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PURCHASED FOR THE 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY 

FROM THE 

CANADA COUNCIL SPECIAL GRANT 

FOR 



HISTORY 



THE HISTORY 



OF THE 



VOL. III. 



THE HISTORY 



OF THE 



PROVINCE or MORAY. 

Comprising the Counties of Elgin and Nairn, the greater part of the County of 

Inverness, and a portion of the County of Banff, all called the Province 

of Moray before there was a division into Counties. 

BY LACHLAN SHAW. 



NEW EDITION. IN THREE VOLUMES. 



Enlarged and brought down to the Present Time 

BY J. F. S. GORDON, 

Autlwr of " Scotichronicon" " Monasticon," <fce. 



VOLUME III. 



GLASGOW: 
$rinttb at tlu Entbmtitg 
AND PUBLISHED BY 
HAMILTON, ADAMS, & CO., LONDON, 

AND 

THOMAS D. MORISON, GLASGOW. 

1882. 




M 

no 




CONTENTS OF VOLUME III. 

THE NATURAL HISTORY OF MORAY. 



Air, Light, Cold, Heat. 

The Rain, the Snow. 

The Winds, the Mountains. 

The Hills and Valleys. 

The Plains, the Soil. 

The Corn. 

Flax and Hemp. 

Potatoes and Mustard. 

Garden Fruits. 

Wild and Medicinal Herbs. 

Forests, Woods. 



Materials for Building. 

Fuel. 

Mines, Dyeing. 

Salt Water. 

Fresh Waters. 

Animals. 

Tame Beasts. 

Wild Beasts. 

Viporous Animals, Fowls. 

Water Animals. 

Rarities. Pages 1-25 



THE CIVIL AND POLITICAL HISTORY OF MORAY. 



The Inhabitants. 
Their Language. 
Way of Living, Manners. 
Genius. 

Agriculture, Improvements. 
Manufactures. 
Trade and Commerce. 
Commodities for Export. 
Civil Government. 
Feudal Customs. 
Titles of Honour. 
Count or Earl. 
Thanes. 
Dukes. 
Marquis. 
Earls. 
Viscounts. 

THE MILITARY 
Royal Forts. 
At Elgin. 
Forres. 
Nairn. 
Inverness. 
Urquhart. 
Oliver's Fort. 
Fort-George at Inverness 
Fort-Augustus. 
Ruthven Barrack. 
Fort-George at Ardersier 
Fortalices. 
At Duffus. 
Raite. 



Lords. 
Counties. 

Inverness County. 

Nairn County. 

Moray County. 
Regalities. 
Baronies. 

Jurisdictions Abolished. 
Courts of Judicature. 
Roll of Barons. 
Burghs. 

Inverness. 

Elgin. 

Nairn. 

Forres. 
Burghs of Barony. 

Pages 26-76 
HISTORY OF MORAY. 

Abernethie. 

Ruthven. 

Lochindort. 
Battles, &c. 
At Forres. 

Obelisk at Forres. 

Burgus. 
At Mortlich, anno 1010. 

Spey, anno 1078. 

Spey, anno 1110. 

Urquhart, anno 1160. 

Invernahavon, anno 1386. 

Perth, anno 1396. 

Drumnacoub, anno 1427. 



VI 



CONTENTS. 



Elgin, anno 1452. 


Young Chiefs. 




Clachnacharie, anno 1454. 


Officers. 




Cean-Loch-Lochie, an. 1544. 


Ensigns. 




Glenlivet, anno 1594. 


Bards. 




Aldern, anno 1645. 


Pipers. 




Cromdale, anno 1690. 


Fiery Cross. 




Inverness, anno 1715. 


Cry to War. 




Culloden, anno 1746. 


Badge. 




Military Roads. 


Bards. 




Military Customs. 


Omens, &c. 


Pages 77-1 3' 



THE ECCLESIASTIC HISTORY OF MORAY. 
1. The Druidical Church. 



DRUIDS. 

Whence so called. 

Their Office. 

Their Religion. 

Priests. 

Their Worship. 

Stated Worship. 

Circles. 

Solemn Worship. 

Cairns. 

March Solemnity. 

May Solemnity. 

Mid-Summer Solemnity. 

Hallow-Eve Solemnity. 

Sacrifices and Ceremonies. 



Judges. 

Their Meetings. 

The Yates. 

The Bards. 

Female Druids. 

Druid Temples. 

Druid Deities. 

Druid Customs. 

In Hectic Fevers. 

In Contagious Diseases. 

The Moon's Changes. 

Customs at Burials. 

Conflagration. 

Druidism whence derived. 

Pages 138-157 



. The Primitive Christian Church. 



Christianity Planted in Scot- 
land. 



Keledees. 
Their Purity. 



Pages 158, 159 



3. The Roman Church. 



I. The Regular Clergy. 
An Abbey. 

Kinloss Abbey. 
The Priories. 

Urquhart Priory. 

Pluscardine Priory. 

Kingussie Priory. 
The Convents. 

Black Friars. 

Gray Friars. 

Gray Sifters. 

Preceptory of Maison Dieu 

St. Nicholas' Hospital. 

Templar Knights. 

Johannite Knights. 



II. The Secular Clergy. 
The Bishopric of Murtlac. 

Its Erection, Diocess, Trans- 
lation, Bishops. 
The Bishopric of Moray. 

List of the Bishops of Moray. 

Diocess. 
The Cathedral Church. 

At Spynie. 

At Elgin. 

The Cathedral at Elgin founded 
and built. 

Burnt and rebuilt. 
The Cathedral of Elgin De- 
scribed. 



CONTENTS. 



Vll 



The Chapter House. 

Dimensions of the Cathedral 

How Demolished, 
"he College. 

Canons. 

Prebendaries. 

Erection of the College. 

Transplanted. 

List of the Canons. 

The Precinct. 

The Burgh. 
Bishop's Palace 

At Kenedar. 

At Spynie. 

The Palace of Spynie De- 
scribed. 
Revenues of the Bishopric of 

Moray 
Dignified Clergy. 

Dean. 

Arch-Dean. 



Chantor. 

Chancellor. 

Treasurer. 

Chapter. 
Inferior Clergy. 

Parsons. 

Vicars. 

Mensal Churches. 

Common Churches. 

Chapels of Ease. 

Free Chapels. 

Domestic Chapels 

Private Chapels. 

Alterage. 

Obit and Dirge. 
Government of the Diocess. 

Chapter. 

Synod. 

Deanries. 

Consistory. 

Regality. Pages 159-312 



4- The Protestant Church. 



1st, The several Periods since the 
Reformation. 

I. Period, 15601572. 

Superintendents. 

Commissioners. 

Assemblies. 

Synods. 

Presbyteries. 

Sessions. 

II. Period, 15721592. 

Tulchan Bishops. 
Presbyteries Erected. 

III. Period, 15921610. 
Presbyterian Government Es- 
tablished. 

Overturned. 

IV. Period, 16101638. 
Episcopacy re-established. 

Condemned. 

V. Period, 16381662. 
Presbytery revived. 

Overturned. 

VI. Period, 16621690. 
Prelacy restored. 
Ministers ejected 



Conduct of Bishops. 
Prelacy a grievance. 
VII. Period, 1690 to the pre- 
sent time. 

Presbytery established. 
Remarks upon the several Changef 

of Church Government 
Threnodia. 

2nd, The Protestant Bishops ot 
Moray since the Refor- 
mation. 

The Cathedral. 
Palace, Chapter, Jurisdiction. 
Revenues. 

Feu duties of the Bishopric. 
3rd, The Ministers of Parishes 

since the Reformation. 
Presbytery of Strathbogie. 
Mortlich Parish. 
Bellie Parish. 
Presbytery of Aberlour. 
Dundurcos Parish. 
Rothes Parish. 
Knockando Parish. 
Boharm Parish. 



Vlll 



CONTENTS. 



Aberlaure Parish. 

Inveravon Parish. 
Presbytery of Abernethie 

Kirkinichael Parish. 

Cromdale Parish. 

Abernethie Parish. 

Duthel Parish. 

Alvie Parish. 

Kingusie and Insh 
Presbytery of Elgin. 

Dipple Parish. 

Essil Parish. 

Speymouth Parish. 

Urquhart Parish. 

Lanbribe Parish. 

Birnie Parish. 

Elgin Parish. 

St. Andrews Parish. 

Kenedar Parish. 

Ugston Parish. 

Duffus Parish. 

New Speynie Parish. 

Alves Parish. 
Presbytery of Forres. 

Kinloss Parish 

Rafford Parish. 

Dallas Parish. 

Forres Parish. 



Edinkylie Parish. 

Moy and Dyke Parish. 
Presbytery of Nairn. 

Ardclach Parish. 

Aldern Parish. 

Nairn Parish. 

Ardersier Parish. 

Calder Parish. 

Croy and Dalcross Parish. 
Presbytery of Inverness. 

Moy and Dalarassie Parish. 

Daviot and Dunlichtie. 

Pettie and Brachlie. 

Inverness Parish. 

Durris Parish. 

Kirkhill Parish. 

Kiltarlatie Parish 
Presbytery of Abertar. 

Urquhart and Glenmoriston 

Boleskin and Abertarf. 

Laggan Parish. 

Number of Inhabitants in Moray. 
4th. The State of Religion in the 

Province from the Reforma- 
tion. 

State of Popery in Moray. 
Society for Propagating Chris- 
tian Knowledge. 

Pages 313-378 



INDEX, 



Pages 473-479 



HISTORY OF THE 

PROVINCE OF MORAY. 

PAET III. 

THE NATURAL HISTORY OP MORAY. 

A LTHOUGH this Country is in a climate con- 
^*- siderably Northern, being in the 12th Clim- 
ate, and from about 57 degrees to 57 40 North 
latitude, the longest day being about 17 hours 46 
minutes, and the shortest 6 hours 14 minutes ; 
yet no Country in Europe can boast of a more 
pure, temperate, and wholesome Air. No part of 
it is either too hot and sultry in Summer, nor too 
sharp and cold in Winter : and it is generally 
(and I think justly) observed, that in the plains 
of Moray they have 40 days of fair weather in 
the year, more than in any other country in Scot- 
land. The wholesomeness of the Air appears in 
the long lives of its inhabitants. In the year 
1747, William Catanach in Pluscardine died at 
the age of 119 years ; in the 1755, Sir Patrick 

Grant of Dalvey died 100 years old; in 1756, 
VOL. in. 1 



2 LONGEVITY; WILL o' THE WISP; COLD. 

Thomas Eraser of Gortuleg in Stratherick, died 
aged 97. And generally 80 years are reckoned 
no great age to the sober and temperate. 

'Tis observed in this, as in all Northern Coun- 
tries, that, in the beginning of the year, the 
Daylight increases with remarkable celerity, and 
decreases in a like proportion, at the approach of 
winter, which is owing to the inclination of the 
Earth towards the Poles. And in the Winter 
nights, the Aurora Borealis (from its desultory 
motion, called Merry-dancers and Streamers) 
affords no small light. Whether this proceeds 
from nitrous vapours in the lower region of the 
air, or from a reflection of the rays of the sun, 
I shall not enquire. It is certain that the Ignis 
Fatuus or Ignis Lambens that shineth in the 
night is owing to a thick and hazy atmosphere, 
and a clammy and unctuous dew ; for in riding, 
the horse's mane, and the hair of the rider's head 
or wig, shine, and by gently rubbing them, the 
light disappears, and an oily vapour is found on 
the hand. 

The Cold in this Country is never found too 
sharp and severe. In the winters of 1739 and 
1740, the frost was not by much so strong in 
Moray, as it was at Edinburgh and London, and 
during the continuance of it the water-mills at 
Elgin were kept going. The warm exhalations 
and vapours from the sea dissolve the icy parti- 
cles in the air, and the dry sandy soil doth not 



HEAT ; RAINS ; SNOW ; WINDS PREVALENT. 3 

soon freeze, or retain these particles : and if, 
among the mountains, the Cold is more intense, 
it is an advantage to the inhabitants ; for, by 
contracting the pores of the body, the vital heat 
is kept from dissipating, and is repelled towards 
the inner parts, keeping a necessary warmth in 
the whole body. 

The Heat is pretty strong in Moray; for in 
summer, the Sun's absence under the horizon is 
so short, that neither the atmosphere, or heated 
soil has little time to cool. And often, the heat 
is greater in the glens and valleys, than in the 
champaign ground, for the rays of the Sun are 
pent in and confined, and reverberated from 
the rocks. 

Rains in this Country are seldom hurtful, or 
occasion inundations. Usually we have the 
Lambmass Flood in the beginning of August, 
and sometimes a Michaelmas storm ; but the 
Soil is generally so sandy and dry, that Drought 
is more hurtful than Rain. 

Snow seldom lieth a long time, even in the 
glens and valleys ; and when it continueth, the 
benefit of it is considerable, especially if it is 
attended with Frost; for it mellows and manures 
the ground, and renders it more fertile, impreg- 
nating it with nitre and other principles of vege- 
tation, which improve both corn and grass. 

The winds that prevail here, are the South- 
west, the North and North-east. From January 



4 MOUNTAINS AND DESERTS IN MORAYSHIRE. 

to June they generally blow between North-west 
and North-east, and from June to November 
between South-west and North-west. In winter 
they are more various and inconstant. By these 
periodical changes, the barley seed-time in April 
and May is cool, and the Harvest is fair and dry. 
Hurricanes are seldom known in this Country. 

The Mountains and Deserts in the Highlands 
of Moray, are incomparably more extensive than 
the arable ground. A chain of the Grampian 
Mountains runneth on the South side of Spey, 
and another chain, though lower than the former, 
stretcheth on the North side, from the mouth to 
the head of the river. And the straths of the 
other rivers, Erne, Nairn, Ness, and Farar, are, 
in like manner, enclosed by ranges of hills. Al- 
though, to the taste of some travellers, these 
may seem to disfigure the Country; to others, 
their diversifying figures form the most agreeable 
landskip. And certainly, the benefit of these 
Mountains is very great; they collect and dis- 
solve the clouds into rain, and from the reser- 
voirs in their bowels, form the rivers and brooks 
that water the valleys and plains. The Mountain- 
water being impregnated by the earth, through 
which it is filtrated, has a vegetable power, which 
appears in the fertility of the grounds at the foot 
of Mountains. Their surface affords rich and 
wholesome pasture, necessary for the inhabitants, 
whose property consists [mainly in cattle. Let 



MOUNTAINS HEALTHY NATURAL FENCES. 5 

me add, that these Mountains, as natural fences 
inclosing the valleys, make a fresh stream of air 
fan them, and drive away all noxious vapours : 
and hence the inhabitants are so sound, vigorous 
and wholesome, as to know few diseases, except 
such as are contracted by intemperance, or com- 
municated from other countries. 

In distant ages, and in times of tumults and 
war, much of the corn land was on the tops and 
sides of the lower hills. The ridges and furrows, 
are as yet discernible in many places, and the 
great heaps of stone gathered out of the corn- 
fields still remain. Their safety from the incur- 
sions of enemies, made them choose these high 
places to dwell in ; and at that time, the valleys 
were all covered with woods, and haunted by 
wolves; and by burning the woods many glens 
and valleys are become swamps, marshes, and 
mosses, by the water stagnating in them. When 
more peaceable times encouraged agriculture and 
trade, men found the produce of corn in the hilly 
ground turn to small account. They destroyed 
the woods in the valleys (of which many roots, 
and trunks of oak and fir are daily digged up), 
drained swamps and marshes cultivated the rich 
ground, and removed their houses and habita- 
tions into more convenient situations, and more 
fertile land in the valleys. 

The Plains of Moray below the hills, extend 
the whole length of the Country, from Spey to 



6 THE PLAINS OF MORAY ; SOIL OF THE COUNTRY. 

Farrar ; but of an unequal breadth, not above 6 
miles where broadest. And although the Coun- 
try is champaign and level, it is so cultivated, 
that there is no stagnating water or fens, to ren- 
der it unwholesome by exhalations and vapours. 

The Soil of this Country is generally, either a 
light Sand or a deep Clay. The Sandy Soil in 
the plains, is called "Moray Coast," two or three 
feet deep of a light sandy earth, below which is 
a stratum of free-stone, or of hard compacted 
gravel. This composition makes it very warm, 
and the strong reaction of the sunbeams so heats 
the Soil, that, without frequent showers in Sum- 
mer, the produce of it is burnt up. The Clay 
Soil is strong and deep, and when well manured 
with hot dung or sea ware or weeds, it yieldeth 
a rich increase ; but it requireth moderate rain, 
as much as the Sandy Soil doth, for heat and 
drought bind the Clay, and the circulation of the 
sap and moisture from the root is stopt : hence 
the common observation is, A misty May and a 
dropping June, brings the bonny land of Moray 
aboon. 

The Soil in the Highlands is better watered, 
and by the sides of rivulets and brooks is deep 
and fertile, and needeth not much rain ; and the 
valleys running from North-east to South-west, 
the South side is always most fertile, because it 
is better watered, and less dried up by the heat 
of the sun. 



WHEAT, OATS, BEANS, AND PEASE ; FLAX AND HEMP. 7 

The Corn grain produced by this Soil, is, 
Wheat, Barley, Oats, Eye, Beans, and Pease. 
The low lands are so plentiful in these sorts of 
grain, that they not only have enough for home 
consumpt, and supplying some parts of the High- 
lands, but they export annually good quantities 
into other kingdoms. And if some parts of the 
Highlands have not plenty of grain for their con- 
sumpt, it is not that the Soil is less fertile, or 
worse manured ; but the Barley and Oats are of 
a smaller body, and a thicker hool, Providence 
wisely so ordering, to guard the tender grain, 
which in cold valleys is apt to be chilled and 
blasted by clammy mill-dews, and sometimes by 
hoar frost : and though their grain doth not yield 
so much meal as in the low lands, it yields more 
and better straw, which to them is no less useful. 
But the principal cause why they fall short in 
Corn, is, that the inhabitants are too many for 
the small extent of land, in so much, that I have 
often seen ten persons on a poor farm of twenty 
pounds Scots. And what is wanting in Corn, is 
abundantly made up in Cattle, which are their 
main property. 

Of late Flax and Hemp are propagated, the 
former especially in great plenty, which is manu- 
factured both for home consumpt and for export- 
ation ; and no Soil in the kingdom is more proper 
for Flax, than a part of the low lands of Moray. 
And it is no less proper, both in the low lands 



8 GARDEN PRODUCTIONS; WILD FRUITS AND HERBS. 

and Highlands for Hemp ; but the want of ship- 
ping discourages the propagation of it. 

The Potatoe, almost unknown in this Country 
eighty years ago, is now everywhere planted with 
great success, and thereby the poor are supplied, 
and much barren ground is cultivated, to the no 
small advantage of the proprietors. 

Mustard is likewise propagated in the fields, 
and might be made a profitable article, in its 
quality not inferior to any in the Kingdom. 

There are no Garden Fruits or Herbs in any 
part of Britain, but can be brought to as great 
perfection in the low lands of Moray, by the same 
or less culture. Gentlemen's Gardens yield, in 
plenty, Nectarines, Peaches, Apricots, Apples, 
Pears, Plums, Geens, Cherries, Strawberries, 
Kasps, Gooseberries, Currants, &c., all of the 
best kinds. And the kitchen garden affords the 
greatest plenty of kitchen Herbs and Koots. 

Nor are the Wild Fruits and Herbs less various 
and plentiful, especially in the Highlands, in 
woods and heaths, such as Hazel-nuts, Service- 
berries, Sloes, Easps, Bramble-berries, Hip-ber- 
ries, Bug-berries, Blae-berries, Averans, or Wild 
Strawberries. Wild Herbs of the Medicinal 
kind abound everywhere : as Valerian, Penny- 
royal, Maiden-hair, Scurvy-grass, Sorrel, Gen- 
tian, Brook-lime, Water-trefoil, Mercury, Ger- 
mander, Wormwood, Liver-wort, Sage, Centaury, 
Buglos, Mallows, Tormentil, Scordium, &c. 



OESAR'S CHARA AND OUR CARMILE. 9 

I cannot here omit the Root and Herb Carmile, 
which abounds much in heaths and birch woods. 
Dio in Severo, speaking of the ancient Caledonian, 
says, " Certum cibi genus parant ad omnia, quern 
si ceperunt quantum est unius fabae magnitude , 
minime esurire aut sitire solent."* Dr. Sibbald 
observes, from Caes. de. Bel. Civ. lib. 3, That 
Valerius's soldiers had found a kind of Boot 
called Chara, " quod admistum lacte multum 
inopiam laevabat, id ad similitudinem panis effecie- 
bant, ejus erat magna copia."f Theophrastus 
calls it Radix Scythica, and says, That the 
Scythes could live on it and Mare's Milk for 
many days. To me it is probable, that Caesar's 
Chara, and our Carmile (i.e. the Sweet-root, for 
it tastes like Liquorish) are the same, and are 
Dio's Cibi Genus. It grows in small knots on 
the surface of the ground, and bears a green 
stalk four or five inches long, and a small red 
flower. I have often seen it gathered, dried and 
used on journeys, especially on hills, to appease 
hunger; and being pounded and infused in water, 
it makes a pleasant wholesome balsamic drink, 
and is used sometimes in the Highlands. 

If we view the Forests, we shall not find 
them, as in England, large woods enclosed for 

*"They provide a certain kind of food, of which if they 
take the bigness of a Bean, they use not to hunger or thirst." 

t "Which, mixed with Milk, greatly relieves hunger. They 
prepared it like Bread, and had great plenty of it." 



10 EXTENSIVE FORESTS IN THE PROVINCE OF MORAY. 

holding the King's game. Such woods, but not 
enclosed, there seem to have been in this country, 
as the Forests of Eothemurchus, Tarnua, Inver- 
culan, &c. And now Forests are such parts of 
the Mountains and Glens, as are appropriated to 
the pasturing of Deer and other game. The 
King is properly the Superior and Master of all 
Forests, and Gentlemen in whose lands they 
lie are but the hereditary keepers of them. The 
Duke of Gordon has large Forests in Glenavon, 
and in Badenoch, in which I have seen 300 
Deer in one flock or herd. Lovat, Grant, Eothe- 
murchus, Macintosh, Glengary, have fine For- 
ests; but they are now everywhere laid open 
for pasturing Cattle ; and few Deer (which love a 
clean pasture) are to be found in them, but have 
removed into the Forest of Athole which is 
carefully kept. 

Notwithstanding the visible destruction of 
Woods in this Province, by burning, felling, 
clearing of Valleys and Glens, no Country in 
Scotland is more plentifully served than this is. 
In the parish of Duthel, Sir James Grant has a 
Fir Wood several miles in circuit. And in the 
parishes of Abernethie, Kinchardine, Eothemur- 
chus, and Alvie, the Duke of Gordon, Grant, 
Macintosh, and Kothemurchus, have an almost 
continued Fir Wood, 14 miles in length, and in 
some places more than 3 miles in breadth. In 
Glenmoriston there is a good Fir Wood, and in 



BURNING OF THE WOOD OF ABERNETHIE. 11 

Strathglas a very large one. Parts of these 
Woods are often burnt by accidental fire ; and in 
the year 1746, the Wood of Abernethie suffered 
some miles in circuit, by which some millions of 
trees, young and old, were destroyed. Here I 
cannot but observe, as peculiar to Fir Woods, 
that they grow and spread always to the East, or 
between the North and the South-east, but never 
to the West or South-west. The cause of this 
seemeth to be, that in the months of July and 
August, the great heat opens the Fir apples then 
ripe, and the winds at that season, blowing from 
South-west to W.S.W., drive the seed out of the 
open husks to the East and the neighbouring 
Earths. Almost all the Glens. and Valleys abound 
in Birch, Hazel, Aller, Aspine, Saugh or Sallow, 
Holly, Willows, Haws, Service-tree, &c. And in 
the Plains, are the Forest of Tarnuay, and the 
woods of Inshoch, Kilravock, and Calder ; and in 
this last, and in Inveravon, Alvie, and Urquhart, 
are large Oaks. I incline to think, that these 
Woods are the remains of the Sylva Caledonia, 
which Ptolemy extends "A Lelalonio Lacu ad 
jEstuarium Vararis," from Loch Lomond to the 
Moray Firth. 

With this abundance of Wood, there are Mate- 
rials for Building found in great plenty. Through- 
out the Plains of Moray, there are rich quarries 
of Freestone, easy to hew and dress, and yet 
durable. And in the Highlands, there is the 



12 FEEESTONE AND LIMESTONE ; MINES OF IRON ORE. 

greatest plenty of Limestone, besides some quar- 
ries of it near Elgin, in Duffus, at Tarmia, &c. 
Slatestones are found both in the Highlands and 
Lowlands ; and good Clay almost in every parish 
within the Province. 

There are no mines of Coal as yet discovered 
in this Country ; yet I doubt not but such there 
are, and in a few generations the exigencies 
of the people will require their digging for them. 
In the Highlands, there is an inexhaustible store 
of Turf and Peats; and the Lowlands (except 
the parishes on the coast, from Spey to Find- 
horn) are as yet well served in these, and in 
Broom, Heather, and Furze. I have not observed 
any Furze or Whins in Strathspey or Badenoch ; 
and only in the low Country : but the Moss 
ground is much exhausted, and will soon become 
very scarce. 

No Gold, Silver, Copper, Brass, or Tin, has as 
yet been discovered in this Country. But there 
are rich Mines of Iron ore in several parts ; and 
at Coulnakyle in Abernethie parish, a Forge was 
set up lately, which made very good Iron, but 
through the extravagance and luxury of the 
Managers was given up. At Achluncart, in the 
parish of Boharm, there is a quarry of fine Whet- 
stone ; and in Glenlivat, and other places, there 
is great plenty of rich Marie for Manure. 

Let me add, that there is in this Country, 
several materials for Dyeing, which the people 



MATERIALS FOR DYEING; THE MORAY FIRTH. 13 

use with success. With the top of Heather they 
make a Yellow colour ; with a red moss growing 
on stones, and called Korkir, they dye Eed ; with 
the bark of the Alder or Aller tree, they dye 
Black ; and a Gentleman in the parish of Kirk- 
michael had several hands employed in gathering, 
in the hills, Materials for dyeing Blue, Ingrain, 
Purple, &c. I have seen some of the Indigo he 
has made, and it proves very rich and good. 
This invention, if successful, may be a great 
benefit to the Country. But the Gentleman 
died lately ; and with him, that useful art. 

Having surveyed the Land, I shall now look 
into the Waters. The Moray Firth is the only 
Salt Water in this Province, and extended the 
whole length of it. It is somewhat remarkable, 
that though from Buchan Ness to Beaulie, the 
Firth is about 70 miles in length, and in some 
places 20 in breadth, there is not any one island 
in it. The North shore of this Firth, in Eoss 
and Cromarty, is high and rocky ; but the oppo- 
site Moray shore is low and sandy : hence, by 
the Water rebounding from the Ross side, it 
encroacheth much, in some places, on the Moray 
side. On the confines of the parishes of Duffus 
and Alves, there is a small Bay, which about 
sixty years ago or little more, was a moss, in 
which they digged up great roots of trees, and 
abundance of peats, and now a five hundred ton 
ship may ride at anchor in it. And when some 



14 ENCROACHMENTS OF THE MORAY FIRTH. 

years ago, I viewed it, I found, that, if the sea 
shall encroach further, and rise about 4 feet 
higher, it will overflow and drown all the plains 
of Duffus, Kenedar, and Innes. The like en- 
croachment it hegins to make, at the Town of 
Findhorn; for, as it formerly cut off the old 
Town, it is not improbable that it will surround 
this new Town, and endanger the lands of Muir- 
toun and Kinloss. 

The Fresh Waters are, the Eivers already 
named, and the Lakes. The Water in- all these 
is light and wholesome ; and not to mention here 
the Salmon taken in the rivers, Spey serveth to 
float down much of the Oak and Fir Woods to 
Germach, where they are sawed and shipped for 
export. The Loch and Eiver of Ness likewise 
are very useful, not only in keeping a communi- 
cation by Water to Fort Augustus, but in floating 
much Wood from Glenmoriston and Urquhart 
to Inverness. The Firs of Strathglas are in like 
manner brought down the Eiver Farar to Beaulie. 
I shall afterwards speak of Loch Ness and Loch- 
indorb. The other Lakes have nothing remark- 
able, but what shall be observed in treating of 

The Animal produce of this Country, whether 
on the Land or in the Waters. 

Among the tame land animals, the Horse 
claims the preference. In the Lowlands, they 
have got of late a brood of Horses, much stronger 
than they formerly had, and very fit both for the 



HORSES; OXEN; SHEEP; GOATS; HOGS; DOGS. 15 

saddle and draught ; yet, in the Highlands, their 
small Horses are more proper for rough and hilly 
ground. They are small, strong, and durahle ; 
and being pastured among hills and rocks, they 
are very sure footed ; when they come to a mire 
or bog, they smell to it, and sound it with one 
foot, and if they find not a firm bottom, they will 
not go forward; they live and work in winter 
upon a little straw, without any corn. The Oxen 
and Cows are small, owing to the climate ; but 
their flesh is more delicious, than what is stall- 
fed. In the Plains where they sow grass seeds, 
they have Cows of a bigger size ; but in the 
Highlands, the small Cattle are more serviceable, 
where their pasture in Summer is in woods and 
hills. The Sheep, though of a small size, are 
broody, and their flesh is tender and delicate; 
the Wool in Strathspey and Badenoch is little 
inferior in fineness to the English Wool. The 
Highlands are well stored with Goats, whose 
flesh, though dry and strong, is very wholesome; 
their Milk and Whey are medicinal restoratives, 
as they browse upon the finest herbs among the 
rocks. Their Skins are a good article of trade. 
Hogs are not plentiful in this Country, but the . 
few that are fed about mills and barns are very 
good. The Dogs are of various kinds, some 
small and mild, others large and surly. Some 
Terriers, to ferret the Fox out of his hole. But 
the most remarkable is the Greyhound, so swift 



16 DEER ; FOXES ; HARES ; NO TIGERS NOR LEOPARDS. 

and strong as to catch and kill the Bed Deer in 
the Forest. 

The Woods and the Hills shelter many Wild 
Beasts, as well the useful as the hurtful. The 
Ked Deer in our hills are allowed to be of the 
largest size, and, if the Forests were duly kept, 
would be very plentiful ; they are of the gregari- 
ous kind, and go in herds ; they always browse in 
the hills, and move forward against the wind, 
and never with it, but when they are chased; 
they shed their horns annually until they become 
old ; the young horns for some months are covered 
with a skin as fine and soft as velvet, to preserve 
them against the inclemency of the weather ; as 
the Deer keep the open hills, the Roes are seldom 
found except in woods; the Foxes destroy so 
many of their young, that now they are but few 
in number. Hares are to be met with every- 
where, even in the high hills, where in Winter 
they change their colour into white. We have 
very few Babbits in this Country. These are 
the useful Wild Beasts in this Country, and fit 
for food. The rapacious and hurtful beasts are 
but few : I cannot find that ever there were in 
this Country any Lions, Tigers, Leopards, or 
Bears. It appears by the names of several places, 
and by statutes made for destroying them, that 
there were Wolves in this Country about 300 
years ago ; but now there are none. There are 
still in this Province, Foxes, Badgers, Martens, 



THE FOX. BADGER, MARTEN, SQUIRREL, WEASEL, WHITRED. 17 

Squirrels, Weasels, Whitreds, Wild Cats. Of 
these the Fox is the most hurtful, and destroys 
not only much of the Game, but also Lambs, 
Kids, Fawns, &c., and notwithstanding the many 
arts used to destroy them, they find such shelter 
in woods and rocks, that they are very numerous. 
The Badger is a harmless animal, and lives upon 
grass ; he is so strong in the back, that no stroke 
will kill him, but a small stroke on the forehead 
lays him flat. The Marten is of the Cat kind, 
but the head is small and long, and the colour a 
dark brown, and the fur nothing inferior to sable ; 
it haunts the woods, lives on mice, birds, &c v 
and is quite harmless, but defends fiercely when 
attacked, or when it has its young. The Squirrel 
is a pretty, sportive, harmless creature ; it is a 
kind of a Wood- Weasel, haunts the fir trees, if you 
toss chips or sticks at it, it will toss pieces of the 
bark back again, and thus sports with you ; if it 
is driven out of a tree, and skipping into another 
finds the distance too great, it turns back to its 
former lodge, its bushy tail serving for a sail or 
wings to it. The Weasel, a kind of Pole-cat, and 
the Whitred are well known. In the Highlands 
they change their colour into white in time of 
snow. The Wild Cats are no other than the 
House Cats that leave their home, and lodge in 
rocks and woods, and in this Country do little 
hurt. To these let me add the Mice and Rats, 
that are well known, and yet not so destructive 

VOL. III. 2 



18 SERPENTS, LIZARDS, TOADS, FROGS. 

here as in other places. I have never seen any 
Eats in Strathspey or Badenoch, although I have 
lived long in these Countries. 

Of the Viperous or Poisonous Animals, there 
are few in this Country. The Serpents are small, 
few of them a yard long, and their bite is com- 
monly cured by a bath of the leaves, buds, and 
tender bark of the Ash tree. They cast their 
slough or epidermis annually. It is a common 
opinion, that Serpents have a power of charming 
and bringing down into their mouths, Birds, 
Squirrels, and other animals ; whether this is 
done by poisonous effluvia breathed out by the 
Serpent, and affecting animals within the sphere 
of these effluvia, so that they are stupified, and 
fall down; or if, as the eye of the setting dog 
makes the partridges stand confounded, so the 
Bird, knowing the Serpent to be his natural 
enemy, is stupified with fear seeing the Serpent's 
eye fixed upon him, and so falls ; or what else 
may be the cause, I shall not determine, nor 
inquire. 

Lizards are frequent, generally about 5 inches ; 
but I have seen some a foot in length. They are 
of a dark yellow colour, run swiftly in the heaths, 
and are very harmless. Toads and frogs are not 
very numerous. Caterpillars in April and May 
often destroy the fruit of trees and shrubs. But 
we have few of those Gnats, which in other 
Countries are extremely troublesome. 



THE EAGLE, HAWK, CROWS, ROOKS, MAGPIES. 19 

The number of Feathered Animals, which are 
either Natives of this Country, or Birds of passage, 
that visit us annually, is considerable. The Tame 
or Barn-door Fowls, as Peacocks, Turkeys, Geese, 
Ducks, Pigeons and Poultry, are plentiful. The 
Ravenous and Carnivorous Wild Fowls are nume- 
rous. Among these, the Eagle is, with us, called 
the King of Birds. He destroys not only much 
of the small game, but also Lambs, Kids, Calves, 
and Foals. He nestles commonly in high rocks, 
difficult to come at ; but indulgent Nature has 
provided that the ravenous Eagle and Hawk 
should have but few young, and seldom more 
than two in the year ; when the harmless little 
Wren has ten or twelve. Hawks, Gleds, Sten- 
chils, Ravens, Crows, Rooks, Magpies, &c., are 
numerous. The harmless Wild Fowls are, the 
Swan, Caperkylie (called also the Cock of the 
Wood), in Latin Capricalca, as if he infested the 
Goats, but properly in Irish Capal-Coil, i.e. the 
Wood Horse, being the chief Fowl in the Woods. 
He resembles, and is of the size of a Turkey 
Cock, of a dark grey, and red about the eyes ; he 
lodges in bushy Fir trees, and is very shy : but 
the Hen, which is much less in size, lays her eggs 
in the Heather, where they are destroyed by 
Foxes and Wild Cats, and thereby the Caper- 
kylie is become rare. His flesh is tender and 
delicious, though somewhat of a resinous Fir 
taste. 



20 WATER ANIMALS IN THE PROVINCE. 

The Water Animals in this Country are com- 
mon to it with other places. In, and near to the 
Moray Firth, is found, Cod, Ling, Haddock, 
Whiting, Skate, Flounders, Mackerel, Prawns : 
and of the Testaceous kind, Oysters, Cockles, 
Muscles, Lobsters, Crabs, in such plenty, that 
there is not in Britain a cheaper Fish Market. 
The nearness of this Firth to the Northern 
Ocean made it anciently much frequented by 
Whales; insomuch, that Orkney had its name 
from that Fish. For in Irish, Ore is a species of 
Whale, and Y an Island; and so Ore?/, is the 
Island of Whales. As yet Whales follow Shoals 
of Cod, or Herring into this Firth. In 1719, a 
Whale upwards of 50 feet in length, was left by 
the tide at Phopachie, near Inverness ; another 
of the like dimensions was stranded in the 
Barony of Innes ; and one in the Barony of 
Inshoch, about the year 1754. They were all of 
the Cetus Dentatus kind, and yielded much Sper- 
maceti. Young Whales, Porpoises, Seals, are 
frequent in the Firth, and sometimes plenty of 
Herring. The rivers of Spey, Findhorn, Ness, 
and Farar, abound in Salmon of the best kind. 
And in all our Eivers and Brooks, are delicious 
Trouts and Eels. I have seen in Spey, some 
Lampreys, which seem to be of the longer Eel 
kind, above 4 feet in length, and of a great 
thickness. In all our Lakes there are Pikes of a 
very large size, and in many Lochs, particularly 



RARITIES IN NATURE AND ART. 21 

in the Loch of Moy, near Macintosh's house, 
there is so great plenty of a fat Trout, called 
Eed-wame (because the belly of it is of a vermil- 
lion red), that at one cast of the net, there will 
be taken out sometimes upwards of 200. In the 
river of Spey, there are Pearl Shells, in which I 
have seen many ripe Pearls, of a fine water, and 
great value. 

I shall now conclude this part, with an account 
of the Rarities, whether of Nature or Art, found 
in this Country. And, 

1. The only Rarities of Art I shall take notice 
of, are : The Chapter House, called the Apprentice 
Isle, in the Cathedral at Elgin; for which, see 
Part VI. Ecclesiast. History, 3. The Obelisk 
near Forres : see Part V. Military History. The 
Sea Burgh : see Part V. Military History. And 
the Druid Circles and Cairns : see Part VI. Eccle- 
siast. History t 2. 

2. As to Natural Rarities, the Loch and River 
of Ness merit our notice. These never freeze, 
but retain their natural heat in the most extreme 
frost. Upon the Banks of the Loch, Snow sel- 
dom lies two days ; and Corn ripens much sooner 
than in other places. This quality is probably 
owing to Mines of Sulphur in and near to the 
Loch. This Loch, though about 22 miles in 
length, has no Island in it; in some parts, it has 
been sounded with a line of about 300 fathoms, 
and no bottom found. This depth, with the 



22 MEAL-FUOR-VONIE ; DUNDLECHACK, ETC. 

lightness of the water, makes waves rise very 
high, yet not unbroken upon it. What Mr. 
Gordon writes in his Geography, on the authority 
of Sir George MacKenzie, Advocate, concerning 
the Hill Meal-fuor-vonie, is a mistake. That 
Hill is not two thirds of a mile of perpendicular 
height from the surface of the Loch, neither is 
there any Lake on the top of it. 

3. The Loch of Dundlechack, in the parish of 
Durris, does not freeze before the month of Feb- 
ruary; but in that month, it is in one night 
covered with Ice. This I have been assured of, 
by the inhabitants near to it. 

4. The Cascade, or Water Fall near to Fohir 
in Stratherick. Here the River Feachlin, con- 
tracted between Rocks, falls down a precipice 
about an 100 feet high, as I conjecture from a bare 
view of it, and breaking on the rocky shelves, the 
water is dissipated and rarified, and fills the 
great hollow with a perpetual mist. 

5. The Carngorm Stones. This Mountain, of 
a great height, is in Kinchardine in Strathspey; 
about the top of it, stones are found of a crystal 
colour, deep yellow, green, fine amber, &c., and 
very transparent, of a hexagon, octagon, and 
irregular figure. They are very solid, will cut as 
well as diamond, and being now in great request, 
are much searched for, on this, and other hills ; 
they are cut for rings, seals, pendants, snuff 
boxes, &c. 



CAVES; MINERAL WATERS; BLACK COCK, ETC. 23 

6. In the Parishes of Kinnedar and DufFus, 
there are several Caves ; some are 10 or 12 feet 
high, and it is uncertain how far they extend; 
they open to the sea, in a hill of freestone, and 
probably were formed by the impetuous wave& 
washing away the sand and gravel between the 
strata of stone. 

7. Chalybeate Mineral Water, at Teynland in 
Lhanbride; at Achterblair in Duthil; at Auchna- 
gairn, in Kirkhill, and other places ; an unctuous 
mineral at Miltoun of Eylugas in Edinkylie, 
These are much frequented, and found medicinal 
in several diseases. 

8. The Black Cock, called by some writers of 
zoology Gallus Scoticanus as peculiar to Scotland. 
It is the most beautiful fowl of our country, larger 
in the body than any Capon, of the colour of the 
Peacock, but wanting the proud train, which 
would retard his flight; he haunts the birch 
woods in the hills, and is very shy ; although he 
is not so large in the body as a Goose, he ha& 
more flesh, and is more delicious. 

9. I may reckon among our Rarities, the Hill 
of Benalar on the South side of Spey, in the 
braes of Badenoch. It is not improbable, but 
this is the highest ground in Scotland ; for brooks 
from it fall into Spey, Lochie, and Tay, and so 
enter into the Sea at Germach, Fort William, 
and Dundee. 

10. Let me add, as now become a rarity, the 



24 THE CURRACH AN ANCIENT NAUTIC VESSEL. 

Courach. This nautic vessel was anciently much 
used ; Solinus, Cap. 22. says of the Irish in his 
day, " Navigant autem vimineis alveis, quos cir- 
cundant ambitione tergorum bubulorum,"*ashort, 
but exact, description of the Courach. It is in 
shape oval, near 3 feet broad, and 4 long ; a small 
keel runs from the head to the stern ; a few ribs 
are placed across the keel, and a ring of pliable 
wood around the lip of it. The whole machine 
is covered with the rough hide of an ox or a 
horse ; the seat is in the middle, it carries but 
one person, or if a second goes into it to be 
wafted over a river, he stands behind the rower, 
leaning on his shoulders; in floating timber, a 
rope is fixed to the float, and the rower holds it 
in one hand, and with the other manages the 
paddle ; he keeps the float in deep water, and 
brings it to shore when he will; in returning 
home, he carries the machine on his shoulders, 
or on a horse. In Irish, Curach signifies the 
trunk or coat of the body ; and hence this vessel 
had its name, and probably its first model. 

11. I shall add but one Karity more, not indeed 
natural to this Country, but adventitious ; I mean 
the Locust; which came to our coast in July 
1748, and for aught I know was never before seen 
in it. This flying insect is full two inches long 
in the body, and half an inch round, consisting 

* Translation. For they sail in hollow boats, made of osiers, 
which they cover, in rivalry, with the hides of oxen. 



THE LOCUST MINUTELY DESCRIBED. 25 

of several rings or cartilages ; the head is in the 
form of a lobster's head, broad and covered with 
strong scales, with two antennae ; the mouth 
wide, and armed with sharp teeth ; the neck and 
shoulders covered with a scale like a helmet; the 
eyes large and lively ; it has three pair of legs, 
the nearest to the head about an inch in length, 
the next pair somewhat longer, and both armed 
with sharp claws ; the third pair, with which it 
leaps, are two inches long, besides the foot that 
is near half an inch ; the leg has an inflexure or 
joint in the middle ; the upper part or thigh, is in 
form like a bird's thigh ; the lower half is smaller, 
but serrated like a saw ; the foot has three glands 
in the sole to tread softly, and is armed with 
three claws on the heel, and as many at the 
point, to take a firm hold ; the body is covered 
with two pair of wings, the under wing is finer, 
and of a silver colour, and the upper is stronger, 
and spotted of silver and brown ; when the wings 
are folded, the whole length of the locust is two 
inches and a half. From what country they 
ame here I know not, but they found this 
climate too cold to generate in. 



26 THE PICTS THEIR ORIGIN AND POSSESSIONS. 



PAKT IV. 

THE CIVIL AND POLITICAL HISTORY OF MORAY. 

TT cannot well be doubted, that the ancient 
-*- inhabitants of this Province, were the Picts 
and the Scots ; the one inhabiting the Lowlands 
on the coast, the other the Highlands among the 
hills. The Komans called the former Picti, be- 
cause they painted their bodies ; but their true 
name was Phichtiad, i.e. fighters, because they 
were brave and valiant. The ancient writers 
bring them from the European Scythia; Bede, 
Lib. 1. says, " It happened that the Picts from 
Scythia, as it is said, entered the ocean in long 
ships. Coming to Britain, they began to reside 
in the northern parts of the island, for the 
Britons had possessed the southern." And 
Nennius, Sect. 9 writes, " The Picts came and 
possessed the islands called the Orkneys, and 
afterwards from the adjacent islands wasted 
many large countries in the left, i.e. eastern side 
of Britain, and there remain to this day." 

The Picts thus coming from Scandia, about 
the mouth of the Baltic Sea, had an easy course 
to Shetland and Orkney, and thence to the 



THE SCOTS; VARIOUS DIALECTS OF GOTHIC AND TEUTONIC. 27 

continent, where, it is by all acknowledged, they 
possessed the eastern coast, southward to Tweed, 
and consequently they inhabited the plains of 
Moray. The Scots were so called by the 
Romans, from Sceot, i.e., in Celtic, a shield or 
target, which they much used. They were un- 
questionably Celts, and the same with the an- 
cient Britains, and were driven by the Picts (as 
Nennius hints) out of the Grampian coast, into the 
glens and valleys. When the Pictish kingdom 
was overthrown about anno 842, the Picts were 
not extirpated as some authors write. It is cer- 
tain, they made a part of King David's army 
in the Battle of the Standard anno 1138. And 
when, in the reign of King Malcolm IV., many 
of the Moravienses were transplanted into the 
south (Vide Milit. Hist.), Lowlanders, no doubt, 
of a Pictish descent, were brought to replace 
them ; and so the inhabitants of the Lowlands 
of Moray were, and as yet are, of a Pictish origin. 
This is confirmed by the language of the 
country; for though gentlemen, and all who 
have any liberal education, speak the English 
tongue in great propriety, yet the illiterate pea- 
sants use the broad Scottish or Buchan Dialect, 
which is manifestly the Pictish. And the Pictish, 
English, Saxon, Danish, Swedish, Icelandish, and 
Norwegian, are but the various dialects of the 
Gothic and Teutonic languages ; as the British, 
Welsh, Cornish, Scottish, Irish, are dialects of 



28 ANCIENT CALEDONIANS THEIR MODE OF LIVING. 

the Gallic and Celtic. Now that, since the 
Eevolution in 1688, schools are erected both in 
the Highlands and Lowlands, the English tongue 
spreads and prevails ; insomuch, that in the par- 
ishes of Inveravon, Knockando, Edinkylie, and 
Nairn, where, in my time, Divine Worship was 
performed in Irish [Erse], now there is no occa- 
sion for that language. 

What the manners and way of living of the 
ancient inhabitants were, we can know only by 
the short hints Eoman writers give us, of the 
ancient Caledonians, Scots, and Picts, which I 
shall not here transcribe. But what Tacitus, 
De Mor. Germ, writes is true of this country 
in its ancient state. " They do not dwell to- 
gether in towns, but live separate, as a fountain 
of water, a plain, or a grove pleased them." 
Sidonius Apollinarius, Epist. 20, in describing a 
Gothish gentleman, gives a lively picture -of a 
Highland Scotsman. " He covers his feet to 
the ankle with hairy leather, or rullions, his 
knees and legs are bare, his garment is short, close, 
and parti- coloured, hardly reaching to his hams, 
his sword hangs down from his shoulder, and his 
buckler covers his left side." Nay, Dr. Shaw's 
Account of the Arabs and Kabyles of Barbary is 
a plain description of the more rude parts both 
of the Lowlands and Highlands. They are, says 
he, the same people, if we except their religion, 
they were 2000 years ago ; without regarding the 



THEIR MUD-HOUSES, DRESS, AND CORN-MILLS. 29 

novelties in dress or behaviour,- that so often 
change. Their Gurbies, i.e. houses, are daubed 
over with mud, covered with turf, have but one 
chamber, and in a corner of it, are the foals, kids, 
and calves. The Hyke, i.e. blanket or plaid, six 
yards long and two broad, serves for dress in the 
day, and for bed and covering in the night ; by 
day, it is tucked by a girdle. Their Mills for 
grinding corn, are two small grindstones, the 
uppermost turned round by a small handle of 
wood, placed in the edge of it. When expedition 
is required, then two persons sit at it, generally 
women." This explains Ex. ii. 5, Mat. xxiv. 41. 

One would imagine the doctor had been de- 
scribing the way of living in Glengary. It might 
be easily made appear, that the ancient Moravi- 
enses, though bold and brave, were contentious, 
proud, turbulent, and revengeful, and upon the 
smallest provocation run to arms, and butchered 
one another ; and this wicked disposition ran in 
the blood, from one generation to another. 

But now that fierce and wild temper is done 
away, and no country in the kingdom is more 
civilized than the Lowlands of Moray. Their 
education, since the Revolution, verifies, that 
Ingenuas didicisse feliciter artes, Emollit mores, 
nee sinit esse feros.* And even the Highlands, 
except Glengary, and some other skirts, are more 

* Translation. To have successfully acquired the liberal arts, 
refines our manners, nor permits them to be ever coarse. 



30 HIGH COMPLIMENTS PAID TO THE PEOPLE. 

peaceable and industrious than other Highland 
countries. In a word, one will not find, in the 
common people of this country, either the rusti- 
city of the Lowlanders, or the rudeness of the 
Highlanders in some other countries ; and the 
gentry are not exceeded hy any of their neigh- 
bours for politeness and civility. In no country 
are the people more hospitable ; both the gentry 
and the peasants have a pleasure in entertaining 
strangers, in which they rather exceed than fall 
short ; and this hospitable temper is remarked in 
the Highlands, where there are but few inns to 
accommodate travellers, and where the natives, 
in looking after their cattle, often travel from one 
country to another ; yet I must own, that some 
other social virtues are rather on the decline ; 
that benevolence, in supplying the wants and 
relieving the distresses of relations and neigh- 
bours, and mutually assisting one another in 
their necessary affairs, that once shined in this 
country, are degenerated into selfishness. The 
laudable custom of accommodating debates and 
differences, by an amicable arbitration, is be- 
come obsolete, through the craft of the chican- 
ing tribe. And to the same set of men it is 
much owing, that there is less of ingenuity and 
plainness, of trust and confidence in social deal- 
ing, than I have seen. 

The skill of this people in mechanics, and their 
genius for arts and sciences, are not inferior to 



THEIR SKILL IN MECHANICS, THE ARTS, AND SCIENCES. 31 

any other corner of the kingdom. The peasants 
build houses, make all their instruments for 
agriculture, frame their corn and sawmills, and 
many of them are tanners, shoemakers, weavers, 
joiners, &c. ; nor is their capacity for arts and 
sciences inferior to their skill in mechanics. No 
people sooner learn the art of war, or make more 
eminent officers and brave soldiers. It is true, 
in later ages the Lowlanders, formerly brave, by 
their continual labour about their farms, and by 
the disuse of arms, have become more heavy and 
phlegmatic ; and yet when brought young into 
the military, are exceeded by no soldiers in 
bravery and fidelity. The Highlanders have 
always had a peculiar advantage for martial 
exercises. The fresh and wholesome air they 
breathe, their plain and homely diet, their con- 
tinual motion and exercise, render them vigorous, 
healthy, and lively. They are inured to cold and 
fatigue, and accustomed to arms from their child- 
hood, which, with the rugged rocks they daily 
traverse, inspire them with a contempt of dan- 
gers and difficulties; and their freedom from 
slavery and vassalage (except a dependence on 
their chiefs who encouraged their manliness), 
gave them a sprightliness, and generosity of 
mind, elevated above the boorish and mean spirit 
of the common soldiery. The generous, brave, 
and steady behaviour of the Highland regiments 
in the late wars, abundantly evinces that they 



32 MEN EMINENT IN THE STATE, CHURCH, AND FIELD. 

were an honour to their country. How long 
they shall continue so I shall not pretend to 
guess. The Highlanders being disarmed, and 
stripped of their native dress, appear not only 
awkward and slovenly in the Lowland garb, but 
dejected and dispirited. But if this change of 
dress makes them less fit for the field, it may 
render them more fit for the farm, and the useful 
arts of life. 

In brief, the genius of the inhabitants of this 
country will appear from the following list of 
men, eminent in the State and in the field, on 
the bench and in the Church, all of them natives 
of, or residing in Moray: viz., Sir John Gum- 
mine Lord Badenoch, conjunct Guardian of the 
Kingdom, anno 1299 : Thomas Eandolph Earl 
of Moray, Governor in 1329 : Sir Andrew Moray, 
Lord Bothwell, of the Family of Duffus, conjunct 
Governor in 1332: John Eandolph, Earl of 
Moray, General in 1346 : Gavin Dunbar, grand- 
son of Sir Alexander of Westfield, Chancellor in 
1528 ; and one of the Regents in 1536 : the 
Earls of Huntley often Chancellors : John Lesly 
Bishop of Boss, bastard son of the Parson of 
Kingusie, President of the Court of Session in 
1564 : Duncan Forbes of Culloden, late Presi- 
dent of that Court : Alex. Brodie of Brodie ; 
Sir Francis Grant of Cullen ; Patrick Grant of 
Elchies ; all Senators of the College of Justice : 
Gavin Dunbar above mentioned, Archbishop of 



PRIMITIVE AGRICULTURE IN THE PROVINCE. 33 

Glasgow 1524 : Gavin Dunbar, son of Sir Alex, 
of Westfield, Bishop of Aberdeen 1518 : Gilbert 
Moray, son of Duffas, Bishop of Caithness anno 
1222 : John Innes, son of John Innes of that ilk, 
Bishop of Moray in 1406 : Adam Gordon, son of 
Huntley, Bishop of Caithness in 1460: Alex. 
Gordon, son of Huntley, Bishop of Galloway 1558 : 
John Lesly above mentioned, Bishop of Boss 
anno 1665. : Not to mention the Bishops of Moray, 
natives of the country, nor the learned Professors 
and Advocates of later times. Experientia con- 
stat, Summos scepe viros, et magnet, exempla 
daturos, Vervecum in patria, crassoque sub aere 
nasci* 

If we view the agriculture, improvements, manu- 
factures, trade, and commerce of this Province, we 
will not find them such as might be expected. 
The people have, for. ages, continued in one 
beaten tract of agriculture. Their only manure, 
in the inland, is the raw dung of cattle, not fer- 
mented or rotten, but mixed with coarse gravel, 
or dry sand ; near the coast, they mix sea-ware 
in the dunghill ; if the soil were not good, it 
would yield little by such poor manure. Marie, 
a fat and unctuous earth, and limestone in abun- 
dance, are found in many places. Few parts of 
the dry and hot soil in the Highlands or Low- 

* Translation. It is by experience established, that often- 
times great men, and about to present shining examples, are 
born under a heavy atmosphere, and in mountainous districts. 
VOL. III. 3 



34 PROPOSALS FOR ADVANCEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT. 

lands but may be moistened and fattened by an 
easy conveyance of rills of water to them ; and 
by enclosing the corn land, resting it, and sowing 
grass seeds, it would be greatly improved. But 
the severe exactions of masters, and the poverty of 
tenants, hinder all improvements. Tenants have 
neither ability nor encouragement to try experi- 
ments; some have no leases; and if they who 
have them shall improve their farms, strangers 
will reap the benefit of it ; for at the expiration 
of the lease, they must pay an additional rent, or 
a high grassum, or entry-money, which, if they 
refuse, the farm will be put to the roup, and the 
improver will be removed. 

The country is very capable of improvement, 
and several branches of police and improvement, 
which might be easily made, are much wanted. 
In the plains of Moray, the moss ground, from 
which they take their fuel, and in which the 
tenants find fir-roots for light, and fir and oak 
timber for building, will soon be exhausted ; and 
the price of wood from the Highlands is become 
very high. But of late, the Duke of Gordon, the 
Earls of Findlater and Fife, Sir James Grant, Sir 
Lewis Grant, and some other gentlemen, have 
planted millions of barren trees, and continue in 
such improvement ; yet no care is taken to plant 
barren timber in the extensive heaths and moors, 
or indeed anywhere, except a few trees about 
gentlemen's seats. In no country can the open 



NO FACTOKIES FOR WOOLLEN OR LINEN CLOTH. 35 

fields be more easily enclosed, either with a dry 
stone dyke or wall, or with a ditch, bank and 
hedges. But this is totally neglected, except 
about gentlemen's manors. The watering of 
ground is a rational and easy, and in other 
countries a beneficial improvement ; but here not 
once attempted. The draining of lakes and 
marshy ground would at once improve and 
beautify the country ; but the discords of heritors 
prevent it. No country in Scotland yields finer 
wool, or may yield better flax ; yet there are no 
factories, for either woollen or linen cloth : and it 
is well known how conveniently the country is 
situated for a herring fishery; but it is totally 
neglected. 

In these useful branches our country is shame- 
fully deficient ; but in some others, a small ad- 
vance has been made of late. Gentlemen have 
drained and enclosed their own manors, which 
till of late lay open and naked. Wheat is propa- 
gated in greater plenty, and of a better body, by 
fallowing the ground, and bringing the seed from 
England. Flour mills and mills for sheeling 
barley are set up. Flax is propagated with good 
success. Lint mills and bleachfields are erected: 
and in the Highlands, the propagating flax, and 
spinning it, make progress, by the encourage- 
ment given by the trustees, who have settled a 
factory at Invermoriston, purchased ground, built 
the proper houses, and allow liberal salaries to an 



36 OBSTRUCTIONS TO TRADE AND COMMERCE. 

overseer, spinsters, wheel-wrights, flax-dressers, 
&c., and now the country has linen coarse and 
fine for home consumpt, and a small quantity for 
export; and though we have no factories for 
weaving, yet we have good weavers of plain and 
figured linen. The manufacturing of broad 
woollen cloth is likewise improved by private 
hands; and, which was little known 30 years 
ago, cotton cloth is wrought and dyed with 
success. Let me add, that Potatoes are now 
planted everywhere, to the great benefit of the 
poor, and the improving of ground. Grass seeds 
are sown by gentlemen to great advantage. 

With respect to trade and commerce, there are 
many obstructions. We have no good Harbours ; 
Garmoch or Speymouth is often choked with 
banks of sand ; Lossiemouth is but a creek, and 
receives no ships of any burdens ; Findhorn is 
much barred; and Inverness river receives but 
sloops and doggers. Were our harbours good, 
we have but few articles for export. Our mer- 
chants are generally men of no stock ; and our 
landed gentlemen have no inclination to employ 
their money in this way. The commodities our 
country affords for export either into foreign 
countries, or neighbouring countries, are these : 

Barley and oatmeal, to the quantity of about 
20,000 bolls, may be exported annually ; and this 
article may be improved to much greater extent. 
Salmon is a considerable article, and no country 



FISHERIES ; EXPORT OF BEEF AND POHK ; WOODS. 37 

affords better fish, than what is taken in the 
rivers of Spey, Findhorn, and Ness, Farar or 
Beauly, to the value of several thousands of 
pounds yearly. The white fishing of cod and 
ling turns to small account : linen cloth is an 
improving article, and might become a staple 
commodity, did gentlemen set up work-houses, 
and encourage the manufacture. Although our 
wool is not manufactured at home to any advan- 
tage, yet considerable quantities of it are sold in 
the counties of Banff and Aberdeen. Beef and 
pork are exported, though not to a great amount ; 
thousands of black cattle are annually sold in the 
south of Scotland, and in England ; great flocks 
of sheep are driven to Deeside, and other coun- 
tries; and some horses are likewise sold. No 
small benefit arises from the woods in the High- 
lands, which furnish the neighbouring counties 
with plank, deal, board, joists, and all kinds of 
timber for building carts, waggons, labouring 
instruments, bark for tanning, pike staves, &c. 
To which, let me add, that the Highlands fur- 
nish much peltrie, raw hides, skins of deer, roe, 
fox, hare, otters, wild cats, goats, badgers, &c. 

For home consumpt we have in plenty, corn, 
fleshes and fishes, butter, cheese, honey, fruits, 
fowls, tame and wild, tallow, &c. In a word, 
would gentlemen live at home and improve the 
country ; would they encourage the tenants, and 
exempt them from slavish servitude ; would all 



38 DALRYMPLE'S ESSAY ON FEUDAL PROPERTY. 

ranks live frugally and wisely, small as the 
produce of our country is, it may be called 

Terra suis contenta bonis, nee indigo, mercis.* 

But the luxury and vanity of our times know 
no bounds. Even they that live on alms 
are infected by it. It must be restrained, or the 
country will be impoverished. In few countries 
do the peasants live more poorly ; and though 
many of the gentry do grind the faces of the 
poor, they do not enrich themselves. They mul- 
tiply exactions upon the people, who dare not 
complain ; and they exhaust their own fortunes 
by the expense of imitating the manners and 
luxury of their more wealthy neighbours. 

I shall now take a view of the Civil Govern- 
ment of this country, as it is divided into Counties 
and Burghs ; and as it may be thought that a 
general view of the feudal system may throw 
some light on this, I shall, from Mr. Dalrymple's 
accurate essay on Feudal Property, extract a 
few lines. 

The Goths and Vandals having over-run the 
Roman empire, settled the feudal law in the 
countries they conquered. They went abroad, 
though under a General, as independent clans, 
to find a settlement; and when they settled 

* Translation. A land content with its own, nor in want of 
foreign merchandise. 



THE GOTHS AND VANDALS. 39 

in any conquered country, they must fall into 
some subordination. Their General naturally 
became their prince or king ; and all must be 
ready, at a military call, to maintain their con- 
quest. Of the conquered land, (1) some part 
would be reserved for the prince or king. (2) 
The rest would be parcelled out among the 
chieftains. (3) Such of the ancient inhabitants 
as were allowed to remain in the country (for it 
was not their way to extirpate them) kept their 
lands on the ancient footing ; and (4) Such 
intruders and followers as were not attached to 
any chieftain, taking possession of any vacant 
land, enjoyed it on the same footing. The King 
judged and led out to war in his own lands ; the 
chieftains did so in their lands ; and the King 
sent his officers to judge in the third and fourth 
classes. In France, lands held on the ancient 
footing were called Alleux or Allodial; the 
officer sent to command in them was termed 
Count ; those living under his jurisdiction were 
named Liberi and Milites, i.e., who owned no 
superior in a feudal, though subject to the King 
in a political way. Lands held on the feudal 
footing were called Feodaux ; those holding them 
were named Leuds, i.e. Lords, and they judged 
their own people, led them to war, and were no 
way subject to the Counts. Among the Saxons 
in England, lands granted to the Thanes or 
Lords were called Thain-land, and if held by 



40 ALLODIAL LANDS ; COUNT, EARL, THANE, LORD. 

charter, Boc-land. Hence the proprietors of 
Boc-land were called Thegen, i.e. lords ; and 
those under them Theoden. Allodial lands, over 
which the King's officer, called Reve and Sherive, 
had jurisdiction, were called Reve-land, and being 
held without writ, Falkland. The governors of 
such lands were called Copies, i.e. Counts, and 
those under them Ceorles. At first, grants of 
conquered lands were made only during pleasure, 
afterwards for life ; and because men would 
not serve in war, if by their death their families 
would be ruined, therefore grants were made 
hereditary. 

In all the Gothic constitutions, honour and 
dignity (such as Count, Earl, Thane, Lord) were 
originally annexed to lands and offices. An Earl 
was the governor and judge of a province, and 
only during pleasure or for life. William the 
Conqueror made these offices hereditary and 
feudal. Then Earls, too great to bear the fatigue 
of business, appointed Deputies, Vice-comites, 
or Sherives. This left an earldom not so much a 
territorial office as a territorial dignity. After- 
wards, though the estate was lost, the honour 
was allowed to continue with the family ; or lands 
were erected into an earldom, in favours of the 
grantee and his heirs, and this conferred on him 
the territorial dignity, though he had neither 
office nor property in these lands. 

In Scotland and in other nations the feudal 



THE ONLY COUNT ANCIENTLY IN THE PROVINCE. 41 

system was established by degrees. King Mal- 
colm II. made advances to it. The outlines of it 
consisted in making the crown-vassals hold by 
military service ; in certain profits paid on change 
of heirs ; in granting the Superior the incidents 
of ward and marriage ; and in making the King 
not a supreme magistrate, but a paramount 
superior, invested in the whole property of the 
kingdom, and his vassals attached to him by 
homage and fealty. To subject themselves to 
feudal service, to surrender all their lands to 
the King during the minority of the heirs, and to 
pay a year's rent at the entry of every heir, were 
perquisites the nobles and chieftains would not 
yield without a valuable compensation. And 
this granted, (1) A part of the Crown lands was 
given, on condition of military service ; and if 
the gift was considerable, the receiver could not 
handsomely refuse to allow his own estate to be 
engrossed in the charter. (2) Titles of honour 
were conferred on many ; and (3) Whereas lands 
were formerly held by possession only, without 
writ, charters were granted, as the most solemn 
and sure title to land. By these baits they were 
gradually allured to give up their independency, 
and to accept of their own estates as a gift 
from the King, holding of him by military tenure. 
The only Count or Earl anciently in this 
province was the Earl of Moray. The charter to 
Thomas Eandulph is in the reign of King Robert. 



42 ANCIENT CHARTERS HAD NO DATES. 

Before that time, the Earls of Moray were pro- 
bably officers or governors, during pleasure or for 
life. But Eandulph's dignity was manifestly 
territorial and hereditary. The privileges granted 
to him were ample, such as a regality in the 
whole county ; the superiority of baronies and 
freeholders, and of the boroughs of Elgin, Forres r 
and Nairn : the patronage of Parish Churches ; 
and the military command of the whole county. 
But the patronage of Prelacies, the town and 
castle of Inverness, and the reversion of the 
whole county were reserved to the Crown. 

This Charter beareth no date, though granted 
anno 1313 (Char. Mor.) Ancient charters often 
wanted the date of time and place, as King 
Duncan's charter. Some name the place tut 
no time. In some a remarkable fact is related 
instead of the time, as in the charter of Innes. 
I do not find that any of our Kings before the 8th 
year (1221) of King Alexander II. used the 
plural NOS in their charters. And in England, 
King Richard I. or his immediate predecessors, 
first used that style. And how soon Kings 
used it, the nobles and prelates copied from 
them. 

Our Kings never did subscribe their charters 
and grants, but only affixed their seals to them, 
and of late they superscribe them. And though 
the names of witnesses to Royal deeds were 
inserted in the body of the writ, yet they never 



KINGS NEVER SIGNED THEIR CHARTERS AND GRANTS. 43 

did, nor as yet do manually subscribe ; but of old 
they affixed their seals to it. The crosses sub- 
joined to King Duncan's charter were drawn by 
the writer, or rather the King and witnesses 
drew the crosses, and the scribes wrote the 
names. The foundation-charter of the Abbey of 
Scone, by King Alexander I., anno 1115, thus 
ends: "Ego Alexander Dei Gratia Kex Scot- 
orum, propria manu mea haec confirmo. Ego 
Sybilla Eegina confirmo."* These names were 
written by the scribe, and the Roman letter E 
was in red or in gold. And with respect to the 
Deeds of subjects, it was not necessary, before 
1681, that either the writer or the witnesses 
should be designed in the writ ; or that the 
witnesses subscribing should be the only pro- 
bative witnesses. (Vide Act Parl. 1681). 

King Malcolm III. was the first who affixed a 
seal to his deeds, but without any armorial 
figures. His son Duncan used cross and seal. 
King Alexander I. introduced counter-sealing ; 
and King William (whose reign commenced anno 
1165) first used armorial figures on his seal. 
The figures formerly on Eoyal seals, were, as on 
King Edgar's, viz., the King on the throne, 
a sword in one hand, and a sceptre in the other, 
with this inscription, " Ymago Edgari Scot- 

* Translation. I, Alexander, by the favour of God King of 
the Scots, confirm this grant by my proper signature. I, Queen 
Sybilla, likewise confirm it. 



44 RICHARD I. FIRST USED ARMORIAL FIGURES. 

torum Basilei." * In England, King Richard 
I., who began to reign anno 1189, first used 
armorial figures. The Barons and gentry had 
their seals likewise early charged, but not 
with armorial figures. " Every Baron and any 
other holding of the King, shall have his proper 
seal ; and such as shall not have it shall be 
liable in the King's fine. And what are sealed 
shall be also signed, as used to be done in former 
times." (Stat. Bob. III.) In observance of this 
law, gentlemen sent their seals to the Court 
in lead, which the clerk kept by him (M'Kenz. 
Herald). To seal bonds, deeds, and conveyances 
was the custom till anno 1540. Then besides 
sealing, the granter's manual subscription, or 
that of a notary, was made necessary. (Act 
Parl. 1540. Pref. to Diplom. Scot.) To return 
from this digression. 

We had several Thanes in this Province. Con- 
cerning these, Fordoun, Lib. iv., Cap. 45, writes : 
" Kings in ancient times used to grant to their 
soldiers more or less of their lands in feu-farm 
a part of some province or thanedom; for in 
that era the whole kingdom almost was divided 
into thanedoms, of which he gave to any one just 
as he thought fit ; secured either from year to 
year, as to husbandmen ; or from ten or twenty 
years ; or for the whole life to one, or at most to 
two heirs, as to sons or to sons-in-law. To some, 
* The representation of Edgar, King of the Scots. 



THE SEVERAL THANES IN THE PROVINCE. 45 

however, but to very few, in perpetuity, such as 
to esquires, thanes, or chieftains." Probably 
these Thanes were at first the King's servants (so 
the word signifies), or officers in provinces or 
countries, and during pleasure only, or for life. 
But afterwards the title and the lands granted to 
them were made hereditary. In the Highlands 
they were termed Mormbaor, i.e. a Great Officer ; 
and hence probably, came Marus comitatus Regis. 
They were likewise called ToscJie (from Tus., i.e. 
First) that is, " Principal Persons, Primores." 

In this Province we had, The Thane of Moray ; 
of whom I know no more, but that the lands 
of Ligate, Newton, Ardgaoith, &c., in the 
parishes of Spynie and Alves, are called the 
Thanedom of Moray. The Thane of Brodie and 
Dyke w^as probably the ancestor of the family of 
Brodie. Thanus de Moithes (probably Moy or 
Moyness) is one of the Inquest, in estimating 
the baronies of Kilravock and Greddes. But 
I know no more of that Thanedom. In the year 
1367, Joannes de Dolais was Thane of Cromdale. 
Whether or not he was the Earl of Fife's steward 
or factor of these lands, I know not. An account 
of the Thanes of Calder is given. The succession 
of these Thanes, -always so designed, continued 
to the year 1500 ; and in this family the title of 
Thane was honorary and not official ; at least since 
the time of King Alexander III. I question not 
but the title of Thane was more ancient with us 



46 THE FIRST DUKE, MARQUIS, EARL, AND VISCOUNT. 

than the titles of honour that now obtain. 
Dempster says : " Upon the murder of the 
tyrant Macbeth, Malcolm III. seized on the 
kingdom as his lawful inheritance, and earnestly 
applied himself to make it respectable and 
honourable. Then it was that those who had 
been ennobled for their military services as- 
sumed the titles of their respective domains ; 
and, that he might add a fresh splendour to his 
reign, he created Lords and Earls the numer- 
ous and noble retinue which accompanied S. 
Margaret from Hungary and England to Scot- 
land." 

The first Duke we had in Scotland was David, 
son of King Eobert III., so created about the 
year 1397. 

The first Marquisses were John, Marquis of 
Hamilton, and George, Marquis of Huntly, so 
created in one day, viz., 19th April, 1599. 

The first Earl is said to have been Duncan 
M'Duff, made Earl of Fife about the year 1057 ; 
but the laws of King Malcolm II. mention 
Comites in his reign. 

The first Viscount was Thomas, Lord Erskine, 
created Lord Viscount Fenton, anno 1606. 

How early we had Lords or Barons, either by 
tenure or by writ, I find not. It is certain we 
had such named, Leg. Male. cap. 8. But Lords 
by Patent we had not before the reign of Queen 
Mary, or of King James VI. 



DERIVATION OF SHIRES AND SHERIFFS. 47 

I now come to consider our Counties. 

In France the King's officer who judged in 
allodial lands was called Comes and the district 
in which he judged Comitatus, and his depute 
Vicecomes. In England the King's officer was 
called Reve and Schereve, and the district Shire. 
In Saxon Scire (from Scyran, to divide) is a 
division ; and Sherif, Scirgerf, is the G-erif, Reve, 
or Officer of a Shyre. Hence probably some 
lands of Elgin, Forres, &c., are called G-reship 
Lands, because they were the salary of the Gerif 
or Sheriff. How early this province was divided 
into shires or counties, I find not. It now takes 
in a part of the shire of Inverness, the whole 
shires of Nairn and of Elgin, and a part of 
the shire of Banff. 

The shire or county of Inverness within this 
Province comprehends the parishes of Inverness, 
Kirkhill, Kiltarlartie, Urquhart, Boleskin, Durris, 
Cromdale, Alvie, Eothiemurchus, Kingusie, Lag- 
gan, Ardersier, and the greatest part of Petty, 
Croy, Daviot, Dunlichtie, Moy, and Dalarasie, and 
a part of Duthel. It stands the nineteenth in 
the Koll of Parliament. It appears from Reg. 
May. Lib. i. Cap. 16, 20, that there were Vice- 
comites, or Sheriffs, of Inverness, in the reign of 
King David I. ; and all the countries benorth the 
Forth being divided into Districts, for the more 
regular administration of justice, Inverness was 
one of the " Loca Capitalia Scotia? Gomitatuum, 



48 THE CAPITAL PLACES OF SCOTLAND. 



per totum regnum." The other capital places 
were Scoon, Dalginsh, Perth, Forfar, and Aber- 
deen. Ross (including Sutherland and Caith- 
ness) and all Moray answered at Inverness. We 
cannot infer from the words, " Loca Capitalia 
Comitatuum," that the counties were erected at 
that time, as they now are. Comitatus, as that 
of Eandulph, Earl of Moray, comprehended seve- 
ral of the present counties ; and Loca Capitalia 
were the towns in which the Comites kept their 
Courts. Parl. 6, James IV., anno 1503, it is 
ordained, " That the Justices and Sheriffs of the 
North Isles have their seat and place in Inverness 
or Dingwall ; that Mamore and Lochaber come 
to the Aire or Justice-Court of Inverness. And 
because the Sheriffdom of Inverness is too great, 
that there be a Sheriff made of Boss, who shall 
have full jurisdiction, and shall sit at Tain or 
Dingwall. And that there be a Sheriff at Caith- 
ness, who shall have jurisdiction of the hail 
Diocess of Caithness, and shall sit at Dornock or 
Wick, and the shires of Ross and Caithness shall 
answer to the Justice Aire of Caithness." 

The Sheriffship of Inverness was granted heredi- 
tably to the Earl of Huntly by the King's charter 
anno 1508, with a power to name deputies within 
the bounds of Ross, Caithness, Lochaber, and 
other distant parts (Falcon Decis.) And in 1583 
the Earl of Huntly disponed to the Earl of 
Sutherland, the Sheriffship of Sutherland, in 



THE MARQUIS OF HUNTLY RESIGNS THE SHERIFFSHIPS. 49 

exchange for the lands of Aboyne and Glen- 
tanir, the patrimonial estate of Adam Gordon, 
son to Huntly, who married the heiress of 
Sutherland. And the Marquis of Huntly, having 
resigned the Sheriffship of Inverness into the 
King's hands, anno 1628, there was a mutual 
contract between the King and the Earl of 
Sutherland in 1631, whereby the Earl resigned 
the Eegality and Sheriffship of Sutherland for a 
sum of money, but retained possession by way of 
mortgage, until the money should be paid. And 
the King dismembered the Sheriffship of Suther- 
land from that of Inverness, and erected Suther- 
land into a separate county, comprehending the 
lands of Sutherland, Assint, Strathnavir, Edir- 
dachaolis, Diurness, Strathaladale, and Ferin- 
coscarie in Slioschaolis, and appointed Dornoch 
to be the head borough of the shire ; which was 
ratified in Parliament, anno 1633. (MS. G-ordon 
of StralocJi.) 

K. Charles I., under pretence of the general 
revocation in the beginning of every reign, made 
an attack upon all the heritable offices and juris- 
dictions that had been granted posterior to the 
Parliament 1455. And the Marquis of Huntly 
resigned the Sheriffship of Inverness and Aber- 
deen in 1628, for a compensation of 5000 ster- 
ling. But the Shire of Boss was not divided from 
that of Inverness, and the bounds of it fixed, be- 
fore the year 1661. (Unprint. Acts ofParl. 1661.) 

VOL. III. 4 



50 THE COUNTY OF NAIRN. 

The Legal Valuation of the Shire of Inverness 
now is 73,188 : 9 Scots. 

The County of Nairn lies all within this Pro- 
vince, and comprehends the parishes of Nairn, 
Aldern, Calder, and Ardclach, and some parts of 
the parishes of Croy, Pettie, Daviot, and Moy. 
The lands of Ferintosh in Boss are likewise 
within this county, having been a part of the 
Thanedom of Calder. (Ferina Toshe, signifies 
the Thane's land) which, by a special privilege, 
was all in the county of Nairn : and on this 
account Culloden, as Baron of Ferintosh, votes 
in elections of Parliament for the County of 
Nairn. This county stood the twentieth in the 
Boll of Parliament. 

At what time Nairn was erected into a distinct 
County, I find not. In a Charter of the Thanedom 
of Calder anno 1310, it is called Thanagium de 
Calder infra vicecomitatum de Innernarn. (Pen. 
Cold.). Donald, thane of Calder, as heir to his 
father Andrew, was infeft in the office of Sheriff 
of the shire, and constable of the Castle of Nairn, 
anno 1406 (Ibid.). In the year 1442, Alexander 
de Yle, Earl of Boss, directed a Precept to the 
Deputy Sheriff of Inverness, his Bailiff in that 
part, for infefting William de Kaldor, as heir to 
his father Donald, in the Sheriffship of Nairn, 
held of him in capite (Ibid.). The Earl of Boss 
being forfeited in the year 1476, the Thane of 
Calder held the Sheriffship of the King in capite, 



THE COUNTY OF MORAY. 51 

and that office continued heritably in the family 
of Calder till the year 1747. The Legal Valuation 
of the County of Nairn, is about 16,000 Scots. 

The County of Moray, or of Elgin and Forres, 
is all within this Province, and the parishes it 
comprehends, in whole or in part, may be seen 
in the Valuation Eoll. But though Easter Moy, 
in the parish of Dyke, pays cess in the County 
of Moray, it is a part of the County of Nairn, and 
Thanedom of Calder. The County of Moray was 
the thirtieth in the Eoll of the Scots Parliament. 

I find not, at what time, this County was 
erected, or how early it had Counts and Sheriffs. 
In a charter granted by Eva Morthac Domina de 
Eothes to Archibald Bishop of Moray, anno 1263, 
"De Gilbertus Eoule miles Vicecomes de Elgyn" 
is a witness. Sir Thomas Eandulph, Earl of 
Moray, was Hereditary Sheriff of this County; 
and so were his successors in the Earldom, till 
upon the demise of Earl James Dunbar, his son 
Alexander of Westfield, unjustly deprived of the 
Earldom, was made Hereditary Sheriff of Moray; 
and the office continued in his family till the 
year 1724, when Ludowick Dunbar of Westfield, 
sold it to Charles Earl of Moray for 25,000 
Scots. The Earls of Moray were principal 
Sheriffs from that time till the year 1747. 

The Legal Valuation of this Shire is about 
65,603 Scots. 

I do not find that any one within this Province 



52 HEREDITARY REGALITIES. 

had an Heritable Justiciary. But Hereditary 
Regalities, both ecclesiastical and civil, were 
numerous. I shall in the Ecclesiastic Part con- 
sider the former, and here only the latter. Re- 
gality is a jurisdiction, which the lord thereof has 
in all his own lands, equal to the justiciary in 
criminals ; for he judges in the four pleas of the 
Crown, and equal to the Sheriff in civil causes. 
Randulph Earl of Moray, had the whole Comi- 
tatus erected into a Regality in his favours, as his 
Charter bears. George the first Duke of Gordon 
had all his lands erected into a Regality, and this 
engrossed in his patent of Duke, anno 1684, by 
which his power of jurisdiction was great and 
extensive. Ludowick Grant of Grant got a power 
of Regality in all his lands, in the year 1690. 
The Earl of Moray claimed the office of Lord of 
Regality over the Citadel of Inverness. Lord 
Lovat was Lord of the Regality of Lovat. The 
Ecclesiastic Regalities of Spynie, Kinloss, Plus- 
carden, Urquhart, Grangehill, and Ardersier, 
came after the Reformation into the hands of 
Laics/* And even in time of Popery, noblemen 
and gentlemen got themselves made hereditary 
Bailiffs of Regality in Church lands. The family 
of Gordon claimed the Bailiery of the Regality of 
Spynie, because this office was, by King James 



* King James VI. gave to the Earl of Dunfermline Chan- 
cellor, the Eegality of Urquhart, which the Duke of Gordon 
obtained. 



THE JURISDICTION OF BARONS. 53 

VI. conferred on Lord Spynie ; and when that 
family hecame extinct, King Charles II. as Ulti- 
mus Hceres, disponed the Eegality to the Earl of 
Airly, who conveyed it to the family of Gordon. 
Several such claims will be mentioned when I 
speak of the abolishing hereditary jurisdictions 
in the year 1747. ' 

The jurisdiction of Barons or Freeholders was 
very ancient. By the Leges Malcolmi, Barons 
had their courts, and might judge of lith and 
limb ; and in capital crimes they got the escheat 
of their vassals, except in the four pleas of the 
Crown. And the milites or vassals of freeholders, 
even subvassoles, or vassals of the milites, had 
their courts, but could not judge of lith and limb, 
but only of wrong and unlauck. If a Baron be 
infeft cum Curiis et Bloduitis, he may judge of 
riots and blood-wits; and if he holds of the 
Crown cum Furca et Fossa, i.e., " pit and gal- 
lows," his power is very ample. We had likewise 
in this country, Hereditary Constables, of whom 
I shall speak in the Military History. 

Thus we have seen, that our Kings very early 
gave away the Crown lands, which made them 
dependent on their nobles : and the want of pro- 
perty was attended with the want of jurisdiction. 
They made hereditary sheriffs, chamberlains, 
and constables ; erected hereditary regalities and 
usticiaries ; and at last, by one Grant, made the 



54? THE COURT OF SESSION INSTITUTED. 

office of the Justiciar of Scotland hereditary in 
the family of Argyle. When our Kings became 
sensible of their error, they gradually weakened 
the feudal courts. King James V. instituted 
the Court of Session; James VI. appointed 
Justices of the Peace ; Charles I. purchased back 
the Justiciary of Scotland, when the Court of 
Justiciary was erected. Yet there remained 
many hereditary jurisdictions, and too much 
power in the hands of great men, and chiefs of 
clans, which was often abused, in perverting 
justice, and encouraging insurrections and rebel- 
lions. This was so manifest in the Kebellion in 
1745, and 1746, that the Earl of Hardwick Lord 
Chancellor, planned the Jurisdiction Act in 1747, 
which has abolished some, and limited others of 
such of the territorial jurisdictions as were found 
dangerous to the community, and made the power 
of judging in the general official. 

It was referred to the Lords of Session by the 
Parliament, to consider the validity of the claims 
for heritable jurisdictions, and to determine the 
compensation that should be given to the pro- 
prietors. They rejected many claims, because : 

I. Some regalities were erected since the year 
1455, but not granted in Parliament, or confirmed 
by it, as the Act XLIII. that year requires. 

II. Some jurisdictions were lost, non utendo, 
and prescription took place. 

III. Some jurisdictions were found split into 



COMPENSATIONS TO PKOPRIETOKS OF JURISDICTIONS. 55 

parts, which the lords of them had no right to 
do : and, 

IV. The Sheriffship of Inverness was resigned 
to the Crown, anno 1628, for 2,500 sterling. 
And it was presumed the price was paid. What 
the proprietors of jurisdictions within this Pro- 
vince asked, and what the Lords of Session 
judged should be given, and was actually given, 
in compensation, is as follows : 



Compensation Compensation 

Sought. Granted. 

DUKE OF GORDON. 

For the Justiciary and Regality of Huntly, 10,000 4,000 

For the Sheriffship of Inverness, 2,500 000 

For the Regality of Urquhart, 1,000 00 300 

For the Bailiery of the Regality of Spynie, 2,000 00 500 

For the Bailiery of the Regality of Kinloss, 1,500 18219 6 

For the Constabulary of Inverness Castle, 300 00 000 

EARL OF MORAY. 

For the Sheriffship of Moray 8,000 3,000 

For the Regality of Inverness Citadel, 1,000 00 000 

LAIRD OF CALDER. 

For the Sheriffship of Nairn, 3,000 2,000 

For the Constabulary thereof , 500 00 000 

For the Regality of Ardersier, 500 000 

EARL OF SUTHERLAND. 

For the Regality in Strathnaver, ... 100 000 

LORD BRACO. 

For the Regality of Pluscarden, ... 1,000 00 68 18 5 
SIR LUDOWICK GRANT. 

For the Regality of Grant 5,000 00 900 

CATBOL. 

For the Bailiery of Regality there, ... 1,000 00 000 

LOVAT. 

For the Regality of Lovat, 166 40 000 

LETHIN. 

For the Regality of Kinloss, 4,000 00 000 

GRANGEHILL. 

For the Regality of GrangehiU, ... ... 500 000 

42,066 4 10,951 17 11 



56 THE COURTS OF JUDICATURE. 

The heritable jurisdictions being taken out of 
the hands of subjects, and being annexed to the 
Crown, the Courts of Judicature kept now within 
this Province are : 

I. The Circuit or Justiciary Court, which sits 
twice every year, and the judges remain six days 
in the town, at each Circuit. 

II. The Sheriff Court. The King appoints the 
depute, who must be an advocate, of at least 
three years standing, and must reside four months 
in the year within his district ; the depute may 
appoint substitutes. The Sheriff of Inverness is 
allowed a salary of 250 ; one sheriff for Moray 
and Nairn Counties, at 150 of salary ; and the 
like for the Sheriff of Banff; the depute pays the 
salary of his substitutes. No fine, forfeiture, or 
penalty shall belong to the sheriff, but his share 
belongs to the King, and no sentence-money shall 
be taken. But by this the subject has no ease, 
for the fees allowed to clerks and other officers, 
by acts of sederunt, are very high. 

III. The Justice of Peace Court. 

IV. The Baron Court, for receiving and enrol- 
ling Barons. 

Y. The Court of the Commissioners of Supply, 
for regulating what concerns the land tax, and 
window tax, for ordering the highways and public 
roads, for granting salaries to schools, &c. 

VI. The Commissary or Consistorial Court, at 
Elgin and Inverness : and, 



KOYAL BURGHS WITHIN THE PROVINCE. 57 

VII. The Baron Court, of those who hold their 
land cum curiis. Such have no jurisdiction in 
any criminal causes, except small crimes, for 
which, the punishment shall not exceed a fine of 
20s. sterling, or three hours in the stocks in the 
day-time, or a month's imprisonment, on not 
paying the fine ; nor in civil causes, exceeding 
40s. sterling, except in recovering rents and mul- 
tures. No person shall he imprisoned without a 
written commitment, recorded in the Court-books. 
And the prison shall have such windows and gates, 
as that any friend may visit the prisoner, &c. 

The Eoyal Burghs within this Province are 
Inverness, Elgin, Nairn, and Forres. The Leges 
Malcolmi, Cap. 4, describe the office of the Cham- 
berlain, who had jurisdiction over the burghs. 
He had at that time for his salary, " 200 yearly 
from the fines of the burghs, from the tolls and 
customs of the burghs." In the year 1579, the 
Parliament appointed commissioners to determine 
the antiquity and priority among the burghs 
(Vide unprint. Acts)-, but what their determina- 
tion was I know not. In the Eoll of the Burghs, 
Inverness is the seventeenth in order, Elgin the 
thirty-fourth, Nairn the forty-third, and Forres 
the forty-fourth. 

The antiquity of the Burgh of Inverness cannot 
be questioned, though we pay no regard to Boetius' 
fabulous story, that it was founded by King 



58 ANTIQUITY OF THE BURGH OF INVERNESS. 

Fergus I. What I observed from the Regiam 
Majestatem shows, that this town was consider- 
able in the reign of King David I. Buchanan 
speaks of it a hundred years before that time, 
viz., That King Duncan was murdered in Inver- 
ness, by MacBeath anno 1039; but in this he 
differs from Fordun, who writes, that King Dun- 
can was wounded at Logisnan (Forte Loggie in 
Brae-Moray) and was carried to Elgin, where he 
died. An older author than either of them 
writes, " Dunchath films MacTrivi Abthani de 
Dunkeld et Bethoc filiae Malcolmi MacKinat, 
interfectus est a MacBeath MacFinleg in Both- 
gouanan"*" (Excerp. ex. Reg. S. And.); but 
where this place lies I know not. This town 
has an ample Charter from King James VI. 
before his accession to the Crown of England, 
referring to charters granted by the Kings, Wil- 
liam, Alexander II,, David II., and James I., 
ratifying and confirming all the rights, privileges, 
liberties, and immunities granted by these kings to 
the burgh, particularly the power of constituting 
a sheriff in the town, who may appoint deputes, 
and of naming a coroner. This town being the 
key of the Highlands, has a great resort, and a 
considerable trade. It received an addition of 
buildings and trade, upon Cromwell's raising a 



* Translation. Duncan, son of MacTrivi, steward of Dunkeld, 
and of Bethoc (Beatrice 1) daughter of Malcolm Maclnat, was 
slain in Bothgownan by MacBeth MacFinleg. 



TOWN COUNCIL AND REVENUES OF INVERNESS. 59 

Fort there, in 1652, and keeping a numerous 
garrison, to awe the neighbouring Highlands; 
and when, in 1662, to gratify the Highland chief- 
tains, that Fort was demolished, some of the best 
houses in town were built out of the materials 
found there. 

The town is governed by a common council of 
twenty-one members; viz., a provost, four bailies, 
a treasurer, dean of guild, deacon convener, ten 
merchant councillors, and three deacons of trades. 
The sett of this town, is much the same as of the 
town of Elgin, afterwards described. They have 
a weekly market on Friday, and several public 
annual fairs, as at Martinmas, Candlemas, Mid- 
summer, Marymass in August, Eoodmass in Sep- 
tember, &c., and every fair continues for three 
days. 

.Their revenues are about 300 sterling yearly, 
arising from feu duties, petty customs. Upon 
building the Bridge of Inverness, the Parliament 
in 1681, empowered them to receive a small toll 
to keep it in repair (Vide unprint. Acts 1681). 
The town is the seat of the Courts of Justice ; 
the Justiciary, the Sheriff, the Commissary, the 
Justices of Peace, the Commissioners of Supply, 
keep their courts there. Here likewise are the 
Customs and Excise Offices 

The arms of the burgh are : A camel, supported by two 
elephants. Motto, FIDELITAS ET CONCORDIA. [Fidelity and 
concord.] 



CO EARLIEST CHARTER OF THE BURGH OF ELGIN. 

The Burgh of Elgin appears to have been a 
considerable town, with a Royal Fort, when the 
Danes landed in Moray, about anno 1008 (Vide 
Milit. Hist.). The earliest Charter of Guildry I 
have seen in favours of this burgh, was granted 
by King Alexander II. as follows : " Alexander, 
by the grace of God, King of Scotland, To all 
honest men of the whole earth, Health. Know 
ye that we have granted, and, by this Charter, 
confirmed, to our Burgesses of Elgin, that they, 
for the improvement of our Burgh of Elgin, may 
possess their own merchant-guild, as freely, and 
in like manner, as any of our burghs in our whole 
kingdom possess their guild. Witnesses Alan 
de Usher ; Eeginald of Cheyn, the chamberlain ; 
Hugh of Abernethy; William and Bernard of the 
High Hill (" Monte Alto "); Alexander of Moray, 
and William Bisset. At Elgin, 28th day of Nov., 
1236, in the 20th year of our reign." 

This town was the Manor of the Comitatus, 
and was subject to the Earls of Moray, as con- 
stables of the King's fort. John Dunbar, Earl 
of Moray, by his Charter May 1st, 1390, discharged 
to the town for ever, the assize or quantity of ale 
which they were bound to pay to him, as con- 
stable of the Castle of Elgin. Thomas Dunbar, 
Earl of Moray, by charter the 23rd July, 1393, 
granted to the town of Elgin, all the wool, cloth, 
and other things that go by ship out of his har- 
bour of Spey uncustomed. And the same Earl 



GOVERNMENT OF THE BURGH OF ELGIN. 61 

Thomas, by his Charter of the 22nd October, 
1396, confirmed King Alexander's Charter of 
Guildry ; and so did Earl Archibald Douglas by 
his Charter, of October 27th, 1451 (Ibid.). King 
Charles I. by his Charter, dated October 8th, 
1633, ratified and confirmed to this burgh, the 
Charters granted by the Kings Alexander II., 
Eobert I., James II., and James VI., with ample 
privileges, liberties, and immunities. King James 
VI. by Charter dated 29th February, 1620 [? 1641], 
resumed or narrated his Charter, of date 22nd 
March, 1594, to the magistrates of Elgin, of the 
Hospital of Maison Dieu, with the patronage 
thereof, and all the lands belonging to it, for sus- 
taining the poor in the said Hospital, and sustain- 
ing a qualified master of music, and performing the 
ordinary services in the Church of the burgh (Ibid.). 
The government of the burgh, will appear from 
the sett or rule of government, ratified by the 
Convention of Burghs July 8th, 1706; in the 
heads and articles following : 

I. The Town Council shall consist of seventeen 
members, including the Deacon Convener and 
two Deacons of Trades. 

II. These two Deacons shall be chosen by the 
Council. 

III. The New Council shall be elected annually, 
on Monday immediately preceding Michaelmas. 

IV. The Magistrates, and other office-bearers, 
shall be elected on Tuesday thereafter. 



62 SETT OF THE BURGH OF ELGIN. 

V. There shall be annually put off, three of the 
Guildry, and two of the Trades. 

VI. One Provost, four Bailies, a Treasurer, 
and other office-bearers shall be chosen. 

VII. The Provost shall not continue in office 
above three years, nor the Bailies, Dean of Guild, 
or Treasurer above two, and they may be changed 
yearly. 

VIII. When these are put off their offices, 
they shall be continued on the Council for the 
next year. 

IX. The Old Council shall choose the New, 
and both the Old and New shall choose the 
Magistrates and office-bearers. In the week pre- 
ceding, the Incorporate Trades choose their Dea- 
cons, and on Saturday three of every Trade meet, 
and leet three of their number, of which three 
the Council on Monday chooses one for Convener. 

X. None may be elected but Residenters and 
Burgesses, who bear Scot and Lot. 

XI. The Councillors shall choose annually out 
of their own number, five assessors to the Dean 
of Guild, whereof three with the Dean shall be a 
quorum. 

XII. The Council shall choose fifteen persons, 
not of their own body, whereof two of the Trades, 
for Stent Masters, who shall be sworn defideli, 
and nine make a quorum. 

XIII. No Stent, except the public Cess, shall 
be imposed, without the consent of a Head Court. 



SETT OF THE BURGH OF ELGIN. 63 

XIV. On the second Tuesday of September 
yearly, a Head Court shall be called, and the 
state of the burgh, and the Magistrates manage- 
ment of the Common Good, shall be laid before 
them, and the books and accounts shall lie on 
the Council table for twenty days, preceding 
the Head Court; for the satisfaction of all con- 
cerned. 

The town is the seat of the Courts of Justice, 
where the Sheriff, Commissary, Justices of Peace, 
Commissioners of Supply, and the Barons hold 
their public meetings and courts. They have a 
weekly market on Friday, and annual fairs at 
Fasten's Eve, Pasch, Trinity, St. James's Day, 
Michaelmas, and Andersmas. They have the 
superiority of several lands, as may be seen in 
the abstract of King Charles's Charter, and a 
servitude on the Burgh Sea in Duffus, by which 
the fishers there are obliged to bring their fish to 
market in Elgin. They have some fishing boats 
at Lossiemouth, and yet for want of a good 
harbour that might encourage trade and com- 
merce, their revenue or common good is but 
small. By immemorial practice, though not by 
a special grant, the magistrates have a sheriff- 
ship within the town's liberties. If we may take 
the city of Edinburgh for a pattern, this town, in 
which the Cathedral of Moray stood, may be 
called a City, for King Charles I. in his Charter, 
erecting the See of Edinburgh, dated 29th Sept., 



64 ELGIN A CITY. 



1633, says: " We, taking into our consideration 
that our Burgh of Edinburgh is the chief Burgh 
of our Kingdom of Scotland, and that the same 
is most convenient to he the chief City of our 
lately erected Bishopric ; We, therefore, have 
enacted, and, in terms of this our present Charter, 
do enact into a City the said our Burgh of Edin- 
burgh, and do ordain the same to be the chief 
and Capital City of our said Kingdom, and of the 
foresaid lately erected Bishopric, and we do give 
and grant to it all the liberties and privileges 
ordinarily belonging to a City." But nothing is 
more uncertain than what constitutes a city 
whether its being the capital of a province, or 
being a walled town, or being a royal burgh, or 
being a Bishop's See. 

The arms of the town of Elgin are Saint Giles in a pastoral 
habit, holding a book in the right hand, and a pastoral staff in 
the left. With this motto, sic ITUR AD ASTRA [Thus we travel 
to eminence]. 

[The City of Elgin (or Aigin, as it is called in the 
Journal} appears, from its being there characterized as 
"a good town," to have been a place of considerable 
importance in the 13th century. Of its history anterior 
to the reign of David I. all is obscurity and conjecture. 
It was a King's Burgh in his reign, as appears from the 
circumstances of its being referred to in his charter to the 
Priory of Urquhart (A.D. 1125-50), under the designation 
of " my burgh of Elgin " [mei burgi de Elgyn]. It must 
have been a place of considerable wealth at that time, as 
the sum of twenty shillings from its revenue and that of 
its waters doubtless meaning by the latter term the 
fishings on the Lossie, the Spey, and the Findhorn was 
ordered to be paid yearly to the monks of that Religious 
house for the purchase of their vestments. [Sciatis me in 



THE GREAT INTEREST OF ALEXANDER II. IN ELGIN. 05 

perpetuum dedisse Deo et monachis de Vrchard ibi, Deo 
famulantibus dura devote et religiose se continuerint xx. 
solidos, singulis annis ad vestimenta eorum de firma, burgi 
mei et aquarum de Elgin.] * William the Lion conferred 
special favours on Elgin and his other burghs in Moray. 
He confirmed certain forest privileges and a commercial 
right, termed ausum, which his grandfather, David I., 
had granted to the burgesses, and bestowed several other 
immunities on them. It was, however, to Alexander II. 
that Elgin was most indebted for its advancement. 

He did more to promote its interests than any king 
who every visited Moray. It was in his reign, and chiefly 
at his solicitation, that permission was granted by Pope 
Honorius III. for the translation of the Episcopal See from 
Spynie to Elgin ; and it was by him, also, that the privi- 
leges of a merchant guild were conferred on its burgesses. 

Elgin, towards the close of the 13th century, was pro- 
bably unsurpassed, in regard to the number of its ecclesi- 
astical buildings, by any Episcopal city in Scotland. At 
the time of Edward's visit it could boast of a Cathedral 
which, according to Bishop Bar, " was the mirror of the 
land and the glory of the kingdom." The Bishop, in his 
petition to the King, describes the Cathedral, which had 
just been burned down (A.D. 1390), as having been the 
" speciale patriae decus, regni gloria, et delectatio extran- 
eorum." It had a Church dedicated to St. Giles, " Abbot 
and Confessor," who was the patron Saint of the town 
a Monastery of Grey Friars a preceptory of Knights 
Templars a commandery of Knights Hospitallers of St.. 
John a house of the Brethren of St. Lazarus, and an 
Hospital called Maison Dieu. Elgin, besides having been 
a Bishop's See in the 13th century, was also a Royal 
burgh, enjoying corporate municipal privileges. The 
earliest allusion to its magistracy occurs in a charter of 
William the Lion (A.D. 1189-1198), but it is not till the 
reign of Alexander III. that its Provost is first mentioned 
by name. This office was held by Thomas Wiseman in 
1261. The same individual was Sheriff of Elgin in 1248 ; 
and it is not improbable, therefore, that both appointments 
were united in hirn in the latter year. It is certain, how-- 

* This charter is dated at Banff [apud Bancf]. (See Registrum 
de Dunfermlyn, p. 18, and Antiquities of the Shires of Aberdeen 
and Banff, vol. ii., p. 129.) 

VOL. in. 5 



66 PORTS; BEDE HOUSE; TOLBOOTH. 

ever, that they were distinct offices at a later period, as 
in the same Instrument in which the name of Wysman 
appears as Provost, Alexander de Montfort is mentioned 
as Sheriff of Elgin. Macpherson, who quotes Rymer's 
MSS. as his authority, states that Elgin had one or more 
bailies in 1296. The number of these functionaries was 
probably two, the same as existed in 1345, when the 
magistracy consisted of Walter, the son of Ralph, then 
provost, and William Ydil, and William Vitrearius (the 
glazier), then bailies. 

We find the same number mentioned in 1368, when 
Patrick de Creython and Henry, the son of Robert, held 
this office. The town had four Ports, and the presump- 
tion therefore is, that it was originally surrounded by 
some defensive work probably by a palisade, such as 
William the Lion required the inhabitants of Inverness to 
erect when he entrenched that town with a fosse. The 
East Port [porta orientalis] is mentioned as early as the 
year 1242. It stood near the Bede House. The West 
Port was situated at West Park ; the South, or Smithy 
Port, as it was called, at the south end of the lane, now 
named the School Wynd; and the North Port at the 
middle of the Lossie Wyiid. At these gates the Cham- 
berlain's officers designated custumarii in public docu- 
ments of this period collected the tolls which, like . the 
octroi duties in Continental towns at the present day, 
were levied on such articles as were brought into the 
markets for sale. In connection with this revenue may 
be noticed the Tolbooth [Tolbotha]. The Tolbooth of 
South Berwick is mentioned under this name in a Deed of 
sale in 1258-98 (vide Reg. Ep. Morav, p. 143), which 
derived its name from its having been the booth where 
goods were weighed in order to ascertain the amount of 
toll leviable on them. It thus also became the place 
where defaulters, persons guilty of infringing the laws of 
the burgh, and debtors were confined, and was probably 
at this time only used for offenders of this class, whilst 
those accused of felony or crimes falling under the cogni- 
sance of the Sheriff were imprisoned in the castle. It 
stood on the site now occupied by the public fountain, 
and was literally a booth or bothie, having been a wooden 
and thatched building down to about 1605, as appears 
from the following entry in the town's records of that 



HOUSES IN ELGIN ORIGINALLY WOODEN BOTHIES. 67 

period : "Item, 3 6s. 8d. for fog to theck the Tolbooth." 
Next to the Cross and the Tolbooth the Ports formed the 
principal public places of the town, and were the sites 
whereon the limbs of criminals after execution were not 
unfrequently exposed to view. This practice was con- 
tinued down to as late a period as the year 1713, when 
we find it stated that the head of a man, who had been 
executed for murder, was placed on the Tolbooth, and 
one of his arms on the East Port and the other on the 
West Port, in completion of the sentence which had been 
passed on him. The houses of Elgin, as was the case at 
this time in all the towns both of England and Scotland, 
were chiefly built of wood, and comprised several grades 
of dwellings. These are referred to in different Deeds in 
the Register of Moray by the terms "mansions," "edifices," 
"huts" [habitacula], and "booths or bothies" [bothae]. 
We find that from an early period several of the barons 
and clergy in the neighbourhood, as well as some of the 
officers of State, possessed burgage property in Elgin. 
Tofts of land in the town were granted by Malcolm IV. 
and William the Lion to Berewald the Fleming, Lord of 
Innes, Richard, Bishop of Moray, the Abbot of Kinloss, 
the King's Chamberlain, and the King's Justiciar, and 
were probably the sites of mansions belonging to these 
nobles and dignitaries. Most of the houses were erected 
with their gables fronting the street. This style of 
building, which formerly prevailed in the northern towns, 
and especially in Kirkwall and Lerwick, is of Scandinavian 
origin, and is still common in Norway. The single Street 
referred to as the Common Street [strata communis] now 
the High Street of which Elgin consisted in the 13th 
century, extended from the East to the West Port, and 
had near its centre the Church of St. Giles, surrounded 
by a Cemetery, and in its vicinity a Market Place, in 
which stood a wooden Cross. 

The Church of St. Giles is first mentioned in the Register 
of Moray in 1226, but there is reason to believe that it 
was of more ancient origin than the Cathedral, founded 
only two years previously, and that it is the Church 
referred to in a Charter of William the Lion between 
1189-99. It is probable that the Cemetery around it was, 
in accordance with the practice which prevailed in the 
13th century, the site of the Fairs of St. Giles, mentioned 



68 THE ELGIN MARKET PLACE; THE FIRST BUEGESS. 

in 1389, and that it originally constituted the Market 
Place [forum] alluded to in 1365. In its vicinity there 
were booths or bothies which, like the Luckenbooths that 
stood near the Church of St. Giles in Edinburgh, were 
probably the shops of the town. They were apparently 
permanent wooden structures, where, doubtless, the free 
burgesses of the merchant guild exposed their merchan- 
dise for sale. This Company, which was a corporate body, 
having all the commercial privileges that similar Incor- 
porations in other Royal burghs possessed, had been 
established by charter by Alexander II. in 1384, and 
appears to have superseded the more ancient burghal 
association, which enjoyed the right or immunity termed 
ausum, which had been granted by David I., and con- 
firmed by William the Lion, to the burghs north of Aber- 
deen. Several of the members of the merchant guild of 
Elgin appear to have been men of considerable property 
and influence in the 13th and 14th centuries. The first 
burgess whose name is recorded is Robert Niger [Black], 
who appears as a Witness to an Agreement between the 
Bishop of Moray and Freskinus de Moravia in 1248. 
Hugh Heroc, burgess, was a member of the Court of 
Inquest which sat to adjudicate the claim of Robert Spine 
to the King's garden. He bequeathed his estate of Dal- 
deleyt, in 1286, to found two chaplaincies in the Cathedral 
and Church of St. Giles. William, the son of Adam, the 
son of Stephen, burgess, possessed, in 1309, the lands of 
Qwytford, Inverlothy [Inverlochtie], the mill at that 
place, and the lands of Milton. And Richard, the son of 
John, burgess, gave 100 shillings, payable yearly, from 
the rents of six booths and twenty crofts on the south 
side of the town, to found a chaplainc}' in the Church of 
St. Giles. Several of the burgesses appear from their 
names to have been connected with other places, as 
William of Strabrock, Vosualdus of Aberchirder, Roger of 
Stirling, Adam of Berwick, son of William of Berwick. 
Of the trades or mechanical arts carried on in Elgin at 
this time, the only knowledge we possess is derived from 
the Register of Moray, wherein allusions are made to 
Osbert and Henry, the smiths or armourers ; Richard, 
William, and Thomas, the glaziers [vitrearii] ; Brice, the 
tailor [cissor] ; James, the shoemaker [sutor] ; and John, 
the fuller [fullonis] ; Gregory, the builder [cementarius], 



THE TRADES; THE BURGH BRIDGE LANDS. 69 

is mentioned in 1287. Carpenters were sent by the 
Sheriff of Elgin in 1262 to Caithness to erect a new hall 
and wardrobe-room for Alexander III. William, the 
gardener [Willielmus ortulanus], is mentioned as early as 
the year 1242. Gardens appear to have been common in 
the town even at this early period. The King's garden 
has been already alluded to. From an inquiry instituted 
in 1390 in regard to the respective rights of the Bishop 
and the Vicar of St. Giles to the tithes leviable on the 
gardens of Elgin, a distinction was drawn between the 
ancient and modern gardens the boundary line of which 
was the original fence [claustura] most probably the 
palisade of the town, which inclosed the former. Allusion 
is made in 1363 to a road behind the gardens [gardinas], 
on the south side of the town apparently the present 
Greyfriars' and South Streets beyond which were situ- 
ated the crofts described as extending down to the peat 
moss [ad maresiam petarum], now the low flat land called 
the " Wards," between the foot of Moss Street and New 
Elgin. Behind the gardens on the north side were also 
crofts, and the field styled the prepositura of the castle, 
or what now constitutes the Borough Bridge lands. It 
seems doubtful whether the Lossie ran at this time, as is 
generally supposed, between these lands and the foot of 
the gardens. The latter opinion is founded on the fact of 
these lands being included in the parish of New Spynie,* 
the boundary of which in this quarter is said to have 
formerly been that river. But at what period this was 
the case is not stated. 

It was certainly not in 1570, for in that year the 
Borough Bridge lands are mentioned as situated on the 
south side of the Lossie [pecia terrse vocata Burrowbriggis 
ex australi parte de Lossin]. And going farther back, 
viz., to the year 1350, we find mention made of certain 
crofts, and eight acres of the prepositura of Elgin adjoin- 
ing them, as extending down to the Lossie, which seems 
to imply that this river was at some distance from the 
gardens. Close to the burgh, at its eastern extremity, 
was the "Chanonry" or College, comprising an area of 

* New Statistical Account of Elginshire, p. 95, where it is 
stated "the Lossie anciently ran close by the town, as appears 
from the title-deeds of the properties in the adjoining quarters 
of the town." 



70 CHANONRY ; LAZARUS WYND ; THE PANS ; OLD MILLS. 

900 yards in circumference, in which were situated the 
Cathedral and the manses of twenty-two prebendaries. It 
was bounded partly by the Lossie and partly by a wall 
having four gateways, one of which, called the "Pans 
Port," still remains. The ground between this wall on 
the west and the site of the Little Cross (erected in 1402) 
belonged to the Bishop and Chapter. In 1360 a portion 
of it, having a frontage of three and a half roods in 
extent, was given for the sites of four chaplains' manses. 

It is described as being then held by the brethren of 
St. Lazarus, near the walls of Jerusalem [tentam de 
fratribus Sancti Lazari juxta mures Jerusalem], and, 
doubtless, from these religionists Lazarus Wynd took 
its name. The land now called the Pans, a name which, 
under the form of "le Pannis," first appears in the 
Register of Moray in 1566, was originally styled the 
" Burchalch " [Burgh Haugh ?], and was so designated 
in 1224, when it was divided into crofts and assigned 
as glebes to the Canons of the Cathedral. There were 
two bridges on the Lossie, one at a place called San- 
kathell across to Cranfinleth, the situation of which is 
not stated, and the other named the Bishop's Bridge. 
The latter, no doubt, was situated at Bishopmill, which is 
referred to in 1363 by the name of Bishoptung [Bishop- 
town], and below which, it is mentioned, lay the " pre- 
positura" or Borough Bridge lands. The mills on the 
Lossie in the vicinity of the town were the King's mills 
now called Old Mills which Alexander II. gave to the 
Monks of Pluscarden; the Bishop's Mill, the site of which 
was granted by William the Lion to Richard, Bishop of 
Moray, and which is described as being above the cruives 
on the Lossie [supra crohas quse sunt super Loseyn] below 
his Castle of Elgin ; and the Mill of Vchterspynie, which 
was erected on land granted by Bishop Andrew de Moravia 
to his kinsman, Walter de Moravia of Duffus, in 1237, on 
the condition of the latter .giving yearly a reddendo of a 
pound of pepper, and the same quantity of cumin seed. 
It became the Sheriff's Mill (a name which it still retains) 
most probably in the time of Sir Reginald le Chen, but, 
at all events, before 1309, in which year it is noticed as 
"molendinum Vicecomitis de Elgin, super aquam de 
Lossyn."] (Registrwm Episcopatus Moraviensis.) Vide 
Taylor's Edward I. in the North of Scotland. (ED.) 



