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Full text of "The history of the Province of Moray : comprising the counties of Elgin and Nairn, the greater part of the County of Inverness and a portion of the County of Banff, all called the Province of Moray before there was a division into counties"


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PURCHASED FOR THE 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY 

FROM THE 

CANADA COUNCIL SPECIAL GRANT 

FOR 
HISTORY 




grlmamurctjan 



THE HISTORY 



OF THE 



PROVINCE OF MORAY. 



VOL. II. 



THE HISTOKY 



OF THE 



PROVINCE OF MORAY 

Comprising the Counties of Elgin and Nairn, the greater part of the County of 

Inrerness, and a portion of the County of Banff, all called the Province 

of Moray before there IPOS a division into Counties, 

BY LACHLAN SHAW. 



NEW EDITION. IN THREE VOLUMES. 



Enlarged and brought down to the Present Time 

BY J. F. S. GORDON, 

Author of " Scotichronicon," " Monasticon," &c. 



VOLUME II. 



GLASGOW: 
Printtb at the (Etutoer0itg Jfress, 

AND PUBLISHED BY 
HAMILTON, ADAMS, & CO., LONDON, 

AND 

THOMAS D. MORISON, GLASGOW. 

1882. 








/ 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME II. 



PAGE 
Elgin Past and Present (Cosmo Innes), ... 1 

The Parish of Birnie, 39 

The Parish of Dallas, 46 

The Parish of Keneddar, 54 

The Family of GORDON of Gordonstoun, . . 63 
The Parish of Duffus, . . . . . .77 

MORAYS of DufFus, 87 

The Parish of St. Andrews, 93 

The Parish of Spynie, . ... 94 

The DUNBARS, . 98 

The DUNBARS of Westfield, 101 

The DUNBARS of Thunderton, . . . .104 

The LESLIES of Findrasie, 120 

The Parish of Alves, 145 

The Parish of Kinloss, 152 

The Parish and Town of Forres, . . 163 

The Parish of Kafford, .176 

Family of CUMMINE, 183 

The Parish of Edinkillie, 185 

Family of CUMMINE of Rylucas, . . . .191 
Family of CUMMINE of Logie, . . . .193 

The Parish of Ardclach, 195 

The Parish of Moy and Dalarossie, .... 198 

The Parish of Dyke, 208 

Family of CULBIN, 232 

EARLS OF MORAY, ...... 242 

Family of BRODIE, ... . 248 

The Parish of Aldearn, . . ... 252 

The Town and Parish of Nairn, . . . .262 

The Parish of Calder, 269 

The Family of CALDER, 278 



VI CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

The Parish of Croy, . .... 284 

Family of ROSE of Kilravock, .... 285 

Other Branches of the ROSE Family, . . . 296 

The Parishes of Daviot and Dunlichty, . . . 307 
The Parish of Ardersier, . . . . . .314 

The Parish of Pettie, 318 

The Town and Parish of Inverness, . . . 322 

The Parish of Durris, ... . 334 

The Parish of Boleskin, 340 

Family of LOVAT, 340 

The Parish of Kilmanivack, 358 

Family of MAcDoNALD of Glengary, . . . 360 

The Parish of Urquhart, 361 

The Parish of Kirkhill, . : ... 373 

The Parish of Kiltarlity, 377 

Family of CHISHOLM, 381 



HISTORY OF THE 

PROVINCE OF MORAY. 

ANTIQUITIES OF MORAY ELGIN PAST AND PRESENT. 

A Lecture delivered on 23rd October, 1860, for the 
benefit of the Elgin Literary and Scientific Associa- 
tion, and printed at their request. 

By Cosmo Innes, formerly Sheriff of Moray. 

Mr. President, and Ladies and Gentlemen, When the 
gentlemen of the Elgin Literary and Scientific Associa- 
tion did me the honour to ask me to deliver a lecture here, 
their request found me very ill prepared. I was at a dis- 
tance from my usual books and libraries of reference. 
Even some notes of my own, the memoranda of many 
years, are shut up at home and inaccessible. I was sepa- 
rated from the small but compact band of literary and 
antiquarian friends, among whom for a long time I have 
been accustomed to work, and from whose stores I draw 
more than it might be discreet to make known. I was 
not even in Elgin, or one of your good burgh towns, where 
local information could be readily had. You know I was 
dwelling in the ghostly old palace of Gordonstown. But 
alas! the Gordonstown library is gone, and though I 
did take counsel with the shade of the wizard, Sir Robert, 
who never failed to join company with me when I trimmed 
my lamp at midnight, preparing for a spell of work after 
the world was quiet I found his line of study was different 
from mine. He spoke knowingly about a pump of his 

VOL. II. 1 



2 ELGIN PAST AND PRESENT BY COSMO INNES. 

own construction, that was to raise water higher with less 
power than was ever done before, but I soon saw, that 
was only company talk ; and at last the old man he is a 
tine bearded old fellow, with some of the features we see 
in Sir Alexander Gumming told me honestly that his 
whole heart was in his crucibles and large alembic, which 
he had fitted up in the vault of the west wing of the 
chateau, and which are yet to produce the philosopher's 
stone, and to yield gold and life as much as the possessor 
desires to have. 

You may be sure I asked the wizard all about old 
Moray and its ways how the people lived and thought in 
the old time. But, bless you ! he knew and cared nothing 
about that. He told me how his grandfather, the tutor 
of Sutherland, made Gordonstown joining Ogstown and 
Pethnik and Burnside to Plewlands, where the Marquis 
of Huntly had a grotesque old chateau before and how 
the son, educated in Holland, had ornamented it with 
canals, and straight terraces, and avenues and how he, 
the wizard himself, had pulled down the middle of the 
old house and built the present centre, leaving the wings 
as they were in the first chateau. All that he told me 
very accurately also the exact number of bolls victual 
that came into his granary oats and bere ; but for the 
people that paid the rent, and the land that produced it, 
he took no care. They were not worth the thought of a 
gentleman of coat armour, and, moreover, a philosopher 
on the very point of discovering the great secret ! 

But something too much of this fooling. I wish only 
to explain to you that I have been taken unawares that 
I might have declined complying, and found good excuse; 
but, conscious of no ambitious motive but the desire of 
giving you pleasure, and doing some little thing for the 
honour of old Moray, and relying on your forbearance 
with faults and errors, I hope to put together some- 
thing to help us to pass away an autumn evening 
pleasantly. 

Having disclaimed the help of the dead magician, I may 
be allowed to take some pride in the assistance of living 
men. My friend, Captain Edward Dunbar I may say 
my hereditary friend, for our grandfathers were close 
allies, and constant, almost daily, correspondents has 
brought me a mass of family papers, accounts, letters, 



THE RUNIC PILLAR OF ELGIN. 



notes, many of the most trivial kind, but all how inter- 
esting after the lapse of a century or two ! He has told 
me, too, the results of his own study and intimate ac- 
quaintance with those stores. He is not like the magi- 
cian of Gordonstown, and nothing fails to interest him 
that lets in the least light on old manners. Shall we 
blame him if he seeks his favourite sport chiefly on the 
ground occupied by the great name of Dunbar ! 

I have another debt to acknowledge. A gentleman 
among you, more knowing than most, perhaps than any 
one, in the local antiquities of Elgin, and whose time is 
very valuable, did not hesitate to spend an afternoon in 
pointing out to me scenes and houses in Elgin that inter- 
ested me. He has even been kind enough and zealous 
enough for our common object, to put down for me, in 
writing, a little volume of interesting notes, taken from 
the title-deeds that have passed through his hands, and 
which I hope to make use of for your benefit this evening. 
Before I name him, you all know that the. person to whom 
I allude is Mr. Robert Young. 

I won't begin with the Romans, who indeed had a very 
slender grip of Scotland ; and Dr. Taylor and Mr. Mac- 
donald have not yet determined whether they were in 
Moray at all. 

The Norsemen, too, have left their marks on our coast, 
but nothing more. Those unaccountable mounds at 
Burghead may be theirs; and the singular custom of 
carrying the Yule fire round the village and harbour, and 
blessing the boats, savours of Scandinavia. That curious 
head-land, with its harbour sheltered from the north-east, 
was a likely haven for a band of sea-faring adventurers. 
But I give them nothing more. The Forres Stone is a 
native Monument ; so is the ancient Monument* at Elgin, 

* The Elgin Pillar was discovered in 1823 when the streets 
were under repair, lying about two feet below the surface in a 
horizontal position, as if it had been thrown down there by 
accident, a little to the north-east of the old Church of St. 
Giles. Nothing whatever is known of its previous history. It 
is now preserved in the Cathedral. This pillar is evidently 
incomplete, a part having been broken off from one end of it. 
It is now 6 feet in length, 2| in breadth, and 1 foot thick ; 
composed of a reddish grey granite, very like that of Aberdeen- 
shire. The base of this stone is of less breadth than the top, 



THE RUNIC PILLAR OF ELGIN. 



now preserved in your Cathedral. Both have the Cross 
and Christian symbols, while the Norse invaders were all 
Pagans ; and what, indeed, of lasting edifice could we 
expect from those hordes of plunderers, spending their 
summers in harrying the coast or fighting among them- 
selves, and returning to their northern homes in winter, 
to drink ale and mead, and sing the glory and the 
riches of the successful pirate ? I leave " the Danes," 
then, to Mr. Macdonald, who will dig them out if any- 
body can, and pass on to the next picture in the peep- 
show. 

When we first knew something of our own people say 
in or about the year 1200 Moray was the seat of a pro- 
tracted rebellion, supporting what we may call the Mac- 
beth family, against the reigning dynasty. That rebel- 
lion was at length crushed, and with such violence that 
our chroniclers assure us the whole people of Moray were 
carried away, and the land given to strangers evidently 
a great exaggeration. The tillers of the soil were never 
cleared out. But at that time during the reign of David 
I., and his grandsons Malcolm and William we have 
evidence of a great influx of Southern strangers Norman 
and Saxon lords, and Flemings, who got large grants of 
lands in Moray. Whether of these new settlers or de- 

which is the case with the Mortlich Stone. One side represents- 
very distinctly a hunting party, consisting of four men on horse- 
back, and three dogs : one of these is seizing a deer by the 
flank. On each side of the uppermost horseman are two birds,, 
most probably hawks. It is difficult to say what the figures 
above this hunting party represent. One is a crescent reversed;, 
above this are two circular bodies united by two bands, through 
which passes a zig-zag belt or band. Probably the whole is 
some form of the mystic knot, so common in Runic carvings \ 
or it may be some representation of the celestial bodies. The 
reverse of the stone contains, near the base, the Runic knot, 
with indications of snakes' heads. In the upper division is a 
cross of very elegant proportions, also covered with the Runic 
convolutions. Several figures of priests occupy the spaces at 
each of the four corners : the one on the left appears to have 
some ornament round his neck. The Elgin Pillar may have 
been commemorative of the death and burial of some great 
general or chief ; or the boundary-mark of hunting grounds* 
(Rhine? s Sketches, p. 138.) 



THE DE MORAVIAS. 



scendants of the old lords of the soil, the Family of De 
Moravia (Moray), taking its surname from the Province, 
was foremost in power and importance, when charters 
and records first throw some light upon the population of 
the province. Undoubtedly they were great Lords, those 
De Moravias Lords of Duffus and all its plain, of 
Bucharn, and Arndilly, and Botriphny over Spey, of 
Oroy-and Artirlie, of Petty and Brachly, besides Inver- 
ness. All these are their proved possessions, proved by 
charter evidence. But I think it very probable they had 
moreover Darnaway, Alves, and the other great possessions 
of the Earls of Moray. They built castles, one of .which 
is still the admiration of the antiquary. They sent 
some of their family to civilize the wild Norse Earldom 
of Caithness, and in recompense had a grant of the 
southern side of it, which was erected for them into 
the Earldom of Sutherland. They were great friends 
of the Church too, giving lands and tithes without 
number to the Cathedral, of which one of themselves 
was Bishop. 

Do we know anything of the manner of life of these 
times ? Something not much ! We know that the 
great lords were men of taste in building. Witness the 
fine remains of Duffus, still so imposing. Witness the 
strengths which still give interest to the banks of the 
Fiddich and the Spey. The De Moravias were men of 
some adventure, or they would not have been put forward 
to reclaim Caithness, and they must have been stout 
warriors good men-at-arms or they would not have 
gained the Earldom of Sutherland. But for their domestic 
and personal manners what shall we say ? No doubt they 
had some feeling of their own dignity and knightly honour, 
they had assuredly the generous feelings of strong and 
brave and noble men, of men immeasurably above all 
that surrounded them, and I am far from undervaluing the 
qualities that were laced up in the corslet and cuirass of 
the iron age of chivalry. Of domestic comforts they had 
not dreamt. Their Castle of Duffus had no chimneys nor 
any window-glass. When the winter winds blew fiercely 
across the fen, they shut their stout window-boards out- 
side window shutters and crowded round a fire of peats 
in the middle of the hall, while the smoke found its way 
out as it could, and was welcome, as communicating some 



6 THE LADYHILL OF ELGIN. 

feeling of heat to the upper chambers. There was then 
no middle class of rural population. 

What was the condition of the other extreme of society 
the labourers of the soil ? I fear they were ill-housed, 
ill-clothed, ill-fed, not considered by their masters, except 
as hewers of wood and drawers of water. The beasts of 
their plough, though starved also, were somewhat better 
off their hide, at least, was thicker. It fared ill with 
such a population in seasons like this, for a bad harvest 
surely brought famine, and famine brought pestilence; 
and the marsh fever and ague swept off those whom 
hunger and the plague spared. For the most part they 
were slaves, bound to the soil, and bought and sold with 
it. They were happy only in knowing no better lot. 
Still, all is not barren from Dan to Beersheba. 

There are two pleasant spots for the eye to rest upon, 
in that dreary time. The little burgh built on the 
sheltered bank of the Lossie, long before the bishop had 
chosen it for his seat, was strong in the union of its 
inhabitants, and secured by the protection which the 
good King David threw around his burgesses. The King 
had erected a Castle on the green mound at its western 
extremity Ladyhill (called so from a Chapel dedicated 
to the B. Virgin, originally within the Royal Castle, but 
which survived it) for defence against marauding pirates 
from the sea, and the lawless bands from the hills, but 
still more to support the burghers against the oppression 
of the neighbouring barons, who were jealous of this little 
knot of plebeians presuming to be independent to prefer 
the government of their own Aldermen, and the jurisdic- 
tion of the King's Court, to the tender mercies of the 
court of the Lord Baron. I say that was one bright spot 
to rest the eye upon. It was pleasant to see trade, com- 
merce and manufactures bursting into life, amidst an 
industrious people, now first hoping to enjoy the fruit of 
their own industry. It was pleasant to see the simple 
domestic comforts which a town life renders possible for 
the poor the cheap luxuries the mere security, and 
warmth, and dryness, which formed a contrast with the 
circumstances of the rural population of Moray of the 13th 
century. 

[On the top of Ladyhill, near the ruins of the Castle, a 
Tuscan column, 80 feet high, was erected in 1839 to the 



EXCAVATIONS ON LADYHILL. 



memory of the last Duke of Gordon, the funds for which 
were raised by subscription within the country. A 
wheeling stair leads to the top, from which is a most 
extensive panoramic view, extending from Covesea to 
Cullen, and also the shores of the Caithness coast. In 
1855, a statue of the Duke was placed on the top of the 
column the late Alex. Craig of Craigton having left a 
bequest therefor, which was further augmented princi- 
pally by the Monty shire farmer club. The statue is 12 
feet high, and is from the chisel of T. Goodwillie, Elgin. 

In 1858, the Elgin Literary and Scientific Association 
conducted excavations on the top of Ladyhill, when the 
remains of three human bodies were discovered a little to 
the north of the monument. One of the skeletons is in a 
sitting posture ; the others were in a horizontal position 
and placed just outside the outer walls of the Castle. A 
flint arrow-head, several pieces of pottery, a copper coin of 
Charles II., a quern, and several detached bones were also 
found.] (Moray sldre Described) 

Another green oasis in the desert was the Church, 
There the strong man learnt of a power greater than 
brute strength, and the rich man was taught to call the 
poor his brother. Thither the starving despairing serf 
went for food, and found some higher consolation. There 
he sometimes heard the strange doctrine that in the eyes 
of God all men are equal. 

If you look to the time, the people, the circumstances, 
the first setting up of the Christian minister to teach 
Christianity is, after all, the greatest step in the civiliza- 
tion of the world. You must think first and it isn't very 
easy for us now you must think of the utter ignorance 
or worse, the degraded Pagan worship of stocks and 
stones you must think of the real savage not the 
melodramatic Oscars and Selmas of Ossian but the true, 
starving, half cannibal savage, without food, or clothes, or 
shelter, without comfort or support in this world, or hope 
beyond it to enable you to appreciate the blessing of 
the simple message of truth and peace and Divine love. 
Simple the message must be to suit the people, and simple 
though the messenger and minister of truth be also, the 
first revealing of his divine errand is still the great event 
in man's history. 

Next, however, and no unimportant step, was the 



8 THE PARSONAGE HOUSE OF ALDEARN. 



binding of Christian men together by the organization 
of the Church. An establishment of a Cathedral in the 
old time was a very different affair from the setting up 
of Manchester or any new modern Bishopric. 

The Bishop of Moray often a dignified statesman in 
the King's Court sometimes a man of high family and 
even royal connection, presiding over 24 dignified clergy- 
men of the Province all bound to residence for a stated 
period of the year in their college and a countless num- 
ber of chaplains, choral vicars, and subordinates of the 
choir formed a society of great influence rivalling, and 
even counteracting, the warlike element the rule of the 
strongest, which prevailed around introducing a respect 
for religion and its rites ; for peace ; for learning, such as 
then was; for cultivation, of a higher standard than the 
burghers could otherwise have attained. 

The Bishop and Chapter kept up an intercourse with 
churchmen of their own country and England, from 
whence they drew their constitution. Many of them 
travelled to Rome. One Bishop of Moray early founded 
a college for educating his countrymen at Paris when 
Paris was the great University of Europe. Now, setting 
aside their study and learning their knowledge of books 
(they were the sole depositaries of some memory of the 
great ancients) setting aside their higher accomplish- 
ment think how their communication with the outer 
world must have raised them above the rough warriors 
the poor serfs who cultivated the fields around their 
Cathedral. Reflect, too, how that civilization was spread 
abroad, when the Canons of the Cathedral, each in turn, 
retired to their rural benefices. When the Dean left 
his pleasant Deanery you call it the " North College " 
now and went to pass his summer months at his "great 
stone house" of Boath for so he proudly designated 
the old Parsonage House of Aldearn still more, when 
a Canon connected with a Highland Cure, like the 
Parson of Kingussie, went out of Cathedral residence 
and returned for his annual sojourn in his Strath- 
spey parish. Be sure they carried with them some 
report of the events and speculations that were agitating 
Christendom rumours of an outer world which could 
never otherwise penetrate these fastnesses. 

So when a Monastery was planted in a rural district, 



MONKISH EDUCATION IN THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY. 9 

its effect was something which no event of modern times 
can give us any conception of. When there was no 
travelling, no newspapers, no books, no schoolmasters 
(for the people, I mean), the establishment of a set of 
Cistercian Monks, brought from some country consider- 
ably in advance of their new settlement, was like a re- 
volution. Poor as the monkish education might be in 
the 13th century, the Monks placed by King David at 
Kinloss, at Urquhart, at Pluscarden, were as far in ad- 
vance of the people of Moray, as the most well-appointed 
University would be now. We know that the Monks 
were schoolmasters, and first brought some education to 
the poor such education as the rude savage could receive 
such education, too, as could be given without books. 
But they taught still more by example. They were the 
architects, the artizans, the mechanics, the masons and 
carpenters, the plumbers and glaziers, first of their own 
fabric the House of God, which they loved to adorn 
and their own cloister their sheltered walks their re- 
fectory their cells and sleeping apartments their fish- 
ponds and gardens their kitchen, too, be sure, with its 
huge chimney, a comfort for themselves, and fitted for hospi- 
tality. They worked for themselves first, and then for all 
the country round, or such part of the population as could 
be roused to take advantage of such examples. The 
monks had not yet become the lazy gluttons which our 
story-books take care to represent them. Even if they 
took too much thought of outward things if they pre- 
ferred the cultivation of thejr garden and their farm 
(that Abbey land of Kinloss was worth cultivating !) to 
heavenly meditation and penance, neither their pool- 
neighbours, nor we, their successors, had cause to reproach 
them much. Under their direction, some improvement 
took place, and the seeds were sown which sprung when 
circumstances permitted or encouraged their growth. 

Now let us leave the 13th century. 

Pull the string of our puppet show and see what picture 
next comes up. Not the grand Bruce and Balliol wars. 
Not the " crested pride of the first Edward," and the long 
struggle of poor Scotland, which produced the glory of 
Bannockburn. That brilliant chapter of our history, so 
far as regards the north, has been written so carefully and 
so judiciously, by a member of this Association (Dr. James 



10 THE GREAT DOUGLAS REBELLION. 

Taylor), that I should only spoil his work by touching on 
it. Let me lead you a little forward, but stopping for one 
instant to note the changes that time and civilization and 
even these great wars had brought in our province. 

The National patriotic War, interesting all classes, 
brought them nearer, and bound them in closer ties than 
had held the noble and the peasant before. If we must 
have war, it is a great thing to have a good war-cry ; and 
I only hope that Garibaldi's cry of " Italy Independent " 
may carry his countrymen through their troubles as well 
as " Scotland and freedom " did the followers of Wallace 
and Bruce. It is some compensation for the horrors of 
war, even at the time, to have the ennobling feeling of 
fighting and suffering for a great and sacred cause. To 
after generations the agony of the great war of Scotch 
independence brought yet greater recompense. Believe 
me that even the blessings of peace and plenty are not 
the whole of a nation's well-being. It is something to be 
a nation, to be entitled to cherish national traditions, to 
be able to look back with pride to the gallant deeds of 
our forefathers, to sing the songs of our fatherland, and 
still to call it ours. It is to that war we owe it that we 
are not a mere English count}'' a less fertile Yorkshire 
a larger Wales. We owe to it that we have a national 
history and national literature. 

Pass with me now, if you please, to the year 1457. 

Moray was in great excitement in the year 1457. That 
was the year of the great Douglas Rebellion, arid when 
the Rebellion was suppressed, and the Douglases one of 
whom was Archibald Douglas, Earl of Moray were all 
slain or forfeited and ruined, the young King James II. 
determined to give the earldom to his infant son, the 
Prince David, a Prince who has escaped the notice of our 
historians. To carry out that resolution, he came down 
to Moray in person to set the Province in order, and 
especially to arrange anew the rentaling of the Earldom 
lands, which stood as they had done in the days of Ran- 
dolph. But when he had come down and seen the Spey 
and the Lossie, lived for a time at Darnaway, Elgin, and 
Inverness, he felt, as all men have done, the fascination 
of the country. He ordered his horses to be brought 
down, and directed certain districts of Earldom lands to- 
be left untilled, for hunting carefully paying, however, 



KING JAMES IV. ON PILGRIMAGE. 11 

the damage to the tenants or rather abandoning all rent 
for those years. He chose Darnaway as his hunting-seat, 
and completed the repairs of Randolph's hall there, begun 
by the Douglases. But he had taste to like Elgin and 
its cultivated society of dignified churchmen. * He some- 
times took the hospitality of the Bishop (John Winchester, 
an old and faithful servant of the Crown) at Spynie; some- 
times dwelt in the Manse of Duffus, the residence of his own 
kinsman, David Stuart, parson of Duffus then employed 
in rentaling the Earldom, afterwards himself Bishop, and 
remembered as builder of the magnificent great Tower of 
Spynie. While the King stayed in the Manse of Duffus 
an accidental fire took place, which did some damage to 
his Majesty's simple plenishing. But besides the mischief 
from the fire, it is evident he found the Manse too small 
for the accommodation of a Court, for we find in the 
Exchequer accounts of that year, the expense allowed of 
building a new kitchen at the Manse of Duffus, in Elgin, 
while the King dwelt there. It stood, you know, till 
quite lately, when the picturesque old Mansion, which 
had received a King and his little Court, was pulled down 
to make way for the comfortable square box which is now 
occupied by Mr. Allan. 

And now for another very long jump over quite two 
centuries not for want of materials of interest, but want 
of room and time. I could tell you how King James IV. 
paid a visit to Innes, in one of his northern Pilgrimages, 
in 1490. Then, what curious local history does Moray 
afford in the early stages of the Reformation, when the 
stout old reprobate Bishop Hepburn would have nothing 
to do with their new-fangled ways, but shut the gates of 
his Castle of Spynie against the Lords of the Congrega- 
tion, and set the Reformation at defiance ! Then poor 
Queen Mary came across Spey, and left the interest which 
attaches to every place where she set her foot. Her 
brother, " the good Regent," was your Earl, but he had 
little time for his own affairs, and I don't find him much 
in Moray. Not so his widow, Annas Keith (daughter of 
Keith Marshall). While she managed the affairs of her 
daughters, even after her second marriage to Argyll, she 
was often here dwelling at Darnaway, or at Elgin 
keeping up great state, but kindly and neighbourly with 
the gentry around. Still, later down, in the days of th& 



12 THE WEST PORT, ELGIN. 

Covenant, the Moray barons were active on the Covenant 
side, with the successive lairds of Innes at their head. 
But all that I must pass, and must carry you with me, if 
I may, down to later scenes. 

Most of you know that I am more than half an Elgin 
man myself! My grandfather lived at the West Port, 
now called West Park* My father was born there, and 
always assured me, I am sure quite honestly, that the 
nectarines and apricoks (he spelt the word with a k, not 
in the modern way), on the open wall there, were better 
than any that grew elsewhere. Most of my old Moray- 
shire knowledge is from my father, who lived to be an 
old man, and the reports of his recollections enables me 
to speak of more than a century. He inherited some 
lands to the east of the town, and I well remember his 
description of the yearly scouring of the deep ditches, and 
the care that required to be taken of the embankments of 
the Lossie. He told me of the fresh-water mussels that 
sometimes yielded pearls of the fat eels, which the poorest 
labourers refused to eat (perhaps they know better now.) 
He told me that the Highlanders who came down in 

* West Park is now the property of the Hon. Lewis A. 
Grant, youngest son of the late Francis William, Earl of 
Seafield, who changed the Entrance to the Grounds and 
greatly improved the House. 

It was here where the WEST PORT of the Burgh stood, and 
where the heads, arms, &c., of felons were spiked. 

Andrew M'Pherson, a Deserter, was the last Culprit who 
was thus served, for the Murder of John Gatherer, Farmer, 
Netherbyre, Pluscarden, in 1713. 

The West Port stood right across the High Street near the 
kitchen-gate of West Park. Francis Russell, Advocate, finding 
this old Entrance to the City to be in his way, pulled it down 
one night or morning in Oct. 1783, and built his Park walls 
with the stones. For this unwarrantable act the Magistrates 
and Council resolved to prosecute their Ruling Elder before 
the Court of Justiciary along with the workmen he employed. 
In 1785 the dispute was hushed up, and the West Port was 
irrevocable. At this period, a line of boulders, called "the 
croun of the causeway," extended from the West Port to the 
Little Cross, upon which the people walked in wet weather. 
There were no drains but open gutters, with every deposit 
unveiled to eye and nose. (ED.) 



COSMO INNES* FORBEARIS. 13 

bands to shear his harvest at Leuchars and Dunkinty, 
used generally to take home with them a shaking ague 
from the marshy land. When I told that to my friend, 
Dr. Simpson of Edinburgh, he said, " Ah, we have driven 
out the ague ! That is one of the diseases we have eradi- 
cated. There is no intermittent fever now in Scotland." 
If it be so with all deference for Dr. Simpson with all 
honour to his noble profession I must say we owe that 
victory more to the farmer with his draining tiles than to 
the doctor with his quinine. 

My father had a proverb is it still current among 
you ? " Speak weel o' the Hielands, but live in the 
laigh ! " He had a very confident opinion of the superi- 
ority of the Climate and Soil of Moray, to anything else 
in all the world ; and when he had migrated to a half- 
Highland Estate on Deeside, he used to deplore the early 
frosts that mildewed his barley on the haughs, and cut 
down the autumn growth of his young oaks by the burn 
side, before the wood was ripened. Some of his young 
experience serves to illustrate the change of manners. 
My grandfather had many transactions with the then 
Gordon of Cluny, which produced some intimacy between 
the families. Cosmo Gordon, the eldest son, the heir of a 
good fortune, was bred to the Bar, and lived to be a Baron, 
of Ex chequer. Charles, the second, was a Writer to the 
Signet, in Edinburgh, and took my father as apprentice 
in his office. Notwithstanding some difference of age, the 
young men were great friends ; and, several seasons, Cosmo 
Gordon, the young councillor, and John I unes, the appren- 
tice, travelled to Edinburgh in company. Both rode the 
journey on horseback, as all men did but " with a differ- 
ence." The advocate and heir-apparent of Cluny, rode 
his own horse, and his groom followed, mounted on 
another. My father rode a horse, hired from a stable in 
Elgin, which carried him and his saddle-bags, in five or 
six days to Kinghorn; and a bare-footed boy (the stabler's 
servant), ran at his foot, to care for the beast, and to take 
him back from the Ferry. That was more common than 
" riding post," and was esteemed safer the post-horse 
of the stages having an indifferent character for sound- 
ness. The road was by Huntly " the Sowie " Alford 
Cutties-hillock the Cairn-o'-month and so forth. Plea- 
sant journeys, believe me, they were, for two young men 



14 THE PANS PORT; THE MANSION OF MORIESTON. 

with life opening before them ! and my informant never 
lost his love for the primitive rural hostelry, where 
country luxuries were so good, and the known hostess 
received you with a familiar, almost motherly welcome. 

From my remembrance of my father's conversation, and 
from a great mass of my grandfather's letters ; from Mr. 
Robert Young's notes (helped by some Papers which 
my friend Captain Dunbar has dug out of the Charter- 
Room at Duffus) I will try to describe Elgin and its 
Neighbourhood, the Town and the Country, in the begin- 
ning of last Century, say 150 years ago. And first, 

Join me in a walk from end to end of your Town, and 
I will try to represent it as it stood in the beginning of 
last Century only 150 years ago! Leaving Gray's 
Hospital behind us, we enter old Elgin by the West Port, 
under an arch or port, like that still preserved at the 
Pans Port* Adjoining to that Gateway, on the south 
side of the street, was the house of my grandfather, 
Robert Innes, styling himself merchant in Elgin. It 
stood on a large and very good garden, quite retired from 
the noise of the street a comfortable old mansion, I 
-assure you. I could tell you some stories of its hospi- 
tality, and of the claret drunk there, but I must pass on. 
I believe the Hon. Lewis Grant, the present proprietor, 
wished to keep up the old House, but the walls were 
found too much decayed to be saved. 

Nearly opposite, reposing at the foot of " the bonny 
Lady -hill," stood the Mansion of the Martins of Mories- 
town a warm, sheltered, sunny spot. The family was 
of good estimation, but they and their House have alike 
passed away. 

Still on the north side of the street, a little to the east 

* The Eastern Gate, called THE WATER-GATE, or Paun's or 
PANS PORT, or Bishop's Gate, still stands at the north-east corner 
of South College. The meadow-land lying east of PANNS PORT 
is termed " Pannis " in the oldest deeds, and seems to be an 
abbreviation of Pannagium, a meadow or pasture land. 

A 'venerable beech tree, having large trunk and venerable 
branches, probably planted by some now unknown ecclesiastic, 
still adorns these precincts. This PORT had an iron Portcullis, 
the groove for which is still to be seen. In 1857, the trustees 
of the Earl of Fife substantially repaired this only remaining 
original entrance to the Cathedral. (ED.) 



ELCHIES HOUSE; THUNDERTON HOUSE. 15 

of Murdoch's Wynd, an old Jialf ruinous House is still 
standing, which has seen better days. Of old, it belonged 
to the Dunbars of Billhead, then to James Stephen, Pro- 
vost of Elgin, who married a daughter of Sir Harry Innes 
of Innes, latterly to a Family of Duffus, who still pos- 
sess it. 

On the south side of the street on the site of the 
Caledonian Bank Office stood a fine old Mansion, built 
on squat pillars and arches, known to most of you as 
"Elchies House."* It was built about 1670 by George 
Gumming, Provost of Elgin, or William Gumming of 
Achry, his son, who dwelt there at the time we are 
examining. From him it passed to the first William 
King of Newmill, who married Margaret Gumming, the 
Provost's daughter, and it was only at the close of last 
century that it passed from the Newmill family to Robert 
Grant of Elchies, who added a couple of handsome rooms, 
and, I suppose, gave it the name of " Elchies House." 
Later, it was Miss Shand's boarding-school, and, last of 
all, it made way for the bank. I think there are several 
views of it engraved. 

On the same side of the street, a little to the eastward, 
stood the Mansion which was latterly known as Thun- 
derton House. It was the town-residence of the Earls of 
Moray, after the Castle on Lady-hill was disused and 
ruined, and earlier, perhaps, of the hereditary Sheriffs 
the Dunbars of Westfield. It passed into the possession 
of the Lords DufFus in 1653, but they fell into poverty 
long before their forfeiture, and this Mansion passed from 
them to the Dunbars of Newton and Northfield, now of 
Duffus. It was a very fine specimen of town-house, and 
partook of the ornaments of several periods. The old 
part of the building which still stands was built, I sup- 
pose, by the Earls ; the western front, with its fine balus- 
traded tower the balusters in shape of their names, 
"Sutherland" by the Lords Duffus. The rooms were 
large, and the cornices and ceilings much ornamented. 
One cornice still remains. In the gardens were included 
orchards and a bowling green one of the luxuries of our 
rather laz} ? ancestors. When the body of the first Duke 
of Gordon (who died at Leith in 1716) was brought down 

* This House had open piazzas, which were common during 
the 17th century. (ED.) 



16 BRODIE OF ARNHALL ; LADY ARRADOUL. 

to be buried in the Cathedral here, his son, Duke Alex- 
ander, borrowed Thunderton House, as the one in Elgin 
most suitable for the ceremonial of his interment in- 
cluding, no doubt, the funeral banquet and prayed the 
Lady Thunderton to take some trouble in arranging the 
solemn hospitalities. At the close, of last century the 
house was occupied by Alexander Brodie, Esq., of Arn- 
hall, father of Elizabeth [and wherein Her Grace was 
born] the Duchess of Gordon, who lived in great style, 
and had a large establishment, with horses and hounds ; 
but the fine old House, like everything old and venerable 
in Elgin, was doomed. In 1800, the late Sir Archibald 
Dunbar sold the property to John Batchen. It has since 
been a Haldanite Church, a furniture wareroom,a preaching 
station, and a windmill ! The curious balustraded tower 
was then pulled down ; and it requires careful inspection 
now, among the mean and crowded lanes that press upon 
it, to distinguish the ciphers and heraldic bearings of the 
Earls, Sheriffs, and Lords, that once dwelt there. 

The Chapel, built in its garden, is the same which went 
through such a brilliant career of occupants, and at last 
blazed off in such a bright final conflagration, last year.* 

On the opposite side of the High Street at the top of 
what is now North Street stood a stately old mansion, 
Calder House, with turrets to the street, the property of 
successive generations of the Calders, Baronets of Muir- 
town. When they went down, the house and large 
garden, reaching back to where the Episcopal Chapel now 
is, became the property of Lawrence Sutherland of Green- 

*Capt. Dunbar-Dunbar, in his interesting "Social Life in 
Former Days." p. 282, says : " It was, we believe, originally 
known as the King's House. In 1601, it belonged to the three 
daughters of the deceased James Dunbar of Westfield (as heirs 
of their father and of their great grandfather, Sir Alex. Dunbar, 
Sheriff of Moray), and was designated the Sheriff's Home. 

At the back entrance were two savages cut in stone, which 
were removed to the Priory of Pluscarden, where they now are. 

In the spring of 1746, a few weeks before the Battle of 
Culloden. "Prince Charlie" slept several nights at this Man- 
sion, at that time inhabited by Lady Arradoul, eldest daughter 
of Dunbar of Thunderton, who was shrouded and buried in the 
sheets which the Prince slept in, according to her dying orders. 

(ED.) 



THE ASSEMBLY EOOMS ; CALDER HOUSE. 17 

hall, and, in the latter part of last century, was occupied 
by the famous Dr. Alex. Dougall.* 

Adjoining it, where the North of Scotland Bank now 
stands, stood Di^ummuir House a large edifice on low 
pillars and arcades, after the approved Elgin manner. It 
came through Dunbars, Kings, Sir Archibald Campbell of 
Clunes (a man well known at Cawdor), to Robert Duff of 
Drummuir, who married Sir Archibald's daughter Isabella. 
Then it was sold to the Trades of Elgin. Last of all to 
one of the numerous banks that now adorn our streets, 
and I hope, " Scatter plenty o'er the smiling land." 

On the same side was a House which was built about 
the year 1619 [1669 ?], and belonged for about a century 
to a Family of Donaldson.^ It then passed through the 
hands of Kenneth Mackenzie, surgeon-apothecary, a well- 
known man in his day, and some Dunbars, Duffs, and 

* The Assembly Rooms, chiefly erected by the Trinity Lodge 
of Freemasons in 1821, at a cost of 3000, occupy the site of 
Colder House. The only remnants of it preserved are the two 
carved door-posts in the grounds of William Young, Lady- 
hill. This House, after it had ceased to be habitable, long 
remained as a desolate ruin, and had the reputation of being 
haunted. As often as the unsatiable desire of urchins led 
them to enter its portals and advance a few steps up the 
narrow stair, have their hearts fainted, as some gush of wind 
coming in hollow sough, arrested their course, and compelled 
them to retreat ere they had dared to peep into the dark 
kitchen. Here, it was believed, a boiling cauldron was con- 
stantly on the fire, and an arm-chair before it, to entice the 
wayfarer ; when, no sooner had he sat down, than some invisi- 
ble machinery tilted up the chair and threw the occupant into 
the enticing broth-pot. In another chamber, the apparition of 
Nelly Homeless was heard to patter patter up the long winding 
dark stair, give three knocks at the door, and unforbidden enter 
with grim unearthly look, with great gash in her breast, imploring 
back again her lichts and liver, before she could get rest in her 
lonely grave. Medical practitioners then got the repute of 
doing sad things to the dead in nightly and secret labours. 
Colder House is said to have been built in 1669. 

t Donaldson's House, now down, and the site occupied by 
shops, had a bartizan on the top ; and stones still kept, bear 
J. D. J. M. 1699, i.e., James Donaldson and his spouse Jean 
Mackean. In Lossie Wynd, within a Court, there is, on a 
large mantelpiece, built by the same, J. D. J. M. 1689. (ED.) 
VOL. II. 2 



18 ISAAC FORSYTE ; ELGIN STREET ARCHITECTURE. 

Ritchies. It has never been a great Mansion, but as it 
now stands, is the prettiest of the old Elgin Houses they 
have left us. 

Next, we come to a House with a stair tower, marked 
repeatedly with the date of 1634 and the arms of Leslie 
of Rothes, and distinguished by the Iron Cross at the 
top, which marks the houses held under the Knights of 
St. John. The old titles are lost, and I cannot tell you 
what Leslies dwelt there in 1700 (the time we are trying 
to look back upon). Alexander Forsyth, merchant in 
Elgin, bought it in 1744. I have lately heard that he 
was a personal friend, at any rate, an admirer, of Dr. 
Isaac Watts, the great English non-conformist divine, and 
named his son after him. We all knew and loved Isaac 
Forsyth* the late possessor of that quaint old edifice, and 
many of you can remember when he had a bookselling 
shop there, where he established a library, issued several 
excellent works of local history, and made it the centre 
of literature for the city and county. That venerable old 
man would have loved to help me in my present under- 
taking. 

Mr. Billings gives an admirable Plate of " street archi- 
tecture at Elgin " : When the wanderer has entered the 
town itself, he will find himself surrounded by objects 
that might occupy his pencil or his pen for weeks. 
Besides the grand mass of the Cathedral, and the clus- 
tered castellated remains of its Close, every street and 
turning presents some curious quaint architectural peculi- 
arity, from the graceful gothic arches of the Maison Dieu 
to the old grey burgher's house, sticking its narrow crow- 
stepped gable, and all its fantastic, irregular, blinking 
little windows, into the centre of the street. Many 
decorated niches, let in to abrupt corners, now tenantless, 
mark the spots where once stood the image of the Virgin 
and the lamp, to arrest the notice of the passer-by; an 
indication of the great antiquity of the street architecture 
of Elgin. In many cases the houses are ranged in the 
old French manner, round square court-yards communi- 

* Isaac Forsyth died on the 17th May, 1859, set. 90. He 
bought the property from his niece, Ann Forsyth, wife of 
Adam Longmore of the Exchequer, Edinburgh. 

A slater, in his wisdom, tore up the Jerusalem Cross as being 
an encumbrance, when repairing the roof. (ED.) 



CHARACTERISTIC OF THE STREETS OF ELGIN. 19 

eating with the street by low heavy-browed arches. A 
large number of the houses are supported on colonnades, 
the designs of which have considerable merit, especially 
in that character of massiveness which seems to adapt the 
pillar and arch to bear the superincumbent weight. From 
this feature, some of the streets of Elgin remind one of 
those of Berne ; but they are still more quaint, fantastic, 
and venerable looking than those of the gloomy Swiss city. 
Never having had either manufactures or trade, Elgin has 
changed little in the course of a century or two ; while, as 
the centre of a rich agricultural district, with its clubs 
and county meetings, it has had enough of vitality to 
save it from total decay by the removal of its ecclesiastical 
honours. It is inhabited by a considerable number of 
people with good connexions and small incomes, who 
naturally surround themselves with the attributes of 
modest elegance and comfort. (The Baronial and Eccle- 
siastical Antiquities of Scotland, by Robert William 
Billings, Architect, vol. II.). 

This includes Isaac Forsytes tower, and a picturesque 
old house on piazzas, which has been removed since the 
date of that work such is the rapid pace of demolition 
among you ! That House belonged successively to Cra- 
monds, Mills, Captain Peter Innes, Charleses, Hay of 
Edintore, and lastly to Mr. Anderson, who pulled it 
down, and has built a very fine new house and shop on 
the site. 

A little to the eastward, a large old House still stands, 
covered with grey slates, once the property of Thomas 
Stephen, Provost of Elgin, with whose daughter it passed 
to Miln of Milnfield. 

Now, cross Lossie Wynd, and, still keeping the north 
side of the High Street, at the corner stood a fine old 
House with a double roof and a bartizan. The property 
of old extended from the High Street to the back of the 
burgh at the north, the northern part being a fine garden. 
Very early, it belonged to Annand of Morriston; then, 
before 1600, to Alexander Innes of Coxton. Near a cen- 
tury later (1669) Sir Alexander Innes of Coxton, with 
consent of George Innes, minister of Premriay, disponed 
it to James Donaldson, merchant^a.ncestor of the respect- 
able family who took their style from the pretty little 
Estate of Kmiicairdy on the Dovern. The last laird of 



20 OUR LADY HIGH HOUSE. 

that family married Anne Innes, daughter of Sir James 
of Coxton (1777), who lived to be old, and is yet remembered 
as a perfect specimen of a stately lady of the old school. 

Over the way, on the site of the present Court House* 
stood the House of the Family of Anderson of Linkwood, 
a race of most respectable burghers lawyers sheriff- 
clerks commissary clerks often provosts of the burgh 
the first of whom was in the employment of the famous 
Sir George Mackenzie, King's Advocate in the reign of 
Charles II., who gave him some lands in Pluscarden. 

Passing by the House with the mysterious and unex- 
plained name of" Lady High House," -f we come on the 
north side of the street, to an old House originally built 
on arcades, just opposite the Little Cross. It was occupied 
as a place of business by William Duff of Dipple, father of 
William first Earl of Fife. The late Mr. William Young 
used to report the tradition that, while carrying on busi- 
ness here, Dipple bought the Estate of Coxton at what 
people ignorantly thought a very high price so high 
that the Knight of Coxton celebrated the event by an 
entertainment which was not temperate, and very noisy, 
Dipple, in the evening, as he was shutting up his office, 
heard the noise of the riotous feast, and asked the cause. 
They told him it was Coxton rejoicing with his friends 
at the price he had got for his land. " Poor fellow ! " 
said Dipple, "he is as well pleased at parting with his 
inheritance as I am at getting it." William Duff of 
Dipple died in 1722. 

* The Court House and Jail were erected in 1842. Elizabeth, 
the last Duchess of Gordon, heired it through her aunts, and 
sold it to the Magistrates of Elgin for the above uses. (ED.) 

t Our Lady High House suggests its dedication to the B. V. 
Mary. In 1546, Sir Thomas Ragg was one of the chaplains in 
S. Giles, and also taught a school in this house. This same 
year the Murrays of Fochaberis, by deed disponed it to James 
Innes of Crombie. From 1770 till 1812 it was possessed by 
the Andersons of Linkwood, who sold it to Alexander Brodie 
of Arnhall, and was occupied by his sisters, the Misses Brodie 
of Spynie. Elizabeth, the last Duchess of Gordon (the only 
child of Brodie of Arnhall), heired this house after the death of 
her aunts, and in 1835 sold the subjects to Provost Grant, who, 
in 1 840, sold them to Provost Kussell, who erected on the site 
buildings for a printing office and abode. (ED.) 



DUNKINTY HOUSE; OLD COLLEGE ABODES. 21 

I am sorry I must not detain you with an account of 
that most worthy family of your citizens, the Kings of 
Newmill, who acquired the Greyfriars, many canons' 
crofts, the lands of Newmill, and Pans, and were peculi- 
arly an Elgin burgh family, and an honour to the burgh. 

The Huntly Family had a residence in Elgin, at the 
head of the College, not now to be traced. My ancestors, 
the Innesses of Dunkinty, lived in that old House which 
stood till lately at the corner of Grant Lodge gardens. 
You know it in Mr. Khind's " Sketches of Moray." After 
my forebears succeeded to Leuchars, it was uninhabited, 
and it was rather ruinous even before it was acquired by 
the Seafield Family, who pulled it down a few years ago. 
I used to admire the gables of the dormer windows, deco- 
rated with coats of arms, the remains of the old hangings 
of stamped Spanish leather, and the little concealed ora- 
tory, where the family, zealous Non-jurors, could keep their 
service-books and say their prayers in times of trouble. 
The entrance was from the west, at the end of the Gardens 
of Elgin, entering at the foot of Lossie Wynd. 

At the beginning of last century the interesting old 
College Dwellings had of course all passed into lay hands. 
The Bishop's Town Palace the work of that great archi- 
tect the Chancellor Lord Dunfermline was then in the 
Gordon Family. 

The North College the house standing where the Dean's 
residence was, and preserving some of its walls includes 
in its gardens and grounds the residences or manses of 
the canons of Botarie, Inverkeithny, the Treasurer's, 
Croy, the Chancellor's as well as the Deanery. It was 
for a time the town house of the Dunbars of Burgie, and 
was acquired by the Family of Robertson, its present 
proprietors, about a century ago. The lands of Deans- 
haugh, with the Dovecot, were of old attached to the 
Deanery, and the Lossie, which now separates them, 
seems to have run much to the north of its present 
channel. 

[The Manse of Duffus, as old as the 15th century, in 
the College of Elgin, was pulled down about 48 years ago. 
A good sketch of the quaint house, with corner square 
turret, is given in Rhind's Sketches of Moray. It stood 
on the east corner of King Street. King James II. found 
lodging for himself and small court in this little mansion. 



22 DUFFUS AND UNTHANK MANSES ; SUBDEAN'S HOUSE. 

His kinsman David Stuart (then Parson of Duffus, and 
afterwards Bishop of Moray), was absent at the time on 
some embassy, when the kitchen of the Manse accidentally 
took fire, and was re-built at the King's expense. The 
house was long the possession of the Family of King of 
Newmill, then of Captain Stewart, who sold it to Peter 
Brown of Linkwood, who built on the stance the abode, 
now the property of John Allan. 

Equally good etchings of Unthank Manse, Mantelpiece, 
and Arms of the Duffus Family quartered on the Manse, 
are given in Rhind's Sketches. On the mantelpiece in 
large figures, is the date ]679 (not 1670 as given in 
Young's Annals of Elgin, page 395), with the initials 
W B. I O on either side, and fierce erect Lion-Sup- 
porters. These fine jambs are now at one of the garden- 
gates at Gordonstown House. 

Unthank Manse was also purchased by the above Mr. 
Peter Brown, who built thereupon the domicile occupied 
by John Kerr, Inspector of Schools, and now possessed 
by Mrs. M'William.] (ED.) 

The Sub-dean's House is that inherited by the Hon. G. 
S. Duff, from the Hon. George Duff of Milton, son of 
Wiliam, first Earl of Fife. None of the original building 
remains, but the massy precinct wall of the Cathedral 
runs to the south of the garden; and with its fine old 
trees, it formed the pleasant quiet residence which Charles 
St. John so much loved. All that we call King Street 
was occupied by the residences and gardens of the Canons 
of old. Duffus Manse, the picturesque old Mansion where 
King James II. kept his court, is now Mr. Allan's ; Un- 
thank Manse, Sheriff Cameron's. A hundred and fifty 
years ago, these and many other mansions of good 
burghers of country gentry of Moray and Banff lined 
your High Street on both sides affording covered walks 
almost from end to end, with their low arcades or 
"piazzas." The foot pavement did not then project into 
the street, and perhaps the " causey " was not so clean in 
its every-day state as it is now. But on days of state or 
holidays, and, of old, on occasions of Church-processions, 
a great cleansing and ornamenting took place. Then 
think how the centre of the spacious street was occupied, 
at the time of our visit the beginning of last century. 

First and just on the site of the modern fountain 



THE MUCKLE AND LITTLE KIRKS AND CROSSES. 23 

stood, during all last century, the Jail and Burgh Court- 
House. It was built only about the beginning of the 
century, in room of a former and more humble Tolbooth. 
There was not much architectural merit in the fabric, but 
it was quaint and characteristic. 

Next there was the " Muckle Kirk" the venerable 
and most ancient Church of St. Giles the Parish Church 
of Elgin; a place so ancient, so venerable, so mixed up 
with the history and tradition of the city, that one might 
have expected it to have been spared, if anything were to 
remain of old Elgin. It stood just where the new Church 
stands; and of old was surrounded by its cemetery, in 
which among later graves must have stood the elaborate 
Monument of primeval Christianity, now placed for safety 
in the Cathedral, which was found in levelling the street 
near the Church. Probably only the lower walls of the 
Muckle Kirk were of high antiquity. The roof and the 
upper part of the fabric fell in 1679, on a Sunday, after 
service ; but it was re-built somewhat in the old manner, 
and so continued till 1828. Do the Bailies and the 
" Trades " fill the eye as well in their fine new Church 
as when dear William Hay sang of their glories in that 
ghostly old fabric ? 

The " Little Kirk," though separated, and made of late 
to open eastward, was originally the Choir of the great 
Church of St. Giles. 

Where you may still see the paving stones of the street 
laid in the form of a cross, stood the "Muckle Cross" 
What its ancient form and structure were, we do not 
know. That which stood there all last century was a 
hexagonal Pillar of dressed ashlar; 12 feet high, and large 
enough to contain a spiral stair. Around its base was a 
stone seat. From the top of the pillar rose a shaft of 
stone, surmounted by the Scotch Lion Rampant, and the 
initials (C. R.) of King Charles II. 

The Little Cross, I suppose, is not much changed in a 
century and a half. It is one of that kind of which we 
have finer specimens at Kinneddar, at Duffus, and other 
Moray Churches; but from its situation, this of Elgin 
is liable to injuries, and the shaft may have been re- 
newed. 

[The Muckle Cross was removed about 86 years ago for 
being an obstruction. It was a poor specimen of archi- 



24 THE LITTLE CROSS AND HOUSE NEAR IT. 

tecture, consisting of a small hexagonal roofless apartment 
in which the loons used to stow sticks and other collec- 
tions for the annual bonfire on the King's Birthday. This 
chamber was carefully guarded with an oak door. A 
freestone column similar to that of the Little Cross shot 
up from the centre, surmounted with the Scottish lion 
rampant with crown and cross. The latter is placed on 
the South College garden wall. 

The Little Cross still remains entire in its original posi- 
tion. It has four circular steps or pediments, from which 
rises a round slender Ionic Monolith about 15 feet high, 
topped by a sun dial, upon which is cut the arms of the 
city. The summit has three small iron rods, one perpen- 
dicular and two crossways, indicating the four points of 
the compass. A correct etching is given in Rhind's 
Sketches of Moray, p. 57. Alexander, 3rd son of the 
Lord of the Isles, with his captains, on the 3rd July, 
1402, plundered the Chanonry of Elgin : and on the 6th 
Oct., the same year, on due contrition, was absolved by 
William Spynie, Bishop of Moray, before the doors of the 
Church, and then before the High Altar. He and his 
troopers also paid as penance a sum of money, with part 
of which a Cross was erected where the Chanonry begins. 
This is reckoned to be where the Little Cross stands and 
has stood for nearly 800 years not certainly the present 
superstructure. From the Town Council Minutes of the 
1st April, 1867, the Little Cross being in a ruinous and 
dilapidated state, and threatening to fall, was ordered to 
be repaired. 

In the Burgh Records of 1542, there is a reference to a 
Cross at the east end of the town, but as it is there called 
a tree, it was necessarily of wood. 

In Rhind's Sketches, an etching is given at page 57 of a 
House near the Little Cross of the old burgh architecture, 
yet in good preservation, erected on piazzas. The original 
possessors are not known. It bears the date 1694, and 
the initials I. D. above the windows. It is said that it 
was occupied as a place of business by William Duff of 
Dipple, father of William 1st Earl of Fife, when he resided 
in Elgin from 1703 to 1722, at which latter date he died. 
It is a fact that Mr. Duff had a mortgage upon it for 800 
merks between 1709 and 1716. It afterwards passed to 
the family of Anderson of Linkwood, and from them, in 



THE CATHEDRAL AND MONASTIC FOUNDATIONS 25 

1769, to Patrick Duff, Town Clerk of Elgin, grandfather 
of the late Town Clerk. He was called Little Clerk 
Duff, in contradistinction to Archibald Duff of Bilbohall, 
who was called the Muckle Clerk. At a time of political 
excitement, a bullet was fired in at the middle window, 
and struck the wall of the apartment near the bed where 
the Little Clerk and his wife were lying. From the 
Duffs, the house was transferred to Sir James Grant of 
Grant.] (ED.) 

I pray you not to be alarmed when I mention the Cathe- 
dral. I have no intention of inflicting an .archaeological 
treatise upon you. Just one word of explanation. You 
know that the early Bishops of Moray had no fixed seat, 
making their Cathedral sometimes at Birnie (where much 
of their structure of the 12th century still remains), some- 
times at Spynie or Kinneddar. But at length, in 1224, 
Bishop Andrew de Moravia settled his Episcopal See per- 
manently at the Church of the Holy Trinity beside Elgin. 
That little primeval Church quite disappeared, and the 
existing Cathedral may be safely said to date from that 
year. No doubt the Cathedral was burnt by the Wolf of 
Badenoch in 1390, and perhaps suffered by fire again in 
1402, when another noble Savage spoiled, burnt, and 
plundered a great part of the town and canonry. But I 
would have you know that burning of a Church or Castle 
in those times did not imply a destruction to the founda- 
tion. Most commonly the massive walls resisted the 
hurried scorching of the spoiler, and certainly this was so 
in Elgin. The architecture proves it beyond any ques- 
tion. And then those old churchmen made their repairs 
with such taste and feeling refusing none of the im- 
provements of their own day, but adapting their new 
work to the original style, so that the very changes which 
a skilled eye detects in the periods of architecture are 
considered, and really are, beauties. 

I must not pass by without noticing the Monastic 
Foundations of which some vestiges remain. 

The Dominicans or Black-friars, or Friars Preachers, 
had a House founded by King Alexander II., about 1233, 
which stood in a field called Borrowbriggs, now scarcely 
to be traced, owing to the changing of the bed of Lossie. 
It was not far from our friend Mr. Grigor's house, 
at the Haugh. The place no doubt inherits its hospi- 



26 THE GREYFRIARS' MONASTERY, ELGIN. 

tality, as well as its beautiful flowers, from the old 
Friars ! 

There was a Convent of Franciscans, Minorites, or 
Grey Friars, at Elgin, endowed as early as 1281, when it 
is described as "near the Cathedral church." Could 
that be the place which we know as the Greyfriars, or 
is this a later foundation? The architecture of that 
beautiful Ruin is plainly of the 15th century. It has 
been supposed that the older House that described as 
" near the Cathedral church " occupied the site of Mr. 
Cooper's house and garden, where some ancient founda- 
tions and vaults below, were visible until lately. 

I think there were no Nunneries in Elgin. 

The society of Elgin was very different at the beginning 
of last century from what it is now. You observe, a good 
many country families lived in the town, some preferring 
it to their country homes at least in winter ; others, like 
the Laird of Dunkinty, having no dwelling-houses on 
their estates. The last Dunkinty who inhabited that old 
house close to the North College, was one of the last sur- 
vivors of that society. Though he was my granduncle 
and there is said to be a family resemblance I beg to 
state that he was a very good-looking old gentleman. 
His picture hangs in my dining-room, in full powdered 
wig and chapeau bras. You know it is a small property, 
for he did not live to inherit Leuchars ; but the old man 
drove about the town, and out to Calcotts, in his coach 
and pair, chiefly to prove his gentility. I think when I 
came here as Sheriff, my friend, Mr. Cameron, showed me 
the old Dunkinty coach, with its once splendid gilt 
nails and corners, converted into a summer house in an 
inn garden. 

Among all that class there was a good deal of society 
a very genuine, hearty hospitality a kindly welcome a 
full table, and at least enough of that wine which was to 
be had pretty cheap, paying no odious duties. But to 
tell the truth, the great enjoyment of the gentry at that 
time was not in domestic parties. When men found their 
days tedious, and longed for something to stir the blood, 
they did not assemble their friends at the board of a 
stately dame, with lappets, and hoop, and high-heeled 
shoes. They met at a tavern the British A rms, or Mrs. 
Crombie's and drank till the cares and sorrows of life 



SOCIETY AT THE BEGINNING OF LAST CENTUKY. 27 

were forgotten. Or, if they were not fortunate enough 
to be in Elgin, half a dozen neighbour gentlemen would 
make a tryst at Findhorn, or still oftener at the little 
solitary alehouse on the Muir, where Lucky Lightfoot 
supplied them with pure, cheap claret (it might well be 
cheap !) and where the want of ceremony and the homeli- 
ness of everything around, gave it a zest which it wanted 
in their own castles. You must not imagine they were 
habitual drunkards, or even in the habit of drinking a 
glass of wine daily. The men were fine gentlemen, I 
assure you, though the young fellows swore a little, 
bragged a little of their five bottles at a sitting, and 
other peccadilloes which we think better to hide. Some 
of the pictures of our forefathers of that time show a 
quantity of lace at breast and wrist a powdering of 
periwig, and smart cock of hat that must have rendered 
it horribly inconvenient to be caught out in such a gale 
as blew down our valley on the 3rd of this month. The 
expense of that dress was monstrous. Sir Richard Steele's 
black periwig, we know, cost him forty guineas, and to 
maintain such a head-piece in curl and beauty was no 
trifle. Do you remember the elegant Lovelace (the lady- 
killer of Richardson's imagination) lamenting his wig and 
his linen dabbled with hoar-frost when he had been ex- 
posed to the cold in keeping an assignation ? 

The rich and somewhat tawdry dress of the men was 
the folly of the time not of the country. I only wish 
you to observe that our ancestors in the North were not 
exempt from the fashionable follies of their day. Indeed, 
I don't find that they were much addicted to out-door 
occupations. I find no letters of enthusiastic farming and 
planting, no passion for sport, no fishing, and very little 
of shooting only a grey-hound or two were kept about 
a house for killing hares, and frequently lent from hand 
to hand. You will find that the men then were less 
accustomed to that hardy exercise which begins with us 
at school, and lasts as long as health and strength will 
allow. 

The ladies were more stay-at-home than their grand- 
daughters; many of them, ladies of quality or fortune, 
never left Moray after returning from the boarding-school 
in Edinburgh. They were not for the most part accom- 
plished, in our sense of the word. A slender knowledge 



28 MORAYSHIRE LADIES OF LAST CENTURY. 

of music, playing on the harpsichord or the viol-de-gamba, 
and a sort of sampler embroidery not so conveniently 
easy as our modern ladies' work formed the whole. 
They went to church, or to the Non-Juring Chapel, but 
were not much addicted to theological study the age for 
that had gone by. They didn't read much ; indeed, books 
were very few, and the taste for them confined to two or 
three families. But then they were notable housewives 
the Countess of Moray and the Lady of Gordon Castle 
vieing with the Squires' wives in the mysteries of the 
kitchen and the comforts of good housekeeping.* 

* I can call to mind a good many ladies of Moray who made 
an impression on society in their time, and have left a memory 
behind them : 

1. ANNAS KEITH, Countess of Moray and Argyll, who filled 
a large sphere in this county for a time, managing the proper- 
ties of both earldoms. Her house at Darnaway, and her 
"lodging" in Edinburgh, were resorted to as a little court by 
Moray men, by all of whom she was beloved for her own 
qualities of masculine sense and kindness, and revered as the 
wife and widow of the " Good Regent." 

2. HENRIETTA STUART, daughter of the Earl of Moray, wife 
of Sir Hugh Campbell of Cawdor, was a notable housekeeper 
and careful economist, learned in the qualities of tea and 
chocolate, and of great taste in "napery." She was long 
remembered as a good neighbour and amiable lady. Her 
books were a thought too Puritanical for the present taste ; 
but among " Sighs from Hell," and " Rutherford's Letters," are 
placed " Hodder's Arithmetic," and " Speed's Husbandry," 
together with a treatise on " Psalmistry." 

3. The Mordaunt DUCHESS OF GORDON, wife of the second 
Duke, who changed the religion of the family fen- a consideration 
and, during a long widowhood, managed her affairs and 
those of her children with great vigilance and the skill of a 
man of business, and yet was a universal favourite. 

4. MARY SLEIGH, was the English wife of the Laird of 
Brodie the laird who was long Lord Lyon, and was univer- 
sally known in Scotland as " The Lyon " a very popular lead- 
ing man in Moray, though Lord Lovat, who didn't love him, 
called him the "king of beasts." I imagine his wife was an 
heiress. At any rate she was allowed to manage and spend 
liberally. She attended to farming as well as housewifery, and 
directed, herself, the breeding of her horses, &c. She was 
also an early planter of hardwood. I have noticed a present 



MRS. ROSE OF KILRAVOCK ; THE QUEEN OF FORRES. 29 

I don't find that the ladies attended to the garden or 
cared for flowers. The only exception I can name is 
Kilravock. But the gentlemen in and round Elgin, and 
indeed all through Moray, were fond of gardening, and 
we must not censure them if in their eyes the fruit- 
garden and the orchard took precedence of the flower- 
border. They inherited that taste from the Monks of 
Pluscarden and Kinloss, who may have admired a clove- 
gilly flower, but gave their whole hearts to the produce 
of their pear trees. 

It may be worth recording that the excellent Robert 

she made to the Laird of Kilravock, in 1750, of fifty beech 
plants probably those which now adorn " the birch-ward " at 
Kilravock, and the charming bank of Coulmony. The tradition 
of the country is, that she was the great planter and ornamenter 
of Brodie; and, moreover, that she planted (and protected) 
that double hedgerow of ashes which still, at intervals, shades 
the high road from the Hardmuir to Torres. I wish she had 
left more imitators. 

5. Mrs. ELIZABETH ROSE of Kilravock, a lady admirable in 
more ways than I can find room for in this note. She was the 
first very literary lady in the North, but her literature was not 
her greatest recommendation. In conversation she was always 
animated and natural, full of genuine humour, and keen and 
quick perception of the ludicrous. She has been described as 
the leader of all cheerful amusements, the humorous story- 
teller, the clever mimic, the very soul of society. She was a 
good musician, and very fond of music. Those were her surface 
accomplishments. She was the most ardent of friends, bene- 
volent, hospitable, kind and generous beyond her means, 
zealously religious, without parade, ever anxious to help forward 
humble talent. 

6. If it were not too near her own time, I should like to 
place here a memorial of Miss MADDY MACPHERSON, the 
" Queen of Forres," as she was called. I do not think she has 
left so good and characteristic a specimen of the Highland lady 
behind her. Without any superfluous education, she had a 
consciousness of Highland gentry never found herself unfit 
for the society of the highest and most cultivated. Her know- 
ledge of her countrymen was very accurate, and she communi- 
cated it in the pleasantest way. With good broad humour, 
and a play of satire quite free from malice, she made her 
drawing-room a pleasant place of resort for all comers, while to 
her friends she was ever hospitable, kind, and cordial. 



30 GARDENING AND THE GARDENS OF KINLOSS. 

Reid, Abbot of Kinloss, afterwards Bishop of Orkney, 
among other schemes for civilising his house, brought to 
Kinloss from Dieppe a French gardener, named Guillaume 
Lubias, very skilful in planting and grafting fruit-trees, 
who, writes the chronicler of the Abbey, " executed many 
works in the Abbey garden and round the place, and 
indeed through all Moray, most useful and worthy of 
observation." I have heard from that authority, which I 
have quoted so often, that when, 100 years ago, the last 
of the old pear trees of Kinloss were blown down in a 
storm, it was found that they had been under-paved with 
flat flag-stones, after the most approved manner of modern 
orchard cultivation a manner which we moderns, with 
our usual vanity, had declared to be an invention unknown 
to the old gardeners. Some papers at Kilravock show 
that the makers of that good old garden got some of their 
trees from Kinloss, while the finer kinds came from 
Normandy. 

The gardens of Kinloss, (the nursery of gardening, and 
teacher to all Moray) have left worthy successors ; and I 
doubt if the Monks, at their best, grew better apples and 
pears than the present Laird of Kinloss and his brother, 
the Baronet of Duffus. I am sure they never even 
dreamed of such carnations and asters as our friend, Mr. 
Grigor, grows in his little garden at the Haugh. 

At the time we are speaking of remember it is 150 
years ago Elgin must have been a comfortable place to 
live in as regards vivers. There is a certificate very 
formally issued by two worshipful Justices of the Peace, 
Sir Thomas Calder of Muirtown, Bart., and Robert Dunbar 
of Newton, Esq., dated the last day of the year 1710. 
What warrant or reason they had for setting forth the 
statement I cannot tell, but certified as it is we cannot 
doubt its truth. 

" We, Sir Thomas Calder of Muirton, Knt., Rob. Dunbar of 
Newton, Esq., J.Ps. within the shire of Elgin, do hereby testify 
and declare to all concerned, that the manner of living .... 
in the town of Elgin, within the said shire, for merchandise of 
all sorts of wines, victuals, and other necessaries for families, 
being to be had at low rates as follows, viz. : Ane carcase of 
best beef in the shambles, at 8 pund Scotts. Item Ane 
mutton bulk at 2 merks Scotts. Item Ane good lien at 2s. 
Scotts, and 2s. 6d. the dearest. 14 eggs for ane shilling Scotts. 



MERCHANDISE DURING THE LAST CENTURY. 31 

Fourteen haddocks for ane shilling and six pennies Scotts, or 
2s. at most. 14 whitings for Is. Scotts. Ane stone of butter, 
of the best sort, at 3 pund Scotts, quhereof there goes 22 Ib. 
to the stone. Ane stone of the best cheese of the north 
country make, 2 merks Scotts, or 30s. Scotts at most, quhereof 
there is given 22 Ib. to the stone. Ane pint of milk for sixteen 
pennies Scotts. Muirfowl and partridge, at 2 shillings Scotts 
the pair. Waterfowl as follows, viz. : Ane goose at 8s. Scotts ; 
duck and drake, wild or tame, at four shillings." 

Take the prices of some other commodities, in that 
same year, gathered from old shop-bills and inn-reckon- 
ings. A man's living was charged so much a meal or diet. 
Each diet was 2d. English. A chopin ale, Id. Claret, 
Is. 3d. a bottle. Brandy, Is. 2d. Sugar, Is. 4d. a pound. 
Bohea (the only tea used), 1 5s. to 18s. Cheshire cheese, 
5d. per pound. 

To return for a moment to the society of Elgin at the 
beginning of last century, there was mixed, an element 
one hardly expected a class of merchants and I will 
describe to you their dealings. When the lord and laird 
drew all their rents in corn, it came to be of consequence, 
I may say, of necessity, to find a market for so much 
grain. The proprietors soon found they did not thrive 
best when they went to a foreign market on their own 
account, and thus sprung up a set of men whose chief, or 
at least whose first, dealing was in buying up the meal 
and barley of the laird's granary, and shipping it to 
southern markets, often to Holland and Flanders or 
France, but more commonly to Leith, Newcastle, and 
London. The return cargo was often wine ; but it was 
by no means beneath the dignity of the trade to invest a 
part of the produce in foreign fruit, in sugar, and such 
tempting commodities for the home market. The younger 
sons of the landed gentry soon took to that business, and 
a few heads of decayed houses sought to retrieve their 
fortunes by its moderate profits. I find Sir James Calder 
of Muirtown, a Baronet, was such a merchant in Elgin 
before 1700, and his eldest son, Sir Thomas, carried on 
the same trade about 1730 and lower. Before 1700 
Cumming of Relugas, and about 1730 Charles Brodie of 
Lethen and Dunbar of Kincorth, were corn-merchants in 
Inverness. The first coals I have found in the North 
were imported by Charles Brodie. A little later my 



32 MERCHANTS OF LAST CENTURY IN ELGIN. 



grandfather, Robert Innes, a younger son of Dunkinty 
and heir of Leuchars, who, I told you, lived at the West 
Port of Elgin, carried on such a trade. I stop in passing 
merely to observe that he paid for his purchases by bills 
on Thomas Coutts &; Co. of Edinburgh, and those bills 
were in great demand, for you must remember there were 
no banks then north of Edinburgh, and bank notes were 
making their way so slowly that, in the middle of the 
century, the Baronet of Gordonstown asked as a great 
favour from his neighbour, Dunbar of Duffus, to let him 
have a bill on London for a small sum of money some- 
thing, I think, under 20.* 

There were many of these merchant gentlemen con- 
nected with Elgin and Inverness during the first half of 
the last century, but none so extensive in their dealings, 
nor in all ways so remarkable, as several members of the 
Family of Duff, who were then laying the foundations of 
that great fortune which their descendants still inherit. 
It is a peculiarity of our countrymen of the lower orders 
to seek to lessen and disparage men who have risen 
rapidly to great wealth and station, and they have been 
in the habit of speaking slightly of those founders of the 
Fife fortunes altogether unjustly, so far as I can gather 
from the correspondence of the time. Like the other 
gentlemen, some of whom I have mentioned and the list 
could be easily and largely increased the Duffs William 
Duff, younger and elder, of Dipple, merchants in Inverness 
and Elgin, and William Duff of Druminuir, at Inverness 
bought and exported corn, and imported and sold all 
commodities, great and small, from 1650 to far down in 
the following century. They supplied their customers 
with wine and brandy, lead for their roofs, and musket 
barrels for their defence ; and the notable housewives of 
the county with dried fruit, capers, olives, anchovies, 
bottles, and domestic utensils, and the fine diaper, which 
was very early a prized luxury of our Scotch houses. 
But they had other dealings than these. When a great 
barony was to be bought, and no ready mone}^ forth- 
coming, the Duffs found the money for the purchase, 
taking a mortgage, or wadset, over the land, together 

* A good deal of light is thrown on that trade, and the early 
banking of Scotland, by Sir W. Forbes' History of his Banking- 
house, lately published. 



RETROSPECT: ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTY YEARS AGO. 33 

with the security of the borrowers. In truth, before 
banks were established or insurance companies dreamed 
of, the Duffs dealt in money largely. They were the 
bankers of the North, and carried on the business much 
as we read of its being managed in Florence and Genoa, 
and the other free cities of Italy in the old time. In the 
next half century to that we are now speaking of, they 
invested their available funds in extensive purchases of 
land, and had the full advantage of the extraordinary rise 
in its value, which seems not yet to have come to its 
climax. 

Now, let us walk a little way beyond the town in any 
direction remember we are looking 150 years back. 
Suppose we go down across the Loch, and see the great 
house Sir Robert is building at Gordonstown. The 
country is without hedge or hedgerow alas ! it is but 
too much so still and to add to the inconvenience, the 
land was at the date of our walk very much intermixed 
held run-rig, as we used to call it. The tillers of the 
soil are no longer serfs, it is true ; and it cannot be said 
that they pay too high rents, for the rents have not varied 
for a hundred years and more. But they are poor in 
means, poor in energy without knowledge of comfort 
and without hope. Then their fashion of husbandry is 
this. The farmer, occupying that turf hut for it is 
nothing better manures and ploughs, and sows with 
corn, the old infield lying nearest him. He has no 
thought of changing the crop. When the poor exhausted 
soil refuses to bear more white grain, he gives it a year 
of dead fallow, and takes a flying crop from such of the 
outfield as is freest of rocks and marshes, and may have 
got a little manured by cattle lying there. When that is 
reaped, he leaves poor outfield to recover a skin of weeds 
or grass at leisure, and returns as before to crop the old 
infield. Sown grass there is none. Turnips potatoes 
are names as yet unknown beyond the kitchen garden. 
My father, who was born the year after Culloden, went 
to school in Elgin of course. In his time potatoes were 
so uncommon, even round the town, that it was a favourite 
frolic of the school-boys to steal them from some garden 
and take them to be roasted in the kiln fire at the mill 
just as orchard-robbing has been recognized as the peculiar 
privilege of school-boys in all times. Turnips, as a field 

VOL. II. 3 



34 WRETCHED SLAVERY & LIVELIHOOD OF AGRICULTURISTS. 

crop, are of much later date. But to return When the 
crop is cut and housed, the cattle wander at will over the 
unfenced land, and from the stubbles and moors pick up 
a sustenance till the hard snow storm drives them to the 
byre, when straw and a little marsh hay or rushes must 
feed them till spring. No wonder that many die of cold 
and hunger. The houses are not water-tight, and the 
straw always a short crop. It is well if the poor milk 
cows can stagger out on their own legs when the byre 
door is opened at the disappearance of the snow. It is 
well if the poor human inmates of the farm have not been 
driven to bleed the starving cattle to keep their own life 
in. Do not accuse me of exaggerating. I have met with 
many instances of people convicted of bleeding their 
neighbours' cattle to obtain the blood as food. Even in 
the houses of the gentry, food was often wanting in winter. 
When Sir Robert Gordon was tutor of his nephew, the 
Earl of Sutherland, he kept careful accounts of household 
matters at Dunrobin. In more than one of these yearly 
accounts, the meal of the household is exhausted in spring, 
and I remember at least two instances where orders are 
given to send and kill deer on the hill for the support of 
the Earl's family, in the months of April and May, when 
red deer is mere carrion ! 

You must not expect me to dwell on the manner of 
living and thinking of those poor creatures, the cultivators 
of the soil of fertile Moray 150 years ago. When the 
struggle is for life, the comfort, the cultivation nay, 
the very decencies and charities of life are apt to be 
forgotten. 

It is no wonder that in those days a farmer never 
became rich. We have no such thing in the old time as 
a farmer acquiring property. That was reserved for our 
own century, with all its high rents and expensive modes 
of cultivation. But the farming population did at last 
begin to improve, at the same time when Scotland gene- 
rally took such a start forward, its progress dating from 
1760. In the latter half of the last century, a new mode 
of cultivation was introduced. More skill and energy 
were required perhaps more stock and capital but the 
results were, plenty and comfort, and comparative wealth. 

Some of you may remember all of you have heard 
of the manner of the farmer's life among us sixty years 



ADVANTAGES OF THE PRESENT GENERATION. 35 

ago. The farms were not so large as they are now, but 
there was enough of land to employ the hands of the 
family, and plenty of moor all round that repaid improv- 
ing. Wheat, which had been little cultivated before, was 
now common I may say universal. There were clover 
and rye-grass for summer food, and hay for the horses in 
winter. There was turnip enough to make the season of 
winter the most plentiful of the year. A few men actu- 
ally began to feed fat for the butcher ; but the milk cow 
and her calves at least were always well off. 

There was no bothy of hired servants, but a neighbour 
farmer's son was often one of the ploughmen ; and he was 
not despised if he fell in love with the daughter of the 
house. I am old enough to look back to those good, 
simple manners, and I am not sure that in some respects 
we have improved in the last generation. Let me not be 
misunderstood. I am not here to undervalue the farmers 
of Moray. I have known them long, and have this season 
lived among them, and been indebted to them for much 
cordial kindness. With the shrewdness and sagacity, the 
industry and activity that marked their fathers, they 
have joined a higher cultivation and a proper feeling of 
independence. I don't object to the smart gig and the 
clever nag that takes the farmer to market any more than 
I regret that the uncomfortable square hat has taken the 
place of his father's good blue bonnet. These are trifles, 
and on the whole the advantage is with the present gene- 
ration. There is no fear of dandyism, no fear of effeminacy, 
with their pursuits, as any one would say who has watched 
the patient hopefulness, the gallant courage with which 
they struggled through all the aggravating difficulties of 
this harvest. You might as well fear the dandyism of 
men who had lived through the siege of Lucknow, or 
served in the trenches before Sebastopol. I don't find 
fault with the piano and its use, were it only to accom- 
pany the goodman's daughter in a good Scotch song, or 
to set the children to dance at a Christmas merry-making. 
But let me give one word of caution. As an old man 
who has seen something of the world, I would warn the 
farmers of Moray and their wives against educating their 
daughters for governesses. Better far, teach them the 
management of the dairy and of the kitchen to relieve 
their mothers of housekeeping to take charge of the 



36 THE VULGAR MODERNIZING OF ELGIN. 

younger children than to change the pure air and free 
life of the fields and woods for restraint and the life of 
cities without its pleasures to leave a happy home for 
one which is seldom other than unhappy. 

May I venture one word to masters and servants of 
the agricultural class ? We cannot return to the old way 
of life, perhaps, and in many respects we are better. But 
why should the farmer and the ploughman stand so far 
apart ? I know the insufficiency of houses on the farms, 
and the wandering tendency, the love of change, of the 
farm servants, are pleaded as the reason or the excuse for 
the constant shifting, which goes far to destroy the 
master's interest in his labourers. I wish, indeed, these 
reasons or excuses could be removed, and I am quite sure 
if the Moray farmer takes this view of the matter, and 
sees that what serves to change the ploughman from an 
indifferent hireling to a friendly dependent a zealous 
member of the household is an immense advantage to 
himself, he will not be long of finding means to bring 
about that end. 

I beg pardon for this digression, and return with all 
humility to my own department the City of Elgin and 
its Antiquities. You know I am a professed lover of 
picturesque antiquity, and, as such, I cannot but feel 
some indignation at the vulgar modernizing which Elgin 
has undergone in our time. 

If it was absolutely necessary to remove the ancient 
Parish Church of St. Giles, why place a sham Greek 
Temple in its place ? 

The old Town-House, with its heavy double forestairs, 
and the rude old Tolbooth Tower, were perhaps justly 
condemned, though I loved their hoary quaintness. But 
what ill had the Muckle Cross done that caused it to be 
ejected from the spacious street which it adorned ? 

The irregular tall houses standing on massive pillars 
and arcades the roofs of mellow grey stone, broken 
picturesquely with frequent windows the tall cross- 
stepped gables are poorly exchanged for the prim and 
trim, square, modern houses and shops. It is not merely 
my love of antiquity, though I confess, with a true 
Yankee poet 

" I love the memory of the past, its pressed yet fragrant flowers, 
The moss that clothes its broken arch, the ivy on its towers." 



MORAY AND ELGIN AS THEY ARE. 37 

Yet, in this matter, I would give up the antique, the 
picturesque, if it were necessary to repudiate them in 
studying the comforts and conveniences of life. I do not 
think they are incompatible. Latterly, a somewhat better 
style of architecture has sprung up, and to be successful, 
the architects of these later buildings only require to 
study the genius of the place to reflect that Elgin has a 
peculiar and not ungraceful style of street architecture of 
ts own, capable of adaptation, I venture to say, to all the 
purposes of shop and dwelling-house. 

Excuse this last antiquarian growl, and let me lay the 
antiquary aside, and speak a word of Moray and of Elgin 
as they are. 

They tell you that our flat country our laigh of Moray 
is not picturesque. No doubt it isn't a land of rock 
and wood, and flood ; neither is it the rich English vale, 
with its green pastures shaded by hedge-row elms. But 
the view from the rocks of Covesea, or old Burghead 
taking in the firth and the Ross-shire hills, and the open- 
ing of Cromarty Bay, and all down from Dunrobin to the 
airy and unknown heads that may be Caithness or 
Orkney is picturesque in the highest meaning of the 
term. For me, I confess our view from Duffus, over the 
long flat, broken by the old Keep of Duffus, the setting 
sun glancing on the Loch of Spynie, with its fine Palace 
Castle, the smoke marking the whereabouts of the little 
Oity of Elgin over the Quarrywood, the opening of the 
Glen of Rothes, and the two heights that terminate our 
landscape on that side Benrinnes and the Bin of Cullen 
have charms that more adorned landscapes do not 
possess. But if you are not to the manner born if you 
don't enjoy that peculiar Moray landscape wait till to- 
morrow morning, then mount on my rough Irish car, and 
let me drive you to Elgin not the direct way, but a little 
round past the Lime Kiln, under Lesmurdie's Cottage, 
and as you gaze from that turn above Newmill at the 
old Cathedral towers crowning the river bank, rising from 
among what appears a goodly wood of forest trees, with 
the towers and spires of the burgh churches behind, 
lighted with an early morning sun confess that no man 
can look on that landscape unmoved, even setting aside 
all the associations which crowd upon us. I fancy tha 
is the view that oftenest rises to the mind of the Moray 



38 THE ATTRACTIONS OF ELGIN FOR OLD NATIVES. 

"loon" in his log-hut or dark shanty, far away in the 
backwoods, when he shuts his eyes and presses his hands 
upon them, and dreams himself back to the school holiday, 
by the banks of the Lossie back to the days of the 
scantack and paperap. 

The town, with all its faults of modern art, has still an 
air of some dignity that distinguishes it from country towns 
in general. Out of the streets, there is nothing to blame. 
The villas that have grown up, and are daily springing up 
around, delight the eye with their appearance of comfort, 
their neatness, and even elegance, and with the proofs of 
a taste for gardening a great symptom of civilization. 

I don't wonder that old Moray natives draw round 
Elgin to spend the evening of life. I am not surprised 
that many strangers are attracted by the charming 
climate and the many conveniences of the neighbourhood. 
Your society now shows a cultivation which I seek in 
vain in other country towns. Your Museum alone proves 
a great amount of concentrated intelligence in antiquities 
and natural science. A hundred years ago, Lachlan Shaw, 
then minister here, put forth his History of Moray, the 
second published county history of Scotland a very 
creditable book for its time. But he stood alone without 
sympathy, without help, without fellow workman or 
successor. What a different book might be made of a 
history of Moray now! You have in your own circle 
almost all the elements of a most efficient band of statis- 
tical workmen. Let Dr. Geddes take the command. In 
mediaeval antiquities he will be supported by Dr. Taylor 
and Mr. James Macdonald. For charter knowledge the 
interesting subject of the descent of lands as well as of 
families Mr. Robert Young's stores are ample, and, what 
is rare, are all at command ; nor should I be found want- 
ing in that department. Then, for family history and the 
successive changes in manners, Captain Edward Dunbar 
has accumulated great stores. In natural science we are 
yet richer. In geology have we not Mr. Patrick Duff 
(I wish he were stronger and younger) and Mr. Martin 
and Mr. Macdonald again ? Botany is safe in the hands 
of Mr. Stables and Dr. Innes of Forres. But, for natural 
science, what is there in all the dominions of nature 
earth, air, water that escapes the observation of Dr. 
Gordon of Birnie ? 



OLD CHURCH OF BIRNIE. 39 

With such a band from volunteers on the spot, already 
drilled with assistance of all lovers of nature and of our 
country with a rising generation striving to enter our 
ranks, we could do more than Shaw dreamt of some- 
thing really worthy of the Province of Moray, which we 
love so well ! 

And now,' I have but to thank you for the kind recep- 
tion you have given your old Sheriff, and the patience 
with which you have heard him.] (Cosmo Innes.) 

Next up the river is 

THE PAEISH OF BIKNIE, 

Anciently Brenoth, i. e., a Brae or High Land, 
it extendeth on the east bank of Lossie, 3 miles 
from north to south, and a mile from east to 
west. 

The Church* standeth near the river, a half 
mile above the north end of the parish, 2 miles 
south from Elgin, and 4- miles north east of 
Dallas. 

* This small Fane, next to the Church of Mortlach, is the 
oldest entire in the Province of Moray. It has been repeatedly 
re-roofed. The windows have all been tampered with the 
parishioners not having been content with " the dim religious 
light." There was no Altar or East Window, the tapers lit at 
Mass being artificially effective. There were two small side 
windows, deeply splayed, behind round arches with unequal 
sides. A plain deal Pulpit is upreared in the centre of the 
Kirk, at the fine Norman arch which divides the Chancel 
from the Nave. The former is boarded off for a Kirk Session- 
house, while the site of the Altar is or was lately supplanted . 
by a poor stove. The Church is built most substantially, 
inside and outside, of well-cut ashler freestone. It seems 
to date at the llth or 12th century, and may stand as long as 
it has stood. 

The Stone at Birnie (a granite boulder) is now placed at the 
west pillar of the northern entrance to the Churchyard. At a 



40 THE BIBLE STONE OF BIRNIE. 



The whole parish was a part' of the Bishop 
lands of Moray ; and when Patrick Hephurn, the 
last Eoman Catholic Bishop, harboured his out- 
lawed nephew James Earl of Bothwell, in 1566, 
he resigned these and other lands to the Earl of 
Moray Eegent ; and this parish is a part of the 
estate of the Earl of Moray, but held in feu by 
the Earl Fife, William King of Newmiln, Leslie 
of Finrossie, Coupland of Stackhouse, Duff of 
Tomshill, &o. But of late the Earl of Findlater 
has purchased, and is now sole proprietor of this 
parish. 

BIRNIE. 

[Situation, Soil, Climate. Besides the valleys which 
the rivers occupy, and may be conceived to have formed, 
in the chain of mountain stretched along the southern 
side of the low lands of Moray, one valley, in which there 
is no river, opens southward from the widest part of the 
plain, where the western side of the parish of Elgin 
borders with the east of Birnie, and extends quite through 
the mountain to the banks of the Spey. A square hill, about 
6 miles along the base of every side, is hereby insulated on 
the east of this defile, having the plain of Rothes on the 
south, on the east partly Rothes, and partly Speymouth, 
and the champaign of Moray on its northern side. The 
mountain on the western side of this defile extends 
beyond its length to either hand, from Craig Elachy 
overhanging the Spey, to the lake of Mostowie in the 
parish of Alves ; as if that river, once occupying a channel 

former period, it had been built into the low wall which sur- 
rounds the Churchyard, but it was removed some years ago to 
its present site. It has been the subject of many surmises ; 
but its common appellation is The Bible Stone, from its having 
an oblong figure resembling a book cut out on its surface. 
Also, The Cairn of Kilfornan and vestiges of trenches and en- 
campments are to be seen. See Plate XVII. Vol. I. Stuarts 
Sculptured Stones of Scotland. (ED.) 



JBRENUTH THE ORIGINAL NAME OF BIRNIE. 41 

along its base 60 feet higher than its present bed, had 
then poured its whole stream through this defile, and 
winded over the plain, in a variety of courses during 
different ages into the sea. 

The parish of Birnie is placed in the entrance of this 
defile, extended partly on the plain and partly on the 
side of the mountain, through which the water of Lossie, 
issuing from its own valley in the mountain, bends from 
its original direction parallel to the Frith, winds north- 
ward along the plain, doubled almost in its stream by the 
increase of three brooks, the Lenoch, Bardon, and Rash- 
crook, each tumbling from the hill through its own narrow 
vale. It appears by the Chart. MOT. that the parish has 
bore the name Brenuth since times that were ancient in 
the beginning of the 13th century, a Gaelic appellation, 
signifying, in its literal interpretation, the north hill side. 
The cultivated land is generally a shallow soil, sandy, 
stony, and steep, lying on a bed of rock, or much-con- 
creted gravel. The soil on several fields on the banks of 
the Lossie is loam incumbent on sand, or clay ; and over 
the whole parish, plots of moorish or peat soil are found. 
The air, though healthful, is rather moist and cold in the 
hills, where the frost is earlier and sharper, and more 
rain and snow fall, than on the plain. 

State of Property. The whole parish was part of the 
lands of the bishoprick. The Regent Earl of Moray 
obliged Bishop Hepburn, on the pretence of entertaining 
his outlawed nephew Both well, about the year 1566, to 
annex it with other lands to his private estate. The hills 
affording game in abundance, one croft, for the Earl's 
accommodation in the hunting season, was assigned to 
the vintner, for the yearly payment of a rose, and another 
to the blacksmith, for the annual delivery of a horse-shoe, 
if required. This last has still remained a separate property, 
and appertains to Thomas Stephen, Esq., physician in 
Elgin, valued in the Cess-Book of the County at 6 16s. 6d. 
Scots, now rented at about 12 sterling. The remainder 
of the parish appertains to the Earl of Findlater, valued 
at 727 17s., amounting at present to 360 sterling of 
yearly rent, from which the feu-duties to the Earl of 
Moray are 8 bolls and 1 4s. 2d.; and to the Crown, as 
succeeding the Bishop, 3 10s. lOd. The whole arable 
land of the parish is 850 acres, of which two farms only 



42 THE KONNEL BELL AND FONT OF BIRNIE. 

are rented above 50 sterling; and there are 40 under 
that extent. The uncultivated ground, consisting of moor 
soil and peat earth, with some interjacent plots of green 
pasture, amounts to 5000 acres. 

State Ecclesiastical. The Church was the first Cathe - 
dral in the diocese. There is no account when the present 
fabric was built : though small, it is wholly of free-stone, 
neatly squared and cut, and is distinguished by its nave 
and choir. The fourth Bishop, Simon de Tonei, was 
buried in it in the year 1184. The stipend is 41 16s. 5d. 
and 88 bolls 2 firlots of victual. The glebe is nearly 9 
acres. The right of patronage appertains to the Earl of 
Moray. The salary of the school is 5 ; and as the num- 
ber of souls in the parish, of whom 2 only are Seceders, 
amounts to 402, the emoluments of office, arising from 
about 20 scholars, must be inconsiderable. The provision 
for the poor arises from two separate bequeathments, 
amounting together to 2 10s.; and the double of that 
sum is added by the contributions of the people who 
attend public worship in the Parish Church, which, after 
the necessary deductions to the session-clerk and officer, 
affords a sorry pittance to 18 persons, enrolled on the 
parish list. 

Miscellaneous Information. The people, though poor, 
are industrious, cheerful, and temperate : music is their 
favourite diversion ; many play on the bagpipe, and seve- 
ral on the violin. 

There is a very ancient Bell of copper and silver ; it is 
called the Coronach [or Ronnel] : its figure is not round ; 
it is square, having two sides wider than the other two : 
all of them are cut into open decorations near the top. 
It was made at Rome, and consecrated by the Pope. [It 
is 6 by 4 inches, and 18 inches high, riveted with nails, 
with a handle.] The consecrated Font remains also entire, 
though now tumbled about without reverence in the 
churchyard. It is a free-stone vessel, the frustum of a 
cone, and appears to have been divided by a plate of 
iron, that the water for the baptism of males might not 
be mixed with that for females.* The Church is still 
held in great veneration. It is believed that prayers 

* Nonsense! The ancient Fonts and those of modern cor- 
rect design are so divided; for the intent of allowing the Water 
when administered to nm off through a hole at the bottom. (G.) 



THE EFFECTUAL PRAYERS IN THE CHURCH OF BIRNIE. 43 

there for the sick, for three following Sundays, will be 
heard; and people, at the distance of 60 miles, have 
desired these prayers : and it is a jocular rebuke among 
the common people, upon undue complaints for any 
slight distress or improper behaviour, that "such must 
be prayed for in the Church of Birnie, that they may 
end or mend." 

The cairn of Kilforeman, although a pile of stone 300 
feet in circumference at its base, hath ceased to tell the 
purpose of its own accumulation ; and " the Bible Stone," 
about a mile eastward from the Church, having the figure 
of a book distinctly engraven, no longer marks the pro- 
perty of the Bishop : but the cave in the rock of Gedloch 
still records the tradition of its having been the haunt of 
a band of armed robbers, who plundered and distressed 
the country, and reminds the passing generation of the 
superior advantages of the present constitution, by which 
every species of oppression, unauthorised by law, is most 
entirely quelled. 

The vestiges of an Encampment, protected on the west 
by the brook Bardon, and on the north and east by a 
deep defile, is still to be traced. 

A ridge of rock extends from east to west through 
the middle of the parish, and quarries of free-stone, slate, 
and lime-stone, have lately been discovered. There are 
oak, birch, hazel, and plane-trees, but not in sufficient 
quantity for the implements of husbandry; and large 
trunks of oak and fir are dug in the tracts of peat earth. 
Broom, furze, juniper, sloes, and bramble, are in plenty, 
and the water-lily in the Gedloch is peculiar to the 
parish. It is embellished also in some degree by two 
water-falls, the Linn of Shoggle, and the Ess of Glen- 
laterach, each about 20 feet in height. (Survey of the 
Province of Moray.} 

Birnie is a place of great antiquity and anciently of 
importance. It seems to have been the first place fixed 
on by the holy Christian missionaries as a suitable place 
for a Cathedral Church. This seems to be proved by 
Bishop Brice's Charter for the erection of Spynie. " Our 
predecessors," says he, " took only one of the Churches of 
Birnie, or Spynie, or Kinedar." Here the fourth Bishop 
was buried. 



44 REV. j. B. CRAVEN'S NOTES ON BIRNIE. 

The present fabric, however, does not seem to be of 
such antiquity as this, though exceedingly old. 

Many curious relics are here. The quaint old Church 
at the side of the " north hill side," as the name implies, 
is an exceedingly interesting building, one of the oldest it 
is supposed. It consists of a nave and chancel. The 
pulpit is placed now in the centre of the fine arch which 
divided the two, and the chancel used as a vestry. What 
the old Bishops would have thought of this I know not. 
The chancel is lighted with narrow lancet windows, the 
walls being of great thickness. Here is a very ancient 
Bell said to have been consecrated and brought from 
Rome. It is square, having two sides wider than the 
other two ; all of them are cut into open decorations near 
the top. It has a handle, square also on the top. A 
curious font of a nature seldom to be seen is now tumbling 
about the churchyard, where it may be thrown about at 
pleasure. 

At the gate is one of those curious sculptured Stones to 
be met with often in such old places. The figures can 
now be scarcely traced. A drawing is given in Stuarts 
Sculptured Stones of Scotland. 

After its desertion as the Cathedral, it seems to have 
been important. Duncan Thayne of Calder had a charter 
in 1421, part of the scut and service being thrice yearly, 
paying scut and homage at the Bishop's Court at the 
Chapel of Birneth. 

In 1451 the Barony of Byrne th was incorporated with 
that of Spyny in a grant made by King James, in hand 
and glory of the Holy Trinity and grateful gift to John 
Bishop of Moray. I know not the Patron Saint, neither 
does Mr. Shaw speak of this. (J. B. Craven?) 

EPITAPHS IN THE CHURCHYARD OF BIRNIE. 

I. Here lyes under this pulpit the Corps of Mr. Wm. 
Saunders, late minister of this parochjn, who deceased the 
13 of May, 1670, and of Katharine and Elspet Saunders his 
children. 

II. Here. lyes. an. honest, man. called. Alex. Adam, some- 
time, lived, in. Whiteraith. who. departit. 1668. and. Elspet. 
Rvssel his. spouse, who. departed. 1688. 

A. A M. O. 



EPITAPHS IN THE CHURCHYARD OF BIRNIE. 45 

III. Here. lyes. Mariorie. Robertson, who. lived, in. Birny. 
who. deceast. the. 20. of. September. 1694. and .... 

IV. Here. lyes. ane. honest, man. . . . time, lived, in. Bog- 
svde. who. departed, the .... 16. 

J. R. D. 

V. Here. lyes, interred, the. bodie. of. John . . . dine. who. 
dyed. the. 7. day. of. Feb. 1710. and. his. spouse. Agnes. 
Stephen, who. died. the. 6. of. January. 1677. and. 3. children. 

I. R. I. M. 1711. 

VI. This. is. the. burial, place, appointed, for. John. Petrie. 
in. Whitereath. who. departed, the. 2. day. of. October. 1709. 
and .... his. spouse, who. died, the* .... of* .... and. 
here. lyes. William. Greager. some. time, indualler. in .... 

VII. Here are interred the bodies of James Man in Bogside, 
who died the 25 of March, 1727, and Janet Brander, who 
died the 10th of August, 1745, spovse to the said James Man, 
and their children, who died James Man, on the 30 of 
November, 1731, Margaret, the 10th of March, 1742, Isabella 
Man* . . . and Janet Man, Alex, James, and Eph erne, 
lawful children to David Stephen and Isabella Man. 

VIII. This. is. the. burial, place, of. John. Smith, sometime, 
smith . . . who. died. the. 4. of. May. 1740. aged. 71. and. his. 
spovse. Margaret. Simpson* . . . and their children* . . . 

IX. Here. lyes. the. corps, of. Wm. Mvrdach. farmer, in. 
Auchtertyre. He. died. the. 2. day. of. June. 1741. and of 
Janet Murdach his spouse, who dyed the* . . . day of* . . . 
and Alexander Murdach his son, who dyed the* . . . day of* 
. . . and his spouse, Janet Murdach, who dyed the 5 day of 
May 1750, and their children. 

All passengers yt does goe by 
And viw the dust wherein I ly, 
I once had breath as well as ye, 
Therefore be mindful for to di. 

X. This. is. the. bvrial. place, of. Alexander. Mortimar. 
sometime, farmer, in. Rioch. who. died. the. 11. day. of. 
November. 1736. aged. 63. and. also. of. John. Mortimar. 
farmer, at. the. Eastport. of. Elgin, his. son. who. erected, this, 
stone, and* . . . 

XI. Here. lies. the. dvst. of. Alleogr. Cowie. sometime, 
farmer, in. Iteraith. who. died. the. 27. of. Feb. 1741. aged. 63. 

* Never inserted. 



46 EPITAPHS IN THE CHURCHYARD OF BIRNIE. 

and. Marjory. Brander. his. spovse. who. died. the. 21. of. Jany. 
1757. and. their, children. Anna. Elspet. Dorothy. Mariorie. 
Cowey. 

XII. Here lies William Michael, lawlul son to William 
Michael in Fa ... who died . . . 

XIII. Here lyes James* . . . and their children, Elspet, 
Elizabeth, Anne, lelan, John, Robert, Samuel, all died young, 
and Alexander, died Octr. 1744, aged 24, and his son James, 
who was at the charges of this stone. 

XIV. This Stone is placed here by James Omfre, in memory 
of his parents Alexander Omfre, sometime farmer in Tanishill, 
who died 1 March, 1762, aged 63, and his spouse. 

XV. Here lies the bodie of William Cow, farmer in White 
raith, who died the 23 of . . . 1777, and his . . . died in . . . 

XVI. This is the burial place of John Rush, farmer in 
Stainkhens, who died 20 Septr., 1766, and Katherine Rush, 
his spouse, who died September the 18, 1749, and their 
children, Elspet, died February the 9, 1750, and Jean, died 
March the 1, 1750. 

XVII. This is the burial place of James Wiseman, leat 
farmer in Thonishill, who died Dec. 16, 1762. 

Interred here the body of Alexander Janken, late fanner in 
Pettendrich, who died the 4 January, 1789, aged 61 years. 

THE PARISH OP DALLAS 

(Dale-uis, i.e., a watered valley) is surrounded 
with hills, except to the east towards Birnie, and 
a small portion of it to the north-west. 

The Church standeth on the west bank of 
Lossie, about 4 miles south-west of Birnie, and 
near 5 miles north of Knockando. 

In the lower end of the parish is Killess, f 

* Never inserted. 

t The estate of Kellas lies on both sides of the River Lossie, 
below the Barony of Dallas, and borders with the lands of 
Pluscarden. So far back as 1237, Robert Fyndoc held Kellas 



PARISH OF DALLAS; ESTATE OE KELLAS. 47 

church-land, for above 100 years the heritage of 
Farquharson of Killess now extinct, and the lands 
are the property of the Earl Fife. 

Above this is the barony of Dallas. I know 
not if, from this valley, Dallas of that Ilk had its 
name and designation. But I find Willielmus 
de Doleys, a witness to Hugo Herock's donation, 
on the Feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin, 
1286, and "Johannes de Dolais, Thanus de Crom- 
dale on 12th Sep., 1367" (Beg. Epis. Morav.), 
and Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Archibald 
Dallas of that Ilk, with consent of her husband, 
Duncan Fraser, in 1428, disponed her right of 
Dallas to John Dallas of Easter Foord, her uncle, 
and the heir male of that family, who, in exchange 
of his lands in the south, got from David, Earl 
of Crawford, the lands of Budzet in Calder parish 
anno 1440 (Hist. Kelr.). This barony had been 
long the property of Cumine of Altyre, before it 
was sold to Sir Ludovick Gordon of Gordonstoun, 



in feu from Bishop Andrew of Moray ; and in 1443 Alexander, 
King of Scotland, granted it to God, the blessed Virgin Mary, 
the Evangelist S. John, and to the Maison Dieu near Elgin. 
The lands of Easter and Wester Kellas and Corponach were 
granted by the Bishop and Chapter to William Farquarson, 
dated at Scone 26 Aug. and 2 Sep., 1562. A Precept, dated 
at Spynie 15 Jan., 1584, infefted William Cuming or Far- 
quharson in the lands of " Ester and Vaster Kellas and the 
Corponach." The family of Farquharson descended from 
Ferquhard, 2nd son of Alexander Cuming, 6th laird of Altyre, 
who, being chagrined by the refusal of the Chief of the Clan 
to bury some of their deceased relatives in the family burial- 
place, dropped the cognomen of Cuming for Farquharson. 

(ED.) 



48 THE PARISH OF DALLAS. 

in the end of the last century. Sir Eobert Gordon, 
by ditching, draining, and manuring, has im- 
proved this place and built a convenient house, 
adorned with much planting. 

A mile north-west from the Church is Brenchil, 
some time the property of Grant of Brenchil, but 
lately of Cumine of Craigmiln, who, about 1752, 
sold it to James Grant of Knockando. 

DOLLAS. 

[Situation, Soil, Climate. A part of the parish of 
Dollas, the estate of Craigmill, lies in the southern end of 
the valley which has been considered as forming the body 
of the parish of Rafford. Through this estate the stream 
of Lochty hastens eastward, through a narrow cut in the 
rocky hill, to loiter in the vale of Pluscarden. This cut 
appears as if made merely for the passage of the Lochty, 
where it would be easy to turn it northward by the 
Church of Rafford, if that was not originally its natural 
course. The greater part of the parish of Dallas lies on 
the south side of the Hill of Melundy, which is stretched 
between the courses of the Lochty and the Lossie. When 
the Lossie occupied a channel about 3 feet higher than 
the bottom of its present bed, a great proportion of the 
plain on the south side of the Hill of Melundy must have 
been a lake ; and except a pool, covering only a few acres, 
the whole of this plain still remains a deep extensive bed 
of pure peat earth; from this circumstance its Gaelic 
name, dale uisk, the water valley, has probably been 
suggested. Along the course of the Lossie, from Birnie, 
at the east, to its sources in the mountain, which is inter- 
posed between Spey and Findern, the parish measures 12 
miles ; its breadth, including Craigmill, southward to the 
borders of the parish of Knockando, is 9 miles ; but its 
mean breadth, which is pretty equally divided by the 
river, taken from the southern side of the Hill of Melundy, 
measures only about 6 miles. Several brooks rushing 
down from the hills on both sides intersect the parish 
across, nearly at right angles to the river. 



BARONY OF DOLLAS; HILL OF MELUNDY; KELLAS. 49 

Except such sandy fields as lie upon its banks, the soil 
may be accounted moorish, and in general not very fertile ; 
the crops for the most part are insufficient for the support 
of the people and of the cattle. The air is cold and often 
moist, retarding the seed season till towards the middle 
of April, and the harvest till near the end of November. 

State of Property. The barony of Dollas is a part of 
the estate of Gordonstown, and by succession is become 
the property of Col. Alexander Penrose Cuming Gordon 
of Altyre. The family of Gordonstown had projected a 
magnificent seat at Rhininver, under the southern side of 
the Hill of Melundy, in the form of a crescent, having the 
house in the diameter, and the offices in the periphery. 
The offices were only completed, in which a commodious 
temporary accommodation is neatly fitted up. The Hill 
of Melundy behind, on which a semi-circular garden, 
answering to the form of the building, was intended, is 
planted with an extensive forest of Scots fir ; the heathy 
peat marsh spreads a large dun plain before, having the 
river trailing around its farther verge. 

The valued rent amounts to 818 15s. 6d. Scots. The 
real rent was considerably increased about 30 years ago 
by the improvements in the hilly parts of the estate. 
The landlord gave timber for the buildings, which were 
of sod ; the second year, the first rent was only a hen ; 
but it increased by Is. for every succeeding crop of the 
lease, which terminated in the nineteenth year, when the 
land was let of new, at the value to which it had been 
then brought. 

The estate of Killess or Kellas, appertaining to the 
Earl of Fife, lies also on both sides of the river below the 
barony of Dollas, and borders with his Lordship's land of 
Pluscarden. There is a considerable extent of natural 
oak wood on the north bank of the river ; it has been 
managed only as copse wood, and is at present young. 
The valued rent of this estate is 271 Us. 4d. Scots. A 
considerable extent of land has also been recently added 
by improvements in the hills. The only other proprietor 
of the parish is Robert Grant of Elchies, Esq., who has 
the lands of Craigmill, valued at 301 19s., making the 
valued rent of the whole parish equal to 1,392 5s. lOd. 
Scots. The farms are but of small extent. The rent of 
the arable ground stretches from Is. to 15s. the acre 

VOL. II. 4 



50 ST. MICHAEL'S EFFIGY AND CHURCH, DALLAS. 

from the least improved moor to the highest cultivated 
field, the mean rent will be about 11s. the acre, exclusive 
of the natural pasturage. 

