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MDc cixicin. 

113 3 




O F 

Q^U A D R U P E D S. 

Six cutting teeth, and two canine, in each jaw. 

Five toes before; five behind. 

In walking refts on the hind feet, as far as the heel. 


Urfus. PliniiUb. vlii. r. 36. 

A^KT^. Oppian 139. 

Urfus. Ge/ner quad. 94I. Agricofa, Att, 

Suiter. 4S6. Rait fyn. quad. 17 1. 
Niedzvviedz. Rzaczinjki Polon. 225. 
Bar. Klein quad. 82. Schiumcifelt The- 

riotnph. 131. Ridinger Wild. Thiere. 

31. Ara.Zool. i. No. 2?. 

Uifus niger, cauda concolore. BriJJha 

quad. 187. 
Urlus, Cauda abrupta. Lin.fyfi. 69. 
Eicrn. Faun.fuee. No. 19. 
L'Ours. De Euffon, viii. 248. tab. xxxi. 

xxxii. Schreber, cxxxix. cxl. LhEV. 


208. Srowh. 

Bwlth a long head: fmall eyes: fliort ears, rounded at the 
• top: ftrong, thick, and chimfy limbs: very fhort tail: 
large feet: body covered with very long and ftaggy hair, various 
in its color: the largeft of a rufty brown : fome from the confines of 
Rvjfia, black, mixed with white hairs, called by the Germans, filver 
bar ; and fome (but rarely) are found in Tartary of a pure white. 
Vol. II. B Inhabits 

2 BEAR. 

Pt ACE AND Inhabits the north parts of Europe and Jfia, the Alps of Szvitzer- 

Mannsrs. ^^^^^^ ^j^j Dauphine; Arabia'^'-, Japan-\-, and CsylonX; and the 

northern parts oi North America; and extends to the /^^Wfi oi Perw. 
Doctor Shaw informs us, it is alfo found in Barbary. They 
muft have been very plentiful, for Piiny fays that Dcmitius 
jEfiobarbits produced at one of the (hews a hundred Numidian Dears, 
and as many ^//?w/)/a?2 hunters §. The brown bears are fornt-times 
carnivorous, and willdeftroy cattle, and eat carrion; but their general 
food is roots, fruits, and vegetables : will roh the iic'ds of peafe; 
and when they are ripe, pluck great quantitie<- n;-, ; b. ru rlie peafe 
out of the hufks on fome hard place, ear them. ?;:d crrrv off the 
ftraw: they will alfo, during winter, l.>rt<;k i.,io (he farmer's 
yard, and make great havock among his ilick ot o..;s: are par- 
ticularly fond of honey. 

They liveon berries, fruits, and pulfe, of all kinds; and feed much 
on the black mulberry: are remarkably fond of [potatoes, which 
they very readily -dig up with their great |av\:,: make great havock 
in the fields of maiz; and are great lovers of irilk and honey. 
They feed much on herrings, which they catch in the feafjn when 
thofe fifh come in fhoals up the creeks; which gives their flefh a 
difagreeable tafte; and the fmie effedl is oblcrved when they eat 
the bitter berries of the Tupelo. 

Bears ftrike with their tore foot like a cat-, feldom or never 
ufe their mouths in fighting; but feizing the affailant widi their 
paws, and prefling him againft their brcaft, almoft inftantly 
fqueeze him to death. 

The females, after conception, retire into the mod fecret 

• Formal, IV, f Kamffer, Hift. Japan, i. 126. J Knox,Hift. Cey'on. 20. 

§ Lib. viii. c 36. 
8 places j 


places; leafl:, when they bring forth, the males (liould devour the 
young: it is affirmed for fact, that out of the feveral hundred 
bears that are killed in Jmerka, during wmter, (which is their 
breeding feafon) that fcarcely a female is found among * them; fo 
impenetrable is their retreat during their pregnancy: they bring 
two, rarely three, young at a time : the cubs are deformed, but 
not a fliapelefs mafs, to be licked into Qupe, as the antients pre- 
tended f. The cubs even of the brown bears are of a jetty 
blacknefs, and often have round their necks a circle of white. 
The flefh of a bear in autumn, when they are molt exceflively 
fat, by feeding on acorns, and other maft, is moft delicate food; 
and that of the cubs ftill finer ; but the paws of the old bears are 
reckoned the moft exquifite morfel; the fat white, and very 
fweet : the oil excellent for ftrains, and old pains. 

The latter end of autumn, after they have fattened themfelves 
to the greateft degree, the bears withdraw to their dens, where 
they continue for a great number of days in total inacftivity, and 
abftinence from food, having no other nourifliment than what 
they get by fucking their feet, where the fat lodges in great abun- 
dance. In Lapland they pafs the long night in dens lined warmly 
with a vaft bed of mofs, in which they roll themfelves, fecure 
from the cold of the fevere feafon X' Their retreats are either in 
cliffs of rocks ; in the deepeft recefles of the thickeft woods; or 
in the hollows of antient trees, which they afcend and defcend 
with furprizing agility : as they lay in no winter provifions, they 

• Out of 500 bears that were killed in one winter, in two counties of Firgima, 
only two females were found, and thofe not pregnant. Laiujon, 1 17. 

t Hi funt eandiJa informifque caro, faulo munbus major, oaiUs, fiie pilo; 
unguis tantum prominent : hanc lambendo paulatbn figurant, Plinii lib. viii, c. 36. 

X Fl. Lap. 313. The mofs is a variety of the Folytrkhum Commune, 

B 2 are 

'' B. E A R. 

are in a certain fpace of time forced from their retreats by hut^= 
ger, and come out extremely lean : multitudes are killed annu- 
ally in America, for the fake of their flefh, or fkins, which laft. 
makes a confiderable article of commerce. 

209. Blacs. ■'^i-^- ^ool. 2d. Ed. ii. N° ig. 

wlih a long pointed nofe, and narrow forehead : the cheeks. 
1 and throat of a yellovvifli brown color : hair over the whole, 
body and limbs of a gloffy black, tnioother and fliorter than that 
of the European kind. 

They are ufually fmaller than thofe of the old world : yet Mr,. 
Bartram gives an inftance of an old he-bear killed in Florida, which 
was feven feet long, and, as he gueffed, weighed four hundred- 

Thefe animals are found in all parts of North America, from. 
Hudfon's Bay to the fouthern extremity ; but in Louifhina and the 
fouthern parts they appear only in the winter, migrating from, 
the north in fearch of food. They fpread acrofs the northern 
part of the American continent to the Aftatic ifles. They are- 
found in the Kuril/id iflands, which intervene between Kamt' 
fchatka and Japan, Jcfo, Mafima, which lies noxxh. oi Japan, and. 
probably Japan itfclf ; for K^mpfer fays, that a few fmall bears are 
found in the northern provinces. 

It is very certain that this fpecies of bear feeds on vegetables. 
Du Pratz, who is a faithful as well as intelligent writer, relates, 
that in one fevere winter, when thcfe animals were forced in mul- 
titudes from the woods, where there was abundance of animal food, 
they rejeded that, notwithftanding they were ready to pcrilh with 
hunger, and migrating into the lower Lowjiana, would often break 
3 into 


lo/. //./' 

O/' / '//> I f> 


into the courts of houfes. They never touched the butchers meat 
which lay in their way, but fed voracioufly on the corn or roots they 
met with. 

White bear. Martinis ^piijl-erg. lOo. ^//. x.xvi. .^r^. Zoo/, i. No. iS. 2 o P 

EgeieGreer.l.^q Ellis 'voy./^i. Cranlz Urius albus. Marte.fii. Klc n quad. 82. ' ' °^*'^' 

Qreenl. i. 73. Barentz -voy. i 8. 45. La L'Ours blanc. hrijjcn quad. ib8. De Buf. 

Hontan voy. i. 23 J. Caujly Carolina, /««. xv. i2 8.irirt'^^j cxli. Li v. Mus. 

with long head and neck : (hort round ears : end of the 
I nofe black : vaft teeth ; hair long, foft, white, tino-ed in 
fome parts with yellow: limbs of great fize and ftrength : grows 
to a vafl fize: the fkins of fome are thirteen feet long. 

This animal is confined to the coldeft part of the globe : it Place. 

has been found as far as navigators have penetrated northwards, 
above iat. 80. The frigid cliiiiates only feem adapted to its na- 
ture. It is unknown, except on the fhores oi Hudfon's Bay, Greeit- 
land, and Spitzbergen. The north of Norzvay, and the country of 
Me/en,, in the north of Rujfta, are deftitute of them: but they 
are met with again in great abundance in Nova Zemhla, and from 
the river Ob, along the Siberian coaft, to the mouths of the Je- 
nefei, and Lena, but are never feen far inland, unlefs they lofe 
their way in mills ; none are found in Kamtjlhatka, or its iflands. 

They have been feen as far ibuth as Newfoundland; but they 
are not natives of that country, being only brought there acciden- 
tally on the iflands of ice. 

During; fummer the white bears are either refident on i/lands 7,t 

° . . ' MANNERIi 

of ice, or pafling frona one to another: they f«ii,n ad-mirably, and 



can continue that exercife* fix or feven leagues; and dive with 
great agility. They bring two young at a time : the affedtion 
between the parents and them is fo flrong, that they would die ra- 
ther than'defert one another. Their winter retreats are under 
the fnowf , in which they form deep dens, fupported by pillars 
of the fame, or elfe under fome great eminence beneath the fixed 
ice of the frozen fea. 

They feed on fifli, feals, and the carcafes of whales; and on 
human bodies, which they will greedily difinter: they feem very 
fond of human blood; and are io fearlefs as to attack companies 
of armed men, and even to board fmall veflels. When on land, 
they live on birds, and their eggs; and, allured by the fcent of 
the feals flelh, often break into and plunder the houfes of the 
Greenlanders: their greateft enemy in the brure creation is the 
Morfe\, with whom they have terrible conflicls, but are ge- 
rally worfted ; the vaft teeth of the former giving it a fupe- 

The flelh Is white, and faid to tafte like mutton: the fat is 
melted for train oil, and that of the feet ufed in medicine ; but 
the liver is very unwholefome, as three of Barentz\ lailors expe- 
rienced, who fell dangeroufly ill on eating fome of it boiled. 

One of this fpecies was brought over to England, a few years 
ago: it was very furious, almoft always in motion, roared loud, 
and feemed very uneafy, except when cooled by having pail-fulls 
of water poured on it. 

CallLxenus Rhodius^, in his defcripti'-'n of the pompous pro- 

• La Hontan,\. f Egede, ko. X Ege^/e, Greeal. 60. Sj, 

§ As quoted by Athcnaus, lib. v. /. soi. 


BEAR. y 

ceffion of Ptolemaus Vhihddphus at Alexandria, fpeaks of one 

great white Bea)\ A^xtcj Aeuxd ^lyuXn [aix, among other wild beads 

that graced the fhcw: nowitliftanding the local fuuation of this 

fpecles at piefent, it is poTible that Ptolemy might procure one; 

whether men could penetrate, in thofe early times, as far as the 

prefent refidence of thefe Jrdic animals, I will not venture to 

affirm, nor to deny; but fince my friend, the Hon. Dailies Bar- 

rinpon*, has clearly proved the intenfe cold that in former ages 

raged in countries now more than temperate, it is irroft probable 

that in thofe times they were flocked with animals natuial to a 

rigorous climaEe; which, fince the alteration, have neceflarily 

become extindt in thofe parts: the Polar bear might have been 

one; but that it was the fpecies meant by CaUixemis is clear to 

me, by the epithet'fliXn, ot great, which is very applicable to 

it; for the white Tartarian land bear (which Ptolemy might very 

eafily procure) differs not in fize from the black or brown kind, 

but the bulk of the other is quite charaderiftic. 

Land bears, fometimes fpotted with white; at other times ^ ^'^° 

' . Land bears, 

•wholly white; are fometimes obferved on the parrs of Rujfia 

bordering on Siberia, in a wandering llate, fuppofed to have flrayed 
out of the lofty fnowy mountains, which divide the two coun- 
tries "t". 

* Phil. Tranf. vol. Iviii. f. 58. f Doftor Pallas. 


B E A r; 

MI WoLVER-NE Quickhatch Caujly Carolina, App.xv.'x. plagaque laterall corporis. Un.fyp. 

Carcajou, or Quickhatch. Dvbbs Hud- 71. A^a. Zool. i. N° 21. 

/c?i'j By, 40. Urfus. Trcti Hudj'onh. U. caftanei co- 

Qiiickhalch, or Wolverene. Ellis Hud- loris, cauda unicolore, loftro pedi- 

fons Hay, 42. Clerk's voy. ii. 3. bufque fufcis. BriJ/on quad. 188, 

£,/-.(.-. 103. Schrcka-, cxliv. 

Urfjs lufcus. U. Cauda elongata, cor- Le Glouton. De Buffon, Supplem. iii. 

pore ferrugineo, rollro fufco, fronte 244. Lev. Mus. 

with a black (liarp-poinred vifage: fliort rounded ears, al- 
• moft hid in the hair; hairs on the head, baclc, and belly, 
reddifh, with black tips, fo that thofe parts appear, on iirft 
fight, quite black; .fides of a yellowifh brown, which pafles in 
form of a band quite over the hind part of the back, above tlie 
tail: on the throat a white fpot: on the breaft a white mark, in 
form of a crefcent : legs very ftrong, thick and ihort, of a deep 
black: five toes on each foot*, not deeply divided j on the fore 
foot of that I examined were fome white fpots: the bottom of 
the feet covered very thickly with hair: refts, like the bear, on its 
foot, as far as the firft joint of the leg; and walks with its back 
greatly arched : claws ftrong and Qiarp, white at their ends: tail 
cloathed with long coarfe hairs; thofe at the bafe reddifli, at the 
end black: fome of the hairs are fix inches long: length from nofe 

• Mr. Edv:a-di obferved only four toes on the fore feet of the animal he de- 
fcribes. My defcription is taken from an entire ikin, in x&ry fine prefervation, 
communicated to me by the late Mr JJhton Blackburne, of Oxford, Lancajhirt, 
who, with indefatigable indiiftry and great judgment, enriched the cabinets of 
kis friends with the rareft natural produdions of that continent : as this work 
has profited fo greatly by that gentleman's labors, it would be ungrateful to 
jsniit my acknowkgements, 




to tail twenty-eight inches : length of the trunk of the tail 
feven inches, but the hairs reach fix beyond its end: the tail in 
Mr. Eihvivds's figure not quite accurate: it is coiTedled in that 
which is borrowed from his admirable work. The whole body 
is covered with very long and thick hair, which varies in color, 
according to the feafon. 

Inhabits HuJfoni-Bay, and Canada, as far as the ftraights of 

A moft voracious animal : flow of foot, fo is obliged to take 
its prey by furprize : in America is called the Beaver-Eater, for 
it watches thofe animals as they come out of their houfes, and 
fometimes breaks into their habitations, and devours them. 

In a wild ftate is vaftly fierce,- a terror to both wolf and bear, 
which will not prey on it when they find it dead*, perhaps on 
account of its being fo very foetid, fmelling like a pole-cat: 
makes a ftrong refinance when attacked; will tear the flock from 
the gun, and pull the traps it is caught in to pieces: burrows f, 
and has its den under ground. Mr Graham, long refident in 
HndfoniBay, has afTured me, that it will lurk on a tree, and drop 
on the deer wJiich pafs beneath, and faften on them till the animals 
are quite exhaufted. 

Charlevoix, in Hijl. Nonv. France, v. 1S9, gives the name of 
this animal (Carcajou) to our 189th fpecies, the Puma, or Brown 
Panther of N. America. 

* Clerk California, il. 3. \ La Hovtan's woy. i. 62. 

Vol. II. C In 



In conformity to the opinion of that refpeftable naturalift 
Doftor Pallas, 1 unite the fVoolverene and Glutton. I do not alter 
my defcripiion of the latter ; but add both t'lat and the fynonymsj 
fubmitting to future times the propriety or impropriety of uniting 
thefe animals: there being diftinctions that even now leave me 
very undetermined. 

212. Glutton. Gulo. Olaii Magni gent . Septentr. 138. 
Gulo, vielfrafs. Ge/ner quad. 554. Klein 

quad. 8 J. tab. v. 
Rofomak. Rzaczhjki Psion. 2l8. Bell's 

Ira-vels, i. 235. 
Muller's Rufs Samlung, iii. 549, 550. 

RitchkoffTofogr. Orenb. \. 295. 
Jerf, ¥\e\Afrois. Strom Sondmor. 1^2. Pon- 

top. Noriuay,i\, 22. Scheffer's Lapland, 


Hyaena. BriJ/in quaJ. i6g. Tjbrandti Idtt 

Tra<v. Harris's Coll. ii. 923. 
Mullela gulo M. pedibus fiffis, corpore 

rufo-lufco, medio dorfinigro. Lin. Jjft, 

67. Timmerman. 3 1 1. 
Jarf, Filfrels. Faun.fuec. No. 14. 
Jserven. Gwmer's A^. Vidros, iii. 143. 

tab. iii. 
Le Glutton. De Buffon, xiii. 278. 


T) with a round head: thick blunt nofe : fhort ears, rounded, 
•*^* except at the tip: limbs large: back ftrait; marked the 
whole length with a tawny line: tail fhort and very full of 
hair: the hair in all other parts black, finely dama/ked or 
watered like a filk, and very glolly-, but fometimes varies into 
a browner color. Klein attributes to it five toes on each foot: 
that which Mr. Zimmerman defcribes, had but four, very thickly 
covered with hair. 

The length of one which was brought from Siberia, and kept 

alive at Drefden, wa« a yard and eight inches : the height from 

the top of the head was nineteen inches. Mr. Zimmerma't de- 

8 fcribes 


fcribes another, rather leffer than the former, which was fhot near 
Helmjledt, in Wolfenbuttle. Its length was three feet three: its 
height before fifteen inches-, behind, fixteen : the tail fix inches. 

Inhabits Lff/i/d'W, the northern and eaftern parts of 5/M7-3, and Place. 

Kavitfchatka. Thofe oi Kamtfchatka differ, and vary to white and 
yellowiOi, and their ikins are efteeined by the natives before the 
black: they fay, that the heavenly beings wear no other garments. 
The women wear the paws of the white fort in their hair : and efteem 
a fkin as the moft valuable prefent which their hiifbands or lovers 
can make. 

They are exceflively voracious; that which was confined at 
Drefden would eat thirteen pounds of flefh in a day, and not be 
fatisfied. The report of their filling themfelves fo full, as to 
be obliged to go between two trees to force out part of the food, 
feems to be fabulous. 

Like the Lynx, it lurks on the boughs of trees, and will fall 
on any animal which paffes by, faften on, and deftroy it. Its 
game is chiefly deer ; and about the Lena, horfes. Is capable of 
being made tame. 

It differs from the bear by its lean habit ; by not lying in- 
aflive in winter; and by its living entirely on animal food. It is 
alfo more bold, voracious, and cunning. 

The Rvjftans call it Rofomak; the Kamifchathans, Timmi; and 
the Koratjki, Haeppi. An animal, called by the Greenlanders, 
/^ma7iki, is faid to be found in their countrj^, which is fuppofed 
to be the Glutton; but as Greenland is deftitute of wood, I fiip- 
pofe tlieir Amanki, or Amarok, to be a fabulous animal*. 

• See Craiitz HiJ). Greenland. 

C a Raccoon 




2 1 ^. Raccoon. Rnccoon. lav./on Caro/ina, 12I. Catef- 

by Carolina, Apf. xxix. 

Mapach, feu animal cunfta prxtentante 

manibus. Hernandez, Nov, HiJ'p. i. 

Viercmbcrg. 175- 

Vulpi aiHnis Americana. Eail fy?!, quad. 

179. Sloatie Jamaica, ii. 339. 
Coati. Worm. Muj. J19. 
Coati. Urfus Cauda annulatim varie- 

grata. Brijjmi quad. iSg. 
Urfus Lotor. U. Cauda annulata, fafcia 

per oculos tranfverfali nigra. Lirr. 

JyP. 70. Ara. Zool. i. N" 2 7. 
Le Raton, be Buffon, viii. 337. tab. 

xliii. Schrebsr, cxliii. 
Raccoon. Kalm's Travels. Forjlers Tr, 

i. 96. 208. tab, II. Lev. IVlus. 

T> with a fliarp-pointed black nofe : upper jaw the longer: 
"*^' ears fliort, and rounded: eyes furrounded with two broad 
patches of black: from the forehead to the nofe a dufky line: 
face, cheeks, and chin, white: upper part of the body covered 
with hair, afli-colored at the root, whitifli in the middle, and tipt 
with black: tail very bulhy, annulated with black: toes black, 
and quite divided. Sometimes this animal varies: I have feen 
one entirely of cream color*. 
Vlace. Inhabits the warm and temperate parts oi America: found alfo 

in the mountains of Jamaica, and in the ifles of Maria, between 
the S. point of Califonua and Cape Corientes, in the S. Seaf : an 
animal eafily made tame; very good-natured and fportive, but as 
unlucky as a monkey; almoll always in motion; very ir.quifitive, 
examining every thing with its paws; makes ufe of them as 
hands: fits up to eat: is extremely fond of fweet things, and 
ftrong liquors, and will get exceflively drunk: has all the cun- 
ning of a fox : very deftruftive to poultry ; but will eat all forts 

Lev. Mus. 

•f- D ampler' s nioy. i. 276. 


BEAR. 13 

of fruits, green corn, he: at low water feeds much on oyfters ; 
will watch their opening, and wiih its paw fnatch out the filh; 
fometimes is caught in the fliell, and kept there till drowned 
by the coming in of the tide : fond alfo of crabs : climbs very 
nimbly up trees: hunted for its fliin; the fur next to that of the 
beaver, being e::cellent for making hats. 

WhiT^poui Row. White's Sot. Bay, 278. 214. New 


T3 of the fame external form as the American Raccoon except the 
"^-^^ ears, which are pointed: fix cutting teeth in the upper jaw; 
two ? in the lower: back of a dark grey ; growing lighter on the 
fides: belly of a fine brown: tail as long as the body, covered with 
longhair; the lower part near the end is naked, and has a pre- 
henfile quality like fome fpecies of monkies, or the common O/o/^ • 

Inhabits Ne'vo Holland. Place. 



XXr. BADGER. Six cutting teeth, two canine, in each jaw. 

Five toes before, five behind: very long flrait claws On the 

fore feet. 
A tranfverfe orifice between the tail and the anus. 

215. Common. Meles. PMi lib. viii. c. 38. Gefner quad. 183. 

quaJ. 327. Le Blaireau, ou Taifon. De Bujin, 

Meles, five Taxus. Raiijyn. quad. 185. viii. 104. tab. vii. 

Meles, Taxus, Taflus, Blerellus; Jaz- Urfus meles U. cauda concolore, cor- 

wiec, Borfuk. Rzaczir,Jk! Polon. 233. poreiupra oinereo, fubtus nigro, faf- 

Coati cauda brevi, Coati grileus. Tax- cia longitudi.iali per oculos aurefque 

us, Meles, Tax. Klein quad. 73. nigra. Lin.Jyfl. 70. 

Dachs. Kramir Aufir. ix-^. Meles unguibus anticis longiffimis. 

Meles pilis ex fordide albo et nigro va- Graf-fuin. Faun./uec. No. 20. Br. 

riegatis veftita, capite tjeniis alterna- Zaol. i. 64. Br. Zool. illujlr. tab. Hi. 

tim albis et nigris variegate. Briffon Schreber,z.yX\\. Lev. Mus. 

"O with fmall eyes: Ihort rounded ears: fhort thick neck; 
^~'* with nofe, chin, lower fides of the cheeks, and middle of 
the forehead, white : ears and eyes inclofed in a pyramidal bed of 
black: hairs on the body long and rude; their bottoms a yellow- 
iih white, middle black, ends afli- colored : throat, breaft, belly, 
and legs black: tail covered with long hairs, colored like thofe 
on the body ; legs very fhort and thick : claws on the fore feet 
very long: a fcetid white matter exudes from the orifice beneath 
ihe tail: animal of a very clumfy make. 
Size. The length is commonly two feet fix inches from the nofe to 

the origin of the tail; of the tail fix inches: the weight from fif- 
teen to thirty four pounds. The laft is rare ; but 1 met with, in 
the winter of 1779, a male of that weight. 



Inhabits moll parts of Europe, as far north as Norway*, and 
Rujfia; and the Jlep or defert beyond Orenburgh, in the Riijia/i 
yi/tatic dominions; in Great Tartary, and in Siheria about the river 
Toftiy and even about the Lena, but none in the north ; inhabits 
alfo China, and is often found in the butchers iliops in Tekin, the 
Chinefe being fond of them-f-. A fcarce animal in moft countries: 
feldom appears in the day; confines itfelf much to its hole: is 
indolent and fleepy: generally very fat: feeds by night j eats 
roots, fruits, grafs, infefts, and frogs : not carnivorous: its flefh 
makes good bacon : runs flowly ; when overtaken comes to bay, 
and defends itfelf vigoroufly: its bite hard and dangerous : bur- 
rows under ground, makes feveral apartments, bat forms only one 
entrance from the furface: hunted during night, for the fkin, 
which ferves for piftol furniture; the hair, for making bruflies to 
foften the fhades in painting. The divifion of this fpecies into 
two, viz. the fwine and the dog badger, unneceffary, there being 
only one» 

j^ra. Zool. i. No. 23. g. American. 

T) vvith a white line from the tip of the nofe, paffing between 
•*-'• the ears, to the beginning of the back, bounded on each fide, 
as far as the hind part of the head, with black, then by a white one, 
and immediately between that and the ears is another of black : 
hair long: back colored like that of the common badger: fides 
yellowifh: belly cinereous: thighs dufky: tail covered with long 
dirty yellow hairs, tipped with white; the end dufky. 

• Pontop. h'Jl. Norway, ii. 28. f Bell's travels, ii. 83. 



The legs were wanting in the flvin I took my defcription from. 
yi. dc Bi'ffon's defcription, taken from a ftuffcd nninial* brought 
from Terra di Libradcr^ will fiipply that dete<fl : he fays there 
were only four toes on the fore teet; but he fufpefls (as 1 ima- 
gine was the cafe) that the fifth might have been rubbed otf in 

Defcribcd from a fkin from Hi;dJons-2jy, found in a furrier's 
fliop in London: it was Icfs than that of the Ru.rcpean badu'cr: 
the furrier faid, he never met with one before from that country. 
Kalm-\- fays, he faw the European badger in the province of Fcn- 
fyhvania, where it is called xhQ Ground Hog 'I; and this proves to 
be no other, varying very little troni it. 

ai6. Indian. "TJ with a fmall head, and pointed nofe : fcarcely any external 
■^* ears; only a fmall prominent rim round the orifice, which 
was oval : color of the nofe and face, a little beyond the eyes, 
black: crown, upper part of the neck, the back, and upper part 
of the tail, white, inclining to grey : legs, thighs, breaft, belly, 
fides, and under part of the tail black. 

Five toes on each foot; the inner fmall ; claws very long and 
Size.- Length from nofe to tail about two feet; tail four inches: 

hair Ihort and fmooth. 

* He calls it Le Carcpjou. Suppl. iii. 242. tab. xlix. 
t Kalm's travels, Forfer\^ iranjl. i. i8g. 

X M. BriJfcH defcribes a white Badger, with a yellowifli white bell}', and alfo 
much inferior in fize to that oi Europe, which M. Reaumur received from NewTork. 
Vide Eri£'(.n quad. 185. 



Inhabits India: feeds on flelh : is playful, lively, and good- Place. 

natured : fleeps rolled up, with its head between its hind legs; 
fleeps little in the day : refufed all commerce with the Engli/J} 
badger which was turned to it, and lived fome time in the fame 
place : climbs very readily over a divilion in its cage. 

Vol. II. D Two 



XX[[. OPOS- 

Two canine teeth in each jaw. 

Cutting teeth unequal in number in each jaw*. 

Five toes on each foot: hind feet formed like a hand, with a 

diftindl thumb. 
Tail very long, flender, and ufually naked. 

217. Virginian. Tlaquatzin. HemarJez Mex. ^^o. Nie- 1^^. Cafe/iyCaroH/ta, /^ffi.xxix. Pccl>e- 
rem.'erg, p. 136. and fig. 136. /'art Att les, i. 283. 

Tajibi. Mwc^rave BrafiL 222. I aii fyn. Fara, ou Ravall ? Gumilla, Orenoqut, iii. 

quad. 182. 18^, 
Scnii-vulpa. GeJ'her quad. 870. Icon. An. 

Opoilum. ph. Tr. alrUg. ii. 884. tah. 

xiii; iii. 593; and v. i6q. liy.Law- 

JOH Caro 'ini\, 120. lie-verity' i Firgmiti, 

238. Jra. Zool. i. No. 24. 
Le Manicou. Feuilkeobf. Peru. iii. 206, 
Wood-rat. Du Praiz Lcwjiana, ii. 6,. 
Didclphii marfupialis. D mammis odio 

intra abdomen .? fyji. 71. Amaen, 

Aciid.? i. 561. Lev. Mus. 

Owith long fliarp- pointed nofe : large, round, naked, and 
• very thin ears, black, edged with pure white: fmall, 
black, lively eyes: long fiiff hairs each (ide the nofe, and behind 
the eyes : face covered with fliort foft white hairs : fpace round 
the eyes dufky : neck very (hort; its fides of a dirty yellow: 
hind part of the neck and the back covered with hair above two 
inches long; foft, but uneven ; the bottoms of a yellowifh white, 
middle part black, ends whitiQi: fides covered with dirty and 
dufky Lairs; belly, with foft, woolly, dirty white hair: legs and 
thighs black : feet dufky: claws white: bafe of the tail clothed 
with long hairs, like thofe on the back ; reft of the tail covered 

• This fpecies has eight cutting teeth in each jaw. Tyfin. 




■^/i/fT'/i CyiopH^?ny e. 4. 'Zf7. 

O P O S S U M. TQ 

with fmall ftales j ihe half next the body black, the reix white ; 
it has a difagreeabie appearance, looking like the body of a 
fnake, and has the fame prehenfile quality as that of fome mon- 
kies: body round, and very t'aick: legs (hort: on the lower part 
of the belly of the female is a large pouch, in which the teats are 
lodged, and where the young fhelter as foon as they are born. 

The ufual length of the animal is, from the tip of the nofe to Size. 

the bafe of the tail, about twenty inches; of the tail twelve inches. 

Inhahks Firginia, Lou'ifiaim, Mexico, Brafil, zwAPeru: is very Place. 

deflrudive to poultry, and fucks the blood without eating the 
f.efh : feeds alfo on roots and wild fruits : is very adtive in climb- 
ing trees: will hang fufpended from the branches by its tail, and, 
by fwinging its body, fling itfelf among the boughs of the neigh- 
bouring trees; continues frequently hanging with its head down- 
wards: hunts eagerly after birds and their nefls: walks very Manners. 
flow: when purfued and overtaken, will feign itfelf dead: not 
eafily killed, being as tenacious of life as a cat: when the female 
is about to bring forth, flie makes a thick neft of dry grafs in 
fome clofe bufh at the foot of a tree, and brings four, five^ or fix 
young at a time. 

As foon as the young arc brought forth, they take fhelter in the False eelly- 
pouch, or falfe belly, and fallen fo clofely to the teats, as not to 
be feparated without difficulty: they are blind, naked, and very 
fmall when new-born, and referable /^//(/e'i.- it is therefore necef- 
fary that they fliould continue there till they attain a perfe(5t 
fliape, ftrength, fight, and hair; and are prepared to undergo 
what may be called a fecond birth: after which, they run into 
this pouch as into an afylum, in time of danger ; and the parent 
carries them about with her. During the time of this fecond 

D 1 geflation. 


gcHation, tlie female fliews an exccflive attachment to her young, 
and will fufi'er any torture rather than permit this receptacle to 
be opened; for fhe has power of opening or ciofing it by the 
affiftance of fome very ftrong mufcles. 

The flefli of the old animals is very good, like that of a fuck- 
ing pig: the hair is dyed by the Indian women, and wove into 
garters and girdles: the ik'm is very foetid. 

M. de Bnffon feems not to be acquainted with this animal, but 
has comj:iled an account of its manners, and collefted the fyno- 
nyms of it. The figures * which he has given belong to the fol- 
lowing fpecies, as docs the defcription. 

iS. Molucca. Cirigue, ou Saragoy. Z>^ iac/, 48J. Philander orlentalis femina. Scli. Maf. 

Ciirigueya. Marcg'a've, IZ'^. i. 6r. tab. x\K\'\.Jig. i. z. xxxviii. 

Mus iMarfiipialis, Beutel ratze. Klein fg. i. 

y;.'i3i'. 59. Sarigue, ou rOpolTiim. De "B ffoi, i,\\, 

Vulpes major putoria cauda tereti & gla- x. tal. Ixv. Ixvi. Schiebir, c.vlvi. A. 

.bra? Barrel e France j^jiiin. i6b, B. Lev. Mds. 

with long, oval, and naked ears: mouth very wide : over 
• each eye is an oblong fpot of white: lower fide of the upper 
jaw, throat, and belly, of a whitifn afli-color: rell of the hair of 
a cinereous brown, tipt with tawny, darkefi on the back: tail 
long as the body; near the bafe covered with hair, the reft naked: 
claws hooked. 

On the belly of the female is a pouch, in which the young 
(like thofe ot the former) flielter. Man^rave found fix young 
within the pouch of the Carigi'.cya, which I confider as the fame 
animal. It had ten cutting teeth above, and eight below. 

* The figure in the firll edition was very indiiFurent, I have therefore changed 
it for tlie very failliful one in the Phil. Tra'-f. 

J Length 


Length frcm nofe to tail, ten inches. The tail exceeds the Size. 

length of head and body. Its whole figure is of a much more 
Hender and elegant make than the former. 

The tail pulverifed, and taken in a glafs of water, is reckoned 
in Nezi' Spain a fovereign remedy againft the gravel, colic, and fe- 
veral other difordcrs. 

This genus is not confined to America, as M. ^i; Bufon fup- Place. 

pofes; who combats the opinion of other naturalirts on this 
fubjedt with much warmth : but the authority of Pifo, Vakntyn, 
and of L^ Bruyn, who have feen it both in y.iva and in the Mo- 
lucca IJlcs, and of numbers of coUedors in HoVuind, who receive 
it frequently from thofe pLircs. This and N" 219 are proofs of 
what I advance. It is alfo met with in Neiv Holland. 

This fpecies is found in great numbers in Aoe and Solor : It is 
called in the Indies, Pcla?idor Jroe, or the Arc^e Rabbet. They are 
reckoned very delicate eating; and are very common at the ta- 
bles of the Great, who rear the young in the fame places in which 
they keep their rabbets. It inhabits alio Suilnam, and the hot 
parts oi America. 

j'f/'^z figures and defcribes, in his i ft vol. 64. tab. xxxix, an «. Greater. 
Opoflum under the name of Philander maximus orientalii fx- 
mina. It has a pouch like the former: is much larger ; feems to ' 
have a longer and more flender tail: has broader cars; has a 
dufky fpot over each eye, and is of a darker color. It feeds on 
fruits: was brought from Ambolna, where it is called Cocs Coes*. 

* Jn Indih orkntalibus, iiquc folum, quantum haSlenu: conjiat, in Amhoina, /imit'is 
Beflia (Carigueya) frequem ad ftlis magnhudinem accedeas, maQa'a ah incolis co- 
meditur, Ji rite frepurelur, ),am alias futet. homea illi Cous Cous inditum. Pifo 
Indin, 3:3. 

I am 



I am unacquainted with this fpecies, fo leave thefe two conjoined 
till I receive fuller information. 

Much is wanted to complete the natural hlRory of this genus. 

219. JavaN. Filander. le Erujn wy. Eajr Indies, ii. lOi. tab. ccxiii. EJ. Angl, 


(according to Le Briiyns figure) with a narrow fox-like 
head : upright pointed ears : a brown ftripe paffing through 
the eyes : fore legs very fhort : five toes on the fore feetj three 
only on the hind, two of which are very ftrong; the outmoft 
flender and weak; and found on difTeilion to confifl: internally of 
two bones, clofely united, with two weak claws burfling out of 
the Ikin*: tail thick, (hotter than the body. 

In the upper jaw are fix cutting teeth ; in the lower two, 
which are formed like thofe of fquirrels: no canine teeth f. 

On the belly is a complete pouch, like the Firginian kind: 
hair on the body rude : face feemingly that of a hare. 
PtACK. Difcovered firft by Mr. Le Bruyn, who faw in Java feveral in 

an inclofure along with rabbets : they burrowed like them ; 
leaped in their pace; preferved their young in the pouch, which 
would often peep out when the old ones were ftill. 

The fidelity of Le Bruyn ^ figure has been fince confirmed by 
the fpecimens fent from Java into Holland. 

• Pallas in aft. acad. Petrop. fars ii. 229. tat, ix*. f The fame. 



Mus fylveftris Ameiicanus .Vra/';/i?.t die- cantibus. Br'Jfon quad. ii\. 220. MuRl wE. 

tus. Seb. MuJ. i. 46. tub. xxxi.Ji^. Didelphis murina. D. cauda femipilofa, 

1.2. mammis i'enis. Lin./yfl. -jz. 

Philander faturate fpadiceus in dorfo. La Marmofe. De B'ffon, x. 336. tai. 

in ventre dilute flavus, pedibus albi- lii. liii. ichrebir, cxlix. 

Owith long broad ears, rounded at the end, thin and naked : 
• eyes encompafled with black: face, head, and upper part 
of the body, of a tawny color: the belly yellowifli white: the 
feet covered with (hort whitilh hair: toes forirned like thofe of the 
Ftrglman: tail flender, covered with minute fcales, from the tip 
to within two inches of the bafe, which are cloathed with hair. 
Length from nofe to tail, about eight inches; tail of the fame 
length: the female wants the falfe belly of the former; but, on the 
lower part, the (kin forms on each fide a fold, betweeen which the 
teats are lodged. 

This fpecses varies in color: I have feen one from Guiana, 
brown above, white beneath. 

Inhabits the hot parts of South America : agrees with the others 
in its food, manners, and the prehenfile powers of its tail : it 
brings from ten to fourteen young at a time ; at left, in fome fpe- 
cies, there are that number of teats: the young affix themfelves 
to the teats as foon as they are born, and remain attached, like 
fo many inanimate things, 'ciil they attain growth and vigor to 
Ihift a little for themfelves. 



221. Mexican. Ca.yo'poWm. HeDiatidez Nov. H!/p. lo. ventre ex albo flavlcans, Cauda ex fatu- 

Animal caudimanum. Nierembn-g, 158. rate fpadiceo maculata. Brijjfon quad'. 

Mus Jfricanus Kayopollin diftus, mas, 212. Schreier, cxU'm. 

Seb. Ml'/, lab. xxxi. Jig. 3. Le Cayopollin. De Buffon, x, 350. tab. 

Philander faturate fpa^ceus in dorfo, in Iv. Lev. Mus. 

Owith large, angular, naked, and tranfparent ears : nofe- 
• thicker than that of the former kind : vvhiflters very large : 
a flight border of black furrounds the eyes : face of a dirty white, 
with a dark line running down the middle : the hairs on the head, 
and upper part of the body, afh-colored at the roots ; of a deep 
tawny brown at the tips: legs duflcy : claws white: belly dull 
cinereous : tail long, and pretty thick, varied with brown and. 
yellow: is hairy near an inch from its origin;, the reft naked; 
length, from nofe to tail, about nine inches; the tail the length 
of the body and head. 

Inhabits the mountains of Mexico.- lives in trees, where It 
brings forth its young : when in any fright, they embrace their 
parent clofely: the tail is prehenfile, and ferves inftead of a 

2J2. Cayenne. Le Crabier. De Biifon, Suppkm. iii. 272. 

Canis ferus major, Cancrofus vulgo diftus. Kouparn. Barren France MquinoSl. 149. 

with a long flender face : ears ereft, pointed, and fhort: the 

I coat woolly, mixed with very coarfe hairs, three inches 

long, of a dirty white from the roots to the middle; from thence 

to the ends of a deep brown : fides and belly of a pale yellow: 

legs of a dufky brown: thumb on each foot diflind: on the toes 



of the fore feet, and thumb of the hind, are nails ; on the toes 
of the hind feet crooked claws : tail very long, taper, naked, 
and fcaly. 

Length feventeen French inches : of the tail fifteen and a half. 
The fubjedt meafured was young. 

Inhabits Cayenne: very adive in climbing trees, on which It 
lives the whole day. In marlhy places, feeds on crabs, which, 
when it cannot draw out of their holes with its feet, hooks them by 
means of its long tail. If the crab pinches its tail, the animal fets 
up a loud cry, which may be heard afar : its common voice is a 
grunt like a young pig. It is well furnifhed with teeth, and will 
defend itfelf ftoutly againft dogs : brings forth four or five young, 
which it fecures in fome hollow tree. The natives eat thefe animals, 
and fay their flelh refembles a hare. They are eafily tamed, and 
will then refufe no kind of food. 

•^ with the upper part of the head, and the back and fides, 223. Nrw- TTt^t- 
^-^* covered with long, foft, glofly hairs, of a dark cinereous , " '' ' 

color at the bottoms, and of a rufty brown towards the ends : 
belly of a dirty white. 

Tail taper, covered with fhort brown hairs, except for four 
inches and a half of the end, which was white, and naked under- 
neath : toes like the former. 

The fkin I examined had loft part of the face : the length from 
the head to the tail was thirteen inches : the tail the fame. 

This was found near Endeavour river, on the eaftern coaft of 
Vol. II E Ne:o 


l<Je'W Holland, with two young ones *, It lodges in the grafs, but 
is not common. 

224. Vulpine- StocMah^s Bet. Bay, i^q. 

/~\ with very long whiikers : ears erefV, and pointed : upper 
^^* parts of the body greyiQi, mixed with duiky and white 
hairs, tinged with rufous : the laft predominates about the flioul- 
ders : all the under fide of the neck and body of a tawny buff; 
about a quarter of the tail, next to the body, of the fame 
color with the back ; the reft black : length from the tip of the 
nofe to the tail, two feet two inches : the tail fifteen. 
Inhabits Nezv Holland. 

225. Short- yim^yUt&iis Americana, foemina, Seb. trehelvus, cauda brevi craffa, BnJJbn 

TAILED, Rh/.'i. ^o. tab.xxxi. quaii, Zl^. Schreler,t\\. 

Philander obfcure rufus in dorfo, in ven- 

/^ with naked ears: the back of a dull red; belly of a paler: 
^^' tail fcarce half the length of the body; thick at the bafe, 
leffening towards the end : no falfe belly. 

\nh2i\n\.% South America: the young adhere to the teats as fooii 
as born. Seba fays it lives in woods, and brings from nine to 
twelve young at a time. 

* CeolCs 'voy, ili 586. 


O P O S S U M. 

Philanderexrufoluteus in dorfo, in ventre fg. ^. Klein quaJ. ^'5. 226. Phalange r- 

ex flavoalbicans, capite ci-dlTo. BrJJln Le Phalanger. De Buffo':, xiii. <)z. tab, 
quad. 213. S.b.Muf. i. ^o, tab, xxx\. x. .\i. Schrelcr, cXli. 

r~\ with a thick nofc: flioit ears, covered with hair: eight 
^^ • cutting teeth in the upper jaw; two in the lower ; hair oa 
the upper part of the body reddifla, mixed with light afli-color, 
and yellow : the hind part of the head, and middle of the back, 
marked with a black line: the throat, belly, legs, and part of the 
tail, of a dirty yellowiih white; the reft of the tail brown and 
yellow: the body of the female marked with white: the firft and 
fecond toes of the hind feet clofely united : the claws large : the 
thumb on the hind feet diftinft, like that of the other fpecies: 
the bottom of the tail is covered with hair, for near two inches 
and a half; the reft naked : the length, from nofe to tail, near 
nine inches; the tail ten. 

This fpecies inhabits the Enji Indian iflands, as I am informed Place. ' 

by Do6tor Pallas ; nor is it found in Surinam, as M. dc Buffon 

De zak, of Beurs Rot. Mrr/<7» /^<??. 5'«- Mus {ylve^ris jimencanus, catulos in 227, Merian*. 

rinam. 66. tab. Ixvi. dorfo gerens. Klein quad. ;8. 

Mus fylvellris Americana. Seb. Muf, i. Didelphis dorfigera. D. caudabafi pilofa 

49. tab. xxxA.fg. 5. corpore longiore, digitis manuum mu- 

Philander ex rufo helvus in dorfo, in ticis. Lit. lyp. 72. 

ventre ex flavo albicans. Br'sff^n quad. Le Philandre de Surinam. De Buffon, x\. 

212. 157. Mus. Lev. 

1^ with long, fliarp-pointed, naked ears : head, and upper part 
V*^* of the body, of a yellowifh brown color: the belly white, 

* From Merian, a German paintrefs, who firft difcovered the fpecies at Surinam, 
E 2 tinged 


tinged wltk yellow : the fore feet divided into five fingers ; the 
hind into four, and a thumb, each furniflied with flat nails : tail 
very long, flender, and, except at the bafe, quite naked. 
Size. The length, from nofe to tail, is ten inches. The tail exceeds 

the length of the body and head. 

Inhabits Surinam: burrows under ground: brings five or fix 
young at a time, which follow their parent : on any apprehenfion 
of danger, they all jump on her back, and twilling their tails 
round her's, ihe immediately runs with them into her hole. 


228, FlyinC. Flying Oporfum. StccUale's But. Bay, zg-j. White's, z'&Z. 

/^ with large ears: whole upper part of the body covered witk 
^^* a rich fur of a glofly black, mixed with grey. On each 
hip is a tan-color'd fpot; all the under fide white : tail at the bafe 
light color'd; increafing to black as it advances towards the tip: 
along the middle of the back from the head to tail, is a black 
line: on the fore feet are five toes; on the hind only three, with a 
thumb without any nail. From the fore to the hind feet, is a 
large membrane like the flying fquirrel's: length from nofe to tail, 
twenty inches : of the tail twenty two. 

Inhabits Nezv Holland. The fur exqulfitely fine. 






/J /ty/// rr/ . 





** Gerboid. 

Kanguroo. Cook's wey. iii. 577. tai. xx. 
Yerboa gigantea. Zimmerman, 526. 


229. Kancaru. 

/^ with a fmall head, neck, and fhoulders : body increafing in 
^^* thicknefs to the rump. 

The head oblong, formed like that of a fawn, and tapering 
from the eyes to the nofe: end of the nofe naked and black : up- 
per lip divided. 

Noftrils wide and open: lower jaw Ihorter than the upper: aper- 
ture of the mouth fmall: whifkers on both jaws: thofe on the 
upper longeft: ftrong hairs above an^ below the eyes. 

Eyes not large; irides dufky, pupil of a blueifh black. 

Ears eredt, oblongly ovated, rounded at the ends, and thin, co- 
vered with fhort hairs; four inches long. 

No canine teeth: four broad cutting teeth in the upper jaw: Tiith. 
two long lanceolated teeth in the lower, pointing forward : four 
grinding teeth in each jaw, remote from the others. This ani- 
mal has the very fingular power of feparating the lower incifores, 
and of bringing them again clofe to each other. 

Belly convex and great. 

Fore legs very (hort, fcarcely reaching to the nofe; ufelefs for Legs. 

Hind legs almofl: as long as the body: the thighs very thick : 

on the fore feet are five toes, with long conic and ftrong claws ; 

on the hind feet only three : the middle toe very long and thick, 

like that of an oftrich; and extends far beyond the two others, 

5 which 


which are placed vev)' difthift fro:-!i it, and are Imal! : the claws 
fliorr, thick, and blunt: the inner toe of the hind feet is firigu- 
larly diftinguKhed by having on it tv^o fmall claws : the bottom 
of the feet, and hind part, black, naked, and tuberculated, as 
the animal refts often on them. 
Tail. Tail very long, extending as far as the ears; thick at the bafc, 

tapering to a point : the end is black ; at the extremity is a ftrong 
hard nail : the hair, on all parts fliort and rather hard. 

Scrotum large and pendulous, and is placed before the penis. 

The female has on the belly an oblong pouch of a vaft depth. 
The receptacle of its young. 

Hair on the whole animal foft, and of an afli-color ; lighteft 
on the lower parts. 
Size. Length of the largeft fkin I examined, three feet three inches 

from the nofe to the tail : of the tail, two feet nine. 