ANTIQUITY OF THE BURGH OF NAIRN. 71 

The Burgh of Nairn is of considerable antiquity. 
We find it mentioned as early as the year 1008. 
And as long as it had a good harbour, and the 
King's Constable residing in the Castle of it, 
no doubt it flourished and made a good figure ; 
now the want of trade has brought it much into 
decay. The constitution of the town is much 
the same with that of Elgin, except that gentle- 
men in the country are admitted upon the Com- 
mon Council, because the town cannot afford the 
necessary annual changes. It has a weekly 
Market and some annual Fairs, and the Courts of 
Justice for that county sit there. The common 
good is but small. The inhabitants are about 600. 

The arms of the Town are Saint Ninian in a proper habit, 
in his right hand a cross fitchie, in the left a book open. 

[The Report of the Commissioners on the Municipal 
Corporations states that Nairn appears to have been 
founded by William the Lion. The name was originally 
Invernairn. The burgh and lands were granted by 
Robert I. to his brother-in-law, Hugh, Earl of Ross, and 
they probably continued in the possession of that family 
till the forfeiture of John, Earl of Ross and Lord of the 
Isles, in 1475. At that period the tenure of the lands in 
Nairnshire, which had been formerly held under the Earls 
of Ross, was changed to a Crown-holding ; and a similar 
change very probably took place with regard to the town 
of Nairn, which then begins to be styled in records the 
King's Burgh and the Royal Burgh of Nairn, unless it 
may be thought that the terms of Robert I.'s grant of the 
Earldom of Moray to Thomas Ranulph (which cannot be 
easily reconciled with the Earl of Ross' charter) are suffi- 
cient to prove that Nairn, as well as Elgin and Forres, 
was then of the rank of a Royal Burgh. 

Nairn gave the title of Baron to the family of Nairn. 
The Peerage was created in 1681 by Charles II., attained 



72 GRANTS OF TORRES TO THE ABBEY OF KINLOSS. 

in 1746, and restored in 1824. It has been dormant since 
the death of William, sixth Lord, in 1837. It is said to 
be represented by the Baroness Keith of Banheath, Stone- 
haven. Marischal.] (ED.) 

The earliest mention I have found of the Burgh 
of Forres is, "Dovenaldus films Constantin occisus 
est in oppido Fothir anno 904."* (Chron. de 
Hegibus Scotia). Fothir is supposed to he Forres, 
and King Duffus was murdered in Forres about 
anno 966. How early this town was erected into 
a Eoyal Burgh I find not. A Charter of ' ' De novo 
damus," by King James IV., dated June 23rd, 
1496, bears, That the ancient Charters granted to 
this Burgh had been destroyed by fire and other 
accidents, and therefore the King erects it of 
new into a free Burgh, with all the privileges of 
a Eoyal Burgh, f The constitution of this Burgh 

* Translation. Donald, son of Constantine, was slain in the 
town of Fothir in the year 904. 

f The Charter of the town of Forres grants to Kinloss 
"Aquam et Piscaturam de Findhorn, tarn in aqua dulci quam 
salsa." This right is to he understood as follows : 1st. The 
fishing of the Sluie-pool pertains to the Earl of Moray, and he 
claims and possesses this fishing from that Pool down the river 
as far as the Forest of Tarnua extends. 2nd. By King James I. 
Charter, anno 1425, the whole fishing of Findhorn was granted 
to the Monks and Abhot of Kinloss ; and King Robert's Charter 
to them, anno Regni to, of the whole fishing of the river was 
confirmed (Pen. Lethen.). 3rd. By Charter, December 2nd, 
1505, the whole fishing, except the Sluie-pool, was granted to 
the Abbot (Ibid.). 4th. By contract betwixt Thomas, Abbot 
of Kinloss, with the Convent and the town of Forres, Alexander 
Urquhart of Burdsyards, and William Wiseman, of date Feb. 
15th, 1505-6, the town, Burdsyards, and Wiseman, renounced 
all title to the fishing of the river. (It is probable the town 
obtained this Charter anno 1496, unknown to, and to the pre- 
judice of the Abbot.) And the Abbot and Convent did sett 



CONSTITUTION OF THE BURGH OF FORRES. 73 

is much the same with that of Elgin. The only 
sett they have is the following indistinct one : 
" At Forres, 20th September, 1711, in presence 
of the Town Council of the Burgh, a letter being 
read, directed by the Agent of the Burroughs to 
the Magistrates of the said Burgh, anent their 
making a true account and return to their Agent 
of their sett in electing yearly. In obedience to 
which the said Magistrates declare, That the 
number of their Council exceeds not seventeen, 
Provost, Bailies, Dean of Guild, and Treasurer 
included ; and that at ilk election the old Council 
chooses the new, and are changed yearly as 
occasion offers ; and to that effect tirneous pre- 
monition is made to the whole burgesses, heritors, 
and inhabitants of the day prefixed for election 
of the said Magistrates and Town Council by 
tuck of drum, and placarding on the Cross, and 
by other advertisements used and wont; and 

heretably, and in feu-farm to the foresaids, the fishing on the 
fresh water from the Sluie-pool to the entering of the burn of 
Masset into the sea (Ibid.). 5th. The Lord of Kinloss and 
Earl of Elgin came in the room and right of the Abbot and 
Convent, to whom the whole fishing from the Sluie-pool down- 
ward, both in fresh and salt water, did originally belong. And 
by Charter of date February 26th, 1664, under the Great Seal 
(Thomas, Earl of Elgin having resigned), Alexander Brodie of 
Lethen acquired a right to all the fishing that had belonged to 
the said Earl and Abbot (Ibid.). And now, 6th, the town of 
Torres holds of Lethen ; Tanachie and Durn hold of Forres ; 
the Earl of Moray and Burdsyards hold of the Crown ; and 
the estate of Grangehill, purchased in 1749 by Sir Alexander 
Grant of Dalvey. The fishing upon that estate lay partly in 
the Priory lands of Pluscarden, and partly in the Abbey lands 
of Kinloss. (ED.) 



74 SETT AND CHARTER OF THE BURGH OF FORRES. 

that the new Council chooses the Magistrates, 
and puts off, and takes on, or continues them as 
the circumstances of the place need and require. 
And this our sett has been unaltered for many 
years ; and ordains our Clerk of Court to send an 
extract hereof to the Agent of the Burroughs. 
Signed in our name, and by our order, by Eobert 
Tulloch, our Common Clerk; sic. subscrib. Kobert 
Tulloch, Clerk."* 

This sett leaves room to admit gentlemen in 
the county upon the Council, which accordingly 
is the practice. 

The town has a Jurisdiction of Sheriffship by 
their Charter, a weekly market and several annual 
fairs. Their revenue is about 1,000 Scots. The 
number of inhabitants is about 900. 

The Town's arms are Saint Laurence in a long habit, stand- 
ing on a brander ; a chaplet round his head ; at his right side 
a crescent ; and at the left a star of six points ; holding in his 
right hand a book. Motto JEHOVAH TU Mini DEUS, QUID 
DEEST. [Jehovah, Thou art my God ; what is wanting ?] 

* CHARTER TO THE BURGH OF FORRES. 

[" James, understanding that the ancient Charters granted to 
the town of Forres have been destroyed in time of war, or by 
the violence of fire, we have of new granted and confirmed to 
the community of the said Burgh of Forres, in free burgage, 
with the lands and others formerly thereto belonging particu- 
larly the lands called Griveship, Bailie lands, Meikle Bog, with 
the King's Meadow; Lobbranstown, with Crealties and Ramflat; 
and common pasturage in the Forest of Drummondside and 
Tulloch, with mosses, moors ; the water and fishing of Find- 
horn, from Dunduff to the bank of Findhorn, both in fresh and 
in salt water, with muscles and muscle scaups, with power to 
set the same in tack, to fish with boats and nets, and to have 
ports and harbours for ships upon the said water ; with power 
annually to elect and appoint a Provost, Bailies, and other 



PRIVILEGES OF THE BURGHS OF BARONY. 75- 

Every one of these Burghs has a Post-Office, 
and a regular return of Posts three times in the 
week. And since the union of the two kingdoms, 
Forres, Nairn, Inverness, and Chanonrie in Ross 
make a district ; and Elgin, Cullen, Banff, Inver- 
urie, and Kintore make another. Each district 
sends a member to the British Parliament. And 
each of the counties of Banff, Elgin, and Inver- 
ness, chooses a Commissioner ; but the county of 
Nairn being small, chooses only alternately with 
the county of Cromarty. 

Besides these Royal Burghs, there are in this 
Province several Burghs of Barony. These are 
erected by Royal Patents or Charters. What 
their privileges and immunities are will appear 
from the following instances : Germach was 
erected into a Burgh of Barony by a patent anno 
1587 ; the Kirktoun of Spynie, an Ecclesiastic 
Barony, anno 1452 ; the town of Findhorn made 
a Barony, and the erection ratified in Parliament, 

Magistrates and officers necessary; and to constitute the 
Provost, Bailies, and Sheriffs within the Burgh and its liber- 
ties, and discharge the Sheriff of the shire of Elgin and Forres 
to exercise his office within the said Burgh or its liberties ; 
with power to the Burgh to have a Cross, a weekly Market on 
Friday, and an annual Fair, beginning on the Vigils of St. 
Lawrence and to continue for eight days ; with power, also, to 
hold Burgh and Sheriff Courts, and of packing, peeling, and 
with all and sundry other privileges and immunities of a free 
Burgh, paying yearly to the Abbot and Convent of Kinloss 20 
merks current money out of the farm of the said water and the 
fishing. At Edinburgh, June 23, 1496, and of our reign tha 
ninth year."] (ED.) 



76 THE SEVERAL BURGHS OF BARONY. 

1661 ; (Vide Unprint. Acts) the town of Geddes, 
in the parish of Nairn, was erected into a Burgh 
of Barony by Charter anno 1600 ; " cum potestate 
creandi Balivos et Burgenses, et vendendi et 
vinum et cervisiam, et mercemonia qusecunque" ;* 
with a weekly market, &c. (Hist. Kilrav.). 

By a Charter anno 1635, in favour of John 
Grant of Loggie, Moyness, Broadland, and Aldern, 
were erected into the Barony of Moyness, with a 
weekly market on Saturday and an annual fair at 
Michaelmas (Pen. C alder). By Charter anno 
1476, the Thanedom of Calder, Barony of Duris, 
<fcc., were erected into one Barony, called Camp- 
belltoun, with powerto create Bailives, Constables, 
Serjeants, and other Officers therein, with liberty 
to buy and sell within the freedoms thereof, 
and to have a Town House and a Market Cross, 
with a weekly Market on Wednesday and an 
annual Fair on July 15th, the Castle of Calder 
being the principal messuage at which infeft- 
ments and seasins may be taken, &c. (Ibid.). 
The town of Fochaber, the Kirktoun of Duffus, 
Blackstob in Muirtoun, the town of Cromdale in 
Strathspey, and no doubt other villages within 
this Province, were Burghs of Barony. 

* Translation. With the power of making Bailies and 
Burgesses, and of selling both wine and ale, and all manner 
of merchandise whatever. 



THE ROMANS HAD NO WARS IN THE PROVINCE. 77 



PAKT V. 

THE MILITARY HISTORY OF MORAY. 

TT does not appear that the Eomans had any 
^ military exploits within this Province, nor have 
they left any monument of such actions. Though 
Severus forced a march into the northmost bounds 
of Scotland, yet he fought no hattle, but lost 50,000 
of his army, in struggling with cold, hunger, and 
fatigue (Xiphil. in Sev.); and Agricola's ships 
which sailed round the north, and first discovered 
Britain to be an Island, gave names to people 
and places, but left no military monuments. As 
little can I find any certain account of the mili- 
tary actions of the Picts in this country ; their 
battles and skirmishes, whether with the Scots 
or the Saxons, were in the southern Provinces. 
But since the overthrow of the Pictish Kingdom, 
we have traces of some memorable battles and 
conflicts, of which I shall give the most genuine 
account I could learn. 

The character which Tacitus gives of the Ger- 
man Catti, may, I doubt not, be applied to the 
ancient inhabitants of this Province, particularly 
to the Highlanders, viz.: "This race possessed 



78 SCOTTISH CLANSMEN INDEPENDENT OF KINGS. 

a sturdy frame of body, limbs well knit, stern 
countenances, and a great degree of courage. 
You could not so easily persuade them to till 
their lands, and observe the respective seasons of 
the year, as you might bring them to face their 
enemies, and give and take the most deadly 
wounds. For they even held it slothful and 
cowardly to acquire, by the sweat of their brows, 
what they could possess by the shedding of their 
blood." 

The great men and chiefs of clans in Scotland, 
for many ages, lived independent of the Kings ; 
they held their land by no other tenure than a 
forcible possession. In the year 1590, there was 
brought to the Exchequer, an account of 250,000 
merks yearly rent (a large sum in these days), to 
which the chieftains in the Western Isles had no 
other right but Duclius or possession. 

The few Eoyal Forts through the kingdom, 
were not sufficient to awe the country and main- 
tain peace ; and our Kings were necessitated to 
grant large powers, and extensive jurisdictions 
to great men, with liberty to build fortalices on 
their own lands, and to garrison them for the 
maintaining peace and order. By this, the power 
of the Crown was weakened, and the nobles and 
chieftains became factious and ungovernable ; 
and insurrections, tumults, and riots were fre- 
quent in every corner. 

The Koyal Forts in this Province were : 



THE FORT ON THE LADYHILL, ELGIN. 79 

A Fort at Elgin. This Fort stood on a small 
hill, now called the Ladyhill, at the west end of 
the town, on the north side. The plain area on 
the top of the hill, is 85 yards in length, and 45 
in breadth. There are some remains of the walls 
of this fort yet standing, but such as do not shew 
the form or extent of the buildings. Generally 
these forts were a square, or an oblong square ; 
the walls about 20 feet high, and 4 feet thick, 
with towers in the angles, all wrought with 
run lime. Within the walls, were rooms and 
barracks of wood; the gate or entrance was 
guarded by an iron grate, and a portcullis ; 
and some forts had parapets on the top of the 
wall. Within the court there was a draw well, 
and the whole fort was environed with a fosse, 
over which was a draw bridge. Vestiges of all 
these things are to be seen at this fort at Elgin. 
The strength of such forts were considerable 
before great guns came into use. The Kan- 
dulphs, Dunbars, and Douglas Earls of Moray, 
were Constables of this fort, and had the customs 
of the town, the assize of ale, and probably the 
sixty-auchten parts and the moss wards, now 
belonging to the town, for their salary. They 
had a jurisdiction within certain bounds round the 
fort, and judged in riots and trespasses com- 
mitted within these bounds ; I am not certain, if 
after the death of Archibald Douglas anno 1455, 
any Earl acted as Constable of this fort. But the 



80 ELGIN A ROYAL BURGH IN THE REIGN OF DAVID I. 

Castlehill, or Ladyhill, has always been the pro- 
perty of the Earls of Moray, and is so of the 
present Earl. 

THE CASTLE OF ELGIN. 

[All that now remains of "the good castell" [bon 
chastell] mentioned in the Journal, is the ruin, consisting 
of fragments of massive walls, on Ladyhill. Although 
history is silent in regard to the origin of this stronghold, 
yet it is certain, from the circumstance of Elgin being 
mentioned as a King's burgh in the reign of David I., 
that this place was then the seat of a Royal Castle, and 
it seems probable, therefore, that the heavy structure, the 
vestiges of which still remain, was built by that king on 
the site, perhaps, of a less durable wooden edifice of Celtic 
or Scandinavian origin. Mention is first made of the 
Castle of Elgin in the Charter of Malcolm IV., the grand- 
son and successor of David I., granting the lands of Innes 
to Berowald the Fleming [A.D. 1160]: the condition of 
the tenure being the service of one soldier, or rather of 
one knight ["unius militis"] "in my Castle of Elgin" ["in 
castello meo de Elgin "]. It is again referred to, and its 
site indicated, in a charter granted by William the Lion 
the brother and successor of William to Richard, Bishop 
of Moray, giving him permission to erect a mill [Bishop- 
mill] on the Lossie, below the Castle of Elgin [subtus 
castellum meum de Elgin "]. (Reg. Epis. Morav.) 

William occasionally held his Court here, as appears 
from the circumstances of his having granted at Elgin 
several charters which were witnessed by his Chancellor, 
Justiciar, and various bishops, earls, and barons. Elgin 
appears to have been a favourite residence of Alexander 
II., who probably visited it to enjoy the sport of hunting 
in the neighbouring Royal forests. He was here in the 
years 1221, 1225, 1226, 1228, and 1234. According to 
Wyntoun, he also held his Christmas here in 1231 : 

" A thousand twa hundyr and thretty gane, 
And to that yhit reckyne ane, 
The King Alagsandre in Elgyne 
Held his yhule and come oure syne 
The Munthis, passand til Mwnros." 



. THE CASTLE OF ELGIN LONG A ROYAL RESIDENCE. 81 

The same author in noticing an expeditious journey 
which this King made from Elgin to the south of Scot- 
land in 1242, mentions that he visited Moray yearly: 
" The King and the Qwene alsa, 

And ane honest curt wyth tha 

That ilke yhere in Murrawe past, 

Bot soon agayne he sped hym fast, 

Swa aftyre that he came fra Elgyne." 

Alexander III. appears to have sojourned for some time 
in Elgin in 1263; on which occasion the Sheriff, Alex- 
ander de Montfort, disbursed the sum of 15 10s. 2d. 
from the revenues of his sheriffdom, to defray the ex- 
penses of the Royal journey to and from Caithness. That 
the Castle of Elgin was then, and had been for many 
years previously, a Royal residence, is proved by the fact 
that in 1261, daring the reign of the latter King, Robert 
Spine, balistarius (the keeper of the cross bows), succeeded 
in proving, before a competent tribunal, his right of tenure 
to the King's garden and the land pertaining to it, which, 
he asserted, had belonged to the ancestors of his wife, on 
the condition of their supplying the Royal kitchen with 
pot-herbs during the time that the King resided in the 
Castle of Elgin ; and of taking charge of the Royal ger- 
falcons and goshawks, for which service they had a 
chalder of meal yearly, besides a daily allowance of two- 
pence for feeding each gerfalcon, and a penny for each 
goshawk, while the King engaged in the sport of hawk- 
ing. The Sheriff (vicecomes) as the deputy of the earl 
(comes) was the keeper (custos) of this Castle, which 
was the chief seat of the King's authority within the 
county of Elgin, and doubtless the place where was de- 
posited the banner of Moray, This standard was unfurled 
by the Earl, or Guardian of the Province, when the King 
required the barons, thanes, and others holding of the 
Crown within the Sheriffdom, to perform military duty, 
constituting either the servitium forinsecum or servitiuin 
Scoticanum on one or other of which tenures they 
usually held their lands. Among those permanently 
resident in the Castle may be mentioned the officer who 
had charge of the cross bows, balistae, catapults, and other 
warlike weapons and engines used for its defence, and 
the janitor or warder of its gates. The duties of the 
garrison were performed by the barons and thanes who 

VOL. III. 6 



82 THE DUTY OF THE KEEPER OF THE CASTLE. 

held their lands on the condition of their rendering mili- 
tary service within its walls. Such was the tenure by 
which Berowald the Fleming possessed his lands of 
Innes ; and Eugenius, those of Meft. A certain extent of 
land, called the prepositura, was annexed to the Castle 
[prepositura castelli burgi de Elgin]. It is referred to in 
a charter of the year 1351, as situated in the north side 
of the town ; and it was probably, therefore, the Borough 
Bridge lands. The duty of the keeper of the castle in 
cases of disputes occurring in the town, was strictly 
defined, as appears from an ancient Enactment regarding 
royal castles and burghs, to the following effect: viz., 
"Should any person belonging to the castle have com- 
mitted a trespass against a burgess, the latter was obliged 
to crave justice at the castle, outside the ports thereof;" 
whilst, in like manner any castellan who might have 
cause of complaint against a burgess, had to apply for 
redress within the burgh. The only occasions on which 
a royal castellan had a right to exercise authority in the 
burgh connected with his castle, were Christmas, Easter, 
and Whitsunday, when he could compel a burgess to sell 
such provisions as pigs, geese, and poultry, for silver, for 
the King's use. These festivals were kept with great 
pomp by the Scottish Kings ; and, doubtless (as was the 
practice at the Anglo-Norman Courts), the prelates, earls > 
and barons of the kingdom were obliged by their tenures, 
as we are informed, to attend their Sovereign, to assist in 
the celebration of these festivals, in the administration of 
justice, and in deliberating on the great affairs of the 
realm. " On these occasions " we are further told " the 
King wore his crown, and feasted his nobles in the great 
hall of the palace, after which they proceeded to business, 
which consisted partly in determining important causes, 
and partly in deliberating on public affairs." (Henry's 
Great Britain, vol. vi., p. 13. 

The Castle of Elgin occupied a space extending about 
240 feet in length, and 150 feet in breadth, on the summit 
of the Lady Hill. It was enclosed by a wall the remains 
of which still exist on the south side which, doubtless, 
like similar structures at this period, was of considerable 
height, having towers at its angles and a crenellated 
parapet with merlons or spaces between the embrasures, 
perforated with chinks terminating in eyelets for the dis- 



THE OUTER BALLIUM OF ELGIN CASTLE. 83 

charge of arrows, javelins, and other missiles. The prin- 
cipal gate appears to have stood on the west side of the 
hill, where the ascent is comparatively easy; and judging 
from the construction of similar portals in the 13th cen- 
tury, it was probably flanked by a round tower on each 
side, and further strengthened by a machicolation and 
portcullis. 

From the fact of an allusion being made in 1654* to the 
East fort of the Castlehill being situated near the point 
where the road leading down to the Morrieston ford at 
the Black Friars Haugh, strikes off from the road which 
skirts the foot of the hill on its northern side from east 
to west, it may be inferred that there was another gate, 
called the West Port, on the opposite side of the hill 
most probably at the top of Lady Lane and that the hill 
at its base, including a good deal of ground, which is now 
built upon, next the High Street, was surrounded by 
some defensive work, consisting likely of a palisade, such 
as was erected round the Castle of Inverness in A.D 
1263-66. 

The level space within the wall which encircled the 
summit of the hill, was divided into two courts by a 
transverse wall the site of the foundation of which is 
still indicated by a furrow or trench, which runs obliquely 
across the plateau in the direction of north-east to south- 
west. The outer ballium* comprehended all the space 
situated west of the transverse wall and was entered 
through the principal gateway ; and from the numerous 
traces of foundations still to be seen, it would appear to 
have been crowded with buildings, consisting, no doubt, 
of barracks and storehouses, which, there is reason to 
believe, from the tenor of a writ issued by Edward, were, 
at this time, well stocked with armour and provisions. 
The inner ballium comprised the area on the east side of 
the division wall, and contained within it the keep and 

*This word, of which bayle and Bailey are Anglicised 
corruptions, is said to be derived from the Latin ballium. The 
term Bailey is still retained in the names of certain anciently 
fortified localities in England, as the Old Bailey of London, 
which is so designated from its position in relation to the 
ancient wall of the city and the Church of St. Peter, in the 
Bailey of Oxford, so called from its having been originally 
situated in the outer ballium of the Castle of Oxford. 



84) THE KEEP OF THE CASTLE OF ELGIN. 



other buildings. The keep, a square tower, the remains 
of which are still seen was built of rough, unhewn 
stones, cemented or grouted with run lime. The portions 
of its walls still remaining are of great thickness and 
solidity, and show how well adapted they were in an age 
when gunpowder was unknown, to resist all the battering 
machines and stone propelling engines which the engin- 
eering skill of those days employed to reduce fortresses. 
Like similar strongholds in the 12th and 13th centuries, 
this structure was probably three or four storeys in 
height. The lower storey in these buildings was a sub- 
terranean and dimly lighted vault, which constituted the 
donjon or oubliette of the keep. Above this was the 
floor which was occupied by the domestics of the estab- 
lishment, and which, from its having the outer door of 
the building opening in to it, formed a kind of vestibule, 
which communicated by a newel stair in the interior or 
substance of the wall, with the upper storeys. In the 
Castle of Elgin this staircase appears to have been situated 
in the south-east angle of the keep, where the walls pre- 
sent a much broader base than at the other corners. The 
second and third storeys contained a hall, one or more 
sleeping apartments, and an armoury of such weapons 
and engines as were required for the defence of the 
building. The Castle of Elgin had apparently a round 
tower on the site of the large circular hollow which exists 
in the immediate vicinity of the ruin. The Well of the 
castle which tradition has long assigned to this spot, was 
probably situated within this tower, and a windlass 
[Windagium] * used for drawing up the water from the 
bottom of the shaft, which must have descended to a great 
depth, even to the base of the hill.^ A sketch of this 
building is given by Slezer, in his view of Elgin, forming 
one of the engravings in the " Theatrum Scotise " pub- 
lished in 1693.J] (Vide Taylor's Edward I. in the North 
of Scotland.) 

* ChamberlainJs Accounts (A.D. 1264), vol. i., pp. 19, 20. 

t A good specimen of an ancient Well of this description is 
afforded by that of Cari-brooke Castle, Isle of Wight, where the 
water is drawn from a great depth by a windlass and wheel, 
worked by an ass. 

J Slezer was a German, a captain in the artillery company 



THE CHAPEL OF THE CASTLE OF ELGIN. 85 

An allusion is made to the Chapel of the Castle of 
Elgin in a Deed of Isabella, Countess of Moray, the widow 
of the great Randolph, granting certain lands for the 
endowment of a Chaplaincy at Elgin, in the year 1351. 
One of the places therein mentioned where a stated 
religious service was enjoined to be performed, is "the 
altar of John the Baptist, in the Chapel of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary, in the castle." This Chapel continued to 
be a place of worship, long after the castle itself had been 
abandoned as a residence; and from it, the locality appears 
to have derived its present name of Ladyhill. Its original 
appellation, however, of Castlehill was not unfrequently 
given to it, as late as the 17th century. Thus, in a sasine 
of the burgh, dated in 1654, mention is made of the road 
which passes from " the East Port of the said Castlehill 
to the Chapel of the Virgin Mary in the north." The 
barons who held lands on the condition of their rendering 
service to the castle, had houses within its precincts. 

Eugenius, thane of Rathven, and lord of Meft, states, in 
a petition which he presented to Alexander III. in 1262, 
that his great-grandfather Yothre Mac Gilhys received 
from King William, a grant of that barony, with his house 
in the Castle of Elgin. It is probable that there were in 
the inner ballium of the castle, besides the keep and the 
round tower, several wooden buildings, comprising a hall, 
a wardrobe room, and a Royal chamber. Such structures 
were common in the Royal, as well as in most of the 
baronial castles in the north, in the 13th century. Thus 
mention is made of a new hall, with a roof formed of a 
double tier of planks, and the walls also consisting of 
wood, having been erected in Caithness, for the accommo- 
dation of Alexander III., when he visited that country, in 
1263. On the same occasion, a wardrobe room, with a 
double wooden roof, was built in the Castle of Inverness; 
and a new hall, which (as it only cost 48 shillings) must 
also have been constructed of wood, was erected in that 
year in the Castle of Invery. In a hall of this description 
" the framework " says Tytler, " composed of strong beams 
of oak, was covered with a planking of fir, and this again 
laid over with plaster, which was adorned with painting 

and the " Surveyor of their Majesties' stores and magazines in 
the kingdom of Scotland." 



86 WHERE KING DUFFUS WAS MURDERED. 

and gildiDg, whilst the large oak pillars supporting the 
building rested in an embedment of strong inason work." 
The walls, when not ornamented in this manner, were 
generally adorned with tapestry. An oaken table, sup- 
ported on massive pedestals, occupied the centre of the 
floor, and a chair of state stood upon the dais at the upper 
end of the apartment. Such in all probability was the 
structure of the hall of the Castle of Elgin, and such, most 
likely, the manner in which it was fitted up, when 
Edward visited Moray in 1296. 

The Fort at Forres was pleasantly situated on 
an eminence, at the west end of the town, and 
was fortified as that of Elgin. It was in this fort 
that King Duff us was barbarously murdered, anno 
965 or 966. Donald, grand -uncle of Bancho 
thane of Lochaber, and ancestor of the Family of 
Stewart (Mr. Sims.) was governor of the fort, 
and much trusted when the King came to Forres, 
in order to punish some villains. The King was 
a strict Justiciar, and would not grant a remis- 
sion to some criminals, for whom Donald and his 
wife had warmly solicited ; wherefore they caused 
strangle him in his bed, and hid his corpse under 
a bridge near Kinloss. Donald, conscious of his 
guilt, fled from Cullen, successor to Duffus ; but 
his wife being put to the torture, confessed the 
whole scene. Donald was seized, and with his 
accomplices justly put to death, and the fort was 
razed (Ford. Buck.). I know not if this fort was 
rebuilt, and used as a Eoyal Fort ; but it is cer- 
tain, there was a Castle where it had stood, of 
which the Dunbars of Westfield had the property, 



ORIGINAL WOODEN CASTLE AT FORRES. 87 

with the castle lands ; but I do not find that they 
acted as constables. 



CASTLE OF FORRES. 

[The Castle of Forres is referred to as early as the year 
966, when King Duffus was murdered iu it. Like the 
Castle of Elgin, it was probably originally a wooden struc- 
ture; but its keep and walls were no doubt strengthened, 
if not rebuilt, in the reign of David I., when the town, 
which it protected, is first mentioned as a King's burgh. 

It was then surrounded by a forest, in which the bur- 
gesses had the privilege of wood-bote granted to them by 
that monarch. Its Castle was a Royal residence, and was 
visited by William the Lion, and Alexander II., who 
dated charters here the former King in 1189-98, and the 
latter in 1238. Its prepositura which is referred to in a 
charter of the year 1238, was probably the land called 
" the Bailie lands " or " the King's meadow," in the char- 
ter of James IV. A few items of expenditure in connec- 
tion with this Castle are mentioned in the Chamberlain's 
Accounts in the reign of Alexander III. 

In 1264, William Wiseman, Sheriff of Forres, dis- 
bursed the sum of ten pounds for building a new tower 
beyond the King's chamber ; ten shillings for the carriage 
of ten hogsheads of wine from the shore [at the mouth of 
the Findhorn] to the castle; and sixteen shillings and 
teupence as the wages of two hawk-catchers for fourteen 
weeks, and for the repair of a mew belonging to the 
King. Of the stock of wine thus laid in for the King's 
table, two hogsheads are mentioned as having been sold 
for one hundred and three shillings and seven pence. 
The Castle appears to have been used as a residence 
both by the King and the Earl of Moray, in the 14th 
century. The Earl granted charters at it in 1346, and 
David II. issued a writ here in 1367. It is mentioned in 
1371, in the charter of Robert II., giving certain lands 
and the keepership of the tower of the manor of Tarna- 
way to Thomas le Graunt and his heirs, as the place 
where, yearly, at Pentecost, the reddendo of one silver 
penny and six arrows were to be tendered as a blench 
rent.] (Taylor's Edivard I. in the North of Scotland.) 



88 OLD ROYAL FORT AT NAIRN AND ITS KEEPERS. 

. The Eoyal Fort at Nairn stood on the bank of 
the river, a little above the present bridge. The 
river, with a rocky precipice, guarded one side of 
it, and it was strongly walled, and ditched about 
on the other sides. The Thanes of Calder were 
hereditary Constables of this fort, and so was the 
present John Campbell of Calder, till the Juris- 
diction Act anno 1747. 

CASTLE OF NAIRN. 

[The Castle of Nairn was next occupied by Edward's 
troops in their march northwards. This fort and its 
adjacent burgh, were founded by William the Lion, on 
land which had originally belonged to the Bishop of 
Moray [in excambium illius terrae apud Inuernaren, 
quam Dominus rex Willielmus pater meus cepit de Epis- 
copo Moraviensi, ad firmandum in ea castellum et burgum 
de Inuernaren.] This castle appears to have been built 
in order to supersede a more ancient one, which stood 
near the influx of the river into the sea. 

The latter is said by Buchanan to have been captured 
by the Danes from the Scots in the reign of Malcolm I.; 
and is described by Camden as " a tower on a peninsula 
of extraordinary height built in a wonderful manner, and 
anciently possessed by the Danes." According to the 
Survey of Moray, there were persons living about the end 
of last century, who remember to have seen, at spring 
tides, vestiges of its foundations now covered by the sea. 
The castle built by King William stood on the west bank 
of the river, on the site still distinguished by the name of 
" the constabulary garden." William Prat, Alexander de 
Moravia, and Reginald le Chen, senior, who each held in 
succession the office of Sheriff of Nairn in the 13th century, 
were, apparently, in virtue of their office, the keepers of 
this castle. They were succeded in the command of it 
by the Roses of Kilravock. In the Chamberlain's Ac- 
counts for 1264, credit is given to Alexander de Moravia, 
for twenty-one shillings and three pence paid by him for 
plastering the hall, and for the purchase of locks for the 
tower or keep, and of two cables for the drawbridge of 



HEREDITARY CONSTABLE OF THE CASTLE OF INVERNESS. 89 

the castle. [" Item in emplastracione aulse, cum serruris 
emptis ad turrim, et cum xi. s. datis, pro duabus cablis 
emptis ad warnisturam castri et aliis minutis xxi. s. iiid."] 
{Taylor's Edward I. in the North of Scotland?) 

At Inverness we find in our histories a Fort or 
Castle very early. It stood on a hill close by the 
river, and commanded the town. What was the 
form of the old fort, I find not : but it appears 
that it had a ditch, and an agger or rampart of 
earth, on three sides. The governor of it was 
appointed during pleasure, or for life, for some 
ages ; but about the beginning of the 16th cen- 
tury, if not sooner, the Earl of Huntley was 
made hereditary Constable of it, and for his fee 
or salary had the following lands, called the 
castle lands : viz., The three Davachs of Dun- 
achtin, and the two Davachs of Kinrara and 
Delnaford in Badenoch, the Davach of Shevin in 
Strathern, the lands of Tordarach, Bochruben, 
and Dundelchak in Strathnairn and Stratherick 
(these lands are the property now of the Laird of 
Macintosh); likewise the Davach of Essich in 
the parish of Inverness, now belonging to Macin- 
tosh; the lands of Porterfield, Little Hilltoun, 
Albnaskiach, and Haughs, all near the town of 
Inverness; the three Davachs of Castle Leathers, 
and Coulduthil, the two Davachs of Upper and 
Nether Torbrecks, and Knocknagial; the two 
Davachs of Dunainmore, Dunaincroy, and Lag- 
nalane ; the two Davachs of Dochgarach, and 
Dochnaluirg; the lands of Dochfoure, Dochcharn, 



90 MALCOLM CANMORE BUILT INVERNESS CASTLE. 

and Dochnacraig, all in the parish of Inverness; and 
the lands of Bunachtin and Drambuie in Strath- 
nairn. The above-mentioned lands, now belong- 
ing to Macintosh, were granted to that family, 
as an assythment for the death of the Laird of 
Macintosh, whom the Earl of Huntley caused to 
be barbarously murdered in the Castle of Hunt- 
ley, in the year 1550. These lands were held 
Ward, but Macintosh purchased the freeholding 
of them ; the other castle lands hold of the Duke 
of Gordon. 

CASTLE OF INVERNESS. 

[The Castle of Inverness, before which Edward's army 
next appeared, stood upon the eminence still desig- 
nated the Castlehill. It is said to have been built by 
Malcolm Canmore ; after he had demolished the ancient 
stronghold called Macbeth's Castle, which was situated on 
the extremity of the hilly ridge, called the " Crown," at 
the east end of the town. Allusion is made to the latter 
Castle in a Deed of the year 1301, in which Document two 
sisters, named Ada and Susanna, are mentioned as the 
heiresses of it. [Susanne et Ede sororum et heredum 
veteris castri] also to a piece of ground called the field 
of the old castle, [campo veteris castri] which extended 
towards the river. The town, which rose up under the 
walls of the castle built by Malcolm Canmore, was, as 
already stated, constituted by David I., one of the six 
chief places in the kingdom [loca capitalia Scotiae comi- 
tatuum per totum regnum,] where the King's Justiciar held 
his court. It was also created a Royal burgh at this time. 

Its burgesses possessed the privilege called ausum in 
common with the other burgesses of Moray, and had the 
right of pasturing their cattle in, and taking firewood 
from, the neighbouring forest, both which privileges were 
afterwards confirmed by King William. He also pro- 
tected its woollen manufactures by granting a charter 
which prohibited persons residing beyond the bounds of 
the burgh from making " cloths dyed and shorn contrary 



INVERNESS SHIP-BUILDING, BEAVER-SKINS, & HERRINGS. 91 

to the assize of David I." He conceded several immuni- 
ties to its burgesses, such as an exemption from wager of 
battle in civil cases, and from paying toll on their mer- 
chandise throughout the kingdom. A fosse was dug 
round the town by him, on the condition, as already 
mentioned, that the burgesses should erect a good palisade, 
and agree to keep it in repair. Inverness was celebrated 
in the reign of Alexander II. as a place for shipbuilding 
materials for which abounded in the neighbouring forests. 
Here was built, in 1249, for Hugh de Chatellar, Count of 
St. Paul and Blois, a vessel, the Leviathan of the age 
which was called by Matthew Paris "the wonderful 
ship," on account of its great size. The commerce of the 
burgh was extensive, and was carried on chiefly by 
Flemings. One of its annual fairs is said to have been 
usually attended by foreign merchants. The exports 
were wool, cloths, furs, hides, fish, and cattle. 

It is probable that beaver skins were one of its articles 
of merchandise. According to Boece, the beaver was 
anciently found on the banks of Loch Ness; and we know 
from a public Record that " beueris " skins were included 
among the exports from Scotland in the reign of David I. 
Inverness appears to have been at this time the principal 
station for the herring fishing in the Moray Firth. Boece 
alludes to the great quantities of herrings that were 
caught at this place prior to this time. This seems to be 
corroborated by the fact, that in 1263 Laurence le Graunt, 
the Sheriff of the County, is mentioned as disbursing 20 
marks for 20 lasts of herrings, purchased for the King's 
household, and 105 shillings and 3 pence for their freight 
to Leith.* A charge of 7 13s. is also made in the same 
accounts for the transport of 540 head of cattle by ship 
to the same port. [Item in carragio quingentarum vac- 
carurn usque leith, per navem, vii. lib. xiii. s.]t thus showing 
that a considerable intercourse by sea existed at this 
time between the Moray Firth and the Firth of Forth. 
A few topographical and other details are mentioned in 
regard to the town and its vicinity in the 13th and 14th 
centuries. 

Alexander II. gave to the burgesses Markinch and the 
prepositura of Kinmyles, consisting of the upper and 

* Chamberlain's Accounts, vol. i. p. 31. 
t Idem, vol. i. p. 21. 



92 THE KING'S MILLS; CONVENTS AT INVERNESS. 

lower lands of that name ; and a stake fishing [yhara] on 
the Ness, to the Bishop of Moray and his successors, with 
the reservation that the tenants should grind their corn 
at the King's mills which were, doubtless, situated in 
the locality still designated by that name and should 
settle their disputes in his court. Allusion is made in 
the same charter ^to the Bishop's house in this barony. 
The Parish Church which was dedicated to the Virgin 
Mary, was presided over by a vicar, who was appointed 
for life, and had a manse provided for him near the 
Church, where he was bound to receive the Bishop of the 
diocese and the Abbot of Arbroath. He enjoyed as his 
stipend all the pertinents of the vicarage, except the 
tithes of corn, lands, mills, and herrings, and the rents of 
the lands of the Church, all of which were paid to the 
Abbey of Arbroath. 

The Dominicans had their Monastery and Chapel, dedi- 
cated to the Blessed Mary, with its Cemetery on the site 
of the present Chapelyard. 

The Franciscans' Convent occupied the ground still 
named the Greyfriars' yard. Both were settled here by 
Alexander II. about the year 1232. 

The Damysdale [Doomsdale] so named from its lead- 
ing to the Gallowhill is alluded to in 1362. It is the 
present Castle Street. 

Mention is also made of a road called Scathgat running 
parallel to the Ness, and of the Scatisgat leading to a 
place called Knokyntynole. Brumybauc, the Crasse 
[Carse], the Schipflat, the Surrflat, and the Hale [Haugh], 
are likewise referred to as localities in the vicinity of the 
burgh. St. Mary Chapel, belonging to the Dominicans 
who appear to have left the town prior to the year 1359 
was endowed by John Scot, a burgess, in 1361. He 
bound himself and his heirs to pay 100 shillings yearly 
as a stipend to a chaplain, and to give him a robe on St. 
Andrew's Day. He also built for him a manse, with a 
garden inclosed with a fence, close to the chapel. 

To return to the Castle. In 1263, the sum of 38 shillings 
and nine pence was paid for constructing or repairing a 
palisade around it. There was also disbursed by the 
Sheriff in the same year, the sum of 7 19s. for erecting 
a Scottish house and a wardrobe room with a roof of 
double boards within the walls of the castle [pro con- 



THE ROYAL FORT AT URQUHART. 93 

structione unius domus Scoticane infra castrum de Inuer- 
nes, &c., cum constructione gardrobae cum coopertorio de 
duplicii borda.*] The chaplain who officiated in the Chapel 
of the castle received five marks, equal to 3 6s. 10d., as 
his yearly stipend [Item capellano ministranti in capella 
castri de Inuernes, illo anno, quinque marcas.]*f- 

The first governor of the Castle, whose name is known, 
was Shaw MacDuff, the second son of the Earl of Fife.| For 
the services which he had rendered in suppressing the 
rebellion of the Moravienses in 1161, Malcolm IV. re- 
warded him with large estates, and the command of the 
Castle of Inverness, of which he was made hereditary 
keeper. He afterwards assumed the name of Macintosh 
(the son of the thane), and thus became the founder of 
the clan of that name. The governorship of the castle 
remained in the family for a period of a hundred and 
thirty years. Angus married in 1292, the heiress of 
Dowal Dal, the chief of the Clan Chattan ; and during 
the minority of his son, the castle was seized by the 
Comyns, and was held by them when Edward's army 
now appeared before it and summoned it to surrender.] 
(Taylor's Edward I, in the North of Scotland.) 

There was likewise a Eoyal Fort in Urquhart. 
It stood on a rock on the west side of Lochness, 
12 miles from Inverness, and as many from Fort 
Augustus. The loch washed the east wall of it, 
and the other three sides were fortified with a 
strong rampart, a ditch, and a draw bridge. 
There were within the walls some good buildings, 
and accommodation for a battalion of soldiers. 
In the year 1303, King Edward I. of England 
reduced this fort, and basely put to the sword 
Alexander Bois and his garrison, who had bravely 
defended it (Abercro.). In 1334, Robert Lauder, 

* Chamberlain's Accounts, vol. i. p. 23. 

t Idem, vol. i. p. 21. 

I Shaw's History of Moray, p. 69. 



94 CASTLE URQUHART; OLIVER'S FORT AT INVERNESS. 

Governor, maintained this fort against the Eng- 
lish (Ibid.) ; Sir Rohert Chisholm was Governor 
of this fort in 1364 (Hist. Kilr.) ; but who suc- 
ceeded him I know not. These old forts were a 
good defence against the military weapons at that 
time in use ; but when cannons and mortars were 
invented, they were soon reduced. 

[Castle Urquhart is a very prominent object from Loch 
Ness, and combines, in a very remarkable degree, natural 
and artificial defences upon its enciente, and within its 
area. It has a gate-house, and is far more extensive than 
most Highland Castles. The Keep is an excellent example 
of the stern rectangular Scottish fortalice of the fifteenth 
century. It is about 40 feet square of four stages. The 
remains of the Castle now standing can scarcely be older 
than the fifteenth century, and probably it was one of 
those built about the middle of it, in accordance with the 
strong recommendation published by James I. on his re- 
turn from his captivity in England. The third floor of 
the Keep, or fourth stage, differs from the rest, in that a 
small chamber is contained in the south-eastern angle, 
the door into which is in the south wall, near its east 
end. This may have been an Oratory.] (See The Builder, 
17th February, 1872, by G. T. Clark.) 

The Citadel of Inverness, called Oliver's Fort, 
from Oliver Cromwell, was a modern regular 
building. It was begun in 1651, and next year 
finished. It stood on the east bank of the Eiver 
Ness, near the mouth of it ; was a regular pen- 
tagon, with bastions, ramparts, a wet ditch, a 
covered way, and a glacis ; one side of it was 
washed by the river, and it could lodge 2000 
men. But it had several inconveniences ; the 
foundation was bad, and brandered with oak, the 



FORT GEORGE AND FORT AUGUSTUS. 95 

water was brackish, the air was moist, approaches 
to it were easy, and the town was a shelter for 
an enemy. In the year 1662 it was demolished, 
because it was a relict of usurpation, but chiefly 
because it was a check upon the adjacent High- 
lands then esteemed loyal. 

Fort George stood on the Castle Hill of Inver- 
ness, and the building was begun soon after the 
rebellion in 1715; the old Castle was repaired for 
lodging the officers ; a fine house was built for 
the governor ; a pile of barracks stood as wings 
to the Castle ; a Chapel, magazine, and store- 
house were built ; the old draw-well was opened, 
and the whole surrounded with a strong wall, 
proof against any artillery except battering 
cannon. But the hill, being a heap of quick 
sand, could be easily sapped or undermined ; and 
it is strange that so much money was thrown 
away upon it. On the 19th February, 1746, this 
fort was taken and reduced by the rebels. 

Fort Augustus, so called from Frederick Augus- 
tus then Prince of Wales, stands at the south 
end of Lochness, in the point betwixt the rivers 
Eoich and Tarf, where they empty into the loch. 
The loch and Tarf wash two sides of the fort, 
which was built about 1730. The Rebels like- 
wise demolished this fort ; but it has been since 
rebuilt, and surrounded with a ditch and ram- 
parts. A small Galley is kept on Loch Ness, for 
the service of this fort, and to convey stores to it. 



96 BARRACKS AT RUTHVEN AND FORT GEORGE. 

The Barrack of Euthven in Badenoch was 
begun to be built in 1718. It stood where the 
old Castle had been, and consisted of two large 
houses standing parallel, and joined by ramparts, 
and two bastions in the diagonal angles. It had 
convenient lodging for two companies of men, a 
draw-well, and a large stable. In August, 1745, 
all the company lodged here joined General 
Cope, except Serjeant Mulloy and fourteen men, 
who maintained the barrack against two hundred 
of the Eebels. And in February, 1746, Serjeant 
Mulloy with twelve men only defended it for 
three days, and obtained an honourable capitula- 
tion, for which gallant behaviour he was preferred 
to be a Lieutenant. The Eebels burnt the barrack. 

Fort George at Ardersier stands on a point of 
land that juts into the Firth. The land is near 
a half mile broad to the continent, and tapers to 
a narrow point. On this point the fort is built 
in form of a triangle, whereof the sea covers two 
sides, and the ditch, which may receive the sea 
at pleasure, makes the third. It is environed 
with high ramparts and bastions, with a raveline, 
a covered way, and glacis. It is well served with 
sweet water, and can have a fine harbour. For 
an English mile no high ground commands it, 
and no lines of approach can be digged in the 
hard channel without great labour. The air is 
pure and wholesome, and it will accommodate 
2,000 men. 



CASTLES OF OLD DUFFUS, RAIT, ABERNETHIE, RUTHVEN. 97 

Besides these Royal Forts there were in this 
country several Fortalices built by gentlemen for 
defence. Of these the following five were ancient, 
and built in the old form, viz. : 

The Castle of Old Dufius, which stood on a 
green moat on the bank of the Loch of Spynie. 
It was square, the wall about 20 feet high and 5 
feet thick, with a parapet, ditch, and draw-bridge. 
Within the square were buildings of timber built 
to the wall, with stables and all necessary offices. 
I question not but this fort (the walls whereof 
were built with run lime, and as yet stand pretty 
entire) was built as early as the tune, if not 
sooner, of Friskinus de Moravia, in the reign of 
King David I.* 

The Castle of Bait, in the parish of Nairn, was 
of the same form, and was probably the seat of 
Rait of that ilk. 

The Red Castle in Abernethie, the walls of 
which stand, was of the like form, and was the 
seat of Cummine, Laird of Abernethie. 

The Castle of Ruthven, the seat of Cummine, 
Lord Badenoch, stood on a green mount, jutting 
into a marshy plain. The mount is steep on 
three sides, and tapering to the top, as if it were 
artificial; the area on the top, about 100 yards 
long and 30 broad; the south wall was 9 feet 

* I look upon it as probably the site of an ancient strength. 
The remaining masonry is not older than the end of the 14th 
century. (Cosmo Innes' M.S.) 

VOL. IIL 7 



"98 LOCHINDORT OR LOCHINDORB. 

thick, through which the arched entry was 
guarded by a double iron gate and a port-cullis ; 
the other walls were 16 feet high and 4 thick, 
and in the north end of the court were two 
towers in the corners, and some low buildings 
and a draw-well within the court. I have seen 
this fort entire.* 

In Lochindort, in the hills betwixt Strathspey 
and Brae Moray, stand in a small island the walls 
of a strong Fort, as yet entire. In the year 1335, 
when the Earl of March defeated and killed 
David de Strathbogie, Earl of Athole, at Kilblain, 
and raised the siege of Kildrummy Castle, the 
Earl of Athole's lady fled to the Castle of Loch- 
indort. Sir Alexander Gordon laid siege to it, 
but next year King Edward of England obliged 
him to raise this siege. This fort and the adja- 
cent forest belong to John Campbell of Calder, 
for " James, Earl of Moray, 31st of October, 
1606, disponed to Sir John Campbell of Calder 
the lands of Borlum, Goulards, and Kinchylie, 
cum Lacu de Lochindorb, domibus in eo, et 
adjacentibus Shelingis (Pen. Cald.)" [Transla- 
tion With the Loch of Lochindorb, with the 
houses in it, and the neighbouring Sheilings.] 

LOCHINDORB. 

[On the 25th of September, Edward I. arrived at the 
Castle of Lochindorb [called Loghindorra in the Itinerary], 
situated between Brae Moray and Strathspey, and distant 

*It is artificially scarped. The buildings are not old. 
(Cosmo limes' MS.) 



THE STRONGEST FORTRESS OF THE COMYNS. 99 

about 21 miles from Kinloss. His object in visiting this 
remote Fort was, doubtless, to carry the war into the heart 
of the country of the Comyns, whose chief Sir John 
Comyn, now the principal ruler of the kingdom was 
still in arms against him. 

It is stated in a note to Trivet's Annals, that, after 
capturing towns and castles, he came to the domains of 
John Comyn of Badenoch. [. . . villas et castra capiens, 
pervenit ad terras Johannes Comyn de Badenoch] ; a 
remark which clearly shows the object which he had in 
view in his present expedition into the Highlands of 
Moray. At Lochindorb, which is situated about midway 
between the Findhorn and the Spey, and within a short 
distance of the ancient King's highway * which led from 
the plains of Moray to the banks of the latter river, 
Edward was in a convenient position to detach troops to 
overrun Badenoch and the adjacent districts. This 
Castle was the strongest fortress in the possession of 
the Comyns at this time. Its insular position, in a broad, 
deep lake, must have rendered it a safe retreat in times 
of turmoil and civil war, but this advantage was not 
sufficient to protect it from assault by Edward's army, 
furnished, as no doubt that army was, with warlike 
engines, the means of constructing rafts, and all the appli- 
ances necessary under the circumstances for carrying on 
a siege. But whether the fort was now evacuated by its 
garrison on the approach of the invader, or resistance was 
offered by its defenders to his troops, is not known. 
Certain it is, however, that it was occupied for some time 
by Edward. The Island on which this Castle stands is 
about an acre in extent, and is apparently composed of 
gravel and shingle. It is situated about the middle of 
the loch, which is two miles long and about half a mile 
broad, and is surrounded by deep water. In the descrip- 
tion given of it in the Old Statistical Account of Crom- 
dale it is stated that " great rafts or planks of oak, by the 

* The " via regia " of Findhorn and Drummynd is mentioned 
in a Charter of Alexander II. in 1236 (Reg. Ep. Morav, p. 31), 
and was, no doubt, a continuation of the " via regia " which is 
alluded to in 1253-98 as extending below the standing-stones 
on the lands of Fanymarthack or Fynlarg in Inverallon (Idem, 
p. 143). It is supposed to have been originally a Roman road. 



100 THE FOREST OF LEANICH ; MEDIAEVAL PEELS. 

beating of the waters against the old walls, occasionally 
make their appearance." This remark suggests the idea 
that the island is perhaps partly artificial, and that it was 
originally one of those fortified retreats such as the islets 
of Loch-an-Eilean and Loch Moy, also belonging to Inver- 
ness-shire, and others throughout Scotland and Ireland 
to which the original Celtic name of Crannoges * is now 
given by antiquaries. 

The country around Lochindorb, now so bleak and 
dreary in its aspect, was covered with pine, oak, birch, 
hazel, and other trees in the 13th century. This wooded 
tract, anciently called the Forest of Leanich, extended to 
Duthill, and abounded in red deer. It is probable that 
the original stronghold on the island of Lochindorb was a 
Peel or wooden structure, and that the present Castle the 
walls of which are still standing to a height of 20 feet 
was erected in the time of Edward. It bears a strong 
resemblance in its irregular quadrangular shape, curtain 
walls, and round towers at its four angles, broad or bell- 
shaped at their base, to the English and Welsh castles of 
the same period. Of this style of medieval military 
architecture there are several examples in Scotland, as 
the Castles of Bothwell, Dirleton, Kildrummie, and Caer- 
laverock, all of which would, in England, be considered 
as "Edwardian" castles. -f- The walls of the Castle of 
Lochindorb, now heavy with lichens, have a rich yellow 
tint imparted to them by these plants, and look, from the 
lowness of the island on which they stand, as if they rose 
from beneath the surface of the water. They enclose the 
whole area of the island to within a few feet of the water's 
edge. They are built of granite, whinstone, and slate 
from the neighbouring hills. The principal gateway, 
sally-port, windows, and loopholes have their lintels, 
mouldings, and facings formed of freestone, which as 
none of this material is found nearer than Tarnaway 
was most likely either brought from that locality, or, as 
some suppose, from the more distant quarries of Duffus. 
The principal gateway is a pointed arch of the early 

* Notice of Crannoges read by Joseph Robertson, Esq., before 
the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 14th December, 1857. 

f See Lecture delivered by Joseph Robertson, Esq., before 
the Archaeological Institute, Edinburgh, July 1856. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE CASTLE OF LOCHINDORB. 101 

English style. It has a portcullis, but no barbican or 
flanking towers, which, from the insular situation of the 
castle, and its close proximity to the water, appear to 
have been considered unnecessary for its defence. The 
curtain walls are tolerably entire, except on the side on 
which the Chapel stood the foundations of which build- 
ing are still seen. But the circular towers, which flank 
these walls at their four corners, are, with the exception 
of one, considerably dilapidated. Within the area enclosed 
by these outer walls is the Keep, a large quadrangular 
building, having a round tower at one end. It is men- 
tioned that in the last century "several vestiges of houses" 
were seen within its walls, but the surface of the court is 
now so covered with rubbish, and overgrown with weeds, 
that it is difficult to trace their foundations. Its hall, no 
doubt, was built entirely of wood, as was the case in most 
of the castles of that period. The traditions of this part 
of the country in reference to Lochindorb are more con- 
nected with Edward III. than his grandfather, Edward I., 
and relate almost exclusively to the relief by the former 
monarch of the Countess of Athole when besieged by Sir 
Alexander Gordon in 1335. 

The spot on the south-east bank of the loch where the 
besiegers had encamped and worked their war engines to 
make a breach in the walls is still pointed out. The 
tradition referring to Edward I. is obscure, and associates 
his name, as stated in the Old Statistical Account already 
quoted, with the buildings of the castle thus affording a 
vague indication of his having been concerned in con- 
structing them. Tytler thinks that he made additions to 
the original fortifications, but it is more probable, from 
the similarity between this castle and those erected by 
him in England and Wales, that it was entirely built 
under his orders between the close of 1303 and the 
beginning of 1306. Fordun informs us that, during 
Edward's stay here, which continued for some time, the 
northern parts of the kingdom submitted to him ["in 
propria persona ad Lochindorb pervenit et ibidem ali- 
quamdiu moram faciens partes boreales ad pacem cepit."] 
But it may be presumed that the formal ceremony of 
receiving the homage of the many vanquished nobles who 
now presented themselves before him did not occupy his 
time so exclusively as to preclude all leisure for amuse- 



102 EDWARD I. VISITS LOCHINDORB, AND HUNTS. 

ment. Whilst sojourning here he, doubtless, enjoyed his 
favourite pastime of hunting. Walsingham and John of 
London, the Monk of Canterbury, mention that, when not 
engaged in war, he indulged in hunting for birds as well 
as for wild animals, but chiefly for deer, which he was in 
the habit of pursuing on horseback. [" Cum vacaret ab 
armis venationibus tarn avium quam ferarum, indulgebat 
et maxime cervorum quos in equis cursoribus solebat 
insequi," &c.]. Hardying, the chronicler, also adverts to 
his love of sport. In speaking of the country from Stirling 
northwards, which he describes as being to a great extent 
covered with wood, he recommends Edward IV., to whom 
his Chronicle is addressed (with the view of inducing that 
monarch to invade Scotland), to take with him in his 
expedition "kennets and ratches, and seek out all the 
forests with hounds and horns, as King Edward with the 
Longshanks did," and " to bete the Forestes of Boyne and 
Haynge [Enzie] with fetemen." It appears, then, from 
this testimony that Edward had, as a part of his estab- 
lishment when he marched through Scotland, packs of 
stag-hounds and wolf-dogs, as these kennets and ratches 
are supposed to have been ; and there can be little doubt, 
therefore, that during his residence at Lochindorb his 
principal amusement in his hours of relaxation from State 
affairs was the chase. And that, eager and successful * 
as he generally was in this sport, he now shot many an 
arrow from his bow, and sounded with his horn the death- 
note of many a deer in the trystas which he held with his 
nobles in the Royal forests of the Leanich and Drummynd 
in Brae Moray. While the earlier part of the day was 
thus devoted to the pleasures of the chase, the later 
portion of it, no doubt, was not less agreeably spent 
within the walls of the Royal residence. As the shades of 
evening set in, the battlements and watch-towers of the 
insular Fortress, illuminated with torches on every side, 
sent forth a blaze of light over the surface of the lake. 
And while the soldiers, who either bivouacked or occupied 
tents and temporary huts, constructed of branches of 
trees, on its banks partook, around their camp fires, of 
their evening meal before retiring to rest, the knights 

* He is said to have killed two hundred bucks in one day in 
Eaglewood Forest, between Penrith and Carlisle. Camden's 
Britannia, vol. iii., p. 189. 



EDWARD I. ISSUES LETTERS FROM KINLOSS ABBEY. 105 

assembled in the banqueting hall of the Castle to pass the 
evening in conviviality and social mirth. Here Edward, 
presiding at the festive board, dispensed his hospitality 
to his nobles, and listened, while the wine cup was filled 
and went round, to the minstrels who strung their harps 
and sang of love, chivalry, and war. 

It is supposed by many, from the accounts which 
writers have given of his expedition, that Edward pro- 
ceeded farther north than Moray. He searched, says 
Hemingford, the land and all the Highlands, even as far 
as Caithness, nor was there any one who resisted him 
[" Perlustravit nee erat que terrain et omries montes usque 
Cathenesse necerat qui resisteret ei."] Hardying informs 
us that he devastated the latter country 

" And Kynge Edward then into Scotlande wente, 
Through all Catnesse destroyed in great hate." 

The limit of his expedition towards the north is thus 
alluded to by Barbour 

" To Scotland went he then in hy 
And all the land gan occupy, 
Sa hale that baith castell and townes 
War intill his possessione, 
Fra Weik anent Orkney 
To Mullysuwk in Galloway." 

Whilst Edward resided in Moray " he had," says Lord 
Hailes, " a view of the coast of Caithness. He may pro- 
bably have crossed over in a ship from curiosity. This 
may account for the expression of historians, that Edward 
went as far north as Caithness." There is reason, how- 
ever, to believe, notwithstanding the plausible explana- 
tion given by Lord Hailes of the passages above quoted, 
that the invader did not personally visit the distant 
county here referred to. 

It will be seen by a reference to the dates in the 
Itinerary, and to those of the letters which Edward issued 
at Kinloss, that the only time viz., that between the 
25th of September and 4th of October, during which he 
could have accomplished this journey was spent by him 
at Lochindorb, where, according to Fordun and Wyntoun, 
he stayed for some time. 

" And owre the Mownth then alsa fast 
Til Lowchyndorbe, then stracht he past, 



104 VARIOUS FORTALICES BUILT IN JAMES 11/S REIGN. 

There swjourned a qwhile he bade 
Quhill he the North all wonnyn had." * 

But though Edward himself did not cross the Findhorn, 
yet there can be no doubt that he despatched a force to 
overrun the northern counties. It is not stated what 
number of men was sent on this expedition, nor is it 
known who commanded them.] (Taylor's Edward I. in 
the North of Scotland. ED.) 

The other Fortalices were strong towers at 
Calder, Kilravock, Daviot, Lovat, Borlum, Ern- 
side, Dallas, &c. These were for the most part 
built in the reign of King James II., when the 
rebellion of the Earls of Douglas, Crawford, Koss, 
&c., had run the kingdom into confusion. 

[At the Mains of Daviot, a seat of the ancestors of the 
present Laird of Mackintosh, there were, till lately, the 
ruins of a Fort or Castle, built by the Earl of Crawfurd 
in the beginning of the 15th century. This was, in those 
days, a place of great strength, being situated on the 
extremity of one of the sand hills, had a dry-ditch and 
draw-bridge, which divided and fortified it from the level 
ground on the west, and a strong wall on the other sides, 
where the height and natural declivity of the hill added 
much to its security. It was a square building, and 
enclosed an area of 360 square yards. It had four circular 
towers, one in every corner, and containing each three 
stories, all vaulted ; had secret passages in the middle of 
the wall, communicating with large vaulted rooms for the 
mainguard at the principal entry. 

This was a stately edifice, and commanded a very 
extensive prospect. The walls and towers, except a small 
breach at the main gate, were all entire about 44 years 
ago; and, had they suffered no injury besides natural 
decay, might have remained for centuries yet to come a 
specimen of the superior skill of our ancient operative 
masons. In 1748 a wadset was obtained of the lands of 
Daviot, where the Castle stood, and it is much to be 

*Wyntoun, vol. ii., p. 118. 



THE BATTLE OF FORRES. 105 

regretted that, in a country where stones are so plentiful 
as to be an encumbrance, this noble and only monu- 
ment of antiquity should be partly destroyed for furnish- 
ing materials to a modern farm-house and offices. Still, 
however, a magnificent ruin remained ; but it must shake 
the feelings of every person of taste to be told that its 
total destruction was gradually accomplished during a 
period of 40 years for no other purpose than procuring 
the old lime and rubbish for the possessor's dunghills.] 
(Old Statistical Account of Scotland, 1795, vol. xiv., 
written by Rev. Alex. Gordon.) 

I now come to give some account of the 
Military actions, whether Battles, Skirmishes, or 
Eencounters, within this Province ; the earliest of 
which was 

The Battle of Forres. Sueno, son of Harald, 
King of Denmark, having defeated the English, 
and driven their King, Ethelrad. out of the king- 
dom, sought to be revenged of the Scots, who 
had aided Ethelrad. For this end he sent a 
great army into Scotland, under the command of 
Olaus and Enecus, who landed in Moray in 1008, 
and committed great ravages. King Malcolm II., 
heing informed of this, marched against them 
with an army of new levies, and gave them battle 
near the town of Forres. But the unexperienced 
soldiers, rushing on with more courage than con- 
duct, and the King being wounded in the head 
and carried out of the field, the enemy got an 
easy victory, which they improved, as might be 
expected from such barbarians, with cruelty, 
bloodshed, and plunder. They soon reduced the 
castles or forts of Elgin, Forres, and Nairn. 



106 KING SUENO'S STONE AT TORRES. 

Flushed with this success, they sent for their 
wives, children, and families, hoping they should 
quietly possess the pleasant and fertile plains of 
Moray, and from thence extend their conquests. 

A furlong or two east of Forres stands an 
Obelisk, called Sueno's Stone, which is one of 
the most curious and stately Monuments of that 
kind in Britain. Some years ago, the corn-land 
round it being always ploughed up, it was like to 
fall; but Lady Ann Campbell, late Countess of 
Moray, caused it to be set upright, and supported 
with several steps of freestone. The height of 
this stone cannot now be certainly known. It is 
about 23 feet above ground, and said to be 12 
feet under ground ; its breadth is about 4 feet. 
What is above ground is visibly divided into 
seven parts, whereof the lowest is almost wholly 
hid by the supports. The second division con- 
tains many figures, but much defaced. In the 
third are figures of men, and some of beasts, with 
human heads. The fourth contains ensigns and 
military weapons, carried by figures much worn 
out. And in the fifth, sixth, and seventh, the 
figures are scarce discernible. On the reverse is 
a Cross, beneath which are two human figures of 
a Gothish form. 

Mr. Gordon, in his Itinerarium Septentrionale, 
will have this Obelisk erected after the Battle of 
Mortlach, and in memory of the Danes leaving 
the kingdom ; but why should there be erected 



DELINEATIONS OF SUENO'S PILLAR. 107 

at Forres a monument of a battle fought at more 
than 12 miles from it ? And after the Battle of 
Mortlach the Danes fought at Balbryde, Aber- 
lemno, Gemri, and Cruden in Buchan, where 
they engaged to leave the kingdom ; which places 
were more proper for such a monument than 
at Eorres. 

[The Forres Pillar, commonly called " Sweno's Stone," 
is situated about half a mile to the east of Forres, on the 
north side of the highway, and occupies the position in 
which, in all probability, it originally was placed. The 
circular stone steps, clasped with iron, around the base 
are modern, and were placed as supports to the pillar by 
a late Countess of Moray, Lady Ann Campbell. It is a 
hard sandstone, 23 feet in height above ground, and 
said to be 12 feet more under ground; the breadth at the 
base is 4 feet, the thickness about 15 inches. On the 
south side there are five divisions, each filled up by 
numerous figures cut in relief. 

The first division represents a number of persons as if 
engaged in deep council, and holding conversation in 
groups, probably the back ground representing the walls 
of some hall or fortification. The second division exhibits 
an army of horse and foot on the march, the cavalry being 
in the van, and at full gallop, the infantry following with 
spears in their hands and shields. In the third division 
are appearances of a battle, both single combats and 
general fighting; in one corner are several decapitated 
bodies lying piled one on the other, while at the top of 
this division troops are seen entering the gate of a city, 
or, it may be, besieging it. The fourth division shows a 
number of captives bound together, some naked, and 
apparently females, others clothed in short jackets, while 
a row of warriors above, with unsheathed swords, are 
shouting victory. The last division is very obscure, but 
it gives indications of horsemen either returning as con- 
querors from the battle or retreating as beaten fugitives. 
The other, or north side of the stone, has only three 
divisions. Below are two figures, with human heads,. 



108 ACCURATE DRAWINGS OF SUENC-'S PILLAR. 

though their bodies are of rather grotesque forms, typical 
perhaps of priests bending over something as if in an 
attitude of prayer, while a smaller human figure stands 
behind each. All these figures have a broad cap on their 
heads, while the warriors on the other side are all bare- 
headed. In the division above is a long Cross, the arms 
at the top being within a circle. This part is much worn. 
The Cross and the entire spaces of the middle division 
are filled up by most ingenious carving, representing the 
intricate and endless convolutions of the Runic Knot. 
The edges of the stone are also occupied by these Runic 
Knots, and evidently show the elaborate art of the sculp- 
tors. At the base of one of the edges of the stone are 
several figures, apparently females. 

A piece of lead covers the top of the stone, as a defence 
against rains. In 1813, when digging into a mound close 
to the pillar, eight human skeletons were found. The 
beautiful drawing given in Stuart's Sculptured Stones of 
Scotland, vol. i. plates xviii.-xxi., was taken with great 
pains, and a scaffolding was erected so as to enable the 
artist to copy the upper part of the stone with accuracy.] 
(See Rhind's Sketches of Moray. ED.) 

The Danish families (above) sent for arrived, up- 
on which they fortified a small Promontory in the 
parish of Duffus, which our historians call Burgus. 
This promontory juts into the Firth and rises 
above low water about 16 yards. To the west 
and north it is a perpendicular rock. To the 
east the ascent is steep and covered with grass ; 
at the south the ascent is more easy. The top 
forms nearly a rectangular figure, in length about 
100 yards and in breadth about 30. This area 
they surrounded with a strong rampart of oaken 
logs laid deep in the earth, of which some pieces 
are as yet digged up, and the burnt remains 
appear in the earth. The neck of land towards 



DANISH FORTIFICATION AT BURGHEAD. 109 

the south being small, they cut a deep trench, 
and brought the sea round the promontory ; and 
within this they cut other trenches, with a 
rampart of stone and earth. At the foot of the 
promontory, to the east, is an area about 40 
yards long and 20 broad, of which the hill makes 
one side, and the other three were well fortified 
with a high rampart. This fort served them for 
a place of arms, for a safe retreat if defeated, for 
an asylum to their wives and children; and it 
guarded the harbour at the foot of the rock, 
where the transports lay. Our historians, not 
acquainted with the geography of the country, 
place this fort at Nairn, but no such promontory 
or fort was there, nor any tradition of it. As the 
Danes called it Burgh, it still retains that name, 
and is called Burghsea, or surrounded by the sea. 
The sea near it has retired by the reflection from 
the rock, and it is no longer an island. 

After the Battle of Forres, King Malcolm II. 
returned south, and finding that the Danes pur- 
posed to settle in Moray, raised a powerful army, 
with which he marched in the beginning of the 
year 1010, to drive out the invaders. How soon 
the Danes were certified of the road by which 
the King marched, they moved forward to meet 
him, wisely choosing to fight at a distance from 
their projected settlement. A little east of the 
House of Carron, there are manifest vestiges of a 
Camp, where it is thought the Danes encamped, 



110 BATTLE OF MORTLICH ; GRAVES AT BALVENY CASTLE. 

till by their speculatories or scouts, they had 
certain intelligence of the King's approach ; then 
they marched to Mortlich, and the King's army 
came to Achindun, two miles from the enemy. 
The King, having learned that the Danes lay on 
both sides of the water of Dulenan near the 
Church, was advised to use a stratagem, viz. A 
mile above the Church, the water runs in a 
narrow channel betwixt high rocks : here it was 
dammed up, and made to flow back into a spa- 
cious plain ; and the army about the dawning of 
the next day having attacked the enemy, he 
caused break the dam, and the torrent separated 
the two parts of their army, so that the one 
could not assist the other; those on the south 
side, who were the smaller number, were all cut 
off ; but upon the falling of the water, the great 
body of the Danes charged the Scots with great 
fury, yet were entirely broken, and fled precipi- 
tately towards Moray. Enecus their general 
was killed, as was another general named Mag- 
nus or Manus, from whom Bal-vanie, i.e. Manus's 
Town, takes its name. The Scots lost three 
generals, Kenneth Thane of the Isles, Dunbar 
Thane of Laudian, and Graeme Thane of Strath- 
ern. In memory of this victory, the Episcopal 
See of Murthlac was erected. After this, the 
Danes had repeated defeats at Balbryde, Aber- 
lemno, Gemrie, and Cruden, and left the kingdom 
about the year 1012. (Buchanan.) 



ALEX. CARON MADE HEREDITARY STANDARD-BEARER. Ill 

King Malcolm III. having concluded a peace 
with the King of England, was soon after dis- 
turbed by insurrections at home. The inhabi- 
tants of Moray, Boss, and Caithness, made a 
revolt, and raised a powerful force. MacDuff 
Earl of Fife was detached to quell this tumult ; 
but when he had come to Dee, and was certified 
of the enemy's strength, he halted till the King 
came up with a considerable reinforcement. The 
army then marched to the Kiver Spey, where the 
rebels on the other side were ready to obstruct 
their passage. The standard-bearer and others, 
declined to enter a river so deep and rapid, in 
the face of a numerous and desperate enemy; 
upon which, one Alexander de Caron, taking the 
standard, stepped into the river, and his boldness 
encouraged the army to follow him. The enemy 
observing the resoluteness of the Koyal army, laid 
down their weapons, were pardoned, and peace was 
restored. Alexander Caron was made hereditary 
standard-bearer, and constable of the Castle of 
Dundee. Having defeated a bold English bully 
or fencer, he got the name of Scrimger, i.e. hard 
fighter, which became the surname of his family. 
One of his descendants was created Viscount 
Dundee ; but the male line failing, the honours 
became extinct. (Buchanan.) 

In the year 1110, the 4th of the reign of King 
Alexander I. some young gentlemen in the Mearns 
and Moray, whose licentious life the King had 



112 CONSPIRACY TO MURDER KING ALEXANDER I. 

restrained, conspired to cut him off. The con- 
spiracy was happily discovered, and then the 
villains placed their safety in an open rebellion, 
and got a great number of desperadoes to join 
them. The King raised an army and pursued 
them into the Country of Moray. At the River 
Spey the rebels halted, determined to dispute 
the passage ; but the King immediately rode into 
the river, the army followed, and he ordered 
Alexander Scrimger, son of Alexander Caron, to 
charge the enemy, which he did so gallantly, 
that many being killed, the rest betook them- 
selves to a precipitate flight. The King pursued 
them through all Moray, and at the Stock-foord 
above Beaulie, followed them into Ross ; some 
were apprehended and punished, and others found 
shelter from inaccessible mountains and rocks. 
This resolute action, in the beginning of his 
reign, rendered the remainder of it peaceable. 
(Wint. Major. Buck.). 

King Malcolm IV. was a Prince of too mild 
and peaceable a disposition for the time in which 
he lived ; and suffered the English to rob him of 
those counties in England, which his predecessors 
had possessed for some generations. This made 
his own subjects contemn his authority, and dis- 
turb his reign; Somerled (Somharle MacGil- 
bhride) Thane of Argyle and the Isles, was 
reduced by Gilchrist (ancestor of the Ogilvies) 
Earl of Angus; the same Earl defeated Mac- 



EARL GILCHRIST CHASED OVER THE GRAMPIANS. 113 

Dowal Lord of Galloway. But the Moravienses, 
or people of Moray, were not so easily reduced ; 
these, under the command of (Gildomknich) Gil- 
dominie, laid waste the neighbouring countries, 
and so little regarded the Royal authority, that 
they hanged the heralds sent to require them to 
lay down their arms. Earl Gilchrist was sent to 
reduce them, but was defeated and chased over 
the Grampian Mountains. These insults upon 
authority, and the cries of his people, roused the 
indolent King. About the year 1160, he marched 
with a powerful army, and found the enemy on 
the Moor of Urquhart near the Spey, ready to 
give him battle. Having passed the river, the 
noblemen in his army reconnoitred the enemy, 
and found 'them flushed with their late victory, 
and become desperate by rebellion. To fight 
against such men, and under a Prince of no 
military character, would make the event doubt- 
ful ; and should they succeed, the victory would 
only destroy their fellow subjects, and weaken 
the force of the kingdom. Wherefore, they ad- 
vised the King to promise the rebels, that, upon 
their submission, all their lives should be spared. 
The rebels finding the King's army superior, and 
resolute ; and considering their own crime was 
such, as, if defeated, left them no room to hope 
for favour, they accepted the King's offer, and 
laid down their arms. The King performed his 

promise to them ; but in regard that they were, 
VOL. in. 8 



114 FEW OF THE NAME OF MOKAY IN THE PROVINCE. 

as Buchanan says, " Homines inquieto semper 
ingenio," of a turbulent and unpeaceable disposi- 
tion, he, with the advice of his nobles, ordained 
that every family in Moray, that was engaged in 
this rebellion, should, in a limited time, remove 
out of Moray into other countries, where posses- 
sions would be assigned to them ; and that people 
of such countries should be placed in Moray. 
For performance of this, they gave hostages ; 
and at the time appointed, transplanted them- 
selves, some into the northern, but the greater 
number into the southern countries. 

Our historians say that there was here an 
obstinate Battle, in which the Moray men were 
(pene internecionem) almost totally cut off, and 
strangers brought into their place. But the ac- 
count given in the Register of Paisley (Yide 
Tunes' s Critic. Essay) is as I have here written, 
and seems more probable. The consequences con- 
firm it ; for the Moray men, at that time trans- 
planted into the south, did assume, and their 
posterity use the surname of Moray, and are 
numerous in all the counties southward to the 
English borders. In the northern counties, some 
retain the name of Moray, and others have taken 
that of Sutherland; but in the Province of Moray, 
there have been very few of the name of Moray, 
since the time of that action. I likewise incline 
to think, that as that time the Macintoshes, and 
probably the Roses of Geddes, came into Moray; 



BATTLE BETWEEN THE CLANCHATTANS AND CAMERONS. 115 

so the Calders and Innesses, whose ancestors 
were Moray men, but not concerned in that re- 
bellion, assumed surnames from their possessions. 
The next Battle or Fight, in order of time, does, 
I confess, as to the circumstances of it, depend 
on tradition ; but such as is unvaried. Buchanan, 
in vita Jac. I. mentions this fight, but out of the 
order of chronology, for it happened anno 1386 ; 
" A dis-union having arisen between the Clan- 
chattan and the Camerons, they fought with 
such obstinacy of courage and strength, that, 
while a great number of the Clanchattan was 
killed, the Camerons were nearly cut off to a 
man." The occasion of the conflict was as 
follows : The lands of Macintosh and Lochaber 
being possessed by the Camerons, the rents were 
seldom levied, but by force and in cattle. The 
Camerons, irritated by the poinding of their 
cattle, resolved to make reprisals, and marched 
into Badenoch about 400 men strong, commanded 
by Charles MacGilony. Macintosh informed of 
this, in haste called his friends and clan to meet 
together. The Macintoshes, MacPhersons, and 
Davidsons, soon made a force superior to the 
enemy ; but an unseasonable difference was like 
to prove fatal to them. It was agreed by all, 
that Macintosh, as Captain of the Clanchattan, 
should command the centre of their army ; but 
Cluney and Invernahavon contended about the 
command of the right wing. Cluney claimed it 



116 THE MACPHERSONS TOTALLY DEFEAT THE CAMERONS. 

as Chief of the ancient Clan Chattan, of which 
the Davidsons of Invernahavon were but a branch. 
Invernahavon pleaded, that to him, as the oldest 
branch, the right hand belonged, by the custom 
of Scottish Clans. The contest was spun out, 
till the enemy were at hand ; and then Macin- 
tosh, as umpire, imprudently gave it in favour of 
Invernahavon. The MacPhersons, in whose coun- 
try they were met, and who were as numerous 
as both the Macintoshes and the Davidsons, 
being greatly offended, withdrew as spectators. 
The conflict was very sharp, by the superior 
number of the Camerons; many of the Macin- 
toshes, and almost all the Davidsons were cut 
off. The MacPhersons could no longer bear to 
see their brave neighbours and friends over- 
powered. They rushed in upon the Camerons, 
and soon gave them a total defeat. The few 
that escaped, with their leader, were pursued 
from Invernahavon, the place of battle, 3 miles 
above Euthven in Badenoch, over the Eiver 
Spey; and Charles MacGilony was killed in a 
hill in Glenbenchir, which is still called Cor- 
Harlich, i.e. Charles's Hill (Hist. Macintosh). 

This Fight, in my opinion, gave occasion to the 
memorable conflict on the Inch of Perth, in pre- 
sence of the King and nobility anno 1396. Bucli., 
lib. x. Cap. 2 and 3 gives a particular account of 
it, but does not name the combatants. Boethius 
calls them "Clan Cattani et Clan Caii;" but 



BATTLE ON THE INCH OF PERTH. 117 

though we read of those of the name of Cay or 
Kay, in the Lowlands, they are never reckoned 
among the clans, nor had the Clan Chattan any 
intercourse with them. The combatants, thirty 
of a side, were the MacPhersons, properly Clan 
Chattan, and the Davidsons of Invernahavon, in 
Irish called Clan-Dhai, which is commonly 
sounded Clan-Cai; and our historians, ignorant 
of the Irish, made them a Clan different from, 
and at enmity with the Clan Chattan ; whereas 
they were a tribe of them. I mentioned above 
the rash judgment of Macintosh in their favour, 
giving them the right wing in battle, and Clunie's 
resentment of this injurious decision : after which 
decision, the MacPhersons and Davidsons, for ten 
years, miserably slaughtered one another. The 
judicious author of a MS. History of the Family 
of KilravocJc, says, That a contest about pre- 
cedency was the occasion of this conflict, and 
the fight at Perth was constructed a Koyal sen- 
tence in favour of the MacPhersons. I have 
mentioned this conflict, though it was not in 
Moray, because the combatants were of this 
Province ; and our historians have not sufficiently 
explained who they were, or what was the cause 
of the combat. -.. 

Although it may be reckoned a digression, I 
shall mention another Conflict, which was not 
within this Province, that I may rectify a mis- 
take in our history. Buchanan, in vita Jac. L, 



118 CONFLICT BETWEEN ANGUS DUBH AND ANGUS MOEAY. 

writes, " The King had set at liberty the two 
Anguses, Duffus and Moray, both robber-cap- 
tains. Then, turning their hatred against each 
other, and having met with an almost equal 
number of adherents (for each of them main- 
tained about 1200 thieves out of their plunder), 
the battle was so keenly contested, that scarce 
one was left to tell the tidings." The translator 
would make this a Conflict between the Duffs 
and the Moray s ; but it was anno 1427, betwixt 
Angus DubJij or Black Angus MacKay, ancestor 
to Lord Eae ; and Angus Moray of Pulrossie (son 
of Alexander Moray of Coulbin in Moray), at 
Drumnacoub near Tung in Strathnaver, where 
both the Angusses were killed. (MS. Hist, of 
Slither.) 

The next military Action, in order of time, was 
near the town of Elgin, anno 1452. When the 
Earl of Huntly was at the Battle of Brechin in 
May, 1452, Archibald Douglas, Earl of Moray, 
took advantage of it, entered the lands of Strath- 
bolgie, burnt the Castle of Huntley, and com- 
mitted many outrages through that lordship. 
The account of this stopped Huntley from im- 
proving his victory, and made him return in 
order to preserve his own lands. Douglas re- 
turned into Moray, and Huntley followed him 
with a considerable force, especially of cavalry ; 
Douglas with 600 foot, but few horses, stood on 
the heights of Whitefield, not daring to face 



BATTLE NEAR THE TOWN OF ELGIN. 119 

Huntly in the plains. This provoked the Gor- 
dons to plunder Douglas's lands, and finding that 
one half of the town of Elgin had joined Douglas, 
they burnt that half, which gave rise to the pro- 
verh, "Half done, as Elgin was half burnt." 
But in the evening, as a troop or two of the Gor- 
dons were spoiling the lands of Kirkhill in the 
parish of St. Andrews, a superior detachment of 
Douglas's men suddenly attacked, and drove them 
over Lossie, and some of them were killed in the 
bogs and fens, which occasioned this rhyme, 

What's come of thy men, thou Gordon so gay ? 
They're in the bogs of Dunkintie mowing the hay, &c. 

The Earl of Huntly, however, drove Douglas 
into the south, where he was killed in the year 
1455. It is the tradition of the country, that the 
half of the town of Elgin, at that time burnt, stood 
westward of the present town, and was never re- 
built; but the buildings were continued eastward to 
the precinct of Elgin College. And it is thought, 
that, at that time, the Earl of Moray gave to the 
town of Elgin the sixty Auchteen parts or (eight 
parts) of land near Pittenriech, to compensate 
the loss of burning the half of the town. The 
town enjoy these lands by immemorial possession, 
without any particular charter or right that I 
know of. But I incline to think that these were 
Castle lands, granted to the Earls of Moray as 
constables ; and that as, after Douglas, no Earl 
appears to have ofnicated as constable, or to have 



120 CONFLICT BETWEEN THE MACINTOSHES AND MUNROES. 

resided at Elgin, and the Earldom remained long 
in the hands of the King, the town's possession 
was fixed by prescription, and I find not that 
any of the subsequent Earls questioned it. (Buck. 
Hist, of Douglas}. 

A shameful and bloody conflict happened be- 
twixt the Macintoshes and Munroes in the year 
1454. The occasion was this : John Munroe, 
tutor of Fowles, in his return from Edin- 
burgh, rested upon a meadow in Strathardle, 
and both he and his servants falling asleep, the 
peevish owner of the meadow cut off the tails 
of his horses. This he resented, as the Turks 
would resent the cutting off their horses' tails, 
which they reckon a grievous insult. He re- 
turned soon with 350 men, spoiled Strathardle, 
and drove away their cattle. In passing by the 
Loch of Moy in Strathern he was observed. 
Macintosh, then residing in the Island of Moy, 
sent to ask a StiJce Raid, or StiJce CriecJi, i.e. a 
Road Collup ; a custom among the Highlanders, 
that, when a party drove any spoil of cattle 
through a gentleman's land, they should give 
him part of the spoil. Munroe offered what he 
thought reasonable, but not what was demanded ; 
Macintosh, irritated by some provoking words 
given to his messenger, convocated a body of 
men, pursued the Munroes, and at Clachnaharie 
near Inverness, they fought desperately. Many 
were killed on each side, among whom was the 



THE BATTLE OF CEAN-LOCH-LOCHIE. 121 

Laird of Macintosh ; John Munroe was wounded 
and lamed, and ever after called John Bacilach. 
The Munroes had great advantage of ground, by 
lurking among the rocks ; whilst the M'Intoshes 
were exposed to their arrows. How rude and 
barbarous was the spirit of men in those days ! 
And upon what trifling, nay shameful provoca- 
tions, did they butcher one another ! (Hist, of 
Lovat. Hist, of Macintosh). . 

The next, in order of time, was the Battle 
of Cean-Loch-Lochie in the year 1544. The 
minority of the infant Queen, and the disturb- 
ance raised in the south by the Queen mother 
and Cardinal Beaton, encouraged the High- 
landers to break loose, and to hope for impunity. 
Particularly the Clan Eanald became very un- 
ruly. Eanald, son of Donald Glas of Moidart, 
was sister's son of Hugh Lord Lovat; and the 
Clan Eanald, conceiving a prejudice against him 
much upon Lovat's account, dispossessed him, 
and put John MacKanald his cousin in posses- 
sion of the estate. Lovat resented this injustice, 
and repossessed his own nephew, but the unruly 
Clan dispossessed Eanald again, and laid waste a 
part of Lovat's lands in Glenelg. Then George 
Earl of Huntly, Lieutenant of the north, was 
ordered to march against the Clan Eanald, and 
to reduce them to a peaceable behaviour. He 
set out in the end of May, 1544, attended by the 
Macintoshes, Grants, and Frasers ; and when 



122 THE BATTLE OF BLAR-NAN-LEIN. 

they arrived in Lochaber, all differences were 
composed in a seemingly amicable way, by the 
mediation of the Earl of Argyle. Ranald was 
put in possession of the estate. Huntly returned 
home. The Macintoshes and Grants conveyed 
Lovat to Gloy, now called the Nine Mile Water, 
and offered to escort him into his own country. 
But Lovat, apprehending no danger, declined it ; 
and they marched home by Badenoch. Lovat 
soon came to see his error ; for at Letterfinlay, 
he was informed that the Clan Ranald were at 
hand, in full march, to intercept him. He des- 
patched Bean Clerach, with 50 men to secure an 
important pass; but Bean either losing his way, 
or playing the knave, kept out of danger. As 
Lovat came to the north end of Loch Lochie, the 
Clan Ranald appeared, coming down the hill from 
the west, about 500 in seven companies. Lovat 
had about 300 who all stript to the shirts, the 
day (July 2nd) being very hot. And hence the 
battle was called Blar-nan-Lein, i.e., the field of 
shirts. The fight was very obstinate, first with 
arrows, and next with sword and target. In the 
heat of action, Simon Master of Lovat came up 
with a few men, and rushed in to find his father ; 
but soon received a mortal wound. His father 
observing it became desperate, and both were 
killed. The fight- continued till night ; and tra- 
dition bears, that only four of the Frasers, and 
ten of the Clan Ranald, remained alive. 



THE BATTLE OF GLENLIVAT. 123 

Buchanan, and the MS. Account of Lovat' s 
Family, blame the Earl of Huntly for this bar- 
barous conflict ; that he had privately stirred up 
the Clan Eanald to intercept Lovat. The char- 
acter of that Earl, and the resentment of his 
treachery, long entertained by the Erasers, found 
a suspicion that he was guilty, and the author of 
the History of that family makes but a poor 
defence for him. One remarkable circumstance 
is observed by our historians, that 80 gentlemen 
of the Erasers, killed in this conflict, had left 
their wives pregnant, who all brought forth male 
children, which contributed much to recruit the 
Clan. (Buck., Hist, of Lovat, Hist, of Maclnt.) 

The Battle of Glenlivat was so called because 
it was fought in that Glen. It was likewise 
called the Battle of Altchonlachan, from a small 
brook of that name betwixt Glenlivat and Glen- 
rinnes, on the banks of which it was fought. 
The occasion of this battle was the Earl of 
Huntly, having basely murdered the Earl of 
Moray at Dunibristle anno 1592, became on that 
account odious to all Protestants. And he, with 
the Earls of Errol and Angus, entered into a 
conspiracy against both Church and State, and 
invited the King of Spain to invade the kingdom. 
The Church at length excommunicated, and the 
King (unwillingly) forfeited these noblemen, and 
gave commission to the Earl of Argyle, a youth 
of 19 years of age, and of no military skill, to 



124 THE BATTLE OF GLENLIVAT. 

reduce them. The Earl of Athole, Lords Forbes 
and Lovat, the MacNeils, MacLeans, MacKenzies, 
Macintoshes, Grants, Munroes, Irvines, and the 
Lesleys of Balquhan were summoned to join 
Argyle, and the King promised to follow him in 
person with another army. The rebel Lords 
were not afraid. They knew the King's favour 
for them, and that he would make no haste. 
They also knew Argyle' s want of experience, 
and that many in his army were Eoman Catholics, 
and would not heartily promote the Protestant 
interest, and that all his army were a raw Militia. 
Wherefore they prepared a body of horse, all 
gentlemen, and some field pieces. They likewise 
corrupted the Grants and Campbell of Lochinel. 

Argyle marched in the beginning of September, 
1594, and on the 27th laid siege to the Castle of 
Ruthven in Badenoch. But the MacPhersons, 
Huntly's vassals, defended it so bravely that he 
soon raised the siege, and marching through 
Strathspey came to Drummin on 2nd October. 
The Earls of Huntly and Errol (for Angus had 
not come up) were that day at Auchindun. 
Argyle's council advised him to wait for the 
King, at least till the Erasers and Mackenzies 
should join them, and till the Irvines, Forbeses, 
and Lesleys should come up with their horse, 
and make a balance against the enemy's horse. 
But upon the enemy's approaching, October 3rd, 
he determined to fight. The numbers are not 



THE BATTLE OF GLENLIVAT. 125 

agreed upon. Some give Argyle 10,000 and 
Huntly but 900. Straloch gives Huntly 1,320. 
Calderwood makes Huntly's army 1,400 and 
Argyle 's 5,000. Huntly and Errol could raise 
a far greater number. And considering the five 
clans that had not come up to Argyle, though 
the other clans had made 500 each, which 
certainly they did not, they would not make 
5,000. The field of battle was the declivity of 
a hill betwixt Glenlivat and Glenrinnes. The 
Macintoshes and MacLeans made Argyle's right 
wing; the Grants, MacNeils, and MacGregors 
the left; and the Campbells, &c., the centre. 
Huntly's field pieces, which many had never seen 
before, put the Highlanders into disorder, and his 
horses rushing in increased it. Campbell of 
Lochinel (whose brother Argyle had put to death 
for murdering Campbell of Calder anno 1592, 
and who himself was Argyle's nearest heir) had 
wrote to Huntly to point his artillery against the 
yellow standard. This was done, and Lochinel 
falling, all his men fled. (Calderw.) John Grant 
of Gartinbeg, Huntly's vassal, had concerted 
that the Grants, whom he commanded, should 
retreat how soon the action began, and they 
did so. (Hist, of Gord.). Thus the centre and 
the left wing were broken by treachery. The 
right wing stood firm after the rest had fled, and 
retreated with order and safety ; and MacQuaire 
observes that had they been sustained they had 



126 THE BATTLE OF AULDEARN. 

certainly carried the victory. Argyle attempted 
in vain to rally his men. The victory was com- 
plete. On Argyle's side 500 were killed, besides 
MacNeil of Bara, Lochinel, and his brother. On 
the other side Errol was wounded ; Sir Patrick 
Gordon of Auchindun, Huntly's uncle, and 
Gordon of Gight, with twelve more, were killed ; 
and many more were wounded. 

The King, in his usual dissimulation, was glad 
of Argyle's defeat, and jested him upon it. Gordon 
of Straloch, in his account of this battle, says, 
" On the fourth night after the King's return I 
saw Lennox, Huntly, and Balquhan at supper 
privately in my father's house, which could not 
be without the King's knowledge." And Burnet 
of Crimond, in his MS. history, declares " that 
he saw among Huntly's papers a private remis- 
sion to him for the Battle of Glenlivat, granted 
in that same year, 1594." All these circum- 
stances considered, it was no wonder that Argyle 
was defeated. 

I come now to give some account of the Battle 
of Aldern, Montrose having, on the 2nd of Feb., 
1645, in the night surprised the Campbells at 
Inverlochie in Lochaber, and thereby defeated 
them, wrote a vaunting letter to King Charles I., 
which he thus concludes " Give me leave, after 
I have reduced this country to obedience, and 
conquered from Dan to Beersheba, to say to your 
Majesty, as David's General to his Master, Come 



THE BATTLE OF AULDEARN. 127 

thou thyself, lest this country be called by my 
name." This vain letter made the King break 
off the treaty of Uxbridge, which proved his 
ruin. (Welw.) 

Montrose marched into Moray, and was soon 
joined by Lord Gordon, the Earl of Aboyne, Lord 
Napier, and others. The Covenanters, in the 
meantime, had called over 1,000 of their troops 
from Ireland to join their raw Militia, and Baillie 
remaining in the south, Hurry marched into the 
north, and came to Inverness, understanding that 
Montrose was reinforced with 1,000 foot and 200 
horse of the Gordons, and was marching back 
from Strathbogie. Hurry called in the assistance 
of the Frasers, MacKenzies, Bosses, Sutherlands, 
and Brodies, and made an army of about 3,500 
foot and 400 horse. Montrose's army consisted 
of about 3,000 foot and 400 horse, made up of 
Gordons, MacDonalds, MacPhersons, and Irish. 
On May 4th, 1645, they engaged near the village 
of Aldern, immediately above the house of Kin- 
nudie. The fight was for a little obstinate and 
dubious, till Lord Gordon, bravely charging with 
his horse, Major Drummond, called the Croivner, 
who commanded Hurry's horse, wheeling about 
unskilfully, broke the foot ranks of their own 
men, and then Lord Gordon soon put them to a 
precipitate retreat. To this bad conduct of 
Drummond the defeat was greatly owing, for 
which he was tried at Inverness and shot. About 



128 THE BATTLE OF CROMDALE. 

800 of the Covenanters were killed, among whom 
were Campbell of Lawers and Sir Hugh and 
Gideon Hurrays. The loss on Montrose's side 
was considerable, and among the killed was 
William MacPherson of Invereschie. This, and 
the two following victories at Alford, too much 
elated Montrose, who understood better how to 
gain than how to improve a victory. This ap- 
peared at the total defeat at Philliphaugh, Sept. 
13th this year, after which he could not bring 
any force into the field. 

The Battle of Cromdale, anno 1690, comes 
next to be described. The death of the Viscount 
Dundee in the Battle of Killiecrankie, July 16th, 
1689, was the ruin of King James's affairs in 
Scotland. Colonel Canon, with 3,000 men, sur- 
prised the Earl of Angus's regiment at Dunkeld 
on September, 1689, but the brave Colonel 
Cleland, with 1,200, made him retire, with no 
small loss both of men and of reputation. Canon 
retired into Lochaber, and in Spring, 1690, 
Colonel Buchan, with about forty officers, was 
sent over from Ireland and assumed the com- 
mand. In the beginning of April the rebel chiefs 
had a meeting. Some inclined to capitulate, 
but Sir Ewan Cameron diverted this, hoping that 
another campaign would retrieve their affairs. 
And till the seed time should be closed, and 
greater numbers should be raised, Colonel iBuchan, 
with about 1,500 of MacLeans, MacDonalds, 



BURNING OF THE HOUSE OF EDINGLASSIE. 129 

MacPhersons, Camerons, and Grants of Glen- 
moriston, marched towards the Lowlands to 
amuse and fatigue the King's troops. In 
marching through Strathspey they plundered 
the country, and in passing towards Strathbogie 
they burnt the house of Edinglassie. But Mr. 
Gordon made severe reprisals; for, in their return, 
he seized 18 of their number and hanged them on 
the trees of his garden. [See Vol. I. p. 181.] 

By this time Sir Thomas Livingstone had 
come to Inverness with a battalion of foot, six 
troops of dragoons, and two of horse. The rebels, 
informed of this, returned towards the Highlands, 
and Livingstone resolved to intercept them. Con- 
ducted by some gentlemen of the Grants, he 
marched on the night of April 30th with the 
horse and dragoons, leaving the foot to follow. 
By the dawning of the morning May 1, 1690, he 
came to Dairirade, or top of the hill above Castle 
Grant, and, that he might not be discovered, he 
was directed down the valley of Auchinarrow, to 
cross Spey below Dellachaple. The enemy had 
come to Cromdale April 30th, and choosing to 
keep near the hill, encamped that night near 
Lethindie, and had some advanced guards near 
the Kirk of Cromdale, which guards observed the 
troops fording the river, and alarmed the camp. 
This moved the General to mount some of the 
Grants on dragoon horses, and all the horse and 

dragoons, led by these gentlemen, rode smartly 
VOL. in. 9 



130 UTTER DEFEAT AT THE FOOT OF CROMDALE HILL. 

(the distance being about a mile, and a part of 
the road concealed by a birch wood) and surprised 
the enemy before they could all get into their 
clothes, who fled precipitately about a half mile, 
many of them quite naked ; and, at the foot of the 
hill of Cromdale, faced about and made a faint 
defence, but were soon routed ; and had not the 
hill been so steep that the horse could not pursue, 
few would have escaped. There were above 100 
killed and about 60 were made prisoners, who 
were found in the Castle of Lethindie and the 
mill. It deserves to be remarked that Colonel 
MacDonald of Keppach, who was ever keen for 
plunder, but never once fought for his King, 
would not encamp with the other rebels, but with 
his men quartered in Garvlin, half a mile distant, 
and thereby escaped without loss. Such of the 
rebels as climbed up the hill could not be pursued. 
But a party of Camerons and MacLeans, who 
next day crossed the river, were pursued, and on 
the Muir of Granish near Aviemore some were 
killed, and the rest taking shelter in Craigelachie, 
and Keppach, who, with their banditti, attempted 
to reduce the Castle of Lochinelan in Eothie- 
murchus, were by that laird and his tenants beat 
off with loss. 

The Eebellion in the year 1715 is fresh in the 
memory of some yet living. On November 13th 
that year, the rebels at Preston, in England, 
were forced to surrender ; on the same day the 



THE TOWN AND CASTLE OF INVERNESS SURRENDERED. 131 

Battle of Sheriffmuir was fought, which in the 
consequences of it was a complete victory. And 
likewise on that day the town and Castle of 
Inverness were surrendered. On Saturday, Nov. 
12th, Arthur Eose, brother to Kilravock, a bold 
and daring man, with Robert Eose, brother to 
Blackhills, and twelve chosen men, undertook to 
surprise the main guard in the Tolbooth. They 
were in the twilight conducted by one of the 
rebels, who promised to get the door opened, 
upon which they might rush in. The villain got 
access, but loudly alarmed the guard, and Arthur 
Eose, pressing to get in, was bruised betwixt the 
door and the door-cheek, and shot through the 
body, of which he died in a few hours. This so 
enraged Kilravock that he summoned the Gover- 
nor to surrender, else he would set the town in 
fire in a few hours. Sir John MacKenzie of Coul, 
Governor, knowing Kilravock's resoluteness, know- 
ing likewise that Lovat, with the Frasers from 
the Aird, and a battalion of Grants from Strath- 
spey, were approaching, he seized all the boats 
on the river and transported his garrison into Eoss 
early in the morning of November 13th. Then 
Kilravock and Culloden garrisoned the town for 
the Government. Thus, was the town of Inver- 
ness reduced by Kilravock, although others who 
had no share in it assumed the praise. 

The Battle of Culloden, on the 16th of April, 
1746, is so recent and fresh in our memories, that 



132 THE BATTLE OF CULLODEN. 

I shall take no further notice of it, than to ob- 
serve, that it has broken the charm of the broad 
sword and target, and may convince the High- 
landers, that, in the way of fighting now practised, 
their undisciplined, though brave militia, cannot 
stand before well disciplined troops, conducted 
by a proper general." 5 ' 

I now come to give some account of the Mili- 
tary ways within this Province. It was the cus- 
tom of the Eomans to make military ways or 
roads, in all conquered countries, for the more 
easy communication between their colonies and 
forts. Xiphil. says of Severus, " He invaded Cale- 
donia, and, in his progress, endured the heaviest 
labour in cutting his passage through woods, 
levelling obstructions, in raising mounds through 
marshes, and in making bridges on rivers." There 
are clear vestiges of those ways in the Lothians 

* The Graves at Culloden Mow. The graves or trenches in 
which the bodies of the unfortunate Highlanders were buried 
after the Battle of Culloden are being cared for by the pro- 
prietor of the estate of Culloden. Formerly the graves were 
distinguishable in the level greensward at the roadside by the 
slightly raised sod, but stones bearing the names of the clans 
have just been erected at the head of each trench. On one 
stone is inscribed the names of the clans "M'Gillivray, M'Lean, 
and M'Lachlan;" and there are separate stones for "Clan 
Stuart of Appin," " Clan Cameron," and " Clan Mackintosh." 
Two graves are marked "Clans mixed." At the abortive 
"great cairn," a Slab has been placed bearing the following 
inscription: "The Battle of Culloden was fought on this 
moor, 16th April, 1746. The graves of the gallant High- 
landers who fought for Scotland and Prince Charlie are marked 
by the names of their clans." (ED.). 



GENERAL WADE AND HIS ROADS. 133 

and Fife, particularly one that runs from Crail to 
Stirling Bridge, along the coast. 

It was in the year 1724, that General Wade, 
commissioned by his Majesty, to inquire into 
some disorders committed in the Highlands, pro- 
jected the roads that are now so useful. Next 
year they were begun. The first Road was from 
Stirling to Inverness and Fort Augustus. This 
road runs in two branches ; one by Dunkeld and 
Blair of Athole ; the other by Dunblain, Glen- 
almond, and Aberfeldie, and they meet at Delna- 
kerdich, and enter this Province at Dalwhinnie, 
where the road again branches into two ; the one 
leads 6 miles to Caitulack, 3 to Gavamore, and 
12 to Fort Augustus ; the other branch is 9 miles 
to Ruthven, 10 to Aviemore, 10 to Corribruch, 
and 10 to Inverness. At the same time, the 
road from Inverness to Fort William was begun. 
From Inverness to the General's Lodge are 12 
miles, about 7 of these are upon the bank of 
Loch Ness, a part of which, called the Black 
Rock, was a very high precipice hanging over 
the loch ; here, for almost half a mile, the rock 
was blown up with powder, and the miners were 
hung by ropes in boring into it. Now the road 
is beautiful and safe, secured from the precipice 
below by a wall 3 feet high. From the General's 
Lodge to Fort Augustus, are 12 miles ; thence to 
Leterfinlay 12 ; and thence to Fort William 12 
miles. In the year 1753, the road from Fort 






134 THE ROADS CONSTRUCTED BY GENERAL WADE. 

George in Ardersier to Perth was begun ; it runs 
from the Fort to Kilravock 4 miles ; to the river 
of Ern 7 miles ; to Castle Grant 5 miles ; to the 
river of Avon 6 miles ; to Corrigarf 7 miles ; and 
thence by Castletoun of Braemar, Glenshee, and 
Blair of Gourie to Perth. There are likewise 
roads from Fort Augustus and from Inverness to 
Bernera in Glenelg. 

These roads are from 20 to 24 feet broad, run 
in straight lines where the hills permit, are annu- 
ally repaired, have aqueducts and side drains, 
great stones are set up on end on the road side, 
as guides in snow or mist. And besides bridges 
on rivers, every brook and rivulet has a bridge 
over it. In a word, this is a work that might 
have added lustre to the Eoman name. By 
means of these roads, soldiers have a straight and 
easy route. Artillery is carried into all the forts. 
Waggons, coaches, and all kinds of wheel carriages 
can pass from south to north. The weekly Posts 
make quick despatch. Commerce and inter- 
course are made easy. Convenient lodging is 
found at every stage, and the Highlands will be 
gradually civilized and improved. 

I shall now conclude this part, with an account 
of some ancient customs, chiefly Military, observed 
in this and other Provinces. 

Anciently, every chief of a clan was, by his 
dependants, considered as a little Prince, not 
absolute, but directed by the gentlemen of his 



CLANS HAD THEIR HEREDITARY OFFICERS AND ENSIGNS. 135 

clan. As the Premores Regni, and all who held 
off the King in capite, were his Grand Council or 
Parliament; so the gentlemen and heads of fami- 
lies, were to the chief, by whose advice all things 
that regarded the clan in common, or particular 
families, were determined, differences were re- 
moved, injuries were punished or redressed, law 
suits prevented, declining families supported, and 
peace or war with other clans agreed upon. 

Young chiefs and heads of families were re- 
garded, according to their military or peaceable 
dispositions. If they revenged a clan quarrel, by 
killing some of the enemy, or carrying off their 
cattle, and laying their lands waste, they were 
highly esteemed, and great hopes were conceived 
of them. But if they failed in such attempts, 
they were little respected ; yea, despised if they 
did not incline to them. 

Clans had their military officers, not arbitrarily 
or occasionally chosen, but fixed and perpetual. 
The chief was Colonel or principal commander. 
The oldest Cadet was Lieutenant-colonel, and 
commanded the right wing. The youngest 
Cadet commanded the rear. Every head of a 
distinct family was captain of his own tribe. 

Every clan had an ensign or standard bearer, 
which office was at first conferred on some one 
who had behaved gallantly, and usually it became 
hereditary in his family, and was supported by a 
gratuity, or a small, annual salary. 



136 EVERY CLANSMAN HAD HIS BARD AND PIPER. 

Every chief usually had his Bard, Poet, or 
Orator, whose office it was (as among the Ger- 
mans) in time of war to excite and animate them, 
by reciting the brave actions of the clan, and 
particularly of their ancestors and chiefs, as 
Lucan writes: "Likewise, ye Minstrels, who 
celebrate in strains of endless praise the brave 
warriors who died in battle ye have poured 
forth the numerous songs of the Bard, free from 
the toils and dangers of war." 

At marriages they recited the genealogy of the 
married couple, and sung an Epithalamium ; and 
at burials they mournfully sung the elegy of the 
chief or great man. 

Their military music was the great pipe. The 
office of Piper was often hereditary, and had a 
small salary annexed to it. And the pipers of 
several clans had a chief piper who governed 
them; and schools in which they were instructed. 

The most of their time being employed in mili- 
tary exploits, or in hunting, every clan had a stated 
place of rendezvous, where they met when called 
by their chief. The manner of convocating them 
on a sudden emergent, was by the fiery cross. 

The chief ordered two men to be despatched, 
one to the upper, and the other to the lower end 
of his lands, each carrying a pole or staff, with a 
cross tree in the upper end of it, and that end 
burnt black. As they came to any village or 
house, they cried aloud the military cry of the 



THE DISTINGUISHING WAR-CRY OF EACH CLAN. 137 

clan, and all who heard it armed quickly, and 
repaired to the place of rendezvous. If the run- 
ner became fatigued, another must take the pole. 

Every clan had a peculiar Cry of War, by hear- 
ing which they were convocated to the place of 
general meeting. The cry of the MacDonalds 
was Freiclij i.e. heather; of the MacPhersons, 
Craig-ubhie; of the MacKenzies, TullicJc-ard; of 
the Grants, Craig-Elachie. And this was the 
cry of him that carried the fiery cross. 

Every clan had a distinguishing badge, whereby 
they might be known, as they had no military 
habit or livery. Their badges were natural and 
plain (not ribbons, feathers, or such gew-gaws), 
which they wore in their bonnets. The Mac- 
Donalds wore a bush of heather; the Macin- 
toshes a holly branch, the Grants a fir bush, &c. 

Upon an expedition, they much regarded omens. 
An armed man meeting them, was a good omen. 
If a woman barefooted crossed the road before 
them, they seized her, and fetched blood from her 
forehead. If a deer, fox, hare, or any beast of 
game appeared, and they did not kill it, it was 
an unlucky omen, &c. 

The Cuid Oidche, i.e. a night's provision was 
paid by many tenants. In hunting, or going on 
an expedition, the tenant who lived near the 
hill, furnished his master and his followers a 
night's entertainment, with brawn for his dogs. 
This is now converted into a stated rent. 



138 DERIVATION OF THE DRUIDS. 



PAKT VI. 

THE ECCLESIASTIC HISTORY OF MOEAY. 
SECTION I. THE HEATHEN OB PAGAN CHURCH. 

TT cannot be doubted, that, in this Province, as 
-*- indeed in all Britain, Druidism was the 
mode of the heathenish religion. The remain- 
ing vestiges of their places of worship, and of 
their superstitious customs, put this beyond 
question. Both sacred and profane history tes- 
tify, that, before temples were built, the ancient 
places of worship were in shady groves, under 
spreading trees, and often in high places. 

The word Druid comes from the Greek Apu9 an 
oak, or any wood ; or from the Celtic Deru or 
Dru an oak ; for they worshipped in groves, and 
under spreading trees. Druid was the general 
name of the sect or order ; and their literati were 
divided into priests, vates, and bards, who were 
their divines, philosophers, poets, orators, physi- 
cians, and judges in all causes. The grand arti- 
cles of their religion were : 

I. To worship the deity. 

II. To abstain from all evil. And, 



THE CHIEF ARTICLES OF THE DRUIDICAL RELIGION. 130 

III. To be intrepid. This last was enforced 
by the belief of the immortality of the soul, and 
of a future state. (Diog. Laer.). 

They were the instructors of youth in the 
mysteries of religion, philosophy, anct morality, 
&c. They kept their academies only in the 
sacred groves, retired from the noise of the 
world, and undisturbed from the hurry of busi- 
ness. 

They were called Semnothei, for their devo- 
tion (Suidas). And acknowledged one only 
eternal and self- existent God, whom they wor- 
shipped without any images or statues. They 
owned the immortality of the soul, and a future 
state of retribution ; they taught a warm devotion, 
to God, and the strictest virtue and equity among 
men ; they offered sacrifices and oblations daily, 
and used ablutions and purifications. In a word, 
the Druids were at first held in great veneration r 
and much admired for their piety, virtue, and 
morality; but afterwards they degenerated greatly. 
By the Greeks and Eomans they were led into 
polytheism, gross idolatry, superstition, human 
sacrifices, &c. 