State Ecclesiastical. The parish was made up in its 
present form in the year 1657, by detaching Altyre and 
conjoining Killess. It is not now particularly known in 
what manner the consequent dilapidation of the stipend 
was compensated to the ministers of Elgin, but it must 
be from the record inferred that these ancient worthies 
were neither raised above the vain concerns of this tran- 
sitory life in any superior measure to that of their modern 
successors, nor that, like to the primitive Christians, they 
were at all disposed to have their worldly goods in 
common. In October, 1672, Alexander Cuming, minister 
of Dollas, complains to the Presbytery, " That notwith- 
standing of the legal annexation of Killess, both as to 
benefice and office, Mr. James Horn, minister of Elgin, 
had that year, without warrant from bishop or synod, but 
at his own hand, intermeddled with and carried off a 
considerable part of the stipend." This complaint was 
referred to a meeting of the Synod, in seven days after, 
who appointed a committee to settle the business. 

A few years ago the Church was a very ancient fabric, 
thatched with heath, and without windows, save 2 or 3 
narrow slits which yawned to a very disproporttoned 
wideness within, and the effigy of the patron, St. Michael, 
;stood weather-beaten in a niche near the top of the eastern 
gable without, about 4 feet high. The Church and Manse, 
however, are at present commodious buildings, though 
both in some danger of being sweeped away by the river. 
The stipend, including the allowance for the Communion, 
is 58 6s. 4d. sterling, of which about 11 sterling has 
been drawn from the vicarage teinds of the parish of 
Auldern, by an arrangement which seems to have been 
continued from the establishment of the Church of Rome. 
The glebe, like the parish, is divided by the Lossie ; it 
contains about 14 acres, and is accommodated with a little 
natural wood on the banks of the river, affording some 
convenience, but not an object of any profit. 

The Parochial School is only a recent establishment. 
The salary is 5, and the fee of the session-clerk only 1. 
The Church being in a central situation is sufficiently 
commodious for the celebration of the public ordinances 



OLD MARKET CROSS OF DALLAS. 51 

of religion. The Parochial School, however, can accom- 
modate but a small proportion of a parish of such length, 
intersected by so many streams, often impassable in every 
season. The Society for Propagating Christian Know- 
ledge have, therefore, established a school, with an ap- 
pointment of 10 in the year, in the populous district of 
Killess, and which has hitherto served the purpose of its 
settlement in a very satisfactory manner. The poor on 
the parish list are not a numerous body^ there is no other 
fund for their provision but the charity of their own 
neighbours, all of whom are far from opulent. The whole 
people appertain to the National Church, amounting to 
the number of 888 souls. 

Miscellaneous Information. In the churchyard a 
neatly cut stone Column, 12 feet high, terminated by a 
well formed flower-de-luce for its capital, still remains the 
Market Cross, at which the effects of bankrupt tenants are 
occasionally exposed to auction. A large square stone is 
the pedestal. The whole length, or rather height, of the 
Column from the ground is 12 feet. 

The peats for fuel are of an excellent quality, and the 
quantity in this remote quarter deemed inexhaustible. 
As the soil does not afford corn sufficient for the sup- 
port of the people, the deficiency, the rent, and other 
necessaries, are supplied by the sale of sheep and black 
cattle which can be spared, and in a great measure by the 
weekly sale of peats in the markets of Forres and Elgin, 
sold from 8d. to Is. 2d. a small cartfull, drawn by a very 
little lean horse. The wool also which is produced in the 
parish is spun in the families of the tenants, and several 
weavers are constantly employed in making it into coarse 
cloth called plaiden, which is sold from 9d. to Is. the 
yard.] (Survey of the Province of Moray.} 

EPITAPHS IN THE CHURCHYARD OF DALLAS. 

In confirming eight of the old canonries of the Cathedral 
of Elgin in 1226, mention is made of the Church of Dolays 
Mychel. In 1350 the Church of Dolays Mychel, of which 
the Sub-Dean of Moray was incumbent, is rated at 11s. 
Scots. (Reg. Ep. Morav.) 

In 1574 the Kirks of Birneth (Birnie) and Doles were 
under one minister, and Alex. Johnstone was reader at 
the latter. 



52 EPITAPHS IN DALLAS CHURCHYARD. 

The River Lossie runs past, and Michael's Well is close 
beside the Kirk. Michael Fair was held there in old 
times, and a Market Cross of the fleur-de-lis pattern 
unfortunately much injured stands in the burial-ground. 
A stone effigy of the Saint (at one time in a niche in the 
wall of the old kirk) lies beside the Cross. 

The date upon the belfry, 1793, has reference to the 
building of the present Church, within which is the follow- 
ing inscription upon a marble tablet : 

I. Helen Cuming, lawful daughter of Alexander Cuming of 
Craigmill and Elizabeth Tulloch, died the 14th Nov., 1800, and 
was interred in the family burial-ground, which is opposite 
to, and a few feet distant from, the outside of the south-east 
door of this church. Also are interred in the same burying- 
ground daughters of Alexander Cuming of Craigmill : Margaret 
Cuming, who died at Elgin 21st January, 1808 ; Jean Cuming, 
who died at Elgin 2nd November, 1817 ; Clementina Cuming, 
who died at Elgin 2nd June, 1821 ; Eliza Cuming, who died at 
Elgin 7th December, 1835. 

William Cuming, the eldest son by a third marriage of 
James Cuming of Relugas and Presley, was the first of 
the Craigmill Cumings, and his full brother George was 
an officer under Gustavus Adolphus (Douglas' Baronage). 

One of this family, who was a Commissioner to the 
Duke of Perth, was at the Battle of Culloden, where he 
was taken prisoner and carried to London. Having been 
released from prison, through some influence unknown to 
himself, he returned home, and about 1752 sold the pro- 
perty of Craigmill to Mr. Grant of Elchies. 

The next three inscriptions (in the churchyard) relate 
to members of the same family : 

II. Sacred to the memory of Peter Cuming of Craigmill, 
Esquire, who died at Blackhills on the 14th April, 1811, aged 
eighty-five years; and Mrs. Isobel Leslie of Balnageith, his 
spouse, who died at Blackhills on the 30th November, 1823, 
aged ninety years. 

Mrs. Cuming's ancestors, who acquired the property of 
Balnageith, near Forres, about the end of the 17th century, 
were a branch of the noble family of Rothes. The Rev. 
Mr. Leslie, minister of St. Andre ws-Lhanbryde, who alsa 
attained to the age of 90, was the father of Mrs. Cuming 
and other children, one of whom, a son, sold Balnageith 
about the year 1849. 



EPITAPHS IN DALLAS CHURCHYARD. 53 

III. Sacred to the memory of Lachlan Cuming, Esquire of 
Blackhills, who was the son of Peter Cuining of Craigmill, 
Esqr., and Mrs. Isobel Leslie of Balnageith. Affectionate duty 
and kindness, as a son and a brother, were the endearing study 
of his whole life. He died 19th November, 1836, aged eighty 
years. 

IV. Erected by his children to the memory of Thomas 
Cuming, Esq. of Demarara, who died in Elgin on the 31st of 
March, 1813, aged 73 years. He lived 50 years in that Colony; 
was a principal promoter of its prosperity and wealth, an affec- 
tionate husband, an indulgent parent, a kind friend, and a 
truly benevolent man, esteemed and beloved by all who ever 
knew him. 

V. From a headstone : 

This is the burial place of Alex. Buie, sometime ventener in 
Elgin, who died June the 12th, 1758, aged 51, and Jannet 
Richard, his spouse. 

O, mortal man, stay and observe 
That strenth nor walth cannot preserve 
You from the grave where now I ly, 
My soul is far beyond the sky ; 
Thy thoughts on worldly things are lost, 
When death appears you soon must post. 
Here lyes also the body of Charles Buie, sometime farmer in 
Torrie Castle, who dyed Feb. the 9th, 1773, aged 52 years, and 
his spouse, Agnes Watson, who dyed Oct. the 8th, 1793, aged 
55 years. 

VI. Near the above : 

This stone is plased here by John Camron, mason in Edinvil, 
in memory of his virtuous mother, Elisabeth Camron, who died 
3rd November, 1779, aged 47 years. She was prudent, virtu- 
ous, temprat, chast, though early stript of life. Her soul imortal 
among the blist above we hope treumphs in her Redemer's love. 

The expression "of" in next inscription is scarcely 
correct, Mr. Dick having been tenant of the farm of 
Rhininver, under Sir William Gordon Cuniing, Bart. : 

VII. Sacred to the memory of Wm. Dick, Esq. of Rhininver, 
who died on the 8th day of October, 1846. 

This district gave surname to the family of Dollas, or 
Dallas, one of whom, William of Doleys, knight, witnessed 
Hugh Herock's gift of the lands of Daldeleyth (Dandeleith) 
to the Church of the Holy Trinity of Elgin, 1286. The 



54 BOULDER ON THE SITE OF DALLAS CHURCH. 

direct male line of the family failed in Archibald Dallas 
of that ilk. In 1428 his daughter and heiress, Elizabeth, 
wife of Duncan Fraser of the Lovat family, disponed her 
right of Dallas to her uncle, the laird of Easter Ford. 

Sir Thomas Cuming of Altyre, some time before 1411, 
obtained certain lands within the barony, and in 141 > 
received a license from James I. to erect a castle or fortalice 
at Dallas. Ruins of the stronghold and outworks of Tura 
Castle, which appear to have been moated, occupy an 
eminence on the side of Dorval Burn, about a mile north 
from the Church. 

In 1622 James Cuming of Altyre had a charter of the 
advocation of the Kirk of Dallas, which was retained by 
the Baronets of Altyre until the abolition of patronage. 

Farquhar, second son of Alexander Cuming of Altyre, 
was possibly the first Cuming that held the Kellas portion 
of the parish. He appears to have had a mind of his own, 
and, as tradition avers, having quarrelled with his brother, 
and being refused burial in the tomb of his ancestors, he 
assumed, by way of revenge, the surname of Farquharson. 
From him are said to be descended the Farquharsons of 
Haughton, and other families of that name in Aberdeen- 
shire (Epitaphs i., 118.) 

A rude undressed boulder, possibly the remains of a 
stone circle, which stands on the east side of the parish, 
is said to mark the site of an old church or a burial place. 

A bridge which crossed the Lossie near the church was- 
carried away by the floods of 1829 and was replaced by 
the present freestone structure, which has three arches. 

The village of Dallas, which is a feu off the Altyre 
estates, was founded about 80 years ago, and contains 
from 40 to 50 houses. 

Dallas (Dal-es) appears to mean the river haugh ; and 
Kellas (Keal-es) the narrow river, is quite descriptive of 
the latter district as compared with the former. (Jemises 
Epitaphs.) 

I now return to the mouth of the river Lossie. 

KINEDDAE OR KINEDAE PARISH. 

The parish of Kineddar (Cean-edir, i.e. a point 
between the sea and the loch) is two miles in 



PARISH OF KINEDDAR. 55- 

length and one in breadth, westward from Los- 
siemouth, betwixt the frith and the Loch of 
Spynie. 

The Church standeth near the centre, a mile 
east from Duffus ; 2^ miles almost north from 
New Spynie, and 2^ miles from St. Andrews 
north-west. At the mouth of Lossie is a harbour,, 
but so barred as to admit only small craft. It is 
the property of the town of Elgin, where they 
have some fishing boats. (The harbour of Lossie 
and the fishing houses were the property of the 
family of Brodie, from whom the Magistrates of 
Elgin purchased it, and pay a small feu-duty. 
The harbour, which is now repairing, will be of 
great advantage to the merchants and other in- 
habitants of the town.) Next thereto are the lands- 
of Kineddar, granted by Patrick Hepburn, Bishop 
of Moray, to the Earl of Moray Eegent, and 
purchased from that family by the Lord Brodie. 
Here there is a fishing of white fish at Stotfield. 
West from Kineddar is Drainie, once the heri- 
tage of Innes of Drainie, now extinct, from whom 
Sir Eobert Gordon purchased it anno 1636, as he 
did in 1638 the adjacent lands of Ettles from 
Innes of Pathnack, and in 1639 the lands of 
Plowlands, Ogstoun, and Bellormie, from the 
Marquis of Huntly. Here is a fine seat called 
Gordonston, and a large modern house, with gar- 
dens, ponds, and planting. At Cave-Sea there is 
a good white fishing. 



56 CEAN-NA-DUR THE HEAD IN THE WATER. 



DRAINIE. 

[Situation, Soil, Climate. The parishes which have 
been described may, in a general way, be considered as 
extending from the. sea to the mountain; but here the 
country opens to the wideuess of 10 or 12 miles, and a 
right line passing over the plain, by the Church of 
Drainy, would measure the breadth of this parish and 
that of Spynie and Elgin together. The coast from 
Speymouth to Lossiemouth, mostly in the parish of 
Urquhart, lies in the direction from south-east to north- 
west, and has been described a low, flat, sandy shore. 
A rocky head-land called Cotilard, signifying in the 
Gaelic back-height, is here projected into the sea, round 
which the coast turning, tends more directly west to the 
head of the firth at Beaulie. This head-land may be 
regarded as the termination of a ridge raised along the 
coast for the whole length of the parish, and continued 
far into Duffus, there being only one breach on the west- 
ern end of the Goulard, through which the level land 
stretches to the sea. Between this ridge and the lake of 
Spynie lies the parish of Drainie, a Gaelic word, import- 
ing the thorny field, probably the natural production of 
the land about the Church before it was cultivated. The 
parish is 2 miles in breadth and 4 in length, with very 
little inequality of surface ; yet scarcely one half of this 
plain is reduced to a state of cultivation, the greatest part 
consisting of barren moor, producing only short heath, 
or coarse benty grass. The land under cultivation is 
very fertile, partly a rich loam or clay, and partly a 
light, black, or sandy soil. The climate is wholesome 
and mild. In the marshy parts both of this and the 
parish of Duffus, agues were common about 30 years ago, 
but have for some time past been totally unknown. 

State of Property. Mr. Brander of Pitgaveny is the 
proprietor of the eastern quarter of the parish, the lands 
of Kinedur (in Gaelic, Cean-na-dur, the head in the 
water), the valued rent of which is 831 12s. 8d. Scots, 
and not quite 500 sterling of real rent. The rest of the 
parish, except the village of Lossymouth, is the property 
of Alex. Penrose Cuming Gordon of Altyr, Esq., the valued 
rent of which is 2213 4s. 8d. Scots : being a great part 
of the estate of Gordonstown ; the family seat being near 



HOUSE OF GORDONSTOWN; THE INNESES OF DRAINIE. 5/ 

the western end of the parish, a great heavy square 
building, said to be in the Dutch style. A considerable 
part of the inside has never been finished. The approach 
is a straight road between square enclosures and planta- 
tions, with an artificial pond upon one side, about 300 
yards in length and 20 in breadth, with a little stagnant 
water spread over its miry bottom. The offices are built 
round a court perfectly circular, occupying one acre of 
ground, and the pavement of the court regularly concave. 
Some parts of this building are two stories high, which is 
supposed to be the cause that in windy weather there 
is no shelter within the court. This form of building 
offices appears to be commodious, but has not been 
imitated. 

The real rent of the estate in this parish is about 800 
sterling. 

The farms in general are small, there being only 3 that 
much exceed the extent of 100 acres ; their number in 
whole is 68. The land rent, when paid in grain, is from 
a boll to a boll and an half of bear or oats the Scots acre ; 
but it is the practice to give 5 firlots of oats for the boll, 
nearly equal to the English quarter; when let for money, 
the acre gives from 15s. to 21s. Over a great part of the 
estate of Gordonstown, the tithes of corn were drawn in 
kind, the tenth sheaf being taken off the field by the pro- 
prietor. This was accounted equal to the third part of 
the rent, but it has of late been given up. 

[The lands of Drainie were granted by Patrick Hep- 
burn, Bishop of Moray, with consent of the Chapter, on 
16th May, 1545, to James Innes and Catherine Gordon, his 
spouse. Robert Innes of Drainie, great-grandson of the 
above James, sold his paternal estate, including Salterhill, 
on 20th Oct., 1636, to Sir Robert Gordon, son of Alexander, 
Earl of Sutherland, who, in the course of six or seven 
years had the whole of Ogstori, Pathnik, Burnside, and 
Plewland added to the Gordonstown estate. From the 
family of Innes of Drainie (1st, James ; 2nd, Robert, his 
son ; 3rd, James, his son ; 4th, Robert, his son, who sold 
the estate) were descended the Inneses of Drumgask, 
Balnacraig, and Ballogie, in Aberdeenshire. The} 7 were 
strict Roman Catholics, and many of them Priests. Of 
this family was the Rev. Thomas Innes (born 1662, died 
1744) the learned author of a Critical Essay on the His- 



58 MAUSOLEUM OF THE FAMILY OF GORDONSTON, OGSTON. 

tory and Antiquities of Scotland, published in 1729, and 
of a Civil and Ecclesiastical Histoi^y of Scotland. 

The lands of Salterhill, formerly called Little Drainie, 
were granted by Patrick, Bishop of Moray, with consent 
of the Chapter, 24th Jan., 1547, to Patrick Kinnaird. 
His grandson, Patrick Kinnaird of Salterhill, sold the 
lands, in 1615, to James Innes of Drainie, whose son and 
successor sold his paternal estate to Sir Robert Gordon, as 
mentioned above.] (ED.) 

State Ecclesiastical. The parishes of Kineadur and 
Oguestown were annexed in the year 1666, about which 
time the Church was built, not in the most centrical 
situation of the present parish. The patronage is a per- 
tinent of the estate of Gordonstown. The stipend, in- 
cluding the allowance for the Communion, is 72 bolls 
barley and oats, and X52 10s. sterling. The manse and 
glebe, which is about 5 acres, are at Kineadur, a mile 
eastward from the Church. At this place also is the 
burying-ground of the old parish, where the vestiges of 
the Castle, where the Bishop resided before that of Spynie 
was built, still remain. The burial-ground is also con- 
tinued in the parish of Oguestown, where a magnificent 
tomb in the Gothic style is raised over the vault of the 
family of Gordonstown.* 

* On a rising ground, immediately to the eastward of the 
House of Gordonston, stood the Parish Church of Ogston, with 
its old churchyard. On the site of the old church, in the year 
1705, Dame Elizabeth Dunbar, widow of Sir Robert Gordon, 
3rd Baronet of Gordonston, nicknamed " the Warlock," erected 
an elegant mausoleum to the memory of her husband, who had 
died the previous year, and to his predecessors in the estate. 
She was the only child and heiress of Sir William Dunbar of 
Hempriggs, by whom she had three sons and four daughters. 
She married for her second husband the Hon. James Suther- 
land, second son of James, second Lord Duffus, by whom she 
had also a family. He assumed the name of Dunbar, and was- 
created a Baronet, and the large estates of the Dunbar family 
in Caithness were settled on the heir-males of the second 
marriage. 

There are various monuments in the mausoleum besides the 
tablet of the family of Gordonston. The Altyre family has 
been interred here since the death of Sir Alexander Penrose 
Gordon Cuming in 1806. (ED.) 



BISHOP BAR'S PROCESS ANENT THE PORT OF ELGIN. 59" 

At the Parochial School there are about 60 scholars 
instructed in writing, arithmetic, reading English and 
Latin. The school salary is 12 bolls of barley, and 3 
sterling from the office of Session-clerk, besides the other 
perquisites and fees of parochial schools. 

The fund for the provision of the poor does not exceed 
20 sterling yearly ; from which the salary of the clerk 
and beadle being deducted, the balance contributes to the- 
support of about 50 poor. The whole inhabitants are 
members of the Established Church, amounting to 
about 1040. 

Miscellaneous Information. The village of Lossie- 
mouth is the harbour of the town of Elgin. A Process 
carried on by Bishop Bar, respecting the right of this 
port, was incidentally mentioned at pages 337, 338, vol. 
I. It appears to have been begun by his lordship's 
arresting a ship, the property of two of the burgesses. 
The narrative in the 92nd fol. of the Chart Mor. sets 
forth, " That on Sunday the 7th of June, while the Lord 
Bishop was passing from his castle at Kineadur towards 
the Church of Urquhart, through his water of Lossie, at 
the ford called Krannokissi, he found a certain barque,, 
namely " Farcost," lying in his said water, near the sea; to 
which coming, he asked at the only person who was found 
on board what the ship was called, to whom it appertained, 
and by whose permission it had entered that water, who- 
replied, The barque "Farcost" was John de Lany's, and had 
entered there by the burgesses of Elgin; to whom the 
Bishop said, that neither the burgesses, nor any other,, 
could grant such authority or permission, for that water 
and the whole channel was the property of the Church 
of Moray, and appertained to him, and to no other person, 
and on that account desired that a pledge might be given 
him in name of arresting the said barque. That a little 
axe was handed to the Lord Bishop, which, as only a 
pledge, the seaman requested, in name of his master,, 
might be returned, which the Bishop granted on the con- 
dition of its being restored upon demand. 

" Likewise on the same day, in the year 1383, in the 
month above-mentioned, the same Bishop, returning by 
the same road, found at the said barque certain burgesses 
of Elgin, namely Philip Byset and Henry Porter, taking 



60 BISHOP BAR ESTABLISHES HIS CLAIM. 

out of the ship some barrels of ale, and some sacks of 
tallow, and some of meal of wheat, together with horses 
and sledges standing upon his ground of Kineadur, 
which, together with the ship, he by his own proper 
authority arrested, as unwarrantably encroaching upon 
his Church lands, and gave up the same in pledge, at the 
instance of the said Philip requesting it, in the name of 
the community of his burgh, to be remitted to the said 
Bishop at his Cathedral, upon eight days' requisition, 
there to receive the issue and termination which the laws 
have been in use to grant." 

It must be presumed, that the Bishop prevailed in 
establishing his claim, which accordingly became a per- 
tinent of the estate of Kineadur, and was only purchased 
by the magistracy of Elgin in the year 1698. In the 
Conveyance it is described as a piece of waste, barren, un- 
manured ground, and was nearly 80 acres of naked gravel 
and sand, with an allowance on the quarries of the 
Goulard, for the restricted purpose of building and up- 
holding the pier, and for the accommodations requisite for 
the town of Lossiemouth ; for which the community 
became bound to pay yearly 2 Is. 7d., subjecting the 
inhabitants of Lossiemouth to be poinded for any arrears 
that may be incurred ; and to the courts of the superior, 
which he may hold either in the town or at the Burn of 
Kineadur, for any riot happening either among them- 
selves or with the superior's tenants of the barony ; and 
to send a burgess of Elgin yearly to the head court, upon 
the first Thursday after Michaelmas, to answer in their 
name ; and to allow the accommodation of the harbour to 
all ships and fishing boats appertaining to the superior, or 
freighted by any merchant upon his account, or employed 
by him for exportation or importation, without payment 
of any dues to the community. Besides irregular streets 
fronting towards the sea, the town is laid out into four 
principal streets at right angles to the shore, each 42 feet 
wide, and commodious lanes cutting across the streets, 
equal to half their breadth, with a handsome square and 
cross in the midst. There are 175 feus marked off on the 
plan, each 120 by 180 feet, granted for the duty of 5s. 
each ; but many remain to be taken, and many that have 
been granted are not J 7 et built ; but a number also of 
handsome houses of two and three stories, containing 



HARBOUR OF LOSSIEMOUTH, AND EXPORTS. Gl 

more than 200 inhabitants, have been erected. The har- 
bour is sufficiently commodious for vessels about 80 tons 
burden. The community say that, prior to the year 1780, 
1200 sterling had been expended in the formation of the 
quay ; since that time a pier opposite on the other side 
the river, for clearing out the sand off the bar, has been 
erected at the expense of 2000 sterling, from the funds 
of the town, aided by private subscription and a donation 
of 200 sterling from the Convention of Burghs. The 
land end of this new pier was left unfinished, and unable 
to withstand the violence of winter storms. So much 
unheeded ruination has befallen it that 200 sterling at 
present would be insufficient to prevent its accelerating 
subversion. There is only one sloop and two fishing 
boats belonging to Lossiemouth ; but during one year 41) 
vessels from 55 to 60 tons arrived, of which loaded witli 
English coals were 20 ; Scots coals, 6 ; London goods, 10 ; 
Leith goods, 4 ; tanner's bark, 3 ; native salt, 2 ; bottles, 
slates, iron, lime, each one, 4 ; total, 49. 

The exports were 20 cargoes barley and oats, each at 
an average about 400 bolls, and an inconsiderable quan- 
tity of peltry. There are two other creeks in the parish, 
Stotfield and Covesea, which admit boats. On the estate 
of Kineadur are 3 fishing boats, each yielding a yearly 
rent of 5 sterling ; but every seventh year the landlord 
is obliged to furnish a new boat, which, rigged complete, 
costs about 20 sterling. The fish commonly caught are 
cod, scate, hollibut, haddocks, whitings, saiths, and crabs, 
but none in greater quantity than serves the consumption 
of the country. Of late, however, a lobster fishery has 
been undertaken in the bay of Stotfield by an English 
Company for the London market, to which they are 
transported alive, in wells formed in the bottom of the 
ships, which communicate directly with the sea water. 
60,000 were in this manner conveyed the first summer, 
without any other precaution except tying their claws to 
their sides. They are caught by bait in small iron traps, 
though a simple invention, yet never used before on 
this coast. 

In the Goulard Hill there are appearances of lead ; 
many detached masses of ore are to be seen in the nor- 
thern side of the hill, where the rock is limestone. Some 
adventurers, however, from England, several years ago, 



<)2 COULARD HILL; GOTHIC RUIN ON COVESEA SHORE. 

after expending about 500, could discover no vein worth 
working. But the greater part of the Goulard, with 
almost the whole of the ridge along the Covesea shore, 
consists of one uninterrupted mass of freestone, lying in 
horizontal strata, differing in thickness and in hardness ; 
one kind being white, of a smooth, compact, and firm 
substance, yet readily yielding to the hammer or the 
chise} ; the other kind more brown or yellow, softer and 
more friable. There are about 20 masons and nearly 40 
labourers constantly employed in quarrying and cutting 
.stone to supply the demand from this and the neighbour- 
ing countries. The western part of this ridge, upon the 
Covesea coast, forms a very bold shore. The penetrating 
power of the surge in winter storms, with the reiterated 
play of the ocean, and the various whirl of the rebound- 
ing wave upon the projecting cliffs of the freestone rock, 
have formed several detached pyramids, towers, and arches, 
of various height and form, in some places resembling the 
broken, shapeless windows in a Gothic ruin, having the 
sea boiling round their bases at each flow of the tide. 
Under this hill also there is a number of caverns of 
whose formation it is difficult to conjecture the origin, 
without supposing the sea at some period to have been so 
much higher on the coast as to have in secret wrought 
out the softer materials, which might have originally 
filled these shapeless vacuities. They all open directly to 
the sea ; and it is likely that some of them may extend 
back to the land side of the hill, as their dark recesses 
have never been explored. Some of them are lofty even 
from the entrance, and their bounds everywhere readily 
determinable ; others, with a low entrance, become 
gloomily lofty, and uncomfortably damp within ; others 
are low, dismal, dark, and damp, throughout all their 
windings. Neither the floor or roof of any are on the 
same level ; some of the lightest are used as a shelter by 
the stone-cutters, both from the heat and rain, and are in 
part filled by the chips and fragments. One of them was 
occupied as a stable to conceal the horses of the family of 
Gordonstown from the rebels in the year 1745, and has 
the entrance built up into a neat door. Another, behind 
the village of Lossiemouth, had in ancient times been 
formed into a small hermitage, not exceeding 12 feet 
square. It was completed by a handsome Gothic door 



ST. GERNADIUS' WELL AND HERMITAGE AT COVESEA. 63 

and window, and commanded a long but a solitary view 
along the eastern shore. These artificial decorations were 
torn down about 30 years ago, by a rude shipmaster ; and 
in the course of working the quarries, the whole cave has 
been destroyed. 

There was a fountain in the rock above the hermitage, 
called St. Gerard ine's [Gernadius'J Well ; but neither this 
nor any other spring in the parish has acquired fame 
for medicinal virtue. 

The inhabitants, like all others employed in husbandry, 
are robust and healthy. They are in general a sober, 
honest, peaceable people, regular in their attendance on 
the ordinances of religion, rather grave than lively, sel- 
dom indulging themselves in any relaxation or diversion. 
Crimes of enormity are unknown among them ; but this 
regularity of conduct must be in part ascribed to the 
poverty and depression of the people ; for the situation of 
the smaller tenants in general is not comfortable. Few of 
them have any capital to set them out into the world, 
and fewer have the inclination or the means of adopting 
the modern improvements of husbandry, while the rents 
and the wages of servants have of late been considerably 
advanced. The women spin linen yarn, by which, with 
the greatest application, they can only earn 3d. by the 
day. Even this yarn, what is necessary for home con- 
sumption excepted, is exported unwrought to Edinburgh, 
Glasgow, or the north of England.] (Survey of the Pro- 
vince of Moray.) 

THE FAMILY OF GOKDONSTOUN. 

Sir Bobert Gordon, the first of Gordonstoun, 
was second son of Alexander, 15th Earl of Suther- 
land. He was a gentleman much and deservedly 
respected. [In May, 1625, he was created a 
Knight Baronet of the Order of Nova Scotia, 
with precedence of all the Knights of that Order. 
He was a bearer of the King's train at the Coron- 
ation, High Sheriff of Inverness, a Commissioner 
to Zetland, and historian of the House of Suther- 



64 THE FAMILY OF GORDONSTON. 

land.] In the year 1606 he was made Gentleman 
of the King's Bed-chamber, with a pension of 
200 for life. In the year 1634 he was appointed 
one of, the Lords of the Privy Council of King 
Charles I., and by the Parliament 1642 was 
made a Privy Counsellor for life. He married, 
in 1613, Louisa, only child of John Gordon, Lord 
of Glenluce, and Dean of Salisbury, by whom he 
had Ludovick his heir, Eobert, ancestor of the 
Gordons of Clunie, and two daughters; Katharine 
married to Colonel David Barclay of Urie, by 
whom she was mother of the ingenious author 
of the Apology for the Quakers ; and Jean mar- 
ried to Sir Alexander M'Kenzie of Coull. (2.) 
Sir Ludovick Gordon of Gordonstoun, Baronet 
[was educated in Holland and], succeeded his 
father, Sir Eobert, in 1656 [and ornamented the 
estate with canals, terraces, and avenues]. He 
married Elizabeth, daughter and co-heiress of Sir 
Robert Farquhar of Mounie, by whom he had 
Eobert, his heir [four sons], and three daughters ; 
Lucy, married first to Eobert Cumine of Altyre ; 
secondly, to Alex. Dunbar of Moy ; Katherine 
married to Thomas Dunbar of Grange ; and 
Elizabeth married to Eobert Dunbar of West- 
field. They all had issue. (3.) Sir Eobert 
Gordon succeeded his father, Sir Ludovick. By 
his lady, Elizabeth, only daughter of Sir William 
Dunbar of Hemprigs, he had Sir Robert, his heir, 
and a daughter, Lucy, married to David Scott of 



SIR ROBERT GORDON, FIFTH BART. OF GORDONSTON. 65 

Scotstarvet, Esq. (4.) Sir Eobert succeeded his 
father in 1701. He married Agnes, only daugh- 
ter of Sir William Maxwell of Calderwood, by 
whom he had two [four (?)] sons, Eohert and 
William, and a daughter, Christian, who died 
young. (5.) Sir Robert Gordon, the 5th Baronet 
of Gordonstoun, succeeded his father, Sir Robert, 
in 1772. [He died a bachelor in 1776, and was. 
succeeded by his brother, William, who settled 
his estate on Gumming of Altyre. He died a 
bachelor in 1795, when the title devolved upon 
Sir James Gordon of Letterfourie, and the estates 
fell to Sir Alexander Penrose Gordon Gumming 
of Altyre.] Ed. 

Arms of the family of Gordonstoun. Quarterly 1st and 4th 
grand quarters, the quartered coat of Gordon, 2nd and 3rd 
Gules, three stars Or, all within a border of the last. In the 
centre of the shield the badge of NOVA SCOTIA. Crest, a cat, 
a mountain saliant, argent, armed azure. Motto, SANS CRAINTE.. 
[Fearless.] Supporters on the dexter, a deerhound argent, 
collared Gules, and thereon three buckles Or. And in the 
finister, a savage wreathed about the head and middle with 
laurel proper. 

In the year 1621 Sir William Alexander of 
Menstry undertook to plant a colony in Nova 
Scotia, in North America, and was joined in that 
undertaking by the Earls Marshal, Melrose, and 
Niddisdale, Viscount Dupplin, and the lairds of 
Lochinvar, Lesmore, Clunie, and Gordonstoun. 
For their encouragement the King granted them 
severally large districts of land in that country, 
and proposed to create a new title of honour that 

VOL. II. 5 



66 HONOURS AND PRIVILEGES OF SCOTTISH KNIGHTS. 

should be hereditary. This Order was erected in 
1625, and Sir Eobert Gordon is the first Knight 
of it, whose Patent beareth date at Whitehall the 
28 May, 1625. 

Knights Baronets. 

Having perused this Patent, I shall set down 
the honours and privileges granted to Knights 
in Scotland, and (1.) In all writings they are 
styled Knights and Baronets. (2.) In addressing 
them, they are called Sir. (3.) Their wives have 
the honour of Lady. (4.) They have precedency 
of all Knights, Lairds, Esquires, and Gentlemen, 
except the King's Commissioners, Counsellors, 
and Knights Bannerets, dubbed in the field of 
war under the Eoyal Standard, Rege Presents. 
(N.B.The Order of the Thistle or St. Andrew 
was not revived at that time.) (5.) Their wives, 
sons, daughters, and sons' wives have precedency 
as themselves have. (6.) Their eldest sons, when 
21 years of age, in their father's life, shall receive 
the honour of Knighthood, if they ask it, upon pay- 
ing only the fees of the servants. (7.) In Eoyal 
armies they shall have place near to the Royal 
Standard. (8.) No other degree of honour shall 
ever be created betwixt them and Lords, nor any 
degree equal to them and inferior to Lords. (9.) 
The honour is by patent under the Great Seal, 
and hereditary as that of Peerage. (10.) There 
shall not be in Scotland at any one time more 



A HUNDRED AND FIFTY KNIGHTS ONLY FOR SCOTLAND. 67 

than 150 such Knights. (11.) They may bear the 
arms of NOVA SCOTIA in a Canton, or Shield of 
pretence ; and the same enamelled on an oval 
medal of gold on their breasts, hanging at a broad 
orange ribband round their necks ; as by Koyal 
Warrant from King Charles I. dated at Whitehall 
17 November, 1629, and recorded in the Lord 
Lyon's Eegisters. (12.) They are allowed two 
gentlemen-assistants of their body, ad support- 
andum velamen (to bear their robe) ; and at their 
funerals they are allowed one principal mourner 
and four assistants. 

Besides these privileges common to the Order, 
Sir Eobert Gordon's Patent beareth, That he is 
the First Knight in the Order, and that no one 
has had, or ever shall have, the precedency of 
him. And he had 16,000 acres of land in Nova 
Scotia disponed to him and his heirs, with ample 
privileges. The like privileges had also the rest 
of the Baronets, till the French took possession 
of that province ; after which there is no mention 
of lands in any of the Patents. 

The arms of this Order are : An escutcheon arg. charged 
with a saltire, az. The field and cross of St. Andrews, the 
tinctures counterchanged, and thereon the Royal Arms of 
Scotland, with an imperial crown above this last shield. Motto, 
FAX MENTIS HONESTY GLORIA. [Glory is the torch of an 
honourable spirit] This (without the motto) may be placed in 
a canton, or a shield in surtout. 



68 PROPRIETORS OF KING'S THIRD OF DUFFUS. 



Ettles and Covesea. 

[" The lands of Ettles and fyshing, called the Coissey," 
were granted by Patrick, Bishop of Moray, to Thomas 
Innes of Pethnick and Elizabeth Norie, his spouse, and to 
the heirs-male of the said Thomas. The Charter is dated 
at Elgin and Drainie the 8th and 18th May, 1561, and is 
signed by the Bishop and twelve of the Canons of the 
Cathedral, their seals being also appended. Thomas 
Innes of Pethnick, grandson of the above Thomas, sold 
the lands and fishings on the 17th September, 1638, to 
Sir Robert Gordon. 

Names of the Inneses of Pethnick. 

1st, Thomas ; 2nd, Alexander, his son ; 3rd, Thomas, his 
son, who sold Ettles and Covesea. 

Kvng's Third of Duffus. 

The changes of proprietors on this estate will be best 
shown by the following titles : 

1. Charter of alienation by Archibald Douglas of Pitten- 
dreich, in favour of Alexander Gordon of Sydra (Sidderay in 
Sutherland), and Margaret Keith, his spouse, of the third of 
Duffus, dated 21st May, 1603. The sasine following thereupon 
is dated 24th May same year. 

2. Charter granted by Archibald Douglas of Pittendreich, in 
favour of Alexander Keith, lawful son of Mr. John Keith, 
Rector of Duffus, of the third of Blackgate ; third of Starwood ; 
third of Inchkeil; third of Roseisle, with the milns thereof; 
third of Burghsea ; third of Bagro ; third of Burnside ; third 
of Over and Nether Crookmuirs ; and third of Sheriffmill, with 
the astricted multures thereof, dated 24th May, 1603. The 
seisin following thereon is of same date. 

3. Bond of alienation, Alexander Gordon of Sydra, and 
Margaret Keith, his spouse, in favour of Sir Robert Gordon, of 
the third part of the Kirktoun of Duffus, Crosslots, and Salt- 
cots, dated 2nd June, 1629. The seisin following thereupon 
is dated 6th June same year. 

4. Minute of .sale, dated llth June, 1647, at Inverurie, by 
Alexander Keith of Midbeltie, son of the deceased Alexander 
Keith, portioner of Duffus, in favour of Sir Robert Gordon, of 
his share of the King's Third of Duffus, and third of Sheriff- 
mill, and of the Outletmill. 

5. Contract of sale betwixt Sir Ludovick Gordon, his son, 



FORTALICE OF THE BOG OF PLEWLAND. 69 

and Eobert Sutherland in Burghsea, whereby, for 2,830 Scots, 
they dispone the lands of Easter Inchkeil, and third of the 
Burgh, to the said Robert Sutherland, 9th March, 1670. 

Ogston and Pleiuland. 

The lands of Ogston and Plewland are the particular 
part of the estate of Gordonstown where the venerable 
mansion-house stands. Before the Gordons purchased 
the estate it was called the Bog of Plewland, and no 
doubt was a fortalice, built in the marsh for defence. The 
estate was long held in property by the Hogstouns, or 
Ogstons of that ilk ; from them it passed to the Inneses 
of Innes and Balveny, thereafter to the Marquis of Huntly, 
and from the Marquis was purchased by Sir Robert 
Gordon on 13th September, 1638. The following curious 
inventory of titles, as well as the references to the other 
portions of the estate of Gordonstown, were communidated 
to me by a friend, to whom I am indebted for many 
similar favours : 

The Inventor of the wrytes of Hogstoune and Plewlands, 
delyverit be Robert Innes, then of Innermarkie, nowe of 
Balveny, to ane nobill and potent Lord George, Marquis of 
Huntlye, at Plewlandis the 7th of Februar, 1616 yeiris. 

Imprimis, Ane charter given be Marjerie Countess of Murraye, 
to Jhon Hogstoune of that ilk, sone and lawfull air to Sir 
Rannald Hogstoune, his father, daitit at Bamf, 6th May, 1417. 

Item, Ane precept of seasing of Allexander Hogstoune of 
that ilk, given to James Innes of that ilk, upon the landis of 
Hogstoune, of the dait, at Aberdeen, 29th December, 1473. 

Item, Ane reversion given be the said James Innes of that 
ilk, to the said Allexander Hogstoune of that ilk, of the dait 
forsaid. 

Item, Ane license given be the King to Allexander Hogs- 
toune of that ilk, fra him and his airis, all and haill, the lands 
of Hogstoune, to whatsoever persone he pleasis, to be halden 
of himselfFe. 

Item, The gift of nonentrie, given to Alexander Livingstoune 
of Dunnipeass, upon the landis of Hogstoune, and Plewlandis, 
of the dait at Pearth, 15th March, 1527. 

Item, Ane seasing of James Innes of that ilk, given to Allex- 
ander Hogstoune of that ilk, upon the landis of Hogstoune, 
dated 12th Jannuar, 1473. 

Item, Ane seasing of Elizabeth Lady Hogstoune, upon the 
landis of Hogstoune and Plewlandis, given upon ane precept, 
dated 8th Jaunuar, 1501. 



70 INVENTORY OF THE LANDS OF OGSTON 

Item, Ane resignation, in the Kingis handes, of the landis of 
Hogstoune and Plewlandis, be Elizabeth Hogstoune, with con- 
sent of hir husband, Adam Habroune, daitit at Edinburgh, 
llthMaij, 1501. 

Item, Ane instrument, wher Adam Habroune was requyrit 
to enter Robert Innes of Innermarkie in the landis of Hogs- 
toune, daitit 6th May, 1509. 

Item, Ane precept of seasing, given out of the Chancellrie, 
to Robert Innes of Innermarkie, and Elizabeth Stuart, his 
spouse, in lyfrent, and to Robert Innes of Monikebback, his 
sone, appeirand air heritabille of the landis of Hogstoune and 
Plewlandis, united in one barrony, daitit at Dundee, 1st 
September, 1539. 

Item, The charter of union, whereupone the forsaid precept 
was given under the Grayt Seall, of the landis of Hogstoune 
and Plewlandis, of the dait of the said precept. 

Item, The seasing following upone the said charter, of the 
dait 4th November, 1539. 

Item, The service of Adam Habroun's three daughters, Janat, 
Helein, and Isobell, before the Shirreffe of Elgin, daitit the 
penult of Februar, 1527. 

Item, Ane charter of Andro Oliphant of Berridel, sone and 
air of umqll. Christen Suderland of Berridel, given to William 
Suderland of Duifus, of the third pairt of the landis of Plew- 
landis, of the dait at Edinburgh, 10th November, 1528. 

Item, Ane precept of seasing, passit thereupone. 

Item, Ane instrument taine be Robert Innes, in the handis 
of Mr. William Jamisone, notar, daitit 1st September, 1539. 

Item, Ane resignation of Elizabeth Habroune, eldest daughter, 
and ane of the heiris, of Adam Habroune of Craigies, and 
spouse to Mr. Alexander Livingstoune of Dunnipeass, of the 
landis of Hogstoune and Plewlandis, in the Kingis hands, in 
favours of Robert Innes of Innermarkie, and Elizabeth Stuart, 
his spousse, and to Robert Innes of Monykebbock, their sone 
and appeirand air, daitit at Inglismaldie, 15th August, 1539. 

Item, Ane sasine given be Robert Innes of Innermarkie, and 
his spouse, Elizabeth Stuart, and his son, of Monykebbock, 
upon the landis of Hogestoun and Plewlandis, under the 
subscription of Mr. William Jamisone, notar, daitit 4th Nov., 
1539. 

Item, Ane saising of Robert Innes of Innermarkie, guidsir 
to Robert Innes, now of Balveny, of the landis of Hogstoune 
and Plewlandis, under the subscriptione of Mr. Alexander 
Dowglasse, notar, daitit 29th Maii, 1553. 

Item, Ane instrument of saising to Robert Innes, father to 
Robert Innes, now of Balveny, upon the landis of Hogestoun 



AND PLEWLAND, NOW AT GORDONSTON HOUSE. 71 

and Plewlandis, under the subscriptione of James Guthrie, 
notar, 21st Maij, 1586. 

Item, The Kingis confirmatione and ratificatione of ane 
charter of alienatione, maid to Jeane Barclaye, Lady of Inner- 
markie, to Eobert Innes, her sone, upon the landis of Plew- 
landis and Hogestoune, daitit at Edinburgh, 1 607. 

Item, The King's confirmation, containing ane novo damus 
upon the landis of Hogstoune and Plewlandis, and Kirkhill of 
Longbryde, to Robert Innes, now of Balveny, and Barbara 
Burnet, his spouse, daitit at Edinburgh, 21st Februar, 1607. 

Item, Ane tack of the teinds of Plewlandis and Hogstoune, 
given be George Douglasse, Bishope of Murraye, with consent 
of the Dean and Chapter, to Robert Innes of Innermarkie, 
father to Robert Innes, now of Balveny, daitit at Spyny, the 
first and last of Maij, 1585. 

Item, Ane tack of the teind sheaves of Hogstoune and Plew- 
landis, sett be Allexander Douglass, Bischope of Murraye, to 
Robert Innes, now of Balveny, and to Barbra Burnet, his 
spouse, in lyfrent, and nynteen yeir thereafter, daitit at Elgin, 
10th Marche, 1607. 

Item, Ane extract of ane proper contract between the Laird 
of Innermarkie and the Laird of Innes, on the landis of Hogs- 
toune and Plewlandis, and heirschipe of Innes, daitit at Edin- 
burgh, 9th Marche, 1635. 

Which haill wrytes, according to the inventer foresaid, sub- 
scribit be us, George, Marquis of Huntlye, and Robert Innes 
of Balvenye. We, George Marquis of Huntlye, grant us to 
have receavit fra the said Robert, and bindis and oblissis us, 
and our aires and successoures, to make patent and furthecom- 
minge to the said Robert, his aires and successoures, for defence 
of the saidis landis of Hogstoune and Plewlandis, as the said 
Robert and his forsaidis sail be persewit for warranclice of the 
said landis. In witness wherof we have subscribit thir presents, 
at Plewlandis the 17th of Februar, Jmvic and sixteen yeires, 
befor thir witnes, ALLEXANDER GORDON, Fiar of Strathawon ; 
Mr. WILLIAM GORDON of Tilligrigie; JAMES GORDON, in 
Letterfurie ; and Mr. ALEXANDER INNES of Dalliestennie. 
(Sic subscribitur), HUNTLYE. 

ROBERT INNES of Balvenie. 

A. GORDOUN, Witnes. 

J. GORDOUN, Witnes. 

The original Document is at Gordonstown, and the 
Minute of Contract of sale by which the Marquis of 
Huntly sold these lands to Sir Robert Gordon, dated 13th 
September, 1638, is also there. The Marquis subsequently 



72 ANCIENT CROSS AT KINNEDAR. 

sold to Sir Robert the lands of Balorinie, which his Lord- 
ship seems to have purchased in 1615 from the Douglasses 
of Whittingham.] (Young's Parish of Spynie.) 

EPITAPHS IN THE CHURCHYARD OF KINNEDAR. 

Like Birnie, Kinnedar was one of the early residences 
and churches of the Bishops of Moray. It was a parson- 
age belonging to the Treasurer of the Diocese. Here is 
an ancient Cross. The Bishop's residence was a castle, the 
remains of which, close to the burial-ground, may yet be 
discerned. It seems to have been their only residence 
before the building of Spynie, as almost all the charters 
are dated at " Kineder in Moravia " before the erection of 
the great palace. 

An interesting circumstance, the frequency of the 
names Winchester and Wiseman on the stones, is worthy 
of notice ; for in the Bishop's rental, 1565, of 10 tenants in 
the Villa de Kynnedam are 5 Wisemans and 1 Winchester. 
Richard Wiseman had also the Bishop's garden there for 
a yearly rent of 8s. and 6 capons. As mentioned when 
treating of Drainy, this parish was merged 1666. 

Not only is the churchyard remarkable for its Cross, 
but the immense number of stones is particularly worthy 
of notice. Literally dozens of very old flat monuments 
cover the surface. Scarcely any, in comparison to num- 
bers, can be read, here a word and there another is all 
that can be made out. They seem all to be inscriptions 
running round the edge of the stone. No trace of the 
old church remains, only the appearance of a deplessed 
centre. (Rev. J. B. Craven.} 

I son to Alex. Rushel, joyner, departed 

15 June, 1676. 

II. Here lyes to Wm. Young, in Newton, 

1688. 

III. Here lyes Janet Mavor, spouse to .... Winchester, 
died the 20 March, 1689. 



IV. Here lyes Christian spouse to Walter James, 

indweller in Etis, she departed .... 

V. Here lyes the body of Mitchell, some time dueller in 
Plenton. He died the 15 day of May, 1706. 



EPITAPHS IN THE CHURCHYARD OF KINNEDAR. 73 

VI. Here lyes James Badon, some time Christian 

James, his spouse. 

J. B. C. F. 

VII. Here lyes the dust of William Winchester, some time 
du dyed the ... of Nov. .... 

VIII. Here lyes the body of Alex. Stephen, some time 
dualer in Kinedar. He died the 6 day of September, in the 
year 1713. 

IX. W. Y. A. Y. 1711. 

X. Here lyes the body of Margaret Elies, spouse to James 
Anderson, farmer in .... ned, who died January . . . 1715, 
and their children, John and Jean Anderson, who died in their 
nonage. 

XI. Here lyes the body of John Anderson, some time 
farmer in .... who died June 8, 1729, and his spouse, 
Jean Baird. 

XII. Here lyes the body of James Edwards his 

spouse, some time duellers in Stotfield, 1713. 

J. E. M. J. 

XIII. Here lyes the body of Charley Anderson, some time 
dweller in Aikenhead, who died the 24 of August, 1722. 

XIV. Here lyes the body died the 1 1 day of the 

1729 Anderson, his spouse, and their son, John Laing, 

died Dec. 16, 1738, aged 28. 

XV. Here lyes William Innes, skipper in Stotfield. 

He died February, 1739. 

XVI. Under this ston lyes the dust of Michael Findlay, who 
was church officer in this parish of Kinedar, who departed this 
life the 13 of October, 1745, aged 67. 

XVII. This stone is erected in memory of William James, 
farmer in Ardonit, who dyd Deer., 1753, and H . . . . 

XVIII. Here lyes the body of Isobel Ritchie, spouse to 
Peter Stuart, in Kinedar, who died August 23, 1739. 

XIX. ..... James Brander, farmer in their son, 

John Brander, he died August 6th, 1742, and Janet Brander, 
who died Sept. the 5, 1768, aged 13 years. 

J.B. G.B. 

XX. Here lyes the body of James Edward, late skipper in 
Stotfield, who dyed the 13 May, 1774, aged 72 years, and his 
spouse, Jean Mitchell, dyed 25 May, 1765, aged 66 years. 



74 MAUSOLEUM OF THE GORDONSTON FAMILY. 



EPITAPHS IN THE CHURCHYARD OF OGSTON. 

When you stand in the old churchyard of Drainy and 
look up to the top of the little hill above it, you may see 
a vane peeping out of the wooded summit. This is the 
mausoleum of the Gordonston family, placed above what 
was once the old church of Ogston. Undoubtedly we 
owe to this burial-place the continuance of the very old 
yard surrounding it. When you arrive at the top of the 
hill, to which there is no proper road, and enter through 
the trees, you find yourself at the gable end of the mauso- 
leum. Very possibly others as well as I may go, never 
thinking of finding anything more. Even the name has 
been forgotten, and you are informed that it is Michael 
Kirk. Whence this name is derived I know not, as the 
Church was not dedicated to St. Michael but to St. Peter. 
I was surprised to find not the vault only but several 
huge ancient tombstones surrounding it ; though, from 
there being no fence, it could scarcely be called a cemetery; 
but when I next saw the fine old Cross standing alone, I 
felt sure that this place was set apart for holy prayer long 
before the earliest stone. Surely this must be Ogston, I 
said to myself, but I had no direct information. I looked 
up all the books in my possession and found no trace of 
any remains of Ogston. Even one author seemed to say 
that this place was only for the Gordonstons' tomb. 
Months afterward, however, I fell on the " Survey of 
Moray," quoted before, and my delight was great when I 
saw there, " The burial-ground is also continued in the 
parish of Oguestown, where a magnificent tomb in the 
Gothic style is raised over the vault of the family of 
Gordonstown." The identity was complete and I was 
now at no difficulty to name this very ancient, dilapidated,, 
and deserted churchyard. One might think the noble 
family ought to preserve these venerable relics better ; for 
when wishing to copy the inscriptions on the old stones I 
found it at first impossible, for the simple reason that 
perhaps, when the last burial had taken place, the turf 
sod had been conveniently placed on the top of the stones 
where the inscriptions were, and it was only with difficulty 
that those could be cleared off; for, so firmly fixed was the 
matter into the turf, that when at last I had them off, the 
stones seemed as if they had only been carved lately, and 



ST. GERARDINE ; MENSAL CHURCH OF OGSTON. 75 

the sods themselves might have served the purpose of a 
plaster cast. 

We have already spoken of the holy St. Gernadius who 
in the shire not far off loved and taught the people. A 
few particulars, all indeed we know surely of his history, 
has to be added. The author of the "Survey" says a 
cave " behind the village of Lossiemouth had, in ancient 
times, been formed into a small hermitage, not exceeding 
12 feet square. It was completed by a handsome Gothic 
door and window, and commanded a long but a solitary 
view along the eastern shore. These artificial decorations 
were torn down about 80 ye&rs ago (1760) by a rude 
shipmaster ; and in the course of working the quarries the 
whole cave has been destroyed. There was a fountain in 
the rock above the hermitage, called St. Gerardine's Well." 
This interesting account corresponds exactly with the 
" Aberdeen Breviary," which describes the holy saint to 
have lived between Elgin and the sea in a cave partly 
artificial, partly natural. Were the Crosses at Kinnedar 
and Ogston the places where he preached to the people 
here ? He was celebrated in the Scottish Church on the 
8th November. 

It was a mensal church, and one of the smallest vicar- 
ages in the Deanery of Elgin. Indeed so small was it 
then, in 1642, it was disunited from St. Andrews, both 
before having been served by one vicar, " that the Bishop 
might draw more teinds," as Shaw somewhat uncharitably 
says. This was nothing but an offensive remark, which 
he might have left out of his book, as it was entirely 
groundless ; for the author of the " Survey " tells us a cir- 
cumstance which shows the real state of matters. When 
the lake of Spynie was being cleared off "a causeway 
emerged, formed of freestone from the quarry, quite across 
the lake, with openings for the passage of the water, each 
about 3 feet wide, covered with broad flag-stones. This 
revived the recollection of a circumstance there almost 
forgotten, that the causeway was called the Bishop's 
Steps, and had been formed by his order to allow his 
vicar to get from St. Andrews after the service of the 
forenoon to officiate at Oguestown on the evening of each 
Sunday." Expense, therefore, could not have been the 
motive, but probably the scarcity of preachers was. These 
parishes were united from the Reformation probably till 



76 THE GORDONSTON MONUMENT, OGSTON. 

1642, when they were annexed to Kinnedar. (Rev. J. B. 
Craven.) 

I. The Gordonstoun Monument, &c. : 

S D 

17 RG ED 05 

Here is a register of the age and death of considerable 
persons of the family of Gordonstoun here interred : 

Dam Genewieu Petau, the daughter of Gideon Petau, Lord 
of the Isle of France, widow of John Gordon, Lord of Glenluce 
and Dean of Salisbury, and mother-in-law to Robert Gordon of 
Gordonstoun, died December 6, 1643, in the 83 year of her 
age. Sir Robert Gordon of Gordonstoun, son to the Earl of 
Sutherland, by my Lady Jean Gordon, daughter to the Earl of 
Huntly, died March, 1656, aged 77 years. D. Lucia Gordon, 
his lady, daughter to John Gordon, Lord of Glenluce and Dean 
of Salisbury, by D. Genewieu Pelau, died 7ber, 1680, aged 83 
years. Mrs. Katherine Gordon, daughter of Sir Robert Gordon 
of Gordonstoun, and spous to Collionel David Barclay of Urie, 
died March, 1663, aged 43 years. Mr. Charles Gordon, son to 
Sir Robert Gordon, died , 1674, aged 43 years. D.Jean 

Gordon, daughter to Sir Robert Gordon, and spouse to Sir 
Alexander M'Kenzie of Coul, died , 1676, aged 43 years. 

Mrs. Lucia Gordon, daughter to Sir Robert Gordon, died 
before her father, unmarried, about ye 18 year of hir age. Sir 
Ludovick Gordon of Gordonstoun, son to Sir Robert Gordon, 
by D. Lucia Gordon, died December 1668, aged 63 years. D. 
Elizabeth Farquhar, his 1st lady, daughter to Sir Robert 
Farquhar of Menie, by D. Elizabeth Buck, died November, 
1661, aged 38 years. Mrs. Anna Gordon, daughter to Sir 
Ludovick Gordon, died unmarried. Alexander Gordon, son to 
Sir Ludovick Gordon, died 1666. Benjamin Gordon, son to 
Sir Ludovick Gordon, died 1662. Ludovick Gordon, son to 
Sir Ludovick Gordon, died Sher, 1696, aged 43 years. Sir 
Robert Gordon of Gordonstoun, son to Sir Ludovick Gordon, 
by D. Elizabeth Farquhar, died 5 of Sher, 1704, aged 57 years. 
D. Margaret Forbes, his 1st lady, daughter to my Lord Forbes, 
by Mrs. Jean Campbell, his spouse, 1677. William Gordon, 
vson to Sir Robert Gordon, by Elizabeth Dunbar, daughter to 
Sir William Dunbar of Hempriggs, died 18 March, 1701. 
Mrs. Margaret Gordon, daughter to Sir Robert Gordon, by D. 
Elizabeth Dunbar, died 16 March, 1703, aged 10 years. Mrs. 
Katherine Gordon, daughter to Sir Robert Gordon, by D. 
Elizabeth Dunbar, died 18 March, 1705, aged 39 years. Mrs. 
Elizabeth Gordon, daughter to Sir Robert Gordon, by D. 



EPITAPHS IN OGSTON CHURCHYARD. 77 

Elizabeth Dunbar, died 8 December, 1705. Lucy, daughter of 
Sir Robert Gordon and Dame Elizabeth Dunbar, married David 
Scott of Scotstarvet. Sir Robert Gordon, son of Sir Robert 
Gordon and Dame Elizabeth Dunbar, born 1696, died 1772 ; 
married, 1734, Agnes, daughter of Sir William Maxwell of 
Calderwood, Baronet. Dame Agnes Maxwell died at Lossie- 
mouth llth March, 1808. Sir Robert Gordon, eldest son of 
Sir Robert Gordon and Dame Agnes Maxwell, born 1736, died 
unmarried 2nd June 1776. He was succeeded by his brother, 
Sir William Gordon, born 1738, died in Edinburgh unmarried 
5th March, 1795. Lewis and John, younger sons, left no issue. 
A daughter, Christian, died young. 

II. The Gordonstoun Monument, No. 2 : 

In memory of those of the family of Altyre, whose mortal 
remains lie in the vault beneath. Sir. Alex. Penrose Gumming 
Gordon, Bt., born 19 May, 1749, m. 9th Sept., 1773. Helen, 
5th daughter of Sir Ludovick Grant of Grant, Bt., by Lady 
Margaret Ogilvie, eldest daughter of James, Earl of Findlater 
and Seafield, succeeded to the Gordonstoun estates on the 
death of Sir William Gordon, Bart., 1794, died 11 Feby., 1804. 
Dame Helen, his spouse, born 29 May, 1754, died 1 January, 
1832. They had issue, 7 sous and 9 daughters, of whom Jane, 
Mary, and Amelia, lie in the vault beneath. 

III. Here lyes ane honest man, called James Dick, mason, 
sumtym indualler in Rewland, who departed this mortail lyf 
the 9 of Agyest, 1661. 

IV. Here lyes the body of John Dick, mason, who lived in 
Pleuland, and died the 22 of Jully, 1692 ; and Christian Innes, 
his spous, died the 7 of July, 1694; and their son, John Dick, 
who died Feb. 1727. 

V. Here lyes Christian Dick, spouse to Alex. Sinclair, mason, 
Causea, who departed this life the last of October, the year of 
God 1697. 

VI. Here lyes the body of James Chalmer, sometime Causea. 
He died the 18 of December, 1706, and his spouse, Margaret 
Neillson. 

VII. John Macdonald. Elspet Robertson. 1740. 

THE PAEISH OF DUFFUS 

(Dubh-uis, i.e., black or stagnating water) lieth 
west of Kinnedar, between the Loch of Spynie 



78 THE CHURCH, HOUSE AND FORT OF DUFFUS. 

and the sea. It extendeth about 3 miles from 
east to west, and 1 mile from south to north. 

The Church standeth in the east end, a mile 
west of Kinnedar, 1J miles north-west of New 
Spynie, and 3 miles north-east of Alves. The 
whole parish (except a small feu pertaining to 
Sutherland of Keam) is the property of the Duke 
of Gordon, Sir Robert Gordon of Gordonston, 
and of Alexander Dunbar of Thunderton. This 
last has far the greater share, and resides here. 
His seat is close by the Church. The house is 
neat, convenient, and well finished, and the gar- 
dens, avenues, and enclosures are well laid out. 

A half mile south-east stood the house and 
fort of old Duffus (Vid. Milit. Hist.), and 2 miles 
west is the Burgh-head, a remarkable Danish 
fort (Vid. Milit. Hist.), close by which is the 
village of the Burgh-Sea, where Gordonston and 
Thunderton have a good fishing of white fish, 
upon which the town of Elgin have a servitude, 
whereby the fish must be brought to their market. 
Here about 300 people live by fishing, and have 
no corn land and little garden ground. At this 
village there is a good harbour for small craft. 
And I cannot but observe that the people on the 
coast westward having plucked up the bent-grass 
on some small hills, the loose sand is driven so 
thick by the west wind, that much land in Duffus 
and Gordonston has been covered by it ; but of 
late years there has not been much hurt done in 



'THE PARISH OF DUFFUS. 79 

this way, the strata on these hills becoming pro- 
bably more firm, and the sanded land is again 
tilled. In this parish there is much freestone 
and rich quarries of limestone. 

DUFFUS. 

[Situation, Soil, Climate. In every region of the earth 
where the clime and soil do not spontaneously afford the 
subsistence of man, it appears, by the earliest notices of 
historj', that society was at first supported chiefly by the 
means of hunting ; that from the hunter state they made 
in general a sudden advance to that of the pastoral, indis- 
pensable to the more perfect state of agriculture. 

In a country so narrow as this, it may be presumed 
that its different quarters, even in the hunter state, would 
be distinguished by names, which, though not appropriate 
now, have been without change preserved. The name of 
Duffus, signifying in the Gaelic black water, carries back 
the imagination to that early state of society when this 
flat country was an uncultivated forest, almost everywhere 
deformed by gloomy black pools of stagnate water. The 
plain between the lake of Spynie and the sea, continued 
for about 5 miles westward from Drainy, forms the whole 
extent of the parish of Duffus. Since taking off the 
water from the lake, it is extended about 3 miles in 
breadth ; but the lake is not continued now far upon the 
south side, and the ridge along the coast is stretched only 
about one third of the length, westward of which the 
shore is sandy and flat, raised only a few feet above the 
level of the sea. Towards the midst both of the plain 
and parish, at a little distance from the coast, the green 
arable hill of Roseisle embellishes the landscape. It is 
not doubted but the sea once communicated with the 
lake, along the west and south sides of this eminence, 
which then formed the termination of the isle, extended 
eastward to the headland of the Goulard at Lossiemouth. 
Along the coast, the whole length of the parish, for the 
breadth of half a mile, may be considered as downs, the 
soil sandy, mixed with stone, in some places rising in 
green ridges, composed of limestone rock. Towards the 
middle of this poor benty pasturage, between the hill of 



80 STATE OF PROPERTY IN DUFFUS PARISH. 

Roseisle and the sea, some detached fields are cultivated, 
and one farm, of considerable extent, offers a solitary but 
commodious and pleasing residence. The rest of the 
parish is an unbroken arable field, for the greater part a 
deep rich clay, of the same kind with the carse soil of 
Gowrie or Falkirk, producing weighty crops of wheat, 
pease, and beans. Towards its western end, the soil i? 
black earth, very fertile, yielding crops of barley not to 
be surpassed in earliness, quality, or increase in any part 
of Scotland. In some places of this quarter the soil is so 
mixed with sand as to be deprived of much of its fertility, 
and a great proportion of it hath been deeply covered by 
dry land, drifted almost ten miles from Coulbin, and its 
cultivation by man for several generations suspended, 
except a few small patches, which have of late been 
recovered by bringing the soil above the sand by the 
spade. 

State of Property. The valued rent of the parish, 
amounting to 3,120 6s. Id. Scots, is shared among five 
proprietors, of whom Sir Archibald Dunbar only is resi- 
dent, in a handsome modern seat, placed in a small park, 
sheltered on the north by the Church and the village of 
Duffus, arid on the other three sides bounded by fields 
and stripes of plantation. It commands an extensive 
landscape, embellished by every rural- decoration. His 
property in this parish is valued at 1,800 Scots. 

A considerable part of the estate of Gordonstown, lately 
augmented by the purchase of the lands of Roseisle, with 
which a part of it lay blended, lies also in this parish, 
amounting now to the valuation of 1,019 Scots. 

Mr. Brander of Pitgaveny, as was observed, holds a 
considerable part of the extent of this parish, but yet so 
incompletely drained as not to admit of perfect cultiva- 
tion. It is valued at 244- 18s. lid. Scots. The other 
two properties are inconsiderable the one belonging to 
Mr. Baron Gordon of Clunie is valued at 36 7s. 2d. 
Scots, and the other appertaining to Mr. Lewis Kay only 
at 20. The farms are but of small extent, two only 
exceed 100 acres. A great proportion of the parish is 
rented at 1 sterling the acre, and the average equals 
three-fourths of that rate. 

State Ecclesiastical. The Church is incommodiously 
situated in the east end of a parish of such length. The 



BURYING-GROUND AT BURGH-HEAD, DUFFUS. 81 

Burying-place is a small square enclosure around the 
Church, having a pretty broad road on each of its sides, 
rather roughly causewayed, but the workmanship of a 
party of soldiers who were stationed here by Cromwell. 
The stipend, by decreet 1793, is 8 chalders of bear, and 
38 6s. 8d. sterling, including the allowance for the Com- 
munion. The patronage has been in the possession of Sir 
Archibald Dunbar and his authors since the year 1527. 
With the fees for teaching already stated, and the statu- 
tory salary as session-clerk, the schoolmaster has an 
establishment of 7 bolls and nearly 3 firlots of bear, the 
number of scholars amounting to about 50. 

The only provision for the poor arises from the half- 
pence contributed by the tenants and their families who 
attend the Parochial Church, amounting to about 14? 
sterling in the year, which, without expense to the heritors, 
contributes to the subsistence of about 60 indigent persons, 
the number enrolled in the lists of the Session. 

The members of the Established Church amount to 
1,760 ; there are 30 Episcopalians, who, with a few neigh- 
bours from the parishes of Spynie and Alves, have main- 
tained a small meeting ever since it was the national 
religion ; and there are 4 Seceders, of the Antiburgher sect. 

There is a small burying-ground at Burgh-head for the 
accommodation of that village; there was a chapel also 
there where public worship was long ago performed by 
the minister of the parish. Two hamlets bear the name 
of College, namely, Roseisle and Unthank. At the last 
of these the foundations of the chapel were lately taken 
up to repair the mill. 

Miscellaneous Information. The people, although 
poor and depressed, are not querulous ; they are peaceable 
and well-disposed ; and the dislike of each other, on the 
account of diversity of religious opinions and modes of 
worship, has greatly subsided among them. They are 
sober, and but little addicted to the intemperate use of 
spirituous liquors. 

The village of Burgh-head on the coast, the property of 
Sir Archibald Dunbar, contains about 400 souls. A small 
number of the men are quarriers and stone-cutters, but 
the greater number follow a sea-faring life 7 large boats, 
with 6 people on board, are hired for the western fishery ; 
5 of the same kind are employed in freighting commodi- 
VOL. u. 6 



82 REMAINS OF INVERUGIE CASTLE. 

ties along the coast; 2 sloops, besides, are employed in 
transporting grain to the south of Scotland, and in bring- 
ing back coals ; and there are a few small boats employed 
in fishing. At this village nature has pointed out a 
station for a deep, capacious, and safe harbour. It could 
be formed at a moderate expense, the stone just waiting 
to be cut from the adjoining rock, and, with little precau- 
tion, success would be certain. Along the whole southern 
coast of the Moray Firth, from Buchanness, upwards of 
100 miles, to Inverness, there is no good or safe harbour. 
The advantage, therefore, of this undertaking appears in 
the strongest light, there being water of any necessary 
depth, on a fine bottom of blue clay, moss, or sand, and 
shelter from every dangerous wind. It is nearly at equal 
distance from Elgin and Forres, and, with a good harbour, 
it would soon become the port of both towns. Commerce 
and manu/acture would, of consequence, settle in this part 
of the country, and, with an increasing rise in the value 
of the neighbouring farms, all the various advantages 
arising from them would quickly follow. Here at present 
there is only a fishery, and but of small consideration. 
Cod, skate, ling, are sold at Id. and l|d. the Ib. There 
are also hollibut, mackarel, saith, and whiting. Turbot 
are on the coast, but the people are not instructed in the 
art of fishing for them. Haddocks have been for years in 
fewer numbers, and farther from the land, in deeper water 
than formerly. They sell at Id. each, six times dearer 
than before. 

Near the western end of the ridge along the shore, 
where the rocks rise to a great height, the foundation of 
a Castle called Inverugie remains. It was occasionally 
the residence of the family of Marischal, who once held 
the third part of the property of the parish, and was 
named after their chief seat in Buchan. It appears that 
in this parish many battles had in former times been 
fought. Burying-ground is to be found about almost 
every hamlet, and in many of them skeletons of human 
bodies have been accidentally dug up, and this has given 
rise to many fairy hillocks and grounds where witches 
met together. 

Near the western end of the parish there had been a place 
of worship at a farm called Kirkhill, where the remains of 
the cross and some of the buildings are still visible. 



DUFFUS CASTLE. 83 



In several places are indications of iron ore and coal. 
All the water seems surcharged with iron, and in one 
field, near Duffus House, there is a strong chalybeate 
spring, near to which appears a black hard earth, mixed 
with stone resembling the refuse of a forge. 

Although now there is no natural wood in the parish, 
yet from old tradition, and from rotten logs of wood found 
in the corn fields and pastures throughout the whole 
lower grounds, and even in the stiffest clay soil, this part 
of the country must have once been an entire forest of 
different kinds of timber oak, aller, birch, hazel, and fir ; 
and it is reported that the oppressed inhabitants were 
compelled by the Danes to carry oak from the valley near 
Roseisle to build their ships at Burghhead.] (Survey of 
the Province of Moray.) 

{Duffus Castle is about 4 miles north of Elgin and 2 
miles west of Spynie Castle. It was built in the reign of 
David II., and was long the seat of the family of Suther- 
land, who bore the peerage title of Lords Duffus from 
1650 till 1843. One of its earliest possessors, and probably 
its founder, was Freskinus de Moravia, whose family 
became conspicuous in Moray in the reign of David I. 
Bishop Bricius founded a Chapel here early in the 13th 
century, and we find from the Chartulary that Mary de 
Federith, an heiress of the house of De Moravia, held 
possession of it from 1269 till 1312. The Castle stood on 
an elevated mound on the north-western shore of the 
Loch of Spynie, now drained. A deep moat surrounded 
it, with a parapet- wall and drawbridge. For several 
miles circumambient no elevation surpassed it. From 
the low-lying marshy state of the ground it was penin- 
sular, and thus well secured against foes. At page 108 
of Rhind's Sketches of Moray there is given an etching of 
the Castle of Duffus in 1839, surrounded picturesquely 
with clumps of trees. The walls are of rude workman- 
ship, a considerable portion of which still remains on the 
west side ; and from these we find that they formed a 
large square, rising 20 feet high. The walls are formed 
of rough stones, cemented with run lime, forming a mass 
5 feet thick. The garden and orchard are yet in preser- 
vation. We have no certain information when this 
fortalice ceased to be occupied. Alexander Sutherland, of 



84 GENEALOGY OF THE SUTHERLANDS OF DUFFUS. 

the ancient family of Duffus, was created a Peer, by the 
title of Lord Duffus, 8th Dec., 1650. He married four 
wives one at a time ; the first two and last were barren 
to him, although the fourth wife (Margaret, eldest daughter 
of William, llth Lord Forbes) married for her 2nd husband 
Sir Robert Gordon, 3rd Bart, of Gordonstown, by whom 
she had one daughter, married to John Forbes of Culloden. 
Lord Duffus bought or acquired from his father-in-law 
(his 2nd wife's sire, James, Earl of Moray) the lands of 
Ardgay, Leggat, Kintrae, and others, and the Earl of 
Moray's house in Elgin, called " the Great Lodging," which 
he enlarged and beautified. At this time, the family 
estate consisted of the whole parish of Duffus, Quarrel- 
wood, Ardgay, Kintrae, &c., in Morayshire, and Skelbo, 
Torboll, Morvich, &c., in Sutherlandshire. Alexander, 
Lord Duffus, died 31st Aug., 1674, and was succeeded by 
his only son, James, 2nd Lord Duffus, the offspring of his 
3rd wife, Lady Margaret Stewart, 2nd daughter of James, 
5th Earl of Moray. This James, Lord Duffus, killed Ross 
of Kindeace in a sudden quarrel under much provocation, 
and had for some time to leave the country in consequence. 
He died the 24th Sept., 1705, but previously he got 
embarrassed, and had to sell the greater part of the estate 
to his 2nd son, James Sutherland, as a temporary arrange- 
ment. He borrowed the money to pay the price from 
Archibald Dunbar of Thunderton, which he was unable to 
recoup. The title was attainted in 1715. Thus the great 
and powerful family of De Moravia, who at one time had 
large territories and great power in the land, have now 
no longer a house nor name in the county of Moray. 

An old woman of the parish, who survived the year 
1760, related that she was a servant in the Castle, and 
remembered to have waited on the company at table, 
when Lord Dundee, the celebrated Claverhouse, was a 
guest, about 1689; that she brought the claret to the 
table from the cask in a timber stoup (a jar, the work- 
manship of the cooper), which was drunk from a silver 
cup. She said the Viscount was a swarthy little man, 
with lively keen eyes, his hair black, verging towards 
grey, having a lock covering each ear, rolled up on a slip 
of lead twisted together at its ends.] (See Rhind's Sketches 
of Moray, Young's Annals of Elgin, and Morayshire 
Described.} 



DANISH OBELISK AND OLD CHURCH PORCH AT DUFFUS. 85 

Near a hamlet called the Ream or Kaim, supposed to 
be a corruption of Camus, a Danish leader who was here 
killed, was a Pillar or Obelisk, alleged to commemorate a 
victory of Malcolm II. over the Danes under the above 
Camus. 

Ancient Porch at Duffus. This beautiful fragment is 
probably the oldest relic of ecclesiastical architecture in 
the Province. The arch approaches to the Saxon, an 
older style of the Gothic than the acute-pointed arch. It 
may either have formed one of the aisles of the Church of 
St. Peter, which we know existed here in the llth and 
12th centuries, or it may be part of the Chapel of St. 
Lawrence, founded by Freskinus De Moravia, one of the 
Lords of Duffus, and who was buried here as well as 
several of his ancestors. He died about 1269. 

This arch forms the entrance to the present Church of 
Duffus, and is still in good preservation. An etching is 
given at page 31 of Rhind's Sketches of Moray. 

A Cross, also apparently of considerable antiquity, 
stands in front of the Church. 

The rocky promontory, on which the town or village of 
Burgh-head is built, projects into the Moray Firth, from 
the general line of the coast, in a north-westerly direction 
to the extent of about three quarters of a mile. This 
promontory rises from the neck uniting it to the main- 
land, at first with a gentle inclination, to within 400 feet 
or so of its termination. Of the remaining extent, which 
narrows towards the extremity, and ends in a perpendi- 
cular front towards the sea, the south-west half is a level 
space, of an average width of 250 feet, and 80 feet above 
the water, while the rest of the ground attains a some- 
what higher elevation. Where the declivity commences 
three parallel ramparts, 15 and 20 feet high, with inter- 
vening ditches 16 feet wide (considerable portions of 
both of which still exist), were carried quite across the 
promontory. Ramparts on some sides still existing 
encompassed both the upper and lower terminal areas 
within these breast works. The houses of the modern 
town occupy the inclined surface in regular lines of low- 
size.d buildings. 

About 80 years ago there was discovered within the 
rampart of the upper area a cubical-shaped covered 
chamber, the sides of which measured 14 feet each, cut 



86 COVERED CHAMBER AND RESERVOIR AT DUFFIJS. 



in the solid rock, and having in the centre a cistern, bath, 
or reservoir, 4 feet deep and 10 feet 9 inches square, in 
which springs up a fountain of clear water. A projecting 
cornice, one foot broad, runs round the chamber, about 6 
feet from the top of the walls ; and at one of its angles is 
a pedestal apparently for a statue. The communication 
from without is through an excavated passage on one 
side, and a flight of stone steps ascending to the surface 
of the ground. The chamber is coated with plaster, 
which, though now faded, was, when first opened, of a 
deep red colour, and its angles are rounded. 

No Roman coins have been dug up here ; but on some, 
at least two, shapeless slabs of freestone, met with in the 
ramparts, the figure of a bull (about the size of an ordinary 
bull-dog) is outlined in basso-relievo. Anthony Carlisle, 
on the llth May, 1809, exhibited to the Society of Anti- 
quaries, London, a drawing of the animal, taken with 
moistened paper, given in vol. xvi., p. 365 of Archceologia. 
The views given out in General Roy's Military Antiqui- 
ties and in Chalmers' Caledonia are not accepted. They 
asserted that the Danish fortress here (a round hill of 
about 50 feet high) was previously the " ultima Ptoroton " 
of the Romans, mentioned in the Journal of the Monk 
Richard of Cirencester, A.D. 1338. Recent enquiries and 
excavations made on the spot have failed to find any 
reliable evidence that the Romans ever had a fortified 
station or camp here ; while the style of the sculptured 
bulls in this part of the country, though bold and graceful, 
is considered to be undoubtedly native and Celtic. In 
the deep cutting of the hoofs and the circular volutes of 
the tail and shoulder blades, the figures have an Eastern 
or Nineveh type ; and in the loose rubbish of the ramparts 
portions of carved crosses with processions and animals 
have been found, more nearly resembling the celebrated 
sculptured stones of the shires of Aberdeen' and Kincar- 
dine, which exhibit a mixture of native Pagan and Chris- 
tian forms. 

The names of places in the neighbourhood, as Tuesis or 
the Spey, and Farm or Forres, and the remains of a 
very old road leading south from Burgh-head through the 
hills of Cromdale and across the Grampians, of which a 
few pieces still remain, somewhat like a Roman paved 
way in their structure, alone give countenance to the 



FAMILY OF MORAY OF DUFFUS. 87 

Roman theory of Ptolemy's Geography and the Monkish 
Itinera. It is, at all events, certain that the Norwegian 
Earls of Orkney, who were in constant warfare with the 
Scottish Earls of Sutherland and Caithness, and the 
pirates from Denmark and Norway who infested our seas 
for nearly 400 years, are known to have found here a 
commodious harbour for their fleets, and an impregnable 
fortress, and from their occupation of it the place acquired 
its Norse appellation of Brough-Head. 

Attention is hereby called to " Historical Notices of the 
Brocli or Burghead, in Moray, with an Account of its 
Antiquities, by James Macdonald, Esq., A.M.," printed in 
the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 
vol. iv., p. 321.] (ED.) 

Before I describe the south side of the Loch of 
Spynie, I shall take a view of the ancient 

MOBAYS OF DUFFUS. 

Duffus gave title to a noble lord, but is more 
remarkable for having been the seat of the princi- 
pal family of the ancient Moravienses. (1) Fris- 
kinus, stiled De Moravia* (for particular sirnames 
were not at that time fixed) was Dominus de 
Duffus, in the reign of King David I. (Chart. 
Morav.). His son (2) Willielmus de Moravia 
Filius Friskini had a charter from King William, 
about anno 1169, of the lands of Duffus, Eossile, 
Kintrae, Inskele, &c., " Quas terras, Pater suus 
Friskinus tenuit tempore Eegis David Avi mei " f 

* It is observed that Sir Eobert Douglas often calls this 
person De Moravia; but it is much doubted if he had any 
authority for calling him so. It is supposed that he gave him 
this appellation because his son William is called De Moravia. 

t Translation. Which lands his father, Freskin, held in the 
reign of my grandfather, King David. 



88 GENEALOGICAL DESCENT OF 

(Ibid). He had several sons; as Hugh, his heir, 
mentioned in a charter by Eichard, Bishop of 
Moray, to the Abbey of Kinloss (Ibid). Hugh* 
is supposed to have been ancestor of the Suther- 
lands, who dropt the name De Moravia, and 
assumed a sirname from their country, for both 
Sutherland and Caithness were anciently called 
Catanesia, afterwards divided into Australis and 
Borealis. Sir John, Sheriff of Perthshire, the 
undoubted progenitor of the family of Tullibar- 
dine, represented, in the direct male-line by his 
Grace the Duke of Athole, who is the 20th gene- 
ration in descent from this Sir John ; Willielmus 
Filius Willielmi Friskini, Dominus de Pettie, 
Brachlie and Boharm, and father of Walter of 
Pettie, of whom came Sir Andrew Moray, Lord 
of Bothwell, Governor of Scotland, who died 
anno 1338; and Sir John de Moravia, whose 
representative in the right male-line is Mr. 
Moray of Abercairny; Andrew, Bishop of Moray; 
Gilbert, Bishop of Caithness ; and Richard of 
Coulbin. (3) Hugh was father of (4) Walterus 
de Moravia, films quondam Hugonis de Moravia, 
so called in an agreement, anno 1266, with Archi- 
bald, Bishop of Moray, about a part of the wood 
and moor of Spynie. His son (5) Friskinus films 
Walteri (Ibid) had two daughters co-heiresses, 

* Hugh, the ancestor of the family of Sutherland, was called 
Hugh Frisken. (See Additional Case for Lady Elizabeth Suther- 
land^ page 8.) It is doubted whether he was the son of William, 
or his brother, and father of the persons after mentioned. 



THE MORAYS OF DUFFUS. 89 

viz., Hellen, married to Sir Beynold Cheyne, and 
Christine, married to William de Federeth. The 
family of Cheyne of Duffus ended likewise in two 
daughters, viz., Mary, married to Nicholas Suth- 
erland, second son of Kenneth, Earl of Sutherland, 
who was killed at Halidon Hill, anno 1333 ; and 
the other daughter married to John Keith, 
younger son to Sir Edward Keith Marshall of 
Scotland, and with her got Inverugie lands in 
Buchan and a part of Duffus. This Duffus was 
divided into the King's part, Duffus's part, and 
Marshall's part. Alexander Sutherland, grand- 
son of Nicholas, married Morella, the heiress of 
Chisholrn of Quarrelwood, which greatly increased 
his fortune, and the family purchased Marshall's 
Third and had an opulent estate. Alexander, the 
fifth in descent from him, was raised to the 
dignity of the Peerage, by the title of Lord 
Duffus, by King Charles II., 8 December, 1650. 
James, the second Lord, who died anno 1705, 
sold the greatest part of the estate to Archibald 
Dunbar of Thunderton (a branch of the family of 
Kilbuiak and Hempriggs) whose grandnephew 
now enjoyeth it. Kenneth, third Lord Duffus, 
who was a Commander in the Eoyal Navy in 
Queen Anne's time, in which station he signa- 
lised himself in several engagements, had the 
misfortune to enter into the Eebellion anno 1715, 
and was attainted. His grandson, James Suther- 
land, Esq., had it not been for the forfeiture, 



90 COSMO INNES* ACCOUNT OF 

would have been the fifth Lord Duffus. He now 
represents that family. 

The original arms of Moray are Az. 3 stars. Arg. And 
of Sutherland, Gul. 3 stars. Or. 

Arms of the family of Lord Duffus Quarterly, 1st and 4th, 
Gules, three stars, Or. 2d, Azure, three cross crosslets fitched, 
Argent. 3d, Azure, a boar's head crazed, Argent. Crest, a 
Cat Sejant proper. Motto, WITHOUT FEAR. Supporters, two 
Savages proper, each armed with a baton over his shoulder, and 
wreathed about the head and middle. Vert 

DE MORAVIAS OF DUFFUS AND PETTY. 

[Willelmus Filius Freskin witnessed a Charter granted 
by Malcolm IV. to Berowaldus Flandrensis of the lands 
of Innes at Christmas, 1160. The date is proved by its 
being witnessed by William, Bishop of Moray, there styled 
Papal Legate, which rank he obtained in that year, and 
died in the year following. Between 1162 and 1171 he 
obtained a charter from that King of the lands "of Strabok, 
Duffus, Rosisle, Inchikel, Machir, and Kintrai, quas terras 
pater suus Friskin tenuit tempore regis David avi mei," 
(which lands his father, Frisken, held in the time of 
King David, my grandfather.) This Charter certainly 
existed in the middle of last century in the charter-chest 
of the Earl of Buchan, the proprietor of the lands of 
Strabrok in Linlithgowshire. Though now missing, it is 
still in the inventory of his Lordship's title-deeds, and it 
was seen and copied by Nisbet, from whom the words 
above are quoted. 

He witnessed several charters of King William between 
the years 1187 and 1199, and never any but those granted 
in Moray. 

Willelmus Fresekyn was Sheriff of Invernaryn in 1204. 
He had three sons, Hugh, William, and Andrew. 

Andrew was a churchmau Parson of Duffus in 1209. 
He is probably the parson who refused the Bishoprick of 
Ross in 1213. He is mentioned in 1221, but may by that 
time have been dead. 

Hugh appears, along with his father, about the end of 
the 12th century. He inherited the lands of Duffus and 
Strabrok. He had assumed the name of De Moravia, and 
was styled Lord of Duffus before 1203. He continues to 



THE MORAYS OF DUFFUS AND PETTY. 91 

appear in the transactions of the Chartulary between 1203 
and 1224. He was dead in 1226, and was buried in the 
Church of Duffus, near the Altar of St. Katharine, as we 
learn by a note on the margin of the older Chartulary, in 
a hand apparently of the loth century : 

Iste Walterus de Morauia cum patre suo beato Hugone 
sepultus est in ecclesia de Duffous prope altare beate Katrine 
in eadena. Ut patet intuentibus. (That Walter of Moray, 
with the blessed Hugh his father, was buried in the Church 
of Duffus, near the Altar of St. Catherine in the same. As is 
evident to all going in.) 

And at a charter granted by his son Walter, endowing a 
Chaplainry in the Church of Duffus, where he is styled 
Walterus de Moravia, filius Hugonis de Moravia. A 
scribe of the 15th century has interpolated the word 
beati before Hugonis. From these notes it appears that 
he was canonized, or at least obtained the character of 
sanctity for his benefactions to the Church. He had two 
sons Walter who succeeded him, and Andrew, who was 
Parson of Duffus during his father's lifetime and during 
the Episcopate of Bishop Bricius, whom he succeeded as 
Bishop of Moray in 1222. Walter de Moravia, Knight, 
Lord of Duffus, the eldest son of Hugh, occurs very 
frequently between 1224 and 1242. He married Eufemia, 
probably a daughter of Ferchar, Earl of Ross. The grounds 
for stating this are that the Earl granted to Walter de 
Moravia, apparently without any consideration, certain 
lands in Ross, which we find her afterwards possessing as 
dowery-lands. Eufemia was a favourite name in the 
family of the Earls of Ross. Walter de Moravia was dead 
in 1262-3, and was buried with his father in the Church 
of Duffus, as appears from a former quotation, and from 
the following note on the margin of the older chartulary 
against a charter of his : 

Iste verus habetur super tumulum eius in Duffus. Hie pater 
dormit tumulatus Hugoque beatus. (That true man has this 
upon his tomb in Duffus : Here sleeps entombed the father 
and the blessed Hugh.) 

Freskinus De Moravia, Lord of Duffus, was the son and 
heir of Walter. He occurs frequently in the Register 
between 1248 and 1263. In a composition between him 
and Simon, Bishop of Moray, we learn that he held the 



92 DE MORAVIAS OF MORAY AND PETTY. 

lands of Logie by grants of the Bishop's predecessors to 
his great-grandfather and great-great-grandfather (proavo 
et attavo). He occurs in public life as a party to the 
treaty with the Welsh in 1258. His wife was Johanna, 
of what family is unknown, who was proprietrix, appar- 
ently in her own right, of extensive lands in Strathnavir. 
He was dead in 1269, and was buried in the Chapel of 
St. Lawrence, in the Church of Duffus, as we learn from 
the following notes, marked in a hand of the 15th century, 
upon the margin of the older Chartulary. There is some 
reason to think that these notes on the sepultures of the 
family of Duffus are in the handwriting of Bishop Alex. 

Stewart : 

( 

Iste Friskinus sepultus est in capella Sancti Laurentii ecclesie 
parochialis de Duffows. Et iste erat nepos beati Hugonis 
domini de Duffows et fundatoris eiusdem et filius Walteri de 
Morauia. 

Iste Freskynus sepultus est in Capella Sancti Laurencii de 
Duffous quam ipse fundavit et dotavit de terris suis de Dawey 
in Straspey et Duffous ut patet. Orate pro anima eius. 

(That Friskin was buried in the Chapel of St. Lawrence in 
the Parish Church of Duffus. And he was the grandson of 
the blessed Hugh, lord of Duffus and founder of the same, and 
son of Walter of Moray. 

That Friskin was buried in the Chapel of St. Lawrence in 
Duffus, which he himself founded, and endowed with his land 
of Palvey in Strathspey and Duffus, as is evident. Pray for 
his soul.) 

He left his property divided between two daughters and 
co-heiresses, Mary and Christian. 

Christian, who occurs from 1269 to 1294, seems to have 
had a portion of the lands of Duffus and Strabok, and four 
davachs of land in Strathnavir. She married William de 
Federeth, who was constable of Roxburgh in 1262. Their 
son William le fir William de Federed, del Counte de 
Elgyn en Morref did homage to Edward in 1296. The 
family of De Federeth seems to have ended in an heiress, 
probably his daughter, in the time of David II. 

Mary, probably the elder daughter, occurs from 1269 to 
1312. She inherited the Castle of Duffus with the greater 
part of that barony, the half of Strabrok, with lands in 
Strathnavir. She married Sir Reginald le Chen the 
younger, and their descendants, co-heiresses, carried their 



THE BARONY OF KILMALEMNOCK. 93 

large possessions into the families of Sutherland of Duffus 
sprung of Nicholas, second son of Kenneth, Earl of 
Sutherland, and Keith of Inverugie, a branch of the family 
of Marischal, and which ultimately merged into that 
great house.] (Preface xxxiv-xxxvii legist. Episc. Morav.) 

THE PARISH OF ST. ANDREWS.* 

Lieth north of the town of Elgin, on both sides 
of the river Lossie, about 2^ miles in length, and 
near a mile in breadth. 

The Church standeth on the north bank of the 
river, 11 mile east from Elgin, 2 miles E.S.E. 
from New Spynie. 

This parish was formerly called the Barony of 
Kilmalemnock, and was the heritage of Sir Gil- 
bert Hay of the family of Lochluy or Park. 
Afterwards it came to the family of Innes. And 
Alexander of Innes, having killed a gentleman on 
the street of Edinburgh in 1576, purchased a 
remission from the Eegent Morton, at the ex- 
pense of resigning this barony (which compre- 
hended Pitgavenie, Bareflathills, Dunkentie, 
Kirkton, Fosterseat, and Scotstonhill) in his 
favour (MS. Hist, of Innes). 

East of the river, at the lower end is Insh, 
pertaining to the family of Innes. Above which 
is Dunkentie, which once belonged to Alexander 
Gordon, son of Alexander of Strathdon, who, 
with his two sons, was killed in Glenavon, by a 

* The parishes of St. Andrews and Lhanbryd were united in 
1780, and now bear the name of TJie Parish of St. Andrews- 
Lhanbryd. Vide Page 326. (ED.) 



94 THE PARISH OF ST. ANDREWS. 

party of thieves about anno 16 , and the lands 
came to the family of Gordon. Dunkentie is 
now the heritage of John Innes of the family of 
Leuchars : and Fosterseat is the property of the 
Duke of Gordon. Farther south is Barmukatie, 
lately pertaining to a branch of the Dunbars, and 
now to George Duff, Esq., the third son of the 
late Earl Fife. Above which is Linkwood, which 
pertained to the Gibsons, from whom it came to 
Dunbar of Bishopmiln, whose nephew, John Dun- 
bar of Burgie, sold it lately to James Anderson, 
Provost of Elgin, and his son Robert sold it in 
1767 to the Earl of Findlater. 

West of the river, at the lower end is Pit- 
gavenie, a part of the Bishop's lands. It was 
purchased by Alexander Brodie of Lethin, who, 
in 1657, disponed it in favour of a younger son ; 
and the male heirs failing, it was purchased in 
1747, from the co-heiresses, by Alexander Brem- 
ner, merchant in Portsoy, from whom James 
Brander bought it. 

Next above it, is Caldcots, Kirktoun, and a 
part of Newmiln, pertaining to Innes of Dun- 
kintie ; the other part of Newmiln belongeth to 
William King of Newmiln. Next westward is, 

THE PARISH OF SPYNIE. 

Is situated betwixt the river of Lossie, and 
that loch to which it giveth name. It was for- 
merly 3 miles in length ; but now by drains and 



THE PARISH OF SPYNIE. 95 

banks, it is much confined. At the east end, it 
is near an English mile broad, but narrower and 
of unequal breadth westward. It abounds with 
pikes or gidds, and is in winter haunted with 
swans, that yield fine diversion in killing them. 
The loch (except a few pits) in summer is not 
above 5 feet deep, and might be easily drained, 
could the gentlemen proprietors agree about the 
rich soil that would be recovered. The hard 
shingly beach at the east end, makes it probable 
that once the sea flowed into the loch. 

This parish stretcheth about 3 miles from east 
to west, and 1 mile in breadth. 

The Church stood in the extremity to the east, 
and in 1736 was transplanted to, and built at, 
Quarrelwood, and called New Spynie. It is 1J 
miles north west from Elgin, about 3 miles east 
from Alves, and 2 miles west-north-west of St. 
Andrews. 

This parish was most part Bishop's land, and 
in the east corner, on the bank of the Loch of 
Spynie, stood the Bishop's palace. 

In 1590 Sir Alexander Lindsay, son of the Earl 
of Crawford, was created Lord Spynie,* whose 
grandson dying 1670 without issue, the lands 



* K. Young, in his History of the Parish of Spynie,, pp. 43, 44, 
observes : " Mr. Shaw, in his History of Moray, states that Lord 
Spynie held the temporal lands of the Diocese until 1670 and 
we are unwilling to differ from one so accurate in general but 
it is proved by so many authorities that he sold them to the 
Crown in 1606, that the fact is beyond question." (ED.) 



9G PROPERTIES IN THE PARISH OF SPYNIE. 

reverted to the Crown, and were granted to 
Douglas of Spynie, from whom the barony was 
purchased by James Brodie late of Whitehill, 
and is now the property of James Brodie his 
grandson. But the castle and precinct (paying 
about 12 sterling annually) belong to the Crown. 

Next afterward is Myreside, which lately per- 
tained to Laurence Sutherland of Greenhall, and 
was purchased from him by the Earl of Findlater. 
Farther west is Finrossie, the property of a branch 
of the family of Lesly of Eothes ; the first of 
which was Robert, fourth son to George 5th Earl 
of Rothes, by Margaret daughter of the Lord 
Crichton Chancellor of Scotland. Robert was 
succeeded in his lands of Finrossie, by his eldest 
son Robert ; who, by Margaret daughter of Alex- 
ander Dunbar of Grange a Lord of Session, had 
Robert his successor, who married Isabel, daugh- 
ter of Forbes of Blackston, by whom he had 
George, fourth of this family, laird of Finrossie, 
who married Mary, daughter of Bannerman of 
Elsick, but died without issue. I shall not dip 
into the question, Who was the true heir of Earl 
George, after the disinheriting the eldest son 
Norman ; whether Andrew who succeeded, or the 
first mentioned Robert of Finrossie, for whom 
much may be said. 

Westward is Quarrelwood, so called from a 
rich quarry of free-stone in the adjacent hill, 
which was once covered with a large oak wood, 



QUARRELWOOD; KINTRAE; BISHOPMILL; MORAYSTOUN. 97 

whereof there are yet some remains. In the 
year 1334, Sir Robert Lauder of Quarrelwood 
was governor of the castle of Urquhart (Aber- 
crombie). His grandson, by his daughter and 
heir, Sir Robert Chisholm succeeded him, whose 
sister Janet, was married to Hugh Rose of Kil- 
ravok in 1334 (but it is incredible, that Sir 
Robert Lauder should be governor of the castle 
of Urquhart in the year 1334, when his great- 
grand-daughter was married to Kilravock. Aber- 
crombie in his History, vol. ii., page 38, in the 
life of King David II. calls him Robert Lauder, 
captain of Urquhart), (MSS. Hist. Kilr.). And 
John, brother to Sir Robert, succeeding in the 
estate, his grand-daughter (heiress to his son 
Robert), married Alexander Sutherland of Duffus, 
and brought Quarrelwood, Kinsterie, Brightmonie, 
&c., into that family. Now Quarrelwood and its 
pertinents, are the property of the Earl Fife. 

Below Quarrelwood is Kintrae (Cean-traidh, 
i.e. the Head of the Strand or Shore, for it was 
the end of the loch) a part of the estate of Duffus, 
now pertaining to the Duke of Gordon. On 
Lossie side is Bishopmiln Barony, purchased by 
James Robertson, late Provost of Elgin, from 
John Dunbar of Burgie, about 1752, and the late 
Earl of Findlater purchased it from Mr. Robertson. 
Next up the river, is Moray stoun, purchased by 
Lord Braco in 1756, from the heirs and creditors 
of Martin of Moraystoun. And further up the 

VOL. II. 7 



98 NAIRN OF ALDRUCHTIE; SIR W. DUNBAR OF WESTFIELD. 

river is Aldruchtie, probably a part of the estate 
of Quarrelwood, and for generations pertaining 
to Nairn of Aldruchtie, but now to the Earl Fife.* 



. Interesting details of these properties and of the 
drainage of the Loch of Spynie, are given in Young's Parish of 
Spynie. (ED.) 

Below Quarrelwood on the plain next to Duffus 
is Westfield, the seat of Sir William Dunbar of 
Westfield, from whose son-in-law, Captain Thomas 
Dunbar, Sir Ludovick Grant of Grant purchased 
the barony of Westfield and his lands about 
Forres, anno 1767. The mention of the family 
of Westfield, leads me to speak of 

THE DUNBARS. 

The name of Dunbar is plainly patronymic, 
taken from Bar their progenitor, and Dunbar is 
Bar's hill. The Highlanders do not use the 
word Dunbar, but Barridh, i.e. the descendants 
of Bar. Our history favours this, and mentions 
Bar a general in King Kenneth MacCalpin's 
army about anno 842, who, from his name, called 
his residence Dunbar. In the battles of Cullen 
anno 961, and Mortlich anno 1010, Dunbar Thane 
of Lothian was a commander. Earl Patrick de 
Dunbar lived about anno 1061 (Buchann. & 
Hume). And anno 1072 King Malcolm III. gave 
to Gospatrick Earl of Northumberland, "Dunbar 

* " After the most anxious search, I can find not the least 
trace of such a family ; and, if there was, they must have been 
only tenants." (R. Young.) 



GENEALOGY OF THE DUNBARS. 99 



cum adjacentibus terris in Lodonio"* (Sim. 
Dunelm). 

Of him came the noble family of the Earls of 
Dunbar and March, in a direct line, to the year 
1434, when Earl George was, in an arbitrary 
manner forfeited, and the direct line became 
extinct, through the ambition of the rival house 
of Douglas. Of this great family came the 
Homes, Dundasses, &c., but the name was con- 
tinued in the family of Moray. 

John Dunbar (2nd son of George llth Earl of 
March, who died anno 1416, whose mother was 
Agnes Kandolph, daughter of Thomas Earl of 
Moray) married King Eobert II. 's daughter, who, 
March 2nd (anno regni 2do) 1372, gave the Earl- 
dom of Moray (except Badenoch, Lochaber, and 
the castle of Urquhart) dilecto filio nostro Joanni 
de Dunbar and Mariotae Sponsaa ejus filias nostrse 
charissimse " f (Publ. Archiv.). Their sons were, 
Earl Thomas and Alexander of Frenderet. Earl 
Thomas, leaving no male issue, was succeeded 
by his nephew Earl James son of Frenderet, who 
married, 1st, Isabel, daughter of Sir Walter Innes 
of Innes, who brought him a son Alexander; and, 
2ndly, Janet Gordon, daughter of Huntley, by 
whom he had Janet, married to James second 

* Translation. Dunbar with the neighbouring lands in 
Lothian. (ED.) 

f Translation. To our beloved son John Dunbar and Mariot 
his spouse our dearest daughter. (ED.) 



100 FORFEITURE OF THE EARLDOM OF MORAY. 



Lord Crichton, Lord Chamberlain of Scotland ; 
and Elizabeth, married to Archibald brother to 
the Earl of Douglas. Earl James died about 
anno 1446, and his son ought to have . succeeded 
him ; but because his mother Isabel Innes (who 
stood in the 4th degree to her husband) died 
before a dispensation was obtained, the power of 
the Douglasses got Alexander declared illegiti- 
mate, made his eldest sister renounce her right, 
and Archibald Douglas, husband of the younger 
sister, was made Earl of Moray anno 1446. Thus 
was Alexander, son of EarlJames, unjustly deprived. 
But, to make some compensation to him he was 
knighted, made heritable sheriff of Moray, and 
got an opulent estate. And Archibald Douglas, 
having joined in his brother's rebellion, was slain 
in the field of battle, and the Earldom of Moray 
was forfeited, and annexed to the Crown anno 
1455, where it remained, till King James IV. 
bestowed it on his bastard son James, by Jean 
daughter of John Lord Kennedy in the year 
1501 ; Who, dying in the year 1544, without 
male issue, it again reverted to the Crown, where 
it remained till the 10th of February, 1562, when 
Queen Mary conferred it on her base brother 
James, afterwards Eegent ; whose eldest daughter, 
Lady Elizabeth, conveyed it to her husband James 
Lord Down, whose issue at present enjoy it, as 
will be more fully shown afterwards. 



GAVIN DUNBAR, DEAN, ARCHDEACON AND BISHOP. 101 
THE DUNBARS OF WESTFIELD. 

(1) Sir Alexander Dunbar of Westfield, only 
son of James, 5th Earl of Moray, had great 
possessions in lands. Beside the barony of 
Westfield, he had the lands of Carnousie, Fitter- 
house, Kilbuyack, Conzie, Durris, Tarras, Balna- 
gath, Fochabers, Clunies, Moyness, Clavack, 
Golfurd, Barlow, &c. By Isabel, daughter of 
Alexander, 3rd Baron of Duffus, he had six sons 
and one daughter, viz. : Sir James, his heir ; 
Sir John, who married [Margaret] one of the 
co-heiresses of Cumnock, whose male line is 
extinct ; Alexander of Conzie and Kilbuyack, 
third son, from whom Sir Jas. Dunbar of Moch- 
rum, the direct heir-male of the Earls of Moray, 
and the heritable Sheriffs of Moray, is descended ; 
Gavin Dunbar, Dean of Moray, Archdean [Arch- 
deacon] of St. Andrews, Bishop of Aberdeen, 
and Lord Clerk Kegister of Scotland, fourth son. 
He was consecrated Bishop of Aberdeen anno 
1518, and died anno 1532, having built the 
Bridge of Dee, and founded an hospital for the 
maintenance of twelve poor men ; David Dunbar 
of Durris, 5th son, from whom the Dunbars 
of Grangehill are descended in a direct male 
line. He sold the lands of Durris anno 1608, 
and purchased Grangehill; Patrick, sixth son, 
Chancellor of the Diocese of Aberdeen, ancestor 
of the Dunbars of Bermagefield, now represented 



102 AULDERN ERECTED INTO A BURGH OF BARONY. 

in the male line by Archibald Dunbar of Dyke- 
side, Esq. Sir Alexander's only daughter was 
Isabell, married to Sir William Keith of Inner- 
ugie, to whom she had two daughters; the 
eldest married to William, Earl Marshall, the 
other to William, Lord Forbes. And from these 
two marriages all of these noble families since 
that time are descended. 

(2) Sir James Dunbar succeeded his father, Sir 
Alexander, in his estates of Westfield, &c., and 
heritable Sheriffship of Moray. He married 
Eupheme, eldest daughter and co-heiress of 
Patrick Dunbar of Cumnock and Mochrum, by 
whom he had (3) Sir James Dunbar of Cumnock 
and W^estfield, who was served heir to his father 
anno 1505. He got a charter erecting his town 
of Auldern into a free burgh of barony, with all 
the privileges enjoyed by any other burgh within 
the kingdom, dated the 20th of August, anno 
1511. By Elizabeth, daughter of Sir James 
Ogilvie, of Deskford, ancestor of the Earl of 
Findlater, he had his son and heir (4) Sir Alexr. 
Dunbar of Cumnock and Westfield, who suc- 
ceeded his father anno 1535 ; for his great per- 
sonal courage he was called " the Bold Sheriff.'' 
He was succeeded by his son (5) Sir Patrick, 
anno 1576. He married Jean, sister of John, 
the 14th Earl of Sutherland, by a dispensation 
from the Pope on account of consanguinity. 
With this lady he had two sons. Sir James, the 



THE DUNBARS OF WESTFIELD. 103 

eldest son, had a son, Sir Alexander, who died 
without issue anno 1603 ; (6) Patrick of Boghole 
[Boghall], second son of Sir Patrick, was killed 
with the Earl of Moray at Dunibristle, anno 
1592. He left four sons : Alexander, the eldest, 
who died without issue ; John, second son, whose 
son, Alexander, died anno 1646, without issue ; 
James, third son, died unmarried ; (7) Thomas, 
fourth son, who succeeded his nephew, Alex- 
ander. He was succeeded by his son (8) Kobert 
Dunbar of Westfield, Sheriff of Moray, who, by 
Barbara, daughter of Sir Kobert Innes of Innes, 
had two sons, Kobert, his heir, whose grandson, 
Kobert Dunbar of Westfield, Sheriff of Moray, 
dying anno 1711 without issue, was succeeded 
by his cousin, Ludovick, son and heir of (9) 
Alexander Dunbar of Moy, second son of Kobert 
Dunbar of Westfield (No. 8 of this account) ; 
which Alexander married Lucia, daughter of Sir 
Ludovick Gordon of Gordonstoun, by whom he 
had the above-mentioned (10) Ludovick, who 
succeeded to the estate of Westfield and herit- 
able Sheriffship of Moray, which last, that had 
been nearly 300 years in the possession of his 
family, he sold to Charles, Earl of Moray, and 
disponed his estate to his cousin, Elizabeth, heir 
of line of the family, grand-daughter of Kobert 
Dunbar of Westfield, his father's brother ; which 
(11) Elizabeth succeeded him anno 1744, and 
married Sir William Dunbar of Hempriggs (son 



104 DUNBARS OF WESTFIELD AND THUNDERTON. 



of Sir James Sutherland, second son of James, 
Lord Duff us), with whom she had a daughter 
(12), Janet, undoubted heir of line of the ancient 
Dunbars of Westfield, heritable Sheriffs of Moray. 
She married Captain Thomas Dunbar of Grange- 
hill, now of Westfield, with whom she had issue 
two sons (13) Alexander, the eldest, William 
Henry, second son, and a daughter, Elizabeth. 

