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Full text of "The history of Putnam County, N. Y.; with an enumeration of its towns, villages, rivers, creeks, lakes, ponds, mountains, hills, and geological features; local traditions; and short biographical sketches of early settlers, etc. By William J. Blake. New York, Baker & Scribner, 1849"

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146 Nassau Street, and 36 Park Row. 




Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1849, 

Bv William J. Blake, 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United Statet, 
for the Southern District of New York. 

This is a photographic facsimile of the original 

Published by 


Middletown, New York 


Trumbull Printing, Middletown, N. Y. 

8. W. Benedict, Print., 16 Spruce Street. 


We hardly know what excuse to offer the reader, 
for daring to introduce our little work into his literary 
presence, and lay his time under an embargo for its 
perusal. We have not written for fame or profit. 
Had we done either, or both, we would have selected 
a different subject than the history of a little County 
like that of Putnam. What we have written is the 
result of leisure hours, which might possibly have been 
squandered in the pursuit of a less worthy object, pro- 
ductive of no benefit to self or community. If we 
have garnered up one fact that was in danger of being 
lost, and which is beneficial and worthy to be pre- 
served, in a historical point of view, we are satisfied 
and rewarded for our labor. That our little work is 
defective, no one is more thoroughly satisfied, and 
ready to admit it also, than our humble self. Our 
sources of information have been narrow and limited, 
and in many instances defective. 

A generation has passed away, in this County, from 
whom valuable Revolutionary information might have 
been obtained. In addition to this, the records of the 
different towns in some instances have been defaced, 
by accident, we presume, and become obscure by 


lapse of time ; rendering the record unintelligible and 
valueless to the delver in search of the treasures of 
the past. 

We had intended to incorporate an outline view of 
Dutchess County in our little work, but finding that it 
would increase our pages beyond a given number, we 
were necessitated to withhold the article already pre- 

Cold Spring, 1849. 




Putnam was erected wholly from Dutchess, June 
12th, 1812 ; and was named in honor of Major-Gene- 
ral Israel Putnam, who was stationed for some time, 
during the Revolutionary war, in the lower part of 
this county, and at Peekskill in the county of West- 
chester. It is situated on the east side of the Hudson 
river, between 41° 20' and 41° 30' north latitude, and 
2° 56' and 3° 26' east longitude, from Washington. It 
is bounded northerly by the county of Dutchess, east- 
erly by the State of Connecticut, southerly by the 
county of Westchester, and westerly by the Hudson 
river, which separates it from the counties of Rock- 
land and Orange. Its area is about 216 square miles. 
Its population in 1840, was 12,825; and in 1845, 13,258. 
It contains six towns, viz. : Philipstown, Putnam 
Valley, Southeast, Carmel, Patterson, and Kent. It 
was originally called the South Precinct of Dutchess 
county, and about 1740, the Fredericksburgh Pre- 
cinct, embracing the whole of Putnam. As early as 
1772, the present town of Philipstown, including Put- 
nam Valley, was erected in a precinct, by the name 


of "Philipse Precinct;" and, in 1773, the town of 
Southeast was organized as a separate precinct, by 
the name of the "Southeast Precinct." This left in 
the Fredericksburgh Precinct, only the towns of Car- 
mel, Kent, and Patterson. By the Act of March 7th, 
1788, the terms precincts were dropped, and "Phi- 
lipse Precinct," was called Philipstown; "Southeast 
Precinct," Southeast town ; " Fredericksburgh Pre- 
cinct," Frederick's town. 

Philipstown is named in honor of the Philips family, 
a member of which patented the whole of this county ; 
Frederick's town, in honor of the christian name of 
Capt. Frederick Philips, who inherited one third part 
of it, and Southeast, from its geographical position 
with respect to the other towns. 

The geographical shape or figure of this county, is 
a geometrical rectangle, having its angles right angles, 
without having its sides equal. It stretches, like a 
garter, from the Hudson to the Connecticut line ; be- 
ing, in a straight line, about twenty miles in length, 
and twelve in breadth. Carmel and Patterson were 
onranized in 1795, from Frederick's town. This left 
Frederick's town embracing only the now town of* 
Kent, which name was given to it about this time, in 
honor of the Kent family. Patterson, in 1795, was 
organized by the name of " Franklin," in honor of the 
old revolutionary philosopher and patriot ; but, in a 
few years thereafter, it was changed to Patterson, in 
honor of the family of that name, who were early set- 
tlers there. Putnam Valley was erected in 1839, by 
the name of " Quincy," after the town of that name 
in Massachusetts, wholly from Philipstown ; but in 
1840, the name was changed to the one it now bears. 


The eastern part of the county is uneven and hilly, 
vet very productive, and under a high state of culti- 
vation. The central and western portions are broken 
by high hills and mountain elevations. The High- 
lands stretch across its west end, casting their sombre 
shadows on the noble river, that laves its western 
boundary. They are estimated at 1,500 feet above 
the level of the Hudson. Through the central High- 
lands, run two valleys, called Peekskill and Canopus 
Hollows ; and between them and the Hudson lies a 
beautiful vale, called Pleasant valley, extending from 
the Westchester to the Dutchess line. The mountain 
slopes and valleys'are productive and well-cultivated. 
The Muscoot river, with the east and west branches 
of the Croton, are the only streams of any importance. 
There are several brooks and creeks, which furnish 
sufficient water power, for the milling purpose of the 
country. Iron is found in abundance in the moun- 
tains; and, though "bleak and barren, as appear these 
rock-ribs of earth, they are the repositories of exhaust- 
less wealth, which requires but the hand of industry, 
to unlock and scatter to the world." 

Extract from the record of the minutes of the first Court held in 
the county, after its organization. 

" October Term, 1812. 
"At a Court of General Sessions of the Peace, held at the 
Baptist meeting-house, in the town of Carmel, in and for the 
county of Putnam, Tuesday the 20th day of October, 1812. 


Stephen Barnum, 
Robert Johnson, 
Barnabas Carver, 
Harry Garrison, 

Judges and Justices 
of the Peace. 

"Proclamation that Sheriff return precept, and other precepts 
returnable here this day. 


" William H. Johnston, High Sheriff of said county, returns 

the , with the panel of Grand Jurors. The panel being 

called, the following grand jurors appear and answer, and were 
6worn, to wit, Joshua Barnum, junior, William Field, Jonathan 
Morehouse, Jesse Brush, Nathaniel Forgusan, Silas Whitney, 
Abijah Seely, Edward Vermilier, Joseph Cole, junior, Daniel 
Thorn, Benjamin H. Miller, John Austin, Tracy Ballard, Judah 
Relley, Jeremiah Hopkins, Ebenezer Boyd, Rowland Bailey, 
Joshua Hazen, Abel Peck, John Hyatt, junior, Abraham Smith, 
Jeremiah Conklin, and Amos Conklin. 

"Proclamation, that all Justices of the Peace, Coroners, 
Sheriffs, and other officers, that have taken any inquisitions or 
recognizances, to hand them into Court, that the Justices of the 
people may proceed thereon. 

" Proclamation, that all constables appear and answer. The 
list being called, the following constables appeared, and an- 
swered, to wit: Robert Post, Philips; James Randal, Frederic; 
Jersham Jacocks, Patterson ; Lewis Baker, Southeast ; Jesse 
Hill, Carmel. 

"Proclamation for those who arc bound in recognizances to 
appear and answer. 

"Court adjourned till half after three, P. M. Court met pur- 
suant to adjournment. 


Stephen Barnum, 
Robert Johnston, 
Barnabas Carver, 
Harry Garrison, 


"On application to this Court, of Abraham Smith, foreman of 
the Grand Jury, that they have no district Attorney. Ordered 
that G. W. Marvin serve as such, during this Session. Court 
adjourned, till to-morrow morning at 10 o'clock. 

" Wednesday, 21st October, 1812. 

"Court met pursuant to adjournment. 
" Present, the same Judges. 
"Court adjourned till 3 o'clock, P. M. 
"Court met pursuant to adjournment. 
"Present the same Judges. 


" The People vs. Moses Northrup. 
"Indictment for an assault with intent to kill. Defendant 
pleaded not guilty. Ordered that this suit be suspended, till to- 
morrow morning, at 10 o'clock." 

" The People vs. Tartulus Russet. 
'■Indictment for an assault and misdemeanor. 
" Court adjourned, till 10 o'clock, to-morrow morning." 


As might be inferred, from the geological charac- 
ter of this county, its mineral productions are of much 
interest. Pursuing the order which has been hereto- 
fore adopted, it may be observed, that in iron ore, 
this county is peculiarly rich. It contains several 
beds or veins of the magnetic kind, which yield ore 
of the best quality, and in the greatest abundance. 

Of carbonate of lime, in the form of calcareous 
spar, and marble, there are several localities. The 
latter term, however, is usually applied here, to a 
dolomite, similar to that of Dutchess county, and 
which is found abundantly, in the vicinity of Patter- 
son. The only objection to this material for con- 
struction, is its friable character.f Being a com- 
pound of the carbonates of lime, and magnesia, it has 
been thought that the product of its calcination, is not 
so valuable, as a fertilizing agent, as that which con- 
tains lime alone. On this subject, however, as I have 

* Dr. L. C. Beck's Geological Report, 1839. 
•j- The Putnam county dolomite, often contains a large admix- 
ture of tremolite. 



already remarked, mistaken views have been enter- 
tained, as some soils which appear to have been 
formed in part, of the magnesian limestone, are by no 
means wanting in fertility. It may be added, that a 
white crystalline limestone occurs in this county, 
which is entirely free from magnesia. 

A very valuable mineral product of Putnam county, 
is serpentine, whicli exists in vast quantity, can be 
obtained in blocks of uniform density, and is suscepti- 
ble of a fine polish. But for the fact, that the quar- 
ries of this beautiful material are situated at too great 
a distance from water transport, they would long ago 
have been extensively wrought. ' Of the precious or 
noble serpentine, also, there are several localities, 
where the mineralogist may obtain specimens, equal 
in beauty to any that are found in the United States. 
Among the objects worthy of notice in this connection, 
are two localities of arsenical iron pyrites, one of 
which has, at some former period, been extensively 
wrought. This ore, which might be used for the ex- 
traction of arsenic, seems to be abundant, but the 
present condition of the mine renders it difficult to 
arrive at a certain conclusion on this subject. Its re- 
ported mixture with silver, is probably one of those 
stories circulated for selfish purposes, and the only 
ground for it, in the present instance, is, the fact that 
in other countries, the arsenical ores are often asso- 
ciated with those of a more valuable metal. 

I should not omit to add, that a bed of limonite or 
hydrate of iron, occurs in Peekskill Hollow, near the 
line between Philipstown, and Carmel. Mr. Mather, 
however, remarks that it seems to be too silicious to 
work well alone, in the furnace. There are also 


several localities of peat, and probably marl will here- 
after be found accompanying this substance, as it does 
in several other counties. Putnam county has, for 
many years, been visited by mineralogists chiefly on 
account of the interesting localities, which occur at 
Cold Spring and in Philipstown. The latter on the 
farm of Mr. Huestis, about five miles south of the vil- 
lage of Fishkill, is particularly worthy of attention, 
not only for the number of interesting minerals which 
it affords, but as showing the manner in which allied 
species run into each other. The facts here pre- 
sented, prove how important it is in many cases, 
carefully to examine the localities of minerals, before 
we decide with certainty upon their specific charac- 

In a bed of white limestone, running parallel with 
the granite, and which is of small width, and is situat- 
ed about a quarter of a mile from the New York road, 
we have the following minerals, viz. : precious ser- 
pentine, of which there are several varieties. The 
first has a conchoidal fracture, and presents various 
shades of green and yellow, and is variously dissemi- 
nated through the limestone, and other minerals. 
2. A slaty variety, having a dark green color. It 
sometimes breaks into rhomboidal prisms, and is very 
hard and compact. 3. A slaty variety of a greenish 
white colour, is harder than the preceding, and is fu- 
sible upon the thin edges by the blow-pipe. This last 
seems to approach jade or Saussurite in its characters, 
but its peculiarities are probably owing to the admix- 
ture of some other minerals, as all these varieties seem 
to pass into each other by almost imperceptible gra- 


Of the magnesian carbonate of lime, several forms 
occur at the locality in question. There is a thin 
stratum which is snow-white, very close grained, 
compact and has a semiopaline appearance. It is 
sometimes described under the name of Gurhofite, 
from its having been first found near Gurhof, in Aus- 
tria. According to my analysis, its composition is as 
follows, viz. : 



Carbonate of lime, 


Carbonate of magnesia, 


Other specimens of this mineral, have fibres of as- 
bestus running through them, and they sometimes 
have a bluish tint, a slaty structure, and contain crys- 
tals of bronze yellow iron pyrites. 

Asbestus, especially in the amianthoid form, is, in- 
deed, largely mixed with the minerals already no- 
ticed. The beautiful silky fibres, which run through 
the serpentine and magnesian limestone, in various 
parts of this ridge, may belong to the picrolite of the 
more recent authors. But, while I have no doubt, 
that several distinct minerals have heretofore been 
confounded, under the name of asbestus, I have not 
satisfied myself of the identity of our mineral with 
that just mentioned. Some of the specimens found 
here, have a fibrous structure, and a silky lustre, but 
on treating them with acids they effervesce, and after 
dissolving out all the magnesian carbonate of lime, 
bundles of amianthoid fibres remain. I have reason 
to believe, that all the different fibrous minerals found 
here, are mixtures of asbestus with serpentine or 
magnesian carbonate of lime. 


The following, is an enumeration of the remaining 
minerals found in this county : 

Pyroxene. — The variety coccolite, of a white color. 
It is made up of grains of various sizes, and resem- 
bling dolomite — Philipstown. Diopside, or white 
augite, associated with the preceding. It has a grey 
color, and foliated structure. 

Tremolite. — Often associated with vellowish ser- 

Chrome iron ore. — In octahedral crystals. One 
specimen has a crystal with the base one-fourth of an 
inch in diameter. It resembles spinelle, but its power 
is attracted by the magnet, and its blow-pipe charac- 
ters agree with those of the chrome ore — Philipstown. 

Scapolite, in small crystals or grains. Phosphate 
of lime, in very minute crystals. Both these are 
found at the above locality. 

Peat. — Several localities. 

Graphite. — Often found in small quantities. 

Arragonite. — In concretions on dolomite, near 

Hyalite.- — Associated with iron ore, at the Philips 
ore bed. 

Basanite. — Loose masses on the banks of the 

Kerolite. — Philipstown. 

Brucite. — Near the Townsend ore-bed. 

Hornblende. — Several varieties. 

Actynolite, found at Brown's quarry. Tremolite. 
— Very abundant in the dolomite near Patterson. 
Asbestus, and amianthus, in long and tough fibres. 
Abundant near Patterson. 

Schiller spar, of Dr. Thompson. Brown's quarry. 

Feldspar. — Several varieties. 


Albite, in largs crystals, near Patterson. 

Laumonite, Still ite, and Chabusie. — Formerly ob- 
taiLed at Cold Spring. The locality is believed to be 

Epidote, in beautiful crystals, near Carmel. 

Mica. — Several localities. 

Zircom. — Formerly obtained at Cold Spring. 

Iron Pyrites. — Associated with magnetic iron ore. 
By long exposure to the weather, the iron pyrites is 
decomposed, and the resulting salt washed out. 

Pyritous Copper, and Green Carbonate of Copper. 
— Philips' ore-bed. 

Sphene. — At the Philips' ore-bed, and formerly at 
Cold Spring. 

Orpiment, or Yellow Sulphur et of Arsenic. — Form- 
ed on the timbers of the old arsenic mine, by the de- 
composition of the arsenical iron pyrites. 

Copperas, or Sulphate of Iron. — Formed by the de- 
composition of iron pyrites, on the farm of J. Wood, 
six miles S. S. E. of Carmel. 

Schiller spar, or Metalloidal Diallage. 

As there is some confusion in regard to the above 
names, it is proper to state that the mineral about to 
be noticed, is identical with the Schiller spar of Dr. 

Color: dark green, almost blackish green. Frac- 
ture : uneven, splintery. Sectile. Specific gravity : 
2.746. It is in broad, foliated masses, which cleave 
in two directions, and apparently have the primary 
form of a rhombohedron. The lamina slightly curved. 
One of the cleavages is easily obtained, and has a me- 
tallic, pearly lustre, and a pinchbeck brown color. 

* Outlines of Mineralogy and Chemical Analysis, I. 173. 


Hardness about the same as that of serpentine. Pow- 
der, yellowish gray. Where the mineral has been 
exposed to the air, it is of a tombac brown color. 

Thin fragments treated by the blow-pipe are merely 
rounded on the edges, but become of the same brown 
color as when they have been long exposed to the air, 
and are attracted by the magnet. With borax it is 
fusible, though with difficulty, and the glass, when cold, 
has a greenish color. 

This mineral is found associated with dark-colored, 
common serpentine, at Brown's quarry, near Carmel, 
Putnam county. Its composition is no doubt influ- 
enced by its contact with the latter substance. 
Sulphate of Lime, Alumina, fyc* 

In the Highlands, sulphate of lime is frequently seen 
incrusting hornblende and augitic rocks. One kind of 
hornblende rock is common, that is more or less dis- 
tinguished by this mineral. It is formed by the de- 
composition of pyrites ; and the acid combining with 
the lime and crystallizing, causes the rock to crumble. 
These masses, when imperfectly crumbled, generally 
have a yellowish and reddish-brown color, from the 
oxide and red sulphate of iron, while the interior of 
the mass is filled with thin plates and crystals of the 
sulphate of lime. It is very common about West 
Point. Acicular sulphate of lime, very beautiful, was 
found incrusting augite rocks which overlaid white 
limestone, at an old mine-hole on Anthony's Nose 
mountain, about three miles east of Fort Montgomery, 
near the top of the mountain. Magnetic pyrites oc- 
cur both in the augite and limestone. 

Acicular sulphate of lime was seen incrusting mag- 

* W. W. Mather's Geological Report, 1843. 


netic oxide of iron, at a mine where pyrites abound in 
that ore in the Philips vein, eight and a half miles 
from Cold Spring, on the road to Putnam court-house, 
in this county. The specimens were very delicate and 

In this county, there is a locality of sulphate of 
alumina and iron, and of sulphate of iron, in Philips- 
town, on Anthony's Nose mountain, about three miles 
from West Point, at an old iron mine, where the ore 
contain* pyrites. The earth from this place was used 
many years since, by some of the inhabitants, for dye- 
ing. Another locality is near Luddington's Corners, 
half a mile east, in Kent ; another in the same town- 
ship, four or five miles south, near Dean Pond. 

Sulphur and Carburetted Hydrogen. 

In Philipstown, along the shore of the Hudson, south 
of, and near, the point of Gouverneur's Cove, about 
east of Gee's point, where pyrites have decomposed, a 
gray or bluish-gray powder, composed almost entirely 
of sulphur, is found. Another locality is about one 
mile east of the above, near the locality of laumonite 
and stilbite : it is in cavities in quartz, where pyrites 
have decomposed. 

Sulphate of Iron. 

In this county, many localities of sulphate of iron 
were observed. 

1. An old mine-hole in hornblende rock, a quarter 
of a mile east of Luddington's Corners, in Kent, six 
miles north of Carmel village. Copperas effloresces, 
and causes this rock to crumble to sand. The excava- 
tion, which is small, is on the west side of the mill- 


2. In a vein of quartz, about thirty rods east of Dean 
Pond, also in Kent. Several metalliferous minerals 
are found here*and in this vicinity. 

3. About one-fourth to a half of a- mile south-west 
of Pine Pond, in Kent, at the mine of arsenical iron. 
The ore, which is abundant, and situated in horn- 
blendic gneiss rock, decomposes on the surface, form- 
ing sulphate and arseniate of iron. The mine is called 
the silver mine, and silver is said to have been obtained 
from the ore. If it contains this metal, Prof. Beck will 
make it known in his report containing the analysis of 
the minerals. 

4. Another locality was observed two miles west of 
the last, half a mile to one mile from Boyd's Corners, 
on the road to Cold Spring, near the turn of the road, 
exposed in digging the road. This was arsenical iron, 
decomposed on the surface into sulphate and arseniate 
of iron. 

5. At one of the excavations for magnetic iron ore, 
eight and a half miles from Cold Spring in Philips- 
town, on tire road to Carmel village, and half a mile, 
or perhaps more, north-east from the principal of the 
Philips mines, on the same vein, five or six hundred 
tons of ore have been blasted from the vein. At this 
locality, the magnetic oxide of iron is so much inter- 
mixed with pyrites, that it cannot be used, to make 
iron. In some places in the vein, the pyrites seems to 
have been a paste in which the grains of magnetic 
oxide of iron have been disseminated, but it does not 
generally form more than one-fourth to one-sixth of 
the mass of that part of the vein. By exposure to the 
weather, copperas is formed, which effloresces in dry 
weather, is washed away by the rains, and is succes- 



sively formed and renewed, until the pyrites is decom- 
posed and the magnetic oxide left nearly pure. 

6. It is believed that sulphate of iron might be 
manufactured at this place for the market. A slight 
roasting would facilitate the decomposition of the 

7. In Patterson, several localities were observed 
where pyrites decomposed and formed copperas. One 
is near Mr. Robinson's farm, four miles north-east of 

8. Another on the same road to Patterson, and 
within two or three miles of the village, on the high 
ground. The gneiss, about one hundred or two hun- 
dred yards west from its junction with limestone, con- 
tains much pyrites. The metalliferous bed seemed to 
be five or six feet in thickness in the vertically strati- 
fied rock, and sulphate of iron effloresced on the surface 

9. Another locality, about a mile west of Patterson, 
is in a ridge of gneiss, between strata of limestone. 
This pyrites gneiss stratum extends a distance, it is 
supposed, of several miles, and may at some time be 
used for the manufacture of sulphate of iron. 

10. In South-east, a locality of sulphate of iron 
was examined on Mr. Jedediah Wood's farm, six miles 
south-east of Carmel, on the hill west of the Croton 
river. Pyrites abound in the rock on the eastern 
brow of the hill, and copperas effloresces on the face 
of the rocks. Many of the loose masses at and near 
the foot of the hill are porous, as if once filled with 
pyrites, which have decomposed and washed away. 
Excavations have been made in two places where the 
pyrites abound. Some of the rock crumbles by the 
disintegrating action of the crystallizing salt. The 


rwritous stratum was traced along the brow of the 
hill about two hundred yards. It has long been sup- 
posed there was a lead mine in this hill ; and perhaps 
it may not be inappropriate here to mention circum- 
stances that serve to give countenance to that idea 
among some people, who still yield implicit faith to 
the miraculous virtues of the " mineral rod" and 
magic glass, when used by the favored few who pre- 
tend to be gifted with such peculiar powers. 

It is stated by various gentlemen of the highest 
veracity, that a man of high respectability came from 
Connecticut to the owner of the farm, and informed 
him that there was a valuable lead mine on his land, 
which was worked many years before ; that it was 
covered over with planks ; that a walnut stick was 
lying with one end on the planks, and the other mostly 
decayed near the surface ; that the earth had washed 
over it about four feet deep (with other circumstances 
of detail), and that he could go directly to it. He 
would make no communication to indicate the locali- 
ty, until the owner had executed a bond to secure a 
certain portion of the profits to the informer, who had 
never been to the locality, but who stated that he was 
enabled to see it, and go directly to it, by looking at a 
polished stone as a mirror placed in the crown of his 
hat, with his face applied to the opening of his hat, to 
exclude the view of other objects. He seemed a per- 
fectly unassuming, quiet man, with a perfect faith in 
his ability to perform what he stated. Many of the 
citizens of the vicinity accompanied him in his wan- 
derings, and he finally stopped near the foot of a hill 
on which we have described the pyrites, and where 
he directed excavations to find the mine. The walnut 


stick was found as indicated, except that there were 
no planks ; and no opening, no trace of a mine, or of 
any ore, could be discovered. He went away much 
mortified with his failure. 

A few years afterwards, a girl who was reputed to 
be able to see in a magic glass, or polished stone held 
in a dark place, was employed to discover the sup- 
posed mine, and it was said she had never been in the 
vicinity before. She looked, and walked to within a 
few yards of the same spot, drove a stake in the 
ground, and said the mine was there, at a depth of 
thirty-five feet ; but none has been found. 

A man who had moved into another part of the 
country when a boy, returned when old, about thirty- 
five years ago, and stated, that when he was a boy 
he had been into a mine in that hill where the lead 
ore had been dug, and that he had seen the ore. lie 
had endeavored to find the mine, without letting the 
people know the object of his search. Hearing these 
stories, and many believing that there is a lead mine 
in that hill, led me to make an examination of the 
locality with as much care as was practicable without 
excavations. The loose stones on the surface are more 
or less porous gneiss, with a reddish color. Both the 
porosity and color are due to the composition of 
pyrites probably, for I discovered no traces of any 
metal but iron. These appearances would very natu- 
rally induce the idea of a mine, even without the aid 
of a magic glass ; but whether any ore of any value 
occurs there, is a subject for investigation. There are 
no indications that seem to justify the expenditure of 
capital in search of lead or other metals. The rock 
near the brow of the hill abounds in pyrites, is nearly 


vertically stratified, ranges north-north-east and south- 
south-west, and is intersected by quartz veins (that 
show no metallic contents) in a south-east and north- 
west direction. The great vein of magnetic oxide of 
iron called the Simewog vein (in consequence of the 
extensive mines of this ore that have been worked in 
Simewog hill), is about one-eighth of a mile west of 
this locality of pyrites, as is supposed from the great 
variation of the compass near Mr. Wood's house. 
The compass varies in a distance of two rods in 
an east and west line from 30° to 40°, and the 
centre is in the north-north-east and south-south-west 
line of direction of the Simewog vein on Simewog 
hill. On the north-north-west side of where the vein 
seems to pass, the compass varies to the east of north 
15° to 20° ; and on the south-south-east side, it varies 
as much to the west of north. The stones on the 
surface where the vein is supposed to pass, contains 
magnetic oxide of iron disseminated ; and some lumps 
of ore, and masses of magnesian garnet and epidote, 
were also observed on the same line at this place, and 
a mine of the magnetic ore has been opened about a 
mile south-south-west. The white limestone is not 
far distant on the east from the reputed lead mine. 

All the geological circumstances that were observ- 
ed, and that seem to have a bearing upon this reputed 
lead mine, have been related. The region is a highly 
metalliferous one, and it is probable some excavations 
may have been made here, as in hundreds of other 
places in the Highlands, by the company of miners 
that was sent into this country between 1730 and 
1750, under the direction of the Baron Horsenclever ; 
and that traditions connected with these excavations, 


aided by some imagination and credulity, have been 
the basis of many of the reputed silver and lead mines 
in the Highlands and other parts of New York. 

Many localities might be mentioned in this county, 
where pyrites decomposed with the formation of the 
sulphate of iron. The principal that have not been 
mentioned, are, 

1. An old iron mine on Anthony's Nose mountain, 
about one and a half miles east of Fort Montgomery. 

2. An old "silver mine" (but which, contains no 
silver), on the top of the same mountain, three miles 
east of Fort Montgomery. 

3. On the top of a hill, about one and a half miles 
east of West Point. 

4. Shore of the Hudson., nearly opposite Buttermilk 

5. Shore of the Hudson, several places, nearly op- 
posite West Point. 

6. Shore of the Hudson, several places, between 
Arden's landing and the landing above. 

7. Near the post road, two or three miles east of 
Arden's Landing. 

The localities in this county are all in the primary 
rocks, and nearly all are at or near fractures or up- 
lifts, or localities of more than usual disturbance of the 

Altered Taconic Rocks through the Highlands. 

In crossing the Highlands, the Taconic rocks are 
more or less altered. Some of the limestones in the 
towns of Beekman and Fishkill, in Dutchess county, 
where they approach the Highlands, are white and 
grey crystalline limestones. 


The granular quartz rock forms a continuous strat- 
um through a portion of this and Westchester county. 
It is probably a continuation of the stratum described 
as forming a part of Peaked and Elbow mountains in 
Amenia and Dover in Dutchess county, and is proba- 
bly a continuation of that described by Prof. Hitch- 
cock in the western part of Massachusetts.* The 
granular quartz rock crops out on the bank of Peekskill 
bay of the Hudson river, about half a mile north-west 
of Peekskill landing, near Hall's point. The strata 
are nearly vertical, leaning a little to the west-north- 
west. It ranges up the " Peekskill hollow." It is 
seen in connection with the iron ore at Bradley's ore 
bed in Peekskill hollow, about ten miles from Peeks- 
kill ; and again it occurs near Boyd's corners, in Car- 
mel, in this county. It is quarried to a small extent 
near Boyd's corners, for door-steps, hearth-stones, and 
other purposes. It splits out in regular slabs from 
three to nine inches thick, and three to seven or eight 
feet square, with an uniform plane surface, and is ad- 
mirably adapted for a flagging stone for streets, cel- 
lars, &c. 

The locality near Hall's point belongs to , of 

Peekskill. It is at the mouth of Peekskill creek, a 
little north of Hall's point ; and it is believed that a 
valuable quarry of flagging stones, of the granular 
quartz rock, may be opened at this place. The strata 
are nearly vertical, and the stones may be split off 
with great ease, if the quarry be opened in a proper 

* Vide Second Annual Report on the Geological Survey of 
N. Y., p. 172; Hitchcock's Geological Reports of Massachu- 
setts, 1833, pp. 22, 321 ; Hitchcock's Final Report, 1842, pp. 
587, 593 ; Dewey's American Journal of Science, Vol. 8, &c. 


manner. The flagging and curb stones used in JMew 
York, and many other towns, are now brought from 
the Bolton and Haddam quarries in Connecticut, and 
from the Grey wacke quarries in Greene county. The 
Bolton and Greene county stone are carted from eight 
to sixteen miles over bad roads, and then shipped to a- 
market. If stone, as beautiful and as durable, can be 
dug on the shore of the Hudson, where no cartage is 
required, and where the expense of quarrying is no 
greater than at the quarries mentioned, and where the 
business is now very lucrative, it follows that such 
quarries on the shore of the Hudson would be very 

The talcose slate, distinctly characterized, is limited 
in extent. It occurs in this and Westchester county, 
forming a range of hills several miles in length. It 
forms Blue-rock Point, on the post road, between the 
crossing of Peekskill creek and Annville. The slaty 
laminae are parallel in direction to the limestone and 
granular quartz rock on the east, which dip at an an- 
gle of from seventy-five to eighty-five degrees to the 
east-south-east. This rock forms the principal mass of 
the hills to the north-north-east of Blue-rock Point for 
several miles. Gallows Hill (a place celebrated during 
the Revolution, in consequence of the public execu- 
tions), is a part of this range of rock. The rock is 
generally covered by soil, except where it has been 
denuded by water, or excavations for roads, etc. The 
soil is of good quality, and produces fine crops. Far- 
ther north-east, this rock is rarely seen ; but it passes 
up Peekskill hollow, and up a valley two or three 
miles west of Boyd's Corners in this county. It is 
very refractory in the fire, and is used for the in-walls 


of furnaces. The rock is very fissile, and splits in thin 
laminae of some magnitude. 

The limestones of this range of Taconic rocks are 
scarcely altered in some places, as at the quarries near 
Blue-rock Point, near the mouth of Peekskill Creek, 
and about a quarter of a mile east of Annville, in 
Westchester county. In others, it is a perfect meta- 
morphic white limestone, as in the valley west of Gal- 
lows Hill, two or three miles north of Annville. 

Limestone makes its appearance as knobs or hills, 
fifty to one hundred feet high, about two or three 
miles north of Annville, in the valley west of Gallows 
Hill. Also the same limestone, in the same valley, 
associated with talcose rocks, two or three miles north 
of the last locality, near Bunnell's forge. The strata 
are nearly vertical. 

Metamorphic Limestones. 

In tracing these limestones in Dutchess county, we 
left them in Pawlings. The same granular dolomitic 
limestone extends south into Patterson, where it is 
well exposed to view, from the north line of Patterson 
to three or four miles south of the village. It is asso- 
ciated with mica slate, and a fissile, micaceous gneiss 
rock. The limestone in the valley of Patterson con- 
tains tremolite in some places. About two and a half 
miles south of Patterson, the limestone is quarried for 
lime, and forms a superior article. Sixty cords of 
wood are consumed in burning; a kiln of two thousand 
bushels. The price of this lime is fifty cents per 

Much of this stone seems well adapted for a building 
stone. The rock is granular, strongly coherent, and 


in color varies from bluish to white. The rock is not 
fitted for a marble, as the tremolite would make it dif- 
ficult to saw. 

Another quarry has been opened within a mile of 
the village of Patterson. 

About a mile west of Patterson, a ridge of gneiss, 
highly impregnated with pyrites, lies between strata 
of limestone. The strata through this region dip to 
the eastward nearly vertically. 

Limestone of the same general characters occurs in 
Southeast, in the valley of the Croton river. It may 
be seen along the road about a mile above Owensviller 
and one mile and a half west of Peach Pond.* 

Serpentine Rock. 

Another locality of this rock is in Philipstown, about 
ten or eleven miles north-north-east of Peekskill, and 
about half or three-quarters of a mile east of Horton's 
Pond. The rock is of a blackish-green, fine grained, 
and sometimes coarsely crystalline. It is yellow on 
the weathered surfaces, and is associated with steatite. 
Ten to eleven acres seem to be underlaid by this rock, 
w ich might be quarried for an ornamental marble. 
It is about eight miles from water transport. Another 

* I may be permitted here to mention a circumstance respect- 
ing ground ice. The ice in this pond attaches itself to the loose 
boulders in shallow water, and floats with them attached, and 
ploughs up the gravel before them as the ice is driven towards 
the shore in the spring. In this way they are brought annually 
nearer and nearer the shore, until they are pushed beyond low- 
water mark, where they remain. Many of these boulders weigh 
fifteen or twenty tons. They all seem to have come from one 
general direction, viz., north-west. Mr. Stephen Ryder pointed 
out the boulders and furrows, and gave the explanation to Prof. 


mass of the serpentine rock was seen about a mile 
south of the one last described. The serpentine forms 
knobs and hillocks at small intervals for half a mile in 
length. Another locality, one that has already at- 
tracted much notice, is Brown's quarry, near Pine 
Pond, in this county, four or five miles from Carmel 
village, and one and a quarter miles north-north-west 
of the county poor-house. It is dark-colored, dark 
green to black, and from compact to a coarse crystal- 
line, like coarse-grained hornblende rock. Itisgranu- 
larly foliated, like common white marble, polishes well, 
and is perfectly black when polished. It may be ob- 
tained in large blocks for sawing into slabs. Large 
blocks lie on the surface in Brown's lot, and the rock 
is seen in place all around the hill. In the mine lot 
adjacent, good blocks may probably be obtained by 
quarrying. Twenty-five to thirty acres of ground are 
underlaid by this rock on the hill-side, west of the 
brook, which is the outlet of Pine Pond. It is easily 
accessible, and about one hundred feet above the water 
level of the adjacent valley. Blocks of many tons' 
weight can be easily procured ; in fact, many of this 
size are now lying on the surface, and require no blast- 
ing or splitting before they are put in the saw-mill. 
Magnetic oxide of iron, or chromate of iron, is dis- 
seminated through the serpentine in some parts of the 
serpentine bed ; and this variety of the rock will not 
be suitable to work, as it can neither be sawed nor 
polished easily. The quarry seems to be sufficient to 
supply the market, not only of our own country but 
the world, with this kind of ornamental marble, for a 
long time. It is really a beautiful material when pol- 
ished, and it is hoped that it will be extensively used. 


I have seen no other locality where such a material 
can be obtained in so large blocks, sound and free 
from seams and cracks. A marble of this kind was 
used in ancient times, in some of the old Spanish pal- 
aces, but it is exceedingly rare in Europe. 

Metamorphic Li?nesto?ies of the Highlands. 

These are similar to those in Orange county, only 
spinelle has not been recognized in them, and brucite 
is not common. Serpentine, augite, and asbestus are 
more common, and garnet is more common in the as- 
sociated rocks. 

Local Details. — 1. Limestone was observed about 
one and a half miles south of Carmel village, on the 
farm of a Mr. Townsend, at two old mine holes, where 
some have supposed that silver, and others that mar- 
ble was the object of exploration. It is scarcely ne- 
cessary to add, that no traces of silver ore could be 
distinguished. Both these excavations are in a bed of 
limestone, about thirty rods apart. The bed is nar- 
row, perhaps twenty feet wide, and is bounded by 
gneiss on each side; the strata are highly inclined to 
the east-south-east. Brucite and some coccolite were 
observed in the limestone of the northwardly excava- 
tion. At the other locality the limestone is very white, 
coarse-grained, and contains imperfect crystals of 
phosphate of lime, or green augite. 

2. A bed of limestone containing brucite, serpen- 
tine, and asbestus, is associated with the bed of mag- 
netic oxide of iron on Mr. Tilly Foster's farm, two and 
a half miles south-east of Carmel village. 

These were the only localities of this kind of lime- 
stone seen in the eastern part of this county. In the 


western are two ranges of the same kind of rock. 
The following localities will illustrate them, viz. : 

1. A bed of limestone near Anthony's Nose point, 
six miles south of West Point, which is seen again 
farther north-north-east at the old silver mine ; also 
at two places on the shore between that and cotton 
rock ; near Mr. Arden's ; two hundred or three hun- 
dred yards south-west of Philips's mill, east of West 
Point ; also at Cotton Rock ; half-a-mile east of the 
Highland school ; north of Davenport's tavern on the 
post road ; and at Huestis's quarry. This is the wes- 
ternmost range, and extends from near Anthony's 
Nose point north-north-east, to near Davenport's 
tavern ; and thence through the valley to Huestis's 
quarry, about three miles south of Fishkill, a distance 
of about ten or eleven miles. It has also been seen 
farther to the north-north-east on the mountain. 

2. The second range has not been observed in as 
many places. It has been seen at the White mine on 
the Anthony's Nose mountain, three miles east of Fort 
Montgomery ; three miles east-south-east of West 
Point, near the post road ; on the road from Cold 
Spring to Carmel village, near Haight's tavern, five 
miles north-east of Cold Spring ; and about half a 
mile north of Warren's tavern, in Philipstown. This 
range is nearly parallel to the other, and nearly 

All these localities are supposed to be in the range 
of limestone which are exposed in these various points, 
and probably in many others. 

1. Huestis's quarry is in the western limestone bed 
above-mentioned. Some parts of the hill are granular 
limestone, and a part is nearly compact magnesian 


limestone or miemite. Serpentine is frequently inter- 
mixed, forming a verd-antique marble, which may 
perhaps at some future time be applied to use. Seve- 
ral fine minerals occur at this locality, which were 
discovered by Dr. Barrett in 1822. The precious 
serpentine of this locality is perhaps not surpassed in 
beauty by that of Newburyport or Easton, or even 
any locality known. It occurs crystallized distinctly 
with various modified forms. White coccolite, white 
augite, diopside, sahlite, phosphate of lime, amianthus, 
asbestus, pearl spar, pyrites, chromate of iron, mag- 
netic oxide of iron, and various other minerals occur 
at this locality. The mass of limestone at this place 
forms a bed twenty to fifty feet thick, resting against 
granite or sienite, and gneiss containing red felspar 
and some epidote, on the west, while a stream flows 
at the base of the hill. 

2. The bed of limestone north-west of Davenport's 
corners, which is on the post road five miles north- 
east from Cold Spring, is similar to that at Huestis's, 
but not as beautiful, and does not exhibit the beautiful 
minerals of that locality. 

3. This range of limestone crosses the road about 
one hundred or one hundred and fifty yards west of 
the locality of laumonite and stilbite in Philipstown, 
about three hundred yards west of Philips mills, and 
one mile and a quarter east of West Point. It is 
white, and highly charged with grains of magnetic 
oxide of iron. Granular hornblende, like coccolite, 
also occurs with the limestone. Hornblende gneiss, 
and micaceous gneiss containing pyrites and scales of 
plumbago, also occur associated. 

4. This bed has had excavations made in it, in two 


or three places, between the locality above described, 
and where it reaches the shore of the Hudson about 
one mile and a quarter south-west of Mr. Arden's ; 
and every place where it was examined, showed im- 
bedded grains of magnetic oxide of iron, and in some 
places imperfectly characterized brucite and serpen- 

5. The "Cotton rock," as it is called, is at the junc- 
tion of this bed of limestone with diallage and horn- 
blende rocks. The limestone is extremely impure from 
contained minerals, so that it would scarcely be recog- 
nized as limestone from its external aspect, when 
weathered by one not familiar with all the protean 
forms of this rock ; the calcareous matter being 
removed to some depth, and the imbedded mineral 
substance remaining to form a crust of some lines or 
even inches in thickness exterior to the sound, unal- 
tered rock. Granite occurs in the cliff a few yards 
to the east, which contains imperfect crystals of black 

6. An outheaved mass, as it is supposed, of this 
range of limestone, occurs about a mile north of the 
last locality, near the Beverly dock (the point from 
which the notorious and treacherous Arnold made his 

* The Cotton rock is a noted place in the Highlands. It is 
on the shore of the Hudson, in Philipstown, between high and 
low water mark, about three and a half miles below West Point. 
The rocks here are impure verd antique (composed of limestone 
and serpentine, with brucite and other minerals imbedded), ser- 
pentine with diallage, and veins of asbestus, and delicate silky 
amianthus, diallage rock, augite rock, and granite. Tbe amian- 
thus which comes from the veins in the serpentine, has the 
appearance of cotton or raw silk, and has given rise to the name 
Cotton rock. 


escape). This bed of limestone, which is small, lies 
transverse to the general direction, viz., north-west 
and south-east. The limestone is colored with serpen- 
tine, and contains plumbago ; but some of it is of a 
pure snow white, strongly translucent, and varies in 
texture from coarse crystalline to compact, like the 
finest alabaster. The white is much intermixed with 
augite and quartz, so that specimens for the cabinet 
can be obtained showing the characters indicated, but 
not large masses. The associated rocks are mica- 
ceous pyritous gneiss, and grey augite containing 
hexagonal plates of plumbago. A vein of pyrophyllite, 
six inches to a foot wide, traverses the grey augite 

7. Some distance below the Cotton rock, perhaps 
one quarter to half a mile, the limestone bed that we 
have been tracing forms the shore for some rods. 
The same minerals are found here as at many other 
parts of the bed, viz., magnetic oxide of iron, serpen- 
tine, and augite and hornblende in the vicinity, asso- 
ciated with granite and gneissoid rocks. A little far- 
ther south the limestone has an old mine hole in it, a 
little south-east of a small bay of the river shore, 
where the rock contains much magnetic oxide of iron. 

8. From this place, the limestone ranges south-south- 
west towards Anthony's Nose point. This part of 
the range is perhaps of more interest to the geologist 
than any other portion, and particularly the tract of 
land between the " Old silver mine," as it is called, and 
the Hudson river, about a quarter of a mile in width. 
The limestone and all the associated rocks here, have 
been subjected to metamorphic agency in a high de- 


The limestone lies at the base of the hill, adjacent 
to a granite rock. It is white, highly crystalline, 
contains much mica, plumbago, and various mineral 
substances. The plumbago is generally diffused in 
minute particles, but in some places is so abundant as 
to give a bluish tinge in streaks through the rock. 
The resemblance of this mineral, thus diffused, to the 
sulphuret of silver in minute particles, its softness and 
lustre, led to the idea that silver ore was abundant at 
this place. 

This mine was opened in ancient times, for what 
purpose is not known. Stalactites are found in the 
adit level, which is two hundred yards long, and old 
tools with the handles rotted out have been found in 
it. It was re-opened some years ago, with the hope 
of getting silver ; the man who worked it having been 
told that the scales of plumbago in the rock were sul- 
phuret of silver. He is said to have spent all his 
property, and to have died in a mad-house. Spene 
and zircon are occasionally seen in the augitic and 
calcareous rocks at this place, but they are not com- 

The most interesting mineral substance in a geo- 
logical point of view, found at this old mine, is quartz. 
It is strongly translucent, almost transparent, like 
hyalite, in irregularly round masses from the size of 
filberts to that of an egg. They seem to have been 
melted to assume their present form. The first pub- 
lic notice of such facts, so far as I know, was by Prof. 
Emmons, in the second Annual Geological Report of 
New York, 1839, p. 202. I had observed the round- 
ed, apparently fused quartz at the opening next the 
marsh, near the south end of the adit level of the 


" Old silver mine," in 1825 ; but did not consider it of 
any special importance as connected with the age of 
these rocks, until the subject was brought before the 
public by Prof. Emmons. The spinelles of some lo- 
calities in Orange county have their angles rounded, 
and contain spherical cavities, apparently produced 
by the same cause ; and the crystals of phosphate of 
lime, sent me by Dr. Crawe and Prof. Gray, from St. 
Lawrence county, have their angles rounded, and 
contain cavities which seem to be referable to the 
same agency that has caused the crystalization of the 
limestone, and the formation and crystalization of the 
plumbago, and various minerals in these rocks. The 
rocks at this locality of the " Old silver mine," are 
well worth studying. The rock next the limestone 
on the west of the adit, is composed of augite and 
manganesian garnet ; sometimes one, sometimes the 
other predominating. Both are crystalline, and some- 
times exhibit perfect crystals. The garnet and augite 
frequently assume the granular form of colophonite 
and coccolite ; red for the first, and green, brown, and 
purple for the latter. 

The rock is very heavy, and very similar to some 
of the beds at Rogers's rock on Lake George. The 
rock farther west, is a gneissoid silico-felspathic rock, 
containing in many places magnetic oxide of iron in 
grains, and in small strings and veins parallel to the 
strike of the rock ; also schorl in masses of quartz, 
and sometimes crystals of allanite like those near Fort 

Still farther west is a range of limestone, very sim- 
ilar to that at Cotton rock, but purer. It contains 
an abundance of imperfectly characterized brucite, 


Gneissoid rocks intervene between this bed and ano- 
ther of limestone seen still farther west, which has the 
general characters of verd-antique, being composed 
principally of limestone and serpentine ; but it con- 
tains other minerals that are hard, and would prevent 
its being sawed easily. This rock is at the south 
point (called Marble point), and a few rods south of 
the north point of this neck of land. Granite is fre- 
quently seen interlaminated among the strata describ- 
ed, which are about vertical. The gneiss along the 
shore between the two last masses of limestone, and 
west of the last mass described, along the shore, con- 
tains pyrites, and by its decomposition, gives a reddish 
tinge to the rocks. The same character, and arising 
from the same cause, is seen in the slaty and mica- 
ceous gneiss along the shore, most of the distance 
from this place, north-north-east to Gouverneur's land- 
ing opposite West Point. 

The second range of limestone, a mile or two east 
of the one we have been describing, ranges about 
parallel, and nearly as great a distance. 

1. The " White mine," as it is called, is the most 
southern point at which the limestone of this range, 
as it is supposed, was seen. It is on Anthony's Nose 
mountain, about three miles east of Fort Montgomery. 
The limestone is white, highly magnesian, and con- 
tains some carbonate of iron, and perhaps might with- 
out any impropriety be called brown spar. It is 
crystalline and sometimes compact, and contains gran- 
ular magnetic oxide of iron. It is associated with 
augite and granitic rocks. 

2. Another locality of this rock is about two miles 
to the north-north-east, near the old post road, at 


reputed lead and tin mine. The rock is limestone 
with some serpentine imbedded, and contains grains 
of the magnetic sulphuret of iron. Near this place, 
where the lead is said to have been formed from the 
ore in the soil by burning brush-heaps, the soil is red, 
as is so commonly the case where the calciferous 
sandstone has been upturned and partially altered. 
The same limestone is seen still further to the north- 
north-east, on the hill, but was not particularly exam- 
ined. The same silico-felspathic gneissoid rocks, and 
pyritous micaceous gneiss, as described near the " Old 
silver mine," occur in this vicinity, and the rocks are 
in some places very much confused. 

3. The limestone near Haight's tavern, is similar 
to that described above. 

Steatite. — A locality was seen near Peckville, a lit- 
tle north of the line of this county, and within Dutch- 
ess county. It is there intermixed ^with serpentine, 
and although abundant, and quarried in large blocks, 
it was found difficult to saw it well, in consequence 
of the different degrees of hardness of the steatite and 
serpentine. It is beautifully spotted and clouded ; 
and as steatite indurates by heat, it is possible that it 
may at some future time be wrought as an ornamental 
stone. Some of the masses of steatite are very pure, 
soft, and easily wrought. In some parts of the bed 
the rock is granular, or scaly talc, either pure or tra- 
versed in every direction by crystals of actynolite. 

Another locality was seen in Philipstown, in this 
county, on Mr. McCabe's farm.* It is near the ser- 
pentine rock before described as eight or nine miles 
north-north-east of Peekskill, and half to three-quar- 

* James McCabe, Esq. 


ters of a mile east of Horton's Pond. The rock here 
graduates through every variety of aspect, from talc, 
through steatite, to serpentine. I did not see proper 
soap-stone or steatite rock adapted for useful purposes, 
in place ; but was assured that large blocks had been 
dug there, and that there was an abundance of it. I saw 
slaty, steatitic rock in place, and small masses of beau- 
tiful steatite scattered over the ground. Good quar- 
ries of this rock are well known to be very valuable. 
The blocks are worth twenty dollars per ton in market. 
This bed graduates on the east into serpentine rock. 

Limonite, or Hematite Ore-beds. 

Bradley's Ore-bed. — A bed of limonite, containing 
some oxide of manganese, occurs very near the line 
between Philipstown and Carmel, in Peekskill hollow, 
about ten miles north-east of Peekskill. Its thickness 
is not known. Fifty to one hundred tons of the ore 
may be seen in heaps on the ground. The ore was 
dug many years ago, but it seems to be too silicious 
to work well alone in the furnace. By proper mixture 
with other ores, it might be wrought with advantage. 
Isaac Lockwqod owns a part of the land underlaid by 
this ore. The right of digging the mine is vested 
in Nathaniel Bradley, of Connecticut, who pur- 
chased a large amount of mineral property in the 
Highlands some years ago. The ore is associated 
with granular quartz on the east, and probably with 
limestone on the west, but this latter rock was not 
seen near the ore beds. 

These rocks are associated in the above order at the 
mouth of Peekskill Creek. 

Limonite in small quantities, under the forms of 


compact brown oxide of iron, hematite, and bog ore, 
occurs in many places in this and Westchester coun- 
ty. The loose masses scattered over the surface of 
the earth seem to indicate important beds in Putnam. 
If surface indications are worthy of notice, a bed of 
hematite and brown iron ore will probably be found 
in the hills near the county poor-house. 

Copper and Silver Ores. 

Several mines have been opened in Putnam and 
Westchester counties, under the expectation of obtain- 
ing silver. I have examined a great number of ancient 
diggings in this county, where it is reported or imag- 
ined that silver has been, or is to be found ; but I have 
seen no indications worth pursuing, or any ore that is 
known with certainty to contain silver. These ores have 
not been analyzed, and it is not known that they even 
contain any silver, except from the common reports 
of the country that silver has been obtained from them. 
Almost all the diggings are in or contiguous to lime- 
stone. Many interesting mineral localities have been 
opened, and an abundance of crystallized minerals dug 
out, and prepared for the hand of the collector of these 
beautiful productions of nature. 

It is, perhaps, superfluous to go into a detail of the 
numerous mining explorations in search of the precious 
metals in the Highlands ; suffice it to say, that super- 
stition and the mineral rod have been freely employed, 
and credulous persons have permitted themselves to 
be imposed on, and in some instances have expended 
their all in explorations which any one versed in min- 
erals, and acquainted with their associations, would 
have known from the beginning were hopelessly fruit- 


less. Common pyrites and magnetic pyrites were re- 
peatedly brought to me while I was stationed at the 
United States Military Academy as an instructor of 
chemistry, mineralogy, and geology, as specimens of 
gold ore, silver ore, and tin ore, by the mine hunters, 
or by those who had been imposed on. After exam- 
ining mineral localities where lead and tin ores had 
been said to have been discovered, I have seen none 
in place, and have reason to believe that the specimens 
shown to me did not originate where they were said 
to have been found. A piece of metallic antimony 
was shown to me, and was said to have been found in 
this county ; but it had the peculiar foliated, crystalline 
texture that is generally seen in that which has been 
melted, and which is different in aspect from the na- 
tive antimony. 

While on this subject, I will notice another fact that 
came under my observation. Coal was said to have 
been discovered in the primitive region of this county. 
I was shown a lump of beautiful Mauch-Chunk An- 
thracite ! ! which had been buried by some means un- 
known, and dug up ;* and this was the reported coal 
mine. It is hoped that our citizens will no longer 
suffer themselves to be duped by designing persons in- 
to mining speculations, most of which have a baseless 

Copper ore has been found in several places in. this 
county and Westchester, but not in such quantities as 
to justify exploration. Pyritous copper and green 
carbonate of copper are found in small quantities in 
the gneiss rocks at Philips' mills, one mile and a quar- 

* This was afterwards ascertained to have heen buried by a 
designing person, with a view to get up an excitement, and or 
ganize a company to dig there for coal. 


ter east of West Point; also at Philips' iron mine, 
eight miles north-east of Cold Spring landing. 

Arsenical iron occurs in several places in this coun- 
ty, but the only locality known here, to which any 
practical importance is attached, is about four or five 
miles north-west from Carmel village, and about half 
a mile south-west of Pine Pond, in the township of 
Kent, near the serpentine marble quarry. This is one 
of the old mine holes from which silver is reported to 
have been obtained. The mine is now owned or 
leased by a mining company called the Hudson River 
Mining Company. It had been cleaned out when I 
saw it. The shaft is forty feet deep. Yellow, pulver- 
ulent sulphuret of arsenic covered the sides of the 
shaft and the timbers, wherever they had been cover- 
ed by water, resulting from the decomposition of the 
arsenical sulphuret of iron. This latter mineral 
abounds there. It forms a bed or mass in hornblendic 
gneiss rock above the shaft, and is there undergoing 
decomposition, forming arseniate of iron. The ore 
does not, so far as I could perceive, form a vein, but 
is a mass ; and from the surface indications, and from 
what I saw in the mine, there is a probability of the 
existence of a great quantity of this ore. The mine 
goes by the name of the silver mine, and it is stated 
that silver has been obtained from it, but the indi- 
vidual who is said to have analyzed it has no public 
name as a chemist ; and until it shall be analyzed by 
a disinterested person, of reputation as an analytical 
chemist, confidence ought not to be reposed in the 
statement that it is a silver ore. 

This kind of ore is wrought as a silver ore in Ger- 
many, where it contains some of the precious metal. 


It is possible this may also contain it, and even 
should it be argentiferous, it may not contain enough 
of silver to make it worth separating. The ore con- 
tains much arsenic, and it may perhaps be profitably 
wrought to furnish the common white arsenic of the 
shops. It is well known that large quantities of this 
material are consumed for various purposes in this 
country, such as the manufacture of shot, flint glass, 
medicinal preparations, &,c, and the supply is at pres- 
ent derived from Germany. This mine would proba- 
bly supply the demands of commerce. 

Titanium ore has been found in several places in 
this county. At almost every locality where augite 
and scapolite are found (and the localities are nume- 
rous), sphene or the silico-calcareous oxide of titani- 
um is also found associated. Sphene, beautifully 
crystallized, was discovered by Dr. Barratt at Cold 
Spring landing, in 1822, during the excavations for 
the foundation of the long block of buildings next the 
shore on the north side of the village.* Specimens 
were obtained at that place in abundance by Dr. 
Barratt, and more beautiful than any that I have seen 
from any other part of the country. Titanium has, 
however, been applied to but one useful purpose, and 
that, of comparatively trifling importance, viz., for 
tinging the enamel of artificial teeth of a slight yel- 
lowish color, like the natural teeth. It has also been 
found in a great number of localities in the adjoining 
county of Orange. Wherever observed, it is asso- 
ciated with augite, scapolite, and limestone. It seems 
almost confined in the first district to those rocks we 

* The long range of two-story old buildings belonging to Mr. 
Philips, and known by the name of the " Barracks." 


have described as metamorphic. An ore of cerium, 
called allanite, occurs in several localities in Philips- 
town, within two miles of Fort Montgomery, and 
it is thought other ores of this metal were observed 
some years ago. One of them was partially examin- 
ed, and re-agents showed some of the traits of that 

Crystallized Serpentine. — Serpentine was found 
crystallized at Huestis's quarry in Philipstown, first 
by Dr. Barratt in 1821, and secondly by Cadet Ward, 
November 5th, 1831. By means of crystals from this 
locality I have been enabled to ascertain the primary 
form and its elements. November 5th, 1831, a speci- 
men of serpentine was handed me for examination, 
by Cadet Ward, from Huestis's quarry. I imme- 
diately observed traces of crystallization, there being 
numerous well characterized laminae, and showing 
tolerably brilliant cleavage planes also in other direc- 
tions. Much of the serpentine in some parts of the 
hill-side at Huestis's quarry is granular and some is 
laminated. Cadet Bailey, now Professor Bailey, at 
West Point, also presented me with a specimen of 
crystallized serpentine imbedded in carbonate of lime. 
There were several hexagonal crystals terminated, 
one of which was nearly perfect. The crystals and 
crystalline masses are more perfect than any I have 
seen from the eastern locality. 

Primary Rocks. — The rocks of this county are nu- 
merous, many of them are applied to useful purposes, 
and they are everywhere abundant, and are seen crop- 
ping out from the surface of almost every hill and 
ravine. The same kind of rocks are found in New 
York, Westchester, and Dutchess counties. The 


principal rocks are, 1. granite ; 2. sienite ; 3. gneiss; 
4. mica slate ; 5. augite rock ; 6. green stone and 
hornblende rocks ; 7. quartz rocks ; 8. talcose slate ; 
9. limestone ; 10. serpentine ; 11. steatite. 

The five latter rocks have already been described 
as metamorphic rocks. 

1. Granite. — This rock occurs abundantly in Put- 
nam, Dutchess, Westchester, and New York counties. 
It presents all varieties of texture, from a very coarse 
grained rock, to one almost perfectly compact. In 
color it varies as much as in texture. It is white, red, 
grey, yellowish, and bluish-grey, according to the co- 
lor of the minerals forming it. The color of the fels- 
par usually determines that of the mass. It occurs in 
beds, in veins, in interstratified masses, and in knots, 
knolls, and protruding masses, in which no connexion 
with veins or beds have been traced. The more 
common mode of its occurrence is in beds ten to one 
hundred feet thick, interstratified with gneiss. Some 
of the granite is too coarse for use as a building ma- 
terial. Some is too compact and hard, being, in fact, 
erutie ; others are well adapted for building. Differ- 
ent localities show a great variety in strength, and in 
the ease or difficulty of dressing, as well as in the ease 
of quarrying and the magnitude of the blocks that can 
be procured. In the Geological Report of 1838, it 
was mentioned that many places would undoubtedly 
be found in the Highlands, where fine quarries would 
be opened, and furnish " building materials of the best 
quality, and which would endure the changes of our 
variable climate for ages without decay or disintegra- 

The investigations subsequent to that time have 


verified the prediction that such localities might be 
found. The materials are of the best quality, easily 
quarried in large blocks, suitable for columns, cor- 
nices, &c, easily dressed, enduring as time, as the 
naked crags themselves will testify ; and several of 
the localities, which were unknown to their owners, 
are so convenient to water transport that the blocks 
can be swung directly on board vessels in the Hud- 
son, by means of cranes. When we consider the value 
attached to the quarries in Maine, Massachusetts, 
and Connecticut, where, in most places, it is necessary 
to haul the stone, either on a common road, or con- 
struct a railway to navigable water, a distance from 
half a mile to six or seven miles, — and observe that 
notwithstanding all these disadvantages, the great 
outlay of capital, and the distance to the market, they 
make it a profitable business, — we may begin to appre- 
ciate the importance of having inexhaustible quanti- 
ties of materials, as good, as beautiful, as durable, and 
as easily quarried and dressed, on our own waters, 
within forty or sixty miles of the city of New York, 
and so convenient to shipment that no railroads and 
hauling are required. 

Blunts Quarry. — This is located on the south side 
of Breakneck point, near the line between Putnam 
and Dutchess counties. There is an inexhaustible 
supply of a material of the best quality. It is a bluish 
gray granitic rock, composed mostly of a dark-colored 
felspar, with some hornblende, quartz, and occasionally 
a little mica. It is more properly sienite than granite. 
It is scarcely as dark as the Quincy granite or sienite, 
while it is as beautiful, has about the same strength, 
splits as well, and is as easily dressed. The stone 


from this quarry has been extensively used in the con- 
struction of the Delaware Breakwater, of Fort Cal- 
houn, and Fortress Monroe. The mountain rock has 
not been quarried at this place, but only the large 
masses that have tumbled from the cliffs above. It is 
not possible to give an accurate estimate of the quan- 
tity of.granite in this vicinity, but there may be in the 
end of the mountain five hundred acres, with an ave- 
rage depth of five hundred feet, or 803,640 cubic 
yards to the acre, or 401,720,000 cubic yards on five 
hundred acres. 

Blunt's quarry is located on the immediate shore of 
the Hudson river, but on account of the flats, the 
stone has been hauled about sixty rods to a landing. 
This quarry bids fair to become valuable ; but there 
is one disadvantage that may perhaps operate as a 
drawback to its advantageous position. It is over- 
hung by a precipice of several hundred feet in height ; 
and in the quarrying operations, the heavy blasts 
may bring down hundreds of thousands of tons of 
rock which can be useful only for dock stone and bal- 

Highland Granite Company's Quarry. — This quar- 
ry is principally owned by Messrs. Howard and Hol- 
dane. It is located one-fourth of a mile from the 
Hudson river, and half-a-mile east of Blunt's quarry 
near Breakneck point, and about two miles from Cold 
Spring. It is elevated about four hundred feet above 
the Hudson, in full view of the river. The stone is of 
excellent quality, and splits easily into large blocks. 
It is composed principally of felspar, with a little horn- 
blende, and is indistinctly stratified ; or at least it lies 
in thick heavy beds, with parallel seams six to twelve 



feet apart, and which are slightly inclined to the hori- 
zon. The quarry is inexhaustible, and ought to be 
very valuable. This quarry is on part of the bed of 
granitic rock described under Blunt's quarry. The 
stone is now hauled to the landing, about one-fourth 
of a mile, at an expense of three cents per cubic foot, 
or forty-two cents per ton. Much of it is sent to 
Sing Sing, for the culverts and aqueduct bridges ; and 
the freight to that place is four cents per foot, or fifty- 
six cents per ton. It is delivered at Sing Sing in blocks 
of ten cubic feet and over, at thirty-five cents per 
cubic foot, or five dollars and ninety cents per ton. 
The dressing of this stone for the arches, is done at 
fourteen and a half cents per superficial foot ; and 
about two and a half superficial feet are dressed to the 
cubic foot, which make the stone dressed, ready for 
the arches, cost seventy cents per cubic foot, or nine 
dollars and ninety-seven and a half cents per ton. 

This quarry is capable of being worked at least 
seventy yards in depth, over an area of several acres ; 
and allowing a profit of one dollar per cubic yard, 
which is a low estimate, and 4840 square yards to the 
acre, fifty yards in depth ought, in the course of work- 
ing, to give a profit of 242,000 dollars to the acre. 

Stony Point, one half of a mile north-west of Cold 
Spring. — This is a rocky peninsula, stretching into 
the Hudson about one-fourth of a mile. It is com- 
posed of gneissoid rocks, except the north-west point 
of the peninsula, which is a granitic rock of the same 
character as that of Blunt's and the Highland Compa- 
ny's quarries. About two acres of this peninsula are 
covered by this rock, to an estimated mean depth of 
forty-five feet above high water mark ; and it may be 


estimated that there are 145,200 cubic yards of granite 
capable of exploration on this point. It may appa- 
rently be split out in masses of any size, up to one 
hundred tons or more, in regular blocks ; and it lies 
immediately on the Hudson river, and with such a 
depth of water that large vessels may come immedi- 
ately alongside of the rocks to be quarried, so that the 
blocks may be swung on board with a crane. Stony- 
point is owned by Mr. Philips* of Philipstown, who 
was not aware of the existence of such a location for 
a granite quarry, until he was informed of it during 
the progress of the survey of Putnam County in 1840. 
Philips's Quarry. — This belongs to the same gen- 
tleman as the preceding. It is located on the Philips 
estate, about half-a-mile from the Hudson river, and 
one and a half miles east-north-east of West Point. 
The rock is perfectly indestructible, and would 
be called granite by those who should see the 
blocks without seeing the quarry. It is gneiss, in 
thick layers or plates, which have a slight inclination 
to the west, while the grain of the rock is nearly 
vertical. It splits easily, both in the direction of the 
grain and across it. It may be procured in the form 
of blocks of five to ten or more feet square, and-of the 
thickness of the plates of rock, which are from one to 
four feet thick. Some masses were seen which had 
been split off for columns for store fronts, twelve to 
fourteen feet long, by one and a-half, one and three- 
fourths, and two feet square. 

The rock at this quarry is of a light grey color, 
almost white, and is a beautiful material for building. 
It is durable, of sufficient strength, easily dressed and 

* Now owned by Anderson & Co. 


easily quarried, and the stone can be transported to 
the banks of the Hudson for three to four cents per 
cubic foot. 

The extent of this rock was not ascertained; but 
there is an area of at least ten acres, with a mean 
depth of sixty feet, or 26,136,000 cubic feet, or 968,000 
cubic yards of this granitic gneiss, or about 1,900,000 

There is a location suitable for quarrying in this coun- 
ty, about three and a half miles below West Point, and 
near the Cotton rock. The granite or granitic gneiss 
is of good quality, of a light grey color, and durable. 
This locality was not examined closely ; but from the 
general aspect of the rock, it is believed to be a good 
location for a quarry. Beautiful light grey granite 
was seen in abundance from one to two and a half 
miles north-west of Boyd's corners. It is as durable 
as time, and may be procured in any quantity ; but its 
distance from easy transportation by water or rail- 
road will prevent its use at present beyond the neigh- 

It is estimated that several millions of dollars are 
annually paid out of the city of New York, and the 
towns on the Hudson river, for building stone brought 
from beyond the limits of the State ; while we have 
within our own boundaries, and near the markets, 
inexhaustible supplies of equally good quality, which 
can be quarried, shipped, and hauled at less expense 
than the stone we now import from Maine, New- 
Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Connecticut. The 
granites of the Hudson river must, then, soon be 
wrought and sent to market, and the quarries will 
become very valuable. 


2. Sienite.-— This rock abounds in some parts of 
Putnam and Westchester counties. In Westchester 
county, it approaches in its characters to the "Quincy 
granite " of Massachusetts, and would probably make 
as beautiful and durable a material for building as that 
which is so justly celebrated. In this county the sie- 
nite is generally coarse-grained, of a reddish color, 
spotted with black crystalline and irregular masses of 
hornblende. This rock passes into hornblende slate 
and hornblende gneiss on the one hand, and into horn- 
blende rock on the other. No localities were seen in 
this county where this rock would be available for 
economical uses, except the granitic sienite, which has 
already been mentioned under the head of granite, as 
occurring in Breakneck mountain, and at Stony point 
above Cold Spring.* 

The sienite rock of the Highlands is of two kinds. 
One is a coarse granitic, aggregate of white or reddish 
felspar and black hornblende, sometimes also contain- 
ing epidote and grains of magnetic oxide of iron, like 
that at the base of Bull-hill, one and a half miles north- 
north-west of Cold Spring village, on the shore of the 
Hudson ; and at the Target rock, on Constitution 
island, opposite West Point ; the other is composed 

* The mountain at the north-west corner of Putnam county, is 
frequently called Anthony's Nose and Anthony's Face, in conse- 
quence of the profile bearing a rude resemblance to the human 
face, that may be seen in one position in passing it ; but Break- 
neck mountain is the name by which it is generally known. 
Anthony's Nose mountain is at the southwest corner of Putnam 
county, opposite Fort Montgomery. Stony point, above Cold 
Spring, I propose to call Quarry point, to distinguish it from 
Stony point in Rockland county, a place of much notoriety in 
the annals of the Revolution. 


mostly of felspar of a dark greenish or sometimes yel- 
lowish and brownish color, with some quartz and horn- 
blende. The latter is black or green, and sometimes 
passes into that described under the name of hornblende 
rock, where the hornblende is arranged in stripes through 
the rock. The felspar in this kind of sienite is occa- 
sionally opalescent, but is distinct in characters from 
that from the north part of the State, and which is 
seen in boulders and blocks on the slopes of the moun- 
tains in the Highlands. 