They committed no part of their religious 
mysteries, or natural philosophy, to writing ; but 
the bards turned these into clenching rhymes, 
and repeated them on all proper occasions. 
Moral precepts called Tegasg na Sard, and 
FogJilam na Filidh, i.e. " The instructions of 



140 DRTJIDICAL ALTARS AND PRIESTS. 

bards and philosophers," are to this day repeated 
in the Highlands by old men. 

The transmigration of souls, taught, though 
not at first, by the Druids, seems to have given 
rise to a notion among many ignorant and super- 
stitious people, viz., that when one dies of a 
consumption, the fairies steal the soul out of the 
body before death, and animate some other per- 
son with it. 

Possibly the way in which the Druids explained 
the immortality of the soul, and a future state, 
occasioned the common saying, "that at death 
one passes into the Saoghal hal, i.e. the " Yonder 
World," fancying, as the Americans do, that 
souls departed, go to pleasant regions beyond 
the mountains. 

The Druid priests were the ordinary minis- 
ters of religion, and an arch-priest, chosen 
out of the college of priests, presided in their 
meetings. Their worship was either stated and 
ordinary, or annual and more solemn. Their 
stated worship consisted in sacrifices and obla- 
tions, performed in pleasant groves, and com- 
monly on a level plot of ground; upon which 
they erected one or more circles of stones, all on 
end. And in the centre stood the altar, which 
was a broad stone laid horizontal on four stones 
as pillars; and on this, sacrifices were offered. 
No sacrifice, however, was to be made without 
leaves or branches of the mistletoe; and before 



DRUIDICAL CIRCLES AT CLAFFERNIS AND DURRIS. 141 

they entered the circle to offer, they made a tour 
about it sun-ways ; and the like they did when 
they had done offering. 

These Circles, or remains of them, are found in 
every country. I cannot hut mention the Circle 
at Claffernis in the Isle of Lewis ; it consists of 
12 stones, each 7 feet high, and 2 hroad; at 
south-east and west, 3 stones are erected in a 
line without the circle ; to the north point is a 
lane, 19 stones in a line on each side, 6 feet 
distant from one another, the lane 8 feet broad ; 
one stone stands in the entry of the lane ; and in 
the centre of the circle, a stone 13 feet high, cut 
in the form of a rudder (Mr. Martin). The 
circle denotes the sun; the 12 stones, the 12 
signs ; the stones to south-east and west, the 
cardinal points; the 19 stones in the lane, the 
lunar cycle ; the stone in the entry closes the 
cycle, and then it begins anew in the other line; 
the rudder shews, that the temple was dedicated 
to Anvona the deity of the sea. (Toland.) 

In Durris, at the end of Loch Ness, is a temple 
of three concentric circles ; the altar stone is 
taken away, but near to where it stood is a hal- 
lowed stone, either a laver to wash in, or a basin 
to receive the blood of the sacrifices ; a lane leads 
through the circles to the centre ; in the area of 
the outer circle, probably stood the spectators ; 
in the second the offerers ; and at the altar, the 
priest and servants. 



142 ALL PAGAN PLACES OF WORSHIP CIRCULAR. 

Both the true worshippers of God, and in imita- 
tion of them the superstitious, at first worshipped 
in open fields. 

The Naos and Temene of the ancient Greeks, 
were but allotments of ground, and sacred en- 
closures for worship, and not covered houses. I 
have seen these in corn fields left untilled, be- 
cause they were supposed sacred. The heathen 
places of worship were circular or round, because 
dedicated to the sun, the emblem of their deity. 
The Highlanders call them Clachan, i.e. a collec- 
tion of stones : and hence they call a Church 
Clachan, as Clachan Michel, Clachan Muire, i.e. 
Michael's Church, Mary's Church. The altar 
stone they call Crom Leac, i.e. the bowing, or 
worshipping stone ; and the priest Cromfear, i.e. 
the worshipper. The Britains called the sacred 
grove, wherein the circle stood, LJiwyn; and 
hence probably, they call a Church Lhan. And 
the Saxon KirJc or Circ, comes from Circus a 
circle. 

The tour about the circles, is called Deas- 
Soil, from Deas the south, and Soil the sun, 
q.d. south about with the sun. I have often 
seen at marriages and churching of women, 
and burials, such a tour made about the Church. 
This ceremony was not peculiar to the Druids. 
We find it at the funeral pile of Pallas. 
Their more solemn worship was at their high 
festivals ; particularly in the month of March, on 



DRUIDICAL CAIRNS OR HEAPS OF STONES. 143 

May-day, at Midsummer, and at Hallow Eve. 
These festivals were celebrated on high or con- 
spicuous places, where they erected Cairns or 
heaps of Stones, on which they kindled great 
fires, and offered sacrifices. The fire was forced 
(and accounted sacred) by rubbing one piece of 
dry wood against another. All the families in 
the neighbourhood extinguished their fires ; and 
upon paying a small acknowledgement to the 
priest, they received of the cairn fire. 

Their cairns were very different from the cairns 
or heaps of stones on high ground, gathered out 
of their corn fields, and cast loose in a heap; and 
different likewise from the small cairns near to 
common roads, where men have been buried, or 
coffins laid down at burials, that the bearers 
might rest. These are called Leacadh na Marbh, 
i.e. " Stones erected in memory of the dead." 
The Druid cairns were great and broad heaps of 
stones, hedged in, all round with big stones 
placed on end in the earth, and joined close. In 
some of these cairns, another close circle of such 
stones was placed in the middle of the cairn ; and 
the altar stone, one or more, on the top within 
the inner circle. Such a cairn, pretty entire, is 
to be seen on the Moor to the east of Avie- 
more in Strathspey. Cairns are likewise on the 
top of the hill of Dunevan in Calder ; to the east 
of Gateside betwixt Elgin and Forres, on the 
muir of Urquhart in Moray ; and in many other 



1 44 DRUIDICAL CAIRN-FIRES AND FESTIVALS. 

places. Bound the great cairn, there were often 
Tumuli, or small heaps, in which, in the south, 
have been found urns containing the ashes of 
burnt bodies ; possibly the like might be found in 
this country. These cairns were so placed as to 
be within view of one another. The Druid who 
officiated at the cairn fire, was called Carneach. 
The fire was of diy wood preserved for that use ; 
it was an expiatory punishment for criminals to 
stand for a limited time betwixt two contiguous 
fires, or to walk barefooted thrice over the burn- 
ing ashes of a cairn fire. Mr. Toland thinks, 
that Silius Italicus alludes to this custom, when 
he makes Equanus the Sabine to pass through the 
fire (if unhurt, it was a good omen, otherwise a 
bad) on Mount Soracte in Italy, on whose top 
was Apollo's cairn. Possibly the trial by ordeal, 
practised long in this country, had its rise from 
this custom of passing through the cairn fire. 

I shall now mention such vestiges of the Druid 
cairn fires and festivals, as I have observed in 
this country. One of their great solemnities 
was in the month of March, when they gathered 
and consecrated the mistletoe of the oak. On 
the 6th of the March moon, a priest, clad in 
white, climbed the tree, and cut the mistletoe 
with a golden bill, and others in white, stand- 
ing round, received it ; after which they offered 
at their cairn fires with mirth. (Plin.) In 
the increase of the March moon, the High- 



BELTAN DAY ; AND FREAKS ON MAUNDAY THURSDAY. 145 

landers cut withs of the woodbine that clings 
about the oak. These they twist into a wreath 
or circle, and carefully preserve it till the next 
March. And when children are troubled with 
hectic fevers, or when any one is consumptive, 
they make them pass through this circle thrice, 
by putting it over their heads and conveying it 
down about their bodies. The like they do to 
cattle in some distempers. This I have often seen. 

Another grand solemnity was on May day. On 
the first of May, they offered sacrifice for the pre- 
servation of their cattle ; and that day was held 
sacred to Pan or Baal, and was commonly called 
La Baal-Tine, corruptly " Beltan day," i.e. the 
day of Baal's fire. Clear remains of this super- 
stition I have been present at when a young boy. 

Upon Maundy Thursday, the several herds cut 
staves of service wood about three feet long, and 
put two cross sticks into clefts in one end of the 
staff. These staves they laid up till the first of 
May. On that day several herds met together ; 
every one had two eggs, and a bannock or thick 
cake of oat meal crusted over with the yolks of 
eggs. They raised a pile of dry wood or sticks 
on a hillock, and striking fire with a flint they 
kindled the pile ; then they made the Deas-Soil 
thrice round the fire ; after which they roasted 
their eggs, and eat them with a part of the 
bread. The rest of the bread they brought 

home, to be eaten by the family; and having 
VOL. in. 10 



146 MAY-DAY, MID-SUMMER, AND HALLOW-EVE. 

adorned the heads of their staves with wild 
herbs, they fixed them on the tops, or ahove the 
doors of their several cots ; and this they fancied 
would preserve the cattle from diseases till next 
May. 

In the Highlands, the first day of May is still 
called La Baal-tine. In the armory, a priest is 
called Belec, probahly from Baal : and when one 
is in great danger, he is said to be Edir da theine 
Bheil, i.e. " between two fires of Baal," alluding 
to the punishment above mentioned. 

The Mid-summer solemnity was celebrated in 
honour of Ceres. They made the Deas-Soil 
about their fields of corn, with burning torches 
of wood in their hands, to obtain a blessing on 
their corns. This I have often seen, more indeed 
in the Lowlands than in the Highlands. On 
Mid-summer eve, they kindle fires near their corn 
fields, and walk round them with burning torches. 

The like solemnity was kept on the eve of the 
first of November, as a thanksgiving for the safe 
ingathering of the produce of the fields. This, 
I am told, but have not seen it, is observed in 
Buchan and other countries, by having Hallow- 
eve fires kindled on some rising ground. 

In all these solemnities they offered sacrifices, 
and made the Deas-Soil round their fires. It 
cannot be doubted that they had sacrifices 
of various sorts, as precatory, to obtain bles- 
sings ; gratulatory, to shew their thankfulness ; 



CUSTOMS OF THE CELTS, GAULS, AND DRUIDS. 147 

and expiatory, to atone for their sins. It appears 
from Lucan, that the Celts and Gauls used 
human sacrifices. 

Caesar, Pliny, and Tacitus assure us, that the 
Druids used such sacrifices. What creatures 
they used in sacrifice, or what particular cere- 
monies, I have not learned. No doubt they used 
washings and purgations, and clean clothes, as 
other people did. J3neas would not touch the 
Penates or the Sacra, before he washed. The 
Scots Highlanders, not only put on clean 
clothes on the Sabbath day, as others do ; but in 
the morning of that day, they wash (not in the 
house, but Flumine vivo) in running water, and 
they call it Uisg Domhnich, i.e. " Aqua Dominica." 

The Druid priests were judges in all causes, 
religious, civil, and criminal ; and were exempted 
from attending war, paying taxes, &c. Their 
authority was great, their sentence final, and the 
contumacious were excluded from the Sacra, and 
pronounced profane. This punishment was so 
severe, that all avoided the company of the in- 
terdicted. No one would converse with them ; 
they could enjoy no offices, nor receive honours. 
Caesar says, In Gaul the Druids, at a certain 
season of the year, met in a consecrated place, " in 
finibus Carnutum," and there decided controver- 
sies. This place was Chartres Civitas Carnutum, 
so called no doubt from the Druid cairns. 

Their principal seats in Britain were, the Isles 



148 DBUIDICAL JUDGES, COUBTS, AND BADGES OF OFFICE. 

of Anglesey and Man. But they administered 
justice in every country, and sat sub dio on green 
hillocks. Such round hillocks are found in many 
places. Two remarkable ones stand a little west 
of the town of Elgin, and two a little close by 
the Church of Petty. The Lowlanders call 
them laws, because there the law was given or 
promulgated. Such are North Berwick Law, 
Innes Law, &c. The Highlanders call them Tom 
an EracJit, and Tom a Mhoid, i.e. "the court- 
hill." I question not but the Mute-hill (rather 
Moid-hill) at Scone was of this sort. So were the 
Duni pads, near the river Carron in Stirlingshire. 
Every Druid judge carried a rod, as a badge of 
office and authority, called in Irish, Slaite na 
Druidheachd, i.e. " the rod of Druidism." He 
had likewise an egg hung about his neck, enchased 
in gold, or other precious metal. The eggs were 
said to be Ova Anguinum, " eggs formed by ser- 
pents ; " and Pliny says, They ascribed great 
virtues to them. It is confidently affirmed by 
the common people, that in Summer a number of 
serpents meet, and work a certain slimy matter 
into a round ball with their mouths, of the colour 
of then- own skin. I have seen with jugglers 
round painted balls, which they call Adder 
Stones, and with them they played feats. The 
Welsh call them Gleine na Druidhe, i.e. " The 
Druid's Glass." These were but amulets of glass 
or stone. But the Phoenicians and Egyptians 



THE LITERATI OF THE DRUIDS. 149 

made the egg an emblem of the principle of all 
things, and represented it as coming out of the 
mouth of a serpent. Hence came the Druid's 

egg- 

Among the literati of the Druids, next to the 
priests, were the vates or cubages, called by the 
Celts and Irish, Faidhe. These were their 
diviners and physicians. By studying natural 
philosophy, the influences of the celestial bodies, 
and the qualities and virtues of plants and 
minerals, they might cure some diseases, and 
foretell events that depend upon a chain of 
natural causes; and on this account might be 
held in great esteem and veneration. But as 
the innocent name of Magi in the east came to 
be taken in a bad sense, so Druidhe and Druid- 
heachd came to be abused, even to mean Sor- 
cerer and Sorcery. 

The Bards were another order of the Druids' 
literati. A bard in Celtic signifies a poet and 
orator. They were not only frequent in Gaul 
and Britain ; but Tacitus, de Mor. Germ, makes 
it probable that they were common among the 
Germans. When armies were to engage, the 
bard stood on some eminence, and harangued 
them to rouse their courage. This was anciently 
much practised in Scotland. As now the general 
makes a speech to his army before battle, of old 
the bards did so, and it was called Brosdughadh 
Cath, i.e. " an incentive to fight." Diodorus 



150 DRUIDICAL PRIESTESSES THE NYMPHS OF THE GROVES. 

observes, that they were held in such veneration, 
that if battle was begun, and a bard appeared 
and commanded it, both sides ceased from fight- 
ing. They put the religious and moral instruc- 
tions into rhyme ; presided in their music ; acted 
a part at festivals; recited genealogies at mar- 
riages and funerals ; and sung the praises of their 
heroes. Lucan writes the same. "But how 
honourable soever this order might have been at 
first, they afterward became ignorant, venal, and 
despicable buffoons." Valesius, in Ammian. Mar- 
cellin. lib. XV. well describes the modern bards. 
"From these things it appears, that the bards 
were nothing else but parasites, and like to those 
whom the Latins called Scurrce or buffoons. 
For as the Buffoons followed the army, and used 
to divert the soldiers at their feasting with jests 
and gesticulations, so also did the bards." 

There were likewise female Druids, or priest- 
esses, who might perform some ceremonies of 
their religion to women, in which it might not 
be decent to have men employed. And as all 
Druids frequented the groves, these priestesses 
probably were the Dryades and Hamadryades, 
11 The nymphs of the groves," celebrated by the 
poets. And I doubt not but these gave rise to 
the fancy that prevails among the ignorant, viz., 
That fairy women, or beautiful young girls, clad 
in green, with loose dishevelled hair, frequented 
the woods and valleys. I have often heard men 



DRUIDICAL HERMITS ; DRUID'S HOUSE AT OLD DEER. 151 

affirm, that they had seen and spoken with such 
women. 

The Druids seem to have had among them 
some recluses and hermits. In the isles and on 
the Continent there are many small cells of stone 
of a round figure, and each cell capable of accom- 
modating one single person, called TinaDruididhe, 
i.e. " The Druid's house." I have not observed 
any such in this Province. But in the parish of 
Old Deer, in Buchan, I am told there is a Pruid 
circle on a hill, and on the descent are the 
vestiges of about thirty cells, which the people 
call " The Picts' houses," possibly a convent of 
Druid hermits. These are different from the 
round stone edifices, 20 feet high and 12 broad, 
in Orkney and Shetland, called Picts' houses and 
burghs. The Eomans had little towers, called 
Burgus, for keeping military stores ; and these 
round edifices might have been Specula or Watch 
Towers, built by the Norwegians, when they 
came into these islands : or they might have 
been Druid temples. For as Zoroastres taught 
the Persian Magi to build temples, in which 
they kept their sacred fire (Prid. Con. Vol. I.) ; 
and as the Druid religion was manifestly derived 
from that of the Magians, the Druids might have 
had such fire temples ; and it is certain that in 
Augustus's reign they had temples in France. 
Vitruvius tells us, that anciently temples were of 
a round form and open at top. "The ancients, 



152 ROUND EDIFICES AT CARRON AND TAIN. 

imitating the structure of the heavens, delighted 
chiefly in round temples, and built their edifices 
in the open air, dedicated to the heavens, the sun, 
and the moon." 

The round edifice open at top, on the river 
Carron near Falkirk, was not the temple of 
Terminus, as Buchanan calls it; nor a Koman 
place of arms and ensigns, as Gordon in his 
Itinerarium thinks. There have been found near 
it the horns of a bull, and a Patera used in 
sacrifices (Syb. Hist, of Stirlingshire) which 
shews it was a temple; and more probably a 
Druid than a Eoman temple. For above Tain 
in Koss are such round tapering edifices, open at 
top ; yet the Komans never built there. In that 
part of Boss, Ptolemy places the Creones, so 
called from Cruin, i.e. " round." And the Picts 
were called Cruinidh, i.e. " the round people ; " 
because their places of worship, their cairns, 
their temples, and the hillocks on which the 
Druids sat as judges, were all of a round form, as 
emblems of the sun, the object of their worship. 

The deities worshipped by the Druids, are 
mentioned by Caesar. Three of them are men- 
tioned page 234, viz., Teutates, Haesus, and 
Taranis. Teutates was called by the Britons 
TaithDiun, i.e. " Mercury the God of journeys ; " 
or Tytad, i.e. "the father of the house;" and 
presides over the lares and penates. Haesus 
(Heb. Strong, Might) was their supreme deity, 



THE DEITIES WORSHIPPED BY THE DRUIDS. 153 

and represented by an oak. Taranis was the 
deity of the air, as Teutates was of the earth, 
called Tarain Thor, Tor. In Celtic and British 
Tar an signifies " Thunder." Hence Jupiter 
Taranis. The Earl of Moray's seat of Tarnua 
in Irish Taranich ; prohably because some Druid 
cairn or circle there was dedicated to Jupiter 
Taranis. Anvona was the deity of the water, so 
called by the G-auls ; and in Irish Anfana, signi- 
fies " the raging of the sea." Let me add Apollo 
Carnius, so called probably from the Druid cairns; 
and the feast in honour of him was called Carnea; 
and the month of May, Carnius Mensis. It was 
usual with the Romans, to their own names of 
their gods to add the names or attributes under 
which they went in the countries where the 
Eomans at the time dwelt : hence also Apollo 
was called Grannus. In the reign of Queen 
Mary of Scotland, there was digged up, in the 
lands of Merchiston, a stone, in the shape of an 
altar stone, inscribed "APOLLINI GBANNO Q. LUSIUS 

SABINIANUS PEOC. AUG. V. S. S. L. V. M." i.e. " Votum 

susceptum solvit Lubens merito." Camden ob- 
serves, that this Apollo Grannus was the Apollo 
AJcersecomes of the Grecians, i.e. " having long 
hair." Grannus may come from the Irish Grian, 
i.e. " the sun," and in that language Grianach 
signifies " hairy or spreading hair like the scat- 
tered beams of the sun." The Eomans, when in 
Britain, gave Apollo that name. 



154 SUPERSTITIONS IN THE PROVINCE OF MORAY. 

In speaking of the Druid priests, priestesses, 
vates, bards, circles, cairns, &c., I have all along 
observed the vestiges of these which are to be 
as yet met with in this Province. I shall now 
add an account of some superstitious customs 
still practised in this country, and which seem to 
have had their rise from the Druids. 

In hectic and consumptive diseases, they pare 
the nails of the fingers and toes of the patient, 
put these parings into a rag cut from his clothes, 
then wave their hand with the rag thrice round 
his head crying Deas-Soil, after which they bury 
the rag in some unknown place. I have seen 
this done. And Pliny, in his natural history, 
mentions it as practised by the Magians or 
Druids of his time. 

When a contagious disease enters among cattle, 
the fire is extinguished in some villages round : 
then they force fire with a wheel, or by rubbing 
a piece of dry wood upon another, and therewith 
burn juniper in the stalls of the cattle, that the 
smoke may purify the air about them : they 
likewise boil juniper in water, which they sprinkle 
upon the cattle. This done, the fires in the 
houses are rekindled from the forced fire. All 
this I have seen done; and it is no doubt a 
Druid custom. 

. They narrowly observe the changes of the 
Moon, and will not fell wood, cut turf or fuel, or 
thatch for houses,, or go upon any expedition of 



HEATHENISH PRACTICES AT FUNERALS. 155 

importance, but at certain periods of the revolu- 
tion of that planet : so the Druids avoided, if 
possible, to fight, till after the full moon. (Diodor.) 

They divine by bones ; having picked the flesh 
clean off a shoulder blade of mutton, which no 
iron must touch, they turn towards the east, or 
the rising sun, and looking steadily on the trans- 
parent bone, pretend to foretell deaths, burials, 
&c. This Osteomateia was much practised among 
the heathens : and the Druids consulted the en- 
trails and bones of animals, even of human vic- 
tims. (Tacit. Annal. 14.) I have spoken of 
their regard to omens. 

At burials they retain many heathenish prac- 
tices : such as music and dancing at like-wakes, 
when the nearest relations of the deceased dance 
first. At burials, mourning women chant the 
Coronach, or mournful extemporary rhymes, re- 
citing the valorous deeds, expert hunting, &c., of 
the deceased. When the corpse is lifted, the 
bed-straw, on which the deceased lay, is carried 
out and burnt in a place where no beast can 
come near it; and they pretend to find next 
morning, in the ashes, the print of the foot of 
that person in the family, who shall first die. 

They believe, that the material world will be 
destroyed by fire. So general is this persuasion, 
that when they would express the end of time, 
they say Gu-Braitli, i.e. " to the conflagration or 
destruction." 



156 LOCALITIES DERIVED FROM DRUID BARDS AND CAIRNS. 

The use which the Druids made of juniper, 
and their regard to the changes of the moon, 
show that they were no strangers to the virtues 
of plants, and the influences of the celestial bodies. 

I scarce need observe that, throughout this 
kingdom, many places have their names, and 
some persons their surnames, from the Druid 
bards, cairns, &c., as Baird, Carnie, Moni-bhard, 
Tullibardin, Carn-wath, Cam-cross, &c. 

Many more of the Druid customs may be seen 
in Ccesar, Pliny, Tacitus, Amminianus, Marcel- 
linus, <&c. But I have mentioned only these 
customs, of which I have seen manifest remains 
in this Province. 

I shall now conclude this article with observing 
that any one who reads the account given by 
Dean Prideaux (Con. vol. i.) of the religion of the 
Magians in the east, will find that Druidism had 
a near resemblance of it. And it is to me no less 
apparent, that both Magianism and Druidism are 
borrowed, in many particulars, from the Patri- 
archal and Jewish plan of religion. I shall men- 
tion a few of these particulars : They owned 
one supreme Being ; used no images or statues ; 
used sacrifices ; and in high places, under spread- 
ing oaks, and with sacred fire, at first worshipped 
sub dio; afterwards built temples; compassed 
their altars by going Deas-Soil round them. 
The priests were instructors of youth ; had their 
academies and schools in retired high places; 



DRUIDISM BORROWED FROM THE PATRIARCHS AND JEWS. 157 

they had many ablutions and purgations; they 
had a rod of office ; and had mourning women at 
burials. I might add several instances more in 
which the Druids seem to have borrowed from 
the Patriarchs and Jews. This Druidism was 
the religion of the Scots and Picts, as it was of 
the Gauls and Britons, before the light of the 
Gospel of Christ was made to shine among them. 
And this leads me to 

SECTION II. THE PRIMITIVE CHRISTIAN CHURCH. 

How early, and at what particular time, the 
Gospel of Christ was first made known in Scot- 
land, I will not pretend to determine. Here the 
Eoman writers are silent. G-ildas, Bede, and 
Nenius do not touch this question. The loss of 
the Pictish records and writings, the want of 
ancient records of the Scottish Church, render it 
difficult to throw any light on this subject. 
What is said of King Donald's conversion A.D. 
203, and of Eegulus' arriving at Muk-Eoss (now 
St. Andrews) about anno 370, is very uncertain ; 
and yet I see it no way improbable, that in the 
third and fourth centuries Christianity had sure 
footing in North Britain. "Britannorum inac- 
cessa Eomanis loca, Christo tamen subdita." 
But as Pagan Druidism must have been gradu- 
ally, and not all at once, rooted out; so the 
Christian Faith must have been gradually spread. 
And indeed the gross ignorance which, till of 



158 THE KELEDEES OR CULDEES. 

late, prevailed, and the many heathenish customs 
that remained in some parts of the kingdom, 
shew abundantly, that the knowledge of Christ 
advanced by very slow paces. 

The first teachers and ministers of the Chris- 
tian Faith in Scotland were called in the Scottish 
language Keledees. Our historians, not under- 
standing the language, have called them Culdei, 
q.d. " Cultores Dei," and they derive Kil, from 
Cella, the hut, or " house of the teacher." But 
any one conversant with ancient writings, will 
easily discover the mistake, and find that they 
are never called Culdei, but uniformly Keledei; 
a word compounded of Ceile or Keile, i.e. " a 
servant, or one devoted," and Dia (in the genitive 
De), i.e. God, q.d. "a servant of God, or one 
devoted to him." A Church or place of worship 
was called Kil, because it was set apart for Divine 
service. When the Church of Kome dedicated 
Churches to their legendary saints, the word Kil 
was prefixed to the saint's name, as Kil-Mhuir, 
Kil-Mhilie, i.e. "dedicated to Mary and Milesius." 

These Keledees and primitive Christians in 
Scotland, were men of great piety, and for many 
ages, preserved the doctrines of the true religion. 

Possibly it was from the clerical tonsure, that 
the word Maol came to be prefixed to some 
names. The word signifies " a servant," and 
also Bare, Bald. So Maul-Coluim, Maol-Eiogli, 
is "Columba the servant, or the shaveling;" 



CULDEE CHAPELS IN THE PROVINCE. 159 

" Regulus the servant or the shaveling." The 
Irish likewise prefix the word, Maith, i.e. "good;" 
as Maith Rechard, Maith Calen, is the same as 
" St. Richard, St. Colen." 

I have mentioned these things to explain the 
names of Churches and Chapels in this Pro- 
vince; such as Kil-Tarlatie, Kil-Chuiman, Maith- 
Rechard, Maith-Calen. 

Having met with nothing peculiar to this 
country in the primitive state of the Christian 
Church, I go on to 

SECTION III. THE EOMAN CATHOLIC CHUKCH. 

Before the llth century, we had no Diocesan 
Bishops except one, viz., of St. Andrews. He 
was not properly Diocesan, for he was designed 
Episcopus Scotice or Scotorum. In the same 
century it was that Monks and Friars were 
brought in as a militia or. an army. Yet it was 
not before the 12th century, and the reign of 
King David I. that the Roman Clergy got any 
sure footing. Richard, Prior of Hexham, writing 
De bello Standardi anno 1138 (the time when he 
lived), says of the Scots, " But they differing long 
from the Cisalpine, and almost from the whole 
Church, seemed to favour too much Peter Leo of 
abandoned memory, and his apostacy. But then 
being inspired by Divine grace, they all unani- 
mously, and with great veneration, received the 
commands of Pope Innocent and his legates." 



160 ABBEYS, MONKS, AND FRIARS. 

Eoman Catholics divide their Clergy into 
Kegular and Secular. And I shall treat of 
both, as I have found them in this Province ; 
beginning with 

I. THE KEGULAR CLEEGY. 

These were so called, because they were bound 
to live, by the rule of St. Augustine, or St. Bennet ; 
or by some private statutes approved by the Pope. 
They lived, messed, and slept under one roof. 
These were numerous in this Province. I shall 
speak of them under the distinctions of Abbey, 
Priory, Convent, Preceptory, Ministry, and Chap- 
lainry. 

An Abbey is a society of Monks or Friars, 
whereof the Abbot (in Heb. Ab or Abba, i.e. 
" Father ") is the head or ruler. Some Abbots 
were independent of the Bishop, and freed from 
his jurisdiction. These were called Abbates 
exempti. Some were invested with episcopal 
power, and wore a mitre, and were called 
" Sovereign mitred Abbots," and had a seat in 
Parliament. The Abbates Exempti might dis- 
cipline and punish their Monks; but Abbots, 
subject to the Bishop, must submit them to his 
authority. We had but one Abbey in Moray, 
viz., that of 

KINLOSS, 

The Abbot of which was mitred, and had 
a seat in Parliament. It was founded by King 



ENDOWMENT OF THE ABBEY OF KINLOSS. 161 

David I. 12mo Kal. Januarii anno 1150 [20 
June, 1151], and confirmed by the Pope's Bull 
[Alexander III.] anno 1174. The Monks were of 
the Cistertian or Bernardine order, called Monachi 
Albi, because all their clothes were white, except 
a black cowl and scapulary. 

King David endowed the Abbey with lands, 
and King William added many more, particularly 
all the lands of Stryla, or Strath- Yla, near Keith. 
I have perused a Bull * in favour of this Abbey 
by Honorius, anno 1216, Pontiff. Stio, ratifying 
its lands and possessions, particularly, " The 
place in which the Monastery is fixed, with its 
pertinents ; Grange of Kinloss, with its pertinents ; 
West . Grange, with its pertinents ; a small farm 
in Crumbachin; another in Banff, Inverness, 
Nairn, Forres, Elgin, Aberdeen, and Berwick." 
Other possessions are named in the Bull, but the 
parchment is so spoiled, and the writing so 
defaced, that they cannot be read, but may be 
supplied as follows : The Abbey lands, out of 
which Mr. Brodie of Lethin receives feu duties, 
are the Barony of Muirtown ; the Mill of Kin- 
loss, Windy Hills, Coltfield, West Grange, and 

*The Bull referred to by Shaw, the original of which he 
states to be in his own possession, is printed in the Appendix 
of his History, No. xxvi., not as is given at No. xxvii. I have 
compared it, word for word, with the Bull of Pope Alexander 
III., given at page 105 of Stuart's Records of the Monastery of 
Kinloss, 1862. The original belongs to Sir Thomas Dick 
Lauder, and was given to him by George Cumin of 
Relugas. Shaw is literally accurate for once. (ED.) 

VOL. III. 11 



162 LANDS AND REVENUES OF KINLOSS ABBEY. 

Mill ; the lands of Burgle ; all Hempriggs ; the 
Crofts and House of Kinloss ; Kirktoun lands of 
Ordies ; Ereefield in Elchies ; all Ballendallach's 
lands of Struthers ; Meikle and Little Tanachy ; 
Town of Forres and their fishing ; Burds-Yards ; 
Kincorth's, Grangehill's, and Coulbin's fishing; 
Eose of Newton's lands near Nairn ; Braco's 
lands in Stryla ; lands of Lichnet ; Kinminitie's 
lands in Stryla; lands of Edingieth; lands of 
Glengerrock; several lands belonging to Lord 
Findlater ; Grange in Stryla ; the lands of Ellon ; 
besides Lethen's lands of Kinloss and the pre- 
cinct of the Abbey. 

The Revenues of the Abbey, anno 1561, in money, victual, 
&c., were 1,152 Is. Bear and meal, 47 chalders 11 bolls 
1 firlot 3 pecks; oats, 10 bolls 3 fir-lots; wedders, 34; geese, 
41; capons, 60; poultry, 125. From which was deducted 
to fourteen Monks for habit ; silver to each, fifty shillings per 
annum ; for fish and flesh to each ten pence per diem ; for fire, 
butter, candle, spice ry, and lentron meat, 12; for bread and 
drink per annum, to each 19 bolls 1 firlot 2 pecks, and 40 to 
Mr. John Ferrarius for his pension, which he had under the 
seal of the Abbey, annuallv during life. (Book of Assump., anno 
1561 and 1563.) 

This specimen shows how sumptuously these 
pretendedly mortified Monks lived, and much 
more so their Abbots and Priors. 

[Ferrerius, in his History of the Abbots, states the Revenue in 
1499, when Thomas Chrystall became Abbot, to be from the 
barony of Kinloss, 114 marks Scots; from Finderen, 20 marks, 
from the barony of Strathily, 147 marks; from the town of 
Leithnot, 6 marks ; from the town of Freefield, 4 marks ; from 
Dundurcas, 10 marks; from the Church of Ellon, 252; from 
the Church of Awache in Ross, 72 marks; in all, 632. In 
grain from the barony of Kinloss, 8 chalders, 2 bolls ; from 
Strathily, 7 chalders ; from their fishings, 2 lasts of salmon ; 



REVENUES OF THE ABBEY OF KINLOSS. 



163 



by feu-duties and rents from Elgyn, 2 marks ; by rents from 
Inverness and Forres, 60 marks; all which he doubled in a 
few years. 

There is a Charter granted by Walter, Abbot of Kinloss, in 
1559, 12th September, with express consent of the members of 
the Convent, by which he dispones to Euphame Dundas their 
lands in Strathily for the sum of 2,000 Scots, paid in ready 
money, with 5 10s. Scots of augmentation of rent, to be 
holden of the Abbot and Convent of Kinloss, for payment of 
certain duties and rents contained in a rental. 'As this rental 
throws some light on the value of land, with the nature of the 
rents paid at that period, it is inserted. 



For Muiryfold, 
Boglugy,- 
Thorntown, - 
Haughs, .'.'- 
Braco, - 
Achindarie, - 
Overmills, - 
Multures of ditto, - 
Ale-house of ditto, - 
Netherraill, ... 
Multures of ditto, - 
Orange, with Tower, 
Clerkseat, 
Augmentation Rent, 


>> . 

o 

| 

a 


B . 
11 

3* 


Wedtlers. 





d 

I 


Poultry. 


Long 

Carriages. 


Custom 
Oats. 


Ky Siller. 


Chalders 
Victual. 


3 

5 



L. 8. D. 

568 
334 
2 13 4 
600 
20 
368 
200 


B. P. P 

120 
030 
030 
200 
200 
020 


1 

'2 
2 

.* 


2 
1 

1 
2 
2 


C 
3 
3 
8 

8 


12 
6 

6 
16 
16 


8 
4 
4 
8 
12 
? 


B. F. P. 

2 "o" 

200 
020 


o Vi'o 




6 


18 




















5 


200 
5 19 4 

40 
100 
5 10 








































12 


6 


6 








6 
















































38 








CO 19 4 


720 


si 


26 


52 


62 


420 


11 


11 



And failing victual, there was to be paid for every boll of 
meal 10s. Scots, and for every boll of oats 5s. Scots, in the 
option of Euphame Dundass. 

Ferrerius mentions that in his time there were twenty or 
more Monks, who, over and above their ancient allowance, 
received from Abbot Chrystall on flesh days four pennies, and 
on meagre days one penny, and, instead of oat cakes, thirty- 
two ounces of wheat bread daily. 

It appears from Ferrerius that they had a great number of 
excellent buildings, but his description conveys no idea of their 
arrangement.] (Survey of the Province of Moray.) 

The Abbey stood in a fertile soil at the head of 
the Loch or Bay of Findhorn. No doubt the 
buildings were sumptuous, but no judgment can 
now be formed from the remaining ruins. In the 



164 EDWARD BRUCE, COMMENDATOR OF KINLOSS. 

years 1651 and 1652 Alexander Brodie of Lethin, 
proprietor of Kinloss, sold the stones to the 
English, and with them the Citadel of Inverness 
was built. (Reg. Presbytery of Forres). 

The Abbot had a regality within the Abbey 
Lands. He had granges or farms, with detached 
Monks to oversee them, at East and West Grange, 
and at Grange in Stryla. I find in the writings 
of the family of Westfield that the Abbot had a 
process of spulzie against Sir Alexander Dunbar 
of Westfield, who died 1576, for taking out of the 
Abbey a laver, weighing 240 ounces of silver, and 
22 feather beds, with other pieces of plate and 
furniture. 

Upon the dissolution of the Eeligious Houses, 
Mr. Edward Bruce was made Commendator of 
Kinloss. The King would not want the votes of 
Abbots and Priors in Parliament, and therefore 
presented Laics to the Benefices when vacant, 
who, by way of commendam, enjoyed the profits 
and fat in Parliament. But this usufructuary 
possession as titulars gave no right to the lands, 
and therefore they got them erected into tempo- 
rary lordships. Edward Bruce was created Lord 
of Kinloss and got the superiority of the other 
Abbey Lands. Ascelinus was the first Abbot; 
Benerius the second; and Eobert Keid was 
the last. 



FURNITURE OF THE ABBEY. 165 



KINLOSS ABBEY. 

[From Abbot John Ferrerius' History of the Abbey of 
Kinloss, printed by the Bannatyne Club in 1839, we 
learn that King David I. was led to erect this Monastery 
by such motives as led him to found the Abbey of Holy- 
rood. It is there narrated that, while he was engaged in 
the chase in the country near Forres, he lost his way in a 
thick wood ; but under the guidance of a white dove 
(vouchsafed in answer to his pra} 7 ers) he was led to an 
open spot, where he found two shepherds tending their 
flocks. By them King David was hospitably entertained, 
and being warned in a dream that he should there erect 
a Chapel to the Blessed Virgin, he resolved at once to 
obey the vision, and with his sword he proceeded to 
mark out on the green sward the outline of the building 
which he meant to erect. 

Having been rejoined by his nobles, the King then 
proceeded with them to the Castle of Duffus, in the 
neighbourhood, and announcing to them his vision and 
consequent vow, he collected the architects and masons 
engaged on Royal works in various places, in order that 
the foundation of Kinloss might forthwith be undertaken. 
To secure the uninterrupted progress of the work, the 
King remained at Duffus during the summer ; and when 
he was called away by other affairs, he procured from 
Melrose a Monk to whom he committed the charge of 
the rising Monastery, and who was afterwards made the 
first Abbot. 

After describing the Church as being of large dimen- 
sions, and ornamented with paintings, statues, organs, 
and altars, he mentions the dormitories of the monks, 
the refectory or dining-room, the hospital, brew-house, 
kitchen, pigeon-house, and garden. The furniture was 
plentiful and elegant. There were 50 feather beds, 28 
arras-coverings, and 2 sick beds. The table was supplied 
with vessels of pewter brought from England, very costly. 
The library contained the Old and New Testaments, in 
six volumes, with the glosses commonly in use; four 
volumes of Vincent ; three of the Chronicle of Antoninus ; 
three of the epistles of St. Jerome; the Works of St. 
Jerome, in five volumes; the Works of SS. Ambrose, 
Chrysostom, Gregory, Bernard, Aquinas; Scotus' Com- 



166 SEALS OF THE MONASTERY OF KINLOSS. 

mentary on the Sentences ; St. Aquinas' Commentary on 
the Epistle of St. Paul ; St. Augustine on the City of God, 
and on the Trinity ; Jus Pontificium, with glosses ; many 
volumes of sermons ; and two vellum Missals. 

Some of these books are still extant in the Advocates' 
Library, Edinburgh. 

In July, 1528, an unprecedented inundation at the 
Abbey is recorded, which tilled the Refectory, the Chapter- 
House, and the Cloister with water. 

Ferrerius has recorded the acquisition of many silver 
vessels by the Abbots " phialse," "calices," and " scyphi " 
which may now figure, like Nebuchadnezzar's, as sugar 
basins and drinking cups at the carousals of lairds and 
lords. These vessels once were consecrated to God for the 
use of the Altars of the Monastery. 

Seal of the Monastery, A very pretty mediaeval design repre- 
senting the adoration of the infant Saviour by the Magi. The 
Blessed Virgin is seated crowned, holding in front the God- 
Man, also crowned, with the right hand uplifted in benediction. 
An angel and three Monks are adoring. In the centre is a 
crescent, for the Moon. Above is a large pentagonal Star of 
Bethlehem, tfa " S' COMMVNE : MONASTERII : DE : KYNLOS." 
(A.D. 1574, G. Innes.) 

Another is given in H. Laing's Catalogue : 

A fine seal, of an oval shape, in excellent preservation, and 
the only instance yet met with of Municipal Seals assuming 
the Veska Piscis form. A full-length figure of the Blessed 
Virgin and infant Jesus beneath a canopy, both crowned. On 
the plinth supporting the spiral pillars is the top of a Crook, 
ornamented. "S' REGALITATIS DE KYNLOS." (From the 
original Matrix in the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh.)] (ED.) 

[The army marched to Kinloss on the 13th of Sep- 
tember the 9th, as stated by Lord Hailes, having most 
likely been the date of the arrival of the advanced guard. 
This Abbey, in which Edward now took up his abode, 
was an establishment of Cistercians or white monks so 
called from the white cassocks which they wore during 
divine service. It comprised an Abbot, a Prior, a Sub- 
prior, and 23 Monks. The Abbot was mitred and had a 
seat in Parliament. Richard, who held this office in 
1289, was present, by virtue of the rank which he thus 
enjoyed, at the meeting of the Estates of the kingdom at 



DR. TAYLOR'S ACCOUNT OF EDWARD i. AT KINLOSS. 167 

Brigham in that year, and affixed his seal to the Letter 
of the Community of Scotland, directed to Edward.* His 
successor, whose name is not given, and who is merely 
mentioned by his official designation of "le Abbe de 
Kinlos," swore fealty to Edward in 1292. He died in 
1303, but whether before or after the arrival of the King 
at the Abbey is not stated. This Religious House, founded 
by David I. in 1150, had been richly endowed by him 
and his successors, William the Lion, and Alexander II. 

And it thus possessed at the time of Edward's visit to 
it, extensive property, comprising the fertile plain between 
the river Findhorn and Alves; the lands of Burgie; 
Dundurcas, on Speyside ; the estate of Grange in Strath- 
isla ; and Ellen, in Aberdeenshire, besides fishings on the 
Findhorn, mills and houses in several ro} T al burghs in the 
kingdom. The Abbey afforded in its cloisters, refectory, 
dormitories, kitchen, and other domestic offices, the accom- 
modation arid conveniences common to such establish- 
ments. But besides these, it had, doubtless, like other 
Religious Houses of the same rank, its locutorium or 
parlour, where the monks met to converse with each 
other; its Scriptorium, where their books were tran- 
scribed, and the writing of documents was executed ; its 
library ; its treasury, where the abbey seal, its charters, 
and church plate were kept ; its hostelry, where strangers 
were entertained ; its almonery, where alms were distri- 
buted among the poor; and its infirmary, where the sick 
belonging to the Abbey were attended. Its Church, 
which was dedicated to the blessed Virgin, had a nave, 
transepts, choir, and a lofty central tower, as in Cathe- 
drals, and was fitted up with altars and ornamented with 
images and paintings. Its foundations can still be traced; 
and those also of the chapter-house, which stood near it. 
The latter edifice, which was supported by six pillars, is 
said to have been pulled down for the sake of its build- 
ing materials in the last century.-f- "Half the gateway 
and the couples of several of the roofs," which were then 
to be seen, have also disappeared. The only parts of the 
ancient buildings now remaining, are one of the walls of 
the cloisters on the west, two fine Saxon arches on the 
south, and a portion of a building having an upper storey 

*Rymer's Fcedera, vol. ii., p. 474. 

f Gough's Additions to Camden's Britannia, vol. iii., p. 429. 



168 ORCHARD, MILL, BREWHOUSE & DOVECOT OF KINLOSS. 

with a ground roof, supposed to have been the prior's 
chambers, on the east. The ruins, when visited by 
Pennant in 1790, afforded " specimens " as he states " of 
the most beautifulGothic architecture, in all the elegance 
of simplicity, without any of its fantastic ornaments."* 
A little to the south of these ruins are the remains of a 
large house, of which the east gable and a portion of the 
wall are standing. It is arched or vaulted beneath, and 
has all the appearance of being a building of the 16th 
century. The Abbey, possessed within its own domain, 
all that was necessary for the support of its inmates. 
Adjoining it were its orchard-f- and garden, well stocked 
with fruit trees, vegetables, and medicinal herbs ; also, its 
mill, brewhouse, and dovecot; while at its neighbouring 
grange or farm, containing many fertile cornfields and 
rich meadows, were well filled barns, and cattle, sheep, 
pigs, and poultry in abundance. 

The Religious Houses of England, in the 13th century, 
were, in consequence of their great wealth, frequently 
subjected to the heavy expense not only of entertaining 
the King, when he travelled, but also of providing forage 
and transport for his army when he marched through the 
kingdom. Abbeys of Royal foundation were also liable, 
unless they held by frank-almoigne, to be burdened with 
corodies, or the maintenance of such aged soldiers, ser- 
vants, or dependants, as the King might choose to 
billet or quarter on them. The practice of exacting 
supplies from Religious Houses, had been observed since 
the time of William the Conqueror, who invariably 
quartered his troops on monasteries, and obliged the 
monks to find provisions, by which means, it is said, he 
maintained his army without charge. These Houses, we 
are further told, were long afterwards saddled with the 
expense of finding carriage for the baggage of the army. 
It was seemingly in accordance with this usage that 
Edward now took up his quarters in the Abbey of Kin- 

* Pennant's Tour through Scotland, vol. i. 

f Orchards were cultivated about the residences of the clergy 
and nobility in Moray at an early period. Allusion is made 
to the King's orchard at Tarnaway in 1371 (ex parte boreali 
de nostri pomerii de Tarnaway). Reg. Ep. Morav, p. 474. 

The Castles of Kyneder and Spynie had each its orchard. 



EDWARD I. TAKES UP HIS QUARTERS IN KINLOSS ABBEY. 169 

loss. According to Chalmers, buildings on the English 
plan most probably temporary wooden barracks were 
erected for the accommodation of himself and his troops. 
The supply of provisions and forage necessary for so large 
a body of men and horses as were now assembled here, 
must have been a heavy tax, which it required all the 
resources of the monks to meet. It is likely, indeed, that 
even these resources were insufficient for the purpose, and 
that the whole of the lower part of Moray was laid under 
contribution for supplies. Though there was a commis- 
sariat attached to the army, as appears from the circum- 
stance of large stores of wheat, oats, pease, and dried and 
salt fish having been purchased and laid in for the cam- 
paigns of 1299 and 1300, yet the expense of provisioning 
the troops on the present occasion was entirely borne by 
the Abbey of Kinloss and the neighbouring country.* 
Judging from one item of expenditure viz., that of sixty 
chalders of malt, which Ferrarius mentions as having 
been consumed in the brewing of ale during Edward's 
residence at the Abbey it may be presumed that the 
quantities of oats, barley, pease, hay, and straw, and the 
numbers of cattle, sheep, swine, and poultry, this Religious 
House had to furnish, were proportionally great. Edward 
appears to have been accompanied during his expeditions 
by a large household establishment. It is stated that, 
among the servants who attended him in the campaign 
of 1300, there were fishers with their nets. Doubt- 
less he had now not only these caterers for his kitchen, 
but also a staff of butchers, bakers, cooks, butlers, and 
confectioners, who were able, with the assistance of the 
purveyors of the household, to supply the royal table, 
during the march, with its ordinary luxuries and deli- 
cacies. Of the details of his reception at Kinloss or of 

*In 1280, when Edward was preparing to invade Wales, he 
sent orders, according to Adam de Fulehame, for the purchase 
of 100 barrels of sturgeon (estigonum), and 5000 dry and salt 
fish of Aberdeen. The word estigonum however is supposed 
to be erroneously written for isiciorum (salmon). MacPher- 
son's Annals of Commerce, vol. i., p. 422. Large quantities of 
herrings were purchased for his garrisons in Scotland between 
1299 and 1300. It also appears from the Wardrobe Accounts, 
(pp. 121 to 151), that wheat, oats for malt, and pease, were 
bought at the same time. 



170 RECEPTION OF EDWARD I. IN KINLOSS ABBEY. 

the manner in which he and his suite were lodged by the 
Monks there is no account extant. In the early part of 
the 16th century, the Abbey was fitted up with paintings, 
carved furniture, arras, and couches or beds of silk ; but it 
is uncertain whether it had, with the exception of the 
tapestry, any of these articles of luxury at the time 
Edward paid his unwelcome visit to it. There is little 
doubt, however, that a Religious House, enjoying the 
wealth of the Abbey of Kinloss, and superintended, as it 
was, by an ecclesiastic invested with the episcopal insignia 
of the mitre and crosier, and having precedence or rank 
before barons, possessed, notwithstanding the rigid rules 
of the Cistercian Order, an establishment which rivalled 
that of the highest nobles of the land, and afforded the 
means of entertaining even a royal guest in a manner 
befitting his exalted station. Edward issued letters tested 
at Kinloss, 19th of September [T.R. apud Kinlos, xix die 
Septr.], addressed to the Sheriff of York, in favour of 
Christopher Seton and John Botturte, Lord of Mende- 
sharn. He also granted letters of safe conduct, tested at 
the same place on the following day [T.R. apud Kinloss, 
xx die Septr.], to Alexander Baliol and others. On the same 
day (20th of Septr.) he held a Council, during which he 
addressed a letter to Philip, King of France, complaining 
of an act of piracy which some of his subjects of the port 
of Calais had committed on a vessel the Goldingi May- 
den of Gippeswic [Ipswich] belonging to Roger de Barum 
de Filchan, a wool merchant of England. He states 
that these pirates had attacked the ship on the high 
seas, whilst she was on her way to certain ports in 
Brabant, and that they had, after killing some and im- 
prisoning others of the crew, seized the vessel and cargo. 
He reminds Philip that these acts of piracy constituted 
an infraction of the treaty of peace which had lately been 
concluded between them, and demands the immediate 
release of these in prison, and that full indemnity should 
be made to the owner and crew for the losses and injuries 
which they had suffered. 

On the l()th of October, Edward was at Kinloss, 

whither he had returned on the previous day from Kil- 

drummie Castle. Here he issued a writ under the Privy 

Seal [Tcste Rege apud Kynlos, 10 die Octobris,* Per 

* Rymer's Fcedera (new edition), vol. L, p. 939. 






EDWARD I. AT LOCHINDORB AND ELGIN. 171 

breve de Private Sigillo,] addressed to Roger Brabazon, 
William de Bereford, Roger de Hegham, Randolph de 
Sandwick, and Walter de Gloucester commissioners 
appointed to inquire into a robbery of the Kir g's treasury 
at Westminster, which had been broken into in the pre- 
vious month of May, and plundered of money to the 
amount of 100,000, and of plate and jewels. This large 
sum is said to have been collected by Edward, to enable 
him to carry on the war in Scotland. The Abbot, 48 
Monks, and 32 Lay -brothers of the Abbey of Westminster, 
had been committed to the Tower of London on suspicion 
of having been concerned in the burglary. And it was 
in consequence of the accused having now presented to 
the King a petition in which they denied all knowledge 
of the crime imputed to them, and prayed that, as they 
had been falsely and maliciously charged and imprisoned, 
they might be speedily brought to trial, and have justice 
done them that this writ, appointing the above-named 
commissioners, and empowering them to take evidence 
on oath, both of knights and others within the counties 
of Middlesex and Surrey, according to the usual forms of 
law, was issued by Edward at Kinloss on the date before 
mentioned. 

There is little information extant in regard to the 
measures which Edward adopted at this time for the 
government of the kingdom. All that is known on this 
point is that while residing in Lochindorb, he appointed 
officers as governors of the castles and towns that had 
surrendered to him [in castris et villis firrnatis universis 
sibi redditis suos ordinavit ministres.]* These officers, 
as might naturally be supposed, were all English 

" Schyreffs and balyheys maid he them 
And allyrn other officers, 
That for to govern land affairs, 
He maid of Inglis nation, "t 

They are further mentioned by Barbour, from whom these 
lines are quoted, as having exercised their authority with 
great rigour and cruelty towards all classes of people in 
the nation. 

Edward was at Elgin on the llth of October. While 

* Fordun (a Hearne) p. 989. 
t "The Bruce," by Barbour. 



172 EDWARD I. VISITS DUNDEE, CAMBUSKENNETH, ETC. 

the greater portion of his army was now engaged in sub- 
duing the northern counties, he was, after a sojourn of 
twenty-nine days in the province on his way to the south 
of Scotland. His route thither is not mentioned. It is 
stated by Tytler that it was on his return from the north 
that he besieged Brechin, but it is evident from the dates 
mentioned in the Itinerary, that this could not have 
been the case, as he was at Kinross on the 10th, Elgin on 
the llth, and Dundee on the 20th of October; and he 
could not possibly, therefore, have been employed for 
twenty days at this time in carrying on that siege. This 
castle, consequently, must have been, as already stated, 
invested and assaulted by him on his march towards the 
north, before he reached Aberdeen in August. He was at 
Dundee on the 20th of October, where, as already men- 
tioned, he issued a writ on that date. He next visited 
Balgarvie, near Scone, on the 22nd and 23rd, and appears 
to have passed thence to Camyskenel [Cambuskenneth], 
where he remained till the 7th of November. There is 
some ambiguity in regard to his movements after this 
date. In the Itinerary he is represented as having been 
at Kynloss [corrected Kinross] on the 10th of November; 
but, it may be stated as a corroboration of the former and 
not the latter being the place really meant, that there is 
on record a writ addressed to Roger Brabazon and the 
other parties already named,* ordering an inquiry into 
the robbery of the King's Treasury at Westminster which 
is tested and dated at Kynlos on this day [Teste Rege, 
apud Kynlos, de 10 die Novembris.] Considering, how- 
ever, that the other public document relating to the same 
robbery was drawn up at Kiuloss on the 10th of October, 
it is probable that there is here an error in the date of 
the latter writ, and that both were issued at Kynloss on 
the same day, viz., the 10th of October. It may, there- 
fore, be presumed that Edward did not return to Moray 
in November; but that after his visit to Cambuskenneth 
Abbey he proceeded to Dunfermline, which he is said to 
have reached on the llth of November. The Queen 
joined at this place, and here, in the splendid Abbey of 
the Benedictines, they took up their abode, and continued 
to hold their Court till the first week of February.] 
(Taylor's Edward I. in the North of Scotland.) 

*Rymer (new edition), p. 960 Pryune, p. 1005. 



IMMORAL MONKS; CELIBACY NOT CHASTITY. 173 



ABBOTS OF KINLOSS. 

1. Ascelinus, or Ascelyn, or Anselm, of Mellifont or 
Fountains. Died in 1174, March 1. 

(Walcott calls him, at p. 276, Scoti - M onasticon, 
"Joscelyne."?) (Ea) 

2. Reinerius, or Nerius. Subsequently a Monk and 
Abbot of Melrose, 1188. Died 1219. 

3. Radulphus, or Ralph. Abbot of Melrose, 1194. 

4. Hugh. Died 1217. 

5. Andrew. 

6. Alexander, Abbot of Deir. Died 6th Sept., 1222, 
and was buried in France. 

7. Ralph. Died 23rd October, 1228. 

8. Robert, Abbot of Deir. 

9. Richard. Died 15th Oct., 1241. 

10. Herbert. Resigned in 1251. 

11. Henry. Died 10th November, 1251. 

12. Thomas. Died llth February, 1258. 

13. Symon. Died 18th April, 1269. (Monastery burnt.) 

14. Richard. Died in England returning from Citeaux, 
1274. 

15. Andrew, formerly Prior of Newbottle, 1274. 

1C. Richard, Abbot of Deir. Died 15th July, 1289. 

17. Thomas. Edward I. was his guest 20th September 
to 10th October, 1303. Died 1321. 

18. Adam of Deir. 

19. Richard. Under this Abbot, William, Earl of 
Sutherland, bestowed on Kinloss the Hospital of St. 
John the Baptist of Hebnisden. Patrick was Prior of 
the House, and by desire of the Abbot made two journeys 
to Rome about certain disputed lands. Died in 1371. 

20. Adam of Teras. Lived in concubinage and had 
issue. Buried under a sculptured stone, before .the 
Presbytery, in 1401. He erected the Abbot's Hall. 

21. William Blair, LL.D. Abbot of Kinloss from 1401 
to 1430, when he became Abbot of Cupar in Angus, where 
he was formerly a Monk. In 1419 he deposed John, 
Abbot of Culross, on account of his incontinency ; and in 
his time the Abbot of Pontigny came to Scotland on a 
mission from the Heads of the Cistercian Order, "that 
he might perhaps repair the collapse of religion." 

Died in 1445. 



174 MAGNIFICENT VESTMENTS, &c., FOR KINLOSS ABBEY. 

22. John Flutere. Lived in office 10 years, when in 
1440 he was degraded for his incontinency. He bought, 
at great cost, the silver pastoral staff which the Abbots 
(mitred) afterwards used at Mass. In his time the 
Cistercians were banished from Pluscardine and the 
Benedictines introduced in their place. Two of the 
Cistercians were sent to Kinloss, one of whom, after 
showing his unchastity, was transferred to the Monastery 
of Deir, where he died in old age. 

23. John Ellem brought to the Monastery a choice 
altar-piece and two silver candlesticks for the High Altar, 
with a third of bronze, at which the Gospel is read, as 
also several dalmatics and chasubles. He built a vaulted 
entrance to the cloister, and made preparations for build- 
ing a Bell tower, but was prevented by his death in 1467. 

24. James Guthry was a B.D., and erected the Bell 
tower which his predecessor had projected, and placed on 
it a spire ; and in his improvements, having fallen short 
of money, he sold the organs, which were afterwards at 
Forres (Walcott says Forfar?), and a basin and ewer 
of silver, afterwards at Dunfermline. He would also 
have sold the fine painting of the High Altar had he 
not been prevented by the vicars of Spynie and Elgin, 
both of the name of Ellem. After a time he selected 
William Galbraith to be his successor at Kinloss, simoni- 
acally. For pretending old age he squeezed from Galbraith 
a large sum, in the hope of being made Abbot of Cupar- 
Angus, in which he was formerly cellarer or butler. It 
turned out that he could neither retain Kinloss nor obtain 
Cupar. He died of chagrin at Forfar in 1482 and was 
buried there. 

Under him was David Eliot, a Monk, who purchased 
or transcribed various vols. of Ritual. He also bought for 
the Chapel of St. John the Evangelist an Image and a 
Chasuble. Another of the Monks was William Butters, 
who, in anger, committed homicide by striking a boy in 
the cloister. He went to Rome with another Monk and 
obtained letters of absolution, a copy of which he sent 
home to the Abbot, but neither he nor his companion 
returned. 

25. William Galbraith was Subchanter of Moray when 
he was selected by the above Abbot Guthry to be his 
successor. He was the first who sent to Rome for Papal 



MURDERS AND RAPES WITHIN THE CHURCH OF DYKE. 175 

Bulls (from Bulla a seal or stamp appended to the 
Pope's official edict or mandate, hence the Edict or "Butt " 
itself)- Prior to this the Abbots were canonically elected 
by the suffrages of the Monks and the confirmation of the 
Abbot of Melrose. The cup of this Abbot, having a silver 
hoop, continued to be used at the Abbot's table at Kinloss. 
He died in 1491, and was buried in the Chapel of St. 
Peter in the Abbey. 

26. William Culross was very devout and corpulent, 
but nevertheless active in fleshly pleasures and venery. 
He was very handy in planting and grafting trees and 
other like work, and wrote several treatises on Ritual for 
the use of the House. He died on the 28th December, 
1504, and was buried in the Chapel of St. Thomas in 
the Abbey. 

In 1515, John Gordon was excommunicated for pillag- 
ing the sacristy at midnight on the 27th December. A 
few years later, on Whitsun-Eve, the Macintoshes mur- 
dered 15 men, besides ravishing many matrons and 
maidens, within the Church of Dyke. 

27. Thomas Chrystal. " But that was an affair of greater 
moment which was carried on [by Thomas Chrystal, the 
27th Abbot of Kinloss, A.D. 1499] in defence of his 
Monastery against Alexander Gordon, Earl of Huntly, for 
seven years, with no less prudence than perseverance. 
Alexander desired that the field of Ballaoht [Balloch], in 
the barony of Strathisla, which the Monks and Abbot of 
Kinloss held, should be annexed to his possessions ; and, 
as he had no right in the case, he more than once 
threatened the Abbot with death for contending for his 
just right. But not even by those terrors could the 
Abbot be induced to yield to the Earl indeed, at the 
mention of death he always undauntedly reverted very 
wisely to former times. At length, after infinite labour 
both of mind and body, and a very severe contest, the 
Abbot obtained the end desired ; and, in memory of this 

"case, the Earl Alexander executed a public instrument of 
his giving up his claim, to which also his seal was attached, 
as may be seen in Kinloss. 

To this most complicated business was added the affair 
of Agnes, sister of Alexander, Earl of Huntly, whom 
memory says was formerly the wife of James Ogilvy of 
Finlater. She had begun a strong contention with the 



176 FORTALICE AT GRANGE, NEAR KEITH. 

Abbot about land at Strathisla, called Hawinthfe ; but the 
vigilance of the Abbot immediately repressed this flame, 
nor was she able to strive long, for the case at once fell to 
the ground. So the matter returned to the Abbot very 
meritoriously 

I will note below certain magnificent edifices which 
were erected by this Abbot Chrystal. . The first that 
occurs is what is now to be seen in the lands of his 
Monastery, or rather the barony of Strathisla [a territory 
stretching from the Knock Hill to the Balloch]. There 
he constructed a sufficiently large and no less strong 
House from the foundation, in the shape of a Castle or 
Fortalice, in the year of the Saviour Christ 1525. To this 
House he added, before the half doors, a porch with a 
stone stair. Afterwards he built an elegant kitchen for 
the cooks for preparing the rations, and round about the 
tower he repaired the old and decayed buildings for vari- 
ous future uses He built two mills at Strathisla 

and placed in the Chapel at Strathisla a by no 

means contemptible statue of the Divine Virgin and 
Mother on a pedestal 

The one mill was at Old Newmill, being the Upjjer, 
and the other at Nether Mills, beautifully situated. 

As the affairs of mortals are frail, I desire by this 
hastily collected compendium of acts to make it as it 
were a small present to my senior master, Thomas C^stafl, 
Lord Abbot of Kinloss, on the first of January. Behold 
how so often death prevents our attempts ! He was' 
already advanced in years, and in the height of summer 
fell into a dropsy, which, however, the labour of the 
physicians reduced to tumours only in the feet and legs. 
And there was hope that after a time he would overcome 
it, and end his life by paralysis. But it turned out far 
otherwise. When he grew ashamed of the swelling he 
was prevailed on by his friends to commit himself to the 
care of the most skilful in the medical art. By their 
advice he called in the very celebrated Mr. Hector Boece ; 
who, when he saw him, gave no hope of his restoration to 
health ; in order, however, to humour the patient, and in 
some degree his friends also, he gave some prescriptions 
most suited to the disease. In vain, however, all in vain ; 
indeed, the disease became more virulent and moved the 
tumour of the legs to the higher parts and to the bowels. 



DETAILS OF THE DEATH OF THOMAS CHRYSTALL. 177 

When the physician ascertained this, he tried to remove 
the accumulations and" the hardness of the belly by 
clysters and issues. But not even in this way did he 
succeed, for on the night that followed the fourth of the 
Calends of January (between the 29 and 30 December), 
about 11 o'clock, in his tower of Strathisla, this very 
excellent man, Lord Thomas, departed this life. [1535.] 

But that any one reading .this may the better under- 
stand the piety of the man, we shall put on record some 
further particulars. 

In the first place, he was very solicitous that there 
should be a consultation with the people committed to 
his charge in both baronies before he died. In each of 
them he discharged in perpetuity much of the annual 
payments, and to most of the rest he made various grants. 
Then, three days before his death, he most religiously 
fulfilled the Brief of the Supreme Pontiff Paul III., by 
which it was decreed that Confession being nightly per- 
formed and a three days' fast, and the most Holy Com- 
munion received, Christ's faithful should obtain pardon of 
all their sins. 

In the article of death, having first been anointed with 
the sacred ointment, he often implored mercy of the most 
gentle Jesus, and begged of his domestics to pardon him 
in His name who for us hung upon the Tree, if at any 
time he had treated them harshly. And frequently he 
called upon the divine Jerome, whom he chiefly held 
among the Saints as his patron while he lived, that, being 
cleansed from the stains of all vices contracted in this 
world, he might commend him to the Lord Jesus. Lastly, 
when speech failed him, he very, very often kissed the 
type of the Crucifix, and with uplifted hand repeatedly 
fortified himself with the sign of the Cross. And while 
the praiseworthy man was showing such tokens of true 
piety, he yielded up his spirit to Christ. 

And to sum up the whole matter in a few words he 
was born in the year of our Lord fourteen hundred and 
seventy-eight ; and coming out of the eighteenth year of 
his age, he became a candidate of the Cistercian Institute, 
under the Lord Abbot of Kinloss, Lord William Galbraith; 
then at the expiry of a year he professed the Rule of 
Divine Benedict, and in due order was shortly advanced 
to the Order of Priest ; being nominated to the sacerdotal 
VOL. III. 12 



178 THOMAS CHRYSTALL, ABBOT OF KINLOSS. 

character under the Bishop of Ross, in the last week of 
the Fast of Lent, on the third day of Easter [Tuesday in 
Easter week], immediately after he had been initiated he 
celebrated his first Mass. This happened under the 
novitiate of David Spens, whose instructor (being then a 
Deacon), in what regards the ceremonies of religion, Lord 
Thomas was. But after some years, and for a good 
reason, he was declared Abbot of the Monastery of 
Kinloss by Lord William Culross ; and being anointed 
Abbot by the Bishop of Brechin, by name Meldrum, on 
the Feast of St. John the Baptist, he returned to his 
Monastery ; and again on the Feast of the Assumption of 
Mary, the Blessed Virgin and Mother, he first celebrated 
the Sacrifice on his promotion to the office of Abbot with 
great but not the less religious splendour. But from that 
time he was wholly occupied in managing his Monastery, 
in contending with adversaries, in restoring buildings in 
ruins from old age, in constructing and erecting new 
houses, in purchasing as well for the use of his own 
family as for the Sacrifice, silver vessels and sacred vest- 
ments, in the exercise of discipline among the Monks, and 
in an infinity of such like works. 

When he saw from his age that he was hastening to 
death, which is common to all, that he might provide for 
the future, in the sixtieth year of his age, he appointed as 
the future Abbot a man in every way most celebrated, 
and a Subdean of the Church of Moray, Mr. Robert Reid, 
now my mecenas. After the election of his successor he 
lived seven years, less or more. From the year in which 
Lord Thomas first saw the light till the last day of his 
life he completed sixty-seven years. And on the third of 
the Calends of January he was carried by night to the 
Monastery and buried in the sepulchre built by himself 
near by the High Altar. REQUIESCAT IN PACE. AMEN." 
(Translation from Ferrerius' History of the Abbey of 
Kinloss, in Latin. Edinburgh, 1839. Given also in Dr. 
Stuart's Records of Kinloss, 1872.) 

Seal of Thomas, Allot of Kinloss. A full length figure of a 
Monk, with a pastoral staff in his right hand and a breviary in 
his left At the dexter side is a mullet, and at the sinister a 
crescent. " SIGILLU ABB[ATIS] DE KYNLOS." (Appended to 
Charter of the Patronage of the Church of OchUtree, in Kyle, to the 
Abbey of Melros, A.D. 1316.) 



ABBOTS ROBERT AND WALTER REID. 179 

28. Robert Reid was born at Akynhead, in the parish 
of Kinneddar, his father being John Reid, who fell at the 
Battle of Flodden; he was the 28th Abbot of Kinloss. 
In 1538 Alexander Ogilvie of Finlater, the successor of 
the former, revived the old settled dispute with this 
Abbot about the territory called Hawinthfe in Strathisla. 
After various debates before the King and Parliament the 
Abbot regained his suit. 

In 1533 he was sent by the King, along with William 
Stuart, Bishop of Aberdeen, on an embassy to Henry VIII. 
for a peace between the English and Scotch, which was 
arranged. On various occasions he received from King 
Henry, gifts of many silver vessels. He was, in 1535 and 
in 1536, sent to France on missions about the marriage of 
James V. In 1538 he erected a spacious fire-proof library 
at Kinloss, and adorned his Monastery with many new 
buildings. In 1540 he built the nave of the Church at 
Beauly, and restored the bell tower, which had been 
destroyed by lightning. He brought from France a 
gardener who was expert at the planting and grafting of 
fruit trees, and who was also skilled in surgery; who lost 
one of his feet in a sea fight against the Spaniards near 
Marseilles. In 1538 Abbot Reid invited to Kinloss a 
celebrated painter, Andrew Bairhum, who was occupied 
for three years in painting altar-pieces for three Chapels 
in the Church. Although appointed Bishop of Orkney, 
he still retained the title of Abbot of Kinloss. To his 
liberality is owing the foundation of the College of Edin- 
burgh. He died at Dieppe on the 15th Sept., 1558. 

Seal of Robert Reid, Abbot of Kinloss. Beautifully executed 
design of a full-length figure of the Blessed Virgin Mary and 
infant Jesus, with a ball in his hands, signifying the world. 
In the lower part of the seal is a shield charged with a stag's 
head erased, the shield supported by a pastoral staff. " SIGILLU 
ROBERTI ABBATIS MONASTERII DE KYNLOS." (c. A.D. 1550." 
Detached Seal. C. Innes.) 

In 1544 is recorded the burial of James, Earl of Moray, 
at Kinloss, before the High Altar, in the middle space 
between the " gradus confessionis " and where the Paschal 
candle stands. 

29. Walter Reid, nephew of the former, was admitted 
to the office of Abbot of Kinloss in 1553, and was the 
last. He subscribed the first Covenant in 1560, ami 



180 THE ABBOT OF GRANGE SLAIN BY TAM O' RIVEN. 

alienated a great part of the Abbey lands of Kinloss, as 
well as those of the Priory of Beauly. He married 
Margaret Collace, a daughter of the house of Balnamoon, 
by whom he had several children. He was dead on the 
1st January, 1589, when in a submission signed by 
Margaret Collace, who is described as relict of Walter, 
Abbot of Kinloss. 

30. Walter Hetton, precentor, became Prior of Beauly. 

MONASTERY OF ST. MARY AT STRATHISLA OR GRANGE. 

The Abbots of Kinloss had in Grange a Castle in which 
they frequently resided, built on the top of a small mount, 
partly natural, partly artificial, surrounded by a dry ditch, 
upon the south side of a rising ground, overlooking 
extensive haughs, and the small River Isla meandering 
through them for several miles. Of this Castle there 
now remains nothing but a heap of rubbish. At the foot 
of a small natural mount, called the Lady Hill, adjoining 
the eminence on which the Castle stood, is a spring called 
the Lady Well. Another spriii goii the south bank of the 
Isla, directly opposite the Church door, is called the Groik 
Well. The Gallowhill, a small hill lying north of the 
Church, is so called because it was the place of execution 
for criminals tried and condemned in the Abbot's Regality 
Court. (Stat. Ace. of Scotland, vol. ix.) 

On the north shoulders of the two Ballochs (the Little 
and Muckle), between the glacks, is the famous spot where 
an Abbot of Grange challenged Tarn Gordon o' Riven 
(who had " a lucken han'," i.e., webbed, having the fingers 
joined like the toes of a duck or goose) to decide a dispute 
about certain lands. Tarn o' Riven slew the Abbot. The 
scene and localities are graphically (barring blunders) 
portrayed in a scarce brochure by John A. Cameron, 
Banff, printed in 1849. 

The Rentall of the Abbay of Kynlos (A.D. 1574.) 
The Baronie of Straithylay 

Item, the mains and landis of Straithylay, with tour, 
fortalice, and orchard of the samyn, The Clerk Sett, 
Boglugy, Thornetoun, Hauches, Murifald, Brakhall, Cairn- 
hillis, Cairgleithe, Auchindanery, Ouir Mylne, Nethir 
Mylne, and mylne landis of the samyn, sent for j xxj lib. 
xv s. j d. 



RENTAL OF THE MONASTERY AT GRANGE. 181 

Item, the landis underwrittin, videlicet, the landis of 
Millegin, Garwotwod, Eister Cranokis, Newland thairof, 
Westir Cranokis, Eister Croylettis, Westir Croylettis, 
Ethres, the half landis of Ballnamene, Fortrie, Newland 
of Fortrie, the ouer sett and nether sett of Kilmanitie, the 
landis of The Clerk Saitt of the west syde of the burne, 
the landis of the xix oxingange of The Knok, sett for j c 
Ixij lib. iiij s. 

Item, the remanent of the Knok, extending to xiij 
oxingange, set to the tennentis for yeirlie payment of xij 
lib. xviij d. iij bollis, iij firlots custume meill ; iij bollis, 
iij firlotis custume aittis ; iij wedderis, iij quarteris wedder, 
viij caponis. 

Item, the landis of Auchinhovis, with the pendicles, 
Glengarock and Mengreowis, sett for Ixxiij lib. v s. ij d. 

Item, the landis of the hauches of Kilmyntutie sett for 
v merks, vi s. viij d., tua firlotis custum meill, and ane 
boll of custume aittis, ane wedder, ane guis, thrie caponis, 
and thrie pultrie. 

The landis of Kelliesmonth, Toirmoir, and Nether 
Kylmanedy, sett for xxxviij lib. xviij s. 

The landis of Pethnik, sett for vij lib xj s., viij caponis, 
xvj pultrie, and twa geis. 

Item, the landis of Edingeith, with the pendicles, sett 
for xix lib. vij s. viij d. xj s. ryne marte silver, ij geis, viij 
caponis, xvj pultrie. 

The landis of Over and Nether Cantlie, sett for viij lib. 
xi s., ij bollis of custume meill, ij bollis custume aittis, 
ij wedderis, viij caponis, xvj pultrie, xi s. ryne marte 
silver. 

Item, the landis of Fluris, and the landis of the auld 
toun of Ballamene, sett for yeirlie payment of ix lib. ix s. 
v d., ij firlotis custume meill, ij firlotis custume aittis, 
half ane weddir, xiij geiss, iij caponis, iij pultrie, ij s. ix d. 
in ryne mart silver. 

Item, the landis of Windhills, calit the Sauchy town, 
sett for the yeirlie payment of vij lib. xiiij s. viij d., v s. 
vj d. in ryne marte silver, ij bollis custume meill, ij 
bollis custume aittis, ij wedderis, xij geiss, xij caponis, xij 
pultrie. 

Item, the landis of Over Hauchies of Kelleismonth, sett 
for the yeirlie payment of iiij lib. xx d., ij bollis meill, ij 
bollis aittis, j wedder, j guis, iij caponis, vj pultrie. 



] 82 RENTAL OF THE BARONY OF STRATHISLA. 

Item, the landis of Lynnache, sett for payment of vj lib. 
viij s. iiij d. 

Item, the Newlands of Millegin, callit Jonettis Scheill, 
with Straibknow, sett for the yeirlie payment of xx s. 

Item, the Lady land, sett for yeirlie payment of iij lib. 
vj s. viij d. 

Thir ar to be deducit of the money victuallis aboue 
specifiet : 

Item, to the baillie of Straithylay for his fie, x lib. 

Item, to the officiar of Straithylay for his fie, xl s.] 
(The Book of the Chronicles of Keith, &c., by the Editor.) 

I now go to 

THE PRIORIES. 

Of these we had three, viz.: At Urquhart, 
Pluscarden and Kingussie. At first the Prior 
was but the ruler of the Abbey under the Abbot, 
who was Primus in the Monastery, and the Prior 
was no dignitary. But afterwards a mother 
Abbey detached a party of its Monks and obtained 
a settlement for them in some other place, and 
becoming a separate Convent a Prior was set over 
them ; and their house was called Cella G-rangia, 
or Obedientia, denoting that they depended on a 
superior Monastery. This was called a Con- 
ventual Prior, and was a dignitary ; but a Prior 
in the Abbey was only a Claustral Prior. The 
oldest in this Province was 

THE PRIORY OF URQUHART, 

Founded by King David L, anno 1125, in 
honour of the Trinity. It was a cell of Dunferm- 
line, planted with Benedictine or Black Monks, 



NO ACCOUNT OF THE REVENUES OF URQUHART PRIORY. 183 

of the Order of Fleurie. King David endowed it 
liberally, granting "to the Church of the Holy 
Trinity of Urchard, and to the Prior and Brethren 
there serving God, Urchard, two Finfans, and 
Fochabers, by their right divisions, a commonty 
of pasture to animals, one fishing in Spey, twenty 
shillings in the Burgh of Elgin, and to the Lord- 
shipmen in Fochabers a right of the fishing 
which belongs to Tain, and the teind-cane of 
Argyle, Moray, and of the Pleas, and of the 
whole rent of the same Argyle, also Penic, near 
Erin, by its right divisions, and the shealings of 
Fathnechtin, and all the rights which the Monks 
of Dunfermline were wont to have in Moray. " 
All the lands now called the Lordship of Urquhart, 
the village and lands of Fochaber, the lands of 
Penic near Aldern, the lands of Dalcross, a 
fishing on Spey, pertained to this Priory, as did 
the patronage of Urquhart, Bellie, and Dalcross. 
The revenues of this Priory were not given up 
anno 1563, so I can give no account of them. 
The Priory lands were erected in a regality. The 
building stood in a hollow north-east of the 
Church of Urquhart, but scarce any vestige 
thereof remains. In the year 1565 Alexander 
Seaton, son to Lord Seaton, was made Commen- 
dator of Pluscarden ; and 3rd August, 1591, he 
was created Lord Urquhart, and Earl of Dun- 
fermline anno 1605. But Earl James being 
forfeited anno 1690, Seaton of Barns claimed the 



184 LANDS GRANTED TO THE PRIORY OF URQUHART. 

Lordship of Urquhart, and about the year 1730 
it was purchased by the family of Gordon. 

PRIORY OF URQUHART. 

[No vestige now remains to mark the locality where it 
stood, save an ancient well, which is still known by the 
name of the " Abbey Well." This Priory was a Cell of 
Benedictines of the Abbey of Dunfermline, and was 
endowed with a considerable extent of land in the neigh- 
bourhood, comprising the two Finfans and what subse- 
quently constituted the Lordship of Urquhart. The 
Monks are mentioned as performing the offices of religion 
to the inhabitants of Meft, Innes, Sallescot, Byn, and 
Garmach,* and as receiving for their services three-fifths 
of the tithes of these places, the other two-fifths falling 
to the share of the rector of Eskyll, to whose parish these 
places were then considered as belonging. Of the baronies 
in this part of the country, the one of which earliest 
mention is made is the estate of Innes and Easter Urqu- 
hart [Inees et etherurecard],^ which was granted by 
Malcolm IV. to Berowald the Fleming in the previous 
century, and the possession of which was confirmed to 
Walter de Innes, the grandson of that noble, by Alexander 
II. in a charter dated at Cullen on the 20th of Jan., 1226.+ 

The lands of Meft had been granted by William the 
Lion to the grandfather of a noble, named Eugemus, who 
proved before a court in the reign of Alexander III., in 
1263, that this property was not a thanedom, and thus 
succeeded in obtaining its recognition as a barony. It 
was possessed by a son of this Baron at the time of 
Edward's visit to Moray. 

Urquhart was governed by a Prior, who, in 1343, was 
sufficiently independent to settle the obligation of the 
Priory to pay the expense of serving the Chapel of 
Kilravock; but in 1358 the Abbot of Dunfermline asserted 
that the Prior could not be elected without his sanction. 
In 1429 there is a letter from Columban, Bishop of Moray, 
authorising the Commissioner of the Abbot of Dunferm- 

* Reg. Ep. Morav, p. 102. 
t Reg. Ep. Morav, p. 453. 

I Antiquities of the Shires of Aberdeen and Banff (Note to 
Table of Contents), vol. ii., p. 20. 



GRANTS TO URQUHART CONFIRMED BY SEVERAL POPES. 185 

line the King's assent having been also obtained to the 
Commission to inquire into, correct, and reform the 
Priorate and Prior of the Abbot's Cell of Urquhart, on 
account of some crimes come to the ears of the Abbot. 
The Bishop at the same time addressed a letter to the 
Prior of Urquhart, Andrew Raeburn, informing him that 
the Abbot intended, by his Commissioner, to hold a 
visitation of the Priory, and requiring the Prior to attend 
it. What faults the Prior of Urquhart had committed 
does not appear, nor the result of the visitation.] 
(Taylor's Ediuard I. in the North of Scotland.) 

[The grant referred to at page 183, is confirmed by Popes 
Alexander III., 1163; Lucius III, 1182; Gregory IX., 
1234. There is a Charter granted by Robert Keldelecht, 
Abbot of Dunfermline, between 1240 and 1252, of the 
lands of Kildun, near Dingwall, in Ross, with all their 
pertinents, to Richard of Moray, and his heirs, for his 
making an annual payment at the Feast of the Nativity 
of the blessed John the Baptist, "in our Cell of Urchard, 
to the Superior of it for the time being," which is sealed 
and attested by the Chapter of Dunfermline. And there 
is another somewhat similar Charter to a different person 
by Abbot Alexander de Berwick, between 1321 and 1353. 
In 1358, in the reign of David II., and the Pontificate of 
Innocent VII., and the incumbency of John, Abbot of 
Dunfermline, a protestation is issued concerning the 
Priory of Urchard. 

The south and east parts of the parish of Urquhart 
were erected into a temporal Lordship, and given by 
James VI. to his favourite courtier, Alexander Seton, from 
which he took one of his titles (Baron of Urquhart), in 
1591. He afterwards became Chancellor of Scotland and 
Earl of Dunfermline. He sold the Kirk Lands of Durris, 
which were a part of the lands of the Priory of Urquhart, 
to Mark Dunbar, in 1592, reserving the patronage and 
the teinds ; and Dunbar disposed the whole barony of the 
parish of Durris to Sir John Campbell of Calder, 4th 
August, 1608, who, in 1610, purchased from Dunfermline 
the patronage of Dalcross and the patronage and teinds of 
Durris. The Earl of Dunfermline mortified 12 bolls of 
meal, to be paid out of the Mill of Urquhart, as the salary 
of the School of Urquhart. 



186 THE ABBEY WELL OF THE PRIORY OF URQUHART. 

The rest of the property of the Priory of Urquhart was 
bestowed by William II. on Livingstone, Viscount Kilsyth, 
whose estates were forfeited in 1690, and himself attainted 
in 1715. His portion of it was subsequently purchased 
by the Duke of Gordon, and now belongs to Lord Fife. 

The patronage of the Churches of Urquhart, Bellie, and 
Dalcross belonged to this Priory. The Kirk of Urquhart 
was a parsonage, and dedicated to St. Margaret, the 
mother of the founder of the Priory. The Priory lands 
were erected into a regality, and in 1535, James Beaton, 
Archbishop of St. Andrews, and George Dury, Commen- 
dator of the Monastery, appointed four persons to hold 
Justiciary Courts of the Regality of Dunferrnline, below 
the Lordship of Urquhart and Priory of Pluscarden. 

The Priory was situated in a field a little to the east 
of the Parish Church. The Abbey Well is the only 
memorial that remains. About 1345 this Cell, as well as 
that of Pluscarden, fell into disorder, and the Pope having 
commissioned some of the Bishops of Scotland to inquire 
into the irregularities, it was soon after separated from 
Dunfermline and conjoined to Pluscarden. At and before 
the Reformation, the Priors began to feu out the lands, 
reserving only in their own possession the manor, places, 
and mills ; the revenue which by that method they drew 
from thence, if we take into account the teinds and 
multures, would even at this day be nearly equal to a 
moderate rent. In 1654, the greater part of the materials 
were carried off to build a granary near the shore at 
Gannouth, the remainder, soon after, was employed in 
repairing the manse and enclosing the churchyard. (Old 
Stat. A cot. of Scotland.) 

The following paragraph is taken from the Glasgow 
Herald of 30th January, 1866 : 

A man ploughing a piece of moss ground on the farm of 
Clockeasy, parish of Urquhart, last week, struck what he took 
to be a tree root. A short time afterwards, Mr. Taylor, the 
farmer, went with a spade to dig out the root, when he dis- 
covered that it was a square piece of oak, with planks of the 
same wood morticed into it. The next day three went to 
work to find out the secret, and, when they had dug round 
about it, they found it to be 4 posts, 6 feet square, all boxed 
up with planks, which were morticed into the posts, each of 
which was 9 inches square. On investigation being made as 



DISCOVERY OF THE FARM OF CLOCKEASY. 187 

to what was within this planking, some bones were found and 
a lot of earthen vessels, which at one time had had handles, 
eight of which were turned quite distinct. There was also 
found a lead plate and some other articles, and it was observed 
that there had been one shelf round the square enclosure within 
the planking. The place where this discoveiy was made is 
between the moss and a piece of rising ground. Our corre- 
spondent says there had once been buildings near the spot, 
which they call the Abbey. It seems to be the place where 
the old Priory of Urquhart stood, in a hollow to the north-east 
of the village of Urquhart. Not a vestige of this Religious 
House now remains, nor has it been visible for about seventy 
years. The Old Statistical Account of Urquhart, published in 
1795, says that the site of it had lately been converted into an 
arable field, and the name of the "Abbey Well," which the 
country people still give to the well which supplied the Monks 
with water, was the only memorial of it that then remained. 
It is likely the discovery will be found to have some connection 
with the old Abbey.' 

There are several Priors of this place mentioned in the 
two Chartularies of Moray, which are still preserved 
amongst the curious collection of manuscripts belonging 
to the Faculty of Advocates ; for Richard, Prior of Urqu- 
hart, subscribes the fixing of the Cathedral of Moray at 
Spynie, and the foundation of eight Canons settled there 
by Bishop Bricius, brother to William, Lord Douglas, in 
the reign of King William the Lion. 

PRIORS OF URQUHART. 

1. Richard is noticed as in office in 1203, 1212, and 
1221, in Wilkin's Concilia, p. 533. He subscribed the 
fixing of the Cathedral of Elgin at Spynie and the foun- 
dation of eight Canons settled there by Bishop Bricius, 
brother to William, Lord Douglas, in the reign of King 
William the Lion. 

2. Thomas was present at a Synod of Andrew, Bishop 
of Moray, held at Elgin in 1232, and was Sub-Legate for 
composing a difference between the Bishop of Moray and 
David of Strathbogie. 

3. W illiam is noticed in the Register of Moray, pp. 36, 
103, 461-2. 

4. John, in 1248, appears in the Register of Dun- 
fermline. 



188 PRIORS OF URQUHART. 

5. W. de Rathen, 1260-86, appears in the Registers of 
Dunfermline and Moray. 

6. John Blak, 1353, cellarer, having lost the Abbotship 
of Dunfermline, he became Prior of Urquhart. 

7. Robert, 1369, was present at a Synod called at Elgin 
this year, "de decimis solvendis de plaustris ducentibus 
in eremia." 

8. Adam de Hadyngton, 1388. 

9. William de Busby, 1390. In 1388 he appealed to 
Walter Trail, Bishop of St. Andrews, against Alexander 
Bar, Bishop of Moray, for an unjust appointment to the 
Priorate of Urchard. 

10. Andrew Raebum, 1429. 

11. William de Boyis, 1454-62. 

As the Revenues of this Priory were not returned in 
1563, no account of them can be given. They were 
seized by the Crown and granted partly to Court favour- 
ites and partly as rewards to the Champions of the 
Reformation.] (Monasticon, by the Editor.) 

Next erected was 

THE PRIORY OF PLUSCARDEN, 

Which was founded by King Alexander II. 
1230, in honour of St. Andrew, and named Vallis 
Sti Andrea. [In a Bull by Pope Urban in 1263, 
the rights and privileges which had been conferred 
upon it are confirmed ; and it is termed Monas- 
terium Vallis Sancti Andrece.~\ It was planted 
Monachi Vallis Caulium, a reform of the Cister- 
cians brought into Scotland by Bishop Malvoisin 
of St. Andrews, and settled in Pluscarden, Beaulie 
and Ardchatton. They were different from the 
Camaldulians, or Monacld Vallis Umbrosce, who 
were properly Hermits. Of the Monachi Vallis 
Caulium, only the Prior and the Procurator were 



REVENUE OF THE PRIORY OF PLUSCARDEN. 189 

allowed to go without the precinct. The monks 
of Pluscarden, at first independent, afterwards 
becoming vicious, the Priory was reformed and 
made a cell of Dunfermline. 

By the munificence of our Kings and great 
men, the Priory became very rich. The whole 
valley of Pluscarden, 3 miles in length, in the 
parish of Elgin ; the lands of Old Mills, near the 
town of Elgin; some lands in Durris, and the 
lands of Grangehill [now Dalvey] belonged to it. 
At this last place the Prior had a Grangia and a 
cell of monks. Likewise the mills of Old Mills 
near Elgin pertained to the prioiy. The town 
lands were thirled to those Mills, and Omnia 
grana crescentia cum allitis et invectis* were to 
be grinded at these mills. King Eobert Bruce 
also gave the priory a fishing on the river of Spey. 

The Revenue of the Priory, as given up anno 1563, was as 
follows : 525 10s. l|d.; wheat, 1 chalder 1 boll 2 firlots; 
malt meal and bear, 51 chalders 4 bolls 3 firlots 1 peck ; oats, 
5 chalders 13 bolls ; dry multures, 9 chalders 11 bolls ; salmon, 
30 lasts; grassums, cain, customs, poultrie, &c., omitted. De- 
ducted anno 1563, to ilk ane of five monks in kething and 
habit, silver 16 : and to ilk ane in victual, 1 chalder 5 bolls 
per annum. 

[The following is a collated list from the Registrum Episco- 
patus Moraviensis : Lordship of Pluscarden, 262 16s. 2d. 
money; Baronies of Farnen and Urquhart, 31c. lOb. victual. 
Fishings, besides 30 lastis, intromitted with by the Sheriff of 
Moray, allegand him to haif the samin in feu-farme. Kirk of 
Pluscarden, 100 and 7c. lib. victual; Kirkis of Urquharde 
and Bellie, 28c. lOb. If. lp.; and in money, with the vicarages 
of the samin, but out of use of payment during this instant 

* Translation. All the growing corns, with such as were 
brought and ground there. (ED.) 



190 BUILDINGS OF THE PRIORY OF PLUSCARDEN. 

controversie and trouble. Kirk of Durris and Dalcons, 
.122 Os. 8d.; Mills of Torres, 46 13s. 4d. 4c. 6b. victual. 
The Scotch money must be reckoned at only yV of the value 
of our sterling coin of the same name. The wages to the 
master, cook, porter, baker, gardener, and malt maker, was 
14 bolls to each.] (ED.) 

The buildings stood 4 miles south-west from 
the town of Elgin, near the entry of the valley, 
at the foot of the north Hill, which reverberating 
the sunbeams renders the place very warm. The 
walls of the precinct are almost entire, and make 
near a square figure. The Church stands about 
the middle of the square; a fine edifice in the 
form of a cross; with a square tower in the 
middle all of hewn asher. The oratory and 
refectory join to the south end of the Church, 
under which is the dormitory. The Chapter 
House is a curious piece of workmanship; an 
octagonal cube, whereof the vaulted roof is sup- 
ported by one pillar. The lodgings of the Prior 
and cells of the monks were all contiguous to the 
Church. Within the precinct were gardens and 
green walks. In a word, the remains of this 
Priory shew, that those monks lived in a stately 
palace, and not in mean cottages. 

The Prior was Lord of Eegality within the 
Priory lands, and had a distinct regality in 
Grangehill, called "The Kegality of Stanef ore- 
noon." At the Eeformation, Sir Alexander 
Seaton, afterwards Earl of Dunfermline, was 
anno 1565 made Commendator of Pluscarden. 
He disponed the Church lands of Durris, with the 






DISPONINGS OF LANDS AT THE REFORMATION. 191 

patronage and the lands of Grangehill, and the 
Barony of Pluscarden and Old Mills, 23rd Febru- 
ary, 1595, to Kenneth MacKenzie of Kintail, who 
got a Novo Damns, dated 12th March, 1607, of 
that Barony. " With all and sundry the teind- 
sheaves of the whole lands and barony, with their 
pertinents, which were never separated from the 
stock, and of which the Prior and Convents and 
their predecessors, were in possession in all times 
past." 

May 9th, 1633, George of Kintail, brother 
and heir of the said Kenneth, disponed the 
barony to his brother Thomas M'Kenzie; from 
whom Sir George MacKenzie of Tarbet evicted it, 
by a charter of apprising anno 1649, and disponed 
it anno 1662 to the Earl of Caithness and Major 
George Bateman. The Earl transferred his right 
to the Major anno 1664 ; and the Major sold the 
whole barony to Ludowick Grant of Grant anno 
1677. Here let it be remarked, that Alexander 
Brodie of Lethin, father-in-law to Grant, paid 
the purchase money 5000 sterling, and Grant 
possessed Pluscarden only as tutor or trustee for 
his second son James, and in 1709 resigned in 
his favour. From the said James Grant (the 
late Sir James), William Duff of Dipple pur- 
chased it anno 1710 ; and now it is the property 
of the Earl of Fife. 

[The walls, &c., of the Abbey of Pluscarden, though 
unroofed, are almost entire, and in good preservation. 



192 PRIORY OF PLUSCARDEN. 

The Church was cruciform, having a saddle-back 
Tower rising in the centre. The whole buildings 
are worthy of the minutest study. In its general 
outline this Priory resembles very much the Abbey of 
Melrose, only it is smaller and less ornamented. The 
walls of the Church are lofty, and their high-pointed roofs 
reached almost to the topmost ledge of the tower walls. 
Great variety is shown in the disposition of the lights. 
The lines of these, especially of the choir windows, are 
singularly elegant. On the arch leading from the body 
of the Church to the choir are still seen the remains of 
paintings with which the walls were ornamented, consist- 
ing of delineations of the moon and stars, and part of a 
figure with an eagle on his arm, supposed to be St. John 
writing the Book of Revelation. The beautiful red 
sandstone of the neighbourhood has formed the materials 
of the Priory, and has well resisted the action of the 
elements. The entire walls of this large structure are 
completely covered with ivy, even to the top- of the tower 
walls ; and it is doubtful whether it does not now present 
a more picturesque object than when in its pristine 
grandeur. The arched kitchen under part of the dormi- 
tories has been fitted up as a place of worship for the 
members of the Free Kirk in the neighbourhood. In it 
has been placed a very fine old Pulpit, removed from old 
St. Giles', in Elgin. Other portions have been formed 
into a shooting-box for the Earl of Fife, and others are 
fitted up annually as a dancing-hall, &c., for the Volun- 
teers ! The garden is now chiefly a nursery. 

There were several Chapels 1. of the Dead ; 2. of St. 
Jerome; 3. of St. Lawrence; 4. of St. Mary; 5. of St. 
Ann, on the north-west side of the nave ; 6. of St. Peter ; 
7. of the Holy Cross ; 8. of St. John, Evangelist ; 9. of St. 
Andrew; 10. of St. Thomas; 11. of St. Be man ; 12. of 
St. Mary Magdalen.] (ED.) 

[The first edifice that presents itself is the Church that 
was originally intended to have been built in the form 
of a Cross. The foundation of the western transept has 
been laid but never finished. The plan of the whole 
had been repeatedly changed, as appears by the windows. 
Its dimensions are : 



MEASUREMENTS OF THE PRIORY OF PLUSCARDEN. 193 

Feet. Inch. 

Length of the Church from north to south, - - 94 4|^ 
(On the east has been a suite of aisles.) 

Breadth of the Church within the aisles, -27 8 

Breadth, including the aisles, - 46 10 

Length of the eastern transept, - - 56 1 

Breadth of Do., - 26 4 

Contiguous to the Church, on the south, is the Lady's 

or Virgin's Aisle, extending from east to west, 56 1 

This long, narrow vault is in breadth, - - 13 

To the south of the Lady's Aisle is the Chapter- 
house, supported by a clustered pillar, an 
elegant room, illuminated by four very large 
windows. It is about 30 feet square. 

Contiguous to this, on the south, is a vaulted lobby, 
leading to a cloistered court on the west. 

Beyond this, to the south, is the kitchen, a large 

room, supported by two pillars. Its Length, 45 6 

Breadth, 29 8 

Beneath the southmost half of the kitchen was a 
large vault, employed as a cemetery. The 
vault has been thrown down long ago, but the 
hollow space it occupied, and the doors leading 
to it, are to be seen. 

Contiguous to, and at right angles with the kitchen, 
on the west, was the refectory, a large hall, in 
length about - 94 

Beneath this there was a range of cellars. 

On the west of the Lady's Aisle and Chapter-house, 
&c., was a cloistered court, for enjoying the 
benefit of the open air in rainy weather. Its 
south wall formed by the north wall of the re- 
fectory. It was in Length - 99 8 

Breadth - 94 4 

Along the roofs of the Lady's Aisle, and Chapter- 
house, and kitchen, was the Dormitory. In 
Length - 114 2 

Breadth - 29 8 

It was divided by a passage in the middle into two 
suites of bed-chambers, in number about 13. 

At the south-east corner of the kitchen stood the 
Prior's house, communicating with the Church 
by a door in the south-east corner of the 
Dormitory, the passage in the middle of which 
led by another door to the Church. 

Immediately above the east gate of the gable of the 

VOL. III. 13 



194 ALIENATION OF THE LOVELY PLUSCARDEN. 

Feet. Inch 

Lady's Aisle was a chamber in which the Prior 
spent the forenoon generally. 
Contiguous to the north side of the east transept, 
and communicating with it by a door, was the 
Vestry, a vaulted building. In Length- - 16 

Breadth - 16 

The garden was well stored with fruit trees of the best 
kinds. A fig tree continued to blossom in it within these 
few years. A stream of water was conducted within the 
precinct wall that drove the mill for grinding their corns. 

The Prior was Lord of Regality within the Priory 
lands. In 1565 Alexander Seton, afterwards Earl of 
Dunfermline, was Commendator of Pluscarden. He sold, 
in 1595, to Kenneth Mackenzie of Kintail the Church 
lands of Durris, Grangehill, and the barony of Pluscarden, 
with Old Mill, including the decima garbalia, or teind 
sheaves of the barony. In 1633 the barony and Old 
Newmill were the property of Thomas, son of Kenneth 
Mackenzie. From him Sir George Mackenzie of Tarbet 
obtained them in 1649, who disponed them to Major 
Bateman. Janet Brodie, wife of Ludovick Grant of 
Grant, bought them in 1677 for her son James, afterwards 
Sir James Grant of Grant, who sold them in 1710 to 
William Duff of Dipple, and they remain the property of 
the Earl of Fife.] (Survey of the Province of Moray 
and ED.) 

[Pluscardine is a beautiful early English and decorated 
Minster, with later additions. A fragment of the south 
wall of the nave, possibly never completed ; an aisleless 
choir, 56 feet 8 inches long by 27 feet broad, covered with 
masses of woodbine and ivy ; a square Chapel, of the 15th 
century, on the north side ; the aisle of the transept, 92 
feet 6 inches long, retaining its groined vault, with two 
Chapels on its wing ; a central tower, with trefoiled win- 
dows inscribed in a triangle, and saddle-backed gables ; 
and the north wing of the transept, a fine composition, 
resembling Hexham, with a round window in the gable, 
are spared. The dormitory steps remain in the south 
wing, and also a door to a bridge from the dormitory. 
The choir has traces of diaper work, and a credence on 
the north side, with angels supporting a vat, into which 
they are pressing clusters of grapes ; a most beautiful and 



FORMER GLORY OF PLUSCARDEN PRIORY. 195 

suggestive design. The Tabernacle shews angels holding 
the pyx ; and two others, with a shield, representing the 
Sacrifice of the Mass, offered to the heavens a tree-stock 
for earth, a fish for water, a winged thunderbolt for fire, 
and a winged caduceus for the air in French Cathedrals 
the four windows facing the points of the compass are 
called after the elements. There is no triforium. The 
clerestory consists of three circles sunk in spherical 
triangles. There are six exterior consecration crosses in 
circles, one west of each wing of the transept, and four in 
the choir wall. There were formerly similar examples at 
Trinity College, Edinburgh. There is one at St. Andrews. 
Of the conventual buildings, the refectory; the base- 
ment of some of the offices ; the steps of the dormitory 
leading down into the south wing of the transept; the 
square Chapter House, 28 feet square, with a central 
pillar, four bays of groining, a fine double portal and lateral 
arches, and traces of mural decoration from the Apocalypse, 
which are minutely described by Cordiner,* with some por- 
tions of the Abbot's lodge, remain. The slanting orifice in 
the sacristy wall was used by the Acolytes who prepared 
the tapers, and lighted them on a signal from the tran- 
sept ; a small adjoining cell was probably used for peni- 
tential discipline. The cloister was 100 feet square.] 
(Wcdcott's Scoti-Monasticon.) 

PRIORS OF PLUSCARDEN. 

1. Symon, Prior of Pluscardine, in 1239, witnesses the 
Charter by which, among other churches, the Church of 
Fernua, formed out of the Byset parish of Dunballoch, was 
granted by the Bishop of Moray to the canons of Elgin. 
In 1263 Pope Urban IV. granted a Bull to Pluscardine. 
He after the example of Gregory, of happy memory, takes 
the Monastery under the protection of the Blessed Peter 
and himself. He appoints that the Monastic order which 
has been instituted in the Monastery according to God 
and the rule of St. Benedict, and the institution of the 
Brethren of Valliscaulium should for all times be observed 
there. He confirms the grants made to the House, especi- 
ally the place where the Monastery is situated, with all 
its appurtenances; the Church situated in the town, called 
Durris (Dores), with the tithes of sheaves of the same 
* Cordiner does not describe these. (ED.) 



196 PRICES OF PLUSCAEDEN. 

place ; the right of patronage in the Church ; the tithes of 
sheaves in the forests of Pluscardine and Wthutyr ; the 
tithes of the mills placed in the same forests and of the iron 
dug in the same ; the right of fishing with twenty nets 
in the Spey ; and the mill with the stream, which the 
monks have in the town called Elgyn. The lands and 
possessions in the places commonly called Fernauay, 
Thulidoui, Kep, the Greater Kintessoch, and Mefth, are 
confirmed ; also the land and forest called Pluscardin and 
Wthutyr. Nobody is to take tithes from their gardens, 
underwoods, fishings, or meadows. The Monks may 
receive to conversion these flying from the secular power. 
There are the usual restrictions against leaving the House 
without the Prior's license ; and against any Monk or 
lay-brother being surety, and borrowing money ; leave to 
say the holy Officers during an interdict, and no Prior is 
to be placed at their head except he who is chosen by 
the majority. The Bull is dated at Viterbo, 3rd July, 1263. 
Symon seems to have been a long time Prior, for 
Dominus Symon, Prior de Pluscardine, is witness to a 
charter by John, the son of Malcolm de Moravia, which 
Mr. Innes puts down as of the date 1284, and which is 
witnessed by William, Earl of Sutherland, and William, 
Earl of Ross. In his time the Monks of Pluscardine 
arranged with the burgesses of Elgin that the Monks 
should have the lands which lay between the two mills 
of Elgin in lieu of an obligation on the town to repair the 
mills and stanks, with which the burgh was then bur- 
dened. The convention is dated St. Nicholas' Day, 1272. 
Patrick Heyrock was provost, and Hugo Bisset one of 
the burgesses; and Hugo Herock, in 1286, has Simon, 
Prior of Pluscardine, as a witness to his endowment of 
the chaplains of St. Nicholas and the Holy Cross at 
Elgin. By 1330 the Heyrocks have become treasurers of 
the Church of Moray, and the controversy between the 
town and the priory is now as to the multures. The 
Monks are to have the 17th vessel or vat of corn in lieu 
of other multures. 

2. Andrew, became Prior of Newbottle in 1264. 

3. Simon, 1286. 

4. John Wyse. John, Bishop of Moray, and Richard, 
Bishop of Dunkeld, in a Cathedral Chapter of the Church 
of Moray, held on the 10th of October, 1345, having 



DISPUTES ABOUT RIGHTS AND PRIORITIES. 197 

before them, summoned by the Bishop of Moray, John 
Wyse, the Prior, Adam Marshall, the Sub-Pi ior, and 
William of Inverness and Adam Young, Monks, of the 
House of the ^ale of St. Andrew of Pluscardine, interro- 
gate them, and extract from them this statement That 
from the first foundation of the House of Pluscardine, as 
they have heard from their predecessors and seen in their 
own time, the Bishops of Moray for the time being, as 
often as they thought fit, had exercised the right of visi- 
tation and correction, institution and deprivation, over 
the Priors and brethren of the House of Pluscardine, and 
received procurations ; and the Prior and Monks admitted 
that they had no exemption, or privilege against this 
right, which was now, and had been from time beyond 
memory, exercised by the Bishops of Moray. Nor was 
this all. Sir William de Longo Vico, a Monk of the 
Rennard Valley, of the diocese of Toul, as nuncio of the 
Order of the Valliscaulians, and proctor of the Prior of 
the House of Valliscaulium in the diocese of Langres, 
stated that the Bishops and diocesan Archbishops, as 
well in Germany as in other parts beyond the sea, in 
whose diocese Houses of the Valliscaulian order were 
situated, down to this time had exercised, and now exer- 
cise, in their dioceses, the right of visitation and correction 
over these Houses, and received procurations. There 
were present the Chancellor and Official of Moray, the 
Chancellor of Glasgow, the Treasurer of Dunkeld, and 
the Canons of Moray, specially called to be witnesses. 

The House of Pluscardine had further troubles in con- 
nection with their multures. Robert de Chisholm, who 
was Lord of Quarry wood, near Elgin, refused to pay 
multures to the Prior. The House appealed to the 
Bishop of Moray, and Alexander Bar, the then prelate, 
issued a monition to Sir Archibald Douglas, Knight, in 
April, 1390, in the following terms: 

"Honourable and Noble Sir, You and John de Kay, 
Sheriff of Inverness, have determined a certain process in such 
manner, as God knows, to the grievous injury of the Priory of 
Pluscardine, and to the great prejudice of the jurisdiction of 
the Church, which we crave to have by you recalled ; for we 
assert and declare that Alexander, King of Scotland, of pious 
memory, gifted to the Prior and Monks of Pluscardine the 
mills of Elgin and Forres and other mills depending on them, 



198 LORD OF QUARRY WOOD REFUSES MULCTURES TO PRIORS. 

and the mulctures of the lands of those mills which he then 
received, or ought to have received, as they were for the 
deliverance of his soul, which mulctures of the lands, when 
arable by virtue of the donation, the said Prior and Monks 
have received, likeas they yet without dispute receive; and 
whereas the mulctures of the lands of Quarrywood, in the 
Sheriffdom of Elgin, at that time unimproved, but now reduced 
to cultivation, belongs and appertains to the mill of Elgin, from 
which it is scarcely a mile distant ; because, if it had been at 
that time cultivated, the mulctures would, and ought to have 
been received by the royal granter." 

The complaint, after stating undisturbed possession, 
with the knowledge and tolerance of Robert de Chisholm, 
knight, during the preceding reigns, " further asserts and 
declares that the said Robert had seized and bound a 
certain husbandman of the lands of Findrassie (Finrossie), 
to whom the Prior had by contract let the said mulctures, 
and thrown him into a private prison, by which he 
directly incurred the sentence of excommunication." The 
complaint proceeds to shew cause why the action could 
not be determined by the civil, but by the ecclesiastical 
court, and concludes by threatening to excommunicate 
the civil judges if they attempted anything further by 
which the Priory might be wronged or the jurisdiction of 
the Church marred. 

5. Thomas. On the 16th of April, 1390, Thomas, 1367, 
Prior of the House of Pluscardine, records a solemn instru- 
ment of protest against the proceedings of Sir Robert de 
Chisholm. The Prior and the Knight, however, attest a 
Charter of John of Dunbar, Earl of Moray, to the burgh 
of Elgin on the 1st of May, 1390, by which the Earl dis- 
charged to the town for ever the ale of assize belonging 
to him, as constable of the castle of Elgin. 

Quarrywood is in the parish of Spynie, and is so called 
from a rich quarry of freestone in these lands. It belonged 
in 1365 to Sir Robert Lander whose grandson, Sir Robert 
de Chesholme, then Constable of Urquhart Castle (to 
whom John Randolph, Earl of Moray, had given in 1345, 
the lands of Invermoriston and Lochletter in Glenmoriston, 
and Glenurquhart), in January, 1365, married his daughter 
to Rose of Kilravock. Shaw wonders that Sir Robert 
Lauder could be alive when his great-grand-daughter was 
married, but the Lauders of the Bass were a stout race. 



THE WHITS OF PLUSCARDEN PRIORY BURNED. 199 

and he was not only alive, but able to enter into a deed 
with his grandson in 1366. 

Sir Robert de Chisholm's method of taking the law into 
his hands against the Church was a month after outrage- 
ously exceeded by Alexander Stewart, the "Wolf of 
Badenoch," who burned Elgin and the Cathedral on St. 
Botolph's Day, 17th June, 1390. It seems that among 
the Bulls, apostolic letters, public instruments, charters, 
and other writings burned with the Cathedral, were those 
by which the rights of the Priory of the Valliscaulians at 
Pluscardine, and its privileges, and statutes, and founda- 
tions, could be manifested. Pope Benedict XIII. in 1404, 
issued a commission to the Bishop of Aberdeen to inquire 
for any other copies of the evidences burdened, but it does 
not appear that those of the House of Pluscardine were 
collected. Whether the Prior succeeded in rescuing his 
mulctures we cannot ascertain, but the plea of exclusive 
jurisdiction set up by the Church when the temporal 
rights of a Monastery were in dispute is not likely to 
have been sustained. In 1388, the appeal of a Monk of 
the Priory of Urquhart in Moray against the investiture 
of a Prior of Urquhart by the Bishop of Moray, was 
finally decided by King Robert III., and the clergy in 
Parliament on the 12th March, 1391. 

The mode in which the election of Priors and their con- 
firmation by the Bishop was managed, is shown by what 
happened in the Priory of Pluscardine in 1398. Thomas, 
the head of the House, on the 7th August, 1398, resigns 
the Priory into the hands of the Bishop of Moray ; on the 
13th of the same month the senior Monk announces to 
the Bishop that Alexander de Pluscardine, one of the 
Monks, was unanimously elected Prior; that the Te 
Deum was duly chanted after the election, and that the 
House in full chapter assembled craved the Bishop's con- 
firmation. And on the Vigil of the Assumption (14th 
August) the Bishop issues an order that any one opposing 
the election should appear on the 21st of the same month; 
and on the 21st the election of Alexander is confirmed by 
the Bishop, reserving to himself and successors the right 
of annual visitation. 

6. Alexander, 1398. 

7. Eugenius, 1417. 

8. Andrew Hcdg. 



200 PROPOSAL TO UNITE PLUSCARDEN AND URQUHART. 

9. John Benale, Prior of Urquhart, whose convent of 
brethren seems to have consisted of two Monks, in 1454 
petitions Pope Nicholas V. that he would unite the 
Priories of Urquhart and Pluscardine. The petition 
stated that these two Priories were conventual, curative, 
and elective, and were acknowledged to be foundations 
of kings of Scotland ; that by reason of wars, mortalities, 
and other calamities, the income of the Priories had so 
diminished that they were unable to keep up a Prior in 
each House with a decent and competent number of 
religious men, or to keep the buildings of each house in 
proper order, or to maintain Divine Service ; so that in 
Pluscardine there were generally not above six Monks, 
in Urquhart two only. The petition stated that Plus- 
cardine was a dependent member of the Priory of Vallis- 
caulium in the diocese of Langres in France, and on 
account of the great distance of Pluscardine from Vallis- 
caulium, and that the Priory of Urquhart, which depended 
on the Monastery of Dunfermline of the order of St. 
Benedict, were annexed and united to Pluscardine. 

