of the road aforesaid ; thence along the 
line of said road S. E. 58 feet to the place of beginning." 

The land was conveyed by said deed to Robert Voorhees, 
Charles Stcadmaji, John Lozvrey, Joint C. ScJicuck and JoJm 
VanDoren, the survivors and survivor of them and to the heirs 
12 



178 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

of such survivors, " In trust, nevertheless, to erect thereout a 
suitable building for the ptirpose of religious zvorship and for the 
use of the Queenston society and Sabbath school." 

The deed was acknowledged before James S. Green, Master 
in Chancery, and recorded in Middlesex Clerk's office, Dec. ii, 
1832, in Book xxv. of Deeds, fol. 319. 

The five trustees named in the said deed were all members 
of the Presbyterian congregation, and four of them were 
members of the session or board of trustees of that church. 
They have all died but one, viz : John VanDoren, who resides 
at Manalapan, Monmouth County, N. J. The original sub- 
scription is dated March 7th, 1831, setting forth that a reli- 
gious meeting had been kept at Queenston, on Sabbath after- 
noons for a number of years, with benefit to many persons in 
the neighborhood and from Princeton, persons who did not at- 
tend other churches, but that the room was too small, and was 
then wanted by the owner, and proposed to build a new room, 
etc. The paper was headed by Robert Voorhees, for $50, and 
John C. Schenck subscribed the estimated value of the land, 
$75. More than $500 were subscribed in the first effort. An- 
other subscription in the next year, raised $125. The great 
bulk of the money was given l:>y the professors in the institu- 
tions, and the officers in the Presbyterian church. The cost 
of the building was $964.34. It does not appear whether this 
included the ceiling and seating which cost $150. The house 
was built in 1831, but not finistied till 1832. It is a frame 
building and will seat two hundred persons. There was a bal- 
ance due on the cost of the building, after applying the money 
raised by subscription, and a mortgage was given by the trus- 
tees for the amount of it. In 1840, there was an execution 
issued upon this debt which amounted to about $500, agafnst 
the building ; and the matter came before the session of the 
Presbyterian church. A new subscription was opened, and 
the session appropriated a part of the semi-centennial collection 
of that year to the payment of said execution. The session of 
the church have kept it chiefly under their control, and have 
expended money to keep it in order and repair, and are now 
yearly doing so, having a standing committee of their body to 
look after and keep the supervision of the property. 



PRE SB V TERIA N CH UR CH—REA L ESTA TE. 1 79 

After this chapel was built, and until the erection of the 
Second Presbyterian church, which held afternoon service, it 
was usually well filled on Sabbath afternoons, after the Sab- 
bath school, with a congregation to hear preaching by Drs. 
James, Addison, and Archibald Alexander, and others, includ- 
ing the students of the seminary. There was a good deal of 
interest manifested in those meetings. There was more free- 
dom, and less ecclesiastical restraint in the exercises in them 
than in the regular church meetings. 

We have taken notice of this chapel as the property of the 
First Presbyterian church ; not absolutely but more so than 
any other religious organization can claim to have in it. Its 
legal title still rests in Mr. VanDoren, the surviving trustee; 
but it is not to be disguised that the old way of building 
churches and chapels for free neighborhood use, without a cor- 
porate trusteeship, which can perpetuate the title and posses- 
sion, was a short-sighted mode of doing good and one which 
almost always leads to the courts. The legal title could have 
been transferred to the trustees of the First church by the ju- 
dicial sale of the building in 1849 when the church session paid 
the execution, but they paid it without a sale and without 
acquiring any other than a mere equitable lien against the 
building. If the court of chancery shall hereafter be called to 
appoint trustees to hold this property, would it not be well to 
appoint the trustees of this Presbyterian church in their incor- 
porated character to hold it i'^. trust for the object for which 
the deed was given and the building erected ? The property 
is worth about $1,200. 

V. Tlie old Wiggins Parsonage Property. — Dr. Thomas Wig- 
gins was a very respectable physician and citizen of Princeton, 
a trustee and ruling elder in the Presbyterian church. He 
owned a property on Witherspoon Street, with about twenty- 
five acres of land, which he devised to the Presbyterian con- 
gregation for the support of the minister. He died in 1804. 
There was some technical informality in the terms of the devise 
as well as in the execution of it, as may be learned from a 
minute of a meeting of the congregation, held on December 
29, 1804, which is as follows: 



l8o HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

" Whereas, doubts and difficulties have arisen on the will of l^octor Thomas 
Wiggins, both in respect of his devising his real estate for the support of our min- 
ister, but omitting to name a devisee capable of taking the legal estate, and also in 
respect to the Rev. Mr. Kollock being one of the three subscribing witnesses to the 
said will, so that the title to the said real estate might be subject to objection, and 
in case of any dispute the church might be obliged to keep up and discharge their 
present minister to enable him to prove the said will. For avoiding which said 
difficulty and for procuring an extinguishment of all the right, title or pretentions 
of the said heirs at law, and a conveyance of the legal estate in the premises to the 
corporation of the church in trust for the use of the minister for the time being, 
therefore, 

" Resolved, that the trustees of the church be authorized to negotiate and con- 
tract, on behalf of this church, with the heirs at law of the said testator, and to ob- 
tain from the said heirs, on the best terms they can make, a sufficient assurance and 
conveyance of all the right and title of the said heirs to the trustees of this church 
for the use of the minister for the time being, so that the same may be in the pos- 
session of the said trustees and be managed by them for the purposes intended by 
the said will. " ROBERT Stockton, Moderator." 

The result of this negotiation was the release by the heirs at 
law of the testator, of the property to the trustees of the church, 
for the benefit of the minister of the church. The trustees 
paid to John N. Simpson in right of his wife, as one of the 
heirs, $600 ; to Phcebe Wiggins, another heir, $600, and to 
Sarah Wiggins, an infant, grand-niece, another heir, $540.* 
Mr. Simpson was employed to negotiate the settlement with 
the heirs, and was paid for so doing. A survey of the land 
was made, and money to pay the heirs was raised from the 
Trenton bank, and from the sale of eight lots north of the bury- 
ing ground, and one next to Henry Voorhees. The amount of 
those sales was $888.50. 

The Rev. Mr. Kollock also executed a release to the trus- 
tees, of the Ministerial property, in trust for the use of the 
congregation, in order, upon advice, to make the title good. 
The title to the property devised to the church thus became 
complete by purchase from the heirs of the testator. 

It has been stated in previous sections how many attempts 
had been made to sell this property, during the pastorates of 
the Rev. William C. Schenck, and of Dr. Rice, and that after 
the resignation of Dr. Rice in 1847, it was ordered to be sold, 
together with the mountain wood-lot. I'heie were in this 

* Sarah Wiggins married Young. She was paid in full and executed her 

release in 1831. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— TRUST FUNDS. l8l 

tract, at this time, after deducting what had been set apart for 
the colored people's burying ground, and what had been added 
to the old burying ground, and what had been given for the 
old session and school house, in Witherspoon Street "^of-^Q acres. 
Of this remaining tract, three acres were retained for the new 
cemetery adjoining the old grave yard ; Wiggins Street was 
opened over a portion of it, and the remainder was sold in lots 
at public sale. Jacob P. Davis bought the old parsonage 
house, and the lots were bought by Mr. VanDeventer, Joseph 
Carrington, John T. Robinson, Dr. John Maclean, and Jas. S. 
Green; and John Anderson bough'; the wood-lot of seventeen 
acres. I'he net proceeds amounted to about $3,500. This 
money was invested by the trustees, for the use of the minis- 
ter according to the devise of Dr. Wiggins. It has been since 
applied entirely and permanently to that object, by vesting 
it in the purchase of another parsonage, now occupied by the 
minister of the church. 

The trustees have within the present year, received from 
Mr. Paul Tulane, a deed for four acres, or thereabout, to sup- 
plement the cemetery. It was bought of Martin Murray and 
lies adjoining the north-east corner of the cemetery, and has a 
dwelling house on it. It was a gift by Mr. Tulane to the 
church. 

The Cemetery is made the subject of a subsequent chapter. 

VI. Special Trusts of the Church. Besides the several par- 
cels of real estate above mentioned as belonging to this church 
and held by its trustees, there are a few other special trusts 
held by them, of a more private nature, but which ought to be 
guarded and administered with strict fidelity. 

r. The Cedar Grove ChurcJi Trust. The title in the Cedar 
Grove church was, on the 27th day of May, 1876, by deed of 
Paul Tulane, transferred to the trustees of the first church of 
Princeton, to hold the same in trust for Gospel preaching by 
all denominations, in accordance with an arrangement in said 
deed specified as now in force, with power to sell upon certain 
contingencies and hold the proceeds in trust for the First Pres- 
byterian church of Princeton. 



1 82 HISTORY OF PRINCETON: 

2. The Cedar Grove C/nirch Fund. The sum oi five tJiousand 
dollars is held by the trustees of this churcli as a gift of Paul 
Tulane, May 27, 1876, the income to be appHed to maintaining 
the Cedar Grove church and meetings, keeping the building in 
repair, paying sexton and preachers ; which fund upon certain 
contingencies shall go to the use of the said First Presbyterian 
church of Princeton. 

3. TJie Fund of five thonsand dollars, given by Paul Tulane 
on the 27th of May, 1876, to the trustees, the income thereof 
to be applied as follows, viz.: one-third to be distributed to the 
indigent members of this church, one-third to the payment of 
the pew-rents of poor members of this church, and one-third to 
the payment of the current expenses of the church. 

4. The Old Burying Ground Ftind of five thojisand dollars, 
given on the 27th of May, 1876, by Paul Tulane to tlie trustees 
of this church, the income thereof to be applied in keeping in 
repair the walks, grounds and enclosures of the old burying 
ground adjoining but not including the cemetery proper, and 
to preserve the monuments of the dead who have no friends 
living here. 

The trustees have executed a Declaration of Trust for the 
above named funds, defining the trusts, and have caused it to 
be recorded in the County Clerk's office. 

5. The John C. Schenck Fund. This is a legacy of $800, 
left by Mary Ann Schenck in honor of her son John C. 
Schenck, Jr., teacher of a classical school in Princeton, to the 
trustees of this church, the income to be applied to the repairs 
of church and parsonage, and family burial lot, according to 
the terms of her will. 

6. The Cemetery Fund arises from the sale of lots in the 
cemetery, and is kept separate from the general church fund. 
It is held for meeting the expense of improving and maintain- 
ing the cemetery grounds and enclosures. The trustees of the 
church have the control of the cemetery. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— RULING ELDERS. 



183 



THE RULING ELDERS OF THE CHURCH FROM 1786. 

Names. Elected. Ceased from office. 

Richard Longstreet Feb. 21, 1786, Died about 1797. 

James Hamilton Feb. 21, 1786, Died 1815. 

Tliomas Blackwell Feb. 21, 1786, Died Oct. 20, 1825. 

John Johnson Feb. 21, 1786, Died Oct. 16, 1800. 

Isaac Snowden Jan. 13, 1796, Removed from Princeton. 

Daniel Agnew Jan. 13, 1796, Died 1S16. 

Thomas Wiggins, M. D March 3, 1792, Died Nov. 14, 1804. 

James Finley, (Sen.) March 3, 1792, Removed to IJasking Ridge. 

Prof. William Thompson 1805, Died 1813. 

John Van Cleve, M. D 1805, Died Dec. 24, 1826. 

Peter Updike 1805, Died June 18, 1818. 

Capt. James Moore i8oy, * Died Nov. 29, 1832. 

Zebulon Morford 1807, Died April 2, 184I. 

Francis D. Janvier 1807, Died March i, 1824. 

Samuel Bayard 1807, Died May 12. 1840. 

John Davison 1 807, Removed from Princeton. 

John S. Wilson March 31, 1821, Died Oct. 11, 1836. 

Ralph Lane March 31, 1821, Died 1855. 

Prof. Robert B. Patton Dec. 29, 1826, Removed 1835. 

John C. Schenck Dec. 29, 1826, Died June 25, 1846. 

John Lowrey July 14. 1826, Died Jan. 19, 1845, 

Jacob W. Lane July 14, 1826, Died May 5, 1878. 

Robert Voorhees April 27, 1933, Died June iS, iSj3. 

Daniel Bovvne.... April 27, 1835, Removed 1859. 

Prof. Stephen Alexander ... August, 1840, 

John V. Talmage August, 1840, Removed to N. York 1844. 

Isaac Baker Juite 25, 1845, Died Sept. 22, 1870. 

Joseph H. Davis June 25, 1845, Removed to N.York, 1848. 

John F. Hageman March 3, 1851. 

Ralph Gulick March 3, 1851, Died April 25, 1854. 

Peter V. DeGraw March 3, 1851, Removed. 

David Comfort April 8, i860, Removed 1865. 

Joseph B. Wright , Dec 12, 1863, Removed. 

Dr. George M. Maclean Feb. 5, 1867, 

John B. VanDoren Dec. 5, 1869, 

John V. Terhune Dec. 5, 1869, 

Henry E. Hale Dec. 5, 1S69. 

In our first volume, many of the above named elders re- 
ceived some notice, as prominent public men of Princeton in 
former years. 

Thomas Blackwell, whose name stands third on the 
list, lived at Mapleton, as we are informed. He was the father 



1 84 HISTORY OF PKINCETOiV. 

of John Blackwell, who lived on the homestead until his death, 
a few years ago. He was also the father of Elijah Blackwell, 
who owned a considerable estate, and whose long- residence 
preceding his death, was on the farm where Leavitt Howe now 
resides. He settled upon it riot many years after the Rev. I\Ir. 
Snowden left it. He has descendants living in this State, in 
Texas, and in Canada. His son Austin D. Blackwell, was a 
respectable farmer, who also occupied a part of the homestead 
near Scudder's Mills. He was an elder in the Kingston church, 
until in his old age, he removed to Virginia, where he died. 
He had a family of several children. Thomas Blackwell was 
among the earliest and. most substantial citizens of the vicinity 
of Princeton, and supporters of the church at this place. 

Daniel Agnew, whose name is sixth on the list, was the an- 
cestor of a prominent family, and his name would have been in- 
troduced among his contemporaries in the revolutionary period, 
and the names of his children a little later, but for the fact 
that we have only recently obtained reliable information about 
the family. This has been furnished by an honorable member 
of the family.'^ 

" Daniel Agnew emigrated from county Antrim, north of Ireland, to the prov- 
ince of New Jersey, in 1764. lie settled at Princeton, and for a time was in the 
army in the Revolutionary War. lie married Catherine Armstrong, probably in 
1776, his oldest son, James, being horn in 1777. lie was connected with the col- 
lege of New Jersey at Princeton, in some capacity unknown to the writer.f and 
availed himself of this opportunity of giving several of iiis sons a lil^eral education. 
At one time he was a ruling elder in the Presbyterian church of that place, to whose 
faith he was firmly attached. Many years before his death, he bought and lived 
upon a very large and fine farm, three miles from Princeton on the road to Trenton. 
His death took place about the year 1816 — possibly 1817. 

His children were in the order of age, James, Martin and William, twins, 
Daniel, John, George, Elizabeth and Mary. James, the oldest, graduated with the 
highest honor, in the class of 1795, taking his diploma as Bachelor of Arts, and as a 
member of the Whig Society, Oct. i, 1795. In October, 179S, he received the degree 
of Master of Arts. After passing through college he studied medicine witii Dr. 
Maclean, an eminent Scotch physician, father of the Rev. Dr. Maclean, the late 
President of Princeton College. After attending two courses of lectures at the 
Medical University, in Philadelphia, he graduated a I^octor of Medicine May 31st, 
1800, remaining there in hospital practice, under Dr. Dcnj. Rush, for nearly a 

* The Hon. Daniel Agnew, Chief Justice of Pennsylvania — a grandson of Dan- 
iel Agnew, the elder. 
f Steward. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH-OFFICERS. 1 85 

year. He commenced practice in Trenton, N. J., and in January, 1806, married 
Sarah B. oldest daughter of Major Richard Howell, of the Revolutionary army of 
N. J., and afterwards Governor of New Jersey, and Chancellor of the State for 
nine years. In 1810 Dr. James Agnew went to the State of Mississippi to practice, 
and returned in 1813, to Princeton, to take his family there. He stopped, how- 
ever, in Western Penn., his wife being deterred by the dangers of the voyage in an ark 
or flat boat, the only mode of descending the Ohio and Mississippi, and finally set- 
tled down to practice in Pittsburgh, Penn., where he died in 1S40. His son Daniel, 
(named after his father,) is the present Chief Justice of Pennsylvania. 

The writer is unable to follow in detail, the lives of the other children of 
Daniel Agnew. Martin Agnew graduated at Princeton college in 1797, married 
late in life, and died in New Jersey. William graduated in the same class, became 
insane, and died when a young man. Daniel died rather young, unmarried. 
John, after living on the farm for some years, left home, and finally settled at the 
Sault de St. Mane, at the outlet of Lake Superior, between 1815 and 1S17. He held 
some post in the government of the U. S. He never married, and about 1S45, left 
the Sault, and went to reside at Batesville, Arkansas, where his sisters Elizabeth 
and Mary were living, and died there in 1853. 

George Agnew died at an early age, but leaving a large family, w hich became 
dispersed, some living in Ohio, others in Indiana, and some in Illinois. 

Elizabeth and Majy Agnew, the daughters, lived for a few years after the 
death of their father, at Princeton, and afterwards at Pittbburgh in the Himily of Dr. 
Agnew, their brother. Elizabeth having married A. W. Lyon, about 1830 or 31, 
moved with him to Batesville, Arkansas, taking with her her sister Mary. Both 
are dead, INIary never having married." 

The Agnews kept a .store in Princeton, for several yeans, in 
a small brick house, which stood where Rowland's store now 
stands. Martin Agnew sold that property to Rowland and 
M'Ginnis, in 1857, and they took it down when they built their 
present house upon the lot. 

THE TRUSTEES OF THE CHURCH FROM 1786. 

Names. Elected. Ceased from office. 

Richard Longstreet May 25, 1786, Died about 1797. 

Robert Stockton May 25, 1786, Died April 23, 1S05. 

Capt. John Little May 25, 1786, Died Sept. 6, 1794. 

Enos Kelsey May 25, 1786, Resigned 1804. 

Capt. James Moore May 25, 1786, Resigned .Sept. 5, 1 83 1. 

Isaac Anderson May 25, 1786, Died 1807. 

Col. William Scudder May 25, 17S6, Died 1793. 

James Hamilton May 20, 1793, Died 1815. 

Thomas Wiggins, M. D Nov. 15, 1794, Died Nov. 14, 1S04. 

John Harrison. Jan. 13, 1796, Died Oct. 26, 1816. 

Col. Erkuries Beatty Feb. 20, 1804, Died Feb. 3, 1S23. 

Richard Stockton, LL.D Jan. 2, 1805, Died March 7, 1828. 

Ebenezer Stockton, M. D Sept. 10, 1805, Resigned Oct. 29. 1835. 

Samuel Bayard Dec. 15. 1807, Resigned May 7, 1838. 



i86 



HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 



Names. Elected. 



Cemed /rotn ojjice. 



Robert Voorhees Nov. 25, 1815, Resis^Tned Feb. 11,1837 

John Van Cleve. M. D Dec. 7, 1816. Resigned Oct. 29, 1823. 

John C. Schenck July 26, 1823, Resigned Sept. 5, 1831 

John S. WiUon Jan. g, 1826, Resigned .Sept. 5, 1831. 

James S.Green Jan. 9, 1S26, Resigned Sept. 5, 1831 

JohnGulick Jan. 9. 1826. Resigned Sept. 5,1831. 

Charles M. Campbell Sept. 5, 1831, Resigned 1S35. 

Peter Bogart Sept. 5. 183X, Resigned Sept, 3, 1832 

Thomas White Sept. 5, 1831. Resigned July 27. 1837 

Henry Clow Sept. 5. 1831, Resigned 1833. 

John Van Doren Jan. 14, 1S34, Resigned June 24. 1839 

JohnLowrey Oct. 8, 1835, Resigned 1836. 

Alfred A. WoodhuU, M. D Oct. 8, 1835, Died Oct. 5 1836 

William R. .Murphy Oct. 8, 1835. Resigned oit. 8, ^836. 

George M. Maclean, M. D Oct. 8. 1836, Resigned Dec. 3 1838 

James Van Deventer Oct. 8, 1836. Resigned Aug. 3, 1846 

Prof. Albert B. Dod. D. D Oct. 8, 1368. Died Nov. 19, 1845 

^•^•"^'"^^ V Feb. 22, 1837, Resigned May 7, 1838. 

Samuel A. Lawrence Aug. 5. 1837. Resigned Dec. 3, 1838 

David N. Bogart May 7, 1838, Died May 5, 1844 

Alexander M. Gumming May 7, 1S38, Resigned Aug 3, 1846. 

^^- ^^- ^°'^ J'-i"- 17. 1839. Resigned Feb. \i, 1844 

John Bogart Ja„. 17, 1839, Resigned March 29, 1842. 

George T. Olmsted June 24, 1S39, Resigned July 10, 1846 

A. J. Dumont March 29, 1842, Resigned Feb. 12 1843 

John Davison Feb. 12. 1843, Resigned Aug. 3. 1846 

Phihp Hendnckson Feb. 12. 1843, Resigned July 9 1846 

Peter I. Voorhees July i, 1843, Resigned Aug. 3, 1 846 

Capt. Thomas Crabbe, Q. S. N. . Dec. 22, 1845, Resigned Dec. 2 i8.r 

Prof. Joseph Henry. LL. D July 30, 1846, Resigned July 25. i8'48. 

J. S. Schanck, M. D July 30, 1846, 

Joseph H. Davis Aug. 3, 1846, Resigned Feb. 12, 1849 

Wilbam Gulick Aug. 3. 1846, Resigned 1847. 

John T. Robinson Aug. 3. 1846. Resigned July 25, 1848 

N. L.Bernen Aug. 3. 1846. Died Aug. 10,1846 

Peter V. Degraw Aug. 3. 1846, Resigned. 

John F. Hageman Aug. 3, 1847, Resigned Aug., 1877 

A. VanDuyn Aug. 3. 1847, Resigned. 

Isaac Baker Feb. 12, 1849, Died Sept. 22, 1870. 

Geo. T. Olmsted Dec. 15, 185 1. Resigned 1S76. 

James Van Deventer Nov. i, 1852, 

James S. Green.... Nov. r, 1852, Died 1862. 

Emley Olden Oct.. 1855. Died June 16, 1S68. 

Dr. J. H. Wikoff June 22, 1863, 

John B. Van Doren 1868 

Edward Howe 1870 

Leavitt Howe 1875 

John F. Hageman, Jr 1877, 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH— OFFICERS. 1 87 

Captain John Little, whose name is third on this h'st of 
trustees, was one of the first trustees who received the title of 
the church lot, before the incorporation, in 1786. He bought a 
lot of land in 1786, of Robert McGee, administrator of Alexan- 
der Gaa, dec'd. In 1790, he bought a lot of Mary Norris, 
administratrix of Thomas Norris, deceased. He owned, at 
the time of his death, September 6th, 1794, the property now 
in possession of Philip Hendrickson, on Nassau Street. He 
devised in his will, dated February 9th, 1794, the last men- 
tioned property, to Grace Little, his wife, who survived till 
June. 2d, 1813, when it was sold by his executor, to Robert 
Voorhees, who occupied it till his death. It was 148 feet in 
front, and next to James Hamilton's lot. His executors were 
John Beatty, John Woods, George Woods, Jr., and Robert 
McGee. Grace Little, his wife, was much respected in Prince- 
ton, They were both buried in the Princeton burying ground. 

The oldest member of the present board of trustees, official- 
ly, is Dr. J. Stillwell Schanck, who was elected in 1846. He is 
president and secretary of the board, and has rendered long 
and valuable services to the congregation and the church. The 
duties of his office have become, by reason of the increased rev- 
enues and trusts of the church, and the care of the cemetery, 
quite onerous. But since he has been in office, the finances 
of the church have been placed and maintained in a sound 
condition. For about twenty-five years, the board remained 
almost unchanged in its members. 

The Diaconate. 

We find no bench of Deacons in the church until the year 
1845, when Dr. Rice was pastor. William R. Murphy and Dan- 
iel B. Wagner were ordained on the 15th of June of that year. 
These removed, and in 185 1, during the pastorate of the Rev. 
William E. Schenck, the following were ordained: David D. 
Cawley, Isaac Stryker, Peter I. Voorhees, John H. Clarke and 
Michael Hendrickson. Mr. Voorhees died in office and the 
others, after serving several years, removed from the congrega- 
tion. In 1864 George T. Olmsted was added to the number, 
and in 1869 Philip Hendrickson, David A. Hudnut and J. Bo- 
gart Stryker were elected. 



HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 



PRESENT OFFICERS OF THE CHURCH. 

Minister — Rev. Horace G. Hinsdale. 

Ruling Elders — Prof. Stephen Alexander, John F. Ilageman, Dr. George M. 
Maclean, John V. Terhune, J. Boyd VanDoren, Henry E. Hale. 

Deacons — Philip Hendrickson, J. Eogart Stryker, David A. Hudnut. 

Trustees — Dr. J. Stillwell Schanck, President, James VanDeventer, Dr. J. H. 
Wikofif, Edward Howe, J. Boyd VanDoren, Leavitt Howe, John F. Hagenian, Jr. 

Treasicrer — William B. VanDeventer. 

Sexton — Aaron F. Allen. 

It i.s now one hundred and twenty-tlirce year.s since the 
Presbytery of New Brunswick granted " liberty to the people 
of said town to build a meeting house." It is about one hun- 
dred and sixteen years since the building of the meetinghouse 
was first commenced, and one hundred and twelve years since 
it was finished. It has twice been burned down and rebuilt. 
Except when occupied by troops or being rebuilt it has been 
used to hold the annual Commencements of the college during 
this long period. It has been the chief audience room in Prince- 
ton for more than a century, open always to the great preachers 
of the day when they have visited the place. It has been the 
great lecture-room in which literary orations and theological 
discourses of the highest order have been delivered to Prince- 
ton audiences, composed of citizens, students and strangers. 
Though a house of worship, it is the most public of all public 
buildings. 

Since Dr. Witherspoon's death there have been installed 
over the congregation, eight successive pastors, two of whom 
have died here in the pastoral office. The membership of the 
church has been reported to be above five hundred in number. 
The last official report gave 423, but a strict revision of the 
list will, it is thought, reduce the actual number of members 
below 400, 

This church is venerable in age, and renowned for its prom- 
inent men and families of noted piety and learning, who were 
accustomed to worship statedly here, and are now numbered 
with the dead. The chart of pews exhibits among former 
occupants and owners the names of Dr. Withcrspoon, Dr. 
Smith, Dr. Maclean, Dr. Ashbel Green, Dr. Minto, Dr. Alex- 



PRESB YTERIAN CH URCII—RE TKOSPECT. 1 89 

ander, Dr. Miller, Dr. Hodge, Dr. John Breckinridge, Dr. Car- 
nahan, Professor Dod, Professor Henry and others. 

The presence of such men with their families, and many- 
other clergymen and professors, besides the prominent citi- 
zens of the town, whose names as trustees and ciders have 
been before mentioned, gives peculiar interest to the history of 
this church. It is reasonable to infer that a church so favored 
with the presence of such a large number of godly ministers, 
with their families, and with the presence of over a hundred 
seminary students, zealous and active, would exhibit a special 
beauty and power in its devotional meetings, and general 
Christian activities. There are times and seasons when these 
Christian forces do exert their influence in such way, but they 
are extraordinary and exceptional occasions. The presence 
of so many clergymen in the community, and in the church, 
occasionally taking a part, often the chief part in congrega- 
tional meetings, unless carefully guarded, tends to impair 
the growth and development of the laity, by relieving them 
of duty which would otherwise devolve upon them, and by 
causing them to feel that they are not depended upon to 
carry the Ark. Under such circumstances the office of Ru- 
ling Elder is undervalued, and the session becomes a nominal 
body. 

There is another difficulty in such a state of things, and 
this has regard to the preacher. This church has in a sense 
a college relation, not only as to the church edifice, but as to 
its auditors. There are about five hundred college students, 
and one hundred and thirty theological students, with about 
thirty professors with their families, now present. Beyond all 
question, nothing would be more educational and impressive 
upon these young men, than powerful, pungent and refined 
preaching — preaching of the very best order. Every distin- 
guished preacher who visits Princeton meets here an audience 
that he seldom meets elsewhere. He reaches hundreds of ed- 
ucated young men — some young ministers soon to go away 
and give place to others— a new class coming every year. It 
is this feature of the church that makes it peculiar, thai makes 
it a supremely important, but hard pulpit to fill. No more 
critical hearers than seminary students can be found. Preach- 



^90 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

ing is their study, and they ought to find, in the popular 
preacher of the town, a model. 

But the prestige of this church is very strong ; it has al- 
most a self-perpetuating power in its history. It? shrines will 
ever be sacred to those who recall to mind the thousands of 
its honored members who have entered and passed through it 
to heaven— as Bunyan's Pilgrim, when on his march to Mount 
Zion, entered the Palace called Beautiful, to find temporary 
security and refreshment, when in danger on the dark moun- 
tains. Its members, even in the hour of death, will cling to 
the sentiment of its corporate signet, " Speremiis Meliorar 



CHAPTER XX. 

THE PROTESTANT EITSCOPAL CHURCH. { Trinity.) 





\ 











^l_lllJJ.-i-ryx!z 



THE PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 



The Neiv Jersey Patriot, published in Princeton, in August, 
1827, contained an account of an adjourned meeting of persons 
friendly to the erection of an Episcop.U church, held at Joline's 
Hotel. Robert F. Stockton was chairman, and John R. Thom- 
son was secretary of the meeting. A committee consisting of 
John Potter, Capt. James Renshaw, John R. Thomson, Sam- 



192 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

uel J, Bayard and Robert F, Stockton, was appointed to raise 
funds for the purchase of a lot. 

An organization was not formed, however, until A.D. 1833. 
Several meetings were held in that year with a view of organ- 
izing and incorporating a parish. A meeting was held on the 
23d day of March, of that year, when the following wardens 
and vestrymen were elected : 

Wardens. — Charles Steadman, Dr. J. I. Dunn. 

Vestrymen. — John Potter, R. F. Stockton, C. W. Taylor, 
John Thomson, C. H. VanCleve. 

On May nth, 1833, a meeting was held at five o'clock in 
the afternoon, in the town house of the borough of Princeton, 
for the purpose of forming a corporate organization, and of 
designating the name and title by which the church should be 
known. It was decided, by a majority of the votes of those 
present, that the corporate name and title should be, " The 
Rector, Wardens and Vestrymen of Trinity Church, Prince- 
ton." This name was chosen on account of the favor with 
which at that time; the views of Unitarians were received by ed- 
ucated people, in the Eastern and Middle States. It was also 
determined at this meeting to erect a church building, and the 
following persons were elected as a building committee : Mr. 
John Potter, Mr. Charles Steadman, and Dr. J. I. Dunn, 

The corner stone of the building was laid July 4th, 1833, by 
Bishop Doane, who also consecrated the completed structure, 
Sept. 23d, 1834. 

The Rt. Rev. William White, D.D., Bishop of Pennsylvania, 
preached on the occasion, and the Rt. Rev. L. S. Ives, D.D., 
Bishop of North Carolina, assisted in the services. 

Soon afterwards, the Rev. George E. Hare, D.D., was re- 
quested to assume the rectorship of the parish. He at once 
entered upon the position, and continued to discharge its du- 
ties until June 19th, 1843, when he offered his resignation. 
The following is a complete list of the rectors up to the pres- 
ent time. 

The Rev. George E. Hare, D.D., called in 1833. Re- 
signed June 19th, 1843. 

The Rev. Andrew Bell Paterson, D.D., instituted 
Dec. 2d, 1845. Resigned October 6th, 185 1. 



THE PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH. I93 

The Rev. Joshua Peterkin, D.D., called May 3d, 1852. 
Resigned Jan. 3d, 1855. 

The Rev. Wm. D. Hanson, D.D., called February 29th, 
1855. Resig-ned Sept. 7th, 1859. 

The Rev. Wm. A. Doi), D.D., called Nov. 29th, 1859. 
Resigned in the spring of 1866. 

The Rev. Alfred B. Baker entered on the duties of the 
rectorship on Easter day, April 1st, 1866, and is still discharg- 
ing the duties of the position. The church has had liberal 
friends and supporters, who, from time to time, have improved 
its property, and enlarged its sphere of usefulness. 

In the year 1843, a rectory was built, and presented to the 
church, by Mr. John Potter. This being afterwards destroyed 
by fire, was rebuilt Vjy Mrs. Sarah J. Potter in 1865-6. Liberal 
endowments have been made to the church by Mr. John Pot- 
ter, Messrs. James Potter and Thomas F. Potter, his sons ; 
and by Com. R. F. Stockton. 

A Parish school lot was given to the church by Mr. Rich- 
ard Stockton. Augusl; 31st, 1849, and a school building was im- 
mediately erected by thQ liberality of a few individuals, the 
chief contributor being Mr. James Potter. The church bell is 
in the tower of this building. 

The parish is also indebted to Mr. Richard S. Field for the 
gift of a strip of land which enlarged the area, and straightened 
the line of the church lot. The first church was a handsome 
white Grecian building, rough-cast and standing with gables 
to the street. 

On July 4th, 1868, the corner stone of a second church edi- 
fice was laid by Bishop Odenheimer, and the edifice was imme- 
diately erected upon the site of the first one which had been 
removed to make way for the more beautiful and capacious 
structure. The rector, the Rev. A. B. Baker, on the occasion of 
the laying of the second corner stone, read a paper containing 
historical notes of the parish, extracts of which have furnished 
the statistics given in this article. It was noted ii\ the paper, 
that just thirty-five years before, on the same national holiday, 
the corner stone of the first church was laid. It was also noted 
that the subscription for the new church was started by Miss 
Alice Potter with the sum often thousand dollars, and that an- 
13 



794 HISTORY OF PRINCETON, 

Other subscription of five thousand dollars was immediately 
made by Mrs. Richard S. Conover. Liberal additions were also 
made to the building fund by other members of the parish, and 
a building committee, consisting of Messrs. Richard S. Conover, 
Joseph H. Bruere and Henry W. Leard was at once ap- 
pointed. Under the superintendence of this committee, the 
work was vigorously prosecuted, and the church was so far 
completed by June 7th, 1870. as to admit of its consecration 
by Bishop Odenheimer. It is built of Princeton stone, with 
brown stone trimmings. Since this date, the tower has been 
added to the church, by the liberality of Mrs. J. Dundas 
Lippincott, and interior decorations have been undertaken by 
the executors of Mrs. Sarah J. Potter, in accordance with the 
wish expressed, and with funds bequeathed in her last will and 
testament. The church, which consists of nave, transept, 
central tower and apsidal chancel, is in the pointed Gothic 
style, and is one of the most beautiful in the State. Its chancel 
windows, which were the gift of Mrs. Sarah J. Potter, Mrs. R. S. 
Conover, and Miss Maria Stockton, were made at Newcastle- 
on-Tyne, in England. ^Its massive memorial font was the 
gift of Mrs. Telfair Hodgson; and for its organ, the parish is 
mainly indebted to the liberal offerings of Mr. R. S. Conover 
and Mrs. John R. Thomson. 

The wardens and vestrymen, at the present date, are as 
follows : 

Senior Warden. — Joseph H. Olden. 

Jtinior Warden —]. Dundas Lippincott. 

Vestrymen. — Richard S . Conover, Joseph H. Bruere, Ad- 
miral Geo. F. Emmons, Charles W. Lynde, Joseph Priest, 
Henry W. Leard, Prof. Charles McMillan" 

Treasurer of the Parish. — Mr. F. S. Conover.* 

* This narrative was furnished bv ihe Rector. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

THE METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 

" Each Society " of the M. E. Church "is divided into 
smaller companies called classes, according to their respective 
places of abode. There are about twelve persons in a class, 
one of whom is styled the leader." These classes meet weekly 
in order that the leader may " inquire how their souls prosper, 
to advise, reprove, comfort, or exhort, as occasion may require." 

The first "class" was organized in Princeton by Rev. C. IT. 
Whitecar, in the year 1841 or 1842, in the house of Samuel 
Stephens in Canal Street, who was also appointed "leader." 

The first sermon by a Methodist minister, in or near Prince- 
ton, was preached by Rev. Ezekiel Cooper, at the house of 
Joshua Anderson about the year 1802. David Bartine also 
preached in the house of Captain Blue about i8ioand more or 
less frequently after that period. Methotlist meetings \\'ere 
also held in an old pottery at Queenston ; but all attempts to 
organize a " society" proved failures until the " class " formed 
by Rev. C. H. Whitecar ; this continued in existence until the 
present church edifice was built. 

In the year 1845 I'^cv. T. Campfield held a series of meet- 
ings at Cedar Grove which resulted in an extensive revival. 
The meetings were held in the old stone school-house, still 
standing, and about one hundred persons were converted. 
The present Cedar Grove church was erected soon after this, 
and was largely aided by Mr. Paul Tulane, who afterwards 
bought the building and keeps it in repair for the benefit of 
that community to this day. 

This revival at Cedar Grove had much to do with the or- 
ganization of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Princeton. 

In 1847, under the pastorate of Rev. Joseph Ashbrook, the 
present church edifice was erected. The lot was purchased by 
Dr. O. H. Bartine of Alexander R. Boteler and wife, of Shep- 
herdstown, Virginia, and he conveyed it to the trustees of the 



196 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

church. As there were but few Methodists here at that time, 
and these representing but little wealth, the success of the 
undertaking is due mainly to the tact and energy and good 
management of Mr. Ashbrook. 

Mr. Ashbrook remained two years and was succeeded by 
Rev. Israel Saunders Corbit. He remained two years and during 
his administration there was a large increase of membership; 
the membership recorded by him in 1S50, including probation- 
ers, numbered 145. 

The following is a list of the pastors and the time they were 
stationed in Princeton : 

J. Ashbrook, 1847 ^'^'^ 1848 ; I. S. Corbit, 1849 ^"^ 1S50; 
S. Y. Monroe, '851; Aaron E. Ballard, 1852; J. S. Heisler, 
1853 and 1854; J. Stephenson, 1855; George W. Batchelder, 
i8S7 and 1858; H. T. Staats, 1859; I- W. Wiley, i860; T. 
Hanlon, 1861 and 1862; I. D. King, 1863 ; E. Hance, 1864 and 
1865; H. C. Westwood, 1866 and 1867; H. Baker, Jr., 1868 
and 1869; A. Lawrence, 1870 and 1S71 ; H. Belting, 1872 
and 1873; Mr. Sooy, 1874 and 1875; Mr. Lawrence, 1876 
and 1877; Mr. White, 187S. 

In 1866, under the 'pastorate of Rev, IL C. Westwood, the 
present parsonage was built and handsomely furnished at a 
cost of about six thousand dollars. 

The present membership numbers 175. The church has 
suffered greatly by removals. What has been gained one year 
is lost the next, in that so many are dismissed by letter. The 
Sunday school numbers 23 officers and teachers, 164 scholars, 
with an average attendance of 115. There are 400 volumes in 
the library including text-books. 

The size of the church building is 66 feet by 48 feet, with 
a gallery, and will seat about 600 persons. The lecture room 
in the basement will seat 225. There are also two large class 
rooms and library adjoining the lecture room. The value of 
the whole property, including the parsonage, is estimated at 
twenty-one thousand dollars. The church is situate on the 
north side of Nassau Street nearly opposite Washington Street, 
and is built of brick, and the parsonage is a {(tw doors east on 
the same side.* 

* Sketch furnished by Rev. Mr. Belting, 



CHAPTER XXII. 

THE BAPTIST CHURCH. 

The Baptist Church in Princeton is an exotic. It was orig- 
inally planted and grew up at Penn's Neck, which in early- 
times was called Williamsburg, about one and a half miles from 
the centre of Princeton. For a quarter of a century previous 
to the formation of the church at that place, commencing 
three or four years after the close of the Revolutionary War, 
there had been preaching by Baptist ministers in this region, 
at Princeton, Penn's Neck, Lawrenceville and other places 
around, in private houses and wherever opportunity was of- 
fered. During those years several clergymen ministered to 
the scattered Baptists, none frequently, but perhaps, on an 
average, once a month. 

A church was finally organized in 1812, in the midst of the 
second war with Great Britain. It consisted, at the start, of 
thirty-eight members, and received for two or three years the 
labors of the Rev. J. Cooper one-fourth of his time. A meet- 
ing house was at that time built which still stands, and for 
which the people of Princeton, of that day, very generally 
helped to pay. Succeeding Mr. Cooper in 1815 was the Rev. 
Henry A. Hastings, who gave the church all of his time so far 
as ministering on the Sabbath was concerned. The people 
could pledge him for those services only $100 per annum. But 
they supplemented that amount by a school of twenty children 
which they raised for him and which yielded him $200 more 
for his support. 

Until the church's removal to Princeton, in 1852, several 
other ministers served it at Penn's Neck. 

Between 1821 and 1852 there succeeded each other John 

Seger, Peter , George Allen, D. Perdun, P. Strumphers, 

George Allen again, Jackson Smith, D. D. Gray and William 



^98 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

C. Ulyat. In 1818, six years after being constituted, they had 
made Httle progress and were very feeble. Through the labors 
about this time, of Howard Malcolm, a Baptist student in the 
Princeton seminary, they were considerably strengthened. Yet 
in 1829, seventeen years after organization, their membership 
was only thirty, eight less than the number which originally 
composed the church. A {^^y years later they were much re- 
freshed by the labors of Thomas L. Malcolm, a son of Howard, 
who also was a Baptist student in the seminary. From this 
time the church began to look up. Under Mr. Gray they at- 
tained a height which they have scarcely since surpassed. For 
though they have grown in wealth, in liberality and in respect- 
ability, they have not grown with equal steps in spirituality 
and enterprise; and though they have received additions, these 
have not been sufficient to meet the losses occasioned by death, 
removal and other causes, except for a limited period. 

In 185 I, during the pastorate of the Rev. VVm. C. Ulyat. 
they built their house in Canal Street in Princeton, on land 
given to them by Richard Stockton, Esq. The original inten- 
tion was to abandon Penn's Neck and move over to Princeton 
in a body. The reason for this step was that their place of 
worship might be not Only in the centre of all the people but 
of their own already gathered congregation. As, however, the 
new edifice in Princeton neared completion, it was manifest 
that a considerable number still clung to the original spot. 
They were therefore set off in a separate church, vvhich con- 
tinued six years and then disbanded. As the Rev. Mr. Ulyat 
was involved in blame, whether justly or unjustly, he deemed 
it prudent to withdraw, in hope that the whole body would 
unite in the new departure, which, however, was not the result 
of his resignation. 

Since commencing worship in the new house in Canal 
Street, which was in December, 1852, the church, besides 
supplies at intervals, has had six regular pastors, viz : the Rev. 
Samuel Sproule, VVm. E. Cornwell, George Young, John B. 
Hutchinson, H. V. Jones, and Wm. C. Ulyat; the latter being 
recalled to the church, yielded his acceptance only upon re- 
peated and pressing overtures. For several years the church 
seemed to bear itself well, and enjoy a good success. But the 



THE BAPTIST CHURCH. 1 99 

Strong and energetic labors of the Rev. Mr. Hutchinson, both 
in the pulpit, and out of it, could not hold it. It began to de- 
cline towards the close of his pastorate, and has continued to 
do so since, with accelerated steps. 

From the organization of the church to the present time, 
there have joined it, on profession of faith or by letter, over 
five hundred persons. In the height of its prosperity it has 
had as many as two hundred communicants, at one time. Its 
location, however, in Canal Street has been against it ; and 
its congregation has always come chiefly from the country. 
These, among other causes, have brought on its decline. 
It has a comfortable meeting house and ample grounds. It 
has also had able pastors. Jkit these have not been sufficient 
to build up a church out of a scattered people, in the midst 
of a community committed in childhood and by presti'To, to 
another great overshadowing denomination, and in a town of 
very slow growth. The great hindrance to the success of this 
church in Princeton, is found in the fact that the great body 
of the congregation come from Penn's Neck where they still 
hold a meeting house and burial ground. And it is probable, 
that if they could sell to advantage, this house in Canal Street, 
they would all return to- their original shrines at Penn's Neck. 
They are in debt and are not able to support a pastor in 
Princeton in a proper manner, under present circumstances. 
It is hoped that some relief will be afforded to them.* 

There was a Second Baptist church of Princeton organized 
by a few members who took a " New Departure " from the 
original one, when the recent dissension took place, and the 
majority returned to the house at Penn's Neck. Their worship 
is held in the private house of the Rev. Mr. Ulyat, who 
preaches occasionally there, to a small company. The Penn's 
Neck congregation have sold their Princeton building, to Mr. 
Norris for $3000; and have enlarged and improved their build- 
ing at Penn's Neck; and finished it with a steeple. The Rev. 
Mr. Grennelle is the pastor of it. 

* This article has been furnished by the Rev. Mr. Ulyat. ' 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

THE SECOND PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 




THE SECOND PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 



The history of the organization of the Second Presbyterian 
Church of Princeton, and of its progress to the year 1876, may 
be found in a discourse deHvered by the Rev. John T. Duffield, 
D.D., in the church, July 9, 1876, and which was pubh'shed. 
We are permitted to insert so much of this historical narrative 
as may be necessary to do justice to this church. No person 
is more interested in, nor familiar with, its history than Dr. Duf- 



THE SECOND PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 201 

field, whose name stands first on the roll of its living members. 
He says : 

The question of organizing a Second Presbyterian Church in Princeton was 
under consideration for some time before the organization was effected. 

The need of increased church accommodations, to meet the tlien existing and 
especially the prospective demand, was acknowledged; but on tlic i-ilicr han.!, ii 
was apprehended by some that two Presbyterian churches could not be .sustained 
in this community, and consequently, that the power and efficiency of Presbyterian- 
ism in Princeton would be weakened rather than strengthened by the organization 
of a second church. Doubt as to the proper locality for a new church edifice in 
case a second church was organized, also contributed to delay the organization. 
For a number of years there had been a Sabbath school and an afternoon service, 
under the supervision of the session of the Presbyterian cluirch, in tlie building in 
Queenston, erected on a lot given by John C. Schenck, Esq., to certain trustees — 
members of the Presbyterian church — for the purposes mei^tioned ; and it was urged 
by some that when the time came for tlie organization of a second church it should 
occupy the building referred to. Others regarded this location as unsuitable. 

In the fall of 1847, at a meeting of " The Ministers' Association " in Dr. Miller's 
-Study — an association of the Presbyterian ministers of Princeton, which met once a 
fortnight — the propriety of organizing a second Presbyterian church was considered, 
and it was concluded that the organization ought not to be longer delayed. Ac- 
cordingly a public meeting of all interested was convened in Mercer Hall to con- 
sider the question and to take such action as might be deemed expedient. 

The propriety of taking immediate steps to effect the organization was advo- 
cated by Dr. Archibald Alexander, Dr. John Maclean, Dr. Benjamin II. Rice, 
(pastor of the First church,) and John F. Ilageman, Esq. The result was an aj^pli- 
cation to the Presbytery of New Brunswick at its meeting at Middletown Point, 
October 5th, 1847, to appoint a committee to visit Princeton, and if " the way should 
he clear," to proceed to the organization of a chur^-h, to be known as the Second 
Presbyterian Church of Princeton. The request was granted, and Drs. Hall, Hale 
and Henry were appointed the committee. In the discharge of the duty assigned 
them, they met in Princeton, in Mercer Hall, December 23, 1847, and organized 
into a church the following twelve persons — John T. Robinson, Mrs. James H. 
Green. Wm. R. Murphy, Moore Baker, Mrs. Mary Ann Baker, Jacob IIul)bard, 
Mrs. Jacob Hubbard, Mrs. Mary Murphy, Mrs. Elizabeth C. Allen, Mrs. Catherine 
Allen, from the fust Presbyterian Church of Princeton, and John T. Duffield, from 
the Presljyterian Church of McConnellsburg, Pa. 

There is one whose name does not appear in the original organization to whom 
the Second Presbyterian Church of Princeton is more largely indebted fur its ex- 
istence and the measure of prosperity it enjoys, than to any individual on its roll 
of members — I need scarcely say here that I refer to Dr. Maclean. By the rec- 
ommendation of his bretliren he associated himself with the new enterprise — 
"taking the oversight thereof." Devoting himself tu its interests with his charac- 
teristic energy and liberality, he was regarded by all as its main stay and support, 
so that for many years this church was known in the community as " Dr. Mac- 
lean's Church." 

At the organization of the church. Colonel (then Captain) Wm. R. Murphy was 



202 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

elected ruling elder, and was ordained to the office on Sunday, January 2, 1848, 
by the Rev. Syniines C. Henry, D.D. The Rev. Cieorge Bush was engaged as a 
temporary supply, and Mr. James VanDeventer having generously (ifl'ered the | 
church the use of Mercer Hall for one year gratuitously, religious services on the 
Sabbath were commenced in that place and continued to be held there for more 
than two years. 

A congregational meeting for the election of a pastor was held in Mercer Hall, 
Fell. 9, 1S4S. Dr. Arciiiliald Alexander — who always manifested a deep interest 
in the welfare of the Second church — presided at this lueeting. Dr. Archibald 
Alexander, Jr., was Secretary. Prof. Wm. H. Green, at that time Assistant 
Teacher of Hebrew in the Seminary, was unanimously tlecle<l pastor ; and as an 
indication of the pecuniary feebleness of the church in its infancy, it may be 
proper to mention that the salary of the pastor was $300. Prof, drcen was never 
installed as pastor, Init for about a year and a half discliarged the duties of the 
pastoral office as slated supply. 

At the first communion of the church, on May 28, 1848, twenty persons were 
received on profession of their faith — the subjects of this gracious work — the first 
fruits of the blessing which the church has already been, and we trust is destined 
yet to be in larger measure, to this community. 

Prof. Green was called to the pastorate of the Central Presbyterian church in 
Philadelphia in the fall of 1849. He accepted the call and for a time the Rev. 
George Bush again officiated as sujiply of the Secoml church. Up to this time 
the church had had but one elder. In Sept., 1S49, Peter .Sullivan, who had l)een 
received into the church about a year previous, by certificate from the Reformed 
Dutch Church, was elected to the eldership, and h.iviiig accepted, was ordained 
by Mr. Iiu>h. 

About the time. Prof. Green left, a lot was purchased for the church by Dr. 
Maclean, John T. Robinson and John Murphy — thev becoming personally re- 
.sponsible for the payment — ami a contract entered into with Noah Green f(jr the 
erection of a church edifice. The builaing was com])leted at a cost of about $4,000. 

In the spring of 1850, shortly after I had received licensure, I was elected 
.stated supply of the Second church for one year. I was at that time a tutor in 
the college. I accepted_the invitation and entered upon the duties when the con- 
gregation took possession of their new Church edifice— the building now known as 
"Cook's Hall" — on the first Sabbath of April, 1850. The whole number on the 
roll of the church at that time was 49 — of whom 23 had been received by profes- 
sion of faith, and 26 by certificate. 

My engagement with the church was to attend to pastoral duties, preach 
once on the Sabbath, and provide a supply for the pulpit for the second service. 
The pulpit in the afternoon was usually supplied by one of the professors of the 
college or seminary — by none more frequently than by Drs. James \V. and Addi- 
son Alexander. 

In the spring of 1851, I was re-elected stated supply for another year. At the 
termination of this engagement the number on the church /oil was S3. 

REV. WILLIAM A. DOD, PASTOR. 

The church had now been in existence more than four years and yet had never 
had an installed pastor. Those who had had the ministerial charge, were occu- 



l^HE SECOiVD PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 203 

pied the greater part of their time with their duties in the college and seminary. 
It was felt that the interests of the church demanded that it should he placed in 
charge of some one who could devote his whole time and attention to the work of 
the ministry. Accordingly on the ist of April, 1852, the Rev. VVm. A. Dod was 
elected stated supply for six months, with a view to his election as pastor at the 
expiration of that time if he should give his consent to the arrangement. Dr. Dod 
accepted the appointment and immediately entered on its duties. Ou the 2Slh of 
Septemher following he was elected jiastor and installed. He continued to have 
the pastoral charge until Jan. i6th, 1859. In the early part of his ministry the 
entire debt of the church, amounting to about $1,500, was paid off. 

In the spring of 1857, Capt. Murphy having removed to Bordentown, and Mr. 
Sullivan being the only elder remaining, John T. Robinson, A. Cruser Rowl.ind, 
and Nathaniel Titus, were elected to the eldership, and Elijah Allen and A. D. 
Rittenhouse were elected to the Diaconate. At the close of Dr. Dod's niini.s- 
try, the number of names on the cluirch roll — including those who had deceased or 
had been dismissed, was 189. 

On the loth of April, 1859, Charles R. Clarke was elected stated supply for 
one year, and accepted the appointment. At the expiration of this engagement 
the churcli was for near t year without any regular suiiply. The l-iev. John For- 
syth, D.D., who had frequently supplied the pulpit of the Second cluuch when 
Professor in the college— and always with great acceptance — was elected i)astor 
on the 8lh of June, l86o, but did not accept. At the same meeting James Wylie 
was elected to the eldership. On the 30ih of October the Rev. Thomas G. Wall 
was elected pastor, lie also declined the appointment. 

REV. JOSEPH R. MANN. PASTOR. 

On the 2Sth of January, i86r, Joseph R. Mann, D.D., was elected pastor, and 
much to the joy of the congreg.\tion the call was accepteti. He entered on hi's du- 
ties, the 1st of April following, and was installed Pastor on the evening of Friday, 
May 3d. 

The ministry of Dr. Mann marks a new era in the history of the church. From 
its commencement his labors were crowned with the divine blessing, resulting in a 
large accession to the communion of the church and a marked increase in the zeal, 
activity and liberality of the members. The regular congregation was soon doubled 
in number, nearly every pew was rented and measures were taken to provide in- 
creased church accommodations by an enlargement of the building. The drawin"-s 
were prepared, but just as the work was about to be commenced the deplorable re- 
bellion against the authority of the Federal Government began to assume such 
formidable proportions that it was thought best that the enlargement should be, for 
the time, delayed. During the war the same reasons which prevented the enlarge- 
ment of the church in 1861 continued, In Dec, 1864, Dr. Mann was constrained, 
by the state of his health, to resign the pastoral charge. During his ministry 95 
were added to the communion of the church, making the whole number of names 
on the roll 284. 

In the spring of 1864, by the will of Mrs. Agnes B. Hope— widow of Prof. M. 
B. Hope, D.D., — the church received a legacy of $1,000, "to be safely invested 
and the annual income appropriated to the support of tiie minister or ministers of 
the said church and congregation." Both Professor and Mrs. Hope had, for many 



204 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

years, taken a deep interest in the welfare of the Second church, and by their liberal 
gifts and active co-operation in all church work, had contributed largely to its pros- 
perity. 

Elders John T. Robinson and A. Cruser Rowland having died, and James Wylie 
having removed from Princeton during Dr. Mann's ministry, the only elder re- 
maining was Nathaniel Titus. On the 9th of April, 1865, C. S. Cook and Geo. II. 
Burroughs were elected to the eldership, and having accepted, they were subsequent- 
ly installed. 

At a meeting held on April 17, 1865, the Rev. Charles E.Hart was elected 
pastor, but declined the appointment. 

About the 1st of January, 1S66, the Rev. Dr. Mcllvaine, of the college, accepted 
an invitation to supply the pulpit of the Second church, and discharge pastoral 
duties until a pastor should be obtained. 

REV. SPENCER L. FINNEY, PASTOR. 

In the spring of 1865 the Rev. Spencer L. Finney, pastor of a Reformed (Pres- 
byterian) church in the city of New York, removed with his family to Princeton, re- 
taining his pastoral charge in New York. During the year he preached occasion- 
ally in one or other of the Princeton churches, and took part in the weekly meetings 
for prayer. His services were always highly appreciated. The observance of the 
day of prayer for schools and colleges, in February, 1865, was followed with a 
precious outpouring of the spirit on our college. The gracious work extended into 
the town, and so deep was the interest that tiie pastors of the Presbyterian, Metho- 
dist and Baptist churches united in recommending to the community the observance 
of Thursday, the l6th of March, as a day of fasting and prayer for the continuance 
and increase of the blessing. Union services were held in the First Presbyterian 
church in the forenoon, in the Second church in the afternoon, and in the Metho- 
dist church in the evening. Seldom, if, ever, has a fast d^y been observed in Prince- 
ton with more marked solemnity. I\Iost of the places of business were closed, and 
crowded audiences attended the appointed services. By invitation of the pastors, 
Mr. Finney preached at the morning service in the First church. Throughout the 
exercises the presence of the spirit of God was specially manifested. Both preacher 
and hearers were evidently moved with unwonted power by His gracious influence. 
This service did much to confirm the impression which had previously been made, 
that the interests of religion in this community would be greatly promoted by se- 
curing, if possible, Mr. Finney as the pastor of our church. Our inal)ility to offer 
him an adequate salary seemed for the lime an insuperable obstacle. In this emer- 
gency the same generous benefactress of our churcli, who had contributed one-third 
of the salary of the previous pastor, proposed that if the church should call Mr. 
Finney on a salary of $1,000 she would for three years supplement it by the addi- 
tion of $800. The offer was accepted and Mr. Finney was unanimously called to 
the pastorate at a congregational meeting, held June I2th, 1866. Although the ac- 
ceptance of this call required of Mr. Finney a considerable pecuniary sacrifice, the 
providence of God seemed to indicate that it was his duty to enter on the respon- 
sible field of labor to which he had been invited. He accordingly accepted the 
call and was installed pastor, August 31, 1866. 

When Mr. Finney entered on his duties it was with the deep conviction on his 
own mind, and on the minds of others interested in the welfare of the church, that 



THE SECOND PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 205 

the time had come for the erection of a new cluirch edifice. Almost every pew in 
each church was rented. Increased church accommodations were indispensable if 
Presbyterianism was to make any advance in Princeton. As no one at tliat time 
suggested the enlargement of the First church, liie work seemed to devolve upon us. 
In determining the character and site of the new building there Was, for a time, 
a difference of opinion among those interested. Some favored the enlargement of 
the old church or the erection ofa new one on the same site, as more convenient 
for that portion of the population residing in the eastern part of the town. On the 
other hand, it was urged, that after twenty years' exjierience there was no tendency 
in the Presbyterian portion of the community to divide geographically. The grepter 
part of the Presbyterians in the eastern part of the town continued in communion 
with the First church, while a large proportion of the members of the Second 
church resided in the western part of the town. A building near the central part of 
the town would be more convenient to at least two-thiids of the Second church 
congregation. It was urged further that if our church was ever to become self-sus- 
taining, a large edifice in the central part of the town was indispensable. Tliese 
considerations prevailed, yet a serious obstacle seemed to be the expense of such a 
site as was needed. By the generosity of the same friend of the church, to whose 
benefactions we have p.eviously had occasion to refer, this obstacle was removed. 
She proposed to purchase the valuable lot on which liie building now stands (then 
covered in part with the unsightly relics ofa dilapidated foundry) and present it to 
the church provided the congiegation should conclude that it was the most desira- 
ble location, and would proceed to erect upon it such an edifice as was needed. 
At a meeting of the congregation, held July 31, 1866— subsequent to the call of 
Mr. Finney, but before his acceptance and installation— after due deliberation and 
prayer for Divine direction, it was resolved " that the generous offer of Mrs. Susan 
D. Brown, ofa lot at the corner of Chambers and Nassau Streets, be accepted, and 
that immediate measures be taken for the erection thereon of a new church edifice." 
A building committee was appointed consisting of the Tlev. Mr. Finney, Elder C. 
S. Cook, A. L. Rowland and myself. Mrs. Brown was also laade an honorary mem- 
ber of the committee. As soon as practicable a plan for the building was adopted, 
the necessary drawings and specifications prepared, the work commenced under the 
superintendence of Mr. John Murphy, and before the close of the year 1866 the 
foundation walls were completed, at an expense of about $5,000. 

On May 15, 1867, a contract was entered into with Mr. Henry W. Leard to 
finish the building, with the exception of the spire, for $45,300. To diminish the 
immediate expense, it was subsequently thought best to leave the front of the build- 
ing, including the tower, in its present unfinished state, and for these omissions a 
deduction was made from the amount above mentioned of $5,700. The entire 
cost of the lot and building, as it now stands, was about §55,000. While we would 
devoutly exjiress our gratitude to God for Mis favor toward us throughout our un- 
dertaking, it is proper that we should record our obligation to His instrument, 
through whose munificent liberality we were cnaljled to prosecute our work to its 
present state of completion. Thirty thousand dollars — more than one-half the 
entire cost of this lot and building— were contributed l)y Mrs. Susan D. Brown, 
and so long as this edifice stands, it will stand a monument of her generosity and 
of her love for the Church of her Redeemer. 

The labors of the Rev. J. H. Mcllvaine, D.D., in obtaining pecuniary aid de- 



206 HISTORY OF PRINCETOISf. 

serve grateful mention in this record. He presented the claims of our church in 
several of the pulpits of New York city, and subsequently by personal ajiplication 
obtained contributions amounting to over $5,000. Several tiiousand dollars addi- 
tional were obtained in New York, through otiier friends of the church. Among 
the contributors we find the names of some well known in this community for their 
generous interest in Princeton : R. L. and A. Stuart (who subscribed §1,000 on 
condition that the church would seat 1,000 persons), John C. Cliccn, laim--, l.ciiox, 
Wm. Paton, James Brown, John T. Johnson, Harvey P'isk, Tohu A. -:, uuit, Henry 
M. Alexander, Wm. C. Alexander, Ashbel Green, Robert Carter, Mrs. Kdwin Ste- 
vens. The subscriptions in Princeton, outside of our own congregation, amounted 
to about $1,500, contributed Ijy Joseph H. Bruere, John F. Hageman, Charles 
Hodge, Alex. T. McGill, Wm. H. Green, C. W. 1 lodge, George Sheldon, Arnold 
Guyot, George T. Olmsted, James VanDeventer, S. W. Olden, John R. Slayback. 

At the request nf Mrs. Sarah A. P)rown, a portion of her contribution to the 
church was ajipropriated to defraying the expense of the large window in the front 
of the chuich, that it might be a memorial of a beloved daughter. Miss Caroline 
Elmer Ihown, who died in July, 1S67. 

The corner-stone of the building was laid with appnioriale ceremonies on the 
14th day of August, 1S67. Drs. Hodge, Maclean, Mcllvaine, Atwater, Mann, Mr. 
Finney and myself took part in the services. 

The church was dedicated on Thursday, December 4, 1S6S. The sermon on the 
occasion was jjreached by Dr. Hodge. In the afternoon Dr. McCosh, who had re- 
cently been inaugurated president of the college, preached to a crowded audience 
— with the exception of a sermon delivered in the college chapel, the first sermon 
preached by him in tiiis country afier his arrival. 

Mr. Finney continued pastor of the church about six years. During his minis- 
try 156 were added to the church, 75 of these by profession of faith — about the same 
number that was received by profession to the communion of the First church lUir- 
ing the same period. While his labors were thus blessed in the admi.ision of mem- 
bers the church lost a number of its more prominent members by death and by 
removal from Princeton, so that the financial strength of the congregation was con- 
siderably diminished. The debt of the church — at the time of the iledication about 
$8, coo, and which was subsequently increased — ])roved a serious obstacle to its 
prosperity. It was found impossible to pay the interest on this large sum and also 
the pastor's salary and other current expenses. Under these circumstances 
Mr. Finney felt it his duty to tender his resignation, to take effect November i, 
1871. 

During the pastorate of Mr. Finney, Alexander Gray was elected to the elder- 
ship, January 23, 1S67, and J. T. L. Anderson and Cornelius l>al:er, September 30, 
1S70. For more than a year the church was without a pastor. 

While the church was without a pastor, a vigorous effort was made to liquidate 
the debt of the church. A subscription paper was circulated, a system of weekly 
contributions through envelopes was introduced, and a collection taken at every 
service. By this effort the debt was reduced to about $6,000. It may be proper to 
mention here that at the commencement of the present year the debt was about 
$5,000, and that in consequence of a proposition of Mrs. Susan D. Brown to pay for 
one year as much as the rest of the congregation may pay weekly through envel- 
opes for the licjuidation of the debt, an effort is now being made which, there is 



THE SECOND PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 20/ 

good reason lo believe, will result in freeing the church from the encumbrance with 
which it has, since tlie erection of tliis edifice, been embarrassed.* 

In the fall of 1873 the Rev. Wm. A. McCorkle, D.D., who had resigned his 
charge in Boston on account of the severity of the climate, removed to Princeton to 
place his sons in college. Having preached on several occasions in both churches, 
his services were received with .such general and decided favor that he was invited 
to take charge of our pulpit for three months, to preach for us whenever his en- 
gagements did not call iiim elsewhere. Before the expiration of this engagement 
the congregation was so impi'cssed with his eminent (}ualifications for the p.^slorate 
of our church that a meeting was called and a committee appointed to canvass the 
congregation, and learn what amount, in addition to tlie ordinary receipts from 
pew-rents, could be obtained by private subscription for his support. To the sur- 
prise and gratification of all, about §;r, 800 were pledged, and he was invited lo 
take charge of our pulpit as stated sup]-)ly for cjue year, on a salary of $3,000. 
It was scarcely to be e-xpectcd that so great a strain on the financial resources of 
the church could be continued, yet so highly esteemed were his ministrations 
that at the end of the year, when an effort lo raise a sum by private sul:)scription 
was again made, the amount pledged was so nearly equal to that of the preceding 
year, that the congregatixjn felt justified in inviting him to continue as stated sup- 
ply for another year on a salary of $3,000, or to be installed as pastor on a salary of 
$2,000. The former proposition was accepted. At the close of the second, vear a 
subscription paper was again circulated. 0\\i\ig U> changes in the financial cir- 
cumstances of tlie congregation, the amount subscribed was somewhat diminished, 
yet the result was such as to enalde the congregation to invite him to continue to 
supply the pulpit for another year on a salary of $2,500. Shortly afler this invita- 
tion, Dr. McCorkle received a call to the pastorate of the Presbyterian church at 
Lake Forest, 111., on a salary of $3,500. Being desirous to obtain a permanent 
settlement, and in view of the fact that our congregation were unable to have him 
installed pastor on a salary adequate to his support, he felt it his duty to accept 
the call to Lake Forest, to the general regret not only of our own church, but of the 
entire community. No other evidence of our high ajipreciation of Dr. McCorkle's 
services is needed than the facts abbve mentioned, that during his ministry, our 
church was able to raise for his support a sum three-fold that which had been given 
to the previous pastor, and much larger than had ever before been given to any 
minister in Princeton. His labors here throughout, and especially at the close of 
his ministry, were attended -by the Divine blessing. Not only was tlie congregation 
largely increased, but during his ministry of about two and a half years, the admis- 
sions to the church, including the first fruits of a revival that was in progress at 
the time of his withdrawal, were 106. Of these 49 were received on profession of 
faith. He left the church larger in numbers and more flourishing, both as to its tem- 
poral and spiritual interests, than it had been at any previous period of its liistory. 

The number of present members, according to the last report made to Presby- 
tery, is 213." 

REV. L. W. MUDGF, PASTOR. 

A call was made March 13th, 1877, and sent to the Rev. 
Lewis Ward Mudge, of Yonkers, New York, to the pastorate 

* The debt has since been paid. 



208 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

of this church, and it was accepted. His installation took 
place May nth, 1877. Mr. Mudge was a graduate of Prince- 
ton, and served as tutor in the college from 1864 to 1867. He 
receives a yearly salary of $2,200. There has not been hitherto 
a parsonage connected with this church. During the past year 
the entire balance of the church debt has been paid, and at the 
present time a very eligible parsonage is being built by Miss 
Sophia C. V. C. Stevens, on a lot in Stockton Street, between 
Mrs. Olmsted's and the Episcopal parsonage, a generous gift 
from Miss Stevens to the church. 

The church edifice is built of Princeton stone, brown stone 
trimmings, with a lecture-room or chapel two stories high across 
the rear connecting with the church. The audience room is 
very large, with three galleries, and will seat over a thousand 
persons. More than twice that number were within its walls 
when Moody and Sankey were there. The chapel is a very 
attractive one, holding about 300 persons, and seated with 
movable chairs. It is altogether a very imposing and attract- 
ive church in both its exterior and interior. It only lacks its 
spire to make it rank with the grandest public buildings in the 
town. Its location on the corner of Nassau and Chambers 
Streets — a lot which belonged to James Hamilton and which 
was long in the Stockton family — is central and eligible. The 
entrance to the chapel ,is on Chambers Street. The church 
needs a bell, and it is the right place for a town clock. 

The organization of this church was a commendable enter- 
prise, but it was commenced too late and was kept too long in 
its swaddling clothes. The munificent liberality of Mrs. David 
Brown and the energy which her will and purse inspired se- 
cured for it its present advantageous position. It is now a 
power, not to hurt the mother church, but to help her and to 
provoke her unto good works. 

THE PRESENT OFFICERS OF THE CHURCH. 

Pastor — Rev. Lewis W. Mudge. 

Ruling EliL-ts — Cornelius Baker, Nathaniel W. Titus, George H. Burroughs. 
James T. L. Anderson. 

Deacons— Y.\\]:i\\ Allen, P. J. Wilson. 

Trustees— V\o{. J. T. Duffield, Leroy H. Anderson, Chas. S. Robinson, Andrew 
1-. Rowland J. T. L. Anderson, G. H. Burroughs and P. J. Wilson. 

Treasurer — A. L. Rowland. 

Sexton — Abram S. Leigh. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

THE WITHERSPOON STREET CHURCH. 

This is the colored Presbyterian church of Princeton, which 
was set off from the First church. As early as 1837, soon after 
the rebuilding of the First church after the fire of 1835, a com- 
mittee of the trustees of that church was appointed to confer 
with its colored members in reference to their returning to the 
new church. Professor A. B. Dod and Mr. Lawrence were 
that committee. A month later the trustees resolved that 
one more attempt should be made to induce the colored people 
to organize by themselves, and Messrs. Dod and Lawrence 
were appointed to carry it into effect. This committee soon 
after reported " that they had done their duty but had not ob- 
tained their object." 