3. Gneiss. — Gneiss is the predominant rock in Put- 
nam, New York, and Westchester counties. It varies 
greatly in external aspect and in composition, in dif- 
ferent parts of the tract under investigation. Its 
color is dependent upon the relative abundance of its 
constituents, which are variously colored in different 
localities. The felspar is white, reddish, or of a bluish 
grey ; the mica is black, brown, yellow, copper- 
colored, and white ; the quartz is white, grey, or 
smoky. In some places mica abounds in the rock, 
and it approaches to mica slate, but more commonly 
the felspar is most abundant, and gives character to 
the rock. 

Much of the gneiss in the Highlands of the counties 
under consideration is a hornblendic gneiss, in which 
the mica is wholly or in part replaced by hornblende. 

A range of granitic gneiss, of a light color, passes 
through Putnam and a part of Westchester county. 
It extends through Carmel, near Pine pond, by Ma- 
hopack pond ; thence southwardly, and crosses the 
turnpike from Peekskill to Danbury. Another bed 
extends from Boyd's corners, and crosses the Peeks- 
kill and Danbury turnpike about five or six miles 


from the former place. These beds are quarried, to 
a small extent, for use in the vicinity ; but they are 
too remote from water transport, for quarrying at 
present for a more distant market. It is durable, of 
a light grey color, easily split from the quarry, and 
easily dressed. If these strata reach the Hudson river, 
they are believed to have changed so much in aspect 
and quality in building stone, as not to have been re- 
cognized as the same beds. 

4. Mica Slate. — This rock has a very limited dis- 
tribution in Putnam county. Where it does occur, it 
seems to be a modification of gneiss, the mica becom- 
ing predominant, while within a short distance the 
rock resumes its characters of gneiss. No locality 
was observed where there is a prospect of valuable 
quarries of flagging stone of this kind of rock being 
opened, near water transport. 

5. Augite Rock. — This rock occurs in a great num- 
ber of localities in Putnam county, and in a few in 
Westchester county. It is sometimes intermixed with 
felspar, but more commonly it is either by itself, or 
mixed with the various minerals that are usually as- 
sociated with it. It occurs at most of the celebrated 
mineral localities in the Highlands. It is of all shades 
of color, from white through grey and green of vari- 
ous shades to black, and from compact through various 
grades of granular to broad foliated masses, in the 
forms of fassaite, coccolite, common augite, sahlite, 
crystallized augite, and diopside. This rock has not 
been applied to any useful purpose. 

It is believed that this rock might, with propriety, 
have been described among the Metamorphic rocks. 
It has rarely been found except in connection with 


such rocks, and is almost constantly with scapolite, 
granular limestone, and hornblende. It generally also, 
in Putnam county, has magnesian garnet and plum- 
bago associated. This rock forms extensive masses 
between Anthony's Nose and Sugarloaf mountains, 
along the eastern side of the Hudson, between the 
shore and the base of the mountains. Between 
the " Old silver mine " and the Hudson, about 
four or five miles south of West Point, it contains 
large quantities of crystallized, massive, and granular 
magnesian garnet. The augite is dark green, and 
sometimes black, containing plates and hexagonal 
scales of plumbago. This rock scarcely corresponds 
with augite rock as described in systems of geology, 
as it does not generally contain felspar. Most fre- 
quently it is an aggregate of augite and scapolite, 
augite and carbonate of lime, or augite and magne- 
sian garnet, and sometimes augite and mica. 

A locality of white or rather grey augite, may be 
examined on the shore of the Hudson, about opposite 
Buttermilk-falls, and two miles south-east of West 
Point, a little above the point from which Arnold 
escaped. The augite here forms a heavy bed in 
gneiss rock associated with limestone. The augite is 
crystalline, grey, and contains scales and hexagonal 
plates of plumbago. A vein of mineral that I suppose 
to be the pyrophyllite, traverses the augite rock. The 
mineral from this locality has the aspect of silvery 
mica, which can be dug out at the vein in masses so 
as to give plates of two or three inches in diameter, 
in rhombic and hexagonal crystals like mica ; but the 
plates have not so much elasticity as mica, nor so 
much unctuosity as talc. The plates of this mineral, 


when heated, exfoliate, and spread out like the vermi- 
culite of Rhode Island, so that a plate of an eighth of 
an inch thick before being heated, becomes one-half 
to one and a half inches thick in the fire, the laminae 
all separating, but remaining still attached to each 

Another interesting locality of augite rock is on 
Anthony's Nose mountain, at the " White mine." It 
is here associated with a bed of brown spar, contain- 
ing magnetic oxide of iron and plumbago. An ore of 
cerium is supposed to have been observed at this 
place. Rocks of augite containing scapolite and 
sphene, were seen in many places on the shore of the 
Hudson, at the southern base of Anthony's Nose 
mountain, but the localities from which they had fallen 
in the cliffs above were not traced out. Augite con- 
taining sphene, scapolite, and associated with verd- 
antique, diallage and hornblende, occurs at the base 
of the cliffs of Bull-hill, near the shore of the Hudson ; 
but the beds from which they had fallen, although 
some explorations were made, were not seen. The 
augite occurs under various forms, as green, yellow- 
ish, grey, crystalline, crystallized granular (coccolite 
of white, green, grey, yellowish, and red), fibrous, and 
in acicular crystals. 

Augite also occurs at Huestis's quarry in Philips- 
town, as augite, white and green coccolite, diopside, 
and sahlite. 

Cold Spring was an interesting locality of augite 
rock some years ago, but a block of buildings has 
been raised over the locality where so many beauti- 
ful specimens were procured. The augite rock is 
there associated with gneiss and granite, and contains 



scapolite and sphene in abundance. The largest and 
most beautiful crystals of sphene I have ev§r seen 
were obtained at this place by Dr. Barratt in 1822, 
now of Middletown, Connecticut. Augite is so com- 
mon a rock in Putnam county, that it is unnecessary 
to multiply localities. 

6. Greenstone. — This rock traverses the strata in 
many places in Putnam and Westchester counties. 
In some places it has the aspect of compact trap, like 
basalt, but more frequently the hornblende predomi- 
nates and gives its characters to the rock. It trav- 
erses, and is intertruded in sheets and irregular masses 
among the gneiss and other rocks, in the same way as 
granite and sienite ; and many of the masses classed 
with this rock would be classed with sienite, but for 
the fineness of the grain, being of about the texture of 
a sandstone, composed of black hornblende with 
grains of white and grey felspar. 

Well characterized dykes of greenstone of the ba- 
saltic kind were seen in a few places in this county. 
One was near the mills* north-east of Huestis's quar- 
ry ; and another near the road from Cold Spring to 
Davenport's corners, about two and a half miles from 
the former place. The speckled greenstone in which 
hornblende prevails, may be seen abundantly in al- 
most every part of the Highlands of Putnam and 
Orange counties. 

Hornblendic Rocks. — This is a convenient reposi- 
tory for those rocks that are not so perfectly charac- 
terized as to be included under the preceding heads. 
Hornblendic rocks form a very considerable propor- 
tion of the mass of the Highlands in Putnam, and in 

* Knapp's Mills. 


fact in Rockland and Orange counties ; but those 
parts composed of sienite, hornblendic gneiss, horn- 
blende slate, and greenstone, have been described. 
Perhaps the remainder classed under this head might 
properly have been described as greenstone, for they 
have the geological relations of that rock, being evi- 
dently in many instances an intrusive rock ; but very 
frequently it is almost pure hornblende, and could 
not, in conformity with the generally received com- 
position of greenstone, be described as such. 

Hornblende rock is abundant in Anthony's Nose 
mountain, between Anthony's Nose and Royahook. 
Hornblende forms a constituent of a large share of 
the rocks of this mountain. 

Hornblende is also common between Anthony's 
Nose and Sugarloaf mountains. Greenstone, horn- 
blendic gneiss, and hornblende rock occur at the 
northern base of the hill at the laumonite locality,* 
about one hundred to two hundred yards below Phil- 
ips's mill, one and a quarter miles east-north-east of 
West Point. 

The hornblende rock is common on Bull-hill, the 
mountain north of Cold Spring. 

The hornblendic rocks are constantly associated 
with the beds of magnetic oxide of iron, which are so 
numerous in the Highlands. 

* This locality of laumonite and stilbite has been said to be 
exhausted. It is not. It is a vein of decomposing felspar, two 
and a half to four feet wide, in which the laumonite and stilbite 
crystals abound. I had a blast put in the vein in 1829, and ob- 
tained an abundance of specimens, showing these small but per- 
fect crystals, in groups, in the cavities of the felspar. Many 
wagon-loads could probably be obtained. Much of the felspar 
is dark-colored glassy felspar. 


On the turnpike from Cold Spring to Carmel, the 
rocks,, are gneiss and micaceous gneiss, hornblendic 
gneiss with beds ami veins of granite, greenstone, and 
hornblende rock. The gneiss on the eastern declivity 
of the mountain, for some distance from the crest, is 
hornblendic, and the dip is to the eastward, where it. 
is not vertical. 

The heavy swell of land, composed in part of talcy 
slate, east of the limestone that was seen near Bun- 
nell's forge, is bounded on the east by Horton's pond 
and its outlet. Gneiss was frequently seen in place 
after passing into the valley of the pond ; and on the 
eastern side of its outlet, the rock had much the as- 
pect and composition of some of the felspathic and 
sienitic rocks south-east of Peekskill, though they had 
more of a granitic aspect. The rocks at Cold Spring 
landing 1 are gneiss, hornblendic gneiss, and granite. 
The strata have a north-north-east and south-south- 
west direction, and the dip is vertical at the south 

Constitution Island, between Cold Spring and West 
Point, is composed of gneiss, hornblendic gneiss, gran- 
ite, and sienite. The stratification is much confused, 
and some of the rocks have a strike transverse to the 
usual direction, viz., north-west and south-east. This 
appears to be on the transverse line of disturbance 
that has been observed farther east-south-east in sev- 
eral places, and on the west-north-west near the cas- 
cade, and on the mountain farther west. Granite and 
sienite form the Target rock, a high cliff on the south- 
west side of the island, and granite forms some of the 
points farther north. Hornblendic rocks (gneissoid) 
form the shore a little north of the Target rock ; they 


lie in strata dipping at high angles to the north-east, 
and some are nearly vertical. 

Flat rock at Mr. Arden's boat landing, two and a 
half miles south of West Point, is granite. The geo- 
logical explorer can scarcely fail of finding numerous 
localities of granite, gneiss, sienite, greenstone, horn- 
blende rock, augite, limestone, etc, in exploring the 
shores of the Hudson through the Highlands. 


Magnetic Oxide of Iron. 

This ore is confined to the highlands, and abounds 
in Putnam county. Several mines are already 
wrought, and many more are capable of exploration. 
They form masses in gneiss and hornblendic gneiss 
rocks, which by casual examination would be called 
beds ; but after a careful investigation of the facts, I 
think they may be called veins. Their course is 
parallel to the line of bearing of the strata, and they 
lie parallel to the layers of the rock ; but by close 
examination, it is found that in several instances, after 
continuing with this parallelism for a certain distance, 
the ore crosses a stratum of rock, and then resumes 
its parallelism ; then crosses obliquely another, and so 
on. In other places, where a great bed of the ore 
occurs at some depth, only a few small stripes of ore 
penetrate through the superincumbent mass to the 
surface, as if the rocks had been cracked asunder, and 
these small seams of ore had been forced up from the 
main mass below. 

The beds of veins of magnetic iron ore lie either 
vertical, or dipping to the east-south-east, at an angle 
corresponding nearly to the dip of the strata. One 


example only was observed where its dip was to the 
west-north-west, viz., at the Stewart mine. The ore 
is very variable in quality. In some it is nearly pure 
magnetic oxide of iron ; in others, it is intermixed 
more or less with the materials of the contiguous 
rocks ; in others, it is mingled with pyrites and with 
other minerals. Two main veins of this ore will be 
descrihed under the names of the Philips's vein and the 
Simewog vein. Numerous localities are known where 
this ore occurs, and where it has long been dug in 
small quantities. They will be mentioned under the 
head of local details- 


A bed of magnetic oxide of iron has been opened 
on Breakneck mountain, and several tons taken from 
it. The extent of the bed is not known, and the ore 
has not, it is believed, been smelted. 

Another bed has been opened on the north-east part 
of Constitution Island, opposite the West Point Foun- 
dry. Another was opened in the middle of the island. 
The ore occurs disseminated in granite near the 
redoubt, above the Target rock on Constitution Island. 
Magnetic oxide of iron is thickly disseminated in lime- 
stone, near Philips's mill, one and a quarter miles east 
of West Point ; and it is found in that stratum of 
limestone in many places, from the above locality to 
near half a mile south of the " Cotton rock," to a dis- 
tance of three miles. 

It also occurs in the granite rock that is associated 
with augite and limestone rocks near the " Old silver 
mine," three-quarters of a mile south-east of Conshook 


island, and one mile north-east of Anthony's Nose 

A bed was opened many years ago on Anthony's 
Nose mountain, but it contained much pyrites and 
crvstallized phosphate of lime, both of which injure 
the ore for the manufacture of iron. 

The brown spar at the " White mine," about one 
mile east of the western summit of Anthony's Nose, 
contains magnetic oxide of iron disseminated. A 
locality of magnetic oxide of iron occurs on Mr. Tilly 
Foster's farm, two and a half miles south-east from 
Putnam Court-house. 

The ore forms a large part of a hill about one hun- 
dred yards long, ten to forty feet broad, and elevated 
twenty to thirty feet above the ground adjoining. 
Some hundreds, perhaps thousands of tons of ore can 
be easily procured at this place, without digging below 
the level of the hill. It is associated with serpentine, 
with limestone containing brucite or boltonite, and 
with green mica. The mass of ore is bounded by 
gneiss on the east ; and serpentine, limestone, and 
verd-antique seem to form its western boundary. It 
was thought that some chromated oxide of iron was 
observed here, but no examination has been made to 
ascertain that point. Another ore bed was discovered 
some years ago about half a mile south-west of the 
preceding, on land belonging to the Misses Fowler. 
Some tons were dug out, but I do not know whether 
any has been smelted. The ore is here mixed with 
manganesian garnet, augite, and hornblende. 

The Simewog vein passes through Simewog hill, and 
was traced one and a half miles south-south-west on 
Mr. Jedediah Wood's farm ; and it is supposed to 


continue still farther south-south-west, as ore has been 
dug in that direction about one mile south-south-west 
from Mr. Wood's house. This vein was formerly ex- 
tensively worked at Simewog hill, and the mine is 
called Townsend's mine. 

This mine was the first known and first worked in 
this part of the country. The ore was carted to great 
distances, and shipped on the North river, to some of 
the towns on Long Island sound, and various parts of 
the country. The largest portion of the ore was car- 
ried to Danbury in Connecticut, and was there an 
article of traffic. It has not been wrought for twenty 
or thirty years, in consequence of other beds having 
been found in more convenient locations for smelting 
and transport. Fifty thousand tons of ore, at least, 
have been taken from this mine, estimating four tons 
to the cubic yard ; and one hundred thousand tons 
more may probably be taken from the vein in Sime- 
wog hill, without going below the level of the small 
stream which flows across the ore bed. Should it 
ever be necessary to obtain this ore in quantity (as 
is probable, from the prospect of the New- York and 
Albany railroad passing up the valley on the east 
side of the hill), at least one million tons may be cal- 
culated on, above the water-level of the Croton river, 
which flows along the base of the hill, and free from 
the expense of drainage, by driving an adit level from 
the level of the Croton, a distance of three hundred or 
four hundred yards to intersect the vein. This vein 
of ore has also been worked to the extent of several 
thousand tons, near the road and north of the little 
stream mentioned above crossing the vein. The vein 
here is from eight to fourteen feet thick, and nearly 


vertical in position, between strata of gneiss and horn- 
blendic gneiss which dip seventy to eighty-five degrees 
to the east-south-east. On Simewog hill, one-fourth 
of a mile south, the vein is from three to twenty feet 
thick, associated with similar rocks and with granite. 
It has been wrought on Simewog hill from thirty to 
sixty feet or more in depth, over a length of three hun- 
dred to four hundred yards. It is scarcely doubted, 
from the observations made, that this vein is at least 
two miles in length, with an average width of six feet. 
Its depth cannot be estimated, but it is presumed that 
the labor of ages could not exhaust it in depth, as the 
bottoms of such veins have never, in any country, 
been found. 

In the estimates above, the calculation is based 
upon the vein being wrought down to the water-level 
of the adjacent valley. 

This Ore bed seems to be a vein, although its strike 
is the same as that of the strata. In the excavations on 
Simewog or Mine hill, the bed or vein seems to have 
crossed the strata very irregularly and obliquely, and 
similar to the vein in the Shawangunk mountain at 
the Sullivan mine, running between the strata for a 
certain distance, then crossing obliquely between two 
other strata, and so on. 

The' Phillips' vein has been traced at short intervals 
for about eight miles, and is presumed to be continu- 
ous through this distance, except where it is inter- 
rupted by dykes and transverse heaves of the strata. 
Many mines have been opened on this vein, and seve- 
ral of them are now worked. 

The Cold Spring and Patterson turnpike crosses this 
vein of iron ore near the crest of the mountain, about 


nine miles from Cold Spring landing. There is an open- 
ing near the road, and near this crossing, where some 
ore has been dug. Here the ore seems injected in little 
sheets, veins, and beds, through the gneiss rock, so as to 
form one-fourth to three-fourths of its mass through a 
horizontal thickness (as the strata are vertical) of thirty 
to thirty-five feet. Pyrites abound in a portion of the 
bed. The ore is easily traced along its course, as it shows 
itself distinctly along the line of bearing of the strata, 
disseminated, and forming black stripes in the rock. 
Near the house, one or two hundred yards farther 
south-south-west, another small opening has been made. 
One hundred to two hundred yards farther south- 
south-west on the line of the vein, a larger excavation 
has been made, and five hundred to eight hundred 
tons of the ore thrown out ; but it is here so much 
intermixed with pyrites as to be unfit for smelting, 
until the pyrites shall have decomposed. Some hun- 
dred yards farther south-south-west on the line of the 
vein, another opening has been made next the marsh, 
and it is continued down the hill. The ore is here 
more or less intermixed with the rock, with a breadth 
of ten to twenty feet, and the gneiss and hornblendic 
gneiss rocks associated dip to the east-south-east at an 
angle of about sixty degrees. Farther down the hill 
are two main openings, which go by the name of 
Phillips's mine. The ore in some parts of the upper 
mine is more or less intermixed with copper pyrites, 
which injures the quality of the iron. The mine has 
been wrought badly, timbers being used to prop the 
overhanging rock, and great masses have crushed in 
and filled most of the mine. 

The lower mine, where the whim is placed, has a 


solid rock roof, a part of the ore bed having been left 
in the top of the hill, while the mine has been worked 
below. The ore bed is here fifteen to twenty feet 
wide, and has been wrought thirty to forty feet in 
depth, over a length of fifty yards, This mine is not 
worked open to the day like a quarry, but a drift 
crosses the strata to the mass of ore, and it is worked 
at and below this level, along the course of the vein 
under a cover of rock. The ore does not show itself 
very distinctly in the over-lying rock. The ore here 
is nearly a pure magnetic oxide of iron, and twenty 
thousand to thirty thousand tons have probably been 
taken from these two mines. 

Other openings have been made along the line of 
the vein for about a half a mile farther to the south - 
south-west, and some three thousand to five thousand 
tons of ore probably removed. The rock in which 
this part of the vein thus far described is contained, is 
mostly felspar, with some bluish quartz ; hornblende 
is also common. The felspar is sometimes pearly in 
lustre and gray in color, with wrinkled and bent faces, 
as if it had been soft, and subjected to forces acting 
in different directions. 

Other openings along the course of this vein were 
traced for half or three-quarters of a mile in a south- 
westerly direction. Hornblende abounds in the rocks 
associated with the iron ore. 

The next mine that is worked to any extent on this 
vein, is the Stewart mine. It is about twelve feet 
thick of pure ore, and four feet more of lean ore. The 
former is much used in forges, the latter in the blast 
furnace. The ore at this mine is purer than that of 
any other mine I have seen, and is easily worked in the 


forge. It is granular, and easily broken and crumbled 
into grains about the size of BB shot, and is called by 
the miners " shot ore." The vein lies between strata of 
felspathic gneiss, which dip to the west-north-west 
about seventy degrees. This mine is on the east side 
of the mountain crest, and about one hundred to two 
hundred feet above a marsh, with a steep declivity, 
and might easily be wrought to that depth without 
drainage, by driving an adit level to intersect the vein. 
About half a mile south-south-west is another open- 
ing by the road-side, where some ore has been dug ; 
but it is lean, and much intermixed with the gneiss 
rock. About three-fourths of a mile south-south-west 
of this is the Denny mine. It is about two and a half 
miles east-north-east of Warren's tavern,* in Philips- 
town, in a straight line on one of the crests of the 
eastern ridge of the Highlands. The ore seems to 
have been injected among the rocks. In some places 
it forms regular stripes on the surface of the rock, 
parallel to the line of bearing; in others, there are 
scarcely any indications on the surface, while ex-ten- 
sive masses exist a short distance below. This cap 
of rock over the oi*e is frequently called by the miners 
a rider, and the ore below, the horse. The mine now 
at work north of the house, is about thirty feet deep, 
and the vein of solid ore twenty-five feet wide, over- 
laid by a cap or rider of rock which contains but little 
ore. Most of the ore is very compact and pure, but 
some contains hornblende. Much of the felspathic rock 
contiguous to the vein is injected with thin veins of 
ore from one-eighth to one inch thick. Two hundred 
yards south-south-west is another opening, from which 

* Now owned by Justis Nelson, Esq. 



much ore has been taken. This place has been exca- 
vated to a depth of sixty feet, and the vein is twenty 
to thirty feet wide. Twenty thousand to thirty thou- 
sand tons of ore at least have been removed. Con- 
tiguous to this opening is another, thirty feet deep to 
the water, with a sheet of rock five or six feet thick, 
between two divisions of the vein. The rocks on 
each side of the vein are more or less injected with 
thin veins of ore. From examining the locality, many 
suppose that the ore has been injected into the cracks 
and crevices of the rock when broken up by some 

This ore is deliverable at the Cold Spring furnace, 
and at the wharf at Cold Spring, for three dollars per 
ton ; and mined as it is, scarcely any profit can be 
realized at this price. The quantity mined \vgfe is 
six hundred tons per annum.* 

The Coalgrove mine is about one or one and a 
half miles south-south-west of the Denny mine ; it is 
gneiss. The vein is narrow at the surface, but at the 
depth of twelve feet it is four feet wide. The ore is 
of an excellent quality, very rich, and well adapted 
for the forge, and will undoubtedly make an excellent 

* Here holes are dug down in this ore bed or immense vein of 
iron ore, and water accumulates unless pumped out, or drawn 
out by a tub and whim. By the present mode of mining, two 
men, a boy and horse, are required to tend the whim for draw- 
ing up water and ore ; when if properly worked, the same quan- 
tity of ore could easily be wheeled out by one man or boy, or 
carts could enter the mine and load, and dispense with this kind 
of labor entirely. A small and short adit level from the hill- 
side east of the mine, would lay the ore bed dry for a hundred 
feet or more in depth for a considerable distance. 


iron. The distance from this mine to the furnace and 
Cold Spring landing, is less than from the other mines.* 

The Gouverneur mine is about one and a half miles 
south-south-west of the Coalgrove mine, and four 
miles east of the Philips's manor house, at the south- 
east corner of the " water lot." The ore is much in- 
termixed in the rock, but would perhaps work well, 
mixed with other ores, to flux out the felspar and other 
minerals. It may probably be purer farther down. 
It has been opened in several places along the crest 
of the mountain to a depth from three to twelve feet. 
The ore is disseminated in the gneiss and granitic 
rock, through a thickness of five to twenty feet. The 
strata are nearly vertical. It is on one of the crests of 
the eastern ridge of the Highlands, west of Peekskill 
hollow. A slight opening has been made about three- 
fourths of a mile north-north-east of the Gouverneur 
mine, between that and the Coalgrove mine. The 
ore is titaniferous, and in lumps, and disseminated in 
the rock. The vein is six to twelve feet wide. It 
may perhaps be worked by picking the ore, so as to 
separate the lumps from the gangue. 

The mines and openings just described are the 
principal ones on the Philips vein, but the ore can 
be found along almost the whole line. 

It follows the crest of the east ridge of the High- 
lands a distance of at least eight miles. The breadth 
of this vein has been mentioned at different places 
from three to thirty feet wide ; its average is proba- 
bly about twelve feet, and its length, as now known, 
about fourteen thousand yards. If the mean average 

* The Kemble mine is a short distance north-north-east of the 
Coalgrove mine, and on Philips's vein. 


of the vein be supposed to be half its bulk of ore, 
every cubic yard will contain about two tons of ore, 
and would yield at least one ton of iron, or each yard 
in depth would make fifty-six thousand tons of iron. 
The vein, by proper working, can be mined to a 
mean depth of one hundred yards, without expense of 
drainage more than the proper opening of adits. We 
may place the workable produce of this vein, above 
the water level of the adjacent valleys, at 5,600,000 
tons of iron. The phenomena of the mines in many 
places on this vein induce the idea of igneous injec- 
tion, connected with a powerful up-heaving force. 
The felspar is often pearly, wrinkled, and with bent 
laminae. The appearance of hyalite, a mineral usu- 
ally associated with volcanic and trap rocks ; the ap- 
parent injection in veins among the seams and crev- 
ices of the rock ; the appearance of the softening of 
the gneiss and bending its layers like a flowing slag 
seem to point to an igneous origin of this vein. It oft- 
en has the appearance of a bed, and at other times of a 
vein ramifying from a main mass between the strata, 
and at other times cutting obliquely across them, but 
still having its out crop parallel to the line of bearing. 
The Cold Spring furnace* is the only blast furnace 
in operation in the counties of New York, West- 
chester, and Putnam. It is supplied with magnetic 
oxide of iron from the Philips mine, the Denny mine 
in Putnam county, and the Townsend mine in Cant- 
erbury, and the O'Niel mine in Warwick, Orange 
county. These ores are mixed in certain proportions, 
and flux each other easily with a small addition of the 

* Discontinued. 


Sing Sing limestone. The produce of this furnace is 
from one thousand to fourteen hundred tons of pig 
iron per annum. Bunnell's forge* in Philipstown is 
believed to be the only one in operation in the coun- 
ties under consideration. It is supplied with the shot 
ore of the Stewart mine. 

Localities of Peat and Marl. — About thirty acres 
of this alluvion is found near the east side of Lake 
Mahopack in the town of Carmel ; five hundred acres 
near Patterson ; eight acres two miles east-north-east 
of West Point, in Philipstown ; twenty acres near 
the head of the Sunk lot, eight miles from Cold Spring, 
on the road to Carmel village ; twenty acres on the 
road from Carmel village to Patterson ; six acres four- 
miles south-east of Peeksville ; twenty acres in Phil- 
ipstown, east of Stewart's iron mine ; ten acres in 
Philipstown, half a mile south of the last-mentioned 
locality ; fifty acres in Philipstown, near Davenport's 
corners, five miles north-east of Cold Spring ; and 
twenty acres in Philipstown, in the south-east part, 
near the Hon. Abraham and Saxton Smith's. Peat 
is probably abundant in the meadows near Constitu- 
tion Island, though it has not been particularly ex- 

The mud-fiats near Constitution Island, are all in- 
creasing slowly, and from a variety of causes, such 
as vegetable decompositions, the silt and mud depos- 
ited from the water, and the growth and decay of 
molluscous and other animals. They have increased 
more rapidly during the last twenty years than before, 
in consequence of the greater amount of cultivated 
land causing a greater amount of earthy materials to 

* Discontinued. 


be transported by the rains and surface waters into 
the Hudson. These flats will eventually become 
meadows, but the time may be far distant. The flats 
along the right bank of the Hudson, opposite West 
Point, both below Gee's point and near Camptown, 
have grown sensibly more shallow within the last 
fifteen years. The same may be said of the flats be- 
tween Constitution island and Gouverneur's landing, 
opposite West Point, and between Constitution Island 
and Cold Spring.* 


This county was patented in 1697, by Adolph Phil- 
ips, a merchant then residing in the city of New York. 
As shown by the Patent, it included " Pollepells 
Island,"' and contained more land than is now em- 
braced by this county. Adolph Philips, or Philipse, 
as it was formerly written, was a bachelor, and an 
uncle to Capt. Frederick Philips, deceased ; and great 
uncle to Mrs. Mary Gouverneur, of Highland Grange, 
Philipstown. Previous to this time, a brother or 
cousin to Adolph received a patent for a tract of land 

* In 1822, sloops used to come in at the Foundry dock, about 
half-way between Cold .Spring and the West Point foundry, to 
take in their freight of cannon and other castings; but the water 
has become so shoal that for some years past it has not been 
possible, and they now load at Cold Spring. 


in Westchester county, " originally comprising not 
less than 20 miles square, bounded West by the Hud- 
son, and lying south of the mouth of the Croton." 
This patent was granted to Frederick Philips, in 1G80. 
We at first made an attempt to trace back the gene- 
alogy of this family ; but, having been informed that an 
analysis of that matter would be given shortly in a work 
on Westchester county, we ceased our inquiry, expect- 
ing to see it more fully portrayed than our means of 
information would enable us to give. Besides, it was 
more proper that it should appear in a work on West- 
chester, as the elder branch of the family first settled 

This patent in Dutchess County, covering nearly the 
whole of the Highlands, was inherited by the father of 
Capt. Frederick Philips, who left three children, one 
son and two daughters, viz. : Frederick ; Mary, who 
married Roger Morris, a major in the British army ; 
and the wife of Col. Beverly Robinson, also of that 
army, whose Christian name is unknown to us. The 
land embraced by this patent was twenty miles in 
length and twelve in breadth, and divided into three 
parts and nine lots ; each child receiving one-third 
part, or three lots of the patrimonial estate. They 
were called, by way of distinguishing them from one 
another, 1st, the River or Water lots ; 2d, the Long 
lots ; 3d, the Back Short lots. The Water lots were 
bounded west by the Hudson, and were four miles 
square ; the Long lots twelve miles in length from 
north to south, and four miles in breadth from east to 
west ; the Short lots on the Connecticut line were the 
same size as the River lots — four miles square. Those 
lots acquired by Col. Robinson and Major Morris, by 


marriage with the two sisters of Capt. Frederick Phil- 
ips, the father of Mrs. Mary Gouverneur, were confis- 
cated by the legislature ; but the reversionary interest 
was not affected thereby, which the late John Jacob 
Astor purchased of the heirs subsequently for 8100,000 ; 
and for which, ten years afterwards, he received from 
the State of New- York $500,000, in State Stock at 
six per cent. 

The following diagram shows the number, size, and 
form of these lots, and to which of the heirs they 
belonged. There is also a long, narrow strip of land, 
now the subject of litigation, which we have not desig- 
nated in the diagram, between the north line of Put- 
nam, as it now runs, and Rumbout's and Beekman's 
patents, claimed by the heirs at law of the original 














Hudson River. 

Col. Robinson's 
water lot, 4 
miles square. 

Capt. Frederick 
Philips's water 
lot, 4 miles sq. 

Major Morris's 
water lot, 4 
miles square. 

Col. Robinson's long lot, 12 miles long, 4 miles wide. 

Capt. Frederick Philips's long lot, 12 miles long, 
4 miles wide. 

Major Morris's 
back lot, 4 
miles square. 

Capt. Frederick 
Philip's back 
lot, 4 miles sq 

Col. Robinson's 
back lot, 4 
miles square. 





Major Morris's long lot, 12 miles long, 4 miles wide. 





Connecticut line. 

"Recorded for Mr. Adolph Philips — 

"William the third by the grace of God King of England 
Scotland ffrance and Ireland Defender of the faith &c To all 


to whom these Presents shall come Sendeth Greeting Whereas 
our Loving Subject Adolph Philips of our City of New York 
Merchant hath by his Peticon Presented unto our Trusty and 
welbeloved Benjamin Fletcher our Captain Generall and Gover- 
nour in Chief of our Province of New Yorke and Territoryes 
Depending thereon in America &c Prayed our Grant and Con- 
firmacon of a Certain Tract of Land in 'our Dutchess— Scituate 
Lying and being in the Highlands on the East side of Hudsons 
River beginning at a Certain Red Cedar Tree marked on the 
North side of the Hill Commonly called Anthonys Nose which 
is Likewise the North Bounds of Collonell Stevanus Cortlandts 
Land, or his Manour of Cortlandt and from thence Bounded by 
the said Hudsons River as the said River runs Northerly untill 
it comes to the Creek River, or Run of Water Commonly called 
and known by the Name of the Great fish kill to the Northward 
and above the said Highlands which is Likewise the Southward 
Bounds of another Tract of Land belonging (unto) the said Coll 
Stephanus Cortlandt and Company and so Easterly along the 
said Coll Cortlandts Line and the South Bounds of Coll Henry 
Beeckman untill it Comes twenty Miles or untill the Division or 
Pertition Line between our Colony of Connecticutt and our said 
Province and Easterly by the said Division Line being Bounded 
Northerly jmd Southerly by East and West Lines unto the said 
Division Line between our said Collony of Connecticutt and this 
our Province aforesaid the whole being Bounded Westward by 
the said Hudsons River Northward by the Land of Coll Cort- 
landt and Company and the Land of Coll Beeckman Eastward 
by the Pertition Line between our Collony of Connecticutt and 
this our Province and Southerly the Mannour of Courtlandt to 
the Land of the said Coll Cortlandt including therein a Certain 
Island at the North side of the said Highlands Called Pollepells 
Island which Reasonable Request we being willing to Grant 
Know ye that our Speciall Grace Certaine Knowledge and meere 
mocon We have Given Granted Ratifyed and Confirmed and 
by these Presents Do for us our Heirs and Successors Give 
Grant Ratify and Confirme unto the said Adolph Philips all the 
aforerecited Certaine Tract of Land and Island within the 
Limites and Bounds aforesaid together with all and Singular 
the Woods underwoods Trees Timber Hills Mountains Valleys 


Rocks Quarreys Marshes Swamps Rivers Runs Rivoletts 
Waters Watercourses Pools Ponds Lakes fountains Streams 
Meadows fresh and salt Mines Minerals (Silver and Gold 
Mines Excepted) fishing fouling hunting and hawking and all 
other Royaltyes Rights Members Benefits Profites Advantages 
Commodityes Priviledges Hereditaments and Appurtenances 
whatsoever unto the aforerecited Certainc Tract of Land and 
Island within the limites and Bounds aforesaid belonging or in 
anyes Appertaining To have and to hold all the aforecited Cer- 
taine Tract of Land and Island within the Limites and Bounds 
aforesaid together with all and Singular the Woods Under- 
woods Trees Timber Hills Mountains Valleys Rocks Quar- 
ryes Marshes Swamps Rivers Runns Rivoletts Waters Water- 
courses Pools Ponds Lakes fountains Streams Meadows fresh 
and salt Mines Minerals (Silver and Gold Mines Excepted) fish- 
ing fowling hunting and hawking and all other Royaltyes Rights 
Members benefits Profites Advantages Commodityes Priviledges 
Hereditaments and Appurtenances whatsoever unto the aforecited 
Certainc Tract of Land and Island within the Limites and Bounds 
aforesaid belonging or in any wayes Appertaining unto the said 
Adolph Philips his Heirs and Assignes to the sole and only 
Propper use benefite and behoofe of him the said Adolph Philips 
his Heirs and Assignes forever To be holden of us our Heirs 
and Successours in fFree and Common Soccage as of our Man- 
nour of East Greenwick in our County of Kent within our 
Realme of England Yielding Rendering and Paying therefore 
Yearly and every Year unto us our Heirs and Successours for- 
ever at our City of New Yorke on the feast Day of the Annun- 
ciation of our blessed Virgin Mary the Yearly Rent of twenty 
Shillings Currant money of our said Province in Liew and Stead 
of all other Rent:-; Services Dues Dutyes and Demands whatso- 
ever for the said Tract of Land Island and Premises 

"In Testimony whereof we have Caused the Great Seal of our 
said Province to be hereunto affixed Witnesse our Trusty and 
welbeloved Benjamin Fletcher our said Captaine Generall and 
Governour in Chiefe of our Province of New Yorke and Terri- 
toryes Depending thereon in America and Vice Admirall of the 
same our Lew : t and Commander in Chiefe of the Militia and of 
all the forces by Sea and Land within our Collony of Connecti- 


and of all the forces and Places of Strength within the same cut 
in Councill at our ffort in New Yorke the seventeenth day of 
June in the ninth Year of our Reigne Annoy Dom 1697 — 
Ben ffletcher by his Excellence's Command 

" David Jamison 

'• D. Secry 

" I do hereby Certify the foregoing to be a true Copy of the 
Original Record Part of the word unto being interlined between 
the 26th and 27 lines of page 119 Compared therewith By Me 

"Lewis A. Scott Secretary." 


On examining the early records of Dutchess county, 
we find that the first road, in that part of Dutchess 
which is now Putnam county, was laid out, and the 
description thereof entered on the record, on the 28th 
day of April, 1744, by David Hustis and Francis Nel- 
son, two of the commissioners appointed for that pur- 
pose. Afterwards several were laid out by Thomas 
Davenport, great-grandfather of William Davenport, 
Esq., of Nelsonville, and James Dickinson, who were 
also commissioners, some of which terminated in 
Westchester, Dutchess, and Connecticut. Many of 
these roads have been discontinued, or superseded by 
others more fitly located, some shortened, some ex- 
tended, and some still remain but slightly altered. 
Generally their description is brief, imperfect, and ob- 
scure ; and the different places mentioned in their 
description, with but few exceptions, are only known 
to the oldest inhabitants. Hustis, one of the commis- 


sioners, who signed the first entry on the record, 
made his mark ; but whether from inability to write, 
or some infirmity of his hand, we have not been ad- 
vised. But if inability to write was the reason, it is 
not to be wondered at, as the instance was more com- 
mon then than now, and schools at that early day 
were, like angel's visits, " few and far between." We 
incline, however, to the belief, that it was owing to a 
palsied arm. In all extracts from the early records, 
either county or town, we, to use a lawyer's phrase, 
"stick to the record" literally ; adhering to the spell- 
ing and punctuation as it appears in the books, with- 
out addition, correction, or diminution of " one jot or 
tittle." The first entry on the record is as follows : 

" Whereas by an Act of Generall assembly Passed in the 
Eleventh Year of his now Majesties Reign Entitled an act for 
the better clearing and further laying out public high Roads in 
Dutchess County : by Virtue of the same, We Francis Nelson 
and David Hustis being two of the Commissioners for laying out 
Roads in the South precinct in said county appointed have at 
the request of divers of the inhabitants laid out and ascertained 
the following public hig Ways or Road as follow viz, Beginning 
att Thomas Cercomes house from thence by marked Trees to 
Epram Forgeson On Courtlandt's Manor, 

" Another Road Beginning at the farm of Eli Nellson from 
thence by marked Trees to Nathan Lane's on the line of Court- 
landt, thence down the line to the shrub plain — also one Road 
Beginning at the West Branch of Croton River at a Bridge — 
from thence by marked Trees down to Joseph Travers is — then 
running down the Dwivision Line through the still water to 
said Forgesons — One other road beginning at the deep brook or 
Roge Rill — from thence by marked Trees through pussapanun 
— thence to Daton's Hills; also One other Road Beginning at 
Hendrick Brewer's at pussapanun by marked Trees to Daton's 
Hills; One other Road Beginning at Sibet Cronkhyt at ye Indian 
Road Beginning at Joseph Jaycocks — from thence by marked 


Trees to the King's Road at Joseph Areles; one other Road Be- 
ginning below Pussattanun at Joseph. Cronkhydt house by- 
marked Trees to Datons Mill Performed by us said Commis- 
sioners the Twenty-eighth day of April in the Seventeenth year 

of his Majesties Reign Anno que Domini 1744. 

" Dutchess ss " David X Hustis 

" francis Nelson 
" A true Copy Examined 

" by Henry Livingston Clerk" 

We remark — in order to show in which of the pre- 
sent towns of the county those persons resided, at 
whose houses the above-described roads commenced, 
and to determine the other points on their route, as far 
as we have been informed by old persons — that " Ep- 
ram Forgeson" and " Thomas Cercome" lived in the 
now town of Carmel. " Eli Nellson" lived where 
Charles Smith now does, in Putnam Valley, and " Na- 
than Lane," where Robert Austin resides in the same 
town. The "shrub plain" is now called Hyatt's 
plain, and is about one mile below the Westchester 
line. " A brige," as mentioned in the entry, we have 
been informed, is now called Pine's Bridge. " Joseph 
Taveersis" lived a little west of the " bridge." The 
" still water" was about six miles east of Peekskill. 
" Daton's Mills" are now known as Courtlandt's, and 
are about one mile east of Annsville. " Sibet Cronk- 
hyt" lived between Annsville and St. Anthony's Nose 
mountain. " Joseph Jaycocks" lived near Annsville ; 
and " Joseph Areles" lived where Reuben Turner 
does at present, a short distance north-west of Conti- 
nental Village. 

In 1745, three new commissioners were appointed 
to lay out highways, two of whom seem only to have 


acted as such. They were " Adolph Phillips, Thomas 
Davenport, and James Dickinson ;" the first did not 
act. The descriptions or bounds of those first re- 
corded by the clerk of the ^ounty are as follows : 

" Whereas Adolph Phillips Esq. Capt Thomas Deavenport 
and James Dickinson Junr ; are appointed Commissioners of ye 
high ways of ye South precinct of Dutchess County. We whose 
Names are here under subscribed being Two of ye Commission- 
ers afforesaid have laid out ye high Ways, as is hereafter 
Mentioned — A high Way Beginning at the Devition.line be- 
tween Esqr. Philips pattain and Collonel Beekmans precinct 
near ye east part of ye precinct where ye : path is now Used so 
by marked Trees and Stakes threw ye precinct To Courtland 
Pattain ; then a high Way from James Dickinson by Marked 
Trees to Courtland pattain ; a high Way from James Dickinson 
by marked Trees to Rigfield new purchase, a high Way begin- 
ning at ye Devition of ye, Two countys near by Elihu Town- 
sends at a White Oak/Tree on ye East Side of ye high way from 
thence to a white Oak Tree — then to Elihu Townsend fence to 
his Corner as ye fence now stands then with ye, Middle line of 
ye Oblong untill it meets with Danbery high way by marked 
Trees from thence by marked Trees Over Joes Hill so called 
untill it meets with ye high way that comes from Wostershere 
so called ; A high way Beginning at ye Bridge by John Dick- 
inson so by marked Trees untill to Crane Mills from thence by 
marked Trees and Stakes to ye bridge by Jeremiah Calkins — A 
high way from Crane Mills by Marked To Rigfield New pur- 
chase — a high Way Beginning at Edward Grays so by Marked 
to ye Meeting house — from thence to ye West Branch of Croton 
by Marked Trees Meeting with ye highway that has been all- 
ready laid out near by Hamblins, a highway from Shaws by 
Marked Trees To Frost Mills from thence to Sprages, A High 
Way from ye Bridge by John Dickinson so by marked Trees to 
the Meeting house from thence by Marked Trees To Elijah 
Tomkins. A high Way Beginning Near by Taylors so by 
marked Trees Untill it meets with ye high way that comes over 
ye Great Swamp by William herns, A high Way by Marked 
Trees from William herns on ye North Side of ye Barr Swamp 


so called Untill it meets with Madam Britts Line A high Way 
by marked Trees from Madam Britts Line to the Horse pound 
bo called from thence to Shaws and from ye horse pound To 
Croton River by Marked, A high Way beginning at Joseph 
Lees by Marked Trees to Wostershere high Way, A high 
Way from Sam'l Fields farme to ye high Way that leads to 
Danbery, A high Way from James Dickinson farme to ye 
high Way that leads to Courtland Line, A high Way from 
James Padocks To Connecttecut Line by Marked Trees A high 
Way Beginning at Capt. Balls possettion by Connectecut Line 
by marked Trees, A high Way beging at ye high Way near 
byBrundedges so by Marked Trees to William Bloomers— Give 
Under Our hands this tenth of May 1745 

" Thomas Davenport 
" James Dickinson, Jun'r. 
" Dutchess County ss : A True Copy Examined 

" By Henry Livingston, Clerk." 
"August 23: 1745." 

"Crane Mills," of which mention is made in the 
above entry, were about half a mile from Sodom 
Corners, and on the north side of Joe's Hill, in the 
town of South-East. The " Horse Pound" was about 
three miles north of Carmel village, on the road lead- 
ing from it to Stormville. The Horse Pond is on the 
same road, and the "pound" was immediately north 
of it. 

" Shaw's" residence was in the town of Carmel, just 
north of the beautiful sheet of water that bears his 

"April ye 20 day 1747: A highway Laid out Beginning at 
Abraham Smiths to by Marked Trees to the highway that Leads 
from Kirkun Mills to ye peakskills four Rods wide. 

" A highway laid out Beginning at James Mairude So by Mark- 
ed Trees to ye highway that leads from Kirkuns Mills to the 
peekkills four rods. 

" A highway Laid out Beginning at a former Highway Near Ele 


Nelson so by Marked trees to the former highway in peeckkills 
hollow four rods wide. 

"A highway Laid out Beginning Near Mickell Shaw so by 
Marked Trees to the highway by Mathees Roes from thence by 
Marked Trees threw Mr hill farme to Kirkuns Mills four rods 

"A highway laid out beginning at Kirkuns mills so by 
Marked Trees to ye highway formerly Laid out that leads to the 
Peackkills four Rods wide. 

" A highway laid out Beginning Near Benjamin Brundeges so 
by Marked trees to Josia Gregory four Rods wide. 

"Dutchess be > : A True Copy examined > James DieK i NS o N 
August 19-1748. By Henry Livng- Thqmas DavenP ort" 
ston Clerk. j 

At this period of the settlement of the county, there 
appears to have been but few roads, and they were 
scarcely worked. A journey, therefore, to Pough- 
keepsie, by the Commissioners, was something more 
of an undertaking than at the present day. Some 
half-a-dozen or more roads were laid out before the 
Commissioners, or one of them carried a description 
of them to the County Clerk to be recorded. This 
accounts for their entry under one date. The next 
entry is as follows : 

"March ye 20 day 1746-7. A higway Laid out beginning at 
Kerkuns Mill so by Marked trees to peeks kill hollow from 
thence to Abraham Smith from thence to the highway that Leads 
Kirkun Mill to ye peeks Kill four rods wide. 

"A highway Laid out beginning at Kirkuns Mill by marked 
trees to ye Highway to Eastward of Benjamin Brundages four 
Rods wide 

" A Highway Laid out beginning at ye peeks Kill Road so by 
marked trees to Josia grigory four Rods wide. 


"A Highway Laid out beginning at James Moreds to the 
peek Kill highway four Rods wide. 

" Laid out by us Commissioners of ye Highways. 

"Dutchess ss : A True Copy Examined ) Thqmas davenport 

1748-9 y g P 8 j James Dickinson 

The descendants of those persons mentioned in the 
above-described roads, with those that follow, can 
better locate these early roads, from their knowledge 
of the places mentioned, than we. The next entry is 
as follows : 

" November ye 11 day 1748. A Highway laid out from Capt : 
Wright Sawmill by marked trees to ye peac pond or to West- 
chester County Line four Rods wide 

" A Highway Laid out from Curhelus fullers by marked trees 
Until it meets with the Road that Leads from ye Long bridge to 
Dan ; 1 Grays four Rods wide 

" A Highway Laid out from James Dickinson unto Court Lands 
maner by marked trees four rods wide Laid out by us Commis- 
sioners of the Highways 

" A Highway laid out by marked Trees beginning at Croton 
River near James Dickinson from thence to ye high way by 
Lathams four rods wide 

Dutchess: Thomas Davenport 

James Dickinson. 

" A true copy examined by Henry Livingston Clerk 
Feb: 8: 1748-9—" 

" Whereas ye Inhabitants on ye South Precinct in Dutchess 
County in the province of New-York Did Request Severall High- 
ways To be Laid out wee ye Said Commissioners have laid out 
Several Highways as follows fiirst Begining near James Dicken- 
son, from Thence by. Marked Trees To Courtland Maner by 
Nathan Balys four Rods wide 

"Then one more High Way Beginning by whare Doctor Cal- 
kins Used to live from Thence by Marked Trees To ye Oblong. 


Thence Between Nathaniel Stevenson and Philips pattain To 
Beekmans precinct four Rods Wide. One more highway Begin- 
ning near More Houseis Mill by marked Trees to ye Old High 
Way and ye : Old High way by Greenes House Stopt up four 
Rods wide. 

"One more High Way Beginning nearby Joseph Cranes from 
thence by marked Trees into ye High Way by Saml : Jones 
four Rods. 

"One more Highway Beginning at the South End of Nathaniel 
Stevensons Land from Thence East-ward in Between Stevensons 
Land Joshua Burns Land four Rods Wide to ye Middle of the 

" Laid out by "us Thomas Davenport 

James Dickinson 
Co7nmissioners of the Highways." 

"Whareas ye Inhabitants on Phillips pattain have Requested 
A Highway to by laid Out from Timothy Shaws to ye Fish Kills 
Through ye Mountains or over ye Mountains Which We have 
Done Beginning at Timothy Shaws Aforesaid four Rods Wide by 
Marked Trees to the Fish Kills as aforesaid by us Commission- 
ers of the HighWays for ye south precinct of Dutchess County. 

Thomas Davenport 
James Dickinson 
Commissioners of the High Ways 
" Dutchess ss: The above are True Copys Examined by Hen- 
ry Livingston Clerk 
June 5 : 1752—" 

" A High Way Laid out Begining at Jonathan Lanes House 
from Thence by Marked Trees to Elezer Umans Mill four 
Rods Wide, A High Way Begining at Timothy Shaws from 
Thence Over ye Mountains To the fish Kills by Marked Trees 
four Rods Wide Laid out by us Commissioners of ye highwas 
of ye South precinct in Dutchess County June ye, 7th : day 
1751 — " Thomas Davenport 

"James Dickinson 

" Dutchess : A True Copy Entred January 8 : 1775 

" By Henry Livingston Clerk" — 


"November ye : 10 day 1752 South precinct of Dutchess 
County A high Way Laid out from Amos Dickinson to Jere- 
miah Jones by Marked Trees 4 Rods Wide One more Begin- 
ning at ye Horse pound from thence to Amos fullers 4 Roda 
Wide by Marked Trees, One More Begining at John Dicken- 
eons Mill from thence to ye : high Way that Leads to the Meet- 
ing house 4 Rods Wide 

" Thomas Davenport 

" James Dickinson 
" Comistioners of the high Ways — 

"Dutchess : A True Copy Recorded January 8 1755 By 

" Henry Livingston Clerk" 

"October ye 11 : day 1754 South precinct of Dutchess 
County, A high Way Laid out Beginning at ye Bridg Near 
Edward Halls Mill on ye : Oblong from thence by John Ryder 
door to a Stake in said Ryders Meadow from thence between 
James Anderson Land and said Ryders Land as far as is Con- 
venant for a high Way to be made from thence as near to Rattle 
Snake hill as is Convenant for a high Way to be made from 
thence to the highway that Leads across Joes Hill so called Two 
Rods Wide Throughout One more beginning at the high Way 
that Leads to Roberts paddricks on the Top of the hill in John 
Jones Possestion from thence by Marked Trees to Jacob Finch 
Bridg from thence by James Quimby And from thence to 
Thomas Frost 4 Rods Wide One more Beginning on ye West 
Side of Quimbe farm at ye highway from thence between John 
Frost And James Quimbe farms And from thence to Thomas 
Townsend And from thence to the Bridg by Jeremiah Baleys 4 
Rods Wide One more Beginning near Nehemiah Woods at ye : 
high Way from thence to Nathaniel Byingtons Bridg four Rods 


"One more Beginning at Thomas Higins from Thence a Crost 
ye : hills to Daley Brook so called 4 Rods Wide by marked 
Trees One more Begining at Anthony Batterson House from 
thence along ye : Collony Line to ye : highway that leads to 
Danbury. 2 Rods Wide 

"One more Beginning at ye foot of the hill near ye: peach 
pond from thence by Marked Trees and Bushes and Stakes and 


Stones to West Chester Line four Rods wide Throughout One 
more Begining at ye : foot of a hill in Mathew Burgis Land by- 
Marked to ye : Top of hill in to ye : Old highway Again 4 Rods 
Wide Laid out by us 

" Thomas Davenport 
" James Dickinson 
" Commistioneers of the High Ways 

" Dutchess : A True Copy Recorded January : 8 : 1755 By 

" Henry Livingston Clerk" 


(Letter from Col. Ludington, Elijah Townsend, and others.) 

" Dutchess County, 3d December, 1776. 
"Gentn. — Nothing but the strongest necessity could induce 
us to trouble you with an application of so extraordinary a na- 
ture ; but if we are esteemed worthy your confidence as friends 
to our struggling country, our sincerity will apologize for what 
in common cases might appear indecent. Our invaded State has 
not only been an object of the special designs of our common 
enemy, but obnoxious to the wicked, mercenary intrigues of a 
number of engrossing jockies, who have drained this part of the 
State of the article of bread to that degree, that we have reason 
to fear there is not enough left for the support of the inhabit- 
ants. We have for some months past heard of one Helmes who 
has been purchasing wheat and flour in these parts for several 
months, with which the well affected are universally dissuited. 
This man with us is of doubtful character, his conversations are 
of the disaffected sort entirely. He has now moving from Fish- 
kill toward Newark we think not less than one hundred barrels 
of flour, for which he says he has your permit, the which we 
have not seen. However, we have, at the universal call of the 
people, concluded to stop the flour and Helmes himself, until 


this express may return. We ourselves think from the conduct 

of this man that his designs are bad. 

"We have the honour to be, your humble servts. 

"Henry Ludington, 
"Joseph Crane, Junr. 
"Jonathan Paddock, 
" Elijah Townsend." 

"To the Honourable the Council of Safety for the State of 

New York." 

" Fredericksburgh Committee. 

March 15th, 1776. 
" Whereas Isaac Bates has been represented to this committee 
as being unfriendly to our country, we have had him under ex- 
amination and find him guilty of said charge. We, therefore, 
refer him to the Honourable county committee for further exami- 

" Fredericksburgh, March 15th, 1775. 

" Isaac Bates, upon being taken up as a deserter, by an ad- 
vertisement from Elijah Oakley, Lieutenant under Captain Com- 
fort Ludington, of Colo. Jacobus Swartwout's regiment of 
minute men, pleads and says that said Lieut. Oakley did release 
him, in support of which plea he produced the evidences, whose 
depositions are as follows : 

"I, Abraham Birdsil, of lawful age, being sworn before the 
chairman of the committee, do testify and say that on the 5th of 
this instant March, being at the house of Cornelius Fuller, I 
heard Elijah Oakley say he would give any man two shillings 
that would set his name to such a paper. Whereupon Isaac 
Bates said he would set his name to it ; and the said Oakley 
said he would give him four shillings if he would ; and finally 
said as he could not make change he would give him a six shil- 
ling bill, lawful money. And as Bates took the pen Oakley 
6ays if you do write your name there you shall go, and Bates 
6aid I mean to go, and wrote on the bottom of the paper as I 
supposed his name, but I understand by others (for I cannot 

read writing) that he wrote Elijah Oakley may kiss my 

Isaac Bates ; at which Oakley was mad and swore he should go. 
Whereupon Bates says why you are not mad are you, I was 



only in a y ke. Joke or no joke said Oakley, you shall go But 
afterwards I saw Bates give Oakley the bill again, and saw 
Oakley tear off a piece of paper which I suppose was what 
Bates had written, and I understood by Oakley that he had dis- 
charged him. Whereupon I said to Bates, since Oakley is so 
fair with you, you ought to treat him, and he immediately called 
grog and did treat him." 

" I, John Chase, of lawful age, being sworn before the chair- 
man of the committee, do testify to the whole of the foregoing 
deposition ; and further that when Oakley took the bill he said 
he would see if it was the same bill which he gave Bates, and 
went to the light and said it was the same bill which I gave 
you. Now (said I to Mr. Oakley) you and Isaac are clear, are 
you not ? Yes, said Mr. Oakley we are clear, it was only a 

"We do suspect the above mentioned Elijah Oakley as being 
unfriendly to the country, from his conduct in enlisting Isaac 
Bates who was known to be a professed tory, and taking him 
out of our hands when we were about to deal with him, and 
then discharged him, but at the same time positively affirmed to 
us that he would make him go, and finally did advertise him, 
when he never kept out of his way. 

" By order of the Committee of Fredericksburgh, 

"David Smith, Chairman." 

" March 16th, 1776. 

"4 ho. 6 m. March 28th, 1776. 

" The Committee met pursuant to adjournment. 

"Present — Mr. Wm. Paulding, Chairman. 

" Mr. Cuyper — Orange. 

"Mr. Moore— Tryon. 

" Mr. Everson, Colo. Morris Graham— For Dutchess. Mr. 
Lefferts — Kings. Wm. Williams — Cumberland. 

"Mr. Tredwell— For Suffolk. 

" Mr. Paulding — For Westchester. 

"Mr. Ad. Bancker — Richmond. 

"A return for a great number of Commissions from Frede- 
ricksburgh, in Dutchess County, for the militia officers in that 


district, was read and filed, and is in the words following, to 
wit : 

Fredericksburgh in Dutchess County, March 15th, 1776. 

" Pursuant to a resolve of the Provincial Congress of New 
York, passed the 9th of August, 1775, the Committee proceeded 
to call together the several companies of militia in this precinct, 
for a choice of officers, as follows : 

"Beat No. 1. Friday March 8th, the company did meet, and 
under the inspection of Joshua Myrick, Daniel Mertine, and 
David Myrick, three of the committee, did choose Ebenezer 
Robinson, Capt. ; Nathaniel Scribner, 1st Lieut. ; Hezekiah 
Mead, Junr. 2d lieut. ; Obadiah Chase, Ensign. 

"Beat No. 2. Monday March 11th, the company met, and 
under the inspection of David Waterbury and Moses Richards, 
two of the Committee, did elect David Waterbury, Capt. ; Isaac 
Townsend, 1st lieut. • Jonathan Webb, 2d lieut. ; Timothy Dela 
van, Ensign. 

"Beat No. 3. — September, 20th, 1775, the- company met, and 
under the inspection of Jonathan Paddock, Simeon Tryon, 
David Crosby, three of the Committee, made choice of Jonathan 
Paddock, Capt. ; Jeremiah Burges, 2d lieut. ; Joseph Dykeman, 
Ensign. — N. B. Simeon Tryon is since appointed a lieutenant 
in the Continental Army. 

"Beat No. 4. — Tuesday, March 12th, the company of 

met, and under the inspection of Solomon Hopkins, David 
Myrick, and David Smith, did elect John Crane, Capt. ; Elijah 
Townsend, 1st lieut. ; David Smith, 2d lieut. ; and John Berry, 

"Beat No. 5. — Wednesday, March 13th, the company met 
and under the inspection of Solomon Hopkins and Joshua My 
rick, two of the Committee, did elect Wiiliam Colwell, Capt. ; 
Joel Mead, 1st lieut. ; Stephen Ludinton, 2d lieut. ; and David 
Porter, Ensign. 

"Beat No. 6. — Thursday, March 14th, the company met, and 
under the inspection of Isaac Chapman and Joshua Crosby, two 
of the Committee, did choose David Hecock, Capt. ; William 
Calkin, 1st lieut. ; and Moses Sage, ensign. 

"The above gentlemen are all persons of respectable charac- 


ters, have been friendly to liberty, and have signed the general 
association recommended by the Congress. 
"By order of the Committee, 

" David Smith, Chairman, pro tempore. 

" A trtfe copy, Test. 

"Joshua Myrick, Clerk. 

" N. B. Increas Bennet afterwards refused to serve as lieu- 

"Die Sabbali, 9 ho. A. M. 

"July 20th, 1776. 

" The convention met pursuant to adjournment. Opened 
with prayer. 

"A letter from Col. Henry Ludenton, of Dutchess County, 
dated the 19th instant, was read and filed. He thereby informs 
that there are many vacancies of Captains and subalterns in his 
regiment, besides, that the offices of 1st and 2d major are also 
vacant. He recommends, with the advice of the precinct com- 
mittee, Mr. Robinson and Mr. Gee for majors, and requests 20 
blank commissions by the bearer, who says part of the regi- 
ment is to march to-morrow, and that they have delayed for 

"On reading the said letter from Col. Ludenton, of Dutchess 
County, and considering the state of his regiment at this critical 
time, Resolved, That commissions be issued to the two gentle- 
men therein named, as majors of that regiment, in the order they 
are named in the said letter, and that twenty other commissions 
be signed by the President, and countersigned by one of the 
Secretaries, and transmitted to Colo. Ludenton, to be filled up 
for the Captains and subalterns of his regiment, when neces- 
sary, by the precinct committee and himself ; and that the said 
precinct committee and Colonel Ludenton do return to this Con- 
vention an exact list of the names, rank and dates of the officers, 
commissions which they shall fill up and deliver. And Re- 
solved, That the sending blank commissions to a precinct com- 
mittee shall not, from this instance, be drawn into precedent. 

"A draft of a letter to Colo. Ludenton, was read and approved, 

and is in the following, to wit : 

" Sir — Agreeable to your request in your letter of yesterday, 


we now send you 20 blank commissions to be filled up by you, 
in conjunction with the committee of the precinct, for the cap- 
tains and subalterns wanted in your regiment ; and have like- 
wise enclosed two commissions, appointing Mr. Robinson and 
Mr. Gee majors. As the Congress were not informed of Mr. 
Gee's christian name, you, together with the Committee of the 
precinct are requested to insert it. 

"By order. 
"To Colo. Henry Ludenton." 

" Die Veneris, 10 ho. A. M. Novr. 221, 1776. 
"The committee of Safety met pursuant to adjournment. 
" Mr. William Duer informed the Committee that large quan 
tities of hay and corn were purchased by the Quarter Master- 
General for the use of the Continental army in the eastern parts 
of this county and the western parts of Connecticut, and that it 
would be hardly practicable to convey the same to the army 
unless the roads leading from the Oblong and Frelerickburg 
towards Reze's Bridge and North Castle were better repaired ; 
he therefore, in behalf of Gen. Mifflin, Quarter-Master-General 
of the Continental army, prayed that this House would devise 
ways and means of facilitating the above mentioned communica- 
tion, not doubting but so necessary an expenditure would be 
cheerfully reimbursed from the Continental Treasury. 

"On taking the application of Mr. Duer into consideration, 
Resolved, That it will be necessary to repair the following roads 
in order to facilitate the cartage of forage to the Continental 
army; from the house of John Miller towards the house of Col- 
onel Henry Luddington, thence to Samuel Washburn's, being 
eight miles ; the road which runs east from Colonel Henry Lud- 
dington's to the store of Malcolm Morrison, and thence south to 
the mills of Samuel Washburn, being twelve miles. 

" Resolved, That Colonel Luddington detach from his regi- 
ment one hundred men for the purpose of repairing that part of 
the road which is first mentioned, being in distance 8 miles. 

" Resolved, That Capt. H. Meade be appointed superintendent 
for repairing the above roads. 

"Resolved, That Colonel Field detach one hundred men from 
his regiment of militia for the purpose of repairing that part of 


the road which is last mentioned irfthe first resolution, being in 
distance 12 miles. 

" Resolved, That Capt. David Heacock be appointed superin- 
tendent for repairing the said road." 

"A letter from the Committee of Dutchess County, was read 
as follows, viz : 

"Dutchess County, May 6th 1776. 

" Sir — It having been represented to the general committee of 
this county, that the southern regiment of militia was too large 
and extensive, containing twelve companies, and covering a 
space of country upwards of thirty miles ir» length, we have 
therefore, not only because in other respects it was expedient, 
but also in compliance with the resolution of Congress prohibit- 
ing a regiment to consist of more than ten companies, divided it, 
and instead of one have formed the militia in that quarter into 
two regiments. Enclosed you have the description of the regi- 
ments, together with a list of persons nominated for field officers. 
As this part of our militia will remain unregimented till the offi- 
cers receive their commissions, we must request that the com- 
missions be made out as soon as possible, and sent to the Com- 
mittee in Rumboufs precinct, with directions to forward them to 
the officers immediately. 

" I remain, (by order of the committee,) your very humble 
servant. Egbert Benson, Chairman." 

"The description of the two regiments, enclosed in the letter 
from the committee of Dutchess, was read as follows : 

" One regiment, to consist of all the militia in Pauling's pre- 
cinct, (except the northern company,) all the militia in Southeast 
precinct, and the militia on the northern and middle short lots, in 
Fredericksburgh precinct, in the county of Dutches. John 
Field, Colonel ; Andrew Morehouse, lieut. Col. ; Jonathan Pad- 
dock, 1st Major ; Isaac Tallman, 2d major; Isaac Crane, adju- 
tant ; Reuben Crosby, quarter-master. 

"The other regiment to consist of all the militia in Fredericks- 
burgh precinct, (except the northern and middle short lots,) and 
all the militia in Phelps precinct, (this should have been written 
'Philips precinct,') in the county of Dutchess. Moses Dusen- 


berry, Colonel; Henry Luddington, lieut. Col.; Eeuben Ferris, 
1st major; Joshua Nelson, 2d major; Joshua Myrick, adjutant; 
Solomon Hopkins, quarter-master.'' 


This is a tract of land one and three-fourths of a mile 
in width, commencing in the town of Rye, in West- 
chester county, and running north through it, Putnam, 
and Dutchess ; the west side of which was, until 1731, 
the boundary line between New York and Connecti- 
cut. The east side of it now forms the division line of 
the above-named States. It contains 60,000 acres, 
and just before the death of Col. John Montgomery, 
in 1731, who succeeded William Burnett, in 1728, as 
Governor of the Province of New York, it was ceded 
to this State in consideration of another tract near 
Long Island Sound, surrendered to Connecticut. 
This State drew a line through its centre, divided it 
into 500 acre-lots, and sold it to emigrants, who re- 
ceived a guaranty of title from the State. It was this 
security of title which caused these lots to be eagerly 
sought after by emigrants from Cape Cod. 



On the 18th day of April, 1775, a detachment of 
British troops under Colonel Smith, was sent from 
Boston by General Gage, to destroy some American 
stores collected at Concord, then a small village, six 
miles north-west of Lexington, in Massachusetts. 
Upon Lexington Common seventy men were drawn 
up, on whom Major Pitcairn ordered the detachment 
to fire. The order was promptly obeyed, and seven 
men were killed and three wounded. There the 
Wood of patriots was first shed, that was to nourish 
the infant tree of Liberty, during a seven years' strug- 
gle, while the ruthless elements of tyranny were war- 
ring for its destruction. On the 29th day of the same 
month and year, and eleven days after the bloody 
tragedy at Lexington, the inhabitants of the city of 
New York called a meeting of all who were opposed 
to the oppressive acts of the English Parliament, 
formed a general association, adopted a Pledge, and 
transmitted a copy to every county in the State for 

The storm had burst, and every day was adding 
fearful intensity to its force. 