The Pope, on the 12th of March, 1454, issued a com- 
mission to the Abbot of Lindores and the Chancellor and 
Treasurer of Moray, stating the petition of the Prior of 
Urquhart, and authorising them to inquire into the truth 
of its allegations, and the consent of the King being 
obtained, to carry out the union. The papal Bull requires 
the commissioners to assign some proper compensation 
for the change to the Priory and Order of Valliscaulium. 
It asserts that Andrew Haag, Prior of Pluscardine, had 
resigned on a pension of 12, and appoints or authorises 
the commissioners to appoint John Benale Prior of 
Pluscardine. On the 8th of November, 1454, the Abbot 
of Dunfermline granted a commission to William de Boys 
to receive the professions into the Benedictine order, of 
the Monks of Pluscardine. John, who was then appointed 
Prior, was apparently a person of importance, for Eliza- 
beth, Dowager-Countess of Moray, executing a deed at 
Forres on 20th May, 1455, says, "the said Elizabeth, 
Countess of Morra, in absence of her own Sele, has pro- 
curit the Sele of a worshippful fader, Done John Benolda, 
' Prior of Pluscardine ; ' a curious instance of the transla- 
tion of the ' Dominus.' " 

In November, 1456, the exchange is completed ; on the 



THE CHURCH OF DINGWALL BELONGS TO PLUSCARDEN. 201 

7th there is a commission of the Abbot of Dunfermline 
to William de Boys, the Sacristan, to visit the Priory of 
Pluscardine ; it is addressed to John de Benaly, and on 
the same day, on William de Boys' resignation, John de 
Benale is made Sacristan of Dunfermline. On the 8th 
there is a letter from the Abbot of Dunfermline to the 
Abbot of Kinloss, informing him that John de Benaly 
had resigned the Priorate of Pluscardine, and requesting 
him to confirm the new Prior if elected. With his com- 
mission of visitation in his pocket, the influence of 

10. William de Boys was enough to procure his election, 
and in 1460 we find him named William de Boys, Prior 
of Pluscardine and Urcharde. He did not allow the 
rights of his House to be violated, for in 1463 he obtained 
a declaration from the Chancellor of Moray that the 
Church of Dingwall in Ross-shire, with all its fruits, 
belonged to the Prior of Pluscardine. How long he 
continued does not appear, but in 1500, Robert is the 
Prior of Pluscardine. On the 3rd February, 1501, this 
person executed a deed, printed in the book of Kilravock, 
which is interesting, not only from the rarity of any 
documents of the Convent of Pluscardine, but also from its 
throwing some light on the subject of mills and multures, 
so constantly mixed up with the Valliscaulian Priories. 

" The erecting the machinery of a corn mill," says Mr. 
Forsyth, "could not formerly be undertaken by any 
person in a rank inferior to a baron, a bishop, or an 
hereditary sheriff." The Pluscardine House, by this 
deed, thirl all the growing corn of their lands of Penyck 
to the mill of the Laird of Lochloy, but the annexation of 
the foresaid corns to the foresaid myll till indure ay and 
quhill we or oure successors thinks it speidful to big ane 
myll of our awin, or caus ony vther to big in our name 
a myll to grund our foresaid tennante's corneys." It 
concludes thus : 

"And this contract was maid at Pluscardin undir owre 
common Seill, with our subscriptions manualle, the thride day 
of Februar in the yere of God a thousand and five hundreitht 
year. 

" Ego, Kobertus, prior ad suprascripta subscribo. 
Et ego, Adam Forman, ad idem. 
Et ego, Jacobus Wyot, ad idem. 
Et ego, Andreas Broun, ad idem. 



202 DEPLORABLE DEGRADATION IN THE LATTER DAYS. 

Et ego, Johannes Hay, ad idem. 
Et ego, Andreas Alain, ad idem. 
Et ego, Jacobus Justice, ad idem." 

11. George was Prior and Coadjutor to Gavin Dunbar, 
Bishop of Aberdeen, in 1529 ; when also Hector Foreman 
was a Monk of Pluscardine, being Witness to a Donation 
of Bishop Gavin Dunbar, made to his Cathedral of Aber- 
deen, dated 28th Sep. that year, of 50 merks out of 
Quarrelwood, near Elgin. 

12. Alexander II., 1549. 

13. Alexander III., Seton, third son of Lord George 
Seton and his Lady, Isabel Hamilton (daughter of Sir 
William Hamilton of Sanquhar, Lord High Treasurer of 
Scotland in the reign of James V.), was born in 1555, and 
had the lands of Pluscardine presented to him, as " ane 
god-bairne gift," by Queen Mary, when she stood as God- 
mother to him ; and when he was afterwards at Rome, he 
received from her the Priory, of which his father had been 
economus and Commissioner since 17th April, 1561, an 
office conferred on him, in reward for his great loyalty. 
In 1585, Alexander was Prior, and in 1586, he became 
an extraordinary Lord, by the style of Prior of Pluscarty. 
He was first Commendator of Pluscardine, and afterwards 
one of the Senators of Justice, then President. King 
James VI. created him Lord Urquhart, afterwards Lord 
Fyvie; and, in 1605, he was created Earl of Dunfermline, 
and was High Chancellor 18 years. He died 16th June, 
1622. 

14. James Douglas, 1577-8, was a bastard son of the 
Regent Morton, and acted as Commendator. 

15. Alexander Seton, again, 1585. 

Seal of Alexander Seton. A round Seal in good preserva- 
tion. Three niches ; in the centre one, a figure of S. Andrew, 
holding his Cross before him with his right hand, and in his 
left a Breviary. In the dexter niche", a figure of the B. V. Mary 
and Infant Jesus ; and in the sinister a figure of S. Margaret, 
with a book in her right hand, and a sceptre in her left. In 
the lower part of the Seal is a shield, bearing within a double 
tressure. 

The Book of Pluscarden (Liber Pluscardensis) recently 
published, edited by Felix J. H. Skene, is in Latin, with 
an English able Preface, and is founded mainly on Bower's 



KINGUSSIE PRIORY. 203 

Scotichronicon. It was probably compiled in the Priory 
in 1461, by Maurice Buchanan, a Cleric and Treasurer 
to the Dauphiness. 

An incongruity occurs in the Preface, stating that Flutere 
was the 17th Abbot, 1445-1460. He was not. 

The Seal of the Monastery. It is singular, emblematic of de- 
livering souls from Purgatory. " SIGILL. CoNVENTUS VALL[IS 
SANCTI] ANDREE IN MORAVIA." (A.D. 1455. In possession of 
the late D. Gregory.} 

THE PEIOEY OF KINGUSSIE'"" 

In Badenoch, was founded by George, Earl of 
Huntly, about the year 1490. Of what Order the 
Monks were, or what were the revenues of the 
Priory, I have not learned. The Prior's house 
and the cloisters of the Monks stood near the 
Church, where some remains of them are to be 
seen. The few lands belonging to it were the 
donation of the family of Huntly, and at the 
Eeformation were justly re-assumed by that 
family. 

I now proceed to 

The Convents of Monks, Friars, and Nuns 
within this Province. The Monks and Friars 
differed in this, that the former were seldom 
allowed to go out of their cloisters ; but the 
Friars, who were generally Predicants or Mendi- 
cants, travelled about and preached in neighbour- 
ing parishes. Monks at first lived by their 
industry, and by private alms, and came to the 

* The Carmelite Friars of Inverbervy, Kincardineshire, held 
the Churches of Kingussie and Dunnottar. (Jervise's Angus, 
441.) This Kingussie is not to be confounded with Kingusie, 
a mile from Ayr, where there was an Hospital. (ED.) 



204 HABITS OF THE DOMINICAN AND FRANCISCAN ORDERS. 

Parish Church. But a recluse life was not so 
serviceable to the Eomish Church, and therefore 
Friars were under little confinement. Every 
Monk and Friar used the Tonsure or shaved 
crown an emblem, they said, of their hope of a 
crown of glory. They vowed chastity, poverty, 
and obedience, besides the rules of their respec- 
tive Orders. They had few Convents in this 
country. 

The Dominicans, called Black Friars, because 
they wore a black cross on a white gown, were 
instituted by Dominic, a Spaniard, who invented 
the Inquisition, were approved by the Pope anno 
1215, and brought into Scotland by Bishop 
Malvoisin. These, with the Franciscan Gray 
Friars and Carmelite White Friars, were Mendi- 
cants, allowed to preach abroad, and beg their 
subsistence. The Dominicans, notwithstanding 
their professed poverty, had fifteen rich Convents 
in Scotland. And we had their Convents at 
Elgin, Forres, and Inverness. 

The Franciscans, called Grey Friars, wore a 
grey gown and cowl, a rope about their middle, 
and went about with pocks to beg. St. Francis, 
an Italian, established them anno 1206. King 
Alexander II. settled a Convent of them in 
Elgin, where they had a spacious Church and 
fine dwellings. Their principal house is now 
the seat of William King of Newmill. I 
may add 



s. CATHERINE'S, (OF SIENNA.) EDINBURGH. 205 

The Grey Sisters, or Nuns of Sienna in Italy. 
They wore a grey gown and a rochet, followed 
St. Austin's rule, and were never to go forth of 
their cloisters after they had made their vows. 
They had a Nunnery at Y-colum-kill, dedicated 
to St. Oran, and at Sheens, i.e., de Sienna, near 
Edinburgh, consecrated to St. Catharine de 
Sienna. It is probable they had a Convent at 
Elgin, where there are plots of land, called " St. 
Katharine's Crofts." 

THE PRECEPTORY OF MAISON DIEU, 

Near Elgin, was an Hospital for entertaining 
strangers and maintaining poor infirm people. 
The Hospital stood close to the town at the east, 
where some parts of the buildings remain. The 
lands of this Hospital granted to the town of 
Elgin by King James VI. by charter 22nd March, 
1594, confirmed ultimo Februarii, 1620, for main- 
taining poor people and sustaining a teacher of 
church music, who shall precent in the Church. 
King Alexander III. mortified the lands of 
Monben and Kelles to this Hospital, and King 
Charles I., by his charter to the town of Elgin, 
8th October, 1633, confirms to them, " The Pre- 
ceptory of Maison Dieu, with the patronage 
thereof, and all belonging thereto, with the 
arable lands of Maison Dieu, and the crofts 
and pertinents thereof; the lands of Over and 
Nether Monben with the haugh thereof called 



206 THE BEAD HOUSE AND LEPER HOSPITAL, ELGIN. 

Broomtown; the lands of Bogside, with the 
mill thereof, mill lands, adstricted multures and 
sequels ; the lands of Cardells, Over and Nether, 
alias Pitcroy, Delnapot, Smiddycroft, with the 
mill, mill lands, multures and sequels thereof; 
with the salmon fishing on the water of Spey ; 
and the lands of Over and Nether Pitinseir." 

[THE BEAD HOUSE 

Is supported from the lands of Maison Dieu. The first 
edifice was built in 1624 to accommodate four poor men, 
with a small garden. In 1846 the Magistrates and Town 
Council erected the present neat Aims-House, but the 
inmates are not supplied with Beads or Rosaries, being 
all Protestants. The original tablet is placed on the 
building with the inscription HOSPITALIUM BURGI DE 
ELGIN PER IDEM CONDITUM, 1624. Underneath is a 
pilgrim with the text "Blessed is he that considereth 
the poor ; the Lord will deliver him in the time of trouble" 
REBUILT A.D. 1846. The teachers in the Academy have 
certain pensions from the revenues, and each Headman 
has an annuity of 10, besides his apartments and piece 
of ground. 

THE LEPER HOUSE 

Was in this vicinity. Leprosy was common in this 
country during the middle ages, and there were several 
endowed Hospitals in Scotland for the reception of lepers. 
The frightful malady has been unknown for centuries. 
In the Town Council minutes of the 25th October, 1852, 
a plan of these crofts (termed " the Leper Lands ") was 
submitted to the Board, and permission was voted to 
advertise these patches of ground. 

The lands of Maisondieu, i. e., the House of God, 
extend from the Fochabers Road on the north to the 
Tyock on the south, and from Friars Croft (belonging to 
Lord Seafield) on the west to the Leper Lands on the 
east. Anderson's Institution and Easton House occupy 
the north end of these grounds, and other portions are 
being feued out by the Town Council. 



THE PEECEPTORY OF MAISON DIEU, ELGIN. 207 

The Maisondieu Hospital stood on the green mound in 
the field a little south of Easton House, and was burned 
to the ground in 1390 by Alexander, Earl of Buchan (the 
Wolfe of Badenoch), at the same time as he fired the 
Cathedral. Part of the foundations were visible several 
years ago, but not a stone now remains. It is intended 
to have the site planted with shrubs and enclosed, to 
prevent further encroachment. 

After the Reformation, the Preceptory of Maison Dieu 
having fallen to the Crown, James the Sixth of Scotland 
and First of England, by Royal Charter of Confirmation 
dated the last day of February, 1641 (not 1620, as stated 
in Morayshire Described, p. 196), granted to the Provost, 
Bailies, Councillors, and community of Elgin, and their 
successors, the Hospice or House of Preceptory of Maison 
Dieu, lying adjacent to the said burgh founded for the 
aliment and support of certain poor and needy persons, 
with the right of patronage to the same ; together with 
all rights, &c., &c., belonging thereto, and of which the 
Preceptor and Biedmen thereof were in possession at any 
former period ; together with the town and lands of Over 
and Nether Manbeen and Haugh of Manbeen, the lands 
of Over and Nether Cardels, the lands of Over and Nether 
Pittensear, for the support of certain poor and needy 
persons in the said Hospital, according to the original 
establishment thereof; and also to maintain and support 
a teacher of music, properly qualified to instruct the 
youth within said burgh in music and other liberal arts, 
and perform the ordinary services in the Church, and 
also to answer and promote the affairs of the said burgh, 
because the common revenue was barely sufficient for its 
own purposes. The lands of Maison Dieu were accord- 
ingly appropriated by the Magistrates for the purposes 
designed by the Charter. No evidence can be found that 
those of Manbeen, Kirdels, and Pittensear had ever been 
in their actual possession ; but the Charter gives right to 
the casualties of these lands payable at the time to the 
Hospital of Maison Dieu, the Dominum utile being in 
the hands of lay proprietors. The lands of Maison Dieu 
contained 20 acres, 2 roods, and 6 falls." 

THE GREYFRIARS' MONASTERY. 

That noble and learned young man, Patrick Gordon, 



208 THE GREY FRIARS* MONASTERY, ELGIN. 

younger of Letterfourie, communicated to me what I have 
got to say about the Monastery of Grey Friars here. 

The Grey Friars came to Elgin about 1479, after John 
Inues, Bishop of Moray, had erected a Convent for them 
at his own expense. It is said that this John Innes was 
a great plunderer of Church property and an adept sower 
of sedition in those quarters, taking bribes from both 
parties and pretending to be the just arbiter of either. 
It happened in 1478 that the katrines from the mountains 
of Morayshire came down to the low countries and 
plundered wholesale. This unjust judge collected a great 
number of armed men and pursued the pillagers (having 
with them much cattle and corn) as far as the woods of 
Abernethy, where a bloody conflict took place, when the 
katrines, waxing courageous, turned the pursuers to flight, 
and slew their leader with many wounds, leaving him on 
the hills, and again turned back for more booty. Mean- 
while the Sheriff was by all left as dead. 

He had a uterine brother named Francis Innes, who had 
long belonged to this Order, and who frequently journeyed 
in company with a Priest of the same Order from the 
Convent at New Aberdeen to instruct the barbarians of 
Moray. Being cognisant of the recent affray, he, by 
chance, came upon the spot where his brother, the Sheriff, 
was lying wounded, whom he carried, with the assistance 
of some country people, to the nearest house, where he 
dressed his wounds, being skilled in the medical art. 
This raid was of such benefit to the Sheriff as wholly to 
convert him. He vowed, on his recovery, to restore the 
oxen and property which he had so basely acquired, and 
to build and furnish a Monastery for Franciscan Monks. 
He also restored property to the Monasteries of Pluscarden, 
and Urquhart which he otherwise oppressed and wronged. 
He used for whole days to live in the Monastery intent 
on pious works, and frequently kept Vigils with the 
Brethren, content with the meanest fare. For twenty 
years he lived a most exemplary life, and at last was 
buried in the Cathedral Church in the sepulchre of his 
family, after the rites of the Franciscan Order. 

From the same source of information I got 

1. A Bull of Pope Sixtus IV., confirming the erection 
of this Monastery. Dated at St. Peter's, Rome, 1479, in 
the seventh year of our Pontificate. 



BROCKIE'S DETAILS OF THE GREY FRIARS, ELGIN. 20.9 

2. A Chart of Alexander Sutherland of Quarrelwood, 
granting to the Grey Friars permission to get down trees 
wherewith to build and repair their Monastery, and to 
have other wood for firewood in perpetuity, seeing they 
had no possessions or taxes to live upon ; as also ordering 
that his forester for the time being shall cut down the 
requisite wood and carry it to the gate of the Monastery, 
and, besides, propagate young trees. The wood and lands 
of Quarrelwood are granted for this purpose, to be under 
the jurisdiction of the Bishop of the Diocese. Signed by 
Alexander Sutherland, and by his son and heir, William 
Sutherland, and dated at Elgin, 28th Sept., 1480. 

Francis Innes, uterine brother of the founder, was the 
first guardian. He taught the junior Brethren in the 
Convent at Aberdeen before he was appointed here. He 
was pious, learned, eloquent, and a laborious missioner 
among the rude people of the North. 

Among the early disciples of this Monastery was 
F. Bernard Chisholm. He was named Counsellor of the 
Katrines, because he spent a great deal of his time in 
wandering over the mountains and trying to convert the 
barbarous clans from rapine and violence, which he 
successfully accomplished. He was elected guardian in 
1490. He died in the sight of all the Brethren of the 
Monastery at Elgin in 1513, aged 78 years. 

F. Antony Fraser, Priest, was educated among the 
Cistercian Monks in the Monastery of Belli Loci, but 
became a Franciscan, and was the constant companion of 
Friar Chisholm in his errands of evangelization. He had 
great preaching gifts. 

F. .Robert Stuart, when a deacon in the Cathedral 
Church, joined this Monastery. Being of good family, 
the neighbouring gentry held him in great esteem. He 
was educated in Brussels. On his return home he was 
unceasing in his office, and at length became guardian of 
this Convent, which he held for many years. He took 
great part in the controversy which arose in his time 
between the Conventuals and the Observantines as to a 
distinctive dress. He flourished in 1521. 

The last guardian was F. Antony Urquhart, of the 
ancient family of Urquhart, who tried to quell the sacri- 
lege of devastation in 1560. The Earl of Huntly, then 
Master of Moray, joined the Calvinian Heretics, invaded 
VOL. in. 14 



210 BLACKFRIARS* HOSPITAL, ELGIN. 

the town of Elgin, laid waste the Cathedral Church and 
all the Religious Houses in the city, hounding on the mob. 
This Convent was burned by Alexander Innes, the grand- 
son of the founder, after having stood 81 years.] 
(Brockie's MS. (at Blairs College), p. 9961-9984.) 

[Scarcely a vestige of the Monastery of the Black Friars 
now remains. I find from a Charter communicated to me 
by Patrick Gordon of Letterfourie, that David, Bishop of 
Moray, gave two chalders of the best meal yearly to the 
Fratres Proedicatores serving God in the Church of St. 
Andrew, Elgin, from the Episcopal Grange in Strathisla. 
The Charter is dated at the Castle of Spynie, 15th Jan., 
1327. Bishop Keith states that David Moray, Bishop, 
died 20 Jan., 1326.] (Ibid, p. 8939.) 

ST. NICHOLAS' HOSPITAL 
Is noticed at pages 378-79, vol i., Parish of Dundurcos. 

DOMINICAN CONVENT OF INVERNESS. 

[In the year 1508, Andrew, Bishop of Moray, confirmed 
various foundations in favour of the Altar of St. Michael 
of the Parish Church, Inverness. The foundations were 
made in 1455. The Bishop's confirmation concludes thus : 
"In testimony of which thing, in the absence of my 
seal, I, the foresaid William Pylche, have procured with 
instance the common seal of the Monastery of preaching 
Friars to be appended, &c., &c., at our Palace of Spiny, 
October 13th, 1508." 

Upon the 23rd of December, 1508, John Auchlek was 
presented as Chaplain of St. Catherine's, Inverness. 
The deed of presentation by the Provost and Bailies ends 
thus : " These things were done in the choir of the Friars 
Preachers of Inverness, the 12th day, mid-day or there- 
abouts, in the year, month, day indiction and pontificate 
as foresaid." 

(1) The Bishop here quotes the words of the founder, 
William Pylche. 

The Seal of the Monastery was of lead, about one and a 
half inches in length, by one in breadth; it bore the 
image of St. Dominic holding a staff surmounted by a 
cross in his left hand, whilst his right is uplifted in the 
act of blessing, at his feet hangs a shield with the hound 
and flaming torch. Around the margin are the words 



DOMINICAN ORDER FOUNDED AT INVERNESS. 211 



"SIGILL: MONAST INNER 8 (SIGILLUM MONASTERII INVER- 
NESSENSIS) " SEAL of the MONASTERY of INVERNESS. This 

seal is now in the hands of Mr. Robertson of Inshes, In- 
verness. 

Of King Alexander, Lord Hailes says that " he was one 
of the wisest princes that ever reigned over Scotland," 
and, in another place, that Alexander had a particular 
kindness for the Mendicant Friars of the Order of St. 
Dominic, called with us Black Friars. For them he 
founded no fewer than eight Monasteries at Edinburgh, 
Berwick, Ayr, Perth, Aberdeen, Stirling, and Inverness. 

Cardonel, in his Picturesque Antiquities of Scotland, 
says of the Order Fratres Predicatores, on account of 
their frequent preaching, " that according to their rules 
the Brethren renounced all worldly possessions, abstained 
from eating flesh from September to Easter. They lay 
neither on feather beds, nor in sheets, but on a mattress ; 
and every Saturday, in case there fell neither feast nor 
fast upon that day, they were to say the office of the 
Virgin Mary. Their habit was a white gown and 
scapular." 

The Order was founded in Inverness in 1233, and the 
Monastery must have been a building of importance. It 
appears to have received a grant of land at an early period 
from Saint Thomas of Aberbrothock, which grant cannot 
now be traced, and also in the year 1240 a Charter from 
Alexander II., which was described in the year 1530 as, 
appearing from length of time and negligent preservation, 
wasted and partly spoiled." This interesting Charter is 
in these terms : 

" Alexander by the grace of God King of Scots, to all 
good men of his whole realm ; greeting ; Know ye that 
we have given, granted, and by this our present charter, 
confirmed to our endowed chaplains, the Preaching Friars 
of Inverness (devotis oratoribus nostris Fratribus Prsedica- 
toribus), serving and who shall serve God there, that, our 
Royal highway, lying in length from the water of Ness, 
as far as that land which the Abbot and Convent of 
Aberbrothock gave to them for ever, and in breadth from 
the burying ground of the Parish Church and the wall of 
the said Friars ; and that island of our land lying on the 
north side of the said Friars, on the south side of the 
water of Ness, with the whole water and fishing from the 



212 CHAKTER OF ALEXANDER II. TO THE BLACKFRIARS. 

foresaid Friars' road as far as Scurry in pure and perpetual 
elemosina (alms) with all commodities, liberties and ease- 
ments ; to be enjoyed freely, quietly, honourably, well, 
and in peace for ever, sicklike as any land is given or 
granted to religious men in our kingdom. Witnesses, 
Alexander Comyn, Earl of Buchan, Constable and Justi- 
ciar of Scotland ; Donald, Earl of Mar ; Ingram de Genis ; 
and Reginald de Schenpatre, Knight. At Berwick the 
20th day of May, in the 26th year of our reign." 

The first subject conveyed appears rather strange the 
King's Highway. Some light is thrown upon this gift 
by a somewhat similar gift by Alexander in the year 
1250 to the same Friars in Edinburgh of a Street, so well 
known for ages Black Friars' Wynd but in that case 
the condition was annexed " that the said Friars may, as 
it shall seem expedient, construct or erect houses or 
buildings in the foresaid street or passage which is called 
the venelle." Though the words in the Charter to Inver- 
ness are Nostra via Regia, yet it may really have been an 
open piece of waste ground, and either given for the 
purpose of being shut up to make the Monastery more 
private or in order to be annexed to their adjoining land. 
The vast differences now presented by the grounds from 
what they were at the period in question, may be to 
some extent realised from there being a grant of an Island 
to the north of their land, and the only grant whose 
limits can now be traced with any certainty is that of 
the fishing. It will be observed that the north boundary 
is described as "Scurry." This, however, denotes "cherry," 
which is well known as the next lowest shot to the Friars' 
shot on the River Ness. Of the Monastery there now 
remains but a single shattered column. The figure of a 
cherub, which may have been in the Monastery, and was 
fished out of the river some years ago in the Castle shot, 
some time at Campfield, is in fair preservation. 

The following is taken from the Papers of Provost 
Inglis to Captain, afterwards General Hutton, recently 
discovered in the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh : 

" The Monastery at Inverness was situated in a fine 
plain on the east side of the river. There remains of it 
now only one pillar, from the great size of which the 
building must have been extensive or the architecture 
very disproportionate. The ground which it covered is 



GENERAL BUTTON'S PAPERS ON THE MONASTERY. 213 

now used as a burying place by a few families in the 
parish of the names of Baillie and Maclean, who, with 
their connections, seem to have acquired an exclusive 
right to it. They have lately enclosed it with a good 
stone wall. There is no monument of great antiquity in 
it, except the figure of a woman cut in stone and much 
mutilated. This Monastery has always been called by 
the inhabitants " The Grey Friars," although the only one 
of which we have an account in history was that founded 
by Alexander the Second, anno 1233, said to have been of 
the Dominican Order. Adjoining to the Monastery there 
is a very rich field of six acres, which was always the 
glebe of the first minister of Inverness. There are also a 
few small houses in the lane leading to it, from which 
the minister receives a feu or ground rent. The salmon 
fishing directly opposite to the Friary, and esteemed the 
most valuable in the river, did also belong to it, and is to 
this day called the Friars' Coble or Shot. It appears by 
the town's records that the stones of the Friars' Kirk 
were sold in the year 1653 to Colonel Lilburne, com- 
manding the troops of the Commonwealth, for building a 
fort at the river mouth, which was called Oliver's Fort. 
On a rising ground, separated from the Monastery by the 
lane only, stood the Parish Church, a very ancient struc- 
ture, which, having become quite ruinous, was pulled 
down in the year 1769, and the present Church built on 
its site. On the west side of the river, opposite to the 
Priory, stood the Chapel of the Green, supposed to belong 
to it. The lands contiguous to the Chapel were Church 
lands, and now hold feu of the town. East of the Monas- 
tery, and only separated from it by a single street, stood 
St. Mary's Chapel, of which no vestige remains. It was 
situated in the centre of a field about four acres in extent 
now the principal bury ing-ground of the town, and 
still called the Chapel-yard. Adjacent to it was St. 
Thomas's Chapel, of which there remains nothing. The 
tradition is that when the Fort was built out of the ruins 
of the Monastery the stones of this Chapel were applied 
towards building what is called the Old Harbour, in 
which many stones, curiously carved, and which have 
evidently been in some other building, are yet to be seen. 
The lands of the Chaplainry of our Lady's High Altar are 
situated on a rising ground south of St. Thomas's Chapel, 



214 CHARTER OF ROBERT THE BRUCE. 

and near to the side of M'Beth's Castle, and St. John's 
Chapel stood in a field below the old Castle Hill. No 
vestige of the Chapel remains, but the field is to this day 
called Dire-na-Pouchk, or the land of the poor, and is in 
possession of the Church Session. There was also a 
Chapel dedicated to St. Catherine the Virgin on the west 
side of the River Ness, but no trace of it, or any of the 
others, remains, nor would their situations have been 
remembered, but that in some old Charters the lands are 
described by the directions in which they lie to the 
Chapels. 

(Signed) " WILLIAM INGLIS, Provost. 
"Inverness, March 18th, 1795." 

Upon the 7th of March, 1297, the payment of the 
pensions of the Friars of Inverness are included in the 
following order: 

" The King to his beloved and faithful John de Warenne, 
Earl of Surry, his guardian of the Kingdom and Territory 
of Scotland : Greeting : We command you that you search 
in the rolls of the accounts of the times of Alexander and 
John, late Kings of Scotland, for the rents of the towns 
of Berwick, Edinburgh, Stirling, Glasgow, Ayr, Wigton, 
Perth, Aberdeen, Montrose, Elgin, and Inverness, to give 
to our beloved brethren in Christ of the Order of Prsedi- 
catores dwelling in these towns such sums of the rents of 
said towns for this year, of our charity and special favour, 
as they, by the rolls of said accounts from the time of 
foresaid John, appear to you yearly to have received, and 
to have been allowed in the rendering of the accounts of 
the rents of the said towns by the favour of Alexander, 
late King of Scotland, and of the foresaid John." 

In the year 1313 King Robert Bruce granted a Charter 
to the Friars of Inverness of a yearly gift of 10 sterling 
in these terms : 

"Robert by the grace of God King of Scots, To all 
good men of his whole realm ; greeting ; Know all present 
and future, that for the honour of God, and of the glorious 
Virgin Mary, His mother, and of the blessed Bartholomew, 
we have given, granted, and by this, our present Charter, 
confirmed to the Preaching Friars of Inverness, in gift to 
their Church, 10 sterling yearly, to be paid by the hands 
of our Provosts, who may for the time be, from the rents 
of our burgh of Inverness. To be had and held by the 



THE BP. OF MORAY AND THE ABBOT OF ARBROATH. 215 

said Friars serving, and who in future may serve, God for 
ever, of us and our heirs in free, pure, and perpetual 
charity ; and to be paid yearly, by the said Provosts of 
the town of Inverness, from the rents of the town as is 
aforesaid, at two terms of the year, viz., the one half at 
the Feast of St. Martin in the winter, and the other half 
at the Feast of Pentecost. In testimony of which matter 
we command our seal to be appended to this our present 
Charter. Witnesses. Our beloved brother Edward de 
Bruce, Earl of Carrick; our nephew Thomas Randolph, 
Earl of Moray ; John de Monteith ; Robert de Keith, our 
Mareschall of Scotland ; Gilbert de Haya, and Henry de 
Saint Clair, Knights. At Dundee, the twenty -first day of 
October, in the eighth year of our reign (1313)." 

In the year 1372 a strife arose between the Abbot of 
Aberbrothoc and the Bishop of Moray. Both parties 
appealed to Pope Gregory XI. In the meantime the 
Abbot hired mercenaries to pillage the possessions of the 
Bishop. They burnt the town of Inverness and the 
Dominican Monastery. The Abbot was excommunicated 
in consequence. The following is extracted from the 
Bishop's letter of appeal to the Holy See : " After the 
cause 'twixt himself and the foresaid Vicar of Inverness 
had been moved and begun, spurning, omitting, and 
altogether contemning the ordinary path of law, in con- 
tempt, disobedience, and irreverence of my ordinary 
jurisdiction nay, rather more truly for the Apostolic 
See, under whose special protection my foresaid Church 
of Murray lies with sure knowledge, malicious design, 
and with intention of obtaining a worthless revenge, he 
placed and appointed at said Church and town of Inver- 
ness powerful laymen, whose power and ferocity could 
not in any way be resisted, as, for instance, the noble, and 
a man of great power, W. de F. (William de Fentoun or 
William de Foderingham), who in name and on part of 
said Abbot, with an armed and great host, violently 
entered the houses of said Vicar, breaking and causing to 
be broken lockfast places and doors, destroying, plunder- 
ing, etc. (He tells how the roof was torn off the Churches 
and everything burnt or desecrated.) And I have pro- 
nounced sentence of excommunication against him (the 
Abbot) and declare him unlosed therefrom," &c. 

The Monastery suffered at the same time, for in the 



216 THE WOLF OF BADENOCH ILL-USES HIS COUNTESS. 

Court held by Sir Robert de Chisholm in 1376, reference 
was made to the destruction by fire of a Charter which 
lay for presumed greater safety in the house of the 
Preaching Friars of Inverness. A certain burgess was 
summoned to show deeds of right to certain lands about 
the town. " Whereupon the said burgess, James, pro- 
tested and clearly showed that the said confirmation had 
been in safe keeping, along with his very many other 
evidents, in the custody of a late particular friend in the 
house of the Preaching Friars of Inverness, and had been 
burnt there and completely destroyed at the time of 
burning of said house." 

In the year 1389 Euphemia, Countess of Ross, owing to 
the ill-treatment of her husband, Alexander, Earl of 
Buchan's Count of Ross, separated from him. This 
wicked man had earned for himself the title of the " Wolf 
of Badenoch, or Alasdair Mor." The Wolf was bound 
over by the Bishops of Moray and Ross to treat his wife 
more honourably. The sentence was read in the Church 
of the Dominicans, Inverness. After detailing the cir- 
cumstances and terms of peace, the sentence concludes 
thus " This our sentence was read, published, and pro- 
nounced in this writ in the Church of the Preaching 
Friars, Inverness, the 2nd day of the month of November, 

in the year of the Lord 1389." "Alexander and 

Alexander, Bishops by the grace of God of the Churches 
of Moray and Ross, diocesans and judges ordinary of the 
parts underwritten, sitting in the judgment seat, and 
having God only before our eyes," &c. 

The Bishop of Moray had likewise many and serious 
differences with the Earl of Moray. These formed the 
subject of reference to the Earl of Fife, guardian of the 
kingdom, afterwards the noted Duke of Albany. This 
decision was pronounced within the Church of the Preach- 
ing Friars of Inverness on the 28th of October, 1389. 
This indenture testifieth that on the vigils of the Apostles 
Simon and Jude (28th October), in the year of the Lord 
1389, in the Church of the Preaching Friars of Inverness, 
it is ordained and determined by the illustrious man, 
Lord Robert, Earl of Fyff and Menteith, guardian of the 
kingdom of Scotland, and his council, both in virtue of 
his office and by reason of the submission of the Lords, 
the Bishop of Moray on the one part and the Earl of 



THE CHARTER OF THE TOLBOOTH, INVERNESS. 217 

Moray on the other First that the kiss of peace 

being interchanged they on both sides for the rest, be and 
continue true, firm, and cordial friends, and that none of 
them by himself or by others do injury voluntarily to the 
other, and if this happen by chance he who has suffered 
injury shall require the party injuring to make amends, 
&c. Then follows the various items of agreement on 
both sides. 

In the year 1390, on the Feast of St. Botulph, Abbot, 
in the month of June, Alexander, the Wolf of Badenoch, 
and his followers burnt the whole town and Cathedral of 
Elgin, with all the books, charters, and other valuable 
things of the country therein kept for security. Of the 
deeds which were saved a chartulary was afterwards com- 
piled, and has been of late years printed by the Bannatyne 
Club. In this year our Convent was destroyed ; whether 
it was again restored is uncertain. This outrage was in 
part repeated in July, 1402, by the same Alexander. He 
made reparation afterwards and was absolved. 

From the accounts of the Bailies of the burgh of Inver- 
ness, rendered at Perth by Walter Androusan and Andrew 
Adison, in the name of said Bailies, 13th March, 1429, we 
gather that the exits or expenses for two years amounted 
to 106 13s. 4d. From this sum the Preaching Friars 
received annually 10 of the King's charity of old as 
in full payment of said two years, as is clear by letters of 
receipt of the said Friars shown upon the account, 20. 

Upon the 6th of November, 1436, Christiana Makferry 
sold to the Community of Inverness the piece of ground 
at the corner of Bridge Street and Church Street, whereon 
the Tolbooth stood, by the Charter which is indorsed "Ye 
Charter of ye Tolbooth." It concludes thus " In testi- 
mony of which matter, because I have no seal of my own, 
I have with instance procured the common seal of the 
Prior and Convent of the Preaching Friars of said burgh, 
together with the seal of Walter Andrew, and caused 
them to be appended to this writ at said burgh, the 6th 
day of the month of November, in the year of the Lord 
1436." 

Upon the 4th of September, 1437, Alexander de Yle, 
who claimed the Earldom of Ross through his mother, 
made the following donation to the Prior and Friars of 
Inverness. This annual was with others transferred at 



218 LAND IN FRONT OF THE COMMERCIAL INN. 

the Reformation to the Magistrates of Inverness, and we 
understand it still forms part of the revenue of the burgh. 
" To all the faithful to whose knowledge the present 
letters shall come, Alexander de He, Earl of Ross and 
Lord of the Isles ; Greeting eternal in the Lord ; Know 
that we, for the salvation of our soul, and for the salvation 
of the souls of our fathers, ancestors, and successors, have 
given, granted, and by this present writ confirmed to the 
religious men, the Prior and Friars of the Dominican 
Preachers of Inverness, twenty shillings of annual rent, 
of the usual money of the kingdom of Scotland, to be 
paid annually at two terms of the year, viz., of Pentecost 
and St. Martins, by equal portions of our land and ferry 
of Easter Kessock." * 

Among the Inches charters is the following valuable 
document being a grant of the Friars of Inverness to 
Mr Robertson's predecessor of a particate of land in 
Inverness, dated 20th July, 1517. The land is that in 
front of the Commercial Hotel, and the buildings, no doubt, 
then projected into the main street, and probably 
included part of the present Town Hall buildings. This 
deed was lost for many years, but was fortunately re- 
covered in course of the year 1873. The document is 
endorsed " Charter to Lawrence Robertson of the Sklait- 
house " " To all who shall see or hear of this charter, Friar 
Henry Dewer, Prior of the Preaching Friars of Inverness ; 
Greeting eternal in the Lord : Know that we, after 
mature deliberation, had with our said monastery and 
Friars therein, with common consent and the advantage 
and utility of our successors being considered and had in 
view, with consent of the reverend Prior, Friar John 
Adam, Professor of Sacred Theology, and Principal of the 

* By the roll of rents, feus, and maills, it appears that a sum 
of twenty shillings sterling is payable by the estate of Redcastle 
to the burgh for the lands of Easter Kessock. With the 
pertinents in pure and perpetual charity, as freely as any 
annual rent is given and granted to any other religious men in 
the kingdom of Scotland. In testimony of which matter we 
have caused our seal to be appended at Inverness the 4th day 
of the month of September, in the year of the Lord 1437. 
These, with many others, being witnesses, viz., Tarquil M'Loyde, 
Lord of Leywhouse (Lewis) ; George Munro of Foulis ; Alex. 
M'Culloch, and Lord Beane. 



CHARTER TO LAWRENCE ROBERTSON OF SKLAITE-HOUSE. 219 

Order of Preaching Friars of all the Kingdom of Scotland, 
and also of the venerable men, the Friars of the Convent 
of our said Monastery, John Ricard, John Brown, and 
Alexander Andrew, and also of the discreet men after 
mentioned of the General Charter, viz. Friar Andrew 
Mackneil, Prior of Aberdeen; James Young, Prior of 
Annan ; John Lister, Sub-Prior of Ayr ; and John Faber, 
Sub-Prior of Glasgow ; have given, granted, set, and in 
feu-farm let for ever, and by this present charter, con- 
firmed, and also by these presents give, grant, set, and in 
feu-farm let, and by this present charter confirm, one 
particate of our land, with the pertinents, lying in the 
burgh of Inverness, between the lands of the late Far- 
quhar Mackintosh on the west side, and the public cross of 
said burgh on the east, and also the common way which 
leads to the bridge of said burgh on the north side, and 
the Castle Hill on the south, to a discreet man Lawrence 
Robertson, burgess of said burgh of Inverness, and his 
heirs and assignees whomsoever: To be held and had 
such, such particate of land with the pertinents by the 
said Lawrence and his heirs and assignees whomsoever of 
us and our successors in feu and heritage according as it 
lies in length and* breadth for ever, with all and sundry 
its pertinents, commodities, liberties, and just pertinents 
as well named as not named, belonging to said particate 
of land, or which can in future in any way justly belong 
without revocation, contradiction, or retention of ours 
and our successors whomsoever ; Giving therefore yearly, 
the said Lawrence his heirs and assignees to us and our 
successors, the Prior and Convent of Inverness, who for 
the time may be, four shilling of annual rent at two terms 
in the year by equal portions viz. the feasts of Pente- 
cost, and St. Martin's in winter, together with five pence 
as burgh rate annually to the collectors thereof only, 
in lieu of every other burden, exaction, demand, or service, 
which for said particate of land, with the pertinents can in 
any way be exacted or required in time to come; so that it 
shall not be in the power of the said Lawrence, his heirs,and 
assignees, to give, grant, alienate, sell, augment, or in any 
way whatever dispone any part of the annual rent of said 
particate of land with the pertinents, to any persons 
whomsoever, except said whole annual rent of four shil- 
lings, without the express consent and assent of the Prior 



220 PRIOR AND FRIARS OF BLACKFRIARS, INVERNESS. 

and Convent of Inverness, who for the time may be ; 
Also if it happen that the said annual rent of four shil- 
lings as is premised, shall be due to us and our successors, 
for three continuous terms, and not be paid thereafter 
when required, then immediately said particate of land, 
with the pertinents, with whatsoever shall happen to be 
erected and repaired thereon, with all and sundry pertin- 
ents, shall ipso facto revert to the foresaid Prior and 
Convent of said Monastery of Inverness, without any 
judicial process, ecclesiastical, or civil ; and likewise it 
shall be in the power of the Prior and Convent for the 
time, to dispose of said particate of land with the pertin- 
ents for ever according to their pleasure ; and we, Henry 
the Prior, and the Convent of said Monastery, and our 
successors shall warrant, acquit, and for ever defend said 
particate of land with the pertinents ; reserving the fore- 
written restrictions to the said Lawrence and his heirs 
and assignees in form, manner, and effect, as premised. 

In testimony of which thing the seal of our Chapter of 
said Monastery is appended to these presents together 
with the seal of the said Rev. Prior Principal, and the 
manual subscriptions of said Friars of the Convent, and 
of the cessioners, and also with the seal of the honourable 
man, John Ker, bailie of said burgh of Inverness, who, 
after resignation made by us in his hands, gave his heirs 
and assignees, hereditary state and sasine of said particate 
of land, with the pertinents by delivery of earth and 
stone ; at Inverness, the 20th day of the month of July, 
A.D. 1517, in the 5th induction, and in the 5th year of the 
Pontificate of the most holy Father in Christ, and our 
Lord, by divine Providence, Lord Leo 10th Pope. Pre- 
sent there Friar Duncan Cruickshank, Fr. Thomas 
Paterson, Fr. William Reid, Fr. William Thorne, and Fr. 
Peter Williamson ; Alexander Black, Officer or Clerk, 
with divers other witnesses called to the premises. Said 
annual rent is not to be alienated without our consent or 
that of our successors being obtained. By testimony of 
this my hand I, Fr. John Donaldson, was present." 

In the year 1530 King James V. granted the following 
charter of confirmation to the Friars Preachers of Inver- 
ness of the previous charters already given by Alexander 
II. and Robert the Bruce. The charter is dated at Perth, 
on 31st August, 1530, and is as follows: "James, by the 



CHARTER OF JAMES V. TO THE BLACKFRIARS. 221 

Grace of God, King of Scots To all good men of his 
whole land, clergy and laity. Greeting ; Know ye for as 
much as we have examined and considered two charters, 
granted by our late most noble progenitors of happy 
memory, Alexander, King of Scots, and Robert, King of 
Scots, to our devout mendicant Preaching Friars of our 
burgh of Inverness, and whereas from length of time and 
negligent preservation, these charters appear wasted and 
partly spoiled, whereof the tenors follow, in these words. 
. . . [Here he quotes the charters given.] 

"Therefore we, for ourselves and our successors, ap- 
prove, ratify, and for us and our successors for ever, 
confirm, as above written, the foresaid charters in all the 
points and articles therein contained; and we will and 
ordain that as great and the like Faith be given to this 
our charter of confirmation made upon the premises, as 
might be given to the said principal charters, if produced 
in judgment. In testimony whereof, to this our present 
charter of confirmation, we have ordered our great seal to 
be affixed. At Perth the last day of the month of August 
in the year of our Lord 1530, and in the 17th of our reign." 

In 1538 the Prior and Convent of Inverness succeeded 
in vindicating their rights to the fishings granted them by 
the Kings of Scotland. These rights were encroached on 
by the burgh, as will be seen from the following notarial 
instrument of the proceedings of a court held by Alex- 
ander Baillie of Duncan, Sheriff' of Inverness : " In the 
name of God, Amen : By this present public instrument, 
be it clearly known to all, that in the year of the Incarna- 
tion of our Lord, 1538, on the 28th day of June, the llth 
indiction and in the 4th year of the pontificate of the 
most holy Father in Christ and our Lord, Lord Paul, by 
Divine Providence Pope III., in presence of the Notary 
public, and the under-subscribed witnesses, the venerable, 
religious man, Friar Thomas Stevenson, Prior of the 
Preaching Friars of the town of Inverness for the time, 
and the Convent of the same, the Provost, bailies of said 
burgh, and community occupying the salmon fishings of 
the river of Ness, being cited by the letters of the honour- 
able man, Alexander Baillie, at the time Sheriff of Inver- 
ness, at the instance of the said Lord Prior of the Preaching 
Friars and of the Convent of the same, convened to render 
a reason for the unjust occupation of the fishing, by net 



222 BURGH OF INVERNESS INVADE CONVENT FISHINGS. 

fishing of the western part of the river and water of Ness 
pertaining hereditarily to the Prior and Convent of 
Inverness, opposite the eastern ditch of said Friars on the 
one part ; and on the other part there convened the fore- 
said Prior and his Convent having charters containing 
the donation of King Alexander of happy memory, and 
also strengthened by the seal of the now reigning illustri- 
ous King James V., of all and whole the water of Ness, 
with its fishing, from the road intervening between the 
place of the Preaching Friars and the Parish Church on 
the south side, even to the churry on the north ; more- 
over both parties for themselves being heard, the right, 
and allegations and the complaints and statements of each 
being weighed, the foresaid Alexander Baillie, Sheriff of 
Inverness, holding the situation for the administration of 
Justice, being advised by the ripe counsel of his assessors, 
delivers and ordains the foresaid Provost, bailies, and the 
occupiers of the River Ness to desist and cease from all 
fishing and dragging of nets in time coming for ever, 
until they shall produce more valid evidences in judg- 
ment, and the charter of the said Friars, just shown before 
the said Sheriff, in defence of said Prior and Convent, and 
examined in judgment to be of as much force as is more 
fully contained in the roll of said court made thereupon ; 
of and upon all public instruments and sundry were 
sought by the foresaid Lord Prior of the Notary-public, 
underwritten, one or more to be made for him. These 
things were done in the Court-house of said burgh at 10 
o'clock A.M., or thereabouts, under day, month, year, and 
indiction and pontificate as above. Present there, the 
honourable men, William Paterson, Provost of Inverness, 
Andrew Auchlek, James Dempster, bailies ; Thomas 
Wans, John Cuthbert, of the Old Castle, and Robt. 
Wans, Notary-public with divers others. John Scot, 
Notary-public." 

Evil days now fell on the Prior and Convent of Inver- 
ness, and upon the 23rd June, 1559, they were obliged to 
deposit their charters and gear for security with the Pro- 
vost and Magistrates of Inverness. Their buildings, no 
doubt, soon became ruinous. Nothing is known of the 
fate of the effects handed over, which included " a little 
relic of silver ; " but there are records to show that the 
tenements, annual rents, and other property of the Friars 



EVIL DAYS BEFALL THE DOMINICANS AT INVERNESS. 223 

were speedily divided or leased out by the town authori- 
ties among themselves : 

" This is the year that we, Friar Robert Riche, Prior of 
the Friars Prsedicatores of Inverness, with consent and 
assent of our brethren, viz. Fr. Andro Valcar, Sub-Prior, 
Fr. Hendre Wisman, Fr. James Ramsaye, Fr. Alex. Kaye, 
delivered in keeping to religion to the foresaid Prior, our 
successors, brethren of our place of Inverness, to our well- 
beloved benefactors, to honourable and worshipful men ; 
George Cuthbert of the Auld Castle hill; Thomas 
Flemying, burgess of Inverness ; John Makgilive, burgess 
of Inverness, Provost, bailies of Inverness, as after 
follows : 

Item, A chalice of Silver, gilt with gold, - 16 oz. 

Do. Do. Do., - 24J oz. 

Do. Do. Do., - - 23 oz. 

Do. Do. Do., - 40 oz. 

A buist, Do., for the sacrament, - 3 oz. 

Two Silver Spoons, for the lozenges to 

the Mass, oz. 

A little relic of silver. 
A box full of charters and evidents. 
A buist, covered with leather, with 
charters and other writings, with 
other loose evidents in the chest. 
A Chasible and a Clasp of red damask. 
7 Carparats and 3 cases. 
A Chasible and two Clasps of red taffety. 
Do. and one Clasp of Black Damask, 

with host stole, fannon, and belt.* 

We, foresaids, George Cuthbert, Thomas Flemying, John 
M'Gilive, Provost and bailies of Inverness, grant us to 
have received the above- written gear from the said Prior 
and Convent and successors of the religion, and oblige us, 
our heirs, executors, and assignees whatsomever, that to 
the said Prior, brethren, and successors of Friars Predica- 
tors, without impediment or obstacle, we shall give, deliver 
to the saids Prior, brethren and their successors, the fore- 
said gear, whenever they require, or any unto their name 
pertaining to the religion whatsomever, by this our obli- 
gation we oblige our lands and heritage, heirs, executors, 

* Fannon signifies the Maniple. 



224 Q. MARY DISPOSES THE PROPERTY OF THE BLACKFRIARS. 

and Assignees, now and ever, on the deliverance to them 
of this present obligation. Subscribed with our hands at 
Inverness by both the parties, the 23rd day of June in 
the year of God 1559 years. 

George Cuthbert Provost of Inverness. 

John M'Gilive, with my hand at the pen led by George 
Cuthbert. 

Thomas Flemying, one of the bailies of Inverness, with 
my hand. 

Frater Robertus Richardus, Prior manu sua. Frater 
Andreas Valcar, Sub-prior, manu sua. Frater Henricus 
Vyisman, H.V.F. Frater Jacobus Ramsay, manu sua. 
Frater Alex. Kaye, manu sua." (Family of Xilravock, p. 
227, Spalding Club.) 

Shortly before the unfortunate Mary Stuart was de- 
throned, she granted the following Charter to Inverness. 
In it she disposes of the property of the Friars Preachers. 

" Mary, by the Grace of God Queen of Scots, To all 
good men of her whole kingdom, cleric and laic ; Greet- 
ing ; Know that we, carefully considering our duty toward 
the service of God, and because of the ardent zeal we 
have for the upholding of the State, and for the preserva- 
tion of due order among our subjects, and chiefly within 
our burgh of Inverness ; considering, therefore, that we, 
by our office, are bound, and ought to consider our duty 
toward God, by whose Providence we are placed in 
the government of this kingdom, and also that it is by 
our office incumbent on us to provide by every honest 
means for the ministers of the word of God, and that hos- 
pitals should be maintained within our said burgh for 
poor, mutilated, and wretched, for orphans and children 
without parents ; we after our perfect age, with advice of 
the Lords of our secret council, have given, granted, dis- 
poned and for us and our successors for ever confirmed to 
our beloved the Provost, bailies, Council, and community 
of our said burgh of Inverness, and their successors for 
ever, all and sundry the lands, tenements, houses, build- 
ings, churches, chapels, orchards, gardens, acres, crofts, 
annual rents, fruits, duties, profits, emoluments, rents, 
alms, obits and anniversaries whatsomever, which in any 
way pertained or are known to pertain to whatsoever 
chaplaincies, vicarages, altarages, and prebendaries in 
whatsoever church, chapel, or college, . . . with manor 



FOUNDATION FOR THE MINISTERS OF INVERNESS. 225 

places, gardens, acres, lands, annual rents, emoluments, 
duties, mills, and fishings which formerly pertained to the 
Dominican or Preaching Friars of our said burgh. . . To be 
held and had, all and sundry the foresaid churches, chapels, 
rents, abodes of the Friars, gardens, mills, fishings thereof, 
and pertinents by the foresaid Provost, bailies, etc. . . . 
quietly, fully, honourably in peace, without revocation, or 
contradiction whatsoever, as fully in all as the foresaid 
chaplains, vicars, or Friars above written could have been 
able formerly to enjoy and possess the same ; and con- 
sidering with what great fraud a great number of said 
Vicars and Friars, who, after the change of religion dis- 
poned, alienated, and gifted away into the hands of 
certain particular men their lands, rents, &c., &c., by 
these presents we annul and rescind all and sundry such 
alienations, &c., and incorporate the foresaid lands, 
churches, abodes of Friars, &c., &c., into one body for 
ever to be called our foundation for the ministers and 
hospitality of our said burgh of Inverness. In witness 
whereof we command our seal to be appended. Witnesses 
Most Rev. Fr. in Xt John Abp. of St. Andrews, &c.; 
our beloved cousins, George, Earl of Huntly, Lord Gordon 
and Badenoch, our Chancellor ; James, Earl of Both well ; 
Lord Halis, Creichton, and Liddlesdale, Gt. Admiral of 
our kingdom ; our beloved familiar advisers, Rd. Mait- 
land of Lethington, keeper of our Secret Seal ; Jas. Bal- 
four of Pittendreich, Clerk of the Register of our Rolls 
and Council; John Bellenden, Justiciary Clerk; Kt. 
at Edinburgh, 21st day of the month of April, A.D. 1567, 
and of our reign the twenty -fifth." 

At the time of acquiring the lands of the Preaching 
Friars, Provost Cuthbert appears not to have had enough 
to pay for the price, and to have been obliged to bor- 
row 200 rnerks from Alexander Bane of Tulloch and 
Agnes Fraser, his wife. The Provost rendered the mort- 
gage in 1584, as is seen by the following instrument of 
redemption and renunciation : 

" In the name of God, Amen. By this present public 
instrument be it clearly known to all that in the year of 
the Incarnation of our Lord, on the 29th day of the month 
of May, in the 18th year of the Most Serene Prince 
James and sixth King of that name in presence of the 
public Notary, and the witnesses under-written, there 

VOL. III. 15 



226 KING JAMES CONFIRMS HIS MOTHER'S CHARTER. 

compeared the honourable man, Alexander Bane of 
Tulloch and Agnes Fraser, his wife, hereditary owner of 
all and sundry the lands within the walls of the place of 
the Preaching Friars of Inverness, both arable and garden, 
removing and excepting the church and the passage to 
the church which lies between the water of Ness at the 
west, and the King's common highway at the east, and 
also another piece of land built upon, on the eastern side 
of the wall of the Preaching Friars of Inverness, between 
the Parish Church of Inverness and the place of the late 
Preaching Friars and the King's common highway on the 
north, and the wall of the said place of the Friars at the 
west, of their own mere, pure, and spontaneous will con- 
fessed, and by the tenour of this public instrument confess 
that the foresaid lands with their pertinents were held by 
them of the Provost, bailies, council, and community 
of Inverness, and were lawfully redeemed from them by 
the honourable man, William Cuthbert, burgess of Inver- 
ness, hereditary owner and feudatory of all and sundry 
foresaid lands with their pertinents ... for the sum 
of 200 merks of the usual money of the Kingdom of 
Scotland. . . . These things, all and sundry, were 
done at Tulloch, the 29th day of the month of May, A.D. 
1584. Present there, the honest man, Alexander Mer- 
chant, burgess of Inverness ; Alexander Bane, my eldest 
lawful son ; Robert Bane, my son ; Alexander Thomas 
M'Gilliemichael, with other witnesses called and required. 

(Signed) " ALEXANDER BAYNE of Tulloch. 
William Gumming acts as Notary." 

In 1587 King James confirmed the Charter of Mary 
Queen of Scots, his mother, to Inverness. He gives over 
to the Royal foundation all lands, duties, annual rents, 
milnes, fishings, houses, etc., which pertained of before to 
the Dominican Friars or Predicatores, etc., and he ordains 
the Clerk of Registers to amplify this present Act, insert 
and register the same among the remanent Acts of Par- 
liament, to have the strength of an Act of Parliament in 
all times coming. 

James R. 

Robert Milne. 

This Charter was confirmed by the Golden Charter 
granted by James upon January 1st, 1591, to the burgh 



ARREST OF THE WHOLE OF THE FRIARS' PROPERTIES. 227 

of Inverness Sealed with our great seal at Holyrood 
House." 

From the Proceedings of the Burgh Court of Inverness 
we extract the following : 

" 13th Sept., 1568. That day, Thomas Finlayson, officer, 
passed at the command of James Paterson, Provost of 
Inverness, to the Friars Predicatores of Inverness, and 
there arrested all and haill the Friars' Kirk houses, 
Diggings, stones, dykes, of the same, that none within 
this burgh should pretend to break any of the foresaid 
Kirk houses, dykes, stones, nor lead them away unto the 
time that the infeftment obtained by the township should 
be fulfilled, and this he did before these witnesses 
Magnus Caskin, William Anderson, and Gillimore 
M'Marrif. Nov. 6th. The Burgh Court of Inverness 
holden within the Tolbooth of the same by Alexander 
Paterson, Joseph Dempster, and William Gumming, 
bailie, conjunctly and severally the 6th day of Novr., 
in the year of God 1568. That day, etc., as above. 

Witnesses Thomas Baillie, John Crown. 

June 24th. The Burgh Court of Inverness holden 
within the Tolbooth of the same, by William Cuthbert, 
Provost, John Robertson, one of the bailies of the said 
burgh, the 24th day of June, 1570. The which day com- 
peared William Cuthbert, Provost of Inverness, in pre- 
sence of the bailies, Council, and community of this 
burgh of Inverness, .... and there he exponed to them 
that he had obtained the consent of the Provost, bailies, 
Council, and community of the said burgh to have the 
haill Friars' yards and crofts bounded and included 
within the old walls thereof to him and heirs male for all 
the days of his lifetime, and that they had subscribed 
an assidation to him thereof, under their subscriptions 
manual, which assidation he presented to them openly, 
and desired them that they would admit and receive him 
as tenant and tacksman of the said Friars' yards and 
crofts and such like, because the subscriptions of the said 
assidation were gotten by him particularly of them, all 
being now altogether convened which being openly read 
among them, and understanding that the common good 
was nothing hurt or diminished thereby, .... have 
received and admitted him tacksman and tenant to them 
of the said Friars' yards and crofts, ... he making 



228 EXTRACTS FROM INVERNESS BURGH RECORDS. 

thankful payment, and ordained its common seal to be 
put to the said assidation, upon the which the said 
William Cuthbert took Act of Court. 

The Head Burgh Court of Inverness, after Yule, hoi- 
den within the Tolbooth by John M'Gilive, one of the 
bailies of the burgh, Jany. 7th, 1571. That day William 
Thomson produced in judgment an evident upon a rood 
of land let to him by John Robertson, burgess, which 
land pays to the Friars' Preachers of Inverness, and their 
successors, three shillings annual yearly, the which 
William desires to be entered in the suit roll, which was 
granted by the judge, upon the which the said William 
required Act of Court. 

The Burgh Court of Inverness, holden within the 
Tolbooth of the same by William, one of the bailies, the 
28th day of May, in the year of God 1578. That day 
compeared Maggie Kar, spouse to William Cuthbert, 
Provost, and there freely, purely, and simply renounced 
and overgave her fee of all and sundry the lands of the 
whole of the said late Black Friars of Inverness, haill 
yards and crofts within the walls of the said late Black 
Friars, with all claim, right, and possession which she 
had, in favour of the said William Cuthbert, her spouse, 
etc. Upon the which William Cuthbert and William 
Macfarquhar required Act of Court for the said Maggie 
Kar, James Paterson, Sheriff. 

Jany. 9th, 1575. The house and place of Allister 
M'Phadriek pay 2 shillings annual to the Friars' 
Preachers, entered in the suit-roll." (Fr. Placid Conway.) 

THE GREIG STREET FOOT-BRIDGE, INVERNESS. 

A largely attended meeting of the subscribers to this 
Bridge was held in the Town Hall on Tuesday night, for 
the purpose of hearing the committee's report on the 
legality of the objections put forward to the erection of 
the Bridge, by the proprietor of the Friars' Shott salmon 
fishings. Mr. Alex. Macbean was in the chair. Mr. 
Charles Innes, solicitor, convener of the Committee, read 
the Report, which was as follows : 

"Your committee understanding that the difficulties 
in question have been raised by the present proprietor 
of the portion of the River Ness popularly called the 
' Friars' Shott,' have investigated the history of that por- 



THE FRIARS' SHOTT; THE ROYAL HIGHWAY. 229 

tion of the fishings, and as the result of their investiga- 
tions now beg to report as follows : 

An Order of Friars, some say ' black ' and others ' grey,' 
but generally styled in charters and other ancient re- 
cords ' Preaching Friars ' (fratres predicatores), settled in 
Inverness in 1233, and as they were much favoured by 
the then King, Alexander II., they were soon made the 
recipients of his bounty. In 1240 he gave them a grant 
of certain subjects, including fishings, the latter being in 
point of fact, as will be seen from the sequel, the fishings 
which we to this day call the ' Friars' Shott.' 

King Alexander's Charter appears to have 'been very 
carelessly kept, for by 1530 it was so wasted and de- 
stroyed that it became necessary to have it confirmed 
by James V., who then occupied the Scottish throne. 
James complied with the request to that effect, and 
his Charter of confirmation narrates particularly the 
description of the subjects included in his predecessor's 
grant. 

The full description, which it is necessary to give in 
order to the proper understanding of the boundaries of 
the fishings, is as follows : ' Our Royal highway lying in 
length from the water of Ness, as far as that land which 
the Abbot and Convent of Arbroath gave to them ' (i.e. 
the Preaching Friars of Inverness) 'for ever, and in 
breadth between the burying ground of the Parish 
Church and the wall of the said Friars, and that island 
of our land lying on the north side of said Friars, on the 
south side of the water of Ness, with the whole water 
and fishing from the foresaid Friars' Road as far as Scurry, 
in pure and perpetual charity, with all commodities, liber- 
ties, and easements.' 

The Royal highway thus oddly gifted by the King to 
the Friars it will be seen lay in breadth 'between the 
burying ground of the Parish Church and the wall of the 
said Friars.' As the said wall is known to have been 
nearer the mouth of the river than the burying ground, 
that is to the north thereof, it follows (first), that the 
' Royal highway ' otherwise the ' Friars' Road,' running 
from the water side, must have formed the southern 
boundary of the fishings, and (second) that the said road 
must have been formed immediately alongside of the 
burying ground of the Parish Church in fact that it 



230 THE FRIARS' SHOTT SALMON FISHINGS. 

must have occupied pretty much the site of what we call 
Friars' Lane to this day. 

As the bounds of the fishings are described as extend- 
ing from the ' Friars' Road as far as Scurry,' and as it is 
well known that the latter was to the north of the former, 
and is what is now called ' the Cherry,' there could be no 
manner of doubt, even was there no evidence other than 
the charter itself, that the Friars' Road, or, in other words, 
the Friars' Lane of our day was in 1240, and in 1530, the 
boundary of the Friars' fishings at the south. Had, how- 
ever, there been any doubt as to the exact position of the 
Friars' Road, there is in existence a mass of evidence to 
place the matter beyond all question. 

The Friars' fishing seems from very early times to 
have led to disputes and litigation, and questions as to 
encroachment in connection therewith have not been 
confined to our day. The proprietors, however, so long, 
at any rate, as the fishings belonged to the Friars, do not 
appear to have been always the encroachers. In 1538 it 
would appear that the Burgh authorities attempted to 
rob the Friars, whose days by that time were well nigh 
numbered, of a portion of their property. 

The then Prior was, however, not the man meekly to 
allow his Order to be despoiled of any of their ancient 
possessions. By the rules of the Order, the brotherhood 
were bound to abstain from eating flesh from the month 
of September to Easter in each year, hence fish to them 
was an important article of food, and they were on that 
account the less likely to part with an inch of water to 
which they could lay just claim. The attempted en- 
croachment of the Burgh was brought before the Sheriff 
of Inverness, Alexander Baillie of Dunain, and he having 
heard both parties as to their rights and allegations, ' and 
the complaints and statements of each being weighed, the 
foresaid Alexander Baillie, Sheriff of Inverness ' (as the 
Notarial instrument of the proceedings sets forth), 'holding 
the situation for the administration of justice, being- 
advised by the ripe counsel of his assessors, delivers and 
ordains the foresaid Provost, Bailies, and the occupiers of 
the River Ness, to desist and cease from all fishing and 
dragging of nets, in all time coming, until they shall pro- 
duce more valid evidences in judgment; and the Charter 
of the said Friars just shown before the said Sheriff in 



LITIGATION BETWEEN THE FEUARS AND MAGISTRATES. 231 

defence of said Prior and Convent, and examined in judg- 
ment, to be of as much force, as is more fully contained 
in the Roll of said Court made thereupon.' So that for 
the time being the Friars came off victorious. 

In a Charter granted in 1 574, by which time the poor 
Friars had got their congd, and were relieved of all their 
property, mention is made of 'the common passage or 
highway which leads to the water of Ness between the 
Parish Church of Inverness and the foresaid place of the 
Preaching Friars of Inverness;' and again in a deed 
executed in 1584, 'the common passage or way, which 
leads to the water of Ness between the Parish Church of 
Inverness and the place of the late Preaching Friars of 
Inverness,' is referred to. The said common passage, or 
way, was, therefore, undoubtedly well known. 

At the Reformation in 1560, the Friars were stripped 
of all their possessions, and their houses, lands, and fish- 
ings, were granted to the Provost, Bailies, Council, and 
community of Inverness, by Queen Mary, by Charter 
dated 21st April, 1567. The burgh authorities very 
soon parted with the subjects thus gifted to them, having 
feued out the same to different parties not unfrequently 
to friends and connections of their own, and that at 
trifling feu duties. The Friars' fishing was in that way 
feued out, the duty being 1 2s. 9|d. It is needless, 
however, at present, to trace it through each proprietor 
in succession, and a period of two centuries may there- 
fore be passed over. About the middle of the 18th 
century questions arose between the feuars of the River 
Ness and the magistrates of Inverness, which ended in a 
litigation. The proceedings were conducted in the Court 
of Session, and by the final decision of that Court, dated 
27th June, 1775, it was found that ' the town of Inver- 
ness had been long since denuded of all their rights of 
salmon fishing in the water of Ness by grants made by 
the town in favour of the feuars of said fishing, and that 
the feuars ' (i.e. the parties in right of what are called the 
Four Cobles) ' have the sole right of salmon fishing from 
the stone of Clachnahagaig to the mouth of the river 
where it joins the sea at low water, except the Duke 
of Gordon's fishing, and the fishing called the Friars' 
fishing.' 

Subsequent to the year 1775, the municipal authori- 



232 HORNE'S PLAN OF BOUNDARIES OF FRIARS' FISHING. 

ties re-acquired half a coble, being one-eighth portion of 
the right formerly possessed by them, apart from the 
Friars' fishing, and it is in respect of the half coble so 
re-acquired the inhabitants of Inverness are now enjoying 
the privilege of fishing in the river within the Four 
Cobles water one day out of every eight. The fishings 
called the ' Friars' fishing' are said in the printed Report 
of the case to have then belonged to ' one Scot, a merchant 
in Inverness,' whose 'rights' it is said describe it by special 
boundaries as follows, viz.: ' Totam et integram aquam 
vocat. lie Friars water de Nes et salmonum piscarium 
ejusd. aquae, qua quondam pertinuerunt ad praedicatores. 
Invernesse, bodan. inter lie Cherry ad boream, et com- 
munem venellam quae descendit apud cemiterium lie 
Kirkyard et austrum.' 

That description agrees almost word for word with 
the description in the original Charter of 1240, as narrated 
in the Charter conjoining the same in 1530, the only 
difference being that the fact of the Cherry being at the 
north, and the Kirkyard at the south, is stated. There 
cannot be the slightest doubt as to the common vennel 
referred to in 1775 being the Friars' Road of 1240 and 
1530, and the Friars' Lane of 1877, seeing that it has 
already been abundantly shown, apart from the statement 
in Scot's title, that the limit of the Friars' fishing on the 
south was the road, passage, highway, or common vennel 
(as it has at different times been called), which separated 
the ' Parish Church ' from the old ' place ' of the Friars. 

In connection with the before referred to case, a judicial 
Plan was prepared in 1774 by Mr. Home, which Plan was 
lithographed in 1830, and copies of which are in the pos- 
session of several Invernessians. The positions of the 
various fishing stations and the boundaries of the Friars' 
fishing are therein particularly marked. The end of the 
Trot or the third station of the coble proprietors, which 
in point of fact was the boundary of the Friars' fishing at 
the south, is placed on the east bank of the river a little 
to the north of Friars' Lane; and it is run across the 
river in a slanting and upward direction until it reaches 
a point on the west bank about opposite the centre of old 
' Drummuir's House,' which is now known as the ' Blue 
House ' or ' Balnain's House.' 

Towards the close of last century Provost William 



PROV. INGLIS' MEMORANDUM OF INVERNESS MONASTERY. 233 

Inglis drew up a Memorandum on the subject of the old 
Monastery, its boundaries and possessions, which is still 
preserved in the Advocates' Library in Edinburgh. In it 
occurs the following passage ' On a rising ground, sepa- 
rated from the Monastery by the lane only, stood the 
Parish Church, a very ancient structure, which, having 
become quite ruinous, was pulled down in the year 1769, 
and the present Church built on its site.' This is further 
confirmation of the position of the road, passage, or vennel 
which was situated at the southern boundary of the 
Friars' water. . 

Provost Inglis further says ' the salmon fishing 
directly opposite to the Friary, and esteemed the most 
valuable in the river, did also belong to it, and is to this 
day called the Friars' coble or shott.' As we know with 
certainty that the Friars' lands did not extend beyond 
the road separating them from the Parish Church, it fol- 
lows, as a matter of course, the fishings which were 
' directly opposite ' could not possibly extend beyond 
said road. 

In 1831, the Town Council granted a Charter of con- 
firmation of the fishings in question to Messrs. Fenwick 
and Steavenson, who were then in right of the same. In 
that Charter the description is as follows : 'All and whole, 
the water commonly called the Friars' water of Ness, and 
salmon fishings of the same, which of old belonged to the 
Friars predicators of Inverness, called the Friars' fishing 
on the said river, and haill parts and pertinents thereto 
belonging, lying within the liberty and territory of the 
said Burgh of Inverness, bounded betwixt the common 
way or vennel descending nigh the Kirkyard and 
burial place thereof, at the south, and the Cherry, at 
the north.' 

On the 29th October, 1869, a Charter of confirmation, 
the description in which is in precisely similar terms to 
the above, was granted to Mr. A. L. Steavenson. 

In the light of the quotations before given from the 
Charters, by which the fishings were originally granted 
to the old Preaching Friars, and seeing the Charters of 
confirmation just quoted (being the last delivered by the 
town) state distinctly the fishings referred to of old 
belonged to the Friars predicators of Inverness, it is 
evident the present proprietor of the Friars' fishing is 



234 THE FRIARS' LANE; THE ABBAN: FRIESHOTT. 

entitled to as much of the water, but no more, as his pre- 
decessors the Preaching Friars possessed. No question 
has arisen as to the northern boundary, the southern 
boundary only being at present in dispute; why any 
dispute should have arisen as to it is surprising, seeing 
that the boundary is as easily recognisable to-day as it 
was when the original grant was made, over 600 years 
ago, for now as then ' a common passage or way leads to 
the water of Ness between the Parish Church of Inverness 
and the place of the late Preaching Friars of Inverness.' 
That passage was in 1240 and 1530 called the Friars' 
Road ; ' it is now called Friars' Lane, and undoubtedly 
was then, as it is now, the boundary of the Friars' fish- 
ings on the south. 

It is believed that the present proprietor contends that 
the lane called Church Lane, which runs from Church 
Street between the High Churchyard and what is now 
the North Free Church Manse and garden, is the common 
way or vennel referred to in his titles. After what has 
already been said it is not necessary to waste a single 
sentence on the contention. 

The only peculiarity about the boundaries of the 
Friars' fishings is that while the march at the south on 
the east side of the river is given, no reference is made 
to the march on the west bank. The explanation is, that 
when the grant was originally given, fishing operations 
were in that portion of the river alone conducted from 
the east bank, the opposite or western bank being at that 
time not suitable for the purpose. 

The river opposite the Friars' lands was of old divided 
into two streams, the main body running where it now 
does, while the other found its way to the sea by what 
was called the Abban. When the Abban came to be 
closed up, the stream, which formerly struck the west- 
ern, was naturally thrown over toward the eastern bank, 
necessitating a change in the bank from which the cobles 
could be launched and the nets shot. 

Though it has no bearing on the point at issue, it 
may be well here to mention, as this Report may in after 
years be referred to, that some local antiquarians have 
asserted the ancient name of the Friars' Shott was ' Frie- 
shott ' or ' Freschot.' This assertion was made by Mr. 
Fraser-Mackintosh in his ' Antiquarian Notes ; ' the only 



THE FRESCHOTT AND FRIARS' SHOTT NOT SYNONYMOUS. 235 

proof he gives being the fact that in a letter to his father, 
dated 29th October, 1819, the late Major Duff of Muir- 
town had said so. 

In his later work, ' Invernessiana,' Mr. Fraser-Mack- 
intosh quotes the authority of the late Mr. James Suter 
to the following effect : ' What is now styled the Friars' 
Shott was called 300 years ago the Freschott, and this 
word signifies that part of a river which is affected by 
the tide is sometimes fresh, sometimes salt water.' 

These gentlemen all seem to have jumped to the con- 
clusion that Freschott and Friars' Shott were synonymous 
on account apparently of the similarity of the two names. 

In a Charter, dated 13th May, 1544, by the Bishop of 
Moray to the then Lord Lovat, the Bishop granted inter 
alia ' the fishings of the Ness called the Freschott,' and 
that is the only Deed referred to by our antiquarians in 
which the fishing so called is named. 

Seeing that the lands included in said Charter are 
Abriachen, Kinmylies, Ballifeary, Bught,&c. it is thought 
it might have occurred to even a casual reader, that in all 
probability the fishings going along with these lands 
might be looked for in their immediate neighbourhood, arid 
not so far away as the Friars' fishings undoubtedly were. 
When, however, we know, and the antiquarians might 
have known too, that the Bishop of Moray never pos- 
sessed the ' Friars' fishing : ' that on the contrary said 
fishing remained in the possession of the Friars themselves 
from 1240 until they ceased to exist in 1560, and that it 
was with other portions of their property gifted by Queen 
Mary to the burgh in 15G7 (as has been explained), it 
will be at once seen that the fishing called the Freschott, 
in the Bishop of Moray's Charter to Lord Lovat in 1544, 
was not and could not possibly have been the Friars' 
Shott. The fishing, really given over by the Bishop of 
Moray to Lord Lovat are believed to have been in posses- 
sion of the Bishop's predecessors since 1232, and to have 
been the fishing, included in the Charter of Kinmylies 
granted in that year. 

By Mr. Home's Plan of 1774 before referred to, the 
end of the third station of the coble proprietors is fixed 
on the western bank of the river, as has been already 
stated, at a point about opposite the centre of old Drum- 
muir's House. As the coble proprietors appear to have 



236 THE GREIG STREET FOOT BRIDGE, INVERNESS. 

made that the end of their station, doubtless the pro- 
prietors of the Friars' fishing came in time to look on the 
water on the west side of the river up to that point as 
theirs. There is nothing in the titles, however, which 
warrants their going further to the south than the old 
Friars' Road, and it is quite possible the proprietors of 
the cobles might yet, if they tried the question, be able 
to restrict the proprietor of the Friars' fishing to that 
portion of the water ending at his southern boundary as 
given in his titles. Into that question it is at present not 
necessary to enter. It would appear, however, that the 
present proprietor of the Friars' fishing, not content with 
being allowed to launch his boats on the western bank of 
the river from a point considerably beyond his Charter 
boundary, now claims a right to use the western bank for 
some 30 or 35 yards beyond even that point, for the pur- 
pose of towing up his boats. In the opinion of your Com- 
mittee he has no such right at common law, and it is 
quite certain he has no such right by his titles. The 
claim therefore should, it appears to your Committee, be 
strenuously resisted. Had it not been for the fact that 
the water of the four cobles proprietors is now almost 
only used for the purpose of angling, it is believed the 
operations of the proprietor of the Friars' fishings and his 
tenants would long ago have been challenged and stopped. 

The use of the bank beyond Balnain's House for the 
purpose of towing, began at a period when the cobles and 
Friars' fishing were in the tenancy of one and the same 
person or company, and it is believed the present pro- 
prietor cannot prove that by himself or his tenants he has 
in right of the Friars' fishings been undisturbedly using 
the bank of the river beyond Balnain's House as a towing 
path for anything like forty years. 

As the proposed site of the foot-bridge is considerably 
to the south of Balnain's House on the west side of the 
river, and the Friars' Lane on the east side, your Com- 
mittee recommend : (1st) That immediate application 
should be made to the proper authorities (that is, the 
Provost, Magistrates, and Town Council, as also the pro- 
prietors of the four cobles fishing) for permission to erect 
the bridge on said site ; (2nd) That, in anticipation of said 
permission being granted contracts should be forthwith 
entered into for the erection of said bridge so that the 



HOUSES OF THE TEMPLARS AT ELGIN AND ABERLOUR. 237 

present season should not be lost; (3rd) That caveats 
should be lodged in the Courts in case the proprietor of 
the Friars' fishing should apply for an interdict ; and (4th) 
That care should be taken that the interests of the sub- 
scribers shall be protected by the contract to be entered 
into for the erection of the bridge by providing for the 
possibility of a question arising with the proprietor of 
said fishing. Reported in name and on behalf of the 
Committee by CHARLES INNES, Convener. 
Inverness, 3rd April, 1877." 

TEMPLAR AND JOHANNITE KNIGHTS. 

I shall add a few things concerning the Tem- 
plar and Johannite Knights. 

The Templars were religious Knights esta- 
blished at Jerusalem about the year 1118, and 
vowed to defend the Temple, and to guard and 
entertain pilgrims and strangers. They wore a 
white habit with a red cross, and were called by 
some the Bed-Friars. They became immensely 
rich, had above 9000 houses in Europe, and the 
cross of the Order was on the top of every house. 
They had some lands in Ardersier and a jurisdic- 
tion of Eegality. In 1312 the Pope and the 
King of France suppressed this Order, and, under 
pretence of abominable crimes and errors, caused 
destroy the Knights in one night, then shared 
their riches, and gave a part of the lands to 
the Johannites. 

The Templars had a house in the town of 
Elgin; and at Kinnermony, in Aberlour, there 
are the walls of an old Gothic house, and the 
tradition of the country is that it was a Eeligious 



238 MASSACRE OF TEMPLARS AT KINNERMONY, ABERLOUR. 

house, and that all the Religious in it were mas- 
sacred in one night. [See Vol. I., pp. 183, 184.] 
The Johannites had their rise from some 
Neapolitan Merchants, whom the Caliph of 
Egypt permitted to huild a house at Jerusalem 
for the reception of pilgrims. In 1104, Godfrey 
of Bouillon allowed a Temple and Hospital to be 
built in honour of St. John; and hence the 
Knights took their name. They wore a black 
robe with a white cross. Being driven by the 
Saracens and Turks out of Palestine, Cyprus, 
and Rhodes, Charles V., Emperor, in 1534, gave 
them the island of Malta. Hence they were 
called The Knights of Malta. They had lands 
in almost all Christian countries. Their chief 
seat in Scotland was at Torphichen ; and King 
Malcolm IV. gave them " Unum toftum in quoli- 
bet burgo totius terrae suae."* They had a house 
in the town of Elgin ; but at the Reformation, 
anno 1560, the Order was abolished. 

II. THE SECULAR CLERGY. 

These were so called because, being the Parish 
Ministers, they lived abroad in the world, and 
were not shut up in Convents and Cloisters as 
the Regulars were. We had two Bishops' Sees 
or Seats in this Province, Mortlach and Moray ; 
and the Bishops of these, with their Inferiors, 
were the Secular Clergy. 

* Translation " One toft in whatever burgh they chose 
throughout the kingdom." 



FOUNDATION CHARTER OF THE SEE OF MORTLACH. 239 
THE BISHOPBICK OF MOBTLACH, 

With the time and occasion of its erection, is 
mentioned by Fordun, Lib. IV., cap. 44, in vita 
Malcolm II. " Novam Episcopalem constituit 
sedem apud Murthlac, non procul a loco quo, 
superatis Norwegensibus, victoriam obtinuit."* 
This refers to the victory obtained over the 
Danes, anno 1010 ; and Fordun adds that Pope 
Benedict constituted Bean Bishop thereof. We 
have the foundation Charter of this See in the 
Chartulary of Aberdeen. It runs thus : 

" Malcolmus, rex Scottorum, omnibus probis 
hominibus suis, tarn Clericis quam Laicis, Salutem: 
Sciatis, me dedisse, et hoc Carta mea confirmasse, 
Deo et Beatce Marice, et omnibus Sanctis, et Epis- 
copo BEYN de Murthelach, Ecclesiam de Murthe- 
lach, ut ibidem construatur sedes Episcopalis, 
Terras meas de Murthelach, Ecclesiam de Cloveth 
cum terris, Ecclesiam de Dulmeth cum terris ; ita 
libere sicut eas tenui, et in puram, et perpetuam 
Eleemosynam : Teste meipso, apud Forfar, Svo 
Octobris, anno regni mei sexto"\ 

* Translation " He erected a new Bishop's See at Murthlac, 
not far from the place where, having conquered the Nor- 
wegians, he obtained a victory." 

t Translation " Malcolm, King of Scots, to all his good 
People, both Clergy and Laity, Greeting : Know ye that I 
have given, and by this Charter confirmed, to God and the 
blessed Mary, and all the Saints, and to the Bishop Beyn of 
Morthlach, the Church of Morthlach, that there a Bishop's See 
may be erected, my Lands of Morthlach, the Church of Cloveth 
with its lands, the Church of Dulmeth with its lands, as free as 
I held them, and in pure and perpetual charity. Witness 
myself, at Forfar, October 8th, in the sixth year of my Keign." 



240 MALCOLM II. FOUNDS THE SEE OF MORTLACH. 

Dr. Nicholson, in his Scottish History, page 
210, makes King Malcolm III. the founder of the 
Bishoprick, but gives, no reason for his opinion. 
It is true, in the Chartulary of Aberdeen, this 
erection is said to have been, " Tempori Mal- 
colmi regis Scotice filii Kenethi, per eum Malcol- 
mum constitute est primo sedes episcopalis apud 
Murthlac, cui dotavit ecclesiam de Murthlac,"* &c. 
Yet that Chartulary in another place says that it 
was erected anno 1070. But many circumstances 
concur in ascribing the erection to Malcolm II. 
Malcolm II., and not Malcolm III., was the son 
of Kenneth. Malcolm II., and not Malcolm III., 
defeated the Norwegians at Mortlach. It was 
erected anno regni 6to ; this places it in 1010, 
which was the 6th of Malcolm II. But the year 
1070 was the 13th, and not the 6th, of Malcolm 
III. If Malcolm III. had been the Founder, he 
would have been so called in the Chartulary ; but 
he is mentioned only as a single donator. And 
David I. would have confirmed his father's char- 
ter had he been the founder ; but this he does 
not. The transcriber, therefore, of the charter 
has certainly erred in writing 1070 for 1010, 
which is but one figure for another, 7 for 1 
a mistake ready to be committed. 

This See, being erected 1010, was the second 



* Translation " The Episcopal See at Morthlach was at first 
erected in the time of Malcolm, Son of Kenneth, and King of 
Scotland, to which he granted the Kirk of Morthlach." 



COSMO INNES COMBATS FIVE FORGED CHARTERS. 241 

in Scotland ; and it shows how narrow and mean 
the extent and jurisdiction of Bishoprics were at 
first. This extended only over three parishes. 

King David L, by his charter dated at Forfar, 
30th July, anno regni 18vo, i.e. 1142, translated 
the See from Mortlach to Aberdeen, in favour of 
Bishop Nectan ; whose Diocese was declared to 
be over the counties of Aberdeen and Banff 
(Chart. Aberd.) But the extent of that Diocese 
was afterwards altered, and much of it included 
in the Diocese of Moray, as we shall see. Yet 
the parish of Mortlach, the Mother-seat, remained 
in the Diocese of Aberdeen, until it was annexed 
to the Synod of Moray by the General Assembly, 
9th April, 1706. 

SEE OF MORTLACH. 

[The circumstantial account of the foundation of a 
Bishop's See at Morthlach by Malcolm II. in 1010, given 
by Fordun and Boece, is repudiated by Cosmo Innes in 
his Preface to the Reg. Epis. Aberdonensis as their 
delineations are built on five forged charters, which he 
combats as such. He says : " At a somewhat earlier 
period than the era of Fordun, was engrossed in the 
Album Registrum, the most ancient of the existing re- 
cords of the Bishoprick of Aberdeen), the following com- 
mencement of a Table of its Contents. It has been much 
injured by an awkward attempt to alter the chronology 
to suit the era of Malcolm II. ; but it would appear 
to have originally stood thus : 

'ANNO DOMINI M- SEPTUAGESIMO. MALCOLMUS EEX 

SCOTORUM FlLIUS KENACHI DUXIT IN UXOREM BEATAM MAR- 
GARETAM EEGINAM. . . . ET ANNO REGNI Sui SEXTO FUNDATA 

EST SEDES EPISCOPALIS APUD MORTHLACH VT HABETUR IN 

PRIMO FOLIO PRIMI QUATERNI. ET PROCESSU TEMPORIS 

TRANSLATA EST SEDES EPISCOPALIS APUD ABERDON PER 

VOL. in. 16 



242 HISTOEIANS' DOUBTS ABOUT THE TIME OF FOUNDATION. 

DAUID FILIUM SUUM REGEM SCOCIE ET DOTATA VT HABETUR 
IN EODEM FOLIO. LITERA PREDICTI MALCOLM I. PRONE- 
POTIS Sui EEGIS SCOCIE CONFIRMANTIS DONACIONIS DAUID 
REGIS SCOCIE AVI Sui. LITERA DAUID EEGIS SCOCIE FILII 
PRIMI MALCOLMI ET BEATE MARGARETE CONCEDENTIS ET 
DONANTIS MULTAS POSSESSIONES ECCLESIAS ET DECIMAS 
OMNIUM REDDITUUM SUORUM INTER DUAS AQUAS QUE DEE 
ET SPEE DICUNTUR.' 

The writer of this Record, although he mistakes the 
afcher of Malcolm III., whom he calls Kenneth instead of 
Duncan, is, in other respects, consistent with himself and 
with the ascertained chronology. He ascribes the marriage 
of Malcolm and Margaret to the year 1070, which is the 
date assigned by the Chronicle of Melrose to the nuptials 
of Malcolm Canmore and Margaret of England. Nor can 
there be any doubt that it is Malcolm III. of whom he 
speaks, notwithstanding his mistaken patronymic, when 
he names David I. as his son and Malcolm IV. as his 
great-grandson, and bestows upon him his well-known 
appellation of " Canmor " " Big Head." According, 
then, to this, the oldest authority for the tradition, and 
entitled to the more weight that it was written within 
the walls of the Cathedral, a Bishop's See was founded at 
Morthlach in 1063, which corresponds with the sixth 
year of the reign of Malcolm Canmore. 

Another Record, not indeed of so high antiquity or 
authority, asserts the translation of the See of Morthlach 
to Aberdeen to have taken place in 1125. 

It is hardly necessary to observe that these dates are 
more consistent with the number of Bishops between the 
foundation of the See and its translation to Aberdeen, as 
preserved by the unvarying tradition of the Church, than 
the period assigned by Fordun and Boece, which would 
extend the incumbency of three Bishops over a period of 
no less than 112 years." 

In the beginning of the 12th century, the band of mis- 
sionaries that pushed into the Pagan fastnesses of the 
North of Scotland, and established their little Christian 
family in the sequestered valley of the Fiddich, at Morth- 
lach, must have thriven in the benevolence of the people, 
since, at that period, the " Monastery of Morthlach " was 
possessed of five churches with their territories. 

We have all lived in the belief that Mortlach was the 



THE BATTLE AND BISHOPS OF MORTLACH QUESTIONED. 243 

seat of a Bishop eight or nine centuries ago ; that the 
Bishopric was transferred from Mortlach to Aberdeen 
after there were three Bishops there in succession ; that 
Malcolm II., King of Scotland, fought the Danes at Mort- 
lach in 1010, and, in gratitude for his victory, added 
three lengths of his spear a very long one, no doubt to 
the old church. 

Neither John Hill Burton (the Historian of Scotland), 
nor W. F. Skene supports these beliefs, fondly cherished 
for a long period by every one belonging to the district. 
They do not absolutely say they are apocryphal ; but they 
point out difficulties in accepting the version of them 
which local history has handed down difficulties that are 
not easy to get over, and which cannot finally be cleared 
up, without research for original documents, not yet 
founded on, which it may not be easy to find which it 
may, indeed, be impossible to find. 

Mr. Skene, in one of the first two volumes of his Celtic 
Scotland, says quite distinctly that no Bishopric could 
have been at Mortlach at the time it was said to be there. 

The history of the time, so far as founded on reliable 
documents, makes it clear that St. Andrews had the only 
Bishop in Scotland at so early a period. The evidence of 
a Bishop being at Mortlach rests on the genuineness of 
five chapters of Memoranda prefixed to the Chartulary of 
Aberdeen;. and recent inquirers, including Professor Cosmo 
Innes, say they cannot be relied on. See page 241. 

Mr. Skene says there was a Culdee Church or Cell at 
Mortlach, and a Monastery, but not a Bishopric ; and, 
however unpleasant it may be to give up old beliefs that 
seemed well supported by historical authorities, we are 
afraid many of the associations that cluster around the 
early history of the Valley of the Fiddich must be aban- 
doned, and new reading and new inquiry resorted to, in 
order, if possible, to get at what is really reliable and true. 

About the Battle of Mortlach, Mr. Hill Burton is as 
decided that it could not have taken place, as Mr. Skene 
is that the Bishops were not there. 

The first authentic Writ in Regist. Ep. Aberdeen is 
a Bull by Pope Adrian IV. in 1157, confirming to 
Edward, Bishop of Aberdeen, the Church of Aberdeen, 
the Church of St. Machar, with the town of Old Aberdeen 
and other lands, in which are included the Monastery 



244 THE FIRST THREE BISHOPS OF MORTLACH. 

of Cloveth and the town and Monastery of Murthillach, 
with five churches and the lands belonging to them. 
There is here no allusion to Murthillach having been an 
Episcopal See, the seat of which had been transferred to 
Aberdeen. The designation of " Monastery " points une- 
quivocally to these Churches having been old Columban 
Monasteries; and accordingly we find that Murthillach 
was dedicated to St. Malusc, the founder of the Churches 
of Lisraore and Rosemarky, in the sixth century. 

Of the three Bishops who are said to have preceded 
Nectan, Beyn probably belongs to the Columban period. 
Donertius has all the appearance of a fictitious name, 
and Cormauch is probably Cormac, Bishop of Dunkeld, 
who appears in the Charter in which Nectan is first men- 
tioned as having rights connected with the Church of 
Deer, and who may have possessed similar claims upon 
the Monasteries of Cloveth and Murthillach, as old Colum- 
ban foundations. (See Vol. II., 379.) 

The Church of Aberdeen appears to have had a tradi- 
tion that the See was originally founded at Mortlach, and 
was transferred to Aberdeen by King David in the 13th 
year of his reign. This tradition is contained in five 
Charters or Memoranda of charters, prefixed to the Cliar- 
tulary of Aberdeen, and the interval between Beyn, the 
supposed first Bishop, and Nectan, is filled up by Doner- 
cius, the second Bishop, and Cormauch, the third Bishop. 
That a Bishopric was founded there by Malcolm II. 
is clearly at variance with the undoubted fact that there 
was, at that time, but one Bishop in Scotland, whose seat 
was at St. Andrews, and who was termed the Episcop. 
Albain, or Episcopus Scottorum ; and the five documents 
which contain the Aberdeen tradition have been shown 
by the learned Editor of the Chartulary (Cosmo Innes) to 
be unquestionably spurious.] (ED.) 

The Bishops of Mortlach before the translation 
of the See were : 

1, Bean;* 2, Donertins; 3, Cormac. These 

* In the Scotch Calendars, St. Beyn appears both on 26th 
October and on 16th December. The Breviary of Aberdeen 
has, on 26th October, Beyn Episcopus ; and in Adam King's 
Calendar he is called Bishop of Murthillach ; but in the Martyr- 



VARIOUS CHARTERS ANENT THE FOUNDATION OF MORAY. 245 

from anno 1010 to 1122. Then 4, Nectan was 
ordained, and in 1139 was brought to Aberdeen. 

In 1142 this See was called The Bishopric of 
Aberdeen. (Pref. to DipL et Num. Scotice.) 

I come now to 

THE BISHOPRIC OF MORAY. 

The precise time of erecting this Bishopric, or 
the reign in which it was erected, cannot easily 
be fixed. Leslie and Buchanan ascribe it to 
King Malcolm III. or Ceanmore ; but this is 
uncertain. In the Foundation-Charter of the 
Priory of Scone, anno 1115, Gregorius Episcopus 
is a witness. In a Charter by King Alexander I. 
to the said Priory, about the year 1122, Eobertus 
Electus Episcopus Sti Andreae, Cormacus Epis- 
copus, et Gregorius Episcopus de Moravia, are 
witnesses. And in a Charter by King David I. 
anno 1126, to the Abbey of Dunfermline, Eobertus 
Sti Andreae, Joannes Glasguensis, Gregorius 
Moraviensis, Cormacus Dunkeldensis, and Mac- 
beth Eossimarkiensis, Episcopi, are witnesses. 
(Dalr. Coll.) I think it very probable, that 
Bishop Gregory, anno 1126, is the same that is 

ology of Aberdeen he is identified with S. Beyn of Fowlis in 
Stratherne, who, we learn from the Life of St. Cadroe, lived in 
the ninth century. Dempster, in his Monologium, has him also 
at 16th December as Bishop of Murthlach, but this is also the 
day of St. Mobhesc in the Irish Calendars, whose name was 
also Beoan ; and as he is mentioned in the Felire of Angus, he 
must have lived before the eighth century. (See Mart. Donegal, 
p. 337.) (ED.) 



246 GREGORY, PRIOR AND BISHOP OF DUNKELD. 

mentioned 1122 and 1115 ; and this brings up 
the erection to the beginning of the reign of 
King Alexander I., and higher I cannot trace it. 

Thus the See of Moray is fourth in order of 
erection; and the more ancient Sees are, St. 
Andrews, Mortlach, and Glasgow. 

Let me now give an account of 

THE BISHOPS OF THIS SEE OF MORAY. 

Spottiswood and others have given very im- 
perfect Catalogues of these Bishops. I have com- 
pared several manuscript and printed lists, and 
from them compiled the following, which I think 
pretty exact. [Not so, as the emendations show. (Eo.)] 

1. Gregorius, Bishop of Moray, anno 1115. I 
find not in what year he died. [Note at page 245.] 

[Gregory, Bishop of this See, is mentioned in the reign 
of King Alexander I., as Witness in a Charter to the 
Priory of Scone : and in the time of King David I., he is 
also named as Witness to his Charter to the Abbey of 
Dunfermline. (Cart. Dunferm. Dalr. Coll. p. 240, and 
388-9, and Pref. p. 56.) I suspect the first Bishop of Dun- 
keld and this one here may be the same person. 

He was Prior of the Convent of Dunkeld in 1127, 
and made Bishop of the See about the same time. It 
was by his interest that the Lands of Outhertak, as 
well as 30 Prebends, were granted to the Bishop and 
Chapter of Dunkeld as is contained in King David's 
Charter. He procured, in the strictest form, from Pope 
Alexander III., the Apostolical protection for himself and 
his Church, in which Writing all the Possessions which 
they held then are reckoned. He assigned the Church of 
Rattray to the Sub-chanter, whose name was Guasdub. 

He is Bishop of Dunkeld, contemporary with Her- 
bert, Elect of Glasgow. (Cart. Cambusken.) Also, with 



EARLY BISHOPS OF THE SEE OF MORAY. 247 

King David, Kobert, Elect of St. Andrews, and Her- 
bert and Andrew, Bishops of Glasgow and Caithness. 
(Cart. Dunferm.) He is Bishop of Dunkeld in 1150. 
(Cart. Glasguen.) He is contemporary with John, Bishop 
of Glasgow (Cart. Kelso) ; and in the time of King- 
Malcolm IV., with Arnold, Bishop of St. Andrews, and 
Andrew, Bishop of Caithness. (Cart. Kelso et Passelet.) 
He is Bishop of Dunkeld under King Malcolm IV. (Dipl. 
et Numism.) He is Witness to a Charter of that King. 
(Hay et Cart. Newbottle.) Also in the llth year of the 
same King (Cart. Scone) ; and in the time of Pope Adrian 
IV. (Nic. Hist. Lib., p. 353.) Gregory, Bishop of Dunkeld, 
is Witness to a Charter of Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, 
granting the Abbey of the Island of Loch Leven, the 
property of the Culdees, and the Vestments and Books 
of this Abbey, to the Church of St. Andrews. The grant 
must have been made before 1158, but there is no date.] 
(See Keith's Catalogue of Scottish Bishops.) 

2. William. I find not when he was con- 
secrated. He was made Apostolic Legate 1159. 
Next year he consecrated Arnold, Bishop of St. 
Andrews, and died anno 1162. (Chron. Melr.) 
I think it not improbable, that Gregory and 
William might officiate from 1115 to 1162. 

[William was a Bishop here in the time of King 
David I. (Cart. Cambusken, also Writs of Clackmannan.) 
He is Bishop also under King Malcolm II. (Cart. Dun- 
ferm., also Cart. Kelso et Dipl.), and in the time of Pope 
Adrian IV. (Hist. Lib., p. 353), "Willielmo Moraviense 
Episcopo Sedisj Apostolicse Legato," is Witness to a 
Charter by King Malcolm to Berowaldus Flandrensis, of 
the Lands of Innes transumed before the Lords of Council, 
26th June, 1523. (Riddle's MS. Notes.) This Bishop, 
with one Nicolaus Camerarius, Secretary to King Mal- 
colm IV., went to Rome for to complain of the usurpation 
of the Archbishop of York over the Church of Scotland 
in 1159. The Bishop returned as Legate in Scotland, 
with the accustomed powers of legislation and correction. 
(Citron. S. Cruc. Edinb. and Chron. Metros, p. 168.) It 



248 BISHOPS WILLIAM, FELIX, SIMON, AND ANDREW. 

was further declared that if he should be chosen Bishop 
of St. Andrews, the Pope would not only dispense with 
his journey to Rome for confirmation, but would ratify 
the ancient rites and honours of his See. If, it was 
added, another than the Bishop of Murray shall be chosen, 
then his office of Legate shall cease, and the new Bishop 
of St. Andrews, when confirmed and consecrated, shall be 
Legate of all Scotland. The choice of the Chapter fell on 
Arnold, Abbot of Kelso. Almost all that is known of 
the purpose and issue of this mission to Rome, is to be 
gathered from a newly published Rescript of Pope Alex- 
ander III. to the Chapter of St. Andrews, 22 Nov., 1159 
(Statuta Ecclesice Scoticance, Preface xxx]. He died 9 
Kal. Feb. 1161. Keith and Shaw are in error in stating 
1162.] (See Keith's Catalogue of Scottish Bishops.) 

3. Felix succeeded. He is a witness in a 
Charter by King William, " Willielmo filio Fres- 
keni," of the lands of Duffus, Eosile, &c. He 
died anno 1170. (Chron. Melros.) 

4. Simon de Tonei, a Monk of Melrose; elected 
1171. Died 1184. Buried in Birnie (MSS.) 

[Simeon or Simon de Toeny or Thondi, was Abbot at 
Coggleshall in the county of Essex, of which territory he 
was probably a native, as there were some of that name 
who came over with the Conqueror. Simeon is Bishop 
of this See, and contemporary with Simeon, Matthew, 
Andrew, and Gregory, Bishops of Dunblane, Aberdeen, 
Caithness, and Ross, in the time of King William (Cart. 
Morav.), and this same Simeon is a co-witness with 
Robert de Quincy and Philip de Valoniis. (Ibid.) He 
was consecrated 10 Kal. Feb. 1172. He died 15 Kal. Oct. 
1184, and was the only Bishop in this See, who was buried 
at Birnie, according to some although, very probably, his 
three predecessors were also there interred.] 

5. Andrew, consecrated anno 1184; died 1185. 
{Chron. Melros.) 



BISHOPS RICHARD AND BRICE, SEE OF MORAY. 249 

[This Bishop is omitted by Keith; neither is he in- 
cluded in the Megistrum Episcopatus Moraviense.] 

6. Richard, Chaplain to King William, was 
consecrated Id. Martii, 1187, by Hugh, Bishop 
of St. Andrews. [Removed the Seat of the Dio- 
cese to Spynie, where he died and was buried in 
1203. (ED.)] 

[Richard was Bishop here in the time of King William 
(Cart. Glasg. Dipt, et Numism. Officers of State, 
p. 468]. He was contemporary with Joceline, Hugo, 
Turpin, Andrew, Bishops of Glasgow, Dunkeld, Brechin, 
and Caithness (Cart. A berd.), and with Matthew, Bishop 
of Aberdeen, and also in the time of William, elect of 
Glasgow, Chancellor to the King, and of John, elect of 
Aberdeen. (Cart. Mor.) He is witness to King William's 
confirmation of a donation to the Abbey of Kinloss, and a 
co-witness is H. Cancellarius. The paper which I have 
viewed wants indeed the date of the year ; but yet it 
must have been betwixt the years 1189 and 1199, as 
being the space of time in which Hugo, who in the last 
year of his life came to be Bishop of Glasgow, filled the 
Chancellor's office (v. Officers of State). Whilst this Pre- 
late was Bishop of Moray, the King was very beneficent 
to the See. He gave orders for the punctual payment of 
the revenues bestowed by his royal ancestors upon the 
Bishops of Moray ; and, besides, he made over a portion 
of land, commonly called a Toft, in the towns of Kintore, 
Banff, Cullen, Elgin, Nairn, and Inverness (A.D. 1165) as 
also the Teinds of all the King's rents, ordinary and 
extraordinary, within the Diocese of Moray, which had 
not formerly been set apart for the Church there. "Ricar- 
dus elect Moravien." is a witness to King William.] 

7. Bricius, brother of William Lord Douglas, 
Prior of Lesmahagow, was elected anno 1203. 
Died 1222, and was buried in Spynie. He 
founded a College of 8 Canons. 



250 BISHOP BRICE'S GREAT ZEAL AND INFLUENCE. 

[This Bishop's mother was sister to Friskinus de Kerdal 
of Kerdal, on the River Spey, as appears by a Charter of 
the Church of Deveth granted by Bishop Brice 

or Bricius, for supporting the fabric of the Church of 
Spynie, at that time the Cathedral of his Bishopric. He 
says : " Ad instantiam et petitionen Friskini de Kerdal, 
avunculi nostri." (Cart. Morav., p. 22 v.) I suspect he 
may have been the same person who I see is Dean of this 
See of Moray in the time of the preceding Richard. It is 
said he became Bishop here in the year 1203, and that he 
died anno 1222. (Cart Metros.) (Keith's Cat.) 

Whether from consanguinity or alliance, he seems to 
have been closely connected with the powerful family of 
de Moravia, to which he probably owed his promotion to 
a Benefice so far from his own country. He was a great 
Benefactor to the Church, and was the first who, by 
application to Pope Innocent III. got the Cathedral 
of this See, formerly undefined and held at Birnie, Spynie, 
or Kinnedar, to be fixed at Spynie. It would appear that 
he afterwards applied to Rome for its transference to 
Elgin, as the Pope speaks of the personal representations 
of the Bishop but this change did not take place till 
after his demise. It is said he went to Rome to a Council 
in 1215. (Cart. Metros.) His journey thereto is con- 
firmed by a safe-conduct from the King of England, 
granted in order to facilitate his return from the Papal 
Court. (Rot. Scot. 17 Johan. in. 8.) He founded a 
Chapter of 8 secular Canons, and gave to his Cathedral 
a Constitution, founded on the usage of Lincoln, which 
he ascertained by a mission to England. He brought 
with him into Moray his four brothers, Archibald, Alex- 
ander, Hugh, Henry, and probably Freskinus and pro- 
vided for some of them by grants of land, for others as 
beneficed Churchmen. The promotion of their brother to 
the Bishopric, and perhaps the connection with the great 
northern family JDe Moravia, seem to have laid the 
foundation of the power of the family of Douglas, whose 
name before this period is scarcely known in history.] 

Seal of Brice or Bricius. The upper and lower part of this 
Seal is unfortunately broken; it represents the figure of a 
Bishop in profile, his right hand raised giving the benediction, 
his left holding a crook. He is arrayed in the alb and chasu- 
ble, the ample folds of which are gracefully disposed ; from the 



BISHOP ANDREW MORAY FOUNDS CATHEDRAL AT ELGIN. 251 

left arm depends the maniple. The Inscription is much broken, 
but has been "BRicius DEI GRACIA MORAVIENSIS EPISCOPUS." 

Counter Seal of the Preceding. An antique gem, a figure of 
Peace or Concord holding in the right hand a winged victory, 
and her left resting on a shield a frequent emblem on Roman 
coins and gems. " AVE MARIA GRACIA PLENA." (Appended 
to the Agreement between the Abbey of Metros and Patrick Earl 
Dunbar. c. A.D. 1208. Metros Charters.} 

8. Andrew Moray, son of William Moray of 
Duffus, Parson of Duffus. [Probably the son of 
Hugh de Moravia, Lord of Duffus, and before 
being raised to the Bishopric, Parson of Duffus, 
in which character he consented to the erection of 
the Chapel. (ED.)] Was consecrated anno 1223. 
He founded the Cathedral Church of Elgin anno 
1224 ; added 14 Canons to the former 8, of which 
the Prebendary of Unthank was one : and he 
assigned to every Canon a toft on which to build 
a Manse and a Croft. To the Dean, Chancellor, 
Chanter, and Treasurer, 4 acres of land to each 
and 2 other acres to each of the other Canons 
which land he bought from the Burgesses of 
Elgin. He died 1242, and was buried in the 
Choir of the Cathedral under a broad blue stone. 
(MSS.) 

[Andrew de Moravia, or Moray, a son of the family of 
Duffus (the best of that noted surname), was the following 
Bishop ; and though there be no particular time allotted 
for his entrance, yet it must very probably have been 
very soon after the death of the former Bishop, since we 
see a writ by Pope Honorius, on the 12th day of May, in 
the 7th year of his Papacy, directed to " 
electo Morav." (Cart. Mor.\ and indeed there is certain 
instruction of his being actual Bishop here in the year 
1224 (Ibid.), item, in the years 1226, 1232, 1233, 1234, 



252 CATHEDRAL TRANSFERRED FROM SPYNIE TO ELGIN. 

1236, 1237, 1238, 1239, 1240, 1241, 1242. (Ibid, et Reg. 
Chart. Dipt. it. Cart. Aberbr. Cambusk. et Balmer.) He 
was Bishop here in the 22nd year of King Alexander. 
(Cart. Arb.) He died anno 1242. (Cart. Melr.} 

This great and worthy Prelate having obtained from 
King Alexander II. a beautiful piece of ground, lying at 
the east end of the town of Elgin, close upon the margin 
of the river [Lossie], which glides by the north side of 
that city, he laid the foundation of that magnificent 
and noble Church, which was dedicated to the Holy 
Trinity, and ordained to be the Cathedral Church of 
Moray for ever. The solemnity was performed upon 
the loth [19th ?] day of July, in the year 1224, by the 
Bishop of Caithness and Dean of Ross, by the authority of 
Pope Honorius III. To the 8 Canons established by 
Bishop Bricius Douglas, Andrew Moray added 14 more ; 
and having with great prudence and piety, exercised his 
Episcopal function 20 years, he died anno 1242, and his 
remains were deposited in the south side of the quire of 
the Cathedral which he himself had founded, under a 
large stone of blue marble (Mr. King's MS.}, which is still 
to be seen.] (Keith's Cat.} 

[The brass thereupon has been pilfered long ago. 

In his time, in 1224, the transference of the Episcopal 
See was effected, which had been designed and solicited 
by his predecessor. At different times, and chiefly by 
munificent endowments obtained from his own relatives 
of the families of De Moravia, of Duffus, and Petty, he 
increased the number of Prebends to 22, as we have 
seen above, of which the Bishop held one, and sat as 
a simple undignified Canon in the Chapter.] 

9. Simon, Dean of Moray, succeeded in the 
year 1243, and died anno 1252. He was buried 
in the Choir of the Cathedral under a blue stone 
(US&) 

[Simon, whom we observe to have been Dean of this 
See in the years 1232 and 1242 (Cart. Morav.}, was 
advanced to the Bishop thereof. He is said to have died 
anno 1254 ; yet I think there is an initial letter or char- 
acter, which I take to be S, denoting most plainly that 



BISHOP ARCHIBALD BUILDS THE PALACE AT KINNEDAR. 253 

person to have been Bishop in the year 1253. (Cart. 
Morav.) But what I cannot account for is, that Simon, 
written at full length, is found Bishop here in the year 
1348 (Cart. Morav.), unless it be supposed a mistake in 
the writer for 1248. He was Bishop of Moray 9 years. 
Died anno 1253 [1252 Shaw], and was buried in the 
Choir of the Cathedral] (Mr. King's MS. and Keith.) 

[Randulph, a Canon of Lincoln, according to Matthew 
Paris (p. 836), succeeded Simon : but it does not appear that 
he was ever consecrated. The words of the Historian are 
as follows : " Electus est in Episcopum Morafensem. in 
Scotia, M. Radulphus Ecclesise Lincolensis canonicus."] 

10. Archibald, Dean of Moray, was consecrated 
anno 1253; died 5th December, 1298, and was 
buried in the Cathedral. He built the Palace of 
Kinnedar, and resided there. In his time, Wil- 
liam Earl of Boss had done some injury to the 
Church of Petty and Prebend of Brauchlie, for 
the reparation of which he gave the lands of 
Catboll in Boss, and other lands to the Bishop 
and Canons (MSS.) 

[Archibald was Bishop here in 1253, 1256, 1258, 1260, 
1269, and 1287. (Cart. Morav.) He was Bishop here 
in the 19th year of King Alexander (Cart. Newbott. et Cart. 
Aberbroth.), and Alexander (written at full length) was 
Bishop of Moray in the 22nd year of King Alexander 
(Cart. Passelet.); but here it would seem there is an error 
of the name of Alexander written for Archibald. He 
was Bishop here anno 1290. (Rymer.) He died 5to 
Jons Dec. 1298 (Cart. Morav.), and was buried in the 
Choir of the Cathedral.] (Keith's Cat.) 

11. David Moray, was consecrated at Avignon 
by Boniface VIII. anno 1299, and died 20th Jan., 
1325. He was buried in the Choir (Ibid.) 