Weight of the largeft which was fliot, was eighty four pounds; 
but this, on examination of the grinding teeth, had not attained 
its full growth*. Later accounts inform us, they grow to the 
weight of a hundred and forty pounds : to the length of fix 
feet to the bafe of the tail : the tail itfelf, according to Mr. Stock- 
dale's publication, only two feet one. 
Place. Inhabits the weftern fide of New Holland, and has as yet been 

difcovered in no other part of the world. The natives call it 
Kangaru. It iurks among the grafs: feeds on vegetables: drinks 
by lapping : goes chiefly on its hind legs, making ufe of the fore 
feet only for digging, or bringing its food to its mouth. The 
dung is like that of a deer. It is very timid : at the fight of men 

* ^Zb. 



flies from them by amazing lenps, fpringing over biifhes feven or 
eight feet high; and going progrelUvely from rock to rock. It 
carries its tail quite at right angles with its body when it is in mo- 
lion; and when it alights often looks back: is much too fwiftfor 
gre-hounds : is very good eating, according to our firft navigators; 
but the old ones, according to the report of the more recent voy- 
gers, were lean, coarfe, and tough. 

The weapon of defence was its tail, with which it would beat 
away the ilrongefl: dog. 

In the fpring of the prefent year I had opportunity of obferv- 
ing the manners of one brought into the capital alive. It was in 
full health, very aftive, and very mild and good natured : on firfl: 
coming out of its place of confinement, it for a little time went 
on all fours, but foon affumed an upright attitude. It would 
fport with its keeper in a very fingular manner: it firfl; placed 
its tail in a perpendicular manner, erefted its body on it as 
on a prop, and then raifing its whole body, darted its hind legs 
on the breaft of the man. It was capable of flriking with great 
force if provoked : and it could fcratch violently with its fore 

This is a very anomalous animal: but has more relation to this 
genus than any other; and in form of its legs comes very near to 
ihe J avail. N'aip. 





230. Leaser Kanguroo rat. StocUale, 277. White, 286. 


/^ with the vifage of a rat; with two fharp pointed cutting teeth 
^^* in the upper ; two larger in the lower, with truncated 
ends : fore feet very fliort, furnifhed with four toes : hind legs and tail 
refembling the great fpecies. Three toes on each hind foot; the 
middle greatly exceeding the other two in length : on the belly Is 
a pouch ; within which were four nipples. The color above is 
of a pale brown, lighter on the belly : in fize double to that of the 
Brown rat. 
Manner-!. From the form of its parts, the manners probably the fame with 

thofe of the former : one was Ihewn in London in 1 790, but fo fh}' 
as to elude a perfeft defcription, continually concealing itfelf in the 
ftraw of the box. 

231. Spotted StockdaWs Bot, Bay, 147. 


/^ with a long canine vifage: upright fharp ears : head and body 
^^* black; the firft plain: the body and thighs marked with 
large fpots of white, thinly difperfed : tail covered with fhort hairs 
at the bafe j the reft very bufhy, covered with very long black hairs. 
Fore legs covered with Ihort hairs for a fmall fpace next to the body; 
the remaining part naked: the feet furniflied with five toes; the 
hind feet with four and a thumb, with a claw. Length from the 
nofe to the tail twenty-five inches : tail about nine. 
Inhabits New Holland. 


VV E E S E Lt 


Six cutting teeth, two canine teeth, in each jaw. 
Sharp nofe: ilender bodies. 
Five toes before ; five behind. 


Muflela. Jgricda An. Subter, 485. Gef- Sno-mus. Fanit. Suec. N* 18. 

jier (juaJ. -j^z. Muftela fupra rutila, infra alba. Brif- 

W'eafel or Weefel, muftela vulgaris; /on quad. i']'^. 

in 7'orkjhire, the Fitchet, or Fou- La Belette. De Buffcn, vii. 225. tab. 

mart. Raiifyn. quad. 195. xxix. 

The Whitred. ^ib. Scot. ill. II. Weefel. Br. Zool. i. 82. Br. Zool. il- 

Wiefel. Klein quad. bl. lu/lr. tab. ci. Schreher, cxxxviii. 

Muftela nivalis. Un.JyJi.b(), Lev. Mus. 

TXr with finall rounded ears: whole upper part of the head 
'^ * and body of a pale tawny brown; under fide entirely 
white: a brown fpot beneath the corners of the mouth: length, 
from nofe to tail, between fix and feven inches : tail two and a 

Inhabits moft parts of Europe; is common in Siberia, as 
far as Kamtfchatka ; is met with in N. America, even as high as 
Hudfon's Bay, found alfo in Barbary*. Is very deftruflive to 
chickens, birds, and young rabbets; a great devourer of eggs : 
does not eat its prey on the fpot; but after killing it, by a bite 
near the head, carries it off to its retreat: is a great deftroyer of 
field mice; a gentleman informed me he found eighty-five, new- 
ly killed, in one hole, which he believed belonged to this animal: 

232. COMMOK. 

Vol. II. 

• Sbaiv's Tra-veh, 249. 



34 W E E S E L. ■ 

very active, runs up the fides of walls with great eafej no place is 
fecure from its ravages ; frequents outhoufes, barns, and grana- 
ries: is a great enemy to rats and mice, and foon clears its 
haunts from thofe pernicious animals : brings four or five young 
at a time : its fkin and excrements intolerably foetid. In Nor- 
way, Szueden, RuJJta, and Siberia, it always changes to white at 
approach of winter. In Siberia it is called LafmitJ}:a: their iliins 
are fold to the Chincfe for three or four rubles the hundred. 

233. TouaN. Le Touan Je la Cepedes, Sec, vi. 252. iai. Ixi. 

TXT" with the upper part of head and body blackifh ; fides of 
*" • the body, head, and legs, of a bright ferruginous; the 
lower part of the neck and body of a more pure white: the length 
from the nofe to tail is rather more than five inches : the tail is 
rather more than two inches long, and tapers to a point. 

Inhabits Cayenne : lives in hollow trees: lives on worms and in- 
fecls, and brings two young at a time, which it carries on its 


W E E S E L, 


Muftela. Gefrer qut!ii. yi^'^. Muftela hyeme alba, seftate fupra ru- 

Wiefel. Kramer Auftr. 312. Meyer s An, tila infra alba, caudx apice nigro. 

ii. tab, 23, 24. BriJTon quad. I76. 

Muftela erminea. M. plantis fiffis, Le Rofelet. De Bujffon, vii. 240. tah. 

caudae apice albo. th./yft. 68. xxix. Schrchcr, cxxxvii. A. 

Wefla. Faun./uec. No. 17. Stoat. Br. Zool. i. 84. Lev. Mas. 

234. SrOAT. 

^. Ermine, when white. Mus Pon- 
ticus. Pliiiii lib. viii. c. 37. Agri- 
cola A'!. Sub'er, 484. 

Armelinus, Hermeleiii. Cefner quad. 

Gornoftay. R::acz':njki Pohn. 235. 
Muftela Candida, animal ermmeum. 

Rail fyn. quad. 198. 
L'Hcrmine. De Buff.ti, vii. 24c. tah. 

xxw.f.g. 2 Brijfor.quad. l-]6. Schri- 

ter, cxxxvii. B. 
Ermine. H:J}. Kamtfchatka, 99. Poniop. 

Nor-zvav. ii. 25. jBr. Zcol. i. 84. 

Lev. Mus. 

TT7" with the upper part of the body pale tawny brown: 
' ' • edges of the ears, and ends of the toes, of a yellowifli 
white: throat, breaft, and belly, white: end of the tail black: 
length, froin nofe to tail, ten inches; tail five and a half: in 
the N. of Europe and /^fia, and in the Highlands of Scotland, it 
becomes entirely white at the approach of winter, the end of 
the tail excepted: refumes its brown color in the fpring : fome- 
times found white in E/igland : one was brought to me in a 
former winter, mottled with brown and white, the feafon not 
having been fevere enough to effeft a total change * ; but in 
February 1780, I faw in my grounds two others in the ftate 
of moft perfedt and beautiful ermines. In the mountains of 
Southern Jfia and Perjta, it retains its brown color the whole 

Br. Zeel. tlluf.r, tah. ci. 
F 2 

t Pallas, 


W E E S E L. 

Inhabits, in great abundance, the N. of Europe, and oi AJia; 
in Kamtfchatka and the Kurile Illands ; is met with in Newfound-' 
land and Canada * : the ilcins a great article of commerce in 
Norway and Siberia: is found in the laft place in plenty, in birch 
forefts, but none in thofe of fir or pine: the fkins are fold on the 
fpot, from two to three pounds Jlerljng per hundred -f : taken in 
Norzvaj in traps, baited with flcQii in Siberia %, either Ihot with 
blunt arrows, or taken in a trap made of two flat ftones, propped 
by a flick, to which is faftened a baited ftring, which, on the 
left touch of the animal, falls down and kills it; its manners 
and food the fame with the former; but does not frequent houfcs: 
its haunts are woods and hedges, efpecially fuch as border on 
fome brook. 


25 J. Qui QUI. Muftela Qui qui. Molina Chili. 273. 

with a cuneiform nofe : ears fliort and round, with a white 
fpot in the middle : general color brown : legs and tail 
fhort : feet like thofe of a lizard : length from nofe to tail thirteen 

Inhabits Ci'i//; is fierce and irritable : lives underground: feeds 
on mice. 


2?6. CvjA. Muftela Cuja. Molina Chili. 272. 

with black eyes : nofe turned up at the end : hair black ; 
• very thick, butfoft : tail as long as the body, well furnilh- 
ed with hair : very like the ferret in fize, fhapc, and teeth. 

• Charlevoix hifl. Nouv. France, v. 197. t Midler Huff. Samlung. 516. 

t BeWi travels, \. 199. Pontop. l\or'way,\\. z:^. 

« Inhabits 

W E E S E L. 

Inhabits Chili : lives on mice : breeds twice a year, and brings 
three or four at a time. 


La Fouine ds la Guiane. De BuJ'on, Suppl. iii. i6i. tab. xxiii. 

Wwith a long iharp nofe : that, the cheeks, throat, and 
• fides of the neck, black: forehead and fides of the head, 
to the ears, white : ears fliort, round, and edged with white : 
from each ear, a narrow white ftripe extends along the fides of 
the neck : the body covered with coarfe hairs, grey at their 
bafes, black and white at the ends : legs and feet black, tinged 
with red : the toes not unlike thofe of a rat. 

Length from nofe to tail near twenty-one inches and a half: 
tail full of hair, of a bright chefnut, mixed with white; is rather 
fhorter in proportion than that of the Englij}} Fitchet, to which 
it has a great refemblance. 

Inhabits Guiana, 

zyj. S. Ameri- 
can Fitchet. 



Putorius. Gefner quad. 767. 

Yltis. Jgricola An. Subtcr. 485. 

Pole- cat, or Fitchet, Rail Jyn. quad. 

Tchorz. Rzaczinjki Pohn. 236. 
Muftela fcetida. litis. TeufFels kind. 

Klein quad. 
Mioilela putorius. M. pedibus fiflis, 
corpore flavo nigricante; ore auri- 

culifque albls. Lin. fyfi. 67. Iller. 

Faun.fuec. No. 16. 
Muftela pilis in exortu ex cinereo al- 

bidis, colore nigricante terminatis, 

oris circumferentia alba. Brijfon quasi. 

Le Putois. T>e Buffon, vii. 199. tab, 

xxiii. Schreber, cxxxi. 
Pole-cat. Br. Zool. i. 77. Mus. Lev, 



with the fpace round the mouth white; the tips of the ears 
' of the fame color: head, body, and legs, of a chocolate- 

38 W E E S E L. 

cclor, alinoft black: oil the fides the hairs are of a tawny caft: 
tail black: length feveiiteen inches; tail fix. 

Inhabits moft parts of Europe; is common in the temperate 
parts of R'jJJla, but grows fcarcer in Siberia, except in the defert 
oi Baraba, and beyond the lake Baikal. None are found north 
of thole places: they are ufually met with, in the places jult cited, 
with white or yellowifh rumps, bounded with black. 

The Fitchet burrows under ground, forming a (hallow retreat, 
about two yards in length, generally terminating under the 
roots of fome large tree; fometimes forms iis lodge under hay- 
ricks, and in barns : brings five or fix young at a time : preys on 
poultry, game, and rabbets : in winter frequents houfes, and will 
rob the dairy of milk. This animal is exceffively fcetid; yet 
the fliin is drefied with the hair on, and ufed as other furs, for 
tippets, Sec; and is alfo fent abroad to line cloaths. 

239, Sarmatiak. Muftela farmatica,7?;/^jPerugufna.P^/- tnerman, 486. Schreher, cxxxli. 

las, Itin. i. 453, GueUenJiaedt, in Nov, Frzfw/«/^fl, or the girdled weefel? R%aC' 
Com. Petrop. xiv. 441. tab. x. Zim- %i»Jki, auft. hill. Polon. 328. 

TXT" with broad, fhort, round ears, edged with long white 
'^ ' * hairs: mouth furrounded with white: head, feet, and 
under fide of the body, of n full black: head crofled beyond each 
eye with a white band, paffing beneath the ears along the fides of 
the neck, and down to the throat; from the hind part of the 
head, another of yellow pafles on each fide obliquely towards 


W E E S E L. 


the (boulders ; above, is a third: the upper part of the body is 
of a brownilh black, ftriped and fpotted irregularl}' with obfcure 
yellow: tail dufky, full of hairs, intermixed with white ones 
longer than the reft ; the end wholly black. 

Length, from the tip of the note, about fourteen inches; of the Si7:z. 

tail fix. 

Inhabits only Poland, and the fouthern provinces of i?/(/^iZ, be- Place. 
tween the Dnieper and Folga ; and in JJitj, the Caucafean mountains, 
and Georgia ; and by report, Bucharia. 

It is a moft voracious animal, feeding on the marmots, mice. Manners. 
and other lelTer animals that inhabit with it the vaft plains of 
the Ruffian empire. Seizes on its prey, and firft fucks out the 
blood; does not meddle with eggs: lives ufually in holes made 
by other beafts, but is not: without the power of burrowing : preys 
by night: lleeps little: very fierce and untameable: its eyes 
flaming: its fmell foetid, efpecially when it ereds its tail, which 
it does in anger : is very adive : It moves by frequent jumps : 
copulates in the fpring: goes two months, and brings four or 
eight young, according to the report of the natives. 

Muftela Siberica, Kolonnok, ^a^/. Pfl//<if Itin. 701. 340. SiBERiAni 

WT ^^''■^ ^^^^ ^^''^ black, whitifli about the noftrils, and fpot- 

' ' * ted towards the eyes; the refl of the animal of a deep 

yellow, nearly approaching to fox or orange color; with the throat 

fometimes fpotted with white: tail very full of hair, and of a 



W E E S E L. 

deeper color than the body : hair in general loofe and long : the 
foles of the feet thickly covered with fnr. 
Size. Its body more {lender than the Fitchet, coming nearer to the 

form of the Stoat: length to the tail twelve inches; of the tail 
Place. Begins to appear in the Altaic mountains, between the Ob and 

the Irtiflj, from whence it is common, in wooded mountains, to 
the Amur and lake Baikal. It has great refemblance in its man- 
ners, haunts, and food with the fable; but does not extend fb 
far north. 

241. Ferret. Viverra. /"//'h/V /y/i. viii. r. ^^. Jgricela neo colore terminatis (mafc.) M. pilis 

Jn. Subier. 486. exalbofubflavis veftita. (fcem.) BiiJJhn 

Muftela ruftica, viverra, Furo, Iftls. quad. 177. 

Ge/>:er quad. 762. Rait Jyn. quad. 198. Muftela Furo. M. pedibus fiflis, oculis 

Vr^t. Klein quad. 63. Schreber, cxxxin. lubicundis. L/w./v/?. 68. Mus, Lev. 

Viverra pilis fubfiavis, longioribus, cafta- 

"f T 7" with a very fliarp nofe : red and fiery eyes : round ears : 
* ' • color of the whole body a very pale yellow : length 
about fourteen inches; tail five. 

Inhabits, in its wild ftate, Africa*; from whence it was ori- 
ginally brought into Spain -f, in order to free that country from 
the multitudes of rabbets, with which the kingdom was over- 
run ; from thence the reft of Europe was fupplied with it: is a 
lively aftive animal : the natural enemy of rabbets : fucks the 

• Shanv's trai'els, 24Q. 

t Kai ya/\.KS- iTpias- ai 11 Mitv,: (fSfH Stiaho, lib. iii. 


W E E S E L. 41 

Hood of its prey, feldom tears it: breeds in our climate: and 
brings five, fix, or nine at a time: but is apt to degenerate, and 
lofe its favage nature: warreners* are therefore obliged to pro- 
cure an intercourfe between the female and a pole-cat, by leaving 
it near the haunts of the laft: the produce is a breed of a much 
darker color than the ferret, partaking more of that of the pole- 
cat. The ferret has the fame difagreeable fmell with that animal. 

Martes gutture albo. ^^r;Vtf/« ^«. 5«^«n Brifon quad. 178. 2^2. Martin. 

485. Gefner quad, 764. Muftela martes. M. pedibus liflis, cor- 

Stein-marter. Klein quad. 64. pore fulvonigricante,gula pallida. i;«. 

Martes, alias Foyna, Martin, or Martlet. JyJI. 67. Mard. Faun.fuec. No. i j. 

Rail Jyn, quad. 200. LaFouine. DeBuffon,\'u.. 1^6, tab. x.vuu 

Kuna. Rzaczinjki Polon. 222. Schreber, cxxix. 

Muftela pilis in exortu albidis caftaneo Martin. Br. Zeol.i. 79. Lev. Mus. 

colore terminatis veftita, gutture albo. 

WT ^''^ broad rounded ears : lively eyes : head brown, 
^ ' • with a tinge of red : body, fides, and legs, covered 
fiixh. hair, afli-colored at the bottoms, bright chefnut in the 
middle, black at the tips : throat and breaft white : belly deep 
brown : tall full of hair, and of a dufky color : feet broad, co- 
vered at bottom with thick down : claws white : length eighteen 
inches : tail ten. 

Inhabits moft parts of Europe, even to t"he warmer parts of Place. 

Rujia, but does not extend far eaft in that empire: is a moft 
elegant lively animal: capable of being tamed: is very good- 
natured and fportive : lives in woods ; and breeds in the hollow 

• Br.Zeel.i.'jS. ii.493. 
Vol. II. G of 


W E E S K L. 

of tre€s; and often, during winter, fhclters in magpies nefts; 
brings from four to fix young at a time: deftroys poultry, 
game, &c. and will eat rats, mice, and moles : tke fkin and ext 
crements have a mufky fmell : the fur is of fome value, and ufed 
to line the robes of magiftratcs. 

243. Grey. 



Le grande Marte de Guianne. de La Cifedes, de Buffan, Suppl. vi, 250. tab. ly. 

\KJ ''^''■^ ^^^ ^^^"^"^ ^"^ upper part of the fides of the neck 
' gi'eyifh: throat and vinder fide of the neck white: all 
the reft of the body, limbs, and tail, black: length from the tip 
of the nofe to the tail above two feet: of the tail (which is full of 
hair) eighteen inches. 
Inhabits Guiana, 

241, Pine. Martes guttuie luteo. Agricola An.Sub- 

ter. 485. 
Mavtes fylveilris. Ge/ner quad, 76). 
Martes abietum. Haii J)n, quad. 200, 
Baum-Marter. Klein quad. 64. 
Muftela pilis in cxortu ex cinereo al- 

bidis caftaneo colore terminatls, gut- 

ture flavo. BriJJhn quad,. 1 79. 
La Marte. DeBi/ffon, vii. 186. tab, xxiu 

Schreber, cxxx. 
Yellow.breafted Martin, Br, ZooU i. 81. 

FaurMl, Sinens, Lev, Mus, 

WT ^^'^^^ ^ yellow breaft and throat; the hair of a dark 
* ' • chefnut-color, and of far fuperior finenefs to the former; 
in other refpefts agreeing with it. 


W E E S E L. 

Inhabits the N. of Europe, AJla, and America: found alfo in 
Great Britain * : are not found about the river Oby, nor in any 
part of Siberia: inhabits large forefts, efpecially thofe of pines: 
never lodges near houfes, as the other fpecies is faid-f to do; 
M. de Bt'ffon fays, that it brings but two or three young at a 
time: its prey is the fame with the former; its fur of far greater 
value. The peninfula oi Kamtfchatka, and North America, abound 
with them: their fkins a prodigious article of commerce. Thofe 
found about Mount Cancafus, with an orange throat, are efteemed 
the fineft in the furriers fliops. 

Zobela. Jgricola J^n. Subter. ^%^. corpore obfcure fulvo, fronte exal- 24;. Sable. 

Muftela Sobella. Gi/ner quad. ib^, bida, gutture cinereo. Lin./y/f. 68. 

Muftela Zibellina, the Sable. Rali/yti, Muftela Zibellina. A'sr. Com. Petrop. 

quad. 201. KUin quad. 64. v. 330. tab. vi. 

Muftela Zibellina, Arijtotele Satherius, Martes Zibellina, Muftela obfcure ful- 

Kipht Cebalus. Alciato Mus Samar- vo, gutture cinereo. BriJJon quad. 

ticus et Scythicus. Charleton Ex. 20, 180. 

Muftela Zibellina. M. pedibus fiffis. La Zibeline. De Bufoit, xiii. 309. 



with long whifkers: rounded ears: large feet: white 
claws: long and bufliy tail; color of the hair black at 
the tips, cinereous at the bottom : chin cinereous, fometimcs 
white, yellow, or fpotted: the edges of the ears yellowilh : 
fometimes the hair has a tawny caft; for in fpring, after fliedding 

• M. de Buffon fays, we have none of tbefe animals In England, Farce qu'il 
fi'y apat de b«is. That gentleman, never did our kingdom the honour of making a 
progrefs through it. 

f All foreign writers agree in this ; but thofe which inhabit my neighborhood 
always keep in the woods, except in their nodlurnal excurfions. 

G 2 the 

44 VV E E S E L. 

the coat, the color varies: there are inftances of their being 
found of a fnowy whitenefs *. 

The fize is equal to that of the Martin, to which it has a great 
refemblance in form: but this fpecific diftinftion mufl: be noted — 
the tail of the martin is much longer than the hind legs, when 
extended : that of the Sable (horter. 
tfiACE. Inhabits Siberia, Kamtfihatka., and fome of the Kiirilc ifles, 

which lie between Kamtfchatka and Japan. Notwithftanding what 
Mr. Scheffer fays-]-, it is certain there are none to be found weft 
of the Urallian mountains, from whence they increafe in num- 
bers, in proportion as you advance eafi:ward. 

Sables live in holes in the earth, or beneath the roots of trees : 
fometimes, like the martin, form nefts in the trees, and will 
fkip with great agility from one to the other : are very lively, 
and much in motion during night: fleep much in the day: 
one that was kept tame would, on fight of a car, fit up oa its 
hind legs: excrements moft exceffively foetid: prey, during 
fummer, on ermines, weefels, and fquirrels, but above all on 
hares; in winter, on birds; in autumn on hurtleberries, cran- 
berries, and the berries of the fervice-tree : but during that fea- 
fon their fkins are at the worft, that diet caufing them to itch, 
and to rub oft' their fur again ft the trees: they bring forth at 
the end of March, or beginning of April, and have from three 
to five at a time, which they fuckle for four or five weeks J. 

Their chace was, in the more barbarous times of the Rujjian 
empire, the employ, or rather the taiks, of the unhapy exiles 
into Siberia : as that country is now become more populous, the 

• Sirahlenhtrg hift . Rujfta, 4f2. f Scheffer Lapl. 136. 

J IJiJl. Kamt/chatka, 109, &C. 


W E E S E L. 45 

fables have in great meafure quitted it, and retired farther 
North and Eajl^ to live in defert forefts and mountains. They 
hve near the banks of rivers, or in the little iflands in them * : 
on this account they have, by fome, been fuppofed to be the 
SaS-ffiw of Arijlotle, Hijl. An. lib. viii. c. 5 ; which he clafTes with 
the animals converfant among waters. 

At prefent the hunters of fables form themfelves into troops, 
from 5 to 40 each; the laft fubdivide into lefTer parlies, and 
each chufes a leader, but there is one that direds the whole : a 
fmall covered boat is provided for each party, loaden with pro- 
vifion, a dog and net for every two men, and a veffel to bake 
their bread in: each party alfo has an interpreter for the coun- 
try they penetrate into : every party then fets out according to 
the courfe their leader points out : they go againft the ftream of 
the rivers, drav/ing their boats up, till they arrive in the hunt- 
ing-country ; there they flop, build huts, and wait till the wa- 
ters are frozen, and the feafon commences. Before they begin 
the chace their leader affembles them, they unite in a prayer to 
the Almighty for fuccefs, and then feparate : the firft fable they 
take is called God's fable, and is dedicated to the church. 

They then penetrate into the woods, mark the trees as they 
advance, that they may knov/ their way back; and in their 
hunting-quarters form huts of trees, and bank up the fnow 
round them: near thefe. lay their traps, then advance far- 
ther, and lay more traps, ftill building new huts in every quar- 
ter, and return fuccefTively to every old one, to vifit the traps,. 
and take out the game to Ikin it, which none but the chief of 

• AvriPt Travels y 140. 


46 \V E E S E L. 

the party mud do: during this time they arc fupplied with pro- 
vifions by perfons who are employed to bring it on fledges, from 
the places on the road where they are obliged to form maga- 
zines, by reafon of the imprafliicability of bringing quantities 
thro' the rough country they muft pafs. The traps are a fort of 
pit-fall, with a loofe board placed over it, baited with fifli or 
flefh: when fables grow fcarce, the hunters trace them in the 
new-fallen fnow, to their holes, place their nets at the entrance, 
and fometimes wait, watching two or three days for the coming 
out of the animal : it has happened, that thefe poor people have, 
by the failure of their provifions, been fo pinched with hunger, 
that, to prevent the cravings of appetite, they have been reduced 
to take two thin boards, one of which they apply to the pit of 
the ftomach, the other to the back, drawing them tight together 
by cords placed at the ends * : fuch are the hardfliips our fellow- 
creatures undergo, to fupply the wantonnefs of luxury. 

The feafon of chace being finilhed, the hunters re-affemblej 
make a report to their leader of the number of fables each has 
taken; make complaints of oifenders againft their regulations; 
punilli delinquents ; fhare the booty ; then continue at the head- 
quarters 'till the rivers are clear of ice; return home and give 
£0 every church the dedicated furs. 

Commercial "The following is the commercial hiHory of this fur-trade. 

History. which Dr. J. R. Fojler was fo obliging as to tranflate for me, 
from MuUer's Samlung Rufs. Cefchlckte, iii. 495 to 515, being 
an abftracft from above 20 pages. 

* Belfs Travels, i. 24J. 

4 " Sable, 

W E E S E L. 47 

'* Sable, Sobol in Ruffiafi; Zobel in German: their price 
varies, from 1 1, to lol. flerling, and above: fine and middling 
fable ikins are without bellies, and the coarfe ones are with 
them: forty (kins make a collection called Zimmer: the fineft 
fables are fold in pairs, perfeftly fimilar, and are dearer than 
fingle ones of the fame goodnefs; for the RuJJians want thofe in 
pairs for facing caps, cloaks, tippets, &c. The blackeft are re- 
puted the beft. Sables are in feafon from November to February i 
for thofe caught at any other time of the year are (hort haired, 
and then called Nedofoboli. The hair of fables differs in length and 
quality: the long hairs, which reach far beyond the inferior 
ones, are called Os; the more a Ikin has of fuch long hairs, the 
blacker they are, and the more valuable is the fur; the very 
beft have no other but thofe long and black hairs. Motchka is 
a technical term in the Rujian fur-trade, expreffing the lower 
part of the long hairs j and fometimes it comprehends likevvife 
the lower and fhorter hairs: the above mentioned beft fable 
furs are faid to have a black Motchka. Below the long hairs are, in 
the greater parts of fable furs, fome fhorter hairs, called Podojiey 
i. e. Under-Os: the more Podofie a fur has, the lefs valuable: in 
the better kind of fables the Podojie has black tips, and a grey or 
Tufty Motchka: the firft kind of Motchka makes the middling, 
kind of fable furs ; the red one the worft, efpecially if it has but 
few Os : between the Os and Podofie is a low woolly kind of hair, 
called Podfada; the more Podfada a fur has, the lefs valuable, 
for the long hair will, in fuch cafe, take no other direftion than 
the natural one; for the charafler of fables is, that notwithftand- 
ing the hair naturally lies from the head towards the tail, yet will 


48 W E E S E L. 

it lie equally in any direflioii, as you ftrike your hand over it: 
the various combinations of thefe charafters, in regard to Os, 
Motchka, Podojie, and Podfada, make many fpecial divifions of 
the goodnefs of furs: befides this, the furriers attend to the fize, 
preferring always, cateris paribus, the biggeft, and thofe that have 
the greateft glofs : the fize depends upon the animal being a male or 
female, the latter being always fmaller. The glofs vaniflies in old 
furs : the frefli ones have a kind of bloomy appearance, as they exprefs 
it; the old ones are faid to have done bloo^ihig : the dyed fables 
always lofe their glofs, become lefs uniform, whether the lower 
hairs have taken the dye or not, and commonly the hairs are 
fomewhat twifted or crifped, and not fo ftrait as in the natural 
ones : fome fumigate the fkins, to make them look blacker ; but 
the fmell, and the crifped condition of the long hair, betrays the 
cheat ; and both ways are dctecSled, by rubbing the fur with a 
moifh linen cloth, which grows black in fuch cafes. 

" The Chineje have a way of dying the fables, fo that the 
color not only lads, (which the Ru§um cheats cannot do) 
but the fur keeps its glofs, and the crifped hairs only difco- 
ver it: this is the reafon that all the fables, which are of 
the beft kind, either in pairs or feparate, are carried to Ruf~ 
Jia; the reft go to China: the very beft fables come from the 
environs of Nertch'ijk and Takutjk; and in this latter diftridV, 
the country about the river Ud affords fometimes fables, of 
whom one fingle fur is often fold at the rate of 60 or 70 
rubles (12 or 14I.) The bellies of fables, which are fold in 
pairs, are about two fingers breadth, and are tied together 
by forty pieces, which arc fold from i to 2I. fterling. Tails 

W E E s E l; 


are fold by the hundred; the very beft fable furs muft have 
their tails, but ordinary fables are often cropped, and a hun- 
dred fold from 4 to 81. fterling: the legs or feet of fables 
are feldom fold feparately. White fables are rare, and no 
common merchandize, but bought only as curiofities: fome 
are yellowifh, and are bleached in the fpring on the fnow." 

The common fables are fcarcely better in hair and color 
than the martin. 

The fable is found again in North America. The RuJJians 
have often difcovered the fkins mixed with thofe of martins, in 
the fur-drefles which the Ichutcki get from the Americans by way 
of exchange. Their fur is more glofly than that of the Siberian 
fable, and of a bright ch efnut- color ; but of a coarfer quality. It 
is to be obferved, that no fables are found N. E. of the river 
Anadyr, the country of the Ichutcki'-^. 

The information I received from Dodtor Pallas, refpedling the 
chara(5ter of this animal, obliges me to lay alide my notion of its 
being found in the new world, under the name of ^the Fijloer ; yet 
I have reafon to fuppofe I have recovered it on that continent, by 
feeing the fkin of another quadruped highly refembling it, in the 
cabinet of Mrs. Blackburn, fent from Canada; which I defcribe under 
the name of the American. 

Its length, from nofe to tail, was twenty inches. The trunk of *. „ .- 

*-' ^ •' AMERICA nc 

the tail only five inches: but from the rump to the end of the 
hairs eight. The ears more pointed than thofe of the Afiatic 
fable: feet very large, hairy above and below: five toes, with 
white claws on each foot. 

. * Doflor Pallas. 

Vol. II. H Color 

50 W E E S E L. 

Color. Color of the head and ears whitifli: whilkers (hort ami black: 

whole body of a light tawny : feet brown. This feems to have 
been one of the bleached kind before mentioned. 

246. FssHER. Wr ^'"^'^ ^ black nofe: ftrong and ftiff whiikers : fix fmali 
' "^ • weefel-like teeth above and below: fix large canine 
teeth: four grinding teeth in each upper jaw; three fharp- 
pointed, the fourth flat : in the lower jaws fix ; the laft flatted, 
the next tridentated ; the next to thofe bidentated : ears broad 
and round, dufky on their outfidcs, edged with white: face and 
fides of the neck pale brown, or cinereous, mixed with black : 
hairs on the back, belly, legs, and tail, black ; brownifli at their 
bafe : fides brown : the feet very broad ; covered with hair even 
on their foles : five toes on the fore feet-, generally Jour, but 
fometimes five, on the hind feet; wiih fliarp, itrong, and crooked 
white claws: fore legs Ihorier than thofe behind: tail full and 
bulhy, fmalleft at the end, feventeen inches long : length, from 
nofe to tail, twenty-eight inches. 

Inhabits North America: notwithflanding its name, is not am- 
phibious : preys on all forts of Icfler quadrupeds* : by the num- 
• ber of Ikins imported, is not an uncommon animal; not lefs than 
g^o being brought in one feafon from New Tork and Penfylvania: 
feems to be the animal called by Jo[jelyn-\^ the Sable; which, he 
fays, is perfedly black. I have feen many of the fkins, which 
vary in color. Lev. Mus. 

• By a letter from Mr. Pder Cellin/on, who received the account from Bartram, 

ci Petijyl'vama. 


W E E S E L. 


Le Vaiifire, De Bfffon, xiii. 167, tnh, x.\i. de la CefeJts, <ie Buffon, Siippl, vli, 3,^9, 247. Ma n A c as- 
tab. iix. CAR. 

"SKT ^^''tl^ flio''^ eai's: the hair on the whole brown at the 
' ' * roots, and barred above with black, and ferruginous: the 
tail of the fame color: the length fron nofe to tail, about four- 
teen inches; the tail, to the tip of the hairs at the end, near ten. 
Inhabits Madagafcar. 

Le Pekan. De BuffhuiXm. io\. tah.x\n. Schrelxr, cxxx'iv. Lev. Mus. 248. Peka: 

TXT" with very long and ftrong whifkers: ears a little pointed: 
' ^ • hair on the head, back, and belly, cinereous at the roots, 
of a bright bay at the ends; very foft and glofly: on the fides is a 
tinge of grey: between the fore-legs a white fpot: legs and tail 
black : toes covered with thick hair, above and below : claws 

In form like a martin : its length, from nofe to tail, one foot 
feven inches : the length of the trunk of the tail above ten ; and 
the hairs extend an inch beyond. 

Inhabits North /imerica : defcribed from a flcin. 

Le Vifon. De Buffon, xiii, 308. tab. xliii. 

TXT" with rounded ears: color of the hair brown, tinged with 
' ' • tawny, very bright and glofly: beneath is a thick down, 
cinereous tipt with ruft color: legs very (hort : tail duiky. 

H 2 Length 

249. ViSON. 

52 W E E S E L. 

Sizs. Length to the tail above feventeen inches : tail, to the extre*- 

mity of the hairs, nine. 
Place. Inhabits North America: defcribed from the fluffed fkins, in 

1765, in the cabinet of M. Auhry, curate of Saint Louis, in Paris, 
A fuller account of this and the preceding animal is defired. 

250. Whjtf- WZ ^''^'^ rounded ears: broad and blunt nofe : dufky irides : 

CHEEKED. Tf • head flat: face, crown, legs, rump, and tail, black : chin 

and cheeks white : throat of a rich yellow : back and belly of a 

pale yellow, intimately mixed with cinereous. 

Sizt. Length, from nofe to tail, eighteen inches: tail of the fame 

length, covered with long hair. 

Defcribed from the living animal at Mr. Brooks's, April 1774* 
Place unknown. 

251. Grison. Le Grifon. De Buffbn, xvi. 169. tah- xxv. jiUauiand, v. 65. tab. viil. Schre- 

htr, cxxiv. 


with large head and eyes : (hort but broad ears : upper 

• part of the body of a deep brown, each hair tipped with 

white, which gives it a grey or hoary look ; from each fide of the 

forehead extends a broad white line, pafling over the eyes, and 

reaching as far as the Ihoulders : the nofe, throat, and whole un- 

Sizs. ^^'^ ^^^ °f ^^ body, thighs, and legs, black. 

Length, from the tip of the nofe to the origin of the tail, feven 
inches. By the figure, the tail is little more than half the length 

o{ the body. 

$ Inhabits 

W E E S E L. 53 

Inhabits Surinam, but is a very fcarce animal : firft defcribed 
by Mr. Jllamand. 

Galera, fubfufca, Cauda elongata, auribus Le Tayra, ou le Galera, De Buff<in,XM. 252. Gi.'ine'\. 
fubnudis appreflis. Bro-wne's Jamaica, 155. Scireier, cx.xxv. 

485. taL xlix, 

TXT' witli the upper jaw much longer than the lower : eyes 
^^ * placed mid-way between the ears and tip of the nofe: 
cars like the human: tongue rough : tail declining downwards, 
leffening towards the point: feet ftrong, and formed for digging: 
(hape of the body like that of a rat ; fize of a fmall rabbet : of 
a dufky color : the hair rough. 

Inhabits Guinea: common about the negro fettlements; bur- Place. 
rows like a rabbet: very fierce; if drove to neceffity will fly at 
man or beaft : very deftrudive to poultry : feems to be the Kokeboe 
of Bofffian *, which only differs in color, being red. 

Muftela barbara. M. pedibus fiflis, atra, Muftela maxima atra mofcum redolenj. 353. Guiana. 
collo fubtus macula alba triloba. Lin. Tayra, grofle Belette. Barrere France 
fyji. 67. jEquin, 155. 

"IT/ with round ears, covered with down : an afh-colored fpace 
^^ * between the eyes : a trilobated fpot on the lower part of 
the neck : fize of a martin : color black: hairs coarfe. 

Inhabits Brajil and Guiana: when it rubs itfelf againfl; trees, PtAcr. 
leaves behind an unduous matter, that fcents of muik. 

• Htft, Guinea, 239. 



W E E S E L. 


Woolly. La petuc Fouine de la Gu'iane. Dc Buffoi, Suppl, iii. 162. tab. xxiv. 

J witli a long {lender nofe: upper jaw longer than the 
lower: ears very iliort and lound: body covered with 
woolly hair: tail taper, ending in a point, between eight and nine 
inches long: body," from nol'e to tail, between fifteen and fixteer*. 
M. de Buffon does not mention the color; by his figure the 
belly feenns white. He fays it inhabits Guiana. 1 am doubtful 
whether it is not one of the above fpecies. 

255. Ichneumon. 

Xyjtv/wv. Ar':llot. hift. An lih. ix. c. 6. Meles Ichneumon digitis mediis longio- 

Qpl'ian l.^r.e^. iii. 407. ribus, lat.ralibus a:-.|ua!ibus, unguibus 

Ichneumon, llinii lih.vM. cri^^. fiibuniformibus. tuijjilqutjl itin. iqi. 

L'lchi'.eumon, que les Egyptiens nom- Ichiieumuii : 'yi^ii PhuraoniiwAgo.Bri/^ 

merit Rut* de Pharaon. Beunobj. 95. Jon quad. ifcl. 

Portrait!, C6. Prjp./tlp- i. zi^^.Cef- Viveira Ichneumon. V. Cauda e bafi in- 

tier quad. 566. Rait J]n. q„ad. 202. craflata fsnfim attenuata, pollicibusre- 

Shaiju's Tra-veli, 24',, 376. motiufculis, Lin.JyJi.b-^.Schreber, cxvi, 

Muftela il,gypciaca. Klein quad. 6 j^, A. Lev. Mus. 

g. Indian. Quil, vel Quirpele. Garr/a Seb. Muf. i 6(>. ta^-xW.Jig. i. 

Arom.2\^. Paii lyn- quad. 197. La Mangoufte. De Bff(n,x\\i. 1.^0. tab. 

Viverra MiiPgo. Knmpjer -imcen- <^-]i,. xix. Le Nems, torn. xvi. 14. tab. 

• De Mongkob. ^a/c></)« j^".^-/«. iii. xxvii. 

SerpenticidafiveN.uncu? Kmn-hherb. Viverra indica. V. ex gr'feo rufefcens, 

Amlo n. Aji; . 69. tai'. xxviii BrJ/on qu:,d. 177. Raii/yi. quad. 198. 

Indian Ichneumon. £<<'w. 199. Schreber, cxvi. Lev. Mus. 
Ichneumon feu vulpecula Ceilonica. 

with bright flame-colored eyes: fmall rounded ears, aU 

• moft naked: nofe long and flender: body thicker than 

• The Egyptians never ftyle it Pbar, Or Moufe, but Nems, or Ferret, from its 
resemblance to that animal. Hajfelquijt, 1 96. This Forjkal confirms, p. 1 1 1 . 

8 that 


\V E E S E L. 

that of others of this genus: tail very thick at the bafe, tapering 
to a point: legs fliort ; the hair is hard and coarfe: color various 
in different animals, from different countries; in fome alternately 
barred with dull yellowifh brown and white; in others, pale 
brown and moufe-coloured ; fo that the animal appears mottled : 
throat and belly of a uniform brown : beneath the tail is an ori- 
fice not unlike that of a badger. 

The fpecimen in the AJJnnolean Mufeum was thirteen inches and 
a half long to the origin of the rail ; the tail eleven : the jEgxp- 
//a?2 variety is the largt ft. Some are forty-two inches long from 
the nofe to the extremity of the tail. M. de Buffon gives the 
figure of one in the xxvith plate of his Supplement, vol. iii. un- 
der the name of La Grande Mangottfte: the tail is longer, and 
more {lender than that of the common kind, and the hair uni- 
verfally more broken and coarfer. 

Inhabits j^gypt, Barbary, India, and its ijlands: a mod iifeful 
animal ; being an inveterate enemy to the ferpents and other 
noxious reptiles which infeft the torrid zone: attacks without 
dread that mod fatal of ferpents the Naja, or Cobra di Capello ; 
and fhould it receive a wound in the combat, inftantly retires; 
and is faid to obtain* an antidote from a certain herb; after 


• A faft, as yet, not well eftablifhed : Botanifls are not yet agreed about the 
fpecies of this fanative plant, whofe ufe, it is pretended, this wcefel pointed out 
to mankind : thofe who have feen the combats between the Ichneumon and Naia, 
never could difcover it : Kamffcr, a writer of the firft authority, who vifited 
India, and who had a tame Ichneumon, and been witnefs to its battles with the 
ferpent, fays no more than that it retired and eat the roots of any herb it met 
with. It is from the Indians he received the account of the root, whofe veracity 



56 W E E S E L. 

which It returns to the attack, and feldom fails of vidtory. Is a 
great deftroyer of the eggs of crocodiles, which it digs out of 
the fand ; and even kills multitudes of the young of thofe terrible 
reptiles-, it was not therefore without reafon, that the antient 
^Egyptians ranked the Ichneumon among their Deities : is at pre- 
fent domefticated, and kept in houfes in India and in ^gypt; for 
it is more ufeful than a cat, in deftroying rats and mice: grows 
very tame: is very adlive; fprings with great agility on its prey; 
will glide along the ground like a ferpent, and feems as if with- 
out feet: fits up like a fquirrel, and eats with its fore feet: 
catches any thing that is flung to it: is a great enemy to poultry: 
will feign itfelf dead till they come within reach : loves fifh : 
draws its prey, after fucking the blood, to its hole: its excre- 
ments very foetid : when it fleeps, brings its head and tail under 
its bell)', appearing like a round ball, with two legs flicking out. 
Rumpbiiis obferves how ikilfully it feizes the ferpents by the throat, 
fo as to avoid receiving any injury : and Lucan beautifully de- 
he fpeaks moft contemptuoufly of. Amosn. Exot. 576. Rumphsus never faw the 
plant growing; but defcribes it from a fpecimen fent him from Java; for he 
fays the Indians would perfuade him that it had no leaves. Vide Herb. Amboin. 
App. 71. All that feems certain is, that the Indians have a plant, of whofe 
alexipharmic virtues they have a high opinion, and are faid to ufe it with fuccefs 
againfl the dreadful macnffar poifon, and the bite of ferpents. Ktmpfer fays he 
had good fuccefs with one fpecies, in putrid fev?rs, and found it infallible for the 
bite of a mad dog. As there is no doubt but a moft ufeful plant of this nature 
does exift in the Indies, it is to be hoped that ftridl enquiry will be made after it. 
In order to direfl their fearches, they are referred to 

Garcia ab Htrlo Hiji, Aromatum in Clus. Exot. 214. 
Kampfcr Amcefi. Exot. 573. Rumph. Herb. Amboin. App. 25, 
Aman, Acad. ii. 89. Flora Zeylanictt, 46. 190, 239. 


VV E E S E L. 57 

Icribes the fame addrefs of this animal, in conquering the Egyp- 
tian Afp. 

AJpidas tit Pharias cauda filer t'lor hojlis 

Ludit, tt irata! incerta frcvocat umbra : 

Obliquanfque caput 'vanai ferfentis in auras 

Effufa toto comprendit guttura rmrfu 

L'.lifiram citra fanlem : tunc Writa ftftis 

Exprimitur, fauce/quejluunt pereunle 'vencno. Lib, Iv. 724, 

Thus oft' th' Ithneumon, on the banks of Nile, 

Invades the deadly J/pic by a wile ; 

While artfully his flender tail is play'd. 

The ferpent darts upon the dancing fliade ; 

Then turning on the foe with fvvift furprize. 

Full on the throat the nimble feizer flies : 

The gaping fnake expires beneath the wound, ^ 

His gufhing jaws with poifonous floods abound, i 

And Ihed the fruitlefs mifchief on the ground. J 


Gm. Lin, 85. 256. CafrE. 

WT ^^"'^ ^ovt hairy ears : hairs on the body ftiining, rude, 
^^ * mixed with yellow, black, and brown : tail grows gradually 
more flender from the bafe, tip black. 
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, 

LeSurlkate. De Buffon, xm,, Sthreher, zwiu Miller^s plates, xx. 257. Four-toed. 

\KT with a very (harp-pointed nofe: head depreffed: cheeks 

'" • inflated: upper jaw much longer than the lower; tip 

Vol. II. I black: 

5S W E E S E L. 

black: whifkers black, arifing from warty tubera : irides dufkyt 
region about the eyes black : ears fmall, rounded, black, lying 
clofe to the head. 

Tongue oblong, blunt, aculeated backwards. 
Six fmall incifores; two long canine in each jaw, and five 
grinders on each fide. 

Back very broad, and a little convex : belly broad and flat. 
Legs fliort: feet finall, naked at the bottom ; four toes on 
each: the claws on the fore feet long, like thofe of the badger; 
on the hind feet (hort. 

Color of the hairs brown near the bottom ; black near the ends, 
and hoary at the points ; thofe on the back undulated : infide of 
the legs yellowifti brown : tail tufted with black. 

Length from nofe to tail eleven inches ; of tail eight : the lafl 
thick at the bafe, ending pretty abrupt. 

Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, where it is called Meer-rat : 
feeds on flelh; preys on mice; is a great enemy to Blatta : is al- 
ways making a grunting noife: is much in motion: fits quite 
erccl, dropping its fore legs on its breaft, and moving its head 
with great eafe, as if on a pivot, and appearing as if it liftened, or 
had juft fpied fomething new. When pleafed, it makes a rattling 
noife with its tail, for which rcafon the Dutch at the Cape call it 
Klapper-maus* . It is alfo found in Java, where the Javanefe 
ftyle it Ji'pe\ the Dutch, Suracatje*. The animal which I ex- 
amined was brought alive from the Cape. Well engraven in 
Miller's plates, tab, xx. 

* Fallal MifceL Zool. 59, 60. 




'%r//r»r '/l,,,,r/ 


W E E S E L: 


Yellow maucauco. ^«. quad. No. io8. Viverra caudivolvola. 5c,5«^.r, tab. xlii. 258. Yellow. 

\KT ^^'^^^ ^ ^o\t duiky nofc; fmall eyes: ears fhort, broad, 
* ' , and flapping, and placed at a great diftance from each, 
other: head flat and broad: cheeks fwelling out: tongue very 
long: legs and thighs fliort, and very thick : five toes to each 
foot, feparated and fl:anding all forward: claws large, a little 
booked, and of a flefli-color. 

The hairs fhort, foft, gloflTy, clofely fet together: on the head, 
back, and fides a mixture of yellow and black: cheeks, infide 
of the legs, and the belly, yellow : half way down the middle of 
the belly is a broad dufky lifl-, ending at the tail; and another 
from the head along the middle of the back to the tail: tail of a 
bright tawny, mixed with black; is round, and has the fame 
prehenfile faculty as fome of the monkies have : length from the 
nofe to the tail nineteen inches; of the tail feventeen. 