It is observable that when Ludovick of West- 
field died anno 1744, I could not find a male that 
could instruct his propinquity to him without 
going back 250 years, and tracing down the 
descendants of Sir John Dunbar, the first of 
Mochrum. 

Arms of Dunbar of Westfield. Quarterly, 1 and 4, Gules, 
a Lion rampant within a border Argent, for Dunbar ; 2 and 3 
Or, three Cushions pendent by the corners, within the Eoyal 
tressures, Gules. Crest, a Sword and Key disposed in Salty r 
proper. Motto, SUB SPE (Under Hope.) 

THE DUNBABS OF THUNDEETON. 

Dunbar of Thunderton, in the parish of Duffus, 
is the representative of Dunbar of Kilbuiak, as 
mentioned in the general history of the name 
of Dunbar. Kilbuiak was the third son of Dun- 
bar of Westfield, who was only son of James, 5th 
Earl of Moray. In 1763 Sir Patrick Dunbar of 
Hempriggs and Northfield having died without 
male issue, the title of Baronet devolved upon 
Dunbar of Thunderton as nearest heir-male. 
Alexander Dunbar of Thunderton was regularly 



THE DUNBARS OF THUNDERTON. 105 

served heir-male to said Sir Patrick, and the ser- 
vice is recorded in the Sheriff Court-book of 
Elgin. This Alexander Dunbar (afterwards Sir 
Alexander) married Margaret, daughter of John, 
Viscount of Arbuthnot, by whom he had issue: 
1st, Jean, married to James Coull, Esq. of Ash- 
grove ; 2nd, Archibald, who succeeded to him ; 
3rd, Helen, who died young; 4th, John, who 
died, an officer in the army. Sir Archibald, who 
succeeded, married, first, Helen Penrose Gum- 
ming, daughter of Sir Alexander Penrose Gum- 
ming of Altyre, by whom he had issue : 1st, 
Helen, married to Eobert Warden of Parkhill, 
Stirlingshire ; 2nd, Margaret, married to L. 
Macintosh of Eaigmore ; 3rd, Alexander, who 
died young; 4th, Jane, married to Bawdon 
Forbes Clavering, Esq., Eoyal Engineers ; 5th, 
Georgina ; 6th, Archibald, an officer in the 
army ; 7th, John, in the Civil Service of the 
East India Company, married to Miss Sophia 
Hagar ; 8th, William, who died in India ; 9th, 
Charles, an officer in the East India Company's 
Service; 10th, Louisa; llth, Thomas; 12th, 
Emilia ; 13th, Edward. Sir Archibald married, 
secondly, Mary, daughter of John Brander, Esq. 
of Pitgavenie, by whom he had issue, James 
Brander Dunbar. 

Arms Quarterly ; Dunbar and Randolph, all within a border, 
vary, Gules and Or, with a Lion rampart, par surtout, for the 
Baronetage. Crest, a drawn sword or Key Cross. Supporters, 
on the dexter, a Lion rampant, argent ; and, on the sinister, a 



106 THE PARISH OF SPYNIE. 

savage holding a batton over his shoulder, proper. SUB SPE 
(Under Hope.) 

SPYNIE. 

[Soil, Situation, Climate. Although the lake of Spynie 
has retired a considerable space from the west end of the 
parish, and although the river Lossie does not cover the 
whole of its southern side, yet the parish may be in 
general considered as lying between the river and the 
lake. From near the precinct of the castle of Spynie at 
the east, a ridge of moor stretches the whole length, about 
4 miles, rising gradually towards the west into a high 
hill. Upon each side of this hill lies the whole of the 
cultivated land, extending the general breadth of the 
parish, neai'ly equal to its length, and including almost 
every variety of soil, from the heaviest clay to the 
lightest land. On the southern side of the hill, along the 
banks of the Lossie, the air is peculiarly mild and warm, 
during a great proportion of the year. On the northern 
side the climate is not so pleasant: the soil is wet and 
cold : the lake and the adjoining low ground, imperfectly 
drained, often emit a disagreeable fog, yet without any 
bad effect on the health of the inhabitants, there being no- 
disease more prevalent here than in any other part of the 
country. It has been already observed, that the parishes 
of Drainy and of Duffus lie upon the north side, and 
between Spynie and the sea; the parish of Elgin lies 
along the whole length of its southern confines; and a 
fine field, a plain of 40 acres, reaches close up to the 
north side of the town ; the river having once run up 
hard by, as appears by title deeds of the adjoining tene- 
ments, which still bound them by the river, although this 
broad plain, the property of the Earl of Findlater, has 
been from time immemorial interjected. The reverse of 
this has happened a little lower down, in a small semi- 
circular field called Dean's Crook, which has been cut off" 
from the cathedral-lands of Elgin, by the river occupying 
the diameter instead of the periphery, which till of late 
remained a reedy pond. 

State of Property. The valued rent of the parish, 
amounting to 3055 13s. 8d. Scots, is divided among four 
proprietors, of whom the Earl of Fife, holding the lands 
of Spynie, Morristown, Sheriffmill, Aultdroughty, Leigate,. 
Rosehaugh, Quarrywood, and Kintrae, has the valuation 



STATE OF PROPERTY IN SPYNIE. 107 

of 1691 3s. 8d. The Earl of Findlater, holding Bishop- 
mill, Myreside, and Burrowbriggs, has 547 8s. 8d. Francis 
Russel of Blackball, Esq., advocate, has Westfield, being 
valued at 488 16s. 2d.; and John Leslie, Esq., Writer to 
the Signet, has Findrossie, valued at 327 5s. 2d. The 
public burdens of the parish are supported by these pro- 
prietors ; but, besides them, the precincts of the castle of 
Spynie, being 10 acres, and yielding a revenue of 12 
sterling, is the property of the Crown. James Milne, 
Esq., has the Mills of Bishopmill, and a small contiguous 
property, which, with another small feu, the property of 
John Ritchie, Esq., merchant in Elgin, is included in the 
valuation appertaining to the Earl of Findlater. These 
mills, on the river Lossie, comprehend machinery for 
making all the varieties of pot barley, and for grinding 
wheat and other grain, of the most improved and newest 
construction ; and a little farther down the river, on Mr, 
Ritchie's feu, there is a field and the most complete 
machinery, whereby the bleaching of linen and of thread 
is carried on to a great extent, in the most advantageous 
manner. 

The lands, for the most part, are occupied in small 
farms, there being only three that equal or exceed 100 
acres. The clay soil produces more weighty crops than 
the sandy, and aifords about a fifth part more rent, 
although, on account of the additional expense which 
attends its management, it is reckoned by many not the 
most profitable, the labour being often suspended by the 
wet during a great part of the winter and the beginning 
of spring, while all the necessary operations of husbandry 
are prosecuted on the drier lands. Consequently a greater 
proportion of servants and cattle is required, and the 
crop, being in general more late, is exposed to greater 
damage in harvest. A considerable proportion, however, 
of this kind of soil is rented at a guinea the acre, while 
the sandy soil only brings from 10s. to 17s. The estate 
of Westfield was lately modelled into allotments from 20 
to 40 acres, and let at the rate of nearly 2 per acre ; yet 
the mean rent over the whole parish cannot be estimated 
higher than 1 3s. the acre. 

It will not be deemed improper to take notice of the 
cultivation of the farm of Sheriffmill, rented by James 
Walker, Esq., M.D. This gentleman in the early part of 



108 DR. WALKER'S MODE OF FARMING. 

his life entered with all the ardour of enthusiasm into the 
horse-hoeing husbandry, in which he has ever since per- 
severed with unfailing steadiness, raising crops of wheat, 
barley, and beans, in drills, without a particle of dung, 
always fallowing the intervals, about 3 feet, for each suc- 
ceeding crop ; hereby completely demonstrating the effect 
of cultivation without the use of manure. Although 
every operation has been performed with the nicest 
accuracy, and in its proper season, and though the light 
sandy soil of SherirFmill seems well adapted for this kind 
of husbandry, yet the result has not been such as to 
encourage imitation. The quality of the wheat, though 
raised successively on the same field for the space of 
almost 20 years, without dung, has not been impaired ; 
but the quantity by the acre is less in a very great 
degree than is raised in the broadcast way in the same 
kind of soil, well ploughed and manured. 

State Ecclesiastical. The Manse and Church were plea- 
santly situated at the eastern extremity of the parish, in 
the vicinity of the castle, until the year 1736, when they 
were removed to Quarrywood a centrical, but a bleak 
situation, nearly under the highest part of the north side 
of the hill. The glebe and garden, consisting of about 6 
acres, are enclosed with stone walls. The burying-ground 
has been continued in the original situation, in the east 
end of the parish. The stipend and allowance for the 
expense of the communion, are 4 chalders of barley, and 
1 chalder of meal, and 46 6s. 8d. sterling. 

The right of patronage at present is perhaps not fully 
ascertained. A brief detail of the circumstances which are 
publicly known relating to it, is all that can be here 
stated. Before the abolition of Episcopacy, in the year 
1640, the patronage appears by the ecclesiastical records 
to have been undisputed in the family of Innes ; and they 
exercised it undisturbed unto the present times, save for 
the short interval of its general abolition, during which 
they preserved their possession by the disposal of the 
vacant stipends, and by preventing the benefice being 
impaired, by objecting to the annexation of the land of 
Burrowbriggs to the parish of Elgin. At the settlement, 
however, of the last incumbent, the Duke of Gordon 
claimed the patronage, and conjoined in the presentation 
with Sir James Innes, who before the late settlement had 



disposed of his rights to the Earl of Fife, on which occa- 
sion the patronage was also claimed by Col. Fullarton of 
Boisack, as the heir of Alexander Lindsay, Lord Spynie, 
in whose behalf the church-lands of the bishoprick which 
remained at the Reformation, with the feu-duties and 
patronages, were by James VI. erected into a temporal 
lordship. The Colonel conjoined with the Earl in the 
presentation ; but their presentee being in the meantime 
elsewhere appointed, the Peers made an agreement for 
that vice, in which the Colonel did not farther interfere ; 
but since the settlement, the right of patronage has been 
decided by the Court of Session in his favour. During 
the course of the litigation, however, the Duke recovered 
an ancient and more special evidence of the validity of 
his claim, on which he has brought it again under the 
review of the Court. 

The School is a mean cottage, and the accommodation 
for the master miserably wretched. It was built about 
half a mile northward from the Church, on a sterile moor, 
a corner of which, during the hours of vacation, had been, 
by the industry of successive masters, cultivated, exciting 
them to a degree of exercise advantageous to their health, 
while it improved their slender subsistence by its produce 
of potatoes and other vegetables. . As by these means so 
much has been added to the revenue and territory of the 
landlord, who has some time exacted an adequate rent 
and as there is a considerable extent of adjoining rocky, 
moor, yielding no pasturage of any value, and only im- 
provable by the manual labour of the spade, it would per- 
haps be but equity to the schoolmaster, to allocate an acre 
in any convenient corner, which he might in the meantime 
improve, and to which the school might be removed, when 
it needs to be rebuilt. His present appointment is 4 
sterling, paid by the landlords, and 8 bolls of meal, col- 
lected from the tenants, in proportion to their respective 
rents, with the usual fees of teaching, and the pittance 
annexed to the office of session-clerk. 

Besides the halfpence contributed by the people in the 
Church, the provision for the poor arises from the interest 
of a donation by Mary Bannerman, a widow lady of the 
family of Findrossie, in the year 1707, accumulated at 
present to 111 2s. 6d. sterling, double the original endow- 
ment. It is placed with the Magistracy of Elgin, and 



110 GAELIC NAMES OF PLACES; DANISH CAMP. 

under the care of the proprietors of Bishopmill, Westfield, 
and Findrossie. The Rev. William Dougal, minister of 
the parish, left a similar endowment, almost 17 of 
principal, half of its interest to be applied in buying 
Bibles for poor children; and his maiden daughter, Katha- 
rine, by her will in the year 1793, bequeathed 20 sterling, 
for the education of two girls successively, for two years 
in reading, writing, and arithmetic, when 6 or 7 years old, 
and for the next two years in knitting hose, and sewing 
linens. This endowment is in the patronage of the Ses- 
sion, but limited to the legitimate children of Presby- 
terians. [George M'Cummins or M'Kimmie, of Blackheath, 
Kent, bequeathed, in 1796, 200 for the poor of the parish.] 
The members of the Established Church amount to 779 : 
there are 20 of the Episcopalian profession, and 1 Seceder. 
Miscellaneous Information. The people are indus- 
trious and frugal, maintaining also other virtues, not so 
much the necessary consequence of their situation, being 
in general, honest, benevolent, and friendly, entertaining 
also a high respect for the ordinances of religion. The 
names of many of the places are of the Gaelic language : 
Kintrea, the head of the tribe, when the lake was an arm 
of the sea ; Inshagarty, the Priest's island ; Leigate, the 
original Lag-na-fhad, the long hollow. On the south 
side of the hill, towards its western end, there is a large 
extent of natural oak wood, the property of the Earl of 
Fife. It is well preserved, properly thinned, and, when 
full grown, will be again of great value. Under a thin 
stratum of moorish soil, the greater part of the hill is a 
mass of hard excellent free-stone, of which a quarry near 
the summit is wrought to a considerable extent, supplying 
all the country with mill-stones, and Elgin and its neigh- 
bourhood with stones for building. 

On this hill, the traces of the Danish camp that has 
been mentioned are still conspicuous, but must in a short 
time be effaced, by having been, indiscriminately with 
the circumjacent moor, planted over with Scots fir. Were 
the noble owner apprized of this, he might perhaps, from 
his distinguished taste, be induced to give instructions for 
the preservation of such a monument of ancient national 
history, still attesting the truth of venerable records, that 
our ancestors were for more than a year subjected to the 
most cruel and oppressive servitude, being without dis- 



DATE OF THE MILL OF SHERIFFMILL. Ill 

tinction of rank or sex compelled to undergo the most 
intolerable labour, to every species of the most grievous 
exaction, and to the most wanton murder, by an encamp- 
ment of hostile barbarians in the heart of the country. 
By such a monument, the passing generation may be 
inspired with thankfulness to a good Providence, and also 
taught the value of the present government, whose energy 
prevents the most transient apprehensions of such insult- 
ing cruelties from their enemies, equally rapacious and 
more blood-thirsty than the northern savages of the llth 
century. 

In preceding times also, the accommodation of civil life, 
and the state of the useful arts, were vastly inferior to 
those of modern times. The erecting the machinery of a 
corn-mill could not then be undertaken by any person in 
a rank inferior to a Baron, a Bishop, or an hereditary 
Sheriff. The particular year 1237, in which the mill of 
Sheriffmill was built, is specially ascertained by the 
remarkable circumstance of the ground for its situation 
being the first dilapidation of the revenues of the bishop- 
rick, in the 7th incumbency, by that respectable Bishop 
who laid the foundation of the great Cathedral, Andrew 
de Moravia, of the family of Duffus, in favour of his 
brother. The conveyance is to this effect: 

"Know all, that we, by the consent and free-will of our 
chapter, have given and granted, and by this our charter have 
confirmed, to Walter de Moravia, and his heirs, one station for 
a mill in Lossie, on our land of Auchter Spynie, on the eastern 
part of Royer in the same land, to grind their corn and that of 
their people, as freely, quietly, and fully, as any Baron in 
Moray, upon delivering to us and our successors, as an acknow- 
ledgment, each year at the feast of Whitsunday, one pound 
weight of pepper, and another of cumin." Gliart. o/Mor. fol. 32. 

And this mill, though at the distance of 6 miles, has 
ever since continued to be the mill of the barony, at pre- 
sent the property of Sir Archd. Dunbar of Duffus. In 
those times, however, it appears that even uncultivated 
ground was of the same importance as at present. About 
10 years before this dilapidation, a formal contract had 
been ratified by the same brothers, in a style similar, but 
more brief, than the deeds of the present day. The nar- 
rative represents: 



112 DISPUTES WITH EPS. OF MORAY & THE DE MORAVIAS. 

"Whereas there is a dispute between Andrew, Bishop of 
Moray, on the one part, and Walter de Moravia, son of the late 
Hugh de Moravia, respecting a servitude on the moors and 
woods of Spynie and Finrossie, which the said Walter alleges* 
was of old obtained by his predecessors, and asserts to have 
been granted and confirmed to his father, by a charter from 
Bricius, of worthy memory, late Lord Bishop of Moray, upon 
delivering each year, as an acknowledgment, an half stone of 
wax, it is thus amicably settled between them, the chapter of the 
Cathedral of Moray willing and consenting : namely, that the 
said Walter and his heirs shall have in perpetuity to themselves 
and their families, a servitude upon the said woods and moors 
on the west side of the highway which comes from the castle 
of Duffus to Levenford in this manner, that the moor may 
be used by digging ; but on the east side of the said road they 
make it common, the said Walter and his heirs paying yearly 
at Whitsunday to the Bishops of Moray, one merk sterling of 
lawful money, for all service and exaction pertaining to the 
said Bishops." 

And in 1248, twenty- two years after the date of this con- 
tract, another agreement is made between their successors, 
Simon the Bishop, and Freskyn, the son of Walter. To 
the preceding concession the Bishop adds the land of 
Logynhavedall, and instead of the merk obtains again 
the possession, in common, of the pasturage and woods as 
far as Saltcot, which is between Finrossie and Kintray. 
It is also instructed by the Chart, that the lands of 
Quarrywood, not then under cultivation, made part of 
the pasturage at that time of such importance; for it 
appears by a reclaiming petition, directed by Dr. Alex. 
Bar, Bishop in 1369, to the honourable and potent Lord 
Archibald Douglas, knight, that they were then but 
recently cultivated. This Bishop, who, as has been 
shown, possessed in some degree the spirit of litigation, 
thus addresses him : 

" Honourable and noble Sir, you and John de Hay, Sheriff 
of Inverness, have determined a certain process in such manner, 
as God knows, to the grievous injury of the Priory of Plus- 
carden, and to the great prejudice of the jurisdiction of the 
Church, which we crave to have by you recalled ; for we assert 
and declare that Alexander, King of Scotland, of pious memory, 
gifted to the prior and monks of Pluscarden,. his mills of Elgin 
and Forres, and other mills depending on them, and the mulc- 
tures of the lands of those mills, which he then received, or 



SIR ROBERT CHISHOLME SEIZES A HUSBANDMAN. 113 

ought to have received, as they were for the deliverance of his 
soul, which mulctures of the lands then arable, by virtue of the 
donation, the said prior and monks have received, like as they 
yet without dispute receive : and whereas the mulctures of the 
lands of Quarrywood, in the sheriffdom of Elgin, at that time 
unimproved, but now reduced to cultivation, belongs and 
appertains to the mill of Elgin, from which it is scarcely a mile 
distant, because if it had been at that time cultivated, the 
mulctures thereof would and ought to have been received by 
the Royal granter." 

The petition, after instructing more valid rights, and 
undisturbed possession, with the knowledge and tolerance 
of Robert Chisholme, knight, during the preceding reigns, 

"Farther asserts and declares, that the said Robert seized 
and bound a certain husbandman of the lands of Finrossie, to 
whom the Prior had by contract let the said mulctures, and 
thrown him into a private prison, by which he directly incurred 
the sentence of excommunication." 

The petition proceeds to shew cause why the action 
could not be determined by the civil, but by the ecclesi- 
astical court, and concludes by threatening to excommuni- 
cate the civil judges, if they attempted anything farther, 
by which the Priory might be wronged, or the jurisdiction 
of the Church injured. 

The whole roll of the Bishops of Moray, from the first 
erection of the diocese by Alexander I. about the year 
1120, to the final abolition of Prelacy in the year 1688, a 
space of 568 years, amounted to the number of 37, about 
16 years to each incumbency. Although none of them 
made any conspicuous figure as Statesmen, yet both in 
the Roman Catholic and Protestant Churches, several 
appear to have been respectable, and to have possessed 
the confidence of their respective contemporaries. Several 
estates are still bounded according to decreets-arbitral of 
Colin Falconer, the last Bishop who inhabited the castle 
of Spynie, and who died in 1686. The whole country, of 
every rank, attended his funeral. He had two successors, 
Alexander Rose and William Hay ; but neither of them, 
had any personal residence, in their official character, in 
this magnificent castle.] (Survey of Province of Moray) 

[At what period the first Parish Church of Spynie was 
erected we have no trace. It was very likely before the 

VOL. II. 8 



114 KIRK AND BELL OF SPYNIE. 

time of Bishop Bricius, and it perhaps was a log-building, 
or clay wattled, common then. When the Bishop had no 
fixed seat, but moved about from Birnie to Spynie, and 
from thence to Kinnedar, as their necessity required, and 
had an occasional residence at Spynie, it is likely that a 
stone Church, similar to Birnie, may have been erected, 
and which was dedicated to the Holy Trinity. When 
Bishop Bricius fixed the Cathedral at Spynie, and obtained 
the consent of the Pope to that effect, a Church of some 
pretentious size in all probability must have been built. 
However, there is no existing writ giving details of the 
style or size of the structure. When the Cathedral was 
finally removed to Elgin in 1224, Spynie would fall to 
the level of a Parish Church. Whether it shared the 
general fate at the Reformation, and was replaced by the 
usual " cheap and nasty " substitute, there is no record. 
All that remained of the Parish Church was a Gothic 
gable, which fell about 30 years ago. This edifice was 
74 feet long, and 35 feet broad, or 2590 square feet, in- 
cluding walls. The belfry was erected in 1723, which, 
with the cut stones of the doors, were utilised in the new 
church of parsimonious economy erected in 1736. It has 
a sun-dial placed on the south side, made by a son of the 
Rev. William Dougall, which has a margin of 4 inches all 
round. On the upper part, on the curve, is engraved 
" JOHANNES DOUGALL FECIT, 1740." The bell was brought 
from the old Church, and from the maker's name seems 
to have been cast in Holland, the great commercial centre 
of that time. There is a tradition that the bell was the 
gift of Bp. John Guthrie (1623-1638), who was deposed 
by the General Assembly in the latter year, but that it 
was not rung or hung until he left Spynie never to return. 
It bears the following inscription : 
THIS BELL FOR THE PEARIS OF SPYNIE ME FECIT, 1637. 

SOLI DEO GLORIA. MICHAEL BORGELTWYS. 
On the lintel of the entry door of the old Manse were cut 
the initials " W. D., 1736, K. K.," indicating the minister 
and his wife. A new Manse was built in 1840.] (ED.) 

SPYNIE. 

[The name of Spynie occurs in the Chartulary of Moray 
no less than 67 times, which shows of how much consider- 
ation it was as the seat of the Bishop. It was probably 



ADVANTAGES OF HAVING THE PALACE AT SPYNIE. 115 

a place of some importance, and had a Parish Church at a 
very early date. When Bishop Bricius, in the beginning 
of the 13th century, fixed on this spot as the Cathedral 
Church of his diocese, he had strong reasons for doing so. 
It was most conveniently situated near the town of 
Elgin ; had a communication with the sea, a harbour 
immediately adjoining, where all commodities could be 
landed ; was a delightful, dry situation, with pure air, and 
a very commanding view of the surrounding country. 
There was little arable ground around it at this early 
period. Looking to the north and west, there was the 
arm of the sea, with its winding shores ; towards the 
south and east, a considerable quantity of woodland and 
bare moor ; but, under the fostering care of the Bishops, 
population would rapidly increase. Their tenants and 
vassals enjoyed an easy life, compared with those of the 
military barons around them. They had leisure to attend 
to their agricultural pursuits, and were not liable to be 
called into service for war ; and, when attacked from 
without, they had the powerful arm of the Church to rely 
on. Such advantages, in a very disturbed age, had the 
tendency of bringing a great increase to the inhabitants 
of the district, improving the surrounding land, and 
reclaiming much that was waste. A village also sprang 
up on the borders of the lake, to the west of the Palace, 
which was eventually erected into a Burgh of Barony, 
with merchants and traders, gradually growing in popula- 
tion and importance, until, by an unexpected casualty, 
the lake ceased to be connected with the sea. This 
locality therefore became, from the above causes, and 
long continued to be, the most important part of the 
parish of Spynie, and up to the period of the Reforma- 
tion, the most highly cultivated part of it. 

In 1599 Alexander, Lord Spynie, 4th son of David, 9th 
Earl of Crawford, appointed Alexander Innes of Cotts 
Constable of the Fortalice and Castle of Spynie, and others 
within the precinct, with very extensive powers ; and that 
functionary appears to have looked after the temporalities 
for behoof of his noble employer. The property con- 
tinued in possession of the Lindsay family only for 16 
years. In 1606, after King James VI. succeeded to the 
throne of England, it was his determined resolution to 
restore the order of Bishops, not from any religious feel- 



116 DOUGLAS, MINISTER OF SPYNIE, BECOMES BISHOP. 

ing, but merely from temporal motives. Lord Spynie 
sold to the Crown the lands belonging to the Bishopric 
of Moray, granted to him in 1590, reserving only the 
patronage of the Churches, which he eventually lost by 
not exercising his rights. Lord Spynie and King James 
VI. did not always continue on terms of friendship. On 
the contrary, they became quite alienated from one 
another. His Lordship was killed in a street brawl 
in Edinburgh, by his cousin, David Lindsay of Edzell 
in 1607. 

When Episcopacy was restored in 1606, Alexander 
Douglas, minister at Elgin, was made Bishop, and held 
the See for 17 years. He seems to have resided at Elgin, 
and but little at Spynie, which continued under the man- 
agement of Innes of Cotts, the Constable of the Palace 
and Regality. He conveyed the lauds of Spynie, as well 
as Morriston and Burgh Briggs, to his son, Alexander 
Douglas, retaining for himself and his successors only the 
precinct round the palace. Alexander Douglas, the 
Bishop's son, is said to have inamed Mary Innes, and 
died, when Provost of Banff, in 1669. 

The Douglases, who were probably a branch of the 
Pittendrich family, continued in possession of the estate 
of Spynie until about the close of the century, when they 
sold it to James Brodie of Whitehill, a cadet of the family 
of Brodie. 

After the Revolution, the whole revenues of the diocese 
and the Castle of Spynie, with the precinct, fell to the 
Crown. The Castle was allowed to fall into ruins. The 
wood, iron work, and finest stones of the buildings were 
carried away by the country people. The palace and 
precinct continued in possession of the Crown down to 
about the year 1840, when they were sold to the Earl of 
Fife, on the valuation of the late Mr. Peter Brown, at a 
very moderate price. About 15 years previous to the 
sale, the Barons of Exchequer had given orders to pre- 
serve what remained of the ruins. They erected a lodge 
for a keeper, and planted and enclosed the Hill of Spynie 
with larch and fir wood, which now, after the lapse of 40 
years, is pretty well advanced, and is a great improve- 
ment. Round the palace the ground has been planted 
with hardwood, which also has made good progress, and 
has beautified as well as sheltered the place. The Earl 



THE ESTATE OF SPYNIE SOLD TO THE BRODIES. 117 

of Fife has taken an interest in the palace and grounds, 
and is caring for and protecting the fine old ruin. 

We have stated before that the family of Douglas sold 
the estate of Spynie to James Brodie of Whitehill, 
about the close of the 17th century. There were three 
successive proprietors of this family, viz. : 1st, James 
Brodie, the purchaser, who was brother of George Brodie 
of Brodie ; 2nd, James Brodie, his son, who was Sheriff- 
Depute of the County of Elgin ; and 3rd, James Brodie, 
grandson of the purchaser. This last proprietor was born 
in 1744. In 1759, by the death of his second cousin, 
Alexander Brodie of Brodie, he succeeded to the whole 
Brodie estates. He married, in 1768, Lady Margaret Duff, 
daughter of William, Earl of Fife. About or shortly after 
the year 1770, he conveyed the estate of Spynie, with 
Kinneddar, Aikenhead, Monaughty, and Aslisk, to his 
brother-in-law, James, Earl of Fife, and thus terminated 
his connection with Spynie. The Brodie family possessed 
the estate for about 70 years. The Duffs have been pro- 
prietors for about a century, four Earls of Fife succes- 
sively having held it. 

KINTRAE. 

In a charter of Bishop Bricius, of date 1203-1222, 
founding the chaplainry of the Castle of Duffus, mention 
is made of the Church of Kintrae in the following terms : 
" Ad viam que vadit de veteri ecclesia de Kyntra," i.e., 
To the road which goes down to the old Church of Kyntrae. 
In this charter, this Church is three times stated to be old. 
Lambert, chaplain to William the Lion, was rector, and 
appears, under the designation of Parson of Kintrae, as 
witness to a deed executed between the years 1187 and 
1203. The Churches of Kintrae and Spynie were united 
by Andrew, Bishop of Moray, prior to 1242. Not a ves- 
tige of Kintrae Church or Churchyard now remains, 
although the site of the latter is still traceable in the 
centre of a field on the south-west corner of Westfield. 
It has been remarked that it has scarcely grown anything 
to reward the agricultural enterprise that desecrated it 
with the ploughshare. 

MYRESIDE. 

This was Church land, and, at an early date, was cer- 
tainly composed almost entirely of moor, marsh, and 



118 ESTATE OF MYRESIDE IN THE PARISH OF SPYNIE. 

woodland, and only by slow degrees, and under the fos- 
tering care of the Bishops, was converted partly into 
arable ground. On the north side, it was washed by the 
waters of the loch, and on the south bounded by the 
lands of Bishopmill. At the period of the Reformation, 
it was occupied by five tenants. It was a part of the 
land granted by Bishop Patrick Hepburn to the Regent 
Earl of Moray at the Reformation. We find the lands 
referred to in a charter granted by Alexander Douglas, 
Bishop of Moray, in favour of James, Earl of Moray, after 
the restoration of Episcopacy, in 1606. They continued 
in Lord Moray's family probably till near the close of the 
17th century, when they were sold to Sutherland of 
Kinsteary (afterwards designed of Greenhall), and succes- 
sively held in property by John Sutherland of Greenhall, 
and his son, Lawrence Sutherland. By the latter, they 
were sold, prior to the year 1770, to James, Earl of 
Findlater and Seafield, in whose family they still continue. 

It may be here remarked that the Findlater family 
had no property in Morayshire prior to the middle of 
last centur}'. 

In 1758 the Baronies of Rothes, Easter Elchies, and 
Edinvillie were purchased from John Grant, Baron of 
Exchequer, and between that date and 1770, the estates 
of Birnie, Main, Linkwood, Bishopmill, Myreside, and 
Burgh Briggs were acquired by the Findlater family. 

In the year 1772 a very considerable improvement 
was made, partly on Myreside, and partly on the Bishop- 
mill lands, by planting about 150 acres with Scotch fir. 
It was moorland and very bleak, producing no pasture 
and only a covering of short, dry heath, and did not 
bring in a farthing of rent. The plantation was made at 
very small expense, and the thinnings soon repaid the 
outlay. The droppings of the needles of the fir enriched 
the soil, and, after the lapse of 30 years, an experiment 
was made in attempting the improvement of a few acres. 
It was found that the ground made tolerably arable land. 
From time to time this has been repeated, until almost 
the whole wood has been removed, and converted into 
good arable ground at a moderate expense. The farm of 
Newfield has been partly made out from the ground 
covered^ with wood, and that of Woodlands entirely so ; 
and both in a favourable season, when rain abounds, yield 



ANCIENT DISPUTES ABOUT THE LANDS OF FYNROSSY. 119 

good crops of corn, turnips, and grass. The wood grown 
was of excellent quality, and not only amply repaid 
expenses but gave a good return in the way of rent to the 
proprietor. In the progress of events, part of the farm of 
Myreside has thus been added to Newfields and Wood- 
lands, and the boundaries with the adjoining estate of 
Bishopmill have been considerably changed. 

During the latter part of last century, the lands of 
Myreside were tenanted by Mr. Lawrence Sutherland of 
Greenhall, who sold the property to the Earl of Findlater, 
thereafter by Mr. Hugh Tod, both well-known men. 
Since that time the farm has been well enclosed with 
substantial stone dykes, and formed into neat and con- 
venient lots adapted for modern husbandry, and the land 
is well farmed by Mrs. Russell, the present tenant. 

FINDBASSIE. 

This estate, anciently called Fynrossy, stands on the 
west side of Myreside, and is bounded by it on the east 
and south, by Quarrelwood on the west, and by the now 
dry bed of the Loch of Spynie on the north. In ancient 
times it was principally grass and woodland, with a little 
corn-land on the north side. It was washed by the sea 
when the loch was salt water ; and, when it became fresh, 
there was abundance of coarse star-grass on the marsh 
beside the water, and on the four holmes or islets belong- 
ing to the estate. Being on the north side of the hill, it 
is not so sweet and sunny as upon the southern slopes, 
but still it is a pleasant retired residence. It was Church 
land, and even after it was feued out by the Bishop 
of Moray, it still held of him as the superior, and, in some 
measure, claimed his protection. The first mention of 
the propert} 7 is in a dispute between Walter de Moravia 
and Andrew, Bishop of Moray, about the use of the wood 
and moor of Spynie, and " Fynrossy," which appears to 
have been amicably settled by agreement, on the 10th 
October, 1226. It is again referred to in a dispute on the 
same subject between Simon, Bishop of Moray, and Fris- 
kinus, Lord of Duffus, in 1248. The lands were feued 
out by Alexander, Bishop of Moray, to John Forbes of 
that ilk, and Margaret Forbes, his spouse, for good and 
faithful service and assistance, on 18th July, 1378. They 
were resigned again into the hands of the Bishop by John 



120 THE SEVERAL PROPRIETORS OF FINDHASSIE. 

Flathson, Mair-General of the diocese, in the year 1395. 
A charter of feu farm was granted by Patrick Hepburn, 
Bishop of Moray, with consent of the Chapter, to James 
Innes of Rothmakenzie, and Catherine Gordon, his spouse, 
dated at the Cathedral Church, 6th November, 1540, at a 
feu-duty of 15 merks. 1 mart, 1 sheep, 2 dozen capons, 2 
bolls of oats, with fodder, and 40s. for 6 bolls of dry mul- 
ture. Another charter was granted to the same James 
Innes on 7th April, 1545, and a charter, confirming a sale 
by Alexander Innes of Crombie, with consent of Elizabeth 
Forbes, his wife, to George Sinclair, son of George, Earl of 
Caithness, reserving the Bishop's Moss, otherwise the 
Laverock Moss, dated at the Palace of Spynie, 26th May, 
3569. In the latter part of the 16th century the estate 
was in possession of Robert Leslie, second son of George, 
Earl of Rothes, by Lady Margaret Crichton, his first wife, 
only daughter of William, Lord Crichton, by the Lady 
Cicely, his wife, second daughter to King James II. of 
Scotland. Robert Leslie was the immediate younger 
brother of the gallant Norman Leslie, Master of Rothes, 
and when his brother was forfeited as accessory to the 
murder of Cardinal Beaton, Robert should have succeeded 
to the Earldom, but his father, for some reason, passed 
him over, and, with consent of the Crown, got the title 
and estate of Rothes settled upon Andrew Leslie, his son 
by a second marriage a most unjust proceeding. All 
that Robert got in lieu of it was Findrassie, and some 
other lands in Moray and Ross. The reason of Robert 
being deprived of the estate and titles of Rothes arose 
probably from the fact that Andrew Leslie, his half- 
brother, married Grizzel Hamilton, daughter of Sir James 
Hamilton of Evandale, natural brother of the Duke of 
Chatelherault, then Regent of Scotland, by whose influ- 
ence the succession both to the estate and titles of 
Rothes was settled upon Andrew Leslie and Grizzel 
Hamilton, to the deprivation of the family of the first 
marriage. 

The family of Leslie were considerable improvers, and 
appear to have done a good deal in that way both in 
Moray and Ross, particularly in the way of planting. 
These improvements were executed in the time of Abra- 
ham Leslie, who was a man of enlarged mind, had seen 
much of the world, and who had the means of doing so. 



THE LESLIES OF FINDRASSIE. 121 

The moors of Findrassie were planted with Scotch fir. 
The trees have now reached maturity, and being of fine 
quality yield a rich return to the present proprietors. 

The present mansion-house of Findrassie has the ap- 
pearance of having been erected about a century ago, and 
was certainly built by Abraham Leslie. It is a commodi- 
ous dwelling of the old Scotch style, which could easily 
be improved by giving it a new front. The garden is 
large, and bears great cropk of fruit, and is well-walled. 
The grounds are well laid out and pretty extensive. 
After the death of Mr. Charles Leslie, in 1807, the estates 
both in Moray and Ross were soon disposed of by his 
successors, and, in the short period of eighteen years, the 
whole were sold, and the family landless. 

During Colonel Grant's occupancy of the estate, a 
period of about ten years, considerable improvements 
were made by planting and embellishment, and some 
new fields added on the west side of the Duffus road, by 
grubbing out the fir trees, and converting the ground 
into arable land. Also a good deal of draining and fenc- 
ing took place. Colonel Grant died about the year 1835, 
.and his Trustees sold the estate in June, 1836, to James 
Ogilvie Tod, Esquire, who had been in the Civil Service 
in India, and had then lately returned with a fortune. 
Mr. Tod did not long enjoy the property, having died 
the following year, and left the estates in the hands of 
Trustees, for behoof of his only child, Helen Tod, now 
Mrs. Forster. 

See " Laurus Lesbceana," published by the Jesuit 
Fathers of the Scotch Mission, on the Continent, in 1692, 
where there is an account of the four first Lairds of Fin- 
drassie ; also, an account of the Leslies of Findrassie, by 
the late Colonel Leslie of Balquhain. 

QUARREL WOOD, NOW CALLED QUARRYWOOD. 

This estate, in its present bounds, is much more exten- 
sive than it was in ancient times. It now comprehends 
Quarrywood, Loanhead, Kintrae, Rosebrae, Leggat, Rose- 
haugh, and other farms, and extends to the top of the 
hill bounding Morriston, Sheriffmill. and Aldroughty, at 
the south. In old writings it is written " Querelwode," 
" Correilwod," and " Quarelwode ; " and, as it had this 
name before there were quarries in the hill, it may be 



122 ORIGIN OF QUARRELWOOD ; VARIOUS PROPRIETORS. 

somewhat difficult to ascertain the meaning of the word. 
The word " Quarrel," in old writings, sometimes means a 
quarry of stones ; it also sometimes stands for game, or 
the engines by which game is killed. The name may, 
therefore, mean either the Quarrywood, by which it is now 
known, or the wood of game, or in which game is killed. 
It sufficiently answers to either of these appellations. 
It is probable that the whole, or greater part, of this 
estate, in ancient times, formed part of the Earldom of 
Moray, as some of the farms continued to do until a very 
late date. 

The first proprietor of Quarrel wood, of whom we have 
any distinct account, is Sir Robert Lauder, or Lavedre. 
His father, also Sir Robert, was Justiciary of Lothian, 
and Ambassador to England, in the time of King Robert 
Bruce, and engaged in similar service for King David 
Bruce. Both father and son seem to have been present at 
the battle of Halidon Hill, in 1333, after which fatal 
event the younger Sir Robert, being Justiciary of the 
North, hastened to occupy the Castle of Urquhart, on 
Loch Ness, one of the few fortalices which held out 
against the power of Edward of England. It is supposed 
that at this time he acquired the lands of Quarrelwood r 
Grieshop, Brightmony, and Kinsteary, which continued 
to be possessed by his descendants, in the female line, for 
many generations. He designates himself as " Robertus 
de Lavadre, Dominus de Quarrelwood, in Moravia." 
This Robert Lauder obtained a charter from John Pil- 
more, Bishop of Moray, for good services, of the half 
davoch lands of Aberbreachy, and the lands of Auch- 
munie, within the Barony of Urquhart, for payment of 
four merks yearly, dated at Elgin, in the feast of St. 
Nicholas, 1333. He founded a chaplainry in the Cathe- 
dral Church of Moray, at the Altar of St. Peter, out of his 
lands of Brightmony and Kinsteary, and Mill of Auldearn, 
for his own soul, and those of his ancestors and succes- 
sors, and particularly for the soul of Hugh, Earl of Ross. 
The deed is dated at Dunfermline the 1st May, 1362, 
which gift is confirmed by a writ from King David Bruce, 
dated at Elgin, the 10th May, in the 38th year of his 
reign. Sir Robert Lauder is said to have had a family of 
sons and daughters. One daughter was married to Sir 
Robert Chisholm, and her father conveyed to her, or her 



THE LAVEROCK MOSS ; INCHBROCK ; IXCHAGGAKTY. 123 

husband, in her right, the lands of Quarrelwood, Kin- 
steary, Brightmony, and others. 

He had a daughter, Janet, married to Hugh Rose of 
Kilravock, to whom he conveyed various lands in Strath- 
nairn. He is supposed to have had no heir-male of his 
own body, and to have been succeeded by his brother, 
John Chishdlm, who was again succeeded by his son, 
Robert, who had a daughter and only child Morella., pro- 
prietor of the lands of Quarrelwood, Brightmony, Kin- 
steary, &c. the heir-male of the Chisholms succeeding to 
the paternal estate in Strathglass. Morella Chisholm 
married Alexander Sutherland, third laird of Duffus, of 
that name, who thereupon added to his armorial bearings 
a boar's head erased, being part of the arms of Chisholm. 
(See " Morays of Duffus," above, pages 84, 89, vol. II.) 

The small farm of Hill of Quarrywood, or Laverock 
Loch, tenanted by Mr. Alexander Lawson, is curiously 
situated, in the midst of the extensive fir wood on the 
hill. Although within two miles of the town of Elgin, it 
is a spot of extreme solitude, and has the appearance of a 
clearance in an American forest. The eastern part of the 
farm is the bed of an old morass. In the time of the 
Bishops, it was a moss, attached to Spynie, and called the 
Laverock Moss. When the peats were all dug out, it be- 
came a shallow lake, on which the young men of Elgin 
used to skate in winter. By the growth of long grass in 
it, the loch was converted into a mere marsh, which was 
drained by Mr. Lawson some years ago, and is now con- 
verted 'into an arable field of some extent, in which all 
kinds of crops are grown. 

WESTFIELD. 

The estate of Westfield consists of the lands of Inch- 
brock, Inchaggarty, and Westfield proper. The two 
former point to a period when the sea ebbed and flowed 
in the Lowlands of Moray, and when the lands of West- 
field were submerged in the waves. The time when the 
sea receded from Westfield is uncertain, but it must have 
been within a comparatively recent period, and when the 
Saxon or English language had taken root in the land. 
Previous to that time, Inchbrock and Inchaggarty had 
been islands of the sea : the former the Isle of Brocks or 
Badgers, and the latter the Priest's Island. 



124 DESCRIPTION OF WESTFIELD IN OLD TIMES. 

The estate of Westfield is described in the titles as fol- 
lows : " All and whole the towns and lands of Westfield 
and Inchaggarty, with the manor place, houses, biggings, 
yards, orchards, mills, mill lands, parts, pendicles, and 
universal pertinents of the same, lying within the parish 
of Spynie and Sheriffdom of Elgin and Forres : As also 
all and whole the town and lands of Inchbrock, with the 
houses, biggings, yards, orchards, tofts, crofts, parts, pen- 
dicles, and universal pertinents thereof, as the same were 
formerly occupied and possessed by the deceased James 
and George Dunbarof Inchbrock, lying within the parish 
of Spynie, Regality thereof, and Sheriffdom of Elgin and 
Forres, aforesaid, together with the teinds, parsonage and 
vicarage of said several lands, and the whole seats and 
lofts, and the burial-place belonging to the said lands in 
the Kirk of Spynie." The lands of Inchbrock were 
Church lands, and continued in possession of the Bishops 
until the period of the Reformation, when that great 
dilapidator of the Bishoprick, Patrick Hepburn, feued the 
same, with consent of the Chapter, for a sum of 200 
merks, to Alexander Anderson, in Wester Alves, and 
Alexander Anderson, burgess of Elgin, his son, and Bessy 
Gordon, his son's wife. The lands seem to have been pre- 
viously possessed by Alexander Anderson, the father, as 
tenant. Westfield was never Church land, and the earliest 
accounts we have of the estate show that it belonged to the 
Earldom of Moray. The last of the Dunbars of Grange- 
hill (mentioned above by Shaw) sold the estate to Sir 
James Grant of Grant on the 1st June, 1769, who sold it 
to Joseph Robertson, merchant in London, on the 17th 
June, 1774 ; who sold it to Francis Russell, advocate, on 
the 24th Oct., 1781. Mary Bannerman, his wife, conveyed 
it to Thomas Sellar, writer, Elgin, on the 2nd May, 1808 ; 
whose son, Patrick Sellar, heired it on the 16th Feb., 
1818 ; whose Trustees sold it to Hugh Maclean in May, 
1862. In less than a century, Westfield has changed 
proprietors no fewer than six times. 

BISHOPMILL. 

The small property of Bishopmill * has been so mixed 
up latterly with the improved lands of Myreside that it 

* This estate seems to have been known in ancient times by 
the name of Frankoklaw. 



ORIGINAL CORN-MILL AT BISHOP MILL. 125 

is now impossible to separate them. It was originally 
very small, comprising the ridge of land overlooking the 
Lossie, and extending only a little way back. It now 
forms a kind of semicircle, running back nearly three 
quarters of a mile between Deanshaugh at the east, and 
Morriston at the west. 

It is probable a mill was erected on the Lossie here as 
early as the time when Bishop Bricius settled at Spynie, 
in the year 1203. When the Episcopal seat was fixed 
there, the convenience of a mill must have been a matter 
of great importance. The first particular mention of it, 
however, does not occur until the year 1393, when there 
seems to have been a small village there, perhaps a few 
houses. It is stated to be near the town of Elgin. In 
the Rental of the Bishoprick, in 1565, the lands are let to 
six tenants, at the gross rent of four pounds, three quar- 
ters of a mart, three sheep, four dozen of capons, three 
lambs, three fowls, three bolls of oats, with fodder, nine 
bolls of dry multure, for grassum, and other services ; a 
small croft at twenty-five shillings, six capons, one fowl, 
and 8s. 8d. of mart silver ; four small houses, being the 
extent of the village, at twelve shillings, and twelve 
capons ; the mill, with knaveship, and outsucken, at four- 
pounds, one dozen capons, one pig, and the support of the 
mill. In the year 1566, Bishop Patrick Hepburn granted 
a charter of feu farm of the town and lands called " The 
Bischopis Mylne," with the corn mill, the lands called 
" The Acris," and four houses called " The foure Cott 
Housis," in the same town, to James Innes of Drainie, 
and Catherine Gordon, his wife, in liferent, and Robert 
Innes, their son, and Helen Ross, his future spouse, in fee, 
with liberty of digging turfs or peats in the moor called 
" The Laverok Moss," alias " The Bischopis Moss," 
reserving to the Bishop, and all passing, the common road 
which goes from the Palace of Spynie to Elgin, and also 
the other road which goes by the cultivated land and the 
moor, towards " Bischoppis Mylne," near the hill called 
" Cuthilbyrnye Hill." * In the following century we find 
Bishopmill in possession of Alexander Dunbar, son of 
Robert Dunbar of Burgie. He married a Margaret Ayton, 
but had no issue, and, dying in 1723, he left his estate to 

* This name, " Cuthilbyrnye," appears to be now entirely 
lost. It would be difficult to say where the spot is. 



126 CUTHILBYRNIE AND DEANSHAUGH. 

his nephew, John Dunbar of Burgle, advocate, who died 
about the year 1750. His son, John Dunbar, sold the 
estate, with the Dean's House, in Elgin, to James Robert- 
son, Provost of Elgin, who sold it to the 6th Earl of 
Findlater, prior to 1770. The property has continued 
in his Lordship's family ever since, with the exception of 
the mill and mill croft, which for some time belonged to 
James Miln, banker in Elgin, but were acquired by the 
Earl again in the early part of the present century, and 
has lately been feued out by the present proprietor, the 
Earl of Seafield, to John Allan, who carries on a large 
business at the mills in flour and meal. Shortly after the 
Earl of Findlater purchased the estate, his Lordship 
planted a considerable extent of moor ground, belonging 
to Bishopmill and Myreside, with Scotch fir trees. 

To ,the eastward of Bishopmill is the small property of 
DEANSHAUGH, belonging to Adam Longmore, W.S., Edin- 
burgh. I have great doubts, however, whether it is 
within the bounds of the parish of Spynie, but rather 
in St. Andrews.* As, however, it is generally reckoned 
in Spynie, it may be described briefly. In the end of last 
century these subjects belonged to John Ritchie, mer- 
chant in Elgin, who erected on the Lossie a mill for the 
manufactory of tobacco, a waulkmill, a flaxmill, and 
bleaching machinery. This trade was carried on with 
considerable success. After Ritchie's time, the property 
was sold to John Forsyth, banker in Elgin, who left it to 
his only daughter, wife of the late Adam Longmore, of the 
Exchequer, and it now belongs to his son, Mr. Longmore, 
W.S. The manufactory of tobacco, flax, and bleaching, 
have, with the changes of the times, passed away, and the 
only work now carried on is a sawmill. Mr. Longmore 
has erected a very neat villa on the ground, and has 
planted a number of ornamental trees, with a variety of 
shrubs, and the place is kept in the greatest order and 
neatness by his present tenants. 

The parish of Elgin, perhaps, has the best claim to Deans- 
haugh, with the low lands adjoining, for it is perfectly appar- 
ent that at no very distant period the Lossie had flowed to the 
eastward of it, and that it was then embraced in the Cathedral 
grounds. 



EARLY DATES AND NAMES OF MORRISTOUN. 127 



MORRISTOX. 

This estate was Church land, and belonged to the 
Bishop of Moray. It is bounded on the south by the 
Lossie, on the east by Bishopmill, on the north by Quar- 
relvvood, and on the west by Sheriffmill. It is so blended 
now with the Earl of Fife's other lands that its ancient 
boundaries can hardly be known. It consists of a haugh 
of considerable extent, lying along the Lossie, of a light, 
gravelly soil, with a considerable extent of hill ground. 
On the slope extending from the fir plantations to the 
road passing to Bishopmill, this hill ground had probably, 
at some distant date, been improved from the moor. The 
dwelling-house is very pleasantly situated on a rising 
ground, near the river, a fine, dry, warm, and sheltered 
situation, having some young plantations and a few old 
trees about it. The name of the property is written vari- 
ously " Murrastoun," " Morristoun," and "Murrays- 
toun." * The first notice we have of it is contained in a 
charter granted by David, Bishop of Moray, to William, 
the son of Adam, the son of Stephen, burgess of Elgin, of 
the half davoch land of " Medilhalch," which lies between 
the land of Wthyrspyuy (Sheriffmiln), on the one part, 
and the land of Frankoklaw (Bishopmiln), on the other 
part, on the north side of the water of " Lossyn." This 
charter is dated at Elgin, the 23rd March, 1309, and the 
reddendo is four shillings annually, one half payable at 
the feast of Pentecost, and the other half at the feast of 
Saint Martin, with other services, and the payment of 
the usual multure at the mill of Mallathy (supposed 
Bishopmill). The next charter is from William de 
Spyny, Bishop of Moray, without date, but supposed to 
be at or prior to the year 1400, in favour of Megota de 
Moravia, daughter of John de Moravia, proprietor of 
these lands, on her marriage with John de Dolas. It is 
probable that from this family of Moray, or de Moravia, 
that the name of Moraystouri had been given to the 
property. The estate was in the following century pos- 
sessed by Innes of Crombie, as a vassal of the Bishop of 
Moray, and it is contained in the rental of the Bishoprick 

* The property is also called Middlehaugh. Auchter Spynie, 
or Sheriffmill, was called Upperhaugh, and Burgh Briggs, 
Westerhaugh. (See Old Statistical Account, vol. 10, page 628). 



128 FRANKOKLAW THE OLD NAME OF MORRISTON. 

in 1565. We find a charter of confirmation by Patrick 
Hepburn, Bishop of Moray, dated at the Palace of Spynie, 
21st March, 1570, confirming a sale by Alexander Innes 
of Crommye, with consent of Isabella Forbes, his spouse,. 
in favour of John Annand, Provost of the Burgh of Elgin, 
and Janet Gumming, his spouse, of the lands of" Murras- 
toun," which lie between the lands of Uchter Spynie,. 
now called " Scherefemyln," at the west, and the lands of 
" Frankoklaw " * at the east, on the north side of Lossie, 
with the piece of land called Burrow Briggs, on the south 
side of Lossie. After the above description the following 
words occur : " Reservand to me and my airs, ye haill hill 
callit the Hill of Murrastoun, as ye merche stanas sail be- 
set in at 3^6 end of the lang riggis descendand nort and 
sowt, except the quarrel thairof, and stanes to be win 
yairin, quhilk I will to stand in commountie to ye said 
Jhone and his airs." The feu-duty payable to the Bishop 
is four pounds sixteen shillings. In the year 1606, when 
Episcopacy was restored in Scotland, the lands of Morris- 
ton seem, by some means, to have been recovered by 
Alexander Douglas, Bishop of Moray, and in the year 
1609 conveyed to Alexander Douglas, his son, and Mary 
Innes, his spouse, along with Spynie and Burgh Briggs, 
From Alexander Douglas the estate passed to Gavin 
Douglas, perhaps his brother, who had a great deal of 
property in Elgin. John Douglas, his son, succeeded. 
He was served heir to his father in a great variety of 
burgh lands, before the Magistrates of Elgin, in 1654, and 
he was also served heir before the Sheriff of Elgin, in the 
half davoch land of Middlehaugh, or Morriston, on 28th 
December, 1655. On 23rd October, 1665, John Douglas 
wadset these lands to Robert Martin, writer in Edinburgh, 
for 8260 merks, and in 1668 he discharged the right of 
reversion, and Martin became absolute proprietor. His 
right was confirmed by charter from Murdo Mackenzie, 
Bishop of Moray, the superior, dated 22nd October, 1672. 
He also acquired about the same time great part of the 
Douglas burgh lands, in and about Elgin. 

Robert Martin was a very remarkable public man in 

his day, and, as little is now known of his history, I shall 

here endeavour to state what I have found out about 

him. He was the son of Robert Martin, burgess of 

* This name, Frankoklaw, is now entirely lost. 



MRS. J. P. MARTIN DAUGHTER OF A GLASGOW PROVOST. 



Elgin, and received a liberal education from his father, 
who seems to have been a person of some substance. 
The date of his birth may have been about the years 
1615 or 1620. Being bred to the law, he went to 
Edinburgh in early life, and, after having finished his 
education, he commenced business there as a writer. 
He married a Jean Porterfield, a daughter of George 
Porterfield, Provost of Glasgow, about 1660. 

When the Episcopal party got the entire ascendancy,, 
in 1662, and the Presbyterian side entirely put down, he 
must have become a marked man, and deprived of his 
public situations. After this period he spent his time 
partly in Edinburgh, attending to his own business and 
to the interests of his party in Church and State, and he 
was also a good deal at his residence in Elgin, looking 
after his properties in the North. He was a great friend 
of Lord Brodie, and was occasionally at Brodie House. 
In the Diary of Lord Brodie we find many notices of Mr. 
Martin, who died either in April or May, in Holland, 
being exhausted by weakness, disease, and increasing 
years, and the troubles of these distracted times. His 
estates were all forfeited to the Crown; but his wife, 
Jean Porterfield, had the influence, through her friends, 
to procure a gift of the lands of Morriston in favour of 
herself, which is dated at Whitehall, the 9th November, 
1686. 

By the 18th Act of William and Mary, the forfeiture 
was rescinded, and John Martin, the eldest son of the 
family, made up a title as heir to his father, by re tour 
dated 1st December, 1691. John Martin would appear 
to have executed a conveyance in favour of his mother 
in 1691, and probably died in 1692. Mrs. Martin, his 
mother, was infefted in 1696, and was a party to a con- 
tract of marriage between her son, William Martin, 
writer in Edinburgh, and Margaret Lockhart, only daugh- 
ter of Mungo Lockhart of Harwood, dated 4th March, 
1704. Mrs. Martin, by that deed, dispones to her son the 
lands of Aikenway, with salmon fishing; the lands of 
Collie, Hillfold, and Whitewreath ; the lands of Kirktown 
of St. Andrews, Kirkhill, Easter and Wester Calcots, 
Middlehaugh, or Morriston, Lady Hill, crofts and roods of 
land about Elgin; and Margaret Lockhart dispones to. 
William Martin and herself, and the longest liver of them,. 
VOL. II. 9 



130 THE MARTIN FAMILY BROUGHT TO NOUGHT. 

in liferent, and the heirs male or female of the marriage, 
the lands of Little Harwood, Cowhill, and Dybog. The 
Martin family were riot prosperous. By the year 1750, 
the most of their lands had been sold, and what remained, 
viz., the estate of Harwood, in the west of Scotland, and 
Morriston, with part of Barflathills, Baxter's Croft, and 
some other crofts about Elgin, were drowned in debt, and 
a process of ranking and sale having been brought by the 
creditors, the lands were sold by the Court of Session, 
and Morriston was purchased by William, Earl of Fife, in 
1750. In this family the property has remained ever 
since, which makes an excellent addition to their lands 
in this parish, having a fine frontage towards Elgin. 

SHERIFFMILL. 

The lands of SherifFmill are beautifully situated, hav- 
ing, the Lossie for their boundary at the east and south, 
Aldroughty on the west, and the fine oak forest at the 
north, sheltering it from the cold northern blasts. It has 
a light gravelly but kindly soil, and, with abundance of 
summer showers, it produces good crops of all kinds of 
grain. The old name of the property is Auchter or 
Uchter Spynie, and it has also been called Upperhaugh. 
The first notice we have of this property is contained in 
a grant from Andrew, Bishop of Moray, to Walter de 
Moravia, Lord of Duffus,* of a site for a mill on the 
Lossie, dated the 6th of the Ides of October, 1237. The 
words of the charter are : " Dedisse et concessisse et 
hac carta nostra confirmasse Waltero de Moravia, et here- 
dibus suis, unum situm Molendini super Lossy, in terra 
nostra de Uchterspyny." The mill was accordingly 
erected by the family of de Moravia, and until nearly our 
own time continued a separate estate from the lands, as 
we shall have occasion to show hereafter. The mill is 
also mentioned in a charter by Archibald, Bishop of Moray, 
to William de Fedreth, and Dame Christiana de Moravia, 
his wife, who had rights to it as proprietors of the third 

* The descendants of the family of Moravia are still the high- 
est in rank in Scotland. Among others, are the ducal houses 
of Sutherland, Athole, Hamilton, and Buccleuch, and the late 
Dukes of Douglas and Queensberry, and many nobles of 
less rank. 



THE LANDS OF SHERIFFMILL OR UCHTERSPYNIE. 131 

of Duffus. This charter is dated at Kinneddar, in Moray, 
on the Sabbath day next before the Feast of All Saints, in 
the year 1294. With regard to the lands. The earliest 
notice of the lands is contained in a charter by David, 
Bishop of Moray, dated at Elgin the 23rd March, 1309, 
in favour of William, the son of Adam, the son of Stephen, 
burgess of Elgin, whereby he confirms to him the whole 
land of Wtyrspyny, in excambion for the lands of Qwyt- 
ford and Innerlothy,* the mill of Innerlothy and Milton, 
but reserving the site of the mill, which is called the mill 
of the Sheriff of Elgin, upon the water of Lossyn. This 
is the first notice of the name Sheriffmill, which may have 
arisen from the family of de Moravia being Sheriffs of the 
shire of Elgin, and of their successors, the Cheynes, being 
Sheriffs of the shire of Banff. In a charter by Bishop 
Hepburn, in 1570, the lands get the name of Uchter- 
spynie, but are there said to be now called " Schere- 
femyln." In the Rental of the Bishoprick, in 1565, the 
proprietor, or vassal, is called "Alexander Urquhard," 
Provost of Forres, perhaps Urquhart of Burdsyards. In 
the year 1639, Sheriffmill was purchased by Thomas 
Calder, merchant in Elgin, a- descendant of Calder ot 
Assuanlie, a cadet of the house of Calder. He was Pro- 
vost of Elgin in 1665 and 1669. He was succeeded by 
his son, Sir James Calder, who acquired the estate 01 
Muirton, in Kinloss parish, and who was created a Baronet 
of Nova Scotia, in 1686. Either he or his father erected 
the fine old turreted mansion in the High Street of Elgin, 
exactly where North Street and the Assembly Rooms now 
stand, which, with its extensive gardens behind, must 
have been a very handsome residence. 

Sir James Calder, and William King of Newmiln, car- 
ried on a very large foreign trade from the port of Find- 
horn, exporting barley, malt, hides, tallow, cured beef, 
salmon, and other commodities, and importing wines, 
brandy, tobacco, sugar, spices, dried fruits, and various 
other articles, in return. The business must have been a 
large one, and the export of malt, in particular, was great, 
previous to the union with England. Sir James Calder 
was succeeded by his son, Sir Thomas, who married, in 

* The lands above referred to are probably Whitefield and 
Inverlochty. If there was a mill at Inverlochty, the fall of 
water in these days must have been much greater than now. 



132 DR. WALKER'S MODE OF HORSE-HOEING HUSBANDRY. 

1711, a daughter of Sir John Scott of Aucrum, by whom 
he had a family. His father had left the estate much em- 
barrassed, and Sir Thomas was unable to keep it. Wm. 
Duff of Dipple, father of William, first Earl of Fife, 
acquired the estate in the beginning of last century, and 
it still continues the property of the Earl of Fife. The 
mill of Sheriffmill has gone through many more changes. 
Being a part of the estate of Duffus, on the failure of the 
family of de Moravia, it fell, in the proportion of two- 
thirds, to Reginald Cheyne, and one-third to William de 
Fedderet. In the end of the 15th century the proprietors 
of the mill were the Earl Marischal, Douglas of Pitten- 
dreich, and Sutherland of Duffus. In 1631, Earl Maris- 
chal sold his third to James Sutherland, tutor of Duffus, 
and in 1659 Alexander, Lord Duffus, purchased from 
Sir Ludovick Gordon of Gordonstown, the successor of 
Douglas of Pittendreich, another third, so that the whole 
mill and mill lands then belonged to the Duffus family, 
and continued in their possession until 1707, when, with 
the rest of the Duffus estate, they were sold to Archibald 
Dunbar of Thunderton. His successor, Archibald Dun- 
bar of Newton, sold the mill to William, Lord Braco, in 
1740, who settled it upon Arthur Duff of Orton, his 
youngest son. The late Sir Archibald Dunbar re-pur- 
chased the mill formerly pertaining to the Duffus estate, 
from Mr. Arthur Duff, about the end of last century, and 
sold it to the late James, Earl of Fife, on 22nd June, 
1818. The mill and adjoining estate are, since that 
date, one united property, belonging to the Fife family. 

In the latter part of last century, the farm of Sheriff- 
mill was occupied by James Walker, doctor of medicine, 
a very eccentric person, who had been a practitioner in 
Elgin of the old school. He had married the Dowager 
Lady Westfield and settled at Sheriffmill. His mode of 
farming was to keep the land exceedingly clean, to drill 
the crops, and use no manure. In the Old Statistical 
Account of the parish we find the following statement 
regarding Dr. Walker's farming : " It will not be deemed 
improper to take notice of the cultivation of the farm of 
Sheriffmill, rented by James Walker, Esq., M.D. This 
gentleman, in the early part of his life, entered with all 
theardour of enthusiasm into the horse-hoeing husbandry, 
on the plan of JETHRO TULL, in which he has ever since 



MODEST TOMBSTONE OF DR. WALKER, SHERIFFMILL. 133 

persevered, with unfailing steadiness raising crops of 
wheat, barley, and beans, without a particle of dung, 
always following the intervals (about three feet) for each 
succeeding crop, and thus completely demonstrating the 
effect of cultivation without the use of manure. Although 
every operation has been performed with the nicest 
accuracy, and in its proper season, and though the soil of 
Sheriffmill seems to be well calculated for this kind of 
husbandry, being light and- sandy, yet the result has not 
been such as to encourage imitation. The corn is indeed 
superior in quality to any in the country, but the quan- 
tity, by the acre, much less than is raised in the broad- 
cast way, on the same kind of soil, well ploughed and 
manured." 

Dr. Walker died about the end of last century, or 
beginning of the present one, and was interred in the 
Elgin Cathedral, not far from the west gate, on the right 
hand side of the entry. His tombstone was very small, 
with the simple words " James Walker, M.D." on it. The 
stone has been removed, and some other occupant has 
seized the ground, and so the worthy doctor has now 
nothing to mark where his ashes were laid. Since his 
time more than one tenant has possessed the farm. Lat- 
terly it has been occupied, along with the mill, by the 
late John Lawson, and now by his son, Alexander 
Lawson. By the late Mr. Lawson the farm has been 
entirely enclosed with substantial stone dykes, and laid 
off in neat and regular fields. The land is now laboured 
from the adjoining farm of Oldmills, and the steading here 
is not required. The old farm-house, the mansion of the 
estate, was long occupied by respectable tenants. The last 
of them was the late James Me His, long tenant of Spynie, 
who died here some years ago, at a very advanced period 
of life. Since his death the venerable dwelling has been 
entirely removed, and all vestiges of it carried away. 

SCROGGIEMILL. 

On the west end of the estate of Sheriffmill, and not 
far by the road from the lower mill, although, by the 
windings of the river, at a considerable distance, for the 
stream here takes a most tortuous course, stands Scroggie- 
mill. It is only an oatmeal mill. It is well situated, 
with a great command of water, but seems now to be of 



134 ESTATES OF SCROGGIEMILL AND ALDROUGHTY. 

little use or value. I have not found out when this build- 
ing was erected. It has no appearance of any great 
antiquity, and perhaps is not older than the early part 
of last century. It was likely built by the Earl of Fife, 
for the accommodation of his tenants, before he acquired 
Sheriffmill. The removal of this mill would be a great 
improvement to the country. On the bank, above the 
mill, there are beautiful situations for small villas. The 
ground looks due south, warm and sunny ; protected from 
the north winds by the Quarrywood plantations, and 
having a delightful view of the windings of the river. It 
is wonderful that such pleasant sites have not long since 
been eagerly purchased, or taken on feu. 

ALDROUGHTY. 

This is the most westerly estate in the parish, being 
bounded partly by the Lossie, and partly by the lands of 
Inverlochty and Mosstowie, at the south, Sheriffmill at 
the east, Quarrelwood at the north, and the parish of 
Alves at the west. It consists of a long narrow field, 
extending along the river, at the east side, of light, sandy 
land. At the west side the land is of a rich alluvial soil,, 
and bears excellent crops, but liable to be flooded in wet 
weather. The name Aldroughty, or, as it was written of 
old, " Aldrochty," is said to mean the mischievous burn. 
This is not very applicable to its present state, for there 
is now no burn here ; but it may have meant the Lossie, 
which, in ancient times, running on a higher level, and 
with a stronger current, may have both flooded the lands 
and cut its banks more than now ; or the water of Lochty, 
now entering the Lossie farther up, may have, in days of 
old, done so here ; or some of the Mosstowie burns may 
have then terminated their course at this spot. In short, 
with so many changes, it is useless to conjecture what 
the origin or cause of the name may be. The house of 
Aldroughty is pleasantly situated, on a high bank above 
the river, and is a conspicuous object from a distance. 

This estate was Church land, and part of the Bishoprick 
of Moray. It seems, however, to have been early feued 
out, and in the 14th century was held of the Bishop by a 
family of the name of Sibbald. An inquisition was held 
at Bishopmiln on the penult day of August, 1393, before 
the Bishop and a jury of sixteen ; among whom we find 



EARLY CHARTERS OF THE LANDS OF ALDROUGHTY. 135 

the names of Sir Robert Chisholm, John de Dolles of that 
ilk, and Alexander Innes of Innes, by which it was found 
that Robert Sibbald died vest, and seized, as of fee, in the 
lands of Aldroughty, with the pertinents. The Bishop 
must, however, have afterwards resumed possession of 
this estate, for I find that Bishop Patrick Hepburn, with 
consent of the Chapter, on the last day of March, 1554, 
granted an assedation of "Meikle Innerlochtie and Auld- 
rochtie," in favour of David and Thomas Hepburn, in 
life rent, for payment of 4 13s. 4d. yearly in money, be- 
sides grain and other rents. After the Reformation, this 
property, with many others, was conveyed to James, 
Earl of Moray, Regent of Scotland, by Bishop Patrick 
Hepburn, by which he secured his own comfort and 
safety, and a right to dispose of the remaining lands of 
the diocese as he thought fit. In a charter of feu-farm 
and novo damns, granted by Alexander Douglas, Bishop 
of Moray, in favour of James, Earl of Moray, Lord Doune 
and Abernethie, about the year 1606, we find, among a 
long list of estates, the lands of Auldrochtie thereby con- 
veyed, the feu-duty payable annually being 4 13s. 4d. 
of money, three quarters of a mart, two sheep, two lambs, 
two geese, twelve capons, two bolls of oats with fodder, 
three bolls of barley for dry multure, and 1 lls. l|d. for 
grassum, every three years. About half a century after 
this, Aldroughty seems to have come into possession of 
Lord Duffus' family, perhaps in the year 1653, when Lord 
Duff'us purchased Ardgay and other lands from the Earl 
of Moray. In the latter part of the 17th century it was 
in possession (along with Mosstowie, which it joins) of 
the Honourable William Sutherland of Roscommon, third 
son of James, second Lord Duffus. This gentleman mar- 
ried, in the year 1702, Helen Duff, eldest daughter of 
William Duff of Dipple, and sister of William, Earl of 
Fife. After the Rebellion, in 1715, we hear little more of 
the Hon. Wm. Sutherland. 

His widow, Helen Duff, better known by the name of 
Lady Roscommon, was well cared for by her father, and 
by her brother, William, Lord Braco, afterwards Earl of 
Fife. She had the mansion-house or Castle of Quarrel- 
wood for her residence, and a suitable allowance from her 
husband's estate, and was much respected. From what 
tradition reports of her, she had much of the strong sense 



136 EARLY TENANTS OF ALDROUGHTY. 



of her father's family. She was alive in 1736, and may 
have lived many years after that time. After her death 
the Castle of Quarrelwood was permitted to go to decay, 
and was at last converted into a quarry, its materials 
being used for erection of farm-houses and other build- 
ings. The foundations were only finally removed about 
thirty years ago. 

Duff of Dipple, having large securities on Aldroughty 
and Mosstowie, claimed from the Commissioners of the 
forfeited estates to be put in possession of these proper- 
ties under the deeds which he held from his son-in-law, 
William Sutherland ; and special instructions were given 
by him to his agent, Mr. Ludovick Brodie, Writer to the 
Signet, to that effect, on 4th June, 1717. Dipple made 
good his rights, and got possession of both Mosstowie and 
Aldroughty, which continue to be the property of his 
descendant, the Earl of Fife, to the present day. 

A family of the name of Hepburn had Aldroughty, 
either as tenants or feuars, under the Bishops and Earl of 
Moray, during the end of the 16th and part of the 17th 
century. They were also proprietors of the adjoining 
lands of Inverlochty, of the lands of Tearie, in Dyke, and 
part of Birnie. They were illegitimate descendants of 
Bishop Patrick Hepburn. The male part of this family 
eventually settled in the south of Scotland ; but in the 
female line they have still many representatives in the 
north. They were respectable people, and attained a 
considerable position in the country. Eventually Inver- 
lochty, as well as Aldroughty, were acquired by the 
Duff family. 

In the latter part of last century, the farm of Al- 
droughty was tenanted by Alexander Donaldson, the 
eldest son of William Donaldson, at Morriston. He mar- 
ried a sister of the late John Lawson, at Oldmills, and had 
three sons and a daughter, all dead long since. In the 
present century it has been occupied by William Murdoch, 
who had been in Calcutta. He left it in the year 1829. 
It was then tenanted by George Taylor, who erected the 
present handsome house, at a very considerable expense ; 
planted trees and shrubberies, and laid off a fine early 
garden, of excellent soil, sloping pleasantly to the river ; 
of which we have many agreeable recollections in bygone 
days. Taylor gave up the farm in 1841, and it was taken 



LATTER TENANTS OF THE FARM OF ALDROUGHTY. 137 

by William Turnbull, who possessed it until 1864, when 
he died. Turnbull, although not a native of the parish, 
had spent the years of his boyhood and youth there, 
under the care of his relative, the Rev. Alexander Brown, 
minister of Spjmie, and was much attached to it. He 
was educated for a surgeon, and went into the service of 
the East India Company, After serving his full time in 
India, he returned to his native land in vigorous health, 
but for some years had no settled home. He eventually 
took up his abode at Aldroughty, where he spent the last 
thirteen years of his life. He was an excellent scholar, a 
great reader, and kept himself well informed in the best 
literature and the new publications of the day. He was 
a lively, pleasant person, social in his habits, enjoyed the 
society of his friends, and was very hospitable ; in short, 
a fine specimen of the East India gentleman of the old 
school, most of whom have now passed away. The farm 
is now tenanted by George Leslie, Sheriff-Clerk of Elgin- 
shire, who keeps it in great order and high condition, and 
has, at considerable expense and with great skill, com- 
pleted the drainage. 

We have stated before that the house is pleasantly 
situated on the banks of the Lossie, which, being dammed 
up by the mill of Scroggiemill, immediately adjoining 
Aldroughty, gives the river the appearance of an exten- 
sive lake. It is indeed a very beautiful sheet of water, 
and, having such a fine stretch of woodland all along the 
north side of it, no more pleasant spot can be found in the 
country. It has all the advantage of being near the town 
of Elgin, while, at the same time, it is quite secluded from 
it, and it forms a most romantic, retired residence.] 
(Young's Parish of Spynie.) 

EPITAPHS IN THE CHURCHYARD OF SPYNIE. 

The Church of Spynie was dedicated to the Holy 
Trinity, and was one of the most ancient Churches of the 
diocese. Here the Cathedral Church was first established 
by Bishop Brice, and in 1224 it was removed therefrom 
to Elgin, the reason assigned being " that the Cathedral, 
besides being exposed to danger from being situated in a 
very solitary place, that it happens that no valuable 
commodity is found there, whence it frequently happens 
that by the remote occasions of the clergy to buy neces- 



138 CHURCHYARD OF SPYNIE. 

saries for themselves, the attention to divine duties is 
greatly interrupted." 

Of the Castle of Spynie, close to the old churchyard, 
and the Bishop's residence, we have spoken before. 

In the loch now drained was an island called Mid- 
hagarty "the Priests' Isle." Perhaps here was an 
ancient hermitage like St. Gernadius' at Ogston. 

Henry, the Bishop's brother, was parson of Spynie in 
1187. By the great charter of Bishop Brice, Spynie and 
Kintray were constituted the ninth prebend. In 133G, 
William was Canon. In the ancient Tax also the preb- 
endary of Spynie was valued at 24 merks, with the vicar- 
age. In 1488 John Stewart, prebendary, was one of the 
Council anent the change of the clock of the Cathedral. 

The old churchyard of the parish is a pleasant, sunny 
spot ; has a beautiful situation, lying on the southern 
slope of the hill, and commanding a fine view of the sur- 
rounding country. It is well enclosed with a substantial 
stone wall, and there are some thriving trees about it ; 
but in the interior it is sadly neglected, and the ground is 
covered with nettles and other noxious weeds, with quan- 
tities of rubbish lying about, probably the remains of the 
old Parish Church, the last remnant of which only fell 
about twenty years ago. 

A great many very old stones, too old to be read, and 
some very old set down, particularly those of the Leslie 
family. Their Family vault is a dark and very curious 
place, with a Cross over the door-way, evidently thus a 
pre-Reformation structure. 

There were several Bishops of the Diocese interred here, 
and perhaps by digging about the site of the old Church, 
their monuments might still be found among the rubbish. 
The other monumental tablets are not of great age, nor of 
any very great interest ; but it may be proper to notice a 
few of them, as throwing some light on parochial history. 
None of the old landed families of the parish appear to 
have had their burial-place here. The Leslies of Fin- 
drassie had for a long time their place of interment in the 
north aisle of St. Giles' Church in Elgin, and only used 
the churchyard of Spynie latterly. Their tomb is in a 
very neglected state ; but the monumental tablets on the 
walls are still entire and legible ; some of them on the 
floor are much covered with dust and earth, and illegible. 



EPITAPHS IN THE CHURCHYARD OF SPYNIE. 139 

I. Hie dormiunt in Christo, Duse Nobiles Robertas Leslie, 
Dominus de Findresy, ejusque conjunx Joneta Elphinstone, ille 
obiit 22nd Sept., anno 1588. Ilia M. R. O. 

Grip Fast Disce mori Causa causit. 

Robertas Leslie, Comitis, qui filius olim, 
Rothusise fuerat simul, et suavissima conjunx 
Elphinstonii soboles herois, conduntur in antro, 
Hoc licet obscuro celebres pietate supersunt ; 
Hos quondam binos Hymenseus junxit in unum 
Corpus, et his vivis semper una voluntas, 
Unus amor, domus una fuit, nunc lumine lasso, 
Una duos iterum condit libitina sepultos. 

" SUB SPE." 

II. Here lyes the bodie of Mistress Isabella Leslie, Ladye 
Burgie, who departed this life the 10th of Januarie, 1688. 

rNoTE. She was the second wife of Robert Dunbar of 
Burgie, who died in 1690, and the second daughter of Robert 
Leslie, third laird of Findrassie, by his wife, Isabel Forbes, 
daughter of Abraham Forbes of Blackton. 

III. Here lyes the bodie of Mistress Margaret Ayton, Lady 
Bishopmiln, who departed this lyfe the ninth day of Septem- 
ber, 1714, aged 56 years. 

NOTE. She was wife of Alexander Dunbar of Bishopmill, 
and connected with the Leslies through her husband. 

IV. Here lyes Abraham Leslie, Esquire of Findrassie, who 
was heir-male of George, 4th Earl of Rothes, his Lordship 

being father of Robert Leslie, the first of the family of Fin- 
drassie. He died at Findrassie House, 26th May, 1793 ; and 
to the memory of an affectionate husband this monument is 
erected by Mrs. Jean Leslie, his widow. 

V. This stone is erected by Charles Leslie, in memory of his 
mother, Margaret Gordon, lawful eldest daughter of Charles 
Gordon of Glengerrack, and relict of John Leslie of Findrassie, 
who died 26th December, 1764, aged 67, a lady who was 
esteemed in life, diligent and active in her friendship, generous 
and disinterested, a tender and affectionate parent, benevolent 
and liberal to all, and at death a pattern of patience, fortitude, 
and resignation ; and her children, Margaret, who died in the 
7th year of her age ; and Margaret, who died the 5th year of 
he^r age ; and Jean, who died also in the 5th year of her age ; 
James, who died in nonage. Also in memory of the above 
Charles Leslie, and his spouse, Margaret Macandrew. 



140 EPITAPHS OF LESLIES OF FINDRASSIE AT SPYNIE. 

VI. Erected by Charles Leslie, Esquire, in token of respect 
to the memory of Margaret Macandrew, his spouse, who died 
llth July, 1796, aged 79, a woman of solid sense, simple man- 
ners, sincere piety, and virtuous conduct. 

" Precious in the sight of the Lord is the death of his saints." 

VII. On a flat stone in the Findrassie tomb is the fol- 
lowing inscription : 

Here lyes Mrs. Margaret Leslie, aunt of Sir John Leslie of 
Findrassie and Wardes, Baronet. She departed this life at 
Findrassie House, on the 13th of May, 1811, aged 86; and 
this monument is placed here to her respected memory by 
direction of her nephew. 

VIII. A. M. B. G. L. M. 1651. 

IX. Here lyes Wm. Navchtie and Jannet, lawful children to 
William Navchtie and Jean Stronach, in Bvrnside. Said 
William died 10th May and Janet the last of July, 1679. 

" And though after my skin worms destroy this body, in my 
flesh shall I see God." 

Memento mori. 

X. In an old tomb, at the east end of the churchyard, 
are the following inscriptions : 

Hie jacet in spem beatse resurrectionis, vir vere pius et pro- 
bus R.D.M. Samuel Tulloh, Spyniensis Ecclesise, vigilantissimus 
quondam pastor ; qui placidissime in Christo, obiit 1 1 die 
Nov'bris, circiterhor. 12 merid, ann. Dom. MDCCVL, set. LXXV., 
et officii ibid fideliter administrati XLVI. Nee non pia et pudica 
Elizabetha Gordon, unica ejusd. conjunx chariss. cum tribus 
eorund. filiabus virginibus Agneta, Marjoria, et Joanna. 

In quorum omniam piam gratam memoriam, hocce monu- 
mentum ab ipso prsestruct. memoralia ut e hac inscriptione 
denique exarand. ejusdem, et monument circumdat extruend, 
curavit Alexr. Tulloh, predict. Samuel et Elizab. films unicus. 

Translation by Monteith. Here lies, in hopes of a blessed 
resurrection, a man, truly good and pious, Mr. Samuel Tulloch, 
lately most vigilant pastor at Spynie, who died most pleas- 
antly in Christ, upon the llth day of November, about 12 
hours mid-day, in the year 1706; of his age 74, and of his 
office, happily administered, 46. As also the pious and chaste 
Elizabeth Gordon, his only and most beloved wife, with their 
three daughters, virgins, Agnes, Marjory, and Jean. 

For all whose pious sake and memory, Alexander Tulloch, 
only son to the said Mr. Samuel and Elizabeth, caused this 



EPITAPHS IN THE CHURCHYARD OF SPYNIE. 141 

monument, built before by himself, but afterward to be 
adorned with this memorial inscription, and this inclosure 
around the same to be erected. 

XI. In spe beatae resurrectionis, hie deposuit Reverendus vir, 
Presbyter pius, probus Magister Robertus Tulloh, qui ut pie 
vixit, decessit 13 Novembris anno 1720, ut et Anna Tulloh, uxor 
ejus charissima, quse animam deo reddidit 20 Julii, 1715, et 
eorum filii Alexr. Tulloh, qui obiit Januarii 18, ann. 1731, et 
Thomas, qui obiit 24 Janii, anno 1715. 

Sand Glass. Cross Bones. Death's Head. 

XII. Here lyes Thomas Laing, mason in Quarriewood, . . . 
in 1712, and Elspet Innes, his spouse, and their children. 

T. L. E. L. 

XIII. Here lyes the body an honest man, called . . . ard 
Baird, some . . . June, 1717, and . . . Laing, his spouse. . . 

XIV. Here lyes the body of John M'Ombie, sometime far- 
mer in Under . . . May, 1722, ... his spouse . . . Gum- 
ming, .... 

XV. Here lies the body of John Jamieson, somtime in . . 
and his spouse, Isabell Cock, who died the . . . of . . . 1725. 

J. J. L C. 

XVI. Here lyes the body of Thomas Laing, who died De- 
cember the 13, 1732, lawful son to Alex. Laing, sometime 
dwellar in Bormuchatie. 

XVII. Here lyes the body of John . . . son to William 
Jamieson, in Quarrelwood, who died the 3rd of December, 
1732, being the 13 year of his age. 

XVIII. This is the burial-place of John Kintrea in Kintrea, 
who died the * ... and his spouse, Isabel Laing, who died 
the 1st of April, 1735, and their children, Christian, Jean, and 
Agnes, and Barbara, and Margaret, and Elspet. 

XIX. Here lyes the body of Lenard Laing, who died March 
the 27, 17 2, . . . Janet, Margaret, Isobel Laings, children to 
James Laing and Jannet Russell, in Mirside (1), with mortality 
1738. James Laing, who died 1798, aged 37 years. 

XX. This stone is placed here by Andrew Coban, mason 
in Rosehaugh, in memory of his deceast father, John Coban, 
late farmer in Dykeside, who died March llth, 1740, aged 63 
years. 

* Never inserted. 



142 EPITAPHS OF REV. MESSRS. BROWN AND MACHARDY. 



XXI. This is burial-place of John . . . sometime farmer in 
Spynie, who died 1742, and Barbara Shaw, his spouse, who 
died 1754, and John and Jannet, ther children, who died in 
nonage. James, their son, sometime farmer in Spynie, who 
died 1769, and Barbara, their daughter, placed this stone. 

XXII David Bege and Agnes Ritchie, 1746. 
John Ritchie. Isobel Bath. 

XXIII. This stone is placed in memory of James Paul, 
sometime farmer in Burnsford, and Janet Forsyth, his spouse, 
who died the 6th of March, 1750, aged 23 years. 

XXIV. This stone is placed in memorie of William Gregor, 
sometime farmer in Rosehaugh, who died 5 ... 1764, and 
his spouse, Marjorie. . . . 

XXV. This stone is placed here by Beatrix Johnson in 
memory of John Harper, hir husband, sometime farier in 
Blackadit, who died the 12 March, 1799, aged 24 years. 

XXVI. Sacred to the memory of the Rev. Alexander Brown, 
late minister of Spynie, who died on the 8th January, 1814, in 
the 53rd year of his age and 21st of his ministry. Also of 
Isabella Ord, his spouse, who died on the llth of August, 1834, 
aged 70 years ; and of Williamina, their infant daughter, who 
died on the 4th Deer., 1807, in the 3rd year of her age. 

XXVII. To the memory of the Rev. George Machardy, 
minister of the gospel at New Spynie, who died 15th Septr., 
1717, aged 42. This stone is erected by his affectionate widow, 
Margaret Smith. 

XXVIII. Sacred to the memory of William Turnbull, Esq., 
late surgeon in the H.E.I. Company's service, who died at 
Aldroughty the 8th of April, 1864, aged 71. 

The above tomb has upon it the following mottoes : On the 
south side " Death Pursueth ; " on the west side " Time 
Fleeth ; " on the north side " Conquer Eternity ; " and on the 
east side " Mynd Mortality," with the usual emblems, viz.: 
Skeleton, Bell, Coffin, Sand Glass, Knife in Hand, Crown, 
Skull, and Cross Bones. 

XXIX. On a tomb, with a handsome railing, about 
the centre of the churchyard, are the following inscrip- 
tions : 

(On a flat stone on the floor of the tomb) 1. Hie requiescunt 
reliquse piae castseque Katharinaa King, uxoris Mri. Gulielrni 



PRESBYTERIAN MINISTERS* EPITAPHS AT SPYNIE. 143 



Dougall, ecclesife Spyniensis Novse pastoris, quse obiit, 26 
Septembris, anno Domini MDCCLIV., setatis suae LXV. Atque 
eorum filia Elizabetha, quae obiit Martie xin., MDCCXXVI., 
retatis suse mense xvi. Ipse autem obiit Octobris die xn., 
MDCCLXVI., setatis suae anno LXXXIII. 

XXX. On five monumental tablets, on the wall : 

Hen ! quanto minus est eum reliquis 
Versari, quam.vestrum meminisse. 

Within this tomb lie interred the remains of the late Rever- 
end Mr. Eobert Paterson, who was twenty-two years Minister 
of this parish, and died upon the 31st July, 1790, in the 56th 
year of his age. He was eminent for the faithful discharge of 
his pastoral office, and as a husband and father he was nearly 
as perfect as human nature will admit. 

Here also lie the remains of Alexander Paterson, his third 
son, who survived his father only nine months, having died 
upon the 13th April, 1791, in the 17th year of his age, after 
having finished his academical studies. He was snatched 
from this transitory life to the inexpressible grief of all 
his relations. 

XXXI. Here lie interred the body of Margaret Collie, 
spouse of Mr. Robert Paterson, Minister of New Spynie, and 
only child of Mr. William Collie, late Minister of Drainie, and 
Margaret Mackenzie, his spouse. She was a dutiful wife, an 
affectionate mother, an exemplary Christian. Her soul has 
been early removed from this earth to bear only felicity, and 
her body rests in hope of the promised resurrection. This 
monument is erected to her memory. She died July 23, 1782, 
in the 34th year of her age. 

XXXII. Consecrated by the Revd. James Paterson, Minister 
of Birnie, to the memory of his brothers Mr. William Pater- 
son, who died 5th April, 1829, aged 59; and Doctor Robert 
Paterson, H.E.I.C.S., who, after twenty years' service in India, 
and when on the eve of returning to his native country, died at 

Calcutta on the of December, 1829, in the 48th year of 

his age. Also sacred to the memory of the Revd. James 
Paterson, Minister of Birnie, whose benevolent life adorned 
the doctrines which he taught. Born 13th April, 1778 ; died 
23rd February, 1840. 

XXXIII. In this tomb lie interred the remains of the Revd. 
John Paterson, who was Minister of the Gospel at Auldearn, 
from 1794 till 1813, when he died in the 41st year of his age, 
an accomplished scholar and an eloquent preacher. His char- 



14-4 EPITAPHS IN THE CHURCHYARD OF SPYNIE. 

acter was adorned by integrity, candour, and benevolence, still 
more, than by those attainments. 

Here also, in the grave of her parents, lies his sister, 
Helen, spouse of the Revd. Thomas Macfarlane of Edinkillie, 
who was endeared to her friends by every amiable virtue. She 
died on the 7th April, 1810, in the 34th year of her age. 

This stone is placed by their brother, Dr. Robert Paterson, 
of the Bengal Medical Service, as a memorial of their virtues 
and of his affection. 

XXXIV. The Rev. James Paterson, late Minister of 
Birnie, removed this stone from Drainie in 1839, for pre- 
servation, the old Church being ruinous : 

In this church lie interred Mr. Hugh Anderson, long Minis- 
ter of this place, and Margaret Munro, his spouse ; as also Mr. 
William Collie, his immediate successor, and 27 years Minister, 
who died April 29, 1768, in the 73rd year of his age ; and 
Margaret Mackenzie, his spouse, who died April 27, 1773. Of 
these valuable persons, it may truly be said that they acted in 
their several stations as faithful ministers of the gospel, good 
members of society, and upright Christians. 

This monument is erected to their memory by Margaret 
Collie, only child of the two last named, and spouse of Mr. 
Robert Paterson, minister of New Spynie. 

XXXV. On a neat upright stone, near the centre of the 
churchyard, is inscribed : 

In memory of John M'Kimmie, Esquire, late Provost of 
Elgin ; born 4th October, 1789, died 26th February, 1856. 

XXXVI. Near^the above is a flat stone inscribed : 

This stone is placed here by Archibald Mellis, farmer in 
Kintrae, in memory of his spouse, Ann Falconer, who died 7th 
December, 1797, aged 44 years. In memory also of Jane 
Mellis, his eldest daughter, who died 8th August, 1791, aged 
17 years; also of Alexander and Janet Mellis, his children, 
who died in their nonage. 

NOTE. The above stone, I suppose, refers to the mother, 
brother, and two sisters of the late Mr. James Mellis, long 
tenant of the farm of Spynie. (R. Y.) 

XXXVII. In a tomb, towards the east end of the 
Church^ is a tablet to the memory of the late Reverend 
Alexander Simpson, Minister of the parish, and his wife, 
as follows : 



LANDS IN THE PARISH OF ALVES. 145 

Sacred to the memory of Elizabeth Patullo, spouse of the 
Revd. Alexander Simpson, Minister of New Spynie, who died 
on the 10th April, 1848, aged Gl years. Also in memory of 
the Revd. Alexander Simpson, who departed this life on the 
7th January, 1852, aged 65 years, in the 26th year of his 
ministry, having been ordained Minister of New Spynie, in 
the year 1826. 

THE PAKISH OF ALVES 

Lieth to the west of Spynie, extending 3 miles 
from north to south, and as much from east 
to west. 

The Church standeth near the centre, 4 miles 
west of Elgin, above 2 miles west of Spynie, and 
above 2 miles east of Kinloss. .The south part 
of the parish stretcheth along the hill that divideth 
it from the glen of Pluscarden. Here the lands 
of Cleves, Monachtie, and Aslisk have been, for 
above 100 years past, a part of the estate of 
Brodie, formerly belonging (as they were church- 
lands) to the Earls of Moray, since the reforma- 
tion of religion. 

In the middle of the parish, to the east, are 
Newton and Ardgaoidh, once a part of the estate 
of Duffus, now the property, the first of the Earl 
Fife, and the other of the Duke of Gordon. 

Next westward is Alves, pertaining to the Earl 
of Moray, and a part of that ancient estate. 
Those parts of this parish that now belong to the 
Earl of Moray, have so long been the property of 
that noble family, in all the revolutions of it, that, 
I am told, about 40 years ago, a tenant gave to 
Mr. Eussel late factor, a discharge of rent granted 

VOL. II. 10 



146 PROPERTIES IN THE PARISH OF ALVES. 

by Thomas Kandolf, Earl of Moray, to that ten- 
ant's ancestor in that land. A remarkable evi- 
dence this of the benevolence and goodness of 
that family, in continuing the farmers in their 
tenements from one generation to another for 
above 400 years. 

Close by the Church is Kirktown, the seat of 
Harry Spens, D.D., and of his family for several 
generations. West from which is Ernside, which 
had been successively the heritage of the Cum- 
mines and MacKenzies for some centuries, and 
now is the property of Mr. Spens of Kirktown. 
In the north part of the parish, near the coast, is 
Coltfield, formerly pertaining to William Brodie, 
grandson of the family of Brodie, upon whose 
death without issue, the lands reverted to that 
family, and now they are the property of James 
Brodie of Brodie, and of Watson of Westerton. 
Westward is Hemprigs, which, with the lands of 
Kilbuyack in the middle of the parish, was the 
heritage, for several generations, of a branch of 
the Dunbars. Kilbuyack was sold to Brodie of 
Lethen ; and Sir William Dunbar of Hemprigs 
dying without male issue, and his daughter and 
heiress marrying a son of Sir James Sutherland's, 
the honour of Baronet, obtained on the 10th of 
April, 1700, came to his brother Sir Eobert, 
father of Sir Patrick of Bowermaden, who died 
without male issue, and the lands of Hemprigs 
were purchased by William Dawson, Provost of 



ORIGINAL IDEA AS TO THE ERECTION OF ALVES. 147 

Forres, and with his two daughters co-heiresses 
came to Alexander Tulloch of Tauachie, and 
Alexander Brodie of Windyhills. Windyhills, in 
the west end of the parish, was long the heritage 
of the Dunbars. From them they were purchased 
by Francis Brodie (son]of John, a natural son of 
David of Brodie), whose grandson John, who died 
a captain at Carthagena in 1741, having no issue, 
disponed his lands to Major George Brodie, son 
to Milntown ; by whose death, inj!748, they came 
to his brother Alexander Brodie of Windyhills, 
the fourth in descent from David Laird of Brodie, 
who is now Baron of Windyhills and Hemprigs. 



ALVES. 

[Situation, Soil, Climate. The parish of Alves, skirting 
along the western sides of Duffus and Spynie, compre- 
hends the whole breadth of the champaign of Moray, 
from the firth to the bottom of the mountain, which in this 
quarter, ranging along the north side of the vale of Plus- 
carden, divides it from that limb of the parish of Elgin. 
It is one peculiarity of this parish, that although it has 
no stream naturally sufficient to turn a common corn-mill, 
yet the tracts of a great river remain manifestly evident, 
almost over all its length. It may be deemed perhaps a 
baseless speculation to presume, that the valleys which 
the rivers now occupy were not miraculously formed at 
the creation, for the reception of their waters, but have 
been gradually hollowed out by the natural action of 
their respective streams. It requires an exertion of the 
imagination to conceive the whole country without valleys, 
uniformly elevated to the level of the lower hills, and, 
instead of the great rivers, numberless small streams only, 
meeting into one almost by accidental congress, in the 
trackless waste of unconsolidated, bare, oozy mud, when 
God said at the first, " Let the waters under the heaven 



148 THE DALES OF ALVES ; CASTLE OF ERNSIDE. 

be gathered together into one place, and let the dry land 
appear." 

Although this might be in general presumed to have 
been the case, its application in any one particular instance 
may still be difficult. It requires no common exertion 
of the mind, even in idea, to represent this country before 
the excavation of the Moray Firth, when 'the highest lands 
of Birnie were continuously conjoined with the Sutherland 
hills, and no sea intervened between Duncan's bay and 
Peterhead; but that the river Varrar, receiving the waters 
which now constitute the Ness, Nairn, and Findhorn, in 
its course, meeting with the Spey also from the south, and 
the Conan from the north, boiling in rapid eddies around 
the Knock of Alves, rolled in one vast volume along the 
side of the hills of Enzie and Cullen, and discharged an 
immense cataract of extremely turbid water far eastward 
in the German ocean. But having conceived this idea, 
it will not be difficult to suppose, that the river of Find- 
horn, at a period much less remote, might have winded 
among the dales of Alves, through the lake of Spynie into 
the sea. Besides the evident vestiges of its tract which 
remain, its memory is still distinctly preserved in the 
name of the old Castle of Ernside, which in those 
days decorated its banks; it being well known, that 
the Erne is the proper appellation of the river; while 
the farm upon the lake of Inchstellie preserves also, 
by its name, the memory of its once peninsular situa- 
tion : and it could never have been embosomed by any 
other river. 

The parish is nearly a square of 5 miles, presenting a 
surface considerably diversified by sloping, and by level 
plains and gently-swelling eminences. It is far from 
being so uniformly plain as that of Drainy or Duffus, 
although a great proportion of its surface is counted level 
land. The soil is distinguished for its fertility, being a 
deep fat loam incumbent on clay, in a very few places 
only of a lighter quality : it produces crops of oats, valued 
in particular for their slow and late ripening, being found, 
upon the warmer sandy soils of the neighbouring parishes, 
to increase the luxuriance of the stem and the weight of 
the grain. 

State of Property.- George Forteath, Esq., has built a 
spacious and splendid house upon his property of New- 



STATE OF PROPERTY IX ALVES. 149 



town, where he has also formed an elegant garden, and 
made a considerable extent of plantation. The valued 
rent around this family seat extends to 165 10s. Scots. 
Peter Rose Watson, of Westerton, Esq., prefers the warm 
castled accommodations of his ancestors at Coltfield, to the 
airy painted halls of modern fashion. The valued rent 
of his domains in this parish extends to 768 17s, 2d. 
Scots. William Brodie, of Miltown, Esq., has his family- 
seat under the north side of a green serrated mount ; its 
exterior appearance, though not modern, indicating neat 
internal accommodation. His valued rent of Hempriggs 
and Windyhills amounts to 818 15s. 4d. 

The lands of Ardgay, Monaughty, and Asleesk, apper- 
taining to the Earl of Fife, are valued at 1575 15s. 2d. 
Alves and Inchstellie, the property of the Earl of Moray, 
are valued at 1336 2s. lOd. Kirktown Alves, and Erne- 
side, the property of Spence Monro, Esq., are valued at 
426 9s. 8d. The lands of Kilbuyack, at -380 7s., belongs 
to Miss Brodie of Lethin : making the valuation of i^he 
parish equal to 5462 17s. 2d. Scots. The real rent of 
the parish may be estimated about 3000 sterling. The 
farms in general are of respectable extent, there being few 
under 30, and several above 100 acres. The mean rent 
of the land is about 1 5s. the acre. 

State Ecclesiastical. The stipend is 46 13s. 4d. ster- 
ling, 96 bolls of bear, and 16 of meal; the allowance for 
the communion being included. The right of patronage 
appertains to the Earl of Moray. The school-salary is 10 
bolls of bear, and 2 15s. 6d. sterling; and by the Act of 
Parliament which confers the emoluments of the office of 
session-clerk upon the parochial schoolmaster, he has the 
fee of 1 12s. and the customary perquisites, with the 
usual fees for teaching. 

In the year 1715 George Duncan, Esq., merchant in 
Inverness, bequeathed 166 12s. 6d. sterling, for the 
education of 6 boys, from the sixth to the tenth year of 
their age, who are to be presented by the session. ' The 
poor, who are not numerous, are comfortably supported 
by the charity of the congregation, in the conclusion of 
their public worship, the dues for the use of the pall, and 
some charitable donations, among which is the sum of 30 
sterling, bequeathed by Mr. Watt, who had transferred 
his ministrations from this parish to Forres. The mem- 



150 THE KNOCK OF ALVES ; THE CASTLE OF ASLEISK. 

bers of the National Church are 1030, about 50 Seceders, 
and 30 Episcopalians. 

Miscellaneous Information. The people are indus- 
trious, sober, and regular in their attendance on the 
public institutions of religion, and more than equal to- 
their neighbours in knowledge and information. 

The conical hill of the Knock of Alves terminates a 
low ridge on the southern quarter of the parish. It is 
separated from the ridge that ranges through the parish 
of Spynie only by a narrow gap. In both are inexhaust- 
ible quarries of free-stone, equally fit for mill-stones and 
for building. 

In the western end of the parish, there is a large circular 
pile of stone : it has never been examined : no name or 
circumstance concerning it is known. Some Danish axes 
of uncommon form have been found in a tract of peat 
morass in the vicinity of Erneside.] (Survey of the Pro- 
vince of Moray.} 

[The only relic of feudal times is the Castle of Asleisl\ 
on the Earl of Fife's property.] (ED.) 

EPITAPHS IN THE CHURCHYARD OF ALVES. 

[By the great charter of Bishop Brice, whereby he 
established the use of Lincoln in the diocese, Alves, 
along with Llanbryde, are granted and erected into a pre- 
bendary to be the seat of the Precentor. This was about 
1208. Disputes arose between the Precentor and Succentor 
in regard to the boundaries of the parish, which was 
determined by a mutual reference in 1328. The name of 
the Precentor at this time was Roger de Invernis. 

In 15G7 James Spence, vicar of Alves, witnesses a feu 
charter by James Thorntoun, the last Precentor of Moray 
of the glebe of the parish. 

In 1565 John Watsone, minister of Alves, along with 
John Robison, minister of Urquhart, are threatened with 
the censure of the Church for leaving their Churches, and 
in 1567 we have Patrick Balfour, minister. The old 
Church, long demolished, contained monuments of anti- 
quity, though some are now lost ; fragments of two, which 
seemed to have formed part of the floor, yet remain. 

I. ... Vir. Valterus. troup. portion. . . alter illos conjugis 
. . . 25th Die Decembris anno Domini 1598. . 



EPITAPHS IN THE CHURCHYARD OF ALVES. 151 

II. Here lyes ane honorable man John Dassol. . . . 

III. Under this stone lye the bodies of James Eussel, farmer, 
sometime in Mortown, who died the 6th of May, 1691, and also 
James Russel, fanner, sometime in Mortown, his cousin, who 
died October, 1731, and Jean Kellie, his spouss, who died March, 
1733, and James Russel, their son, farmer sometime in Easter 
Alves, who died May 10, 1742, and Jean Anderson, his spouse, 
who died August, 1717. 

IV. Here on part of the wall of the old Church is the tomb- 
stone of Beivald Innes, who was ejected after the Revolution. 
He was minister from 1677, and died 1722. 

It is in Latin, on a curious sort of red stone. From its 
difficulty to decipher, I have not set it down here. 

V. ... John. Laing. sometime . . . who. died. January. 
13. 1720. . . . Laing. who. died. . . . the. 6. 1730. and. his. 
spouse. Margaret. Petrie. died. October. 14. 17 . . . 

VI. Here lyes the body of John Anderson, sometime in- 
dueller in East Grange, who died the 23 of December, 1723, 
and Isobel Gumming, his spouse, who died the 10 of December, 
1727, and Margaret Thane, spouse to John Anderson, in East 
Grange, she died the 9 of December, 1734. John Anderson, 
their son, placed this stone in memory of his parents and his 
beloved spouse. 

VII. Here lyes the body of James Williamson, sometime 
farmer in Mostown, who died Nov., 1731, and his spouse, 
Elspet Lyn, who died July, 1731, and their daughter, Isobel, 
who died in her nonage. 

VIII. Here is laid till the coming of Christ the bodies of 
Wm. and Allex. Forsyth, sometime induellers in Mount 
Auchry, and George Key, who lived in Coltfield, and died 
17 Feb., 1742, and his spouse, Barbara Mill, who died 12th 
November, 1752. Interred here is the body of John Key, and 
his wife, Margy. Forsyth, sometime duellers in Coltfield, and 
their son, William Key, farmer in Duifus, who died* . . . and 
his wife, Emily Sutherland, who died Mar. 1808. 

IX. Here ly the bodys of Alex. Funister, late farmer in the 
Ries, who died 26 of July, 1767, and his spouse, Ann Russ, 
who died 16 July, 1745, and their son, William Funister, died 
22 July, 1779. 

X. This stone is placed here in the burying-place of Wm. 
Leim, farmer in Coltfield, by Janet Chrystal, in memory of 

* Never inserted. 



152 EPITAPHS IN ALVES; THE PARISH OF KINLOSS. 

John Chrystal, her brother, who died October 16, 1759, aged 
22 years. 

XL Mrs. Isa M'Lair, wife to the Rev. Mr. William Smith, min- 
ister at Alves, lies buried here. Here lies interred the body of 
the Rev. Mr. William Smith, late minister of Alves, who died 
26th Jany., 1792, aged 46 years. 

XII. This stone is erected by Pitir Ross, mason at Burghead, 
in memory of his parents, Hugh Ross, who lived in Alves, who 
died April the 6, 1780, aged 69 years, and his spouse, Jean 
Davidson, who died* . . . 

XIII. Hear lys the body of Thomas Cobban, sometime resi- 
denter in Monauchry, who died the 18 May, 1786, aged 98 
years, and his spouse, Margt. Young, who died 7 Nov., 1801, 
aged 76 years.] (Rev. J. B. Craven's Epitaphs.) 



THE PAEISH OF KINLOSS. 

That is, the head of the Loch or Bay, from the 
burgh of Findhorn, runneth within land a mile and 
a half, and near a mile in breadth. Here the river 
Erne emptieth into the firth. It riseth in the hills, 
betwixt Badenoch and Stratherick, and watering 
Strathern and the Streins from south west to 
north east, at Doulasie, in the parish of Ardclach 
(a bridge of two arches was built in the year 
1754), thence it runneth north, and after a course 
of more than 30 miles, enters into the bay of 
Kinloss. The parish of Kinloss lieth on the east 
side of the bay. 

The Church standeth near the head of the bay, 
about 2-J miles west from Alves, 1^ miles north 
of Forres, and near 3 miles north of Kafford. At 
the mouth of the bay is Findhorn, or Inverern, a 

* Never inserted. 



THE BARONY OF MUIRTOWN AND OWNERS, KINLOSS. 153 

burgh of barony. The bar at the mouth of the 
river allows no ships of burden to enter the bay, 
yet a good trade is carried on by small merchant 
ships and fishing boats. It is the sea-port of the 
town of Forres ; and about 60 years ago, the sea 
cut off from the land, and covered the town, now 
called Old Findhorn. The present town, with 
the barony of Muirtown, lying south on the bay, 
was the property of Hugh Eose of Kilravock, 
who, in 1766, sold the barony of Muirton to 
Colonel Hector Munro of Navarre. In 1656 it 
came to Sir Eobert Innes of Innes, who disponed 
it to Sir James Calder. Sir James was created 
a baronet of Nova Scotia, by Patent dated the 
5th of November, 1686, and was son of Sir 
Thomas Calder of Sheriffmiln, of the Calders of 
Assuanly. About the year 1710, Sir James dis- 
poned his estate, with the burden of the debts, to 
Hugh Eose of Kilravock, James Sutherland of 
Kinsterie, William Brodie of Coltfield, and Alex- 
ander Dunbar of Moy, and they disponed with 
absolute warrandice to Kilravock. The value of 
the estate fell short of the debts, and the dis- 
ponees bore the burden. Kinloss gave title 
to Edward Bruce (of the family of Clackmannan), 
created Lord Kinloss 8th July, 1604, and his son 
Thomas, Earl of Elgin, 19th June, 1633. From 
this last, Alexander Brodie, the first of Lethen, 
purchased the Abbey lands in Kinloss, and the 
superiorities of such lands elsewhere, and they 



154 STATE OF PROPERTY IN THE PARISH OF KINLOSS. 

are now the property of the eldest daughter of 
the late Alexander. 