[David Moray, a son of the family of in 

the shire of was consecrated Bishop of this 



254 BP. DAVID MORAY FOUNDS THE SCOTS COLLEGE AT PARIS. 

See at Avignon [Agnania], in the time of Pope Boniface 
VIII. on the vigil of the holy apostles Peter and Paul 
[28 June], in the year 1299. He was Bishop here before 
the year 1309 (Anderson's Independ. App. No. 14), and 
anno 1309. (Cart. Morav.) He was Bishop anno 1311 
and 1313. (Cart. Aberbr.) He was Bishop anno Rob. I. 
7 mo- (Cart. Scon. Aberb. and Hay], anno 1330. (Hay.} 
But I suppose it ought to be more than 1320, by the date 
of his successor's consecration. This Prelate was the 
first who founded the Scots College at Paris in the year 
1325, which foundation was confirmed by Charles le Bel, 
King of France, in the month of August, 1326. But the 
Bishop died 20th of January the same year [5 Idus 
Januarii 1325], before the College was fully established, 
and was buried in the Quire of the Cathedral.*] (Keith's 
Cat.) 

[David Moray appears to have been Rector of Both- 
well: "David de Morref personne del Eglise de Both- 
uille." (Instrumenta Publica. Bannatyne Club.) In 
the Ragman Rolls, he is mentioned as having made his 
submission to Edward I. at Berwick in 1296. There 
seems to be little doubt that he was connected with the 
family De Moravia of Pettie and Bothwell, and that it 
was through their influence that he was raised to the See 
of Moray. This family had supported the cause of Robert 
the Bruce, the competitor for the throne in 1291 ; and 
now that the title to Royalty was revived by his grandson 
in 1306, the Bishop, as a staunch supporter of that House, 
used all his power and influence, by preaching and other 
means, to advance its interests within his Diocese. It is 
probable that these Crown-tenants of Pettie and Boharm 
now declared for Bruce, the grandson, in 1306, as they 
did for Bruce, the grandfather, in 1291. Edward was 
sojourning at Winchester when the intelligence reached 
him of the murder of Sir John Comyn, by Bruce and 
Roger de Kirkpatrick, before the Altar of the Church of the 
Convent of the Franciscan or Minorite Friars at Dumfries. 

* In F&dera, vol. ii., p. 1043, the Bishop of Moray is charged 
by Edward I. of England with assenting to the death of John 
Cumin. Being therefore excommunicated, he fled to Orkney, 
whereupon Edward wrote to Haken, King of Norway, request- 
ing him to order the Bishop to be seized and sent to him. 
6th March, 1306-7. 



VOW TO TWO WHITE SWANS. 255 

His first step was the immediate adoption of measures for 
strengthening the frontier fortresses, and the next the 
despatch of a special messenger to the Pope, praying for 
the aid of the Holy See in suppressing the Rebellion. At 
the Palace of Westminster he vowed to God and irrever- 
ently to two white Swans decked out with gold net- work 
and bells of gold which were introduced at a special 
banquet, that he would proceed to Scotland and not re- 
turn thence till he executed vengeance on Bruce and his 
accomplices for the death of Comyn. A desperate engage- 
ment and battle at Methven completely defeated Bruce, 
who was during the brief conflict thrice unhorsed, and 
was on the eve of being captured. He ultimately escaped 
with his brother Edward Bruce, and several nobles who 
lurked for several months houseless fugitives in the wilds 
of Athole. Several were arrested and consigned to cap- 
tivity during the autumn and winter of 1306. The 
Countess of Buchan, who had made herself so obnoxious 
to Edward in consequence of the prominent part she took 
at Bruce's coronation, was subjected to imprisonment in 
a latticed cage, and exposed to view in one of the turrets 
on the walls of Berwick. The Bishop of Glasgow held 
out for some time in the Castle of Cupar, but was at last 
taken and sent in irons first, to Newcastle and afterwards 
to Portchester Castle. David, Bishop of Moray, though 
still at large, and living in concealment, had charges of 
homicide and rebellion preferred against him, by Edward 
to the Pope. In "Palgrave's Documents" he is repre- 
sented as having by his excitation, preaching, and exhor- 
tation, beentheprincipalinstigatorof all those in Moray who 
assembled to assist, and still adhered to the cause of Bruce. 
The accusation goes on to state that the Bishop gave the 
people of his Diocese to understand that it was not less 
meritorious for them to rise and assist Lord Robert Bruce 
in throwing off the English yoke, than it was to proceed 
to the Holy Land and wage war with the Pagans and 
the Saracens. The other martial Prelates engaged in the 
insurrection, viz., the Bishop of St. Andrews and the 
Abbot of Scone, were found clad in armour when they 
were captured. They were sent in irons to prisons in 
England, and had also charges preferred against them to 
the Pope. Bruce and all his adherents who were acces- 
sories to the murder of Comyn, or guilty of perjury and 



256 EDWAED I. REQUESTS KING HAQUIN TO ARREST BP.DAVID. 

flagrant rebellion, were excommunicated by Cardinal St. 
Sabinus of Spain, the Papal Legate in England. 

Whilst at Lynstock, Edward addressed a letter to 
Haquin, King of Norway, in reference to the Bishop of 
Moray, who had taken refuge in Orkney. He wrote that 
the Bishop, accumulating crime upon crime, adhered to 
Robert de Bruce, a traitor and his chief enemy, and that 
he instigated the people of Scotland to rise against him. 
In consideration, therefore, of the friendship and good 
understanding existing between them, Edward requested 
Haquin, King of Norway, to arrest the Bishop and all his 
other enemies taking refuge in the island, and to send 
them to him as soon as convenient. Further, in order 
that his sentence of excommunication might be fully 
known, so that the King of Norway and his sub- 
jects might shun all communication with the Bishop and 
his accomplices, Edward sent the tenor of the Papal 
Bull on the prolation of his sentence, written by a Notary 
Public. Edward died on the 7th July, 1307, in his 69th 
year, at the village of Burgh-on-the-Sands, in Cumberland, 
and was buried in Westminster Abbey. He strove per- 
sonally, though weak and infirm, to avenge himself on 
the nation which had so often defied his power, but was 
ultimately compelled to succumb from sheer exhaustion 
of nature. At last, when unable to do more, in a spirit of 
fierce revenge, he bequeathed with his dying breath to 
his son the hatred which he bore to Scotland, and com- 
manded him not to desist from carrying on the war, of 
which the annals of the Battle of Bannockburn exhibit 
such an inglorious defeat. 

David Moray returned from Orkney to his Diocese 
immediately after the death of Edward. He witnessed 
(along with Walter Heroc and William Cresswell, the 
Dean and the Precentor of the Cathedral of Moray), the 
submission of the Earl of Ross to Bruce at Aldhern, in 
Oct. 1308. His name appears in several deeds after this 
date in the Register of Moray. (Edward I. of England 
in the North of Scotland, by James Taylor, M.D.) 

12. John Pilmoze [Pilmore], elect of Boss, was 
consecrated Bishop of Moray [by Pope John 
XXII. at Avignon], 3 Kal. Aprilis, anno 1326, 



BISHOP JOHN PILMORE; HIS SEAL. 257 

and died in the Castle of Spynie on Michaelmas 
Eve, anno 1362 (Ibid.). 

[John Pilmore, erroneously called John Eglemore, by a 
mistake of the transcribers of Fordun, was son to Adam 
Pilmore, burgess of Dundee, as appears by an indenture, 
dated "in festo Sancti Valentini martyris, 1326," to which 
"Adam de Pilmore burgensis de Dundee" appends his 
seal, "una cum sigillo venerabilis in Christo patris Joannis 
Dei gratia, episcopi Moraviensis, filii ejusdem Adae de 
Pilmore." (Ex Chartis Walteri Macfarlane de eodem.) 
Elect for the See of Koss was consecrated Bishop of 
Moray 3 tio Kal. April anno Domini 1325, by the hands of 
Pope John XXII. and by the Pope's own provision. 
(Cart. Mor.) This Bishop took great care to finish what 
his predecessor had begun in Paris, as appears from an 
authentic document in the year 1333. (Preface to Dr. 
Mackenzie's 2nd Vol.) This Establishment subsisted 
in the University of Paris, by the name of Grisy, 
until the time of the Reformation, and was always 
administered by the authority of the Bishops of Moray, 
who, in quality of founders and patrons, presented to 
the House, and settled directors and superiors thereof. 
See Bp. Robert Schaw. He was Bishop here in the 
years 1331, 1334, 1343, 1351, 1360, and 1361. (Cart. 
Morav.) He was Bishop of Moray 37 years. (Mr. King's 
MS.) This Prelate died in the Castle of Spynie on the 
Vigil of St. Michael the Archangel, A.D. 1362 (Cart. 
Morav.), and yet we find Simon, Bishop of Moray in the 
year 1348 (Cart. Morav. fol. 78), which can no ways be 
reconciled with the long episcopate of John Pilmore, 
unless by supposing, as above, that the 3rd figure is 
placed instead of the 2nd, or more properly III. for II. 
He died at Spynie, 28th Sept., 1362.] (Keith's Cat.) 

Seal of Pilmore. A fine design. Beneath a canopy is a 
representation of the Trinity. The Father, crowned with the 
cruciform nimbus, sitting and supporting between his knees the 
Son, extended on the cross ; the Holy Spirit, in form of a dove, 
ascends from the head of the Son to the mouth of the Father. 
Surrounding this representation are four circular tablets, bearing 
the evangelistic emblems ; the background is diapered with a 
lozenge, enclosing a rose. In the lower part of the seal, within 
VOL. in. 17 



258 BISHOP ALEXANDER BARR. 

a niche, is the figure of a Bishop kneeling at prayer, and at 
each side is a shield ; the dexter bears, within a double tressure 
flowered and counter-flowered, three cushions, and the sinister 
bears Scotland. The inscription on this seal is not quite per- 
fect, but seems to be " S. JOHIS D. PILMOR DEI ET APLI[CE 
SEDIS] GRA. EPI. MOR[AVIENSIS]." 

Counter 'Seal. With a curious device and inscription, which 
unfortunately is illegible. The device is a crescent on the top 
of a column, and on each side is an ear of corn (?) " Ex SPICI 

. . . TITA XANTE . . . COLUMNA . . . TA" (?) (A.D. 1357. C. 

Innes.) 

13. Alexander Barr, or Bur, Doctor Decre- 
torum, was consecrated by Urban V. anno 1362 ; 
died in Spynie 15th May, 1397, and was buried 
in the Cathedral. In his time, viz., in 1390, the 
Cathedral was burnt, and he began the rebuilding 
of it. (Ibid.) 

[Alexander Bar, "decretorum doctor et licentiatus in 
legibus," was consecrated Bishop of this See at Avignon 
on the Saturday before Christmas, anno 1362, by Pope 
Urban V. He was Bishop in the years 1362, 3, 4, 5, 9 
the 1st and 10th years of King Kobert II. 1383, 6, 9, 
and 1396. (Cart. Morav.) Alexander is witness to 
several Charters in the 19th year of King Robert II. 
Alexander was bishop here anno Stio Robert II., "in 
pleno Parliamento nostro apud Sconam, die tertio Aprilis." 
(Maret Cart. Aberd. et Ruddiman against Logan, p. 400.) 

This excellent Prelate was sadly harassed by Alexander, 
Earl of Buchan, youngest son of King Robert II., by 
Elizabeth Mure. In the month of June, 1390, on the 
Feast of St. Botolph, he did not only burn the Cathedral 
Church but also the whole town of Elgin, St. Giles' 
Church, an Hospital which is called "Domus Dei de 
Elgin," and 18 manses of the Canons and Chaplains. For 
this and other impieties he was deservedly called " The 
Wolf of Badenoch." He was excommunicated with the 
highest solemnities, from which he was afterwards, upon 
his repentance, absolved by Walter Trail, Bishop of St. 
Andrews, in the Church of the Blackfriars at Perth ; 
being first received at the door of the Church, and then 



BISHOPS WM. SPYNIE AND JOHN INNES. 259 

before the Altar, in presence of the King and many of the 
nobility, the Earl at the same time being obliged to make 
what satisfaction he could to the See of Moray, and to 
obtain forgiveness from the Pope. He died the 15th of 
May, 1397 (Cart. Morav.), and was buried in the quire of 
the Cathedral. (Keith's Cat.) 

An appeal was taken from the Bishop of Murray to the 
Bishop of St. Andrews, Conservator of the rights and 
privileges of the Scottish Church, 18th July, 1388, by 
William of Busby, Prior of Urquhart, against the collation 
of John the Mason to the said Priory. The appellant, 
William of Busby, somehow obtained the Priory with a 
Crown-writ under the Privy Seal, ordering the Bishop to 
maintain him in possession. But the King's final judg- 
ment, by advice of the clergy in Parliament, ordered him 
to be removed. (Stat. Ace. Scot, Preface li.) In Robert- 
son's Index the name is written Burre, and in other 
places Bur. The acceptable name is Barr.] 

Seal of Ban. This is merely a fragment of what has 
evidently been a fine seal, with a representation of the Trinity 
as in the former. (A.D. 1373. Kilmvock Cluirters.) 

14. William de Spynie, Chanter of Moray and 
L.D., was consecrated at Avignon by Benedict 
IX., September 13th [16th], 1397, and died 20th 
August, 1406. He carried on the re-building of 
the Cathedral. In his time Alexander MacDonald 
plundered Elgin, as we shall see. 

[William Spynie, Chanter of Moray and "Decretorum 
Doctor," was consecrated Bishop here by Pope Benedict 
XIII. on the 16th September, the third year of his ponti- 
ficate, i.e., anno Dom. 1397. (Cart. Morav.) In the year 
1398 this Bishop names his predecessors Archibald, 
David, John, and Alexander. (C. Morav.) He died in 
the Chanonry of Elgin [the Bishop's town residence] the 
2nd day of August, 1 406 (C. Morav.), and was buried in 
the quire with his predecessors.] (Keith's Cat.) 

15. John Innes, Laird of Innes, Parson of 
Duffus, Archdeacon of Caithness \_MSS. , p. Eose 



260 ANTI-POPES WHO DECIDED THE RIGHT ONES ? 

of Montcoffer], and LL.D. [quy. LL.B.], was 
consecrated by Pope Gregory XII. 23rd January, 
1406, and died 25th April, 1414. He began the 
building of the Great Steeple in the centre of the 
Church, and was buried at the foot of the north- 
west pillar of it. 

[John Innes, Parson of Duffus and Bachelor of Laws, 
was consecrated the 23rd January, anno 1406-7, by Pope 
Benedict XIII.* (Cart Mor.) [a Rival Pope]. He was 
Bishop here anno 1408 (Reg. Chart.), and died the 25th 
April, 1414 (C: Morav.), and was buried at the foot of the 
north-west pillar which supported the great tower or 
third steeple, now fallen. After the death of this pre- 
late, on the 18th of May following the Chapter met in 
order to elect a Bishop ; but before they proceeded to the 
election they all solemnly swore that whosoever of their 
number should happen to be chosen Bishop of Moray 
should set apart one-third of the revenues of the See for 
repairing the Cathedral, which had been greatly demolished 
in the time of Bishop Alexander Bar.] (Keith's Gat) 

In Monteith's Theater of Mortality, p. 251, A.D. 1704, 
is given the following Inscription on the Monument reared 
to his memory, now demolished : 

Hie JACET REVERENDUS IN CHRISTO PATER D.D. JOANNES 
DE INNES, HUJUS ECCLESI^E QUONDAM EPISCOPUS MORAVI- 
ENSIS, QUI HOC NOTABILE OPUS EXTRUXIT, ET PER SEPTEN- 
NIUM EPISCOPALE MUNUS TENUIT. 

16. Henry Leighton, Parson of Duffus, LL.D., 
consecrated in Valencia by Pope Benedict, 8th 
March, 1414. He was translated to Aberdeen 
anno 1425. 

[Henry Leighton, or Leichton [or De Lychton], Parson 
of Duffus and Chanter of Moray, "Legum Doctor et 

* As may be seen from the List of Popes (given at the end of 
the Preface) there have been 40 years' disputed succession and 
numerous Anti-Popes or Rival Popes. Query, Which of them 
were set apart by the Holy Ghost ? Were their own consecra- 
tions and those whom they ordained valid or spurious ? (ED.) 



BISHOP HENRY LEIGHTON'S GIFTS TO THE CATHEDRAL. 261 

Baccalaureus in Decretis," a son of the ancient family of 
the Leichtons of Ulys-haven, or Usan, in vicecom. de 
Forfar. He was Bishop of Moray 10 years (Mr. King's 
MS.), was consecrated Bishop of this See, "in civitate 
Valencia Terraconen. Provincise," on the 8th March, 
1414-5, and was Bishop here anno 1421 (Cart. Mor.), 
anno 1423 (Inv. Aberd.), anno 1424 (Reg. Cart). In 
the year 1424 or 1425 he was translated to the See of 
Aberdeen. (Keith's Cat.) 

Leighton was one of the Canons of the Cathedral, and 
was consecrated at Valentia by Benedict XIII. on 8th 
March, 1415, being the third Bishop of Moray who was 
consecrated in succession 'by that Pope. (Grub's Ecc. 
Hist. Scot., Vol. I., 368.) See Note last page. 

Henry de Lichton's father was of the same name, and 
his mother's name was Jonet. His first preferment in the 
Church seems to have been in the Cathedral of Moray, of 
which he was Canon and Chanter. In 1414 he assisted 
at a meeting of the Chapter of Moray held upon the 
decease of Bishop John de Innes, who had begun the first 
restoration of the Cathedral, where it was resolved that 
whichever of the Canons succeeded him should devote a 
third part of his revenue to the expense of rebuilding the 
Cathedral until its completion, destroyed in Bishop Bar's 
time by the "Wolf of Badenoch." The choice fell on the 
Chanter. He was present at the meeting of the estates 
of Perth in March, 1415. While Bishop of Moray, he 
presented to the Church of Aberdeen two pairs of Epis- 
copal gloves, with jewelled images of SS. James and 
John. As Bishop of Aberdeen he witnessed a Charter on 
the 20th Feb., 1423, founding a Chaplainry at St. Mary's 
Altar in the choir of the Cathedral. Bishop Lesly informs 
that he was one of the Commissioners to England to 
arrange the ransom of King James I. After the King's 
return from his imprisonment the Bishop was one of those 
selected for an Embassy to Rome, from which he appears 
to have returned before the 20th June, 1427, on which 
day, at the desire of the Abbot and Convent of Arbroath, 
he confirmed to their Cell at Ardlogy the vicarage of their 
Church at Fyvie. On the 28th October, 1427, he con- 
verted the revenues of St. Peter's Hospital (a foundation 
of Bishop Matthew), which he alleged to have been 
abused, to the maintenance of his Episcopal table and 



262 BISHOPS LEIGHTON, DAVID, AND COLUMBA DUNBAR. 

support of two Chaplains in St. Peter's Chapel in the 
Cathedral, a questionable transaction which was sanc- 
tioned by Pope Eugenius IV. in 1435. On the 17th July, 
1428, letters passed the great seal appointing him one of 
the three Ambassadors to the French Court for treating 
of the marriage of the infant Princess of Scotland with 
the Dauphin. He was still in Scotland on the 7th Aug. 
of that year, and seems to have returned from his Embassy 
before the 9th October, 1431, on which day he made a 
transaction at Aberdeen for enlarging the Episcopal 
Palace or its grounds. On the 20th April, 1439, he 
founded an Anniversary for himself; and on the 16th 
May, 1440, he made a similar endowment to the Vicars 
of the Choir for the Anniversaries of his father and 
mother. When now approaching his end he is said to 
have been chosen, along with the Bishop of Moray, as 
mediator between the factions of the Chancellor Crichton 
and the Livingstons. 

Bishop Lichton died on the 14th December, 1440. 

During his Episcopate at Aberdeen he made several 
donations to the Cathedral of books, vestments, and plate. 
He founded the Chapel of St. John, in which he was 
afterwards buried. He completed the walls of St. 
Machar's Cathedral and the two western towers, leaving 
the third (probably the great centre tower) unfinished at 
his death.] (Vide Preface xxxvi. Regis. Epis. Aberd.) 

17. David [omitted by Shaw] was Bishop of Moray 
anno 1629 (Reg. Cart) (Keith's Cat.) 

18. Columba Dunbar succeeded. He died in 
Spynie anno 1435. 

[Columba Dunbar descended of the Earls of Moray 
[March, not Moray], was Dean of Dunbar. He is designed 
" Decanus ecclesise collegiatse de Duribar, penultimo Feb- 
ruarii, 141 1 " (Regis. Cart), and then promoted to this 
See. Columba was Bishop here in the year 1429 (C. 
Dunfert), but as the date appears to have been on the 
12th Jan., this will bring it to be 1430, and thereby the 
date of the foregoing Bishop may quadrate well enough. 
There is a safe-conduct to this Bishop from the King of 
England to pass through his dominions in his way to 



BISHOP JOHN WINCHESTER; HIS EMBASSIES. 26$ 

Rome, in the year 1433, with 30 servants in his retinue ; 
as also another dated 10th May, 1434, to go through 
England to the Council of Basil. (Rymer, Tom., x., 
p. 584.) Upon his return home he died in his Castle of 
Spynie anno 1435, and was buried in the aisle of St. 
Thomas the Martyr i.e., Thomas a Becket. (Spotti*- 
woode's MS.)] (Keith's Cat.) 

19. John Winchester, L.B., Chaplain to King 
James II., was consecrated in Cambuskenneth 
anno 1438. In 1452 he obtained the Eegality of 
Spynie. Died 1453. [1st April, 1460.] 

[John Winchester, an Englishman, who came into Scot- 
land in the retinue of King James I. Bachelor of the 
Canon Law anno 1425. His first station in the Church, 
besides being Chaplain to the King, was a Prebendary of 
Dunkeld ; and he came afterwards to be Provost of Lin- 
el uden and Lord Register. (Reg. et Charta penes dominum 
Gray.) In King James I.'s Charter of confirmation of the 
Monastery of Aberbrothic, Jan. 1, 1436-7, he is " electo et 
confirmat. Episcopo Moravien." He was consecrated "in 
Festo Sanctae Crucis," within the Monastery of Cam- 
buskenneth, in the year 1437 [1438, Shaw], John was 
Bishop of this See anno 1439 (Peerage, p. 278), and anno 
1440, 49, 51, 52, 57, 59 (Reg. Cart.), 1449 (C. Glas.), 1445 
and 1451 (C. Mor.), 1451, (C. Dunfer.), 1452 (Fordun); 
and John was Bishop here anno 1452 and 1453, et reg. 
18. (Inv. Aberd.) This Prelate was employed in divers 
embassies into England during the minority of King 
James II. (Rymer) ; and accordingly we see the following 
writ of that King in the Cartulary of his See : " Sciatis 
nos, et propter grata obsequia quondam genitori nostro 
recolendae memoriae, per Reverend, in Christo Patrem 
Johannem Episcopum Moravien. consiliarium nostrum 
dilectum temporibus suis multipliciter impensa, et per 
eundem nobis fideliter continuata, et ad ejus preces et 
instantiam ipsi Episcopo fecisse et infeodasse villam de 
Spynie, liberum burgum in baronia," 1451, and again 
1452. He died anno Dom. 1458, and was buried in St. 
Mary's Aisle within the Cathedral. (Spottiswoode's MS.} 
(Keith's Cat.) 



264 BISHOPS JAMES AND DAVID STEWART. 

"Anno M- IV C Ixiij obiit Johanes Wynsist. eps. Mora- 
vien." (Earl. MS., 2363.) 

Seal of Winchester. This and the following seals of the 
Bishops of Moray are all of a round shape. A representation 
of the Trinity. In this the right hand of the Father is raised, 
and the fingers are beneath a canopy, supported with pillars. 
The inscription is on a scroll surrounding. " S EOTUNDU, 
JOHANNIS EPI. MORAVIEN." (Detached Seal, C. Innes.) 

20. James Stewart, Dean of Moray, of the 
family of Lorn, was consecrated anno 1458, and 
died 1460. 

[James Stewart, a branch of the illustrious family of 
Lorn, was first Dean of this See. (Cart. Publ.) He 
came afterwards to be Lord Treasurer anno 1453 (Regist. 
Cart.), and upon the death of Bishop Winchester in the 
year 1458-9, he was advanced to this Bishopric. He 
was Bishop here anno 1460 (Cart. Mor.), but he lived 
only two years, and was buried in St. Peter's and St. 
Paul's Aisle, on the north side of the Cathedral. (Spottis- 
ivoode's MS.) (Keith's Cat.) 

The two following entries occur in Harl. MS., 2363 : 
<( Anno M- 4- lxvj v. die mensis Augusti obiit Jacobus 
Stewart eps. Moravien." 

"Anno M- 4 C - Ixx. sexto obiit Dauid Stewart fs. predicti 
Jacobi epi. Moravien."] 

Seal of Stewart. A well executed design, partly broken at the 
top. A shield, bearing a fess counter compony (no doubt 
meant for a fess cheque) between three crowns, within a plain 
double tressure; part of a crozier appears below the shield; 
the background ornamented with foliage. " (S) JACOBI EPIS- 
COPI MORAVIENSIS." (Detached Seal, C. Innes.) 

21. David Steivart, brother of the former, and 
Parson of Spynie, was consecrated anno 1461, 
and died 1475. He built that part of the palace 
called " Davy's Tower," and made several good 
regulations as that no Canon be admitted except 
in general convocation ; that the common Kirk 



BISHOPS DAVID STEWART AND WILLIAM TULLOCH. 265 

Lands be set to none but the labourers of the 
ground ; and that no pensions should be given 
out of these lands. 

[David Stewart, brother to the former Bishop and 
Parson of Spynie, [Duffus ?] was in this See in the year 
1463. (Cart. Dunfer.) According to Mr. King's MS. he 
was Bishop of Moray in 1461. According to Cart. Morav. 
in 1464, and anno 1468 and 1470 (Regist. Chart.) He 
built the great tower of Spynie Castle, a mighty strong 
house. It is called to this day "David's Tower." He 
was disquieted ~by Alexander, Earl of Huntly, who with- 
held the feu-duties of such lands as held of the See of 
Moray within the lordship and bounds of Strathbogie. 
The Earl, for his obstinacy and sacrilege, was excom- 
municated ; but at last by the mediation and good offices 
of the Abbot of Kinloss, the Prior of Pluscarden, and 
several others, matters were made up, and the Earl 
absolved, after satisfaction and submission made. This 
good prelate made several wise regulations, and after he 
had governed the See of Moray for 14 years, he died 
[1475] and was buried in the same aisle with his brother. 
He was buried in St. Peter's and St. Paul's Aisle, on the 
north of the Cathedral Church. (Spottiswoode's MS.)] 
(Keith's Cat.) 

22. William Tulloch, Bishop of Orkney, was 
translated to Moray anno 1477, and died anno 

1482. 

[William Tulloch, cousin to the former Bishop of 
Orkney in 1422, viz., Thomas Tulloch, of the House of 
Bonnington in Forfarshire, was Bishop of Orkney in the 
reign of King James III., and was sent by that Prince 
into Denmark in the year 1468, together with several 
other noble personages, to negotiate a marriage betwixt 
him and the Princess Margaret of that nation, which they 
had the good fortune to effectuate. In 1471 he was 
appointed one of the Administrators of the Exchequer. 
(Retul. Jac. III.) He was likewise made Lord Privy 
Seal, 26 March, 1473, an. reg. 13. He was one of the 
Ambassadors sent to England, 1471. (Rymer, Tom., ii., 



266 BISHOP ANDREW STEWART. 

p. 717.) The same, 15 March, 1472. (Rymer.) He was 
translated to the See of Moray in the year 1477 ; for in 
the Parliament, anno 1476, which restored the Earl of 
Ross, he was still Bishop of Orkney and Privy Seal ; but 
in a Charter, anno 1477, he is become Bishop of Moray 
and keeper of the Privy Seal. He was Bishop here and 
Privy Seal anno 1478, and 27th July, 1479. (Aberbro.) 
He was Bishop also anno 1478-79-81 and Privy Seal. 
(Regist. Chart.) He was buried in St. Mary's Aisle, in 
the Canonry Church of Moray, and must have died at 
least in the year 1482.] (Keith's Cat.) 

23. Andrew Stewart, son of Sir James Stewart 
of Lorn, and of the widow of King James I., 
Dean of Moray and Lord Privy Seal, succeeded 
anno 1483. In 1488 he got a ratification of the 
Regality of Spynie, and died anno 1501. 

[Andrew Stewart, third son of Sir James Stewart, 
surnamed " The Black Knight of Lorn " by Jane Queen 
Dowager of Scotland, the widow of King James I., 
succeeded in 1482. In the year 1456 this gentleman was 
Sub-Dean of Glasgow and Rector of Monkland. ( Writs 
of the College of Glasgow.) Anno 1477 he is Provost of 
Lincluden, and retained his Sub-Deanery in commendam; 
and the same year he was elected Dean of Faculty in the 
University of Glasgow. (Ibidem.) He was Elect of 
Moray and Lord Privy Seal in the month of July, 1482 ; 
and " Electus, confirmatus, Moravien." is in the rolls of 
Parliament, December 2, 1482, in which year the King 
calls him " dilecto avunculo nostro Andrea, electo Mora- 
vien. secreti sigilli custode." (R. Chart.) But the Privy 
Seal he resigned upon his consecration in the year 1483. 
Andrew, Elect of Moray, is witness in a Charter to Alex- 
ander, Duke of Albany, Lord Lieutenant-General of the 
Kingdom and High Admiral. The paper wants a date, 
but one of the co-witnesses is John, Bishop of Glasgow, 
who died in January, 1482-3; and James, Bishop of 
Dunkeld, another witness, died anno 1483. He is Bishop 
here anno 1487. (Ibid.) In the year 1488 there is a 
confirmation by King James III., and a new enlargement 
of the burgh of Spynie, 16th April, 1488 (C. Morav.), 



BISHOP ANDREW FORMAN. 267 

which was only two months before the slaughter of the 
King. He was Bishop here anno 1492 (C. Morav., C. 
Aberbr., Assed. Aberbr., it. Hay), anno 1492, and 94 (Reg. 
Cart.}, anno 1496 (G. Cumbusk.). "Andreas Episcopus 
Moravien. frater->germanus Jacobi comitis de Buchan," 
anno 1501. (Reg. Chart.) And in that year, 1501, he 
died (Ibid.), and was buried in the Quire of the Cathedral.] 
(Keith's Cat.) 

Seal of Stewart. Bather defaced. The design is the usual 
representation of the Trinity. At the lower part of the seal is 
a shield, but the charges are indistinct ; above the shield is the 
crozier and mitre. The background ornamented with foliage. 
"S' ANDREE STEWART EPI. MORAV[IENSIS]. (A.D. 1490. 
KUravock Charters.) 

24. Andreio Forman, Commendator of Dry- 
burgh and Pittenweem, succeeded in 1501, and 
was translated to St. Andrews 1514. 

[Andrew Forman, a son of the Laird of Hutton, in 
Berwickshire, was Proto-Notary Apostolic in Scotland 
anno 1499. (Reg. Chart.) He was Postulate of Moray 
in the year 1501, at which time he gets a commission, 
together with Robert, Archbishop of Glasgow, and Patrick, 
Earl of Bothwell, to treat about a marriage betwixt James 
IV. and Margaret, eldest daughter of Henry VII., King of 
England ; and he himself gets a subsequent commission to 
treat of a peace betwixt the two nations. (Reg. Chart.) 
In the same year, 1501, he was fully promoted to this 
See; and, together with it, held in commendam, the 
Priories of Pittenweem, in Scotland, and of Cottinghain, 
in England. Andrew is Bishop of Moray 10 July, 1502, 
the 5th indiction, and 10th of Pope Alexander VII. (Mar 
et Clackmannan.) He is " Episcopus Moravien. et com- 
mendatarius de Pittenweem, in Scotia, et Cottingham, in 
Anglia," anno 1503-4, item 1506. (Reg. Chart.) Jan. 2, 
1506, 9th indiction, and 3rd of Pope Julius II. King 
James IV. appoints him his Ambassador to England, in 
order to procure a personal conference betwixt him and 
Henry, then King of England, therein expressly designed 
"Frater et consanguineus noster amantissimus," as appears 
by the commission given him, dated at Edinburgh, " 19th 



268 BISHOP ANDREW FORMAN. 

Julii, anno regni nostri 22 " (i.e., 1510 Macfarl.) This 
commission is recorded by Rymer, Tom. x., p. 376, but 
erroneously put under the year 1427, and so ascribed to 
the times of James I. and Henry VI. He is designed 
Andrew, Bishop of Moray, Commendator of Pittenweem 
and Cottingham, in England. (Clack.) He was Bishop 
anno 1512 (Cart. Mor.), and bears the title of "Andreas, 
miseratione divina, Moravien. Episcopus, commendatarius 
perpet. monasteriorum de Dryburgh et Pittinveme, et 
Cottingham inAnglia,StiAndreae et Eboracen. Diocesium." 
And he is styled Bishop of Moray and Commendator of 
Dryburgh and Pittenweem in a treaty of confederation 
made at Edinburgh, 10th July 1512. 

In Young's account of the marriage of James IV. with 
Margaret of England, we find that the Bishop of Moray 
was employed by his Sovereign as one of the Commis- 
sioners who, at the Court of Henry VII., arranged the 
royal nuptials. (See Leland's Collectanea, p. 258.) In 
the year 1514 he was translated to the Archiepiscopal 
See of St. Andrews. He died and was buried in Dun- 
fermline in 1522. (See my Scotichronicon, I., 242-245.) 

Andrew Forman, Bishop of Moray, and Papal Legate 
for Scotland, being obliged to say grace at an entertain- 
ment which he gave to the Pope and Cardinals in Rome, 
blundered so in his Latinity that his Holiness and their 
Eminences lost their gravity, which so disconcerted the 
Bishop that he concluded the blessing by giving all " the 
false carles to the Devil, In nominePatris,Filii,et Spiritus 
Sancti ; " to which the company, not understanding his 
Scoto-Latin, said A men ! " The holy Bishop," says Pit- 
scottie, "was not a good scholar, and had not good Latin."] 
(M'Crie's Life of Knox, p. 9.) 

Seal of Forman. A beautifully designed and executed seal. 
Unfortunately it is a little broken, the parts that remain are, 
however, very perfect. A triple canopy, richly ornamented, 
and supported by slender pillars. Beneath the centre one the 
usual representation of the Trinity ; beneath the dexter canopy 
the Blessed Virgin and infant Jesus; beneath the sinister a 
figure of Mary Magdalene, with the box of spikenard; the 
background diapered with a lozenge, enclosing a fleur-de-lis. 
At the lower part of the seal is a shield, the upper part of 
which only remains, showing it to have been quarterly ; first a 
chevron, between three fishes haurient, for Forman ; second, a 



BISHOPS JAMES HEPBURN AND ROBERT SHAW. 269 

gander, with a bell fastened to his neck. " S' ANDREE EPI. 
MO[RAVIENS. COM]MENDA[TARII DE COLDINGH]AM ET COT- 
INGHAM." (Kilrawck Charters.) 

25. James Hepburn succeeded in 1514, and died 
anno 1523. 

[James Hepburn, third son of Adam Lord Hales, and 
brother to Patrick, the first Earl of Both well, had beeu 
Rector of Parton, and in the year 1515 Abbot of Dun- 
fermline (State Letters), and on the 15th June, the same 
year, had been constituted Lord Treasurer. Anno 1516 
he became Bishop of Moray, and on the 3rd October, the 
same year, he quitted the Treasury. He is designed 
" Rector de Partoun, nunc Moravien. ecclesiae postulatus " 
(Reg. Cart.) ; and anno 1516 and 17 he is Bishop of 
Moray. (Ibid.) He was Bishop here anno 1520. (Cart. 
Mor. et Aberbr.) He was Bishop anno 1521 (Cart. 
Gambusk.}, and he was Bishop here anno 1524 (Cart. 
Morav.), in which year he died, and was buried in our 
Lady's Aisle, near to the Earl of Huntly's tomb. (Mr. 
King's MS.)] (Keith's Cat.) 

[He died before November, 1524, when the Earl of 
Angus wrote to Cardinal Wolsey to solicit the Pope for 
the Bishopric of Moray and Abbacy of Melrose for his 
brother " whilkis are baith vacant."] 

Seal of Hepburn. This is much broken, but it seems to have 
been a good design, though inferior to the last. The usual 
representation of the Trinity within a niche ; the sides of the 
seal filled up with foliage. In the lower part of the seal a shield, 
bearing on a chevron, a rose between two lions counter passant ; 
in base, a charge in form of a heart-shaped buckle ; above the 
shield a mitre. " SIG[ILLUM JACOBI] EPI. MORA[VI]EN." (A.D. 
1523. Kilrawck Charters.) 

26. Robert Shaw, son of Sauchie and Abbot of 
Paisley, was consecrated anno 1525, and died 
1528. 

[Robert Schaw, a son of the Laird of Sauchie, in the 
shire of Stirling, was elected Abbot of Paisley upon the 
resignation of his own uncle, George, for which he obtained 
the King's letters patent the 1st March, 1498. (Cart- 



270 BISHOPS ALEXANDER STEWART AND PATRICK HEPBURN 

Pub.}. He was advanced to this See of Moray 1524. He 
is Bishop here 5th February, 1524-5. (Cartul. Aberbr.) 
He is in a commission of embassy to England during the 
time he was Bishop. (Rymer.) He died in the year 
1527, and was buried between the sepulchres of Bishop 
Alexander Stewart and Andrew Stewart, his brother (Mr. 
King's MS.), and has the character of a man of great 
virtue (Spottiswoode 's MS.)] (Keith's Cat.) 

27. Alexander Stewart, son- of Alexander, Duke 
of Albany, who was son of King James II., suc- 
ceeded, and died anno 1535. 

[ A lexander Stewart, son of Alexander, Duke of Albany, 
son to King James II., by Katherine Sinclair, then his 
wife, daughter of William, Earl of Orkney and Caithness, 
was the next Bishop. Their marriage having, by Act of 
Parliament, been declared unlawful, long after they were 
both dead, this gentleman was declared illegitimate in 
the year 1516, whereupon he betook himself to the service 
of the Church, and had first the Priory of Whithorn 
bestowed upon him, afterwards the Abbey of Inchaffray, 
and then the government of the Abbey of Scone was given 
him by his brother John, Duke of Albany, now become 
Regent of the Kingdom ; and, last of all, he was made 
Bishop of Moray anno 1527. He is Bishop here anno 
1530 (Cartul. Aberbr.), and anno 1532 (Reg. Chart, et 
Cart. Morav.) He died Bishop here [19 December], it is 
said, anno 1534 [as appears from the gift of the Tempor- 
ality of Moray to the Prior of St. Andrews, 28th March, 
1535.] Certain it is that, in the year 1538, he is styled 
"quondam Alexandra episcopo Moravien." (Reg. Cart, 
B. 22, No. 115). He was buried in the Monastery of 
Scone. (Mr. King's MS.)] (Keith's Cat.) 

Keith observes that he is said to have died anno 1534. 
But, query, whether he was not living three years after 
that time, viz., in 1537. (Bishop Russell's Notes to 
Keith's Cat.) 

28. Patrick Hepburn, uncle to James, Earl of 
Bothwell, who murdered King Henry Stewart, 
Commenclator of Scone, was consecrated anno 



BP. P. HEPBURN'S ROUND DOZEN OF WHORES. R.I.P. 271 

1537. [?] He was a man of an abandoned char- 
acter. Having concealed and aided his nephew 
when he fled from justice anno 1567, he purchased 
his own safety by yielding up a portion of the 
Church lands. He aliened and feued out almost 
all the other lands of the Bishopric. He died in 
the Castle of Spynie 20th June, 1573. (MS.) 

[Patrick Hepburn, son to Patrick, first Earl of Both- 
well, being educated by his uncle John, Prior of St. 
Andrews, came to be his successor in that Priory anno 
1 522. In the year 1524 he was made Secretary, in which 
office he continued until the year 1527. He was advanced 
to the See of Moray anno 1535, and at the same time he 
held the Abbey of Scone in perpetual commendam. 
(Reg. Cart, anno 1539-40). He was Bishop anno 1539 
(G. Mor.), anno 1446 (Register of Pr. Council), anno 1561 
(Keith's History, App., p. 175), and anno 1568 (Errol). 
"Patricius episcopus Morav." subscribes the letters, in 
name of the community of Scotland, for empowering to 
treat about the marriage of our Queen Mary with Francis 
Dauphin of France. Upon the Reformation he had the 
fate of the other Prelates, but kept possession of his 
Episcopal palace till his death, which happened at Spynie 
Castle the 20th of June, 1573 (Mr. King's MS.}, and was 
buried in the quire of the Cathedral Church. [" Patrick, 
Bishop of Murray, Commendator of the Abbey of Scone, 
grants a Charter to Richard Smyth of the lands of Over 
Fingask, dated 18th August, 1581, confirmed 30th April, 
1586." (Riddle's MS. Notes.)] In the Cartulary of this 
See are to be seen a great many tacks of the lands per- 
taining to this Bishopric, leased out by him at and after 
the year 1540, from a foresight, no doubt, of what was 
coming on ; and in all the assedations he had the addi- 
tional title of "Monasterii de Scona commendatarius 
perpetuus."] (Keith's Cat.) 

[Knox has been blamed for recording this "merry 
bourd " or jest (to wit, " I am the youngest man, and yet 
have I had the round dozen, and seven of them are men's 
wives ") ; but under the Great Seal there passed the fol- 



272 CONTINUATION OF THE R.C. APOSTOLIC CHAIN. 

lowing letters of legitimation : (1) " Johanni et Patricio 
Hepburn, bastardis filiis naturalibus Patricii Prioris Sancti 
Andrea?," 18th Dec., 1533. Also (2), " Legitimatio Adami, 
Patricii, Georgii, Johannis, et Patricii Hepburn, bastard- 
orum filiorum naturalium Patricii Episcopi Moraviensis," 
4th October, 1545. And (3), "Legitimatio Jonetae et 
Agnetis Hepburn, bastard orum filiorum naturalium Patricii 
Moraviensis Episcopi." Here are no less than nine bastards 
evidently by different mothers. (4) Agnes Hepburn, 
another daughter, was also legitimated on the 8th Feb., 
1587." (Dr. David Laing's Edition of Knox's Works, i., 
41., Note.) 

He found the Bishopric in good condition, but he 
feued out all the lands belonging to it. " He lived long 
enough to dilapidate his great Bishopric, and to provide 
for a very large family, whose several legitimations stand 
on record." (Quarterly Review, 1851, vol. 39, p. 46, 
1. 21.)] 

Seal of Hepburn. Under a canopy a representation of the 
Trinity (1), differing, however, from the usual design. The 
Father here appears to he veiled, and has a mitre or conical 
cap on his head (?) ; there is no appearance of the Holy Spirit, 
so it may be doubtful if it be meant for the Trinity. On the 
dexter side is a full length figure of the Virgin and infant 
Jesus ; and on the sinister, a figure of St. Michael in combat 
with the dragon. In the lower part of the seal is a shield, 
bearing Hepburn, with mullet in base. " S' PATRICII HEPBURN 
EPI. MORAVIEN. AC COMMENDATARII DE Sco." (G. SmytTie.). 

The ancient Hierarchy ended with James Bethune, or 
Beaton, or Betoun (Archbishop of Glasgow, and nephew 
of the celebrated and murdered Cardinal), who died at 
Paris on the 25th April, 1603, aged 79. After being sub- 
jected to the jurisdiction of the Archpriests and first 
Vicar- Apostolic of England till 1623, and afterwards to 
local Prefects of the Mission, the clergy were incorporated 
into a Missionary body by Decree of Propaganda, 16.53, 
and governed by the following : 

PREFECTS APOSTOLIC. 

William Bannatyne (or Bellenden), - - 1653-61 

Alexander Dunbar (or Winster, or Winchester), -j . pr-^'q, 
John Walker (or Ross), ----- 1668-71 



THE SCOTTISH VICARIATE APOSTOLIC. 273 

In May, 1694, a Scottish Vicariate Apostolic was 
formed, which was divided, in Feb., 1731, into two Dis- 
tricts, viz., the Lowland and the Highland. By Papal 
Rescript of 13th Feb., 1827, these were increased to three 
Districts, viz., the Eastern, Western, and Northern. This 
last arrangement remained in force till the re-establish- 
ment of the Hierarchy by the Apostolic Letter, Ex 
Supremo, 4th March, 1878. 

See " The Catholic Church in Scotland from the Sup- 
pression of the Hierarchy till the present time : being 
Memorabilia of Bishops, Missioners, and Scotch Jesuits," 
edited by me in 1869. 

ROMAN BISHOPS, OB VICARS APOSTOLIC, OP SCOTLAND, 1694. 
Name. Title. Consecrated. Died. 

1 Thomas Nicolson, Peristachium, Feb. 27, 1695... Oct. 23, 1718 

2 James Gordon, Nicopolis, Apr. 11, 1706... Mar. 1,1746 

3 John Wallace, Coadj., Cyrrha, Oct. 2, 1720... July 11, 1733 

LOWLAND DISTRICT, 1731. 
James Gordon, as above. 

4 Alexander Smith, Misinopolis, Nov. 13, 1735... Aug. 21, 1766 

5 James Grant, Sinita, Nov. 13, 1755.. .Dec. 2, 1778 

6 George Hay, Daulis, May 21, 1769... Oct. 15, 1811 

7 John Geddes, Coadj., Morocco, Nov. 30, 1780... Feb. 11, 1799 

8 Alexander Cameron, Maximianopolis, Oct. 28, 1798... Feb. 7,1828 

HIGHLAND DISTRICT, 1731. 

9 Hugh Macdonald, Diana, Oct. 2, 1731... Mar. 12, 1773 

10 John Macdonald, Tiberiopolis Sept. 27, 1761... May 9, 1779 

11 Alexander Macdonald, Polemo, Mar. 12, 1780... Sept. 9, 1791 

12 John Chisholm, Oria, Feb. 12, 1792... July 8,1814 

13 ^Eneas Chisholm. Diocsesarea, Sept. 15, 1805... July 31, 1818 

14 Ranald Macdonald, Aeryndela, Feb; , 1820... Sept. 20, 1832 

EASTERN DISTRICT, 1828. 

15 Alexander Paterson, Cybistra, Aug. 15, 1816... Oct. 28,1831 

16 Andrew Carruthers, Ceramis, Jan. 13, 1833... May 24, 1852 

17 James Gillis, Limyra, July 22, 1838... Feb. 24, 1864 

18 John Strain, Abila, Sept. 25, 1864... - 

Translated as Abp. of St. Andrews and Edinburgh, March 15, 1878. 

WESTERN DISTRICT, 1828. 

Ranald Macdonald as above. 

19 Andrew Scott, Eretria, Sept. 21, 1828... Dec. 4,1846 

20 John Murdoch, Castabala, Oct. 20, 1833... 15, 1865 

21 Alexander Smith, Coadj., Parium, Oct. 3, 1847. ..June 15, 1861 

22 John Gray, Hypsopolis, Oct. 19, 1862... 

23 James Lynch, Coadj., Arcadiopolis Nov. 4,1866... 

Translated to Kildare and Leighlin as Coadjutor. 

24 Charles Peter Eyre, Abp., Anazarba, Jan. 31, 1869... 

Translated as Abp. of Glasgow, March 15, 1878. 

NORTHERN DISTRICT, 1828. 

25 James Kyle,* Germanicia, Sept. 20, 1828... Feb. 23,1869 

26 John Macdonald, Nicopolis, Feb. 24,1869... - 

Translated to Aberdeen, March 15, 1878. 

*^Bishop Kyle lived in primitive but hospitable simplicity, 
and died at Preshome, a spot which has so many attractions and 
VOL. III. 18 



274 MERITED EULOGIUM ON BISHOP KYLE. 

THE HIERARCHICAL DIOCESE OF ABERDEEN 

Comprises the counties of Aberdeen, Banff, Caithness* 
Cromarty, Elgin or Moray, Inverness (north of a straight 
line drawn from the extreme north of Loch Luing to the 
junction of the counties of Inverness, Aberdeen, and 
Banff), Kincardine, Nairn, Ross (except the island of 
Lewes), Sutherland, and the Orkney and Shetland 
Islands. 

BISHOP OF ABERDEEN. 

The Right Rev. John Macdonald, D.D., born in Strath- 
glass on the 2nd July, 1818 ; ordained at Preshome on 
the 4th Nov., 1841. Taken from Eskadale, he was conse- 
crated by Bishop Chad wick of Hexham and Newcastle at 
Aberdeen on the 24th Feb., 1869 (on the day before 
Bishop Kyle's death), as Bishop of Nicopolis and Vicar 
Apostolic of the Northern District. Translated to the See 
of Aberdeen by Brief of the loth March, 1878. Residence 
Bishop's House, Queen's Road, Aberdeen".] (Eo.) 

These were the Bishops in the See of Moray 
before the Eeformation. 
Let us now look into 

THE DIOCESE 

In which they officiated. It was always called 
" The Diocese of Moray," but what the extent of 
it was, at its first erection, I shall not pretend to 
determine. 

In the year 1142, the Diocese of Aberdeen 

associations. An impediment in his utterance was an obstacle 
to him as an orator. Albeit he was an able divine, and first- 
rate Latin, Greek, and Hebrew scholar. He was also deeply 
versed in the antiquities and literature of Scotland. He sup- 
plied the Spalding Club with several valuable documents, and 
discovered a key to the cypher in which several of the letters of 
Queen Mary were written. He was singularly unostentatious 
and charitable, acting more as a father to his clergy than as a 
superior. When Professor at Aquhorties, he devoted his 
leisure hours to printing and mechanics. (ED.) 



EXTENT OF THE DIOCESE OF MORAY. 275 

extended over the counties of Aberdeen and 
Banff ; and if the extent of these counties was at 
that time what it is now, no part of the Diocese 
of Moray could, in 1142, lie within them. But 
afterward, and right early, I find a part of the 
Diocese of Moray within the counties both of 
Aberdeen and Banff. 

In the time of Bishop Bricius, the parishes of 
Strathavon, Ruthven, Arntullie, and Glass ; and 
in the Episcopate of Bishop Andrew Moray, 
Rynie, Dunbenan, Kinore, Inverkethnie, and 
Botarie were within the Diocese of Moray. 
Thus it extended to the east as far as it did 
any time after. 

To the west, Abertarf, in the time of Bricius 
and Fernua, anno 1239, were comprehended in 
it. I do not find that any part of this Diocese 
lay beyond the river of Farar or Beaulie, which is 
the bounding of Ross ; for although the Bishop 
of Moray had lands in Ross, Strathnaver, Cul- 
len, Banff, these were no part of his Episcopal 
charge. 

In the Procurationes Decanatuum, the rural 
Deanery or Archipresbyterate of Strathbogie is 
included ; and comprehends, besides Drumblade 
and Inverkeithny, now in the Synod of Aberdeen, 
the whole Presbytery of Strathbogie, except 
Mortlach, Botriphnie, Bellie, and Grange. 

Mortlach, the mother Church, was within the 
Diocese of Aberdeen till the year 1706. 



276 THE PROCUEATIONES DECANATUUM. 

Botriphnie was at that time probably a part of 
the parish of Mortlach or of Keith. 

Bellie, depending on the Priory of Urquhart, 
was probably exempt from the Procurationes. 

Grange was a part of the parish of Keith, and 
was disjoined and erected into a distinct parish 
in the year 1618. (Bee. Presbytery of Strathb.) 

In the Deanery of Strathspey, Laggan, in Bade- 
noch, is included ; and anno 1139, Laggan was 
in the Diocese of Moray. 

How early these Procurationes were drawn up, 
I know not ; but without regard to them, it 
appears that, in the beginning of the 13th cen- 
tury, the Diocese extended from Ehynie in the 
east to Abertarf in the south-west, and compre- 
hended what are now the counties of Moray and 
Nairn, and a considerable part of the counties of 
Inverness and Banff, and some parishes in the 
county of Aberdeen. 

Let me only add that at an enquiry made 
by David, Prince of Cumberland (afterward King 
David I.) into the ancient possessions of the 
Church of Glasgow, Pentejacob is called one 
of them ; and in a charter to that Church, 
posterior to the enquiry, Pentejacob is said to 
be Glenmoriston. (Dalr. Coll.) But why Glen- 
moriston was so called, or depended on the 
Church of Glasgow, I know not. Such was 
the Diocese. 

Let me next give some account of 



THE FIRST SIX BISHOPS HAD NO CATHEDRAL. 277 
THE CATHEDEAL CHURCH. 

In the Primitive Christian Church the Bishop 
sat as Preses in the Consessus or College of 
Presbyters, in a cathedra or chair allotted to 
him. The pride and vanity of after ages, when 
Bishops affected to imitate the grandeur of princes, 
turned the humble cathedra into a throne. The 
Bishop's own Church, in which he officiated, 
was called the Cathedral Church of the Diocese. 
It is probable that the first six Bishops of Moray 
had no fixed Cathedral, but served in Birnie, 
Spynie, or Kinnedar, as they affected. 

Bishop Bricius insinuates as much, and, men- 
tioning Birnie first, seems to hint that it was the 
Bishop's Church. It is a pleasant well-aired 
situation within two miles of the town of Elgin, 
and the 4th Bishop was there buried. The 
present Church of Birnie is built with a choir 
and nave ; but it does not appear to be the 
fabric that was there in those early times. 

There are no vestiges or tradition of a palace, 
except a place called the Castle Hill. 

Probably the revenues in those days were so 
small and so precarious, that they did not admit 
of stately Churches or palaces. 

The first six Bishops having shifted from 
one place to another, as fancy or conveniency 
prompted them, Bishop Bricius, who was con- 
secrated anno 1203, applied to Pope Innocent to 



278 THE CHURCH AT SPYNIE DECLARED THE CATHEDRAL. 

have a Cathedral fixed for the Bishops of Moray. 
That Pope appointed the Bishops of St. Andrews, 
and Brechin, and the Abhot of Lindores, to re- 
pair to Moray, and to declare the Church of 
the Holy Trinity at Spynie to be the Cathedral 
of the Diocese in all time coming, which they 
accordingly did. But it does not appear in what 
year this was done ; yet it must have been 
betwixt the year 1203, when Bricius was conse- 
crated, and 1216, when Pope Innocent III. died. 
Bricius instituted a College of Canons, eight in 
number, at Spynie. 

This choice of a Cathedral did not please 
Bishop Andrew Murray, immediate successor to 
Bricius ; for, having come to the Episcopate 
in 1223, he next year represented to Pope 
Honorius that Spynie was a solitary place, 
far from the necessaries of life, and that Divine 
service was much neglected, while the Canons 
were obliged to travel at a distance to purchase 
the necessary provisions ; and therefore craved 
that the Cathedral might be translated from 
Spynie to the Church of the Holy Trinity, which 
stood a little north-east of the town of Elgin. 
To induce the Pontiff the more readily to com- 
ply, the Bishop signified that it not only was 
the desire of the Chapter of the Diocese, but 
likewise of the King of Scotland, Alexander II. 

The Pope cheerfully granted the request ; and, 
by his Apostolic Bull or Mandate, dated (4fo Id.} 



SPEEDY TRANSLATION OF THE CATHEDRAL TO ELGIN. 279 

the tenth day of April, 1224, empowered the 
Bishop of Caithness, with the Abbot of Kinloss 
and the Dean of Kosemarky, or the Bishop and 
any one of these, to make the desired translation 
if they should find it useful. In obedience to 
which Mandate, the said Bishop and Dean met 
at the Church of the Holy Trinity, near Elgin, 
on the 14th of the Kalends of August, i.e. July 
19th, in the said year 1224, and finding the 
necessity and usefulness of the translation as 
represented, declared and appointed the said 
Church of the Holy Trinity to be the Cathedral 
Church of the Diocese of Moray, and so to remain 
in all time coming. 

Bishop Andrew Murray is said to have laid 
the foundation-stone of the Cathedral Church, on 
the very day in which it was declared, viz., 19th 
July, 1224 ; and as he lived 18 years after, it can- 
not be doubted that he greatly advanced, if 
not finished the building. 

' It does not appear what was the model or 
what the dimensions of the Church, as first 
built, though it is probable it was in the form 
common to Cathedral Churches, viz., the form 
of a passion-cross, with a spacious choir and nave. 
It had stood 166 years, from the year of its 
foundation, when it was totally burnt * and de- 
stroyed, as follows. 

* Fordun, II., 112, says that " in 1270 the Church of Elgin 
and the Canons' houses were burned." 



280 THE WOLF OF BADENOCH's SACRILEGIOUS RAIDS. 

In the time of Bishop Alexander Barr, Alex- 
ander Stewart, [natural] son of King Robert II., 
Lord Badenoch, commonly called " The Wolf of 
Badenoch," seized on the Bishop's lands of 
that country, and keeping violent possession 
of them, was excommunicated. In resentment 
of which, in the month of May [April], 1390, 
he burnt the town of Forres, with the choir 
of the Church [of St. Lawrence there], and 
the Manse of the Arch-Deacon. And in June 
that same year he burnt the town of Elgin, 
the Church of St. Giles, the Hospital of Maison- 
Dieu, and the Cathedral Church, with 18 houses 
of the Canons and Chaplains in the College 
of Elgin. For this wickedness the Lord Bade- 
noch was justly prosecuted, and obliged to make 
due reparation. Upon his humble submission 
he was absolved by Walter Trail, Bishop of 
St. Andrews, in the Black-Friar Church in Perth; 
being first received at the door, and again before 
the High Altar, in presence of the King and many 
of the nobility, on condition that he should make 
full satisfaction to the Bishop and Church of 
Moray, and obtain absolution from the Pope. 

Bishop Barr began the rebuilding of the 
Church, and every Canon contributed. Bishop 
Spynie continued the work ; but, though every 
parish paid a subsidy, yet, through the troubles 
of the times, it made slow advances. Bishop 
Innes laid the foundation of the Great Steeple 



ELGIN CATHEDRAL REBUILT. 281 

in the middle of the Church, and greatly ad- 
vanced it. After his death, the Chapter met 
May 18th, 1414, and bound themselves by a 
solemn oath, that whosoever -should be elected 
Bishop, he should annually apply one-third of 
his revenue in repairing the Cathedral, until 
it should be finished. The Church being rebuilt, 
it remained entire for many years ; but in the 
beginning of the 16th century, about the year 
1506, the Great Steeple in the centre fell down. 
Next year Bishop Foreman began to rebuild it ; 
but the work was not finished before the year 
1538, and then the height of the tower, includ- 
ing the spire, was 198 feet. (Say of Drumboot.) 
The Church, when entire, was a building of 
Gothic architecture, inferior to few in Europe. 
It stood due east and west, in the form of a 
passion or Jerusalem cross, ornamented with 
five towers, whereof two parallel stood on the 
west end, one in the middle, and two on the 
east end. 

Betwixt the two towers on the west end was 
the great porch or entrance. This gate is a con- 
cave arch, 24 feet broad in base, and 24 in height, 
terminating in a sharp angle. 

On each side of the valves or doors, in the 
sweep of the arch are 8 round and 8 fluted pilas- 
ters, 6^ feet high, adorned with a chapiter, from 
which arise 16 pilasters, which meet in the 
key of the arch. 



282 DESCRIPTION OF ELGIN CATHEDRAL. 

There were porticoes or to-falls on each side of 
the Church, eastward from the traverse or cross, 
which were 18 feet broad without the walls. 

To yield sufficient light to a building so large, 
besides the great windows in the porticoes, and a 
row of attic windows in the walls, each 6 feet 
high, above the porticoes, there was in the west 
gable, above the gate, a window in form of an 
acute-angled arch, 19 feet broad in base, and 27 
in height ; and in the east gable, between the 
turrets, a row of five parallel windows, each 2 
feet broad and 10 high. Above these are five 
more, each 7 feet high ; and over all, a circular 
window, near to 10 feet in diameter. 

In the heart of the wall of the Church, and 
leading to all the upper windows, there is a 
channel or walk [Clerestory-gallery] round the 
whole building. 

The grand-gate, the windows, the pillars, the 
projecting table, pedestals, cordons, &c., are 
adorned with foliage, grapes, and other carving. 

Let us, after describing the body of the Church, 
take a view of 

THE CHAPTER-HOUSE, 

Commonly called " The Apprentice Aisle," a 
curious piece of architecture, standing on the 
north side of the Church, and communicating 
with the choir by a vaulted vestry. 

The house is an exact octagon, 34 feet high, 



DIMENSIONS OF CHAPTER HOUSE AND CATHEDRAL. 283 

and the diagonal breadth, within walls, 37 feet. 
It is arched and vaulted at the top, and the 
whole arched roof supported by one pillar in the 
centre of the house. Arched pillars from every 
angle terminate in the grand pillar. This pillar, 
9 feet in circumference, is crusted over with 
16 pilasters or small pillars, alternately round 
and fluted, and 24 feet high, adorned with a 
chapiter, from which arise 16 round pillars that 
spread along the roof, and join at top with the 
pillars (5 in number) rising from every side of the 
octolateral figure. There is a large window in 
every side of seven, and the eighth side com- 
municates with the choir. 

In the north wall of this Chapter-house there 
are 5 stalls, cut by way of niches, for the Bishop 
(or the Dean in the Bishop's absence) and the 
dignified clergy to sit in. The middle stall, for 
the Bishop or Dean, is larger and raised a step 
higher than the other four. They were all well 
lined with wainscoat. 

Some of the dimensions of this Church may be 
seen as follows : 

Ft. 

The length on the outside, - - 264 

The breadth on the outside, - 35 

The breadth within walls, - 28 

The length of the traverse [transept] outside, 114 

The length [of transept] within walls, - - 110 

The height of the west tower not including spire, 84 

The height of tower in centre, including spire, 198 

The height of the eastern turrets, - 60 

The breadth of the great gate, 24 

The height thereof, 24 



284 MEASUREMENTS OF ELGIN CATHEDRAL. 

Ft. 

The breadth of each valve, - 5 

The height of each valve, near 10 

The height of the side walls, - 36 

. The height of the Chapter House, - 34 

The diagonal breadth within walls, 37 

The breadth of every side, near - 15 

The circumference of the great pillar, - 9 

The height thereof below the chapiter [or capital], 24 

The breadth of the Porticoes [Aisles] on the side, 18 

The breadth of the west window, - 19 

The height thereof, 27 

The height of the east windows, - 10 

The height of the second row, 7 

The diameter of the circular window, - 10 

In taking these dimensions, I have not studied 
a scrupulous exactness ; and in some of them it 
was not possible to do so. The spires of the two 
west towers are fallen, but the stone work is 
pretty entire. No part of the Great Tower in 
the middle now stands. The two eastern turrets, 
being winding stair-cases, and vaulted at top, 
are entire. 

The walls of the Choir are pretty entire, and so 
is the whole Chapter-House; but the walls of the 
Nave and Traverse are mostly fallen. 

It is a mistake that this stately edifice was 
either burnt or demolished by the mob at the 
Eeformation. The following Act of Privy Coun- 
cil shows the contrary, viz. : " Edinburgh, 14th 
February, 1567-8. Seeing provision must be 
made for entertaining the men of war (soldiers) 
whose service cannot be spared, until the rebelli- 
ous and disobedient subjects be reduced ; There- 
fore appoint that the lead be taken from the 



THE LEAD ROOFS OF CATHEDRALS SINK SHIPS. 285 

Cathedral Churches in Aberdeen and Elgin, and 
sold for sustentation of the said men of war. 
And command and charge the Earl of Huntly, 
Sheriff of Aberdeen, and his deputes, Alexander 
Dunbar of Cumnock, Knight Sheriff of Elgin and 
Forres, and his deputes, William, Bishop of 
Aberdeen, Patrick, Bishop of Moray, &c., That 
they defend and assist Alexander Clerk and 
William Birnie and their servants, in taking 
down and selling the said lead, &c. Signed 
E.M." (Keith's Hist.). 

The lead was accordingly taken off these 
churches,and shipped at Aberdeen for Holland; but 
soon after the ship left the river it sunk, which was 
owing, as many thought, to the superstition of 
the Roman Catholic captain. Be this as it may, 
the Cathedral of Moray, being uncovered, was 
suffered to decay as a piece of Romish vanity, 
too expensive to be kept in repair. 

Some painted rooms in the Towers and Choir 
remained so entire about the year 1640 that 
Roman Catholics repaired to them there to say 
their prayers. (Eec. Presbytery of Elgin.) 

The Great Tower in the middle of the Church, 
being uncovered, the wooden work gradually 
decayed, and the foundation failing, the tower 
fell, anno 1711, on a Peace (Pasch or Easter] 
Sunday, in the morning. Several children were 
playing and idle people walking within the area 
of the Church, and immediately as they removed 



286 "THE LANTERN OF THE NORTH." 

to breakfast, the tower fell down, and no one 
was hurt. 

[Elgin Cathedral was "the lantern of the north." 
Bishop Bur, in his touching letters (given in Latin in the 
Registrum Episcopatus Moraviense) on the destruction 
thereof by "the Wolfe of Badenoch, characterizes the 
fane to the King as " the ornament of the district, the 
glory of the kingdom, and the praise and admiration of 
foreigners." At a period when the country was rude 
and uncultivated, when the dwellings of the mass of 
the people were mere temporary huts, and even the 
Castles of the chiefs and nobles possessed no architectural 
beauty, and were devoid of taste and ornament, the 
solemn grandeur of such a pile, and the sacred purposes 
with which it was associated, must have inspired an awe 
and a reverence of which we can form but a faint 
conception. The prevailing impulse of the religion of the 
period led its zealous followers to concentrate their whole 
energies in the erection of such magnificent structures ; 
and while there was little skill or industry manifested in 
the common arts of life, and no associations for promoting 
the temporal comforts of the people, the grand conceptions 
displayed in the architecture of the Middle-ages, the taste 
and persevering industry, and the amount of wealth and 
labour bestowed on these sacred edifices, find no parallel 
in modern times. 

The Cathedral was founded under the auspices of Bishop 
Andrew Moray, a scion of the great and powerful family of 
De Moravia, who possessed the greater part of the district, 
and whose wealth and influence must have been very 
considerable, even in that rude period. We cannot, how- 
ever, suppose that this Cathedral owed all its excellence 
of design or execution to native talent. The general 
resemblance of the plan manifested in the greater propor- 
tion of similar structures of the period point out a 
common source from which all derived their origin. 
Architecture and practical masonry were then the fash ion- 
able professions, and Companies or Incorporations of Free 
Masons, furnished with Papal Bulls and ample privileges, 
then traversed Europe. Ecclesiastics, too, from the high- 
est to the lowest, were also trained as proficients in the 
trade. Gundulph, a monk of Bee Abbey, afterwards 



ELGIN CATHEDRAL. 287 



Bishop of Rochester, we are told, was a celebrated practi- 
cal architect. Bishop Lucy, A.D. 1202, first introduced 
" the high-pointed arch," and Bishop Lucy of Lincoln 
was so enthusiastic in the building of its Cathedral that 
he not only planned and superintended the work but 
actually carried stones and mortar on his shoulders for 
the use of the masons. (Matthew Paris, anno 1195.) 

It is not improbable that Bishop Andrew of Moray was 
equally knowing regarding the mysteries of the craft ; 
and attached to a Charter of this same founder of the 
Cathedral among other names, both local and foreign, are 
the signatures of Master Gregory, the mason, and Richard, 
the glazier, who doubtless were employed on the work. 

The original structure was founded in 1224, and pro- 
bably completed during the 18 years in which Bishop 
Andrew occupied the See. After standing 160 years, 
it was burnt in 1390 by "the Wolfe of Badenoch." Soon 
after, Bishop Bur began to rebuild it, and from the year 
1414 the work was sedulously pursued till its completion. 
In 1506 the great or central steeple fell, and was rebuilt 
soon afterwards. Whether in the conflagration of 1390 
the entire structure was demolished has not been distinctly 
recorded. It is probable, however, that a portion of the 
walls may have remained, and this conjecture is strength- 
ened by the fact that diiferent styles of architecture in 
the existing ruins point out different periods. Neither 
have we any means of ascertaining whether the original plan 
of the Cathedral was preserved in its subsequent restora- 
tions, or a new model adopted. 

The general style of the architecture would lead us 
to suppose that the original plan had, on the whole, been 
adhered to ; for it is of that kind which characterized the 
Cathedrals of the 12th and 13th centuries. At that 
period a change was in progress from the Saxon style, 
where plain circular arches and broad buttresses marked 
the buildings, to the Norman style, where the arch was 
pointed, the pillars and buttresses of a lighter form, and 
the tracery and ornaments more profuse. Yet there was 
often in the buildings of this period a mixture of the 
Saxon and Norman styles, such as is found in the Cathe- 
dral at Elgin. In several parts of this building the 
circular arch is visible, and grouped windows, with 
pointed arches, surmounted by a circular arch above. 



288 GRANDEUR OF ELGIN CATHEDRAL. 

On the whole, it is highly probable that, on the burn- 
ing of the Cathedral, a considerable portion of the walls 
remained ; that these were restored, and the dilapidated 
parts rebuilt from the same foundations ; and that any 
alterations on the original structure consisted more in the 
additional ornaments and slight architectural changes of 
subordinate parts, than in a total change of form. Its 
subsequent restoration was not likely to have been eclipsed 
by its pristine splendour. 

When entire, this magnificent temple must have afforded 
a splendid spectacle. A vast dome extending from the 
western entrance to the High Altar (not a chip of which 
remains), a length of 289 feet with its richly-ornamented 
arches crossing and re-crossing each other, to lean for sup- 
port on the double rows of stately, massive pillars the 
mellowed light streaming in at the gorgeous stained-glass 
windows above, and flickering below amid the deep and 
dark shades of the pointed aisles, while the tapers of the 
lit-up Altar twinkled through the rolling clouds of incense ; 
the paintings and figures of angels and saints ; the solemn 
tones of the High Mass ; the rich modulated music of the 
choir ; and the gorgeous vestments (chasubles, dalmatics, 
copes, and mitres), each, in time and place, in keeping 
with the various acts of the worship of God, as is 
described in the Apocalypse to be done in the Church 
triumphant. Every adjunct must have elevated the 
imagination and impressed with deep awe and veneration 
a people in a remote region and in a semi-barbarous age, 
with nothing around them in the slightest degree to com- 
pare with such overpowering splendour. No wonder 
that the clergy and the laity were proud of such a pile. 
It was a fit scene for Volusenus, a Latin author of the 
period, writing on " the Tranquillity of the Soul," to select 
for his " Temple of Peace," and under its walls to lay the 
scene of his philosophical dialogues." * 

* Florence Wilson (known by the Latin name of Florentius 
Volusenus) was born on the banks of the Lossie, near Elgin, 
about 1500. He was educated at Elgin, Aberdeen, and Paris. 
Mackenzie, in his Lives of Scottish Writers, III, 29-34, supposes 
" the Temple " to describe the old Cathedral of Elgin as it ap- 
peared in glory in the author's youth. Gough, in his Additions 
to Camden's Britannia, III., 249, with greater probability, per- 
haps, conjectures that it was at the Lady Hill that Volusenus 



ELGIN CATHEDRAL. 289 

Entering the west door by a flight of steps, the Nave 
of the Cathedral appears. On either side a row of 10 
pillars rose to support the roof; the foundations alone 
and a few of the pedestals mark their situation. 

Within the Nave are the remains of a sarcophagus, said 
to have contained the body of King Duncan, who was 
killed by Macbeth at Bothgowan, in the parish of Duffus 
or Alves, previous to its being interred at lona in 1046. 

Macbeth was a hereditary Chief or Maormar of the 
Province of Moray. His character has been unwarrant- 
ably traduced, chiefly by the great Shakspere, who copies 
from Hollinshead. There of course is exciting romance 
in the play of Macbeth, but the murder of old King 
Duncan, we believe to be fictitious. Both were grandsons 
of Malcolm II., King of Scotland. They contended each 
for the throne, and met in contest in battle in the plains 
of Moray. King Duncan was mortally wounded by Mac- 
beth, who reigned for 18 years. 

The effigy of Bishop John Innes was found at the 
north-west pillar of the great central Tower, which he 
began to rebuild, and where he was buried. 

The Aisle of the South Transept was dedicated to SS. 
Peter and Paul, where, in recesses, are two knights in 
armour, circa 1481 the burial-place of the Inneses of 
Invermarkie. 

The North Transept was dedicated to S. Thomas a 
Becket, and has an Aisle for the burial-place of the 
Dunbars. 

The South Aisle adjoining the Chancel was dedicated 
to the Blessed Virgin Mary, and is the burying-place of 
the Dukes of Gordon. 

On the north is the entrance to the Chapter House, 
through an arched apartment called the Sacristy, where 
the vessels used at the Altars were kept, beyond which is 
a Lavatory or oblong stone trough in which the celebrants 
washed their hands before going to say Mass, as also the 
Altar-linens ; and where, in later years, General Anderson 
found his cradle. 



placed his Temple. Dr. James Taylor wrote a Memoir of 
Florence fFilson, in a reprint of De Tranquillitate Animi, which 
was printed at Elgin in 1861, and presented to the Elgin 
Literary and Scientific Association. (ED.) 

VOL. ill. 19 



290 PROVOST KING; ISAAC FORSYTE; JOHN SHANKS. 

During last century the Cathedral ruins and environs 
were shamefully cared for, having no enclosure. Here 
was a convenient quarry for all and sundry to find a 
handy supply of building materials, the finest carvings 
being consolidated with new dwelling-houses, dykes, 
barns, and byres. Until 1807 here was the public recep- 
tacle for deposits and a free coup, when Provost Joseph 
King of Newmill enclosed the Chan'ry with a stone wall, 
and appointed a regular keeper and attendant. 

In 1816, Isaac Forsyth (who enlisted the co-operative 
zeal of Adam Longmore, of the Exchequer) received 
repeated grants of money from the Barons of the Exche- 
quer to render safe and repair the dilapidations. Since 
1820, "Government" has looked after the whole hypothec, 
and has not been stingy in gathering up the fragments 
that remain, that nothing may be lost. 

In 1824, John Shanks, shoemaker, then about 58 years 
of age, was appointed Cicerone. He wore a Kilmarnock 
cowl or night-cap and knee-breeks. Not another in the 
whole " Province " could have proved more eligible ; but 
our " Souter Johnny " was charged, even at a hoary age, 
with tampering with sportive recumbent figures lying 
under the stones, who had not yet " shuffled off this 
mortal coil." The Epitaph on his headstone, composed by 
Lord Cockburn, embalms his marvellous industry. 

No peals of music now reverberate through these roof- 
less aisles. Not a sound of adoration is to be heard, but 
the scene is silent as the surrounding graves. Yet even 
the grey walls are discoloured and mutilated ; though the 
hoary moss has gathered over many an inscription, and 
the sharp touches of the chisel are gone for ever ; and 
although there be a melancholy pleasure associated with 
the evidences of decay still can we in imagination re- 
vert to the days when there was only the one Church 
and the one faith, and when the simple-minded faithful 
gloried in these alone, as they paid their homage to the 
one God.] (ED.) 

In the night of the 4th Dec., 1637, arose "ane horrible 
high wind," which blew down the rafters of Elgin 
Cathedral, left without the slates 80 years before. (Cham- 
bers' Domestic Annals of Scotland, II. 114.) 

"On Monday, Dec. 28, 1640, by the order of the 
General Assembly, Gilbert Ross, minister of Elgin, accom- 



ROOD SCREEN OF ELGIN CATHEDRAL. 291 

panied with the young laird of Innes, the laird of Brodie, 
and some others, without authority, brake down the tim- 
ber partition wall dividing the Kirk of Elgin frae the 
Quire [i.e., the Rood Screen] whilk had stood over since 
the Reformation, near seven score years or above. On the 
west side was painted in excellent colours, illuminated 
with stars of bright gold, the crucifixion of our blessed 
Saviour, Jesus Christ. This piece was so excellently done 
that the colours never faded, but kept hail and sound as 
at the beginning, notwithstanding this College or Chan- 
nery-kirk wanted the roof since the Reformation, and no 
hail windows therein to save the same from storm, snow, 
sleet, or wet, whilk myself saw. And marvellous to consider, 
on the other side of this wall, towards the east, was drawn 
the Day of Judgment ; but all is thrown to the ground. 
It was said their minister caused to bring home to his house 
the timber thereof to burn the same for serving his kitchen 
and other uses ; but each night the fire went out wherein 
it was burnt, and could not be kept in to kindle the morn- 
ing fire as use is, whereat the servant marvelled, and 
thereupon the minister left off and forbore to bring in or 
burn any more of that timber in his house. This was 
remarked and spoke through Elgin, and creditably re- 
ported to myself." (Spalding's History of the Troubles in 
Scotland, anno 1640, p. 280.) 

Between 1650 and 1660, Oliver Cromwell's troops 
mutilated the carvings and figures of saints, angels, &c., 
particularly the embellishments of the superb west win- 
dow called " the Alpha window," which now corresponds 
with " the Omega window," at the east end. 

The College of Elgin was an appendage of the 
Cathedral, and properly falleth to be next de- 
scribed. A College is an incorporated Society, 
having particular rules or canons for their govern- 
ment. If the College was not annexed to the 
Cathedral Church, but to an ordinary Church, it 
was called a Collegiate Church, and the head or 
ruler of the College was called Provost, or Dean ; 



292 THE COLLEGE OF ELGIN; CANONS SECULAR. 

but in a Cathedral with a College, the Bishop 
was the ruler. These Colleges were instituted 
for performing Divine Service, and singing Masses 
for the souls of their founders, or their friends. 
They consisted of Canons or Prebendaries, who 
had their stalls for orderly singing the Canonical 
hours, and were commonly erected out of Parish 
Churches, or out of the Chaplainries belonging 
to Churches. 

Canons, or Canons Secular (so called to dis- 
tinguish them from the Eegulars in Convents) 
were Ministers or Parsons within the Diocese, 
chosen by the Bishop, to be members of this 
Chapter or Council, lived within the College, 
performed Divine Service in the Cathedral, and 
sung in the choir, according to rules or canons 
made by the Chapter. They were called Pre- 
bendaries, because each had a Prebendum or 
portion of land allotted him for his service. 
Canons and Prebendaries differed chiefly in this, 
That the Canon had his canonica or portion, 
merely for his being received, although he did 
not serve in the Church; but the Prebendary 
had his Prebendum, only when he served. 

The College of Canons annexed to this Cathe- 
dral, was first instituted by Bishop Bricius in 
Spynie, when the Cathedral was there. He 
instituted eight Canonries, i.e., eight Parishes, 
whose Ministers or Parsons should be Canons or 
members of the College. Let me here observe, 



THE COLLEGE OF CANONS. 293 

1st, That Bishop Bricius had nominated the 
five Dignitaries, viz., The Dean, Chancellor, 
Archdeacon, Chantor, Treasurer, and assigned 
and fixed their seats. 

2ndly, That each Dignitary, being a Canon, 
and to reside in the College, had a vicarage or a 
parish annexed to his seat, in which he employed 
a Yicar, and had the tithes to himself, to add to 
his more sumptuous living. Thus Nairn was 
annexed to Aldern, &c. 

3rdly, That the seat of the Chancellor was 
afterwards changed and fixed at Inveravon. For- 
therves, Lythenes, Lunyn, and Duldavie, first 
assigned to the Chancellor, I incline to think 
were, Femes in Ardclach, Lethin, Tulidivie in 
Edinkylie, in all which places there were Chapels 
or Churches, and Lunyn, i.e. Lundichtie, now 
called Dunlichtie. This I think the more proba- 
ble, because the Church and Parish of Ardclach 
is but a late erection, not mentioned in any 
ancient writing that I have seen; and Femes 
and Lethin were the places of worship there. 
Likewise Logyn Fythenach (i.e. the woody Logic, 
so called to distinguish it from Logyn Dyke which 
was not woody), annexed to the Archdeaconry 
was, Logie, where Mr. Tulloch of Tanachie had 
his seat, and where there are vestiges of a 
Church. While that Church stood, there was 
no Church at Edinkylie, except Duldavie or 
Tullidivie. And when the wood in Edinkylie 



294 THE TWENTY-TWO CANONS. 

was destroyed, land cultivated, and a Church 
and parish erected, depending on the Archdeacon, 
then Logyn Fythenach was annexed to Forres. 

Bishop Andrew Moray translated, with the 
Cathedral, the College of Canons to Elgin ; and 
to the former eight, added fourteen more, making 
in all twenty-two, which number they never ex- 
ceeded. To every Canon he gave a toft of land 
for building a manse upon it, and a croft ; and to 
each of the Dignitaries he gave four acres of 
land, and two acres to each other Canon. (MS. 
Catalogue of the Bishops, pen. Mr. King of New- 
miln.) I find, in some writings, the following 
twenty-two Canons, viz., The Ministers of Aldern, 
Forres, Alves, Inveravon, Kenedar, Dallas, Eaf- 
fort, Kingusie, Duthel, Advie, Aberlaur, Dyple, 
Botarie, Inverkethnie, Kinmore, Pettie, Duffus, 
Spynie, Eynie, Moy, Croy, and the Vicar of 
Elgin. All these had manses and gardens within 
the precinct of the College, and several of them 
had crofts of land near to it, as yet called the 
Deans Crook, Dyple Croft, Moy Croft, &c. Every 
Canonry had a Yicarage annexed to it, for the 
better subsistence of the Canon, who had the 
great tithes of both parishes, and generally was 
Patron of the annexed Yicarage. Thus, Aldern 
had annexed to it, Nairn ; Forres, Edinkylie ; 
Alves, Langbryde ; Inneravon, Urquhart ; Kene- 
dar, Essil ; Dyple, Eathven ; Kinnore, Dunbenen, 
Eynie, Essie; Botarie, Elchies; Advie, Cromdale; 



CANONRIES ENDOWED WITH PREBENDAL CHURCHES. 295 

Kingusie, Insh ; Duthel, Kothenrarchus ; Pettie, 
Bracklie ; Croy, Moy in Strathern ; Moy, Dyke ; 
Raffart, Ardclach; Aberlaure, Skirdustan. I 
find not that Duffus, Spynie, or Elgin had any 
Vicarage. 

[The remaining Canonries were endowed with the fol- 
lowing Prebends : 

1. The Churches and Parishes of Spynie and Kintrae. 

2. The Churches and Parishes of Ruthven and Dipple. 

3. The Church and Parish of Rhynie. 

4. The Churches and Parishes of Dunbennan and Kin- 
nore. 

5. The Church and Parish of Inverkeithing. 

6. The Churches and Parishes of Elchies and Botarie. 

7. The Parsonage-tithes of the Parish of Moy. 

8. The Churches and Parishes of Cromdale and Advie. 

9. The Churches and Parishes of Kingussie and Insh. 

10. The Churches and Parishes of Croy and Dunlichtie. 
This Prebendary was the Bishop's Vicar. 

11. The Vicarage of St. Giles', Elgin, with 100 shillings, 
of the Altarage of the same. 

12. The Parsonage-teinds of the Parishes of Pettie and 
Brachlie. 

13. The Parsonage-tithes of the Parishes of Boharm 
and Aberlour. 

14. The Church and Parish of Duffus. 

15. The Church and Parish of Duthel. 

16. The Chapelry of the B. Virgin in the Castle of 
Duffus, erected into the Prebend of Unthank, 1542. 

Of these, the Chancellor, Treasurer, Archdeacon, the 
Canon of Duppol, the Sub-dean, Succentor, and Canon of 
Duffus, were bound to provide Priests as their Vicars to 
serve in the Cathedral. The Canons of Petty, Inverkeith- 
ing, Kingusy, Botarie, and Aberlour, provided Deacons. 

The Canons of Spyny, Ryny, Moy, Duthel, and Crom- 
dale, Sub-deacons. The revenues of these Benefices it is 
not now easy to ascertain. The Rental printed in Regis- 
trum Episcopatus Moraviense, which must have served 
for levying the Bishop's rents, is perhaps the best authority 
that can now be referred to. It must be remembered,. 



296 MENSAL CHURCHES; COLLEGE PRECINCT. 

however, that, long before its date, large portions of the 
Church lands had been alienated to feuars ; and although 
all the conveyances made for that purpose, as well as the 
leases for lives, or for a term of years, bear to be for an 
augmentation of the former rental, there is reason to 
believe that that Rental was often merely nominal, and the 
clause devised to elude the danger of challenge by a suc- 
cessor in the Benefice. 

The Bishop's Mensal Churches were Elgin, St. Andrews, 
Dyke, Ugstoun, Rothernaye, Keyth, Grantully, Dalbate- 
lanch or Wardlaw, Rothemurcus, Davit, Tallaracie, Inner- 
allian. 

The Dean and Chapter declare that William Winchester, 
Treasurer, and his successor, shall have the charge of the 
clock of the Cathedral, and regulate and repair it, and see 
that the hours by day and by night are divided and 
annunciated with effect. 5th Dec., 1488. 

1489. About the mode of ringing of the greater bells 
prescribed by the Chapter, on the accustomed High Mass, 
at the obsequies of the nobility and others who are privi- 
leged to be buried below the Church.] (ED.) 

The Precinct of the College was walled round 
with a strong stone wall, about 4 yards high and 
900 yards in circuit, a great part of which remains 
yet entire. It had four gates. The east gate, 
called the Water Gate, or the Pan's Port, appears 
to have had an iron gate, a portcullis, and a 
porter's lodge ; and probably the other gates, now 
fallen, had the like fences. Within this precinct 
stood the houses of all the Canons, and likewise 
the Cathedral, and a spacious Churchyard, en- 
closed with a stone wall, and a paved street 
round it, leading to the several gates. Without 
the Precinct westward towards the town of Elgin 
(which was not then built so far to the east, as 
now it is, Vide page 66), there was a small burgh 



CROSS AND BELL ERECTED IN THE CHANONRY. 297 

depending on the Bishop and the College. On 
July 3rd, 1402, Alexander MacDonald, third son 
of the Lord of the Isles, entered the Qolle^e of 
Elgin, and wholly spoiled and plundered it,, and 
Trarnt a great part of the town. For this he was 
excommunicated, but was after absolved, and he 
offered a sum of gold, and so did his captains, 
according to their ability ; all which was applied 
for erecting a cross and a bell, in that part of the 
Chanonry which is next to the Bridge of Elgin 
(Mr. King's MS.). Probably that cross stood, 
where now stands the Little Cross; and the 
Bridge, which was no doubt of wood, stood near 
to the land now called Burgh Bridge lands. 

Having described the Cathedral and College, I 
shall next give some account of 

THE BISHOP'S PALACE AT SPYNIE. 

The proud Prelate, vieing with temporal princes, 
must have his habitation called, not a house, but 
a palace. It is probable that, as in Mortlich, so 
in Moray, the revenues were at first inconsider- 
able, and such as did not admit of grand and 
sumptuous palaces. Although Bishop Bricius 
informs us, that his predecessors resided at 
Birnie, Spynie, or Kenedar, as they fancied, and 
that he got the Cathedral fixed at Spynie ; and 
though in Bishop Andrew .Moray's time, the 
Cathedral was translated to Elgin anno 1224, we 
have no account of a house or palace before 



298 THE PALACE AT SPYNIE ; " DAVY'S TOWER." 

Bishop Archibald, who built a house at Kenedar 
about the year 1280. The vestiges are visible, 
and some part of the walls remain. It was a 
large double house, pretty near the Church, 
which likewise was spacious, and in the form of 
a cross. The distance of 4 miles from the Cathe- 
dral, and from the market at Elgin, the coldness 
of the situation so near the sea, and the total 
want of fuel, would induce them to build in a 
more convenient place. They could not have 
chosen a more commodious situation and plea- 
sant, than where the Palace of Spynie stands. 
It is situated on a rising ground, upon the south 
bank of the Loch of Spynie, in a pure air, a dry 
and warm soil, commanding the view of the loch, 
and of the fertile plains of Kenedar and Duffus 
to the north and north-west, and of the plains of 
Innes and the winding of the River Lossie to the 
east and south-east, within a mile of the Cathe- 
dral, in view of and but two miles from the sea. 

This palace, when it stood entire, was incom- 
parably the most stately and magnificent I have 
seen in any Diocese in Scotland. The area of 
the building was near a square of 60 yards. In 
the south-west corner stood a strong tower, called 
"Davy's Tower" 20 yards long, 13 broad, and 
about 20 high. It consisted of vaulted rooms in 
the ground story, and above these, four apart- 
ments of rooms of state and bed rooms, with 
vaulted closets or cabinets in the wall, which is 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PALACE AT SPYNIE. 299 

9 feet thick, with a broad and easy stair winding 
to the top. The whole tower is vaulted at top, 
over which is a cape house, with a battlement 
round it. This tower was built by Bishop David 
Stewart, who died anno 1475. Having some 
debates with the Earl of Huntly, he laid him 
under ecclesiastic censure, which provoked the 
Gordons so much, that they threatened to pull 
the Bishop out of his pigeon holes, meaning the 
old little rooms. The Bishop is said to have 
replied, That he should soon build a house, out 
of which the Earl and his Clan should not be 
able to pull him. 

In the other three corners, stood small towers 
with narrow rooms. In the south side of the 
area, betwixt the towers, there was a spacious 
Tennis-Court, and parallel to it on the inside was 
a Chapel. The east side betwixt the turrets, was 
planted with stables and other offices ; and the 
north and west sides were filled up with bed 
rooms, cellars, and store rooms. The gate or 
entry, was in the middle of the east wall, secured 
by an iron gate or portcullis. Over the gate 
stand the arms of Bishop John Innes, who was 
consecrated anno 1406, viz., " Three stars and 
the initial letters of his name." This affords a 
conjecture, but no certainty, that he was the first 
who built any part of that court. In the south 
wall of Davy's Tower, are placed the arms ot 
Bishops David and Andrew Stewart, and Patrick 



300 PALACE OF SPYNIE FENCED WITH STEONG WALLS. 

Hepburn. The precinct round this palace was 
well fenced with a high and strong stone wall ; 
and within it were gardens, plots of grass, and 
pleasant green walks. A palace so large and 
stately required a good rent to uphold it, which 
leads me to speak of 

BE VENUES OF THIS BISHOPEIC. 

It is probable that, for some time after the 
erection, the revenues were small. I find not any 
donations of King David I. or Malcolm IV. to 
this Church; but King William was a liberal 
benefactor, for besides a small toft or plot of 
ground in many burghs he gave " Decimam 
meam de reditibus meis de Moravia, et de placitis 
meis per to turn Episcopatum Moraviensem. " 
And because the people were backward to pay 
their teinds, it is added, " Firmiter prsecipio 
Balivis meis de Moravia, ut ipsi, sine disturba- 
tione, faciant Eicardo Episcopo, et suis succes- 
soribus, singulis annis, plenarie, et integre habere 
prsedictam decimam de reditibus meis." f (Cart. 
Morav.). Several of our Kings and great men 
afterwards granted lands, forests, fishings, &c., 
to this Church, and the revenues of it became 

* Translation. My tithe of my returns from Moray, and of 
my pleas throughout the whole Bishopric of Moray. 

t Translation. I strictly ordain my Bailiffs of Moray that 
they, without disturbance, shall yearly make good the full and 
entire said tenth of my returns to Bishop Richard and his 
successors. 



REVENUES OF THE SEE OF MORAY. 301 

very rich. I cannot pretend to ascertain all the 
Church lands within this Diocese, or the lands 
that belonged to it in Boss, Strathnaver, &c. 
The Eental of the Sheriffdom of Elgin and Forres, 
as it was made up, and set down, and subscribed 
by the Commissioners at Forres, the 30th May, 
1667, was 65,603 2s. lid. Scots money, shows 
that the Church had lands in almost all the 
parishes within the Diocese, besides some parishes 
as Birnie, Kenedar, Ogston, St. Andrews, Laggan, 
that wholly belonged to it. The said Eental is 
only the annuity or feu-duty now paid out of 
these lands, of which the Bishop was formerly 
the proprietor, and received the whole real rent. 
But these rich revenues were so dilapidated and 
sold, particularly by Bishop Patrick Hepburn, 
that, in the year 1563, when an account of all 
Ecclesiastic Benefices was taken, the rent of the 
Bishopric of Moray, as then given up and recorded 
in the Book of Assumption, was as under : 

Money, 1,649 7s. 7cL ; wheat, 10 bolls; barley, 77 chalders 
6 bolls 3 firlots 2 pecks ; oats, 2 chalders 8 bolls ; salmon, 8 
lasts ; poultry, 223. 

The lands, which in 1563 paid this rent, no 
doubt pay at this time more than <3,000 sterling. 
Besides, it was found and complained of at that 
time that full rents were not given up, and scarce 
one half of the lands of this Diocese remained 
unsold. To the rental ought likewise to be added 
the revenue arising from the Eegality of Spynie, 



302 REVENUES OF THE SEE ; THE DIGNATORIES. 

and from the Commissariots of Moray and Inver- 
ness, which, before the Eeformation, was very 
considerable. To show the converted prices of 
victual and other commodities, about the year 
1563, I add the following, in Scots money : 

Wheat per boll, 2 ; bear per boll, 1 1 3s. 4d. ; meal per 
boll, 1 13s. 4d. ; malt per boll, 2; oats per boll, 10s.; 
mutton, No. 1, 9s.; goose, No. 1, Is.; capons per doz., 12s.; 
poultry per doz, 4s. ; cheese per stone, 6s. 8d. ; a pork, 1 ; a, 
kid, Is. ; salmon per barrel, 4. 

This view, though imperfect, of the revenues 
of the Diocese of Moray, shows that the Bishops 
might live as little princes. And, indeed, in 
imitation of the princes of this world, as they 
had their thrones and palaces, so likewise their 
ministers and officers of state. 

DIGNIFIED CLERGY. 

The Dignatories, or Dignified Clergy, who were 
honoured with a higher station than the inferior 
clergy, were the following five : 

The Dean, Decanus, who anciently presided 
over ten Canons. In the Bishop's absence he 
presided in the Chapter, in Synods, &c. The 
minister of Aldearn was Dean of Moray. 

The Arch-Deacon (with us the Minister of 
Forres) was Alter Episcopi Oculus ; visited the 
Diocese, examined candidates for Orders, gave 
collation, &c., and was the Bishop's Vicar. 

The Chantor, or Precentor (the Minister of 
Alves), regulated the music, and, when present, 
presided in the choir. 



THE CHAPTER OF THE CATHEDRAL. 303 

The Chancellor (the Minister of Inveravon) was 
the Judge of the Bishop's Court, the Secretary of 
the Chapter, and Keeper of their Seal. 

The Treasurer (the Minister of Kinneddar) had 
the charge of the treasure or common revenues of 
the Diocese. 

All these had rich livings, and deputies to 
officiate for them ; and, with some Canons, con- 
stituted the Bishop's Privy Council, or 

Chapter Capitolum, or Little Head of the 
Diocese, the Bishop being the Head. Bishops of 
old had their clergy residing with them to assist 
them in their work ; and after parishes were 
erected, a Dean, with some Canons or Prebend- 
aries, made the Chapter or Council. They advised 
and assisted the Bishop, signed with him all 
public acts and deeds, and in a vacancy elected, 
for Bishop, whom the King recommended by his 
Conge de Elire. The Chapter consisted of the 
Bishop, the Dignified Clergy, and Canons or 
Prebendaries chosen by the Bishop ; and, in the 
Bishop's absence, the Dean presided.* 

* All the knowledge which can be got of the Constitution of 
the Cathedral is derived from Eegist. Episc. Morav. 

The Chapter consisted of the 8 Canons first founded by 
Bishop Bricius, with 2 more added by him or by Bishop 
Andrew Moray, his immediate successor, and 13 new Canons, 
whose Prebends were conferred by said Bishop Andrew Moray, 
to which, long after, was added one Prebend by the last Roman 
Catholic Bishop, Patrick Hepburn. 

The Bishop had no pre-eminence in the Chapter as Prebend- 
ary of the lands of Ferness, Lethen, Dunlichty and Tullydivie. 

The Dean (Decanus) because he formerly presided over 10 



304 ARCH-DEACON BLUNDERED INTO ARCH-DEAN. 

Prebendaries or Canons was Chairman, head or chief of the 
Chapter. He had for his Prebend the Church and Parish of 
Auldearn.* 

The Sub-Dean was the Deputy of the Dean. He had the 
Altarage, i.e., the offerings and dues of the Altar of the Church 
at Auldearn, with the Chaplainry of Nairn, and the Church 
and Parish of Dallas. 

The Chancellor was the Bishop's Lawyer, Secretary of the 
Chapter, and Keeper of their Seal. He had the Churches and 
Parishes of St. Peter of Strathaven and Urquhart, beyond 
Inverness. 

The Treasurer, who had charge of the common revenues of 
the See, was Prebendary of the Churches and Parishes of 
Kinneddar and Essil. 

The Chanter or Precentor controlled the music. He had for 
Prebend the Churches of Lhanbride and Alves. 

The Sub-Chanter or Succentor had the Churches and Parishes 
of Rafford and Ferness. (ED.) 

CHAPTER OF THE CATHEDRAL. 

(Registrum Episcopatus Moraviense.} 

1534. 

Alexander Bishop,commendator of Scone and Inchaffray. 
Alexander Dunbar, Dean and pronotary occurs till 

1541. 

Kentigern Monypennie, prebendary of Spynie. 
John Thorntoun, prebendary of Adweye 1546. 
John Lockart, prebendary of Innerkethny 1557. 
William Paterson, Sub-Dean 1572. 
Patrick Dunbar, Sub-Chantor. 
Alexander Sutherland, prebendary of Duffus, prior 

1547. 

Gavin Lesly, prebendary of Kyngusy 1547. 
John Innes, prebendary of Elgyne 1546. 

1539. 

Patrick, Bishop and commendator of Scone. 
Archibald Dunbar, Arch-Dean (Arch-Deacon ?) 1540. 
David Dunbar, Sub-Chantor 1547. 
Thomas Hay, prebendary of Spynie 1554. 

* The Arch-Deacon is confounded by Cosmo Innes, Robert Young, 
and others, by coining an office and title which never existed viz., 
"Arch-Dean"! The Arch-Deacon was the Bishop's Vicar. He was 
endowed with the Churches and Parishes of Forres and Logic. (ED.) 



CHAPTER OF THE CATHEDRAL. 305 

Alexander Hepburne, prebendary of Ryne 1547. 

Thomas Gaderar, prebendary of Talarisy 1554. 

John Thornton, precentor 1562. 

John Burt, prebendary of Moy 1545. 

James Strathauchin, prebendary of Botary, ob: a. 1566. 

1541. 

James Hepburne, Thesaurar 1554. 
William Gordoun, Chancellor 1543. 
John Ogilvy, prebendary of Pettyn. 
Andrew Froster, prebendary of Kynnoir. 
Thomas Wallace, prebendary of Unthank 1556. 

1545. 

Sir William Sutherland, prebendary of Moye 1572. 
Robert Sutherland, prebendary of Dufius, second 1547. 

1547. 

James Gordon, Chancellor, pronotary 1557. 
Alexander Hepburne, prebendary of Elgyne. 
John Lesly, prebendary of Ryne 1557 (titular Thos. 
Sutherland, usufructuary). 

1552. 
Patrick Hepburne, prebendary of Duffus 1557. 

1554. 
William Hepburne, prebendary of Duppill 1557. 

1556. 

Alexander Dunbar, Sub-Chanter 1562. 
Thomas Sutherland, prebendary of Ryne 1557. 
David Dunbar, Dean 1562. 

1557. 

Alexander Campbell, Dean 1562. 

1560. 

Alexander Dunbar, Dean 1572. 
Adam Hepburne, prebendary of Duppill 1567. 
Hew Cragy, prebendary of Inverkethny 1572. 
John Gibsoun, prebendary of Unthank 1571. 
John Thornetoun, elder, titular of the chantorie. 
John Thornetoun, younger, prebendary of Adweye and 
Cromdale 1567. 

VOL. III. 20 



306 CHAPTER OF THE CATHEDRAL. 

James Gordoun, prebendary of Rynie (son of the Earl 

of Huntly). 

George Hepburne, prebendary of Kingusy. 
Thomas Hay, prebendary of Spyne 1556. 
James Strathauchin, prebendary of Botarie. 

1562. 

Michael Walker, Canon of Dunkeld, Arch-Dean (Arch- 
Deacon ?) 

William Hepburn, prebendary of Duffus. 
Archibald Lyndesay, prebendary of Kyngusy 1567. 
Robert Crystie, prebendary of Elgyne. 
Patrick Hepburne, prebendary of Kynnoir 1566. 
William Gordoun, prebendary of Petty 1569. 

1566. 

James Thorntoun, precentor 1572. 
William Strathauchin, prebendary of Botarie 1567. 
George Hepburne, prebendary of Elgin (and thesaurar). 
Robert Gordoun, Chancellor 1571. 
Gavin Dunbar, Dean 1572. 
John Keyth, prebendary of Duffus 1572. 
Adam Hepburne, Chancellor. 

1567. 
Alexander Ogilvy, prebendary of Duchall. 

Leonard , prebendary of Aberlour. 

Patrick Liddale, prebendary of Croy and Moye. 
William Douglas, prebendary of Elgin 1571. 

INFERIOR CLERGY. 

The Inferior Clergy were Parsons, Vicars, 
Ministers of Mensal Churches and Common 
Churches, and Chaplains. 

Parsons were they who, in propria persona, 
had the right to the tithes, and were the ministers 
and rectors of parishes. What parishes were 
parsonages within this Diocese I cannot precisely 
determine, nor is it of importance to know. 



VICARS AND MENSAL CHURCHES. 307 

Vicars supplied the place of the Rector, after 
Dioceses were divided into parishes. To augment 
the revenues of the Bishop and dignified clergy, 
Parish Churches were annexed to the Churches 
in which these served, and they were the rectors 
or parsons of such annexed Churches e.g., the 
minister of Aldearn, as Dean, had Nairn and 
Calder annexed to his parish ; he was parson of 
these Churches, had a right to the tithes, and he 
sent vicars to serve the Cure, to whom he allowed 
what portion of the tithes he thought fit as a 
stipend, and hence they were called Stipendiarii. 
At first vicars were employed only during pleasure, 
and were called " Simple Vicars." But the 
avarice of the parson made the Cure to be much 
neglected in this way wherefore vicars were 
afterwards settled for life, and called "Perpetual 
Vicars." They generally had the small, or mixt 
and personal tithes allowed them. The parsons 
who had vicarages depending on them claimed 
the patronage of them, and hence it is that after 
the Reformation the patron of the parsonage 
acted as patron of the vicarage. 

Mensal Churches were such as were de mensa 
Episcopi for furnishing the Bishop's table. He 
was parson and titular, and employed a vicar or 
stipendiary to serve the cure. Such Churches 
were St. Andrews, Ogston, and Laggan, besides 
mensal tithes that the Bishop had in other 
parishes. The Bishop was patron of all Mensal 



308 COMMON CHURCHES AND CHAPLAINS. 

Churches, and planted them jure proprio et 
absolute. [In his own proper and absolute 
right.] 

[In a Charter executed by Andrew, Bishop of Moray, 
in 1239, he gave to the Canons in common the pertinents 
of seven Churches, reserving one davoch or ploughgate 
" for the Episcopal table."] (ED.) 

Common Churches were so called because the 
tithes of them were the common good, or for the 
public and common exigencies of the Diocese. 
The Bishop and Chapter were patrons, and con- 
curred in planting them. We see that Fernua, 
Laggan, Kincardine in Strathspey, Abernethy, 
Altyre, Calder, and Arndilly, probably were Com- 
mon Churches, and so was Daviot. Though the 
tithes of these Churches were appointed for the 
public charges of the Diocese, yet it cannot be 
doubted that the Bishop and Chapter shared in 
them. This benefit at least they had, that they 
themselves laid out no part of their benefices in 
the common affairs of the Diocese. 

Chaplains were those clergy who officiated in 
Chapels, and these Chapels were of different 
kinds. In parishes of great extent Chapels of 
Ease were erected in distant corners for the con- 
venience of the aged and infirm, and the rector 
of the parish maintained a curate there to read 
prayers and sing Masses, Vestiges of such 
Chapels are to be seen in many parishes. 

Some Chapels were called Free Chapels, which 



CHAPLAINRIES ; DOMESTIC CHAPELS ; CHANTERIES. 309 

were not dependent on any parish, but had proper 
endowments for their own ministers, whose charge 
was called a " Chaplainry," and the minister a 
" Parochial Chaplain." Such, I think, was the 
Chapel of Unthank in Duffus, of Langmorn 
(Lhan-Morgari) in Elgin, Dallas in Calder parish. 
Generally such Chapels as had Churches, church- 
yards, and glehes, were, I think, either Chapels 
of Base or Free Chapels. 

Besides these there were Domestic Chapels, or 
Oratories, built near the residence of great men, 
in which the domestic chaplain or priest officiated. 
Such Chapels were at Calder, Kilravock, Boharm, 
&c. And almost in every parish there were 
private Chapels, one or more, built by private 
persons, that Masses might be said or sung there 
for their own souls, and that of the souls of their 
friends. Some small salary was mortified for 
that end, and usually granted to the priest of the 
parish. In the College of Elgin I find the private 
Chapels of St. John, St. Thomas, St. Culen, and 
the Holy Cross. 

The office of saying Mass in such Chapels was 
called Chantery, or Chanting Masses. The salary 
for the priest's officiating, or saying Mass at an 
Altar, was called Altarage. The service performed 
for the dead, how soon they expired, was the 
Obit, and the register of the dead was called 
Obituary. In the first antiphon of the office of 
Obit are the words Dirige nos Domine ; and hence 



310 CHAPTER ; DIOCESAN SYNODS ; DEANERIES. 

came the Dirge. These, and the like, were shifts 
to increase the revenue of the clergy. 



GOVERNMENT OF THE DIOCESE. 

Let us now take a view of the government of 
the Diocese, both clergy and laity. The Bishop 
was properly the only prince, governor, and ruler 
in whom alone the power of jurisdiction was 
lodged; and for his convenience he had officers 
and courts Ecclesiastic, Civil, and Criminal. 
Of these Courts, The Chapter was the principal 
one, in which, or rather in the Bishop, the legis- 
lative power was lodged. The Bishop, with the 
advice of the Chapter, made laws, canons, and 
regulations for the Diocese ; erected, annexed, 
or disjoined parishes ; purchased, sold, or set in 
lease or tack Church lands and tithes, &c. 

Diocesan Synods were sometimes called at the 
Bishop's pleasure. In these the Bishop presided 
when present, and in his absence the Dean. 
Cases of discipline and appeals from Deaneries 
were cognosced in these synodical meetings, and 
from them the Protestant Church took the plan 
of Provincial Synods. 

The Diocese was divided into Deaneries. It 
appears that these Deaneries were only four, viz., 
of Elgin, of Inverness, of Strathbogie, and of 
Strathspey. These seem to have been in some 
respects what Presbyteries are now, and to have 



THE CONSISTOBIAL COURT; COURTS OF REGALITY. 311 

been the model on which Presbyteries have been 
formed. 

The Consistorial Court, to which the Commis- 
sariot succeeded, was held in the Bishop's name 
by his official. This Court judged in all matters 
of tithes, marriages, divorces, widows, orphans, 
minors, testaments, mortifications, &c. I shall 
give an instance or two of the frauds that were 
countenanced in these Courts. The one is that 
persons within the seventh degree of consan- 
guinity, or fourth of affinity, might not marry 
without a dispensation. But by a dispensation a 
man might marry the two sisters, or a woman 
the two brothers. It is incredible what money 
these dispensations, whether Papal or Episcopal, 
brought in ! No less shameful was it that if one 
died intestate all his moveable goods were given 
to the Bishop, per aversionem, and his wife, 
children, and relations, yea, and creditors were 
excluded ! The pretence for this vile practice 
was that such effects ought to be laid out for 
promoting the good of the soul of the deceased. 
In this Diocese there were two Consistorial 
Courts, one at Elgin, the other at Inverness, 
which brought a rich branch of revenues to the 
Bishop. 

The Courts of Eegality likewise added to the 
Bishop's revenue. In 1452 King James II. erected 
the village of Spynie in a free barony, and all the 
Church lands of the Diocese into one regality. 



312 THE REFOBMATION ESTABLISHED BY PARLIAMENT. 

The Bishop, as Lord of the Regality, had his 
bailiffs and deputies in Aberdeen, Banff, Inver- 
ness, Ross, and Sutherland counties, for in all 
these he had lands. In a word, such was the 
power and riches of the clergy that Bishops, 
Abbots, and Priors made fifty-three votes in 
Parliament, and in all public impositions paid 
one half of the taxation. 

The Arms of the See of Moray were the image 
of a Saint bearing a cross, and standing in the 
porch of a Church. 

SECTION IV. THE PEOTESTANT CHUECH. 

The Reformation was established by Parliament 
anno 1560. From that time, as the Regular 
Clergy were suppressed, so the Secular had no 
legal establishment, though much connived at 
by the Royal house of Stewart. The Protestant 
religion was gradually propagated, and the number 
of its ministers being at first very small, some 
years must have passed before the northern coun- 
ties could be planted. I shall not here treat of 
the doctrine and worship of the reformed Church 
in this kingdom, any further than briefly to con- 
sider the changes that happened, as Presbytery 
or Prelacy alternately prevailed in the govern- 
ment of the Church. And let me glance at 

1st, The several Periods since the Reformation, 



CHURCH GOVERNMENT BY SUPERINTENDENTS. 313 
I. PERIOD. 

The first period reaches from anno 1560 to 
1572, during which Presbytery was the govern- 
ment of the Church. It is true, the few Protes- 
tant ministers at the Reformation were distributed 
among the royal burghs, and made it more their 
concern, to establish and propagate the pure 
doctrines of religion, than to determine and fix 
any one model or form of Church government. 
And until the government should be deliberately 
settled, a few superintendents were appointed. 
But these could, in no propriety, be called 
Bishops, such as were under Popery, or in some 
after periods of the Reformation; for they had 
no Episcopal consecration ; they were solemnly 
set apart to their office by mere Presbyters ; they 
neither claimed, nor exercised a sole power of 
ordination or jurisdiction ; they never pretended 
to be an order superior to Presbyters ; they were 
accountable to, and censured by the General 
Assembly; and, what shews they were but a tem- 
porary expedient, there were but five named, of 
which number, when one died, there was no suc- 
cessor to him appointed. And when Presbyteries 
were erected, the superintendent's office ceased. 

Where there were no superintendents, com- 
missioners were appointed ; and Mr. Robert Pont, 
a senator of the College of Justice, was named 
Commissioner of Moray, anno 1570. But I 
know not if he acted as such. 



314 GENERAL AND PROVINCIAL ASSEMBLIES; SESSIONS. 

General Assemblies began to be kept in 1560, 
and were continued annually. But how soon 
Provincial Assemblies were kept, I find not. It 
could not have been early, for want of ministers 
to make such a meeting in some Provinces ; and 
yet the Assembly 1568 appointed, "That the 
members of Assembly should be elected at the 
meetings of Synod," which makes it probable, 
that Synods were generally erected at that time. 
The oldest register of a Synod in Moray, of 
which I can find any account, began in 1606. 
How long before that time they had Synods, I 
know not. 

There were no Presbyteries, such as they are 
now, within this period. But there were meet- 
ings for exercise very early ; and the Assembly,, 
1579, expressly says, " That the exercise may be 
accounted a Presbytery." 

As to Congregational Sessions, they were held 
from the beginning of the Eeformation, and 
exercised government and discipline. It is no- 
marvel, if, in this infant state of the Church, the 
government was not fully established; yet the 
constitution of it was plainly Presbyterian, and 
inconsistent with Prelacy. 

u. PERIOD. 