On the 4th of September, 1840, Col. John Lowrey, elder 
of the First church, on behalf of the colored people, requested 
permission from the session to have a separate communion in 
their own church. A church had, before that time, been built 
for them in VVitherspoon Street — the same that is now their 
place of worship—principally through the efforts of Dr. John 
Breckinridge, who received from James Lenox, of New York, 
$500 towards paying the debt for building. The Rev. Dr. 
James VV. Alexander preached for them for several years. 

On March 10, 1846, the colored members of the First church 
to the number of ni)iety-tivo were, at their request, dismissed 
to form a new church under the name of" the First Presbyterian 
Church, of Color of Princeton," and the church was organized 
by Dr. B. H. Rice, Dr. John Maclean and Joseph H. Davis, 
elder, a committee of the Presbytery of New Brunswick. In 
1848 the name of the church was changed to " the Withcrspoon 
Street e/iurchy 

• There were on the roll of the First church at that time 131 
14 



210 HISTORY OF PRINCETO.V. 

names of colored members ; but the real number of living mem- 
bers was ninety-two. 

At the head of the roll stood the name of Betsey Stockton, 
who had joined the church, Sept. 20, 1816. She had been a 
servant in the family of the Rev. Dr. Ashbel Green, and he was 
her steadfast friend till he died. She was also in the family of 
the Rev. Charles Stewart and accompanied him as a missiona- 
j ry to the Sandwich Islands in 1823, We took some notice of 
her in a previous chapter when considering the pastorate of 
the Rev. Mr. WoodhuU (p. 121). She was a woman of sterling 
character and was an excellent teacher. Very many of the 
colored people of Princeton are indebted to her for their educa- 
tion. She died A. D. i860. 

Flora Stryker, whose name was sixth on the roll, is now 
first of the living members. She joined Sept. 13, 1822. 

Peter Scuddcr was noted in Princeton, but there are not many 
of the students now living who knew him or remember him. 
He was commonly called " Peter Polite." He was a boot-black 
in college, and sold apples and ice cream to the students of the 
college and seminary. He accumulated some property and 
owned and kept an ice cream shop and confectionery in Nassau 
Street, where Railroad Avenue has been opened. He was a 
faithful, honest, obliging man, and most distinguished for his 
genuine politeness and civility. He died at a good old age in 
or about the year 1848. 

Anthony Simmons was well known and highly esteemed as 
a civil, intelligent and honest man. He kept an ice cream 
saloon, oyster cellar and confectionery on Nassau Street, next 
to the property of James VanDeventer. He was a caterer for 
families and associations, and as such was employed for many 
years to get up public dinners and entertainment for evening 
parties. He was a native of Alexandria, D. C. He died in 1868. 
He left a will and disposed of about half a dozen houses in 
Princeton, and devised to this church in which he was a dea- 
con and a trustee, one for a parsonage. His old stand in Nassau 
Street has been occupied by his widow till her death within the 
last year or two. 

Among its ruling elders have been David Van Tyne, 
Anthony Voorhees, Horace Scudder, David Little, Thomas 



THE WITHERSPOON STREET CHURCH. 211 

Beekman, Joseph Ten Eyck, Isaac Stockton, John Voorhees, 
Matthias Van Horn. 

The pulpit has been, for the most part, well supplied by 
competent and sometimes superior preachers. After Dr. James 
W. Alexander removed from Princeton the following- persons 
were employed as stated supplies, viz.: E. P. Rogers, C. W. 
Gardner, A. P. Cobb. Professor Giger was a stated supply for 
six years, from 1858 to 1864. John Wiley then supplied it for 
a year, and was succeeded by John Johns, Mr. Lockerby and 
Wm. H. Thomas. Then the Rev. James Stebbins was a stated 
supply for four years till 1875. Since that time Mr. Booher 
supplied it for a year, and Mr. Hugh M. Brown, who has been 
elected its pastor, has been a supply for the last two years. 
The church has been enlarged and improved within the last 
two years. It has been visited frequently with revivals. Its 
membership has been as high as 122, but in 1876 it was re- 
ported to be 75. It has been increased since and is now up- 
wards of 100. 



CHAPTER XXV. 

THE AFRICAN METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 

Tins church was organized in Princeton in 1836. They at 
first worshipped in a little frame school house in Witherspoon 
Street, quite near the present church. The present edifice is 
built of brick, rough cast, with a basement under it for Sunday 
school and other meetings. It was built in i860. A parson- 
age has been purchased within the past year. The church 
bears the name of " Mt. Pisgah." It has a large membership 
and Sunday school. The records of the congregation have 
been so negligently kept that we can glean nothing of special 
interest in the history of the church. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH. 

The Roman Catholic portion of this community dates its 
commencement from the years of Ireland's famine, 1846 and 
1847. Being principally engaged on the canal and railroad 
work, a clergyman from New Brunswick monthly attended, on 
Sunday, to their spiritual necessities till the year 1850 when 
the Rev. Mr. Scollard took up a permanent residence in 
the place and became the first local pastor. It must be men- 
tioned that the late ex-Gov. Olden permitted Catholic service 
to be held in one of his houses, situated in the neighborhood 
of the canal,* till the first Catholic pastor, Rev. Mr. Scollard, 
raised a small stone church to suit or accommodate the increas- 
ing number of its members. This small edifice having been 
constructed without proper superintendence in the beginning, 
in a few years it gave way or tumbled down on the occasion of 
a mission or Catholic revival being given by a band of mission- 
ary priests, fathers Hewit and Baker, the latter a quondam 
alumnus of the college of New Jersey. 

The Rev. Alfred Young, a graduate of this college, suc- 
ceeded Father Scollard in 1857 as rector of the Catholic ])eo- 
ple ; his stay among them was three years, having retired into 
a religious order of clergymen called the Paulist Fathers, on 
59th St., New York. During his ministrations he purchased 
the present Catholic property, erected a small frame building 
of a church, 60 by 35, as substitute for the first stone one. 

The Rev. Mr. O'Donnell supplied Mr. Young's place in 
i860 and remained attending this and other missions up to 
May, 1867. The work done by him was to pay off the balance 
of church debt encumbering the property secured by his pre- 
decessor. 

* It was James Boyle, tenant of Gov. Olden, who opened his house to the service. 



214 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

The Rev. T. R. Moran was appointed to fill Mr. O'Don- 
nell's place. During his time a brick church with stone trim- 
mings, at a cost of $25,000, has been erected. A fine pastoral 
residence, valued at seven thousand dollars, has also been put 
up. A sisterhood (calling themselves the Sisters of Mercy,) 
has been established to superintend the parochial school, num- 
bering two hundred children of both sexes, and to provide and 
look after the wants of the sick and indigent. 

Societies have been established among his people to keep 
their minds united with thoughts of religion ; for the men, such 
as the Temperance Society and the Young Men's Literary So- 
ciety ; for the women, Rosary Society and the Sodality of the 
Children of Mary. 

The cemetery adjoins the church and is much spoken of for 
its situation and excellent preservation. The Catholic con- 
gregation, appertaining to Mr. Moran's charge, musters about 
one thousand. The church property is valued at from seventy 
to eighty thousand dollars, acknowledged to be the most beau- 
tiful in the country. The church, next year, 1879, will be free 
of all church debt.* 

It is with pleasure that we add to Father Moran's fore- 
going narrative that a more liberal and Christian feeling now 
exists between the Roman Catholic and the Protestant popu- 
lation of Princeton, than has ever before existed. This better 
state of feeling has been slowly growing for several years 
past, but most noticeably since the present pastor, the Rev. 
Mr. Moran, has been placed over the Roman Catholic congre- 
gation. There is a commendable mutual respect shown in the 
intercourse between him and the Protestant ministers for one 
another. This is not confined to personal salutations in the 
streets, but extends to the exchange of calls and to conferences 
and cooperation in public and social reforms. It is no longer 
a rare thing to see Protestant ministers and laymen inside of the 
Roman Catholic church, or to see the Roman Catholic pastor 
and his people inside of the Protestant churches. This is chief- 
ly due to the high Christian character of P^ather Moran, whose 
daily life abounds in good works, among his people; who 

* Father Moran has furnished the foregoing statement. 



THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH. 21 5 

is ever watching to rescue the perishing and ever ready to 
speak a good word for temperance and education. He appre- 
ciates the institutions of learning in the community, treats the 
professors with respect, advocates the enh"ghtenment of the 
masses, and in return receives a most respectful consideration 
from the whole community. 

The presence of such a man is not only a blessino- to his 
own people, by inspiring them with confidence in, and respect 
for, men and women who are outside of their church and thus 
breaking down long cherished and hateful prejudices, but it 
tends to remove from Protestant ministers and people the 
same unchristian and illiberal prejudices which have been in 
like manner growing wi^.h their growth from childhood. With- 
out demanding of either side the surrender or compromise of 
any vital principle of their faith, the chasm between these two 
great divisions of Christendom can be diminished, if not at once 
bridged, by the infusion of more charity and less bigotry in es- 
timating the differences in their respective ways of salvation. 
It is execrable to foist into the platforms of political parties an 
unnecessary issue of religious faith, to inflame the passions of 
men and carry an election thereby. If any religious denomina- 
tion seeks to ride upon the wave of party politics, let all others 
combine to defeat such an attempt. But where Christians have 
one and the same cross, one and the same salvation, and sub- 
stantially one and the- same Bible, the question of Bible in 
schools could more wisely be adjusted by mutual confidence 
and Christian charity than by an angry appeal to a political 
campaign. To get the great Roman Catholic church and the 
great Protestant church to recognize each other as Christian 
believers and to see eye to eye, would seem to be a mission 
worthy of an arch-angel to undertake; and yet the spirit of 
mutual confidence and respect, which is taking growth in 
Princeton between the representatives of these two divisions 
and among the more liberal and enlightened people themselves 
is the jeaven, which if diffused, will leaven the wholejump. 

This closes our history of the churches of Princeton. There 
is public worship every Sabbath morning, in the Seminary 
chapel, attended by the students and professors and their fami- 



2l6 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

lies and others who wish to attend. The professors preach al- 
ternately. In like manner there is preaching in the college 
chapel on Sabbath morning to the students who do not wish 
to attend service at some church. The clerical professors 
preach alternately here, but there is no organized church in 
either of these institutions. 



CHAPTER XXVII. 

ACADEMIES AND SCHOOLS. 

We have no account of any school in Princeton previous 
to the removal of the college hither. There can be no doubt 
that there were elementary schools in the neighborhood, per- 
haps none nearer than Stony Brook, The Friends, who built 
a church there in 1709, undoubtedly had a school, but how 
early it was when a school house was built we cannot learn. 
We have shown that a thorough school organization was in full 
operation, in connection with the Quaker church at Stony 
Brook, as early as 1781.* And it is reasonable to believe that 
this school was the principal one, if not the only one, before 
the college was established here in 1757. 

President Burr maintained a Latin school, in connection with 
the college, upon his removal here. The Rev. William Ten- 
nent, in a letter to Dr. Finley, dated Feb. 27, 1757, describing 
the great revival in Princeton at that date, says, " The glorious 
ray reached the Latin ScJioql and much affected the master and 
a number of the scholars." After the death of President Burr, 
and before President Edwards entered upon his official duties 
in college, the Rev. David Cowell, acting as president in the 
interim, was authorized by the trustees to " engage an usher 
for the ' grammar school ; ' " and after President Edwards was 
duly qualified and had entered upon his office, it was voted by 
the trustees that " the president should have the care and gov- 
ernment of the grammar school and introduce geography, his- 
tory and chronology, if he deemed it proper." This was in 
the latter part of the year 1757 or in the beginning of the year 
following. 

After President Finley's death William Tennent was presi- 
dent pro tern. The grammar school becoming chargeable to 
* See ant., chap. 18, p. 63. 



21 8 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

the college, it was " resolved to continue it no longer, and that 
Mr. Avery, the teacher, be discharged from service ; still if he 
was disposed to continue it at his own risk he might be at 
liberty to do so." This was in 1766-67. It is ascertained that 
in 1766 Joseph Periam, a tutor in college, had charge of the 
school in Princeton. 

Dr. WoodhuU says, " The number of students when I en- 
tered was 100, about 50 boys in the school, 150 in all in the 
edifice. The school was under care of trustees. Most of the 
boys boarded in college, ate in the dining room by themselves. 
Excellent teachers, Joseph Periam and Tapping Reeve." See 
notes of Dr. Green. 

This school was undoubtedly suspended during the Revo- 
lutionary War, for in 1779 President Witherspoon and W. 
Churchill Houston published a circular in the Nciv Jersey 
Gazette, giving public notice that the grammar school which 
had been commenced in 1778 was continued. 

In the year 1780 Robert Finley attended the grammar 
school in Princeton, which was then under the charge of Presi- 
dent Witherspoon. Ashbel Green, while in college, gave one 
half of his time in assisting to teach in this school. And after 
Robert P^'inley graduated, which was in 1787, his biographer 
says he taught as an assistant in Dr. Witherspoon's grammar 
school.* 

Samuel S. Smith advertised in the N. J. Gazette, in Febru- 
ary, 1786, for a teacher of the English school in Princeton; also 
for a teacher for the girls' school adjoining. 

The earliest effort made by the citizens of Princeton to es- 
tablish an Academy, of which we have an authentic record in the 
original subscription paper, still extant, having been preserved 
among the papers of the late Dr. Ebenezer Stockton, was in 
January, 1790. The following is a copy of the paper: 

"We, wliose names are hereunto subscribed, do promise and engage to pay on 
demand to Robert Stockton and James Moore, or to their order, the sums severally 
annexed to our names for the purpose of establishing an insiiiulion in this place for 
the instruction of youth in the various branches of literature ; and for the encourage- 
ment and security of the generous and liberal minded, it is hereby agreed, that each 



* Brown's Life of Dr. Robert Finley, 14-15. 



ACADEMIES AND SCHOOLS. 



219 



and every person who sliall subscribe and actually pay as aforesaid any sum not less 
than ten pounds money of New Jersey, shall, in consequence thereof, become one 
of the proprietors and directors of said institution, anil that every other sum sub- 
scribed, of less denomination than ten dollars, shall be considered as i^enerously 
given for carrying into effect tlie above mentioned lauilable undertaking. 
'^Princeton, ycTnuary 2, 1790." 

Thomas Wiggins, 
Enos Kelsey, 
Robert Stockton, 
J. Harrison, 
James Moore 
Isaac Anderson, 
Joseph Leigh, 
Aaron Mattison, (work) 
David Hamilton, 

do do (gioss) 

John Thompson, 
Samuel Stout, 
John Hamilton, 
Zebulon Morford, 
Noah Morford, 
Conant Cone, 
Christopher Stryker, 
Derrick Longstreet, 

We notice in the foregoing list of names, only two which ap- 
peared among the subscribers for building the church in Prince- 
ton in 1762, viz: Thomas Wiggins and Derrick Longstreet. 
The name of Richard Stockton appears in both papers, but 
one was the father and tlie other the son. A generation had 
just passed since that time. These subscription papers are in- 
teresting records, to show who were the active and enterpris- 
ing men of the times. 

The proposed school was established, and it seems quite' 
certain that the association erected their school building on' 
the Presbyterian church lot, on the east end of the church, and 
near the line of the president's grounds. There are those stillj 
living who remember this building, and who may have gone! 
there to school. 

The associated proprietors of this school availed them- 
selves of the law, passed Nov. 27, 1794, entitled, " An act to 
incorporate societies for the promotion of learning," and in 
April, 1795, complied with the requirements of that act ; they 



£ 


s. d. 




& 


s. 


10 


10 6 


Joseph Olden, 


3 




10 




Josiah Skelton, (timber) 


4 


16 


10 




Wm. Scudder, 


7 


10 


10 




Isaac VaiiDike, 


6 




10 




Thomas IJlackwell, 


I 


10 


10 




Aliraham Cruser, 


I 


10 


3 


10 


Richard Stockton, 


10 




5 




James Hamilton, 


10 




3 




Richard Stockton, for Mr. — 


- 10 




I 


10 


Isaac Snowden, Jr., 


10 




3 


10 


Samuel Stille, (work) 


3 




I 


15 


Stephen Morford, 


3 


10 


3 


10 


Henry Purey, 


3 


10 


3 


10 


rhilip Stockton, 


5 




3 


10 


John Jones, 


I 


10 


3 




Jared Sortor, 


3 


10 


2 


15 


Samuel Knox, 


2 




2 




James Campbell, 


1 


10 



220 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

held a public meeting upon notice, which was largely attended 
by the influential citizens of the place, among them Dr. Smith 
and Dr. Minto of the college, and elected five trustees, viz : 
George Morgan, Dr. Thovias l'Viggi)is, James Hamilton, John 
Harrison afid StcpJien Morford. These trustees met at their 
school-house on the 27th of April, 1795, and elected George 
Morgan, for their president, and under their hands and seals, 
agreeably to the law, adopted the corporate name of " The 
Trustees of the Princeton Academy," which was made a mat- 
ter of record in the Middlesex Clerk's office. 

We are not able to detail the history of this academy. 
There were probably two rooms or departments in it ; one 
classical and the other English. It seems to have been the 
village school. Mr. Henry Clow, in his reminiscences of 
Princeton in 1804, mentions the village school-house adjoining 
the president's house, and that Mr. Adrain, who afterwards 
became professor of mathematics in Columbia College, was 
then the teacher of it. 

We find in the minutes of the trustees of the church, under 
date of October 21, 1814, an entry, that notice was given by 
the Rev. Mr. Schenck, the pastor, in the pulpit, of a meeting 
of the congregation and citizens, in the academy on the next 
Monday, about removing the school-house. This was just 
after the church was rebuilt. It seems that the school-house 
or academy was not consumed in the conflagration of the 
church. We have no data to fix the time when this building 
was removed, but it was probably done at, or soon after, the 
time of that meeting. It was removed to the corner of 
the lot on Stockton and Bayard Streets, and converted into a 
dwelling house. 

Dr. James W. Alexander says that he attended the 
classical school, taught by the Rev. Jared W. Fyler, in 18 13. 
The Rev. James Carnahan was the successor of Mr. Fyler, 
and David Comfort was the successor of Mr. Carnahan, and 
James Hamilton was the successor of Mr. Comfort. Samuel 
J. Bayard says that he went to school to Mr. Carnahan at 
this academy, on the church lot. 

Mr. Hamilton, in 1814, became assistant to his brother-in- 
law, Rev. Jared W. Fyler, in the Princeton Academy. After 



ACADEMIES AND SCHOOLS. 221 

Fyler removed, Hamilton established a school ; there, the 
three Alexanders and Dr. Kirk were his pupils. 

In 1817-18, Dr. Lindsley opened a select classical school in 
Princeton, and Salmon Story was at the head of it.* 

In the year 1822 a new academy was established in Prince- 
ton. It was a stone building, two stories high, with a cupola 
and bell, and was situate on the west side of Washington Street 
on the hill adjoining Prospect. We believe it was built by a 
joint stock company. The late highly distinguished Rev, 
Robert Baird, D.D., then a theological student in Princeton, 
a private teacher and a tutor in college, became the principal 
of this new academy. He was a successful teacher, and had 
among his pupils at this school, Addison Alexander, William 
B. Napton, late chief justice of Missouri, David Comfort, and 
William King, of Savannah. He retained this school till the 
year 1828. An English school was taught in one room and a 
classical one in the other. After Mr. Baird withdrew from it, 
it was taught by several others successively, among them were 
Mr. Maynard, Mr. Sears and George W. Schenck. 

This academy was quite an important public building and 
it became the public school building of the village in 1840, after 
having stood unused for several years. It is about twenty-five 
years since Mr. Thomas Potter bought the property and tore 
the building down. The lot remains in the Potter family and 
has not been built upon since. 

It is now difficult to ascertain where the common schools 
were taught during the period between the removal of the first 
academy and the erection of the second. There was one taught 
by Nathaniel Olden, in a school building which stood on Gov. 
Olden's land, by the gate which opens into his grounds and 
which is now used for his carriage house. Another school was 
taught at Queenston by William Downie. 

The Edgehill High School was established in 1829. 
The Rev. Robert Gibson bought a beautiful tract of land 
in the west end of the town, and built on the edge of the hill 
a handsome brick house fronting on Stockton Street. This 

* Life of Addison Alexander, vol. I, p. 38. 



222 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

house, in 1830, was taken by Prof. Patton for his school, and 
it was named EdgcJiill, and enlarj^ed from time to time by ad- 
ditions, one of which was a frame building forty-eight by twenty- 
four feet, with dormitories above. The whole building is large 
and imposing in appearance, admirably adapted for a classical 
school, sufficiently out of the town to be quiet and retired and 
sufficiently near to be convenient. Thirteen acres of land were 
attached to it, affording beautiful lawns and slopes for ornament, 
for shade, for play-ground and for garden. Its situation com- 
mands a beautiful and extensive view of the surrounding coun- 
try, making it a very attractive and choice location for a board- 
ing school. 

Professor ROBERT B. Patton maybe regarded as the found- 
er of this school. He kept it the first year in the Bayard House. 
He took none but boarding scholars, and those must be under 
twelve years old ; and it was, from the first, one of the best 
and most thorough schools in the country, but was very severe- 
ly rigid in its government and rules. Professor Patton, in 1825, 
had been elected professor in Princeton college. He was a 
highly accomplished scholar in the classics and modern lan- 
guages. He had spent much time in Europe in study. He 
had a rare library, and he resigned his chair in College to take 
charge of this school. While at Edgehill he, in connection 
with J. Addison Alexander, his assistant teacher, edited an 
edition of Donncgmi s Greek Lexicon. 

Professor Patton had studied law with Alex. J. Dallas in 
Philadelphia. His father was postmaster in that city. 

Professor Patton was succeeded, in 1833, by the Rev. E. C. 
Wines, D. D., the present distinguished philanthropist who is 
secretary of the National Prison Reform Association of the 
United States. Mr. Wines was also a fine scholar and an able 
teacher, and he had the sole charge of the school until 1836, 
when he associated with him John S. Hart, who had been 
assistant professor of ancient languages in Nassau Hall for sev- 
eral years. In 1837 Professor Hart took the entire charge of 
the school, and he held it as a flourishing school until 1841, 
when he withdrew and removed to Philadelphia. Professor 
Hart has recently occupied the chair of English Literature in 
Nassau Hall. 



ACADEMIES AND SCHOOLS. 223 

For two years after this there was no school at Edgehill, 
The property was sold. 

In 1843 David Pratt, of New York, bought the Edgehill 
property and opened a classical boarding school there. After 
a few years he abandoned it and Mr. Helm took it and he 
transferred it to Wm. Hughes, who held it for a short time. 

It soon passed into the hands of the Rev\ Thomas W. Cat- 
tell, who afterwards became associated with his brother, the 
Rev. William C. Cattell, now president of Lafayette College. 
They purchased the property and improved it and established 
a new and good reputation for the school. They introduced 
military instruction and drill into the institution, and had a 
large number of pupils. 

In the year 1861, the Rev. A. D. White, of Trenton, united 
with the Rev. Thomas W. Cattell as joint-principals -of the 
school, the Rev. William C. Cattell having become president 
of Lafayette College. Mr. White did not remain long con- 
nected with it, and Rev, Mr. Chapin, of Trenton, took his 
place for a short time ; and in 1869, Mr. Cattell removed the 
school to Mercharitville, near Camden, N. J., and sold the 
Edgehill property at public sale, to Commodore Emmons, for 
$19,100. The Commodore has fitted it up handsomely for a 
private residence, and occupies it with his family at present. 

There have been other private and more select classical 
schools for day scholars, and perhaps a few boarding schools, 
taught in private houses, or small school buildings. Among 
such, were the schools taught by Rev. Frederick Knighton, 
the Rev. George IV. Sclienck, John C. Sche)iek, George H. Bur- 
roughs, Robert Criiiksliank, J. Hoivard O'Brioi, William Nev- 
ius, and others. 

The Marquand Preparatory School, under the aus- 
pices of the college, established in 1873, through the gift of 
Henry G. Marquand, of New York, is a valuable accession to 
the college. It is a much needed institution, and the reluctance 
manifested by the trustees and faculty of the college, for many 
years, to aid in maintaining a classical school in Princeton, in 
connection with the college, was, we think, a mistaken policy. 
Every college ought to have an advanced school, in which 



224 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

students who are withheld from entering college, on account 
of their youth, or for other reasons, can be properly advanced, 
even for the Junior class. Mr. Marquand, happily, knew the 
want of such a school in Princeton, and his liberality in provid- 
ing $30,000 towards it, overcame the objections of the trustees, 
and secured a property a little out of town, on the road to 
Kingston, the new and handsome residence of Edward Howe, 
which has been adapted to the purpose of a boarding and day 
school of such character. The buildings and ground, — and 
several acres of land, — cost originally, $20,000, without the ad- 
ditional improvements for the school. The school is about a 
mile and a half from the college, with a pavement laid all the 
way to it, and an omnibus running to and from it. 

It was first under the direct management of Mr. Dabney, 
of Va., the principal, a teacher and classical scholar of honora- 
ble distinction. The school is, and has been prosperous, and 
is aiming to fulfill the design of its founders. The Rev. 
Charles J. Collins, of Wilkesbarre, Pa., succeeded Mr. Dabney 
as principal of the school, in 1875, and is now at the head of 
the institution. It receives both boarding and day scholars. 
There are about thirty boarders, and three teachers. 

Princeton has never been famous for its P^EMALE BOARD- 
ING Schools and Seminaries. That of Miss Hanna was per- 
haps the prominent one. It was kept in the Col. Beatty house. 
The Misses Simpson advertised a seminary for young ladies in 
the house of Josias P"erguson, in 1832, at from three to six 
dollars a quarter — both high and low studies. In 1834, Miss 
Hoyes advertised her Female Seminary. Board, and tuition in 
the English branches, $75 per session, extra for drawing, 
painting, music, Latin and French, ornamental work, chemi- 
cal, and other lectures. Then follow those of Miss Alden, the 
Misses Craig, the Rev. Mr. Hood, Mr. David Comfort, and 
lastly that of Mrs. Hosmer and Miss Rockwell — all boarding 
schools. There have been various private schools, both ele- 
mentary and high, kept by very competent teachers. 

The notion has been very prevalent in former years, and 
still is so, that an educational town where there are institutions 
like these of Princeton, is an unsuitable place for female board- 



ACADEMIES AND SCHOOLS. 22$ 

ing schools, and that it is unfavorable for bringing up daugh- 
ters even in the most prudent families. Such a notion may- 
well be controverted. There are strong reasons why male and 
female seminaries should co-exist in the same community. 
We need not plead for the co-education of the sexes, in our 
colleges, or high schools, but we may claim that both boys and 
girls, young men and maidens, catch the inspiration of books 
and study, of emulation and competition, in the midst of 
schools and colleges, where the libraries are full of books, and 
the groves are surcharged with an intellectual atmosphere ; 
where both sexes may share alike in the benefit of rare public 
lectures, on the most important subjects of investigation, in 
science, religion or literature, so often prepared and delivered 
by distinguished scholars, in these modern times. If we 
would have the sexes to keep apace in the advance of knowl- 
edge, they must be kept in sight of each other and be alike 
stimulated by the enthusiasm and rewards of competitive 
studies. Why should our sons and daughters be excluded 
from mingling together even in our social life, while they are in 
the course of education, when, if they were not at school, there 
would be no such line of demarcation drawn ? The idea we 
wish to impress is, that study inspires study — the advance of 
one sex in culture and learning has a stimulating influence 
upon the other, when made cognizant of it, and if there be ob- 
jection to the co-education of the sexes in colleges, there should 
be none to the co-existence of male and female colleges in the 
same community. A contrary view would be derogatory to 
the refining and elevating effects of education upon morals and 
manners. 

It would be a surprise to the most aged class of our Prince- 
ton readers if we should fail to note an elementary school for 
boys and girls, taught by Miss Sally Martin for many years, 
during the first quarter of the present century, a school in 
which the children of the best families of the town were in- 
structed in the elements of education and in the Westminster 
Catechism. There the children of President Smith, Richard 
Stockton, Samuel Bayard and others of that class were taught 
promiscuously with the plainer little urchins of the town, all 
running barefoot in summer; and some of those pupils, now 
i5 



226 HISTORY OF PRIA^CETON. 

in advanced age and occupying the highest social position, 
often recur to that early period of their life, and relate amusing 
anecdotes of their experience in that school. She died March 
21, 1834. The name of Miss Phebe Davis was associated with 
that of Miss Sally Martin. 

Within the last fifty years there have been scores of com- 
mon English schools which we need not notice. One of the 
best of these was that of Oliver H. Willis, who kept it in the 
academy in Washington Street for about. two years. He came 
here in 1841. His was a public school and was in advance of 
any that had preceded it. But the school fund was too small 
and the school system too imperfect to insure it permanent 
success as a free school. Mr. Willis removed to Hightstown 
and thence to Freehold and thence to White Plains. N. Y., 
where he established a military school, called the Alexander 
Institute, — a school of high order and in prosperous condition 
at the present time. He was a good educator. 

We have, in former chapters, incidentally mentioned the 
schools of the Princeton Female ]3enevolent Society, taught by 
Miss Lockart, and of the late Betsey Stockton, both of which 
have fulfilled an important mission in this community. 

In 1857 t^''s Princeton districts of the PUBLIC SCHOOLS hav- 
ing become incorporated, with a board of education consisting 
of R. S. Field, J. M. Macdonald, J. T. Duffield and O. H. Bar- 
tine, opened a school under Mr. H. Farrand as principal. This 
board erected the present large and commodious public school 
building in Nassau Street, and in January, 1858, Mr. Farrand 
opened his school in this new building, with five assistant 
female teachers. This was a new era in the public schools of 
Princeton. Professor Phelps, the principal of the State Normal 
School at Trenton, gave his presence and assistance to the or- 
ganization and start of this school. Mr, Farrand had been at 
the Normal school and was recommended by Prof. Phelps. 
Mr. Field and all the members of the board were earnest in 
making the enterprise a success ; and they did not fail. Mr. 
Farrand removed to New York in i860, and William J.Gibby, 
who had been a pupil at the Normal school, was called to take 
the place of Mr. Farrand, and has been the principal of this 



ACADEMIES AND SCHOOLS. 22/ 

school until about two years ago he was succeeded by Mr. 
Hartwell, who is the present principal. The school has been 
well sustained by adequate taxation; the building is thorough- 
ly finished and furnished ; it has a good corps of teachers, and 
attracts from three to four hundred pupils in attendance at a 
time, and it has the sympathy of the community. 

There is a separate department of this public school for col- 
ored pupils, maintained in a new school-house in Witherspoon 
Street, built for that purpose. 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 

PRINCETON COLLEGE. 

The College of New Jersey — Nassau Hall— Princeton College — First Charter in 
1746 — Second Charter in 1748 — Unity of the College under both Charters — 
Object, to promote Piety and sound Learning ; Procured by Presbyterians but 
open to all. — Section I. — Administration of President Dickinson. — Section II. 
—Of President Burr. — Section III. — Of President Edwards. — Section IV. — Of 
President Davies. — Section V. — Of President Finley. — Section VI, — Of Presi- 
dent Witherspoon. — Section K//.— Of President Smith.— i't'c/iOT/ VIII. — Of 
President Green. — Section IX. — Of President Carnalian. — Section X. — Of 
President Maclean. — Section XI. — Of President McCosh. — Section XII. — 
Oflicers and Alumni. — Settion XIII. — Buildings. — Section XIV. — Ldjraiy 
and Appliances. — Section XV. — Endowments and Funds. — Section XVI. — 
Miscellaneous College Items. 

This institution is known in its charter and general history, 
as " The College of New Jersey." It is oftener desig- 
nated in common parlance, as " Nassau Hall," because the 
old and original college building, now known as North College, 
was named by Gov. Belcher, Nassau Hall, to the immortal 
memory of the glorious King William the Third, who was a 
branch of the illustrious house of Nassau, the great deliverer 
of the British nation from those two monstrous furies, as he 
called them. Popery and Slavery. This hall, which was for so 
many years the only building of the college, came to represent 
the college, and hence it was common to speak of those who 
were graduated at this college, as graduates of Nassau Hall. 

Since this old and original Hall has become only a central 
figure in a group of large and costly buildings surrounding it 
and distinctively used for dormitories, lecture-rooms, library, 
chapel, and various other college purposes, which quite cast the 
original into the shade as the representative of the college, and 
since there are other colleges in New Jersey, a new name has 
been suggested, and is now generally applied when speaking of 
this institution, namely, PRINCETON COLLEGE. 

The history of this college has recently been written by 



J,;,«lli\iill'jl|lflili l''lli. 



P--™?^ 




",i|ki|ij|li|«r;i 



PRINCETON COLLEGE. 229 

the Rev. John Maclean, D.D., ex-president, and published in 
two volumes. He has presented a documentary and detailed 
history of the institution, from its origin, down to the year 
1854, when his own administration commenced. He has been 
careful and laborious in the preparation of his work, which is 
of great value, and has seemed to be more desirous to gather 
up and record those things which show the solid foundation 
and the historic superstructure of the college, than to enkindle 
an enthusiasm for the institution, by drawing vividly from the 
biography of its brilliant and renowned alumni. This work of 
Dr. Maclean has superseded the use of much material which 
we had prepared to present in this chapter. We shall now 
endeavor to give only a succinct and popular history of the 
college, incorporating such matters as the general reader will 
desire to see. 

There are but three colleges in the United States, which 
were founded before Princeton College, namely, }Iarvard, 
whose charter was granted by the general court of Massachu- 
setts, with the consent of the governor, in 1636 ; William and 
A/ary, \whose charter was granted by those joint Sovereigns in 
1693, and Vale, whose charter was granted by the General As- 
sembly of Connecticut, in 1701. 

The College of New Jersey received its first charter from 
John Hamilton, acting Governor of New Jersey, in 1746. He 
being president of the council, and commander-in-chief, at the 
death of Governor Morris in that year, the government de- 
volved upon him. And the petition for this college charter, 
having been previously presented and denied, was now again 
presented, with a charter draughted and accompanying it, to 
Governor Hamilton, who granted it without first obtaining the 
consent of the Provincial Legislature, and without having 
leave from his Majesty's Government to do so. The legality 
of this exercise of power, was questioned, as being unprece- 
dented at least, but it seems to have been acquiesced in, and 
was followed by Governor Belcher, Governor Franklin and 
Governor Bernard. 

The names of the persons who signed the petition for this 
charter, and of those who were the corporators named in the 
charter, are not all certainly known, but it is probable that the 



230 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

corporators were petitioners, and it is quite certain that they 
were Presbyterians. The charter seems never to have been 
recorded. 

In the Weekly Post-Boy of New York, pubHshed February 
lO, 1746-7, we find the following advertisement: 

"Whereas a charter with full .nnd ample privileges has been granted by his 
Majesty, under the seal of the Province of New Jersey, bearing date, the 22d Octo- 
ber, 1746, for erecting a college within the said province, to Jonathan Dickinson, 
John Pierson, Ebenezer Pemberton, and Aaron Burr, ministers of the Gospel, and 
some other gentlemen, as trustees of the said college ; by which charter, equal liber- 
ties and privileges are secured to every denomination of Christians any different re- 
ligious sentiments, notwithstanding, 

"The said trustees have therefore thought proper to inform the public, that they 
design to open the said college the next spring, and to notify to any person or persons 
who are qualified by preparatory learning, for admission, that some time in May 
next, at latest, they may be thus admitted to an Academic education." 

Here are the names of four ministers as trustees, among 
them those who became its first two presidents, Dickinson and 
Burr. 

Mr. Hamilton, the acting governor, was not himself a 
Presbyterian, but was a liberal Episcopalian, and was more 
respectful to the rights of other denominations, than was his 
predecessor, Gov. Morris. There is no doubt that the col- 
lege charter was procured by the earnest efforts of Presbyte- 
rians, to secure at home a thorough education for their sons, 
especially those who were seeking the ministry. The educa- 
tion of the ministry had been, and was, at the time this charter 
was obtained, a subject which had agitated that branch of the 
church. The great schism in that denomination had occurred 
in I74i,andit sprang out of the controversy about the excesses 
in revivals of religion — and the -degree of ministerial education 
and qualification requisite for those who sought to be ordained 
as preachers of the gospel. One party demanded a higher edu- 
cation and a purer life than the other, and was also more con- 
servative in revival measures. 

The Log College, on the Neshaminy, did not seem to sat- 
isfy those who first wanted this college, but the friends of that 
school, soon after this chartered college was organized, gave 
their adhesion to it, and joined in making it a success. 



PRINCETON COLLEGE. 23 1 

It has been declared repeatedly that the severe treatment 
received by David Brainerd at Yale College, who was expelled 
and refused his degree, had much to do with the origin of this 
college, by exciting and enlisting the sympathy of such men as 
Jonathan Dickinson, Aaron Burr, and Jonathan Edwards, and 
others, in his favor, and against Yale College. But there 
seems to be no reason to ascribe so much effect to the bad 
treatment of that excellent young man. To admit that it was 
an element in the interest which excited these men to advo- 
cate this charter, and organize the college, is probably con- 
ceding all that is due to that influence; and such is the view 
expressed by ex-president Maclean. -'■ 

There is hardly any doubt that the charter granted by act- 
ing Governor Hamilton, was substantially the same as the one 
granted by Governor Belcher, and which is the present one in 
force. There was a cry raised against the validity of the first 
one, because Mr. Hamilton was incompetent to act in the pre- 
mises, and because his acts were questionable. Governor 
Belcher referred to these objections, when he promised to take 
an interest in the college, and to favor another and better 
charter. 

It is apparent from the character of both the petitioners 
and trustees, as well as from their views and the views of the 
friends of the college, expressed in writing, that the design of 
the institution was to promote piety and sound learning,— not 
one to the exclusion of the other, but both. This was 
more clearly expressed in connection with the second than 
with the first charter, although the present charter itself, in 
its preamble, only recognizes as the wish of the petitioners, to 
have a college wherein youth may be instructed in the learned 
languages, and in the liberal arts and sciences. It was also 
declared in the preamble, that the petitioners wished that 
those of every religious denomination might have free and equal 
liberty and advantage of education in the said college, any 
different sentiments of religion notwithstanding, and the en- 
actment was made accordingly. And the fact that a chair of 
theology was maintained in the college, until the Theological 
Seminary was established here, proves that it was a part of the 

*Hist. of College of New Jersey, — vol. I, pp. 55-6. 



232 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

original design of its founders, to provide an education even for 
such as sougiit to enter the ministry. 

It is quite probable that Thomas Leonard, of Princeton, a 
strong Presbyterian, and a member of the Provincial Council, 
was a trustee named in the Hamilton charter. He was a 
trustee in the charter granted by Gov. lielcher. There was 
much interest in the proposed college aroused in Princeton, 
even before its location in this place had been suggested. 

Nathaniel FitzRandolph, a son of Benjamin FitzRandolph, 
born in Princeton in 1703, a name connected with the early 
settlement of this place, with some degree of prominence, 
made," in his private journal, in the year 1758, the following 
entry, viz : 

"When it was first reported that Hamilton, our Deputy Governor, had granted 
a charter for a college to be erected somewhere in New Jersey, and twelve trustees 
appointed, I was the first man who proposed to set subscriptions on foot for this 
town; also, I was the first man that drew a subscription for that purpose; and 
also the first man that rode to obtain subscriptions ; also wrote twenty papers for 
that purpose, and helped to spread them ; and did obtain about five hundred 
pounds subscription under the first charter." 

Besides Mr. Leonard and Mr. FitzRandolph, it is probable 
that John Stockton, who had sons to educate, and who was an 
intimate friend of David Brainerd, and was accustomed to en- 
tertain Presbyterian ministers at his house, was among the 
first petitioners, as he was among the first patrons of the col- 
lege. John Hornor became interested in the locating of the 
college at Princeton, as will soon appear. 

The present charter of the college, having been granted as 
a substitute for the first charter, and having been obtained by 
and through the efforts of the same persons who had procured 
the first one, and effected the first organization, it is proper to 
trace the origin of Princeton College to the year 1746, giving it 
the fourth rank as to age among the chartered colleges of the 
United States. In bringing down its history to the present 
time, we propose to treat it in sections under the administra- 
tion of its several presidents, but very briefly. 



THE COLLEGE— PRESIDENT DICKINSON. 233 

SECTION I. 

1746-47. — ADMINISTATION OF PRESIDENT DICKIXSON. 

The first charter of the college having been obtained Oc- 
tober 22d, 1746, the trustees proceeded iimnediatcly to effect 
an organization ; and having done so, they elected the Rev. 
Jonathan Dickinson of Elisabethtown, New Jersey, president of 
the college. The date of his election is not known, but it was 
probably not until in the early part of the year 1747, though 
the opinion is quite general that he was president of the insti- 
tution for a year, and was elected in October, 1746, when the 
charter was obtained. But, whenever elected, he did not open 
the college until May, 1747. 

The Nc%v York Weekly Post-Boy of April 20th, 1747, con- 
tained the following notice by the trustees: 

" This is to iiifi)im tlie public that tlie trustees of the college of New Jersey 
have appointed the Rev. Mr. Jonathan Dickinson, president of the said college, 
which will be opened the fourth week in May next, at Elisabethtown ; at which 
time and place all persons suitably qualified, may be admitted to an academic 
education." 

In pursuance of this notice, the first term of the college 
was opened, by the president, at his own house, in Elisabeth- 
town, on the south side of the old Rahway road, directly west 
of Race Street. At this time he was pastor of the Presbyte- 
rian church at Elisabethtown, and had been such from 1709. 
It was originally a Congregational church. His field of labor 
embraced with Elisabethtown, Rahway, Westfield, Connecticut 
Farms, Springfield and a part of Chatham.* Mis ministry had 
been continued nearly forty years, and he was the most influ- 
ential minister among tiie Presbyterian clergy of New Jersey. 
He had been accustomed, it is said, to teach young men in 
those branches of study which prepared them for the liberal 
professions. At the same time he was a practicing physician, 
of considerable reputation in the medical profession ; and was 
also an author of enviable distinction. 

It was natural that a man of such varied learning and wide 

* Dr. Sprague's .Annals. 



234 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

reputation, and one who had been foremost in advocating and 
securing the charter of the college, should have been chosen its 
first president. After he entered upon his office as president 
of the college, he did not intermit his pastoral duties. He 
received assistance in giving instruction to the first class in the 
college, from Mr. Caleb Smith, who acted as tutor, whether by 
the appointment of the trustees, or by the president himself, 
does not clearly appear. 

The members of that first class were Enos Ayres, Benjamin 
Chestnut, Hugh Henry, Israel Reed, Richard Stockton, and 
Daniel Thane. All but Richard Stockton became clergymen, 
and he became the civilian of Princeton, who signed the Decla- 
ration of Independence. These were the first fruits of the 
college. With such a distinguished and competent president, 
and with such a class of prominent young men to head the 
roli'of the Alumni, it was not difficult to anticipate a success- 
ful future for the infant college. 

But alas! in the midst of these bright anticipations, and 
faithful services, President Dickinson's career was suddenly 
terminated. He died of pleurisy, October 7th, 1747, in the 
sixtieth year of his age, bearing testimony in his death to the 
Gospel which he had so faithfully preached, and which he be- 
lieved, in these words : " Many days have passed between God 
and my soul, in which I have solemnly dedicated myself to 
Him, and I trust what I have committed unto Him, He is able 
to keep until that day." 

He was buried with great lamentation, in Elisabcthtown ; 
and throughout the country his name was honored as " a 
star of superior brightness and influence in the orb of the 
church." He had been an acknowledged " Defender of the 
truth — a good scholar, an eminent divine and a serious, devout 
Christian." President Edwards called him ''the late learned 
and very excellent Mr. Jonathan Dickinson." The Rev. Dr. 
Bellamy called him " the great Mr. Dickinson." The Rev. Dr. 
John Erskine of Edinburgh, said, " the British Isles have pro- 
duced no such writers on divinity in the eighteenth century, as 
Dickinson and Edwards." Gov. Belcher spoke of him as 
"that eminent servant of God, the learned and pious Dickin- 
son." The Rev. Dr. Sprague said, " it may be doubted 



THE COLLEGE-PRESIDENT DICKINSON. 235 

whether, with the single exception of the elder Edwards, Cal- 
vinism has ever found an abler or more efficient champion 
than Dickinson." And the Rev. Dr. John Maclean says, 
" Vox profound thinking, he, (Dr. Maclean,) would assign the 
palm to Edwards ; but for sound judgment and practical wis- 
dom, to Dickinson. Both of them were eminently good, and 
both eminently great." 

President Dickinson was born in Hatfield, Massachusetts, 
on the 22d of April, 1688. His father was Hezekiah Dickin- 
son, and his grandfather was Nathaniel Dickinson, one of the 
first settlers of Wethersfield, Connecticut. His mother was 
Abigail, daughter of Samuel Blackman or Blakeman, and 
grand-daughter of the Rev. Adam Blakeman, the first minister 
of Stratford, Ct. 

Mr. Dickinson was graduated at Yale College, in 1706. 
Under whom he studied theology, it is not known. He was 
married to Joanna Melyne, the sister of the Rev. Samuel 
Melyne, and daughter of Jacob Melyne. She was the mother 
of a large family, but only three daughters survived her. The 
third child, named after the father, was born Sept. 19th, 1713, 
and was graduated at Yale, in 1731. His youngest daughter, 
Martha, was married to Rev. Caleb Smith, who had been 
tutor under him in the college. His daughter Abigail was the 
second wife of Jonathan Sergeant, who removed to Princeton 
as treasurer of the college. 

President Dickinson was the author of a large number of 
published sermons, tracts, treatises, pamphlets and papers, on 
the doctrines of the church. 

He is represented to have been, as to his person, "manly, 
of full size ; solemn and grave in his aspect, so that the wicked 
would seem to tremble in his presence ;" but his portrait does 
not clothe him with such an aspect. His successor as presi- 
dent of the college, was the Rev. Aaron Burr.* 

* Dr. .Spnigue's Annals ; Dr. Hatfield's Hist, of Elisabeth ; Dr. Maclean's 
Hist, of CoUe^'e. 



236 



HISTORY OF PRINCE rOiSr. 



SECTION II. 

1747-1757 — ADMINISTRATION OF PRESIDKNT BURR. 




I'KESIDKNT AAKON BUUR. 



Upon the death of President Dickinson the students of the 
college were placed under the care and instruction of the Rev. 
Aaron Burr, at Newark, in this State, who had been teaching 
at that place a classical school, and who was also the pastor 
of the Presbyterian church there, having been installed over it 
in the year 1737-8. He was prominent and distinguished as a 
learned and eloquent preacher and highly competent teacher. 
Whitfield, when in this country, on a visit to Gov. IJelcher at 
Elisabethtown, in 1754, attended the Commencement of the 
college at Newark and formed a warm personal friendship for 
President Burr, and received from him the degree of Bachelor 
of Arts. By what special action the students were transferred 
to Mr. Burr at Newark it docs not appear, but the step was a 
judicious one, for he was a leading patron and trustee of the 
college, and warm personal friend of the deceased president. 

Mr. Burr, Gov. Belcher and the trustees generally desired 
a new charter for the college, one which should be free from 



THE COLLEGE— PRESIDENT BURR 237 

any doubt as to its validity and at the same time more liberal 
perhaps in its provisions. Gov. Belcher, now the governor of 
the Province, and who alone could give a charter, desired 
to have the governor and four members of council, ex-officio 
members of the board of trustees, while the Presbyterian min- 
isters interested in the college and who had originated it, were 
jealous of such an element in the board and feared that it 
might be, especially after Governor Belcher should die, antag- 
onistic to Presbyterian control. There was no dissatisfaction 
expressed by any one to the clause in the first charter which 
admitted all classes of Christians into the institution. These 
differences however were adjusted by inserting the provision 
that the Governor of the Province should be ex-officio president 
of the board of trustees. 

The new charter was approved and signed with the great 
seal of the Province by Gov. Belcher, September 14th, 1748. 
This charter is too long to be inserted in this place. It is still 
in force, having been slightly amended, at different times, by 
the legislature, extending the limitation of its real estate, the 
number of trustees and the scope of its branches of education. 
" The College of New Jersey " was retained as the name of the 
institution. 

It is interesting to know something of the character and 
stamp of the first trustees of the college in the days of its in- 
fancy. They will be found sketched briefly by Dr. Maclean in 
his History of the College.* 

Gov. Jonathan Belcher is acknowledged to have been 
deeply interested in the college, from its origin, and was not 
only outspoken in its favor, but cheerfully used his official 
power to give it a liberal charter. He was the son of the 
Hon. Andrew Belcher, of Cambridge, Massachusetts, and was 
born on the 8th of January, 1682. He was a graduate of Har- 
vard, and during a visit to Europe he formed such acquaint- 
ances as secured to him favor with the British Crown. He 
married and settled in Boston and became a merchant, honor- 
able and wealthy. He was appointed Governor of Massachu- 
setts ; and afterwards, in 1747, of New Jersey. He was Gov- 
ernor of this Province for ten years. He spoke of the college 

* Vol. I.— 103- 1 13, 



238 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

as his " adopted daughter," and was an earnest friend and pa- 
tron of sound learning and religion. He not only manifested an 
interest in the character of the college but also in the building 
and the site thereof. 

A glance at these trustees will show that they were the most 
solid and influential men in the country; that the ministers 
were all leading Presbyterians and worthy to be the guardians 
of an institution of learninsf and religion. 

Passing the names of Rev. Jonathan Dickinson and Aaron 
Burr, we come to the Rev. John Pierson, who was a graduate 
of Yale and pastor of the Presbyterian church in Woodbridge, 
Middlesex County ; he was a trustee under both charters. And 
the Rev. John Pemberton, D.D., was a graduate of Harvard 
and was pastor of the Presbyterian church in the city of New 
York. He also was a trustee under the first charter. The 
Rev. Joseph Lamb was a graduate of Yale and pastor of the 
Presbyterian church at Basking-Ridge, Somerset County. The 
Rev. Gilbert and Rev. William Tennent, Jr., were educated at 
the Log College, under their father. The former was pastor of 
the Second Presbyterian church in Philadelphia at the time, 
but had formerly been settled at New Brunswick. He was a 
very prominent preacher in the Presbyterian church. The 
Rev. William Tennent, Jr., was pastor of the Freehold Pres- 
byterian church, known as the Tennent church, in Monmouth 
County. The Tennents have a history which is well known 
to the most of our readers, and does honor to the college and 
to the Presbyterian church generally. 

The Rev. Richard Treat was born in Connecticut, in 1705, 
and was a relative of Governor Robert Treat, and was a grad- 
uate of Yale. He was pastor of the Presbyterian church of 
Abington, Pa. 

The Rev. Samuel Blair, as did the Tennents, came from 
Ireland. He studied at the Log College, and was, at first, set- 
tled at Shrewsbury, N. J., but in 1740 he was pastor of the 
Presbyterian Church at Fagg's Manor, Pa., where he estab- 
lished a classical school, which was continued by his brother, 
the distinguished Rev. John Blair, and obtained a great repu- 
tation. He was the only trustee who belonged to the Synod 
of Philadelphia. 



THE COLLEGE— PRESIDENT BURR. 239 

The Rev. David Cowell was born in Massachusetts in 1704, 
and was graduated at Harvard and was pastor of the Presby- 
terian church at Trenton. 

The Rev. Timothy Johnes was a graduate of Yale and was 
pastor of the Presbyterian church at Morristown, N. J. 

The Rev. Thomas Arthur was a graduate of Yale and was 
settled as pastor of the Presbyterian church at New Brunswick, 
and was an officer in the board. 

The Rev. Jacob Green was born at Maiden, Massachusetts, 
in 1743, and graduated at Harvard. He was settled as pastor 
of the Presbyterian church at Hanover, N. J. He was the 
father of the Rev. Ashbel Green, who was president of the col- 
lege next after President Smith. He was a warm patriot in 
the Revolution, and as a member of the Provincial Congress 
of New Jersey he served with Jonathan Dickinson Sergeant 
and others on the Committee to prepare the first constitution 
of the State. 

Such were the clerical members of the board of trustees of 
the college under the new charter. They were all highly edu- 
cated and were noted for their piety and prominence in the 
Presbyterian church. 

Nor were the lay members of the board less distinguished 
for their intelligence and position. The Hon. John Reading 
was a resident of Hunterdon County and senior member of 
council, and as such he became acting governor of the Province 
upon the death of Gov. Belcher. 

Hon. James Hude was from Scotland but resided in New 
Brunswick, of which he was mayor, and he was ruling elder in 
the Rev. Mr. Arthur's church and was a member of the Gov- 
ernor's council. He was a trustee also under the first charter. 

Hon Andrew Johnston was an Episcopalian, a member of 
the council and was elected the first treasurer of the college. 
His place of residence was Perth Amboy. He was named as 
trustee under the first charter also. 

Hon. Thomas Leonard was also a member of council, a 
gentleman of public influence and a resident of Princeton. We 
have given a long notice of him in the first volume as among 
the early settlers of Princeton. 

The Hon. John Kinsey was an able lawyer in New Jersey, 



240 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

and became the Chief Justice of Pennsylvania. He was a 
Quaker, a warm personal friend of Gov. Belcher, and was dis- 
tingjuished as a jurist. 

Hon. Edward Shippen was a merchant in Philadelphia, of 
distinction, a warm friend of the college. His family was in- 
fluential, and his son became Chief Justice of the State of 
Pennsylvania. 

Hon. William Smith was an eminent lawyer of New York 
city. He came to this country from England in 1715. He 
was graduated at Yale and became Recorder of the city of 
New York, member of council and Judge of the Supreme 
Court. He was the most eloquent speaker at the bar, a gen- 
tleman of much learning, a zealous friend to the cause of reli- 
gion and liberty. He lived a pure and amiable life. 

Peter VanBrugh Livingston, Esq., was an eminent merchant 
of New York and a son of Philip Livingston and a brother of 
Governor Livingston. He lived at Elisabethtown the latter 
part of his life. 

William Peartree Smith, Esq., was born in New York in 
1723, and was graduated at Yale and studied law, but his own 
estate required his attention. He belonged to a refined family. 
His daughter became the wife of Elisha Boudinot. He was, 
in the opinion of Gov. Belcher, in 1748, " a very worthy and 
religious young man." He was an ardent patriot and lived at 
Elisabethtown after the marriage of his daughter. 

Samuel Hazard, Esq., was from New York City, but re- 
moved to Philadelphia and there resided. His son Ebenezer 
was a graduate of this college and was Postmaster General of 
the United States. 

These were the men who gave this college its first start, 
who guided it in its infancy and stamped upon its history the 
character it now bears. 

The trustees met on the 13th of October, 1748, and ac- 
cepted the new charter ; and on the 9th of November follow- 
ing, at a meeting at Newark, Mr. Burr was chosen president of 
the college under the new organization. He had acted as pres- 
ident before. The class was ready to graduate several months 
before the second charter became operative, but the graduation 



THE COLLEGE— PRESIDENT BURR. 24I 

was postponed at the particular request of Gov. Belcher, 
until it could be done under the new charter; and it was done 
on the very day that President Burr was elected. This was 
the first Commencement of the college, and it was held at 
Newark. The unity of the college under the two charters is 
proved by the bestowal of the degrees, without examination, 
under the second charter, upon the class which had been 
taught, prepared and examined under the first charter. The 
degree of Master of Arts was conferred upon Gov. Belcher 
himself by the trustees. The Commencement exercises were 
quite formal and imposing. The time selected for Commence- 
ments in the future was on the last Wednesday of September 
— Harvard being held on the second and Yale on the third 
Wednesday, and the next one was fixed to be held at New 
Brunswick. 

Laws of the college and rules for the admission of students 
were adopted. Andrew Johnston was appointed treasurer 
of the college, but it is not known whether he accepted or not. 
Jonathan Sergeant was appointed to that office September 26, 
1750, and he accepted and held the office till his death in 1776. 

A committee was appointed to apply for assistance for the 
support of the college, to the General Assembly of the Province, 
and another one to take subscriptions for the college. On 
this last committee Thomas Leonard and John Stockton, of 
Princeton, were appointed. The trustees also applied to the 
General Assembly to grant them the privilege of a lottery for 
the college. The Assembly did not grant the lottery nor the 
assistance desired by the trustees. A lottery was drawn, how- 
ever, in Philadelphia, for the benefit of the college, in 1750, by 
a private committee of the trustees. One was drawn in Con- 
necticut for this object in 1753 ; and in 176 1-2 the General As- 
sembly of New Jersey gave the trustees authority to draw one. 

The following is a copy of one of the Princeton College lot- 
tery tickets issued in Connecticut in 1753. 
16 



242 



HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 



CONNECTICUT LOTTERY, 

KOR TUli BICNKKIT OF THE COLLIiCE OK NKW JKRSF.Y. 

^753- Numb. 5471. 

This ticket entitles the possessor to sucli prize as 
may be drawn against its number, (if dcmaiulcd within 
six months after liie drawing is finished), subject to a 
deduction of 15 per cent. 

NathaniilL Hubbard. 
(endorsed) Makg.vuet Chiciwood. 
£1 ii.s pd. 



Before the impolicy of authorized lotteries was recognized 
it was a common practice to resort to that mode of raising 
money for churches and charities in general. The system grad- 
ually fell under the condemnation of the moral sense of 
society, and the statutes of Provinces and States one by one 
interdicted them, until now there is hardly a State in the 
Union that tolerates them. 

In 1753 Rev. Gilbert Tennent and the Rev. Samuel Davies, 
at the request of the trustees, went to England for contribu- 
tions for the college. They excited a considerable interest' 
there, and were successful in their mission. They returned in 
1757. At this time the students found lodgings in private 
families in Newark, and the public exercises of the college were 
held in the court-house. 

The trustees being encouraged by the success in obtaining 
contributions, and impressed with a sense of the necessity of 
erecting a suitable building for the institution, were now re- 
quired to fix upon 

The Location of the College. 

It seemed to be conceded from the first that the college 
should be located in the central part of New Jersey, and New 
Brunswick and Princeton were the places which attracted the 
attention of the trustees and friends of the institution. Gov- 
ernor Belcher kept his eye on Princeton as the proper place, 
even before he had granted the new charter. Upon his return 
to this country from England, in 1747, he wrote to the com- 



THE COLLEGE— PRESIDEMT BURR. 243 

mittee of the West Jersey Society of London and referred 
to this subject in the following language : 

"The people of New Jersey are in a poor situation for ed- 
ucating their children, and the project for a college had been 
started before my arrival, and where it should be placed was a 
matter of dispute between the gentlemen of East and West 
Jersey, but I have got them to agree upon Princeton, nearest to 
the centre of the Province." 

And a month later, October 2, in the same year, in a letter 
to his friend Mr. VValley, he stated in substance: 

" Princeton is fixed upon for the site of the college, and such 
a nursery for religion and learning is much wanted." 

He did not mean, of course, that it had been fixed upon by 
a vote of the trustees but that the sentiment among the indi- 
vidual members of the board, and among the leading patrons 
of the college, was in favor of Princeton. 

The trustees, at Newark, September 26, 1750, voted, 

" That a proposal be made to the towns of Brunswick and 
Princeton to try what sum of money they can raise for build- 
ing of the college, by the next meeting, that the trustees may 
be better able to judge in which of these places to fix the place 
of the college." 

It now seemed as though either place would be acceptable, 
but the amount of money to be paid for the favorable decision 
would determine the vote. The next meeting was held in 
Trenton, May 15, 175 1, when the trustees resolved, 

" That New Brunswick be the place for the building of the 
college provided the inhabitants of the place agree with the trus- 
tees upon the following terms, viz : that they secure to the col- 
lege a thousand pounds, proc. money, ten acres of land, contigu- 
ous to the college, and two hundred acres of woodland, the far- 
thest part of it to be not more than three miles from the town." 

This would seem to have secured the college at New 
Brunswick if the inhabitants would comply with the terms of 
the offer. It is quite probable tliat the trustees did not sup- 
pose that the little village of Princeton could hope to accept 
such an offer, but at the same meeting, after this vote was 
adopted, an offer was made, on behalf of Princeton, which in- 
duced the trustees to order : 



244 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

" That Mr. Sergeant, the treasurer, and some other person 
whonn he shall see fit, (to invite) view the above promised land 
at Princeton, and also that to be given by the inhabitants of 
New Brunswick, and make a report of the same to the trustees 
at their meeting in September next." 

The next meeting was held on the 25th of September, 
when the trustees, for want of further knowledge on the sub- 
ject, decided that they could not come to a conclusion in the 
affair on that day, and postponed the question till their next 
meeting, but directed Mr. Sergeant, with any person whom he 
would choose, 

"To view the land at New Brunswick and at Princeton and 
make a report what they shall deem an equivalent at the next 
meeting." 

The question remained undecided by the trustees till 
September 27, 1752, the time of the Commencement of that 
year, when we find the following entry in their minutes, viz.: 

"The trustees taking into consideration that the people of 
New Brunswick have not complied with the terms proposed to 
them, for fixing the college in that place, by the time referred 
to, in the offer of this board now voted : That they are free 
from any obligation to fix the college at New Brunswick, and 
are at liberty to place it where they please." 

The board then resolved to take a vote in what place the 
college should be fixed, upon such conditions as they might 
propose, whereupon it was 

"Voted, that the college be fixed at Princeton upon condi- 
tion that the inhabitants of said place secure to the trustees 
those two hundred acres of wood-land and that ten acres of 
cleared land which Mr. Sergeant viewed, and also one thousand 
pounds proc. money, the one half of which sum to be paid 
within two months after the foundation o'i the college is laid 
and the other half within six months afterwards, and that the 
people of said place comply with the terms of this vote within 
three months of this time by giving bonds for said money and 
making a sufficient title for said land, to be received by such per- 
sons as the board shall appoint or else forfeit all privilege from 
this vote, and that the treasurer be empowered to give them a 
bond for the fulfilment of this vote, on the part of the trustees. 



THE COLLEGE— PRESIDENT BURR. 245 

"The trustees appoint Messrs. President Burr, Samuel 
Woodruff, Jonathan Sergeant, Elihu Spencer, Caleb Smith to 
be a committee to transact the above affair with the inhabi- 
tants of Princeton, and that Elisabethtown be the place for 
accomplishing the same." 

Princeton promptly hastened to comply with the terms 
proposed, and at the meeting of the trustees, January 24, 1753, 
they voted, 

"That said people, (when Mr. Randolph shall have given 
a deed for a certain tract of land four hundred feet front and 
thirty poles depth, in lines at right angles with the broad 
street where it is proposed that the college shall be built) have 
compli&d with the terms proposed to them for fixing the col- 
lege at said place." 

The men of Princeton who stepped forward to comply with 
the offer of the trustees to fix the college here were, as we have 
in the preceding volume stated, Thomas Leonard, John Stock- 
ton and John Hornor, who entered into the requisite bonds 
and secured the conveyance of the land demanded. Nathaniel 
Fitz Randolph also conveyed the lot upon which the college 
building was placed and which was regarded by the trustees as 
a sine qua non in the affair. Mr. Randolph recorded his ser- 
vices in relation to this transaction in his private journal, from 
which we have already cited extracts, when the first charter 
was under consideration. His entry is as follows: 

*' I also gave four acres and a half of land to set the college 
on and twenty pounds besides time and expenses for several 
years together, but whereas I did sign but three acres of land 
in the subscription, so I took a receipt of some of the trustees 
only for the three acres of land to answer the subscription. 
And although the consideration mentioned in the deed I gave 
for the college land is 150 pounds, I never did receive one 
penny of it. That was only to confirm the title." The date 
of this deed is given in his journal, January 25, 1753, and this 
was the fulfilment of the contract with the trustees. 

Thomas Leonard, of Princeton, was chairman of the college 
building committee. The college and the president's house 
were directed to be built, the former of brick and the latter of 
wood, but this was changed and the college was built of Prince- 



246 HISTORY OF FR/yCETO.V. 

ton stone and the latter of brick. Mr. Fitz Randolph, in his 
journal just above referred to, says, 

" July 29, 1754. Jos. Morrow set a man first to begin to dig 
the college cellar." 

" September, 1754, the first corner stone of the New Jersey 
College was laid in the northwesterly corner of cellar by 
Thomas Leonard, Esq., John Stockton, Esq., John Hornor, 
Esq., Mr. William Worth, the mason that built the stone and 
brick work of the college, myself and many others." 

" November, 1755, the roof of the college was raised by 
Robert Smith, the carpenter that built the timber work of the 
college." * 

The college building was originally 176 feet in length, 54 
feet in width, with a projection of about 12 feet in the middle 
rear and a few feet in the middle front. A cupola surmounted 
the centre of the roof. There were three stories with a base- 
ment. There were 49 rooms designed for 147 students. Other 
rooms were for the library, recitations, refectory, dining-rooms, 
etc., and the whole number of rooms, exclusive of the chapel, 
was 60. The chapel was nearly 40 feet square with a gallery. 
Here was an organ ; opposite this a rostrum for speakers at 
public exhibitions, and for the preacher on Sabbaths. On the 
walls hung a full length portrait of the king, and opposite to 
it one of Gov. Belcher surmounted by a coat of arms, carved 
and gilded, both having been presented by Gov. Belcher. 

The trustees proposed to call this building Belcher Hall, 
but Gov. Belcher objected, and taking refuge behind that beau- 
tiful and modest sentiment which Clio Hall has adopted as its 
motto, " Prodesse quau: conspici," he proposed the name of 
Nassau Hall, as we have before stated, Nassau Hall, when 
first built, was regarded as the largest and most imposing 
building of the kind in this country. 

In the autumn of 1756, the college edifice being nearly 
completed and ready for use, the trustees, at their meeting in 
September, ordered the president to move the college to 
Princeton that fall, and that the expense thereof should be 

* This journal we were permitted to insjiect by Mrs. Chas. Steadmaii, a descend- 
ant of Fitz Randolph, in whose possession it was. 



THE COLLEGE— PRESIDENT BURR. 247 

paid by the treasurer. There are statements published that 
the removal did not take place till the year 1757, but Mr. Na- 
thaniel Fitz Randolph, then a resident of Princeton, in his 
journal already quoted, entered that it was in " 1756, Aaron 
Burr, president, preached his first sermon and began the first 
school in Princeton college." There is no sufficient ground 
to doubt that the removal of the college, that is the president, 
officers and the students, about seventy in number, and the 
library, to Princeton was in the fall of 1756. The examination 
of new students took place in Princeton, November 23, 1756.* 

The college could now look out upon bright skies, Nassau 
Hall, large and well adapted to the purposes of the college, 
stood forth in the centre of New Jersey and midway between 
New York and Philadelphia, the grandest building of the kind 
in the country. The president's house was also erected near 
it and was ready to be occupied. These two structures, the 
first that were erected, are still standing and in use by the col- 
lege. The two synods of New York and Philadelphia, which 
had been separated, causing a schism in the great Presbyterian 
church of the country, were now about to be re-united in har- 
monious cooperation, and in support of the college. An un- 
common revival of religion had manifested itself, and no lack of 
funds impeded the progress of the institution. 

In the midst of these high hopes entertained by the friends 
of the college, and by none with more enthusiasm than by 
Gov, Belcher and President Burr, these two eminent men and 
pillars of the college died just before the class graduated at 
Princeton, Gov. Belcher died August 31, 1757, and President 
Burr died September 24, the ensuing month, four days before 
the annual Commencement. President Burr died of intermit- 
tent fever, caused by exposure and fatigue in his multiplied 
and onerous duties, the last of which was to preach the funeral 
sermon at the burial of Gov, Belcher while laboring under a 
high fever. On the next day he was confined to his bed, and 
lingered until the 24th, when he died. Gov, Livingston pro- 
nounced a eulogy upon him, and the Rev. Caleb Smith was 
appointed to preach his funeral sermon. 

President Burr, just before his death, gave special directions 
* Dr, Maclean's History of the College, 



248 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

that his funeral should not be attended with unnecessary parade 
and expense, and that the sum which would be expended at a 
fashionable funeral, beyond what decent propriety required, 
should be given to the poor out of liis estate. 

A marble monument was placed by the trustees over his 
grave in the Princeton burying ground, to which we will refer 
in our chapter on the cemetery. In an obituary which ap- 
peared in the Pennsylvania Gazette, supposed to have been 
written by Benjamin Franklin, the editor, the deceased was 
spoken of as " a gentleman and Christian, as universally beloved 
as known ; an agreeable companion, a faithful friend, a tender 
and affectionate husband and a good father ; remarkable for his 
industry, integrity, strict honesty and pure undissembled piety ; 
his benevolence as disinterested and unconfined, an excellent 
preacher, a great scholar and a very great man." 

During the time that President Burr was at the head of the 
college, from 1747 to 1757, the number of students who had 
sat under his instruction and were graduated at college was 
114. Of this number. Dr. Maclean says, more than one-half 
became preachers of the gospel, and about forty were men of 
note, and some were eminent. The president was the only 
professor; he was assisted by tutors. He resigned his pastoral 
charge two years before he came to Princeton. The publica- 
tions of President Burr will be noticed in a subsequent chapter. 

President Burr is claimed to have been a descendant of the 
Rev. Jonathan Burr, who migrated to New England and was 
settled as the pastor of the church in Dorchester, Mass. He 
was the youngest son of Daniel Burr, of Fairfield, Conn., where 
he was born on the 4th of January, 171 5-16. He was gradu- 
ated at Yale College in 1735, and distinguished for his profi- 
ciency in the languages and sciences. His religious convic- 
tions led him into the ministry, and he was licensed to preach 
in 1736. In 1752 he married Esther, daughter of the Rev, 
Jonathan Edwards, she being nineteen years of age and he 
thirty-seven. She was beautiful, cultivated and pious. 

She survived her husband less than a year, dying on the 7th 
of April, 1758, a few weeks after the decease of her father, 
President Edwards. They left two children, Sarah, who was 
married to the Hon. Tapping Reeve, an eminent lawyer who 



THE COLLEGE— PRESIDENT EDWARDS. 



249 



was Chief Justice of Connecticut, founder of the law-school of 
Litchfield, in that State, and author of a valuable legal treatise 
on the Domestic Relations, and Aaron Burr, a son bearing his 
father's name. 

Col. Aaron Burr, the son of the president, was Vice-Presi- 
dent of the United States for four years from iSoi, under Pres- 
ident Jefferson, and he was one of the most notable of public 
men in this country. 

We shall give him a special notice in our chapter on the 
cemetery, when we come to his tombstone standing at the 
foot of the grave of his sainted parents. 