It was very good-natured and tporiive; would catch hold of Manners. 
any thing with its tail, and fufpend itfelf : lay with its head un- 
der its legs and belly. 

Shewn about twelve years ago in London: its keeper faid it Place. 
came from the mountains of Jamaica, and called it a Potto, the 
name given by fome writers to a fpecies of Sloth found in Guinea* 
Lev. Mus. 

I2 Le 

6o W E E S E L. 

Le Kinkajou. De Bujiit, xvi. 244. tab. I. 

259. Mexican. W/" with a ihort duiky nofe: tongue of a vaft length: fmall 

' ' • eyes, encircled with dufky: ears fhort and rounded, 

and placed very diftant: the hairs fhort; on the head, upper part 

of the body, and the tail, the colors are yellow, grey, and black 

intermixed : the fides of the throat, and under fide, and the infides 

of the legs, of a lively yellow : the belly of a dirty white, tinged 

with yellow. 

The toes feparated : the claws crooked, white, guttered beneath. 

Sizt, The length from head to tail two feet five (French); of the 

tail, one foot three : the tail is taper, covered with hair, except 

beneath, near the end, which is naked, and of a fine flelh-color. 

It is extremely like the former; but larger in all its parts. 

Manneks. Like the former, it has a prehenfile tail, and is naturally very 

good-natured : goes to fieep at approach of day ; wakes towards 

night, and becomes very lively: makes ufe of its feet to catch at 

any thing: has many of the aclions of a monkey: eats like a 

fquirrel, holding the food in its hands: has variety of cries during 

• night; one like the low barking of a dog: its plantive note is 

cooing; its menacing, hiffing; its angry, confufed. 

Is very fond of fugar, and all fweet things: eats fruits, and 
all kinds of vegetables: will fly at poultry, catch them under 
the wing, fiick the blood, and leave them without tearing them: 
prefers a duck to a pullet ; yet hates the water. 

M. de Buffon calls this animal le Kinkajou, after a defcription 




ti/'JrKr.u//'-/ /I ///-e.j^/^ . \ . z 6f/ 

W E E S E L. 6i 

(given by M. Dennis) of one of that name found in N. America^ 
defcribed alfo by Charlevoix, under the name of Carcajou ; both 
which, in faft, are the fame as my Puma, N° 189. M. Dennis 
gives it the fame manners; adds, that it climbs trees, watches 
the approach of the moofe, falls on, and foon deftroys it. He 
fays, he loll a heifer by one of thofe animals, which at once eat 
through its neck; but the quadruped in queftion never could have 
the powers attributed to fo ferocious a creature. This therefore 
is new, and by form and manners a proper concomitant of the 
animal laft defcribed. 

This animal was brought to Paris from New Spain, and lived 
there two or three years. It is a very diftind fpecies from the 
former, of which M. de Buffon gives a very indifferent figure, 
taken froi^Ti the animal I defcribe. 

Coati. Marcgrave Brafil. 228. De Laef, lata. Lin.fyji. 64. 2gQ_ BraSILIAK. 

486. Rail Jyn.quati. i%o, Klein quad. Urfus nafo produfto et moblli, Cauda an- 

72. nulatim variegata. BriJJhn quad. \()o. 

Vulpes minor, roftrofuperiorelongiufcu- Le Coati brun. De Buffon, viii. 358. /«^. 

lo, Cauda annulatim ex nigro et rufo xlviii. Scbreber, cxviii. 

variegata. Quachy. Barrere France "B&AgtT oi Guiana, Bancroft, 141. Lev, 

jEquin. 167. Mos. 

Viverra nafua. V. rufa, cauda albo annu- 

TX7 with the upper jaw lengthened into a pliant, moveable 
' ' • probofcis, much longer than the lower jaw : ears round- 
ed : eyes fmall ; nofe dufky : hair on the body fmooth, fofr, and 
gloffy, of a bright bay color : tail annulated with dufky and bay : 
breaft whitilh: length, from nofe to tail, eighteen inches; tail, 

4 p. Dusky. 

62 VV E E S E L. 

/5. Dusky. Nofe and ears formed like the preceding: above 
and beneath the eye two fpots of white : hair on the back 
and fides dufky at the roots, black in the middle, and tipt 
with yellow: chin, throat, fides of the cheeks, and belly, 
yellowilh: feet black; tail annulated with black and white; 
fometimes the tail is of an uniform duiky color *. he Coati noiatre 
of M. de Buffon, tab. xlvii. Schrekr, cxix. The Coati-mondi of 

Inhabits Brqfil and Guiarm: feeds on fruits, eggs, and poultry: 
runs up trees very nimbly: eats like a dog, holding its food be- 
tween its fore-legs: is eafily made tame: is very good-natured : 
makes a fort of whiftling noife: feems much inclined to fleep in 
the day. Marcgrave obferves, that ihey are very fubjedt to gnaw 
their own tails. 

261 StiILINC Yzquiepatl. Hfy«fl«(/£2 3/fA;. 332. Rait tab.xVa. 

/yn. quad. 181. Klein quad, J I. Le Coafe. De Buffon? xiii. 2S8. tab. 
Meles Surinatnenfis. Briffon quad. 185. xxxviii. Scbrder, cxx. 

Ichneumon de Yzquiepatl. Seb. Muf. \. 

Wwith a ihort {lender nofe: fhort ears and legs: black 
• body, full of hair : tail long, of a black and white 
color: length, from nofe to tail, about eighteen inches. 

Inhabits Mexico, and perhaps other parts of America. This, 
and the four following fpecies, remarkable for the peftiferous, 

* Defcribed as a diftinft fpecies by Linnaus, under the title of 'vi'verra Narica. 
V . fubfu/ca, Cauda unicolore, 64, and by M. Briffon, under that oiUr/us nafo produSlo 
tt mobili, Cauda unicoUre, 190. 


W E E S E L. _ 63 

fuffocating and moft foetid vapour they emit from behind, 
when attacked, purfued, or frightened : it is their only means of 
defence: fome turn* their tail to their enemy, and keep them 
at a diftance by a frequent crepitus; and others ejaculate their 
urine, tainted with the horrid effluvia, to the diftance of eighteen 
feet : the purfuers are flopped by the terrible flench : fhould 
any of this liquid fall into the eyes, it almoft occafions blind- 
nefs ; if on the cloaths, the fmell will remain for feveral days, 
in fpite of all wafhing; they muft even be buried in frefh foil, in 
order to be fweetened. Dogs that are not true bred, run back 
as foon as they perceive the fmell; thofe that have been ufed to 
it, will kill the animal; but are often obliged to relieve them- 
felves by thrufting their nofes into the ground. There Is no 
bearing the company of a dog that has killed one, for feveral 

Profeflbr Kalm was one night in great danger of being fuffo- 
cated by one that was purfued into a houfe where he flept ; and 
it affeifted the cattle fo, that they bellowed through pain. Ano- 
ther, which was killed by a maid-fervant in a cellar, fo affeded 
her with its flench, that fhe lay ill for feveral days: all the pro- 
vifions that were in the place were fo tainted, that the owner 
was obliged to throw them away. 

Notwithftanding this, the flefli is reckoned good meat, and 
not unlike that of a pig: but it muft be ikinned as foon as kill- 
ed, and the bladder taken carefully out. The Firginian fpecieSj 

* Woocfs vcj. in Dampigr, iv. 96 j the reft of the account is taken from Caief- 
hy and Kalm, 


g.^ \V E E S E L. 

or Jkunk, is capable of being tamed, and will follow its niaftcr 
like a dog: it never emits its vapour, except terrified. 

It breeds in hollow trees, or holes under ground, or in clefts 
of rocks : climbs trees with great agility : kills poultry, eats 
eggs, and deftroys young birds. 

262. Striated. Pole-cat, or Skunk. Laixifin Carolina. VIverra putorius. V. fufca lineis qua- 

Pole-cat. Cattjby Carolina, ii. tuor dorfalibus parallelis albis. Lin, 

Muftela Americana foetida. Klein quad. fsft. 64. 

64. Le Conepate. De Buffen, xiii. 288. tab. 

Muftela nigra tsniis in dorfo albis. xl. Schreber,C}i.xa. 

BriJJbn quad. 18 1. 

\KT ^'""^^ rounded ears: head, neck, belly, legs, and tail, 
' '^ • black : the back and fides marked with five parallel 
white lines : one on the top of the back ; the others on each 
fide: the fecond extends fome way up the tail, which is long 
and bufliy towards the end: fize of an European Pole-cat; the 
back more arched: varies in the difpofition of the ftripes. 

Inhabits N. America: when attacked, briftles up its hair, and 
flings its body into a round form; its vapour horrid. Du Pratz 
fays, that the male of the Pole-cat, or Skunk, is of a fhining black: 
perhaps the Goafe of M. de Btiffon is the male ; for his defcrip- 
tion does not agree with the Tzquiepatl, which he makes fynor 


W E E S E L. 

<;hinche. FeuUlee olf. Peru, 1714,/*. 272. -zj/v Nowv. France, v. 196. j5-_ Skukk, 

Skunk, Fifkatta. Kalm's 'voy. Former's Le Cmnciie. De Buffon, xiii. 294. tah. 

tr. i. 273. tab, ii. JoJJilyn'i -voy. 8j, xxxix. Cchreber, cxxi. Lev. Mus. 

Enfant du Diable, Bete puante. Cbarle- 

\RT ^'^^ ^oxt rounded ears: black cheeks: a white ftripe 
'" • from the nofe, between the ears, to the back: upper 
part of the neck, and the whole back, white ; divided at the bot- 
tom by a black line, commencing at the tail, and paffing a little 
way up the back: belly and legs black: tail very full of long 
coarfe hair; generally black, fometimes tipt with white, and 
fometimes wholly white *, that figured by M. de Buffon entirely 
white: nails on all the feet very long, like thofe on the fore-feet 
of a badger. Rather lefs than the former. 

Inhabits Peru, and N, America, as far as Canada: of the lame 
manners and flench with the others. 

Viverra Cinehe. Mslwa Chili. 260, ./• ^. 

° ' 204* ClNQHE. 

\KT ^^'^ black hair, changeable into blue : along the back a 
* ' • bed of white round fpots from head to tail : head long : 
ears large, well covered with hair, and pendulous : hind legs lon- 
ger than the fore. 

Inhabits Chili: carries its head low: back arched; which it 

* Dt la Ctpidet de Buffin, Suppl. torn, vii, p. 333. tab, Ivii. 

Vol. II. K generally 

66 W E E S E L. 

generally covers with its bufhy tail, like the fqulrrel; digs holes 
in the ground, in which it hides its young. 
Manners^ In manners and food agrees with the Stifling; and its dreadful 

llench. Molina denies that the fmell comes from the urine, but 
from a greenifli oil coming from a bladder feated near the anus, 
from which it ejefts the fetid liquor. The Indies value the lkins> 
highly, and ufe them as coverlets for their beds.. 

265;. ZoRRiJiA. Annas oi the Indians, Zorrinas of the Mariputa, Mafutiliqui. Cumilla Ore* 
Spaniards. GarcilaJJi de la Vega, naque, iii. 240. De Buffon, Scbreber, 

331. cxxiii.. 

WT ^^'^^ '■^^ ^^^^ ^""^ ^^^^^ marked with fhort ftripes of 
^^ • black and white; the laft tinged with yellow:, tail 
• long and bulliy ; part white, part black : legs and belly black. 
Lefs than the preceding. 

Inhabits^ Peru, ajid other parts of S. America : its peftilential 
vapour overcomes even the panther of A/uerica^ and ftupefics that 
formidable enemy. 

ii>6. Ratel. Viverra Ratel. Sparmai Slock. Wetij'k. Stlnlc-lringfem. Kolben,X\. 133. 

Hondl. 1777, 148. tab. iv. Blaiieau puant. Voy. de la Caille, 182. 

"1X7 with a blunt black nofe: no external ears; in their place, 
only a fmall rim round the orifice : tongue rough : legs 
fhort: claws very long: ftrait, like thofe of a badger, and gut- 
tered beneath : color of the forehead, crown, and whole upper 
part of the body, of a cinereous grey :. cheeks, and fpace round 


W E E S E L. 

the ears, throat, breafl, belly, and limbs, black : from each ear 
to the tail extends along the fides a duiky line, leaving beneath 
another of grey. 

Length from nofe to tail forty inches: of the tail, twelve: Size. 

fore claws, an inch and three quarters long: hind claws one 

Inhabits tlie Cape oi Good Hope; lives on honey, and is a great Place. 

enemy to bees, which in that country ufually inhabit the deferted 
burrows of the jEthiopian boar, the porcupine, jackals, and 
other animals: preys in the evening: afcends to the highert parts Manners 
of the deferts to look about, and will then put one foot be- 
fore its eyes, to prevent the dazzling of the fun. The reafon of 
its going to an eminence, is for the fake of feeing or hearing 
the honey-guide cuckoo*, which lives on bees, and, as it were, 
condufts it to their haunts : the Hottentots profit of the fame 
guide. This animal cannot climb; but when he finds the bees 
lodged in trees, through rage at the difappointment, will bite 
the bark from the bottoms : by this fign aifo, the Hottentots know 
that there is a nefl of bees above. 

The hair is very flifF, and the hide fo tough, probably formed 
fo by nature, as a defence againfl the fling of bees, that it is not 
eafily killed. It makes a flout refiftance by biting and fcratch- 
ing, and the dogs cannot faflen on its fkin. A pack which could 
tear a middle-fized lion to pieces, can make no impreflion on the 

• A new fpecies, very fond of honey, which by its noife diredls men, as well as 
this heart, to the bees nell. Sparman, in Phil. Tranf. Ixvii. 43. 

K 2 hide 


65 W E E S E L. 

hide of this beaft : by worrying, they will leave it for dead, yet 
without infli(fling on it any wounds. 

This feems to be tht Stlnk-bingfem oi Kolben., a.nd Blajrean-ptmni 
oiLaCaille, which they brand for the horrible flench which it 
emits from behind, by breaking wind; but the Abbe fays, it 
quickly difcharges the noifome air. Mr. Sparman is filent in re- 
fpeft to this circumftance. The Hoitentots call it Ratel. 

367. Mariputo, 


Viverra Mariputo. Gm. Lin. 8^. 

of a black color, with a white bed, reaching from the fore^ 
• head to the middle of the back : no ears : length twenty 
inches ; tail nine. 

Obferved by Mutis in New Spain, about the mines of Pamplma: 
fleeps in the day: forms deep boroughs: wanders about in the 
night : feeds on worms and infeSis : is very fwift. 

a68. Cetion; G«.Z/«.% 


above grey, mixed with dufky : below white. Size of the 

Inhabits the Philippine ifles and CeyhH. 


W E E S E L. 

White's Bat. Bay, 1^1. 

W with long ears ere(5t : color brown ; lightefton the tail: tail 
* about the length of the body, covered with long hairs, and 
ending in a point: fize of a rat. 

Inhabits New Holland. According to Mr. Winter defcription the 
teeth are fo anomalous as to render it difficult to reduce this animal 
to any genus. 



^'"•^'''•90- J6g. Herma. 


TT7 with three dulky lines along the back; tail longer than 
* " , the body, with the tip black. 
Inhabits Barbary. Defcribed by Pallas. 

Cook's frjl ', 6z(i. Martin-cat. Stocidale's Bot. Bay, 176. 2-0. Quoll 

TT7 with fhort rounded ears: color black; marked with oblong 
' "^ * fpots on the body, neck, and tail; belly of a pure white: 
length from the tip of the nofe to the bafe of the tail, eighteen 
inches : tail tapers elegantly to a point, and is about the fame length 
as the body. 

Inhabits the fVeJlern fide of Nezv Holland. 

271. Tapoa 


VV E E S E L. 

Z72. SpOTTfO 


White's Bet. Bay, iSj. 

'TpHIS, according to Mr. fVhite's account and figure, differs 


from the former only in having the body and fides marked 

with irregular white fpots : tail plain. 

473. MviKY. Wr ^''^^ rio{e, lower part of the cheeks, legs, and end of the 
' ' • tail, black: on the middle of the cheeks is a white fpot: body 
cinereous, dafhed with yellow : fome obfcure du/ky lines and fpots 
mark the body and lower part of the tail. 

Inhabits Bengal: fmells of mufk. Sir Elijah Impey, 

274. Civet, La Civette qu'on nommohanciennement 

Hysna. Belon obf. 94. 
Zibettus. Caii opufc. 43. 
Felis Zibethus. Ge/ner quad. 837. 
Animal Zibethicum, mafc. et foem.^ifr- 

nandex Mex. 580, 581. 
Civet Cat. Rail Jyn. quad. 178. 
Coati Civetta vulgo. Klein quad- 73. 

Meles fafciis et maculis albis nigris et 

rufefcentibus variegata. Brijfon quad, 

Viverra Zibetha. V. cauda annulata, dor- 

fo cinereo nigroque undatim ftriato. 

Lin.fyji. 65. 
LaCivette. DeBuffen, ix. 299. tab. xxxiv. 

Schrder, cxi. Lev. M us. 

WT ^ '^"-^ ^°''^ rounded ears : fky-blue eyes : fharp nofe ; the 

' * • tip black: fides of the face, chin, breaft, legs, and 

feet black; the reft of the face, and part of the fides of the 

neck, white, tinged with yellow : from each ear are three black 

4 ftripes, 

W E E S E L. 

ftripes, ending at the throat and fhoulders : the back 'and fides 
cinereouSj tinged with yellow, marked with large dufky fpots 
difpofed in rows: the hair coarfe; that on the top of the body 
longeft, ftanding up like a maner the tail fometimes wholly 
black; fometimes fpotted near the bafe: length, from nofe to 
tail, about two feet three inches; the tail fourteen inches: the 
body pretty thick. 

Inhabits Lidla*, the Philippine ifles-j-, Guinea X> Ethiopia \\, Place. 

and Madagafcar ^ : the famous drug mujk, or civet, is produced 
from an aperture between the privities and the anus, in both 
fexes, fecreted from certain glands. The perfons who keep 
them, procure the mufk by fcraping the infide of this bag twice a 
week with an iron fpatula, and get about a dram each time ; but 
it Is feldom fold pure, being generally mixed with fuet or oil, xo- 
make it more weighty: the males yield the mofl;; efpecially 
when they are previoufly irritated. They are fed, when young, 
with pap made of millet, with a little flefli or fifh; when old, 
with raw flefh : in a wild ftate prey on fowl. 

* De/Un's 'vey.Sz. f Jrgen/ola, ui, X Be/man, 21%, Barbot. i\^. 

^ RawwolfsTra'vels/n.ifil. § Flacourt'j MaJaga/car, i^^; where it is called 




W E E S E l; 

37;. ^ Zibet. Animal Zibethicum Americanum. Her- Le Zibet. De Bufftm, 299. tah, xxxi, 

nawfl'fz iT/e;ir. 538. 5f ^rfi<r, Cxii, 

Fells Zlbethus. Gejner quad. 836. 

Wwith fhort rounded ears : fharp long nofe : pale cinere- 
• ous face: head, and lower part of the neck, mixed 
with dirty white, brown, and black; fides of the neck marked 
with ftripes of black, beginning near the ears, and ending at the 
breaft and flioulders : from the middle of the neck, along the 
ridge of the back, extends a black line, reaching fome way up the 
tail : on each fide are two others : the fides fpotted with a(h- 
color and black : the tail barred with black and white ; the black 
i bars broader on the upper fide than the lower. 

A variety firft diftinguiftied from the other by M. de Buffon; 
but figured long before by Hernandez and Gefner : unknown in 
Mexico*, till introduced there from the Philippine ifles. Thefe 
animals feem not to be known to the antients. 

,^ Musk. \\T ^''^^ ^^^ upper part of the body cinereous, daflied with 

' ^ • yellow, and marked with fome obfcure dufky lines : 

nofe, part of the cheeks, legs, and end of the tail, black; on the 

middle of the cheeks is a white fpot. 

Pj^^ce. Inhabits Bengal: has a very flrong muiky fcent: defcribed from 

a drawing in Sir Elijah Impefs coUedion. 

• Hernandez Nov, Hi/p, ii. 


VV E E S E L. 73 

SoHiieratfVoy.u. 144. tab. xci. ' 277- Malacca, 


\XT with a long nofe : fliort ereft ears: the ground-color of 
* '^ • the whole animal perlaceous grey: face black: above 
each eye four black fpots: from the hind part of the head are 
three black lines; one paffes down the hind part of the neck and 
one down each fide of the neck, and over part of the Moulders : 
from the bread: another extends along the middle of the belly; 
three others begin at the fmall of the back, and reach to the tail : 
on the body and thighs are forty-one round black fpots : the tail 
annulated with black and grey: legs and feet black: fize of a 
common cat. 

This animal lives by the chace : leaps with great agility from Makners. 
tree to tree: is very fierce : emits a ftrong mufky fmell, produced 
from a liquor which exudes from an orifice above the parts of 
generation. The Malayes coUeft it, and pretend that it flrength- 
ens the ftomach, and excites to love. The Chinefe efteem it highly 
on account of the laft quality -, and buy it from the Malayes. In- 
habits the peninfula oi. Malacca, 

Vol. II. L La 


W E E S E L. 

278. Genet. La Genette. Beknolf.-]\. 186. 

Genetha. Gejner quad. 549,550. ViverraGenetta. V. Cauda annulata, cor- 

Gcnetta vel Ginetta. ^a/7 _/)'«. ya^^. 201. pore fulvo-nigricante maculato. Lin. 

Coati, ginetta Hifpanis. Klsin quad. 73. Jyft. 65. 

Muftela Cauda ex annulis akernatim al- La Genette. De Buff:n, ix. 343. tab, 

bidis et nigris variegata. Brijfon quad. y.:f.y.y\. Schreber , zyi\\\. Lev. Mus. 


with ears a little pointed : llender body : very long tail : 
color of the body a pale tawny, fpotced with black ; and 
the ridge of the back marked with a black line: the tail annu- 
lated with black and tawny : feet black : fometinies the ground 
color of the hair inclines to grey : about the fize of a martin ; but 
the fur is fhorter. 
Place. Inhabits "Turkv, Syria, and Spain; frequents the banks of 

rivers ; fmells of muik, and, like the civet, has an orifice beneath 
the tail: is kept tame in the houfes at Conjtantinopk, and is as ufcful 
as a cat in catching mice. 


270. PiLOSELLO. La Genette </i; la France, de Birffhn, Suppl. iii. tab. xlvil, p. 236, 

with nofe of a deep brown : face and chin cinereous : a 
• dark line up the forehead: under fide of the neck 
cinereous, mixed with ruft : back and whole body of the fame 
color, varied with irregular black fpots : outfide of the hind legs 
and thighs dufky: foles of the feet and upper part down to the 
claws, cloathed with down: tail tawny, annuhited with black. 
Leffer than the common ferret. 


.XVI.. \ 

' ■^'g'^a. 9?r ^\. zso . 

W E E S E L. 75 

Inhabits the rock of Gibraltar, and the mountains oiRonda: 
called by the Spaniards Pilofelio; found alfo in Frame, After the fa- 
mous vidlory near Tours, gamed over the Sarace/is in 726 by Charles 
]\far!el, luch quantities of rich garments, made of the ikins of thefe 
animals, were found, as to give occafion to the hero to eftablifli 
an order of knighthood called L'Ordre de la Genette. On the firfl: 
inflitution there were fixteen knights; among them were the mod 
illuftrious princes of the time. Alariel himfelf was the fovereign. 
The collar confided ot the chains of gold, mixed with enamelled 
rofes of red ; pendent was a genet of gold, enamelled with black 
and red. The order continued during the fecond race of kings. It 
is faid to have given way afterwards to the Order of the Star. 

La FofTane. De Buffm, xiii. 163. tah. xx. Schreher, cxiv. Lev. Mus. 280. Fossane, 

with a flcnder body : rounded ears : black eyes : body 
' and legs covered with cinereous hair, mixed with 
tawny : from the hind part of the head, towards the back and 
Ihoulders, extend four black lines: the whole under fide of the 
body of a dirty white : tail femi-annulated. 

Inhabits Ahdagafear, and Guinea, Bengal, Cochin-china, and the Place, 

Philippine ifles : is fierce, and hard to be earned : in Guinea is called 
Berbe; by the Europeans, Wine-bibber, being very greedy of 
Palm wine -^ : deftroys poultry: is, when young, reckoned very 
oood to eat +. 

o ' 

* Bo/mart, 239. 

■f Flacourt hijl, Madaga/car, 5 1 2 j \\here it is called Tojfa. 

L 2 - The 

76 W E E S E L. 

The fpecimen in the Lever'um Mufeum differed in fo many re- 
fpefts, tliat i: is neceffary to give a full defciiption of it. 

W. with a white fpot on each fide of the nofe, and another 
beneath each eye : the reft of the nofe, cheeks, and throat, black : 
ears very large, upright, rounded, thin, naked, and black: fore- 
head, fide^, liiighs, rump, and upper part of the legs, cinereous: 
on the back are rnany long black hairs: on the ihoulders, fides, 
and rump are difperfed fome black fpots : tail black towards the 
end; near the bafe mixed with tawny, and flighcly annulaicd 
with black: feet black: claws white. 

Size of the Genet, to which it bears a great rcfemblance: 
tail of the length of the body. 


OTTER. 77 

Six cutting teeth, two canine, in each jaw. XXIV. OTTER. 

Five toes on each foot ; each toe connedted by a flrong 

281. Greater. 

Lutra. Jgricol^ An. Subter. 482. Gc/mr fyp. 66. Utter. ?au^. fuec. No. 12. 

quad. 687. Raiifyn. quad. 187. Lutia caftanei coloris. B-iJpnquad. 201. 

Wydra, RzecziKjki Pokn. 221. Le Loutre. Beion Ajunt. 26. De B-ffon, 

Otter. Klein quad. 91. vii. 134. tab. xi. Schreber, cxxvi. A. B. 

MuftelaLutra. M . plantis palmatisnudis. Otter. Br. Zool. i. N° 1 9. Br. Zooi. illujir, 

Cauda corpore dimidio breviore. Lin. tab. c. Lev. Mus. 

/~\ with fliort ears: eyes placed near the nofe: lips thick: 
^^* whlflters large: the color a deep brown, except two 
fmall fpots each fide the nofe, and another beneath the chin : 
the throat and bread cinereous : legs fliort and thick, and loofely 
joined to the body; capable of being brought on a line with the 
body, and performing the part of fins; each toe connecfled to 
the other by a broad ftrong web. 

The ufual length, from the tip of the nofe to the bafe of the Size. 

tail, is twenty-three inches; of the tail fixteen: the weight of the 
male otter, from eighteen to twenty-fix pounds; of the female, 
from thirteen to twenty-two. Mr. Ives fays that the otters of the 
Euphrates are no larger than the common cat. 

, Inhabits all parts of Europe, N. and N. E. of JJia, even as far Place. 

as Kamtfchatka ; is found in none of the Aleutian or Fox IJlands, 
except in the eafternmoft, which are luppofed to be near to the new 
world : is found in CZv7i*; abounds in North America, particularly 

* Molina, 253. 

5 in 



in Canada, where the moft valuable furs of this kind are produced : 
dwells in the banks of rivers ; burrows, forming the entrance of its 
hole beneath the water ; works upwards towards the fuiface of the 
earth, and makes a fmall orifice, or air-hole, in the midft of 
fome bufli : is a cleanly animal, and depofits its excrements in only 
one place : fwims and dives with great eafe; very deflruiMve to 
fifh; if they fail, makes excurfions on land, and preys on lambs 
and poultry. Sometimes breeds in finks and drains ; brings four 
or five young at a time : hunts its prey againft the fi:ream : fre- 
quents not only frefli waters, but fometimes preys in the fea; 
but not remote from fliore: will give a fort of loud whiftle by 
way of fignal to one another * : is a fierce animal ; its bite hard 
and dangerous : is capable of being tamed, to follow its mafter 
like a dog, and even to fifh for him, and return with its prey. 
The Liiicix of Jyijo/kf; pofllbly a large variety of Otter ;[:. 


• Leonard Baldner, iii. 139. iig. This was the perfon whom yir.lViUughhy 
calls a fifherman on the Rhine, of whom, on his travels in 1663, he bought a 
moll beautiful and accurate colledion of drawings of birds, iilh, and a few 
beafts, frequenting that great x'wet zhoat Stra^owg, of which <My Leonard ^iXe^ 
himfelf, fifherman and burgher. The work is dated in 1653. If I may judge 
from the elegance of his drefs, in the portrait prefixed to the firll volume, it 
fhould appear that he was a perfon of confiderable wealth. A German MS. 
defcription is placed oppofite to each drawing. This valuable work is row in 
the pofTeffion of Edward King, £/j; and had been bought by a relation of his 
out of the colledlion of Dr. Mead. 

+ Hijl. An. lib. viii. c. 5. vide Br. Zool. i. S6. 410. 

J Sir Jcjeph Banh, on his return from l\e-ji:foundlaud, was fo obliging as to com- 
municate to me the following account of fome animals feen br a gentleman who 




Siya & Cariguibeiu. Marcgrai-e Erafil. Lutra Brafilienfis. Rail /yn. quad. i8g. 282. Brasilia!*. 
234. Des Marchais, iii. 306. BriJJbn quad. 202. 

•^ with a round head like that of a cat : teeth feline : eyes 
^^* fmall, round, and black: large vvhiikers : ears round: 
feet in form of thofe of a monkey, with five toes; the inner the 
ihorteft: claws (harp : tail reaching no lower than the feet; flat 
and naked *. 

Hair foft, and not long; entirely black, excepting the head, 
which is duflcy; and the throat, which is yellow. 

Bulk of a middling dog. If the fame with the otters of Gkz- Size. 

ana, mentioned by M. de Buffon, it weighs from forty to a hun- 
dred pounds -f. 

Inhabits Brafil, Gtiiana, and the borders of the Oronoko, pro- Place, 

went on that voyage; which I take the liberty of inferting here, as tliey bear 
feme relation to the Otter in their way of life. He obferved, fitting on a rock, 
near the mouth of a river, five animals, (haped like Italian grehounds, bigger 
than a fox, of a fhining black color, with long legs, and long taper tail. They 
often leaped into the water and brought up trouts, which they gave to their 
young which were fitting with them. On his appearing, they all took to the 
water and fwam a little way from fhore, kept their heads out of the water, and 
looked at him. An old furrier faid, that he remembered the ikin of one fold 
for five guineas,; and that the French often fee them in Uare-Bn}\ 

* Barren Fr. jT^quin. 155. 

-|- Sup}l. iii. I £8, 159. 


io OTTER. 

vided iheGudcbi o( Gumilla be the fame*. AiJirgrave Cays that it is 
an amphibious animal;, lives on fifli, and cruftaceousanimals, fuch 
as cray-fidi ; and is very dextrous in robbing the nets and wheels of 
what it finds in them: makes a noife like a young puppy. The 
flefh is reckoned delicate eating, and does not taflie filhy, notwith- 
ftanding its food. 

If this is the Gtiachi, as probably it is, it burrows on the banks 
of rivers, and lives in fociety : are extremely cleanly, and carry to 
a diftance the bones and reiiques of the filli they have been eat- 
ing. They go in troops ; are very fierce, and make a ftrong de- 
fence againft the dogs ; but if taken young are foon tamed. 

2?3. Lesser. "Hoerz^.. Jgrhola An. Subter.ifi^.Gefner hirfutis ore albo. Lin. fy/l. 66. Fennis, 

quad. -68. Tichurt; Suecis, iVJasnli. Faun. fuec. 

Latax. G«;vn. Nurtz. »o^/jNurek. jRzac- N°i3. 

zinjki Polon. 2\^. '^OTkz. Rilchkoff orcnh. Topogr. i. 295, 

Mullela Lutreola. M. plantls palmatis, Schreber,cxxv\., 

/~\ with roundiQi ears: white chin: top of the head hoary; 
^^* in fome tawny : body tawny and duiky ; the Ihort hairs 
being yellowifli ; the long hairs black: the feet broad, webbed, 

* mp. de l'Ort>!oque, iii. 239. Gumilla calls them alfo Loups ou Chkns ffEau, 
and fays they are as large as a fetdng -dog. There is a great difagreement in 
the form of the feet, with others of the Otter kind. The writers who have had 
opportunity of examining it, are filent about the webs, the charafter of the 
genus. Till that point is fettled, I mull remain doubtful whether it be the Sa- 
ricovUnri cii A'ldreav Thevet, as ' ^i^fo-.' conjeftures. The fize of the lat- 
ter is another objeftion, which will apologize for my making a feparate article 
of that animal till this point is fettled. 







OTTER. 8i 

and covered with hair : tail dufky, and ends in a point: of the 
form of an otter, but thrice as fmall. 

Inhabits Poland, and the north oi Europe; and is found on the Place. 
banks of all the rivers in the country north of the 2''aik. None 
are found beyond the lake Baikal, or in the north-eaft parts of 
Siberia. Lives on fifh, frogs, and water- in fed s : its fur very va- 
luable; next in beauty to that of the fable. Caught in Bajlokiria 
with dogs and traps : is mofl excefUvely foetid. 

The Minx oi North America is the fame animal with this. The 
late worthy Mr. Peter ColUnfon * favored me with the following 
account he received from Mr. John Bartram, of Penfylvania: 
' The Minx,' (fays he) * frequents the water like the Otter, and 

* very much refembles it in ftiape and color, but is lefs ; will 

* abide longer under water than the muik quafli, mulk rat, or 

* little beaver : yet it will leave its watery haunts to come and 

* rob our hen-roofts ; bites off their heads and fucks their blood : 

* when vexed, it has a ftrong loathfome fmellj fo may be called 

* the IVater Pole Cat : its length, from nofe to tail, twenty inches; 

* the tail four : is of a fine fliining dark brown color.' 

From the conformity between the names this animal goes by, 
iin America and Sweden {Minx and Mtcnk) it feems as if fome 

• By letter dated June 14, 1764. Law/on alfo gives fome account of it, 
p. 122, Hi/!. Carolina: He fays it is a great enemy to the Tortoifes ; whofe eggs 
it fcrapes out of the fand and devours : eats frefh-water mufcles, whofe fhells 
are found in great abundance at the mouth of their holes, high up in the rivers, 
in whofe banks they live: may be made domeilic: is a great deftroyer of rats and 
mice. La Hontai, i. 232, feems to mean the fame animal, by his Foutereaux, 
an amphibious fort of little Pole-cats, 

Vol. II. M Szvedijl: 

82 OTTER. 

Swedyh colonift, who had feen it in his own countrj^ fiift be- 
ftowed the name it now goes by, a little changed from the origi- 
nal : the ikins are often brought over to England. 

284. Chinchi- ' MonnaChili,z6^. 



with head, whiikers, ears, e)'es, fhape, and length of the tail, 
exaftly refembling the domeftic cat : feet furnifhed with 
five toes, palmated, and with ftrong and crooked claws: body 
covered with two forts of hair, one very Ihort and fine, the other 
long and rude : length from nofe to tail twenty inches. 
Manners. Inhabits the fea oi Chili, and very feldom quits that element: 

goes always in pairs : loves to bafk in the fun : creeps to the 
fummit of the rocks, where it is taken in traps : has a hoarfe voice, 
and all the fiercenefs of the wild cat. 

28c. Sarico- i^ °^ ^^^ ^^^ °^ ^ ^^'•' ^'^"-^ ^ ^^^ ^"^ ^^ velvet, grey and 
viENNE. V/« black: web footed. 

Lives more in the water than on land : the flefh very delicate, 
and good to eat. 

This appears to me to be the very fame with La petite Loutre 
d\au douce de Cayenne, defcribed and figured by M. de Biifon*,.^ 
probably from a young animal. 

• 5«/i//. iii. 159. tab. xxii. 



The body, fays he, is feven inches {French) in length : the tail Size. 

fix inches and feven lines; flender, taper, tuberculated, convex 
above, flat beneath : ears rounded, and longer than ufual with ot- 
ters ; head, cheeks, and back, duflcy ; and the fides marked regu- 
larly with the fame colors, ifTuing from the back, extending al- 
mofl to the belly ; the fpaces between of a yellowifh grey : above 
each eye is a white fpot : the throat, and whole under fide of the 
body, of the fame color : the toes before are divided ; thofe be- 
hind webbed. 

M. de la Borde, as quoted by M. de Buffon, mentions another 
fpecies of Otter frequent in the rivers of Guiana, weighing from 
twenty to twenty-five pounds, and of a yellowifh color. 

Muftela Lutris. M. plantis palmatis pi- il. 367. /«5. xvi. 286. Sea, 

lofis.caudacorporequadruplobreviore Sea Otter. Hijl, Kanit/chatka, liz. Mul- 

Lin.JyJ}. 66. Schreber, cxxviii. ler's 'vy, 57, 58^ 

Lutra marina, Kalan. A'st;. Com. Petrop. 

/~\ with a black nofe : upper jaw longer and broader than the 
^^ • lower: long white whifkers : irides hazel: ears fmall, 
ereft, conic : in the upper jaw are fix cutting teeth ; in the 
lower four : the grinders broad, adapted for breaking and com- 
minuting cruftaceous animals, and fhell-fifli : flcin thick: hair 
thick and long, exceffively black and glofTy : beneath that a foft 
down : color fometimes varies to filvery : legs thick and fhort : 
toes covered with hair, and joined by a web : the hind feet ex- 
aif^ly like thofe of a feal, and have a membrane fkirting the out- 
M 2 fide 


84 OTTER. 

Size. fide of the exterior toe, like that of a goofe. Length from nofe 

to tail is ufually above three feet; but there have been inftances 
of fome being a foot longer: the tail thirteen Inches and a half; 
flat, fiiUefl: of hair in the middle; fharp-pointed. The biggefl: of 
thefe animals weigh feventy or eighty pounds. 

Place. Inhabits, in vaft abundance, Bering's ifland, Kamtfchatka, the 

Aleutian and the Fox ijlands between AJia and America, and in the 
interior fea as far as has been difcovered to the eaft of De Fucas 
flreights. They are fometimes feen in troops of hundreds, and a 
hundred leagues from land. They are entirely confined between lat. 
49. and 60 north ; and between eaft long, from London 126 to 150. 
During winter they are brought in great numbers by the eafhern 
winds from the American to the KuriUan ifland s. 
Manners. Are moft harmlefs animals : mofl: affectionate to their young; 

will pine to death at the lofs of them, and die on the very fpot where 
they have been taken from them : before the young can fwim, 
they carry them in their paws, lying in the water on their backs: 
run very fwiftly; fwim often on their back, their fides, and even 
in a perpendicular pofture: are very fportive; embrace each 
other, and even kifs : inhabit the fliallows, or fuch which abound 
with fea-weeds : feed on lobfters, fifli. Sepia, and fliell-fifli : breed 
once a year; bring but one young at a time-, fuckle it a year, 
bring it on fliore : are dull fighted, but quick fcentcd : hunted 
for their fkins, which are of great value; fold to the Chinefe for 
feventy or a hundred rubles apiece: each fltin weighs three 
pounds and a half. The young are reckoned very delicate meat, 
fcarcely to be diftinguifhed from a fucking lamb. 

4 Length 

OTTER. 85 

T ENGTH from nofe to tip of tail four feet four inches : of the tail 287. Slekder, 
•*-^ about thirteen inches : diameter of body fcarcely more than five 
inches and a half: fore legs about three inches and a half long: 
hind legs about four inches: head fmall, eyes fmall, ears mod ex- 
tremely fmall, fcarce vihble: fore feet webbed; hind feet more 
flrongly fo : color of the whole animal a rich very deep chefnut or 
dark brown, rather paler beneath : checks and throat paler than 
the other parts, or more inclining to whitifh. 

Inhabits Staten-Land. Place. 


DIV. 11. Sect. Ill, 


Without canine teeth; and with two cutting teeth in 

each jaw. 
Generally herbivorous, or frugivorous. 

C A V Y. 

DIV. II. Sect. III. Digitated Quadrupeds. 

XXV. CAVY. Two cutting teeth in each jaw. 

Generally four toes on the fore feet, three behind. 

Short ears: no tail, or a very ihort one. 

Pace creeping ; and flow: numerous breeders: fliort-lived. 

288. Capieara. Cahy-hma. Mar^gra-ve Brajil. z^o. Pi/o Caplvard. Frogcrs <vey, gg. 

Brafil. gg. Rah'Jyn, quaJ. iz6. Sushydrochaeris.S.plantis tridadyliscau- 

River hog. Wafer in Dampier, ili. 400. da nulla. Lin.fyft. 103. 

Cochon d'Eau. Z)^J 3/ajY/&«;>, iii. 314. Hydrochserus, Le Cabiai. Brijfcn quad, 

Susmaxtimispaluftris. Cabiai,cabionora. 80. De Biiffov, xii. :;84. tab. xlix. 

Barrers France j^quin. 160. Irabubos. Cumil/a Ore'wque,in, 2^8. 

Cwith a very large snd thick head and nofe : fmall rounded 
• ears : large black eyes : upper jaw longer than the lower : 
two ftrong and great cutting teeth in each jaw: eight grinders in 
each jaw ; and each of thofe grinders form on their furface feem- 
ingly three teeth, each flat at their ends*: legs fhort: toes long, 
• connefted near their bottoms by a fmall web; their ends guarded 

by a fmall hoof: no tail : hair on the body Ihort, rough, and 

• M; de Buffon denies this : his defcription was taken from a young fubjedt ; 
but Marcgra've and Des Marchais, who had opportunities of examining thefe 
animals in their native country, agree in this fingular conftruftion of the teeth. 


C A V Y. 89 

brown; on the nofe, long and hard whifkers : grows to the fizc 
of a hog of two years old. 

Inhabits the country from the Ifthmus of Darien to the Brafih, Place. 
and even to Paraguay; lives in the fenny parts, not remote from 
the banks of great rivers, fuch as the Oronoqne, Amazons, and 
Rio de la Plata : runs flowly : fwims and dives remarkably well, 
and keeps for a long time under water : feeds on fruits and vege- 
tables: is very dextrous in catching fifh, which it brings on fliore, 
and eats at its eafe : it fits up, and holds its prey with its fore 
feet, feeding like an ape: feeds in the night, and commits great 
ravages in gardens : keeps in large herds, and makes an horrible 
noife like the braying of an afs : grows very fat: the flefli is eaten, 
is tender, but has an oily and fifhy tafte : is eafily made tame *, 
and foon grows very familiar. 

Cuniculus vel Porcellus Indicus. Ge/ner 49. 289. Restless. 

quad. 367. Mus porcellus. M. cauda nulla, palinis 

Cavia Cobaya. Marcgra've Brajil. 224. tetradaftylis, plancis tridadtylis. Lin. 

Pifo Brajil. 102. Jyjl. 79. Ameer.. Acad. iv. 190. tab. ii. 

Mus feu cuniculus Amencanu! et Guineen- Cuniculus ecaudatus, auritus albus, aut 

fis, Porcelli piliset voce, Cavia Cobaya. rufus, aut ex utroque variegatus. 5r;_^« 

Rait fyn. quad. zz^. quad. i02. 

Cavia Cobaya Brajil. quibufdam mus Le Cochon d'Inde. i?f 5/^«, viii. i./a^. 

Pharaonis. Tatu pilofus. Klein quad. i. Lev. Mus. 

/^ with the upper lip half divided : ears very large, broad, and 
^^* rounded at the fides: hair ereft, not unlike that of a young 
pig; color white, or white varied with orange and black, in irre- 
gular blotches : no tail : four toes on the fore feet; three on the 

* Muratori hijl, Paraguay, 258. 

Vol. II. N ' Inhabits 

50 C A V Y. 

Place. Inhabits Brajil: no mention made by writers of its manners in 

a wild ftate : domefticated in Europe: a reftlefs, grunting, little 
animal; perpetually running from corner to corner: feeds on 
bread, grains, and vegetables: breeds when two months old: 
brings from four to twelve at a time ; and breeds every two 
months: would be innumerable, but numbers of the young are 
eaten by cats, others killed by the males: are very tender, mul- 
titudes of young and old perifliing with cold : are called in Eng- 
land, Guinea Pigs, being fuppofed to come from that country. 
Rats are faid to avoid their haunts. 

200. Rock. Aperea. Brafdienjilus, nobis Veldratte, Cuniculus ecaudatus auritus, ex cinereo 

\t\ho{c\i\s.\.le, Marcgra've Brajil. 2.2'^. rufus. BriJ/cn quad. lo^. 

PifoBraftl. 10 ■^. Rati fjn. quad. 2o6, L'Aperea. De Buffon, xv. i6o. Lev. 

Cavia Aperea. Klein quad. 50, Mus. 

/^ with divided upper lip: fliort ears: four toes on the fore 
^^* feet; three on the hind : no tail: color of the upper part 
of the body black, mottled with tawny : throat and belly white : 
Size. length one foot. 

Place. Inhabits Brqfil: lives in the holes of rocks: is driven out, and 

taken by little dogs : is fuperior in goodnefs to our rabbets : its 
paces like thofe of a hare. 




C A V Y. 


Karbmough^s voy. 33. Lev. Musi 

f~^ with long ears, much dilated near the bottom : upper lip 
^^* divided : on each fide of the nofe tufts of foft hairs, and 
long whifkers: tip of the nofe black : face, back, and fore part 
of the legs, cinereous and ruft- colored: breaft and fides tawnv: 
belly of a dirty white: on each thigh a white patch: rump 
black: legs very long: claws long, ftrait, and black; four on 
the fore feet; three on the hind : tail a mere naked (lump. 

This animal is found of the weight of fix-and twenty pounds*. 

Is found in plenty about Port Dcfve, in Patagonia: lives in 
holes of the earth» like the rabbet : the flelh of a fnowy whitenefs, 
and excellent flavor ■\. 

Sir yohn Narborough, and other voyagers, call it a hare. 

291. Pataco- 


'Pa.zti.Marcgrave Brajil. zz^.Pi/o Brajil, pentadaftylis, lateribus fiavefcenti-li> 

101. De Lael, 484. neatis. Lin./yf. 81. 

Mus Brafilienfis magnus, porcelli pilis et Cuniculus caudatus, auritus, pilis obfcure 

voce, Paca diftus. Raiijyn. quad, 226. fulvis, rigidis, lineis ex albo flavcfcen- 

Cavia Paca. Klein quad. 50. tibus ad latera dillindlis. BriJ/hn quad, 

Cuniculus major, paluftris, fafciis albis 99. 

notatus. Paca Marcgravt, Barrsre Le Paca. De Buffon, x. 269. tab. xHii. 

France j^Equin. I j2. Sufpltm. iii. 203. tab. xliii. Lev, Mus. 
Mus Paca. M. caudaabbrevjata, pedibus 

f~^ with the upper jaw longer than the lower: noftrils large: 
^^* whiflcers long: ears fliort and naked: neck thick: hairs 
(hort and hard: color of the upper part of the body dark 

Bjren's voy. 18. 

N 2 

f The famej 19. 

brown ; 

292. Spotted, 

^2 C A V Y. 

brown ; the lower part, or fides, marked lengthways with lines of 
grey fpots: the belly white ; in fome, perhaps young ones, the 
fides and fpots are of a pale yellow: five toes on each foot; only 
the meer rudiment of a tail: length about ten inches: is made 
like a pig, and in fome parts is called the Hog-Rabbet*. 

Inhabits Braftl, and Guiana: lives in fenny places: burrows 
underground: grows very fat: is efteemed mBraJil a great de- 
licacy: grunts like a pig: eats its meat on the ground, not fitting 
up, as fome others of this genus do : are difcovered by little 
dogs, who point out the places they lie in : the mafter digs over 
them, and when he comes near transfixes them with a knife; 
otherwife they are apt to efcape : will bite dreadfully. There is 
a variety quite white, found on the banks of the river St. 

293. Bristly. Agnus filiorum Urad. Pro/f, J!/i.JEg}ff. Aftinoko. Bruce^s trails, v. 139. 

i 232. Hirax Syriacus. Gmel, Lin. /yji. 167. 

Daman Ifrael. De Buffon Siippl. vi. 276, Schreber, tab. ccxi. B. 
tab, xlii. 

/^ with fhort oval ears, covered within and without widi hair: 
^^* color of the whole animal above grey and ferruginous: 
from the chin to the extremity of the belly white : on the upper 
aftrong briftly mufticho, three inches five eighths long; above the 
eyes another tuft, two inches and two eighths long ; all over the body 
are fcattered fimilar bridles, two inches and a quarter in length : 
the toes are flefliy; the lower part naked, the upper covered with 

* Wafer^s I'o;'. in Dampier, iii. 401. \ De Laet, 48^. 