The proud Lion of England had lapped the heart's 
blood of the descendants of the Plymouth-Rock Pil- 
grims ; and their brethren of the other colonies saw 
that, ere long, with a few more bounds, he would 


leap among them. Between submission and resistance 
they were called to choose ; the former they had 
yielded to until it had ceased to become a virtue, and 
the latter was the only alternative left to men who 
were determined to wear the yoke no longer. The 
British Parliament and King had as zealous partisans 
and friends among us, as they had at home. It be- 
came necessary, in some way, to ascertain who were 
the friends of our own, and the mother-country. 
The Pledge was suggested ; and, acting on a test of 
divine origin, they who refused to sign it were set 
down as opposed to their country and the mainten- 
ance of her rights. In order to secure unanimity of 
purpose and harmony of action — to ascertain who 
could be relied on in the different counties, and draw 
out their political sentiments on the issue joined be- 
tween the unnatural Mother and her rebelling Daugh- 
ters — to commit the people to one side or the other 
of the question, and by united action among the 
friends of the cause, to prepare for the approaching 
conflict, was the object of the Pledge. If there ever 
was a " time that tried mens' souls," it was when they 
grasped the "gray-goose quill" to sign their death- 
warrant if they failed, or their libert}' if successful. 
At that period, even the most violent patriot must 
have looked upon the undertaking as desperate and 
almost hopeless, with but one chance out of ten in his 
favor. But they were men of a by-gone and an iron 
age, upon whom the world may not look again. 
They had made up their minds to die rather than 
submit ; and when men of such indomitable energy, of 
mind once deliberately resolve, their destiny is fixed. 
New York, it will be seen, moved early to ascertain, 



aiter hostilities, had commenced, the sentiments of her 
citizens on the issue of a nation's freedom. The 
Pledge was as follows ; 

"Persuaded that the salvation of the rights and liberties of 
America depend, under God, on the firm union of its inhabitants 
in a rigorous prosecution of the measures necessary for its 
eafety ; and convinced of the necessity of preventing anarchy 
and confusion, which attend the dissolution of the powers of 

government, we, the freemen, freeholders, inhabitants of , 

being greatly alarmed at the avowed design of the Ministry to 
raise a revenue in America, and shocked by the bloody scene 
now acting in Massachusetts Bay, do, in the most solemn man- 
ner, resolve never to become slaves ; and do associate, under all 
the ties of religion, honor, and love to our country, to adopt and 
endeavor to carry into execution whatever measures may be re- 
commended by the Continental Congress, or resolved upon by 
our Provincial Convention for the purpose of preserving our 
Constitution, and opposing the execution of the several arbitrary 
Acts of the British Parliament, until a reconciliation between 
Great Britain and America on constitutional principles (which 
sve most ardently desire) can be obtained ; and that we will in 
all things follow the advice of our General Committee respecting 
the purposes aforesaid, the preservation of peace and good order, 
and the safety of individuals and property." 


" AgreeabLe to adjournment to this day, being the 15th of Au- 
gust, 1775, we met at the house of Jacob Griffin, in order to make 
a return of the persons who signed the Association and those 
who refused, viz : Those who signed— 

Theods. Van Wyck, Dirck G. Brinckerhoff, 

John Brinckerhoff, Daniel Ter Boss, 

Zachs. Van Vorhees, Richard Van Wyck, 

Garret Storm, William Van Wyck, 

Cornelius Sebring, Joseph Horton, 



Johannes Wiltse, 
Gores Storm, 
T. Van Wyck, Jr., 
Harvey M. Morris, 
Henry Godwin, 
Thomas Storm, 
John Adriance, 
Henry Schenck, 
Jacob Swartwout, 
Corns. Van Wyck, Jr., 
Isaac Sebring, 
Abm. Brinckerhoff, 
Roelef Schenck, 
Abraham Schenck, 
L. E. Van Bunschoten, 
Isaac Ter Boss, 
Jacob Griffin, 
James Snediker, 
Aaron Brown, 
John A. Brinckerhoff, 
John Wickoff, 
James Denton, 
William Clauker, 
George Brinckerhoff, 
Adrian Brinckerhoff 
Abraham Ter Boss, 
John H. Sleght, 
Jacobus De Graef, 
John Meyer, 
John G. Brinckerhoff, 
John Langdon, 
George Adriance, 
George Elsworth, 
Hendrick Boerum, 
Daniel Schenck, 
Jonathan Langdan, 
William Tisdale, 
Joseph Griffin, 
Daniel Johnson, 

John Meynema, 
Abm. Van Voorhis, 
Hendk. Hardenburg, 
Moses Bedell, 
Peter Ter Bush, 
John Jewell, Jr., 
Alexander Turner, 
James Auning, 
William Ward, 
Jacob Du Bois, Jr., 
Gabriel Hughson, 
David Barker, 
Henry Van Tessel, 
Claistian Du Bois, Jr., 
Ahas. Elsworth, 
Jacob Brinckerhoff, 
William Holms, 
Thomas Ostrander, 
Godfrey Heyn, 
N. E. Gabriel, 
Abraham Morrell, 
Geo. J. Brinckerhoff, 
Christopher Rawn, 
James Weekes, 
Isaac Van Wyck, 
Cornelius Smith, 
Hugh Conner, 
Andw. J. Lawrence, 
Nathl. Faircbild, 
Samuel Gosline, 
John Berray, 
James Cooper, 
John Cooper, 
James Barnes, 
John Ter Bush, 
Cornelius Adriance, 
Abm. De Foreest, 
Thomas Simonton, 
Joseph Mc Cord, 



John Cooper, 
Richard King, 
Jacob Van Voorhis, Jr., 
Jonathan Haight, 
Israel Kniffin, 
Daniel Kniffin, 
Jonathan Kniffin, 
Walter Heyer, 
Adrian Bogert, 
Moses Akcrly, 
Luke Ter Boss, 
James Miller, 
Cornelius Osborne, 
Nicholas Brower, 
Matthias Clark, 
Nicholas Brower, Jr.. 
John Wright, 
Charles Brewer, 
John Ackerman, 
John Walters, 
James Rathbun. 
Seth Chase, 
Adolphus Brower, 
David Brower, 
Cornelius Brower, 
Jacob Brower, 
Deriah Hogland, 
William Haskin, 
Peter Horton, 
Jesse Bedell, 
Martin Schenck, 
Peter Monfoort, 
Matthias Horton, 
Johans. De Witt, Jr., 
Mat. Van Bunschoten. 
Abm. Van Wyck, 
Steph. Brinckerhoff, 
Geo. Brinckerhoff, 
John Scouten, 

Joseph Balding, 
J. Scouten, son of Jerry, 
Jacobus Emans, 
James Brown, 
Moses Barber, 
Abm. L. Losee, 
Samuel Swartwout, 
John Swartwout, 
William Scouten, Jr., 
Daniel Rayner, 
Robert Brett, 
John Smith, 
Jacob Balding, 
Caleb Cornell, 
Isaac Storm, 
Henry Rosekraus, 
Benjamin Rosekraus, 
Stephen Osborne, 
Simon S. Scouten, 
Daniel G. Wright, Jr., 
Joseph Wiltse, 
Geo. Van Werkeren, 
Piatt Rogers, 
Theo Is. Adriance, 
Micah Rogers, 
John Lawrence, 
Jeremiah Bedell, 
Joseph Fowler, 
Jacob Swartwout, 
Gideon Way, 
Merinus V. Vlaikren, 
Henry Ostrander, 
John Leyster, 
Timothy Saikryder. 
Zachariah Boss, 
John Bush, Jr., 
Josiah Hallstead, 
Peter Noorstrant, 
Jeremiah Martin, Jr. 



Peter Snyder, 
John Gray, Jr., 
Gershom Martine, 
Amos Nettleton, 
John Bennitt, 
Elihu Einmitt, 
Ab. H. Van Amburgh, 
Jesse Baker, 
James Thurston, 
Joseph Parker, 
Stephen Thaiker, 
Abraham Gray, 
John Baker, 
Jeremiah Ranny, 
David Mowry, 
Joseph Lee, 
Simon Bise, 
William Lane, 
Ezra Mead, 
James Innes, 
Isaac Smith, 
Peter Hulst, 
David Bennett, 
David Horton, 
William Wright, 
Daniel Canfield, 
Sabure Main, 
Johans. Brinckerhoff, 
Andw. Van Hyning, 
Abm. Van Amburgh, 
Moses Saikryder, 
James Rosekraus, 
Stephen Doxey, 
Dirck Hegerman, 
Jonathan Talmagee, 
Solomon Saikryder, 
Joshua Hicks, 
Martin Smith, 
Robert Rogers, 

Thomas Wright, 
William Baker, 
Daniel Wright, 
John Watts, 
Johans. De Witt, 
Albert Carley, 
Henry Van Voorhis, 
Martin Wiltse, 
H. Rosekraus, Jr., 
James Kilburne, 
Dirck Brinckerhoff, 
Zebulon Southard, 
Evert W. Swart, 
John Bloodgood, 
Walter Moody, Jr., 
John Johnson, 
Simon Ter Bush, 
Thorn Pudney, 
Francis Pudney, 
Abraham Ceasa, 
Stephen Peudy, 
Henry Carpenter, 
John Ter Bush, 
Abraham Schultz, 
Cornelius Sebring, 
John Pudney, 
Cornelius Ter Bush, 
David Lyons, 
Edward McKeeby, 
Theods. Brett, 
John McBride, 
Obadiah W. Cooper, 
Timothy Mount, 
Jonas Southard, 
James Reynolds, 
George Bump, 
Tunis Du Bois, 
James Green, 
Obadiah J. Cooper, 



Peter Klump, 
Abm. Van Tyne, 
Jacob Van Voorhis, Jr., 
Myndert Cooper, 
John Runnels, 
Thomas Bump, 
Christopher Schults, 
Silvinus Pine, 
Isaa H. Ter Boss, 
William Somerdike, 
Philip Pine, 
Nathan Bailey, 
John Pullick, 
Austin Fowler, 
David Pellet, 
John Southard, 
Duncan Graham, 
Elesa Du Bois, 
James Duncan, 
Caleb Briggs, 
James Osburn, 
Isaac Hegeman, 
Jacobus Degroff, 
E. E. Van Bunschoten, 
John De Groot, 
Jno. Van Bunschoten, 
Robert Jodd, 
Bernd. J. Van Kleek, 
JabObus De Gruff, Jr., 
Jacobus Sleght, 
Moses Vanelin, 
Adam Dates, 
William Stanton, 
William Teatsort, 
Isaac Snider, 
Thomas Lewis, 
Jacob Cole,, 
Abraham Sleght, 
Michal Hoffman, 

Teunis Wilsen, 
Isaac Cole, 
Peter Stienbergh, 
Gideon Ver Velon, 
Moses De Groff, 
Henry Buys, 
Peter Van Kleek, Jr., 
Jeremiah Mead, 
Henry Pelts, 
Jacob Backer, 
Jacob Coapman, 
Barent Dutcher, 
Boltes B. Van Kleek, 
John Leroy, Jr., 
Henry Bell, 
Jurrie Hoffman, 
Jacob Niffer, 
P. Van Dervoort, Jr., 
Simon Leroy, Jr., 
John Leroy, 
Jacob Lane, 
Thomas Yeumans, 
Constine Gulnack, 
Johans. Hooghteling 
Clement Cornwell, 
Peter Deets, 
Francis Leroy, 
Abm. Westervelt, 
Jost. Westervelt, 
James Howard, 
Cornelius Griffin, 
William Griffin, 
James Vandewater, 
Dalf Swartwout, 
Garret Beneway, 
Jeremiah Var Velen, 
Thomas Pinkney, 
Henry Marten, 
Barthol. Hogeboom, 



Charreik Van Keuren, 
David Dutcher, 
Deminicus Monfoort, 
James Rymden, 
Andrew Ostram, 
John Ostram, 
Frederick Rosekraus, 
Peter Van Dewater, 
Bareut B. Van Kleek, 
Sevaris Van Kleek, 
Francis Van Dewater, 
John Van Valin, 
Peter Polmetier, 
Lawrence Conklin, 
Herman Rynden, 
John Rosekraus, 
Thomas Johnson, 
Francis Way, Jr., 
Joshua Smith, 
Aaron Brown, Jr., 
Abraham Ladu, 
Cornelius Swartwout, 
Gilbert Lane, 
William Swartwout, 
James Swartwout, 
Samuel Roberts, 
Ebenezer Clark, 
William Lane, 
Joseph Totten, 
Andrew Hill, 
Johannes Sharrie, 
Jeremiah Jones, 
Lawrance Haff, 
Peter Outwater, 
Daniel Outwater, 
T. Van Benschoten, 
Samson Smith, 
Albert Terhum, 
Abm. Duryee, Jr., 

John Tirhum, 
James Culver, 
Dennis Culver, 
James Culver, Jr., 
Peter Van Benschoten, 
Jacob Van Benschoten, 
Henry T. Wiltsey, 
John Tappen, 
James Davison, 
Henry Burhause, 
William Hogelandt, 
Abijah Pattersan, 
Daniel Terhum, 
Abraham A. Lent, 
Tunis Skeet, 
Cornelius Verwie, 
Hugh Laughlin, 
Francis Hegeman, 
John Culvert, 
Abraham Cronckheit, 
John Jewell, 
Isaac Jewell, Jr., 
Cornelius Wiltse, 
Hemming Higby, 
Peter Lent, 
Isaac Adrian ce, 
Johannes Boss, 
Richard Griffin, 
Steph. Van Voorhis, 
Jacob Buys, Jr., 
John L. Losee, 
Jacob Horton, 
Corns. Ostrander, 
Richard Comfort, 
Abraham Shear, 
William Barnes, 
Frederick Scutt, 
Jerome Van Voorhis, 
Kam Adriance, 



Kam J. Adriance, 
John Devoe, 
Jac's C. Swartwoudt, 
Peter Robinson, 
Moses Shaw, 
Jacobus Van Dewater, 
Zach. Van Voorhis, Jr., 
William Brock, 
Jacob King, 
John Hutchins, 
John Darlon, 
James Wildee, 
William Wildee, 
Richard Avery, 
John Rosekians, 
Isaac Hutchins, 
John Yurkse, 
Abm. Van Wackere 
Jacob Hutchins, 
Thomas Way, 
Abm. De Witt, 
John Philips, 
Elbert Mumfort, 
Danl. Van Voorhis, 
George Jewell, 
John Noorstrant, 
Peter Schoonhove, 
Joshua Griffin, 
Isaiah Wilde, 
Isaac Southard, 
William Winslow, 
John Griffin, 
John Vandervoort, 
Daniel Shaw, 
Peter Fitz Simmons, 
Nathan Burnes, 
John Vermillie, 
Richard Osborn, 
Peter Johnson, Jr., 

Richard Jewell, 
Jacob Dubois, 
Jacob Van Dervoort, 
Peter Meyer, 
John Coffin, 
Coenradd Appleye, 
Joshua Bishop, 
William Van Tyne, 
Sylvester Bloom, 
John Van Sulen, 
John Kipp, 
William Brooks, 
Jacob Van Tassell, 
Stephen Bates, 
Daniel David, 
Isaac Griffin, 
Peter Montross, 
Isaac Holmes, 
Aaron Shute, 
Richard Jackson, 
Dirick Hardenburgh, 
Peter J. Monfoort, 
Timothy Talman, 
Peter Depung, 
William Cushman, 
Garret Handenburgh, 
Tobias Mabie, 
John Bogardus, 
Samuel Somes, 
Nathan Somes, 
Jonathan Terry, 
Ralf Phillips, 
Isaac Jewell, 
George Bloom, 
Benjamin Roe, 
Henry Hains, 
Lawrance Lawrance, 
Jonas Cauniff, 
Edward Churchill, 



Samuel Tedd, 
William Roe, 
James Miller, 
John Phillips, 
Daniel Auning, 
Daniel Ward, 
William Barker, 
John Parks, 
Peter Bogardus, Jr., 
John Davis, 
William Earls, 
Peter Bogart, 

Francis Way, 
William Fowler, 
Corns. Brinckerhoff, 
Dennis Mc Sheheey, 
Isaac Veal, 
Robert Mc Cutchin, 
Robert Nichkilson, 
Elias Concklin, 
Jesse Purdy, 
Joseph Ogden, 
Andrew Renvells, 
William Ardem. 

A list of persons in Dutchess County who refused to sign the 
Association : 

Of Captain Heganaris Company : 

John Tarpanning, 
John Jast Snider, 
John Crandle, 
James Medagh, 
Michas Cock, 

Barent A. Van Kleek, 
William Baker, 

Urean Terwilger, 
Jores Middagh, 
Daniel Cole, 
Albert Monfoort. 
Henry Cailen, 
Peter Burhans, 
William Rogers. 

Captain Stephen 

John Hoisted, Lieut., 
Jacob Wright, 
Joseph Morss, 
Benjamin Snyder. 
Oliver Peck, 
William Cure, 
Joseph Ferinton, 
Joseph Merritt, 
Johannes Devoe, 
Joseph Smith, 
Joseph Robison, 
Ebenezer Pellit, 


Brinkerhoof's Company: 

Peter Boss, 
Richard Yeats, 
Jessey Baker, Jr., 
Christopher Winter, 
Benjamin Ellis, 
Joseph Halsted, 
Thomas Martin, 
John Miller, Lieut., 

of Captain Lodinton, 
Ezekel Main, 
Levi Winter, 
Joseph Winter, 



Tunis Kranchite, 
William Goodfellow, 
Isaac Wright, 
Benjamin Doty, 
Jonathan Lee, 
Benjamin Ogden, 
David Roe, 
Joshua Odle, 
Semeon Losee, 

Gerret Nostrand, 
Johannes Voorhes, 
Abraham Philps, 
Henry Philps, 
Peter Philps, 
Jocobus Philps, 
Elias Van Voorhees, 
Richard Southard, 
Thomas Southard, 
Gilbert Southard, 
Richard Southard, Jr., 
Daniel Southard, 
Thomas Poyer, 
Robert Bogardus, 
Increase Mills, 
Robert Mills, 
Henry Mills, 

Philip Roens, 
Thomas Baker, 
Johannes Storm, 
Stephen Stolker, 
Philip Morse, 
Daniel Haasbroock, 
Thomas Carman, 
Zebulon Gray, 
Silas Brown. 

Southard's Company : 

Samuel Mills, 
Jesse Purdy, 
Joseph Green, 
Francis R. Brjtt, 
Jeremiah Cooper, 
Jonas Halsted, 
Jacob Rider, 
John Covert, 
Leniah Adams, 
Philip Shoaf, 
Thomas Gibson, 
Peter Brogardus, 
Isaac Vealey, 
Thomas Sprage, 
Jeremiah Green, 
Benjamin Munger, 
Thomas Miller. 

Captain John 
John Bedle, Captain, 
John Schutt, Lieut., 
F. Hasbrook, Lieut., 
George Van Nostrand, Ensign 
James F. Way, 
Endrew J. Schouten, 
Benjamin Gerox, 
John Linabeck, 
Jacobus Jno. Schutt, 

Bedle' 's Company: 
Enoch Purdy, 
Joseph Burroughs, 
John S. Langdon, 
Joseph Wood, 
Joseph Carey, 
Isaac Wood, 
Oliver Larduex, 
Thomas Craft, 
Peter Dubois, 



Nathaniel Laduex, 
Johannes Swartwout, 
Joseph Winn, 
Gabriel Thomkins, 
William Winn, 
Joseph Laine, 
Benjamin Lisk, 
John Lisk, 
Stephen Weekes, 
Abraham Maley, 
Matthew Cure, 
Samuel Cure, 
Matthew Buis, 
Nicholas Storm, 
Peter Storm, 
Gessom Bounds, 
William Goslin, 
Abraham Nefuss, 
George Nefuss, 
Isaac Giou, 
John Wood, 
Abraham Young, 
John Aulgelt, 
Thomas Swartwout, 
Marvin Rowland, 
Thomas Wood, 
Joseph Post, 
Samuel Kichim, 

Nath'l. Gildersleeve, 
John Carey, Sr., 
Abr'm Van Hyning, 
Ambrose Lating, 
Abraham Gerrison, 
Abraham Purdy, 
John J. Wood, 
John J. Schouten, 
Charles Venson, 
Henry Schouten, 
Mar. J. Van Vlaren, 
Reuben Gerroson, 
John Peck, 
Isaac Lecore, 
Simeon Mabee, 
Lawrence Daily, 
Abraham Travas, 
John Caunef, 
Sutten Bailey, 
Isaac Wasbourn, 
John Carey, Jr., 
Jeremiah Hett, 
Benjamin Hasbrouck, 
John Sloot, 
Ephraim Scouten, 
Henry Light, 
Samuel Brown. 


Mat. Lyster, Captain, 
A. Herremans, Lieut., 
A. Vanderbilt, Ensign, 
John Cook, 
John Thorn, 
Andrew Burck, 
Stephen Thorn, 
Hendrick Van Vleck, 
Adrian Manfort, 

Lyster' 's Company: 

Peter Hoff, 

Andr. Herremans, Jr., 
John Herremans, 
Stephen Bancker, 
John Kennif, 
Joshua Besship, 
Jacob Johan Dubois, 
Cornelius Nostrand, 
Abraham Hogeland, 



John Hudson, 
Dirck Lyster, 
John Churchill, 
James Hicks, 
Francis Brogardus, 
Albert Monfoort, 
Cornelius Lyster, 
Stephen Duryee, 
Abraham Lent, 
Gideon Tichout, 
Johannes Dubois, 
John Huff, 
John Carnell, 
Gerret Lyster, 
Abraham Duryee, 
Cornel. Van Sickler, 

John Brevoort, 
John Van Vlaeron, 
Adam Aulgett, 
Joseph Brush, 
John Snedeker, 
John Weel, 
Edward Hougen, 
Isaac Lent, 
Gerrardus Vermilyer, 
David Vermilyer, 
Charles McCrade, 
Paule Hoff, 
Jacob Lewis, 

Samuel Livingston, 
James Morgan, 
Thomas Vanbrare, 
Joseph Theale, 
Undrel Strong, 
Gilbert Strong, 
Gilbert Barnes, 
Walter Huson, 
John Buchout, 
John Ses, 
John Haboun, 
Peter Van Cramer, 
Will. H. Harremans, 
John Maufoort, 
Timothy Somes. 

Morton's Company: 

John Wiltsee, 
Peter Delany, 
Joshua Duly, 
Peter Depue, 
Benjamin Clapp, 
William Juell, 
John Clapp, 
Abraham Depue, 
John Wilddey, 
Jacob Jewill, 
Abraham Huff, 
Thomas Clapp. 

Captain Griffin's Company: 

Caleb Bishop, George Nostraind, 

Matthew Obriant, Henry Underwood, 

Benjamin Thurston, Henry Van Tessel, Jr., 

John Churchell, Philip Miller, 

Thomas Griffin, Joshua Purdy, 

Daniel Ward, James Ward, 


Joseph Anderson, Benjamin Bloom, 

Henry C. Philps, Peter Dubois, 

John Jay, Adrian Covenhoven, 

Benjamin Ackerly, Joseph Thurston, 

Solomon Woods, Philip Verplanck, 

Andrew T. Schouten, Jacob Ward. 

By order of the Committee, 

Dirck G. Brinckerhofe, Chairman. 

Fishkill, August 23, 1775. 
Sir : — Enclosed is the return of the persons who have signed 
the Association, and of those who have refused. In the latter 
you find many erasures, occasioned by their signing afterwards. 
This affair has been delayed thus long, on account of pursuing 
lenient measures. 

I am, by order of the Committee, your most obedient servant, 

Dirck G. Brinckerhoff, Chairman. 

Signers in Beekman\s Precinct, Dutchess County, July, 1775. 

William Humfrey, John Forguson, 

Joshua Carmen, Henry Whikmon, 

Ebenezer Cary, Nuklus Omey, 

Charless Piatt, Walton Huling, 

William McNeal, John Huling, 

William Clark, Jacob Miller, 

Thomas Ley, William McDowell, 

Samuel Crandel, Thomas Cornell, 

Maurice Pleas, Isaac Dennis, 

Thomas Nethaway, James Humfrey, 

Benoni Sweet, Thomas Spencer, 

Nathaniel Stevenson, William Bently, Jr., 

Nathaniel Cary, Fr. West, 

Samuel Lewis, John Jenkins, 

Zebulon Rosa, Aholyab Markes, 

Samuel Gardiner, Arnold Reynolds, 

Martin Cornell, Amos Randall, 

Benjamin Noxon, John Wightman, 

Elial Youmans, Whiten Parkes, 



Jonathan Dennis, 
Gideon Hall, 
Jabez Spencer, 
John Eagles, 
John Sweet, 
James Wells, 
Job Shearman, 
Joseph Carr, 
Daniel Uhl, 
William Smith, 
Samuel Sweet, 
Peter Shear, 
Peter Shear, Jr., 
Roger Mory, Jr., 
Isaac Yerrington, 
Peter Storm, 
Josiah Ingersol, 
James Mc Lees, 
Nathaniel Wicks, 
John Weaver, 
Edward Howard, 
William Hall, 
Joseph Carr, 
Joshua Champlies, Jr., 
Isaac Vail, 
John Arnold, 
Job Tanner, 
Johannes Delong, 
Hezekiah Rogers, 
Ezekiel Rogers, 
Griffin Reynolds, 
Peter Brill, 
Samuel Cornwell, 
Josep Lawless, Jr., 
Peter McClus, 
John Hopim, 
Zephaniah Brown, 
Cornelius Van Wyck, 
Joshua Carman, Jr., 

John Melony, 
John Andrews, 
Charles Newton, 
Henry Bailey, 
Francis Losee, 
Daniel Smith, 
William Shear, 
William Champlin, 
Philip Vincent, 
John Vinton, 
Stephen Forgoson, 
Jonathan West, 
John Kelly, 
Benjamin Fargason, 
Joseph Reynolds, 
Maurice Smith, 
Joseph Taylor, 
Steven Johnson, 
James McCollom, 
Edward Weaver, 
Gershom Thorn 
Peter Harris, 
William Brewer, 
James M. Creedy, 
Abraham Hyatt, 
Gilbert Totten, 
Edward Tredwell, 
Elias Alley, 
Isaac Calton, 
Peter Harris, 
James Vosburgh, 
Jesse Oakley, 
Tillinghast Bentley, 
Peter Noxon, 
Thomas Doxsle, 
Henry Pearsall, 
Garret Mill, 
Johannes Lain, 
Henry Smith, 



Lodovick Sweet, 
George Sweet, 
David Storm, 
Salmag. Edwards, 
Stephen Townsend, 
Joshua Burch, 
David Brill, 
Nicholas Koons, 
Benjamin Birdsall, 
Christopher Wait, 
David Sweet, 
John Moon, 
Nicholas Potter, 
Judiah Jenkins, Jr., 
Jonathan Jenkins, 
Thomas Clark, 
John Hill, 
Andrew Cockrane, 
Timothy Force, 
Clear Everit, 
Ezekiel Smith, 
Benjamin J. Rish, 
Isaac J. Rish, 
Rowland Stafford, 
William Bentley, 
Tabor Bentley, 
Thomas Baker, 
William Spencer, 
John Bentley, 
Nial Tripp, 
Daniel Fish, 
Judiah J. Rish, 
Solomon Force, 
Benjamin Force, 
Seth Sprague, 
Benjamin Spencer, 
Samuel Whitman, 
Matthew Coon, 
Nathaniel Sweet, 

Casy Eldridge, Jr., 
Johannes Lossing, 
Samuel Tomson, 
Benjamin Hal), 
Abel Parker, 
James Tanner, 
Joshua Champlin, 
Benjamin Force, 
Abraham Denne, 
Joseph Denne, 
Richard Mackrill, 
Jacob Lain, 
John Beam, 
Henry Shear, 
Theophilus Sweet, 
John Wooley, 
William Tanor, 
Charles Heayelton, 
John Snider, 
Seth Smith, 
Jacob Esmond, 
John Sweet, 
Elisha Champlin, 
Joseph Holloway, 
Jacob Hutchins, Jr., 
John Oats, 
James Eastmond, 
Lewis Shear, 
Israel Vail, 
David Storm, 
Jonathan Jenkins, 
Gideon Hall, 
Ezekiel Hubbard, 
Joseph Booler, 
John Sweet, 
Joshua Mowry, 
Stephen Mowry, 
Cornelius Meynard, 
Tobias Clements, 



Nathaniel Rogers, 
Andrew Carman, 
Albert Adriance, 
James Wiltse, 
Samuel Young, 
Daniel Lawrence, 
William B. Alger, 
Job Green, 

William Humfrey, Jr., 
Joseph Carman, 
John Hegerman, 
George Losee, 
Johannes Acker, 
France Wiltse, 
Henry Cornell, 
Abel Simson, 
Zachariah Flagler, 
John Reasover, 
John Losee, 
William Kelley, 
William Barber, 
Nathaniel Smith, 
Caleb Townsend, 
Myndert Harris, 
Obadiah Cooper, Jr., 
John Hicks, 
Peter Leavens, 
Joel Edget, 
Peter Cartwright, 

George Croukhill, 
Jonathan Parks, 
John Fish, 
Woos Dakin, 
Digmus Kimee, 
John Comptor, 
John Lamb, 
Jacob Rouse, 
Elijah Forgason, 
Elijah Forgason, Jr., 
Job Conger, - 
David Pamer, 
David Abbet, 
Matthew Beckwith, 
Abraham Mosher, 
David Cash, 
Amos Crandell, 
Pardon Fish, 
Sylvanus Cash, 
Thomas Bullock, 
Henry Birdsall, 
Nathaniel Sol, 
Ebenezer Sol, 
David Brown, 
Samuel Euery, 
Addom Bockus, 
Nehemiah Lester, 
Jonathan Alger. 

The following are the names of those persons who refuse to 
sign the Association of Beekman's Precinct, Dutchess County : 

Arey Delong, Richard Tripp, 

James Gaslin, Richard Tripp, Jr., 

Peter Rossell, Israel Tripp, 

Jacob Hasver, James Noxon, 

Matthias Valentine, Barthol. Noxon, Jr., 

Richard Hcliker, Michel Woolf, 

William Harris, Smighling Tripp, 



Peter Hogoboom, 
Daniel Beadle, 
John Wilkenson, 
Christopher Mover, 
Myndert Valey, 
Henry Gidley, 
John McDonald, 
Samuel Smith, 
Martine Easterly, 
Daniel Ferris, 
James Burtice, 
Nathan Hyatt, 
Frederick Shapher, 
Thomas Brundage, 
Peter Levins, Sr., 
William Bocker, 
Baultis Veily, 
Bartholomew Wood. 
Abraham Byce, Jr., 
Peter Chatterton, 
Philip Miller, 
Lawrance Lossee, 
Israel Titus, 
John Brown, 
Robert Thorn, 
Stephen Lockwood, 
Peter Paley, 
Jonathan Thorn, 
Peter Dop, 
Peter Johnson, 
Johannes Miller, 
Jeremiah Leuderbeck, 
Philip Flagler, 
William Giles, 
Daniel Way, 
John Smith, 
Garret Burtis, 
Martine Overaker, 
Cornberry Dayton, 

Myndert Cole, 
Josiah Bull, Jr., 
Charles Thomas, 
Gilbert Thorn, 
John Akerbry, 
Cornelius Hegeman, 
Jonathan Atherton, 
William Woolf, 
Aaron Lasey, 
Crapo Lake, 
Francis Delong, 
John Burnit, 
Stephen Dean, 
Samuel Stringham, 
Ichabod Bourman, 
Sylvester Richmond, 
James Titus, 
Ephraim Horton, 
Edward Adams, 
Thomas Hutchings, 
Robert Moon, 
James Striker, 
Ebenezer Worden, 
Charles Vincent, 
William Sleeves, 
Thomas Langdon, 
Peter Buyce, Jr., 
Samuel Emory, 
Rowland Emory, 
Jacob Brill, 
Jeremiah Haxstum, 
Elias Palmer, 
Benjamin Kenyon, 
Nicholas Mosher, 
Richard Cornell, 
Peter Deeyo, 
James Pettet, 
William Gifford, Jr., 
Capt Yerry Emigh, 



Peter Simson, 
Lawrence Emigh 
Samuel Whipple, 
Isaac Veal, 
Philip Emigh, 
Nicholas Emigh, son of 

Hendrick Emigh, 
John Ball, 
Hendrick Klyn, 
John Dearstine, 
Abijah Ketcham, 
Michal Shearman, 
Amos Pine, 
Nathan Hoag, 
Peter Emigh, 
Richardus Cornell, 
Valentine Stover, 
Richard Vincent, 
Preserved Fish, 
Joseph Losee, 
Capt Joseph Harris, 

Signers in Poughkeepsie, 

Zepaniah Piatt, 
Peter Tappen, 
Samuel Dodge, 
William Forman, 
John Baily, Jr., 
Johannes Swartwort, 
Bicter Van Kleeck, 
John Freer, 
Henry Livingston, Jr., 
Elias V. Van Bunschoten, 
Robert North, 
Lewis Dubois, 
Andrew Billings, 
Peter Low, 

Lieut. Hey. Collins, 
Ensign Barnt Veily, 
Abraham Buyce, 
Causper Overhiser r 
William Gifford, 
Roger Morey, 
Samuel Crandle, 
Samuel Crandle, Jr., 
Peter Kedney, 
Oliver Waterman, 
Jesse Thorn, 
Jacob Ferguson, 
Johannes Shear, 
Charles Davis, 
Jasper Fullmore, 
Andrew Skidmore, 
John Colder, 
Capt. Michael Vincent 
Lieut. Peter Buyce, 
Ensign Steph. Hunt, 
Yerry Lossing. 

Dutchess County, June and July, 

Ezekial Cooper, 
John Schenck, Jr., 
Paul Schenck, 
Jacobus Freer, 
John Romyne, 
Andrew Wattles, 
Nathan Tray, 
Barent Lewis, 
Thomas Holmes, 
Jacob Van Bunschoten, 
Abraham Fort, 
Carel Hoefman, 
Henry Hoff, 
Gorus Storm, 



Thomas Jacockes, 
Barnardus Swartwort, 
Francis Jaycock, 
M. Van Keuren, 
Azariah Winchester, 
Henry Willsie, 
John Willsie, 
William Sawckes, 
Thomas Burnet, 
James Brisby 
Matthew Burnett, 
Gideon Boyse, 
Thomas Bont, 
William Lawson, Jr., 
Abr'm Van Keuren, 
John Saunders, 
John Briener. 
Hans Berner, ' 
Benjamin Jaycock, 4 
Thomas Rowse, 
Isaac Poole, 
Jonathan Johnson, 
Aaron Reed, 
John Pilgrit, 
Peter Lossing, 
Peter Horn, 
William Burnett, 
James Elderkin, 
John Waterman, 
Johannes Fort, 
Simon W. Lossing, 
Mat. Van Keuren, Jr., 
Silvanus Greatwaks, 
Samuel Smith, 
James Livingston, 
Richard Davis, 
Law. Van Kleek, 
John Mott, 
Richard V. Denbergh, 

Simon Freer. 
John Davis, 
Robert Noa, 
Isaah Bartly. 
John Schenck, Jr.. 
Hendrick Pells, 
Hendrick Pells, Jr., 
Johannes Kidney, 
Jacobus Schryver, 
Henry Hegeman, 
George Sands, 
Hobert Waddel, 
Myndert Van Kleek. 
Henry Ellis, 
Henry Van Blercome, 
Simon Leroy, 
Henry Kip, 
Benoni Kip, 
Abraham Banlay, 
M. Van Denbogart, 
Isaac Kornine, Jr., 
Alexander Grigs, 
Simon Bartley, 
Peter Tappen, 
Robert North, 
Ezekiel Cooper. 
William Terry, 
Alexander Haire, 
Thomas Poole, 
Tennis Tappen, 
Nathaniel Hemsted. 
George Brooks, 
Nathaniel Conklin. 
John Townsend, 
Andrew Billings, 
Samuel Corey 
John Tappen, 
Kenry Dodge, 
Jonas Kelly, 



Stephen Hendrickson, 
Nathaniel Ashford, 
Andrew Weeks, 
John Ter Bush, 
Cornelius Noble, 
James Brisleen, 
John Johnson, 
Abraham Pitt, 
Samuel Cooke, 
James Winans, 
John Seabury, 
William Forman, 
Henry Livingston, 
S. Van Voorhees, 
John Conkling, 
Matthew Conkling, 
Thomas Travis, 
Zachariah Burwell, 
Lemuel Howell, 
Abraham Swartwout, 
Richard Everitt, 
Matthias Sharp, 
John C. Hill, 
John T. Van Kleeck, 
Dorthir Conner, Jr., 
James Read, 
Richard Warner, 
William Kelly, 
James Lewis, 
George Shannan, 
Albo. Watervell, 
William Roach, 
Elias Freer, 
Leonard Van Kleeck, 
Richard Snedeker, 
F. Van Denbogart, 
Gerrit Van Wagenen, 
Jac. Van Kleeck, 
Henry Eliss, 

John Maxfield, 
L. J. Van Kleeck, 
Lewis Dubois, 
Jacobus Frear, 
John Reed, 
Jacob Rhoades, 
William Wilsey, 
Michel Yerry, 
Ephraim Adams, 
Tunis Hannes, 
Matthew Dubois, 
E. Van Bunscoten, 
Martin Bush, 
Hendrick Bush, 
James Luckey, 
Samuel Luckey, 
Abraham Ferden, 
Peter F. Valleau. 
Wilhelmus Ploegh, 
Geleyn Ackerman, 
Joel Dubois, 
Peter Mullin, 
Simon Leroy, Jr., 
David Dutcher, 
Peter Van Dewater, 
Edward Symmonds, 
Cornelius Viele, 
Eli Read, 
Peter Low, 
Larrine Lossing, Jr., 
John Dubois, 
Casparus Westervelt, 
Lodowick Sypher, 
Christian Bush, 
Silvanus Beckwith, 
Alex. Chaucer, 
Caleb Carmen, Jr., 
John Van Kleeck, 
John Seabury, Jr., 



Joshua Moss, 
S. Van Denburgh, 
Nathaniel Dubois, 
C. R. Westervelt, 
Cornelius Westervelt, 
Enyamen Westervelt, 
C. B. Westervet, 
Peter Andes Lansing, 
William Annely, 
William D. Lawson, 
John C. Ringland, 
Gerrit Van Vliet, 
Jeremiah Dubois, 
Jacob V. Denbergh, 
Peter Van Vliet, 

A list of men's names who 
ciation recommended by the 
Poughkeepsie, June and July, 
James Kelly, 
H. Van Denburgh, 
H. Van Denburgh, 
H. Van Denburgh, Jr.. 
Nathaniel Babcock, 
Felix Lewis, 
Austin Crud, 
Tunis Williamson, 
B. Noxen, 
B. Crannell, 
Melancton Lewis, 
Peter Dubois, Jr., 
John Ferdon, 
Zachary Ferdon, 
Jacob Ferdon, 
Esquire Ferdon. 
John Miller, 
Arie Medlar, 
William Lassing, 
Samuel Hull, 
Isaac J. Lassing. 

Robert Hoffman, 
William Jones, 
Jacob Low, 
Bernardus Swartwout, 
John L. Van Kleeck, 
Minnard Swartwout, 
John Swartwout, 
Frederick Van "Sfliet, 
John Robinson, 
John Bailey, Jr., 
Jac. Van Denbogart, 
Caleb Carmen, 
Jacob Ferris, 
Omar Ferris. 

refused to sign the General Asso- 
Provincial Convention, taken at 

Flemming Steenbergh, 

George Ame, 

Jonathan Morey, 

Samuel Pinckney, 

Myndert, Kidney, 

Jacobus Kidney, 

Jeremiah Dubois, 

Evert Pelts, 

Francs Pelts, 

Michel Pelts, 

Nehemiah Veal, 

Jacob Polmatier, 

Robert Kidney, 

Abraham Frair, 

Abraham Frair, Jr., 

Matthew Kipp, 

Simon Frair, Jr., 

John Bomen, 

Michael Wellding, 

John V. D. Bogart, 

Joseph Chaddirdon, 



John Hunt, 
James Latsing, 
Myndert Byndirs, 
Eli Emons, 
John Emons, 
John De Graff, 
Baltis Van Bleek, 
Matthew Kipp, 
James Wood, 
James Douglass, 
Aaron Olmstead, 
Henry Beyex, 
Eli Read, 
Ehenezer Badger, 
Peter P. Van Kleek, 
Gail Yelverton, 
John Palmitear, 
John Coopman, 
Thomas Freer, 
William Emott, 


Seth Case, Jr., 
Charles Graham, 
Benaniwell Denel, 
David Harvey, 
Seth Case, 
Thomas Merit, 
Icabod Case, 
James Hodges, 
John Bull, 
Stephen Trusdell, 
Benjamin Egelston, 
Jonathan Lawrence, 
Luther Holly, 
John Porter, 
Joshua Hamblin, 
Elisha Colver, 
Archibald Johnston, 

Michael John Rutsen, 
George Baldwin, 
Hendrick Miller, 
Henry Barnes, 
Robert Churchell, 
Isaac Baldwin, 
Isaac Baldwin, Jr., 
Elias Thompson, 
John Van Deburgh, 
H. J. Van Deburgh, 
Peter Van Deburgh, 
William Barns, 
Simon Noxen, 
John Low, 
William Low, 
Thomas Pinkney, 
Ezekiel Pinkney, 
John Pinkney, 
Henry Barns, 
Peter Laroy. 

Precinct, Dutchess County. 

Samuel Nooly, 
Simon Dakin, 
Ebenezer Hartwell, 
Josiah Holly, 
Seth Perry, 
David Lawrence, 
Ebenezer King, 
Abraham Hartwell, 
Gilbert Clapp, 
Joseph Rundel, 
Jeremiah Brownel, 
Uriah Lawrence, 
James Atwater, 
Philip Spencer, 
Joseph Peck, 
Samuel Roe, 
Stephen Merrilt, 



Alex. McMullin, Adam Stevens, 

John Buttolph, Thomas Knapp. 

A true return of the names of those that refused to sign, given 

by me. 

Uriah Lawrence, Peter Knapp, 

David Botolph, John Halley. 

Samuel Kie, 

Hugh Rea, 

Elisha Mead, 

Robert Orr, 

John Orr, 

Jehiel Mead, 

Joseph Loggan, 

William Smile, 

John Crandle, 

Hugh Orr, 

Daniel Wilson, 

Samuel Mott, 

Ebenezer Young, 

David Love, 

Daniel Parks, 

David Hamblen, 

Peter Knickerbacker, Sen 

L. Knickerbacker, 

P. Knickerbacker, Jr., 

J. Knickerbacker, 

Robert Wilson, 

James Wilson. Jr., 

John Wilson, 

John Carey, 

Gulman Alitzer, 

Matthew Orr, 

William Rea, 

Joseph Foster, 

Jesse Ferris, 

Wintrip Norton, 

Northeast Precinct, Dutchess County. 
Joseph Palmer, Jr., 

Johnynal Meton, 
James Headding, 
Silence Jackson, 
Seth Fish, 
Isaac Winan-. 
Jeremiah Giffers, 
James Wilson. Sen., 
Frederick Stickels. 
John Link, 
John Fulton, 
John Rouse, 
Edward Edsed, 
Benjamin Soule, 
John May, 
J. Salisbury, Sen., 
David Bostwick, 
William Parks, 
John Bortell, 
Stephen Edgaat, 
John Avery, 
George Edgeet, Jr., 
Jonathan Smith, 
John Horn, 
Samuel Crandell, 
William Robbins, 
Peleg Horten, 
Michal Masheld, 
Moses Fish, 
John Carpenter, 



Asahel Owemer, 
Elijah Lake, 
Barnt Van Kleek, 

A list of the persons that 

William Clum, 
Philip Clum, 
Jonathan Batreck, 
William Batreck, 
Jacob Loucks, Jr., 
Peter Allen, 
Isaac Allen, 
Jacob Drum, 
Zechri Tetr, 
Nicholas Row, 
John Hipman, 
John Drum, Jr., 
John Houk, 
John Row, 
John Row, 
Peter Row, 
John Kristr, 
George Miner, 
John Drum, 
Zechri Philips, 
John Backes, 
Yerre KefFr, 
Martis Kreepr, 
Frederick Destr, 
Jacob Row, 
Peter Bitchr, 
Adam Bitchr, 
Andres Houk, 
Peter Bosson, 
Honesfelt Shaw, 
Simon Killmore, Sen., 

Oliver Evans, 
Joseph Palmer. 

refused to sign this Association . 

Jacob Killmore, 
Wynat Weever, 
Honthise Couse, 
John Houghtaling, 
Jacob Hover, 
Andrew Collsou, 
John White, 
Joseyh Mott, 
William Green, 
Nehemiah Avery, 
Amos Avery, 
Michal Coloney, 
Daniel Mead, 
Elisha Davis, 
William Davis, 
William Davis, 
Peter Couse, 
Jacob Houghtaling, 
Zost Hendrick, 
Wise Row, 
Derick Fendick, 
Frederick Horn, 
Elijah Forgason, 
Jeremiah Forgason, 
Ruban Crandell, 
John Philips, 
Gerret Holsop, 
Frederick Stickle, 
John Link, 
Jacob Shaver. 

Dutchess County, Northeast Precinct, July 5, 1775. 
The foregoing is a true return of the names of the Inhabi- 


tants and Freeholders in the District allotted to us, that signed 
this Association, and the names of those that refused to sign this 

P. Knickererbacker, Daniel Wilson, 

Hugh Orr, J. Reisenberger, Jr. 

Dutchess County, Northeast Precinct. 

Ebenezer Bishop, Ebenezer Crane, Jr., 

Levi Stalker, Philip Lott, 

Cornelius Fuller, Charles Trupell, 

David Bulkley, Wheaton Robinson, 

Thomas Crosby, Ebenezer Merrit, 

Joseph Jackson, George Morhouse, 

David St. John, Levi Rawlee, 

Thomas Crosby, Jr., James Winchell, 

Renel Seton, Jonathan Grenell, 

Willard Seton, Joseph Stalker, 

Benjamin Crosby, Ebenezer Crane, 

John Seton, Thomas Townsend, 

Comfort Stalker, Benjamin Covey, 

Vincent Foster, James Coval, 

John Wilkie, Caleb Woodard. 

Dutchess County, Nine Partners, 
Northeast Precinct, July 5, 1775. 

The above and foregoing is a true return of the names that 

were willing to sign this Association ; and the names of those in 

the District that refused are on the other side of this Association 


Geo. Morhouse, per Sub-Committee. 

The li-t of Persons not signers : 

John McAlpine, Daniel McAlpine, 

Walter McAlpine, McQuin, a young man lately 

Darby Lindsey, from Scotland, 

Lewis Bryan, James Bryan. 

Dutchess County, Northeast Precinct. 

Silas Husted, Henry Wiltse, 

Morris Graham, Henry Sherburne, 




Gideon Salsbury, 
Augustin Graham, 
John Shirar, 
John Colvin, 
David Orr, 
John Colupland, 
John Hayes, 
Asa Bullock, 
William Orr, 
Daniel Palmer, 
Samuel Crandell, 
Samuel Crandell, 
John Row, 
John Brown, 
Israel Thompson, 
Richard Estes, 
John Burnet, 
John Sa, 
Samuel Couger, 
Orra Forgoson, 
John Catten, 
William Stewart, 
James Ralstan, 
John Head, 
Edward Senary, 
Lemuel Winchel, 
George Head, 
Bernard Ostrim, 
James Alit, 
John Melham, 
Benjamin Southard, 
Benjamin Cuthbert, 
J. Simmons, 
George Schneyder, 
Cornesa Dekmettac, 

Smith Simmons, 
Robert Enery, 
Cornelius Wels, 
Casper Rowe, 
Simon Gifford, 
Nathaniel Mead, 
Jonathan Mead, 
Kemuel Leed, 
Simon G. Myer, 
Lemuel Williams, 
John Crandell, 
Benjamin Congar, 
Cornelius McDanniel, 
John Crandell, 
Joseph Crandell, 
Phineas Rice, 
James Stephens, 
James Newcomb, 
Adonijah Newcomb, 
John Lennon, 
Samuel Miller, 
James Winchel, 
Andrew Quick, 
Aaron Darling, 
Isaac Lamb, 
Bostion Row, 
Wm. H. C. Deny, 
Claudius Delis, 
George Robertson, 
Caleb Norton, 
Asa Bishop, 
Ensley Simmons, 
Garner Stuart, 
John Williams, 
John Hoff. 



Northeast Precinct, Dutchess County, 
July 5, 1775. 

A true return of the names of the Inhabitants of the several 

Districts allotted to us to hand about this Association. 

William Stuart, Matthew Mead, 

J. Simmons, 

Frederic Ham. 

Nicholas Silvernail, 
George Hookingham, 
Oliver Astcn, 
Elisa Colvin, 
Nathaniel Niles, 
Abraham Osstrander. 
John Van Ramp, 
Jacob Brinstool, 
Thomas Gray, 
Henry Tcets, 
Asa Brown, 
Jacob Donehen, 
Tenes Teelen, 
Abraham Scouten, 
Coonrad Melham, 
Jacob Van Bramer, 
John Smith. 
Christopher Teal, 

persons who refused to sign : 
John Merrehew. 
Robert Embray, 
Philip Easter, 
John Pitchor, 
George Martin, 
George Shoemaker, 
Aaron Shaw, 
Daniel North, 
Casper Bell, 
Matthew Winter, 
John Wilde, 
Richard Wilde, 
William Wibs, 
Obadiah Gefford, 
William Stuart, 
J. Simmons, 
Nathaniel Meade. 

Dutchess County, 

Joseph Ketchum, 
Joseph Ketchum, Jr., 
Jonathan Mapes, 
Alden Ashley, 
Benjamin Perry, 
Josiah Perry, 
William II age r, 
Richard Denton, 
Samuel Egelston, Sr., 
Samuel Denton, 
Samuel Egelston, Jr., 

Northeast Precinct. 

Ephraim Jones, 
Seth Calkin, 
Hezekiah Ketchum, 
Moses Calkin, 
Joshua Hamblin, 
Joshua Dakin, 
Jonathan Dolph, 
Josias Denton, 
Arsthoe Vancry, 
Elijah Calkin, 
Jared Carter, 



Nathan Attwood, 
Isaac Rogers, 
Joseph Reynolds, Jr., 
Jonathan Close, 
Joseph Rogers, 
Abner Wilcox, 
Ebenezer Beatch, 

David Calkin, 
Charles Haw, 
Josiah Wilcox, 
Lebbens How, 
Daniel Baker, 
Nathaniel Lothrop. 

Northeast Precinct, Dutchess County, July 5, 1776. 
A true return of the names of the Inhabitants and the Free- 
holders in the Districts appointed for me to hand about this As- 

Joseph Ketchum. 

Dutchess County, Amenia 
Simeon Cook, 
Ichabod Paine, 
William Barker, 
Job Mead, 
Jonathan Shepherd, 
Elijah Holmes, 
Israel Shepherd, 
Abner Gillet, 
Jacob Power, 
Barnabas Paine, Jr., 
Noah Hopkins, 
Elias Besse, 
Ichabod Paine, Jr., 
Simeon Cook, Jr., 
James Hebbard, 
Samuel Shepherd, Jr., 
David Bruster, 
Elihu Paine, 
Asahel Sherwood, 
John Brusan, Jr., 
Elijah Daily, 
Thomas Cornwell, 
David Gillet, 
Ebenezer Mays, 

Precinct, June and July, 1775. 

David Rundel, 
Thorn Putney, 
Solomon Wheeler, 
Thomas Morey, 
James Palmer, 
Elijah Smith, 
Nehemiah Dunham, 
Gardner Gillet, 
Barnabas Paine, 
Joseph Backus, 
Elnathan Spalding, 
Levi Atwater, 
Benjamin Doty, 
Benjamin Atwater, 
Elijah Porter, 
John Atwater, 
Ezra Thurston, 
Archibald Farr, 
King Mead, 
Seth Wheeler, 
Robert Wood, 
Zadock Buck, 
Timothy Tilson, 
Jacob Spuer, 



John Osborne, 
John Mead, 
Crover Buel, -Jr., 
Barnabas Cole, 
Jonathan Allerton, 
James Barker, 
Noah Wheeler, 
Daniel Garnsey, 
Samuel King, Jr., 
Benjamin Brown, 
Matthew Stevens, 
William Finch, 
Joseph Smith, 
Thomas Lawrence, 
Ebenezer Carter, 
James Alswoith, Jr., 
Barzaleel Rudd, 
Rufus Herrick, 
Brinton Paine, 
Judah Burton, 
James Betts, 
Beniamin holmes, 
John McNeil, 
Samuel Herrick, 
Benjamin Herrick, Jr., 
William Herrick, 
John Curry, 
Shubal Tyler, 
Samuel Dodge, 
Thomas Welch, 
Stephen Herrick, Jr., 
Squire Davis, 
Abel Hebbard, 
Elisha Adams, 
Ebenezer Latimorc, 
Ichabod Holmes, 
Samuel Waters, 
Justus Wilson, 
Wm. Wynants, Jr. 

Benjamin Crofoot, 
Benjamin Denton, Jr., 
Joel Denton, 
Benjamin Denton, 
Jacob Reynolds, 
James Beadle, 
Benjamin Fowler, 
William Knapp, 
Abner Holmes, 
Nathan Herrick, 
Isaiah Mead, 
Theoph. Lockwood, 
Levi Mayhew, 
John Howard, 
William Ford, 
Jesse Kinne, 
Daniel Shepherd, 
Roswell Hopkins, 
Samuel King, 
Abraham Paine, 
John Brunson, 
Jonathan Buck, 
David Collin, 
Zebulon Rudd, 
Peter Morse, 
Paul Johnson, 
Nathan Spuer, 
Israel Buck, 
John Thayer, 
Joseph De Lavergue, 
Even Jones, 
Joab Cook, 
Jesse Smith, Jr., 
Enock Crosby, 
John Mordach, 
Ebenezer park, 
William King, 
Grover Bull, 
Isaac Parks, 



Parrock Sherwood, 
William Com well, 
Samuel Cornwell, 
Lewis De Lavergue, 
Thomas Smith, 
Gabriel Dickson, 
Timothy Green, 
John Holms, 
Ezekiel Johnson, 
William Alsworth, 
John Denney, Jr., 
William Wilsey, 
John Bartow, 
Elijah Roe, 
Isaac Marks, 
James Barnet, 
Gideon Castte, 
Nathaniel Cook, 
Benjamin Vaun, 
Samuel Holmes, 
Stephen Hinne, 
Jabez Crippin, 
Lawrence Wiltse, 
Joseph Fowler, 
John Denton, 
Abraham Adams, 
Isaac Burton, 
Daniel Blaksly, 
Robert Wilson, 
Joel Ketchum, 
Ebenezer Kinne, 
Richard Brush, 
Benjamin Herrick, 
Edmond Perlee, 
William Blunt, 
Monmouth Purdy, 
Jacob Elliot, 
Stephen Reynolds, 
Joshua Talcut, 

Ezra Cleavland, 

Samuel Thompson, 

John Coy, 

Stephen Herrick, 

James Smith, Jr., 

Beriah Thomas, 

Isaac Burton, Jr., 

Mayhew Dogget, Jr., 

Nathaniel Foster, 

John Drake, 

David Brown, 

William Moulton, 

Ezra Bryan, 

James Allen, 

Eli Burton, 

Sam'l Thompson, Jr., 

John Ford, 

John Thurston, 

William McCollough, 

Jonathan Fish, 
John Farr, 
John Douglass, 
Joest Power, 
Elijah Wood, 
Reuben Wilson, 
Daniel May, 
Moses Harris, Jr., 
William Reynolds, 
John Barnet, Jr, 
James Ford, 
John Jones, 
William Adams, 
Ephraim Ford, 
Abraham Adams, Jr., 
Weight Milleman, 
Daniel Davison, 
James Dickson, 
Elisha Latimore, 
John Collins, 


John Benedict, David Waters, 

Versal Dickinson, Lemuel Brush, 

William Brush, Jason Hammond, 

Piatt Smith, David Trusdel, 

Josiah Webb, Job Milk, 

Sylvester Handley, Adin Tubbs, 

Elijah Kinne, Jared Rundel, 

Samuel Benedict, Joel H. Thurston. 
John Barnet, 

I do agree to the above Association, so far that it doth not 
interfere with the oath of my office, nor my allegiance to the 
King. Isaac Smith. 

Not to infringe on my oaths. 

Abraham Becker. 

June 8, 1775. 
This may certify, to all people whom it may concern, that I, 
the subscriber, am willing to do what is just and right to secure 
the privileges of America, both civil and sacred, and to follow 
the advice of our reverend Congress, so far as they do the word 
of God and the example of Jesus Christ ; and I hope in the grace 
of God., no more will be required. As witness my hand : 

John Garnsey. 

The following persons (three Tories) have neglected to sign 
the Association : Joel Harvey, Jun., Philip Rowe ; John Garnsey 
has signed the paper annexed. Roswell Hopkins, 

Amenia, July 12, 1775. 

Gentlemen : Agreeable to your request, I have procured the 
persons within mentioned to subscribe the Association, together 
with Mr. Samuel King and Mr. Silas Marsh, all in Amenia Pre- 
cinct, in Dutchess County. The two lists of Mr. Marsh and this 
have four hundred and twenty signers, and six have delayed or 
refused. I am, Gentlemen, yours, &c, 

Roswell Hopkins. 

Dutchess County, Amenia Precinct. 



Abraham Slocum, 
John Mead, 
John Freeman, 
Joel Washburn, 
Nathan Gates, 
Thomas Thomas, 
John Seymour, 
Stephen Warren, 
Eleazer Gilson, 
James Mead, 
Alexander Hewson, 
Jared Brace, 
Eliakim Reed, Jr., 
Samuel Dunham, 
John Torner, 
Martin De Lemetter, 
Joseph Doty, 
Samuel Sniter, 
Samuel Jarvis, 
Lot Levitt, 
John Boyd, 
Matthew Vandeusen, 
Nathaniel Swift, 
Eleazer Morton, 
Isaac Osburn, 
Jonathan Hunter, 
Samuel Swift, 
Ashbel Winegar, 
Reuben Doty, 
William Hunt, 
Nicholas Row, 
Samuel Gray, 
Simeon Reed, 
Samuel Southworth, 
Elisha Hollifler, 
Benjamin Maxam, 
Moses Gillett, 
Lemuel Shirtliff, 
Abial Mott, 

Samuel West, 
John Cline, 
Jehea Rogers, 
Robert Freeman, 
Joseph Penoyer, 
Samuel Johnson, 
Jeduthan Gray, 
Johabod Rogers, Jr., 
Elijah Freeman, 
Peter Shavelean, 
Joseph Doty, 
Richard Shavelean, 
Solomon Shavelean, 
Benjamin Crippin, 
David Payne, 
Heth Kelly, 
Nathaniel Pinney, 
Ebenezer Bosse, 
Joseph Gray, 
Josiah Marsh, 
Samuel Palmer, 
Obadiah Matthews, 
Daniel Sage, 
James Chapman, 
Daniel Harvey, 
Thad. Maning, 
Amos Penoyer, 
Joseph Gillet, 
James B. Rowe, 
Abner Shabalier, 
Jonas Adams, 
Thomas Aily, 
David Randle, 
Benjamin Sage, 
Moses Brown. 
John Scott, 
Gerardus Gates, 
Elkanah Stephens, 
John Mears, 



Andrew Stephens, 
Josiah Cleavland, 
John Connor, 
Richard Larrabe, 
Zedekiah Brown, 
Henry Barnes, 
Jonah Barnes, 
Benjamin Johns, 
Ebenezer Larrabe, 
Ezra St. John, 
Obed Harvey, 
Robert Patrick, 
Isaac De Lemetter, 
Thiel Lamb, 
Benjamin Delano, 
Daniel Webster, 
Samuel Judson, 
William Mitchell, 
Henry Winegar, 
William Young, 
John Barry, 
James Reed, 
John Chamberlain, 
Colbe Chamberlain, 
Ezra Reed, 
Dan. Barry, 
David Doty, 
John Sackett, 
Garret Winegar, 
Walter Lothrop, 
Ezekiel Sackett, 
Increase Child, 
Elisha Barlow, 
Corns. Atherton, 
Reuben Doty, 
Sylvanus Nye, 
Edmund Bramhall, 
Elijah Reed, 
Stephen Delano, 


Gershom Reed, 
Moses Barlow, 
Solomon Armstrong, 
Thomas Ganong, 
Elihu Beard, Jr., 
Nathan Palmer, 
John De Lemetter, 
William Chamberlain, 
Nathan Barlow, 
Simeon Hellsy, 
Zadock Knapp, 
Benjamin Hollister, 
John Sackett, Jr., 
Robert Hebard, 
Joshua Losel, 
John Marchant, 
Daniel Castle, 
Abraham French, 
Seelye Trowbridge, 
Asa Foot, 
Barnabas Gillet, 
Elijah Smith, 
John Lloyd, 
Epraim Besse, 
Robert Johnson, 
Jonathan Pike, 
Gilbert Willett, 
Thomas Mygatt, 
Obed Harvey, Jr., 
Silas Roe, 
Nathaniel Gates, 
Seth Dunham, 
Caleb Dakin, 
George Sornburgh, 
Frederick Sornburgh, 
Isaac Darrow, 
Joseph Adams, 
Conrad Winegar, 
Levi Orten, 


William Hall, Isaac Lamb, 

Robert Freehart, Elias Shavilier, 

Peter Klyn, Silas Marsh, 

Ledyard J. Charts, Bower Slason. 

Sir : — In pursuance of your order, I have procured the above 

subscribers (true Whigs), and am, Sir, with great respect, your 

very humble servant, Silas Marsh. 

Joseph Green, John Dunham, 

Simon Whitcomb, Richard Sackett, 

William Roberts, Stephen Gates, 

Albert Finch, Daniel Washburn, 

Joseph Benson, Jacob Dorman, 

Garret Row, Seth Swift, 

Nathan Barlow, Ellis Briggs, 

Abell Marchant, Samuel Heart, 

Rufus Seeton, Elisha Mays, 

Henry Winegar, Joseph Williams, 

Dier Woodworth, Silas Reed, 

John Benson, Richard Hamilton, 

Samuel Winegar, Judah Swift, 

Daniel Lamb, Samuel Dunham, Sr., 

John Gates, Peter Slason. 
Edward Bump, 

The black roll of Tories. Though out of my limits, I am 

compelled to remind you, Gentlemen, of James Smith, Esq., who 
is notoriously wicked. 

Signers in Rhinebeck Precinct, Dutchess County. 