The south end of the parish was Abbey land, 
now the property of Dunbar of Grange, except 
the Struthers sold to Colonel William Grant of 
Ballendallach, about 1730. On the bay of Kin- 
loss, Lethen has a salmon fishing. 

KINLOSS. 

[Situation, Soil, Climate. The parish of Kinloss lies on 
the western side of Alves, and may be regarded as occu- 
pying the whole breadth of the champaign ; although a 
corner of Alves is protruded for a little way along the 
bottom of the mountain, and in this quarter the mountain 
side itself, almost wholly cultivated, appertains to the 
parish of Rafford. Being only formed into a separate 
parish in the year 1657, the name of the Abbey, situated 
at the head of the bay of Findern, became readily that of 
the parish. It is a flat country, almost a square of 4 
miles. In some places the soil is light sand ; in others, 
rich deep clay and fertile loam ; an incoherent peat earth 
is the surface soil of many hollow lying fields : but the 
whole, when properly cultivated, produces luxuriant crops 
of every kind of grain. Most of the springs have some 
mineral taste, and the water is, in general, bad. The air 
is sharp and dry : supposed to generate rheumatism and 
cutaneous distempers among the people, who are obliged 
to support its most unfavourable influences. 

State of Property. The parish appertains to four pro- 
prietors. General Sir Hector Munro of Novar has the 
barony of Muirtown, valued in the county Cess-Book 
at 1859 14s. 8d. Scots. Miss Brodie of Lethin has Kin- 
loss and East Grange, at 1091 Is. 4d. General James 
Grant of Balnadalloch has Struthers, Newtown, and 
Winderlaw, at 475 5s. 4d. : and the remainder of the 
parish is the property of Lewis Dunbar, Esq., of Grange, 
at 297 17s. 7d., making the whole valued rent equal 
to 3723 18s. lid. Scots. The greater farms vary from 
about 100 to 130 acres, while some of the least are 



SEA. TRADE OF THE VILLAGE OF FINDHORN. 155 



only from 5 to C. The average rent by the acre is from 
18s. to 1 4s., though there are some which lat at 2 2s., 
and a small part has risen to the rate even of 3 the acre. 
The whole number of the farms amount to 40. 

The village of Findhorn, on the estate of Muirtown, at 
the influx of the river Findern, properly the Erne, into 
the Firth, may be considered as the Port of the town of 
Forres, and partly of Elgin also. 

Four vessels, from 90 to 130 tons burthen, are employed 
in the London trade to this Port, and to those of Cromarty 
and Inverness conjoined ; one after another generally ar- 
riving between every third and fifth week, and completing 
five or six voyages in the year. An inconsiderable quan- 
tity of dyed threads, manufactured in the village ; a 
proportion of the grain of the country ; and the salmon 
of the rivers of Nairn and Findern, with a small quantity 
from the upper fisheries of the Spey, comprise the goods 
sent to London. The salmon is sent in vessels appropri- 
ated for that article, put on board in the offing, and reach 
market commonly between the 5th and 9th day. From 
2500 to 4000 kits, bringing from 16s. to 1 10s. the kit in 
London, comprehend the yearly quantity. 

The articles brought back from London are sugar, tea, 
hops, porter, and cheese, silk, woollen, and cotton cloths, 
hats, ribbons, and buttons, hardware, household furniture, 
tanned leather, and grass seeds. 

Three vessels, from 70 to 90 tons burthen, are employed 
in the trade from Leith, and the other ports in the Firth 
of Forth, to the same places, completing their voyages 
nearly in the same time. The only article carried out is 
grain, generally about 3000 bolls in the year, in cargoes 
of 300 or 400 bolls : in some years, 7000 or 8000 have 
been shipped : but the failure of the crop 1781, from an 
excessive drought, and a shake by a storm of wind, re- 
quired an importation of 2000 bolls ; while the crop of 
1782 required a supply of no less than 8000 bolls from 
foreign Ports. 

The goods brought from Leith yearly consist of a con- 
siderable quantity of tanned leather, soap, tallow, and 
grass seeds, foreign bar iron, and manufactured iron from 
Carron, farm utensils, and furniture, bottles, window and 
crystal glass, English and Scots stoneware, English hard- 
ware, and the manufactures of the looms of England, 



156 IMPORTS AT THE VILLAGE OF FINDHORN. 

Glasgow, and Paisley. Wines, imported by the mer- 
chants of Forres and Inverness from the places of their 
growth to Leith, make a part of the freights of these 
vessels, there being now seldom any wine imported 
directly here. Small quantities of spruce or black beer 
made at Dantzick are also forwarded from Leith. The 
ships employed in freighting the corn bring in yearly 
about 100 tons of Scots coal, and about 6 times as much 
from Sunderland, avoiding Newcastle on account of the 
duty paid to the Duke of Richmond on coals shipped 
there. With the coal, there is occasionally a small quan- 
tity of lime brought for manure, and about 130 tons of 
salt from the different saltworks of the Firth. Many pas- 
sengers sail in these vessels both to and from London 
and Leith. 

Two vessels are generally employed in bringing flax, 
tow, foreign bar iron, hard and soft soap, ropes and dressed 
hemp from Aberdeen. The flax is dressed, and only sent 
down by the manufacturers of that city to be spun, about 
Elgin, Forres, and Nairn, which it is supposed will amount 
to more than 2000 sterling yearly, for spinning the yarn 
returned from this Port. These vessels generally complete 
their voyage in the course of every six weeks, and occa- 
sionally carry back small quantities of flour and a few 
other articles. 

Small quantities of yarn, manufactured from home- 
grown flax, are sent also by Leith for the Glasgow 
looms; and small quantities of butter by private orders 
for particular families. The pier is commodious, but 
rather too limited ; yet the harbour is capacious and safe : 
there was always sufficient depth of water on the bar, and 
scarcely any vessel was ever damaged in getting over it. 
Of late, the channel has been altered even for the better, 
and vessels of almost 300 tons can easily get to the pier 
at stream tides. The Act of Parliament for building it 
was obtained by Sir Hector Munro in 1778. The duties 
of anchorage which it allows are, for every vessel under 6 
tons, 3d. between 6 and 15 tons, 6d. from 15 to 30 tons, 
Is. from 30 to 50 tons, 2s. from 50 to 75 tons, 3s. 
from 75 to 100 tons, 4s. from 100 to 150 tons, 5s. from 
150 to 200 tons, Cs. from 200 to 300 tons, 7s. and 
for 300 tons, and all above that, 8s. The duties on goods 
shipped and landed vary with the different commodities. 



INVERNESS CITADEL BUILT OF THE ABBEY STONES. 157 

For the boll of grain, salt, barrel of English coal, 100 
whole-barrel, or 150 half-barrel hoops, |d. for each barrel 
of goods imported in barrels, for each gross of quart 
bottles, and for each parcel, Id. for the 100 bolls of 
lime, Is. 6d. for the 1000 slates or tiles, 6d. for each 40 
feet of timber in logs, 4d. and for all coarse goods not 
particularly rated, in the proportion of 2 for each 100 
of their value. 

The fees exacted by the Custom-house are equal to 
three times these in the Port of Leith on foreign cargoes 
On goods carried coast-ways, 2s. are demanded from every 
merchant for the value of from 20 to 30 sterling Is. 6d. 
to the comptroller and collector, and 6d. to the port officer 
deemed so exorbitant, that the payment has of late been 
refused, and, by steady unanimity among the merchants, 
redress no doubt will be obtained. 

About 30 years ago, there were seven or eight fishing boats 
belonging to Findhorn, constantly employed. There are at 
present but 4 : a fifth is occasionally rigged out in winter. 
There are some fine beds of mussels in this harbour : 100 
boats, from 3 to 7 tons, have been in some years freighted 
for bait to the fish-towns southward on the Firth, as far 
as Fraserburgh, besides the home consumpt, both for the 
fishers and the market. Oysters also, about 20 years 
ago, were planted by Sir Hector Monro ; but the scalp 
having never been dragged, their fate is wholly unknown. 

Of late some cargoes of fir timber and deals have been 
shipped for the eastern quarter of the Firth ; and as the 
plantations in the country advance, this branch of traffic 
will probably be enlarged. 

State Ecclesiastical. While the Abbey of Kinloss sub- 
sisted, this parish appertained to that of Alves and 
Rafford. In the year 1652, William Campbell, minister 
of Alves, commissioner from the Presbytery of Elgin to 
the brethren of Forres, represented, that " the chapter- 
house of the Abbey of Kinloss hath been, since the 
Reformation, a place for preaching the word, celebrating 
the sacraments and marriage ; and by a condescendence 
between Alexander Brodie of Lethin, and the English 
garrison at Inverness, the fabric of the abbey is taken 
down for building their citadel, save the place of worship; 
and those who have the charge for to transport the stone, 
have it in command to take that also down : therefore the 



158 GEORGE'S YARD PART OF KINLOSS ABBEY. 

brethren at Elgin earnestly desire, that the presbytery lay 
to heart, what the sequel will be, seeing, by the unani- 
mous consent of the whole heritors of the adjacent lands, 
and of all the members of the Presbyteries of Elgin and 
Forres, it is agreed that there shall be a church and par- 
ticular parish erected for Kinloss and the people there- 
about, who are now almost without the means of the 
gospel." 

On the consequent application of the Presbytery, Mr. 
Brodie declared, " it was against his will that these stones 
were taken away." An agreement was however made, 
that Sir John M'Kenzie of Tarbet, the proprietor of Muir- 
town, should give up his claim on " George's Yard," a part 
of the precinct of the Abbey ; and that the Presbytery, 
who claimed the whole precinct, should renounce all pre- 
tence to any part thereof, as lawfully redeemed by Lethin, 
who, having acquired the Abbey lands from Lord Kinloss, 
engaged on his part to give a sufficient glebe, and station 
for a manse, off his lands of Kinloss, and also to build the 
manse and church by the money he had received for the 
stone of the Abbey. At a subsequent meeting of the 
Presbytery, the whole proprietors agreed on their par- 
ticular proportions of a stipend of 22 5s. and 3 chalders 
of bear, and the expense of the Communion, from the 
tithes of their respective lands within the new parish. 
The proprietors also of the lands remaining in the parish 
of Alves, agreed to make up the proportion of 5 sterling, 
and 10 bolls, formerly paid to the minister of Alves, from 
the lands taken off that parish; of which Sir Robert Innes > 
younger of Innes, who in the interval had acquired the 
barony of Muirtown, " out of his free donation and gift, 
endows 2 10s. by the year, for the payment whereof he 
doth oblige himself and his heirs, to employ 41 13s. 4d. 
in the hands of responsal debtors, by the advice of the 
Presbytery of Elgin, and the minister of Alves; and to 
pay 2 10s. yearly, so long as it remains in his own or 
foresaid's hands." The other 2 10s. and the 10 bolls, 
were apportioned on the lands within the parish of Alves. 
The minister of Raffbrd was compensated by the annexa- 
tion of the parish of Altyr, which had been incommodi- 
ously united to Delias, the stipend of which was supplied, 
by conjoining the lands of Killess from the parish of Elgin. 

It was not, however, till the year 1659, that the settle- 



SETTLEMENT OF THE FIRST MINISTER AT KINLOSS. 159 

ment of James Urquhart, the first minister of Kinloss, 
took place ; who in a few months thereafter attended a 
meeting of the Scots Parliament at Edinburgh, with Sir 
Robert Innes, and Mr. Fullerton, the minister of Rafford, 
and obtained the National ratification of this whole pro- 
cedure by the Act March 20, 1661, "which ratifies and 
confirms the Act and ordinance of the Presbyteries of 
Elgin and Forres, with consent of all concerned, of date 
the 6th of May, 1657;" but appointing the stipend of 
Kinloss to be 20 sterling, and 4 chalders of bear, includ- 
ing the expense of the Communion. Upon the death of 
the usurper in the succeeding year, and the restoration of 
Charles II., the Presbyterian Church of Scotland was 
completely overturned and abrogated, and the Prelatic 
constitution arbitrarily and violently re-imposed. But 
that there hath been an ecclesiastical establishment in 
every civilized state, Gentile, Jew, or Christian, the his- 
torical records of all ages show ; and it may be from the 
Scriptures inferred, that this is by the Deity required of 
all who have been favoured by the light of Revelation. 
Although it may not be obvious, that the Presbyterian 
establishment is particularly by the Scriptures enjoined, 
yet the experience of more than 100 years hath fully con- 
curred to show, that it is by much the best for a people 
who in general are far from opulent. Instruction in the 
duties of morality and religion is not lost amidst the 
pomp and splendour of external worship : and while the 
clergy are not raised above the requisite intercourse with 
the lowest of the people by power and dignity, and tem- 
poral wealth, their learning, manners, and rank in society 
associating them with the superior orders of the State, 
form the link by which the highest are connected with 
the lowest, affording thereby the mutual communication 
of those advantages for which each of those classes is 
dependent on the other. Accordingly, there is no state 
where the common people are of more decent manners, 
better informed, and more attentive to the duties of 
morality and the ordinances of religion. 

These advantages, however, are the purchase of much 
of the blood, and of almost the whole of the treasure, of 
our ancestors, and were only secured by many hard con- 
tentions with most crafty and desperate efforts of uncon- 
stitutional power, continued by the most unrelenting 



160 STATE ECCLESIASTICAL OF KINLOSS PARISH. 

persecution of every rank and of every sex for almost 
half a century. At the conclusion of such a distressful 
season, the State ecclesiastical could not at once assume 
that comely order to which it has now attained ; and for 
the first 12 years of the present Presbyterian establish- 
ment, the number was so few of faithful ministers, that, 
except parochial sessions, the Presbytery of Moray was 
the only ecclesiastical jurisdiction in the Province. In a 
meeting of which at Forres in June 1702, they were then 
first able to make up three Presbyteries, one comprehend- 
ing those of Inverness, Nairn, and Forres ; another Elgin, 
Aberlaur, and Abernethie ; and that of Strathbogie nearly 
as it has since remained, and in consequence of this the 
Synod for the first time met in the month of October 
thereafter. 

In 1708 the Presbytery of Forres, which is now to be 
considered, was first established, which until the year 
1733 comprehended also the parishes of Auldern, Nairn, 
and Ardclach. 

The stipend of Kinloss, by decreet 1789, is 46 8s. 3d. 
56 bolls of bear, and 40 bolls of oatmeal. The right of 
patronage is shared between the Earl of Moray and Miss 
Brodie of Lethin. The salary of the School is 2 16s. 4d., 
and 7 bolls and 3 pecks of bear, and 2 as the fee of the 
session-clerk, with the customary dues of from 40 to 60 
scholars. The number of poor on the parish roll in the 
year 1776 was 34 ; the supply raised for their provision 
was 6 11s. 6d. In the year 1786 they had increased to 
57, and the fund has also risen to 17 10s. 2d. In 1796 
the number had fallen down nearly to the first statement, 
being only 36, and the fund only decreased to 12 9s. It 
is wholly formed by the contributions of the people at 
their meetings for social worship, in the Church, the hire 
they pay for the pall, and such fines as the Session can 
exact for immoralities. The members of the National 
Church amount to 1 023 : there are about 9 Seceders of 
the Antiburgher sect, and 2 of the Nonjuror Episcopalian 
profession. 

Miscellaneous Infomnat ion. A slip, or ridge of ground 
along the shore on the western side of the river Erne, 
appertains to this parish and to the estate of Muirtown. 
About 100 years ago, the river, similar to what has been 
mentioned of the ancient termination of the Spey, and of 



RKMARKABLE IRRUPTION; DOUFFHILLOCK. 161 

the present influx of the Lossy, flowed westward nearly 6 
miles, converging with the shore. When the river gained 
its present direct course, this ground by the water stag- 
nate in its former bed became an island, for many years 
affording secure pasturage for sheep and cattle ; but by 
the drifting of the sand, this ancient channel is now filled 
up, so as to be an island only during high water, divested 
of much of its accommodation, and the pasturage greatly 
injured by the overspreading sand. 

Prior to the year 1701, the town of Findhorn, regularly 
built, stood upon a pleasant plain, a mile north-west from 
its present situation, and now the bottom of the sea. The 
irruption, though completed in one night, and by one tide, 
had long been apprehended, and the inhabitants had 
gradually withdrawn. It is probable, that the drifting 
sand accumulated by the united power of wind and tide, 
dammed back the river, forcing open its present course, 
and overwhelming the village. At that time, a level moor 
stretched in a right line along the shore from Findhorn 
to Burghead, for the distance only of 5 miles. The 
encroachments of the sea in a semi-circular bay has made 
the distance now by land a little more than 10. The 
inhabitants of Findhorn were in a great measure supplied 
with fuel from this moor, the cutting up of which might 
have been the cause of the encroachment. On this moor, 
near the shore, stood a conical Mount, evidently artificial, 
about 40 fathoms high: it was called the Douff hillock, 
and afforded a view of the Firth and the whole countn- 
around. An old man, still alive, has gathered berries 
among the heath around its base. Many roots and trunks 
of oak and fir trees were then found in the moor, and a 
few are still dug in the moss of Hatton, confirming the 
truth of the tradition, that a forest once occupied what is 
now the bottom of the sea, and the downs between Find- 
horn and Duffus. The sand-banks oppose a feeble barrier 
to the power of every storm from the north, by which 
they are themselves forced farther on the shore, and banks 
of peat-earth are thereby discovered C or 8 feet below the 
sand. Within the flood-mark of the Bay of Findhorn, 
where the estate of Muirtown borders with West Grange, 
in the year 1787, extensive beds of peat earth were dis- 
covered, deemed such a treasure at the first as to excite a 
law-suit, as on the records of the sheriff court, between 
VOL. ii. 11 



162 LAW-PLEA ABOUT A CORROSIVE PEAT-MOSS. 

the landlord and his tenants, even for the duration of the 
current leases ; but after the commencement of the litiga- 
tion, it was found this fuel had such an offensive smell, 
and corrosive power on kitchen utensils of copper and 
iron, as to be absolutely improper for any domestic 
purpose. This peat was found at 2 or 3 feet under the 
sand, not in a continuous bed, but in detached banks, as 
if covered by sand when formerly used, in a period beyond 
the remembrance of the passing generation. 

Within the Bay, near the course of the river, is the 
" yaar," probably the yard fishery, principally of salmon. 
It is an enclosure, formed of stakes wattled with twigs or 
brush-wood. At high water, the fish swim over the fence ; 
but, heedless of the gradual reflux of the tide, their retreat 
cut off, they are left gasping on the sand. This fishery is 
supposed to have been the device of the brethren of the 
Abbey. On its dissolution, the " yaar " was acquired by the 
community of Forres, and was then placed a mile nearer 
to the town, and still pays 4s. 4d. of the stipend of that 
parish. The vestiges of three different "yaars" may be still 
traced on the sands. From 8 to 12 barrel of salmon used 
formerly to be the produce ; and it was let at the rent of 
6 in the year; but the proprietor's estate afforded wood 
for its repair, of which at present no vestige remains. 
The " yaar " therefore is not kept in very good repair, and it 
is supposed to be injudiciously placed. It has accordingly 
failed much in its returns, which probably will not be 
recovered, till the rising plantations afford materials at 
hand for its necessities. On some occasions, herrings, but 
rarely, have been found inclosed. 

How far the industry and device of man, in conjunction 
with the ravage of the fish upon each other, and on their 
respective roes, may tend to diminish their numbers on 
the whole, seems as yet to be more apprehended than 
ascertained. A small premium for the destruction of the 
more voracious kinds upon the coasts of Britain might be 
perhaps not improperly conjoined with the prohibiton r 
statutes respecting black-fish.] (Survey of the Province 
of Moray.} 



HOUSE OF TANNACHIE; ESTATES OF LOGIE AND COTHALL. 163 

Next southward is 

THE PAEISH OF FORBES, . 

Far-uis, i.e., near the water. The parish ex- 
tendeth from the Bay of Kinloss southward upon 
the river 3 miles, and from the east to the river 2 
miles. The town standeth 2 miles north-west of 
Kafford, 1^ miles south of Kinloss, and 2 miles 
east from Dyke. It is situated in a pure and 
wholesome air, on a rising ground, sloping to 
the south and north, and commandeth a charm- 
ing view of the Firth and the adjacent country. 
It consists of one street from east to west of well 
built and convenient houses. 

In the middle standeth the Tolbooth, adorned 
with a steeple of modern work and a clock. 

Near the west end standeth the Church, and 
beyond it the Castle Hill, which, with some lands 
about it, has been the property of the Dunbars, 
Sheriffs of Moray, since about the year 1450, and 
belongs now to Sir James Grant of Grant. 

In the parish to landward the House of Tanachie 
standeth at the head of the Bay, the seat of Alex. 
Tulloch of Tanachie, whose family have enjoyed 
these lands above 250 years. A part of the lands 
of Tanachie have lately been sold to Urquhart ; 
and Loggie, in the south of the parish, formerly 
the property of Tulloch of Tanachie, now belongs 
to Sir James Grant of Grant, and is called Cot- 
hall. Here there are a neat house and valuable 



164 PROPERTIES IN THE PARISH OF TORRES. 

improvements. Near to Tanachie is Bogtoun r 
the small heritage of a cadet of Tanachie's family. 
Close by Bogtoun is West Grange, a part of the 
estate of Dunbar of Grange. To the west of the 
town is Bennageth, a small feu belonging to 
Alexander Lesly ; and west thereof is Mundole, 
which has often changed masters, and now per- 
taineth to Sir James Grant of Grant. Below 
Mundole, on the side of the river, is the GriesTiip y 
purchased by David Laird of Brodie from Suther- 
land of Duffus about the year 1620, and is now 
the property of the Laird of Brodie. It was 
anciently a part of the estate of Lauder of 
Quarrelwood, whose heiress brought it to Chis- 
liolm, and his heiress to Sutherland. A half 
mile south of the town is the House of Sanchar r 
the seat of Duncan Urquhart of Burdsyards. 
This is an ancient branch of the Urquharts of 
Croinarty. I find in an indenture between 
William Thane of Calder and Hutcheon Bose, 
Baron of Kilravock, dated at Forres 21 June, 
1482 ; Alexander Urquhart of Burdsyards is a 
witness. The family is still in a flourishing way. 
West of Sanchar are the lands of Benneferry, 
Cnockomie, and some others belonging to the 
family of Moray. 

[For " Sweno's Stone" see Military History.} (ED.) 
FORRES. 

[Situation, Soil, Climate. The parish of Forres, south- 
ward of Kinloss, stretches across the plain, rather from 



STATE OP PROPERTY IN THE PARISH OF FORRES. 165 

the Bay of Findern than from the sea, till it meets the 
parish of Rafford on the south ; both occupying the breadth 
of the low land from that bay to the bottom of the moun- 
tain. The parish is nearly in the form of a triangle its 
length from east to west about 3 miles, and its breadth 
from north to south nearly 6. The Royal Burgh, giving its 
name to the parish, is placed on a rising ground, nearly in 
its middle. The name denoting upon or near to water, 
and the appearance of the ground, give reason to suppose 
that the River Findern might have originally held its 
course nearer to the town, and a considerable stream from 
the southern mountain runs close by the houses on its 
northern side. The south and south-east parts of the 
parish are hilly, covered with short heath and furze, but 
by much the greater part is one continued rich, well- 
cultivated field. The climate is inferior to no part of 
Scotland; the air is serene, healthful, and dry. The 
town commands an extensive prospect of a fertile country, 
embellished by the seats of many neighbouring pro- 
prietors. 

State of Property. The parish is shared among nine 
proprietors, besides the lands belonging to the town, and 
some smaller proprietors holding of the burgh. The Earl 
of Moray has Knockowney, Flewis, and Belnaferry, 
amounting in the Cess-Book to 290 18s. lOd. The 
estate of Sanchar and Burdsyards, appertaining to George 
Grant, Esq., amounts to 1,030 7s. 2d. The lands of 
Grieshop, belonging to John Gordon of Edintore, Esq., are 
432 15s. 4d. The estate of Belnageith, belonging to 
Alexander Leslie, Esq., is 225 3s. 4d. Alex. Penrose 
Ouming of Altyr and Gordonstown has Mundole and 
Cotehall, 126 9s. 6d. Alexander Urquhart, Esq., has 
Tannachy, 261 12s. 9d. Joseph Dunbar of Grange, Esq., 
has a valuation of 213 8s. 8d. ; and John Brander of 
Pitgaveny, Esq., has Waterford, valued at 117 13s. 5d., 
in which, however, the valuation also of Cotehall seems to 
be included. The whole valued rent of the parish amounts 
to 2,954 6s. 6d. Scots. 

The farms are not of very great extent, few or none 
exceeding 60 or 80 acres. In the neighbourhood of the 
town lands let from 2 10s. to 3 sterling the acre. These 
are principally farmed by horse-hirers, and are chiefly in 
grass ; and by the high wages they get for the hire of 



ICC OLDEST CHARTEKS OF FORRES DESTROYED BY FIRE. 

their horses, are enabled to pay this enormous price for 
land. In the country part of the parish the average rent 
will not exceed 1 10s. the acre. 

Forres is a handsome, well-built town the high street 
from east to west about one mile in length near the 
middle is the town-house and jail, a pretty high square 
tower, and a kind of timber spire. It is not known when 
it was erected into a royal burgh. The charter granted 
by James IV., dated June 23, 1496, narrates " That the 
ancient charters have been destroyed in the time of war, 
or by the violence of tire, and grants of new in free 
burgage with the lands formerly belonging to the com- 
munity, particularly the lands called Griveship, Baillie- 
lands, Meikle Bog, with the King's Meadow, Lobranstowu, 
with Crealties and Ramflat, and common pasturage in the 
Forest of Drumondside and Tulloch ; with power annually 
to elect a Provost, Bailies, and other magistrates and 
officers necessary, and to constitute the Provost and 
Bailies Sheriffs within the burgh and its liberties, and 
discharge the Sheriff of the shire of Elgin and Forres, to 
exercise his office within the said burgh or its liberties ; 
with power to have a cross, a weekly market, and an 
annual fair to continue for eight days, with all and sundry 
other privileges and immunities of a free burgh, &c." 

The number of the Council is 17 Provost, Bailies, 
Dean of Guild, and Treasurer included. The old Council 
chooses the new, and the new Council chooses the magis- 
trates, and puts them off, or continues them, as they see 
cause. The burgesses, inhabitants, or proprietors in the 
country, may be chosen into the Council, timely notice 
being given by the drum and other customary advertise- 
ments. The revenue is nearly 100 sterling a year, and 
with the towns of Nairn, Inverness, and Fortrose in the 
county of Ross, has a representative in the House of 
Commons. 

State Ecclesiastical. The yearly value of the living is 
98 bolls of bear, 20 of meal, and 40 16s. 8d. sterling, 
with a glebe of 4 acres, and a manse and offices in town. 
The Earl of Moray is patron. The burying-ground is on 
the north side of the street, near the west end, where the 
Church also stands a heavy building, without a steeple. 
It was built in 1775, and is 72 by 36 feet within walls, 
and may contain 1,800 people. The members of the 



STATE ECCLESIASTICAL OF FORRES. 167 

Established Church are about 2,987, from which there is 
only to be deducted a few Seceders, who are not increasing. 

The provision for the poor arises chiefly from the charity 
of those who attend the Church. Mr. Alexander Watt, 
the last minister, left a donation to the poor of about 
200 sterling. The whole, with the sum of 15, being 
the interest of money left under the direction of the Town 
Council, and divided among the poor within the town, 
amounts to about 55 sterling a year, and is distributed 
among 125 persons, many of whom are heads of families. 

There is a Grammar School in the town, where Latin, 
Greek, French, and the various branches of the mathe- 
matics, are at present taught with great success, and a 
young gentleman may have board and education for 20 
a year. To this the school for reading English, writing, 
and arithmetic, has been of late conjoined, under the care 
of the same master, assisted by an usher. The conjoined 
salary is equal to 35 sterling yearly, and the fees of 
generally more than 100 scholars, besides those girls who 
attend at a stated separate hour in the day. 

There is likewise a boarding school for young ladies, 
where the various branches of needle-work, music, and 
other parts of female education are taught. The mistress 
has a salary from the town of 16 a year, and a young 
lady may have every requisite accommodation for 15 a 
year. Music is taught for 2 guineas a year, gum-flowers 
for 4 guineas, tambour for 1, and plain work for 10s. 
Particular attention is paid to the morals, and to impress 
the minds of the young people of both sexes with proper 
sentiments of honour and discretion ; and from the abili- 
ties of the present teachers, and the attention paid by the 
Magistrates, and the healthy situation of the town, there 
is not anywhere, perhaps, a more eligible place for the 
education of youth. Besides these established schools 
there are private teachers both for girls and boys, to 
whom some small donations are also made by the Magis- 
trates for their encouragement. In one the pianoforte, 
and some of the other branches of female accomplishment, 
are taught for half the dues of the public establishment. 

Miscellaneous Information. There are in Forres 60 
merchants and shop keepers. The only manufactures 
earried on are for the supply of the town and its vicinity, 
except the spinning of linen yarn, which has for 20 years 



168 TRADE OF FORRES; FINDHORN RIVER AND BAY. 

back brought a considerable supply of money into the 
country. The merchants are in the use of buying the 
yarn and sending it to Glasgow, where there is a ready 
sale, unless the market be overstocked with Irish yarn, 
which only on account of its cheapness is at certain times 
preferred. But since the year 1784 this trade has been 
gradually declining, owing to the increase of the number 
of machines for spinning cotton, and many of those 
formerly employed in spinning yarn for sale now spin 
Dutch flax for the manufacturing companies of Aberdeen 
and Inverness. In the year 1784 one merchant sent 
23,290 spindles to Glasgow, collected in Forres and in its 
vicinity, the other dealers in this article sent about 
47,000, which, at the rate of 2s. for spinning, produced 
7,092 sterling. 

The River Findern and the brook at Forres are the 
only streams in the parish. The fish found in the River 
and Bay of Findern are salmon, trout, eels, and flounders ; 
haddocks are got in the firth, and sold in the town and 
country around. The quantity of salmon exported from 
Forres, upon the average of the ten years from 1773 to 
1783, was 300 barrels yearly, besides the home consumpt, 
not very considerable. It is sold at 4d. the Ib. 

The River Findern is navigable for boats no farther 
than the tide flows. The distance from the town to the 
harbour does not exceed three miles, and the tide flows 
more than half that distance, and the low ground at the 
bottom of the eminence on which the town stands does 
not exceed the level of half tide by 14 feet, and that 
depth of canal would carry vessels to the town, and the 
canal would be kept clear by the brook. There is hardly 
any place, therefore, where there is more encouragement 
to make a canal, did the commerce of the town require it. 
The flux of the tide covers a triangular piece of ground, 
the Bay of Findhern, wholly dry at low water, except the 
channel of the river, and a little space at the inlet; it 
contains about one thousand acres of a stiff clay soil, dis- 
tinguished by the epithet of carse ground, a part, however, 
being a fine compact sand, with light particles of earth 
deposited by the floods. All this might, at an expense 
inconsiderable compared with its value, be easily recovered 
from the sea, a bar of sand stretching across the mouth of 
the river would prevent the violence of- any surge upon 



RHINO'S DERIVATION AND PRIMITIVE DETAILS OFFORRES. 169 

the embankment which would be required. There is one 
quarry of limestone upon Mr. Cuming's estate, but being 
mixed with other matters, it has never been used in any 
considerable quantities.] (Survey of Province of Moray. ,) 

FORRES. 

[This town must have been a place of some note at a 
very early period. It is, in all probability, the Varris of 
Ptolemy's chart. And Boethius, so early as the year 535. 
makes mention of it as a burgh having merchants, who, 
for some trifling cause, were put to death, and their goods 
confiscated to the King's use. Far-ius (near the water), 
is probably the Gaelic derivation of the name. During 
the 9th and 10th centuries it was frequently visited by 
the Scottish Kings. Donald, the son of Constantine, was 
slain at Forres. Malcolm frequently resided in the neigh- 
bourhood, and was killed in 959 at Ulern, which Shaw 
supposes is Aldern [others opine Blervie Castle]. King 
Duffus was murdered in the Castle of Forres by Donevald 
{Donald], the governor, about the year 966. His body 
being interred under the bridge of Kinloss.* After the 
establishment of the bishoprick, however, Forres does not 
seem to have increased, or indeed kept up its consequence 
so much as Elgin, which then became the centre of the 
ecclesiastical establishments of the Province, and the resort 
of the country gentry. The consequence is, that we find 
fewer remains of antiquity, either domestic or ecclesi- 
astical, about Forres than in the latter. It was the seat 
of the Archdean [Archdeacon], however, and had a Par- 
sonage dedicated to St. Laurence. [The remains of this 
residence are at the north-west corner of Gordon Street, 
which was built on the site of the one burnt in May, 1390, 
along with St. Laurence's Church, by the Wolfe of Bade- 
noch.] There was a chapel, also, [dedicated to St. Leonard] 
& mile south of the town [where the foundations yet 
remain] and one at Logie. 

The ancient charters of the burgh having been destroyed 
by fire, a new one was granted by James IV. in the year 
1496 [with all the privileges of a Royal Burgh]. 

The town is pleasantly situated on a fertile plain, with 
undulating hilly ground to the south, and a sloping valley, 
extending by a gentle declivity to the north, where the 
* Boethius, Buchanan. 



170 ST. LAURENCE'S CHURCH ; TRAFALGAR MONUMENT. 

River Findhorn, sweeping round from the south-west, 
forms an estuary with the sea. Findhom, the sea-port of 
the burgh, lies on the north point of this estuary, 3 miles 
distant, and the ruins of Kinloss are situated on the 
margin of the winding bay. 

The town consists of one long street, extending from 
east to west, with lanes or closses running off on each 
side. On the east is the Cluny Hill, a conspicuous object, 
with a tower on the summit. 

In the centre of the town is the new jail, a very hand- 
some structure recently erected. The old jail, which 
occupied the same position, was built about the year 
1700, and 20 years afterwards, by the subscriptions of the 
spirited burgesses, four pyramids, and a central dome with 
a clock, were added. 

The Church, at the western extremity of the main 
street, is a plain building [having a double belfry, con- 
taining two poor bells, good enough for such a meagre 
establishment. The former Church of St. Laurence was 
on this stance.] 

Anderson's Institution,* an educational establishment 
for the youth of the burgh, is a neat and commodious 
structure, erected within the last 20 years from a fund 
left by a native of the town. 

The Trafalgar Monument, an octagonal tower of three 
storeys, and b'6 feet in height, was built on the Cluny 
Hill by subscription in 1806-7, in memory of Lord Nel- 
son's naval victory. It contains several apartments, where 
an anniversary dinner is held to commemorate the event 
which gave rise to its erection. [The first room has a recess 
containing a marble bust of Nelson. The other flats are 
empty. Outside on panels are carved " In memory of 
Admiral Lord Nelson. Nile, 1st August, 1798; Copen- 
hagen, 2nd April, 1801 ; Trafalgar, 21st August, 1805."] 
The view from the top of this [octagonal] tower embraces 
the richly wooded and fertile plains to the west, through 
which winds the River Findhorn, the undulating hills to 
the south, a large open country to the east, and the blue 
waters of the ocean flowing up on the north, bounded in 

* Jonathan Anderson disponed in 1814 to the Magistrate* 
and Council of Torres his lands of Cowlairs, near Glasgow, for* 
a Free Charity School for the parishes of Forres, Eafford, and 
Kinloss. (ED.) 



THE CASTLE HILL, FORRES. 171 

the distance by the Sutherland and Ross-shire hills, and 
the two Soutors which guard the entrance to the Bay of 
Cromarty, forming a combination of rich and varied 
scenery, which few situations can rival. 

The Castle Hill is a green mound at the western ter- 
mination of the town, surmounted by a few dilapidated 
walls, the only remains of what must, at one period, have 
been a bold and stately Castle a place of defence and 
safety, and frequently the abode of Royalty. It is said 
that after the foul murder of King Duffus within its walls, 
it was demolished. In the course of time, however, it 
must have been rebuilt. In 1346, Randolph, Earl of 
Moray, dates his charters from it. During some subse- 
quent period, the Urquharts of Cromarty were appointed 
heritable keepers of it. In still later times it became the 
property of the Dunbars of Westfield [who for 300 years 
held the office of hereditary Sheriffs of Moray, and had 
the Castle as their official residence.] It passed into the 
possession of the Earl of Seafield [and is now the property 
of Sir Charles Roderick MacGregor, London.] Like the 
Castle on Lady Hill at Elgin, it was in all probability a 
strong square tower with battlements, and a moat sur- 
rounding it, and served as a place of defence and safety 
during those turbulent periods. 

[The ruins which occupy the centre are no part of the 
old Castle, but are the abortive attempt of William Dawsori, 
Provost of Forres, about 1712, to build a town-house, 
which never reached beyond the first storey. The apart- 
ments are arched and lighted with small square windows, 
which had been guarded by iron stanchions, which have 
been taken away ; and although a coating of grass and 
mould protects the arches, they are rapidly yielding to 
decay. The foundations of the old Castle, which were of 
more extensive proportions than the stance of Dawsori 's 
Town-House, were exposed while the slopes on the north- 
west were -being planted with trees some years ago. 

On the level space between the ruins and the western 
slope of the Castle Hill, stands an Obelisk of Peterhead 
granite, 65 feet high, erected by public subscription in 
1857. The reason of its erection here is that the projec- 
tors, having been refused a suitable site in Dr. Thomson's 
native town of Cromarty, his friend, Sir C. R. MacGregor, 
who took a leading part in the subscription for the Monu- 



172 DR. THOMSON'S OBELISK ON THE CASTLE HILL, FORRES. 

ment, made offer of a site on the Castle Hill of Forres, 
which was accepted by the subscribers. 

The western face of the die bears this inscription : 

To the memory of Assistant-Surgeon James Thomson, born 
nt Cromarty on the 8th March, 1823, and deceased in the 
Crimea on the 5th of October, 1 854. He was with the 54th 
Regiment at Malta in 1850, when the cholera broke out, and 
shortly proved fatal to all the surgeons of the corps, himself 
alone excepted. The skill, fortitude, and humanity displayed 
by him in arresting the progress of that disease gained for him 
the praise of the Commander-in-Chief. He was present with 
the same regiment at the Battle of Alma in 1854, and a few 
days afterwards, when the British were leaving the field, he 
volunteered to remain behind with 700 desperately wounded 
Russians. Isolated from his countrymen, endangered by the 
vicinity of large bodies of Cossacks ill supplied with food, and 
exposed to the risk of pestilence, he succeeded in restoring to 
health about 400 of the enemy, and embarking them for 
Odessa. He then died from the effects of excessive hardships 
and privation. This public monument is erected as a tribute 
of respect for the virtue of an officer whose life was useful, and 
whose death was glorious. 

Opposite the gate by which access is got to the Castle 
Hill is Auchernack Cottage, belonging to the Misses Grant. 
Here formerly stood the humble dwelling of James Dick. 
the founder of " The Dick Bequest." He left his native 
parish in early life and went to America, where he 
accumulated a large fortune, and at his death in 1828 he 
bequeathed 140,000, by which the parochial school- 
masters in the counties of Aberdeen, Banff, and Moray each 
receive from 20 to 30 yearly. The Bequest is managed 
by the Society of Writers to the Signet, Edinburgh. 
Dick's father was a shoemaker and leather merchant, and 
a burgess and burgh-heritor, owning a close of houses and 
residing in the front one, which was an unpretending but 
and a ben, with open fire-ingle. Above the door was a 
freestone lintel, with the initials A.D., E.D., for Alexander- 
Dick and Elizabeth Dick the father and the mother 
with the date 1742. The lintels and rybats of the door- 
way were, on the demolition of Dick's house, cared for by 
John Miller of the Forres Gazette, who had them built 
into the wall of the Clunyhill Cemetery, in his own family 
burying-ground, for preservation. Also in his printing- 



MARKET CROSS, TOWN HOUSE, AND HARD MOOR, TORRES. 173 



office he has preserved the flag-stone on which the great 
educational benefactor's cradle was rocked the only bit 
of pavement in the kitchen, conveniently embedded in 
the clay floor by the ingle-side. 

Valetudinarians at the Clunyhill Hydropathic Estab- 
lishment may be interested in the Suspension Bridge 
which crosses the Findhorn, built in 1831, at a cost of 
10,000, from plans by Sir Samuel Brown, R.N. 

The Market Cross is rather a striking attraction in the 
middle of High Street. It was erected in 1844 at a cost 
of 180, from designs by Thomas Mackenzie, Elgin. 

East of the Cross is the Toivn-House, with tower and 
clock, having illuminated dial-plates. In the court-room 
is a painting, by Cranmer, of the Riding of the Marches 
by the Provost, Magistrates, and Town Council in 1840. 
Behind the bench is a stained-glass window, having St. 
Laurence standing on a gridiron, gifted by Smith of Coli- 
thie, near Huntly, a native of Forres. In the Council 
Chamber is a painting of the tournament held at St. 
John's Mead in the 14th century, also executed by 
Cranmer, presented by the Earl of Fife. 

The Agricultural Hall, erected in 18G7 at a cost of 
1,700, and the Mechanics Institute, having a library of 
3,000 volumes, and a collection of local pictures, are worth 
seeing. 

The Hard Moor, to the westward of Forres, which 
commences after crossing the Findhorn, is the traditional 
region where Macbeth met the witches; while he and 
Banquo journeyed from the Western Islands to meet King 
Duncan at the Castle of Forres. Such is the wonderful 
power of Shakespeare, that out of a few meagre and 
uncertain legends, he has ri vetted the imagination of 
thousands to this locality. It is indeed a " hard moor " 
and " blasted heath " even at this present, and well befits 
the imaginary scene of such a supernatural meeting. A 
knoll on the south side of the railway, crowned with a 
group of dark old pines, is pointed out where the inter- 
view was held. 

Banquo. How far is't call'd to Forres '( What are these so 
wither'd and so wild in their attire, that look not like th' 
inhabitants o' th' earth, and yet are on't ? Live you, or are 
you ought that man may question 1 You seem to understand 
me, by each at once her choppy finger laying upon her skinny 



174 THE WITCHES' STANE, CROSS, AND MEDALLION. 

lips. You should be women ; and yet your beards forbid me 
to interpret that you are so. 

Macbeth. Speak, if you can ; what are you 1 

1st Witch. All hail, Macbeth ! hail to thee, Thane of Glamis. 

2nd Witch. All hail, Macbeth ! hail to thee, Thane of Cawdor. 

3rd Witch. Ml hail, Macbeth ! that shall be King hereafter ! 

The Witches' Stane, on the roadside in a ditch to the 
east of the town, indicates where one of three witches 
that witched King Duffus was burned and buried. When 
the adjacent house of Bronte Place was being built, or as 
others give out, while the turnpike road was in progress, 
the workmen broke this Stone and had part of it built 
into the house, when the townspeople, discovering the 
vandalism, caused it to be clasped with iron, in which 
state it still remains. Other two Stones have long since 
disappeared. 

At the old Toll Bar, the Cross formerly stood, where is 
the base or socket of the Little Cross of Forres. 

About 1790, in levelling and paving the streets of 
Forres, there was found near the Cross, a good depth 
under the sand, a Medallion of a compound substance and 
chocolate colour, about 2| inches diameter, and f of an 
inch in thickness. On the one side stood an elegant 
female figure, like an armed goddess, but rather in a civic 
Roman dress, having in her hand a javelin or lance, 
reversed, with its point touching the earth. She stood 
between two altars. On the one there seemed to be 
incense burning, and on the other a dish like a Roman 
ferculum or plate for food. On the back-ground of this 
side was an imitation of one or two distant fleets, and the 
inscription on this side was CONSERVAT UTRAMQUE, i.e., 
she presemes each. On the other side, two warriors in the 
Roman dress (the short tunic of one of them seeming to 
be party-coloured, by a faint appearance of chequering) 
were in the act of leaping on warlike instruments or 
trophies on a globe. The inscription upon this side was 
DURUS PR^ELATA TROP^EIS. It was imagined that the 
artist had by mistake put Duras for Duris, because, with 
such a small change, the two inscriptions spoke sense and 
grammar, and chimed into one hexameter verse : CON- 
SERVAT UTRAMQUE ; DURIS PR^ILATA TROP^IS. It seemed 
natural to suppose that the female figure, with her lance 
pointed down, was an emblem of peace, which had pre- 



DRUIDICAL BULLET-SHAPED STONE FOUND AT TORRES. 175 

served two fleets and nations, and that the invaders and 
invaded had mutually preserved the blessings of peace to 
their hard- worn trophies, and sealed their treaty of amity 
by such offerings on the altars as were suitable to their 
modes of worship. 

This Medallion was transmitted to the Secretary of the 
Society of Antiquaries, Edinburgh, requesting the opinion 
of that body ; but they took no notice of this curious relic, 
probably because they could not. 

Had it been found near Sweno's Stone it might possibly 
have been connected therewith. 

A bullet-shaped Stone, weighing several cwts., was 
found at Bahill, Rafford, which was given to Mr. Matthews 
by a former generation of his family. On leaving Forres 
for Argyleshire he handed it to the Museum. This relic 
is of hard granite, without a single scar. Local antiquaries 
opine that it was connected with the worship of the 
Druids such being in the vicinity of their altars ; sus- 
pected culprits having been placed in a cradle on its top. 
If the cradle rocked on the stone, the victim was adjudged 
guilty ; if it did or would not rock, release ensued.] (Eo.) 

The scenery on the River Findhorn is by far the finest 
in Moray. This mountain-river takes its rise in the 
Monad-leadh Hills, and traversing a country of 60 miles in 
direct extent, increased by its windings of 30 miles more, 
it falls into the Moray Firth. In its course to the sea it 
struggles on through many opposing barriers of granite 
mountains rushing through these narrow gorges with boil- 
ing and tumultuous current now reposing its still waters 
in some round sweeping dark pool, and now patiently but 
assiduously wearing its way through the dark red sand- 
stone cliffs which jut out from its channel, or which range 
in layer above layer, forming high barriers on its banks, 
while plants and shrubs, and lofty trees, crown and 
encompass the steep heights, and contrast finely their 
variegated green with the deep red of the cliffs on which 
they grow. Here, where in some overshadowed dells the 
summer sun with difficulty penetrates, is the solitary 
abode of the eagle or falcon, or the eyries of the congre- 
gated heron, thickly perched among the trees ; while 
during the hot noon, the ascending salmon rest by dozens 
in the deep dark pools. 

As the stream winds towards the sea its course becomes 



17() PROPERTIES IN THE PARISH OF RAFFORD. 

less interrupted and boisterous; it now sweeps along- 
fertile meadows and wooded copses, till at last all opposi- 
tion giving way, it flows out a broad, still, and placid 
expanse of water, and meets the tides of the ocean half 
way up the smooth sandy bay. A low and level district 
surrounds the estuary of the Findhorn, and during the 
ever memorable floods of August, 1829, such was the 
rapidity of the rise of the stream, now swelled into another 
Amazon, that the whole plain to the north and west of 
Forres became one sea of water, so that a large boat, in 
full sail, swept along the fields to within a few yards of 
the burgh.] (Rhind's Sketches of Moray.} 



THE PARISH OF RAFFORD 

Lieth south-east from Forres. The Church 
standeth near the centre, 2 miles south-east of 
Forres, and 5 miles north-east of Edinkyllie. In 
the north-east end is the barony of Burgie, and 
the seat of Joseph Dunhar of Grange, a brand i 
of the Dunbars of Mochrum. Mr. Alexander 
Dunbar, Dean of Moray (and very probably son 
of Mochram), was one of the Lords of Session 
anno 1567 (And. Col.}. He married Katheririe 
Reid, daughter of Thomas and niece of Robert 
Reid, Abbot of Kinloss, and Bishop of Orkney, 
and with her got a part of the Abbey-lauds, such 
as Burgie, Grange, &c. His son Thomas Dunbar 
was father of Robert of Grange by a first marriage, 
and of Robert of Burgie by a second. About 
1680 (Burgie having run deep in debt to his 
cousin), Grange got possession of Biirgie by ad- 
judication, and made it his seat. Below Burgie 
lieth Tarras, which (with Clunie in the upper end 



ALTYRE HOUSE; ST. JOHN'S MEAD. 177 

of the parish) pertaineth to the Earl of Moray. 
West from Burgle is the barony of Blarvie, a part 
of the Church or Bishop's lands. It was long the 
heritage of the family of Dunbars. In the begin- 
ning of this century, it was purchased by Alex- 
ander Macintosh, son of John Macintosh, bailie 
of Inverness ; and from him it was purchased by 
William, late Earl Fife, and is now the property 
of his son Captain Lewis Duff. South from the 
Church a mile and a half, stands the House of 
Altyre, the seat of Cuminine of Altyre, reputed 
chief of that name. 

Altyre House is fitted up in the modern Italian style, 
and has been enlarged and improved by succeeding baro- 
nets. Where the mansion now stands was a shooting- 
lodge, in front of which, in 1795, Sir A. P. Gumming built 
a residence to which his son Sir William built an east 
wing; and in 1859 the late Sir A. P. Gordon Gumming 
added a west wing, and other improvements. Miss Cathe- 
rine Sinclair eulogises the spot " as a perfect cluster of 
arbours and green-houses, apparently a home for the 
muses and graces, for pleasure, gaiety, and romance ; but 
never intended for the mere vulgar ordinary purposes of 
life. Within, without, and around, you see nothing but 
flowers rushing in at every window, covering every table, 
and besetting all the doors. This is the Gourt of Flora 
herself, and you would suppose we had come to a horti- 
cultural show." 

The paintings and statuary are unmatched in any seat 
in the Province of Moray; while the grounds and gardens 
vie with the richest examples of park scenery in this 
country. There is a beautiful semicircular vale called 
St. Johns Mead, where was a small Religious House. 

This family represents the Earls of Badenoch, whose 
curious Charters and Extracts of the Baron Court-books 
of Altyre have been published. 

[In 1657, Robert Comyii, the Laird of Altyre, married 

VOL. II. 12 



178 ALTYRE; BURGIE CASTLE; BLERVIE TOWER. 

Lucy, eldest daughter of Sir Ludovick Gordon of Gor- 
donston, through whom, on the death of Sir William 
Gordon in 1795, the estate of Gordonston devolved on 
Alexander Penrose Gumming of Altyre, who thereupon 
assumed the name and arms of Gordonston, and was 
created a Baronet of Great Britain in 1804, and died in 
1806. He was succeeded by Sir William Gordon Gordon 
Gumming, 2nd Bart, of Altyre and Gordonston, who mar- 
ried a daughter of Campbell of Islay, and grand-daughter 
of the 5th Duke of Argyll. Sir William died in 1854, and 
was succeeded by his son, Sir Alexander Penrose Gordon 
Cumming, 3rd Bart., who was born at Altyre in 1816. 
In 1845 he married Anne Pitcairn Campbell, only daughter 
of the Rev. Augustus Campbell, Rector of Liverpool. On 
Sir Alexander's death at Edinburgh in 1866, the present 
Baronet, Sir William Gordon Gordon Cumming, succeeded 
to the titles and estates, he being then in his 19th year. 

Burgle Castle is a striking fabric, consisting of a square 
tower of six storeys, built in 1602, now situated in the 
garden of an adjoining mansion of three storeys, pictur- 
esquely built partly from, the stones of the old castle in 
1702. The shrubberies and trees are beautiful. Dr. Wm. 
Gordon, M.D., occupies Burgie House. 

Burgin frequently occurs in the Registrum Episcopates 
Moraviense. It was attached to the Abbey of Kinloss. 
Alex. Dunbar was the first laird of the estate of Burgie, 
who married Katherine Reid, the niece of Robert Reid, 
the last Abbot. The date 1662, with the arms and initials 
of these Dunbars, are cut on the chimney-piece of the 
hall. Burgie is now the possession of the trustees of 
llobert Tulloch, deceased. 

Blervie Castle or Tower is about 2 miles south-east of 
Forres, and north of the manse of Rafford. A mere frag- 
ment now exists, excepting the square tower (containing 
the staircase) of five storeys an etching of which is 
given in Rhind's Sketches of Moray, as it stood in 1839. 
The present House of Blervie was built from the stones of 
the old castle of date 1398 as appears from a stone 
forming part of the chimney-piece of the hall, still in the 
ruins. The old pile stood for several hours fire-proof, 
when many loads of wood and turf were piled around it, 
in order, as was conjectured, to get more easy access to 
the stones than by punching them down. There is no 



PARISH OF RAFFORD; ITS SITE, SOIL, AND CLIMATE. 

trace of the family of Blarie, Blarvie, Blairvie, or Blervie, 
farther back than 1713-1724, when Alexander M'Intosh 
was laird. William, Earl of Fife, purchased it at the last 
date and it is now the possession of Mr. Grant Duff, 
M.P. for the Elgin Burghs.] (ED.) 

KAFFORD. 

[Situation, Soil, Climate. The body of this parish lies 
southward of Forres, in an extension of the plain into the 
mountain, along the western end of the hill which sepa- 
rates the vale of Pluscarden from the dales of Alves, to 
which upon the northern side of this hill a wing of this 
parish is stretched. From the extremity of this wing at 
the east to the border of Edinkillie at the west, the parish 
measures 8 miles ; but its mean length in this direction, 
equal to its mean breadth, may be estimated only at the 
half of that extent. The name in Gaelic may be Math-ard, 
signifying the hovel of the height, or shealing, as it is 
denominated in the Highlands of Scotland, a sorry tem- 
porary turf cabin, for the accommodation of mountain 
pasturage, having at the first probably occupied the 
station of the old tower of Blervie. 

The face of the country is much diversified: a con- 
siderable reach of the bottom of the valley lies so level, 
as easily to send a part of the water of a small lake south- 
ward towards Dollas, where it joins the Lochty, turning 
eastward through Pluscarden, and northward by the 
Church to Forres and the bay of Findern. A consider- 
able part of the arable field lies on the plains at the 
bottom, and a great pai't on the sloping sides of the hills. 
In some places, the soil is a deep fertile clay ; in others, a 
light burning sand : a black shallow soil, incumbent on 
rock, occupies some part ; and a bed of moorish soil, in 
many places so thin as scarcely to cover the flat sloping 
rocks, appears in other parts ; and a great proportion con- 
sists of a rough brown gravel, on a bottom of small pebble, 
so firmly cemented by some mineral, probably iron ore, 
as to be impenetrable by the utmost power of the 
plough. The air is rather dry than moist, and rather 
healthful than otherwise. 

State of Property. There are three family-seats in the 
parish. Burgle Castle, the property of Lewis Dunbar, 
Esq., of Grange, has been above described. His valued 



180 STATE OF PROPERTY IN RAFFORD PARISH. 



rent in this parish amounts to 877 13s. 8d. Scots. 
The Hon. Major Lewis Duff, of Blervie, quitting the 
ancient castled residence of the Dunbars on the summit 
of the hill, has built a handsome modern seat, snugly 
shelterednear its western bottom, embellished with plan- 
tations, gardens, and ornamented grounds: the valued 
rent amounts to 517 17s. 4d. Scots. Altyr, the family 
seat of Colonel Alexander Penrose Cuming Gordon, is 
a plain old building, with neat modern wings. Widely- 
extended plantations, a spacious garden, and a long reach 
of fruit wall, exhibit at this place utility in alliance with 
embellishment: the valued rent is 670 13s. Scots. While 
these gentlemen thus contribute to the improvement of 
the country at their own residences, the Earl of Moray 
has done more than co-operated with them, in the 
superior neatness of the dwellings of his tenants at 
Clunie and Tarras, and in the improved appearance of 
their fields. His Lordship's valued rent of these lands 
amounts to 541 14s. lOd. extending the valuation of 
the parish to 2613 18s. lOd. Scots: the present real rent 
is estimated at 1800 sterling. There are several of the 
farms in the low grounds pretty extensive ; but they are 
of small extent in the hilly parts of the parish. Making 
a reasonable allowance for the value of the improved 
inclosures in the occupation of the proprietors, the mean 
rent is equal to 1 6s. sterling the acre. 

State Ecclesiastical. Rafford was the seat of the sub- 
chanter in the diocese. Of the state of the parish of 
Altyr before the Reformation, there is nothing certainly 
known : it never had a pastor for itself, under any of the 
Protestant dispensations. Though a part of the parish of 
Delias, it had an independent parochial jurisdiction, the 
separate celebration of the sacraments, and public worship 
every third Sunday. In a parochial visitation of the 
clergy during the fervour of the Covenant, everything 
was found well ordered, save that the Sacrament had 
not been celebrated for the space of three years, which 
Mr. Strachan the minister excused, by the ignorance of 
the people, on account of the distance of his residence, 
but promised to do all he could to prepare them for it. 

Altyr is within two miles of Rafford, and nearly 14 
from Dollas, a desert mountain, often impassable, inter- 
vening for half that distance ; yet the annexation 



THE LAIKDOF ALTYRE'SOPPOSITION TO THE ANNEXATION. 181 



obstinately opposed by its proprietor, and its accomplish- 
ment required the utmost exertion of the clergy, great as 
their influence at that period was. The record bears, " it 
Avas for some time deferred, because the laird could not 
be found at home." When his presence was at last won, 
" he alleged he had weighty reasons against the annexa- 
tion, and craved a delay to state them in writing." They 
were not entered on the record : "but after many addresses 
made, and debating with him for many days, and Lord 
Brodie, having reasoned with him apart, reported, that 
having offered all arguments, perceived he had a mind to 
receive no satisfaction ; the presbytery laid the business 
to heart, and being much weighted therewith, did desire 
the laird of Altyre to tell his judgment, who, with all the 
elders and people, do acknowledge, with heaviness of 
mind, that there is a necessity of accommodation, and 
wish that a way may be found for remedy : the presby- 
tery being much affected with the sad condition of Delias 
and Altyr, agree that Altyr should be declared to be 
joined for accommodation to Rafford, and to crave the 
.approbation of the synod. And upon the 19th of August, 
1659, Mr. James Strachan of Dollas and Altyr was or- 
dained to intimate publicly to the people of Altyr, upon 
the Lord's day come eight days, that they were now dis- 
joined from Dollas, and annexed to the parish of Rafford, 
and ordained to repair to the said Parish Church in all 
time coming ; and Mr. Fullerton, minister thereof, to take 
up their names, and have a care of them as of the rest of 
his parishioners." Although this must have been agree- 
able to the people, both from their own ideas concerning 
religious obligation, and from the sanction of ecclesias- 
tical decree, at that time of no light estimation, yet so 
greatly did the awe of petty despotism preponderate, when 
the lives and properties of the inhabitants were under 
the arbitrary award of each capricious baronial proprietor, 
that in the parochial visitation of the succeeding year, 
" complaint is made by the minister, that Altyr and his 
people totally absented themselves from Rafford Church ; 
and the presbytery, after application and addresses made 
to Altyr, to move him fairly to his duty, ordain the 
minister to summon before them the Laird of Altyr, and 
the other inhabitants of the late parish there." It has 
-been already mentioned, that the authority of the Parlia- 



182 "" KIHK OF RAFFORD; SUENO'S STONE. 



raent was in the following year conjoined with the sanc- 
tion of the Church, by the Act which ratifies the erection 
of the parish of Kinloss. 

The Church at present is a mean fabric, but in a central 
situation. The stipend is 55 lls. Id. sterling, and G 
chalders of barley, the Communion allowance included. 
The right of patronage appertains to Miss Brodie of 
Lethin. The salary of the school, exclusive of the fees 
of teaching, and the perquisites of the Session-Clerk, are 16 
bolls of bear. The poor on the parish roll amount to 40 : 
the tenants who attend the Parochial Church contribute 
for their support about 9 sterling in the year, to which 
there is only to add the interest of 50. The members 
of the National Church are 1064, and the Seceders are 7. 

Miscellaneous Information. The people, on the whole, 
are a sensible, decent, and religious society. The great 
occupation of the female part is spinning flax raised on 
the farms, and manufactured into sheeting, diaper, and 
sackcloth ; and many of the poorer class spin the lint of 
the merchants, at lOd. and Is. the spindle. This gives 
employment to 16 or 17 looms in the parish. Several of 
the farmers also work up timber, and make their own 
ploughs, carts, and other implements. There is a fine 
quarry of freestone on the estate of Burgie, to which the 
access is easy, and the stone durable and not difficult in 
working. There is also a slate quarry on the estate of 
Clunie, let out by the tenant of that farm to quarriers, at 
the rate of 3s. 4d. the 1000 untrimmed slate. The noted 
Obelisk, called Sueno's Stone, on the estate of Tarras, has 
been amply described by Pennant and Cordiner. Ifc 
cannot be doubted, that it has been erected in memory 
of some important event which happened before the 
introduction of letters into Scotland. It is at once a 
specimen of hieroglyphic writing, and a monument of 
the state of the arts in this kingdom in an age very 
remote. The sculpture, if it had remained complete, could 
not even yet be deemed inelegant; and it must have 
required no small degree of skill to have quarried, trans- 
ported, and erected a Column of such height. Two cir- 
cumstances are somewhat surprising : that curiosity has 
never thought of exploring whether anything lies hid 
about its base; and, that regard for such a singularly 
splendid Monument has neither induced its noble owner, 



ORIGIN OF THE CUMMINGS OF ALTYRE. 18o 

or the gentlemen of the county, to preserve the figures it 
still exhibits from the effacing influence of the weather, 
by such a simple expedient as a coating or two of paint ; 
seeing the expense of a small ornamental building over it 
might be deemed too great a sacrifice to an object in 
which our ancestors only were interested.] {Survey of 
the Province of Moray.) 

And this leads ine to speak of 



THE FAMILY OF CUMMINE, COMYN, OB GUMMING. 

Cummine is a surname of great antiquity in 
Scotland ; but the origin of it is not agreed on. 
Some deduce it from Hungary, others from Nor- 
mandy with William the Conqueror ; but I 
incline to think that the name is a Scottish 
patronimic. 

It was anciently the custom to assume a sur- 
name from reputed saints, or eminent men ; as 
Anderson from St. Andrew ; Cuthbertson from 
St. Cuthbert ; Catanach, from St. Catan, &c. ; 
and the learned Primate Usher (Antiq. Eccles. 
Brit. cap. 15, p. 694 and 701) shows that Comin- 
eus Albus, anno 657, was the sixth Abbot of the 
1st ColumbKill ; from whom I would deduce the 
name. And the frequent mention of the Cum- 
mines, in the llth and 12th centuries, is a 
presumption of a higher original than the days of 
William the Conqueror. 

The direct line of the family of Cuminine, from 
father to son, is as follows : (1) Comes Robertas 
Cummine was killed in the battle of Alnwick in 



184 THE RED AND BLACK CUMMINS; LORD BADENOCH. 

1093. His son (2) John, whose brother William 
was Chancellor to King David L, was father of 
(3) Sir William, who married Hexilda, grand- 
daughter of King Donald the Usurper, and was 
father of (4) William, Lord Chamberlain to King 
William. His son (5), Sir Eichard, was father of 
Sir John, the Red Cummine, Lord Badenoch, 
and of Sir Walter, Earl of Monteith, and Sir 
William, Earl of Buchan. (6) Sir John, Lord 
Badenoch, was father of (7) John, the Black 
Cummine, one of the Governors of Scotland in 
1286, who married Marjory, sister of King John 
Baliol, which wrapped him into the Baliol inter- 
est, to the ruin of his family. His son (8) John, 
Lord Badenoch, was killed by Eobert Bruce in 
the Church of Dumfries, in 1306, leaving a son 
(9) John, who died without issue in 1326 ; and 
in hun failed the direct line of a family, once the 
most populous and powerful in Scotland. 

Tradition bears that the family of Altyre is 
come off a son of the direct line ; but at what 
time I find not. They resided for some gene- 
rations in Strath-Dallas, and built the Tower 
there. How early they assumed the title of 
Altyre I know not. But I find in a contract 
between William Thane of Calder and Hutcheon 
Rose of Kilravock, 21st June, 1482, Thbmas 
Cummine of Altyre is arbiter. I have not seen, 
the writes of this family, and therefore will not 
offer to deduce the genealogy of it. 



THE PARISH OF EDINKILLIE. 185 



[The present representative is Sir William Gordon- 
Oordou, Bart. (cr. 1804), eldest son of the late Sir Alex. 
Penrose Gordon -Gumming, Bart, of Altyre, by Anne, 
daughter of the Rev. Augustus Campbell, Rector of 
Liverpool, born 1848 ; succeeded as 4th Bart., 1866 ; edu- 
cated at Eton. Heir presumptive, his brother, Alexander 
Penrose, educated at Harrow ; born 1853 ; married at 
Washington, 1877, Frances Campbell, only daughter of 
the late Hon. Charles Eames, United States Minister at 
Venezuela ; and has a daughter, Margaret Campbell, born 
^t Washington, U.S., 3rd April, 1878.] (ED.) 

They carry the paternal arms of Cummine, 
without any mark of cadency, viz., Az. 3 Garbs 
of Cummines, Or. 

Arms of the House of Altyre. Azure, three garbs of wheat, 
Or. Crest, a Lyon rampant, Or. holding in his dexter paw a 
Dagger proper. Motto. COURAGE. Supporters, two Horses at 
liberty, Argent ; Their manes, tails, and hoofs, Or. 

Following the course of the river Erne, I now 
proceed to 

EDINKILLIE PAHISH, 

I.e. the Face of the Wood, or a Wood in the 
face of the Hill. I incline to think that here 
was the Kawood and Logiefoidikenach men- 
tioned [in a Chart by Alexander, King of the 
Scots, dated at Dishington, in Northumbria, the 
30th Sept., in the 22nd year of his reign, grant- 
ing to Andrew, Bishop of Moray, and to his 
successors in office, three davochs of Finlarg, in 
$trathspey, in exchange for the above], and that 
most part of this parish was anciently a forest. 
It now lieth on both sides of the river Erne. 



1SG THE PARISH OF EDINKILLIE. 

The Church standeth on a brook, called Duvie 
[Divie], 5 miles south of Forres, 3 miles north- 
east of Ardclach, and 7 miles north of Cromdale. 

In the south-east of the parish, a part of 
the estate of Altyre, viz., Phorp, Brylac, Dallas- 
brachtie, &c., lie in the face of the ridge of hills 
towards Strathspey. Westward on the river 
is Sluie, pertaining to James Cummine (grandson 
of Mr. David Cummine, minister at Edinkillie) of 
the family of Relucas. Above which, on the 
river, is Logie, the heritage of Eobert Cummine, 
a branch of the House of Altyre. 

Next up the river, and south of Duvie-water r 
which here falleth into the river, is Eelucas, 
the heritage of Dr. Patrick Cummine, minister 
at Edinburgh, whose family have enjoyed that 
estate for several generations. 

In the south end of the parish, on a brook 
called Dava, are the lands of Knock, Tombain, 
Kerraw, &c., the property of the Earl of Moray. 
On the west side of the river Erne, the parish 
runneth north to the gates of Tarnua Castlo. 
The lands of Dunduff, in this parish, were the 
heritage of William Falconer, son of Alexander of 
Halkerton and Leithin, and father of Colin, 
Bishop of Moray ; but now all this part of 
the parish is the property of the Earl of Moray, 
and the whole parish was anciently a part of that 
Earldom. 

From Relucas to the S.E., on both sides of 



TOWER OF DUNPHAIL CASTLE. 187 

Duvie water, is the barony of Dunphail, which 
was the heritage of Dunbar of Dunphail, de- 
scended of Westfield, for near 250 years, and 
about 1738 purchased by Colonel Ludovick 
Grant, brother to Sir James Grant of Grant. 
The Colonel dying in 1742, in the expedition 
to Carthagena, the barony is now the property of 
Sir James Grant. 

[Helen, 5th daughter of Sir Ludovick Grant, married Sir 
Alex. Penrose Gordon Gumming of Altyre, and the estate 
of Dunphail was purchased by Sir Alexander from Sir 
James Grant, the above Lady Helen Grant's brother. On 
the death of Sir Alexander, in 1806, the estate was willed 
to his second son, Major Gumming, who married Mary 
Bruce of Kinnaird (a grand-daughter of Bruce, the Abys- 
sinian traveller), when he assumed the surname of Bruce. 

The Old Tower of Dunphail Castle stands on an isol- 
ated rock or conical hill beyond the Kirk of Edinkillie, 
6| miles south of Forres. It withstood a siege by Ran- 
dolph, Earl of Moray, after the Battle of the Standard. 
The modern mansion, in the Venetian style of Architec-- 
ture, from plans by Playfair, was built in 1829.1 (ED.) 

EDINKILLIE. 

[Situation, Soil, Climate. This parish extends west- 
ward 12 miles from the borders of Dollas and Rafford, and 
as far southerly from the confines of Forres. It lies 
partly along the bottom, and upon the side of the moun- 
tain, which has been described as ranging along the 
champaign of Moray ; from which circumstance its Scots 
name is Brea-Mway, that is, the acclivity of Moray. 
Its ancient Gaelic appellation, AODINCOILIE, signifies the 
face of the wood ; and a charter from King David Bruce, 
another towards the end of the 15th century, and the 
great quantities of oak, fir, and other kinds of timber, 
still dug from the tracks of peat soil, concur to show that 
the whole face of the country was covered with wood. 
It then contained two royal forests Di ummynde, that is. 
the venison hill, now destitute of wood, and Darnway, 



188 CUMMING OF LOGIE; GUMMING OF RELUCAS. 

still covering almost 1000 acres. The river Findern 
Divides the parish for some miles, and two of its most con- 
siderable branches have the whole of their courses within 
its extent the Duvie, that is, the black water, descending 
from the hills which border upon Cromdale, meets a little 
below the Church with the Durbach, discharged from the 
lake of Lochnadorb, on the western boundary of the 
parish. These rivers are supposed by their rapidity to 
purify the air, which is healthful, never tainted by 
noxious fogs, or pernicious exhalations. The soil of the 
lower parts near the rivers is sandy, of a light dry 
quality, and fertile when properly managed ; but a great 
proportion is moorish, and extensive moors remain to 
be improved. 

State of Property. The parish appertains to four pro- 
prietors. In a beautiful wooded dale, on the southern 
bank of the Findern, is the family seat of Robert Cuming 
of Logie, Esq., a large modern handsome house of four 
storeys, with an elegant pavilion roof. To the extensive 
garden which his ancestors had formed he has added an 
orchard of 4 acres, sheltered by groves of forest trees, and 
a winding bank, from every adverse blast. A number of 
ash trees have shot up to the height of almost 100 
feet, but the fruit trees stand open to the reverberated 
power of the southern sun, and in general the crop is 
plentiful. The estate is embellished by plantations and 
natural wood to a considerable extent. Its valued rent 
is 239 15s. lOd. Scots. 

A little higher up upon the Divie is llelucas, the seat of 
George Cuming, Esq., Writer to the Signet. The house is 
elegant, embellished by enclosures, plantations, and many 
well-disposed groves, equal in whole to 200 acres, among 
which are intermingled more than 60,000 thriving oaks. 
Many enchanting walks have been also formed along the 
winding banks both of the Duvie and Findern, which 
unite their streams a little below the house. The valued 
rent is 194 9s. 8d. 

There is also some natural wood, and a full-grown 
plantation of fir of considerable extent, upon the barony 
of Dumphail, which, with the lands of Phorp, Edinkillie, 
Tulliglens, and Dallasbraughty, appertain to Colonel 
Alexander Penrose Cuming of Altyr and Gordonstown, 
amounting to the valuation of 679 9s. 2d. 



1)1?. DUNCAN GUMMING OF BELUGAS. 18J) 



The rest of the parish is the property of the Earl of 
Moray. In the higher district, the lands of Brea-Moray 
extend from the sources of the Duvie to the banks of 
Lochnadorb, upon a part of which Mr. Forbes of Culloden 
holds a lease, and has built handsome hunting quarters. 
In the lower district of the parish, where its boundary is 
formed by a brook winding through the gardens, and 
purling under the Castle of Darnaway, the forest extends 
more than 5 miles, mostly on the northern bank of the 
Findern. exhibiting a vast extent of oak, ash, elm, and 
venerable fir, blended with the distinguished form of the 
weeping birch, in countless multitude, and the bole of 
many more than 8 feet in circumference. His Lordship's 
valued rent in this parish of 831 13s. 4d. makes its total 
valuation equal to 1945 8s. Scots. The farms are of 
small extent, from 3 to 10, a few rising to the rent of 
20. The arable laud may be estimated at the mean 
rent of 15s. the acre. 

State Ecclesiastical. The Church is in a central situa- 
tion, on the banks of the Duvie, which tumbles through 
a deep rocky channel under the Manse, in a steep bank of 
which, inaccessible to cattle, a few aspin, birch, and geen 
trees, have established themselves. The stipend, includ- 
ing the allowance for the Communion, is 70 sterling, and 
3 chalders of victual, the one half barley, the other oat- 
meal. The glebe, which the incumbent has inclosed, is 8 
acres, exclusive of a small garden. The right of patron- 
age appertains to the family of Moray. The salary of 
the parochial school was doubled in the year 1796, and 
now amounts to the revenue of 11 2s. 2d. 8-12ths ster- 
ling. With the fees of education, and the emoluments of 
Session-Clerk, it is almost equal to 18 in the year. 

Dr. Duncan Curning, of the family of Relucos, physician 
to King William, at the Battle of the Boyne, settled 
afterwards in Dublin, made a donation in the year 1714 
to the Society for Christian Knowledge, with a recom- 
mendation to establish therewith 3 schools in the parish 
of his nativity. This donation of 261 13s. 7d. sterling, 
at that time of no small account, is equal at present to the 
maintenance of two schools one established at Relucos, 
retaining about 20 scholars, and the other in the forest of 
Darnway, retaining about 30, which is also the mean 
number attending the parochial school ; and a school- 



190 THE DUN OF RELUGAS, PARISH OF EUINKILLIE. 

mistress upon the estate of Logic retains about a dozen. 
Though pretty numerous in winter, they fail greatly, on 
account of tending the cattle, in the summer months. 
The whole number who were entered in all the schools in 
the course of the year 1796, amounted to 200. 

The number of the poor on the roll is 33. The provi- 
sion for their support, arising wholly from the contribu- 
tions of the people, who themselves are far from opulent, 
exceeds not 5 in the year. The number of the people, 
by an accurate enumeration in 1793, amounted exactly 
to 1312, all members of the National Church. 

Miscellaneous Information. In the upper part of the 
parish the Gaelic language is much in use. About 50 
years ago, half the public worship was performed in that 
tongue ; and in the remaining parishes of this survey, 
Dyke and Auldern excluded, until it reach to Knockando 
and Aberlour, upon the banks of the Spey, that dialect 
may be still accounted the mother tongue. The people, 
though poor, are in general honest, and far from backward 
in extending their charity. Their ideas respecting reli- 
gion are rigidly Calvinistical. 

The Dun or Doun of Relugas seems to have been a 
place of defence more ancient than the ancient fortresses 
of Lochnadorb and Dunphail. It is a conical hill. Round 
a considerable part of its base, the rapid stream of Divie 
occupies a deep rocky channel. The other part is guarded 
by a ditch equally impassable, having the sides lined by a 
strong rampart of stone, bearing in some parts the appear- 
ance of vitrification. The summit, 220 feet of perpendi- 
cular height above the river, is a level space of 60 by 20 
yards. When the country was shrouded in wood, it must 
have been concealed, and so far inaccessible as to have 
been easily defended by a few. It is at present occupied 
only as nursery ground. 

Sir James Grant of Grant has lately formed a new road 
from Grantown to Elgin, lessening the distance on the 
whole about 6 miles. In the course of this road, passing 
through the southern side of the parish tending to Plus- 
carden, a circumstance was discovered, establishing the 
formation of peat earth, from the natural dissolution of 
wood. In cutting through a bed of this substance, about 
2 feet from the surface, a matted layer of the roots of fir 
trees was found to have grown upon an under bed of the 



ORIGIN OF THE CUMMINGS OF RELUGAS. 191 

same kind of soil, which being also thrown up, a second 
tire of similar roots appeared, which had also grown upon 
a third bed of the same substance, which derived its 
original from the dissolution of the timber which grew 
upon the natural soil, the roots of which in a similar form 
remained in a firm sole of clay gravel, at the depth of 
nearly nine feet from the surface.] (Survey of the 
Province of Moray.} 

THE FAMILY OF CUMMINE OF RYLUCAS OR RELUGAS. 

It cannot be questioned that Cummine of 
Belugas is descended of the family of Lord 
Badenoch. It is said that they possessed the 
lands of Presley, above 300 years ago; and 
I think it probable that their ancestor was a 
son of Curnmiue of Glenchernich, a direct branch 
from Lord Badenoch. The lands of Belugas 
were purchased by James Cummine of Presley, 
son to William Cummine of Presley. This 
James was father of a numerous family x who 
were much and justly respected, and were firm 
adherers to the religion and liberties of their 
country, in the reigns of the Boyal Brothers. 
James of Belugas was much esteemed in the 
country of Moray. He was succeeded by his 
eldest son, John Cummine of Belugas. His 
second son, William, was Professor of Philo- 
sophy in the University of Edinburgh. John, 
the third son, was Minister of Aldearn, and 
Dean of Moray, a man of great piety and bene- 
volence. In the year 1681, he, with many more 
of the clergy, subscribed the Test, with an expli- 
cation ; but, upon reflection, he retracted, and 



192 THE CUMMINGS OF HELUGAS. 

demitted his charge in 1682 ; yet so much was; 
he regarded that the Earl of Findlater, to whom 
he was related, called him to the parish of 
Cullen, where he lived undisturbed. David, the 
4th son, was Minister of Edinkylie, a man of 
such knowledge and prudence, that his house 
was a little academy, in which the children 
of the best families in the neighbourhood had 
their education. Patrick, the 5th son, was 
Minister of Ormieston ; and Duncan, the young- 
est, was a Doctor of Medicine, and was Physi- 
cian to King William's army at the Battle of the 
Boyne in 1690. Afterwards he settled in Dublin, 
where he died in 1724. So great was his desire 
to propagate the knowledge of the Christian reli- 
gion that he made a contribution in Ireland, of 
which he himself gave .100 St., and upon this 
three schools were established in Edinkillie. 
John was succeeded by his eldest son, James 
Cummine of Relugas, who, by Jean, daughter 
of Robert Cummine of Altyre, had two sons 
Robert, his heir, and John, a physician in Irvine. 
Robert Cummine of Relugas, by Magdalene 
Fraser, of the family of Kinkell, a cadet of the 
house of Lovat, had two sons Patrick, his heir, 
and John. Robert was succeeded by his eldest 
son, the Rev. Mr. Patrick Cummine of Relugas, 
D.D., Regius Professor of Divinity and Ecclesi- 
astical History in the University of Edinburgh, 
and one of the Ministers of that city. 



DR. PATRICK GUMMING AND SIR THOS. DICK LAUDER. 193 

[He was leader of the General Assembly for 20 years. 
He was three times Moderator in 1749, 1752, and 1756. 
He died on the 1st April, 1776, in the 81st year of his 
age and 56th of his ministry. His eldest son, Robert, 
succeeded him as Professor of Church History and Divinity, 
in the University of Edinburgh. Dr. Cumin married 
Jean Lauder, daughter of David Lauder, 3rd son of Sir 
John Lauder of Fountainhall ; and besides Professor 
Robert, above mentioned, and another son, had Patrick, 
Professor of Oriental Languages in the University of 
Glasgow, and George, a Writer to the Signet in Edin- 
burgh. This younger son bought the estate of Relugas 
from his father, who set about improving its bare, rugged, 
and unpromising appearance, planted large tracts, and 
made it romantic and attractive. He died in 1804, leav- 
ing an only daughter, Charles Anne Cumin, who was 
heiress of Relugas, and married her 3rd cousin, Sir 
Thomas Dick Lauder, Bart, of Grange and Fountainhall, 
author of "The Moray Floods in 1829," " The Wolf of 
Badenoch," " Lochindorb," &c. In 1847 the estate was 
sold to Wm. M'Killigan of Ceylon, and at his death in 
1852, it was purchased by the present proprietor, George 
R. Smith, head of the firm of Smith, Payne & Smith, 
bankers, London. 

All that art, guided by good taste, could accomplish, in 
embellishing and exposing to view the natural beauties of 
the estate, has been done for it. Part of the former abode 
remains, bearing the date ] 785. In 1865 the proprietor 
erected, near Randolphis Bridge, on the banks of the 
Findhorn, a tablet with a Latin inscription, in gratitude 
to Major C. L. Gumming Bruce of Dunphail, M.P., for 
having designed the romantic walks through the woods 
and rocks along the hitherto almost inaccessible banks 
of the Findhorn. Graphic and exciting details of the 
devastation on the Relugas property are given at Chap. 
VII., Account of the Great Floods of August, 1829. '(ED.) 

THE FAMILY OF GUMMING OF LOGIE. 

[Robert Gumming, the 12th Baron of Altyre, by his 
wife, Isobel Innes, daughter of Sir Robert Innes of Bal- 
venie, had two sons Robert, his successor in the estate 
of Altyre ; and John, the first of this family. 

1. John Gumming, second son of Robert Gumming of 
VOL. II. 13 



194 THE FAMILY OF CUMMING OF LOGIE. 



Altyre, obtained from his brother, Robert, the lands of 
Pittyveach, in the parish of Mortlach, which he after- 
wards sold, and purchased the estate of Logie, in the 
parish of Edinkillie. He was a Major in the British 
army, and a Commissioner of Supply for the county 
of Elgin in 1678 and 1685. He married Barbara, a 
daughter of Gumming of Birness, by whom he had three 
sons and three daughters, viz. 1, Robert, his heir ; 2, 
William, who was a Minister of the Church of England, 
and had a benefice in that country (he married there, and 
had a son, William, a doctor of medicine) ; 3, David, died 
unmarried. First daughter, Jane, married to William 
Sutherland of Rosehaugh ; second, Barbara, died without 
issue ; third, a daughter, married to Robert Innes of Mun- 
dole. He was succeeded by his eldest son, 

2. Robert Gumming of Logie, who married Margaret, 
daughter of Andrew Leslie of Glen of Rothes and Bogs, 
by whom he had three sons 1, Alexander, his heir ; 2, 
James, died unmarried ; 3, William, who married, and 
had issue. 

3. Alexander Gumming of Logie succeeded his father. 
He married first, Lucy, daughter of D unbar of Burgie, 
by whom he had no surviving issue ; second, Grace, eldest 
daughter of James Grant of Rothiemurchus, by whom he 
had one son, Robert, and several daughters. The eldest 
daughter was married to John Rose of Holme. 

4. Robert Gumming of Logie, only son of the preceding. 
He married Leslie Baillie, daughter of Robert Baillie of 
Mayville, an Ayrshire proprietor. Her beauty and 
accomplishments have been immortalised by Robert 
Burns. By her he had five sons and one daughter ] , 
Alexander, his heir ; 2, Robert, an officer in India ; 3, 
George, doctor of medicine in India ; 4, John, Lieutenant- 
Colonel in the East India Company's service ; 5, William, 
doctor of medicine; daughter, Anne, married first to 
Capt. Eraser, and second, to Sir James Cox, M.D. Mr. 
Cumming's five sons all went to India, and most of them 
died there at an early age. The only survivor of the sons 
is Dr. William Gumming, who resides in Edinburgh, is an 
accomplished scholar, and the author of several literary 
works. Mrs. Gumming long survived her husband, and 
was much esteemed for her benevolence of character, 
kindness of disposition, and agreeable manners. 



ARDCLACH PARISH. 195 



5. Alexander Gumming of Logie, who went to India, 
married Louisa, daughter of Lieutenant-Colonel Martin 
White, Commandant in Bengal, and had three daughters, 
among whom were Leslie and Emily Frances. He died 
at an early age. His eldest daughter succeeded. She 
was accidentally burnt to death, in consequence of her 
dress taking fire. She was succeeded by her sister, 
Emily Frances. 

6. Emily Frances, married to Captain Valiant Gum- 
ming, younger son of Sir Thomas Valiant, who, on his 
marriage, assumed the name of Gumming, and by whom 
she has issue. Her husband died at Bath in the year 
1866, from the effects of an accident, having been acci- 
dentally thrown from his carriage. 

Logie House is in the old Baronial style of architecture, 
and has been greatly enlarged some years ago.] (ED.) 

Next is 

THE PARISH OF AEDCLACH, 

I.e., a stony high ground, on both sides of the 
river. The Church standeth on the south-west 
bank of the river, 3 miles south-west of Edinkillie, 
9 miles south-east of Moy, and 5 miles east of 
C alder. On the east side of the river are the 
lands of Ardrie, Logie, Femes, and Aitnach, 
pertaining to Hugh Kose of Kilravock ; and above 
these is Dunern, the property of the family of 
Brodie of Lethin. Close by the Church of Edin- 
killie, on the opposite side of the brook, is Glen- 
ernie, a small feu possessed for several generations 
by a branch of the Erasers, descended of Hugh, 
laird of Beaufort, who died anno 1450. In 1526, 
Dallasbrachtie, Craigroy, Glenernie [Note, these 
now belong to Altyre], Ardrie, and Logiegown, 
were the feu-property of James Dunbar of Cunzie 



196 THE PARISH OF ARDCLACH. 

and Kilbuyack (pen. Cald.). Mr. James Grant 
of Ardnellie, son of Duncan Grant of Grant, 
purchased Logie and Arderie ; and his son, John 
of Logie, having purchased Moyness, his ' brother 
William had Logie, from whose heirs it came to 
Kilravock. The lands of Femes and Aitnach were 
sold by Bishop Patrick Hepburn to John Wood 
of Tilliderie, who disponed them to Kilravock. 

On the west side of the river, and close by it, 
is Daltulick and Culmonie, purchased from Bishop 
Hepburn in 1545, and ratified by the Pope's bull 
in 1548. At Culmonie, Kilravock has built a 
neat summer-house, and adorned the place with 
planting and enclosures. North-west is the 
barony of Bellivat and Middle Fleenes, which, 
for several generations, were the heritage of Rose 
of Bellivat (afterwards Blackballs), and about the 
year 1605 were sold to Falconer of Lethin, and 
they are now the property of Brodie of Lethin, 
and so are the lands above Culmonie, on the side 
of the river, above three miles. These were a 
part of the estate of Lethin (Vid. Aldern. Par.). 
The lands of Keppernack and Boath, in the 
south-west end of the parish, and Benhir in the 
Streins, are the property of John Campbell of 
Calder. Anno 1236, regni Alexander II. 22 
Alexander de Horstrot obtained a charter of 
Boath and Benchir (pen. Gald.), and from him 
the Thane of Calder purchased it. In 1568, 
Fleenes and Keppernach was the property of Mr. 



THE STREENS; SCULPTURED STONE NEAR FARNESS. 107 

Alexander Campbell, son of Sir John Campbell 
of Calder, sold to Sir John 25th June, 1545, by 
Patrick Hepburn, Bishop of Moray (pen. Cold.}. 
And Alexander's great-grandson, John Campbell 
of Moy, sold these lands to John Hay of Lochloy, 
anno 1665, who disponed them to Sir Hugh 
Campbell of Calder, anno 1669 (Ibid.) Two 
miles above the Church is the Bridge of Doulasie 
[Dulsie], and for 4 miles farther the strath or 
valley is very narrow, enclosed with high hills, 
and called the Streins [or Streens, from the sides 
of which are precipitous mountains of granite], 
consisting of three davachs of land, the lower in 
Ardclach, the middle in Calder, and the upper in 
Moy parish, all the property of John Campbell 
of Calder. 

[The Streens have been made accessible to carriages by 
i\ road formed by Lord Cawdor for the use of his tenants, 
and which, proceeding from the village of Cawdor is 
about 9 miles long. 

About a mile below Dulsie, a beautiful sequestered 
holm, adjoining the house and policies of Farness (Dougall), 
greets the traveller, enriched with terraced banks and 
birchen bowers, and in the centre of it rises a small Cairn, 
with an ancient sculptured Tablet, about 8 feet high and 
4 feet broad, standing at one end of it, and having a rude 
Cross and many runic knots discernible. Tradition calls 
it the Stone of memorial of a Celtic princess who was 
drowned in the adjoining river while attempting to ford 
it on horseback with her lover, a Dane. More likely it 
was the Cross of an early Christian hermit.] (ED.) 



198 THE LOCH OP MOY; MOYHALL ; CHURCH-LANDS. 



This leads me to 

THE PAEISH OF MOY. 

The united parish of Moy and Dalarasie [Dala- 
rossie, or Dalfergussie.] Moy, from the Irish 
Mayhj signifies a meadow or plain; and Dale- 
Fergusie is Fergus's valley. This parish stretcheth 
on both sides of the river about 15 miles, and is 
strictly called Strathearn [or Stratlidearn,~\ a part 
of the ancient Earldom of Moray. On the south 
west of the river, above the Streins, the Davach 
of Moy jutteth north west among the hills above 
2 miles, in the middle of which is the Loch of 
Moy, a mile long, and a half mile broad. Here, 
in an island, the Lairds of Macintosh had a 
house, as yet entire, where they resided in times 
of trouble. Now they have Moyhall, a good 
house and convenient summer-seat, at the west 
end of the loch. So rich is the loch of delicious 
red-bellied trouts, called Red-wames, that I have 
seen near 200 taken with one draught of a small 
net. The lands of Moy were purchased from the 
Bishop of Moray : and Macintosh took a new 
right from Bishop Hepburn in October, 1545 (in 
the possession of the family of Macintosh). 
Above Moy, on that side of the river, are Toma- 
tin, pertaining to a gentleman of the name of 
MacQueen ; Free or Forest, belonging to Macin- 
tosh of Holm ; and the lands of Kylachie (all 
holding of the Earl of Moray), the property of 



PROPERTIES IN THE PARISH OF MOY. 199 

Alexander Macintosh of London, merchant, the 
9th in descent of the family of Kylachie. Above 
Kylachie is Invermasran, the property of Kilra- 
vock, from the year 1460. 

On the north east of the river, in the lower 
end of the parish is Pollochack, the property of 
MacQueen of that place. Next up the river is 
Corebruch, the heritage of Macintosh of Core- 
bruch ; above which is Corebruch MacQueen, the 
property of Donald MacQueen, chief of that 
branch of the Clanchattan. Some miles further 
up is Delmigvie. This was a part of the estate 
of Westfield, given by Sir Alexander Dunbar, to 
his son David in 1495, disponed to Campbell of 
Calder in 1608, and feued by him to Lachlan 
Macintosh of Kylachie, in 1614, whose great 
grandson, Donald Macintosh, now enjoyeth it. 
Above Dalmigvie, on both sides of the river, is 
the Davach of Sevin, which was a part of the 
castle lands of Inverness (Vid. Milit. Hist), and 
given by the Earl of Huntley, as a part of the 
assythment for the murder of Macintosh in 1550 r 
and it is the property of Macintosh. 

The Church of Moy standeth on the west 
bank of the Loch of Moy, 3 miles south of 
Deviot, and 9 miles south west of Ardclach. 

[Moy Hall, at the head of the loch, is a plain modern 
house of three storeys, with wings. The present occu- 
pant, Capt. Grant, inherited it from his father, James 
Murray Grant of Glenmorriston. It was indeed an hospit- 
able hall, when Mr. Suter rescued several families in the 



200 MOY HALL ; THE CURSE AND ROUT OF MOY. 

terrific flood of 1829. It contains the sword of Viscount 
Dundee as also another given by Pope Leo X., to King 
James V., and by him to the chief of the Clan Chattan. 

In recounting the old clan fights as detailed by Sir 
Robert Gordon "the Curse of Moy," as preserved in 
song and the heroism of its lady and its blacksmith, 
who saved Prince Charles in 1746 the stranger will 
have enough to muse on as he hastens by its low and 
woody shores. Besides the main island, fortress, and 
parterre, " where many a garden flower still grows wild," 
there is a small islet of loose stones (said to be artificial) 
near the southern end of the lake, which formed the 
chieftain's prison house. A handsome granite obelisk, 70 
feet high, on a base of about 20 feet square, has been 
erected on the largest island to the memory of Sir Eneas 
Mackintosh, Bart., one of the last chiefs of the clan. On 
the west side of Loch Moy, are the Church and Manse of 
the parish ; and at the north end, Moy Hall, the principal 
residence of the chief of Mackintosh, who has erected, 
hard by, a small but convenient inn. 

The story of the exploit of Lady Mackintosh, a daughter 
of Farquharson of Invercauld, and the blacksmith just 
alluded to, deserves repetition, as, comparing the means 
with the end, an instance of almost unparalleled success 
attending a very simple ruse. On the 16th March, 1746, 
she received intelligence that Lord Loudon, having learned 
that Prince Charles was to be entertained that night at 
Moy Hall by the Lady, who was a staunch Jacobite, 
though her husband, then absent, exerted himself on 
behalf of Government, was on his way from Inverness 
with a body of 1500 men, in hopes of capturing " the Pre- 
tender " by surprise. Consulting with Donald Fraser, 
blacksmith at Moybeg, a shrewd and enterprising man, 
he, with five other men selected by her, proceeded in the 
dusk of the evening to a small pass at the Hill of Craig- 
an-Oin, at the boundary between the parishes of Moy 
and Daviot. Here they ensconced themselves, at inter- 
vals of some hundred yards, behind some heaps of peat 
and turf set up to dry. On the approach of the troops, a 
command was passed by Donald, and from man to man, 
in a stentorian voice " The Mackintoshes, Macgillivrays, 
and Macbeans to form the centre, the Macdonalds on the 
right, and the Frasers on the left." A few shots were also 



GAELIC DERIVATIONS OF PLACES IN MOY. 201 

fired, when a soldier of the advance guard was killed. 
London's imagination, in the twilight, converted the peat 
hags into armed men, and concluding that the Highland 
army were drawn up to oppose him, he actually ordered 
his men to the right about; and not content with making 
them retrace their steps with all expedition to Inverness, 
carried them across three arms of the sea all the way to 
Sutherland. This affair, in which one man almost literally 
put a thousand to flight, was aptly characterised as the 
RoutofMoy.} (ED.) 

MOY AND DALAROSSIE. 

[Situation, Soil, Climate. This parish, comprehending 
the sources of the Findhorn, conjoins with Ardclach and 
Calder on the south and south west. Its greatest length 
along the course of the river is nearly 30 miles : its mean 
breadth is about 5. The country is barren, bleak, and 
mountainous. The cultivated ground, in narrow stripes 
or small stripes on the banks of the river, exceeds not the 
30th part of the parish. The principal source of the Find- 
horn, at the distance of 50 miles from its termination, is 
a copious stream, issuing from the fissure of a great rock 
called "the Cloven Stone." The Gaelic name of the river is 
the uisgern ; and, from the length of its course, between 
high mountains in this parish, it is called Strathem : 
-although, from a narrow pass towards Inverness, by 
which, in the honest times of o\ir more godly ancestors, 
inroads were made into the low country, and where a few 
could stop pursuit, its ancient name was star-sach-na-gaul, 
the threshold of the Highlanders. This pass was found 
then so convenient for the more remote banditti of Bade- 
noch and Strathspey, that, for the free use of it, they 
agreed to pay the proprietor a tithe of the spoil. The 
peculiar Gaelic epithet of this honourable acquirement 
is impressively remembered, signifying "the collop of the 
prey," which consisted chiefly in cattle. After the district 
was cleared of wood, and partly cultivated, it obtained 
the softer appellation of Moy, denoting the plain. The 
greater part of the district under this appellation is a 
valley, detached in a direction north west from the course 
of the river, which itself stretches up towards the south 
west. The modern name of the other district signifies 
" the valley of Fergus." The soil of the cultivated ground 



202 PROPERTIES IN HOY AND DALAROSSIE. 

is for the most part of a very good quality, but the climate 
is much colder than that of the neighbouring parishes, and 
the crops later. The snow in general begins to fall by the 
middle of November, and frequently continues till March 
or April ; but the inhabitants are healthy, and several 
have attained nearly to the age of 90 years. 

State of Property. Moyhall, the family seat of ^Eneas 
Mackintosh of Mackintosh, the chieftain of the clan, is 
valued with the lands of Suffin at 674 13s. 4d. Dr. 
James Mackintosh of Kylachy, the author of the Vindiciw 
Gal. inherits Easter Banchar and Wester Strathnoon, 
valued at 510 6s. 8d. William Mackintosh of Balnespie 
has Easter Strathnoon and Muckle Corrybrugh, at 276 
13s. 4d. Lachlan Mackintosh holds Raigmore, valued at 
90. William Mackintosh of Aberairder has Invermasron, 
at 53 6s. 8d. John Mackintosh possesses Dalmigvie, at 
79 10s. Angus Mackintosh of Holm inherits Frae, at 
46 13s. 4d. Dugald Macqueen holds Pollockchak, at 
50: and Lachlan Macpherson has West Banchar, at 50 : 
extending the whole valuation of the parish to the sum 
of 2142 10s. 

The real rent is about .1000 sterling. Pasturage is 
the important object. The farms, though of considerable 
extent, are for the most part let from o to 10 of rent : 
their number is counted about 200. Besides the money 
rent, each tenant is burdened with the payment of wed- 
ders, fowls, eggs, and other articles, and much labour in 
the digging and carriage of fuel, in reaping the corn, and 
in carriages to and from distant parts of the country : all 
which, though noway perceived in the revenue of the 
proprietor, most effectually check the improvement of the 
country, and mar all calculation of the value of land. 
The shortness of the labouring season requires 246 ploughs, 
each in general drawn by 4 horses, to which 2 oxen are 
in some cases added. The number of horses is about 900, 
black cattle, 1800, and sheep 12,000. The rents are paid, 
and such necessaries as the farms do not produce, are pro- 
vided by the yearly sale of part of the live stock. 

State Ecclesiastical. It has been already noticed, that 
the Presbytery of Inverness was established a separate 
judicature in the year 1708, into which, in the arrange- 
ment of this undertaking, this parish falls to be the first. 

Although Moy and Dalarossie in some respects are 



OBELISK ON THE ISLET OF MOY. 203 

unconnected, each having its own Church, they have been 
under the charge of one pastor since Roman Catholic 
times. The residence is in Moy, but part of the glebe is 
9 miles distant, at the Church of Dalarossie. The stipend 
is 69 14s. 2d. sterling. The right of patronage appertains 
to the family of Kilravock. The salary of the school is 
8 6s. 8d., and 2 10s. as the fee of the Session-Clerk, 
which, with the other emoluments, makes the whole 
establishment about 20 yearly. The poor in general do 
something for their own support : the annual fund raised, 
as in the neighbouring parishes, is about 5 sterling. 
Many depend on begging for their maintenance. There 
are a few of the inhabitants of the Episcopalian persua- 
sion ; but as the whole perform the duties of public wor- 
ship in the Parish Church, they may be all accounted of 
the National establishment : their number amounts to 
1813 souls. 

Miscellaneous Information. In their sentiments the 
people are extremely wedded to prejudice, and in their 
manners to old custom. They may perhaps be religious; 
but it is certain that in one case they preferred sacrifice 
to mercy. The language, dress, and most of the peculiari- 
ties of the ancient Highlanders continue without altera- 
tion : their houses are of the same construction with those 
of their predecessors for many generations, the fire-place 
near the middle, and the family seated around it. In the 
stormy season of winter, the severity of the weather 
arrests all industry in the field : the care of their cattle is 
.almost their only occupation. In the spring, their exer- 
tions are great and unremitting till the seed time is over; 
in the harvest, they are equally diligent in securing their 
crop before the winter sets in ; and the great labour in 
summer consists in providing the stock of fuel. 

The Lake of Moy is somewhat more than a mile in 
length, and rather less than one in breadth. It abounds 
in char, and a variety of other trout of various size and 
colour. Near its middle is an island, [There is a granite 
Obelisk, 70 ft. high, erected on this islet to the memory 
of the last of the chiefs Sir Eneas Mackintosh, Bart.] 
about 2 acres in extent, nearly in the shape of a violin : 
on its southern end are the ruins of ancient buildings, of 
considerable extent: the remains of a street, the whole 
length of the island, and the foundations of houses on each 



204 ANCIENT RUINS ON THE ISLET OF MOY. 

side, are readily distinguishable. In the year 1762, two 
ovens were discovered, each capable of baking 150 Ib. 
avoirdupois of meal. In the year 1422 it contained a 
garrison of 400 men, and here the chief of Mackintosh 
resided, except during the winter, when the country was 
inaccessible. The walls of a more modern building remain 
pretty entire : an Inscription over the gate imports, that 
it was built in 1655 by Lachlan, the 20th chieftain of the 
clan. The garden, stocked with fruit trees and bushes, 
is still in cultivation. 

At the distance of several hundred yards, is another 
small island, formed by the accumulation of common 
rounded stone. It was the prison, when the punishment 
of malefactors was vested in the Chiefs. The miserable 
prisoner could scarcely stand with dry feet when the lake 
was at the lowest; but in the season of rain, if the surface 
was then no higher than now, the water rose nearly to 
its middle ; but within the space of 24 hours he was con- 
demned or set free, 

Near the north end of the Lake, there is a chalybeate 
spring, accounted medicinal for headaches and disorders 
in the stomach. There is a considerable extent of natural 
wood, chiefly birch and aller, upon the banks of the Find- 
horn.] (Survey of ike Province of Moray.} 

[Moy and Dalarassie (says Shaw) are united parishes. 
The latter is probably the Church of " Dalgergussyn in 
Stratherne," which Bishop Andrew confirmed to the 
Church of the Holy Trinity of Elgin, about 1224-42 (Reg. 
Epis. Morav. 71.) It stood near Moy, and under the 
name of Tallaracie, it appears as one of the mensal 
churches. The teinds of the parish of Moy were con- 
firmed to the Church of the Pope in 1222, and the Church 
" de Moy " (Theiner ) is rated at 8s. 9d. in the taxation of 
1275. In the taxation of the diocese, about 1350, the 
Prebend of Moy is rated at 10 merks. In 1574, George 
Simson was " reidare at Moy," and the minister bore the 
same sirname. Simson's predecessor in the Kirk of Moy 
was Sir Wm. Sutherland (Sir being a title of courtesy 
for Churchmen in old times) ; but Sutherland's profession 
and practice of "morality" seems to have had little in 
common ; for he not only " disobeyed " the charge of the 
Commissioner of the Church who had ordained him to 



SCULPTURED STONE FOUND AT THE CHURCH OF DYKE. 205 

" marie the woman " with whom he had been cohabiting ; 
but, " in despyte of the said Commissioner [he had] ryven 
his letters of charge thereto." 

In consequence of this disrespect to his brethren, and 
his non-appearance at the bar of the Assembly, he was, in 
1564, deprived of all ecclesiastical functions by the General 
Assembly. (Book of the Universal Kirk, 51.) 

The chief object of antiquarian interest in the united 
parishes is probably the sculptured Stone which was found 
by the workmen in digging the foundations of the present 
Parish Church of Dyke. It exhibits what are known as 
the Spectacle and Elephant figures; also a curiously 
interlaced Cross and other carvings. It stands within 
the Park of Brodie Castle, and is engraved in Stuart's 
Sculptured Stones of Scotland, vol. 1., Plate xxii. 

As stated before, the Churches of Dyke and Moy were 
united in 1618. The latter stood near the north-west 
corner of the Burial-ground, and in the vicinity of Moy 
Hall. The Grave-yard is surrounded by fine specimens 
of ash and plane trees. 

EPITAPHS IN THE CHURCHYARD OF MOY. 

Some tombstones lie upon the site of the Kirk; also 
the nicely-dressed top of a lancet window, which had pro- 
bably belonged to the old Church. 

I. One of two Slabs, which exhibits the Campbell and 
Morison arms impaled, is initialed M. I. C.: J. M.; and the 
other (broken in two pieces), bears the Campbell and 
Barclay arms, also the initials, M. I. C.: C. B. 

The Stones had probably been upon the Burial-aisles 
of the Campbells, who were lairds of Moy. Both Slabs 
belong to the 17th century, and may refer to John 
Campbell, Sheriff-Clerk of Aberdeen, and his grandfather, 
to the latter of whom the former was served heir " in the 
Eister tua parcialls of land callit the Kirklands of Moy," 
&c., April 27, 1654. On the 9th Aug., 1684, "Mr. John 
Campbell of Moy and his wiffe were heir [at Brodie], and 
his goodson, and daughter." (Brodie's Diary, 495.) 

The Cawdor family were the first of the Campbells of 
Moy; and, in 1527, Robert Campbell in Moy is a witness 
to a bond betwixt Sir John Campbell of Cawdor and 
Mr. M'Intosh of Clanchattan. (Thanes of Cawdor, p. 150.) 



206 EPITAPHS IN MOY CHURCHYARD. 

II. The property of Culbin was bought from the family 
of Kinnaird by Alex. Duff of Drummuir, who gave it to 
his second son, John, whose first wife was Miss Gordon of 
Ellon. She died in 1728 ; and his second wife, Helen 
Gordon (a daughter of Sir James Gordon of Park), died 
in 1767. 

The following Inscription (from a Slab upon the site of 
the old Kirk of Moy), probably refers to a daughter by 
the latter lady : 

Below this Stone lyes the Body of Helen Duff, Daughter' to 
John Duff of Cubin, and Helen Gordon, his Spouse, who 
departed this life the 26 November . . . 

Baird of Auchmedden, in his Genealogical Memoirs of 
the Duffs, says that " John Duff of Cowbin was a good, 
friendly, honest man, but unhappily fell into acquaintance 
with MacKay of Scoury and his brother, from the Shire 
of Ross, who did not indeed deserve the name of gentle- 
men. They got him engaged in a trade to North America, 
and the honest gentleman was in a few years ruined, and 
everybody was convinced that he had been egregiously 
imposed upon by the MacKays." 

III. The following Inscription preserves the name of a 
laird of Grangehill (now Dalvey), which is not given in 
the History of the Inneses: 

Here lyes a godly and most charitable woman, Agnis Innes, 
Daughter to the Laird of Granghill, Married to Peter Dunbar 
of Easter Bn, and four of ther children. Therafter to M. 
Kobert Dunbar and four of ther children. 

Rev. 14. 13, Blessed are the dead, &c. 

And also the forsaid M. Robert Dunbar. 1707. 

Peter Dunbar was served heir to his father, John 
Dunbar of Binns, 17 June, 1693, in part of the lands of 
Nether and Upper Binns, &c. It was about 1608 that 
Mark Dunbar of Durris bought Grangehill from Lord 
Dunfermline, who was Commendator of the Abbey of 
Pluscardine, of which the Dunbars of Durris were herit- 
able bailies. 