SECTION III. 
1757-1 758— ADMINISTRATION OF PRESIDENT EDWARDS. 





PRESIDENT JONAniAN EDWARDS. 



Four days after the death of President Burr the Com- 
mencement of that year took place at Princeton. The Hon. 
William Smith, of New York, a trustee, presided at the exer- 
cises and conferred the degrees. The degree of Bachelor of 



250 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

Arts was conferred on twenty-two candidates, and the degree 
of Master on four. On the 29th of September, 1757, the 
board of trustees elected the Rev. JONATHAN EDWARDS, of 
Stockbridgc, Massachusetts, president, as successor of President 
Burr, and the Rev. William Tenncnt president pro tein. Mr. 
Edwards hesitatingly accepted the appointment, and when re- 
leased from his pastoral charge, which was not till January 4, 
1758, he came to Princeton immediately; but he was not in- 
ducted into office by the trustees, according to the charter, 
until the 1 6th of February, 1758, and was at the same time 
qualified as trustee. The care of the grammar school was also 
assigned to him. Provision was made for a lottery for the col- 
lege, to raise £600, the price of a ticket to be two dollars. 

President Edwards preached here before he was inaugurated. 
His preaching in the chapel to the students and citizens, for a 
few Sabbaths, was powerful, but he had just entered upon his 
work of teaching in the college, by assigning and explaining 
some questions in divinity to the senior class, which indicated 
how interesting and thorough a teacher he promised to become, 
when he was suddenly removed by death. When he arrived 
at Princeton the small-pox was prevalent in the community, 
and a week after he had been inducted into office he was, with 
the consent of the trustees, it is alleged, and with the advice 
of his friends and physician, inoculated. Neither he nor his 
daughters had ever before been subjected to that process. A 
skilful physician from Philadelphia was procured to inoculate 
him and his daughters, which was done on the 23d of P^ebruary. 
The treatment of the disease seemed successful and the period 
of danger had almost passed, when a secondary fever super- 
vened, and by reason of the great number of pustules in his 
throat, the obstruction was so great as not to admit the neces- 
sary medicines and dietetic preparations. When he became 
sensible that he would not recover, he called his daughter Lucy, 
who devotedly attended him in his sickness, and said to her, 

" Dear Lucy, it seems tome to be the will of God ih.-it I must shortly leave you ; 
therefore give my kindest love to my dear wife, ;ind icU her lluit the uncommon 
union which has so long subsisted between us has been of such a nature as I trust 
is spiritual and therefore will continue forever ; and I hope i>he will be supported 
under so great a trial, and submit cheerfully to the will of God. As to my children, 
you are now like to be left fatherless, which I hope will be an inducement to you 



THE COLLEGE— PRESIDENT EDWARDS. -2 51 ; 

all to seek a Father who will never fail you. And as to my funeral, I would have it 
to be like Mr. Burr's ; and any additional sum of money that might be expected to 
be laid out in that way, I would have disposed of to charitable uses." 

President Edwards retained his reason and composure until 
he died. Just before expiring he heard some friends lamenting 
the loss his death would entail on the church at large as well 
as on the college, and though they did not imagine that he 
could hear them, he said, " Trust in God and ye need not fear." 
These were his last words and he calmly fell asleep. 

Dr. William Shippen, of Philadelphia, was the physician 
who had inoculated and attended Mr. Edwards till his death, 
and he wrote to Mrs. Edwards at Stockbridge, informing her 
of his death. Mrs. Edwards died on the second day of Octo- 
ber following, in Philadelphia, where she had gone for her two 
grandchildren, the young Burrs. She died of dysentery, after 
five days' sickness. She was a daughter of Rev. John Pierre- _ 
pont, of New Haven, and was a most excellent wife. 

They left ten children, three sons and seven daughters ; 
one daughter had died before them. Their son Jonathan be- 
came a distinguished minister, who was settled at New Haven 
nearly thirty years, then was dismissed by the desire of his 
people, then was pastor of a small church near Stockbridge, 
then was chosen President of Union College, where he died in 
a {(^\v months after he had entered upon his duties as president ; 
his course of life being a striking parallel to that of his distin- 
guished father, both dying at about the same age, having passed 
through a similar experience of success and adversity in life. 

President Edwards was born at East Windsor, Ct., October 
5, 1703. His parents were Rev. Timothy Edwards and E-.thcr 
Stoddard, daughter of the Rev. Solomon Stoddard, of North- 
ampton. Both families were of Enghsh descent, distingui.lied 
for intellectual vigor and commanding influence. He was tall 

over six feet high. He was graduated at Yale College, in 

1720, with the highest honors of the class. He was liceased 
to preach before he was twenty years of age, and when twenty- 
four, he was settled at Northampton as pastor, and was there 1 
for twenty-four years. He was greatly distinguished from his 
youth for his vigorous mind and his philosophical investiga- 
tion of profound subjects. His religious character was severely 



252 HISTORY OF PRINCETON: 

self-denying and rigid. The eleventh of his seventy Resolutions 
of Holy Living was as follows : " Resolved, When I think of 
any theorem in divinity to be solved, immediately to do what 
I can towards solving it, if circumstances do not hinder." 

It is remarkable that a man of such preeminent talents, 
learning and conscientious fidelity to duty, one who had a rep- 
utation as a thinker and writer in theology and metaphysics, 
unequalled among the profoundest scholars, should have been 
compelled, after more than twenty years of faithful pastoral 
service at Northampton, by reason of the disaffection of his 
congregation towards him, to resign his pastoral relation, 
abandon his pleasant home, give up an ample salary and ac- 
cept the humble part of missionary to the Stockbridge Indians 
on the verge of civilization in Western Massachusetts ; a change 
which so reduced his income that Mrs. Edwards and her 
numerous daughters turned their accomplishments to account, 
and painted fans in the fashion of that time, for sale in Boston, 
to support themselves. The family was so poor that Mr. Ed- 
wards was obliged to write his notes and essays upon the cov- 
ers of letters, the margins of pamphlets and upon the remnant 
of paper left from the cutting of the fans. The house is still 
standing or recently was, where this gifted family lived ; and 
visitors are shown the alcove in which the pastor wrote his 
celebrated Treatise on the Will. From this house it was that 
Esther, one of the daughters, went to New Jersey, where she 
was married to the Rev. Aaron Burr, President of Princeton 
College. 

The trouble in the Northampton congregation, which neces- 
sitated the resignation of Mr. Edwards, originated in this wise. 
Some bad books having got into the town, Mr. Edwards read 
aloud, in the church, a long list of young people, young women 
as well as young men, whom he wished to come to his house 
at a certain time to attend an investigation of the affair. Some 
of these persons were summoned as guilty and the others only 
as witnesses, but with unaccountable want of tact, he omitted 
to make the distinction, and left the impression upon the minds 
of the congregation that all the young people whom he named 
had been reading and lending the abominable books. As the 
persons named belonged to the most respectable families in the 




i' 



'j1 crv//'T fi/uvYvJ^ite.- JOiT'yj^ 



ii 



J'y<V,y^^<^'^ (/</ 



THE COLLEGE— PRESIDENT DAVIES. 253 

town, the blunder gave the highest offence. This led to a the- 
ological controversy concerning the qualifications of full com- 
munion in the visible church, enforced by the pastor in the 
practical administration of the spiritual affairs of his church, 
which gave still greater offence and resulted in a dissolution of 
his pastoral relation.* 

The election, acceptance and inauguration of the great 
Jonathan Edwards as President of Princeton College, thou^rh 
he held the keys only a few months, did great honor to the in- 
stitution. It is doubtful whether the name of any other of its 
presidents, before or since that time, irrespective of services 
actually rendered, has done and will do more to honor and 
commend the college than his great name. An examination 
of his Life and of his Works, which have been published together 
in ten volumes and also separately, will fully sustain his world- 
wide reputation. His tombstone, in the Princeton cemetery, 
is more than any of the others, the object of the relic-seekers 
who, by stealth, break and carry away little nuggets of the 
sacred marble. 

His publications will be enumerated in a subsequent chapter 
devoted to authors. They are all religious and theological and 
of great profundity. Preeminent among them are those on the 
" Freedom of the Will," " Redemption," " True Virtue," " Re- 
ligious Affections," " God's Last End in Creation.'' 

In a previous chapter (xix) relating to the Princeton church, 
we cited the opinion of Chalmers and others concerning Presi- 
dent Edwards as a preacher and author. 



SECTION IV. 

I759-I761— ADMINISTRATION OF PRESIDENT DAVIES. 

The death of President Edwards was followed by an in- 
terim, in which the Rev. Caleb Smith and Rev. Samuel Finley 
successively presided over the college pro icm. On the 19th 
of April, 1758, the Rev. James Lockwood, of Wethersfield, 
Conn., was elected to fill the place of President Edwards. He 

* Dr. Miller's Life of Edwards ; James Parton in Wood's Household Magazine. 



254 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

declined, and on the i6th of August ensuing, the Rev. Samuel 
DaVIES, of Virginia, was duly chosen president. He at first 
declined, but, upon a second election, he accepted and took 
the oath of office and entered upon his duties September 26, 
1759. It was the day of the Commencement exercises and 
President Davies presided over them. Eighteen students of 
the college were admitted to the first degree and seven to the 
second degree. The steward of the college was allowed twenty 
shillings per annum for every boarder instead of a fixed salary. 
The expenses of supplying the students with board devolved 
upon the college and not upon the steward. 

President Davies immediately set about to establish rules 
for the regulation of the college in admitting students and 
granting degrees. One of those rules required that candidates 
for the degree of Master of Arts should reside a week at the 
college, just before taking the degree, submit to an examina- 
tion, and adduce testimonials of moral character. This rule 
showed that an alumnus of the college could not, as matter of 
course, obtain the second degree merely because he was an 
alumnus. Proof was required that he had kept up his habits 
of study and had advanced in knowledge. 

The early demise of the president prevented him from in- 
grafting this system upon the institution, and it became soon 
an unenforced regulation. But this idea has been, within a few 
past years, revived ; and to some extent, the degree of Master 
of Arts is now withheld from such alumni as have not pursued 
a professional or literary occupation, or to some extent, culti- 
vated letters or science with habits of reading and study. 

The president devoted all his time and energies to the col- 
lege, and introduced the practice of English Composition and 
Eloquence with much success. He also undertook to train a 
class of students for the ministry. He had efficient tutors to 
assist him in college, viz.: Halsey, Treat and Ker. He pre- 
pared a methodical catalogue of the books of the library, 
which was published in 1760, and printed at Woodbridge by 
James Parker. 

President Davies was a pulpit orator with no superior in 
the country. Three volumes of his sermons have been pub- 
lished, and they rank among the most finished and admirable 



THE COLLEGE— PRESIDENT DAVIES. 255 

discourses that have been printed. His reputation which pre- 
ceded his coming to Princeton was fully sustained while he was 
at the head of the college. Under his administration the num- 
ber of students became larger than ever before, reaching, it is 
estimated, about one hundred. He was a close student and a 
hard worker, and his health, which in preceding years had been 
bad, now began to break down again. He died of fever, I"eb- 
ruary 4, 1761, in the thirty-eighth year of his age. The Rev. 
Dr. Samuel Finley preached a commemorative discourse in the 
following May, which was published, and the Rev. Dr. Thomas 
Gibbons also preached one in London. He was buried in the 
cemetery, by the side of President Edwards. Thus, after a 
short but energetic and prosperous administration of the col- 
lege, not quite eighteen months in duration, the fourth presi- 
dent was suddenly removed and the college sustained another 
great loss. 

President Davies was born near Summit Ridge, New Castle 
County, Delaware, November 3, O. S., 1723, that State then 
being a part of Pennsylvania.* He was of Welsh descent. 
His mother was a very pious woman and early devoted iier son 
to God, giving herself wholly to his interest in education and 
pious training. He made a public profession of religion when 
fifteen years of age, and entered upon studies preparatory to 
the ministry. He attended the celebrated school of Rev. 
Samuel Blair at Fagg's Manor. His first wife was Miss Sarah 
Kirkpatrick, who died within a year after their marriage. He 
preached in Virginia as an evangelist and afterwards as an or- 
dained minister, with license from the General Court, with em- 
inent success and reputation. He, with Rev. Gilbert Tennent, 
went to Great Britain to obtain funds for the college, and they 
preached there with great acceptance, and were invited by 
Whitfield to be his guests, which they declined. 

President Davies' second wife was Jean, second daughter 
of John Holt, of Virginia, who, with their six children, sur- 
vived him. For fuller account of President Davies as an elo- 
quent preacher, see preceding chap, xix, and for his publications 
see subsequent chapter on authors. 

* Dr. Maclean's Hist, of College. 



256 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

SECTION V. 

1 761-1766 — ADMINISTRATION OF PRESIDENT FINLEY. 

Upon the death of President Davies, and until his succes- 
sor was inaugurated, the college was under the care of the 
tutors. At a meeting of the trustees June i, 1761, at which 
were present, William Smith, Samuel Woodruff, John Pierson, 
Gilbert Tennent, William Tennent, Caleb Smith, Jacob Green, 
John Brainerd, Samuel Finley, Elihu Spencer, Charles 
McKnight, John Light and Richard Stockton, an election for 
a president in the room of Mr. Davies, deceased, was entered 
into, and the Rev. Samuel Finley, of Nottingham, Mary- 
land, was unanimously chosen. 

Mr. Finley was a member of the board of trustees, a warm 
friend of the college, a pious and well educated man, a prom- 
inent preacher, and whose name had been seriously mentioned 
for president at the time when President Davies was elected. 
He accepted the appointment and was formally inducted into 
the oflice on Wednesday, the 30th of September, 1761, the day 
of the annual Commencement. Gov. Boone was present. 
Fourteen students were admitted to the first degree. The 
salary of the president was increased. The embarrassment 
arising from the arrears of tuition and college dues led to the 
adoption of a rule requiring payment in advance or security 
for future payment. Measures for the entire completion of the 
president's house and the erection of a building for a kitchen, 
were also adopted by the trustees. 

The annual Commencement of 1762 was conducted with 
more than ordinary preparation and enthusiasm. A poetic 
dialogue, on the Military Glory of Great Britain, said to have 
been written by President Davies, was recited on this occasion, 
and several peculiarly attractive orations were delivered by the 
members of the graduating class. The programme was more 
imposing and pretentious than those of the present day. An 
address to Gov. Hardy was presented, on behalf of the trustees, 
by Richard Stockton, clerk of the board. In that address we 
note the followins^ laufruasfe : 




2:Ni;ii/iV, /v/jj'\-ai^..-i./V. 



THE C OLLEGE—PRESIDEN T FINL EY. 257 

"As the College of this Province has been favored with the patronage of each 
of our Governors since its institution, your excellency will be pleased to take it 
under your protection. ^ We can assure you that the general principle of preparing 
youth for public service in church and state and making them useful members 
of society, without concerning our:,elves about their particular religious denomina- 
ation, is our grand idea." 

The Governor responded, pledging every assistance in his 
power in promoting the prosperity of this useful seminary of 
learning. 

The drawing of a lottery, the only one ever granted to the 
college by the legislature of this Province, now attracted the 
attention of the trustees, and the college realized the sum of 
^^■3,000 proc, from this source. The trustees also confirmed 
the gift of a lot of land to the inhabitants of Princeton, for the 
erection of a church building, the previous deed havin"- been 
executed by only ten trustees, not a quorum to make a valid 
deed. 

The trustees found it necessary to restrict the steward in 
selling things to the students; and in the year 1765 it was 
ordered, " that hereafter no other articles whatsoever be kept 
in the buttery and sold to the students save only bread, butter, 
candles and small beer." They also ordered, at the same time, 
sixty-two good leather fire-buckets, to be procured and used 
by the students in case of fire. Dr. Maclean* says that there 
were also a fire-engine, and ladders and a well of water pro- 
vided at the same time for the protection of the college from 
fire. This was the first movement in the direction of an asso- 
ciated effort, in Princeton, for extinguishing fires. 

It was at this meeting of the board also that the planting 
of shade trees on the college grounds was ordered. Those 
large sycamores standing in front of the president's house were 
planted in that year, viz., 1765. 

Under the administration of President Finley the college was 
rising in its importance and in the nuinberof students. The 
number of graduates in 1762 was twenty-one, and among them 
were Dr. Absalom Bainbridge and Jonathan Dickinson Ser- 
geant, of Princeton, and Ebenezer Hazard, Postmaster-General, 
and Jacob Manning. In the year 1763 the names of William 

* Vol. I., p. 263. 

17 ^ 



258 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

Paterson and Tapping Reeve appear among the graduates. 
In the year 1765 the graduating class numbered tliirty-one 
members, and the succeeding class had the same number, 
among them were Oliver Ellsworth, Nathaniel Niles, Luther 
Martin, David Howell and Jonathan Edwards. 

The instruction to the classes during the yeai's of this pres- 
idency was given by Dr. Finley and the tutors, Jeremiah Hal- 
sey, Samuel Blair, James Thompson and Joseph Periam. The 
president continued to preach to the students and the people 
of the town in the college chapel. He took a leading part in 
the building of the church, and is believed to have prcaciictl 
in it before his death. He was greatly beloved by the congre- 
gation and the citizens of the town, and was, more than any 
other minister, the founder and father of this venerable church 
which has so long survived him. 

In the year 1766 a donation of ;^ioo was made by John 
Williamson, of Hanover, Virginia, to the college, for the sup- 
port of a professor of divinity. The Cliosophic Society was 
established in 1765. The great revival of religion, which began 
in college in 1762, under President Finley, has been described 
in a previous chapter relating to the history of the church. 

The course of instruction in college under Dr. Finley, is 
alleged to have been similar to that in European colleges. 
There were four classes, as now. The number of students rose 
as high as one hundred and twenty, in 1764. 

An account of the Commencement exercises as well as of 
the course of instruction and government in college, given by 
President l""inley, is preserved, and large extracts are given by 
Dr. Maclean in his History of the College ; and the employment 
of the Latin language in conducting the Commencement exer- 
cises, and the disputations of the graduating orators, give a vivid 
impression of the scholarly training of the students of that day, 
especially in the classics. 

Of the 130 students who were pupils under Dr. Finley, 59 
became ministers of the Gospel. 

The pressing cares of his responsible office began to break 
down his health, and he went to Philadelphia for medical 
assistance, but died there, July 17, 1766, aged fifty-one years. 
He was also buried there, but his remains have recently been 



THE COLLEGE— PRESIDENT FINLEY. 259 

removed to Abington, Pa. The trustees of the college erected 
a cenotaph to his memory, next to the grave of President Da- 
vies, in the Princeton cemetery, as we have before stated. His 
death was notable for the exulting triumph of his faith with 
which he met it. To a person from Princeton he said. " Give 
my love to the people of Princeton and tell them that I am 
going to die and that I am not afraid to die." On the day 
before his death he cried out, " Oh, I shall triumph over every 
foe ! The Lord hath given me the victory ! I exult ! I 
triumph ! " 

President Finley was a native of Ireland, born in 171 5, 
came to this country in 1734 with his parents and settled in 
West Jersey. He early began the study of theology, and was 
a student at the Log College. He was licensed to preach by 
the Presbytery of New Brunswick, August 5, 1740. He 
preached in different places till 1744, and then was called to 
Nottingham, where he was pastor of a church and also the 
head of a classical school of great reputation. He was an ac- 
complished teacher, and was called from there to Princeton. 

Dr. John Woodhull, of Monmouth, says "Dr. Finley was 
of small stature, of a round and ruddy countenance; in the 
pulpit sensible and solemn with considerable fervor; of exten- 
sive learning, being familiar with everything taught in college. 
He taught Latin, Greek and Hebrew in the senior year.'' 

He received the rare honor of a degree of Doctor of Divin- 
ity from the University of Glasgow. He was twice married, 
first to Miss Sarah Hall, whose mother was the second wife of 
Rev. Gilbert Tennent, They had eight children. His second 
wife, whom he married the year after the death of his first one, 
was Ann, the daughter of Matthew Clarkson, an eminent mer- 
chant of New York. His son, Ebenezer Finley, was graduated 
at Nassau Hall in 1772. Dr. Finley's publications were chiefly 
sermons.* 

* Sprague's Annals : Maclean's Hist, of Coll. : Edgar's Pamphlet. 



^^ HISTORY OF PRINCE TO.V. 

SECTION VI. 

I768-1 794— ADMINISTRATION OF PRESIDENT WITIIERSPOON. 

Provision had been made by the trustees, in anticipation 
of the death of President Finley. to have the Rev. Elihu Spen- 
cer to preside at the next ensuing Commencement and confer 
the degrees; an appointment which Mr. Spencer accepted and 
performed. The Rev. William Tennent was, at the same time, 
apponited to fill President Finley's place, pro tan., with the 
power and authority of the president; and he performed that 
duty with great acceptance till a president was secured. On 
the 19th of November, of that year, the trustees elected for 
president the Rev. Dr. John Witmerspoon, of Paisley, 
Scotland, without a dissenting voice. He declined the ap- 
pointment and Mr. Tennent continued to act as president. 
An effort was made, by some friend of the college residing in 
Philadelphia, to establish a faculty of several professors. The 
Rev. Samuel Blair, of Boston, was elected president, but as he 
had learned that Dr. Witherspoon would probably accept the 
appointment if re-elected, he declined it. 

A re-election of Dr. Witherspoon took place, and his views 
together with those of his wife having been changed through 
the representations of Richard Stockton, one of the trustees. 
who was authorized to seek a personal interview with the 
Doctor while in Great Britain and press his acceptance, the 
appointment was accepted. Dr. Witherspoon began to make 
his arrangements in the spring of 1768 to come to Princeton. 
'Y\\& Boston Chronicle of 9th May, 1768, states the following 
item of news: " A passenger in the Captain Smith informs us 
that the Rev. Dr. Witherspoon, chosen president of New Jer- 
sey College, had preached his farewell sermon to his congrega- 
tion at Paisley, had sold off all his household furniture anil vv^as 
soon to proceed for New York ®r Philadelphia." He embarked 
about the 20th of May, and arrived at Philadelphia after a long 
passage. After a short rest he came on to Princeton, where he 
was welcomed by the students and all the citizens of the village 
and surrounding country with great demonstrations of joy, the 
college edifice being brilliantly illuminated. 




■\:':-i. ,ri^n;;!W '^ni'ii'IHlKll^^lFOOL^I^ !©„!;;• 



THE COLLEGE— PRESIDENT IVITff Eli SPOON. 26 1 

Dr. Witherspoon was inaugurated as president of the col- 
lege at a special meeting of the trustees, August 17. 1768, and 
in connection therewith he is said to have delivered an inau- 
gural address in Latin^ on the " Union of Piety and Science." 
He was a man of high repute for talents and learning, and 
he was not long in exciting the highest expectations of the 
success of the college under his administration. He began to 
improve the system of education, gave the institution a higher 
tone of intellect and scholarship, adopted the policy which was 
new in this country, of teaching by lectures, and he delivered 
lectures on four subjects, viz. : Belles-Lettres, Moral Philoso- 
phy, Chronology and History, and Divinity. His lectures were 
very popular and soon added to the reputation of the college. 
He introduced the study of the Hebrew and French languages ; 
increased the library and philosophical apparatus. He brought 
with him and presented to the library 300 volumes; and\e 
was chiefly instrumental in obtaining the first Orrery con- 
structed by Rittenhouse, which was greatly injured by the sol- 
diers m the Revolution. Dr. Witherspoon was a general 
scholar and could teach Hebrew and French as well as the 
Latin and Greek. William Churchill Houston, who was 
graduated in 1768, was tutor in college until 1771, when he 
was appointed Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philoso- 
phy. He has been noticed in our first volume. 

President Witherspoon rendered very important service to 
the college by efforts to increase its income. The funds of the 
institution had run down, but they were now greatly improved, 
so that its debts were all paid and there was a surplus. He 
also became Professor of Divinity in the college, the Rev. John 
Blair having resigned that chair. He did not forget that he 
was a minister, but preached for the students and the people 
of the town in the church, acting as pastor of the congregation. 
His labors were blessed with revivals of religion, and his varied 
efforts were attended with marked success, when the troubles 
of the Revolution arrested the progress of things. 

When the Revolutionary war commenced Dr. Witherspoon 
had been the president of the college for eight years, and among 
the students who had taken degrees, there were many sons of 
influential families who promised to ri^e to eminence. In the 



262 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

class of 1769 were Charles Bcatty, John Henry, William Chan- 
ning, Samuel Stanhope Smith. In the class of 1770, Frederick 
Frelinghuysen, James Witherspoon, John TayloV. In the 
class of 1771, Hugh H. Brackenridge, Philip F'renau, James 
Madison. In the class of 1772, Aaron Burr, William Bradford, 
Andrew Hunter. In the class of 1773, Hugh I lodge, Henry 
Lee, Morgan Lewis, Aaron Ogden, John Witlierspoon. In the 
class of 1774, Samuel Leake, Henry Brockholst Livingston, 
Jonathan Mason, William Stevens Smith, David Witherspoon. 
In 1775, Andrew Kirkpatrick, Charles Lee, James Reed, John 
A. Scudder. In 1776, Jonathan Dayton, Nathaniel Alexander, 
William Richardson Davie, John Rutherford. 

These were among the prominent graduates of the college 
under Dr. Witherspoon, prior to the war. The patriotic and 
eminent services of President Witherspoon, in behalf of his 
adopted country, during the war, have been extensively set 
forth in the first volume of this work, and it is needless to refer 
to them again. In like manner his services to the Princeton 
church have hereinbefore been stated. 

The exercises of the college were, for a time, suspended, 
and the college edifice was occupied by the troops. They were 
removed as soon as the state of the country would allow, and 
the reputation of the President greatly augmented by his bril- 
liant statesmanship and heroic patriotism, gave fresh celebrity 
to the College of New Jersey. He continued to fill his place 
as president till his death in 1794. 

In addition to W. Churchill Houston, three other .professors 
were added to the faculty during his administration, namely, 
the Rev. Samuel Stanhope Smith, Ashbel Green and Walter 
Minto. The first two became presidents of the college and 
will be noticed hereafter as such. 

Walter Minto, LL. D., was a native of Scotland, distin- 
guished as a mathematician and astronomer. He came to this 
country in 1786, and for a year was the principal of Erasmus 
Hall at Flatbush, Long Island.* He was elected Professor of 
Mathematics and Natural Philosophy in Princeton College in 
1787, and held that chair till his death in 1796. His inaugural 

* See Vol. I., pp. 195, 6. 



THE COLLEGE— PRESIDENT WITHERSPOON. 263 

oration was delivered at Princeton on the evening preceding 
the annual Commencement in 1788. His subject was " The 
Progress and Importance of the Mathematical Sciences." It 
was printed, and it closed with an address to the Supreme 
Being, thus : 

" Father of truth and reason and of everything that lives ! Be pleased to pros- 
per the interests of science and literature in the United States of America ; to make 
those interests ever subservient to the promotion of liberty, happiness and virtue ; 
to preserve this rising and extensive empire from the ill-boding spirit of conquest ; 
tfi protect this country as a secure and happy asylum to the oppressed in all quar- 
ters of the globe ; to enlighten tlie inhabitants of the eastern hemisphere in the 
knowledge of the rights of mankind and in the arts of government and peace; to 
cause truth and reason at length to obtain a glorious and everlasting victory over 
error and violence ; and to instruct all the nations of the world in llie way of up- 
rightness and felicity, Amen." * 

There were as many as twenty-five different tutors em- 
ployed while Dr. Witherspoon was president. His administra- 
tion extended through twenty-six years, and during that period 
there were 469 graduates, of whom 1 14 became ministers of the 
Gospel. Many of these ministers were trained under Dr. 
Witherspoon. Six of these graduates were members of the 
Continental Congress. Twenty were members of the United 
States Senate and twenty-three of the House of Representa- 
tives. One became President of the United States and one 
Vice President. 

President Witherspoon was a voluminous author and his 
publications will be enumerated in the appropriate subsequent 
chapter. He was social in his nature, and his company was 
sought by the young as well as the aged. He accomplished a 

* Dr. Minto married Mary Skelton, of Princeton. She was a daughter of 
Joseph Skelton. Walter Minto Skelton, who was graduated at college in the 
class of 1824, and studied law, was her nephew. Joseph Skelton, the ancestor, 
lived at the mills known as Stockton's, on Cranberry Neck, about five miles 
from Cranberry. He also owned a farm at Penn's Neck, two miles from Princeton, 
of 150 acres. He owned 100 acres with the grist mill above mentioned. His name 
is among those who cl.aimed damages for devastation hy the soldiers in the Revolu- 
tion, sworn to before Josiah Skehon. He was summoned before the Council of 
Safety in 1777, and refusing to take the allegiance, was held to bail in C'i'^'^ to ap- 
pear. etc. He died in the fall of 1778, and his son, Josiuh S., was his executor. 
Joseph H. Skelton was a surveyor. None of their descendants are living in this 
neighborhood. Dr. Minto left no children. 



264 HISTORY OF PRIjVCETO.V. 

great deal in his life. He was eminent when he came here, 
but much more so when he died. He fills a large space in the 
Presbyterian church and in this country. Born in the Parish 
of Yester, Scotland, on the 5th of February, 1723, the son of 
the Rev. James VVitherspoon, an able minister, his mother a 
pious descendant of John Knox, the reformer, educated at the 
University of . Edinburgh, with great intellectual vigor and 
thorough training, he was a full man, forty-six years old when 
he came to Princeton, and was seventy-two when he died. As 
to his family and death we have already referred to them in 
our first volume. He was buried in the cemetery at Princeton 
by the side of President Davies. 



SECTION vn. 

1 795-1 8 1 2. — ADMINISTRATION OF PRESIDENT SMITH. 

On the 6th of May, 1795, the Rev. SAMUEL STANHOPE 
Smith was elected president of the college, to succeed Dr. 
VVitherspoon, deceased. He had been a professor in the col- 
lege since 1779, and was a son-in-law of Dr. Witherspoon. 
During the later years of the life of Dr. Witherspoon, when 
his infirmities rendered him unable to discharge vigorously all 
the duties of president and pastor. Dr. Smith assisted him and 
bore a share of his responsibility in the church as well as in 
the college. 

President Smith was born at Pequea, in the county of Lan- 
caster. Pennsylvania, on the i6th of March, 1750. His father 
was Rev. Dr. Robert Smith, who came to this country from 
Ireland, and was for many years the pastor of the Presbyterian 
church of Pequea, and the principal of an academy established 
there by himself. President Smith's mother was Elisabeth 
Blair, a sister of the eminent brothers, the Rev. John and 
Samuel Blair. His brother, William R. Smith, was pastor of 
the R. D. Churches of Harlingen and Neshanic. He early 
commenced the study of the classics at his father's academy 
and became familiar with them. He had a bright mind and 
most thorough training. He entered the college at Princeton 










'^^jm 



SAMuriiillL '^TA>MM€^"E 'f^Jm'TM BM'JlL, 



THE COLLEGE— PRESIDENT SMITLI. 265 

in 1767, junior class, and was graduated in 1769, after which he 
returned home and taught in his father's academy and studied 
polite Htcrature, metaphysics and divinity. He soon returned 
to Princeton, and was tutor in college, while studying theoloo-y 
with President VVitherspoon, for three years. He was licensed 
by the Presbytery of Newcastle, and soon was distinguished as 
a popular and eloquent preacher, and was chosen president of 
Hampden Sidney College, then about to be organized. Before 
he entered upon that enterprise he was married to Miss Ann 
Witherspoon, the eldest daughter of Dr. Witherspoon. He 
filled the post assigned him with honor, and after a few years 
was elected Professor of Moral Philosophy in his Alma Mater 
at Princeton, making the second professor besides the presi- 
dent, in the college at that time. 

In 1786 he was chosen vice-president of the college and 
resided in the President's house, (the president residing at 
Tusculum,) and he was generally regarded as the representa- 
tive of the college. He was an elegant scholar and a polished 
gentleman, and he was frequently invited to deliver public 
addresses and lectures. He found genuine philosophy to be 
the friend of true religion ; and he encouraged the study of the 
natural sciences in the most liberal manner, especially after he 
became president. He delivered his inaugural address at the 
Commencement of 29th September, 1795. The exercises of 
that anniversary were very interesting and the programme may 
be found in Dr. Maclean's History of the College. 

The administration of President Smith was early distin- 
guished by the appointment of a professor of chemistry, — a step 
quite in advance of other American colleges. Strenuous 
efforts were made to augment the funds of the college, to re- 
pair the orrery, and to obtain a philosophical apparatus. An 
appeal to the State for aid, drawn by the president and other 
trustees, set forth the claims and services of the college ; and 
the State did grant ii" 1,800 or $4,800, to be paid to the college 
within three years ; and this, Dr. Maclean says, is the only 
pecuniary aid ever received from the State treasury. 

In 1799 provision was made for printing the college diplo- 
mas on copper-plate, in lieu of the small written parchments. 
A house was ordered to be built for Dr. Maclean, the only pro- 



266 HISTORY OF PRINCETON: 

fessor at that time connected with the college. It was erected 
on the college grounds and was known always as the Maclean 
Plouse, It was a stone house and stood on Nassau Street, on 
the corner of College Lane, which separated it from the old 
City Hotel, near the market house. It was occupied by Presi- 
dent Maclean for twenty years, and after him by Dr. Atwater 
for sixteen years. It was taken down when the Chancellor 
Green Library was erected on ground in the rear of it. 

President Smith was administering the affairs of the college 
prosperously when, on the 6th of March, i802, Nassau Hall, it 
is alleged, was set on fire and, except the walls, was entirely 
consumed, with the most of the library and a part of the philo- 
sophical apparatus. A committee reported that it had been 
set on fire, but no prosecutions were commenced against the 
suspected students. 

The trustees issued an address to the inhabitants of the 
United States, appealing for sympathy and aid, and resolved 
to rebuild. They also appealed to the General Assembly of 
the Presbyterian Church. President Smith was sent through 
the Middle and Southern States to solicit contributions for re- 
building the college, and he returned with $100,000 ; and liberal 
gifts from other sections made the supply equal to the demand. 
The structure of Nassau Hall was rebuilt upon the old walls, 
and made more fire-proof than the first one. 

In addition to rebuilding the college the trustees added a 
new house for the Professor of Languages at the west end of 
the college, corresponding to one at the east end which had 
been built. Also a new stone building 60 feet by 40 feet, 
three stories high, on the northeast side of the front yard of 
the college, securing a steward's room, a large dining-room for 
the students, a room for the philosophical apparatus, and a 
room for lectures on mathematics and philosophy; and on the 
opposite side of the campus, the west side, a large stone build- 
ing corresponding to the former one, for Sophomore and Fresh- 
man classes to recite in, and one for the president in which to 
hear the recitations of the classes which recited to him. This 
latter one is still standing and the college offices are kept there. 
The other one was torn down to give place to *he new College 
Library. 



THE COLLEGE— PRESIDENT SMITH. 26/ 

A cabinet of Natural History, tlie first ever acquired by an 
American college, Dr. Maclean says, was procured by the trus- 
tees at a cost of $3,000, chiefly through the instrumentality of 
Elias Boudinot, in the year 1805. 

At the Commencement in i(So6 the number of the gradu- 
ating class was greater than in any other jorcvious year. Fifty 
four students were admitted to the first (Jcgrce. The state of 
the college had never been more prosperous. The faculty con- 
sisted of a president and four professors, with two or three 
tutors and a teacher of French. Ikit there were disorders and 
irregularities among the students, which the faculty and trus- 
tees were obliged to suppress and which they did suppress, but 
not until one hundred and twenty-five students had been dis- 
missed. Several of the professors resigned and their places 
were not filled for some time after; and this increased the 
duties of the president and the remaining professors. So great 
was the insubordination in college that the citizens were re- 
quested by the trustees to guard the college buildings from 
violence. The president was greatly troubled and his health 
began again to fail. 

In 1 8 10 the trustees appointed a committee to confer with 
a committee of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian 
Church, on the subject of establishing a theological seminary 
in Princeton; this finally resulted in having such a seminary 
here established, when the teaching of theology in the college 
was discontinued and transferred to the seminary. 

On the 14th of August, 1812, President Smith resigned the 
presidency of the college on account of his health, having been 
in the service of the college as professor and president thirty- 
three years. During his administration as president there were 
531 graduates, twenty-two of whom became presidents or pro- 
fessors of colleges ; one a vice-president of the United States, 
and a large number of such as became distinguishetl as mem- 
bers of Congress and of the Cabinet and other high places in 
church and state. 

President Smith was not only an elegant scholar and an 
eloquent preacher, but a fine model for young men to admire. 
He was well versed in public affairs and was worldly wise in 
ecclesiastical courts and public conventic.is. General Wash- 



268 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

ington, in a letter to his adopted son, George Washington 
Parke Custis, written from Mount Vernon, July 23, 1797, said, 
" No college has turned out better scholars or more estimable 
characters than Nassau. Nor is there any one whose president 
is thought more capable to direct a proper system of educa- 
tion than Dr. Smith." Dr. Lindsley said of him: 

" Mis person, presence and carri.ige were so rem.nrkable that he never entered 
the village church or college chapel, or walUed the streets, or appeared in any com- 
pany without arresting attention or creating a sensation, not of surprise or wonder, 
but of pleasing, grateful admiration, a kind of involuntary emotion and homao-e of 
the heart, a tribute as cordially yielded as it was richly deserved." 

The degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon him, 
in 1783, by Yale College, and of Doctor of Laws by Harvard, 
in 1 8 10. He was a member of the American Philosophical 
Society in Philadelphia, before which he delivered an address, 
which gave rise to his volume on the " Variety of Complexion 
and P'^igure of the Human Species." His various publications 
will be found enumerated in a subsequent chapter. 

Dr. Smith was the first president of the college who did not 
die in the office. He resided in Princeton, after his resignation, 
with his wife and children, until the 21st of August, 1819, when 
he died in the seventieth year of his age, and was buried by 
the side of President Witherspoon, in the cemetery. 

His children who survived him were John Witherspoon 
Smith, who was graduated in 1795, studied law and settled in 
St. Louis and became Judge of the U. S. District Court; 
Elisabeth, (Mrs. Pintard ) P>ances, (Mrs. Prevost.) Susan, (Mrs. 
Salomans,) Ann, (Mrs. Callender,) Mary, (Mrs. Jos. Caball 
Breckinridge,) and Caroline, who died unmarried. They are 
all dead. Mrs. Pintard and Mrs. Salomans died in Princeton. 
These young ladies, in the family of their parents, occupied a 
prominent place in Princeton Society. 

During President Smith's administration four professors 
were added to the faculty of the college, viz.: Dr. John Mac- 
lean, William Thompson, Henry Kollock and Andrew Hunter. 

Dr. John Maclean, father of Ex-President Maclean, was 
born in the city of Glasgow, Scotland, March i, 1771. His 
father, Dr. John Maclean, was a surgeon in Loth the civil and 



THE COLLEGE— PRESIDENT SMITH. 269 

military service. His grandfather was the Rev. Archibald 
Maclean, minister of the parish of Kilfinichen. His niotiier 
was Agnes Lang, of Glasgow. He was thoroughly educated, 
and he gave special attention to Mathematics and Natural 
Philosophy, devoting himself with enthusiasm to the subject of 
Chemistry and Surgery. He came to this country in the year 
1795, and Dr. Benjamin Rush, learning of his su[jerior attain- 
ments in Chemistry, advised him to settle in Princeton. He 
came to Princeton in the early part of the summer of that year, 
and commenced the practice of physic and surgery in connec- 
tion with Dr. Ebenezer Stockton, between whom, and whose 
families, an intimate and long continued friendship was main- 
tained. He was chosen Professor of Chemistry and Natural 
History in the college, October i, 1795, and had the branches 
of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy assigned to him. He 
could fill any place in the faculty. He was preeminent as a 
chemist. When he left Scotland he left no superior in that 
branch behind him ; and he continued in this country to be in 
advance of all others, though over-burdened with the general 
care and labors of the college. Professor Benjamin Silliman 
accorded to him the highest compliment. He said: "Dr. 
Maclean was a man of brilliant mind with all the acuteness of 
his native Scotland ; and a sparkling wit gave variety to his 
conversation. I regard him as my earliest master in chemistry, 
and Princeton as my starting point in that pursuit." 

The Rev. Dr. Samuel Miller, in the American edition of 
Lempriere's Biographical Dictionary, says of him : 

"As a physician, a surgeon, a natural philosopher, a mathe- 
matician, and above all, as a chemist. Dr. Maclean was very 
eminent. As a college officer he was uncommonly popular 
and useful." 

Rev. Dr. Archibald Alexander, in the Princeton jMaga::ine 
of 1850, in describing a visit to Princeton in 1801, says of him, 

"Dr. Maclean emigrated to America in 1795 and became 
one of the most popular professors who ever graced the college. 
He was at home almost equally in all branches of science. 
Chemistry, natural history, mathematics and natural philoso- 
phy successively claimed his attention." 

Dr. Maclean was a scholar of wide repute. In Paris he 



270 • HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

learned to admire the antiphlogistic theory, as the new chemis- 
try of Lavoisier was then called, and which he taught at 
Princeton, and in connection therewith combatted the Consid- 
erations of Dr. Priestly on the Doctrine of Phlogiston and the 
Decomposition of Water. 

In 1812, upon the reorganization of the faculty. Dr. Mac- 
lean resigned his professorship and accepted one in William 
and Mary's College, Virginia, but his health failed and he had 
to withdraw his acceptance. He remained with his family in 
Princeton and died here on the 17th day of February, 18 14, 
forty-three years of age, and was buried in the cemetery near 
the graves of the college presidents. 

Dr. Maclean was married in 1798 to Phebe Bainbridge, eldest 
daughter of Dr. Absalom Bainbridge, hereinbefore noticed, and 
a sister of Commodore William Bainbridge, U.S.N. She was 
a most estimable woman and survived her husband in Prince- 
ton fourteen years. 

They left six children — John, who became president of the 
college and is still surviving; George Mcintosh, a physician 
and lecturer on chemistry, still residing in Princeton; William 
Bainbridge, who was a member of the New Jersey bar, but 
died young, much beloved ; Agnes and Mary, both highly 
esteemed for their noble virtues and useful lives, and who 
died unmarried, much lamented ; and Archibald, who studied 
law and resides with his brother, the ex-president, in Prince 
ton.* 

Professor William Thompson was elected Professor of 
Languages in this college in 1802. He held the same chair in 
Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pa., when called to Princeton. 
Ex-president Maclean says of him, that he had the reputation 
of being an accurate scholar, a good teacher and an excellent 
man. He was advanced in life when he became professor in 
this institution, and after a few years, his mind giving way 
under the pressure of his arduous duties, he was constrained 
to give up his position in the college (in 1808) and died not 
long after. 

* We have drawn largely from an excellent memoir of Dr. Maclean, wrUten by 
his son, PrcbideiU Maclean, in 1876, printed only for private distribution. 







f^(l J 



THE COLLEGE— PRESIDENT GREEN. 2/1 

He was a ruling elder in the Princeton church from 1805 
till his death in 18 13. 

Rev. Professor Andrew Hunter was elected Professor 
of Mathematics and Astronomy and entered upon his duties 
May 10, 1804. He resigned the office in April, 1808, and re- 
moved to Bordentown, where he conducted a classical school, 
and afterwards removed to Washington, D. C, where he was 
chaplain in the Navy Yard. 

He was the son of the Rev. Andrew Hunter, of Deerfield, 
West Jersey, who died in 1775. He was graduated at Prince- 
ton in 1772, was ordained in 1778, and was a warm patriot in 
the Revolution, holding a chaplaincy in the army. He was 
married to Mary Stockton, daughter of Richard Stockton, 
the signer of the Declaration. He owned several pieces 
of real estate in Princeton, — the homestead being where Mrs. 
Hunter died, now the residence of Prof. Guyot. Mr. Hunter 
died in Washington, at an advanced age, February 24. 1823. 
He was a man of prominence, and we have before stated that 
Gen. David Hunter, and Dr. Louis B. Hunter, Surgeon, of the 
U. S. Army, and Mary Hunter, widow of the late Rev. Charles 
Hodge, D. D., are their surviving children. 



SECTION VHI. 

1812-1822 — administration of president green. 

The Rev. Ashbel Green, D. D., was elected president of 
Princeton College, August 14, 18 12, and accepted, but he was 
not formally inducted into office until May 4, 18 13. The Rev. 
Dr. Alexander McLeod, of New York, was elected vice-presi- 
dent and Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy, 
but he declined, and thereupon Elijah Slack was elected to 
that place, and he accepted, with a salary of $1,000 and a 
house. Rev. Philip Lindsley was also chosen Professor of Lan- 
guages. He had been tutor before. The number of students 
was not now large, but it was increasing under the re-construc- 
tion of the faculty. The peace of the college was disturbed 



2/2 HISTORY OF PRINCETOM. 

by a few disorderly students. The explosion of gunpowder 
in a college entry on a Sunday night, which endangered the 
lives of students, was a flagrant act, and it led to an indictment 
of one student, who plead guilty and was fined $ioo. Several 
others were disciplined by the faculty. The year 1814 was a 
memorable one in the college as being one in which a wonder- 
ful revival of religion commenced therein, continuing into the 
next year. President Green made a minute written report of 
it. (See ante, pp. iio-ii.) 

It was not long, however, before the sessions became tur- 
bulent again. The principal outbreak occurred just before the 
1st of February, 18 17. The college exercises were entirely in- 
terrupted for two or three days. The doors of the tutors were 
barred ; out-buildings were set on fire ; the college bell was 
rung with shouts of fire and rebellion. A large number of the 
students were sent home, the good name of the college suffered 
reproach, and the civil authorities were called upon to enforce 
order and protect the property. No year of the administration 
of President Green was so turbulent and disorderly as this one. 
The trustees sustained the faculty, but Vice-president Slack- 
resigned. Only twenty-one students took the first degree in 
that year. 

Professor Slack was graduated at this college in 1808, and 
for a time taught a classical school in Trenton. He was a 
clergyman and also had received the degree of Doctor of Med- 
ix:ine. Upon leaving Princeton he went to Cincinnati, O., and 
became president of the college there. He went to Tennessee 
and after a few years returned to Cincinnati, where he died 
in 1866.^^ 

Professor Lindsley was elected vice-president after Mr. 
Slack resigned, and Henry Vethake, late professor in Queen's 
College, was chosen to take the professorship which Mr. Slack 
had resigned, and he accepted. 

In 1S18 a new professorship was established — that of" Ex- 
perimental Philosophy, Chemistry and Natural History," and 
Jacob Green, a son of the president, was elected to fill it, with 
a salary of $1,000. Mr. John Maclean, then a student in the 
theological seminary, aged nineteen years, was elected third 
* Dr. Maclean's Hist., Vol. II. p. 173. 



THE COLLEGE— PRESIDENT GREEN. 2/3 

tutor in college. This was in 1819, and he afterwards became 
professor, vice-president and president and held his connection 
with the college for fifty years. In 1 82 1 Professor Vethake,an 
accomplished scholar, resigned his chair to accept a professor- 
ship in Dickinson College, and Robert Baird was appointed 
tutor in the college here. Another cracker was prepared to be 
fired in the college, but was discovered in time to prevent it ; 
and there being some difference of opinion between the presi- 
dent and trustees as to dispensing with a professorship by com- 
bining two into one, and for other reasons, including that of 
his health, President Green tendered his resignation September 
22, 1822, which was accepted. 

The administration of President Green was not a smooth 
one. There seemed to be some friction between the trustees 
and the faculty, and a good deal of turbulence among the stu- 
dents. Perhaps the rules prescribed for the government of the 
young men were too rigid ; perhaps there was too much govern- 
ment. It will appear that in the subsequent administrations 
of Presidents Carnahan and Maclean, the enforcement of the 
laws was not attended with such inexorable severity, but showed 
more respect and indulgence for the nature of youth. There 
were 356 graduates during Dr. Green's administration, of whom 
twenty became presidents or professors of colleges and a large 
number became distinguished in high places in the church and 
state. The graduating class of 1821 numbered forty. 

President Green was the first president of the college who 
was a native Jerseyman. He was born at Hanover, Morris 
County, N. J., on the 6th of July, 1762. He was the son of the 
Rev. Jacob Green, pastor of the Hanover Presbyterian church. 
His parents were eminent for their piety, and were careful 
in training their children. His father and maternal grandfather 
were trustees and friends of the college, and had rendered hon- 
orable services to it. He was graduated at Nassau Hall in 1 783. 
He stood high in his class, spoke the valedictory in the pres- 
ence of Gen. Washington and the Congress, had experience in 
teaching, was ordained in the Presbyterian ministry when 
young, became an attractive preacher, was settled in Philadel- 
phia, was a warm patriot, was a member of the Synod of 17S8, 
which adopted the constitution of the Presbyterian church and 
18 



274 HISTORY OF PKIiVCKTOy. 

its standards. He became a leading ecclesiastic, the first man 
in the ecclesiastical courts. He wrote and published much, 
which will be enumerated hereinafter. He was eloquent, sol- 
emn and profound as a preacher. He was a devout, learned 
and great man ; he was generous, )'et perhaps a little dogmat- 
ical. He once dined with Daniel Webster, at the house of 
Samuel Bayard, in Princeton, with other guests, and he so im- 
pressed Mr. Webster with his intelligence and strong intellect, 
that Mr. Webster, when afterwards referring to that occasion, 
said that Dr. Ashbel Green, and Chief Justice Kirkpatrick who 
was alst) among the guests, were two of the most remarkable 
men he had ever met. Dr. Maclean, in his History of the 
College, says of him, "No president of the college ever kept 
more constantly in mind its original design as an institution 
devoted to the interests of religion antl learning; and for this, 
as well as for the ability and faithfulness with which he dis- 
charged his presidential duties. Dr. Green deserves to be held 
in lasting honor by every friend of the college." He made 
\)v. Witherspoon his model character. 

After he resigned his presidency he removed to Philadel- 
phia, and edited The Christian Advocate. He was three times 
married. His first wife was the daughter of Robert Stockton, 
who lived on Constitution Hill, Princeton ; his second a daugh- 
ter of Col. Alexander Anderson, of Philadelphia, and his third a 
daughter of Major John McCuUough, of the same city. He 
had four sons, viz.: Robert Stockton Green, Prof. Jacob Green, 
and James S. Green by his first wife, and Ashbel Green by his 
second wife. He died on the 19th of May, 1848, having nearly 
closed his eighty-si.xth year, and was buried with the presidents 
in the Princeton cemetery. His biography, written chiefly by 
himself, has been published by the Rev. Dr. Joseph H. Jones. 



SECTION IX. 

1823-1854— ADMINISTR.VTION OK TRKSIDENT C.\RNAIIAN. 

The successor of President Green was the Rev. James 
CarNAHAN, D.D., who was chosen president of the college on 
the I2th of May, 1S23. The Rev. P)r. John Holt Rice, of Vir- 




rRKSTDKNT JA.MKb CARNAHAN. 



THE COLLEGE— PRE SIDEA'T CARNAHAN. 275 

ginia, had been elected, but had decHned, before President Car- 
nahan was chosen. 

Dr. Carnahan was born November 15th, 1775, in Cumber- 
land County, Pa., and was graduated at Princeton in 1800. He 
studied tlieolog)' under the Rev. Dr. MacMillan, and was 
licensed by the Presbytery of New Brunswick. He was a 
tutor at Princeton in 1801-3. He taught a chissical school at 
Georgetown, D. C, for nine }'ears. He was pastor of a church 
at Utica, N. Y., for several years from 1805. 

When President Carnahan entered ujion his official duties 
as president, the faculty consisted of a president, vice-president, 
a professor of mathematics and two tutors. He was then about 
forty-eight }'ears of age. He brought with 1dm no extraordi- 
nary reputation as a. scholar or a divine, but he possessed an 
amiable and gentle spirit, \\\\.\\ a good mind well discijjlined, 
and a large share of common sense. He was a man of exact 
honesty, with sincerity and modest}', and had experience in 
teaching. 

The college prospered under his administration, which was 
thirty-one years in extent. His want of personal magnetism 
was made up by his moderation and practical administr.i- 
tive capacit)'. During his term of thirt)'-one years the east 
and west colleges, a professor's htnise, a refector)', a chapel, 
and the Whig and Clio Halls were built. The appliances of 
the college were increased, and the campus was improved by 
shade trees and a handsome iron fence along the street. Tiie 
standard of studies in the college was graLlually raised, and also 
the number of professors. Instead of two professors and two 
tutors, which was the number when he assumed the office of 
president, the number, when he resigned, was six professors, 
two assistant professors, three tutors, and a teacher of modern 
languages. He conferred the first degree on 1,634 students, 
about as many as the whole of his j^redecessors had conferred 
from the origin of the college. The number who became min- 
isters of the gospel was 291. He brought the number of stu- 
dents in attendance from one hundred to two hundred and 
thirty. A more harmonious feeling between the trustees and 
the faculty was secured, and touching the conduct of the stu- 
dents, he gave, in his letter of resignation, this statement: 



2/6 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

"Many cases of irregular and bad conduct, on the part of individual students, 
have occurred, yet it may not be improper to remark that, except on one occasion, 
which happened a few weeks after I came into office, no general combination to 
resist the authority of the faculty has taJcen place in thirty years, nor have the 
studies and recitations of the classes been suspended or interrupted a single day 
from the same cause." 

President Carnahan tendcixd his resignation on the 29th of 
June, 1853, but, while it was accepted, he was requested by 
the trustees to continue to act as president till the next annual 
meeting, or until his successor should be appointed, and he did 
so. His long term of service had brought him into contact 
with a large number of distinguished men, as trustees, pro- 
fessors and literary men generally. 

After his resignation Dr. Carnahan retired from the presi- 
dential mansion to his farm, just on the northern boundary of 
the borough, where he lived for several years a very retired life. 
In October, 1858. he removed to Newark to live with his son- 
in-law, William K. McDonald, Esq., where he died on the 
third day of March, 1859, attended by his affectionate daughter, 
Mrs. McDonald, in the 84th year of his age. His funeral took 
place in Princeton, and he was buried in the cemetery by the 
side of the grave of his predecessor. President Green. 

His wife, who was Mary, daughter of Matthew Van Dyke, 
of Mapleton, near Princeton, died in the presidential mansion, 
August 15, 1854, after his resignation and just as he was about 
removing to the farm. They left surviving them two children 
— Lydia, who was married to the Rev. L. Ilalsey Van Doren, 
and Hannah, who was married to William K. McDonald. 
Hannah was notable for her personal beauty, and died during 
the past summer, leaving a son surviving her, in Newark, bear- 
ing the name of James Carnahan McDonald. 

Dr. Carnahan never devoted much time to authorship. His 
publications were few and will be noticed hereafter. He was 
a good sermonizer and had a musical voice; lie was tall and 
fine looking; dignified and plain in manners, and remarkably 
unselfish and unambitious of fame. 

The professors who constituted the faculty under President 
Carnahan were numerous, and they are entitled to be men- 
tioned in this connection. Professor Jacob Green, who was a 



THE COLLEGE— PRESIDENT CARNAHAN. 2^] 

member of the faculty under Dr. Aslibel Green, his father, re- 
signed and went out of the college with his father. 

Rev. John Maclean, the son of Dr. John Maclean before 
mentioned and who had been tutor several years, was elected 
IVofessor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy in 1822, and 
he afterwards had other branches assigned to him — at one time 
the ancient languages and afterwards the Greek alone, lie 
was devoted to the interests of the college from his youth to 
his old age, and was rewarded with the honor of the presidency 
in 1854, which office he held till 1868, and he was vice presi- 
dent from 1829 to 1854. Dr. Carnahan, in his letter of resig- 
nation of the presidency, referring to Professor Maclean said, 
" To his activity, energy, zeal and devotion to the interests of 
the institution I must be permitted to gi\'e my unqualified tes- 
timony. We have passed through many trying times together. 
In time of need he was always at his post. Without shrinking 
from responsibility he was always ready to meet opposition in 
the discharge of what he thought to be his duty." 

As he will come under notice as the successor of President 
Carnahan, it is needless to do more now than to name him as 
one of the most important members of the faculty under Dr. 
Carnahan. 

Rev. Luther Halsey was elected Professor of Natural 
Philosophy, Chemistry and Natural History, in 1824 and re- 
signed in 1829. 

Robert B. PattoN was elected Professor of Languages in 
1825 and resigned in 1829. He was an excellent linguist and 
a good citizen. He left the college to take charge of the Edge- 
hill High School, and we have referred to him in a previous 
chapter on " Schools and Academies.'' 

Rev. Albert B. Dod was elected Professor of Mathematics 
in 1830, and retained that chair till his death, in 1845. I^e was 
an admirable teacher, a man of genius and personal magnetism, 
and of general popularity. He was a fine preacher, and had 
the capacity to make himself, as well as the subject he was 



278 HISTORY OF PKIjVCETO.V. 

handling, understood. In conversation he was bri^ia^lt and 
captivating. He was greatly adniirei! among literary men, 
and greatly beloved by the students and professors of both in- 
stitutions in Princeton. He was a Jerseyman by birth. He 
was the son of iJaniel and Nanc)' (Squier) Dod, and was born 
in Mendham, New Jersey. His father was distinguished for 
mathematical taste and acquirements, with a genius to take 
hold and master any sidjject. Wy [)rofession he was an engine- 
builder, and he lost his life by the explosion of a boiler on 
board the steamboat Patent, whose machinery he had been re- 
l)airing, and which, at the time of the explosion, was making 
an experimental trip on the East River. His grandfather re- 
sicied in Virginia, but removed to New Jersey. 

Professor Uod entered Sophomore class, in Princeton Col- 
lege, in 1821, when fifteen years of age. He became hopefully 
pious and joined the 1^'inceton church, and was graduated in 
1822. He joinetl the theological seminary, in Princeton, in 
1826, was tutor in college, and was licensetl, by the f-'resbytery 
of New York, to preach, in 1828. He remained here as tutor 
till he was appointed professor. 'Phe University of North Car- 
olina conferred on him the degree of Doctor oi Divinity in 1844, 
and the University of New York in 1845. 

He was married, in 1 830, to Caroline, daughter of the late 
Samuel Ba)'ard, Esq., of Princeton. They had nine children, 
seven of whom survived him, namely, Albert \l. Dod, the Rev. 
Samuel B. Dod, and Martha, widow of Edwin Stevens, all re- 
sieling at Hoboken, in this State ; Charles H. Dod, who lost 
his life in the late civil war; Caroline B., the first wife of the 
kite Richard Stockton, deceased ; Susan B., the second wife 
and willow of Richard Stockton aforesaid, residing in Prince- 
ton ; and Mary, wife of Duncan Walker, of Washington, D. C, 
son of the late Robert J. Walker. ]\Irs. Dod, the widow of Pro- 
fessor Dod; is still living. 

Professor Dod introduced into the college the use of 
printed examinations for the classes. He died, November 20, 
1845, of pleurisy, after an illness of a week, in the fortieth year 
of his age. He lived, at the time of his death, in the house 
now joccupied by Prof. Stepheti Alexander, next to the church. 
He prepared eight articles of high merit, which were published 



THE COLLEGE-PRESIDENT CARXAIIAN. 279 

in the Princeton Reviciv. lie was a trustee of the Presbyterian 
church from 1836 to 1S45. llis death was peaceful and tri- 
umphant, but it was sincerely lamenteLi. llis intimate friend, 
Dr. liodi^e, ii^ave a brief account of his last hours, in the cliurch 
filled with stricken hearts, lie was buried in the cemetery at 
Princeton. 

Hf.NRY Vetiiake was chosen Professor of Natural Philos- 
ophy at the same time when Prof. Dod was elected, and he re- 
signed in 1S32. 

John Torrev, M. D., LL. D., was elected Professor of 
Chemistry in 1830, and served till 1S54, when he resi^^ned. 
He did not give his entire service to this college, but divided 
it between this and the College of Physicians, in New York. 
A few )'ears after Judge Bayard's death he bought the Ba)'ard 
property, and resided there for several years with his family. 

Professor Torrey was a distinguished botanist, an excellent 
teacher of chemistr}', an amiable and lovely Christian gentle- 
man. His reputation was of value to this college, and as a 
citizen he was greatly respected. He \\as not an alumnus of 
this college. Mis family, while resident here, consisted of him- 
self, his wife, and three daughters. In 1854 Dr. Torrey returned 
to New York with his family. Both he and his wife have died. 
He published a work on Botany; and another is to be pub- 
lished. 

Dr. Samuel L. Howell was a[)p(Mnted Professor of 
Anatomy and Physiology in 1830; he died in 1835. 

Lewis HargOUS was chosen Professor of Modern Lan- 
guages in 1830 and resigned in 1836. 

Joseph Al)l)LSf)N Alexander was chosen Assistant Pro- 
fessor of Ancient Languages and Literature in 1830, and re- 
signed in 1833. 

Joseph Henry, M. D., LL. D., was elected Professor of 
Natural Philosophy in 1832, in the place of Prof. Vethake, re- 
signed. He retained this chair until 184S, when, having been 



280 HISTORY OF PRINCETON-. 

appointed Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, at Wash- 
ington, he was continued Emeritus until his death, in 1878. 
We have not space here to record all that should be written 
concerning this great man in his relation to this college, much 
less in his relation to the world of science. 

Professor Henry was of Scotch Presbyterian descent ; his 
grand-parents, on both sides, landed in New York the day 
before the battle of 13unker Hill. PI is maternal grandfather 
was Hugh Alexander, who settled in Delaware County, N. Y. 
His paternal grandfather was William Henry or Hendrie, as 
spelled in Scotland, who settled in Albany County. The 
liistory of Prof. Henry, even in his youth, is interesting. He 
was born in Albany and lost his father, and at the age of seven 
went to live with his grandmother and went to school until 
the age of fourteen. Pie showed no aptitude for learning but 
became fascinated with reading works of fiction. He was ap- 
prenticed to his cousin to learn the trade of a jeweller, and 
after two years he gave up the pursuit and took to light read- 
ing and to the theatre. A book was thrown in his way by one 
of the boarders at his mother's house, and a single page of it 
arrested his mind and gave a new direction to his thoughts. 
He resolved to devote his life to the acquisition of knowledge, 
and he began to study and to teach until he became a private 
tutor in the family of Gen. VanRensselaer, the Patroon. He 
assisted Dr. Beck in chemical investigations, and also studied 
anatomy and physiology with a view to graduate in medicine, 
but he engaged in a survey for a State road from the Hudson 
to Lake Erie ; and then he accepted the chair of Mathematics 
in the Albany Academy. This was in 1826; and after some 
further study he began original investigations on electricity 
and magnetism, the first regular series on Natural Philosophy 
prosecuted since the days of P'ranklin, in this country. This 
gave him reputation here and abroad, and led to his call, in 
1832, to the chair of Natural Philosophy in Princeton College. 
Here he pursued his investigation till he was called to Wash- 
ington. 

Prof. Plenry was attached to Princeton, but consented to 
accept the direction of the Smithsonian Institution, in order 
to secure a fulfilment of that great trust. Politicians at Wash- 



THE COLLEGE-PRESIDENT CARNAIIAN. 28 I 

ington had proposed to employ that fund chiefly in erecting 
buildings, libraries, etc., and to gather paintings and statuary 
and things that were material and attractive to the senses, with 
comparatively little provision for the increase and diffusion of 
knowledge, by original investigation ; while Professor Henry 
contended that the design of Smithson was to increase knowl- 
edge, to add to the sum of human knowledge; and that they 
should erect buildings only so fast as would be necessary to 
carry out the great design of the trust. Prof. Henry, after a 
long struggle, accomplished his purpose, and did thereby ren- 
der a great benefit to the cause of science. If he had done 
nothing more than to rescue from the hands of politicians the 
diversion of this great trust, and to devise the wise and benefi- 
cent plan of executing it, as has been done, he would be justly 
called the world's great benefactor. 

It is impossible here to enumerate the important discov- 
eries in science which Prof. Henry has made. Eight years ago 
the number was twenty-two. Among these are such as show 
the application of electro-magnetism as a power to produce con- 
tinued motion in a machine, and how electro-magnetism may 
be employed in transmitting power to a distance, and the prac- 
ticability of an electro-magnetic telegraph. He furnished to 
Prof. Morse the principle by which the latter made his inven- 
tion of the telegraph successful. This is no longer an open 
question. Henry told what could be done and how ; and 
Morse, with wonderful skill and perseverance, applied the 
discovered principle. Henry's electro-magnet, 3,000 lbs., made 
in 1829, is still in Princeton. 

PI is more recent discoveries in the matter of sound, and in 
the power or forces of nature, as in wind, water, tide and heat, 
are of great practical worth. 

Our nation does not yet know how much Prof. Henry has 
done, and how much he has made others do, in and through the 
Smithsonian Institution at Washington, for the increase of 
knowledge. 

Professor Henry was married to Miss Alexander, of Sche- 
nectady, a sister of Professor Stephen Alexander, of Prince- 
ton. They had four children, three daughters and one son, 
William, who died soon after his graduation in Princeton Col- 



282 . HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

le<Te. The daughters, Mary, Helen and CaroHne, with their 
mother, are living in Washington. Profcssc^r Henry died at 
Washington, May 13, 1878. His funeral was attended by the 
President and members of the Cabinet, and of Congress, and 
Justiees of Supreme Court and Representatives from foreign 
nations. 

He was a large, well-proportioned man, with a handsome 
face and most benignant countenance, with manners and ways 
as simi)le as those of a child. He was a member of the Pres- 
b)'terian church, and was a genius, a great man, a good man. 
He was in the eighty-first )-ear of his age when he dieLl. 

The last letter he wrote was one aeldressed to Joseph Pat- 
terson, of Philadelphia, and h.id not yet been mailed to him 
when he died. It shows how science and religion go together, 
and what humble. Christian faith the greatest scientist of the 
age exhibited just before he died. 

SmITHSOMAN, April 12, 1S7S. 

My Dkau Mr. Pattekson : 

We have lieen expecting to see you from day to day fur two weeks ]iast, think- 
in"- that you would he calle<l to Washington to tjive some information as to the 
fiiiure of our finances and the possibility of resuniing specie payment. I com- 
menced on two occasions to write tt) you, Init found so nuich difhculiy in the use 
of my hand in the way of holding a pen, that I gave up the attempt. 'I'he doctors 
say that I am gradually getting better. Dr. Mitcliell gave me a visit on hi> going 
South, and on his return his report was favorable ; Init I still suffer a good deal 
from oppression in breathing. 

I have learned, with pleasure, that E. and yourself intend to go to Europe this 
summer. Travel is the most agreeable way of obtaining cosmopolitan knowledge, 
and it is jjrobable that events of great importance will transpire in the Ea^t widiin 
a few months. You will have sul^jects of interest to occupy your attention. 1 have 
also learned that T. is to be married next month, and we shall be happy to receive 
a visit from him and his bride when they go upon their wedding tour. 

We live in a universe of change ; nothing remains the .-^ame from one moment 
till another, and each moment of recorded time has its separate history. We are 
carried on by the ever-changing events in the line of our de>tiiiy, and at the end 
of the year we are always at a considerable distance from the \w\\\\. of its beginning. 
How short the space between the two cardinal points of an earthly career, the jioint 
of birth and that of death ; and yet what a universe of wonders are jiresented to us 
in our rapid llight through this space. How small the wisdom obtained by a single 
life in its passage ; and how small the known, when compared with the unknown, 
by the accumulation of the millions of lives through the art of printing in hundreds 
of years. 

How many questions press themselves ujion us in these contemplations. Whence 
come we? Whither are we going? Wiiai is our final destiny? The object of our 



THE COLLEGE— PRESIDENT CAKA'AILA.V. 2S3 

creation? What inystcrics of unfatliumablc ik-plli environ us on every side; but 
af;er all our s]K-culatioiis and an attempt to graiiple wiih the problem of the universe, 
the simplest concejjtion whicli explains and connects the phenomena is that of the 
existence of one spiritual beinjj, infinile in wisdom, in power, and all divine per- 
fections ; which exists always and everywhere ; which h.i-, created us wiih intellect- 
ual faculties sufficient in some degree to coni[)rehend his operations as iliey are 
developed in nature by what is called " science." This being is unchangeable, and 
therefore his operations are always in accordance with the same laws, the conditicjus 
being the same. Events that happened a thousand years ago will happen again a 
thousand years to couu:, providing the condition of existence is ilie same. Indeed, 
a univer.-,e not governetl iiy law would be a unisersc wiilnuU the evii-lcnce of an in- 
tellectual director. In the scientific explanation of ph)'sical phenomena we assume 
the existence of a principle lia\ing proiK-rties ^uliicient to jiroduce the elfects which 
we observe ; anil when the |)riui.iple so ;i>,-iinied explains by logical deductions 
from it all the phenomena, we call it a tlui.ry ; thus we have the theory of li"ht, 
the theor)- oi electricity, etc. There is no pro. if, however, of the truth of these 
tlieories except the explanation of the |)heiiomena which thev are invented to ac- 
count for. This proof, liowever, is sufficient in any ca^e in w hich every fact is 
fully explained, and can be predicted w hen the cundiiii)iis are known. 

In accordance with tliis scientific view, on what evidence tloes the existence of 
a Creator rest? Fir.-,t, it is one i;f the truth-, be.^t e.-,talilidied by experience in my 
own mind that I have a thinking, willing princi])le within me, capable of intel- 
lectual activity and of moral feeling. Second, it is equally clear ti> rue that vou 
have a similar spiritual principle within yourself, since when I ask you an intelli- 
gent question you give nie an intellectual answer. Tiiird, when I examine oper.i- 
tions of nature I find everywhere through them evidences of intellectual arrange- 
ments, of contrivances to reach definite ends precisely as I find in the operations 
of man ; and herce 1 infer that these two classes of operations are results of similar 
intelligence. Again, in my own mind I find ideas of right and wrong, of good and 
evil. These ideas then exist in the universe, and therefore form a basis of our ideas 
of a moral universe. Furthermore, the conceptions of good which are found among 
our ideas associated with evil, can be attributed only to a being of iiihuite perfec- 
tions like that which we ilenominate "(n^xl." 0\\ the other hand, we are con- 
scious of having such e\ il thoughts and tendencies that we cannot associate our- 
selves with a divine being, wlio is the director and the governor of all, or even call 
upon him for mercy without the interco^ion of one who may affiliate himself 
with us. 