Petrus Ten Broeck, David Van Ness, 

P. G. Livingston, Egbert Benson, 

George Sheldon, Jacob Hermanse, 

William Beam, Andrias Hermanse, 

John Van Ness, Peter Hermanse, 

Herman Hoffman, Zach. Hoffman, Jr., 

Ananias Cooper, Martine Hoffman, 



Zacharias Hoffman, 
Abraham Cole, 
James Everett, 
William Bitcher, Jr., 
Jacob More, Jr., 
Christian Mohr, 
Lodowick Ensell, 
Samuel Green, 
Peter Traver, 
Andrew Simon, 
Jacob Fisher, 
Samuel Elmendorph, 
Zacharias Backer, 
Johannes Hannule, 
Johannes Richter, 
Levi Jones, 
Isaac Cole, 
Hendrick Miller, 
Simon Cool, Jr., 
Frederic Weir, 
John Banks, 
H. I. Knickerbacker, 
William Tuttle, 
Stephen Sears, 
Joseph Houlsworth, 
Jacob Thomas, 
Philip Feller, 
Harmen Whitbeck, 
Evert Vosburgh, 
John Moore, 
Philip J. Moore, 
Nicholas Hoffman, 
John Williams, 
Joseph Lenercree, 
Jacob Vosburg, 
James Doglas, 
John Garrison, 
Nicholas Hermanse, 

Philip Bonasteal, 
Simon S. Cole, 
Andres Michel, 
John Lewis, 
Christeaun Miller, 
William Klum, 
Johannes Miller, 
Thomas Lewis, 
Hendrick Livey, 
Everhart Rydders, 
Henry Kuneke, 
George Sperling, 
Elias Hinneon, 
Samuel Haines, 
Peter Ledewyck, 
Jacob Elemendorph, 
Jan Elemendorph, 
Patt. Hogan, 
Evert Hermanse, 
John Cole, 
Petrus Bitcher, 
Zacharias Roob, 
John Balist, 
Helmes Heermanse, 
Cornelius Elmendorph, 
Philip Staats, 
John Staats, 
Peter Staats, 
Isaac Beringer, Jr., 
William Waldorn, 
Frederick Benner, 
John Hermanse, 
Stoffle Waldorn, 
Johannes Benner, 
George Sharpe, 
Christeaun Backer, 
Petrus Backer, 
Johannes Backer, 
Coenradt Lescher, 



Michael Sheffel, 
Goetlieb Mardin, 
Hendrick Mardin, 
David Martin, 
Cornelius Swart, 
James Adams, 
Daniel Oeden, 
Jacob Schermerhorn, 
Cornelius Schermorn, 
Reyer Heermans, 
Jacob Heermans, 
William Bitcher, 
Wilhelmus Bitcher, 
John Hermanse, 
Godfrey Gay, 
Hendrick Teter, Jr., 
Abraham Teter, 
Johannes Smith, 
Jacob Meyer, 
Edward Wheeler, 
Peter Hoffman, 
William Beringer,. 
Conrad Beringer, 
Henry Klum, Jr., 
C. Oosterhoudt, 
Benjamin Myers, 
John Oosterhoudt, 
Peter Cole, 
Simon Kool, 
Jacob Maul, 
Everardus Booardee. 
Simon Westfall, 
Jacob Tremper, 
William Radclift, 
H. Waldorph, Jr., 
Henrich Benner, 
Jacob Moul, Sen., 
Benj. Van Steenburgh, 
Johannes Van Keuren, 

Tobyes Van Keuren r 
John Klum, 
Godfrey Hendrick, 
Jacob Beringer, 
Joseph Younck, 
Christian Fero, 
Reyer Schermerhorn, 
Wilhelmus Smith r 
Frederick Moul, 
George Reystorf, 
William Harrison, 
Christoff Schneyd, 
Christopher Fitch, 
John Schermerhorn, 
Henry Waterman, Jr., 
Jacob Waterman, 
Henry Litmer, 
John Mares, 
Isaac Mares, 
James Ostrander, 
Christopher Wever,. 
Peter Westfall, Jr. r 
Henry Gisselberght, 
John Bender, 
Zacharias Whiteman, 
Joseph Hobart, 
William Schultzs, 
John Blair, 
Thomas Greves, 
Michal Schatzel,. 
Joseph Rogers, 
Benjamin Bogardus, 
Hans Kierstead, 
Isaac Kipp, 
Jacob J. Kipp, 
Henry Beekman, 
Ever^V. Wagenen, 
Art. V. Wagenen, 
Philip Hermanse r 



W. Van Vredenburgh, 
Jacob Kip, 
Jacob A. Kip, 
John Tremper, 
Henry Shop, 
Peter Shopf, 
Hendrick Moon, 
Herick Berrger, 
Johannes Turck, 
John White, Jr., 
John Cowles, 
Herman Duncan, 
John Denness, 
William Waldrom, 
Cornelius Demond, 
S. V. Bunscoten, 
B. Van Vredenburgh, 
Peter Scoot, 
Jonathan Scoot, 
John Mitchell, 
David Mulford, 
Lemuel Mnlford, 
James Lewis, 
Peter D. Witt, 
John Pawling, 
Olbarlus Sickner, 
Andrew Rowan, 
Martincs Burger, 
Johannes Scott, 
Jacob Sickner, Jr., 
Barent V. W genen, 
Jacob Sickner, 
J. Van Aken, 
Peter Van Nauker, 
Jacob N. Schriver, 
Paul Gruber, 
Solomon Powell, 
Henry Bull, 
Gaorge Bull, 

William Powell, 
Caspar Haberlen, 
Thomas Umphry, 
Abraham Scott 
William Troophage, 
Alexander Campbell, 
Abraham Kip, 
Peter Brown, 
Jacob Schultz, 
John Hufman, 
Henry Freligh,' Jr., 
R. Vhoevanburgh, 
Peter Radclif, 
Simon Schoot, Jr., 
William Schoot, Jr., 
Jacob Lewis, 
Jacobus Kip, 
William Skepmus, 
Johannes P. V. Mood, 
William Dillman, 
Cornelius Miller, 
Simon Millham, 
Lawrence Millham, 
Jacob Milham, 
Simon Milham, 
John Weaver, Jr., 
Benj. Oosterhoudt, 
Christ. Deninarh, 
Abraham Westfall, 
John McFort, 
William Carney, 
Philip Feller, Jr., 
Nicholas Binestale, 
Philip Binestale, Jr., 
C. Wenneberger, 
Johannes Benner, 
Jacob Benner, 
Jacob Folant, 
John Rogers, 

12 4 



Nicholas Stickle, 

Jacob Tell, 

John Sater, 

John Haass, 

William V. Prudenburgh r 

Rurif J. Kip, 

P. Van Pradenburgh, 

Dutchess County, Rhinebeck Precinct. 
A return of the names of such persons as have refused to sigrc 
the general Association. Egbert Benson 

Chairman of the Precinct Committee _ 

Henry Burges, Jr. r 
Ulriah Bates, 
William McClure T 
Joshua Chember, 
Zach. Neer, 
Nicholas Stickle, Jr., 

Mordecai Lester, 
Peter Prosses, 
Timothy Doughty,. 
Adam Tibbie, 
Jacob Tibbie, 
Lodowick Streght, 
Peter Em. Schryver, 
P5Wr Freligh, 
Steophanus Freligh, 
Adam Ecker, 
Peter Ecker T 
Johannes Ecker, 
Adam Jury Ecker r 
J. Van Vradenburgh, 
Jacob Van Esten, 
Zebulon Hallick, 
Adam Burgh, 
Mfchael Bruce, 
George Stover, 
George Anderson, 
Zacharias Cramer, 
Johannes Cramer, 
Johan. Van Esten, Jr., 
Stephanus Burger, 
Christian Bargh, 
Christian Bargh, Jr., 
John Hallock, 

Christian Bruce, 
Peter Frusam, 
Hendk. A. Schryver, 
Marthen Schryvdr, 
Marthynes Schryver, 
T. Van Benschoten, 
E. Van Benschoten, 
Egbert Bunchoten, 
Harmanus Bunchoteny 
John Carnell, 
John Sickner, 
B. V. Vradenburgh, Jr. r 
Henry Pawling, 
John Schryver, 
David Schryver, 
John Brown, 
Hendk. Ecker, Jr., 
Jacob Chafer, 
John Holmes, 
Philip Pinek, 
John Pinek, 
Philip Pinek, Jr., 
Jacob Elen, 
Henry Wederwaks, 
Abraham WederwakB; 
Philip Loune, 
Bashan Loune r 



Anderis Loune, 

George Lament, 

Jacob Loune, 

John Wels, Jr., 

Benjamin Westfall, 

Benjamin Wels, 

John Dericks, 

Jacob Hendericks, Jr., 

John Bander, Jr., 

John Tile, 

Joest Schever, 

Frederick Schever, 

Henry Schever, 

Anthony Strant, 

Benj. Stienburgh, Jr., 

Hendrick Meyer, 

Tunis Boutcher, 

Conradt Polver, 

Casper Boutcher, 

Jacob Yager, 

Juery Hoffman, 

Nicholas Hoffman, 

Johan. Righpenbergh, 

Petrus Righpenbergh, 

Andris Luych, 
Zacharias Drom, 
Hendrick Heermans, 
Jacobus Kip, 
Johan Van Wagoner, 
Barent Van Wagoner, 
Matthew Van Etter, 
Cobus Van Etter, 
Isaac Van Etter, 
Hendrick Pelts, 
Lodowick Elshaver, 
Peter Nile, 
Coenradt Bammas, 
Martha Teel, 
Lawrence Teel, Jr., 

Johannes Fraver, 

Peter Fradenburgh, 

Hans Zipperly, 

Jose Neer, 

David town, 

Johannes Lown, Jr., 

Jacob Seeman, 

John Seeman, 

Jacob Seeman, Jr., 

David Seeman, Jr., 

Jeremiah Saeman, Jr., 

Petrus Fero, 

Martin Threecarter, 

Bastian Witterwax, 

Hendrick Shook, 
Christian Shook, 

Cobus Shook, 

George Shook, 

Peter Freligh, 
Michael Seeman, 
Abraham Seeman, 
Jacob Cole, 

Jacob Miller, 
John J. Cole, 
Jacob Shomaker, 
George Bennet, 
Johannes Sager, 
Christian Dederick, 
Michael Puis, 
David Puis, 
Christuffal Puis, 
Daniel Puis, 
George Puis, 
Michael Puis, 
Bashan Wagor, 
Powlis Wagor, 
John Marguet, 
Johannes Barker, 
Martner Barker, 



Lawrence Barker, 
George Marguet, 
Peter Prough, 
Powlis Prough, 
Adam Asher, 
John Asher, 
Gcrrit Dedrick, 
Jacob Kisel Bargh, 
John Kip, 
Benj. Van Ellen, 
Jacobus B. Van Etten, 
Jacobus Van Etten, 
Jacobus J. Van Etten, 
Abraham Van Etten, 
Benj. Van Etten, Jr., 
John Van Etten, 
Jacob Van Ellen, 
Philip Traver, 
Bastian Traver, 
Peter Traver, 
John Traver, 
Jacobus Vradenburgh, 
Jacs. Vradenburgh, Jr., 
Christopher Ring, 
George Ring, 
Johannes Ring, 
David Ring, 
Peter Westfall, 
John V. Steenburgh, 
Gradus Lewis, 
John B. Kip, 
Hugh Landen, 
John Kcttyman, 
Christian Shults, 
John Shults, 
Henry Ri chart, 
Dowie Richart, 
Philip Richart, 
Johannes Richart, 

William Wallace, 
Henry Wallace, 
Francis Nehis, 
Charles Nehis, 
Francis Nehis, Jr., 
Peter H. Traver, 
John H. Traver, 
Frederick Traver, 
Jacob Traver, 
Abraham Kip, 
Peter Scriver, 
Peter Kip, 
Henry Lewis, 
Jacob Kehler, 
John G. Miller, 
William Mackay, 
Thomas Briant, 
Jacob Smith, 
John Tennis, 
William Waldrom, 
B. Van Benthysen, 
Johannes Rysdorf, 
Jacob S. Kip, 
Cornelius Fynhout, 
Corns. Fynhout, Jr., 
Petrus Rysdorf, 
Lawrence Rysdorf, 
Arent Kipp, 
Jacobus Kip, Jr., 
Peter Elkenbergh, 
Jacop Evans, 
David Shaver, 
Jacob Lown, 
Peter Van Alen, 
Petrus Cram, 
Adam Shever, 
Jury A. Shufelt, 
William Fuller, 
Lawrence Shewfelt, 



Petrus Shewfelt, 
Adam Shewfelt, 
John Allemten, 
John F. Allemten, 

Frederick Slays, 
P. Van Benthuysen, Sr, 
J. Van Benthuysen, 
Phil. S. Livingston. 

Dutchess County, June and July, 1775. 

Henry Sherburne, 
Jonathan Lewis, 
John Hibbird, 
Theophilus Wadleigh, 
Timothy Soaper, 
Samuel Smith, 
Daniel Soule, 
Jacob Lesh, 
Benjamin Atwater. 
Titus -Mead, 
David Robbins, 
John Robbins, 
Peter Smith, 
Jesse Cornell, 
Absolom Trowbridge. 
Jeremiah Shaw, 
Stephen Atwater, 
Joseph Crary, 
Isaac Smith, 
Thomas Hill, 
Peter Van Deursen, 
Moses Golph, 
Ezekiel Kie, 
Ira Winans, 
Lambert Morey, 
Peter Smith, Jr., 
Nathan Lounsbury, 
Epentus Lounsbury. 
Andus Stickel, 
Christian CambeJ, 
Cornelius Viller, 
John Schermerhorn, 

B. Knickerbacker. Jr., 
Peter Van Leuven, 
Caleb Reynolds, 
David Fisk, 
Obadiah Holmes, 
John Knickerbacker, 
Petrus Hommel, 
Benj. Knickerbacker, 
Caleb Force, 
Richard Gray, 
Eliphalet Piatt, 
Isaac Wood, 
Phineas Rice, Jr., 
Isaac Young, 
James Young, 
Jacob Werner, 
Samuel Mabbitt, 
Israel Green, Jr., 
Benjamin Terbush, 
Gabriel Dowzenbery, 
Wilhelm Finche, 
Benjamin Crandle, 
William Smith, 
Motise Wilse, 
John Stuart, 
Adam Snider, 
William Mansfield, 
Michael Row, Jr., 
Philip Smith. 
John Parkinson, 
James Neeson. 



July 5, 1775. 
We, the subscribers, being duly chosen as a Sub-Committee, 
to return the names of all persons who have signed the above 
Association ; and likewise the persons who did not sign, on the 

Charles Graham, 
Henry Sherburne. 
A list of the Persons not signers. 

John Geo. Kerrick, 
Hontice Smith, Sr., 
Hontice Smith, Jr.. 
Nicholas Smith, 
Leonard Smith, 
Jonathan Griffin, 
Jonathan Devall, 
Tice Wisey, 
Benjamin Willbor, 
William Merrifield, 
Jacob Melions, Jr., 
Motise Rowe, 
Daniel McConalep, 
William Melions, 
Lockland Mcintosh, 
Alexander Mcintosh, 
William Mcintosh, 
Andrus Pulvin, 
William Rector, 
Valentine Emert, 
Hendk. Younklion, 

John Stickel, 
John Bearry, 
Mical Simons, 
Jacob Luke, 
Cornelius Clark, 
Vandil Pulvin, 
John Pulvin, 
Hendrick Cufin, 
Peter Pulvin, 
Hendrick Hoofman, 
Philip Snider, 
Benj. Vanleuvan, 
Isaac Vanleuvan, 
John Weaver, 
Harry Weaver, 
Hendrick Row, 
Giles Weaver, 
Michael Smith, 
Mical Row, Sr., 
John Peter Row, 
Tuce Smith. 

We, the subscribers, inhabitants of the Colony of New York, 
do most solemnly declare, that the claims of the British Parlia- 
ment to bind, at their discretion, the people of the United Colo- 
nies in America in all cases whatsoever are, in our opinions, 
absurd, unjust, and tyrannical ; and that the hostile attempts of 
their fleets and armies to enforce submission to those wicked and 
ridiculous claims ought to be resisted by arms. And therefore 
we do engage and associate, under all the ties which we respec- 
tively hold sacred, to defend by arms these United Colonies 
against the said hostile attempts, agreeable to all such laws or 



regulations as our representatives in the Congress, or future 
General Assemblies of this Colony, have or shall, for the pur- 
pose, make and establish. 

Samuel Whitten. 

The names of those who refuse to sign the Association in 
Charlotte Precinct, are : 

Peter Hatfield, 
Jabez Fineh, 
Edward Undrel, 
Daniel Sales, 
Stephen Hix, 
Henry Weeks, 
Hendrick Bue, 
John Watson, 
Edward Mosher, 
Matthias Brogue, 

Eliphaz Fish, 
Joseph Husted, 
Richard Simmons, 
Jonathan Lapham, 
Barnard Hix, 
Samuel Titus, 
Richard Bartlett, 
Samuel Mosher, 
Ichabod White, 
Uriah Hall. 


This town by the Act of March 7th, 1788, entitled 
" an Act for dividing the counties of this State into 
Towns," is described as follows : "And all that part 
of the county of Dutchess, bounded southerly by the 
county of Westchester, westerly by Hudson's River, 
northerly by the north bounds of the Lands granted to 
Adolph Philipse, Esq., and easterly by the Long-Lot, 
number four, formerly belonging to Beverly Robison, 
shall be, and hereby is erected into a town, by the 
name of Philipstown." Originally it embraced more 
than one-third of the county, but has since been 
diminished by the erection of the town of Putnam 
Valley in 1839. Its central distance from the city of 
New York, is about fifty-six miles, and from Albany, 
ninety-four miles. Its present boundaries are as fol- 
lows : On the north, by the south line of Dutchess 
county ; on the east, by the west and north lines of 
Kent and Putnam valley ; on the south, by the north 
line of Westchester ; and on the west, extending the 
whole length of Putnam, by the Hudson river. Its 
face is broken by hills and mountains, presenting a 
rough, rugged, and forbidding aspect. Not more than 
one-fifth of it is under cultivation, and not more than 
one-third could be made productive, by the most 
lavish expenditure, of moneys, to the agriculturist. 
Let it not be supposed by the reader that it is, 


therefore, altogether valueless, although the plough of 
the husbandman would in vain, and to little profit, be 
held in its bosom. It contains those materials that 
are worth more to its owners, than if it was suscep- 
tible of the highest agricultural improvement. It is 
covered with timber, valuable for ship building and 
other purposes ; and, perhaps, from no other township 
between Albany and New York, for its size, is so 
great a quantity of wood and timber carried to 
market. The stone quarries and mineral productions 
scattered in every direction over its surface, yield a 
large profit, without any expenditure to the owners of 
those locations. The burning of charcoal is a profi- 
table pursuit to those engaged in it. The writer has 
been informed by a farmer owning about 200 acres 
of land In this town, one-half of which is unfit for 
cultivation, that during the last year he has realized, 
from the burning and sale of charcoal alone, $1000 
over and above all expenses attending the same. 

Although the mountainous and rocky surface of this 
town will always present an impediment to an ex- 
tended culture, yet its slopes and valleys in the west- 
ern part, near the Hudson, are in a good state of cul- 
tivation ;. " and the agriculturist, although he has to 
labor hard, receives a good return. There are but 
few men of wealth here, but the inhabitants seem 
to be in possession of the necessities, if not the com- 
forts of life." 

This town, with those now forming the county, as 

we have before stated, was comprised in the patent 

granted to Adolph Philipse, by the King of England, 

and the land let out to those who would come and 

settle on it, paying no rent for a few years, except the 


taxes. The tenants, according to the custom of early- 
times, came under the operation of the feudal system, 
modified, as it had been, by time and that peculiar 
state of things incident to the settlement of a new 
and distant country. In most instances they were 
tenants-at-will ; in others for life, or for a certain 
term of years. This system has exerted its legitimate 
influence in this town in retarding its agricultural 

Improvement, at first, proceeded very slowly. No- 
thing short of actual ownership of land, requiring 
such large outlays of labor and expense, would stimu- 
late the early settlers to an energetic and extended 
culture. The tenure by which they held was too un- 
certain to beget that desire for permanent improve- 
ment which stimulates the husbandman when he is 
sure that the profits of his labor and toil are secure to 
himself and family. This state of things no longer 
exists ; and nearly all of the land fit for cultivation is 
now owned by industrious, enterprising men, who 
have purchased it from the original proprietor, or his 
descendants. The best farms are found in Pleasant 
Valley ; a vale extending from the Westchester line 
on the south, to Dutchess on the north, having an 
average breadth of one mile. It skirts the Hudson 
until it reaches the village of Cold Spring, then devi- 
ates a little to the east, between Bull hill, Breakneck, 
St. Anthony's Face peaks, on the west, and the cen- 
tral Highlands on the east. 




We shall treat of the early settlement of these towns 
together,fas they were originally one ; the latter being 
erected from the former, March 14, 1839. To us such 
a course seems not only necessary but proper, as the 
latter has no early history, independent of the former. 

With regard to the early settlement of the towns, 
we have met with more difficulty than with any other 
article contained in our paper. The aged people are 
few, whose memories enable them to give dates, 
with ^ny degree of accuracy, except in a very few 

A generation has passed away, who, twenty-five 
years ago, could have furnished exact chronological 
information of a very valuable character ; but the 
golden period for collecting it has passed, and we 
must be content with the imperfect sources that are 
still left. 

The Old Highland Church and Vicinity. — The 
first settlement in this part of Philipstown, was made 
by David Hustis, who came from England and set- 
tled about half a mile north of the Highland Church — 
on the road from Cold Spring to Fishkill, and where 
David Hustis, Esq., now living, resides — in 1730. 

He settled down with the Indians -around him, and 
procured the corn, which he first planted, from them. 
They had about the fourth of an acre under cultiva- 
tion, the year before, on the east side of the road, a 
few rods south of the house where the present David 
now lives. He was the first of the name, and the an- 
cester of the Hustis family, in this town. He became 


a tenant-at-will, of the patentee, and rented 310 acres 
of land, for which he paid a yearly rent of five 
pounds, or $24, 10. He afterwards occupied 90 acres 
more wesl of the first tract, all of which he afterwards 
purchased. His nearest neighbor was three miles dis- 
tant, to whom he was compelled to go, a few days 
after his arrival, to procure fire ; his own, from neg- 
lect, having gone out. 

A short time afterwards, the Haights, Bloomers, and 
Wilsons, came and settled in the vicinity. At the 
Highland Church, one Anderson built a house on the 
site now occupied by the house of S. Birdsall, in which 
Thomas Davenport, Esq., now resides. A man 6T the 
name of Lamoreaux settled there about the same time. 
Anderson was of Dutch descent, and Lamoreaux, 
French. Both removed before the Revolution. Ben- 
jamin Bloomer was the next settler, who, with one 
Bush, made a large purchase in the water lot of Roger 
Morris, between the Church and the Hudson. 

David Hustis died in the early part of the Revolu- 
tion, leaving four sons, Joseph, Caleb, Solomon, and 
Jonathan. Joseph had three sons, Robert, Joseph, 
David ; and six daughters, Sarah, Abbey, Mary, 
Charity, Phoebe, Hannah, and died in 1805. All are 
now deceased, except David and Phoebe. 

Caleb had two sons, William and Jonathan ; and six 
daughters, viz. : Elizabeth, Esther, Anna, Rachel, 
Mary, and Phoebe. 

William had four sons, Samuel, Caleb, Isaac, and 
Josiah, all of whom are now living. 

David Hustis was one of the commissioners, who 
laid out the first roads in the south" part of Dutchess 
County, now Putnam, in 1744. 


Cold Spring Village. — Thomas Davenport, great- 
grandfather to William Davenport, Esq., of Nelson- 
ville, came from England about 1715, and built the 
first house at Cold Spring. It was burnt down while 
his son William was living in it. 

After his father's decease, William, grandfather to 
the present William, about 1760, built a small house a 
few rods distant from where it stood. Isaac Daven- 
port, cousin of William, then built a house on the 
foundation of the house burned down, which had been 
built by Thomas, his uncle, and moved the one built 
by William to it. They now form the old low house 
on the hill, a few rods distant from the residence of 
Marvin Wilson, Esq., on the north side of Main 

Thomas Davenport had two wives. By the first 
lie had two sons, William and Thomas; and one 
daughter. By his second he had two sons, and two 

William, grandfather of Willliam now living, was 
by the first wife, and had one son, named Thomas, 
who was the father of the present William of Nelson- 
ville, and two daughters, Marybee and Elizabeth. 
Marybec married Thomas Sutton, Elizabeth married 
Solomon Cornell, who emigrated to Kentuckv. Thomas 
had one son, William, and two daughters, Sarah 
and Elizabeth. Sarah married John Snouck, and is 
dead ; Elizabeth married Jonathan Hustis, and is still 
living. Thomas the great ancestor of the family in 
this town, died the 20th of December, 1709, aged 77 
years. His grandson Thomas, and father of the pre- 
sent William, was born April 11th, 1750, and died 

Thomas, the brother of the grandfather of the 


present William, built a house which stood in the 
garden just north of the farm-house of Henry De 
Rhams, on the road leading from Cold Spring to John 
Garrison's, Esq. Oliver Davenport built the old house* 
still standing in Nelsonville, opposite to the residence 
of William Davenport, Esq. Isaac Davenport, the 
grandfather of Capt. Cornelius and Sylvenus Davenport 
of Cold Spring, was the son of Thomas Davenport, 
and born in the old house at H. De Rahams. 

The next house was erected by Elijah Davenport, 
the son of Isaac, and father of Capt. Cornelius and 
Sylvenus Davenport, and forms the rear of the house 
now occupied by Asa Truesdell, Esq., on the south 
side of Main Street. It was built about 1785. Elijah 
Davenport kept store in it ; and in 1817 it was occupied 
by the Hon. Gov. Kemble, President of the West Point 
Foundry, as an office. The third house erected in the 
village, now forms the rear part of the building occu- 
pied by Thomas Rogers, at the north end of Foundry 

The next house built, in the vicinity of the village, 
was the old house now standing near Clark's brick- 
yard, at present unoccupied. It was built shortly after 
the Revolution by Peter Lindsey, who subsequently 
sold it to Samuel W. Baird, a cooper by trade, who 
kept a grocery in it. 

An old log-house stood opposite to where William 
Davenport now resides in Nelsonville, and on the site 
of the old, low, frame-house now standing. It was oc- 
cupied by Stephen, brother of the first Thomas Daven- 
port mentioned above. 

Thomas Davenport was one of the commissioners 
for laying out roads in that part of Dutchess County,' 
which is now Putnam, from 1745 to 1755. 


Nelson's Highlands and vicinity. — John Rogers 
made a settlement about 1730, where Cornelius Haight 
now lives on the old post-road, a few miles north of 
Continental Village. At that time there was only a 
path used by the Indians, leading from Westchester 
through the Highlands, to Fishkill. Having built a 
log house sufficiently large for a country tavern, he 
was always sure to have a traveler for his guest during 
the night, if he reached the house in the middle of the 
afternoon ; as none ever departed on their journey 
after that time, owing to the danger of traveling 
through the Highlands after night, and the difficulty 
of threading such a wild, mountainous, and solitary 
path. He continued to keep tavern there during the 
French and Indian war ; a short time previous to 
which, the old post-road was cut through the High- 
lands by Lord Louden, for conveying his baggage, 
stores, and troops to the North, to attack the French 
out-posts. The road followed the Indian path, and is 
very little altered from the original line. Rogers' was 
the first house built along the path. 

The next house on this road was built by James 
Stanley, where Samuel Jeffords, deceased, lived 
about 1750. Thomas Sarles built the next on the east 
side of the road, between Samuel Jefford's, Esq., and 
Justus Nelson's, at the foot of the hill, about 1756. 
The next northward, was built by Elijah Budd, where 
Joseph Wiltsie now lives, called the Andrew Hill-farm. 
Gilbert Budd about the same time, built a house where 
John Griffin, Esq., now resides. Gilbert lived there in 
the Revolution, and his brother Elijah on the Hill- 
farm, a quarter of a mile south. 

At the south end of Peekskill Hollow, in the now 


town of Putnam Valley, a family of the name of Du- 
senbery and -Adams, made a settlement, but at what 
period of time, we have not been able to ascertain. 
On the road leading to Peekskill, where Abijah Knapp 
now lives, George Lane made an early settlement, about 
fourteen miles east of Continental Village. Nathan 
Lane settled a little below, where the Hon. A. and S. 
Smith reside. John Hyatt, who was commissioned 
a Colonel in the militia in the Revolution, settled be- 
tween the Lanes. 

In Peekskill Hollow, a little south of where Dr. 
John Tompkins resides, the Post family settled. At 
what is now ealled Tompkins Cornel's, was formerly 
called the Wickopee and Peekskill Hollow Corners, 
those roads intersecting each other at that point. 
Wickopee was the name of an Indian tribe, that lived 
at Shenandoah, in Dutchess County ; and another tribe 
calledvCanopus, lived in Westchester, near the line of 
Putnam, and extending into the hollow which bears 
their name. Up and down Peekskill Hollow these 
tribes used to pass, when visiting each other. The 
lower tribe, when asked by their white neighbors 
where they were going, when setting'out to make one 
of their- visits, would reply, " We're going to see old 
Wickopee." The name, we believe, is now spelled 
Wichapee, but we have been informed by old people, 
that it was lbrmerly spelleS as above. The Lanes, 
Posts, Dusenberys, Smiths, and Adams, were original 
settlers in this town. About two miles south-east of 
Tompkins' Corners, Abraham Smith, grandfather to 
the Hon. A. and S. Smith, made a settlement, and pur- 
chased a large tract of land from Col. Beverly Rob- 
inson, about 1760, where his grandchildren, above- 
named, now reside. 


He emigrated with two of his brothers from Eng- 
land, about 1720, and settled at Smithtown, on Long 
Island, where they purchased a very large tract. In 
1760, he removed to Putnam Valley, and died in 1763. 
He had one son named Abraham, the father of the 
Hon. Abraham and Saxton Smith, who reside on the 
paternal estate. After having surveyed out the tract, 
he gave the farm, where John and Reuben Barger now 
live, to one of his chain-bearers for his services. 

An early settlement was made by the Ferris family, 
from New Rochelle, Westchester County. The ances- 
tor of the family came from Rochelle in France, on 
the repeal of the edict of Nantz, by Louis XIV., in 
1685. The family before the Revolution, moved 
to the vicinity in which Joseph Ferris, now living, re- 

Extract from Town Records. 
" At a town meeting in Philipses Precinct in Dutchess county 
on day of Apr. 1772 the following officers were Chosen 

John Crumpton Clark 
Beverly Robinson Supervisor 

Joseph Lane ) 

& > Assessors 

Caleb Nelson ) 
William Dusenberry Collector 

Israel Taylor ) 

& > Constables 

Isaac Devenport ) 
Justus Nelson 

, Poormasters 
Lor s lompkins 

Cor's Tompkins, Poundmaster for Peekskill Hollow 
John Likely Poundmaster for Canopus Hollow 
Elijah Budd Poundmaster on the Post Road 
Caleb Nelson Poundmaster on the River 


Isaac Rhodes & Moses Dusenberry fence Viewers 
Isaac Horton & John Jones do do 

Joseph Haight & James Lamoreaux do do 
Jacob Mandevill & Tho's Devenport do do 

Isaac Rhodes Highwaymaster, for ye Road from Frediraksburg 
Precinct to the Bridge over Peekskill River near Lewis 
Jones — 

"illiam White Highwaymaster for the Roade from William 
Dusenberrys up Peekskill Hollow to the Bridge near Lewis 
Jones which bridge he is to make with his hands & to con 
tinue up the Hollow to the Line of Fred'sburgh Precinct— 

The remainder of the entry of this Road District, 
with the next one, of which Robert Oakley was chosen 
Highway Master, has been nibbled away by mice. 
The next in order is as follows : 

John Winn Highwaymaster for the Road from the Cold Spring 
Along wycopy Road to the Line of Rumbout's Precinct all 
the people living north of sd Spring to belong to his Com- 

Reuben Drake Highwaymaster from Drake's Mills up Canopus 
Hollow to the Post Road — 

John Meeks Highwaymaster on the Post Road from Westchester 
line to Joseph Bards. — 

Elijah Budd Highwaymaster on ye Post Road from Thos Sarles 
to Rumbout's Precinct 

Jacob Mandivell Highwaymaster from the Post Road near 
Widow Areles through the Highlands to sd Mandivell's 
House from thence to Caleb Nelson's & from thence to 
Christopher Fowler's and from thence to the first mentioned 

John Nelson Highwaymaster from Mr Robinson's Mills to hia 
fathers from thence to Tho's Williamson & from thence to 
mr Robinson's house 


Thomas Devenport Highwaymaster from Caleb Nelsons to his 
own house & from thence thro the woods to the post Road 
near Elijah Buds — 

Here, again, the mice have destroyed the entry of 
the remaining road district. After which, is the fol- 
lowing entry of a challenge by Uriah Drake, question- 
ing the election of Cornelius Tompkins to the office 
of Poormaster, and the result on a second ballot. 

N. B. all the foregoing persons was chosen Unanimousley 
Except Cor's Tompkins Poormaster who was opposed by Uriah 
Drake who demanded a pole at the Close of which 

Cor's Tompkins had 47 Votes 
Uriah Drake 35 do 

12 Defference 
upon which Cor's Tompkins was Declared poormaster 

April the 25 John Armstrong his mark a Crop of the Right 

May the 11 1772 John Cavery Desires his mark to Bee En- 
terd In this Book Which I have Which is a Crop of the neer 
ear and a Slit in the same and the off ear A Hoi and a half Pen- 
ny and the Half Penny on the under side 

May 11 1772 Sibit Cronkit Juneer De Sires his mark to Bee 
Enterd in this Book Which I have Which is two niks in the 
neer ear one on Each Side and the off Ear a Slit and a Half 
Penny upon the under side. 

There were thirteen road-districts in this town, then 
including the town of Putnam Valley, in 1772, and 
sixteen in 1773. Commissioners for laying out high- 
ways were not elected previous to 1773. At the 
town meeting held in the spring of that year, Joshua 
Nelson, Moses Dusenberry, and Isaac Rhodes were 
elected. The record does riofc^ggntain the names of 
persons assessed on the different road districts, but 
only the names of the path masters. The whole num- 


ber of days assessed on each district were put down on 
the record against its overseer or master. There is an 
exception to this, however, in 1783 ; and it is the only 
one that we have been able to find upon the earliest 
record. The entry is as follows : 

" a list of amos odell's Company to work the Highway for 

the present year 1783 

no of Days for 

Eech man to work 

Amas odell 8 Day» 

John Armstrong to work 8 

Jacob armstrong to work 4 

William Cristion To work 5 

Richard Criston Jun To work 7 

Henry Youman To work 4 

Oliver odell To work 8 

Aaron odell to work „ 4 

The first road laid out by the Commissioners of 
this town was in 1784 ; and the description thereof is 
characterized by more than Spartan brevity. It is as 
follows : 

" May the 10 in the year of 1784 Then we the Comishners 
Laid out a Road from Calip Nelsons to his Landon Beginin a 1 
his house Ceepin as near the South of the Brook as near the 
Brook as Connevent as Can for us 

E Lijah Budd 


Isaac Rodes 

The following is a list of the names which appear on the 
town record, including Putnam Valley, from 1772 to 1782 : 

Beverly Robinson, Israel Taylor, 

John Crumpton, Isaac Devenport, 

Joseph Lane, Justus Nelson, 

Caleb Nelson, Cornelius Tompkins, 

William Dusenberry, John Likely, 



Elijah Budd, 
Isaac Rhodes, 
Isaac Horton, 
Joseph Haight, 
Jacob Mandevill, 
Thomas Devenport, 
John Jones, 
James Lamoreaux, 
Moses Dusenberry, 
William White, 
John Winn, 
Reuben Drake, 
John Meeks, 
Samuel Warren, 
John Nelson, 
Uriah Drake, 
John Armstrong, 
John Cavery, 
Sibit Cronkit, 
Edward Meeks, 
Anthony Field, 
Cornelius Gea, 
Joseph Nap, 
Peter Bell, 
Murty Heayerty, 
Nathaniel Jager, 
Stephen Lawrance, 
Jedediah Frost, 
Peter Dubois, 
Joshua Nelson, 
Justus Ones, 
Peter Snorck, 
Joseph Husted, 
John Avery, 
Thomas Bassford, 
Sylvenus Haight, 
Benjamin Rogers, 
Stephen Conklin, 
Daniel Bugbee, 


Daniel Willsie, 
John Sherwood, 
Reuben Tompkins, 
Stephen Devenport, 
John Van Amburgh, 
Ezekiel Gee, 
Samuel Jenkins, 
Jacob Reade, 
Isaac Odell, 
Capt. Israeli Knapp, 
John Haight, 
Hendric Riers, 
Amos Odell, 
Jacob Armstrong, 
William Cristian, 
Oliver Odell, 
Aaron Odell, 
Henry Eltonon, 
Robert Oakley, 
Thomas Smith, 
Joseph Arpels, 
William Wright, 
Cresterfer Fowller, 
Jonathan Ones, 
Gabriel Archer, 
Sylvenus Lockwood, 
Abraham Garrison, 
Joshua Mead, 
Hendrick Post, 
Absalom Nelson, 
Peter Ryall, 
William White, 
Capt. George Lane, 
Peter Likekey, 
Gilburt Budd, 
James Jahcocks, 
Gabriel Archer, 
Henry Wiltsee, 
Petor Drak, 



matheuw mcCabe, 

Cornelius Tompkins Junior, 

Danel Buckbee, 

Comfort Chaddick, 

Thomas Lewes, 

Nathan Lane, 

Moses Dusenberry Junior, 

Joseph Garrison, 

Peter Warren, 

Peter Keley, 

John Yeouman, 

Abraham Croft, 

Abraham Marling, 

Joseph Bare, 

Elisha Budd, 

Titus Travis, 

Gilbert Oakley, 

John Drake, 

John Edgar, 

Philip Steenburk, 
John Knapp, 
Isaac Jacocks, 
Richard Denny, 
Isaac Garrison, 
David Henyon, 
Isaac Danford, 
Thomas Williams, 
John Christian, 
Jessee Owen, 
William Deausenberry, 
Solomon Smith, 
thomes Brient, 
Joshua Tompkins, 
Charles Cristian, 
Jonathan Miller, 
James peney, 
Nathaniel Tomkings, 
Col. Samuel Drakes." 

Cold Spring Village. — This is the largest village in 
the town or county, and the onl£ incorporated one in 
it. The Act, incorporating it, was passed by the 
Legislature, April 22, 1846. Vide chap. 102, Session 
Laws of 1846. It is twenty miles from Carmel, and 
one and a half from West Point. It covers a large 
extent of ground, embracing what is called the Foun- 
dry district. The west end of the village, from the 
store of Lewis Birdsall, to the present steam-boat 
landing, and some portion of it, north and south of 
Birdsall's store, on Foundry Street, is made ground, 
and was formerly a bay ; and by filling up, the docks 
have been extended into the river to their present lo- 
cation. It takes its name from a spring of water 
which is unusually cold, located on the line of the low 
and high grounds of the village, at the north-west cor- 
ner of the door-yard of Henry Haldane, Esq. 


It contains 4 churches, 4 clergymen, 2 attornies, 4 
physicians, 10 stores, and 4 taverns. If we may be 
allowed the expression, it is the commercial metro- 
polis of the county, and is the principal freighting de- 
pot, on the east side of the river, between the Dutchess 
and Westchester line. It is the birth place of Lieut- 
Col. Duncan, of the United States Army, who has 
rendered his country signal service on the bloody 
battle fields of Mexico. The old house in which this 
gallant officer was born, is no longer standing, having 
been accidentally burned down in 1841. It stood, at 
the time of his birth, in nearly the centre of Main 
Street, opposite to the new, large frame building, 
lately erected by Oliver Elwell, Esq. ; the road or 
street, at that time, running south of Main Street, as 
it now is. The house, some years since, was moved 
to the position it occupied when burned down, and 
was used as a paint shop. 

The true name of the Col. is Duncanson ; and, as 
his father alleges, when he entered the army, by an 
oversight, or mistake of the recording clerk in the 
War Department, at Washington, his name was writ- 
ten Duncan. The mistake not being corrected, the 
Department, as a lawyer would say, "stuck to the 
record;" and the Col., since then, in all his communi- 
cations to Government, and others, has written his 
surname, Duncan. 

Within the last few years the village has grown 
rapidly, and is still increasing as fast, perhaps, as any 
other on the East Bank of the Hudson. The West 
Point Foundry, located here, has been the main cause 
of its flourishing condition ; and within the last five 
years its building lots have doubled in value. 


Nelsonville. — This village is only a continuation of 
Cold Spring, and is built on the reverse slope of the 
hill, on which a part of the former is built. There are 
a few rods of ground intervening upon the top of the 
hill, but they will soon be covered with houses. The 
plot, originally made, embraces both villages. The 
turnpike leading from Cold Spring to Carmel runs 
through it. Like Cold Spring, it has greatly increased 
in population, buildings, and business, within the last 
few years. It is named after the family of Nelsons, 
which are numerous in this town, to which is added 
mile, from the Latin li villa," signifying a village. 

Davenport 's Corners. — A small collection of houses, 
about four miles north of Cold Spring, on the road 
leading to Fishkill. John Davenport, deceased, kept 
a store and tavern there, after whom it is named. It 
is sometimes called " The Old Highland Church," 
which is located there ; but it is more generally called 
" Davenport's Corners." John Davenport was the 
father of Elijah J. Davenport, Esq., of Cold Spring. 

Griffin's Corners; — A few houses, at the intersec- 
tion of the Cold Spring turnpike with the old post 
road, three miles east of Cold Spring. John Griffin 
resides there, in the old house, built by Gilbert Budd, 
before the Revolution. It has undergone some repairs, 
and additions have been made to it, but the old part 
is still standing. 

Break Neck. — A small collection of houses on the 
east bank of .the Hudson, about two miles north of 
Cold Spring, through which the River-road runs to 
Fishkill Landing. Many of the best stone-quarries 
in this town are located here ; also the brick-yard of 
Clark, Esq., and a short distance south of it, the 



brick-yard belonging to the estate of Daniel Fowler, 
deceased. These are the only places where brick is 
manufactured in this town. It takes its name from 
Break Neck Hill, at the southern base of which it lies ; 
the etymology of the name will be given in the des- 
cription of the " Hill." Here is a dock, erected by the 
Harlem High Bridge Company, who rented from 
Messrs. Howard & Haldane, a few years since, their 
stone-quarries and the adjacent land, from which a 
greater part of the stone at this place is shipped. 

Dennytown. — A settlement of French people in the 
central part of the town, about one mile west of 
Justis Nelson's mill. It was settled by a family of 
the name of Denny, whose descendants are numerous 
in this town, and who own a large tract of land in 
that region. Town is derived from the Saxon word 
tun, and signifying a walled or fortified pldce ; a col- 
lection of houses inclosed with walls; in popular 
usage it means a township. It takes its name, there- 
fore, from this family of early settlers. 

Hortontown. — A small settlement and district of 
country in the northern part of the town, about one 
mile north of the second gate on the turnpike leading 
to Carmel, and so called from an old and numerous 
family by the name of Horton, who resided there, 
many of whose descendants still live there and in the 

Eel Point. — A small narrow point of land, jutting 
into the Hudson a few rods above Cold Spring. 
There is a small bay on the north side of it, a part of 
which is uncovered at low water, revealing a sandy 
bottom. In 1810, Henry Haldane, Esq., built the 

house now standing there, occupied by James War- 



ren, Esq., as a dock and storehouse. The storehouse 
was taken down in 1845. The Hudson River Rail- 
road passes over the west end of it. It was called 
" Eel Point, near Sandy Landing." Eels congregated 
there, and its proximity to the sandy shoal just above 
it, accounts for its name. 

Continental Village. — A few houses in the south- 
east part of the town, one mile from the Westchester 
line. In the revolution it was the main entrance to 
the Highlands in this town, and was guarded by a 
detachment of American troops. Two small forts 
were erected for its defence, one at the north end of 
the village on the high ground, the remains of which 
are still to be seen ; and one about a quarter of a 
mile north-west of it, on the road leading to the Hud- 
son, the foundation of which is also standing. It was 
burnt by a detachment of British troops in -the early 
part of October, 1777, after forts Clinton and Mont- 
gomery had been taken by Sir Henry Clinton. John 
Meeks was the first settler at this place. The first 
grist-mill in Philipstown was built at this place by 
Col. Beverly Robinson, about 1762, and stood a few 
rods east of where the paper-mill now stands, on the 
same stream. He also erected a saw-mill and fulling- 
mill there. Gallows Hill lies to the south of it, in 
full view, just across the Weschester line, on the east 
side of which the British troops advanced to the 
south entrance of the village. In the Revolution, a 
man by the name of John Strang was caught in the 
act of enlisting men for the British army, with a com- 
mission in his pocket signed by one of the generals. 
He was tried, condemned to the gallows, and hung 
upon this hill ; hence the name. 


Warren's Landing .—The house at this landing was 
built in 1804 by John Warren, father of the Hon. 
Cornelius and Sylvenus Warren, of Cold Spring. It 
is opposite West Point, a little to the west of Consti- 
tution Island. About 1798 George JefFord' built the 
dock and a house, which was subsequently torn down. 

Mead's Dock. — This place is now called Garrison's 
Landing. It was built about the year 1814 by Joseph 
Mead. A store was formerly kept there. It is nearly 
opposite West Point. 

Bross's Landing. — A dock a few rods south of 
Mead's, built before the last wax by a man of the 
name of Hoyt, a cooper by trade, who built a house, 
shop, and constructed the dock for the accommodation 
of freighters in that vicinity and to increase the faci- 
lities of his own business. 

Hog-back Hill. — A steep eminence at the south- 
west corner of the flat on which the West Point 
Foundr} r is built. It takes its name from its fancied 
resemblance to the back of that animal. 

Vinegar Hill and Mount Rascal. — Two elevated 
ridges, lying parallel with each other; the former 
on the east side, and the latter on the west side of the 
West Point Foundry. They form the sides of the 
Foundry brook where it empties into the Hudson. It 
is said they were named by William Youngs, Esquire, 
who formerly was a manager in the Foundry, after 
two places bearing those names in Ireland. 

Bull Hill. — A lofty peak of the Highlands just 
above Cold Spring, and separated from Breakneck 
peak by a narrow depression, or slope of land. Al- 
though termed a hill, it, with Breakneck north of it, 
is more properly a mountain. But not so thought a 


son of Erin, who, being met on the road from Cold 
Spring to Breakneck by a traveller, was asked, " What 
mountain is that, my friend ?" To which he replied, 
" Sure, sir, an devil a bit of a mountain is it a-tal, sir 
— its Bull Hill." According to tradition, a bull had 
made it his mountain home, from which, at night, he 
would descend to the low grounds in its vicinity, and 
commit sundry depredations in corn fields, meadows, 
and grain fields. The neighbors formed an " alliance," 
offensive and defensive, against this bold and ruthless 
mountain robber, determined to pursue him to his 
strongholds, and effect his capture or destruction. 
They chased him from this Hill to the one immedi- 
ately north of it, where, being hard pressed by dogs 
and armed men, he was " impelled and propelled down 
a precipice and through the chaparal" by which Sam 
Patch-Wkc leap, he broke his neck ; whereupon his 
pursuers immediately christened the hill from which 
they started him " Bull Hill," and the one where they 
captured this midnight guerilla chief, " Breakneck." 
The word hill is from the Saxon hyl, and means " a 
natural elevation of land, or a mass of earth rising 
above the common level of the surrounding land." 

Break Neck. — Another lofty peak of the Highlands, 
just north of Bull Hill, the name of which has been 
explained in the description of that locality, above. 
A tunnel is now being cut through the western flank 
of this peak, for the Hudson River Railroad. The 
western flank protrudes itself almost into the river, 
through the centre of which runs the dividing line of 
Dutchess and Putnam Counties. On the south side 
of this peak, and within Putnam, within a few feet of 
its apex, "St. Anthony's Face," so celebrated in the 


history of the Hudson's scenery, once peered out and 
over the rocky battlements below, gazing, as it were, 
at the eternal ebb and flood of the mighty current 
that breaks with unceasing fury against the lofty 
parapet that supported it. Thousands of the travel- 
ling community on board of steamboats, with glass in 
hand, have turned their eyes on passing Break Neck, 
to gaze upon the stern and rugged features of St. An- 
thony's Face ; but the venerable patriarch, destined 
like everything of earth, has passed away, and is num- 
bered among the things that were. 

In the summer of 1846, Capt. Deering Ayers, who 
was engaged m the service of the Harlem High Bridge 
Company, by one fell blast, detached an immense 
block of granite weighing nearly two thousand tons, 
and shivered in atoms the majestic brow and weather- 
beaten features, of the venerable mountain hermit. 
Nero, the last Roman emperor of the family of the 
Caesars, set fire to Rome, merely, as it is reported, that 
he might have a real representation of the conflagra- 
tion of Troy, and fiddled while it was burning. We 
are not informed whether Ayers, like Caius Marius 
amid the ruins of Carthage, smiled over the wreck 
that lay shattered around him, or evinced sorrow at 
his wanton demolition of nature's sculpture ; but the 
act was vandalic, in the extreme, to the true lover of 
Nature's works ; and the more so, as the stone was 
utterly useless to those who sought it in its mountain- 

" From his eyrie, that heaconed the darkness of heaven," 

and for ages, he had looked abroad upon the restless 
and ever-agitated world, defying the warring elements 


of nature and the tooth of time — majestic in the soli- 
tude of his mountain-home, he stood an admired spe- 
cimen of nature's mechanism, 

" A man without a model, and without a shadow." 

" O, woe to Mammon's desolating reign, 
We ne'er shall see his like on earth again." 

The tragedy was not ended with the destruction of 
St. Anthony's Face, for with the same terrible and de- 
structive agent with which the venerable saint was 
hurled from his airy pedestal, the poor unfortunate 
Ayers met with an untimely death. Some months 
after the scene at Break Neck, Ayers was engaged on 
Staten Island, blasting rocks- Having set fire to the 
fusee, he retired, but the blast not going off within the 
usual time, he returned to it, and having commenced 
working with it, it exploded, blowing the celebrated 
blaster of St. Anthony's Face into an hundred frag- 

The greedy, sordid, and avaricious spirit of man is 
making sad havoc among the beautiful mountain scen- 
ery of the Hudson. Where it will stop, is more 
than we can tell. The sound of the ax and the rail- 
road excavator's pick, with the steady click of the 
quarryman's hammer, is daily sounding in our ears, 
and slowly, though steadily, performing the work of 

" Rock and tree, and flowing water," 

are alike the subjects of this railroad tariff — a sort of 
steam custom-house tax ; and with the stereotyped plea 
of utility in .one hand, the utilitarian of the nineteenth 
century, with the other, grasps without remorse the 


beauty of the richest landscape* and all that is noble 
and sublime in the scenery of the natural world. 

This chiseling of the Great Architect, bearing such 
a striking resemblance to the human face, was named 
in honor of " St. Anthony the Great ; first institutor of 
monastic life ; born A.D. 251, at Coma, in Heraclea, 
a towD in Upper Egypt." At the base of this moun- 
tain peak, on the eastern shore of the Hudson, be- 
grimed with smoke, dust, and powder, the mutilated 
features of the celebrated Face of St. Anthony now 


" And none so poor to do them reverence." 

" Sic transit gloria mundi." 

Cat Hill. — A large rocky hill, about two miles east 
of Cold Spring, near Justus Nelson's mill. In the 
earliest settlement of this town, it was the resort of 
wild cats. As the country became more thickly set- 
tled and cleared up, those animals were entirely exter- 
minated ; and dropping the word wild, the people 
named it as above. Its wild, rugged aspect, would 
have justified the inhabitants in retaining the first 
word, as the name would not have belied its appear- 

Sugar Loaf Mountain. — A lofty peak of the High- 
lands about two miles southeast of West Point, near 
the " Robinson House." Its altitude, as taken by 
Lieut. Arden, late of the U. S. Army, is 800 feet 
above the level of the Hudson. Its shape is conical, 
resembling a loaf of sugar, and hence its name. 

Anthony's Nose Mountain. — This is the highest 
peak of the Highlands, on the east side of the Hudson, 
in this town. It is situated at the entrance of the 


Highlands, and is about 1100 feet in height. It is in 
the south-west part of the town, near the line of 
Westchester and Putnam, and opposite Fort Montgo- 
mery, on the west bank of the Hudson. From the 
base of this peak, a large boom and chain extended, 
in 1776, to Fort Montgomery. This was the second 
obstruction attempted in the Hudson, to prevent the 
British from ascending it. The first was at Fort 
Washington, below the Highlands in Westchester 
County ; the third at West Point and Constitution Is- 
land ; and the fourth at Pallopel's Island, at the south 
entrance of Newburg Bay, extending to Plum Point, 
on the west bank of the river. 

From the Journal of the Committee of Safety, we 
extract the following, respecting the chain at Antho- 
ny's Nose and Fort Montgomery : 

Nov. 30th., 1776. In perfecting the obstruction between St. 
Anthony's Nose on the eastern shore and Fort Montgomery, we 
endeavored to avail ourselves of the model of that which had 
proved effectual in the river Delaware, and were assisted by the 
advice and experience of Capt. Hazelwood, but the great length 
of the chain (being upwards of 1800 feet), the bulk of the logs 
which were necessary to support it, the immense weight of wa- 
ter which it accumulated, and the rapidity of the tide, have baf- 
fled all our efforts ; it separated twice after holding a few hours. 

" Mr. Machen, the Engineer at Fort Montgomery, is of opi- 
nion, that with proper alterations it may still be of service in 
another part of the river, and we have, with Gen. Heath's con- 
currence, directed him to make the trial. — But we have too much 
reason to despair of its ever fully answering the important purpose 
for which it was intended. Alike disappointment we are informed 
happened at Portsmouth. Gen. Heath, on a conference with 
Gen. Clinton, has been pleased to recommend the obstruction of 
the navigation in this part of the river by cassoons," &c. 

Gordon, in his Gazetteer, states, that the cost of this 


chain at £50,000, continental money ; that it was 
made of iron 2 or 2 1-2 inches thick, was 1,800 feet in 
length, and weighed 50 tons. 

From a fancied resemblance of this peak to the 
human nose, and in honor of St. Anthony, it received 
the above appellation before the Revolution. There 
were two redoubts on this mountain, a short distance 
apart. They were intended to guard the entrance of 
the Hudson into the Highlands, and as an additional 
security to the chain. It is said that the manufacture of 
this chain, with the cost of placing it across the river, 
exhausted the Continental treasury ; and so far as any 
good was effected by it, Congress might about as well 
have caused a roll of twine to be stretched in its stead. 
Its own weight parted it twice, and when the leading 
English ship struck it, it broke with the facility of a 

Pine Hill. — An eminence near the Mansion House 
of Mrs. Mary Gouverneur, so called from pine timber 
growing upon it. Philips' Quarries are located there. 

Stony Point. — A rocky peninsula, nearly half a mile 
north-west of the village of Cold Spring, and stretch- 
ing into the Hudson about one fourth of a mile. The 
west end is an entire mass of granite rock, and has 
been quarried successfully by Alex. Anderson & Co., 
to whom it now belongs. 

It is steep at the west end, with a sufficient depth 
of water to float vessels of the largest class navigating 
the Hudson. 

Whiskey Hill. — A small eminence on the old road 
leading from Continental village to Garrison's Land- 
ing. During the Revolutionary war, some soldiers 
were carting a hogshead of whiskey from Continental 



village to West-Point, for the use of the garrison at 
that post. On reaching nearly the top of this hill, the 
blocks in the hind part of the cart slid from their posi- 
tions, and the hogshead, smashing the tail-board into 
pieces, rolled to the foot of the hill, where coming in 
contact with a large stone, it bursted to the deep cha- 
grin of the soldiers, who were anticipating a hearty- 
dram of it on their arrival at the post. They imme- 
diately christened it " Whiskey Hill," which name it 
has ever since retained. 

Fort Hill. — A lofty eminence, the timber of which 
has been cut off, a few hundred rods east of the man- 
sion-house of Judge Garrison. Two redoubts were 
erected on it in the Revolution, one at the North end 
called " North Redoubt," and the other at the south 
end called " South Redoubt." This redoubt may have 
been the one spoken of in Gen. Heath's order of Dec. 
3d, 1780, as the " Middle Redoubt." There were 
works thrown up on Sugar Loaf Mountain ; and by 
way of distinguishing the two, the one on the South 
end of this hill may have been called the " Middle 

Extract from " Revolutionary Orders." 

"Gen. Heath's Orders. 

"Head Quarters, West Point, 
Decern. 3d, 1780. 
"Brig. Gen'l Huntingdon will please to assign one Regiment 
of the Conn. Line to the defence of the North Redout, one to the 
Middle Redout, and one to the works on Constitution Island, 
which works are to be considered as the posts of those three 
Regiments in case of alarm ; the other Regiments of the Line, in 
such case, are to be held in readiness to act as circumstances 
may require. 

" The 4th Mass'ts Brigade is assigned to the defence of Fort 


Clinton and its dependencies ; the 2nd Brigade to the defence of 
Forts Putnam, Willis, and Webb ; Col. Shepard's and Col. Bige- 
low's to the former, Col. Vose's to Fort Willis, and Lt. Col. 
Commandant Smith's to Fort Webb : the 1st and 3d to act as 
circumstances may require, and, on all alarms, to form on their 
Brigade Parades, ready to receive orders. 

" The Connecticut Line is to mount a Captain's Guard at the 
Continental Village for the security of the public stores, and 
guarding that avenue into the Highlands.'"* 

The Sunk Lot. — This name is given to a tract of 
land in the east part of the town, containing about 
1300 acres, belonging to Joel Hamilton. Its northern 
termination is near the Cold Spring turnpike, about 
one and a half miles south west of Griffin's Gate, and 
extends south nearly to the former residence of Joel 
Bunnell, Esq. Its location is low, apparently sunk 
down ; and hence the name. 


Constitution Island. — This island, projecting half 
way across the Hudson, forms its elbow nearly oppo- 
site West Point. Its western side is formed by steep 
and inaccessible precipices ; on the east, between it 
and the main land, is a large marshy, flaggy meadow, 
which, within a few years past, has been partly drained 
by ditches cut through it. This island is, probably, 
about two miles in circumference, and half a mile 
wide from north to south. It is covered with timber 
of an inferior kind, and uncultivated except on the 
southern and eastern edges. The entire marsh mea- 
dow contains about SO© acres, and the island about 

This island, previous to, and at the commencement 

* This extract is given to show the Military localities of West 
Point at that early day. 


of, the Revolution, was called " Martelaer's Rock Is- 
land ;" but after a fort was erected here in 1775, it 
was more often called Constitution island, by which 
name it is now known. The fort was called " Fort 
Constitution." In the correspondence between the 
officers of the army and the New York Committee of 
Safety, and also with the Continental and Provincial 
Congress, it is sometimes written " Martles Rock," 
and also " Martyrs Beach." 

From the most accurate information that we have 
been able to obtain, this island was called after a 
Frenchman by the name of Martelair, and who, pro- 
bably, resided on it with his family. A family, bear- 
ing that name, were early settlers at Murderer's 
Creek, in the town of New Windsor in Orange co. ; 
and were murdered by the Indians about the year 
1720. It may have been the same family who pre- 
viously resided on this island, or a branch of it. The 
Provincial, as well as Continental Congress, early 
saw the necessity of fortifying the Hudson river to 
prevent its ascent by the enemy, and thus keep opeir 
the communication between the eastern and middle 
States. The Continental Congress moved first in the 
matter, but the published record of its proceedings 
does not disclose the date. 

On the 18th of August, 1775, the Provincial Con- 
gress of New York passed the following resolution : 

" Resolved and Ordered, That the Fortifications formerly or- 
dered by the Continental Congress, and reported by a Commit- 
tee of this Congress, as proper to be built on the banks of Hud- 
son's River, in the Highlands, be immediately erected. Mr. 
Walton dissents. And that Mr. Isaac Sears, Mr. John Berrien, 
Col. Edward Flemming, Mr. Anthony Rutgers, and Mr. Christo- 


pher Miller, be Commissioners to manage the erecting and fin- 
ishing the Fortifications. That any three or more of them be 
empowered to act, manage, and direct the building and finishing 

The " Fortifications in the Highlands" embraced, 
not only those to be erected on Constitution Island, 
but also those afterwards erected on the north and 
south sides of Poplopen's Kill, called Forts Montgo- 
mery and Clinton. These were the main works, 
while redoubts were built on the neighboring emi- 
nences, on the east side of the Hudson ; two on 
Redoubt Hill, called North and South Redoubt, just 
east of Judge Garrison's residence, two on Sugar 
Loaf Mountain ; and one on Anthony's Nose Moun- 
tain. Col. Edward Flemming and Capt. Anthony 
Rutgers, notified the Provincial Congress that they 
could not attend to the duties of Commissioners ; on 
the 22nd of August, in the same year, Capt. Samuel 
Bayard and Capt. William Bedlow, were appointed 
in their stead. 

The Provincial Congress employed Bernard Ro- 
mans, who held a commission as Engineer in the 
British Army, to construct the " Fortifications in the 
Highlands." By order of the Committee of Safety, he 
commenced operations on the 213th of August, on 
Constitution Island; and on the 12th October, 1775, 
he applied to the former body for a commission, with 
the rank and pay of Colonel. 

"Fort Constitution, October 12, 1775. 
" Honourable Gentlemen : 

"By order from the Committee of Safety, I am up 
here for the purpose of constructing this fort ; said gentlemen 
gave me their words that I should be appointed principal En- 



gineer for this Province, with the rank and pay of Colonel. As 

I have been now actually engaged in this work since the 29th 

of August last, I should be glad to know the certainty of my 

appointment, and therefore humbly pray that my commission 

may be made out and sent. I have left the pursuit of my own 

business, which was very considerable, and endangered my pen-. 

sion from the Crown, by engaging in our great and common 

cause. These matters considered, I hope my request will be 

thought reasonable, and therefore complied with. I remain, with 

the utmost respect, honourable Gentlemen, your most obedient 

humble servant, 

"B. Romans." 

Romans and the Commissioners soon became in- 
volved in an unpleasant dispute about the construc- 
tion of the works on this island. Romans claimed 
the right, by virtue of his office, to build the works 
according to his own furnished plan ; and pointedly 
told the Commissioners that they had no right to in- 
terfere with his operations; that their business was to 
furnish him with men and money, reserving their 
condemnation or approval until the Fortifications 
were finished. 

The Commissioners, on the other hand, claimed the 
right, as superintendents, to approve or reject his 
plans, and direct the mode of operations, contending, 
that his duty was to work according to their direc- 
tions. They objected to his plans, as involving too 
much expense to the State. A long epistolary cor- 
respondence followed, with -drafts, reports, and esti- 
mates, for which we have not room to gratify the 
reader, as our work is limited to a given number of 
pages.. A condensed view of the "Reports" and 
"Plans" of the Fortifications to be erected on this 
Island, made by Romans to the Commissioners, and 
through them to the two Congresses, is as follows : 


On the south side of the Island, he proposed to erect 
five block houses ; barracks, 80 by 20 feet ; store- 
houses and guard-room, 60 by 20 feet ; " 2,400 perches 
of stone wall, each perch containing 16^ feet in length, 
18 inches high, by 12 wide ;" five batteries, mounting 
61 guns and 20 swivels ; a fort, with bastions, and a 
curtain, 200 feet in length ; a magazine ; and esti- 
mated the entire costs, materials of every description, 
with " labour of, and provisions for, 150 men for four 
months, 26 days to the month,- at an average of 3s. 
per day, at £,4,645 4s. 4d." The cost of ordnance 
was not included in the above sum. 

In the Revolution, this Island belonged to Mrs. 
Ogilvie and her children. She was the widow of 
Capt. Ogilvie, a British officer in the French and In- 
dian war; and grandmother, as we have been in- 
formed, of Mrs. Mary Gouverneur. The Committee 
of Safety, when about to fortify it, applied to Beverly 
Robinson, offering to purchase it. The following is 
the correspondence between them respecting the pur- 
chase of sufficient ground to erect the works on : 

"In Committee of Safety. 

"New York, Sept. 19th, 1775. 
" Sir — By order of the Continental Congress, founded on the 
necessities of the present times, the Provincial Congress of this 
Colony has undertaken to erect a fortification on your land, op- 
posite to the West Point, in the Highlands. As the Provincial 
Congress by no means intend to invade private property, this 
Committee, in their recess, have thought proper to request you 
to put a reasonable price upon the whole point of dry land, or 
island, called Martelair*s Rock island ; which price, if they ap- 
prove of it, they are ready to pay you for it. 

" We are, sir, your humble servants. 
" To Beverly Robinson, Esqr., at his seat in the Highlands." 


"In Provincial Congress, New York, 6th October, 1775. 
" A letter from Beverly Robinson, Esq., was read and filed, and 
is in the following words, to wit : 

"Highlands, October 2nd, 1775. 
" Sir — Your letter of the nineteenth of September, I received a 
few days ago, in answer to which, I must inform you that the 
point of land on which the fort is erecting, does not belong to 
me, but is the property of Mrs. Ogilvie and her children. Was 
it mine, the public should be extremely welcome to it. The 
building a fort there can be no disadvantage to the small quan- 
tity of arable land on the island. I have only a proportion of 
the meadow land, that lays on the east side of the island. 

" I am, sir, your most humble servant, 
" Bev. Robinson. 
" To John Having, Esqr., Chairman of the Committee of Safety, 
at New York." 

The Hudson River Railroad crosses the east end of 
this island, and on the south-east part of it, is cut 
through a gravel hill, on which was erected abumbert 
battery in the Revolution. 

Opposite to West Point, embowered among trees 
and shrubbery, and surrounded by the eminences on 
which the " fortifications" were built, stands the 
sequestered and rural country seat of Henry W. 
Warner, Esq., Counsellor, &c., called " Wood Crag." 
The kitchen part of this mansion is a fragment of the 
old barrack erected in 1775. The remains of Fort 
Constitution at the water's edge, are still to be seen. 
This island, with the marsh meadow east of it, be- 
longs to H. W. Warner, Esq. 

Ardenia. — This beautiful country seat is the resi- 
dence of Richard D. Arden, Esq., and is situated on 
the east bank of the Hudson, about one fourth of a 
mile north of the " Robinson House." 


Highland Grange is the name of the mansion house 
built by Capt. Frederick Philips, deceased. It is a charm- 
ing spot, located on the immediate bank of the Hudson, 
opposite to West Point. About half a mile north of 
Highland Grange, is the summer residence of Henry 
De Rhams. It is a lovely spot, with an extensive 
view north, south, and west. We do not know that 
it has been christened by any rural name. 

Under Cliff. — This is the romantic and beautiful 
country seat of the great lyric poet of our country, 
Gen. George P. Morris. There is a romantic truth in 
the name, for it is well-nigh under one of the bold, 
rugged, and frowning cliffs of Bull Hill, at its south- 
west side. Here, the lover of the grand and sublime 
— the amateur of the mystic science of nature's 
works — may scan, on a most stupendous scale, those 
immoveable bulwarks, against which " the artillery of 
a thousand armies might roar out their ineffectual 
vengeance," while " the parapet would laugh in scorn 
at the- power of battle.'* 

From no residence in the Highlands, perhaps, can 
such an extended view be had, as at Under Cliff. 
" To the right, to the left, in every direction, tower 
the rocky pinnacles of the Highlands, whose giant 
forms seem separated by the hand of Omnipotence, to 
make way for the quiet Hudson, as she hastens to pay 
her tribute to her monarch, the ocean." To the right 
and north, Bull Hill and Break Neck stand, like 
weather-beaten sentinels, to guard the further en- 
croachment of the mighty current on the east, as it 
surges from the broad and ample bay above, through 
the Highland pass. To the west looms up Butter 
Hill and Crow's Nest, casting their sombre shadows 


far into the Hudson ; while to the south, Fort Putnam, 
at an elevation of 500 feet above the river, with its 
massive walls, 'still venerable in its ruin, stands " to 
give an ocular demonstration of the untiring industry 
and hardy enterprise of the heroes of "76." The 
scener} 7 of the Hudson, in this vicinity, is unequalled, 
and " bears nature's grandest imprint." The Rhine, 
in Germany, is said to resemble it more than any 
other, but does not equal it. This mansion is a few 
hundred rods north of Cold Spring. Here, beside 
this mighty river in its hour of glory, at sunset — ting- 
ing with Eden dies the most gorgeous scenery the eye 
ever rested upon — " where the rock throws back the 
billow, brighter than snow" — is the spot most fitting 
for the wrapt mountain-bard to tune his lyre, and 
chant an anthem to the sylvan deity of the place. 

Round Pond. — A small body of water located on 
the land of Daniel Smith, Esq., in the south part of 
the town ; and covers about three acres, containing 
perch and trout. It is circular or round, and hence 
its name. 

Cat Pond. — A small sheet of water at the base of 
Cat Hill, on the land of Mrs. Mary Gouverneur, 
covering about two acres, on the west side of the 
" Old Post-Road," near Justus Nelson's mill. It takes 
its name from its contiguity to Cat Hill. 

The Robinson House. — This mansion, around which 
the stirring incidents of the revolution have flung 
such an interesting and melancholy interest, is situated 
in the south-west corner of this town, upon the water 
lot formerly owned by Col. Beverly Robinson, about 
400 yards from the Hudson, in a straight line, and at 
the base of Sugar Loaf mountain. It is about two 


miles south-east of West Point, and four miles south 
of the village of Cold Spring. We gazed long and 
intensely at this memorable building ere we entered 
within its walls, on our first beholding it. Its grounds 
and halls have been hallowed by the tread and pre- 
sence of the " Father of his Country," by Knox, 
Greene, Putnam, Steuben, Kosciusko, Heath, Parson, 
McDougal, and many others, in " times that tried 
men's souls." And even while the patriot of his own 
country, and the lover of liberty from another — Lafay- 
ette — rested beneath its roof, it has also held the dark, 
clutching, sordid traitor, Benedict Arnold. It was 
here, in the upper back room of the main building, 
where Arnold began and completed those sketches 
and drawings of the fortifications and works at West 
Point, which subsequently cost the youthful and 
accomplished Andre his life. Here he perfected and 
finished the requisite evidence of his allegiance to the 
British King, blackening the page of our country's 
history by a perfidy that is without a parallel, and 
unlike Judas, he refused to weep, but singing the song 
of his own infamy, he sank " like mad Ophelia on the 
wave, singing as he sank." 

The confidence that Washington reposed in his 
confidence was unbounded, or he would hardly have 
entrusted him with so important a post as West Point, 
which was the key that would unlock the southern 
door of the northern department. And how could it 
be otherwise ? Who could doubt the fidelity and 
patriotism of the leader of that Spartan band of heroes 
who marched in the depth of a rigorous winter from 
the cold, bleak, and barren frontiers of Maine to the 
rock-bound citadel of Quebec ? Who could enter- 


tain a suspicion of the man, who, after marching the 
foremost of his little band two hundred miles through 
the snow-clad forests of Maine, over rocks and preci- 
pices, and the inhospitable deserts of Lower Canada, 
where the foot of the white man had never passed, 
had sat down to satisfy the cravings of hunger on the 
body of a dead camp dog on the banks of the Chau- 
diere ? He who headed the forlorn hope at the storm- 
ing of Quebec, where his leg was shattered by a 
musket ball ; who had poured out his life-blood like 
water on the plains of Saratoga and Stillwater for his 
country ; who had fronted the cannon's mouth, 
charging up to their very muzzles amid the storm of 
iron hail that so dreadfully wasted his followers ; could 
such a man be trusted ? Washington felt that it was 
wickedness to doubt, and he gave to Arnold the com- 
mand of West Point and its out-posts, 
fv But when the dreadful truth was disclosed, it wrung 
his great spirit with an anguish that his officers had 
never before witnessed : and the question he asked of 
Lafayette, " Who can we trust now," shows the extent 
of confidence reposed by Washington in the patriot- 
ism of that fallen hero of our early struggle — Benedict 

The following acrostic is about as severe and sar- 
castic as it is possible to express in the English lan- 
guage : 

" Born for a curse to virtue and mankind, 
Earth's broadest realms can't show so black a mind ; 
Night's sable veil your crimes it cannot hide, 
Each are so great, they glut the historic page ; 
Defam'd your memory shall for ever live, 
In all the glare that infamy can give; 


Curses of all ages shall attend your name, 
Traitors alone shall glory in your shame. 