IV. From a flat Slab : 

This Stone is placed here in memory of ROBERT RAIT, 
burges of Forres, 1728, who died Nove. the 9th, 175 , aged 
70, and ELIZABETH SINCLAIR, his spouse, for a day in courts 



EPITAPHS IN MOY CHURCHYARD. 207 

is better than a thousand. I had rather be a door-keeper in 
the house of the Lord my God than to dwell in tents of 
wickedness. Memento Mori. 

The next three Inscriptions are from Table-Stones : 

V. Erected by Susanna Blaik, relict of ROBERT BLUNTACH, 
an elder of Dyke Session, in memory of her lamented husband, 
and affectionate mother, JEAN WALKER, of Pitsligo Parish, 
both heir buried under this stone, both aged 81 years. 

John's Gos. xv. Ps. 103. 

VI. This stone is placed here in memory of PETER COUPER 
in Kintessack, and his spouse MARJORY GORDON, as also their 
children, Margaret and Jean, who died in infancy. Marjory 
Gordon dyed the 26 of May 1732, and Peter Couper dyed the 
14 of April 1737. 

G.C.: IF 
Blessed are the dead, &c. 

VII. This stone is erected here by Wm. M'Kay, merchant, 
Nairn, in memory of his grandfather, John, and his father, Alex. 
M'Kay, who died August the 21st, 1780, aged 31 years; as also 
William M'Kay, his uncle, who left few such behind him, who 
died Feb. 3, 1799, aged 61 years, honoured in his humble 
station, to be eminently useful. His praise was in the Gospel. 
His reward is with God. 

VIII. The following is the oldest of several Inscriptions 
to a family named Suter : 

This stone is placed here by Alex. Suter, farmer in Mar- 
casie, and Ann Squer, spouse to the said Alex. Suter, and in 
memory of JOHN SUTER, his father, sometime tenant in Earn- 
hill, who died Dec. 30, aged 47 years, and MARY DUNBAR, 
his spouse. 

These were ancestors of Mr. Suter, who rendered so 
much valuable assistance to the cottagers in and about 
the Broom of Moy during the great floods in August, 1829. 

The hamlet of the Brown of Moy (? Magh, a plain), 
consists of some picturesque dwellings, and is the landing- 
place for one of "the ferry-cobbles" on the Findhorn.] 
(Jemise's Epitaphs.) 

Having travelled over the valley of Strathern, 
I return to the coast to describe 



208 BARONY OF CULBIN ; KINCORTH ; EASTER MOY. 
DYKE PAEISH. 

The parish of Dyke and Moy, which is 3 miles 
in length and as much in breadth, is bounded by 
the river to the east, by the sea to the north, by 
Aldern parish to the west, and by the Forest of 
Tarnua to the south. 

The Church standeth near the centre, 2 miles 
west of Forres, and 4 miles east of Aldearn. At 
the mouth of the river is the barony of Caulbin, 
the ancient inheritance of a branch of Moray of 
Duffus. Giles, daughter and heiress of Moray of 
Caulbin [Culbin], married Kinnaird of that ilk. 
About the year 1705 the house, gardens, and a 
great part of the lands, were quite covered with 
sand blown from Mavieston hills, and the barony 
was sold to Alexander Duff of Drummuir. Next 
up the river is Kincorth, formerly pertaining to 
Falconer of Lethin, and given by Alexander of 
Lethin and Hawkerton to his natural son, Mr. 
Samuel Falconer (father of Mr. William, minister 
of Dyke), who sold it to Dunbar of Durn; and 
Durn sold it, in 1758, to Sir Alexander Grant of 
Dalvey. Farther up is Easter Moy. This was 
purchased from the Earl of Eoss by Donald, 
Thane of Calder, anno 1410 (in the possession of 
the family of Calder). It was the heritage of a 
branch of the family of Calder during six genera- 
tions; and John Campbell of Moy sold it to Alex. 
Dunbar, son of Westfield, whose son, Ludovick, 



WESTER MOY; GRANGEHILLORDALVEY; TARNUA CASTLE. 209 

disponed it to Alexander Duff of Drummuir, who 
conveyed Moy and Caulbin to his second son, 
John Duff, and from his creditors Major George 
Grant made the purchase about 1732 ; upon whose 
death in 1755, without issue, these lands came to 
his nephew, Sir Ludowick Grant of Grant. Moy 
holdeth of Calder. Next is Wester Moy, per- 
taining to the late Archibald Dunbar of Dykeside, 
Farther south is the barony of Grange Hill. 
Here the Prior of Pluscarden had a Grangier, or 
farm, and a cell of monks to manage it. With 
the other lands of that Priory, it came to the 
Earl of Dunfermline, who sold it to Mark Dunbar 
of Durris about the year 1608, from whose de- 
scendants Sir Alexander Grant of Dalvey pur- 
chased the barony, anno 1740, and in his 
charter changed the name Grangehill into Dal- 
vey. 

In the south end of the parish is Tarnua Castle 
and Forest, the seat of the Earl of Moray. The 
Castle is a large but irregular pile, built at different 
times. The hall is a curious room, very large in 
all dimensions, 80 feet long and 36 broad, and 
built (or rather the foundation of it was laid for 
a hunting-house) by Thomas Eandolph, Earl of 
Moray. It standeth on a green mount, and the 
great wood or forest close by it makes it a situa- 
tion romantic and delightful. In ancient writs it 
is called Tarnua; in Irish Taranich, probably 

from Tar an or Tarnacli, i.e., thunder, because 
VOL. ii. 14 



210 BRODIE HOUSE; THE HILLS OF MAVIESTON. 

there Jupiter Taranis might have been anciently 
worshipped (See Ecdes. Hist.) 

North from Tarnua is the harony of Brodie. 
Brodie House, the seat of the family, is a large 
and convenient old building. The improvements, 
by enclosures, planting, avenues, vistas through 
the adjacent wood, and a large pond, make it a 
delightful seat. 

A mile north-west, close by the firth, are two 
small pyrarnidical mounts, called the Hills of 
Mavieston, which, being quite stripped of all 
sward or turf, and nothing but quick-sand re- 
maining, are the sources from whence the sand 
has covered much land in Culbin, Duffus, and 
Gordonstoun. 

DYKE. 

[Situation, Soil, Climate. The arrangement of the 
parishes in the Presbytery of Forres makes a short excur- 
sion southwards into the mountain, and returns back by 
the west towards the shore of the Firth. The southern 
quarter of the parish of Dyke borders on the northern 
limits of the parish of Edinkielie, on the confines of the 
forest of Darnway. From this it stretches eastward along 
the River of Findern, and partly on the southern bank, 
by the shifting of its course in former times. The old bar, 
at its efflux appertaining to the parish of Kinloss, has 
been already noticed. The Firth, however, may be re- 
garded as its boundary for the space of 6 miles upon the 
north, till it meets the parish of Auldearn, from which it 
is separated by a brook, the Ellands Bourn, and the moors 
called the Hardmoor and Broadshaw, which run across 
the western limit of the county of Moray, bordering on 
the county of Nairn, till it again joins the parish of Edin- 
kielie at the south. The latitude, by an observation 
taken lately at the shore, is 57 36' 21" north. 

The soil of the cultivated ground is for the greater part 



DARNAWAY CASTLE; EARL RANDOLPH'S CHAIR. 211 

a light fertile loam, generally incumbent on sand, and not 
very retentive of moisture. In some places the sole is 
sand, concreted by some mineral substance, water probably 
surcharged by iron ore. In ploughing it is avoided, as 
adverse to vegetation when mingled with the soil. The 
whole superficies of the parish contains 21 square miles, 
one half of which is a desert tract of drifting sand along 
the shore. The land side of this tract is bounded by a 
pretty high bank, which may be traced westward nearly 
to Inverness, as if the sea had once flowed out to its 
bottom, and which still seems in this quarter to have 
limited the overspreading of the sand. An irregular tract 
of sterile moor spreads along the margin of this bank, the 
soil of which having been carried off in turf the naked 
gravel remains, soliciting to be clothed by plantation, of 
which at present it exhibits some hopeful specimens. 
Three brooks unite near the Church, forming a consider- 
able stream, which winds through the middle of the 
country, nearly parallel to the river. The air is healthful 
and dry, and the climate so genial that the more delicate 
kinds of fruit, the apricot and peach, ripen on a wall in 
the open air. 

State of Property. Darnaway, the Earl of Moray's seat 
in this quarter of the kingdom, is an ancient and magnifi- 
cent edifice, though built in different ages, and in divers 
forms. The original fabric at the first consisted only of 
one hall, 89 feet in length, and 35 in breadth. Its walls 
rose nearly to the height of 32 feet a range of vaults, 
constructed for cellars on its floor, has lowered its internal 
elevation to 20. Its roof of solid oak, similar to the 
Guildhall of London and the Parliament House of Edin- 
burgh, remaining unceiled, displays the strength of the 
workmanship of the 14th century, for it was built by 
Randolph, the Regent of Scotland in the minority of 
David Bruce. Part of its original furniture yet remains. 
Earl Randolph's chair of state, similar in workmanship 
and form to the Coronation-chair of the monarchs of 
Britain, 60 Ibs. weight of oak, decorated with no very 
elegant carving, part of the coat armorial. Coeval with 
the chair, the table also, of the same kind of timber, 
remains. The modern fashion of folding down the leaves 
upon the pillars was then unknown a device more com- 
plicated served the same purpose. From one end a leaf 



212 BARNAWAT; BRODIE; SCULPTURED CROSS IN THE PARK. 

may be drawn out equal to the length of the upper board, 
which is a quadrangle, supported on 6 massive columns. 
This hall was only intended for the temporary accommo- 
dation of hunting quarters. Tradition relates that its 
whole floor was deeply littered with green rushes, or 
grass, at night ; and the Earl with all his suite reposed 
thereon together. Numerous apartments have since been 
added, several of them fitted up and furnished with all 
the elegance of modern fashion. The Castle rises on a 
green mount in the skirt of the forest. It commands a 
very extensive and pleasant landscape, and its environs are 
embellished by groves and gardens, and much ornamented 
cultivation. Its name has been with some ingenuity in- 
terpreted from the Gaelic to be Randolph's Mount, tor- 
rannich, but as rwnmich in that language signifies fern, 
and as that herb still maintains its place in vast quantity 
over all the forest, its appellation seems rather more simpl} 7 
to denote the fern hill. The original name of the district 
also was Fernway ; and it is also highly probable that the 
Bridge of Rannoch, a little farther up in the forest, long 
supposed to bear the proud title of its ancient lord, ought 
also to be reduced to its more suitable relation to the 
humble weed, overhanging the banks which it but art- 
lessly conjoined. By the Cess-Book of the county the 
valued rent of this domain within the parish is stated at 
913 13s. lOd. ; but of this the sum of 39 is apportioned 
on lands in the parish of Edinkielie. 

Northward from Darnaway is the seat of James Brodie 
of Brodie, Esq., the residence of the family for 600 years. 
The fabric is a great building, not modern, yet displaying 
all the elegant accommodation of the present fashion. It 
rises on a green lawn in a pretty extensive park. A little 
lake, shaped into an artificial pond, is commanded by the 
front ; a great extent of full-grown wood, in all the variety 
of the forest, rises on every side; long straight avenues 
stretch under its shade ; and square inclosures under the 
best cultivation bask in its shelter. 

[The present castellated Mansion has over the door the 
initials of the present proprietor and his spouse, W.B. and 
E.L.B., with the date 1846. The Brodie coat of arms are 
on the right. 

At the north end of the park stands a Stone, which was 
brought here from the Churchyard of Dyke at the erection 



* 



GRANGEHILL; KINCORTH ; BINSNESS ; EASTER MOY. 213 

of the present Parish Kirk. It is a parallelogram about 
6 feet high, having an elaborately carved Cross, with some 
rudely-sculptured animals, but no date nor inscription. 
It is said to commemorate Rodney's victory over the 
Count de Grasse.] 

The valued rent in this parish is 1,263 6d. Scots. 

Eastward is the ancient barony of Grangehill, originally 
appertaining to the Priory of Pluscarden, where a detach- 
ment of their brotherhood resided. Its name by a late 
owner was changed into Dalvey, signifying in the Gaelic, 
the Plain of Spey. It appertains to Captain Macleod. 
Its valued rent extends to 1,174 15s. 8d. Northward is 
the estate of Kincorth, the property of George Grant, Esq., 
embellished by a modern handsome manor-house. The 
valuation amounts to 371 10s. 6d. Binsness, valued at 
195 8s. 7d., is said to have been lately acquired by Lord 
Kinnaird, with the salmon fisheries both in the river and 
in the salt water, valued at the yearly rent of 500 
sterling. The rest of the parish appertains to Col. Hugh 
Grant. The family seat at Moy is a magnificent modern 
structure, embellished by gardens, groves, shrubbery, and 
walks ; also a princely suite of farm offices, adorned by a 
spire and public clock ; a highly cultivated Manor spreads 
over the plain along the bank of the river. The valued 
rent paying cess in the county of Moray amounts to 
1,755 17s. 5d. Scots, extending the valuation of the 
parish to the sum of 5,674 6s. 6d. Scots. But the lands of 
Easter Moy, amounting to the valued rent of 218 10s. 6d., 
are under the jurisdiction of the Sheriffdom of Nairn, 
though distant from the borders of that county ; but 
having been in the possession of the ancestors of Lord 
Cawdor, when hereditary Sheriffs of Nairn, this portion 
of the domain would have occasionally subjected their 
haughty independence to the Court of the Sheriff of 
Moray had not this accommodation to the prejudices of 
the feudal times been devised. Many places, politically 
insulated, on the same account, remain both in England 
and in Scotland ; and the inconveniences which this occa- 
sions in the administration of civil justice in its present 
establishment have been hitherto wholly overlooked. 

But this political evil becomes of no consideration 
when one physical calamity in this parish, of ghastly 
nature and enormous size, is taken into contemplation 



214 ASTOUNDING MOUNDS OF SAND AT CULBIN. 



the astonishing superinduction of sand, by which the 
fertile and populous barony of Culbin has been reduced 
to a state of absolute and irremediable sterility. It pays 
the land tax in the county of Moray, answering to its 
valued rent of 913 18s. 4d. Scots. Though included in 
Colonel Grant of Moy's valued rent, it is the property of 
his nephew, Mr. Grant of Redcastle, whom it qualifies to 
be elected to represent the county in Parliament. 

Those astonishing mounds of sand, raised along the 
whole coast of the parish, although no doubt produced by 
the sea, and probably by its encroachments on the shores 
nearer the head of the Firth, have not acquired their 
form under the action of the water. They are not com- 
posed of different strata, or beds, and they have no 
mixture of pebbles, sea- weed, or shells; but they are 
immense accumulations of pure washed white sand, of 
the smallest texture, having their situation, bulk, and 
form, determined only by the wind. The smallest par- 
ticles, though the first that are suspended, are the last 
which are deposited by the water, and thereby exposed 
to the power of the wind, while pebbles, shells, and heavier 
sand, remain upon the beach. 

Extraordinary commotions, from various causes, have 
been sometimes excited in the German Ocean. They 
have been strongly felt upon the coast of Holland when 
they had also risen high upon the whole length of our 
eastern shore, from the banks of the Thames to the Pent- 
land Firth. One striking example needs be only adduced. 
By the commotion which the Lisbon earthquake in 1755 
excited, although so far distant on the west and opposite 
side of the island, a flock of sheep of this parish were 
drowned in their cot, though far beyond the reach of any 
ordinary tide. 

The wide expanse of the Moray Firth, at its termina- 
tion between the shore of Caithness and the coasts of 
Aberdeen, opens the access to a heavier inundation from 
the ocean, and the bold shore upon the northern side rolls 
it large upon the Moray coast, which is uncommonly flat 
to the westward of Burghead, as the vast swell from the 
ocean is impelled along the contracting channel of the 
Firth : and some dreadful commotion, both of the land 
and water, it must have been, which amassed the ample 
shore for such a ruinous accumulation. 



THE EPOCH OF THE GOODWIN SANDS. 215 

The time in which this dismal visitation first began has 
almost escaped the notice of particular record ; yet general 
history affords several intimations of storms and inunda- 
tions, which might have been the remote cause of this 
perpetual devastation. 

It has been already noticed, that the inundation 
which submerged the princely fortune of Earl Good- 
win, on the coast of Kent, must have raised a dreadful 
commotion in all the estuaries on the eastern side of the 
island, and shaken the whole coast from the one end to 
the other. The era of this desolation coincided with the 
reign of Rufus in England, and Canmore in Scotland, 
towards the end of the llth century. Dr. Trussler's 
Chronology specifies the year 1100 as the epoch of the 
Goodwin Sands. Fordun and Buchanan, it has been 
already shown, mention inundations, and devastations by 
sand, in this kingdom, alarmingly astonishing, about the 
period for which Trussler marks for this similar visitation 
upon the English shore. Respecting the year, Buchanan 
is not particular, but speaks in general of the prodigies of 
that age: but Boethius particularly conjoins the inunda- 
tion with the year of Canmore's death, namely 1097, 
within three years of the date which Trussler has set 
down; and he expressly relates, that its ravages were 
desolation on the coast of Moray, of which county, it is 
obvious, the ideas of Buchanan were extremely indistinct. 

" The death of Malcolm," says Boethius, " happened on 
the ides of October, in the year of our redemption 1097, 
and in the 37th year of his reign ; and in the same year 
Albion was terrified by many most alarming prodigies. 
Many villages, castles, towns, and extensive woods, both 
in England and in Scotland, were overwhelmed by an 
exundation of the German Ocean, by the weight of which 
tempest, the lands of Gudowine, near the mouth of the 
Thames, which we have formerly mentioned, wei*e over- 
whelmed by sand ; and likewise the land of Moray in 
Scotland was at that time desolated by the sea, castles 
subverted from the foundation, some towns destroyed, and 
the labours of men laid waste, by the discharge of sand 
from the sea : monstrous thunders also roaring, horrible 
and vast ! " 

To this it may be added, that in the Scotichronicon, book 
7th, chap. 50, Fordun mentions a Comet, to the influence 



216 EARLY SAND INUNDATIONS IN MORAYSHIRE. 

of which he ascribes the excesses of these waters. " The 
order of the Trinity," says he, " was instituted in the year 
1097. In that same year, the 41st of the Emperor Henry 
IV. a Comet appeared in the west from the 1st of October : 
the sowing of winter grain is prevented (aquarum nimia 
inundatione) by excessive inundations of water, and a 
failure of the crop ensues." 

In the Advocates' Library, it is also said, the Records of 
the Priory of Pluscarden, called the Red Book, are still 
preserved ; in which it is recorded that the whole low 
country of Moray was deluged by the sea in the year 
1010. If there be an error by misplacing the two 
middle numbers, this date accurately coincides with the 
period about which Fordun, Boethius, Trussler, and even 
Buchanan, have all so nearly agreed. 

It must therefore be allowed, that inundations of the 
most destructive magnitude did happen towards the close 
of the eleventh century. What their effect upon the coast 
of Dyke may have particularly been, lies beyond the reach 
even of conjecture, farther than that they extended not so 
far as the sand has now spread ; for even in the last cen- 
tury, the northern quarter of the parish, including the 
barony of Culbin, was distinguished as " the granary of 
Moray." Cultivation, therefore, was long continued, and 
it is likely that, when only a little sand had been deposited, 
the fertilitjr of the ground would be thereby increased. 
But this vast magazine, which, it is conjectured, the 
waves may have produced, by washing off the cape which 
gave the name to Inverness, and the promontory from 
the point of Arderier, has been accumulated somehow into 
the Mavistown hills, on the eastern borders of the parish 
of Auldearn. From thence they began to drift over the 
nearest fields of Culbin, in the tract of the south-west 
wind ; and even the greater part of these singular mounds 
themselves have migrated from Auldearn into Dyke, the 
heavier sand, when moved by the gale, settling upon the 
lee side. The encroachments have been every year gradu- 
ally extended, the rents paid in victual proportionally 
reduced, the tenants one after another, and the landlord, 
with their families, mournfully expelled, and their habi- 
tations and possessions covered up, it is supposed, to the 
height of the trees of the gardens about the manor. The 
desolation must have been completed prior to the year 



MARCH-STONE ON ONE OF THE SAND HILLS. 217 

1695, as by the narrative of the Act of Parliament then 
made to prevent the pulling of bent, "the barony of 
Oulbin, and house and yards therof, is quite ruined, and 
overspread with sand." The farm of Earnhill, a corner of 
the estate without the tract of the sand, accommodated 
for some time the proprietor, which now alone remains, 
scarcely yielding a rent of 80, of an estate which other- 
wise, at this time, would have produced more than 1000. 

Although little farther damage in this quarter needs be 
apprehended, yet the whole body of the sand is uniformly 
progressive from the west, being little affected by the 
wind from any other quarter. About 20 years ago, a 
March-stone was placed on one of the sand hills, about 40 
feet in height, that it might be the more conspicuous ; and 
it was then conjectured, that the stone would either bury 
itself, by sinking in the hill, or that the hill would rise 
over it. The stone however kept its place : the hill, 
moving off, left it on the plain. That the sand is therefore 
blown into the Bay of Findhorn in considerable quantities, 
admits of no doubt, as part of it by every strong gale is 
carried quite across the water : but whether it be borne 
eastward by the tide, to be deposited on some other shore, 
or only washed back again in perennial alternate succes- 
sion upon its own coast, may be perhaps in another 
century discovered. 

The real rent of the parish, including that of the fisheries, 
and the value of the grounds about the seats of the pro- 
prietors, may be stated at 3000. The number of acres 
under cultivation amounts to 2697, and the natural and 
planted wood occupies 1191. There are several farms of 
considerable extent, from 60 to upwards of 100 of rent ; 
more than half the parish may be occupied in smaller 
possessions, from 5 to 20 of rent. The average rent 
upon the acre may be estimated at 18s.: but at the village 
of Dyke, it is let at 2 the acre. The number of every 
kind of horses may be 384; black cattle, 1047; sheep, 
1533, of the small white-faced breed; and there may at 
times be about 40 hogs of swine : the particular numbers 
however are by no means permanent. 

State Ecclesiastical. In the year 1618 the parishes of 
Moy and Dyke were conjoined, and the residence and 
Church then fixed at Dyke, a Gaelic word, signifying an 
enclosure, also, an artificial course for a stream of water. 



218 BEQUESTS TO THE PARISH OF DYKE. 

The glebe at Moy is let by the incumbent to the pro- 
prietor, at 6 bolls of barley ; and the burying-ground is 
still in occupation. The Church was rebuilt in the year 
1781, a handsome commodious structure, neatly finished 
and furnished at the expense of 525, exclusive of the 
carriage of the materials. 

The value of the living, including the allowance for the 
Communion, and 1 13s. 4d. paid for the pasturage which 
the law annexes to the glebe, is 48 8s. 6d. sterling, 106 
bolls 1 firlot barley, and 1\ bolls of oatmeal. The right 
of patronage is divided between the Crown and the pro- 
prietor of Moy. 

The school is in the vicinity of the Church. The salary 
is 2 15s. 6d. and 16 bolls of bear, with the customary 
fees from about 40 scholars, and 1 as the fee with the 
perquisites of the office of Session-Clerk, makes the estab- 
lishment equal to about 33 yearly. 

John Anderson, Esq., Writer to the Signet, in the year 
1702, bequeathed a capital for the establishment of a 
school for girls, which, with an addition of 27 15s. 6d. 
sterling from the proprietor of Brodie, who built the 
school house of two storeys, and endowed it with a little 
garden, makes the salary equal to 6 18s. lOd. sterling. 
This appointment is under the charge of the proprietors 
of the parish and the session : but the building is at pre- 
sent fallen almost into a state of irreparable decay. 

The number of poor amounts to 61. The provision 
contributed by the people, chiefly at their meetings for 
social worship, amounts to about 25 sterling yearly. 
To this sum, the Rev. William Falconer, senior, proprietor 
of Kincorth, and Minister of Dyke to the year 1674, 
destined an annual allowance of 3 bolls bear, valued about 
2 14s. secured on the rent of a croft. Mr. Henry Vass 
also, servant to Major Grant of Moy, destined the capital 
of 100 sterling to 12 poor children. Mr. Vass also made 
a donation to the infirmary hospitals of Edinburgh and 
Aberdeen, in order to entitle the session to send patients 
to either of these endowments. 

The members of the Established Church are 1490; the 
Dissenters, mostly of the Antiburgher sect of Seceders r 
are 39. 

Miscellaneous Information. This parish is distin- 
guished by affording the scene of the main spring of the 



DISCOVERY OF OLD SILVER COINS. 219 

drama of the tragedy of Macbeth. It was on the Hard- 
moor, on the western side of the park of Brodie House, 
where Macbeth and Banquo, returning victorious from an 
expedition in the western isles to wait on King Duncan, 
then in the Castle of Forres, and on a journey to Inverness, 
are represented to have been saluted by the weird sister- 
hood. It may be observed that by introducing Hecate, and 
blending an heathen with a Christian superstition, Shak- 
speare shows that he himself had no belief in either ; that 
he considered King James's book on Deraonology, re- 
printed about that time at London, as sillily absurd; and 
those Acts of Parliament which condemned poor old 
women to be burnt to death for working miracles, as 
abominably cruel, and desperately wicked. 

In digging out the foundation for the Church, an 
earthen pot, with silver coins to the value in bullion of 
.46 sterling, was found. By Anderson's Numisrnata 
Scotise, they were discovered to be 4d. pieces ; they were 
all of equal size, and very fine silver, larger than a six- 
pence, but very thin. They had been stamped in different 
places both in Scotland and England, in the contemporary 
reigns of Henry II. and William the Lyon. Some of the 
oldest, struck at Striviling, bore on one side RE VILLIAM, 
the Gaelic for King William. 

The people are decent, peaceful, and well affected to 
the national religion and government : they are little 
addicted either to a seafaring or military life : they live 
poorly, that they may dress neatly ; but few attempt to 
save money. 

Grain is annually disposed of in considerable quantities,, 
oats chiefly and barley, sometimes wheat. Old oxen and 
dry cows are sold off for the English graziers. When young 
oxen and milch cows can be sent to market, they always 
sell at a great price. The spinning of flax, formerly of 
great consideration, may still bring into the parish about 
300 yearly. The management of the salmon has been 
already noticed in the trade of Findhorn. A kit gene- 
rally contains 3 salmon, about 10 Ib. each. Considerable 
quantities of cod fish are caught by the boats of Findhorn 
and Nairn, more abundantly at that season which doe& 
not admit of their being dried in the open air. A quan- 
tity was cured in barrels like salted salmon, and tried, 
from this parish, in the London market ; the sale was not 



220 PARISH OF DYKE. 



such as to encourage the continuance of the trade. It 
has been suggested, that if they were boiled in vinegar, 
like kitted salmon, they might find a brisker market. 

A considerable number of seals frequent the coast. One 
man killed 130 in a year; the oil and skin of each brought 
4s. This fishery is an object of the greater importance, 
because the seal both prey upon the salmon and frighten 
them off the coast. 

A market of wood has been lately established. One of 
the proprietors has disposed of a plantation to be felled 
in 7 years, at the rate of 100 yearly ; and the ground is 
to be again planted as soon as the whole is cleared. He 
has a similar plantation in equal forwardness, and several 
rising in succession. The larger allers are employed in 
the construction of boats and small vessels : birch is made 
up into the cheapest kinds of agricultural utensils : the 
ash, the elm, beech, and plane, with a few oaks, that can 
be spared, are shipped off at Findhorn : and the fir, manu- 
factured into deals, and timber for the roofing of houses, 
begins to find its way to the same port.] (Survey of the 
Province of Moray.) 

CULBIN. 

[Most persons on going from Elgin to Forres, either by 
rail or by the public road, have their attention generally 
attracted to an immense number of large, bare sand-hills 
lying away down on the shore of the Moray Firth. 
These are the sand-hills of Culbin. When seen from any 
point along either of the lines which we have indicated 
they present a dreary and sterile aspect, and one is ready 
to conclude, without making a nearer approach to them, 
that they must form, altogether, a scene of extreme 
dreariness and desolation. A distant view of them, how- 
ever, gives but a very faint idea of their great magnitude, 
or of the immense extent of ground which they occupy. 
It is only when you have entered among them and 
traversed the length and breadth of the ground which 
they cover, and climbed to their summits, that a know- 
ledge of their true character is obtained. 

Many of the mounds are 120 feet in height, and measure 
along the base 440 yards in length and 220 in breadth. 
The sand is scarcely ever at rest, and hills of sand, 100 
feet in height, are frequently found to change their 



JOHN MARTIN'S PAPER ON CULBIN SANDS. 221 

appearance altogether in a single night. The changes are 
very rapid if there be any westerly winds. 

The shifting nature of the sand may be understood 
from the following circumstances : In the heydays of 
smuggling, a foreign vessel visited the coast, and, during 
the night, landed a valuable cargo of contraband goods on 
the back shore. As the owners had not at the time the 
means of conveying them to their destination, it was 
resolved to stow them away under the slope of one of the 
great sand-hills until the party had time to collect their 
forces. This was successfully accomplished. Unfortu- 
nately for them, a strong westerly wind sprung up in the 
night time, and continued without the least abatement 
during part of the following day. On the evening of 
that day the owners returned, accompanied by a number 
of carts, never for a moment imagining that there could 
be the smallest difficulty in finding the goods. Whether 
they found the exact sand-hill in which the goods had 
been deposited has never been ascertained ; but when the 
men reached the slope where they thought they had 
placed them, they felt themselves in a complete quandary. 
The goods were to be found nowhere. A few men had 
been sent there, hours before, to have matters arranged ; 
but they had traversed the ground again and again, and 
even trenched the sand in numerous places, and still not 
a single trace of them could be seen. So bewildered were 
the men on account of the sand having shifted and oblit- 
erated every mark of their movements on the previous 
night, that it became a question among them which of 
the sand-hills contained the missing treasure. When the 
circumstance became generally known, the carters, and 
others connected with the affair, bestirred themselves, 
and spread about in all directions in search of the goods. 
As an encouragement to them, the moon shone brightly 
and made every object visible for a great way around. 
At this time men were seen everywhere searching for the 
lost treasure. Some were probing the sand with their 
whip-shafts, others were busily sounding its depth with 
their hands, while not a few, with spade and shovel, were 
casting deep trenches in the sides of the sand-hills. The 
whole night was spent in the search, and after night the 
day, and many succeeding days, but it proved all labour 
in vain. The valuable cargo of brandy and tobacco lay 



222 MARTIN'S PERSONAL INSPECTION OF CULBIN SANDS. 

snugly under some deep sand-drift, and up to the present 
time not the slightest trace of either has been seen. 

On my first visit to the sand-hills of Culbin the weather 
was very mild, and of course, down there, exceedingly close 
and warm. On hearing from the people of the district of 
the extraordinary appearance which these hills presented 
during a westerly gale, I felt most anxious to see them in 
their wildest aspect. Fortunately, on the day on which 
a strong westerly gale prevailed, I had an opportunity of 
visiting them. On entering among them the wind was 
tremendous, and as it came rushing down through the 
openings between the hills, carrying with it immense 
torrents of sand, its force and violence were almost over- 
powering. Clouds of sand were also continually falling 
from the tops of the mounds, and whirling about in the 
wildest confusion. Nothing could be seen but sand above, 
and sand below, and sand everywhere. The place soon 
became very uncomfortable, and after having passed 
about an hour, groping my way along the base of the 
great sand hills, I deemed it prudent to return, lest I 
should get bewildered. 

On my return through one of those gorges or openings 
to which I have already alluded, I felt the wind much 
fiercer than when I passed. The sand seemed to come in 
waves, which had a sensible weight, and the force with 
which they were driven made it somewhat difficult to 
withstand them. I was more than once like to be carried 
off my feet. On approaching the last great sand-hill, 
nearest Kincorth, the wind poured down through the 
hollow as if it had been blowing through a funnel. The 
quantity of sand drifted along must have been immense. 
I caught it in handfuls as it passed. When nearing the 
gorge the wind had acquired a rotatory motion, and the 
sand, following the movement, drifted about and lashed 
me at times with some severity, as if it were done inten- 
tionally and for a purpose. When under the lee of the 
hill the force of the wind was a good deal broken, but the 
sand came pouring down in torrents, and sometimes in 
masses, from the heights above. These, by being again 
broken and whirled about in all directions, had a most 
bewildering effect. Moving onwards, with my eyes shut, 
like one blindfold for no man in his sober senses would 
venture to open his eyes at such a time unless he wished 



VIOLENCE OF THE CULBIN SAND-DRIFTS. 223 

to have them sacrificed I expected that the worst would 
soon be past, and that I should be able to grope my way 
at leisure out of this horrible place, but the moment I 
got beyond the shelter of the sand-hill I was met by such 
a powerful blast of wind that came sweeping round the 
corner of the hill as seemed to be a work altogether 
beyond the common operations of nature. So violent and 
tormenting were these attacks that I could not help 
thinking that the furies must have leagued together to 
punish me for entering upon their domains. Whether 
the furies took a part in the affair or not I am not pre- 
pared to affirm, but, on coming out of that gorge, I felt as 
if a dozen thongs were lashing me with great force round 
the body, and I actually felt as if the points of them had 
reached upwards and were twitching my face. Ropes of 
sand are generally spoken of with a degree of contempt, 
but really, when they operate like the thongs of Culbin, 
they are not to be despised. 

No sooner had I got beyond the fierce influence of the 
sand-drift than I felt something about me which was 
quite unaccountable, and which, for a time, made me 
exceedingly uncomfortable, and even qualmish. I felt a 
pressure and weight on my body which had the effect of 
dragging me down and retarding my progress, as if the 
power of gravitation had been increased tenfold. Certain 
dubious thoughts flashed quickly across the mind, and 
for a moment I stood like one petrified. At the same 
time I felt a burst of perspiration starting from every 
pore, and in less than a minute my whole body was 
suffused with moisture. What is the meaning of this ? 
was the question I put to myself; and while in the midst 
of my perplexity I put my hand into my pocket in 
search of my pocket handkerchief to wipe away the big 
drops which trickled down my face, I found my pocket 
crammed with sand. I tried another, it was equally 
filled. Every pocket about me was filled with sand, and 
my clothes were completely saturated with it, and my 
shoes were like to burst, and my eyes, my ears, my nos- 
trils, and my mouth were all partakers, more or less 
of it. On moving about, I observed the minute particles 
of sand pouring from my clothes as thick as when a 
drizzling rain falls from a summer cloud. In short, I 
felt myself to be nearly altogether a man of sand. 



224 ANCIENT FERTILE LANDS OF CULBIN. 

The loneliness of the place is often extremely dis- 
tressing. At other times one is filled with interest as you 
notice the numerous examples of sand-ripple arranged in 
all the order and regularity that you see displayed by 
the sands on the shore. 

Shingle beaches are found below the general level of 
the sand remains these of ancient sea-beaches. But 
you will speedily see something else. 

On leaving these beaches and crossing a ridge of sand, 
you perceive, towards the east, a tract of low ground 
stretching away between two large sand hills. Of course 
you conclude that this is another series of sea-beaches, 
and as you feel a desire to see in what respect they will 
present themselves, you move down upon them, plodding 
your way over a tract of recently drifted sand, in which 
you sink to the knees at every step. When you reach 
the edge of this piece of ground, you feel greatly sur- 
prised. Instead of a series of sea-beaches, you see before 
you a large tract of the old fertile lands of Culbin. For 
some time you stand like a statue, quite absorbed with 
reflections on the past. You look around and you see 
the big ghostly sand hills towering upwards on either 
side. What ruin ! What desolation! On this rich 
loamy field the husbandman had no doubt driven his 
team with a merry heart, sowed his seed, and in due time 
reaped a plentiful harvest. The hearty laugh of the 
reapers has been heard ringing merrily across this field ; 
and wanton herds have fed luxuriantly on the rich herb- 
age ; now, there is not so much as a single blade of grass 
to be seen on any part of the ground. 

The view is most extensive, ranging from Mealfour- 
vonie, on the Ness, to the Binhill in Banffshire. 

The estate of Culbin is invested with a melancholy 
interest. About 200 years ago it was one of the richest 
and most fertile districts in Moray. In the days of its 
prosperity it was designated " the Granary of Moray," and 
not unfrequently " the Girnal of Moray." This term was 
applied to it, not merely on account of the great fertility 
of the soil, but as indicating the delightfulness of the 
climate, and the earliness of the crops, and the unfailing 
resources of the district, even when there was a partial 
failure in other parts of the country, occasioned by the 
lateness of the harvest arid the setting in of early frosts. 



CHURCH ON THE SITE OF THE CHAPEL HILL. 225 

All the cultivated land on the estate was of a deep, rich, 
alluvial soil, being the accumulation, for ages, of the 
fine silt carried down the Findhorn in time of floods, and 
spread over a wide extent of country, when it and the 
neighbouring low lands formed the basin of a large 
shallow bay. The lands of Moy, and of several other 
fertile estates lying on either side of the river Findhorn, 
consist of accumulations of this kind. The extent of 
arable land on the estate of Culbin is difficult to be ascer- 
tained at the present day. It contained a number of 
small farms, besides the home farm, which was always 
kept in the hands of the family. There were also many 
small crofts occupied by families who derived great part 
of their living by fishing. There was also an extensive 
range of good pasture, extending both to the north and 
west of the cultivated lands, before they were defaced by 
the great sand drift. At one time the population must 
have been very numerous, for there was a Church on the 
borders of the estate, the site of which still goes by the 
name of the " Chapel Hill." The comparative value of 
the lands of Culbin may be known when it is stated that, 
in 1654, its valued rental in the parish of Dyke was 
913 18s. 4d. Scots, while that of Darnaway, belonging 
to the Earl of Moray, in the same parish, and which is 
of great extent, was only 913 13s. lOd. Scots. It is 
evident, from this statement, that the estate of Culbin 
held a high rank amongst the properties of the country. 

There can be little doubt that the great accumulation 
of sand which overwhelmed Culbin, and covered an ex- 
tensive district in its neighbourhood, was derived from 
various parts along the shore of the Frith, when the old 
coast line began to break up. On many parts of the 
coast the sea has made extensive encroachments, espe- 
cially between Burghead and Findhorn. Although 
history is silent on the subject, there is a tradition 
prevalent among the inhabitants of these villages that, 
about 200 years ago, there was easy access, in a direct 
line, along the shore from the one village to the other, 
the distance being then about six miles. It is evident 
that the sea, since that time, has made extensive en- 
croachments upon the land; and, even within the remem- 
brance of some of the old inhabitants of the place, there 
have been great changes on the coast ; they have long 
VOL. II. 15 



226 THE SAND HILLS OF MAVIESTON. 



remarked a visible wasting away of the land. At the 
present time the coast-line between Burghead and Find- 
horn is a great curve inland, and the distance along the 
shore, between these villages, is now nearly doubled, or 
about ten miles. The materials which the sea had to 
work upon were extensive ranges of sea-beaches. To a 
casual observer, these beaches have all the appearance of 
being composed of shingle or water-worn stones ; but, in 
most instances, the appearance is deceptive. When a 
section is exposed by the action of the sea, they are seen 
to have a thin covering of rounded stones, but the great 
body of the beaches is a mass of fine sand, interstratified 
here and there with thin layers of small pebbles. By 
some peculiar tidal movement, very different from that 
which affected the coast during the formation of these 
beaches, the sea has been, for a long time, endeavouring 
to recover part of its former domain. The sand, which 
formed the greater proportion of these beaches, has been 
gradually carried westward, and thrown up on various 
parts of the shore between Findhorn and Nairn. These 
new deposits, thrown up in the form of sand beaches, had 
been seized upon by the strong westerly winds and 
carried inland; and there can be no doubt that these 
were, at first, the great feeders of the huge sand hills of 
Mavieston, which lie some three or four miles west from 
Culbin. By degrees the sand was drifted eastward, and, 
in course of time, formed numerous mounds of immense 
size and extent, and spread itself over a tract of country 
fully eight miles in length, and, in some places, upwards 
of two miles in breadth. The once beautiful and fertile 
estate of Culbin is included in this tract. At the present 
time it is altogether deeply covered with sand, from 
which, according to appearances, there is little likelihood 
that it ever will be free. 

To all appearance there was little injury sustained by 
the sand-drift westward of Culbin. All the way from 
Mavieston the sand-hills are heaped up on ancient shingle 
beaches. This is also the case with the tract of ground 
lying between Culbin and the back shore on the north. 
It is the same between the eastern boundary of Culbin 
and the river Findhorn. Although there is no appear- 
ance of any great extent of cultivated land having been 
destroyed, either to the west or north of Culbin, it is 



SAND-DRIFT IN KINLOSS, DUFFUS, AND ALVES. 227 

evident that extensive ranges of good pasture had been 
rendered wholly useless. In some places, towards the 
west, there are extensive plains, fully a mile in length, 
and about a quarter of a mile in breadth, lying between 
one series of sea-beaches and another. These low 
grounds must, at one time, have been covered with a 
close herbage, for even now, when there is but a slight 
covering of sand, various kinds of coarse grasses, and 
several species of carices, are seen to spring up and make 
great efforts to hold their place. In several of these 
places a great number of Scotch firs have been planted, 
and it is remarkable how healthy they look, and how 
well they thrive, with the sand heaped up about them to 
the height of two and three feet. Although these green 
spots present little of the refreshing verdure which meets 
the eye in the cultivated parts of the country, yet they 
have a very pleasing appearance when seen amidst the 
wide waste of sand, which bounds the view on every 
side. They are like oases in the desert. 

The injury was not wholly confined to the estate of 
Culbin. About the time of Culbin sand-drift, there was 
an extraordinary drifting of sand over most of the country 
inland. In the parishes of Kinloss and Duffus, and over 
the northern portion of the parish of Alves, sand is found 
in considerable depths. It overlies in some places a deep 
reddish clay, which is most favourable to vegetation. 

On the estate of Inverugie the sand had covered the 
old land to a great depth. This estate came into the 
possession of the late William Young, Esq., a gentleman 
of no common energy, and one of the most persevering 
and enterprising men of the north. Although he de- 
lighted to see good farming, and did his utmost to 
encourage the cultivators of the soil and promote their 
prosperity, yet the rich old spots of the earth presented 
few attractions to him. He conceived that a man derived 
little credit by raising rich crops on a soil that had been 
under cultivation for centuries. Nothing afforded him 
greater pleasure than to see the waste and unsightly 
parts of the country improved and made useful. In this 
respect he set an example to all around him, by selecting 
the most worthless and forbidding piece of ground for his 
experiments; and by the time he had done with it he 
seldom failed to invest it with all the charms of a little 



228 THE INVERUGIE ESTATE TRENCHED AS A TEST. 

paradise. Mr. Young had not been long in possession of 
Inverugie when he began to see that there was a treasure 
concealed under the sand. He went to work with a will, 
and with a spirit that never fagged; and notwithstanding 
the great body of sand he had to work upon, he trenched 
it to the extent of some hundred acres, and brought to 
the surface a thick covering of the rich, old, black soil, 
which had been lying in many places fully 8 feet under 
the sand. The work was accomplished at an enormous 
expense, but the result, in due time, was highly remunera- 
tive, and soon became apparent on the different farms in 
the well -filled stackyards and the luxuriant pastures. 

It may not be uninteresting to mention that, while Mr. 
Young was engaged in this great work, his friend, the 
late Sir Thomas Dick Lauder of Relugas, conceiving this 
to be a favourable opportunity for testing the vitality of 
seeds after being long 'buried in the soil, procured a 
quantity of the mould. This was in February, 1817. 
After carefully tending the soil, which he had put in a 
couple of flower-pot saucers, he had the pleasure of seeing 
no fewer than 46 plants springing up in May of the same 
year. In a short time he was able to identify four dif- 
ferent species of plants. These were the mouse-ear 
(Cerastium arvense), scorpion grass (Myosotis scorpi- 
oides), purple archangel (Lamium purpureum), and the 
corn spurrey (Spergula arvensis). It is curious that this 
old soil, which had been lying inert for nearly two cen- 
turies, should produce the same species of plants which 
are troublesome, as weeds, to the cultivators of the soil at 
the present day. 

Soon after the overthrow of Culbin, another great 
change took place in its neighbourhood. Formerly, the 
river Findhorn swept round to the north of the lands of 
Binsness, and thence flowed westward, about six miles, in 
a course nearly parallel with the shore, before it entered 
the Firth at the Old Bar. At the present time the river, 
after passing the village of Findhorn, flows northwards, 
and falls directly into the sea. It is supposed that this 
change in the course of the river was caused by the great 
quantity of sand drifted eastward from Culbin, and 
which, in its progress, had accumulated in the bed of the 
river. By this means a barrier was formed in the channel, 
and the waters, having accumulated behind it, sought an 



THE ESTATE AND MANSION-HOUSE OF CULBIN. 229 

outlet at the lowest level, which happened to be in the 
direction which it now holds. It may easily be conceived 
how soon a rush of water would form a channel for itself, 
when there was nothing in its way but a tract of loose 
sand and shingle. About the same time the village of 
Findhorn stood about a mile to the north-west of its 
present site. It, too, was affected by the changes that 
were then taking place. It had been for some time 
threatened by the sea encroaching upon it on one side, and 
the river on the other ; and one night, during a fearful 
storm, the sea broke in upon it and swept it away. 
Fortunately, the villagers were aware of its precarious 
position, and left it in time, so that there was no loss of 
human life. 

An opinion has been long prevalent among the inhabi- 
tants of the district, and indeed among many persons at 
a distance, that the estate of Culbin, with the mansion- 
house, and all the houses of the numerous tenantry, were 
overwhelmed in one night. This opinion had no doubt 
arisen from the circumstance that, after a most tremen- 
dous night of sand-drift, a finishing stroke was given to 
the great work of destruction, which had been going on 
gradually for a number of years. Previously to that 
time the mansion-house and several of the houses of the 
tenantry were still inhabited, and portions of the land 
were still under cultivation, but on that awful night 
every person had to flee for safety. The relentless sand- 
flood poured fiercely over houses and fields and gardens, 
and when the poor houseless tenants returned in the 
morning to look for their homes, nothing was to be seen 
but a wide waste of sand. So bewildering was the sight, 
that it became a subject of conjecture among them where 
their former habitations lay. 

The history of the family also affords some clear and 
distinct notices of the gradual destruction of the estate. 
It is on record that Alexander Kinnaird succeeded to the 
estate, after it was much destroyed by the blowing of 
sand. On July 17th, 1695, he petitioned Parliament to 
be exempted from paying cess, " because his estate, which 
20 years before was one of the most considerable in 
Moray, was nearly all covered with sand, and the man- 
sion-house and orchard destroyed." Two years after- 
wards, this same Alexander applied to Parliament for a 



230 HEAPS OF SEA SHELLS ON THE OLD SEA BEACHES. 

personal protection from his creditors, on the ground that 
three-parts of his estate were overrun with sand, and the 
fourth part sold for payment of his creditors. 

In many places throughout the district, where the sand 
has been drifted away from the old sea-beaches, large 
heaps of sea shells are to be seen lying upon the top of 
them. They all belong to shell-fish of the edible kind, 
and consist mostly of the oyster (Ostrea edulis}, cockle 
(Cardium edule), mussel (Mytilus edulis), tapes (Tapes 
decussata), rock Jenus (Tapes pultastrd), and buckie or 
periwinkle (Littorina littorea). In early times the basin 
of the Moray Frith must have afforded a favourable 
habitat for the oyster. Their shells are found in great 
abundance, not only in the neighbourhood of Culbin, but 
in many other places both to the east and west of it ; 
and it would appear, from the great collections of them 
everywhere, that the people of the district had used them 
largely. In many places their shells are heaped up, 
layer above layer, to the depth of two and three feet. 
Some great change must have taken place in the bed of 
Frith, for the animal is now completely extirpated. Per- 
haps it would not be erring greatly to ascribe their 
destruction to the same causes which ultimately over- 
whelmed the lands of Culbin. The great tidal movements 
which had gradually broken up the old coast-line, carried 
the sand westward. This sand was, no doubt, widely 
and largely distributed over the basin of the Frith before 
it was thrown up on the shore, and when it overspread 
the firm, hard ground, which had been the favourite 
haunt of the oyster, its destruction was inevitable. 

It is generally supposed that these heaps of shells indi- 
cate the places where human habitations had once stood, 
before the district was overblown with sand. In most 
instances the shells are intermixed with the ashes of 
peat, and this gives some countenance to the supposition ; 
but if there were houses here, every trace of them has 
long since disappeared. However, there is a person now 
living in the neighbourhood who remembers to have seen, 
about 40 years ago, the walls and some other parts of a 
house exposed by the wind blowing off the sand. The 
walls of the house were formed entirely of a firm clay 
turf, which had been very carefully cut and regularly 
placed. A few wooden supports, very much decayed, 



BARONIAL MANSION OF CULBIN BURIED IN SAND. 231 

were still remaining. The floor was neatly causewayed 
with rounded stones from the beach, and over this there 
was a layer of clay about four inches in thickness. The 
greater part of the materials had been worn away by the 
wind beating upon it at some former time, the part of it 
which remained entire had been preserved by its being 
covered with sand. 

It is said that many of the tenants on the estate of 
Culbin lingered long in their old habitations, always 
cherishing the hope that the sand would make no further 
progress. So determined were they to keep possession 
of their dwellings, that when the sand was heaped up in 
front of their houses, they still managed, with great 
labour, to clear an entrance ; but soon the accumulations 
became too great to be cleared away, and at last every 
way of access in front was completely blocked up. Not- 
withstanding the threatening appearance of matters, they 
still clung to their abodes, and broke out an entrance in 
the back wall of their houses ; but even this was only of 
temporary advantage, for the sand accumulated around 
them with every wind and soon overtopped the houses, 
and at length engulphed them in the common ruin. 

Although the Mansion-house of Culbin has been for a 
long time deeply buried under one of the large mounds, 
yet portions of it have at times been fully exposed. 
About 80 years ago there had been a furious drifting of 
sand, which continued for several days in succession, and 
which greatly altered the figure of many of the large 
sand-hills. During this change a great part of the old 
Mansion appeared, standing like a skeleton, apart from 
the great mass of sand in which it had been long en- 
tombed. It was firmly and substantially built, and con- 
tained a number of finely dressed stones. While it lay 
exposed it was used by the people in the neighbourhood 
as a quarry, and many a fair building in the district now 
possesses some of the good substantial stones that once 
graced the old baronial Mansion of Culbin. If the 
weather had continued favourable, there was every like- 
lihood that all the materials of the Mansion would have 
soon disappeared. Soon, however, another furious sand- 
drift swept across the district, and the old House of 
Culbin again disappeared. At a later time one of the 
chimney-tops was seen peering, like a large march-stone, 



232 ARROW-HEADS AND CELTS FOUND ON CULBIN. 

above the sand. It remained visible for some time, and 
many persons went to see it, but, during a night of severe 
drifting, it disappeared. This seems to have been the 
last sight obtained of any part of the House of Culbin. 

It is also mentioned that, some considerable time after 
the estate was destroyed, the branches of a cherry tree, 
in full blossom, were seen standing out from the side of 
one of the sand-hills, under which the garden and orchard 
lay. It is also stated that an old man, who died about 
20 years ago, and who lived to the age of 80, used to 
relate that, in his younger days, he observed a thriving 
branch of an apple tree protruding from the side of a 
sand-hill. He visited the locality from time to time, 
watching the progress of the branch, and, as it was a 
favourable season, it budded and blossomed, and in due 
time bore fruit, which he had the pleasure of gathering. 
The fruit was of fair size, and most delicious in flavour. 

The relics obtained from the old lands of Culbin belong 
to a period too close at hand to be of much interest to 
the antiquary. They consist of fragments of pottery, 
bits of iron and brass, and stone -whorls of the old- 
fashioned distaff. Persons in the neighbourhood state 
that silver spoons have been found in the soil. Flint 
arrow-heads and celts have been picked up in several 
places along the tops of the ancient sea beaches, and in 
one place, in the neighbourhood of some large heaps of 
marine shells, a great many flint arrow-heads were found, 
along with numerous fragments of the flinty substance, 
leading to the supposition that arrow-heads had been 
manufactured in this particular locality. In the same 
place were found a few fragments of what seemed to have 
been bracelets, very neatly cut, and made from black oak, 
but these belong to a period much more remote than the 
historic days of Culbin. 

As reference has been often made to the Family of Cul- 
bin, it may not be deemed unimportant to give a short 
genealogical account of it, from the only authentic source 
now extant. The family was of the ancient Moravienses, 
and is descended from the great Flemish house of Fres- 
kyn, who, by the powerful assistance it afforded to 
William the Lion and his immediate successors, acquired 
great possessions in the north of Scotland, from the chief 
of which they assumed the local name of Moray. The 



GENEALOGY OF THE FAMILY OF CULBIN. 233 

descent of the Family may be traced from Egidix or Giles 
Moray, daughter and heiress of Walter de Moravia de 
Culbin, who married Thomas Kinnaird of Kinnaird about 
1400, and whose successors took the name of Kinnaird. 
Of this marriage there were two sons Allan, ancestor of 
Kinnaird of that ilk, and Thomas, ancestor of the Kin- 
naird of Culbin. Allan succeeded his father, Thomas, 
and got a charter of the barony of Culbin, in Perthshire, 
May 7, 1440. He likewise got a charter of the barony of 
Culbin, on the resignation of his mother, Egidia. He 
was succeeded in the estate of Culbin by his brother 
Thomas, who obtained a charter of confirmation. He 
was succeeded by his son Thomas, who was succeeded by 
his son, Walter Kinnaird of Culbin, who was retoured 
heir to his father Thomas de Culbin, 23rd January, 1509. 
He married, first, Marjory Dunbar. He appears to have 
married, secondly, Margaret Murray. He was succeeded 
by his grandson, Walter Kinnaird of Culbin. He married 
Elizabeth Innes, of the family of Innes. They were both 
living in 1613, which is ascertained by the Inscription on 
their Tombstone, still preserved in the Church of Dyke. 
Walter was succeeded by his son, Alexander Kinnaird of 
Culbin, who was retoured heir to his father Walter, in 
1626. He was succeeded by his son Walter. This gen- 
tleman is frequently mentioned in the Rolls and Acts of 
Parliament. He was succeeded by his son, Thomas 
Kinnaird of Culbin. He was named a Commissioner for 
raising public duties in Morayshire in 1685. He was 
succeeded by his son, Alexander Kinnaird of Culbin. 
This gentleman succeeded after the estate was much 
destroyed by the blowing of the sand. He married 
Mary, daughter of Alexander, 10th Lord Forbes, and 
relict of Hugh Rose of Kilravock, by whom he had a son 
named Thomas, who was a young child, and left an 
orphan at the time the estate was destroyed. A female 
relation took charge of him, removed with him to Edin- 
burgh, where she supported herself and him for two 
years by needlework, until a half-brother of his, Colonel 
Alexander Rose, of a regiment of horse stationed in Ire- 
land, took him under his care. The young man afterwards 
became Captain of a troop of horse, and died about 1743. 
The estate of Culbin was sold, about 1700, to Duff of 
Drummuir, from whose family it came by purchase into 



234 DEATH OF MARTIN, AUTHOR OF THIS PAPER. 

the family of Grant. In 1772, the late Sir James Grant 
sold it, along with Moy, to Colonel Hugh Grant, a son of 
Sheuglies, upon whose death, in 1822, it fell by disposi- 
tion to James Murray Grant, Esq., of Glenmoriston.] 

(See a Lecture delivered before the Elgin Literary and 
Scientific Association, in May, 1861, by John Martin, a 
native of Elgin, having been born, in humble circum- 
stances, at Clackmarras. He became teacher of the Free 
School of Anderson's Institution in 1831, and retired in 
1866 on a pension of 60. He died set. 87, on Sunday the 
8th May, 1881.) (Eo.) 

[By charter, dated at Elgin, 1189-99, King William 
gave the Churches of Foreys and Dyk, with the tithes 
and vicarage of the same, to the Bishop of Moray. (Reg. 
Ep. Morav.) 

The Church of Dilse (?Dyke) (Theiner) is rated at 
22s. 8d. in the Taxation of 1275, and at 4 merks in that of 
1350. It was a prebend of the Cathedral of Moray, and 
one of the mensal churches of the diocese. 

The three Churches of Dyke, Moy, and Forres were 
under one Minister in 1574; and Alexander Duff was 
Reader at Dyke. 

A decreet was pronounced on 24th Jan., 1618, " Anent 
the vneiting of the Kirk of Moy to the Kirk of Dyik, 
baithe lyand w'in the diocie of Murray" (Acta Part., v. 
569). In 1641 the right of presentation to the Church of 
Dyke was found to belong to the Earl of Dunfermline, 
Lord Fyvie (ibid) ; but Campbell of Moy entered a pro- 
test against this finding, as recorded in the Presbytery 
books of Forres. (Shaw's History of Province of Moray). 

In 1780, during the digging of the foundations of the 
present Church of Dyke, and near the steps which lead 
to the burial-place of Brodie of that ilk, a quantity of 
silver coins were found. They belonged to the time of 
William the Lion, and were from the mints of Edinburgh, 
Perth, Roxburgh, Stirling, and Berwick. 

Mr. Cardonnel (Numismata Scotice, Preface 3, 4), who 
gives a description of the coins and their discovery, says 
that they were found by a workman, who immediately 
closed up the trench where they la} r , but who returned 
at night, along with his wife, and carried off the whole 
mass, which, adds Mr. Cardonnel, " must have been very 



DISCOVERY OF COINS AT THE CHURCH. 235 

valuable," for the finder, a poor man, soon became a con- 
siderable farmer. Fortunately some specimens of "the 
find " were saved from the melting-pot, and deposited in 
the Museum of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 
where they are still to be seen. This discovery was one 
of National importance, it having been previously doubted 
whether there was a silver Coinage in Scotland in the 
time of King William. 

EPITAPHS IN THE CHURCHYARD OF DYKE. 

The Church and Churchyard of Dyke occupy a rising 
ground, and on the south side of the Kirk is the burial- 
place of the present noble family of Moray. It is enclosed 
with a railing, and marked by a handsome Obelisk of 
white marble. The family arms adorn the needle, and a 
tablet in the plinth bears : 

I. THIS IS THE BURYING-PLACE OF THE FAMILY OF MORAY. 

In the Kirk-Session Records (Jan. 17, 1683) it is stated, 
"This day being Wednesday, the corps of the right 
honourable The Countess of Murray were interred in the 
church of Dyke, the Right Reverend father in God, the 
Bishop of Murray, preached the funerall sermon." This 
entry appears to relate to the fourth Countess, Emilia, 
daughter of Sir William Balfour of Pitcullo, and mother 
of the fifth Earl of Moray. According to Douglas 1 Peer- 
age, the second Earl of Moray, who died at Darnaway, Cth 
August, 1638, "was buried next day at the Church of 
Dyke, without any pomp, according to his own directions." 

The founder of this branch of the Earls of Moray was 
James, the "Good Regent" (natural son of James V.), 
who was assassinated by Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh at 
Linlithgow, 21st January, 1569-70, when in his 37th 
year. He was buried within St. Giles' Church, Edinburgh, 
in which is his Monument, lately restored. His wife was 
a daughter of Earl Marischal, and by her he left two 
daughters, the elder of whom, Lady Elizabeth, married 
James Stewart, afterwards the " Bonny Earl of Moray " 
of Scottish song, son and heir of Sir James Stewart of 
Doune. He was murdered by Huntly's men among the 
rocks near Donibristle, 7th February, 1591-2, and wa& 
succeeded by his eldest brother, James, from whom the 
present Earl is descended. 



236 SEPULTURES OF THE BRODIES OF BRODIE 

The family Burial-aisle of the Brodies of that ilk is at 
the east end of the Church. It is an ashlar building, 
with a stair leading to a vault, in which are : 

II. The coffins of William Douglas-Rynett and George 
Gordon, two of the sons of the Laird of Brodie. The former, 
born 20th Jan., 1815, died 16th Nov., 1865, and the latter, 
born 12th Aug., 1839, died 3rd Dec., 1868. 

III. A coffin-slab, built into the north end of the upper 
flat of the aisle, presents a calvary on steps, with a sword 
below the right arm. Round the margin of the stone 
(part of which is unfortunately covered by the floor) is 
this inscription : 

*%< hie iacet richarbus brothu nt nxore sa xjut xrbiit x bi 
iie ano imi tn = ccct = bcxx = biii 

This is the only inscribed slab within the aisle, and 
nothing is recorded of the persons commemorated. 

IV. There are also three inscribed coffin-plates within 
the building : 

The Hon. Alexander Brodie of Brodie, Esq., Lyon King at 
Arms for Scotland. Obiit March 9, 1754, setat. 58. 

It was in this laird's time, says Mr. Young in his 
History of New Spynie, that the family of Brodie reached 
its greatest height of prosperity, being then possessed of 
very considerable territory, to which the Lyon-King 
added the property of Lochloy. He was sometime M.P. 
for Elginshire, and afterwards for the Inverness District 
of Burghs. 

V. Alexander Brodie of Brodie, Esq., born May 29, 1741, 
died at Bristol, Sept. 5th, 1759, aged 18 years, the last surviving 
son of Alex. Brodie of Brodie, Lord Lyon, deceased, and of 
Mary Sleigh, his wife. 

VI. Mary Sleigh, only child of Major Sam Sleigh and of 
Isabella Corbet, his wife. This truly worthy lady died univer- 
sally regretted the 21st March, 1769, in the 56th year of her 
age, the widow of Alex. Brodie of Brodie, Esq., Lord Lyon, by 
whom she had eight children, three most promising sons and 
five daughters, all which she survived, except one most unspeak- 
ably afflicted daughter, Emilia, the wife of John Macleod of 
Macleod, Esq. 

Tradition says that " a weird " was pronounced against 
the Brodies of that ilk, to the effect that no son born 



IN THE PARISH OF DYKE. 237 

within the Castle of Brodie should ever become heir to 
the property. It is added that this was caused by one of 
the lairds who induced an old woman to confess being 
guilty of witchcraft by offering her a new gown, and 
then, instead of fulfilling his promise, had her tied to a 
stake and burnt. 

It is further stated that the lady of the Lyon-King 
treated the malison with indifference, and bore all her 
family in the Castle of Brodie ; but as she had the mis- 
fortune to see one son after another pass away by death, 
it is said she repented of her neglect of the warning, and 
died of a broken heart. But the malison, whatever effect 
it may have had in days of yore, has now quite lost its 
power, the present laird having been born within the 
Castle of Brodie, 8th Sept., 1840. 

On the death of the son of the Lyon-King in 1759, the 
succession to Brodie devolved upon his cousin, James 
Brodie of Spyhie. He married a daughter of William, 
Earl of Fife, by whom he had a large family, and, dying 
in 1824, was succeeded by a grandson, William, who died 
in 1873, having been Lord Lieutenant of Nairnshire from 
his succession in 1824. He was succeeded by his second 
surviving son, Hugh, who married, Jan. 1, 1868, Lady 
Eleanor, third daughter of the second Earl of Ducie, by 
whom he has issue, four sons and one daughter. 

The present laird's grandfather, who was accidentally 
drowned at Madras in 1802, left two sons and five 
daughters. The fourth daughter, Isabella, married Capt. 
Pattullo, of the Madras Cavalry; and within an aisle 
(adjoining that of the Brodies) is a marble Monument, 
with war trophies, the names of the battles in which the 
deceased was engaged Alma, Balaclava, Inkerman and 
this Inscription : 

VII. This monument is erected to the memory of Lieut.-CoL 
James Brodie Pattullo, C.B. of the 30th Regiment, by many 
friends who wished to record their affection for him, and their 
admiration of his character, conduct, and military services. 
Distinguished throughout the whole Crimean Campaign for his 
gallantry and zeal, he was not less remarkable for the fortitude 
with which he bore its unparalleled hardships, and for his 
devotion to the best interests of the soldiers. He fell mortally 
wounded at the attack on the Redan, 8th Sept., 1855, and died 
the following day, in his 33rd year, greatly beloved and 



238 DERIVATION OF BRODIE. 

lamented. Sustained in death by the principles which guided 
his life, expressing his reliance solely on the merits of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, he died in the sure and certain hope of a joyful 
resurrection. 

The surname of Brothu, Brothy, Brodie, is of territorial 
origin, and seems to have been assumed from the lands of 
that name in Dyke, from which, under the name of 
"Brochy," the King's collector, in 1337 (Chamb. Rolls), 
charges himself with certain payments. Shaw supposes 
the family to be a branch of the ancient Moravienses, or 
those of the time of Malcolm IV., and begins the pedigree 
with Malcolm, Thane of Brodie, who died in 1285, a 
designation which occurs in the case of John of Brodie, 
in 1492 (Reg. Ep. Morav., 236). It is further said that 
Thomas of Brothie and Dyke had a charter of the lands 
of Brodie from Bruce in 1311. The most important cadet 
of the family is Brodie of Lethen, whose ancestor, Alex- 
ander, was a brother of David Brodie of that ilk, and 
uncle to Lord Brodie. Mr. John Clerk Brodie, W.S., 
Laird of Idvies, is a son of this branch. 

It was one of the lairds of Brodie who wrote an inter- 
esting Diary, 1652-80, which was carried on by his son 
down to 1685. It has been printed for "the Spalding 
Club," under the editorship of Dr. David Laing, of the 
Signet Library, Edinburgh. On reference to Dr. Laing's 
preface, and to Spalding's History of the Trubles (i. 376), 
it will be found that the Laird of Brodie had such a 
share in the destruction of two oil Paintings of the 
Crucifixion and of the Day of Judgment, and of some 
carved work in the Cathedral of Elgin, as cannot be 
sympathised with in modern times. 

VIII. About sixty years ago, while the sexton was 
digging a grave, he came upon a carved Stone which had 
formed a portion of the tomb of the old family of Kinnaird 
of Culbin. It bears two shields. One initialed V.K. 
exhibits the Kinnaird and Innes coats, quarterly; the 
other, initialed B.I., is charged with the Innes arms, and 
a crescent for a difference. Below are the following date 
and curious rhyme in interlaced Roman capitals : 

1613. 

V ALTER : KINNAIRD : ELIZABETH : 
INNES : THE : BVILDARS : OF : THIS : 



TOMB OF THE KINNAIRDS OF CULBIN. 239 

BED : OF : STANE : AR : LAIRD : AD : 
LADIE: OF: COVBINE: QVICK: 
TVA : AND : THAIRS : QVHANE : 
BRAITHE : is : GANE : PLEIS : GOD : 
VIL : SLEIP : THIS : BED : VITHIN : 

In July, 1571, the above-named persons had a nineteen 
years' lease of the teinds of Culbyn, Meretoun, and Leak 
from the Bishop of Moray, for the yearly payment of 
12 6s. 8d. (App. Reg. Ep. Morav). Walter Kynnaird, 
whose daughter was probably the wife of Fraser of Braikie, 
in Forfarshire, died about 1626, as on 4th April of that 
year his son Alexander was served heir to his father in 
the lands of Culbin and others. 

The next printed Retour (Aug. 15, 1677) shows that 
Thomas Kinnaird succeeded his father, Walter, in Culbin, 
and other properties, among which were the fishings and 
ferry coble on the Findhorn, and the " Mansio capellae 
Sancti Niniani infra parochiam de Diser" (?Dyke). 
There was a Chapel dedicated to St. Ninian near Kincorth, 
where the name is still preserved in Ninian's Croft. The 
tenant of the farm of which the croft forms a part is 
bound to pay to the Kirk Session yearly the price of 
three old bolls of barley for behoof of the poor. 

Culbin was an ancient inheritance of the Morays of 
Duffus, Alexander of Moray being designed Lord of 
Culbin in 1389 (Reg. Ep. Morav. 354). The heiress, Egi- 
dia de Moravia, having married Thomas, son of Richard 
Kinnaird of that ilk (ancestor of the Lords Kinnaird in 
Perthshire), brought Culbin to her husband about 1440. 
The property was bought from the Kinnairds by Alex. 
Duff of Drummuir, from the creditors of whose second 
son, John, Culbin and Easter Moy were acquired by 
Major George Grant about 1732. 

IX. An enclosure (near the Moray obelisk) contains 
two marble slabs, thus inscribed : 

X. The Burial Ground of the Macleods of Dalvey. 

Sacred to the memory of Mary Mackintosh, the beloved 
wife of Eneas Mackintosh, who died 3rd Nov., 1848. 

Grangehill, the name of which was changed to Dalvey 
by Sir Alex. Grant, of the Durris family, who bought the 
property about 1749, was acquired by an ancestor of the 



240 EPITAPHS IN THE CHURCHYARD OF DYKE. 

late Mr. Macleod about 17 . As a whole, it is possibly 
one of the loveliest of the many lovely spots in Moray- 
shire ; and the gardens, which contained a number of rare 
and valuable plants, were much visited by tourists and 
others during the time of the late proprietor, who died in 
1876. At Grangehill the Prior of Pluscardine had a 
grange and a cell of monks who cultivated the land. 

XI. From a plain headstone to the east of the Brodie 
vault : 

The Burial-place of the Allans, late of Muirhall, Brodie. 

"The Allans" were a farmer family, and a daughter 
married the Rev. Dr. David Brichan, Minister of Dyke, 
"an accomplished scholar and elegant writer," who died 
in 1814. A son, James Brodie Brichan, who adhered to 
the Free Church, and died of pleurisy at Edinburgh, 17th 
March, 1864, at the age of 54, was an industrious and 
trustworthy literary antiquary. He assisted the late 
Professor Cosmo Innes in the compilation of some of his 
valuable works, and was sole author of the .last, and of a 
considerable portion of the first, volume of Origines 
Parochiales Scotice, which is perhaps one of the most 
valuable of the many important works printed for the 
Bannatyne Club. This great work is unfortunately un- 
finished. The portion issued embraces (vol. i.) the Dioceses 
of Glasgow ; vol. ii., part 1, Argyle and the Isles ; part 2, 
Ross, Caithness, Argyle, and the Isles. 

XII. A death's head and crossed bones are rudely 
carved upon the stone, which bears this brief record : 

Robert Cowie, 
Christian Mawer, 1682. 

The next three inscriptions are from tablestones : 

XIII. Placed here at the request of John Clunes, of the 
parish of St. Mary, County of Middlesex, and Island of 
Jamaica, in commemoration of the remains of his beloved 
parents, James Clunes and Jean MacKintosh, the former born 
in the year 1730, died in the year 1802 ; the latter born in the 
year 1749, died in the year 1811. 

XIV. Mary William, wf. of D. Christie, d. 1784, a. 23. 

Well did she act the different scenes of life j 
A modest virgin, and a loving wife ; 



FEMALE SCHOOL IN THE PARISH OF DYKE. 241 

A darling daughter, and a mother kind ; 
A pleasant neighbour, and a constant friend ; 
By all who knew her worth, she liv'd belov'd, 
And all with sorrow for her death was mov'd. 

XV. William Falconer, and his wf. Janet Gavin, " who once 
possessed the large farms of Grange Green." Erected in 1805 
by the late Eobert Falconer, teacher of languages, Newcastle : 

When resurrection's hour shall come, 

And death itself shall die, 
The Lord will take his servant home 

To endless life and joy. 

XVI. From a headstone : 

Sacred to the memory of James M'Kenzie and Sophia 
Bower, his wife 

When thousands of winters pass over my head 
In this house that is cold and dreary, 

With me the worldling is confin'd, 

But with me there is rest for the weary. 
By Jas. M'Kenzie, his son, State of Ohio, N.A. 

The Parish Kirk and Public School stand at the village- 
of Dyke. Near the manse is a female school, into the 
gable of which two triangular-shaped slabs are built, 
with these inscriptions : 

XVII. Erected for Education of Youth of the Female Sex 
in piety and virtue by Brodie of that ilk, 1701. 

This refers to a donation which was made by James 
Brodie, who wrote a continuation of his father's Diary, in 
which he gives some quaint notices of himself and his 
backslidings. When fined 24,000 Scots for refusing the 
Test Act, he consoles himself by remarking " The world 
has bein my idol, and the love of it and covetousness the 
root of much evil," adding, "and the Lord justlie may 
punish in this." 

Mr. Brodie, as noticed below, was assisted by a legal 
" friend " in the material point of augmenting the teacher's 
salary : 

XVII. Bestowed for salary by lohn Anderson, writer, our 
kindlie freind, the rent of two thousand merks yearly, 1701. 

Another benefactor to the parish was Henry Vass, who- 
died in 1757. He was some time in the service of Major 
Grant of Culbin, and left the interest of 100 to assist m 

VOL. II. 16 



242 PARISH OF DYKE. 



clothing twelve indigent children in Dyke, as recorded 
upon his tombstone at Elgin. 

The Muckle Burn, which runs through the parish of 
Dyke, and falls into the Findhorn, is bridged at Dalvey, 
and at the railway station of Brodie. A handsome sus- 
pension bridge, which cost about 7,000, crosses the 
Findhorn on the Inverness turnpike, and bears these 
inscriptions : 

XVIII. The stone bridge erected here in 1800 having been 
swept away by the flood of the 4th August, 1829, the suspen- 
sion bridge was built 1832. Founded 1st March, 1832. 

XIX. Erected under Act of Parliament by the subscription 
of the inhabitants of Forres and its vicinity. Samuel Brown, 
Commander, Royal Navy, Engineer. Opened 30th May, 1832.] 
(Jervise's Epitaphs.) 

Before I proceed further, I shall give a sketch of 

THE EARLS OP MOEAY. 

This Earldom continued long feudal, reverting 
to the Crown in default of male issue in the 
direct line. The first I have signed Earl of 
Moray is, OEngus Comes de Moravia interfectus 
est cum suis (Chron. Melr.) anno 1130. Mr. 
Myles makes him descended of King Duncan 
the bastard. Others will have the descendants 
of Duncans Earl of Moray as followeth (1) Dun- 
can, bastard son of King Malcolm III. He 
usurped the throne anno 1094 ; and his charter 
sheweth, that he hoped to transmit it to his pos- 
terity ; but he was cut off anno 1095. His son, 
by Ethelreda, daughter of Gospatrick, son of 
Criman, Earl of Northumberland (Myles), (2) 
William Nepos Comitis David et Nepos Eegis 
(Dalr. Col.). Dugdale says, if my memory doth 



THE EARLS OF MORAY. 243 

not fail, that he was Earl of Moray, and married 
Ailtze de Eumelli. This is the more probable, 
because he was much in favour with King David 
I., and was one of his generals. His son was (3) 
Dovenald. Hovedan says, He was called Mac- 
William, Mac William being son of William, the 
son of Duncan, and was killed anno 1187. This 
is agreeable to Chron. Melr. ad. ann. 1186. 
" Cumque Eex esset apud oppidum Inverness 
cum exercitu, Comites Scotiae miserunt suos 
homines ad praedandum, inveneruntque Mac Wil- 
liam cum suis super Moram quae dicitur Man- 
garvia prope Mureff, and mox cum eo pugnarunt, 
et Deo opitulante, cum multis aliis intersece- 
runt." * His son was (4) Dovenald, of whom 
the Chron. Melr. ad. ann. 1215 observeth, that 
Dovenald, son of Mac William, invaded Moray, 
but was cut off by Mac-in-Tsayairt, ancestor to 
Eoss, Earl of Eoss, and his head brought to the 
king. Possibly from these Mac Williams, came 
the Mac Williams in Boharm, &c. 

The next Earl of Moray I have met with, is 
Sir Thomas Eandolph, great grandson of Eanul- 
fus, who is a frequent witness in King William's 
Charters. His son Thomas died anno 1262, and 

* Translation. When the King was with his army at the 
town of Inverness, the Barons of Scotland sent forth their 
retainers to plunder; and they found MacWilliam with his 
troops above Moram, which is called Mangarvia, on the bor- 
ders of Moray, and they directly encountered him, and with 
the help of God they slew him with many besides. 



244 THE EARLS OF MORAY. 

was interred in the Abbey of Melrose. His son, 
Sir Thomas, Lord Chamberlain, married Isabel, 
sister of King Robert Bruce. And their son, Sir 
Thomas, was created Earl of Moray anno 1313 
or 1314. Although'the Charter or Patent beareth 
no date, yet it is certain that in the convention 
at Ayr 1315, he was Earl of Moray (Anderson 
.Indep.). Thomas died anno 1331, and his son 
Thomas, second Earl of Moray, succeeded him. 
He was, according to Fordun, " paternae probi- 
tatis, imitator." He was slain fighting gallantly 
against the enemies of his country, at the fatal 
Battle of Duplin anno 1332; and having no issue, 
he was succeeded by his brother, Earl John, who 
was a strenuous asserter of the liberties of his 
country. He had the misfortune to be taken 
prisoner at the Battle of Kilblain anno 1335, and 
was confined, first in the Castle of Nottingham, 
afterwards in the Tower of London, till he was 
released by the mediation of the King of France, 
and exchanged for the Earl of Salisbury anno 
1341. He was immediately constituted Warden 
of the west Marches. He accompanied King 
David II. in his unfortunate expedition into Eng- 
land, and was killed at the Battle of Durham 
anno 1346, leaving no issue, and the Earldom 
reverted to the Crown. But Patrick Dunbar, 
Earl of March, in right of his wife Agnes, daughter 
of Thomas Randolph, first Earl of Moray, was 
designed " Comes Marciae et Moravise." 



THE EARLS OF MORAY. 245 

John Dunbar, second son of Earl Patrick, 
marrying the Princess Marjory, King Eobert II.'s 
daughter, was made Earl of Moray 1372, but 
Badenoch, Lochaber, and Urquhart were ex- 
cepted out of the grant. And upon the demise 
of Earl James Dunbar, the last of that name, 

Archibald, brother to the Earl of Douglas, was 
Earl of Moray, about 1446. But having joined 
in his brother's rebellion in 1452, he was for- 
feited, and was killed in 1455. 

Upon the forfeiture of Archibald Douglas, the 
title was assumed by Janet Dunbar, daughter of 
James Earl of Moray, and wife of James Lord 
Crichton. In 1454, there are several charters 
granted by Janet Dunbar, Countess of Moray, 
and Lady Frenderet, to Alexander Dunbar of 
Westfield, her brother (pen. West.), but she gave 
up her pretensions to the Earldom of Moray, and 
obtained that of Caithness to her son George. 

In 1501, James Stewart, natural son of King 
James IV., got the Earldom of Moray. He was 
called the Little Earl, and died in 1544, without 
male issue. 

In 1548, the Earldom was conferred on George 
Earl of Huntly ; but that grant was recalled in 
1554, and it remained in the Crown till the 
year 1562. 

It was then granted to James Stewart, natural 
son to King James V. In the Acts of Privy 
Council 12th February, 1561, he is designed 



246 THE EARLS OF MORAY. 

i 

Earl of Mar; but in the Council held at Aberdeen 
15th October, 1562, he is designed Earl of Moray 
(Keith's Hist.). His eldest daughter, Elizabeth, 
married James Stewart, Lord Downe, who, in 
her right, became Earl of Moray. Lord Downe 
was descended of Robert Duke of Albany, third 
son to King Robert II. James, son of Murdac, 
Duke of Albany, had four sons; viz., Andrew, 
James, Walter, and Arthur, who, because they 
were born out of the country, were legitimated 
anno 1472. Andrew was created Lord Evendale 
1459 ; and having no issue, was succeeded by his 
nephew, Alexander, son of Walter, whose son 
Andrew, third Lord Evendale, with the consent 
of ihe Crown, exchanged that title for Ochiltree. 
In his father's lifetime, he married Margaret, 
daughter of Sir John Kennedy of Blairquhan, 
with whom he had three sons, Andrew, second 
Lord Ochiltree, whose male line is now extinct ; 
Henry Lord Methven, whose male line is also 
extinct; and Sir James of Beith, who was a great 
favourite of King James V., and was by him made 
one of the Gentlemen of his Bed-chamber, Lieu- 
tenant of his Guards, Constable of the Castle of 
Down, and Stewart of Mentieth and Strathgartny. 
He was killed in Dunblain by the Laird of Dun- 
treath, and his two brothers, out of a grudge for 
his having obtained the Stewartry of Mentieth, 
which was formerly in their family 1547, and 
his son James was created Lord Downe anno 



LORD DOVVNIE CREATED A PEER. 247 

1581,* whose son James, married Elizabeth 
Countess of Moray, and from them the present 
family is descended. 

[It was this Earl who was murdered at Dunibristle in 
1592, who was succeeded by his son, James, who died in 
1633. His son, James, survived till 1652, and was suc- 
ceeded by his son, Alexander, who survived his first-born 
son, Alexander, Lord Downe, who, being the father of 
two beautiful daughters, the spouses of their happy hus- 
bands, Brigadier-general Alexander Grant of Grant, and 
Thomas Fraser of Strichen their uncle, Charles, the 
second son, succeeded their father, Earl Alexander, who, 
being removed in 1735, was succeeded by his brother 
Francis, the third son of Earl Alexander, the 4th Earl, 
who left his rank and fortune to his eldest son, James, 
the 7th Earl. He was succeeded loy his son, Francis, who 
was succeeded by three of that name. John, the llth 
Earl, succeeded Francis, the 10th Earl, in 1859. He was 
succeeded by his half-brother, Archibald-George, who died 
unmarried in 1782 ; and was succeeded by his only sur- 
viving brother George. The heir presumptive is his lord- 
ship's cousin, Edmund Archibald Stewart Gray of Gray, 
King James and Balmerino.] (Eo.) 

Arms of Eandolph, Earl of Moray. Or, three cusheons 
pendent by the corners within the royal tressure, Gules. 

Arms of Dunbar, Earl of Moray. Quarterly, 1st and 4th, 
The arms of Eandolph, Earl of Moray, above blazoned. 2nd 

* The form of creating Lord Downe a Peer, is by an Act of 
Parliament, 7th of James VI. anno 1581, bearing, that the 
lands of Downe, &c., were feued by Queen Mary to Sir James 
Stewart of Downe, Knight, his heirs, &c., and the said Sir James 
being descended of the royal blood : "Therefore his Highness, 
with the advice of his three estates, erects, creates, and incor- 
porates, all the foresaid bonds, offices, &c., in an Lordship, to 
be called the Lordship of Downe, who shall have the dignity 
and place of a Lord of Parliament, with his arms effeiring 
thereto." This was an usual form (possibly for the greater 
solemnity, the King being under age) in imitation of the old 
form of creating an Earl, by creating his lands into a county. 
(Essay on Brit. Antiq.). 



248 ARMS OF THE EARLS OF MORAY. 

and 3rd Gules, a lion rampant within a border argent, charged 
with eight roses of the field. 

Arms of Douglas, Earl of Moray. Quarterly, 1st and 4th, 
The arms of Randolph, Earl of Moray, above blazoned. 2nd 
and 3rd, a man's heart ensigned with an Imperial Crown 
proper, on a chief azure, three stars of the field. 

Arms of James, Earl of Moray, natural son of King James 
IV. Quarterly, 1st and 4th, The imperial arms of Scotland 
bruised with a baton sinister, counter charged of the field and 
charge. 2nd and 3rd, The arms of Randolph, Earl of Moray, 
above blazoned. 

Arms of James, Earl of Moray, Regent of Scotland in Queen 
Mary's time. The same as the last. 

Arms of the present Earl of Moray. Quarterly, 1st and 4th, 
The imperial arms of Scotland within a bordure garbonated, 
azure and argent. 2nd, Or, a fess checkie azure and argent. 
3rd, The arms of Randolph, Earl of Moray, above blazoned. 

Above the shield is placed his Lordship's coronet, over which 
is set an helmet befitting his quality, with a mantling Gules, 
the doubling ermine. On a wreath of his liveries is set for a 
crest, a pelican feeding her young. Or, in a nest vert. In an 
escroll above the crest, this motto. SALUS PER CHRISTUM 
REDEMPTOREM. And on a compartment below the shield, are 
placed for supporters, two grey hounds, argent collared, Gules. 

I shall now give some account of 

THE FAMILY OF BRODIE. 

This name is manifestly local, taken from the 
lands of Brodie. In ancient writings, it is called 
Brothie, softened into Brodie. In the old Irish, 
Broth signifies a ditch or mire ; the same as Dyke 
in Saxon, and Digue in French. And the mire, 
trench, or ditch, that runneth from the village of 
Dyke, to the north of Brodie House, seemeth to 
have given this place the name of Brodie. Be 
this as it will, the antiquity of this name ap- 
peareth from this, that no history, record, or 



THE FAMILY OF BRODIE. 249 

tradition (that I know of) doth so much as hint, 
that any other family or name possessed the 
lands of Brodie before them, or that they came 
as strangers from another country. I incline 
much to think, that they were originally of the 
ancient Moravienses, and were one of these loyal 
tribes, to whom King Malcolm IV. gave lands 
about the year 1160, when he transplanted the 
Moray rebels. At that time surnames were 
fixed ; and the Macintoshes, Innesses, Bosses, 
then assumed their names ; and probably so did 
the Brodies. And their arms being the same 
with these of the Morays, sheweth that they 
were originally the same people. 

The old writs of this family were either carried 
away by Lord Gordon when he burnt Brodie 
House in 1645, or were destroyed in that burn- 
ing ; and yet the descents of the family may be 
traced up about 500 years. (1) Malcolm was 
Thane of Brodie in the reign of King Alexander 
III. (2) Michael films Malcolmi, Thanus de 
Brothie and Dyke, had a charter from King 
Kobert Bruce about 1311 (Hist, of Kilr. and Sir 
G. MJc. M.S.). (3) Joannes de Brothie, accom- 
panied the Earl of Mar Lord Lieutenant, about 
the year 1376 (Hist. Kilr. and Maclnt.) (4) 
John of Brodie, assisted the MacKenzies against 
the MacDonalds, in the conflict at Park, anno 
1466 (Hist, of Sutherl. &c.). (5) John of Brodie, 
witness in an indenture between the Thane of 



250 THE FAMILY OF BRODIE. 

Calder and the Baron of Kilravock, anno 1482 
(Pen. Cald.). (Here two or three descents are 
wanting, which I could not find out.) 

Alexander of Brodie, father of (9) David, who 
died anno 1627, leaving six sons; viz., David, 
who succeeded him ; Alexander, who purchased 
the lands of Lethin, Kinloss, and Pitgavenie; Mr. 
John, who was Dean of Moray, and whose son 
William Brodie of Whitewreath, was father of 
Mr. William Brodie, Advocate, who died a bache- 
lor in 1741 ; Mr. Joseph, the fourth son, was 
Mnister of F orres, and purchased the lands of 
Main near Elgin, which his son Alexander dis- 
poned to Pitgavenie, and bought the lands of 
Muirhouse near Turiff, which Alexander's grand- 
son sold of late ; Francis, the fifth son, purchased 
the lands of Milntoun and others near Elgin, 
which his grandson sold to Lord Braco, and his 
great-grand-son is Alexander Brodie of Windy- 
hills ; William, the sixth son, was proprietor of 
Coltfield, and his son William dying without 
issue, the lands came to the house of Brodie. 
(10) David had two sons ; Alexander, who suc- 
ceeded him, and Joseph of Asleisk. This Joseph 
of Asleisk, was father of George of Brodie, and 
of James of Whitehill, who purchased Coltfield 
and Spynie ; and whose son, James Brodie of 
Spynie, Advocate and Sheriff-depute of Moray 
and Nairn, died in 1756, leaving a son and heir, 
James a minor, who now enjoys the estate, and 



THE FAMILY OF BRODIE. 251 

represents the family of Brodie. (11) Alexander 
was a man of eminent piety and prudence, and 
was chosen a Lord of Session in 1649 ; but soon 
resigned. He was one of the Commissioners 
who were sent to treat with King Charles II. at 
the Hague and at Breda. He died in 1679, 
leaving issue, by a daughter of Sir Eobert Innes, 
a son James, and a daughter married to Sir 
Eobert Dunbar of Grangehill. (12) James, 
married Lady Mary Kerr daughter of Kobert 
Earl of Lothian, and dying in 1708, left nine 
daughters: viz., Ann married to Lord Forbes; 
Catherine married to Eobert Dunbar of Grange- 
hill ; Elizabeth married to Cummine of Altyre ; 
Grizzel married to Dunbar of Dumphail ; Emilia 
married to Brodie of Asleisk ; Margaret married 
to James Brodie of Whitehill ; Vere married to 
Brodie of Muirhouse; Mary married to Chivez 
of Muirtoun ; and Henrietta the youngest who 
died unmarried. (13) George of Asleisk suc- 
ceeded, and dying in 1716, left two sons, James 
and Alexander ; and two daughters, one of which 
was married to Sinclair of Ulbster in Caithness, 
and the other to Munro of Navarre. (14) James 
succeeded his father; and dying in 1720, was 
succeeded by his brother. (15) Alexander, who 
was appointed Lord Lyon in 1727. He married 
Margaret daughter of Major Sley ; and dying in 
1754, left a son Alexander who succeeded him, 
and a -daughter who was married to John Younger 



252 ARMS OF THE FAMILY OF BRODIE. 

of MacLeod. (16) Alexander died a bachelor in 
1759 ; and was succeeded by (17) James Brodie, 
son of James Brodie of Spynie, and grandson of 
James Brodie of Whitehill. He married Lady 
Margaret Duff, daughter of the late Earl of Fife. 
[Their first-born son was drowned in India by the 
upsetting of his boat in the surge along the shore 
leaving a son William Brodie, who, on the death 
of his grandfather, succeeded to the estates.] 

The arms of the family of Brodie. Argent, a chevron Gules 
between three stars azure. Supporters, two savages proper 
wreathed about the head and middle with laurel. Crest, a 
right hand holding a bunch of arrows. All proper. Motto, 

UNITE. 

AULDEARN PARISH. 

The parish of Aldern (Ault-Jaran, i.e. the iron 
coloured brook) is about 3 miles from east to 
west, and as much from north to south. 

The Church' 56 ' standeth about a mile from the 
sea, and from the east end of the parish, about 4 
miles west from Dyke, 2 miles east from Nairn, 
and 4 miles east from Calder. In the lower part 
of the parish, towards the firth, is the barony of 
Inshoch, with a large old house, the seat of the 
Hays of Lochloy and Park. This was a very 
ancient branch of the house of Errol, and were 
Lairds of Park about 400 years. By their de- 

* John Hay, of Lochloy, who deceased in July, 1640, left his 
body to be buried in the burial place of his forbearis within the 
queir of Aulderne, and ordained ane loft to be biggit within 
the Kirk of Aulderne, on the north syd therof, toith the timber 
gotten of the rhanrie ^iirk of (Elgin. (Kilravock Papers. ED.) 



PROPERTIES IN AULDEARN PARISH. 253 

clining, the lands of Inshoch and Park came into 
the family of Brodie about the beginning of this 
century. The lands of Park (in the west end of 
the parish) were sold about the year 1724 to 
Hugh Hay, after whose death they were, at a 
judicial sale in 1755, purchased by Sir Alexander 
Grant of Dalvey. 

South-east of Inshoch is the house of Penick, 
the seat of, and built by Alexander Dunbar, Dean 
of Moray, or by his son. This was a part of the 
Priory lands of Urquhart, and the residence of 
the Dunbars of Grange, till about the 1680, when 
they sold Penick to the Laird of Brodie, and 
resided at Burgie. Next westward is Kinsterie, 
which (with Brightmonie contiguous to it) came 
from the Lauders to the Chisholms, and from 
them to the Sutherlands of Duffus. A branch of 
the family of Duffus were heritors of Kinsterie, 
which they sold about 50 years ago, and pur- 
chased Burrowsbridge and Myreside in Spynie 
parish, and took the title of Greenhall. James 
Sutherland late of Kinsterie, was a surveyor of 
the customs. The lands were long under seques- 
tration for debt, but lately purchased by John 
Gordon of Clunie. 

Close by the Church is the barony of Boath, 
the property of Alexander Dunbar, the oldest 
branch of the family of Durris, and possessors of 
that barony above 150 years. West from Boath 
is Kinudie ; this was a part of the estate of 



254 PROPERTIES IN AULDEARN PARISH. 

Park, and in 1741 and thence to 1621, Hay of 
Kinudie had the lands of Maine near Elgin. 
From the Hays, Kinudie came to the Urquharts, 
and in 1670 Hugh Eose of Kilravock purchased 
Kinudie, Hunterbog, &c., from Alexander Urqu- 
hart ; and in 1767 they were sold by Kilravock 
to Mr. James Eussel. 

The upper part of the parish is high ground, 
and in the east end of it, is the barony of Moyness 
and Boghol. This was a part of the estate of 
Westfield, given to John Dunbar, a second son 
of that family, about the year 1584. And in 
1634, Kobert Dunbar, son of the said John, dis- 
poned these lands to John Grant of Loggie, 
whose son, James Grant, sold them to Sir Hugh 
Campbell of Calder in 1668, and they are now 
Calder's property. West from Moyness is the 
barony of Lethin ; this was a part of the estate of 
Falconer of Hawkerton as early as the year 1295, 
and continued so, till soon after the year 1600, it 
was sold to John Grant of Fruechie, who about 
the 1613, built a large house, and there resided. 
His son Sir John Grant, after he came to the 
estate in 1622, sold this barony to Alexander 
Brodie, second son to David, Laird of Brodie. 
This gentleman likewise purchased the Abbey 
lands of Kinloss, from Bruce Lord Kinloss, and 
in 1630 purchased the lands of Pitgavenie from 
Alexander Hay of Kinudie. There has of late 
been built at Lethin, a fine modern house, which, 



DERIVATION OF AULDEARN. 255 

with the gardens, inclosures, and planting, makes 
a delightful seat. 

AULDEARN. 

[Situation, Soil, Climate. The parish of Auldearn, on 
the eastern frontier of the county of Nairn, extends 6 
miles westward along the coast, from the boundary of 
Dyke ; and it is stretched to the same extent backward 
from the shore, meeting Ardclach and Calder towards the 
south. The village of Auldearn, signifying in the Gaelic, 
the aller brook, although not entitled now to that appel- 
lation, is near the centre of the parish : it is also 20 miles 
from Elgin, and at the same distance from Inverness. A 
highway between these towns passes through it, more 
pleasant, in equal repair, and not longer than the post- 
road, conducted through a desert skirt on the outside of 
the parish. 

The soil in the eastern quarter of the parish is a strong 
clay of a red colour ; it produces luxuriant crops, but is 
of difficult cultivation: southward towards Ardclach, it 
is a blacker mould, but not so fertile nor early. About 
the village the soil is light, and the crops are only 
weighty and full in rainy or moist summers. The nor- 
thern side of the parish is a heavy cold loam, difficult to 
manage in a wet winter or spring. 

Lord Cawdor's property is so much encumbered by 
baulks and stone, that its value might be raised more 
than one fifth by clearing properly the fields. 

The climate, healthful, is generally serene and dry, but 
a little colder and more wet in the higher parts of the 
country. 

State of Property. The valued rent of the parish 
amounts to 7255 7d. Scots. 

Lethin House, the family-seat of Miss Brodie, is a 
stately handsome edifice, pleasantly situated in a valley, 
and embellished by the rural decorations of gardens, 
enclosures, walks, and a great extent of wood on either 
hand, among which a number of majestic beeches form 
a striking appearance, by the bulky strength of the tall 
bole, and the lofty canopy of the spreading branches. 
The valued rent is 1100 Scots. 

In a green dale, northward of the village, is the seat of 



256 STATE OF PROPERTY IN AULDEARN. 

the ancient family of the Dunbars of Boath. It is plea- 
santly situated on the bank of a winding brook; the 
garden, plantation, and ornamental cultivation, decorate 
the environs of this handsome structure. The valued 
rent of the estate is 652 15s. 9d. The present Boath 
House was erected in 1830 by Sir James A. Dunbar, Bart. 
James Brodie, of Brodie, Esq., is the proprietor of the 
barony of Inshoch ; on which there is a ruined castle, and 
a considerable extent of natural birch-wood and full- 
grown fir plantation. 

On the adjoining estate of Penick, originally a part of 
the lands of the Priory of Urquhart, there is a commodi- 
ous old house of three stories, which, though for some 
years uninhabited, is in pretty good repair. 

The valued rent of these estates is 1599 11s. Scots. 
The lands of Blackhills, Raitlone, Ley lands, with Moy- 
ness, Boghole, and Earl's Seat, valued at 1483 19s. 6d., 
appertain to Lord Cawdor. 

The estate of Knockandie, valued at 96, is the pro- 
perty of Miss Ore of Nairn : and the rest of the parish, 
Kinudie, Kinsterie, Auldearn, and Park, appertain to 
Charles Gordon of Braid, Esq. On this property, valued 
at 2322 14s. 4d. Scots, there is an elegant country-seat, 
and more than 600 acres in wood, in groves, stripes, and 
extended plantations. The land is also greatly embel- 
lished and improved by drains, hedges, and enclosures; 
the fields have been cleared of every incumbrance ; the 
larger stones burst by gunpowder ; and the most substan- 
tial and perfect cultivation everywhere completed. 

The real rent may rise above 3000 sterling. There 
are a few farms rented from 60 to 80 ; but the greater 
number from 10 to 26 sterling. The most fertile soils 
let from 1 5s. to 1 16s. the acre. The fields indeed are 
open ; but the tenants would cheerfully give an adequate 
rise of rent, were substantial enclosures formed. About 
2000 bolls of barley, and the same quantity of oats, may 
be disposed of yearly. The number of horses is 370. 
The black cattle are generally starved in the spring, and 
but poorly fed in the summer: their number is nearly 
910. The sheep are of the small white-faced breed, and 
amount to about 1200. The village of Auldearn consists 
of 41 dwellings, which contain 185 inhabitants, whereof 
4 are merchants, and 3 are inn keepers. 



AULDEARN, THE SEAT OF THE DEAN OF MORAY. 257 

State Ecclesiastical. During the Roman Catholic dis- 
pensation, Auldearn was the seat of the Dean of the 
Diocese of Moray. It may be presumed his office, first 
instituted in the year 1220 by Bishop Brice, obliged him 
to reside principally, with the other canons, at the Cathe- 
dral in Elgin. It does not appear that he had any other 
revenue but the tithes of Auldearn and Nairn, and the 
field at Elgin called the Dean's Crook, about 4 acres, now 
in the parish of Spynie. There is nothing known re- 
specting the succession of the deans: their scanty revenue 
or remote situation might have prevented any of them, 
though of distinguished abilities, from attaining to emi- 
nence : it may be presumed, that the number of incum- 
bents, after their institution, might be equal on the whole 
to that of the bishops. 

In the year 1650, about the time when the formation 
of the parish of Kinloss was proposed, some parts of the 
skirts of Auldearn were more commodiously annexed to 
Nairn, Calder, and Ardclach. 

In the year 1773, the Presbytery of Nairn, which, 
together with that county, is here to be considered, was 
established by the decree of the General Assembly, con- 
joining Auldearn, Nairn, and Ardclach, from the Presby- 
tery of Forres, to Calder and Croy from that of Inverness, 
and to Airdersier from the Presbytery of Chanonry, of 
the Synod of Ross, upon the other side of the Firth, with 
which it had been incommodiously classed. 

The Church, a modern building, in the village, is con- 
joined to the walls of a ruined steeple; yet, like a house 
with but one chimney, stands disfigured by the char- 
acteristic of Caledonian frugality, the meanly looking- 
belfry. 

The stipend, including the allowance for the Communion, 
is 48 15s. 6d., 54 bolls of meal, and 48 of bear, with 14 
wedders, generally converted at 3s. 6d. each, being paid 
when only one year old. Eleven shillings of the money 
is paid from the Dean's Crook, probably the original rent 
(10 merks Scots), which has been ever retained. The 
right of patronage appertains to Mr. Brodie of Brodie. 
The salary of the school is 16 bolls in meal and bear, and 
the customary fees of about 30 scholars, and the fee of the 
Session-Clerk, about 3, with the customary perquisites. 
The provision for the poor, contributed in the usual 

VOL. II. 17 



258 REV. WM. LESLIE ON THE BOGHOLE SECEDERS. 

manner by the people amounts to about 10 yearly, to 
which is added 4 16s., arising from the interest of a 
capital saved by the parsimony of the Session during the 
last incumbency, distributed annually among 50 persons, 
or occasionally as the necessities of any may require. 

The members of the National Church amount to 1309, 
and there are 97 dissenters of the Antiburgher Sect of 
Seceders : joined by a few of their brethren in the neigh- 
bouring parishes, they support a clergyman of their own 
sort: his residence and chapel are at Boghole, on the 
frontiers of Edinkielie, where one of the same sect has 
lately opened a school at the common rates, and partly 
by its novelty, and partly by its remote situation from 
the Established schools, this seminary has been hitherto 
well attended : but the zeal of the Session waxes gradually 
more cold. 

Miscellaneous Information. The people rest their vir- 
tue in the observance of devotional rather than in the 
discharge of moral duties. From the strictest attention to 
the last they believe themselves set free, by formal and 
prolongated exercises of the first. Many on this account 
make long pilgrimages to attend those popular preachers, 
who inculcate chiefly the efficacy of Faith, and delight to 
dwell on the merits of the Atonement ; and although the 
people in general deem every gratification of sense to be 
sinful in some degree, yet petty thefts among them are 
not uncommon. Flagrant immoralities, however, and dis- 
graceful profligacy, are carefully eschewed ; and they err 
rather through illiberal and inveterate prejudice, than 
from want of principle, or through depravity of mind. 

It is ascertained that an almost inexhaustible store of 
pure rich marie is contained in the moss and lake of 
Litie, on the property of Lord Cawdor. It extends over 
a space of 40 acres, and is from 16 to 20 feet deep. It 
would not be costly to drain off the water: and Mr. 
Gordon of Braid has shown the beneficial effects of similar 
marie on his estate of Kinsterie, in his crops of corn, 
turnip, and grass. 

It appears probable to people skilled in opening coal 
pits, that this useful mineral might be found in the 
grounds between Boath and the shore. There is a quarry 
wrought of dark blue stone, which, like coal, flames in 
the fire; yet its bulk was not diminished, nor on the 



DRUIDICAL TEMPLE ; ST. COLIN'S MARKET, AULDEARN. 259 

application of water, does it fall into a powder like lime- 
stone calcined. 

Large fir trees are dug in the tracts of peat earth in 
different parts of the parish. Some have been found 60 
feet in length, and in diameter nearly 3 ; they are used in 
the roofing of houses. 

Under the bank, which, it has been said, ranges along 
the coast from Dyke nearly to Inverness, there is in this 
parish a lake [Loch Loy] about a mile in length, but less 
than the half of that in breadth ; it is below the level of 
the sea, of which it seems to have been once a part : by 
the drifting of the sand, it is still more and more dimin- 
ished both in extent and depth, though it still retains 
more than 7 fathoms of water. 

The temples of the Druids, pretty numerous over all 
this quarter of the country, bear evidence of its having 
been inhabited from very remote antiquity. An artificial 
green mount near the Church, though called the Castle- 
hill, is generally supposed to have been accumulated for 
the court of civil justice, when these temples of the Druids 
were forsaken. And it may be presumed, that if justice 
was not always obtained, yet it must have cost less when 
administered on a green mount, in the open air, than in a 
splendid hall, on cushioned chairs, ermined robes of state, 
and fantastic wigs. 

There are three annual fairs in the village, where black 
cattle is always the staple. That on the 21st of June 
was established on the Festival of St. Columba, and is yet 
called St. Colm's market. 

The village is distinguished as the field of one of the 
celebrated victories of the Marquis of Montrose in 1645, 
for Charles I. endeavouring to establish Prelacy in Scot- 
land, and despotism over all the empire. If it be at any 
time for the good of a nation, or for the happiness of a 
people, to commence a civil war, it must be to oppose the 
practical establishment of the doctrine of passive obedience 
and non-resistance: yet that generation involved them- 
selves in calamities much more deplorable than any which 
they feared from the king; and after all, they tamely 
yielded up those rights to an upstart usurper, for the 
defence of which they had rebelled against and murdered 
a respectable prince, the representative of a long line of 
their National monarchs. 



260 BATTLE OF AULDEARN. 

The inhabitants of Moray in that age were ad verse to 
the measures of the Court, respecting both the Church and 
State. Montrose therefore plundered, burned, and de- 
stroyed the whole country, in a progress from Inverness, 
particularly the estates and houses of Brodie of Lethin, 
and Brodie of Brodie, Dunbar of Grangehill, Kinnaird of 
Culbin, Burgie, Duffus, Garmach, Innes, and Redhall, 
destroying also the nets and boats, to ruin the fishery of 
Spey. Faster-eve's market at Elgin was that year given 
up, for the fear of this gallant plunderer : and the most 
substantial people of the town, abandoning their houses, fled 
with their families and most valuable effects to the Castle 
of Spynie, at that time a tenable fortress. In this situa- 
tion, the forces of the people, under Lieutenant General 
Urry, rendezvous at Inverness. In a casual skirmish, as 
the troops marched onward, a young gentleman of the 
King's party, Mr. Gordon of Rhynie, being wounded, 
retired for his recovery to the house of a friend at 
Struthers near Forres, and he was there murdered by a 
party of the people from Elgin, under the conduct of the 
young knight of Innes, zealous against Prelacy and non- 
resistance, hastening to join the army at Inverness. Mon- 
trose followed after to Auldearn, with 1500 foot, and 250 
horse; where he was met by Urry and many of the 
chiefs of the people, with an army of 3500 men and 400 
horse. From before such superior powers Montrose was 
inclined to retreat : but that was extremely hazardous, by 
the approach of General Baillie from behind, with an army 
still better appointed. He was, therefore, obliged to try 
the fate of a battle, in which the superiority of numbers 
was in a great degree compensated by the advantage of 
the ground. Montrose concealed the greater part of his 
forces behind the village, at that time on the height 
covering the valley below, in which he placed a chosen 
band, protected by an earthen fence. He gave the com- 
mand of the right wing to Colonel Alexander Macdonald, 
placed also in a situation protected by banks, dykes, 
bushes, and great stones. There the Royal standard was 
displayed, to entice the enemy to waste the exertion of 
their best forces, where it must be impotent from the 
situation of the ground, commanding the Colonel to keep 
within his strength, notwithstanding any provocation 
which the enemy might give. Lord Gordon led the 



BATTLE OF AULDEARN. 261 

cavalry, and himself took the charge of the rest of the 
infantry, drawn up into the left wing, forming no main 
army, unless the chosen band stationed before the village 
might be so termed. This the van of the army of the 
people attacked, bending at the same time, as had been 
foreseen, their best strength against the right wing and 
the Royal standard, pouring in fresh supplies of men, 
relieving the troops that were spent. While this sug- 
gested to Montrose the idea of a general attack, he was 
privately informed that the right wing were put to 
flight : " My Lord," he cried aloud to the leader of the 
horse, dissembling to arouse the spirit of his men, " Mac- 
donald routs the enemy on the right : let him not carry 
off the glory of the day : let us also give a general and a 
vigorous charge." This the cavalry of Urry were unable 
to sustain ; in their rout they even disordered the foot, 
whose flank they left also exposed : for some time, how- 
ever, they bore against the shock, but were at last also 
forced into flight. And Montrose thereupon hastened to 
support Macdonald, who in the ardour of the onset had 
rashly advanced from his strength, to which, however, 
undismayed he re-conducted his men, covering their re- 
treat himself, protected by an ample shield, and defended 
by a keen sword. The horse which had encountered him, 
perceiving the rout of their fellows, and the conquerors 
advancing on themselves, fled after with most cowardly 
precipitation; but the veteran foot maintained their ground 
till almost every man fell in his rank, and the victory of 
Montrose was to his utmost wish complete, with the loss 
only of 20 of his men. 2000 of the enemy's were slain ; 
many prisoners were taken; the whole baggage, much 
wealth and ammunition, and 16 standards were won: but 
the horse, by their inglorious flight, were for the most 
part unhurt. Montrose returned southwards, plundering 
and burning the country as he passed ; the estate, in par- 
ticular, of the family of Cawdor, and their houses in the 
town of Nairn ; and for avenging the murder of Rhynie's 
son, the houses of that party, in the town of Elgin, were 
also rifled and burned, by which other houses of the town 
were at the same time incidentally destroyed.] 