The second period runneth from anno 1572 to- 
1592, during which a sort of Episcopacy obtained 
in the Church. During the regency of the Earl 



CHURCH GOVERNMENT BY TULCHAN BISHOPS. 315 

of Moray, no alteration in the ecclesiastical 
government was attempted. But how soon the 
Earl of Morton (a man of insatiable avarice) 
became Eegent, he brought about a change. The 
Popish Bishops, who were allowed two-thirds of 
their revenues during life, were generally dead. 
Morton obtained a grant of the temporalities of 
the Archbishopric of St. Andrews ; other noble- 
men procured, or hoped to procure, the like 
grants. But they could not enjoy these revenues 
directly, with any colour in law ; wherefore Mor- 
ton got it agreed, in a meeting of some ambitious 
men of the clergy, and a committee of the Privy 
Council, " That the name and office of Archbishop 
and Bishop should be continued during the King's 
minority, but subject to the Assembly as to their 
spiritual jurisdiction." These Bishops, intro- 
duced anno 1572, were, by way of ridicule, but 
justly called, " Tulchan Bishops." A Tulchan 
was the skin of a dead calf stretched on a frame 
of wood and laid under a cow to make her give 
milk. And these Bishops had the name that, by 
a private agreement, and allowing them a small 
benefice, the Dioceses might yield their milk or 
revenues to the noblemen. 

This Kegent further gratified his avarice at the 
expense of the clergy. In the year 1561, a part 
of the thirds of ecclesiastic benefices was allowed 
to the Protestant Clergy for their subsistence ; 
but this came to be very ill paid. Morton got 



316 CHURCH GOVERNMENT BY MOCK BISHOPS. 

the clergy to resign the thirds in his favour, and 
he promised duly to pay their stipendiary allow- 
ance. But he assigned three or four Churches 
to one minister, with the stipend of only one 
Church, and applied the rest to his own uses. 

These Tulchan or nominal Bishops, had pos- 
session of the Episcopal palaces ; had their 
Chapters, and both consistorial and regality juris- 
dictions. But they were in no proper sense 
Bishops ; they were admitted or consecrated by 
Presbyters, and were subjected to, and deposed 
by the Assemblies. The government of the 
Church was really Presbyterian, by General As- 
semblies, and Provincial Synods. And in 1581, 
the Assembly declared the office of Bishop, as 
then exercised within the realm, to have no 
foundation or warrant in the Word of God ; and 
Presbyteries were erected throughout the king- 
dom, whereof there were three in Moray, viz., 
the Presbyteries of Elgin, of Forres, and of 
Inverness. Notwithstanding this, the titular 
Bishops continued till the year 1592. 

m. PERIOD. 

The third period from anno 1592 to 1610, was 
strictly Presbyterian. The Tulchan Bishops 
having titles of honour, a seat in Parliament, 
with revenues or stipends somewhat greater than 
other ministers, had neglected their spiritual 
employments, were despised by the gentry, and 



CHUECH DIVISION INTO SYNODS AND PRESBYTERIES. 317 

considered as profane by the populace. Yet 
King James VI. would gladly have continued 
them, as a set of men slavishly devoted to him, 
and to whom they owed their promotion. The 
King himself, by his partial favour to Papists, 
and his shameful conduct in the affair of Moray's 
murder, had sunk greatly in his character, and 
the chancellor (Seaton) was become odious, as 
to him was imputed the King's conduct. For 
these reasons the King favoured the clergy, and 
established the Presbyterian government in the 
most ample manner, by an Act of Parliament 
anno 1592. 

A new division was now made of the Church, 
into Synods and Presbyteries : and in Moray four 
Presbyteries were appointed, viz., Inverness, 
Forres, Elgin, and Euthven. By this last, I 
think, is meant the Presbytery of Strathboggie, 
which might be appointed to meet at Euthven 
or Cairnie. 

The Church did not long enjoy the peaceable 
exercise of this government. The King wanted 
much to have Bishops restored to their full power, 
as some sort of a balance to the nobles in Parlia- 
ment ; but they were become so odious, that he 
was afraid to revive the order. Yet, by flattery, 
promises or threats, he got a majority of the 
clergy to agree, anno 1597 and 1598, that some 
ministers should represent the Church in Parlia- 
ment. After that he obtained to have constant 



318 PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH GOVERNMENT OVERTURNED. 

moderators in Presbyteries. And upon his acces- 
sion to the throne of England, desirous to estab- 
lish a hierarchy in Scotland, he, by an Act of 
Parliament, 9th July, 1606, restored the tempor- 
alities of Bishops, and granted them a seat in 
Parliament. In consequence of this Act, those 
whom the King named, acted as Bishops ; but it 
was not before the year 1610, that a packed 
General Assembly allowed the office of Bishop. 
I say, "a packed General Assembly;" for Sir 
James Balfour, in his MS. Annals, vol. I. relates, 
" That, in the General Assembly held at Linlith- 
gow, anno 1606, the Earl of Dunbar distributed, 
among the most needy and clamorous of the 
ministers, 40,000 merks, to facilitate the work, 
and obtain their suffrages. And, anno 1610, 
after the Assembly was up, the Earl of Dunbar 
paid 5000 Scots to the moderators of Presby- 
teries for bygone service/' Thus, by bribing, 
banishing, intimidating, and imprisoning minis- 
ters, the Presbyterian government of the Church 
was overturned. 

IV. PEEIOD. 

The fourth period, from anno 1610 to 1638. 
The General Assembly at Glasgow, anno 1610, 
having enacted that Episcopacy shall be the 
government of the Church, Spottiswood, Lamb, 
and Hamilton, ministers, were brought up to 
London to be consecrated. They objected, that 



ASSEMBLY ENACTS EPISCOPAL CHURCH GOVERNMENT. 319 

this might be constructed a subjecting the 
Church of Scotland to that of England. No, 
replied the King ; for the Archbishops shall have 
no hand in it. A poor reason, yet it satisfied 
them. Then Bishop Andrews moved, That they 
should be first ordained Presbyters, because they 
had no Episcopal Ordination. Although such 
re-ordination would be a declaring all their 
former ministrations null, yet, so forward were 
they to obtain the dignity of Bishops, that they 
made no objection. But the Archbishop of Can- 
terbury answered, That there was no necessity, 
because ordination by Presbyters is lawful, where 
Bishops cannot be had; else it might be doubted, 
if there was a lawful mission in most of the Ee- 
formed Churches. Upon this they were conse- 
crated by the Bishops of London, Ely, and Bath; 
and upon their return to Scotland, they conse- 
crated others. Here let me observe, That ac- 
cording to the Laudean and Dodwelian zealots, 
these Bishops were made per Saltum, and so 
their ministrations were null. Be this as it may, 
the civil sanction was given, anno 1612, to this 
change of government. But the new Bishops 
were characterised in the following verses : 

Vina amat Andreas, cum vino Glasgua amores, 
Ross ccetus, ludos Galva, Brichseus opes. 

Aulum Orcas, ollam Moravus, parit Insula fraudes, 
Dumblanus tricas, nomen Aberdonius. 

Fata Caledonius fraterni ruminat agri, 
Earus adis Parochos, Cantanaee, tuos. 



320 THE NEW BISHOPS POETICALLY CHARACTERIZED. 

Solus in Argadiis Presul meritissimus oris, 
Vera Minister!! symbola solus habes.* 

During the life of King James VI. the subordi- 
nation of judicatories was regularly kept up, 
and the Bishops, afraid of General Assemblies, 
kept within some bounds of moderation and 
decency. But how soon King Charles mounted 
the throne, Synods and Presbyteries were con- 
tinued, but Assemblies were quite laid aside. 
Then the young Bishops, having no check or 
control, became proud, ambitious, and idle, en- 
couraged tyranny in the State, and innovations 
(both in doctrine and worship) in the Church. 
King James, having in vain tried to introduce 
the English liturgy into Scotland, dropt the 
design. But his son, governed by fiery zealots, 
would rather set the three kingdoms in a flame, 
than fail in bringing the Church of Scotland into 
a full conformity with that of England. The 
Bishops became so hateful, that all ranks con- 
curred in throwing them out; and the King 
finding it necessary to call a General Assembly, 
anno 1638, that meeting condemned Episcopacy, 

* " The Bishop of St. Andrews was fond of wine ; Glasgow 
of wine and amours; Koss delighted in company; Galloway 
in diversions ; and Brechin in riches ; Orkney haunted the 
court ; and Moray the kitchen ; the Bishop of the Isles con- 
trived frauds ; Dunblane loved trifles ; and Aberdeen a name ; 
Dunkeld coveted his neighbour's land ; Caithness was seldom 
with his flock The Bishop of Argyle was the only worthy 
clergyman, and had alone the true symbols of the ministerial 
office." 



THE PRESBYTERIAN GOVERNMENT REVIVED. 321 

deposed six of the Bishops, and both deposed and 
excommunicated the other eight. 

With respect to the Province of Moray, I find 
no alteration in this period, but what was the 
consequence of the change of government from 
Presbytery to Prelacy, except that two new 
Presbyteries, viz. Aberlaure and Abernethie, 
were erected. 

v. PERIOD. 

The fifth period, from anno 1638 to 1662. 
The General Assembly 1638 having condemned 
Episcopacy, at least in this Church, and having 
revived the exercise of Presbyterian Government 
in its full vigour, the bad circumstances of the 
King's affairs, and not his own inclination, made 
him, in Parliament 1641, ratify this change. 
Then the clergy discovered how difficult it was 
for them, when vested with power, to behave 
with moderation. What they loudly complained 
of under the foregoing period they themselves 
now violently run into. They complained that 
the King and Bishops would impose upon the 
Church of Scotland the Liturgy of the Church of 
England or worse ; and now, by the Solemn 
League and Covenant, they would impose the 
government and worship of the Church of Scot- 
land upon the Churches of England and Ireland. 
During this period, General Assemblies were 

annually kept, till anno 1653. When the As- 
VOL. in. 21 



322 ARCHBISHOP SHARP CRIMINATED. 

sembly was constituted on July 16th that year, a 
troop of horse and some companies of foot sur- 
rounded the house, and Colonel Lilburn entered 
with a file of musketeers, and bid them be-gone, 
which they obeyed. From this time, till anno 
1690, there was not a meeting of the General 
Assembly. 

The division of the clergy into Eesolutioners 
and Protestors proved fatal to them. Their 
Commissioners, particularly Mr. James Sharp, 
whom they employed at London to take care 
of the interest of the Church, treacherously 
betrayed them ; and King Charles II., who was 
no more to be trusted than his father or grand- 
father had been, wrote, by Mr. Sharp, to Mr. 
Robert Douglas the letter following : 

"Whitehall, August 10th, 1660 

" CHARLES EEX, Trusty and well-beloved : We graciously 
accepted your Address, and we are well satisfied with your 
carriages, and with the generality of the ministers of Scotland, 
in this time of trial. We by this assure you that we resolve 
to discountenance profanity, and all contemners of Gospel 
ordinances, and to protect and preserve the Government of 
the Church of Scotland, as it is settled by law, without viola- 
tion. This you shall make known to all Presbyteries in 
the Church." 

This letter was Mr. Sharp's contrivance ; and 
the Jesuitical equivocation in the words, " As 
settled by law," was unworthy of a Prince ; for 
next year, by the Act Rescissory, all was re- 
scinded and annulled, that had been transacted 
in Parliament since the year 1633 ; and so the 



EPISCOPAL GOVERNMENT RESTORED. 323 

government settled by law was Episcopacy, as 
practised before 1633. 

VI. PERIOD. 

The sixth period, from anno 1662 to 1690. 
The government of the Church by Bishops was 
now restored, not by the Church or the State, 
the clergy or laity, but by the King's Prerogative 
Eoyal, and was ratified in Parliament anno 1662. 
The four gentlemen now consecrated Bishops at 
London were first ordained Deacons and Presby- 
ters a tacit confession that former Bishops were 
properly no Bishops. No General Assembly was 
called during this period, but Synods and Pres- 
byteries were allowed to meet ; yet not by these 
Presbyterian names, for now they were called 
" Diocesian Assemblies and Exercises." A Pop- 
ish King and a profane ministry warmly resented 
the severities under the late Usurpation ; and 
the new Bishops, formerly Presbyterians and 
Covenanters, would tolerate no man that would 
not thoroughly conform to both Church and 
State. 

This brought on a persecution that lasted 
during this period. In the year 1663, about 400 
ministers were ejected out of their parishes and 
livings because they would not swear to despotism 
in the State and prelacy in the Church. Such as 
curiously enquired into the number of sufferers 
for non-conformity to Church and State during 



324 NON-CONFORMISTS PERSECUTED. 

this period have calculated that by hanging, 
drowning, tumults, intercommuning, imprison- 
ing, and banishing, at least 18,000 were cut off. 
In England the persecution for non-conformity 
was, for a time, very hot. But when James laid 
aside the mask, and showed his design of intro- 
ducing Popery, the Bishops and Doctors made a 
faithful and firm stand for the Protestant Reli- 
gion, and heartily joined in maintaining it. 

But in Scotland the Bishops became abject 
flatterers of that Popish King, and seemed to 
wish for Popery and slavery ; for when they 
heard of the Prince of Orange's expedition 
for preserving religion and liberty in Britain, 
they wrote a letter to their King, dated Novem- 
ber 3rd, 1688, in which they did not once men- 
tion the Protestant religion, but prayed, " That 
God would give him the necks of his enemies, 
and clothe with shame all who should invade his 
rights, and that Heaven might preserve his son, 
to sway the royal sceptre after him." This 
letter was signed by all the Bishops except 
Argyle and Caithness. 

Upon the Prince of Orange's landing, and 
King James's abdicating the throne and flying 
to France, the people in the west, who had been 
rendered mad by oppression and persecution, 
became unruly, and violently drove away many 
of the Episcopal ministers, who had been too 
much the authors of their sufferings. And upon 



THE PRESBYTERIAN GOVERNMENT ESTABLISHED. 325 

the llth April, 1689, the Convention of Estates 
(consisting of 2 Dukes, 2 Marquisses, 28 Earls, 6 
Viscounts, 21 Lords, and 50 Commissioners of 
Counties and Burghs, and some Bishops) de- 
clared Prelacy " a great and insupportable griev- 
ance to the nation, and that it ought to be 
abolished." This declaration was carried by so 
great a majority that there were only eleven 
against it, whereof seven were Bishops. 

In this period there was nothing peculiar to 
the Province of Moray, but what shall be taken 
notice of in some general remarks, after I have 
spoken a little concerning 

VII. PERIOD. 

The seventh period, which runneth from the 
year 1690 to the present time. In the year 1690 
the Presbyterian Government was restored and 
established by Parliament, and that year the 
General Assembly met, after it had been discon- 
tinued ever since the year 1652. The Episcopal 
ministers now conformed generally to the Civil 
Government, and were indulged to keep their 
Churches and benefices during life. By this 
means, the number of Presbyterian ministers in 
the Diocese of Moray was so small that they 
made but one Presbytery called " The Presbytery 
of Moray," till the year 1702. Before this year 
they had no meeting of Synod ; but in March, 
1702, the Commission of the Assembly recom- 



326 ERECTION OF PRESBYTERIES IN THE PROVINCE. 

mended to them to meet in Synod. In pursuance 
of which, in a meeting at Forres, 23rd June, 
1702, they erected themselves into three Presby- 
teries, viz., the united Presbytery of Inverness 
and Forres ; the united Presbytery of Elgin, 
Aberlaure, and Abernethie ; and the Presbytery 
of Strathboggie. In October the same year thej' 
met in Synod for the first time. The number of 
ministers soon increasing, by the demise of the 
Episcopal Incumbents, Aberlaure and Abernethie 
were disjoined from Elgin anno 1707, and made a 
distinct Presbytery. In 1708, Inverness and 
Forres became two Presbyteries ; and in 1709 
Aberlaure and Abernethie were disjoined and 
made two Presbyteries. In 1706, the Assembly 
annexed Mortlich to the Synod of Moray; and 
in the year 1724, the Assembly having erected a 
new Synod, called " The Synod of Glenelg," the 
parishes of Laggan, Bolesken, and Urquhart 
were disjoined from the Synod of Moray, and 
included in that new Synod. I shall now close 
this Section with a few remarks. 

Upon perusing the ecclesiastical records, it is 
apparent that true, rational, Christian knowledge, 
which was almost quite lost under Popery, made 
very slow progress after the Eeformation. It 
was long before ministers could be had to plant 
the several corners, and particularly the High- 
lands. In the year 1650, the country of Loch- 
aber was totally desolate, and no Protestant 



SLOW PROGRESS OF PRESBYTERIANISM. 327 

ministers had before that time heen planted 
there. And when the number of ministers in- 
creased, very few of them understood the Irish 
language, and teachers were settled in the High- 
lands, who were mere barbarians to the people. 
Through want of schools, few had any literary 
education, and they who had would not dedicate 
themselves to the ministry when the livings were 
so poor as not to afford bread. 

Hence ignorance prevailed in every corner. 
To which, besides the want of public teachers, 
many things contributed. The number of Papists 
was great. They who professed the Protestant 
religion retained strong prejudices in favour of 
the religion of their ancestors. Popish profane- 
ness and irreligion, too grateful to flesh and 
blood, could not soon be abolished. So little 
was the Lord's Day regarded that in the town of 
Elgin, in the year 1591, their annual fairs were 
held on that day; and many years after the shops 
were open on that day for buying and selling. 

The unsettled state of the nation increased 
this ignorance. During the reign of King James 
VI. tumults, insurrections, violence, murder, and 
bloodshed filled the land. The civil wars, in the 
reign of his son, turned Church and State into 
the utmost confusion ; and under the reign of 
the two Royal brothers, the high ambition was 
to root out the northern heresy, and to re-estab- 
lish Popery in our land. 



328 CALVINISM AND ARMINIANISM. 

The changes in the doctrines and government 
of the Church likewise nourished ignorance and 
vice. Our Eeformers taught the Calvinistic doc- 
trine, and settled Presbyterian government. But 
King James VI. overturned that government, 
and sought to abolish that doctrine. His son 
made further advances in these changes. Ar- 
minianism became the favourite scheme of doc- 
trine, and Episcopacy, absolutely necessary to 
salvation, the plan of government. During the 
Usurpation, enthusiasm and anarchy prevailed ; 
and with the Restoration, deism and a general 
dissolution of manners, like a flood, came in 
the transition from one extreme to another being 
easy and common. 

The reign of Charles II. is well described by 
Mr. Pope in the following lines : 

In the fat age of pleasure, wealth, and ease, 

Sprung the rank weed, and thriv'd with large increase ; 

When love was all an easy monarch's care, 

Seldom at Council, never in a war. 

Tilts ruled the State, and Statesmen farces writ, 

Nay wits had pensions, and young lords had wit ; 

The fair sat panting at a courtier's play, 

And not a mask went unimproved away ; 

The modest fan was lifted up no more, 

And virgins smiled at what they blush'd before. 

The conduct of the clergy had a bad influence. 
When the Presbyterians ruled, they exercised 
too little prudence, charity, or discretion; and 
when the Bishops governed, they encouraged 
persecution and bloodshed. These having no 
superiors (no General Assemblies to restrain 



PILGRIMAGES TO WELLS ; APPARITIONS. 329 

them) but the King, whose creatures they were, 
became proud and insolent, little regarded any 
concernments of the Church, except their own 
power and revenues, and quite neglected the 
means of diffusing and propagating the know- 
ledge of religion and virtue ; in so much that 
there were scarce any schools of learning in this 
Province, except in royal burghs, till after the 
Eevolution. I well remember when, from Spey- 
mouth (through Strathspey, Badenoch, and 
Lochaber) to Lorn, there was but one School, 
viz. at Ruthven, in Badenoch ; and it was much 
to find in a parish three persons that could 
read or write. 

Such prevailing ignorance was attended with 
much superstition and credulity. Heathenish 
and Komish customs were much practised. Pil- 
grimages to wells and chapels were frequent. 
Apparitions were everywhere talked of and be- 
lieved. Particular families were said to be 
haunted by certain demons, the good or bad 
geniuses of these families ; such as : On Spey- 
side the family of Eothiemurchus, by Bodach an 
Dun, i.e., " The ghost of the Dune." The Baron 
of Kincardine's family by Red Hand, or " A 
ghost, one of whose hands was blood-red." 
Gartinbeg by Bodacli-Gartin. Glenlochie, by 
Brownie. Tullochgorum by Maag Moulach, i.e., 
" One with the left hand all over hairy." I find 
in the Synod Records of Moray frequent orders 



330 FAIRIES; CHARMS; WITCHCRAFT. 

to the Presbyteries of Aberlaure and Abernethie, 
to inquire into the truth of Maag MoulacJi's 
appearing ; but they could make no discovery, 
only that one or two men declared they once 
saw, in the evening, a young girl whose left hand 
was all hairy, and who instantly disappeared. 

Almost every large common was said to have 
a circle of fairies belonging to it. Separate hil- 
locks upon plains, were called Sigh an, i.e. 
"fairy hills." Scarce a shepherd but had seen 
apparitions and ghosts. Charms, casting nativi- 
ties, curing diseases by enchantments, fortune 
telling, were commonly practised, and firmly 
believed. As Dr. Garth well describes the 
goddess Fortune, 

In this still labyrinth around her lye, 

Spells, philters, globes, and schemes of palmistry ; 

A sigil, in this hand, the gipsy bears, 

In t'other a prophetic sieve and shears. 

Witches were said to hold their nocturnal 
meetings in churches, churchyards, or in lonely 
places ; and to be often transformed into hares, 
mares, cats ; to ride through the regions of the 
air, and to travel into distant countries ; to inflict 
diseases, raise storms and tempests : and for such 
incredible feats, many .were tried, tortured, and 
burnt. If any one was afllicted with hysterics, 
hypochondria, rheumatisms, or the like acute 
diseases, it was called witchcraft : and it was 
sufficient to suspect a woman for witchcraft if 
she was poor, old, ignorant, and ugly. These 



BELIEF IN GHOSTS, ETC., GRADUALLY DIES. 331 

effects of ignorance were so frequent within my 
memory, that I have often seen all persons above 
twelve years of age solemnly sworn four times in 
the year, that they would practise no witchcraft, 
charms, spells, &c. 

It was likewise believed that ghosts, or de- 
parted souls, often returned to this world, to 
warn their friends of approaching danger, to 
discover murders, to find lost goods, &c. That 
children dying unbaptized (called Tarans) wan- 
dered in woods and solitudes, lamenting their 
hard fate, and were often seen. It cannot 
be doubted, that many of thes'e stories con- 
cerning apparitions, tarans, &c., came out of 
the cloisters of Monks and Friars, or were the 
invention of designing Priests, who deluded the 
world with their stories of Purgatory and Limbus 
Infantum. But after the Revolution, the most 
distant corners being planted with ministers, 
schools erected in almost evexy parish, charity 
schools set up for instructing the poor; Christian 
knowledge propagated, and natural philosophy 
much improved; ignorance was gradually re- 
moved, and superstition lost credit. Apparitions, 
fairies, witches, tarans, have disappeared; and 
few regard the stories concerning them, except 
stupid old people who cannot shake off their pre- 
judices, and bigoted Papists who give implicit 
faith to their Priests. 

It appears all along since the Reformation, 



332 CHURCH GOVERNMENT TREATED AS ALTERABLE. 

that the clergy either looked on Church govern- 
ment as alterable or ambulatory, or made little 
account of the difference betwixt Presbytery and 
Episcopacy, notwithstanding their wrangling 
about the Jus Divinum. The zealous Prelatists, 
before 1638, fully complied with Presbytery and 
the Covenant : and the bigoted Covenanters as 
readily complied with Prelacy in 1662. And if, 
at the Revolution, few conformed to Presbytery, 
it was because they were allowed their benefices 
for life, upon qualifying to the civil government, 
and their not conforming to the ecclesiastic 
government eased them of considerable ex- 
penses, in attending upon judicatories, paying 
Centesimas, &c. 

One cannot but observe, that the clergy of 
both denominations are too ambitious of power, 
and ready to abuse it into severity and persecu- 
tion. In time of Presbytery, after the year 1638, 
ministers who would not subscribe the Covenant, 
or who conversed with the Marquis of Huntly, or 
the Marquis of Montrose, or who took a protec- 
tion from them, were suspended, deprived, or 
deposed. And gentlemen, who took part with 
Huntly or Montrose, were tossed from one judi- 
catory to another, made to undergo a mock 
penance in sackcloth, and to swear to the Cove- 
nant. Under Prelacy, on the other hand, after 
the Restoration, the Presbyterians, and all who 
opposed Court measures, had no enemies more 



EXCOMMUNICATIONS WIELDED AT WILL. 333 

virulent than the clergy. They informed against 
them, made the Court raise a cruel persecution, 
and made insidious and sanguinary laws for 
fining, imprisoning, intercommuning, hanging, 
&c. It is never better with religion than when 
the clergy are entrusted with little power, and 
have no share in the civil administrations. 

Under both Presbytery and Prelacy, they 
brought the high censure of excommunication 
into contempt, by the frequency of it, and apply- 
ing it to improper objects. Ladies of quality 
were excommunicated, purely because they were 
Papists or Quakers, though otherwise regular 
and moral. And yet such time-servers were they, 
that the most zealous against Popery before the 
Eestoration, after it, became cold and faint, 
knowing the disposition of the Court. 

In the year 1600, by Act of Parliament, all 
persons were required to partake of the Sacra- 
ment of the Supper once in the year, under these 
penalties : an Earl, 1,000 ; a Lord, 1,000 merks; 
a Baron, 300 merks; a yeoman, 40 ; a Burgess, 
as the Council shall modify. I am not surprised 
that such an Act was made by that King, especi- 
ally as it was made upon pretence of obliging 
Papists (a strange way of converting them) to 
become Protestants. But it is shameful to find 
the clergy zealous in executing this profane law, 
and prostituting an ordinance so sacred. Yet this 
they did, both under Prelacy and Presbytery. 



:>o t CIVIL GOVERNMENT MORE TOLERANT THAN CHURCH. 



Always, upon the establishing of Episcopacy, 
ministers were strictly prohibited by the Bishops, 
to marry any widower or widow, till the testa- 
ment of the former husband or wife was con- 
firmed : and they were required to remit quarterly 
to the commissioners, lists of all dying within 
their parishes. It was pretended that this was 
done for the benefit of the children and near 
relations : but it was, in truth, for the benefit of 
the Bishop. And the Parliament 1690 abolished 
this avaricious, cruel, Popish practice, of robbing 
poor widows and children ; and now no one needs 
confirm, unless he inclines. 

The moderation and lenity of the Civil govern- 
ment since the Revolution, compared with former 
resigns, is very observable. In former periods, 
whatever was the Church government established 
by law, no dissenting from it, or nonconformity 
to it, was connived at ; far less was it tolerated. 
Dissenters, I mean Protestants, were oppressed 
and persecuted. But now Papists are connived 
at, Prelatists have a legal toleration in their 
favour ; and they, who on account of their Jaco- 
bite principles, will not accept of it, are connived 
at, and suffered to keep their private meetings 
for worship. And though the Established Church 
is rent by Seceders, Cameronians, MacMilanites, 
Glassites, <fec., yet no sect is disturbed or op- 
pressed. 

I shall close this Section with one remark more, 



THE CONDUCT OF THE EPISCOPAL CLERGY. 335 

viz.: The conduct of the Episcopal Clergy, at and 
since the Eevolution. In June 1690, the Parlia- 
ment established Presbytery as the government 
of the Church, and required all the Episcopal 
Ministers, who would remain in their charges, 
not only to swear the allegiance, but to subscribe 
the assurance, " owning King William and Queen 
Mary as the only lawful King and Queen of this 
realm, as well de jure as de facto, and promising 
to maintain and defend their title and government 
against the late King James, &c." This they 
brought upon themselves, by their Jesuitical dis- 
tinction of de jure and de facto. The Parliament 
likewise considered, that the Episcopal Clergy 
who qualified to the Government, and so continued 
in office, were more numerous than the Presby- 
terian Ministers, and, if admitted to a share in 
the government, would over-balance these : there- 
fore the Parliament committed the Government 
to those ministers, now alive, who had been 
ejected since January, 1661, and to such as they 
did or should admit. Of these consisted the 
Assembly which met in October, 1690. Few more 
were yet ordained. In the north, the Episcopal 
Clergy generally qualified to the Government, and 
kept their Churches. In the Diocese of Moray 
upwards, of forty did so. 

These Episcopal Ministers, though qualified to 
the Government, joined the Jacobite laity, in 
endeavouring to restore their King and Episco- 



336 JACOBITE ATTEMPT TO EESTOEE EPISCOPACY. 

pacy. In order to this last, it was contrived, 
that a hody of Episcopal Ministers, more nume- 
rous than the Presbyterians, should apply to the 
next General Assembly, to be received into a 
coalition, upon such terms, as they thought, 
could not be refused. If received, they hoped 
soon to overturn Presbytery. If rejected, they 
would represent the Presbyterians to the King 
and Parliament, as of an unpeaceable, seditious, 
and persecuting spirit, and hoped in this way to 
succeed. And if Prelacy was once restored, they 
would work up the nation to a new Eevolution. 
This scheme seems to have been formed by the 
Viscount of Tarbet (Yide Birch's Life of Arch- 
bishop Tillotson, 1752), a nobleman of some learn- 
ing, but of less integrity, who insinuated himself 
into King William's favour, and yet lived and 
died a keen Jacobite. The Scots Bishops com- 
municated a part of this design to the English 
Bishops. They, together with Lord Tarbet, pre- 
vailed with the King, who was a stranger, to 
defer calling an Assembly in 1691, for the sake 
of peace, as they pretended ; but in fact that 
their scheme might be ripened. 

All things being now ready, an Assembly was 
called to meet in January, 1692, and the King in 
his letter recommended to receive, into a share 
in the government, all who should desire to be 
thus comprehended. Then Dr. Canaries, at the 
head of 180 Episcopal Ministers, and in the name 



THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY AND DR. CANARIES. 337 

of many more, appeared and desired to be received, 
and they would subscribe the following formula : 
" I, A. B., do sincerely promise, and declare, that 
I will submit to the Presbyterian government of 
the Church, as it is now established in this 
kingdom, and that I will subscribe the Confes- 
sion of Faith, and the Larger and Shorter Cate- 
chisms ratified by Act of Parliament in the year 
1690, as containing the Doctrine of the Protes- 
tant Keligion professed in this kingdom." 

The Assembly knew Dr. Canaries' character; 
they saw the design of these men was no more 
than what a Jesuit, or a Mahometan, might offer. 
These men did not promise to believe the doc- 
trine, and not to overturn the government of the 
Church. In short, such equivocation was con- 
demned, and their offer was rejected. Upon this 
Canaries appealed to the King for redress ; and 
the Earl of Lothian, Commissioner, dissolved the 
meeting sine die. But the Assembly asserted 
unanimously the right of the Church, and ap- 
pointed the time of their next meeting. 

The Jacobites now hoped to triumph, but were 
disappointed. Their design was seen into. The 
King was undeceived ; and the Parliament having 
met in April, 1693, ordained, " That no one be 
admitted or continued a minister or preacher, till 
he first subscribe the allegiance and assurance : 
also subscribe the Confession of Faith as the 
confession of his faith, and own the doctrine 

VOL. III. 22 



338 QUALIFIED AND JACOBITE EPISCOPAL MINISTERS. 

therein contained to be the true doctrine, to 
which he will constantly adhere ; and likewise 
own Presbyterian Church government, submit 
thereto, and never endeavour, directly or in- 
directly, the prejudice or subversion thereof, and 
observe the worship as at present performed; and 
that they apply in an orderly way, each man for 
himself, to be admitted." The Parliament like- 
wise addressed his Majesty to call an Assembly, 
which he did, and they met in March, 1694, and 
drew up a formula, agreeable to the Act of Par- 
liament, offering to receive all who would sub- 
scribe it. 

Few complied with the Act of Parliament. 
Many qualified to the Civil Government, and 
kept their Churches without molestation. But 
the zealous Jacobites would not conform to 
Church or State. Some of them continued in 
their Churches by the favour of Jacobite patrons 
or heritors. Some intruded into vacant Churches ; 
and some set up private meetings. The union of 
the two kingdoms, anno 1707, secured the legal 
establishment of the Church ; yet an almost 
unlimited toleration was granted, anno 1712, to 
the Episcopal Clergy. But as it required them 
to abjure the Popish Pretender, very few took 
the benefit of it. They kept up their unqualified 
meetings, and looked for some Revolution that 
would dissolve the union. This was nearly effected 
in the end of Queen Anne's reign ; and being dis- 



MONUMENTAL INSCRIPTION OF " HIGH CHURCH." 339 

appointed by her death, they heartily joined in 
the Rebellion anno 1715, and thereafter in the 
year 1745. 

These being crushed, they seemed to despond, 
and published and dispersed the following elegant, 
but virulent, Threnodia, in the style of a monu- 
mental inscription, which exhibits a lively picture 
of High Church. 

The Notes at the foot of the page will serve as 
a key to it. 

1 Jt. Jft. (E. . & g. 
Siste Viator, lege et luge, 

Miraculum nequitise. 
Sub hoc marmore conduntur Reliquiae 

2 Matris admodum venerabilis, 

(Secreto jaceat, ne admodum prostituatur !) 

Quse mortua fuit dum viva, 

Et viva dum mortua. 

facinus impium et incredibile ! 

:! Defensore nequissime orbata, 

4 Tyrannis miserrime oppressa, 

5 Proceribus vicini regni Insulatis 

(referens tremisco) nefarie obruta ; 

6 Aulicis impie afflicta, 
7 Filiis nonnullis perfide deserta, 

8 Spuriis omnibus pessime calcata, trucidata, ludibrio habita : 
Sacrificium sufFragiis TWV iro\\<av, 

(Ne dicam TWV Travrcov,) 
Votivum, et Phanaticorum furore ! 

Kogas, 
Quanam in terra hoc ? 

1 Memorise Matris Charissimae Scoticanse Ecclesiae Sacrum. 

2 High Church. 

:{ The Popish King James VII. 

4 Kings William, George I. and George II. 

5 The Bishops of England. 

6 The Ministry. 

7 The opposers of the Usages. 

8 The Church of Scotland. 



840 THRENODIA UNLOCKED BY KEY-NOTES. 



In Insula, 

Ubi Monarcha contra Monarchiam, 

Ecclesiastic! contra Ecclesiam, 

Legislatores contra Legem, 

Judices contra Justitiam, 

Concionatores, atheistice, contra veritatem, 

Milites audaciter, impudenter, 1 Wilhelmo Neroniano Diicc, 

Contra honorem, contra human itatem 

Agunt. 

Pudet haec opprobria nobis ! 

Nam propter exsecrationem, perjurium, luget haec Terra ! 
In cujus testimonium multiequidemsunttestesvivietrecentiores. 

Apage ! Apage ! 
^Egrotavit, proh dolor ! Mater charissima, beatae memorise, 

2 Anno MDCLXXXVIII. 
Turn manibus, turn pedibus, vss mihi, clauda fiebat 

3 Anno MDCCVII. 
Tandem permultisflagellis,serumnis,misereremeiDeus! exhausta, 

4 Obiit Anno MDCCXLVIII. 

Vos omnes Seniores, Filii Filiaeque 

5 Orate pro ea, ut quiescat in pace, et tandem beatam obtineat 

Resurrectionem. Amen. 

Cum temerata fides, pietasque inculta jaceret, 

Desereretque suum Patria nostra 6 Patrem ; 

Ilia Deum, patriamque suam, patriseque 7 Parentem, 

Sincera coluit religione, fide : 

Tramite nam recto gradiens, 8 Nova dogmata spernens, 
Servavit 9 Fines quos posuere Patres. 

TRANSLATION. 

Sacred to the Memory of our Dearest Mother, the Church of Scotland . 
Stop Traveller, Read and Lament, 

A Miracle of Iniquity. 
Under this Marble lye the Remains 

Of a very venerable Mother. 

(Let her lye concealed, that she may not be too much exposed !) 

Who was dead while alive, 

And alive while dead. 



1 The Duke of Cumberland. 
'-' At the Revolution. 

3 By the Act of Security. 

4 By the Act against unqualified meetings. 

5 In testimony of the doctrine of praying for the dead. 
c> King James VII. 

' The Popish Pretender. 
s Reformation doctrines. 
'-* The un scriptural Popish usages. 



TRANSLATION OF THE LATIN HIGH CHURCH THRENODIA. 341 



Impious and Incredible Wickedness ! 
Iniquously deprived of her Defender, 

Miserably oppressed by Tyrants, 

By the mitred Clergy of the neighbouring Kingdom 

(I tremble at relating it) wickedly abused ; 

Impiously afflicted by Courtiers, 

By certain Sons treacherously deserted, 

Trampled on by all spurious, maltreated, held in derision : 

A votive Sacrifice by the Suffrages of Many, 

(I need not say of All, ) 
And "likewise " by the Fury of the Fanatics. 

Do you ask, 
In what land is this ? 

In an Island, 

Where the Monarch acts against the Monarchy, 

The Churchmen against the Church, 

The Legislators against the Law, 

The Judges against Justice, 

The Preachers atheistically against the Truth, 

The Soldieiy boldly, impudently, William (cruel as Nero) their General, 

Against Honour, against Humanity. 

This, an opprobrious, and shameful conduct in us. 

For this Land mourns for wickedness, perjury ! 

As a proof of this we have many living and late witnesses. 

Away ! Away ! with it. 
Alas ! our dearest Mother, of happy memory, became sick, 

In the year 1688. 
Woes me, She became lame both in the hands and feet, 

In the year 1707. 
At length, have mercy on me, God ! worn out by many strokes, griefs, 

She died in the year 1748. 
All ye Seniors, Sons and Daughters, 

Pray for her that she may rest in peace, and at length obtain 
A happy resurrection. Amen. &c. 



2nd. THE BISHOPS OF MORAY SINCE THE REFOEMATION ; 

THE CATHEDRAL, PALACE, CHAPTER, AND REVENUES. 

Patrick Hepbitrn, the last Eoman Catholic 
Bishop of Moray, died June 20th, 1573, and 

1. George Douglas was the first Protestant 
Bishop. He was bastard son of Archibald, Earl 
of Angus, and was admitted Bishop, 5th February, 
1573-4. For in that period there was no conse- 
cration, except what was performed by mere 
Presbyters, yet he soon elected a Chapter ; for I 



342 POST-REFORMATION BISHOPS. 

find him and the Chapter consenting and sub- 
scribing to a tack of Teinds, July 18th, 1574. 
He died at Edinburgh, December 28th, 1589, 
[and was buried in Holyrood] (Keith's Catal.). 
He was the only Tulchan Bishop in this See. 

[He presented his licence or Conge d'elire for his soi- 
disant consecration, oth Feb., 1 573, and took his seat in 
the General Assembly 6th March. In Calderwood's ac- 
count of the Assembly 1574, it is stated he was a whole 
winter mummilling upon his papers, and had not his 
sermon par cceur when all was done. He had a lease from 
his Majesty, 30th Sep., 1578, of the common Kirks of 
Dunkeld, callit Megill and Auchterhous, both personage 
and vicarage, for 19 years.] (Scott's Fasti.} 

The next Bishop was, 

2. Alexander Douglas, probably son of the 
former. This gentleman was ordained Minister 
of Elgin about the year 1582 (Sess. Records of 
Elgin), and served as a Presbyterian Minister till 
the year 1606. In that year, he, with others, 
grasped at the Erastian Prelacy established by 
Parliament, and in 1610, received a sort of con- 
secration (See III. and IV. Periods). He died 
May llth, 1623, [aged 62] and was buried in the 
Aisle of St. Giles' Church in Elgin, where his 
wife, a daughter of the Laird of Innes, erected a 
stately monument. 

[Alexander Douglas. He was named by the General 
Assembly, 1606, to be constant moderator of the Presby- 
tery of Elgin; and they were charged by the Privy 
Council, 17th Jan. after, to receive him as such within 
24 hours after notice, under pain of rebellion. He was 
presented to be commendator of Bewlie, 1st Feb., 1606 



BISHOP JOHN GUTHRIE. 343 

consecrated at Edinburgh, 15th March, 1611 was mem- 
ber of the General Assemblies 1610, 1616 and of the 
Courts of High Commission, loth Feb., 1610, 21st Dec., 
1615, and 15th June, 1619. Publication Fourteen 
Letters and Petitions.] (Scott's Fasti.) 

He was succeeded by 

3. John GrutJirie [Minister of Perth, and after- 
wards] Minister of Edinburgh, who was conse- 
crated [between 26th Aug. and 13th Oct.] 1623, 
and was deposed by the General Assembly [with 
the whole of the Episcopal Bench], which met 
[llth Dec.], 1638. [Declining to obey the sen- 
tence he was excommunicated by the Presby- 
tery of Edinburgh, prior to llth July, 1639. He 
petitioned the General Assembly, 1641, that his 
situation might be kept for him a little time, but 
they refused, 28th July. He did the same twice 
on the 30th, both of which however met with a 
similar fate. On his humble petition, he was liber- 
ated by Parliament 16th Nov. following, with pro- 
visione he doe not returne to the diocie of Moray.] 
He did not, as other Bishops, fly into England, 
but kept possession of the Castle of Spynie ; and 
when the Covenanters took arms anno 1640, he 
garrisoned it. But on July [16] that year, Major- 
General [KobertJ Munro [of Fowlis] marched 
with 300 men to reduce it. Mr. Joseph Brodie, 
Minister of Keith, and son-in-law to the Bishop, 
prevailed with him to surrender on July 16th, 
and only the arms and riding-horses were carried 
off. He was imprisoned at Edinburgh in Sep. 



344 POST-REFORMATION BISHOPS. 

this year, 1640.] The Bishop retired to his 
paternal inheritance of Guthrie in Angus (Spald. 
MS.). [He died at Guthrie Castle on 23rd Aug., 
1649, aet. 72, and was buried in the family vault 
there.] From that time there was no Bishop, 
till after the Eestoration. 

[He married Nicolas Wood, and had three sons John, 
Minister at Duffus Patrick and Andrew (this last was 
taken prisoner at Philiphaugh, and beheaded at St. 
Andrews), and two daughters. Bethina succeeded to the 
property, and married her cousin, Guthrie of Gaigie by 
whose descendants the estate is still enjoyed.] 

4. Murdac MacKenzie was preferred [1662]. 
He was, for some time, chaplain to a regiment 
in the army of Gustavus Adolphus King of 
Sweden ; after which he was settled Minister of 
Contane in Boss; from thence translated to 
Inverness anno 1640, and thence to Elgin anno 
1645. Upon the Bestoration he was consecrated 
Bishop, May 7th, 1662. He had been accounted 
a superstitiously zealous Presbyterian and Cove- 
nanter, and so much an enemy to the keeping of 
holydays, that it is commonly said at Elgin, that 
at Christmas 1659, he searched the houses in 
that town, that they might not have a Christmas- 
goose. But a Bishopric cured him of these 
blemishes, and he soon deposed some of his 
clergy for nonconformity. In the end of the 
year 1676, he was translated to the See of 
Orkney, and died in February, 1688. 

[Murdo MacKenzie, D.D., successively Bishop of Moray 



BISHOP MUKDOCH MACKENZIE. 345 

and of Orkney and Zetland, died at his Episcopal palace 
at Kirkwall in Feb. 1688, "being near a hundred years 
old, and yet enjoyed the perfect use of all his faculties 
until the very last." (Keith's Scottish Bishops, p. 228.) 
This, however, is evidently a mistake, as it is stated at 
p. ]52 of the same work, that he was born in the year 
1600; descended from a younger branch of the house of 
Gairloch in Rosshire, his direct ancestor, Alexander (ap- 
parently grandfather), having been third son of John, 
second Baron of Gairloch, who died in 1550, by Agnes, 
only daughter of James Fraser of Foyers in the same 
county. 

The following data of this venerable Prelate's ecclesias- 
tical career, taken from a MS. Fasti Ecclesice Scoticanw, 
may prove interesting : AM. of King's College and Uni- 
versity of Aberdeen, 1616; received episcopal ordination, 
it is said, from Bishop Maxwell of Ross. But I would 
place it an earlier date, probably about 1624, as that 
Bishop was not consecrated till 1633, and Mr. M'Kenzie 
is recorded to have been chaplain to a Scottish regiment 
under Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, during the 
war in Germany, which must have been between June 
1630, and Nov. 16th, 1632 (the period of his death in the 
battle of Lutzen in Saxony). 

On his return to his native land, he was made Parson 
of Contin, a parish in Ross-shire, the exact year I have 
not ascertained, but it must have been between 1633 and 
1638, as he was a member of the famous Glasgow Assem- 
bly (which met on Nov. 21st, 1638, and abolished the 
Established Church of Scotland), appearing on the roll as 
one of the clerical representatives of the Presbytery of 
Dingwall. Translated from Contin to Inverness, in 1640, 
-as first minister of the collegiate charge of that town and 
parish. Admitted to the first charge of the town and 
parish of Elgin April 17th, 1645, and retained that living 
After his elevation to the episcopate, having his residence 
there at the seat of the Cathedral and chapter of the 
diocese of Moray, his successor as Parson of Elgin not 
having been appointed till July, 1682. For nearly 24 
years it is, therefore, evident that he conformed to Pres- 
byterianism ; and even at Christmas, 1659, he is said to 
have been so zealous a Covenanter and "precisian," as to 
have opposed the keeping of all holy days at Elgin, and 



346 BISHOP JAMES AITKEN. 



to have searched the houses in that town for any " Yule 
geese," as being superstitious ! 

On the re-establishment of Episcopacy by King Charles 
II., the Parson of Elgin, however, readily complied with 
the new order of things in Church and State ; although, 
after all, it was only a return to the same form of Church 
government in which he had been originally educated 
and ordained. He was nominated to the Bishopric of 
Moray by Royal Letters Patent January 18th, 1662, and 
consecrated to that See on May 7th following, in the 
Abbey Church at Holyrood Palace, at Edinburgh (together 
with five other Bishops elect), by the Archbishop of St. 
Andrews, primate and metropolitan, assisted by the Arch- 
bishop of Glasgow, and the Bishop of Galloway. The 
form used was that in the English Ordinal, and the Con- 
secration Sermon was preached by the Rev. James Gordon, 
Parson of Drumblade in Aberdeenshire. Bishop M'Keii- 
zie's signature to documents, still in existence, was, as 
Bishop of Moray, " Murdo. Morauien.," and also " Murdo, 
B. of Moray." And after an Episcopate then of nearly 15 
years, he was translated to the more wealthy Bishopric 
of Orkney and Zetland, on Feb. 14th, 1677, which he held 
for about 11 years, dying in the 89th year of his age, and 
26th of his Episcopate.] (Major-Gen. A. S. Allan Notes 
and Queries, No. 127, June 4th, 1864.) 

5. James AitJcins, [son of Henry Aiken, Sheriff 
and Commissary of Orkney, was born in Kirk- 
wall, and had his education at Edinburgh, from 
whence he went and studied at Oxford. Became 
chaplain to the Marquis of Hamilton, while he 
was Commissioner to the General Assembly in 
1838. Afterwards Minister of Birsay in Orkney,] 
Eector of Wimphrey in the county of Bristol, 
[Winifrith in Dorsetshire,] was, upon the King's 
recommendation, elected Jan. 10th, 1677, and soon 
after consecrated. [Elected Nov. 1st, 1676, got 
his Patent 5th June, 1677, and was consecrated 



BISHOPS COLIN FALCONER AND ALEXANDER ROSE. 347 

at St. Andrews, 28th Oct., 1679.] He was 
accounted a pious man, and maintained strict 
order and discipline among his clergy, without 
any severity against Dissenters ; but warmly main- 
tained the rights of his See, particularly a fishing 
on the River Spey. The Marquis of Huntly, and 
Earls of Moray and Dunfermline, proprietors of 
a fishing on that river, prevailed to have him 
translated to Galloway anno 1680, and he died 
[at Edinburgh of apoplexy, 28th Oct.], 1687, 
set. 74, [and was buried in the Church of the 
Grey Friars.] He was succeeded by 

6. Colin Falconer, [A.M. of St. Andrews,] son 
of William of Dunduff, who was son of Alexander 
Falconer of Hawkerton, was ordained Minister of 
Essil [2nd Oct.] anno 1651, transported to Forres 
[24th March] in 1658, and in [May] 1679, elected 
to the See of Argyle [and consecrated 28th Oct., 
at St. Andrews, by the two Archbishops and 
others.] But not having the Irish language, he 
was not fond of that charge, and in [Sep.] 1680 
was installed Bishop of Moray. He died [in the 
Castle of Spynie, the last Bishop who inhabited 
it], Nov. llth, 1686, and was buried in the Aisle 
of St. Giles' Church in Elgin. 

7. Alexander Rose, [D.D., of Glasgow] (of the 
family of Inch in Garioch, a branch of the family 
of Kilravock, and whose father was Prior of 
Monimusk) was successively Minister at Perth, 



34-8 BISHOPS ALEXANDER ROSE AND WILLIAM HAY. 

Professor of Divinity at Glasgow, and Principal 
of St. Mary's College in St. Andrews ; and was 
consecrated Bishop of Moray in March 1687, and 
before the end of that year was translated to 
Edinburgh, where he died March 20th, 1720. 

[He died in his own sister's house in the Canongate, in 
which street he also lived, and whither he had gone to 
visit his brother who was then sick. He was buried in 
the ruinous Church of Restalrig, on the Wednesday after. 
He was a sweet-natured man, and of a venerable aspect.] 
(Keith's Catalogue of Scottish Bishops.) 

[He requested his remains to be interred at Forres, 
where he had been minister 21 years. He married, 24th 
July, 1649, Lilias Rose, a daughter of Rose of Clava, who 
died at Elgin, 6th May, 1688, and had a son, Alexander, 
who entered apprentice to Andrew Home, merchant, 
Edinburgh, llth Feb., 1674, and two daughters, Isobel 
and Jean, who married prior to 8th April, 1685.] (Scott's 
Fasti.) 

8. William Hay, D.D. [of St. Andrews] (of 
the family of Park in Moray), [son of William 
Hay, A.M., Master of the Music School in Old 
Aberdeen, whom he succeeded about 1688,] was 
Minister at Perth, and was consecrated Bishop 
of Moray March llth, 1688, at St. Andrews. 
After his deprivation in 1689, he retired to the 
house of his son-in-law, John Cuthbert of Castle- 
hill, near Inverness, where he died March 17th, 
1707. 

[William Hay, said to be of the family of Park, was 
born the 17th of Feb., 1647. He had his education at 
Aberdeen, and received holy orders from Bishop Scougal. 
He was first settled minister at Kilconquhar (commonly 
Kinneuchar) in Fife, and was made Doctor of Divinity by 
Archbishop Sharp. From Kinneuchar he was removed 



EPITAPH ON BISHOP WILLIAM HAY. 349 



to the town of Perth, and was afterwards consecrated 
Bishop of Moray anno 1688. The royal warrant for his 
consecration bears date the 4th Feb., 1688 (Secretary 's 
Books, Mar.). He was consecrated at St. Andrews llth 
March. He suffered the common fate of his Order at the 
Revolution, and died at Castlehill, his son-in-law's house, 
near Inverness, on the 17th of March, 1707. [He went to 
the Waters of Bath for cure, but without avail. He 
married Mary, daughter of John Wemyss, Parson of 
Rothes, and had two daughters, Sophia and Jean, one 
of whom married John Cuthbert, Castlehill, Inverness.] 
(Scott's Fasti.) 

He is described as a person of mild and gentle temper, 
who disapproved alike of the penal laws against the 
Papists and against the Presbyterians. In the interesting 
account of a journey made in the autumn of 1697, by 
Robert Barclay, of Ury, near Stonehaven, and three other 
Quakers, from Aberdeen to the North Western Highlands, 
as far as the residence of Cameron of Lochiel, with whose 
family the Barclays were connected by marriage, it is 
related that one of the "Friends" visited at Inverness 
" the old Bishop of Moray called Hay, who was sore 
diseased in his body by a palsy." In the old churchyard 
of Inverness a monument was erected to his memory, with 
an inscription in elegant Latin, to the following effect : 

" Sacred to the memory of The Right Rev. Father in 
God, Wm. Hay, Professor of Theology, a most de- 
serving Bishop of Moray a Prelate of primitive 
holiness, great eloquence, at all times a constant 
maintainer of the Church and regal dignity, as well 
in their afflicted as in their nourishing condition. 
He adorned the Episcopal Mitre by his piety, and 
honoured the same by the integrity of his life and 
affable behaviour. Exhausted by study and a 20 
years' palsy, a most blessed end followed his upright 
life. John Cuthbert, his son-in-law, erected this 
homelv monument."] 

* -I 

(See Grub and Lawson Historians.) 

[William Dunbar, A.M., King's College, Aberdeen, 1681. 
Born in Morayshire. Parson of Cruden, Aberdeeushire, 
from about 1691, being kept in possession of that parish 
in defiance of the Presbyterian Establishment, through 



350 EPS. DUNBAR, FALCONER, PETRIE, AND MACFARLANE. 



the influence of the family of Errol. Elected Bishop of 
Moray and Ross (united) in 1727; and consecrated at 
Edinburgh, June 18th following. Elected Bishop of 
Aberdeen at Old Meidrum, oth June, 1733 ; but retained 
the Sees of Moray and Ross also under his jurisdiction 
until 1736, when he resigned, as also the Bishopric of 
Aberdeen, 4th July, 1745. Died in Jan. 1746, set. 85, at 
Peterhead. A vacancy of several years now occurred, 
although the Clergy of Moray and Ross met at Elgin on 
the 7th July, 1737, in pursuance of Mandates issued by 
the Primus, and elected the Rev. George Hay, Presbyter 
at Daviot, who died before consecration ; his confirmation 
by the College of Bishops having been delayed by ecclesi- 
astical disputes then troubling the Church. 

William Falconer, son of Alexander, merchant, Elgin, 
by his wife Jean King, daughter of William King of 
Newmill, Provost of Elgin, and grandson of Bishop Colin 
Falconer. He was Presbyter at Forres, when elected, in 
1741, Bishop Coadjutor of Caithness and Orkney ; conse- 
crated at Alloa on the 10th Sep., 1741 ; elected by the 
Clergy of Moray as their Ordinary in Nov. 1742; Primus, 
24th 'June, 1762, till resignation in Sep. 1782 ; elected 
Bishop of Edinburgh 25th Oct., 1776. Died there 15th 
June, 1784, set. 76. 

Arthur Petrie, son of Colin Petrie, farmer, Auchin- 
tender, parish of Forgue, by his wife a sister of Bishop 
Alexander of Dunkeld. He was Presbyter at Meiklefolla, 
when elected Bishop Coadjutor of Moray; consecrated at 
Dundee, 27th June, 1776 ; succeeded as Bishop of Moray 
Nov. following also becoming Bishop of Ross and Caith- 
ness about the same time. Died at Meiklefolla, 19th 
April, 1787, set. 55; buried in Dunbennan Churchyard near 
Huntly. (See Vol. II., page 398, and my Scotichronicon.) 

Andrew Macfarlane, born at Edinburgh in 1743. He 
had 17 uncles "college bred." He was of the Clan of 
Gartanlaw. His motner's name was Murray. He mar- 
ried Mrs. Magdalene DufF, 4th daughter of William Duff 
of Muirtown, near Inverness, and widow of Alex. Duff of 
Drummuir, Botriphnie, who died at Inverness, on 22nd 
Nov., 1828, set. 76. They had a large offspring. He was 
Presbyter at Cornyhaugh in Forgue, from 1769 till 1776; 
at Newmill near Keith, from 1777 till 1779; at Inverness 



BP. MACFARLANE AND HIS PREDECESSORS AT INVERNESS 351 



when elected Bishop Coadjutor of Moray and Ross, with 
Argyle and the Isles; consecrated at Peterhead 7th March, 
1787 succeeding to the sole charge of these districts in 
the following month. Resigned the See of Moray early in 
1798, retaining Ross, Argyle, and the Isles, as also, appar- 
ently, Caithness and the Orkneys under his jurisdiction, 
until he died at Inverness, on the 26th July, 1819, set. 76. 
A verbose epitaph, declaring the good qualities which he 
possessed, is on his tombstone. He was a good Gaelic 
and Hebrew scholar, and was a " Hutchesouian," as almost 
the whole of the Episcopal Clergy in the north then were. 
Bishop Jolly was by them "looked down upon" for 
eschewing such a rampant but now defunct heresy. 

In the Inverness Town Council Minutes of June 25th, 1787, 
there is a 

Petition of Mr. Andreio M'Farlane. 

That a piece of the Short Links called the Maggot was feued 
to John Fraser, and sometime after transferred to Provost 
Duff, who mortified with the burden of paying the feu duty 
thereof to the good town, &c., (1) That the feu duty was regu- 
larly paid until some time after 1746. "in which year the 
greatest or most valuable part of the houses upon the said 
Maggot was destroyed," and after this, as your petitioner is 
informed, the emoluments of said Maggots were so small that 
some one of, or belonging to the Magistracy or Town Council 
signified to the then Episcopal minister, Mr. James Hay . . . 
that he needed not mind the feu duty, or words to that pur- 
pose. It is probably that owing to this hint, and to the lenient 
dispositions of the then Magistrates and Council it was that 
Mr. Hay ceased paying the feu duty during the remainder of 
his life." His successor, the late Mr. John Stewart, it is said, 
got a similar hint, so that the matter lay over again. Some- 
time after Mr. Stewart's death, Mr. William Mackenzie suc- 
ceeding he made no enquiry at all, but continued to raise 
about 3 or <4 a year as best he could. " This was no doubt 
wrong, as being disrespectful, although not intended." Thus 
hath the matter stood, and " although your petitioner hath not 
hitherto been in the least benefited by the small mites of said 
Maggot, yet he wishes to have the subjects once disburthened." 
He therefore appeals to the well known liberality of sentiments 
and benevolence of disposition of the present Magistracy and 
Town Council, &c. 

The Council accept 7 8s. 2d., and grant a discharge in full 
of the past feu duty to Mr. Macfarlane. 



352 BISHOP MACFARLANE IN TOWN RECORDS OF INVERNESS. 

The annual feu duty was 13 6s. 8d. Scots. 

(1) Alexander Duff of Drummuir, by Deed of Mortification, 
13th May, 1725, disponed the Maggot Lands therein of old 
called the " Short Links of Inverness." Duff of Drummuir, 
whom failing Duff of Muirtown, whom failing the Provost, 
Bailies, and Town Council of Inverness are the trustees succes- 
sively named in the deed to manage the subjects, and the 
latter are now the acting trustees. The subjects were ap- 
pointed to be held for the use and behoof of " ane Episcopal 
minister officiating for the time being in any private or public 
meeting in Inverness, conform to law, who may be destitute of, 
and shall not have a local modified stipend, conferred on and 
payable to him by the heritors of the burgh and parochin of 
Inverness, and failing of the said Episcopal minister, &c., for 
behoof of the poor. This revelation of the Jacobite feelings 
and expectations of old Drummuir is interesting. The Maggot 
lands are very unproductive, being occupied by the poorest 
families, and from their low, ill drained position, unhealthy. 

(2) Robert Jamieson was Mr. Hay's predecessor, and was 
acting in (at least 1715-16). In the Culloden Papers, p. 45, is 
a letter from the Rev. Robert Baillie to Culloden, 30th March, 
1716, containing, "Jamieson is like to make a hand with some 
of our officers to be reponed to his meeting house ; in which 
case the seeds of Jacobitism shall still be nursed among us." 
Mr. Jamieson must have died or removed before 4th June, 
1734, on which date a "call" by the "Episcopalian congrega- 
tion " at Inverness, is addressed to the Reverend Mr. James 
Hay, minister of the gospel to the Episcopalian Congregation 
at Lockshills, in the Diocese of Moray," to become their pastor. 
The call bears 31 signatures. In order to induce Mr. Hay to 
accept of this call he is assured of 30 sterling, and the rents 
of the Maggot. 

(3) On llth July, 1746, Mr. Hay was summoned before the 
Sheriff for having kept a meeting house in Inverness for years 
past, and that he preached or performed some part of divine 
service without praying in words express for His Most Excel- 
lent Majesty King George their Royal Highnesses, &c., or 
without first having taken the oath prescribed by law. The 
Fiscal prays that the said meeting house may be shut up for 
six months. The conclusion of the case reads like an Irish 
one. On 31st July, the Fiscal admits that the meeting house 
whereunto the defender preached and performed divine service 
for some years past, was entirely broken down and demolished, 
latter end of April last, by the king's troops under the command 
of the Duke when in this place, and that the very timber of 
this meeting house was carried away and disposed of by the 



BP. ALEX. JOLLY ; HIS WORKS AND CHARACTER. 353 

troops, as is notoriously known in town and country therefore 
on that account finds it needless to insist, &c. The whole case 
is somewhat curious. 

Alexander Bailie, the Fiscal, must have been well aware of 
the destruction of the Meeting House, and altogether it looks 
like an action to whitewash Mr. Hay of all actions before 1 1th 
July. He had then " tholed his assize." 

Alexander Jolly, D.D., Washington Episcopal College, 
U.S. and A.M., Marischall College, Aberdeen, was born at 
Stonehaven, 3rd April, 1756. His father was a grocer 
there. Presbyter at Turriff, 19th March, 1777; transferred 
to Fraserburgh in April, 1778, where he remained for half 
a century. Elected Bishop Coadjutor to the preceding, 
and consecrated at Dundee, 24th June, 1792 ; elected 
Bishop of Moray (having never officiated as a Coadjutor), 
14th Feb., and collated 22nd Feb., 1798, to the sole charge 
of this disjoined district. Died at Fraserburgh, 29th June, 
1838, set. 82 ; buried in the Churchyard at Turriff. 

He wrote a tract on The Constitution of the Church 
a small treatise on Baptismal Regeneration, reprinted 
after his death by Burns, to which there is prefixed a 
Memoir by the Rev. Patrick Cheyne; Sunday Services, 
reprinted and Memoir prefixed by his favourite, Bishop 
Walker, and a similiar sized Vol. on The Sacrifice of the 
Eucharist. A Biography was published in 1879 by Rev. 
William Walker, Monymusk ; and a few scraps since, of 
stale fame. An oil Painting is at Glenalmond. 

Bishop Jolly had but ordinary natural gifts, excepting 
the gift of "goodness," which in him was supernatural. 
His correspondence, much still existing, is apostolic and 
paternal throughout, not behind the epistles of St. Paul. 
He evermore bewailed the languishing condition of the 
Church ; as he perpetually wrote, " gloomy, gloomy." 
Numerous are the anecdotes connected with this justly 
canonized saint in the "Scotch Episcopal Communion." 
A zealous member of the Chapel in Elgin was so over- 
joyed at viewing the Bishop arm in arm with the Rev. 
Hugh Buchan, on the way to give Confirmation, that he 
escorted the pair. A number of good folks turned out to 
behold the sight, at which our friend, overcome with 
ecstacy, addressed with demonstrative hand, thus : 
" Match me that, ye shoemakker Seceder b rs ! " 

He lived a recluse, in holy celibacy, above a grocer's 
VOL. in. 23 



354 BP. JOLLY'S LIBRARY; ANECDOTES; INNOCENT LIFE. 

shop, in primitive apartments full of books; the fly-leaves 
of which were all carefully ruled and margined, and 
written upon with extracts from his favourite divines. 
His excellent library was left as a legacy to the Church, 
and for many years, was kept at 8 Hill Street, and after- 
wards at St. Andrew's Hall, Leith Wynd, Edinburgh. 
From thence it was transferred to Trinity College, Glen- 
almond, where a fire rendered the greater portion useless. 
It was the Bishop's idol, and now it is Nehushtan. Him- 
self did the greater part of his household work ; an 
attendant came in at stated times; and, after finishing 
jobs, locked him up. He rose early, kindled the fire, and 
infused congou, of which he was so fond. He gave all he 
had in alms-deeds. He kept his gardening implements 
in a nook in one of his rooms. He left few original 
sermons, having no confidence in his own powers. He 
was fond of coaxing a favourite child whom he had 
baptized to come in the evenings and assist in toasting 
the bread for his tea. He was a great favourite among 
the country families who were members of his Chapel, 
whom he assiduously visited. On the Monday morning 
he would have been seen, staff in hand and wig on head, 
(a wig which nearly convulsed the Court of George IV. 
at Holyrood), trudging off 5 or 10 miles on foot to make 
inquiries after Sunday absentees. The Shands of Craig- 
ellie had an old servant-maid, not long dead, who used, 
at the request of the Misses Shand, to cram the pockets 
of the poor Bishop's overcoat with all the bodily comforts 
that could be thought of. He was fond of jargonelle 
pears ; the only fruit which did not make him bilious. 

Though an ascetic and monk, the Bishop was not 
averse, in his juvenile days, to social enjoyments. He 
was fond of meeting his people at the different houses in 
the district ; and with a little importunity would even 
favour them with a song, his favourite being a quaint 
ditty dwelling upon the delights and happiness of family 
life, when blessed. This, when Mr. Jolly, he used to sing 
in a low sweet voice, very plaintive and winning pure 
from the heart of a Scotch Nathanael in whom there was 
no guile. Another was : " I dearly lo'e the lasses O ! " 
Bishop Jolly had a young sweetheart, who was taken 
away by the fell-destroyer; and to the end of his life he 
bewailed his bereavement, often sighing, when conversa- 



BISHOPS ALEX. JOLLY AND DAVID LOW. 355 

* 

tion turned " We have all our trials and disappoint- 
ments. Love is a sweet contagion." 

After dinner, when in confab with a couple of his 
clergy, upon a high occasion, such as a Confirmation, 
once in three years, he would mildly denounce "the 
Office for the Churching of Women ;" complaining, and 
even declaring that "the pains of hell gat hold upon 
them," and that " all men are liars ; " and, notwithstand- 
ing, they are at it again, often to my astonishment." 

In his periodical visits to Edinburgh, few and far 
between, the thought of setting out for such journeys 
caused sleepless anxious nights and many prayers. From 
his letters, he seemed terrified at travelling alone, and at 
the bustle of a large town also, at the prospect of 
sleeping in sheets and not in blankets. He was careful 
to notify this beforehand, stating : " My life, at the best, 
is not worth very much, but I could not think just yet 
of committing felo de se." 

David Low, LL.D., of Marischal College, Aberdeen, 
April, 1820, and D.D. of Trinity College, Hartford, U.S., 
and Geneva College, New York, son of David Low, 
maltster, Brechin. Presbyter at Tr'erth till Sep., 1789, 
when transferred to Grail and Pittenweem, remaining in 
the latter small Fife Burgh for 66 years. Elected Bishop 
of Ross, Argyll, and the Isles, at Inverness, in Oct., 1819, 
and consecrated at Stirling 14th Nov. following. Became 
Bishop of Moray in 1838, after Bishop Jolly's death, 
arranged by the College of Bishops to the displeasure of 
the three old Clergy of the See of Moray, who stood out 
for their independence and were rebuked therefor. In 
1847, he resigned Argyll and the Isles, which two united 
Sees he had endowed, after great annoyance thereanent 
from his Episcopal confreres. There never existed strong 
amity between him and the Skinners; and the biting 
notes in my possession which passed at this juncture 
raised up bygones. E.g., "Bishop John Skinner stood 
out against the elections of Bishops Jolly and Gleig, and 
my own ; and now his son, that great stot o' the north, 
gives me no end of bother, because I desire to have 
Bishop Ewing as my successor. Besides, I pay for the 
piper. He is no great thing, still we should be content 
even with small mercies. I really did not see what Sir 
William Dunbar had done to merit such a hangman's 



356 BISHOP DAVID LOW'S LOVE FOR THE SKINNERS. 

doom ; but yet, to please my brethren, I supported the 
authority of the big man, and here's my thanks. Bishop 
Gleig was 14 years here [Pittenweem], and never married 
a couple the whole of that time but himself, and he used 
to say, ' Confoun' thae Skinners, for they are all so 
possessed with the deevil o' self-possession.' " * Some 
friend complimented Bishop Skinner's powerful voice, 
when out came the cutting rejoinder: "Him read! he 
just roars like a stickit calf." A southern dignitary 
wrote that it was worth going 20 miles to hear Bishop 
Low read the 10th commandment. He emphasised the 
nor rather ludicrously but originally, and wheeled about 
at the last nor with nonchalant disdain. It was a 
greater treat to behold him on tiptoes, when special 
gentry were in the Chapel; and to witness the rebukes at 
any fancied blunders during Divine Service. 

On the 19th Dec., 1850, Bishop Low resigned his 
Diocesan authority over Moray and Ross. Died 26th Jan., 
1855, set. 88, at Pittenweem, and is buried at the south 
end of S. John's Chapel, in a spot which he himself con- 
secrated. Memoirs have been written by the Rev. 
William Blatch (by no means correct in some details), 
by M. F. Conolly (containing a collection of his anec- 
dotes), and by R. Chambers, but the living man is 
wanting ; imaginary pictures lack the glowing coal. 

* The beginning of these sorrows was the secession of the 
Rev. D. T. K. Drummond, caused by Bishop Terrot's admoni- 
tion in 1842, for praying to God extempore and lecturing in a 
hall of his own hiring ! Then followed the excommunication 
or anathema of the Rev. Sir William Dunbar, at the hands of 
Bishop Skinner, the drawing up of which was accredited to the 
Rev. Patrick Cheyne, who in turn shared the same fate by 
Bishop Suther, his compeer for the mitre, at the instigation of 
the Rev. Gilbert Rorison, LL.D., Peterhead, whom the de- 
fendant attended in Aberdeen jail, and got therefor this coin 
of gratitude. After the ejection of Sir William Dunbar fol- 
lowed that of the Rev. C. P. Miles, Glasgow, and of the Rev. 
J. D. Hull, Huntly. The last of this "advancing" business 
was the presentment for heresy of Bishop Forbes by his senior 
Presbyter, the Rev. William Henderson, Arbroath. Playing 
the fool is a game which even wise men have joined in, coming 
out grotesque Flats of smashed crockery. Such was the case in 
the whole of these contemptible skirmishes. {ED.) 



BP. LOW'S ECCENTRICITIES AND ROWS WITH HIS MAID. 357 

Owing to an interior anatomical arrangement, he 
literally chewed the cud after dinner! The Rev. Ed- 
ward Waylen, some time at Largs, informed me that a 
lady of his acquaintance in America was so enamoured 
with the travail of the Bishop, as to immortalize him in 
needle-work on the back of an easy chair with mitre 
and crook, wading through the Highlands in a snowdrift ! 
He was a totally different character from his predecessor. 
He lived penuriously, and was shabby in many of his 
transactions ; although he scraped some 10,000, which 
went for the endowment of the Bishop of Argyll and the 
Isles, Trinity College, Glenalmond, and St. John's Chapel, 
Pittenweem. The same worn goose-quill did duty for a 
life time, back and front taking office in turns and repair- 
ing itself. When a friend or foe departed this life, he 
judiciously wrote to the executors to be so good as give 
back all teethy correspondence. From 1838 till 1844 
I visited and resided with the Bishop, and can, conse- 
quently, speak of his manners and customs. Being a 
juvenile and cheap Curate, he desired to retain me for 
life. I could furnish spoonfuls of rich and racy matter, 
of peevishness, greed, and cringe. Being a confirmed 
bachelor, although he had once a flame, his ebullitions at 
the tidings of an arrival, after Matrimony, from any of 
the wives of his clergy, were Malthusian in the extreme. 
For weeks, he determined concision too late for lively 
sparks to be made eunuchs of for the sake of the king- 
dom of heaven ; while he vowed all sorts of vengeance 
for propagating paupers. He and Mary Forrester, his 
housekeeper, were wont to have terrific rows; and in 
order to be revenged on a victorious outburst, this bearded 
Abigail bought a bowl for the Bishop's toddy sugar with 
this inscription : 

" Amoug the men what dire divisions rise ! 
For union one, for noue another cries. 
Shame on the sex that such disputes began ; 
Women are all for union to a man ! " 

Viewing this as a personal attack, the maid was ordered 
to take the utensil back forthwith to Charlie Stuart, a 
vender of such articles of vertu, with return of price. 

Robert Eden, D.D., born in London, 4th Sep., 1804, 
third son of Sir Frederick Morton Eden, second Baronet 



358 BISHOP ROBERT EDEN AND HIS GENEALOGY. 

of Truir, County Durham ; educated at St. Peter's College, 
Westminster, and at Christ Church, Oxford. Curate of 
Weston-sub-Edge, in the Diocese of Gloucester, 1828; and 
of Messing and Peldon, County Essex, Diocese of London; 
Rector of Leigh, in the same County and Diocese, from 
1837 till 1853; and Rural Dean. Elected Bishop of 
Moray and Ross, by a majority of votes, at Elgin, 
21st Jan., 1851, and consecrated at St. Paul's, York 
Place, Edinburgh, 9th March, following. Elected Pri- 
mus Cth July, 1862, successor to Bishop Skinner, Aber- 
deen, who corpulently filled the chair well. 

The Primus m. 1827 Emma, who died 1880, dau. of the 
late Sir James Allan Park, a Justice of the Court of 
Common Pleas, and has issue living five sons and five 
daughters, viz., Frederick Morton, b. 1829 (m. 1st 1857 
Louisa Anne, who d. 1868, dau. of the late Vice-Adm. 
Hyde Parker, C.B.; 2ndly Fanny Helen, dau. of the late 
Edw. P. Barrett-Leonard, Esq., and has issue living by 
1st marriage two sons and a daughter, by 2nd three sons). 
Henley, b. 1838 (in. 1871 Amy Frances, dau. of Lord 
Charles Lennox Kerr, and has issue living two sons). 
Robert Allan, b. 1839, Chaplain to the Primus. William 
Alexander, b. 1843, Capt. R.A. Charles John, Capt. 
42nd Highlanders. Lucy (m. 1849 Rev. Hubert Samuel 
Hawkins, Rector of Beyton, Suffolk, and has issue living 
three sons and three daughters). Caroline (m. 1851 Col. 
Arthur, a Court Fisher, who. d. 1879, and has issue living 
three sons and three daughters; the eldest of whom, Alice 
Eliz., m. 1879 James Allan Park, Esq., Lieut. 42nd High- 
landers, and has issue one daughter). Alice (m. 1857 
Rt. Hon. Geo. Ward Hunt, M.P., who d. 1877, and has 
issue living five sons and five daughters. Her eldest son, 
George Eden, b. 1859, married 1881 Margaret Hyde, dau. 
of Sir Wm. Parker, Bart). Emma Selina (m. 1861 Rev. 
Dacres Shiver, Rector of Wilton, Wilts, and has issue 
living seven sons and three daughters). Mary. 

The Diocese of Caithness was added to his former 
jurisdiction, 6th Oct., 1864. Prior to his residence at 
Inverness, he resided at Duffus House, near Elgin. 

By his zeal, the first " Scotch Episcopal " Cathedral has 
been erected, with an Altar and Ritual which would have 
done honour to the Middle Ages.] 



SHAW RESUMED; THE PALACE AT SPYNTE. 359 

These were the Eeformed Bishops in the See 
of Moray ; and in their time f-he Diocese, in its 
extent, was much the same as under Popery. I 
have above taken notice of the division of it into 
Presbyteries. 

The Cathedral or College Church had gone to 
ruin, as above observed ; and these Bishops used 
St. Giles' Church in the town of Elgin, as their 
Cathedral, the Bishop being the Parson or Eector 
of the Parish of Elgin, and the other minister his 
Vicar. 

The Palace of Spynie was kept in repair, and 
there the Bishops resided. But at the Kevolu- 
tion, though the palace and precinct were an- 
nexed to the Crown, and not sold, but pays 
annually twelve pounds sterling of rent ; yet the 
house not being inhabited, the Lessees or Tacks- 
men either carried off, or suffered others to carry 
off, the iron gate, the iron chain of the portcullis, 
the oaken joists or roof, the doors, flooring, 
&c. In a word, all the iron-work and timber 
was carried away, and only the stone walls 
remain. 

The Dignified Clergy, and their seats, were 
the same as under Popery. In an Agreement, 
in June, 1666, betwixt the Bishop and Chapter, 
and Sir Ludovick Gordon of Gordonstoun, com- 
pared with tacks of teinds, with consent of the 
Bishop and Chapter, I find the following mem- 
bers of the Chapter, viz., The Minister of Aldern, 



360 DIGNIFIED CLERGY; CONSISTORIAL JURISDICTION. 

Dean ; of Forres, Archdeacon ; of Alves, Chantor; 
of Inveravon, Chancellor ; of Kenedar, Treasurer; 
Dallas, Sub-dean; Eafford, Sub-chantor; Moy, 
Pettie, Duffus, Dunlichty, Spynie, Kinore, Bo- 
tarie, Kingusie, Birnie, Vicar of Elgin, and Pre- 
bendary of Unthank. But I know not, if these 
ministers were always of the Chapter, or at any 
time made up the whole of it. 

The Consistorial Jurisdiction, by Commissaries 
in Elgin and in Inverness, brought a considerable 
revenue to the Bishop. "After the Eeformation 
says the Author of Essays on Brit. Antiq.) the 
Bishops took a great care to preserve their right. 
They had spies in all corners; and no sooner 
was a man laid in his grave, than they thun- 
dered out all their artillery of the law, to force 
his relations to apply for Letters of Administra- 
tion." 

I find in the Synod Eegister of Moray, that 
how soon Prelacy was re-established at the Ee- 
storation, the Bishop, anno 1663, caused intimate 
from all the pulpits in the Diocese, " That no 
widower, man or woman, shall be married, until 
they report a certificate of the confirmation of 
the former husband or wife's testament." As 
long as Prelacy was established, this grievance 
was not redressed. But immediately after the 
Eevolution (Parliament 1690, Act 26), it was 
enacted, " That no person shall be bound to 
give up inventory of a defunct's goods; and 



THE BISHOP'S POWER, PERQUISITES, AND REVENUES. 361 

that there shall be no confirmation, unless at 
the instance of the relict, children, nearest of 
kin, or creditors." 

The Bishop's power and perquisites, as Lord 
of the extensive Eegality of Spynie, were not to 
be dispensed with ; and therefore that Jurisdic- 
tion was kept up. 

With respect to the Eevenues. The Papal 
Hierarchy having been abolished at the Eefor- 
mation, what of the Church' lands had not been 
sold and disponed by the Bishops was, by Queen 
Mary and her son, lavished away among their 
courtiers and favourites. When King James re- 
erected a hierarchy anno 1610, he had but very 
poor livings for his Bishops. And although both 
he and his son pressed the surrender of Church 
lands so warmly and imprudently that the dis- 
content of the nobility and gentry who possessed 
these lands issued in a civil war fatal to Monarchy 
and Prelacy; yet little of the lands that had 
belonged to the Church was recovered. However, 
competent revenues were obtained for the Bishops 
by gentlemen paying an annual feu-duty for the 
Church lands they held off the Crown, and this 
was called " The Bishop's Eents or Feu-duties." 
I have not seen a full and exact account of the 
Church lands belonging to the Diocese of Moray, 
but the following Eental of the feu-duties (taken 
from the Collector's books) points out the gentle- 
men who now possess these lands, and shows 



362 



RENTAL OF THE FEU-DUTIES OF THE SEE. 



that the revenue was great, when the Bishops had 
the full real rent of those lands : 

RENTAL OF THE FEU-DUTIES OF THE BISHOPRIC 
OF MORAY. 



Scots Money 





s. 


D. 


Scots Money 


a. 


D 


Paid by Laird of Grant, 


114 








Brought over, -802 


2 





By Easter Elchies, 


11 


5 





Laird of Brodie for Kene- 






Grant of Carron, - 


9 


8 


4 


dar, with a sow, or 






Grant of Belliiidalach, - 


51 


6 


8 


8, - - - 129 


12 





Grant of Dalvey, - 


36 








Spynie, - 26 


6 


8 


Grant of Achoinanie, - 


7 








Dipple,- - 24 


11 


4 


By Kilmiles, 


40 








Gordonstoun for his 






Hugh Baillie, 


20 








lands, - - - 228 


12 





Fraser of Kinerries, 


18 








Moraystoun, ... 2 


16 


8 


Cuthbert of Drakies, - 


1 








Bishopmill, - - - 66 


13 


4 


Fraser of Fohir, - 


8 


14 


8 


Sheriffmill, - 2 








Alexander Chisholm, - 


1 








Inshbroke, - - - 15 


1G 


10 


Laird of Macintosh, 


20 


15 





Findrossie, - - - 36 


7 





Laird of Calder, - 


27 








Essil, - - - - 10 


12 





Rose of Holm, 


9 


11 





Kirkhill of St. Andrews, 4 


9 


8 


Laird of Kilravock, 


56 








Teind Fishing of Spey, 200 








Laird of Lethin, - , 


26 


8 


8 


Killes, - - - -71 








Dallas of Cantray, 


10 


2 





Catboll in Ross, - - 16 








Rose of Clava, 


10 


14 


4 


Kirktown of Dallas, - 5 


12 


2 


Loggie Ardrie, 


14 








Myreside, - - - 20 








Laird of Altyre, - 


24 








Lovat's Tack Duty, - 40 








Alterlies, ... 


1 


G 


8 


Tywick's Tack Duty, - 1 


10 





Kempcairn, - 


11 


8 





The Precinct of Spynie, 150 








Achoinachie, 


23 


6 


8 


Teind Bolls at 5 






Birkenburn, - 


5 


G 


8 


Pitgavenie,32bolls,inde, 160 








Schoolmaster of Keith, 


5 


6 


8 


Bareflathills, 12 bolls 2 






Pitlurg, 


22 


6 


8 


firlots, - 62 


10 





Ogilvie of Milltown, 


4 


2 





Inch, 3 bolls, - - 15 








Blervie, 


81 


7 


2 


Linkwood, 20 bolls, - 100 








Moy, .... 


1 


4 





Maison Dieu, 8 bolls, - 40 








Drumriach, - 


2 








Peats, at 4s. per Load 






Phorp, - 


10 


5 





Kenedar, 80 loads, - 16 








Inverlochtie, 


52 


2 


G 


Aikenhead, 20 loads, - 4 








Middletoun, ... 


18 








Whitefield, 20 loads, - 4 








Rothes Kirktoun, - 


4 


14 





Milltown, 20 loads, - 4 








Stankhouse in Birnie, - 


25 


9 





Inverlochtie, 50 loads, - 10 








James Stewart's lands in 








The 12 ploughs of Birnie, 






Birnie, - 


10 


19 





at 10 loads per 






Billhead there, 


6 


17 


4 


plough, inde 120 






Dykeside in Birnie, 


13 


17 


8 


loads, --- 24 








Carry over, - -802 


2 





Total, - 2,307 


9 


4 



This is the Revenue as it now stands in the 
Collector's hooks, hut it is not one half of the 
revenues as they stood at the Eevolution. Several 



HENTAL GIVEN UP BY BISHOP HAY. 363 

parts of these rents have been gifted to gentle- 
men. The profits of the Eegality, and especially 
of the Commissariot, were very considerable. 
The Bishop was parson of the parish of Elgin 
and drew all the great teinds. The Churches of 
St. Andrews, Ugston, and Laggan were mensal, 
and the Bishop had the whole teinds. In a word, 
the Eevenues of the See of Moray at the Eevolu- 
tion, by a moderate estimation, amounted to 
6,000 Scots, or 500 sterling. 

The Eental given up by Bishop Hay in 1689 
agrees with the above, except in a few articles of 
small account. And Bishop Hay adds : 

" There is payable out of the Bishopric to the 
Minister of St. Andrews yearly the sum of (Scots 
money) 58 6s. 8d." 

Let me here give the articles of discharge and 
credit now allowed to the Collector out of the 
Bishop's rents, viz. : 

To the third Minister of Inverness, by a Royal 

Grant, - 881 1 6 

To the Minister of Birnie, by decreet, - 32 12 2 

To the Ministers of Elgin, by decreet 8 bolls 

barley, at 5, is - 40 

Deducted for Pitgavenie, 20 boll, inde - 100 

For the Precinct, 12 bolls, - 60 

To Surcharge on Lovat's lands, 20 

Total in Scots money, - - 1,133 13 8 

Thus the whole Kental being - - 2,307 9 4 

And the discharge or credit amounting to - 1,13313 8 

The balance paid by the Collector is - 1,173 15 8 



364 PROTESTANT PRESBYTERIAN ESTABLISHED MINISTERS. 

3rd. THE MINISTERS OF PARISHES SINCE THE 
REFORMATION. 

In this account I shall follow the present divi- 
sion of the Province into Presbyteries, and shall 
take notice of the Patron Saint, the Civil Patron, 
the Stipend, the Schools, the Mortifications, the 
Chapels, the number of examinable persons above 
seven years of age, and the Protestant Ministers 
since the Eeformation. 

My vouchers for these things are : Our Eccle- 
siastical Histories ; the Eegisters of Inverness, 
Forres, Elgin, and Strathbogie ; Kegisters of 
Kirk-Sessions ; Original Writs, particularly those 
belonging to Campbell of C alder. 

In speaking of the Patrons of Churches I 
cannot but observe that by the Act, Wmo Anna 
or 1712, restoring patronages, " The Patronage 
of Churches, which belonged to Arch- Bishops, 
Bishops, or other dignified persons in the year 
1689, shall belong to the Crown." And since no 
prescription can run against the Crown, I leave 
it to those concerned to consider how far the 
drown has a right to severals in this Province. 

PRESBYTERY OF STRATHBOGIE. 

There are within the Province of Moray but 
two parishes of this Presbytery, viz., Mortlich 
and Bellie. Before the year 1706 Mortlich was 
in the Diocese of Aberdeen. 



ESTABLISHED MINISTERS AT MORTLICH. 365 

Mortlicli,* dedicated to St. Bean, the first 
Bishop of it. The King presented the present 
incumbent, but the Earl of Fife claims the 
patronage. The stipend is not modified, for 
the ipsa corpora of the small teinds are paid. 
But the stipend, including Element-money, 
amounts to about 1,000 Scots. The salary 
of the school is legal. William Duff of Dipple 
mortified 500 merks to the school and .1,000 
Scots to the poor, and there are .675 Scots more 
mortified for the use of the poor. The Catechis- 
able persons are 1,800, of which about 60 are 
Eoman Catholics. 

The Protestant Ministers are : 

1. [George Leslie, trans, from Kilconquhar here in 1593. In 1574 

Abirlour, Skirdustane, Pettruchny, and Dunmeith, were also in 
the charge. In 1576 Dunmeith was excluded. Cont. in 1594. 

2. Normond Duncan, trans, from Cawdor, pres. by James VI. , prior to 

20 Feb., 1593. Cont. in 1599. Was afterwards settled in 
Skirdustane. 

13. Alexander Leslie, pres. by James VI. 7 Nov., 1601. Cont. in 1616.] 
4. John Maxwell, 1615. [Son of Maxwell of Cavens, a branch of the 
family of Kirkhouse in Nithsdale. Trans, to Edinburgh in 
1662.] 

5. William Forbes, [1623] 1640. [Sub-Principal of King's College, 

Aberdeen. In 1647 he was sought by the parish of Keith, but 
cont. here till 1649.] 

6. Alexander Seton, 1650. Trans, from Cullen. Trans, to Banff 10 

April, 1661. 

7. [Alexander Innes, formerly of Rothiemay, adm. 3 July, 1661. Died 

in 1663, aged about 66. 

8. Thomas Thoirs, trans, from Daviot. Adm. 27 Dec., 1663. Cont. 

in 1668.] 

* The parish was disjoined from the Presbytery of Fordyce 
and annexed to that of Strathbogie by the Commission 18th 
March, 1702, and by the General Assembly 9th April, 1706. 
(Scotfs Fasti.) 



366 ESTABLISHED MINISTERS AT MORTLICH AND BELLIE. 

9. Arthur Strachan, [1669] 1688. Depr. by the Privy Council 7 Nov., 
1689. 

10. [Robert Mitchell, 1689. Went to Fyvie. Died about 1742, aged 

about 82.] 

11. Hugh Innes [1698], ord. about 1700. Died 18 March, 1733 [in his 

68th year]. 

12. Walter Syme, from Glass, adm. 23 April, 1734. Died 16 Jan., 1763. 

[At which time there was an uncommon mortality in the parish 
from putrid fever, with intense frost, so that fires had to be 
kindled in the churchyard to soften the ground for digging the 
graves. Mr. Sime was one of thirteen bodies lying unburied at 
the same time.] 

13. John Touch, from Aberlaure, adm. 20 Oct., 1763. [Died 23 Oct., 

1780, in his 80th year.] 

14. [George Gordon, ord. 23 Aug., 1781. Trans, to Aberdeen 2 Oct., 

1793. 

15. George Grant, trans, from Old Machar, 2nd charge. Adm. 14 May, 

1794. Died 10 Oct., 1804, in his 44th year. 

16. Morris Forsyth, son of William Forsyth, Huntly. Adm. 11 Sept., 

1805. Died 19 Feb., 1838, in his 68th year. 

17. James Alexander Cruickshank, son of the Rev. John C., Glass, 

schoolmaster of that parish in Sept., 1822. Ord. 8 June, 1836, 
as assist, to his predecessor above. Adm. 11 May, 1837.] 



Bellie, dedicated to St. Peter. The patronage 
did belong to the Prior of Urquhart, and with 
the Lordship of Urquhart came to the Earl of 
Dunfermline. It now belongs to the Duke of 
Gordon, by the purchase of Urquhart. The 
stipend, by decreet, is 1,200 merks, and 100 
merks for Communion Elements. The school is 
legal. Mortifications for the poor are JS650 Scots. 
Catechisable persons, 1,600. On the gravestone 
[not now existing] of Mr. William Saunders is 
inscribed, " That he lived 108 years, and was 
Minister of Bellie 77 years." 



ESTABLISHED MINISTERS AT BELLIE. 367 

The Ministers are : 

1. [John Knox, formerly of Keith, cont. in 1599. 

2. Thomas Hay, 1601.] 

3. William Saunders, min. before 1600, demitted in 1663 [25 March. 

Died in his 108th year.] 

4. [Alexander Innes, helper, 5 Jan., 1643.] 

5. James Horn, assist., [schoolmaster at Grange] ord. 28 Feb., 1650. 

Trans to Elgin [2nd charge] 1659 [12 July]. 

6. William Anand, assist., [son of one of the ministers of Inverness] 

ord. 19 May, 1663. Lived after the Revolution. 

7. Charles Primrose, ord. 25 Feb., 1702. Trans, to Forres 1708 

[28 Oct.]. 

8. Thomas MacCulloch, from Birnie, adm. 4 May, 1709. Died 26 Nov., 

1750 [in his 81st year]. 

9. Patrick Gordon, from Rhynie, adm. 3 Oct., 1751. Died at London, 

Feb. 1769 [20 Feb.] 

10. James Gordon, adm. 14 March, 1770. [Died 30 Jan., 1809, in his 

82nd year.] 

11. [John Anderson, trans, from Kingussie, adm. 20 Sept., 1809. Factor 

to the Duke of Gordon. Demitted his charge, in consequence, 
1 Dec., 1819. Died 22 April, 1839, in his 80th year. 

12. William Rennie, ord. assist, and succ. 8 Sept., 1819. Died 10 Feb., 

1837, aged 48. 

13. David Dewar, son of James Dewar, factor at Tillicoultry, originally 

a weaver, then clerk to a lime work. Schoolmaster at Carring- 
ton in 1819. Appointed to a school at Fochabers and chaplain 
to Elizabeth, Duchess of Gordon. Joined the Free Kirk at the 
Disruption. Died at Fochabers, 1881. 

14. 1843. Robert Cushny, youngest son of the numerous family of Rev. 

Alex. Cushny, long minister of Oyne; M.A. of Aberdeen, ord. in 
1836 as assist, and succ. to Rev. Pat. Davidson, Insch. Marr. 
Catherine Cock, sister of Rev. Dr. Cock, Rathven, by whom he 
had 3 sons and 2 daughters. Died at Fochabers, 1881, March 
26, aet. 71. 

15. John Peter Watt, Hogganfield, Glasgow, 13 July, 1881.] 



PRESBYTERY OF ABERLAURE. 

Dundurcos was a vicarage, depending, it is 
said, upon the parson of Eathven in the Enzie. 
Hay of Eannes claims the patronage, but the 



368 ESTABLISHED MINISTERS AT DUNDDRCOS. 

Crown is in possession, by presenting Messrs. 
Thomas Gordon and John Grant. In the north 
end of the parish stood the Chapel of Grace, and 
near to it the well of that name, to which multi- 
tudes, even from the Western Isles, do still resort, 
and nothing short of violence can restrain their 
superstition. 

I have spoken of St. Nicholas' Hospital already. 

The stipend is 64 bolls of oatmeal and 400 
merks, with 40 merks for Communion Elements. 
The school is not legal. The mortifications for 
the poor are 240, and three gardens, and three 
ridges of land, mortified by several persons. The 
Catechisable persons are about 1,000. [It was 
suppressed by the Commissioners of Teinds 26th 
June, 1782, and united to Boharm and Eothes.] 

The Protestant Ministers are : 

1. William Peterkin, exhorter in Dundurcos and Dipple, 1569 [7]. 

2. [Wm. Abercrummy, or John Moderattis, reader in 1574. Died 1576. 

3. John Knox, from 1576 to 1580. 

4. John Lyill, from 1585 to 1589. 

5. Robert Leslie, cont. in 1599. Trans, to Birnie prior to 1601.] 

6. John Marishal, min. before 1624. [Pres. by James VI., 20 Feb., 

1605.] Died 1651 [after 1 April]. 

7. John Ray, from Kirkmichael, adm. [prior to 6 Oct.] 1651. Died 

1679 [after 8 April]. 

8. Thomas Eay, ord. [between 2 Oct.] 1660 assist. Died after the 

Revolution. [Suspended for three Sabbaths for beating Bessie 
Leslie at night. Deposed for swearing, &c., 7 Aug., 1694.] 

9. David Dalrymple [a natural son of Lord Dromore. Schoolmaster at 

Kettle 23 Nov., 1692] ord. 8 May, 1698. Died 23 Feb., 1747. 

10. Thomas Gordon, [son of the min. of Lonmay] ord. 16 Sept., 1747. 

Trans, to Speymouth [13 June] 1758. 

11. John Grant, [son of the Rev. Hugh G., min. of Knockando] ord. 28 

Sept., 1758. [Preacher at Enzie. Removed to Boharm, in 
terms of Decreet of Annexation, in 1783.] 



THE HIGH-BORN PROTESTANT LESLIES OF ROTHES. 369 

Eothes was a parsonage. The Earl of Kothes, 
patron, but now the Earl of Eindlater. The 
stipend is 40 bolls of oat meal and 370 merks, 
without allowance for Communion Elements, and 
without a decreet of modification.* The salary 
of the school is not legal. The Catechisable 
persons are 500. No mortifications. The in- 
scription on the gravestone of Mr. James Lesly 
runneth thus : " Here lies ane Nobleman, Mr. 
James Lesly, parson of Eothes, brother-german 
to George, Umquhile Earl of the same, who 
departed in the Lord, 13 October, 1576." To 
him succeeded Mr. Alexander Lesly, whose 
successor was Mr. Leanord Lesly. In a dis- 
charge granted by the Earl of Eothes to one 
Margaret Anderson, dated at the Castle of 
Eothes anno 1620, Mr. Leanord Lesly, parson, 
is a witness. 

The Protestant Ministers are : 

I. James Lesly, [3rd son of George, Earl of Rothes] exhorter and parson 
1570 [1567 and 1574]. Died 13 Oct., 1576. 

2. Alexander Lesly, [from Elchies] died about 1610. [Died indweller 
in Quhytray, parish of Elgin, Sept., 1603.] 

3. Leanord Lesly, parson in 1620. 

4. John Weems, [Wemyss] brother to Lord Weems, ord. 1 June, 1622. 

Died 25 Feb., 1640. [His daughter Margaret, by the 2nd wife, 
Janet Innes, married the Bp. of Moray.] 

5. Robert Tod, [at Kirkcaldy] ord. 5 May, 1642. Trans, to Urquhart 

1662. 

* The late Dr. Simpson, of Worcester, was a native of this 
parish, and bequeathed 500, the interest of which was enjoyed 
by the schoolmaster. 

The Jougs from the " Auld Kirk o' Rothes " are within the 
Elgin Museum. (ED.) 

VOL. in. 24 



370 PROTESTANT ESTABLISHED MINISTERS OF ROTHES. 

6. John Lesly, ord. 4 Nov., 1663. [Deposed for swearing in July, 1694.] 

Died about 1692 [in Oct., 1697, aged about 67.] 

7. James Allan, ord. 23 Sept., 1696. Deposed for Bourignonism 29 

May, 1706 [for absenting himself from the parish, refusing to 
sign the Confession of Faith, and for adopting the tenets of 
Antoinette Bourignon, born 1616, died 1680].* 

8. George Lindsay, ord. 22 Aug., 1710. Trans, to Aberlaure 1714 

[5 May]. 

<J. Alexander Tod, ord. 11 Nov., 1714. Died 11 April, 1716. 

10. Thomas Fairbairn, ord. [24 April] 1717. Trans, to Gartlie 1719 

[22 Sept.]. 

11. John Paul, [son of Wm. Paul, merchant and bailie of Elgin] ord. 10 

Nov., 1720. Died 16 March, 1747. 

12. James Gray, [son of John Gray, merchant, Lanark] ord. 14 April, 

1748. Trans, to Lanark 1755 [29 April]. 

13. Alexander Paterson, [son of the min. of St. Andrews] ord. 9 Sept., 

1756. Died 28 Oct., 1759. 

14. Robert Grant, [native of Elgin] ord. in 1759. Adm. [as missionary 

at Enzie] 17 July, 1760. Trans, to Cullen 1762 [1 Sept.]. 

15. James Ogilvie, from Ordequhill, adm. March 24, 1763. [Died 20 

May, 1788, aged 66.] 

16. George Cruickshank, schoolmaster at Inveraven, appointed assist. 

and succ. to the former, and ord. 25 Sept., 1788. Died 15 June, 
1838, in his 86th year. 

17. Alexander Macwatt, ord. 7 Feb., 1839. Joined the Free Kirk at 

the Disruption. Died 1880. 

18. 1843. George Gray, son of a cobbler in the parish of Monquhitter; 

at the age of 18 schoolmaster of Boharm, coming barefoot to 
the competition; m. 1st, Helen Thomson, daughter of the 
schoolmaster of Rothes, by whom he had two sons and one 
daughter, all of whom predeceased him ; m. 2nd, Marion Ker, 
daughter of Dr. John Macnish, Glasgow, who predeceased him 
5 years, buried in St. Andrew's Episcopal Churchyard, Glas- 
gow. Mr. Gray died 22 Aug., 1879, aet. 77, and was buried at 
Dundurcas. 

19. R. C. Findlay, elected minister of Carsphairn, Kirkcudbright, 1881. 



* The writings of this remarkable woman were condemned as "dam- 
nable heresy " by the Church of Scotland. They are now rarely to be 
met with, and are on such subjects as "God's Call and Man's Refusal," 
"The Light Risen in Darkness," "The Funeral of False Divinity," 
" The Confusion of the Builders of Babel," " A Treatise of Solid Virtue," 
"The Touchstone," "The New Heavens and the New Earth," "The 
Stones of the New Jerusalem," "The Renovation of the Gospel Spirit," 
&c., &c. (ED.) 



KNOCKANDO AND ELCHIES. 371 

KnocJcando comprehends the united parishes of 
Knockando and Ma Galen (i.e., Saint Colin.), 
now called Elchies. The former was a vicarage 
depending on the parson of Inveravon, and the 
other depended on the parson of Botarie. In 
1640 the Synod of Moray required the Ministers 
of Inveravon and Botarie to provide Knockando 
and Elchies (Ma Caleri), quam primum, with 
ministers. (Syn. Eecords.) From 1646 these 
two parishes remained united till 1683, in which 
year, in October, Mr. Alexander Ruddach was 
settled Minister of Elchies. But after the 
Eevolution they were again united. The Laird 
of Grant, as Patron of Inveravon, claims the 
patronage of Knockando. The stipend, includ- 
ing Element money, was 830 merks, but, by 
decreet in 1767, it was augmented to 1,012 
merks (including Communion Elements) and two 
chalders of meal. [New Kirk built in 1757.] The 
school salary is not legal. Archibald Grant of 
Balintome mortified 1,000 merks, which, with 
100 merks raised from the interest of that sum, 
is to make a salary for teaching poor children. 
That sum is now become near 1,200 merks. 
There is mortified for the poor about 230 merks. 
Catechisable persons are about 1,000. 

The Protestant Ministers are : 

1. [Alexander Saunderson, reader, from 1574 to 1589. 

2. Farquhar Grant, 1590 and 1591.] 

3. William Watson, min. before 1624. Trans, to Dnthel about 1626. 



372 ESTABLISHED MINISTERS OF KNOCKANDO. 

4. Gilbert Marshall, [trans, from Ogston] ord. about 1630. Trans, to 

Cromdale 1640 [before 15 April]. 

5. William Chalmer, ord. in 1640. [The parishioners of Botriphnie 

called him, 26 May, 1652.] Died in 1668 [after 7 April, aged 
about 54]. 

6. James Gordon, [son of John Gordon of Overhall] ord. in 1670. Trans. 

to Urquhart in 1682 [after 25 April]. 

7. Thomas Grant, [adm. 12 July] in 1683. Died about 1700 [in Oct., 

1699, aged about 44]. 

8. Alexander Ruddach, ord. at Elchies in 1682. [Omitted by Dr. Hew 

Scott in his Fasti Ecc. Scot.]. 

9. Daniel MacKenzie, [son of Kenneth, min. of Logic Easter] ord. 12 

Feb., 1706. Trans, to Kingusie 1709. 

10. James Gordon, ord. in May, 1712. [Deposed 31 Oct. 1717. Sentence 

removed by General Assembly 26 May, 1718.] Died in winter 
1726 [6 Jan., 1726]. 

11. Hugh Grant, [schoolmaster of Alves] ord. Sept., [1 June] 1727. 

Died 18 Sept., 1763. 

12. John Dunbar, [eldest son of Robert, min. of Dyke] ord. May 3, 1764. 

[Trans, to Dyke and Moy 17 April, 1788.] 

13. [Francis Grant, ord. as missionary at Enzie, 11 May, 1785. Adm. 

14 Aug., 1788. Died 5 Nov., 1805. 

14. Lachlan M'Pherson, schoolmaster at Grange, 7 July, 1777. Ord. as 

miss, at Pluscarden, 1 Dec., 1789. Adm. 2 Oct., 1806. Died 
14 March, 1826, in his 68th year. 

15. William Asher, ord. 7 Sept., 1826. Trans, to Inveravon, 3 Oct., 

1833. 

16. George Gordon, son of Hugh G., Esq., late of Dominica, ord. 30 

Jan., 1834. Died 13 Nov., 1839, in his 31st year. 

17. John Wink. 1840. 

18. Francis Wm. Grant. 1851. 

19. John Clark. 1855. 

20. Thomas Morison Pirie. 1867. 



Boharm, a parsonage whereof the Earl of Fife 
is Patron. Ardintullie (called Artendol) was the 
original parish, and Boharm (properly Bocharri) 
was only the Chapel of Moray, Laird of Boharn. 

At Galival are the vestiges of a Domestic 
Chapel, and probably there was a Chapel of Ease 



ESTABLISHED MINISTERS OF BOHARM. 373 

where the Church now stands. There is a glehe 
at Ardintullie, and another at Boharm. The 
stipend is 32 bolls meal and 600 merks, with 20 
merks for Communion Elements. [New Kirk 
built in 1793.] The school salary is not legal. 
The Catechisable persons 600. 

The Protestant Ministers are : 

1. William Rothie, [Kethie] reader in Ardintullie 1569 [1567]. 

2. [William Peterkin, exhorter at Dundurcus and Dupple in 1567- 

Pres. to the parsonage by James VI. , 26 Jan. same year. In 
1574 Dipple was also in this charge. Removed to Dipple prior 
to 1585.] 

3. George Frazer, min. before 1624. Died about 1628 [before 7 May, 

1633]. 

4. Alexander Anderson, ord. about 1629. Trans, in 1633 [to ]. 

5. Thomas Law, ord. in 1634. Trans to Elgin [2nd charge] in 1645. 

6. [John Ray, trans, from Kirkmichael, adm. 1646.] 

7. George Dunbar, ord. in 1647, [probably 6 Dec., 1646]. Died in 1650. 

8. William Harper, ord. in 1655 [25 Oct., 1654]. Died in 1685 [20 Dec., 

aged about 69]. 

9. Adam Harper, [eldest son of the former], ord. [5 Sept.] 1686. De- 

mitted [11 June] 1716 [and retired to Cairnwhelp, where he 
continued to minister. Died 14 May, 1726, aged about 67]. 

10. George Gordon, ord. 13 [2] May, 1717. Trans, to Alves in 1728 

[22 Oct.]. 

11. John Gilchrist, ord. [26 Aug.] 1720. Trans, to Urquhart in 1734 

[16 Oct., 1733]. 

12. George Grant, [catechist in the parish of Rathven] ord. [17 Dec.] 

in 1734. Trans, to Rathven in 1752 [15 April]. 

13. Thomas Johnston, from Glenbucket, adm. 31 May, 1753. [Died 

6 Feb., 1783.] 

14. John Grant, from Dundurcos, June, 1783. Trans, to Elgin 2 Sept., 

1788. 

15. Francis Leslie, trans, from Rothiemay. Adm. 14 May, 1789. Died 

7 Dec., 1799, aged about 53. 

16. Patrick Forbes, son of the Rev. Francis F., Grange, schoolmaster of 

the parish, 1 May, 1800. Ord. 14 Aug., 1800. Trans, to 2nd 
charge of Old Machar, 25 April, 1816. Appointed Professor of 
Humanity, King's College, Aberdeen . Died 

17. Lewis Wm. Forbes, eldest son of George F., Sheriff-Substitute of 

Banffshire, ord. 20 Aug., 1816. D.D. Aberdeen in May, 1851. 
Moderator of General Assembly 20 May, 1852, M. 1st, Pene- 
lope Cowie, 1816; 2nd, Eliz. Young. Died 8 Jan., 1854, in his 
COth year. 



374 ABERLOUR AND SKIRDROSTAN. 

18. Alexander Murdoch, ord. 1854. M. Jane Stewart, 1868. Died 1868. 

19. Alexander Masson, ord. 1869. Died 1879. 

20. Stephen Ree, ord. 1880. 



Aberlaure and Skirdrostan (the last dedicated 
to St. Durstan) were distinct charges, but how 
early they were united I find not. In 1640 
Walter Innes of Auchluncart, Adam Duff of 
Drummuir, and James Sutherland, tutor of 
Duffus, presented severally to this Church ; and 
Duffus' right being examined by the Commissaries 
of Moray and Inverness, and some Ministers, was 
found good. (Syn. Bee.). Now the Earl of Fife 
acteth as Patron, probably as coming in the place 
of Lord Balvanie. 

I have already taken notice of the Eeligious 
House of Kinermonie. (Vide Vol. III., p. 237.) 
The stipend is 850 merks, with 50 merks for Com- 
munion Elements. [New Kirk built in 1824; 
burnt 1861.] The school is not legal. The 
mortifications : 

By Alexander Grant of Alachie, - - 100 
William Innes of Kinermonie, for which the Earl 

of Fife pays annually 3 bolls oat meal, - 350 

John Proctor, - - 66 13 4 

Patrick Clark in Boharm, - 30 

Alexander Green, - 66 13 4 

And John MacKeran in Glenrinnes, - 66 13 4 



Total (in Scots money), - - 680 

The Catechisable persons are 840. 



ESTABLISHED MINISTERS OF ABERLOUR. 375 



The Protestant Ministers are : 

1. [Norman Duncan, 1607, formerly of Mortlach, cont. in 1608. To 

induce his parishioners to attend Kirk he indulged with them 
in a game at football.] 

2. John Stuart, settled before 1624 [1614]. Died 1 April, 1639. [Aged 

about 55.] 

3. George Speed, [schoolmaster at Keith and then at Fordyce] ord. in 

June, 1640. Died 22 Aug., 1668. [Aged about 64.] 

4. Robert Stephen, ord. in summer 1669. Died Dec., 1705. 

5. .Robert Stephen, [son of the former] ord. 18 Sept., 1707. Trans, to 

Craig of Monross [14 April] 1714. 

6. George Lindsey, from Rothes, adm. in winter [12 May] 1714. Died 

in 1715 [23 Jan.]. 

7. Daniel MacKenzie, from Kingusie, adm. [13] Dec., 1715. Trans, to 

Inveravon 1718. 

8. Robert Duff, [from Kildrummy] ord. in March, 1719. [Adm. 21 

Oct.] Died in [15] July, 1738. 

9. John Touch [native of Banff, schoolmaster at Marnoch, 1721. Miss. 

in the parish of Huntly. Appointed to Pluscardine 3 Feb., 
1736. Afterwards at Enzie] ord. 31 May, 1730. Trans, to 
Mortlich in 1763 [29 Sept.]. 

10. James Thomson, [schoolmaster at Keith] ord. in 17 . Adm. 20 

Feb., 1766. [Died 9 Feb., 1801, aged 79.] * 

11. Alex. Wilson, native of Auldearn, master of the Grammar School, 

Elgin; ord. 24 Sep., 1801. Died 20 Aug., 1842, aged 85. 

12. James Sellar. D.D., native of Keith, schoolmaster of St. Andrews- 

Lhanbryd ; ord. 1843. From a cobbler, being brought up a 
Burgher, he rose to be Moderator of the General Assembly. 
M. Eliz. Johnston Watson, 1878. Coals, tea, and sugar to the 
Poor. 



Inveravon, a parsonage dedicated to St. Peter. 
It was the seat of the Chancellor of the Diocese, 
and the vicarages of Knockando and Urquhart, 
beyond Inverness, depended on it. The Laird 
of Grant is Patron. Mr. William Cloggie, being 
transported to Inverness, retained the revenues of 

* N.B. - Lite Pendentf. The Duke of Gordon and Earl of Fife agreed 
to this last settlement, Salvo jure. 



376 ESTABLISHED MINISTERS OF INVERAVON. 

the Chancellory till the Synod, 1624, obliged 
him to demit them. There was a Chapel of Ease 
in the south-west corner, called Kil-Machlie, and 
two in Glenlivat, viz., at Daskie and at Dunan. 
The stipend, by a decreet in 1685, was 830 merks, 
with 36 merks for Element money; but, anno 
1769, an augmentation was obtained of 16 Scots 
and three chalders of meal, valued at 6 Scots 
per boll. [New Kirk built in 1806.] Mortifica- 
tions for the poor are 700 merks. The school is 
legal. Catechisable persons 1660, whereof about 
500 are Eoman Catholics. 

The Protestant Ministers are : 



1. [The parish was supplied by John Porteous, reader, from 1574 to 

1580. 

2. Alexander Gordon, 1573, cont. in 1576, holding at same time 

Kirkmichael.] 

3. William Cloggie, [trans, from Elgin 1608] settled before 1610. Trans. 

to Inverness about 1620. 

4. Alexander.jlnnes, [trans, from Kinedder. Adm. in 1624] ord. about 

1622. Trans, to Eothiemay about 1630 [1629]. 

5. John Chalmers, [son of the min. of Kinore] ord. about 1631. [Ord. 

in Nov. 1630.] Trans, to Gartlie in 1649 [27 June]. 

6. Alexander Gordon, [schoolmaster at Rothiemay] ord. in 1650 [prior 

to 1 Oct. ]. Deposed for immorality [habitual drunkenness] in 
1657. [Excommunicated for exercising the ministry in defiance 
5 Aug., 1657.] 

7. George Hannay (vide Alves), adm. [between 7 April] in 1658. Trans. 

to Aldern 1664. 