" Almighty vengeance sternly waits to roll 
Rivers of brimstone on your treacherous soul : 
Nature looks back, with conscious sorrow sad, 
On such a tarnish'd blot as she has made —  
Let hell receive you riveted with chains, 
Doom*d to the hottest focus of its flames." 

Three buildings joined to one another compose the 
mansion. Nearest to the river is the farm-house, one 
story high, and connected 10 it, on the east, are the 
two main buildings, two stories high, with a piazza 
extending along the north, east, and southerly sides of 
the building nearest the Sugar Loaf Peak, and on the 
south side of the centre building. The house and 
lands attached now belong to Richard D. Arden, Esq., 
and are occupied by his son, Lieut. Thomas Arden, 
late of the U. S. Army, and an officer in the Florida 

" The same low ceiling, large and uncovered joists, 
the same polished tiles around the fire-places, and the 
absence of all ornament which marks the progress of 
modern architecture, preserve complete the interest 
which the stirring incidents of that period have flung 
around the Robinson House." 

In the centre building is the large dining-room, 

where the traitor, with his wife, and two of Wash. 

ington's aids-de-camp, were at breakfast, when a 

messenger dashed up to the door and handed him a 

letter, which the stupid Jamieson had forwarded by 

express to Arnold, informing him of the arrest, and 

discovery of the papers. We have stood within this 

room, we have planted our feet upon the broad stair- 



case that the avaricious traitor mounted " in hot 
haste," after reading Jamieson's letter, as he flew to 
the chamber of his wife in the second story of the 
eastern main building fronting to the north, where he 
" disclosed to her his dreadful position," urging her to 
burn all his papers, and informed her " that they must 
part for ever." 

This house has been kept from dilapidation and 
deca3 T by repairs, when needed, but in no way has it 
been changed from its original appearance. It has 
been roofed from time to time, as often as the wear 
and tear of the elements have rendered it necessary ; 
a new piazza has been added in the place of the for- 
mer one, but no alterations have been permitted, 
either inside or out, that has changed, in the least, its 
original shape and appearance. 

Beverly Robinson, who built it about 1750, was a 
Major in the British Army, under the gallant Gen. 
Wolfe, in the battle upon the Plains of Abraham. The 
lands, originally attached to the mansion, are of an 
excellent quality, and numbered one thousand acres, 
under a good state of cultivation. He married a 
beautiful, amiable, and accomplished lady, a descen- 
dant of the original patentee of Putnam County, by 
whom he acquired large tracts of land, and then re- 
tired from the army to the enjoyment of that domestic 
happiness upon his estates, which a rural life and such 
a partner are so well calculated to secure. He was 
for several years Supervisor of this town, and took an 
active part in everything that concerned its interests. 
The lands he acquired by his marriage with Miss 
Philips, was the water-lot, four miles square, and on 
which the " Robinson House", stands ; the first long- 


lot adjoining the water-lots on the east ; and the short- 
lot in the north-east part of the county. 

The reader, by turning to the diagram in the previous 
part of this work, will see the form of the partition 
made to the three heirs to whom it was devised, and 
those lots or divisions which Col. Robinson acquired 
with his wife. 

While residing at " Beverly," in this quiet and se- 
cluded retreat, where nought is heard but the sighing 
of the breeze, the murmurs of the rolling Hudson, the 
song of the robin, and the whoop of the whippo-will 
— surrounded by every comfort that the heart can 
desire, and dispensing a generous hospitality — the storm 
that had been long gathering between the Mother- 
Country and her Colonies burst forth, and he was 
summoned to the field, by virtue of the right of Eng- 
land's King, to demand the services of his native-born 
subjects in time of need. He obeyed the call with 
great reluctance, and it is said, pled hard to be al- 
lowed to remain in the bosom of his family, and in the 
quiet enjoyment of his rural pursuits. But the con- 
stant and unceasing solicitations of his influential 
and English friends, reminding him of his oath of alle- 
giance to his King and country — that he was a na- 
tive-born subject, and when his country had called 
him in days gone by, his soldier-like heart faltered *not 
on the Heights of Abraham, where he became eila- 
mored of her glory — at last prevailed under a sense of 
that stern system of teaching, which impresses on 
the soldier, as the first duty, obedience to superior 

Having removed his family to New York, he de- 
parted from his long loved " VaUambrosa," to the 


British army, in which he received a Brigadier-Gene- 
ral's commission. His family never returned to 
" Beverly," where they had spent so many years of 
unalloyed happiness ; but when the British army 
under Gen. Clinton moved up the Hudson after the 
battle of Fort Montgomery, it is said, he visited, 
and for the last time, his house, to which he was de- 
stined never more to return. 

Such men at this day are sometimes called " Tories." 
But is the charge just or true ? With a solemn re- 
gard for truth, we think not. When the reader shall 
have patiently examined all the facts up to the com- 
mencement of the Revolution in the life of Beverly 
Robinson, we think he will concur with us, that he 
was not a tory, nor can he be brought within the 
meaning of the word, as understood by the native- 
born patriots of the Revolution. Webster says that 
the word " tory" is " said to be an Irish word, denot- 
ing a robber." That "in America, during the Revo- 
lution, those who opposed the war, and favored the 
claims of Great Britain, were called tories." But this 
latter meaning and understanding of the word, as 
given by Webster, was, and could only be applied to 
native-born citizens of this country, and not to those 
born and brought up in the Mother-Country, who had 
passed more than half their lives in her standing 
armies. The latter class of persons, at the breaking 
out of the war, were just as much Englishmen, and 
subject to the laws and government of that country, 
although they had resided a few years in the colonies, 
as if they had always remained in England. How 
stands the case with respect to Col. Robinson ? He 
was not a native-born citizen of this country, and at 


the time he returned to the British army, we had not 
a national existence. To whom then did he owe 
alliegance ? not to us, for we did not exist at that 
time as an independent nation ;. not to the country, 
for he was not born here ; not to the land, for that he 
only held in right of his wife, in whom the title was 
vested ; and when it was confiscated by an act of the 
legislature, the reversionary interest was not affected, 
for "in 1809, John Jacob Astor bought the reversion- 
ary interest of the lands acquired by Beverly Robin- 
son by his marriage with Miss Philipse, and also those 
of Major Roger Morris, who married Miss Mary 
Philipse, sister to Col. Robinson's wife, off the heirs of 
both for $100,000." For this Mr. Astor received 
from the State, 10 years after, the small sum of $500,- 
000 ! Besides, after the battle of Quebec, in 1759, 
and the Treaty of Peace in 1763, whereby England 
became possessed of Canada, he had only retired, 
temporarily, as an officer, from the army, but was 
liable to be called on at any time by the British 
government, in case of war, to resume his rank there- 
in. He had been educated to the profession of arms, 
and " two generations of the Robinson family " had 
held commissions in the service of their country, and 
bore arms in wars waged by English kings. 

All offices, civil and military, that he had occupied, 
he had held under the government and laws of Great 

Had he been found at the head of an American 
regiment at the commencement of the war, by its 
rules and regulations, had he been taken, his govern- 
ment would have caused him to be shot. But the 
case is very different when applied to a native-born 



If an officer of his rank had left our army and re- 
sided a few years in Mexico, and during the present 
war with that nation should be captured in time of 
battle fighting at the head of hjs regiment, his chance 
for life would be feeble before a court martial ordered 
by Scott or " Old Rough and Ready." The law of 
nations does not permit a man to change his allegiance 
while his country is at war with another. The law 
makes it his duty in such an event to return, if it be 
possible, and offer his assistance in the hour of her 
need. It matters not whether the war be just or un- 
just on the part of his country, his inability to change 
his allegiance still continues. " It is the doctrine of 
the English law, that natural-born subjects owe an 
allegiance which is intrinsic and perpetual, and which 
cannot be divested by any act of their own." The 
fact also, that some native-born citizens of Great 
Britain, who had been officers in her armies, assisted 
in achieving the liberties of our countrv, alters not 
the case. Had they fought for their own country 
instead of ours, they would not, by so doing, have 
been tories. In no view of the case, therefore, ran 
we regard Beverly Robinson as one. 

The following extract is from the pen of the late 
Dr. Timothy Dwight, who, in 1788, was Chaplain of 
the army, and stationed at West Point, but resided 
with Gen. Putnam, who held his head-quarters at the 
" Robinson House :" 

" A part of this time I resided at the head-quarters of General 
Putnam, then commanding at this post ; and afterward of Gene- 
ral Parsons, who succeeded him in the command. These gen- 
tlemen lodged in the house of Col. Beverly Robinson ; a respect- 
able native of Scotland, who married a lady of the Phillips 


family, one of the wealthiest and most respectable of the pro- 
vince of New York. With this lady Col. Robinson acquired a 
large landed estate lying in Philipstown, Fredericktown, and 
Franklin, as they are now called j and for the more convenient 
management of it planted himself in this spot. Here he had a 
spacious and convenient mansion, surrounded by valuable 
gardens, fields, and orchards, yielding everything which will 
grow in this climate. The rents of his estate were sufficient to 
make life as agreeable as from this source it can be. Mrs. Rob- 
inson was a fine woman ; and their children promised every 
thing which can be expected from a very hopeful family. His 
immediate friends were, at the same time, persons of the first 
consequence in the province. 

" When the revolutionary war broke out, Col. Robinson was 
induced, contrary as I have been informed to his own judgment 
and inclination, by the importunity of some of his connections, 
to take the British side of the question. To him it appeared 
wiser and safer to act a neutral part, and remain quietly on his 
estate. The pressure, however, from various sources was so 
strong against him, that he finally yielded, and carried his family 
with him to New York, and thence to Great Britain. His pro- 
perty was confiscated by the legislature of New York, and his 
family banished from their native country. It was impossible for 
any person, who finds an interest in the affairs of his fellow-men, 
and particularly while residing in the very mansion where they 
had so lately enjoyed all which this world can give, not to feel 
deeply the misfortunes of this family. Few events in human 
life strike the mind more painfully than banishment ; a calamity 
sufficiently disastrous in the most ordinary circumstances, but 
peculiarly affecting when the banished are brought before us in 
the narrow circle of a family ; a circle, the whole of which the 
eye can see, and whose sufferings the heart can perfectly realize 
Peculiarly is this true, when the family in question is enlight- 
ened, polished, amply possessed of enjoyments, tasting them 
with moderation, and sharing them cheerfully with their friends 
and neighbors, the stranger and the poor." 

The circumstances attending the flight of Arnold 
from this house, and the arrival of Washington soon 


after, is described by one who visited ,it in 1840, and 
is extracted from the Knickerbocker for Sept. of that 
year : 

" The Commander-in-chief, at the time of the capture, was on 
his way from Hartford, and changing the route which he had first 
proposed, came by the way of West Point. At Fishkill he met 
the French minister, M. de la Luzerne, who had been to visit 
Count Rochambeau at Newport, and he remained that night with 
the minister. Very early next morning he sent off his luggage, 
with orders to the men to go with it as quickly as possible to 
4 Beverly,' and give Mrs. Arnold notice that he would be there 
at breakfast. When the General and his suite arrived opposite 
West Point, he was observed to turn his horse into a narrow 
road that led to the river. Lafayette remarked, ' General, you 
are going in a wrong direction ; you know Mrs. Arnold is wait- 
ing breakfast for us.' Washington good-naturedly remarked : 
1 Ah, I know you young men are all in love with Mrs. Arnold, 
and wish to get where she is as soon as possible. You may go 
and take your breakfast with her, and tell her not to wait for 
me : I must ride down and examine the redoubts on this side of 
the river. 1 The officers, however, with the exception of two of 
the aids, remained. When the aids arrived at ' Beverly,' they 
found the family waiting; and having communicated the message 
of General Washington, Arnold, with his family and the two aids, 
sat down to breakfast. Before they had finished, a messenger 
arrived in great haste, and handed General Arnold a letter, 
which he read with deep and evident emotion. 

" The self-control of the soldier enabled Arnold to suppress 
the agony he endured after reading-this letter. He arose hastily 
from the table ; told the aids that hi^ immediate presence was 
required at West Point ; and desired them so to inform General 
Washington, when he arrived. Having first ordered a horse to 
be ready, he hastened to Mrs. Arnold's chamber, and there, with 
a bursting heart disclosed to her his dreadful position, and that 
they must part, perhaps for ever* Struck with horror at the 

* We also visited this chamber, which remains unaltered. 
Over the mantel is carved in wood-work : " G. Wallis, Lieut. 
VI. Mass. Regt." 


painful intelligence, this fond and devoted wife swooned, and 
fell senseless at his feet. In this state he left her, hurried down 
stairs, and mounting his horse, rode with all possible speed to 
the river. In doing so, Arnold did not keep the main road, but 
passed down the mountain, pursuing a by-path through the woods, 
which Lieutenant Arden pointed out, and which is now called 
' Arnold's Path? Near the foot of the mountan, where the path 
approaches the main road, a weeping willow, planted there no 
doubt by some patriot hand, stands, in marked contrast with the 
forest trees which encircle and surround it, to point out to the 
inquiring tourist the very pathway of the traitor. 

" In our interesting visit, we were accompanied by the Super- 
intendent, Major Delafield, and in the barges kindly ordered for 
our accommodation, we were rowed to 'Beverly Dock,' and landed 
at the spot where Arnold took boat to aid his escape. He was 
rowed to the ' Vulture,' and using a white handkerchief, created 
the impression that it was a flag-boat : it was therefore suffered 
to pass. He made himself known to Captain Sutherland, of the 
Vulture, and then calling on board the leader of the boatmen 
who had rowed him off, informed him that he and his crew were 
all prisoners of war. This disgraceful and most unmanly ap- 
pendix to his treason, was considered so contemptible by the 
Captain, that he permitted the man to go on shore, on his parole 
of honor, to procure clothes for himself and comrades. This he 
did and returned the same day. When they arrived in New 
York, Sir Henry Clinton, holding in just contempt such a wanton 
act of meanness, set them all at liberty. 

"When General Washington reached Beverly, and was in- 
formed that Arnold had departed for West Point, he crossed di- 
rectly over, expecting to find him. Surprised to learn that he 
had not been there, after examining the works he returned. 
General Hamilton had remained at Beverly, and as Washing- 
ton and his suite were walking up the mountain road, from 
' Beverly Dock,' they met General Hamilton, with anxious face 
and hurried step, coming towards them. A brief and suppressed 
conversation took place between Washington and himself, and 
they passed on rapidly to the house, where the papers that 
Washington's change of route had prevented his receiving, had 
been delivered that morning ; and being represented to Hamilton 


as of great and pressing importance, were by him opened, and 
the dreadful secret disclosed. Instant measures were adopted to 
intercept Arnold, and prevent his escape, but in vain. General 
Washington then communicated the facts to Lafayette and 
Knox, and said to the former, more in sorrow than in anger, 
'Whom can we trust now?' He also went up to see Mrs. Ar- 
nold ; but even Washington could carry to her no consolation- 
Her grief was almost frenzied ; and in its wildest moods, she 
spoke of General Washington as the murderer of her child. It 
seemed that she had not the remotest idea of her husband's trea- 
son ; and she had even schooled her heart to feel more for the 
cause of America, from her regard for those who professed to 
love it. Her husband's glory was her dream of bliss — the re- 
quiem chant for her infant's repose ; and-she was found, alas ! 
as many a confiding heart has oft been found, 

" ' To cling like ivy round a worthless thing.' " 
The following extract, concerning the traitor's 
career subsequent to his treason, is taken from a 
writer to the New Haven Palladium. The great 
moral lesson which his life affords, cannot be im- 
pressed too deeply upon the minds of the young and 
rising generation of our country : 

" The close of Arnold's ignominious career was characterized 
by the loss of caste and the respect of everybody. A succession 
of personal insults and pecuniary misfortunes followed hia 
treason, and deep abiding retribution was fully meted out to the 
degraded culprit long before he died. 

" An elderly lady of cultivated mind resides in Massachusetts, 
whose early social intimacy with Arnold and his family at St. 
John's, New Brunswick, gave her peculiar opportunities for 
knowing many details concerning the close of his miserable 
career. Subsequently to the termination of the Revolutionary 
war, and after the perpetration of various atrocities against his 
countrymen, Arnold went to England and received a commission 
in the British army. He was frowned upon by the officers, and 
everywhere received with contempt, if not indignation. Various 
public insults were offered to him, and in private life he was the 
object of perpetual scorn. 


" Soon after Arnold threw up his commission in disgust, and 
removed to St. John's. He there engaged in the West India 
trade, becoming as notorious for his depravity in business as he 
had been false to his country ; his integrity was suspected at 
various times, and on one occasion, during his sudden absence, 
his store was consumed, upon which an enormous insurance 
had been effected. The company suspected foul play, and a 
legal contest was the result. During this painful scene his 
family were greatly distressed, and the lady to whom allusion 
has been made, and who resided near Arnold's house, was re- 
quested to go and pass that trying season with them. That 
request, in the fair hand-writing of Mrs. Arnold, until recently j 
was in my possession, as well as a copy of a satirical hand- 
bill, describing Arnold's life, hundreds of which were circulated 
among the populace during his trial. Mrs. Arnold, in her note, 
says, ' the General is himself to-day,' meaning that he bore the 
insults with his usual firmness ; but she was alarmed herself, 
and wished for the presence of some female friend during the 
painful scene that followed. 

" The proof was not enough to condemn Arnold, but there was 
enough detected of foul play to vitiate his policy. From that 
time the situation of Arnold at St. John's became even more un- 
comfortable, and that of his family more distressing. Mrs. Ar- 
nold was treated with great kindness, but he was both shunned 
and despised. She was a lady of great delicacy and refinement, 
with a mind cultivated with more than ordinary care; and, of 
course, her sufferings were rendered acute by the imputations 
against her husband's integrity, aside from his treason. They 
shortly left St. John's and went to England, where Arnold be- 
came lost to the public eye, and died in degradation and obscur- 
ity in London, June 14th, 1801, sixty-one years of age." 

Connected with the history of this house, we give 
the following extract from the pen of a writer in the 
New Jersey Telegi aph* Whether "Miss Mary 
Phillipse " was the first love of Washington, we know 

* We have recently been informed that it is from the accom- 
plished pen of Gen. George P. Morris. 


not ; nor have we ever before seen it stated by any 
writer. The historical events related are true, and 
the filling up, if from the writer's fancy, is interesting 
as connected with Revolutionary scenes : 


" In 175G — twenty years before the brilliant era which shines 
like a rich gem in the pages of the world's history — a gentleman 
named Beverly Robinson occupied a dwelling (situate in New 
York), which, at that time, was considered a model of elegance 
and comfort, although, according to the prevailing taste of the 
present day, it was nothing of the kind. It was standing, very 
little altered from its original condition, six years ago, on this 
side of the Hudson river, within two or three miles of West 
Point. Mr. Robinson enjoyed all the luxuries known to the 
colony, and some beside, which the other colonists did not know 
— for instance, a rich and massive silver tea urn, said, by the 
gentleman's descendants, to be the first article of this kind, and 
for a long time the only one, used in this country. In this dwell- 
ing, so much admired, the space between the floors and ceiling 
was exceedingly low, and in many of the rooms (set off, about 
the fire-places, by polished tiles) the rafters were massive and 
uncovered ; and all things else in the structure were exceedingly 
primitive. In this house were born or reared a brood of the 
most prominent and inveterate foes to the patriots of the Ameri- 
can Revolution, and the object of that struggle, that history 
mentions. Two generations of the Robinson family bore arms 
and held offices in the armies of the English King, and fought 
determinedly against our sires and grandsires. 

"Well, in this house — which will have already attached itself 
to the interest of the reader — the only victory that was ever 
gained over George Washington took place. 

"In 1756, Colonel George Washington of Virginia, a large 
stalwart, well-proportioned gentleman, of the most finished de- 
portment and careful exterior ; a handsome, imposing, ceremo. 
nious, and grave personage — visited his firm and much-esteemed 
friend, Beverly Robinson, and announced his intention of re- 
maining his guest for many weeks. A grinning negro attend- 



ant, called Zeph, was ordered to bring in his master's portman- 
teau, additional fuel was cast into the broad and cheerful fire- 
place, an extra bottle of prime old Madeira was placed upon the 
table, whose griffin feet seemed almost twice the original size at 
the prospect of an increase of social hilarity, and Colonel Wash- 
ington was duly installed as a choice claimant of old-fashioned 
and unrestrained hospitality. Seated with Mr. and Mrs. Robin- 
son, overwhelmed with attention, and in possession of every com- 
fort, the visitor evinced unquiet and dissatisfaction . Every sound 
of an opening or closing door aroused him from apathy, into 
which he relapsed when it was ascertained that no one was 
about to enter the apartment. His uneasiness was so apparent 
that his host at last endeavored to rally him, but without effect. 
Mrs. Robinson finally came to the rescue, and addressed the 
Colonel in direct terms. 

" ' Pray, friend Washington, may we be made acquainted with 
the cause of your dullness 1 — There is some reason for it, and 
that reason lies with us. Tell it.' 

" In vain the Colonel argued that nothing had occurred to 
vex him — that he was not in want of any farther inducement to 
present or future happiness. His entertainers would not regard 
his words, but continued their pertinacious endeavors to solve 
his mystery. At length, wearied by importunity, Washington — 
then twenty years before his greatness — leaned over the table, 
played with his glass, attempted to look unconcerned, and 
whispered to Mr. Robinson the single word, ' Mary.' 

"'Yes? responded Mr. R. interrogatingly, as if unable to 
comprehend Washington's meaning. 

" ' Is she well '? Does she still abide with you V 
" ' She does,' replied the lady of the mansion. 
"Washington again became apathetic and contempkitivc, 
while several significant glances passed between the gentleman 
and his wile. Some five minutes were spent in perfect silence, 
which was only interrupted by the exit of Mrs. R. from the apart- 
ment ; she speedily returned, accompanied by a beautiful joung 
lady, whom Washington, with a countenance beaming joyfully, 
arose to greet with becoming respect. 

" The young lady was Mary Philiipse, sister of Mrs. Robinson, 
and daughter of the owner of the Philiipse' estate. 


" It was, perhaps, singular ; but the time of her appearance and 
the period of the return of Washington's cordiality, was inci- 
dental. Strange as it was, too, midnight found this young lady 
and Virginian Colonel alone, and in deep conversation. The 
conjugal twain who had kept them company in the early part 
of the evening, had retired to their bed-chamber. More remark- 
able than all, day-light found this company still together. The 
candles were burned down to the sockets of the sticks, and the 
fire-place, instead of exhibiting a cheerful blaze, harbored only a 
gigantic heap of ashes and a few embers. What could have 
prolonged that interview ! Not mutual love ; for the parties 
preserved a ceremonious distance, and the young lady evinced a 
hauteur that could be matched only by her companion in after 
years. And yet, the truth must be told. There was love on one 
side ; the Colonel, smitten by the graces and rare accomplish- 
ments of a lady as beautiful as nature's rarest works, was en- 
deavoring to win her heart, in exchange for his own. He made 
his confession just as the cold grey of the dawn of the morning 
broke up the dark clouds in the east. He confessed, in cautious 
and measured terms, it is true, the extent of his passion, and 
avowed what it was his earnest hope would be the result ; that 
it was the gain of her heart. The lady hesitated. Was it the 
modesty of the maiden who dares not trust her lips with the 
confession of affection it is her heart's desire to make ? She re- 
spected, although she did not love her interlocutor, and she felt 
diffident in making known to him the true state of her feelings. 
At last, candor triumphed over delicacy ; she informed Washing- 
ton, in set terms, that she loved another ! She refused him ! 
The greatest of modern men was vanquished, and by a woman ! 
He was speechless and powerless. 

"Trembling with compressed lips, and a countenance ashy 
pale, he crept from the place just as the old negress of the house- 
hold entered to make preparation for the breakfast. He sought 
his room, threw himself upon his couch, dressed as he was, and 
lapsed into a troubled sleep. The only victory ever won at his 
expense penetrated him to the soul. He was unhappy— su- 
premely wretched ! The future conqueror of thousands of brave 
men suffered because he had been rejected by a female. This 
was his first but not his last wooing. 


"Years rolled on upon the mighty tide of time. George 
Washington was commander-in-chief of the American forces op- 
posed to the royal government. The friend of his early man- 
hood, Beverly Robinson, was the Colonel of the Loyal American 
regiment raised in this State, and his son was the Lieutenant 
Colonel. The house we have spoken of was in possession of 
the ' rebels,' and was occupied by Arnold, the traitor. It was 
afterwards the temporary residence of Washington* At the 
same time the husband of Miss Mary Phillipse, Roger Morris, 
was a prominent tory, and a member of the council of the colony. 
Few of the parties were occupied by any reflections of an amor- 
ous nature. Time, in its progress, had worked mutations which 
had severed the closest ties, both of friendship and consanguin- 
ity. Those who were most intimate previous to the commence- 
ment of the war, were studied strangers, with drawn swords at 
each others' breasts. Even sons and fathers were estranged and 
arrayed in opposite ranks — even the child of that illustrious 
statesman, Dr. Franklin, was a bitter and uncompromising tory. 
It must not be supposed that the loyalist friends of Colonel George 
Washington shared any better fate, so far as the acquaintance- 
ship of the Father of his Country was concerned, than others. 
His old Hudson River friends he had not seen for years. The 
husband of Mary Phillipse was personally unknown to him. 
Beverly Robinson, grown grey and care-worn, would scarcely 
have been recognized. 

" Andre was taken and condemned to death, and while under 
General Woodhull's charge, was visited by Mr. Robinson in the 
capacity of a species of a commissioner, which protected his per- 
son. What was the surprise of Washington, a few days before 
the time of the execution, to receive a letter from his old friend 
and entertainer, referring to past events, and claiming on a score 
of reminiscence, a secret or private interview. The claim was 
acknowledged, and late at night Mr. Robinson, accompanied by a 
figure closely muffled in a cloak, was admitted to the General's 

* Before Sir Henry Clinton, or any other person knew of 
Arnold's defection and Andre's projects, Beverly Robinson was 
in possession of all the facts. A great grandson of his now 
practices law, or did, not long ago, in this city. 


apartment. For a moment these two men, their position so 
widely different, gazed at each other in silence. 

" Recollections of days gone by, of happy days uncorroded 
by cankering care, prevailed, and they abruptly embraced. 
Washington was the first to recover his self-possession. Sud- 
denly disengaging himself, he stood erect and clothed in that 
unequalled dignity which was his attribute, and said : 

" ' Now, sir, your business.' 

" ' Is,' replied Robinson, in a choking voice, ' to plead for 

" ' You have already been advised of my final determination,' 
replied Washington, sternly. 

" ' Will nothing avail V asked Robinson, in smothered ac- 

" ' Nothing ! Were he my own son he should pay the penalty 
due his offence. I know all you will say : you will speak of 
his virtues ; his sisters : his rank, and of extenuating circum- 
stances : perhaps endeavor to convince me of his innocence.' 

" Robinson struggled with his emotions a few seconds, but un- 
able to repress his feelings, he spoke but a single word, with 
such a thrilling accent that he started at the sound of his own 
voice. That word was George I 

"'General Washington, Colonel Robinson,' responded the 
great patriot, laying great stress on each military title. 

" ' Enough,' said the other. ' I have one more argument ; if 
that fails me I have done. Behold my friend !' 

" ' Your friend ! Who is he 1 What is his name V 

" One other single word was spoken as the heavy cloak, in 
which the mysterious friend was clothed, fell to the floor and 
exposed the mature figure of Mrs. Morris, and that word, utter- 
ed with a start by Washington, was Mary ! The suspense was 
painful but brief. 

" ' Sir,' said Washington, instantly recovering, ' this trifling is 
beneath your station and my dignity. I regret that you must go 
back to Sir Henry Clinton with the intelligence that your best 
intercession has failed. See that these persons are conducted 
beyond the lines in safety,' continued he, throwing open the 
door of the apartment, and addressing one of his aids. 



" Abashed and mortified, Mr. Robinson and his sister-in-law* 
took their leave. The woman had gained a conquest once, but 
her second assault was aimed at a breast invulnerable." 

The following is an extract of a letter from a gen- 
tleman, dated Tappan, October 2, 1780, and published 
in the Boston Gazette under date of October 16, of 
that year, " detailing the villany of Arnold and the 
capture of the unfortunate Andre. It furnishes a 
good and interesting account of that remarkable and 
critical incident in the scenes of the war of the Revo- 

" You will have heard before you can receive this, of the in- 
fernal villany of Arnold. It is not possible for human nature 
to receive a greater quantity of guilt than he possesses : per- 
haps there is not a single obligation, moral or divine, but that 
he has broken through. It is discovered now, that in his most 
early infancy, hell marked him for her own, and infused into 
him a full proportion of her diabolical malice. 

" His late apostacy is the summit of his character. He began 
his negotiations with the enemy, to deliver up West Point to 
them, long before he was invested with the command of it, and 
whilst he was still in Philadelphia ; after whicn he solicited the 
command of that post, for the ostensible reason, that the wound 
in his leg incapacitated him from an active command in the field. 
It was granted to him on the 6th of August last. 

" Since which he has been as assiduous as possible in ripen- 
ing his plans, but the various positions the army assumed, pre- 
vented their being put into execution. 

"On the night of the 21st ultimo, he had an interview with 
Major Andre, the Adjutant-General of the British Army. This 
gentleman came on shore from the Vulture man-of-war, which 
lay not far from Teller's Point, to a place on the banks of the 
river, near to the Haverstraw mountain, where he met Arnold, 

* " Her husband had been an aid of Braddock, and had been 
the companion in arms of General Washington." 



who conducted him to the house of Joshua Smith (the white 
house), within our lines, and only two miles from Stony Point. 
They arrived in the house just before day, and stayed there until 
the next evening, when Major Andre became extremely solicit- 
OU8 to return by the way he came, but that was impossible, for 
the two men whom Arnold and Smith had seduced to bring on 
shore, refused to bring him back. It then was absolutely ne- 
cessary he should return to New York by land. He changed his 
dress and name, and thus disguised, passed our post of Stony 
and Verplank's Points, on the evening of the 22nd ult., in com- 
pany with the said Joshua Smith, brother to William Smith, 
Esq., Chief Justice within the British lines; he lodged that 
night at Crom Pond, with Smith, and in the morning left 
Smith, and took the road to Tarry Town, where he was taken 
by some militia lads about 15 miles from King's bridge. He 
offered them any sum of money, and goods, if they would per- 
mit him to escape, but they readily declared and inflexibly ad- 
hered to it, that 10,000 guineas, or any other sum, would be no 
temptation to them. It was by this virtue, as glorious to Ame 
rica as Arnold's apostacy is disgraceful, that his abominable 
crimes were discovered. 

41 The lads in searching him, found concealed under his stock- 
ings, in his boots, papers of the highest importance, viz. : — 

" 1. Returns of the ordnance and its distributions at West 
Point and its dependencies. 

"2. Artillery orders, in case of an alarm. 

" 3. Returns of the number of men necessary to man the works 
at West Point, and its dependencies. 

" 4. Remarks on the works at West Point, with the strength 
and working of each. 

"5. Returns on the troops at West Point, and their distribu- 

" 6. State of our army, &c, transmitted by General Washing- 
ton to Arnold, for his opinion, which state had been submitted 
to all the general officers in the camp, for their opinions. 

" Besides which it appears, that Arnold had carried with him 
to the interview, a general plan of West Point and its vicinity, 
and all the works, and also particular plans of each work on a 
large scale, all elegantly drawn by the engineer at that post. 


But these were not delivered to Major Andre, and from their re- 
quiring much time to copy, it is supposed they were not to he 
delivered until some future period. 

" From some circumstances, it appears that it was not Ar- 
nold's intention to have deserted, but that he meant to he taken 
at his post, which, from his distribution of the troops, it was 
very easy to have seized. 

" His Excellency, the General, on his return to camp, deter- 
mined to visit West Point, and in pursuance of that plan, was 
viewing some redoubts which lay in his way to Arnold's quar- 
ters. He had sent out servants there, and Major Shaw and Dr. 
McHenry had arrived, and were at breakfast with the traitor 
when he received intelligence by letter of Andre's being taken. 
His confusion was visible, but no person could divine the cause. 
He hurried to his barge with the utmost precipitation, after hav- 
ing left word that ' he was going over to West Point and should 
be back immediately.' This was about ten in the morning of 
the 25th ultimo. 

" The General proceeded to view the works, wondering where 
Arnold should be ; but about 4 o'clock in the afternoon he was 
undeceived, by an express with the papers taken on Andre. The 
apostate at this time was on board the Vulture, which lay about 
five or six miles below Stony and Verplank's Points. 

" Major Andre was brought to the General at West Point, and 
from thence he was brought to this camp. A board of general 
officers have examined into his case, and upon his own most 
candid confession, were of opinion that he was a spy, and ac- 
cording to the custom and usages of nations, he ought to suffer 
death ; and about two hours ago he was executed. 

" This gentleman was in the highest degree of reputation in 
the British army, of the most polite and accomplished manners, 
extremely beloved by Sir Henry Clinton. His deportment while 
a prisoner was candid and dignified. He requested no favor, but 
to die the death of a soldier, and not on a gibbet. Rigorous policy 
forbade granting a favor which at first flash seems immaterial. 
Our army sympathizes in the misfortunes of the Chesterfield of 
the day. But if he possessed a portion of the blood of all the 
Kings on earth, justice and policy would have dictated his death. 


" The enemy, from hints that some of the officers dropped, ap- 
peared to be inclined to deliver Arnold into our hands for Major 
Andre. But they since declared it was impossible. If it could 
have been effected, our desire to get Arnold would have rendered 
the exchange easy on our part. 

" The British army are in the utmost affliction on the account 
of Major Andre, and have sent repeated flags on the subject. 
Yesterday they sent General Robertson, Andrew Elliot, and Wil- 
liam Smith, Esqrs. — the two latter were not permitted to land. 
General Green met General Robertson ; he had nothing material 
to urge — ' but that Andre had come on shore under the sanction 
of a flag, and therefore could not be considered as a spy ;' but 
this is not true, for he came at night, had no flag, and on busi- 
ness totally incompatible with the nature of a flag. He also 
said they should retaliate on some people at New York and 
Charlestown ; but he was told that such conversation could 
neither be heard nor understood. After which, he urged the re- 
lease of Andre on motives of humanity, and because Sir Henry 
Clinton was much attached to him ; and reasons equally absurd. 

" I have been particular in this narration, well knowing what 
strange stories you will have on the subject." 

The following is a copy of a letter from Major 
Andre to His Excellency Gen. Washington : 

" Sir, — Buoyed above the fear of death, by the consciousness 
of a life spent in the pursuit of honor, and fully sensible that it 
has at no time been stained by any action, which at this serious 
moment could give me remorse — I have to solicit your Excellen- 
cy, if there is anything in my character which excites your 
esteem ; if aught in my circumstances can impress you with 
compassion ; that I may be permitted to die the death of a sol- 
dier. — It is my last request, and I hope it will be granted. 

" I have the honor to be," &c. 

" Major Andre's Defence. 
"A correspondent of the New York Daily Advertiser, who 
seems to be fortunately in the possession of sundry curious old 
papers and other memorials of the past, as well as of correspond- 


ing knowledge and memory, has furnished for the columns of 
that paper a document which we do not remember to have ever 
seen before — the defence read by Major Andre before the Court 
which condemned him to death as a spy. We have no doubt that 
it will be read with lively interest by many : 

" ' I came,' he said, ' to hold a communication with a general 
officer of the American army, by the order of my own comman- 
der. I entered the American lines by an unquestionable author- 
ity — when I passed from them it was by the same authority. I 
used no deception. I had heard that a provincial officer had re- 
pented of the course he had taken, and that he avowed that he 
never meant to go as far as he had gone, in resisting the author- 
ity of his king. 

" ' The British commander was willing to extend to him the 
King'6 clemency— yea, his bounty — in hopes to allure others to 
do the same. I made no plans. I examined no works. I only 
received his communications, and was on my way to return to 
the army, and to make known all that I had learned from a 
general officer in .your camp. Is this the office of a spy! I 
never should have acted in that light, and what I have done is 
not in the nature of a spy. I have noted neither your strength 
nor weakness. If there be wrong in the transaction, it is mine 1 
The office of a spy a soldier has the right to refuse ; but, to 
carry and fetch communications with another army, I never heard 
was criminal. The circumstances which followed after my in- 
terview with General Arnold, were not in my power to control. 
He alone had the management of them. 

• " 'It is said that I rode in disguise. I rode for security incog. , 
as far as I was able, but other than criminal deeds induced me 
to do this. I was not bound to wear my uniform any longer 
than it was expedient or politic. I scorn the name of a spy; 
brand my offence with some other title, if it change not my pun- 
ishment, I beseech you. It is not death I fear. I am buoyed 
above it by a consciousness of having intended to discharge my 
duty in an honorable manner. 

" ' Plans, it is said, were found with ine. This is true ; but 
they were not mine. Yet I must tell you honestly that they 
would have been communicated if I had not been taken. They 


were sent by General Arnold to the British Commander, and I 
should have delivered them. From the bottom of my heart I 
spurn the thought of attempting to screen myself by criminating 
another; but so far as I am concerned, the truth shall be told, 
whoever suffers. It was the allegiance of General Arnold I 
came out to secure. It was fair to presume that many a brave 
officer would be glad at this time to be able to retrace his steps ; 
at least, we have been so informed. Shall I, who came out to 
negotiate this allegiance only, be treated as one who came to 
spy out the weakness of a camp 1 If these actions are alike, I 
have to learn my moral code anew. 

" ' Gentlemen, officers, be it understood that I am no suppliant 
for mercy; that I ask only from Omnipotence — not from human 
beings. Justice is all I claim — that justice which is neither 
swayed by prejudice, nor distorted by passion, but that which 
flows from honorable minds, directed by virtuous determinations. 
I hear, gentlemen, that my case is likened to that of Capt. Hale, 
1775. I have heard of him and his misfortunes. I wish that 
in all that dignifies men, that adorns and elevates human nature, 
I could be named with that accomplished but unfortunate officer. 
His fate was wayward, and untimely was he cut off, yet younger 
than I now am. He went out, knowing that he was assuming 
the character of a spy. He took all its liabilities into his hand, 
at the request of his great commander. He was ready to meet 
what he assumed, and all its consequences. His death the law 
of nations sanctioned. It may be complimentary to compare me 
with him, still it would be unjust. He took his life in his hand 
when he assumed the character and the disguise. I assumed no 
disguise, nor took upon myself any other character than that of 
a British officer who had business to transact with an American 

" 'In fine, I ask not even for justice ; if you want a victim to 
the manes of those fallen untimely, I may as well be that vic- 
tim as another. I have, in the most undisguised manner, given 
you every fact in the case. I only rely on the proper construc- 
tion of those facts. Let me be called anything but a spy. I am 
not a spy. I have examined nothing, learned nothing, commu- 
nicated nothing, but my detention, to Arnold, that he might 


escape if he thought proper so to do. This was, as I conceived, 
my duty. I hope the gallant officer, who was then unsuspicious 
of his general, will not be condemned for the military error he 

" ' I farther state that Smith, who was the medium of communi- 
cation, did not know any part of our conference, except that 
there was necessity for secrecy. He was counsel in various 
matters for General Arnold, and from all the interviews I had 
with him ; and it was Smith who lent me this dress-coat of crim- 
son, on being told that I did not wish to be known by English 
or Americans. I do not believe that he had even a suspicion of 
my errand. On me your wrath should fall, if on any one. I 
know your affairs look gloomy ; but that is no reason why I 
should be sacrificed. My death can do your cause no good. Mil- 
lions of friends to your struggle in England, you will lose, if 
you condemn me. I say not this by way of threat ; for I know 
brave men are hot awed by them — nor will brave men be vin- 
dictive because they are desponding. I should not have said a 
word had it not been for the opinion of others, which I am bound 
to respect. 

" ' The sentence you this day pronounce will go down to pos- 
terity with exceeding great distinctness on the page of history ; 
and if humanity and honor mark this day's decision, your names, 
each and all of you, will be remembered by both nations when 
they have grown greater and more powerful than they now are. 
But, if misfortune befals me, I shall in time have all due honors 
paid to my memory. The martyr is kept in remembrance when 
the tribunal that condemned him is forgotten. I trust this hon- 
orable Court believes me, when I say that what I have spoken 
was from no idle fears of a coward. I have done.'" 

The following recapitulation of the judgment of 
the Court Martial before whom Major Andre was 
tried, the order by Washington approving the same, 
and directing its execution, is taken from the " Revo- 
lutionary Orders " of the Commander-in-Chief, edited 
by Henry Whiting, Lieut. Col. U. S. Army, from the 
manuscripts of his father, John Whiting, Lieut, and 
Adjutant of the 2d Regt. Mass. Line : 


" No 80. Head Quarters, Orange Town, October 1st, 1780. 

" The Board of General Officers* appointed to examine into 
the case of Major Andre, have reported — 1st, That he came on 
shore from the Vulture Sloop of War in the night of the 21st of 
September last, on an interview with General Arnold, in a pri- 
vate and secret manner ; 2ndly, That he changed his dress with- 
in our lines, and under a feigned name and disguis'd habit, 
pass'd our works at Stoney and Verplank's Points the evening 
of the 22nd of September last, and was taken the 23rd of Sep- 
tember last, at Tarrytown, in a disguis'd habit, being then on 
his way to N. York, and when taken, he had in his possession 
several papers which contained intelligence for the Enemy. 

" The Board having maturely consider'd those facts, do also 
report to his Excellency, General Washington, that Major Andre, 
Adjutant-General of the British Army, ought to be considered as 
a Spy from the Enemy, and that, agreeably to the law and usage 
of Nations, it is their opinion that he ought to suffer death. 
The Commander-in-Chief directs the execution of the above sen- 
tence, in the usual way, this afternoon, at 5 o'clock."! 

Beverly Dock. — This dock was built by Beverly 
Robinson, whose christian name it bears, soon after 
erecting his mansion. Originally it was about twenty 
feet long from east to west, and ten feet wide from 
north to south. It is built against the base of a small 
rocky promontory projecting in a southerly direction 
into the Hudson, between which and the high-grounds 
on the east, is a small, narrow swale, covered with 
long, rank water-grass. The mountain-road leading 

* " The Board referred to consisted of Major-Gen. Greene, as 
President, and Major-Generals Marquis La Fayette and Baron 

•j- " In the ' After General Orders,' it was announced that ' the 
execution of Major Andre is postponed till to-morrow.' In the 
1 Evening Orders,' of the same date, it was announced, ' Major 
Andre is to be executed to-morrow at 12 o'clock precisely. A 
battalion of eighty files from each wing to attend the execution.' " 


to this dock, alluded to by different writers, com- 
mences about fifty rods north of the "Robinson House," 
on the west side of the road, and runs in a south- 
westerly direction, crossing the high and rocky grounds 
near the river, and descending into the north end ,of 
the swale, winds along the eastern base of the rocky 
barrier, separating it from the river, to the " Dock." 
A section of the Hudson River Railroad is now being 
cut through this rocky barrier, nearly grazing the 
eastern side of the " Dock." This is " the mountain 
road Gen. Washington and his suite were walking up 
from Beverly Dock," when General Hamilton met 
him, and taking him to one side, briefly informed him 
of Arnold's treason, the undoubted evidence of which, 
in his own handwriting, had reached " Beverly," that 
morning, after Washington's departure to West Point 
to see the Traitor. 

We have followed the track he is said to have taken 
on his departure for the " Dock." About two rods 
south of the new corn-house built by Lieut. Arden, 
the accomplished and gentlemanly occupant of the 
premises, " whence no visiter departs, who can ever 
forget the generous Highland welcome," was a gate 
leading into the cleared field ; through this Arnold 
dashed, and crossing the field in the direction of the 
river, he passed through a second gate on its western 
side, entering the woods on the brow of a very steep 
and abrupt descent, and plunging down it on a gallop, 
he came into the mountain-road, a few rods north of 
the " Dock." His horse must have been as sure- 
footed as that of Putnam's, when he descended the 
steep hill at Horse Neck, to have carried him safely to 

the bottom. 



From this " Dock" Arnold entered his barge and 
departed from the Highlands never more to return. 
Standing upon the deck of some of the Hudson River 
steamers, we have often passed this little spot of revo- 
lutionary ground, and witnessed groups of travellers 
surveying the eastern shore of the Hudson with the 
Traveller's Guide Book in hand, eagerly inquiring, 
" Which is the 'Beverly Dock ?' " " Where is the spot 
where the Traitor took boat for the Vulture ?" 

In a Plymouth paper, in July, 1825, appeared the 
following notice of an application for a pension by 
one of Arnold's bargemen, detailing the manner of his 
departure from the " Beverly Dock," and copied by 
the Hon. S. W. Eager, in his History of Orange 
County, from which we extract it : 

"Application was made this week in this town for assistance 
in making out the necessary documents for a pension hy one of 
the bargemen in the barge that conveyed Gen. Arnold to the 
sloop of war Vulture. He was bow-oarsman in the boat, next 
in rank to the coxswain, whose name was James Larvey. His 
memory is remarkably accurate, and his veracity is unquestion- 
able. He is a brother to Mr. James Collins of this town. The 
day before the flight of Arnold, he brought him with Major An- 
dre, from Lawyer Smith's, below Stony Point, to the General's 
head qnarters. They conversed very little during the passage. 
The General told his aid, who was at the landing when they 
arrived, that he had brought up a relation of his wife. Arnold 
kept one of his horses constantly caparisoned at the door of his 
quarters, and the next morning soon after breakfast he rode down 
in great haste with the coxswain just behind him on foot. The 
coxswain cried out to the bargemen to come out from their quar- 
ters, which were hard-by, and the General dashed down the foot- 
path, instead of taking a circuit, the usual one for those who 
were mounted. The barge was soon made ready, though the 
General, in his impatience, repeatedly ordered the bow-man to 


push off, before all the men had mustered. The saddle and hol- 
sters were taken on board the barge, and Arnold, immediately 
after they had pushed off, wiped the priming from the pistols, 
and primed anew, cocked and half-cocked them repeatedly. He 
inquired of Collins if the men had their arms, and was told that 
the men came in such haste, that there were but two swords be- 
longing to himself and the coxswain. They ought to have 
brought their arms, he said. He tied a white handkerchief to 
the end of his cane for a flag in passing the forts. On arriving 
alongside of the Vulture he took it off and wiped his face. The 
General had been down in the cabin about an hour when the 
coxswain was sent for, and by the significant look and laughing 
of the officers, the men in the barge began to be very apprehen- 
sive that all was not right. He very soon returned, and told them 
that they were all prisoners of war. The bargemen were un- 
moved and submitted, as to the fortune of war, except two Eng- 
lishmen, who had deserted, and who were much terrified, and 

" The bargemen were promised good fare if they would enter 
on board the Vulture, but they declined and were handcuffed, and 
so remained for four days. Gen. Arnold then sent for them at 
New York. In passing from the wharf to his headquarters, the 
two Englishmen slipped aboard a letter of marque, then nearly 
ready to sail. The others, five in number, waited on Arnold, 
who told them they had always been attentive and faithful, and 
he expected they would stay with him. He had, he said, com- 
mand of a regiment of horse, and Larvey, you and Collins may 
have commissions, and the rest shall be non-commissioned offi- 
cers. Larvey answered that he could not be contented — he 
would rather be a soldier where he was contented, than an officer 
where he was not. The others expressed or manifested their 
concurrence in Larvey's opinion. He then gave the coxswain a 
guinea, and told them they should be sent back. At midnight 
they were conveyed to the Vulture, and next day sent on shore. 
This worthy and intelligent applicant perfectly remembers Major 
Andre's dress, when they took him up in the barge, from Smith's 
house to Arnold's quarters — blue homespun stockings — a pair of 
wrinkled boots, not lately brushed — blue cloth breeches, tied at 


the knee with strings — waistcoat of the same — blue surtout, but- 
toned by a single button — black silk handkerchief once round 
the neck and tied in front, with the ends under the waistcoat, and 
a flapped hat." 

It was in the beginning of August, 1780, that 
Arnold arrived at West Point, and established his 
head-quarters at the " Robinson House." Washington 
arrived there about the middle of September, and tar- 
ried a few days inspecting the posts, while the Vulture 
lay at anchor in the river below. In crossing one 
of the femes with Washington and his Staff, the ves- 
sel was seen at a distance, having on board, as Ar- 
nold well knew, Colonel Robinson, sent by Sir Henry 
Clinton to meet him. Washington watched the vessel 
with his glass, whilst Lafayette jocularly remarked, 
that Arnold ought to find out what had become of the 
expected naval reinforcements from France, as he had 
convenient modes of intercourse with the enemy. For 
a moment Arnold lost his presence of mind, and made 
a reply, the intemperance of which might have roused 
suspicions of any other man. But Washington enter- 
tained none, and the matter dropped. The next day 
(19th September) Washington continued his journey 
to Hartford, and Arnold was left to his unimpeded 
work of villany. His first step was to advise Sir 
Henry Clinton that he would be in attendance under 
due precautions, the next day, near Dobb's Ferry, 
ready to meet his messenger. The following hurried 
letter to a forage agent in the neighborhood, has never 
before been published, and bears date the day that 
Washington and Arnold parted. The autograph indi- 
cates hurry and agitation : 


" To Mr. Jefferson, Fredericksburg, N. Y. 

"Headquarters, Rob. House, September 19th, 1780. 

" Sir — You will please to pick out of the horses you have now 

in your custody, or which you may hereafter receive, a pair of 

the best wagon horses, as also two of the very best saddle horses 

you can find for my use. You'll send them to me as soon as 


" I am, Sir, your most obedient servant, 

"B. Arnold, M. General.' 1 * 


1. The " Robinson House" built by Col. Beverly 
Robinson, now owned by Richard D. Arden, Esq. 
In the Revolution, it was the Head Quarters of 
Arnold, Gen. Heath, and others who had charge of 
West Point and its out-posts. 

2. The old house now occupied by George Haight, 
about one mile south-east of Philips' paper-mill, on the 
road leading from John Garrison's to the Peekskill 
turnpike, near Henry Croft's. It was built by Daniel 
Haight, father of the present occupant. 

3. The old house where Cornelius Haight now lives, 
on the old post-road, about a mile south of Nelson's 
mill. It was built by John Rogers, and occupied by 
him during the French and Revolutionary war. 

4. The house where James Croft now lives. It 
was occupied in the Revolution by James Croft, 
father of Henry Croft, Esq. 

5. The old house now occupied by Edward Hop- 
per. It was built in 1772, by Richard, father to the 
present Edward Hopper, and occupied by him during 
the Revolution. 

* The original of this letter is in possession of Edward D. In- 
graham, Esq., of Philadelphia. 


6. The old house now occupied by John Mills 
Brown, on the old road leading from Continental Vil- 
lage to Bross's Landing, about one fourth of a mile 
below the mansion house of the Hon. John Garrison. 

7. The old house now occupied by John Hopper, 
on the old post-road, on the hill south of Nelson's 
mill. It was occupied during the Revolution, by 
Samuel Warren, grandfather of the Hon. Cornelius and 
Sylvanus Warren. 

8. The old house now occupied and owned by John 
Griffin, Esq., about three miles from Cold Spring, on 
the turnpike leading to Mill Town. It was built by 
Gilbert Budd, who lived there in 1750, and during the 

9. The old house where Thomas Jaycox recently 
lived, on the turnpike about two miles east of John 
Griffin's tavern. It was owned by James Jaycox. 

10. The house now occupied by the widow Miller. 
In the Revolution, it was occupied by Isaac Garrison. 

11. The old house where Jacob Denike lives. It 
was then occupied by Jacob Denike, deceased. 


By the mouth of tradition, it is asserted that a silver 
mine was discovered in this town, as far back as 1763. 
A man by the name of Jubar, coined money ; and it 
began to be rumored, that he obtained the ore in this 
town. An examination was set on foot by the King's 
government and the fact established, that the money 
coined by Jubar contained silver, mixed with other 
metals, but not in sufficient quantity to deceive a 
practised eye. If he had discovered a mine in this 
town, in which silver was mixed with other metals, its 


location was never known, but tradition places' it in 
the neighborhood of the Sunk Lot. He was arrested 
by order of the Colonial Government, tried at Pough- 
keepsie, found guilt/, and hung about the year 1765. 
A man by the name of Samuel Taylor, was associa- 
ted with him ; and on the arrest of Jubar, left this 
part of the country. He returned in the Revolution, 
or shortly after its close, became poor, and died " on 
the town." He always said that Jubar melted an ore, 
from which he extracted silver. 

According to tradition, the next discovery of a 
silver mine in this town, was made three or four years 
before the Revolution, by one Eleazer Gray, a sil- 
versmith by trade, who lived in the middle of the 
Sunk Lot. His father, John Gray, had a grist- 
mill in the Revolution, a short distance above Bun- 
ell's forge on the Sunk Lot. Eleazer put up a log 
shop to work the ore in. Squire Peterson and Bev- 
erly Robinson, hearing that the younger Gray had 
discovered a silver mine and was melting ore, went to 
his house for the purpose of ascertaining the truth of 
the reports. .Robinson, who was somewhat inclined 
to believe that he had discovered a mine, said to him, 
" Gray put up a shop by your house, and not work 
underhanded in the swamps, and you may have all 
the profits of it." But no bribe could tempt him to 
reveal what he professed to know respecting the 

In 1780, Edward Hopper, now living, went to John 
Gray's mill to get some grain ground. Gray told him 
that the water was low, and if he could wait till near 
night, he would then be able to grind his grain. Gray 
had a younger son than Eleazer, by the name of John, 


who proposed to Hopper to go, in the meantime, to 
the brook above and catch a mess of trout. The 
water being low, they could catch them with their 
hands. They left the mill and went a mile, and 
when near a swamp, young Gray said to Hopper, 
" Did you ever hear anything of Eleazer's mine ?" 
" Yes," replied Hopper. " We are close to it now," 
continued Gray. They came to a spot where a con- 
siderable quantity of rocks had been blown out. Mr. 
Hopper, now a very old man, says that there was a 
ledge of rocks a little west of the place, and a spring 
of water a few rods south of it. While loitering 
there, young Gray said to Hopper, " This is the best 
ore Eleazer ever found." Eight or nine years after- 
wards Mr. Hopper visited the same spot, and found 
that the blasted rocks had been removed, and the evi- 
dence thereof carefully covered up. 

Towards the latter part of the Revolution the 
Grays, in consequence ,of a parcel of horse-thieves 
having been seen at their residence, became sus- 
pected, and it was thought they were leagued with 
those midnight desperadoes. Their counterfeiting 
operations had leaked out and gave them an unenvia- 
ble notoriety. 

Their neighbors burnt their house, shop, and barn 
down with the view of inducing them to quit that 
part of the country. 

They then moved down to where James Croft now 
lives. Shortly afterwards the whole family moved 
down to Sugar Loaf, in Orange county, where the 
elder Gray, and his son Eleazer, died. 

About the year 1800, a man by the name of Henry 
Holmes was arrested for counterfeiting metal money 


in this town. It is said that he carried on his opera- 
tions in a cave or hole in the rocks near, or in the 
vicinity of the residence of Richard Denny. Holmes 
was from Westchester county, and is supposed to 
have had an accomplice who assisted him. His 
money contained so little of the precious metals, that 
the counterfeit was apparent to the most ordinary 
business man ; and when it was thrown against a hard 
body would break with the facility of a pipe-stem. 

Holmes was tried, found guilty, and sentenced to 
fhe State Prison for seven years. His supposed ac- 
complice, who made his moulds, was acquitted in 
consequence of an informality in the indictment. 

In 1812, Joseph Parks, Pelick Wixon, and Nathan- 
iel Tompkins, it is said, while engaged in making the 
Cold Spring turnpike discovered a lead mine, along 
the route of the road. They all went before Doctor 
Baily, a magistrate, by previous agreement, and made 
oath that neither of them would reveal the location 
of the mine while two of the three should be living. 
Parks, at that time, was overseer of the road. After 
the road was built he went to New Orleans, built a 
turnpike there, and returned to the city of New York, 
where he died. Tompkins and Parks then sent John 
Baily, a son of the Doctor, and the Magistrate before 
whom they mutually made oath, to buy the land. 
The price was agreed upon between the owner and 
young Baily ; but when the deed was made out, it 
contained a reservation of all mines and minerals on 
the land to be conveyed, and the deed was refused. 



Convicted of the murder of Abraham Wanzer, at the May term 
of the Putnam Oyer and Terminer in 1844 ; and his confession 
made to Benjamin Baily, Esq., his counsel. 

" At the October Term of 1843, George Denny, whom it was 
said was nearly eighteen years of age, but whose appearance 
denoted him to be much younger, was placed on his trial, charged 
with the murder of Abraham Wanzer, an old man, nearly eighty 
years of age, to which he pleaded not guilty. The evidence, 
which was similar to that given on the recent trial, it appears 
was not satisfactory to the jury, who were discharged, being un- 
able to agree. He was remanded to prison, and at the May 
Term of said court in 1844, was again put on his trial for the 
same charge — the Hon. Amassa J. Parktr, Judge of the Third 
Circuit, presiding. 

" It was shown on the part of the people by the widow of 
Mr. Wanzer, that the deceased lived in a retired part of Philips- 
town, in said county, in a small log-house, on a little spot of 
ground, which he cultivated — that about a year before the death 
of deceased, the prisoner returned a key which he acknowledged 
he had stolen from him — that deceased advised him to be a good 
boy, and never again be guilty of such a foolish transaction — that 
on the evening of the ninth of October, 1843, about eleven 
o'clock, some one raised the latch of their door ; she enquired who 
was there ? and was answered a friend ; she wished to know 
what a friend wanted at that time of night, and was replied to that 
he wished to stay all night ; that from the sound of his voice he 
appeared to be receding from their door during the conversation 
— that on the next morning, the 10th, she discovered that some 
one had laid in their barn the night previous — that she thought 
at the time, and also remarked to her husband, it was the priso- 
ner — that at intervals during the day, she heard the report of 
guns in the neighborhood of their house — that about seven 
o'clock the same evening, something like the gnawing of a dog, 
was heard at their door — the deceased opened the door, and 
called his little grand-daughter to know if it was not a neigh- 


bor's dog — she replied no, it was a black-back dog with short 
legs — that some one whistled, the dog left, and the deceased re- 
sumed his seat — that shortly after, something struck the end of 
their house, as if a stone had been thrown — that her husband 
went to ascertain the cause. In a few moments she heard the re- 
port of a gun ; and on going into their yard found deceased lying 
on his back dead, and that immediately, with her two little grand- 
daughters, she proceeded to the nearest neighbor, and gave the 

"The eldest of the two grand-daughters corroborated the 
testimony of Mrs. Wanzer in the main ; and on producing the 
dog of the prisoner in court, she said that it was the same she 
saw in front of their door on the evening of the death of her' 

" Wm. W. Johnson testified that he was a surgeon, that he 
examined the body of the deceased — that he found a wound in 
the left side, near the heart — that there were twenty-seven shot 
holes, and one bullet hole within a space of two inches diameter 
— that he extracted from the body two sizes of shot and one ball, 
corresponding in size and weight with balls handed to him by 
Francis Booth, which witness produced in court. 

" Abraham Knapp testified that he was a brother-in-law of 
the prisoner ; that on the morning of the ninth of October, 1843, 
the prisoner loaned his two-barrel gun, the dog produced in 
court, together with a shot bag and powder-horn, for the purpose, 
as prisoner said, of hunting — that he, witness, cast some balls 
the spring previous, in a mould which witness got of his father 
— that some of the balls were in his house a short time before 
the murder, that prisoner was in the habit of staying at witness's 
house, and had access to the balls — and that he lived about nine 
miles from the residence of deceased. 

" Lemuel Wixon testified that he, in company with Francis 
Booth, on the 11th of October, 1843, arrested the prisoner near 
Abraham Knapp's house, that they found with him the dog in 
court, a two-barrel gun, and a shot bag, but no powder-horn or 
balls — that there were three kinds of shot in his possession, and 
that the prisoner did not manifest any fears, and made no re- 


" Francis Booth corroborated Wixon, and further testified that 
he loaned the bullet moulds produced in court, of Abraham 
Knapp's father, and that he cast the balls he gave to Dr. Johnson 
in said moulds. 

" Thomas Davenport testified that he accompanied the pri- 
soner after his examination to the County jail, that on their way 
prisoner pointed out a stump about three miles from deceased's, 
and said that he shot at it on the day that Wanzer was killed in 
the evening— that he, witness, afterwards found three kinds of 
6hot in said stump, but no ball. 

" Marvin Wilson testified that in searching in an oat field on 
the east and adjoining the premises of deceased, about a week 
after his death, he discovered tracks made as if by some person 
in the act of running from deceased's house, that he took mea- 
sures to preserve them — that within five or six days he visited 
the jail and found the prisoner's boots and compared them with 
the tracks — that the boots were rights and lefts — that the heel 
of the left one was worn off on the inside — that he compared 
them with the tracks and they precisely fitted, and that the 
tracks led in the direction of a crossing place over the creek in a 
path leading from the deceased's to the Turnpike. 

"John Garrison testified that on the day of deceased's death, 
he saw a person about three miles east of his house, near the 
Turnpike, going into the woods, dressed as the witnesses de- 
scribed the prisoner to have been at the time of his arrest, and 
having with him a double barrel gun and a little dog. 

" Mary Denny testified that on the evening of deceased's 
death she heard the report of a gun ; she lived about half a mile 
east from his residence ; that after she had retired to rest, her dog 
barked, and on looking out of the window she saw a person 
passing east on the Turnpike with something like a staff or gun, 
and as she also thought a dog, and dressed similar to the pri- 
soner at the time of his arrest. 

" Paulina Conklin testified that on the day prisoner was ar- 
rested she saw him pass her house in the afternoon, going east- 
erly. Witness lived a little over three miles east from the de- 
" Joseph Derbyshire testified that three years before the pri- 


soner told him there were three or four he wanted to shoot, and 
if Mr. Wanzer did not hush up about the key he would be the 
first. Witness admitted he had had a difference with prisoner. 

" Peter Vantassel heard prisoner say he would have a drop of 
Wanzer's heart's-blobd, but could not tell when he heard it. 

" John A. Miller heard prisoner say the spring before, when 
asked if he had returned the key, that he would fix Wanzer yet. 

" Richard Laforce testified that about a month before the 
death of deceased he was confined with prisoner in Poughkeepsie 
jail — that prisoner said they had put him there for no good — that 
he was studying deviltry, and that when he got out there were 
three or four he meant to shoot. Witness claimed that he was 
confined for stealing honey in connection with prisoner, but that 
he was innocent. 

^' Here the testimony on the part of the people closed. For 
the following remarks as to the defence, the summing up of 
Counsel, the charge of the Court, and sentence of the prisoner, 
the writer is indebted to a friend, as he was not in a situation to 
report proceedings. 

" The prisoner proved in his defence that a person having a 
gun and small black dog, and dressed similar to himself, but be- 
ing a somewhat larger person, was seen on Tuesday morning 
10th October, a little distance east of Cold Spring, going easterly 
towards Wanzer's. 

" He also showed that a neighbor was at Wanzer's house 
about sunset on that evening with a gun. 

" He proved also, that he stated to a person, before he was 
arrested, he had been lost in the woods two or three days, with- 
out anything but chestnuts or grapes to eat, that he was not 
afraid, and that he was going to take the gun to Abraham 
Knapp's. He also proved that he was in the habit of going fre- 
quently two or three days without eating much of anything. 
He also showed by the witnesses for the prosecution that he 
made no attempt to escape or resist when he was arrested ; and 
on this defence rested his case. 

" The evidence was conducted on both sides throughout the 
whole examination with the greatest perseverance and faithful- 



" The summing up was commenced by Benjamin Baily, coun- 
sel for the prisoner, who in a clear and masterly speech of an 
hour and three-quarters, discharged his duty in behalf of the 
prisoner, in a most able, affecting, and faithful manner. 

" Frederick Stone, District Attorney, spoke on the part of the 
prosecution about an hour, briefly illustrating and presenting to 
the Jury the most material points of evidence against the pri- 
soner. He was followed by Thomas R. Lee, counsel for the pri- 
soner, who, in an able and indefatigable speech of three hours' 
length, reviewed all the evidence and showed with much clear- 
ness the great hazard of relying upon circumstantial evidence, 
which is generally more or less casual and perfidious. 

" William Nelson, Counsel on the part of the People, then 
closed the summing up of the cause, in a forcible and ingenious 
speech of two hours' and three-quarters length. 

" His Honor, Judge Parker charged the jury in a very able 

and eloquent manner, clearly presenting to their view all the 

most prominent and material points of the evidence given on the 

trial, which were calculated, either to criminate or to show the 

nnocence of the prisoner. 

" After receiving their charge, which occupied about an hour, 
the jury retired to their room, and in about four hours returned 
with a verdict of guilty. 

" On the last day of term the prisoner was brought in Court 
to hear his sentence. The Court ordered him to stand up, and 
asked him if he had anything to say why sentence should not 
be passed upon him. 

"He replied that he had nothing to say. 
" The Court then said to him, they must proceed to perform 
the most painful duty required by law — tjiat he had had a fair 
and impartial trial — that the counsel who were engaged for him, 
had defended his cause with the greatest care and faithfulness, 
which was creditable to themselves and honorable to their pro- 
fession — that there was no doubt of his guilt — that the evidence 
clearly established it, and that a jury had pronounced him guilty 
— that Abraham Wanzer, a peaceable citizen, living with his 
family in a retired spot, without a known enemy, respected by 
all who knew him, and advanced in old age, was called from his 


dwelling and shot without the least provocation — that such an 
act was sufficient to bring down the just indignation of every 
citizen upon the perpetrator of the deed — that it was their duty 
to search out the offender and inflict the full penalty of the law 
upon the wretch who could thus deliberately take the life of an 
inoffensive fellow-being — that it was extremely painful and 
grievous to see the great indifference and unconcern which he 
had manifested throughout the whole course of his imprisonment 
and trials — that owing to his age and condition the Court would 
give him the longest time before his execution, that the law 
would allow in his sentence — that he ought to take the whole 
time to reflect, and prepare himself for the judgment of another 
world — that there was an All-Seeing eye who saw him commit 
the deed — that he must not entertain any hopes of a pardon — 
that he ought to make a full confession of his guilt, as this was 
the first step towards repentance — that he ought sincerely to re- 
pent and prepare for the awful change that so soon awaited him 
— that he might yet find pardon before the Judge of a higher 

; - With these remarks, which from recollection we have briefly 
attempted to sketch, the Court sentenced him to be hanged by the 
neck on the 26th day of July next, between 5 o'clock A. M. and 
7 o'clock P. M., until dead." 