(Survey of the Province of Moray.) [See also Browne's 
Hist, of the Highlands, I. 382.] 

[The Rev. William Barclay, Minister of the parish from 



262 COVENANTERS SLAIN AT THE BATTLE OF AULDEARN. 

1814 till the Disi^uption, spent time and money in caring 
for ancient gravestones and monuments which were lying 
waste in the Churchyard. Among such, he caused to be 
re-lettered a Tablet and Tombstone which commemorated 
some of the heroic Covenanters who were slain at the 
Battle of Auldearn. The Tablet is in the Choir of the old 
Church, and has this Inscription : 

This Monument is erected be Sir Kobert Innes, younger of 
that ilk, in memorie of Sir Alexander Dromond, of Medhope, 
Sir Johne Morray, and Maister Gideon Morray, who lies heir 
intered, who, fighting valiantly in defence of their religione, 
king, and native countray, died at Auldearn, the 8 May, 1645. 

The Tombstone bears this : 

Heir lyeth Captain Bernard M'Kenzie, who, in defence of 
his religion and countrie feighting, died at Auldearn, the 8 of 
May an. 1645. 

I now come to 

THE PAEISH OF NAIEN, 

In Irish Invernairn. The river Nairn riseth in 
the hills between Stratherick and the Braes of 
Strathern, and running north-east through the 
parishes of Dunlichty and Deviot, it turneth 
almost due north, and dischargeth into the Frith 
at the town of Nairn, after a course of above 20 
miles. It is called Nairn, from the Alder trees 
growing on the banks of it. Uisge-Nearn, is the 
Water of Alders. 

The Town standeth at the mouth of the river 
on the west side, and is one street from east to 
west. At the east end there is a Bridge of three 
arches upon the river, built by William Eose of 
Clava in the year 1631* In the middle of the 

* [It sustained great damage, first from a flood in 1782, and 



KILRAVOCK HOUSE, NAIRN. 263 

town standeth the Tolbooth and Town-House ; 
and at the west end, Kilravock has a good house 
of modern architecture. * A little above the 
bridge, on the bank of the river, is the Castle 
Hill, where stood a Royal Fort (now quite de- 
molished), whereof the Thanes of Calder were 
the hereditary constables. Within the flood- 
next from the great flood in 1829. An inscription upon a 
stone of it, which long ago fell into the river, was Gulielmua 
Hose de Clava, with the motto Non est Solus, nisi in Christo : 
Soli Deo gloria i.e., There is no salvation but in Christ : Glory 
to God alone.] (ED.) 

* In 1711 begin accounts for repairs done on the Kilravock 
house in Nairn, where Kilravock younger, or, as he now began 
to be styled, Geddes, usually resided. The repairs extended 
over several years, and were not completed probably till 1722. 
Over the door of this tall, gaunt old house, which has but 
comparatively lately been denuded of its quaint " fore-stair," 
are still legible the Initials of the young laird, and his second 
wife, Jean Ross of Broadley, and the date of 1 722, with some 
doggerel not inapplicable : 

1 H. E. 7 

2 J. R. 2 

Omnia terrena per vices sunt aliena, 
Nunc mea, nunc hujus, post mortem nescio cujus ; 
Nulli certa domus. 

Of which a loose scrap among these domestic Papers gives this 
translation, " by Mr Allan "- 

" Allterrene things by turns we see 
Become another's property ; 
Mine now must be another's soon ; 
I know not whose, when I am gone ; 
An earthly house is bound to none." 

On the 27th April, 1769, George Munro, clockmaker, Edin- 
burgh, advises the Magistrates of Nairn that he has shipped, 
by Colonel Hector Munro's orders (their M.P.), a new steeple 
clock for the town. He assures them that he has " proved the 
clock, and it goes well, and he believes it to be as good a clock 
as is in Scotland for its size. (ED.) 



264 CHURCH AND LANDS OF NAIRN PARISH. 

mark are some vestiges, called the Pier-end ; but 
the mouth of the river is now so barred, that no 
vessels, but fishing boats for salmon and white 
fish, can enter. 

The Church standeth on the bank of the river, 
2 miles west from Aldearn, 5 miles east from 
Ardersier, 3 miles north from Calder, and 4 miles 
N.N.E. from Croy. The lands contiguous to the 
town are the property of Rose of Kilravock, Rose 
of Newton, and Rose of Clava. Mr. Rose of 
Clava, in 1768, sold all his lands in Nairn, Croy, 
and Ardclach, to Sir Alexander Grant of Dalvey. 
Westward on the coast are the lands of Demies, 
held, in mortgage, by Alexander Campbell of 
Delnies, of the laird of Calder. These were a 
part of the Church lands of Ross, and David 
Panitar, bishop of Ross, disponed Denlies and 
Ardersier, anno 1556, to his brother - uterine 
Robert Lesly, from whose son John Campbell of 
Calder purchased them in 1575. On the side of 
the river, a mile south of the town, is Kildrum- 
mie, the seat of Hugh Rose of Brae ; these lands 
were sold by Patrick Hepburn Bishop of Moray, 
to Hugh Rose of Kilravock, in 1545. (Pen. Kilr.) 

On the east side of the river, near the coast, is 
Belmakeith, the property of Alexander Dunbar 
of Boath, and holding feu of Calder. William 
Thane of Calder was infeft in Belmakeith anno 
1442 (Pen. Cold.} Next up the river is Braid- 
ley. This was, for some generations, the pro- 



BARONY OF GEDDES ; RAIT's CASTLE ; CASTLE FINLAY. 265 

perty of Rose of Braidley. John Rose, the last 
of that family (and father of Jean Rose, late lady 
dowager of Kilravock), having no male issue, 
sold his lands to Alexander Gordon of Ardach, 
from whom they were purchased, about the year 
1726, by Hugh Rose of Kilravock. Further up 
the river is the Barony of Geddes, the patri- 
monial estate of Rose of Kilravock and Geddes 
(Vide Rose of Kilravock). 

Close by Geddes is Raite Castle. Here is an 
old Fort, built in the form of a square, which 
was anciently the seat of Raite of that Ilk, who, 
having killed Andrew Thane of Calder about the 
year 1404, was banished that county, and founded 
the family of Raite of Halgreen in the Mearns. 
A part of Raite was Calder's property in 1442 
(Pen. Cold.) ; another part of it with Meikle 
Geddes, was the property of Ogilvie of Car- 
noustie, from whom Sir John Campbell of Calder 
made the purchase anno 1432 (Ibid)* South of 
Raite lye the lands of Urchany, once a part of 
the estate of Park. John Hay of Kinnudie sold 
them to Chisholm of Comer, in 1620; and Sir 

* Two miles east of Cawdor, and near the House of Geddes 
are the ruins of Raits Castle, anciently the seat of the Macin- 
toshes of Raits. The castellated part is gone, but a religious 
edifice, apparently of a more modern date than it could have 
been, remains. At the south corner it is terminated by a 
round Tower (lately formed into a dovecot) resembling those 
attached to the bishop's palace at Kirkwall and Spynie. Close 
by is a small but interesting vitrified fort, called Castle Finlay. 



266 STATE OF PROPERTY IN NAIRN PARISH. 

Hugh Campbell of Calder purchased them in 
1660. 

NAIRN. 

[Situation, Soil, Climate. From the borders of the 
parish of Auldearn, Nairn stretches 6 miles westward 
along the Frith, and it extends backward into the coun- 
try about 8. It is intersected by the river, which 
imparts its name to the parish and to the town, denoting 
in the Gaelic, the water of oilers ; its banks, to a con- 
siderable extent, having been covered with that species 
of wood. The ground on the north side of the river 
spreads out a level plain to the shore of the Frith ; on 
the other it rises in a gentle acclivity, terminating towards 
the southern corner in a considerable eminence, named, 
from the adjoining lands, the Hill of Urchany. In the 
environs of the town, and along the coast, the soil is 
sandy ; the same kind of soil is continued on the banks 
of the river, but greatly mixed with clay, and the country 
on its southern side is of a rich and heavy mould. 

State of Property. The parish is possessed by rive 
proprietors, excluding the grounds appertaining to the 
community, and the small heritages about the burgh. 
Kildrummy and Torrich, part of the estate of Kilravock, 
are valued in the Cess-Roll of the county at 273 5s. lid. 
Scots. The barony of Geddes and Allanhall are valued 
at 412 Os. lid. Scots. The lands of Dalnies, mortgaged 
to Mr. Campbell by the family of Cawdor, are valued at 
204 2s. 3d. And Belmakeith, appertaining to Mr. Dun- 
bar of Boath, is valued at 129 4s. 3d. The rest of the 
country part of the parish appertains to Lord Cawdor, 
which, with the salmon-fishery, is valued at 462 5s. 9d. 
Scots ; extending the whole valued rent of the parish, 
with the valuation of the burgh lands, about 500 
Scots, to 1980, 19s. Id. The number of farms are about 
50, and of inconsiderable extent, generally not exceeding 
20 sterling of rent, there being only two equal to 50 
sterling. In the immediate vicinity of the town, the acre 
rents at 1 15s. sterling ; farther distant, from 18s. to 1 
10s. ; and in the country, from 5s to 1. 

The salmon-fishery on the river (a branch of which is 
carried on likewise in the salt water, near its influx, 
distinguished by the epithet of still-fishing from the 



BURGH CHARTERS OF THE TOWN OF NAIRN. 267 

silent mode of conducting it, by a signal, in the smooth 
water) is the joint property of Colonel Cuming Gordon of 
Altyr and Mr. Davidson of Cantray. It is separately 
occupied by their tenants, at the rent of 36 sterling- 
from each, and is alternately carried on in the river and 
in the sea. Mr. Brodie of Brodie has also a still-fishery 
on the east side of the river, at the rent of S sterling. 
There are 6 boats in the town and 2 in the country for 
the sea fish, in each of which 7 men are employed. Be- 
sides the species of fish got eastward in the Frith already 
mentioned, they generally find some herring in every 
season, for which they must, however, go as far west a.s 
the influx of the Ness. Previous to the year 1782, all 
kinds of fish were found in plenty just opposite to the 
town ; at present they are sometimes not to be got nearer 
than the coasts of Sutherland and Caithness. 

The town is pleasantly and commodiously situated on 
the west bank of the river, near the shore of the Frith. 
The Jail and Town House are on the middle of the street, 
from which many narrow lanes extend to the river on 
the one side, and to an extensive plain of fertile corn 
field, of more than 400 acres on the other. The first 
Charter, now extant, is the grant of James VI. in the 
year 1589, bearing to be the renewal of a charter by 
Alexander I. The revenue of the burgh arises from a 
considerable extent of moor, let on various leases to be 
improved, by which a considerable increment will in due 
time be made. Some feu-duties are likewise derived 
from the burgh-lands, and from the tolls of 6 stated Fairs 
in the year, and the weekly market. The government of 
the burgh is committed to 17 ; the Provost and 3 Bailies, 
Dean of Guild, and Treasurer, with 11 Counsellors. As 
the gentlemen of the town are not numerous enough for 
the requisite annual changes, gentlemen from the country 
are admitted into the Magistracy ; but the Bailies, Dean 
of Guild, and Cashier, by a late decision of the House of 
Peers, must be resident in the town. 

The whole Trades are formed into one Incorporation. 

State Ecclesiastical. The Church and Burying-ground 
are on the south side of the town, washed by the river. 
The stipend, including the allowance for the Communion, 
is 32 sterling, and 5 chalders of bear. The right of 
patronage appertains to Mr. Brodie of Brodie. The salary 



268 ROYAL FORT ; CHAPEL OF GEDDES. 

of the parochial school is 16 bolls of bear, and the cus- 
tomary perquisites of office. It has been for many years 
in a very flourishing state. The number of scholars sent 
from all quarters of the country, and some occasionally 
from England, is seldom below 80, and often upwards of 
100. All the branches of education carried on in the 
academies are taught with ability and success. There is 
also in the town a school for girls, where the customary 
branches of female education are properly conducted; the 
salary paid by the community is 10 and a house. The 
Roll of the poor amounts to the number of 150. The 
provision collected in the Church for their support, about 
8 sterling yearly, and a small sum bearing interest, 
admits only of one dividend in the year; but the ex- 
tremely needy receive occasional supply. The number of 
inhabitants are 2400, of whom about 1100 appertain to 
the burgh. There are several families of Antiburgher 
Seceders, and a few of the Episcopalian persuasion. 

Miscellaneous Infoi v matio f n,. On the south side of the 
town, on the bank of the river, is the Castlehill, where 
stood a Royal Fort, of which the Thanes of Cawdor were 
hereditary constables till the year 1747. The constabulary 
garden is still distinguished as an article of the valuation 
of the estate, to the extent of 3 10s. Scots. At a very 
remote period of antiquity, the Castle was situated nearer 
to the shore, upon the influx of the river ; which, similar 
to the Spey and Findhorn, then flowed half a mile farther 
westward along the shore than its present termination. 
There are some persons still alive who remember to have 
seen, at spring-tides, vestiges of its foundation, at present 
a considerable way within the bed of the ocean. 

The Chapel of the Virgin Mary, built at Geddes in the 
year 1220, has ever been the Burial-place of the Family of 
Kilravock. The Burial-ground around it is also still in 
use. In 1475 Pope Sextus IV. granted a discharge for 
100 days Penance for every visit to this Chapel on certain 
high Festivals, and also for a certain extent of donation 
for the repairs of the building. 

The county of Nairn consists of 4 parishes, with some 
inconsiderable corners of some that are contiguous of the 
county of Inverness. In the representation in Parlia- 
ment, it is conjoined with the county of Cromarty, on the 
opposite side of the Frith ; each electing their commis- 



THE CASTLE AND TOWER OF CALDER. 269 



sioner alternately. The office of the Sheriff was hered- 
itary in the family of Cawdor till the year 1647, when 
it was made a part of the Sheriffdom of Moray. And 
with the common County Courts, that also of the Sheriff', 
by his Substitute, is regularly maintained in the town.] 
(Survey of the Province of Moray.) 

Following the course of the river Nairn, I now 
come to 

THE PAKISH OF CALDEK OK CAWDOR, 

So called from Cale, a wood, and Dur, water ; 
for here is a fine wood, with a brook of water on 
each side of it. The parish is bounded by the 
river Nairn to the west, and by the hills towards 
the Streins to the south-east. 

The Church standeth near the centre, from 
north to south, and is a neat little fabric, orna- 
mented with a steeple and a clock. A furlong 
east from the Church is the House of Calder, the 
seat of John Campbell of Calder. The Thanes 
of Calder, as constables of the King's house, 
resided in the Castle of Nairn, and had a country 
seat at what is now called Old Calder, a half- 
mile north from the present seat. There they 
had a house on a small moat, with a dry ditch 
and a drawbridge, the vestiges whereof are to be 
seen. But, by a Royal licence, dated 6th August 
1454, they built the Tower of Calder that now 
standeth. It is built upon a rock of freestone, 
washed by a brook to the west, and on the other 
sides having a dry ditch, with a draw-bridge. 



270 HAWTHORN AND IRON CHEST IN THE VAULT OF CAWDOR. 

The Tower stands between two courts of build- 
ings. Tradition beareth, that the Thane was 
directed in a dream to build the Tower round a 
hawthorn-tree on the bank of the brook. Be 
this as it will, there is in the lowest vault of the 
Tower the trunk of a hawthorn-tree, firm and 
sound, growing out of the rock, and reaching to 
the top of the vault. Strangers are brought to 
stand round it, each one to take a chip of it, and 
then to drink to the Haivthorn-tree i.e., " Pros- 
perity to the Family of Calder." This House, 
with spacious enclosures, fine gardens, a park of 
red deer, and a large wood close by the house, 
make a grand and delightful seat. 

[The Donjon or Vault is about 10 feet high, and the 
Hawthorn reaches to the top. There is no doubt that 
the walls must have been built around it. An old iron 
chest lies beside the tree, which is said to have borne 
the precious burden of gold. Two qther old hawthorn 
trees grew within a few score yards, in a line with the 
castle one in the garden, which fell about 80 years 
since, and the other at the entrance to the Castle, which 
was blown down after a gradual decay, in 1836. Some 
suckers are yet fenced. King Duncan's chain-armour 
is kept in this vault if it be correct that he was mur- 
dered here, for there are four other localities assigned for 
the scene viz., Glammis Castle, Inverness Castle, and a 
hut near Forres, or a hut near Elgin. Some part of the 
great Tower of Glammis may be as old as the 13th cen- 
tury, but no portion of Cawdor is older than the 15th 
century, so that the time when they were built was more 
distant from the days of Macbeth on the one side, than 
those of Queen Victoria on the other. Indeed, had we 
;my actual building of Macbeth's day in Scotland, it 
would not be invested with so much tragic gloom, nor 
could it so appropriately associate itself with deeds of 



KING DUNCAN'S FOUR-POSTED BED ! 271 

horror ; for it would probably be made of wicker ware or 
slight timber, and be in all respects unfit to represent 
the proper stage-properties of a tyrant's stronghold, and 
the scene of a Royal murder. Yet, not many years ago, 
scepticism was put to utter shame at Cawdor, by being 
shewn the identical four-posted bed in which the murder 
of King Duncan was committed, of a fashion so old that 
no respectable upholsterer of the 19th century, even in 
Inverness or Forres, would have tamely submitted to the 
scandal of having constructed it. The room, and the 
bed within it, were both burned by an accidental fire in 
1815 ; thereby depriving all future visitors of so very 
interesting an exhibition of traditional identifications. 

Shakspere and his commentors, following the autho- 
rity of Buchanan, assign Macbeth's Castle at Inverness 
as the tragic locale. In the places mentioned (except the 
two huts) Macbeth had his strongholds ; as, on his mar- 
riage, he became, in right of his wife Gruock, Maormor 
or great Celtic lord of Moray ; having by birth the same 
power attached to that name in the adjoining county of 
Ross. King Duncan was betrayed and slain while re- 
siding at one of his nephew's castles, on his way to reduce 
Porfin, the Scandinavian Earl of Caithness, to submission ; 
he having refused to surrender the customary tribute to 
the Scottish Crown. Malcolm (King Duncan's eldest 
son, and afterwards called Caenmore, or big-head) fled, 
on his father's murder, to England, where he was received 
by King Edward the Confessor. He waited at the Eng- 
lish Court until the dissensions between the usurper 
Macbeth and the Scottish nobles gave him a favourable 
opportunity of recovering his inheritance. Then he 
sallied forth across the Borders, supported by an English 
army of 10,000, under the command of his maternal 
grandfather, Siward, Earl of Northumberland. Macbeth's 
inveterate foe, the Thane of Fife, raising the standard at 
the same time for the lawful monarch, entered Angus- 
shire, and encountered and defeated his great enemy near 
his own Castle of Dunsinane. 

Such is the bare outline of facts on which the deeply 
exciting tragedy of Macbeth was reared by Shakspere. 

Cawdor Castle is still inhabited perched upon a low 
rock overhanging the bed of a Highland torrent, and 



272 CARVED CHIMNEY-PIECE IN CAWDOR CASTLE. 

surrounded on all sides by the largest-sized forest trees, 
which partly conceal the extent of its park. It stands 
a relic of the work of several ages, a weather-beaten 
Tower, encircled by comparatively newer and less elevated 
dwellings, the whole being enclosed within a moat, and 
approachable only by a drawbridge which rattles on its 
chains just as in the years long by. The staircase its 
ancient tapestry hanging over secret doors and hidden 
passages, the iron-grated doors and wickets, the large 
baronial kitchen, partly formed out of the native rock, 
the hall, the old furniture, the carved mantel-pieces, the 
quantity of figured tapestry, and even the grotesque 
family mirrors in use 200 years ago are still cherished 
and preserved by the family. The drawbridge and gate- 
way (overtopped by a belfry with bell) are worthy of notice. 

In one of the compartments is a carved stone chimney- 
piece, having the family arms and several grotesque 
figures ; among which are a cat playing the fiddle, a 
monkey blowing a horn, a mermaid playing a harp, a 
huntsman with hounds pursuing a hare, &c. One of 
these rude representations is that of a fox smoking a 
tobacco pipe. On the Stone is engraved the date 1510, 
when this wing of the Castle was erected. Tobacco was 
first introduced into this country by Sir Walter Raleigh 
about 1585 ; and it is singular to find the common short 
tobacco pipe thus represented at the above period. The 
fox holds " the fragrant tube " in his mouth exactly as it 
is held by its human admirers, and the implement is such 
as may be seen every day with those who patronise the 
" cutty pipe." 

It is doubtful when the Saxon-like title "Thane of 
Cawdor " was first assumed ; but it occurs with the name 
of the adjoining Thanedom of Moyness in an authentic 
document in 1295. There is no question as to Malcolm 
Caenmore having allotted large estates to the English 
and Flemish knights who assisted him in recovering his 
native possessions, and that they surnamed themselves 
after the appellations of the lands thus acquired. 

In a charter, still extant in the charter-chest of the 
Castle, dated at Forres, 22nd July 1236, in the 22nd year 
of the reign of Alexander II., his Majesty grants the lands 
of Both and Banchory, in the balliary of Invernarn or 
Nairn, " Gilberto Hostiario," which words, by a stupid 



BLUNDER BY MISREADING HOSTIARIS FOR HORSTART. 27$ 

misreading, are marked by a modern scribe on the back 
as " Oilberto Horstrat." Upon this mistake, which was 
unfortunately copied by Shaw (whose valuable History 
we are editing), a ludicrous idea prevailed that the 
family name at first was Horse-trot! The charter alluded 
to was attested by Walter Fitzallan, the Justiciar of 
Scotland ; Walter Comyn (whose family name was after- 
wards to be so tragically connected with Scottish his- 
tory), Walter Byset (who was the old Norman possessor 
of the territories which subsequently belonged to the 
Lovat family), Henry Beliol, and Allan Durward. The 
charter is in favour of Gilbert Durward or Doreward, 
whose Latinised name Ostiarius or Hostiarius in Eng- 
lish is Door- ward. The powerful family of Ostiarii, or 
hereditary Doorwards of the king, held large possessions 
in Mar, and obtained Macbeth's estates in Nairnshire ; 
and, probably, by assuming the name of Colder, one of 
them came to be regarded as the first Thane of that ilk. 
The Thaneage of Calder (now pronounced Cawdor} in- 
cluded not only the principal messuage lands, but also 
the barony of Ferintosh in Ross, and several parts of 
Stratherrick, Strathnairn, and Strathdearn, and a large 
portion of the lands of Glammis in the Mearns, all of 
which were hence politically, and for several other pur- 
poses, considered as pertinents of the SherifFdom of Nairn. 

In 1859 a most valuable series of Papers was printed 
by the late Earl of Cawdor, titled "The Book of the 
Thanes of Cawdor, from 1236 to 1742," pp. 471, issued 
by The Spalding Club, and edited by Prof. Cosmo Innes. 

Cawdor Castle is indeed a fertile spot for the romantic 
and imaginative. The mysteries of Udolpho would 
vanish in contemplation of the less perspicuous intricacies 
of Cawdor. Immediately beneath the rafters, in one part 
of the many artfully contrived secrecies, is pointed out 
the concealment of the famous Lord Lovat, who was in 
Hight from his pursuers. By means of a ladder the 
tourist is conducted by the side of one part of a sloping 
roof into a kind of channel between two roofs, such as 
frequently serves for conveying rain-water into pipes for 
a reservoir. By proceeding along this channel he arrives 
at the foot of a stone-staircase, which leads up one side 
of the roof to the right, which is so artfully contrived as 
to appear a part of the ornaments of the building when 
VOL. n. 18 



274 CAWDOR CASTLE, CHAPEL, BELL, AND BURIAL-PLACE. 

beheld at a distance. At the end of this staircase is a 
room with a single window near the floor. Lord Lovat 
(it is said) used to be conducted to this place when his 
pursuers approached, the ladder being removed as soon 
as he ascended. When the search was over, and the 
enquirers gone, the ladder was replaced, by which means 
his Lordship lived comfortably with the family, and 
might long have done so. 

It is a pity to put a stumbling-block in the path of 
innocent credulity, but Lord Lovat was not found con- 
cealed at Cawdor Castle, but far to the west; and, to reach 
Cawdor, he must needs leave his own choice fortresses in 
the wilds of Inverness, and pass through a territory 
bristling with Royal troops. Was this likely ? 

Attached to the residences of the Thanes of Old Caw- 
dor was a Chapel dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary, 
and the Chaplain of Cawdor, or " the Thane's Chaplain," 
appears as a witness in early documents. When the 
new Castle was built, a Chapel was included in it. In 
the same year (1467) with the induction of Sir Walter of 
Tarbett in the Chapelry of the Castle, his patron William, 
Thane of Cawdor, died. The Castle-Chapel is said to 
have stood on the south side of the Tower. 

An ancient Bell, like " the Ronnell " of Birnie, of square 
shape, of hammered iron, clasped with nails, is still pre- 
served at Cawdor, the only relic of the old Castle Chapel. 
It is 13 inches high, including the square iron handle. 

The Cawdors of old buried at Barevan. The walls of 
the old Church are still comparatively entire, though the 
chiselled stones have been mostly taken away. The 
style is of the First Pointed, without cusp. One window 
on the south of the choir is curious, from the top of the 
arches and of the mullion being formed of a single stone. 
It has been a double lancet outside, and semi-circular 
arched inside. The dimensions of Barevan Church inside 
are about 65 feet long by 17 feet broad. There is a plain 
Piscina under an arch at the south side, as usual, where 
the Altar stood. There are many old Gravestones, and 
there is one row right across the Church, where the Choir 
and Nave joined, having no inscriptions nor arms. 

The following occurs in an Indenture, of date the 30th 
November, 1725 : " As to the Church of Colder, which 



OLD CHURCH OF CALDER ; BARRIVAN SEPULCHRE. 2?5 

was built by Sir Hugh Campbell's grandfather, Sir John, 
being the only heritor ex'cept Ross of Holme, a small 
heritor ; the roof thereof is entirely rott and many of the 
slate fallen off, never being repaired since the erection 
thereof, except three or four couples furnisht in Sir 
Hugh's time, when the pricket or top of the steeple was 
by storm blown over and broke these couples ; needs to 
be immediately repaired, and will cost double the money 
if it is delayed ane other year. The sacrament not being 
administrat for the years 1722-25, Sir Archibald has 
retained the element money, which, being yearly 50 
Scots, amounts to 150, and proposes that the said sum 
be applyed in the first place towards the repair, which he 
shall finish as effectually and frugally as possible. 

" The families new buriall place, which lyes under that 
part betwixt the steeple and the body of the Church, is 
much abused, and like to goe to ruin altogether by the 
insufficient roof of the Church ; and the old burial place 
called Barrivan, of the Thanes, and all the Campbells of 
Calder who dyed in the north preceding Sir Hugh's time, 
where formerly the old Kirk of Calder was, likewise 
needs to be repaired, which Sir Archibald conceives may 
be done for 10 sterline, which he expects the commis- 
sioners will comply with, for the honour and memory of 
the family 

" Sir Archibald has sett up a handsome large clock in 
the steeple of the Church of Calder."] (ED.) 

A small pendicle in the south of the parish, 
called Drumurnie, is the property of Rose of 
Holm. The lands of Meikle Budzeat, west of 
the Church, the lands of Torrich, a mile to the 
east, and the lands of Clunies two miles to the 
south-east, are mortgages pertaining to the 
descendants of this family, and all holding of 
Calder. 

CALDER. 

[Situation, Soil, Climate. Calder, derived from the 
Gaelic coil, wood, and dur, water, is connected with 



276 STATE OF PROPERTY IN CALDER PARISH. 

Nairn on the north, and Croy on the south. It meets 
with Auldearn and Ardclach at the east, and extends 
southward to the confines of Moy and Duthil. It 
southern quarter is enlivened by the river Findhorn, and 
part of its northern side by that of the Nairn, to which 
the stream of Calder, partly in a deep rocky channel, 
thickly shrouded with wood, a variety of forest trees, 
hastens from the west. The flat plain of the lower part 
of the parish, as it stretches southward, rises into a hilly 
tract, and elevates its boundary with Moy into a lofty 
mountain. The soil, in general neither wet nor deep, 
may be described as kindly, sharp and fertile, diversified 
in the lower part with plots of moorish and rocky ground; 
in the higher it is more generally brown heath, covering 
extensive tracts of the peat morass. The air is accounted 
remarkably salubrious. 

State of Property. The parish, chiefly in the county 
of Nairn, with a small part in that of Inverness, extends 
its total valuation to the sum of 1963 12s. Scots, of 
which the property of Lord Cawdor, comprehending 
Auchendune, Torrich, Inchgeddle, and Streens, amounts 
to the valuation of 1565 12s. lOd. This is the family- 
seat and original residence of the ancient Thanes. 
Similar to the Mansion of Kilravock, a modern building 
has been conjoined to an ancient Tower, built by Royal 
licence in the year 1454, guarded on the west by the 
deep rocky defile of the stream of Cawdor, and sur- 
rounded on -the other sides by a ditch and drawbridge. 
The environs, it has been noticed, as its name imports, are 
naturally embellished by the landscape scenery of wood 
and water; and they have been also improved by the 
decorations of art. In the lowest vault of the Tower, the 
trunk of a hawthorn tree still stands in the original 
station where it grew out of the rock, over which tradition 
relates that a dream, directing the situation of the fabric, 
promised prosperity to the race whilst it should remain. 

The lands of Clunes and Torbey, mortgaged to Dr. 
Campbell, are valued at 114 7s. 2d., to which the valua- 
tion of his estate of Budzeat, in the county of Inverness, 
of 160 Scots, is also to be added. Mr. Rose of Holm 
has Drumurnie, valued in the whole at 123 12s., of 
which a part, amounting to 50, appertains to the county 
of Inverness. The real rent may be at present estimated 



BORIVON THE OLD NAME OF CALDER PARISH. 277 

about 1200 sterling, aiising from about 4500 cultivated 
acres, rented from 2s. 6d. to 15s. the acre ; to these are 
conjoined about 3500 under wood, broom, and natural 
pasturage; the remainder is moor and mountain peat, 
about 18,000. The extent of the farms are from 40 to 
100 acres ; and about 70 ploughs are employed in their 
cultivation. 

State Ecclesiastical. The old name of the parish was 
Borivon, properly Bar Ewan ; literally denoting Ewan's 
height, or high country; and figuratively excellent, or 
St. Ewan, to whom the parsonage was dedicated. The 
Church originally stood in the southern or highest quar- 
ter of the parish, till about the year 1619; and 30 years 
after it was moved into its present central station, a wing 
from the parish of Auldearn was annexed at the east. 
The value of the living, including 20 bolls of bear and 20 
of meal, is equal to 80 sterling. The right of patronage 
appertains to Lord Cawdor. The salary of the school is 
8 bolls of bear and 8 of meal, and 1 5s. as the Clerk of 
the Session, with the official perquisites, and the dues of 
education from about 50 scholars, the mean number 
through the year. The poor upon the roll amount to 40, 
and the provision for their necessities about 12 yearly, 
arising from the contribution, of 850 persons, the members 
of the National Church ; there being only one Episcopa- 
lian and one Seceder in the parish. 

Miscellaneous Information. The people in general 
are humane, moral, and religious, there being few law- 
suits or quarrels among them ; they are very industrious. 
They dispose of a considerable quantity of victual at 
Inverness, Nairn, and Fort George, where their fat cattle 
and sheep are likewise sold ; they discover no propensity 
for the military life, in which, or in the navy, very few 
engage ; they are contented with their situation, and dis- 
cover no desire to leave the parish, although every other 
year a few lads, as adventurers, apprentices, or servants, 
seek their fortunes in Edinburgh, London, or America ; 
they complain of the uncertainty of their leases; and 
they are troubled by the caprice, wantonness, and extra- 
vagance of the farm-servants.] (Survey of the Province 
of Moray.) 



278 THE THANEDOM OF CALDER. 

I shall here give some account of 

THE FAMILY OF CALDEB. 

The surname of Calder is local, taken from the 
place ; and the family has been among the most 
ancient and the most considerable in the North. 
About the year 1040, the tyrant Macbeth cut off 
the Thane of Nairn (Buchanan). This, no doubt, 
was the Thane of Calder ; for no history or tradi- 
tion mentioneth a Thane of Nairn, distinct from 
the Thane of Calder, who, as Constable, resided 
in that town ; and Mr. Heylin, in his Geography, 
expressly calleth him Thane of Calder. But not 
to deal in uncertainties, (1) Dovenaldus Thanus 
de Calder was one of the estimators of the 
Baronies of Kilravock and Geddes, anno 1295. 
His son (2) William had from King Robert 
Bruce, 7mo Augusti anno regni 4to 1310, 
" Thanageum de Kaledor, infra vicecomitatum 
de Inner Nairn, propter servitia debita et assueta 
tempore Alexandri Regis predecessoris nostri 
ultimo defuncti," * (Pen. Cold.) His son (3) 
Andrew was killed by Sir Alexander Raite, 
whose son (4) Donald was served heir to his 
father, Andrew, in 1405, and saised in the offices 
of Sheriff and Constable of Nairn in 1406 (Ibid.) 
He purchased the lands of Dunmaglass from 

* Translation The Thanedom of Calder, Constable of Inner 
Nairn, on account of services due and assuetudes in the time 
of King Alexander, our last defunct predecessor. 



GENEALOGY OF THE FAMILY OF CALDER. 279 

William Menzies of Balwhonzie in 1414 ; the 
lands of Moy, in Moray, from the Earl of Boss, 
in 1419 ; and Urchany-beg, in Calder, from 
Henry, Bishop of Moray, in 1421 (Ibid.) His 
son (5) William was in 1442 infeft in the Thane^ 
age of Calder, the Sheriffship and Constableship 
of Nairn, in Boath, Benchir, half of Raite, and 
six merks out of Belmakeith (Pen. Cald.) In 
1450, he built the Tower of Calder by a 
royal licence. His son (6) William, in 1471, 
bought from Andrew Lesly, master of the Hos- 
pital of Spey, with consent of the Bishop of 
Moray, the Mill of Nairn, with its pertinents 
(Ibid.) ; and in 1476, the Thaneage of Calder, 
Baronies of Clunie and Boath, Belmakeith, half 
of Eaite, Moy, Dunmaglass, two Kinkells, Kin- 
dess, Invermarkie, Mulchoich, Drumurnie, Ferin- 
tosh, &c., were united in one Thaneage, and such 
lands as lie in Inverness or Forres shires, to- 
answer to the Sheriff Court of Nairn (Ibid.) 
Hence Ferintosh, Moy, Dunmaglass, are a part 
of the shire of Nairn. 

This Thane had five sons, viz., William, John, 
Andrew, Alexander, and Hutcheon, on whom he 
entailed his estate, allowing the immediate suc- 
cession to John, to which William (who was lame 
and weak) consented, and had .20 annually and 
the vicarage of Ewan. All this was settled 
by charter anno 1488 (Ibid.). This Thane lived 
to about the year 1500 ; his son (7) John married 



280 MURIEL CALDER MARKED BY HER GRANDMOTHER. 

Isabel Rose, daughter of Kilravock, in 1492 (Pen. 
Rilr.), and dying in 1494, left one posthumous 
child, a daughter (8), Muriel or Marion. Kil- 
ravock intended this heiress for his own grand- 
son, her first cousin ; but Kilravock being 
pursued in a criminal process for robbery, in 
joining Macintosh in spoiling the lands of Urqu- 
hart of Cromarty, Argyle, the Justice-General, 
made the process easy to him, got the Ward 
of Muriel's marriage of the King anno 1495, and 
she was sent to Inverary in the year 1499. 
(Penn. Kilr.). 

In autumn, 1499, Campbell of Inverliver, with 
60 men, came to receive the child, on pretence of 
sending her south to school. The lady Kil- 
ravock, her grandmother, that she might not be 
changed, seared and marked her hip with the 
key of her coffer. As Inverliver came with little 
Muriel to Daltulich, in Strath Nairn, he was 
01ose pursued by Alexander and Hugh Calder, 
her uncles, with a superior party. He sent off 
the child with an escort of six men, faced about 
to receive the Calders; and to deceive them, a 
sheaf of corn, dressed in some of the child's 
clothes, was kept by one in the rear. The con- 
flict was sharp, and several were killed, among 
whom were six of Inverliver's sons. When Inver- 
liver thought the child was out of reach, he 
retreated, leaving the fictitious child to the Cal- 
ders; and Inverliver was rewarded with a grant 



MURIEL MARRIED TO SIR JOHN CAMPBELL. 281 

of the 20 land of Inverliver. It is said that, in 
the heat of the skirmish, Inverliver cried, " Sfada 
glaodh o' Lochow, 'Sfada cabhair o' chlan 
Dhuine," i.e., " 'Tis a far cry to Lochaw, and a 
distant help to the Campbells " now a proverb, 
signifying imminent danger and distant relief. 
All this I give on tradition. % 

Muriel was married in 1510 to Sir John Camp- 
bell, third son of Argyle, in memory of which, in 
the old Hall of the House of Calder, is cut S. I. C. 
and D. M. C., with this inscription, " Ceri mani 
memineris mane." (1) Sir John Campbell of 
Calder, in 1533, purchased from John Ogilvie of 
Carnousie, Meikle Geddes, Raite, and the Fort of 
it (Pen. Cald.), and in 1535 purchased from 
David, Earl of Crawford, the Barony of Strath 
Nairn, Fortalice of Castle Davie, and the patron- 
age of Lundichty, now Dunlichty (Ibid.) ; and in 
1545 he bought, from Patrick, Bishop of Moray, 
the lands of Fleenessmore (Ibid.). He died in 
1546 ; and his son (2) Archibald married Isabel, 
the daughter of the Laird of Grant ; and dying 
in 1553, his son (3) John purchased Ardersier and 
Delnies (Vid. Nairn Parish), and was murdered 
in 1592 by Lochinel's brother. His son (4) Sir 
John got from the Earl of Moray a renunciation, 
&c. (Vid. Daviot Par.). He purchased the 
Baronies of Durris and Borlum (Vid. Dur. Par.), 
and in 1609 took a charter of Little Budzet, 
Little Urchany, and Croy, from Alexander, 



282 CAMPBELTOWN ERECTED INTO A BURGH. 

Bishop of Moray (Ibid.) ; but in 1614 he feued 
out Delmigvie and Holm. In 1617 he sold 
Croy to William Dallas of Cantray, and in the 
same year disponed Ferintosh to Lord Lovat, 
and mortgaged other lands ; and all this in order 
to purchase, or rather to conquer the island 
of Hay. His son, by Glenurchie's daughter (5), 
John Dow, had all his lands in the North, by a 
charter under the Great Seal, anno 1623, erected 
into a Barony called the Borough of Camp- 
belltown, with power to create Bailies, Con- 
stables, Serjeants, and other officers; liberty 
to have a town-house and a market-cross, a 
weekly market on Wednesday, and a fair to 
begin on July 15th and to hold eight days ; and 
that all infeftments may be taken at the Castle 
of Calder (Ibid.) Lord Torphichen had some 
Temple-lands in Ardersier, which he sold to Mr. 
Thomas Bollock, advocate, with the office of 
heritable bailie and a privilege of regality, which 
he disponed to Calder in 1626 (Ibid.). In 1626, 
Calder granted the feu of Dunmaglas to Fer- 
quhard Mac-Gillivray ; and in 1639 he disponed 
all his lands in favour of his eldest son (by 
Cromarty's daughter), viz., Colin. I find that 
this John was seized with melancholy in 1639, 
and was yet living in 1650. His son (6) Colin 
died at the University of Glasgow a bachelor, 
and was succeeded by (7) Sir Hugh, son of Colin 
of Boghol, who was brother to the last John. 



RAIT CASTLE BOUGHT FROM SIE JOHN ILAY. 283 

This gentleman purchased Moyness and Ur- 
chany, as formerly observed. In 1678 he pur- 
chased Kaite Castle and E-aite Lone from John 
Hay of Lochloy, and redeemed some mortgages ; 
but mortgaged other lands, and feued out Kin- 
chyle in 1685. In 1688 he disponed his whole 
estate in favour of his son, reserving the life-rent 
of his estate in the North ; and died in 1716. 
His son, by Lady Henriet Stewart (8), Sir Alex- 
ander, married Elizabeth, sister to Sir Gilbert, 
Lord of Stackpole, in South Wales, and died in 
1700. His eldest son (9), Gilbert, died in 1708, 
and was succeeded by his brother (10), John 
Campbell, now of Calder, born in 1695 ; he sold 
Hay and Muckarn, to disburden his estate of 
debt. He married Mary Pryce, heiress of Go- 
girthen, in North Wales, by whom he has three 
sons and three daughters. The first daughter, 
Ann, married Lord Fortescue, Mary died un- 
married, and Elizabeth married Captain Adams. 
Pryce, the eldest son, married in 1752 Sarah 
Bacon, daughter of Sir Edmund of Garboldisham, 
first Baronet of England, and dying in 1768, left 
four sons, viz., John, Alexander, George, and 
Charles ; and three daughters, Mary, Sarah, and 
Henrietta. John, the second son, was in 1754 
appointed Lord Lyon for Scotland. He married 
Eustachia, daughter of Baffet of Heaton. Alex- 
ander, the third son, is a Lieutenant-Colonel, and 
married Francess, daughter of Philip Meadows. 



284 THE FAMILY OF CALDER. 

[Pryce Campbell having died during his father's life- 
time, his son (11) John Campbell succeeded his grand- 
father, and was created a British peer by the title of Lord 
Cawdor. He married Lady Caroline, daughter of the 
Earl of Carlisle, by whom he had two sons John 
Frederick and George Pryce, an Admiral in the Royal 
Navy, who married Miss Gascoygne, daughter of General 
Gascoygne, M.P. for Liverpool. John Campbell died in 
1821, and was succeeded by his eldest son (12), John 
Frederick (Lord Cawdor), who, in 1816, married Lady 
Elizabeth, daughter of the Marquis of Bath, by whom 
there was issue. 

The present representative is Sir William Henry 
Walsingham Calder, Bart., of Muirtown (cr. 1686), only 
surviving son of the late Sir Henry Roddam Calder, by 
Lady Frances Selina, daughter of Edward Henry, 1st 
Earl of Limerick; born 1820; succeeded as 6th Baronet, 
1868 ; married 1842 Julia, daughter of Julius Hutchinson, 
Esq. She died 1876. Residence Craven Lodge, Melton 
Mowbray.] (ED.) 

Arms of the Family of Calder. Four Coats Quarterly. 1st, 
Or. A Hart's Head cabossed Sable, attired Gules, for Calder. 
2nd, Gyronne of eight, Or, and Sable, for Campbell. 3rd, 
Argent, a Galley with her Oars in action Sable, for Lorn. 4th, 
Parted, per Fess, Azure, and Gules, a Cross Or, for the name 
of Lort. Crest, a Swan proper crowned Or. Supporters, on 
the Dexter, a Lion rampant Guardant Gules, armed Or. And 
on the Sinister, a Heart proper. Motto above the Crest, 
CANDIDUS CANTABIT MORIENS, [The Swan will sing while 
dying.] And below the Shield, BE MINDFUL. 

THE PAEISH OF CBOY 

Is next above Calder, on both sides of the 
river. It stretcheth 12 miles in length on the 
west side of the river, and 4 miles on the east 
side, and is generally 2 miles in breadth. 

The Church standeth on the west side, a mile 
from the river, 4 miles west from Nairn, 2 miles 
west-north-west from Calder, 3 south-east from 



WRITS OF ROSE OF KILRAVOCK BURNED. 285 

Petty, and 4 north from Deviot. The north 
part of this parish, to the west of the river, 
viz., Kildrummie, Flemington, and the Baronie 
of Kilravock, are a part of the estate of that 
family. 

EOSE OF KILRAVOCK. 

The surname of Eose cometh from the Hebrew, 
Bosh, a Head, and Rhos or JRos, signifying a pro- 
montory or headland jutting out into water. In 
many nations, places are called Eose, or com- 
pounded with it. And the country be-north 
Inverness is called Eoss, because it stretcheth 
out into the sea. I question not but Ross, Earl 
of Eoss, , took his surname from the country. 
But Kilravock' s family being descended of the 
Eosses in the south country (as their paternal 
arms show), and the name being anciently writ- 
ten de Roos, which we found much as Eose, they 
have changed Eoos into Eose, to distinguish 
them from the Earl of Eoss's family. And 
yet I have found this family in ancient writs 
called Eoos, Eoss, Eosse, Eose. 

Had not the writings of this family been 
destroyed (as we shall see) in the burning of the 
Cathedral of Moray in 1390, few families could 
have better instructed their antiquity ; and, even 
with that misfortune, few can exceed it. The 
Barony of Geddes, in the parish of Nairn, was 
their ancient inheritance. Hugo de Eoos Domi- 
nus de Geddes is a witness in the foundation 



286 HUGH ROSE, THE FIRST OF KILRAVOCK. 

charter of the Priory of Beaulie, anno 1230 
(M.S. Hist. Kilr.). Sir John Bisset of Lovat 
had three daughters, co-heiresses, viz., Mary 
Domina de Lovat. married to Sir David Graham ; 
Cecilia Domina de Beaufort, wife of Sir William 
of Fenton ; and Elizabeth Domina de Kilravock, 
married to Sir Andrew de Bosco (Wood) of Bed 
Castle ; and Mary, daughter of Sir Andrew, was 
married to (1) Hugh Rose Baron of Geddes, and 
she and her husband obtained a charter of the 
barony of Kilravock from King John Baliol anno 
1293 (Pen. Kilr.) ; and in 1295, the baronies of 
Kilravock and Geddes were estimated by an 
inquest, the first to 24, and the other to 12 
yearly rent (Chart Kilravock) . [Hugh Kose, first 
of Kilravock, died in or about 1306.] Their son 

(2) William married Morella, daughter of Alex- 
ander de Downe, and had Hugh and Andrew, of 
whom came Rose of Achlofnn in Mar [This Sir 
William, second of Kilravock, died in 1333.] 

(3) Hugh II. died about 1363 ; his son (4) Hugh 
III. married Janet, only child of Sir Eobert 
Chisholm, Constable of the Castle of Urquhart 
anno 1364, and with her he got the lands of 
Cantra-na-bruich in Strathnairn (Ibid.) He died 
about 1388. His son (5) Hugh IV. died in 1420, 
whose son (6) John obtained a charter of de Nova 
Damus under the Great Seal, 30th May, 1433, 
"pro eo, quod Chartae suae, tempore combustionis 
EcclesiaB de Elgin, in Ecclesise praedicta fuerunt 



THE FACETIOUS HUGH, THE EIGHTH OF KILRAVOCK. 287 

vastatse et destructse." * (Ibid.) He got from 
his grand-uncle, John Chisholm, the lands of 
Little Cantray and Ochterurchil, in 1480 (Ibid.) 
[John Eose of Kilravock died in or about 1454.] 
His son, by Isabel Cheyn, daughter of Essilmont, 
was (7) Hugh V. who, in 1482, purchased the 
lands of Coulmore in Eoss (Ibid.) He married 
More or Marion, daughter of [Malcolm Begg] 
Macintosh [Captain of the Clanchattan] ; his 
second son Alexander founded the family of 
Holm : Hugh died in 1494 ; and his eldest son 
(8) Hugh VI., by Margaret Gordon, daughter of 
Huntly, had Hugh; John, progenitor of the 
Eosses of Bellivat; and Alexander, of whom 
came the family of Insh in the Garioch, and 
died in 1517. (9) Hugh VII., by Agnes Urqu- 
hart, daughter of [Alexander Urquhart of] Cro- 
marty, had Hugh and John of Wester Drakies 
[30th Dec. 1546 ?], and died anno 1543 [also 9 
daughters]. (10) Hugh VIII. purchased from 
Bishop Hepburn, in 1545, the lands of Kildruin- 
mie, Couhnonie, and Daltulich. His facetious 
humour appeareth in a submission between him 
and two neighbours, his subscription to which is, 
" Hutcheon Eose of Kilravock, an honest man ill 
guided between you baith." He died in 1597 
[June 10], leaving, by Catharine, daughter of 

* Translation Because at the time of the burning of the 
Church of Elgin his title-deeds were scattered and destroyed 
in the foresaid Church. 



288 HUGH ROSE, THE TWELFTH, FIVE TIMES MARRIED. 

Hawkerton, [eight daughters and] a son (11) 
William II., who, by Lilias Hay, daughter of 
Dalgatie, had Hugh, William of Clava, John of 
Braidley, and David of Earlsmiln, and died [8th 
April] 1611. (12) Hugh IX. purchased Fleming- 
ton from the Earl of Moray in 1639 ; he married 
Magdalene Frazer, daughter of Strichen, and 
died in [June] 1643. His son (13) Hugh X. 
married [Margaret] a daughter of [Sir John] Sin- 
clair of Dunbeth [and Christian Mowat of the 
family of Bulquhollie], who brought him Hugh 
and John, of whom is Hiltoun, and he died in 
[March] 1649. [This Lady Kilravock brought a 
portion of 10,000 into the family. She died in 
November 1654.] (14) Hugh XI. [succeeded 
when 8 years old] purchased Kinudie, &c, (Vide 
Aldearn Parish), sold Coulmore, and purchased 
Couless and Earichees in Ross anno 1681 (Ibid.) 
By Margaret, daughter of Innes of that ilk, he 
had Hugh his successor, and other sons. (15) 
Hugh XII. [born in the House of Innes in Jan. 
1663, was 24 years old at his father's death] 
added to his estate the Barony of Muirton, near 
Kinloss, and the lands of Brae in Ross. He was 
five times married ; 1st, with Margaret, daughter 
of Sir Hugh Campbell of Calder, by whom he 
had a son Hugh, and two daughters Henrietta^ 
married to Sir John MacKenzie of Coul, and 
Mary, to Duncan Forbes of Culloden, afterwards 
Lord President; 2nd, Joan, only child of Mr. 



HUGH XIII. ROSE OF KILRA.VOCK. 289 

James Fraser of Brae, and had by her a son, 
James of Brae [She died in 1699]; 3rd, Jean 
[Magdalene ?], daughter of [George] Cuthbert of 
Castlehill, who brought him Magdalene, married 
to MacKenzie of Dachmahiack, and Jean, to- 
Eobertson of Glasgoego; 4th, Elizabeth, daughter 
of Sir James Calder of Muirton, who had Mar- 
garet, married to Sir Charles Campbell, son of 
Sir Archibald [By this marriage about 1704,. 
there was a numerous issue, who all died in in- 
fancy, except Margaret, married in 1730 to- 
Charles Campbell of Clunes] ; 5th, Katharine,, 
daughter of James Porteous of Inverness, who- 
left two sons, Arthur and Alexander. He died 
[23] January 1732. [He was buried in the 
Chapel of Geddes, aet. 62]. 

Hugh XIII. sold the lands of Brae, in Ross, and pur- 
chased Broadley, near Nairn. He married, 1st, Elizabeth, 
daughter of Sir Ludovick Grant of Grant, by whom he 
had two sons, Hugh, his heir, born in 1705, and Lewis of 
Coulmony. He married, 2nd, Jean, eldest daughter of 
Hugh Rose of Broadley, by whom he had two sons and 
six daughters. His sons were John and George, who^ 
both died officers in the army ; and his daughters, Mar- 
garet, married to John Mackenzie, M.D., Edinburgh ; 
Henrietta, married to Sir William Dunbar of Hempriggs,, 
Baronet; Anne, married to Sir Henry Munro of Fowlis, 
Baronet all of whom had issue; Alexandrina; Jean,, 
married to Duncan Ross of Kindeace, in Ross-shire ; and 
Caroline, married to Major Brodie. He died 28th May 
1755, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Hugh XIV.,* 

* On the day previous to the memorable battle of Culloden, 

the Duke of Cumberland, having halted with his army at 

Nairn, lodged in the house of Hugh Rose of Kilravock, who 

was then Provost of that ancient burgh, and whose loyalty and 

VOL. II. 19 



290 HUGH (XIV.) ROSE MARRIES MISS CLEPHANE. 

born in 1705, who was bred to the Law, and was 
Sheriff-Depute of Koss and Cromarty. In 1739 he 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Colonel William Clep- 
hane, nephew of Clephane of Carslogie, in Fifeshire, by 
whom he had three sons and a daughter viz., Hugh, his 
heir, born llth March 1740 ; William, who was Captain 
in the Sutherland Fencibles, and died, unmarried, in 
1772 ; John, who was a wine merchant in London, and 
died, unmarried, in 1767 ; and Elizabeth, born 19th 
March 174-7. He was a very literary character, and 
added greatly to the library of Kilravock particularly 

attachment to the cause of King George the Second is attested 
by the following inscription on a porter cup, preserved in the 
old Castle of Kilravock " This cup belongs to the Provost of 
Nairn, 1746, the year of our deliverance. A bumper to the 
Duke of Cumberland." 

About two o'clock of the same day, an officer from Prince 
Charles Stuart arrived at Kilravock, to announce that it was 
the intention of the Prince to dine that day at the Castle. Mr. 
Rose and his lady made the best preparation that the shortness 
of the time admitted for the reception of so illustrious and unex- 
pected a guest ; and in about an hour after the Prince reached 
the Castle, attended by a numerous retinue of gentlemen, many 
of whom were French. The manners and deportment of the 
Prince on this occasion were described by Mr. Rose and his 
lady as having been most engaging. He asked the number of 
Mr. Rose's children, and, on being told three sons, he requested 
to see them, praised their looks, and kissed each of them on 
the forehead. Having walked (out with Mr. Rose previous to 
dinner, and observed several people engaged in planting those 
trees which now adorn the ancient family seat of the Roses, he 
remarked, " How happy must you be, Mr. Rose, in being thus 
peacefully engaged, when the whole country around you is in 
a stir.' 

Mr. Rose, who was a capital performer, having taken up the 
violin and played an Italian minuet, said to the Prince, " That, 
if I mistake not, is a favourite of your Royal Highness." " That 
it is a favourite of mine, Mr. Rose, is certain, but how you 
came to know that it is so, I am quite at a loss to guess." 
"That, sir," replied Mr. Rose, "may serve to show you that what- 
ever people of your rank do or say is sure to be remarked." 
" I thank you," said the Prince, "for that observation." 

Prince Charles, his secretary Mr. Kay, and Mr. and Mrs. 
Rose dined together, in what is now the parlour of the old 



PRINCE CHARLIE DINES AT KILRAVOCK CASTLE. 291 

some of the best editions of the Classics, which he pur- 
chased in Holland. He died at 67, at Kilravock House, 
on the 26th November, and was interred in the family 
burial-place, 1772. He was succeeded by his eldest 
son (18) Hugh XV., who was also bred to the Law, and 
passed as Advocate, but never practised. He was a 
highly - accomplished gentleman and scholar, was ex- 
tremely fond of field sports, and reckoned one of the best 
shots in Britain. He was also a first-rate performer on 
the violin ; indeed, the whole Kilravock family were 
celebrated for their musical talents. In 1773 he married 
Anne Fraser* of Inverness; but, she dying without 

Castle, while forty of the Prince's attendants dined in a large 
hall adjoining. Between these two rooms there is a short 
passage, in which two of the Prince's officers stood with drawn 
swords while he was at dinner. When the cloth was removed 
Mr. Rose proposed to the Prince that he would allow those 
gentlemen to go to dine, adding " Your Royal Highness may 
be satisfied that you are perfectly safe in this house." To 
which he replied, " I know, Sir, that I am safe here ; you can 
desire them to go to dinner." 

A large and very handsome China bowl, capable of contain- 
ing as much as sixteen ordinary bottles, is still preserved at 
the Castle of Kilravock. This bowl Mr. Kay greatly admired, 
and said that he would like to see it filled. In consequence, im- 
mediately after dinner, the bowl, filled with good whisky-punch, 
was placed on the Prince's table. After drinking a few glasses 
of wine Prince Charles rose to depart, as did also Mr. Kay ; 
but the Prince, good-humouredly, said, " No, no, Kay, since 
you have challenged that bowl, you must stay to see it out." 
Kay, however, took only a glass, and accompanied his master 
to Culloden, where they slept. 

Next day the Duke of Cumberland stopped on his march at 
the gate of Kilravock Castle, and Mr. Rose having gone out to 
receive him, the Duke said, " So I understand you had my 
cousin, Charles, here yesterday." " Yes, please your Royal 
Highness." replied Mr. Rose, " not having an armed force, I 
could not prevent his visit." " You did perfectly right," said 
the Duke, " and I entirely approve of your conduct." So 
saying, he rode on to the moor of Culloden. 

* She was a girl of low birth, albeit captivating in propor- 
tions. Such wedlock, of course, brought sorrow and dissension 
into the family. Pamella did not carry her honours meekly. 
The old proverb held true as to the beggar and the horse, or 



292 HUGH (XV.) ROSE MARRIES ANNE FRASER. 

issue in 1782, a long law-suit followed betwixt his sister 
Elizabeth, who claimed, as heir-of-line, and James Rose, 
son of Dr. Hugh Rose, by his first wife, Margaret Russel, 
who claimed, as heir-male to the late Kilravock. After 
a protracted litigation of five years' duration, Mrs. Rose, 
having appealed to the House of Lords, their Lordships, 
on the 2nd April 1787, gave judgment, deciding all the 
material points in favour of Mrs. Rose. By this decision 
she succeeded to the Barony of Kilravock, and the lands 
of Kildrummie and Easter Torrich, while James Rose 
was found entitled to the lands of Geddes and Fleming- 
town, and the patronage of Moy and vice-patronage of 
Croy. 

[Mrs. Elizabeth Rose, born 1747, was a great letter- 
writer, and she copied drafts of her correspondence. She 
kept a common-place book for many years, and she fol- 
lowed what in her days was a general practice, especially 
with " Blue-stockings," of spending time in copying large 
extracts from books. She kept a Journal from 1771 till 
the year of her death, 1815. Volumes of MSS. were filled 
with plans, contemplations, thoughts, and botherations. 
The overflowings of a naturally cheery lady develope in 
scribbling into a sentimental lachrymose. She sung the 
airs of her country, and she learnt from her father to 
take her part in catches and glees. She played the violin 
like male artistes, supported against her shoulder. The 
spinet and guitar were her companions in all her changes of 
abode and fortune. The Papers of Kilravock, published 
by "the Spalding Club," abound in various pleasantries 
about this accomplished heiress of Kilravock. The family 
adhered to the Nonjurors. In her "Book of Medita- 
tions," dated Easter week, 1774, she pens: "I passed 
the eve of Good Friday in tumults of soul. Next morn- 

rather the grey mare became the lest horse. She was insinuating, 
however, and she and her husband became favourites in certain 
great houses especially with Jane, Duchess of Gordon, " the 
Cock o' the North " in those days. The false step, notwith- 
standing, had its usual consequents. The parvenue Lady 
Kilravock has a monument in the Chapel of Geddes, which 
records that "she died 8th day of August 1837, in the 90th 
year of her age ; and as a small mark of esteem, affection, and 
gratitude, this stone is erected by her attached friend Mary 
Scott." (ED.) 



MRS. ELIZ. ROSE THE ACCOMPLISHED HEIRESS. 293 

ing I ventured to the chapel, and found myself soothed 
by the Divine worship. Next day was the preparation 
for the Communion in the Parish Church, and though of 
another persuasion, I thought my time would be well 
bestowed in hearing a discourse suitable to the work I 
had in hand." She corresponded with Burns ; for what 
lady of such metal at the time did not ? "] (ED.) 

In 1779 she married Dr. Hugh Rose of Broadley, who 
died in 1780, and by whom she had an only son, Hugh, 
born February 8, 1781. After the death of her husband 
she removed from Forres to Nairn, where she resided, in 
the Kilravock house, with her mother, for some years ; 
but, on her accession to the estate, she and her mother 
took possession of Kilravock Castle, where she devoted 
much of her time to the improvement of the remains of 
the once extensive possessions of her ancestors though 
harassed by two very tedious and expensive law-pleas. 
She planted nearly 1000 acres of moor ground with 
Scotch fir and larch, which, in the course of a few years, 
will add greatly to the value of the property. She en- 
closed with substantial fences, and drained several exten- 
sive farms ; and by her influence over the tenantry, with 
whom she was, deservedly, very popular, she persuaded 
them to build comfortable houses, with suitable farm- 
steadings. She also drained, at a very considerable 
expense, great part of the Loch of Clans, formerly an 
extensive lake, in the hope of finding marl in it, and, 
though in this she was disappointed, it has added nearly 
100 acres to the estate, which, by proper culture, will 
soon become of much value. 

On the death of Mrs. Rose, in November 1815, she was 
succeeded by her eldest son, Hugh XVI., who served for 
some years as Lieutenant-Colonel of the Inverness-shire 
regiment of militia during the late war, and afterwards 
commanded the local militia of the county of Nairn, of 
which he is at present vice-lieutenant. He married, 1st, 
Catherine, daughter of Colonel John Baillie of Dunain, 
by whom he had three sons and four daughters viz., 
Hugh, John, Ensign in the 50th regiment of Foot; 
George, Isabella, Elizabeth, Margaret, and Catherine 
Duff. He married, 2nd, Catherine, daughter of James 
Macintosh, Esq. of Farr, by whom he had three sons and 
three daughters viz., James, William, Wellington (born 



294 OLD CASTLE, TOWER AND GATE OF KILRAVOCK. 

on the ever-memorable 18th of June), Anne Fraser, 
Harriet, and Caroline. 

[Major James Rose of Kilravock, only surviving son of 
the late Hugh Rose, by his 2nd wife, Catherine, daughter 
of James Macintosh of Farr ; born 1820 ; succeeded his 
brother, John Baillie, in 1854; married, first, in 1850, 
Anna Maria, daughter of Lieut.-General H. Ivenslow, of 
the Bengal Artillery. She died in 1867. Married, 2nd, 
in 1868, Eliza, widow of Farr W. Hockin of Sherborne, 
Dorset. Has by the first wife, with other issue, Hugh, 
born in 1863. Major Rose, who was educated at Edin- 
burgh and Addiscome College, is a J.P. and D.-L. for the 
county of Nairn, Lord of the Barony of Kilravock, and 
Major in the Indian Army, retired. 

" A Genealogical Deduction of the Family of Rose of 
Kilravock from 1299 to 1847" was issued by the " Spald- 
ing Club" in 1848, under the supervision of Cosmo Innes. 
This History was written by Hew Rose, minister of 
Nairn, a cadet of the long race, in 1683-4, and continued 
by Lachlan Shaw, minister of Elgin a Digest of which 
has been given above. 

A range of castellated buildings and bastioned tower, 
with gaunt appendages of later but not quite modern 
days, stand on the edge of a richly wooded declivity of 
rock, looking down upon the river Nairn. The square 
keep was built by "Huchone de Ross;" i.e., Hugh 
Rose, the 7th Baron, in 1460, having obtained licence to 
do so from John, Lord of the Isles ; confirmed in 1475 by 
King James III. Tradition says that the Towers of 
Calder, Ironside, Dallas, and Spynie were built about the 
same time, and that the architect was Cochrane, the 
minion of James III., whom that monarch created Earl 
of Mar, who was afterwards hanged over Lauder Bridge 
in July 1482. 

Besides the destruction of the Kilravock Papers, when 
the Cathedral of Elgin was burned in 1390, also in or 
about 1482, Duncan Macintosh surprised the Tower, com- 
mitted slaughter and destroying papers. Hugh, 8th of 
the name and the 10th succeeding in the family, "builded 
the lower part of the mannor place" in 1553. He was 
bound by contract to give John Anderson, mason, " meall 
at 2 sh. 8d. the boll." George Robertson, smith in Elgin, 
made the iron gate to the tower, which gate weighed 34 



ROSE'S TOMB IN THE CHAPEL OF GEDDES. 29S 

stone and 3 libs, for which he granted the "recept of 
threttie-four pounds 3 sh. 9d., with three bolls meall, ane 
stone of butter, and ane stone of cheese, by his recept, 
February 5, 1568." This iron gate was taken off by the 
English in the wars of Cromwell. This Hugh, "the 
Black Baron," who died in 1597 set. 90, entertained Queen 
Mary in his tower her Majesty's bedroom, which is still 
in its original state, having no fire place in it, nor was it 
lathed nor plastered, while the floor consisted of great 
coarse boards, roughly sawn, and nailed together. 

The name of Kilravock indicates the Cell or Chapel 
dedicated to some now-forgotten Saint; and tradition 
points, alas ! to the present pigeon-house as the site of 
that Chapel. No ancient rights are ascertained by the 
verdict of an Inquest in the cause between "the Lord 
Prior of Urquhart and Hugh de Ros of Kilravoc," held in 
the Chapter of the Cathedral Church of Elgin in 1343. 
The Prior's duty was to defray the expense of the Vicar 
of Dalcross, who was to celebrate in Divine Service twice 
a week in the Chapel of Kilravock. Incidentally this 
chart introduces the Hermit of St. Mary's Chapel at Rate. 
It is a finely written indenture. Of the five seals that 
have been attached, only the labels remain. 

In some of the old copies of the Kilravock History are 
given the inscriptions on the tomb of Mr. Rose, in the 
Chapel of Geddes, " taken off the loose stones after the 
chapel had fallen." Nothing now remains even of " the 
loose stones " which formed this monument, which seems 
to have been ornamented in the bad taste of that day 
loaded with reflections on mortality, scriptural and classi- 
cal, in verse and prose. The purpose of its erection is 
given in these words : 

PosiruM DAVIDIS ROSE DE EARLSMILL FILII GULIELMI ROSE 
ET LILI.E HAY, DOMINI ET DOMINIE DE KILRAVOCK, QUI OBIIT 
30 MAII 1669, ^ETATIS 76: NEC NON CONJUGIS IPSIUS CHRIS- 
TIANA CUTHBERT, FILI^i JACOBI CUTHBERT DE DRAKIES, QU-ffi 

OBIIT 18 SEPTEMBRIS 1658. IN MEMORIAM PARENTUM sui 
ET FRATRUM, JACOBI, GULIELMI, ALEXANDRIS, ET GULIELMI 
ROSE, ADORNANDUM CURAVIT M. HUGO ROSE DIVINI VERBI 
MINISTER APUD NAIRNE, 1667. 

.As in the vegetable world the old branches wither 
and drop off, while the stem and the younger branches 
flourish, so in families the stock and the younger cadets 



296 THE VARIOUS FAMILIES OF ROSE. 

remain after the old branches have become extinct. It 
cannot be doubted that, in the first age of this family of 
Kilravock, some considerable branches had sprung from 
it, which time has consumed, so that now these cannot 
be traced ; yet some of near to 300 years' standing do 
still remain, for example the following in the order of 
seniority: 

I. The Roses of Braidley or Dunern. 
II. Rose of Holm. 

III. Rose of Bellivat and Blackhills. 

IV. Rose of Insh. 

V. Rose of Wester Drakies. 
VI. Rose of Clava. 
VII. Rose of Braidley. 
VIII. Rose of Earlsmill. 
IX. Rose of Rosehill. 

ROSE OF INSH. 

This family was famous for their ecclesiastical prefer- 
ments and dignities. (1) Alexander of Larachmore, 
brother-german to John the First of Bellivat, and third 
son of Hugh, the 8th laird of Kilravock, was father of (2) 
Henry of Larachmore, who was father of (3) James Rose 
of Insh, one of the ministers of Aberdeen, father of (4) 
John Rose of Insh, minister of that parish. He had two 
sons, viz., Alexander and Arthur. This last Arthur 
Rose was, in 1675, consecrated Bishop of Argyle, from 
which he was, in 167.9, translated to the metropolitan 
See of Glasgow; and, in 1684, he was advanced to the 
Primacy, and made Archbishop of St Andrews. Being 
deprived at the Revolution, he lived a retired life, and 
died 13th June 1704. His elder brother, (5) Alexander 
Rose, was parson of Monymusk, and was father of two 
clergymen viz., John and Alexander. This latter was 
for some years one of the ministers of Perth, from whence 
he was translated to Glasgow, and made Professor of 
Divinity in that University. In 1686 he was consecrated 
Bishop of Moray, from whence he was translated to Edin- 
burgh in 1688. After his deprivation and the death of 
his uncle in 1704, Bishop Alexander Rose was Primus 
(or, in Roman Catholic terms, Vicar-General), to whom 
it belonged to call meetings of the clergy, and to preside 
in consecrating Bishops. The following sketch of him is 



KILRAVOCK, HOLM, CANTRAY, GALCANTRAY. 297 

by a contemporary, from an MS. written about 1730, in 
the library at Slains: "He was a man of breeding and 
parts, and so well accomplished and exercised in business, 
that though the Revolution happened the very first year 
of his government, yet he continued to command an 
universal respect, and to fill this chair with commenda- 
tion to the last. After the Primate's death (1704) he 
maintained the character of Vicar-General, and took care 
to preserve the succession, and having outlived all the 
deprived bishops in this kingdom, came at last to have 
the sole government of the Church. He was tall and 
graceful to look at, and of a very healthful constitution, 
but was cut off by a sudden fit of an apoplexie at the age 
of 74, at Edinburgh, March 20, 1720, and was buried in 
the Lord Balrnerinoch's burial place at Restalrig." His 
elder brother, (6) John Rose of Insh, was parson of 
Foveran]. (ED.) 

Kilravock's Paternal Arms are : Or. 3 Water Budgets, Sab. 

Now to describe the Parish : 

The House of Kilravock standeth on a rock, 
on the west bank of the river. It is a large pile 
of building, with a strong Tower, built in 1460 
by a patent from the Earl of Boss. (Ibid.) The 
river, gardens, enclosures, and adjacent birch- 
wood, make it a very agreeable seat. South-west 
on the river is Holm, the property of John Kose 
of Holm, the 9th descent in a direct line ; the 
small heritage is a part of the Barony of Strath- 
nairn (Vide Daviot. Par.) Next up the river is 
Cantray, which, with Galcantray and Bellaffresh 
on the east side of the river, and the lands of 
Croy near the Church, are the property of Mr. 
Davidson, who lately purchased them from 
Dallas of Cantray. Croy was purchased from 



298 DALCEOSS, LEYS, ORCHIL, BARONY OF CLAVA. 

Campbell of Calder in 1617 ; but Cantray (and 
Budzet in Calder) has been the seat of Dallas for 
many generations. 

North-west from Cantray, on the top of the 
hill, standeth the Castle of Dalcross,. built in 
1621 by Lord Lovate, whose property the land 
was at that time. It came afterwards to Sir 
James Frazer of Brae, who gave it as a portion 
with his daughter Jean Frazer to Major Bate- 
man. The major sold it to James Eoy Dunbar 
Baillie of Inverness, and from him Macintosh of 
Macintosh purchased it in 1702. About 4 miles 
farther, on the west brae of the hill, is Easter 
Leys, pertaining to Eobertson of Inches (Vide 
Inverness Par.) Next is Mid Leys, the property 
of George Baillie, son of John Baillie, late 
Writer to the Signet in Edinburgh, who was 
son of James Baillie, Sheriff Clerk of Inverness, 
of the family of Dunean. Farther is West Leys, 
the heritage of Alexander Shaw of Tordaroch, 
who sold it lately to Sir Ludowick Grant of 
Grant (Vide Daviot Par.) These Leys hold of 
Lord Lovat, as a part of the ancient estate of 
that family. 

To return to the side of the river Nairn. 
Above Cantray are Little Cantray, Contra-na- 
bruich, Orchil, &c., pertaining to Kilravock ; and 
further up is the Barony of Clava, the heritage of 
Kose of Clava ; of which branch Hugh of C ava 
is now the 6th in descent. This Barony is 



STATE OF PROPERTIES IN CROY. 299 

situated on both sides of the river. And in the 
upper part of the parish is Daltulich, a mortgage 
possessed by a branch of the Frasers for 5 
generations past. 

CROY. 

[Situation, Soil, Climate. Croy lies on the southern 
side of Ardersier, and upon the west of Nairn. It is 
intersected through 8 miles of its length by the river of 
that name, on the western side of which it is extended in 
the direction north-west from Nairn for the space of 16 
miles, consisting almost of one continued low ridge of 
white moorish ground, on which there are several small 
plots of poorly cultivated land. The soil along the river 
is a fertile loam, and in several parts fields of a good 
quality are found ; but a great part is poor and thin, on 
a cold hard soil, and the crop subjected to damage when 
the harvest is late and wet. 

State of Property. The parish, in the counties of 
Nairn and Inverness, is shared among 10 proprietoi's. 
The family seat of Kilravock is an old tower, supposed to 
have been built in the year 1460, to which an elegant 
modern mansion, on a rock overhanging the river, is con- 
joined. The gardens, an orchard, and a considerable 
extent of natural and planted wood, embellish the en- 
virons. The domain is in the county of Nairn; the valued 
rent amounts to 792. A little farther up, pleasantly 
situated on the banks of the river, is Holme, the seat of 
John Rose, in the county of Inverness, a neat modern 
house, embellished by natural and planted wood ; the 
valuation is 120. Still farther up the river, in the same 
county, is Cantray, the mansion-house of David David- 
son [now Hugh G. Davidson]. He has at once orna- 
mented and improved his ample property in a very high 
degree ; more than 400 acres of waste have been brought 
into the highest state of cultivation. His plantations 
exceed 2000 acres ; he has built a splendid and commo- 
dious mansion, and a handsome bridge in its environs, 
of the greatest utility and ornament. His domains are 
in both counties ; the estate of Clava in Nairn, valued at 
292 15s. 8d., added to those of Cantray and Clavala in 



300 DALCROSS, INCHES, DALTALICH, MID LEYS, LEYS. 

the county of Inverness, extends his valued rent in this 
parish to the sum of 839. Arthur Forbes of Culloden, 
Esq., has lands in both counties within this parish ; his 
valuation in Nairn, of 358 14s. 6d., added to that of 
Lenoch and Bellbraid in the county of Inverness, makes 
his valuation equal to 4)49 4s. 6d. The rest of the 
parish is wholly in the county of Inverness. 

The old castle and estate of Dalcross, the property of 
Mackintosh of Mackintosh, is valued at 190. Part of 
the barony of Inches, the property of Robertson, is valued 
at 230. Daltalich, a part of the estate of Lovat, is 
valued at 116 13s. 4d. Mid Leys, the property of Mr. 
Baillie, is valued at 133 6s. 8d. Leys, the property of 
Col. Fraser of Culduthel, is valued at 130 ; and the pro- 
peity appertaining to Cuthbert of Castlehill, valued at 
56, makes the whole valuation of the parish amount 
to 2995 14s. 6d. Scots. 

The greater part of the farms are below 20 sterling of 
rent. Several of them are inconsiderable crofts, lately 
brought into culture, and threatening to return to their 
original state of moor. There are a few rented from 40 
to 50, managed in the best manner. 

State Ecclesiastical. The parish, in its present extent, 
consists of Croy and the parish of Dalcross, annexed 
before or about the Reformation. The vicar of Dalcross 
is mentioned in the records of Roman Catholic times ; 
and the Burial-ground, still used a little, and the walls of 
its Church remain ; and its glebe makes a part of the 
present glebe. The names of both parishes are supposed 
to be originally French, Croix, the cross, and De la Croix; 
but as a district in the western quarter of the kingdom is 
named Glencro, or croy, it may be of Gaelic birth. The 
stipend, including the allowance for the communion, is 
30 11s. sterling, and 80 bolls of grain. The right of 
patronage is equally shared between the families of Caw- 
dor and Kilravock. The district called Leys is so distant 
from the Church, that, during the summer and autumn 
months, public worship is performed there every fourth 
Sunday in the open air. The salary of the parochial 
school is 16 bolls of bear ; the fees of education, and the 
perquisites of the office of session-clerk make the whole 
establishment equal to 22 sterling yearly. The Society 
for Christian Knowledge maintain also a school in the 



THE BATTLE OF CULLODEN IN PARISH OF CHOY. 301 

parish, with an appointment of XI 2 sterling, besides the 
house, garden, fuel, and the maintenance of a cow, fur- 
nished by the proprietor and the people. Both schools 
are flourishing and well attended. Except 4 of the Epis- 
copalian persuasion, the whole of the people, amounting 
to 1552, appertain to the national Church. 

Miscellaneous Information. It was in this parish, 
near the middle of the ridge of moorish ground on the 
side towards the river, that the decisive and important 
action of Culloden was achieved. After Prince Charles 
Edward had fully ascertained the sentiments both of 
England and Wales to be adverse to his desperate 
attempt, and found himself duped in the support which 
had been so liberally promised by France and Spain, the 
councils of his adherent chiefs, distracted by jealousy and 
dissension, were deeply marked by the infatuation of 
despair ; for though presumption only could flatter them 
with the hope of success, and defeat must be attended by 
inevitable destruction, yet under the advantage of the 
terror and alarm which they had thrown over the 
capital, their successful retreat almost from the environs 
of London, so wonderful in every circumstance, the 
resources which they still possessed, and the additional 
support which they might acquire, had they then sued 
for peace and carried on at the same time the war, they 
would have obtained an amnesty for the whole of the 
common people, and easy terms for the less distinguished 
chiefs ; and while they retained the command of several 
ports on both sides of the island, the Adventurer himself, 
and such as could not reasonably hope for pardon, might 
have easily retreated to an asylum on the Continent. 
This, however, they did not attempt. In the meantime 
royal forces thickened everywhere around them; every 
district almost of the Western Highlands (Inverness and 
Fort-Augustus excepted) was occupied by formidable 
detachments of adverse troops. The Duke of Cumberland 
arrived at Aberdeen about the end of February, and r 
having completed his magazines, commenced his march 
with the last division of his forces upon the 8th of April, 
and rendezvoused at Cullen with the whole army on the 
llth. On the morning of the 12th, Major-General Huske, 
with the cavalry, a body of loyal Highlanders, 15 com- 
panies of grenadiers, and 2 field pieces, attended by the 



302 ENCAMPMENTS AT SPEYMOUTH MANSE AND ALVES. 

Duke himself, preceded the army to the banks of the 
Spey. The Duke of Perth, the Lords John Drummond, 
Kilmarnock, and Balmerinoch, and Secretary Murray, 
had for some time taken up their quarters in the manse 
of Speymouth, on the other side of that river. The 
minister has left it on record, that though they used him 
civilly, and gave him no disturbance concerning his prin- 
ciples, yet it was expensive to him, and public worship 
was suspended during their sojourn there. 2000 men 
was the force under their command, able to have pre- 
vented the passage of the royal army, or to have defeated 
them when struggling with the power of the stream ; but 
on their appearance on the southern bank, the rebels fled 
off towards Elgin, with the most unaccountable precipi- 
tation. The horse, sustained by the grenadiers and 
Highlanders, immediately passed over, but not with such 
expedition as to warrant a pursuit. The whole army 
thereafter forded the river to the depth of their middles, 
and one grenadier and 4 women, borne down by its 
rapidity, were drowned. They encamped in the vicinity 
of the manse, and his Royal Highness, with a more 
cordial welcome, occupied the state bed, from which the 
Duke of Perth was dispossessed. Their march on Sun- 
day the 13th reached to the Church of Alves; the en- 
campment was formed on an arable field, then green with 
the springing corn ; the owner considered the crop to be 
destroyed, but it was found to have been thereby greatly 
improved. On the 14th they marched forward to the town 
of Nairn. The Duke entering into the 27th year of his 
age, they rested on the 15th, solemnizing the auspicious 
anniversary, and trimming their accoutrements and arms. 
By this time the greater part of the rebel troops, from 
various quarters, under different chiefs, had rendezvoused 
with the Prince at Inverness. But instead of prudently 
retreating to the fastnesses of the mountains, which then 
afforded store of live cattle for provision, where their 
regiments would have been recruited, and their force 
augmented by a strong reinforcement of the Macphersons, 
then actually in full march to their aid, and where per- 
haps the disaster of Closterseven might have by anticipa- 
tion been prevented, they weakly drew out to meet their 
fate upon Drummossie Moor, where they lay the whole 
night under arms, having very little provision two 



THE ARMY MARCHES FROM NAIRN. 303 

bannocks of bread only to each man. And in the anxious 
expectation of the advance of the royal army they waited 
in the order of battle the whole of the succeeding day, 
during which they were joined by 1400 men, under 
young Lovat, Keppoch, and Locheil. Having formed the 
weak purpose of surprising the Duke's army in the night 
of the birth-day solemnization, they marched eastward 
after sun-set in two columns ; but then faint with hunger 
and fatigue, many were unable to come up ; embarrassed 
by the length of the columns, they were obliged to make 
several halts, and many, overpowered with sleep, dropped 
off unperceived in the dark, and lay hid in the fields ; 
and at the distance of 3 miles it was found impossible to 
reach the Duke's army before the rising of the sun, and 
only then with half the numb.er that had marched off the 
moor. Charles therefore was reluctantly prevailed upon 
to measure back his way to the ground first chosen for 
the battle, in which he was rejoined by the greater part 
of those who had straggled in the nocturnal march. Im- 
mediately on regaining their station, great numbers dis- 
persed in quest of provisions, and many, overpowered by 
fatigue, lay down to sleep on the heath. About 5 o'clock 
in the morning the army began their march from Nairn, 
nearly 15 miles distant from the place of engagement, 
and the repose of the wearied clans was disturbed by the 
alarm of their approach. They formed the order of battle 
with at least 1000 fewer than they had mustered on the 
preceding day; the front in 13 divisions, each clan under its 
respective chief, having 6 field pieces in the middle of the 
line; to support the front were disposed Fitz- James's 
horse on the right, covered by the wall of an enclosure ; 
4 companies of French piquets composed the middle 
column, and on the left were 5 companies of Lord John 
Drummond's foot, and a body of horse composed of the 
Prince's guards ; open to the centre of the foot was the 
young Adventurer and his body guards, and in his rear 
was the line of reserve. 

The Duke's army formed in 2 lines also, and 3 regi- 
ments for the corps of reserve; the dragoons, under 
Hawley, were on the left flank, -and Kingston's horse 
guarded the right; the artillery, consisting of 10 field 
pieces, were placed two in the centre of each regiment, so 
that some pieces were capable of flanking the enemy on 



304 THE ROAD TO INVERNESS STREWN WITH DEAD. 

whatever part of the line the impression might be made. 
The royal army consisted of 8811, and the other num- 
bered 8350. About one o'clock afternoon the artillery of 
both parties opened ; that of the rebels was ill served and 
inefficient, but the king's made dreadful havock among 
them, which Lord George Murray, the leader of the right 
wing, perceiving, called on them to advance, and 500 
charged the left wing with their usual impetuosity. Bar- 
rel's regiment and Monro's were yielding to the pressure 
of this column when they were sustained by 2 battalions 
under Wolfe, advancing from the second line, by whose 
close fire great numbers fell, while the cannon continued 
to pour destruction with their cartridge shot. Meanwhile 
the dragoons, aided by the militia of Argyle, having 
opened passages in the dyke, brol^ in upon the right 
flank, while Kingston's horse, upon the left, met them 
in the centre, completing the confusion of the rebels; 
their rout in less than 30 minutes was final, and the field 
covered with the slain. The French piquets in their 
right covered their retreat for a little by a close and 
regular fire, then retiring to Inverness, they surrendered 
themselves prisoners of war. The road to that town was 
strewed with the bodies of the dead. Many friends even, 
who had come to share the victory, were sacrificed in the 
undistinguishing exultation of the victors over the unre- 
sisting foe. An entire body of the rebels, however, 
marched off the field of battle, their pipes playing, and 
the standard of Charles displayed. On the succeeding 
day 2000 met on the road to Badenoch, and, after a little 
deliberation, finally dispersed. 

In every instance of civil war, rapine, desolation, and 
murder will be the cruel lot of numbers, though unresist- 
ing to either side. The moderation, however, of the rebels 
in the season of their success, considering their necessities, 
is deservedly worthy of the most distinguished praise - r 
private property, save a trifling exaction at Manchester 
and Glasgow, remained inviolate in both their peregrina- 
tions from one end of the island almost to the other. Yet 
the objects of spoil were most tempting to undisciplined 
and needy adventurers, and their ideas of honesty and 
justice had impressed but faintly the virtue of forbear- 
ance and self-denial ; and, save only in the rage of battle, 
they were extremely delicate and gentle, respecting the 



ENCAMPMENT AT FORT AUGUSTUS. 305 



effusion of blood. But with an extremely different mea- 
sure was it meted to them in the day of their calamity. 
And notwithstanding the wickedness of 'their attempt to 
subvert our religion, liberty, and glorious constitution, it 
was not possible to regard the fallen sufferers without 
pity, without condemning the rigour of that vengeance to 
which the weak and submissive were doomed. The 
soldiers of the king, not contented with the blood which 
had been so profusely shed in the heat of action, traversed 
the fitild after the battle, and massacred those miserable 
wretches whom they found unresisting and maimed ; 
some officers even, uninspired by sentiment, untinctured 
by humanity, bore a part in this cruel scene of assassina- 
tion. But that day did not sate the vengeance of the 
loyal powers. In the month of May they advanced into 
the Highlands and encamped at Fort Augustus, which 
had been lately by the rebels blown up ; whence detach- 
ments were to every quarter sent off; the men, hunted 
down like wild beasts, were shot upon the mountains, or 
put to death in cold blood, without the form of trial ; 
the women, having seen their fathers, brothers, and 
husbands murdered, subjected to violation, were turned 
out naked with their children, to starve upon the bar- 
ren hills. One whole family, shut up in a barn, were 
consumed to ashes. Every house, hut, or habitation, 
was without distinction burned. So active and alert 
were those ministers of vengeance, that in a few days 
neither house nor cottage, man nor beast, was to be seen 
within the compass of 50 miles ; all was ruin, silence, 
and desolation ! 

Yet jollity and glee alone resounded in the camp at 
Fort Augustus. Upwards of 2400 black cattle, with 
droves of sheep and goats, and troops of horses, were 
brought in the plunder of the murdered peasants, and 
horse-racing among every rank and sex prevailed. His 
Royal Highness gave a holland smock for a prize, and 
the wives of the soldiers started on the bare backs of 
garrans, riding, with their legs on each side, like the men. 
On the same coursers Hawley and Colonel Howard run a 
match for 20 guineas, and the first of these heroes, by 4 
inches, won. 

While these circumstances are recorded in the page of 
history, let each succeeding generation beware of foster- 
VOL. ii. 20 



306 DISASTROUS DEFEAT OF PRINCE CHARLIE. 

ing rebellion, or exciting insurrection, but only to obtain 
relief in situations that can be hardly rendered more 
calamitous. 

The vanquished Adventurer, all his hope of a crown in 
one half hour dispelled, rode off the field with a few 
horsemen, accompanied by Lord Elcho and the Duke of 
Perth. Crossing the river Nairn, he retired to the house 
of a gentleman in Strath-herrick, and after a mournful 
conference with Lord Lovat, dismissing his followers, he 
wandered about a wretched solitary fugitive, surrounded 
by armed enemies, chased from hill to dale, from wood to 
heath, and from shore to shore, lurking seldom in a 
cottage, sometimes in a cave, and frequently on the bare 
waste, without attendants, and without other support 
than what the poorest peasant could supply. Sometimes, 
assuming women's attire, he appeared a lady's maid ; and 
sometimes, in the habit of a travelling mountaineer, with 
a wallet on his back. He was rowed in fisher boats from 
isle to isle among the Hebrides, passing through the 
midst of his enemies unknown, exposed to hunger, thirst, 
and weariness, to cold and wet, in continued peril. He 
trusted his life to the fidelity of more than 50 individuals, 
mostly in the lowest paths of fortune, and knowing that 
to betray him raised them at once to affluence and 
wealth, by the price of 30,000 set upon his head ; but 
they detested riches on such infamous terms, and they 
ministered to his necessities with the utmost fidelity 
and zeal, even at the hazard of their own destruction. 
Through the whole course of his distresses (which were 
such as hardly any other person ever outlived) he main- 
tained the most amazing equanimity and good humour ; 
never abandoned by his hope and recollection, he still 
found some expedient that saved him from captivity and 
death. At length, in the 5th month of his painful peril, 
he got on board a privateer of St. Malo ; by means of a 
thick fog he passed through Lestock's squadron unseen, 
and arrived in safety at Roseau in Bretagne, his eye 
hollow, his visage wan, and his constitution greatly im- 
paired by famine and fatigue. The history of his race, in 
every generation, loudly admonishes "all kings to be 
wise, and all judges of the earth to be instructed;" 
ever to govern with discretion, and with such care for the 
public weal as may preserve the love of their subjects, 



LITTLE TO BE SEEN OF THE FIELD OF CULLODEN. 307 

and maintain their reign over people, happy because they 
feel themselves free. 

There is little now to be seen on the field of battle, but 
it is still visited by many. The graves of those who fell 
are strikingly distinguishable by their verdant surface 
of grass rising through the brown surrounding heath. 
About 50 only of the army fell, of whom 6 were officers, one 
of them Lord Robert Ker ; the number of the rebels who 
were killed in the action and in the pursuit has been 
computed at 2500. Bullets and fragments of armour, 
which are picked up by the people of the neighbourhood, 
are anxiously sought after, and preserved with care as 
curiosities, or as valuable relics. (Survey of the Province 
of Moray!) 

Following the river, I come to 

THE PAEISH OF DAVIOT AND DUNLIGHTIB 

Stretching on both sides of the river Nairn, 
about 10 miles in length, and in few places 2 in 
breadth. It is enclosed with hills, except to- 
wards Croy. The Church standeth on the west 
bank, a mile above the north end of the parish, 
3 miles north from Dunlichtie, which is united 
with it, 4 miles south from Croy, 4 miles S.E. 
from Inverness, and 3 miles north-west from 
Moy. The Barony of Strathnairn was the 
freehold of the Earl of Crawford before the 
year 1500. David, Earl of Crawford, married 
Catharine, daughter of King Eobert II., and 
with her got the Barony of Strathnairn, &c., 
anno 1378 (Bot. Rob. II.) ; and he disponed it in 
feu to Ogilvie, laird of Findlater, who resided at 
Hall-hill in Pettie, and was designed laird of 
Strathnairn. Sir John Campbell of Calder pur- 



308 THE BARONY OF STRATHNAIRN, DAVIE FORT, FAILIE. 

chased Crawford's right in 1535, and thereafter 
Findlater conveyed his feu-hold to the Earl of 
Moray. This Earl, unwilling to hold of Calder, 
privately obtained a Charter from the Chancery, 
by which he was to hold of the Crown. Sir 
John Campbell, great-grand-son to the former 
mentioned, carried on a reduction of the Earl of 
Moray's right, and obtained from Earl James an 
ample renunciation, dated 17th November 1608, 
acknowledging, "that he held of Sir John Camp- 
bell of Calder the lands of Meikle Davie, cum 
Fortalicio, Budzeat, Little Davie, Coulclachie, 
Meikle and Little Craggies, Inverarnie, Gask, 
Wester Larg, Aberchaladers, Aberarders, Dal- 
crombie, Letterwhiln, Brinns, Fleechtie, Far, 
Holm, Failie, and'Drumornie " (Pen. Cold.) Thus 
the Earl of Moray holdeth this barony of Mr. 
Campbell of Calder as his superior. 

On the west side of the river, in the lower end 
of the parish, is Coulclachie, a sub-vassalage of 
Angus Macintosh, who now representeth the 
Macintoshes of Connidge. Next southward is 
Davie, the property of the laird of Macintosh. 
Here was a Fort built by David, Earl of Craw- 
ford, and after him called Davie Fort. Next is 
Failie, the heritage of MacBean of Failie, a 
branch of the old Clan Chattan, who have long 
possessed this small estate. South thereof is 
G-ask, which, with Dunmaglass, are the property 
of William MacGillivray of Dunmaglass. This 



CASK, CRAGGIE, INVERARNIE, FAKR, TORDAROCH. 309 

last was purchased by the Thane of Calder in 
1414, and feued to Ferquhard MacAlaster in 
1626; but they had immemorial Duchus or 
possession of it. Dunmaglass is Chief of the 
ancient clan of MacGillivray. 

On the east side of the river, the first north- 
ward is Craggie, the property of the late William 
Shaw of Craigfield, cousin to Tordaroch, south 
of which is the Barony of Largs, a part of Mac- 
intosh's estate. Further south is Inverarnie, a 
mortgage from Rose of Kilravock, who is the 
Earl of Moray's sub-vassal. MacPhail of Inver- 
arnie is the Chief of that ancient tribe of the 
Clan Chattan. Above Inverarnie, on the brook 
of Fearnie, is Far, the property of Macintosh of 
Far, a branch of the family of Kylachie. Above 
Inverarnie, on the side of Nairn, is Tordaroch, 
the seat of Alexander Shaw, an ancient branch 
of the Shaws of Eothemurchus. This family's 
heritage is Wester Leys, in the parish of Croy ; 
but they hold Tordaroch in lease of Macintosh, 
and have resided in it above 200 years. In the 
south end of Dunlichtie parish is Aberarder, the 
heritage of William Macintosh of Aberarder, a 
branch of the family of Macintosh; and west 
of Aberarder is Dunmaglass, of which I have 
spoken. There are in this Brae-country some 
other sub-vassals of the Earl of Moray. 



310 LOCHS DUNDLECHAK AND KUTHVEN. 



DAVIOT AND DUNLICHTY. 

[Situation, Soil, Climate. The river Nairn winds 
eastward from its sources, for the length of 23 miles, 
through this parish. The cultivated grounds extend from 
about 2 to nearly 4 miles in breadth. The name of 
Daviot is believed to have been given to the smaller 
district in honour of David, Earl of Crawford, once its 
proprietor, who built a fortress, lately razed for the lime- 
rubbish as manure. The other name in Gaelic is DUN- 
LE-CHATTI, the hill of the Clan Chattan. This ancient 
tribe, under the various surnames of Macintosh, the 
chief, Macgillivray, Macpherson, Macbean, Shaw, Smith, 
and Gow, continue in the possession of an extensive tract 
upon either side of this hill, which yet bears upon its 
summit the tokens of having been the rendezvous, and 
the place whence the signals were made, as the exigencies 
of remote times required. The Church of this district 
stands near its bottom ; that of the other a few miles to 
the north-west of Moy. The appearance of the country 
is not inviting; where the hills are not covered with 
heath, " on which no tree is seen," they are naked rock, 
while large tracts of peat morass or barren moor deform 
the vales below. Among the mountains there are several 
lakes ; that of Dundlechak is of the most consideration ; 
it discharges one of the branches of the river, it is very 
deep ; it is the lake which never freezes in winter by the 
most intense and longest frost, but in a calm night during 
the Spring it is readily frozen over in the space only of 
one night. The lake of Ruthven, though about half the 
extent of the other, being 3 miles in length, and nearly 
1 in breadth, is vastly its superior in the estimation of 
the angler ; there is no pike in it, but it is well stocked 
with trout of the Lochleven kind, similar to salmon when 
dressed ; 4 or 5 dozen, from 3 to 8 lb., are at times caught 
in the ( space of two hours ; and one or two boats are kept 
on the lake for the purpose only of fishing. Westward 
for some miles from the Church of Dunlighty the hills 
are chiefly composed of rock, and almost everywhere 
along their base innumerable fragments of enormous 
bulk, appearing to have been violently severed from their 
parent cliffs, exhibit the most satisfactory proof that 
earthquakes have been more frequent and more dreadful 



PROPERTIES IN DAVIOT AND DUNLICHTY PARISHES. 311 

in this quarter of the island than either tradition or his- 
tory records. Near the Church of Daviot, and for some 
miles above it, on both sides of the river, there is a 
natural object of another kind more striking still; the 
ground is more than 300 feet of perpendicular height 
above the level of the Frith ; it nevertheless presents a 
great many sand-hills, which evidently appear to have 
been formed by the current of contrary tides, under the 
flux and reflux of the ocean. At that period not only 
this island, but the greater part of Europe, must have 
been the bottom of the sea, probably during the antedilu- 
vian era, or in that more early period when " the Spirit 
of God moved upon the face of the waters, before he 
divided the waters which were under the firmament from 
those which were above it." 

In some places the soil is sandy and light ; in others it 
is spongy and wet, incumbent on clay; there are alsa 
tracts where it is black, of the quality of peat earth ; and 
in many places all these kinds are compounded together. 
A considerable proportion of the soil is, however, fertile, 
and capable of producing pretty plentiful crops, but the 
climate is variable and unpropitious, and oftentimes the 
whole labour and hope of the year is blasted in one night 
or morning in the months of August or September by the 
mildew frost, to which the best and lowest fields are most 
exposed. 

State of Property. In its political circumstances the 
parish is placed in the counties of Nairn and Inverness. 
It is at present the inheritance of 8 proprietors. John 
Macgillivray of Dunmaglass, Esq., has the valuation of 
400 Scots in the county of Nairn, and 486 in that of 
Inverness. David Davidson of Cantray, Esq., holds a 
valuation of 226 6s. 8d. Captain Macpherson of Inver- 
eshie has a valuation of 56 13s. 4d. tineas Mackintosh 
of Mackintosh, Esq., has the property of Daviot at 448, 
William Mackintosh of Culclachy, 313 10s. Captain 
Mackintosh of Aberairder, 694 6s. 8d. James Mackin- 
tosh of Far, 200 ; and Arthur Forbes of Culloden, 108 
6s. 8d., extending the whole valuation of the parish to the 
sum of 2933 6s. 8d. At the family seats of Dunmaglass 
and Far, the improvement of draining, enclosing, and 
planting, has been for some time carried on with pro- 
priety and success. The state of agriculture is in extreme 



312 DAVOCHS, PLOUGHS, AND AUGHTEEN PARTS. 

backwardness ; the small black hairy oats and rye are 
the principal crops ; common oats and barley succeed but 
in few places, and frequently misgive. The quantities of 
land are denominated davochs, ploughs, and aughteen 
parts : they were at first ascertained with regard to the 
quality rather than to the extent; and as, in several 
cases, the quality has been since improved, these deno- 
minations now appear arbitrary and uncertain. Few 
tenants occupy more than one aughteen part, the rent of 
which is from 3 to 5, besides a variety of services 
exacted by the landlords, both in seed time and harvest 
so flagrantly detrimental to all improvement, that of 
late some of the proprietors begin to discover that the 
practice of the landlords in the highest cultivated dis- 
tricts of the kingdom is more wise than theirs ; that they 
will become more respectable by having their revenue 
wholly in money, ascertained by the number of the acres 
on their estates ; having their tenants in other respects 
entirely independent, and hiring farm servants sufficient 
for the cultivation of the lands in their own occupation. 
Of late the blackfaced sheep have been introduced into 
the higher parts of the district of Dunlighty, and they do 
not appear to suffer from the climate ; the mean value is 
9s. each, and the number about 2000. The common cross 
breeds are double that number, and their mean value 
about 5s. each. The number of black cattle have been 
diminished by increasing the number of the sheep ; they 
still count to about 1300, and their mean value about 2 
each. Horses are generally used in the cultivation of 
the land ; they are of small size, their number about 800, 
and their mean value about 2 10s. 

State Ecclesiastical. The parishes of Daviot and Dun- 
lighty were united about the year 1618. The residence 
is at Daviot, at the distance of 7 miles from the Church 
of Dunlighty, where public worship is performed every 
alternate Sunday. The stipend is 77 6s. sterling, with 
a small glebe, detached in parts as in the original 
parishes. The right of patronage appertains to Lord 
Cawdor. The appointment of the schoolmaster, including 
the emoluments of the office of Session-Clerk, is about 
12. The number of the poor is nearly 46, and the 
funds for their provision, raised in the common form, and 
augmented by an endowment of 36, bearing interest, 



THE PARISHES OF DAVIOT AND DUNLIGHTY. 313 

exceeds not 5 yearly. The members of the National 
Church are 1265; and there are 430 of the Communion of 
the Episcopalian Church of Scotland, who have a chapel 
for themselves in the parish, but can only afford to have 
public worship there once in 3 or 4 Sundays ; during the 
interval they assemble with their neighbours in the 
parish Church. There are two Seceders of less liberality 
of sentiment. 

Miscellaneous Information. The people are devout 
and regular in their profession of religion, disposed to rest 
somewhat on external forms, which, however, does not 
appear to have any bad effect on their morals, although 
in some of the less essential duties they are not wholly 
pure. They have, however, a sense of shame and honour 
in a high degree for their station. They are frugal, and 
they would be industrious if the climate and other parti- 
cular circumstances offered the same excitements which 
happier situations possess. There are about 60 young 
men who migrate southwards for employment during the 
seasons of Spring, Summer, and Harvest ; but by this 
means they have not generally increased their stock. 
They have introduced expensive dress and other luxuries 
among the labouring class ; they have also raised the 
price of labour at home, and they live through the winter 
a burden on the common stock of their families. The 
gentlemen of the country want not encouragements in its 
own improvement, sufficient to retain them at home, and 
which would greatly redound to their mutual advantage ; 
for this end they must no doubt place their tenants in 
the same situation, as to ease and independence, with 
those in the South, who can thus afford to abstract the 
labour of the North. By this means also the industry of 
a great part of the people who live within 4 or 6 miles of 
Inverness would be in a short time directed into a more 
profitable channel, both for landlord and tenant, than 
that in which it presently runs namely, in preparing 
peat and turf fuel, and carrying it to the markets of the 
town, which is regularly continued twice in every week 
round the whole year, not excepting either Spring or 
Harvest. About Daviot there is lime-stone rock in the 
bed and banks of the river; it contains a great many 
small metallic cubes, not exceeding the fourth of an inch, 
consisting of a great proportion of lead, and of that 



314 ARDERSIER OR THE HEIGHT OF THE EDGE. 

colour. There is a considerable number of weavers 
employed in making coarse woollen stuff. The other 
artizans only accommodate the country, for which there 
are also 1 fulling and 14 corn-mills.] (Survey of the 
Province of Moray.) 

But I return to the coast. 

THE PAEISH OF ARDERSIER 

Lieth on the west Coast from Nairn. It is a 
promontory running into the Moray Firth, from 
south-east to north-west, and is about 2 miles in 
length, and little more than a half mile in breadth 
at the south-east; and at the north-west it ter- 
minates in a narrow point, on which the Fort is 
built. The whole parish is the property of John 
Campbell of Calder, and was a part of the lands 
of the Bishop of Boss, with some Temple lands 
formerly belonging to the Knights Templar. 
More than a third part of the whole bounds was 
purchased about 1746 by the Government for a 
precinct of the fort. The Church formerly stood 
within the precinct, but of late there is a new 
Church built a little without it, about 5 miles 
west from Nairn, 3 miles north from Croy, and 4 
miles north-east from Pettie. Whether the pre- 
cinct shall be intra-parochial, or extra-parochial, 
is not as yet determined. 

ARDERSIER. 

[Situation, Soil, Climate. This parish lies on the shore 
of the Firth, westward of that of Nairn, having a wing of 
the parish of Petty interjected between its southern side 
and the mountain. The name in the Gaelic, when a little 



CROMWELL'S CITADEL CHOSEN FOR FORT GEORGE. 315 

corrected, denotes the height of the edge. The greater 
part of the cultivated land, lying upon a plain extended 
backward from the sharp edge of a steep bank, rising 100 
feet above the level beach of the sea. [Ardersier is written 
Ardnaseer in the Records of the parish.] The southern 
or land side of the parish is stretched a little more than 2 
miles, and it might be conceived as a promontory termin- 
ating in the Firth, having the cape washed off almost to 
the level of the sea by some inundation in an sera beyond 
the notice of historical record, while the appearance of 
the ground, both in the smoothness of the compacted 
gravel of the plain below the bank, and in the steepness 
of the bank itself, suggests this idea. It might also with 
probability be conjectured, from the quality of the sand 
of which the bank appears to be composed, that the sub- 
stance of this promontory, washed up again upon the 
shore of the parish of Dyke, formed the Mavis Hills and 
the magazine for the irruption over the estate of Culbin. 

There is in the parish a considerable variety of soil 
stiff clay, deep black mould, shallow black soil, and light 
sand. The parish lying either pretty high, or stretched 
out into the sea, the climate is rather cold, but neither 
wet nor unhealthy. 

State of Property. The whole parish is the property 
of Lord Cawdor, except the ground purchased by Govern- 
ment for the station of Fort George, and a farm for the 
accommodation of the Governor. His Lordship pays the 
whole of the land tax affecting the valued rent, which 
extends to 600 Scots. The real rent of the parish when 
Fort George was built was 315 sterling, and 50 more, 
which was the rent of the farm sold to Government. 
The parish contains 1,985 acres, of which 966 are moor. 
After supplying the inhabitants it, in general, disposes of 
300 bolls. It is let in whole to one tenant, who sublets 
the greater part, in farms of 20 or 30 acres; the best 
arable land at 1 10s. the acre, and that of an inferior 
quality from 5s. to 7s. 6d . 

The situation of Cromwell's Citadel upon the influx of 
the river at Inverness was originally chosen by Govern- 
ment for the station of Fort George ; but the magistracy 
of that town, from an apprehension of its tendency to 
corrupt the morals of the people, eluded its erection there 
by such an exorbitant demand for the price of the ground 



316 DESCRIPTION OF FORT GEORGE. 

that the Duke of Cumberland, in a huff, upon the report 
of able engineers, found the ground whereon it now stands 
to be the most eligible, which, with the farm that has 
been mentioned, was purchased from the family of Cawdor. 
The work was commenced in the year 1747 under the 
direction of General Skinner. The original estimate was 
120,000 sterling, but it required a little more than the 
addition of 40,000. to that sum. The Citadel occupies 
15 English acres of the point of low ground already 
described. On three sides the ramparts rise almost out 
of the sea, which can be introduced at pleasure into a 
formidable excavation stretched along the fourth, with 
which the ancient fosse round any Gothic castle could 
not either in breadth or in depth be compared. It is said 
to be the only regular fortification in Britain every 
member of the work is covered by the defence of some 
other, and the besiegers can take no station without being 
exposed to its fire. The depression of the outworks is so 
managed that the interior of the Citadel commands every 
part around it, and the plain is so broad on the land side 
as to afford no advantage from any higher ground, while 
its gravel is so compact and solid as to make the opening 
of trenches extremely difficult. It has 4 bastions, is 
mounted by 80 cannon, and well supplied with water. 
Besides the bomb-proof apartments under the ramparts, 
the interior of the Citadel consists of handsome squares 
of barracks, elegant accommodation for the Governor and 
other officers, a spacious armoury, a secure bomb-proof 
magazine, convenient stores, and a neat chapel. It is 
sufficient for the accommodation of 3,000 men. 