I find, my dear Mr. Patterson, that I have drifted in a line of theological specu- 
lation, and without stopping to inquire whetlier what I have written may be logical 
or orthodox, I have inllictcd it upon you. Please excuse the intrusion, and believp 
nie as ever, truly yours, 

JoSEl'll IIlCN'KY. 

Benedict J.EGER was elected Pi-ofessor of Modern Lan- 
guages in 1832 and resigned in J 84 1. 

Rev. J.vmks W. Alexander was elected Professor of 
Rhetoric and l^elles-Lettres in 1833 and resigned in 184^]-. lie 



284 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

filled that chair with great success. We notice him more fully 
hereafter as Professor in the Theological Seminary. 

John S. Hart was elected Assistant Professor of the Lan- 
guages in 1834 and resigned in 1836. He was again elected 
in 1864. Notice will be taken of him in our chapter on authors. 

Stephen Alexander, LL. D., was elected Assistant Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics in 1834, and in 1840 Professor of Astron- 
omy, and other branches, until the year 1878. He has gained 
a distinguished name as an astronomer, and many students 
were formerly drawn to the college on his account. He has 
rendered faithful service to the college for about forty years. 
The Halsted Observatory was built through his influence and 
efforts. He has received honors from the public and from 
scientific associations on many occasions. He was sent once 
to Greenland to observe the eclipse of the sun, and he ranks 
high as a man of science. His publications will be referred to 
hereafter. He is a ruling elder in the Presbyterian church; a 
very modest and pure man, and still living, retired on a salary as 
Emeritus Professor of Astronomy. 

Evert M. TorPiNG was elected Professor of Languages in 
1839 and resigned in 1846. 

Alexander Cardon de Sandrans was elected Professor 
of Modern Languages in 1841 and resigned in 1849. 

Rev. George Musgrave Giger was elected Assistant 
Professor of Mathematics in 1846, and Professor of Languages 
in 1847, and died in 1865. 

Rev. Matthew B. Hope, M. D., was elected Professor of 
Rhetoric in 1846, and Pohtical Economy in 1S54, and he died 
in 1859, much lamented. 

In 1847 tli^ establishment of a Law Department was at- 
tempted, and Joseph C. Hornblower was appointed Pro- 
fessor of Civil Law. 

Richard S. Field was appointed Professor of Constitu- 
tional Law. 

James S. Green was appointed Professor of Legal Practice. 









I'KESIUENT JOHN MACLKAN. 



THE COLLEGE— PRESIDENT MACLEAN. 285 

They continued in office and gave lectures till 1855, '^"cl 
then the institution ceased. 

Rev. John T. Duffield was elected Assistant Professor of 
Mathematics in 1847, '^''^^1 full professor in 1854, and still holds 
that chair. 

Rev. John Forsyth, D. D., was chosen Professor of Latin 
and Lecturer on History, in 1847, ^^""^ resigned in 1849. ^"^^ 
is now Chaplain at West Point. 

Rev. Lyman Coleman, D. D., was Professor of German 
from 1847 to 1849. 

John Stillwell Schanck, M. D., was chosen Lecturer 
on Zoology in 1847, ^'"^^ i" 1857 Professor of Chemistry, which 
chair he now holds. 

Elias Loomis was elected Professor of Natural Philosophy 
in 1848 and resigned in 1849. 

Richard S. McCullough was chosen Professor of Natural 
Philosophy in 1849 and resigned in 1854. 

Rev. James C. Moffat, D. D., was elected Professor of 
Latin in 1852 and held that chair till he was elected Professor 
in the Theological Seminary in 1861. 

In no previous administration had there been so large a 
faculty at one time as in this one. The names of Dod, Henry, 
James W. Alexander, Stephen Alexander, John Maclean and 
President Carnahan, all members of the faculty at one time, 
made the college famous and prosperous. 



SECTION X. 

1 854-1 868 — administration of president MACLEAN. 

The election of the Rev. Dr. John Maclean, as the suc- 
cessor of President Carnahan, occurred at the semi-annual 
meeting of the trustees, in December, 1853. His inauguration 
took place in the church at Princeton on the 28th of June, 



286 . HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

1854. The exercises were interesting and in the presence of a 
large assembhii,^e of students and friends of the college. The 
Rev. Dr. John McDowell, senior trustee, presided. The triple 
oath of support to the Constitution of the United States, alle- 
giance to the State government, and fidelity to the duties of 
the office, was administered by Chief Justfce Henry W. Green, 
who then and there delivered the keys of the college to the 
president elect, declaring him " thcreb)- invested with all the 
powers, privileges and prerogatives, and charged with all the 
duties of the office of president of that institution." Dr. Car- 
nahan, then leaving the chair of the president, delivered a neat 
and appropriate address to President Maclean, wlio. after ac- 
knowledging it, delivered his inaugural address, in which he 
adverted to the original design of the collr-e, the manner in 
which that had been hitherto carried uut, wiih an exposition 
of his views as to the government and discipline of students, 
and tlie raising of the standard of study. This address is pub- 
lished in full at the close of the second \'olume of his Mistory 
of the College. 

President Maclean, as we have alread)' sliown, was the 
eldest son of Dr. John Maclean, the first Professor of Chemis- 
try in this college, and was born in Princeton, March 3, iSoo. 
He was graduated in iSj6, and in two years after that he 
became connected with the college as tutor, and was soon 
after professor, and then vice-president, until he became presi- 
dent. While tutor he studied theology at the Theological 
Seminary, and was ordained sine titnlo by the Presbytery of 
New Brunswick. He was several times a member of the Gen- 
eral Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, and was no mere 
looker-on in the great struggle which divided the great Presby- 
terian body into parties known as the " Old School " and 
"New School.'' Me took part in the ecclesiastical debates on 
the Ruling Elder or Quorum Question, and the right of ruling 
elders to impose hands in the ordination of ministers. Me 
published articles on the Temperance Reform and on Com- 
mon School Education, and other subjects, in the Princeton 
Reviciv and in religious papers. As, when a school boy, he 
was courageous and always ready to step in and see a quarrel 
properly ended, so in all his adult, life he was ever ready to 



THE COLLEGE— r RESIDENT MACLEAN. 2%J 

take a liand in any conflict in wliich he thought truth and 
justice were involved. He possessed a strong natural mind 
and was capable of adai)ting himself to almost any chair or 
branch of study in college. He was so taxed with onerous 
cares in the government of the college, during his connection 
with it, that he could never become an intensely close stu- 
dent. Then, too, he engaged in public enterprises, in schemes 
of benevolence, education and common humanity, alwa\s help- 
ing on every good cause, and extending his hand of sxinpatliy 
to all the sorrowing and the sad, from the highest to the lowest, 
so that much of his time was spent in \\orks of charity and 
piety. He was reall)' mure of a pastor to the people of I'rince- 
ton, in general, than an\- of the installed ministers of the 
churches. He was noted for his very large head, but liis 
heart was larger than his head. The poor people, the colored 
people, the outcasts of society knew and l..\.vi I'r. -iiirnt Mac- 
lean because he visited them with sympathy and charity. As 
he is still living, this is not the time to say all of him that 
ought to be said. 

President Maclean's relation to his predecessor, Dr. Carna- 
lian, and his position in office and in the faculty during the 
administration of Dr. Carnahan, devolved upon him chiellythe 
government of the college, so that when he became president 
there was hardly any change perceptible in its discipline 
and government, under the two administrations. If there 
was any change it was only in there being less of police 
vigilance and pursuit of college offenders, after the vice- 
president became president ; and this change was for the 
better. 

Dr. Maclean's long connection with the college and his 
familiarity with college affairs, together with his being the 
vice-president, which was supposed by some to give him the 
right of succession, undoubtedly secured for him the presidency. 
The office of vice-president has since been aboljshetl. 

The administration of ('resident Maclean \\as much like 
that of his predecessor. Two important events affected the 
welfare of the college during Dr. Maclean's term, nameh-, the 
burning of old Nassau Hall and the withdrawal of the Southern 
students in the civil war. 



288 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

On the loth of March, 1855, a fire broke out in the second 
story of North College, Nassau Hall, at 8|- o'clock. The flames 
were furious, the wind was high, all efforts to save the building 
were vain ; and by midnight the whole building was a mass of 
ruins, except its old naked stone walls. Many of the students 
lost their property. The valuable library of the Philadelphian 
Society was nearly destroyed. 

President Maclean and the trustees proceeded forthwith to 
rebuild the edifice, and it was made fire-proof and slightly im- 
proved in appearance, but the old walls were retained ; the 
long entries were discarded and compartments were substituted 
for the same. The building was heated by eight furnaces; and 
the number of students soon ran up to about three hundred. 

During the fourteen years of his presidency, Dr. Maclean 
conferred the first degree on 895 graduates. In the first year 
the number of graduates was 80; and notwithstanding the 
withdrawal of the Southern students during the civil war, 
which reduced the aggregate number in attendance nearly one- 
half, the number of the graduating class, in the last year of his 
presidency, 1S68, was 63. 

In our previous volume we have presented Princeton in the 
late civil war, and we need only add here that Dr. Maclean and 
all the members of the faculty were loyal to the government, 
and with, perhaps, one exception, openly avowed their s)'mpa- 
thy and cooperation with the measures taken to preserve the 
Union, though they were a little slow about it. 

The financial interests of the college received most impor- 
tant aid during Dr. Maclean's presidency. In the preface to 
his History of the College he says, that within this period, in- 
cluding the last year of Dr. Carnahan's term, the actual increase 
of the funds vested in bonds, mortgages and public securities, 
after paj'ing for rebuilding the college, Mas not less than 
$240,000; of this sum $115,000 were for professorships, over 
$50,000 for scholarships, $6,000 for prizes, and about $64,000 
for general purposes. In addition to this was the gift of Dr. 
John N. Woodhull of divers houses and land adjacent to the 
college, estimated at the time at $20,000. Also other gifts 
were made by General N. N. Halsted, for the observatory, of 
about $60,000, and by John C. Green, in the purchase of land 



THE COLLEGE— PRESIDENT MACLEAN. 289 

for various improvements contemplated and commenced, and 
since carried out mai^nificently, besides other gifts, all of which, 
at that time, amounted, in the aggregate, to more than 
$400,000. It thus appears that President Maclean retired 
from the college in a day when liberal things were being de- 
vised for the institution, and when confidence was reposed in 
its management by its friends and alumni. 

The infirmities of age and the anxious cares of a long life 
in the service of the college, he thought, had impaired his 
strength so much as to make it best for him to give his place 
to another, and he tendered his resignation to the trustees in 
1868, which was accepted. To say that President Maclean was 
a true, generous, honorable, well bred, humble, Christian gentle- 
man, and the most beloved of all the distinguished men ever 
connected with the College of New Jersey, is not to say half of 
what might justly be said of him, and what will be said of him 
when his life shall have been written. His name is engraved 
upon every stone of the college in letters of love, and that name 
needs only to be mentioned in the presence of alumni or under- 
graduates to call forth a cheering demonstration of that love. In 
college discipline, while he was the most fearless of accusers he 
was the most clement of judges. He stood in loco paroiiis to 
every student, and towards their absent parents he felt as much 
tenderness, when their sons were wayward and in trouble, as the 
noble-hearted Lincoln did when the appeal of distressed mothers 
of doomed soldier boys touched' his generous heart and secured 
a pardon. Dr. Maclean's first hasty judgment in a case was not 
always right ; but his " sober second thought " almost always 
put him right. He required only to understand the whole 
case to ensure from him a wise decision. While very tenacious 
of his opinion at first, he was always humble and generous 
enough to change it when he saw his error. 

When President Maclean retired from the college his friends 
purchased a house for him in Canal Street, where he now resides 
with an income provided for him by the trustees of the college. 
His time has been employed in writing the History of the Col- 
lege, which has been published and herein iVequently referred to. 

He welcomes, with that hospitality which, when he was 
president, kept his mansion filled with guests as if it were a 
1-J 



290 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

public house, all his old friends who visit Princeton. How 
many presidents, professors, trustees, alumni, strangers, and in- 
timate friends at home, he has survived ! 

The professors who were chosen during President Maclean's 
term, were the REV. Lyman H. Atwater, D, D., in 1854, 
elected Professor of Metaphysics and Moral PhilosojDhy, and 
later of Political Economy. He is still filling his chair with 
ability, and is a writer of prominence. 

Arnold Guyot, LL. D., was elected Professor of Geology 
and Physical Geography in 1854, and holds that chair still with 
unrivalled reputation. 

Rev. William A. Dod was appointed Lecturer on the 
Fine Arts in 1855, but resigned in 1859. -He was a brother of 
the late Professor Albert B. Dod. 

George A. Matile, LL. D., was chosen Professor of 
History in 1855, but resigned in 1858. 

Rev. Henry C. Cameron was elected Assistant Professor 
of Greek in 1855, and Professor in i860. He is still in that 
chair. 

Rev. Joshua H. McIlvaine, D. D.,M'as chosen Professoi 
of Belles-Lettres and English Literature in i860 and resigned 
in 1872. He is now pastor of a church in Newark. 

John S. Hart was again elected Professor in 1S64 and re- 
signed in 1874. 

Rev. Charles W. Shields, D. D., was elected Professor 
in 1866, to the chair on the Harmony between Science and 
Religion. Pie is still in that chair. 

Rev. Charles A. Aiken, D. D., was elected Professor of 
Latin in 1866 and resigned in 1869. He is now Professor in 
the Theological Seminary. 

Stephen G. Peabody was employed as Teacher of Elocu- 
tion in 1866, 







REV. JAMES MCCOSH, D.D. 



THE COLLEGE— PRESIDENT McCOSH. 29 1 

SECTION XI. 

ADMINISTRATION OF PRESIDENT McCOSH, FROM 1 868. 

Upon the resignation of President Maclean the names of 
several different persons were mentioned for his successor. 
Among them were those of Rev. Dr. McCosh, of Scotland, 
Rev. Dr. Edward N.^ Kirk, of Boston, Rev. Dr. Jos. T. Duryea, 
of Brooklyn, Rev. Dr. William H. Green, of Princeton. The 
trustees met on the 13th of April, 1868, and, perplexed with 
doubts and difficulties as to the proper man, they unanimously 
agreed upon the Rev. WiLLIAM H. Green, D. D., Professor of 
Hebrew in the Theological Seminary at Princeton. His elec- 
tion was a surprise to the public. He was a nephew of John 
C. Green, of New York, who, on that same day, presented the 
first $100,000 to the college, on the Elisabeth Foundation, 
which was soon after followed by other gifts of large dimen- 
sions towards the same object. 

Dr. Green declined the office tendered to him, and in the 
latter part of April, 1868, the Rev. James McCosh, D. D., 
Professor of Moral Philosophy in Queen's College, Belfast, 
Ireland, was elected. He accepted the appointment, and was 
inaugurated president of the college, October 27th of the same 
year. His arrival with his family at Princeton was welcomed 
by a procession of students and citizens, escorting them from 
the depot to the Presidential mansion, and there giving him 
words of cheer and welcome and receiving from him a proper 
response. Serenades and illuminations followed later in the 
evening. 

President McCosh's inauguration was a great public demon- 
stration, in behalf of the college, and of the distinguished presi- 
dent elect. The railroad train brought to the town fifteen 
hundred strangers to witness the ceremonies and to see the new 
president. The dignitaries of the church and of the State were 
present, almost all of whom were alumni of the college. The 
church was crowded to its utmost capacity. Four hundred 
tickets of admission to the galleries were distributed to the 



292 HISTORY OF PRIXCETON. 

ladies, and a more learned and cultivated audience had never 
filled that house before. Gov. Ward, on behalf of the trustees 
of the college, introduced the exercises by stating their object, 
and the Rev. Dr. Stearns, of Newark, offered prayer. An ad- 
dress of welcome to the president elect was next delivered by 
the Rev. Charles Hodge, D. D., and that was followed by one 
to the alumni, by the Hon. William C. Alexander, to which 
Ex-Governor Pollock, of Pennsylvania, responded. On behalf 
of the under graduates, J. Thomas Finley of the senior class, 
delivered a Latin address. These addresses were all of high 
order, well delivered ai:d enthusiastically received. Chancellor 
Zabriskie then administered the official triple oath as usual and 
ExTVcsident Maclean delivered the keys, charter and by-laws 
of the college to President McCosh, who, while signing his 
name to the official oath and roll of presidents, was greeted by 
a round of enthusiastic cheers, with a Nassau rocket, which 
fairly made the roof ring. 

President McCosh then stepped forward, wearing a black 
silk gown. He was handsome, tall, but stooping a little, with 
gray hair and whiskers. His presence and bearing were im- 
pressive and attractive ; his Scotch brogue was very strong 
when he spoke ; and taking for the theme of his address 
" Academic Teaching in Europe," he read a very interesting 
and scholarly address, which was listened to with rapt atten- 
tion and received frequent applause. It was worthy of the 
distinguished president and of the occasion which had called it 
forth. The inauguration, in all its parts, Avas a grand success, 
and it marked a new era in the history of the college. It was 
just one hundred years since Dr. John Witherspoon came from 
Scotland and accepted the presidency of this college ; and he 
had rendered a long term of eminent service here. 

Dr. McCosh, who is a native of Scotland, brought with him 
to this country a high reputation for character and scholarship. 
He had been pastor at Krechen, in Scotland, for sixteen years, 
and then was Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in Queen's 
College, Belfast, for about the same length of time. He was 
the author of several metaphysical works, which placed him 
high among the thinking and educated men of the world. 
Among these works were his " Method cf Divine Government," 



THE COLLEGE— PRESIDENT McCOSIL. 293 

"Intuitions of the Human Mind," "Typical Forms and Spe- 
cial F2nds in Creation," " The Supernatural in Relation to the 
Natural." He had belonged to the Free Church of Scotland, 
and had visited Princeton, when in this country, as a delegate to 
the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, held at St. 
Louis, a few years before he was elected president of Princeton 
College ; and on that visit he made a favorable impression upon 
the Princeton professors and the Presbyterian clergy generally. 
President McCosh, being seated in the presidential chair of 
the college and clothed with the power of the keys, gave him- 
self to the work of advancing the interests and reputation of 
this venerable institution. As an educator he was, and has 
been to the present time, an enthusiast. He came here, as we 
have shown, just as the influx of munificent gifts to the college 
had commenced ; and he was just the man to enlist the coop- 
eration of wealthy merchants and capitalists, especially those 
\\\\.o were Presbyterians and of Scotch descent. 

Dr. McCosh has been president of Princeton College for the 
last ten years, and he has accomplished great things. His 
administration has been dazzling with its brilliancy. It seems 
as though a creative power more than human has been 
exerted to change the ancient order of things. He has 
had accorded to him, by the faculty and trustees, almost 
absolute power. He has hardly been thwarted in any of his 
cherished plans. He has needed only to intimate in a private 
way, or at a public Commencement, that money was wanted 
for some improvement, and it has been bestowed. Old build- 
ings have been transformed or swept away. New ones of great 
cost and beauty have been multiplied yearly, until the group 
of them astonishes the beholder as he walks among them. 
There are only three or four buildings in twenty which can be 
recognized as having escaped the wand of the magician. The 
Observatory had been projected before Dr. McCosh arrived, 
though its erection was not accomplished until several years 
after his advent. But the Gymnasium, Dickinson Hall, Re-un- 
ion Hall, the Chancellor Green Library, the John C. Green 
School of Science, and Witherspoon Hall have all been planned 
and built since he was invested with the presidency. In addi- 
tion to all this professors' houses have been erected, the college 



294 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

grounds have been enlarged and beautified with walks and 
lawns and roads and gas lights ; old houses have been pur- 
chased and removed, and money has been expended for college 
appliances in the- library, museum and philosophical apparatus. 
The curriculum of the college has been extended, the standard 
of education greatly raised, branches of new studies, and new 
professors and teachers to fill the new chairs, have been added 
almost yearly, until the course of study is now equal to that of 
Harvard and Yale, or even the European Universities, and 
the faculty consists of at least twenty-five members. 

The course of study reported by the president and adopted 
by the trustees, within the last year, indicates what the standard 
of study in the college proper, irrespective of the School of 
Science, is ; and as it gives an idea of the scope of studies here 
pursued, we subjoin it as it stands in the Catalogue. 

COURSE OF STUDY. 

FRESHMAN CLASS. 

First Term.— Za//>?.— Livy, (Books I., XXI.) Horace's Odes, (One 
Book.) Latin Prose Composition (.Arnold's) Part I. Greek. — Lysias. Hero- 
dotus (Mather's). Xenophon's Memorabilia. Goodwin's Moods and 
Tenses. Greek Prose Composition. The Phonetic Relations of Greek, 
Latin and English. Mathematics. — Algebra completed. — English. — Rhet- 
oric (Hart's). Diction and Sentences. Essays. Elocution. 

Second and Third Terms.— Za////.—Livy, (Book XXH.) Roman 
History (Rawlinson's). Horace's Odes. (Two Books.) Latin Prose (Ar- 
nold's) completed. Greek. — Lysias. Herodotus. Xenophon's Memorabilia 
(Two Books.) Greek Composition. Mathematics.— ^tovwalxy (Todhun- 
ter's Euclid). Ratio and Proportion. English.— KXicX.qx'xz (Hart's), Figures, 
Special Properties of Style, Poetry, Versification. French. — Otto's Conver- 
sation Grammar (thirty lessons), with oral and written Exercises. 

SOPHOMORE CLASS. 

First Term.— Za////.— Horace's Satires or Epistles (One Book.) Latin 
Composition. Crtv/-.— Homer's Iliad, (Books XVl, XVIIl, XXII.) Demos- 
thenes. The Philippics. The Doctrine of the Formation of Words in Greek- 
Mathematics. — Plane Trigonometry, Mensuration and Navigation. En<[- 
//j//.— Lectures. Essays. Z'rdv/c/!.— Review of Studies of Freshman Year. 
Principles of French Prosody. Written Exercises in French Composition. 
Lacombe's Histoire du Peuple Franc^ais. Anatomy and Physiology. 



THE COLLEGE— PRESIDENT McCOSH. 295 

Second and Third Terms. — Z^//«.— Tacitus : Histories, two books ; 
Roman History (Rawlinson's). Latin Composition. Greek. — Homer's 
Iliad. Demosthenes. Greek Composition, Mathematics. — Surveying. 
Spherical Trigonometry. Analytical Geometry. English. — Study of Words, 
(Trench's.) Essays. Elocution. French. — Otto's Grammar, Reflexive 
and Irregular Verbs. Lacombe's Ilistoire du Pcuple Frangais. Natural 
History. 

JUNIOR CLASS. 

First Term. Required Studies. — Z^^/<:.— Atwater's Manual. Psy- 
chology. Mechanics. Physics. Science and Religion. — Natural Theology 
and the Physical Sciences. ///j-/'c);j.— Primitive European Civilization. 
Physical Geography (or Geology.) English Literature. — Manual of English 
Literature (Craik), with Lectures. Essays. 

Elective Studies. — Latin. — Juvenal, Select Letters of Pliny. Greek. — 
Euripides : The Medea. Plato: The Pha^do. Mathematics. — Differential 
Calculus. LVench. — Review of Irregular Verbs. Corneille's Cid. German.— 
Otto's German Grammar, Written Exercises. 

Second and Third Terms. Required ?>t\3V)\y.s.— Psychology. Logic 
and Metaphysics. Mcclianics. Pliysics. Physical Geography (or Geolcgy.) 
History. — Mediaeval European Civilization, Science and Religion. — Natural 
Religion and the Mental Sciences, English Literature. — Manual of English 
Literature (Craik), with Lectures, Essays, Elocution. 

Elective Studies. — Latin.— C\ctro. De Natura Deorum, and De 
Divinatione. Greek. — Euripides. Thucydides. Plato. Mathematics.— 
Integral Calculus, French. — Exercises in Syntax. Corneille's Cid. Racine's 
Athalie. Moiiere's Le Bourgeois Gentiliiomme, German. — Otto's Gram- 
mar, and Prose Composition continued to Syntax. German Historical Prose. 
Whitney's German Reader. 

senior year. 

First Term, Required Studies. — Astronomy. Physics. Ethics. — 
Gregory's Christian Ethics, Gillet's Moral System. Geology for Physical 
Geography.) Chemistry. — Fowne's, Roscoe's. Barker's. Miller's. Eng- 
lish Literature. — Lectures. Essays, Speeches. Science and Religio?i. — 
Butler's Analogy and Bacon's Novum Organum. 

Elective Studies. — Science 0/ Language. — Whitney's Life and Growth 
of Language. Lectures, Greek. — Sophocles : G£dipus Tyrannus, ylLschy- 
lus : The Agamemnon, Greek Literature. Comparative Grammar. Math- 
ematics. Astronomy. — Practical. Physics. History. — English and Ameri- 
can Civilization. C7/(:7,'«j,V;j.— Applied and Organic, History of Philosophy. 
— Ancient. Ueberweg's Hist, of Philosophy, Vol. I. French. — Grammar. 
Composition. Corneille, Racine, Moliere. German. — Goethe's Hermann 
and Dorolhca. Schiller's Picculomini, Lessing's Nathan dcr Wcise. Gram- 



296 HISTORY OF PRINCETOW 

mar. Composition, rob'.tiral Sctaue. l\Iuseitni Work, in Botany and 
Zoology. 

Second and Third Tf.rms. Required Studies. — Astronomy. 
Physics. Political Ecoiioiny. Geology {or Physical Geography.) Chejiiis- 
ify. English and American Literature. — Lectures. Essays. Science ami 
Religion. — Christian Evidences and Christian Science. 

Elective Studies. — Latin and the Science of Language. — Lucretius. 
Lectuies on Comparative Inflection, and Syntax. Cree/c. — .Sophocles : 
Gidipus Tyrannus. ^Eschylus : The Agamemnon. Greek Literature. 
Comparative Grammar. Mathematics. Astrono/ny.—Vvaci\c:\\. J^/iysics. 
Chemistry. — Applied and Organic. History of Philosophy. — Modern. 
History. — Ancient and Modern Civilization. French. — Grammaire Histo- 
rique de la Langue Fran^aise (Brachet.) Lectures. Eminent Poets and 
Prose Writers of the Eighteenth Century. German. — Das Nibelungen Lied. 
Meister und Minnesilnger. Lessing. Goethe and his Contemporaries. 
Political Scioice. — -Woolsey's International Law. Museum Work, in Zoology 
and Geology. 

The School of Science has developed into an important 
branch of the college. The professors of the college, with the 
exception of three or four, are instructors in this school. The 
Scientific Hall is the largest and most expensive building in 
the group. It is thoroughly equipped and fully endowed. 
The general course of study prescribed in this branch is very 
comprehensive, and there are elective courses also, such as 
cheinistry and mineralogy, civil engineering and architecture. 
Students are admitted only after adequate preparation, and 
they arc regarded as members of the college, subject to all the 
rules and discipline, and entitled to all the privileges of students 
in the literary or academic department. 

The last catalogue issued, for 1877-78, announces the num- 
ber of students in the academic department at 451, and in the 
scientific department at 49, making a total of 500. This number 
includes fellows and post-graduates who reside in Princeton and 
attend college lectures. There are about fifty of these. Thus 
has the raising of the standard raised the number of students. 

With this very imperfect and partial notice of the present 
condition of the college, and without here referring to the 
prizes, fellowships and endowments of the institution, it is easy 
to see what a mighty stride it has taken upward and onward 
since Piesident McCosh has taken the helm. 



THE COLLEGE— PRESIDENT McCOSIT. 297 

Dr. McCosh is the eleventh president of Princeton Collei^e, 
and his administration, beino judged by what has been accom- 
plislied in the financial and material, as well as in the educa- 
tional success and reputation of the institution, ^vill eclipse all 
preceding administrations. He has already conferred the first 
degree on upwards of 800 students. 

Dr. McCosh is an indefatigable worker. He wastes no time. 
He is an intense student ; and the work of his pen, in writin"- 
books, sermons, addresses and letters, would be regarded as 
marvellous if he had none of the cares of the college upon his 
hands. When it is remembered how much time lie gives to 
students in his study, to the faculty, to various committees and 
visitors, to class lectures, to the executive business of his office, 
and to the public generally, it would seem that the draft upon 
his mental and physical powers would soon exhaust and crush 
him. 

His strong will often comes in contact with opposition, and 
while he receives a liberal indulgence to follow his own plans 
for the good of the college, he is sometimes charged with being 
pertinacious and a little arbitrary. But he never pushes his 
peculiar views so far as to break with his coadjutors and there- 
by fail to accomplish an important result. His commanding 
influence with great minds, with distinguished men, in a wide 
circle of acquaintance, and the universal respect in which he is 
held by all classes of men, in the Church and State, add much 
to his success in promoting the interest of the college. He is 
a strong Presbyterian, but he is not a bigot. His confidence 
in the power of truth leads him to stand undismayed when 
science seems to conflict with revealed religion. He does not 
hastily denounce the scientist but meets him with science and 
tests the new theory instead of running away from it. And 
in this he shows the greatness of his mind and character, and 
his fitness for his present position. 

The new professors who have been added to the faculty 
since he has been president were, in 1870, 

Rev. William A. Packard, Professor of Latin. 

James C. Welling, Professor of Bclle-Lettres and English 
Literature, who resigned in 1871. 



2gS HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

Gen. Joseph Kargi'';, Professor of Modern Languages. 

In 1873, Cyrus F. Brackett, Professor of Physics. 

Professor Eddy, Assistant Professor of Mathematics, re- 
signed in 1874. 

I-Ienry B. Cornwall, Professor of Analytical Chemistry 
and Mineralogy. 

Rev. Theodore W. Hunt, Professor of Rhetoric and 
English Language. 

Rev. George McCloskie, from Ireland, Professor of 
Natural History in 1874. 

Rev. James O. Murray, D. D., Professor of Belles-Lettres 
and English Literature, in 1875. 

Charles McMillan, Professor of Civil Engineering and 
Applied Mathematics. 

Edward D. Lindsey, Professor of Architecture and Ap- 
plied Art. 

Charles A. Young, LL. D., Professor of Astronomy. 

Rev. S. Stanhope Orris, Ewing Professor of Greek. 

Charles G. Rockwood, Professor of Mathematics. 

William M. Sloane, Assistant Professor of Latin : with 
several tutors and assistant teachers. 



SECTION XII. 

OFFICERS AND ALUMNI. 



There have been Thirty different Governors of New Jersey 
who have been ex-officio presidents of the board of trustees of 
the college ; Governor Belcher having been the first one and 
Governor McClellan the last one. 

There have been eleven presidents of the college, President 



THE COLLEGE— OFFICERS AND ALUMNI. 299 

Dickinson having been the first and President McCosh being 
the last, and the present incumbent. Their names have been 
fully presented with their respective administrations. 

There have been five vicc-presidoils, this ofiice having been 
discontinued in 1854, when Vice-President Maclean was chosen 
president. 

There have been one liundred and seventy-one members of 
the board oi trustees, including the most prominent names in 
New Jersey and in adjoining States, men who have ranked 
high in the Church and in the State. The present board con- 
sists of twenty-seven members, by amendment of the charter, 
as given in the last catalogue issued, 1877-78, and they are as 
follows : 

Trustees of the College. 

His excellency, J. D. Bedle, LL. D., Governor of the State of New Jersey, and 
ex-officio President of the Board of Trustees. 

James McCosh, D.D., LL. D., President of the College, and, in the absence of 
the Governor, President of the Board. 

Charles Hodgk, D.D., LL.D Princeton, New Jersey. 

Samuel H. Pennington, ]\LD Newark, New Jersey. 

Elijah R. Craven, D.D Newark, New Jersey. 

George W. Musgrave. D.D., LL. D Philadelphia. 

Cyrus Dickson, D.D New York City. 

Charles K. Imbrie, D.D Jersey City, New Jersey. 

Henry ^L Alexander, A.M New York City. 

Jonathan F. Stearns, D.D Newark, New Jersey. 

Joseph Henry, LL.D Washington, D. C. 

Hon. John T. Nixon, A.M., LL.D Trenton, New Jersey. 

William C. Rourrts, D.D Elizabeth, New Jersey. 

James M. Crowell, D.D Philadelphia. 

William M. Paxton, D. D New York City. 

John I. Blair Blairstown, New Jersey. 

Hon. John A. Stewart New York City. 

Gen. N. Norkis Halsted Newark. New Jersey. 

John ILa.ll, D.D New York City. 

WiLLLiM Henky Green, D.D., LL.D Princeton, New Jersey. 

Hon. Caleb S. Green, A.M Trenton, New Jersey. 

William Adams, D.D., LL.D New York City. 

John Leyiiurn, D.D Baltimore. 

Thomas PL Robinson, D.D Harrisburgh. 

Charles E. Green, A.M Trenton, New Jersey. 

William Liubey New York City. 

Charles E. Elmer Bridgeton, New Jersey. 

Elijah R. (Graven, D.D., Clerk of the Board of Trustees. 
Kev. WiLLi.VM Harris, A.M., Treasurer. 



300 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

There have been sixty-six professors in the college from its 
original organization to the present time. They have been 
named under the administration in which they were elected, 
and we append only those who now constitute the present 
faenlty, viz.: twenty-one professors and four tutors. Herein 
is shown how well the college is equipped with instructors. 

The Faculty. 

James McCosh, D.D., LL.D., Pkesident, and Robert Lennox Profe^or of 
Biblical Instiiictii)n. 

.Stei'MEN Alexander, LL.D., Emeritus Professor of Astronomy. 

Lyman H. Atwater, D.D., LL.D., Professor of Logic and Moral and Politi- 
cal .Science. 

Arnold Guyot, Ph.D., LL.D., Blair Professor of Geology and Physical Geog- 
raphy. 

John T. Dufeield, D.D., Dod Professor of Mathematics. 

J. SriLLWELL Schanck, M.D., LL.D., Professor of Chemistry. 

Henry C. Cameron, Ph.D., D.D., Professor of Greek Language and Literature. 

Charles W. Sihelds, D.D., Professor of History and of the Harmony of Science 
and Revealed Religion. 

\Vu.LL\M A. Packard, Pit.D., Kennedy Professor of Latin and Literature. 

Joseph Karge, PilD.. Woodhull Professor of Continental Languages and 
Literature. 

Cyrus F. Brackf.tt, M.D., Henry Professor of Physics. 

Henry B. Cornwall, A.M., E. M., Professor of Analytical Chemistry and 
Mineralogy. 

Rev. George Macloskie, LL.D., Professor of Natural History. 

James O. Murray, D.D., Holmes Professor of Belles-Lelters and English Lan- 
guage and Literature. 

Charles McMuxan, C.E., Professor of Civil Engineering and Applied Math- 
ematics. 

Edward D. Lindsev, A.B., Professor of Architecture and Applied Art. 

Charles A. Young, Ph.D., LL.D., Professor of Astronomy. 

Rev. S. Stanhope Oiuus, Ph.D., Ewing Professor of Greek Language and 
Literature. 

Charles G. Rockwood, Jr., Ph.D., Associate Professor of Pure and Applied 
Mathematics. 

Rev. Theodore \V. Hunt, A.M., Adjunct Professor of Rhetoric and English 
Language. 

Wn.LL\M M. Sloane, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Latin. 

I. H. Condit, A. M.. Tutor in Mathematics. 

Samuel R. Winans, A.B., Tutor in Greek. 

John P. Coyle, A.B., Tutor in Latin. 

Henry A. Todd, A.B., Tutor in Modern Languages. 

S. G. Peaisody, Associate Professor of Elocution. 

John B. McM.\ster, A.M., C.E., Listructor in Civil Engineering. 

Frank S. Craven, C.E., E.M., Assistant in Analytical Chemistry & Mineralogy. 



THE COLLEGE— OFFICERS AND ALUMNL 



301 



There have been about one hundred and eigJity Tutors in 
the college, from its commencement to the present time. 

Fifteen different persons have filled the office of Secretary 
of the Board of Trustees, Thomas Arthur having been the first, 
in 1748. 

There have been twenty-one different persons who have 
held the office of Treasurer of the college, in the following 
order of their election, viz.: 



1748 Andrew Johnston, 

1750 Jonathan Sergeant, 

1777 James Caldwell, 

1779 Wm. Churchill Houston, 

1783 S. Stanhope Smith, 

1786 Tiiomas Wiggins, 

17S7 John Beatty pro tern., 

17S7 Richard Stockton,/;-^ /^w. 

1788 Isaac Snowden, Jun., 

1 791 John Harrison, 

1795 Walter Minto, 



1796 Enos Kelsey, 

1810 Samuel Bayard, 

1828 James S. Green, 

1528 George S. Woudhull, /;w tt'i?i. 

1529 John Van iJoren, 
1839 John V. Talniage, 
1S45 Charles S. OKlen, 

1845 Job G. Olden, assistant, 

1869 Lyman S. Atwater, 

1870 William Harris. 



Prior to 18 1 3 one of tlie tutors had the charge of the col- 
lege library, but since that year there have been five different 
librarians, viz.: 



18x3 Professor Lindsley, 
1824 Professor John Maclean, 
1850 Professor G. W. Giger, 



1865 Professor H. C. Cameron, 
1873 Rev, Frederick Vinton. 



The whole number of the Alumni of Princeton College, in- 
cluding the dead and the living, may be set down at frve thou- 
sand. Of this number a large proportion entered the ministry 
and the other learned professions. The proportion of men who 
became eminent as jurists, statesmen, divines, and professors 
in literary institutions will be found to be larger than in other 
such institutions. This is especially so because, in the days of 
the Revolution, Princeton students were inspired by the patri- 
otic services of President Witherspoon, whose influence began 
before the war broke out, and continued through it and for 
years after its close. Another reason for this may be found in 
the fact that this college has drawn a large projjortion of stu- 
dents from the Middle and Southern States, in which the most 



302 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

of college graduates do not enter into business, but readily re- 
ceive promotion into high public places, especially political 
positions, and thus they come up before the public with prom- 
inence and frequently with illustrious distinction, reflecting 
upon their alma mater more honor than the same proportion 
of the graduates of other colleges reflect upon theirs. Prince- 
ton has been noted for the attention given to rhetoric and 
oratory, and those branches of study which fit and incline 
young men to become orators and statesmen. 

An Alumni Association of Nassau Hall was organized in the 
year 1832, which was composed of all the graduates, with hon- 
orary members. It holds an annual meeting in the chapel on 
the day before Commencement, when annual addresses are de- 
livered by distinguished graduates. Local associations have 
been formed also in the cities of New York, Philadelphia, and 
other cities in the West and South, all tending to enlist the 
graduates in the continued prosperity of their alma mater. 



SECTION XIII. 

BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS. 



An outline of the college grounds and buildings is exhibited 
on the annexed map, which was prepared in 1877. The three 
dwellings adjoining the School of Science, have since been re- 
moved. There is now no building on Nassau Street between 
the Presbyterian church and Washington Street, east of the 
School of Science, except the old house of the president. The 
campus extends along the whole front. The vice-president's 
house or the old Maclean house — the old City Hotel, which in 
the time of the Revolution was kept by Hyer, with the sign 
of Hudibras — the compact row of houses east of the hotel to 
the old Wilson corner, including the Col. Beatty house, are 
all removed ; not a vestige of them to be seen there. The 
campus is enclosed on the whole front on Nassau Street by a 
handsome iron fence, and that street is paved with a broad, 
heavy, North River flag. 



THE COLLEGE— BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS. 



303 



This map covers an area of twenty-five acres of land, and 
the buildings thereon are generally designated by their names. 




Nassau Hall. 

Nassau Hall, or North College, is in the centre of the group. 
It is the original college building, which has been already de- 
scribed, and which was twice burned ; it was used as barracks 
and quarters for the armies in the Revolution. Many of the 
original uses to which it was applied, have been extinguished 



304 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

by the provision of new and separate buildings. It is now used 
only as a dormitory, except the central rear projection, recently 
the Library, which is used as a Museum of Art — one of the 
most interesting and attractive places on the college ground. 
This is the most ancient and classic looking buildin"- in the 
group. It retains its original appearance, except a small tower 
which has been built on each end. The bell and clock are 
on this Hall. This building was first used in 1756. The 
Continental Congress sat in its library in 1783. 

The President's House. 

This house was built at the same time with Nassau Hall, 
and has never been burned. It has undergone some improve- 
ments, but not in any thing material. The old chimneys and 
windows, and the general exterior of the building are unchanged, 
though the piazza and the bay windows have been added since 
Dr. McCosh was elected president. The interior has been 
altered and improved in appearance. It is hoped that it will 
be allowed to withstand the sweeping march of modern pro- 
gress. It is a very comfortable residence. 

TnE' Geological Hall. 

This is the building in the rear of the President's house and 
nearly opposite the west end of Nassau Hall. It was built in 
1803, just after the college was burnt. It has formerly been 
used for recitation rooms, the college library, literary societies, 
geological cabinet and lecture room, and the Philadelphian 
Society. It has just now been converted into college offices, 
where the college treasurer, superintendent of grounds and 
police, the engineer, and other college officers transact their 
official duties, and are to be found. A building corresponding 
to this one, known as Philosophical Hall, on the opposite side 
of the campus and at the same distance from Nassau Hall, was 
built at the same time, Tlie refectory, the Museum of Natural 
History, the philosophical apparatus and lecture rooms, were 
for many years, in this building; but the building was taken 
down to give place to the new Library, after Dr. McCosh came 
to Princeton. 

All the other buildings are of recent origin. 



THE COLLEGE— BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS. 305 



. East and West Colleges. 

These dormitories were erected in the years 1833 and 1836, 
and are situated on the opposite sides of the original back cam- 
pus. They are four stories high, and each affords rooms for 
sixty-four occupants. They have been improved recently by 
the substitution of a Mansard roof for the old one. 

The Literary Halls. 

The CHosophic and American Whig Societies erected these 
halls for their own use in or about the year 1837. They are 
Grecian buildings corresponding to the temple of Dionysius in 
the peninsula of Teos, with columns after the Ionic temple on 
the Illisus. They are built of brick stuccoed and white, and 
cost about $6000 each. 

The Chapel. 

This is a cruciform structure in the Byzantine style, erected 
in 1847. Since Dr. McCosh has been President it has been the 
second time enlarged and improved. It is capable of seating 
four or five hundred students, not counting the pews in the 
transepts for families. An excellent organ, the gift of Henry 
Clews, Esq., of New York, is placed in the gallery at the end 
of the audience room. The chapel is at the east end of North 
College, and nearer to it than any other building. A new 
chapel has been in contemplation by one of Princeton's bene- 
factors, but as yet it has not been commenced. 

Halsted Observatory. 

The Astronomical Observatory was erected by General N, 
Norris Halsted, of Newark, New Jersey. The corner stone 
was laid in 1866, and the building consists of a central octa- 
gonal tower supporting a revolving dome, with a smaller dome 
on two sides, communicating with the main building. It was 
thoroughly built at a cost of $60,000. It has, thus far, been 
without such a telescope as has been designed for it. It is a 
unique and beautiful building, and Gen. Halsted is entitled to 
20 



306 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

the credit of being- the first liberal benefactor who, by this en- 
terprise, set an example of helping the college by the erection 
of a grand building, which example has been rapidly followed 
by others with marvellous munificence. Professor Stephen 
Alexander designed the building, and the name of Dr. Cortlandt 
Van Rensselaer will also be ever identified with it. 

The Gymnasium. 

This is another beautiful stone structure, east of the obser- 
vatory and in line therewith, quite near the railroad depot. It 
was built in 1869 at the cost of $40,000, and was the gift of 
Messrs. Robert Bonner and Henry G. Marquand, of New York. 
It has, on the first floor, six bowling alleys and five bath rooms, 
and on the second floor, a large hall for gymnastic exercises, 
with a gallery for visitors along one side. It is provided with 
a complete apparatus, and it is as complete an institution of 
the kind as there is in the country. It was the first fruits of 
Dr. McCosh's first appeal for help in this line on a Commence- 
ment occasion. 

Reunion Mall. 

This is a five story dormitory, built of stone, with red brick 
trimmings, built in 1870, by a subscription collected in honor 
of the reunion of the two divisions of the Presbyterian Church. 
The building is heated by steam and accommodates about 
seventy-five persons. It stands near the west end of North 
college. The brick house of Professor Henry was taken down 
when this was built, and was rebuilt where Professor Kargc re- 
sides, on the east side of the west campus. 

Dickinson Hall. 

This is a large three story stone building devoted exclusive- 
ly to the instruction of classes, containing lecture-rooms and 
recitation-rooms which, as to size and furniture, are admirably 
adapted to their object. The rooms are warmed by steam. 
It was called Dickinson Hall in honor of the first president, 
Jonathan Dickinson, by the donor, John C. Green, who was a 
lineal descendant of President Dickinson through his youngest 



THE COLLEGE— BUILDINGS AhW GROUNDS. 307 

daughter, who was married to the Rev. Caleb Smith, and was 
the great grandmother of John C. Green. This building cost 
nearly $110,000, and, within the last year, alterations have 
been made in the upper story and roof at a large cost, but im- 
proving its appearance. 

This hall was erected in 1870. The first gift towards it 
was made by Mr. Green in 1868, of $100,000. He afterwards 
furnished the site and built the hall for $110,000, leaving 
$100,000 in invested funds. The whole $210,000 constitutes 
what has been named the Elisabeth Foundation, in memory of 
his mother. He also provided an income from $25,000 for the 
care of Dickinson Hall and grounds. 

Chancellor Green Library. 

This is the most artistic and beautiful building in the group, 
in both its interior and exterior finish. It is peculiar in its 
shape, which consists of a central octagonal building under a 
dome, with a small tower wing on two sides, but correspond- 
ing in form to the large central one. The library, which con- 
tains 44,000 volumes, is in the central structure, systematically 
arranged in alcoves and tiers, in 200 alphabetical subjects. 
The building is fire-proof, and contains many things of rare 
value and interest and is visited by almost every stranger who 
comes to the town. The room on the west end is beautifully 
furnished and is the room for the meeting of the trustees. The 
room at the east is used by the officers of the Library. 

This beautiful building was the gift of John C. Green and 
was named in honor of his brother, Henry W. Green, Chan- 
cellor of New Jersey. In 1872 he gave $120,000 for erecting 
and completing the building and $6,000 for its care. He after- 
wards gave $40,000 to endow the chair of the librarian. The 
building is situated north of the chapel but quite near it. 

John C. Green School of Science. 

This, too, is the gift of John C. Green. It is the largest 
and most imposing of all the college buildings. Its situation 
is at the east of the other buildings and fills the space between 
Dickinson Hall and the Penn's Neck road, known as Washint>- 
ton Street. It extends quite near Nassau Street, at the Wil- 



3oS 



HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 



son corner. The last dwelling houses on Nassau Street, in 
that vicinity, were removed during the last summer. Since 
the picture here given was taken, and during the past year, the 



■'-^ :^ 



~^ .C'' >^> 








,1M - JtW'ii'iaH^^'SlS^^ 




JOHN C. GREEN SCHOOL OF SCIENCE. 

size of the building has been about doubled by an addition built 
to it. It is now adequate in size and equipment for all the uses 
that can be made of it. It had an original foundation of $200,- 
000, — $100,000 for the building and apparatus, $50,000 for the 
Henry Professorship of Physics, and $25,000 for each of the Pro- 
fessorships of Analytical Chemistry and Natural History. Sub- 
sequently Mr. Green gave $25,000 more to complete the build- 
ing and apparatus and about $5,600 specially to Professor 
Brackett for apparatus in the department of Physics, Just be- 
fore his death he proposed to give $100,000 more for additional 
foundations in the department of Civil Engineering, but he died 
before he had executed the deed. His executors, however, 
executed his wish. 



THE COLLEGE— BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS. 



309 



WiTHERSPOON Hall. 

On the west of Clio Hall and near the railroad depot, on 
high ground overlooking an extensive and beautiful landscape, 
a new dormitory named VVitherspoon Hall has been built 




WlTHERSf'OON HALL. 

witliin the last two years, of light gray stone. Its cost was 
about $100,000. It is designed for about eighty students, 
half of them to occupy rooms by themselves. Each bed-room 
has a special entrance through which servants can go to their 
work without passing through the connecting sitting-room. 
Each of the latter is heated by a coal fire in an open grate, and 
there is an elevator for the transfer of coal and ashes. The 
building is five stories high and is Eastlake in its finish. It 
is the most beautiful and luxurious college dormitory in the 
country. 

Murray Hall. 

A new hall for the use of the Philadelphian Society is now 
being erected on the college land east of the Whig Hall. It 
will bear the name of Murray Hall, after Hamilton Murray, a 
graduate in the class of 1872, who, the next year after gradu- 
ating, sailed for Europe in the ill-fated Ville de Havre, which 



310 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. . 

sunk suddenly on the voyage, and young Murray with a large 
number of others was lost. Before he sailed he visited Prince- 
ton, and while here executed his will and left $15,000 for the 
erection of a building for the use of the Philadelphian Society, 
a society for religious culture in college. It is to be built in 
the modern English Gothic and of Trenton brown stone, and 
will scat four hundred persons. 

We have thus enumerated all the public college buildings 
belonging to the group which cluster around old Nassau Hall, 
They are claimed to be superior in situation, style and con- 
venience. They are all built of stone except the Literary 
Halls, which are brick rough-cast. 

The college owns six professors* houses on this tract of 
land, besides that of the president ; also the old brick house on 
the north side of Nassau Street, the residence of Dr. Stockton ; 
also two on Vandeventer Place ; and on Prospect Avenue a 
new house with an observatory has been built for Professor 
Young, and another house for Professor Brackett is being built. 
They own other land, including the ball ground, and also the 
Preparatory School Property. 

Prospect. 

The beautiful property of the Potter estate known as Pros- 
pect, consisting of thirty acres of choice land, with an elegant 
stone mansion thereon, adjoining the college property on the 
south, has recently been bought by Robert L. and Alexander 
Stuart, of New York, and presented to the College. They will 
furnish the house for the use of President McCosh, and also 
give $1,000 yearly, additional to his salary. The property is 
worth $60,000. and will be of great value to the college in its 
future expansion and necessities. 



THE COLLEGE— LIBRA R V, M USE UMS, A PPA RAT US. 3 I I 

SFXTION XIV. 

LIBRARY, MUSEUMS, APPARATUS. 

We have noticed, in the preceding section, the beautiful 
new Hbrary building which contains the college library, con- 
sisting of 44,000 volumes, admirably arranged so that any book 
therein contained can readily be found. 

A small library was brought to Nassau Hall when the col- 
lege was removed hither from Newark. A large room was pro- 
vided on the second floor of the Hall for it. Gov. Belcher left 
his library, consisting of 474 volumes, to the college, by will, 
when he died ; and in 1764 the whole number of volumes was 
about 2,200. In the Revolutionary War the Hessian soldiers, 
being quartered in the college, rifled the Library and carried 
away -with them many volumes which they had not destroyed, 
some of them being afterwards found in North Carolina, where 
they had been taken by the soldiers. They took with them 
all the philosophical apparatus except the orrery, a small tele- 
scope and an electrical machine. These they intended to take 
and for that reason they were not destroyed. 

In 1802 the library had been so far restored as to reach 
3,000 volumes, all of which were consumed in the conflagration 
of the college in that year. After this, in 1803, the library 
was transferred to the new hall, known formerly as Geological 
Hall, now used for college offices. Volumes were presented to 
it from Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey and Pennsyl- 
vania ; and the trustees appropriated $3,000 for new books and 
$100 for philosophical apparatus. Another appropriation of 
$200 was made for books in 1S19. 

After the rebuilding of the North College in 1856, the library 
was re-transferred to that building, in the room where the geo- 
logical museum is now kept. In 1849 Professor Giger, the 
librarian, reported the number of volumes to be 9,313. Since 
then there have been additions by purchase and by gifts of 
private libraries, and of volumes, especially within the last 
three or four years after the library was transferred into the 
Chancellor Green Library Building, whereby the whole number 



312 HISTORY OF PRINCETON: 

of volumes in the library is set down at 44,000, with an assur- 
ance that it will be considerably augmented yearly hereafter. 
The Rev. Frederick Vinton, who was assistant librarian at the 
Congressional Library at Washington, is the present librarian 
of the college, with a salary enabling him to give all his time 
to the oflice ; and his labors are most valuable. 

There is, in this library, an alcove devoted to volumes writ- 
ten by the Alumni of the college. And it is specially requested 
that every alumnus who is an author shall send to this alcove 
in the library, a copy of every volume he has, or shall have 
written. It contains 1,270 volumes. 

The E. M. Museum of Geology and Arcileoloi/.v, ia 
North College, was founded in 1874 by a generous benefactDr 
of the college who wishes to remain unknown. It embraces 
specimens of casts of large fossil animals, American, European 
and Asiatic, by Professor Henry A. Ward ; several thousand 
specimens of smaller fossils of the various geological ages ; 
5,000 specimens of Alpine erratic boulders, of Professor Guyot, 
illustrating the glacial period ; a series of seventeen paintings, 
by Professor Hawkins and Prof. Guyot, representing the flora, 
fauna and scenery of the several geological periods furnished 
and set up on the panels of the gallery. Valuable additions 
are made yearly to this museum. 

There is a small but very attractive Art department in the 
same room, in the south extension of Nassau Hall, or North 
College. It consists of paintings and portraits of Washington, 
all the presidents of the college, prominent trustees and pro- 
fessors of the college, and governors of the State. Also plaster 
models of antique statuary have been set up. Mrs. Governor 
Haines contributed a statue of the Flying Mercury, placed in 
the centre of over 7,000 coins and medals; Mrs. Jacob Van 
Arsdalen gave Apollo Belvedere, Diana, Huntress and an al- 
legorical statue of Art; Mrs. Prof. Guyot, Atlas; Mrs. Prof. 
Cameron, Niobe; Mrs. Prof. Packard, a bust of Homer; Pro- 
fessor Packard, Antinous ; the Misses Withington, Hebe and 
Flora; Miss C.King, Venus of Milo; Mrs. John S. Gulick, 
a portrait of Dickens, painted by herself; Miss Pryor, the por- 
trait of her deceased brother, painted by herself; Mr. Paul 



THE COLLEGE— LIBRAR V, MUSE UMS, APPARA PUS. 3 I 3 

Tulane, a statuette of Industry; besides many other specimens 
of art, given by different persons. 

This room is overcrowded, and a large portion of the build- 
ing—the North College, — is now being converted into large and 
suitable rooms for this Geological department of the college, in- 
cluding the Art department. 

The Museum of Natural History and Mineralogy, 
in the third story of the School of Science, is also admirably 
arranged, and exhibits skeletons of vertebrate animals, birds, 
mounted and in skins, collection of articulate forms, alcoholic 
and dried ; land mollusca of Maderia, collections of marine and 
fresh water shells. 

This Museum of Natural History was founded by Dr. Elias 
Boudinot, of New Jersey, and was extended by the labors and 
gifts of Professor Torrey and Professor Jaeger. The Cabinet 
of Mineralogy was established by Dr. David Hosack of New 
York. Valuable additions have been made to this museum 
also, within the past year. 

The Philosophical Apparatus includes in its historical 
department the Orrery, invented and constructed by Dr. David 
Ritterihouse, of Philadelphia, more than a hundred years ago; 
two electrical machines, obtained from Dr. Priestly, and the 
electro-magnet by which Professor Henry demonstrated the 
practicability of the magnetic telegraph ; and among other 
valuable instruments in use a Phantasmathyx, intended to illus- 
trate the continuance of touch, devised by Professor S. Alex- 
ander. 

All this apparatus is kept in the School of Science, and in 
connection with the lecture-room of Professor Brackett. 

The Department of General and Applied Chemistry is well 
supplied with all needed appliances, which are kept in connec- 
tion with the lecture-room of Professor Schanck at the School 
of Science. 

A second Observatory for use in teaching practical astrono- 
my has been built in connection with I'rof. Young's residence, 
which is well furnished with an equipment believed to be un- 
rivalled by that of any similar establishment. The Equa- 



314 insiVRY OF Princeton: 

torial has an aperture of 9^ inches and is provided with 
all necessary spectroscopic and other accessories. There 
are also reflectors, comet seekers — small telescopes — meridian 
instruments. The Chronograph has three independent cylin- 
ders, and the time is distributed to all the rooms by subsidi- 
ary clocks, electrically connected with the standard. There is 
a sufficient supply of sextants, chronometers and other minor 
instruments for field observations, and a working library valua- 
ble and reasonably complete. 



SECTION XV. 
ENDOWMENTS AND SALARIES. 



It has not been usual to give to the public the yearly 
financial statements of the college, but in 1876 Mr. Harris, the 
treasurer, published in the N'cw York World di letter on Prince- 
ton, in which the following statement was made on the endow- 
ments and salaries of this institution, viz.: 

"The Treasurer's annual reports of the Princeton finances 
have not hitherto been made public, as at Harvard and Yale, 
and the following summary is now put in type for the first 
time. The total endowments, exclusive of the buildings named, 
amount to $868,000, and yield an income of about $53,300. 
Students' room rents yield $8,000 a year, and their tuition fees 
$30,000. Of the endowments, professorships have $310,000, 
with an income of $16,800; scholarships, $66,000, and the 
general fund, $70,000, including about $30,000 in unproductive 
real estate. The income from scholarships and the general fund 
is about $9,000. The charitable funds are $32,000; the prize 
and fellowship funds, $44,000; the "Elizabeth" and library 
funds, $146,000, and the annual income from these three sources 
is $13,500. 

" The School of Science fund is $200,000, from which the 
income is $14,000. This amount just about pays the official 
salaries of the school, while the $6,000 received for tuition and 
use of apparatus serves as an offset to its running expenses. 
The annual expenditure on the library is $7,200, which is met 



THE COLLEGE— ENDOWMENTS AND SALARIES. 315 

by the special endowment and by fees. Other expenses of the 
college are $48,000 for salaries, $8,500 for care of grounds and 
buildings, $6,500 for fellowships, prizes and gratuities, and 
$12,500 for servants, fuel and incidentals. By this show- 
ing the entire annual expenditures are upwards of $102,000, or 
more than $10,000 in excess of the receipts. This is only ap- 
proximately accurate, however, inasmuch as round numbers are 
o-jven, and a few of the payments are necessarily repeated under 
different forms, but it is a fact that last year's expenses were 
in excess of the income. Princeton, like Harvard and Yale, is 
in pressing need of a larger general fund, whose income can be 
used for any purpose, and the especially restricted gifts that 
have been received during recent years, to the aggregate value 
of more than $1,000,000, serve only to make this need more 
prominent. 

" In 1S63, when the war had caused the loss of a third of the 
students, as well as some of the invested funds, a great effort 
resulted in the raising of an endowment of $140,000. This en- 
abled an advance to be made in the professors' salaries — which 
had been $1,500 in 1854, and $1,800 in 1S57— to $2,000. About 
1868 a further advance was made to $2,400, and afterwards, by 
degrees, the present standard of $3,000 was reached. In addi- 
tion to his money salary each professor has always been given 
the use of a house, and if he prefers to dwell in one of his own 
a cash allowance is given him in place of the rent. This was 
first $200, then $300, and is now $400 a year, though it should 
in equity be $500. It is not likely that the professors' salaries 
will soon be advanced beyond this $3,500 standard. The treas- 
urer's salary is of equal amount, and the president's is somewhat 
larger. The ex-president also has a respectable annuity. The 
tutors are paid $800, $900 and $1,000 for their first, second and 
third year's service respectively, in addition to the rent of their 
college rooms. In former times they were, for the most part, 
theological students, employed at a yearly stipend of $200." 

There has probably been but little change in the funds of 
the college since that time, though it is to be hoped and pre- 
sumed that they are steadily growing larger and more availa- 
ble, year by year. 

Mr. John C. Green left a residuary estate in the hands of 



3^6 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

trustees, to be appropriated, as in their judgment would accord 
with his wishes, and it is understood that aid for building With- 
erspoon Hall was derived from this source; and also for the 
addition just made to the School of Science. 



SECTION XVI. 

MISCELLANEOUS COLLK(;i.: ITEMS. 

Ball-Playing ProJiibitcd in 1 787. 

The following is a copy of a minute of the faculty adopted 
nearly a hundred years ago: 

Faculty met Nov. 26, 17S7.— It appearing that a play at present much prac- 
ticed by the small boys amon<^ the sluilents and by the grammar scholars with balls 
and sticks, in the back campus of the college, is in itself low and unbecoming gen- 
tlemen and students ; and inasmuch as it is attended with great danger to the 
health by sudden and alternate heats and colds ; as it tends by accidents almost 
unavoidable in that play to disfiguring and maiming those who are engaged in it, 
for whose health and safety as well as improvement in study as far as depends on 
our exertion, we are accountable to their parents and liable to be severely blamed 
by them ; and inasmuch as there are many amusements both more honorable and 
more useful in which they are indulged,— Therefore the Faculty think it incumbent 
on them to prohibit the students and grammar scholars from using the play aforesaid. 
By order of Faculty, John WiTHEiiSPOox. 

Jno. W. VanCi.eve, Clerk. 

Proposed Union of Queen s College ivith Princeton. 

A letter from Archibald Mercer, of New Brunswick, of 
which the following is a copy, was laid before the trustees of 
Nassau Hall, Aug. 20, 1793, viz.: 

" In the Board of Trustees of Queen's College in New Jersey it was resolved 
that a committee be appointed to confer with the trustees on the subject of a general 
union between the colleges, and that said committee consist of Gen. Frelinghuysen, 
Dr. Linn, A. Mercer, A. Kirkpatrick, and James Schureman." 

The trustees of Nassau Hall appointed a committee of con- 
ference with that committee, viz.. Dr. Witherspoon, Dr. 
Rodgers, Dr. Boudinot, Dr. Beatty, Col. Bayard and Mr. 
Woodhull. 

The joint committee met at New Brunswick, Sept. loth and 
resolved unanimously: 



THE COLLEGE— MISCELLANEOUS COLLEGE ITEMS. 317 

"That a ]icif(jct incorporating and consolidating union between the two col- 
leges will be the most proper and benelicial union, and will tend to the jiromotion 
of learning. 

" That in order to effect this union application be made by both colleges to the 
Legislature for a new charter ; that the trustees to be named in the new charter con- 
sist of 28 in number, i. e., the Governor of the Stale for the time being, the president 
of the college, and 13 of the trustees of said colleges, inliabitants of New Jersey, to 
be chosen and named by their respective boards. 

" That no person not an inhabitant of New Jersey, shall at any time be a trustee 
of the college so constituted. 

"That an institution at New Brunswick be established and supported by the 
by-laws of the trustees of said college in which shall be taught the learning prepaia- 
tory to entering the first class in the college, and that no other institution at Prince- 
ton shall be supported at the expense of the said trustees, iu which the same things 
shall be taught. 

" That the present officers of the college of New Jersey be the officers of the 
college to be established on the foregoing principles. 

"That the foregoing resolutions be submitted to the respective boards of 
trustees for their consideration." 

It does not appear what action the Trustees of Princeton 
College took on the project, whether favorable or not, as Dr. 
Witherspoon reported on Dec. 18, 1793, to the trustees, that 
he had received the following letter from Archibald Mercer, 
which settled the question : 

"Millstone. N'ov. 30, 1793. 
" Sir : — The Trustees of Queen's College met yesterday and I am sorry to inform 
you, wholly rejected the report of the committee respecting the proposed union of the 
colleges. 

Arciiii!.\ld Mercer, P. P. T." 
To Rev. Dr. Witherspoon. 

It is thought that the provision to exclude non-residents 
of this State from the board of trustees, caused the rejection 
of the report. 

The Cannon War. 

In a note on page 139, Vol. I, mention was made of the big 
cannon which was left here at the battle of Trinceton, and held 
by the citizens of Princeton as a relic of that great event. It 
had been sent to New Brunswick to defend that city in the war 
of 181 2, but was not used there on account of its supposed in- 
security. It was not returned to Princeton as it should have 
been, but lay on the commons there until about 1836, when 



3^8 HISTORY OF PRINCETOM. 

some of the citizens of Princeton went and brought it back, 
with a view of using it at the celebration of the Fourth of 
July. It was depos'ited at the eastern end of the town; and 
in 1838 some of the students of the college, by night, brought 
it up to the campus, where, in 1840, it was plugged and planted 
in the ground ; and it has since remained there by general con- 
sent, under the guardianship of the students. 

There was also a small iron cannon, supposed to have been 
captured or left here at the battle of Princeton, which was 
planted by Major Perrine in the corner of the pavement at his 
house, on the corner of Nassau and Withcrspoon Streets, and 
which remained there for many years, till the students trans- 
planted it to the back campus, not very distant from the big 
siege gun. 

A small brass cannon, it was claimed by the students of 
Rutgers College, had been taken from the Rutgers grounds in 
1856; and without any reason, except a vague misunderstand- 
ing growing out of the tradition of the retaking of the big 
cannon, and perhaps the boastful taunts of some Princeton 
wags, it was alleged and probably believed by the Rutgers stu- 
dents that the Princeton students had taken, by stealth, their 
little brass cannon, and that it was planted in the Princeton 
campus. 

Under this mistaken view of the facts, a party of Rutgers 
students on the 26th of April, 1875, came by night, while Prince- 
ton College was in vacation, and exhumed the little cannon and 
conveyed it to New Brunswick, a feat which was applauded by 
many of the New Brunswickers, and by the college boys 
especially. The Princetonians who knew so well the history of 
the cannon, were indignant at the unjustifiable raid of the Rut- 
gers boys, and when the students returned they were, of course, 
highly excited and threatened to go in force and recapture it, 
or make other reprisals, if it should not be returned. The 
president assured them that the cannon should be returned ; 
and a correspondence took place between President McCosh 
and President Campbell on the subject, which was somewhat 
tart and belligerent. Pending these diplomatic negotiations, 
some of the Princeton boys, in the folly of their impatience, 
made a midnight raid upon Rutgers, broke open the college 



THE COLLEGE— MISCELLANEOUS COLLEGE ITEMS. 319 

museum, and not finding tlie cannon, seized some old muskets 
there on deposit, and narrowly escaping the police, returned to 
Princeton with their stolen reprisals. They were the objects 
of general ridicule and censure. 

The subject came before the faculties of the two colleges, 
and resulted in the appointment of a joint committee, consist- 
ing of Professors Reiley and Atherton, of Rutgers, and Profes- 
sors Duftield and Cameron, of Princeton. 

This joint committee, after conference and inquiry on the 
subject, adopted a paper which recited the historical facts as 
we have stated them, and concluded, 

1. That no cannon taken from Rutgers had ever been set up on the Princeton 
grounds, nor had the Princeton students ever removed a cannon from Rutgers Col- 
lege or from New Brunswick. 

2. That any boasts, taunts or statements based upon any belief or tradition to 
the contrary were wholly unfounded. 

3. That the Rutgers students, having been incited to the act, by their belief that 
this or a similar cannon had been removed from Rutgers by the Princeton students, 
are to be exonerated from any imputation of wilful and malicious mischief. 

4. That the cannon in question should be returned to the College oi New Jer- 
sey, and that this report be entered on the minutes of each taculty, and be officially 
announced to the students. 

The report was signed by all the members of thejoint com- 
mittee and was dated May 19, 1875. 

On the 22d of May the relic cannon was returned to Prince- 
ton in a wagon, preceded by the chief of police of New Bruns- 
wick. As soon as it arrived at the campus the students and 
others gathered around it, and Dr. McCosh was cheered as he 
came up, and in a little speech said smilingly, *' I told you so," 
and added that the whole thing reminded him of the Trojan 
war, the conflict then and there for Helen, and winding up with 
a declaration that it must be immortalized in a new Iliad, that 
its history must be written in Greek and in hexameter verse, 
delivered by the college to posterity. The students gave three 
cheers for the cannon and three for Dr. McCoshl The muskets 
taken by the Princeton students from the niuseum of Rutgers 
were also returned. 

Thus ended an excitement which was widely sympathized 
in throughout the country, and afforded for some time material 
for amusing newspaper paragraphs. 



320 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

Religious Proinsions. 

" Biblical Instruction. — Princeton claims to be reg^arded as a 
religious college. It is not officially connected with any de- 
nomination, but may be considered as in a general way under 
the patronage of the Presbyterian Church. Nothing sectarian 
is taught, and there is no interference with the religious con- 
victions of the students. Prayers are offered morning and 
evening in the college chapel, and the attendance of all re- 
quired. On Sabbath, divine service is held in the chapel at 
II A. M., conducted by clerical members of the faculty and 
others called in by the president. Permission to worship with 
other religious denominations is obtained by presenting a writ- 
ten request from the parent or guardian. A meeting for prayer 
attended by all is held at 5 P. M., on the Sabbath. Prayer 
meetings of classes are held twice a week, and of the college 
three times a week. Instruction in the Bible is given to every 
student." — Dr. McCosii. 

The Nassau Bible Society, composed of the faculty and stu- 
dents, was organized in 181 3 with a view of distributing copies 
of the Holy Scriptures in the college and the vicinity, an idea 
afterward carried out on a wider field by the American Bible 
Society, of which it became an auxiliary. It has an interest- 
ing history, and is still kept alive by annual contributions, and 
anniversary meetings. 

The Pkiladelphian Society of Nassau Hall grew out of the 
Tract Society, which was formed in 181 7 by the students of the 
college and seminary. This Philadelphian Society was formed 
Feb. 4, 1825, by four students, viz.: Peter J. Gulick (afterwards 
a missionary to Sandwich Islands), Martin Tupper, Tobias Ep- 
stein, and James Brainerd Taylor. Its object was to promote 
personal holiness among its members, and the best interest of 
their fellow-creatures. By the present amended pledge, " Every 
member is required to identify himself with the people of God, 
professing a high degree of Christian experience and a solemn 
obligation to be zealous in the cause of religion. The hand of 
fellowship and the appellation of brother are the pledges of 
sincerity and affection." They hold devotional meetings sta- 



THE COLLEGE— MISCELLANEOUS COLLEGE ITEMS. 32 I 

tedly, and have a reading-room and library. Murray Hall is 
being built exclusively for the use of this society. 

Literary and Secret Societies. 

The Cliosophic and American Whig Societies are conducted 
by undergraduates, but include in their organization graduates 
and officers of the college. They are based upon pledges of 
secrecy ; membership in one excludes membership in the other. 
Both of them possess valuable halls and libraries, nearly 10,000 
volumes in each. The exercises in them are literary, and of 
great value to the members. The Cliosophic Society was 
founded in 1765, and the American Whig in 1769. 