" To the Hon. Amasa J. Parker, 

" Dear Sir : — A few days after the sentence of the above 
named most singular and unfortunate individual, I had an inter- 
view with him. I found him engaged in reading his Bible. 
Having said that I was pleased to see him endeavoring to pre- 
pare for the awful doom which awaited him, and from which I 
presumed there was not the most distant hope of escaping, I re- 
quested him, as one who had taken a strong interest in his favor 
up to the time of his conviction, and who desired to lend his best 
efforts towards ensuring him peace in his last moments, to frankly 
and fully give me the history of himself, and especially of his par- 
ticipation in the crime of which he stood convicted. As I antici- 
pated, he declined. After conversing with him somewhat fur 


ther, he requested me to explain the meaning of the 22d verse of 
the 14th chapter of Romans. I gave it as my opinion that the 
passage to which he referred me was no obstacle to a confession ; 
and if he desired to place himself in a situation to understand 
what he read, it would be necessary for him to free his mind of 
the heavy burden, which I had every reason to believe was rest- 
ing upon it, by giving a full and perfect statement of the whole 
transaction. He at length consented, and gave it as follows : 

" I am about 18 years of age ; I was born in Putnam County. 
My mother died when I was an infant, as I am informed, insane. 
My father abandoned his wife and children a short time before 
my birth, unprovided for and unprotected. When I arrived to the 
age of eight years he returned and took with him my sister and 
myself to the State of Michigan, where we remained about one 
year, during which time he was convicted and sentenced to pri- 
son for two years, for robbing a store. He made his escape by 
digging under the walls, and returned to his suffering children. 
Within a few days he was retaken and imprisoned. My Sister 
about fourteen, and myself about eight years of age, without 
friends or necessary means, after many hardships, returned to my 
grandfather's in this county. That sister, from my infancy up 
to this moment, has been my warmest, and I can almost say my 
only friend, she has often given me good advice, and it is my 
earnest prayer that she may yet be rewarded. Here I would say 
to parents, and to all who have the charge of children, cultivate 
in them habits of industry and honesty, as I have every reason 
to believe, if my mind had been turned into the proper channel in 
my infancy, I should not be where I am. Two or three years 
after our return from Michigan, my father visited us and re- 
mained about one month. His mind appeared to have undergone 
a sad change since we had last seen him. He published a pam- 
phlet founded on the book of Revelations, in which he repre- 
sented himself as Jesus Christ. I recollect of his saying to my 
grandfather one day, that Buffalo was the promised land — that 
he should assemble all the people there, and amongst the number 
the Queen of England. I stepped up and told him he was a 
damned fool. He became very much enraged and pursued me 
out of the meadow, but I got out of his reach. The first inquiry 


he made of me was, ' George, are you old enough to handle the 
sword V He left, and we have never heard from him since. 

"During the time I lived with my grandfather I had an op- 
portunity to attend school, but having the privilege of doing as I 
pleased I seldom attended — my attendance at church came under 
the above rule. My grandmother indulged me in every evil 
habit, and my education in consequence is very limited. I can 
make out to read by spelling some of the words, but cannot 
write. When I pilfered money from my grandfather, which was 
not unusual, I was sure to find protection by appealing to my 
grandmother. With the boys of the neighborhood 1 bore the ap- 
pellation of 'the cunning little thief, 1 and many times have I been 
reproached and called a fool by some of my relations for ac- 
knowledging my thefts, which was usually the case if I was 
accused. With the exception of some trifles, and the money I 
took from my grandfather and Mr. Wanzefs key, the first I ever 
stole was §4,75, from Andrew Millers trunk, which I opened 
with Mr. Wanzer's key. I went on from one petty theft to 
another until I was compelled to leave my grandfather's for fear 
of an arrest, when I found my way to Shanandoah in the town 
of Fishkill. I remained there the better part of a year, sleeping 
in the barns, woods, and coal cabins of the neighborhood, until 
I was arrested in connection with Richard Laforce for stealing 
honey, and confined in Poughkeepsie jail. In justice to Richard 
Laforce I will take the first opportunity to state that he told the 
truth in his testimony, and that he was not concerned with me 
in taking the honey. After my discharge from Poughkeepsie 
jail I returned to Shanandoah. 

" On Monday morning, the 9th of October, 1843, I took Mr. 
Knapp's gun, dog, and ammunition, with five or six balls from 
the same mould produced on my trial, which I had before 
secured, and went into the woods with the intention of shooting 
partridges. When I left Mr. Knapp's I did not think of Mr. 
Wanzer, nor had any intention of going there. I strolled through 
the woods on that day, until I reached the Cold Spring Turn- 
pike, passing by Henry Concklin's on my way down, but they 
did not observe me. I shot at the stump I showed Esqr. Daven- 
port with both barrels of my gun on Monday. I followed the 




Turnpike until I reached Thomas Jaycox's. My thoughts at this 
time were very singular, and I suppose to many incredible, a 
partial description of which I will give in another place. I 
went to Benjamin Foreman's barn a little after dark, and slept 
there till, as I should judge, about eleven o'clock at night. 
There was something laying heavily on my mind. I wanted to do 
something, I could not tell what. I almost unconsciously left the 
barn, took a road leading to Isaac Jaycox's, and thence the road 
leading to Mr. Wanzev's. I went to his door and made a noise 
— took hold of the string and raised the latch. Mrs. Wanzer 
asked who was there ? I answered a friend. She inquired what 
a friend wanted that time of night ? I answered to stay all night. 
I walked away from the door, and laid my hat under a peach tree, 
about two rods distant. I stood there about five minutes, with 
my gun cocked and pointed towards the door, intending to shoot 
him if he opened it. He did not make his appearance, and I 
retired to his barn and slept there till sunrise the next morn- 
ing, when I went into the bushes and continued firing my gun 
at intervals in the neighborhood of his house all the day on 
Tuesday • once I shot at Mr. Wanzer's fowls. He was at work 
in his garden and buckwheat the most of the day. At one 
time I lay within thirty yards of him, with my gun pointed 
towards him, and said to myself, ' how I will pop him over to- 
night.' The family all went away at one time, and I took a 
circuitous route, thinking to go in the house, but on reflection 
the thought occurred to me, that they might return and find me 
there. I indulged the hope that Wanzer would come in the 
bushes, and I would shoot him there. As, soon as it was dark 
I went to his barn and thence to his dirt cellar, and then stood 
with my gun ready, thinking he would come out. He did come 
around the corner of his house but went in again immediately. 
I then went in front of the house, took off my hat and laid it 
under the same peach tree where I laid it the night before. I 
whistled to induce Wanzer to come to the door, but he did not 
come. I went up to the house and looked in at the window ad- 
joining the road. As I looked in, some of the family said, 
'hark.' Mr. Wanzer's gun stood up against the wall, he took 
it in his hand and went to the door. I stood ready to shoot him 
if he came to the corner of the house. I trembled very much all 


the time I was there. From thence I went by the dirt cellar 
into the road and put my gun through the fence. I stepped into 
the middle of the road, got a stone and threw it against the 
house. Within a minute after I saw Mr. Wanzer coming down 
the path with his gun in his arms. ' He came within a rod 
and a half of where I lay. My feelings were such that I 
did not take particular aim. I fired, intending to hit him in 
the breast, he sprung up, threw back his head, gave a loud 
groan, and fell apparently without bending, wheeling around 
at the same time. I then ran into the bushes and whistled for 
my dog eight or nine times — my dog followed, and I went on 
through the bushes. I did not go' through the oat field — I did 
not make the tracks Esqr. Wilson testified to. After a little 
time I stopped to think, and O ! how bitterly I regretted that I 
had shot Mr. Wanzer. I said aloud, 'How the devil will tempt 
any one, but he shall never tempt me to do the like again ; I will 
get my living hereafter by honest industry or die !' I felt ex- 
ceedingly dizzy, and did not know what to do. I loaded my 
gun, but could not recollect immediately after how it was 
charged. I then drew off the charge and reloaded it, to be certain 
it would go. I started and ran again, with such feelings as I 
cannot describe, until I came to a brook, which was running very 
rapid. Again I stopped to reflect — putting my hand on my head, 
I discovered my hat was gone. I involuntarily cried out, 'What 
have I done !' I made a struggle to collect my thoughts — at 
length it occurred to me that my hat was under the peach tree in 
front of the house. I thought it would betray me. I went up to 
the road Ino, my dog, ran up in the woods and barked : he 
was on the track of something. I said, ' That dog means to be- 
tray me yet.' When he returned I drew up my gun to shoot 
him, when the thought struck me that I should be heard. I 
mashed liim down with my hand, and sat down and listened. I 
pulled of my boots — left them in the road — took a circuitous route, 
and got my hat from under the peach tree. No one was at the 
house — the place was awfully still and solemn. I went on 
the road towards Isaac Jaycox's some distance, turned up in the 
woods on a side hill, and laid down all of an hour and a half. 
While laying there my dog went away. I had not proceeded far 


from that spot, when on feeling my pocket, I discovered that my 
powder-horn was gone. I went hack to search for the powder- 
horn, hut could not find the place where I had lain. Whilst 
searching for the horn, my dog met me. Returning to the place 
where I left my hoots, and putting them on, I followed the road 
towards Isaac Jaycox's a quarter of a mile, when I struck off in 
a southerly direction, expecting to come out in Isaac Jaycox's 
open fields, but came out by Samuel Denny's, the husband of 
Mary Denny, on the turnpike. Then I knew where I was. I 
passed by Samuel Denny's, but it was all of two hours after I 
shot Mr. Wanzer. I made an attempt to get in Joseph Ferris' 
barn, but failed. Leaving Mr. Ferris' barn, I followed the turn- 
pike to Thomas Jaycox's— took his buffalo skin, blanket, and 
whip from his barn, and lay in the woods till the sun was three- 
quarters of an hour high the next morning. Then taking a 
southerly course, I had not proceeded far when I was induced to 
stop for fear of wetting my gun, as the leaves were very damp. 
Shortly after I heard a rustling in the bushes behind me, and sup- 
posing it might be some one in pursuit, I proceeded on. I lay in 
sight of Andrew Miller's house some time. Whilst there, Dan- 
iel Ferris' boy rode up to Miller's on a horse, and told Mrs. Miller 
that Uncle Wanzer was shot the night before, and that they sus- 
picioned little George Denny. My object in laying there was 
to get an opportunity to get something to eat, and to get what 
money I could find. What Daniel Ferris' boy said frightened me. 
I then went south, below John Brower's, and crossed the road- 
went into Joseph Ferris' woods, and turned my course for Shan- 
andoah. As I was going up I heard a wagon coming, and dis- 
covered that Andrew Miller and Rufus Gillet were drawing cord- 
wood, but by stepping a little one side, they did not observe me. 
A little further on, I got some apples off a tree— went across 
Forge Hill, and came into the turnpike a little west of Henry 
Concklin's, and following the turnpike till I came to a cross road, 
which I took. I came out by Elijah Horton's. I talked with 
Elijah Horton. He took my gun and discharged it. I had con- 
versation with Benjamin Mulcox— he told me that Wanzer was 
shot the night before in his left side. He intimated that I was 
suspicioned. A short distance from Mulcox, Wixon and Booth 
arrested me. They said George, is this you 1 Booth looked at 


my gun to see if it was loaded. I told him it was not. They 
slapped their hands on my shoulders and said, 'You are our 
prisoner.' I asked them what they meant. Booth said, you are 
a good-for-nothing murderer. I answered that I had not shot 
any man. They then took me to Wixon's, and thence to Wan- 
zer's. As to my motive in going to Wanzer's, I do not know 
what to say. When I came to Thomas Jaycox's on Monday, 
many thoughts crossed my mind. At one time I thought of go- 
ing to John Brower's, about three miles south-east from Wan- 
zer's, to kill him and his family — to rob the house, and set it on 
fire. I thought that Rufus Gillet lived close by, and he would 
detect me. I also thought of robbing Uncle Joseph Ferris' house, 
and of killing him and his family ; but I said some one lived 
with him, and I might be detected. I turned from these thoughts. 
I also thought at one time I would kill Wanzer, his wife, and 
children — drag them in the house, and set it on fire ; but I have 
doubts whether I was sincere in my reflections to their fullest 
extent, as, after I had killed Wanzer, I thought no more of his 
wife or his children. As to the witnesses who testified against 
me, I have no other desire than to corroborate them all, so far as 
they have stated correctly, or as far as their testimony related to 
me. Peter Vantasel, who was the most suspicioned, as near as 
I can recollect, told the truth. I do not recollect of telling Der- 
byshire that ' I wanted to shoot three or four, and if Uncle Wan- 
zer did not hush up about the key, he would be the first one.' 
I told Derbyshire when I bought his gun, that the money I paid 
him I took from Andrew Millef s trunk, and he promised not to 
divulge it. I have no recollection of saying to John A. Miller, 
'I would fix Uncle Wanzer yet.' John Garrison's testimony had 
no reference to me; he did not see me. I was but a short dis- 
tance from Wanzer's house all the day on Tuesday. There 
were but two kinds of shot in my gun, beside the ball, when I 
shot Wanzer. I picked the smaller size out when I charged it. 
And I now solemnly assert, that I had no bitter feelings against 
Mr. Wanzer at that time ; and possess none now against any 
individual. I do not fear death, but I cannot say how much my 
mind may change as the hour approaches, and I still have a de- 
sire to live as long as I can." 


" Here closed his statement, the narration of which in his sim- 
ple, but I am satisfied candid manner, occupied the space of three 
hours. Discovering probably that I was anxious to leave, after 
he had concluded his confession, he begged of me not to be im- 
patient, but to remain with him a little longer. I assented. He 
read the 2d chapter of James, and requested me to explain the 
13th verse. I replied that there were several clergymen resid- 
ing in and near the village, and if he desired it, I would give 
them a general invitation to visit him, with which he appeared 
satisfied. Here I took my leave, not, however, without promis- 
ing, at his solicitation, to visit him frequently during the short 
period allotted for his existence. 

" Carmel, June 4, 1844." 


During the year 1779 and '80, Washington fre- 
quently crossed the Hudson from West Point, in- 
specting its outposts, and visiting the eastern States. 
Daniel Haight, deceased, kept a tavern in the old 
house, now occupied by one of his sons, on the cross- 
road, north of Judge Garrison's mansion, leading to 
the Peekskill and Cold Spring turnpike, at Henry 
Croft's house. The Commander-in-Chief was in the 
habit of stopping at "Haight's tavern," to rest himself 
and suite, in passing to and from Continental Village 
and the eastern States. It is well known that he was 
of a contemplative turn of mind, of few words, and 
not given to " much speaki?ig." Mr. Haight, in speak- 
ing of him, long after the war had closed, and long, 
too, after the " Father of his country" had been 
"gathered to his fathers," often remarked about the 
silent, meditative mood evinced by him while at his 
house. He said he never knew Washington to com- 
mence a conversation unless spoken to, or he desired 


something to be brought to him. He called at Haight's 
house one day in the fall of 1780, and as he entered 
the house, the servant girl ran up the stairs, and when 
half way up, fell ; Washington broke into a hearty 
laugh, and turning round, said to the host, " It is the 
first time I ever saw a person fall up stairs." After 
he had departed, Haight remarked to his family that 
it was " the first time that he had ever seen the Com- 
mander-in-Chief laugh ;" and since that time, he has 
said, "that it was the last." 

James Croft, the father of Henry and Stephen 
Croft, Esqs., was an enlisted soldier in the Revolution. 
He was attached to the northern army, and after the 
surrender of Burgoyne, was discharged. While re- 
turning to his home, near, or at Continental Village, 
he stopped on the west side of the Hudson, near 
Kingston, where some British officers where enlisting 
men for their army. They wanted Croft to enlist, but 
he promptly refused. On pretence of shaking hands 
with him as he was about to depart, one of the officers 
dropped a gold piece in his hand, and then said to him 
that he had had the King's money, and " he'd be 
damned if he shouldn't enlist," or pay a fine. Croft 
steadily refused to do either, and told the officer that 
when he enlisted again, it would " be in the cause of 
his country and her rights." He had $18 in hard 
money with him, it being the balance due him when 
his term of enlistment expired. 

The British officers forthwith, organized a drum- 
head court-martial, fined him to that amount, and took 
it by force from him. Thus penniless, he returned to 
his home. Reader ! the incident is a small one, but 
should you be ever similarly situated, stand fast to 


your integrity and your country ; and remember this 
little incident that records the patriotism of James 

When the unfortunate Major Andre was arrested 
by Pauldings, Williams, and Van Wart, they first con- 
veyed him to North Castle, in Westchester County, 
where Col. Jamieson commanded. Afterwards he was 
conducted by a guard of twenty men, to Salem, the 
quarters of Col. Shelden. During their journev 
thither, they stopped for the night at Comyen hill, 
where Major Tallmadge, the commander of the guard, 
tied Andre to a tree, as an additional security. From 
Salem, he was brought to the Red Mills in this county, 
and lodged for the night at the house of James Cox, 
a Major in the Ordnance Department of the Army, 
and grandfather to the wife of the Hon. John Garri- 
son, of Philipstown. While here, two soldiers were 
stationed at the door, and two at each window of his 
apartment. Phoebe Cox, a daughter of the above- 
named Major, and the mother of Mrs. John Garrison, 
was then an infant, laying in the cradle when Andre 
entered the room. Andre stepped to the cradle, and 
the child, which had just awoke, looking up at him, 
smiled. His feelings seemed immediately touched, 
and, in a tone of deep melancholy tenderness, he said, 
" Happy childhood ! we know its peace but once. I wish 
I was as innocent as you." From the Red Mills, he 
was brought by the way of Continental Village to the 
" Robinson House" in this town, under a guard of 
one hundred horse, by Major Tallmadge. While at 
the Red Mills, and looking in a mirror in his room, 
he saw a hole under the armpit of his coat, and per- 
ceiving that the officer who was in attendance ob- 


served it also, he smiled and remarked, " I presume 
Gen. Washington will give me another coat." From 
the "Robinson House," he was conveyed to West 
Point ; from there to Stony Point ; and from thence to 
Tappan, or Orange town. 

The notorious Joshua H. Smith, to whose house, 
two-and-a-half miles from Stony Point, Arnold con- 
ducted Andre, after their midnight interview <; at* the 
foot of a mountain called the Long Clove, near the 
low-water mark," was arrested at Fishkill, Dutchess 
County, and brought to the " Robinson House," a few 
hours before the arrival of Andre at that place. He- 
had furnished Andre with a coat, saddle, and bridle, 
and after secreting him all day, conducted him the 
night after Arnold's interview with him, to the ferry 
at Stony Point, crossed over to Verplank's Point, and 
slept with him at a house near Crom Pond. The next 
morning they started as soon as it was light, and rode 
as far as Pine's bridge, where they halted' and made a 
breakfast of " support' and milk. Smith here left 
Andre, and giving him some Continental money, ad- 
vised him to take the road to White Plains. Six miles 
beyond this, Andre was arrested. Smith was tried 
before a court-martial, and imprisoned in the jail at 
Goshen, Orange County ; escaped from thence to New 
York, and returned with the British army to England, 
where some years ago, he published a little volume 
entitled " Major Andre," in which he gives an account 
of his relations with Arnold and Andre, his arrest, 
trial, and imprisonment ; and endeavors to show that 
he knew nothing of the real business between the 

British Adjutant-General and America's great traitor, 


with an outpouring of abuse on Washington, Green, 
and other patriots, that would disgust any man but an 
Englishman, and an American tory. The book has 
no date, but was published a few years before his 
death. We quote from that part of it that relates to 
his arrest and arrival at the " Robinson House," with 
his interview with Washington. 

" Having given him (Andre) directions about the road he was 
to take upon crossing the bridge, with a message to my brother, 
the chief justice, whom he knew, we parted. I proceeded on 
my way to Fishkill, taking Gen. Arnold's quarters at Robinson's 
house in my route : I mentioned to Gen. Arnold the distance I 
accompanied Mr. Anderson, which gave him apparently much 
satisfaction. His dinner being ready I partook of it, refreshed 
my horses, and in the evening proceeded to Fish Kill to my 
family. Here I found General Washington had arrived in the 
course of the afternoon, on his return from visiting Count 
Rochambeau, and I supped in his company with a large retinue, 
at Gen. Scott's. The next day I went on business to Pough- 
keepsie, and returned to Fish Kill the ensuing evening. It was 
on the 25th of September, about midnight, that the door of the 
room wherein I lay in bed with Mrs. Smith, was forced open 
with great violence, and instantly the chamber was filled with 
soldiers, who approached the bed with fixed bayonets. I was 
then, without ceremony, drawn out of bed by a French Officer, 
named Govion, whom I recollected to have entertained at my 
house not long before, in the suite of the Marquis de la Fayette. 
He commanded me instantly to dress myself, and to accompany 
him to General Washington, having an order from the General, 
he said, to arrest me. The house was the residence of Col. Hay, 
who had married my sister. The family was thrown in great con- 
fusion ; the female part especially were in the deepest distress ; 
indeed the shock so much affected Mrs. Smith, that she never fully 
recovered from it ; and, which added to my subsequent suffer- 
ings, was the cause of her death. I perceived that any oppo- 


sition would be ineffectual. Col. Hay desired to know for what 
cause the arrest was made ; to which Govion would give no 
satisfactory answer. I then desired the privilege of having my 
servant and one of my horses to go with him to Gen. Washing- 
ton, at Robinson's house, which he refused ; and I was immedi- 
ately marched off, on foot, the distance of 18 miles. 

" At length on my arrival at Robinson's house, I was paraded 
before the front door, under a guard. General Washington soon 
afterwards came into a piazza, and looked sternly and with 
much indignation at me ; my countenance was the index of my 
mind, and the beautiful lines of Horace occurred to me, 'si f metis 
et illabiter orbis inupavidum feriunt, que ruinae,' &c. 

" On his retiring, I was ordered into a back room, and two 
centinels placed at the door. 

" After as much time had elapsed as I supposed was thought 
necessary to give me rest from my march, I was conducted into a 
room, where were standing Gen. Washington in the centre, and on 
each side Gen. Knox and the Marquis de la Fayette, with Wash- 
ington's two aids-de-camp, Colonels Harrison and Hamilton. 

'• Provoked at the usage I received, .1 addressed Gen. Wash- 
ington, and demanded to know for what cause I was brought 
before him in so ignominious a manner ? — The General answered 
sternly, that I stood before him charged with the blackest trea- 
son against the citizens of the United States : and that he was 
authorized, from the evidence in his possession, and from the 
authority vested in him by Congress, to hang me immediately 
as a traitor, and that nothing could save me but a candid con- 
fession who in the army, or among the citizens at large, were 
my accomplices in the horrid and nefarious designs I had medi? 
tared, for the last ten days past. 

" I answered that no part of my conduct could justify the 
charge, as Gen. Arnold, if present, would prove ; that what I 
had done of a public nature was by the direction of that Gene- 
ral, and, if wrong, he was amenable ; not me, for acting agree- 
ably to his orders. 

"He immediately replied, ' Sir, do you know that Arnold has 
fled, and that Mr. Anderson, whom you have piloted through 
our lines, proves to be Major John Andre, the Adjutant-General 


of the British army, now our prisoner ? I expect him here, under 
a guard of 100 horse, to meet his fate as a spy, and, unless you 
confess who were your accomplices, I shall suspend you both 
on yonder tree,' pointing to a tree before the door. He then or- 
dered the guards to take me away. 

" In a short time I was remanded into the room and urged to 
a confession of accomplices, with Gen. Washington's declara- 
tion, that the evidence he possessed of my being a party, wa8 
sufficient to take away my life. 

"The Gen. irritated by my reply, remanded me back to my 

" Some time afterwards, Col. Hamilton came to me, and com- 
passionately, as he said, recommended me to declare all I knew 
respecting the business of which I was accused, observing that 
many were mistrusted, who, if they confessed, would be in a 
worse situation ; but as he supposed this was not the case I 
had now a chance to save my life, and for the sake of my 
family I ought to preserve it, — with many more expressions to 
the same effect, &c. 

"Gen. Washington then came into the room, and questioned 
Col. Hamilton why he was so long speaking to me 1 The CoK 
replied, ' General, I know Smith has meant well during his agency 
in this transaction, for in all our public meetings in New York 
his general demeanor spoke a spirit of moderation, nor could 
he be persuaded to any other opinion than that this contest be- 
tween Great Britain and her colonies would be compromised, as 
in the business of the stamp and other acts of which we corn- 
complained to the British Government, in our petition by Gov. 
Penn, 1 &c. 

" Gen. Washington then said in a gentle tone of voice, ' Col. 
Hamilton, I am not yet satisfied ; take him into the back room ; 
we must know something more about this business.' I was 
then conducted into the recess from whence I was brought. 

" I was about to take some refreshment, when one of the sen- 
tinels, posted at the door, vowed that if I touched any of the 
biscuits that were in the room, he would shoot me dead. 

" The fact was that the room was a kind of a butlery, in 
which Mrs. Arnold had placed her stores, and I was in the act 


of taking a piece of the biscuits. I made no reply to the senti- 
nel; but remained nearly two hours in this confinement, when I 
heard the tramp of a number of horses near the place where I 
was confined, and, soon after, could distinguish the voice of the 
unfortunate Andre, and of Gen. Washington and his suite, who 
soothed him with all the blandishments that his education and 
distinguished rank demanded ; he was courted with a smile in 
the face, when worse than a dagger was intended for his heart. 
I distinctly heard Col. Hamilton say to a brother officer, who 
came out of the same room, that Major Andre was really an ac- 
complished young man, and he was sorry for him, for the Gen. 
was determined to hang him. 

" It was nearly dark, when a very respectable young gentle- 
man entered the room, and politely desired me to accompany 
him. I was in hopes this was a prelude to my emancipation, 
and I requested the honor of his name ? He answered, ' It is 
Washington.' I said, 'I presume, Sir, you hold the rank of 
Colonel V He told me he held no rank at all. He then con- 
ducted me to the back part of Robinson's house, where there 
were two horses, desired me to mount one of them t and by his 
guidance in a way I had never been, we soon reached the bank 
of the river opposite to West Point. Here I was delivered to 
the custody of a Capt. Sheppard, of the New Jersey Continental 
troops, and did not observe I had been guarded by a troop of 
horse until I was placed in the ferry-boat, and saw them follow 
Mr. Washington up the mountain ; two boats followed us, com- 
posed of the guard. If I had any inclination to throw myself 
overboard, I was so well guarded, that I am certain I should 
have been taken out of the water; for the main object of Gen. 
Washington in detaining and trying me, was to obtain a know- 
ledge of Gen. Arnold's confederates in the army, as well as in 
Congress. In fact, this defection of Arnold had excited such a 
general suspicion, that no one dared trust another ; and nothing 
but execrations were heard from hut to hut." 

John Warren, Esq. — This gentleman was of English 
origin, and the son of Samuel Warren, who came 


from Boston to this town previous to the Revolution. 
John, the subject of this sketch, was born in 1765, 
and had five sons and two daughters, viz.: Cornelius, 
Sylvenus, Samuel, Harry, and John, who died Octo- 
ber 8th, 1840, Mary and Susan, who are both dead. 
Mary married Joseph Haight ; Susan married Elijah 
Davenport. He was born in the house now occupied 
by John Hopper, Esq., on the hill south of the War 
ren Mill, now owned by Justus Nelson, on the old 
post road. His father, Samuel Warren, resided in it 
during the Revolution, and the place went by the 
name of Nelson's Highlands. Samuel, the father of 
John, was killed at the Franklindale bridge, by being 
thrown out of his wagon. Some of the planks were 
off* and the horses taking a turn, he was thrown from 
the wagon, through the aperture into the stream below. 
John Warren was married when 17 years old, and 
his wife 15 ; and, for some years thereafter, lived in a 
log-house which stood in the corner of the orchard, 
across the road and opposite to the residence of Justus 
Nelson, Esq., which he also built with the grist mill 
attached to the same property. This farm, consisting 
of 300 acres belonged to him. He was a blacksmith 
by trade, and served his time with Peter Warren, 
father of James Warren, Esq., of Cold Spring, who 
lived where Ja. Griffin, Esq., at present resides in the 
lower part of this town. The first knives and forks 
he had when he commenced keeping house he made 
in his blacksmith shop. Shortly after he was married, 
being in want of a pair of pantaloons, he went to 
Peekskill and asked a merchant to trust him for the 
cloth; the merchant refused, and Warren returned 


home without making further application for credit. 
He told his friends that he had made up his mind, 
" that the best policy for a man was to pay as he 
went." This was what the celebrated John Randolph 
called the " philosopher s stone." In the midst of a 
stormy debate in the House of Representatives, 
Randolph arose and screamed out at the top of his 
voice, " Mr. Speaker, I have found the ' philosopher's 
stone " — it's pay as you go." This was the first and 
the last time that John Warren asked for credit ; and 
in a few years his industry and prudent habits placed 
him in a condition in which everybody would have 
been glad of an opportunity to trust him. During 
the whole course of his life he never sued nor was 
sued by any person. He began poor and died rich ; 
free from debt ; and what he had acquired, he obtained 
in and by virtue of that curse, originally pronounced 
upon all mankind through Adam, as our federal head 
and representative, " by the sweat of his brow." 

He aspired to no higher distinction than that of a 
plain, practical farmer, which he was. The purity 
of his motives, and the honesty of his heart, were 
never questioned ; and in all the relations of life he 
never gave just cause of offence to his neighbor. He 
died, regretted and beloved by all who knew him, in 
1837, in the 72d year of his age. His children, so 
far as we know them, inherit his virtues. 

Capt. Samuel Jcferds. — This gentleman was born 
in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1752, and entered the 
Continental army at the age of twenty-three, as first 
Sergeant in a company of artillery. He, served 
through the war, and for three years after peace was 


concluded. He was stationed two years at Fort 
Stanwix, erected in the year 1758 by the English, and 
named from Gen. Stanwix. " It occupied a position 
commanding the carrying place between the naviga- 
ble waters of the Mohawk and Wood Creek, and was 
regarded as the key to the communication between 
Canada and the settlements on the Mohawk." Dur- 
ing the Revolution it was named Fort Schuyler. He 
was afterwards stationed at Fort Putnam, West Point, 
and its out-posts. He fought most gallantly in the 
battles of Bunkerhill, Long Island, Brandywine, and 
Monmouth. The battle of Monmouth was fought on 
Sunday, and the day was intensely hot. A great 
many soldiers died from over-exertion, the heat, and 
drinking too much cold water. 

In speaking of the engagements he had passed 
through, after his retirement from the army, to his 
only surviving son, Samuel Jefferds, Esq., of Philips- 
town, he remarked, that, at the battle of Monmouth, 
" the heat was so intense that it nearly exhausted his 

Four years after the war he married the widow of 
Peter Warren, who was the father of James Warren, 
Esq., now of Cold Spring. After his retirement from 
the army, he lived where Ja. Griffin, Esq., now resides 
on the old post road in the south part of this town, 
and a short distance north of Continental Village. 
He was quartered here in the winter of 1779, '80. 

He was plain in his manners, of a kind and gentle 
disposition, but when provoked from a sense of injury, 
energetic and strongly moved. He had battled long 
for the liberties of his country, and doubly appreciated 


the blessing of peace when it came. Distinguished for 
strict integrity and frankness of disposition, he had no 
enemies while living, and no calumniators when dead. 
Amid the carnage, the smoke, and the thunder of bat- 
tle, his courage never forsook him. It was of that 
cool, deliberate character — not created by the occa- 
sion and the excitement of circumstances — which has 
its foundation in a constitutional disposition. Amid 
the roar of cannon and the conflict of arms, he would 
ride round and direct the operations of his batteries 
with the calm steadiness of feeling, that would cha- 
racterize others only at a review. He passed through 
a seven years' war, and four hard fought and well 
contested actions, unscathed, enjoying the confidence 
of Washington, Knox, Green, Hamilton, and their 
associates ; and was elected a member of the Society 
of the Cincinnati, in 1785. This fact alone shows 
the estimate which Washington and his compatriots, 
placed on his patriotism, services, and character. It 
was not every officer of the rank of captain, who 
could get admission into this honorable Society of 
banded brothers. 

The following is a copy of his certificate of mem- 
bership, now in the possession of his son, Samuel 
Jeffords, Esq. : 

"Be it known that Samuel Jeffords, Esquire, Captain of Artil- 
lery in the late Army is a Member of the Society of the Cincin- 
nati instituted by the Officers of the American Army, at the Pe- 
riod of its Dissolution, as well to commemorate the great Event 
which gave Independence to North America, as for the laudable 
Purpose of inculcating the Duty of laying down in Peace Arms 
assumed for public Defence, and of uniting in Acts of brotherly 


Affection, and Bonds of perpetual Friendship, the Members con- 
stituting the same. 

" In Testimony whereof I, the President of the said Society, 
have hereunto set my Hand at Mount Vernon in the State of Vir- 
ginia, this tenth Day of December, in the Year of our Lord One 
Thousand Seven Hundred and Eighty Five, and in the Tenth 
Year of the Independence of the United States. 
" By order, 

"G. Washington, President. 

" Knox, Secretary." 

The badge of the Society is a bald eagle suspended 
by a blue ribbon, edged with white, emblematic of the 
union of France and America. On the breast of the 
eagle, Cincinnatus is receiving the military ensigns 
from the three senators ; the implements of husbandry 
are seen in the back-ground ; round the whole, Omnia 
reliquit servare rempublicam,-' He relinquished every- 
thing to serve the country.' On the reverse, Fame 
is crowning Cincinnatus with a wreath, inscribed, 
"Virtutis praemium," — "the reward of virtue," — with 
other emblems; round the whole, "Societas Cincinna- 
torum, instituta A. A. 1783." 

This society was formed by the surviving officers 
of the Revolutionary Army, to perpetuate their friend- 
ship, and to raise a fund for relieving the widows and 
orphans of brother soldiers who were killed during the 
war. The idea of establishing it, it is said, originated 
with Gen. Knox, who, as his biographer says, was the 
first Vice-President, and continued such to the day of 
his death. If this be so, he was also Secretarv at the 
same time. The original certificate, now lying before 
me, given to Capt. Samuel Jefferds, is in the hand- 
writing, and signed by Knox, as Secretary. Wash- 


ington was the first President, and held the office till 
his death. 

The Society was named in honor of Lucius Quinc- 
tius Cincinnatus, a patrician of the Roman Republic, 
who, while at his plough, was twice called to deliver 
his country from her enemies ; and having done so, 
resigned the supreme power which had been entrusted 
to him, he returned to his little farm to continue his 
rural labors. 

Some republicans, at that early day, opposed the 
society, alleging that it contained the elements of fu- 
ture aristocracy ; and among the number was the 
philosophic Franklin. There are said to be seven 
State Societies, which hold a general meeting once 
in three years. By its constitution, the honors of this 
association were to be " hereditary in the eldest male 
line of the original members, and, in default of male 
issue, in the collateral male line." 

Capt. Jefferds died in August, 1804, aged 52 years, 
leaving one son, an only child, Samuel Jefferds, Esq., 
of this town; who inherits the honors of the Society 
of Cincinnati, by virtue of the original membership of 
his father. 

The West Point Foundry. — This institution, one 
of the largest of its kind in this country, is situated 
about half a mile south-east of the steam-boat landing, 
in Cold Spring. During the last war with England, 
some difficulty was met with by the General Govern- 
ment in procuring a sufficiency of large ordnance for 
the use of the army, as but one foundry, we believe, at 
that time, was in operation where the largest class of 
guns were cast. We have been informed that, in 


view of this fact, this institution was created and set 
in operation as a matter of pride, by a dozen or more 
individuals, who received assurances from the Govern- 
ment, that a certain proportion of Government work 
should be done in it, if the establishment was not lo- 
cated nearer than fifty miles to the city of New York. 

In the spring or summer of 1817, the Association 
purchased 150 acres of land at Cold Spring, of Capt. 
Frederick Philips, and erected a moulding-house, bor- 
ing mill, a blacksmith shop for light work, pattern 
shop, a drafting office, with a general office for the 
use of the Association. 

In the winter of 1818, the Hon. Gouverneur Kemble, 
Joseph G. Swift, James Renwick, and others, peti- 
tioned the legislature for an Act of incorporation ; 
and, on the 15th of April, in the same year, an Act 
was passed, constituting "Gouverneur Kemble, James 
Renwick, Henry Brevoort, Jr., Joseph G. Swift, John 
R. Fenwick, William Kemble, Henry Cary, Charles 
G. Smedburg, Nicholas Gouverneur, Robert J. Ren- 
wick, and William Young, and such others as might 
thereafter, be associated with them, 'a body corporate, 
in fact and in name, by the name of the West Point 
Foundry Association.' " 

Section 3rd of the Act "further enacted, That 
Gouverneur Kemble, James Renwick, Henry Bre- 
voort, Jr., Wm. Kemble, and Charles G. Smedburgh, 
shall be the first directors ; and the said Gouverneur 
Kemble shall be the first president of the said company," 
who were to hold their offices until the first Monday 
of May, in the year 1819. In 1839 the finishing or 
machine, smith's, and boiler branches of the establish- 


ment, whose operations were carried on in the city of 
New York previous thereto, were transferred to Cold 
Spring, where large and commodious buildings were 
erected. It employs from four to six hundred men, 
including a few boys ; and has a foreman at the head 
of each branch. Its plan, with a description of its 
buildings, their size and number, are as follows, viz.: 

1. Moulding House, 218 feet long, 68 feet wide, 
with brick walls 16 feet thick. Roof of slate. This 
building has 2 cupola furnaces. 

2. Gun Foundry, 95 feet long, 75 feet wide, with 
stone walls, 29 inches thick, and shingle roofed. This 
building has 3 air furnaces. 

3. The Boring Mill is in two buildings ; the first 57 
by 63 feet; the second 47 by 54 feet. This mill 
is driven by a 36 feet over-shot wheel, and has an 
auxiliary steam engine. Its walls are stone, 24 inches 
thick ; roof of tin. The boiler of the steam engine is 
placed outside of the building, in the yard. 

4. The Blacksmith Shop is 128 feet long, 54 feet wide ; 
walls of brick, 24 inches thick ; roof of tin. This shop 
is driven by a water wheel under an 105 feet fall of 
water, but has an auxiliary steam engine. The engine 
and boiler are in a separate shop at the east end of the 

5. Small Blacksmith Shop, 40 feet long, 30 feet 
wide, with brick walls, 18 inches thick; and a tin 

6. Blacksmith Shop for small forges, 52 feet long, 
25 feet wide ; frame building ; and roof of wood. 
These forges used occasionally. 

7. Turning Shop, 60 feet long, 37 feet wide, with 

brick walls and roof of tin. 


8. Finishing Shop, 251 feet long by 54 feet wide, 
brick walls, and tin roof. The Pattern Shop is on the 
second floor of this building. 

9. W. P. F. Office, 42 feet long by 23 feet wide ; a 
frame building with shingle roof. The Drafting Office 
is in the second story. 

10. Boiler Shop, 100 feet long by 45 feet wide ; 
frame building with shingle roof. 

11. Punching Machine House, is 22 feet square; 
frame building with shingle roof. 

12. Coal House. — A stone building with shingle 

13. Store, 14 feet by 32 feet; brick walls and shin- 
gle roof. Now used by finishing department. 

14. First Pattern House, 50 feet long, 36 feet wide ; 
frame building with shingle roof. 

15. Second Pattern House, 60 feet long, 30 feet 
wide ; frame building with shingle roof. 

16. Third Pattern House, 50 feet long, 36 feet 
wide ; frame building with shingle roof. 

17. Fourth Pattern House, 88 feet long, 30 feet 
wide ; frame building with shingle roof. 

18. Fifth Pattern House, 40 feet long, 30 feet wide; 
frame building with shingle roof. 

19. Fire Engine House, 19 feet long, 8^ feet wide ; 
frame building with shingle roof. 

In addition, the Association also own a large num- 
ber of houses and building lots in the village, and on 
the high grounds adjacent to the Foundry. 

The site it now occupies was formerly a swale, at 
the mouth of what was called, in old deeds, the 
"Margaret Falls' brook." This brook discharged 


itself into the shallow bay or flat, which lies between 
Constitution Island and Cold Spring. The foundation 
wall of the old Moulding House, on its south side, 
was sunk down sixteen feet to the solid rock ; while 
the north wall, resting on the same rock, was sunk 
only'six feet. The dip of the rock is about forty-five 

The Blast Furnace, just north of the Blacksmith 
shop, is not now in operation. Up to June, 1844, 
large quantities of iron ore were smelted here, obtained 
from the mines in the Highlands of this town. The 
cost of quarrying, transportation, blasting, &c, was 
found to be greater than purchasing it abroad, in a 
state fit for immediate use. 

In the Blacksmith shop there is one trip-hammer of 
eight tons weight, and two tilt-hammers, — one of 1000 
and the other of 500 lbs. Shafts of two feet diame- 
ter have been forged here weighing fifteen tons. 

The Machine Shop contains thirteen turning lathes 
and one drilling machine. 

The Pattern Shop has four turning lathes, a whip- 
saw, and planing machine. 

In the Boring Mill are eight gun-beds for boring 
cannon, one slot machine, four turning lathes, two 
planing machines, three drilling machines, and one 
large bed for boring cylinders. 

The Finishing Shop contains four vertical and one 
horizontal drilling machines, and four planing ma- 

In the Boiler Shop are three punching machines, 
one riveting machine, and one shearing machine. 

The new Boring Mill, now erecting, will contain 


one machine for slotting, planing, and drilling, with 
one large-faced lathe. 

The consumption of the principal materials during 
the year, from March, 1847, to May 1st, 1848, was as 
follows:— Pig iron, $197,434; coal, $38,405; bar 
iron, $62,562 ; boiler iron plate, $37,988 ; copper, 
$17,392; total, $353,781. 

The principal articles manufactured during that 
year were, 20 steam engines ; 90 32lb. guns ; 4 12lb. 
guns ; 2 9lb. guns ; 4110 tons of pipes for the Boston 
Water Works; 1040 tons of large wrought iron 
work ; together with a large number of rolls, wheels, 
steam boilers, and machinery of various kinds. 

The Hon. Gouverneur Kemble, has been the Presi- 
dent of this Institution from its incorporation until 
the expiration of its charter in 1843 or '44, we believe, 
with the exception of four years while representing 
this district in Congress : during which, that office 
was filled by his brother, William Kemble, Esq. 

The Vice President, for several years previous to 
that time, was the Hon. Judge Parrott, late a Captain 
in the Ordnance Department of the U. S. Army, who 
still fills the office. 

The Assdciation is now conducted by Mr. Kemble, 
as lessee. 

Under the supervision of these gentlemen, every- 
thing moves on with the regularity of clock-work. 
The men receive their wages every two weeks ; and 
work but ten hours per day. If the necessity of the 
work requires them to work longer, they are paid 
accordingly. In the blacksmith shop, the fire is not 
out of the furnaces for weeks ; one gang of men 
working through the night until morning, when their 


places are supplied by another gang during the day. 
The means and appliances sometimes attempted to be 
used by other manufacturing establishments to control 
the political sentiments of their workmen, are not 
countenanced here. From the most finished work- 
man, down to the smallest boy who twists a rope of 
straw, there is the most perfect freedom of thought 
and action in everything appertaining to a man's reli- 
gious and political faith. 

This institution is the life of Cold Spring Village 
and Nelsonville, and, with " more truth than fiction," 
it may be said, it feeds all, clothes all, and supports all. 

Were it discontinued, those villages would soon 
look like an infected district — resemble, somewhat, 
the city of New York on the first day of May, when 
everybody, apparently, is moving — and realize " Gold- 
smith's description of a deserted village." 

t Mr. Kemble has so long superintended this institu- 
tion — watched it in its career of infancy, until it has 
attained its present growth, that it may well be called 
" the child of his affections ;" from whom it were 
now, well-nigh, socially impossible to part. 

A branch railroad is now constructing from this 
establishment, to intersect the Hudson River Rail- 
road, which crosses Constitution Island and the bay 
or Jlat, a short distance west of it. A dock also is 
being built from the present Foundry-dock, extend- 
ing west to the channel of the Hudson. 

The real and personal estate of this Foundry, in 
1846, was assessed at $88,000. It probably now 
amounts to $150,000. 

In 1844, the United States Steam Revenue Cutter, 

Spencer, of iron, was built here. During the same 


year another iron steam vessel called the Margaret 
Kemble, to ply on one of the southern rivers, was also 
constructed at this establishment. 

" Machinery of the most delicate and complicated 
arrangement, and the engines of the fastest steam- 
boats in the world, are manufactured here. 

"The following circumstance is no mean compliment 
to the mechanics of the New World, and a plain 
demonstration that 'Yankee ingenuity' is known 
and appreciated even beyond the waves of the Medi- 
terranean : The Pacha of Egypt was anxious to 
obtain a machine, among several others, which would 
take the hull from cotton seed. Having applied to 
several mechanics of Europe without success, he re- 
solved to try what American invention could effect ; 
no doubt very wisely thinking, that a people who 
could manufacture wooden hams ' almost as good as 
the genuine article,' and baswood cucumber seeds 
' so perfect that they will vegetate,' could most cer- 
tainly furnish any kind of machinery which he might 
want. The application was made, and in a compara- 
tively short time a machine was finished at the West 
Point Foundry, which, at least in the opinion of the 
inventor, would answer the purpose of the Pacha. 
It was shipped from New York in January, 1838, ac- 
companied by an experienced engineer, who was san- 
guine in the belief that the experiment would be suc- 


This town lies wholly in the Highlands ; and, like 
the greater part of Philipstown, from which it was 
taken, is rough and mountainous. Iron ore is found 
here in abundance, but its distance from the river, 
and the absence of easy facilities, will prevent, for 
some time to come, attempts to unlock its mountain 
repositories. The valleys, Canopus and Peekskill Hol- 
lows, are rich, fertile, and well cultivated. They 
stretch, like a pair of garters, through the entire length 
of the town from north to south. It is centrally dis- 
tant about twelve miles west of Carmel. Its popula- 
tion in 1840 was 1,659 : and in 1845, 1,598. Having 
treated of its early settlement under the head of Philips- 
town, and delineated its geological features in the ar- 
ticle Geology, there remains but little to be added. 

Oregon. — A small village, about three miles east of 
Annsville, near the Westchester line. The Peeks- 
kill Hollow Creek and the out-let of the Horton Pond 
meet at this village, and form one stream. 

Crofts. — A few houses in Canopus Hollow. A 
store and tavern were kept here ; the latter has been 
discontinued. It was formerly called Sodom. 

Tompkins's Corners. — A few houses at the intersec- 
tion of the old Wickopee and Peekskill Hollow road. 

Hempstead Huts. — These buildings are revolutionary 
relics, and are located on the farm of Harry Gillet. A 


detachment of the troops of the Massachusetts Line, 
with a company or two from Hempstead, Long Island, 
occupied them in the winter of 1780 ; which accounts 
for the name. The chimneys still' remain, but the huts 
have been burnt down. 

Canopus Hill. — An eminence in the south-west 

part of the town, on the farm of Meeks, Esq. 

It is named in honor of an Indian Chief. 

Tinker Hill. — This hill is about three miles north- 
east of Canopus Hill, and is owned, partly, by John 
Odle, Esq. About fifty years ago an old Englishman 
lived on it, named Cornelius Rick, who went about 
tinkering, or doing a little at every trade ; and hence 
the name. 

Ponds. — There are nine ponds in this town, some 
of them of more than ordinary size. The largest is the 

Horton Pond. — It is located in the centre of the 
town, and contains excellent Bass and Pickerel, some 
of the latter weighing six and seven pounds. It is 
bdunded by the lands of Lee Horton, Abijah Lee, 
Charity Smith, Wesley Christian, Solomon Baxter, 
Daniel Barger, Joseph Strang, and Henry Mead; and 
is about If of a mile in length and 1 in breadth. It is 
named after the Horton family who formerly owned 
all the land adjacent to it. 

Solpeu Pond. — This pond lies in the west part of 
the town, about one mile from the Horton Pond ; and 
was named after a person of that name who lived in 
its vicinity. It is about a mile in length, and half a 
mile in breadth. Like the Horton Pond, it contains 
excellent Bass and Pickerel. It is circumscribed by 
the lands of Mrs. Ann Horton, William Jerry, James 
Likely, and William Denny. 


Barger's Pond. — This sheet of water is in the 
south-east part of the town, about three-fourths of a 
mile in length, and one-fourth in breadth. It takes 
its name from the Barger family, who have long re- 
sided in the neighborhood of the pond. 

Bryant's Pond. — This pond is next in size ; and is 
situated in the east part of the town, about three- 
fourths of a mile north of Barger's Pond. It is half a 
mile in length, nearly that distance in breadth, and is 
named after Solomon Bryant. 

Muddy Pond. — This body of water lies about half 
a mile north of the Horton Pond, is nearly half a mile 
in length and one-fourth in breadth, and is called from 
the muddy appearance of its water. 

Clear Pond. — This beautiful sheet of water does 
not belie its name ; for a more pellucid body of water 
is not found in Putnam County, or in any other. It 
is in the north part of the town, has no inlet, is formed 
by springs, and clear as crystal. It is about half a 
mile long, nearly that distance in width ; runs south 
into the Muddy Pond, which empties into the Horton 
Pond,' which, in turn, empties into the Creek at Anns- 
ville, just south of the Putnam and Westchester line. 
Those who live near it, and are familiar with its 
water, assert, that a person can see twenty feet, or 
more, into it. 

Jonathan Owen's Pond. — A handsome sheet of 
water about half a mile long and one-fourth of a mile 
broad, in the most southern part of the town, and 
nearly one-fourth of a mile from the Westchester line. 
It runs into the creek at Annsville above-mentioned. 
The name explains itself. 

Cranberry Pond. — This is the smallest pond in 



this town, and is situated about half a mile north of 
Owen's Pond. It is about one-fourth of a mile in 
length and forty rods in breadth ; and located on the 
land formerly owned by Philemon Smith. Immense 
quantities of Cranberries grow upon the low grounds 
skirting it, and hence the name. Cran is saxon ; and 
berry is derived from the Saxon word beria. Com- 
pounded, it means a berry that grows on a slender, 
bending stalk ; also called moss-berry, or moor-berry, 
as it grows only on peat-bogs or swampy land. 

Peltoris Pond. — A small body of water lying north 
of the Clear Pond, located in the north part of the 
town, one-fourth of a mile long and about one-eighth 
in breadth. It takes its name from a man who worked 
an ore-bed near it, and empties into the stream run- 
ning to Annsville. 

Peekskill Hollow Creek. — A small stream rising 
from a spring just south of Stillman Boyd's, in the 
town of Kent, running the entire length of the Hol- 
low, and falling into the outlet of the Horton Pond. 
On this stream are the following mills, viz.: Herman 
Adams's saw mill ; John Post's saw and grist mill ; 
Pratt's trip-hammer, turning-lathe, and whip-saw 
works ; Thomas Winter's grist mill, and John Sil- 
lick's saw mill ; and the wire factory belonging to 
Joseph Strang & Co. 

Canopus Holloic Creek. — This stream rises near 
the second Gate on the Cold Spring turnpike, runs 
through the Sunk Lot, and falls into the stream at 
Annsville, near Peekskill, Westchester County. On 
it are Bunnell's Forge and saw mill ; a saw mill for- 
merly owned by John Horton, and Mowyat's paper 


A man named Robert Oakley, who was a staunch 
Whig, while his brothers were rank Tories, lived, dur- 
ing the Revolution, just above the residence of Doctor 
Jchn Tompkins, on the Wickapee road. His brothers 
gave information to the infamous Cunningham, the 
provost marshal of the city of New York, concern- 
ing his opposition to the British cause, who sent a 
band of Tories to waylay and shoot him. Oakley 
had been absent from his house, and returned a little 
before sunset in the fall of the year previous to the 
hard winter, which, we believe, was in 1780. They 
concealed themselves near his house, and no sooner 
had he dismounted, than they shot him. 

Thomas Richards, who also lived in this town, and 
was a turner of wooden dishes by trade, was taken 
as a rebel, and carried down to the Sugar House in 
New York. His wife was left at home, and the hard 
winter coming on, the snow covered his lowly cabin, 
preventing ingress or egress by the door. His wife, 
having first used up all the fuel inside, with the ax 
broke a hole through the roof, got out and cut the 
large limbs down, which hung over the small hut, 
which she threw down into the garret for present and 
future use. Her stock of provisions soon became ex- 
hausted ; and their cow, which had been kept in the 
work-shop, died. This lone woman, without a human 
being for her companion, and confined in her 
prison of snow, was forced to eat the dead body of 
he.r cow ; and when that was gone, she lived on a 
little shelled corn that was left in the garret, making 
use of .some filthy, dirty brine, in the bottom of an 
old pork barrel, to season it with. In this manner she 
made out to live through the winter. A grandson of 


Richards, we are informed, is now living in Fishkill, 
Dutchess County. Such iron energy and indomitable 
courage, when called upon to battle with cold, hunger, 
and thirst, in a dreary solitude, would be found but 
rarely, if at all, at the present day. The human heart 
shudders in contemplating the possibility of such a 


This town was taken from Frederickstown, at that 
time embracing the now towns of Kent and Patter- 
son, in 1795 ; and is centrally distant from New York 
City about 55 miles, 106 from Albany, 16 east of 
the Hudson, and 18 from Peekskill. Its soil is a 
mixture of loam and gravel, with a rolling surface, 
indented with slopes and vales. It is well adapted to 
grazing; and large quantities of beef, lambs, sheep, 
fowls, and other species of " marketing " are produced 
here for the New York market. 

The New York and Harlem Railroad, which is 
now being extended near its eastern boundary, will 
greatly facilitate the transportation of its products to 
market, and enhance the value of the land. It is 
named after a mountain in Palestine, on the south- 
ern frontier of Galilee, constituting a part of Leba- 
non, in the pachalic of Acca. 

From its supposed resemblance to Mount Carmel, 
" which consists of several rich, woody heights, sepa- 
rated by fertile and habitable valleys," it was christ- 
ened, at ;ts organization, as above. 


The first settlement that we have been able to as- 
certain, was made in this town by George Hughson, 
who located himself on the ridge just north of Lake 

Mahopac, and west of the residence of Nathaniel 



Crane, Esq., about 1740. A year afterwards William 
Hill, father of the present William, now living in this 
town at a very advanced age, and his brother Uriah, 
came up to the Red Hills, when William, who was the 
younger of the two brothers, was only 12 years old. 
Their father was Anthony Hill, who came from 
Holland about the year 1725 ; and after remaining a 
short time in New York City, removed to the Fox 
Meadows, where he made a purchase and settlement. 

On the voyage, the whole family, except himself 
and two sisters, died. . Anthony, at about the age of 
twenty, married Mary Ward, who also came from 
Holland, by whom he had five sons and four daughters, 
Uriah, William, Anthony, Andrew, Cornelius, Charity, 
Jane, Mary, and Merriam. 

Anthony Hill died at the Fox Meadows, and his 
wife at the Red Mills, aged 93. He having bought a 
tract of land of the Indians, near the Red Mills, he 
sent his two oldest sons, Uriah and William, to clear 
it up. Uriah, in some way or other, became obnoxi- 
ous to the Indians, and was compelled to go back to 

William remained, and one night going out to look 
for the cow, which the brothers had brought from 
their father's farm at the Fox Meadows, he was at- 
tacked by some wolves. „By climbing up a tree and 
remaining on it nearly all night, he escaped from them 
by a circuit to the north side of Lake Mahopac, 
wher§ early in the morning he came to the log-house 
of George Hughson. This was the first he knew of 
a white man residing there. Hughson told him that 
he had settled there about a year before. At 25 
William Hill married a sister of Abraham Smith, the 


father of the Hon. Abraham and Saxon Smith of 
Putnam Valley. 

William, son of Anthony, and father of the William 
now living, had eight sons, viz. : Noah, Solomon, 
William, Cornelius, Abraham, Andrew, two having 
died in infancy without a name ; and four daughters, 
viz. : Phoebe, Mary, Chloe, and Jane. Noah lived 
near the Red Mills, and died there in 1830. Solomon 
lived at the Nine Partners in Dutchess County. 

At this time the first house erected in this town 
was about one mile south of the Red Mills, occupied 
by a man named Philips, where Ezekiel Howell re- 
sides ; the next, north, was William Hill's ; and the 
next, George Hughson's. Soon afterwards, the 
Cranes, the Berrys, Hedyers, Austins, Roberdeaus, 
and others, settled down in the vicinity of the Hills 
and Hughsons. 

Jabez Berry settled where Elijah Crane now lives, 
about one mile north of Lake Mahopac. A family 
of the name of Shaw soon settled at Carmel village, 
on the north and south shores of the lake which still 
bears their name. 

A short time after the Hills and Hughsons settled, 
John Carpenter came from North Castle, now called 
New Castle Corners, and settled where the Hon. 
Azor B. Cranes resides. 

The Carpenter family were Quakers, of English 
origin, and came from England to Plymouth ; but 
were driven, by persecution at that early day against 
the Quakers, to Long Island, from there to North 
Castle, and from thence it came to this town. 

John Carpenter's old house stood at the foot of the 
hill, just south of the residence of the Hon. Judge 


Crane, on the east side of the road. The tories, 
royalists, and the friends of the King, called him the 
" damned old rebel." He was a patriot of the staunch- 
est kind ; and if adherence to the cause of his coun- 
try and her rights constituted a rebel, he was one in 
every sense of the term and in the widest latitude of 
the expression. 

He left his farm to John Crane, who married his 
daughter. John left it to his brother Joseph Crane, 
who devised it to its present owner, Hon. A. B. Crane, 
Judge of the Putnam County Court. 

A family by the name of Hamblin settled in this 
town about the same time with the Carpenters, in the 
vicinity of Lake Mahopac. 

In 1770, John Crane, father of Nathaniel Crane* 
Esq., now living, built the first frame house in this 
part of the country. It is still standing, about hak" a 
mile north-east of Lake Mahopac, and owned by his 
son, the above-named Nathaniel. 

Gen. Scott, with his Staff", made it his head- 
quarters during a part of the Revolution. 


" At the First Town meeting held in the Town of Carmel at 
the house of John Crane Esqr. on the 7th of April 1795 The 
following persons were chosen for officers for said town, viz. : 

Robert Johnston Esqr., Moderator. 
John Crane, Esqr., Town Clerk. 
Timothy Carver, Supervisor. 

Daniel Cole, f 

Devowe Bailey, \ Assessors. 

Thacher Hopkins, ) 

Elijah Douty, Junr., Collector & Constable. 
David Travis, Constable. 



Devowe Bailey, 
Daniel Cole, 

John Crane, Esqr., 
Timothy Crane, 
Thacher Hopkins, 

Overseers of the Poor. 

Commissioners of Highways. 

Fence Viewers & Damage Prisers : 

David Myrick, 
Judah Kelly, 
Joseph Cole, 
Isaac Drew, 
John Crane, Esqr., 

James Townsend, 
Joseph Crane, 
Wm. Webb, 

John Berry, 
Samuel Jenkins, 
David Gregory, 
Billy Trowbridge. 

Pound Masters : 

Stephen Fowler, 
Isaac Devine. 

Overseers of Highways: 

Israel Pinkney, 
Peter Badeau, 
Gilbert Hunt, 
Gilbert Travis, 
Wm. Vermilyed, 
Nathl. Boundig, 
Job Austin, 
Gilbert Adams, 
Stephen Crane, 
Joseph Cole, 
Jeremiah Hughson, 
Wm. Fowler, 
Abraham Everitt, 
Daniel Thomas, 
John Ganung, 
David Frost, 
James B . 

Robert Hughson, 
Seth Foster, 
Timothy Carver, 
John Bezea, 
Joseph Hopkins, 
Isaac Purdy, 
Philips Smith, 
Peter Maybie, 
Thaddeous Raymond. 
David Gregory, 
John Cole, 
David Frost, 
Benjamin Crosby, 
William Haden, 
Jacob Ganung, 
Jonathan Whiten, 
David Longwell, 

Voted that a hundred pounds be raised for the support of the 

poor the ensuing year. Voted that the next annual Town 

meeting be held at this place. 

John Crane, 

22* Town Clark." 


There were 37 road districts in this town in 1795, 
laid out by the Commissioners of Highways. 

"Whereas Joseph Gregory of the town of Carmer in the 
county of Dutchess and State of New York hath proposed to 
emancipate and Set free three female Negros the property of 
the said Joseph Gregory agreeable to a Law of this State in that 
case made and provided. 

" We Robert Johnston & John Crane Esqrs. two of the peo- 
ples Justices of the peace for said county and Elisha Cole and 
Tracy Ballard Overseers of the poor of the town of Carmel do 
hereby Certify that we think that the said female Negroes That 
is one named Anglesse aged about 26 years one other 6 years 
named Rose and another named Dinah aged about 3 years are 
all sufficient to provide for themselves. 

"Given under our hands this 3d day of January 1798. 

" Robert Johnston, ) Justices of 
"John Crane, ] the Peace. 

" Elijah Cole, ) Overseers of 

"Tracy Bullard, \ the Poor. 

"John Crane, Town Clark." 

Cai mel Village. — A quiet, rural, and small village, 
beautifully situated on Shaw's Lake. The Court- 
house, Jail, Clerk's Office, and Putnam County Bank, 
are located here. Through this village, in the olden 
time, ran one of the roads leading from the city of 
New York to Albany, and places in its vicinity. Five 
terms of the County Court, and General Sessions, and 
three terms of the Circuit, Oyer and Terminer Courts, 
are held here. The location is dry, elevated, and 
healthy. It contains 3 churches and 4 or 5 stores. It 
is named after the town in which it is located. It is 
20 miles from Cold Spring, and 1G from Peekskill. A 
few rods north of the village, James Raymond, Esq., 
is erecting a family cemetery on a magnificent scale. 


When completed, with avenues and walks laid out, 
gravelled, and ornamented with appropriate trees and 
flowering shrubs — with the tree of Heaven, the Baby- 
lonian willow, the dark fanereal yew, and the mourn- 
ing cypress — it will form a lovely and interesting ad- 
dition to the suburbs of the village. The ancient 
taste for erecting rural cemeteries is reviving among 
us, and develops a chaste and holy feeling of our 
nature. He who cherishes a sacred regard for the 
dead, will prove an ornament to the living. All na- 
tions, Christian and Pagan, cherish a sacred regard for 
the last earthly home of those they love. The eastern 
nations selected the groves and recesses of wooded 
heights and secluded vales, beyond the city's serried 
wall, as places of interment. 

By the Laws of the Twelve Tables, in the year 
454, B.C., it was prohibited to bury within the city of 
Rome ; and the Potters' Field was located without the 
walls of Jerusalem. The wealthy Israelites, we are 
told, built their tombs in ihe mountains near Jerusa- 
lem; and in a garden near the base of Calvary, Joseph 
of Arimathea had prepared that memorable sepulchre, 
in which was laid the body of the crucified Messiah. 
The Athenians permitted no burials within their city. 
In the gorges of the wooded hills on the opposite bank 
of the Nile, were the catacombs of Thebes, and be- 
yond the lake of Acherusia were those of Memphis, 
from whence the Grecian mythologists derived their 
fabulous accounts of the Elysian fields. 

Those illustrious men who fell in the battles of their 
country were buried in the Ceramicus — an extensive 
and beautifully ornamented public cemetery, where 
were the Academy and Gymnasium, with their superb 
gardens. Even the rudely built tumuli of the Ameri- 


can Indians, reveal the tenacity with which they 
cling to the memory of their dead. The experimental 
garden and rural cemetery of Mount Auburn, at 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, may well vie with the 
celebrated Pere La Chaise, at Paris. The Congres- 
sional Burying Ground, at Washington, is another 
interesting spot, where man may " seek the living 
among the dead," and learn wisdom among those 
mute, silent, and melancholy memorials, that testify of 
his mortality here. It was Gray's Elegy, written in 
a country church-yard — 

"Through which the ringing earth-worm creeps," 

which, more than any other of his writings, has given 
him a name and a fame in the literary world, that will 
survive and live, when brass and marble shall have 
crumbled to dust. 

Since writing this article, we have been informed 
that this cemetery is to be called the " Raymond Hill 

As this sheet is about passing from our hands to 
those of the compositor, we have only time to add, 
that a large and beautiful building is now being built 
in this village, and is to be known, as we are informed, 
as " The Carmcl Collegiate Institute." 

The Telegraph line from New York to Albany 
runs through the village, having a station here for the 
accommodation of the villagers, and those residing in 
the vicinity. 

Red Mills.— A small village situated on the Mus- 
coot River, 8 miles south-west from Carmel. The 

* As we go to press, we are informed by the Rev. H. G. 
Livingston, that it has been deeded to the Trustees of the Gilead 
Presbyterian Society. 


mill and nearly all other buildings here are painted 
red ; and this fact has given the name to the place. 
The first carding machine put up in this country per- 
manently, was established here. It was brought to 
Peekskill by an Englishman named Ellinworth, about 
the year 1800. He put it up at Peekskill, where it 
remained about two years, and then removed it to this 
place, where it was looked upon with as much won- 
der and amazement, as the elephant, old Tip, was, 

when first exhibited in this county by , of the 

town of South-east. 

It was supposed that English Custom-house officers 
were bribed to let it pass. Ellinworth brought a man 
by the name of Hague, who had worked it in Eng- 
land, to superintend its operations in this country. 
Hague returned to England, but Ellinworth did not 
dare to. It was about half as large as those made at 
the present time ; and the Yankees were not slow in 
their improvements upon it. 

Major Roger Morris, who married Mary Philipse, 
had a log mansion here. It stood about 40 rods north- 
east of the Post Office. Mary, or "Madame Morris," 
as she was called by the tenants, was a remarkable 
woman, who possessed not only the esteem, but the 
love of the tenants of her estate. The " Long Lot," 
which Major Morris obtained with his wife, included 
the Red Mills. Major Morris and his lady lived a 
greater part of the year at New York and Harlem, 
and at a certain season would come up and spend 
some time at this place to receive rents and give di- 
rections to their tenants. The gentleness of manner 
and kindness of disposition manifested by Madam 


Morris, soon secured the affections of the tenants ; 
and not as yet having a house, in the estimation of 
the tenants, sufficiently large for her reception while 
she stayed among them, they got together and erected 
a large log-house, put up with more nicety, and 
finished in a style more suited to a lady of her rank 
and standing. She had ever been the friend of the 
tenants, and this act, on their part, was a tribute of 
their esteem and admiration for her noble and gene- 
rous conduct to them. Isaac Lounsberry's house now 
encloses the log-house of Madam Morris. Major 
Morris is supposed to have built the first store and 
grist mill at this place, but at what period, we are not 
informed. Between where the log-house of Madam 
Morris stood and the Post Office is now kept, the 
mother of William Hill, now living, then a widow, 
and familiarly called " Granny Hill," lived in a log- 
house. This old lady had secured the friendship of 
Madam Morris. Some years before the Revolution, 
a kind of anti-rent rebellion broke out among the 
tenantry of the Morris estate. We are not advised of 
the true issue between the landlord and tenants, but 
believe it was somewhat similar to the anti-rent trou- 
ble of the present time. An association paper was 
soon drawn up and circulated among the tenants, 
making common cause with one another in the mat- 
ter. Granny Hill asked to see the paper, and being 
deceived and misled as to the objects its signers pro- 
posed to secure to themselves, signed it. 

The Major soon heard of it, and, calling on the old 
lady, required her to take her name off it. She, still 
believing that the paper contemplated nothing but 


what had been represented to her, refused to do so, 
alleging, as the story goes, that she '' could seal it 
with her blood." She was told that she must then go 
out of her house ; and out she went. The matter soon 
reached the ears of Madam Morris, who was informed 
of the deception played off on her aged tenant. She 
asked the Major what he had been doing with Granny 
Hill ? He replied that she had signed " that paper, 
and had refused to take her name off; and that he had 
turned the old rebel out of doors." Madam Morris 
could not, for a moment, believe that the old woman 
would do anything wrong as her tenant, and some- 
what resenting the hasty conduct of her husband, told 
him that " there was an 100 acres up the road with a 
log-house on it, and that Granny Hill should have a 
living on it for life ;" gently reminding him that all the 
land was hers in her own right, and cautioning him 
not to molest the old lady again. Granny Hill ac- 
cordingly received a life interest in the 100 acres; 
and after the estate was confiscated, in consequence 
of Major Morris taking the British side of the ques- 
tion, under whose government he held a commission, 
an individual who had purchased it of the State, de- 
manded an absolute and full title ; but it was found 
that the old lady had an interest in the land that could 
not be terminated, without her consent, until her 
death. When Gen. Montcalm, the Commander of the 
French Army, was shot in the battle on the Plains of 
Abraham, at Quebec, he was riding a large and beau- 
tiful white horse. The horse was captured by the 
British, and made a present to Major Roger Morris, 
for the gallantry he evinced in that battle, who 
brought him, after the war was finished, to the Red 


Mills. He was kept on the farm adjoining Nathaniel 
Crane's, Esq., by George Hughson, the ancestor of 
the Hughson family, in Dutchess County, at that time 
an agent of Major Morris. The stock of this horse 
was found here within the last fifty years. 