Ajr^j//// (JaiT/ ^yr. : 

y ryr. ■zgs. 

C A V Y. 

black hairs : the claws fomewhat rcfemble nails, and are ill adapt- 
ed for burrowing: no tail: the length of the whole animal is 
about feventeen inches. 

This fpecies was firft taken notice of by Profper Alpinus, who calls 
it Agnus filiorum Ifrael; the Daman Ifrael of the Arabs. He fays 
it is larger than a rabbet, an objedt of the chace, and that the fefh 
is fweeter than that of the rabbet. 

Inhabits, according to Mr. Eruce, mount Libanus, the mountain Placi 

of the Sun in Jb)ifinia, and in great numbers Cape Mahomet, on 
the Arabian gulph, not far to the eaft of Suez. By Alpinus we find 
they are alfo inhabitants of Mgypt. They are gregarious, and fit 
by dozens on the great ftones to baik in the fun, before the mouth 
of caves, or clefts in the rocks, their places of refuge at the fight 
of man. They are juftly fuppofed by Mr. 'Bruce to have been 
the Saphen (miftranflated the coney) of Holy Writ. Solomon 
fays, ' The hills are the refuge for the wild goats, and the rocks for 
the Conies. See his Saphen. ' The Saphen, adds he, are but a feeble 
* folk, yet make they their houfes in the rocks*.' They retire 
into the depths of the clefts, and there make themfelves a houfe ; 
i. e. a neft of ftraw. Neither the Chrijlians of AbyJJinia and the 
Mahometans, eat the flefli of thefe animals. The Arabs of mount 
Libanus and of Arabia Petro;a ufe them as a food. The flefh is as 
white as a chicken, and free from any ranknefs. 

Mr. Bruce fuppofes that Dodtor Shazv intended this animal by his 
Jird\; but, as our learned countryman exprefsly fays that his 

• Proverbs, ch. xxx. v. 24, 26. 
f 5/?i«iu'j Travels, p. 248. 

4 animal 



C A V Y. 

animal has a tail, and iliat only a little fliorter than that of the 
common rat, we mud have recourfe to fome other fpecies, perhaps 
genus, for theJOVv/ of Barbary, 


LoNG-KOSE. Aguti vel Acuti. Mangrave Brajll. 224. Cuniculus caudatus, auribus, pilis ex ru- 

Pi/o Brafil. loz. foet fufco mixlisrigidis velHtus. Brif- 

Acuti ou Agoutis. DeLaet, 484. Roche- Jon quad. g8. 

fort Antilles, i. 287. L'Agouti. De Biiffon, vlii. 375. tab. I. 

Mus fylvellris Americanus cunicuUmag- Small Indian Coney. Broivni Jamaica, 

nitudine, pilis et voce Porcelli, Aguti. 484. 

Raiijyn. quad. 226. 'Lo'ng.nok&Kshhet. Wafer'' svoyJiDant' 

Cavia Aguti. M. cauda abbreviata, pal- pier, iii. 40I. 

mis tetradaftylis, plantis tridaftylis, Cuniculus omnium vulgatiffimus, Aguti 

abdomine flavefcente. Lin. ff.. 80. vulgo. Barrere France jEquin. 153 *. 

f~^ with a long nofe: divided upper lip: fliort rounded ears: 
^^* black eyes: hard and fhining; on the body mixed with 
red, brown, and black; on the rump, of a bright orange-co- 
lor: belly yellow: legs almoft naked, flender, and black: four 
toes on the fore feet ; three on the hind ; tail fliort, and naked : 
iize of a rabbet. 

Inhabits Brafil, Guiana, &c. Grunts like a pig : is very vora- 
cious: fits on its hind legs, and holds its food with the fore feet 
when it eats: hides what it cannot confume : hops like a hare: 
goes very faft: when purfued, takes fhelter in hollow trees: is 
capable of being tamed : when angry, fets up the hair on its 

• The animal defcribed by Seba under the name of Cuniculus Americanus, 
I, bj. tab. xli. feems the fame with this, notwithllanding he fays, that the hind 
feel are tetradaftylous. 


C A V Y. 

back, and ftrikes the ground with its feet: is eaten by the inha- 
bitants of South America. 


Cuniculus minor caudatus, olivaceus, L'Akouchy, De£uffo>!,xv.2^S.Sup/il,in, zgc. Olivf. 

Akouchy. Barrere France ^quin, 153. 211. tab. xxxvi, 

Des Marchais, iii. 3C3. 

A Species of Aguti, lefs than the former, and of an olive-color: 
•^ ^ which is the whole account left us by M. Barrere. Des 
Marchais fays, it is more delicate food than the other. 

Inhabits Guiana, and the iflands of St. Lucia and Grenada : in- 
habits the woods: lives on fruits: is excellent meat: its flefli is 
white: eafiiy made tame: makes a cry (but very rarely) like 
the rejikfi cavy: abhors water. 

Java hare. Catefiy Carolina, jipp. tab. mixto, Brijon qiiaJ. g^. 296. Javan. 

xviii, Mus leporinus. Lin.fyfi. 80. 

Cavia Javenfis. Klein qiiad. 50. Cuniculu Americanus. i^ib. Muf. \. 67. 

Cuniculus caudatus auritus, rufefco ad- tab. xlii. fig. 2. 

Cwith a flender fmall head : prominent naked ears, rounded 
• at the tops: hairs very ftiff like bridles, efpecially on the 
back: color of the upper part of the body reddifli : bread and 
belly white: legs long: hind parts large: four toes on the fore 
feet; three on the hind : tail (hort : lize of a hare. 

Inhabits Surinam and the hotter parts oi South America, where 
it is a common food : the ficfli is white, but dry. It is not 


96 C A V Y. 

found ill Java or Sumatra, as Catejly afierts. Governor Loten 
alTures me, that he made the moft diligent enquiry after it in 
mod parts of Java, but could never find the left traces of any 
fuch animal. 

ZQ7 C-vPE Cavia capenfis. Pfl//aj M//rf/. Zocl, 30. Monogr. De Bvffoii, SuppUm. m. 177. 

''' * tab. ii. Sptc'd. 16. tab. ii. tab. xxix. 

Africaanlch bafterd-mormeldier. Vofmaer 

^ with a thick head, and full cheeks: ears oval, half hid in^ 
^^* the fur: head of the color of a hare : along the top of the 
back dufky, mixed with grey j fides and belly of a whitifh grey : 
four toes on the fore feet, three behind : tail fcarce vifible : fize 
of a rabbet, but the fhape of the body thick and clumfy. 

Inhabits in great abundance the rocky mountains near the Cape 
of Good Hope, where it is called Kaapfche Dafs, Klip Dafs *, or 
Cape Badger : burrows under ground : has a flow creeping pace; 
a (harp voice, often repeated : is efteemed very good meat. 

• Kolben, Dutch edition, as quoted by Dr. Pallas. La Cailk mentions this fpecies 
under the name of Mai mat. 

c A V y. gy 

Les Ratsmufques, Piloris. ^fffy?'5)^r/j/«- ^oz. De Buffoit, X, 2> 398. Muik 

tilUs, i. 288. Du Terire hi/}. Antilles, ii. 

i"^ of a black or tan color on the upper part of its body: white 
^^* on the belly : tail very fhort * : almoft as big as a rabbet. 

Inhabits Martinico and the reft of the Antilles : burrows like a 
rabbet : fmells fo ftrong of mulk, that its retreat may be traced 
by the perfume : an obfcure fpecies, never examined by a na- 

• Neuv.toy. auxijles dePAmenqui, i. 43?, 

Vol. II. O Two 


XXVI. HARE. Two cutting teeth in each jaw. 

Short tail : or none. 
Five toes before ; four behind. 

299. COMMOff. "Lt^Mi, Pliniilih.v'uuc.^^. Ge/nerqttad. quad. g^. 

605. Rait /yn. quad. 204. LeLievre. DeBufe»,yi.2^6./ai,xxxvm. 

Hafe, Klein quad. 51. Br. Zool i. N° 20. 

Lepus timidus. L. cauda abbreviata au- Arnaeb. Forjkal. iv. Lev. Mus. in which 

riculis apice nigris ? Lin.JyJl.Tj. Hafe, are leveral curious varieties of colored 

Faun./uec.'Ho. z^. hares. 
Lepus caudatus ex cinereo rufus. Brijfon 

Hwith ears tipt with black: eyes very large and prominent: 
* chin white: long white whifkers: hair on the face, back, 
and fides, white at the bottom, black in the middle, and tipt with 
tawny red: throat and breaft red: belly white: tail black above, 
white beneath : feet covered with hair even at the bottom : a 
large hare weighs eight pounds and a half. I am informed, that 
in the Ijk of Man fome have been known to weigh twelve : its 
length, from the nofe to the tail, two feet. 

Inhabits all parts oi Europe, mod parts oi Jfia, Japan, Ceylon*, 
jEgyptf, and BarbaryX' a watchful, timid animal: always 
lean : fwifter in running up hill than on even ground : when 
ftarted, immediately endeavours to run up hill: efcapes the 
hounds by various artful doubles: lies the whole day on its feat: 
feeds by night : returns to its form by the fame road that it had 

• Kawpfer Japan, i. iz6. Knox Ceylon, 20. f Piofp. Alp, i. 233. 

X Sha'w''s Tranjels, 249. 


HARE. 99 

taken in leaving it: does not pair: the rutting-feafon is in Fif- 
bruary or March, when the male purfues the female by the h- 
gacity of its nofe: breeds often in the yezv; brings three or four 
at a time : are very fubjeft to fleas : the Dakcarlians make a 
cloth of the fur, which preferves the wearer from their attacks : 
the fur is of great ufe in the hat manufafture: feeds on vege- 
tables: fond of the bark of young trees : a great lover of birch, 
parfly and pinks : was a forbidden food among the Britons : the 
Romans, on the contrary, held it in great efteem. 

Inter quadrupedes gloria prima kpus, 

was the opinion of i\^r//«/; and Horace, who was likewife a 5o« 
vivatit, fays, that every man of tafte mud prefer the wing 
Fciiundi leporis fapiens feBabitur armos. 

There have been feveral inftances of what may be called mon- Horned Hares. 
fters in this fpecies, horned hares, excrefences growing out of 
their heads, likeft to the horns of the roe-buck. Such are thofe 
figured in Gefner's hiftory of quadrupeds, p. 634; in the Mufeum 
Regium Hafni^, No. 48. tab. iv; and in isT/ifrVs hiftory of qua- 
drupeds, 32. tab. iii ; and\n dekr'ihed'm fFormius's Mufeum, 
p. 321, and in Grezv's Mufeum of the Royal Society. Thefe in- 
ftances have occurred in Saxony, and I think in Denmark, to 
which may be added another near JJlracan*. 

A farther account of two ftraw-colored animals like dogs, 
which run like hares, and were of the fame fize, feen by the late 
navigators in New Holland^, will, I fear, be a long defideratum 
among naturalifts. 

* Pallas. f Cook^s 'vtj. iii, 565. 

O 2 Lepus 



300, Va RY I N c. Lepu! hieme albus. Farjlerhiji. nat. Vol- Lepus variabiEs. Tallas. Hov./p. i. Lev. 
CJE. Ph.Trar/.Wu. i^^. Mus. 

Alpine hare. Br, Zool. i. N° 20. 


with fofc hair, in fummer grey, with a flight mixture of 
* black and tawny : with (liorter ears, and more flender 
legs, than the common hare: tail entirely white, even in fum- 
mer : the feet moft clofely and warmly furred. In winter, the 
whole animal changes to a fnowy whitenefs, except the tips and 
edges of the ears, which remain black, as are the foles of the 
feet, on which, in Siberia, the fur is doubly thick, and yellow. 
Lefs than the common fpecies. 
Place. Inhabits the higheft Scot/iJI: Alps, Norzvay, Lapland, Rujfia, 

Siberia *, Kamtfchatka, and the banks of the f-Folga, and Hudfons 
Bay. In Scotland, keeps on the tops of the higheft hills ; never 
defcends into the vales ; never mixes with the common hare, 
which is common in its neighborhood: does not run faft: apt 
to take (helter in clefts of rocks : is eafily tamed : full of frohc : 
fond of honey and carraway comfits : eats its own dung before 
a ftorm : changes its color in September: refumes its grey coat 
in April: in the extreme cold of Greenland only, is always f 
white. Both kinds of hares are common in Siberia, on the 
banks of the ffolga, and in the Orenburg government. The one 
never changes color : the other, native of the fame place, con- 

• Vide Pontpf:. Neriuaj, ii. 9. Scheffer -LnplaMii, IIJ, Strahltnberg RuJ/itt, 370, 
'RitMoff Orenberg Topog. i. 287. 
t ^ge^t, Grienl, 62, Crantx, Green!. 5. 70, 



.' I /■//-///?/</ ,/i/7/f , l.^oo //../ifr^Htra ' /i/i/rr^ — P 

n //?/</ 


HARE. loi 

ftantly aflumes the whltenefs of the fnow duiing winter. This 
it does, not only in the open air, and in a ftate of Uberty : but, 
as experiment has proved, even when kept tame, and preferved 
in houfes in the ftove-warmed apartments ; in which it experi- 
ences the fame changes of colors as if it had dwelt on the fnowy 

They colle6t together, and are feen in troops of five or fix Micratioks. 
hundred, migrating in fpring, and returning in autumn -f . They 
are compelled to this by the want of fubfiftence, quitting in the 
winter the lofty hills, the fouthern boundaries of Siberia, and 
feek the plains and northern wooded parts, where vegetables 
abound J and towards fpring feek again the mountainous quar- 
ters;!;. Mr. Muller fays, he once favv two black hares, in Siba- Black hares. 
ria, of a wonderful fine glofs, and of as full a black as jet. Near 
Cafan was taken another in the middle of the winter 1768. Thefe 
fpecimens were much larger than the common kind. 

In the fouthern and weftern provinces of RuJJia is a mixed «• Spurious; 
breed of hares, between this and the common fpecies. It fuf- 
tains, during winter only, a partial lofs of color : the fides, and 
more expofed parts of the ears and legs, in that feafon, become 
white ; the other parts retain their colors. This variety is un- 
known beyond the Urallian chain. It is called by the Ruffians, 
Rnjfak ; they take them in great numbers in fnares, and export 
their Ikins to England and other places, for the manufacture of 
hats ||. The Rujfians and Tartars, like the Britons of old, hold 

• Pallat nov. fp. fafc. j. p. 7. f Bell's Trtivtis, i. 238. J Pallas 

nov, fp. fafc. i. p. 15. {| The fame, p. 6. 


io» HARE. 

the flefh of hares in dcteftation, efteeming It impure: that of 
the VARIABLE, in its white flate, is exceflively infipid. 

joit American. Hare, hedge Coney. Zflw/o«, 122. Cate^y, Ap<p. xxv'm. 

Hvvith the ears tipt with grey: upper part of the tail black; 
• lower white : neck and body mixed with cinereous, ruft- 
color, and black: legs of a pale ferruginous: belly white; fore 
legs fliorter, hind legs longer, in proportion, than thofe of the 
common hare. 

Length eighteen inches: weighs from three to four pounds 
and a half. 

Inhabits all parts of North America. In New Jerfey, and the 
colonies fouth of that province, it retains its color the whole 
year. In New England'^, Canada, and about Hudfons Bay, at 
approach of winter, it changes its fhort fummer's fur for one very 
long, (ilky, and filvery, even to the roots of the hairs; the edges 
of the ears only preferving their color: at that time it is in the 
highell; feafon for the table-j-; and is of vaft ufe to thofe who 
winter in Hudfons Bay, where they are taken in vaft abundance, 
in fpringes made of braCs wire, to which the animals are led by a 
hedge made for that purpofe, with holes left before the fnares 
for the rabbets to pafs through. 

They breed once or twice a year, and have from five to (evta 
at a time: they do not migrate, like the preceding, but always 
haunt the fame places: they do not burrow, but lodge under 

• Jo/sljri's Rarities, 22. f Clerk Californ. 5. 156. 


HARE. 103 

fallen timber, and in hollow trees: they breed in the grafs; but 
in Tpring fhelter their young in the trees, to which they alfo run 
when purfued; from which, in the fouthern colonies, the hun- 
ters * force them by means of a hooked ftick, or by making a 
fire, and driving them out by the fmoke. I have had an oppor- 
tunity of examining this fpecies in its brown drefs from Venjyl- 
vaniuy and its winter's drefs from Hudfon's Bay. 

Cuniculus. Plitiii, lib. vili. c, 55. Ge/tter Kanin. Taun./uec. No. 26. Br. Zeol. 1. 302. Rabbet. 

quad. 362. Agricola An. Subt. 482 N° 22. 

Rabbet, or Coney. Raiifyn. quad. 205. Lepus caudatus, obfcure cinereus. 5r^» 

Lepufculus, cuniculus lerram fodiens, quad. 95. 

Kaninchen. Ktetnquad. 52. Le Lapin. De Buffon, vi. 303. tab, 1, li, 

Lepus cuniculus. L. cauda abbreviata. Lev. Mus, 

auriculis nudatis. Lin.J'yJl. 77. 

Hwith ears almoft naked: color of the fur, in a wild ftate, 
• brown; tail black above, white beneath: in a tame ftate, 
varies to black, pied, and quite white : the eyes of the laft of a 
fine red. 

Inhabits, in a wild ftate, the temperate and hot parts of £«- 
rope, and the hotteft parts of Afta and Africa: not originally 
Britifo ; but fucceeds here admirably ; will not live in Sweden, or 
the northern countries, except in houfes. Strabo -f tells us, that 
they were firft imported into Italy from Spain, Not natives of 
America; but encreafe greatly in .9. ^^wnV^. 

Moft prolific animals: breed feven times in a year: produce 
eight young at a time : fuppofing that to happen regularly, one 

• Kalm,n. ^S. t Lib.'i^, 

8 pair 

I04 tl A R E. 

pair may bring in four years 1,274,840. In warrens, keep In their 
holes in the middle of the day; come out morning and night: 
the males apt to deftroy the young : the fkins a great article of 
commerce ; numbers exported to China : the fur of great ufe in 
the hat-manufafture. 

(3. Angora Rabbet. With hair long, waved, and of a filky 
finenefs, like that of the goat ofJngora, vol. i. p. 61 . and the Caf, 
vol. i. p. 296. 

J/. Hooded Rabbet. With a double fkin over the back, Into 
which it can withdraw its head : another under the throat, in 
which it can place its fore feet : has fmall holes in the loofc 
Ikin on the back, to admit light to the eyes : color of the body- 
cinereous : head and ears brown. 

Defcribed from a drawing, and manufcript account, by Mr, G. 
Edwards, preferved in the Mufeum; infcribed " A RuJJlan Rab- 
•' bet;"" but I find that it is unknown in that empire. 

303. Baikal Cunkulusinfignitercaudatus, colons Le- Lepuscaudainfupinapartenigralnprona 

porini. Nov, Com. Petrop. v, 357. tab. alba. Brijfon quad. 97. 
xi. Le Tolai. De Buffon, xv. 138. 

TJ" with a tail longer than that of a rabbet : ears longer in the 
•*-■'■* male, in proportion, than thofe of the varying hzxc: fur 
of the color of the common hare: red about the neck and feet: 




tail black above, white beneath : fize between that of the common 
and the varying hare. 

Inhabits the country beyond lake Baikal, and extends throvigh 
the great Gobee, even to Thihet. The Tanguts call it Rangwot 
and confecrate it among the fpots of the moon * : agrees with 
the common rabbet in color of the flefh ; but does not burrow, 
running inftantly (without taking a ring as the common hare 
does) for fhelter, when purfued, into holes of rocks; fo agrees in 
nature with neither that nor the rabbet. Called by the Mongols, 
Tolai. The fur is bad, and of no ufe in commerce. 

Lepus Capenfis. L. cauda longitud'me capitis, pedlbus rubris. Lin.fyll, 78. .^, Cape. 

T T with long ears dilated in the middle : the outfides naked, 
*■ "*•• and of a rofe-color : infide and edges covered with (horC 
grey hairs : crown and back dufky, mixed with tawny : cheeks 
and fides cinereous : bread, belly, and legs, ruft-colored ; tail 
bufhy, carried upwards; of a pale ferruginous color. 

Size of a rabbet. 

Inhabits the country three days north of the Cape of Good Hope. 
Is called there the Mountain Hare, for it lives only in the rocky 
mountain? ; does not burrow. It is difficult to fhoot it, as it in- 
ilandy, on the fight of any one, runs into the fiffures of the 

The fame fpecics probably extends as high as Senegal. M. Adan- 
fon (44) obferves, that the hares of that country are not fo large 

• PaUas nov./p, i, 20. 

Voi. II. T as 

io6 H A R E. 

as thofe of France ; tlieir color between that of the European kind 
and a rabbet ; and their flelh white. 

JOC. ViSCACciA. LipuiviCciCcii. Molina CkilifzSg. Jco^a Peru. ijz^. ip. ■^i.GarcilaJo de laFi- 
in Purchui\ Pilgrims, iii. 966. FeuilUe ga 331. 


with the appearance of a rabbet, excepting the tail ; in that 
part and color like a fox : the tail is long, and turned up, 
and covered with coarfe hair : the reft of the hair foft : Hze 
fuperior to that of a rabbet. 
Manners. Inhabits Peru and Chili: lives under ground, and forms two 

boroughs one above the other; in the one it keeps its provifions, 
in the other fleeps: goes out only in the night: its fleili is wh-itc 
and tender. The antient Peruvia7is make ftuffs of the hair, which 
were fo fine as to be worn only by the nobility. In Chili it goei 
into the hat-manufaflory :. its tail is its weapon of defence. 

306, CuY. Lepus pufillus. A^elina ChiH. 28S. 

T_T with a conoid body : ears fmall, pointed, and covered witK 
"*■■*•* hair: nofe long: tail fo fliort as fcarcely to be feen : is 
domefticated and varies in color to white, brown, and fpotted with, 
divers colors : fur very fine : llze of a field moufe. 

Inhabits Chili: breeds every month, and brings, from fix to 
eight young : is delicate eating. 

•* Without- 


* * Without a tail. 


Tapetl 3iW/r«^.. £r.7//. 223. P;> fyji-l'i. 307. Brasihan. 

Brajil. 102. Lepus ecaudatus. BriJpDiquaJ. 97, 

Caniculus Brafilie:ijii Taped didus. Rati Le Tapeti. De Bujon, xv. 1 6z. 

^'«- ?'""»'• 205- Collar'd Rabbet. //V<rr'/'i/o>-.»«Z)a«//Vr, 
\^tip\xi Brafiliei/is. L. Cauda nulla. Z/». iii. 401. 

TT with very large ears, lilcc the common kind : a white ring 
*■*■• round the neck: face of a reddifli color: chin white: 
black feyes : color of the body like the common hare, only darker : 
belly whitifh: no tail: fome want the white ring round the 

Inhabit J??v7/?/; live in woods: do not burrow: are very pro- 
lific: very good meat: found alfo in Mexico*} where they arc 
called Citli. 

Lepus Alpinus. Pallas, nov. fp. fafc. i. J2. tab. ii. Itin, ii. 701. tah. A. Zimmirman. ,-g » 

TT with fhort, broad, rounded ears: head long: very long 
•^ ■'■, whifkers: two very long hairs above each eye: color of 
the fur at the bottom dufky, towards the ends of a bright ferru- 
ginous; the tips white; intermixed are feveral long dufky hairs; 
but on firfl: infpeftion the whole feems of a bright bay. 
Length of that I faw was nine inches. 

• Htrnattdez An, Nov, Hi/f, 2. 

P 2 Thefe 

^ HARE.' 

Place. Thefe animals arc firft feen on \.\\t Altciic chain, and extend to 

\akt Baikal; and from thence to Kamtfchatka ; and, as it is faid, in 
the new-difcovered Fox or Aleutian iflands. They inhabit al- 
ways the middle region of the fnowy mountains, in the rudeft 
places, wooded and abounding with herbs and moifture. 

They fometimes form burrows between the rocks, and oftencr 
lodge in the crevices ; and are found in pairs, or more, according 
to convenlency: in cloudy weather they collect together, and 
Voice. lie on the rocks, and give a keen whiftle, fo like that of a fpar« 

row, as to deceive the hearer. On the report of a gun, they run 
into their holes ; but foon come out again, fuppofing it to be a 
clap of thunder, to which they are fo much ufed in their lofty ha- 

By wonderful InRindl they make a provifion againft the ri- 
gorous feafon in tlieir inclement feats. A company of them, to- 
wards autumn, colled together vaft heaps of choice herbs and 
grafTcs, nicely dried, which ' they place either beneath the over- 
hanging rocks, or between the chafms, or round the trunk of fome 
tree. The way to thefe heaps is marked by a worn path. In 
many places the herbs appeared fcattered, as if to be dried in the 
fun and harvefted properly. The heaps are formed like round or 
conoid ricks; and are of various fizes, according to the number 
of the fociety employed in forming them. They are fometimes 
of a man's height, and many feet in diameter, but ufually about 
three feet. 

Thus they wifely provide their winter's ftock, otherwife they 
muft perifh, being prevented by the depth of fnow to quit their 
retreats in queft of food. 

8 They 


They feledl the bcft of vegetables, and crop them when in the 
fulleft vi'gor, which they make into the beft and greened hay by 
the judicious manner in which they dry it. Thefe ricks are the 
origin of fertility amidft the rocks ; for the rehques, mixed with 
the dung of the animals, rot in the barren chafms, and create a 
foil produdive of vegetables. 

Thefe ricks are alfo of great fervice to that branch of man- 
kind who devote themfclves to the laborious employ of fable- 
hunting : for being obliged to go far from home, their horfes 
would often perifh for want, if they had not the provifion 
of thefe induftrious little animals to fupport them ; which is ca- 
fily to be difcovered by their height and form, even when covered 
with fnow. It is for this reafon that this little beaft has a name 
among every Siberian and Tartarian nation, which othcrvvife would 
have been overlooked and defpifed. The people of Jakutz are 
faid to feed both their horfes and cattle with the reliques of the 
winter flock of thefe hares. 

Thefe animals are negledled as a food by mankind, but are the 
prey of fables and the Siberian weefel, which are joint inhabitants 
of the mountains. They are likewife greatly infefted by a fort of 
gadfly, which lodges its egg in their fkin in Auguji and September^ 
which often proves deftrudive to them. 


Lepus Ogotona. Tallas Nov. fp. fafc. 1. 59. ial. iii. jgg, Ogotona, 

with oblong oval ears, si little pointed : fhorter whiikers 
• than the former: hairs long and fmooth : color of thofe 


no H A R E. 

on the bod}', brown at the roots, light grey in the middle, white 
at the ends, intermixed with a very few dufley hairs *. a yellowifh 
fpot on the nofe : fpace about the rnmp of the fame color: out- 
lide of the limbs yellowlfh: belly white. 

Length about fix inches : weight of a male, from fix ounces 
and a half to feven and a quarter ; of the female, from four to 
foiir and three qQarters. 

Inhabits only the country beyond lake Baikal, and from thence 
common in all parts of the Mongolian defert, and the vaft defert 
of Goke, which extends on the back of China and Thibet, even to 
India. It lives in the open vallies, and on gravelly or rocky 
naked mountains. Thefe little creatures are called by the Mon- 
gols, Ogotona: are found in vafl: abundance; live under heaps of 
flones, or burrow in the fandy foil, leaving two or three en- 
trances. Their holes run obliquely : in thefe they make a neft of 
foft grafs. The old females make for fecurity many of thefe bur- 
rows near each other, that they may, if difturbed, retreat from 
one to the other. 

They wander out chiefly in the night. Their voice is exceffively 
Ihrill, a note like that of a fparrow, twice or thrice repeated; but 
veryeafdy to be diftinguilhed from that of ih^ Alpine hare. 

They live in the vallies, principally on the tender bark of a 
fort of Service and the dwarf elm; in the fpring on different 
herbs. Before the approach of fevere cold, in the early fpring, 
they colleft great quantities of herbs, and fill their holes with 
them, which the inhabitants of the country confider as a fare fign 
©f change of weather. 

Direded by the fame inftind with the former, they form ia 


HARE. in 

autumn their ricks of hay of a hemifpherical fhape; about a foot 
high and wide: in the fpring thefe elegant heaps difappear, and 
nothing but the reliques are feen. 

They copulate in the fpring, and about the latter end of June 
their young are obferved to be full grown. 

They are the prey of hawks, magpies, and owls: but the Cat 
Manid makes the greatefl havock among them : and the ermine 
and fitchet is, equally their enemy. 

tepus pufillus. ?ullas Nov. fp. i. 31. tab. i. Nov. Com. Petref. xiii. ^^i./ai.xW. 3'°' Callimg. 

TT with a head longer than ufual with hares, and thickly covered 
■»••*•• with fur, even to the tip of the nofe : numerous hairs in the 
whiflcers : ears large and rounded: legs very (hort: foles furred 
beneath : its whole coat very foft, long, and fmooth, with a thick 
long fine down beneath, of a brownilh lead-color: the hairs of 
the fame color; towards the ends of a light grey, and tipt with 
black : the lower part of the body hoary : the fides and ends of 
the fur yellowifh. 

Length about fix inches: weight from three ounces and a Size. 

quarter to four and a half; in winter fcarcely two and a half. 

Inhabits the fouth-eaft parts oi RuJJia, and about all the ridge Placi.. 
ef hills fpreading fouthward from the Urallian chain ; alfo about 
the Irtifh, and in the weft part of the Altaic chain ; but no 

wh efe 

118 HARE. 

where in the eafl: beyond the Oby. They delight in the mod 
funny vallies, and herby hills, efpecially near the edges of woods, 
to which they run on any alarm. 
Mannerj, They live (o concealed a life as very rarely to be feen: but arc 

often taken in winter, in the fnares laid for the ermines -, fo arc 
well known to the hunters. About the Folga they are called Sem- 
■lanoi Saetjhik, or Ground Hare: the Tartars, from their voice, 
ftyle them Tfchotfchot or Ittfttjlan, or the Barking Moufe; the 
Kalmucs call them Rujla. 

They chufe for their burrows a dry fpot, amidfl bufhes covered 
with a firm fod, preferring the weftern fides of the hills; in 
thefe they burrow, leaving a very fmall hole for the entrance; 
and forming long galleries, in which they make their nefts : but 
thofe of the old ones, and females, are numerous and intricate: 
their j)lace would be fcarcely known but for their excrements, 
and even thofe they drop, by a wife inftintt, under fome buili, leaft 
their dwelling fliould be difcovered by their enemies among the 
animal creation. 

-^Qicz. It is their voice alone that betrays their abode : it is like the pip- 

ing of a quail, but deeper, and fo loud as to be heard at the difiance 
of half a German mile. It is repeated by juft intervals thrice, 
four times, and often fix. This is wonderful, as this little ani- 
mal does not appear to be particularly org;inized for the purpofe. 
The voice is emitted at night and morning : feklom in the day, 
except in rainy and cloudy weather. It is common to b th fcxes^ 
but the female is filent for fome time after parturition, which i^ 

Young. about the beginning of M^ry, N. S. They bring forth fix at a 

time, blind, and naked -, which (he fuckles often, and covers care- 
fully with the materials of her neft. 




'■'-.' f/y//ytf ,y/f7fr , l.jc>y. 

HARE. 113 

Thefe moft harmlefs and inoffenfive animals never go from 
their holes : feed and make their little excurfions by night : 
drink, often : fleep little: are eafily made tame: will fcarcely bite 
when handled. The males in confinement are obferved to attack 
one another, and exprefs their anger by a grunting noife. 

Vol. II. Q, Two 




Two cutting teeth in each jaw. 

Five toes on each foot. 

Tail comprefled, and covered with fcales. 

in. Castor. Ka.(7T!»^- Arift. hijl. An. lib. viii. f. 5. Caflor caftanei colons, cauda horizonta- 

Qppian. Halieut. i. 398. liter plana. BriJJhn quad, go. 

Fiber. PUnii lib. v'ni c. 30. Jgricola An, Caller Fiber. C. cauda ovata plana. Lin, 
Suit. 482. BelonJquat. 25. )\ft. 78. 

C&^or. Gejner quad. 309. Rondel, 236. Batwer, Biur. Faun. /itec. N° zy. 

Schene'veld Icth. 34. Le Callor, ou Le Bievre. De Bujhn, viii. 

Beaver. Raiifyn. quod. 209. 282. tab. xxxvi. 

Bobr. Rzaczmjki Polon. 215. Beaver. Br. Zool. i. PL 9. Lev. Mus. 

Biber. Klein quad, 91. Kramer Aufir, 315. 

B with ftrong cutting teeth: (hoit ears, hid in the fur: blunt 
• nofe: hair of a deep chefnut brown: tail broad, almofl: 
oval, comprefled horizontally, covered with fcales: the fore feet 
fmall; the hind large: length from nofe to tail, about three feet : 
tail eleven inches long, three broad. 
Placi, Inhabits £.'/ro/)f, f fom Lapland to Languedoc* : in great plenty 

in the North: a few are yet found in the Rhone f, the Gardon, the 
Danube, the Rhine, and the, I have an inftance of two 
old and fix young being taken in 1742, at Gornichem, in Holland; 
another in 1757 in the Tjfel, in Guelderland; and another in 1770 
in the Maas, near the village Hedcl, not far from Bois le due : this 
laft weighed forty pounds, and had two bags of cajiorcim, weigh- 

DeBi<Jon, viii. 2S6. 

t Ibid. 



BEAVER. 115 

ing four ounces, and of excellent quality. It had inhabited the 
river for fome years, and done much damage to the willow- 
trees, with whofe bark its flomach was found full. They are 
much more frequent in the Lippe, above IVcjU, from which river 
they might defcend into thofe oi Holland*. 

Abound in the JJtatic part of the Ruffian empire; are found 
in companies, or aflbciated, about the Konda, and other rivers 
which flow into the Oby. They are met with difperfed, or in the 
ftate of Terriers, in the wooded parts of independent Tartary, and 
in the chains of mountains which border upon Siberia. None 
are to be feen in Kamtfchatka, by reafon of the interruption of the 
woods beyond the river Kozvyma ; nor yet in the new-difcovered 
iflands weft of that country : only in the ifle of Kadjak, the neareft 
to America, fome ikins have been procured by the Rnjfians, which 
probably were got by the natives from Arncrica, in whofe northern 
parts they are found in prodigious abundance. 

The moll induftrious of animals: nothing equals the art with Manners. 
which they conftruft their dwellings. They chufe a level piece 
of ground, with a fmall rivulet running through it. This they 
form into a pond, by making a dam acrofs ; firfl by driving into 
the ground ftakes five or fix feet long, placed in rows, wattling 
each row with pliant twigs, and filling the interllices with clay, 
ramming it down clofe. The fide neareft to the water is floped; 
the other perpendicular. The bottom is from ten to twelve feet 
thick; but the thicknefs gradually diminiflies to the top, which 
is about two or three. The length of thefe dams is fometimes 
not lefs than a hundred feet. 

* Marline's Kalechi/nt, Natur.iu I43i 

0^2 Their 

ii6 B E A V E R. 

Their houfes are made in the water collected by means of the 
clam, and are placed near the edge of the (hore. They are builc 
on piles; are either round or oval ; but the tops are vaulted; fo 
! that their infide refembles an oven, the top a dome. The walls 
are two feet thick ; made of earth, ftones, and flicks, nioft arti- 
ficially laid together ; and the walls within as neatly plaiftered 
as if with a trowel. In each houfe arc two openings; one into the 
water, the other towards the land. The height of thefe houfes 
above the water is eight feet. They often make two or three 
itories in each dwelling, for the convenience of change, in cafe 
of floods. Each houfe contains from two to thirty beavers ; and 
the number of houfes in each pond is from ten to twenty-five. 
Each beaver forms its bed of mofs; and each family forms its 
magazine of winter provifion, which confifts of bark and boughs 
of trees. This they lodge under water, and fetch it into their 
apartments as their wants require. Lazvfon fays they are fondell 
of the faffafras, afh, and fweet-gum. Their fummer food is 
leaves, fruits, and fometimes crabs and craw-fidi; but they are not 
fond of fifh. 

To effeft thefe works, a community of two or three hundred 
afTembles; each bears his fliare in the labor: fome fall, by gnaw- 
ing with their teeth, trees of great fize, to form beams or piles; 
thefe are gnawed all round in as regular a manner as a cutter cuts 
in falling a tree, bringing the bottom of the wood to a point*: 
others roll the pieces along to the water ; others dive, and with 
their feet fcrape holes, in order to place them in; while others 

• This wUl be bell underftood by infpefting the fpecimens in the Leverian 


BEAVER. 117 

exert their efforts to rear them in their proper places : another 
party is employed in coUecVing twigs, to wattle the piles with; 
a third, in collecting earth, ftones, and clay; a fourth is bulled in 
beating and temperi^.g the mortar; others, in carrying it on their 
broad tails to proper places, and with the fame inftrument ram it 
between the pJk-Sj or plaifter the infide of their houfes. A cer- 
tain number of fmart flrokes with their tail, is a fignal given by 
the overfeer, for repairing to fuch or fuch places, either for mend- 
ing any defeds, or at the approach of an enemy ; and the whole 
fociety attend to it with the utmoft affidiiity. Their time of 
building is early in the fummer; for in winter they never ftir but 
to their magazines of provifions, and during that feafon are very 
fat. They breed once a year, and bring forth, the latter end of 
the winter, two or three young at a birth. 

Befides thefe aflbciated beavers, is another fort, which are 
called Terriers; which either want induflry or fagacity to form 
houfes like the others. They burrow in the banks of rivers, 
making their holes beneath the freezing depth of the water, and 
work up for a great number of feet. Thefe alfo form their win- 
ter ftock of provifion. 

Beavers vary in their colors : the fineft are black ; but the ge- 
neral color is a chefaut brown, more or lefs dark: fome have 
been found, but very rarely-, white; others fpotted: both varie- 
ties are preferved in the Leverian Museum. The ikins are a 
prodigious article of trade; being the foundation of the hat-ma- 
nufadtory. In 1763 were fold, in a fingle fale of the Hudfon's 
^i^y Company, 54,670 Ikins. They are diftinguifhed by different 
names. Coat Beaver is what has been worn as coverlets by the 
Indians. Parchment Beaver, becaufe the lower fide refeinbles it. 


ii8 BEAVER. 

Stage Beaver is the worft, and is that which the Indians kill out 
of feafon, on their ftages or journles. The valuable drug Cafio- 
reum * is taken from the inguinal glands of thefe animals. The 
antients had a notion it was lodged in the tefticles, and diat the 
animal, when hard preffed, would bite them off, and leave them 
to its purfuers, as if confcious of what they wanted to deftroy 
• him for. 

Imitatus Caftora, qui ft 
Eunuchum ip/efacil, cupiens evadere damr.o 
leftieulorum. Juvenal, xii, 34, 

Jull as the Beaver, that wife thinking brute. 

Who, when hard hunted on a clofe purfuit. 

Bites off the parts, the caufe of all the flrife. 

And leaves them as a ranfom for his life. Dryden, 

• The RuJJian Cajloreum is fo much better than the American, that we give two 
guineas a pound for that, and only 8i. bd, for the laft ; the firll being lefs waxy, 
and pulverifes readier. Notwithftanding we take this drug from Rujfia, we export 
there vaft numbers of Beaver (kins. The flefh is reckoned good eating, being 
preferved, after the bones are taken out, by drying it in the fmoke. 






Muflafcus. Bm'itVs Virginia, z-]. Caflor Cauda verticaliter plana, digitis 312. Musk. 

Mufqualh. JoJJllyn's 'voy. New England, omnibus a fe inviceinfeparatis.£>-/^;j 

86. ' quad. 93. 

Muflc Rat. Laiv/on Carolina, 120. L'Ondatra. De Buffon, X. i. tah. 1, 

Caftor Zibethicus. C. cauda longa com- Rat Mufque. Charlevoix Nowv. France, 

preflb-lanceolata, pcdibus fiffis. Lin. v. 157, Le/carbot N. Fr. 350. Lev. 

fyji. Mus. 

with a thick bUint nofe: ears (hort, and almoft hid in the 
' fur: eyes large: toes on each foot feparated ; thofe behind 
fringed on each fide with flrong hairs, clofely fet together : tail 
compreffed fideways, and very thin at the edges, covered with 
fmall fcales, intermixed with a few hairs: color of the head and 
body a reddifh brown: breall and belly aQi-coIor, tinged with 
red: the fur very fine: length, from nofe to tail, one foot; of 
the tail, nine inches : in the form of its body, exaftly refembles 
a beaver. 

Inhabits North America: breeds three or four times in a year *, 
and brings from three to fix young at a time : during fummer, 
the male and female confort together: at approach of winter, 
unite in families, and retire into fmall round edifices, covered 
with a dome, formed of herbs and reeds cemented with clay : at 
the bottom are feveral pipes, through which they pafs in fearch 
of food ; for they do not form magazines like the beavers: dur- 
ing winter, their habitations are covered many feet deep with 
fnow and ice; but they creep out and feed on the roots that lie 

* MS. biJJ. HuJfon's Bay. 

c beneath : 


beneath : they quit then- old habitations annually, and build new 
ones. The fur is foft, and much efteemed : the whole animal, 
during fummer, has a moft exquifite mufky fmell : which it lofes 
in winter : perhaps the fcent is derived from the Calamus Aro- 
maticus, a favorite food of this animal. Lefcarbot fays they are 
very good to eat. 

<13.Gu1l.LiNO. Caftor Huldobrius. Molina Chili, 266. 


with a fquare head : fliort and round ears : fmall eyes: color 
'• grey; dark on the back, whitifli on the belly. It has two 
forts of hair, like the common beaver : one (hort and fine, and fuf- 
ceptible of any dye ; the other fpecies of hair long and hard : 
the toes of the fore feet bordered with a membrane; the hind feet 
webbed : the back very broad ; the tail long and hairy, and length 
from the nofe to the tail three feet ; height two feet. 
Mansers, Inhabits the decpeft rivers and lakes of Chili: has the forduwi 

ovale hs\{ clofed: can live long under water: feeds on fiilies and 
crabs : is fierce and bold, and will feize its prey in fight of mankind : 
is killed by the hunters when it comes to difcharge its excre- 
ments, which it does always in the fame place: moll: beautiful 
ftuffs are made of the fur, refcmbling velvet ; it is alfo of great ufe 
in the manufaflure of hats. 

M. Molina calls it Huidobrius, from the fa.mily name of his 
patron, the marquifs of Cafa Realc. 

M. Molina 

BEAVER, 121 

M. Molina was one of the Jt'/uits whom the Spaniards ex- 
pelled out of Soulh America, They robbed him of all his 
effeds and manufcripts : by a fingular fortune he found in 
Italy the manufcript which furnlQies us with the valuable na- 
tural hiftory of CM/. 

Vol. II. R Two 


XXVUT. Two cutting teeth in each jaw. 

PORCUPINE. BoJy covered with long, hard, and (harp quills. 

Upper lip divided. 

114. CREiTfD. tiUi,. -AriJioUhiJ}. An.lib.\..c.(>.Oppian Hyftrix critlata. H. palmis tetradaflylis, 

C^ iii. 3QI. plantis pentadaflylis, capite crillato, 

Hyftrix. Plini't lb. viii. c. 35. G /ner quad, Cauda abbreviata. Lh'.J'yft. 76. HaJJil- 

5 '^3. Rail /(>!. quad, 206. quift. itin. 290. 

Acanthion criftatus. Kkin quad. 66. Hyftrix capite criftato. BT'ffcn quad, S;. 

Hyftrix orientdlis criftata. teb, Muf. i. 79. Le Pore-epic. De Buffon, xii. 402. tab. li. 

tab. 1. Iii. F annul. Sinerss, 

■p with a long crefl; on the top of the head, reclining backwards, 
■■■ ' formed of ftiif briftles : the body covered with long quills; 
thofe on the hind part of the body nine inches in length, very fliarp 
at the ends, varied with black, and white ; between the quills a few 
hairs : the head, belly, and legs, are covered with ftrong briftles, 
terminated with foft hair, of a dufky color: the whifkers long: 
ears like the human : four toes before, five behind : tail fliort, 
and covered with quills : length, from nofe to tail, two feet i tail, 
four inches. 

Inhabits India, the fand-hills on the S. W. of the Cafpian fea, 
fouthern Tartary, Perjia, and Pakjline, and all parts of Africa ; is 
found wild in Italy; but is not originally a native of* Europe: 
is brought into the markets of Rome, where it is caff-. The 
Italian porcupines have (horter quills, and a lefler creft, than thofe 
o{ Jfia zndi Africa : is an harmlefs animal: lives on fruits, roots, 
and vegetables : fleeps by day, feeds by night : the report of its 

* Agr'uola An. Subt. 486. 

f Rafs Travels, i. 311, Pb, Tr, abridg. v. 147. 




J^r/ti^-t'ru/ a - /n/yy///, 

'/////• - i..yr6'. 


darting its quills fabulous: when angry, retires and runs its nofe 
into a corner, erecls its fpines, and oppofes them to its aflailant: 
makes a fnorting noife. 

Thefeanimals produce a 5^so^r; but, accordingto5fi5'j,only thofe 
which inhabit Java, Sumatra, and Malacca. Thefe Bezoars were 
very highly valued, and have been fold for five hundred crowns 
apiece. It has alfo been pretended that a ftone was procured 
from the head of this animal, infinitely more efficacious than 
other Bezoars * ; but this may be placed among the many impo- 
fitions of oriental empirics. 

Erinaceus Malacenfis. Gm. Lin. 116. Sd. Mus.i,^. 81. tab. 41. fig. i. jij. Malacca. 

T) with large pendulous ears: no creft: quills like the preceding, 
•^ * with the interftices filled with long hairs, refembling briflles : 
eyes large and bright: hair on the legs, and belly covered with 
fhort reddifh prickly hairs : toes five in number, which might 
determine Linnaus to place this animal among the hedge-hogs. 
Inhabits the peninfula of Malacca, 

Porcus aculeatas fylveftris, feu Hyftrix Hyftrix cauda longiffima, aculeis undique 316. Lono- 

orientalis fingularis. Sd. Muf. i. 84. obfita, in extremo panniculata. £r/^/i tailed. 

tab. lii. quad. 8g. 

Acanthion cauda prslonga, acutis pUis Hyftrix macroura. H. pedibus pentadac- 

horrida, in exitu quafi panniculata. tyiis, cauda longiffima: aculeisdavatis. 

Klein quad. 67, Lin./yJ), 77. 

Pwith long whilkers: fhort naked ears: large bright eyes: 
• body fhort and thick, covered with long fliff hairs as Iharp 

* tavernier, ii. 1 54. 

R a as 


as needles, of different colors, according as the rays of light flUl 
on them : feet divided into five toes ; that which ferves as a 
thumb turns backwards : the tail is as long as the bodj', very 
flendcr to the end, which confifts of a thick tuft: the bridles ap- 
pearing as if jointed; are thick in the middle, and rife one out 
of the other like grains of rice; are tranlparent, and of a fdvery 

Inhabits the ifles of the ludiiiii Arc hipdago^ and lives in the foiefls. 

3I7. Ura'.ILian. Tlaquatzln. HemanJe^, Mex. 330. H. Cauda longiffima, tenui, medletate ex- 

Cuandu. BraJiUenJIbu!, Lujltanis. trema aculeorum experte, 87. 

Ourico cachiero. Marcgrave Br.^fd. 233. H. Americanus major, S8. 

Pijo Brafil. gg. 325. Hyftrix longius caudatus, brevioribus 

Iron Pig. A7e«Zio^', 17. aculch. Barret e France ^I^ijuh. 153. 

Hydiix Amenca.nas. Rail /yti.gnaii. 20S. Hyftrix minor leucophKus, Gouandou. 

Hyftrix prehenfilis, H. pedibus tetradac- iia:/. 

tylis, Cauda elongata prehenfili femi- Chat epineux. Dej Marclais, iii. 303. 

nuda. Lin./yJ}. 76. 