8. Alexander Dunbar, ord. in 1665. Trans, [to Delting] in 1668. 

9. James Stuart, [native of Strathdown, schoolmaster at Inverness] ord. 

22 Sept., 1669. Dem. in 1681 on account of the Test. [Died 
1697, aged about 43.] 

10. John Stuart, ord. in summer 1682. Died in 1697. [Omitted by 

Dr. Hew Scott in his Fasti Ecc. Scot.]. 

11. James Bannerman, ord. 15 April, 1703. Trans, to Forglen 1717 

[27 Feb.]. 

12. Daniel MacKenzie, from Aberlaure, adm. [8 July] 1718. Trans, to 

Pettie 1719 [22 Sept.]. 



PARISH OF KIRKMICHAEL. 377 

13. Alexander Fraser, from Alvie, adm. 21 Sept., 1721. Died 13 Feb., 

1752 [aged about 86]. 

14. James Grant, [son of James Grant, farmer, Pitgavenie] ord. [by the 

Presbytery of Kincardine O'Neil 14 Aug.] 1751 [as miss, at 
Braemar]. Adm. 23 Nov., 1752. [Died 3 Feb., 1795, in his 
77th year.] 

15. [William Spence, ord. 22 Sept., 1795. Died 30 July, 1807, in his 

46th year. 

16. William Grant, ord. by the Presbytery of Strathbogie 2 May, 1798, 

as assist, to the Eev. Robert Innes of Huntly. Became miss, 
at Portsoy in 1800. Adm. 16 May, 1808. Died 12 April, 1833, 
in his 75th year. 

17. William Asher, trans, from Knockando. Adm. 17 Oct., 1833. D.D. 

Glasgow, April 1866. M. Katherine Forbes. Died 1874. 

18. James M'Lachlan, ord. 1874. Minister of Rathven 1866. M. 

Elspeth Kynoch, from Keith. 



PRESBYTERY OF ABERNETHIE. 

KirJcmichael, a Parsonage dedicated to Michael 
the Archangel. The Laird of Grant is patron. 
At Camdale, in the upper end of the parish, was 
a Chapel of Ease, dedicated to St. Brigida or 
Bryde. The stipend is 800 merks, and 50 merks 
for Communion Elements. There is no legal 
school. Examinable persons are about 1000, 
whereof 200 are Roman Catholics. 

The Protestant Ministers are : 

1. [1574. Alex. Gordoun, having Innerawin and Knockandoch with 

13 6s. 8d. of stipend, he paying his readers ; cont. in 1588. 

2. 1601. Samuel Cokburne had also Inneravin this year. Trans, to Minto 

in 1609. 

3. 1622. John Gordoun. Trans, to Kinedar prior to 1625.] 

4. Peter Grant was min. at Kirkmichael and Cromdale about 1600. 

[Omitted by Dr. Hew Scott in his Fasti. Ecc. Scot.] 

5. John Ray succeeded, and was trans, to Dundurcos in 1651. 

6. Alexr. Gordon [schoolmaster at Rothiemay about 1647.] Ord. in 

1651. Died in 1684. [14th Jan., 1685.] 

7. Colin Nicholson from Abernethie, adm. 1685. [Deprived by the Privy 

Council 7 Nov., 1689.] Died 25 Sep., 1709. [Aged about 66.] 



378 ESTABLISHED MINISTERS OF KIRKMICHAEL. 



8. Duncan MacLea [eldest son of Arch. M'L. , mercht. , Rothesay, school- 

master at Kilmodan 1699, and at Inverary, which he left in 
1708.] Ord. Sep. 1712. Trans, to Doul [Dull] in 1717- 

9. David Muschet, ord. in 1718 [by the Presbytery of Aberlour, 21 Jan., 

1719 as missionary at Glenlivet. Adm. 14 Oct.] Died in 1724 
[between 31 Oct., 1721, and 26 June, 1722.] 

10. Geo. Grant [assist, at Glenlivet, 1724], ord. 21 Sep., 1725. Died 

27 April, 1772 [in his 80th year]. He married a daughter of 
the Rev. James Chapman of Cromdale. She predeceased her 
husband, and had 21 children, 16 of whom arrived at maturity ; 
and on a stipend of 47 4s. 3Jd. left each 100. Three of his 
sons were Ministers James at Inverness, Lewis at Duthil, and 
Alexander at Daviot.] 

11. Robt. Farquharson [miss, at Corgarff], ord. 4 Oct. [prior to 1 Oct.] 

1792. [Trans, to Logie-Coldstane in 1779.] 

12. [John Grant. Trans, from Arrochar. Adm. 10 March, 1780. Trans. 

to Duthil, 25 July, 1809. 

13. [Patrick Grant, native of Inverness -shire. Ord. as miss, at Brae- 

Badenoch and Brae-Lochaber, 1807. Assist, to the Rev. John 
Anderson, Kingussie. Adm. 21 Nov., 1809. Died 8 Nov., 
1816, in his 31st year. 

14. William Grant, native of Deb-achy, Inverness-shire. Educated at 

home and at Fordyce Parish School. Miss, at Braemar, 1810. 
Adm. 30 July, 1817. Trans, to Duthil and Rothiemurchus 18 
Jan., 1820. 

15. Alexander Tulloch, native of Lybster. Ord. 14 Sep., 1820. 

Joined the Free Kirk 19 July, 1843. Died at Elgin 5 Dec., 
1855, in his 76th year. 

16. James Grant. 



Cromdale , Inveralen, and Advie are now 
united in one parish. How early they were 
so united, I find not. There is a glebe at Crom- 
dale, and another at Advie. Cromdale is a par- 
sonage dedicated to St. Ma-Luac. The laird of 
Grant is patron. 

The stipend was 800 merks, and 60 merks for 
Communion Elements, but about the year 1767 
it was augmented to 75 sterling, or 1350 merks 
Scots. [New Kirk built in 1809.] The school 
is legal. Catechisable persons are at least 2200. 



ESTABLISHED MINISTERS OF CROMDALE. 37D 

The Protestant Ministers are : 

1. Mr. Peter [Patrick] Grant, min. of Cromdale and Kirk Michael 

about 1600 [1595. Removed from Advie, having also Inver- 
allen and Duthil in charge. Eeturned to Advie in 1596.] 

2. David Dack [Dick] was settled before 1624. Died 1638. 

3. Gilbert Marshal, from Knockando. Adm. 1640. Died about 1666 

[2 Oct.] 

4. Gilbert Marshall, Jun. [son of the former.] Ord. 1667 [prior to 2 

Oct., 1666.] Trans, to Inverness 1674 [after 5 May.] 

5. John Stewart, ord. 26 Jan., 1676. Ejected in 1690 [by the Privy 

Council, 16 Sep., aged about 47.] 

6. William Mackay from Dornoch, adm. [after 17 April] 1694. Died 

in 1700. 

7. James Chapman, from Calder, adm. 25 Nov., 1702. Died in Dec., 

1737 [aged about 63.] 

8. Francis Grant, from Duthil, adm. in 1740 [4 July, 1739.] Died in 

July, 1746 [19 June.] 

9. Patrick Grant, ord. 19 Sep., 1751. [Died 15 Feb., 1778, aged 55. 

10. [Lewis Grant, trans, from Duthil. Adm. 14 July, 1778. Died 9 

Jan., 1798, in his 63rd year. 

11. Grigor Grant, native of Ross-shire. Assist, to the former, in 1794. 

Ord. 7 Nov., 1798. Died 13 Sep., 1829, in his 59th year. 

12. James Grant, native of the county. Ord. 14 April, 1830. Died 2 

April, 1856. 

13. Duncan M'Innes, 1856. 9 

14. Ranald M'Alister, 1869. 



[Inverallan united to Cromdale. The Church of Gran- 
town was declared by the Presbytery (26 March, 1816) to 
be that of the parish, which was erected as a Quoad 
Sacra by the Court of Teinds, 24 May, 1869. 

1576. Wm. Hay, Kincardin and Duthell being also in the charge. Cont. 
in 1586. 

[Advie united to Cromdale. 

1. 1574. Thomas Austiane, pres. to the vicarage and parsonage of Advie 

and Cromdell by James VI. Cont. in 1585. 

2. 1590. Patrick Grant, trans, from Abernethy. In 1593 Inneralloun 

was added to the charge. Removed to Cromdale in 1595. 
Returned in 1596. Was pres. to the vicarage of Abernethy 
and Rothiemurchus 29 July, 1608. Returned to Abernethy 
in 1624.] 



380 ESTABLISHED MINISTERS OF ABERNETHY. 

Abernethie and Kinchardine united in one 
parish, but distinct places of worship. The 
Minister has a glebe in each. Abernethie was 
dedicated to St. George. The laird of Grant 
is patron. There was a chapel in Conigess, in 
the east end of the parish, and another two miles 
above the Church, on the bank of Nethie. 

The stipend was 800 merks, with 50 merks for 
Communion service ; but about the year 1767, it 
was augmented to 64 sterling, or 1152 merks 
Scots. The school is not legal. Catechisable 
persons are about 1200. 

The Protestant Ministers are : 



1 . John Glass, exhorter [reader and exhorter ' ' in the Irische toung "] 

in Abernethy and Kingussie, 1567. 

2. William Farquharson, 1574. Cont. in 1580. 

3. Patrick Grant, min. in 1624 [1585. Trans, to Ad vie after 1589. 

Returned prior to Oct., 1624, wishing to demit Kincardine.] 
Died about 1630. 

4. Colin MacKenzie [formerly of Abernethy.] Ord. about 1634. [Adm. 

7 May, 1633.] Trans, to Contane in 1646 [12th May, 1641.] 

5. Roderick M'Kenzie. Adm. before 14 Oct., 1642. Trans, to Gair- 

loch prior to 14 July, 1646.] 

6. John Sanderson, ord. in 1650. [Cont. 4 Oct., 1670.] Died about 

1677. 

7. Colin Nicholson [schoolmaster at Cawdor], ord. Assist. 12 August, 

1670. Trans, to Kirk-Michael [after 20th Oct.] 1685. 

8. James Grant, from Urquhart [and Glenmoriston], adm. [bet. 6 Oct.] 

1686. Ejected [by the Privy Council] in 1690. [Died in 1693, 
aged about 44.] 

9. William Grant (after a vacancy of 19 years), ord. 19 May, 1709. 

Died 27 June, 1764 [in his 96th year.] 

10. John Grant, from Arochar, adm. 26 Sep., 1765. [Died 21 Jan., 

1820, in his 85th year.] 

11. [Donald Martin, from Inverness Chapel of Ease, adm. 15 Aug., 1820. 

Died 24 Jan., 1833, in his 88th year. 

12. James Stewart, youngest son of Adam Stewart, farmer, Dalvey, 

ord. 6 Sep., 1838. Died 22 July, 1862, aged 57. 

13. 1863. William Forsyth. 



ESTABLISHED MINISTERS OF DUTHEL. 381 

Duthel and Eothemurchus united the former 
dedicated to St. Peter and the other to St. 
Tuchaldus. The laird of Grant is patron. At- 
tempts were made in 1624, and afterwards, to 
unite Kinchardine and Bothiemurchus, but failed 
for want of stipend. But in 1630 Duthil and 
Bothiemurchus have been united, but distinct 
places of worship, and a glebe in each parish. 

There was in Achnahatnich in Rothemurchus 
a chapel dedicated to St. Eata. The stipend 
was 800 merks, with 55 merks for Communion 
Elements ; but about the year 1767 it was aug- 
mented to 64 sterling, or 1152 merks. Cate- 
chisable persons are 1400. 

The Protestant Ministers are : 

1. [William Fraser, having Skeiralloway also annexed, cont. at Rothie- 

murcus from 1614 to 1616.] 

2. Andrew Henderson, ord. at Rothemurchus [29 Aug.] 1625. Trans. 

to Balwhidder 1630 [27 April.] 

3. William Watson, from Elchies, adm. at Duthil 1626. Died about 

1655. 

4. James Watson [son of the former], ord. about 1657 [before 15 June 

(probably as helper), 1652. Cont. 5 Oct., 1658.] Died 1659. 

5. William Fraser, ord. [13 Jan.] 1664. Died or was trans, in 1666 

[after 3 Oct., 1665.] 

6. William Smith, ord. [before 1 Oct.] 1667. Deposed [10 Oct.] 1682, 

for immoralities [for drunkenness.] 

7. Sueton Grant, ord. [before 16 Oct.] 1683. Ejected [by the Privy 

Council] in 1690. [Died 1693, aged about 36.] 

8. Donald Macintosh, from Fair, adm. 1695. Demitted in 1708. 

9. Francis Grant, after a vacancy of 11 years, ord. [22] Sep., 1719. 

Trans, to Cromdale 1740 [27 March.] 

10. Patrick Grant [a native of Cromdale], ord. 3 Dec., 1740. Trans, to 

Nuig [Nigg] 1755 [6th Nov.] 

11. Robert Grant [of Kinchirdy], ord. 19 April, 1758. Died 12 Mar. 

[13 Feb.], 1759. 

12. Lewis Grant [son of the Rev. George Grant of Kirkmichael], ord. 

20 Sep., 1759. [Trans, to Cromdale 1778.] 



382 MINISTERS AT DUTHEL AND ROTHEMURCHUS. 

13. [Patrick Grant, miss, at Fort- William, adm. 24 Sep., 1778. Died 

21 Jan., 1809. 

14. John Grant, trans, from Kirkmichael. Adm. 27 Sep., 1809. Died 

1 July, 1819, in his 77th year. 

15. William Grant, trans, from Kirkmichael. Adm. 28 March, 1820. 

Died 22 Aug., 1862, aged 76. 

16. William Grant, 1864. 



1. Andrew Rutherford, 1844. Q.S. Rothiemurchus 1844. 

2. Neil M'Intyre, 1855. 

3. John Grant, 1869. 

4. James Bain, 1878. 



Alvie, a parsonage dedicated to St. Drostan. 
The Duke of Gordon is patron. This parish was 
sometime united with Laggan (Vide Laggan.) 
[The Church, " quhilk was an common kirk per- 
taining to the vicars of the queir of the Cathedral 
Kirk of Moray " was united by the Bishop to 
Laggan before 1673, but disjoined about 1638 ; 
and again united by Bishop Mackenzie to Lag- 
gan in 1672, and disjoined about 1708. (Scott's 
Fasti."] There were several Chapels in this 
parish one at Kinrara, on the west side of the 
river, dedicated to St. Bata ; a Chapel of Ease at 
Dunachtin, dedicated to St. Drostan ; and Ma- 
Luac Chapel in Bates. I have before me a 
seasine on the land of Croft Ma-Luac, in favour 



ESTABLISHED MINISTERS AT ALVIE. 383 

of James Macintosh, alias Maconald Glas, ances- 
tor to Macintosh of Strone, by George, Bishop 
of Moray, anno 1575. 

The stipend, by decreet in 1720, is 800 merks, 
with 90 merks for Communion Elements. There 
is no school. [Church built in 1798. Repaired 
in 1831. Sittings 500. Stipend, 158 4s. 6d.] 
The Catechisable persons are 700. 

The Protestant Ministers are : 



1. James Spense, exhorter in 1572. [Omitted by Dr. Hew Scott in his 

Fasti Ecc. Scot.} 

2. James Lyle was ruin, in and before 1624. ( Vide Laggan. ) [Omitted 

also by Dr. Scott. ] 

3. [John Ross, son of John Ross, Provost of Inverness, was pres. by 

JameS VI. 31 March, 1579, but does not seem to have been 
settled. 

4. William Makintosche, demitted prior to 19 Aug., 1585. 

5. Soverane Makpherlene or M'Phail, pres. by James VI. 19 Aug., 

1585, and 6 April, 1586. Cont. in 1594. 

6. Robert Leslie cont. in 1597. 

7. Roderick Sutherland cont. in 1601. 

8. Roderick M'Leod, 1632. Deposed for fornication 1642. Probably 

the same as 

9. Roderick MacKenzie, ord. 1637. Deposed for whoredom. 

10. Thomas MacPherson [schoolmaster in Lochaber 4 April, 1660], ord. 

[before 21 Oct.] 1662. Died about 1707 [1708.] 

11. Alexander Fraser, ord. 13 Sep., 1713. Trans, to Inveravon 1721 

[26 April.] 

12. Ludowick [Lewis] Chapman, ord. Sep. [25], 1728. Trans, to Pettie 

1738 [30 March.] 

13. William Gordon [alias M'Gregor] from Urquhart [and Glenmoriston], 

adm. 20 Sep., 1739. [Died 2 April, 1787, in his 101st year.] 

14. [John Gordon, native of Ross, miss, at Fort- William. Adm. 8 May, 

1788. Died 6 Oct., 1805, in his 55th year. 

15. John M'Donald, native of the county, ord. in Dec., 1803, as Assist. 

to the Rev. John Anderson, Kingussie. Adm. 24 July, 1806. 
Married a fourth time. Died 16 April, 1845. 

16. Donald M'Donald, 1854. 



384 ESTABLISHED MINISTERS OF KINGUSSIE. 

Kingussie, a parsonage dedicated to St. Colum 
[Columba] ; and Inch, a vicarage dedicated to St. 
Ewan. The Duke of Gordon is patron. How 
early these parishes were united I find not. 
Inch (q. Inis, an Island) is so called because the 
river Spey sometimes floweth around the hill on 
which the Church standeth. The Church of 
Kingussie was built in 1624, where the Priory 
stood. There were Chapels at Invertromie and 
Noid, and Brigida's Chapel at Benchar. The 
Minister preaches at both places, and has a 
glebe at each. 

The stipend, by agreement and decreet in 
1758, including Communion Elements, is 1000 
merks. The school is legal, erected about 1650, 
by 2000 merks vacant stipend, mortified and 
lately secured upon some of MacPherson of 
Clunie's lands. The Examinable persons are 
1400. 

The Protestant Ministers are : 



1. John Glass, exhorter in Kingusie and Abernethie, 1567. [Omitted 
by Dr. Hew Scott in his Fasti Ecc. Scot.] 

'2. Archibald Henderson, parson, 1574. 

3. [Andrew Makphail, trans, from Farnua. Cont. in 1589.] 

4. Angus Macintosh, ord. about 1600 [prior to 1614.] Died in win- 

ter 1643. 

5. Lauchlan Grant, from Moy [and Dalarossie], adm. 1649. Died in 

1668 [6 April, 1670, aged about 65.] 

6. Hector Mac-Kenzie [native of Sutherland], ord. 30 Nov., 1670. 

Trans, to Inverness 1688. 

7. Donald Taylor [entered session clerk at Foveran 17 Feb., 1678], 

officiated till 1701, but not legally settled. 

8. John MacKenzie [formerly of Inverchaolain. Intruded at Tarbert.] 

Adm. in 1701. Trans, to Laggan 170U. 



HOUSE OF THE HOLY GHOST AT DIPPLE. 385 



9. Daniel MacKenzie, from Knockando, adm. 1709. Trans, to Aber- 
laure 1715 [22 Nov.] 

10. LACHLAN SHAW [original Author of this Work], ord. 20 Sep. 1716. 

Trans, to Calder 1719 [28 Oct.] 

11. William Blair, ord. an itinerant [15 April as miss, at Glenlivet] 

1721. Adm. 10 Sep., 1724. [Died 25 Dec., 1780, in his 

87th year.] 

12. [John Anderson, ord. 15 July, 1782. Trans, to Bellie 25 July, 1809. 

13. John Robertson, trans, from Rothesay Chapel of Ease. Adm. 16 

Aug., 1810. Died 4 March, 1825, in his 68th year. 

14. George Shepherd, trans, from Laggan, adm. 14 July, 1825. Joined 

the Free Kirk of Scotland. Adm. to the South Free Church, 
Elgin, in Oct., 1852. Died of apoplexy, while on a visit at 
Aberdeen, 20 July, 1853, in his 59th year. 

15. Charles Grant. 

16. A. Cameron. 

17. Grigor Stuart. 

18. William Forsyth, 1863. 

19. Kenneth Mackenzie, 1879. 



PRESBYTERY OF ELGIN. 

Dipple, proceeding from east to west. I begin 
with the parish of Speymouth,* which comprises 
the old parishes Dipple and Essil, of which I 
shall first treat. 

Dipple, a parsonage dedicated to the Holy 
Ghost, whereof the Earl of Moray is patron. At 
the Churchyard- Style there stood a small house, 
commonly called " The House of the Holy 
Ghost," around which, sun-way, the people made 
a tour "with the corpse at burials, and could 
not be restrained from this superstition till 
the walls were quite razed of late. The parson 
of Dipple was Titular of Euthven in Strath- 
boggie. 

* [N.B. The parish was suppressed by the Commissioners of Teinds, 
14 July, 1731, to form the parish of Speymouth.l 

VOL. in. 25 



386 PARISH MINISTERS OF DIPPLE. 



The Protestant Ministers of Dipple were : 

1. [Alexander Stronach, reader, 1574. 

2. Alexander Watt, 1578-9. 

3. Adam Hepburn, parson, 1574. [Omitted by Dr. Hew Scott in his 

Fasti Ecc. Scot.} 

4. William Peterkin [1585. Removed from Ardintullie], Exhorter in 

Dipple and Dundurcos 1570. [Cont. in 1586.] 

5. Alexander Hay, parson [trans, from Rhynie], 1591 [1588.] Died 

1624. [Died of gout.] 

6. Walter Smith, ord. [before 25 Oct.] 1625. Died 1655. 

[N. B. 1645. The parish had neither reader nor schoolmaster this year. ] 

7. Thomas Urquhart, ord. 13 Aug., 1656. Trans, to Essil 1658. 

[26 May.] 

8. George Innes [son of Alex. Innes, mercht., Holland, descended 

from the old family of Benwell, schoolmaster at Belhelvie], ord. 
14 Oct., 1658. Demitted for Nonconformity 1663. [Trans, to 
Kinnairney before 25 Nov. 1663.] 

9. Alexander Marshal [chaplain in the family of Innes], ord. 24 Aug. , 

1664. Demitted in 1682 on account of the Test. [He retired to 
Tillicoultry, and died in Jan., 1709.] 

10. John Scott, ord. in May, 1683. Died in June, 1726. [His purse 

was stolen from him in 1699 by " Egyptians," i.e. Gypsies, at 
St. Ruffus' Fair.] 

11. John Paterson, ord. 22 March, 1727. Trans, to St. Andrews 1731 

[4 Nov.] 



Essil,* dedicated to St. Peter, was the seat of 
the Sub-Treasurer ; and in 1670 Mr. David Col- 
less, Minister of Kinedar, presented (with con- 
sent of Sir Ludowick Gordon of Gordonstoun) 
Mr. Alexander Lindsay. Likewise in 1676, the 
Minister of Kinedar, with consent foresaid, pre- 
sented Mr. George Cummine. 

The Protestant Ministers were : 

1. Robert Keith, min. at Urchard, Langbryde, and Essil, 1567. 

2. John Blinshall, reader in these parishes, 1567. 

3. John Peters. I find not the precise time of his serving. 

[The above omitted by Dr. Hew Scott in his Fasti Ecc Scot.] 

* [N.B. The parish was suppressed, and annexed to Dipple by the 
Commissioners of Teinds 14 July, 1731, thus forming the parish of 
Speymouth.] , 



PARISH MINISTERS OF ESSIL. 387 



4. [Alexander Innes, 1588. Trans, to Birnie 1588 or 1589. 

5. Bartholomew Robertson. Trans, to Llanbryde 1601.] 

6. William Roch from Ogston, adm. 1601. Died 2 Feb., 1651. 

7. Colin Falconer [only son of Wm. F. of Dunduff], ord. 2 Oct., 1651. 

Trans, to Forres 1658 [3 March.] [Bishop.] 

8. Thomas Urquhart, from Dipple, adm. 30 June, 1658. Deposed 1663 

for Nonconformity [by Murdoch M'Kenzie, Bishop of Moray, 
and was one of those imprisoned in Forres in 1668 for preach- 
ing in his own house. ] 

9. Alexander Dunbar, from Birnie, adm. 8 July, 1663. Trans, in 

1667. [Was subsequently in Dunfermline.] 

10. Alexander Lindsay, ord. 13 Dec., 1670. Trans, to Urquhart 1676. 

11. George Gumming [second son of George C. of Lochtervandich, Pro- 

vost of Elgin], ord. 20 Sep., 167(5. Died 20 Sep., 1723 [aged 
about 76.] 

12. James Gilchrist [son of the Rev. John G. of Keith], ord. 2 March, 

1725. Trans, to Foveran 1727 [30 Aug.] 

13. Robert Milne, ord. 19 Nov., 1728. Became min. of Speymouth 

1731 [4 Nov.] 



Speymouth is made up of the parishes of 
Dipple and Essil, and the Barony of Germach 
united, and erected into one parish, by a decree 
of the Court of Session, of date 14th July, 1731, 
to take effect at the death or removal of one of 
the then incumbent Ministers, which happened 
that same year by transporting Mr. John Pater- 
son from Dipple to St. Andrews. The old kirks 
were suffered to go into decay, and a new kirk 
was built in the centre of the united parish in 
1732, and called " Speymouth Kirk." But the 
old Churchyards continue to be the places for 
burying. No grave is allowed to be digged at 
the new Church. 

The glebes of Dipple and Essil were disponed 
to Braco (now Earl of Fife), who granted a glebe 
and built a manse at some little distance from 
the Kirk. By annexing the Barony of Germach 



388 PARISH OF SPEYMOUTH ; BARONY OF GERMACH. 

to this parish, 200 Scots of the Teind Fishing 
of Spey is added to the stipend. 

The town and Barony of Germach, though 
within half a mile of the Kirk of Essil, was a part 
of the parish of Urquhart, and three miles from 
that Kirk. The Bishops kept it in this parish 
that they might have the said 200. 

In 1649, Germach was annexed to Essil by 
the Presbytery, with consent of the Heritors, 
and the Minister of Essil was to enjoy the 200. 
To explain this, observe that King Charles I., 
being indebted 7000 sterling to James Living- 
ston of the Bedchamber, granted him in 1642 a 
gift of the rents and profits of the Bishopric 
of Moray and others, for payment, with power to 
sell and dispone the same. Mr. Livingston, in 
1647, conveyed his right to John, Earl of Craw- 
ford, Treasurer, who by his disposition of date 
9th June, 1648, sold the teind fishing of Spey to 
Sir Kobert Innes of Innes, for 800 Scots, with 
the burden of 200 to the Minister of Essil. 
The Minister of Essil enjoyed the 200 till 1662, 
and then the Bishop took the money to himself, 
and re-annexed Germach to Urquhart. After 
the Revolution, the King's College of Aberdeen 
got possession of the 200 Scots. But Mr. 
Robert Miln, Minister of Speymouth, recovered 
this, as a part of his stipend. 

The Earl of Moray and the Laird of Gordon- 
ston are patrons, per vices, of the united parish 



PARISH AND MORTIFICATIONS OF SPEYMOUTH PARISH. 389 

(Vide Kenedar.) The stipend, by decreet in 
1730, is, including Communion Elements, 
341 Os. 4d., and 109 bolls 1 firlot 3J pecks, 
whereof 32 bolls 1J pecks are oatmeal at 8J 
stone per boll. The school is legal. 

Mortifications are 666 13s. 4d. to the poor 
of Dipple ; 333 6s. 8d. to the school of Dipple, 
and two bolls meal annually ; 333 6s. 8d. to the 
poor of Essil, and as much to the school thereof ; 
all by William Duff of Dipple. 200 to the poor 
of Dipple, by William Ego in Beathill ; and 2000 
merks for a school in Germach, by Peter Gordon, 
watchmaker in Edinburgh. The Catechisable 
are 840. 

The Ministers, since the union of the parishes, 
are : 

1. Robert Milne [formerly of Essil], ord. 19 Nov., 1728. Died 5 

Jan., 1758. 

2. Thomas Gordon, from Dundurcos, adm. 6 July, 1758. [Died 18 July, 

1784, in his 63rd year.] 

3. [James Gillan, trans, from Kinloss. Adm. 11 Oct., 1785. D.D. St. 

Andrews. Died 5 Sep., 1828, in his 78th year. 

4. John Gordon, ord. 5 May, 1829. Died of hydrothorax 16 Aug., 

1848, in his 51st year. 

5. 1848. John Cushney. 

Urquhart, a parsonage dedicated to St. Mar- 
garet. The Prior of Urquhart was patron ; and 
now the Duke of Gordon, coming in the place of 
the Earl of Dunfermline, Lord Urquhart, is 
patron. The stipend, by a decreet in 1650, is 5 
chalders, half barley and half oatmeal, 300 
Scots, with 50 merks for Communion Elements. 



390 PARISH MINISTERS OF URQUHART. 

The salary of the school is 12 bolls of meal, mor- 
tified by Dunferrnline, and paid out of the Mill of 
Urquhart. John Innes of Darkland mortified to 
the poor 133 6s. 8d. Mr. James Park morti- 
fied 2000 Scots, for two bursars in Philosophy 
in the King's College of Aberdeen. 

The Examinable persons are 870. 

The Protestant Ministers are : 

1. Robert Keith, min. at Urquhart, Lanbride, and Essil, 1567. [Trans. 

to Kinore 1572.] 

2. John Blenshal, reader in 1567. [Omitted by Dr. Hew Scott in his 

Fasti Ecc. Scot.] 

3. [Patrick Balfour, trans, to Alves, having Llanbryd also, 1574. 

4. John Gartlie, trans, from Slains, having Llanbryd and Eothes, 1576. 

5. Patrick Gumming, trans, from Dallas, having as above, 1578. 

6. John Innes, formerly at Fintray, 1579. Deposed 27 April, 1593.] 

7. James Guthrie, min. in 1599 [1595.] Died in June, 1647. 

8. James Park, ord. 15 July, 1647. Deposed in 1660 for diverse 

crimes [for "seditious and treasonable doctrine." He gave 
sums of money towards the new buildings of King's College] 
Aberdeen, in 1658, and by a settlement after his death bequests 
were left for two bursars. Retiring to his property of Cranoch, 
he died at Clayfords, Strichen, 5 Aug., 1691, aged about 76.] 

9. Robert Tod, from Rothes, adm. 31 Dec. [27 Nov.], 1662. Died [7 

April, 1676, aged about 61.] 

10. Alexander Lindsay, from Essil, adm. 23 July, 1676. Died [8] Sep. 

that year [aged about 27.] 

11. William Geddes, from Wick, adm. 1 June, 1677. Demitted in 1682 

for the test [and was subsequently settled at Wick.] 

12. James Gordon, from Knockando, adm. 4 July, 1682. [Dep. by 

Privy Council.] 

13. John Stewart, served immediately after the Revolution [1690.] 

Died 6 May, 1692. 

14. James and John Urquhart [father and son] (vide Kinlons), adm 

1695. James died 16 April, 1701, and John 31 Oct., 1731. 

15. John Gilchrist, from Boharm, adm. 12 March, 1734. Died 4 Jan., 

1739 [in his 38th year.] , 

16. James Spence [son of James S., writer, Kirkton-Alves], ord. 26 Nov. 

1740. Died March 20, 1768. 

17. William Gordon, ord. privately [as miss, at Glenlivat 23 Aug., 

1768. Adm. Jan. 12, 1769. [Died 18 July, 1810, in his 67th year. 

18. [Alex. Walker, trans, from Old Machar, 2nd charge, adm. 4 April. 

1811. Trans, to Elgin 24 Dec., 1824. 



PARISH OF LHANBRYDE. 391 

19. James Maclean, son of John M., a cadet of the family of Achot, 

trans, from Keith. Adm. 24 March, 1825. Died 24 Nov., 
1840, aged 82. 

20. Alexander Walker. 1841. 

21. Henry Walker. 1847. 

22. Gordon Ingram. 1859. 

Lanbride, a vicarage dedicated to St. Brigida. 
The Minister of Alves was patron and Titular, 
and had 40 bolls of teinds annually paid to him. 
He presented Mr. James Cook anno 1682 ; but 
Alexander Tod was presented in 1669, by the 
Bishop Jure Devoluto, with the consent of the 
Earl of Moray. (Presb. Reg.) "In 1708 the 
Treasury gifted the vacant stipends of Lanbride 
to the town of Lanark. The Earl of Moray 
claimed the stipend as patron of Lanbride, qua 
patron of Alves, for Patronus Patroni mei est 
Patronus meus. The Lords, 5th February, 1709, 
rejected the Earl's claim, unless he instruct that 
he has a particular right of patronage of that 
Church." (Forb. Decis.) Yet the Earl con- 
tinues to present without interruption. 

The stipend, by a decreet in 1717, is 100 bolls, 
3 firlots, 2 pecks, 3J lippies, of bear and meal, 
and 18 4s. for Communion Elements. The salary 
for the school is 6 bolls 3 firlots, and 25 merks 
annually of a mortification. Dipple mortified 
1000 merks and Innes of Darkland 900 merks for 
the poor. The Catechisable persons are 348. 

The Protestant Ministers are : 

1. Patrick Balfour, min. at Alves and Lanbride, 1567. 

2. Andrew Stronach, exhorter, 1567. 



392 PROTESTANT MINISTERS OF LHANBRYDE. 

3. John Blenshal, reader, 1567. 

[The above omitted by Dr. Hew Scott in his Fasti Ecc. Scot.] 

4. [George Douglas, reader, pres. to the vicarage by James VI. 13 

Oct., 1573.] 

5. Bartholomew Robertson, min. 1603. [Trans, to EssiL Trans, from 

Kirkhill before 1605.] 

6. [Gavin Dunbar, 1608. Trans, to Alves in 1612.] 

7. William Fraser, min. in 1623. Died in 1626 [aged about 34.] 

8. Alex. Anderson, ord. 1627 [prior to 30 Oct.] Died 1667 [in April.] 

9. Alexander Tod [schoolmaster of Urquhart], ord. 31 March, 1669 [by 

Murdoch M'Kenzie, Bishop of Moray.] Trans, to Elgin, 1682. 

10. James Cook [native of Ardblair], ord. 21 Dec., 1682. Died 1707 

[aged about 69. Dep. by the Privy Council.] 

11. Walter Stewart, ord. 31 Jan., 1710. Died [25] Dec., 1725. 

12. John Stewart [probably son of the former], ord. 23 March, 1727. 

Trans, to Drumblade 1734 [6 Nov., 1733.] 

13. Patrick Duncan [appointed miss, in Cairnie in Feb., 1731], ord. 9 

April, 1735. Died 25 Jan. 1760 [in his 60th year.] 

14. James Crombie, ord. 11 Sep., 1760. Removed to Belfast in Ireland 

1770. [D.D. St. Andrews Sep., 1783. Died 1 March, 1790, 
aged about 58.] 

15. Thomas MacFarlane, ord. Sep. 5, 1771. [Died 12 Nov., 1781.] 
[N.B. This parish was united to St. Andrews in 1782.] 

St. Andrews, a mensal Church, of old called 
Kil-ma-Lemnoc. The King is now patron. In 
time of Prelacy this Church and that of Ogston, 
on the other side of the Loch of Spynie, were 
committed to one vicar, that the Bishop might 
draw the more teinds. In the north end of the 
parish was the Chapel of Insh, and at Forrester's 
Seat stood the Church of Kil-ma-Lemnoc. 

The stipend, hy decreet in 1722, is four chal- 
ders of hear and 400 merks, with 50 merks for 
Communion Elements. The salary of the school 
is legal. Mortifications are 200 merks by Innes 
of Darkland, and 100 merks hy George Kussel in 
Linkwood. Catechisable persons are 500. 



PARISHES OF ST. ANDREWS, LHANBRYDE, AND BIRNIE. 393 

The Protestant Ministers are : 

1. Alexander Lesly, exhorter [at Candlemas] in 1567. 

2. [Thomas Dunbar 1614. Cont. in 1616.] 

3. John Peters, min. in 1627. Deposed in 1639 for refusing [to sub- 

scribe] the Covenant. 

4. Robt. Tarras, ord. 3 Sep., 1640. Died in Aug., 1646 [aged about 37.] 

5. Robert limes, from Spynie, adm. 29 Oct., 1646. Died in May, 

.. 1663 [aged about 54.] 

6. Thomas Craig [schoolmaster of Dyke], ord. 4 Nov., 1663. Demitted 

in 1690 [for Non-jurancy. So late as 4 Jan., 1704, he retained 
the two silver cups, the baptismal basin, and mortcloth. Died 
before 1719.] 

7. Gavin Wedderspoon [Wotherspoon, chaplain to the Laird of Castle 

Stewart], ord. in 1690. Died 26 March, 1715. 

8. John Urquhart, from Gartlie, adm. 12 Nov., 1717. Died 23 June, 

1725 [aged 52.] 

9. Alexander Irvine [chaplain in the family of Inches] ord. 1 March, 

1726. Trans, to Aldern 1730 [22 Dec.] 

10. John Patterson, from Dipple, adm. 23 Nov., 1731. [Died 20 April, 

1778, in his 81st year. He had three sons, two of whom were 
Ministers Alexander at Rothes, Robert at Spynie, and Alex.] 

11. [William Leslie, of Belnageith, trans, from Auchindoir. Adm. 15 

July, 1.779. Died 18 April, 1839, in his 92nd year. 

12. John Walker. 1839. 

13. Charles A. Davidson. 1863. 



Birnie, a parsonage whereof the Earl of Moray 
is patron. [Before the Eeformation. it was a 
common Kirk, belonging to the chaplains of the 
Cathedral.] The stipend, by decreet in 1774, is 
18 bolls 2 pecks 3J lippies of bear ; 20 bolls 1 fir- 
lot 3 pecks 1 lippy oatmeal at 8 stone per boll ; 
and 502 2s. 8d. Scots. The school is scarcely 
legal. John Innes of Darkland mortified 200 
merks for the poor. There were likewise given 
to the poor of this parish, by a private hand, 30 
sterling a few years ago. 

Catechisable persons are 420. 



394 PARISH MINISTERS OF BIRNIE. 



The Protestant Ministers are : 

1. James Johnston, exhorter in 1568 [1567.] 

2. Alexander Innes [trans, from Essil], min. in 1589. [He was tried 

before the Justiciary Court for being airt and pairt in the 
slaughter of Agnes Leslie, relict of the Provost of Elgin, and for 
his nocht compeirance put to the horn, &3., 21 June, 1608.] 

3. [George Douglas, reader, pres. by James VI. 24 July, 1598. 

Vide Llanbryde and Dallas. 

4. William Dunbar, 1599.] 

5. Colin MacKenzie, deposed in 1624 [April, 1625] for immorality [for 

fornication.] 

6. Alexander Spense, ord. 1626 [bet. 24 Oct., 1626, and 30 Oct., 1627.] 

Died 15 April, 1658 [aged about 55.] 

7. Alexander Dunbar [son of the Sheriff of Moray], ord. 22 June, 1659. 

Trans, to Essil 1663. 

8. William Saunders, ord. 4 Nov., 1663. Died 13 May, 1670 [aged 

about 40.] 

9. John Cummine, ord. 13 Dec., 1670. Ejected [by the Privy Council] 

1690, and became a Papist in Ireland. 

10. John MacEan [M'Kean], ord. 1696. Died in June, 1704. [Said to 

have hanged himself.] 

11. Thomas MacCulloch, ord. 1 July, 1708. Trans, to Bellie 1709 

[26 April.] 

12. William Dougal, ord. 1 Feb., 1710. Trans. toSpynie 1721 [14 Feb.] 

13. David Dunlop [assist, to the Rev. Alex. Anderson of Duffus], ord. 10 

Sep., 1721. Died 29 May, 1742. 

14. Alexander Moray [son of the Rev. James M. of Grange], ord. 28 

April, 1743. Died Aug. 13, 1765 [aged 64.] 

15. Joseph Anderson [schoolmaster of Alves], ord. 18 March, 1766. 

[Died 2 June, 1808.] 

16. [David Baxter, native of Leslie, Fife, ord. 27 July, 1809. Trans, to 

Lilliesleap 19 Sep., 1816. 

17. James Paterson, ord. 26 Jan., 1808, as assist, to the above Mr. 

Anderson. Adm. 19 Dec., 1816. Demitted 26 Oct., 1832. 
Died 23 Feb., 1840, in his 61st year. 

18. George Gordon, LL.D., son of the Rev. Wm. G. of Urquhart, ord. 

13 Dec., 1832. Adm. 19 Nov., 1859. 



Elgin, a parsonage dedicated to St. Giles, was 
the Bishop's pastoral charge. I find not two 
Ministers in Elgin before the year 1613, after 
which time the second Minister was the Bishop's 
Vicar. In 1642 King Charles I. granted the 
patronage to the Magistrates and common Coun- 



ELGIN PARISH; MORGAN'S CHURCH AT LANGMORN. 395 

oil. This was ratified in Parliament 1645, and 
in that year Messrs. Murdoch MacKenzie and 
Thomas Law were presented by the Town Coun- 
cil. But by the Act Eecissory, in 1661, and the 
re-establishing Prelacy in 1662, the gift in favour 
of the town became void, and the King is patron. 

The stipend, by decreet in 1714, is modified to 
104 bolls bear, and 450 Scots to each Minister, 
but falleth short in the locality near a boll and 
3 to each. The vicarage of Pluscarden, con- 
verted at <100, is allowed for Communion Ele- 
ments. There is but one glebe and no manse ; 
but there is ground where the manse stood, and 
a garden adjacent to it. The lands of Easter 
Kelles were, in 1657, annexed to Dallas by the 
Presbytery, and received the Civil sanction ; but 
attempts to disjoin Pluscarden and Blackhills be- 
came ineffectual, because not ratified in law. 

At Langmorn, or Lhan-Morgan, i.e. " Mor- 
gan's Church," was a free chapel, which had its 
own Minister, probably till 1613, when a second 
Minister, or a Vicar, was settled in the parish. 

At Inverlochtie was St. John Baptist's Chapel, 
and another at Bogside. 

There is in the town a Grammar School, en- 
dowed by the community, and a school for teach- 
ing English and music, endowed by King James 
VI. out of the revenues of the Preceptory of 
Maison Dieu. 

The Church of St. Giles, being an old vaulted 



396 MORTIFICATIONS OF ELGIN PARISH. 

fabric, fell down in 1679, and was soon rebuilt in 
the modern way, as it now stands. 

The mortifications for the poor are : By 
Charles Gordon, late Bailie, 300 merks ; by Alex. 
Dick, late Convener, 1000 merks ; by Dykeside, 
2000 merks; by James Cramond, late Bailie, 
500 merks; By John Sanders, merchant, 150 
merks ; by Robert Gordon, merchant, 100 merks ; 
by William Duff of Dipple, 1500 merks ; by Mr. 
James Thomson, late Minister, 600 merks to buy 
Bibles for the poor ; by Cummine of Pittulie, 
late Provost, 6037^ merks for four pensioners ; to 
four beadmen, 16 bolls annually of the revenues 
of Maison Dieu ; besides the rent of the Hospi- 
tal Croft for gowns to them ; by the Kirk Ses- 
sion, 350 merks ; a considerable growing fund, 
established by the Guildry, for decayed Guild 
brethren ; and particular funds by some Incor- 
porations. 

The Catechisable persons are above 4000. 

The Protestant Ministers, besides the Bishops 
that were not Ministers of Elgin before their 
consecration are : 



1. [Robert Pent, removed from Dunkeld 1563.] 

2. Alexander Winchester, min. in 1568. [Pres. by James VI. 26 Feb., 

1567, which he demitted 27 Nov., 1569. In the General 
Assembly, Oct., 1578, a complaint was made that he had " left 
his flock, and now preacheth in Stirling ; " but he continued 
in 1580.] 

3. Thos. Robertson, reader in 1569. 

4. William Douglass, vicar in 1579. 

[Nos. 3 and 4 both omitted by Dr. Hew Scott in his Fasti Ecc. Scot.] 

5. Alexander Douglas [trans, from Keith], ord. about 1582. [Adm. 



PROTESTANT MINISTERS OF ELGIN. 397 

1581.] Bishop in 1610. [Cons. 15 Mar., 1611.] Died 1623 
[9 May.] 

6. David Philp [trans, from 2nd charge in Dec., 1617], ord. in March, 

1613. Died [11] Sep., 1632 [aged about 50.] 

7. John Gordon, from Kenedar, adm. 31 March, 1633. [D.D. about 21 

Sep. 1635.] Deposed for immoralities 1639. [Excommunicated 
19 Oct., 1648. Went with his family to England.] 

8. Gilbert Ross [trans, from Colmoneth], adm. 24 Sep., 1640. Died 13 

Aug., 1644 [aged about 52. In company with Robert Innes, 

B ranger of that ilk, the Laird of Brodie, &c. , he tore down, 28 
ec., 1640, the wooden partition wall or rood screen which 
divided the chancel from the nave or body of the Church, on 
the sides of which were carved the Day of Judgment, &c.] 

9. Murdoch MacKenzie, from Inverness, adm. 17 April, 1645. Bishop 

1662. [Vide vol. iii. 344-346. 

10. [James Atkine, D.D. 1677. 

11. Colin Falconer 1680. 

12. Alexander Rose, D.D., 1687. 

13. William Hay, D.D., 1688. 

Nos. 10 to 13 all Bishops of Moray.] 

14. Robert Langlands, from Barony of Glasgow, adm. 21 June, 1696. 

Died 12 August that year. [On hearing of his death, one of 
the Ministers of Glasgow prayed (sic) : " Lord, what wilt thou 
do with us now ? It seems thou art resolved to flit from among 
us, when thou art packing up some of thy best plenishin' ! "] 

15. Alexander King, from Bonhill, adm. 27 April, 1701. Died 22 Dec., 

1715 [in his 63rd year.] 

16. Charles Primrose from Forres, adm. 7 May, 1717. Trans, to Crich- 

ton 1729. 

17. James Winchester, from Aldern, adm. 5 May, 1730. Trans, to Jed- 

burgh 1737 [10 April, 1734.] 

18. Alexander Irvine, from Aldern, adm. 12 Aug., 1735. Died 22 Dec. 

1758 [in his 63rd year.] 

19. David Rintoul, from f2iid charge] Kirkcaldy, adm. 28 Sep., 1759. 

[Died 26 Oct., 1778, in his 64th year.] 

20. [James Hay, D.D., trans, from Dyce, adm. 8 July, 1779. Died 22 

Jan. 1784, in his 48th year. 

21. William Gordon, ord. 30 July, 1776, as miss, at Enzie, adm. 26 

Aug., 1784. Died 19 Sep., 1837, in his 86th year. 

22. Alexander Topp, born at Elgin, ord. 25 Jan., 1838. Joined the 

Free Kirk at the Disruption. Became min. of Roxburgh Free 
Church, Edinburgh, in 1852 ; of Knox's Church, Toronto, in 
1858. D.D., Aberdeen, in March, 1870. 

23. Philip Jervis Mackie 1843. 

Second or Collegiate Charge. 

1. William Cloggie 1607. Trans, to Inveravon prior to 1608. 

2. David Philip, ord. before 25 March, 1613. Prom, to 1st charge 

in Dec., 1617. 



398 PROTESTANT MINISTERS OF ELGIN. 

3. Thomas Law, trans, from Boharm, adm. 28 Aug., 1645. Died 1 

Sep., 1657, aged about 52. 

4. James Home, trans, from Bellie, adm. 28 July, 1659. Demitted on 

account of the test in 1682. 

5. Alexander Tod, trans, from Llanbryde, adm. 11 July, 1682. De- 

prived by the Privy Council 10 Oct., 1689. 

6. James Thomson, of Newton, Collessie, trans, from Colinton, adm. 

21 June, 1696. Died 1 June, 1726. 

7. Joseph Sanderson, trans, from Alves, adm. 2 May, 1727. Died 

15 July, 1733. 

8. Lachlan Shaw, trans, from Cawdor, adm. 9 May, 1734. Demitted 

5 April, 1774. Died 23 Feb., 1777, in his 85th year. 

9. William Peterkin, assistant and successor to the former, ord. 14 

July, 1774. Died 8 Jan., 1788. He was the first Inct. who 
read his sermons in the pulpit. 

10. John Grant, trans, from Boharm, adm. 14 Oct., 1788. Died 22 Oct., 

1814, in his 84th year. 

11. Lewis Gordon, D.D., trans, from Drainie, adm. 5 Sep., 1815. Died 

at Burghead 29 June, 1824, in his 76th year. 

12. Alexander Walker, trans, from Urquhart, adm. 6 June, 1825. Re- 

translated to Urquhart 4 Aug., 1841. Died 28 Jan., 1847, 
aged about 69. 

13. Francis Wylie, D.D. 1842. 

14. Robert T. Macpherson, trans, from Newton-on-Ayr, 1881. 



Little Church, or Chapel of Ease had been built on the 
end of the Parish Church for the week-day services of 
the town's people on the abolition of Episcopacy, and was 
again opened in 1774. A large and new Chapel was pro- 
posed 8 May, 1788, to be erected, which was declared to 
l3e unnecessary. 

1. Donald Mitchell, son of John Mitchell, tailor, Cromarty, ord. 16 

June, 1778, as assistant to the Rev. David Rintoul. Trans, to 
Ardclach in 1781. 

2. Alexander Macadam, schoolmaster at Cromarty, called 18 June, 

1781. Trans, to the Gaelic Church, Cromarty, in 1782. 

3. Ronald Bayne, formerly of the Gaelic Chapel, Aberdeen, 1798. 

Trans, to Chapel of Ease in Inverness. 



ST. GILES', ELGIN. 

1. John Innes, prebendary, 1546. 

2. Alexander Hepburn, 1547. 

3. Alexander Chrystie, 1562. 

4. George Hepburn, 1566. 

5. William Douglas, 1567-1571. 



ELGIN FREE AND U.P. MINISTERS. 399 

FREE CHURCH. 
Elgin (Hig7i). 

1. Robert J. Watt, born in Ireland. Was for some time minister of the 

Original Secession Church in Stranraer, was admitted into the 
Free Church in 1852, and inducted at Elgin in 1852. Died 1862. 

2. Archibald Smellie, born in Orkney ; educ. at Edinburgh Univ. Trans. 

from Orkney to Banff Free Church, thence to Elgin in 1863, and 
thence to Roxburgh Free Church, Edinburgh, in 1868. 

3. Simeon R. Macphail, born in Forres ; M.A. Aberdeen. Ord. mini- 

ster of Forfar East Free Church in 1866, trans, to Elgin in 
1869, thence to Glasgow in 1878, and thence to Liverpool in 
1880. 

4. Robert Cowan, born in Blairgowrie ; educ. at Edinburgh Univ. Ord. 

in 1859 as colleague minister of Free St. Leonard's, and thence 
trans, to Elgin in 1870. 

Elgin (South). 

1. George Shepherd, born in Banffshire; educ. at Aberdeen. Was parish 

min. of Kingussie till 1843, when he joined the Free Church ; 
was trans, from Kiugussie to Elgin South in 1852, being the 
first minister of that charge. Died in 1853. 

2. D. Campbell Gordon, born in Edinburgh ; M.A., Edinburgh. Ord 

to Elgin South in 1853. Died in 1866. 

3. William Trail, born in Aberdeen ; M.A. Aberdeen. Ord. in 1843 

over Skene Free Church, and trans, successively to North 
Shields, Manchester, Inverness, and Glasgow, and to Elgin 
South in 1867. Died in 1874. 

4. William A. Gray, born in Inverurie ; educ. at Aberdeen. Ord. over 

Logiealmond Free Church in 1869, and trans, to Elgin (South) 
1874. 

UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 
SoutJi Street Congregation. 

First church built in 1754, second in 1807, third in 1864, with 500 
sittings, cost 1300. 

1. Alexander Troup, ord. 1748. Trans. 1763. The congregation called 

Mr. Gray, app. by the Synod of Brechin, and Mr. Young, who 
was deposed for improper conduct while under call. 

2. Thomas Duncan, from Kinclaven, ord. 18 July, 1770. Died 5 July, 

1818, t. 70. 

3. Robert Crawford, previously of Auchinleck, adm. as colleague 1817- 

Died 25 March, 1828, t. 53. 

4. John Pringle, from Tranent, ord. 16 July, 1829. Translator of 

Calvin's Works on 1st and 2nd Cor., Philipp., Coloss. and 
Thess., 3 vols. Died 30 Dec. 1879, jet. 77. 

5. Robert Smillie, 1881. 



400 ELGIN U.P. AND EPISCOPAL MINISTERS. 

Moss Street Congregation. 

Built in 1858 with 750 sittings, cost 2400 ; new church on the site of 
the old one, 878 sittings. 

1. Simon Somerville, previously of Carnoustie, adm. 17 April, 1805. 

Died 11 Oct., 1839, set. 72. 

2. Adam Lind, from Craigdam, called to Comrie, Burntisland, and Elgin. 

Ord. as colleague here 27 July, 1836. Author of Sermons on 
" Robbery of God," and " True Prosperity ;" editor of Sermons 
by Andrew Ross ; author of Memoir of the Rev. A. Lind, 
Whitehill, and of several Papers in the U.P. Magazine. 

TRINITY (EPISCOPAL) CHAPEL 1825. 

After " The Revolution." 

1. John Gordon, 17211740 or longer. 

2. Francis Chalmers, 1765. 

3. William Allardyce, 1780. 

4. Hugh Buchan, 1781. Died 1829. (Memorial window in Church. ) 

5. Robert Bruce Boswell, of the family of Balmuto, from 1829 to 1831. 

Obtained an Indian Chaplaincy. "Low Church." 

6. William Graham Cole, 1831 to 1838. Removed to England. " Low." 

7. William Charles Augustus Maclaurin, 1838 to 1850, formerly an 

Independent preacher. Dean of the diocese. M. (1) Helen 
Milne ; (2) Harriet Stuart. Joined the R. C. Church. Published 
a small book on the Episcopate, and a like vol. of poems. 

8. Robert Eden, D.D., the present Primus, 1850 to 1853. 

9. John Ferguson, native of Aberdeenshire, 1853. 

Kinedar, a parsonage, the seat of the Treasurer. 
In 1753, Sir Kobert Gordon of Gordonston pur- 
chased the patronage from John Innes of Leu- 
chars. "June 14th, 1666, the Bishop and Chapter, 
with Sir Eobt. Gordon of Gordonston, and Alex. 
Brodie of Brodie, heritors, ratified and approved 
the disjunction of Ugston, made in 1642, from 
St. Andrews and the annexation of it to Kinedar, 
without prejudice to the Bishop as Titular of St. 
Andrews and Ogston ; and that 118 merks be 
paid annually out of Ogston to the Minister of 
St. Andrews ; and because this will diminish the 
stipend of Kinedar, therefore Gordonston will 



OLD CHURCH AT KINEDDAR ; CHURCH OF DRAINIE. 401 

make up to him these 118 merks." (Presb. Bee.) 
The Church, formerly at Kinedar, was, about 
1666, built in the centre of the united parishes, 
at Drainie, and the Church is now called the 
" Church of Drainie," but the glebe and manse 
are at Kinedar, an English mile from the Church 
at Drainie. [The date on the belfry of the Church 
of Drainie is 1675.] 

The stipend, by decreet in 1774, is 600 Scots, 
2 chalders bear, 40 bolls oats, and 30 for Com- 
munion Elements. The salary of the school is 
12 bolls. [New Kirk built in 1823.] Catechis- 
able persons are 1000. 

The Protestant Ministers are : 

1. William Wyseman, reader at Lammas, 1569. 

2. William Clerk, exhorter [at Belton] in 1572. 

3. [Patrick Douglas, having also Essil, 1574. Demitted prior to 26 

April, 1583.] 

4. William Douglas [son of W. D. of Quhittingham], min. in 1583, 

1596 and 1603. 

5. Alexander Innes, min. in 1624. [Demitted and was adm. to Inver- 

avon 1624.] 

6. John Gordon [trans, from Kirkmichaell in 1625], adm. before 25 

Oct.] Trans, to Elgin 1633. 

7. David Colless [Collace], from Ugston, adm. 1634 [before 1 Oct., 

1633.] Died about 1681 [3 June]. 

8. Michael Cummine [Gumming] ord. [at Ogston, helper and conjunct] 

with the survivance, 7 March, 1666. Died about 1696 [29 
Feb., 1698, aged 58.] 

9. Hugh Anderson, from Kosemarkie, adm. 17 Aug., 1698. Resigned 

[2 Dec.] 1740. Died 1749 [after 17 Oct., aged about 85.] 

10. William Collie [schoolmaster of the parish, 11 July, 1732], ord. 17 

March, 1741. Died April 29, 1768, aged about 70.] 

11. Lewis Gordon, ord. 28 Sep., 1768. [D.D. Aberdeen, 17 Feb., 1815. 

Moderator of the General Assembly 18 May, 1815. Trans, to 
Elgin 14 Aug., 1815. Vide Elgin.] 

12. Eichard Rose, trans, from Dallas, adm. 25 July, 1816. D.D. St. 

Andrews 3 Dec., 1831. Died 23 June, 1853, in his 85th year. 

13. James Weir 1846. 

VOL. ILL 26 



402 EARLY CHAPEL AT THE CASTLE OF DUFFUS. 

Ugston [Ogston], a mensal Church dedicated to 
St. Peter. It is now annexed to the parish of 
Kinedar, as above [17 Feb., 1669.], and Gordon- 
ston acts as patron ; but how far the King claims 
a vice-patronage I shall not determine. 

The Protestant Ministers were : 

1. James Ker, exhorter in 1569. 

2. William Roch, min. in 1594. Trans, to Essil in 1601. 

3. David Colless, min. in 1625. Trans, to Kenedar about 1634. [Ig- 

nored in Scott's Fasti.] 

4. [Gilbert Marshall 1625, trans, to Knockando prior to 28 April, 1634.] 

.">. Robert Innes, about 1634. Trans, to Spynie 1640, and had no 
successor. 

0. George Douglas presented, but died prior to 11 Jan., 1642. 

Duffus, a parsonage dedicated to St. Peter,* 
the patronage whereof was once tripartite, be- 
twixt the King, Marshal, and Duffus. The pre- 
sentation to Alexander Symer, 10th August, 
1642, runs thus : " Be itkend, me James Suther- 
land, tutor of Duffus, heretable proprietor of one 
third of the Baronie of Duffus, as undoubted 
patron of the third vice of the Kirk of Duffus, 
sometime belonging to William, Earl of Marshal, 
and disponed by him to me ; to have presented, 
&c." In 1738, Archibald Dunbar of Newtoun 
contra Duke of Gordon, obtained a Declarator of 
the whole patronage, and is now Patron and 
Titular. 

* Foundation of the Chapel of the B.V.M., at the Castle of 
Duffus, in 1203-22. Bp. Andrew institutes Master Henry into 
the Vicarage of St. Peter's, Duffus, 1238, upon the presentation 
of Hugh and Hugo of Duffus. Presentation of Mr. Robert to 
the Chaplaincy of Duffus by Reginald le Chien, 1296. 



CHAPEL OF UNTHANK, PARISH OF DUFFUS. 403 

There was produced to the Presbytery of Elgin, 
14th Oct., 1736, for the Duke of Gordon, an 
extract of an Act of Parliament 1621, ratifying 
the grant of the patronage of the Church of 
Duffus and Chapel of Unthank made to Lord 
Spynie, anno 1593 ; also charter by King Charles 
II. as Ultimus Hares to Lord Spynie, of the said 
patronage, in favour of James, Earl of Airly, anno 
1674, which right Lord Airly assigned to George 
Marquis of Huntly, anno 1682. But the said 
Archibald Dunbar produced in process a charter, 
to his authors anno 1527, and another anno 1588. 

There was in this parish a Free Chapel called 
Unthank, which had its own Minister and sti- 
pend. I know not whence this Chapel is called 
Unthank, if it be not from"the Irish [Erse] word 
Intacli. The country people, who best retain 
the ancient orthography and pronunciation, al- 
ways call it Intach, i.e. " Lonely or Solitary." 
The situation of it favours this etymology, and 
the monks, who understood not [?] the Irish 
[Erse], gave it a name of a similar sound. Here 
and at Koss Isle, near to it, there was a college 
of monks, and probably the chaplain of Unthank 
was Provost of the College. Unthank was a 
Free Chapel, and had lands independent of the 
parsonage of DufFus ; and when after the Eefor- 
mation such Chapels were annexed to the Crown, 
this probably gave rise to the tripartite division 
of Duffus into the King's part, Duffus's part, and 



404 PARISH MINISTERS OF DUFFUS. 

Marshal's part, and to the Duke of Gordon's 
claim of at least a vice-patronage of Duffus. 

There was likewise a Chapel of Ease in the 
Burgh. 

The stipend, by decreet, is 8 chalders of bear, 
350 merks, and , 60 merks for Communion Ele- 
ments. The salary of the school is but 7 bolls 
2 firlots 3 pecks 2 lippies of bear. The Examin- 
able persons are 1200. 

The Protestant Ministers are : 

1. William Clerk, reader in 1560. [Omitted in Dr. Hew Scott's Fasti 

Ecc. Scot.] 

2. John Keith [having Kenedar also in charge], min. in [1567] 1570, 

1574, 1579. [Cont. in 1607.] 

3. John Gibson, parson of Unthank, and prebendary, 1570. [Omitted 

in Dr. Hew Scott's Fasti Ecc. Scot. ] 

4. Alexander Keith, min. in 1586. Died about 1609. 

5. Patrick Dunbar, min. in 1612 [1608.] Died about 1632 [1629, aged 

about 49.] 

6. John Guthrie [trans, from Keith] ord. in 1633 [? adm. 1630.] De- 

posed 1640 [by a Sub-Synod 21 Jan., 1641] for refusing the 
Covenant. [Preached a penitential sermon at Duffus 24 Feb. , 
1642, and was allowed to preach again.] 

7. Alex. Symer [Somer, son of the Rev. George S. of Meigle], ord. 10 

Jan., 1643. Died in 1686 [30 Oct., aged about 74.] 

8. Adam Sutherland [trans, from New Machar], ord. Feb., 1687. Died 

about 1698 [before 5 Nov., 1695.] 

9. Alex. Anderson [son of the Rev. Hugh A. of Udol, min. of Cro- 

marty], ord. about 1700. Died in March, 1721. [M.D. Aber- 
deen, 10 Nov., 1719.] 

10. [John Chalmers, min. of Campvere, pres. by Arch. Dunbar of 

Thunderton in Sep., 1721, but he cont. in his charge.] 

11. James Dunbar, ord. 31 March, 1724. Died 26 June, 1736. 

12. John Bower, ord. 15 Sep., 1737. Died 6 Feb., 1748. 

13. Alex. Moray [Murray] ord. 28 Sep., 1748. [Died 31 July, 1780.] 

14. [John Reid, ord. 13 Aug., 1776, as assistant to the Rev. John Pater- 

son of St. Andrews. Adm. assistant and successor 8 Oct., 
1778. Died 9 Jan., 1803, in his 60th year.] 

15. John Gordon, trans, from Strathdon. Adm. 22 Sep., 1803. Died 

8 March, 1827, in his 69th year. 

16. Alexander Brander, son of A. B. of Springfield, banker, Elgin, ord. 

28 Feb., 1828. D.D., Aberdeen, 5 Oct., 1855. 



PARISH OF NEW SPYNIE. 405 

UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, 
Burghead. 

1. David Carmichael, from Perth (North), called to Banff and Burghead. 

Ord. 29 Aug., 1825, dep. 25 Sept., 1827. Returned to Perth 
and lived privately there. 

2. Rdbert 'Scott, from Stow, ord. 22 April, 1828. Died 14 Dec., 1828. 

3. John Robertson, A.M., from Craigdam, of which his father was 

minister, ord. 23 May, 1832. Resigned 13 Aug., 1834. Adm. 
to Wallsend, Presbytery of Newcastle, 1837. 
(The congregation called Mr. Barne, who preferred Carnwath.) 

4. Alexander Tillie, from Earlston, ord. 14 Oct., 1835, resigned 20 Oct., 

1852. Removed to Elgin, and lived there privately till his 
death, 22 Aug., 1853, set. 58. 

5. James Muckersie Erskine, from Alloa (First). Called to New Deer 

and Burghead, ord. 30 March, 1854. Trans, to Bow, London, 
5 June, 1872. 

New Spynie, a parsonage dedicated to the Holy 
Trinity. The Laird of Innes claims the patron- 
age. A Sub-synod in Forres, June, 1640, ap- 
pointed Mr. Joseph Brodie, to deal with the 
Laird of Innes, to present some able man to the 
Kirk of Spynie (Syn. Eec.}; and in September 
that year, he presented Mr. Eobert Innes. Like- 
wise, in 1647, Sir Eobert Innes presented Mr. 
William Cloggie (Presb. Eec.). The Church was 
transplanted from Spynie, the very extremity of 
the parish, and built at Quarrywood anno 1735 ; 
but the glebe and the buryingplace are at Spynie. 

There was a Chapel of Ease at Inchbrok. 

The stipend, by decreet in 1730, is 64 bolls of 
bear, 300, and 60 for Communion Elements. 
The school salary is not legal. 

Mary Bannerman, Lady Finrossie, mortified 
1000 merks for the poor, and they have a share 
of Dipple's mortification to Elgin. 

The Catechisable persons are 700. 



406 PARISH MINISTERS OF NEW SPYNIE. 

The Protestant Ministers are :' 

1. James Philip, exhorter 1570. 

2. [Andrew Young, adm. about 1574, having also Keith. He was a 

contemp. student with John Knox at St. Andrews in 1571.] 

3. Alex. Ralphson, min. in 1579, and in 1603. [Died prior to 4 June, 

1622. He had a gift of the chaplainry of " The Rude, callit 
Ard-Arle and St. Columba," in Elgin Cathedral.] 

4. Mr. Alex. Watson, Min. in 1614. [Omitted by Dr. Hew Scott in 

his Fasti Ecc. Scot.] 

5. Thomas Craig, min. in 1624, died in 1639. [Aged about 56.] 

6. Robert Innes from Ugston, adm. 28 Sep., 1640. Trans, to St. 

Andrews, 1646. [15 Oct.] 

7. William Cloggie (Vide Inverness), adm. 21 Jan., 1647, died Dec., 

1659. [28 Dec., aged about 77.] 

8. Samuel Tulloch, ord. 27 June, 1660, died in Nov., 1706. [22 Oct., 

in his 75th year. ] 

9. Robert Bates, ord. 16 Sep., 1707, died in Oct., 1719. 

10. [Wm. Innes, pres. by Sir Harry Innes, but the Synod refused. At 

Pitsligo, as assist in Sep., 1720.] 

11. William Dougal, from Birnie, adm. 7 March, 1721, died 12 Oct., 

1766. [In his 83rd year.] 

12. Robert Patterson [son of the Rev. John P. of St. Andrews], ord. 

privately [as assist, to the Rev. Wm. Collie of Drainie, Dec., 
1765], adm. June 18, 1767. [Died 31 July, 1790, in his 56th 
year. 

N.B. This last had a joint presentation from the Duke of Gordon, 
and Sir James Innes, Salvo Jure. 

13. [Alexander Brown, preacher at Fochabers, ord. 12 Sep., 1793, died 

8 Jan., 1814, in his 51st year. 

14. George M 'Hardy, son of John M'H. Aboyne, schoolmaster at Bellie, 

adm. 22 Sep., 1814. Died 15 Sep., 1817, aged 42. 

15. Thomas Cannan, native of Galloway, ord. 17 Sep., 1818, trans, to 

Carsphairn, 11 Aug., 1826. 

16. Alexander Simpson, ord. 2 Nov., 1826, died at Covesea, 7 Jan,. 

1852, in his 65th year. 

17. JohnKyd, Ph.D. 1852. 

Alves, a parsonage, the seat of the Chantor. 
The Earl of Moray is patron. (Vide Lanbride 
and Kinloss.} [The parish was in the Presbytery 
of Forres from 1593 to 1608, but disjoined and 
annexed to that of Elgin prior to 30 Sep., 1623.] 
The stipend, by decreet in 1712, is 80 bolls of 



PARISH MINISTERS OF ALVES. 407 

bear ; 300, with 50 merks for Communion Ele- 
ments. '[New Kirk built in 1769, sittings 590.] 
The salary of the school, is 8 bolls of bear, and 
33 6s. 8d. Scots. George Duncan, late mer- 
chant in Inverness, mortified 2000 for educating 
boys at this school. Catechisable persons are 
1300. 

The Protestant Ministers are : 



1. Mr. Patrick Balfour, min. 1567. [App. in Nov., having also Llan- 

bryde.] 

2. Alex. Bad, exhorter in 1570. 

3. James Muirton, min. in 1574. 

[The above omitted by Dr. Hew Scott in his Fasti Ecc. Scot.] 

4. [Patrick Auchinleck, min. to the Regent Morton's House. Pres. by 

James VI. 8 Jan., 1577, died at Elgin, 5 April, 1581. 

5. James Dundas, pres. by James VI. 30 May, 1582. He was promoted 

to the Bishopric of Down and Connor 10 June, 1612, died at 
Newton, County Down, before 29 Oct, 1612.] 

6. Gavin Dunbar, min. in 1613 [1612. Trans, from Llanbryde.] Died 

in June, 1640. [Aged about 58. Demitted the Archdeaconry 
of Moray in 1613, in favour of Mr. Patrick Tulloch.] 

7. George Hannay [formerly of Torphichen], ord. 12 Nov., 1640, depos. 

1640 for opposing the Covenant. [Reponed 23 May, 1649. 
Sought to be helper at Bellie, 3 Nov., 1653.] 

8. William Campbell, from Bower, adm. 16 Aug., 1649, trans, to 

Oldrick, 1660. [6 Sep.] 

9. Alex. Stuart, ord. 16 Oct., 1661, died [27] Oct., 1675. [Aged 

about 50.] 

10. Beroald Innes [schoolmaster at Bellie 13 July, 1664], ord. 2 March, 

1676, ejected [by Privy Council] 1690. [He married at Forres 
15 Aug., 1678, Jean, daughter of Colin, Bishop of Moray. 
Beroald Innes is said to have been the son of John Innes of 
Culdrain, and brother of Sir Alexander Inues, the 2nd Baronet 
of Coxton. He had 3 sons and 2 daughters. He owned the 
lands of Inchstellie, in Alves, and died the 27 March, 1722. 
There is a monument to his memory on the wall of the Choir 
of the old Church of Alves.] 

11. John Gilchrist, from [2nd charge south] Leith, adm. [16 May], 1697, 

trans, to Keith in 1700. 

12. Joseph Sanderson, ord. 2 Feb., 1703, trans, to Elgin in 1727. 

13 George Gordon, from Boharm, adm. 21 Nov., 1728, died 3 March, 
1752. [In his 60th year.] 

14. Alex. Watt, ord. 13 March, 1753, trans, to Forres 1774. [1 Feb.] 



408 PPOTESTANT MINISTERS OF ALVES. 

15. [James Munro, trans, from Kinloss, adm. 10 Aug., 1775, died 24 

June, 1780, aged 56. 

16. William Smith, schoolmaster of Strichen, ord. 22 March, 1781, died 

26th Jan., 1792, in his 46th year. 

17. William M'Bean, trans, from Moy and Dalarossie, adm. 11 Oct., 

1792, died 5 April, 1818, in his 59th year. 

18. Walter Stuart, pres. in 1818 but died, without being settled, 22 

April, 1819. 

19. Duncan Grant, nephew to the above Mr. M'B., promoted from the 

Gaelic Chapel, Aberdeen, and adm. 15 July, 1819, trans, to 
Forres, 20 Sep., 1827. 

20. Alexander Gentle, son of James G., Writer to the Signet, Edinburgh, 

ord. 7 Feb., 1828, died 25 March, 1869, aged 71. 

21. Alexander Coul. 1843. 

22. James M'Kie, LL.D. 1850. 

FREE CHURCH. 
Duncan Colvin, born at Dyke, M.A. of King's College, Aberdeen. 

PEESBYTEBY OF FOEEES. 

Kinloss parish was erected by the joint care of 
the Presbyteries of Elgin and Forres. The erec- 
tion was approved by the Synod of Moray, in 
October, 1657, and ratified in Parliament anno 
1661. The new parish, excepting a small part, 
being taken out of the parish of Alves, the Earl of 
Moray, as patron of the Mother Church, is patron 
of Kinloss. From the Eeformation downward, 
divine worship was kept in the Abbey Church of 
Kinloss, and the Presbytery claimed the precinct, 
Church, and churchyard. But Alexander Brodie 
of Lethen, who purchased the Abbey lands from 
the Lord Kinloss, had sold the stones of the 
Abbey to the English, for building the citadel at 
Inverness, in 1651 and 1652, and agreed with the 
Presbytery, that he should pay 100 sterling for 
building the Church, and give one half of the 



PARISH MINISTERS OF KINLOSS. 409 

glebe, both which he performed ; and Sir John 
M'Kenzie of Tarbet, and Muirton gave George's 
Yard, for the other half of the glebe (Presbytery 
Bee. of For res). 

The stipend, by a decreet in 1730, is 56 bolls 
of bear, and, including Communion Elements, 
396. [New Kirk built in 1765.] 

The salary of the school is legal. 

Examinable persons are about 1000. 

Mr. James Urquhart was the first minister, 
and was deposed 19th May, 1663, for not con- 
forming to Prelacy. He was reponed by Act of 
Parliament 1690, and returned to his charge; but 
was so ill treated, that he demitted anno 1695, 
and lived with his son in Urquhart, where he died 
16th April, 1701. 

The Protestant Ministers are : 



1. Mr. James Urquhart, ord. 19 Aug., 1659, deposed by Murdoch 

M'Kenzie, Bishop of Moray, for non-conformity] in 1663. [Im- 
prisoned in Blackness in 1685.] 

2. Alex. Dunbar, from Kemnay [resided at Darnaway], adm. 19 Oct., 

1665, died 14 March, 1669. [Aged about 39.] 

3. George Innes, from Premnay, adm. 16 June, 1670, elected in 1690 

[25 April, by Act of Parliament.] 

4. James Urquhart [above mentioned], restored in 1690, demitted in 

1695. [Trans, to Urquhart.] 

5. James Gordon, ord. 5 [19] Sep., 1699, died 10 Dec., 1750. 

6. James Munro, ord. 14 May, 1752. [Trans, to Alves 25 April, 1775.] 

7. [James Gillan, ord. 17 March, 1778, trans, to Speymouth 13 Sep., 

1785. 

8. John Hoyes, trans, from Dalgety, adm. 27 July, 1786, died 23 Jan. , 

1818, in his 74th year. 

9. William Robertson, trans, from Laggan, adm. 10 Sep., 1818. 

Joined the Free Kirk at the Disruption, died 13 Nov., 1860. 

10. Thomas Stephen. 1843. 



410 PROTESTANT MINISTERS OF KINLOSS AND RAFFORD. 



FREE CHURCH. 

1. James Finlay M'Ara, born at Crieff; educ. at Monzie Parish School, 
Edinburgh University, and New College. Ord. 28 Feb., 1856. 
M. 1856. Died 19 June, 1879. 

'2. John Macpherson, born at Greenock ; educ. at Glasgow University 
and Free Church College; M.A. in 1873. Ord. 28 Nov., 1878. 



Rafford, a parsonage, the seat of the Sub- 
chantor. Alexander Brodie of Lethen is patron. 
A small part of the parish was cast into the new 
erected parish of Kinloss; and the parish of 
Altyre, formerly annexed to Dallas, was made a 
part of Kafford parish, and the disjunction and 
annexation was ratified in Parliament, anno 
1661. 

The stipend, by decreet in 1752, is 76 bolls 3 
firlots bear, and 349 13s. 4d., whereof 100 merks 
for Communion Elements. [New Kirk built in 
1826.] The salary of the school is legal. Cate- 
chisable persons are about 1200. 

The Protestant Ministers are : 

1. James Rawson, reader in Rafford and Kinloss. [Omitted by Dr. 

Hew Scott in his Fasti Ecc. Scot.} 

2. Alex. Urquhart, min. in Rafford and Kinloss 1568. [1567.] 

3. Alex. Dunbar, min. and sub-chantor 1582. 

4. Robert Dunbar, min. 1597 and 1614. [Adm. before Aug. 1590, 

cont. in 1596.] 

5. [John Straitoun, 1598, trans, to Forres this or next year. 

6. Thomas Forbes, 1601, cont. in 1616.] 

7. John Hay, min. in 1624 [adm. after 13 April], trans, to Fraser- 

burgh 1643. 

8. William Fullerton, ord. 2 April, 1644, died in Feb., 1668. [Aged 

about 60.] 

9. Alex. Fordyce, ord. 8 July [adm. 15 July], 1668, died in Sep., 1715 

[aged about 73]. 

10. James Winchester, ord. 19 April, 1716, trans, to Aldern 1726 
[20 April]. 



PROTESTANT MINISTERS OF RAFFORD AND DALLAS. 411 



11. William Porteous [a relation of Beilby Porteous, Bishop of London], 

ord. 28 Dec., 1727, died 3 Jan., 1738. 

12. Robert Logan [son of Bailie L. Dyer, Forres], ord. 14 Sep., 1738, 

died 16 Aug., 1752. 

13. Duncan Shaw [son of the author of this book], ord. 10 May, 1753 

[D.D., abdic. 1 Sep., 1777, trans, to Aberdeen, 16 Oct., 1783]. 

14. [William Stephen, a native of New Machar, ord. 9 Sep., 1784, died 

9 Sep., 1815, in his 69th year. 

15. George Mackay, son of the Rev. David M. of Reay, ord. 2 May, 

1816. Joined the Free Kirk at the Disruption, D.D., abdic. 
2 April, 1850, died 19 Jan., 1862, in his 71st year. 

16. Hugh M 'In tosh. 1843. 

17. Robert Smith. 1864. 

FREE CHURCH. 

1. David Norris Mackay, born at Rafford ; educ. at King's College, 

Aberdeen, and Edinburgh University, M.A. in 1836. Ord. to 

Lossiemouth in 1844. Trans, from Castleton and Inch to 

Rafford, 19 July, 1860. M. 19 Dec., 1861. Died 26 Jan., 
1875. 

2. John Baird, born at Edinburgh ; educ. at Edinburgh University, and 

New College. Ord. 6 Jan., 1876. 



Dallas, a parsonage, dedicated to St. Michael, 
and the seat of the Sub-dean. SirKobert Gordon 
of Gordonston, is patron. Upon the annexation 
of Altyre to Bafford, Easter Kelless was annexed 
to Dallas, anno 1657 ; and about 1651, 200 merks 
of the Vicarage of Aldern was made, and con- 
tinues to be a part of the stipend of Dallas. The 
stipend, now by decreet 17 , including Com- 
munion Elements, is 700 Scots. [New Kirk 
built in 1794.] There is no legal school. The 
Catechisable persons are about 500. 

The Protestant Ministers are : 

1. William Thomson, reader in Dallas 1567. 

2. John Clark, reader in Altyre and Dallas 1569. 

3. William Patterson, min. and sub-dean 1574. 

[Nos. 2 and 3 ignored by Dr. Hew Scott in his Fasti. Ecc. Scot.] 



412 PROTESTANT MINISTERS OF DALLAS. 

4. [Patrick Cumyng, pres. to the parsonage of Dallas and vicarage of 

Alderne, by James VI. in 1576, demitted prior to 1 Feb., 1586. 

5. George Douglas, reader, 1588. Vide Lhanbryde and Birnie.] 

6. Alex. Richardson [having Altyre also], min. in 1601 and 1617. 

7. George Gumming, ord. [before 4 April] about 1624. [The only min. 

in the Presbytery who refused to sign the Covenant, 28 April, 
1638.] Died [before 3 May] in summer 1648 [aged about 49]. 

8. James Strachan, ord. in winter [before 2 Oct.] 1649, died [10] Oct., 

1671 [aged about 52]. 

9. Alex. Gumming, ord. 6 June, 1672, demitted in 1681 for the Test 

[died 24 May idem.] 

10. George Dunbar [schoolmaster of Auldearn], ord. 13 Oct., 1681 [1682], 

trans, to Nairn 1687. 

1 1 . Thomas Urquhart [son of John U. Laird of Burrisyards], privately 

ord.; was admitted 11 Jan., 1688, died about 1706. 

12. John Crockat, ord. 13 May, 1708, died 21 April, 1748. 

13. Robert Dalrymple [son of the Rev. David D. of Dundurcos], ord. 23 

Feb., 1749, deposed [for fornication], 28 April, 1763. [Reponed 
29 May, 1776, died 20 March, 1778.] 

14. James Hay, ord. Sep. 27, 1763. [Died 19 Oct., 1777.] 

15. [David Milne, son of the Rev. Wm. M. of Kildrummy, ord. 7 July, 

1778, trans, to Edenkillie, 3 June, 1793. 

16. Richard Rose, a native of Nairn, schoolmaster at Cromarty, ord. 

1 May, 1774, trans, to Drainie 9 July, 1816. 

17. Francis William Grant, ord. 26 Sep., 1816, pres. to Dipple and Moy 

22 Aug., 1820, but preferred to remain, and was trans, to Banff 
27 Nov., 1821. 

18. William Tulloch, son of Hugh T., Cromarty, schoolmaster at Nigg, 

ord. 11 April, 1822, died 23 Nov., 1845, aged 70. 

19. John Macdonald. 1846. 

FREE CHURCH. 

William Davidson, born at Rafford ; educ. at King's College, Aberdeen, 
M.A. in 1838. Ord. 8 Aug., 1844. M. 11 Sept., 1861. 

Forres, a parsonage, dedicated to St. Laurence, 
and the seat of the Arch-deacon. The Earl of 
Moray is patron. There was a Chapel ahout a 
mile above the town, and another at Loggie (Vide 
Edenkylie). The stipend, by decreet in 1754, is 
98 bolls of bear, 29 bolls oatmeal, 410, and 80 
Scots for Communion Elements. [New Kirk 
built in 1775.] The salary of the school is legal. 
Examinable persons are 1600. 



MINISTERS AT FORRES. 413 

The Protestant Ministers are: 

1. David Rae, min. in 1653. 

2. John Patterson, reader in 1567. [Omitted by Dr. Hew Scott in his 

Fasti Ecc. Scot.} 

3. Andrew Simpson, min. of Forres and Altyre 1568 [1567. In 1574 

he had also Dyke and Moy. Died prior to 26 Aug., 1585]. 

4. Gavin Dunbar, min. in 1574 and 1579. [Omitted by Dr. H. Scott.] 

5. John Forrester, min. in 1590 [1585, cont. in 1597]. 

6. [John Stratoun, trans, from Rafford, having Edenkeily, Eafford, 

and Ardclach also in his charge : in 1608 the two latter were 
excluded. In 1611, he was cited before George, Archbishop of 
St. Andrews and others of the Privy Council and committed to 
ward in the Castle of Inverness, where he died 20 March, 1613.] 

7. Patrick Tulloch [son of Robert T. of Tarnawheis, became min. at 

Cobham in Surrey, was pres. to the Archdeaconry of Moray by 
James VI., 1 July, 1613], in 1612, died in summer 1646 [before 
14 July, aged about 66]. 

8. Joseph Brodie, from Keith, adm. Dec. 1646, died 27 Oct., 1656 [aged 

about 56]. 

9. Colin Falconer, from Essil, adm. 24 March, 1658, became Bishop [of 

Argyle] 1680 [1679]. 

10. William Law [chaplain to Alex. Earl of Moray], ord. [by the above] 

16 Sep., 1680, dem. [dep. by Privy Council] in 1690. [Drowned 
in the Spey in 1697, aged about 40.] 

11. Thomas Thomson [formerly of Carstairs], ord. about 1693, trans, to 

Turriff 1697 [prior to 6 May]. 

12. [David Pitcairn, min. of Creich, Fife, app. by Gen. Ass. 12 Feb., 

1700, not adm.] 

13. Charles Primrose, from Bellie, adm. [6] Jan., 1708, trans, to Elgin 

1717 [17 April]. 

14. John Squire, ord. 1713, adm. 17 June, 1718, died 27 Jan., 1758 [in 

his 74th year]. 

15. ^Eneas Shaw, from Pettie, adm. 14 Dec., 1758, died 5 July, 1773. 

16. Alex. Watt, from Alves, adm. 23 June, 1774. [Died 14 May, 1791, 

aged 66.] 

17. [John Macdonell, trans, from Edenkeillie, adm. 28 June, 1792, died 

16 April, 1824, aged 68. 

18. Wm. Hoyes, son of the Rev. John H. of Kinloss, schoolmaster of 

Cullen in 1818, ord. 23 Sep., 1824, died 20 Jan., 1827, in his 
31st year. 

19. Duncan Grant, trans, from Alves, adm. 27 Sep., 1827, joined the 

Free Kirk at the Disruption, died 17 March, 1866, in his 76th 
year. 

20. Robert M'Pherson, D.D. 1843. 

21. James Keith, native of Keith. 1853. 

FREE CHURCH. 

Adam Robertson, born at Paisley; educ. at Edinburgh University and 
New College. Ord. 12 Aug., 1852. M. 27 Nov., 1862. 



PARISHES OF TORRES AND EDINKILLIE. 
UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

1st Church built 1772; 2nd built 1813; sittings, 712. 
The foundation stone of a new Church was laid on 8th 
September, 1870, by Colonel the Honourable Jarnes Grant, 
M.P. The accommodation is for 600, and cost nearly 
3000. The Church was opened 26 Nov., 1871, by Rev. 
Dr. M'Ewen, of Glasgow, and Mr. Watson. Opening col- 
lection, 330 17s. 6d. 

1. William Bennet, from Milnathort (Second), ord. 16 Aug., 1774. Died 

29 Nov., 1798. 

2. Thomas Stark, from Falkirk (South), ord. 25 Nov., 1802. Called to 

Potterrow, Edinburgh, U807, and to Kirkwall, 1819, but con- 
tinued in Forres. Died 9 Feb., 1849, set. 70. 

(In 1841 the congregation called Mr. Thomas Stevenson, afterwards 
of Auchtermuchty, but the call was not prosecuted.) 

3. Adam L. Simpson, from Nicolson Street, Edinburgh. Called to Tain, 

Keith, and Forres. Ord. as colleague to Mr. Stark, 1842, 
resigned his charge 3 Feb., 1857, and was appointed Librarian 
of the Theological Hall Library, Edinburgh ; afterwards min. 
of Derby. Author of " The Pleasures of Literature," a Lecture, 
and Funeral Sermon on the Death of his Colleague. 

4. William Watson, M.A., from Aberdeen (St. Nicholas Lane). Called 

to Aberdeen (St. Nicholas' Lane), and Forres. Ord. 5 Nov., 
1857. 

EdinJcillie, a vicarage to the seat of the Arch- 
deacon, and whereon he was patron and titular. 
The Minister of Forres presented Mr. John 
Gumming in 1668, and Mr. David Gumming in 
1672, and the Earl of Moray never presented 
before 1754. I do not find that this parish was 
erected before the Eeformation ; but there was a 
Chapel at Duldavie : and the Chapel of Logie 
Fythenach was the Archdeacon's vicarage. This 
and Ardclach were, for many years, one united 
parish, and were disjoined about 1638. The 
stipend, by decreet in 1764, including Element 
money, is 750 merks, and three chalders, half 
bear, half meal. [New Kirk built in 1741. J 



PROTESTANT MINISTERS OF EDINKILLIE. 415 

There are three charity schools erected in this 
parish. The Examinable persons are about 1200 
The Protestant Ministers are : 

1. Andrew Brown, min. in 1570 [1567, rem. to Altyre prior to 1574]. 

2. Robert Dunbar, min. of Edinkylie and Ardclach in 1624, died in 

1636 [aged about 46]. 

3. David Dunbar [second son to Robert D. of Boath], ord. 8 June, 

1637, to both parishes, trans, to Nairn 1638. 

4. John Dunbar, ord. to Edinkylie 1638, died in Spring 1646 [aged 

about 35.] 

5. Patrick Glass, ord. 1649 [before 2 Oct.], died 18 March 1666 [aged 

about 52]. 

6. John Gumming [third son of J. C. of Relugas, schoolmaster at 

Turriff], ord. 2 Jan., 1668, trans, to Aldern 1672. 

7. David Gumming [fourth son of the above J. C., and brother of the 

preceding, also schoolmaster at Turriff], ord. 25 April, 1672, 
died in summer 1699 [aged about 52]. 

8. Alex. Shaw [probably grandson of the Rev. George S. of Logic], crd. 

6 May, 1702, died 24 June, 1753. 

9. Alex. Coul, ord. 13 March, 1754. [Died 10 July, 1790.] 

10. [John Macdonell, ord. as miss, at Fort Augustus, adm. 10 March, 

1791, trans, to Forres 1 May, 1792. 

11. David Milne, trans, from Dallas, adm. 27 June, 1793, died 3 Jan., 

1807, in his 65th year. 

12. Thomas Macfarlane, trans, from Bressay, Zetland, adm. 1 Oct., 1807, 

died 7 Aug., 1827, in his 54th year. 

13. Peter Ferries, a native of Dumfriesshire, pres. as assistant and suc- 

cessor at Avoch, 25 June, 1816, which was not carried out. 
Ord. 1 May, 1828, died 30 April, 1865, in his 70th year. 

14. John Ferries, 1865. Resigned 1881. 

15. George C. Watt, trans, from Burghead, 1881. 

FREE CHURCH. 

1. Donald Macdonald, born at Inverness, educ. at King's Coll., Aberdeen, 

M.A. 1840, ord. 19 Dec., 1844. M. 1845, died 9 May, 1863. 
Author of "Creation and the Fall," and "Introduction to the 
Pentateuch. " 

2. Alex. Anderson, born at Rhynie, Aberdeenshire; educ. at King's Coll. 

and Free Church Coll., Aberdeen. M.A. 1858, ord. 3 Dec., 
1863. M. 31 March, 1864. 

Moy and Dyke were distinct parishes, till the 
year 1624, when they were united by a decreet 
of the Plat (Syn. Eec.}. [The parish was held 



416 PARISH OF DYKE. 



with Dyke from 1585 till 1608, and united to it 
24 Jan., 1618. The Session Eegister of Dyke 
from 1610 to 1640 went amissing between 1798 
and 1842.] Moy was a parsonage, hut I do 
not find that Dyke was so. Mr. Campbell of 
Calder is undoubted patron of Moy, by a dis- 
position from Alexander Lord Spynie anno 1606. 
Mr. William Falconer seems to have been settled 
at Dyke about 1625; yet, upon a debate about 
teinds, the Earl of Dunfermline presented him 
in 1641, against which Mr. James Campbell of 
Moy protested, and the Synod, in 1642, ordered 
this protestation to be recorded in its proper 
place, in the Eegister of the Presbytery of Forres. 
In 1674, Mr. William Falconer, the Bishop's 
son, was presented by Dunfermline, and the Earl 
of Moray wrote to the Bishop, approving his set- 
tlement (Syn. and Presb. Bee.). Dunfermline, 
as commendator of Pluscarden, and thereby 
heritor or superior of Grangehill, might have 
been patron of Dyke, and forfeited to the Crown; 
but I know not of any right that the Earl of 
Moray has. The stipend is 97 bolls 3 firlots, 
and 500 merks, including Communion Elements. 
[New Kirk at Dyke built in 1781.] The school 
is legal. The family of Brodie has built a con- 
venient house, and mortified a salary, for the 
education of girls. Harry Yause, who had long 
served Major George Grant of Coulbin, mortified 
to this parish 130 sterling, for clothing twelve 



MINISTERS OF MOY, DALAROSSIE, AND DYKE. 417 

indigent boys. He mortified the like sum to the 
Infirmary at Edinburgh, and the same to that of 
Aberdeen, anno 1757. The Examinable persons 
are about 1400. 

The Protestant Ministers are : 

Moy. 

1. William Sutherland, min. [parson and exhorter] in 1564, 1574, and 

1579. [Dep. by Gen. Ass. 30 June, 1564.] 

2. George Simpson, reader at Moy in 1570 [from 1567 to 1591]. 

3. [Thomas Annand, son of John A., Elgin, pres. by James VI. 15 May, 

1584, probably at Keith in 1599.] 

Moy and Dalarossie. 

1. James MacLachlan, adm. 1806, died 1844. 

2. Thomas MacLachlan, ass. and sue. 1838, dem. 1843. 

3. Hector MacKenzie, adm. 1844, died 1871. 

4. Donald M. Simpson, adm. 1872. 

Dyke. 

1. Alex. Duff, reader at Dyke in 1570 [from 1567 to 1585]. 

2. Harry Dundas, min. at Dyke in 1613. [Omitted by Dr. Hew Scott 

in his Fasti Ecc. Scot.] 

3. William Dunbar, min. at Moy in 1613 [pres. to the vicarage by 

James VI. 26 Aug., 1585]. 

4. William Falconer [son of Samuel F. of Kincorth, adm. before 25 Oct., 

1625,] died 18 June, 1674 [aged about 75]. 

5. William Falconer [nephew of Colin afterwards Bishop, schoolmaster 

of Dyke], ord. in England [by Henry Bishop of Oxford], adm. 
23 Sep., 1674, ejected [by the Privy Council] 1690. 

6. Alex. Forbes [trans, from Stewarton], adm. about 1691 [before 

1 April, 1692], died in [April] 1707. 

7. James Chalmers [son of the Rev. Hugh C. of Marnoch], ord. 14 Sep. 

[July] 1709, trans, to Aberdeen in 1726 [30 March]. 

8. Robert Dunbar [of Kirkhill, second son of John D. of Kincorth], 

ord. 28 Sep., 1727. [Died 23 April, 1781.] 

9. [John Dunbar, trans, from Knockando, adm. 6 May, 1788, died 15 

Nov., 1807, in his 71st year. 

10. David Brichan, min. of the Scotch Presbyterian Church, Artillery 

Street, London, 28 Sep., 1803, D.D. St. Andrews in 1807, adm. 
9 June, 1808, died 3 Feb., 1814. 

11. James Smith, ord. 22 Sep., 1814, died 26 May, 1820. 

12. Mark Aitken, ord. in 1816 as min. of the Presbyterian Chapel, Sun- 

derland, adm. 30 Aug., 1821. Joined the Free Kirk at the 
Disruption, died 20 June, 1869, in his 82nd year. 

13. JohnM'Ewen. 1843. 

VOL. III. 27 



418 CHAPELS OF FERNES AND LETHEN ; ARDCLACH. 

FREE CHURCH. 

William Winter, born at Mains, Forfarshire, educ. at Dundee, St. 
Andrews Univ. and New Coll., Edinburgh. M.A. in 1851. Ord. 
5 Feb., 1857. M. 3 June, 1857. 

The General Assembly [28 May], 1773, dis- 
joined from Forres, the parishes of Ardclach, 
Auldern, and Nairn ; from Inverness, Calder and 
Croy ; and from Chanonry, Ardersier; and erected 
these six into the 

PRESBYTERY OF NAIRN. 

[The Register begins 27 July, 1773, and is con- 
tained in 2 vols.] 

Ardclach, a vicarage whereof the Minister of 
Eaiford was titular, and probably patron. Brodie 
of Lethen, as patron of Eafford, acted as patron 
of Ardclach. I do not find, that ArdcJach was 
called a parish before the Keformation; the 
Chapels of Femes and Lethen, depending on the 
Dean of Aldern, seem to have been the places of 
worship, and the Church of Ardclach was built 
in 1626. [Eebuilt in 1762.]* The stipend, by 
agreement, is a chalder of meal, and 620 merks, 
including Element money. There is a legal school. 
And the Examinable persons are about 900. 

The Protestant Ministers since the disjunction 
are as below. 

1. William Brown, reader in 1570 [from Lammas 1569 to 1579]. 

2. William Simpson, vicar in 1588 [from 1580 to 1590]. 

3. Donald MacPherson, ord. [bef. 3 April] 1638, trans, to Calder in 

1642 [bet. 11 Jan. and 5 April]. 

* [Because inconvenient it was re-erected by the Plat 13 
Feb., 1650. See Note p. 431 explaining Plat] 



PROTESTANT MINISTERS OF ARDCLACH. 419 

4. George Balfour, ord. [bef. 4 Oct.] in 1642, died 4 Jan., 1630 [aged 

about 64]. 

5. Patrick Grant [brother to the Laird of Grant], ord. 12 Aug., 1680. 

died [bef. 20] Sep., 1715 [aged about 63]. 

6. John Duncanson, ord. 13 Sep., 1716, trans, to Pettie in 1728 [11 

June]. 

7. William Baron [miss, at Inveravon and Glenlivat], adtn. 24 April, 

1729. [Died 27 Jan., 1779, in his 86th year. He married Jean 
Grant, by whom he had 16 children. He had the honour to 
join in marriage the parents of Henry MacKenzie, the author 
of the " Man of Feeling."] 

8. [William Shaw, born at Clachaig in Kilmorie, Arran, ord. 14 Oct., 

1779. Demitted 1 Aug., 1780, for a living in the Church of 
England. Great Gaelic scholar. 

9. Donald Mitchell, prom, from the Little Church, Elgin, adin. 3 May, 

1781, died 22 June, 1811, in his 62nd year. He had six sons 
and two daughters, one of the former (James Errol M. ) was 
born blind, deaf, and dumb, of whom notices are given in the 
Proceedings of the Royal Society, Edinburgh, 1812 and 1815. 

10. Hugh Macbean, miss, at Ullapool, adm. 10 Sep., 1812. M. Ann 

Fraser, Inverness. Died 17 Sep., 1851, aged 74. 

11. Colin M'Kenzie, born at Rogart Manse; educ. at King's College, 

Aberdeen. Ord. in Feb., 1850. M. in Jan., 1854, Eliza Isa- 
bella, daughter of the late Rev. John M'Kenzie, minister of 
Lochcarron. 

FREE CHURCH. 

1. Henry M'Leod, educ. at Invergordon and Aberdeen. Ord. 16 Aug., 

1844. Died 19 Feb., 1876. 

2. Alex. MacDonald, born 28 Dec., 1838; educ. at Stornoway and Glas- 

gow University. Ord. 6 Aug., 1872. M. 9 Oct., 1872. 

Auldearn, a parsonage, and the seat of the 
dean. [The Church was dedicated to St. Columba.] 
In 1650, some parts of this large parish were 
annexed to Nairn, Calder, and Ardclach. The 
patronage was disponed by Lord Spynie to Dun- 
bar of Grange, and by him to Hay of Park, from 
whom it came to the family of Brodie. The 
stipend, by decreet in 1755, is 6 chalders, half 
bear, half meal, 400 merks, 10 merks for the 
Dean's Crook, near Elgin, 14 wedders, and 60 
for Communion Elements. [New Kirk built in 



420 PARISH MINISTERS OF AULDEARN. 

1757, repaired in 1816.] The school is legal. 
Examinable persons are about 1400. 
The Protestant Ministers are : 

1. Alexander Dunbar, Dean of Moray, in 1560, 1574, and 1586. 

2. William Reoch, exhorter at Aldern and Nairn, in 1570. 

3. [Nicol Howeson, trans, from Dunnichen, in 1574. 

4. James Rait, 1585, cont. in 1590, trans, to Bervie.] 

5. Thomas Dunbar [trans, from Nairn], min. and dean in [1591] 1613. 

[Cont. in 1616.] 

6. John Brodie [third son of David B. of B.], min. and dean in [1622] 

1624, died 7 Jan., 1655. 

7. Harry Forbes from Wick, adm. 10 Oct., 1655, dem. in 1663. [He 

witnessed several remarkable confessions of witches.] 

8. George Hannay, from Inveravon, adm. 24 July, 1664, died in 1669 

[aged about 68]. 

9. John Cummine, from Edinkylie, adm. 14 Feb., 1672, dem. in 1682. 

[Afterwards at Cullen.] 

10. Thomas Kay [is said to have been a " notorious drunkard "], ord. in 

the south [at Aberdeen 22 April, 1683], adm. 17 April, 1683, 
expelled [by the Privy Council] in 1690. 

11. Alexander Dunbar [schoolmaster here. Afterwards chaplain and 

tutor in the family of Rose of Kilravock. Ord. prior to July 
13, 1678. Imprisoned in 1684, and banished by the Privy 
Council in March, 1685. Imprisoned same year on the Bass 
Rock. Died after 3 years' illness, 29 Oct., 1707, aged about 57. 
He gave ijc for Com. cups]. Adm. [before 1 May] in 1690, died 
in 1708. 

12. David Henderson, ord. 13 Sep., 1709, died in June [July], 1727. 

13. James Winchester, from Rafford, adm. 12 May, 1726, trans, to Elgin 

1730 [22 April]. 

14. Alexander Irvine, from St. Andrews, adm. 7 Jan., 1731, trans, to 

Elgin 1735 [10 July]. 

15. Donald [Daniel] Munro, ord. 23 Sep., 1736, trans, to Tayne in 1745 

[17 April]. 

16. Thomas Gordon, from Cabrach, adm. 12 Feb., 1747. [Died 25 Nov., 

1793, in his 84th year.] 

17. [John Paterson, adm. 28 Aug., 1794, died unmarried, 13 Dec., 1813, 

in his 42nd year. 

18. William Barclay, son of Charles B., Auchterless, ord. 28 Sep., 1814. 

Joined the Free Kirk at the Disruption, died 4 June, 1857, in 
his 67th year. 

19. Charles Fowler. Ord. and died in 1843. 

20. James Reid, born at Dunblane; educ. at Glasgow University. Ord. 

in 1844. M. Widow Mary Falconer, daughter of the late Robt. 
Skene, Skene Park, Nairnshire. Died in 1873. 

21. James Bonallo, born at Ardoch ; educ. at Edinburgh University. 

Ord. in 1874. 



AULDEARN; U.P. MINISTERS AT BOGHOLE. 421 

FREE CHURCH. 

1. William Barclay. Died 4 June, 1847. 

2. William G. Forrester ; educ. at Normal School, Edinburgh, and 

Edinburgh University. Ord. 29 April 1858. 

UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

Moyness, formerly Boghole, in the Parish of Auldearn. 
Met in summer in the courtyard, and in winter in the 
vault of the ruined Castle of Moyness, till 1753, when 
they took possession of a place of worship they had built 
for themselves in the vicinity : 2nd Church built 1777. 
3rd built 1848 ; sittings, 420. 

1. Alexander Troup, located as a missionary to the Seceders in the 

shires of Moray and Ross, 1746 ; adhered, with all the persons 
to whom he ministered, to the General Associate (Antiburgher) 
Synod at the breach, 1747. Ord. as minister of the united 
congregations of Elgin and Boghole, 1748. Trans, to Perth, 
1763. 

(After Mr. Troup's translation, the congregations of Elgin and Bog- 
hole were disjoined, and each of them obtained a minister for 
itself.) 

2. Henry Clerk, from Abernethy, ord. 11 Aug., 1763. Died 15 June, 

1809, jet. 76. 

(During the vacancy of six years, occasioned by the death of Mr. 
Clerk, the congregation called Mr. Gilmour, who was appointed 
by the Synod to South Shields, and the Rev. Mr. Wood, pre- 
viously of Ratteray, then a probationer. The Rev. T. Stark, 
of Forres, preached to the congregation during the long vacancy 
from 80 to 90 times. 

3. David Anderson, from Perth (North), ord. 15 April, 1815. Res. 

25 Jan., 1839 ; emigrated to America, bcame minister of a con- 
gregation in Carlisle, Philadelphia. Died of apoplexy in one of 
the streets of Philadelphia, 1841, zet. 56. 

(The congregation called on James Morison, who preferred Kilmar- 
nock ; Andrew Gardner, afterwards of Kincardine, who declined 
the call. 

4. John Whyte, from Kinross (West), called to Broughty Ferry and 

Boghole. Ord. 24 March, 1842. Author of "The Sabbath 
Established and Vindicated.." 

Nairn, a vicarage, anciently Capella de Inner- 
narin, depending on the Dean of Moray, who was 
patron and titular. In 1687, Mr, George Dunbar 
was presented by the Dean (Eec. Preslijtery of 
Forres) ; and now the Laird of Brodie, as patron 



422 PARISH MINISTERS OF NAIRN. 

of Aldern, claims the right, and did present in 
1759. The Virgin's Chapel at Geddes was built 
anno 1220, and in 1475, Pope Sextus IV. granted 
a Bull, dispensing with a hundred days of penance, 
for every visit paid to it, on the Day of Assump- 
tion, Nativity, &c., or for repairing the building 
(Pen. KilravocJc). 

The stipend, by decreet, is 80 bolls of bear, 
500, and 50 for Communion Elements. The 
school is legal. Examinable persons are about 
1300. 

The Protestant Ministers are : 

1. John Young, exhorter in 1578 [1567]. 

2. William Reoch, exhorter in Aldern and Nairn in 1570. [Omitted by 

Dr. Hew Scott in his Fasti Ecc. Scot.} 

3. [John Ross, reader, in 1574. 

4. Walter Ross, in 1576. 

5. James Smith from 1578 to 1580. 

6. Thomas Dunbar, 1590, trans, to Auldearn same year. ] 

7. Andrew Balfour, min. in 1598 [1597. Cont. in 1601. Trans, to 

Cawdor before 1607. 

8. George Makesonn, 1608, trans, to Wigton prior to 1614.] 

9. John Sanders, min. in 1624 [1616], died about 1637. 

10. David Dunbar, from Edinkylie, adm. [after 3 April], 1638, died 1662. 

[21 Feb., aged about 49.] 

11. Hugh Rose [eldest son of David R. of Earlsmill], ord. 4 Jan., 1660, 

as assist., died [7] Dec., 1686 [aged about 53]. 

12. George Dunbar, from Dallas, adm. 25 May, 1687, died Dec., 1728 

[aged about 76]. 

13. Alexander Rose, ord. 7 July, 1730, died 16 Dec., 1757. 

14. Patrick Dunbar [a native of Auldearn], ord. 12 April, 1759. [Died 

19 July, 1782. 

15. [John Morrison, a native of Mortlach, schoolmaster at Nigg, adm. 

11 May, 1788, died 26 Dec., 1830. 

16. James Grant, son of the Rev. Alex. G. of Cawdor. Educ. at King's 

Coll., Aberdeen. Ord. 13 July, 1815. M. Christina M'Intosh 
in 1818. Died 14 Dec., 1853, in his 64th year. 

17. James Burns, born at Cambusnethan. Educ. at Glasgow Uniy. 

Ord. at Levern, Paisley, in 1852. Trans, in 1854. M. Jane 
Isabella, daughter of Peter M'Dougall, Banker, Nairn, in 1874. 



FKEE AND U.P. MINISTERS AT NAIRN. 423 



FREE CHURCH. 

1. Alex. M'Kenzie, ord. 16 Nov., 1843, trans, to Edinburgh, 15 Oct. 

1863. 

2. Murdoch MacDonald, educ. at Inverness and Glasgow, ord. 23 Sep., 

1864, trans to Toorak, Australia, 3 Oct., 1875. 

3. Alexander Lee, M.A., educ. at Inverness High School and Edinburgh 

Univ., 7th June, 1878. 

UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

1st Congregation 1769; 2nd Church built in 1815, cost 
820, sittings 512; 3rd Church built in 1852, cost 1,600, 
sittings 825. 

1. Henry Clerk, from Abernethy, ord. for Boghole and Nairn, 1763. 

Ceased connexion with Nairn in 1769. 

2. Isaac Ketchen, from Alloa (First), called to Cabrach and Nairn, ord. 

at Nairn 13 April, 1780. Became son-in-law to Brodie of 
Brodie, from whom he refused two livings in his patronage to 
the Established Kirk. Called in 1816 to Stroiisay, but declined. 
Died at Nairn 12 May, 1820, et. 70. 

3. James Mein, from Blackfriars', Jedburgh, ord. 30 Jan., 1822, died 9 

June, 1841, aet. 30. 

(The congregation called George MacKenzie, afterwards of Carnoustie ; 
and T. Stevenson, afterwards of Auchtermuchty). 

4. John Bisset, from Erskine Church, Arbroath, ord. 27 Sep., 1843. 

Called to Lethendry, but declined. 

5. G. K. Heughan, ord. 1876. 



Ardersier, a parsonage in the Presbytery of 
Chanonrie, and the seat of the Sub-Dean of Boss. 
The Laird of Calder is patron, by a right from 
Keith of Eavenscraig anno 1599. (Pen. Calder). 
This parish was annexed to the Synod of Moray 
in 1705, but soon after disjoined. The stipend is 
80 bolls of victual and about 50 of vicarage. 
[New Kirk built in 1781-2. Eemoved to another 
site about 1769.] The Examinable persons with- 
out the precinct of the fort are about 400. There 
is no school. 



424 PARISH MINISTERS AT ARDERSIER. 

And the Ministers, since the Eevolution in 
1688, are : 

1. [The Incumbent was formerly Dean of Ross. 

2. John Smith, reader, Nov., 1569. Disc. 1571. Replaced and cont. 

till 1579. 

3. William Pape in 1580. 

4. James Lauder, 1597. Rem. from Kilmuir Wester. Afterwards at 

Avoch. 

5. Thomas Urquhart, son of John U. of Cromarty, 1599. Cont. in 

1615. 

6. Patrick Durhame, trans, from Idvie in 1628. Cont. 17 July, 1655. 

He had the vacant stipends for 1658-9, and was also pres. to the 
Deanery of Ross, a separate benefice all because of his com- 
plaint of being dep. by that Synod after a service of 30 years. 

7. John M'Culloch, dep. by the Privy Council 1 Oct., 1662.] 

8. John Dallas, Sub-Dean in 1688. Died about 1693. [Adm. before 

18 April, 1665. Depr. by Act of Parl. 25 April, 1690.] 

9. Lauchlan MacBean, from Calder, adm. 1695. Deprived in 1706 

[before 6 Dec. for immorality]. 

10. Hugh Campbell, ord. [7 Aug.] 1707. Trans, to Kiltearn in 1708. 

11. Donald Beaton, [eldest son of Kenneth B. of Leabost] ord. [24 Sep.] 

1713. Trans, to Rosekene in 1717 [26 March]. 

12. Alexander Falconer, [schoolmaster at Cromarty] ord. [10 June] 1718. 

Trans, to [Urquhart and Logic Wester 26 Nov.] Ferntosh in 
1728. 

13. Duncan Macintosh, ord. [25 Sep.] 1729. Died in 1736 [6 June, 1738]. 

14. James Calder, ord. [8 May, 1740] in 1737. Trans, to Croy 1747 [24 

March]. 

15. Donald Brodie, ord. 11 May, 1749. Trans, to Calder 1752 [20 Nov.] 

16. Harry Gordon, ord. 5 April, 1757. Died March 15, 1764. 

17. Walter Morrison, [miss, at Glenlivet] ord. [1 Feb.] 1763. Adm. 

Sept. 27, 1764. [Died 14 May, 1780, aged about 44. He was 
nicknamed "Witty Watty."] 

18. [Pryse Campbell, a native of Mearns, ord. 23 March, 1781. Died 1 

Feb., 1840, in his 86th year. 

19. John Matheson. 1839. 

20. Simon Fraser, born at Kilmorack Manse ; educ. at King's College, 

Aberdeen; ord. 1841. M. 1841, Cath. Noble, Inverness. Trans, 
to Kilmorack in May, 1846. 

21 . William Forsyth, born at Cromdale ; educ. at King's College, Aber- 

deen ; ord. Oct., 1846. Trans, to Dornoch in April, 1853. 

22. Evan Ross, born at Killearnan ; educ. at King's College, Aberdeen, 

and Edinburgh: ord. at Paisley in 1852. Trans, in 1853. M. in 
1855, Jane, daughter of the late Joseph Ewing, surgeon, Fort- 
George. 



BRAAVEN OR CALDER PARISH. 425 

FREE CHURCH. 

1. John Mathieson. Died 12th Nov., 1848. 

2. Donald Cameron, ord. 21st Nov., 1849. Trans, to Kirkmichael 3rd 

May, 1853. 