Indian Hill. — This is a large eminence at the 
south end of Lake Mahopac, cultivated to the top on 
the south side, and lately owned by Abel Smith. The 
Mahopac tribe of Indians occupied this region of the 
country ; and hence the name. 

Watermelon Hill. — This hill is about one and a half 
miles south-easf of Lake Mahopac. The north side 
is still covered with timber ; the south goes off with 
a gentle slope, and is cultivated. It is partly owned 
by Richard Dean, Esq. About 130 years since, a 
great hunter from New Rochelle, Westchester Co., 
called Captain Simpkins, came up here and found 
watermelons in great plenty on this hill ; whereupon 
he named it as above. He was on friendly terms 
with the Indians who lived there, and with whom he 
bartered. In the Revolution, the cow-boys and horse- 
thieves built pens on this hill, in which they put 
stolen horses, until they could safely convey them to 
New York for the use of the British Army. About 20 
years ago the remains of these pens were still to be seen. 
Battle Hill — This hill is in the southerly part of 

the town, on the lands of the Ganongs, Esq., 

two and a half miles south of Carmel village. It 
was formerly a great resort of Tattle-snakes. Drop- 
ping the latter name, the people in its vicinity named 
it as above. A young man was shot on this hill in 
Revolution, and although found with a gang of horse- 


thieves, he was innocent of any participation in their 
nefarious deeds. He lived in the town of Pawlings, 
Dutchess County, had lately married, and was going 
to see his wife, who, at that time, was with her friends 
in the town of Bedford, Westchester County. The 
gang, who had their head-quarters at Pawlings, per- 
suaded him to defer his journey for a day or two, by 
offering the use of one of their horses to ride, as they 
were going in the same direction to one of the Ame- 
rican posts on the Lines. He accepted their offer, not 
doubting their representations about the horses being 
for the American army. They had proceeded as far 
as this Hill, where, encamping for the night, they 
were overtaken and attacked by the owners of the 
horses and their neighbors. The gang escaped, but the 
young man, as he rose up from the ground beneath a 
tree where he was sleeping, was shot through the 
back. He died in 48 hours afterwards, but lived long 
enough to see his wife, who was sent for, and explain 
to her and those around him, how he happened to be 
found in such company. He was buried a few rods 
north of the hill. 

Drew's Hill is a large eminence directly east of 
Rattle Hill, on the land of John Craft, Esq., and 
named after the Drew family. 

Pond Hill is about two miles south of Carmel vil- 
lage, at the north side of the Gilead Pond, at its foot. 

Watts' Hill. — A small eminence just east of Pond 
Hill, on the farm of Judge Watts, after whom it is 

Hazen Hill is about one and a half miles south- 
west of Carmel village ; and named after the Hazen 


family, who were among the earliest settlers from 
Cape Cod. 

Berry Mountain. — This is a large eminence, named 
after Jabez Berry, to whom it formerly belonged, and 
is now owned by Messrs. Wixon and Ballard. On 
its summit is a tree, from the top of which, when the 
woods are destitute of foliage, seven fish ponds can 
be seen, five of which are visible at all times of the 

Hitchcock Hill, now called Prospect Hill, is about 
two and a half miles north of the Red Mills. It has 
been in the possession of the above-named family for 
a hundred years. 

Round Mountain is about one and a half miles east 
of Hitchcock Hill, owned by Messrs. Hill, Pinckney, 
and Barrett. The shape of this eminence is circular ; 
hence the title. 

Turkey Mountain is about one mile east of Round 
Mountain. Formerly it was covered with white-oak 
timber, and frequented by wild turkies. 

Corner's Mountain. — A small eminence about one 
and a half miles west of Carmel village, formerly 
owned by a person of that name. 

Austin Hill is about two and a half miles north- 
west of the Red Mills. Job Austin's father, who 
came from Germany about 100 years ago, settled on 
it. It has always been in the possession of the family. 

Big Hill. — This is the largest and highest ridge of 
land on the east of the Peekskill Hollow range of the 
Highlands, and situated about two and a half miles 
south-west of the Red Mills. 

Lake Mahopac. — This well-nigh unrivalled, beautiful, 
and romantic^ lake, is located in the westerly part of the 


town, thirteen miles from Peekskill, Westchester Co. ; 
five from Croton Falls in the same county; and four 
miles south-west of Carmel village. It is a delightful 
watering place, crowded to overflowing in the sum- 
mer season with visitors from New York City and all 
parts of the country. During the fashionable season 
" strangers arrive here every day, and those who have 
been before, never go anywhere else for recreation 
and enjoyment, for they can be had here perfectly 
unadulterated. This Lake is nine miles in circum- 
ference, and is situated about eighteen hundred feet 
above the level of the sea. It is one of the principal 
sources of supply to the Croton ; and its pure and 
placid waters, its wide and picturesque scenery, the 
romantic resorts, its wild and wooded islands, the fre- 
quent and agreeable pic-nic parties to the Dell, with 
its clear and crystal spring, its rugged and precipitous 
cliffs, and last, but not least, the rowing and sailing 
among the islands and along the wild and rock-bound 
shore are delightful, and superior to anything of the 
kind in any place it has ever been our good fortune 
to visit. Kirk ridge has an attraction for the curious, 
in the position it occupies between two lakes, one of 
which is about 150 feet below the other, both of 
which can be seen on this shore. 

" This Lake affords fine sport to the angler. Pick- 
erel, pike, and perch are caught in abundance, and its 
shores abound in all the wild game of the season, par- 
ticularly woodcock, affording excellent sport to those 
fond of gunning. There is one peculiar feature about 
this lake, which we have never found in any other 
watering place on this continent, and that is the com- 
plete abs&ace of all desire for artificial amusements, 


such as bowling, billiards, cards, games, and all those 
things, which sojourners at such places usually resort 
to for the purpose of killing time. Nothing of this 
kind is required here ; the natural resources of the 
place are sufficient to keep the most attractive con- 
stantly engaged, and it would take weeks and months 
to exhaust all the facilities the place possesses for 

" Jn all watering places, much depends upon the so- 
ciety and the class of people there congregated. So 
far as this important matter is concerned, Lake Ma- 
hopac is particularly favored. There is no exclusive- 
ness, no coteries, no codfish aristocracy, but all appear 
disposed t:> make time pass as agreeably to those 
around them as to themselves. 

"Our watering places., generally, are the rendezvous 
of fashion, and there are usually more restrictions upon 
dress, and more restraint upon personal movements 
than even in cities. The benefits derived from the 
cool air, and the relief from c^re, a resort to the coun- 
try usually gives, are not enjoyed, and everything is 
sacrificed to fashionable dress and fashionable hours, 
more so, if possible, than in the most fashionable city. 
Sensible people do not go to such places for such pur- 
poses ; it would be more sensible ^to. stay at home ; 
but they go where they can get all the comforts of the 
country, where they can enjoy themselves in their 
own way, or in other words, do just as they please ; 
for such purposes, they come to Lake Mahopac. It is 
a fine place for young children, on account of the fa- 
cilities for bathing, the pleasant drives and walks. 

" It is a very desirable resort for all, as it is easy of ac- 
cess, being only five miles from the present fexmination 


of the Harlem Railroad at Croton Falls, and only three 
hours' ride from the city. The ride to the Lake from 
the railroad is beautiful, it- being through such a wild 
and picturesque country, and is really refreshing after 
fifty -four miles of railroad travel. 

" There are more beautiful places for summer rendez- 
vous in the vicinity of the city of New York, than in 
any other in the Union, and as fast as our railroads 
become extended, new resorts are opened. It is only 
within a few years that this place was known to any 
extent by the citizens of N. Y. City, and we predict 
that within a few years, it will be more generally re- 
sorted to than many places which have been longer and 
hitherto more favorably known." 

Kirk Pond. — This handsome body of water is one 
mile long, half a mile wide, bounded by the lands of 
Messrs. Hill and Lounsberry. It takes its name from 
an old man by the name of Kirk, who lived near it ; 
and abounds in excellent fish. 

Wixon Pond. — A large pond about half a mile north 
of Lake Mahopac, nearly circular, and containing ex- 
cellent fish. This and Seacord's pond are the only 
ones in the county that originally contained white 
perch. On the third day of December, 1838, Nathaniel 
Crane, Esq., with a scoop-net as large as a half bushel, 
scooped out of this pond eleven bushels of white perch. 
Long Pond is bounded bv the lands of John Wix- 
on, Allen Coles, Ebenezer Barret, and Alza Hill. 

Cranberry Pond is south of Nathaniel Crane's, 
Esq. ; bounded by the lands of Lewis Griffin, Reu- 
ben Baldwin, and Coleman Rockwell, Esqs. It covers 

about thirty acres, and contains perch, pike, with the 


more common kinds of fish. Cranberries are found 
in abundance on its borders. 

Shaw's Lake. — This beautiful sheet of water is 
sometimes called Shaw's Pond, on the east and north 
banks of which is located the quiet little village of 
Carmel. Its location is a basin, as it were, scooped 
out of the surrounding hills. It is about one mile in 
length, three quarters in breadth, and 130 feet in depth, 
containing all kinds of fish in great abundance. At its 
north end, on elevated ground, is the charming resi- 
dence of James Raymond, Esq., the main proprietor of 
the largest collection of wild animals ever exhibited in 
this country. At the south end, on a still higher emi- 
nence, stands the former mansion of Samuel Gouver- 
neur, deceased. 

At the north end, a man by the name of Shaw re- 
sided before the Revolution, after whom this Pond or 
Lake was named. We have been informed that the 
villagers of Carmel are about adopting a new name, by 
which this noble body of water shall, in future, be 
called; but, as yet, they have not published it pro forma. 

Gilead Pond, formerly so called from its contiguity 
to the old Gilead Church, is now known as the Crosby 
Pond ; and is situated about one mile south of Carmel 
Village. It is nearly a mile in length, half a mile in 
breadth ; and, like Shaw's, abounds in all kinds offish. 
It takes its later name from a son of the celebrated 
Enoch Crosby, who owned a mill, which stood on its 

Barrett's Pond is in the north part of the town, 
near the line between it and Kent, covering about ten 
acres of ground. It bounds on the lands of different 
members of the Barret family, after which it is named. 


Seacord's Pond, is half a mile wide, circular, and 
named after the Seacord family, who lived close 
to it. 

Capt. John Crane. — This gentleman, the father of 
Nathaniel Crane, Esq., now living in this town, was 
born the 20th of Nov., 1742, old style. He built the 
house, now occupied by his son Nathaniel, in 1772. 
His ancestors were among the earliest settlers in this 
county, of English origin, and of great influence and in- 
telligencc, wherever located. During the Revolution, 
the Crane family figured largely in those trying times 
" that tried mens' souls,"' both in the civil and military 
departments of the government. 

Nearly all of the name, in this country, have de- 
scended from John Crane, who came from Suffolk 
county, in England, about 1075, and settled in Massa- 
chusetts. He fought in the Indian war of 1720, at 
Deerfield, and was in the fort when taken by the In- 
dians. By making a passage under the logs, he suc- 
ceeded in escaping with his family ; and afterwards 
settled at Wilton, in Connecticut. He had two sons, 
Jonathan and Jasper. Jasper settled at Elizabeth- 
town, in New Jersey, and was the grandfather of Col. 
John Crane, of the artillery, in the Revolution. Jona- 
than had one son, Joseph, who was born 17th of May, 
1690. Jonathan settled in Massachusetts : and his 
son. Joseph, grandfather to John Crane, came from 
Greenfield, in Connecticut, about 1755, and settled on 
the north side of Joe's Hill, about one and a half miles 
east of Sodom Crane. He built the mill there, called 
in the old records, " Crane's Mill." 

Another branch of this family, Orrin and Anson 
Crane, Esqs., now living in the town of South-east, are 
grandsons of Joseph Crane. 


The branches of this family, in this town and South- 
east, have kept regular chronological histories of the 
family; and intending to insert them, we pass over 
them to resume our remarks concerning that member 
of the family at the head of our article. The whole 
family seems to have been distinguished for integrity, 
intelligence, and attachment to the cause of their 

In searching the continental, provincial, and mili- 
tary records of the Revolution, we have not found one 
of the name, adhering to the cause of England ; they 
were all whigs at that day, and thoroughly "dyed in 
the wool." 

Joseph Crane, uncle to Jonathan, the father of An- 
son and Orrin, was a Colonel of the Militia in the 
Revolution, and fought in the battle at Ridgefield, 
when partly destroyed by the British, after burning 
Danbury. John, the subject of the present sketch, 
was a Captain, and in 1803, '4 and '5, was an assistant 
Judge of the Court of Common Pleas, of Dutchess 
County. All of both branches of the family in New 
York, as well as in New Jersey, who were old enough 
to bear arms, held commissions, either in the Conti- 
nental army, the militia, or in minute-men companies. 
John seems to have become early the subject of hate 
( and fear to the tories and friends of the King. At- 
tempts were made to capture him in his own house 
when alone, and shoot him when out of it ; but their 
efforts were foiled by a Power that watched over the 
American cause and its advocates. In the fall of 1780, 
he retired to bed with his wife, having carefully se- 
cured the doors and windows. About an hour after- 
wards he heard a rap on the side of the house. He 


arose and looked out of the window, which was half 
boarded up, and told his wife that he saw two men, 
armed, outside. It was moonlight, and the refraction 
of the moon's rays gave the appearance of two men, 
when in reality there was but one. A reward of $200 
had been offered for his apprehension, which he sup- 
posed had induced a band of tories, who lived in the 
vicinity, to pa)* him a night visit. He supposed that 
there were others hard-by, secreted behind trees and 
fences. He slipped out of the back door, cautioning 
his wife to fasten it, intending to secrete himself in an 
adjoining wood. After his departure, his wife, on 
looking out of the window, saw but one man. The 
man spoke to her, and begged the privilege to come 
in and get something to eat, and rest himself for the 
night on the floor. She asked him if there were 
others with him, and he assured her, on the honor of 
a soldier, that he was alone. She then asked him if 
he was armed ? He said he was, and that " Washing- 
ington's soldiers always went armed." She took off 
the fastenings and raised the window a little, and told 
him to hand in his gun breech foremost, which he 
did ; and having fastened it again, she cocked the 
gun, opened the door, and bid him come in, standing 
a few feet back, ready to shoot him and close the 
door should another make his appearance. She then 
bade him fasten it, and having placed the gun in a cor- 
ner, got the soldier some supper. While he was eat- 
ing, Crane crept up to a back window, and seeing but 
one man in the room, and he quietly eating his supper, 
called to his wife to let him in again. He came in and 
begged his wife to say nothing about his flight from 
one man, since it had turned out so differently frore 


what he expected ; but she declared that it was too 
good to keep, and many a day afterwards she re- 
hearsed it before him to the no small amusement of 
his friends. 

One night previous to this, while sitting by his fire 
reading, and his wife in the corner darning stockings, 
a cow-boy and tory of the name of Samuel Akerly, of 
South-east, came to his window with gun in hand, 
intending to shoot him. Akerly contemplated the 
scene within, remembered the former friendship and 
kindness he had received from Crane, (long before the 
great issue was joined, that arrayed neighbor against 
neighbor,) and withdrew, afterwards alleging that 
" Crane was so great a friend to his country, and 
so sincere in/iris actions, that he could not do it." At 
another timej£apt. Crane went to his field, a few rods 
west of Nathaniel Crane's house, now a meadow, to 
chain his horses for the night. Akerly was lying in 
wait to shoot him. Again he suspended his purpose, 
alleging that his " heart failed him." 

About this time, Robert Hughson, a whig and 
neighbor of Capt. Crane's, went out one night on the 
ridge just east of Crane's house, and was met by three 
horsemen, well armed, who enquired, whether one 
Capt. John Crane, did not live in the house, to which 
they pointed ? Hughson told them that he did. They 
then told him that he mutt go with them and assist 
them to get $100 dollars in hard money, which they 
said Crane had concealed in a bin of grain in the up- 
per part of an old log-house, just back of his dwelling. 
Hughson told them that if he must be shot, he would 
rather it should be on his own land, than on the door- 
sill of his neighbor, among a band of robbers; that 


Capt. Crane had four men with him well armed, and 
that before they could get the money, some of them 
would have to "bite the dust." Hughson so magnified 
the force and fighting disposition of Capt. Crane, and 
the danger of their all being killed before they could 
get into the house, that they departed without making 
an attempt. 

The family Coat of Arms is now in the possession 
of Nathaniel, his son, and a Record, reaching from 
the great ancestor of this family, John Crane, of Eng- 
land, down to the children of the subject of this bio- 
graphy, and written by himself when he only lacked 
six days to being 83 years of age. We extract it 
entire, considering it wrong to comply with his re- 
quest, so modestly expressed at its end. A majority 
of the old men of the present time, who have reached 
his age, can hardly do more than write their naSne, 
while many of them can, at the most, only make their 
marks. We doubt if there is one in a thousand, who 
can write four large quarto pages, with the penman- 
ship anything like as good, as that which now lays 
before us, in the handwriting of Capt. John Crane: 


" Carmel 29th Nov'r 1825. the following is a Reckord of the 
Crane family as handed to me by my ancestors — my Grand-father 
Joseph Crane was the son of Jonathan Crane of Windham in 
Conecticut and grandson to John Crane from England and was 
born May 17th 169G. 

"Died August 28th 1781. 

" Zebulon his eldest child was born Jan. 25 1721 Died Jan 

24th 1789 

" Joseph his 21 child was born Sep 13th 1722 Died Oct 14th 



" Mary his 3d child was born May 30th 1726 Died March 
17th 1805 : 

" Thadeous his 4th child was born March 28th, 1728 Died 
Septr. 1803. 

" Abijah 5th Child was born April 3d 1730 Died 3d 1806. 
Anna 0th child Born April 12th 1732 Died March 25th 1805. 
Stephen 7th Child Born May 13th 1734 Died May 10th 1814. 
Adah 8th and last Child born Oct 25th 1736 her deth I dont re- 
member, but she lived about 70 years, here ends the record of 
my grand-father's family. 

"here begineth a record of my Father's family — I John Crane 
was born Nov 24th 1742 old stile — William was Born 1744. 
Zebulon was Born August 7th 1746 Died December 31st 1814. 
Elijah Born April 1st 1748. Sarah Born July 12th 1750. Mary 
Oct. 8 1752— Stile altered about this time— Belden Born Nov 31 
1754. Samuel Born April 11th 1757. Abigah Born May 26th 
1759. Stephen born April 11th 1761. Anna born Augt. 3d 
1763. Seth born march 1760. my mother was Sarah Belden — 
Before mared Daughter of Wm. Belden of Wilton in Conecticut 
and was a resident of the town of Dcarfield in Snoserjoseraets 
at the time it was Destroyed by the French and Indians in the 
winter of 1720 & 3— 

" in the later part of the year 1769 my Father moved from 
Bedford in Westchester County to Judeah now in the town of 
Washington in Litchfield county — Soon after they Got there a 
mortal sickness Came into the family, in which my mother and 
five of her children died within 2 months, namely — Mary, Bel- 
den, Stephen, Seth, anne — My mother had never lost a child be- 
fore — 

"I John Crane was born Nov 24th old stile 1742. My wife 
Tamer, Daughter of John and Hannah Carpenter, was born 
Dec'r 1st 1747, Died May 1st 1823. we were married on the 
1st day of March 1764 By the Rev'd Eliphelet Ball the first set- 
tlar and Minister of Ballstown in the State of New York — our 
Eldest Child Joseph was Born June 3d 1766. 2d Child Adah 
was born June 6th 1768. 3d Child Stephen Nov 1st 1770, 
Died Sept 9th 1826. 4th Child John born June 6th 1773, Died 
June 1st 1825. 5th Child Zillah was born Oct 3d 1775. 6th 


Child Nathaniel born Feb. 28th 1778. 7th Child Sarah born 
June 27th 1780. 8th Child Arrabellah born 25 Decern 1784. 
9th and last Child Clorinda was born Oct 2d 1787. 

" I hope it will be a satisfaction to some of my Descendants to 
be informed of the conduct of their ancestors throu life — my 
Grand-father was Living at the commencement of the Revolu- 
tionary war that separated the then 13 Collynies from the Govern- 
ment of Grate Brittan — at the Commencement of that war the 
People were devided into two Casses whig & tory — the whig 
party ware those opposed to the black arts of the British Par- 
liament — the tory party took sides with the King — my grand- 
father was then about 80 years of age very strong and active for 
a man of that age, and a warm whig and what is very remark- 
able, his 8 children were all living and heds of familyes, had 
many grandchildren and great grandchildren and not an indi- 
vidual that had arrived to the years of understanding but what 
took an active part of the American Cause — I was the oldest 
grandchild — I had an Ensign's Commission under the King 
George the 3d in the year 1775 — 

" I took a Capt's Commission under the Provential Congress 
of the Provence of New York — the 4th of July following our 
independence was declared — George Clinton Became our Gover- 
nor — then I received a Commission from him and held it through 
the war — Such was the general conduct of the family which was 
the cause of many of them receiving both civil and military com- 
missions, not on account of our Extraordinary abilities, but as 
an act of our engagedness in that blessed cause — I hope whoever 
reads the foregoing will Erase the incorrectness, as I want but 
six days of being 83 years of age and allmost blind. 

" John Crane." 

John Crane was a remarkable man ; and the record 
he penned, at the age of 83, is very far from diminish- 
ing the force of our assertion. He was a kind neisrh- 
bor and indulgent parent, a firm friend, and unflinch- 
ing patriot. He died in 1825. 

Lieut. Jabez Berry. — This gentleman's ancestors 


were from Ireland, and emigrated early to Cape Cod 
in Massachusetts, where the subject of this memoir 
was born. We have been able to gather but little 
concerning his early life, previous to his arrival in 
this country. His ancestors, himself, and his descend- 
ants, were, and are still, distinguished for their gigan- 
tic proportions, muscular frames, and great strength. 
Jabez Berry came from Cape Cod after he was mar- 
ried, and some years before the Revolution, and settled 
on the farm now occupied by Elijah Crane, about one 
mile north of Lake Mahopac. He was five feet 
eleven inches high in his stocking feet ; a large, 
powerful, robust man, with a frame knit together 
more like iron than bone, and capable of the greatest 
endurance. For his size, he was unmatched in 
strength by any man, at that time, in the country. 
Boxing was one of the amusements of the young 
men at that day, very fashionable, and, as a science, 
is still cultivated. He soon attained great proficiency 
in it, and before leaving Cape Cod stood number one, 
" solitary and alone," and without a rival. Some 
years after settling in this town, a celebrated boxer 
came to Cape Cod and inquired for one Jabez Berry ? 
On ascertaining that he had removed to this town, he 
informed one of Berry's intimate friends there that he 
came to have a match with him, and offered to bet 
that he could flog him. Berry's friend, well-knowing 
his ability, accepted the wager ; and another person 
having been chosen as the second of the boasting 
bully, the three immediately set out for Berry's resi- 
dence. On reaching it they found him and his wife 
at breakfast. The boxer without much ceremony 
entered the house, and thus accosted Berry : " Are 


you the man they call Jabez Berry ?" " Yes sir-ee, 
and always have been," was the reply. " Well, sir," 
continued the bully, " I have come all the way from 
Cape Cod to flog you." " Ah, indeed ! If you've 
come all that distance to pluck a single berry from the 
bush, you are entitled to a few striking tokens of my 
regard as a reward for the pains you may suffer be- 
fore you get back," was the reply. Out they went 
into the door-yard, where he flogged his Cape Cod 
antagonist to his heart's content ; received half the 
bet, which he applied to curing his antagonist, who 
was unable to resume his journey back for the space 
of a week. There was one remarkable trait about 
him that distinguished him from others who possessed 
great powers and skill in pugilism ; he never made 
use of it to domineer over the weak and those unable 
to cope with him, nor insult any man from a consci- 
ousness that his skill and strength was his protection 
from punishment. He never was the assailing parly ; 
nor entered a boxing combat in an angry state of feeling. 
He enjoyed it with about the same good feeling that 
he would relate an amusing anecdote or crack a 
harmless joke. He belonged to the church ; and if 
sickness or bad weather did not prevent him, never 
failed in his attendance for any other cause. He was 
commissioned a lieutenant in the militia, and rendered 
great service in guarding this part of the country 
from the midnight depredations of the cow-boys, skin- 
ners, and tories. He had four sons ; John, who was 
commissioned an ensign in Captain John Crane's mili- 
tia company, Asahel, Jabez, junior, and Samuel, and 
two daughters, His sons are all dead, but some of 
his grandchildren are found in this town. Samuel A. 


Berry, Esq., of Carmel, whose father was Samuel, 
the youngest son of Jabez, is a grandson of this early 
settler. Samuel had four sons ; Charles, John, Fre- 
derick, Samuel A. ; and seven daughters, Delilah, Hes- 
ter, Elizabeth, two by the name of Clarissa, one hav- 
ing died young, Julia and Mary. 

Jabez Berry possessed a well-balanced mind, which 
kept him from being disconcerted in any emergency. 
Possessing an amiable and cheerful disposition, he 
secured the esteem and approbation of all who knew 
him, while his integrity and uprightness of pur- 
pose secured him from the tongue of the slanderer. 
He advocated the cause of his country with a stout 
heart and a strong arm, and enjoyed the proud satis- 
faction of seeing all of his sons follow his paternal 
and patriotic example. 

We have not been informed of the date of his 
decease, but he lived many years to enjoy the fruit of 
the tree of liberty which he had contributed so vigi- 
lantly to guard. 

We had intended giving a brief sketch of the 
Churches in the county ; but on inquiry found that 
they were principally of recent organization, not more 
than three being organized at the commencement of 
the Revolution. 

The first Church erected in this county, so far as 
we are informed, was built about 1735, in Southeast, 
in which, about 1740, the Rev. Elisha Kent, the 
grandfather of the late Chancellor Kent, preached as 
the regular pastor. 

St. Philips' Chapel, as it was then called, is the 
Episcopal Church near the Hon. John Garrison's, and 
was built in 1770, by Col. Beverly Robinson. 


During the Revolution, it was used as a kind of 
Jail to confine prisoners. One minister preached 
here every other Sabbath, and also in a Church just 
south of Continental Village, across the Westchester 
County line, where Col. Beverly Robinson gave the 
two Churches a farm of about 300 acres as a parson- 
age. A Church was built previous to the Revolution 
in Patterson, but we have not obtained the necessary 
facts to give a sketch of its history. 

We had abandoned the idea, therefore, of saying 
anything concerning the Churches, inasmuch as we 
were unable to notice all, but could not forego the 
pleasure of inserting the following notice of the Gilead 
Church, which has been politely furnished us by the 
Rev. Henry G. Livingston, its present Pastor. 


About the commencement of the Revolution, a 
Congregational Church was organized in the vicinity 
of Carmel Village, and a log building erected on the 
hill a few rods north of the present residence of Ira 
White, Esq., and within the limits of the town of 
Southeast. The Society was familiarly known as 
" Gregory's Parish," after the name of their first mi- 
nister. No authentic records of the Church are found 
until 1792, when a new. organization was made, and a 
more commodious edifice built upon the ground now 
known as the Gilead Burying-ground, a little over a 
mile south of Carmel Village. 

The Constitution and Articles of Faith, then adopt- 
ed, are as follows : 

" Frederickstown, August 9th, 1792. 
" We, the subscribers, members of different churches, and of the 


former church in this place, now dissolved, living in the vicinity 
commonly known as Gregory's Parish, considering it the duty of 
Christians to join together in covenant, and form churches for 
the glory of God and their mutual edification, wherever God in 
his providence may cast their lot, and place them under circum- 
stances convenient for that purpose ; and finding ourselves un- 
der such circumstances, and no church in this parish which we 
may join, and with which we can walk in the ordinances of the 
Gospel according to our persuasion ; and having, as we humbly 
trust, looked to the Father of lights for wisdom and direction, 
and having also consulted with ministers and private Christians 
concerning our duty under present circumstances, have, after 
mature deliberation, judged that we ought, with the consent of 
the churches to which we belong, to unite together in covenant 
as a visible church, and Messrs. Ichabod Lewis, John Minor, 
Amzi Lewis, and Silas Comfort, Ministers of the Gospel, hav- 
ing by our request convened in order to assist us to unite and 
enter into covenant with each other with solemnity and pro- 
priety, we have therefore adopted and publicly received the fol- 
lowing articles and covenant as the foundation of our union : — 

"Articles of Faith. 

"1. There is one only living, true, and eternal God, the Cre- 
ator, Preserver, and Governor of the world ; infinite in all per- 
fection and glory, and worthy to be loved, worshipped, and 
obeyed by all rational creatures. 

"2. The Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments are the 
Word of God, and a sufficient and infallible rule of practice. 

"3. Mankind are fallen from God, and are naturally destitute 
of all holiness and inclined wholly to sin ; and therefore are 
under the curse of God*s law, and deserve his eternal wrath. 

"4. God purposed in himself before the foundation of the 
world, to save some of the human race by a dispensation of 
grace through a Mediator. 

' : 5. This grace has been revealed to fallen man by Jesus 
Christ, who, being really God, became man, and in the flesh per- 
formed the work of mediation, and by his obedience and death, 
opened up a way in which sinners may be freely justified by 
faith, and saved according to the divine purpose. 


"6. The Mediator, Jesus Christ, is the appointed Governor 
of the world and the final judge of the quick and the dead. 

" 7. Those and those only who are chosen of God in Christ, 
and renewed by the effectual operation of the Holy Ghost on 
their hearts, do actually repent and believe unto eternal life. 

"8. God will continue his gracious operations on the hearts 
of his people until they are completely sanctified and fitted for 
his Heavenly Kingdom and glory. 

"9. God will overrule all things for his glory and the ad- 
vancement of his Kingdom until the consummation, when those 
who are united to Christ by faith will be raised and glorified, 
and the impenitent and unbelieving eternally punished." 

" The Covenant. 

" We do this day solemnly take God for our God, Jesus Christ 
for our Saviour, the Holy Ghost for our Sanctifier, and the 
Scriptures for our rule and directory ; and sincerely, as far as 
we know ourselves, covenant and engage by divine grace to 
devote ourselves to the service and glory of God, walking in all 
his ordinances, observing his commandments, living solely, 
righteously, and godly in this present world, trusting in the 
merits of Jesus Christ alone for acceptance with God, seeking 
his Glory and Kingdom, watching over our Christian brethren 
and sisters in love, studying to promote their spiritual edifica- 
tion, and therefore good, endeavouring to keep the unity of 
the spirit in the bond of peace, and waiting for the coming of 
our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. 


John Ambler, Mary Hopkins, 

Matthew Beale, Desire Stone, 

Philetus Phillips, Mary Haynes, 

Zebulon Phillips, Lucy Cullen, 

John Merrick, Bethia Trusdell, 

John McClean, Esther Phillips, 

Jabez Trusdell, Elizabeth Merrick." 
Rebecca Hopkins, 

Who were the officers appointed in 1792, does not 
appear from the minutes of the Church record. 


It is believed there was then no settled minister, 
though the pulpit was occasionally supplied by .the Rev. 
Mr. Lewis. At a meeting held, December 9th, of the 
same year, it was resolved that the name of the So- 
ciety be changed from that of " Gregory's Parish," to 
that of " Gilead." 

Since then, it has always been known as the " Gilead 
Church." The name was derived from Scripture with, 
out any special reason, I apprehend, for so appropri- 
ating it. Fancy, doubtless, dictated the selection. 

June 27th, 1795, Mr. John Amber was elected dea- 
con of the Church, and the first who filled that office. 

Soon after this period, the Church gradually lost 
strength ; there being no settled pastor, and, in all 
probability, no stated administration of the ordinances. 
It was, therefore, thought advisable, in the year 1803, 
to reorganize. The same constitution and articles of 
faith and government, as before, were adopted, and 
were signed by the following individuals : 

Elisha Smith, Thirza Crosby, 

Dorius Crosby, William Jacks, 

Harvey Newell, David Travis, 

Gilbert Travis, Rachel Newell, 

Elizabeth Travis, Jane Woodhull, 

Desire Stone, Deborah Travis, 

Denny Jacks, Hannah Rimdee. 

Harvey Newell, at this time, was elected Clerk, and 
William Jacks, deacon. The Rev. Mr. Stephen Dodd 
had been previously called to the charge of the church, 
and preached here half of the time, and the remainder 
at the Red Mills. 

He remained here until the 15th of July, 1810. 
During his ministry, a large number were added to 


the church, a,nd its condition was prosperous. He 
was not, however, a settled pastor. 

February 18th, 1804, Enoch Crosby, the supposed 
hero of Cooper's novel, entitled the Spy, and so well 
known for the aid he rendered his country in its time 
of trial, was elected deacon; and, in 1806, David 
Travis was set apart to the same office. 

After Mr. Dodd had resigned the care of the church, 
the pulpit was supplied by the Rev. Herman Dagget, 
who was succeeded in 1812, by the Rev. Allen Blair. 
Afterwards, the Rev. Messrs. James N. Austin, Abner 
Brundige, Isaac Allerton, and B. Y. Morse, officiated 
from 1815, until the year 1835. None of these, so far 
as my knowledge extends, were settled as pastors. 

The church, as it appears from the minutes, from 
the year 1824 to 1831, was in a state of fearful de- 
clension. The ecclesiastical body to which it belonged, 
was gradually becoming extinct. Disorder and a re- 
laxation of dicipline, naturally resulted from this state 
of things. The preaching of the Word was feebly 
sustained, and but few were added to the congregation 
of the Lord. From 1831 to 1835, there was stated 
preaching every Sabbath ; but the church had little 
more than a name to live, although there were set 
times when Zion was far advanced, and some few 
made public profession of their faith. In March, 1834, 
the church made the followine; declaration : 

" We, the members of the Second Presbyterian Congregational 
Church in the town of Carmel, and formerly having been a 
branch of the Westchester Presbytery, which is now extinct, do 
declare ourselves to be, as in fact we are, an independent Con- 
gregational Church. Believing, however, that great benefits 
may result to the Church of Christ from intimate union and fel- 
lowship with each other by their mutual aid and counsel, hold 
ourselves willing to unite with some ecclesiastical body when- 


ever, in the providence of God, an opportunity shall present 
and the way made clear." 

The church, soon after this, assumed the Presbyterian 
form of government, and connected itself, June 3d, 
1835, with the Presbytery of Bedford. Joseph Crane, 
Gilbert H. Travis, and Morgan L. Raymond, were 
elected Elders. In October, of the same year, a call 
was extended to the Rev. Gilbert Livingston Smith, 
to become pastor of the church. The call was ac- 
cepted, but before he had entered upon the active du- 
ties of his office, he was suddenly translated to the 
Church of the redeemed above. 

In the year 1837, the society erected their present 
house of worship, in the village of Carmel ; a structure 
justly admired for the neatness of its finish and the 
beauty of its location. The Rev. G. T. Todd was 
soon after installed pastor, and the first who was ever 
settled as such; and remained until May, 1844. He 
was succeeded in August, 1845, by the Rev. Henry 
G. Livingston, who was then ordained and installed, 
and continues to fulfil the duties of the pastoral office 
at the present time. 

The church has gradually increased since 1835, and 
has now upwards of 100 members. Though its 
growth is slow, it is sure, and its friends, to whom its 
past history is familiar, have every reason " to thank 
God and take courage." 

The present officers of the church are, Rev. Henry 
G. Livingston, Pastor ; Gilbert H. Travis, Morgan L. 
Raymond, Daniel Travis, and Anson Fowler, ruling 
Elders. Its creed is the same as that of other ortho- 
dox Presbyterian churches ; and its ecclesiastical rela- 
tions are with the Presbytery of Bedford, and the 
Synod of New York. 


This town was organized in 1788, and, as before 
remarked, takes its name from its geographical position, 
being located in the south-east part of the county. Its 
surface is rolling, and indented with vales and low 
lands, which yield excellent grass ; and, as a town, is 
better adapted for grazing than grain. The Harlem 
Railroad is now being made, nearly through its centre, 
from south to north, and will greatly facilitate the 
transportation of its farmers' produce to market. 

The main and east branches of the Croton traverse 
it from north to south, and with a few other streams, 
furnish sufficient water-power for milling purposes. 
Nowhere in the County, except in Patterson, have 
we found better roads, at least in that part through 
which we rode. 

Agriculture, as a science, seems here to have kept 
pace with every other ; and the farm-houses, with 
their out-buildings, give a pleasing evidence of neat- 
ness, thrift, and good husbandry. Its population in 
1840 was 1910; in 1845, 2044. 


This town was one of the earliest settled in the 
county. Adjoining Westchester on the south, and 
Connecticut on the east, emigration, as it' flowed 
northward from the City of New York, and westward 


from Massachusetts and Connecticut, poured its tide 
into this town, Carmel, and Patterson. 

There were a few families who came from West- 
chester and settled here, but the greater part were 
from the then Colonies of Massachusetts and Connec- 

The rich fat lands of the Croton early attracted the 
attention of the citizens of the above-named Colo- 
nies, one generation of whom had worn themselves 
out in their attempt to subdue the rough and stony 
surface whereon they first settled. 

The principal settlers of this town were the Cranes, 
Crosbys, Halls, Moodys, Paddocks, Hanes, Howes, 
Carpenters, and Dickinsons. Deacon Moody, as he 
was familiarly called, was about the first settler at 
Sodom Corners. He bought all the land in its imme- 
diate vicinity. A short distance north of him, James 
Dickinson made an early settlement. His son, James 
Dickinson, jun., was one of the Commissioners for 
laying out roads in 1745, with Thomas Davenport, 
Esq., of Nelsonville, in Philipstown. 

David Paddock, grandfather to Mrs. Richards, now 
living in this town, came from Cape Cod, in Massa- 
chusetts, with a family of eight children, about 1740, 
and located near the Presbyterian Meeting-house. 
His children were, Nathan, Foster, David, Isaac, 
Mary, Susanna, Mercy, and Sarah. Isaac was killed 
in the fight at Ward's house below White Plains, in 
Westchester County ; and when shot, he fell against 
Capt. Joshua Barnum, the grandfather of Col. Reuben 
D. Barnum, Clerk of this County. 

While falling, his tobacco-box fell out of his vest 


pocket, which Captain Barnum picked up and eventu- 
ally returned to the father of young Paddock. 

Nathan, after the Revolution, caught the small-pox, 
and died at Catskill, in Greene County ; Foster died 
in Dorset, in Vermont ; and David died in this town 
after the Revolution. 

Caleb Carpenter, great-grandfather of the Hon. 
Azor B. Crane, of Carmel, on his mother's side, with 
twelve others, came to this town about 1730, and 
located about three miles north of Sodom Corners, 
where they built the old Presbyterian log Church., in 
which the Rev. Elisha Kent, grandfather to the late 
Chancellor Kent, first preached in this town. 

Joseph Crane, grandfather of Ansin and Orrin 
Crane, Esqs., came about the same time, and settled 
on the north side of Joe's Hill, one and a half miles 
east of Sodom Corners, where he built the mill known 
in early times as " Crane's Mill." 

Our article on early settlement is necessarily general 
and imperfect, as the sources from which we obtained 
it are limited ; and, resting in the memory of a few 
aged people, they, in some instances, are not compe- 
tent to give it with any great degree of accuracy. 
Extracts from the Town Records. 

" At a town meeting held at the South precinct in Dutchess 
County 6th day of April 1773 

1 John rider Was chosen Moderator 

2 Isaac Elwell Clerk 

3 chosen Joseph Crane Jr. Supervisor 

4 was Chosen John field Sessor 

5 was Chosen Samuel Bangs Sessor 
G was Chosen peter hall Collector 

7 was Chosen Thomas trowbridge Constable 

8 mark Gage Constable 



Joseph Hull poormaster 
Zebedee brigs poormaster 
Daniel haviland poormaster 
Thomas baldwin ) Commissioners for 
Oliver he j the highways 

Seth Nicknerson Commissioners 
Benjamin Sears pound Keeper 
Daniel haviland pound Keeper 
Nathan Goreen Jr fence viewer 
William Stone fence viewer 
Uriah Townsend highway master N 1 
peter hall path master N 2 
Nathan Green is path master N 3 
William Penny Jr path master N 4 
hervey hopkins path master N 5 
Zebede brigs path master N 6 
Nathaniel foster path master N 7 

" Births in South East. 

Mercey Clinton Was Born August the 31 17G6 
Phebe Clinton was born May the 24 day 17G8 
Estr Clinton was born May the 24 day 1770 
Jesse Clinton Was born July the 21 day 1772 
Joshua Hinkley was born March 11th 1775 
Elkane hinkley was born July 19 day 1759 

•' Benjamin Tounsels Ears mark is a Crop on the Right Ear & 
A Nick under it & half penny on the Under Side of the Left Ear 

" Isaac Elwell Ear mark is a Crop of the Left with a hole in 
the same & a Nick under the same. 

•' Samuel Elwell Jr Ear mark is a Crop of the left and a hole in 
the rite" 

The first instance we have discovered in the records 
of the towns of this county, of a master manumitting 
his slaves, occurs, to its praise be it said, in this town 
by Samuel Field ; and what gives it more importance, 


is the fact that our fathers had just entered on the 
struggle with the Mother Country, for freedom from 
foreign domination. 

But there is a drawback to this noble instance of 
magnanimity, found on the records as late »s 1826, in 
the sale of the town-poor. Slavery is a misfortune, 
and poverty is not necessarily a crime ; and for 
governments to treat it as such, would only be making 
the rich richer, and the poor poorer. 

" To all persons, unto whomsoever these Presents shall come 
greeting. Know ye, that I Samuel Field of Oblong in the 
County of Dutchess and Province of New York, For and in 
consideration of the free rights and liberties of all mankind, and 
conceiving it unlawful for a Christian to hold any of his fellow 
creatures in bondage for term of life : Do hereby, from and after 
the thirteenth day of the fifth month, Called May which shall hap- 
pen in the year of our Lord 1780 give unto my Mulatto Man. 
bred by me, Known by the name of Phillip, his full freedom, to 
act k do in business for himself as of his own proper right as a 
free Man — And to be free from all manner of claim or command 
in any Kind of service whatsoever, either by me my heirs, execu- 
tors, administrators or assigns for ever. In witness whereof, I 
have hereunto set my hand & seal this tenth day of the second 
Month called february in the year of our Lord 1776. 

4i Samuel Field (L. S.)'* 
Signed & sealed in 
ye presence of us 
Peter Field 
Abel Close. 

•' Sale of the Poor made April 22 1826 

Nancy Binnit to James Hains $25,37 

Abigah Crane " Henry Mead 33,50 

George Dudley " Abner Gay 35,80 

Ebenezer Wixon " Chancey Higgins 15,00 

Birch & wife " Henry Cole 79,94 

June 1 Esther Lawrance " James Hains 23,87 

July 1 Joseph Leonard " James Hains 34,97 " 


" At a Town Meeting held the 6th day of April 1779 it was 
4 Voted that Jabez Elwell make a Pair of Stocks upon the Cost 
of this precinct.' " 

Sodom Corners. — A small village on the East Branch 
of the Croton River, in the centre of the town, about 
six miles East of the Court-houss. Barber, in his His- 
torical Collections, calls it Hatsville, which name must 
have been given to him by some one who desired that 
the name of Sodom should be dropped. We do not 
wonder, however, that any of its present peaceable 
inhabitants should desire to get rid of a name, which 
has connected with it such odious associations. 

When we approached this quiet little hamlet, we 
looked around us for Gomorrah, but failed to discover 
it. And when fairly quartered in its centre, we 
smelled no brimstone, but saw fire ; but that was 
where it should be — in the stove. It was named 
" Sodom" by way of reproach, in consequence of the 
unusually wild and wayward character of some of its 
B'hoys, in days long gone by. But for peace and 
quietness, sobriety, and industry, so far as we could 
discover, it is not now excelled by any other village in 
the county. A Post Office is located here. 

Milltown. — A small village about two miles east of 
Sodom Corners. It is so called from a mill located 
there. A Post Office is also established here. 

Doansburgh. — A few houses located in the northerly 
part of the town, in the neighborhood of the first Pres- 
byterian church. This church occupies the site of 
the old one, in which the Rev. Elisha Kent, grand- 
father of the late Chancellor Kent, first preached, on 
his arrival in this town, after leaving the Presbyterian 


Church at Newtown, in the State of Connecticut, in 
1740. It subsequently " became known as Kent's 
Parish." Chancellor Kent was born at this place, in 
an old house which stood about three rods distant from 
the Post Office ; and which was taken down about 
twenty years since. The east sill of the store-building 
at this place, now covers the spot, which, in the Chan- 
cellor's boyhood, was covered by a rock as high as a 
man's head, of a pyramidal form, with artificial steps 
in the side of it from its base to the top. The Hon. 
Reuben D. Barnum, Clerk of Putnam county, some 
twenty-five years ago, blasted the rock into pieces. 
Shortly afterwards, the Chancellor visited the place 
of his birth — the scene of his nativity — to commune 
with the hallowed recollections of the past, and the 
golden memories of childhood's sinless days. He 
expressed his regret at its demolition, as it had been a 
source of great pleasure and amusement to him in his 
boyhood, to climb to its apex, and indulge in those 
day dreams which characterize that sunny period of 
existence. He also visited the house, and ascended to 
the chamber where he was born. He seemed excited 
with all the rapturous feelings of boyhood, and ex- 
claimed, ' : Here is the room where I uias born — the 
chamber where my existence commenced." This place 
is named in honor of Benjamin Doane, who lived 

Joe's Hill. — A beautiful and romantic eminence in 
the east part of the town, the west end of which ter- 
minates on the east bank of the east branch of the 
Croton River. A part of this Hill belonged to David 
Paddock, deceased, who came from Cape Cod, in the 

State of Massachusetts, when seven years old, with 



his parents. The same part is now owned by his son, 
David B. Paddock. 

About seventy years ago, it was rumored that there 
was a silver mine on the north side of this Hill. 
Marvellous stories were told concerning the manner 
of its discovery ; and that it was a charmed spot, to 
which no man would be permitted to approach, with- 
out having first taken an oath of secrecy, and become 
imbued or subject to the mystic spell that rested over 
the Potosi of the town of Southeast. 

About sixty years ago, the excitement was at its 
height. It drew within its vortex some men who 
were possessed of an easy credulity, and others who, 
from a knowledge of the character of their neighbors, 
relied upon their statements, and trusted in their re- 
ports. It having been noised abroad, that there was a 
silver mine of incalculable wealth here, two or three 
men from abroad, supposed, at the time, to be theoreti- 
cal or practical miners, visited the hiil and took up 
their residence near it. Two residents, Nathan Hall 
and Jehu Miner, also became believers in the ex- 
istence of the mine. They, with the others who came 
from abroad, were called " Pigeon Men," by their 

Hall pretended to know the precise locality of the 
mine, and, when questioned by his friends and neigh- 
bors, urged the necessity of first subscribing to a se- 
cret oath. David Paddock, deceased, often conversed 
with Hall about the mine, but could get nothing satis- 
factory from him. Necromancy, divination, and mys- 
tic charms, formed the subjects of Hall's conversation 
when plied with direct questions touching the location 
of the hidden treasure. While young he went to De- 


marara, in English Guiana, in South America. In a few 
years he returned, alleging that he knew everything 
that had happened in his absence. The existence of 
the mine appears to have been a delusion, which seems 
to have increased with his age ; and, as a ruling pas- 
sion, was strongly developed on his death-bed. In this 
respect he was what is now termed a monomaniac — 
deranged in a single faculty of his mind, or in regard 
to a particular subject. 

The elder Paddock asked him what use was it to a 
man to believe what he was destined never to know ; 
and how could a man believe in what everybody else, 
himself, and a few others excepted, rejected as a delu- 
sion? Hall told him, that if he could be led along to a 
certain spot and see a stone move, which covered 
steps leading to the mine, he would then believe. 
"Yes,"' replied Paddock, "if I saw it with my eyes, 
and descended into the mine, I should believe ; but I 
do not believe I shall ever see all of that, or that you 
have either." 

Laboring under this delusion, which seemed ever 
uppermost in his mind, he induced his wife to believe, 
that in a short time there would be more silver money 
in Southeast than there ever had been in all preceding 
time. Mrs. Richards, now living near this Hill, asked 
her what had become of the large amount of silver 
which her husband had predicted would be as plenty 
as berries. She replied that " Nathan had been re- 
vealing something about the mine that he ought not 
to have disclosed, and the mysterious spell had moved 
over it." 

Hall's brother told him, that when he came to die 
he wished to be present; and desired that he might be 


sent for in time to witness his departure. He was 
sent for, accordingly, but those who caused him to be 
informed that his brother's departure was near at 
hand, were not awaTe of the additional and secret 
reason, that had prompted Nathan's brother to desire 
that he might be sent for when Nathan was about to 
fjuit this world. The brother came, but Hall was so 
far gone as to be unable to speak, yet conscious of 
everything around him. His brother then told him, 
if there was a silver mine in Joe's Hill, and he knew 
it, to squeeze his hand, which he then gave him. 
Hall then gave it, as far as his strength permitted, a 
hard gripe ; thus ratifying on his death-bed the belief 
he had taught and entertained while living. Nathan 
Hall died in this town about ten years ago. 

Tone's Pond. — This handsome body of water lies in 
the westerly part of the town, is one mile long, half a 
mile wide; and is named in honor of en old negro of the 
name of Tone, who settled beside it. He was the slave 
of John Warring, deceased, enlisted and served in the 
Revolutionary war, on condition that he should have 
his freedom at its close. Having received his freedom 
after peace was declared, he married a woman half 
Indian and half negro ; settled down beside this pond 
which soon became a great resort for fishing sports- 
men. He kept boats for their accommodation, and 
furnished" them with whatever was called for in the 
form of victuals and drink; a sort of fisherman's tavern, 
where everything appertaining to the sport is to be 
had at the shortest notice, for which liberal payment 
is made, and no 'credit expected by either party. He 
left quite a numerous and respectable number of des- 
cendants. It is said that one of his grandsons mar- 


ried a beautiful young white girl who shortly afterwards 
induced him to go south with her, where she sold him 
as a slave. 

Little Pond is about half the size of Tone's Pond, 
and about half a mile west of the Presbyterian Church 
in the northerly part of the town. 

Peach Pond. — This is a large sheet of water, the 
greater part of which lies in Westchester County. It 
is two miles long and one broad. The dividing line 
of the two counties runs through the north part of it, 
leaving a small portion of it in Putnam. 

Corner Pond Brook. — This stream is so called in 
consequence of four towns cornering on it, viz. : — 
Danbury, Ridgefield, New Fairfield in Connecticut, 
and this town in New York. The north-east corner 
of this town is on it. 

Daly Brook. — This stream empties into the Croton 
near Milltown, and about one mile north of the west 
end of Joe's Hill. 

" Return of Militia Officers for South-east Precinct, Dutchess 
County, New York : 

" Dutchess County, South-east Precinct Committee, 
August 21, 1775. 
" Pursuant to a Resolution of Provincial Congress, 

" Ordered that Thomas Baldwin, Esquire, and Mr. 
Nathaniel Foster, two of the Members of this Committee, notify 
the Militia of this Precinct, consisting of one Beat (lately com- 
manded by John Field, as Captain), to appear on the 25th in- 
stant at the usual place of parade, that the said Militia, under 
the direction and inspection of the said Baldwin and Foster., may 
arrange themselves into a military Company, agreeable to said 
Resolution of Congress. That said Militia do then and there 
make choice of military officers by a majority of votes, to take 
the command of said Company ; and that the said Baldwin and 


Foster make return of their doings to the Chairman of this Com- 

" Joseph Crane, Chairman." 

"Having duly executed the above Order of Committee, we 
hereby certify that the Company of Militia of said South-east 
Precinct, agreeable to said Order, did assemble ; and they have, 
by a fair majority of votes, made choice of Commissioned Officers 
to take the command of said Company, agreeable to the afore- 
said Resolution of Congress, as follows, viz. : William Mott, 
Captain ; Benjamin Higgins, First Lieutenant ; Ebenezcr Gage., 
Second Lieutenant; Nat/ianiel Green, Jun., Ensign. 

"Test. "Thomas Baldwin, 

"Nathaniel Foster, 
" A true copy of the Return. 

"Joseph Crane, Chairman." 

"Return of Minute-officers in South-east Precinct. Dutchess 
County, New York : 

" Dutchess County, South-east Precinct Committee, 
September 22, 1775. 
" Ordered, That those persons who have arranged 
themselves in the character of Minute-Men in this precinct, do 
assemble themselves on the 2Gth instant, in order to choose out 
of their Company the several officers which, agreeable to direc- 
tions of our Congress, are to command such Companies : and 
that Tho?nas Baldwin, Esqr., and Mr. Nathaniel Foster, Members 
of this Committee, do attend and inspect said choice, and make 
return thereof to the Chairman of this Committee. 

"Joseph Crane, Chairman." 

"South-east Precinct, Sept. 26, 1775. 
"We hereby certify that agreeable to the foregoing order, the 
Company of Minute-Men therein referred to did, on the 2Gth 
instant, assemble, and, under our inspection, made choice of 
Joshua Barnum, Jun., as Captain ; William Marsh, First Lieut. ; 
Eliaakim Barnum, Second Lieut. ; and Jonathan Crane, Ensign 

" Thomas Baldwin, 
"Nathaniel Foster." 


The following is a letter from Joseph Crane, Chair- 
man of the South-east Precinct Committee, to Egbert 
Benson : 

" South-east Precinct, May 22, 1777. 

" Dear Sir — Yesterday I saw one Allaby, a sergeant of Cap- 
tain Dellman, taken prisoner at Ward's, with Major Dain ; he 
made his escape from the guard-house in New York on the 
evening of the 15th inst. ; gives a favourable account of the 
state of the prisoners taken with him, our worthy friend, Major 
Dain, excepted, who, he says, has been in close confinement 
during the Avhole of his captive state ; that the only reason as- 
signed therefor is, his having no commission with him ; says 
he has often heard the Major lamenting the hardships to which 
he is subjected on that account, wishing for an opportunity to 
inform his friends thereof ; that in addition to a train of painful 
circumstances consequent on a state of close confinement, the 
means of subsistence was rendered much more expensive. His 
supplies from home, I understand, have been much short of 
what I have before understood, twenty-five dollars being the 
full amount of what he has received ; he has had the small-pox 
by inoculation pretty severely; is now in a good state of health. 
I presume a simple relation of facts will be sufficient to engage 
your attention, and that the earliest opportunity will be em- 
braced for the relief of this worthy officer; anything in my 
power to forward the same will be with pleasure complied with. 

"I have the pleasure to hear my son is well ; has for some 
time been admitted to his parole, either to remain in New York 
or go to Long Island ; has chosen the former ; taken his board 
with Mr. Thomas Arden ; had the small-pox favourably, and in 
all respects is as happy as a state of captivity admits of. Alleby 
says the enemy lost fourteen men in the action at Ward's ; six of 
those they carried off wounded died between Ward*s and Wil- 
liams' ; the seventh died as soon as they had got to Valentine's : 
that every commissioned officer, save one ensign, was killed ; 
that on their arrival at King's Bridge, the commanding officer of 
that post came out of the door of his lodgings, when the prison- 
ers were paraded, and says, ' Well, you have got a parcel of the 


d — d rebels, have you V ' Yes,' replied the surviving ensign, 
* but we have paid d — d dear for them ; I am the only officer left 
alive !' to which there was no reply made. 

"He further tells me, that the day before he left New York, 
he read in the papers an account of the enemy's loss in Danbury 
tour, estimated at between 3 and 400 men ; that he often heard 
them say to one another, that the Danbury rout had been more 
expensive to them, in proportion to the number of their troops, 
than the Lexington tour. May Heaven grant that their cursed 
enterprises may still prove more and more expensive to them, 
till they become quite bankrupts. 

"We are now in this quarter (as it were) lying on our arms, 
every hour expecting fresh visits from the Tryonites. A number 
of the enemy's ships are in the Sound. Yesterday morning up- 
wards of twenty of them drew up against Fairfield, and appear- 
ed to be in a landing posture ; the alarm reached us by 12 
o'clock the same day ; by night we were informed they soon 
came to sail again, and went westward of Norwalk.. They are 
no doubt meditating another of their felonious enterprises, and 
I have the pleasure to assure you our people arc evidently better 
disposed, as well as better prepared otherwise, to bid them wel- 
come, than ever we were before : and the general say is, that in 
case Tryon is not gone to account for his former murders, 'tis 
hoped he will ' again grace his murderous train with his presence, 
and happily meet what Heaven has declared shall be the fate of 
him in whose skirts is found the blood of men.' 

" You will overlook the blunders in this hurried scrawl, and 

accept the humble regard of, Sir, 

"Your most obedient, 

"Joseph Crane. 
"To Egbert Benson, Esqr." 

" Letter from Thaddeus Crane. 

"Kingston, August 9th, 1777. 
Gentlemen — It being my misfortune, in repulsing, the enemy at 
Ridgfield, on the 26th of April last, to meet with a wound from 
them, which confined me to my bed for a long time ; and I was 
at great expense by loss of time and cost of doctor. I desire to 
know from your Honourable Council, whether I am to receive 


any wages or relief from the State, and where to apply to get the 
6ame, if any is allowed. These from your honours' humble 

"Thaddeus Crane. 
'•To the Honourable the Council of Safety 
of the State of New York." 


James Kent was born the 31st July, 1763, in that 
part of Dutchess County, then called the Precinct of 
Fredericksburgh, now in the County of Putnam, in the 
State of New York. 

His grandfather, the Rev. Elisha Kent, a native of 
Suffiekl, in the State of Connecticut, married the 
daughter of the Rev. Joseph Moss, of Derby, and 
was for some time a minister of the Presbyterian 
Church at Newtown, in that State. 

He removed, as early as 1740, to the south-east 
part of Dutchess County, then wild and uncultivated, 
but which gradually increased in population, and be- 
came known as Kent's Parish. 

He continued to reside there until his death, in 
July, 1776, at the age of seventy-two. His eldest 
son, Moss Kent, who, as well 'as "his father, was a gra- 
duate of Yale College, commenced the study of the 
law under Lieutenant-Governor Fitch, at Norwalk 
in Connecticut, and was admitted to the bar, in 
Dutchess County, in 1756. In 1760 he married the 
eldest daughter of Dr. Uriah Rogers, a physician at 
Norwalk, by whom he had three children, who are 
now living : James, the subject of this memoir : 
Moss, who was a member of the Senate of New 
York for four years, afterwards a member of Con- 

* National Portrait Gallery. 


gress, and first Judge of the Court of Common Pleas 
of Jefferson County, which office he resigned on being 
appointed Register of the Court of Chancery in 1817; 
and Hannah, who married William Pitt Piatt, of 
Plattsburg. They lost their mother in 1770, and their 
father died in 1794, at the age of sixty-one. 

When five years old, James, the eldest son, was 
placed at an English school at Norwalk, and lived in 
the family of his maternal grandfather until 1772, 
when he went to reside with an uncle at Pawlings, 
in Dutchess County, where he acquired the first rudi- 
ments of latin. In May, 1773, he was sent to a latin 
school at Danbury, in Connecticut, under the charge 
of the Rev. Ebenezer Baldwin, a highly respectable 
Presbyterian minister. After the death of Mr. Bald- 
win, in October, 1776, he was under different instruc- 
tors, at Danbury, Stratford, and Newtown, until he en- 
tered Yale College, in New Have:n, in September, 
1777. At these different schools he was remarked 
as possessing a lively disposition, great quickness of 
parts, a spirit of emulation, and love of learning. 

The pious Puritans among whom he lived were 
sober, frugal, and industrious ; and the strict and 
soberly habits of those around him had their influence 
in forming his own. From their example, and the 
impressions received at that early age, he acquired 
that simplicity of character and purity of morals 
which he ever afterwards preserved, without losing 
his natural vivacity and playfulness of temper. 

He has often mentioned the de'iight he experienced 
on his periodical returns from school to his home, in 
rambling with his brother among the wild scenery of 
his native hills and valleys. 


The associations then formed rendered him an en- 
thusiastic admirer of the beauties of nature ; and, in 
after-life, during the intervals of business, he made 
excursions into every part of his native State, through 
New England, and along the borders of Canada, 
visiting each mountain, lake, and cascade ; and while 
gratifying his taste for simple pleasures, preserving 
and invigorating his health. 

In July, 1779, in consequence of the invasion of 
New Haven by the British troops, the college was 
broken up, and the students for a time dispersed. 
During his exile, having met with a copy of Black- 
stone's Commentaries, he read the work of that ele- 
gant writer with great eagerness and pleasure, and it 
so excited his admiration that he determined at the 
age of sixteen to be a lawyer. 

He left college, after taking the degree of Bachelor, 
in September, 1781, with high reputation ; and after 
passing a few weeks at Fairfield, to which place his 
father had removed on his second marriage, he went 
to Poughkeepsie, and commenced the study of the 
law, under the direction of Egbert Benson, then At- 
torney-General of the State of New York, and after- 
terwards one of the Judges of the Supreme Court. 

His strong and decided attachment to jurisprudence 
could not fail to ensure his success. Besides, the 
books of English Common Law, he read the large- 
works of Grotius and Puffendorf, making copious ex- 
tracts from them, and, as a relaxation, perusing the 
best writers in English literature, of which his favorite 
portions were history, poetry, geography, voyages, 
and travels. He was temperate in all his habits, a 
water-drinker, and entered into no dissipation, not 


even joining in the ordinary fashionable amusements 
of others of the same age. 

He was very far, however, from being grave, re- 
serve, or austere ; but was uniformly cheerful, lively, 
and communicative. 

The love of reading had become his ruling passion, 
and when he felt the want of amusement, " he better 
knew great nature's charms to prize," and sought it 
in rural walks, amidst objects that purify and elevate 
the imagination. In September, 1784, he took the 
degree of Master of Arts at Yale College, and in 
January, 1785, was admitted an attorney of the 
Supreme Court. He went to Fredericksburgh with 
the intention of commencing the practice of his pro- 
fession there; but the solitude of that retired spot 
soon became insupportable, and in less than two 
months he returned to Poughkeepsie, where, in April, 

1785, he married Miss Bailey, a lady a few 

years younger than himself, and with whom he has 
since lived in the uninterrupted enjoyment of domes- 
tic felicity. He possessed at this time little or no 
property, but living with great simplicity in a country 
village his wants were few, and supplied at little ex- 
pense. Young, ardent, and active, he felt no anxiety 
for the future ; but engaged with increased alacrity 
in professional business and literary pursuits, so as to 
leave no portion of his time unemployed. 

In 1787, he resolved to renew and extend his ac- 
quaintance with the Greek and Roman classics, which 
he had entirely neglected after leaving college. When 
it is considered that the only Greek book, at that time, 
read by the classes, in that seat of learning, was the 
Greek Testament, and the only Latin works, Virgil, 


the select orations of Cicero, and some parts of Horace, 
we may easily imagine how imperfect must have been 
that part of his education, the defects of which he was 
determined to supply. He began a course of self-in 
struction, with an energy and perseverance that mark 
a strong and generous mind. That he might lose no 
time, and pursue his various studies with method and 
success, he divided the hours not given to rest into 
five portions : rising early and reading Latin until 
eight, Greek until ten, devoting the rest of the fore- 
noon to law ; in the afternoon, two hours were applied 
to French, and the rest of the day to English authors. 
This division and employment of his time were con- 
tinued with little variation, until he became a Judge. 
By this practice, he was under no necessity of en- 
croaching on those hours best appropriated to sleep, and 
preserved his health unimpaired. If his mind became 
weary in one department of study, he found relief in 
passing to another ; " from grave to gay, from lively 
to severe." He read Homer, Xenophon, and Demos- 
thenes with delight. Though he afterwards relin- 
quished the pursuit of Grecian literature, he continued 
to read the best Latin and French authors, and many of 
the former more than once. As large public libraries, if 
any then existed, were not within his reach, he began 
a collection of books which he has gradually increased 
to several thousand volumes ; and he has often said 
that, next to his family, his library had been to him the 
greatest source of enjoyment. It fed, while it increased 
his appetite for useful knowledge, and cherished that 
love of literature that had grown and strengthened 
with his growing years. 

In April, 1787, he was admitted a Counsellor in the 


Supreme Court. He soon entered with ardor into the 
discussion of the great political questions which then 
absorbed the attention and agitated the minds of all. 
He could not long remain neutral between the two 
contending parties, and after a careful examination of 
the arguments of each, he, from the purest motives 
and with the clearest conviction, joined the federal 
side. He soon became the friend of Jay, Hamilton, 
and other eminent men of that party, with whom he 
uniformly acted, and to whose principles he has stead- 
ily adhered to the present day. 

In April, 1790, he was elected a member of the 
State Legislature for Dutchess county ; and again in 
1792. In the Session, held in the city of New York, 
he took a zealous and distinguished part in the memor- 
able question which arose in that body, on the conduct 
of the canvassers of votes given in the warmly con- 
tested election for Governor, in destroying those re- 
turned from Otsego county, by which means Mr. 
Clinton obtained a small majority over Mr. Jay, (then 
Chief Justice of the United States), who was the 
federal candidate. His writings, on that occasion, 
attracted much attention, and he became favorably 
known in the city. He was, at that time, nominated 
as a candidate for Congress, in Dutchess county, but 
his competitor, who adhered to the opposite party, 
succeeded by a small majority. During his attendance 
in the legislature, his principles and conduct were so 
highly respected, that he was urged by his friends to 
remove to the city, where he might find greater scope 
for the exercise of his talents, and more lucrative 
business in his profession. 

He accordingly removed to New York, in April, 


1793. The first month of his residence in the city 
was embittered by the loss of an only child, and for a 
time his prospects were clouded with sorrow. In De- 
cember, he w r as appointed Professor of Law in Colum- 
bia College, and commenced the delivery of lectures, 
in November, 1794. The course was attended by 
many respectable members of the bar, and a large 
class of students. In the following winter, he read a 
second course ; but the number of his hearers having 
diminished, he was discouraged from delivering an- 
other. The three preliminary lectures were after- 
wards published, but the sale of them did not reimburse 
the expense of publication. The trustees of the Col- 
lege conferred upon him the degree of Doctor of Laws, 
and he has since received similar honors from Harvard 
University and Dartmouth College. 

In February, 1790, he was appointed a Master in 
Chancery, and there being, at that time, but one other, 
the office was lucrative. In the same year, he was 
elected a member of the Legislature from the city of 
New York. He delivered an address before the society 
for the Promotion of Agriculture, Arts, and Manufac- 
tures, at their anniversary meeting in New York, on 
the 8th November, 1796, which is inserted in the first 
volume of the transactions of the Society. It contains 
a rapid and animating sketch of the great natural and 
political advantaged of the United States, and especi- 
ally of the State of New York, for the advancement 
of the great objects of the Society, and the progress of 
the country, since that time, has more than realized 
the most glowing anticipations of its patriotic founders. 

In March, 1797, he was, without solicitation and 
quite unexpectedly to himself, appointed Recorder of 


the city. This being a judicial office, was the more* 
acceptable as well as more honorable ; and being al- 
lowed to retain that of Master, the, duties of both were 
so great, and the emoluments so considerable, that 
he gradually relinquished the more active business of 
his profession, to which he was not strongly attached. 
From constitutional diffidence, or habits of study, he 
appeared not to feel confident in the possession of the 
powers requisite to ensure pre-eminence as an advo- 
cate at the bar. 