T) with a (hort blunt nofe: long white whifkers: beneath the 
■*■ • nofe a bed of fmall fpines : top of the head, back, fides, and 
bafe of the tail, covered wiih fpines ; the longelt, on the lower 
part of the back and tail, are three inches in length, very fliarp, 
white, barred near their points with black; adhere clofely to the 
ficin, which is quite naked between them; are fhorter and weaker 
as they approach the belly: on the breafl:, belly, and lower part 
of the legs, are converted into dark-brown bridles: feet divided 
into lour toeb: claws very long; on the place of the thumb a 
grtat protuberance : tail eighteen inches long, fiender, and taper 
towards the end; the lalt ten inches is almoft naked, having 



n./.y/y. /Lf. 

cU fuih-C' 

j/)/^/.i/Ar/ // ' 'o/rf////9W \.l..'iiy. ■ 


only a few hairs on it; has, for that length, a ilrong prehenfile 

Inhabits Mexico and Brqfil : and extends to Chili: lives in the 
woods : preys not only on fruits, but poultry : ileeps in the dav, 
preys by night: makes a noife with its noHrils as if out of breath: 
grunts like a fow * : grows very fat : its flefli white, and very good : 
climbs trees, but very Howly; in defccnding, twills its tail round the 
branches, for fear of falling : is no more capable of fhooting its quills 
than the firlT;: may be tamed. Pifo fays there is a greater and Uffcr 

This fpecies is very rarely brought into En-ope. I had op- 
portunity of defcribing it from a fpecimen fome time in pof- 
feffion of Mr. Greenwood; who was fo obliging as to permit me 
to have a drawing made of it, from which a very faithful figure 
is here given. M. de Buffon\ has made mention of this animal 
in his work; but unjuftly reproaches Marcgrave with confound- 
ing it with the Mexican fpecies. 

Hoitzlacuatzin, feu TIacuatzin fpinofus, rentibus, cauda brevi ct cyalTo, 5'-^;i 3,8, Mexican 

Hyftrix novs HifpaniK. Hernand.i'z, qitnd. 86. 3 • • 

Msx. 3? 2. Le Coendu De Bufon, xii. 4: 1 . tah. liv. 

H) itrix novs Hifpan'a:. H. aculeis appa- 

T) of a dufky color, with very long briflles intermixed with the 
-*• * down: the fpines three inches long, llcndcr, and varied 
with white and yellow; fcarcely apparent, except on the tail, 

* Vocem editut Su<, iii. Marcgrave, 233. 

t Under the name of Le Coeudou, xii. 421. tah. liv. 



wliieh is, according to Hcrndndcz, thicker and fliorter tlian lliat of 
the preceding fpecies. He adds, that the tail, from the middle 
to the end, is free from fpines. 
Size* According to Hernandez, it grows to the bulk, of a niiddle- 

fized dog. M. de Buffon fays, its length is fixteen or feventeen 
inches from the nofe to the tail ; the tail nine, French meafurc, but 
taken from a mutilated fkin. 
Plage. Inhabits the mountains of A/mfo: lives on the fummer fruits^ 

and may be eafily made tame. The Indians pulverife the quilJs, 
and fay they are very efficacious in gravelly cafes; and, applied 
whole to the forehead, will relieve the mofl violent head-ach. 
They adhere till filled with blood, and then drop ofi. 

■410, CANADAt Porcupine from Hudfons Bay. Eifiu. 52. doHb folo fpinofo. Lin.fyfl. 76. 

Ellis's 'VOL /^z.Clcrk's<voy.\. 177. igi. Hyftrix aculeis fub pilis occultis, cauda 
Cavia Hudfonis. KUin quad. ^1^ brevi et craffa. Brijpinquad. 87. 

Hyftrix dorfata. H. palniis tetradaftylis, L'Urfon, De Biiffon, xii. 426. tab, Iv, 
plantis pentadaftylis, cauda mediocri. Lev. Mus. 

"P with fliort ears, hid in the fur : head, body, legs, and up- 
■*■ • per part of the tail, covered with foft, long, dark brown 
hair: on the upper part of the head, back, body, and tail, num- 
bers of fharp ftrong quills ; the longeft on the back, the left to- 
wards the head and fides; the longeft three inches; but all are 
hid in the hair: intermixed, are fome ftiff" ftraggling hairs, three 
inches longer than the reft, tipt with dirty white: under fide of 
the tail white: four toes on the fore feet, five behind, each 
armed with long claws, hollowed on their under fide : the form 
of the body is exaftly that of a beaver; but is not half the fize; 
3 one, 



one, which Mr. Banks brought from NezvfotCfuUand, was about 
the fize of a hare, but more compaclly made : the tail about fix 
inches long. 

Thefe animals vary in color. Sir Afiton Lever had one, which 
is entirely white. 

Inhabits N.America, as high as Hudfori's Bay : makes its neft Plack. 

under the roots of great trees, and will alfo climb among the 
boughs, which the Indians cut down when one is in them, and 
kill the animal by ftriking it over the nofe: are very plentiful 
near Hndjons Bay, and many of the. trading Indians depend on 
them for food, efteeming them both wholefome and pleafant : 
feed on wild fruits and bark of trees, efpecially juniper : eat 
fnow in winter, drink water in fummer; but avoid going into 
it: when they cannot avoid their purfuer, will fidle towards 
him, in order to touch him with the quills, which feem but weak 
weapons of offence; for, on Ilroking the hair, they will come 
out of the fkin, flicking to the hand. The Indians flick thetn 
in their nofes and ears, to make holes for the placing their 
ear-rings and other finery: they alfo trim the edges of their 
deer-fkin habits with fringes made of the quills, or cover with them 
their bark-boxes. 





Two cutting teeth in each jaw. 
Four toes before, five behind. 
Short ears, or none. 

Tail covered with hair, and of a middUng length; in fome 
very Ihort. 

320. Alpine. Mas Alpinus. P/;W/ lib, viii. c. n./lgri- 
cola An. Suhttr. 484. Gcjner quad. 743. 
Rati fyn. quad. 2 2 i . 
Glis marmota. Klein quad. 56. Hijl. Mur. 

Jl;. 230. 
Murmelihier. Kramer Aujlr. 317. 
Mus marmota. M. cauda abbrcviata fub- 

pilofa, auricuHs-rotundatisjbuccis gib- 

bis. Lin.fijl. 81. 
Glis pilis e fufco et flavlcante mixtis vef- 

titas. GUs fiavicans, capite rufefcente. 

Brijon quad. 1 16, I I 7. 
La Marmotte. De Buffon, viii. 219. tab. 


"J\T with fhort round ears, hid in the fur: cheeks large: color 
• of the head and upper part of the body brownifh afh, 
mixt with tawny: legs and lower part of the body reddifh: tail 
pretty full of hair : length, from nofe to tail, about fixteen inches ; 
tail fix : body thick. 
Pi-ACE. Inhabits the loftieft fummits of the ^//>5 and Pjvjw^j?^ moun- 

tains: feeds on infefts, roots, and vegetables: while they are 
at food, place a centinel, who gives a whiftle on feeing any fign 
of danger, on which they infl;aHtly retire into their holes : form 
holes under ground, with three chambers of the fliape of aY, 
with two entrances; line them well with mofs and hay; retire 
into them about Michaelmas, and, flopping up the entrances 
with earth, continue in a torpid flate till ^nV ; when taken out 
remain infenfible, except brought before a fire, which revives 
5 them: 

U A K M O T; j2a 

tliem : they lodge in fociety, from five to a dozen In a chamber : 
will walk on their hind feet : lift up their meat to their mouth 
with their fore feet, and eat it fitting up: bring three or four 
young at a time: are very playful: when angry, or before a 
•fiorm, make a moll ftrange noife; a whiftle fo loud and fo acute 
as quite to pierce the ear : grow very fat about the backs : are 
fometimes eaten; but generally taken in order to be fliewn, efpe- 
cially by the Savoyards : grow very foon tame, and will then eat 
any thing: are very fond of milk, which they lap, makino- at 
the fame time a murmuring noife, expreflive of their fatisfaftion : 
very apt to gnaw any cloaths or linen they find : will bite very 

TlyT with a blunt nofe : fliort rounded ears: cheeks puffed, 321. Quebec. 
■*-^^* and of a grey color: face dufky: nofe black: hair on 
the back grey at bottom, black in the middle, and the tips 
whitiQi : belly and legs of an orange-color : toes black, naked, 
and quite divided ; four, and the rudiments of another, on the 
fore feet; five behind : tail Ihort, and of a dufky color: was ra- 
ther larger than a rabbet. 

Inhabits Hudfon's Bay and Canada. Mr. Brooh had one alive Placb. 

a few years ago ; it was very tame, and made a hiffing noife : 
perhaps is the fpecies which the French of Canada call Siffleur. 

It has lately been defcribed by Dr. Pallas, under the name of 
Mus empetra *. 

f Nov. /p. ^uadr.fafi. i. 7j; 

VoL« II; S Uaham* 

130 MARMOT. 

322. MarYlanUi Bahama Cony. Cale/iy CaraUna/n, 79. Glis fufcus. Glis fnCcas, roftro e clnereo 

Monax, Catejby Carolina Jfp. xxviii. csrulefcente Brijjhn quad, n , . 

Monax, or Marmotte oi America, Edvj. Mus Monax. M. cauda medocri pilofa, 

104. corpore cinereo, ajricuiis lubrotundis, 

Glis Marmota, Americanus. Klein quaJ. palmistetradaclylis, planus pentadadly. 

561 De Buffon, Suppl. iii. 175. lis. Lm.Jyj:, 81. 


with fhort rounded ears: black prominent eyes: nofe 
fharper than that of the laft : nofe and cheeks of a blueifli 
alh-color: back of a deep brown color: fides and belly paler: 
tail half the length of the body, covered with pretty long dufky 
hair: toes divided, and armed with fharp claws: four toes before, 
five behind : feet and legs black : is about the fize of a rabbet. 
Place. Inhabits /''zV^md and Fenjylvania: during winter fleeps under 

the hollow roots of trees : is found alfo in the Bahama ifles : 
lives on wild fruits and other vegetables : its flefh is very good, 
tailing like that of a pig: when furprized, retreats to holes in the 
rocks : whether it fleeps, during winter, in the climate of thofc 
iflesj is not mentioned^ 

323. Hoar-/. IV/T ^^''^^ *'^^ ^'P °^ ^^^ ^'^^^ black: ears (hort and oval: 
XjX» cheeks whitifli : crown dufky and tawny: hair univerfally 
rude and long; that on the back, fides, and belly, cinereous at the 
root, black in the middle, whitifli at the tip, fo that the ani- 
mal has a hoary appearance : legs black : claws duiky ; four be- 
fore, five behind : tail black, mixed with ruft- color. 
About the fize of the former*^ 


MARMOT. 131 

Inhabits the northern parts of North America. Defcrlbed from 
a fpecimen in theLEVERiAN Museum. 

Eobak Swiftch. ^zflf«'«/fi/'o/o«. 233. tab. xviii. __ 324. Bob a K, 

Bohak. Beaup/a/i h:Jl . Ukrain, Churchill's Sogar.Rubruquis^sf ravels in Purchas.m. 

(oil. i. 600. Forjler hiji. Vclg^, Phil. 6. 

iranf. Ivii. 343. De Buffon, xiii. 136. Ardomys. Pallasnov./p.fafc. 1.9. tab, v. 

Mwith fmall oval thick ears, covered with greyifh white 
* down; with longifh hairs on the edges: eyes fmall: 
whlfkers fmall: color about the eyes and nofe dufky brown j 
among the whifkers ferruginous : upper part of the body greyifh, 
intermixed with long black or dufky hairs, tipt with grey : 
throat ruft-colored : reft of the body, and the infide of the limbs, 
of a yellowi(h ruft-color: four toes on the fore feet, with a fhort 
thumb furnifhed with a ftrong claw: five toes behind: tail fhort, 
ilender, full of hair. 

Length from nofe to tail fixteen inches; of the trunk of the Size. 

tail, about four : the hairs extend an inch beyond the end of the 

Inhabits the high but milder and funny fides of mountanous Place, 

countries, which abound with fiflile or free-ftone rocks: feck dry 
fituations, and fuch which are full of fprings, woods, or fand. 
They are found in Poland, and the fouth of RiilJla, among the 
Carpathian 'WAh; they fwarm in the [//raw^r, about the Borijlheiies, 
efpecially between the Sula and Supoy ; and again between the 
Borijihenes and the Don, and along the range of hills which ex- 
tend to the Folga; they are found about the Taik and other 

S 2 neighboring 


13* M A R M O T; 

neigKboring rivers. Inhabit the fouthern defert in Greai TaV' 
tary, and the Altiiic mountains eaft of the Irtis ; ceafe to appear 
in Siberia, on account of its northern fituation ; but are found 
again beyond lake Baikal, and about the river Argun and lake 
Dalay; in the funny mountains about the Lena; and very com- 
mon in Kamtjckaika, but rarely reach as high as'/a/. c,^. 
Manners. They burrow extremelydeep, and obliquely, to the depth of two, 

three, or four yards: they form numbers of galleries with one 
common entrance frcm the furface; each gallery ends in the neft 
of the inhabitant. Som.etimes the burrbws confill of only one 
paffage. They are found in great abundance about the fepul- 
chral tumuli, as they find they can penetrate with great facility 
in the foft dry earth; but they are very common in the rocky 
flrata; and in the mineral part of the Urallian chain, often dire<ft 
the miners to the veins of copper, by the fragments which ap- 
pear at the mouth of their holes, flung out in the courfe of their 
labors. In very hard and rocky places, from twenty to forty of 
thefe anitiials join tegether to facilitate the work, and live in fo- 
ciety, each with its nefi: at the end of its refpeclive gallery ; but 
the fevvefl: galleries are found in the fofteft ground, and very fre- 
quently only a fingle one. In each neft they coUecf, efpecially 
tOivards autumn, the fineft of hay, and in fuch plenty, that fuffi.^ 
cieat isfound in one nefi: for a night's food for a horfe. 

During the middle and funny part of the day they fport about 
the entrance of their holes, but feldom go far from them; oa 
the fight of man they retire with a flow pace, and fit upright 
near the mouth, and give a frequent whiflle, liflening at the ap- 
proach. In places where they live in large families, they al» 
4 ways. 

M A K M" O -r. 

ways place a centinel to give notice of any danger, during the 
rime the reft are feeding. 

They are very fond of oleraceous plant;s: in a ftate of confine- 
ment eat cabbage and bread very greedily, and drink milk with 
great eagernefs ; but reftife water, and feem never affefted with 
thirft: they are mild and good-natured; never quarrel or fight 
about their food in a wild ftate, and when confined, and placed 
with others, caught in diftant parts, and ftrangers to them, grow 
inftantly familiar with them: then very foon become tame, even 
when taken in full age; but the young immediately become fa- 

The number produced' at a birth is not certainly known, pro- 
bably at times eight; the females being furniftied with that 
number of teats: they breed early, for in Jv.m the young are 
obferved to be of half the fize of the old. 

They lie torpid during winter, except thofe which are kept 
rame in the ftove-warmed rooms of the country ; and even then, 
finding a defecfl of that warmth which the fnug neft of their fub- 
terraneous retreat would afford, in cold nights creep for (liclter 
into the very beds of the inhabitants; In that ftate they will 
not abfolutely refufe food, but eat very little, and that with a 
feeming difguft; nature allotting for them, in the wild ftate, a 
long fleep and ceflation from food, the refult of plenitude pre- 
vious to its commencement. They fometimes efcape from con- 
finement, find a retreat, and get their winter's fleep, and return 
to their mafter in the fpring;. but lofe much of their gentle 

They grow very fat: the fat is ufed for foftening of leather ;■ 
the fkins are ufed by the Koreki, people of Jakutks, and the Rtif- 





fans, for cloathing. The Calmucs take them in fmall nets with 
large mefhes, placed before their holes. The inhabitants of 
Ukraine catch them in May or June, by pouring water into the 
holes, which forces them into the nets. In South Rujia they are 
deftroyed by means of a log of wood with a weight at top ; the 
end direded into a wooden box placed at the mouth of the hole, 
which falls as foon as the animal comes out, and opprefles it by 
the weight. Their flefh taftes like that of a hare, but is rank. 

The Calmucs are very fond of the fat ones, and even efteem them 
medicinally: on the contrary, the Mahometan Tartars not only 
abftain from their flefli, but even give them protedion; fo that 
near the hords they are extremely numerous : thefe Tartars efteem 
a warren of Bobaks near them to be very fortunate, and think 
it a fm to kill one of them, a fwallow, or a dove; but at the 
lame time abominate the following animal. 

In Chinefe Tartary they are the propagators of Rhubarb, which 
grows among their burrows : the manure which they leave about 
the roots contributes to its increafe; and the loofe foil they fling 
lip, proves a bed for the ripe feed ; which, if fcattered among the 
long grafs, periflies without ever being able to reach the ground. 




MARMOT. ^ 135 

Mus Maulinus. Molina Chili, 284. j2r. Ma u line. 

with pointed ears : elongated nofe : whilkers difpofed in four 
•* rows: the tail longer than that of the common kind: five 
toes on each foot; an anomalous dlftin<ftion : hair like the common : 
in fize twice as large. 

Difcovered in the province of Maule in Chili, in 1764, and Manners. 
inhabits the woods: makes a ftout defence ag-ainfl the dogs, which, 
conquer it not without difficulty. 

MusNoricus aut C\it\\as. Jgrlcol^ A/i. Le Zi(e\. De Buji)!, xv. ijg. 326. Earless, 

Suiter. 4.^^, Ge/ner quaJ.y^l.Ra.'iJyn. Le Souflik 144. 195. SufpUm. iii. 

quad. 220. igi. lab. xxxL 

Ziefel, Schivtnkftlt. Theriotroph. 86. Mus Marmotta. For/ler hiji, ndt. Volga. 
Mus citeilus. M. cauda abbreviata, cor- Ph. Tranf. Ivii, 343. 

pore cinereo, auriculis nuUis. Lin.fyjl, Mus Citillus. Pallas no'u. /p. fafc. i. i ig. 

80. tab. vi. vii. B. Nov. com. Petrop. xiv. 

Tfitsjan. le Bruyn 'voy. Mufc. ii. 402". 549. tab. vii. 

Cuniculub caudatus, auriculis nullis, ci- Earlefs Marmot. Syn. quad. 276. Cafan 

nereus. Brijfon quad. loi. M. — — 272. 

with a cinereous face: over each ej'e a white line: teeth 
' yellow ; whilkers black and long : no ears : hind part of 

* Uii chien courant que j'avois, y prit dans la plaine un petit animal nomme 
Ztts-jan, qu'il m'apporta en vie, et un autre peu apres, lefquels je fis 'eventrer, 
pour les conferver. C'eft un efpece de rat de campagne, de la grofTeur d'uti 
ecureuil, qui a la queue courte, et le poil et la couleur d'un lapreau, auffi bien que 
la forme, hors qu'il a la tete plus grofle, et les deux dents de deffous la moitle plus 
longues que celles de deflus. II a auffi les pattes de devant plus courtes que celles 
de derriere, avec quatre grifes, et une plus petite, et cinque a celles de derriere, 
reffemblant aflez a celles d'un finge, 

8 the 


i36 M A R M O T, 

•the head, and whole back, of a pale yellowilli brown; oftea dif- 
tindly fpoued with white; fometimes undulated with grey: un- 
der fide of the body, and legs, of a yellowifli white. 

Tail covered with long hair; brown above, bordered with 
black on each fide; each hair tipped with white: under part of 
.a bright ruft-color: three middle toes of the fore feet long: 
claws long and fliarp : exterior and interior toes Ihort; the lafl: 
remote from the others : its claws fliort and blunt, 
gj^g^ Length one foot; of the tail, to the end of the hairs, four 

inches and a half. 

Inhabits Bohemia, JtiJIria, Hungary, and from the banks of the 
Volga to India and Perfia ; through Siberia, and Great Tartary, to 
Kamtfchatka'*; fome of the intervening ifles, fuch as Kadjak; and 
.even the cojitinent oi America itfelf. 

Burrows, and forms its magazine of corn, nuts, &c. for its win- 
ter food-j- : fits up like a fquirrel while it eats.: fome inhabit the 
fields in Siberia, others penetrate into the granaries; the firft form 
holes under ground, with a double entrance, where they fleep 
.during winter; thofe vvhich inhabit granaries, are in motion dur- 
ing the cold feafon. They couple the beginning of May, about 
■the Lem, but about AJtracan earlier, and bring from five to eight 
joung, which they bring up in their burrows, and cover with 
,hay : only one animal inhabits each burrow : the females are al- 
ways feparate from the males, except in the coupling feafon: 
whiftle like the marmot: are very irafcible; quarrelfome among 
themfelves, and bite very hard: fit in multitudes near their holes: 
.^re very fond of fait : taken in numbers on board the barges 

• Yevradika, or Marmotte minor. Cmdin -voj. Siberia, ii. 448. 
•J Raiijj/n, quad. 220, 




which are loaden with that commodity sX Solikamfyy and fall 
down into the Volga below Cafan, 

Are both herbivorous* and carnivorous; feed on plants, and 
deftroy the young of fmall birds, and the lefTer mice. 

The Bohemian ladies were wont to make cloaks of the fkinsj 
we fee them at this time made ufe of for linings, and appear very 
beautiful for that purpofe, efpecially the fpotted kind. 

T%/r with truncated ears, the apertures large : fhort tail : upper 327. Gukdi. 
■^ -*•• fore teeth truncated; lower, flender and pointed: four 
toes on every foot, each furnidied with claws: walks on the whole 
hind feet as far as the heel : color, teftaceous red. 

Size of a fmall rabbet. 

Inhabits Barbary towards Mount Atlas, near Majfufin. Defcribed 
by the late Mr. Rohtman, a Swede. This account was communi- 
cated to me by Mr. Zimmerman . Gtaidi is its Arabic name, 
which 1 retain. 

Mwlth fliort ears : head and body of a cinereous brown ; the 32S. Ta 
• ends of the hairs white : two cutting teeth above % four 
below: no tail, 

I communicated a drawing of this fpecies to Mr. Bezvick, who 
has given an engraving of it at p. 374 of his ingenious perform- 
ance. Inhabits Htidfon's Biiy. In the Lever i an Museum. 

Vol.. n. T With 



S Q^ U I R R E L. 



With two cutting teeth in each jaw. 
Four toes before^ five behind. 
Long tail, cloathed with long hair. 

329. Common, Sciurus. Gefner quad, i^^.Raii/yn. quad. 


Wietviorka Rzac^injki Polon. 225. 
Eichhorn. Kleii: quaJ. 53. 
Sciuriss vulgaris. Sc. auriculis apice bar- 
batis, palmi; tetradaCiylis, planus pen- 

tadaaylis. Vn. fyfl. 86. 
Ikorn, GiaiKUi Faun . futc. ^° ^"j , 
Sciurus rufui quandoque grifeo admixto^ 

Br£on quad. 104. 
L'Ecureuil. De B'ifon, vii.zjS. tab.xxxa, 

Br. ZcoJ. i. 93. Lev. Mus. 

Q with ears terminated with long tufts of hair: large lively 
*^* black eyes: head, body, legs, and tail, of a bright reddifli 
brown: breafl and bLlly white: hair on each fide the tail lies 
flat. In Szveden, and LapL>!ci* changes in winter into grey. In 
many parts of England is a beautiful variety with iiiilk-vvhite 

Inhabits £/i!fo/)^; the northern and temperate parts oi Afia', and 
a variety is even found as far fouth as the ille of Ceylon : is a neat, 
lively, adtive animal : lives always in woods : in the fpring, the 
female is feea purfucd from tree to tree by the males, feigning an 
efcape from their embraces. Makes its neft of mofs and dried 
leaves, between the fork of two branches : brings three or four 
young at a time : has two holes to its neft; ftops up that on the 
jfide the wind blows, as Pliny f juftly remarks: lays in a hoard of 

Faun. Sutc, and Seheffer La^Ls^^. 

f Lii, viii. f. 38. 


S Q^ U I R R E L. 

winter provifion, fuch as nuts, acorns, &c. ; in fummer, feeds on 
buds and young (lioots: is particularly fond of thofc of fir, and 
the young cones : fits up to eat, and ufes its. fore-feet as hands : 
covers itfelf with its tail: leaps to a furprifing ditlance: when 
difpofed to crofs a river, a piece of bark is its boatj its tail the 

A large kind of grey fquirrel is found about the upper parts of 
the river Obi, in the diftrid of Kuznetjk, and is called 'Teleufjkaya 
Belka, or the fquirrel of the 'Tcleutian 'Tartars: it is a: large again 
as the comiiion grey fquirrels of thofe parts, and is preferred to 
them, on account of the filvery glofs of the ikin. Few are fent 
into Rufia, the greateft part being fent into China, and fell for 61. 
or "jl.Jlerling per thoufand-f, 

A white variety is found common in Siberia. 

A beautiful black variety about lake Baikal. In the Leve- 
RiAN Museum is a moft elegant fpecimen of this kind. 

«. White-legged Squirrel. The head, whole upper part of 
the body, fides, and toes, of a rcddilh brown: face, nofe, un- 
der fide of the neck, belly, f ire legs, infide of the ears and 
thighs, white: ears flightly tufted with black: tail long, co- 
vered with dufky hairs, much Ihorter than thofe in the Euro- 
pean kind. Br. Muf.: by the catalogue, faid to be brought 
from Ceylon. 

* Raaczixjii, Kh'tn, Scheg'cr, Llnnaus. 

t Memerabalia Rujf. Afiat. in Mnller's Samlung. Ruff. vii. 124, 

T 2 ScJuru* 


140 S CL U I R R E L. 

330, Ceylon. SciurusZy/i^B/fw, pilisindorfomgrican- Sciurus macrourus, long-tailed Squirrel. 

tibus, Ritkkaia didtus a fono. Rail /yn, Ind. Zoo/, tab. i. 
quad. 215. 

Q with ears tufted with black : nofe fielh-colored : cheeks, 
legs, and belly, of a pale yellow : between the ears a yel- 
low fpot: forehead, back, fides, haunches, black: cheeks marked 
with a bifurcated ftroke of black; under fide red: tail twice as 
long as the body, of a light grey, and very bufliy : the part next 
the body quite furrounded with hair : on the reft the hairs are 
feparated, and lie flat. Is thrice the fize of the European fquirrel. 
Inhabits C^'/o^: is called there Dandoelana : alfo Roekea, from 
the noife it makes. 

331. Abyssinian. Q with a round flefh-colored nofe: hair on the upper part of 
^* the body of a rufty black : tail a foot and a half long : 
belly and fore feet grey : foles of the feet flefh-colored. Thrice 
the fize of an European fquirrel. 

Defcribed from Thevenot*, who fays it was bought a.t Moco 
from zn JhJJin'uin ; that it was very good-natured, and fportive 
like a fquirrel ; would eat any thing except flelb, and would crack 
the hardeft almonds. A variety of the above ? 

* yoyage dcs Indes Orientalcs, v. 34. 


S CL U I R R E L. 141 

Sciuruj maximus. Gmelin Lin. i, 149. Grand Ecureuil. Sonnerat, voy, 11. 139. J32, Malabar. 

Q with (hort tufted ears: five toes to each foot: inftead of a 
*^* thumb to the hind foot, is a fhort excrefcence, with a flat 
nail; all the other nails flrong and crooked: tail very full of hair, 
and as long as the body : hair long, of a reddifh color, reflecting 
gold; a beard of the fame begins under each ear, and turns towards 
the body: all the hind part of the body and tail black : is of the 
lize of a cat. 

Inhabits the mountains of Cardomone which form part of the Place.. 

Gaitts: is very fond of the milk of the coco nut, which it will 
pierce and fuck out on the tree. Its cry is fharp and piercing. 

Simntrat voy. ii. 1 40. 3 jj. G i N G i. 

Q of a dirty grey color; brighteft on the belly: eyes encompaff- 
*^* ed with a whire circle : on each fide of the belly is a white 
line which extends along the fhoulders and thighs: tail black: 
rather larger than the European kind. 
Inhabits Ginzi. 


142 S CL U I R R E L. 

334. Aye. Aye. Somerat,\\. Ixxxviii. 

Q with large broad ears, fmooth, fhining, and with feveral long 
^* hairs fcattered over ihem: fur fott and fine; of a tawny white, 
intermixed with feme long black hairs : the tail is very buOiy, 
covered with long hairs, black at their ends, white at iheir bottoms : 
five toes to each foot : the two joints of the middle finger of the 
fore feet very flcnder ; the thumb of the hind foot furniflied with 
a flat nail. 
Size. Length eighteen inches; tail of the fame length : burrows under 

ground: gocsout only in the night : the eyes fixed: is v?ryfIothful, 
and of gentle manners : very fearful : much inclined to fleep ; 
and refls with its head between its legs. 
Place. \n\\?h\iz Madagafcar : is a very rare animal : takes its name from 

its cry, the note of aftonifhment of the natives of that ifland. 

33J. Javak. Q black on the upper part of the body; of a light brown on 
^* the lower: end of the tail black: on tlie thumb a round 

This brief account leaves me uncertain whether this is not alfo 
a variety. 

Inhabits Java: difcovercd by "^It. Spar man. Memoirs fociety 
sX Gothenhurgh. Dr. Pallas. 

S. with 

No. LXXV. 

Vol II. Page 142. 

No. 334. 

S CL U I R R E L. 143 

Q with tufted ears: head, back, fides, upper part' of the legs 336. Bombay, 
*^* and thighs, and tail, of a dull purple: the lower part of 
the legs, and thiglis, and the belly, yellow : end of the t il orange: 
length, from nofe to tail, near fixteen inches; tail fevenieen. 

Inhabits Bombay. DefcriLied from a fluffed fein in Dotilor Hun- 
ter's cabinet. 

This fpecies extends to Bali/ere, the oppofite part of the 
peninfula of Indojlan. 

M., de laCepede* gives the defcription and figure of a large 
fquirrel which agrees lo much with this, that I fufped it ro be 
only a variety. He fays on one iront of the face is a chefnut 
fpot, furrounded with orange : in other refpe61s, there is much 
agreement, only he makes no mention of the orange at the end of 
the tail. 

Sciurus Erytlirxus. PaHas Nov. /j>-/a/c, i. 377. Mi/Ur's plates, tab. xlvi. , ,-_ RuD dt. 

Q with the ears flightly tufted : color above yellow, mixed 
with dufky: below of a blood red inclining to tawny: tail 
flender; of the fame color, marked lengthways with a black 

* See M.t/e Bujcn, Suppl. vi, 254. tab. Ixli, 


144 S Q^ U I R R E L. 

Four toes on the fore feet ; with a remarkable protuberance in- 
ftead of a thumb: five toes on the hind. 

Rather larger in fize than a common fquirrel. 
Inhabits India. 

338. Grey. GreYZ(\\xiTrt\.JoJleIyn''s'voy,Cate/lyCa- Sciuras cinereus. Lin.fyft.lii. 

ralina, ii. 74. Smith's loy. 27. Kalnii Sciurus cinereus. Auriculis ex albo fia- 

'voy. 95, 310. vicantibus. Briffonquad. 107. 

Fox Squirrel. i/zzu/o/:'j Ca;cZ!'«<2, 124. Le Petit-Gris. De Buff on, x. 116. tat. 

Sciurus cinereus Virginianus major. Rait xxv. Lev. Mus. 
j^n. quad. 215. 

Q with plain ears: hair of a dull grey color, mixed with black, 
*^* and often tinged with dirty yellow : belly and infides of the 
legs white: tail long, bufhy, grey, and ftriped with black. Size 
of a half- grown rabbet. 

Inhabits the woods of North America, Peru*, and Chili f; are 
very numerous in North America; do incredible damage ro the 
plantations of Mnc:,; runup the ftalks, and eat the young ears ; 
defcend in vaft flocks from the mountains, and join thofe that in- 
habit the lower parts ; are profcribed by the provinces, and a re- 
ward of three pence per head for every one that is killed ; fuch a 

• ChiiichUks are fmall beads, like fquirrels, with wonderful fmoothe and fofc 
Ikins, whicii they weare as a healthfull thing to comfort the ftomacke ; they make 
coverings and rugs of the haire of thefe Chitckilks, which are found on the Surre of 
Peru. Acofta in Purchai'i Pi'g. iii. 966. 

f Ovalle, in his hiftory of Chile, fays, that the grey or a(h-color"d f]uirrels, of 
the valley of Gas/w, are valuable for the furs. ChurthUi's Coll. vol. iii. 44. 




/. .///u/m'//.) ^/jay . ^y////rf/ • ^ ■i4l. 

■Z. M/r,r/^. 1:3 

3jg . 

3//rry ^. 


number was deftroyed one year, that Penjylvania alone paid in 
rewards 8coo/. of its currency. 

Make their nefts in hollow trees, with mofs, ftraw, wool, &c 
Feed on the mayz in the feafon, and on pine-cones, acorns, and 
mafts of all kinds Form holes under ground, and there depolit 
a large {lock of winter provifion. Delcend from the trees and 
viiit their magazines when in want of meat; are particularly 
bufy at the approach of bad weather; during the cold feafon 
keep in their nefts for feveral days together; feldom leap from 
tree to tree, only run up and down the bodies; their hoards often 
dtflroyed by fwine; when covered wiih deep fnow, the fquirrels 
often perilh for want of food; are not eafily fhot, nimbly chang- 
ing their place, when they fee the gun levelled ; have the adions 
of the common fquirrel ; eafily tamed ; their flefb efteemed very 
delicate. The furs which are imported under the name of petit^ 
grii are valuable, and ufed as luiings to cloaks. 

Quahtechalotl-thlitic. Hemani/ez Msx, L'EcureuU noir. Sz-^wywrt/. loj. ,,- Black 

^%z. Hernandez Nov. Hijp.i. Sciurus niger, Z,/«._^_/?. 86. Lev. Muj. ' 

Black Squirrel, Catefly Car. ii. 73. 

Swith plain ears : fometimes wholly black, but often marked 
• with white on the nofe, the neck, or end of the tail : the 
tail fhorter than that of the former : the body equal. 

Inhabits the North of JJia, North America, and Mexico. I 

Ihould have placed it as a variety of the laft fpecies, did not Mr. 

Vol. II. U Catejbj 

,46 S Q^ U I R R E L. 

Catejhy cxprefsly fay, that it breeds and aflbciates in feparate- 
troops; is equally numerous with the former; commits as great 
ravages among the May% ; makes its neft in the fame manner, 
and forms, like them, magazines for winter food. 

A fquirrel of a moft beautiful lliining black color, is found at- 
ihe Pulo Condore, in lat. 8. 40. 

p. SojJiRREL, with plain ears : coarfe fur, mixed with dirty white,, 
and black, but varies to white: throat, and infide of the legs 
and thighs, black : tail much (horter than thofe of fquirrels 
ufually are: of a dull yellow color, mixed with black: body 
of the fize of the grey fquirrel. Lev. Mus. 

Inhabits Virginia; defcribed from Mr. Knaphans colledion j 
who told me that the planters called it the Cat Squirrel. 

340. Madaoas- O with plain ears: colorof the face, back, fides, tail, and outfide of 
CAR. J^^ thelimbs, of adark glofly black : ears, end of thenofe, cheeks, 

and all the under fide of the limbs, yellowifli white. The length 
of this fpecies from the tip of the nofe to the origin of the tail, is 
about eighteen inches : the tail is longer than the body, flender, 
and ends in a point. 

Inhabits Madagafcar: defcribed by M. de la Cepede, in his fupple- 
ment to M» de Buffon, vii. 256. tab. Ixxiii. 

S. with 


S Q„ U I R R E L, 147 

with plain ears: fmaller than the European: marked along 341. Hudson'* 


, the middle of the back with a ferruginous line from head 
to tail : the fides paler : belly of a pale afh-color, mottled with 
black : tail not fo long, or fo full of hair, as the common kind ; 
of a ferruginous color, barred with black, and towards the end is 
a broader band of the fame color. Lev. Mus. 

Inhabits the pine-forefts about the Bay, and Terra de Labrador. 

a. Carolina * Squirrel, with the head, back, and fides grey, 
white, and ruft-colored intermixed : belly white, divided from 
the colors of the fides by a ferruginous line : lower part of the 
legs red: tail brown, mixed with black, and edged with 

Thefe are rather leflfer than the European fquirrels : vary in 
the colors : in moil: the grey predominates. 

Quauhtecollotlquapachtli. Hernandez Nov. Wfp, 8, j^Z, Varied. 

Le Coquallin. De Buffhn, xiii. 109. tab, xiii. 

Swith plain ears : upper part of the body varied with black, 
• white and brown : the belly tawny f : twice the fize of the 
common fquirrel. 

* LefierGrey Squirrel of the old edition. 
t Called by the Indians, Coztiocotejuallin, or Yellow Belly. 

U t Inhabits 

148 S CL U 1 R R E L. 

Inhabits Mexico : lives under ground, where it brings fortli its 
young, and lays in a flock of winter food : lives on mayz : is- 
never to be tamed. 

Thefe probably vary in fize : I have feen one that feemed to 
be of this fpecies, but not fuperior in fize to the common fquir- 
rel : the colors were brown, orange, and cinereous : the belly 

343. Fa I K, Sclurus flavus. Sc. auriculis fubrotundis, pedibus pentadaflylis, corpore luteo. !/>.► 

Jjl/i. hi), Amcen, Acad. i. 561. 

Q with the body and tail of a flaxen color: of a very fraall 
^* fize, with plain round ears, and rounded tail. 

Inhabits the woods near Amadahad, the capital of Guzarat, in 
great abundance, leaping from tree to tree *. Linnatis fays it is 
an inhabitant of South Atmyica.- 

344. Brasilian. Sciurus Brarillenfis ? Marcgraue Braftl. 107. 

330. Sciurus aeftuans. Sc. grifeus, fubtus fla* 
Sciurus coloris ex flavo et fufco mixti velceiis. Lin./^J}. 88. 
taenii* in lateribus albis. Br'Jfon quad. 

Swith plain ears, and rounded tail : head, body, and fides, 
• covered with foft dufky hairs, tipt with yellow : tail round- 
ed : the hairs annulated with black and yellow: throat cinere- 

• L'Ecureuil blond. Dtlla Valle, p. 84. 

S Q^ U I R R E L. r49 

oils: infide of the legs, and the belly, yellow: the belly divided 
lengthways with a white line ; which begins on the breaft, is 
interrupted for a fmall fpace In the middle, and is then continued 
to the tail: length, from nofe to tail, eight inches one quarter: 
tail ten. 

Inhabits Brajil znd Guiana. Mr, Fandeck, captain of a man of 
war in the Portuguefe fervice, who procured them from their fec- 
tlements in S, America, favored me with two. 

Tlalmototli. //■(•rwaWfx Nov. Hifp. q, Muf. i. 76. tab xlvii. fig. 2, i.BuJftn 345. Mexican. 

Sciurus rarifliraus ex Nov. Hifpania. Seb, quad. 10.5. 


of a moufe-color: the male marked on the back with 
• feven white lines, which extend along the tail; the female, 
with only five : the tail of the male divided into four parts at 
the end : perhaps accidentally : its fcrotum pendulous, like a 

Inhabits New Spain. Seba, in tab. xlviii. f:^. 5 has the figure of 
another, of an uniform color, diflinguifhed aUb by its \d.^ fcrotum. 

Muftela Africana. Clus. Exot. 112, Raii Sc. palmarum. Sc. coloris ex rufo et ni- ,.5 Palm. 

_/>'«. f»W. 2 1 6i- gro mixti, tssniis in dorlb flavicaiuibus. 

Sciurus palmarum. Sc. fubgrifeus ftriis Bii£Qi] quad. 109. 

tribus flavicantibus, caudaque alboni- Le Palmifte. De Buffon, x. 126. tab, 
groque lineata. Lin./yji. 8ti. xxvi. 

Swith plain ears : an obfcure pale yellow ftripe on the middle 
• of the back, another on each fide, a third on each fide of 


150 S a U I R R E L. 

the belly ; the two laH; at times very faint : reft of the hah- on 
the fides, back, and head, black, and red, very clofely mixedi 
that on the thighs and legs more red : belly, pale yellow : hair 
on the tail does not lie flat, but encircles it ; is coarfe, and of a 
dirty yellow, barred with black. Autliors defcribe this kind 
with only three ftripes : this had five, fa poffibly they vary. 

Governor Loten did me the favor of informing me that it 
lived much in the Coco trees, and was very fond of the fury, or 
palm-wine, which is procured from the tree ; from which it ob- 
tained, among the Indians, the name oi Suricalsje, or the little 
cat of the Smy *'. 

According to Clufius and Mr. Ray, this fpecies does not ereft 
its tail like other fquirrels, but has the faculty of expanding it 

j4'7. White- ^' Barbart. Sclurus getulus. Cati quad. ^^. Brijfon quaJ. log, 

STRiyiD. of:</c, y' . Gejher quad, iij^-j. Barbarian iquirrel £./■!<.■. I gb. 

Sc. getuius. Sc. fufcus ftriis quatuor albis Le Barbarelque. De Buffon, x. 126. 
longitudinalibus. Lin, Jyft. 87. Klein tab. xxvii. 

Q widi full black eyes and white orbits: head, body, feet, and 
tail, cinereous, inclining to red: lighteft on the legs 4 
fides, marked lengthways with two white ftripes: belly white: 
tail bufhy, marked regularly with fliades of black, one beneath 
the other : fize of the common fquirrel. 

* See the procefs of obtaining this liquor In Rumphius's herbarium Ambolnenfe, 
vol. i. p. 5. The tree is engraved in tab. i. ii. 


S Q_ U I R R E L. 151 

Both thefe fquirrels inhabit Barbary and other hot countries: 
live in trees, efpecially palms, from which one takes its name. 

'T'^HIS fpecies refembles much the common fqiiirrel, but is 348- Pi-aktanb. 

•*" Hghter colored, and has a yellow hne extending along the 
fides, from leg to leg. 

Common in Java and Prince's ifland; is called by the Malayes, 
Ba-djing ; lives much on Plantanes ; is very fliy j retreats at the 
fight of mankind, and clatters over the dry leaves of the Pitang 
or Plantanes with vaft noife. It alfo is common on the tamarind 

A.vvith membranes from fore leg to hind leg. 

Sciurus Sagitta. Sc hypochondiiis pro- fuperiore, in inferiore vcro eximie fla- 349. Sailing. 

lixis vclitans, Cauda plano-pinnata Ian- vefcentis ; cute ah anticis criiribus ad 

Qeoizx.?L.Lin.fyJ}.a. poftica membranas in modum extenia 

Sciarus petaurifta. Pailas Mi/el. Zool. volans. Brijpjn qia.i. 12. 

54. tah. vi. Le Taguan on grand Ecurcuil volant. De 

Sciurus maximusvolans, feu fclis volans. Bujj'on, Suppl. iii. 150. tab. xxi. Mu/. 

Sc. caftanei coloris, in parte corporis Roy. Society *. 


with a fmall rounded head: cloven upper lip: fmall blunt 
» ears : two fmall warts at the outmoft corner of each eye, 

* Where there is the fkin of one in fine prefervation. 



S Q. U I R R E L. 

with hairs growing out of them: neck (hort: four toes on the 
fore feet; and inftead of a thumb, a flender bone, two inches 
aiid a half long, lodged under the lateral menbrane, fcrving to 
ftretch it out : from thence to the hind legs extends the mem- 
brane, which is broad, and a continuation of the ikin of the fides 
and belly, the meir.brane extends along the fore legs, and 
ftretches out near the joint in a winged form: five toes on the 
hind feet, and on all t'le toes fliarp, compreired, bent claws: tail 
covered with long hairs, difpofed horizontally: color of the head, 
body, and tail, a bright bay j in fome parts inclining to orange: 
bread and belly of a yellowiQi white: length, from nofe to tail, 
eighteen inches •, tail fifteen. 

Inhabits Java*, and others of the Indian illands: leaps from 
tree to tree as if it flew: will catch hold of the boughs + with 
the tail. Differs in fize : that defcribed by Linnaus was the fize 
of our fquirrel : that killed by Sir Edward Michelbourne, in one 
of the Indum ifles, was greater than a hare. Nieuhoff de- 
fcribes this fpecies under the name of the Flying Cat, and fays 
the back is black : he has given two very good figures of itj 
one in his frontifpiece, the other in the page he defcribes it in J. 

• Hamilton's vay. ii. 131. 

+ Sir Eii'ward Michelbourne' s voy, in Purchai'i Pilgrim, i. 134. 

J Churchill' t toll. \\. 354. 




./a///?^y ' /^f// r/'c/ ^ /. 


S CL U I R R E L. 253 

Greater Flying Squirrel. P^. 7>. Ixii, 379. 350. Severn Ri, 


(O with back, and fides of a deep cinereous color at the bot- 
*^» torn ; end ferruginous : under fide of the body of a yel- 
lowifli white; the hair every where long and full: tail covered 
with long hairs, difpofed in a lefs flat way than thofe of the Eu- 
ropean kind ; brown on the upper part, darker at the end, yel- 
lowiQi beneath the fkin : the inftrument of flying difpofed from 
leg to leg ; but does not border the fore-legs. 

Size equal to the European fquirrel. Size. 

Inhabits the fouthern parts of Hudfons Baj, about Severn river. Place. 

Muf. Roy. Society, 

Aflapanick. Smith's Vi-glnia, 27. J»f- u ^zi. ta6. i. DuPratz. ii. 6g, _ _ jji. Flying. 

/e/yn's 'voy. 86. De Laet, 88. Sciurus volans. Sc. hypochondriis prolixis 
Sciurus Americanus volans. Raiijyn.quad. volitans, cauda roiundata. Lin. fyft, 88. 

z\^. Laiu/oti's Carolina, 124. Catejby Sciurus volans. .5r^«j«fl</. I lO. iii. No. 

Carolina, i\. 76, 77. Ed-w, 191. Kalm, 12. Lev. Mus. 

Swith round naked ears: full black eyes: a lateral mem- 
• brane from fore to hind legs : the fore legs for the moft 
part clear of the membrane : tail with long hairs difpofed hori* 
zontally, longeft in the middle, and ending in a point: color 
above, a brownifli afli : beneath white, tinged with yellow. Much 
lefs than the common fquirrel. 
Vol. II. X . Inhabits 

154 S Q. U I R R E L. 

Inhabits North America and Nezv Spain * : lives in hollow trees r 
fleeps in the day; during the night very lively; is gregarious, 
numbers being found in one tree : leaps from bough to bough 
fometimes at the diftance of ten yards: this adion improperly 
called flying, for the animal cannot go in any other direftion 
than forward ; and even then cannot keep an even line, but 
finks confiderably before it can reach the place it aims at: fen- 
fible of this, the fquirrel mounts the higher, in proportion to the- 
diftance it wifhes to reach : when it would leap, it ftretches out 
the fore legs, and extending the membranes, becomes fpecifi- 
Gally lighter than it. would otherwife be; and thus is enabled to- 
fpring further than other fquirrels that have not this apparatus. 
When numbers leap at a time, they feem like leaves blown oflT 
by the wind. Their food the fame as the other American fquir- 
rels: are eafily tamed : bring three or fjur young at a time. 



Norfolk- Sioddale'rBoi',Bay,i^z. White, 2%^. 

Q with very Ihort ears, almoft hid in the fur: color very much 
^' refembling that of the American grey fquirrel ; a black line 
extends from the head along the middle of the back to the tail: 
the flying membrane black, edged with white: two thirds of the 
tail aie of an elegant afli-color; the reft black: fize of the 
American grey fquirrel. 
Inhabits Norfolk ijJe. 

* Where it is called ^hnichpatlan. Hernandez, N011. Hi/p. 8. 


S Q^ U I R R E L. 

In the ifle oi Pulo Condor e is a fl5'ing fquirrel ftripcd with brown 
and white: poffiblya new fpecies. 


Sciurus Virginianus volans. Seb. Muf, i. tab. xliv. Brijfon quad, iii, 
Mus volans. Lin.fyfi. 85. 

Swith the lateral membrane beginning at the chin and ears, 
* and extending Hke the former from fore to hind leg : red- 
di(h above; cinereous, tinged with yellow, beneath: ears large 
and oval. 

Inhabits Virginia, according to Seha ; who is the only author 
who has defcribed it. Linnaus'% fynonyms, from Ray and Ed~ 
"wards, erroneous. 

353. Hooded. 

Mus Ponticus vel Scythicus. Ge/ner quad, volitans, cauda rotundata. Lm, Jyjl. 

743- .^^• 

Sciurus Petaurifta volans. J(f/«/« jj^ai/. 54. Sciurus Sibiricus volans. Brijfon, iio* 

Flying fquirrel. Ph. Tranf. abr. ix, 76. No. 13. 

tab. V. Le Poulatouche. De Buffhn, x. 95. tab. 

Sciurus volans. Faun. fuec. No. 38. Pal- xxii. 

ias,Kt'v. fp.fafc.'x. li,^. Qiiadrupes volatilis Ruffiie. Com. acad. 

Sc. volans Sc. hypochondriis prolixis i'f/rc/. v. 218. Lev. Mus. 