A generous competition for college honors, especially in 
oratory, has been kept up for many years — ever since the Con- 
tinental Congress sat here in 1783. The most prominent field 
of contest for society honors is found in the Junior Exhibition, 
on the evening before Commencement. These societies also 
elect, alternately, orators from their graduate members to ad- 
dress the joint societies on the day preceding Commencement. 

All other secret societies are expressly forbidden by the laws 
of the college. There has, for years past, been a sharp contest 
on the part of the trustees and faculty to suppress such socie- 
ties in college, so great an evil they have been adjudged to be. 
The advocates and members of such societies have been very 
pertinacious in maintaining them, though interdicted with pen- 
alties of expulsion. By a law of the trustees, adopted in June, 
1855, a pledge is exacted of every student when matriculated, 
in the following terms, viz. : 

"We, the undersigned, do individually for ourselves promise, without any men- 
tal reservation, that we will have no connection whatever with any secret society, 
nor be present at the meetings of any secret society in this or any other college, so 
long as we are members of the College of New Jersey ; it being understood that 
this promise has no reference to the American Whig and Cliosophic Societies. We 
also declare that we regard ourselves bound to keep this promise and on no account 
whatever to violate it." 

Athletic Games and Amusements. 
The college has made most ample arrangements for the 
physical culture of its students, and has given not only liberty, 
but has prescribed it as a duty on the part of the students, to 



322 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

attend upon gymnastic exercises. The base-ball club, the row- 
ing crew, the Caledonian association, are all encouraged by the 
faculty and trustees, and large investments have been made, to 
facilitate the use of such agencies, with enthusiasm, among the 
students. The encouragement in this direction — the prizes and 
medals awarded to successful champions in the gymnasium, 
in the field, or on the water, and the contests with foreign 
clubs and crews at home and abroad, for the championship, 
have been carried so far as to make it very questionable at 
least, whether the stimulus has not become excessive, and the 
enthusiasm demoralizing. 

We must close this chapter. In the several sections of it 
through which we have passed, we have given only a sketch, 
and a very inadequate sketch, of the College of New Jersey — 
sufficient perhaps to induce our readers Avho are not familiar 
with it, to read its fuller history. We are prepared to assert 
that this venerable institution has answered, so far, the end for 
which it was established. It has promoted religion and learn- 
ing. It has trained young men for the ministry and for the 
other learned professions, and is now, more than ever before, 
diffusing among the masses of men, the blessings of science 
and the arts. From its bosom have come forth men who have 
become statesmen, orators, jurists, philosophers, divines— the 
foremost men in our country. It exerts a moral influence 
upon the youth who join it, and affords a better guaranty of 
a moral life than any other vocation or human pursuit can 
bestow upon them. The occasional wreck which is seen by 
the way, the unwary youth beguiled from his innocence in 
his college experience, is rare compared with the great mul- 
titude who graduate with fair moral character, and enter into 
business life as religious men. The outbreaks of folly and 
of vicious behavior in college occur less frequently than in 
former years. 

There is now more studious application, and there is more 
manly ambition and more self-respect among the students at 
Princeton, than there was years ago. The raising of the stand- 
ard of study, the increase of books and appliances for study, 
the improvement in the lecture-rooms, dormitories, public 



THE COLLEGE— MISCELLANEOUS COLLEGE ITEMS. 323 

buildings and grounds, command more respect than the an- 
cient state of things did among the students. 

The Rev. Robert J. Breckinridge, D. D., of Kentucky, in 
1863, when tracing the alumni of Princeton College in the 
prominent posts of honor throughout the country — in the 
learned professions — in the presidency of the United States — in 
the presidency of colleges— in the Continental Congress sign- 
ing the Declaration of Independence — in the Mecklenburg 
Convention — in the Boston tea party — in both houses of Con- 
gress—in gubernatorial chairs— gave utterance to the fervid 
language with which we close this subject, as follows: 

" Glorious old Nassau Mall, well done ! This is a noble 
answer to all your adversaries ; even to such as would take 
away your good name because you are not under the care of 
some presbytery or synod. You bear the name of the greatest 
patriot who ever sat on a throne ; the purest man who ever 
raised himself from a private station to supreme command — 
William of Nassau — the last of the race of the great and good 
Colign)'-, the incomparable among the legitimate kings of Eng- 
land. And this list of your children, for more than a century, 
is as proud a list' as the eyes of man ever rested on, or ever will. 
The hand that traces these lines must be stiff in death before 
your high interests should suffer for one to defend them. We 
hail thee Magna Mater Virum ! Who can estimate the ser- 
vice you have rendered to this great country ? Who can cal- 
culate the good you will further do ? Make scholars, make 
gentlemen, make Christians ; all else is a base ambition ! That 
is your crown ! See that you let no one take it. The sum of 
your work is very glorious. May it increase in glory ! " 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

PRINCETON THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 

Sec. I. Its History. — II. Its Buildings and CJiounils. — HI. Its Investments, Funds 
and Library. — IV. Its deceased Professors, Dr. Archibald Alexander, Dr. 
Samuel Miller, Dr. Charles Hodge, Dr. Addison Alexander, Dr. John Breck- 
inridge, Dr. James W. Alexander — a saintly group. — V. Present Faculty and 
Officers. — VI. Liberal Benefactors. 

SECTION I. 

ITS HISTORY. 

Within the first decade of the present century ministers 
and members of the Presbyterian Church in the United States 
began to assert the necessity of estabHshing a seminary ex- 
clusively devoted to the instruction and preparation of their 
candidates for the ministry. The College of New Jersey at 
Princeton, had its origin in a desire to educate young men not 
only in the arts and sciences, but to fit for the ministry those 
who might seek it. Hence the care of those who founded it 
to have a competent teacher of Hebrew and Theology, a clergy- 
man "of experience and piety to preside over it ; and many of 
the prominent ministers of the Presbyterian Church received 
their education and theological training at Princeton under the 
early presidents of the college. But when the number of the 
college students began to increase, and the branches of study 
were multiplied, and the influence of college manners and 
studies began to grow unfavorable to the cultivation of a 
devout, religious life ; and when the increasing number of 
educated young men added largely to the number of candi- 
dates for the ministry, the conviction became quite general 
throughout the church, that a separate seminary would be 
more suitable for training ministers than the college or private 
pastors could be. 

The Reformed Dutch Church and the Associate Reformed 



THEOLOGICA L SEMINA R Y—I TS HIS TOR V. 325 

church and the descendants of the Puritans, in New England, 
were all moving in the direction of establishing seminaries for 
the training of their respective candidates ; and in the year 
1809 an overture was introduced into the General Assembly of 
the Presbyterian Church, in the United States, proposing to 
establish a theological seminary for the Presbyterian Church. 
The overture came from the Presbytery of Philadelphia. It 
was referred to a select committee, who reported favorably, sub- 
mitting three modes of compassing the object, viz.: 

1. To have o)ic great school in some convenient place near 
the centre of the bounds of the Presbyterian Church. 

2. To have tivo sncli schools, to accommodate the northern 
and southern divisions of the church. 

3. To have one within the bounds o{ cacJi of the Synods. 

These were all sent down to the Presbyteries for their ap- 
proval or rejection, and while there was a decided majority in 
favor of the establishment of a theological school or schools, 
there was a tie vote upon the first and third plans. It being 
ascertained that those who voted against the first plan had mis- 
conceived its nature, it was the one which was finally adopted. 
The General Assembly resolved, in the name of the great Head 
of the church, immediately to attempt to establish a seminary 
for securing to candidates for the ministry more extensive and 
efficient theological instruction than they had theretofore en- 
joyed. The local situation of the seminary to be thereafter 
determined ; 

That the seminary, when fully organized, should have at 
least three professors, but a less number might be employed 
until sufficient funds could be raised to support the number 
prescribed ; 

That exertions should be made to raise funds sufficient to 
afford gratuitous instructions and also gratuitous support to 
all such students as may not themselves possess adequate 
pecuniary means ; 

That the Rev. Drs. Green, Woodhull, Romeyn and Miller, 
the Rev. Archibald Alexander, James Richards and Amzi Arm- 
strong be a committee to digest and prepare a plan of a theo- 
logical seminary ; 

That as a ministry learned and able, without corresponding 



326 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

piety, would be a curse to the world, the pledge was given to 
make the proposed seminary a nursery of vital piety as well as 
of sound theological learning; and to train up persons for the 
ministry who should be lovers as well as defenders of the truth 
as it is in Jesus; friends of revivals of religion and a blessing 
to the church of God ; 

That the constitutional right of every Presbytery to judge 
of its own candidates for licensure and ordination shall not be 
abridged, and that liberty shall be allowed to every Presbytery 
to countenance the proposed plan or not, and to send their 
students to the seminary or to keep them within their own 
bounds, as they might think most conducive to the prosperity 
of the church ; 

That the professors shall not have the right to license can- 
didates, but such right is to be reserved to the Presbyteries. 

The committee reported a plan in accordance with the fore- 
going principles and directions, to the General Assembly con- 
vened in the year 181 1, which, after being duly considered, 
was amended and adopted. 

The PLAN adopted contained an Introduction and eight 
distinct Articles. 

The introduction set out the design of the institution, de- 
nominating it " The Theological Seminary of the Presbyterian 
Church i)i the United States of America." Its first and great 
object was to be 

" To form men for the gospel ministry wlio shall tmly believe and cordially love 
and therefore endeavor to propaijate and defend, in its genuineness, simplicity and 
fulness, that system of religious belief and practice, which is set forth in the Con- 
fession of P'aith, Catechisms, and Plan of Government and Discipline of the Pres- 
byterian Church, and thus to perpetuate and extend the influence of true evangeli- 
cal piety and Gospel Ortler ; and to provide for the church an adequate supply and 
succession of able and faithful ministei-s of the New Testament." 

Article I, On i hk GKNKii.vi, Assicmisi.y, claims tliat body to be the patron and 
foundation of the powers of the seminary, sanctioning its laws, directing its instruc- 
tions and appointing its principal oflficers ; and holds the right of choosing a board 
of directors of twenty-one ministers and nine ruling elders, to hold office three 
years; and also to appoint the professors, allowing tlie directors to appoint in 
emergencies, until the next meeting of the Assembly. 

Article II, Ok the Board ok Directors, prescribes the duty of this board 
and confers upon them the making of rules and regulations not inconsistent with 
the plan and order of the General Assembly, requiring them to meet twice a year 



THEOLOGICAL SEML^ARY— ITS HISTORY. 327 

statedly, nine members being a quorum, five of whom must be mini-,ters and one 
the president or vice-president. It is their duty to inaugurate the Professors and 
prescribe tiie course of study, also to inspect the fidelity and the soundness of the 
teachings of the professors, and report to the Assembly, with power, in extreme 
cases, to suspend a professor and appoint another in his place till the case can be 
submitted to the Assembly. The directors subscribe a formula, promisuig fidelity 
to the Plan. 

Article III, Ok Tliii Prokessors, prescribes that no person shall be inducted 
into the office of Professor of Divinity but an ordained minister of the gospel ; and 
every professor, on being inaugurated, is required to suliscribe the following formula : 

" III the presence of Go>i ami the Directors of this Seminary I do solemnly and ex 
animo, adopt, receive and subscribe the Confession of lutilh and Catechisms of the 
Presbyterian Church, in the United States of America, as the confession of my faith, 
or as a summary and just exhibition of that system of doctrine and reTr^ioiis belief 
which is contained in holy scripture, and therein i-cTcalcd by God to man for his sal- 
vation ; and I do solemnly ex animo profess to receive the Form of Government of 
said church as a^'reeable to the inspired oracles. A nd I do solemnly promise and 
engajre uot to inculcate, tench or insinuate anything lohich shall appear to me to con- 
tradict or contravene, either directly or impliedly, anythin^^ taught in the said Co?tfes. 
sion of Faith or Catechism, nor to oppose any of the fundamental principles of Tres- 
byterian Church Government, while I shall continue a Professor in this Seminary." 

The professors shall be a faculty and shall decide on all (piestions of discipline 
and order, and shall prescribe rules of order, decorum and duty for the students, 
with power to dismiss any students for unsound sentiments, immoral or disorderly 
conduct or other just cause. 

Articlk IV, Of Study .\ni) Attainments. The period of continuance in 
the Seminary must not be less than three years for a certificate of approbation, but 
they may receive a written declaration from the professors if they have not continued 
the full term. They are subject to examination and must be well skilled in the 
original languages of the Holy Scriptures, and must have studied and been exam- 
ined upon the prescribed course of study, and approved before they shall be 
entitled to their certilicate of approbation. 

Aiaici.E V, oi'- Devotion and Imi'Rovkment in Practical. Piety. This 
article prescribes rules for the cultivation of personal holiness and exemplary 
living. 

Article VI, Of the Students. Every student applying for admission to the 
seminary shall produce satisfactory testimonials of his good natural talents and 
prudent and discreet deportment ; that he is in full communion with some regular 
church and has paSsed through a regular course of academical study or subject him- 
self to examination. The first six months are probationary. Compliance with the 
rules prescribed, diligence in study, propriety in manners, dress and behavior are 
required of every student, and every student, before talcing his standing in the 
seminary, is required to take and subscribe the following declaration, viz.: 

"Deeply impressed with a sense of tiie importance of improving in knowledge, 
prudence and piety, in my preparation for the gospel ministry, I solemnly promise, 
in a reliance on divine grace, that I will faithfully and diligently attend on all the 
instructions of this seminary and that I will conscientiously and vigilantly observe 
all the rules and regulations specified in the plan for its instruction and govern- 



328 HISTORY OF PKIiVCETON. 

ment so far as the same relates to the students, and that I will obey all the lawful 
requisitions and readily yield to all the wholesome admonitions of the professors 
and directors of the seminary while I shall continue a member of it." 

Article VII, Of the Library. 

Article VIII, Ov the Funds. The intentions and direction of testators and 
donors in regard to the seminary shall be sacredly regarded. After supporting the 
professors and defraying olher necessary charges of the seminary, the funds shall be 
applied as far as circumstances will admit, to defray or diminish the expenses of 
indigent? students. 

After the Assembly of i8il had adopted the foregoinj^ plan, 
some of whose provisions have been briefly noticed above, 
nothing; more was done than to appoint agents to solicit funds, 
and a committee to confer with the trustees of Princeton Col- 
lege respecting the facilities and privileges which might be 
secured to the seminary if it should be located in Princeton. 

The minutes of the trustees of the college show that in 
September, 1810, a committee of the trustees had been ap- 
pointed to confer with a committee of the General Assembly 
on the subject of establishing a theological seminary. This oc- 
curred when an effort was about to be made to raise a fund to 
provide for a Professor of Theology in the office of vice-presi- 
dent of the college. In the spring of the ne.xt year Col. Rut- 
gers reported a subscription of $6,900 for this professorship. 
Kut the action of the General Assembly in 181 1 had proceeded 
so far in establishing a seminary that a committee were then 
negotiating for inducements to locate the seminary at Princeton. 

Location of Seminary. 

An agreement was made by the joint committee of the Col- 
lege and General Assembly, and adopted by the college and 
the Assembly, which led to the locating of the theological sem- 
inary at Princeton in 1811. That agreement was signed by 
Ashbel Green, Richard Stockton and John Woodhull, on the 
part of the college, and by Archibald Alexander, Divie liethune, 
Jacob J. Janeway, John McDowell and Robert Ralston, on the 
part of the General Assembly. That agreement provided, 

1. That the seminary should be located in Princeton and 
in such connection with the college as hereinafter stated. 

2. That the trustees of the college will allow the directors 
of the Assembly to carry out the plan of the seminary. 



THEOLOGICAL SEM/XAH V-ITS /IISTORY. 329 

3. That the college trustees will allow the Assembly to erect 
buildings for the seminary on the college ground, not to inter- 
fere with the college buildings. 

4. That the college will grant every practicable accommo- 
dation in the existing college buildings to the seminary till 
others may be erected by the seminary, and as long afterwards 
as the same may be desirable. 

5. That the college will receive, on most favorable terms, 
the youth whom the Assembly may send for purposes of edu- 
cation. 

6. That the college will hold funds for the use of the As- 
sembly, as the financial agent of the latter, 

7. The professors and pupils of the seminary are to have 
the free use of the college library. 

8. The college is to favor an elementary school if established 
by the Assembly at Princeton. 

9. That the seminary shall be allowed to remove to another 
place, if the Assembly should deem it proj^er; and that while 
the seminary should remain at Princeton, no professorship of 
theology shall be established in the college. 

10. That the trustees of the college will disburse the in- 
come of the fund in their hands for poor and pious youths, 
with a high regard to the recommendation of the Assembly or 
directors. 

President Maclean says in his History of the College : 

" Tliis is a remarkable instniment in which every advantage is in favor of the 
seminary, — the simple establishment of which at Princeton was deemed an ample 
compensation to the college for ail the conce^^sions made to tlie seminary. Dr. Oreen 
drew up the plan of the seminary, and if the writer is not mistaken, Dr. Green was 
also the author of the above plan of agreement approved by the two committees. 
Fortunately for both institutions, the directors of the seminary were under no neces- 
sity of erecting their buildings on the college grounds ; and they made no attempt 
to establisli a preparatory school to train poor and j/ious youth for entering the 
seminary. The relations between the college and the seminary have never been as 
intimate as the above articles allowed them to be, and the only two provisions in 
the above agreement which are now binding are these two : one preventing the 
trustees of the college from appointing a Professor of Theology in the college, and 
the other granting the students of the seminary the use of the college library with- 
out charge." 

The next Assembly in May, 181 2, fixed the location of the 



330 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

seminary at Princeton, New Jersey, and appointed directors. 
They also at that meeting elected Rev. Archibald Alexander, 
D. D., then pastor of the Third Presbyterian Church in Phil- 
adelphia, formerly of Virginia, Professor of Didactic and Po- 
lemic Theology. 

The directors held a meeting at Princeton, on the 30th of 
June, 1812. A sermon was preached by Dr. Ashbel Green, 
from the text : " And lo, I am with you." 

The directors who were appointed that year and who took 
their oath and seats, the most of them on that day, were the 
following: Samuel Bayard, Divie Bethune, Samuel Blatchford, 
Joseph Clark, Robert P^inley, Andrew Plinn, Ashbel Green, 
William Haslett, Francis Herron, Asa Hillyer, Dirck C. Lan- 
sing, Zechariah Lewis, John McDowell, Philip Milledoler, 
Samuel Miller, William Neill, John Neilson, Robert Ralston, 
James Richards, John R. B. Rodgers, John B. Romeyn, Henry 
Rutgers, John Van Cleve. Dr. Green was chosen President, 
Dr. Milledoler, Vice-President, and Dr. John McDowell, Sec- 
retary. The plan of the seminary was read; a committee to 
draft a public address was appointed. A long letter from Dr. 
Alexander, accepting the appointment of professor, was read ; 
negotiations with Richard Stockton for four acres of land were 
opened. The inauguration of Dr. Alexander, professor-elect, 
took place on the 12th of August following, when he entered 
on his official duties. The number of students on that day, at 
the opening of the seminary, was tJircc. 

In the next year, May, 1813, the number of students had 
increased to fourteen.* The Rev. Samuel Miller, D. D., a 
native of Delaware, pastor of the First Presbyterian Church 
in the city of New York, was elected by the Assembly, Pro- 
fessor of Ecclesiastical History and Church Government ; and 
he was inaugurated by the directors on the 29th of September 
following. 

Whether these theological professors used any of the college 
rooms for their lectures or recitations during the first few years 
of the seminary's existence, or not, we can not learn. They did 
for religious worship ; but it is well-known that they taught the 
Students in their own private houses for a time. It is rcmem- 
* The General Catalogue gives Ihis number. 



THEOL OGICA L SEMINA R Y—I TS HIS TOR V. 331 

bered by persons still living, that Dr. Alexander resided for 
some time in the house known as the Janvier house, in Mercer 
Street, now Miss Hageman's, and that tlie little wing to that 
house, next to the Episcopal school building, was Dr. Alex- 
ander's study; and before the seminary edifice was erected, he 
was accustomed to receive his classes of theological students 
there to hear their recitations. 

The want of a proper building for seminary purposes, such 
as lecture-rooms, library, and dormitories, was taken into con- 
sideration by the General Assembly in May, 1815, and that 
body resolved to erect a suitable edifice in Princeton, and the 
work upon it was commenced in the autumn of that year. 

The number of students slowly increased. In the class of 
1S13-14 there were 18, among them was the Rev. Dr. Samuel 
B, Howe, late of New Brunswick ; in the class of ] 8 14-15 there 
were 15, among them were 'Wells Andrews, Thomas Bloomer 
Balch, Jeremiah Chamberlain, William McFarlane, James S. 
Woods; in the class of 1815-16 there were 23, among them 
Thomas J. Biggs, Samuel L. Graham, Symmes C. Henry, Syl- 
vester Larned, Gilbert Morgan, Ravaud K. Rodgers, Wm. D. 
Snodgrass, Charles S. Stewart, Salmon Strong; in the class of 
1816-17 there were 27, among them Wm. Chester, Charles 
Hodge, John Johns, Wm. Nevins, John S. Newbold, William 
B. Sprague. 

The new seminary building was first occupied by the pro- 
fessors and students in the autumn of 1817, when almost half 
the apartments were prepared for the students; and the whole 
was soon after completed. This building was of stone, 150 
feet in length and 50 feet in breadth, and four stories high. It 
has been admired as a neat, solid and well built edifice. The 
land was obtained of Richard Stockton, and the situation was 
high and beautiful, and then quite out of the village on the 
Trenton turnpike. The building was large enough, besides 
furnishing the library, the recitation rooms, the refectory and 
rooms for the steward's family, to furnish lodgings for about 
eighty pupils. 

These new accommodations brought increased prosperity 
to the institution. The number of students gradually increased, 
and among the new names were Henry V. James, John Mac- 



332 HISTORY OF PRINCETON: 

lean, Howard Malcomb, P. O. Stucldiford, Robert Baird, 
Charles C. Beatty, John Breckinridge. George Potts, Hugh 
Wilson; and in 1820 we meet the names of Albert Barnes and 
George Ikish ; and in the class of 1821 was first the name of 
James VV. Alexander, the whole number being 39. The class 
of 1822 had 57 members, including Joseph H. Coit, H. N. 
Brinsmade, Edward Kirk Norris, Charles VV, Nassau. 

The General Assembly, in 1820, finding the health of Dr. 
Alexander giving way under his heavy labors, authorized the 
professor to appoint an assistant teacher of the original lan- 
guages of Scripture. And to this office Charles Hodge, then a 
licentiate under the care of the Presbytery of New Brunswick, 
and afterwards ordained, was appointed. By the Assembly of 
1822 he was elected Professor of " Oriental and Biblical Liter- 
ature," and was inaugurated in September of that year. Soon 
after this Professor Hodge had leave to visit Europe and pur- 
sued biblical studies in the universities of Berlin and Halle. 
He was absent about two years. 

In 1823-24 the graduating class numbered 62 students. 
In 183 1, ']^ students. In 1832, 64 students. In 1834, 6^ 
students. 

In the year 1835 the General Assembly appointed two new 
professors, viz.: the Rev. John Breckinridge, D. D., and Mr. 
Joseph Addison Alexander, A. M., the former to be Professor 
of " Pastoral Theology," and the latter Associate Professor of 
Oriental and Biblical Literature. Dr. Breckinridge accepted, 
and was inaugurated on the 26th of September of that year. 
But Mr. Alexander declined for the present, preferring to be 
instructor in that department for a time. 

The faculty now consisted of Professors Archibald Alexan- 
der, Samuel Miller, Charles Hodge, John Breckinridge and J. 
Addison Alexander, every one of whom was an extraordinary 
man. With such a corps of teachers and model men the sem- 
inary was in a highly prosperous condition. In some respects 
that might be called the golden age of the institution. The 
graduating classes were, on an average, as large or larger than 
any of those which have graduated within the last twenty-five 
years. The students were imbued with a high order of piety; 
an interest in the cause of missions was awakened amon"f them : 



THEOL GICA L SEMIMA RY—ITS HIS TORY. 333 

and their zeal was manifested in their personal evangelistic 
work in the neighborhood of Princeton. 

The Presbyterian body had not yet been rent into the Old 
and New Schools. A new chapel had just been erected for 
religious worship at the east end of the seminary, and revivals 
of religion had inclined many young men to enter the ministry. 
Dr. John Breckinridge resigned in 1838. The subsequent 
division of the church did not divide or seriously weaken the 
seminary, though it threatened at first to do so. The professors 
were moderate, and not offensively aggressive in the conflict, 
though they were in accord, in sentiment and in action, with the 
Old School party, in abrogating the Plan of Union, and exscind- 
ing the non-Presbyterian element which, under that plan of 
union, had been received into Presbyterian bodies. There was 
hardly any diminution in the number of students after the dis- 
ruption of the church. Things moved on smoothly under the 
increased reputation of the venerable professors who had laid 
the foundations of the seminary so wisely, and had built upon 
them so well, until the year 1850, when Dr. Miller died, and 
his death was followed the next year by the death of Dr. 
Alexander. Previous to the death of these venerable men, the 
number of scholarships had been greatly multiplied — a beauti- 
ful new Library had been built by James Lenox, of New York, 
for the use of the seminary, which, with a house for a professor, 
was presented to the institution. A refectory was also built 
by the trustees soon after, and the number of volumes in the 
library was also much increased. 

In 1822 an Act was passed by the Legislature of New Jer- 
sey, incorporating Trustees of the Theological Seminary of the 
Presbyterian Church, at Princeton, in the State of New Jersey. 
The names of the corporators, or first trustees, were Andrew 
Kirkpatrick, Gabriel II. Ford, Samuel L. Southard, Robert 
McNeely, John Condict, Ebenezer Elmer, John Beatty, Alex- 
ander Henry, Benjamin Strong, Charles Ewing, Samuel Bay- 
ard. John Van Cleve, Ashbel Green, John McDowell, David 
Comfort, George S. Woodhull, Isaac V. Brown, Alexander 
McClelland, Jacob J. Janeway, James Richards, and Samuel 
B. Howe; with the corporate name of " Trustees of the Theo- 
logical Seminary of the Presbyterian Church." The charter 



334 HISTORY OF PRINCE TO. V. 

limits tlie number of trustees to twcniy-otie, twelve of wliom 
shall be laymen and citizens of this State ; and seven, including 
the president or vice-president, shall be a quorum. These 
trustees have the usual corporate powers, with additional power 
to manage and dispose of all moneys, goods, chattels, lands, 
and other estate committed to their care and trust by tlie 
General Assembly; but in cases of special instruction for the 
management and disposal of any such property, given by the 
Assembly, the trustees must act according thereto. There is 
also power in this charter for the General Assembly to change 
one-third of the trustees in such manner as that body may see 
fit. This power has never been exercised, and the trustees 
hold their offices for life, and fill vacancies in the board. 

A supplement was passed in 1823 to prevent the loss of the 
property in case of a repeal of the charter; and others since, to 
allow an increase in the income of the board. 

The board of trustees are legally clothed with a naked trust to 
hold property for the use of the seminary, and to payout from 
the income, according to the directions of the General Assem- 
bly. The board of directors chosen triennially have the arrange- 
ment of the teaching in the seminary under the Assembly, 

In consequence of some friction in the working of the two 
boards of trustees and directors, and as the result of a conference 
of a joint committee, there has been within a few years past, an 
agreement between these boards, which is understood to have 
been ratified by the General Assembly, to the effect that no 
money must be paid from the funds of the institution, through 
the treasurer, without the order and approbation of the trus- 
tees. 

This seminary, under the wise administration of its early 
distinguished professors, soon became a great power in the 
Presbyterian Church ; and through its numerous alumni and 
multiplied scholarships, generous friends, benefactors, and ade- 
quate endowments, it has been not only the first and oldest of 
the Presbyterian seminaries in this country, but the most pop- 
ular and influential of all. Its alumni roll of graduates has 
reached above 3000 ; there are now seven professors and nearly 
a hundred scholarships, all of which will be more fully stated 
hereafter. 



THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY— BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS. 335 
SECTION II. 

Buildings and Grounds. 

The Main Building. — The original seminary edifice was 
commenced to be built in the year 1815. The land was ob- 
tained from Richard Stockton, LL. D. Dr. Ashbel Green says, 
" in addition to the small lot of two acres given by Richard 
Stockton, Esq., as a site for the edifice of the seminary, I pur- 
chased of him two acres more for which I paid him four hun- 
dred dollars and gave them to the institution." The minutes 
of the directors state that three acres of land were given and 
four acres bought for $Soo, and a deed was executed by Richard 
Stockton and wife; and that Dr. John Van Cleve gave a front 
of seventy-five feet in exchange for other land. This deed from 
Mr. Stockton and wife was dated May 16, 1815, and conveyed 
the title to John McDowell, Samuel Bayard and Dr. John Van 
Cleve, in trust for the use of the seminar)\ 

The contract for the building provided that the workmen 
should labor from sunrise to sunset, allowing one hour for 
breakfast and one and a half for dinner, except on Saturdays 
and Mondays, when they should close at 6 o'clock, \\ M., on 
Saturday and begin on Monday at 6 o'clock A. M. It was 
farther agreed that the workmen should be entitled to oiic and 
a half gills of ardent spirits per day, to be distributed at three 
several hours in the day, at current prices, the seminary to pay 
for it through the superintendent : carpenters and masons to 
have $1.62 and journeymen $1.50 per day, and find their own 
lodging and meals. 

The edifice was built of light brown stone, and was 150 feet 
in length, and 50 feet in width, four stories high. It contained 
lecture-rooms, library, oratory, refectory and rooms for steward 
and for 100 students. The corner stone was laid on the 26th 
of September, 1815, by Dr. Ashbel Green, president of the 
directors, and the building was ready for use in 1817. Its cost 
was $47,000. Peter Bogart was appointed the first steward in 
1 8 18. The brick house for Dr. Alexander was also ready for 
use. The brick house of Dr. Hodge was built by himself on 
the land of the seminary, which had been given by Dr. Green. 



336 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

An arrangement was made by which the seminary sliould pay 
the value of the house, when Dr. Hodge should cease to oc- 
cupy it; but the trustees paid Dr. Hodge for it about twenty 
years before his death. This house is at tiie west or southwest 
end of the seminary, and was occupied by Dr. Hodge till his 
death. 

This original Seminary edifice has been, within a {>::\m years 
past, renovated and improved at a cost of several thousand dol- 
lars, by John C. Green, late of New York. It is now exclusively 
a dormitory. The front campus has been improved, the inner 
fences have been removed, gravel roads have been laid out, 
and the old appearance of things has been much changed. 

TJie Chapel. — This is a white brick, Grecian building, 
standing between the seminary building and the old brick 
house of Dr. Alexander, but receding a little to the east. It 
was built in 1833 for preaching and other public services. The 
basement was formerly a dormitory for students. The chapel 
is 60 by 45 feet. Within the last three or four years it has 
been transformed into a most beautiful place of worship. The 
walls and ceilings have been tastefully ornamented ; a new pul- 
pit has been set in a semicircular recess in the end of the audi- 
ence-room ; the gallery has been enlarged at the other end ; 
stained glass windows have been substituted for the old ones ; 
the pews have been handsomely upholstered and iloor has been 
carpeted; a large furnace to warm the building has been in- 
troduced, and the appearance of the structure in its interior 
and exterior has been thus made very graceful and attractive. 
The expense of this recent improvement and decoration was 
defrayed by the late John C. Green, of New York, one of the 
trustees of the seminary. 

The Refectory. — This is a one story long stone building with 
abasement, erected in 1847, ^^^ a cost of little less than $S,ooo, 
containing a long dining-room and a kitchen and rooms for the 
steward, besides a hospital room for sick students. It stands 
in the back campus, about halfway between the seminary and 
Brown Hall. It was built for the purpose of securing cheap 
board for the students, but it is seldom attractive enough to 



ffl!'!iil:!'l!!S''5fl!II!!l!!!reS3fflIP 




THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY— BUILDIXGS A XD GKOUA'DS-HJ 

satisfy the majority of the students, who, like the college stu- 
dents, seem to prefer clubs in private families or regular family 
boarding. 

Lenox Hall — The Library. — This is an exquisitely beauti- 
ful Gothic structure erected on a lot of three acres, being the 
base of the pretty triangle bounded on Library Place or Stead- 
man Street, and extending between Mercer and Stockton 
Streets, and as far on the other side as the beautiful grounds 
of Mrs. John R. Thomson. The building is of stone — the 
buttresses, doorway, pinnacles, and other ornamental portions 
being cut or carved. The ceiling is groined and supported by 
vaulting shafts, and the floor was originally of marble tiles, 
but is now of wood. There is a gallery on three sides of the 
hall, under which there are alcoves for the books. The cases 
for the books in the alcoves and on the gallery are of a Gothic 
pattern, and like all the wood-work are richly painted in imi- 
tation of oak. It is at present warmed b}' steam. Tlie whole 
is one of the most correct and beautiful specimens of Gothic 
architecture in our country. 

This building is called Lenox Hall, after James Lenox, of 
New York, one of the princely benefactors of Princeton insti- 
tutions. He caused it to be erected in the year 1843, '^'"'^ then 
presented to the trustees of the seminary a deed for it, with 
two other acres of land and the house on it, formerly the resi- 
dence of Prof. John J3reckinridge, and now occupied by Rev. 
Prof. McGill, on the south side of Steadman Street. The 
whole cost of the property conveyed by Mr. Lenox, in this 
deed, was $31,088. 

During the present season Mr. Lenox has, at his own ex- 
pense, erected another beautiful and costly annex library on 
the same ground, in the rear of Lenox Hall and quite near it, 
in which it is designed to place such books as the students and 
professors require for daily use and reference, leaving in the 
present library the volumes which arc rare, and only needed 
for occasional reference. This new building is built of red 
pressed brick, with cut and carved brown stone trimmings, and 
with a high spiral brick tower. It is a work of great solidity, 
and its style of architecture is unlike that of any other build- 



338 HISTORY OF PRfNCETON. 

in"- in Princeton. He has also built two new handsome and 
expensive brick houses for professors' residences, on the same 
lot, fronting on Stockton Street. The cost of these new build- 
ings with the ornamentation of the grounds, has not yet been 
made known, but it will probably not be less than $100,000. 

Brown Hall. — The building which bears this name is a large 
light brown stone dormitory about equal in size and appearance 
to the old seminary building, and is the most remote building 
from Mercer Street, of any that stand on the easterly side of 
that street. It is next to the Baptist church, and has access 
also from Canal Street. The corner-stone was laid in May, 
1864. It bears this name in honor of Mrs. George Brown, of 
Baltimore, who gave the sum of $30,000 for the purpose of 
building it. It is a handsome and well-built structure, and 
affords very pleasant rooms, with a fine prospect on the east 
and south sides. This and the original building are the only 
dormitories on the seminary grounds ; and they afford suffi- 
cient accommodation for present demand. The rooms in 
both are fitted and partially furnished, in a liberal and suitable 
manner. This was a timely gift, and is the only one of the 
kind, that has been made by a lady, to the educational institu- 
tions in Princeton. It is an enduring monument to the liber- 
ality and piety of the giver ; though Mrs. David Brown, of 
Princeton, gave as large a sum to build the Second Church in 
Princeton. 

Stuart Hall. — This is the best constructed building in 
Princeton, as to material and workmanship, and perhaps also 
as to style and adaptation. It was designed for recitation and 
lecture-rooms, and it is applied to such use. It is built of stone 
a little variegated in color, with massive carved trimmings, 
with a high tower somewhat like that on the college School 
of Science. The structure is massive, beautiful and impos- 
ing. It is situated on purchased ground, extending from 
Canal Street, opposite Dickinson Street, to the old seminary 
ground between Brown Hall and the Refectory. It fronts 
north on Canal Street and south on the seminary grounds. 
The name, "Stuart Hall, 1876," is carved in raised letters 



THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY— BUILDIiXGS AND GROUNDS. 339 

on the south side of the building. It has two high stories, both 
finished with capacious and beautifully furnished rooms for 
lectures and recitations, and the third story under the roof is 
also finished with large rooms, one of which is occupied as the 
reading-room. This building appears well from the railroad 
depot and the western end of the college grounds, but if it and 
Brown Hall could have been erected on ground near the old 
seminary building, and more central in the seminary grounds, 
they would more favorably impress strangers who visit them. 
The buildings of the seminary are really more tasteful and sub- 
stantial than those of the college, but they are not all so eligi- 
bly grouped in position. 

Stuart Hall is named in honor of its munificent donors, 
Robert L. Stuart and Alexander Stuart, of New York. The 
land was purchased by them and the building erected at the 
cost of $140,000. They made a deed of the land to the trus- 
tees of the theological seminary, of which R. L. Stuart is one, 
on October 27, 1874, and then after the building was completed 
they presented that also for the use of lecture rooms. The 
deed contains a limitation or condition, but it was formally ac- 
cepted by the trustees. The terms of that condition incorpo- 
rated in the deed are as follows, viz.: 

" Provided always nevertheless and upon condition that if at any time or times 
hereafter the said parties of the second part, or their successors, shall pass from 
under the supervision and control of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian 
Church, in the United States of America, and its successors ; or if at any time or 
limes the leading doctrines declared by the Confession of Faith and Catechism of 
the Presbyterian Church, such as the doctrine of Universal and total Depravity, 
the doctrine of Election, the doctrine of tlie Atonement, the doctrine of the Impu- 
tation of Adam's sin to all his posterity, and of the Iminitation of Christ's righteous- 
ness to all his people for their justification, the doctrine of Human Inability and the 
doctrine of the Necessity of the Influence of the Holy Spirit, in the regeneration, 
conversion and sanclificalion of sinners, as these doctrines are now understood 
and explained by the aforesaid General Assembly, shall cease to be taught and in- 
culcated in the said seminary, then and in either of such cases the grant and con- 
veyance hereby made shall cease and become null and void, and the said premises 
shall thereupon revert to the said Robert L. Stuart and Alexander Stuart, their 
heirs and assigns, as in their fust and former estate." 

A similar condition is contained in the deed of Mr. Lenox, 
for the library property, dated in 1843. 



340 HlSTOftY OF PRINCETON. 

Professors Houses.— 1:\\qx& are seven large and beautifully 
situated dvvellin<j houses on the seminary grounds, belonging 
to the seminary, for the use of professors ; all but two of them 
have been presented by individual members of the board of 
trustees. Those two are the brick houses of Dr. Archibald 
Alexander and Dr. Hodge, which were paid. for from the sem- 
inary funds. The Blodgett house, where Prof. C. Wistar 
Hodge resides, was the gift of John C. Green ; the Dod house, 
next to Dr. Hodge's, where Prof. Aiken resides, was the gift of 
R. L. and Alexander Stuart ; the Breckinridge house, where 
Dr. McGill resides, and the two new ones on the library lot, 
were all the gift of James Lenox. 



SECTION HI. 

INVESTMENT.S, FUNDS, LIBRARY. 

The property of the theological seminary is steadily Increas- 
ing and is already above a million of dollars in amount. The 
last report of the trustees to the General Assembly, 1878, con- 
tarns a statement from the treasurer showing the amount and 
kind of property and investments, viz.: 

Securities in the hands of the Treasurer $697,422.26 

Securities held by trustees of General Assembly 95 J70.84 

Real estate at cost 274!ooo.oo 

Total $1,066,793.10 

This property is distributed as follows : 

Permanent Fund $146,459.24 

Education Fund 5.001.38 

John C. Green Fund '^^\ 150,000.00 

Contingent Fund 62 986 -5 

.SpecialFund 20^000.00 

Sustentation Fund 10,196.85 

Library Fund 1 1,671.25 

Professorship Fund 195,461.59 

Scholarship Fund I79.x09.41 

Miscellaneous Fund „, ^(^^ 18 

^^^'^' E^'^'« '.'.'■'.'.".'.'■ 2 ll^ .OO 

T 1 • u 1 $1,079,248.15 

Less cash m hand, etc 10 icr r^r 

•• ' -i4 35-05 

$1,066,793,10 



THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY— INVESTM ENTS. 341 

The number of Scholarships reported was eighty-one. This 
number is yearly increasing. 

The annual salary paid each professor is $3,000 and a house 
whose rental is worth $500 and upwards. 

The salary of the Assistant Treasurer is $3,000. 

The salary of the Librarian is $3,ioo. 

The Library of the theological seminary is a very valuable 
one and contains very many rare books. Testimony to this 
effect is frequently borne by persons who visit it, after having 
prosecuted their researches in other large libraries in our large 
cities. 

The present excellent librarian, the Rev. William H. Rob- 
erts, states the number of volumes at 30,600, with 8,000 
pamphlets. In this library are included the once private 
libraries of Dr. Breckinridge, Dr. Nesbit, Alumni, Society of 
Inquiry, Dr. Addison Alexander, Dr. Krebs, Mr. Col well ; also 
very fine gifts from Messrs. Lenox, R. L. antl A. Stuart, Levi 
P. Stone, R. L. Kennedy and other persons too numerous to 
mention. The Sprague collection of pamphlets is one of the 
largest and finest in the country. 

It would be interesting if we could here enumerate the 
many rare, beautiful and valuable gifts which are deposited in 
this library. We have before described the building; but only 
a visit, and that not a short one, could convey to the visitor a 
true idea of the treasures that are contained in it. The hall is 
adorned also with painted portraits of Professors Miller, the 
three Alexanders, Breckinridge, Charles Hodge, McGill and 
Green. 

The librarian states that there is a fund of $70,000 for the 
purchase of books and maintenance of the library. 



SFXTION IV. 
THE DECEASED PROFESSORS. 



As we have recalled the history of this seminary and the 
manner in which it has intrenched itself in the affections of the 
Presbyterian Church, challenging in its rise and progress the 



342 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

respect of Cliristcnclom ; as we have presented its endowments 
and its grand and beautiful buildings, its liberal provision of 
scholarships, offering free education and maintenance to over 
eighty students, with ample salaries for its professors and offi- 
cers, a sense of grateful pleasure cannot but have filled our 
hearts, if we have any sympathy for such an institution. 

But a livelier gratitude will be awakened when we call up 
the memory of those distinguished deceased professors, whose 
beautiful lives, whose wisdom, grace, learning and fidelity made 
this seminary what it is, and brought down upon it the bless- 
ings of the great Head of the church, inspiring the wealthy and 
liberal sons and daughters of the church to dedicate so much 
of their love and estate to the usefulness and perpetuity of this 
venerable school of the prophets. 

Recalling their names in the order of their appointment, 
rather than in that of their death, we present successively the 
names of the Reverend Doctors Archibald Alexander, Samuel 
Miller, Charles Hodge, J. Addison Alexander, John Breckin- 
ridge and James W. Alexander. What a bright galaxy ! What 
a heavenly group! Blessed must be the institution ^vhich has 
received the benedictions and life-long labors of such men as 
these I 

I. Rev. Archibald Alexander, D. D. 

The biography of this eminent man has been written by his 
son, Dr. James W. Alexander, and published in a volume of 
700 pages, to which our readers are referred for a full account 
of him. Dr. Archibald Alexander was a son of William Alex- 
ander and Ann Reid, and was born April 17th, 1772, in an old 
fashioned log-house, about seven miles east from Lexington, 
in the County of Rockbridge, Virginia. His father was a re- 
spectable farmer and storekeeper in good circumstances. 

Archibald was the third of nine children. His father bought 
at Baltimore several convicts who had, according to the law in 
those days, been transported from England for crime ; among 
them was a young man of about twenty years of age, who had 
been at a classical school in London and could read Virgil and 
a little Greek; his name was John Reardon. As he had not 




lKV„^Ai.l8><'IHiyU-A' 



^ 



'^^^4^-1.^2^^^ 



THEOLOGICAL SEMLNAkV—DR. ALEXANDER. 343 

been accustomed to manual labor, Mr, Alexander built a log 
school house near his residence and set him to teaching a 
school there; and little Archibald, then hardly five years old, 
trudged along every day to school with this teacher, who 
boarded at Mr. Alexander's and was called Jack in the Aimily. 
This exiled criminal had taught hardly a year, when the Revolu- 
tion commenced, and he became a soldier against the country 
which had banished him. After this, Archibald attended various 
schools and soon became experienced in the use of the rifle, 
the feats of horsemanship and the round of adventurous life 
which was not uncommon in Virginia at that day. 

His education was further prosecuted at the academy of the 
Rev. William Graham, at Timber Ridge Meeting-house. Mr. 
Graham was a graduate of Princeton College, and Archibald 
was more indebted to him than to any other person for his 
education, both classical and theological, for he never was at a 
college or theological seminary. He became converted in the 
great revival of 1788-9, and was received by the Presbytery of 
Lexington in 1790, and pursued his studies under the Rev. Mr. 
Graham, as already stated. He was licensed to preach, and 
soon became a popular preacher. On one occasion he was 
preaching at Charleston and was using a written skeleton of 
the sermon, and a puff of wind blew it away into the midst of 
the congregation. He then determined to take no more paper 
into the pulpit, and for twenty years, while a pastor, he kept his 
resolution. 

In 1797 he became President of Hampden Sidney College, 
and in 1801 he resigned that position, and took a journey 
through New England, which was full of interest to him and 
increased his reputation as a preacher and rising man. He re- 
ceived a call from the Pine Street Presbyterian Church in Phil- 
adelphia, and was installed in it on the 20lh of May, 1807. 
Here he gave himself to intense study of the Bible and every- 
thing biblical, taking lessons in Hebrew from a learned Jew. He 
was a popular preacher, and having access to libraries and 
learned men, he was unconsciously preparing himself for his 
great life-work at Princeton. In 18 10 he received the degree 
of Doctor of Divinity from the college of New Jersey, and he 
declined a call to the presidency of the University of Georgia. 



344 HISTORY OF PRINCE TO A'. 

Dr. Alexander, having been moderator of the General As- 
sembly, preached a sermon before that body in 1808, in Phila- 
delphia. In that discourse he advocated a theological semi- 
nary for training ministers, under the direction of every Presby- 
tery or at least every Synod. I'his was fcjliowed by an over- 
ture introduced by Dr. Green, as already stated, for the estab- 
lishment of a theological seminary, the history of which has 
already been given, and in 1812 Dr. Alexander was elected, by 
the General Assembly, a professor of this new theological sem- 
inary, which had just been located at Princeton, and to which 
place he, with his family, removed as soon as he could be re- 
leased from his important pastoral relation in Philadelphia, to 
undertake this new office which he accepted. 

Dr. Alexander now became a teacher, without ceasing to 
be a preacher. He was characterized by a fondness for com- 
municating instructions on every subject within his reach. He 
began with a class of three students in his own house. The 
next year the Rev. Dr. Miller, who had urged Dr. Alexander 
not to disobey the voice of the church by declining the ap- 
pointment in his case, was called by the same authoritative 
voice to become a co-laborer with Dr. Alexander, as Professor 
of Ecclesiastical History and Church Government, in the Sem- 
inary at Princeton. Dr. Miller accepted, and sundered his tie 
with a most eligible pastorate in New York, and, with his 
family, removed to Princeton in 1813. From 1812 to 1851 Dr. 
Alexander stood forth with prominence in the church in the 
threefold character of preacher, teacher and author. 

As a preacher Dr. Alexander occupied the first rank. His 
discourses were clear, simple, biblical, and keenly pungent. 
After coming to Princeton he would sometimes write and read 
his sermons, especially on special public occasions, but his 
written sermons, even his best ones, fail to represent him to be 
such a preacher as he was. He never could submit to the bit 
and bridle. His nature craved freedom of thought, of speech, 
of action. He was a child of nature and not of conventionali- 
ties. He never turned his back on his native state, Virginia, 
never abandoned his early habit of preaching extempore and 
unwritten sermons. His best preaching was in a colloquial 
style: he never could preach on stilts. He could pour out 



THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY— DR. ALEXANDER. 345 

his thoughts with wonderful simplicity, even when discussing 
the most abstruse metaphysical or theological subject ; and he 
could rise to lofty heights of vehement and impassioned orato- 
ry, as the subject matter or circumstances fired his heart. His 
simplicity and versatility were so blended with his profound 
and original thinking that his preaching was comprehended 
and listened to with delight by both the children and the highly 
educated class of his audience at liic same time. 

Dr. Alexander was inimitable in his preaching. His stu- 
dents often tried to copy his voice, manner and style, but they 
always failed. He was not a model to be followed, just be- 
cause he could not be followed. Dr. Alexander was ever ready 
to preach when an opportunity was offered. He was helpful 
to the pastors in the neighborhood of PrinceliMi. He was tond 
of conducting the social prayer meetings of the chuich, held 
generally in private families. These services were peculiarly 
excellent. He had so much religious experience and so much 
power to stir the consciences of his hearers, that in his search- 
ing of hearts he seemed almost omniscient. The experience 
he had as a pastor and preacher for many years before he be- 
came a professor, was of the greatest value to his success in 
the seminary chair. Taking Dr. Alexander all in all, we regard 
him as the best regular preacher we have ever heard. He had 
a shrill, penetrating voice— clear in articulation ; he had a sweet 
expression of face ; he was not large, yet not diminutive in per- 
sonal form. His self-possession and self-reliance were but the 
result of that conscious reserve of power within him, equal to 
any emergency. But his masterly analysis of a scriptural pas- 
sage and his convincing logic were irresistible. He was original 
in an unconimon degree. 

As a teacher Dr. Alexander was alike successful and emi- 
nent. He had, as we have stated, a fondness and a talent for 
communicating what he knew to others. He had a retentive 
memory and great facility of expression. He never ceased to 
study. He was diligent and faithful— giving all his time and 
talents to the magnifying of his office as a biblical teacher and 
trainer of candidates for the ministry. He did not even take 
time for physical exercise, in the latter half of his life. His 
study was only a few yards distant from the seminary, and his 



346 HI STORY OF PRINCETOX. 

door opened on that side, makin^^ him very accessible to the 
students ; and their calls upon him were very numerous ; he 
never felt that he had a right to give a cold shoulder to a the- 
ological student who desired to talk with him. He acted as a 
kind and gentle father to the students, taking a warm interest 
in tlicir studies, their personal comforts, and spiritual welfare, 
and consequently he never lost their love and respect. 

Dr. Alexander's text-book in Theology was Turretin's 
Theologia Elenchtica with its Status QiKCstioiiis, in the discus- 
sion of every subject, and its Funics Soliitionuin of answers to 
objections. He used to give his class, says Dr. Hodge, from 
twenty to forty quarto pages in Latin to read for a recitation. 
But he did not confine himself to his text-book; he gave lec- 
tures from year to year, and they became an important part of 
his course. All the students at the seminary from 1812 to 
185 I received their instruction in theology from Dr. Alexander. 
He continued to occupy the chair of Didactic and Polemic 
Theology throughout the whole period; and after Dr. Miller's 
death he took Church Government in addition. 

Dr. Alexander was peaceful in his professorship. He was 
not fond of controversy, or strife, Ijut studied the peace and 
unity of the church. He was opposed to the division of the 
church in 1838, yet agreed with the old school party in their 
action in the premises, and held rigidly to the entire old school 
theology. 

As an author and writer Dr. Alexander has earned a high 
reputation, especially in Presbyterian literature. Besides nu- 
merous tracts and sermons in pamphlet form, he published in 
1S25, "A Brief Outline of the Evidences of the Christian Re- 
ligion ;" in 1826, "The Canon of the Old and New Testa- 
ment ;" in 1831, "A Selection of Hymns " for private and so- 
cial devotion, etc. ; in 1835; "The Lives of the Patriarchs;" 
in 1845, " History of Israel," " Log College ;" in 1846," His- 
tory of Colonization ;" in 1852, his posthumous publications 
were a " History of the Israelitish Nation," and " Outlines of 
Moral Science." One of his most valuable and rare volumes is 
that on " Religious Experience," consisting of letters first pub- 
lished in a religious newspaper. 

Dr. Alexander also contributed about seventy-five articles 



THEOLOGICAL SEMINAR Y— DR. ALEXANDER. 347 

\o W\t Princcio7i Reviciv, between the years 1829 and 1850 

several every year. 

The Presbyterian Board of Publication also published nearly 
a dozen volumes written by Dr. Alexander, which will be 
named in the next chapter, and whicli were of much value. As 
a writer he was transparent, and he met the question he was 
discussinf^, with frankness and ability. Dr. Alexander's humil- 
ity and genuine piety shone in all his ways and works. Admi- 
rably fitted was he to be one of the two great pillars of the first 
Theological Seminary of the Presbyterian Church in the United 
States; and his sainted memory will never perish while Calvin- 
istic Presbyterianism endures on the earth. Dr. Alexander has 
been classed with Jonathan Edwards as a theologian. 

In his domestic life Dr. Alexander was greatly blessed. Me 
was married on the 5th of April, 1802, to Miss Janetta Wad- 
del, a daughter of the celebrated blind preacher, Dr. James 
Waddel, of Virginia—a young woman of uncommon beauty 
and artless grace ; she was wise, affectionate, pious, industrious, 
vivacious, and sympathetic ; a great comfort and helpmate to 
her husband. Such is the testimony of one of her sons ; and 
our personal recollection of her fully justifies such description. 
The brick house which was built when the seminary was 
erected, and is now occupied by Rev. Prof. Moffat, near the 
north-east end of the seminary, was the home of Dr. Alexan- 
der till he died. Here his children grew up around his table, 
and made that house one of the happiest and most distin- 
guished homes in Princeton. Dr. Alexander died, October 22, 
185 1, in the eightieth year of his age, with unabated intellect, 
and with a peace which passeth understanding, fully prepared 
to bid adieu to friends and the world. Me soon followed his 
venerable coadjutor, Dr. Miller, whose funeral discourse he had 
preached in the preceding year, and in which he had remarked 
that he would soon follow him. Mrs. Alexander survived him 
but a short time. She died in September, 1852. 

They had seven children who survived them — six sons and 
one daughter. Three of them were ministers; two were law- 
yers, and one was a physician. Of the ministers, Rev. James 
W. Alexander, D. D., and J. Addison Alexander, D. D., are 
dead, and will be noticed among the deceased professors of 



J 



348 HISTORY OF PRINCE TOA\ 

the seminary ; the Rev. Samuel D. Alexander, D. D., is still 
living in New York. Of the lawyers, Col. \Vm. C. Alexander, is 
dead, and was noticed in our first volunu,- ; Henry M. Alexan- 
der is living in New York ; while 1 -'i. Aicliibald Alexander, the 
physician, and his sister, Miss Janetta, are living in Princeton, 
as already stated. 

The funeral of Dr. Alexander took place while the Synod 
of New Jersey was in session at Princeton, and was attended 
by that body. He was buried in the cemetery at Princeton ; 
and his death was lamented by thousands of those who knew 
him, and thousands more of those who knew of him. 

II. Rev. Samuel Miller, D. D. 

Samuel Miller, a son of the Rev. John and Margaret 
(Millington) Miller, was born near Dover, Delaware, on the 
31st of October, 1769. He was fitted for college at home, un- 
der the instruction of his father, and then entered the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, where he graduated with honors in 1789. 
He studied theology with his father, and was licensed to preach 
by the Presbytery of Lewes, in 1791. After his licensure, he 
continued his theological studies under Dr. Nisbet. president 
of Dickinson College, and one of the most learned theologians 
of the day. He declined an invitation to become his father's 
successor at Dover, but accepted a unanimous call from the 
united Presbyterian churches of New York, to become a col- 
league of Dr. Rodgers and Dr. McKnight. He was ordained 
and installed in June, 1793. 

"His settlement in New York," says Dr. Sprague, * 
«' brought him within the immediate range of several of the 
ablest and most widely known ministers of the day ; and yet 
his well balanced and highly cultivated mind, his bland and 
attractive manner, and the graceful facility with which he 
moved about in the different circles of social life, soon gave 
him a position among the most prominent of his brethren. He 
was invited to preach on various occasions of great public m- 
terest, and several of these discourses were printed, and attract- 
ed much attention. His sermon preached at the beginning of 

*Sprague's Annals. 





Ya 





■, '■ >i\'iR)ji/Mrrv.^ . :.,:i^jc;nAr , _ W'J 'ivmA^. ii!^*''- "A 



THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY— DR. MILLER. 349 

the present century, became a nucleus of a work published in 
1803, in two volumes, and entitled 'A Brief Retrospect of the 
Eighteenth Century.* This work is marked by great ability, 
and has commanded much attention on both sides of the At- 
lantic. 

"In 1804 he was honored with the degree of Doctor of 
Divinity from the university at which he graduated. In 1806, 
he was Moderator of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian 
Church. In i8ir, Dr. Rodgers, who had been united with him 
in the pastorate nearly twenty years, was removed by death ; 
and two years after, his Biography, written by Dr. Miller, ap- 
peared in an octavo volume, full of interesting details of the 
American Presbyterian Church. 

"In 1 81 3 he was elected to the chair of Ecclesiastical His- 
tory and Church Government in the Theological Seminary at 
Princeton. This appointment he thought it his duty to accept, 
though in doing so he had to abandon a field of usefulness, 
which had become endeared to him by many sacred associa- 
tions. Here Dr. Miller continued, accomplishing a work of the 
highest interest to the church during the period of thirty-six 
years. Besides attending to his stated duties in the seminary 
with great fidelity, he performed a large amount of literary 
labor, the results of which are now in the possession of the 
church, and will form a rich legacy to posterity. 

" Dr. Miller was one of the most voluminous writers which 
our Presbyterian Church has ever produced. Besides the works 
already mentioned, he published more than a dozen volumes 
on various subjects, and upwards of forty pamphlets containing 
sermons and addresses. Several of his works are controversial, 
two of them being devoted to a vindication of Presbyterianism 
against the claims of Episcopacy. His controversial writings 
are clear, fair, earnest, and marked by uncommon ability. 

" It has already been intimated that Dr. Miller possessed a 
large measure of personal attraction. He was of about the 
middle size, and had a fair expression at once of high intelli- 
gence, and of all that was gentle and kindly and genial. There 
was a sort of graceful formality about his movements, but 
nothing to create reserve or embarrassment. His mind was 
remarkable for the admirable proportion in which its faculties 



350 HISTORY OF PRINCETOI^. 

existed; all acting in perfect symmetry, and therefore with 
great power. Mis heart was full of benevolence and generosity, 
and no one knew better than he how to render good for evil. 
His presence in the social circle was always met with a cordial 
welcome, and always diffused an air of cheerfulness, while yet 
not a word fell from his lips that was not consistent with the 
dignity, of a minister. 

" As a preacher, he was justly regarded as among the most 
eminent of his day. His sermons were written with great care, 
and so simple and logical in their arrangement as easily to be 
remembered, while yet they were uncommonly rich in evan- 
gelical truth, and were delivered with a simplicity and unction 
well fitted to impress them on the mind and heart. 

"As a pastor he was always ready to meet the needs of his 
people, and he moved about among them so kindly and ten- 
derly that they could almost forget that he was not a father or 
a brother. 

"As a Professor in the Theological Seminary, he was al- 
ways punctual in the observance of every duty, delivered 
luminous and well digested lectures, treated the students with 
marked attention and respect, and was a model in everything 
pertaining to social manners and habits. 

" As a member of Ecclesiastical courts he was watchful, firm, 
and yet condescending ; he would not tolerate \\hat he believed 
to be gross error, while yet he would not make a man an of- 
fender for a word. He was strongly attached to the Presby- 
terian Church, regarding it as more strictly conformed to the 
scriptural standard than any other ; but he was ready to open 
his arms and his heart to all whom he recognized as holding 
the fundamental truths of the gospel." 

Dr. Miller was one of the earliest and strongest advocates 
for the establishment of a Theological Seminary ; and he urged 
warmly the plan of having one strong, central institution, and 
not several synodical ones. His call to the chair of Ecclesias- 
tical History and Church Government in the Seminary in 1813, 
was eminently wise. No man in the church at that day was 
better qualified for such a position than iJr. AIi'K.r. lie was 
just the material for the second pillar in that instiiution. 

The sweet harmony preserved between Dr. Alexander and 



THEOLOGICAL SEAfLA'AR Y—DA\ MLLLER. 35 I 

Dr. Miller, for nearly forty years, as coadjutors in building up 
and adorning the seminary, has often been mentioned as evi- 
dence of the genuine piety of both professors; for they were 
very different in their habits of life and temperament. The 
testimony borne by each towards the other, and the state- 
ments of their respective biographers, that there was never dis- 
covered the least jealousy, or envy, in either towards the other, 
can only be explained by the high order of piety in both. 

An entry in Dr. Miller's private diary, made December 3, 
18 1 3, of certain resolutions formed by him when he came to 
the seminary, bears upon this point ; and we insert the follow- 
ing from the third and fourth of them, viz. : 

" Resolved, That I will endeavor, by the grace of God, su to coiuluct myself 
towards my colleague in the seminary as never to give the least reasonable ground 
of oflence. It shall be my aim, by divine help, ever to treat him with the most 
scrupulous respect and delicacy, and never to wound his feelings, if I know how to 
avoid it. 

" Resolved, That by the grace of God, while I will carefully avoid giving offence 
to my colleague, I will in no case take offence at his treatment of me. I have come 
hither resolving that whatever may be the sacrifice of my jjcrsonal feelings— what- 
ever may be the consequence — I will not take offence, unless I am called upon to 
relinquish truth or duty. I not only will never, the Lord helping me, indulge a 
jealous, envious ox suspicious temper toward him ; but 1 will, in no case, allow my- 
self to be wounded by any slig/it or apjiearance of disrespect. I will ^i^'ive up all my 
own claims rather than let the cause of Christ suffer by animosity or contest. What 
am I, that I should prefer my own honor or exaltation to the cause of my blessed 
Master." 

That Dr. Miller was a model of clerical manners and de- 
portment — the beau-ideal of a Christian gentleman, is the tes- 
timony of all who knew him. It was of incalculable value to 
the students to come daily in contact with a man like Dr. 
Miller ; for besides his polished manners, the unction of his 
piety, and his paternal counsels to the young candidates for 
the ministry, were of the utiriost importance to them. They 
found in him a living illustration of the Book on " Clerical 
Manners," which he wrote and published. 

Dr. Miller's politeness had its fountain in his heart, and he 
exhibited it everywhere and on all occasions, in public and in 
private; on the street, and in the lecture room ; at home and 
abroad ; towards the humble and towards the great. ■'^' 

* On one occasion Dr. Miher and Prof. Dod were engaged to speak at one of 



352 HIS7'0RY OF PRINCETON. 

Dr. Miller was a high church Presbyterian— not exactly 
holding to \.\\(ijure divino of Tresbyterianism, but holding that 
the Presbyterian form of church government is more scriptural 
than any other. He was entrusted with the subject of Church 
Government in his chair ; and he naturally became the great 
defender of the Presbyterian polity, and published numerous 
volumes in its defence. Of this character were his " Order of 
the Christian Ministry," " Warrant for the Eldership," " Infant 
Baptism," " Presbyterianism," " Public Prayer." He was an 
accomplished ecclesiastic, with lance in hand. 

Dr. Miller, besides his various books, wrote twenty-five 
articles for the Princeton Reviczv. He was an intense student 
and a rapid writer, always standing at his desk when writing. 

Dr. Miller was liberal and exact in his money transactions.* 
Plis circumstances were such as enabled him to be liberal in 
his charities; he was eminently a large and cheerful ^\vcx\ 
and yet like Dr. Alexander, he set an example of economy and 
frugality in his style of living. He lived in his own house, 
built on a large scale, on the lot where his father-in-law, Jona- 
than Dickinson Sergeant, had built a house, which the Hes- 
sians burnt in 1776. He had a little farm connected with it— 
and always kept horses and carriages, and was accustomed to 
take exercise daily on horseback— or by driving— or on foot— 
with exact regularity, without regard to weather. 

There was one very marked difference between Dr. Miller 
and Dr. Alexander. The former governed himself by rule and 
system, down to the most minute matters of life. He walked 
by rule ; and his life was as regular and as exact in all thino-s 
as rules are exact. The system of rules which he framed for 

the religious Anniversaries in New York, and Robert Ross, the hackman, was late 
in getting them to the cars at the depot, then at the canal. By racing the horses, 
Ihey reached the depot just as the cars were moving off. Rrof. Dod hurried into 
the cars, while Dr. Miller was left on the ])Iatform bowing and thanking Mr. Ross 
for bringing them safely in time, but failed to fulfil his engagement in New York. 
Prof. Dod often told this anecdote to show tliat poiiicness was, sometimes at least, 
inconvenient. 

♦Working men and mechanics often speak of Dr. Miller's promptness in paying 
bills, and expressing regret if he should not have been at home when they called 
for their money, and offering to pay them for the time they lost in coming for it a 
second lime. He was always more ready to pay loo much than too little. 



THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY— DR. MILLER. 353 

living by were both scriptural and arbitrary ; arbitrary, but 
not in contradiction to the Bible. He would seem to have set- 
tled beforehand what was right to do, and then did it ; while 
Dr. Alexander seemed to have no rules or system to govern 
him ; he claimed liberty to act freely as he judged proper at 
the time of action. He would not submit to the bondage 
of systematic rules in every-day life. Dr. Miller was a warm 
advocate of the cause of tcmj:ierance. Dr. Alexander never 
identified himself with that cause. Dr. Miller always voted, 
and expressed an interest in public political questions. Dr. 
Alexander seldom voted, and manifested but little public in- 
terest in politics. 

Though dissimilar in so many respects, these two men were 
peculiarly fitted to be coadjutors in building up a theological 
seminary. Neither could so well have succeeded without the 
other. Each was a pillar sustaining an equal weight in the 
beautiful structure. Both were preeminent in wisdom, piety, 
learning, and aptness to teach. Both were great and good. 
None excelled them in the Presbyterian Church. They lived 
to become patriarchs of four-score years, and departed from 
this field of service as nearly together as they came upon it, 
both alike honored and beloved. 

Dr. Miller died January 7th, 1850. His death-bed scene 
has been depicted as glorious and befitting such a life. His 
funeral was in keeping with his character and death. He was 
buried in the Princeton cemetery. 

Dr. Miller was very happy in his domestic life. He was 
married to Pvliss Sarah Sergeant, a daughter of Jonathan Dick- 
inson Sergeant, formerly of Princeton, a patriot and lawyer of 
eminence, who has been fully noticed in our first volume. 

They were married on the 24th of October, 1801. Her 
father had been dead a few years at that time. She was a 
young woman of superior intellect and personal attractions, 
and their married life was protracted into old age, and was 
crowned with a large family of beloved children. Nothing but 
the truest devotion to each other existed between Doctor and 
Mrs. Miller during their entire residence in New York and in 
Princeton. The scene in the family shortly before his death, 
when he summoned his children around him and reviewed his 



354 -^^/-S" TOR Y OF PRINCE TON". 

life, and, recognizing the presence of death, portrayed to them 
the character and life-long devotion of their motlier, to him 
and to them, was truly sublime. They had ten children, but 
only six survived him. 

Of his sons, Samuel and John are ministers of the gospel ; 
Dickinson is a surgeon in the Navy ; Spencer is a lawyer 
in Philadelphia; Sarah (I\Trs. Hageman) died in 1867, and 
Miss Mary is living in Philadelphia ; Edward, Elisabeth, and 
Mrs. Dr. John Breckinridge all died in the lifetime of Dr. Miller. 
Mrs. Dr. Miller died P\-bruary 2, 1S61, in the 84th year of 
her age. 

An excellent Biography of Dr. Miller, in two volumes, in- 
cluding a memorial of Mrs. Miller, has been written and pub- 
lished by their son, Rev. Samuel Miller, D. D., of Mount 
Holly, N. J. 

III. Rev. Charles Hodge, D. D. 

Charles Hodge, the third distinguished Professor in Prince- 
ton Seminary, was born in Philadelphia, in 1797, where his 
grandfather, a merchant, of Scotch-Irish descent, had settled in 
1730. His father was Dr. Hugh Hodge, a physician of great 
promise and large practice, who died early, at the age of forty- 
three, leaving a widow and two sons, Hugh L. and Charles. 
The former was Dr. Hugh L. Hodge, of Philadelphia, ol 
eminent reputation in the medical profession, and the latter 
was the professor now under consideration. Their mother is 
represented to have been a woman of rare and excellent endow- 
ments, and their sons ascribe much of their success and fame 
to the mental and moral training which they received from her. 
At twelve years of age Charles attended the Classical School at 
Somerville, N. J., in the old brick academy, which was torn 
down about thirty-five years ago. He came from there to 
Princeton and attended school here. His mother lived here 
while educating her sons, and occupied the house in Wither- 
spoon Street, where Jacob Maple lately died — next to the 
school-house of Miss Lockart. Hugh was graduated at Nassau 
Hall, in the class of 18 14, and Charles in the. class of 1815 — the 
latter speaking the valedictory. Charles was a subject of the 




C^i-^L, -(^^.^ (y^o c^-^~- 



'-y- 



THEOLOGICAL SEMIiYA RY—DR. HODGE. 355 

great revival which began in 1814 ; and in 1S15 he united with 
the Presbyterian Church in Princeton, and entered the Tlieo- 
logical Seminary in this place, Bishops Mcllvaine and Johns 
were both his classmates in the college and seminary, and his 

life-long friends. 

Dr. Archibald Alexander took an interest in Charles Hodge 
while a student in the seminary, and suggested to him the idea 
of studying with a view of becoming a professor in the semi- 
nary, and not long after he had finished his seminary course 
he was employed as an assistant teacher of the Oriental lan- 
guages, Dr. Alexander's health needing relief. 

In 1822, the General Assembly elected him Professor of 
Oriental and Biblical Literature, and by the advice of the pro- 
fessors and directors he went abroad to study at the Universi- 
ties of Halle and Berlin, spending several years there and in 
other parts of Europe, and resuming his duties in Princeton in 
1828. After filling that chair for twenty years and upwards, he 
was transferred to the Professorship of Exegetical and Didactic 
Theology, Dr. Alexander, on account of age and impaired 
health, desiring relief; and on the death of Dr. Alexander, in 
1852, Polemic Theology was added. 

For twenty-five years Dr. Charles Hodge sat at the feet of 
Dr. Alexander and Dr. Miller, learning from them all that they 
could communicate— catching from them the spirit of their 
humble piety, and growing up by their side, in all the comeli- 
ness and symmetrical proportions of those two venerable fath- 
ers, until he was strong enough, upon their departure, to sus- 
tain the reputation of the seminary for nearly twenty years 
longer. 