In 1798, Governor Jay, who knew his worth and 
highly respected his character, offered him the office 
of Junior Judge of the Supreme Court, then vacant, 
which he accepted. This appointment gratified his 
highest ambition, ft placed him in a situation where 
he could more fully display his attainments, and have 
a wider field for the investigation of legal science. In 
accepting the office, he relinquished, for a limited in- 
come, all the flattering prospects of increasing wealth 
that had opened to him during five years' residence 
in the city. Though most of his friends doubted the 
wisdom of his choice, he never regretted it. And all 
who feel interested in the pure and enlightened admi- 
nistration of justice, have found reason to rejoice that 
he followed the dictates of his own judgment, in a 
matter so interesting to the honor and happiness of 
his after-life. On becoming a Judge, he returned to 
Poughkeepsic, but in the following year he returned 
to Albany, where he continued to reside until 1823. 

When he took his seat on the bench of the Supreme 
Court, there were no reports of its decisions, nor any 
known or established precedents of its own, to guide 
or direct his judgment. The English law books were 


freely cited, and the adjudications of English courts 
regarded with the highest respect, and, in most cases, 
with the force of authority. The opinions of the judges 
were generally delivered orally, with little regularity, 
and often after much delay. The law was in a state 
of great and painful uncertainty. He began by pre- 
paring a written and argumentative opinion in every 
case of sufficient importance to become a precedent 
for the future. These opinions he was ready to de- 
liver at the day when the judges met to consult on 
the decisions to be pronounced by the court. The 
other judges, pursuing a similar course, also gave their 
reasons in writing, supported by legal authorities. As 
he read with a pen in his hand, extracting, digesting, 
abridging, and making copious notes, the practice of 
writing opinions was easy and agreeable. Besides 
making himself master of all the English adjudica- 
tions applicable to the points under examination, he 
frequently brought to his aid the body of the civil 
law, and the writings of eminent jurists of the coun- 
tries in which that law prevails; especially, in the dis- 
cussion of questions arising on personal contracts, or 
of commercial and maritime law, the principles of 
which have been so admirably unfolded and illus- 
trated by Domat, Pothier, Valin, Emerigon, and others. 
Like Selden, Hale, and Mansfield, he thought law 
could not be well understood as a science, without 
seeking its grounds and reasons in the Roman law. 
From that great repository of " written wisdom," he 
drew largely, engrafting its sound and liberal princi- 
ples on the hardy stock of the English common law. 
Thus commenced that series of judicial decisions 


which have enriched the jurisprudence of New York, 
and shed their influence on that of other States. 

In 1800, he and Mr. Justice RadclifTe were appointed 
by the legislature, to revise the statutes of the State ; 
and in January, 1802, was published their edition of 
them, comprised in two volumes octavo. Without 
venturing to change the phraseology of the laws, they 
confined themselves to the single object of placing to- 
gether the various acts of the legislature relative to 
the same object, so as to bring the original enact- 
ments, and all subsequent additions and amendments, 
into one act ; and by a full and accurate index, to fa- 
cilitate a reference to them. 

In July, 1804, he was appointed Chief-Justice of the 
Supreme Court, in which he continued to preside un- 
til 1814. We shall not here attempt to enter into any 
examination of the opinions delivered by him during 
the time he was a Judge of that Court. They are con- 
tained in sixteen volumes of Reports, from January, 
1799, to February, 1814; and the judgment of the 
public has long since been formed on their merit and 

In February, 1814, he was appointed Chancellor. 
The powers and jurisdiction of the Court of Chancery 
were not clearly defined. There were no precedents 
of its decisions, (if we except what might be gleaned 
from a few cases heard in the Court of Errors, on 
appeal, and reported by Mr. Johnson,) to which re- 
ference could be made in case of doubt ; and it is a 
fact„>lhat during the whole period of his sitting in 
Chancery, from 1814 to 1823, not a single opinion or 
dictum of his predecessors was cited. Without any 
other guide, he felt at liberty to exercise such power* 


of the English Chancery, as he deemed applicable, 
under the constitution and laws of the State, subject 
to the correction of the Court of Errors, on appeal. 
As to the course of equity to be administered, it was 
to him, in effect, as if the Court had been then newly 
established. The causes before the Court were ma- 
naged by a few lawyers. He opened wide its doors ; 
and his kindness and affability, his known habits of 
business and prompitude of decision, attracted many 
to the Court. The number of causes rapidly increased, 
and it soon acquired the most strenuous and unceasing 
efforts of his active mind to hear and decide the cases 
brought before him. Besides his attendance during 
the regular terms of the Court, he was, at all times, 
easy of access at his chambers ; so that no one ever 
complained of delay, as to the hearing or decision of 
his cause. He considered the causes in the order in 
which they were presented or argued, and did not 
leave one until he was fully prepared to deliver his 
judgment upon it. He read the pleadings and deposi- 
tions with the greatest attention, carefully abstracting 
from them every material fact: and having become 
familiar with the merits of the cause, he was able, 
unless some technical or artificial rule was interposed, 
by his own clear moral perception, to discover where 
lay the equity of the case. Not content, however, 
with satisfying his conscience as to the justice of his 
decision, he was studious to demonstrate that his 
judgment was supported by the well-established prin- 
ciples of equity to be found in the decisions of the 
courts of that country from which our laws have 
been derived. His researches on every point were so 
full, as to leave little or nothing to be supplied by 


those who might afterwards wish to have his deci- 
sions re-examined, or to test the correctness of his 

Accustomed to take a large view of jurisprudence, 
and considering law not as a collection of arbitrary 
and disconnected rules, but rather as a science founded 
on general principles of justice and equity, to be ap- 
plied to the actions of men in the diversified relations 
of civil society, he was not deterred, but animated, by 
the novelty and intricacy of a case ; and while his 
mind was warmly engaged in the general subject, he 
sought, rather than avoided, difficult points, even 
when the discussion of them was not essential to the 
decision of the main question between the parties; so 
that nothing was suffered to pass without examination. 

His judicial opinions are, therefore, uncommonly 
interesting and instructive to all, but especially to 
those who have commenced the study of the law, and 
aspire to eminence in that profession. The decisions 
in Chancery are contained in seven volumes of 

On the 31st July, 1823, having attained the age of 
sixty years, the period limited by the Constitution for 
the tenure of his office, he retired from the Court, after 
hearing and deciding every case that had come before 
him. On this occasion the members of the bar resid- 
ing in the city of New York, presented him an ad- 
dress, from which, as coming from those most compe- 
tent, by their situation, to form a just estimate of his 
judicial character and services, we cannot refrain 
from giving some extracts. After speaking of the 
inestimable benefits conferred on the community by 
his judicial labors for five and twenty years, they ob- 


serve : " During this long course of services, so use- 
ful and honorable, and which will form the most brilli- 
ant period in our judicial history, you have, by a 
series of decisions in law and equity, distinguished 
alike for practical wisdom, profound learning, deep 
research, and accurate discrimination, contributed to 
establish the fabric of our jurisprudence on those 
sound principles that have been sanctioned by the ex- 
perience of mankind, and expounded by the venerable 
and enlightened sages of the law. 

" Though others may hereafter enlarge and adorn 
the edifice whose deep and solid foundations were 
laid by the wise and patriotic framers of our govern- 
ment, in that common law which they claimed for the 
people as their noblest inheritance, your labors on this 
magnificent structure will for ever remain eminently 
conspicuous, commanding the applause of the present 
generation, and exciting the admiration and gratitude 
of future ages.'' 

A similar address was presented to him by the 
members of the bar in Albany, and also by those 
from the different Counties of the State, attending the 
Supreme Court at Utica, in August following. In 
the latter it is observed, that, " In the space of little 
more than nine years, an entire and wonderful revolu- 
tion in the administration of equity has been accomp- 
lished ;" and a reference is aptly made to the account 
given by Sir William Blackstone of a similar revolution 
in the English Chancery by Sir Henage Finch, after- 
wards Earl of Nottingham, who became Chancellor 
in 1G73. " The necessities of mankind,'' savs that 
writer, " co-operated in his plan, and enabled him in 

the course of nine years, to build a system of jurispru- 



dence and jurisdiction upon wide and rational foun- 
dations." In the same address, speaking of 'their in- 
tercourse with him as a Judge, they called to mind 
" so many instances of personal kindness — so many 
scenes of delightful instruction — so many evidences 
of pureness and singleness of heart — such a uniform 
and uninterrupted course of generous, candid, and 
polite treatment, that we are unable to express the 
fullness of our feelings, and can only say that our 
affection for you as a man, almost absorbs our venera- 
tion for you as a Judge." 

In these addresses, the bar were led to express a 
doubt as to the wisdom of that clause in the political 
constitution of the State, which " compelled him in 
the full enjoyment of his intellectual faculties, to re- 
linquish a station he had filled with such consummate 
ability." And, in this case, at least, the application of 
the policy of that provision might well induce them 
to call in question the wisdom and expediency of so 
singular a limitation. 

In August, he visited the Eastern States, and on his 
return home, he became apprehensive that after being 
so many years actively engaged in discharging the 
duties of a public station, the sudden transition to 
privacy and seclusion might produce an unfavorable 
effect on his health and spirits. He soon determined 
to remove to the city of New York to open a law 
school, and to act as chamber counsel. The trustees 
of the College again offered him the professorship of 
law in that institution, which he accepted ; and, in 
1824, he prepared and delivered a series of law 
lectures, on a more comprehensive plan than that pur- 
sued in his former course. He also gave private in- 


struction to students, who resorted to him from vari- 
ous parts of the United State?. His parental k 
ness towards the young, and the frankness and affabi- 
litv of his manners, won their affection without dimi- 
nishing their respect ; and his conversation and ex- 
ample could not fail to inspire that ardor and emula- 
tion so conducive to their progress and success. His 
high reputation as a judge induced many, not only in 
the city, but in distant places, to consult him on i 
cult and important questions, and. instead of the brief 
answers usually returned by counsel, he gave full and 
"-.".umentative opinions. Many causes actually pend- 
ing in Court, were, by the agreement of the parties, 
submitted to his final decision. He had atinued for 
some years thus usefully and agreeably occupied, 
when, having discontinued his law lectures, he besran 
. -\se and enlarge them for publication ; and, in 
November, 1826, appeared the first volume of the 
"Commentaries on American Law." This .me 

includes three parts ; the Law of Nations, the Go- 
vernment and Constitutional Jurisprudence of the 
United States : and the various sources of Municipal 
Law. The second volume was published in Novem- 
ber, 1827j the third in 1523, and the fourth in 1530. 
The three last comprise the law concerning the rights 
of persons, and personal and real property. 

He has treated the several subjects comprised un 
der these extensive and most important titles — the 
rights of persons and the rights of property — in a 
manner more full and satisfactory than Blackstone ; 
and has introduced many others, not found in the 
work of -that author, with numerous references, quo- 
tations, and illustrations, the result of his various and 


extensive reading, highly pleasing and instructive to 
the student. He has left untouched the subjects of 
private wrongs, and the mode of pursuing their reme- 
dies by actions in courts of justice ; of the powers and 
jurisdictions of judicial magistracy; and of public 
wrongs, or the law concerning crimes and punish- 
ments, which occupy the third and fourth volumes of 
the English Commentator. 

The work of Sir William Blackstone, by the ele- 
gance of its style, its lucid arrangement, and finished 
execution, is so well adapted to render the study of 
the law attractive, and to give a knowledge of the 
constitution and laws of England, well deserving the 
attention of every liberal mind, that it has been 
(though, for many years, more from necessity than 
choice,) very properly placed in the hands of every 
student ; but as much of those admirable comment- 
aries relate to the political constitution of England, so 
different from our own — to its peculiar institutions, 
and to rights and duties, public and private, not exist- 
ing in this country — an American work, exhibiting our 
own constitution, laws, institutions, usages, and civil 
relations, had been long wanted. In the full maturity 
of his understanding, with a mind long habituated to 
legal investigations and researches, and with sound 
and enlightened views of jurisprudence, no man, per- 
haps, could have been found better fitted than Chan- 
cellor Kent to execute such a work, and it may 
diminish, in some degree, the regret felt for the loss 
sustained by the public and the legal profession, in 
being deprived of his valuable services on the bench, 
to know how usefully to the world and honorably to 


himself, he has employed his time and talents in its 

The limits prescribed to this brief memoir will not 
permit us, if it were proper, to go farther, or to enter 
into a particular examination of the merits of this 
masterly work. The first edition of the Commentaries 
having been exhausted, he published a second in 
April, 1832, carefully revised and greatly enlarged. 
For one who has done so much for the improvement 
and diffusion of legal science, and who has now ad- 
vanced to the limit ordinarily assigned to the duration 
of human life, it would be unreasonable to ask or ex- 
pect more ; but while he appears to feel none of the 
infirmities of age, or to seek indulgence or repose, we 
cannot suppress a wish, that he may yet be induced 
to present his view, also, of that system of equity and 
jurisprudence, to the formation and illustration of which 
his own judicial labors have so largely contributed. 

Having been elected President of the New York 
Historical Society, he delivered, by request, a public 
discourse, at their anniversary meeting, on the 6th 
December, 1828. 

In this elegant and instructing address, he very ap- 
propriately notices the principal events in the history 
of the Colony and State of New York, to the end of 
the Revolution, and mentions, with merited praise, 
some of the eminent patriots and statesmen of New 
York, who so ably assisted in achieving that Revolu- 
tion, and in securing its blessings to their posterity. 
If our attention could be oftener drawn from the ab- 
sorbing pursuits of wealth and ambition, or the con- 
tests of selfish demagogues, to the contemplation of 

such illustrious examples of wisdom and virtue, we 



might find more perfect models . for our imitation, and 
haply feel our hearts warmed with that pure love of 
country which glowed in their breasts. 

At the request of the Phi Beta Kappa Society, of 
Yale College, a literary association formed in 1780, of 
which he was an original member, and comprising the 
most distinguished graduates of that seminary, he de- 
livered a public address, at the anniversary meeting 
of the associates, on the 13th September, 1831. This 
discourse, in which he takes a historical survey of the 
College, from its origin in the beginning of the last 
century, and sketches the characters of its pious and 
learned founders, supporters, and instructors, is replete 
with generous feelings and just sentiments on litera- 
ture and education. Alluding, towards the close, to 
his own class, of whom twelve (out of the twenty-five) 
were then living, and most of those present; he makes 
this natural and striking reflection : " Star after star 
has fallen from its sphere. A few bright lights are 
still visible ; but the constellation itself has become 
dim, and almost ceases to shed its radiance around me. 
What a severe lesson of mortality does such a retros- 
pect teach ! What a startling rebuke to human pride! 
How brief the drama ! How insignificant the honors 
and ' fiery chase of ambition,' except as mental disci- 
pline for beings destined for immortality." 

In the brief notice which we have taken of the 
principal events in Ihe life of this eminent jurist, we 
have adverted to some of the distinctive qualities of 
his character ; and it will be perceived how pure, vir- 
tuous, upright, and honorable, that life has been, the 
full delineation of which must be reserved for some 
future biographer. Though not passed in scenes that 


attract the general gaze of mankind, or exite the ad- 
miration and applause of the multitude, it has been 
highly distinguished, affording a bright and instructive 
example of industry and perseverance in the pursuit 
of useful knowledge, and of unwearied diligence in 
the discharge of every duty, public and private. 

Chancellor Kent has three children — a son and two 
daughters ; the former was admitted to the bar a few 
years since. Happy in his family — amiable, modest, 
and candid in his social intercourse — kind, indulgent, 
and affectionate in his feelings — it would be pleasing, 
if it were proper, at this time, to speak of him in those 
private relations which awaken the best affections and 
warmest sympathies of our nature. With a sound 
constitution, strengthened and preserved by temper- 
ance and moderate exercise, he has enjoyed that per- 
fect and uninterrupted health which is rarely the lot 
of the studious and sedentary. Possessing a cheerful 
temper, and a lively consciousness of existence, that 
fits him for enjoyment, he seems to have experienced, 
in a high degree, those blessings for which the Roman 
poet bids the rational inquirer after happiness to sup- 
plicate heaven, and those gifts have not been wasted 
or misapplied : 

" Semita certe 
Tranquillte per virtutem patet unica vitae." 

Since the foregoing was copied, death has removed 
this esteemed and venerable man from among us. At 
the time of his death, " his family consisted of his two 
daughters and an only son, the learned and well- 
known Judge of the First Circuit, William Kent, who 
resigned the office of Circuit Judge some years since, 


and more recently gave up his Professorship at Cam- 
bridge, that he might cheer the latter days of his 
venerated and excellent father by his company and 
personal attentions. 

" Less than a year ago, Chancellor Kent was one of the pall- 
hearers of his friend Timothy Dwight, and was then as erect, 
hale, and active as a man of fifty. At 84, he was somewhat 
deaf, but his capacity for work was still wonderful, his conver- 
sation interesting and animated, and his temperament as viva- 
cious as when he was thirty years younger. He was unwell 
but for a short time before his death, which took place at half- 
past eight o'clock, December the 12th, 1847, at his residence in 
Union Square. 

" The Courts adjourned out of respect for his memory, and 
both Boards of the Common Council adopted resolutions in honor 
of his name and character. 

He was an exemplary Christian, a steadfast friend, an affec- 
tionate father, a tender husband, an ardent patriot, and a true 
lover and defender of his country's rights. So highly are his 
works esteemed abroad, that the Lord Chief Justice of England, 
Baron Denman, wrote to Judge Kent, some years since, to ac- 
knowledge the indebtedness of the legal professson throughout 
the world to him for his able Commentaries. 

" Chancellor Kent would not allow his Commentaries to be 
stereotyped, but kept watching the decisions of the tribunals of 
America, England, and other parts of Europe, in matters involv- 
ing important legal principles, with which he enriched his favor- 
ite work from time to time." 

Capt. Joshua Barnum. — The ancestors of this gen- 
tleman were from England. About 1650, three poor 
boys who were brothers, of the name of Barnum, emi- 
grated from England to this country. They were 
unable to pay their passage-money, and sold them- 
selves, for a limited time, to pay the sum advanced to 
the Captain of the vessel, by their purchasers. A man 


of the name of Canfield, of Connecticut, bought enough 
of the time of the brother who was the grandfather 
of the subject of this brief memoir, and great grand- 
father of the Hon. Reuben D. Barnum of Carmel, to 
reimburse him for the passage-money. Canfield 
proved to be a hard master, and treated the boy with 
a good deal of severity. The young fellow said but 
little, put up with the treatment he received, but his 
countenance revealed a steady purpose, and his eye 
seemed to say, " This is not to last always ; and when 
it does end, what has been sauce for the goose shall be 
sauce for the gander." He served his time out faith- 
fully, and on the morning of his discharge, Canfield 
called him into his room, and bade him take a seat be- 
side him. Young Barnum, with eyes flashing at the 
recollection of past wrongs, accepted the proffered 
chair ; and Canfield thus addressed him : " You are 
now about to leave me ; I hope you'll do well in the 
world and remember the lessons I have taught you. 
Upon the whole, I must say you have been a good 
boy, excepting some little matters. I am satisfied ; 
are you ?" Barnum, to whom every word appeared 
like fresh outrage and insult, because they were given 
by one whom he knew cared about as much for his 
welfare as he did for the dog that barked in the kennel, 
seized him by the coat-collar, and drawing him across 
his lap, he gave him half a dozen "digs in the short 
ribs" and elsewhere, and, throwing him from him, 
said, " I am satisfied too ; I hope you'll remember the 
lesson I've given you. Good bye, Sir !" 

He took up his bundle and departed, again to buffet 
tyranny and battle with adversity. After meeting 
with some reverses, he hired himself to a respectable 


farmer, whose daughter, in a few years thereafter, he 
married and left issue. Of their history, we are not 
informed ; and we now return to the subject of our 

Capt. Barnum came from the town of Danbury in 
Connecticut, and settled where Elijah Barnum now 
lives, on the west side of the east branch of the Croton 
River. He had three sons, Stephen, Joshua, and 
Jonathan ; the latter is the only one now living ; and 
two daughters, Martha and Adah. Martha married 
Reuben Done ; Adah married Jeremiah Gage ; and 
both are dead. Stephen, the eldest son, was the 
father of the present Clerk of Putnam county. Capt. 
Barnum was in the battle at Ward's house in West- 
chester, was wounded, taken prisoner, marched to 
New York, and confined in one of the prison-ships, 
which were stationed at the Wallabout, near Brooklyn. 
There were several condemned hulks there, used for 
the confinement of American citizens, soldiers, and 
seamen, taken prisoners by the British. There were 
two hospital-ships, called the Hope and Falmouth, in- 
tended for the sick, anchored near each other, about 
200 yards east of another named the " Old Jersey," 
which was the receiving ship. They were all, truly, 
ships of death, for in no other prisons, either on land 
or water, were so great an amount of suffering en- 
dured by civilized men. Into one of these he was thrust 
with a broken leg, to which but little attention was paid 
by the British. Inflammation, induced by the noxious 
vapors of a crowded vessel and his wounded leg, soon 
destroyed his right eye ; and a small bunch of bones 
dropped from his broken limb, which are now in the pos- 
session of Doctor Barnum, of this town. While a pris- 


oner, he and others were compelled to lie on the bare 
floor, with his leg undressed. A man by the name 
of John Roberts and six others died in one night, and 
were unremoved for the space of twenty-four hours 
by the British, although begged to do so by the whole 
body of prisoners. 

During his confinement he became very feeble and 
debilitated, and suffered extremely from a violent head- 
ache. After he was released, he got a barber to shave 
his head, which relieved him. About four years before 
his death, he was again attacked with the same kind 
of headache ; he insisted on having his grandson, Col. 
Barnum, to lather and shave his head, believing in the 
virtue of the previous operation. It was done, and 
the pain left him. 

After the war he went to New York, where he had 
business to transact, and bought half a pound of Bohea 
tea, which he brought home to his wife. None, it 
seems, had been used at that time in this part of the 
country, and his wife was at a loss how to prepare it 
for use. Here was a dilemma not anticipated by the 
Capt., when he purchased the tea : and after resolves 
and counter-resolves by the family, it was resolved 
that the female counsellers of the neighborhood should 
be called together to decide the mooted point. They 
accordingly assembled, and, in high debate, proceeded 
to give their separate opinions respecting the mode in 
which this new comer, as yet only found in the circles of 
higher life, should be treated, and its virtues disclosed. 
One was for putting it in the pudding-bag and boiling 
it in milk ; another was for frying it in a pan with a 
little butter and water ; a third was for putting it in 


the dish-kettle and boiling it. This proposition de- 
termined the conclave at once in its favor ; accord- 
ingly the half pound of tea was put in with a sufficiency 
of water, and duly boiled. For a teapot, they made 
use of a large earthen pitcher, and for tea-cups, bowls. 
Some drank more and some less ; but the one who 
had recommended the dish-kettle, drank by far the 
largest quantity, alleging that she wanted to " dis- 
kiver its aristocratic qualities, if it had any." They 
went home, and the next morning the Capt.'s wife saw 
the one who had drank so freely of the tea, standing 
at her door, and asked her how she liked it. The re- 
ply was, — " Last night I didnt sleep a wink — not one 
blessed wink ! I might about as well have attempted 
to sleep with a thorn under me, as that ar tea inside — 
it's the plaguyest stuff I ever did drink." On inquiry 
it was found that all had been in the same predica- 

Captain Barnum was born in 1737, and died in 
October, 1823. He came to this town about 1755, 
and settled on lot No. 11, on the west side of the cen- 
tre line of the Oblong. He was six feet high, strong 
and muscular, and capable of enduring great hard- 
ship and fatigue. During the Revolution he was ab- 
sent a great deal from his farm and family. 

His wife, in his absence, exercised supervision over 
the farm, and with the assistance of her sons, who were 
young, she managed to have it cultivated sufficiently 
for the wants of the family. At this time a young 
man of the name of Doty, whose family lived near 
Captain Barnum, and who had enlisted in the Ameri- 
can army, deserted. His mother was very much 
alarmed, lest, if taken, he would be hung as a deserter. 


In her trouble she applied to Mrs. Barnum, who, being 
a mother, could well appreciate the maternal feeling 
in others. By her direction, her oldest son, Stephen, 
the father of Col. Barnum, and then only sixteen years 
of age, took young Doty's place as a substitute, and 
served one campaign. Captain Barnum possessed a 
clear head and a strong mind, and was a patriot in 
principle and practice. His wife was equally a re- 
markable woman ; and although she could sympathize 
with the innocent of her own sex, she was unwilling 
that the defenders of her country should number one 
less ; and with all the heroic feeling of the Spartan 
mother of old, she gave her own beardless boy as a 
substitute to combat tyrants, and battle for the liber- 
ties of the country that gave her birth. 



As we have before stated, this town was a part of the 
" Fredericksburgh Precinct," which originally em- 
braced the whole of the County. After the organiza- 
tion of the " Philips' Precinct," which embraced 
nearly one-third of the west end of the County, the 
former contained this town, Carmel, Patterson, and 

By the Act of the 7th March, 1788, the term "Pre- 
cincts" was dropped, and " towns" substituted ; and an 
additional town organized, which was called Southeast. 

By that Act, this town, including the now towns of 
Carmel and Patterson, was called Frederick's Town. 

About the time that Carmel and Patterson were 
taken from it, it was christened by the Legislature 
with its present name in honor of the- Kent family, 
who were early settlers in this County, and greatly 
distinguished for their talents, intelligence, and manly 

A large part of this town is rough and unproduc- 
tive ; the western part of which is covered by the 
central Highlands. There is, however, some excellent 
land, which is under a good state of cultivation. The 
eastern part is hilly, and well adapted to grazing, to 
which the farmers generally, we believe, give their 
attention. It is centrally distant from New York 
about 60, and from Albany about 101 miles. Far- 


mers' Mills and Coles' Mills, are the only villages in 
it ; the former in the north-west, and the latter in the 
south part of the town. 


This town was settled by the Boyds, Smallys, 
"Wixons, Farringtons, Burtons, Carters, Meritts, Bar- 
retts, Luddingtons, with a few others from Massachu- 
setts and Westchester. 

Zachariah Meritt settled in this town about 1750, 
and built a log-house in the meadow just east of the 
residence of Stillman Boyd, Esq. He planted him- 
self, as it were, in the very midst of the Indians, who 
had a settlement there. We have been informed by 
the Hon. Judge Boyd, that he has ploughed up on the 
same meadow, more than two bushels of ovster-shells 
and arrow-heads. 

During the Revolution, Meritt took the British side 
of the question, and his land was confiscated by the 

About this time a family of the name of Jones 
settled in Peekskill Hollow, where John Barrett now 

The Boyds are of Scotch descent. The great- 
grandfather of this family in this town came from 
Scotland to New York City ; and from thence to 

Ebenezer Boyd, grandfather of Bennet and Stillman 
Boyd, came from Westchester, and settled where 
Stillman Boyd now lives, about 1780. There were 
three brothers who emigrated from Scotland to this 
country during the "Rebellion" of the partizans of 
the Stewart dynasty in 1745. One of them settled 


at Albany, known as Gen. Boyd, and died at the ad- 
vanced age of 114 years. 

Another settled in the lower part of Westchester, 
and was great-grandfather of the family in this town. 
The other brother settled at New Windsor, in Orange 
County, and was the ancestor of the Boyd family in 
that County. 

A man of the name of Joseph Farrington was 
about the first settler at Farmers' Mills. During the 
" hard winter," a man of the name of Burton, put up 
the first grist-mill at that place. 

About 1760, James Smally, Reuben, Robert, and 
Pelick Wixon, came from Cape Cod to this town, and 
settled about a mile east of Stillman Boyd. They 
were of English descent. A family of the name of 
Cole were also early settlers, as we are informed ; 
but are unable to say at what time they came. 

Col. Henry Luddington, or " Luddinton," as ii was 
formerly spelt, made a settlement in this town about 
1760. He was born in Connecticut ; but his father 
emigrated from England. He settled, where his son 
still resides, in the north-west part of the town, known 
in the Revolution as " huddintorCs Mills." A man 
by the name of Carter had settled at the same place 
a few years before. 

Col. Luddington was one of the most active, ener- 
getic, and unflinching patriots that was found in this 
part of the country during the Revolution ; and much 
do we regret our inability, from the want of materials, 
to do justice to the character and sterling virtues of 
this Revolutionary patriot. The governmental records, 
however, show him, in connexion with the Barnums, 
Cranes, and a few others, to have been one of the bold 


defenders of our country's rights. He left six sons 
and six daughters ; of whom only two of the former 
and one of the latter are now living. 

Extract from " Fredericksburgh Records A." 

" April ye 7th Day and first Tuesday 1747. 
Matthew Roe, Clark 
Supervisor Chosen Samuel Field 

Constables Chosen Viz : 
Joseph jacocks John Dickeson 

George Huson William Bruster 

Nathan Taylor Senr Colloctor 

Joseph Lane Seesser 

Capt : James Dickeson Seessor 

High Way Masters Chosen viz : 

Jacob Vandweel James Seers 

Joseph Husted Joseph Crane 

Richard Curry Samuel Field 

Isaac Rhoades Daniel Townsend 

George Curry Uriah Townsend 

William Gee Barttlett 

William Sweett Caleb Heason 

Pounders chosen viz 
Thomas Kirkkun John Gee and Amos Dickeson 

Fence Viewers chosen viz 

Daniel Townsend Isaac Roads 

Amos Dickeson Isaac three hill 

Abraham Smith John Rogers 

The following named persons appear to have been 

in the Fredericksburgh Precinct in 1747, who were 

freeholders, or occupying land as tenants. We first 

remark, however, that this precinct included, at this 

time, all of the towns now embraced in Putnam 




County, viz. : Kent, Patterson, Carmel, Southeast 
Putnam Valley, and Philipstown. In 1772, Philips' 
Precinct, embracing both Philipstown and Putnam 
Valley, was erected ; and, in 1773, the Southeast Pre- 
cinct was organized. By the Act of March 7th, 1788, 
"for dividing the counties of this State into towns," 
the Precincts were changed to towns ; and hence 
Philips' Precinct became Philipstown ; Southeast Pre- 
cinct, Southeast town ; while the remaining part of 
Fredericksburgh Precinct was called Frederick's town, 
embraced the new towns of Kent, Patterson, and Car- 
mel. Barber, in his Historical Collections, says, that 
Southeast was organized in 1795; but this is evidently 
a historical mistake, as the Act, above alluded to, 

Cristoph fowler, 
William Gee, 
William Taylor, 
Thomas Kirkun, 
John Drake, 
Rickcohus Cartwright, 
Samuel Field, 
John Ryder, 
Jeremiah Calkin, 
John Moherry, 
George huson, 
Isaac Roads, 
Benjamin Brundage, 
Vallentine Perkins, 
Dan'l Townsend, 
David Paddock, 
Uriah Townsend, 
Will Hunt, 
Old Cole, 
Ahraham Smith, 

Joseph Lane, 
Amos Dickinson, 
James Kirkun, 
James M. Creedy, 
Uriah Hill, 
George Curry, 
Edward Ganong, 
Richard peters, 
John Williams, 
Andrew Roble, 
Ephraim Smith, 
William Smith, 
William Drake, 
Zedekiah Kirkun, 
Thomas Kirkun, 
George Scott, 
Isaac Rhoads, 
John Names, 
Joshua Hamblin, 
Joseph Hopkins, 



Abraham Lock, 
Caleb Heaz, 
Michell Sloat, 
Elijah tompkins, 
Daniel Parish, 
Edward Gray, 
John Dickinson, 
Absalom Smith, 
Sam'll Hunt, 
Jonathan Lane, 
Jonathan O'Brien, 
Isaach Horton, 
Richard Cory, 
Thomas Devenport, 
Joseph Mead, 
Thomas Paddock, 
Gabriel Knap, 
Joseph Chatoren, 
Bartlit Crondy, 
John Backer, 
Israel Smith, 
Thomas Townsend, 
Benjamin Jacox, 
Nehemiah Horton, 
Cornoloes Tompkings, 
Elisha Cangs 
James Akely, 
David Smith, 
Isah Jacox, 
Isaac treehill, 
Cristefor Alley, 
Moses Dusenberry, 
Jeremiah JifFers, 
Isaac finch, 
Andres Barger, 
George Feelds, 
Amos fooler, 
francis Beacker, 
Robert fooler, 

Isaac Merrick, 
David Merick, 
John Harick, 
John Thorne, 
Schirran Travis, 
Joshua Parrish, 
Jacob Parrish, 
John Ganong, 
Joseph Dewey, 
Noah Burbank, 
David Sturdeuant, 
Thomas Crosby, 
Pelig Baley, 
Isaac Barton, 
Thomas Colwell, 
Matthes Burgus, 
Israel Taylor, 
James Bell, 
William Stone, 
Edward Rice, 
John Sprag, 
Isaac Smith, 
Richard Rodes, 
Thomas Philips, 
Jonathan Briant, 
John tarbe, 

William Deusenberry, 
Solomon Jenkins, 
Josiah Forgason, 
Dan'l Crawford, 
Stephen faronton, 
John Landon, 
John Mead, 
John Meeks, 
Gilbert Travis, 
Joseph Stateer, 
Nehemiah Wood, 
John Heaus, 
David Sears, 


John Larnce, Joseph Colwell, 

Joseph Ganong, Jacob Ellis, 

Elisha Cole, Regam Parrish, 

Elnathan Gregry, Bethnell Balleau, 

William Sturdeuant, John Addams, 

Nathan Birdsall, Ase Parrish, 

Jabez Berry, Nathaniel Nickerson, 

Benamin Jackish, Zenis Nickeson. 
Matthies Burns, 

There were others, doubtless, who resided in this 
Precinct, whose names are not found on the town 
book. Beside other sources of information, we are 
satisfied from the names given above, that Fredericks- 
burgh Precinct, at this time, embraced the whole of 
Philipstown under its original organization. 

In the above extract from the Precinct Book, we 
find the names of Thomas Devenport, who, at that 
time, resided at Cold Spring, on the Hudson ; and 
John Rogers, who kept a tavern a little south of 
Justus Nelson's mill, on the old post-road. 

In the above extract of names, we have written 
them as spelled in the Record, using the same kind of 
letters, as are there found in the commencement of 
the christian and surnames. 

Farmers' Mills. — A hamlet eight miles from Car- 
mel, on the road leading from Cold Spring to Patter- 
son. It contains 2 or 3 stores, 2 taverns, a Post-office, 
a grist, saw, fulling-mill, and a tannery. Its name is 
owing to the fact, that the first mill was erected for 
the accommodation of farmers in that vicinity ; no 
sale-work being done there at that time for other 
parts of the country. 

Coles' Mill. — A small collection of houses on the 
road from Cold Spring to the village of Carmel, about 


three miles west of it. It contains a grist mill, saw 
mill, and fulling mill. It is named after the family of 
Coles who settled the place. One of the west branches 
of the Croton runs through it. 

Dick Town. — A small district of country lying south 
of the Cold Spring turnpike, near Justice Forshay's. 
A large number of persons of the name of Richard 
resided there. The nickname of Richard is Dick, by 
which they were generally called, and owing to the 
multiplicity of the name, their neighbors called it 
" Dick Town." 

Smalley Hill. — An eminence about half a mile 
east of Stillman Boyd's, and is named after the 
Smalley family. 

White Pond. — A beautiful sheet of water about 
half a mile east of Farmers' Mills. It is nearly a mile 
long and half a mile broad, and named after a family 
by the name of White. 

Forge Pond. — This pond is about sixty rods east of 
Farmers' Mills. Forty years ago, a forge was erected 
at the west end of it at its out-let ; and hence its 
name. It was formerly a marsh. The White Pond 
runs into it. It is about one-fourth of a mile long and 
fifty rods wide. 

China Pond. — A handsome body of water, nearly 
circular, one mile south of Farmers' Mills ; and nearly 
a half a mile' in length. The reason for its being so 
called, we are unable to give, but believe it was 
owning to the fact, that a small basket full of China- 
ware was thrown into it by a wife, to spite her 
drunken husband. 

Pine Pond is about one and a half miles south of 
White Pond, three-quarters of a mile long and half a 


mile wide. Its margin was covered with pine timber, 
and hence its name. 

Dean Pond is about one mile south of Samuel 
Townsend's, and almost round, being about 60 rods in 
length and breadth. It takes its name from the family 
of Deans, who lived near it. The above named ponds 
contain perch, pickerel, with the more common kinds 
of fish ; and are resorted to in the summer season by 
the amateurs of the fishing-rod. 


This town, as we have before remarked, was origi- 
nally named Franklin, when organized in 1795. The 
back short lot of Beverly Robinson embraced nearly 
its whole area. Its population in 1840 was 1,349, and 
in 1845, 1,289. Situated in the north-east part of the 
county, its farmers are further removed from Peeks- 
kill in Westchester, where the eastern section of the 
county have heretofore, we believe, done their " mark- 
eting," than those of Putnam Valley,Carmel, and South- 
East. This inconvenience will soon be obviated by 
the New York and Harlem Railroad, which passes 
through this town, and which will afford a speedy 
transportation of the farmer's produce to the great 
metropolis of the country. Its surface is hilly, and with 
few exceptions, the high grounds are cultivated and 
productive. Those parts which we visited seemed 
better adapted to grazing than for grain, although 
some with whom we have conversed pronounce it 
well-nigh equally suited to both. Every variety of 
agricultural product is raised, and the soil, generally, 
is as productive as any in the county. 

The streams are not numerous ; the east branch of 
the Croton furnishes the greatest amount of hydraulic 
power, and that, at certain seasons of the year, is small. 
There are but two ponds in the whole town. It is 
bounded on the north by the south line of Dutchess 


county ; on the east by Connecticut ; on the south by 
Southeast and Carmel ; and on the west by the town 
of Kent. 

We should think that the agricultural wealth of this 
town, in proportion to its size, is equal to that of any 
other in the county. The soil in the vicinity of Patter- 
son village is loam and sand : in other parts loam and 
gravel predominate. 

We made but a flying visit to this town, and that was 
to " The City." We confess we are poorly prepared to 
do it justice. Its distance from our abode, and the 
wearisome ride necessary to be taken across the cen- 
tral Highlands over a bad road, must be our apology 
for the brief and imperfect notice it receives at our 


This town was principally settled by Scotch fami- 
lies, or their descendants. Some few came here from 
Westchester and New York, but the greater number 
were from Massachusetts and Connecticut. A large 
number of families from Cape Cod came into this 
town, Southeast, and Carmel, about the same time. 

William Hunt, the grandfather on his mother's side 
of Daniel Hains, Esq., came from Rhode Island and 
settled down about three miles north of Haviland's 
Corner, in 1745. A tavern is kept there now by a 
man of the name of Sill. He had three sons, Samuel, 
Daniel, and Stephen, and one daughter, Deborah. 

His brother Daniel, came about two years after- 
wards, and located about a mile and a half from him. 
Stephen, the youngest son, was a lieutenant in the 
Continental army, and was engaged in the battle at 


White Plains. After the war, he settled down along 
the Mohawk, and died there. The other two broth- 
ers were tories, and took the " King's side ;" after the 
war, one went north, probably to Canada, and the other 
settled in the southern part of Ulster County. 

Shortly after Hunt's arrival, two men by the name 
of Bobbin and Wilmot, settled at Patterson Village; 
the former was a blacksmith, and the latter a saddler. 
When the war broke out, they, both went to New York, 
and joined the British Army. 

About this time, Capt. Daniel Heecock, and the 
grandfather of James Towner, Esq., made a set- 
tlement in the vicinity of the village, but at what 
particular time we are not informed. Asa Hains, 
who had served three years in the French War, 
at its termination, came to this town and settled where 
Reed Aiken now lives, about a mile east of Haviland's 
Corner. Previous to which, however, he lived about 
two miles south of it. He was born in Rhode Island, 
and came from thence to Long Island where he 
enlisted in the English army ; and was ordered to the 
north. He had five sons, Enoch, Charles, William, 
Archibald, and Daniel, of whom the two latter are 
now living, and five daughters, Lucy, Abigail, Debo- 
rah, Sarah, and Betsy. Two of whom, Abigail and 
Betsey, are still living. 

About 1748, Daniel Close settled at Haviland's 

Corner. Where he came from, we have not been 

able to learn. About the same time the Jones and 

Crosbys came and settled in the southern part of the 

town. Roswell Wilcox, settled about a mile south of 

Patterson Village at an early day, but whether before 

or after the old French war, we are not informed. 



A few years before the French war, Matthew Pat- 
terson, grandfather of James Patterson, Esq., came 
from Scotland to New York city, and at the age of 
eighteen enlisted as a captain of a company of artifi- 
cers in the British army, under Gen. Abercrombie. 
After the war he went back to the city, and a few 
years thereafter he removed to where his grandson, 
the above-named James Patterson, Esq., now resides. 
He was a member of the State Legislature nine years 
in succession, and for several, a County Judge. 

He had three sons, John, James, and Alexander, 
and four daughters, Martha, Jane, Susan, and Marga- 
ret. All are now dead ! lie was a member of the 
Legislature when Col. Beverly Robinson's land in this 
county was confiscated. Having voted for the meas- 
ure, probably it accounts for his refusal to become a 
purchaser under the Act, from feelings of delicacy as 
a legislator. He purchased, however, from one who 
had derived his title from the State, 160 acres, on 
which his gentlemanly descendant now resides. 

About the same time, one Capt. Kidd, who came 
from Scotland, settled between Patterson Village, and 
Haviland's Corner. 

At the time Burgoyne was attempting to force his 
way down the Hudson, Washington moved three bri- 
gades into this town, where they were encamped, in 
order to reinforce Gates, had he been forced to re- 
treat, and check the enemy. They were encamped 
on the lands now owned by Judge Stone and Benja- 
min B. Haviland. An aged citizen asserts that one 
brigade was from Pennsylvania, one from South Caro- 
lina, and one from Georgia ; the two latter we are in- 
clined to think were from New Jersey or Connecti- 


cut, or from the latter and Massachusetts. Washing- 
ton, with his life-guards, had his head-quarters where 
Legrand Hall now lives. 

The few facts that we have hastily gleaned con- 
cerning the early settlement of this town, so hastily 
flungj together, we have obtained from Daniel Hains, 
Esq., and James Patterson, Esq. Mr. Hains wants 
but a few days to being eighty-four years of age ; and 
a more active, healthy, and sprightly old man of his 
age it has never been our fortune to encounter. His 
healthful and vigorous appearance did not more sur- 
prise us than the business we found him employed at. 
And what, reader, do you suppose it was ? Some of 
you, perhaps, who suppose a man must necessarily be 
old at forty, and bed-ridden at fifty, will answer, " in 
the house, or in his bed ;" you might, probably, long 
before you reach his age be found there. The simpli- 
city that marked the age and mode of living, when 
he commenced life has long since disappeared, and 
luxury, with its untold evils in its train, is sapping the 
health and shortening the lives of the present genera- 
tion. We found this old gentleman on a hill-side, so 
steep as to require some exertion to ascend it, with a 
crow-bar in his hand, engaged in raising or digging 
out stones and rocks. He told me that he was very 
near-sighted and somewhat deaf, but in all other re- 
spects felt perfectly well. 

He is a remarkable man, and we can state a fact 
concerning him which probably cannot be said of any 
other living man in the county ; and it is this : He 
has seen five generations of his own family — his 
grandfather, father, himself, his children, and grand- 
children. His wife, who is still living, is about his 


own age, and when we saw her, she moved about 
the room unassisted by stick or cane with as much 
apparent ease as a woman of fifty. Alas, for the de- 
generacy of our times ! but few of us can hope to 
reach the good old age already attained by this vene- 
rable couple. We live too fast, and more for show 
than for health and happiness. Judging from appear- 
ances, they have as good a chance for living ten or 
fifteen years longer as any of us. 


" At the first town meeting of the Freeholders and inhabitants 
of Franklin held at the House of James Phillips on Tuesday the 
7th day of April 1795. 

Voted That Samuel Cornwall be town Clerk. 

Voted that Samuel Towner be Supervisor. 

Benjamin Haviland, ) 
Nehemiah Jones, > Assessors. 

Stephen Heayt, ) 

David Hickok, Senr., ) 

& > Overseers of the Poor 

Jabez Elwell, ) 

Solomon Crane, \ 

Elisha^Brown, > Commissioners of Highways. 

Abner Crosby, ) 

Abel Hodges, Collector and Constable. 
David Barnum, Constable. 

Path Masters. 

George Burtch, Esqr., Joseph Rogers,. 

Benjamin Lane, Stephen Yale, 

James Birdsell, Abel Hadges,. 

Jabez Elwell, Isaac Crosby, 

Daniel Haynes, Blackleduck Jessup, 

John McLean, Elisha Brown, 


Samuel Colwell, Abner Crosby, 

Abraham Mabee, Sr., Jacob Read, and 

Solomon Fowler, Elisha Gifford. 

Fence Viewers. 

Jabez Elwell, Junr., Roswell Willcox, 

John Tweady, David Hickok, 

Zachariah Hinman, Peter Terry, 

Thomas Birdsell, Enos Ambler, 

Abijah Starr, Simon Perry, and 

Elijah Stone, Nathaniel Foster. 

Pound Masters. 
John Tweady, Roswell Willcox, & 

Silas Burtch, Amos Rogers. 

Voted That the next Town Meeting shall be held at the Pres- 
byterian Meeting House. 

Voted that the sum of sixty pounds be raised for the mainte- 
nance of the Poor of this town." 

Patterson Village. — This village, sometimes called 
Patterson City, during the Revolution and previous 
thereto was called Fredericksburg, and lies in a rich 
agricultural district in the valley of the Croton. It is 
about eight miles north-east of Carmel, and one mile 
south of the Dutchess county line. The Post Office, 
which formerly was located here, was removed to 
Haviland's Corner, a little more than a mile east of it, 
by the Hon. F. Stone, when he was appointed Post 
Master a few years since. The country in the vi- 
cinity and suburbs of the village is charming. The 
land bears evidence of a neat and enlightened hus- 
bandry, with taste in the appearance presented by the 
houses and their appendages. The gently rolling sur- 
face of the land, its freedom from stone, stumps, and 
bushes — the rich verdure of the fields, and substantial 


fences enclosing them — the smooth, excellent roads — 
all combine to make a ride through this portion of the 
county extremely pleasant and agreeable to a lover 
of rural scenery. The New York and Harlem Rail- 
road runs between this village and Haviland's Corner. 

It was named after the Patterson family, which 
early settled in the town, the descendants of which are 
still found here. 

Haviland's Corner. — This place is about one and a 
fourth mile east of Patterson village ; and is named 
after Benjamin Haviland, Esq., who resides there. A 
Post Office is kept here. On the Post Office Register 
it is called " Haviland's Hollow." The Hollow is 
about one and a half miles in length, and one hundred 
rods in breadth, running east and west. 

Towner s. — This place was formerly called the 
"Four Corners;" but is now known by the above 
name, from James Towner, who lives there, and keeps 
a public-house. A post office and a store is also kept 
here. Two roads, intersecting each other at right 
angles, caused it /to be called the Four Corners. It is 
about two miles south of Patterson Village, on the 
road to Carmel Village. 

Cranberry Hill is a small eminence about half a 
mile east of Judge Stone's residence, over which 
runs the Birch road. It lies in the east part of the 
town, and is partly cultivated. Cranberries grew on 
it ; and hence the name. 

Pine Island. — This rocky ledge or eminence lies in 
the middle of the Great Swamp, about fifteen rods 
west of Croton river. This swamp traverses nearly 
the whole length of the town, and is narrower at the 
south than at the north end of it. The Island covers 


about thirty acres of the Swamp, which is about one 
mile wide. This ledge of rocks rises about two 
hundred feet above the level of the swamp. It abounds 
in pines, and hence its appellation. 

Hinckley Pond. — This large body of water lying in 
the south-west part of the town, is one mile long and 
half a mile broad. It contains excellent perch, pick- 
erel, and other kinds of fish. Its west bank forms the 
west line of the Harlem railroad. It is named after 
the Hinckley family. 

Little Pond — This sheet of water is in the south- 
east part of the town, about four miles from the 
Hinckley Pond, and contains the same kind of fish. 
It is about half a mile long, and a little more than half 
a mile in breadth. Its name is the consequence of its 
being the smallest of the two ponds in this town. The 
Croton river runs through this town from north to 
south, and the town of Southeast, ere it receives the 
main west branch with its smaller tributaries. 


1. The old house in which James Patterson, Esq., 
now lives. It was built by his grandfather, Matthew 
Patterson, a Judge of the Common Pleas, of Dutchess 
County, who kept a tavern in it, in the Revolution. 

2. The old 'house now occupied by James C. Hoyt, 
in Patterson Vllage. 

3. The house now occupied by the widow Dean, 
about half-a-mile west of Patterson V T illage. 

4. The old house now occupied by Cyrus II. Fletch- 
er, between Patterson Village and Ilaviland's Corner. 

Beverly Robinson, Jun., who was Lieut.-Col. of the 
Regiment commanded by his father in the British 


Army, called the " Loyal American Regiment," at the 
beginning of the Revolution occupied a farm in this 
town, which was located in Haviland Hollow, and 
now owned in part, we believe, by George Stokum, 
Esq. It was appropriated by the Commissioners of 
sequestration as a rendezvous for military stores, and 
keeping cattle, which were collected for the use of 
the American Army. 

"Monday Afternoon, April 21, 1777. 

" The Convention met pursuant to adjournment. 

Present — Col. Van Cortlandt, Vice-President ; Mr. Van Cort- 
landt, Mr. Harper, Mr. Bancker, Gen. Scott, Mr. Dunscombe — 
New York. 

Mr. W. Harper, Mr. Newkerk — Tryon. 

Colo. De Witt, Major Tappen, Mr. Cantine — Ulster. 

Mr. Abm. Yates, Mr. Bleecker, Mr. Cuyler, Mr. Ten Broeck, 
Colo. Livingston, Mr. Gansevoort — Albany. 

Mr. G. Livingston — Dutchess. 

Col. Williams, Major Webster — Charlotte. 

Mr. Smith, Mr. Tredwell, Mr. Hobart— Suffolk. 

Judge Graham, Colo. Drake, Mr. Lockwood — Westchester. 

Mr. Stevens — Cumberland. 

Colo. Allison, Mr. Clark — Orange. 

"General Scott, to whom was referred the letter from Hugh 
Hughes, deputy quarter-master-general, relative to the farm of 
Beverly Robinson, Junior, reported as follows, to wit : That 
they are of opinion that, as a very considerable lodgment of 
stores in the quarter-master's department is formed at Morri- 
son's Mills, in Fredericksburgh, in the county of Dutchess, to 
and from which there will be much carriage, a proper farm in 
in its vicinity, for supporting the cattle that may from time to 
time be employed in that department of service, will be abso- 
lutely necessary ; and that the farm lately in the occupation of 
Beverly Robinson, Junior, will be very convenient for that pur- 
pose. It is therefore the opinion of your committee, that the 
commissioners of sequestration in the county of Dutchess be 


directed to lease the said farm for one year to the said deputy 
quarter-master-general, at such rent as they shall think proper, 
notwithstanding any treaty for the same that may have been in 
agitation between the said commissioners and any individual 
persorr, for the use or occupation of the said farm. 

" Resolved, That this Convention doth agree with their Com- 
mittee in their said report." 














Stephen Barnum, 1st, 
Robert Johnston, 
Harry Garrison, 
Barnabas Carver. 
Joseph Crane, 
Robert Johnston, 
Harry Garrison, 
John Crane, 
Stephen Hoyt. 
Barnabas Carver, 
Robert Johnston, 
Harry Garrison, 
Jonathan Morehouse, 
John Patterson. 
Harry Garrison, 1st, 
Barnabas Carver, 
John Patterson, 
Jonathan Morehouse. 
Abraham Smith, 
William Watts, 
David Jackson, 
John Patterson, 
John Hoyt. 
Barnabas Carver, 
Jonathan Morehouse, 
William Watts, 
Abraham Smith. 
Harry Garrison, 

1823, Barnabas Carver, 
" Stephen C. Barnum, 
" James Tawner, 
" Edward Smith. 

1829, Frederic Stone, 1st, 
" Bennet Boyd, 
" Samuel Washburn, 
" Ebenezer Foster, 
" Cyrus Horton. 

1832, Harry Garrison. 

1833, Bennet Boyd, 1st, 
" David Kent. 

1835, Stephen Pinckney. 

1836, Ebenezer Foster. 
1838, David Kent, 

" Bennet Boyd, 1st, 
" John Garrison, 
1841, Henry J. Belden, 

" Cornelius Warren. 
1843, Robert P. Parrot, 1st, 
" Azor B. Crane, 
" Benjamin B. Benedict, 
" Thachcr B. Theal. 
1845, Nathaniel Cole. 
1847, Azor B. Crane, elected 
Judge and Surrogate 
under the new Con- 




1812, Enoch Crosby, 1813, John Hoyt, 

" William Watts. " Enoch Crosby, 

1813, David L. De Forest, " Rowland Bailey 
" Jonathan Ferris, 1815, Enoch Crosby. 


1813, Joel Frost, 

1836, Walker Todd. 

" Joel Frost. 

1839, Howard H. White. 

1819, Walker Todd. 

1840, Abraham Smith. 

1821, Joel Frost. 

1844, Azor B. Crane. 

1823, Jeremiah Hine. 

1847, Azor B. Crane, elected 

1827, Jeremiah Hine. 

under the new Con- 

1832, Walker Todd. 


1820, Rowland Bailey. 
1823, Jonathan Morehouse. 
1826, Jonathan Morehouse. 
1829, Jonathan Morehouse. 
1832, Jonathan Morehouse. 


1835, Jonathan Morehouse. 
1838, William H. Sloat. 
1840, Reuben D. Barnura. 
1843, Reuben D. Barnum. 
1846, Reuben D. Barnum. 



1812, William H. Johnston. 

1822, Edward Buckbee. 

1813, Peter Crosby. 

1823, Edward Buckbee, 

1814, Peter Crosby. 

1826, Thomas W. Taylor 

1815, Peter Warren. 

1829, Joseph Cole, 2nd. 

1816. Peter Warren. 

1832, Nathaniel Cole. 

1817, Peter Warren. 

1835, Thomas W. Taylor 

1818, Peter Warren. 

1838, George W. Travis. 

1819, Edward Buckbee. 

1840, William W. Taylor 

1820, Edward Buckbee. 

1843, James Smith. 

1821, Joseph Cole. 

1846, William W. Taylor 


1816, Peter Warring. 1840, John P. Andrews. 

1828, John P. Andrews. 1843, John P. Andrews. 

1834, John P. Andrews. 1844, William J. Blake, 

1837, John P. Andrews. " Reuben D. Barnum. 
1839, John P. Andrews. 




1818, Walker Todd. 
1821, Frederic Stone. 
1829, Jeremiah Hine. 
1832, Jeremiah Hine. 
1836, Jeremiah Hine. 
1838, Frederic Stone. 


1841, Frederic Stone. 

1844, Frederic Stone. 

1847, Charles Ga Nun, elected 
under the new Con- 


1812, George W. Niven. 

1836, Stephen D. Horton, 

1813, Frederic Stone, 

" Lewis Robison. 

" William Nelson, 

1839, Eleazer M. Swift, 

" Amos Belden. 

" Elijah Yerks, 

1815, Walker Todd, 

" Howard H. White. 

" Henry B. Lee, 

1840, Thomas Nelson, 

" William Brown, 

" Ebenezer C. Southerland, 

" John Philips. 

" Silas H. Hickok, 

1816, Cornelius Master, 

" Owen F. Coffin, 

" Philo Ruggles. 

" William Fullerton. 

1817, William H. Johnston, 

1841, J. H. Ferris. 

" Edward Buckbee, 

1842, Samuel F. Reynolds, 

" Moses Hatch, 

" Benjamin Bailey. 

" Jonas Strong, 

1843, John Curry, 

" Isaac Hoffman, 

" Charles Ga Nun, 

" Robert P. Lee. 

" Charles S. Jorden, 

1818, E. Nye. 

" William J. Blake. 

1819, James Youngs, 

1844, John S. Bates, 

" Stephen Cleveland, 

" Thomas R. Lee, 

" James W. Oppie, 

" James H. Dorland. 

" Samuel B. Halsey, 

1846, William A. Dean, 

" Jeremiah Hine, 

" Calvin Frost. 

" Samuel Youngs, 

1847, John G. Miller, 

" J. W. Strang. 

" James D. Stevenson, 

1820, Henry B. Cowles. 

" Charles M. Tompkins. 



1812, William Brown, 

1819, Samuel Townsend. 

" Edward Buckbee. 

1820, Henry Holdane, 

1813, Edward Buckbee. 

" David Dingee, 

1816, Joseph Benedict, 

" Erastus Smith, 

" Samuel Townsend. 

" Orrin M. Armstrong, 

1817, Joseph Benedict. 

" James Dykeman. 

1818, Orrin M. Armstrong, 

1821, James Dykeman, 

" David Mooney, 

" Henry Holdane, 

" Henry Holdane, 

" David Dingee, 

" Samuel Townsend. 

" William Brown. 

1819, Orrin M. Armstrong, 

1822, Henry Holdane, 

" Henry Holdane, 

" Nathaniel Delavan, 




1822, James Dykeman. 1835, 

1823, Henry Holdane, 1837, 
" Asahel Cole, 1838, 
" William Raymond. " 

1826, Benjamin Dykeman, Jr., " 

" William H. Sloat, 1839, 

" Edmund Burtch, " 

" Nathaniel Delavan. 1841, 

1829, William Raymond, " 

" John Garrison. 1843, 

1832, Lewis Rogers, " 

" Seymour Allen, 1845, 

" David Dingee, " 

li John F. Haight. " 

1835, Lewis Rogers, 1846, 
" John F. Haight, 

Stillman Boyd. 
James J. Smalley. 
John F. Haight, 
Cornelius Nelson, Jr., 
Abraham Everett. 
Amos Tompkins, 
Selah Gage. 
Cornelius Nelson, Jr., 
Jeremiah Dewel. 
Addison M. Hopkins, 
James Barker. 
Hart Weed, 
Elisha C. Baxter, 
Cyrus Chase. 
James Barker. 


IN 1841. 

Free White Males. 
Under 5 years of age 

5 and under 10 
10 and under 15 
15 and under 20 
20 and under 30 
30 and under 40 
40 and under 50 
50 and under 60 
60 and under 70 
70 and under 80 
80 and under 90 
90 and under 100 

Total Free White Males 

Free Wliite Females 
Under 5 years of age 

5 and under 10 
10 and under 15 
15 and under 20 
20 and under 30 
30 and under 40 
40 and under 50 
50 and under 60 
60 and under 70 
70 and under 80 
80 and nnder 90 
90 and under 100 


























Total Free White Females 



Free Colored Males. 

Under 1 years of age 34 

10 and under 24 .... 27 

24 and under 36 12 

36 and under 55 .... 14 

55 and under 100 6 

Total Free Colored Males . . 93 

Free Colored Females. 

Under 10 years of age 17 

10 and under 24 .... 24 

24 and under 36 16 

36 and under 55 i. 8 

55 and under 100 9 

Total Free Colored Females . . 74 

Female Slave. 
55 years of age and under 100... 1 

Number of persons employed in Agriculture . . . 3,125 
Commerce . . . . . . . 100 

Manufactures and trades . . . . .916 

Navigation of the ocean .... 92 

Navigation of canals, lakes, and rivers . . 37 

Learned professions and engineers ... 48 

Number of Pensioners for revolutionary or military services 19 

White persons — blind ...... 1 

Insane and idiots — at public charge .... 3 

At private charge ...... 13 

Schools, &c. — Primary and common schools ... . 63 

Number of scholars ..... 2,935 

Number of scholars at public charge . . . 15 
Number of white persons over 20 years of age, who 
cannot read and write .... 638 



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Anthony's, St., Face, 

. 164 

Anthony's Nose, Mountain, . 


Altered Taconic Rocks, 


Ardenia, ........ 


Augite Rock, ....... 

. 59 

Arragonite, ........ 


Actznolite, ....... 


Albite, ........ 


Alumnia, ....... 

. 23 

Acicular sulphate of lime, . . . . . 


American Precinct, Signers to Revolutionary Pledg 

e in, . 128 

Acrostic on Gen. B. Arnold, . . . . 


Arnold, Gen., Letter of, to Jefferson, 

. 209 

" " " concerning, . 


" Notice of, . . 

. 190 


. , 20, 21 

Areles, Joseph, ...... 

. 85 

Andre, Major, Defence of, . 


" " . Letter from, .... 

. 200 

Arsenical iron, ....... 

. . 48 

Austin Hill, ....... 

. 266 



Brucite, . . *- . 


Basanite, ... 


Bradley's Ore-bed, ...... 

. 45 

Blunt's Quarry, ....... 


Beat No. 1, Officers of, 

. 95 

11 11 O 11 11 


u u u 11 

. 95 

11 11 A a u 

<*, . , . . . 


a u £ u u 

. 95 

11 11 g 11 11 


Beekman's Precinct, Signers in, ... 

. 113 

" " Tories in, . 


Break Neck Village, ..... 

. 160 

Brass's Landing, ....... 


Bull Hill, 

. 163 

Break Neck Mountain, 


Beverly Dock, 

. 204 

Brinkerhoofs, Capt., Company, . . . . 


Bedle's, Capt., Company, ..... 

. 110 

Boston Gazette, Extract from, .... 


Barger Pond, ....... 

. 249 

Bryant Pond, 




Berry Mountain, .... 

Big Hill, 

Barrett's Pond, .... 

Berry, Lieut. Jabez, Notice of, 
Barnum, Capt. Joseph, Notice of, 

Court of Gen. Sessions, Minutes of, 
Canopus Hill, ..... 
Chrome iron ore, .... 
Copperas, or sulphate of iron, . 
Carburetted Hydrogen, 
Cotton Rock, ..... 
Copper and Silver Ores, 
Crystallized Serpentine, . 
Coalgrove mine, .... 
Cold Spring Furnace, 
Cercome, Thomas, 

Crane's Mills, .... 

Cold Spring Village, Notice of, 

" " Early settlement of, 
Continental Village, 

Cat Hill, 

Constitution Island, 

Cat Pond, 

Collins, bargeman, Notice of 
Charlotte Precinct, Signers in, . 
Chabasie, ..... 
Commissioners' letter to Bev. Robinson 


Clear Pond, ..... 
Cranberry Pond, . 
Canopus Hollow Creek, . 
Croft, James, Notice of, 
Carmel, and early settlement of 

" Extract from Town Records, 
Carmel Village, . ... 
Corner Mountain, 
Cranberry Pond, 
Crane, Capt. John, Notice of, 
Crane Family, Record of, 
Corner Pond Brook, 
Crane, Joseph, Letter from, to E. Benson, 
Crane, Thaddeus, Letter from, 
Coles' Mills, .... 
China Pond, 
Cranberry Hill, i. 

Diagram of County, 

Daton's Mills, 

Dutchess County, Signers to Pledge in, 
















































Davenport Family, . 

Duncan, Col., Notice of, 

Davenport's Corners, 

Denny Town, 

Dwight, Timothy, .... 

Denny, George, Trial of and Confession 

Denny Mine, ..... 

Drew's Hill, 

Doansburgh, . 

Dalz Brook, 

Dick Town, 

Dean Pond, . 

Epidote, .... 

Eel Point, . 

Errrata, .... 

Flat Rock, . 
Fort Hill, 
Foundry Dock, . 
Farmers' Mills, 
Forge Pond, 

General view of the County, 


Ground Ice, 

Granular Quartz Rock, 

Granite, .... 



Gouverneur Mine, 

Griffin's, Capt., Company, 

Griffin's Corners, . 


Gilead Pond, 

Gilead Presbyterian Church, 

Huestis's Quarry, 

Hematite Ore-beds, . 

Highland Granite Company's Quarry 

Hornblendic Rocks, . 

Heganan's, Capt., Company, 

Horton's, Captain, Company, 


Hog-back Hill, 

Highland Grange, 

Hyalite, .... 

Highland Church and vicinity, 

Huestis's Family, Notice of, 

Hemstead's Huts, 


































Horton Pond, 

Hill, Granny, Notice of, . 

Hazen Hill, .... 

Hitchcock Hill, 

Haviland Corner, . 

Hinckley Pond, 

Iron Pyrites, 

Iron Mines, .... 

Indian Hill, 

Johnson, Wm. W.,' Testimony of, 
Jefferds, Capt. Samuel, Notice of, 
Joe's Hill, .... 

Kerolite, .... 
Kemble Mine, .... 
Knickerbocker \ Extract from, 
Kirk Pond, .... 
Kent, James, Biography of, . 
Kent, Town of, and early Settlement 
" Extract from Record, . 


Lyster's, Capt., Company, 

Dead Mines, . 

Lake Mahopac, 

Long Pond, 

Little Pond, . 

Luddington, Col. Henry, . 

Little Pond, . 

Mahopac Lake, 

Metamorphic Limestones, 

Mica Slate, 

Magnetic Oxide of Iron, 

Marl, Localities of, 

Mud Flats, 

Mead's Dock, . 

Mount Rascal, 

Muddy Pond, . 

Militia Officers, Return of, 

Northeast Precinct, Signers in, 
Nelson's Highlands and vicinity, . 
New Haven Palladium, Extract from 

Oblong, .... 



Owen's, Jonathan, Pond, 

Oakley, Robert, Notice of, 















. 215 











326, 327 



. 22 







. 269 




























Philipstown, Early settlement of, 

Pyroxene, . 

Peat, .... 

Pyritious Copper, 

Primary Rocks, 

Philips's Quarry, 

Peat, Localities of, 


Poughkeepsie, Signers in, 

Pine Hill, . 

Philipse, Mary, Notice of, 

Plymouth Paper, Extract from, 

Putnam Valley, 

Pelton's Pond, 

Peekskill Hollow Creek, 

Pond Hill, . 

Philips Street Chapel, 

Pigeon Men, Notice of, 

Peach Pond, 

Pine Pond, .... 

Patterson, Town of, and early settlement, 

Patterson, Extract from Record, . 

Patterson Village, . . . . , 

Pine Island, ..... 


144, 147 






. 76 


. 118 


. 193 


. 247 


. 250 


. 280 


. 297 


335, 336 


. 341 


Rhinebeck Precinct, Signers in, . . • . .134 

Roads, 83 

Revolutionary Letters, &c, 92 

Revolutionary Pledge, . . . . . . 100 

Romans, Bernard, Engineer, Letter from, to Commissioners, 173 

Robinson's, Col. Beverly, Answer to Commissioners, . 176 

Round Pond, 178 

Robinson House, Description of, . . . * . 178 

Revolutionary Houses in Philipstown, .... 209 

Richards, Mrs., Notice of, 251 

Revolutionary Anecdotes, &c, 226 

Red Mills, 260 

Rattle Hill, 264 

Round Mountain, «, 266 

Revolutionary Houses in Patterson, 343 

Schiller Spar, 
Sulphate of Lime, 

Sulphate of Iron, . 
Serpentine Rock, 




Stony Point, 

Sienite Rock, .... 
Simewog Vein, .... 

Stewart Mine, .... 
Southard's, Capt., Company, 
Sugar Loaf Mountain, 
Sunk Lot, ..... 

Silver Mines, .... 


Smith, Joshua H., Notice of, 

Solpeu Pond, 

Shaw's Lake, .... 
Seacord's Pond, .... 
Southeast town, and early settlement of 

" Extract from Record of, . 
Sodom Corners, .... 
Smalley Hill, 

Talcose Slate. 
Titanium Ore, 
Target Rock, 

Tompkins's Corners, 
Tinker Hill, . 
Turkey Mountain, 
Tone's Pond, 

Under Cliff, 
Vinegar Hill, 

Warren's Landing, 
Whiskey Hill, 
Wood Crag, 
Washington in Love, 
Warren, John, Notice of, 
West Point Foundry, 
Watermelon Hill, 
Watts' Hill, . 
Wixon Pond, 
White Pond, . 

Yellow Sulphuret of Arsenic, 
Zircom, .... 


54, 169