354. European 
Fl. S<4; 

C with naked ears, indented on the exterior fide: full eyes: 
*^* eyelids bordered with black : membranes extend to the 
very bafe of the fore feet, and form a large wing on the exte- 
rior fide: tail full of hair, and round at the end : color of the 

X 2 vpper 

156 S Q_ U I R R E L. 

upper part of the body a fine grey, like that on a gull's back t 
lower part of a pure white. 
Size. From nole to tall four inches and a quarter; of the tail to the 

tip of the hair, five. 
Place. Inhabits Finlcmd o.nd Laplmd, and the i?7//^(;??i dominions, from 

Livonia to the river Kolyma or Kowyma, in the N. E. part of Si- 
beria, and is common in all the mountanous wooded trads of 
that cold region : lives ufually on birch-tree buds and frudtifica- 
tions, and on the cones of the pines and cedars: is not grega- 
rious, and leads a folitary life, and wanders about even in win- 
ter: lives in hollow trees, and makes its nefl in the mofs of birch- 
trees: when at reft, it flings its tail over its back ; but in leaping, 
extends it. 
Names. The Germans call it Konige der Grauzverke* , or King of the 

Squirrels; the Rt'JJians, Polatucha, and Letaga; the FoleSt Wiei'^ 
viorka Lataiaca* 

* Kkin. 




Two cutting teeth in each Jaw. 
Four toes before: five behind. 
Naked ears. 
Long tail, covered with hair. 



Moufe fquirrel. Joffclyii's 'vov. 86. 
Ground fquirrel. Law/on Carolina, 124. 

Catejly Carolina, ii. 75. Edw. iSi. 

Kalm, i. 32,'. tab. i. 
Sciurus Lijieri. Raii fyn. quad. 216. 
Sciurus minor virgatus. Nov. Com. Petrop. 

V- 344- 
Boern-doeikie. Le Brun, voy. Mo/cov. 11. 


Sciurus ftriatus. Sc. flavus ftriis quinque 
fufcis longitudinalibus. Lin. fyft. 87. 
Klein quad. 53. Pallas nov. J'p fafc. i. 

Sciurus Carolinenfis. BriJJbn qual. 
Le Suiffe. De Bir-on, x. I 26. tab. xxviii. 
Charlevoix Nouv, France, v. 1 98. Lev. 


35J. Stripedo 

TPV with plain ears: ridge of the back marked with a black 
^-^* ftreak: each fide with a pale yellow ftripe, bounded 
above and below with a line of black : head, body, ami tail, of 
a reddiOi brown •, the tail the darkeft : breaft and belly white : 
nofe and feet pale red : eyes full. 

Inhabits the north of JJia, beginning about the river Kama, 
and grows more and more frequent in the woody parts of Sibe- 
ria ; but found in the greateft abundance in the forefts of Norlh 
America: they never run up trees except purfued, and find no 
other means of efcaping : they burrow, and form their habitations 
under ground with two entrances, that they may get accefs to the 
one, in cafe the other is flopped up. Their retreats are formed with 
great fkill, in form of a long gallery, with branches on each fide, 
each of which terminates in an enlarged chamber, as a magazine 
4 to 





to (lore their winter provifion in; in one they lodge the acorns, 
in another the mayz, in a third the hickery nuts, and in the lafl:, 
their favorite food, the clviiquaphi chefnut. They very feldoni 
ftir out during winter, at left as long as their provifions laft ; 
but if that fails, they will dig into cellars where apples are kept, 
or barns where mciyz is ftored, and do a great deal of milehief ; 
but at that time the cat deftroys great numbers, and is as great 
an enemy to them as to mice. 

During the mayz harveft, thefe animals are very bufy in biting 
off the cars, and filling their mouths fo full with the corn, 
that their cheeks are quite diflended, having pouches in their 
jaws like the hatujier. It is obfervable, that they give great pre- 
ference to certain food; for if, after filling their mouths with 
rye, they happen to meet with wheat, they fling away the firft, 
that they may indulge in the laft. They are very wild, bite fe- 
verely, and are fcarcely ever tamed: the fkins are of little ufe; 
but are fometimcs brought over to line cloaks. 

, _ G\h. Gifiiet-qua:/. ^^o.Raii/yn.guaJ.zzg. Sciurus Glis. Sc. canus fnbtus albidas. 

350. !• AT. Qi;^ vulgaris. KIe!n qiia.i. 56. Lin.fyjl. 87, 

Glis fupra obi'cure cinereus, infra ex albo Le Loir. Dc Buffon, viii. 158. tab. xxiv. 

cinerefcente. BriJJhn quad. 1 13. Mus Gils. Pallas nov.fp.fa/c. i. 88. 

with thin naked ears: body covered with foft afli-colored 
'• hair: belly whitifti: tail full of long hair: from nofe to 
tail, near fix inches; tail four and a half: thicker in the body 
than the fquirrel. 

Inhabits France and the fouth of Europe. Is found in the 
woods in the fouth-weft parts of Rnffia, and was difcovered by 



Doftor Pallas in the rocky caverns about the rivers Samara and 
Volga. The late Dodor Kramer favored me with one from Au- 
Jlria. Lives in trees, and leaps from bough to bough: feeds on 
fruits and acorns: lodges in the hollows" of trees: remains in a 
torpid ftate during winter, and grows very fat» 

'Tot a mihi donnitur hyems, et pingiiior illo 
Tempore fum, quo me nil niji fomnus alit*. 

Was efteemed a great delicacy by the Romans, who had their 
Gliraria, places conftrucled to keep and feed them in. 1 think, 
that the Italians at prefent eat them^ 

Mus avellanarum major. G</Sr?ry»fli/. 735. Mus quercinus. M. canda elongata pilo- 357. Gardew. 
Greater Dormoufe, or Sleeper. Raiijyn. fa, macula nigra fub oculos. Lin. fyjl. 

quad. 2ig. 84. 

Glis fupra obfcure cinereus, infra e.\- albo Le Lerot. Be Buffon, viii. 181. tab. xxv. 

cinerefcens, macula ad oculos nigra. Mus nitedula. Pallas, iwv.fp.fafc, i. 88. 

Brijpin juaii. 1 1 4. 

T^ with the eyes furrounded with a large fpot of black, reach- 
•*~^* ing to the bafe of the ears, and another behind the ears : 
head and whole body of a tawny color : the throat and whole 
under fide of the body white, tinged with yellow: the tail longr 
the hairs at the beginning very fhort ; at the end bufliy : length, 
from nofe to tail, not five inches : the tail four. 

Inhabits France and the fouth of Europe: is found in mag- 
pies nefts and hollow trees about the Folga, and other temperate 

• MarlialEpig. LiLxVn.Ep. 59. 



and foutliein parts of the RuJTmh dominions. Neither tliis nor the 
former fpecies extend beyond the UraUan mountains: infcfts gar- 
dens, and is very deftrudive to fruits of all kind : is particu- 
larly fond of peaches: lodges in holes in the walls: brings five 
or fix young at a time : like the former, remains torpid during 
winter; has a ftrong fmell, like a rat. 

358. Dec us. SciurusDegus. Molina Chili, 284. 


of a dull white color, and with a blackifh line crofs the 
'• fhoulders, reaching to the elbows: the tail ending in a 
tuft: ears rounded: larger than the common rat. 
Manjjers. Inhabits Chili, and lives under ground, near the hedges and 

buflies ; and forms its retreat into various galleries communica- 
ting with each other: feeds on roots and fruits, and lays up a large 
provifion of them for winter food. Is not torpid during chat 
feafon like our dormoufe. 

359. Common. Mus avellanarum minor, the Dormoufe licibus pofticis muticls. Lix. Jyjl. 83. 

or Sleeper. Raii fyn. quad. 220. Faun./uec, No. 'i'^- Pallas nov.Jp.fa/c. 

Rothe Wald Maufs. Kramer Jujiria, 317. i. 89. 

Glis fupra rufus, infra albicans. Brijfon Le Mufcardin. De Buffan, viii. 193. tab, 

quad. XX vi. 

Mus avellanarius. M. Cauda elongatapi- Dormoufe. Ediu. 266. Br, Zool. i. 95. 

lofa, corpore rufo, gulaalbicante, pol- Lev. Mus. 

T^ with round naked ears: full black eyes: body of a tawny 
^^ * red: throat white: fize of a moufe, but plumper: tail two 



inches and a half long, and pretty hairy, efpecially towards the 


Inhabks Europe : lives in thick hedges: makes its neft in the 
hollow of a low tree, or in a thick bufh near the bottom, of 
grafs, mofs, or dead leaves: brings three or four young at a 
time: feldom appears far from its retreat: forms magazines of 
nuts: eats its food fitting up, like a fquirrel: at approach of 
winter, retires and rolls itfelf up, lying torpid : fometimes in a 
warm day revives, takes a little food, and relapfes into its former 

Dwith a flat head, obtufe nofe, eyes full and black, upper lip j^o. Earless. 
• bifid. 

Auricles very minute, fcarcely apparent : long whifkers. 

Head, back, fides, and front of the fore legs, pale ferruginous, 
mixed with black : from Ihoulder to hind parts, on each fide, a 
white line : above each eye another : belly and feet of a dirty 

Tail black in the middle; hoary on the fides. 

Toes long and diftimfl : the knob on the fore feet large: claws 
very long. 

Hind legs black behind, and naked. 

Size of a common fquirrel, but much broader and flatter. Size. 

800 miles above the Cape of Good Hope, about the mountain Place. 

Sneeburgh. Communicated by Sir Jofcph Banksm 
Vol. II. Y Never 


Mannerj. Never climbs trees: burrows, feeds on bulbous roots, and Js 

particularly fond of potatoes : walks often on its hind feet ; and 
often lies flat on its belly: very tame, and never offers to bite : 
frequently flirts up its tail: makes a warm nefl, and forms in k 
a round hole, in which it lodges, and pulls to the orifice a quan- 
tity of materials, in order to clofe it : keeps fometimes in its 
retreat for three entire days. 

361. Gilt-Tail. Le Lerot a queue doree. Anamand Supplan. iv. 164. tab. Ixvii. 

T^ with (liort broad cars, great whifcers, the face marked 
•*^* lengthways with a gold color line extending from the 
Size. nofe to the fpace between the ears. The reft of the head and 

whole body and beginning of the tail are a purplilh chefnut color. 
Place. the remaining half of the tail is black: the reft of a beautiful gold 

color. The tail is thick about the bafe. 

Length from nolc to tail is five inches j of the tail fix and nine 

Inhabits Lives on fruits and climbs up the 

tiuERLiMcuETS. M^ A U Cepcde '''■ gives us the defcription of two fpecies of 

animals, which he calls Guerli/iguels. He denies that they are 
true fquirrels: the ears are naked, and the tail grows taper, 
yet is covered with long hair, but by no means difpofed like 

• Supplem. &c vii. 261. tab. Ixv. Ixvi. 







//A ^r/// _L-/ ^o/f//f> 



that on the tail of the fquirrel : they may come into this genus; 
at left let them remain here till we are better informed. 

The larger is between feven and eight inches long, exclufive 352. Greatei, 
of the tail : the tail is of equal length : the hair on the body 
is very fhort, and at its extremity a bright bay. The tail is rayed 
with brown and tawny. 

The lefler is little more than four inches long : the tail little 363. Lejjer. 
more than three : the body, legs, and tail, are clouded with olive 
and alh-color: o the face, lower part of the belly, and fides of 
the legs are tawny. 

y 2 Two 

i64 JERBOA. 

XXXIT. Two cutting; teeth in each jaw. 

JERBOA. ^ ri r 1 ■ i u- j i 

•' Two ver)' ihort fore legs: two very long hind legs, re» 

fcmbling thofe of cloven-footed water-fowl. 

Very long tail, tufted at the end. 

564. -'Egyptian. M"-'? iJitk':- 'Theophr. apufc. 29;. ^Uan palmisfubpentada£iyIis,femoribusJrm. 

hij], an. lib XV. c. 26. giflimis, bpachiis breviffimis. Lin. /yft% 

Mas bipes. Plinii lib.x. c,6^. Texiira's 85,. Hr.Jfelquifl ithi. 198. 

'■fra-'ceh, 21. Lejeibo. DeBuffn,xi\i.\^\. 

Gerbua. Ei/tu.2l(). Plaifed's journal, 59. iMus fagitta. Pallas r.ov.Jp.fafc. i. 3o6» 

Mus jaculub. M. Cauda elongata floccola, tab. xxi. 

J with thin, creA, and broad ears: full and dark eyes: long 
' whiflcers: forelegs an inch long; five toes on each; the 
inner, or thumb, fcarce apparent ; but that, as well as the reft, 
furniQied with a fliarp claw : hind legs two inches and a quarter 
long, thin, covered with fliort hair, and exadly refembling 
thofe of a bird ; three toes on each, covered above and below 
with hair; the middle toe the longeft; on each a pretty long 
fiiarp claw : length, from nofe to tail, feven inches and one quar- 
ter: tail ten inches, terminated with a thick black tuft of hair;, 
the tip white J the reft of the tail covered with very fhort coarfe 
hair: the upper part of the body thin, or comprelTed fideways: 
the part about the rump and loins large: the head, back, fides, 
and thighs, covered with long hair, afh-colored at the bottom, 
pale tawny at the ends: breaft and belly whitifli: acrofs the up- 

JERBOA. 165 

pfr ptirt of the thighs is an obfcure dulky band : the hair long 
and foft. 

Inhabits Mgypt, Barhary, Palejline, the deferts between Baf- Place. 

fora and Aleppo, the fandy trafts between the Don and Folga, the 
hills fouth of the Iriip, from fort Jamyfchera to the feven palaces, 
where the Mtaic mountains begin : as fingular in its motions as 
in its form: always flands on its hind feet; the fore feet per- 
forming the office of hands: runs faft ; and when purfued, jumps 
five or fix feet from the ground: burrows like rabbets: keeps 
clofe in the day : fleeps rolled up : lively during night : when 
taken, emits a plaintive feeble note: feeds on vegetables: has 
great ftrength in its fore feet. Two, which I faw living in London, 
burrowed almoft through the brick wall of the room they were 
in; came out of their hole at night for food, and when caught,, 
were much fatter and flecker than when confined to their box. 

This is the Daman Ifrael, or the Lamb of the Ifraelites of the 
Arabs, and is fuppofed to be ihc Saphan*, the coney of Holy- 
Writ: our rabbet being unknown in the Holy Land. Dr. Sbaw 
met with this fpecies on mount Libmus, and diftinguiQies it 
from the next fpecies f. It is alfo the moufe oi IfaiahX, Achbar 
in the original fignifying a male Jerboa. 

This and the following fpecies, which is found to extend to the 

* Bochart difphys a vaft deal of learning on the fubjeft. Vide Hierozokon, lih^ 
in. c. 33. /. looi. 

t Tra'veh, 376. 

X Chap. Ixvi. 17. Bochart, 1015. This animal was a forbidden food with the 


i66 JERBOA. 

colder regions, on any approach of cold grow torpid, and remain 
io till they are revived by a change of weather. Pallas calls this 
clafs the Species Lethargide. 

365. Siberian. Cuniculus pumilio fallens cauda longif- Dipus Jaculus. Gm.Lin. 1J7. 

fima. 'Nov. Com. Petrop. V. 3 5 1 . tab. ix. Flying hare. Sirahlenbergs hiji. Rujf. 3 70. 

fg. I. Mus jaculus. Pal'as nov./p.fa/c.'u zj^. 

Cuniculus pumilio faliens, cauda anoma- tab. xx. Mus. Lev. 
lalorgiflima. BriJ/bn quad. 103. 

a. Great. T^TOSE truncated; end edged with white: lower teeth Header; 
■*■ ^ twice as long as the upper. 

Ears large, pointed, tipt with white, naked within : hairs on 
the back tawny, of a dark grey beneath, very foft : legs and 
whole under fide of the body white: half the tail next to the 
body covered with fliort whitilh hairs; from thence, with long 
black hairs i the end has a large white feathered tuft an inch long. 

Five toes on the fore feet; the toe without a nail. 

On the hind legs, an inch above the feet, are two long toes 
armed with nails: the back part of the legs naked. 

Length eight inches and a half; of the tail ten. 
Place. This variety is no where very frequent, but is chiefly found 

from the Cafpian fea to the river Irtip}. 

0. Middle. Of the fize of a rat: of the color of the former, except that 

the rump on each fide is crofled with a white line. 

This middle fpecies is found only in the eaftern deferts of Si- 
beria and Tartary, beyond lake Baikal; alfo in Barbary* and 
Syria-\, and even as far as India %. 

• Sha-w") Travels. f HaynCs Ttfaro Brit. ii. p. and tab. 124. % Pallas. 




'li/^aJi'Hl ^cuX^ - 

'/■/v /y^/ // 

?f//,'fi _. )..y^>. 

J E R I^ O A. J67 

Differs from the Great, in wanting the white circle round the y. Pvgmy. 
nofe, in having a lefs tuft to the tail, and the end juft tipt with 
white: agrees entirely in form; but is far inferior in fize to even 
the Middle. Inhabits the fame places with the Great. 

Thcfe three agree in manners: burrow in hard ground, clay Manners. 
or indurated mud: not only in high and dry fpots, but even in 
low and fait places. They dig their holes very fpeedily, not only 
with their fore feet but with their teeth, and fling the earth back, 
with their hind feet, fo as to form a heap at the entrance. The 
burrows are many yards long, and run obliquely and winding, 
but not above half a yard deep below the furface. They end in 
a large fpace or neft, the receptacle of the pureft herbs. They 
have ufually but one entrance ; yet by a wonderful fagacity thev 
work from their neft another paflage to within a very fmall fpace 
of the furface, which in cafe of necefTity they can burft through, 
and fo efcape. 

It is fingular, that an animal of a very chilly nature, fliould keep 
within its hole the whole day, and wander about only in the nio-ht. 

They lleep rolled up, with their head between their thighs : 
and when kept in a ftove, and taken fuddenly out, they feem 
quite ftupified, and for a time fcarcely find the ufe of their limbs : 
perhaps this arifes from an excefs of heat; for when an attempt 
is made to take them out of their burrows, they are quickly 
alarmed on the noife of digging, and attempt their efcape. At 
fun-fet they come out of their holes, clear them of the filth, 
and keep abroad till the fun has drawn up the dews from the 
earth. On approach of any danger, they immediately take Great leaps. 
to flight, with leaps a fathom in height, and fo fwiftly that a 


i68 J E R B O A. 

man \vq1! mounted can hardly overtake them. They fpring fo 
nimbly, that it is impoffible to fee their feet touch the ground. 
They do not go ftrait forwards, but turn here and there, till they 
gain a burrow, whether i: is their own, or that of another. In 
leaping, they carry their tails flretched out : in ftanding, or 
going or walking, they carry them in form of an S, the lower 
part touching the ground, fo that it feems a diredor in their 
motions. When furprized, they will fometimes go on all fours, 
but foon recover their attitude of ftanding on their hind legs like 
a bird: even when undifturbed, they ufe the former attitude; 
then rife eredl, liften, and hop about like a crow. In digging or 
eating they drop on their fore legs : but in the laft adlion will 
often fit up and eat like a fquirrel. 
Easily tamed. They are eafily made tame: feek always a warm corner: fore- 

tell cold or bad weather by wrapping themfelves clofe up in hay j 
and thofe which are at liberty Hop up the mouths of their bur- 
tQOD. In a wild flate they are particularly fond of the roots of tulips : 

live much on oleraceous plants : the fmall ftature of the pygmy 
kind is attributed to their feeding on faline plants. Thofe of the 
middle fize, which live beyond the lake Baikal, live on the bulbs 
• of the Lilium Pompcnium, and they gnaw the twigs of the Robinia 
Carugana. When confined, they will not refufe raw meat, and 
the entrails of fowls. 

They are the prey of all lefler rapacious beafts. The Arahs^ 
who are forbidden all other kinds of mice, efteem thefe the 
greateft delicacies: as thofe people often are difappointed in dig- 
ging after them, they have this proverb, " To buy a hole inftead 
'* oi?.JahQar 

4 The 

JERBOA. 169 

The Mongols have a notion that they fuck the flieep : certain 
it isj they are during night very frequent among the flocks, which 
they difturb by their leaps. 

The Mongols call this animal /liagh-Daagha. ALigh fignifies Names. 

variegated, Daagha, a foal. The Calmucs call it Jalma : the 
great fort they (lyle Mon'n Jalma, or the Horfe Jerhoa\ the leffer 
lort, Choiii Jalma^ or the Sheep. 

They breed often in the fummer; in the fouthern parts, in the 
beginning of Ma-^ : beyond Baikal, not till Jiirie. They bring 
perhaps eight at a time, as they have fo many teats. They fleep 
the whole winter without nutriment. About AJiracan, they will 
fometimes appear in a warm day in February: but return to their 
holes on the return of cold. 

Animals of this genus were certainly the two-footed mice, and 
\\-ie jEgyptian mice, of the ancients, which were faid to walk on their 
hind legs; and ufe the fore inftead of hands. Thefe, with the 
plant Silphium, were ufed to denote the country of Cyrene, where 
both were found, as appears from the figures on a beautiful gold 
coin preferved by Mr. Haym *, and which I have caufed to be 
copied above the animal, in the plate. 

Dipus fagitta. Gm, Lin, 158. Pallas nov. fp. 87, 206. tab. xxi. Edw. tab. 219. -^^^ Arrow. 


with ears fhorter and broader than the preceding: nofe longer 
and lefs obtufe : toes before, three behind : coat thicker 

• Te/oro Brit, ii. 124. 

Vol. II. Z and 



and longer; a white band from the bafe of the tail to thejuniflion 
of the thighs with the body : length from the tip of the nofe to the 
rump, little more than five inches; of the tail fix. 

Inhabits i)j)-^i/?j, and all the north oi Jfrka, JF-^ypt, Arabia, and 
Syria ; and lives in the fandy dtferts. 

-bT. CAht. Grand Gerbo. AUamatid de Bajfon, xv. DlpusCafer.G»».£;V/.'jplates. 

* 1 1 3. Journal Hijiorique, 59. tab. xxxi. 

T with a fliort head: broad between the ears: mouth placed far 
•^ • below the upper iaw : lower very fliort : two great teeth in 
each: ears one-third Ihorter than thofe of the common rabbet, 
thin and tranfparent •. eyes large : whifkers great. 

Fore legs fhort, five toes on each, with a great protuberance 
next to the inner toe: claws of the fore toes crooked, and two- 
thirds longer than the toes themfelves : claws of the hind toes 

Color above tawny; cinereous below, mixed with long hairs 
pointed with black : two-thirds of the tail tawny, the reft black. 

Length from nofe to tail one foot two inches ; of the tail near 
fifteen inches ; the cars near three. 

Inhabits the great mountains far north of the Cape of Good 
Hope. It is called by the Hottentots, Aerdmannetje; and by the 
Dutch, Springen Haas, or the Jumping Hare. 

It is very ftrong; will leap twenty or thirty feet at a time: 
its voice a grunting: when it eats, fits upright, with the legs ex- 
tended horizontally, and with a bent back : ufes its fore feet to 
bring the food to its mouth; burrows with them, which it does 


JERBOA. 171 

fo expedldoufly as quickly to bury itfelf. In {leeplng, it fits with 
its knees feparate, puts its head between its hind legs, and with 
the fore legs holds its ears over its eyes. 

Mus longipes. M. cauda elongata vefti- Mus Cauda longa veftita, pedibus pofticis 368. Torrid. 
ta, palmis tetradaftylis, plantis penta- longitudine corporis, flavis. Muf, Ad, 
daclylis, femoribus longiflimis. Lin, Fr, 9. 

fyf. 84. 


■with naked oval ears: long whiJkers: four toes on the fore 
feet : the hind feet the length of the body, thick, ftrong and 
thinly haired : five toes on each foot: fcarcely any neck: tail the 
length of the body, with very little hair on it ; color of the up- 
per part of the bpdy yellow ; the lower white : fize of a common 

Inhabits, according to Linn^uSf the torrid zone* : mentioned 
by no other writer. 

• Habitat in torriMi regieniius. 

Z a Two 

J72 RAT. 

XXXIII. RAT. Two cutting teeth in each jaw. 

Four toes before; five behind. 
Very ilender taper tail ; naked, or very flightly haired. 

* Jerboid. 

569. Canada, -q with the upper jaw projedling far beyond the lower : upper 
■*•*'" cutting teeth deeply divided by a longitudinal furrow: ears 
fmall, and hid in the fur, and placed far back: the three middle hind 
toes very long; thofe on each fide very fhort: color of the fur on 
the upper part of the head and body, light ruft ; towards the bottom 
of the fur iron grey : belly whitilh : length from nofe to the tip of 
the tail fcarcely two inches: tail very flender; three inches and a 
half long. 
Manners. This animal inhabits the woods of Cz;Wrf. Its hind legs have 

more of the Jerboas, than any of the reft of this genus ; are very 
long : it goes upright on thefe, like the Jerboa ; and its pace is leap- 
ing like that animal: is exceeding nimble, and is with difficulty 
caught, except it can be forced into the open grounds: is torpid 
during winter: wraps i(felf up like the dormoufe, and coils up its 
long tail ; previoufly rolling itfelf into a round ball of clay, which it 
forms for its winter retreat. 

I am indebted to Col. Davies, of the artillery, for the fight and the 
account of this curious animal. 

R. with 

RAT. 173 

"D with a blunt nofe : mouth placed far beneath: upper lip 37o> Labrador. 

• bifid: ears large, naked, rounded; fore legs fhort, fur- 
niftied with four toes, and a tubercle inftead of a thumb : hind 
legs long and naked^ like fome of the Jerboas: thumb fhort: 
toes long, {lender, and diftinft ; the exterior the fliorteft. 

The whole length of the animal eight inches : of which the 
tail is four and three quarters. 

Color deep brown above, white beneath, feparated the whole 
leno-th on each fide by a yellow line. 

Inhabits Hudfon's Bay, and the Labradore coafi:. Sent by Mr. Place. 
Graham, and depofited in the MufcLim of the Royal Socieiy. 

Since I wrote the above, I find that Dodlor Fallas has defcribed 
this fpecies under the title of Mus Longipes *. It inhabits alfo 
the fandy dcfert of Naryn, or Ryn Pefiy, between the Folga and the 
Talk, near the Cafpian Scj, in lat. 464-. In this tract fcarcely any 
thing grows except the Torlok, or Pterococcus Jphyllus, and a few 
other poor plants on which it feeds. Two were then taken fport- 
ing in the mid-day fun; they were both males, and attempted to 
efcape to different holes. The burrows had three entrances run- 
ning obliquely, and were about a yard deep; lined or plaittered 
with mud. In the bottom was neither neft nor provifion of 

The Afiatic animal differed in color from the American, being 
above of a light grey mixed with tawny, white below : thefe 
colors divided lengihways by a flripe of dufky red. The tail 

• No'v.ff.fa/'c, i. 314. tab. xviii, B. Mus mindianus ? Itin, ii. 702. 

5 covered 

174 RAT. 

covered with longer and loofcr hair at the end than in the other 
parts : the foles of the feet clad with hair. This I could not well 
obferve in the fpecimen from Hudfons Bay, as it was prefervcd in 
fpirits. Linnaus defcribes this fpecies under the title of Mm 
longipes, Syjl. -nat. 84. Dodlor Pallas, with great realbn, fuppofes 
it to be the fame with the Jird of Doclor Shaw, which our 
learned countryman defcribes with the Jerboa, It agrees in co- 
lors with the above; in its long tail being better cloathed than 
that of a rat ; and in its burrowing under ground. This is fre- 
quent in Barbary, and is reckoned there a good food*. 

371. A, CiRCAs- To this I join, on the judgment of DodVor Pallas, another 

SI AN. animal, which I defcribed at N" 205 of i\\t Synopfis of Quadrupeds, 

under the title of Circajfian Alarmot, or 

M. with ears like thofe of mice: red fparkling eyes: Iharp 
teeth: body long, and of an equal thicknefs: chefnut- colored 
hair, long, efpecially on the back: has fharp claws: tail long and 
bulhy: fore feet Ihorter than the hind feet: fize of the Hamjier, 
N° 324. 

Inhabits the neighborhood of the river Terek, which flows out 
of CircaJJia and falls into the Cafpian Sea : runs faft up hill, very 
flowly down : burrows, and lives under ground f. 

* Shaixj^! travels, 248, 

t Scboberi memorab. Afiat. Ruflis in Mullir's Samlung Ruff, viii, 124. 


( " 



Mas Tamaricinus. Pallas, nov. /f. i. 322. tah. six. Itin, ii. 702. 372. Tamarisk. 

"O with an oblong head: great whiikers : nofe bUint: noftrils 
■^^* covered with a flap : teeth yellow: ej^es large and brown: 
ears large, naked, and oval : neck fhort : fpace round the nofe 
and ej'es, and beyond the ears, white: fides of the head and neck 
hoary: back and fides of a yellowifh grey: tips of the hairs 
brown: breafl and belly white: tail cinereous; above half annii- 
lated with brown: hind legs long: on the fore feet a warty tu- 
bercle inftead of a thumb. 

Length to the tail above fix inches: tail not quite fo long. Size. 

Inhabits the lower falt-marfhes about Saritfchikofka, on the Place. 
Lozver Talk or Ural, where they burrow beneath the knotty roots 
of the tamariflc buihes; each burrow has two entrances, and is 
very deep: they feed only at night: out of numbers which were 
taken in traps placed before their holes, not a female was taken. 
Their food is the fucculent maritime tribe of plants, fuch as A^«- 
iraria, Salfola, and others, with which thofe deferts abound. 

To this divifion of Rats I give the title of Jerbo'ui, from the 
affinity it has to that genus in the length of the hind legs. To 
the other. Murine, as comprehending all the common fpecies of 
Rats and JVIice. 

*• Murine. 


R A T. 

** Murine. 


^7- Bl ' CK Mus domeflicus major, quem vulgo Rat- Miis Rittuj. M. cauda elongata fubnuda, 

^''' ' ' turn vccaiU.G£>vf/- y«arf. 731. iJ«"yj«. pahnis tetradaftyhs cum unguxulopol- 

quad.zxi. iicari, planus pcinadadvLis. Linfyfl. 

Mus Rattus MusCiftrinarius. A:A;«?«a./. Katta. Fcim.Jucc. N"' 33 Br. Zocl. i. A" 

57. 27. 

Ratze. Kramer Auflr. 316. Le Kat. Dc Bu£on, vik in%.tah. xxxvi. 

Mus Cauda longifllma obfcure clnerea. P^//<ji /.ou.y/)./<7/f. i. 93. Lev. Mus. 
Brijfon quad. I iS. 

of a deep iion-grey coior, neail)' black: belly cinereous: 
* le^s dufky, almoft naked: a claw, in the place of a fifth 
toe, on the fore feet : length, from nofe to tail, feven inches ; tail 
near eight. 
Place. Inhabits tnoft parts of -E.'/rp;)i?: of late, the numbers much Icf- 

fened, and in many places extirpated, by the next fpecies : very 
deftruftive to corn, furniture, young poultry, rabbets, and pi- 
geons: will gnaw the extremities of infants when afleep : breeds 
often in a year: brings fix or feven young at a time: makes its 
nefl, in a hole near a chimney, of wool, bits of cloth, or flraw: 
will deftroy and devour one another : its greateft enemy is the 
weefel. Firft introduced by the Europeans into South America* , 
about the year 1544, in the time of the y'lcti-oy Blafco Numiez. 
Is now the peft of all that continent. 

The word Rattus is modern. The Romans probably compre- 
hended ^11 kinds under the word Mus. The fVelp call this Llygoden 
Frengig, or the French Moufe, which evinces it not to be a native 

• GarcilaJJh de la Vega, 384, Ovalle. Churchill's coll. iij. 43. 





Islam ds. 

of our ifland. There is a very minute variety of this kind about 
the Folga, in the deferts of the lower part (for they have not 
reached the upper) which fcarcely weighs feven drachms. 

I cannot trace the original place of the black rat : none are 
found in Siberia or Kamtfehatka. 

Rats (I know not of what fpecies) are found in the Papuas South-Sea 
iflands, aS New Guinea'^' ; but according to the account given by 
Doctor Forjier-f, the common black rats fwarm in Otaheite, and 
other of the Society iflands, and are alfo met with in the other 
groupes of iflands, in Nezv Zealand, and in New Holland. They 
feed in Otaheite on the fruits of the country, and are fo bold as 
even to attack the inhabitants when they are afleep. The na- 
tives hold them in the utmoft deteftation, as unclean animals, 
and will even avoid killing them, leaf! they fliould be polluted by 
the touch. They will not even eat the bread-fruit thefe ani- 
mals fhould happen to run over. 

LeCoypu. Molina CMi. 26S. MusCoypus. G;». i/«. 125. 3-4. Coypu, 

with round ears : nofe elongated, covered with whilkers: legs 
Ihort: tail thick, and of a moderate length, well covered 
with hairs: two very fliarp cutting teeth in each jaw : on the fore 
feet are five toes, all feparated; on the hind feet five, palmated : 
has the appearance of the otter in hair and fize. 

This animal lives equ;illy well in the water as on the land; and Manni rs. 

* Captain for;-^?. f Objer'uatmi,l£c, 185,187. 

Vol. II. A a frequents 



frequents alfo houfes: is eafily tamed, and very content in the do- 
meftic ftate: attaches itfelf to thofe who treat it kindly: has a 
piercing cry on being abufed : the female brings forth five or fix 
young, which always follow her. 

37c. Brown. Muscaudalongiffima, fupradilute fulvus, xxvil. 

infra albicans. Le Rat de Bois. Bnjfon Norway Rat. Br. Zool. i. N° 26. 

^uad. 120. Mus Decumanus. Pallas nov. fp.fafc.'u 

Le Surmulot. De Buffo:t,'^\\\, 206. tab. 91. Lev. Mus. 

T^ with the head, back, and fides, of a light brown color, 
■*•*■• mixed with tawny and afh-color : breaft and belly dirty 
white: feet naked, and of a dirty fielh-color: fore feet furnifhed 
with four toes, and a claw inftead of the fifth : length, from nofe 
to tail, nine inches; tail the fame: weight eleven ounces: is 
ftronger made than the lafl;. 
In Europe. Inhabits moft parts of Europe: but was a ftranger to that 

continent 'till the prefent century : came into Great Britain about 
hfty years ago : not known in the neighborhood of Paris half 
that time. This rat is common in India, both on the land and in 
fliips. May we not go to Indojlan for their origin ? They fwarm in 
Feterjhurg: have reached Prujla, but not the oppofite fide of the 
Baltic; at left Lifinaus takes no notice of them. 
Asia. Are numerous in Perjia, where they burrow in the fields *. 

In Hyrcania they occupy the deferted holes of the porcupine. 

' ♦ Doftor Falloi, among h's other epiftolary communications. 


R A T. 179 

Some years ago an immenfe migration aiiivcJ from tlie weft at 
the town of Jaik; and in the year 1727 an equal number ap- 
peared about /Iftracan, filled the whole bed of the Volga, and in- 
fefted the houfes to that degree, that nothing could be preferved 
from them. They have not yet reached Siberia. Thefe probably 
were the Mures Cafpii of jEUa-n, which he fays were litde iefs than 
Ichneumons; and made periodical vifits in infinite multitudes to 
the countries bordering on the Cafpian Sea: fwimming boldly 
over the rivers, holding by one another's tail *. 

Burrow, like the water-rat, on the fides of ponds and ditches : 
fwim well and dive readily : live on grain and fruits, and will 
defhroy poultry and game : encreafe fad; bring from fourteen to 
eighteen young at a time: are very bold and fierce; will turn 
when clofely puriued, and faften on the ftick or hand of thofe who 
offer to ftrike them : have deftroyed the common black rat in 
moft places. Inhabit fields part of the year, but migrate in great 
numbers into houfes, and do infinite mifchief. 

Le Rat Perchal, De Buffon, Supphm, vH. 276. tab. Ixix. , _ 

■" ' '1^ I ^yf), Perchal* 

"O withears rounded on the top : nofe long and turning up: body 
'■■*■• longer than that of common rats: hair on the upper parts 
deep brown: hind legs larger than the fore: tail naked and 
fcaly : length from nofe to tail above a foot ; tail between eight 
and nine inches. 

Common in India, and infefts the houfes in Pondicherry, Place. 

* JEUaiii hiji. ar. xvii. c. 1 7, 

A a 2 as 

i8o RAT. 

as our rats do thofe oi Europe: are very numerous: the inbabltants 
ufe them for food. 

377. Banuicote. At p. 440 of the former edition I imagined that the Brown rat 

was the fame as the Bandicote of the Eaji Lidies. My good and 
intelligent friend Doi^or Patrick Rtijfel, who has made a long re- 
fidence on the eaftern coaft of Indojhn, convinces me of my miftake. 
His remarks are fuch that do not at prefent enable ine to give fo 
full a defciiption of this fpecies as I could wifh. It is gene- 
rally agreed that the Bandicote is at left five times the weight of the 
Broivn rat: that, comparative with that kind, it has a fhorter and 
thicker tail : that its general form is much thicker, and the back 
arched ; fo that, at firfl; fight, it looks like a little pig : it is lefs aiftive 
and alert than the brown-rat: is infinitely mifchievous in gardens: 
burrows under the houfes, and will even undermine them fo as to 
caufe them to full : never go on board ftiips. The Palinquin- 
boys eat this kind, but will rejeft the common rat. A more fatisfac- 
tory account of the Bandicote may be expeifled in the courfe of a 

3-78. American. Leverian Museum. 

Mus Caraco? Pallas fio-v./f./a/c. 1, 335. tab, xxlii. 

T3 with the upper jaw much longer than the lower : head long : 
• nofe narrow and pointed: ears large and naked: whiikers 
fine, but long : tail naked, and like that of the black rat, but not 
fo long. 


RAT. i8i 

Color a deep brown; on the belly inclines to adi-color : hair 
ruder chin in the preceding fpecies. 

In llze larger than the black, leffer than the brown rat. 

Inhabits North America; but I am uncertain whether it is en- 
tirely wild, or whether it has yet found its way into hoalc^s and 
out-houfes. Mr. Bartram * mentions the rat (but does not de- 
termine the fpecies) which lives among the ftones and caverns in 
the Blue Mountains, far from mankind : comes out at night, and 
makes a terrible noife; but in very fevere weather keeps filent 
within its holes. 

The Mus Caraco of Doclor Pallas is fo nearly allied to this $. Caraco. 
fpecies, that I do not at this time venture to feparate them : the 
whifkers of the former feem rather fhorter, and the tail, in propor- 
tion to its length, thicker ; but the thinnefs of that part might, in 
the fpecimen in the Leverian Musuem, arife from its being 
dried ; neither could 1 examine it thoroughly, as it was within a 
glafs cafe. The Caraco has not as yet appeared to the weft of 
the Jenefei, but fwarms about and beyond lake Baikal. It has 
much agreement with the laft kind, being, as the Mongals report, 
converfant among lakes and waters, and is called by them Cha- 
racho, and Jike-Cbolgonach or the Great Moufe. It burrows in the 
banks of rivers : is fuppofed to extend to China, and to be very 
noxious there. 

* In Kaltrii trav. ii. 48. 


lU R A T. 

379. ScHERMAN. Le Scherman, De Eujhn, Supf km. \/ii. 2yB, tab. \xx. 

Ty with a fhort head and thick nofe: fmall eyes: ears fo very 
■*• fmall as to be fcarcely vifible: color of the hair duflcy, 
mixed with grey and tawny : edges of the mouth bordered with 
white : body fix inches long; tail above two. 

Common about Strojhoiirg, in the gardens and places near the 
water: make great havoc among the plants and the cultivated 
grounds: fwim and dive very well, and are often taken by the 
fifliermen in their vveels; burrow under ground, and are frequently 
caught in the traps ufed by the people who are employed in tak- 
ing the Hamjler rat. 

3S0. Water. LeRatd'Eau. i?f^n,y^?ya^ 30./^^. xxxi. M. cauda longa pills fupra ex nigro et 

Mus aquatilis. /Igncola An. Suiter. 488. flavefcente ii.i.xlis, infra cineieis vefli- 

Gejner quad. 1^2. Rail fyn, quad. 217. tus. Brijfon quad. \ i\. 

Klein quad. tj. Le Rat d'Eau. De'Buffon,\\\. l\%.tah. 

Wafler-maus Kramer Aujir.'^ib. xliii. 

Mus Amphibius. M. Cauda elongatapilo- Water Rat. Br. Zool.\.W 21, Lev. 

fa, plantispalmatis. Lin. J'yft.'iz.Fauu. Mus. 

Jucc. N° 32. Pallas Nov. Jp fafc. i. 20, 

T^ with a thick blunt nofe: ears hid in the fur: eyes fmall: 
■*-^* teeth yellow: on each foot five toes; inner toe of the fore 
foot very fmall; the firfh joint very flexible: head and body co- 
vered with long hairs, black mixed with a few ferruginous hairs : 
belly of an iron grey: tail covered with fliort black hairs; the 
tip whitifii: weight nine ounces : length, from nofe to tail, feven 


RAT. ,83 

inches; tail only five : fhape of the head and body more compadt 
than the former fpecles*. 

Inhzh'its Europe, the north o{ Jfia, and North America-f; bur- 
rows in the banks of rivers, ponds, and wet ditches : feeds on 
fmall fifh, and the fry of greater; on frogs, infefts, and roots: 
is itfelf the prey of pike: fwims and dives admirably, though it 
is not web-footed, as Mr, Ray fuppofed, and Linnaus copied af- 
ter him : brings fix young at a time. This animal and the Otter 
are eaten in France on maigre days. 

Le Guanque. MoIitia,z%i. Mus Cyanus. Gm/in,j^i, 381. Skv-colored. 

*0 with rounded ears: fur of a blue color: fize and appearance of 
''■^*^my field rat. 

Inhabits Chili: burrows a gallery ten feet long, with feven 
correfpondent chambers on each fide of a foot in depth: thefe are 
the magazines for winter provifion, which are of roots, moft nicely 
laid in order one upon the other : at the approach of the rainy feafon 
retire to the burrows : breed twice in the year, and bring forth fix 

* It has fome reff mblance to the Beaver, which induced Linnaeus, in the firft edi- 
tion of his Fauna Suecica, to ftyle it Cajior Cauda lineari tereti. 

t Lanu/on bijl. Carolina, 122. He alfo mentions another, which he calls the 
Mar/h Rat, being more hairy than the common rat; but apparently is the fame with 
this. Thufe oi Canada vary to tawny and white. Vide De Buffon, xiv. 4.0 1. xv. 




at a time: the firft brood is left to provide for itfelf ; tlie fecond re- 
tires under ground -with the parents : are very timid, and very 
cleanly in their retreats: the peafants hunt for the hoards, and by 
robbing them leave the family to perifli. 

382. Mouse. ^yj domefticus communis feu minor. 

Gtfner quad.- 1^. Rail fyn. quad. 218. 
Mu* minor, mufculus vulgaris. Kleinquad. 
Maufs. Kramer Aujir. 316. 
Mus mufculus. M.caudaelongata, palmis 

tetradaftylis, plantis pentadaftylis. 

Lln.fyft. 83. Pallas No'V. /p. fafc . i. 9J. 
Mus. Faun. fuec. N° 34. 
Mus Cauda longlffima, obfcure cinereus, 

ventre fubalbefcente. Brijfon quad, i ig. 
La Souris. De Buffon, vii. :og. tab. lix. 

Br. Zcol. i. N" 30. Lev. Mus. 

A N animal that needs no defcription : when found white, is 
"*■ ^ very beautiful, the full bright eye appearing to great ad- 
vantage amidft the fnowy fur. 

Inhabits all parts of the world, except the ArSlic: follows 

383. FlELU. 

Mus agreftis minor. Gefner quad. 733. 
Mus domefticus medius. ■'Raii/yn. quad. 

Mus fylvaticus. M. Cauda longa, palmis 
tetradaCTylis, plantis pentadaftylis, 
corpore grifeo pilis nigris abdomine al- 
bo. U:i. lyfl. 84. FallaKoi-.fp.fafc. i. 
94. Faun. Suec. N°36. 

Maufs mit weifTen bauch. Kramer AuJlr, 

3«7- ,. . . 

Mus Cauda longa fupra e fufcoflavefcens, Le Mulct. De Buffon, vii. 325. tah. xli 

infra ex albo cinerefcens. Brijfon quad. Long-tailed Field-moufe. Br. Zool. 

123. N°28, Lev.Mus. 

T> \vith full and black eyes: head, back, and fides of a yellowifh 

■*■ • brown, mixed with fome duflcy hairs: breafi; of an ochre- 

color : belly white : length, from the tip of the nofe to the tail, 

5 four 

R A T. 

four inches and a half; tail four Inchesj flightly covered with 

Inhabits Europe: found only in fields and gardens : feeds on 
nuts, acorns, and corn: forms great magazines of winter provi- 
fion: hogs, tempted by the fmell, do much damage in the fields 
by rooting up the hoards: makes a neft for its young very near 
the furface, and often in a thick tuft of grafs: brings from feven 
to ten at a time: called, in fome parts oi England, Bean Moufe, 
from the havock it makes among the beans when juft fown. 

Is common in Riijfia, and about the Urallian chain, but not 

«. American R. with very long whifkers, fome white, others 
black: ears large, naked, and open: from the head to the tail, 
along the middle of the back, a broad dark flripe, ferruginous 
and dufky: the cheeks, fpace beneath the ears, and fides, quite 
to the tail, orange-colored : under fide, from nofe to tail, of a 
fnowy whitenefs: feet white: hind legs longer than thofe of 
the European kind: tail dulky above, whitifh beneath. New 



The lefs long-tailed Field-Moufe. Br. ZcoL ii. Jpp. 498. Lev. Mus. 384. Harvest. 

with eyes lefs prominent than thofe of the former : ears 

■• prominent: of a full ferruginous color above, white be- 
neath : a ftrait line along the fides divides the colors: tail a little 
hairy : length, from nofe to tail, two inches and a half: tail two 
inches : weight one-fixrh of an ounce. 
Vol. II. B b Inhabits 

,86 RAT. 

Inhabits Hampjl:ire', where it appears in greateft numbers dur- 
ino- ha'rveft: never enters houfes; bat is carried into the ricks of 
corn in the Iheaves; and often hundreds are killed on breaking up 
the ricks: during winter, flielters itfelf under ground: burrows 
very deep, and forms a warm bed of dead grafs: makes its neft 
for its young above ground, between the draws of llanding corn; 
it is of a round fliape, and compofed of blades of corn : bringSi 
about eight young at a time. 

385. Oriental. Mus onentalls. Sd. Mu/.u. 22. tai. x.xi. dlnalibus Sc pundls albis. 3Li/. Ad. 


Fred. 10. 

M. Cauda mediocri fubnuda, palmis te- Mus caudalonga, rufus,lineisindorfo aT- 

tradaiftylis, plantis pentadaflylis, cor- bicantibus,margaritarum«muEi.£r.yl 

poris ftriis punclatis. Lin.JyJi. 84. /on i^uaii. 124.. 

M. Cauda longa, llriis corporis longitu- 

Rwith round naked ears : of a grey color : the back and fides 
• elegantly marked with twelve rows of fmall pearl-colored 
fpots, extending from the head to the rump : tail the length of 
the body : in fize, half that of a common moufe. 

Inhabits India. In the fame country, and in Guinea, is another 
very fmall fpecies, which fmells of mulk. The Portugucfe living 
in India call it Cherofo, and fay its bite is venomous. Boullaye la 
GfKz, 256. Barl/ot's Gui/iea, 21^ 




MasEarbarus.M. Cauda mediocrl corpora daflylis, planus pentadaftyUs. L?V,^/?. 386. Bare art. 
fufco, ftriis decern pallidis, palmis tri- torn. i. pars ii. addenda, 

T ESS than the common moufe: of a brown color : marked 
"*^ on the back with ten flender ftreaks : three toes with claws 
on the fore feet, with the rudiments of a thumb; tail of the 
length of the body. 
Inhabits Barbarj. 

Mus Mexicanus maculatus. 5^^. Mtt/; 74, /^3. xlv. /rV. f . ,o_ ].;t. 

•' '^ J&'^' 387. Mexican. 

"O of a whitifli color, mixed with red : head whitifli : each fide 
• of the belly marked with a great reddifli fpot. 
According to Seha inhabits M-a'/Vo. 

Mu3 agreftis Americanusalbus. 5«^. M/. i. 76. /<j^. xlvli./^. 4. » gs^ Virginian. 