It is hardly possible to contemplate the art and science 
displayed in rendering it defensible, without admiring 
the advancement in fortification since those rude ages in 
which the Capital of Asia was protected by a simple 
earthen rampart, flanked only with some towers of wood, 
and without even the security of a ditch. Homer repre- 
sents Patroclus, upon having repulsed a sortie of Trojans, 
springing lightly on the top of the wall, an action which 
the judicious bard would never have admitted upon a 
perpendicular stone wall and a broad ditch. 

The usefulness of Fort George is not now very obvious, 
great improvement has no doubt taken place in the 
manners and sentiments of the people of the country 



THE PARISH OF ARDERSIER. 317 

around, since it was first garrisoned, to which it is not 
easy to say how much it may have contributed. Con- 
sidering the state of the country at that time, its influence 
may have been considerable, but it would have been 
ineffectual still, without the free access to every quarter 
which the formation of roads has opened, the knowledge 
and new ideas which the establishment of schools has 
diffused ; to which it may be added, that the protection of 
the persons and of the substance of the common people, 
by the equal extension of the laws to every rank, hath 
produced among them a satisfaction and elevation of 
mind unknown to their ancestors, the slaves of baronial 
despotism. 

State Ecclesiastical. The Church was removed from 
the vicinity of the ground sold to Government, to the 
plain above the bank, about the year 1769. Its walls, as 
well as those of the manse, are formed of clay, without 
any stone or lime. The Burial-ground remains at the 
old station of the Church, and is also used by the people 
of the Fortress. The right of patronage appertains to 
Lord Cawdor. There is no parochial school. The num- 
ber of the poor amounts to 50 ; the money contributed in 
the Church for their support amounts to about 15 sterling 
in the year. The number of people, exclusive of the 
inhabitants of the Fort, is 802 ; there are only a few 
Seceders dissenting from the national Church. 

Miscellaneous Information. The Gaelic and English 
languages are spoken with equal readiness. 

There is a considerable village, Campbeltown, contain- 
ing about 300 inhabitants, which has been raised in con- 
sequence of the occasions of the garrison. It maintains 8 
boats, from 5 to 8 tons burden, employed in the white 
and herring fishery ; the herring are chiefly sold to 
fishing busses. Salmon are also caught in the Frith. 

On the boundary of the parish of Nairn there is a rude 
Obelisk about G feet in height, reported to have been 
erected on the grave of a Chief, who lost his life in a silly 
scuffle about a cheese.] (Survey of the Province of 
Moray.) 



318 THE VARIOUS BARONIES IN PETTIE. 

Westward on the coast is 

THE PABISH OF PETTIE 

Is pleasantly situated in a plain betwixt the Firth 
and the hills towards Strathnairn. It is in length 
from east to west near 5 miles, and in breadth 
not above 1J mile. 

The Church standeth on a rising ground, a 
furlong from the sea, almost 2 miles from the 
west end of the parish, 5 miles north-east from 
Inverness, 4 miles south-west from Ardersier, 
and near 3 miles north-west from Croy. 

The barony of Pettie was anciently a part of 
the Earldom of Moray, but upon the death of 
Earl Archibald Douglas, anno 1455, the Castles 
of Inverness and Urquhart, and the lordships of 
them, the water mails of Inverness, the Lordship 
of Abernethie, the baronies of Urquhart, Glen- 
urchan, Boneich, Bonochar, Pettie, Brachlie, and 
Strathern, with the pertinents, were annexed to 
the Crown (Act Parl. 1455). Some time after 
this the Laird of Findlater held the barony of 
Pettie of the Crown, and afterwards of the Earl 
of Moray. I find that Elizabeth, daughter of 
Sir James Dunbar of Cumnock, who died in 
1505, was married to John Ogilvie of Strathnairn 
(Pen. West/.). Ogilvie resided at Hallhill in 
Pettie. Lachlan, Laird of Macintosh, being 
murdered by some of his Clan in 1524, James, 
Earl of Moray, committed the young Laird of 



THE FORTIFIED HOUSE OF HALHILL. 319 

Macintosh (who was his nephew) to the care 
of the Laird of Strathnairn. The Macintoshes 
resented this as an indignity, demolished the 
house of Hallhill, and killed 24 of the Ogilvies 
about the year 1531 (M.S. Hist. Macintosh and 
KilravocJc). It is probable that this barbarous 
treatment induced Findlater to dispone his right 
of Strathnairn, Pettie, and Borlum, to the Earl 
of Moray. 

THE HERSHIP OF PETTY. 

[Near the west end of the Moss of Petty, and opposite 
the Dalcross Station, may be seen to the right the parish 
School-house, on a gentle rising ground, formerly said to 
have been an island, surrounded with its moat and lake. 
On it once stood the fortified House or Castle of Halhill, 
the scene of a marauding raid in 1513, called "The Her- 
ship of Petty," the spulzie taken or destroyed at which 
gives a good idea of the plenishing of a wealthy baron's 
residence in those days, and a favourable view of the 
agriculture of the district, if all the corns were of native 
growth. This hership was the work of the Mackintoshes, 
the Roses, Dallas of Cantray, Stewart of Clava, and Ross 
Kinsteary, aided by Donle More Macgilliecallum. The 
House of Pettie, called Halhill, was then occupied by 
John Ogilvie, son of the deceased Sir William Ogilvie of 
Strathearn, Knight, who is said to have obtained Petty 
from James IV., because his wife, called " Nanny Pant," 
an Englishwoman, was the first to communicate to the 
King the birth of his son, afterwards James V. The 
Mackintoshes were not likely to sympathise with this 
parental feeling, which deprived them of their ancient 
possession. They attacked the house and plundered the 
barony, root and branch. Thereafter the Lords of the 
Council decreed that all the rich "spulzie" should be 
given back and full restitution made. The plunderers, 
however, had at least three years' possession, and it is 
doubtful whether Halhill was ever again seen in its 
former glory. The Mackintoshes afterwards, in 1543, got 



320 THE THAKEDOM OF CALDER AND EASTER BRACHLIE. 

a new liferent back of Petty, and went on combating with 
their deadly enemies the Earls of Moray and Huntly 
and sill others who dared to " TOUCH THE CAT EOT A 
GLOVE" their emblazoned motto.] (See Andersons' 
Guide to the Highlands. ED.) 

In the east end of the parish is Calder's 
Brachlie, a skirt of the Thanedorn of Calder. 
Near to it is Easter Brachlie, pertaining to Kil- 
ravock. All the rest of the parish is the property 
of the Earl of Moray, except a small feu in the 
west end called Alterlies, which pertaineth to 
Forbes of Culloden. Near the Church standeth 
Castle Stewart, one of the seats of the Earl of 
Moray, but now out of repair ; and near thereto 
is a Corn-mill, set agoing by the Sea-water. 

PETTY. 

[Situation, Soil, Climate. A circuit up into the moun- 
tain and back again to the shore, through 6 parishes, has 
made no advance in the course towards the west ; for the 
parish of Petty lies next to Airdersier, in a progress up 
the Frith from the east; it extends 8 miles along the 
shore, and inland for about the half of that extent. The 
face of the country is nearly level, containing large tracts 
of cultivated h'eld, where it rises gently into the moun- 
tain ; they are separated by brooks, which in some places 
fall over the rocks in natural cascades ; and, besides tufts 
of trees almost at every farmhouse, the Earl of Moray's 
plantations of fir, and oak, and other forest trees, in 
different places, have clothed more than 500 acres, which 
about 20 years ago were bleak and barren heath. The 
soil in part is a fertile black mould, but the greater pro- 
portion of it is sandy and light, yet capable of being 
cultivated to good account by grass seed and the other 
green crops. Although the ground is rather flat, there 
are no marshes nor stagnate water. The air is generally 
serene, and the climate dry, the crops being frequently 
damaged by drought in the summer months. 



CASTLE STEWART, PARISH OF PETTIE. 321 

State of Property. The parish, in the Sheriffdom of 
Inverness, except a small spot in the county of Nairn, is 
possessed by 4 proprietors, of whom the Earl of Moray 
has the valued rent of 2423 10s. Arthur Forbes of 
Culloden, Esq., 441 15s. James Rose of Brea, Esq., 
157 3s. And Lord Cawdor 120, extending the valued 
rent of the parish to the sum of 3142 8s. 

Castle Stewart, a large old building on the Earl of 
Moray's property, has been for many years uninhabitable. 
It is surrounded by an extensive grove, which shelters a 
spacious garden and orchard, distinguished by varieties of 
strawberiy and a species of small cherry, the black and 
red geen, transplanted from Kent about a century ago by 
Alexander Earl of Moray. 

The number of farmers is not less than 90, of whom .5 
or 4 pay from 60 to 100 of rent ; the greater part only 
vary from 20 to 25. There are several below 10. 
And besides these, a number of still smaller tenants are 
planted as improvers of waste ground, with cottagers, 
who are labourers and mechanics, and as many fishers as 
man 3 boats. The greater part of the land is let from 
12s. to 14s. the acre, some of the best as high as 1, and 
some as low as os., making the mean rent about 14s. the 
acre. 

State Ecclesiastical. The Church is inconveniently 
placed on a spot almost detached from the parish, near 
the manse, on an eminence rising from the head of a 
small bay which sets in from the Frith, The stipend is 
30 sterling, and 78 bolls of barley and meal. The glebe 
is about 10 acres of poor light soil. The Earl of Moray 
holds the right of patronage. The school is in a pretty 
central situation, about half a mile from the Church. 
The salary is 12 bolls of oatmeal, collected in small but 
various proportions from among all the tenants. The 
scholars are numerous, but with the fees and official per- 
quisites as Session-Clerk, the whole appointment exceeds 
not 20 sterling yearly. The poor are not numerous, 
owing to the great and increasing scarcity of fuel, but the 
country is much infested with beggar vagabonds from 
other parishes. The provision for the parochial poor is 
contributed in the assemblies of public worship; it 
amounts to about G yearly. The number of inhabitants 
is 1518, of which a few are Dissenter Antiburghers. 

VOL. II. 21 



322 PARISHES OF PETTIE AND INVERNESS. 

Miscellaneous Information. The inhabitants are 
sober, industrious, and peaceable. They have frequent 
convivial meetings, where, after spending some hours 
cheerfully, they part in a friendly manner. Drinking to 
excess and quarrelling are accounted reproachful, and 
those addicted to these are avoided. They show attach- 
ments to old fashions ; the plaid is the only part of the 
Highland dress which is generally laid aside, but the 
women have adopted more of the dress of their sex in the 
low country than the men. About 40 years ago there 
were oysters in this part of the Frith, but, one small spot 
excepted, they are now entirely gone. The water is 
shallow near the shore, and the sea retires to a great 
distance. There are places where a commodious harbour 
for the smaller vessels might be made at little expense. 
There are 4 corn-mills in the parish, one is turned by the 
flux and reflux of the tide. There are 2 earthen mounts 
near the Church, evidently artificial ; they are composed 
of sand enclosed in a cover of sod, exactly circular, con- 
tracted gradually from the base, 150 feet in circumfer- 
ence, to the top only 120, perfectly level at the height of 
42 feet. Their name, TOM MHOIT, the Court Hill, imports 
they were intended for the administration of justice.] 
(Survey of the Province of Moray.) 

Next to Pettie, westward, is 

THE TOWN AND PARISH OF INVERNESS. 

The town standeth on the east hank of the 
Kiver Ness, a little above the mouth of it. It 
consisteth of two streets, cutting one another, 
from south to north and from east to west. The 
buildings are good and convenient, all of stone. 
In one of the angles, at the intersection of the 
streets, standeth the ( Tolbooth and Court House, 
adorned with a lofty steeple and a clock ; and in 
an opposite angle is the Town House, a large 
building of modern work. The Churches stand 



CROMWELL'S FORT; WOODEN BRIDGE, INVERNESS. 323 

1 __^_____^__ 

on the. river bank at the north end of the town, 
and near to them is Dunbar's Hospital, a large 
house with a garden, mortified by Provost Alex. 
Dunbar. Below the Churches is the harbour, 
which receive th merchant ships, but standeth too 
open to the strong west wind, and close by the 
harbour are the vestiges of Cromwell's Fort. In 
the middle of the town is the Bridge, of seven 
arches and beautiful architecture, with a prison- 
room in one of the pillars. Formerly there stood 
here a bridge of wood, supported by pillars of 
oak, some of which are yet to be seen. It fell on 
the 28th September, 1664, and though more than 
a hundred persons who stood on it dropt all into 
the river no life was lost (M.S. Hist, of Lovat). 
The present Bridge was finished about the year 
1686. Several gentlemen contributed liberally 
for it, and by an Act of Privy Council there was 
a collection for it through the Diocese. The 
Council's Act and Eecommendation was for a 
general collection throughout the whole king- 
dom, and no doubt brought in a considerable 
sum. Sir Hugh Campbell of Calder gave 400 
Scots, the Laird of MacLeod 800, the Ministers 
of the Diocese of Moray ,500 (Syn. Reg.). 
Others likewise contributed liberally. On the 
west bank of the river there is a large suburbs of 
two streets, and a little above the town there is 
a pleasant little Island in the river, where the 
magistrates entertain strangers with salmon 



324 EARLIEST CHARTERS OF INVERNESS. 



killed in their presence with spears. The town 
is very populous, and the houses being too much 
crowded, and the streets narrow, under the 
Castlehill and Barnhill the air is thick and moist. 
The parish lieth on both sides of the river. 
On the west side it extendeth 8 miles and on the 
east 4 miles. The town standeth 5 miles south- 
west from Pettie, 5 miles almost east from Kirk- 
hill, 5 miles north from Durris, and 4 miles west- 
by-north from Daviot. The town lands lie 
adjacent to it (Vide Civ. Hist.'), and the countiy 
parish is full of gentlemen's seats. 

[Inverness, like other of our Scotch towns, owes its 
origin, at a very early date, to its convenient situation as 
a sea-port, and to its river, being likewise admirably 
situated, as the centre of a large district, and opening 
easily to both the Lowlands and the Mountainous circle 
by which it is surrounded. Its earliest charters are from 
David, William the Lion, and Alexander. In the latter 
the King orders the town to be surrounded by a ditch 
and good paling (fossa et bona palicio); and, by the 
privileges which are granted to the Moravians (Moravi- 
enses Mei), it seems evident that the monarch meant to 
colonise Inverness with his low country subjects, probably 
for the purpose of civilizing the barbarians of the High- 
lands. This plan has, probably, been aided by the estab- 
lishment of Religious Houses in the town. As early as 
the reign of Alexander II., 1215, a Royal grant is recorded 
in the Chartulary of Moray to that Bishoprick of the 
barony of Kinmylies, which remained with it till 1544, 
when Bishop Patrick Hepburn sold it to Lord Lovat. In 
the same reign there is an entry in the Chartulary of 
these words " Thane et firmarii suppositure Kinmylies," 
which Lord Hales quotes, in order to prove that, anciently, 
the term Thane meant not always Comes or Count, but 
the head-director of a district or barony. About 1280, 
the Count of St. Pol, being wrecked in the Orkneys, 



ANCIENT COINS AND AN AMULET FOUND. 325 



passed the winter in Inverness, and built a ship in Inver- 
ness in which he returned to France the succeeding 
summer. 

Long before this period the Castle of Invei'ness (pro- 
bably situated where the foundations of buildings have 
been lately dug up, upon the hill, near the Mill Burn, 
called the Auld Castle Hill) was celebrated as the place 
where, early in the llth century, Macbeth murdered King 
Duncan. In these ruins several ancient coins were found, 
and a leaden amulet perforated with a leather cord, which 
is now at Muirtown. The amulet bears two keys crossed 
saltire ways, and the letter I between the handles of the 
keys. The Battle of Clachnahary [the Watchman's Stone], 
fought, by different accounts, in 1341 and 1378 (Shaw 
makes it in 1454, quoting the Macintosh and Lovat 
manuscripts), was a bloody contest between the Clan 
Chattan and Munroes, about a mile west of Inverness. 
Many human bones have been found among the rocks ; 
and the proprietor of Muirtown, in 1822, has ornamented 
the spot by erecting a handsome Monument in memory 
of the event. In 1411, Donald of the Isles burnt the 
greatest part of Inverness and the beautiful Oak Bridge 
in his march to Harlow. James I., about 1440, in his 
progress, visited Inverness, and had many desperate 
robbers seized and executed. His exclamation upon the 
occasion is recorded: "Ad turrim fortem caute duce 
cohortem Christi per Sortem Quia hi meruent mortem." * 

Towards the end of the loth century, the town was 
visited by James III. during his troubles, and he granted 
a charter to the community; among other grants renewing 
that of the lands of Merkinch for the redendum of one 
pound of pepper annually. In 1555 Mary of Guise visited 
Inverness, and in 1562 her daughter, Queen Mary, paid a 
visit of some short continuance. The Governor of the 
Castle making some delay in receiving the Queen was 
hanged upon the bridge, which circumstance seems to 
have had little effect upon the Queen's gaiety, for Ran- 
dolph writes, that he was present when the guards came 
into town with Jack and knapsack, and the Queen being 
informed that they had been watching all night in the 

* Translation. By a cautious leader, a strong band, through 
the providence of Christ, brought quietly to the Tower, for 
they deserved death. 



326 CASTLE OF CALLODEN ; CITADEL OF INVERNESS. 

fields, she said merrily that she wished she had been with 
them. A few years after this, the Regent Moray came to 
Inverness, and the chief of the Clan Gunn was hanged for 
"taking the Crown of the causeway from the Earl of 
Moray." In 1625 the town of Inverness suffered much 
oppression by the heavy fines levied upon many of the 
merchants by the Earl of Moray, acting under a commis- 
sion from the King. The cause was their having furnished 
some small articles, such as salt and soap, to the Clan 
Chattan, at that time in rebellion. Mr. Forbes of Cul- 
loden, by going to London, got the inhabitants some 
redress, as appears by the Papers published in the Cul- 
loden Collection. 

The Castle of Culloden, long the chief building in the 
parish, was founded about 1624 by Macintosh, who, about 
1625, sold the estate to Mr. Forbes. Early in the 17th 
century, the Earl of Huntly, Lord Lovat, and many of the 
northern chiefs residing in Inverness, that town became 
the centre of much conviviality and gaiety, which was 
succeeded by a long period of military troubles during 
the contests between the Royal and Covenant parties, in 
the reign of Charles I. During the early part of Crom- 
well's government, the person whom he sent to survey 
the sea-ports of Scotland (1651) reports Inverness as 
possessing but little shipping, and but one merchant of 
any consequence. 

In 1652 Cromwell commenced the Citadel of Inverness, 
and it was finished in 5 years. This work is said to have 
cost 80,000 sterling. The oak came from England. The 
Religious Houses of Kinloss and Inverness were dilapi- 
dated for the mason work, and Struy is said to have 
received 30,000 merks for the fir timber. Upon the 
ramparts the standard of Cromwell was erected, having 
the word EMANUEL in large gold letters. This work was 
a small pentagon, with counterscarp, covered way and 
glacis, surrounded at full tide with water sufficient to 
float a small barge. The breastwork was three storeys 
high, all of hewn stone, and lined with brick inside. The 
sally-port lay towards the town. The principal gateway 
was to the north, where was a strong drawbridge of oak 
and a stately structure over it, with this motto, TOGAM 
TUENTUR ARMA Awis presei've the Gown. 

From this bridge the Citadel was approached by a 



VAULT IN THE TIMBER BRIDGE OF INVERNESS. 327 

vault 70 feet long, with seats on each side. In the centre 
of the Fort stood a large square building, three storeys 
high, the lower storey contained the granary and magazine. 
In the highest was a church, well finished, within a 
pavilion roof, surmounted by a steeple with a clock and 
four bells. At the south-east stood a long building, four 
storeys high, called " the English Building," because built 
by English masons, and opposite to it a similar one 
erected by Scottish architects. The accommodations 
altogether would lodge 1,000 men. So abundant were the 
provisions and supplies of the garrison that a Scots pint 
of claret was sold for a shilling, and cloth was bought as 
cheap as in England. Upon the Restoration, Charles II. 
gratified the Highland Chiefs by having it dismantled, in 
which state it still shows its original dimensions. 

In 1664 the Timber Bridge of Inverness suddenly fell, 
and was, in three years thereafter, replaced by the present 
stone bridge of seven arches, a work, certainly, of great 
magnificence for that period. A narrow and dismal vault 
between the first and second arches from the east end, 
lighted by a little grated window on the upper side of 
the bridge, was long used as a prison, and latterly as a 
place for confinement of lunatics. It was shut up in 1800 
on account of a maniac having been almost devoured 
by rats. 

In 1665 the townsmen suffered much oppression from 
the Macdonalds, which was repeated after the abdication 
of James II. in 1689. In 1690 the last wolf known to 
have been seen at large in this kingdom was killed above 
the House of Kinmylies, about a mile and a half from 
Inverness. Captain Frank, one of Cromwell's officers, 
probably in a lurking expedition, after the Restoration, 
came to Inverness; he describes the Citadel as a veiy 
superb work. The walls which fortified the town, he 
says, were then tumbling into ruin ; and the soldiers of 
General Dean had, during Cromwell's time, drawn the 
first galley from the river at Inverness overland to the 
end of Loch Ness, an exertion worthy of the energy of 
the soldiers of Cromwell. From this period Inverness 
became the regular place of arms in the north. 

At the commencement of the operations for the Royal 
succession in 1715, the town of Inverness was first seized 
for the Jacobite interest by the exertions of Alexander 



328 ELECTION OF THE TWO FORTS GEORGE. 

Duff of Drummuir, who introduced his son-in-law, the 
Laird of Macintosh, into the town at the head of his clan ; 
and the Magistrates being much under Druminuir's influ- 
ence, he having been Member of Parliament and Provost 
for Inverness, seemed strongly on the side of the Stuart 
dynasty. The exertions of Culloden and Kilravock, aided 
by Lord Lovat, however, were effectual in recovering this 
important post for the King (George the First), though 
not without some contest and bloodshed. The Castle was 
soon afterwards much augmented and repaired, and 
received the name of Fort George, which it retained till 
blown up after the Battle of Culloden ; soon after which 
event the present fort of that name was erected upon the 
promontory of Ardersier, the Magistrates having refused 
their consent to the erection near Inverness, an act of 
folly which indisputably deprived the town of the means 
of beauty and riches, which would have rendered it one 
of the most elegant and imposing capitals in the kingdom. 
Thus its two ancient Castles are no more, and its Citadel, 
erected by Cromwell, only faintly shows its original 
outlines, while their present succedaneum is too far 
removed to add to the appearance and importance of 
Inverness. 

Captain Carleton describes it about 1 690 and Captain 
Burt about 1730-8. The latter states that, at the Union, 
few houses in the town were slated. The Castle was 
repaired and augmented, being then, and long before this 
period, situated upon the small hill close to the river; 
and although his description of the natives is by no 
means calculated to please the pride of the Invernessians, 
still the evident truth of his narrative must disarm even 
prejudice of its anger. 

During the Rebellion in 1745, the town of Inverness 
was the chief scene of the exertions of both parties, and 
for some time the residence of Prince Charles and the 
Duke of Cumberland, who both successively occupied the 
same bed in the house of Catherine Duff, Lady Drummuir, 
in Church Street. It was almost the only house in the 
town in which there was a room without a bed. This 
old lady used to say "that she had lodged twa kings' 
bairns, but never wish'd to lodge any more." The exer- 
tions of that great man, President Forbes, and Lord 
Lovat, were long the themes of the narratives of the 



VITRIFIED FORT OF CRAIG PHADRICK, INVERNESS. 329 

persons who were witnesses of the different actions of 
these persons at Inverness. 

From the Union till many years after the Battle of 
Culloden the town was evidently in a state of progressive 
decay, but for the last 40 or 50 years a new stimulus has 
been given. The parish and town have started into new 
life, and display on every side the effects of wealth, 
industry, and liberality of enterprise. The journey to 
Edinburgh, which used to consume a week, and to guard 
.against the accidents of which people have made their 
Wills, is now performed in a day. Elegant architecture 
on every side adds to the natural beauties of the situation 
of the town, and the great Canal promises, by joining the 
Eastern and Western Oceans at Inverness, to make it in 
-a short time the Queen of the North, and the emporium 
of many a distant shore. 

Of antiquities, the town contains but few worthy of 
notice. The Grey Friars had a slated house here, sold, at 
the Reformation, to Inches ; one pillar of the Grey Friars 
Church alone remains. About the vitrified Fort of Craig 
Phadrick much has been written. It is situated upon the 
estate of Muirtown, above a mile west of the town, and 
has evidently been a stronghold, containing an area of 
about 80 yards by 40, for the purpose of communicating 
signals by means of fires. It is at about equal distance 
from Knockfarril, Dunevan, and Dungardel, which are all 
in view from the top. The vitrified masses are evidently 
the deposits of the walls for retaining the burning wood, 
for as no vitrified masses are found in situations where 
such means of constructing walls might from their greater 
weakness be more naturally expected, it is not probable 
that such means of strength would be contemplated for 
the tops of hills. The Romans left the kingdom without 
arms or energy, and, during the long night of eight 
centuries after their retreat, the miserable natives had to 
suffer the constant descents of the northern tribes, and 
had their safety alone to look to, from being early apprized 
of the appearance of their fleets. Many bones and burnt 
wood have been, by the proprietor, dug up upon Craig 
Phadrick. 

Castle Spinitan is a ruin, situated upon a small pro- 
montory, near the end of Loch Ness. This Castle has 
been supposed the remains of the Roman station Bonatium, 



330 SILVER COINS FOUND NEAR GREY FRIARS' HOUSE. 



which the name of Bona (its present appellation) seems 
to countenance, as well as the form of the ditches and 
agger. It has, however, more modernly been one of those 
forts which formed a line of defence from the Eastern to 
the Western Seas ; and with Lochindorb Castle, Inver- 
ness, Castle Spinitan, Castle Urquhart, and Inverlochty 
Castle, the communication was easy and straight. The 
Cummins and the English, after the invasion of Edward I.,. 
occupied the strongholds. 

Of Druidical Circles, there are several in the parish. 
About 20 years ago a double-linked silver chain (each 
link as thick as a man's little finger) was dug up in the 
progress of making the Caledonian Canal, near the Bught. 
It contained about 15 double links, and this curiosity has 
at last been decided to form part of a dog couple 
certainly the property of some personage Royal, or little 
below the rank of Royalty. 

A gold trilateral rod, 15 inches long, and with hooks 
at each end, has been found lately upon the lands of 
Leys in ploughing some new lands. This has, probably, 
been the means of suspending a lamp, and if the value of 
gold and silver is considered in the olden times, these 
ancient remains of splendour must attest the rank of the 
persons residing in Inverness. 

About 3 years ago several hundreds of silver coins 
were found in a jar near the site of the ancient Grey 
Friars' House they were of the reigns of Henry III., 
Edward I., and some other kings nearly contemporary, 
and have probably been concealed at some period of 
sudden alarm, and through some casualty have been forgot. 

A gold coin of Edward III. has been found near Dunain, 
and is now at Muirton. The arms of France and England 
are quartered upon one side ; upon the other is a Cross, 
with four Leopards ; in the angles, Exaltat gloria crucem. 

At the Bught (Killivean) many bones and the stone- 
head of a battle-axe were dug up about 40 years ago. 

Although Boethius speaks highly of the fruitful soil 
and wheat crops near Inverness, Mr. Burt gives the most 
miserable view of the state of agriculture in his time, and 
says a wheat field would be as great a rarity in the north 
as a Cat-a-Mountain (or Mountain Cat) in Middlesex. 
At present the crops are as plentiful, and the seasons as 
early, in Inverness parish as anywhere north of Tweed, 



THE HOUSE OF CULLODEN AND ITS PROPRIETOES. 331 

and as much so as a great part of England. Peaches r 
nectarines, apricots, and all wall- plants, ripen in the 
greatest perfection, so that many have remarked those 
fruits as superior to any not ripened by means of hot- 
houses which they had seen in more southern climates a 
fact, probably, owing to the great length of the action of 
the sun during the long days of summer in the north. 
The Gardens of Culloden, Muirtown, Dochfourne, Drakies, 
Bught, and many others, are remarkable for fine and early 
fruit of the finest kinds. In short, from the great liber- 
ality of Government, and from the expenditure of indi- 
viduals, this Northern Capital is on the eve of emerging 
with a consequence and grandeur hitherto beyond the 
reach of the most sanguine hopes.] (See Grant's Edition 
of Shaw's History of Moray ; and Editor.) 

On the east side of the river, 2 miles north- 
east of the town is Culloden, a good old house, 
gardens well laid out, with much planting, which 
make it an agreeable seat. This land belonged 
to a gentleman of the name of Strachan, who 
married the daughter of Hugh Rose of Kilravock 
that died anno 1543. Of that marriage there 
were only two daughters portioners, and the 
Laird of Macintosh purchased from them and 
their hushands the rights of that barony. Mac- 
intosh built a part of the House of Culloden, and 
his successor sold the barony about the year 
1626 to (1) Duncan Forbes, son of Tolquhon and 
Provost of Inverness, whose son (2) John of 
Culloden, purchased Fairentosh and Bunchrive 
anno 1673. His son (3) Duncan, was father of 
(4) John, who had no issue, and of Duncan, Lord 
President of the Session, who died the 10th 
December, 1747. His son (5) John has left (6) 



332 DRAKIES; INCHES; ESSICH; COULDUTHIL, ETC. 

Arthur, now of Culloden. Of this family is 
Forbes of Pitnacrief. 

South-west is Easter Drakies, the property of 
Hugh Falconer, merchant in Inverness ; and 
Wester Drakies, pertaining to the estate which 
belonged to Cuthbert of Castlehill, both holding 
of the town of Inverness. Next is the barony of 
Castlehill. In the reign of King David II., 
Susanna and Adda were sisters and heiresses of 
Castlehill, and a gentleman of the name of 
Cuthbert marrying Susanna, became thereby 
Baron of Castlehill (MS. Hist, of Kilr.). From 
that time the Cuthberts have been in possession 
of these lands. 

Further is the barony of Inches, the first of 
which family was a son of Eobertson of Strowan, 
who married the widow of Cuthbert of Castlehill 
about 1548, and his son became Laird of Inches, 
which was a part of the barony of Castlehill. 
Arthur Eobertson of Inches now represents the 
family. 

The lands of Essich are the farthest south, and 
are a part of Macintosh's estate. Below Essich 
towards the river are Coulduthil, Knocknagial, 
and Torbreak, all Castle lands. Torbreak was 
the property of Captain William Baillie, and by 
a judicial sale in 1758, became the property of 
Doctor James Frazer, son of Phopachie. And 
on the side of the river is Holm, this is the fief 
of Alexander Macintosh of Holm, a branch of 



MARKINCH; MUIKTOWN; KYLMILES ; DUNEAN. 333 

the family of Kylachie, who have possessed this 
small estate ever since the year 1614, and hold it 
mainly of Campbell of Calder. 

I pass now to the west side of the River Ness. 
At the mouth of it is Markinch. This for 150 
years was the property of Eose of Wester Drakies 
and his descendants, and has lately been purchased 
in a judicial sale by James Frazer of Phopachie. 
Next is the barony of Muirtown, a part of the 
estate of Lovat, sold about the year 1620 to 
Thomas Skivez for 2,000 merks Scots (MS. Hist, 
of Lovat). His descendants lately sold it to Sir 
Ludowick Grant of Grant, who disponed it to 
William Duff, third son of Alexander Duff of 
Drummuir. Farther south is Kylmiles, a part, 
of the Bishop's lands of Orkney, purchased by 
Thomas, Lord Lovat, from Bishop William 
Tulloch about the year 1464. It was afterwards 
sold to Colonel Hugh Frazer of Kinerries, who 
disponed it to Mr. David Poison. From him it 
was purchased by Alexander Frazer (son of David 
Frazer Baillie of Inverness) of Fairfield, who 
lately sold it to George Ross of Pitkerries, mer- 
chant in London. Next up the river is the barony 
of Dunean. This family has enjoyed this barony 
about 300 years. The first of it was a son of 
Baillie of Hoprig and Lamington, who, for his 
brave behaviour as a volunteer in the Battle of 
Brechin, anno 1452, was soon after rewarded by 
the Earl of Huntly with this and other lands, a 



334 DOCHGARACH ; DOCHFOURE ; ABERIACHAN. 



part of the Castle lands of Inverness. South of 
Dunean is Dochgarach, the property for some 
generations of a branch of the MacLeans. Next 
to which is Dochfoure, pertaining to Baillie of 
Dochfoure, a branch of the family of Dunean. 
The very upper end of the parish is Aberiachan, 
in the face of the hill, at the side of Loch Ness. 
This is a part of the barony of Urquhart, pertain- 
ing to Sir James Grant of Grant, of whom Ewan 
Baillie, son of Dochfoure, holdeth it in mortgage. 
Following the course of the river, I now come to 

THE PARISH OF DUERIS, 

From Dur, i.e. water, because the parish lieth 
on the side of the river and the Loch of Ness. 

Before I proceed further, I shall shew the 
course of the River Ness ; and if we trace it to 
its fountain, we shall find the springs of it in the 
hills of Knoidart, and its course thus : to Loch 
Queich, 4 miles; Loch Queich, 7; to Loch Garie, 
9 ; Loch Garie, 5 ; to Loch Eoich, 2. All this 
course is from west to east, and Garie falleth into 
the middle of Loch Eoich, which is 4 miles long; 
so to the end of Loch Eoich, 2 miles ; to Loch 
Ness, 4 ; length of Loch Ness, 22 ; to Inverness, 
5 : in all 60 miles. The course from Loch Eoich 
is from S.S.W. to N;N.E.; from the Moray Firth 
at Inverness, to Fort William, is one continued 
valley of 48 Scots miles, running from N.N.E. 
to S.S.W. , without any bending, except that it 



..;.. SITUATION OF THE PARISH OF DURRIS. 335 

turneth one point towards the west, from Loch 
Lochie to Fort William. It is called Glean-mor- 
na-halben, i.e. the great valley of Scotland. Loch 
Ness lieth in this valley, and is in length about 
23 English miles ; at the north end it is 3 miles 
broad, and thence gradually tapereth, so that at 
the south end it is not 2 miles broad. It has no 
bending, no bay, except a small one at Urquhart. 
The high hills on both sides, are so variegated 
with hanging rocks, shady groves of wood, mur- 
muring cascades, and streams of water, and some 
plots of corn land, that, to one who sails the 
loch in the summer season, they present a most 
charming landscape. 

This parish extendeth about 6 miles from north 
to south, and as much from east to west. The 
Church standeth at the north-east corner of the 
loch, 5 miles south of Inverness, 7 miles north of 
Bolesken, and 6 miles south-west of Daviot. The 
lower and champaign part of the parish compre- 
hendeth the baronies of Borlum and Durris. 
Above Inverness, 3 miles on the river, is Borlum. 
This was a part of the estate of the Earl of 
Moray ; and after the forfeiture of Earl Archibald 
Douglas, the Laird of Findlater obtained this 
barony and held it of the Crown, and his son 
was designed Ogilvie of Cardale. Findlater con- 
veyed his right to Stewart Earl of Moray, and 
Earl James disponed " Borlum cum Fortalicio, 
with the fishing on the Eiver Ness, the lands of 



336 BORLUM ; KINCHYLE ; IN THE PARISH OF DURRIS. 



Coulard and Kinchyle, the Loch of Lochindorb r 
the houses within the same, cum adjacentibu^ 
shelingis, to Sir John Campbell of Calder, 31st 
October, 1606 (Pen. Cald.)." Borlum was there- 
after given in feu to William Macintosh of Bor- 
lum. The barony of Borlum, was feued by Shaw 
Macintosh, late of Borlum, to his cousins Wil- 
liam and Angus Macintoshes, Bailies of Inver- 
ness, but redeemable by him in a certain term of 
years. At the expiring of that term, the barony 
was brought to a public sale, and was purchased 
by Simon Fraser, merchant in Gibraltar, son to 
John Fraser (MacTavish), late merchant in In- 
verness, who lately sold the lands to John Fraser r 
Writer to the Signet, his brother. Kinchyle 
lying south of Borlum, was, in 1685, feued to 
William MacBean, whose ancestors had the 
Duchus or possession thereof for many genera- 
tions. .Tradition beareth, that Bean-mor, son 
of Maolmuir MacGilonie, of the ancient Clan 
Chattan, came to this country with Lad}* Macin- 
tosh, heiress of Clan Chattan, soon after the 
year 1291, and was the ancestor and chief of the 
MacBeans, now represented by the son of Giliose 
MacBean, who was killed in the Battle of Cul- 
loden anno 1746. 

Next thereto, and on the loch, is the barony of 
Durris. This was a part of the estate of Sir 
Alexander Dunbar of Westfield, "who disponed 
Durris, half of Holm, Little Bellacheranich, 



BAEONY OF DURRIS ; AULDARIE; DRUMMIN ; ERCHIT. 337 

Tirchirochan, and Dalmigvie in Strathern, in 
favour of his son David Dunbar, 27th October, 
1495 ; and, by a charter under the Great Seal, 
17th December, 1569, these lands were erected 
into a free barony, of which Lopan (the seat of 
the family) was the principal messuage. Like- 
wise, Alexander Earl of Dunfermline sold the 
Kirk lands of Durris (a part of the lands of the 
priory of Urquhart), to Mark Dunbar anno 1592, 
reserving the patronage and teinds; and Mark 
Dunbar disponed the whole barony to Sir John 
Campbell of Calder, 4th August, 1608, who, in 
1610, purchased from Dunfermline the patronage 
of Dalcross, and the patronage and teinds of 
Durris." (Pen. Cald.). 

Durris and Auldaurie were sold by Calder in 
feu to Macintosh of Kylachie, who conveyed his 
right to Bailie John Barbour, of Inverness, whose 
son disponed in favour of William Eraser, writer 
in Edinburgh, and son of Balnaine. 

South of the Church are the lands of Drummin, 
possessed long by the MacBeans, and now the 
property of Angus Macintosh, merchant in Inver- 
ness, and grandson to Borlum. 

Next thereto, is Erchit, the property of the 
said William Eraser, writer in Edinburgh. In 
the hilly part of the parish, are the lands of 
Bochrubin, Dundelchag, &c., pertaining to Mac- 
intosh, and other lands, a part of the estate of 

Lovat. 

VOL. ii. 22 



338 STATE OF PROPERTY IN THE PARISH OF DURRIS. 



DURRIS. 

[Situation, Soil, Climate. This parish extends along 
the river and lake of Ness, from the borders of the parish 
of Inverness, about 20 miles, to that of Boleskin. Its 
Gaelic name, dar-uish, awkwardly expresses its situation, 
signifying water of water the river of or from the lake. 
Its eastern side borders with Daviot and Dunlighty, and 
its breadth is nearly 4 miles. It may in general be 
regarded as a valley, between mountains upon the south 
and north. By this situation, the winds are for the 
greater part from the west or the east; and in dry 
summers, did not heavy dews commonly fall during the 
night of a warm day, the corn and grass would be quite 
parched. The soil is generally light: in some parts of 
the higher grounds it is the best ; and in seasons free of 
frost or very frequent rains, it is very productive. The 
air is esteemed salubrious. The lake of Dandlechak, as 
well as that of Lochness, is partly within the bounds of 
this parish. 

State of Property. The parish is shared among 8 
proprietors. Mr. Fraser Tytler, advocate, has Balnain, at 
the valuation of 880 6s. 8d. Alexander Fraser, of Dell, 
Esq., has the valuation of 90 10s. lOd. James Fraser, 
of Gortuleg, Esq., Writer to the Signet, that of 59 18s. Id. 
Simon Fraser, of Farralin, Esq., 59 16s. Simon Fraser, 
Esq., of Coleman Street, London, 533 6s. 8d. The valu- 
ation of the Lovat estate in this parish is 392 9s. od. 
.dilneas Mackintosh of Mackintosh, Esq., holds the valu- 
ation of 90, and David Davidson, of Cantray, Esq., that 
of 73 15s., extending the total valuation of the parish to 
2180 2s. 8d. 

State Ecclesiastical. The Church and Manse are situ- 
ated towards the middle of the parish, upon the end of 
the lake of Ness, near where it begins to discharge the 
river. The stipend is 40 sterling, 24 bolls of barley, and 
24 bolls of oatmeal. The right of patronage appertains 
to Lord Cawdor. The school is not flourishing: the 
salary is 5 11s., and the number of scholars about 20. 
The poor amount to the number of 60 : about 4 yearly 
is contributed by the people in their assemblies for public 
worship ; to which there is the farther provision of the 
interest of 70, bequeathed by gentlemen once landholders 



THE FATHER OF OSSIAN ; THE CHAIR OF FINGAL. 339 

of the parish. The number of the people amounts to 
1365, of whom a very small proportion are distinguished 
as Dissenters. 

Miscellaneous Information. The memorial of the 
thraldom and incursions of the Danes is still preserved 
in this country, as well as on the coast of Moray. About 
3 miles inward from Loch Ness, the vestiges of a For- 
tress, known by the appellation of Chastal dun ri-chuan 
(the strong Castle of the King of the Ocean), reminds us, 
that Britannia did not always rule the waves, but that 
the kings of Norway and Denmark once assumed the 
title of the Masters of the Sea ; and suggests the hum- 
bling speculation of the rank we should now hold among 
nations, were times such as these to return. Yet these 
were the times when the heroes of Morven moved in 
their strength; when the King of Selma shone in the 
brightest robe of renown. Their tombs still rise on the 
heath : their fame still rests on the stones. Here fought 
the father of Ossian ; and here fell the son of the Norwe- 
gian king. Many piles of stone mark the dark dwellings 
of the slain : one, larger than the rest together, rises over 
their youthful chief: his name, Ashee, transferred to the 
adjoining hill, is still recognised in Drumash ; and Sheire 
fiann (the chair of Fingal) is shown as the seat of that 
hero, when the roar of battle ceased along the heath, when 
he retired from the strife of the field. 

About 9 miles from Dun-Ri-Chuan, another Fortress, 
Dundaradel, is recognized as one of that chain of strong 
holds, which the state of society then required, for trans- 
mitting telegraphing signals from the one shore to the 
other along the great vale, from the German Ocean at 
Inverness to the Atlantic at Fort William. 

The people now, with very few exceptions, live in 
peaceful industry. The deer and roe still bound over the 
desert, and herd in the extensive plantations of fir, in 
which the lower part of the parish is clothed. But oats, 
barley, and potatoe, are the principal productions of the 
soil : upon the last of these, the poorer class in a great 
measure depend for their frugal subsistence.] (Survey of 
the Province of Moray.} 



340 SIGNIFICATION OF BOLESKIN. 

BOLE SKIN PARISH. 

The parish of Boleskin and Abertarf, which 
lieth on the east side, and the south end of the 
loch. Boleskin parish (Baloscian, i. e., the town 
over the Loch, for the Church standeth on the 
face of the hill, over the Loch Ness) is properly 
Stratherik, or StrathfarigacJc, scattered in the 
valleys betwixt Loch Ness and the hills towards 
Badenoch. The Church standeth near the 
Loch, 7 miles south of Durris, and 12 north of 
Kilhuiman. 

Here entering the country of the Frasers, I 
shall speak of 

THE FAMILY OF LOVAT. 

I shall not attempt to assign the origin, or to 
determine the antiquity of the name of Fraser. 
Some would fetch the Frasers from Frieseland, 
and it favours this conjecture that, in ancient 
writings, they are called Frisele, in Irish Frise- 
lech, and not Fraser. Others bring them from 
France as early as the reign of Charlemagne r 
and derive the name from the French, Frasier, a 
strawberry plant. But passing these conjectures, 
I may say with Buchanan, that in Scotland they 
were right early, " Gens numerossima, et de re 
Scotica bene merita." 

The late Lord Lovat caused publish in Nisbet's 
Heraldry, Vol. II., an account of his family. 



THE FAMILY OF FRASER OF LOVAT. 341 

" disclaiming his ancestor's marriage with a 
daughter of Bisset of Lovat, and affirming that 
Sir Simon Fraser (who was executed in London 
after the battle of Methven, anno 1307) had a 
son, Simon, that was killed at Haledon-hill, anno 
1333, leaving a son Hugh, who got the Barony 
of Lovat from King David II., and the 3 Crowns, 
as Arms of Concession." But this wholly un- 
vouched account will not bear a trial. It is 
uncertain if the great Sir Simon had a son ; and 
if he had, he certainly left no issue, for the 
families of Tweedale and Wigtoun quarter the 
Frasers' arms, because their ladies (daughters of 
Sir Simon) were co-heiresses, which they could 
not be if their brother had issue and succession. 
Besides, it cannot be instructed that the Barony 
of Lovat was in the King's gift ; nay, the con- 
trary is apparent from Char. Morav. and the MS. 
Hist, of the Family of KilravocJc. Nor were the 
3 Crowns Arms of Concession. Lovat's striking 
them out shows that he considered them as the 
Arms of Bisset, with whom he disclaimed a con- 
nection, for had they been a royal Concession, 
they ought to possess the first place in the Field, 
as the most honourable. Lovat's apparent de- 
sign was to establish a right of Chieftainry in his 
family, which no history or genealogy I have 
seen will admit. 

I incline to think that Sir Simon of Tweedale 
or Oliver-castle, called Simon Pater by Mr. 



342 LORD SALTON, CHIEF OF THE CLAN LOVAT. 

Eymer, William Bishop of St Andrews, and 
Gilbert Sheriff of Traquair (Reg. Kelso) were 
brothers. Simon Pater, son of Bernard, is al- 
lowed to have been Chief of the name, and had 
two sons, viz. Sir Simon and Sir Alexander (Life 
of King Robert Bruce). Sir Simon was put to 
death, and his daughters were married as above 
mentioned. Sir Alexander then became Chief, 
was made Lord Chamberlain anno 1325, married 
Mary Bruce, sister of King Kobert, and widow of 
Sir Neil Campbell, and that King gave him the 
Thanedom of Cowie and other lands (Rotul. 
Rob.) Sir Alexander's son was Sir William of 
Cowie and Dores, whose son, Sir Alexander, 
married Janet, daughter of William, Earl of 
Boss, by whom he got the lands, and took the 
title of Philorth in Buchan. He died about 1412, 
leaving two sons, Sir William and Alexander of 
Dores ; Sir William of Philorth died anno 1441, 
whose son Sir Alexander was, 14th April, 1461, 
served heir to Sir Alexander of Cowie, the Laird 
of Lovat being one of the inquest. His lineal 
descendant, Alexander of Philorth, in 1598, 
married Margaret, daughter of George Lord 
Abernethie of Saltoun, and their grandson, Alex- 
ander, upon the death of Alexander Lord Saltoun 
in 1669 without issue, served heir to Lord George, 
and in Parliament 1670 had the honour and rank 
of Saltoun confirmed to him; and, in my opinion, 
Lord Saltoun is undoubted Chief of the Clan. 



INTERMARRIAGES OF THE FRASERS. 343 

Gilbert Sheriff of Traquair probably was ances- 
tor of the family of Lovat. His son, Sir Andrew, 
was father of Simon Fraser, who married the 
daughter (or grand daughter) of Sir John Bisset 
of Lovat. The three daughters, co-heiresses of 
this gentleman, were, according to their birth, 
Mary Lady Lovat, Cecilia Lady Beaufort, and 
Elizabeth Lady Kilravock. Mary the eldest was 
married to Sir David Graham, second son of Sir 
David of Kincardine ; and Sir David Graham was 
alive anno 1294, and had a son, Patrick Graham. 
If, therefore, Mary Bisset was married to Simon 
Fraser, it must have been some time after the 
1294, and she must have been of an advanced 
age, for Mary Wood, daughter of the youngest 
sister Elizabeth, was married to Hugh Eose of 
Geddes before that year 1294. Either, then, 
Simon's wife was Mary Bisset, widow of Sir 
David Graham, and well stricken in years, or the 
daughter of Sir David became heiress of Lovat 
upon the death of her brother Patrick, without 
issue. Leaving this uncertain, the first of this 
name I find designed " Of Lovat," is Hugh 
Frisele, who does homage to the Bishop of 
Moray, anno 1367, for some lands in the Aird. 
I shall now deduce the succession, according to 
the MS. account of the family. 

In the law-suit in 1730, by the late Lovat, for 
obtaining the Peerage, it was acknowledged that 
it does not certainly appear, by any writing or 



344 GENEALOGY OF THE ERASERS OF LOVAT. 

record, in what year the dignity of a Lord was 
conferred on that family ; and that Lord Lovat 
is marked in the Bolls of Parliament in 1540, 
and not more early. But in the additional case 
of Elizabeth Countess of Sutherland in 1771, I 
find that the Eetour 1430 calls him Hugh Fraser 
de Lovat ; and in a Hoyal Charter in 1480, he is 
designed "Hugo Fraser Dominus de Lovat," and 
thus the family was ennobled betwixt the years 
1430 and 1480, and the third or fourth descent 
seems to have been the first Lord. 

(1) Simon Frisele was father of (2) Hugh, who 
married Margaret, daughter and heiress of Wil- 
liam Fenton of Beaufort, son of Thomas of 
Dounie, and by her got the lands. He died 
about 1420, leaving three sons viz., Hugh, 
Alexander, of whom is Feralin, and James an- 
cestor of Craigray and Glenernie. (3) Hugh II. 
married Janet, daughter of Thomas Dunbar Earl 
of Moray, and with her got the lands of Aber- 
tarf. His son (4) Hugh III. married a daughter 
of Lord Glammis, and was killed at Floudon 
anno 1513, leaving a son Thomas, and a bastard 
son, who, having been some time in France, was 
called Hutcheon Franchoch, of whom is Fraser 
of Fohir. (5) Thomas seems to have been the 
second who was advanced to the Peerage ; he 
married Janet Gordon, daughter of Sir Alexander 
of Midmar, brother to Huntley, and in his favour 
Huntley renounced all right he had to Strath- 



PURCHASE THE LANDS OF STRICKEN IN BUCHAN. 345 

erick ; he died anno 1526, leaving a son Hugh, 
and a bastard son Hutcheon Bane, ancestor to 
Eelick. (6) Hugh IV. married a daughter of 
John Grant of Freuchie, and by her had Hugh ; 
and by his second Lady, a daughter of Belna- 
gawn, he had Alexander and William of Strawie. 
Lord Hugh and his eldest son were killed in the 
battle of Cean-Lochlochie, anno 1544. (7) Alex- 
ander married Jean, daughter of Sir John Camp- 
bell of Calder, and had Hugh, Thomas of 
Strichen, and James of Ardachie. Lord Alex- 
ander purchased Strowie, Coulgaran, Kilwadie, 
Crochils, and Comer, from William Forbes of 
Kinaldie ; and his son Thomas married Isabel 
Forbes, widow of Chalmers of Strichen, and pur- 
chased the lands of Strichen in Buchan about 
1580. Lord Alexander died 1588. (8) Hugh V. 
married Elizabeth Stewart, daughter of John 
Earl of Athole, and purchased from Sir Walter 
Keid, Prior of Beaulie, the lands and tythes 
thereof, about 1569, and died 1576. His son (9) 
Simon II. by his first wife, daughter of Kintail, 
had Hugh ; and by his second wife, daughter of 
the Earl of Moray, had Simon of Inveralachie, 
and Sir James of Brae. He sold Glenelg to 
MacLeod, and mortgaged Kilmiles, Fanellan, 
and Kingylie, to Strichen, and Phopachie to 
Coulkokie. In 1617 he purchased Ferintosh and 
Inveralachie, and disponed these and Bunchrieve 
to his second son. He died 1633. (10) Hugh 



346 GENEALOGY OF THE FRASERS OF LOVAT. 

VI. by his Lady, a daughter of Weemys, had 
Hugh, and Thomas of Beaufort. He sold Aber- 
tarf to Glengary for 5000 merks, and Muirtoun 
to Thomas Shevez for 2000 merks ; he died in 
1646. (11) Hugh VII., by a daughter of the 
Earl of Leven, had (12) Hugh VIII., who sold 
Kilmiles to Eraser of Kinaries, Kingyle to Coul- 
bokie, Belladrum to Hugh Eraser, and Buntaite 
to Chisholm of Comer ; and Sir James of Brae 
gave Dalcross as a portion with his daughter to 
Major Bateman. Lord Hugh died about anno 
1672, leaving, by the daughter of MacKenzie of 
Tarbet, a son (13) Hugh IX. who married Emilia, 
daughter of John Marquis of Athole, who brought 
him three daughters viz. Emilia, married to 
MacKenzie of Prestonhall; Anne to the Laird 
of MacLeod, and again to Pourie ; and Catharine 
to William Moray, son of Achtertyre. By his 
marriage articles, this Lord provided his estate 
to heirs whatsoever. He died in 1696. (14) 
Simon III., son of Thomas of Beaufort, by 
Sybilla, daughter of MacLeod, being out-lawed, 
lived in exile till the year 1714. He then ob- 
tained a remission, next year got the life-rent 
Escheat of Prestonhall, and an annual pension of 
300. In 1730 the honours were adjudged to 
him by the Court of Session ; he was made Cap- 
tain of an independent Highland regiment ; paid 
a sum of money to PrestonhalTs son for his right 
to the estate ; but his behaviour, in 1745 and 



THE FAMILY OF FRUID IN TWEEDALE. 347 

1746, brought him to the block, 9th April, 1747, 
and his estate was forfeited, and honours extin- 
guished. By his first wife, daughter of Ludowick 
Grant of Grant, he left issue, Simon now a 
Colonel, Alexander, Janet, married to MacPher- 
son of Clunie, and Sybilla ; by his second wife, 
daughter of Campbell of Mamore, he left a son 
Archibald. Simon, the eldest son, having been, 
against his inclination, driven by his father into 
the late Eebellion, soon obtained a remission ; 
and having served in the military in America and 
Portugal, he was advanced to the degree of a 
Major-General ; and by an Act of Parliament in 
1774, the King granted to him the lands and estate 
of his father, upon certain terms and conditions. 
The above mentioned MS. gives an account of 
a branch of the Frasers, called the Family of 
Fruid in Tweedale, of which John Fraser, Bishop 
of Koss in 1485, was a son. In 1492 Anne 
Wallace, widow of Fruid, with her 7 sons, came 
into the north. Paul and Almond, the 2 eldest, 
were clergymen; of John, the third son, is 
descended Fraser of Dunbalach ; Alexander, the 
4th son, was ancestor of Phopachie ; James, the 
5th son, was ancestor of Mr. Eobert Fraser, advo- 
cate, and Mr Michael Fraser, minister of Daviot; 
of Duncan, the 6th son, is descended Fraser of 
Daltulich, in the parish of Croy ; and of Kobert, 
the 7th son, came the Frasers called Mac-Eobie 
Friselich. 



348 BOLESKIN, THE ANCIENT SEAT OF THE GRANTS. 

The Proper Arms of Fraser are : Az. three Fraises Arg. 
Motto, JE Suis PREST [I am ready]. The Family quartered 
the Bissets Arms viz., Gul. three Antique Crowns, Or. But 
the late Lovat struck out these, and having come peaceably to 
the possession of the estate, added another Motto viz., SINE 
SANGUINE VICTOR [A bloodless victory]. 

I now return to the parish of Boleskin. 
Stratherick was the ancient seat of the Grants 
before they came into Strathspey ; they left some 
vestiges behind them to confirm this, for we find 
the same names of country seats in Stratherick, 
as Gartmore, Gartbeg, Dellachaple, &c., which 
they gave to the places where they settled in 
Strathspey. The above mentioned MS. of the 
Family of Lovat affirms that, in the 15th cen- 
tury, there were many Grants and Kerans, or 
Clanchiaran, living in Stratherick ; and that 
Thomas, Lord Lovat, having married the 
daughter of Alexander Gordon of Midmar, 
brother to the Earl of Huntley, that Earl, in 
1493, renounced in Lovat's favour all his right 
to the lands of Stratherick. What right Hunt- 
ley had, or claimed, I know not ; but it is cer- 
tain that the Erasers have possessed that country 
for many generations. 

The Water of Faragack, which giveth name to 
the country, runneth through the north of the 
parish, from east to west, and falleth into the 
Loch two miles north of the Church; and the 
Water of Feachlin runneth through the middle 
of the parish, emptying into the Loch at Fohir, 



ABERTARF; GLENDOE; RIVER EOICH; INCHNAKIRDICH. 

a little south of the Church. Upon these waters, 
and the branches of them, stand the seats of 
many gentlemen of the name of Fraser, such as 
Fohir, Gortuleg, and Balnaine, feuars; Taralin, 
Gartmore, Gartheg, Drumyample, Kinbrylie, 
Kilchoinlim, Drummin, &c. 

Abertarf came to the Family of Lovat by 
marriage, and was sold to MacDonald of Glen- 
garry, as above related. A small glen, or valley, 
called Glendoe, runneth up into the hills near 
the south end of the Loch, and upon the banks 
of the water Doe, are Molagan, Glendoe, &c., 
but the main part of this parish lieth upon the 
rivers of Tarf and Eoich. Tarf, a rapid stream, 
riseth in the hill of Corryarack, near Gamrvaore, 
in Badenoch, and running north-west, falleth 
into the south end of Loch Ness. On the banks 
of it, in the face of the hill, are some corn lands, 
and at the mouth of it is Kilhuiman, Borlum, 
&c. The river Eoich is the great source of the 
Ness, rising out of Loch Eoich, and running 4 
miles north-east, falleth with a deep stream into 
Loch Ness. In the point between Eoich and 
Tarf, standeth Fort Augustus. On the west 
side, at the mouth of the Eoich, is Inshnakir- 
dich, the seat of Fraser of Coulduthill, and south 
from it are the lands of Pitmean. 

THE TOMB OF THE LOVATS. 

A correspondent writes to us (5 Jan., 1881) : " I lately 
visited the Kilmuir Churchyard, which is situated about 



350 THE TOMB OF THE LOVATS. 

half a mile from the hotel at Dunvegan, alongside the 
public road leading to Portree. In the middle there is a 
ruin of an old Catholic Church, used now as the family 
burying-place of Macleod of Macleod. We spent a great 
deal of the day reading inscriptions on the tomb-stones. 
Our special attention was attracted to one of these, which 
we have no doubt will interest a good many of your 
readers. The edifice on which this inscription was is in 
the form of a pyramid, which was built over the tomb of 
one of the Lovats, and is situated immediately in front of 
the chapel ruins. There was a small tablet on it facing 
to the west, but through the effects of inclement weather 
of ages this tablet fell a number of years ago, and broke 
in pieces, by which a part of the inscription is obliterated, 
but, by putting the broken pieces together, it reads thus : 
' This Pyramid was erected by Simon, Lord Fraser of 
Lovat, in Honour of Lord Thomas, his father, a Peer of 
Scotland, and Chief of the great and ancient Clan of the 
Frasers. Being attacked for his birthright by the family 
of Athole, then in power and favour with King William, 
yet, by the valour and fidelity of his clan, the alliance of 
the Campbell's, the old friends and allies of the family, he 
defended his birthright with such greatness and bravery 
of soul, and such valour and activity, that he was an 
honour to his name and good pattern to all brave Chiefs 
of Clans. He died in the month of May, 1699, in the 63 
year of his age, in Dunvegan Castle, house of the Laird 
of Macleod, whose sister he married, and by whom he had 
the above Simon, Lord of Lovat, and (few words here 
obliterated) children, and for the great love he bore to 
the family of Macleod, he desired to be buried near his 
wife's relatives, the place where two of her uncles lay, 
and his son, Lord Simon, to show the posterity his great 
affection for his mother's kindred, the brave Macleods, 
chooses rather to leave his father's bones with them than 
carry them to his own burial-place near Lovat.' " (ED.) 

BOLESKIN. 

{Situation, Soil, Climate. The island of Great Britain 
is intersected by plains, or valleys, depressed almost to 
the level of the surrounding main, in four different tracks, 
from the one shore to the other. The first may be con- 
ceived along the southern side of the Cheviot hills, where 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PARISH OF BOLESKIN. 351 

Scotland borders with England, from the Solway Frith 
to the influx of the Tyne. The second lies along the 
great canal, from the Frith of Clyde to the estuary of the 
Forth. The third, beginning also from the shore of the 
Clyde, lower down at Dumbarton, stretches through the 
broadest and most central parts of the kingdom, along 
the southern base of the Grampian mountains to Stone- 
haven on the eastern shore. The last is stretched from 
the Atlantic at Fort William, through the parishes of 
Kilmanivack, Boleskin, and Durris, to the Murray Frith 
at Inverness. 

Imagination may easily conceive the Continent to have 
once extended entire to the northern extremity of the 
Orkney Isles ; and the Pentland Frith to have been only 
a deep valley, similar to these so little raised above the 
level of the sea, or composed of such yielding materials 
as to have given way in some storm to the violence of the 
weighty surge, impelled by all the power of the western 
wind, rushing on unchecked from the American shore. 
The headlands, stretching out to each other from the 
opposite sides of the Frith, seem to suggest the idea of 
some violent disruption. Thus Duncan's Bay Head pro- 
jects a ridgy bottom, so high as to form a ripple both by 
the flowing and ebbing tide, called the Boars of Duncan's 
Bay, similar to the swell of the same name at the mouth 
of the river Indus. The Pentland Skerries still remain in 
the same direction, and are met by the Lowther Rock, 
covered only during the tide, projected from the island of 
South Rhonaldshay on the other side. In the same manner 
St. John's Head sends out a ridge, which forms the 
breakers called the merry men of May, meeting a swell 
off Cantie Head, upon the opposite shore of the island of 
Walls ; while the lofty Cape of Dunnet frowns against its 
rival the Beary (the Berubium of Ptolemy), on the 
western end of the same island. The probability of such 
a junction is not less than that of Dover with the 
opposite coast of France. If the extreme rapidity of the 
tide, driving through the Pentland Frith, had ever been 
altogether stopped, as it is sometimes partially checked 
by the wind, there is no doubt but the sea must have 
risen higher and flowed farther in upon the shores of the 
Moray Frith than now. 

The parish of Boleskin, with the Lake of Ness upon its 



352 ABERTARFF ; STRATHEER1CK ; GENERAL WADE'S HUT. 

western side, occupies a section of the last of these 
valleys that have been described. Abertarff, a district of 
this parish, lies nearly on a level with the lake upon its 
southern end, as has been already noted. The other dis- 
trict, named Strath erick, may be conceived a valley 
parallel to the lake, about 300 feet above its level, and 
screened from its view by an intervening rocky ridge 
rising still higher, and stretched the whole length of the 
lake. The side of this ridge, which faces the lake, rises 
to a great height, and with a steepness almost perpendi- 
cular, from the very edge of the water, and save 2 or 3 
small plots, admits not of cultivation throughout its 
whole length of 22 miles, from the Church of Durris to 
the citadel of Fort Augustus. The road from Inverness 
to this fortress is cut out for more than 12 miles upon the 
side of this rocky steep, as far as the Fall of Foyers. It 
has been formed by great labour, and at much expense, 
under the conduct of General Wade, who was then quar- 
tered in a slope of the mountain, thence distinguished by 
the appellation of the General's hut, the present station of 
the inn, about a mile distant from the fall. This road is 
not unpleasant riding, being hard, smooth, and level ; it 
is frequently immersed in wood, of birch and hazel, but 
in general it is open enough to admit a view of the 
waters of the lake far below, waving their surface in 
gentle undulation towards the precipitous shore, and the 
summits of the lofty mountains towering high upon 
either of its sides. Above the zone of the woods the 
mountains are reared up in sterile nakedness, the brown 
heath and grey rock but little diversified by a few small 
streams trickling down the steep. Sometimes the road 
is cut along, and sometimes around the rocky sides of the 
hill, forming on the one hand a black insurmountable 
wall, on the other an alarming precipice overhanging 
the deep lake, that even the stumbling only of the horse 
impresses the idea of inevitable destruction. This route 
is generally described as pleasant and romantic, yet the 
unvaried landscape, consisting of little besides the long 
narrow reach of the lake below and the sky above, while 
the steepness of the mountain admits of no deviation 
from the path, impresses a languor, after proceeding a 
little way, with the idea of dereliction and restraint ; for 
no habitation, no trace of the works of man are seen, save 



DEPTHS OF LOCH NESS, WHICH NEVER FREEZES. 353 



the desolation of the Castle of Urquhart rising out of the 
water on the other side, which is but little relieved by a 
deserted Church in ruins, and a lonesome Burying-ground, 
by which the road winds, near the summit of the ridge. 
In ancient times it might have been the sequestered resi- 
dence of some holy hermit, and in that regard might 
have been chosen for the situation of the parish Church, 
of late more conveniently placed in the interior of the 
countiy, and more centrical upon the other side of this 
interposing ridge. 

The common soundings of the lake of Ness are from 
116 to 120 fathoms, in one place they ran to 135. By 
Hoods or sudden thaws, it is raised about 10 feet above 
the lowest watermark. The depth even at the very sides 
would admit a ship of any burden to sail from the one 
end to the other. Though widening considerably toward 
its southern end, where it is about 2 miles in breadth, its 
sides are straight over its whole length as the even banks 
of an artificial canal, save the Bay where the river of Urqu- 
hart falls in. To accomplish its navigation by sails 
requires 3 days of moderately favourable wind, as the 
vessel must anchor during the dark, which, excepting at 
the ends, in Urquhart Bay, and the Creek called the 
Horse Shoe, can be only done at Aultsay and Portclair 
on the western, and at the influx of the Faragack and 
Feachlin on the eastern side. Excepting an accidental 
blast from either of these glens, or an eddy squall from 
any of the more elevated summits of the enclosing ridges, 
the winds must always blow right along the lake ; yet 
were the navigation between the seas completed, a path 
could be formed along the margin of the lake, and the 
trade in all weathers rendered certain and secure by the 
draught of horses. 

This immense reservoir of water is distinguished by 
two peculiarities, drawn either from the lake or river ; it 
is laxative to people who are not accustomed to drink it, 
and it has the same effect on horses unhabituated to its 
use. Such, therefore, at the town of Inverness are 
invariably conducted to another stream. Besides this, 
neither the lake nor river was ever known to be frozen 
by the most intense cold experienced in a latitude so 
high as nearly the 58th degree. No chemical analysis 
lias been attempted for investigating the causes of these 
VOL. ir. 23 



354 LOCH NESS DURING THE EARTHQUAKE AT LISBON. 

qualities. When drawn either from the lake or river, it 
freezes as quickly as any other water, even in the carriage 
to any part of the town distant from the river, it is some- 
times frozen by the way ; yet during the most intense 
frosts both the lake and river smoke, a thick fog hangs 
over them, mitigating the cold to some distance upon 
either side, and linens, stiffened by the frost, are dipped 
in the river to be thawed. There is not the least degree 
of current in any part of the lake, and the river runs 
gently onwards to the Frith, never overflowing its banks, 
in a channel whose fall is scarcely 10 feet. There cannot 
be much difference, therefore, in the level between the 
fresh water and the salt; and without regarding the 
soundings by Mr. Scott and Capt. Orton, who did not 
reach the bottom with 500 fathoms, the depth of the Lake 
is probably greater than that of the Frith. Both these 
properties may be therefore probably derived from the 
same causes in general, which produce hot springs, or 
from some unexplored connection with volcanic fire. This 
idea is countenanced by the extraordinary manner in 
which the Lake was affected on the 1st of November, 
1755, during the time of the awful earthquake at Lisbon. 
Raised above the surface, near the indraught of the river, 
the water flowed up the Lake with vast impetuosity, and 
drove up more than 200 yards against the rapid current 
of the river Eoich, breaking on its banks in a wave about 
3 feet high. It thus continued, in alarming agitation, to 
flow and ebb for more than an hour. About 11 o'clock a 
wave, higher than any of the rest, loaded with brushwood, 
drove up the river, and overflowed to the extent of 30 
feet upon the bank. A boat near the General's Hut was 
three times dashed on shore, and twice carried back ; the 
rudder at the second time was broken, the boat filled 
with water, the loading of timber dashed out and left 
upon the. shore. Although this commotion at the bottom 
of the Lake .affected the fluid so powerfully through all its 
depth, it was yet unable to shake the solid earth, through 
a mass but of equal height only with the water, for no 
degree of agitation was in any place perceptible on land. 
The vale of Stratheric is separated from Laggan and 
Kingussie, on the banks of the Spey, by a wide and 
desert mountain. It is watered by two considerable 
streams the Faragack from its northern, and the Feach- 



STRATHERRICK ; FARAGACK ; FALL OF FOYERS. 355 

lin from its southern end. It might be conceived that 
this vale had been itself a lake, till its waters forced their 
passage down through the rocky mound to Loughness. 
The Faragack has torn the mountain sloping uniformly 
from its summit to the base ; the impending rugged rocky 
banks of the channel bear testimony of the violence of 
the disruption. 

The Feachlin has been opposed by more solid materials, 
although its influx is only about 2 miles distant from the 
other. Winding for 10 or 12 miles from the extremity 
of the glen, and in its progress collecting many streams 
from the mountain on the south or east, and grown into a 
river of no small consideration, its current turned towards 
the lake, forced its passage also through the intervening 
ridge. Just entering within its rocky jaws, it pours 
perpendicularly from the cliff about the height of 30 feet, 
in a form resembling the unequal columns of a great 
cathedral organ, into an abyss every way environed by 
uncouth and rugged masses of sable rock, to the height of 
more than 60 feet above its tumultuous surface, save the 
breach through which its course is continued, which is 
covered by a narrow stone bridge fully in the front of 
this thundering torrent, boiling in the cavern which 
itself has hollowed, in turbulent, foaming, and ceaseless 
ebullition, as if some vast subterranean fire glowed in- 
tensely underneath this horrible cauldron. Its effect is 
greatly heightened by the dark red tinge which the river 
for the most part bears, from the peat soil of the moun- 
tain through which its several currents flow. Considera- 
bly farther within this sinuous chasm is the grand 
cataract, the celebrated Fall of Foyers. A profile view of 
it may be easily obtained from the highway, where a 
wall of substantial masonry prevents the danger of falling 
over the verge of the gulph ; but to gain a nearer view, 
and in the front, requires a guide aslant the side of the 
profound steep, down to a grassy hillock, projected half 
across the chasm, which is readily by some neighbouring 
cottagers supplied. The greatness of the effect is even 
somewhat augmented by this perilous approach, which 
cannot be accomplished but by clinging from space to 
space to some straggling tree, or hanging by some bush r 
whilst the foot, unseen, is groping for a hold under- 
neath. The river at times is descried at a vast distance 



356 THE FALL OF FOYERS, BOLESKIN. 

below, increasing its tumult as it advances, struggling 
among the multiform masses of rock which embroil its 
course, and roaring against the opposing cliffs which 
shoot rudely from the sides of its torn channel ; mean- 
while the hoarse roar of the unseen cataract swells louder 
on the ear, the hoary vapour is beheld in turbulent 
eddies, and in rapid ascent over the gulph, as the dense 
smoke of some bursting volcano. 

Gaining at last the lowest ledge of the rock, a pinnacle 
detached from, but every way environed by the craggy 
steep, which from thence seems unsurmountable, though 
scarcely lower than the middle of the fall, the attention 
is overpowered, and the astonished view arrested by this 
august object ! 

The river is beheld edgeways shot from a cleft, a resist- 
less rapid column, about a yard in thickness, and 20 feet 
in height. Its breadth upon the upper side remaining 
still unseen, it dashes with so much momentum upon a 
slanting shelve of the rock as to be entirely divested ol 
the appearance of the element of water in any of its 
forms, but forced into the semblance of furiously drifted 
snow. It hisses down the slanting steep, broad spreading 
as it drives into the unexplored profound at the depth of 
80 or 100 feet below the shelve by which the column is 
first broken, where, clashing not in union with deep roar 
above, it imperceptibly resumes its elemental form, and 
seems feebly to simmer off from the bottom of the rock 
through a pool that might be imagined to be of no un- 
common depth ; even the red tinge of mountain soil, 
which was wholly dispelled as it drifted down the steep, 
is also unexpectedly restored. 

The remaining part of its course is continued placidly 
for a short space between the wooded cliffs; it then meets 
the lake in a plain of no great extent, formed probably by 
the alluvion of its own current, as it is the only field 
upon the eastern border of this long expanse, decorated 
by the family seat and gardens of Mr. Fraser of Foyers, 
an agreeable but seemingly a solitary residence. 

In the contemplation of a scene so sublimely august, 
which, day after day and year after year, continues its 
perennial turbulence and thunder, without rest or cessa- 
tion, the feebleness of man, and the short-abiding power 
of mortal energy, are deeply impressed upon the mind ; 



PKOPERTIES IN BOLESKIN PARISH. 357 

sentiments of reverence spontaneously arise for that Al- 
mighty Being who at the first arranged the springs of 
nature, and regulates for ever its unconscious, though 
varied, and most powerful exertion. 

The soil is, in general, a light and gravelly loam, in 
some places moorish. The climate may be accounted, on 
the whole, rather severe than mildly temperate through- 
out the greatest proportion of the year ; yet in summer 
it is sometimes unpropitiously dry, and it would be 
reckoned early, were not the harvests generally retarded 
by rains which frequently begin to fall out about the 
equinox. 

State of Property. The parish is partitioned among 7 
landholders. It comprehends a part of the Lovat for- 
tune of the Honourable Archibald Fraser, equal to 2101 
18s. 4d. Scots. Simon Fraser of Foyers, Esq., holds 463 
13s. 4d. Simon Fraser of Faralin, Esq., holds 82, 4s. 
lOd. James Fraser of Gortuleg, Esq., holds 38 13s. 1 Id. 
Captain Fraser of Knocky amounts to 163 Scots. Cap- 
tain Fraser of Ardachy, 141 17s. Scots. And Alexander 
Macdonald of Glengarry, Esq., 308 5s. 8d. Scots, in 
which the valuation of the property of the Crown is 
included, being a farm, and part of the appointment of 
the Deputy-Governor of Fort Augustus, and the ground 
occupied by the citadel itself, extending the whole valua- 
tion to the sum of 3299, 13s. Id. Scots. There are some 
of the lands in the personal occupation of the proprietors. 
The farms let to tenants are in general comprehended 
under a small extent of arable field, to which, however, 
there are some exceptions where the rent rises to above 
50 in the year. The average rent of the acre of the 
arable land may be estimated at 16s., but the pasturage 
connected prevents it from being accurately ascertained. 

State Ecclesiastical. The Church is now placed about 
3 miles up the river above the Fall, and about a mile east- 
ward from the bank. The living, including the allowance 
for the Communion, is 105. The right of patronage is 
a pertinent of the Lovat estate. The appointment of the 
missionary resident at Fort Augustus, and the extent of 
his charge, has been mentioned in the preceding number. 
In the central parts of the parish, between the Fall and 
Fort Augustus, the farmers hire a teacher for their chil- 
dren by a small subscription among themselves. The 



358 MEANING AND HISTORY OF FORT AUGUSTUS. 

conductor of the music employed in the public devotions 
of the Church, and the poor, which make up a pretty 
long roll, have a provision arising from the donations 
made in the religious congregations of the people, who, 
except a few of the Roman Catholic communion, are all 
members of the Established Church, amounting to the 
number of 1402. 

Miscellaneous Information. The original name of the 
ground where Fort Augustus stands was KILLIE-CHUMIN, 
the burial-place of the Cumings. The cause of this 
appellation is now wholly unknown. It may be con- 
jectured that, similar to I'Columbkill, the cemetery of the 
monarchs of several kingdoms, the consecrated ground of 
the Chapel of Abertarff might have been appropriated 
by this ancient clan, during the period in which they 
numbered 14 titled chiefs, as the place of general inter- 
ment. 

The Citadel, rather in a beautiful than in a strong 
situation, is seated on a narrow plain, commanded by 
pretty high grounds upon the south and north. It has 
the great river Eoich, pouring a deep and rapid flood into 
the lake, upon the one side, and the gentle Tarff, gliding 
in a slender stream through the plain upon the other. 
Loughness washes the ramparts on the third side ; they 
are composed of 4 bastions, and they afford accommoda- 
tion for a garrison of 400 or 500 men. It was originally 
built about the year 1730, and received its present name 
in compliment to the father of George III. Its des- 
truction by the rebels in 1746 has been incidentally 
mentioned above. It has contributed somewhat to the 
improved police of the country. The little sloop which 
rides under its walls adds greatly to the scenery of such 
a mountainous landscape, and it establishes the advan- 
tages of the navigation of the Lake.] (Survey of the 
Province of Moray.) 

KILMANIVACK PARISH. 

A small part only of this parish lieth within the 
Province of Moray, viz., Glengary and Achadrom. 
From Loch Ness, to Loch Eoich, are 4 miles, a 
part of Abertarf. Loch Eoich is 4 miles long, 



GLENGARY, PARISH OF KILMANIVAIG. 359 

from north to south, and 1 mile broad. From 
the south end of Loch Eoich, to the north end 
of Loch Lochie (the utmost boundary of Moray) 
is 1 mile, called Achadrom; a fertile little valley, 
not above a half mile broad, betwixt chains of 
high hills. Here are Lagan-Achadrom, Dunan, 
Kyleross, &c. The country of Glengary lieth on 
the west bank of Loch Eoich, and stretcheth 
into the hills westward, on both sides of Loch 
Garie, 7 miles. It is a rough, unequal valley, 
full of birch wood, but warm and fertile. At the 
mouth of the Eiver Garie, where it falleth into 
Loch Eoich, is Invergary, the seat of Alexander 
MacDonald of Glengary. And, in this glen, are 
the seats of several gentlemen, such as Lie, 
Lundie, Ardnabee, &c. The inhabitants of Acha- 
drom are Kennedies, called Clan Ulric, from one 
Ulric Kennedy, of whom they are said to have 
descended. 

Glengary is planted by MacDonalds, a branch, 
it is said, of the Clan Eonald, or MacDonalds of 
Moidart. Lord MacDonald of Aros (descended 
of MacDonald Earl of Boss), having died in 1680 
without issue, the honours became extinct, and 
his estate (by a marriage connection) came to 
Glengary; by which means the fortune of the 
family lies in Glengary, Abertarf, and Knoidart, 
and is very considerable. 



360 PARISH OF KILMANIVAIG. 

MACDONALD OF GLENGABY. 

The MacDonalds derive themselves from Colla 
Uais, King of Ireland, in Century IV., and are 
said to have come to Scotland in the reign of 
Malcolm Canmore. They have spread into many 
branches of which the family of Glengary (de- 
scended of the Clan Konalds of Moidart) are as 
follows : 

John, Lord of the Isles, had a son Kanald, 
who, by a daughter of MacDougal of Lorn, had 
two sons, viz., Allan of Moidart, and Donald of 
Glengary. (1) Donald was father of (2) Alex- 
ander, father of (3) Alexander, who married 
Margaret, heiress of MacDonald of Loch Alsh, 
and had Alexander and Angus, ancestor of Lord 
MacDonald of Aros, and died about the year 
1515. (4) Alexander married a daughter of Mac- 
Kenzie of Kintail, and dying about 1550, was 
succeeded by his son (5) Alexander, who married 
a daughter of Lachlan More of Macintosh ; and 
dying anno 1604, his son (6) ^neas, married a 
daughter of Macintosh, and had Alexander and 
Angus of Scothouse ; and having been killed by 
the MacKenzies, before his father's death (7) 
Alexander succeeded his grandfather, and by a 
daughter of Lord Lovat, had Donald Gorm, and 
Alexander; and upon the demise of Lord Mac- 
donald, anno 1680 without issue, Alexander ob- 
tained his estate, and died about 1685. (8) 



MACDONALDS OF GLENGARY. 361 

Donald Gorm, was killed at Killiecrankie 1689, 
unmarried. His brother (9) Alexander, married 
a daughter of Seaforth, by whom he had John, 
Ranald, and Donald. His loyalty led him into 
the Battles of Killiecrankie 1689, Cromdale 1690, 
and Sheriflmuir 1715, and dying in 1724; (10) 
John, by MacKenzie, had Alexander, and 

Angus of Tyindrish ; and by a daughter of Glen- 
buckit, had James and Charles. And dying in 
1754 (11) Alexander being a prisoner in London 
in 1745, his brother Angus led the Glengary men 
to that rebellion, and was himself killed at Fal- 
kirk, in January, 1746, by an accidental shot. 
Alexander returned home, and died unmarried, 
anno 1761, and was succeeded by the son of 
Angus, by a niece of Struan, viz., Duncan, now 
of Glengary, who married Marjory, daughter of 
Sir Lewis Grant of Dalvey, and has issue. 

From the frequency of the name Alexander, 
the Chief of this Family, is called Mac-Mhic- 
Alister. 

I now return, by the west side of Loch Ness, to 

UBQUHAKT PAEISH. 

The parish of Urquhart and Glenmoriston, 
which lie on the west side of the loch, over 
against Stratherick. Urquhart stretcheth up 
into the hills westwards towards the Aird, about 
5 miles, and is a warm and fertile valley. 

The Church standeth near a mile west from 



362 THE CASTLE OF URQUHAKT. 

the loch, 12 miles south-west from Inverness. 
The Castle or Fort stood on the edge of the Loch. 
In the valley is Corimonie, a feu-holding per- 
taining to a branch of the Grants; Shoglie, a 
mortgage of a Cadet of Corimonie ; Achmonie, 
the heritage of a gentleman of the name of 
MacKay, or rather MacDonald. All the rest of 
the parish is the property of Sir James Grant of 
Grant. Urquhart was probably a part of the 
estate of Cummine Lord Badenoch, upon whose 
forfeiture it was granted to Eandolph Earl of 
Moray. The MS. History of the Family of 
Sutherland bears, that, in 1359, King David II. 
gave the barony and Castle of Urquhart to Wil- 
liam, Earl of Sutherland, and his heirs. If so, 
the grant was afterwards revoked. It is true, 
Urquhart was excepted out of the grant to John 
Dunbar, Earl of Moray, anno 1372; and upon the 
forfeiture of Earl Archibald Douglas, anno 1455, 
Urquhart was annexed to the Crown. In a 
decreet arbitral, betwixt Duncan Macintosh, 
Captain of Clan Chattan, and Hutcheon Eose of 
Kilravock, anno 1479, the possession and Duchus 
of Urquhart is adjudged to Kilravock (Pen. Kilr.) ; 
and in 1482, the Earl of Huntley gave Kilravock 
a discharge of the rents of Urquhart and Glen- 
moriston (Pen. Kilr.). What right Huntly had 
to these lands, I know not, if it was not as factor 
for the Crown. I incline to think, that after the 
death of Earl John Kandulph, in 1346, the barony 



URQUHART OF GLENMORRISTON. 363 

of Urquhart was the salary of the governor of 
that Fort, until it was no longer garrisoned (Vide 
Milit. Hist.). Be this as it will, the Laird of 
Grant purchased Urquhart and Glenmoriston, in 
the reign of King James VI. 

Glenmoriston is distant from Urquhart south- 
ward 8 miles of hills. The Eiver Moriston 
riseth in the hills of Glensheil, near Kintail, 
passeth through Loch Clunie, watereth Glen- 
moriston, and after a course of above 30 miles, 
emptieth into Loch Ness, 4 miles below Fort 
Augustus. The inhabited Glen extends 8 miles 
in length, from the mouth of the river, but the 
breadth is inconsiderable. The whole valley is 
warm, fertile, and well inhabited. It is a part of 
the barony of Urquhart, and has been the heritage 
of Grant of Glenmoriston, for above 200 years ; 
that family has a good house at Invermoriston, 
on the bank of Loch Ness. Urquhart and Glen- 
moriston are separated from Kirkill and Kiltar- 
latie, by a ridge of hills. 

URQUHART. 

[Situation, Soil, Climate. The course of this survey 
has been hitherto conducted from the east, towards the 
west ; but it is directed southward from the banks of the 
Beaulie, along the western limits of the Province, to the 
sources of the Spey. 

The parish of Urquhart skirts along the southern limits 
of those of Inverness, Kirkhill, and Kiltarlity, sweeping 
also in part by the eastern boundary of those of Kilmorac, 
Kintail, and Glensheal, to where the parish of Kilmani- 
vack, stretched from the Atlantic Ocean, conjoins with 
that of Boleskin, bending round from the east, across the 



364 THE MOUNTAIN OF MHALFOURVONNIE. 



western termination of Lough Ness. The communication 
from the town of Inverness, on the eastern coast, to Fort 
William on the western shore, opened along the length of 
Lough Ness, has led its course, in a general view, to be con- 
sidered in the same direction : but although the termina- 
tion of the lake at Fort Augustus be greatly to the 
westward of Inverness, it is also so much to the south, 
that if the cardinal points of the compass are only in 
regard, its course with more accuracy may be considered 
as lying in the direction of north and south. Accordingly 
in Urquhart, the whole eastern side of the parish is 
described as being washed by the waters of the lake, by 
which it is separated from Boleskin on the other side. 

By the lofty mountain of Mhalfourvonnie, the parish 
is divided into two districts, Urquhart upon its northern, 
and Glenmoriston on its southern side ; and they may 
be both conceived as valleys stretching nearly parallel, 
towards the west, from the margin of the lake. That of 
Urquhart, a little inward, divides itself into two, by 
extending a branch southerly into the skirts of Mhalfour- 
vonnie. Each branch is watered by its own blue stream, 
which, meeting in their courses, have opened, as it were, 
the country to the breadth of several miles of plain ; and 
they deliver their water into a bay, expanded to a con- 
siderable length from the lake, and more than a mile in 
breadth, the only place where the lake of Ness is not 
bounded by rock upon either of its sides. 

The mountain of Mhalfourvonnie rises almost perpen- 
dicular, in one uniform face from the lake, to the height 
of 30GO feet. On the other three sides, a rounded rocky 
peak hath shot up about a fifth part higher than the 
general elevation of the mountain. From this it seems 
to have derived its appellation, signifying in the Gaelic, a 
cold wart, or excrescence of a hill. Upon the western 
side, at the bottom of the peak, is a small lake, which 
makes a conspicuous figure among the fictions of all the 
systems of geography, and which otherwise in this place 
would have met with no regard. Its surface is equal to 
about 4 acres : it is supported by springs, and the rains 
which drift pretty frequent around the sides of the peak. 
In dry weather, the evaporation is equal to the water it 
receives : in seasons of rain, it emits a small stream from 
its southern end. It might be inferred, from its being 



VIEWS FROM MHALFOURVONNIE. 365 

well stocked with trout, which require an extent, propor- 
tional to their number, of moderately shallow water, that 
it is nowhere of unfathomable depth ; which has of late 
been ascertained to be the fact, by the minister of the 
parish and another gentleman. From its situation so far 
within the stormy wilderness, it is more than probable, 
that it has never been beheld during any intense frost. 
The trout are in such numbers as to have distinguished 
this little lake by their own Gaelic characteristic, namely, 
the lake of the red-bellied trout. 

The prospect from the summit of the peak is highly 
interesting: the faculty of vision itself seems to have 
received additional power : the view is chiefly extended 
in the course of east and west, commanding an extent 
from the environs of Fort George nearly to Fort William. 
The whole expanse of the lake lies together under the 
eye, but at such a distance below, as to suggest the idea 
of a narrow ditch, deep sunk within steep banks. The 
distant horizon from the west, round over the north, is 
bounded by the mountains through Ross and Sutherland, 
to the shores of Caithness ; and though nothing but the 
dun waste, thinly diversified by the glittering of scattered 
lakes, is to be seen, a trackless desert of boundless extent, 
yet it is hardly possible to banish the idea of the many 
fertile peopled vales, with the various toils and luxuries, 
pains and pleasures, which form this station are so com- 
pletely overlooked. The whole district of Stratheric is 
displayed upon the opposite side as a painted landscape 
under the eye; but though the peak itself may be descried 
by the mariner, immediately on his clearing Kinnaird's 
Head, where the Moray Firth is lost in the German 
Ocean, yet the prospect is bounded by the mountain 
between Stratheric and the course of the Spey. The Fall 
of Foyers, directly over against the peak, upon the other 
side of the lake, at the distance of nearly 6 miles, in a 
right line from the eye, is among the most interesting 
objects. Its white spray, contrasted with the bleak 
mountain through which it dashes down, resembles the 
lights of the sky seen through the arch of a distant gate- 
way : its roar meanwhile grows or dies upon the ear, as 
the airy breeze propels or bears away the sound. The 
valley of Glenmoriston may be distinctly traced for 20 
miles westerly from the lake; it is inhabited only for 



366 THE FALL OF KILMORAC. 

about the half of that length, and its breadth is nowhere 
considerable: it opens at the distance of 10 miles from 
the influx of the river of Urquhart. The road between 
winds over the declivities in the precipitous face of 
Mhalfourvonnie, much encumbered by loose angular frag- 
ments of the rock. The path too narrow for a carriage, 
along the verge of the wooded steep which overhangs the 
lake, is carried over the stream of Altkenis upon an 
ancient arch, named Trochet-na-cre-kit-renish, the bridge 
of the wooded rocks. Glenmoriston itself, signifying the 
great valley of the deep cascade, opens on the lake between 
the fronts of two lofty cliffs, reared up in gloomy gran- 
deur: the one is called Graig-kinian, the giant's rock ; the 
other, a sable peak, projecting over the lake, is denomin- 
ated Struan-muich, the promontory of the boar. The 
wildness of these characteristic appellations distinguishes 
these interior regions no less than the striking appear- 
ance of their sublime scenery. The road is continued to 
Fort Augustus, across the river of Moriston, by an elegant 
light bridge of two arches, meeting on a great rock in the 
middle of the stream, with a pretty cascade in each of its 
channels. A trim path winds down the river, through 
a grove upon the level bank, for about 300 paces, to 
a neat octagon building, overhanging the margin just 
before the great fall. Although the river has its origin 
far distant in Glensheal, forming in its progress the long- 
winding lake of Clunie, yet the volume of water is not so 
large as that which forms the Fall of Kilmorack ; but the 
height from which it is precipitated is nearly the same. 
The torrent, however, spreads to a greater breadth, and 
advances with rapidity and increasing tumult to the 
farthest verge of the gulph ; and broken by a rock in its 
fall, it tosses itself into spray and foam, and at times, from 
some slight alteration perhaps in the pressure of the 
atmosphere, as if animated by some internal impetus of the 
stream, it bounds considerably higher than its ordinary 
repercussion, which adds much to the vivacity of this 
fascinating object. Here, too, as at Kilmorac, and with 
no better success, the salmon attempt to vault over the 
fall, and by a pole similarly armed with hooks, many 
with dexterity are occasionally caught, in the momentary 
flash of their ill-fated bound. Below the cataract, the 
river sweeps round in the sullen eddies of a deep and 



THE FALL OF DIVAH. 367 

gloomy pool, seeming to pause in the shadow of the 
dark surrounding cliffs and overhanging hills. Then on a 
sudden it bursts away in a straight and narrow channel, 
through which it shoots in deepened and condensed 
rapidity, rushing with a whizzing din along the sides 
of the rock, cut down by its own ceaseless violence, 
driving on resistless, amid the echoes of the impending 
cliffs and high towering hills. 

In both districts the soil is light and warm : in Urqu- 
hart, it is a fertile, though not a deep loam; in Glen- 
moriston, it is inferior, in general sandy and light. The 
arable grounds are pleasantly interspersed with pasturage, 
and sheltered by natural groves, varied by murmuring 
brooks. In one of them is the distinguished Fall of Di vah, 
about 100 feet of perpendicular height : a winding path 
through a wooded bank leads easily to its bottom; a 
volume of water only is wanting for the completion of its 
grandeur. The close shelter of the woods, and the warm 
reflection of the sun from the rocks, have ranked this 
country among the earlier Highland districts: yet in 
autumn the return of rain is so unwelcomely frequent, as 
seldom to admit of saving the corn in the open air. 
Fabrics, therefore, peculiar for this purpose, are pretty 
generally erected: the roof between ordinary gables is 
supported upon timber posts, and it projects almost a 
yard over the sides, which are wattled with wands neatly 
trimmed; the inside is fitted up with rails, in which 
pegs are fastened, upon each of which, like the muskets 
in an armoury, a single sheaf is separately hung, where 
in a short time they become so dry, in any weather, as 
to keep otherwise safe, when their removal makes way 
for the crop of another field. Such dryhouses are common 
upon the western coast. On smaller farms, the walls of 
the barns are built of angular stone, in such an open 
manner as to admit, or rather draw in, the wind, while 
the rain trickles down along the outside. 

State of Property. James Grant, Esq., Advocate, the 
author of Essays on the Gaelic tongue, and on the 
manners of the Celts a subject which the distinguished 
ingenuity and abilities of the author have not been able 
to make generally interesting now has his paternal seat 
at Corrymonie, signifying in the Gaelic St. Mona's hollow 
or valley, transmitted through a line of ancestors reaching 



368 DISTRICT OF GLENMORRISTON ; HOUSE OF FOYERS. 

back to the year 1509, in the reign of James IV. It is 
situated in the mountains towards Killtarlity, and upon 
the sources of the river of Urquhart. It is the farthest 
cultivated land in that district, the desert stretching 
beyond unbroken almost to the western shore. The 
building, although not modern, is plain, without turrets, 
or any ornament of architecture ; but it is embellished by 
groves, a garden, and inclosed fields, and those bewitching 
beauties of a mountainous and stormy region, so inexpli- 
cably fascinating to the natives educated among them. 
The valued rent of this ancient inheritance amounts to 
210 Scots. 

The whole district of Glenmoriston is the property of 
Major John Grant, and an inheritance coeval with that of 
Corrymonie. The family seat stands upon the side of 
Loughness, at such a distance from the cataract, as to be 
soothed only by its gentle and uniform murmur. It is a 
plain but commodious mansion, commanding an extensive 
and varied view of the lake, woods, and rocky mountains ; 
but except the House of Foyers, far distant on the other 
side of the lake, it is not in sight of any other dwelling, 
and of the little cultivated field only in its own environs. 
In its close vicinity, there is a pretty handsome building, 
erected about the year 1760 by the trustees of the for- 
feited estates, to promote the industry of the Highland 
lasses, to instruct them in spinning fine yarn, and in some 
other domestic arts, rendering their time more valuable, 
and making the youth of both sexes better acquainted 
with the advantages of diligence and the blessings of 
industry ; in the knowledge of which they might be still 
improved. This building, converted now to less interest- 
ing purposes, is not the seat of any manufacture, and 
remains the monument only of laudable design. The 
valued rent of Glenmoriston is 896 10s. Its principal 
crops are, black oats, potatoe, bear : a little rye, and white 
oats, and cultivated grass, may be also produced: it 
supports about 500 milch cows, and about 1000 other 
black cattle : with a proportion of these, it spares also 
butter and cheese; but the country was not able to 
supply provision for its own inhabitants, about 600 souls, 
before the general cultivation of potatoe. Besides the 
sheep it can now spare, it also disposes yearly of a con- 
siderable number of horses. 



SHEWGLIE, LOCKLETTER, AND LAKEFIELD. 309 

The rest of the parish, valued at 1113 5s. Scots, is the 
property of Sir James Grant of Grant, Bart.; extending 
its whole valuation to 2219 15s. Scots. There is a great 
proportion of the parish occupied in farms of respectable 
extent, varying from about 50 to about 100 of rent. 
Among these also, are several handsome buildings, occupied 
by gentlemen who cultivate this sequestered vale, and 
live happily in each other's sociality. Three of these, 
Shewglie, Lockletter, and Lakefield, are pleasantly situ- 
ated round the borders of a little lake in the course of the 
river of Urquhart, about 1 mile in length, and more than 
half a mile in breadth. The cut freestone of the House of 
Lakefield, which is on the property of Corrymonie, was 
carried from the shore of Duffus, at the expense of more 
than 50. Sir James Grant has also built a neat commo- 
dious mansion in the beautiful situation of Ballnaceaun, 
and where he occasionally visits. The greater number of 
the tenants hold small farms, reaching from less than 
1 to 7, or 15. The average value of the acre may 
be estimated at 18s. A very considerable revenue is 
derived from the wood, part of which is burned in 
making red herring in Caithness, transported by the 
lake and river of Ness to the boats which receive it in the 
Firth. The number of black cattle in the Urquhart 
district are reckoned to amount to 2400, of which the 
third part are milch cows. The real rent of the whole 
parish is not supposed to exceed 3000 sterling. 

State Ecclesiastical. The gradual organisation of the 
Church of Scotland into the local unconnected judicatures 
of Presbyteries and Synods has been already noticed. It 
was not till the year 1724 that the Synod of Glenelg, 
consisting of 5 Presbyteries, and 29 Parishes, was at the 
first established. Prior to that period, the parishes of 
Urquhart, Boleskin, and Laggan, appertained to the 
Synod of Moray ; with Killmallie and Kilmanivak, they 
now compose the Presbytery of Abertarff : the two last 
were never in any shape connected with the Province 
of Moray. 

The Church is prettily placed in a wood upon the bank 
of the river, and near the head of the bay. For the 
accommodation of the upper part of the vale, there is also 
a Chapel, about two-thirds of the way from the lake to 
Corrymonie, where public worship is celebrated every 
VOL. II. 2 * 



370 EVANGELIZATION OF SOLITARY GLENS. 

third Sunday. The stipend, by a decree in 1796, is 105, 
including the allowance for the expense of the commun- 
ion. The glebe is about 6 acres. Sir James Grant 
holds the right of patronage. The parochial school is in 
the vicinity of the Church, with the salary of 14 ster- 
ling, and the other whole emoluments equal to 10 more; 
it retains, at an average, about 50 scholars : reading Eng- 
lish only, with writing and arithmetic, are taught. 

In Highland districts, widely separated from each other 
in the trackless wilderness, the thousand pounds of Royal 
bounty are distributed with the most parsimonious economy : 
but had it been originally adjusted, so as to make one 
permanent establishment yearly, the whole Highlands 
ere now would have almost been sufficiently appointed 
with regular clergymen, each with a living of 50 sterling 
in the year, and this annual expenditure saved at the 
last. In the solitary glens of Kiltarlity and Kilmorack, 
the missionary, as has been noticed, toils laboriously in 
rotation through four separated congregations. In Glen- 
moriston, where the minister of the parish can. only make 
occasional visitations, the public ordinances of the National 
religion are celebrated every third Sunday by the mis- 
sionary established for that district, in connection with 
Abertarff in the parish of Boleskin, and Glengary in that 
of Kilmanivack, with a salary of 35 yearly. The com- 
mittee for managing this bounty have also appointed a 
catechist for the whole parish, with an allowance of 12 
yearly. The Society for Christian Knowledge have 
established a school in Glenmoriston, and another in the 
interior, upon the river of Urquhart; the first with an 
appointment of 15 yearly, and the other with one of 
10, to which 4 is added to his spouse, as mistress for 
the girls in sewing. The statutory accommodations of a 
house, kitchen garden, and the means of supporting a cow, 
are furnished in the districts. Both masters teach the 
reading of the Scriptures in the Gaelic as well as in the 
English tongue : and both also, as well as the catechist, 
are most assiduous in waiting on the people most remote 
from the situations of public worship ; instructing them 
on the Sundays in the principles and duties of religion, 
in assisting their devotions by prayer, and their Christian 
edification by reading the Holy Scriptures. The Society, 
with the country, are taking measures for establishing 



URQUHART FORMERLY RANSACKED BY CATERANS. 371 

another school in the track of country between the two 
districts, about the skirts of Mhalfourvonnie. 

In Urquhart, the number of the poor on the roll is 
about 30 ; with a capital of 100 bearing interest, the 
contributions in the assemblies of public worship make 
the fund equal to 15 yearly for their support; from 
which 2 4s. 6d. is allocated to the Clerk and Session 
officer. The fund for the poor of Glenmoriston, kept 
wholly apart from the other, is only about 3 of Church 
contributions, and the interest of 25, although their roll 
of poor exceeds that of the other district. 

The number of the inhabitants in the whole parish, by 
an accurate enumeration obtained since the Population 
Table was printed, amounts to 2355, exceeding the number 
stated in that Table by 306, and making the increase of 
the whole population of the province, since the year 
1755, equal to 537, instead of the 254 there stated. The 
whole inhabitants of both districts are of the National 
religion, except about 80 of the people of Glenmoriston, 
many of whom, in the absence of their own Roman 
Catholic clergyman, attend the meeting of their Pro- 
testant brethren. 

Miscellaneous Information. Before the year 1746, the 
parish was much distressed by the depredations of their 
neighbours in the western Highlands, who plundered 
their cattle and other property. The advantages of good 
government having reached the most uncivilised quarters 
of the island, property is now completely secure. For 
more than 30 years, all differences among the people 
have been most satisfactorily adjusted by a gentleman in 
the country, in the character of Baron of Bailie ; the 
people's money is thereby saved, and even the spirit 
itself of litigation dies gradually away. The people are 
religious, industrious, and loyal. In the year 1793, 80 
men entered cheerfully into the first fencible regiment. 
At present there is one company of volunteers in Urqu- 
hart, of 60 men ; and one in Glenmoriston, of 40. The 
length of the road that has been made, and is kept in 
repair by the parish, is about 50 miles. The fund for 
this object is a commutation for the statute labour of 2s. 
from each male above 15 years of age, and about 9 
assessed on the valued rent, at Id. sterling upon the 
pound Scots, amounting together to about the sum of 



372 AGRICULTURE IN URQUHART ; URQUHART CASTLE. 

60. The road from Inverness to the inn on the bank of 
the river of Urquhart, about 15 miles, was a grand under- 
taking : for a great way through the rocks of Abriechan, 
it required in many places the blast of gunpowder; 
besides the perseverance of the people, the county aid, 
and liberal subscriptions from the proprietors and gentle- 
men of the parish were bestowed. The modes of agricul- 
ture among the gentlemen are the same as in the low 
country. Sir James Grant has encouraged the improve- 
ment of his estate by donations of grass seeds to the 
smaller tenants : and he has built a lint mill, and gives 
similar donations of lint seed ; and the appearance of the 
people is much improved, by being dressed in linen of 
their own raising "and manufacture. 

There is plenty of limestone on Sir James Grant's 
estate, and he encourages its application as a manure by 
the free use of the quarry ; and by quarrying the stone at 
his own expense, and calcining it also for the poorer 
tenants, for cultivating ground in the waste, at the rate 
of about 300 bushels to the acre, and from the expense of 
fuel, the expense of each bushel is estimated at 4d., more 
than 100 acres of waste have of late been gained ; and 
the rents have been increased almost threefold in the 
course of the last 30 years : yet the situation and comforts 
of the people have been also in the same time greatly 
ameliorated. The price of provisions is regulated by the 
market of Inverness. Unmarried farm servants have 
raised their wages to about 6 sterling in the year ; and 
women servants to half that sum ; a day labourer, without 
victuals, gets Is. 

The Castle of Urquhart has been already described. 
It may be inferred, from its being an object of so 
much importance in the regard of Edward, the monarch 
of England, that we are not well informed of the 
state and circumstances of society in ancient times. Its 
walls are still decorated with a considerable quantity 
of cut freestone of a coarse texture and hardy quality : 
but the conjecture is hopeless about where it was found, 
and by what means it was transported ; when it is con- 
sidered, that a gentleman now found it most convenient 
to import the cut stone for his house from the quarries on 
the coast of Duffus.] (Survey of the Province of Moray.} 



BUNCHRIVE; PHOPACHIE; TOWER OF LOVAT. 373 

I now return to the Moray Firth, near Inver- 
ness, to take a view of 

KIBKHILL PARISH. 

The parish of Kirkhill, formerly called Ward- 
laiu, because the garrison of Lovat kept ward or 
watch, on this law or hill. In Irish it is called 
Knock-Mhuire, i.e. Mary's Hill, dedicated to the 
B. Virgin. This parish stretcheth about 3J miles 
on the side of the Firth, to the head of it at 
Beaulie ; and from the head of the Firth about 
1 \ miles, up the east side of Beaulie river ; and a 
ridge of hills to the east, separate it from the 
parish of Inverness. 

The Church standeth an half mile from the 
sea, and as much from the river; near 5 miles 
west from Inverness, and near 3 miles north-east 
from Kiltarlaty. In the east of the parish, on 
the Firth, is Bunchrive, sold by Inveralachie to 
Forbes of Culloden (as also sold to him Ferin- 
tosh), anno 1673. Next westward on the Firth is 
Phopachie. A branch of the Frasers had this 
land in mortgage near 150 years, but it was 
redeemed by the late Lord Lovat. A mile far- 
ther west, on the Firth, is Newtoun, the seat of 
Fraser of Dunballoch, a gentleman of a good 
fortune, and a baron. At the mouth of the river 
Beaulie, stood the Tower and Fort of Lovat, 
anciently the seat of the Bissets of Lovat, and 
afterwards of the Frasers, pleasantly situated on 



374 SITUATION OF THE PARISH OF KIRKHILL.- 

a rich and fertile soil. South of the Church is 
Achnagairn, the heritage of Duncan Fraser, 
Doctor of Medicine, descended of Fraser of Bella- 
drum. At the foot of the hills eastward, is the 
barony of Eelick, where James Fraser, lately of 
Eelick built a neat and convenient house at 
Easter Moniack. And close by it is the tower of 
Wester Moniack, once the seat of Fraser of 
Strichen, and the land continued to be the pro- 
perty of that family, until it was lately sold to 
the last Lord Lovat. The whole of this parish 
is a rich soil, fertile in corn and pasture ground. 

KIRKHILL. 

[Situation, Soil, Climate. This parish extends about 
5 miles from that of Inverness along the Firth to its head, 
and nearly 3 miles farther upon the bank of the river 
Beaulie, to the limits of the parish of Killtarlity. 

The plain or low country of Moray has been described 
as spread out along the shore, but contracting its breadth, 
as does also the firth, as they stretch towards the west. 
This great plain terminates upon the eastern confines of 
this parish, which may be conceived as an acclivity 
rising gently from the edge of the water to the breadth 
of nearly a mile. Westward of this, the Firth contracts so 
as to leave a plain along the bottom of a hill, which may 
be still regarded as one of those low ridges which it has 
been said diversify the champaign of Moray ; for behind 
this hill there is a vale, as if the river Beaulie had once 
occupied its southern, as it does now its northern side, 
mixed with the tide : by these two plains and the inter- 
vening hill, the breadth of the parish in its western 
quarter is expanded to the breadth of 3 miles. 