3. Alex. Cameron; Glasgow; ord. 19th Jan., 1854. 

Cawdor y a parsonage dedicated to St. Ewan, 
whereof the Laird of C alder is patron, "by a dis- 
position from the Lord Spynie anno 1606. The 
parish was called Bar-Ewan, i.e., Saint, or Ex- 
cellent Ewan. The Church stood in the south 
end till the year 1619. [Formerly the name was 
Braaven, and was changed to C alder or Cawdor 
in 1619.] Sir John Camphell, heing in danger 
by water coming from Yla, vowed, if he arrived 
safe at C alder, he would build a Church in the 
centre of the parish, which he performed that 
same year. 

There was at Old Calder a Chapel of Ease. In 
the court of the castle was a Private Chapel, and 
at Dallas in the Streins was a Free Chapel, with 
a glebe and a proper stipend. 

The east end of this parish was disjoined from 
Aldearn and annexed to Calder in 1650. 

The stipend, by decreet in 1722, is 20 bolls 
bear, 20 bolls meal, 550 merks, and 50 for Com- 
munion Elements. The school is legal. Ex- 
aminable persons 700. 

The Protestant Ministers are : 

1. Allan Macintosh, exhorter in 1568. Parson [pres. 19 June, 1569] in 

1581 and 1586. [Cont. in 1591.] 

2. [Normond Duncan, 1592, having also Croy, Moy, and Dacus. Trans. 

to Mortlach. 



426 PROTESTANT MINISTERS OF CALDER. 

3. Allan Macintosh, noticed above, returned in 1595. Cont. in 1599. 

4. John Macintosh, 1601.] 

5. Andrew Balfour, [trans, from Nairn] min. in 1623 [1607]. Died 

about 1625 [after 25 Oct.]. 

6. Gilbert Henderson, [Anderson, adm. before 30 Oct., 1647] in 1626. 

Trans, in 1641 [to Cromarty between 5 Oct., 1641, and 11 Jan., 
1642]. 

7. Donald MacPherson, from Ardclach, adm. in 1642. Died in Dec., 

1686 [26 Nov., aged about 72. In 1643 a complaint was made 
to the Privy Council against him and the Tutor of Calder for 
" waking a woman the space of 20 days naked, with nothing on 
her but sackcloth, under a charge of witchcraft."] 

8. Lauchlan MacBean, [schoolmaster at Nairn 29 March, 1682] ord. in 

Sep., 1687. Trans, to Ardersier 1695. 

9. James Chapman, [son of Robert C., merchant, Inverness] ord. 1699. 

Trans, to Cromdale in 1702 [14 Oct.]. 

10. John Calder, ord. 1704 [14 March, 1705]. Died in March, 1717. 

11. Lauchlan Shaw, from Kingusie, adm. 19 Nov., 1719. Trans, to 

Elgin 1734 [17 April]. 

12. Patrick Grant, ord. 7 May, 1735. Trans, to Urray in 1749 [13 May]. 

13. Donald Brodie, from Ardersier, adm. 13 May, 1752. Died 21 May, 

1771 [aged 47]. 

14. Kenneth MacAuly, from Ardnamarchan, adm. 17 Nov., 1772. [Died 

2 March, 1779, in his 56th year.] 

15. [Alexander Grant, trans, from Daviot and Dunlichty. Adm. 30 

March, 1780. Died 28 June, 1828, in his 85th year. 

16. Alexander Fraser, son of the Rev. Donald F., Kirkhill, ord. 20 Nov., 

1828. Trans, to Kirkhill 12 Jan., 1837. 

17. Simon Fraser M 'Lauchlan, trans, from Suizort. Adm. 28 July, 

1837. Joined the Free Kirk at the Disruption. Adm. to the 
Free Church, Kenmore, same year, but retired here in 1844. 

18. George Campbell, ord. 1843. Trans, to Tarbat, Ross-shire, in 1845. 

19. Lewis M'Pherson, born at Knockando ; educ. at King's College, 

Aberdeen; ord. at Inch, Abernethy, in 1837. M. Rachel Reid, 
Cawdor, in 1846. M. 2nd, FJiz. Bury in 1869. Died in 1876. 

20. Thomas Fraser, born at Boharm; educ. at King's College, Aberdeen; 

ord. at Seafield, Fordyce, in 1873 ; inducted in 1876. 

FREE CHURCH. 

1. S. F. M 'Lauchlan (still senior minister). 

2. John M'Pherson, born at Portree; Glasgow; ord. 26th Oct., 1876. 

Croy and Dalcross were distinct parishes, and 
have still a glebe in each, but I find not how 
early they were united. Croy was a parsonage, 
on which Moy in Strathern depended as a vicar- 



PARISHES OF CROY AND DALCROSS. 427 

age. Dalcross was a vicarage, depending on the 
Prior of Urquhart, and in 1343 there was an 
agreement between the Prior of Urquhart and 
the Baron of Kilravock that the Vicar of Dealg- 
an-Eoss, now Dalcross, should officiate in the 
Private Chapel of Kilravock. (Pen. Kilrav.} 
The Laird of Calder is patron of Dalcross, by a 
disposition from Alexander, Earl of Dunfermline, 
and Lord Urquhart in 1610; and he likewise 
claims the Patronage of Croy, for Kilravock has 
few acts of possession. 

There was in the south of the parish a Chapel 
of Ease, called Kil-Doich, i.e., Dorothy's Church; 
another in the north at Chapeltoun ; and probably 
there was at Kilravock a Chapel dedicated to one 
of the name Eavok. The stipend, by decreet, is 
5 chalders bear, 500 merks, and 50 merks for 
Communion Elements. [New Kirk built in 1767.] 
The school is legal. Examinable persons 1800. 

The Protestant Ministers are : 



1. James Vause, reader at Croy and Moy 1567 [from Candlemas 1567 

to 1586]. 

2. Patrick Lyddel, minister at Croy in 1585. 

3. James Vause, from [Daviot and] Dunlichtie, adm. in 1618. Died in 

1660 [Sept.]. 

4. Hugh Fraser, ord. in Dec., 1662 [17 June, 1663]. Died about 1699. 

[Accused of bigamy, and dep. by General Assembly in 1700.] 

5. Alexander Fraser, ord. in spring [18 Feb] 1703. Trans, to Ferntosh 

in 1715. [Trans, to Urquhart and Logic Wester 4 May, 1708, 
but cont. here till 1715.] 

6. Ferchard [Farquhar] Beaton, [third son of Kenneth B. of LeabostJ 

ord. in winter 1718 [18 Feb., 1719]. Died in Feb., 1746 [6 Feb., 
aged 52], 

7. James Calder, from Ardersier, adm. 28 April, 1747. [Died 24 Dec., 

1775, in his 65th year.] 



428 PROTESTANT MINISTERS AT INVERNESS. 

8. [Hugh Calder, son of the former, ord. 24 Sept., 1778. Died 31 Aug., 

1822, in his 78th year. 

9. Alexander Campbell, born at Ardersier ; educ. at King's College, 

Aberdeen. Trans, from Cores. Ord. 3 July, 1823. M. Beat- 
rice M'Rae. Died 10 Jan., 1853, in his 74th year. 

10. Thomas Fraser, born at Kirkhill; educ. at King's College, Aberdeen; 
ord. in 1853. M. 1861, Anne Robertson, daughter of the late 
Rev. Dr. Farquharson, Alford, Aberdeenshire. 

FREE CHURCH. 

Adam G. M'Leod, born at Kildonan; educ. at Aberdeen; ord. 20 March, 
1856. 

PRESBYTERY OF INVERNESS. 

Moy and Dalarasie were distinct parishes, and 
there is still a glebe in each. How early they 
were united I find not. Kilravock, as Patron of 
Croy on which Moy depended, claims the patron- 
age, but I know not by what right. The stipend 
is 800 merks and 50 merks for Communion Ele- 
ments. [New Kirk built at Moy in 1765, and 
another at Dalrossie in 1790, in both of which 
there is preaching alternately.] There is no 
school. The Examinable persons are 1,000. 

The Protestant Ministers are : 

1. Andrew Dow Fraser, [reader at Dalarossie or Tallarassie from 1574 

to 1576. Removed from Boleskine 1614. Cont. at Dalarossie 
in 1616, Bullesken being also in charge. Removed to Moy 
prior to 1616. Trans, to Abertarff prior to 25 Oct., 1625.] Trans, 
to Boleskin in 1624. 

2. Lauchlan Grant, ord. [before 30 Oct.] 1627. Trans, to Kingusie in 

1649 [after 3 April]. 

3. Roderick MacKenzie [from Elgin] ord. [prior to 21 May, 1654] in 

1653. Died in Feb., 1680 [after the 4th]. 

4. Alexander Gumming, ord. in May, 1680. Died 27 April, 1709. 

[Though a Jacobite, he cont. after the Revolution.] 

' 5. James Leslie, ord. [23] Aug., 1716. Died 28 Oct., 1766. 

6. James Macintosh, [schoolmaster at Cawdor and miss, in Strathearn], 

ord. 14 July, 1767. [Dep. for fornication 28 May, 1787. Died 
9 May, 1799, in his 72nd year.] 

7. [William M'Bean, adm. 5 Aug., 1788. Trans, to Alves 18 Sept., 

1792. 



PARISH MINISTERS OF MOT AND DALAROSSIE. 429 



8. Hugh M'Kay, son of Angus M'K. in Kinloch, merchant in Glasgow, 

schoolmaster at Tongue, miss, at Halkirk. Adm. 25 April, 
1793. Died 7 March, 1804, aged about 42. 

9. James M'Lachlan, prom, from the Gaelic Chapel, Edinburgh. Adm. 

3 Sept., 1806. Died 10 Nov., 1843, in his 76th year. 

10. Thomas M'Lachlan, youngest son of the former, ord. (assist, and 

succ.) 19 April, 1838. Joined the Free Kirk at the Disruption. 
Adm. to Dores Free Church in 1844, and to Edinburgh Free 
Gaelic Church in 1849. LL.D. Aberdeen in Nov., 1864. 

11. Hector M'Kenzie. 1844. 



Daviot and Dunlichtie were distinct parishes, 
united about the year 1618, and the Minister has 
a glebe in each. Dunlichtie was a parsonage, of 
which the Laird of Calder is patron. Daviot was 
a common [or mensal] Kirk. The Bishop pre- 
sented Mr. Alexander Fraser in 1664, and having 
presented Mr. Michael Fraser in 1673, Calder 
obliged the Bishop to annul the settlement, to 
declare the Church vacant, and then Calder pre- 
sented the same Mr. Michael Fraser. (Eec. 
Preslt. of Inverness.) The stipend, including 
Communion Elements, is 1,000 merks. [New 
Kirk built in 1826.] The school is legal. Mac- 
Phail of Inverarnie has mortified 400 merks, and 
Macintosh of Farr 300 merks for the poor. Ex- 
aminable persons are about 1,000. 

The Protestant Ministers are : 

1. John Dow MacDonachie, [M'Condoquhy] reader, 1569. 

2. [John Stewart, reader in 1574. 

3. Robert Mosman, reader from 1576 to 1578. 

4. John Ross, reader from 1579 to 1585.] 

5. Hugh Gregory, parson of Lundichty, 1579. 

[Nos. 1 to 5 omitted by Dr. Hew Scott in his Fasti Lcc. Scot.]. 

6. James Vause, [trans, from Dunlichty], parson in 1613. Trans, to 

Croy in 1618. 



430 PARISH MINISTERS OF DAVIOT AND DUNLICHTY. 

7. Alexander Thomson, [formerly at Cores] min. in 1625 [1623]. Dep. 

in 1646 [prior to 6 Oct.]. 

8. Alexander Rose [natural son of William Rose of Clava]; ord. [before 

5 Oct.] 1647. Died in 1660 [after 2 Oct.]. 

9. Alexander Fraser, [trans, from Abbotshall] ord. 31 Aug., 1664. 

Deprived 1672 for Non-conformity [19 Oct.]. 

10. Michael Fraser, [schoolmaster at Thurso] ord. 19 Feb., 1673. Died 

in April 1726. [Admonished by Synod 24 Nov., 1675, to abstain 
from all limning and painting, which diverted him from his 
ministerial duties. ] 

11. James Fraser, ord. 13 March, 1729. Died 18 June, 1736. 

12. John Campbell, ord. 14 Jan., 1738. Died 4 Nov., 1759. 

13. Patrick Grant, ord. [8] 22 April, 1761. Trans, to Boleskin 10 May, 

1770. 

14. Alexander Grant, [son of the Rev. George G. of Kirkmichael, miss. 

at Fort William] adm. 2 April, 1771. [Trans, to Cawdor 7 
Dec., 1779.] 

15. Alex. Gordon, adm. 19 April, 1781. Died 3 April, 1801. 

16. James Macphail, prom, from the Gaelic Chapel, Aberdeen. Adm. 

13 May, 1802. Died July, 1839, aged 73. 

17. John Clark, adm. 1843. Trans. 1844. 

18. Dugald M'Kitchan, adm. 1845. Died 1858. 

19. James M'Donald, adm. 1839. 

Pettie and Brachlie were distinct charges, and 
have distinct glebes. Petty is a parsonage, dedi- 
cated to St. Coluim [Columba], and Brachlie a 
vicarage depending thereon. The Earl of Moray 
is patron. The stipend is 80 bolls bear, 500 
merks, and 50 merks for Communion Elements. 
The school is legal. The Examinable persons are 
about 1,100. 

The Protestant Ministers are : 

1. Andrew Braboner, exhorter in 1568 [1567]. 

2. [John Gordoun, 1574, having also Brachley, to which it "was united 

ofauld." Cont. in 1579.] 

3. James Dunbar, parson in 1579 [1580. Cont. in 1591.] 

4. Donald MacQueen in 1613. Died about 1630. [Pres. by James VI. 

10 May, 1596. Died 22 Aug., 1630.] 

5. Alexander Fraser, ord. [prior to 6 May] 1633. Died in summer [30 

April] 1683. 



PARISH MINISTERS OF PETTY AND BRAUCHLIE. 431 



(!. Alexander Denune, ord. privately [23 March]. Adm. 20 April, 1684. 
Deposed [19 June] 1706 [for swearing, drunkenness, &c.]. Died 
1718 [26 Jan., 1719, aged about 61.] 

7. Daniel MacKenzie, from Inveravon, adm. 8 Oct., 1719. Trans, to 

Inverness 1727 [3rd charge, 3 Oct.]. 

8. John Duncanson, from Ardclach, adm. 18 June, 1728. Died 6 May, 

1737. 

9. Lewis Chapman, from Alvie, adm. [6 June], 1738. Died 19 April, 

1741 [in his 36th year]. 

19. ^Eneas Shaw, from Comrie, adm. 8 June, 1742. Trans, to Forres in 
1758 [31 Oct.]. 

11. John Morison, [a native of Speymouth] ord. an itinerant [21 Jan., 

1746, as miss, at Amultree]. Adm. 21 Aug., 1759. Died [9] 
Nov., 1774 [in his 73rd year.] 

12. [William Smith, a native of Rafford, ord. 5 Sept., 1775. Died 15 

Nov., 1833, in his 87th year. At one time he contemplated to 
publish a Revision of this present Work. 

13. John Grant, assist, to the former, ord. assist, and succ. 24 July, 

1834. Joined the Free Kirk at the Disruption. Adm. to the 
Free Church, Roseneath, same year. Died 2 Sept., 1855. 

14. Colin M'Kenzie, adm. 1843. Trans. 1858. 

15. John Fraser, adm. 1859. 



Inverness is a parsonage, dedicated to the 
Virgin Mary, [and previous to the Eeformation 
belonged to the Abbey of Arbroath. The High- 
land or Parish Church was taken possession of 
by the Presbyterians in 1691, and rebuilt in 1794. 
The English Church was built in 1772, and the 
West Church in 1835], and in 1618 the parish of 
Bona, likewise a parsonage, was annexed to it by 
the Plat.* Lord Spynie, patron of Bond, did, in 
1623, dispone his right to Fraser of Strichen, 
who, as vice-patron, presented Mr. John Anand 
in 1640, and the Synod of Moray in 1648 found 
that the other vice belonged to the Crown. Yet, 
after this, the family of Seafort claimed a vice, 

* The word Plat means such Members of Parliament as were 
appointed to modify stipends, annex, or disjoin parishes. 



432 PATRONS OF THE PARISH OF INVERNESS. 

but by what right I find not ; and in 1674 the 
Lord Kintail presented Mr. Gilbert Marshal. 
But in a Sub-Synod at Forres in 1674 the Bishop 
produced two letters to him from the Primate 
discharging him to plant the Church of Inverness 
upon Seafort's presentation. And yet in 1688 
Seafort presented Mr. Hector MacKenzie. (Eec. 
of Syn. and Presb. of Inverness.) Now, by the 
forfeiture of Seafort and of Lord Lovate, to whom 
it is said Strichen had sold the patronage with 
his lands, both vices have come to the Crown, 
and the third charge is a Eoyal gift, the patronage 
of which, without doubt, is in the Crown. I have 
not found two Ministers in Inverness before 1638. 
For many years after the Eeformation few towns 
had more than one Minister, one manse, and one 
glebe, but a second glebe and manse at Inverness 
were obtained as follows : "Messrs. John Annand 
and Murdoch MacKenzie, with consent of Strichen 
the patron, and James Cuthbert of Drakies Pro- 
vost, and James Eose of Markinsh one of the 
Bailies, Commissioners from the Town, and Pres- 
bytery of Inverness, in the General Assembly 
held at Aberdeen, in August 1640, did, with the 
approbation of the Assembly, agree, that the 
whole stipend, due to the said Ministers, for the 
year 1640, with the sum of 700 merks advanced 
by the Magistrates, should be laid out in pur- 
chasing a manse and glebe, for the said Mr. 
Annand, and his successors in office, which was 



SCHOOLS AND LIBRARY AT INVERNESS. 433 

accordingly done." This Deed is at large recorded 
in the Synod Eegister, Ad Annum 1651, page 
201, &c. The stipend of two Ministers, by 
decreet in 1755, is to each 84 bolls, 1 firlot, 2 
pecks, 2 lippies of meal, and 491 6s. 8d., with 
50 to each for Communion Elements. In the 
year 1706 a living for a third Minister was obtained 
as follows : Mr. Eobert Bailie, one of the Mini- 
sters, understood not the Irish language, and Mr. 
Hector Mackenzie, the other Minister, was super- 
annuated, by which means the Irish people were 
totally neglected, wherefore the Queen, by her 
Royal gift, dated 4th October, 1706, granted out 
of the rents of the Bishoprick of Moray the sum 
of 881 Is. 6d. Scots annually, as a maintainance 
for a third Minister, but he has no allowance for 
a manse, or glebe, or Communion Elements. 

The three Ministers are colleagues, keep one 
general session or consistory, and agree upon a 
partition of their ministerial work. 

There are in the town a Grammar School, and 
a School for teaching English, writing, arithmetic, 
&c.; and the Charity School, erected by the 
donation of Mr. John Earning of Norwich, mer- 
chant, who mortified 1,200 sterling, is fixed in 
this town. 

There is a valuable Library, the donation mainly 
of Dr. Bray and Mr. James Eraser, son of Mr. 
Alexander Eraser, some time Minister at Pettie, 

who not only gave many books, but likewise a 
VOL. in. 28 



434 HOSPITAL OF INVERNESS ; SUCCESSION OF MINISTERS. 

sum of money to purchase more and afford a 
salary for a keeper of the library. 

The principal stock of the Hospital of Inver- 
ness in bonds, lands, fishing, at Martinmas 1746, 
was 2,303 3s. 9fd. sterling. Item, a separate 
rent paid out of the Weigh House and Hospital 
Garden annually, 3 6s. 8d. sterling. The Laird 
of Macintosh's Mortification in the trust of the 
Hospital Treasurer is of principal 166 13s. 4d. 
sterling. George Duncan's Mortification is 200 
Scots annually, whereof one half towards repair- 
ing the Church, and the other to maintain boys 
at Eaining's School. 

With respect to the succession of Ministers I 
have not found any Minister in Bona before the 
junction of the parishes, except Mr. Thomas 
Innes, who was patron of Bonaw in 1598. Mr. 
William Cloggie was brought to Inverness in 
1620 and served with faithfulness till 1640; when 
some of the heritors and magistrates entered a 
complaint against him before the Synod of Moray, 
from which he was honourably assoilzied, but 
judged himself so ill used that he would serve no 
longer in that town, and therefore demitted his 
charge. Of Mr. Angus M'Bean's conduct I shall 
speak afterwards. At the Eevolution Mr. John 
MacGilligin preached for some time at Inverness, 
lout was not settled, and died 8th June, 1689. 
Likewise Mr. James Eraser of Brae preached 
there for some time, but was not settled Minister. 



PARISH MINISTERS IN INVERNESS. 435 

The number of Examinable persons in town and 
parish to landward is about 6,000. 
The Protestant Ministers are : 

1. Thomas Howeson, min. in 1568 and 1590. 

2. Thomas Innes, parson of Bona in 1598. 

3. James Bishop, min. in 1617. 

4. William Cloggie, from Inveravon, aclm. in 1620. Dem. in 1640. 

5. George Munro, Irish [Erse] minister, ord. 1638. Dem. in 1640 for 

want of maintainance. 

<J. Murdoch MacKenzie, from Contane, adm. 1640. Trans, to Elgin in 
1645. 

7. John Annand, from Dunbenan, adm. 1640. Died in Nov., 1660. 

8. Duncan MacCulloch, ord. 1642. Trans, to Urquhart 1647, for want 

of maintainance. 

9. William Fraser, ord. 1648. Died in Sept., 1659. 

10. James Sutherland, ord. in April, 1660. Died in Sept., 1673. 

11. Alexander Clerk, ord. in April, 1663. Died in Sept., 1683. 

12. Gilbert Marshal, from Cromdale, adm. in Sept., 1674. Died about 

1690. 

13. Angus MacBean, privately ord. Adm. 29 Dec., 1683. Demitted 

in 1687. 

14. Hector MacKenzie, from Kingusie, adm. 2 May 1688. Died 14 

June, 1719. 

15. Robert Bailie, from Lambinton, adm. in 1701. Died 11 Feb., 1726. 

16. William Stewart, from Kiltearn, adm. in 1705. Trans, to Kiltearn 

in 1726. 

17. Alexander MacBean, from Douglas, adm. Nov., 1720. Died 2 Nov.," 

1762. 

18. Alexander Fraser, from Ferntosh, adm. 4 April, 1727. Died 6 May, 

1750. 

19. Daniel MacKenzie, from Pettie, adm. 10 Oct., 1727. Died 21 

March, 1730. 

20. William Bailie, ord. 22 July, 1731. Died 14 May, 1739. 

21. Murdoch MacKenzie, from Dingwal, adm. 13 July, 1742. Died 7 

April, 1774. 

22. James Grant, ord. 14 April, 1752. Died 14 Dec. that same year. 

23. Alexander Fraser, from Avoch, adm. 13 Nov., 1754. 

24. Robert Rose, ord. 27 Sept., 1763. 

25. Watson, from Kiltearn, adm. 1775. 

REVISED FROM DR. HEW SCOTT'S "FASTI EOC. SCOT." 

1. [Thomas Houston or Howeson. Orders from the Church of Rome. 
Joined the Reformers. Settled prior to 1567. In 1585 Farnua 
was joined to the charge, and in 1590 Bonoch was also added 
Died 9 Feb., 1605. 



436 PARISH MINISTERS IN INVERNESS. 

2. James Bischop, pres. by James VI. , 21 July, 1617. 

3. William Cloggie, trans, from Inveraven. Adm. in 1620. After- 

wards at Spynie. 

4. Murdo M'Kenzie, trans, from Contin. Elected 1 June, 1640. Trans. 

to Elgin in 1645. Bishop of Moray 18 Jan., 1662. 

5. John Annand, trans, from 2nd charge, 1645. Died in Nov., 1660, 

aged about 63. 

6. James Sutherland, trans, from 2nd charge, 166- . Died in Sept., 

1673, aged about 41. 

7. Alexander Clerk, trans, from 2nd charge. He gave j merks towards 

building the bridge founded in 1681. Died in Sept., 1683, aged 
about 58. 

8. Angus M'Bean, son of M'B. of Kinchyle, 1683. Dep. and imprisoned 

for abjuring Episcopacy. Died in Feb., 1689, in his 33rd year. 

9. Hector M'Kenzie, trans, from Kingussie. Adm. 2 May, 1688. Died 

14 June, 1719, aged about 74. 

10. William Stuart, trans, from 3rd charge. Adm. 26 Jan., 1720, 

Trans, to Kiltearn 9 May, 1726. 

11. Alexander M'Bean, trans, from 3rd charge. Adm. 4 April, 1727. 

Died 2 Nov., 1762. 

12. Murdoch M'Kenzie, trans, from 2nd charge. Adm. 2 May, 1763, 

Died 7 April, 1774, aged 74. 

13. Robert Rose, trans, from 3rd charge. Adm. 4 Dec., 1774. Died 2 

Aug., 1799. 

14. Patrick Grant, trans, from Boleskine. Adm. 2 Sept., 1800. Trans. 

to Kiltarlity 4 Nov. , same year. 

15. Alexander Fraser, trans, from 2nd charge. Adm. 3 March, 1801. 

Died 20 May, 1821, in his 70th year. 

16. Thomas Fraser, trans, from 3rd charge. Adm. 6 Nov., 1821. Died 

3 Feb., 1834, aged 69. 

17. Alexander Clark, trans, from 3rd charge. Adm. 17 June, 1834. 

Died 6 May, 1852, aged 55. 

18. Donald M'Donald, D.D. Trans, from 2nd charge, 1852. 

Second Charge. 

1. John Annand, adm. after 13 April, 1624. Trans, to Kinore between 

25 April and 25 Oct., 1627. 

2. Alexander Clark, 16. Died 13 Sept., 1635. 

3. George Munro, ord. after 3 April, 1638. Demitted for want of 

maintenance after 3 June, 1640. 

4. John Annand, above mentioned, re-trans, from Kinore, 1640. Trans. 

to 1st charge in 1645. 

5. Duncan M'Culloch, trans, from 3rd charge. Adm. in 1645. Trans. 

to Urquhart and Glenmoriston bet. 6 April and 5 Oct., 1647. 

6. William Fraser, ord. before 3 April, 1649. Died 22 Nov., 1659. 

7. James Sutherland, ord. before 3 April, 1660. Trans, to 1st charge. 

8. Alexander Clerk, trans, from Latheron. Adm. in April, 1663. 

Trans to 1st charge in 1674. 



PARISH MINISTERS IN INVERNESS. 437 

9. Gilbert Marshall, trans, from Cromdale. Adm. 9 Sept., 1674. Died 
26 Feb., 1691, aged about 46. 

N.B. John M'Gilligan, of Alness, late min. of Fodderty, preached 
some time after liberty was given to the Presbyterians, but was 
not settled. Died 8 June, 1869. 

Alexander Sutherland, chaplain to Livingston's Regt., was called 
30 Aug., 1691, but neither was he adm. 

Wm. Stuart likewise officiated, but was called to Kiltearn in 1693. 

James Fraser, of Brea, min. of Culross, also officiated for a consider- 
able time, was called in Sept., 1696, and requested to get one of 
the Churches for himself, 8 Nov., 1698, but did not get possess- 
ion, and cont. in his charge at Culross. 

10. Robert Baillie, trans, from Lamington. Adm. after 28 Feb., 1701. 

Died of consumption 11 Feb., 1726. Got calls from Keith in 
1699, Gladsmuir in 1710, London in 1711, and Rotherdam in 
1714 and again in 1724. 

11. Alexander Fraser, trans, from Urquhart and Logic Wester. Adm. 

4 April, 1727. Died 6 May, 1750, in his 76th year. 

12. Murdoch M'Kenzie, trans, from 3rd charge. Adm. 5 Feb., 1751. 

Trans, to 1st charge 10 March, 1763. 

13. Alexander Fraser, trans, from 3rd charge. Adm. 1763. Died 12 

Jan., 1778, aged about 69. 

14. George Watson, trans, from 3rd charge. Adm. 7 July, 1778. Died 

5 Feb., 1798, aged about 63. 

15. Alexander Fraser, trans, from 3rd charge. Adm. 3 July, 1798. 

Trans, to 1st charge 3 March, 1801. 

16. Alexander Rose, trans, from 3rd charge. Adm. 7 April, 1801. D.D. 

Edinburgh, 23 Dec., 1825. Demitted 5 March, 1850. 

17. Donald M'Donald, assist, and success. 1842. Trans, to 1st charge, 

1852. 

18. Alexander M'Gregor, adm. 1853. 

Third Charge 

Was erected in 1641 in consequence of the Minister of the Second 
Charge not having Gaelic. 

1. Duncan M'Culloch, ord. prior to 4 Oct., 1642. Trans, to 2nd charge 

in 1645. 

2. William Stuart, trans, from Kiltearn. Adm. after 9 April, 1705. 

Trans, to 1st charge 4 April, 1727. 

3. Alexander M'Bean, trans, from Douglas. Adm. 6 Dec., 1720. Trans. 

to 1st charge 4 April 1727. 

4. Daniel M'Kenzie, trans, from Petty. Adm. 10 Oct., 1727. Died 21 

March, 1730, aged about 49. This was his 6th cure. 

5. William Baillie, son of the Rev. Robert B. of the 2nd charge, ord. 

22 July, 1731. Died 17 May, 1739, in his 35th year. 

6. Murdoch M'Kenzie, trans, from Dingwall. Adm. 13 July, 1741. 

Trans, to 2nd charge 5 Feb., 1751. 

7. James Grant, son of the Rev. George G., of Kirkmichael, ord. 14 

April, 1752. Died unmarried 14 Dec., same year. 



438 PROTESTANT MINISTERS IN INVERNESS. 

8. Alexander Fraser, trans, from Avoch. Adm. 13 Nov., 1754. Trans. 

to 2nd charge in 1763. 

9. Robert Rose, ord. 27 Sept., 1763. Trans, to 1st charge 4 Doc., 1774. 

10. George Watson, trans, from Kiltearn. Adm. 20 Dec., 1775. Trans. 

to 2nd charge 7 April, 1778. 

11. Alexander Fraser, ord. 22 Sept., 1778. Trans, to 2nd charge 3 July, 

1798. 

12. Alexander Rose, adm. 18 Sept., 1798. Trans, to 2nd charge 7 April, 

1801. 



13. Thomas Fraser, adm. 15 Dec., 1801. Trans, to 1st charge 6 Nov., 

1821. 

14. Alexander Clark, schoolmaster at Alves. Ord. 21 March, 1822. 

Trans, to 1st charge 17 June, 1834. 

15. Robert Macpherson, ord. 23 Sept., 1834. Died at Ventnor, 6 Oct., 

1841, in his 32nd year. 

16. Simon M'Intosh, adm. 1842. Trans. 1843. 

17. Donald M'Connachie, adm. 1844. Trans. 1848. 

18. Hugh M'Kenzie, adm 1848. Died 1860. 

19. Duncan Stewart, adm. 1860. Trans. 1862. 

20. John Stewart, adm. 1862. Died 1870. 

21. Peter Robertson, adm. 1871. Trans. 1874. 

22. Lachlan MacLachlan, adm. 1874. Trans. 1877. 

23. David Cameron, adm. 1878. Trans. 1879. 

24. Charles MacEchern, adm. 1879. 

Chapel of Ease or East Churcli. 

Erected in 1798, became a Quoad Sacra Parish by the Act of Assembly 
31 May, 1834. 

1. Ronald Bayne, formerly of the Chapel of Ease, Elgin, entered prior 

to 4 Aug., 1800. Prom, to Kiltarlity 5 May, 1808. 

2. Donald Martin, min. of Kilmuir, Skye, elected 14 July, 1808. Prom. 

to Abernethy 15 Aug., 1820. 

3. Robert Findlater, son of R. F., merchant, Drummond, Kiltearn, 

ord. as miss, at Lochtayside. Entered 31 May, 1821. Died 7 
Sept., 1832, in his 47th year. 

4. Fiulay Cook, min. of Cross, Lewis, entered in Nov., 1833. Trans. 

to Reay, 7 July, 1835. 

5. David Campbell, trans, from Glenlyon. Adm. 17 Nov. 1836. Trans. 

to Tarbat, 30 Aug., 1838. 

North Church. 
Erected as an extension or Quoad Sacra Parish. 

Archibald Cook, ord. as miss, at Berriedale or Bruan. Adm. 31 Aug., 
1837. Joined the Free Kirk at the Disruption. Became min. 
of the Free Church, Daviot, in 1844. Died 6 May, 1865, in hi 
75th year.] 



U.P. AND EPISCOPAL MINISTERS IN INVERNESS. 439 

UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

First Church (now extinct). 

This congregation originated in the itineracies of the Rev. Mr. 
Buchanan of Nigg, about the year 1780. 

1. ^Eneas M'Bean, ord. 31 Nov., 1790, suspended from office 27th April, 
1810, and died in 1824. The congregation became extinct in 
1810. 

Union Street. 

Twenty persons formerly connected with the First Congregation, 
Inverness, formed a second, by applying for and obtaining, supply of 
sermon from the General Associate ( Antiburgher) Presbytery of Elgin , 
in 1817. Church built 1821 ; sittings, 650. A new Church was built in 
Union Street in 1864, containing sittings for 700, at a cost of 3,000. 

1. James Scott, D.D., from Pitcairngreen, ord. 21 March, 1821. D.D. 

from Monmouth College, Illinois, in Sep., 1871. 

2. George Robson, M.A. from Glasgow (Wellington Street), of which 

his father was minister. Called to Dennyloanhead and Inver- 
ness. Ord. at Inverness, as colleague to Mr. Scott, 14 Nov., 
1866. 

Queen Street. 

1. Alexander Munro, ord. 9 July, 1833, as Gaelic miss., and inducted 

8 March, 1842. Died 13 Dec., 1854. 

The congregation was for some years supplied by Mr. Adam Gordon, 
miss. Died in 1871. 

2. Donald Ross, from Nigg, ord. 22 Aug., 1860. Died 20 July, 1871. 

A call was given in April, 1872, to Rev. Alexander C. M'Donald, late 
of Thanesford, Canada, which the Synod set aside. 

ST. ANDREW'S CATHEDRAL, INVERNESS. 

In Oct., 1866, the Archbishop of Canterbury (Dr. Long- 
ley) laid the foundation stone, in the presence of about 70 
Bishops and Clergy, and an immense concourse of people. 
On 1 Sep., 1869, the Cathedral was opened for Divine 
Service, when six Bishops were present, among whom 
were Bishop Wilberforce of Oxford, and Bishop Cloughton 
of Rochester, who preached at the morning and evening 
services respectively. The Cathedral was consecrated by 
the Primus on Michaelmas Day, 1874, 6 other Bishops 
beiDg present and about 36 Clergy. The Bishop of Deny 
(Dr. Alexander), preached in the morning, and Bishop 
Douglas of Bombay at Evensong. 

The following Clergy have held office in the Cathe- 
dral : 



440 CLERGY OF ST. ANDREW'S CATHEDRAL, INVERNESS. 

Henry Clarke Powell, M.A. of Oriel College, Oxford, Provost from 

1869-1877. 
William Roughead, M.A. of Trin. Coll., Cambridge, Canon from 

1869-1874. 
Edward Shuttleworth Medley, B.A. of Univ. of Fredericton, New 

Brunswick, Canon and Precentor in 1877. 

Frederic Dobrec Teesdale, M.A. of New Coll., Oxford, Head Master of 
the College, Inverness, Canon 1875-1881. 

Ernest Thoyts, M.A. of Oriel Coll., Oxford, Canon 1879-1881. 

Assistant Clergy. 

Robert Allan Eden, M.A. of Christ Ch., Oxford, 1869-1871, and again 
in 188L 

Henry Ley Greaves, M.A. of St. Cath. Coll., Cambridge, 1876-1879. 

Durris, a parsonage in the gift of the Prior of 
Urquhart, and now the Laird of Calder, is patron 
by a Disposition from Alexander, Earl of Dun- 
fermline, Lord Urquhart in 1610. The stipend 
is 48 bolls of meal, 650 merks, with 50 merks for 
Communion Elements. The school is legal. 
Examinable persons are about 1100. 

The Protestant Ministers are : 

1. James Dow [Duff?], reader in Durris and Boleskin in 1567. 

2. [Soul or Souerane M'Phail, reader from 1574 to 1580. 

3. Andrew M'Phail, trans, from Kingussie, having Boleskine also in 

charge. Cont. in 1601. Removed to Boleskine prior to 1607.] 

4. Alexander Thomson, min. at Durris 1617. [Adm. prior to 30 May. 

Subsequently at Daviot.] 

5. Patrick Dunbar, min. in 1613. Died in 1658 [aged about 63.] 

6. William Cummine, ord. in 1663 [prior to 3 April], trans, in 1664. 

[Subsequently at Halkirk. ] 

7. James Smith, ord. in March [prior to 3 April], 1666, demitted in 

1682, on account of the Test. [Died at Edinburgh, 23 Nov., 
1718, aged about 80.] 

8. Thomas Fraser [brother to the Laird of Belladrum] ord. privately. 

Adm. 11 March, 1683. Died in May, 1729 [3 March.] 

9. Archibald Bannatyne, from Ardchattan, adm. 14 Sep., 1731. Died 

20 June, 1752. 

10. John Grant, miss, at Fort- Augustus, ord. 1 May, 1753. [Died un- 

married 17 November, 1784, aged 59.] 

11. [John M'Kilican, a native of Croy, miss, in the parish of Boleskine, 

and also at Fort-Augustus. Adm. 23 Sep., 1785. Died 13 
June, 1819, aged about 75. 



PARISH MINISTERS OF DURRIS AND KIRKHILL. 441 

12. Alexander Campbell, teacher in Inverness Academy in 1818 ord. 28 

March, 1820. Trans, to Croy 12 June, 1823. 

13. David Fraser, promoted from Rothesay Chapel of Ease, adm. 25 

Sep., 1823. Trans, to Nigg, Ross-shire, 29 March, 1843. Died 
8 June, 1865, in his 71st year. 

14. Peter M'Naughton, adm. 1844. Resigned 1846. 

15. Ewen M'Kenzie, adm. 1846. Trans. 1848. 

16. James M'Naughton, adm. 1848. 

KirJchill, formerly the parishes of Wardlaw 
and Fearnua, a parsonage dedicated to the Virgin 
Mary. This Church stood formerly at Dunbalach, 
a mile up the river, and was dedicated to St. 
Maurice. I have seen, in the hands of Mr. 
Fraser of Dunhalach, a Papal Bull, dated anno 
1210, for translating the Church of Mauritius 
from Dunbalach [Dunbathlach] to Wardlaw. 

Wardlaw parish made the west end of the pre- 
sent parish, and Fearnua (in Irish Eagluis Fear- 
naic, so called either from some legendary saint, 
or from Fearn, i.e., " The Alder-tree," which 
abounds there) made the east end; and they 
were united in 1618. Lord Lovate was, and the 
King now is, patron. 

The stipend is, including Element money, 56 
bolls, half bear and half meal, 400 merks, and 
vicarage worth 150 merks. The school is legal. 

The number of Examinable persons is 800. 

The Protestant Ministers are : 

1. Sir William (an ecclesiastic Knight) Dow Fraser at Wardlaw, died 
about 1588. [Omitted by Dr. Hew Scott in his Fasti Ecc. Scot.] 

V. Donald Dow Frazer at Wardlaw [1574] from 1589 to 1600. [Kil- 
morack and Kintallartie being also in the charge. Trans, 
from Kilchrist about 1530. Ret. prior to 1590. Abertarff is 
attached in 1599, after which his name disappears.] 



442 PROTESTANT MINISTERS OF KIRKHILL AND FARNUA. 

3. Andrew MacPhail at Fernua anno 1589. Died about 1606. [No- 

ticed below under Farnua.] 

4. Bartholomew Eobertson [trans, from Lhanbryde. Adm. prior to- 

1603] at Wardlaw, from 1601 to 1610. 

5. John Houston, ord. in 1611. Died in Dec., 1659. 

6. James Eraser [of Phoppachie, son of Wm. F., M.D.] ord. in 1661. 

Died in Oct., 1709 [aged about 75.] 

7. Robert Thomson, from Clyne, adm. 22 April, 1717. [Proposed for 

the parish of Eafford in 1728.] Died 30 April, 1770 [in his 
85th year.] 

[N.JB. George Mark, pres. in 1770. Objected to for deficiency of 
Gaelic.] 

8. Alexander Fraser [son of the Rev. Donald F. of Urquhart and Logie 

Wester], ord. May 5, 1773. [D.D., Aberdeen, Sep., 1801. 
Died 13 Jan., 1802, in his 53rd year.] 

9. [Donald Fraser, son of the former, ord. 28 Sep., 1802. Died 12 

July, 1836, in his 54th year. 

10. Alexander Fraser, trans, from Cawdor, adm. 26 Jan., 1837. Joined 

the Free Kirk at the Disruption. 

11. Alex. M'Naughton, adm. 1843. Resigned 1847. 

12. Ewen M'Kenzie, adm. 1848. 

Farnua. 

1. [Andrew Brabnie, or Braboner, alias M'Phail, was exhorter at 

Pettie and Brathollie in 1567. Pres. to the parsonage of this 
parish by James VI., 18 June, 1569. Urquhart, Glenmoriston, 
and Bonoch were also in the charge in 1574. Died prior to 
6 Nov., 1575. 

2. Andrew M'Phail, reader at Petty and Brachlie in 1574. Pres. to 

the parsonage by James VI. 6 Nov., 1575, and also to the 
vicarage 22 April, 1581. Trans, to Kingussie same year.] 



Kiltarlaty and Convetli seem to have been dis- 
tinct parishes, but how early united I find not. 
Conveth was a vicarage depending on the Priory 
of Beaulie. Kiltarlaty, a parsonage dedicated to 
St. Thalargus. Lord Lovat was, and the King 
now is, patron. The stipend, by decreet in 1635, 
is 48 bolls meal, 300 merks, 400 merks vicarage,, 
and 30 merks for Cummunion Elements. [New 
Kirk built in 1829.] The salary of the school is 
legal. Examinable persons are 1600. , 



PARISHES OF KILTARLATY, CONVETH, AND URQUHART. 

The Protestant Ministers are : 

1. [Robert Makrudder, reader and vicar, from 1574. Died in 1575. 

2. John Wright, reader, from 1576 to 1591.] 

3. William Fraser [adm. prior to 13 April] in 1624. Died in winter, 

1665 [after 3 Oct.] 

4. Hugh Fraser, ord. in 1667. Died about 1708. [Cont. after the 

Revolution. Died prior to 19 Sep., 1716, in his 73rd year.] 

5. Patrick Nicolson, ord. 16 July [8 Aug.], 1716. [Called to Strath 

and Sleat 18 Sep., 1722, but declined.] Died 7 March, 1761. 

6. Malcolm Nicolson [youngest son of the former], ord. 24 Sep., 1761. 

[Died 4 Jan., 1791, in his 55th year.] 

7. [John Fraser, prom, from the Gaelic Chapel, Glasgow. Adm. 10' 

May, 1792. Died 21 June, 1800, aged about 50. 

8. Peter Grant, trans, from Inverness, adm. 23 Dec., 1800. Died 12 

June, 1807, aged 74. 

9. Ronald Bayne, prom, from Inverness Chapel of Ease, adm. 5 May. 

1808. D.D. Aberdeen, 2 July, 1809. Died 31 Jan., 1821, 
aged about 66. 

10. Colin Fraser, miss, at Brae-Badenoch, Brae-Lochaber, and Fort- 

Augustus, Adm. 8 May, 1823. Died 8 August, 1853, in 
his 71st year. 

11. David Ross, adm. 1855. 



PRESBYTERY OF ABERTARF. 

Urquhart and Glenmoriston. The former is a 
parsonage dedicated to St. Mary, and the other 
was a Chapel dedicated to St. Eichard. Urquhart 
was always dependent on, and in the gift of the 
Chancellor of Moray, and now the Laird of Grant 
as patron of Inveravon, the seat of the Chancel- 
lor, acts as patron of Urquhart. Attempts have 
been made to unite Glenmoriston and Abertarf 
into one parish, but have failed for want of a 
maintenance. The stipend of Urquhart is 800 
merks, and 50 merks for Communion Elements. 
There is no school. The number of Examinable 
persons is about 1600. 



444 PARISHES OF URQUHART AND GLENMORISTON. 

The Protestant Ministers are : 

1. [James Forrester, exhorter in 1567.] 

2. James Farquharson, exhorter, 1568. [Omitted in Dr. Hew Scott's 

Fasti Ecc. Scot.} 

3. [John M'Allan 1586. Cont. in 1591.] 

4. Alexander Grant [adm. prior to 13 April] in 1624. Died in 1645 

[aged about 54.] 

5. Duncan M'Culloch, from [2nd charge] Inverness, adm. [between 6 

April and 6 Oct.] 1647. Deposed [same date] 1658. Reponed 
[before 26 April] 1664, and demitted [after 1 Oct.] 1670. 

6. James Grant, ord. 10 April, 1673. Trans, to Abernethie [Inverness- 

shire] in 1685 [after 15 Nov.] 

7. Robert Munro, ord. in 1676 to Glenmoriston and Abertarf. Died 

about 1688. [Omitted by Dr. H. Scott.] 

8. Robert Cummine, privately ord., adm. 24 Oct., 1686. Died in 1729 

[between 14 Jan. and 3 April, 1730, aged about 70.] 

9. William Gordon [alias M'Gregor, schoolmaster at Kingussie, cate- 

chist in Laggan] ord. 24 December, 1730. Trans, to Alvie 
[1 Aug.] 1739. 

10. John Grant, ord. [at Kilmore 14 Jan., 1741. Died 8 Dec., 1792. 

11. [James Grant, nephew of the former, ord. (assistant and successor) 

13 May, 1777. Died at Elgin 15 Oct. , 1798, in his 43rd year. 

12. James Fowler, miss, at Fort-Augustus, adm. 26 March, 1799. Died 

25 May, 1814, in his 55th year. 

13. James Doune Smith, son of the Rev. Wm. S. of Petty, miss, at 

Grantown. Adm. 20 April, 1815. Died 27 June, 1847, in 
his 66th year. 

14. Donald M'Connachie, adm. 1848. 

15. John Cameron, adm. 1864. 



BolesJcin and Abertarf were distinct parishes. 
I find Gilihride Parsona de Abertarf, before the 
year 1216. James Dow, vicar, sold the vicarage 
of Abertarf to the tutor of Lovate, about the year 
1570, and for want of a living, Abertarf was 
annexed to Boleskin [14 July, 1614, at least 
prior to 1618.] In 1676 it was disjoined from 
Boleskin, and ecclesiastically united with Glen- 
moriston ; but the civil sanction was not obtained, 
and therefore Abertarf was again annexed to 



PARISHES OF BOLESKINE, ABERTARF, AND LAGGAN. 445 

Boleskin about the year 1688. Lord Lovate was, 
and the Crown now is, patron. The stipend, 
about 1764, was augmented to 1300 merks. 
[New Kirk built in 1777.] There is no school. 
Examinable persons are 1150. 
The Protestant Ministers are : 

1. James Dow [or Duff], exhorter in Durris, Boleskin, and Abertarf 

[Londichtie, Daviot, Tallaracie, and Moy] 1569 [1574. Cont. 
in 1580.] 

2. [Andrew M'Phail, trans, from Dorres, having also in charge Moy, 

Dacus, and Lundichtie, 1607. Died 7 July, 1608.] 

3. Andrew Dow Fraser, from Moy, adm. about 1624. Murdered by 

the Irishes 1646 [between 2 April, 1644, and 6 Oct., 1646, at the 
instigation of some of his parishioners, because he obtained an 
order for a legal glebe.] 

4. Thomas Houston, ord. [between 5 Oct. , 1647, and 4 April] in 1648. 

Died about 1704. 

5. John Morison, from Glenelg, adm. [3 Dec.] 1706. Trans, to Urray 

in 1710 [to Gairloch 2 Jan., 1711. 

6. Thomas Fraser, ord. in March, 1714 [25 Nov., 1713.] Died 10 

Feb., 1766. 

7. Patrick Grant, from Daviot [and Dunlichty], adm. 1770 [10 May. 

Trans, to Inverness 12 Aug., 1800. 

8. William Fraser, miss at Fort-William, adm. 25 Nov., 1800. Died 

7 June, 1840, aged 77. 

9. Donald Chisholm, adm. 1840. 
10. Malcolm M'Intyre, adm. 1859. 

Laggan, a mensal Church dedicated to St. 
Kenneth. The Bishop was patron and settled 
the parish jure proprio. Now the King is pro- 
perly patron, and the family of Gordon has no 
act of possession. This parish was sometimes by 
the Bishop annexed to Alvie, that he might draw 
the more teinds from it. Mr. James Lyle served 
long in both parishes, and, it is said, understood 
not the Irish language, such penury was there of 
Ministers having that language. Upon his de- 



446 PARISH MINISTERS OF LAGGAN. 

mitting, the parishes were disjoined, but were 
again united [by Murdoch M'Kenzie, Bishop of 
Moray] in 1672, and so continued to the death 
of Mr. Thomas MacPherson. [It was again dis- 
joined and re-erected in 1708.] About the year 
1767 the stipend was augmented to 1260 merks. 
[New Kirk rebuilt in 1785.] There is no school. 
The number of Examinable persons is 1100. 
The Protestant Ministers are : 

1. Alexander Clark, exhorter in 1569. [Entered reader at Lammas 
1569. Exhorter in Nov. Pres. to the parsonage and vicarage 
by James VI. 27 Sep., 1574. Died prior to 6 Nov., 1575.] 

"2. [John Dow M'Quhondoquhy, reader at Lundichtie and Daviot in 
Nov. , 1569. Pres. to the parsonage and vicarage by James VI. 

6 Nov., 1575. Cont. in 1589.] 

3. James Lyle, min. of Laggan and Alvie, long before 1624. Demitted 

for age in 1626. [Formerly of Ruthven.] 

4. Alexander Clark [adm. prior to 3 April] in 1638. Deposed [before 

5 Oct.] 1647. [Master of the Grammar School of Kingussie 
in 1652.] 

5. James Dick, ord. to Laggan and Alvie [prior to 4 Oct.] 1653. De- 

posed [by the Bp. and brethren for drunkenness 15 Nov.] 1665. 

6. [William Robertson, adm. prior to 1 Oct., 1667. Trans, to Crathie 

and Kindrocht or Braemar after 6 April, 1669.] 

7. Thomas MacPherson, in 1672. [Omitted by Dr. Hew Scott in his 

Fasti Ecc. Scot.] 

S. John Mackenzie, from Kingussie, adm. [prior to 31 May] 1700. 
Died in 1745 [27 April.] 

9. Duncan MacPherson [miss, at Glenroy, &c. Trans, to Mull in Oct. , 
1744.] Ord. April [adm. 16 Sep.], 1747. Died 13 Aug., 1757 
[aged about 46.] 

10. Andrew Gallie [a native of the parish of Tarbat, miss, at Fort- 

Augustus. Adm.] 6 Sep., 1758. [Trans, to Kincardine, Ross- 
shire, 18 Aug., 1774.] 

11. [James Grant, miss, at Fort- Augustus, adm. 20 Sep., 1775. Died 

3 Dec., 1801. 

12. John Matheson, miss at Badenoch and Lochaber 19 Sep., 1791, ord. 

3 April, 1792, as assist, to the Rev. Alex. Watt of Forres, 011 
whose death he went back to his former mission. Adm. 11 
Aug., 1802. Died 1 Dec., 1808, in his 49th year. 

13. Duncan M'Intyre, a native of Fort- William, miss, here or at Mary- 

burgh 13 July, 1784. Subsequently miss, at Kilmuir, in Skye, 
at Laggan and Glennurchy, and at Glencoe 7 Aug. , 1806. Adm. 

7 Sep., 1809. Trans, to Kilmalie 26 March, 1816. 



PARISH MINISTERS OF LAGGAN. 447 

14. William Robertson, miss, at Fort-William, adm. 3 Sep., 1816 

Trans, to Kinloss 19 June. 

15. George Shepherd, son of Thomas S., farmer, Fordyce, a native of 

Rathven, schoolmaster at Kingussie, miss, at Fort-William. 
Adm. 16 Nov., 1818. Trans, to Kingussie and Inch 11 May^ 
1825. 

16. Macintosh Mackay, son of Capt. Alex. M. of Duarbeg, schoolmaster 

at Portree, ord. 27 Sep., 1825. LL.D. Glasgow 1829. Trans, 
to Dunoon and Kilmun 22 March, 1832. Joined the Free 
Kirk at the Disruption. Elected Moderator of the Free General 
Assembly, 24 May, 1849. Sailed for Australia in 1853. Adm. 
to Melbourne Gaelic Church in 1854. Also to a congregation at 
Sydney in 1856. Returned to Scotland in 1861. Admitted to 
the Free Church, Tarbert, Harris, in 1862. 

17. Donald Cameron, schoolmaster at Southend in 1815, and admonished 

for cruelty to the scholars, by the Presbytery, 28 June, 1816. 
Ord. as miss, at Glengairn 31 March, 1824. Adm. 1 Aug., 
1832. Died 19 April, 1846, in his 54th year. 

18. William Sutherland, adm. 1846. 

19. John M'Leod, adm. 1851. 

20. Donald M'Fadyen, adm. 1869. 

The number of Catechisable persons, of seven or eight 
years of age and upwards, as contained in the 
above account, is - - 57,678 

To which, if, for children under that age, we add one 

fifth more, viz., - 11,535 



The number of souls in this Province is - - 69,213 

I cannot say that this number is strictly exact, 
but if there be any error, it must be but small. 

4th. THE STATE OF RELIGION IN THIS PROVINCE FROM 

THE REFORMATION. 

I shall now conclude these Collections, with a 
succinct account of the state of Eeligion in this 
Province, from the Reformation anno 1560, to 
this time. 

How early the first dawning of the Reforma- 
tion of religion appeared in Scotland, I will not 
pretend to determine. It cannot be denied, that 



448 THE CULDEES, WALDENSES, AND ALBIGENSES. 

the Keledees remained in this kingdom in the 
beginning of the 14th century; and it may he 
supposed, that the purity of doctrine and wor- 
ship, and the simplicity of government maintained 
by them, were the seeds of the Eeformation in 
this kingdom. 

Be this as it will, it is certain that the scanda- 
lous schism in the Church of Kome, of a long 
continued series of Anti-Popes, and the gross 
corruption both of the doctrine and manners that 
everywhere prevailed, were the more immediate 
causes of the downfall of Popery. 

In every age, from the days of the Apostles, 
there were some who openly maintained the pure 
doctrines of Christianity. In the 12th century? 
the Waldenses and Albigenses made an avowed 
secession from the Eomish Church. The bar- 
barous persecution of these faithful witnesses, 
long continued, verified, " That the blood of 
martyrs is the seed of the Church." Their doc- 
trine spread through many kingdoms of Europe, 
and in England John Wickliff openly taught it 
in the 14th century, and his disciples carried 
it into Germany and France, and no doubt into 
Scotland. In England, the Eeformation began 
right early, in the reign of King Henry VIII., 
anno 1533, by renouncing the Pope's authority. 
And in 1542, many of the Scots nobility and 
gentry being made, or rather surrendering them- 
selves, prisoners at Solway Moss, and remaining 



PAUL CHAW, PATRICK HAMILTON, GEORGE WISHART. 449 

in England for some time, upon their return to 
Scotland, openly favoured the Eeformation, en- 
couraged the preachers of it, and it soon spread 
into the several counties. Before that time, even 
in 1407, John Koseby, and in 1432, Paul Craw, 
were publicly burnt for their opposition to the 
Church of Borne. In 1527, Mr. Patrick Hamil- 
ton, Abbot of Fern in Boss, a man of noble 
birth, was burnt by Bishop [Cardinal] Beaton. 
It cannot be doubted, that this eminent martyr 
propagated the Beformed doctrine in Boss, and in 
the neighbouring counties. The cruelty of his 
death, and of the death of Mr. George Wishart, 
son to Pitarrow, in 1545, rendered Popery odious, 
and induced the people everywhere to favour the 
Beformation. 

Although I have not met with particular in- 
stances of gentlemen or others, in the Province 
of Moray, who had embraced the Protestant 
principles before the year 1560; yet I question 
not but there were many such. For in the Par- 
liament that year, which abolished Popery, and 
established the Beformation, William Innes of 
Innes, John Grant of Grant, William Sutherland 
of Dufifus, and a commissioner from the town of 
Inverness, were members, and concurred in that 
good work. (Keith's History) . And by the above 
Catalogue of Protestant Ministers, it appears, 
that, before the year 1570, almost all the parishes 
in the Diocese of Moray had Protestant teachers, 
VOL in. 29 



450 EOMAN INFLUENCE OF THE FAMILY OF GORDON. 

and a Protestant Bishop with a formal Chapter 
was settled in 1573-4. 

From the Keformation downward, no county 
in the north, and few, if any, in the south, 
adhered more firmly to the Protestant principles, 
even in the worst of times, than did the inhabi- 
tants of Moray ; insomuch that, except what in- 
fluence the family of Gordon had (of which 
afterwards), Popery has found no countenance 
among them. And, although in time of Prelacy, 
the people behaved with due subjection to Civil 
authority, yet they never could be brought to a 
cheerful submission to Prelatic power, but joined 
in throwing off that yoke at different periods. 
The ministers banished by King James VI. to 
the north, and particularly Mr. Kobert Bruce, 
who was banished to Inverness anno 1604, and 
remained there four years, contributed to confirm 
the people in Protestant and Presbyterian prin- 
ciples. 

In 1638, the people of Moray heartily concurred 
in opposing the liturgy, the canons, the ecclesi- 
astic commission, and the order of Bishops. 
Messrs. William Falconer at Dyke, John Hay 
atjRafford, David Dunbar at Edinkylie, John 
Howeson at Wardlaw, Patrick Dunbar at Durris, 
ministers ; William Eoss of Clava, John Dunbar, 
Bailiff of Forres, James Fraser of Brae, and 
Kobert Bailie, Bailiff of Inverness, ruling elders, 
were members of that Assembly. And Messrs. 



THE PEOPLE OF MORAY OPPOSED TO PRELACY. 451 

John Gordon at Elgin, and John Guthrie, at 
Duffus, ministers, were, October 25, 1638, 
elected commissioners from the Presbytery of 
Elgin, to that Assembly, and Mr. Gordon 
was present in it, though omitted in the roll. 
(Reg. Presbytery of Elgin). That Assembly 
having deposed and excommunicated, among 
others, the Bishop of Moray, the clergy of his 
diocese who had vowed canonical obedience, and 
of whom some were ordained by him, intimated 
the sentence from their pulpits ; and the laity 
rejoiced in being delivered from ecclesiastic de- 
nomination. In the subsequent Assemblies of the 
Church, Innes of Innes, Brodie of Brodie, Brodie 
of Lethen, Eraser of Brae, &c., are found to have 
been members. 

All ranks in the Province signed the National 
Covenant, and the Solemn League ; some with 
cheerfulness, and many, to avoid the direful cen- 
sures of the Church. In the civil commotions, 
not improperly called, " The Bishop's War," the 
people, in general, except the vassals and depen- 
dents of the Marquis of Huntly and the Eoman 
Catholics, joined the Covenanters at first. But 
in 1648, when they thought, that not so much 
religion, as monarchy and the civil constitution 
were in danger, then the Erasers, Macintoshes, 
Eoses, Inneses, &c., joined in the expedition 
called " The Duke's Engagement," and after the 
defeat at Preston, the Churches were filled with 



452 THE COVENANTERS AND COMMITTEE OF ESTATES. 

mock penitents. The King being cut off in 1649, 
and his son Charles II. being called home from 
Breda, and crowned, both Church and State 
became infatuated. The King raised an army, 
which was routed at Worcester in September, 
1651, and many gentlemen in Moray suffered 
much in this ill conducted expedition into Eng- 
land. At the same time, the Church split into 
parties, and made a breach not yet fully healed up. 
The King had three several times sworn the 
covenants ; but many very justly questioned his 
sincerity. The Covenanters being defeated at 
Dunbar in 1650, Cromwell began at Edinburgh, 
and having that Castle in his hands, the courtiers 
laboured, that all capable of serving their country 
might be received into the army, and not be 
hindered or deterred by church censures. Against 
this a body of gentlemen, military officers, and 
ministers remonstrated, and directed a subscribed 
remonstrance to the committee of estates, " ad- 
vising them to adhere to the King, only in defence 
of religion and liberty, and if he shah 1 forsake the 
counsels of the Church and State, and be guided 
by malignants, that he be removed from the exer- 
cise of government." The committee of estates, 
in November, 1650, condemned that Paper as 
scandalous : and at the same time, the Commis- 
sion of the General Assembly first approved, but 
afterwards, by Court influence, condemned the 
remonstrance, which made several ministers enter 



MOCK PENITENTS CROWD INTO THE CHURCH. 453 

a dissent. The King persuaded the same Com- 
mission to meet at Perth, pro re nata, on Decem- 
ber 14, that year, and the Parliament asked them 
a solution of this question, " What persons shall 
he admitted to take arms against the sectaries, 
and in what capacity?" To which they an- 
swered : " That all fencible persons, except the 
excommunicated, forfeited, and professed enemies 
to the covenants, may he employed." The same 
Commission met on December 26, and then many 
protested against this resolution, because it en- 
couraged the enemies of religion, and put it in 
the power of the King and his courtiers to over- 
turn all that had been contended for since the 
year 1637. Hence came the opposite parties of 
resolutioners and protesters, who, by impudently 
meddling with the affairs of the Civil Government, 
and by their fierce animosities, occasioned the 
change of Church government. 

In the year 1651, the same Commission of the 
Church met in April, and gave it as their opinion, 
that the Parliament might admit into public 
offices, and places of trust, all subjects, provided 
the guilty did undergo Church censures. Upon 
this mock penitents crowded into the Church; 
those called malignants soon got into offices and 
posts ; and the protesters loudly complained, that 
a door was opened to infidelity, irreligion, and 
profaneness. But the resolutioners would main- 
tain what they had done, and meeting in May 



454 REMONSTRANCES, PROTESTATIONS, AND RESOLUTIONS. 

24th in commission, required all Presbyteries to 
cite to the ensuing Assembly, all who should 
oppose the Resolutions. 

The General Assembly met on 16th July, at 
St. Andrews ; but because of the civil tumults 
soon removed to Dundee. Twenty-one members 
protested against the freeness and legality of the 
meeting, because by the conduct of the Commis- 
sion in May, there could be no free election, all 
protesters being under citation. Yet the Assem- 
bly condemned the Eemonstrance, approved the 
Resolutions, condemned the Protesters, deposed 
three, and suspended one of them, and ordered 
all Presbyteries to ask the opinion of their mem- 
bers concerning the Remonstrance, the Resolu- 
tions, and the lawfulness of this Assembly. This 
kindled a flame in almost every Synod and Pres- 
bytery. 

In the Province of Moray, the Synod met pro 
re nata, on November 13th, 1651, and approved 
of the meeting of last Assembly. But Messrs. 
John Brodie at Aldern, Joseph Brodie at Forres, 
William Fraser at Inverness, James Park at 
Urquhart, and Patrick Glas at Edinkylie, minis- 
ters, with Sir Robert Gordon of Gordonston, 
Alexander Brodie of Brodie, and Hugh Campbell 
of Auchindune, elders, protested against this, 
because that Assembly was not free or regular in 
the election of its members, and several things 
done in it were, in their opinion, dishonouring to 



THE PROVINCE SPLIT INTO PARTIES. 455 

God, and contrary to the covenants and the 
engagement. Thus was the Province split into 
parties; but the Synod promised to treat the 
protesting members with all brotherly love and 
benevolence. The kingdom being now under the 
feet of usurpers, General Assemblies being by 
them discharged, and Synods and Presbyteries 
often interrupted, a social and friendly intercourse 
was, at least seemingly, kept up in this province 
for some years. But in the Synod of Moray, met 
in October, 1660, a copy of King Charles II. 's 
Jesuitical letter to the Presbytery of Edinburgh 
was read. I call this letter Jesuitical, because 
the King promised " to maintain inviolate the 
government of the Church as established by 
law." Although it was resolved to overturn it; 
and in a few months the Act Eecissory was passed 
in Parliament, rescinding, repealing, and annul- 
ling all acts made in Parliament Convention or 
Assembly, since the year 1633, and so leaving 
the government of the Church what it was that 
year 1633. An equivocation unworthy of a King 
or a Christian. That letter being read, the Synod 
observed, that the King promised, to cause the 
authority of the Assembly 1651 to stand in force. 
Upon this they instantly, in a mean and base 
strain of adulation, persecuted their brethren, 
contrary to their former promise. Mr. Patrick 
Glas, the only minister now living who had pro- 
tested in 1651, was sharply rebuked, and made 



456 DESIGN OF RE-ESTABLISHING PRELACY. 

to sign a recantation, which was recorded. And 
Sir Ludovick Gordon of Gordonston, Alexander 
Brodie of Brodie, and Hugh Campbell, protesters, 
with Alexander Brodie of Lethen, Patrick Camp- 
bell of Boath, John Niccolson, James Buchan, 
William Alves in Forres, and Eobert Watson in 
Rafford, elders, who had approved of the protes- 
tations, were all deposed in absence. This was 
both unjust and ungenerous, to expose their 
brethren, as much as they could, to the King's 
resentment. 

But now the design of re-establishing Prelacy, 
was communicated to some of the clergy, and the 
Synod, met 2nd July, 1661, sent an address to 
the Earl of Middleton, the King's Commissioner 
in Parliament, in which they did not once men- 
tion the Protestant religion, or Presbyterian 
Church government. Nay, it is apparent, that 
they had already privately agreed, to approve of 
the intended change ; for Mr. Murdo MacKenzie, 
minister at Elgin, who was to be one of the new 
Bishops, was sent up with the address, that he 
might receive the Eochet; and the Synod set up, 
what in Divine worship was looked on as the 
badge of Episcopacy, I mean the Gloria Patri, 
and parents repeating the Apostles' Creed at the 
baptism of their children. 

The transition from one extreme to another is 
easy ; but it is difficult to stop in a just medium. 
This was apparent upon the Kestoration in 1660. 



THE KING SUPREME IN CHURCH AND STATE. 457 

Under the former period, the clergy ran into a 
wild extreme, of meddling with, and managing, 
all matters, civil, ecclesiastic, criminal, and mili- 
tary, and the language of their conduct, and of 
many of the laity, was, "bind your King with 
chains, and your nobles with fetters." Now they 
ran into the opposite extreme. All power, civil 
and ecclesiastic, was lodged in the King. He 
was declared absolute. Christ's right, as Head 
of the Church, was yielded up to him, and all 
became abject slaves to his will. 

Prelacy being restored in 1662, the King pro- 
posed to revive General Assemblies, and the Par- 
liament drew up a form of their constitution. 
But the Bishops could not bear such a check, 
and the project was dropt. Diocesan Synods 
and Presbyteries were kept up, and the new 
Bishops lost no time in prosecuting Non-con- 
formists. Messrs. George Innes at Dipple, 
and Harrie Forbes at Aldern, prevented de- 
position, by demitting their charges in 1633. 
And Messrs. Thomas Urquhart at Essil, James 
Urquhart at Kinloss, and George Meldrum at 
Glass, were that year deposed ; as was Mr. Alex- 
ander Fraser at Daviot, in 1672 ; and all the rest 
conformed. Some ministers from Ross, as Messrs. 
James Fraser of Brae, Thomas Hogg, Thomas 
Ross, John MacGilligin, &c., were often driven 
into Moray, and joining the Non-conformists 
there, performed Gospel-ministrations in private, 



458 THE BISHOPS AND GENTRY OF MORAY MODERATE. 

and were much regarded and protected by the 
gentry. The Bishops of Moray were more mode- 
rate than other Bishops; yet these ministers 
were informed against ; most of them were inter- 
communed, apprehended, and kept long prisoners 
in the Bass, and in other places. 

The gentlemen of the country, and the common 
people by their example and influence, behaved 
with much prudence, gave no umbrage to the 
civil powers ; and though they protected the per- 
secuted clergy, yet they discouraged field preach- 
ing; by which means, both the ministers, and 
their hearers in private houses, were the less 
exposed to troubles. The houses of the Lairds 
of Innes, Grant, Kilravock, Brodie, Lethen, the 
Sheriff of Moray, and Sir Hugh Campbell of 
Calder, were so many sanctuaries to the op- 
pressed. The last mentioned gentleman, was, 
at one time, bail in 1500 sterling for prosecuted 
ministers. In a word, for twenty years after the 
Restoration, by the prudence and piety of fami- 
lies of distinction, Moray enjoyed more peace 
than other countries, and Beligion flourished 
greatly. 

The imposing the Test, in 1681, opened a new 
scene of troubles. Thereby they swore, " To 
own and adhere to the Confession of Faith re- 
corded in Parliament 1567, and to disown all 
principles or practices contrary to the Protestant 
religion and the said Confession. That the 



THE TEST OF THE CONFESSION OF FAITH. 459 

King is the only supreme governor in all causes, 
civil and ecclesiastic. That it is unlawful for 
subjects, upon any pretence, to enter into Cove- 
nants and Leagues, or to convene in any Assem- 
blies to treat of any matter of state, civil or 
ecclesiastic, without his majesty's express licence; 
or to take up arms against the King, or those 
commissioned by him : not to endeavour any 
change or alteration in the government, in 
Church or State as now established : never to 
decline his majesty's power or jurisdiction, &c." 
A strange medley of Erastianism, and contradic- 
tion; to maintain the Protestant religion, and 
to bring in a Popish successor ; to swear in the 
Confession, that Christ is the only King of the 
Church, and yet that the King is the only 
supreme ; to allow any one having the King's- 
commission, to cut all the throats in the king- 
dom ; not to convene to preaching or pray- 
ing, &c. ! 

Mr. Colin Falconer, Bishop of Moray, and the 
clergy of his Diocese, met at Elgin in December, 
1681 : and ministers, schoolmasters, and students 
in Divinity, swore the Test, with the Council's 
explication allowed by the King : viz. 

1. That they did not swear to every proposi- 
tion in the Confession of Faith, but only to the 
true Protestant religion, in opposition to Popery 
and fanaticism. 

2. That there is reserved entire to the Bishops 



460 THE TEST-OATH OF LOYALTY. 

and Pastors, all the intrinsic spiritual power of 
the Church, and the preaching of the Word, 
ordination of pastors, &c., as in the three first 
centuries. 

3. That this oath is no prejudice to the Epis- 
copal government of the Church now established 
by law. An explication so poor, that rather than 
comply with it, the following ministers quitted 
their charges, viz.: Messrs. James Stewart at 
Inveravon, Alexander Marshall at Dipple, Wil- 
liam Geddes at Urquhart, James Horn at Elgin, 
Alexander Gumming at Dallas, James Smith at 
Durris, William Speed at Botrimie, and John 
Cumming at Aldern. This last gentleman did 
subscribe the Test ; but, upon reflection, chose to 
demit in 1682 ; and being a pious and peaceable 
man, he was settled at Cullen; and, by the 
favour of the Earl of Findlater, lived undisturbed. 
The conduct of the clergy, in so readily com- 
plying in this point, very much sullied their 
characters. 

Eew of the gentlemen of this Province had 
posts or offices that obliged them to take this 
oath. But it was soon made a test of loyalty in 
all ranks. And to drive the people into a full 
conformity to Church and State, or to ruin them 
if they became recusants, justiciary courts were 
appointed through the kingdom, with power to 
impose the Test, to inquire into conventicles, 
and absenting from Church ; and to fine, confine, 



DISMAL RELIGIOUS PERSECUTION. 461 

banish, and hang, as they should see cause. In 
December, 1684, a commission was granted to 
the Earls of Errol and Kintore, and Sir George 
Munro of Coulrain, for the bounds between Spey 
and Ness; and, on 19th January, 1685, their 
power was extended to Inverness, Eoss, Crom- 
arty, and Sutherland ; and Lord Duffus, with a 
troop of militia, was ordered to attend them. A 
letter was likewise written by the council to the 
Bishop of Moray, requiring him to cause all the 
clergy to attend the justices on January 22nd, 
with their elders, and to bring lists of all persons 
either guilty or suspected. 

Such a parade and meeting of Justices, Bishops, 
Ministers, Elders, Militia, Gentlemen, Ladies, 
and common people, was held at Elgin, 22nd 
January, and the subsequent days ; and as it was 
unusual, could not but strike terror. And the 
more sensible people must have concluded, that 
a government, either in Church or State, must 
have been odious, that needed such support. 
These Justices made their report to the council 
on 2nd March, as follows : 

" We made up lists of the heritors, wadsetters, 
and liferenters, who offered three months supply, 
signed a bond of peace, and took the Test, except 
a few. We fined some, banished others, and 
remitted some to the council. We ordered to 
imprison Munro of Fowles at Tain, and his son 
at Inverness, and sent Mr. William MacKay (N. 



462 MINISTERS IMPRISONED AND BANISHED; LAIRDS FINED. 

he was afterwards minister at Cromdale) a vagrant 
preacher in Sutherland to Edinburgh. We ban- 
ished Messrs. James Urquhart, John Stuart (N. 
thereafter at Urquhart), Alexander Dunbar (N. 
thereafter at Aldern), and George Meldrum, min- 
isters, Alexander and Mark Mavors in Urquhart, 
Donald and Andrew Munros in Elgin, Alexander 
Munro of Maine, and Jean Taylor. We fined 
the Laird of Grant in 42,500; the Laird of 
Brodie in ,24,000 ; Alexander Brodie of Lethen 
in 40,000 ; Francis Brodie of Milnton in 10,000 ; 
Francis Brodie of Windyhills in 3,333 6s. 8d.; 
Mr. James Brodie (grandfather to the present 
Lethen) of Kinlie in 333 6s. 8d; Mr. George 
Meldrum of Crombie in 6,666 13s. 4d.; Thomas 
Dunbar of Grange, the Laird of Innes, William 
Brodie of Coltfield, William Brodie of Whitewrae, 
and Mr. Eobert Donaldson in Arr, were cited to 
appear when called." 

Besides these, there were imprisoned at Elgin, 
John Montsod, Chamberlain to Park ; Jean 
Brodie, relict of Alexander Thomson, merchant 
in Elgin ; Christine Lesly, daughter, and Beatrix 
Brodie, relict of Lesly of Aikenway. Although 
the Justices who met at Elgin were not severe, 
and Sir John Munro was a friend to the oppres- 
sed, yet it is probable that to please the Court 
and Bishops, some executions would have been 
made, if the King's death had not prevented it. 
For how soon the Justices arrived at Elgin, they 



ATTENDING CONVENTICLES RIGOROUSLY PUNISHED 463 

ordered a new gallows to be erected. But the 
King having died on 6th February, 1685, the 
account of it reached Elgin on the 13th. The 
Justices left the town next day; the prisoners 
were released ; and many who were under cita- 
tion were eased of the trouble of appearing be- 
cause the Commission of the Justices was vacated 
and became null. 

The gentlemen that were fined were brought 
to much trouble. Non-conformity, absence from 
Church, and attending conventicles were their 
only crimes ; and not so much the conduct of 
the gentlemen as of their ladies. They thought 
it hard to be punished for their wives' faults. 
The Laird of Brodie had a Non-conforming 
chaplain, and some conventicles in Brodie 
House ; and though he went to London to get 
some composition, yet he was forced to pay 
20,000 merks Scots to Colonel Maxwell, a Papist. 
Lethen's fine was gifted to the Scots College of 
Doway, to be paid to Mr. Lewis Innes, a member 
of that College. The estate of Lethen was ad- 
judged in order to secure payment, and upon 
Lethen's death, the Laird of Grant (married to 
Lethen's only child) becoming executor to him, 
paid 30,000 to the Earl of Perth. The Laird of 
Grant petitioned the Privy Council, showed his 
own loyalty, and his lady's inability to travel 
to Church through want of health. Yet the 
Council ordered him to be prosecuted .for the 



464 SHERIFFS DIVESTED OF OFFICE FOR NON-CONFORMITY. 

fine ; but he spun out his defences till the Re- 
volution delivered him. Milnton's fine was 
granted to Gray of Crichie, as a reward of his 
deciphering some of Argyle's letters ; but the 
Eevolution prevented paying it. 

Besides the severity used by this Court of 
Justiciary, the Sheriff Courts put many to dis- 
tress and trouble. The Hereditary Sheriff of 
Moray, refusing the test, was divested of his 
office, and Lord Down was made Sheriff Princi- 
pal, and Tulloch of Tanachie, Depute, who fined 
David Brodie of Pitgavenie, brother to Lethen, 
in 18,000, whereof a great part was paid. The 
Sheriff of Inverness fined many in that county ; 
and Mackenzie of Suddie, by a special warrand 
from the Council, prosecuted many in Boss and 
Cromarty. These prosecutions were carried on 
in all counties, and they who have calculated 
the fines imposed, and for the most part exacted, 
make them amount to 4000,000. 

As in the body natural, so in the political and 
ecclesiastic, too hot a regimen of medicines doth 
but inflame the disease which it is intended to 
cure. The severities used at that time, mainly 
for Non-conformity, increased the number of Non- 
conformists, although they durst not avow it, and 
brought the Administration, both of Church and 
State, into the greater contempt. Upon the 
accession of King James VII. to the Crown in 
1685, he would willingly have compounded mat- 



THE LAST SUFFERER IN MORAY FOR NONCONFORMITY. 465 

ters for a season, and grant a respite for Non- 
conformists, that he might with the better grace 
favour the Roman Catholics. To this it was 
owing that, failing to get the penal statutes 
against Popery repealed, he granted an ample 
toleration, and the Non-conformists had rest. 
But the Scottish Bishops, being infatuated, al- 
though they knew of the Prince of Orange's 
intended expedition, to preserve the religion and 
liberties of Britain, yet in their address, gave 
their King such a taste of their loyalty, and the 
nation such a specimen of their religion and tem- 
per, that it was no wonder that next year the 
Convention of Estates declared Prelacy a griev- 
ance to the nation. 

The last sufferer I know in Moray for Non- 
conformity was Mr. Angus MacBean, son to 
MacBean of Kinchyle, and Minister of Inverness. 
He was a man of parts and piety, and was 
admitted Minister of Inverness December 29th, 
1683. It was with great reluctancy that he 
entered into the ministry under the then Estab- 
lishment ; for his dissatisfaction with the Go- 
vernment, and the tyrannical conduct of the 
Church, made him, in June, 1687, withdraw 
from their judicatories, and on 23rd October, 
being the Lord's Day, he preached from Job 
xxxiv. 31, 32, publicly renounced Prelacy, and 
demitted his charge. In January, 1688, he was 

carried a prisoner to Edinburgh, examined before 
VOL. in. 30 



466 THE REVOLUTION OF 1688. 

the Council, and, on 27th February, was deposed 
by the Archbishop of St. Andrews. He was 
remanded to prison, and though, on account of 
the languishing state of his health, Sir Eobert 
Gordon of Gordonstoun and Duncan Forbes 
of Culloden offered a bail of 10,000 merks Scots, 
to present him when called, yet the Chancellor 
would not liberate him. He lay in prison till, 
upon the Chancellor's running away in Decem- 
ber, 1688, the mob opened the prison doors. 
After this he continued in a languishing way, 
and died at Edinburgh in February, 1689, in the 
33rd year of his age. 

The happy Eevolution, in 1688, put an end to 
tyranny and persecution. I have given some 
account of the state of Eeligion in this Province 
at and since the Revolution, and shall now only 
observe. 

That the Episcopal clergy, being by law in- 
dulged, upon their qualifying to the Civil Govern- 
ment, to keep their charges and livings, they 
saw this so much for their ease and worldly 
advantage, that they all, very few excepted, com- 
plied with it. Thereby they are eased of the 
trouble and expense of attending upon Presby- 
teries, Synods, Assemblies, and Commissions, 
and of bearing a share in frequent contributions 
of money for promoting religion and piety. No 
one was disturbed or ejected, except those who 
refused to acknowledge King William and Queen 



THE EPISCOPAL CLERGY KEEP THEIR LIVINGS. 467 

Mary, and who still looked for the restoration of 
their abdicated King. I own that in Strathspey 
the Laird of Grant did take advantage of the 
Ministers of Cromdale, Abernethie, and Duthel, 
who neglected to qualify to Government within 
the time limited. And upon this he, in a manner 
too summary, caused shut up their Churches. 
In the town of Elgin, so disaffected were the 
magistrates, and influenced by the Lord Duffus, 
that for eight years they kept the pastoral charge 
vacant. And in Inverness, so great was the dis- 
affection (to which Mr. Hector MacKenzie, 
Minister, contributed not a little, although he 
himself had qualified to the Civil Government), 
that upon the death of Mr. Marshall, in 1691, 
the magistrates would not suffer the charge to be 
declared vacant. Upon 21st June that year, all 
avenues to the Church were beset with armed 
men, and double sentries placed at the doors that 
no Minister might enter ; and when Duncan 
Forbes of Culloden fought to open the doors, he 
was thrust back and struck violently. This made 
Culloden and others represent the case to the 
Council ; and in August, 1691, Leven's regiment 
was sent North to protect the well-affected in 
obeying the law. They made patent doors ; but 
for ten years no Minister could be got settled in 
that town. (Min. Presb. of Moray.) 

In remains now that I give some account of 
the state of Popery in this Province. The favour 



468 SHAW'S STATE OF POPERY IN THE PROVINCE. 

showed by our Kings to Roman Catholics, ever 
since the Eeformation, is well known. King 
James VI. did not dissemble that he would meet 
them half way. His son, though called a zealous 
Protestant, protected, employed, and encouraged 
Papists during his unfortuate reign. King 
Charles II. was known to be, and died, a Roman 
Catholic ; and his brother openly professed that 
religion. Notwithstanding the influence and ex- 
ample of those princes, very few in this Province, 
except the dependents on the family of Gordon, 
and the MacDonaids and Chisholms, have been 
seduced into Popish errors. Among the High- 
land clans, the Frasers, Macintoshes, Grants, 
MacPhersons, MacGilliwrays, scarce any Papists 
are to be found. Even in the country of Bade- 
noch, though all are vassals or tenants of the 
Duke of Gordon, there are few, if any, of that 
religion. This has been owing, in a great mea- 
sure, to the gentry and chiefs of clans, who early 
embraced the Reformation, and both encouraged 
and promoted it in their lands. 

The MacDonaids of Glengary never that I 
know were Reformed. The gentlemen of that 
name have their sons educated in the Scots Col- 
leges abroad, especially at Doway; and they 
return home either avowed or concealed Papists. 
In the year 1726, in all Glengary and Achadrom, 
which may consist of 800 souls, I could find very 
few Protestants. Since that time they have not 



R. C. SEMINARY AT SCALAN, GLENLIVET. 469 

become much better, but have diffused their 
errors into the neighbouring countries of Aber- 
tarf, Glenmoriston, and Strathglass. 

The most noble family of Gordon, till of late, 
were Eoman Catholics ; and although now they 
are Protestants, yet Popery still prevails in their 
lands, within this Province, particularly in Glen- 
rinnes, Glenlivat, and Strathavon. I remember 
when a seminary or academy of Priests was openly 
kept in Glenlivat, where the languages, philo- 
sophy, and Divinity were regularly taught ; and 
a draught of the most promising boys was sent to 
France, who returned home Priests and Jesuits. 
I am not certain if such a seminary is now kept 
up there, but a Popish Meeting-House continues, 
and at High Mass 600 people or more convene to 
it. To conclude this account, in Glenrinnis, 
Glenlivat, and Strathavon, in Abertarf, Glengary, 
and Achadrom, and in Strathglass, there are, in 
my opinion, at least 3000 Eoman Catholics. 

It may not be improper here to observe the 
happy increase in Christian knowledge since the 
Eevolution, by means of the early education 
of youth. All the parishes in this Province, 
excepting three or four, have now schools erected 
in them, according to law; and some society 
schools are settled where Popery prevails, or the 
extent of parishes requires. This valuable So- 
ciety had its rise from the piety and benevolence 
of some private Christians in Edinburgh, about 
the year 1700, who pitying the lamentable condi- 



470 SHAW'S PORTRAITURE OF CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE. 

tion of the Highlands and Islands, through ignor- 
ance, idolatry, superstition, and profaneness, did 
themselves cheerfully contribute, and prevailed 
with others to concur with them, for erecting 
schools. Their first school was in the country of 
Stratherick, within this Province ; hut not meet- 
ing with the success expected, they applied to 
the General Assembly, who laid the design before 
her Majesty Queen Anne, and obtained letters 
patent, of date 25th May, 1709, erecting the con- 
tributors into a Society, by the name of " The 
Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian 
Knowledge." The stock of the Society, in the 
year 1774, is for Scotland 28,901 sterling, and 
for America 4032 sterling. They have now 
established 121 schools (besides some lately sup- 
pressed), at which above 6000 boys and girls are 
educated ; and they have missionaries in Georgia, 
North Carolina, and other parts in America. 
The happy effects of this truly pious institution 
are visible in this Province. Christian knowledge 
is increased, heathenish customs are abandoned, 
the number of Papists is diminished, disaffection 
to the Government is lessened, and the English 
language is so diffused that in the remotest glens 
it is spoken by the young people ; and in the low 
country, in Inveravon, Glenlivat, Knockando, 
Edinkylie, Nairn, and Ardersier, where, till of 
late, public worship was performed in Irish, 
there is now no occasion for Ministers having 
that language. 



INDEX. 



INDEX. 



^BERCHIRDER, ii. 386 
ABERLOUR. 

Benrinnes, i. 188 

Carron House, i. 187 

Charlestown, Village of, i. 187 

Church of, i. 170, 173, 182 

Daughs, seven, i. 186, 187 

Drostan's, S., Monastery, i. 189 

Epitaphs, i. 180-186 

Font, i. 182 

House of, i. 187 

James-an-Tuam, i. 188 

Macpherson Grant, Miss, i. 174-182 

Properties, i. 170, 171, 172 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 375 
ABEKNETHY. 

Achernack, i. 242 

Barony of, i. 240, 241 

Cairngorum Stones, i. 245, 246, 250 

Castle Grant, i. 248 

Castle Roy, i. 243 

Congess, i. 241 

Coulnakyle, i. 242 

Gartinmore, i. 241, 242 

Glenbruin, i. 242 

Glenlochie, i. 242 

Kincardine Kirk, i. 243 
Barony of, i. 242, 246 

Letoch, i. 242 

Lords Cullen and Prestongrange, 
Natives of Abernethy, i. 244 

Lurg, i. 242 

More, Bailie, i. 244 

Nethy, Water of, i. 240, 242 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 380 

Roy, Bailie, i. 244 

Rymore, i. 242 

Tulloch, i. 242 

Tullochgorum, i. 244 

York Building Company, i. 249 
Lochs. 

Avon, Garten, Maulachie, Morlach, 

Pittenlish, i. 245 
ABERTARFF. 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 445 



AD VIE. 

Churchyard Epitaphs, i. 238, 239 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 379 
Agricola, i. 2 

Agriculture, primitive, iii. 33 
Aldivalloch, Roy's Wife of, i. 188 
Aldroughty, ii. 134-137 
Altyre House, ii. 177-180 
ALVIE. 

Badenoch proper, i. 278 

Belleville, the property of Jas. Mac- 
Pherson, " Ossian's Poems, "i. 
279-282 

Belleville House, i. 283 

Chapels and Kirk of, i. 280 

Delfour Druidical Temple, i. 284 

Delraddie, i. 277, 279 

Dunachten, i. 278 

Kinrara, i. 282 

Loch Alvie, i. 277, 281 

Loch Insh, i. 282 

Lochandhu, House of, i. 283 

Lochandhu, Loch, i. 283 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 383 

Rait's Cave, i. 284 

Tor Alvie, i. 282 
ALVES, ii. 145, 147 

Asleisk Castle, ii. 150 

Churchyard Epitaphs, ii. 150-152 

Duncan's bequest, ii. 149 

Ernside Castle, ii. 148 

Knock of Alves (Conical Hill), ii. 
148, 150. 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 407 
ARDCLACH, ii. 195 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 419 

The Streens, ii. 197 
ARDERSIER, ii. 314 

Fort George, 316 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 424 
ARNDILLY, Church of, i. 121 
Arradoul, Lady, ii. 16 
Auchindoun Castle, i. 129 
AULDEARN, the seat of the Dean of the 
Diocese, ii. 257 



474 



INDEX. 



AULDEARN, Battle of, ii. 259-261 
Boath, barony of, ii. 253, 256 
Covenanters' Graves, ii. 262 
Druidical Temples, ii. 259 
Hay of Lochloy buried, ii. 252 
Inshoch, ii. 256 
Kirk of, ii. 252, 257 
Loch Loy, ii. 259 
Lethin House, ii. 255 
Market, St. Colm's, i 259 
Park, lands of, ii. 253 
Penick, lands of, ii. 253, 256 
Priory of Urquhart, ii. 253 
Properties, ii. 253, 256 
Protestant Ministers of, iii. 420 
Village of, ii. 255, 256 

BALLINDALLOCH, i, 193, 195, 205 
lladrum, ii. 383 
Belleville House, i. 282, 283 
Badenoch, i. 266 
Balveny Castle, i. 130, 135, 140 

Graves at, iii. 110 
Beauly, Priory of, ii. 384 
BELLIE, i. 50, 74 

Churchyard Epitaphs, 61-65 

Gordon Castle, i. 65, 68-71 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 367 
BOGHOLE, U.P. Ministers at, iii. 421 
Bo H ARM, i. 119 

Arndilly, i. 121 

Achmadies, i. 121 

Auchluncarfc, i. 121, 125 

Auldearn iii. 126 

Ben Aigan, i. 120 

Churchyard of, i. 123 

Gallvall Castle, iii. 122, 125 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 373 
BATTLES, iii. 115-132 

Benrinnes, i. 197 

Blar-nau-Lein, iii. 122 

Cromdale, i. 234 ; iii. 128 

Culloden, iii. 132 

Cean-Loch-Lochie, iii. 121 

Elgin Mear, 119 

Glenlivat, iii. 123-126, 207 

Inch of Perth, iii. 117 

Mortlich, i. 136-140 ; iii. 110 

Speymouth, i. 309 
Benrinnes, i. 188 

Battle of, i. 197 
BIRNIE, ii. 39-44 

Church of, ii. 39 

Churchyard Epitaphs, ii. 44-46 

Font, ii. 42 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 394 

Ronnel Bell, ii. 42 



Beaufort, ii. 382 

Belladrum, ii. 383 

Bishopmill, ii. 124 

BRAUCHLIE. 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 431 

Boece, Hector, i. 1 

BOLESKINE, ii. 340, 350-358 
Erasers of Lovat, ii. 340-348 
Protestant Ministers of, iii. 445 
Tomb of the Lovats, ii. 349 

Blackhills, i. 352 

Bourignonism, iii. 370 

Brewster, Sir David, i. 284 

Blervie Tower, ii. 178 

Brodie, family of, ii. 248-252 

BCTRGHEAD. 

Fortification, Danish, iii. 109 
U. P. Ministers, iii. 405 

Burgie Castle, ii. 178 

QAIRNGORUM Mountains, i. 245 

Stones, iii. 22 
CALDER, ii. 269, 276 

Cawdor Castle, 270-275 

Family of Calder, 278-284 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 426 
CASTLES. 

Abernethy, iii. 97 

Duffus, iii. 97 

Grant, i. 97, 231 

Rait, iii. 97 

Roy, i. 243 

Ruthven, iii. 97 

Stewart, ii. 321 

Spinitan, ii. 329 

Chalmers, George, author of "Cale- 
donia," &c., i. 75 
Chattan, Clan, i. 274 
Chisholm of Chisholm, seat of, ii. 381 
Craigellachie and Bridge, i. 87, 255 
CONVETH. 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 443 
Cottes, Lake of, i. 340 
Court of Session instituted, iii. 54 
Covesea, ii. 62, 63, 68 
Coxton Tower, i. 328 

Inneses of Coxton, i. 342 
CROMDALE, i. 225-236 

Battle of, i. 234 

Castle Grant, i. 230-231 

Churchyard Epitaphs, i. 236-238 

Grantown, village of, i. 232 

Hospital, i. 233 

Lochindorb Fort, i. 234 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 379 
CROY, ii. 284, 299-307 

Kilravock House, ii. 294, 295, 297 



INDEX. 



475 



Rose of Kilravock, ii. 285-296 

Rose of Insh, ii. 296 

Nine other Roses, ii. 296 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 427, 428 
Culbin Sands, ii. 214, 220 

Family of, ii. 233 

Culloden, Battle of, iii. 132 
Culdees, iii. 158 
Gumming, family of, ii. 183 

of Relugas, ii. 191 

of Logie, ii. 193 

DAVID!, ii. 307, 310 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 429 
De Moravia Family, i. 33 ; ii. 5, 112 
DIPPLB. 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 386 
Divah, Fall of, ii. 367 
DALCROSS, Protestant Ministers of, 

iii. 427, 428 

Dallachy, Stone Coffin at, i. 73 
Darnaway Castle, ii. 209, 211 
DouffhiUock, ii. 161 
DALLAS, ii. 46 

Churchyard Epitaphs, ii. 51-54 

Kellas, ii. 47, 49 

Old Cross, ii. 51 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 412 
DALAKOSSIE, ii. 201, 204 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 428 
Darnaway Castle, ii. 211 
Downan, i. 214 
DRAINIE, ii. 56 

Covesea, ii. 62, 63, 68 

Ettles, ii. 68 

Family of Gordonston, ii. 63-67 

Gordonstom, House of, ii. 57 

Mausoleum, ii. 58, 74-77 

Harbour of Lossiemouth, ii. 61 

Ogston, lands of, ii. 69-71 

DUMBENNAN. 

Churchyard Epitaphs, ii. 397-406 
DURRIS, ii. 334, 338 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 440 
DRUIDS, iii. 139-157 
Dunbars, ii. 98 

of Westfield, ii. 101 

of Thunderton, ii. 104 

DUNDURCOS, i. 76 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 368 

S. Nicholas' Hospital, Boat o' Brig, 

i. 78, 79 

Dunkinty, i. 333 
DTTNLICHTY, ii. 307, 310 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 429, 430 
Duff, families of, i. 156-169 
DUFFUS, ii. 77-87 



DUFFUS Castle, ii. 83 
Inverugie Castle, ii. 82 

Families. 

Morays of DufFus, ii. 87-93 

Sutherlands, ii. 84 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 404 

DUTHIL, i. 250-255 

Churchyard Epitaphs, i. 255 
Mausoleum of the Earls of Seafield, 

i. 256, 257 

Muckerach, Tower of, i. 253 
Protestant Ministers of, iii. 381 
Rothiemurchus, i. 254 
Strathspey, i. 255 

DYKE, ii. 208, 210-220 
Churchyard Epitaphs, ii. 235-242 
Culbin Sands, ii. 214-217, 220-231 
Culbin, baronial mansion of, ii. 231 
Culbin, family of, ii. 233 
Darnaway Castle, ii. 211 
Earls of Moray, ii. 242-248 
Family of Brodie, ii. 248-252 
Protestant Ministers of, iii. 417 

J^DINGLASSIE Castle, i. 131 

Burning of, iii. 129 
EDINKILLIB, ii. 185, 187 
Dumphail Castle, ii. 187 
Protestant Ministers of, iii. 415 
Relugas, ii. 188 

Gumming of Relugas, ii. 188 

Gumming of Logie, ii. 193 

Dun of Relugas, ii. 190 
ELCHIES. 

Eastern and Western (Mansions), 

i. 3 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 371 
ELGIN. 

Burgh and parish of, iii. 60 
Anderson's Institution, &c. i. 384- 

387 

Andersons of Barmuckity, i. 404 
Anderson's House (of Linkwood), 

ii. 20 

Arradoul, Lady, ii. 16 
Assembly Rooms, ii, 17 
Attractions for old natives, ii. 38 
Auldearn, Parsonage House, ii. 8 
Bead House, iii. 66 
Bishop's Town Palace, ii. 21 
Blackfriars' Monastery, ii. 45 ; iii, 

210 

Brodie of Arnhall, ii. 16 
Calder House, ii. 17 
Castle on Ladyhill, ii. 6, 7 ; iii. 

80-86 
Cathedral, iii. 277 



476 



INDEX. 



ELGIN, Chapter of Cathedral, iii. 303-306 
City, iii. 64 
Colleges, North and South, i. 375, 

377 ; ii. 21 

Court House and Jail, i. 370-372 
De Moravias, ii. 5 
Deanery or North College, i. 375 
Dominicans, ii. 25 
Donaldson's House, ii. 17 
Duffus Manse, ii. 21, 22 
Dunkinty House, ii. 21 
Duthac's, St., Manse, i. 379 
Elchies House, ii. 15 
Elgin Runic Pillar, ii. 3, 4 
Elgin Street Architecture, ii. 18 
Epitaphs, i. 387-409 
Fort, iii. 79 
Furlin Yetts, i. 381 
Giles, St., Church Ministers of, 

iii. 399 

Grammar and Sang School, i. 381 
Grant Lodge, i. 378 
Greyfriars' Monastery, ii. 26 ; iii. 

207-210 
Guildry, i. 367 
Isaac Forsyth's house, ii. 18 
Lady Hill and Excavations, ii. 6, 7 
Lady High House, ii. 20 
Lands adjoining : 

1. Blackhills, i. 352 

2. Bogside, i. 351-354 

3. Langmorn, i. 350 

4. Maine, i. 351 

5. Monbein, i. 354 

6. Milltown, i. 350 

7. Mosstowie, i. 350 

8. Pittendrigh, i. 354 

9. Westertown, i. 354 
Leper-house, iii. 206 
Little Cross, ii. 23, 24 
Little Kirk, i. 369 ; ii. 23 
Maison Dieu, iii. 205, 207 
Meaning of the word, i. 346, 355, 

356, 357 

Merchants of last century, ii. 31, 32 
Modernizing of Elgin, ii. 36 
Morieston Mansion, ii. 14 
North College, i. 375 
Muckle Cross, ii. 23 
Panns, ii. 14 ; iii. 66 
Protestant Ministers of, iii. 396-400 
Provosts of, i. 410-412 
Retrospect, 150 years age, ii. 33 
Runic pillar, ii. 3 
South College, i. 377 
Sub-Dean's House, ii. 22 
Thunderton House, ii. 15, 16 



Tolbooth, i. 370 ; iii. 66 
Unthank manse, ii. 22 
Vicar's manse and garden, ii. 22. 
West Port, ii. 12 
ESSIL. 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 387 

PARMEA, Parish of, ii. 375 
FABUNA. 

Battle of, ii. 105 

Farquharson of Invercauld, i. 265 

Ferguson, James, the astronomer, ii. 
423 

Findhorn, Village of, ii. 155, 156, 161 

Findhorn River, ii. 168 

Findrassie, ii. 119 

Fingal, Chair of, ii. 339 

Protestant Ministers of. iii. 442 
FORBES. 

Castle of, iii. 87 

Fort of, iii. 86 
Forts. 

Augustus, iii. 95 

Elgin, iii. 79 

George, ii. 315 ; iii. 96 

Lochindorb, i. 234 

Loch Ness, i. 22 

Rothes, i. 81 

Urquhart, iii. 93 
FOCHABEBS, i. 52 
FORBES, ii. 163-176 

Altyre House, ii. 177 

Burgh, constitution of, iii. 73 

Castle Hill, ii. 177 

Cross of Forres, ii. 174 

Findhorn, River and Bay, iii. 168 

Sweno's Pillar, iii. 106-108 

The Hard Moors, ii. 173 

Trafalgar Monument, ii. 170 

Witches' Stane, iii. 174 
FORT- AUGUSTUS, iii. 358 
FORT GEORGE, ii. 316 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 413 
Forsyth, Isaac, ii. 18 
Foyers, Fall of. ii. 355, 356 

(^.ALVALL, Boharm, i. 123, 125 
GABTLY, ii. 415 

Chapel of, ii. 295 

Garmouth, i. 303 

Germach, Barony of, iii. 388 

Geddes, House of, ii. 265, 268 
GLASS, ii. 412 

Aswanly, House of, ii. 413 

Beldorney, ii. 412 

Edinglassie, House of, ii. 413 

Glenavon, Forest, i. 219 

Wallach Kirk, ii. 412 



INDEX. 



477 



GLENLFVET, Archaeology of, i. 200-203 

Battle of, i. 208 

Scalan, R.C. Seminary at, i. 206 
GLENMORRISTON. 

Goodwin Sands, i. 336 

Gordon Castle, i. 51 

Gordons, Dukes and Family of, i. 
52-61 

Gordon, Wm., of Tomnavoulin, i. 
151 

Goths and Vandals, iii. 39 

Gordonston House, ii. 58 

Grant, Family of, i. 89-109 

Grantown, i. 232 

Grange, Fortalice at, iii. 180 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 444 

Sepultures at Elgin Cathedral, i. 59, 

JJUNTLY Castle, ii. 410 

JNSH, i. 284, 285 

Innes', Cosmo, Lecture on Elgin, ii. 
1-39 

Innes, Family of, i. 313-319, 322 

Innes, Bishop John, i. 315 

Innes House, i. 321, 329 
INSH, i. 285 
INVERALLAN, iii. 379 
INVERAVON, i. 190 

Ballindalloch Castle, i. 194-196, 205 

Benrinnes, Battle of, i. 197 

Chapels, i. 199 

Churchyard Epitaphs, i. 209-215 

Druidical Circles and Stones, i. 198 

Drummuir, Castle of, i. 199 

Glenlivet, Battle of, i. 208 

Inrerugie Castle, ii. 82 

Kilmaichly, House of, i. 197 

Loch Avon, i. 191 

MacPhersons of Invereshie, i. 195 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 376 

Scalan R.C. Establishment, i. 206 
INVERNESS, ii. 322-334 

Burgh, antiquity of, iii. 58 

Castle of, iii. 89, 90, 131 

Citadel, ii. 157 ; iii. 94 

Convents, iii. 92, 210-237 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 435-439 

St. Andrew's Cathedral and Clergy, 
iii. 439, 440 

JELLAS, ii. 46, 47, 49 
KILMANIVAIG, ii. 358 

Kilmorac, Fall of, ii. 366 

Kininore, House of, i. 127, 140-142 



KINNEDAR, ii. 54 

Ancient Coss, ii. 72 

Churchyard Epitaphs, ii. 72 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 401 
KINLOSS, ii. 152-162 

Abbots, iii. 173-180 

Abbey, iii. 157, 160 

Douff Hillock, iii. 161 

Edward I. here, iii. 103 

Findhorn Village, iii. 156 

Forres Grants, iii. 72 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 409 
KINNOIK. 

Churchyard Epitaphs, ii. 406-410 
KINCHAKDINE, iii. 380 

Kilmorac, Fall of, ii. 382 

Kilravock, ii. 263, 297 
KINGUSSIE, i. 286-290-293 

Castle of Ruthven, i. 286, 893 

Macpherson the Freebooter, iii. 288 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 384, 385 

Priory of, iii. 287 
KIRKHILL, ii. 373-377 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 441, 442 
KIRKMICHAEL, i. 215-220 

Churchyard Epitaphs, i. 221-224 

Protestant Ministers of, iiL 377, 378 

Tomintoul and Queen Victoria, i. 218 
KILTARLITY, ii. 377-386 

Beaufort, ii. 382 

Beauly Priory, ii. 384 

Belladrum, ii. 383 

Kings unable to sign their names, iii. 
43 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 443 
KINNERMONY, Aberlour, i. 184 

Kintrae, ii. 117 

Templar House at, iii. 237 
KNOCKANDO, i. 87, 113 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 372 

TVADIES, Morayshire, of last century, 

ii. 28 

LAGGAN. 

Burial-place of 7 Kings, i. 299 

Grant, Mrs., i. 296 

Leslies of Kininvie, i. 154 

Loch Laggan, i. 295 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 446, 447 

S. Killen's Church, iii. 295 

S. Kenneth's Chapel, iii. 300 

LHANBRYDE, i. 326, 330 
Coxton Tower, i. 328 
Innes House, i. 329 
Loch-an-eilan, i. 260 
Lochindorb, iii. 98-102 ~ 
Lochandhu, House of^i.1283 



478 



INDEX. 



LHANBRYDE, Lachnabo, i. 29, 323, 340 
Lossie, Port of, i. 337 
Lossiemouth, ii. 59 
Lovat Family, ii. 340-348 
Manor of, i. 327 
Pitgaveny, i. 332, 333 
Protestant Ministers of, iii. 392 
Spynie, Loch of, i. 29, 335 
Tomb of the Lovats, ii. 349 

MACALLAN, Parish of, i. 114 

Macdonald of Glengarry, ii. 360 

Macintosh, Family of, i. 268 

Macpherson, Clan, i. 272 

Macpherson the Freebooter, i. 288 

Maine, Lands of, i. 351 

Marcheta Mulierum, i. 17 
MARNOCH. 

Churchyard Epitaphs, ii. 390-396 

Montrose, eldest son of, buried at 

Bellie, i. 75 
MORAY, Natural History of, iii. 1-26 

Civil and Political, iii. 26-76 

Military history of, iii. 77 

Moray, Earls of, ii. 242-248 

Morays of Duffus, ii. 87 

Morays of Petty, ii. 90 

Morriston, ii. 127 
MORTLACH. 

Auchindoun Castle, i. 129 

Bishopric of, iii. 239-246 

Bishops of, iii. 246-272 

Balvenie Castle, i. 130, 135, 140 

Battle of, i. 136, 139 

Church of, i. 134, 142-145 

Churchyard Epitaphs, i. 146-155 

Danes' Grave, i. 137 

Edinglassie Castle, i. 131 

Kininvie, House of, i. 140 

Leslies of, i. 142, 154, 155 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 365 

Runic Stone, i. 138 

Tower of Tullich, i, 141 
MOY, ii. 198, 201-205 

Churchyard Epitaphs, ii. 205-207 

Lake of Moy and Obelisk, ii. 203 

Moy Hall, ii. 199, 202 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 417, 428 
MOYNESS. 

Muckerach, Tower of, i. 253 

Myreside, ii. 117 

U.P. Ministers at, iii. 421 

NAIRN, "ii. 262, 266-269 
Burgh, iii. 71 
Castle of, iii. 88 



NAIRN, Kilravock House, iii. 263 

Ness, Loch, ii. 353, 354 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 422, 423 

Raits Castle, iii. 265 
NEW SPYNIE. 

Nicholas', St., Hospital at Boat o" 
Brig, i. 78, 79, 125 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 406 

QGSTON Churchyard Epitaphs, ii. 

74-77 

Ogston and Plewland, ii. 69 
Order Pot, i. 380 
Protestant Ministers of, iii. 402 
ORTON House, i. 83. 

St. Mary's Chapel and Well, L 85 
Ossian, the Father of, ii. 339 

PETTY, a. sis, 320 

Castle Stewart, ii. 321 

Heirship of, ii. 319 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 431 

Pitgaveny, i. 333 
PLUSCARDEN. 

Book of, iii. 202 

Priory, iii. 188-195 

Priors, iii. 195-203 
Pilgrimages to Wells, iii. 329 
Pittendreich, i. 353 
Prebendal Churches, iii 295 
Protestant Bishops, iii. 341 
Protestant Church, iii. 312, 341-358 

QUARRYWOOD, ii. 121 

RAITS Castle, i. 283, ii. 265 

Artificial Cave at, i. 284 
RAFFORD, ii. 176, 179-183 

Altyre House, ii. 177, 180, 181 

Blervie Castle, ii. 178 

Burgie Castle, ii. 178 

Cummings of Altyre, ii. 183-185 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 410 

Relugas, ii. 188-190 

RENTAL OF THE FEU-DUTIES OF THE 
SEE, iii. 362 

Rose of Kilravock, ii. 285 

Rose of Insh, ii. 296 
ROTHES, i. 80 

Castle of, i. 81 

Dundurcos Church, i. 85 

Orton Chapel and Well, i. 85 

Orton House, i. 83 

Properties, i. 83, 84 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 36 

ROTHIEMURCHUS. 

Badenoch, i. 267 



INDEX. 



479 



Families. 

Farquharson of Invercauld, i. 265 
Grant of Rothiemurchus, i. 261 
Loch-an-eilan, i. 260 
Macintosh, i. 268-272 
Macpherson, i. 272-277 
Protestant Ministers of, iii. 381 
Shaw of Rothiemurchus, i. 262-265 

ROYAL BTTRGHS within the Province, 
iii. 57 

RUTHVEN. 

Barrack of Badenoch, iii. 96 
Castle of, i. 293 
Mount of, i. 286 

gHAW of Rothiemurchus, i. 262 
Shaw's, Rev. Lachlan, Biography, 

Pref., ix. 
Sheriffs and Shires, derivation of, 

iii. 47 

Spey, the river of, i. 48-50, 306 
SPEYMOUTH. 
Battles, i. 309 
Chatham, Family of, i. 309 
Churchyard Epitaphs, i. 310-312 
Garmach, i. 303 
Harbour of, i. 307 
Innes, family of, i. 313-319 
King Charles II. lands here, i. 309 
Protestant Ministers of, iii. 389 
ST. ANDREWS (Lhanbryde), ii. 93 
Protestant Ministers of, iii. 393 
SP-SNIE, ii. 94, 106, 114 
Church and bell of, ii. 1 14 
Churchyard Epitaphs, ii. 137-145 
Properties 

Aldroughty, ii. 134-137 
Bishopmill, ii. 124-126 
Deanshaugh, ii. 126 
Findrassie, ii. 119-121 
Kintrae, ii. 117 
Morriston, ii. 127-130 
Myreside, ii. 117-119 
Quarrywood, ii. 121-123 
Scroggiemill, ii. 133-134 
Sheriffmill, ii. Ill, 130-133 
Westfield, ii. 123 
Families The Dunbars, ii. 98 

The Dunbars of Thunderton, ii, 
104-106 



Families 

The Dunbars of Westfield, ii. 

101-104 

Palace of, ii. 115 ; iii. 297. 
Strathavon, St. Peter's Church, i. 192 
Streens, ii. 197 
Strathglass, ii. 378 
Strathspey, i. 255 
Sutherlands of Duffus, ii. 84 
Sweno's Stone, ii. 182 ; iii. 106-108 



, i. 2 
Thanes and Thanedoms in the Pro- 

vince, i. 17, 18 ; iii. 45 
Templars, Knights, iii. 237 
Tomdow, rock of, i. 115 
Tullich, tower of, i. 141 
Tullochgorum, i. 97 

QCHTERSPYNIE, ii. 131 
URQUHART, i. 312, 319 

Churchyard Epitaphs, i. 314-326 

Cottes, Loch of, i. 323 

Innes House, i. 321 

Innes of Leuchars, i. 322 

Lochnabo, i. 323 

Priory of, i. 324 ; iii. 182-187 

Priors, iii. 187, 188 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 390 
URQUHART, Glenmorriston, iii. 361, 
363-372 

Castle of Urquhart, ii. 362, 372; 
iii. 94 

Divah, fall of, iii. 367 

Glenmorriston district, iii. 368 

Kilmorac, fall of, iii. 366 

Mhalfourvonnie Mountain, iii. 364 

Protestant Ministers of, iii. 444 

yiCARS, Apostolic Scottish, iii. 273 

, General, and his roads, iii. 

133, 134 
Wallach Kirk, ii. 412 
War-cry of each clan, iii. 137 
Wardlaw, parish of, ii. 375 
Westfield, ii. 123 
Whitereath, i. 352 



THE END. 



KOBERT MACLEHOSE, PRINTER, 153 WEST NILE STREET, GLASGOW. 




PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE 
CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY 




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880 

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Shaw, Lachlan 

The history of the Province 
of Moray