Rwith pointed ears and nofe; the lad black- whifkers long: 
• fur very fhort : limbs very weak and {lender : tail at the 
bafe thick, growing gradually fo from the rump, fo that the 
iunftion cannot be diftinguifhed; decreafes gradually, and be- 
comes very long and flender; ends in a point, and is in all parts 
befet with long hair. 

Color of this animal univerfally white. 

According to Seba, found in Virginia. The thicknefs at the Place. 
bafe of the tail is its fpecific diiference. 

B b a Mus 

iS8 RAT. 

389. Wanter- Mus Vagus. Pallai Kev.fp.fa/c, i. 327. tab. xxii.7%. 2. 

I NO. 

Rwith an oblong head: blunt nofe, with a red tip: cutting; 
• teeth yellow; the upper truncated: eyes placed midway 
between the nofe and the ears : ears large, oval, naked; the tip* 
dulky and downy: limbs {lender: inllead of a thumb, on the fore 
feet, is a conic wart: tail longer than the body, and very flender. 

Color- above a pale afh, mixed and undulated v;ith black:: 
along the back to the tail is a black line : ends of the limbs 

Lenoth, from nofe to tail^ between tv/o and three inches; the 
tail near three. 

Inhabits the whole 'Tartarian defert ; and at certain times 
wanders about in great flocks, and migrating from place to 
place daring night. Obferved lat. c,y,_ about the Irtijloy 
and betsveen the Ohy and Jenejei, in birch woods: is of a very 
chilly nature i foon becomes torpid, and fleeps rolled up in the 
eold night, even of the month of June. Lives in frlfures of 
rocks, under flones, and in hollow fallen trees : has carnivorous- 
inclinations; for on being placed in a box with a moufe of ano- 
ther fpecies, it killed and devoured part, notwithllanding it had 
feeds to feed on. Is called by the Tartars, Djlmkis-fitjlaii, or gre^r- 
garicus Moufe. '' 



Mus Betulinus. Pallas Nov. ft. fafc. i. 322. tah. xxil. fp^. 1, ,„ t, 

' ■' -^ -'* 390i i>EECH. 

T^ with a Oiarp nole, with the end red ; ears fmaller than thofe 
•*-^* of the former, brownj briftly at the end : limbs very flen- 
der : toes long, flender, and very feparable : tail very long and 
lender, much exceeding the length of the body; brown above, 
white below. 

Color of the head and body a cinereous ruft, with a few du/ky 
hairs interfperfed : breaft and belly, pale afli : along the top of 
the back, is a du/ky line. 

Lefs than the former. Size-. 

Inhabits the birch woods about the ph'ns o( Ifchim and Baraha, Place. 
and between the Oby and Jcnefet : lives in the hollows of decayed 
trees : very tender, and foon grows torpid in cold weather : runs 
up trees, and fattens to the boughs with its tail; and, by afiiftance 
of its flender fingers, adheres to any fmooth furface: emits a weak- 

Mus Agrartus. Pallas rwv./j>f,i/i: u 34T. tnli. xxiv. A. ///«. i. 454^ .,^ n 

Mus Rubeub. Scb'u:enhfeldt Amm.EiUj'. 114. ■'^ J^ustic, 

T> with a fharp nofe: oblong head: fmall ears lined wiih fur: 
* ^'^ color of the body and liead ferruginous, with a dulky line 
along the back: belly and limbs whitifli: above each hind foot is- 
a dufky circle. 

A little lefs than the field moufe. The tail only half the 
length of the body. 

4, Inhabits 

loo RAT. 

ri.AC£. Inliabits the temperate craft o'i Rt'JJid, and Siberia, as far as the 

lit'ifJ: : in the former, chiefly about villages and corn-fields; in 
the latter, in woods. In RtfJJta is often migratory, and often very 
noxious to the grain : it is called there Shitnik, or the Corn Moufe, 
for it abounds in the flieafs and ricks. At times they wander in vaft 
multitudes, and deftroy the whole expeiflations of the farmer. 
This plague did in particular, in the years 1763 or 1764, make 
great ravages in the rich country about Cafan and Arjk; but came 
in fuch numbers as to fill the very houfes, and became through 
hunger lb bold as to Ileal even the bread from the table before 
the very faces of the guefts. At approach of winter they all dil- 

They make their retreats a little below the furface, which in 
thofe places appears elevated : each has a long gallery, with a 
chamber at the end, in which they place their winter foodj which 
confifts of vai-ious forts of feeds. 

.,. SotticiNE Mus Sorlcinus. Schreher, iski, c\xxxm, Gm, Lia. i^o. 

Rwith a 
• hair; 

with an elegant {lender head ; ears rounded and covered with 

tail long and {lender: hair on the head and upper part 

of the body cinereous, mixed with yellow: belly white: length two 


PtACE. Inhabits the neighborhood oi Strajbinj: difcovered by ProfelTor 





Mus pumilio. Cmel.Lin.JjjJ}, \~^o, Sparma/i's njoy-u^ ■l>;i^'). tai. v'li, 303. Lineated 

"O with black forehead and hind part of the head: from thehifl: 
■■■^* extend along the back to tail four black lines : color of the 
reft of the animal a cinereous brown : tail of a light color, very 
fmall : not fuperior in fize to the following. 

Inhabits the forefl of Si{!:cariir,'.a on the Slangen river, at a vafl Place. 

diftance to the eaftward of the Cape oi Good Hope, 

Mus mlnutus. Palins Nov./p.fefi. i. 345. taB. xxiv. B. Iini. i. 454.- 394. Littli, 

Rwith a fliarpiili nofe: dufky,^ with a whitenefs at the corner 
• of the mouih: ears fmall, half hid in the fur: body more 
flender than that of the common moufe: tail Paorter and more 

Color, a deep tawny above, white below : feet grey. 

The left of the genus; little more than two inches long from Size. 

nofe to tail; weight not half a dram. 

Inhabits the temperate parts of iJ///l^^; and SiZ'OT^z, in corn-fields Place. 
and barns; is alfo plentiful in the birch-woods. More males among 
them than females. Seem to wander without any certain places for 
their neCls, 

»* With 

192 ■ R A T. 

505. Rock. ** With t>iUs of middle length. 


IVIus Saxatilis. PaUai Kov./f.fa/c. i, 255. tab. xxiii. B. 

with an oblong head; nofe rather pointed: ears rifing above 
the fur; oval, downy, at the edges brown: whiikers fhort: 
iimbs ilrcng: tail not half fo long as the body, with a few hairs 
Scattered over it. 

Color above, brown ilightly mixed with grey; fides incline 
more to^he laft color: belly of a light cinereous: fnout diiiky, 
furroLinded with a very flender ring of white. 
■Size* Length four inches: tail one and a half. 

?i-ACE. Inhabits the couatry beyond lake Baikal, and the Mongolian 

defert: makes it-s burrows in a wonderful manner, confidering the 
weaknefs of its feet, between the crannies of the rocks which had 
been forced open by violence of froft, or ihe infinuation of roots 
oi plants : it chufes its habitation amidrt the rudeft rocks, and 
lives chiefly on the feeds oi AJiragali. The burrows confift, firft- 
• ly, of a large winding oblique paffage, through which the ani- 
mal flings out the earth: fecondly, of one or more holes point- 
ing downwards, which likewife wind among the rocks; and at 
their bottom is the neft, formed of foft herbs. 


il A T. 


\1verra faftlata. Gmslin Lin.l. ()z. Chat faavage, &c. 5a»«fyiJ/ «a), il. 143. tab. J96. Indian. 



wich fliort pointed ears: fliarp nofe: two cutting teeth in each 
jaw, and fourteen grinders in each : five toes to each foot : 
claws ftrong and crooked : color grey, tinged on the lower part 
of the head and neck with red : belly white : back and fides marked 
with four black lines, commencing near the hind part of the head, 
and ending at the rump : on each thigh is a bifurcated black 
ftroke, the forks pointing backwards. 

Length two feet; tail nine inches. Inhabits 7«i/(7. No further 
account is given by M. Sonnerat of this and the following obfcure 
fpecies. I place them in this genus, as they have no canine teeth, 
and only two incifores in each jaw. 

Le Zenlk des Hottentots. Sovuerai voy. Viverra Zenik. G»7f//n Z/». i. 84; ,q__ Zenik- 

ii. 145. tab. xcii. 

T> with fliort ears: very long (harp nofe: two cutting teeth; fix- 
• teen grinding teeth : four toes on each foot : claws on the 
fore feet very long, and almoft ftrait: color of a reddifh grey, 
ftriped tranfverfcly with ten black lines falling from the back 
almofi: to the belly. 

Size of a water rat : tail not fo long as the body; of a gilded red 
on three parts of its length ; the reft black. 
Inhabits the land of the Hottentots. 
Vol, I. Cc Mus 

194- X A T, 

398. acONOM-lC* ^"S fficonomus. Pallas Nov. /p.f.'fc. i. TegouHchhck. Defer, Kair.ifchatka, EngK- 
234. /i3^. xiv. A. //»'«. iii.692. eJ. 104. 


with fmall eyes: ears naked, and ufiially hid in the furr 
• limbs ftrong: teeth very tawny ; color black and yellow,, 
rntimately mixed ; duiky on the back; from throat to tail hoary;, 
beneath the hair a dark down; ends of the feet dufky. 
S12E,. Length foLir inches and a quarter-, of the tail, more than an 

inch : in form of body like the meadow moiife, but is rather 
longer, and the belly bigger. The females'are far fuperior to the 
males in fize, as on the former refts the chief labor of providing the 

Place. Inhabits in vaft numbers all Siberia, efpecially the eafcern parts, 

and K-amtfchatka; and even found within the ArBic circle. 

Manners. They are called by Doftor Pallas, Mures CEconomi or CEco- 

nomic Mice, from their curious way of living. They inhabit. 
damp foils, and Qum the fandy-, form burrows beneath the up- 
per cruft of the turfy ground; and have in them many cham- 
bers, and feveral entrances. Never more than two animals are 
found in thefe extenfive neds, and thofe fondly attached to each 
other; fometimes only one inhabits thefe dwellings, except towards 
autum.n, vi'hen the whole family make it their refidence. In the 
firft they form magazines for winter food, confining of various forts 
of plants, which they colIe(fl in fummer with great pains; and in 
funny days draw them out of their nefts, in order to give them a 
more effeftual drying. During fummer they n^ver touch their 
hoards, but live on berries, and otlier vegetable produflions. 
3 Twenty^ 



R A T. 

Twenty, and even tliirty pounds of fiedi roots, have been 'found ia 
one hoard. Befides man, thefe mice find a cruel animal in the wild 
boars, which ranfack the magnzincs, and devour the little defence- 
lefs owners. 

Thry in certain years make great migrations out of Kamtf- 
chatka; they coUccV in the fpring, and go off in incredible multi- 
tudes. Like the Lemmus, they go on in a direft courfe, and 
nothing flops their progrefs, neither rivers nor arms of fca : in 
their paflage they often fall a prey to the ravenous fifties and 
birds; but on land are fafe, as the Kamtfchatkans pay a fuper- 
flitious regard for them; and when they find them lying, weak or 
half dead with fatigue, on the banks, after paffinga river, will give 
them all poflible afllftance. They fet out on their migration weft- 
\vard. From the river Fcngin they go fouthward, and about the 
middle of July ve2Lz\\Ochotfka and Juihma, a traifl of amazing extent. 
They return again in OPwbcr. The Kamtfihatkans are greatly 
alarm.ed at their migrations, as they prefage rainy feafons, and an 
imfuccefsful chace; but on their return, exprefles are fent to all 
parts with the good news. 

Many fables are related of them, fuch as that they cover their 
provifions with poifonous herbs before their migrations, in order 
to deflroy other rat-s which may attempt to plunder their maga- 
zines; and if by chance they fhould be pillaged, they will ftrangle 
themfelves through vexation, by fqueezing their necks between 
the forks of flirubs; for this reafon the natives never take away 
all their ftore, but leave part for their fubfiftence, or leave in its 
place fome caviare, or any thing that will ferve for their fup- 
port. It is certain that the roots of certain poifonous plants aic 
C c 2 often 


ipS R A T. 

often found in their nefls half eaten : but this is no wonder, as it li 
well known that divers animals will feed on noxious vegetables. 
which would prove the certain bane of others. 

399. WcOLiY. La Chinchilla. MoUnaChill. 283. Mus lanigcr. Gm. Lin. 134.- 

"O with very fmall ears: fhort nofe : tail of a middling length? 
•■■^* whole body covered with long wool of exquifite finenefs, 
grey, and long enough to be fpun. The length of this fpecies ia 
llx inches. 

Thefe animals live in fociety under ground, and feed on the 
bulbous roots of the country. It breeds twice a year, and bringgi 
five or fix at a time: it is a very gentle tame animal : very fond or 
being careflcd, and will lie down without fear by mankind: it ia 
often domefiicated. The anticnt Peruvians manufactured many, 
fmall articles from the wool, which they fold at a great price. 

,100. Red, Mus Rutilus, Pallas Nov. /p. fffc.'i. 146. ^i^. xlv. B. 

with the nofe and face very briftly : ears, like thofe of the- 
' former, naked, except the tip, on which is a ruily down ; 
tail full of hair: color, from the middle of the forehead, along; 
the back, to the rump, an uniform pleafant tawny red : the fides; 
light grey and yellow: under fide of the body whitilh : feet, 
white: tail dufky above, light below. 
SizB^ Length not four inches j tail above one. 




Inhabits Siberia, from the Oby eaftward to Kamtfchatka, in Place. 

woods and mountains; and alfo within the Ar5lic circle. Creeps 
fometimes into houfes and granaries; lives abroad under logs of 
wood, or trunks of trees: they wander out the whole winter, and 
are very lively even amidft the fnows: eat any thing which comes 
in their way ; even flefh. 

A variety is found about Cafan, a little leffer than the Siberian- 
kind, and the tail longer and more flender: the red on the back is 
not fo much diffufed as in the other. The fame kind has alfa 
been difcovered ia the botanical garden at Gottens-en. 

Mus Alliarius, Pallas nov.fp.fafc. i. 252. tah. xlv. C. 

401. Garlic. 

T> with great open naked ears, very apparently out of the furr 
■*•*■• tail clothed with hair: color on the back cinereous, 
mixed with longer hairs tipped with dulky grey: fides of a 
whitilhafli: breaft, belly, and feet white; tail marked along the 
top with a'duflcy tine, the reft white. 

Length a little above four inches-, tail one and a half. Size. 

Inhabits the country about the Jenejei and Lena: is frequent in Place, 

the fubterraneous magazines of bulbous roots, efpecially the 
AlUum aHguknoii, or angular garlic, formed by the Siberian pea- 

"O with the nofe a little extended; four toes on the forefeet, 402. Soricine. 
•*•*■' with a tubercle inftead of a thumb: five toes on the hind- 
feet; round cars covered with fur: tail of a middling length, and 



hairy: color of the upper part of the body yellowifh grey: belly 
Place. Inhabits the neighborhood of Strajl'ourg. Difcovcred by Pro* 

.feffor Herman, 

*** With Ihort tails. 

403. Le MM us. Lemmar vel Lemmus. Olaus magiiu: Je rufo et nigro variegatus. 5r{^» y.vai/. 

gent. SeptentT. 35S. 100. 

Leem vel Lemmc-r. GfTner quad. 731. Mus Lemmus M- Cauda abbreviata, pe- 

IVius Norvegicus vulgo Leming. M'orm dibus pentadaflylis, corpore fulvo ni- 

Muf. 321, 325. Scheff'er Lcplai^d, 156. gro vario. Lm ftft. 80. Pallas noii.fp. 

Ponton. Norzv'y,\\. 7,0. S:r<>m.S^Hdm!>r. f fc i. 186. /^j^. xii. A. & B. 

1 i;4. Rail fyn. quad. 227. Fial-Mus, Sabell-Mus. Lapfis. 

Snble-mice. Ph. Jr. abndg. ii. 87^. Lummick. Faun.Suec. N° 29. 

Cuniculus caudatus, auritus, ex flavo, Le Leming. Z)f 5i^«, xlii. 314, 


with two very long cutting teeth in each jaw : head pointed : 
' long whilkers; fix of the hairs on each fide longer and 
•ftronger than the reft: eyes fmall and black: mouth fmall: up- 
per lip divided : ears fmall, blunt, and reclining backwards: 
^fore legs very Ihort : four flender toes on tlie fore feet, covered 
with hairs; and in the place of the thumb a fharp claw, like a 
cock's fpur: five toes behind: the ikin very thin: the color of 
the head and body black and tawny, difpofed in irregular 
tlotches : belly white, tinged with yellow. 
Size, Length, from nofe to tail, about five inches: in large fpeci- 

mens a little more : the tail about half an inch. Thofe of Rujfian 
Lapland &re. much lefs than thofe of the Norwegian or Szvedl/h. 
Place. Inhabits Norzvaji and Lapland, the country about the river 





/. ^^f-m //i/t.) 

'/ . ^'r I 'f /ff/y ^'/ y/ff 


'/f ^a-^nr 


Oly, and the north extremity of the Uralian chain. They ap- 
pear in numberlefs troops, at very uncertain periods, in Norway 
and Lapland: are the peft and wonder of the country: they 
march like the army of locufts, fo emphatically defcribed by the 
prophet Joel: deftroy every root of grafs before them, and fpread 
univerfal defolation : they infeft the very ground, and cattle are 
faid to periQi which tafte of the grafs which they have touched: 
they march by myriads, in regular lines : nothing ftops their 
progrefs, neither fire, torrents, lake, or morafs. They bend their 
courlc flrait forA'ard, with moft amazing obftinacy ; they fwim- 
over the lakes ; the greateft rock gives them but a flight check^- 
they go round it, and then refume their march diredlly on, with- 
out the left deviation : if they meet a peafant, they perfift in 
their courfe, and jump as high as his knees in defence of their 
progrefs : are fo fierce as to lay hold of a flick, and fufFer 
themlelves to be fwung about before they quit their hold : if 
flruck, they turn about and bite, and will make a noife like a 

They feed on grafs, on the rein-deer liverwort, and the catkins 
of the dwarf birch. The firft they get under the fnow, beneatlt 
which they wander during winter; and make their lodgements, 
and have a fpiracle to the furface for the fake of air. In thefe 
retreats they are eagerly purfued by the Ar8u foxes. 

They make very fhallow burrows under the turf; but do not 
form any magazines for winter provifion : by this im^providence 
it feems that they are compelled to make thefe numerous migra- 
tions, in certain years, urged by hunger to quit their ufual re- 

They breed often in the year, and bring five or fix young at a 



2 CO RAT, 

time: fometimes they bring forth on their migrat-Ion; fome they 
carry in their mouths, and others on their bacl^s. 

They are not poifonous, as is vulgarly reported; for tliey are 
Dften eaten by the Laplanders, who compare their llefli to that of 

Are ihe prey of foxes, lynxes, and ermines, who follow them 
in great numbers : at length they perifh, either through want of 
food, or by deftroying one another, or in fome great water, or in 
ihe fea. They are the dread of the country: in former times fpi- 
ritual weapons were exerted againft them; the prieft exorciled, 
and had a long form of prayer to avert the evil * ; happily it does 
pot occur frequently; once or twice in twenty years: it feems 
like a vaft colony of emigrants, from a nation over-ftocked ; a 
difciiarge of animals from the great Northern hive, that once 
poured out its myriads of human creatures upon Southern Eu- 
rope. Where the head quarters of thefe quadrupeds are, is not 
very certainly known ; Linnaus fays, the Norwegian and Lapland 
Alps; Fontoppidan feems to think, that Kolens rock, which di- 
\\des Nordland from Sweden, is their native place: but wherever 
they come from, none return : their courfe is predeftinated, and 
they purfue their fate. 

* M-^orm. Muf. 333. wTiere the whole form is preferved. It ivas once ferioufly 
believed that tliefe animals were generated in the clouds,- and fell in Ihowers upon 
tl.e ground : Per tempeflates et repent inos imbres e calo decidant, incomperlum wide, an ex 
^motiorihus infulis, et hue •vento delata, an ex nubihiisfacuhntis natcf deferantur. 01au« ' 
Magnus de Gent, Septentr. 358. 




Mus torquatus. Pallas Nov. /p. fa/c.'u zo^: 404. Ringed. 

Rwith a blunt nofe: ears hid in the fur: legs ftrong and 
• ihort : foles covered with hair : claws very ftrong, hooked 
at the end: the hair on the whole body very fine. 

Color of the upper part of the body ferruginous, mixed with 
grey and yellowj fometimes pale grey, clouded with undulated 
lines of dulky ruft-color: from the ears, down each fide of the 
cheeks, is a bed of the fame color, and behind that a llripe of 
white, fo that the neck appears encircled with a collar i behind 
thefe again is another bed of the former color. 

Length to the tail little more than three inches; of the tail Size. 
one; at its end is a hard tuft of bridles. 

Inhabits the northern parts about the river Oby. Makes its Pxace. 
burrows, with many paffages, beneath the turfy foil. The nefls 
are filled with rein-deer and fnowy liverworts. They are faid to 
migrate at the fame feafons with the Lemmus. 

Mus Hudfonlus. Pallas -Mo-v. fp.fofc. i. 2o3. ^^^^ Hudson's. 

"D with {lender brown whifkers : very fine long fofc hair: cinc- 
J-^* reous, tinged with tawny, on the back, with a dufky ftripe 
running along its middle: along each fide a pale tawny line: 
belly pale cinereous: limbs very fliort: fore feet very ftrong: the 
two middle claws of the male very ftrong, thick, and comprefT- 
cd; divided at the end: thofe of the fuppofed females (of the 
Vol. II. D d lefler 

202 RAT. 

lefTer fkins) fm-aU : tail very Hiort, terminated by fome flifF 
Size. Length about five inches. Defcribcd by D>^3or Pallas, from 

(ome fkins lent to him from Labrador, one of which he favored 
me with. 

406. Hare. Mus Lagurus. Pallas Kov. fi-fafc. i. 210. tah. x;il. A. Itln. ii. ^;/. 704. 


with a long head, and blunt nole : rough lips, and fwelling 
• out: ears fliorr. round, flat, jufl: appearing out of the 
fur : limbs fliort and flender : tail the fhorteft of all the genus, 
fcarcely appearing out of the hairs : fur very foft and full, cinereous 
on the upper part, mixed with duflcy : along the hack is a dark 
line : belly and feet of a pale alh-color. 
Size, Length between three and four inches. 

Place. Inhabits the country above the Talk, IrtiJI:, and Ja^efii. They 

Makners. love dry foils, but firmj in which they make burrows with two 
entrances J one oblique, leading to the neft, the other perpendicu- 
lar, but both end at it, or unite beyond; the neft is formed of 
grafs. Ufualiy the male has a different habitation, but fome- 
times they live together. When more males than one get toge- 
ther, they fight, and the conqueror devours the vanquifhed ; the 
mate of the deceafed inflantly lubmits to the embraces of the 
former, even though pregnant. They are very falacious, and 
bring their young frequently in the air: they bring fix at a time: 
emit often a mufky fmell when in heat: the males fight fitting 
up, and bite very hard, and make a noife by ftriking their teeth 
together. The)' flccp vei-y niuch, and like the Marmots, rolled 

up J 

RAT. 203 

up; and, like them, are flow in their motions: are very fond of 
the dwarf iris, but feed on all forts of feeds : they have alfo car- 
nivorous appetites, for they will devour one another, and even 
others of different fpecies, of the fame fize with themfelves; for 
which reafon few other kinds live near them. They migrate in 
great troops; therefore are called by the Tartars, Djhilkis- 
Zizchan, the Rambling Mottfe. 

Mas focialis. Pallas Nov. /p.fa/c, i. 218. tih. xiii. B. ///;/. xx.App. jo^. 407. ScciaL. 

Rwith a thick head and blunt nofe: v/hiiksrs white: ears oval, 
• naked: limbs fhort and ftrong : tail llender: nofe dufky: 
upper part of the body a light grey ; paled on the fides : fides, 
fnoulders, and belly, white. 

LenPth above three inches-, tail an inch. » 

° Size. 

Inhabits the Cafplan deferr, between the Volga and the I'aik, Place. 

and the country of nircania. They live in fandy, low, and Manners. 

herby places, in large focieticsj and in many places the whole 
ground is covered with the little hills formed by the earth they 
call out of their burrows: the burrows are about a fpan in 
depth, with eight or more palTages. They are always found to 
live in pairs, or with a family. They live much on tulip-roots. 
They rarely appear in autumn, but fwarm in the fpring. They 
are faid either to migrate or change their places in autumn, or to 
conceal themfelves among the buQies; and in the wmter to (lielter 
in hay- ricks. They breed later than other kinds. Are the prey 
of weefels, fitchets, crows, and vipers. 

D d 2 M"s 



4.08. BAiKAt. Mus Gregalis. Pallasnov,ff.%i%,GmeLL'ni./yJl, 133, 

Rwhh large thin ears appearing above the fur: whifkers blacky 
• hair rough and hard ; color above a pale grey : the back 
darkened with dufky hairs, which gradually decline into the light? 
5 er color : body below of a dirty white : the legs ftronger, the 

tail thicker, than in the Social fpecies: about the fize of that 

Inhabits S'lberia, but not like the country beyond the Ohy: mofl: 
plentiful about the Baikal lake and ^ram-Baikal region ; efpecially 
thofe places which abound moft with the Lilium pomponium and 
cilllumteniujfimum; and Siberia and Hircauia. They colled the roots 
of thefe and of the 1'rifoUum Luphajlrum, for winter food. They 
form their lodge beneath the turf,, and have many minute entrances : 
the earth that they fling out is carefully heaped above their lodge, 
in form of a hillock, to divert the rain. In this retreat the malo, 
female, and the progeny of one year, reCde. This fpecies is never 
obferved to migrate. 




Mus agredis caplte grand! brachiurus. rate cinereis in ventre veftitis 

Ralijyii. quad, 2 1 8. quad. 125. 

Mus terreftris. M. cauda mediocri fub- Le Campagnol. D? 5a^», vii. 3 6g, /<j^. 

pilofi, palmis fubtetradadlylis, plantis xlvii. 

pentadaiflylis, auriculis vellere brevio- The ftiort-tailed Fleld-moufe. Br. Zoal, i. 

ribus. Z,/"«.^y?. 82. ^«°3I. 

MoIIl'. Faun.fuec. N" 31 *. Erdzeifl. Kramer Aujlr. 316. 

Mus Cauda brevi, pilis e nigricante & Mus arvalis. Pallas Nov. /p. fa/c.'u •]%, 

fordide luteo mixtis in dorfo, & fatu- Lev. Mus. 

^'■'I'"* 409. MlADOW. 

Rwkh a large head: blunt nofe: ears fhort, and hid in the 
• fur: eyes prominent: tail fhort: color of the head and 
upper part of the body ferruginous, mixed with black : belly 
deep a(h-color: feet duflcy. 

Length, from nofe to tail, fix inches; tail only one and a half, 
thinly covered with hair, terminated by a fmall tuft. 

Inhabits Europe, Siberia and Hircania ; alfo in great abundance in 
Nezvfoundland, where it does much^mifchief in the gardens : in Eifg- 
laud, feldom infefts gardens: makes its neft in moift meadows: 
brings eight young at a time : has a ftrong affedion for them: re- 
fides under ground: lives on nuts, acorns, and corn. 



* The fpecies, N' 30. Faun.fuec. defcribed by the iv/Xtoi Mm cauda abbreviata, 
io-fOre nigra fu/o, ahdoimr.e cbierej'cente, fsecis the fame with this. 



R A T. 


. GUE CA- 

Mus gregarius. M. Cauda corpora triplo tus pedibufque albh. Liii,J\f.. 84, 
brcvioro iubpilofa, corpore grifto fub- 

witli a fmall mouth and blunt nofe : ears naked, and ap- 
• pearing above the fur: hair on the upper part of the body 
black at the roots and tips, ferruginous in" the middle: throat, 
belly, and feet whitifh : tail tlirice as fliort as the body, covered 
with thin white hairs; the end black and afh-color: is a little 
larger than the common moufe. 

Inhabits Germany and Sweden: eats fitting up : burrows, and 
lives under pround. 

«■***« Short-tailed; 

With pouches in each jaw.^ 

411. Hamster. Hamefter, Qncttws. Jgricala An. Subtcr. culls rotundatis, corpore fubtus nigro, 

4%b. Ce/ucr quad. Tiji. Rail J^>!. quad. lateribus rufcfcentibus maculis tnbus 

221. :\Jiyer Jn. i. tab. Ixxxi. Ixxxii. albis. Lin.fyfl. 82. 

Skizecfeek, Chomik. Rzacziijli Po 'on, Glis ex cinereo rufus in dorfo, in ventre 

233. i^igfj maculis tribus ad latera albk. 

Porcc'lIusfrumentarius.5(-^'n;n//2'A/e7"'^^- Briffon quad, ii-j . 

rw:r:fk.\\'&. Le Hamfter. De Bvffon, xiii. 117. tab. 

Krietfch, Hamfter. Kramer Aujir. ^\j . xw.w'i. Suppl.xiu lo^. 

Pallas ^BV, [p. fpfc.\,%i,Ziimmrn.att. German Marmot, Syn, qtiad.'i\° zco. 

34;. 511. Lev. Mus. 

Mus cricetus. M. cauda mediocri, auri- 

w ith large rounded ears : full black eyes : color on the 

• head and back, reddidi brown : cheeks red : beneath each 

ear a white fpor, and another behind; a fourth near the hind 

5 legs: 


if. I 


/. ./U////.t/r/- 

. \.4". 

'.I. '/■)//'//■ I /■//■///// (>/ ^/ff 

'ff .»■/ ///f . 



legs : breaft, upper part of the fore legs, and tlie bell)-, bl:ick : 
tail lliorr, aiinort naked : four toes, and a fifth claw, on the fore 
fectj five behind: about nine inches long; tail three. 

The males are always' bigger than the females; fome weigh Size. 
from twelve to fixteen ounces: the females feldom exceed four or 
fix. They vary fometimes in color. About Cafan is found fre- 
quently a family entirely black. 

Inhabits Juftria, Silefia, and many parts of Gernuiny, Pohuid, Place. 
and Ukraine 'y in all the fouthern and temperate parts of Rv.fpa 
zud Siberia; and even about the r'wex Jenefti, but not farther to 
the eaft. They are alfo found in the 'Tartarian deferts, in fandy 
foil, difiiking moift places. They are very fond of fuch fpots 
which abound with liquorice, whofc feeds they feed on. They 
fwarm. fo in Cctha, that in one year 11,564, in another 54,429, 
and in a third 80,139 ^^ '^'^^''^ fkins were delivered at the Hotel de 
FiHe of the capital *, thefe animals being profciibed on account 
of their vaft devaftations among the corn. 

They are very deftrudive to grain; eating great quantities, Manners. 
and carrying ftill more to its hoard : within its cheeks are two 
pouches, receptacles for its booty, which it fills till the checks 
feem ready to burft: the Germans therefore fay of a very greedy 
fellow, Er frijft vaie cin Eamfier. 

They live under ground; firft form an entrance, burrowing 
down obliquely : at the end of that paflage the male finks one 
perpendicular hole; the female feveral: at the end of thefe are 
formed various .vaults, either as lodges for themfelves and young, 
or ftore-houfes for their food » each young has its different apart- 

* Be Bujfon, Suppl. iii. 185. quoted from Mr. Su/zer. 


2o8 RAT. 

ment; each fort of grain its different vault; the firfl they line 
with ftraw or grafs : thefe vaults are of different depths, according 
to the age of the animal-, a young Hamjler makes them fcarcely 
a foot deep; an old one finks them to the depth of four or five ; 
and the whole diameter of the habitation, with all its communi- 
cations, is fometimes eight or ten feet. 

The male and female have always feparate burrows; for ex- 
cepting their fliort feafon of courtfhip, they have no intercourfe. 
The whole race is fo malevolent as to conftantly reject all fociety 
with one another. They will fight, kill, and devour their own 
Ipecies, as well as other lefler animals ; fo may be faid to be 
carnivorous as well as granivorous. If it happens that two males 
meet in fearch of a female, a battle enfues ; the female makes a 
(hort attachment to the conqueror, after which the connexion 
ceafes. She brings forth two or three times in a year, and brings 
from fixteen to eighteen at a birth. Their growth is very quick ; 
and at about the age of three weeks, the old one forces them out 
of the burrows to take care of themfelves : fhe fliews little affec- 
■tion for them; for if any one digs into the hole, flie attempts to 
■fave herfelf by burrowing deeper into the earth, and totally neg- 
<lecls the fafety of her brood : on the contrary, if fhe is attacked 
in the feafon of courtlhip, flie defends the male with the utmoft 

They lie torpid from the firft colds to the end of the winter; 
and during that time are feemingly quite infenfible, and have the 
appearance of being dead; their limbs ftiff, and body cold as 
ice: not even fpirits of wine, or oil of vitriol, poured in to them, 
can produce the left mark of fenfibility. It is only in places be- 
3'ond the reach of the air in which it grows torpid; for die fevereft 

4 cold 


cold on the furface does not Affed: it, as has been proved by ex- 

In its annual revival, it begins fiift to lofe the ftiffnefs of 
its limbs; then breathes deeply, and by long intervals: on 
moving its hmbs, it opens its mouth, and makes a rattle in the 
throat ; after fome days it opens its eyes, and tries to ftand ; 
but makes its efforts like a perfon much concerned in liquor; 
at length, when it has attained its ufual attitude, it refts for a 
long time in tranquillity, to recolleft itfdf, and recover from its 

They begin to lay in their proviiions in Ji/guji; and will carry 
grains of corn, corn in the ear, and peas and beans in the pods, 
which they clean in their holes, and carry the hufks carefully out: 
the pouches above mentioned are fo capacious as to hold a quar- 
ter of a pint Englifi. As foon as they have finilhed their work, 
they ftop up the mouth of their palTage carefully. As they lie 
torpid during the whole fevere feafon, thefe hoards are defigned 
for their fupport on their firfl: retreat, and in the fpring and be- 
ginning of the fummer, before they can fupply themfclves in the 
fields. In winter, the peafants go what they call a Hamjler-nejlingi 
and when they difcover the retreat, dig down till they difcover the 
hoard, and are commonly well paid; for, befides the ikins of the 
animals, which are valuable furs, they find commonly two bufhels 
of good grain in the magazine. Thefe animals are very fierce; 
will jump at a horfe that happens to tread near them, and hang 
by its nofe, fo that it is difficult to difengage them : they make a 
noife like the barking of a dog. In fome feafons are fo numerous 
as to occafion a dearth of corn. Pole-cats are their greateft ene- 
mies ; for they purfue them into their holes, and deftroy numbers. 

Vol. II. E e It 


^^o RAT. 

Ic is remarkat)Ie, that the hair flicks fo clofe to the fkin, as not 
to be plucked ofT without the utmofl: difficulty. 

412. VoRUELA. In mv former edition I fvippofed the Vormela o( Jo-ricola * to 

have been a variety of this kind. He fays it is lefs ; the whole 
body marked with yellow and tawny fpots ; the tail cinereous, 
and white tipped with black; but as he adds that it is a palm 
and a half long, I muft refer it to another fpecies, or perhaps 
genus; for it is not unlikely but that it is the fame with the Sar- 
matian V/eejel, N° 239. 

,^3. Y/Ok. ^^"^ accedula. Pallas No'v.fp.fa/c. i. 257. tab.xvui. A. 

''~^ ' J^us migratorius. Pallas Itin. ii. jifp. 703. 

"O with a thick fnout: blunt nofe : very flefhy lips: upper lip 
^ • deeply divided : upper fore teeth fmall, yellow, convex 
outwards, truncated ; the lower flender, pointed: eyes large : ears 
great, oblongly oval, high above the fur, naked : tail very fhort, 
cylindrical: color about the face white: upper part of the body 
of a cinereous yellow, mixed with brown ; below of a hoary 
gjjjg^ Length near four inches. 

^lace ajjd Inhabits the deferts about x.\\t Talk : runs about during night, 

JManners. \vhen it quits its burrow. It is faid by the Cajjacks to migrate in 

great numbers out of the deferts, and to be followed by multi- 
tudes of foxes, prefaging a good hunting- feafon : but Doftor 
Fallai doubts whether this fpecies, or any of the pouched kinds, 

• Ve anini. filter. ifiS, 

5 g° 

RAT. 2,, 

go far from their home*, as thofe receptacles (dt provifion arc 
calculated only for fliort excurfions* 

MwsPliKUf. PaI/jsNov._/]--./a/c.i. i6i.tai.xv. A, 414. Zarizyk. 

RH-kli the forehead much elcrated : edges of the eyelids 
• bkck : ears naked, oval, ftanding far out of the fur : tall 
very fliorr, flightly furred : color above, a hoary alh-color, with 
long dufky hairs, running from the neck, along the middle of the 
back, to the tail: the fides whitifli: th<c circumference of the 
mouth, under fide of the body, and the extremities of the limbs, 
of a fnowy whitenefs. 

L,en2;th about three inches and a half. ^ 

■ 1 r ^ Size. 

Inhabits the deferts 01 Ajtracau, about Z7;>ri';i ; and is taken in Place-' 

traps frequently in winter, in places near to ftables and out- 

houfcs. It is alfo comnion among the Hyrcanian mountains, 

about the Perfian villages, where it commits great ravages among 

the rice. It does not grow torpid during winter, as is proved by 

the ftomachs of fuch which are taken in that feafon, being found 

full of food. 

Mus artna^ius. PaJLis Nov. fp.fafc.i. zbS. tab. -xvi. A. Ttin. \\. yJfip. -oi. ... c . ■ 

T> with a longifli head and fnout, and fharp nofe : the pouches 
•*^* very large: ears great, oval, brownid-i : bodyfiiort: nails 
white: color of the upper part of the body hoary: fides, belly, 
Jimbs, and tail, of a pure white. 

E e 2 Length 


K A T. 

Size. Length near four inches; tail above one. 

Place. Inhabits the fandy plains of the Baraba, not far from the river 

Irt'tfJ). The males inhabit a very deep burrow, with a fingle en- 
trance, at the bottom of which is the neft, made of the Elymus arena' 
nw, and other plants : other burrows, perhaps of the females, had 
three entrances : in another, difcovered in May, were five young 
in three nefts; two were preferved aUve j were untameable, very- 
fierce, and would fling themfelves on their back, and defend 
themfelves by biting: they went out only in the night, and hid 
themfelves during day in their fodder. 


416. SoKGAR, Mus fongarus. Pal/as Koi'. /p. /j/c. LzSg.tai.xvi.B. Itin. ii. //j>/i.yoi. 

with a thick head and blunt nofe : ears oval, very thin, ap- 

■• pear above the fur, are very flightly cloathed with hoary 

down : tail very fliort, blunt, thick, and hairy : color above, a 

cinereous grey, marked along the back, from head to tail, with »■ 

black line : fides of the head and body marked with great white 

fpots in certain parts, running into one another,, in others bounded 

with brown: belly and logs white. 

„ Leno-th three inches. 

Size. o r • 3 r j 

Place. Inhabits, with the former, the Baraha, ufually ni the dry fandy 

faline places: dwells during fiimmer in the fhallow nev/-begurv 
buriows; thofe of the females have a very deep oblique paiTage 
at the end of it : the nefl; formed of herbs ; in one of which were 
feven young; from this neft ran another deep hole, perhaps the- 
winter retreat. The young were much grown, yet blind. Doc- 
tor Pallas prefcrved them long: they grow foon familiar, contrary 


U. . . 'f/z/'^/'/r t "1.4/^. 

R A T. 2,3 

to the nature of other mice; would feed from his hand, lap milk, 
and when placed on a table, fhew no defire of running avvayj but 
were flower in all their motions than the other fpecies. They 
waflied their faces with their paws, and eat fitting up: wan- 
dered about in the day and morning: flept all night rolled up: 
feldom made any cry, and when they did, it was like that of a 

Mus furunculus. Pallas Nov. /p. /a/c,\, 2j-^, 417. Baraba. 

Mus Barabenlls. Ilin, ii. Jpf. 704. 

"O with a fharp nofe: large broad naked ears, du/ky edged 
■•■^* with white : tail longer than that of the preceding : color 
of the upper part of the body cinereous yellow, growing paler 
towards the fides : below of a dirty white : from the hind part 
of the neck extends a black line, reaching not quite to the tail; 
tail white, marked above with a dufky line. 

Length about three inches and a quarter : tail near one inch, s,2j 

Inhabits the fandy plain oi Baraba, towards theO^; and be- Place, 
tween the Onon and Argun, and about the lake Dalai in the Cki- 
nefe empire. Nothing is known of their manners : the fpeci- 
mens from whom the defcriptions were formed, were taken run- 
ning about the fields. 

The laft divifion of mice is of thofe which lead a fubterra- 
neous life, like the Mole, which I take the liberty of naming 

* * •* Mole- 



R A T. 

* ^ * 

»*., Mole-Rat. 

Ai8 Blind. Mas Typhlas. Pallas Nov. fp. fa/c.i. Com, Psfrif. xiv. i^ii. tal,.vm.iK. 

^ ' htmm. Rzac>iinjk. AuJI. PMn. T,z^. De Mus oculisminuiifliinis, aunculis cauda- 

Buffoiiy XV. 142. que nullis, Leptchin. ibid. 509. tab. xv, 

Slepez. Gmclin Ilin. i. 131. tab. xxii. Podoliati Marmot. Syn. quad. N° 204. 

Spalax microphthalmus. GueUenJi. Nov. 


with a great head broader than the body : not the "left aper- 
ture for the eyes; yet beneath the fkin are the rudiments 
of thofe organs, not bigger than the feed of a poppy : no exter- 
nal ears; the end of the nofe covered with a thick ikin : noftrlls 
very remote, and placed below: the mouth gaping, and the teeth 
expofed : upper fore teeth lliort, lower very long, and none of 
them hid by the lip; ends quite even: body cylindrical : limbs 
very fliort: five toes on each foot, all feparated, except by a thin 
membrane near the bafe : claws fliort : hair univerfally (liort, 
thick, and very foft; dufky at the bottom, at the ends of a cine- 
reous grey: the fpace about the nofe, and above the mouth, 

Length between fcven and eight inches : weight of a male 
above eight ounces. 
Place. Inhabits only the fouthern parts oi Riiffia, from PoAmi to the 

Volga, but is not found any where to the eaft of that river ; 
but is very common from the Sxfyan to the Sarpa: is frequent 
along the Don, even to its origin, and about the town of RcijJ:, 
excepting the fandy parts, for it deliglus in moiit and turfy foils. 



It lives in great numbers in the fame places with the Earless 

h forms burrows beneath the turf for a very confiderable ex- 
tent, with feveral lateral pafTiges made in qucft of roots, on which 
it feeds, At the interval ol: fome yards, there are openings to the 
furface to difcharge the earth, which forms in thofe places hillocks 
of two yards in circumference, and of a great height. It works its 
way with its great teeth, and cafts the earth under its belly with 
the fore feet, and again behind it, with its hind feet: it works 
with great agility; and on any apprehenfion of an enemy, it 
forms inftantly a perpendicular burrow. The bite of this animal 
is very fevere. It cannot fee its aflailant, but lifts up its head in a 
menacing attitude. When irritated, it fnorts, and gnalhes its 
teeth, but emits no cry. It often quits its hole, efpecially in the 
morning, and during the amorous feafon bafks with the female in 
the fun. It does not appear that it lies torpid during winter, 
nor whether it lays in provifion for that feafon. It is particularly 
fond of the bulbous Charophyllum. 

The Rujpans call it Slepez, or the blind : the Cqffjcks, for the 
fame reafon, ftyle it Sfochor Nomon. In Ukraine, the vulgar be- 
lieve that the touch of a hand, which has fuffocated this animal, 
has the fame virtue in curing the king's-evil, as was once believed 
to be inherent in the abdicated family of Great Briiain, 



ti6 RAT. 

419. DaUU*ian. Mus Afpalax. Pallas Nov./f./a/c. i. 165. taL X. ///'«. iii. 692." 

Mas Myofpalax. Laxman, 


with a thick flat head : fhort fnout: blunt nofe, fit for di ed- 
ging: upper fore teeth naked; lower covered with a 
moveable lip: no external ears: eyes very fmall, yet vifible, lodged 
deeply in their fockets, which are fo minute as fcarcely to admit 
a grain of millet: body fliort, and deprefled : limbs very ftrong, 
■efpecially the fore legs: fore feet large, and adapted for digging; 
naked, and furniflied with five toes, and very long and ftrong 
claws, nightly bent, on the three middle : hind feet naked to the 
heel ; on each are five toes with fmall claws : tail ihort : hair fofr, 
and loofe: color at bottom dufky, outwardly of a dirty cine- 
reous grey : in fome is a white line on the hind part of the 

Sizr. Differs in fize. Thofe of the Jlfaic chain are near nine inches 

from nofe to tall : thofe about lake Baikal not fix : the tail of the 
former is near two inches long. 

Place, Inhabits, firft, the Jlto:ic mountains ; and again beyond lake 

Baikal, and from thence for fome fpace fouthward; but none are 
found to the north. In the former it lives on the bulbs of the 
Eyythronium ; in the latter on thofe of the LiUiiin Pomponium. 

It burrows like the former, a little below the furface, and 
fpreads over an extent of a hundred fathoms; and the direflion 
it takes is known by the number of hillocks. 

Its voice is weak and plaintive. It digs with both nofe and 
fore feet; but lefs than the preceding with the teeth : by commi- 
nuting the earth, and flinging it up in hillocks, it prepares the 


RAT. 217 

ground for the reception of various kinds of rare feeds; which 
grow ufually in greater plenty about fuch places than any others. 

The 'Tangpft, about lake Baikal, call this fpecies Mono}i Zokor, 
or blind; yet it is not quite deprived of fight. The Ri'Jfiam ftyle 
it Semimaja Medzvedka, or Earth Bear. 

"O with a large head : nofe black ; end flatted and corrugated : 420. African. 

'■■^* eyes minute, much hid in the fur: no ears: upper teeth 

one-third of an inch long, fulcated lengthways; lower, one inch 

and a quarter, expofed to view : legs (liort : on the fore legs are o- 

four toes and a thumb, detached and free : inmoft toe the longeft, , 

the others gradually fliorten: on the thumb is a ftiort claw; the 

other claws are very long, and flightly bent : the foles are naked, 

and diftinguiflied by two great tubercles: hind feet very long, 

large, and naked, which the animal refts on even to the heel: 

they have five toes with fliort claws. 

Tail compreffed, and covered above and below with fhort 
hairs : on the fides befet with very long briftles difpofed horizon- 

Color a cinereous brown, paleft on the lower parts. 

Length to the tail thirteen inches: tail two> Size. 

Inhabits the fandy country near the Cape of Good Hope, where Place. 
it is called Sand Moll. It burrows, and flings up hillocks, like the 
former; and renders the ground fo hollow, as to be very incon- 
venient to travellers; for it breaks every fix or feven minutes un- 
der the horfes feet, and lets them in up to the flioulders. This 
animal feeds on the roots of Ix'ia, Gladioli, Antholjza, and Jrides ; 

Vol, II. F f grows 

2i8 R A T. 

grows to the fize of a rabbet, and is by fome efceemcd a good 
difli *. This, from its fupcrior lize, 1 fuppofc to be the !<a/jd 
Moll of Mr. Mcifon. 

421. Cape. MasCzpsnfis. Pal/as No'v./p./a/c.i. lyz. xlvi. 

f^6. vii. La Taupe du Cap. Journal h'Jl. fg. 64. 

Long- toothed Marmot. Brtiuii'iZooLtab. 


with a blunt nofe: minute round noftrils: eyes fmall, but 
■• larger than thofe of the preceding: no ears: upper fore 
teeth contiguous, truncated ; lower, an inch long, not contiguous, 
bend upwards, excavated on the upper furface : end of the nofe 
naked and black, the reft white : chin, and lower fides of the 
cheeks, of the fame color: fpace round the ears and eyes white: 
on the hind part of the head is a white fpot; reft of the head, 
cheeks, back, and fides, of a rufty brown, and cinereous : 
belly cinereous: five flender toes on each foot, furni(hed with 
fmall claws : tail very fhort, befet with briftles. 
Size. Length, from nofe to tail, about feven inches. 

Is very common about the Cafe, and very deftrudlive to gar- 
dens ; flings up hillocks, and eats roots of various kinds. 

f MaffbnU Irav. Ph. Travf, Ixvi, 304, De la Caille, 299. 





R A T. 219 

Mus Talpinus. Pallas Nev.fp.fafc. i. 176. tah. xi. B. Nov. Com. Pelrop. xiv. 568. 4?2. Talfike. 
tab. xxi.Jjg. 3. 