Dr. Hodge was, from his youth, interesting and uncommon ; 
combining with a handsome person, fine talents, and a most 
amiable Christian temper. He was meek, gentle and single- 
minded. His face shone with a radiant beauteousness almost 
divine, and this never left him even in his old age. At the 
conference in the seminary— at the social prayer-meeting— in 
the pulpit, when he raised his spectacles from his eyes, and be- 
came warmed with his subject, his face lighted up with divinity, 
and he was at such times the most eloquent of men. 

For many years he was disabled from walking without 



35^ HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

crutches ; and during that time he received his classes in his 
study, and heard them recite while he was on liis couch. 

Dr. Hodge was a very close student and a fine scholar; and 
probably his lameness which kept him on his couch so long, 
saved him from interruptions in study, which enabled him to 
accomplish more labor with his pen than he otherwise could 
have done. 

As a Professor, Dr. Hodge was without a superior, if not 
without an equal. For years and years his lectures on Theol- 
ogy were the great attraction of the seminary lecture-rooms. 
They were so transparent — so lucid that none could fail to 
understand and appreciate them. It is not difficult to see 
how this was so, when it is remembered that those lectures 
contained his Systematic Theology, which a few years before 
his death was published, and has been so highly extolled by 
the Christian Church, especially by those denominations which 
uphold the Calvinistic system. All who admire Turretin — all 
who admire Augustine — cannot fail to approve and commend 
the Systematic Theology of Dr. Hodge ; because while he does 
not profess to teach any new doctrine, he does display great 
learning in treating modern sentiments and theories which are 
antagonistic to the Princeton school ; and his keen analysis of 
every new and adverse philosophy which sets itself against the 
old school teaching, shows that he was a giant in theological 
warfare. 

As an author. Dr. Hodge stands in the front rank. His 
Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans, published in 1835, 
gave him his first reputation as an author, at home and abroad. 
So his Commentaries on the Epistles to the Corinthians, and 
to the Ephesians, and his " Way of Life," one of the most ex- 
cellent and widely read little books ever published by a Prince- 
ton author, are of that character that will perpetuate themselves 
among Bible readers of all denominations. His " Constitu- 
tional History of the Presbyterian Church," in 1839, ^^'^^ "^ '^^^- 
uable contribution to the church ; and his last great work — his 
"Systematic Theology," in three volumes, has placed him 
among the great theologians of all ages. 

Dr. Hodge's semi-centennial anniversary, in the year 1872 — 
being the fiftieth year of his connection as a professor with the 



THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY-DR. HODGE. 35/ 

seminary, was celebrated in Princeton by the alumni and 
friends of the institution, with great interest and enthusiasm, 
greater than the semi-centennial celebration of the seminary 
itself called out, though that was very great. Dr. Hodge's 
Systematic Theology was the salient point in this celebration. 
Ministers and ecclesiastical bodies, whose voice was heard on 
the occasion, all bore commendatory testimonials of this great 
work. The stamp of immortality was impressed not only upon 
Dr. Hodge, but upon Princeton Seminary — the seat where that 
theology is taught. 

But Dr. Hodge was distinguished in another field — and one 
which did more to make him what he was, than any other. 
Had he confined himiself to teaching his classes in the semi- 
nary, and writing religious books and commentaries on the 
Bible, he never would have acquired the acumen and power of 
analysis, and that vigor of the pen, which he has displayed. It 
was his connection with the Repertory and Princeton Review for 
forty years, which aroused his energy, and impelled him to in- 
cessant labor and study. The responsibility of being editor of 
a Quarterly, which assumed to discuss and review the profound 
questions which during the last fifty years have arisen in the 
church ; the learning and investigation required of him who 
would appear as the defender of the old-school divinity, as 
taught at Princeton — and as the defender of the polity of the 
Presbyterian Church — besides enlightening the public by dis- 
cussing many grave and perplexing questions in science and 
sociology — demanded a constant and soul-absorbing devotion 
to such an engine of influence and power. 

Dr. Hodge was an admirable reviewer, and he made this 
Quarterly one of the most solid and valuable Reviews that was 
published in its day. Of the forty volumes of this review. Dr. 
Hodge is said to have written one-third of their contents; and 
if his work could be seen compiled in solid, it would exhibit his 
learning and power beyond all conception of it, in its present 
form, and would surpass all other monuments of his industry 
and greatness. 

As a preacher, Dr. Hodge was, to the enlightened Christian, 
one of the best and most edifying in Princeton, but his manner 
was generally unemotional. He almost always read closely; 



358 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

his sermons were logical and instructive, but he was not a pop- 
ular speaker. Had he thrown away his notes, and trusted to 
the inspiration of the moment, as he did sometimes on less 
public occasions, he would have been a most captivating 
preacher. 

For seventy years Dr. Hodge lived in Princeton. He is 
justly claimed as a Princeton man. Princeton is proud of his 
name and fame. He stands prominent in the front rank of her 
great men. His life was prolonged, after the death of Dr. Al- 
exander and Dr. Miller, over twenty-five years. He survived 
his warm friends, the younger Alexanders, Breckinridge, and 
Dod. He came to the end of his useful life, witliout leaving any 
of his work unfinished. He was fully ripe. Heaven was rad- 
iant on his brow. He ascended greeted with an angelic shout, 
" Well done, good and faithful servant." He died very gently 
and gradually on the 19th day of June, 1878, during the week 
of the college Commencement, and his death cast a gloom 
over the festivities of the day. He died in the house where he 
had lived all his married life. He was buried in the Princeton 
cemetery. His funeral was very largely attended by the clergy 
and others, and all mourned that they should see his radiant 
face no more. Another great light had gone out in Princeton. 
Another pillar of the seminary had fallen. 

Dr. Hodge was tender and happy in his domestic relations. 
He was married in his youth to Miss Sarah Bache, of Philadel- 
phia, a descendant of Dr. Benjamin Franklin — a woman of 
much personal attraction. They had eiglit children — five 
sons : Archibald Alexander, the present successor of his father ; 
Caspar Wistar, who has for several years been a professor in 
the seminary ; Charles, a physician in Trenton, who died a few 
years ago; John, who lives at South Amboy, in this State, and 
Frank, a minister at Wilkesbarre. The daughters were, Mary 
(Mrs. Dr. W. M. Scott), Catharine (Mrs. Dr. McGill), Sarah 
(Mrs. S. W. Stockton). 

Mrs. Hodge died in. 1848, and Dr. Hodge was married again 
to Mrs. Lieut. Samuel \V. Stockton, who was Mary Hunter, a 
daughter of Rev. Andrew Jiunter, D. D. Dr. Hodge was very 
happy in his wives and children, and his home was dear 
to him. 




(/, ( C . L ( ^c I n u/frc 



THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY— DR. ADDISOM ALEXANDER. Hg 

IV. Rev. Joseph Addison Alexander, D. D. 

In 1835, the General Assembly elected J. Addison Alexan- 
der, A. M., of Princeton, to be " Associate Professor of Orien- 
tal and Biblical Literature," in the Theological Seminary at 
Princeton. Though he did not accept the appointment at the 
time — preferring to be an instructor in that department for the 
present, he was, in 1838, formally inducted into that chair as 
professor. We notice him as the fourth professor in the semi- 
nary, because he was so long connected with the three preced- 
ing professors in the faculty, and is especially entitled to be 
classed with them in this connection. From 1835 ^'^^ ^^^s la- 
boring in the service of the seminary, with Dr. Alexander and 
Dr. Miller till their death, and with Dr. Hodge till his own 
death, h\ i860. 

Joseph Addison Alexander was the third son of the Rev. 
Dr. Archibald Alexander, whom we have noticed as the first 
professor in the Princeton Seminary, and was born in Phil- 
adelphia on the 24th of April, 1809. We need not here refer 
to his honorable parentage, and to the advantages he enjoyed 
in his father's house. The history and life of Addison Alex- 
ander may be found in two volumes written and published by 
his nephew, the Rev. Henry C. Alexander. It is impossible 
here to give an adequate and just idea of this very remarkable 
man. We have casually remarked in the preceding volume 
that he was a rare prodigy in literary acquirements and ]3iblical 
lore — a genius of the first magnitude — a preacher who always 
preached to crowded houses — a man unlike any other man who 
ever lived. 

We feel utterly unable to describe him. His precocity was 
wonderful. His facility in acquiring knowledge, especially a 
knowledge of the languages, was unprecedented ; it would have 
been incredible, had he not, in his professorial chair, and in his 
multiplied volumes and publications, demonsti-ated the extent 
of his attainments in this .line. It seemed to be but child's play 
for him to master a foreign tongue. 

His biographer, Vol. II., page 862, enumerates the lan- 
guages which he learned in his earlier years, viz.: 



360 HISTORY OF PRI.VCETON'. 

1. Araric : of which he was a consummate master from a child, and wrote with 
some ease, but which he could scarcely be said to speak. 

2. Hebrew : ditto. 

3. Latin : which he knew profoundly from a child, and wrote and spoke. 

4. Persian: which he knew intimately from a child and wrote but did not 
speak. 

5. Syriac : which he knew intimately from a child, perhaps wrote, but did not 
speak. 

6. Chaldee : which he knew as well, or nearly as well, as he did Hebrew, and 
read with rapidity without a lexicon. 

7. Greek : which he knew profoundly from a cliild, and wrote but did not 
speak. 

8. Italian : which he read with the same facility he did English, and spoke. 
g. German : which he knew jirofoundly from his youth, and wrote and spoke. 
10. Si'.'VNiSU : which lie knew thoroughly, and jjrobably wrote and spoke. 

ir. French: which he read, wrote and spoke with ea^e. 

12. English : which he knew no less profoundly than familiarly. 

13. Ethioimc : which he knew philoiogically and profoundly, and could read 
without difficulty. 

14. Chinese: of wiiich, in its innumerable details, he had but a smattering, 
but knew pretty well philologically. 

15. ROM.'VIC : which he read and wrote with ease. 

16. Portuguese : which he read with case, but perhaps did not attempt to 
speak. 

17. Danism : which he says he soon " read fluently with a dictionary." 

18. Turkish ; and 19, Sanscrit : which, soon after acquiring them, he said 
were becoming quite familiar, and doubtless became more so. 

20. Polish : which he read with ease, though probaldy with the use of the lex- 
icon. 

21. Malay : which he began in connection with Chinese, and read i^robably 
with a dictionary. 

22. Coptic : which he knew philologically and I think profoundly, and read, 
though not with ease. 

23. Swedish : which he read with ease, at least with the dictionary. 

24. Dutch : which he read perhaps with ease, and probably without a diction- 
ary, and perhaps learned to speak. 

He, no doubt, had nn inkling of the nature and a glimpse of the structure of 
many others, which he has not named, and knew part of the vocabularies of others. 

Dr. Addison Alexander was graduated at Nassau Hall, in 
[826, and spoke the valedictory, having shared the first honor 
with McCall and Napton. He was then seventeen years old. 
Three years after that he became a teacher in the high-school 
at Edgehill, under Profe.ssor Patton, and he resided with the 
fiimily at the school. While there he assisted Prof. Patton in 
editing Donnegan's Greek Lexicon. 

In 1830, he was elected Adjunct Professor of Ancient Lan- 



r%^' 



THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY— DR. ADDISON ALEXANDER. 36 1 

guages and Literature in the college. He took up his abode 
within the college walls, and continued there two years and 
upwards. While he was at Edgehill he experienced a change 
in his religious feelings, and now he had a desire to enter the 
ministry. He began to teach in the seminary in 1835, and was 
licensed in 1838, and was inaugurated Professor September 
24th of that year — and ordained sine titulo, April 24th, 1839, 
by the Presbytery of New Brunswick. The degree of Doctor 
of Divinity was conferred on him by Rutgers College. 

Dr. Alexander made several trips to Europe, When a 
young man he pursued his studies for about two years at the 
Universities of Halle and at Berlin. In iS5i,he published his 
" Psalms Translated and Explained," in three volumes. In 
1857, "The Acts of the Apostles Explained," in one volume. 
These, with his " Commentaries on Isaiah," and his " Essays 
on Church Offices," were published during his life; and a vol- 
ume of Sermons, and his Notes on the Gospel of Matthew were 
published after his death. He also wrote forty-one articles for 
the Princeton Review. He wrote incessantly ; and wrote some 
fine poetry. 

Dr. Addison Alexander shunned society. He took an in- 
terest in little children, but never in young ladies. He seemed 
as much as possible to desire no intercourse with any class of 
persons, unless absolute duty required it. He was not a mis- 
anthropist, but he was a student who desired to be let alone. 
He was full of humor and kindness at home. He never mar- 
ried. He was short and stout, but very intellectual in appear- 
ance — very striking in his physiognomy. His appearance in- 
dicated that he was no ordinary man. . 

In the summer of 1859, ^^'^ health began to fail. His 
brother James had just died, and its effect was depressing upon 
Addison, who had neglected the rules of health all his life. 
He ran down rapidly, and died January 28th, i860, in the old 
Alexander house, in Princeton, in the fifty-second year of his 
age, in the midst of his years. He was buried in the cemetery 
by the side of his parents and brother, with profound public 
respect and amidst universal lamentations. 

No person better knew Dr, Addison Alexander than his 
colleague, the late Dr, Charles Hodge, and we shall take leave 



3^2 HISTORY OF PRINCETOM. 

of him by inserting what Dr. Hodge said of him in a discourse 
preached on reopening the Seminary Chapel, in 1874. It is as 
follows : 

I believe that I was rash enout^h to say on the floor of the General Assembly 
of i860, that I thought Dr. Addison Alexander tiie greatest man whom I had ever 
seen. This was unwise ; both because there are so many different kinds of great- 
ness, and because I was no competent judge. I feel free to say now, however, that 
I never saw a man who so constantly impressed me with a sense of his mental 
superiority — with his power to acquire knowledge and his power to communicate it. 
He seemed able to learn anything and to teach anything he pleased. And what- 
ever he did, was done with such ajjparent ease as to make the impression that there 
was in him a reserve of strength which was never called into exercise. 'l"he rapid- 
ity with which he accomplished his work was marvellous. The second volume of 
his Commentary on Isaiah, a closely printed octavo volume of five hundred pages, 
with all its erudition, was written, as I understand, during one summer vacation, 
which he passed in the city of New York. Few literary achievements can be com- 
pared to that. 

He had two marked peculiarities. One was that although he had apparently 
the power to master any subject, he could not do what he did not like. Jjeing in 
his youth very precocious, and very much devoted to intellectual pursuits, he needed 
neither e.xcitement nor guidance. He was, therefore, allowed to pass from one 
subject to another at pleasure. A habit of mind was thus induced which rendered 
it almost impossible to iixhis attention on subjects which were disagreeable to him. 
• There were consequently some departments of knowdedge of which he was purposely 
ignorant. This was true of psychology, or mental philosophy. I never knew him 
to read a book on that subject. He never would converse about it. If, when 
reading a book, he came across any philosophical discussion, he Mould turn over 
the leaves until he found more congenial maiter. When Dr. Schaff's work on The 
Apostolic Age came out, he was greatly delighted with it. The theory of historical 
development which it broached, he took no notice of. He did not even know it 
was there. When, therefore, he reviewed the book, he never adverted to one of its 
most marked characteristics. The same thing was true, in good measure, of natu- 
ral science, to which he devoted veiy little attention. It was specially true of physi- 
ology and hygiene. It would be hard to find an educated man more profoundly 
ignorant of the structure of the human body or of the functions of its organs. Hence 
he was constantly violating the laws of health. He was a whole year seriously ill 
without knowing it ; and only two or three days before his death, he said to me, 
" Don't look so sad, I'm as well as you are." 

The other peculiarity referred to was his impatience of routine. He could not 
bear to go over and over the same ground, or to attend long to any one subject. 
Hence he was constantly changing his subjects of study and methods of instruction. 
He would begin to write a book, get it half done, and then throw it aside. Or, he 
would begin to write on one plan, and then change it for another. He occupied 
three different chairs in this seminary. He first had the Old Testament depart- 
ment ; then Ecclesiastical History ; then the Language and Literature of the New 
Testament. The friends of the seminary cared little what he did, for whatever he 
undertook he was sure to do so grandly that every one would be more than satisfied. 



THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY— DR. ADDISON ALEXANDER. 363 

As he advanced in life these peculiarilies became less a]:)parent. lie was constant- 
ly getting his powers more under liis own control. At the time of his death we flat- 
tered ourselves that he had before him twenty or thirty years for steady work. Then 
suddenly our great treasure ship went down — disappearing under the waves — a 
dead loss — leaving us, as we then felt, utterly bankrupt. 

The departments in which he took the most interest were languages, literature, 
history, and above all, the Bible. His earliest reputation was as a linguist. It was 
known that he had wilhout, any instruction made himself so familiar wiih Arabic 
that he had read the Koran through before he was fourteen. In the same way he 
learned Persic, and while but a lad delighted in reading the Persian poets. He 
then learned Hebrew, Chaldee and Syriac. He kept up his familiarity with the 
Creek and Latin classics through life. He read all the modern languages of Eu- 
rope, unless the Sclavonic dialects be excepted. His object in these studies was 
not simply the vocabulary and grammar of these languages, but their mutual rela- 
tions, and specially the literary treasures which they contained. He was specially 
master of his own tongue. He had read all the leading Knglish authors of every 
age. His style was a model of precision, perspicuity, felicity of expression, purity 
and force. His command of language did not seem to have any limit. He could 
speak in correct and polished English as easily as he could breathe. Extempore 
speaking is an every day matter. But I have known Dr. Addison to come into this 
chapel, without having committed or written his sermon, and read it off from blank 
paper from beginning to end without hesitation or correction. He was constantly 
doing such things, which made those around him think he could do whatever he 
pleased. 

As to his qualifications as a theological professor, the first in importance was 
his sincere and humble piety. Religion, however, even when genuine, assumes dif- 
ferent forms in different persons. Some men it impels to live before the public as 
well as for the public. In others it leads rather to self-culture and intercourse with 
God. Dr. Addison's life was in a great measure hidden. He never ajipeared in 
church courts or in religious conventions. But although he lived very much by 
himself, he did not live for himself. All his powers were devoted to the .service of 
Christ, as writer, teacher and minister of the gospel. His temper was naturally 
irritable ; but if it ever got the better of him in the class-room, the next prayer he 
oflered in the oratory was sure to manifest how sincerely he repented. The stu- 
dents, on leaving the prayer-room, would sometimes ask each other, What has Dr. 
Addison been doing for which he is so sorry? 

Thd second great qualification for his ofiTice was his firm faith in the Bible and 
his reverence for it as the word of God. He believed in it just as he believed in 
the solar system. He could not help believing. He saw so clearly its grandeur as 
a whole, and the harmonious nature of its several parts, that he could no more be- 
lieve the Bible to be a human production than he could believe that man made the 
planets. He never seemed to have any doubts or difficulty on the suliject. Al- 
though perfectly familiar with the writings of the German rationalists and sceptics 
from Ernesti to Baur and Strauss, they affected him no more than the eagle is af- 
fected by the dew ou his plumage as he soars near the sun. The man who studies 
the Bible as he studied it, in the organic relation of its several parts, comes to see 
that it can no more be a collection of the independent writings of uninspired men, 
than the human body is a hap-hazard combination of limbs and organs. It was in 
this light that he presented it to his students, who were accustomed to say that he 



3^4 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

glorified the Bible to them, that is, he enal^led them to see its glory, and thus con- 
firmed their faith and increased their reverence. 

Another of his distinguishing gifts as a professor was his ability as a teacher. 
The clearness, rapidity and force with which he comnuinicated his ideas aroused 
and sustained attention ; and the precision and variety of his questions, in the sub- 
sequent catechetical exercise on the subject of the lecture, drew out from tlie student 
everything he knew, and made him understand himself and the matter in hand. 
Students from all the classes often crowded his lecture-room, which they left draw- 
ing a long breath as a relief from overstrained attention, but with their minds ex- 
panded and invigorated. 

As a preacher, his sermons were always instructive and often magnificent. He 
would draw from a passage of Scripture more than you ever imagined it contained ■ 
show how many rays concentrated at that point ; and how the truth there presented 
was related to the other great truths of the Bible. This was not so much an exhi- 
bition of the philosophical or logical relation of the doctrine in hand with other 
doctrines, as showing the place which the truth or fact in hand held in the great 
scheme of Scripture revelation. Thus in his sermon on the words of Paul to the 
Jews at Rome, " Be it known unto you, that the Gospel of God is sent unto the 
Gentiles, and they will hear it ;" he showed that every thing Moses and the Proph- 
ets had taught culminated in the proclamation of the religion of the Bible as the 
• religion of the world. At times he gave his imagination full play; and then he 
would rise in spiral curves, higher and higher, till lost to sight, leaving his hearers 
gazing up into heaven, of which they felt they then saw more than they had ever 
seen before. These three men. Dr. Archibald Alexander, Dr. Samuel Miller, and 
Dr. Addison Alexander are our galaxy. They are like the three stars in the belt of 
Orion, still shining upon us from on high. Their lustre can never be dimmed by 
the exhalations of the earth. 

V. Rev. John Breckinridge, D. D. 

John Breckinridge was a son of the Hon. John Breckinridge, 
Senator and Attorney-General of the United States, under the 
administration of President Jefferson. He was born at Cabell's 
Dale, in Kentucky, on the 4th of July, 1797. The family had 
been Presbyterian from the time of the Reformation, and, du- 
ring the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell, removed from Scot- 
land to the north of Ireland, whence they emigrated to Penn- 
sylvania, and subsequently removed to Virginia, and finally to 
Kentucky. He was sent to Princeton College with a view of 
being trained for the bar ; he was graduated in 1S18— having 
entered in 18 14, the year of the revival. Instead of the law, 
he studied theology, in the seminary at Princeton, while em- 
ployed as tutor in college. He was licensed to preach in 1822, 
by the Presbytery of New Brunswick, while a member of the 
Princeton church. He had intended to go as a missionary to 




/z.^o ^^"^ c^'^^ '^^^ ^^ - ^7 



• V- 



THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY— DR. BRECKINRIDGE. 365 

a foreign field, but pending the preparation for such mission, 
he was offered the chaplaincy to Congress, which he accepted. 

On the 23d of January, 1823, he was married to Miss Mar- 
garet Miller, the eldest daughter of Dr. Samuel Miller, who had 
pledged herself to go with him wherever the providence of God 
should direct. He accepted a call to a Presbyterian church in 
Lexington, Kentucky; and in 1826 he was installed pastor of 
the Second Presbyterian church in Baltimore. In 1831, he was 
elected Corresponding Secretary of the Presbyterian Board of 
Education ; and he labored with great success in building up 
that board. His presentation of the subject drew crowds of 
people to hear him ; and it has been written that " no preacher 
ever before or since had such a controlling influence upon the 
American people." 

In 1S32, he entered into a controversy with the Rev. John 
Hughes, a Roman Catholic clergj-man of much ability. The 
debate and discussion formed a volume, which was published 
shortly after. 

In 1835, the General Assembly elected him Professor of 
Pastoral Theology in Princeton Seminary ; and Union College 
conferred on him the degree of Doctor of Divinity. He now 
resigned the Secretaryship of the lioard, having accomplished 
his work very successfully. 

He was inaugurated Professor on the 5th of next May, and 
divided his time between his official duties and an agency to 
raise funds for the better endowment of the seminary. Dr. 
Hodge said that Dr. Breckinridge and Dr. James Ale.xander did 
not belong to the seminary, but were lent to it. After eighteen 
months in Princeton he labored for the Board of Foreign Mis- 
sions, and resigned his professorship. His wife's health failed, 
and she died in Princeton, June i6th, 1838. In 1S39, he re- 
ceived a call to the First Presbyterian church in New Orleans. 
He did not accept it — but supplied the pulpit for a winter. In 
the year 1840, he was married to Miss Mary Ann Babcock, 
daughter of Col. Babcock, of Stonington, Connecticut. His 
health failed, and he died at his mother's, in Kentucky, August 
4th, 1 841, in the 45th year of his age. 

Dr. Breckinridge was well fitted for the chair of Pastoral 
Theology, and was able to magnetize the students with a 



3^6 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

heroic devotion to the Gospel ministry. He Is remembered for 
his warm and genial nature — for his personal courage and cler- 
ical dignity— for his self-sacrificing piety, and gentle nobility of 
heart. He was tall and fine-looking, spirited yet courteous. 
He was a leader of the church in its conflicts. He was proud 
of calling himself a Kentuckian, and Dr. Hodge said "that his 
State had as much reason to be proud of him as he was of his 
State.'' He made everybody his friend whom he met. As a 
preacher, he was unequal, but as a general thing, always 
speaking without notes, he was eloquent, and carried his audi- 
ence captive at his will. 

He was a brother of the late Rev. Drs. William L. Breckin- 
ridge, and Robert J. Breckinridge, of Kentucky, famous in the 
church and in the country. 

He left surviving him, three children by his first wife, Mar- 
garet Miller, viz. ; the Hon. Samuel M. Breckinridge, of St. 
Louis ; Mary (Polly), who was married to the late Col. Peter 
A. Porter, of Niagara P'alls, and is deceased, leaving one son, 
Peter Porter ; and Margaret, who has been prominently men- 
tioned in connection with the late civil war, and who died un- 
married, in 1864. By his second wife, who is now living at 
Stonington, Connecticut, he had one child, Agatha Breckin- 
ridge, still living with her mother. 

Dr. Breckinridge's publications were but few — a few articles 
for the Princeton Rcviexv ; his Debate with Bishop Hughes, 
and a Memoir of his deceased wife. 



VI. Rev. James W. Alexander, D. D. 

James Waddel Alexander, the eldest son of Rev. Dr. Ar- 
chibald Alexander, was born in Virginia, on the 13th of March, 
1804, his father then being president of Hampden Sidney ■Col- 
lege. In 1812, he came with his father's family from Philadel- 
phia to Princeton, and received instruction in the Princeton 
Academy, successively under masters Fyler.Carnahan, Comfort, 
Hamilton, and private tutors. He entered freshman in college 
in the spring of 1817, being thirteen years of age. He had 
among his classmates young men who became distinguished, 



THEOLOGICAL SEMLNARY—DR. J AS. ALEXAiVDER. 367 

such as Governor Crawford of Georgia, President Finley, of the 
College of South Carolina, Chancellor Green of New Jersey, Dr. 
Edward N. Kirk of Boston, and others. He graduated in 1820 ; 
and in 1821 he made a public profession of religion b)- joining 
the Presbyterian Church in Princeton — having experienced a 
change of heart, which led to a reformation of life. In 1822, 
he entered the Theological Seminary as a student, and also 
was employed as tutor in college. He was licensed on the 4th 
of October, 1825, and in 1827 he was installed pastor of the 
Charlotte Court House church, in Virginia, but the climate 
there compelled him to return to Princeton in 1828. He then 
became pastor of the Presbyterian church at Trenton, N. J., 
and remained there till the close of 1832. This was to him a 
pleasant pastorate, and he was greatly beloved by his people. 
His health was always delicate. In 1833, he accepted the Pro- 
fessorship of Rhetoric and Belles-Lettres in Princeton College, 
and this chair he occupied till 1844. Here he was surrounded 
by the seminary professors, and with Professors Maclean, Dod, 
Henry, Carnahan, Topping, Torrey, Hart, S. Alexander, and 
others. Everything in his circumstances favored his intellect- 
ual and social enjoyment. 

Dr. Alexander preached and wrote without intermission 
when he had strength to do so. Fie preached in the college 
chapel, in the Witherspoon Street church for the colored peo- 
ple, and frequently for Dr. Rice and in neighboring churches 
when called upon. He wrote for the Repertory, and for the 
Sunday School Union, and for the Presbyterian. He gave to 
the public volume after volume for Sunday schools ; and such 
books as " The American Mechanic ;" " Good, Better, Best," 
which was reprinted in London ; " The Scripture Guide," were 
early published by him. He always delighted in pastoral 
duties. 

In 1844, his health having become improved, he accepted a 
call from the Duane Street Presbyterian church in New York. 
Here a field was opened to him which he filled most acceptably. 
His soul groaned under the pressure of the varied circumstances 
that surrounded him and appealed to him to raise his voice for 
the neglected classes and objects of misery in that great city. 
His tender humanity was touched by the many phases of city 



368 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

life ; and Dr. Alexander was so laden with piety, learning, 
and eloquence, as to be able to take his stand in the fore- 
most rank as a preacher and Christian leader. He remained in 
this important andjaborious field till 1849. During this period 
he published " A Manual of Devotion for Soldiers and Sailors ;" 
" Prayers and Hymns, etc., for the Blind ;" " Frank Harper, or 
the Country Boy in Town ;" " Thoughts on Family Worship." 
His pen was never unemployed; his time never wasted. As 
was anticipated, his health demanded a change and relief for 
him. 

Dr. Miller having been relieved from the duties of the chair 
of Ecclesiastical History and Church Government in the Semi- 
nary at Princeton, the General Assembly elected Dr. James \V. 
Alexander to succeed him in that chair ; and he accepted the 
appointment, though with hesitation, and was inaugurated in 
1849, ^'''^^ removed to Princeton. 

The change from his city pastorate to the sedentary position 
in a seminary professorsliip was great, and he wrote to a friend, 
" I foresaw the evils I begin to feel : but they distress me more 
than I reckoned for. I miss my old women ; and especially 
my weekly catechumens, my sick rooms, my rapid walks, my 
nights of downright fatigue." He served the seminary to the 
close of April, 1851, and then took a voyage to Europe. He 
resigned his professorship in the seminary and returned to his 
former congregation in New York, which had now decided to 
build a new church edifice up town in Fifth Avenue, on condi- 
tion that Dr. Alexander would return to the pastorate. He 
did so ; and in less than a month after it was opened, all the 
pews were rented, and the cost of the building and grouiid, 
over $100,000, was paid for. He introduced tlic old practice of 
congregational singing, by the employment of a precentor, 
standing near the pulpit, aided only by the organ. He pub- 
lished *• Plain Words to a Young Communicant," " The Mer- 
chant's Clerk," " The American Sunday School Union," " Con- 
solations." He also published, in 1854, the liiography of his 
father, and in 1858, " Discourses on Common Topics of Chris- 
tian Faith and Practice." 

Dr. Alexander was a regular and constant contributor to 
the Princeton Repertory and Revieiv, from 1S30 to 1859. ^'^" 



8^r 



THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY— DR. J AS. ALEXANDER. 369 

deed he began to write for it when it was first issued. He 
wrote one hundred and one articles for it — more than any other 
person except Dr. Hodge, the editor; and they were of the 
highest character for versatility of learning and genius. As a 
finished and elegant writer, Dr. James W. Alexander hardly 
had an equal. His high scholarly culture and extraordinauy 
intellect were stamped on everything which came from his 
pen, or was heaid from his lips. His sermons were rare for 
their high finish and scholarly preparation, j^et they were direct, 
pungent, and persuasive. He was the most popular and at- 
tractive as a preacher, of all the Alexanders, and tliat is saying 
very much. His prayers were so full of unction, and so com- 
prehensive, and were offered in such a solemn, earnest, plain- 
tive tone, that they excited in tlie hearts of his hearers the. 
highest devotion. He read his sermons, but Vsath no restraint. 
No one ever objected to hear Dr. James W. Alexander preach 
because he preached written sermons. He was handsome in 
person — of ordinary size, and eminently clerical in dress and 
manner. 

His presence at th.e seminary, lii:e that of Dr. Breckinridge, 
was of great value to the studeiUs. But the chair was not the 
place for him, though he could fill it admirably. His heari 
yearned for pastoral work — for contact with the world — for the 
delightful work of bringing the Gospel to bear on the ills (^{ 
life. He was a more practical man than his brother; yet not 
so simple, and original as his father. But comparisons may be 
spared ; for each had a throne of his own. They were all re- 
markable and rare men, in talent, in culture, in piety, and in 
liistory ; and they have contributed more to the literature of 
Princeton than any other fami]}'. 

In 1857, his health again failed, and he made a second voy- 
age to Europe witli his family — absent for about thice months. 
In the )'car 1859 he "'•^'•'^s so unwell as to be scarce!}- able to bear 
the journey to the Red Sv/eet Springs of Virginia, but he un- 
dertook it. and after being there about a month, lie died, on 
Sabbath, July 31, 1859. >Ie was buried in ]^rinceton, by the 
side of his parents, on the 3d of August, froni tiic l^rst Church. 
Dr. Hodge preached his mcmori;il sermon, and numerous mem- 
bers and officers of his church in New York attended liis inter- 



370 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

ment, and mingled their tears with those of his f:imily and 

friends. 

Dr. Alexander was married June i8th, 1830, to Miss Eliza- 
beth C. Cabell, daughter of George Cabell, M. D., of Virginia, 
and she and her three children, Henry C, James, and William 
Alexander, who survived their father, are still living. Two or 
more of their children died in infancy. The eldest son, the 
Rev. Henry C. Alexander, D. D., is Professor in the Union 
Theological Seminary in Virginia, and the other two sons are in 
business in New York. 

There has been no biography of Dr. James W. Alexander 
written except (what may be regarded such) two volumes of 
his letters, addres. ed to his friend. Rev. Dr. John Hall, of Tren- 
ton, published since his death, entitled " Forty Years' Familiar 
Letters." The correspondence between these two life-long 
friends began in May, 18 19, and continued till Dr. Alexander's 
death, in 1859, just forty years. And as a biography these let- 
ters are worth more than any memoir could be without them. 
That man must be faultless who does not betray in his private 
and confidential correspondence with a tried friend, some un- 
charitable, censorious, disparaging reflections upon his neighbors 
and brethren, which he would not breathe in public. The pub- 
lication of some of these letters in which injurious things were 
said of some persons living — and which showed a vein of 
satire in such a lovely character as that which Dr. Al- 
exander was supposed to have, was at first deeply regretted. 
A cynical rather than a Christian spirit was disclosed now and 
then in the author ; and personal friendship felt wounded by 
the unexpected arrows that were occasionally shot out from 
sacred privacy. But after all that these letters reveal prejudi- 
cial to the writer, the great preponderance of splendid worth— 
of deep personal piety — of versatile learning — of marvellous 
industry — of quickened intellect — of ministerial zeal — of Chris- 
tian liberality — of domestic affection — of linguistic attainments- 
— of pure English — and of the finest culture — exhibited on 
every page of these volumes, more than atones for the sup- 
posed harm done. 

The literary world may be challenged to produce any cor- 
respondence — any familiar letter-writing equal to this. That 



THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY— PRESENT FACULTY. 3/1 

any gentleman could almost daily in every variety of circum- 
stances — in sickness and health — in joy and sorrow — in city and 
country — at home — at sea, or in foreign lands — in pastorates 
and in professorships — snatch his facile pen and dash off such 
classic gems as this correspondence discloses, is wonderful in 
the extreme. Time will add to the fame and worth of these 
letters. The wit and humor — the brilliant sallies of genius — 
the sound and sensible sentiments — the tender commendation, 
and the caustic reproof — which characterize nearly every page, 
will not allow this correspondence or its author to be laid aside 
and forgotten. It is a Memoir of Dr. James W. Alexander, 
and written by himself — without being conscious of it. 

This closes our notice of the six deceased Professors of the 
Princeton Theological Seminary. Mural tablets to their 
memory are being placed in the chapel by the Alumni. 



SECTION V. 
Present Faculty and Officers. 

To be the successors of those eminent professors, who were 
connected with this seminary in its formative state, is no light 
responsibility. The eyes of the church are now withdrawn 
from the dead and nxed upon the living who occupy their va- 
cant chairs. 

There is now in the seminary a greater division of labor and 
a more extended field of study. The present professors and 
students are surrounded with everything profuse and luxurious 
in what is material and helpful. The present Faculty is as 
follows : 

Alexander T. McGill, D.D., LL.D., Professor of Ecclesiastical, Homiletic, 
and Pastoral Theology. 

William Henry Green, D.D., LL.D., Professor of Oriental and Old Testa- 
ment Literature. 

James C. Moffat, D.D., Helena Professor of Church History. 

Caspar Wistar Hodge, D.D., Professor of New Testament Literature and 
Biblical Greek. 

Chaui.es a. Aiken, D.D., Archibald Alexander Professor of Christian Ethics 
and Apologetics. 

AuciUHAi.i) Alexander Hoiv^e, D.D., LL.D., Charles Hodge Professor of 
Exegetical, Didactic and Polemic Theology. 



372 HISTORY OF PRINCETON: 

Tames F. McCurdy A.M., J. C. Green Instructor in Hebrew and other Orien- 
tal Languages. 

HiiNKY W. Smith, Professor of Elocution. 
Rev. William H. Roberts, Librarian. 

The chair of Theology, which has been filled from the first 
year of the seminary with such eminent teachers, is now occu- 
pied by Dr. Archibald A. Hodge, son of Dr. Charles Hodge, 
deceased, and he has experience and reputation in that depart- 
ment of the seminary course of study. 

Church Government is taught by Dr. McGill, who is a High 
Church Presbyterian, teaching what Dr. Miller taught in that 
chair, and has had long experience as a theological professor ; 
and he is admitted", to be familiar with church order and the 
procedure of ecclesiastical courts. 

Professor Green is widely known as a superior Hebrew 
scholar and Orientalist. 

Professor C. Wistar Hodge, a younger son of Dr. Charles 
Hodge, is conceded to be a proficient in New Testament Lit- 
erature. 

Dr. Moffat has been, for many years, a close student of His- 
tory, and has long been known throughout the church as a 
professor in several different institutions, and is well furnished 
by study for his present chair. 

Dr. Aiken, well known as a good linguist, has not yet had 
time to develop the new chair of Christian Ethics and Apol- 
ogetics. 

Professor McCurdy is young, but has the reputation of be- 
ing an excellent teacher of Hebrew and other ancient lan- 
guages. 

These living professors now hold, in great measure, the high 
reputation of the theological seminary in their keeping. 

Board of Trustees. 

Samuel H. Pennington, M.D., President Newark, N. J. 

Lyman H. Atwater, D.D., LL.D., Vice-President Princeton, N. J. 

George Hale, D.D., Secretary Pennington, N. J. 

Jacob D. Vermilye. Esq., Treasurer New York. 

James Lenox, LL.D New York. 

Robert L. Stuart, Esq New York. 

John F. Hageman, Esq Princeton, N. J. 



THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY— BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 373 

Samuel II. Pennington, M. D Newark, N. J. 

Daniel Price, Esq Newark, N. J. 

John Hall, D.D Tienton, N. J. 

Lyman II. Ai water, D.D., LL.D Princeton, N. J. 

Hon. EiJWARD W. ScuDDER Tienton, N. J. 

George Hale, D.D Pennington, N. J. 

Samuel M. Hamill, D.D Lawrenceviile, N.J. 

Robert L. Kennedy, Esq New York. 

Samuel D. Alexander, D.D New York. 

Abraham Gosman, D.D. Lawrenceviile, N. J. 

Jacob D. Vermilye, Esq New York. 

Rev. Matthew Newkirk Philadelphia. 

John D. Wells, D.D , Brooklyn, E.D. N.Y. 

Levi P. Stone, Esq Orange, N. J. 

Caleb S. Green, Esq Trenton, N. J. 

D. M. Halliday, D.D. r, . . Princeton, N. J. 

"William Lichey, Esq New York. 

Charles E. Green, Esq Trenton, N. J. 

Chas. C. Niebl'hr, Assistant Treasurer and Superin- 
tendent of Grounds and Buildings Princeton, N. J. 

The Board of Directors, the real managers of the semi- 
nary, and the immediate representatives of the General Assem_ 
bly, is yearly undergoing a change by election. Usually the 
most prominent ministers and elders are appointed to this 
Board. The officers of the present Board are the Rev. Dr. 
William D. Snodgrass, President ; Rev. Dr. Musgrave, first 
Vice-president ; Rev. Dr. John C. Backus, second Vice-presi- 
dent ; Rev. Dr. W. E. Schenck, Secretary. 

The Stewards were Peter Bogart, Jacob W. Lane, Col. 
Wm. R. Murphy and Daniel Bowne. Of late years the refec- 
tory has been hired out by the year, to make the best arrange- 
ment possible for cheap board. 

There is an Alumni ASSOCIATION of the seminary organ- 
ized, which holds annual meetings at Princeton, when the mem- 
bers renew their devotion to the seminary. The Rev. S. Ire- 
HiEus Prime, D. D., is President, Rev. Dr. W. E. Schenck is Sec- 
retary, and Rev. Wm. Harris is Treasurer. A necrological re- 
port is annually submitted. It has already been stated that 
the number of graduates at the seminary exceeds three thou- 
sand. 



374 HISTORY OF PKINCETOA'. 

SECTION VI. 

Liberal Benefactors. 

The Presbyterian Church contains wealth and liberality. 
The donations made by particular congregations, and by par- 
ticular members of churches, both male and female, for the 
establishment of scholarships and for the permanent endow- 
ment of professorships, indicate the interest felt not only by 
the donors but by the whole church, in the prosperity and use- 
fulness of the seminary. The list of scholarships discloses the 
names of many of che liberal friends of the institution who 
have given money to it. 

Yet there are a few princely benefactors whose gifts have 
placed the seminary almost beyond want. The valuable and 
costly new buildings, the increased number of professors, and 
the assured stability of the endowments, could not have been 
so soon realized by the numerous small contributions made by 
legacies or subscriptions gathered up among the mass of Pres- 
byterians. 

Modesty is the characteristic of genuine liberality, and it is 
especially so with the munificent benefactors of Princeton. We 
hardly dare to name James Lenox, John C. Green, Robert L. 
and Alexander Stuart, ISIrs. George Brown, and Levi P. Stone, 
because they will scarcely allow their names to be published 
when they give from thirty to a hundred thousand dollars at a 
time to the seminary. It is as much as pressure can do to get 
them to allow their names to designate the costly structures 
they erect, or the immense Funds they establish. . 

Without pretending to be accurate, we estimate the gifts 
of James Lenox, R. L. and A. Stuart, and John C. Green, to 
the seminary, in real estate and money, at upwards of half a 
million dollars, and the amounts of the three parts have been 
about equal. Mr. Lenox was one of the earliest and has been 
the most steadfast of the liberal benefactors of this seminary. 
He is still pouring out his treasures upon it. The Messrs. Stu- 
art have come more recently with their great gifts, but their 
love waxes warmer and warmer as they give. 



THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY— LIBERAL BENEFACTORS. 375 

We have no more space to give to this chapter. This short 
history of the Princeton Theological Seminary must suffice. 
Though this institution is the oldest of the kind in the Presby- 
terian Church, it has several rivals competing with it for the 
privilege of educating candidates for the ministry. Princeton 
strong, venerable, endowed, will gladly take all who come to 
her; but she will not envy the prosperity of other seminaries, 
for they are, in a sense, her own offspring. No seminary can 
be more pleasantly and favorably situated for the pursuit of 
theological studies than Princeton. Its rural quiet for study — 
its access to a hundred thousand volumes of books in the sev- 
eral libraries in the place — its availability of college lectures, 
and the advantages cf a large society of eminent men — its am- 
ple provisions for the comfort and culture of students — and the 
prestige of Princeton theology, make it the most attractive of 
all theological schools in this country. 

This Princeton school is eminently conservative — conserva- 
tive of Calvinistic theology — rigidly conservative of the Con- 
fession of Faith and the Westminster Catechism and the doc- 
trines formulated on such a basis, and as now held by the 
General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church of the United 
States of America. It has committed itself to " stand, and hav- 
ing done all to stand.'' " It has no new theories. It is content 
with the faith once delivered to the saints. Its theological 
method is very simple. The Bible is the Word of God. That 
is to be assumed or proved. If granted ; then it follows that 
what the Bible says, God says. That ends the matter." Such 
was the language of Dr. Hodge at his semi-centennial anniver- 
sary, in 1872, when illustrating the teachings of Dr. Alexander 
and Dr. Miller, and he added these words: " I am not afraid 
to say that a new idea never originated in this seminary." * 

Princeton then is eminently the place for those young men 
who are satisfied with what the church has formulated and 
settled as the true doctrine of the Bible, with an assurance of 
infallibility in the human language and thought employed in 
expressing such doctrinal faith. The great majority of the 
Presbyterian Church approve of this position ; and the gifts 
of Lenox Hall and Stuart Hall to the seminary contained 
* Semi-Centennial Commemoration, p. 52. 



37^ HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

limitations based upon, and in accordance with, this principle 
of the Princeton school. 

There is perhaps no seminary or church which, believing 
the Bible to be the Word of God, will not agree with Dr. 
Hodge, that " what the Bible says, God says." But what the 
Bible docs say is just what biblical students have been trying 
to ascertain, and have failed to agree upon, for the last eighteen 
centuries. 

The class of independent and advanced thinkers who believe 
in human progress, in the better understanding of the Bible, 
and in the better use of language, is small in the Presbyterian 
Church, and will not, for many years at least, cause a reaction 
against the conservative school of Princeton. The seminary is 
well anchored therefore in the Calvinistic doctrines — otherwise 
known as the Princeton Theology. Scientific investigations 
of the material universe; archaeological explorations; ethno- 
logical discoveries; new acquisitions in linguistics; and a 
general advance into the domain of physics and metaphys- 
ics, may in the future reveal new truths which will com- 
mand the respect of mankind, and which may necessitate a 
modification of long cherished dogmas in philosophy and 
religion— truths not contradicting but confirming the truths 
of divine revelation, only offering a truer interpretation of the 
inspired oracles — the general result of all which may be re- 
formed creeds and new forms of religious fiaith. Yet the Prince- 
ton School of Theology must stand a bulwark of the old faith 
until every such new theory and speculation shall have been 
tested, and either confirmtid or exploded. It has claimed no 
place in the advance guard of biblicists. Such seems to be the 
attitude of Princeton Theology. 



CHAPTER XXX. 

PRINCETON AUTHORS AND THEIR VOLUMES. 

Princeton has an alcove in the great hbrary of the world, 
filled with her own literature. Her volumes have not been as 
numerous as they have been solid and useful. Her authors 
have a celebrity on both hemispheres. Their books have been 
translated into foreign tongues, and are cited with respect in 
the most learned universities, and by the most erudite scholars 
in all countries. 

In Theology, Edwards, Witherspoon, Alexander, and Hodge 
are honored throughout the Christian world, for their profound 
contributions. 

In Church Government, Dr. Miller for a long time stood 
almost alone. He had the rare mission in the Providence of 
God, of furnishing almost the only literature on the polity of 
the Church during the forming period of our great American 
branch. No man in Princeton drew the attention of Europe as 
early to this seminary— his books being republished in foreign 
presses, and not being superseded in use even to the present 
day. 

In Physics the names of Joseph Henry, Stephen Alexander, 
Arnold Guyot, and Charles A. Young, are honored among the 
savans of Europe for what they have written and done in sci- 
ence. The geographical maps made in Princeton by Prof. 
Guyot are received by Europe and America, as the best in the 
world, and with them the name of Princeton is suspended upon 
the walls of school-rooms in France, Germany, Italy, Turkey, 
Persia, England and America. 

In Metaphysics the volumes of President Edwards, Dr. 
Archibald Alexander, President McCosh, and Rev. John Miller, 
are read with great interest for the profound and original 
thought of their authors— on both sides of the Atlantic. 



378 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

In Commentaries on the Bible, those of Hodge on Romans^ 
Addison Alexander on the Gospels, on Isaiah and on the 
Psalms; John Miller on the Proverbs; rank as high as any 
others that have been written in this country. 

In Religious Literature, in the form of volumes, tracts, 
magazines, reviews, there is a full and pure stream constantly 
flowing from Princeton writers, exerting a widespread influence 

for good. 

In Sermons the volumes of Presidents Davies, Witherspoon, 
Smith, of Addison Alexander, Dr. Kollock, and the " Princeton 
Pulpit," are as edifying and as attractive as any similar publi- 
cations in our libraries. 

In Philosophy the volumes of President McCosh, and Prof. 
Charles W. Shields, of recent publication, do especial honor to 
Princeton. 

Then there is that greatest of all the contributions of Prince- 
ton to literature, which embraces a variety of subjects and has 
been flowing out steadily for over forty years, the Biblical Re- 
pertory and Princeton Reviezv, comprising forty volumes in 
solid. In this Quarterly the brilliant and learned professors of 
the college and seminary, the editor Dr. Hodge, Dr. Miller, the 
three Alexanders of the seminary, Professors Dod, Atwater, 
Hope, Forsyth, Green, Moffat and others, wrote frequently, 
and some of the ablest of them constantly. Without a knowl- 
edge of the contents of this journal it is not possible to appre- 
ciate fully the literary labors and contributions of Princeton 
writers and authors. It is natural and reasonable that educa- 
tional towns should yield the finest fruits of literature, for it 
is here that literary men gather together and labor in study 
and with the pen. 

We propose in this chapter to specify more particularly 
what Princeton has done in literary authorship, by presenting 
in alphabetical order the names of her authors, with a list of 
the books and publications which they have written and caused 
to be published. In those cases where some of the books were 
written either before or after the authors were settled at Prince- 
ton, we shall feel at liberty to give the whole list unbroken, 
especially when the author is clearly identified with Princeton 
in birth, occupation, or reputation. We do not, however, in- 



AUTHORS A A'D THEIR VOLUMES. 379 

elude the names of the ahimni of the institutions as such, with- 
out reference to a more permanent residence here than a col- 
legiate one, unless their books shall have been published here. 
The name of Princeton is more firmly linked to immortality 
in the record exhibited in this chapter, than in any other in 
these volumes. Great men die and may be forgotten, l^attle- 
fields may be lost sight of in the accumulations of ages. The 
cemetery with its marble monuments and tablets may be buried 
beneath the ploughshare ; these grand buildings may not sur- 
vive centuries, but these literary memorials — these volumes 
scattered over all nations — deposited in all libraries — kept in 
use in all ages of the world, will live while the world lasts. 

The List of Authors and their Volumes. 

ItTSV. CHAliLJSS A. AIKJJ.y, I). D. 

Editor and Translator of " Lange's Commentary on the Book of Proverbs." 
In the Princeton Review: 1867, Epicureanism — Dr. SchafTs Church History. 
186S, Whitney on Language. 

HEY. AUCniBAZD ALEXANDER, D. D. 

The following is a complete list of those books and pamphlets of which Dr. 
Alexander can justly be considered as the author : 

A Sermon at the opening of the General Assembly. Philadelphia, i8o3, 

A Discourse occasioned by tlie burning of the Theatre in the City of Richmond, 
Va., on the 26th of December, iSii. Philadelphia, 1812, pp. 28. 

An Inaugural Discourse delivered at Princeton. New York, 1814. 

A Missionary Sermon before the General Assembly. Philadelphia, 1813. 

A Brief Outline of the Evidences of the Christian Religion. Princeton, 1825. 
1 2 mo. 

The Canon of the Old and New Testaments ascertained ; or the Bible com- 
plete without the Apocrypha and Unwritten Traditions. l2mo. 

A Sermon to Young Men, preached in the Chapel of the College of New Jersey. 
1826. 

Suggestions in Vindication of Sunday Schools. Philadelphia, 1829. 

Growth in Grace. Two Sermons in the National Preacher. New York, 1829. 

A Sermon before the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. 
1829. 

A Selection of Hymns, adapted to the Devotions of the Closet, the Family and 
the Social Circle, and containing subjects appropriate to the Monthly Concerts of 
Prayer for the success of Missions and Sunday Schools. New York, 1831. (Seven 
hundred and forty-two hymns.) 

The Pastoral Office. A Sermon preached in Philadelphia, before the Association 
of the Alumni of the Theological Seminary at Princeton, May 21, 1S34. Phil- 
adelphia, 1S34, pp. 30. 



380 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

The Lives of the Patriarclis. American Sunday School Union. 1835. iSnio. 
pp. 168. History of Israel. l2mo. 

The House of God Desirable. A Sermon in tlie Presbyterian Preacher. 1835. 

The People of God led in Unknown Ways. A Sermon preached May 29, 1842, 
in the First Presbyterian Church, Richmond. 1842. 

An Address delivered before the Ahimni Association of Washington College, 
Va., on Commencement Day, June 29, 1S43. Lexington, 1843. 

Biographical Sketches of the Founder and Principal Alumni of tlie Log College ; 
together with an Account of the Revivals of Religion under their Ministry. I'rince- 
ton, 1S45. i2mo. pp. 369. 

A History of Colonization on the Western Coast of Africa. Philadelphia, 1846. 
8vo. pp. 603. 

A History of the Israelitish Nation, from their origin to their dispersion at 
the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans. Phiiadclpliia, 1852. 8vo. pp. 620, 

Outlines of Moral Science. New York, 1852. i2nio. pp. 272. 

Introduction to Matthew Henry's Commentary. 

Introduction to Works of the Rev. William Jay. 

Introduction to Dr. Waterbury's Advice to a Young Christian. 

The following books and tracts, as well as some of those mentioned above, are 
issued by the Presbyterian Board of Publication. 

Practical Sermons ; to be read in Families and Social Meetings. 8vo. 

Letters to the Aged. iSmo. Counsels of the Aged to the Young. iSmo. Uni- 
versalism false and unscriptural. iSmo. A Brief Conipend of Bible Truth. i2mo. 

Divine Guidance ; or the People of God led in Unlcnown Ways. 32mo. 

Tlioughts on Religious Experience. i2mo. The Life of the Rev. Richard Bax- 
ter. (An abridgment.) i8mo. The Life of Andrew Melville. (An abridgment.) 
l8mo. The Life of John Kncjx, the Scottish Reformer. (An abridgment.) iSinu. 

The Way of Salvation, familiarly explained in a Conversation between a P'ather 
and his Children. 32mo. 

To which must be added the following Tracts: The Duty of Catechetical In- 
struction. A Treatise on Justification by Faith. Christ's Gracious Invitation to 
the Weary and Heavy-laden. Ruth the Moabitess. Love to an Unseen Saviour. 
Letters to the Aged. 

A Dialogue between a Presbyterian and a Friend (Quaker). The Amiable 
Youth falling short of Heaven. The Importance of Salvation. Future Punish- 
ment Endless. Justification by Faith. Sinners \Velcome to Jesus Christ. 

The following Tracts have been published by the American Tract Society: 
The Day of Judgment. The Misery of the Lost. 

From 1829 to 1850 Dr. Alexander contributed seventy-eight articles for the 
Princeton Review. 

JtEV. JIENKY C.iRRiyGTOy ALEX.IKOER. 

Life of J. Addison Alexander, D. D 2 vols. 8vo. 1870, 

REV. JAMES WADDEL ALEXANJ)EJt, It. Z>. 

1. Gift to the Afilicted — i vol. 2. Geography of the Bible, 1830. i2mo. Com- 
piled by J. W. and J. A. Alexander. 3. The American Mechanic and W^orkingman's 
Companion — 2 vols. 4. Good, Better, Best ; or Three Ways of Making a Happy 
World. 5. Thoughts on Family Worship. i2mo. 1847. 6. Consolation — i vol. 7. 



AUTHORS AND THEIR VOLUMES. 38 I 

Plain Words to a Young Communicant. i2mo. ; also in Welsh. 8. Memoir of Rev. 
Archibald Alexander, D. D. 8vo. — i vol., 1854. 9. The American Sunday School 
and its Adjuncts. 1856. 10. Discourses on Common Topics of Christian Faith and 
I'ractice — i vol. 1858. ir. A Manual of Devotion for Soldiers and Sailors, etc. 
12. Prayers and Hymns for the Blind. 13. P'orty Years' Familiar Letters with a 
Friend — 2 vols. Edited by Rev. John Hall, D. D., Trenton, N. J. 

To the Biblical Repertory and Princeton Review he contributed between 1830 
and i860, one hundred and one articles. 

lie wrote for the American Tract Society and the Presbyterian Board of Pub- 
lications, and for the Sunday .School Union ; over thirty volumes of juvenile works 
for the latter, some of the best known of which are: Infant Library, Scripture 
Guide, Frank Harper, or the Country Boy in Town ; Carl, the Young Fmigrant. 

He wrote frequently for the religious and secular papers, and was for a time, 
correspondent of the Dundee Warder, of Scotland. 

TtlUV. JOSEVJI ADXHSON AIjLXANDICIt, D. D. 

I. The Earlier Prophecies of Isaiah. 1846. 8vo. 2. The Later Prophecies of 
Isaiah. 1847. 8vo. 3. The Psalms Translated and Explained — 3 vols. l2mo. 1850. 
4. Isaiah Translated and Flxplained (abridgment). 2 vols. l2mo. 1851. 5. Essays 
on the Primitive Church Offices — i vol. 1851, 6. Commentary on the Acts — 2 vols. 
l2mo. 1857. 7. Commentary on Gospel of Mark — l vol. l2mo. 1S58. 8. Com- 
mentary on Gospel of Matthew — i vol. (posthumous). 9. New Testament Litera- 
ture and Ecclesiastical History. 10. Sermons (posthumous) 2 vols. 

Contributions to the Princeton Review from 1829 to i860, ninety-one articles. 

JJJSF. SAMUEL D. ALEXANDER, I). D. 

Princeton College during the Eighteenth Century — i octavo vol. 326 pp. 1872. 

In 1859 he contributed an article for the Princeton Review, on the " Editions 
of the Pilgrim's Progress." He also compiled and edited two volumes of his brother, 
Dr. J. Addison Alexander's Sermons. In 1877 he wrote a sketch of Princeton Col- 
lege, for Scribner's Monthly Illustrated Magazine, which was published in the 
March number. 

COL. VILLI AM C. ALEXANDEIt. 

He edited the Princeton Magazine in 1850. In 1852 he contributed to the 
Princeton Review the articles: "Austria in 1848-9," "Survey of the Great Salt 
Lake of Utah." 

ritOFESSOIt STEPnEK ALEXANDER, XL. D. 

1. Observations of Solar Eclipse of July. 1832, and Longitude of Albany.- 

2. Observations of Annular Eclipse of 1831 and other Astronomical Observa- 
tions, at Berlin, Md. (both of the foregoing were published in the Transactions of 
the Albany Institute). Aurora Borealis of September 3, 1839. 

3. On the Physical Phenomena which accompany Solar Eclipses, Occultations, 
and the Transit of the Inferior Planets. (A Memoir which attracted the speci.il 
notice of Bessel.) Miscellaneous contributions to Astronomical .Science (American 
Philosophical Society Proceedings). 

4. On some Physical Phenomena dependent on the progressive motion of Ligh 
(American Association for Advancement of Science). 

5. On the Fundamental Principles of Mathematics (Silliman's Journal). 



382 HIS rOK Y OF PRINCE TOM. 

6. Observations on the Transit of Mercury, Nov. 6, iS4S( Ast. Nachricliten). On 
the Atmospheric Envelopes of Venus and other Planets (American Association). On 
the Origin of the forms and present state of some of the clusters of Stars and re- 
solvable Nebulx. (Occupying 32 pp. in vol. ii. of Gould's Astronomical Journal.) 

7. On some Special Analogies in the Phenomena presented by the senses of 
Sight and Touch (American Association). 

8. On the Classification and Special Points of Resemblance of certain of the 
Periodic Comets and the probability of a common origin in the case of them 
(Gould's Astronomical Journal, I., 1851). 

9. On the Similarity of Arrangement of the Asteroids and the Comets of that 
period, and the possibility of their common origin (Gould's Astronomical Journal 
(I.. 1858). 

lu. Approximate Elements of the Orbit of Comet IV. of 1S53 — Van Arsdale's 
comet. (Gould's Astronomical Journal.) 

The elements of the orbit of the great comet of 1843 were also computed by 
Prof. Alexander from his own observations, and submitted to the American Philo- 
sophical Society at their centenary meeting. 

11. Suggestions relative to the Observation of Solar Eclipse of May 26, 1854. 
(Gould's Astronomical Journal.) 

12. Resemblance between the Elements of the second Comet of 1855 and those 
of the Comet of 1362 (Gould's Ast. Jour.) [The probability of a rupture of a large 
comet by Mars, at the latter of those dates is considered.] 

13. Observation of Annular Eclipse of May 26, 1854— Ogdensburgh, N.Y. Ibid.) 

14. With Prof Henry; Experiments on the relative Heat of the Spots of the 
Sun and other portions of its surface (Amer. Phil. Society Proceedings). 

15. Observations of the Total Eclipse of the Sun, July 18, i860, in Labrador 
(see Appendix XXI. Observations of the Amer. Coast Survey of that year). Prof. 
Alexander was at the head of the expedition sent out by the Superintendent of the 
Coast Survey. 

16. Oiiservations of various other Eclipses than those already mentioned, viz. : 
Total Eclipse of the Sun at Suter's Ferry, Ga., Nov. 30, 1834 ; at Lebanon, 111., 
Oct. 19, 1865 ; at Ottumwa, Iowa, Aug. 7, 1869 ; at Manchester, N. II., July, 1875 
(prevented by clouds). 

17. A Statement and Exposition of some Special Harmonies of the Solar Sys- 
tem (No. 280 of the Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge [lOO pages]). 

18. On some Special Phenomena of Jupiter's Satellites (Ast. Nachrichten). 

19. Law of Extreme Distances of the Planets from the Sun, and the Analogous 
Laws in the Satellite Systems (Ast. Nachrichten). 

20. Other communications have from time to time been made to the National 
Academy of Sciences by Prof. Alexander ; Contributions to the Princeton Review, 
1S59 ; Ilickok's Rational Cosmology, 1867. A Philosophical Confession of Faith ; 
also an Address on laying corner-stone of the Astronomical Observatory of Prince- 
ton College, 1866. An Oration at Celebration of the Fourth of July, 1863. 

nEV. J.XMAN II. A.TWATEII, D. D. 

The publications of Rev. Lyman H. Atwater, D. D., LL. D., have been mainly 
in quarterly reviews, and commenced in 1834, when he was twenty-one years old, 
with an article in the "American Quarterly Observer," entitled "Slavery in the 
United States." This was followed by others in the " Quarterly Christian Spec- 



AUTHORS AND THEIR VOLUMES. 383 

talor" and in the " Literary and Theological Review," prior to the year 1S40. From 
that year until his removal to Princeton in 1854. in addition to his conlriluitions to 
the " Princeton Review," he wrote occasionally for the " New Englandcr," and the 
" Biblical Repository." 

His fust article for the Princeton Review was entitled "The Power of Contrary 
Choice," and appeared in the volume for 1840. It was afterwards republished in 
the "Princeton Essays," Vol. I. He was then twenty-seven years of age. From 
that time on until his removal to Princeton in 1854, he wrote occasionally for this 
periodical, contributing during this period thirteen articles, which amount to 369 
pages. After taking up his residence in Princeton, as Professor of Mental and 
Moral Philosophy in 1S54, at the earnest desire of its editor, Dr. Hodge, he became 
a constant contributor to this Review, and has published therein since that time, 
niticty-six articles, amounting to 225S pages. He has thus written for this journal 
one hundrt-d ami nine articles, making 2630 pages, exclusive of book notices, the 
majority of which he has prepared during an editorship embracing nearly ten years. 
Selections from his contributions to this and other periodicals form four lai-ge vol- 
umes in the library of Princeton College, entitled " Essays and Reviews," on topics 
Theological, Ecclesiastical, Philosophical, and Sociological. 

By special request of the editor of the " Bibliotheca Sacra," Prof. Park, he wrote 
an article entitled "The Doctrinal Attitude of Old School Presbyterians," which 
appeared in the January number of that journal for 1867. He has written consid- 
erable for monthly, weekly, and daily journals, on Finance and current topics. 
Many of his Review articles have been reprinted in this country and in Europe. 
He published a volume entitled "A Manual of Elementary Logic," in 1S67, which 
is used as a text-book in college. 

A large number of the public discourses delivered by him on different occasions, 
have been published : one a Memorial of Rev. Dr. Macdonald, and one also of 
Rev. Dr. Charles Hodge. 

SAMVJiJ^ HAY Aim. 

Peake's Evidence, with Notes. 8vo. i8ro. Abstract of the Laws of the United 
States. 1834. Letters on tlie Sacraments. 2d Edition. Address in Pjesbyterian 
Church in Princeton, in behalf of the Close Observance of the Lord's Day. 1828. 

SAMUEL J. JiAYAJCI). 

Life of Commodore Robert F. Stockton, with an Appendix. I vol. octavo. 1856. 

Memoir of General George Dashiel Bayard. l2mo. 1S73. 

He edited and wrote for secular papers in various parts of the country, begin- 
ning in Princeton, N. J, 
jtjsr. itoiiERT jiAinn, d. i). 

A resident of Princeton from 1819 to 1830, as student in the seminary, tutor in 
college, teaclier of an academy — agent of the Bible Society, and of the New Jersey 
Missionary Society ; and laboring in behalf of the common school system. He 
wrote many essays and articles in behalf of those objects, especially the latter one, 
which were published. He then became a cosmopolitan — representing the cause 
of Sunday Schools — of Temperance — of Christian Union, throughout Europe and 
America. He always cherished a love for Princeton. 

His principal works were: Religion in America, 1843-57 ; r vol. Visit to 
Northern Europe. 2 vols. 1841. Protestantism in Italy. 1S45-47. History of 



384 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

Temperance Societies. 1S36. The Union of Church and State in New England. 
1837. Several of these were translated into French, German, Swedish, Danish, 
Finn, etc. The last two were never in English. 

In the Princeton Review he puVilished several articles, among which were : 1830, 
American Sunday School Union. 1S32, Valley of the Mississippi. 1836, The 
Reformation of Genoa. 

DAVID A, DOItRlCXSTEIK. 

He was a practical printer, and he printed and published a copy of the New 
Testament Scriptures in German, in Princeton. Also, Saurin's Sermons, 2 vols., in 
1827. 

R1<:V. jrOiry DRECKTy^JtTDOE, D. D. 

Address before the Literary Societies in the New York University. 1836. Ser- 
mon before the Synod of Philadelphia in 1S27. Controversy with Bishop Hughes. 
1836. Memorial of Mrs. Breckinridge. 1S39. In the Princeton Repertory: 1830, 
Claims of Foreign Missions. 1S32, Sprague on Revivals of Religion. 

niSr. AAItON BVIilt, D. D. 

A Latin Grammar. A Treatise entitled " The Supreme Deity of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, maintained in a Letter to the Dedicator of Mr. Emlyn's Inquiry into the 
Scripture Account of Jesus Christ," reprinted in Boston in 1791. 

A Fast Sermon on account of the Encroachments of the French. 1755. A Ser- 
mon preached before the Synod of New York. 1756. A Sermon on the Death of 
Governor Belcher. 1757. 

jcEr. JiEyitT c. CAniEitoy, d. d. 

I. History of American Whig Society. 1872. 2. Articles for Johnson and Ap- 
pleton's Cyclopedia, on College Sketches. 1875. 3. Articles for " Hours at Home." 
4. A series of Classical Maps of Greece, Italy and the Roman Empire, with Prof. 
Guyot. 5. Editions of the Catalogue of Princeton College. 6. Articles in the 
Princeton Review: "Forsyth's Life of Cicero." "The Dean's English vs. the 
Queen's English." 

Also a short sketch of the Battle of Princeton. 1S76. 

JEJBr. JAMES CAHNAHAN, D. D. 

Two articles in the Princeton Review: 1829, General Board of Education and 
the American Educational Society. 1834, Review of John Sergeant's Address. 

Some of his Baccalaureate Sermons were published, and also an Account of the 
Whisky Insurrection (unfinished). 

ItEV. ASA S. COLTON. 

Mr. Colton is an Episcopal clergyman, but vi'ithout charge. He has resided in 
Princeton for about thirty years, and h.is spent the most of his life in teaching the 
higher mathematics, languages, metaphysics and philosophy. He is the author of 
"Successful Missions:" a book for Sunday Schools; "The Common Cause of 
Inefficiency in the Ministry," Pamphlet ; " Decree of God Concerning Murder," 
a sermon. 

He has published over 2000 articles in magazines and newspapers under the 
sign.^ture of A. S. C. and C. S. A. He also contributed to the Princeton Standard 
during the Civil War, through the editorial columns. 



AUTHORS AND THEIR VOLUMES. 385 

His articles in the Princeton Review were: 1831. Ministerial Qualifications; 
Douglas on the Advancement of Society. 1832, German and French Philosophy! 
1S33, Progress of Ethical Philosophy. 1863, Mercer County Teachers' Institute. 
1864, Thoughts of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, 
JtJSV. SAMUEL I) Arms, I). I). 

A Sermon on Man's Primitive State. 1748. 

A Letter to Rev. Joseph Bellamy, On the Slate of Religion among the Pro- 
testant Dissenters in Virginia. 1751. 

A Sermon before the Presbytery of Newcastle. 1752. 

A Sermon preached at the Installation of Rev. John Todd. 1752. 

Religion and Patriotism the Constituents of a Good Soldier; a .Sermon before 
Volunteers. 1755. 

Virginia's Danger and Remedy— the Drought and the Defeat of Braddock. 
1756. Two Discourses. 

Letters on the State of Religion in Virginia, particularly among the Negroes 
1757. 

A Sermon on Vessels of Mercy and Vessels of Wrath. 1757. 

A Sermon on Little Children Invited to Christ. 1757. 

The Curse of Cowardice— Sermon before the Militia of Virginia. 1758. 

Valedictory Discourse to the Senior Class in the College of New Jersey. 1760. 

Sermon on the Death of George II. 1761. 

lie was also the author of important documents of public nature, and various 
hymns and other pieces of poetry of merit. 

A collection of his sermons was published by Drs. Finley and Gibbons, of Lon- 
don, in five vols, octavo ; later edition in four vols, and in three vols. A New 
York edition contained a notice of his Life and Times by Rev. Ali)ert Barnes. 
They are regarded as the most able and eloquent sermons in the English language. 
Dr. John 11. Livingston of the Dutch Church, heard him preach at Princeton, and 
he regarded him without exception, the finest pulpit orator he had ever listened to. 

Riay JOXATjiAN nivKiNsox, n. />. 

Though President Dickinson was not a resident of Princeton, yet as President 
of the college before its removal here, we may note that he published many sermons 
and treatises, chiefly of a theological character, defending vital Calvinistic doctrines 
and the Presbyterian order of government, from 1732 to 1746. His Familiar Let- 
ters to a Gentleman upon Important Subjects in Religion, were published in Edin- 
burgh in 1757. third edition ; and a collection of his other writings was published 
in an octavo volume in 1793. 

liEr. ALItlVItT Ji. J)OI), J). J). 