The soil in the lower part of the parish is a strong rich 
clay, producing, when properly cultivated, equal to any 
in Scotland ; but with improper treatment, liable in a dry 
season, to bind so fast as to stint the crop, and in a rainy 



TIJE PARISHES OF FARMEA AND WARDLAW. 375 



spring to chill the seed with cold : as the country rises, 
the soil becomes a fertile loam, yielding, though at times 
a lighter, yet a less precarious crop ; higher still in the 
country, the soil becomes lighter, incumbent on gravel, 
but in favourable seasons moderately productive. 

The climate is temperate and mild, less exposed to rain 
than the countries on the south and west : and the harvest 
is generally concluded by the middle or end of October. 

State of Property. The valued rent of the parish, 
shared among five proprietors, extends to the sum of 
2068 17s., of which the estate of Lovat comprises 
1093 10s. 4d. Reclig, the property of Edward Simon 
Fraser, extends to 170. Newtown, the estate of Major 
Thomas Fraser, extends to 384. Lentron, the freehold 
of Thomas Warrand, Esq., to 288. And Arthur Forbes 
of Culloden, Esq., has a valuation of 133 6s. 8d. The 
extent of the farms are from 10 to 15 of rent; about 
the number of eight rise to the extent of from 30 to 
60; and several artizans and labourers possess small 
farms, from 5s. to 5. The mean rent of the acre may 
be stated at 17s. 6d. exclusive of some lands, let about 30 
years ago, that as yet have not risen above 10s. the acre : 
the real rent is about 2000 sterling. The number of 
horses about 400, the black cattle about 800, and the 
sheep about 1000, of which 200 are of the Bakewell breed. 

State Ecclesiastical. The parishes of Farmea and Ward- 
law were united in 1618. In the original parish of Ward- 
law, at present the western district, the Church at first 
was placed at Dunballach, nearly 2 miles up the river. 
By the Pope's Bull, it was translated to its present station 
as early as 1220. There is one of the highest summits of 
the ridge of hill upon the coast of Duffus, called also 
the Wardlaw, still bearing testimony by their names to 
that miserable government under which our ancestors for 
many generations found it necessary to keep ward, or a 
watch upon the most commanding eminence of every 
district, to guard against the sudden inroad of some 
plundering band, or the invasion of some more formidable 
foe. On more than one account, therefore, this hill was 
found to be the most eligible situation for the Parish 
Church. The name of the other constituent parish, de- 
notes, in the Gaelic, that it was distinguished by groves 
of aller trees, with which it is still to some consideration 



376 STATE OF RELIGION IN THE PARISH OF KIRKHILL. 

embellished. The Gaelic name of the present parish is 
Cnock mhurie, Mary's hill ; having been a parsonage 
under the Roman Catholic dispensation, dedicated to the 
Blessed Virgin Mary. In the neighbourhood it is digni- 
fied by the name of " the hill " ; but in English it is less 
eminently particularised by the appellation of " Kirkhill." 
The stipend, including the allowance for the Communion, 
amounts to 52 14s. 2d. and 40 bolls of bear, and 40. bolls 
of oatmeal, with a glebe of about 7 acres. The right of 
patronage appertains to the family of Lovat. The salary 
of the parochial school is 11 2s. 2d., with the fees from 
about 60 scholars, and the customary emoluments of the 
office of Session Clerk. The Society for Christian Know- 
ledge have also established a school, with a salary of 12 
sterling, which retains about 70 scholars. 

The number of poor amounts to 50. The provision for 
them, made by the people in their assemblies for public 
worship, the hire of the pall, and the interest of a capital 
of 50, amounts in whole to about 14 in the year. The 
people altogether, excepting six Roman Catholics, are 
members of the National Church, and they amount to 
the number of 1190. 

Miscellaneous Information. In the course of the last 
50 years, greater progress has been made in the civilisa- 
tion of the people than for many centuries during the 
subsidence of the feudal establishment. While that sys- 
tem continued, every chieftain acted as an independent 
despot, committing depredations on the territory of his 
neighbours, as animosity prompted, or as avarice sug- 
gested; by these means the people upon contiguous 
estates were heated by mutual hatred and constant jeal- 
ousy. While the fruits of labour were precarious, the 
incitements to industry had no energy : while morals 
could neither procure the good will of the chief, nor 
ward off the lawless depredation of a neighbour, they 
could win no regard. The ordinances of religion, in 
the primitive times of Presbytery, were no doubt with 
the greatest punctuality, and some attention to propriety, 
dispensed: but religion was regarded here as beneath 
the notice of a race of warriors, and as inconsistent with 
gallantry and valour; sentiments easily impressed upon 
people who could not read, and who, through their 
ignorance and credulity, were the abject slaves of their 



ONSET UPON VAGABOND PREACHERS, ETC. 377 

tyrannical and selfish masters. The provisions, therefore, 
by the Government, for improving the powers of mind, 
have secured the fidelity of the lower orders of the 
people, by the sanctions both of temporal and of spiritual 
consideration. When Deistical sentiments were originally 
published, they at the first bore away the upper and 
middle ranks of people, who could then alone form any 
opinion of such sophistical speculations : the knowledge 
of letters has now no doubt opened a course for the same 
delusion among the lowest of the people ; and while the 
charms of novelty remain, as hath been the case upon the 
introduction of every religious sect, it is probable that 
many will be misled: but as it happened among the 
upper orders of society, truth will in due time prevail 
also among them. In the meantime their reasoning 
powers will become vastly improved, the eye of the mind 
become in all things more discerning, the craft of vaga- 
bond preachers, strolling quacks, and knavish fortune- 
tellers, will be all equally disposed ; and the unequalled 
blessings of the Christian religion, and of the British Con- 
stitution, will be more distinctly apprehended, and more 
universally revered.] (Survey of the Province of Moray.} 

Next south and west, is 

KILTAELATIE PAEISH. 

The parish of Kiltarlatie stretcheth on the east 
side of the river Farar, about 14 miles in length. 
This river riseth out of loch Monar, in the wes- 
tern hills of Boss, passing through G-len-Strath- 
Farar, the river of Glasater joineth its stream 
with it at Comer, and having watered the par- 
ishes of Kiltarlatie, Kelmorack, and Kirkhill, it 
falls into the head of the Moray Firth at Lovat, 
after a course of above 40 miles. This river 
divides Kiltarlatie from Kilmorack parish to the 
west, and a range of hills runneth between Kil- 



378 DOWNIE; BELLADRUM; STRATHGLASS. 

tarlatie, and Urquhart, and Glenmoriston, to 
the east. 

The Church standeth on the hank of the river r 
a mile above the lower end of the parish, near 3 
miles S.S.W. of Kirkhill, 6 miles north-west of 
Urquhart, and ahout a furlong E.N.E. of Kelmo- 
rack Church, that standeth on the opposite hank, 

A half mile below the Church is Downie or 
Beaufort, the seat of the late Lord Lovat, plea- 
santly situated on a rising ground near the river, 
and commanding a delightful view, hut not im- 
proved by art, as it is capable. This was a part 
of the estate of Sir John Bisset of Lovat, whose 
second daughter married Sir William Fenton, 
and brought him this barony of Beaufort or 
Downie, and their granddaughter heiress of Beau- 
fort married Hugh Fraser. A mile east of 
Downie, is Belladrum, the seat of a gentleman 
of the name of Fraser, descended of Fraser of 
Coulbokie ; and of Belladrum, are come the 
Frasers of Auchnagairn, Fingask, &c. At the 
confluence of the rivers above mentioned, is the 
seat of Fraser of Strawie, of whom Fraser of 
Eskdale, &c., is descended. The rest of this 
parish is planted by the Clan of Fraser, except 
Strathglass, that is inhabited by the Chisholms. 

Strathglass is a valley watered by the river 
Glas or Glassater, into which another river, flow- 
ing out of Loch Assarig, falleth at Comer, the 
seat of Eoderick Chisholm of Comer or Strath- 



CHISHOLM THE MALE HEIR OF STRATHGLASS. 371> 

glass, chief of that name. I have not learned 
upon what occasion the Chisholms sold their 
lands in Teviotdale, and made a purchase in the 
north, if it was not upon being made constables 
of the Castle of Urquhart. Sir Eobert Lauder 
was governor of that castle anno 1334 (Aber- 
crombie). His daughter and heiress was married 
to Sir Eobert Chisholm, also governor of the said 
castle (Hist. Kilr.), and by her got the lands of 
Quarrelwood, Kinsterie, Brightmonie, &c., and 
their daughter married Hugh Kose of Kilravock 
(Ibid.). John Chisholm of Quarrelwood suc- 
ceeded his brother Sir Eobert, and was father of 
Eobert Chisholm, whose daughter, and only 
child, Morella, married Alexander Sutherland of 
Duffus, and brought into that family the lands of 
Quarrelwood, Brightmonie, Kinstarie, &c., and 
the heir male of Chisholm enjoyeth the paternal 
estate of Strathglass. The frequent changes of 
the proprietors of land verify Horace's observa- 
tion. [Satir. II. Lib. II. Lin. 129.] 

Nam proprise Telluris Herum Natura, neque ilium, 
Nee me, nee quemquam statuit. . . . 
Nunc ager Umbreni sub nomine, nuper Ofelli 
Dictus, erit nulli proprius ; sed cedet in usum 
Nunc mini, nunc alii. 

Smart's Translation. For Nature has appointed to be per- 
petual lord of this earthly property, neither him, nor me, nor any 
one. Now this field goes under the denomination of Umbrenus', 
lately it was Ofellus', and shall be the absolute property of no 
man ; for it will turn to my use one while, and by and by to 
that of another. (ED.) 



380 SITUATION AND BOUNDARIES OF KILTARLITY. 



KILTARLITT. 

[Situation, Soil, Climate. The parishes which have 
been hitherto described upon the borders of the Province 
are bounded by the shore of the Moray Firth, here 
terminated in the river; which, as hath been suggested 
before, may have originally formed, and, similar to the 
rivers Clyde, Forth, and Tay, imparted at the first its 
own name to this great estuary ; and which the silly 
French epithet, Beaulieu, fine place, imposed by the 
monks both on the monastery and river, has not been 
able to obliterate. The river still retains the name of 
Varrar, which it bore in the days of Ptolemy : and the 
Firth of Varrar, is the denomination, without exception, 
adopted by every author who has had occasion to mention 
it in the Latin tongue. Its etymology maybe ascertained 
from what has been suggested relating to the import of 
the name Garmach, now Garmouth. 

From Kirkhill upon the east, the parish of Kiltarlity 
extends along the southern side of the river Varrar up to 
the influx of the Glass ; upon the southern side of which 
it is then continued westward to the mountains bordering 
on Kintail, being in part intersected by the Caimich, in 
its course from the lake of Asarig to its influx in the 
Glass ; but the estate of Erchless, a part of the fortune of 
the family of Chisholm, although upon the north side of 
the river, a little below the junction of the Glass, and 
almost intersecting the parish of Kilmorac in the synod 
of Ross, appertains to the parish of Kiltarlity. Towards 
the south, the parish spreads wide, and rises high, upon 
the mountains which border with Urquhart. In this 
quarter it is intersected by four brooks from the south- 
west and west, between as many broad moory ridges, 
which gradually ascend for nearly 2 miles, having some 
cultivated lands almost at their summits, and though now 
barren, and covered only by stinted heath, yet bearing 
the tokens of ancient cultivation over their whole extent, 
when the low grounds were marsh or forest, the haunt of 
noxious reptiles and ravenous beasts. The lower part of 
the parish is pretty level. The soil in general is light 
and thin, but in many places deep and fertile : it bears a 
considerable number of fruit trees, reckoned as productive 
as any in the north. The climate is healthful ; and 



THE SEAT OF CHISHOLM OF CHISHOLM. 381 

although there- is much less rain in the lower part of the 
country than in the district of Strathglass, where the 
clouds, mustered by eddying winds upon the brows of 
high mountains, dash down in heavy showers, but gene- 
rally spent before they reach the lower districts, yet the 
people living there are equally healthy with those in the 
most genial situation. 

State of Property. The parish contains 180 square 
miles, and nearly 92,000 acres, of which about the 30th 
part, or little more than 3000 acres are arable, under corn 
and potatoe, with the exception of a small proportion in 
sown grass and turnip. Besides the natural meadow and 
mountain pasturage, there are about 1200 acres in planta- 
tion, and nearly 5000 under natural wood, oak, aller, birch, 
and hazel. The valued rent, amounting to 2455 15s. is 
divided among 7 proprietors. 

The family seat of William Chisholm of Chisholm, the 
chieftain of the clan, is pleasantly situated at Erchless, in 
a sweeping bend of the river, upon its northern bank, a 
little below the junction of the Varar with the Glass. A 
great extent of rich and fertile cornfield lies around this 
great and elegant messuage, embellished with walks, 
gardens, groves, and much ground greatly ornamented. 
Its environs farther down the river are decorated by the 
picturesque Island of Agaish, an oval nearly 2 miles in 
circuit. Formed of hard and solid rock, it rises in a 
gentle slope about 100 feet above the river : covered with 
a variety of wood, it affords pasturage and shelter for 
sheep, goats, and a few cows, during the months of 
summer and harvest. Near its eastern end, the landscape 
is enlivened by a fall in the river, about 6 feet in height, 
and a sawmill ; 7 saws are wrought by 4 wheels, turning 
80 or 90 times in a minute, and cutting a log of 10 feet 
long, from end to end, in less than four minutes. This 
work was established in 1765, whereby a revenue of 
nearly 300 yearly is produced from the forests of the 
chieftain. The greater part of the timber is felled in the 
parish of Kilmorac, reduced into logs of 10 or 12 feet. It 
is drawn by horses, about 2 miles, to the water, to be 
Moated -along the three rivers that have been mentioned, 
for 30 or 40 miles, to the mill ; where, after being cut up, 
it must be still carried by horses below the fall of Kil- 
morac, about 3 miles farther down than the mill, where it 



382 BEAUFORT; THE FALL OF KILMORAC. 

is again floated in rafts to the firth, and thence trans- 
ported to Leith and London. The timber makes a yellow 
deal, and the most durable in Scotland. The vale of 
Strathglass extends backwards beyond the bounds of the 
province, into the parish of Kintail : but the valued rent 
of the Chisholm domains in the- parish of Kiltarlity 
amounts to 697 10s. 

Farther down the river is Beaufort, the family seat of 
Lovat, the Hon. Archibald Fraser. Its name denotes that 
it was originally a Fortress. On the north it was secured 
by a steep green bank, rising about 100 feet from the edge of 
the river : on the land side, it was guarded by two ditches, 
the nearest about 40, and the other about 300 yards from 
the walls. Although the traces of fortification may be 
still explored, the present edifice is a modern elegant 
palace, embellished by ornamented grounds, shrubbery, 
extensive plantation, and natural groves. The garden, 
almost itself a farm, is inclosed by a wall 18 feet in 
height, lined with brick, extended in various flexures 
upwards of 800 yards, opening right upon the sun from 
hour to hour, through the whole course of his diurnal 
rotation, and generally producing great quantities of the 
finest fruitage. It is watered, by a clear, copious stream, 
and enriched by a spacious hot-house, both of which could 
be easily restored to their pristine efficiency and trim. 

In the environs of this splendid mansion, is the grand 
Fall of Kilmorac. The torrents of many hills, and the 
streams from many lakes, united at last into the Varrar, 
sometimes in the Gaelic called the monks' river, and the 
Beauly, in the vicinity of the monastery, roll on a majestic 
volume, little inferior to the Spey, and rivalling the 
Clyde or Dee. It approaches this precipice, about 20 feet 
in height, as if unsuspicious of the Fall. Collected there, 
and hovering, doubtful, as it were, for a moment over 
the gulph, as if forced reluctant by the unconscious river 
behind, it is poured down without resistance, in one 
unbroken ponderous mass, with a sullen heavy plunge 
and an unvaried hollow roar. Rising again through the 
pressure of the deep water, with much less ebullition or 
violence than might be pre-supposed, it sluggishly occu- 
pies the bottom of a precipitous chasm, at such a depth 
below as to excite apprehension and dizziness on looking 
down into the shadowy abyss. The northern brow of 



LORD LOVAT'S SALMON-KETTLE; BELLADRUM. 383 

the cliff is decorated by a little handsome Tower, built by 
the minister upon the environs of the glebe of Kilmorac, 
from whence this great object may be viewed in the most 
comfortable circumstances, and to the greatest advantage. 
Having slowly won its passage through the rifted rock, 
the river winds in silence through the wooded dale, to 
meet the tide advancing between the contracted shores of 
the terminating Firth. 

Hundreds of salmon at times are seen below, attempting 
to spring up the Fall, and they bound, when in full vigour, 
to an amazing height. Unconscious of the unsurmount- 
able steep, they repeat their unavailing efforts; while 
many swerve so far to either hand, as to fall back upon a 
ledge of rock almost level with the water upon both its 
sides. Branches of trees have been arranged along the 
edges of these shelves, to prevent the fish from regaining 
the river: and by these simple means eight or twelve 
have been got in the course of a night. Here also the 
late Lord Lovat had a kettle placed over a fire, into which 
some of the fish unfortunately plunged ; and, boiled in 
this manner, were served up to dinner, with the marvel- 
lous recommendation to strangers, "that the fish had 
spontaneously vaulted from the river into the boiling 
kettle to be dressed : " which was afterwards explained 
by ocular inspection at the place. At these times, the 
salmon are frequently caught by a pole armed with three 
hooks joined back to back, dipped softly for only half a 
minute in the pool under the fall, and with a sudden jerk 
pulled back, generally hooks a fish by some part of the 
body. The valued rent of the estate in this parish is 
1090 6s. 8d. 

Eastward from Beaufort, under the mountain towards 
Urquhart, is Belladrum, the family seat of Colonel James 
Fraser ; a handsome modern house : the surrounding fields 
brought into the highest and most ornamental cultivation. 
The plantations were begun about the year 1760. Besides 
the decorations and fruit trees about the house, and a 
great extent of common fir, they consist of oak, ash, elm, 
beech, arid plane, various kinds of poplars, mountain ash, 
and service tree, besides larix, New England pine, spruce, 
and silver fir. The valued rent extends to 100 Scots. 

The parish is farther embellished by the family man- 
sions of other proprietors. The valued rent of Kilbockie, 



384 THE PRIORY OF BEAULY. 

appertaining to William Fraser, Esq., amounts to 379 5s. 
Baladoun, the property of Captain James Fraser, Esq., is 
67. That of Eskadale, to Captain Hugh Fraser, Esq., is 

96 13s. 4d. And Kellachy, to Fraser, is 25. The 

real rent of the parish amounts to about 2000 sterling. 
The rent of the arable acre varies from 5s. to 1. The land 
is cultivated by nearly 200 ploughs. The number of black 
cattle is estimated at 3000, horses about 720, sheep, 5200, 
and goats, 420 : about 200 of the sheep are an English 
breed, and highly improved. 

State Ecclesiastical. This parish is composed of the 
ancient Parsonage of Kiltarlity, dedicated to Saint 
Thalargus, and another parish, Glenconvent, in the 
southern quarter of the district, a Vicarage which apper- 
tained to the Priory of Beaulie; and that they might 
draw the more tithes, the annexation was made under 
that establishment. 

The Monastery itself, of the same order with that of 
Pluscarden, derived a considerable proportion of its revenue 
from tithes within the Province of Moray, upon the margin 
of which it was placed, within its boundary, though in 
the county of Inverness. It was established by James 
Biset, a gentleman of considerable rank in that country, 
in the year 1230. The only remains of the building are 
the walls of what had been the place of worship, bearing 
no trace of turret or steeple, or any ornament of architec- 
ture. The floor is almost covered with tombstones of 
various ages, many nearly coeval with the building itself: 
the most ancient, from their construction and form, 
appear to have been the lids of stone coffins ; on each is 
a large cross, surrounded by ancient vignettes, swords, 
animals, and other symbols, the import of which is not 
now to be defined. From there being no vestige of 
letters, it may be inferred, that writing was not in this 
country understood when these monuments were framed. 
As many of them must have been carved under the eye^ 
and probably by the hand of the clergy, they must cer- 
tainly have bore some written inscription, had the know- 
ledge of letters or reading penetrated at that time into 
this seat of instituted devotion. The earliest inscriptions 
are dated about 300 years after its foundation: they are 
in the Saxon character, upon the margin generally of an 
effigy of the deceased. But those more ancient monu- 



TOMNACROSS, PARISH OF KILTARLITY. 385 

ments, in which the cross is so variously exhibited as the 
principal among the symbols, become an interesting sub- 
ject of reflection. Before the knowledge of writing, these 
sculptured symbols must have had important allusions 
to the much venerated memorials of those regards, whi9h 
have ever been, at death, the most interesting concern of 
human life. These monuments, almost themselves oblit- 
erated, have proved faithless to the memory of the pious 
or respectable deceased, which they were intended to 
perpetuate. They have left undistinguished the characters 
which they were designed to celebrate, and they only 
serve to show, that the annals even of the tomb are 
perishable and transitory as the life of man. 

The situation of the Parish Church is denominated 
Tom-na-cross, the hillock of the cross. A little more 
than half an acre planted with fir, mingled with a few 
oak, birch, and elm, now almost eclipse the Church : and, 
after the manner of the most ancient religion in the 
island, public worship is still performed here in a grove. 
The stipend is 89 9s. 4d., and 46 bolls 3 firlpts and 1 
peck of barley. The right of patronage appertains to the 
honourable Archibald Fraser of Lovat. In the higher 
and remote parts of the parish, conjoined with a district 
of that quarter of the parish of Kilmorac, there is a mis- 
sionary clergyman established by the Royal bounty. He 
officiates in four separate districts, at considerable dis- 
tances from each other, with no little difficulty and toil. 
The salary of the Parochial School is 18 bolls 1 firlot 2 
pecks of 'barley, with the usual fees for teaching arith- 
metic, writing, and reading English, the highest attain- 
ments of the present teacher, and 1 13s. 4d. as the fee, 
besides the customary emoluments of the office of Session- 
Clerk. The tenants in the remote district retain by their 
own funds two young men, in their respective quarters, for 
teaching their children to read and write. The number of 
the poor enrolled amounts to 45. The provision for them, 
raised in the usual manner from the people, with the 
peculiarity of rents upon some of the pews in the Church,, 
amounts to about 10 yearly. The members of the 
National Church are 2009 ; and the Dissenters, of the 
Church of Rome, are 486. 

Miscellaneous Information. There are six Druid tem- 
ples within a mile of the Church : one of these is withm 

VOL. II. 25 



386 PARISHES LEFT OUT BY LACHLAN SHAW. 

the present Churchyard. A small farm near tfye Church 
is named Ard druigh naugh, the high place of the Druids : 
another place is named Blar-na-carrachan, the moor of 
the circles : and a third, Ball-na-carrachan, the town of 
the circles. About 2 miles east from the Church is situ- 
ated Castle Spynie ; in the Gaelic, Chastail spuinidh, the 
fortress of the spoil. The wall of the building is com- 
pletely circular, formed of stone without any kind of 
cement, about 10 feet thick, and 54 yards in circumfer- 
ence; it is placed on a. hill almost 800 feet above the 
plain, so as to be in view of Cnock Farril, a contemporary 
strong hold, in the parish of Fodderty on the north ; and 
on the west it is in sight of Dunfhionn,~F'mga].'s fort, which 
is situated on a conical hill, accessible only on the eastern 
side. It is also perfectly circular, about 60 yards in cir- 
cumference, just visible only above ground, but completely 
vitrified almost to the depth of 3 feet ; evidently, and at 
first view, the work of art, like Craig-Phadrick in Inver- 
ness, no way connected with volcanic productions. An 
old Record in Dunrobin Castle, it is said, explains this 
ancient mode of building: bearing, that a stranger had 
come from the south, into Sutherland, who had discovered 
an excellent cement for strong buildings, composed of iron 
ore mixed with other stone, vitrified by the force of fire.] 
{Survey of the Province of Moray.) 



PARISHES OMITTED IN SHAW'S 
HISTORY OF THE PROVINCE OF MORAY. 

ABERCHIRDER 

Was the old name of this parish, which is now called 
Marnoch, being dedicated to S. Marnoch, whose Feast is 
on the 2nd March, according to King and Camerarius, 
who place him A.D. 655. According to a Description of 
the parish, circa 1726, from a MS. account of Scottish 
Bishops, in the library at Slaines, there is a Stone named 
after him hollowed out a little in the middle, and lying 
on a hill where he commonly rested, called S. Mar nan's 
Chair. There is a Well near the Manse dedicated to him, 



KINNAIRDY; AUCHINTOUL ; CROMBIE; IN MARNOCH. 387 

and another at no great distance, called The Ladys Well 
An annual market, on the second Tuesday of March, is 
called Marnan Fair. On the bank of the Deveron is a 
place called Chapelton, where, no doubt, there was at one 
time a place of worship. Here is S. John's Well and S. 
John's Ford. Beneath the Church is S. Marnan's Ford. 

The Aberchirders of that ilk possessed this parish of 
old, till Innes of that ilk married the heiress, and so came 
to have this saint for his patron. 

A little below the Bridge of Marnoch stands the old 
tower-looking mansion of Kinnairdy, on a promontory at 
the junction of the burn of the same name with the 
Deveron. Its situation is peculiarly picturesque and 
commanding. The house is ancient, has been built at 
various periods, and was, together with much of the pro- 
perty of the parish, held by the Crichtons of Frendraught, 
in the neighbouring parish of Forgue. Dr. Dav^d ; Gregory, 
eldest son of David Gregory of Kinairdie, was Savilian 
Professor of Astronomy, Oxford. Born in 1661 ; died in 
1710. The Gregorys were illustrious in science for ages. 

The Donaldsons do now (1726) possess Kinnairdie, 
descended of an Elgin merchant, in the last age, as the 
Gordons do Ardmelie here, and the Duffs, Croinbie here. 
The old Castle of Crombie, consisting of three storeys, 
having the appearance of some strength, stands on the 
west side of the parish, and is the property of the Earl 
of Seafield. 

Near the centre of the parish is the mansion-house of 
Auchintoul, once the residence and property of General 
Alexander Gordon, who entered the service of Russia as a 
cadet under Peter the Great, and rose to high power and 
command in his army. He wrote in two volumes the 
history of his master and friend. He died set. 82, and 
was buried in the Churchyard of Marnoch, but no memo- 
rial marks the spot. 

From Registrum Episcopatus Moraviensis. 

1. Charter by King William the Lion to the monks of 

S. Thomas of Arbroath, of all claim to the patron- 
age of the Church of Aberchirder. A.D. 1203-1214. 

2. Charter by Brice, Bishop of Murray, to the monks of 

Arbroath, of the Church of Aberchirder. A.D. 
1203-1214. 



388 PARISH OF ABERCHIRDER. 

3. Charter by Gillecryst, Earl of Mar, to the monks of 

Arbroath, of all claim to the patronage of the 
Church of Aberchirder. A.D. 1203, A.D. 1214 

4. Charter by Brice, Bishop of Murray, to the monks 

of Arbroath, of the davach of land belonging to the 
Church of Aberchirder. A.D. 1203, A.D. 1222. 

5. Charter by the Chapter of the Cathedral Church of 

the Holy Trinity of Spyny, confirming the afore- 
said charter of Brice, their Bishop. A.D. 1214, 
A.D. 1224. 

6. Charter by Andrew, Bishop of Murray, to the monks 

of Arbroath, of the Church of Inverness and the 
Church of Aberchirder. A.D. 1223, A.D. 1242. 

7. Ordinance by the Bishop of Murray, regarding the 

vicarages of the Parish Churches of Inverness and 
Aberchirder. A.D. 1249. 

8. Bull of Pope Innocent V., confirming the afore- 

written ordinance. A.D. 1277. 

9. Obligation by Ralph, perpetual vicar of Aberchirder, 

to pay eight merks yearly to the monastery of S. 
Thomas of Arbroath. A.D. 1324. 

10. Appeal to the Apostolic See by the Abbot of 

Arbroath, against a process of the Bishop of 
Murray, with regard to the fruits of the parish 
Churches of Inverness and Aberchirder. A.D. 1371. 

11. Answer by the Bishop of Murray to the foregoing 

Appeal. A.D. 1371. 

12. Sentence of the Official of Murray against Sir John 

of Corshill, perpetual vicar of Aberchirder. 
A.D. 1375. 

13. Letter from the Bishop of Murray to the Lord 

Abbot of Arbroath, demanding payment of four 
merks from the Abbey's Churches of Aberchirder 
and Inverness, in name of the subsidy imposed on 
all benefices within the diocese, for the rebuilding 
of the Cathedral Church of Elgin. A.D. 1400. 

14. Presentation by the Abbot of Arbroath of Sir 

Alexander Symson, chaplain, to the vicarage of 
Aberchirder. AJX 1484. 

15. Lease by the Postulate confirmed of Arbroath, to 

James Innes of that ilk, of the great tithes of the 
Church of Aberchirder. A.D. 1485. 

16. Commission by the Abbot of Arbroath, appointing 



PARISH OF ABERCHIRDER. 389 

the Prior of Fyvie and two others to be his pro- 
curators in an action regarding the marches between 
the glebe and kirkland of Aberchirder and the 
barony of Aberchirder. A.D. 1493. 

17. Decree following on a perambulation of the afore- 

said marches by an assize sworn on the relics 
of S. Marnan. A.D. 1493. 

18. Charter by Symon, the thane of Aberchirder, to 

Sir Chris tin, chaplain of the chapel of S. Monan, 
confessor (1 March), on the bank of the Deveron, 
and to his successors in that office, of the haugh of 
Dolbrech, and of four merks of silver yearly from 
the Mill of Carnoustie. A.D. 1286, A.D. 1289. 

19. Inquest by the Bishop of Murray, as to the founda- 

tion of S. Monan's Chapel, by Symon, the thane of 
Conveth and Aberchirder. A.D. 1369. 

20. Charter by King Robert I., confirming the grant 

which Sybil of Middleton, daughter of Simon, the 
thane of Aberchirder, lady and heiress of the lands 
of Carnousie, made to Alexander of Meldrum and 
Isabel, his wife, of the davach of Wester Car- 
nousie, and the two particles of Culblathgus. 
A.D. 1328. 

21. Charter by King David II., to Sir Walter of Leslie, 

Knight of the thanages of Aberchirder and Kin- 
cardine ; with a provision that if the heirs of the 
old thanes should recover possession, Sir Walter 
should have the accustomed service and rent paid 
by them in time past to the Crown. A.D. 1369. 

22. Note of Charters of Aberchirder. A.D. 1296-1370. 

23. Charter of King David II. to Sir Walter of Lesley 

and Euphame, his wife, of the lands of the thanage 
of Aberchirder and the land of Blaresenache. 
A.D. 1369. 

24. Charter by King Robert II., confirming a grant 

by Sir Walter of Lesley, Knight, to Sir William of 
Lyndesay of the Byres, Knight, of the lands of 
Aberchirder. A.D. 1375. 

25. Charter by Alexander of Isla, Lord of the Isles and 

Earl of Ross (grandson of Sir Walter of Lesley), 
confirming a grant by Sir John of Lyndesay, Lord 
of Byres, to Sir Walter of Innes, Knight of the 
barony of Aberchirder. A.D. 1439. 



390 CHARTERS REFERRING TO LANDS IN ABERCHIRDER. 

26. Notes of Charters of the lands of Aberchirder. 

A.D. 1426-1484. 

27. Notices of the family of Aberchirder of that ilk. 

A.D. 1296-1446. 

28. Notes of Actions before the Lords of Council and 

the Lords Auditors of Causes and Complaints, 
regarding the lands of Aberchirder, Crombie, and 
others, belonging to the laird of Innes. A.D. 
1479-1493. 

29. Decree of the Lords Auditors of Causes and Com- 

plaints, finding a yearly payment of sixty shillings 
due to Merser of Mekilloure, from the lands of 
Netherdale. A.D. 1471. 

30. Notes of Charters of the lands of Netherdale, 

Pettindreich, and others. A.D. 1329-1406. 

31. Decree of the Lords of Council, finding that 

Alexander Glaster of the Glack should pay to 
John of Gordon of Lungar, the value of the lands 
of Crombie, sold but not delivered by Glaster to 
Gordon. A.D. 1493. 

32. Note of a Charter by John, Lord Lyndesay of the 

Byres, to Murdo Glaster of Glack, of the lands of 
Crombie. A.D. 1489. 

33. Declaration by Alexander Glaster of Glack, in pre- 

sence of the Lords Auditors of Causes and Com- 
plaints and of the Lord Chancellor, That he ratified 
the sale made by him in time past to John Gordon 
of Auchluchery, of the lands of Hilton, Cromby, 
Little Warthill, and Harland. A.D. 1493. 

34. In " Ane Rentall of the Freris Predicatoris of Elgin, 

in Anno 1555," occurs : " Item, the baronie of 
Abircheirdor, x merkis." 

EPITAPHS IN MARNOCH CHURCHYARD. 

The Kirk of Abirherdour, now Marnoch, a vicarage of 
the Cathedral of Moray, was given by King William the 
Lion to the Abbey of Arbroath. Between 1203-14, 
Gilchrist, Earl of Mar, gave the same convent the patron- 
age of the Church of Aberchirder, the right to which he 
had successfully contested with the King and the Bishop 
of Moray. 

According to tradition, S. Marnan, who flourished about 
the middle of the 7th century, "dyed very old, and was 



TOMB OF REV. GEO. MELDRUM OF CROMBIE. 391 

buried at Aberchirdir." A ford on the Deveron, and a 
well near the Church, still bear his name. Possibly there 
was an altar to Our Lady in the Church in old times, as 
an adjoining spring is named Lady Well. 

The present Church, which was removed from the kirk- 
yard about the beginning of the present century, occupies 
the site of a stone circle, upon a rising ground to the north- 
east. Like many parish churches of the period, that of 
Marnoch presents little worthy of notice, save two material 
wants elegance in design and beauty of situation to 
the latter of which the old site, on the banks of the 
Deveron, forms quite a contrast. 

Little of the old Kirk of Marnoch remains, and a vault, 
or place where bodies were deposited, prior to interment, 
during the resurrection mania, " built by subscription in 
the year 1832," is now an object of little interest. Some 
of the tombs, however, are of a superior class. One, in 
the north-east corner of the enclosure, was, according to 
local story, executed by a common mason at Crombie. It 
is of Elgin freestone, dated 1694, and presents, impaled, 
the arms of Meldrum of Laithers and Duff of Braco, sur- 
rounded by an elegant scroll ornament. Within an oval, 
the half-length life-sized effigy of a bearded ecclesiastic, 
with cap, frill, and gown, is carved in bold relief a scroll 
is in the right hand and a book in the left. Below (upon 
an oblong oval and convex piece of polished Portsoy 
marble) is the following inscription : 

I. Hie jacet reverendus et pius defunctus D. Georgius 
Meldrum de Crombie, quondam de Glass, praeco fidelissimus, 
qui officio pastorali, dum ferebant tempora, diligenter functus 
erat. Dives enira fuit non avarus, lucri gratia conscientiam 
violare noluit, pacifice et sobrie vixit, et hinc migravit anno 
Dom. 1692, setatis suse 76. 

[Here lies the late reverend and pious Mr. George Meldrum 
of Crombie, sometime of Glass, a faithful preacher, who, while 
the times permitted, diligently discharged the duties of his 
pastoral office. Not being avaricious, he was rich, and would 
not do violence to his conscience for the sake of gain ; he lived 
peaceably and soberly, and departed hence A.D. 1692, in the 
76th year of his age.] 

Mr. M., who previously " exercised " at Aberdeen, was 
admitted minister of Glass in 1644, and there, in 1650, 
one of his elders, in the presence of the session (alluding 



392 MELDRUM OF CROMBIE ; THE ARDMEALIE GORDONS. 

to some reported fama), declared he had heard a parish- 
ioner say that " he sould cause that lowne the minister 
haue a fowll face ! " Mr. M.'s father was laird of Laithers, 
and his mother was a sister of Adam Duff of Clunybeg. 
Mr. George Meldrum is said to have had three daughters. 
Besides Crombie, in Marnoch, Mr. Meldrum held large 
possessions in the parishes of Turriff and Inverkeithny, 
&c., in all which he was succeeded by John Ramsay of 
Melrose, in Gamrie, as heir of entail. Crombie (the old 
house of which still stands) was previously possessed by 
Walter Urquhart, who, along with a number of accom- 
plices, was charged with the murder of a brother of Lord 
Frendraught in 1642. 

A flagstone, which forms the entrance to a vault, within 
the same enclosure as the last-mentioned monumuent, 
bears : 

II. This is now the burial place of the family of Ardmealie, 
being a gift from William Duff of Crombie to James Gordon of 
Ardmealie, his nephew, who died 31 July, 1791. 

The Ardmealie Gordons were a branch of those of 
Craig. From Gordons the property of Ardmealie was 
bought by Morrison of Auchentoul, father of the pre- 
sent laird of Bognie. It afterwards belonged to Edward 
Ellice, Esq., M.P., from whom it and Mayen were 
bought by the trustees of the undermentioned Mr. 
Gordon of Avochie, who sold Drumlithie in the Mearns 
to Mr. Miller : 

III. In memory of John Gordon, Esq. of Avochie and Mayen, 
who died the 27 of Nov., 1857, aged 60 years. 

The above-named Mr. Gordon succeeded his father, a 
W.S. in Edinburgh, in the lands of Avochie. Upon his 
death in 1857, Avochie and Mayen came, by entail, to the 
present laird, Adam Hay. Mr. Hay is also a W.S., and 
the son of a sister of the last-named Mr. Gordon's father. 
Mr. Hay assumes the name of Hay-Gordon (v. Kinore). 

An adjoining enclosure contains marble tablets, respec- 
tively inscribed as follow : 

IV. Within this vault are deposited the remains of John 
Innes of Muiryfold, Esq. Distinguished for judgment, candour, 
and integrity, he employed those qualities with cheerful and 
unremitting application in the service of his friends and his 



FAMILY OF ROSE-INNES, CHURCHYARD OF MARNOCH. 393 

neighbours. In domestick life, an affectionate husband and 
generous master; in society, a most agreeable companion. 
Born 11 March, 1729, he died lamented 3 Oct., 1780. This 
vault and monument were erected at the request of his discon- 
.solate widow, Helen, daughter of Peter Gordon of Ardmealie 
Esq. 

Mr. Innes, who was a W.S. in Edinburgh, was descended 
from the Edingight family, and inherited Muiryfold from 
his father. Leaving no issue, he was succeeded by the 
daughter of his younger brother, Thomas Innes of Monellie. 
The latter, also a W.S., died at Edinburgh, 6th Sept., 
1779, and was buried in the Greyfriars' Churchyard. Mr. 
T. Innes' daughter married James, a son of Rose of Gask, 
near Turriff, who was descended from John of Ballivat, 
2nd son of the Hugh Rose of Kilravock who died in 1517. 
Mr. Rose assumed the name of Rose-Innes. His death is 
thus recorded at Marnoch upon a marble slab : 

V. To the memory of James Rose-Innes, spouse to Elizabeth- 
Mary Innes of Netherdale: died 4 Aug., 1814, aged 40. 
Their eldest and second sons, Thomas and William, died in 
infancy respectively in 1799 and 1800.] 

The following, from another tablet, shows that Mrs. 
Rose-Innes survived her husband for about 37 years: 

VI. To the memory of Mrs. Elizabeth-Mary Rose-Innes of 
Netherdale, who died at Netherdale, 17 Jan., 1851, aged 73. 

The property and mansion-house of Netherdale are 
beautifully situated upon the north bank of the Deveron. 
Netherdale, originally called Pittendriech, and Mains of 
Fyvie, were acquired by Mr. Innes from the Earl of Fife 
in excambion for Muiryfold. The present name was 
given the property, and the house built, by Miss Innes 
about 1795, when she married Mr. Rose. 

VII. To the memory of Georgina Gilzean, spouse of James 
Rose-Innes, third son of James Rose-Innes and Elizabeth-Mary, 
his spouse : died 10 Oct., 1836, aged 28. Elizabeth Mary, only 
daughter of James Rose-Innes and Georgina Gilzean, died aged 
14 years and 9 months. James Rose-Innes, spouse of Georgina 
Gilzean, died 10 June, 1845, aged 44. 

James Rose-Innes, W.S., who died in 1845, was 3rd son 
of the heiress of Netherdale. His wife (who predeceased 
him in 1836) was a daughter of Mr. Gilzean of Bunachton, 
Inverness-shire. Their son, T. Gilzean Rose-Innes, now 



394 MONUMENT TO REV. HUGH CHALMERS, MARNOCH. 

laird of Netherdale, married Grace, daughter of Mr. Fraser, 
W.S., Edinburgh. Besides the family already named, the 
heiress of Netherdale had a daughter (who lives at Neth- 
erdale Cottage) and three sons ; John, a merchant in 
London, who died in 1867 ; Captain Patrick, of Blachrie 
House, Fyvie (to whose kindness I am obliged for notes 
regarding his family) ; and George, of Ardfour, a solicitor 
in London. 

A monument, with the Chalmers' and Innes' coats 
impaled, initialed M. H. C. : E. I., and dated 1709, con- 
tains this inscription : 

VIII. Sub hoc monumento reconduntur exuviae M ri Hugonis 
Chalmers, qui ecclesise hujus Marnochensis A.D. 36 circiter 
annos pastoris officio fidelissime functus est. Doctus absque 
vanitate, pius citra ostentationem, gravis sed non morosus, 
veritatem pacemque constantissime coluit, et tandem, exacto 59 
annorum curriculo, ex hac serumnosa lachrymarum valle in 
patriam ccelestem commigravit quinto die Junii, 1707. 

[Under this monument are laid the remains of Mr. Hugh 
Chalmers, who, for about 36 years, discharged with the greatest 
fidelity the office of pastor of this church of Marnoch. Learned 
without vanity, pious without ostentation, grave but not morose, 
he constantly studied truth and peace, and at length, after a 
career of 59 years, departed from this sorrowful valley of tears 
to the heavenly land, 5th June, 1707.] 

Upon a flat stone in area of burial ground : 

IX. John Taylor, Mill of Crombie, d. 1721, a. 44; Margt. 
Johnston, his wf., d. 1748, a. 61 

Here lyes the man and wife, whose actions just, 
Still blooms afresh, tho' now they're turn'd to dust ; 
Unlearned were both, yet from God's laws ne'er swerv'd, 
Eeliev'd in Christ, and him they daily serv'd. 
Be thankful then, since ye're like labourers sent 
The more's required of them where much is lent ; 
In memory of their honest lives and deaths 
William, their son, this stone bequeaths. 

Near the above : 

X. Here lyes the body of William Thain, lauful son to Patrick 
Thain in Euchrie, who died the 22 of March, 1755 

Though now a somewhat uncommon surname, Thain is 
one of some antiquity in the district ; and it is interesting 
to notice that in connection with the very place named in 



JOHN SIMPSON'S LIBERALITY TO MARXOCH. 395 

this inscription, " Patryk Thane the aid wycar of Inuer- 
kethny," was, in 1493, one of several persons who per- 
ambulated the lands of " Yochry et Achbrady," as part of 
the kirk lands of Aberchirder. Yochry, Eochry, or Echry, 
is a sort of peninsula or headland of the Deveron, and 
may have its name from having abounded at one time in 
yew trees. 

Upon a table-shaped stone : 

XI. Sacred to the memory of James Simpson, who departed 
this life January 30, 1777, aged 62 years; and Isobel Mackie, 
his wife, who died 26 May, 1787, aged 68 years. This stone 
is erected by their son, John Simpson, merchant in Quebec. 

When we devote our youth to God, &c. 

John Simpson died Oct. 30, 1858, aged 83. William Simpson 
died 3 Nov., 1867, aged 55. 

A stone slab in a pillar of the kirkyard gate preserves 
this record of John Simpson's birth, and of his liberality 
to the heritors of the parish of Marnoch : 

XII. John Simpson, mercht. in Quebec, was born in the 
parish of Marnoch A.D. 1747, and at his sole expense erected 
these churchyard walls, A.D. 1793. 

XIII. Jas. Watson, gardener, Ardmeallie, d. 1780, a. 79 

A humourous, sympathising friend, 
Whose bones lies in this dark abode ; 
Companion was for high or mean, 
Regarding man and fearing God. 

The next two inscriptions are chiefly remarkable for 
their orthographical peculiarities : 

XIV. Memento moeriy. AReCTed By RObeRT GRaY 
shoemaker in CrANNA TO THE MEMORY OF HIS son Robert 
and daughter Jean who departed this life Octr. 30 Nov. 12 
1817. In memory of his Mother isabel layen who departed 
this life 1822 aged 73. 

XV. Memento mori. His Fader R. G. MaSSaN IN FOggLON 
WhO DEParted This Life The 22 OF ApriL 1782 Egged 30. 

Upon a headstone : 

XVI. To the memory of the late George Christie, tinsmith 
and engraver, Fergustown, who died 10 Feb., 1860, aged 58 
Erected by his friends and acquaintances as a token of their 
admiration of his honest industry, moral worth, intelligence, 



396 REV. JOHN EDWARDS, MINISTER OF MARNOCH. 

and self-acquired mechanical genius. Here rests a prisoner 
now released. 

Upon a marble slab : 

XVII. Sacred to the memory of the Rev. John Edwards, 
who died on the 1st day of October, 1848, in the 57th year of 
his age, and the 9th of his ministry. Post nubila coelum. 

Mr. Edwards was the son of a small farmer in the 
parish of Grange. He was schoolmaster first of Boharm, 
next of his native parish. The Earl of Fife presented 
him to the living of Marnoch in 1837. Being vetoed by 
the people, application was then made by the Presbytery 
of Strathbogie to the superior ecclesiastical courts for 
advice how to act in the matter. The Church-courts 
advised the rejection of the Presentee on the other hand, 
the Court of Session ordered his admission to the charge 
" if found competent." Four members of the Presbytery 
voted for the former, and seven for the latter course, upon 
which the General Assembly deposed the majority, and 
also deprived the Presentee of his license. After Mr. 
Edwards was vetoed, the patron issued a new presentation 
in favour of the Rev. David Henry, assistant to the previ- 
.ous minister. Mr. Henry was " the choice of the people," 
and inducted by a minority of the Presbytery. Being set 
aside, under the above circumstances, Mr. Henry continued 
to labour at Aberchirder to a large congregation in the 
Free Church, and died there in 1870. He was joined 
(M'Cosh's Wheat and the Chaff}, by two of the original 
protesting ministers of Strathbogie ! It need scarcely be 
added that " the Marnoch Case " caused the passing of 
Lord Aberdeen's Church Act, also that it hastened the 
Disruption of 1843, and that the seven, as well as Mr. 
Edwards, were reponed to the office of the ministry. 
Jervise's Epitaphs. 

BOTARIE, or S. Martin's Kirk. 

BOTRIPHNIE, or S. Fumac's Kirk. 

CAIRNIE. 

DRUMDELGIE, S. Peter's Kirk , or The Burnt Kirk of 
Strathbogy. 

GRANGE or Strathisla. 

Minute details of the above five are given in my " Book 
of the Chronicles of Keith," &c. (ED.) 



EPITAPHS IN THE CHURCHYARD OF DTJNBENNAN. 397 



DUNBENNAN, 

Which is surrounded on three sides by hills, lies 
nearly two miles to the north of the town of Huiitly, in 
the middle of a plain, through which flows the Deveron. 
The name Dunben-an ( ? the fort on the hill of the river) 
possibly points to an early place of strength that may 
have occupied the top of some of the hills upon the left of 
the Churchyard, thus commanding the passes to and from 
the district in all directions. 

Part of the south aisle of the old Kirk stands within the 
burial ground, and upon a slab built into the wall are the 
words " Georgivs Camerarivs," which may refer to the 
Rev. George Chalmers, who was translated from Botarie 
(Cairnie) to Huntly, where he died in 1626, aged 54. 

On an adjoining slab are curiously carved mortuary 
emblems a skull, mattock, and crossed bones and, what 
is more remarkable, a representation of the Holy Coat of 
Treves, flanked by the words MORTVI DIVITI. Round 
the margin of the stone are these traces of an inscription 

I. ... VNTVR . IN . DNO . me . SPOVS . IOHN . ANDERSONE . 
AND . MAISTER . ANDRO . ANDERSONE . vi. . . . 

II. The initials I A., flanking a shield charged with the 
Anderson arms (a saltire between three stars, and a cres- 
cent in base), are in the middle of a slab which exhibits 
the following fragmentary inscription : 

. . . DERSONE . AND . GEILIS . BRAND . . . THE . . . S . . 

R . BEARNIS . . . AND . FREND ... IN . HONOREM . DEI . .* 

MEMORIAM . PARENTUM . EREXIT . lACOBUS . ANDERSONE 

1627 ... 

The above were probably ancestors of George Anderson, 
gentleman, tenant in Dunbennan, and Jean Stewart, his 
wife, who were both charged 3 12s. Scots for poll in 1696. 

From a table-stone : 

III. To preserve the burying ground, and in pious regard to 
the memory of James Petrie and Marg. Gordon in Huntly, 1701. 
Geo., their eldest son, and Jean Gordon there, 1727 & 1740 
Colin, youngest son, 

and Isab. Alexr. in Auchintender, - 

John, eldest son to Colin, in Piries Miln, - - - 

Jean & Ann, daughter to Colin, - 173 



398 BISHOP PETRIES STONE IN DUNBENNAN CHURCHYARD. 

Also are interred here, the remains of Isabella Petrie, who died 
the 26th day of March, 1843, aged 88 years. This stone was 
humbly dedicated by James, third son to Colin, in Kirton 
Miln, 1781 

Whose body too lies here consigned to rest, 
In hope with them to rise among the blest ; 
Sweet be their sleep, and blest their wakening be, 
Reader, pray thou for them who pray for thee. 
R. I. P. 

In 1696 the poll of James Petrie, merchant in Rawesof 
Huntly, his wife Margaret Gordon, and their daughter 
Janet, is stated at 18s., while that of his son George, who 
is described as a " messenger," also in Rawes, and his 
wife Jean Gordon, is set down at 4 12s. 9d. Scots. From 
one or other of the above-named was descended Bishop 
Petrie, to whose memory an adjoining table-stone bears 
this inscription : 

IV. Quern tegit hie cippus, fratrum pietate locatus, 

Arthurum Petrie, lector amice, luge, 
Praesul apud Moravos doctus, pius, atque fidelis, 

Dilecti et merito nominis ille fuit. 
Post vitae undena et sacri duo lustra laboris 
Ah ! nimium propere, non rediturus abit. 
Parce tamen lachrymis : melioris gaudia vitse 
Quamque unam coluit prsemia pacis habet. 
Ob. Apr. 19mo., 1787, aet 56, Pontificatus Rossen. etMoravien 
llmo., R.I.P. 

Translation. Kind reader, mourn for Arthur Petrie, whom 
this stone, erected by the piety of his brethren, covers. A 
learned, pious, and faithful Bishop of Moray, he was deservedly 
beloved. After a life of 55 years, and 10 years of sacred 
work, he departed, alas ! too soon, never to return. Yet spare 
your tears ; he possesses the joys of a better life, and the re- 
wards of the peace which he ever studiously cultivated. He 
died April 19th, 1787, in the 56th year of his age, and the llth 
of his Episcopate of Ross and Moray. May he rest in peace. 

Mr. Petrie was consecrated Bishop-Coadjutor of Moray 
at Dundee in 1776, and in 1777 became sole Bishop of the 
diocese. He was afterwards Bishop of the united Diocese 
of Moray, Ross, and Caithness, and died at Meiklefolla, in 
Aberdeenshire, where he was long the resident clergy- 
man. A headstone to another member of the family 
bears : 



MEMORIALS OF THE REVS. JAS. MONRO AND WALKER. 399 

V. This stone is erected by Lieut. -Col. Al. Petrie, in memory 
of John Petrie, who died in Pirie's Mill, and of Isabel Cruick- 
shank, his spouse. Also of their daughter Ellen, who died in 
, . . and Elspet . . . James, their son. . . . 

Upon a slab at the Mill of Huntly is the following, 
which probably refers to a member of the same family : 

VI. 1642 1688 
Wm. Petrie, 1798 * 

From a table-stone : 

VII. This stone is erected by Mrs. Cruickshank, to the 
memory of her husband, Alexander Cruickshank of Balnoon, 
who died Janry. 1st, 1768, in the 64th year of his age. 

Also from a table-stone : 

VIII. The remains of the Revd. George Ross Monro, late 
minister of Huntly, are deposited here. He discharged with 
zeal and kindness the duties of his office for 21 years, and died 
10th March, 1822, aged 52. The remains of Mrs. Margaret 
Reid, his first wife, are also here interred. She died 1804. 

Their youngest daughter was the first wife of J. D. 
Milne, Esq. of Melgum, advocate, Aberdeen. 

IX. Sacred to the memory of Mrs. Mary Stark, a sincere and 
pious Christian. She was widow of the Rev. James Monro, 
Minister of Cromarty. After his death she resided in Huntly, 
where her eldest son was Minister, and died there on the 6th 
April, 1822, aged 82 years. Also her daughter, Mrs. Jean 
Hall, who died 8th March, 1839, aged 73. Mary Monro, who 
died 19th February, 1863. 

The next refers to Mr. Monro's immediate successor : 

X. In affectionate remembrance of the Rev. James Walker, 
Minister of Huntly for forty-eight years. Ordained 27th 
March, 1823, died 27th August, 1875, aged 76. Erected by 
Friends and Sabbath School Scholars. 

He was tutor in the family of Sir James Bos well of 
Auchenleck, baronet, at the time he received the presenta- 
tion to the Church of Huntly ; and was a witness at the 
trial of Mr. Stewart of Dunearn for killing Sir Alex. 
Boswell in a duel at Balbarton, near Auchtentool, in Fife, 
26th March, 1822. 



400 REV. JAMES WALKER, EPISCOPAL MINISTER. 

From a granite slab built into the south wall of the 
aisle : 

XL In memory of the Eeverend James Walker, Episcopal 
clergyman in Huntly, who died on the 6th day of April, 1843, 
in the 81st year of his age and 60th of his ministry. Also of 
Harriet Christian Walker, his daughter, who died at Huntly, 
3rd Feb., 1860, aged 46. Also of Jean Panton, wife of the 
Rev. James Walker, who died 19th June, 1863. 

[Their daughter Mary lies at Dipple.] 

Among other marriages which Mr. Walker solemnized 
when at Huntly was that of Col. Wm. Wemyss, son of Col. 
Wemyss of Wemyss Castle, and the Hon. Isabella, daughter 
of the Earl of Errol. It took place at Huntly Lodge 14th 
April, 1821, in presence of the Marquisof Huntly and his 
Chamberlain, Edward Wagstaff. This lady's youngest sister 
was afterwards married to the late Capt. Wemyss, R.N., 
M.P., &c. 

Upon a plain headstone : 

XII. In memory of Walter Vass, late Supervisor of Excise 
at Huntly, who died 28th May, 1814, aged 43 years. 1816. 
Erected by Officers of Excise in Elgin Collection. 

From a headstone : 

XIII. In memory of Marion Walker Hill, who died 19th 
Janry., 1843, aged 23. This stone, with the cordial acquies- 
cence of her mourning relatives, is erected by her young friends 
of the congregation under the pastoral care of her father, as a 
testimony of their respect. May they all follow her in so far 
as she followed Christ. She is not dead, but sleepeth. Here 
also are deposited the ashes of four of his children Marion's 
twin sister, a younger sister, and two brothers, all of whom 
died in infancy. 

They died, for Adam sinned, 
They live, for Jesus died. 

From a table-stone : 

XIV. This is the Burriall-ground of George Barclay, mer- 
chant, and one of the first fewers of Huntly, who died in the 
63rd year of age, and in the yer 1736 ; and of Margaret 
Guthrie, his wife, who died in the yer 1749, and in the 83d of 
age, who both lived and died with ane honest and unblemished 
chariktor. Mary Bremner, late spouse of Eobert Barclay, in 
Newbigging, died 1783, aged 63 ; her husband died 1790, 
aged 36. 



REVS. GEORGE COWIE AND JAMES MILLAR. 401 

George Barclay, merchant in Rawes of Huntly, and bis 
wife, Isobell Guthrie, their stock being above 100 merks 
and under 500, paid 18s. of poll in 1696. 

A table-shaped stone bears : 

XV. This stone is erected to the memory of the Rev. George 
Cowie, late Minister of the Gospel at Huntly, who departed 
this life on the fourth of April, 1806, in the fifty-seventh year 
of his age and twenty-seventh of his ministry. Likewise 
Isobell Clark, his spouse, who died 27th July, 1816, aged 
60 years. 

Mr. C., originally an Anti-Burgher, was the first minis- 
ter of the Independent Church in Huntly, and was pos- 
sibly one of the earliest encouragers of Revival meetings, 
for which, long after, under the late Duchess of Gordon's 
patronage, Huntly became somewhat famous. The writer 
of the New Statistical Account (p. 1042) says of Mr. C. 
that " to this day, his aphoristic sayings are often quoted, 
and his memory is affectionately cherished by many of 
the old people in the parish." 

From a slab in the old wall : 

XVI. In memory of Margaret Wagstaff, aged 34 years, who 
died September 21st, 1810 deeply lamented by all who knew 
her, the surest testimony of her worth and amiable qualities. 

This is a member of a family that were long in the ser- 
vice of the Dukes of Gordon. They came from England, 
and the name, which is of some antiquity, appears to 
have been assumed from the office of Wakestaff, or City 
Watchman. 

Upon an obelisk : 

XVII. In memory of the Rev. James Millar, lately Minister 
of the United Presbyterian Congregation, Huntly, who died at 
Whitehill, Grange, 16th October, 1863, in the 87th year of his 
age, and 49th of his ministry. In memory also of his spouse, 
Helen Grant Primrose, who died 22nd July, 1848, aged 52 
years. For Christ they lived, and in the sure hope of being 
with Christ they fell asleep. Erected by their family. 

One head and four table-stones, within an enclosure, 
bear inscriptions (here abridged) to the memory of 

P-] 

XVIII. William Forsyth, merchant in Huntly, died 1759, 
aged 72. His wife, Elspet Gerard, died 1774, aged 80. 

VOL. ii. 26 



402 THE FORSYTES ; SCOTT OF CRAIBSTONE ; HIS HOSPITAL. 

[2.] 

XIX. Alexander Forsyth, merchant in Huntly, died 1793, 
aged 63. His spouse, Margaret Dtmbar, died 1825, aged 66. 
[The deaths of three of their children, Osbert, George, and 
Margaret, are also recorded.] 

[3.] 

XX. William Forsyth, Esq., died 1810, aged 89, and Jane 
Phyn, his wife, died 1811, aged 79. Their second son, William, 
died 1793, aged 37 j eighth son, Robert, Major, 60th Kegt., 
died 1825, aged 59 ; fifth son, Thomas, of Montreal, died at 
Huntly, 1832, aged 72 ; third son, Alexander, died at Huntly, 
1843, aged 85. Their only daughter, Margaret, died 1863, 
aged 86. 

[4-] 

XXI. Osbert Forsyth, late of Cornhill, London, died at 
Huntly in 1833, aged 63. Isabella Reid, his spouse, died 
1863, aged 72. 

[5-] 

XXII. The Rev. Morris Forsyth, Minister of the Gospel at 
Mortlach, died at Huntly, 1838, in the 67th year of his age, and 
the 33d year of his ministry. Mrs. Isabella Donaldson, his 
relict, died 1852. 

Mr. Forsyth, whose wife was a daughter of Mr. James 
Donaldson of Kinairdy in Marnoch, has also a tombstone 
in Mortlach. 

Upon a table-stone enclosed : 

XXIII. In memory of Alexander Scott, manufacturer in 
Huntly, who died 24th April, 1807, aged 73 also of his 
daughter, Margaret, aged 4, and Walter, his son, who died in 
infancy. Also of Elizabeth Burgie, wife of the said Alexander 
Scott, who died Dec., 1813, aged 83. And also of their son, 
Alexander Scott of Craibstone, who died the 10th of June, 
1833, aged 66 ; and of Catharine, his wife, eldest daughter of 
John Forbes of Boyndlie, who died at Craibstone the 21st of 
Jan., A.D., 1855, aged 70. 2 Tim. i. 18. 

Mr. Scott, who made money in India as a medical prac- 
titioner, founded in the University of Aberdeen two 
theological bursaries of the yearly values of 20 and 
16 10s. respectively, and also left the lands of Craibstone, 
&c., near that city, for the erection and endowment of an 
Hospital at Huntly, as is thus recorded upon a slab of 



DR. MACGRIGOR ; ALEX. DONALD ; THE JESSEMANS. 408 

Peterhead granite, built into the entrance porch of the 
building : 

A Home for the Aged, founded and endowed by Alexander 
Scott, a native of the parish of Huntly, who died at Craibstone 
10th June, 1833, and whose body rests in the churchyard of 
Dunbennan, in hopes of a blessed resurrection. 

The rental of Craibstone is from 800 to 1000 a-year. 
The centre and east wing of the Hospital were completed 
in 1855, and the institution was opened on the 1st of 
August in that year. The west wing was added in 1861. 
On the 28th of September, 1865, the centre and east wing 
were entirely destroyed by fire, but were restored in 1869, 
when some additions were made to the buildings. 

From a marble, enclosed : 

XXIV. Erected by William Macgrigor, Huntly, as a tribute 
of respect to the memory of his beloved spouse, Margaret 
Cowie, who died 14th June, 1840, aged 54 years. Sacred also 
to the memory of the above William Macgrigor, who died 8th 
December, 1848, aged 67 years. And of their only son, 
Alexander Macgrigor, M.D., Deputy-Inspector-General of 
Hospitals, who died of cholera at Scutari, in Turkey, on the 
16th of May, 1855, aged 43 years. 

Upon a slab of white marble, built into a granite 
monument : 

XXV. In memory of Alexander Donald, A.M., for 17 years 
schoolmaster at Huntly. A man whose classical knowledge 
was equalled by few, whose benevolence of heart embraced all 
mankind, and whose exertions in the cause of distress were 
never applied for in vain. This stone is erected by his scholars 
as a just tribute of respect for his eminent abilities, of gratitude 
for his useful instructions, and of esteem for his disinterested 
benevolence and general philanthropy. He died 24th April, 
1816, aged 41. 

Abridged : 

XXVI. John Jesseman, farmer, Westerton of Botriphnie, 
died in 1828, aged 85. His son, " Alexander, an officer in the 
British army, was wounded at Talavera, in Spain, in 1809, and 
died soon after." 

The next two inscriptions are from tablestones : 

t 1 -] 

XXVII. Mary Gray, relict of Andrew Gray of Stock- 



404 DUMBENNAN CHURCHYARD EPITAPHS; TIRRIESOUL. 

strouther, died 16th June, 1826, aged 68. Erected by her 
son, Andrew Gray of London. 

[2-1 

XXVIII. Here lies, reserved for the resurrection of the just, 
the body of Margaret Allen, spouse of James Allan, Esq. from 
Manchester. She died Deer. 26, 1821, aged 58, and was 
esteemed by many as a Mother in Israel, and an honour to 
women. Them that sleep in Jesus will God bring with him. 

From a box-shaped stone : 

XXIX. In memory of John Ramsay, Esq., late surgeon in 
the Staff, who died at Huntly, 15 Feb., 1830, aged 60. 

Elizabeth, his wife, died at Southampton, from injuries 

received by a coach accident, 29th Aug., 1843, aged 62, and 

is interred in the private burial-ground of All Saints, 
Southampton. 

From a headstone : 

XXX. Captain John Wilson, 42d Royal Highlanders, in 
memory of his Brothers: John, died 1822, aged 16 ; James, 
colour-sergeant, 92d Highlanders, died at Dominica, W.I., 1841, 
aged 38; Donald, quarter-master-sergeant, 42d Royal High- 
landers, died at Malta, 1846, aged 36. His sister, Isabella, 
wife of Major John Drysdale, 42nd Royal Highlanders, died at 
Southampton 1856, aged 44. His father, James Wilson, died 
at Aberdeen, 1861, aged 80. A nephew, William, died at 
Glasgow, 1852, aged 21 ; another nephew, Charles Forbes, 
second officer in the Peninsular and Oriental Company's ser- 
vice, died at London, 1861, aged 27. 

Tirriesoul, or Tilliesoul, was the old name of the village 
which is now represented by the town of Huntly ; and on 
the 3rd July, 1545, Earl George had a charter under the 
Great Seal, by which the " Villa de Tirriesoul " was 
erected into a Burgh of Barony (Spalding's Troubles, i. 49). 

Two well-known hillocks, called " The Torries," in or 
near which ancient graves and calcined stones have been 
found, lie to the north of the town. Possibly the old 
name of Huntly had been assumed from these and from 
the shielings of which the village was originally composed, 
at least the Gaelic words, Torrie-soul, saul, or toul, are 
capable of such a rendering, and no doubt had been 
accurately descriptive of the physical aspect of the place 
in early times. 



BOW O' MEAL GORDONS; THE HAWES. 405 

The Boivmeris Hillock stands near " The Torries," and 
there, possibly, the vassals of the district met in old time 
to practice archery. But tradition accounts for the name 
in another way, averring that it arose from the fact that 
in a time of scarcity one of the Earls of Huntly ordered 
meal to be sent there for distribution in quantities of 
a bow or boll to each family of the surname of Gordon. 
It is further told that, with the view of participating in 
the Earl's bounty, many others assumed the name, and 
they and their descendants were afterwards known as 
" the bow o' meal Gordons." A "Bowhouse " was erected 
near the kirk of Dunbennan, for the reception of the 
poor's " mortified " meal, as it was called ; and " a bow o' 
meal " is still annually distributed by the Duke of Rich- 
mond and Gordon to poor females of the parish, who are 
known as " Bow-women." 

The houses in Huntly, as well as at Noth, were at one 
time called " The Rawes," from their being built in rows 
or lines, and the circumstance of their being under the 
superiority of the Earl of Huntly gave rise to the proverb, 
" Ne'er misca' a Gordon in the Rawes o' Strathbogie " 
an advice still worthy of attention, but even more import- 
ant in the days when the exercise of the rights attached 
to heritable jurisdictions was still in full vigour. In 
" The Rawes " possibly lived " Mr. John Eraser, husband 
to Anne Johnston, in Huntly," who " under cloud of 
Night (did so) most inhumanly and Barbarously Beat 
and Bruise" his wife, that the good women of Huntly 
petitioned the baron bailie (John Gordon of Avochie) to 
grant " a toleration to the Stang." " Otherways," say the 
petitioners, " upon the least disobligrnent given, we must 
expect to fall Victims to our husbands displeasure, from 
which Libera nos Domine ! " On the day after the peti- 
tion was presented (10th Jan., 1734) four men were com- 
plained against by Eraser, and each fined 20 Scots, for 
having, " in the face of the sun, about three in the after- 
noon, tore his clothes and abus'd his person, by carrying 
him in a publick manner through the town of Huntly 
upon a tree ! " 

Huntly, in the centre of which is a fine market square, 
was originally a well-planned town, its chief defect being, 
as in most old places, the narrowness of its streets. Since 
the introduction of the railway, the trade of Huntly has 



406 KINNOIR CHUKCHYARD EPITAPHS. 

greatly increased in extent and importance, and the town 
is now fairly entitled to the appellation of the "Capital of 
Strathbogie." It contains some good shops wholesale 
and retail a handsome public hall and a lecture-room, 
which were built out of a bequest by the late Mr. Stewart, 
and several branch banks. 

Besides the Parish Church, there are Free, Episcopal 
(Christ Church), and Roman Catholic (St. Margaret's) ' 
places of worship, as well as U.P. and Congregational 
Churches. 

KINNOIR. 

S. Mungo's hill, with S. Mungo's well on its west side, 
is in the vicinity of the old Kirkyard, the site of which, 
as the name implies, is upon the top of a rising ground. 
It is situated upon the south bank of the Deveron, and 
although the monuments are few, some of the inscriptions 
possess considerable local interest. 

From a table-stone : 

I. Here lies the Benevolent Mrs. Gordon of Avochie, daugh- 
ter of Peter Gordon of Ardmealie, who died the 5th of April 
1785, and also her worthy daughter, Mrs. Hay, who died the 
26th May, 1763. This stone is erected to their memory, from 
filial affection, by her daughter, Catherine Gordon. 

The ancestor of the Gordons of Ardmeallie was George 
of Mill of Noth, youngest son of Patrick Gordon of Craig, 
who fell at Flodden in 1513 (Harper-field's Gordon Pedi- 
gree Tables). Ardmeallie was bought from one of the 
Gordons by the late Mr. Morrison of Auchintoul, and was 
repurchased by the trustees of Mr. John Gordon of 
Avochie and Mayne, who died in 1857. He and a sister 
were children of the previous laird, but with commendable 
honour, and a desire to support the legitimate issue and 
the dignity of his father's house, he left the landed estate 
to a descendant of the above-named Mrs. Hay, while his 
sister, who died in 1875, aged 79, left her fortune to 
" fremit folk " or strangers who had been attentive to her 
in her later years. 

Mrs. Hay's descendants, who were afterwards called 
Hay-Gordon, had their burial-place in St. Cuthbert's 
churchyard, Edinburgh, and the following inscription 



GORDONS OF AVOCHIE ; KINNOIR CHURCHYARD. 407 

from a mural tablet there appears to relate to the grand- 
son and his wife : 

II. To the memory of Adam Hay, Esquire, late Major in the 
Thirty-fifth Regiment of Foot, who died at Edinburgh upon 
the 25th day of May, 1836, aged sixty-nine years. Also of 
Mary Watson, his spouse, who died 20th March, 1844, aged 74. 

A marble Cross, within the same enclosure, presents the 
subjoined inscription (followed by a quotation in Greek 
characters from Heb. ii. 10) to the memory of their son 
who was a Writer to the Signet, and to whom the proper- 
ties of Avochie and Mayne were left by Mr. John 
Gordon : 

III. I.M. Adam Hay Gordon of Avochie, Nat. 1803, oh. 
1872, and of Mary, his infant daughter, 1853. 

We have not ascertained when the Gordons first came 
to Avochie, nor to what branch of the Gordon family they 
belonged. The earliest mention of them is in Dempster's 
Eccl. History, page 673, in which the author says that his 
family (of Muiresk) was ruined chiefly through the mis- 
conduct of his eldest brother, James, who, infuriated by 
the discovery of the existence of an improper intimacy 
between his wife, a daughter of Avochie, and her father- 
in-law, made an attempt on the old man's life, in which he 
was aided by a band of Gordons, two of whom were killed 
in the course of the desperate affray that ensued. As Demp- 
ster died in 1625, this must have occurred sometime about 
the year 1600 ; but it is not until January 29, 1659, when 
John was served heir to his father, that we have found 
the family designed of Avochie. This laird married a 
daughter of Sir John Leslie of Wardes, who outlived her 
husband, and afterwards married Gordon of Newton. 

The family appears to have been in a pretty good 
position at this time, for, on 25th Jan., 1687, Henry 
Gordon was served heir to his father not only in Avochie, 
but also in rather extensive possessions in the parishes of 
Oyne, Rayne, and Tullynessle. Henry Gordon of Avochie 
and two sisters, Anna and Elizabeth, the one 15 and the 
other 12 years of age, were alive in 1696, and appear to 
have lived with " Mr. William Gordon, gentleman, tenant, 
and his spouse," at Mill of Avochie. 

The next mention of the family occurs in 1734, when 
John Gordon of Avochie sat at Huntly as bailie of the 



408 HOUSE OF AVOCHIE ; THE MURRAYS OF AFFLECK. 

Regality Court. It was possibly this laird that was 
exempted from the Act of Indemnity, and fined 500 for 
being out in the '45. It is said that his wife, to whom 
the tombstone at Kinnoir was erected, was a person of 
very frugal habits, and thereby contributed much to the 
payment of the fine, and to the keeping of the property 
in the family. Their son John, who was known by the 
sobriquet of " Chaw of Tobacco," is said to have acquired 
considerable wealth by the joint occupations of an advo- 
cate and a wine merchant. He bought the property of 
Drumlithie, in Kincardineshire, which he left, along with 
Avochie, as before noticed, and the former having been 
sold by his son, it was with part of the proceeds of the sale 
that his sister was able to benefit her friends. 

The present house of Avochie, which is beautifully 
situated in the midst of a cluster of trees, upon the south 
bank of the Deveron, was built by the son of " the rebel 
laird ; " and the old house, of which two ruined gables, 
having between them a thatched cottage, now alone 
remain, forms a striking object upon the summit of an 
adjacent rising ground. It appears to have been a house 
of two stories with attics, and to have been built in a 
superior style, probably in the time of the laird of 1696. 

IV. . . . rew Murray, sometime in Cortlyburn, who de- 
parted this life the 7th of December, 1713, aged LX8 yea . . . 
A,M. : I. : M. 

"Andrew Murray, principall tennent in AiBeck," his 
wife and sons, Alexander and John, were charged poll in 
1696. There were then a number of Murrays in this dis- 
trict, one of whom, William, is described as a notary 
public, and tenant in the Daach of Auchinboe ; but the 
names of none of their children correspond with those 
in an inscription upon an adjoining stone, which bears 
that William and Andrew Murray died respectively in 
1751 and 1764, aged 73 and 76. The name of Cortlyburn 
is not in the Poll Book, but the place itself lies in the 
south-east corner of Kinnoir, about 1| miles from the old 
kirkyard. 

Possibly the best known of the Murrays connected with 
the district was George, who died at Edinburgh in 1868. 
He was the son of a crofter, by his wife, Margaret Hay, 
and was born at Boghead of Kinnoir. His father, who 



REVS. ROBT. INNES AND WM. MITCHELL. 409 

entered the army as a private soldier, died in Jamaica, 
upon which George and his mother went to Canada, but 
soon returned to Scotland. When a young man of from 
twenty to thirty years of age, he became a student at 
Marischal College, Aberdeen, and also taught a school in 
the parish of Inverkeithny. While there, he published a 
volume of poetry (" Islaford, and other Poems, Edinburgh, 
1845 "), which contains several pieces of local interest. 
On leaving the district he changed his name to Manson, 
and ultimately succeeded to the editorship of the Daily 
Review, an office which he held until his death in 1868. 

V. Here lie the bodies of the Eev. Mr. Eobert Innes, minis- 
ter of Huntly, who died 13th March, 1800, in the 89th year of 
his age and 58th of his ministry. Also his spouse, Elizabeth 
Gordon, who died 12th December, 1777, aged 50 years. Also 
their son, Eobert, who died 13th November, 1757, aged 6 
years. This monument is erected by Lieut. John Innes of the 
Huntly Volunteers in memory of his Parents and Brother. 
Also lie here the remains of the above Lieutenant John Innes, 
who died the 4th day of December, 1839, aged 90 years. 

Lieutenant Innes, who was a licentiate of the Church 
before he entered the army, saw much active service in 
the field, and was present at the siege of Gibraltar. 

VI. In memory of the Rev. William Mitchell, vicar of Bay- 
don, County of Wilts, son to Alexander Mitchell and Margaret 
Anderson, late in Hillockhead of Kinnore, who died atM'Duff, 
Deer. 8, 1820, aged 76 years. 

VII. In memory of Morrice Smith, who died 4th Jany., 
1853, aged 34 years. Erected by his Friends and Fellow- 
Servants to commemorate the benefits which, as the great 
improver of ploughing, he conferred on Aberdeenshire. 

VIII. This stone is erected by James Mitchell, in Greenfold, 
in memory of his son, Alexr. Mitchell, who spent 11 years and 
10 months in Jamaica, he departed this life Deer. 24, 1785, 
aged 35 years. 

Here lies also the body of the foresaid James Mitchell, Far- 
mer, in Greenfold, who departed this life March 8, 1794, aged 
84 years. Also are here interred the remains of his spouse, 
Jannet Murray, who died 9th Oct., 1804, aged 87 years. 
Also their daughter, Ann Mitchell, who died July 26th, 1807, 
aged 68 years. Also their daughter Isobel, spouse to George 
Cruickshank, sometime farmer in Earnhill, she departed this 
life 19th Oct., 1815, aged 75 years. Memento mori. 



410 THE CASTLE OF STRATHBOGIE, HUNTLY. 

IX. Elspat Strachan, 

Died 14 Sep., 1797, aged 68 years. 

This stone is laid by her only son, John Smith, in Jamaica, aa 
the last mark of affection for a loving mother, who was a 
virtuous Christian, and lived a blameless life. 

X. Under this stone is deposited the body of Mrs. Elizabeth 
Scorgie, widow of the late Rev. John Touch, Minr. of Mort- 
lich. To a cultivated understanding she joined great sensi- 
bility of temper, unusual cheerfulness of disposition, and 
boundless benevolence of heart. Her friends who experienced 
her hospitality, and the poor who were warmed by her bounty, 
can tell the rest. She died June 1st, 1799, aged 79 years. 



Nigh to the Bridge of Deveron stand the remains of 
Huntly Castle, built about 1609. One part only of the 
original plan seems to have been completed. On the 
north front are the arms of the family, cut in stone, with 
the names of the builders: GEORGE GORDOUN, FIRST 
MARQVIS OF HVNTLY, AND HENRIETTE STEVART, MAR- 
QVISSE OF HVNTLY, 1602. A spacious turnpike stair leads 
to what has been a very grand hall. Its length is about 
43 feet, its breadth 29, and its height 16. There is 
another grand apartment immediately over this, 37 feet 
in length and 29 in breadth. The chimneys of both are 
highly ornamented with curious sculptures of various 
figures, still in tolerable preservation. The thickness of 
the walls admits of several small closets. The ceilings of 
the rooms are curiously ornamented in small divisions 
with lines of doggerel poetry underneath, describing the 
subject of the piece. In the chamber which was appointed 
for a chapel, the parables, &c., are represented in the same 
style. On the avenue leading to the Castle of Strathbogie 
are two large square towers which had defended the 
gateway. The hewn stones of the windows and corners 
have been taken out, and applied to ignoble purposes. 
* It was in the time of the 3rd Earl of Huntl} 7 , who pos- 
sibly had more territory added to his already extensive 
domains than any of his predecessors or successors, that 
James V. (Reg. Priory of Isle of May), while on his pil- 
grimage to the shrine of St. Duthoc at Tain, 5th October, 
1504, passed a night in the house of Strathbogie, on 
which occasion he received from the Treasurer a pa} r ment 



.THE GORDON SCHOOLS, HUNTLY ; CURIOUS BOULDER. 411 

of 14 pounds " to play at the cartes." When the King 
revisited Strathbogie in the following year (Oct. 19), he 
was entertained with music, and gave 14s. Scots " to the 
menstrels and the More to ther hors met." Alexander 
Law, falconer, also received 7s. for going " to Finlater for 
ane halk ; " and when at Inverurie, where he " baytit," his 
Majesty gave " ane wife," who entertained him in some 
way or other, 14s. 2d., likewise 2s. in alms to " pur 
folkis ther." 

The fifth Earl of Huntly, who died at Strathbogie in 
1576, was succeeded by his son, who had his house of 
Strathbogie destroyed after the battle of Glenlivet. 

Out of respect for the memory of her husband, Eliza- 
beth, the last Duchess of Gordon, who was a daughter of 
Brodie of Arnhall, near Brechin, erected the handsome 
buildings, used as public schools, which form the entrance 
to Huntly Lodge. They are adorned with marble busts 
of the Duke and Duchess, and a stone-pannel in front 
is thus inscribed : 

GORDON SCHOOLS 

ERECTED TO THE MEMORY OF GEORGE, 

FIFTH DUKE OF GORDON, 

BY HIS WIDOW. 

The Duchess, who died on 31st January, 1864, was 
predeceased by her nephew, the Duke of Richmond, on 
21st October, 1860, and his Grace being a popular land- 
lord, there was erected to his memory in the Market 
Square of Huntly a statue of freestone, by the late Alexr. 
Brodie of Aberdeen, which is thus inscribed : 

Erected as a Memorial of CHARLES GORDON-LENNOX, fifth 
Duke of Richmond, by his Tenantry of the Lordship of 
Huntly, 1862. 

His Grace was succeeded as Duke of Richmond by his 
son, Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox, who has filled many, 
important offices in Her Majesty's Government, and was 
created, in 1876, Duke of Richmond and Gordon. 

Beside the Duke's monument lies a rough whinstone 
boulder, which exhibits markings resembling a large 
horse shoe, and similar to those upon the Bruceton Stone, 
near Alyth. (See Jervise's Epitaphs.) 



412 HOUSE OF BELDORNEY ; ST. WALLACE'S BATHS. 



GLASS 

I.e., the Green parish, so called from being surrounded 
with green hills, is dedicated to St. Andrew ; and here St. 
Andrew's Fair is held on the third Tuesday in July, hard 
by a little village where the Church standeth in the 
middle of the parish. This parish was made up of part 
of St. Peter's of Drumdelgie or Peterkirk, commonly called 
the Burnt Kirk, and St. Wolock's of the ancient parish of 
Dummeth. The lands of Dummeath were gifted by King 
Malcolm II. to Wallach Kirk. 

In the west end of the parish stands the House of 
Beldorney, upon a rising ground, on the north bank of 
the River Deveron, belonging to Gordon of Beldorney, 
southward from the Church two miles. Below this house, 
close by the river side, on a haugh, are two natural baths, 
called St. Wallach's Baths, much frequented on the first 
day of May by sick folk, especially children, lying betwixt 
two rocks (where St. Wollok lived), about six or seven 
paces in length, with two of breadth, and four or five feet 
in depth, always full of water, even in the greatest drouth. 
About a quarter of a mile down the river, close by the 
water side, there is a ruinous kirk, called Wallach Kirk. 
Some part of the walls do remain, with the Font. There 
is a large Churchyard about it, where many of the dead 
are interred there to this day; with a glebe yet belonging 
to the minister of the parish, with some marks of the 
priest's house yet remaining. About a hundred paces 
beneath the Kirk is St. Wallach's Well, much frequented 
by sick folk. (See Description of the Parish of Glass, 
1724, in Macfarlane's Geographical Collection for Scot- 
land, MSS. Bibl. Adv. Spalding Club.) 

Two annexations have been made to the original parish 
of Glass. On the removal of the Bishop from Mortlach 
in the 12th century a large district of that extensive 
parish was annexed to Glass and Cabrach. The other 
annexation, consisting of several of the best farms in the 
east end of the parish, taken from Drumdelgy or Peter- 
kirk, now annexed to Cairnie or Botary, was made about 
the end of the 17th century, so that the original parish 
must have been very small. The lands of Edinglassie 
appear to have been separated from the parish of Mort- 
lach and annexed to that of Glass in 1650. (Presbytery 



HOUSE OF EDINGLASSIE; HOUSE OF ASWANLY. 413 

Book of Strathbogie.) Stephen, parson of Glas, is one of 
the clergy of the diocese of Murray who adhibit their 
consent to the charter of Bp. Bricius, erecting eight pre- 
bends in the Cathedral Church of the Holy Trinity at 
Spyny, between 1208 and 1214. (Registrum Episco- 
patus Moraviensis.) 

To the north-east, by the river side, stands the ruinous 
House of Edinglassie (a mile below Beldorney, and south- 
west from the Church of Glass the like distance) once 
belonging to the late Sir George Gordon of Edinglassie, 
father to the present Carnousie, but is now in the posses- 
sion of Duff of Braco. About a quarter of a mile below 
this house runs a considerable burn, which runs into 
Deveron, over which the said Sir George built a stone 
bridge of one arch, upon which is engraven his name 
and arms. 

Near to this bridge stands a mill with a little village 
and tolbooth, which he designed for a burgh of barony. 
At the said village is held a yearly market on the Tuesday 
before Christmas, called St. Wallach Fair. 

On the south of the Deveron, with fifty paces thereto, 
stands the House of Aswanly, south-east from the Church 
half a mile, in a pleasant situation, whereby there runs a 
small burn, east the house, called the Hallburn, which 
falls into Deveron. There are some fine old trees of ash 
and plane about the old mansion-houses of Aswanly and 
Beldorney, and the whole scenery about the latter is 
grand and picturesque. 

There are two things for which the House of Aswanly 
is chiefly famous, and these are, primo, a daughter thereof 
was married to the House of Huntly, who bore two sons, 
commonly called Jock and Tarn. Jock had three sons 
Buckie, Pitlurg, and Lismore whose posterity possess 
their heritages and possessions to this day, but of doubtful 
precedency, for the pedigree is uncertain. After the death 
of the mother of Jock and Tarn, Huntly married the 
King's only sister (and settled the estate and honours 
upon her issue, disinheriting the children of the first 
marriage), who bore an only daughter, married to one of 
the House of Winton, by whom came the Seton-Gordons. 
The second thing is the way and manner in which the 
ancestors of the present Aswanly came to the inheritance, 
which was thus: There was one Hutcheon Calder in 



414 HUTCHESON CALDER'S SILVER DKINKING CUP. 

company with Huntly when he went to the Battle of 
Brechin against the Earl of Crawford, who, by his cunning 
and courage, got into the camp of Earl Beardy, and like- 
wise into his tent, who, after supper, brought away the 
said Earl's drinking-cup (which cup Calder of Aswanly 
keeps to this day), being a large silver cup, overlaid with 
gold, holding a Scots pint and two gills, of fine engraven 
and carved work, and with a cape of which there is an 
inscription, which is now lost; wherewith returning to 
the camp in the silence of the night he gave account to 
Huntly of the situation of Earl Beardy 's camp and 
number of his forces; and, as a testimony of his being 
there, produced the said cup, upon which intelligence 
they attacked Crawford in the morning and defeated his 
forces; for which service the said Hutcheon Calder 
obtained the lands of Aswauly, whose posterity possess it 
to this day. (See A Concise History of the Ancient and 
Illustrious House of Gordon, by C. A. Gordon, pp. 42-44. 
Aberdeen, 1754.) 

In the east end of the parish, and north side of the 
Deveron, east from the Church a mile, lies the ruinous 
House of Cairnborrow, formerly belonging to the Gordons 
of Cairnborrow. 

The day before the Battle of Glenlivet, 1594, the 
Marquis of Huntly came to Cairnborrow and applied to 
his lady, who was supposed to rule the roost, for her 
assistance. She said she had got short warning, but that 
her old man, with his eight sons, with a jackman and a 
footman to each, should attend him immediately. Huntly 
thanked her, and after some more conversation with her, 
desired Cairnborrow, who had spoken never a word, to 
stay at home, telling him that, at his advanced years, it 
was not proper to take him along, especially as he had so 
many of his sons. The old man heard him out, and, 
shrugging up his shoulders, said, " Na, na, my Lord, I'll 
bleed the whelps mysell, they'll bite the better." This 
was at once the reply of a sportsman and a soldier ; and 
the whole family went to the Battle, with the laird at 
their head. They defeated Argyle and returned all safe 
to Cairnborrow. The writer has seen a manuscript in 
which the names of the father, mother, and eight sons are 
all , mentioned : John Gordon of Cairnborne married 
Bessie Gordon, daughter to the Laird of Buckie, with 



SITES OF CHAPELS IN THE PARISH OF GARTLY. 415 

whom he begat eight sons and three daughters. His sons 
were 1. John, Laird of Cairborne, afterwards of Edin- 
glassie ; 2. George Gordon of Sorbach ; 3. James Gordon 
of Fermaghtie ; 4. William, who coft Cairnborrow ; 5. Mr. 
Arthur Gordon ; 6. Thomas Gordon of Aitloch ; 7. Robert 
Gordon of Gollachie ; 8. Patrick Gordon of Craigston, in 
Sutherland. All these with their father, and nine jack- 
men and as many footmen, went to Glenlivet Battle. 
(Stat. Ace. of Scotland, 1797.) 

GARTLY OR GRANTULY 

Signifies the field among the knolls, and is dedicated to 
St. Andrew. Here is Andersmas Fair, and St. Andrew's 
Well, one mile from the Church. 

The ashes of the Viscount of Aboyue and of John 
Gordon, Laird of Rothiemay, who were burned in the old 
tower of the House of Frendraught in 1630, were buried 
in a vault in the Church of Gartly, which is still to 
be seen. 

The sites of Chapels are still pointed out in the Braes, 
namely, at Heathery Hillock, Brawlinknowes, Mooral 
House, Kirkney, and St. Finnan's Chapel and Well at 
Tillythrowie. The vestiges of some of these, and of the 
burial-grounds attached, are still visible. 

The parish of Gartly, though locally in Aberdeenshire, 
is nevertheless, legally, partly in that county and partly 
in the county of Banff. It is divided nearly in the centre 
by the Water of Bogie into what is called the Barony and 
the Braes the former is in the county of Banff, the latter 
in the county of Aberdeen. 

The Church of Gartly was one of the mensal churches 
of the Bishop of Murray. 

The only antiquity in the parish is an old ruin, called 
the Place of Gartly. (Stat. Ace. of Scotland, 1794.) 
Gartly Castle is placed on a small mount, and surrounded 
with a deep ditch. It is a square tower ; one end of it is 
fallen down, and shows a section of strong vaulted rooms. 

A stone coffin was lately found on the farm of Coldrain. 
There was also lately found on the farm of Faich-hill an 
urn containing bones, and a large one, pretty entire, on 
the farm of Riskhouse. (New Stat. Ace, of Scotland.) 

In 1574 Mr. George Nicolson had a stipend of 53 6s. 8d. 
Scots as minister of Gartly and three adjoining parishes, 



416 PARISH KIRK AND BELFRY OF GARTLY. 

and John Leslye, the contemporary reader at Gartly, had 
a salary of 20 merks. 

The present Church a long narrow building was 
erected in 1621, during the time of Mr. William Reid, 
who " taxed the faults of his parishioners bitterli, and not 
in the language of Scripture, quherby the people, insteade 
of being edified, wer moved to laughter and derisione." 
(Scott's Fasti) 

The Church belfry is an ornamental piece of work, and 
upon it are slabs with these words : 

. . YIS is IVLT [H 
BVLT . 1621 

MR . . RETHE 
10 . ROSS . MEASON . 1621. 

The Bell bears an inscription in Latin, nearly similar to 
that at Ordiquhill. It is locally rendered thus : 

John Mowat made me, 
For the use of Gartly, 
To call upon the Clergy, 
And to mourn for the Dead. 

A new stock was lately given to the bell, when the 
following inscription was copied by the schoolmaster : 

IOHN. MOWAT. ABD : ME. FE : 1758. IN. USUM. ECCLESLE. 
DE. GERTLY. SABATA. PANGO. FUNERA. PLANGO. 

It was also found that the inscription upon one of the 
stones of the belfry (which was conjectured to bear the 
name of the Rev. Mr. Rethe or Reid) bore : 
YIS. is. BETHEL. 

According to a writer of 1726, "the Church has an 
aisle wherein the house of Huntley is buried." This 
was possibly the Frendraught, or Crichton Aisle, which 
entered from the nave of the Church. The site is still 
indicated by a mound on the south side of the kirk. 

Spalding states that " the ashes and brynt bones " of 
the unfortunate barons and their servants who perished 
at the burning of Frendraught in 1630, were put in " sax 
kistis in the haill, which, with gryte sorrow and cair, wes 
had to the Kirk of Garntullie, and thair bureit." 

The area of the Church was at one time filled with 
human bones ; but about fifty years ago these were re- 
moved, when some of them were thrown, with, it is feared, 



EPITAPHS IN THE CHURCHYARD OF GARTLY. 417 

but little " sorrow and cair," into the Crichton Aisle, others 
into the unseemly earthen platform before the pulpit. 

As a whole, the Church, which has been frequently 
repaired, is a sorry fabric, and the surrounding burial 
ground, although it contains a number of monuments, 
presents little of general interest. 

One dateless Stone, fixed to the south wall of the kirk, 
bears this brief inscription : 

I. Mr. George Gordon, Gartly, 

an honest man, regarded by all. aged 92. 

From the area of the burial-yard : 

II. Sub spe beatse resurrectionis hoc jacent tumulo et contu- 
mulantur in uno cognati Pater, c' Filii Filise' Mater. 

[In this grave lie buried together, in the hope of a happy 
resurrection, a Father and Mother, with their Sons and 
Daughters.] 

Alexander Smith, sometime in Drumbulge, dyed Novr. the 
20th, 1736, aged 60 years; and his spouse, Bessie Christie, 
dyed March, 1 7 , aged 43 years, &c. 

From a table stone : 

III. Wm. Jessiman, born in Currilaar, died there 1801, a. 
84; his sp. Elspet Burges, d. 1759, a. 43 

The smiles of fortune or her frowns 

They never could me move, 
My heart was fixed on God, my hope 

Was in his boundless love. 

The next three inscriptions are from table-shaped 
stones : 

IV. Here lyes Elizabeth Chalmers, who died in Kirkhill the 
4th of April, 1768, aged 63 years, lawful spouse to the deceased 
Mr. John Chalmers, sometime notary public in Ersfield, in the 
parish of Kennethmont. Also Janet Chalmers, spouse of Alex. 
Ingram in Coxton : she died 7th Jany., 1814, aged 73 years. 
Also his son, John Ingram, farmer, Coxton, who died 14th 
April, 1859, aged 88 years [2 drs. recorded dead]. Also his 
wife, Janet Green, who died on the 14th February, 1871, in 
her 78th year. 

V. Eemember, man, as thou goest by, 
As thou art now, so once was I. 

Here lies interred the mortal remains of James Sangster, 
sometime farmer in Moshead, who departed into eternity upon 
VOL. II. 2 7 



418 A BRIDE LOST ON HER MARRIAGE-DAT. 

the 1 3th April, 1 800 years, after he had trod the stage of Time 
for the space of 70 years 

At Angel's voice and Trumpet's sound, 
Shall dust arise, and bones be joined. 

VI. Under this stone is laid all that was mortal of James 
Black, son to James Black in Daugh, late Lieutenant in His 
Majesty's 98th Kegiment of Foot, who departed this life 18th 
of Dec., 1789, in the 25th year of his age. His merits were 
such that they are to be held in estimation of all who knew 
him while memory can record worth. As also Mary Garioch, 
espoused to James Black in Daugh, who departed this life the 
9th of Jany., 1796, in the 73rd year of her age. 

From headstones : 

VII. In memory of George Forbes, late farmer in Whitelums, 
who died in 1833, aged 84; also of his spouse, Christian 
Thomson, who died in 1822, aged 41. 

Abridged : 

VIII Alexander Mitchell, who erected this stone, 

died 9th Jan., 1840, aged 94 years, and is here interred. . . . 

It may be worthy of note that, within the kirkyard of 
Gartly, lie the ashes of a female, who, according to local 
story, was lost by her husband on the day of her marriage, 
and her remains were forgotten by him upon that of her 
funeral ! While both incidents show the convivial state of 
society at the time, it would be ungenerous to look upon the 
latter act (for the first is not unknown in Scotland even 
at the present day), in any other light than that of the 
widower's anxiety to show hospitality to those who 
attended the funeral of his wife, many of whom had come 
from distant parts of the country. 

The facts of both cases are these : A well-to-do farmer 
in Gartly was married at a considerable distance from his 
own residence ; and, when the bride left her father's for 
her new home in Gartly, she was placed, as was then 
customary, upon the pillion behind the bridegroom. 
When the bridegroom arrived at his house, he called 
upon the friends who had assembled to welcome the pair 
home to " Take doun the guidwife ! " " There's nae guid- 
wife there ! " was the reply, to which the bridegroom, after 
a short pause, answered "I'll wager yon was her 'at 
gaed kloit i' the burn o' Aul' Rayne ! " Messengers were 



THE CASTLE OF GARTLY. 419 

despatched in quest of the lost bride, who was found in 
the locality indicated by the bridegroom, drying her 
garments by the side of " a blazin' ingle ! " 

It is told, as a sequel to this " slip," that when the same 
woman died, and when the funeral procession was some 
distance upon the road to the kirkyard, the widower 
suddenly called out, " Stop, stop, sirs ! there's a mistak' 
here ! " Strange to say, the remains of his wife had been 
forgot to be placed into the cart (there being but few 
hearses in those days), in which they were to be conveyed 
to their last resting place ! 

Besides the Parish Kirk, at which, in 1650 (Ada Part. 
vi., 608), a servant of Leith of Harthill was killed in cold 
blood by two of Leith's brothers, there were at one time 
three places of worship in Gartly. One of these stood at 
Kirkney, the second at Talathrewie (St. Finnan), and the 
third at Brawlinknow. According to tradition, an infant 
son of the Baron of Gartly was drowned in the Bogie, in 
a pool still called Lord John's Pot, while being carried 
home, after baptism, from the Chapel of Brawlinknow. 

Barclays, of the Towie race, were designed lords or 
barons of Grantully from at least 1367; and Sir Alexander, 
the laird of the period, fell at the Battle of Arbroath 
in 1445-46. About a century afterwards the lands of 
Gartly appear to have passed from the Barclays to Gordon 
of Auchendown ; and upon the death of Sir Patrick Gordon 
of Auchendown in 1600, the Marquis of Huntly succeeded 
as heir male. 

The Castle of Gartly, of which, unfortunately, very 
little remains, stood upon the farm of the Mains of Gartly. 
According to Chalmers, Mary Queen of Scots rested at 
Grantuly both on her way to and from the North. It 
was also the scene of a ballad called "The Barone o' 
Gartly," which tells that the Baron's lady, during his 
absence in the wars, became the wife of Gordon ^ of 
Lesmore, and that, the Baron having consulted "weird 
sisters " in a cave on the Binhill of Cairney regarding the 
affair, revenged the insult by burning the Castle of Gartly, 
its faithless lady, and the whole inmates. 

Among the many romantic glens and corries in Gartly, 
possibly that of Tillieminit is the most beautiful ; and 
there, upon a slab built in the farm house, is a shield bear- 
ing a much defaced coat of arms, probably those of Gordon. 



420 DR. ALLARDYCE'S MONUMENT IN GARTLY CHURCHYARD. 

The parish of Gartly, which is wholly the property of 
the Duke of Richmond, is situated partly in the counties 
of Aberdeen and Banff. 

A Free Church was erected on the north side of the 
Bogie in 1844, the Parish Minister having seceded at the 
Disruption of 1843. 

There is a neat hamlet of houses, with shops and an 
inn, at the railway station of Gartly, from which the 
pretty district of Strathdon, and intermediate localities, 
may be reached daily by means of the mail cart. 

" There has just been erected in the Parish Church a neat 
and tastefully executed tablet in memory of Dr. Allardyce, 
son of the late Mr. James Allardyce, Tillyminnat, in this 
parish. Dr. Allardyce, after labouring some years in Cey- 
lon, resolved on paying a short visit to his native land, 
and scarcely had he set sail when steps were taken by his 
friends in Ceylon to raise subscriptions with the view of 
presenting him with some testimonial of their regard 
when he returned to the scene of his labours. Dr. Allar- 
dyce, however, took ill on his way home, and died on 
board the "Yangtse," in the Red Sea. In the circum- 
stances the subscribers determined to expend the sum 
that had been raised in procuring a memorial-tablet to be 
erected in the Church of his native parish. The tablet is 
of white marble, embedded in black, and consists of a 
shield, surmounted by a cope, resting on two semicircular 
pillars, and in the shield is the following inscription : 

Sacred to the memory of James Allardyce, M.D., sometime 
District-Surgeon in Rakwand, Ceylon, who died off Suez, 27th 
November, 1878, aged 27 years. Erected by European and 
native residents in the districts in which he laboured in affec- 
tionate remembrance of his character and worth. 

The tablet is one of the last works executed by the 
deceased Mr. Legge, sculptor, Aberdeen, and is in every 
way a beautiful piece of workmanship." (Banffshire Jour- 
nal, 25th January, 1881.) 

INVERKEITHNY. 

The Church of Innerkethney was erected into a prebend 
of the Cathedral Church of Murray by Bishop Andrew de 
Moravia in a Synod of his clergy held at Elgin, in the 
Church of St. Giles the Abbot, on the 5th May, 1226. 



INVERKEITHNY ; KEITH ; THE TAP 0* NOTH ; RHYNIE. 421 

By the Constitutions of the same Bishop Andrew, the 
prebendary of Inverkethny was required to find a deacon 
to serve as his vicar in the Cathedral Church. 

Sir Alexander Gaunt or Kant was prebendary of Inner- 
kethny from 1487 to 1489. John Lockart or Lockert 
was prebendary from 1534 to 1557. Hew Cragy from 
1560 to 1572. In 1561 "the personage of Inverkethnye 
was sett in assedatioun to Alexander Dunbar of Kwynac 
for auchty pundis yeirlie." (Reg. Epis. Morav.) 

KEITH. 

See my " Book of the Chronicles of Keith," &c. 

RHYNIE AND ESSIE. 

The parishes of Rhynie and Essie were united at a 
remote period. The Church of Essie was used as a place 
of worship till about thirty years ago, when it became 
ruinous. Since that time the parish has been generally 
known by the name of Rhynie only. (Stat. Ace. of 
Scotland, 1797.) 

The ruins of Essie Kirk are a little way west from the 
Manor-house or Castle of Lesmore, also in ruins, a strong- 
hold once possessed by an ancient branch of the Gordon 
family. Eos and Easa signify a waterfall. Rhynie has 
not been defined. 

The Tap o' Noih is a very remarkable Hill here. It 
has a fountain on the very summit, without any current 
from it on the outside ; but if a taper rod be put into the 
vein of the fountain it comes forth, in 24 hours space, at 
a large issue at the foot of the hill, called Coul's Burn 
after being carried three miles under ground by the force 
of the current. (A Description of the Parishes of Essie 
and Rhynie, circa. 1730.) 

A mile distant from the Castle of Craig stands the 
great Hill of Noth, from its high conical summit called 
the Top o' Noth; on which, overlooking an immense 
tract of country, are the remains of an ancient fortress, 
formerly thought to have been the mouth of a volcano, 
but now known to be one of those forts constructed of 
stones vitrified by the force of fire, of which kind many 
have lately been discovered in Scotland. 

In the Glen of Noth (north side of the hill) is a prodi- 
gious cairn of small stones, called the Cairn of Mildewen, 



422 THE PREBENDARIES OF RHYNIE. 

which, I am told, means the grave of a thousand, or of a 
great number. Lord Hailes remarks that Lulach, whom 
Macbeth's party set up, after the usurper's death, was 
afterward discovered in his lurking-place in the parish 
of Essie in this neighbourhood; but, as after a careful 
search, no marks of a battle can be found in this parish, 
perhaps the monumental pile may have been raised upon 
that occasion. (F. Douglas' Description of the East Coast 
of Scotland.) 

There is a tradition of a Battle having been fought at a 
remote period about the middle of this parish; and a 
large stone, about 5 feet in diameter, on which there are 
some hieroglyphical characters, standing on the Moor of 
Rhynie, is said to have been erected in memory of the 
engagement. Part of this stone has been lately broken. 
There are some monumental stones scattered throughout 
the parish, rudely carved with hieroglyphics, much defaced. 
(The Old and New Stat. Ace. of Scotland.) 

The erection by Bricius, Bishop of Murray, of the 
Church of Rynyn into one of the eight prebends of the 
Cathedral Church of the Diocese, was ratified by his 
successor, Andrew de Moravia, in a Synod of his clergy 
held in the Church of Saint Giles the Abbot, at Elgin on 
the fifth of May, 1226. 

The prebendary of Ryny was bound to provide a Sub- 
Deacon to serve as his vicar in the Cathedral Church. 

Master David Monypeny was prebendary of Ryny from 
1473 to 1489. In 1488 he was amerced in the seventh 
part of the fruits of his benefice for contumacy and non- 
residence at the Cathedral. 

Alexander Hepburne was prebendary of Ryne from 
1539 to 1547. 

John Lesly was titular prebendary, Thomas Sutherland 
usufructuary, of Rhyny, from 1547 to 1556. 

Thomas Sutherland was prebendary from 1556 to 1557. 
James Gordon, son of the Earl of Huntly, was prebendary 
in 1560. (Reg. Epis. Morav.) 

ROTHIEMAY. 

The Church was one of the mensal churches of the 
Bishop of Moray, and was dedicated to St. John or to St. 
Durstan. 

A. little east of the village of Milton is Rothiemay 



PARISH OF ROTHIEMAY. 423 

House, traditionally said to have afforded a night's lodg- 
ing to Queen Mary. 

A Druidical Temple is a little to the north of the 
village, and a supposed Roman road runs north-westward 
through the western district. 

JAMES FERGUSON'S BIRTHPLACE NOT IN ROTHIEMAY. 

" I was Born in the year 1710 a few miles from Keith, 
a little village in Banffshire, in the North of Scotland" 
are the words of this great genius from his own Autobi- 
ography, a fact which has been received wherever his 
name has been known, and in every Encyclopedia it is 
thus notified. Surely one so accurate in everything else, 
and being 64 years old when he wrote his own life, was 
not likely not to know his native place. In his early 
years Ferguson's parents would have been certain to 
have alluded to the district and parish where he indicates, 
and about which he gives minutely many incidents which 
stuck so well to his memory. 

By an Extract from " a stray leaf of a mass of loose 
leaves " the Rev. Dr. Simmie of Rothiemay, Dr. Ebenezer 
Henderson of Muckart, and Robert Sim, Keith, reiterate, 
in triumvirate, that the Birth and Birthplace of the self- 
taught Prodigy were at the Core of Mayen, Rothiemay. 
Mr. R. Sim in his little volume, Legends of Strathisla, 
&c., p. 150 (1862), argues even wearisomely that Ferguson 
" intentionally, not ignorantly or inadvertently, concealed 
the fact of the place of his birth by giving a very doubtful 
locality" ! Such an idea need not be characterised. The 
Baptismal Entry, or rather Jotting, on this said " stray 
leaf of a mass of loose leaves," formerly at Rothiemay, has 
been twisted by the above writers the one copying 
the ~ther into evidence for the place of Birth. It 
cannot veritably be so construed, inasmuch as, in this 
case, the Date of Birth is left out ; whereas, in the 
Scotch Parish Registers, dates both of Birth and Bap- 
tism are invariably inserted. That the Fergusons re- 
sided at the Core of Mayen there can be no doubt ; but 
the tradition, still current among those whose forbearis 
were born and bred in Keith, is that Ferguson's father, 
being a poor labouring man, was necessitated to go for 
work to Rothiemay, where his infani James was carried 
and Baptized, a few weeks after his Birth in the Parish of 



424 FERGUSON, THE ASTRONOMER, BORN IN KEITH PARISH. 

Keith. Repeated instances of the same kind occur of 
children having been Born in one parish but Baptized in 
another. My own father was so ; and his father, more- 
over, was an Elder in two parishes, and carried his son for 
Baptism 5 miles from the place of his Birth to a different 
parish. In large towns the like instances are multi- 
tudinous. Ferguson never once mentions this Core of 
Mayen or Rothiemay, so that, from his own mouth (as 
printed at the beginning of this Article), and by authentic 
tradition, KEITH has the indubitable title of claiming as 
" a son of the soil " this rare innate mechanic, Natural 
philosopher, and astronomer, towering in ingenuity and 
intellect far above the ordinary acquirements of humanity 
as a compeer with Galileo, Sir John Hersehel, and Sir 
Isaac Newton, embalmed among the most gifted that this 
world ever produced. 

RUTHVEN. 
See my u Book of the Chronicles of Keith" &c., 1880. 



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