Contributions to the Princeton Review: 1835, Finney's Sermons- Finney's 
Lectures. 1837, Beecher's Views in Theology. 1838, Missionary Enterprise in 
the .South Sea Islands— Phrenology. 1839, Transcendentalism (Review of Cousin). 
1841, Analytical (;eometry. 1842, Capital Punishment. 1S44, O.xford Architec- 
ture—The Elder Question. 1845, Vestiges of Creation. Al.so a Sermon in the 
" Princeton Puljjit." 

KEV. WILLIAM A. DOT), D. 1). 

Contributions to the Princeton Review: 1855. Church Architecture. 1856. 
Ruskin's Lectures on Architecture and Painting. 



386 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

itvir. aony T. duffijild, d. z>. 

" The Princeton Pulpit," a volume of Sermons by Princeton clergy. 1852. 

"Discourse on the Second Advent." 1S66. 

Contributions to the Princeton Review: 1866, "The Philosophy of Mathe- 
matics." 1S78, " Evolution as it respects Man and ihe Bible." 

In the Evangelical Quarterly Review: 1867, "The Discovery of the Law of 
Gravitation." 

"Historical Discourse Commemorative of the Second Presbyterian Church in 
Princeton." 1876. 

itisr. JoyA-TiiAN icnwAJins, a. d. 

The following were published by himself: God Glorified in Man's Dependence, 
a Sermon. 1731. 

A Divine .Supernatural Light imparted to the Soul by the Spirit of God ; Ser- 
mon. 1734. 

Curse ye Meroz : Sermon. 1735. 

Narrative of God's surprising Work in the Conversion of many hundred Souls 
in Nonhampton. 173S. Five Discourses prefixed to the preceding work. 

Sinners in the Hand of an angry God : a Sermon. 1741. 

Sorrows of the Bereaved spread before Jesus. A Sermon at the funeral of 
Rev. William Williams. 1 741. 

Distinguishing Marks of a Work of the True Spirit in a Sermon. 1741. 

Thoughts on the Revival of Religion in New England. 1740. 

The Watchman's I^uty and Account: a .Sermon, 1743; Ordination of Rev. 
James Judd. 

The True Excellency of a Gospel Minister; Sermon at the Onlination of Rev. 
Robert Abercrombie. 1744. 

A Treatise concerning Religious Affections. 1746. 

An Humble Attempt to promote Explicit Agreement and Visible Union among 
God's People in Extraordinary Prayer. 1746. 

True Saints when absent from the Body present with the Lord ; Sermon 
preached at the Funeral of Rev. David Brainerd. 1747. 

God's Awful Judgments in breaking the Strong Rods of the Community ; a 
Sermon on the Death of Colonel Stoddard. 174S. 

Life and Diary of David Brainerd. 1749. 

Christ the Example of Gospel Ministers. 1749. 

Qualifications for Full Communion in the Visible Church. 1749. 

Farewell Sermon to the People of Northampton. 1750. 

Misrepresentation Corrected and Truth Vindicated ; a Reply to Book on Quali- 
fications for Communion — and Letter to iiis late I'Tock at Northampton. 1752. 

True Faith distinguished from the Experience of Devils ; a Sermon. 1752. 

Inquiry into the Freedom of the Will. 1754. 

The Great Christian Doctrine of Original Sin Defended. 1758. 

Posthumous. — Eighteen Sermons annexed to the Life of Edwards, by Dr. Hop- 
kins. 1765. The History of Redemption. Edinburgh, 1777. The Nature of True 
Virtue. 1788. God's Last End in Creation. Practical Sermons. Edinburgh, 1788. 
Twenty Sermons. Edinburgh, 1789. Miscellaneous Observations on Important The- 
ological Subjects. Edinburgh, 1793. Remarks on Important Theological Controver- 
sies. Edinburgh, 1796. Types of the Messiah, 1829. Notes on the Bible. 1829, 



AUTHORS AND THEIR VOLUMES. 387 

ItlCnARD STOCKTON FIELD. 

In 1849 ^^ published through the New Jersey Historical Society (its third vol- 
ume), " The Provincial Courts of New Jersey, with Sketches of the Bench and Bar ;" 
being an amplification of his Address before that Society. 

Among his published Addresses were the following, viz. : " Address before the 
Surviving Members of the Constitutional Convention of the State of New Jersey." 

" The Power of Habit," — Address before Edgehill School, 1855. 

" The Constitution not a Compact betw een Sovereign States," delivered at 
Princeton, July 4, lS6r. 

" Address on the Life and Character of Hon. Joseph C. Hornblower, Chief- 
Justice of the Supreme Court of New Jersey." 

"Address on the Life and Character of Abraham Lincoln," delivered before the 
Legislature. 

" Address on the Life and Character of James Parker, late President of the 
New Jersey Historical Society." 

"Centennial Address before the American Whig Society " of Princeton College, 
1869 ; and in the Princeton Review, one article, 1852, " The New Jersey Historical 
Society." 

MEV. SAMVISZ FINLJST, D. D. 

Christ Triumphing and Satan Raging; Sermon preached at Nottingham, 1741. 

A Refutation of Mr. Thomson's Sermon on the Doctrine of Convictions. 1743. 

Satan Stripped of his Angelic Robe ; subbtance of several sermons on Delusion, 
with an Application to the Moravians. 1743. 

A Charitable Plea for the Speechless, in Answer to Abel Morgan's " Anti-pcedo 
Baptism. 1747. A Vindication of the preceding. 1748. 

A Sermon at the Ordination of John Rodgers at St. George's. 1749. 

A Sermon entitled Tiie Curse of Meroz ; or the Danger of Neutrality in the 
Cause of God and our Country. 1757. 

A Sermon on the Death of President Davies. 1761. 

JiEV. ItOJiERT JPiyLET, li. D, 

Sermon on the Baptism of John, showing it to be a peculiar Dispensation, 
and no Example for Christians. 1807. 

Sermon at the Funeral of Rev. William Boyd, of Lamington. 1807. 

Sermon on Baptism. 1808. Two Sermons in the New Jersey Preacher. 1813. 
Thoughts on Colonization. 1S16. 

JtEV. JOJTN EOJtSYin, J), D. 

Twenty articles in the Princeton Review. 
An Address before the Alumni of Rutgers College. 1836. 

The Power and Perpetuity of Law ; Sermon in the Princeton Pulpit. Several 
other Addresses and Sermons. 

JtEV. GEORGE Jir. GIGER. 

History of the Cliosophic Society in the College of New Jersey. 1865. Also a 
Sermon in the " Princeton Pulpit." 

REV. ASIIBEr, GREEN, J), D. 

In i3o3 Dr. Green superintended an edition of Dr. Witherspoon's Works, and 



388 iiisroRY OF Princeton. 

left in manuscript an extended biography of that eminent man to be prefixed to a 
new and more complete eililiun. 

For several years from 1804. he edited the General Assembly's Magazine — a 
prominent periodical. In 1S22 he published an elaborate History of the College 
of New Jersey, in connection with a series of his liaccalaureate Discourses, i vol. 
Also a " History of I'rehbyterian Missions," I vol. "Lectures on .Shorter Cate- 
chism," 2 vols. 

He edited and contributed largely to The Christian Advocate, in 12 vols. 

His Autobiography published in 1849, a year after his death, by Jcjseph H. 
Jones, D. D., was written by himself in the 82d-84th year of his age, and contains 
over 600 pages. 

Dr. Green published ten occasional Sermons, and six or more Public Addresses 
and Reports. 

Among the Sermons were those at the funerals of Rev. Dr. Dufficld, 1790 ; Rev. 
Dr. Sproat, 1793, and of the Rev. Dr. Wm. M. Tennent, 1810 ; the Christian Duty 
of Christian Women, delivered at Princeton before the Female Benevolent Society 
for the support of a female school in India ; and others before Synods and General 
Assemblies. 

Among his Addresses were, one to the Legislature of Pennsylvania relative to 
Theatrical E;xhil)iti(}ns, 1793 ; one to the Trustees of the College of New Jersey, 
1802; one to the Bible Society of Philadeljihia, 1809; one at the interment of 
Robert lialston, 1S36 ; one to the Students of the Theological Seminary of Prince- 
ton, 1831, and another in 1835. He drew a I^eport of the Plan of the The<;logicaI 
Seminary, 1810 ; a Report to tiie Trustees of the College relative to the Revival of 
Religion in 1815, and several others. 

J AM lis SI- no AT OJiEJCX. 

As Law Reporter for the State, he published "Green's New Jersey Law 
Reports," — 3 vols. 1833-38. 

JtEV. Ulf.LIylM JIENIIY OKEEN, It. I). 

1. Grammar of the Hebrew Language. 1861, 

2. A Hebrew Crestomalhy. 1S63. 

3. An Elementary Hebrew Grammar. i866. 

4. The Pentateuch Vindicated from the Aspersions of Bishop Colenso. 1863. 

5. Translation of Zockler's Commentary of the Song of Solomon, for the Anieri 
can Edition of Lange's Commentary. 1870. 

6. "Job." I vol. 1875. 7. Over yl^;/;' articles in the Princeton Review. 
AJlNOLf) OVYOT, LL. D. 

1835 — Inaugural Dissertation on the Natural Classification of Lakes (Latin). 

1835 — Various Contributions to the Encyclopedie du Dixieme Siecle, Paris, — 
the most extensive of which were Physical Geography of Germany, and on the 
System of the Alps. 

1838 — On the Structure of Glaciers and the Law of Glacier Motion, Bulletin 
de la Societe Geologi(jue de France. 

1844 — On the Law of the Formation and Distribution of Cdacier Crevices. Bul- 
letin de la Societe des Sciences Naturelle de Ncuchatel, Switzerland. 

1843-47 — A series of papers on the Laws of Distribution of Erratic Rocks around 
the Central Alps in Switzerland, Savoy and Lombardy. Bulletin de la Soc. des 



AUTHORS AND THEIR VOLUMES. 389 

Science Nat. de Neuchatel, and also in d'Arcliiac Ilistoire de la Geologic, pul;lislied 
under the aus])ices of ti>e Socictc Geoloj;ique dc France ; demonstrating the mode 
of their transportation by huge glaciers. 

1849 — Earth and Man, or Lectures on Comparative Piiysical Geography in its 
Relation to the History of Man. Boston, Mass. 

1849 — ^'^ ''^"^ Uplieaval of the Jura System of Mountains by lateral pressure. 
Proceedings of the An^erican Association for the Advancement of Science. Cam- 
bridge meeting. 

1S50 — Directions for taking Meteorological Observations, destined for the Ol)- 
servers of the Smithsonian System of Meteor-observ. Smithsonian miscellaneous 
publications. 

iS5t-59 — A large volume of Meteorological and Physical Tables published by 
the Smithsonian Institution, 4th edition. 

1859 — Eulogy of Humboldt. American Geographical Society, vol. I. 

i860 — Eulogy of Karl Kilter. American Geographical Society, vol. II. 

i8f)i — On the I'liysical Structure and Ilyptometry of the Ajvpatachian System of 
Mountains ; with a Physical Map of the same. Silliman's Journal of Science. 

1SO6-75 — A Series of School Geographies, 6 vols, including a Physical Geog- 
raphy and 30 Wall-maps, in three series. New York : Chas. Scribner's Sons. For 
these works the author has been awarded the Medal of Progress at the Vienna 
World's Exposition, the only personal distinction of that kind given in that depart- 
ment ; and a gold medal at the Exposition of Paris, 187S. The Report of the 
French Commissioner at the Exposition of Philadelphia to the Minister of Public 
Instruction of France, gives these works the credit of having originated the com- 
plete reform in geographical teaching which has marked the last decade in the 
United States. 

1873 — A Treatise of Physical Geography in Johnson's Family Atlas of the 
World. 

1S74 — Cosmogony of the Pible, or the Biblical Account of Creation in the Light 
of Modern Science, in the volume of the Sixth General Conference of the Evangeli- 
cal Alliance in New York, 1873. 

1874-77 — Was one of the Editors-in-chief of Johnson's Encyclopedia, in which 
are found numerous articles from his pen. 

1874 — Eulogy of Prof. James II. Coffin, and 

1S78 — Eulogy of Louis Agasstz, published by the National Academy of Sciences. 

1876-77 — On the Physical Structure and Ilyptometry of the Catskill Mountains, 
with a Physical Map, in several communications to the National Academy of Sci- 
ences (soon to be published). 

Several courses of public lectures, among which one on Primeval Man, before 
the Theological Seminary of New York, on the Morse Foundation, and another on 
The Unity of tlu Life System, delivered at Brooklyn, on the Graham Foundation, 
and at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, are being prepared for the press. 

Numerous minor communications to scientific societies are not here mentioned. 

1. He edited the Ptiiueton Standard from 1659 to 1867 — though impersonal in 
its publication. 

2. An article in the Princeton Review in 1868: " Prisons and Reformatories." 

3. A brief '• Memoir of Dr. A, P. Ilageman," in 1872. 



390 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

4. A Paper on •' The Penal and Reformatory Institutions of New Jersey," read 
before the National Prison Reform Congress at Baltimore, in 1872, and published 
in the volume of the National and International Proceedings of the Year 1872. 

5. Plistory of Princeton and its Institutions, Two 8vo. vols. 1B79. 

JtHY. SAMVKIj MILf.EJi JIAGISMAX. 

1. "Vesper Voices:" Poems, i vol. 108 pp. (anonymous). Princeton, i36S. 

2. "Silence:" a Poem, 107 pp. 1876. Third edition illustrated; highly com- 
mended by poets at home and abroad. 

3. "Greenwood and Otlier Poems." Small quarto vol. 150 pp. Illustrated. 

1877. 

4. " The Princeton Poets :" A volume of poems, selections from Princeton 
authors, I vol., in press. 

I'liOFicsson JOSEPH irjcxjiT, r.z. i>. 

We cannot furnish a full account of the publications of Prof. Henry, especially 
his more recent ones. lie has published many valuable papers on Electricity and 
Magnetism, in Amer. Philos. Transactions, Silliman's Journal of Amer. Science, 
Journal of the Franklin Institute ; Contributions to Electricity and Magnetism, 
Philadelphia, 1839. 

In the Index to the Princeton Review we the find the following brief enumera- 
tion of his scientific investigations and discoveries. 

1. A sketch of the topography of the Stale of New York, embodying the results 
of the survey before mentioned. 

2. In connection with Dr. Beck and the Hon. Simeon De Witt, the organization 
of the meteorological system of the State of New York. 

3. The development, for tiie first time, of magnetic power, sufficient to sustain 
tons in weight, in soft iron, by a comparatively feeble galvanic current. 

4. The first application of electro-magnetism as a power, to produce continued 
motion in a machine. 

5. An exposition of the method by which electro-magnetism might be employed 
in transmitting power to a distance, and the demonstration of the practicability of 
an electro-magnetic telegraph, which without these discoveries was impossible. 

6. The discovery of the induction of an electrical current in a long wire upon 
itself, or the means of increasing the intensity of a current by the use of a spiral 
conductor. 

7. The method of inducing a current of quantity from one of intensity, and 
vice versa. 

8. The discovery of currents of induction of different orders, and of the neutral- 
ization of the induction by the interposition of plates of metal. 

9. The discoveiy that the discharge of a Eeyden jar consists of a series of oscil- 
lations liackwards and forwards until equilibrium is restored. 

10. The induction of a current of electricity from lightning at a great distance, 
and proof that the discharge from a thunder cloud also consists of a series of oscil- 
lations. 

11. The oscillating condition of a lightning rod while transmitting a discharge 
of electricity from the clouds causing it, though in perfect connection with the earlrh, 
to emit sparks of sufficient intensity to ignite combustible substances. 

12. Investigations on molecular attraction, as exhibited in liquids, and in yield- 



AUTHORS AND THEIR VOLUMES. 391 

ing and rigid solids, and an exposition of the theory of soap bubbles. [These ori<ji- 
nated fioiu his being called upon to investigate the causes of the bursting of the 
groat gun on the U. S. steamer Princeton.] 

13. Original experiments on, and exposition of the principles of acoustics as 
applied to churches and other public buildings. 

14. Experiments on various instruments to be used as fog signals. 

15. A series of experiments on various illuminating materials for light-house 
use. and the introduction of lard oil for lighting the coasts of the United St.ites. 
This and the preceding, in his office of chairman of the Committee on l^xperiments 
of the Light House Hoard. 

16. Experiments on heat, in which the radiation from clouds and animals in 
distant fields was indicated by the thermo electrical apparatus applied to a reflect- 
ing telescope. 

17. Observations on the comparative temperature of th'.» sun-spots, and also of 
different portions of the hun's dibk. In these experiments he was assisted by Prof. 
Alexander. 

18. Proof that the radiant heat from a feebly luminous flame is also feel)le, and 
that the increase of radiant light by the introduction of a solid substance into the 
flame of the compound blow-pipe, is accompanied with an c(|uivalent radiation of 
heat, and also that the increase of light and radiaut heat in a flame of hydrogen by 
the introduction of a solid substance, is attended with a diminution in the heating 
power of the flame itself. 

19. The reflection of heat from concave mirrors of ice, and its application to 
the source of the heat derived from the moon. 

20. Observations, in connection with Prof. Alexander, on the red flames on the 
border of the sun, as observed in the annular eclipse of 1838. 

21. Exjieriments on the phosphorogenic ray of the sun, from which it is shown 
that this emanation is polarizable and refrangible, according to the same laws 
which govern light. 

22. On the penetration of the more fusible metals into those less readily melted, 
while in a solid state. 

Besides these experimental additions to physical science. Prof. Henry is the 
author of twenty-two reports giving an exposition of the annual operations of the 
Smithsonian Institution. He has also published a series of essays on meteorology 
in the Patent Office Reports, which, besides an exposition of established principles, 
contain many new suggestions, and among others, the development of electricity, 
as exhibited in the thunder storm : and an essay on the j^rincipal source of the 
power which does the work of developing the plant in the bud, and the animal in 
the egg. 

lie has also published a theory of elementary education, in his address as Presi- 
dent of the American Association for the Advancement of Education, the principle 
of which i.s, that in instruction the order of nature should be followed, that we 
should begin with the concrete and end with the abstract, the one gradually shad- 
ing into the other ; also the importai\ce of early impressions, and the tendency in 
old age to relapse into the vices of early youth. Youth is the father of old age 
rather than of manhood. 

riis papers in the Princeton Review are: 1841. The British Scientific Associa- 
tion. 1845. The Coait Survey — Observations on Color Blindness. 



392 HISTORY OF PRINCETO!^. 

JiEr. AJtCnZJDALD ALi:XANJ>EIt IIODOJU, 1). D. 

i860— Outlines of Theology — Rewritten in 1878. 1867 — The Atonement. 
1869 — Commentary on the Confession of Faith. 1877 — Manual of Forms. 
• 1877 — Inaugural Address at Princeton. 
Contributions to the Princeton Review : 1851, The Vedantists of Young Ben- 
gal. 1877, The Ordo Salutis. 

JtJSV. ClfAltZ-ES JIODGIC, I). J). 

Dissertation on the Importance of Biblical Literature, delivered at Princeton in 
1822 ; pamphlet 50 pp. 

Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans, 8vo. 1835 ; abridged in 1S36. 
Reprinted by the London Religious Tract Society, 1837, 1S53. 

Questions on the Epistle to the Romans, to accompany the Commentary. 1842. 
Tenth edition in 1855 — iSmo. 

Constitutional History of the Presbyterian Church in the United States, 2 vols. 
Svo. 1840. 

. The Way of Life. i8mo. Published by American Sunday School Union — Re- 
published by the London Rel. Tract Society, 1842. i8mo. 30th American edition. 
Philadelphia. 1856. 

What is Presbyterianism? An Address delivered before the Presbyterian His- 
torical Society, 1855. i8mo. 

A Commentary on the Epistle to the Ephesians. New York, 1856. Svo. 

Commentary on the First Epistle to the Corinthians. New York, 1857. l2nio. 

Reviews and Essays selected from the Princeton Review. 

Systematic Theology, 3 laige (juarto vols. 1871. 

As editor of the Biblical Repertory and Princeton Review from 1825 to 1869, 
Dr. Hodi^e lias written volumes of most important treatises on various subjects, 
such as " The Knowledge of God," " The Ground of Faith in the Scriptures," 
"What is Christianity?" " Lispiration," "Original Sin," "Imputation," "Free 
Agency," " Human Ability," "The Atonement," "Regeneration," "Sacraments," 
"Finney's Theology," "New Divinity," "Park's Theology of the Intellect and 
Feelings," "Stuart and Barnes on Romans," " Beman on the Atonement,' 
Beecher's "Great Conflict," Bushnell's "God in Christ," "Vicarious Sacrifices," 
"Oxford Tracts," "Sunday Mails," "Slavery," " Aboliiionism," "Conscience and 
the Constitution," " Temperance," " Diversity of Species," " The State of the Coun- 
try," " Annual Review of the General Assembly." Besides a few special sermons 
wliich have been published. 

JOHN SJCELT lIAltT, JjIj. J>. 

Was born at Stockbridge, Mass., Jan. 28, 1810, and graduated at Princeton in 
the class of 1830. He has been connected with the college sixteen years, namely, 
three years as student (1S27-1830), four years as Tutor and Adjunct Professor of 
Greek (1832-1S36), six years as Lecturer on English Literature (1864-1870), and 
three years as Professor of English Language and Literature (1872-1875). 

His occupation elsewhere lias been as follows : one year (1830-31) as principal 
of a classical ac.-idemy. at Natchez, Miss.; five years (1836-1841) as princii)al and 
proprietor of the Edgehill School, at Princeton; seventeen years (1842-1859) as 
principal of the Philadelphia High School ; nine years (1862-1 871) as principal of 
the New Jersey State Normal School, at Trenton. He has been actively engaged 



AUTHORS AND THEIR VOLUMES.- 393 

in the work of education forty-five years, and has had under his personal instruction 
and control over seven thousand pupils, not counting college siudents. 

He was the editor of Sartain's Magazine during the first five volumes of its ex- 
istence, writing for it largely every month. He originated the Sunday School 
Times in i860, and continued to edit it till 1872, writing for it weekly a leading 
editorial. He has edited also a large number of literary works by other authors. 
His contributions to the Princeton Review, Scribner's Monthly, and otiier periodi- 
cals would make several volumes. His annual reports of the Philadelphia Ili.di 
School and of the N. J. State Normal School, running through a period of twenty- 
live years, and discussing the educational questions of the day, make over three 
thousand closely printed 8vo. pages. 

Besides these contributions to periodical literature. Dr. Hart is the author of 
more than twenty scparatd voluims, mostly educational, which have had an a<TgreTate 
sale of more than four hundred thousand copies. Tiie following is a list of his prin- 
cipal works: Spenser and the Faery Queen, 500 jip. 8vo. ; Female Prose Writers 
of America, 536 pp. 8vo. ; American Literature, 640 pp. 8vo. ; English Literature, 
640 pp. 8vo. ; Short Course in Literature, English and American, 324 pp. i2ino. ; 
Composition and Rhetoric, 380 pp. i2nio. ; First Lessons in Composition, 144 pp. 
l2mo. ; English Grammar, 192 pp. i2mo. ; Introduction to English Crammar, 144 
pp. l2mo. ; Grammar and Analysis, 232 pp. i2ino. ; Language Lessons for Begin- 
ners, 80 pp. ; Class-Book of Poetry and Class-Book of Prose, each 400 pp. i2ino. ; 
Constitution of the United States, an exposition for the use of schools, 100 pp. 
l2ino. ; In the School-Room, or Chapters in the Philosophy of Education, 276 pp. 
l2mo. ; Mistakes of Educated Men, 91 pp. ; Counsels on Leaving School, 30 pp. ; 
The Bible as an Educating Power, 64 pp. ; Thoughts on Sabbath Scliools, 215 pp. ; 
The Sunday School Llea, 416 pp. ; The Golden Censer, or Thoughts on the Lord's 
Prayer, 144 pp. ; Removing Mountains, or Life Les^,ons from the Gospels, 306 pp. 
In all, over six thou.sand two hundred pages. 

Dr. Hart has in manuscript, unpublished, a considerable number of lectures 
prepared for educational associations ; a History of the Public Schools of Philadel- 
phia, prepared from the original records of the city, and containing materials for a 
large octavo ; also an extended course of Lectures on English Literature, which 
have been twice re-written since their first preparation for the students of the Phil- 
adelphia High School in 1846-1849. 

Prof. Hart died at Philadelphia in March, 1877. leaving his wife (Amelia Mor- 
ford) and a son, Prof J. M. Hart, surviving him. 

JiEV. MATTIlJCn' ItOYJi JIOI'JJ, 1>. It. 

Prof. Hope was born in Mifflin County, Pa., in 1812 ; graduated at Jefferson Col- 
lege ; studied tlieology at Princeton ; was a missionary of the American Board to 
Singapore for two years, when he became sun-struck, and returned home. He was 
elected Professor of Belles- Lettres and Political Economy in Princeton College, in 
1847, and died December 17, 1859— while occupying that chair. 

The following articles were written by him for the Princeton Review : 1833, 
Foreign Missions. 1S34, Mr. Irving and the Modern Prophetic Scliool. 1839! 
Malcolm's Travels in South-eastern Asia. 1840, Historical Composition. 1841! 
Relation between the Scriptures and Geology.— General Assembly of 1841. 1843, 
Education in Bengal. 1844, Religious Melancholy. 1849, Robert Burns as a 
Poet and a:> a Man.— Prison Discipline. 1850, Prof. Bachman on the Unity of the 



394 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

Human Race.— Harrison on the English Language.— Prof. Agassiz's New Hypo- 
thesis. 1S52, Apologetics. 

MISS MARY A. IIOTT. 

Published a volume called Blind Tom, in 1865 — i2mo. 

JtEr. JIUNJtT KOLLOCK, I). D. 

Pastor of the church in Princeton, and Professor of Theology in the College, 
in 1803. 

A collection of his Sermons was published at Savannah, in 4 vols. 8vo. in 1822. 
They are now very rare, and have always been highly valued. 

Jii:V. JAMISS M. MACDONAI.!), 1). X>. 

1. "Credulity as Illustrated by Impostures in Science," I vol. 1843. 

2. " Key to the Book of Revelation," I vol. 184S. 

3. " My Father's House," — l vol. 1855. Republished in London and Glasgow. 

4. "The Book of Ecclesiastes Explained." 1S56. 

5. " Life and Character of John the Aposile," large octavo, with illustrations. 
Published after his death, 1876. 

6. "Two Centuries in the Histoiy of the Presbyterian Church of Jamaica, Long 
Island," I vol. duodecimo. 

His published Sermons were, "The Duel between Graves and Cilley," in 1838. 
"The Diffusion of Pan Christianity," 1S58. "Prelacy Unscriptural." " President 
Lincoln — His Figure in History," 1865. "Reminiscences of Twenty Years' Min- 
istry," 1873. 

Aii article in the Bibliotheca Sacra: "Irony in History, or Was Gibbon an 

Infidel?" 

In the Princeton Review : 1855, Faber on the Locality of Heaven — Dr. J. S. 
Spencer's Sketches and Sermons. 1858, Historical Value of the Pentateuch. 1S63, 
Faith a Source of Knowledge, 1865, Census of i860. 

MA J.COL M MA C DONALD, 

" Guatemozin:" a Drama, i2mo. Published by J. B. Lippincolt & Co. Phil- 
adelphia, 1878. 

This poem is a dramatization of the most eventful scenes of the Mexican War. 
Mr. Macdonald is a son of the late Rev. Dr. James M. Macdonald, of Princeton, 
and now resides at Camden, N. J. 

JOHN MACLEAK, M. D. 

This eminent scholar came to Princeton from Scotland, and was professor in 
the college. He was distinguished as a surgeon and chemist. 

As an author he is known by his two Lectures on Combustion, 8vo. Philadel- 
phia, 1797, in which he advocates the Lavoisierian system of chemistry in opposi- 
tion to Dr. Priestley ; and also by a number of papers in controversy with Dr. 
Priestley, published in the New York Medical Repository. A Memoir of him has 
been written by his son, Ex-President Maclean. 

JtlCr. JOHN MACLISAN, D. D. 

A pamphlet containing a Review of the Proceedings of the General Assembly 
of 1837. 



AUTHORS AND THEIR VOLUMES. 395 

A pamphlet containing ten letters on the Quorum or Elder Question, and three 
letters on the Imposition of Hands. 1844. 

A Lecture on Common Schools, published in 1829. 

Two Letters on The True Relations of the Church and State to Schools and 
Colleges. 1853. Several articles on the Temperance Question. His Inaugural 
Address in 1S54 when elected president of the college. 

History of the College of New Jersey, 2 vols. 8vo. J. 13. Lippincott & Co., 
Philadelphia. 1877. 

Memoir of John ^L'lclean, ^L D. , fust Professor of Chemistry in the College of 
New Jersey. Princeton Press. 1877. 

In the Princeton Review two articles: 1833, Common Schools. 1841, Bacchus 
and Anii-Iiacchus (originally puhlibhed in England). 

GJEOltOJS MelNTOSa MACLIiAN, M. D. 

A Treatise on Somatology. 

He also published in the New York Journal of Medicine, several papers of in- 
terest ; among them was one on the Diseases which prevailed in Princeton, N. J., 
in the years 1S36-37 ; another on a case of Amaurosis caused by Lightning during 
Sleep, successfully treated in 1856 ; and several other important cases. 

The Indiana .State iSIedical Society also jjublished two Reports on the " Progress 
of Meilical Chemistry," by Dr. Maclean, made to that Society in the year 1853-4 ; 
also published papers on " Teaching Chemistry," in 1859 ! " Flame," in i86o ; and 
the " Elements of Chemistry," in 1S61. 

JtJBr. J^AMES McCOSir, li. D. 

1. " The Method of the Divine Government." 

2. " The Intuitions of the Mind." 

3. " Typical Forms and Special Seeds in Creation." 

4. "Logic: Laws of Discursive Thought." 

5. " History of Scottish Philosophy." 

6 "A Defence of Fundamental Truths." 

7. " Christianity and Positivism." 

8. " Ideas in Nature Overlooked by Dr. Tyndall." 

9. "The Developnient Hyiiothesis." 

Also elaborate review articles, baccalaureate sermons, and addresses on Educa- 
tion and other special subjects, 

REV. ALEXANDER T. McGILL. I). I). 

Popery and Puseyism, pamphlet, 1844. Individual Responsibility— published 
by. the University of Indiana. 1845. 

Two small volumes on Popery and American Slavery— published by the Pres- 
byterian Board of Publication. 

Sermon before the General Assembly: Life by Faith. 1863. Sermon on Na- 
tional Fast Day, in Dr. Hall's Fifth Avenue Church. Discourse before the Penn- 
sylvania Colonization Society. Address before the American Colonization Society 
at Washington. 1876. A Lecture on Prophecy, in the University of Virginia — pub- 
lished in a volume on Evidences of Christianity. 1851 ; and others. 

In the Princeton Review he completed an article on Sketches of Western Penn- 
sylvania, commenced by Dr. Carnahan, and in 1865, Mason's and Di.xon's Line. 



396 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

JtEV. JOSnXT.L IT. McILVAINIS, D. D. 

While Professor of Belles-Lettres in Princeton College, he wrote and published 

r. Klocution : The Sources and Elements of its Power, r vol. 

2. In the Princeton Review lie contributed the following articles : 1859, A 
Nation's Right to Worship God. i86r, Covenant Education — American Naliuual- 
ity. 18G2, The Church and the Poor. 1867, Malthusianisin. 

■Dr. Mcllvaine has delivered courses of lectures of great merit, and various lit- 
erary addresses and sermons, but which of them have been published we are not 
informed. lie has published a pamphlet on "Inspiration," and several poems 
of merit. 

JfiiiK. JOHN MILL J: It. 

The Design of the Church, as an Index to her Real Nature and the True Law 
of her Communion. 1846. 

One of the Virginia University Lectures on the Evidences of Christianity. 1852. 

A Commentary on the Proverbs; with a New Translraion and with some of 
the Original Expositions Re-examined in a Classified List. 1873. 

Fetich in 'I'heology ; or Doctrinalism Twin to Ritualism. 1874. 

Metaphysics ; or the Science of Perception. 1875. 

Questions Awakened by the Bible. I. Are Souls Immortal? II. Was Christ 
in Adam? III. Is God a Trinity ? 1S77. 

In the Princeton Review: 1845, Palmer on the Church. 

:E. Sl'JiNClilt ^IILIlilt. 

A son of Rev. Dr. Samuel Miller, of Princeton ; a practising lawyer in Phil- 
adelphia, and Professor of Law in the University of Pennsylvania, published 

A Treatise on the Law of Partition by Writ, in Penns}lvania ; with Digest of 
Statutes and Appendix of Forms. Philadelphia, 1847. Svo. 

Caprices: A Collection of Poems. New York, 1849. i2mo. 

Specimens of his poetry are given in Griswold's Poets and Poetry of America. 
i6th Ed. 1855, 537-539- 

Second Edition of H. J. Sergeant's Treatise on the Lien of Mechanics and 
Material Men, in Pennsylvania, 8vo. pp. 395. 1S56. 

MISS MARY MILLER. 

^Memorial of Margaret E. Breckinridge--l2mo. 103 pp. 1865. 

ItEV. SAMUEL MILLER. I). I*. 

A Brief Retrospect of the Eighteenth Century : containing a Sketch of the 
Revolutions and Improvements in Science, Arts and Literature during that Period. 
New York, 1803. 2 vols. 8vo. ; 2d Ed. 3 vols. Reprinted in I-ondon, 1805, 
3 vols. 8vo. 

" It obtained for its author the applause of both hemisjiheres." — /Jr. Francis's 
Old Nexv York. He was assisted by his brother. Dr. Edward Miller. 

Letters on the Christian Ministry. New York, 1S07. i2mo. This led to a 
controversy with Dr. Jolin Bowden, which oCLU|iied in all five vols. 

Presbyienanism the Truly Primiiive and Apostolic Constitution of the Church 
of Christ, i2nio. 1835. 

Letters on Church Government. Memoirs of Rev. John Rodgers, D. D. 1813. 
8vo. Letters on Unitarianism. 1S21. 8vo. On the Eternal Sonship of Christ. 



AUTHORS AND THEIR VOLUMES. 397 

1823. Lectures at the Seminary. 1827. Letters on Clerical Manners and Habits 
1827. l2mo. Lectures at the Seminary. 1830. 

Utility and Importance of Creeds and Confessions, i8mo. Office of Ruling 
Elder in the Presbyterian Church. 1831. On Baptism, i vol. Letters on the 
Observance of the Monthly Concert iu Prayer, i8mo. Thoughts on Public 
Prayer — i2mo. 

Memoir of Rev. Charles Nesbit, D. D., i2mo. 1840. Letters from a Father to 
his Sons in College. 1843. 

Life of Jonathan Edwards, D. D. (in Sparks' American Biography, 1837). The 
Primitive and Apostolical Order of Christ Vindicated, i2mo. 1840. Letters to 
Presbyterians on the present Crisis in the Presbyterian Church in the United 
States, i2mo. 1833. 

In addition to the above volumes, his publications in pamphlets are numerous: 
A Sermon preached in New York, on the Anniversary of American Independence, 
1793. Discourse before the Grand Lodge of the State of New York, 1795 ; one on 
the Discovery of New York by Hudson, 1795 ; one before the New York Society 
for the Manumission of Slaves, 1797 ; a Sermon on Fast Day in 1788, and one on 
Than'ksgivjng Day, after the removal of the yellow fever, 1799 ; one on the Death 
of Washington, 1799 ; one before the N. Y. Missionary Society, 1802 ; two discourses 
on Suicide, 1805 ; one for the Benefit Society in N. Y., for Relief of Poor Widows 
and Small Children, i8o3 ; one on the Office of Ruling Elders, 1809 ; one on the 
Burning of Richmond Theatre, 1812; Sermon at the Inauguration of Dr. Archi- 
bald Alexander as professor, etc., in Princeton, 1812 ; one at Baltimore at the Or- 
dination of Dr. Nevins, 1820 ; one at New Haven, at Ordination of Missionaries to 
the Heathen, 1822 ; one, " The Literary Fountains Healed," in the college chapel, 
1823 ; one at the opening of the new Presbyterian church in Arch St., Phila., 1823 ; 
one before Synod at Newark, 1823 ; a Discourse before the Literary and Philoso- 
phical Society of New Jersey, at Princeton, 1825 ; Letter to a Gentleman in Balti- 
more, on the Duncan Case, 1826 ; a Sermon at the Installation of Dr. John Breck- 
inridge, at Baltimore, 1826; two sermons in the National Preacher; Sermon 
preached at Installation of Dr. Sprague. at Albany, 1829; two sermons in National 
Preacher, on Religious Fasting, 1S31 ; Sermon on Ecclesiastical Polity, 1832 (Spruce 
St. Lectures); one for an Enlarged Ministry; one before the Alumni of (he Prince- 
ton Seminary, at Pittsburgh, 1835 ; one before the A. B. C. Foreign Missions, at 
Baltimore, 1835 ; Sermon at the Installation of Rev. John C. Backus, at Baltimore, 
1836 ; two sermons in the National Preacher, on Christ our Righteousness, 1836 ; 
Sermon on the Danger of Education in Roman Catholic Seminaries— preached in 
Baltimore and New York, 1837 ; Sermon in Philadelphia before Board of Foreign 
Missions Presbyterian Church, 1838 ; Address at Elisabethtown, at Dedication of 
the Caldwell Monument, 1845. 

Dr. Miller also published a Biographical Sketch of his brother, Edward Miller, 
M. D., prefixed to his Works ; an essay Introductory to Dr. Sprague's Lectures to 
Young People ; and a Letter appended to Dr. Sprague's Lectures on Revivals ; an 
essay Introductory to Villers on Reformation ; Thoughts on Lay-preaching ; Sketch 
of the Theological Seminary ; Letters of a Grandfather, in Mrs. Breckinridge's 
Biogr.aphy, Letter on Temperance, and several Letters of Personal Reminiscences. 
In the Repertory and Princeton Review, Dr. Miller published ticenty-ftve 
articles. 



398 HI STORY OF PRINCETON. 

niiV. SAMUEIi MILLEll, Jr., li. D. 

Report of the Presbyieiian Cluirch Case, I vol. 8vo. 1839. Report of the 
d'Hauteville Case, r vol. 8vo. 1840. Three sermons on Prayer for the Country. 1863. 

Life of Rev. Samuel Miller, D. D., 2 vols. l2vo. 1S69. 

Historical Review of the Church (Old School Branch) since 1837, 49 pp., for the 
Presbyterian Reunion Memorial Volume. 1870. "The Jews." North Amer. Review. 

WAJLThJC MXNTO, XX. D. 

A Demonstration of the Path of the New Comet. Researches into Some Parts 
of the Theory of Planets. London, 1783. 8vo. Account of John Napier, etc. 
Inaugural Oration on the Lnportance of the Mathematical Sciences — Delivered at 
I'rinceton, 178S. 

JiXr. JAMES C. MOFFAT, D. J>. 

1. Life of Thomas Chalmers, D. D., l2mo. 1853. 

2. Introduction to the Study of /Esthetics, i2mo. 1856. 

3. Comparative History of Religions. 

5. Song and Scenery, I vol. 

6. Alwyn ; or a Romance of Study — a poem in the Spenserian stanza. 

7. A volume of poems, published in 1830 ; now out of print. 

8. A series of articles on Alexanilria of the Ptolemies, in Our Monthly, 1870-71. 

9. Twenty-six articles on the Culdee Church in Scotland ; also twenty-one 
articles on the Reformation in Scotland, published in the Scotsi/ian, of New York, 
in 1877-78. 

He wrote txventy articles which were published in the Princeton Review. He 
edited Clarke's History of England, with additions, in Cincinnati, 1851. i2mo. He 
was editor of the Princetonian, a weekly newspaper, double sheet in 1872. 

B.EV. JAMES O. MUItRAY, D. JO. 

"The Missionary and the Martyr;" a Sermon commemorative of the Rev. 
William Merriam. 1856. Two Sermons on National Topics, during the war. 1862. 
A Sermon on Hymnology, 1870. The Sacrifice of Praise, i vol. 1S72. 

STEPHEN VAN JiEXSSELAER PATEJRSON, 

Hierosoiyma, Milton's Dream and Other Poems. A small volume of 114 pp, 
— printed at Princeton by J. T. Robinson, printer, 1850; published anonymously, 
but attributed to Mr. Paterson, v/ho graduated in 1835. 

JtEV. WILEIAM II. JtOBEJtTS. 

William Henry Roberts, son of Rev. William Roberts, D. D.. of Utica, N. Y., 
formerly of New York city; graduated in 1863 from Princeton College, and from 
Seminary in 1S73. From 1863-67 w.ts Statistical Clerk of the U. S. Treas. Dept., 
Washington, D, C. From 1867-72, was Assistant Librarian, I,ibrary of Congress, 
Washington, D. C. From May to Oct., 1873, engaged in re-organizing the Library 
of Theological Seminary. From Nov., 1873 to Dec, 1877, pastor at Cranford, N. J. 

1. Comparative Statement of the Duties upon Imports levied by U. S. Tarifis 
from 18 16 to 1865, the Specific Rates of Duty in each Case being reducetl to an «</ 
valorem llasis, 8vo. Washington, 1S65. 

2. John Huss, a Commemorative Discourse preached in the Second Moravian 
Church, Philadelphia, July 6, 1873, the 500th anniversary of his birth. 



AUTHOh'S AXD TUKIR VOr.V lUKF!. 399 

3. llie rerfeclion uf Knowlt-dnc in tlir l.ifi- lo ( 'oiiie — A Sermon prcm-lu'd in 
tlie WcUii I'resljylerian Cliuich, Scianion, I'a., July, 1S74. 

4. llisuiiy of die 'I'tjwu cif (Jianluid : an Addivss ik-livcied July 4, iSyf), in the 
l'"irsi I'rcsjjylerinn L'liuicli of ( 'i-aiifdnl, N. j, 

5. IJranible Rule, ;i Scriiioji ))i-ea(.heil in ll>e I'iist I'lX'sliyleri.iii ( 'luiicli, of Cran- 
fonl, 'rii;\nl>sijiviny; Day, November 27, 1877. 

Mr. Roberts also compiled and edited (lie (."lassified (_'alalot;ue of the T,aw Li 
braiy of Conirress, in addition to oilier cataloi^iie work in that Library, lie is en- 
ijaj^ed upon a classified Calalo<riie of the Seminary Library, which it is expected 
will lie soon i)ublishcd. lie ha-, written to son\e extent lor the secular press upon 
economic i|Ucstions, and lor the religious ))ress u])on \arious topics. 

,r. stiijLwi'.IjL scii.t xcii, m. />., l/^.o. 

In the Princeton Review: 1865, "What is the Use of Urcathing?" 

j{i:r. WILLIAM i:i>ty.iJtnsciiiJ\rj<, it. />. 

I. 1 lisiorical Account of the h'irst Presbyteiian C^hurch, Princeton, N. J. 1850. 
2. The Parting Commendation. 3. Discourse on Churcli I'"\tension in Cities. 4. 
Discourse Commemorative of Rev. ISenjaniin 11. Rice, D. IJ. 5. Cod our (iuide. 
6. Discourse Commemorative of Rev. P. D. Cuirley, D. D. 7. The Fountain for 
Sin and Uncleanness. 8. Aunt Fanny's Home. g. (By Hoard of Publication) — 
Childien in Heaven. 10. Nearing Home; and other [lamphlels and discijurses. 

iilOOKCilC ir. SJIJCLliOX. 

American Painters : with 83 illustrations. (Quarto, 1S71J. 

jt/cr. cuAitLEs w. sinici^ns, n. n. 

Directory for Public Worship, i vol. 8vo. Liturgia Kx|iurgata : the Prayer- 
Hook Amended, i6nio. Philosophia lUtima, Svo. Religion and Science in 
their Relation to Philosophy, I2m(). The Rook of Remembrance, I \'ol. I2ni(j. 
The Final Philosophy, 1 vol. large 8vo. Resides Addresses, Sermons, Poems, 
and Translations. 

jticV, slmui:l siASiioi'i: smith, j>. Jt. 

l^ssay on the Causes of the N'ariety of Complexion and h'igure of the Human 
Species. Philadelphia, 1787. Svo. Republished in London, 2d lul. iSio. 

Sern\ons, Newark, N. J., 1799. 8vo. Republished in London. 

Lectures on the l^vitlence of the Christian Religion. Pliila., 180). I2nu). 

Lectures on Moral and Political Philosophy. Trenton, N. J., 1812 — 2 vols. 8vo. 

Comprehensive \'iew of Principles of Natural anil Revealed Religion. New 
Rrunswick, N. ]., 1815, Svo. 

He also publislied a number tjf single Sermons, Orations and Discourses, 1781- 
iSiu. After his death there were published six of his Sermons, with a Rrief 
Memoir of his Life antl Writings — 2 vols. Svo. I 821. 

COM Mo/Ktui'J noiiicitr /•'. st<h:i<t<>s. 

The most iniportant of Com. Stockton's Speeches, together with Ids Reiiorls and 
State Papeis, have been publishctl in the .Appendices to lus P>iogra|)liy, by S. |. 
liayard. 

Ji)ll\ }'. srOCUTON. 

The son of Com. Stocklim published Stockton's New Jersey Chancery Reports, 
from 1S56 to 1S60 — 3 vols.; he being the Chancery Rejiorler for the .Slate. 



'«( 



400 HISTORY OF PRlNCErOS^. 

MliS. LOUISA C. TVTIIIT.L. 

" Mrs. Tulhill is descended on l)oth sides from the early colonists of New TIaven, 
Conn. ; one of her ancestors on tiie father's side heini^ the brother of Tlieophilus 
Eaton, the first Governor of the Colony. Iter maiden name was T>ouisa Caroline 
Iluggins. She was born just at the close of the last century, at New Haven, and 
educated partly at New Haven and partly at Litchfickl. The schools for young 
ladies in both these towns, at that time, were celebrated for their excellence, and 
that in New Haven particularly, comprehended a course of study equal in range, 
with the exception of Greek and the higher mathematics, to the course pursued at 
the same time in Yale College. 

" Being the youngest child of a wealthy and retired merchant, she enjoyed to the 
fullest extent the opportunities of education which the.se seminaries afforded, as well 
as that more general but not less important element of education, the constant in- 
tercourse with jieople of rehned tastes and cultivated minds. In 1817 she was mar- 
ried to Cornelius Tulhill, E.sq., of Newburgli, N. Y., who studied law at Eitchfield, 
Conn., and after his marriage l)ecame a resident of New Haven. Mr. Tulhill him- 
self, as well as his wife, being of a literary turn, their hospitable mansion liecame 
the resort of quite an extensive literary circle, some of whom have since become 
known to fame. Mr. Tulhill, with two of his friends, the lamented Henry V.. 
Dwight, youngest son of President Dwight of Yale College, and Nathaniel Chaun- 
cey, Esq., late of Philadelphia, projected a literary paper for local distribution, 
called " The Microscope." It was published at New Haven, and edited by Mr. 
Tulhill with the aid of the two friends just named. Through pages of the " Micro- 
.scope," the poet Percival first iiecame known to the public. Among the contribu- 
tors were T. C. Brainerd,* Profs. Fisher and Fowler, Mrs. Sigourney, and others. 

" Mrs. Tuthill wrote rhymes from childhood, and as far back as she can remember 
was devoted to books. One of her amusements during girlhootl was to write 
stealthily essays, plays, tales and verses, all of wliich, however, with the exceiition 
of two or three school compositions, were committed to the flames ]irevious to her 
marriage. She had imbibed a strong prejudice against literary women, and firmly 
resolved never to be one. Mr. Tuthill took a different view of the matter, and 
urged her to a further pursuit of liberal studies and the continued exerci.se of her 
pen. At his solicitation, she wrote frequently for "The Microscope" during its 
continuance, which, however, was only for a conide of years. | 

" Mr. Tuthill died in 1820, at the age of twenty-nine, leaving a widow and four 
children, one son and three daughters. As a solace under affliction, Mrs. Tuthill 
employed her pen in contributing frequently to literary periodicals, but always 
anonymously, and with so little regard to fame of authorship as to keep neither 
record nor copy of her pieces, though some of them occasionally Ihvat by as waifs 
on the tide of current literature. Several litlle books, too, were written by her be- 
tween 1827 and 1839, for the pleasure of mental occupation, and pul)li=hed anony- 
mously. Some of them stdl hokl their place in Sunday school libraries. 

" Mrs. Tulhill's name first came before the public in 1839. It was on the title- 
page of a reading book for young ladies, on a new plan. The plan was to make 

* See M'hiltier's Life of Hrainenl. 

t Mr. Tulhill sul)se(iueiUly edited for a time " The Christian Spectator," a religious monthly 
journal, wlucli hud an extensive cin.uUuiun. As much of his time was occig)icil in court, and 
his health was delicate, lie was },flad to have the assistance <)( Mrs. Tuthill in sclecliii}; and con- 
iribulinu to that journal. 



AUTHORS A. VD THEIR VOLUMES. A^l 

the selections a scries of illustrations of the rules of rhetoric, the examples selected 
beino- taken from the best English and American authors. 'The Young Ladies' 
Reader' has been popular, and has gone through many editions. 

" The ice being once broken, she began to publish more freely, and during the 
same year gave to the world the work entitled The Young Ladies' Home. It is an 
octavo volume of tales and essays, having in view the completion of a young lady's 
education after her leaving school. It shows at once a fertile imagination and 
varied reading, sound judgment, and a familiar acquaintance with social life. It 
has been frecpiently reprinted. Her next publication was an admirable series of 
small volumes for boys and girls, which have been, of all her writings, the most fa- 
vorably known. They are i6mos. of about 150 pages each, I Will be a Gentleman, 
184.1, twenty-nine editions; I Will be a Lady. 1844, twenty-nine editions ; Onward, 
Right Onward, 1845, fourteen editions ; Boarding School Girl, 1845, eight editions ; 
Anything for Sport, 1846, eight editions ; A Strike for Freedom, or Law and Order, 
1850, three editions in the first year. In 1S52 Mrs. Tuthill commenced a new 
series, intended for boys and girls in their teens : Ibaggadocio, 1S52 ; ()ucer lion- 
nets, 1853 ; Tip-Top, 1854. These have passed through several editions, and have 
been as popular as the former series. 

" Had Mrs. Tuthill written nothing but these attractive and useful volumes, she 
would have entitled herself to an honorable place in any work which professed to 
treat of the prose literature of the country. They have the graces of style and 
thought which would commend them to the favorable consideration of the general 
reader, with superadded charms that make them the delight of children. During 
the composition of these juvenile works, she continued her occupation of catering 
for " children of a larger growth," and gave to the world, in 1846, a work of fiction 
entitled "My Wife," a tale of fashionable life of the present day, conveying under 
the garb of an agreeable story, wholesome counsels for the young of both sexes, on 
the all-engrossing subject of marriage. 

" A'love for the Fine Arts has been with Mrs. Tuthill one of the ruling passions 
of her life. At different times, ample means have been within her reach for the 
cultivation of this class of studies. Partly for her own amusement, and partly for 
the instruction of her children, she paid special attention to the study of architec- 
ture in its resthetical character, enjoying, while thus engaged, the free use. of the 
princely library of Ithiel Towne, the architect. The result of these studies was the 
publication, in 1848. of a splendid octavo volume on the History of Architecture. 

" She edited during the same year, a very elegant illustrated octavo volume. The 
Mirror of Life, in which several of the contributions were written by herself. The 
illustrations for The Mirror of Life were from original designs by the Rev. Dr. 
Morton, of Philadelphia and the late Thomas P. Rossiter, artist. The Nursery 
Book, or Joy and Care, appeared in 1849. It is not a collection of nursery rhymes 
for children, as the title has led many to suppose, but counsels for young mothers 
respecting the duties of the nursery. These counsels are conveyed under the fic- 
tion of an imaginary correspondence between a young mother, just beginning to 
dress her first baby, and an experienced aunt. There are few topics in the whole 
history of the management and the mismanagement of a child, during the first and 
most important stages of its existence, that are not discussed with alternate reason 
and ridicule, in this clever volume. Mrs. Tuthill has since prepared a series of 
works under the general title of Success in Life, in four volumes, each illustrating 
the method of success in some particular walk in life by numerous biographical 



402 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

examples from the lives of distinguished citizens, The Merchant, iS^q; T'.ie Law 
ycr, 1850; The Mechanic, 1850; The Artist, ]854. 

" In 1838 Mrs. Tuthill left her much-loveil native city, where until this time she 
had resided, and passed four years in Hartford, Conn. ; from thence she removed 
to Boston. The health of her family requiring a change of climate, she went in 
1S46, to rhiladelphia. Since 1848 Mrs. Tuthill has resided in Princeton, N. J." — 
John S. Haut, LL. D., Female Prose Writers 0/ Ame>ica. 

Books not mentioned in Dr. Hart's biographical notice of Mrs. Tuthill are as 
follows : Architecture ; Egyptian, Indian, Persian, Chinese — a small quarto of 74 
pages, beautifully illustrated; published at New Haven, 1S31. This little volume 
was the nucleus of the large octavo— The History of Architecture, Ancient and 
Modern, published in Philadelphia, 1848. Calisthenics ; Caroline Perthes, the 
Christian Wife, selected and arranged from the Life of Perthes; Second Love, I'll 
be a Sailor, I'll be a Soldier, True Manliness, Romantic Belinda, Edith the Back- 
woods Girl, Gentle Gracie, True and Beautiful, Precious Thoughts, Selections from 
Ruskin, and a Memoir introductory. Many of Mrs. Tuthill's books have been re- 
printed in England, and have had a wide circulation in the United States, where 
many of them continue to be published at the present lime, 187S. 

COIINELIA X. TVTHJLTj. 

Cornelia L. Tuthill(Mrs. John S. Pierson) was the eldest daughter of Mrs. 
Louisa C. Tuthill. 

The difficulty of giving any adequate impression of the subject of this brief 
notice, only those who had the privilege of knowing her, can appreciate ; her gifts 
were so varied, the combination so beautiful and rare. Her literary productions 
form so small a part of the history of her life, that they may be almost said to be a 
mere incident in it. Yet, little valued as they were by herself, and imperfect as an 
exhibition of her intellectual power, they attained their main object,— usefulness ; 
and many a young mind has been strengthened and stimulated in duty by her 
earnest words. They were mostly the efforts of early youth, before her mind had 
reached its full maturity. It was in personal intercourse that she became a power , 
then the richly stored mind, tlie knowledge of human nature, the sparkling wit, the 
ready humor, the loving sympathy, shone fully forth. She was a precocious child, 
reading her Bible at four, and " lisping in numbers " at six years of age. From that 
onward, her development was rapid and brilliant, and at an age when most girls 
are still at school, she was already the delight and ornament of society. 

She united quickness of perception and invention approaching to genius, with 
remarkable soundness of judgment and sterling practical common-sense, all vital- 
ized by a wonderful subtleness of sympathy, which gave her an almost magnetic 
influence over others. The young, especially, were attracted by her, and made her 
the sharer of their confidences. Not a few such, in after years, admitted their in- 
debtedness at critical points of life, to the shaping touch of that wise and loving 
hand. She early acknowledged her religious obligations, and by a course of self- 
sacriticing love, through no ordinary trials and vicissitudes, showed the sincerity 
of her consecration. Under the discipline of life her religious character became 
one of a high order ; with convictions of duty strong and controllmg,— a grasp of 
truth firm and sure, and a love to God and man which waS the very spirit of her 
life. A most happy and congenial marriage brought to its highest development, 
the loveliness of her truly womanly nature ; but after a few years, a serious illness 



AUTHORS AND THEIR VOLUMES. 403 

acting upon a constitution naturally delicate, brought to a close her outward activi- 
ties, and laid her upon a bed of pain, from whicli only the blessed Angel of Death 
was to release her. That chamber of sickness and at times of almost mortal agony, 
who can or would picture ! Suffice it to say, that its secluded walls witnessed such 
noble endurance, such self forgetful interest in others, such warm, loving, energetic 
charities as made it seem to be in truth a '" house of God, a very gate of heaven." 
Both the faithful and the erring child of God, the happy and the sorrowful, the 
scholar and the untaught, the child and the man, alike felt the better, wiser, happier, 
for the loving welcome of those beautiful eyes, and the glowing eloquence of those 
truthful lips, which made such "sunshine in that shacly place." Mrs. Pierson died 
in 1870, at the residence of her husband in New York city. 

Wreaths and Branches for the Church, Christian Ornaments, History of the 
Church (abridged from Southey), A Western ITome Made Happy, The Boy of 
Spirit, Hurrah for New England ! When are we Happiest? The Belle, the Blue, 
and the Bigot, Herlierl Atherton, Our Little Comfort, Consecrated Talents, Tlie 
New Miscellany, Buds and Blossoms, Anything for Sport. 

Miss Tulhill's books were all written long before her marriage. 

SAHA n S. TUTHTLL. 

Sarah S. Tuthill (Mrs. Woods Baker) is the youngest daughter of Mrs. L. C. 
Tuthill. At the death of her father she was left an infant. While very young she 
wrote in verse, until discouraged by her mother, who carefully turned her attention 
to studies required at school, in which she became very proficient. She afterwards 
in life occasionally indulged her taste for poetry, especially in her earliest published 
works. The Children's Christian Year, and Poems for Little Folks, were in verse, 
and her My Little Geography, was in prose and verse. 

Miss Tuthill was married in 1851 to Mr. Woods Baker, a man devoted to sci- 
ence, who, though young, had already become distinguished in his chosen career, 
and gave promise of great usefulness. But he was suddenly cut down by a sad 
accident on the Hudson River, in 1852, leaving his crushed and broken-hearted 
widow with an infant daughter scarcely two weeks old. 

From this time Mrs. Baker resided in Princeton, and under the"nom deplume" 
of "Aunt Friendly" soon became widely known through her charming books for 
young people, which were always welcomed with pleasure by old and young. Story 
after story (lowed from her graceful pen, and few writers have done more than Mrs. 
Baker for the spread of a high-toned religious literature, among the youth of our 
own and other lands. Her books always present some important religious truth in 
a graphic and most attractive form, and their unsectarian character has made them 
especially useful in Sunday schools of every denomination. Poor Little Joe, Timid 
Lucy, The Babes in the Basket, and many others have become as familiar as house- 
hold words. The works of Mrs. Baker have been much appreciated in England 
and Scotland, where they have had a large circulation ; and some of them have 
been translated into the French, Italian and Swedish languages. 

Mrs. Woods Baker's books noi vieutiomd in the biogr.nphical notice: Belle, or 
the Promised Blessing, The Jewish Twins, Timid Lucy, The Babes in the Basket, 
Kale Darley, The Fisherman's Boy, P)Ound Out, Little Musicians, Poor Little Joe, 
Barton Todd. Hatty and Marcus, Fidgety Skeerl, or Coming to the Light, Heart 
and Hand, Mary Burns. ^Llggie of the Pines, Under the Pear Tree, Old Enoch's 
Verbena, The Picket Guard, The Blue Flag, Buster and Baby Jim, The Boy Pa- 



404 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

triot, The Children on the Plains, Visit to Derby, Miss Kitty's Little Maid, The 
Miner's Daughter, The Boy Friend, Simple Facts, The Orange Seed, Hannah's 
Path, Cheerily, Cheerily, Kelly Nash, Emily and Uncle llause, Strangers in Creoii- 
land, The Woodman's Nannette, Love's Lesson, Amy and her Brothers, Charlie the 
Drummer Boy, The Little Housekeeper, Kit the Street Boy, Little Pete, The New 
Parasol, Lucy's Pet, Joe's Partner, Gentle CJracie, The Edinburgh I'ook. 

JiliV. WILLIAM C. ULYAT. 

A Memorial Volume : Condensed History of Philadclpliia fiom 1682 to 1876. 
With Maps and Illustrations ; Designed to aid Visitors to the Centennial Exhibition ; 
with an Appendix. 1876. *■ 

Our New Departure: a Sermon preached in Mercer Hall, August 4, 1872, on 
occasion of first meeting for worship, of the Second Bapli.it Church of Princeton, 
New Jersey. 

In course of publication : The Pastor's Manual — a small volume containing Di- 
rections and Forms to aid a Pastor in his Duties — such as Visits to the Sick and 
Afllicted, Administration of Ordinances, Service at Funerals, Marriages, Hymns, 
Prayers, etc. : A Book of Reference for Theological Students and Pastors in pre- 
paring for their various special ministrations. 

iticr. JOHN wiTJiicnsvooN, d. d. 

Ecclesiastical Characteristics ; or the Arcana of Church Policy. Glasgow, 1753. 
Bvo. At least five editions ; anon. 

A Serious vVpology for the Characteristics, in which he acknowledged his 
authorship of No. i. 

Essay on the Connection between Justification by the Imputed Righteousness 
of Christ and Holiness of Life — i2mo. 1756. Several editions. 

Serious Inquiry into the Nature and Effects of the Stage. Glasgow, 1757 ; with 
a sermon by Samuel Miller, D. D. New \'ork. 1812. i2mo. 

Essays on Important Subjects ; with Ecclesiastical Characteristics. Loudon, 
1764. 3 vols. l2mo. 

Sermons on Practical Subjects. 1768. 

Practical Discourses on Leading Truths of the Gospel. 1768. 

The Nature and Extent of the Legislative Authority of British Parliament — 8vo. 
1774- 

He also published a number of single sermons, Lectures on Moral Philosophy, 
on Eloquence, on Divinity, and on Education, Letters on Marriage, an excellent 
Essay on Money ; philosophical papers, and some American State Documents, 
Some of his Speeches in Congress were included in his Works. 

After his death a collective edition of all his works, with an account of the 
author's Life ; with a Sermon by John Rodgers, D. D., was published in 1795, in 
4 vols. ; another edition in iSor, in 4 vols., with a Memoir by S. Stanhope Smith, 
D. D. His works have been published in Europe and America, in several editions 
and forms, and are in high repute. 

I'JtOF. CHAltLlLS A. YOVJfO, ZL. D. 

Scientific Articles : Amencan Jounial of Science and Art, 1865, On a pro- 
posed Printing Chronograph, 6 pp. 1869, On Eclipse Observations ^t Builington, 
Iowa, 8 pp. * 1870, Notes on Photography of Solar Prominences, 4 pp ; New 



AUTHORS AND THEIR VOLUMES. 405 

Method of Dtteimining Level Error of Transit InbtriiineiU, 4 pp. * 1871, On ihe 
Polar Corona, 10 pp. 1871, Note on the Corona, 2 [ip. * 1871, Preliminary Cata- 
logue of 103 bright lines in Solar Chromosphere, 2 pp. * 1872, Note on Reeurrent 
Vision, 2 pp. *i872, Observations on Encke's Comet, 4 pp. * 1872, Spectroscopic 
Observations at Sherman, 7 pp. 1873, Notes on Italian Report of Solar Eclipse 
of 1870, 4 pp. * 1873, Note on Diffraction Grating as a substitute for the tran. of 
Prisms in Solar Observations, 2 pp. * 1876, Note on Duplicity of the 1474th Line, 
4 pp. * 1S76, Observations on Displacement of Lines in Solar Spectrum, 8 pp. 
* 1878, (Two papers) Reports on Solar Eclipse of 1878, 17 jip. 

Journal of Enxnkliii InstiluU : 1869-1871, Spectroscopic Notes— 8 papers, 40 
pp. * 1870, Construction of Spectroscope, 15 pp. 1871, Report on Eclip.sc of 
1870, 6 pp. 1S72, Description of an Automatic Mercurial Pump, 3 pp. 

Of the above those marked with a * were republished abroad, .some in the 
Philosophical Magazine, some in Nature, some in I^s MoucLs, and nearly all in 
Natur (German), 

In Nature (London) : 1870, Notes on Construction of Spectroscope, 5 jip. 1871, 
Account of the Eclipse of 1870, 4 pp. 1872, Observations at Sherman, 8 pp. 1878, 
In Monthly Notices of Royal Astronom. Soc, 2 papers on Transit of Mercury, 15 pj). 

Popular Siieiu-e Monthly (New York): Feb., 1S74, The Chromosphere and 
Solar Prominences, 17 pp. 1875, Methods of Determining the Distance and 
Dimensions of the Sun, 17 pp. 

International Review : 1874, Constitution of the Sun, 19 pp. 

Princeton Review : 1878, The Recent Solar Eclipse. 23 pp. 

Johnson's Encyclopedia : 1873, Articles on Spectroscope and Sun, 20 pp. 

1870, Report of Board of Visitors of the U. S. Military Academy at West Point, 
20 pp. 1870, U. S. Coast Survey Report — Report on the Solar Eclipse of 1870, 15 pp. 

1S72, Report on Observations at Sherman, 20 pp. 1872, The Sun— Chatfield's 
University Series, 50 pp. 

1876, Vice-Presidential Address before American Association for Advancement 
of Science, 12 pp. 

Besides the above he has regularly contributed numerous articles to periodicals 
and newspapers. 

We have taken no account of the college periodicals, nor 
of the newspapers and magazines, which have been issued from 
Princeton through many years, and which would form several 
volumes. 

The number of authors on the foregoing list is seventy ; and 
the number of original volumes issued by them may be esti- 
mated at four hundred and twent)'-five ; and the published 
matter not yet consolidated and issued as distinct volumes, but 
which will in time be so issued, will probably add one hundred 
and fifty volumes more, making altogether a library of five hun- 
dred and seventy-five volumes. This is an approximate esti- 
mate only, as not a i^zw volumes have been issued anonymously 
for the boards of the church and religious associations. 



CHAPTER XXXI. 

WOMAN'S CHAPTER IN PRINCETON HISTORY. 

There is not a I'nlace of Knowledge on earth, 
That vies with the genius of blood-ioyal birlh ; 
After all we have done when our life-dust is laid, 
We are but the men that our mothers have made. 

Author of "' The Priiicfton Poets!' 

In the numerous biographical sketches herein before pre- 
sented, of the men of Princeton, we have made little or no 
mention of the excellent and noble women — the mothers and 
wives — the sisters and daughters of those distinguished men. 
It would be unjust as well as ungallant, in the history of a 
community where woman, both at home and in society, is 
enthroned as queen over the will, the affections and the man- 
ners of man, — to ignore that gentle, moulding, refining, enno- 
bling influence by which she maintains her regal sovereignty 
over him. Doubtless while we have been exhibiting the char- 
acter and the noble deeds of the sons of Princeton through 
several generations, the question has often arisen. Where is 
the Mother of the Gracchi? 

Outside of the retired and domestic sphere in which the true 
woman exhibits her highest virtues, unrecorded though not 
unfelt, there is but little material to be gathered for biography. 
And yet there is hardly a great name which belongs to Prince- 
ton, which is not associated with, and affected by, the peculiar 
influence of an excellent mother, or a gifted wife. 

We know but little of the wives of the first settlers" of Prince- 
ton. Benjamin Clarke, Joseph Olden, and the two Worths, 
married four sisters, daughters of James Giles, a highly respect- 
able Quaker family, of some prominence and estate, in the 
County of Middlesex, near Bound Brook, N.J. Reference to 
the names of the persons who intermarried with ihose early 
settlers and their families, as given in the second chapter gf our 




p/'^^^^T^^xyA. cy^ ^--^^^^^^y^. 



JVOMAA^'S CHAPTER. 407 

first volume, will at least raise a presumption that the wives 
were as pious and intelligent as their husbands, for many gen- 
erations thereafter, 

Susanna Stockton, the wife of the first Richard Stockton 
who bought of Penn and settled here, appears to have been a 
highly respectable and intelligent woman. Her husband ap- 
pointed her the sole executrix of his will, and he had a large 
estate and six sons. There is nothing special known of the 
wives of the Fitz Randolphs or the Leonards, except that they 
were influential in society in their day. 

In the next generation John Stockton, the father of the 
signer, was a pious Presbyterian, whether so through his wife's 
influence or not, we can only surmise. We do not know who 
she was, but she kept a prophet's chamber in her house and 
entertained the Brainerds and other travelling ministers. 

But we have something tangible when we come to the home 
of Richard Stockton, the Signer of the Declaration. Mrs. 
Stockton was Annis BoUDINOT, from Elisabethtown, the 
sister of Elias Boudinot, a true Huguenot Presbyterian — a 
woman of strong intellect, with more than ordinary culture 
and piety ; and she impressed her character upon her husband 
and children so that it was not lost for several generations in 
the family. Our readers will recur to the 84th page in our 
first volume, where she is mentioned with her husband. She 
was the most distinguished and prominent woman in Princeton 
in her day. She was domestic and patriotic: she was literary 
and religious. 

When the approach of the British army disbanded the col- 
lege in 1776, Mrs. Stockton was entrusted with the custody of 
some articles of furniture of the American Whig Society. So 
great was the idea of secrecy involved, that she was aftervvards, 
ex necessitate made a member of that society — the only in- 
stance in which a lady has been initiated into the secret mys- 
teries of that literary brotherhood. 

Mrs. Stockton wrote a drama on "The Triumph of Mild- 
ness," in five acts, which she never puljlished ; and she wrote 
numerous poems and odes, some of which appeared in the 
papers, but she sought to prevent publication of them. 
She wrote an elegiac ode to her husband in his sickness, in 



408 HISTORY OF PR/IVCETOA': 

1780, which is published in Mrs. Ellet's "Women of the Revo- 
lution," vol. 3, p. 33, in eight verses, beginning- : 

"Sleep, balmy .sleep has closed the eyes of all ; 
But me — ah me ! no respite can I gain," 

and one yearly, on his death, from 178 1 to 1786— the one of 
1782 was published in the N. J. Gazette, signed " Emilia." 
One of her fugitive poems appeared in the Princeton Paeket, 
in 1787; one to Washington, on the surrender of Cornwallis[ 
in the AL J. Gazette, signed " Emilia." To this one, General 
Washington replied in a short, modest letter, dated Philadel- 
phia, July 22, 1782. 

Upon the announcement of peace in 1783, Mrs. Stockton 
addressed another ode, of forty lines, to General Washington, 
commencing 

" With all thy country's blessings on thy head." 

(We are not at liberty to publish it.) To which General Wash- 
ington replied in a letter dated Rocky Hill, Sept. 2, 1783. 
This letter is more sprightly and playful than anything we 
have read of General Washington, and we are not aware that' 
it has ever been published, except recently by Mrs. Ellet in 
the volume above referred to. 

Mrs.. Stockton served on a committee with Lady Sterling, 
Mrs. Wm. Paterson, Mrs. Deare, Mrs. Morgan, and Mrs. Neilson,' 
to aid the Continental army. She gave the name of Morven 
to the Stockton residence. She entertained members of Con- 
gress at Morven, while sitting at Princeton. She was a woman 
of great force of character, and died uttering as her last words 
the lines of Watts : 

"Lord, I am thine, but thou wilt prove." 

There can be no doubt of the Christian influence e.xerted by 
her upon her husband in his public life, and upon their children, 
Richard and Horatio Stockton— and Julia (Mrs. Dr. Rush), 
Susan (Mrs. Alexander Cuthbert), Mary (Mrs. Rev. Andrew 
Hunter), and Abby (Mrs. Robert Field)— all of whom have 
exerted a like influence upon their children and descendants, ~ 
down to the present day. 



IFOA/AN'S CHAPTER. 409 

The wives of other patriots of the Revolution were of the 
same religious stamp. Mrs. Jonathan Sergeant was a daughter 
of President Dickinson; Mrs. Jonathan Dickinson Sergeant 
was a daughter of the Rev. Elihu Spencer, D. D. ; Mrs. Jona- 
than Baldwin was a daughter of Jonathan Sergeant, Mrs. Enos 
Kelsey was a sister of the Rev. Mr. Davenport, pastor of the 
Pennington church, all strong Calvinistic Presbyterians. 

Mrs. Jonathan Deare was the beautiful daughter of William 
Phillips, of Lawrence township, and her daughters, Mrs. Snow- 
den and Miss Mary Deare, have in later years, in Princeton, at- 
tested the careful training their parents had bestowed upon 
them. 

Mrs. President Burr, the accomplished daughter of Presi- 
dent Edwards, who is described by Dr. Miller, as " distinguished 
for an attractive exterior, for a richly endowed and highly cul- 
tivated mind, and for earnest, consistent piety," was, like her 
mother, not only qualified to be the wife of a distinguished 
minister and college president, but was an example lo her sex. 

Mrs. President Edwards (.Sarah Pierrepont) 

"was a person of much personal attraction added to an unusual amount of those 
intellectual and moral qualities whicli fit the possessor to adorn the most important 
stations. She had an education the best that tiie country afforded, fervent and en- 
lightened piety, and an uncommon share of that prudence, dignity and polish svliich 
are so peculiarly valuable in the wife of a pastor. .She seems to have lakcn ujion 
herself the whole management of his family, and thus to have relieved liei hush.uid 
from all the anxieties and interruptions of domestic care, and left him at liheriy to 
pursue his studies without remission."* 

We referred t-o her in a former chapter, in connection with 
her husband as president of the college. 

The training of President Davies by his mother, who con- 
secrated him to the Lord and to the ministry from his birth, 
is generally known. Her faith was beautifully illustrated when 
she stood gazing upon the coffined remains of her son, and ex- 
claimed, " There is the son of my prayers and of my hopes, my 
only son, my only earthly support ; but there is the will of 
God, and I am satisfied." 

Dr. Witherspoon's mother was the daughter of a clergy- 
man, in a line of descent for two hundred years, from John ~ 

* Dr. Miller's Life of Edwards. 



4IO HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

Knox, the Reformer ; and his wife is represented to have been 
"a Scotch woman of marked piety, amiable and of fine social 
manners, which won the love of all who knew her," and their 
dau<,diters partook of her character. Their daughter Frances, 
Mrs. Dr. Ramsay, is said in the Memoir of her by her husband, 
to have been "a cultivated woman — a tender wife — and an 
excellent mother," and some productions of her pen are pub- 
lished in that Memoir. 

President Stanhope Smith's mother, the daughter of Rev. 
Samuel Blair, is described as one who " had high intellectual 
endowments and excellent moral qualities, and was fitted to 
grace the most exalted station in society." His wife. Miss 
Witherspoon, by culture, piety, and intellect was a congenial 
companion to him. 

Dr. Ashbel Green's mother was the daughter of a clergy- 
man. Rev. John Pierson, and she united with her husband in a 
rigid religious training of their children. 

Mrs. Dr. John Maclean (Miss Phebe Bainbridge) was a 
woman of superior intelligence and devoted piety, and her in- 
fluence upon her husband and children was very great. Her 
daughters, Agnes and Mary B. Maclean, deceased, like her were 
eminently pious, and her sons, the ex-president and his brothers, 
love to speak of their mother's great excellence and influence. 

Mrs. Dr. Archibald Alexander (Miss Waddel) who has been 
so highly honored by her children and who contributed so much 
to the comfort and success of her husband, is thus spoken of 
by her son, Dr. James Alexander, in the biography of his father: 

" If the uncommon lieauty and artless grace of this lady were strong attractions 
in the days of youth, there were higher qualities which made the union inexpressibly 
felicitous during almost half a century. For domestic wisdom, self-sacrificing affec- 
tion, humble piety, industry, exhaustless stores of vivacious conversation, hospi- 
tality to friends, sympathy with his cares and love to their cliildren, she was such a 
gift as God bestows oidy on the most favored. When his spirits flagged she was 
always prompt and skilful to cheer and comfort, and as his days \\ere filled with 
spiritual and literary toils, she relieved him from the whole charge of domestic 
afTairs." 

Mrs. Dr. Samuel Miller (Sarah Sergeant) sustained the same 
happy and helpful relation to her husband and their children, 
that Mrs. President Edwards and Mrs. Dr. Alexander did to 



WOMAN'S CHAPTER. 4II 

theirs. She reHeved him from the whole charge of his domes- 
tic affairs while he was pastor in New York, and while profes- 
sor in Princeton. She was a woman well educated, of fine 
intellect and strong will, and was always accustomed to mingle 
in the society of strong-minded and learned men, who partook 
of the hospitalities of her home. She devoted her married life 
to religion in its most practical and self-denying application. 
She was, even to the very end of life, a close student of the 
Bible, and was accustomed to spend a portion of the day, gen- 
erally after breakfast, at her table with her Bible and Commen- 
tary, in reading and studying the word of God, as though she 
were a teacher in the seminary ; and she was always prepared 
to take part in the discussion of religious questions that might 
arise among the clerical guests at her house or among her own 
children. She was a leading character in the religious circle of 
Princeton women. In associations benevolent and educational 
as well as devotional, she was the acknowledged leader. She 
opened her hand to the poor, and was never happy unless she 
had some schemes for doing good in hand. The journal of her 
religious experience which is published in the first volume of 
Dr. Miller's biography, exhibits the wonderful power with 
which personal religion took hold of her. Dr. Miller was ever 
ready to acknowledge how dependent he was upon her for all 
he was able to accomplish. She is entitled to be noticed among 
the excellent women of Princeton who exerted a controlling 
influence upon Princeton society for half a century. 

The influence of woman is exhibited also by Dr. Miller, 
who in speaking of his own mother says : 

" She was one of the most pious women I ever knew. Courteous and benevo- 
lent in a very uncommon degree, she endeared herself to all who knew her. ... I 
never think of her ch.aracler, taken altogether, without a mixture of veneration, 
wonder and gratitude. The fidelity with which she instructed me ; the fervor and 
tenderness with wliich she prajed with me, and the increasing care with which she 
watched over all my interests, especially those of a moral and religious nature, have 
been as I should think seldom equalled." 

And we have just now since Dr. Modgc's death, testimony 
of the moulding influence which his intelligent and i)ious 
mother exerted over him in his youthful days. Mis filial ascri|>- 
tion of the honor and praise for his useful and successful life. 



4 1 2 niS TOR V OF PRINCE TON. 

to her nurture and training- of him, almost makes one hesitate 
whether to praise more the mother or the son. 

Mrs. Rev. William C. Schenck (Miss Scudder), Mrs. Rev. 
George S. Woodhull (Miss Neilson), and Mrs. Rev. Benjamin 
H. Rice (Miss Alexander), were each models of pastoi^s' wives : 
as pious, as zealous, as influential, as useful, and as beloved in 
the community as their respective husbands were. 

We might extend this enumeration through other profes- 
sions and walks of life, and find names of women notable for 
the moral excellence and domestic influence which adorned 
Princeton society, until it would require pages to record them. 
The old Presbyterian church records contain the names of the 
wives and daughters of every prominent family which has found 
a place in the history of Princeton, unless an exception be 
found in the present generation. 

In the line of female authorship but little has been done, 
except by Mrs. Tuthill and her daughters, who have written 
over a hundred volumes; and they are entitled to be classed 
among the most literary families of Princeton. Doubtless the 
names of many Princeton ladies will appear in " The Princeton 
Poets," — a volume soon to be issued. 

The ladies of Princeton maintain a library of their own, 
known as the Ivy Hall Library, which contains about fifteen 
hundred well selected volumes; and they frequently enjoy 
courses of lectures on English Literature, History, and the 
Fine Arts, by some of the professors of the institutions. 

We shall adduce but one more historic fact in the line of 
female character and accomplishments, and this is quite com- 
plimentary to the young ladies of Princeton. It has been cus- 
tomary since the college and seminary have been established 
here for some of the graduates of these institutions, not only 
to carry away with them their parchment diplomas, but to 
take as a much more valuable prize, some of Princeton's fair 
daughters for wives. This process has been going on so 
steadily, year by year, for more than a century, that it seems 
to have become a conceded prerogative of the institutions. In 
fact the first example was set by Richard Stockton, who was a 
member of the first class in the college when it was opened at 
Elisabethtown. It was there, while he was in college in 1748, 



WOAfAA^'S CHAPTER. 4I3 

that he met Miss Annis Boudinot, ami afterwards brought her 
to Princeton as his wife. Simihir reprisals have been made 
here since the college was removed to this place, beginning in 
the family of President Burr, by Tapping Reeve, who captured 
the president's daughter. The homes of President 'Wither- 
spoon, President Smith, and President Carnahan were all in 
like manner invaded ; and there has scarcely been a family with 
fair daughters in Princeton within the last hundred and twenty- 
five years, which has not been called upon to surrend r one 
or more of them in marriage to young graduates of the insti- 
tutions. 

The old families of the Stocktons, the Bayards, the Fields, 
the Morfords, the Hamiltons, the Passages, the Whites, the 
Sansburys, the Jolines, the Wilsons, the Gulicks, the Flowells, 
and we can enumerate over a hundred, all made the consecra- 
tion of at least one of their intelligent and lovely daughters 
to some of these educated and sometimes greatly distinguished 
young men, whose residences were often far from Princeton. 

In this way Princeton is depopulated of her young women. 
And in this way the influence of Princeton is diffused through- 
out the country and the world. .She has sent out more of her 
daughters than her sons ; unlike old Berkshire in Massachusetts, 
which has sent out her sons, rather than daughters, to bless 
other communities. 



CHAPTER XXXII. 

THE CEMETERY. 

The Quaker Burying Ground at Stony Brook and several otliers in and near Prince- 
ton — History of the Princeton Cemetery, inchuling the original Grave-vard — 
More celebrated for its Ashes than its Statuary— A Ramble among its Tombs — 
Special Notice of the Graves of t!ie Presidents, and of Col. Aaron Burr— The 
Improvements in the New Cemetery — General Suggestions. 

" Garden of the quiet Dead ! 

Seed-ground of Eternity ! 
Many a weary heart and head 

Longs for silence and for tliee : 
Here shall sorrow's hand no more 

Sweep the soul's discordant strings, 
And the lyre which oft before 

Thrilled to Love's young caroUings, 
Voiceless lies from morn till even, 
But it shall be woke in Heaven. 

" Island art thou of the Blest, 

In Life's ever heaving Sea ; 
Here Earth's weary ones may rest, 

From the billows' mockery ; 
Rage ye winds, that vex the sky. 

Chilling summer into death, 
But where tliese sweet sleepers lie. 

Hush your voices to a breath ; 
Kiss the roses till they yield 
Perfume to the stilly field. 

" Heaven's entrnnce way thou art, 

From beggar's hut and chair of state : 
The throbbings of the dying heart 

Are only knockings at thy gate ; 
Other homes may scorn to yield 

Shelter from the bitter rain ; 
At thy door, oh, Burial Field ! 

Pilgrim never knocked in vain : 
On thy breast we still may fall, 
Earth, thou Mother of us all. 



THE CEMETERY. 415 

" Lulletl to sleep in thine emlirace 

Many a weary balje shall lie, 
And the chief whose visored face, 

Blanched not at tlie battle cry. 
Here no more the bride shall dream. 

Of the rose less fair than she, 
And olive-shaded Academe 

Shall fade from Pluto's memory ; 
Oh mysterious jjlace of rest, 
Take thy children to thy breast !" * 

Before we introduce what is known as the Princeton 
Cemetery, we wish to notice several other burial places in its 
vicinity. 

The earliest and most prominent place of burial prior to 
the Revolutionary War was the one at the Quaker Meeting 
House at Stony Brook. The first settlers and their descend- 
ants for many generations, were buried there. The Clarke, 
Olden, liornor and Worth families have used no other place 
than that ; the Stockton family continued to use it for upwards 
of a hundred years. Richard Stockton, the Signer of the De- 
claration, was buried there, and there is no monument to 
mark his grave. It is a peculiarity of the Quakers which 
forbids the use of tombstones or monuments of any kind to 
designate one grave from another, or perpetuate the naincs of 
the dead. This custom is attended with a great disadvantage 
to the historian who is searching for family genealogies and 
the dates of important deaths. 

Richard Stockton, the son of the signer, and his descend- 
ants who have died in Princeton, have been buried in the Pres- 
byterian burying ground, now a part of the cemetery. He 
seems to have been the first in that branch of the family that 
was not buried by the side of his fathers. Job Stockton, how- 
ever, was buried in the old Presbyterian ground, as early as 
1 77 1. There are but few interments made at Stony Brook in 
these days, and it will soon be difl'icult to find in that ground 
any evidence upon the surface that it was ever a place of sep- 
ulture. The old stone meeting-house and school-house, both 
closed, stand at one corner of the burying ground, which is 

* These lines were written by Fitz Hugh Ludlow for the Nassau Literary 
Magazine, in 1854, and appear in " The Princeton Poets." 

"i\ 

■ i -' 

■jii 



4l6 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

enclosed by a stone wall, all cominenaorative of past gen- 
erations. 

" Beneath those rugged elms, that yew tree's shade, 

Where heaves the turf in many a mouldering heap, 
Each in his narrow cell for ever laid. 

The rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep." 

There is another ancient one on Penn's Neck, where the 
Schenck family and some of their neighbors have been accus- 
tomed to bury, for more than a century past. It was custom- 
ary among" the early settlers for two or three adjoining land- 
holders to set apart a little corner of their farms for burial pur- 
poses, principally for the use of their own families and those 
that should succeed them. This explains the recent mysteri- 
ous finding of human remains, when excavating in the public 
highway, between Miss Susan Olden's and the Potter property 
in Washington Street. That public road was laid out on the 
line dividing the two farms of Jonathan Sergeant, afterwards 
the Joseph Olden farm, and of Jonathan Baldwin, afterwards 
called Prospect. At the upper corner of those farms, a family 
burying ground was set off just before the Revolutionary War. 
Jonathan Sergeant, who died of small-pox taken from the 
soldiers, was buried hastily, and unquestionably in that ground, 
and his wife, who was a daughter of Jonathan Dickinson, was 
probably buried there also. The surviving family removed 
from Princeton before monuments could be erected, and the 
highway was soon after opened on the line and over the graves 
there at that time. Such is the tradition in the family.* 

There was a small grave-yard also on the property of Miss 
Julia Smith, about one hundred and eighty-five feet from Nas- 
sau Street, along the line of Miss Passage, of thirty-five by 
seventy feet, unenclosed and without monuments. It is prob- 
able that the Fitz Randolphs were buried here, as they owned 
the land and we cannot learn of their burial elsewhere. 

* This may acciiunt for the little cluster of gr.ives near that spot in Mrs. Pot- 
ter's field, where a tombstone maiks the grave of " Miss Catherine Bullock, daugh- 
ter of Josej)!! and Esther Bullock, of l'hil.ulel])hia, who after a tedious illness which 
she hore with exemplary resignation, died June 7, 1794, aged 22 years." She died 
while on a visit to the family of Col. Morgan, then the owner of Prospect. This 
was not a lone and secluded grave, but was near the spot where the family supposed 
the grave-yard had been. There is no foundation for the tradition of the scandal 
so long kept alive to the injury of her good name. 



THE CEMETERY. 417 

The Potter family have a private burial place in a nook of 
land adjoining the Episcopal church and rectory. It is secluded, 
and embellished with beautiful and costly monuments. 

The Roman Catholics have a cemetery in connection with 
their church. It is of recent origin, but is large, and orna- 
mented with walks, evergreens and monuments. 

The Princeton Cemetery, or Presbyterian Burying 
Ground, is situated on the north corner of Witherspoon and 
Wiggins Streets, opposite the old parsonage. It contains 
about ten acres of land, and has been acquired in several dif- 
ferent parcels, and is irregular in its boundaries. The original 
burying ground was on Witherspoon Street adjoining the Wio-_ 
gins parsonage, before Wiggins Street was opened. It was 
conveyed by Thomas Leonard to the trustees of the college 
for a burying ground, at or about the time the college was 
built. It was described as a burying ground in 1763, in a deed 
of adjoining land from Thomas Leonard to Thomas Wiggins ; 
and there is a tomb-stone over the grave of Dickinson Shep- 
herd, a student of Nassau Hall, who was buried there in the 
yeai 1761. 

The minutes of the trustees of the college in 1772 show 
that six several deeds to the college were reported in hand, 
and that three were missing. Among the six was one " from 
Thomas Leonard for a burying ground." In 1796 the same 
minutes, page 358, state that " the deed from Thomas Leonard 
to the Trustees for the Burial Ground was lost, and measures 
were taken to apply to Court for confirmation." 

It is understood that the trustees of college conveyed this 
burying ground lot to the trustees of the Presbyterian church. 
James S. Green having been requested to examine into the 
history and title of the grave-yard, reported in 1847, that this 
portion of it had been conveyed by the college to the church. 
But this deed is not found at present among the church papers. 
In 1783 an agreement was made by the trustees of the church 
with the college not to bury any person on the church lot, out- 
side of the walls of the church. From that day to the present 
time this burying ground has been regarded as belonging to 
the Presbyterian church — has been subjected to rules prescribed 



4lS HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

by its trustees, and has been kept in repair by them and held 
in their undisputed possession. Dr. Wiggins never owned it. 
It was a grave-yard before he removed to Princeton. 

In 1847 tl^^ trustees of the church sold the parsonage prop- 
erty, opened Wiggins Street, and reserved three acres of land 
on the east side of the burying ground for the purposes of a 
cemetery, to be incorporated with the old grave-yard. They 
adopted Rules to regulate the cemetery: i. Setting the land 
apart for white persons, except such part as shall be added to 
the colored burying ground on the north side — the trustees 
having in 1807, set apart a portion of the Wiggins land for 
such use, with a right of way from Witherspoon Street over 
the land of Helena — by their resolution defining its boundaries. 
2. The Cemetery is to be under the management of the Trus- 
tees of the First Presbyterian Church. 3. The treasurer of 
the church is to be the treasurer of the cemetery, but is to 
keep a distinct account of the funds separate from the church 
account. 4. Proceeds from sales of lots to be applied to fen- 
cing, grading, beautifying and improving the cemetery, includ- 
ing the old grave-yard. 5. Trustees to have the disposal of 
burial lots to such persons and in such manner as they deem 
advisable. 6. Purchasers shall receive a deed, subject to re- 
strictions therein prescribed. 

Dr. J. S. Schanck, President of the Board of Trustees has 
the immediate superintendence of the Cemetery, and has ren- 
dered a long term of gratuitous but useful service in this trust. 

Within the past year about four acres of land, with a house 
upon it, have been presented by Paul Tulane, to the trustees 
of the church, to be annexed to the cemetery for its enlarge- 
ment. This tract adjoins it at the northeast corner. Mr. Tu- 
lane has also purchased, with a view of adding it to the cem- 
etery, a lot on Witherspoon Street, on the north side of the 
old burying ground. 

With the exception of a brick wall on Witherspoon Street, 
which the trustees built in 1836, the enclosure is only an old 
dilapidated board fence. There is nb imposing entrance gate ; 
no chapel at the threshold for religious rites ; no house for the 
keeper of the grounds. There are a few gravelled carriage 
ways and walks; and perhaps a hundred thousand dollars 



THE CEMETERY. 4^9 

have been expended for memorial monuments which almost 
cover the small parcels of ground apportioned to the respective 
lot-owners. The grass is not kept always nicely mowed ; nor 
are the evergreens kept trimmed with artistic skill. 

What a contrast there is between this little country village 
burying ground and Mount Auburn with its hundred and thirty 
acres of improved and beautified land, with its charming-variety 
of lake and hill-side, of wood and dale, of long circuitous car- 
riage drives ; its chapel with its solemn, silent statu:iry, and its 
sentinels and guides daily showing mournful processions and 
weeping friends to the sacred spot they are seeking; — Mount 
Auburn with its costly monuments of iron, granite and marble 
surrounded with flower beds and green grass like velvet, and 
where almost every family seems to have a natural seclusion 
from every other : — the whole overlooked from an observatory 
on the ground, and from which Boston and its environs for 
many miles can be seen in an enchanting panorama ! 

What a contrast with Greenwood, that other beautiful city 
of the dead, so profuse in the display of art and the embellish- 
ments of nature unsurpassed ! Or with Laurel Hill, which is 
hardly inferior to the others in any respect ! 

Why is it that Princeton Cemetery is visited with so much 
interest by strangers, and so often made the theme of news- 
paper correspondence? Why is it calied the " Westminstei 
Abbey of America?" Why is it that its tombstones show 
cragged corners, and that great vigilance is required to prevent 
chips of marble from being broken and carried off as valuable 
relics? The answer can only be found in the precious dust 
that lies beneath the surface; the dust of those distinguished 
persons whose character and lives we have been describing in 
these volumes. It is this, and only this, that makes this cem- 
eterv a place of such sacred and widely-felt interest. 

Let us enter by the gate on Witherspoon Street, and ram- 
ble for a few moments among the tombs, noting only some of 
the old family names, and not staying to read the inscriptions 
except in special cases. 

On our right we note the tombs of Zebulon Morford, the 
Dentons, the Bogarts, the Warrens. We come to an old, dark 
horizontal marble tablet to the memory of " Dr. Thomas Wig- 



420 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

gins, many years a diligent and fnithful physician in the town 
of Princeton, and an elder in the church," who died, Nov. ii, 
1804. The trustees of the congregation in testimony of their 
esteem for his worth and of their gratitude for his pious liber- 
ality in devising to them a parsonage, erected this monu- 
ment. His relatives, the Simpsons, were buried by him. 
Near it stands a monument to the memory of Adelaide Elisa- 
beth Charlotte, daughter of Gerardine A. and Roger Gerard 
Van Polanen, late Minister Resident of the liatavian Republic, 
near the United States of America. Born at sea, on the great 
Indian Ocean, on the 29th of March, 1805, she died in Prince- 
ton, April 30, 1808, where that family resided for some years. 
Not far off is the tomb of Sarah Martin, who died in 1 834. She 
is remembered as Miss Sally Martin, the teacher. Just before 
us are the graves of some I'rench refugees, the Tulanes, Rev. 
Anthony Schmit and Larue. Farther to the right we see the 
monuments of the Janviers, of Dr. Samuel L. Howell and his 
son, William Meade Howell, a student in college; also those 
of Col. John Lowrey and Dr. John Van Cleve. There is also 
a monument to Elisabeth Skelton, who died in 1826, in the 
seventy-third year of her age. 

On our left from the gate where we started, we pass by the 
Strykers, Andersons, Sansburys, Burkes, Higgins, Naptons, and 
Aaron Mattison, who was buried in 1762, aged eighty-one 
years ; and the vault of Jacob W. Lane, near which is the grave 
of Abram Terhune ; and an old red stone sunk deep into the 
ground, on which we can decipher the name of the wife of 
Whitehead Leonard. 

Near the side of the walk is an old marble tablet— so dingy 
and weather-beaten that it is difficult to read the inscription 
upon it : 

" Sacred to the Memory of the 

HoNORAUi.t: John Bfurif.n. one of the 

Justices of the Supreme Court of Judicature of 

The Province of New Jersey, who died much lamented 

on the 22d day of April, A. D. 1772. in 

the 6ist year of his age." 

Near it are the names of Job Stockton and family, of Wil- 
liam Millett and William Scudder, and Brook Farmer, son of 



THE CEMETERY. 42 1 

Col. Farmer, of New Brunswick, who died, Nov. 7, 1779, in the 
sixty-second year of his age. 

It is a little east of this position that we see a perpendicular 
slab with this inscription upon it : • 

" In memory of Gviy Chew, a Moh.-vwk Indian, who departed this life April 19th, 
1S26, aged 21 years and 8 months. This youth continued in pagan darkness until 
his i8th year, when under the patronage of U. V. HI. .Society he was sent to the 
Mission School at Cornwall, Conn. Here he remained three years, experienced the 
renewing grace of God, and became eminent for his benevolence, piety and desire 
to proclaim the Gospel to his countrymen. While preparing for this blessed work, 
he was by a Mysterious Providence called away in the morning of his days. Reader, 
pray for the Indians." 

In passing through the remaining half of the original ground 
we meet with more costly monuments and more illustrious 
names. On the right or southern side of the walk there is a 
beautiful enclosure around the Bayard, Dod and Beatty lots. 
Here we see the monuments of Judge Bayard and his family; 
and a beautiful marble column, highly ornamented with mili- 
tary devices, erected to the memory of Gen. George Dashiel 
Bayard, a graduate of West Point, a captain in the U. S. Cav- 
alry, a brigadier-general of the U. S. Volunteers, who fell mor- 
tally wounded in the battle of Fredericksburgh, Va., and died 
Dec. 14, 1862. 

" Sans peur et sans reproche." 

His father, Samuel J. Bayard, has recently been buried by 
his side. 

Adjoining it on the south, stands another exquisitely beau- 
tiful marble monument, with ivy creeping to the top of it and 
leaving only uncovered the inscription : "Charles Hodge Dod, 
born in Princeton, June 13, 1841. Died in the faith and hope 
of the Gospel at City Point, Virginia, Aug. 27, 1864, while in 
the service of his country as Captain on the Staff of Major-Gen- 
eral Hancock. So he givcth his beloved sleep." 

There too, is the tomb of his father, Ivev. Albert B. Dod, 
and the tomb of Sarah Washington, the widow of Col. William 
Washington, of Virginia, who died at Princeton in 1834, ''^ the 
seventieth year of her age, into whose family Miss Julia Bayard 
married. 

Next on the south are the names of Beatty and of Guild, 
whose families are related. Cok Erkuries Beatty died, P>b. 3, 



422 HISTORY OF PKINCETOX. 

1823, in the sixty-fourth year of his age, after having faithfully 
served his country in various important stations, civil and mili- 
tary. His monument is filled with an inscription of nieritorious 
services and character. A very handsome monument of marble 
about twelve feet high, capped with an urn draped, is erected 
to the Guild family. Within a few steps are the tombs of Enos 
Kelsey, of Revolutionary fame, of Major Stephen Morford, who 
in his youth took an active part in the struggle for American 
Independence and was through life a friend of his country ; and 
of Edmund Morford, John Hamilton, and Capt. James Moore, 
who was an active officer in the militia of New Jersey, in the 
Revolution, all of whom have been noticed in previous chapters. 
Here also is a monument to Richard Cantwcll, Esq., of Dela- 
ware, who died here in 1787; one to Rev. John Cruikshanks, 
of South Carolina; one to John S. Wilson ; one to John Van 
Horn; one to Augustus Van Horn; one to Dr. James ]^ox 
Young, of Georgia. In a little square enclosed by an evergreen 
hedge is the tomb of Dr. William Forman and other members 
of his family. The Woodhull monuments are enclosed near 
by; and there is a tablet to the memory of Rev. Robert Gib- 
son, a native of Charleston, who died a resident of Princeton, 
in 1829. Monuments to the family of Robert Voorhees stand 
in this vicinity. 

The Stockton lot is on the south side, next to Wiggins 
Street, and adjoins the graves of the presidents on the east. 
It is enclosed by an iron fence and a hemlock hedge, and within 
it we find a large number of tasteful and costly monuments of 
white marble, covering the graves of Richard Stockton, LL. D., 
his children, his grand and great-grandchildren, and other kin- 
dred, the Hunters and others. 

Adjoining the Stockton lot is a piece of ground about fifty 
feet in length and twenty-five in width, enclosed with an iron 
fence about three feet high. It is the old college burial lot, and 
contains 

The Graves of the Presidents. 

This is a chief object of public interest, and we pause for a 
moment to notice it. We must bear in mind that President 
Jonathan Dickinson died and was buried in Pllisabethtown, 
before the college had been removed to Princeton. A menu- 



THE CEMETERY. 



423 



meat to his memory can be seen in the Presbyterian buryinir 
ground at the former place, recognizing him as a pastor of the 







CRAVES OP THE rHESIUENTS. 



church, but not referring to the infant college. It bears the 
following inscription : 

Here lies ye body of ye Revd. 
Mr. Jonathan Dickinson, Pastor 
of the First Presbyterian Church, 
In Elisabeth Town, who died Ocf. 
ye 7th, 1747. ^Etiitis Suk 60. 
Deep was the wound, O Death ! and vastly wide, 
When he resigned his Useful breath and dy'ed ; 
Ye Sacred Tribe with pious Sorrows mourn. 
And drop a tear at your great Patron's Uru ! 
Conceal'd a moment, from our longing Eyes, 
Beneath this Stone his Mortal Body lie^ : 
Happy the Spirit lives, and will, we trust. 
In Bliss associate with his precious Dust, 



THE CEMETERY. 42$ 

is an inscription in Latin to the president, and on the lower 
one is the name of his wife Ann, daughter of Dr. Witherspoon, 
who died in 1817, in the sixty-ninth year of her age. At the 
foot of this tomb, embowered under evergreens, are the graves 
of Dr. Smith's daughters, Mrs. Salomans and Mrs. Pintard. 

Next to President Smith's monument is one to Walter 
Minto and his wife Mary. 

Then comes the tomb of President Green, who died. May 
19, 1848. The names of his last two wives are inscribed one on 
each side of this monument. His first wife has a monument in 
the new cemetery, with her sons, James S. and Jacob Green. 

And next are the tombs of President Carnaiian and 
Mary his wife. He died, March 3, 1S59, ^"^ she in 1854. 
Beyond these at the lower end of the lot, are the tombs of the 
Macleans, and of Miss Bainbridge, daughter of Dr. Absalom 
Bainbridge. 

While thus passing along these honored graves, crowded to- 
gether as though there was not land enough for burial purposes, 
and these monuments, some of which have been here for more 
than a hundred years, showing the decay which time and 
weather can effect even upon marble, besides being broken by 
human hands, the words of Longfellow come to mind : 

" And these sepulchral stones so old and brown, 
That pave with level flags their burial place 
Seem like the tablets of the Law thrown down 
And broken by Moses at the mountain's base." 

. Retracing our steps to the "entrance of this sacred enclosure, 
we notice at the foot of President Burr's tomb and within the 
enclosure, an erect white marble monument of no extraordinary 
pretensions, which has attracted much public interest and given 
rise to many unfounded statements, repeated as often as they 
have been contradicted. It has this simple inscription upon it : 
"Aaron Burr. Born Feb. 6, 1756. Died Sept. 14, 1836. A 
colonel in the army of the Revolution. Vice-President of the 
United States from 1801-5." 

Col. Burr was the son of President Burr and the grandson 
of President Edwards, at whose feet he was buried at his re- 
quest. Left an orphan at the age of three years, he exhibited, 
while under the care of his relatives, a restless and self-reliant 



426 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

spirit, several times running away from home and attempting 
to go to sea. At the age of about thirteen he entered as sopho- 
more at Princeton College, though fully prepared to enter as 
junior. He was placed in that class because of his diminutive 
stature at that time. He was very studious in college the first 
two years, but being so much in advance of his class, he became 
idle, and neglected his studies and habits during his senior year. 
Pleasure was his chief pursuit and he became dissipated. He 
graduated in 1772, when only sixteen years old, receiving the 
highest honors the faculty could bestow upon him. 

Just before his graduation he became aroused on the sub- 
ject of religion in the midst of his pleasure-seeking. He had 
received moral instruction from his infancy. He now went and 
related his experience to Dr. Witherspoon, who tranquilized 
his mind by assuring him that it was fanaticism and not true 
religion that was operating upon him. His religious anxieties 
still clung to him, and he sought further light from the Rev. 
Joseph Ik'llamy, determined not to settle upon the business of 
life until he had settled this question. The Calvinistic side of 
religion was not so presented to him as to commend itself to 
his mind, and he unfortunately " came to the conclusion that 
the road to Heaven was open to all alike." He afterwards 
avoided religious disputations, and his biographer says, though 
it is not known what form of unbelief had seized his mind, he 
never sought salvation by a virtuous life. He seemed never 
after this to recognize a moral obligation. 

Col. Burr studied law and settled in New York City. He 
served with distinction as a colonel in the Revolution, and after 
the war entered the field of politics. In 1800, as a step in the 
election to the United States presidency, he carried the city of 
New York for the Democratic, then known as the Republican, 
party. Jefferson and Burr received tie votes in Congress for 
president, until on the thirty-sixth balloting, Jefferson was 
elected President and Burr Vice-President of the United States 
for four years. 

He was a man of brilliant talents, strong will and passion, 
and most captivating manners and conversation. 

There were two public acts in his life which brought upon 
him a terrible public condemnation. One involved the charge 



THE CEMETERY. 42/ 

of treason for seeking the dismemberment of the Federal Union, 
for which he was tried and acquitted. There are but few if any 
statesmen at the present day who beheve that Col. Burr, though 
ambitious in his designs, intended any crime against his own 
country; but that he only sought to embroil Mexico in some 
way, so as to form a hew government in which he might be a 
prominent ruler. The other deed was his killing Hamilton in a 
duel. Our great admiration for Col. Hamilton and our regard 
for his talents and eminent services for his country, should not 
blind us to his equal guilt with Col. Burr, in entering the mur- 
derous arena of the duellist. Two such notable men cannot be 
supposed to have intended to act a farce. Unfortunately for 
the country the better man fell, and the survivor only reaped 
the whirlwind of public execration. 

Though acquitted of the charge of treason, and though the 
death of Hamilton was the logical result of that code of honor 
which has some foothold even at the present day, among hon- 
orable and honored men in this and other Christian countries, 
there is no doubt that both those events have intensified public 
feeling against his profligate private character. If he had never 
been tried for treason ; if he had never killed his brilliant an- 
ta<ronist in a duel ; if he had never been vice-president of the 
United States; if he had never been the son of President Burr 
and the grandson of President Edwards, two most eminent 
ministers of the Gospel, his private character would not have 
been subjected to such long continued and unmitigated public 
odium as it has been. 

Col. Burr died in April, 1836, and his remains were brought 
by his friends from New York to Princeton for interment, on 
the i6th of that month. The religious services on the occasion 
were conducted by President Carnahan in the college chapel, 
where he delivered a funeral discourse, after which a procession 
of professors, students and citizens attended the interment. 
There was no secret burial as newspaper correspondents have 
alleged. Nor was this monument to his memory, marking his 
grave, stealthily and by night brought to Princeton by unknown 
persons, and set up where it is, as hcls been again and again 
published in the papers. There is no truth in such statements 
and there is no reason for such alleged action. We are not dis- 



428 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

posed to apologize for Col. Burr's immoralities, though we be- 
lieve public opinion has dealt severely with him. But we repel 
in toto, the idea that it was necessary that the remains of Col. 
Aaron Burr or his tombstone should be brought here secretly, 
and by night, in order to have a place at the feet of the father 
and the grandparents of the deceased. The lineage of such a 
man alone, without reference to his talents and acquirements, 
and the high office he had filled, would in the judgment of 
Princeton society entitle him to the place assigned him in this 
cemetery. 

Theodosia Burr, the beautiful and only daughter of Col. 
Aaron Burr, married Joseph Allston, of South Carolina. In 
December, 1812, she started on the schooner Patriot, from 
Charleston to New York. No tidings were ever received from 
her or of the vessel ; and for years it was feared that she might 
be in the hands of pirates who then infested the southern coast. 
Her fate has remained a mystery until recently. Eight or ten 
years ago, Dr. Pool, as a physician, visited a family near Cape 
Hatteras. On the wall he noticed hanging an exquisite oil 
painting of a beautiful woman. The head of the house, an old 
man, told the doctor that when a youth he found it on a vessel 
which had been wrecked near the cape, in a furious storm which 
occurred in the winter of 181 2 or 181 3. All on board were lost. 
Impressed with the beauty of the picture he took it for his pay. 
A short time ago, he was shown by chance a picture of Theo- 
dosia Burr Allston, and recognized the likeness. Thus after 
nearly three-quarters of a century the mystery is solved.* 

Returning to the central walk we meet the well-enclosed lot 
of the Rev. Samuel Miller, D. D., which contains monuments 
over the graves of himself and Mrs. Miller, and their children, 
including those of Mrs. Dr. John Breckinridge and some of 
her children. Within this enclosure is the tomb of Mrs. Dr. 
B. H. Rice. On the northern side of the walk we are attracted 
by a tall granite shaft in the lot of the Rev. Dr. McGill, erected 
to the memory of his son, the lamented Dr. George M. McGill, 
a surgeon in the United States army, who was brevetted for 
meritorious services in the late war; and died in 1867, while 

* This account of the picture was given in the Trenton State Gazette of July, 
1878. 



THE CEMETERY, 429 

on duty in the far West, ordered there on account of Indian 
hostilities. The name of his young wife, Miss Morris, who 
died a few days before him of cholera, in that country, is in- 
scribed on the same beautiful monument, both worthy of so 
graceful and enduring a memorial. Near it is a beautiful white 
marble tomb of his mother, the wife of the Rev. Dr. McGill. 
Adjoining this lot on the west, is a handsome granite monu- 
ment to Hannah Butler, wife of Edward Howe. 

At the northeast corner of the old burying ground and in 
line of the cemetery, is a small lot enclosed by an iron fence 
and filled with costly monuments. It bears the name of John 
Lawrence Thompson. One of these monuments is inscribed 
with the names of Elisabeth S., Mary and Eugene Thompson, 
wife and children of John L. Thompson, of Lancaster, Penn. 
"These loved ones perished in the waters of the Hudson, in 
attempting to escape from the burning of the steamboat Henry 
Clay, on the 28th day of July, 1852. Wife, daughter, son." 
There are also the tombs of John L. Thompson, of his son, 
and of his parents. 

Passing southward along the line of the old ground, we 
notice the graves of the Craigs, the family lot of Judge Richard 
S. Field and George T. Olmsted, the tombs of Dr. Ebenezer 
Stockton's family, and of Capt. John Little and Grace his wife. 

And now we have come to the new cemetery, more than 
two acres of which have been already occupied. The entrance 
to this, for carriages, is on Wiggins Street, through two iron 
gates near each other; one is at the corner of the old ground. 
Between these two carriage ways and next to the fence, is the 
Alexander lot, enclosed by a low iron rail and eighteen rough 
brownstone posts, about eighteen inches high, with pyramidal 
tops. Within this enclosure are large horizontal marble monu- 
ments over the graves of Rev. Dr. Archibald Alexander and 
his wife, and his sons, Drs. James, and Addison, and Col. Wil- 
liam C. Alexander. Next to this is the lot of Dr. Charles 
Hodge, to whose memory a large white marble monument, in 
the form of those of the Alexanders and the college presidents, 
has just been erected ; and there too, aje other family tombs. 
A little farther and we come to a beautiful family monument 
— perhaps the most tasteful in the whole ground — belonging to 



430 ///STOA'V OF PRINCETON. 

the family of Peter T, Smith ; and quite near it is tlic lot of 
Admiral Crabbe, in which is a broken shaft to the memory of 
his son Thomas, erected by his college class-mates ; and also 
a handsomely designed monument to his daughter Virginia, 
besides those of himself and wife. 

On the east is a lot set apart for College Students, with tall 
marble shafts erected by classmates to the memory of the fol- 
lowing, viz. : David G. Aikin, Thomas J. Tripp, Herman L. 
Piatt, John R. Harrison, Sylvester Larned Hennen, John Hun 
Meads, Robert Ross Herrick, Chester Pierce Butler, Horace 
Coe, Henry Kirkwhite Muse; and a very tall and imposing 
granite shaft erected to Theoderick Bland Pryor, by his class- 
mates, October 15, 1871, gives a sad interest to these tombs. 

Another lot east of the eastern gate, is set apart for Theo- 
logical Students, and here are the tombs of Rudolph Renz, 
Alfred Phillips and Charles H. Young, erected by their fellow- 
students. Passing northward we note the family tombs of John 
Passage, Ralph Gulick. John T. Robinson, Emley Olden, Alex- 
ander M. Hudnut and others, till we come to the handsome 
enclosed monument of John R. Thomson, U. S. senator, and 
to those of James S. Green, Richard Stockton of Mercer Street, 
Charles Steadman, Dr. Jared I. Dunn, Prof. Hope, and the pas- 
tor's lot, which contains the cenotaph of Henry Kollock, D. D., 
the tombs of Rev. W. C. Schenck, his wife and son, and others. 
The Rev. Dr. Macdonald has a family plot on the east side of 
the cemetery, where his beautiful granite monument with an 
inscription on a polished panel, erected by the congregation 
through the trustees, attracts attention. Not far to the north 
of it is a marble shaft to Edward Stockton and his family. He 
was the owner of the Constitution Hill farm for many years, 
and died in 1871. 

Moving to the west, passing the tombs of the Armstrongs 
and the Blodgetts, we come to the enclosed lot of Dr. J. S. 
Schanck, which has a high granite shaft with the names of J. 
Robbins Schanck and others of his children upon it. This was 
the first granite monument introduced into the cemetery. 
Going north from this point, we note the lot of Josejih Olden, 
and then meet a most imposing monument of the Murphy family 
— a tall polished red granite shaft. Near it is a beautiful white 



«-'fJ' 



THE CEMETERY. 43 1 

cruciform marble to Mrs. Joseph H, Bruere ; and a few steps 
from it is the lot of the Rev. George Sheldon, D. D., with a 
handsome marble column inscribed to the memory of his wife, 
Martha Lyman Sheldon, of Northampton, Mass. The Leigh 
family monument of granite, and the Priest monument of mar- 
ble with granite base, are both attractive. 

Among the most prominent tombs on the north side are 
those of Mrs. Stevens, Mrs. Annin, and the Rev. Dr. James 
Wood. Returning by the path on the west side we come to 
the embellished plot of Profs. Guyot and Cameron, but hold ! 

Who is she that floats in white, 
Like a spirit on the niglu ; 
With a face whose life-like smile 
Mocks her sleeping dust the while ? 

See a beautiful white marble pedestal tastefully inscribed 
to Constance Cameron, a lovely little daughter of Prof, and 
Mrs. Cameron, about fourteen years old, who died. May i6, 
1873 ; it is surmounted by an exquisitely beautiful marble statue 
of a little girl in angelic form, as if just ascending to the skies. 

Near on our left, is a handsome monument erected by Mrs. 
Brown, inscribed with the names of Caroline Elmer Brown and 
Amos Littell Brown ; and on our right we notice a lot of the 
Rev. Dr. A. A. Hodge and his brother Charles Hodge, M. D., 
where there are several tombs. A little farther on the left is 
the tomb of William A. Henry, son of Prof. Henry ; and as we 
come near the corner of the old ground we note the grave of 
James Rowand. We have before noticed his tragic death at 
the hands of the murderer Charles Lewis. This significant 
scriptural text is on his tomb: "What we know not now we 
shall know hereafter." 

There are multitudes besides those we have mentioned — 
some perhaps m.ore worthy of notice than many we have 
named ; including the graves of volunteers in the late war and 
the tombs of strangers. 

There is more taste, order and interest shown in the new 
than in the old ground. For several years past an effort 
has been made to raise a large fund to enlarge, enclose and 
adorn these grounds ; but it has not fully succeeded. While 



432 HISTORY OF PRINCE TOA^. 

SO much is done for the Hving in Princeton, more should be 
done for this repository of the dead. It is desirable that there 
should be more land secured ; that there should be a suitable 
enclosure around the whole tract ; that there should be a chapel 
for religious services on the ground, and that there should be a 
keeper of the grounds, constantly in attendance and at work 
upon them. 

In view of the large number of distinguished ministers and 
public men whose dust lies beneath these monuments which we 
have noticed, it is not difficult to explain why this place is 
called " The Westminster Abbey of America." 

"We cannot win them hack, 

And yet wiih frequent tears 
We hriny to mind their cherished forms, 

With thoughts of other years, 
Witli love tliat neither death nor change 
Hath power to sever or estrange. 

" We cannot Vjlot them out 

From memoiy's written page ; 
We cannot count them strangers, but 

As birds in prison cage, 
We beat against the iron bar, 
That keeps us from those friends afar. 

' Oblivion may not hang 

Its curtain o'er their grave ; 
There is no water we can sip 

Like Lethe's lulling wave ; 
But fond affection's moaning wail 
Breaks from us like the autumn gale. 

" Ye are not dead to us. 

But as bright stars unseen. 
Though death invades between ; 
Like a thin cloud that veils from sight 
The countless spangles of the night." 



CHAPTER XXXIII. 

THE CENTENNIAL YEAR. 1876. 

Religious Revival — Visit of Moody and Sankey — Opening of University Hotel — 
Centennial Celebration — Centennial Anniversary of the Battle of Princeton 
celebrated — Full tide of Prosperity. 

The year 1876 was a memorable one in Princeton. Its early- 
months were marked by an extraordinary religious awakening 
which began in the preceding fall, showing itself in the institu- 
tions and in the town. Moody and Sankey, the revivalists of 
wide repute, at the invitation extended to them by Drs. Hodge 
and McCosh, after a conference of the Princeton clergy, made 
a short visit here on their passage from Philadelphia to New 
York, in the month of P^ebruary, remaining from the 5th to the 
7th, preaching on Three days. Their reception was a warm one, 
and the public mind was just ripe for their peculiar services. 

Everybody encouraged them and tendered co-operation. 
The Second Presbyterian Church was packed long before the 
hour of service. The galleries were occupied by students, who 
sang heartily the Gospel Hymns impromptu, before the hour 
of preaching. Mr. Moody never preached more powerfully 
than he did on this occasion. He appreciated his peculiar 
position in this educational town, and he achieved as a lay- 
preacher, a wonderful triumph. The doctors of divinity and 
professors sat delighted under his irresistible preaching. His 
revival measures and inquiry meetings were acquiesced in, and 
even participated in. by the Presbyterian ministers. His preach- 
ing was Calvinistic in doctrine, and pungent in the extreme. 
He drew to him people of all denominations, even Roman 
Catholics ; irreligious and indifferent persons flocked to hear 
him. Such a general awakening had never before been wit- 
nessed in this community. His presentation of the Gospel 
was favorably received by all persons. 

The students of the college as well as of the seminary, en- 



434 HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

gaged actively in evangelistic work in other neighborhoods with 
great success. The two Presbyterian churches were increased 
by about a hundred new members, and nearly the whole of the 
college students who were not so, became professors of religion. 
The evangelist, Mr. Morehouse, had preceded Mr. Moody here 
a year or two, and his preaching and Bible readings in public 
and at the private house of Mr. Mahlon Frost, where he was 
met by theological students, had removed the prejudice against 
iay-preaching and teaching, as his labors were successful. 

Another event of public interest to the community was the 
opening of the University Hotel, in the month of June of this 
year. 

The prominent feature of the centennial year was the CeX- 
TENMAL Celebratiox held at Princeton, on the 27th day of 
June, 1S76. A full account of the proceedings has been pub- 
lished in pamphlet, by the Rev. ^Ir. Ulyat, but we shall only 
briefly refer to it. It was the principal one held in the State, 
and though not strictly a State celebration, the authorities of 
the State and the Legislature had been invited to participate in 
making it worthy of the occasion ; and they did so very com- 
mendably. Gov. Bedle, armed with special authority for the 
])urj:)Ose, detailed two regiments of the National Guard of the 
State, one from Newark and one from Trenton, about fourteen 
hundred men, to assist in the ceremonies. The chief military 
officers present were the Governor and staff, Adj.-Gen. Stryker, 
Gen. Fay, Cols. Vought, Garrctson, Hendrickson, Spencer, 
Hoy and Johnson; also Major-Gens. Mott and Sewell, Ex- 
Govs. Haines, Parker and Ward, and representatives from both 
Houses of the Legislature, the State Judiciary, the Faculties 
of Princeton College and Seminary, and of Rutgers College 
and Seminary. The Society of the Cincinnati, the Historical 
Society and other associations were present. It was estimated 
that there were from eight to twelve thousand people present. 
The day was very warm. 

The exercises of the morning were held in the college cam- 
pus, in an amphitheatre erected around the old historic cannon 
which was captured from the British in the battle of Princeton. 
Gov. Bedle was President of the day. Prayer was offered by 
the Rev. Dr. McCosh, President of the college. An address of 



THE CENTENNIAL YEAR, 1876. 435 

welcome was delivered by the Rev. George Sheldon, D. D., 
who stated as some of the reasons for such a celebration, that 
Princeton was the scene of an important battle; that in 1776 
the British troops held the town, and converted the college 
building and Presbyterian church into barracks and stables: 
and two of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence — 
Dr. John Witherspoon and Richard Stockton, lived there. The 
vocal music was under the direction of John F. Hageman, Jr., 
who led a choir of more than a hundred students. Whittier's 
Centennial Hymn and an Ode written for the occasion by 
the Rev. Prof. Charles W. Shields, were happily rendered. 
The orator of the day was the Rev. Joseph T. Duryea, D. D., 
of Brooklyn, and his subject : " Purity in our National Affairs." 

After the exercises on the campus, the procession was 
formed and marched to Bayard Avenue, where in an open field 
and under a very large tent, a dinner was spread for more than 
a thousand guests. Mere also the Governor presided, assisted 
by Dr. Cameron and Ex-Speaker Vanderbilt. 

The following were the toasts and the names of the persons 
who responded to them : 

1. "The United States": Responded to by Prof. Cameron, who read a letter 
from President Grant, regretting his unavoidable absence. 

2. "The State of New Jersey": Gov. Bedle. 

3. " The Legislature of New Jersey " : Gen. Sewell, Hon. William J. Magie and 
Hon. John Hill. 

4. "The Officers and Soldiers of the Revolutionary War": Hon. L. Q. C. 
Elmer, who represented the Cincinnati. 

5. "The Constitution of 1776": Ex-Gov. Daniel Haines. 

6. " The Battle of Monmouth " : Ex-Gov. Joel Parker. 

7. "Princeton and the Battle F'ield'' : John F. Hageman. 

8. "The New Jersey Historical Society" : Rev. Samuel M. Hamill, D. D. 

9. " The National Guard of New Jersey " : Gen. P. Augustus Fay. 

10. " The College of New Jersey " : President McCosh. 

The day was ushered in by the ringing of the bells and the 
firing of cannon ; and in the evening this was repeated, with 
a general illumination of the town ; and there was a full dis- 
play of bunting. The whole celebration was carried out 
through nineteen different committees, at an expense of $1500, 
raised by a borough tax authorized by law, and was a grand 
success. 



43^ HISTORY OF PRINCETON. 

The centennial spirit was kept alive through the year. The 
college sent its contribution to the International Centennial 
Exhibition in Philadelphia; and the last demonstration inspired 
by the associations of the year, was a celebration of 

The Battle of Princeton, 

on the 3d day of January, 1877. 

This celebration was initiated by the original committee of 
thirteen, which had directed the celebration in June. It was 
chiefly one of military display, in a sham-fight as near as possi- 
ble on the site and after the plan of the original battle. Prince- 
ton furnished three companies of forty-five men each. One of 
these was the uniformed Washington Continental Guards, Capt. 
A. L. Green ; the other two were ununiformed, with J. Leggett 
and J. H. Margerum as captains. Eight companies were from 
abroad, which with the Princeton men made about four hundred 
troops. Col. William Allen, of Newark, represented the British 
commander. Col. Mavvhood ; Gen. J. M. Drake, of Elisabeth, 
represented Gen. Washington, and Col. W. C. Vandewater, 
Gen. Mercer. The staff of officers of Gen. Washington, were 
J. F. Hageman, Jr., W. C. Vandewater, A, Y. Allen, J. Lyons 
and A. M. Gumming. 

The day was fine but intensely cold, and snow had just 
fallen to the depth of fifteen inches on the level. The fight 
ranged from the old battle-field to the college. It was admira- 
bly executed in all its parts. At the close a heavy fire was 
maintained for some minutes, when suddenly the British broke 
in disorder, and Col. William Allen who personated Col. Maw- 
hood, surrendered his sword to Col. John F. Hageman, Jr., 
chief of the staff of Gen. Washington. The American bands 
played Yankee Doodle, and the British reversed arms. 

Afterwards the soldiers on both sides joined in a parade, and 
marched to the University Hotel, where for those from abroad, 
and their officers, an elegant entertainment was provided. The 
whole affair gave great satisfactioi\ to the large crowd of spec- 
tators who thronged the streets. The great papers in the 
cities, represented by reporters, gave flattering accounts of it. 

Since the centennial year the march of improvement has 



THE CENTENNIAL YEAR, 1876. 437 

kept steadily on in Princeton. Private residences and public 
buildings, greatly ornamental to the town, have been rapidly 
multiplied. The stagnation and distress which have been so 
painfully visible in other places throughout the country during 
the general financial depression, have not affected the busy 
workmen who have kept the music of the hammer and the 
stone chisel unceasingly sounding in these streets. College, 
seminary and town are, at the close of the year 1878, in the 
full tide of prosperity. 



CHAPTER XXXIV. 



PROFESSIONAL AND OFFICIAL. 
Physicians — Lawyers — Clergymen — Official Representatives. 

PllYSICL-VNS. The following are the names of physicians 
who have been settled in Princeton, viz. : 



John Beatty, 
Absalom Bainbridge, 
Thomas Wiggins, 
Ebenezer Stockton, 
John Maclean, 
John Van Cleve, 
James Ferguson, 
William Wilson, 
Horatio Sansbury, 
Samuel L. Howell, 
Jared L Dunn, 
Alfred A. Woodhull, 
John N. Woodhull, 
George M. Maclean,* 



William Forman, 
Arciiibald Alexander, Jr.,* 
J. Slillwell Schanck,* 

Ruding, 

Oliver H. Bartine,* 
John II. Janeway, 
William J. Lylle,* 
Wessel T. Stout, 
John H. Wikoff,* 
John II. Warren, 
Klias C. Baker, 
E. H. Bergen,* 
Arthur K. Macdonald,* 



We meet with the names of Dr. Greenland, Dr. Gordon and 
Dr. Brenton Davison as owners of land in and near Princeton, 
in the early settlement of the place, but whether they were 
settled here as physicians we are not able to state. There was 
a " Dr. Stapleton, of Princeton," during the Revolutionary 
War, whose conduct was complained of to the Council of 
Safety, but we have no evidence that he was a resident of 
Princeton. 

Dr. Jacob Scudder, a native of Princeton, a student of Dr. 
Beatty, practiced medicine in Virginia some years; returned 
to Princeton in about 1814 in bad health and died in 1859. 
He was a son of Jacob Scudder, and lived on the farm now J. 
Boyd Van Doren's. 

* Residing in Princeton at the present time. 



\^ 



PROFESSIONAL AND OFFICIAL. 



439 



Richard Stockton (the Signer), 

John Berrien, 

Jonathan Dickinson Sergeant, 

Richard Stockton (the Duke), 

Thomas P.Johnson, 

Samuel Bayard, 

Samuel R. Hamilton, 

James S. Green, 

C. Houston Van Cleve, 

Walter Minto Skelton, 

Richard S. Field, 

William C. Alexander, 

David N. Bogart, 

John F. Hageman, 

John S. Culick, 



LAWYERS. 



Robert Voorhees. 
Richard Stockton, 
John P. Stockton, 
Robert F. Stockton, jr., 
Thomas G. Lytle, 
Robert S. Green, 
Daniel P. Voorhees, 
Leroy H. Anderson, 
Malcolm Macdonald, 
S. I). Olipliant, 
John F. Hageman, jr., 
Alexander Gray, 
George O. Vanderbiit, 
William J. Gibby, 
Richard Runyan. 



Joseph Annin, 

There were other young men who were admitted to the 
Bar of New Jersey, while residing in Princeton, but who imme- 
diately thereafter settled in other places. 

Clergymen: We shall not enumerate all those who have 
resided in Princeton in past years, but only those who are at 
present residing here, viz. : 



John Maclean, D. D., Presbyterian. 

James McCosh, D. D., 

Lyman H. Atwater, D. D., " 

Alexander T. McGill, D. D., " 

James C. Moffat D. D., 

John T. DufHeld, D. D.. 

A. A. Hodge, D. D., 

William H. Green. D. D., 

James O. Murray, D. D., " 

Charles A. Aiken, D. D., 

Charles W. Shields, D. D., 

William A. Packard, D. D., " 

Henry C. Camerou, D. D., " 

C. W. Ho<lge, D. D., 

George Macloskie, D. D., " 

James F. McCurdy, " 

Theodore W. Hunt, " 

William Harris, Coll. Treasurer, Pres. 

Frederick Vinton, Coll. Librarian, " 

Wm. H. Roberts, Sem. " " 

(.'Ml the foregoing are connected witli 
the College or Seminary). 
Uavid M. Halliday, D. D. 



George Sheldon, D. D., Presbyterian ; 

Agent American Bible Society. 
David Smith, Presbyterian. 

John Miller, 

Charles J. Collins, Teacher, 
Joseph R. Mann, 
Horace G. Hinsdale, Pastor, 
Lewis W. Mudge, Pastor, 
Edward P. Wood, 
James A. Worden, S. Schools, 
J. T. Ostler, 
Donald McLlaren, Navy Chaplain, Pres. 
Augustus Brodhead, Ret. Miss'y, 
George W. Wilder, do. 

John S. Beekman, 
P. B. Van Syckel, 
Hugh 1\L Brown, Pastor. 
Alfred U. Baker, FLpiscopal Rector. 
Asa S. Colton, " 

William White, Methodist Pastor. 
T. M. Stewart, Past. A. M. ch. 
T. R. Moran, Roman Catholic Pastoi. 
William C. Ulyat, Baptist. 
John F. McLaren, Presbyterian. 



440 history of princeton. 

Official Representatives and Dignitaries. 

Colonial Justices of the Supreme Court : John Berrien, 
Richard Stockton. 

Members of the Colonial Legislature and Kings Council : 
Benjamin Clarke, Thomas Leonard. 

Colonial Sheriffs: Barefoot Brinson, John Riddle, Job 
Stockton. 

Members of Provincial Congress of New Jersey, ^77^-76: 
Jonathan Sergeant, Jonathan Dickinson Sergeant, John Wither- 
spoon, D. D., Jonathan Deare, Jonathan Baldwin, W. Churchill 
Mouston, Enos Kelsey. 

Members of the Continental Congress : Jonathan Dickinson 
Sergeant, Richard Stockton, John Witherspoon, D. D., W. 
Churchill Houston, John Beatty. 

Members of the United States Senate: Richard Stockton, 
LL. D., Com. Robert F. Stockton, John R. Thomson, Richard 
S. Field, John P. Stockton. 

Member of United States House of Representatives : Richard 
Stockton, LL. D. 

Foreign Mission : John P. Stockton, Minister to Rome. 

Governor of Nezv Jersey : Charles S. Olden. 

Members of New Jersey State Legislature— Oi Council and 
Senate: Samuel Bayard, James S. Green, Charles S. Olden, 
William C. Alexander (President), Crowell Marsh. 

Of the Assembly: W. Churchill Houston, Samuel Bayard, 
James S. Green, William C. Alexander, Richard S. Field, 
Josiah S. Worth, John Lowrey and John F. Hageman on gen- 
eral ticket; and under the District system, Abner B. Tomlin- 
son, James Van Deventer, James H. Bruere, Augustus L. 
Martin, Joseph H. Bruere, and George O. Vanderbilt (Speaker). 

Attorney-General of Nezv Jersey: Richard S. Field, John 
P. Stockton (now in office). 

United States District-Attorney : James S. Green. 

Prosecutor of the Pleas of Mercer County : John F. Hage- 
man. 

Sheriff of Mercer County : George .T. Olmsted. 

Postmasters and mayors have been named in a former chap- 
ter, and here we bring our history to a close. 



INDEX. 



A. 

Academies and Schools, i. 185 ; ii. 217. 
Adams, John, i. 67, 68, 112; ii. 37. 
Adams, Mrs. John, i. 84. 
Adrain, Professor Robert, i. 197, 212. 
African Metliodist ]'!piscopal Church, ii. 212. 
Agnew, Daniel, i. 211 ; ii. 18, 184. 
Agricultural Society, N. J., i. 259-60. • 
Aiken, Rev. Charles A., ii. 290, 371, 372, 

379- 
Allien, Miss, ii. 224. 
Alexander, Archibald, Jr., M.D., ii. 202, 

348, 436. 
Alexander, Col. W. C, i. 253 ; sketch, 351 ; 

ii. 64,292, 381, 439.440. 
Alexander, Henry M., i. 354; ii. 50, 52, 

306. 
Alexander, Mrs. Dr. A., ii. 347, 410. 
Alexander, Prof. Stephen, i. 299 ; ii. 188, 

284, 306, 377, 381. 
Alexander, Rev. Archibald, i. 232, 256, 

278 ; ii. 330; sketch, 342, 377, 339, 429. 
Alexander, Rev. Henry C., i. 370, 380. 
Alexander, Rev. J. Addison, i. 312 ; ii. 222, 

279 ; sketch, 359, 381. 

Alexander, Rev. [amesW., i. 271, 276, 312, 

258 ; ii. 211 ; sketch, 366, 380, 
Alexander, Rev. Samuel D., i. 7; ii. 348, 

381. 
Allen, Capt. A. F., ii. 30, 188, 436. 
Allen, Col. Willian), ii. 436. 
Allen, Elijah, ii. 208. 
Alumni of College, ii. 301. 
Alumni of Seminary, ii. 373. 
American Journal, ii. 57. 
American Magazme, ii. 58. 
American System, ii. 59. 
Anderson, Isaac, i. 193. 
Anderson, |as. 'I'. L., i. 321; ii. 10, 208. 
Anderson, Leroy H., ii. 10, 208, 439. 
Arnott, Rev. Dr., i. 357. 
Articles of Confederation, i. 160. 
Atwafer, Lyman S., ii. 25. 
Atwater, Rev. Lyman H., ii. 63, 290, 300, 

382. 
At wood & Co., ii. 40. 
Authors and their volumes, ii. 377 ; list of, 

379- 



B. 

Bainbridge, Com. Wm., i. 253. 

Bainbridge, Dr. Absalom, i. 70, 125. 

Bainbridge, Dr. Edward, i. 71. 

Baird, Benjamin, i. 165. 

Baird, Rev. Robert, i. 239, 259 ; ii. 123, 221, 

283. 
Baker, Cornelius, ii. 208. 
Baker, Isaac, ii. 23, 183. 
FJaker, Moore, ii. 59. 
Baker, Rev. A. B., ii. 143, 439. 
Baldwin, Jonathan, i. 74, 104, 165, 439. 
Ball-playing forbidden, ii. 316. 
Bancroft, Mr., i. 128, 133. 
Bank, Princeton, i. 225 ; ii. 25. 
I^ank, Savings, ii; 27. 
Baptist Church, ii. 197. 
Baiber, Col. Francis, i. 90. 
Barracks, i. 35, 63. 
Bartine, Dr. O. H., ii. 195, 438. 
Battle of Assanpinck, i. 132. 
Battle of Princeton, i. 135. 
Battle of Princeton, Centennial celebration 

of, ii. 436. 
Bayard, Gen. Geo. Dashiel, ii. 421. 
Bayard, Samuel, i. 2:Jb ; family, 227; ii. 10, 

114. 383. 438, 440. 
Beatty, Charles C, i. 102. 
Beatty, Col. Erkuries, i. 221; ii. 10, 118, 

185. 
Beatty, Dr. John, i. 75; ii. 18, 19, 89. 
Bcdle, Gov., and staff, ii. 434-35. 
Beecher, Rev. H. Ward, i. 282, 358. 
Beekman, Chri.stophor, i. 179; ii. 38. 
Belcher, Gov., i. 59; ii. 236-37, 246, 311. 
Bergen, Dr. E. H., ii. 43S. 
Bernard, Gov. Francis, i. 65. 
Berrien, Judge John, i. 42, 48, 55, 69, 171 ; 

ii. 420, 439, 440. 
Berry, Dr. A. J., i. 266; ii. 10, 23. 
Bible Class instruction, ii. 150. 
Bible Society, Nassau Hall, i. 231, 241. 
Bible Society, New Jersey, i. 230. 
Biblical Repertory, ii. 63. 
Biddle, Mrs. Lydia-, i. 126. 
Blackwell, T!n:mas, ii. 183. 
Blair, Rev. John, ii. 84. 
Blawenburgh, i. 6. 



442 



INDEX. 



Bloomfield, Dr. Moses, i. 166. 

liogait, David N., i. 273 ; ii. 439. 

Bogait, John, i. 273. 

Bogart, Peter, i. 272; ii. 19, 333. 

Boone, Gov. Thos., i. 65. 

Borough jail, ii. ii. 

Borough ot" Princeton, i. i, 9. 

Borrenstein, D. A., ii. 57, 384. 

Boleler, Alexander R., i. 224. 

BouJinot, Elias, i. 83, 168. 

Boudinot, Miss Annis. ii. 413. 

Brackett, Prof. Cyrus F., ii. 298. 

Brackinridge, iiugh, i. 102. 

Brainerd, Rev. David, i. 49; ii. 231. 

Brainerd, Rev. John, i. 49, 50. 

Breckinridge, Judge S. M., ii. 366. 

Breckinridge, Miss Agatha, ii. 366. 

Breckinridge, Miss Margaret E., i. 298; ii. 

366. 
Breckinridge, Mrs. Rev. John, ii. 365-66. 
Breckinridge (Polly), Mrs. Porter, i. 299; 

ii. 366. 
Breckinridge, Rev. John, ii. 209, 337 ; 

sketch, 364, 384. 
Breckinridge, Rev. Robert J., ii. 323. 
lirinson, I'.arefoot, i. 23, 33. 
Brinson, Daniel, i. 23, 54. 
Brown, Judge Geo. H., i. 323. 
Brown, Mrs. David (Susan Dod), i. 351; 

ii. 205-6, 208. 
Brown, Mrs. George, ii. 338, 374. 
Brown, Mrs. Sarah A., i. 68; ii. 206, 431. 
Bruere, James H., ii. 440. 
Bruere, Joseph H., i. 31 ; ii. 27, 194, 420, 

440. 
Buildings of College, ii. 302. 
Buildings of Seminary, ii. 355. 
Bunyan, Capt. James, i. 210. 
Burns, Rev. Dr., i. 270. 
Burr, Col. Aaron, i. 187; ii. 425. 
Burr, Mrs. President, ii. 409. 
Burr, Rev. Aaron, ii. 236-49, 384. 
Burr, Theodosia (Mrs. Alston), ii. 428. 
Burroughs, Geo. H., ii. 208, 223. 

C. 

Calderwood, Rev. Dr., i. 356. 
Cameron, Miss Constance, ii. 431. 
Cameron, Mrs. Prof., ii. 312. 
Cameron, Prof. H. C, i. 302; ii. 290, 300, 

384, 431, 435, 439. 
Campbell, James, i. 18. 
Canal, Delaware and Raritan, i. 8, 252. 
Cannon, big, i. 139. 
Cannon, war, ii. 317. 
Cantwell, Richard. Esq., ii. 422. 
Carmichacl, Rev. John, ii. 77. 
Carnahan, Rev. James, ii. 274, 384. 
Cattell, Rev. '1 hos. and W. C, ii. 223. 
Cawley, David D., ii. 187. 
Cedar Grove, i. 5. 
Cedar Grove Church, ii. 181, 182. 
Ckmetkky, ii. 414. 
Centennial celebration, j. 358 ; ii. 434. 



Chalmers, Dr., on Edwards, ii. 15. 

Chancellor Green Library, ii. 307. 

Chapel, College, ii. 305. 

Chapin, Rev. Mr., ii. 223. 

Charter of borough, i. 233 ; ii. I. 

Charter revised, ii. 8, 9. 

Cherry Valley, i. 6. 

Cholera, Asiatic, i. 253. 

Churches, history of, ii. 66-216. 

Circumstantial evidence, case of, i. 324. 

Civil War, late, ii. 284-309. 

Clarke, Benjamin, first settler, sketch of, i. 

25, 27; ii. 67, 439. 
Clarke, Dr. Israel, i. 27. 
Clarke, John H., ii. 187. 
Clarke, Jos. O., i. 27. 
Clarke, the Misses Hannah and Sarah, i. 

143- 

Clergymen, list of, ii. 439. 

Climate of Princeton, i. 12. 

Clow, Henry, reminiscences, i. 209, 340; ii. 

10. 
■ Cobb, Rev. A. P., ii. 211. 

Coleman, Rev. Prof. Lyman, ii. 235. 

College Centennial, i. 271. 

College horn spree, i. 281. 

CoLLKGi-; oi-' Nkw Jersey, history of, ii. 
228-323 ; under President Dickinson, 233 ; 
Burr, 236; Edwards, 249; Davies, 253; 
Finley, 256; Wilherspoon, 260; Smith, 
264; Green, 271; Carnahan, 274; Mac- 
lean, 285 ; McCosh, 291 ; course of study, 
294 ; officers and Alumni, 298 ; buildings, 
302 ; library, etc., 311 ; endowments, 314. 

College, removal of, i. 61 ; disbanded, 124. 

Collins, Rev. Chas. J., ii. 224, 439. 

Colonization Society, American, i. 237. 

Colonization Society, N. J., i. 236. 

Colored volunteers, i. 308. 

Colton, Rev. A. S., i. 290; ii. 384, 439. 

Combs, Capt. John, i. iSo. 

Comfort, Rev. David, ii. 333. 

Comfort, David, Jr., ii. 224. 

Commencement changed, i. 269. 

Committee of Safety, i. 105