"O with a large fhort head: thick fnout: nofe truncated: up- 
■*'^* per teeth extending out of the mouth, long and flat: 
lower longer, rounded at the ends: ej'es fmall, hid in tlie fur: no 
ears: the aperture bounded beliind by a fmall rim: body fhort: 
fore feet ftrong: on thofe, and on the hind feet, five toes fur- 
niQied with fmall claws: tail very (hort, fcarcely appearing be- 
yond the fur: color of the head, nofe, back, and fides, dufky: 
cheeks greyilh : chin white: belly and limbs whitilh- 

Length near four inches. 5,2e. 

InhaL)its all the open grounds and commons of the temperate Place. 
parts of Rujia and weftern Siberia, but fcarcely any beyond the 
JrtiJJT, and none as far as the Oby. 

Loves a black turfy foil, and is frequent in meadows near vil- Manners. 
luges: feldom in fandy or mudded tracts: always abound where 
there is plenty of Phlomis tuberofa, and Lathyrus efctdentus. Its 
place is known by the little hillocks it flings up along the courfe 
of its burrow, which is of great extent ; for this reafon the Ruf- 
Jidiis call it Semleroika, or Eartb -digger. In thefe burrows it lurks 
all the day, but in evening and morning renews its labors ; nor 
do?s it quit its hole unlefs to fling out the earth, or in the feafon 
of love to feek a mate, or to change the place of its habitation. 
It does not bear the full light of day; therefore its kw excur- 
iions are ufually in the evenings. 

It does not grow torpid in winter ; but makes its neft beneath 
fome flirub or hay-nck, and deep in the ground, and keep them- 

F f 2 felves 

220 RAT. 

felves warm by lining it wich fofc grafs : and often make a lodge, 
which they fill with tuberous roots. During the cold feafon their 
fur grows univerflxlly thicker and longer. 

It is very eafily taken : but Icon grows fick in confinement, 
unlefs a quantity of earth is put into the place. They emit a 
puling note, but that rarely: they often gnafh, and, as it were, 
whet their teeth againft each other. 

They are in heat the end of March, or beginning oi April; at 
that time the females have a flrong mufky fmell. They bring 
three or four at a time. 

They fometiraes vary in color, and are found quite black. 


SHREW. 221 

Two cutting teeth in each jaw, pointing forward. XXXTV. 

Long flender nofe : fmall ears. 
Five toes on each foot. 


Mus aquaticus. C/;//f? fAoc. 373. Worm. DxCmzn, Faun, /use. No. 2i. DeBuffon, 422. Musky" 

Muf. 334. X. I. i- i* • 

Mufcovy or Mufkrat. ^«V_/J». yaa;/. 217. Caftor cauda veriical'ter plana, digitis 

Nov. Com. Pttrip. ivr. 3B3. omnibus membranis inter fe connexis. 

Caftor molchatus. C. Cauda longa com- Briffon quad 02. 

prefTo-lanceolaia, pedibiis palmatis. Long-nofed Beaver. 5)'a. f»«^. N° 192. 

Lin./yjl. 79. 

O with a long flender nofe, like that of a flirevv-moufe : no ex- 
*^* ternal ears: very fmall eyes; tail compreffed fideways : 
color of the head and back dufky; the belly vvhitifli alh-color: 
length, from nofe to tail, feven inches ; tail eight. 

Inhabits the river Volga and lakes adjacent, from Novogorod to 
Saratof; never found in RiiJJia, and its exiftence in Lapland doubt- 
ed*. Never goes upon dry land, but wanders from lake to lake, 
only in fortuitous floods: is often feen fwimmingor walking under 
the water : comes up for air to the furface, or in clear weather 
fporting on the furface: loves ftagnating waters with high banks, 
in which it makes burrows twenty feet long: feeds on leeches, and 
the larvae of water infeds : a few fragments of roots have alfo been 
fovind in the ftomach. Is not torpid during winter, being often in 
that feafon taken in netsi". Is very flow in its pace: makes holes 
in the cliffs, with the entrance far beneath the loweft fall of the 

* Dr. Pallas, MSS. t The fame. 


222 S H R E W. 

water; works upwards, but never to the furface, only liioh enough 
to lie beyond the higheft flow of the river : feeds on fi[h : is de- 
voured by the Pikes and Siluri, and gives thofe fi(h fo fl:rong a fla- 
vor of mufk, as to render them not eatable : has the fame fcent as 
the former, efpecially about the tail : out of which is exprefled a 
fort of muflc, very much refembling the genuine kind *. The fkins 
are put into chefts among cloaths, to drive away moths f, and to 
preferve the wearers from peUilence and fevers. 

At Orenhurg, the fliins and tails fell for fifteen or twenty copccs 
per hundred. They are fo comn:on near Nizney ISovogorod, that 
the peafants bring five hundred apiece to market, where they 
are fold for one ruble per hundred. The German name for thefe 
animals is Biefem-ralze; the RnJjlaHf Hyckozhol. 

424. PeK fuming. ^^"^ P|l°"'^,« \ VallasKc^ufp. fafc. i 91. 

^ ^ Mus albus Ceylomcus? Bi-ijjon, izz. Ltv. Mus. 

Q with a long flender nofe : upper jaw extending far beyond 
*^' the lower: upper fore teeth fliort : lower long, flender, in- 
curvated: whilkers long and white: eyes fmall; ears tranfpa- 
rent, broad, and round : hair fliort and clofe, en head and body, 
of a fine pale cerulean : the belly lighter : feet naked and pink- 

Length from nofe to tail near eight inches; tail three and a 

* Schcifr in Muller's Samlung Rtijf. vii. 41. 42. 
t RtMoffQnnb. T'cpogr. i. 286. 



^/r/////f//fy ' '///?■/■/■ , (v 


S H R E \V, 

half: quite naked, round, thick at the bafe, tapering to a point; 
and of the fame color with the feet. 

Inhabits Java, and others of the EcyJ Ir.dian ifi,-\nds ; eats rice; 
has fo ftrong a fcent of muflc as to perfume every thing it runs over. 
I have it fiom the nioil undoubted authorit}', thit it \v!U render 
the wine in a well-corked bottle not drinkable, by merely pafCng 
over it. Cats will not touch them. 

Tucan. Hernandez Nov. Hij]!. y. Le Tucan. De Buffon^xw i^(). .^._ McXICan. 

Q with a Hiarp nofe: fmall round ears: without fight: two 
*^* long fore teeth above and below : thick, fat, and flefliy 
body : fliort legs, fo that the belly almoft touches the ground: 
long crooked claws : tawny hair : fhort tail : length, from nofe 
to tail, nine inches. 

Inhabits Mexico : burrows, and makes fuch a number of cavi- 
ties, that travellers can fcarcely tread with fafety : if it gets out 
of its hole, does not know how to return, but begins to dig ano- 
ther: grows very fat, and is eatable: feeds on roots, kidney- 
beans, and other feeds. M. de Bufon thinks it is a Mole ; but by 
the ears, it fhould be claffed here. 

Mus araneus figura murls. Marcgraue La mufaraigne de Brafil. De Buffon, xv. j.26. Brasilian 
Biajil. 229. 160. 

Q with a (harp nofe and teeth: pendulous fcrotum: of a dufky 
^* color, marked along the back with three broad black 
ftrokes : length, from nofe to tail, five inches ; tail two. 

5 Inhabits 



Inhibits Brajil: does not fear the cat: neither does that ani- 
mal hunt after it. 

427. Murine. S.murinus. S. Cauda mediocri, corporefufco, pedibuscaudaque cinereis, Liiti 

Q with a long nofe, hollowed beneath : very long hairs about 
^* the noftrils: ears rounded, and rather naked: of an afh- 
color : body of the fize of a common moufe : tail a little (horter 
than the body, and not io hairy. 
Inhabits Java. 

428. FoeriD. 

lAvyaM, ^liat! hijl. An. lib, vi. c. 22. 

MfsysRu. Diofctrid. lib. n.c. 42. 

Mus araneus. Jgricola An. Subter. 485. 

Gefner quad. 747. 
Mus araneus, mus cscus. Ge/ner icon. 

Mus araneus. Shrew, Shrew-moufe, or 

hardy Shrew. Rati fyn. quad. 2;, 3. 
Mus araneus roftro produftiore Spitf- 

maus. Klein quad, 57. Kramer Aujir. 


Sorex araneus. S. Cauda mediocri, cor- 
pora fubtus albido. Lin.fyft. 74, 

Nabbmus. Faun./uec. No. 24. 

Mus arancui. fupra ex fufco rufus, infra 
albicans. Bnjfon quad, 126. 

La Mufaraigne. De Btiffbn, viii. 57. 
lab. X. 

Shrew-moufe. Br.Zool.i. 112. 


Q with (hort rounded ears: eyes fmall, and almoft hid in the 
*^* fur: nofe long and flender, upper part the longefi; : head 
and upper part of the body of a brownifh red : belly of a dirty 
white : length, from nofe to tail, two inches and a half; tail one 
and a half. 

Inhabits Europe, Siberia, and even the ArElic flats, and Kamt- 
fchatka ; it is alio found about the Cafpian fea ; lives in old walls, 


S H R E W. aa^ 

heaps of ftones, or holes in the earth: is frequently near hay- 
ricks, dunghills, and neceflary-houfes: lives on corn, infeds, and 
any filth: is often obfcrved rooting in ordure, like a hog : from 
its food, or the places it frequents, has a difagreeable fmell : 
cats will kill, but not eat it : brings four or five young at a 
time. The antlents believed it was injurious to cattle, an error 
now detefted. There feems to be an annual mortality of thefe 
animals in ^ugi'Jl, numbers being then found dead in the paths. 

Mus araneus dorfo nigro, ventreque albo, 6^.tah.\\. Watfk 

Merret Pinax, 167. Water Shrew-moufe. Br. Zoo!, illujlr. * 

Sorex fodiens. Pallas*. tab. ci\. Ltv, Mus. 

La Mufaraigne d'Eau. De Bt/ffon, viii. 

Q with a long flender nofe : very minute ears; and within 
• each a tuft of white hairs: very fmall eyes, hid in the fur: 
color of the head and upper part of the body black : throat, 
breaft, and belly, of a light afh-color: the feet white: beneath 
the tail a triangular dufky fpot: much larger than the laft : 
length, from nofe to tail, three inches three quarters; tail two 

Inhabits Europe and Siberia^ as far at left as the river Jenefei\ Plaoe. 
long fince known in England, but loft till May 176S, when it 
was difcovered in the fens near Revefly Jbby, Lincolnjlnre : bur- 
rows in the banks near the water; and is faid to fwim under wa- 

• Dodlor Pallas favored me with feveral prints of this animal in 1765, but never 
publilhed them: he difcovered it near Berlin: it is called there Graber, or The 

Vol. II. G g ter : 

226 SHREW. 

ter*: Is called by the Fen-men the 5/W Moufe: chirrups like 
. a grafshopper, and its note often miflaken for one. 

430. Elephant. Q with a very long, flender and little nofe : the whole animal of a 
• deep brown color. 

Inhabits the neighborhood of the Cape of Good Hope: called the 

Place. Elephant, from its probofcis-like fnoiit: engraven from a drawing by 

Mr. Paterfon. ' This animal has been very ill reprefented by Petiver 

in his Gazoph. Dec. iii. tab. xxiii. fig. 9. under the title of Mus 

araneus maximus Capen/is. 

Sorex marinus. Gm.Lin. 114. 
431. Marine. 

Swlth elongated fnout, channel'd below : ears rounded, and 
• naked: fur of adufky color; whiikers grey: tail a litde fliorter 
than the body : fize of the common moufe. 

Inhabits Java. 

43Z. Surinam. C ^^''^^ ^^^^ "P^'*" P^" °^ ^^^ body bay; the lower pale afh, 
*^' mixed with yellow: tail one half (hotter than the body. 
Inhabits Surinam. 

* L, BaUnir/m. 137. 





f^ /i'// //ff/// ■-. W/ /r^f ■ ■-. y. 43 

S H R E W, 227 

Sorex pufillus, Erxhlet, iiz. Gm, Lin, 114, ^jj, Persian. 

Q with the body hoary above, cinereous beneath : \.!l\\ (fuluilftichd) 
fliort, and whicifh: length of the body three inches feven 
lines; tail one inch one line. 

Inhabits the north oi Perfia: burrows and Hves below ground. 

Eorex mlnutus. S. roftro longlffimo. Lin. Jyjl.ll, 43^. Mikuti. 

Q with a head near as big as the body : very flender iiofe : 
^' broad fhort naked ears: whifkers reaching to the eyes: 
eyes fmall, and capable of being drawn in: hair very tine and 
fliining ; grey above, white beneath : no tail. 

Inhabits Siberia, about the Oby and near the Kama: lives in a 
neft made of lichens, in fome moift place beneath the roots of 
trees : lives on feeds: digs : runs fwiftly : has the voice of a bat. 

Sorexexilis. Gm.Lin. iij. ^^5. Pycmv. 

Q with a very long flender nofe : in fhape and color like the 
^* FOETID, but paler : the tail very flender near the roots, then 
fuddenly grows remarkably thick and round; and again grows 
gradually lefs to the end. 

LinNjEus imagines that the lall is the left of. quadrupeds. 

Doftor Pallas, who communicated this fpecies, thinks this has 

G 2; 2 a better 

22$ S H R E W. 

a better clame to that title, as its weight is only equal to, or very- 
little above half a drachm. 

Is very common between, and about the rivers Jenefei and 

436. White- Q of a dufky cinereous color: belly white: cutting teeth 
TOOTHED. O. ^yhite . Jail fiender and hairy. 

437. SciUARE- Q of a dufky cinereous color: belly paler: cutting teeth 


brownifh : tail inclines to a fquared form. 
This fpecies has no bad fmell. 

438. Carinated. O of a dufky cinereous whitifli on the belly, with brownifh 
*^* foreteeth: a white fpot beyond each eye: tail fiender and. 
taper, carinated or ridged below. 

450, Unicolor. O of^ ^n uniform dufky cinereous color: bafe of the tail nar- 
*^* row, or comprefTed. 
Place. "^^^ above four fpecies inhabit the neighborhood of Straf- 

bourg, and were difcovered by ProfefTor Herman. 




Long nofe: upper jaw much longer than the lower. XXXV 

No ears. MOLE. 

Fore feet very broad, with fcarcely any apparent legs before: 
hind feet fmalU. 

r 3.\pz. J^nrola Jn. Suker-. ^go. Ge/ner pentadaayUs. Z/»._^7?. 73. Euroitav 

jiiaJ. 9U. Kleh quad. 6 Mullvad, Surk. Faun, fuec. No. 23. Br. ^^ -til. ROfE AN. 

Talpa, the Mole. Mold-warp, or Want. Zoo/, i. 108. 

Rail ,'jn. (juad. 236. Talpa caudata, nigricans pedibus anticis 

Kret. Rzacz.^njKi Po!o>!. 2^6. et polUcis pentadadylis. Briffoa quad. 

Scheer, Scheer-maufs. Maul-wurf. Kra- 2 03. 

mer .'luflt - 314. La T.mpe. I)e Buffon, viii. 81. tab. xii. 

Talpa Luiopaus. T. caudata, pedibus Lev. Mus. 

"j^yr with very minute eyes, hid in the fur: long fnout: fix 
"^~ • cutting teeth in the upper, eight in the lower jaw, and 
two canine in each : no external ears, only an orifice : fore part 
of the body thick and mufcular; hind part taper: fore feet placed 
obliquely, broad, and like hands : five toes, each terminated by 
flrong claws : hind feet very fmall, with five toes to each : tail 
fhort : fkin very tough, fo as fcarcely to be cut through : hair 
fhort, clofe fet, fofter than the fineft velvet: ufually black, fome- 
times fpotted * with white; fomctimes quite white: length five 
inches three quarters; tail one. 

Inhabits £z«-o/i^, and the temperate or fouthern parts of i??^(j Plac? 
and Siberia^ as far as the River Lena. The Siberian is much larger 
than the European Mole. 

• Spotted Mole, Edu: 268. 



MaMN ER3, 


It lives under ground : burrows with vaft rapidity with its fore 
feet; flings the earth bick with its hind feet: has the fcnic of 
fmelling exquifite, which dirctfls it to its food — worms, init-ds, 
and roots: does vaft damage in gardens, by flinging up the foil 
and loofening the roots &f plants ; is mod aftive before rain, and 
in winter before a thaw, worms being then in motion : breeds in 
the fpring: brings four or five young at a time; makes its neft 
of mofs, a little beneath the furface of the ground, under the 
greateft hillock : raifes no hillocks in dry weather, being then 
obliged to penetrate deep after its prey : makes a great fcreani 
when taken. Pah>ia Chrijli and white hellebore, made into a pafte, 
and laid in their holes, deftroys them. None in Ireland. 

j3. Yellow M. in form refembling the European, but larger, 
being fix inches two-tenths long ; the tail one inch : hair foft, 
filky, and glofl"y, of a yellowifh brown color at the ends; dark 
grey at the roots: brighteft about the head; darkeft about 
the rump: belly of a deep cinereous brown: feet and tail 

Inhabits N. America. Defcribed from a fkin in which the 
jaws were taken out. 




( a//C ■ Iff/'- t /. 4 -I' 




Seb. Muf. i. 51. tab. xxxii. Jig. 4, 5. 

Klein qu id. 6"', 
Talpa 'Vfiatica. T. ecaudata, palmis trU 

dadtylis. fyft. y 1,. 
Talpa ecaudata, ex viridiaurea, pedibus 


Brjj'on qua!. 06. 
la Taupe doree. De B--fo'u xv. 14;. 
Variable Mole. Bro^tCi Zool. 1 1 8. tab. 


441. Siberian. 

"]\/r with the nofe fhort and blunt: fpace between the tip, and 
■'■'^-*-* corner of the mouth covered with pale brown hair: from 
the corner of the mouth, a broad whitifh bar points upwards along 
the fides of the head : color of the hair on the upper part of the 
body varied with glofly green and copper-color: below is of a 
cinereous brown : in the upper jaw arc two fharp cutting teeth ; 
in the lower the fame, with a fharp canine tooth contiguous to 
them on each fide. 

On the fore feet three toes with vaft claws ; that on the outmoft 
toe exceedingly large : on the hind feet five fmall toes and weak 
claws: ho tail: rump round. 

Length four inches. 

Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, not Siberia, as Seha fuppofes : 
Whether this is the Bles Moll of the Dutchj which lives in the 
harder grounds about the Cape *, I cannot determine. 

* Maffon^s Trav. Ph. Tranf. Ixvi, 305. 




232 M O L E. 

442. Radiatep. Sorex criftatus. S. naribus carunculatis, cauda breviore. Lin. JyJI. j^. 

Lev. Mus. 


with fmall but broad fore legs; five long white claws on 
' each: nofe long; the edges befet with radiited tendrils : 
hair on the body dufky, veryfliort, fine, and com pad; on the 
nofe longer : the hind legs lialy : five toes on each foot : length, 
from nofe to tail, three inhes three quarters ; tail flender, round, 
and taper; one inch three-tenths long. 
Place. Inhabits N. America. Forms fubterraneous paflages, in dif- 

ferent diredions, in uncultivated fields ; railes walks about two 
inches high and a palm broad: the holes often give way and let 
iu the walkers. Feeds on roots ; has great ftrength in its legs. 

443. Long-tail- TV/T with a radiated nofe: the fore feet pretty broad, hind feet 
"^ • very fcaly, with a few fliurt hairs on them: the claws on 
the fore feet like thofe of the common Mole ; on the hind very 
long and flender: hair on the nofe and body foft, long, and of a 
rufty brown color: tail covered with fhort hair; the length two 
inches ; that of nofe and body four inches fix-tenths. 
Place. \r\\\-xh\xs N. America. Lev. Mus. 

j}44. Browk. Sorex aquaticus. S. plantis palmatis, palmis caudaque breviore albis. 

Lin.JyJl. 74. Lev. Mus. 

Tl yr with a flender nofe ; upper jaw much longer than the 
-*•-*■• lower; two cutting teeth in the upper, four in the lower, 
the two middle of which are very fmall : no canine teeth; fore 



., \.443. 

MOLE. 23J 

feet very broad ; nails long : hind feet fmall ; five claws on 
each: hair very fofc and glofly, brown at the ends, deep grey ac 
the bottom : tail and feet white: length, from nofe to tail, five 
inches and a half: tail very flender, not an inch long. 

Inhabits N. America: called there the Brown Mole: fent from Place. 
JS^ezv Im-k by Mr. A. Blackburns, with |3. Yellow Mole, and No. 
44-2 and 443. The black and fhining purple Virginian Mole, 
defcribed by Seba* as the fame with the common kind, was not 
among thofe that gentleman favoured us with. Linnaus places 
this, and our radiated Mole, in his clafs of Sorex, or Shrew, on 
account of the difference of the teeth ; but as thefe animals pof- 
fefs the ftronger charadters of the Mole, fuch as form of nofc and 
body, fhape of itct, and even the manners, we think them better 
adapted to this genus than to the preceding. 

Talpa rubra Ameiicana. S£i5. Ma/", i. 51. /fl^. xxxii.7%. 2. di'. Rkb. 

T^jT of a cinereous red color: three toes on the fore feet, four 
^^^* on the hind : form of the body and tail like the European 

According to Seba, it inhshks America ; but he does not in^ 
form us whether it is North or Soutb. 

• L 5 1 . tab. xxxii. fig. 4. 

Vol, ir, I\h 


C34 H E D G E - H O G. 

^ XXXVT. _ Five toes on each foot. 

"^ * Body covered with (Irong fliort fplnes. 

4l6. Common. Erinaceus. Jgrkola J>t. Snblcr. \^i. datis nar'ibus criftatis. Lin. fyjl. I^. 

Echinus terrcilris. Gefner quad. 368. Igelkott. Faun.fuec. N" 22. Br. Zoo!, i. 

Echinus fc. Erinaceus ferreftris. Urchin, ' 106. 

or Hedge-hog. Raii j'yn. quad, zil. Erinaceus aurlculis ereftis. Brffm quad. 

Jez. Rzaczi'-Jki Po!a>i. 233. 128. Sd. Muf. \. 78. tab. xlix. 

Acandiion vulgaris ndlbas. Khinquad. 56. L'Heriffon. De Buffon, viii. 28. tah. v'u 

Igd. Kramer Auftr.i\^^. Hsrbe, vel Ganfud. Forjlal, iii. Lev. 

Erinaceus Europeus. E. auriculis rotun- Mus. 

with a long nofe : noflrils bordered on each fide with a 
•" loofe fiap,: ears rounded, fhort, broad, and naked: eyes 
fmall : legs fliort, naked, and dufky : inner toe the fhorceft: 
claws weak : upper part of the face, the fides, and rump, covered 
with flrong coarfe hair of a yellowifh and cinereous color; the 
back, with ftrong fliarp fpines of a whitifli color, with a bar of 
black through their middle: tail an inch long: length, from nofe 
to taiii ten inches. 
Place. Inhabits Europe aud Madiigdfcar* ; is common in many parts 

of RuJJia, but fcartely or ever found in Siberia: is in motion 
during night; keeps retired in the diy : on roois, fruits, 
worms, and infefts : erroneoufly charged vvith fucking cows .and 
hurting their udders: rcfides in fnia!! thickets, in hedges, and at 
the bo ro'ii u: I'.'^chcs covered vvith buQics; lies w;-"!! vvre-)ped up in 


* vi.. court 1'oj. M.tdagafcor, 1 52,' where th-jy are c^'.li-i Sara, 


mofs, grafs, or leaves, and dining winter rolls itfelf up and flecps 
out that dreary fcafon : a mild and helpltls animal ; on approach 
of an enemy, rolls itfdf into the form of a hall, and is thsii m- 

Erlnaceus Auiitus. Paliaj ScGme/h, in Nov. com. Pi/np. xlv. ^ig. ^j^, tai, xvi, ,i-r, £icekian. 
and xxi. Jig. 4. 

TT with the upper jaw long and flender : with very large open 
•*-■*■• oval ears, naked, brown round the edges, widi foft whitifh 
hairs within : tail fliorter than that of the common hedge-hog : 
upper part of the body covered with flender bro'.vn fpines, encom- 
pafled at the bafe, and near the ends, with a ring of white: the 
limbs and belly cloathed with a moft elegant foft white fur. 

Generally much inferior in fize to the common kind ; but be- 
jfond Baikal is found much larger than that fpecies. 

Is very common in all the fouthern deferts, from the Dot to Place. 
the Oby. 

Grows very fat : lleeps all the winter, lodged in a hole a few 
inches deep: lives on infefts, even the moft cauftic, and will eat 
(as experiment has been made) above a hundred Cantharides 
without any injury : rolls itfelf up, and has all the manners of 
the common kind. 

H h 2 Ut 

2;6 H E D G E - H O G. 

<}.]8. Asiatic. Le petit Tandrek. So!ineraf,'Z!By.n. m^G. Le Tendrac, et Le Tanrcc. De Bi/fon, 
tab.xcviij. xii. 438. 


with a long flender nofe : fhort rounded ears: fiiort legs: 
' the body marked longitudinally with five broad lines of 
black, and the fame of white ; which arc continued over the flioul- 
dcrs and thighs : the white marks confift of fliort fpines; the black 
marks are furniflied with long loofe hairs, which fall quite to the 
crround : head and face quite black : no tail : length feven inches. 
M. de Biiffon has given the figure of a young one. 

The other, or the Tanrec, is rather larger: covered with fpines, 
only on the top and hind part of the head, the top and fides of 
the neck, and the fhoulders ; the longeft were on the upper part 
of the neck, and ftood ereft : the reft of the body was covered 
with yellowilh briftles, among which were intermixed fome that 
were black, and much longer than the others. Each of thefe ani- 
mals, which are varieties or young of the fame fpecies, had five toes 
on each foot. 
Place. Inhabit the ifles oi India, and that oi Madagafiar: are, when 

of their full growth, of the fize of* rabbets: grunt like hogs: 
grow very fat: miiltiply greatly: frequent -f fhallow pieces of 
freOi or fait water: they burrow on land : lie torpid during fix 
months, during which time their old hair falls off. Their flefh is 
£aten by the Lidians, but is very flabby and infipid. 

* Dutci <voy. Eaft Indies, 203. Thofe in the cabinet of the French King were 
much fmaller; probably young. 

i Cauche voj, Madagafcar, 53. Flacourt hifi, MadagaJ<ar, 152. 


X.C A. 


2 . O T.Hf/^/r t 1 . 44s. 

H E D G E - H O G. 237 

AmeTica.n Hedge-hog. Sancn/t Guiana, Lin./yP.'j^.Bri/roiiquaJ.J'^i. ^.^g, Guiana; 

144. Erinaceus Americanus albus. Seb. Muf. 

Erinaceus inauris. E. aurlculis nuHis. 'wfi. tab. fig, ■^. 

without external ears, having only two orifices for hearing: 
• has a fliort thick head: back and fides covered with fliort 
fpines of an alh-color, tinged with yellow: face, belly, legs, and 
tail, covered witii foft whitifh hair: above the eyes, of a chef- 
nvit color; the hind part and fides of the head of a deeper color : 
length, from nofe to tail, eight inches: tail fliort: claws long 
and crooked. 

Inhabits G»/j;;<7. Place. 


D I V. II. Sect. IV. 

Without Cutting: Teeth. 



DIV. II. Sect. IV. Digitated Quadrupeds. 



Without cutting teeth in either Jaw. 
With canine teeth and grinders. 
Fore legs much longer than the hind. 
Long claws. 

450. ThTREE- ArftopithecuE. dfier quad. S69. Iccn. 

TOED. T-"'-'^- 9^ 

Ignavus five per ailupMai* Agilis. Cluf. 

exot. 1 10. 372. 
Ai, five Ignavus. Ma'-cgrai'i- Brajil. 22 1. 
Sloth. Rail Jy>!, quad. 245, Edvj, 310. 
Ignavus A mericanus, lil'um flecumii'cens. 

Kleii quad, 43 . 
Tardigradus pedibus anticis & poflicia 

tridaflylis. BriJJon qitad. 2 1 . 

Ai, five Tardigradus gracilis America- 

nus. Seb. Mtif. xxxni. fg. 2. Schreier^ 

ii. 7. tab. Ixiv. 
Ouaikare, Pareffeux. Barrere France 

ALquin. 154. 
Bradypus tridadiylus. B. pedibus tridac- 

tylis Cauda brevi. Lin.JyJl. 50. 
L'Ai. De Btifon, xiii. 44. tab, v. vL- 

Br.Muf. Lev. Mus. 

with a blunt black nofe, a little lengthened: veryfmallex- 
• ternal ears : eyes fmall, black, and heavy; from the corner 
of each a duiky line : color of the face and throat a dirty white: 
hair on the limbs and body long and very uneven, of a cinereous 
brown color, with a black line along the middle of the back : 
each fide, about the (boulders, is daftied with ruft-color; the reft 
of the back and limbs fpotted irregularly with black. The 
young, fuch as I fufpecfl that to be in the Britijh Mufeum, have 
few or no fpots. Tail (hort, a meer ftump : legs thick, long, and 
^ auk ward ly 



S L O T H. 


aukvvardly placed: face naked: three toes, and three very long 
claws on each foot. 

It grows, as Nieuhoff remarks, to the bulk of a middle-fized 3,2^, 
fox *. 

Inhabits moft parts of the eafhern fide of South America: the Place. 
moft fluggifh and moft flow of all animals; feems to move with 
the iitmoft pain ; makes a great progrefs if it can go a quarter of 
a league in a dayf: afcends trees, in which it generally lives, with Manners. 
much difficulty : its food is fruit, or the leaves of trees ; if it 
cannot find fruit on the ground, looks out for a tree well loaded, 
and with great pains climbs up : to fave the trouble of defcend- 
ing, flings off the fruit, and forming itfelf into a ball, drops from 
the branches ; continues at the foot till it has devoured all ; nor 
ever ftirs, till compelled by hunger \ : its motion is attended 
with a moft moving and plaintive cry, which at once produces 
pity and difguft, and is its only defence ; for every beaft of prey is 
fo affeded by the noife, as to quit it with horror || : its mouth is 
. never without foam: its note, according to Kircher, is an afcend- 
ing and defcending hexachord^, which it utters only by night: 
its look is fo piteous as to move compaflion ; it is alfo accom- 
panied with tears, which diffuade every body from injuring fo 
wretched a being: its abftinence from food is remarkably power- 
ful; one that had faftened itfelf by its feet to a pole, and was fo 
fufpended crofs two beams, remained forty days without meat, 

• Nieuhoff' strav. Churchill's cellea. ii. 1 8. 
+ Gumilla Orenoque, ii. 13. 
X Vlka's nioy. i. 103. 
II Ibtd. 

§ Kircher s Mufurgia, as quoted by Mr, Stillinofleet, in his mifcellaneous 
trails, /I, 100. 

Vol. II. I i drink. 

242 S L O T H. 

drink, or fleep * : the ttrength in its feet is fo great, that there 
is no poffibility of freeing any thing from its claws, which it 
happens to feize on. A dog was let Icofe at the above-mentioned 
animal, when it was taken from the pole; after fome time the 
Sloth layed hold of the dog with its feet, and held him four days, 
till he perilhed with hunger f . 

451. Two-toed. Taidigradus Ceilonicus fsemina. Seb, Tardigraclus pedibus antici'i didaftylis, 
lilujW. tab.xxxvf. poilicis triaaftylis. Br'tjjon quad. zz. 

Bradypus didaftylus. Br. manibus di- L'Unau. De Bu£on, xiii. 34. tab. i. Br, 
dattylis cauda nulla. Lin. fyjl. 51. Muf, 
Schreber, ii. 10. tab.lxv. 


with a round head : fiiort projecting nofe : ears like the hu- 
man, lying flat to the head : two long ftrong claws on the 
fore feet, three on the hind : hair on the- body long and rough 5 
on fome parts curled and woolly : in fome, of a pale red above, 
cinereous below ; In others, of a yellowifli white below, cinereous 
brown above. No tail. Length of that in the Britijh Mufcum 
eleven inches : I believe a young one. ■ 
Pl-ice. Inhabits South America and the iile of Ceylon. The laft is flre- 

nuoufly denied by M, de Buffon, who has fixed the refidence of this 
genus to America only : but, befides the authority of Scba, vvho 
exprefsly fays his fpecimen was brought from Ceylon, a gentleman, 
long refident in India, and much ditlinguilhtd in the literary 
world, has informed me he has feen this animal brought from the 
Paliacat mountains that lie in fiyht of Mddrafs ; which fatisfics me 
that it is common to both continents. Farther enquiry is defircd 
into the identity of this fpccics. 

* Airchr. t Jbi'f. 




///.I/ //>/■/// . //fi/// ./. A. 


SLOTH. 243 

There is reafon to think that it is met with alfo in Gtihiea, or 
at left fome fpecies of this genus; for Barbot and Bofman de- 
fcribe an animal by the name of Potto, to which they give the at- 
tributes of the former, and defcribe as being grey when young, 
red, and covered with a fort of hair as thick fet as flocks of 
wool. Both thefe writers were fenfible men, and, though not na- 
turalifts, were too obfervant of the animals of Guinea to miftake 
one whofe charadlers are fo ftrongly marked as thofe of the 
Sloth *. 

Bradypus urfiformis. NaturaliJIs Mi/ceUany.t3.h. ^2. ac', Ursiform. 

Swith a long and ftrong nofe, truncated at the end: the fore- 
• head rifes fuddenly above it: that and the nofe whitifh, and 
almoft naked : eyes very fmall ; above is a black line : ears fliort, 
and loft in the hair : the hair on the top of the head points for- 
ward, that in the neck is parted in the middle; on head and neck, 
back and fides, is extremely long, fliaggy and black; in moft parts Haik. 
twelve inches long, and on the upper part of the body fliines in 
the fun with a moft brilliant purple glols; on the breaft and 
belly fliort; acrofs the firft is a line of white : the tail is only five 
inches long, and is quite hid in the hair : the limbs are very ftrong 
and bear-like : on each foot are five toes : on thofc of the fore feet 
the claws are three inches long, pointing forward, and flightly in- 
curvated ; pointing forward and admirably adapted for digging or 
burrowing: the claws of the hind feet are very ftiort : the bottoms 

• Bi/mau, 237. Barbot, 212. 

I i 2 of 



of the feet are black and naked. This animal wants the indfores, 

Teeth. or cutting teeth, above and below. In each jaw are two canine 

teeth, remote from the grinders : the ruof of th? mouth is marked 

with tranfverfe fulci : the tongue is fmooth, and not fo long as the 


Lips, The noflrils are tranfverfe, and appear like a narrow flit: the lips 

are very loofe, and capable of being protruded to a great length, 

and drawn in again ; they ferve the ufe of a hand, and by their 

means it conveys apples or any fort of food, into its mouth : its 

Food. principal food was vegetables, and alfo milk: it was very fond of 

honeyj fugar, and other fweetsj but did not willingly eat any animal 


Manners. -l" ^^s manners it was gentle, and very good natured; it fufFered 

me to put my hand far down its mouth to examine the infide, and 

to tumble it up and down, to examine the different parts ; nor did 

it ever offer to bite : it did no more than emit a fliort abrupt roar 

when I had provoked it highly. 

I clafs it, from the teeth, among the Bradypi, or Sloths, not fiom its 
inadlivity, or any of its natural properties : it was neither flow nor 
languid, but was moderately lively : it appeared to have a habit of 
turning itfelf round and round, every now and then, as if for amufe- 
ment, in the manner of a dog about to lie down ;o fleep: it is faid 
to have a flrong propenfity to burrowing; and that it was iiift dug 
out of its retreat by thofe who difcovered it. 
Place. It inhabits Bengal, and lives in certain fand hills not remote from 

Patna. It was about the fize of a black American bear, not half 
grown. When I faw this animal in 1790 it was between four and 
five years old, fo probably had attained its full growth. 
I faw it in company with the ingenious Doftor Shazv, of the 


SLOTH. 245 

Britijfo Mtifetm. My figure is copied from his Nattiralijls Mifcel- 
lany : but it was before engraved by Mr. Catton in his book of 
Quadrupeds. Mr; Bewick has alfo given a very good figure of 
it at p. 266 of his beautiful Hiftory of Quadrupeds with wooden 



XXXVlir. Without either cutting teeth or canine teeth. 

ARMADILLO. Head, and upper part of the body, guarded b}' a cruftaceous 

covering ; the middle with pliant bands, formed of various 
fegments, reaching from the back to the edges of the belly. 

4i;3. Three- Tatu apara. Marcgrave BraJtl.2il.Raii pedibus pentadaftylis. Z/a._^y?. 53. 

BANDED. fyn. quad, z'j,^, Cataphraftus fcutis duobus cingulis tri • 

Armadillo feu Tatu genus alterum. Chf. bus. Brijfon quad. 24. 

Exot. log. Klein quad. 48. L'Apar, ou le 1 atou a trois bandes. De 
Tatu feu Armadillo orieiitalis. 5^^. A/«/". Buffon, x. 206. Schreber,'Yi. 1%. tab. 

i, tab. xxxviii.^. 2, 3. Ixxii. A. \y.\\\. jig. i. 2. 

Dafypus tricinftus, D. cingulis tribus, 


with fhort but broad rounded ears : the cruft on the head, 
back, and rump, divided into elegant pentangular tuber- 
culated fegments: three bands in the middle: five toes on each 
foot : fhort tail. 
Place and The whole genus inhabits South America: the manners of all 

Manners. much the fame*, burrows under ground; the fmaller fpecies in 

moift places, the larger in dry, and at a diflance from the fea: 
keeps in its hole in the day, rambles out at night: when over- 
taken, rolls itfelf into the form of a ball, which it does by 
means of the pliant bands on its middle, and thus becomes in- 
vulnerable : when furprized, runs to its hole, and thinks itfelf 
fccure if it can hide its head and lome part of its body. The In- 
dians take it by the tail, when the anmial fixes its claws in the 
earth fo ftrongly that there is no moving it till the Indian tickles 
5 it 


It with a flick: is hunted with little dogs, who give notice to 
their mafter of its haunts by barking, who digs it out; to take 
it out incautioufly is very dangerous, on account of the fnakes 
that commonly lurk in the burrows. Feeds on potatoes, melons, 
and roots, and does great damage to plantations : drinks much : 
grows very fat, and is reckoned very delicious eating when young; 
but when old, has a mufky difagreeable tafte : is very numerous ; 
breeds every month, and brings four at a time : is very inofien- 

Tatou. Belon oh/. 111. Portraits, io6. Dafypus fex cinftus. D. cingulis fenis, 4C4.S1X-BANDED. 
Tatu & Tatu paba Brafil : Armadillo pedibus pentadaftylis. Lin.fyjl. 54. 

Hi/pant!, Lufitanis Encuberto. Marc- L'Encourbert, ou Le Tatoua fix bandes. 

graije Brajil. 13 1. De Buffon, x, zog. ta6. xlii. Siipplem. 

Cataphractus fcutis duobus, cingulis fex. iii. 28;. tab. Ivii. Schrgber, ii, 31. tab. 

Brijfonquad. 2;. Ixi. B. Lev. Mus. 

A with the cruft of the head, flioulders, and rump, formed of 
^ ^* angular pieces : the bands on the back fix; between which, 
alfo on the neck and belly, are a few fcattered hairs; tail not the 
length of the body, very thick at the bafe, tapering to a point: 
five toes on each foot. 
Inhabits Brafil and Guiana. 


* The authorities for the natural hiftory : Marcgrave, 231. Dampier, ii. 6r. 
Gumilla Orenoque, iii. 223 to 226. Nktihoff, \g. Bancroft's Guiana, li^^, Rcchefort 
Antilles, i. 286. 

Ayotocluli ? 



455. Eight- 

Ayotochtli ? Herr.anJez Mex, 3 1 4. 
Tatuete Brajilte'jihus, Verdadeiro Lu/i- 

tanis. Marcgra'ue Brafil. 231. Cliif. 

exot. 3^0. 
Cataphraftus fcutis duobus cingulis ofto. 

Bri£on quad. 26. 
Erinaceus loricaius cingulis feptenis pal- 

mis tetradaftylis, plantis pentadac- 

tylis. Amcsn, ^ica.'.. \. j6o. 
Daiypus feptem cinftus. L'n. fyfl. 54. 
Le Tatuete. ou Tatou a huit bandes. De 

Buffon, X. 212. Schrihir, ii. 34. 36. 

tab. Ixxii. \xx.\\.fg. 3, 4. 


A with upright ears, two inches long: fmall black eyes : eight 
'^*-* bands on the fides: four toes on the fore feet, five on the 
hind: length, from nofe to tail, about ten inches; tail nine. 

Inhabits Brafil. Reckoned more delicious eating than the 

456. NlNE- 

liv. 57. tab. vii. 
Cataphradlus fcutis duobus, cingulis no- 

vem. BriJ/bn quail. 2- . 

Le Cachichame, ou Tatou a neuf bandes. 

De Bvffon, X. zx^.tab. xxxviii. Sup- 

plcm. iii. 287. ta}>. Iviii. Schreber, i. 

37. tab. Ixxiv. lxxvi._yf|-. 7. 10. 
American Armadillo, thil. Tranf. liv, 

57. tab, vii. Lev. Mus. 

Armadillo. Worm. Muf. ■1,1 <^. 

Tatu porcinus, Schildverkel. Klein quad. 

Pig- headed Armadillo. Greiv'j rarities, 

18. Raiijyn. quad. 233. 
Tatu five Armadillo Americanus. Seb. 

Muf. tab. xx\x.Jig. I. 
Dafypus novem cinftus. D. cingulis no- 

vem, palmis tetradaftylis, plantis pen- 

tadaftylis. Lin. fyji. 54. Phil, tranf. 

A with long ears: cruft on the flioulders and rump marked 
• with hexangular figures; the emit on the head marked in 
the fame manner : nine bands on the fides, diftinguiflied by tranf- 
terfe cuneiform marks : breaft and belly covered with long hairs : 
four toes on the fore feet, five on the hind : tail long and taper : 
length of the whole animal three feet; the tail a little longer 
than the body. 


\cm . 


eJ^/'^//v A/z/^ryy. //-///r/^////^^ , l.°/J/. 


In the Lever I AN Museum is a fpecimen of the fame form, 
number of bands, and proportions, with this ; but the crufts on 
the head, and other parts, are covered with large fcales not an- 
gular. • 

Inhabits South America. One was brought a few years ago to Place. 
England, from the Mofqui to (hore, and lived here fome time: it 
was fed with raw beef, and milk, but refufed our grains and 
fruit *. 

Tatu five Armadillo Africanus. Sei>. Cataphradus fcutisduobus, cingullsduo- 457. Twelve- 

Mu/.'i. tah. XXX. fi'^. 3, 4. decim. BriJJhn quad. ij . Schreb£r,\\. BANDED. 

Le Kabaflbu, ou Tatou a douzebandes, 40. tab. Ixxv. \xx\ufg. 11. 12. 
De Buffon, X. 218. /d6. xl. 

\ with broad upright ears : the cruft on the fhoulders marked 
"*■ ^* with oblong pieces; that of the rump with hexangular: 
twelve bands on the fides : five toes, with very large claws, on the 
fore feet ; five lefTer on the hind : tail fhortcr than the body : 
fome hairs fcattered over the body. 

yi. de Buffon f mentions another of twelve bands, with a tail 
covered with rhomboid figures, which he is doubtful whether to 
refer to this fpecles. It is the largeft I ever heard of, being from 
nofe to tail two feet ten inches long ; the tail about one foot 
eight: by the figure (for I never faw the animal) it varies greatly 
from the other. 

* This corroborates what Marcgraue fays of one of thefc animals, Cumculos, 
a've! tmrtuas aliaque de'vorant ; which is very extraordinary in quadrupeds which 
want both cutting and canine teeth. 

t P. 256. tab.xW. 

Vol. II, K k Weefle-headcd 


4-8. EicHTEEK- Weefle-headcd Armadillo. Greiv'j rari- Cataphrsftus fcufo unico, cingulis c£lo- 

^ 'bajided. //«, 19. dec'im. BnJ/in^uaJ. 27,. 

* Tatu Mullelinus. Rati l)n. qund. 235. Le Ciiqa n^on, ou Tatou a dixhuit bar- 

Dafypus unicinflus. D. tegmine tripar- des. De Bitffbn, x. 7.20. tab. xlii. Schrc- 

tiio,pedibuspentadaftylis. Lin.fyjl.y.,. Lir, ii. 42. 


with a very {lender head: fmall erect ears : the cruft on the 
•• flioulders and rump confiding of fquare pieces: eighteen 
bands on the fides: five toes on each foot: length, from nofe to 
tail, about fifteen inches; tail five and a half. 
Place. Inhabits South America. 


DIV. II. Sect. V. 


Without Teeth. 

K k 2 

2£2 M A N I S. 

DIV. II. Sect. V. Digitated Quadrupeds. 

XXXIX. MANIS. Back, fides, and upper part cf the tail, covered with large 

ftrong fcales. 
Small mouth: long tongue: no teeth. 

459. Long-tail- Lacertus peregrinus fquamofas. Chf. Pholidotus pedibus anticis et pofticis te- 

ED. «.v5/. 374. Ra!! Jjn. quad, 2j^. tradaiSylis, fquamis mucronatis, Cauda 

Scaly Lizard. Gri-u.'s rarities. ^6. longiiTima. Brijfon quad. i^. 

Manis tetradaftyla. M. pedibus tetra- Le Phatagin. De Buffon. x. 180. fa5. 

daflylis, Lin.fyji. 53. Schrekr, ii. 23. xxxiv. J^Jh. Muf. Lev.Mus. Br.Mus. 

tab. Ixx. 

"IV/r with a flender nofe; that and the head fmooth: body, legs, 
• and tail, guarded by large fliarp-pointed ftriated fcales : 
the throat and belly covered with hair: fliort legs: four claws 
on each foot, one of which is very fmall : tail a little taper, but 
ends blunt. The color of the whole animal, chocolate. 
Plach. Inhabits the iflands ai Imlia. Thefe animals approach fo nearly 

the genus of Lizards, as to be the links in the chain of beings which 
conneft the proper quadrupeds with the reptile clals. 

They grow to a great length: that which was preferved in the 
Hhifeum of the Royal Society, was a yard and a half long * : from 
the tip of the nofe to the tail, was only fourteen inches ; the tail 
itfclf a yard and half a quarter. 

• Grtiv, 


X( in: 

~^'r//f/ //^f/O''/ . //'■///^.i • i-jS^/. 

M A N I S. 


Lacertus fqaamofus. Bo-itius Jirui, ba> Pholidotus pedibas anticis et pofiicis 46-^, Short- 

Pet. Gaz. tab. x\. fg. li. pentadac^ylis, fquamis fubrocundii. tailed. 

Arniadilias fquamatus major. Ceilnmcus, Br'ffan quad. iS. 

feu Diabolui "T'l^-'o-y-n.'Vai diftus. Seb. Manis pentadjcV.'la. Lin. fy!}. cz. 

Mil/. \. hib.VmAw. Klein quad. 47. Le Pangolin, be B-iffcn, x. iSo. tab. 

Schr:bir, ii. 22. tab. Ixi.x. .xxxiv. Jjh. JVfa/CLKv.Mus, Br.Mus, 

with b.ick, fides, and legs, covered with blunt fcales, with 
• brilHcs between each: five toes on each foot: tail noi 
longer than the body: ears not unlilie the human: chin, belly, 
and infide of->the legs, hairy: tail broad; much Ihorter in propor- 
tion to the body than that of the preceding, and obtufe at the end: 
the color of the whole animal a pale yellow. 

Inhabits the iflands of India, anc^ that of Formofa. The Placs. 
Indians call ic Pano-oelli/tg; and the Ck'nu-fe, Chin Chion Se'uk*. 
Feeds on lizards and infc^fts : turns up the ground with its 
nofe : walks with its claws bent undtr its feet : grows very 
fat: is efteemed very delicate eating: makes no noife, only a 

It is alfo found in Bengal, where it is called in the Sanjhit 
language, Fajracite, or the 'Thimdeyboit reptile, from the exccOivc 
liardncfs of its fcales: in its ftomach is found a number of fmall 
ftones, probably taken in to help the digeftion. In the fccond 
volume of the Jjtatic Rejeauhes,p. 3'6, publillied under the dir^c- 
tion of the able and learned Sir Jomes, is a very good 
account of this animal', under the direftion of that gentleman, a 

* DalhmanmAa.Stjck':. 1749, 255. 

4 fecond 

254 M A N I S. 

fecoTid liiundation of knowledge is poviring upon the weftern world 
from its primeval feat, the Eiijl, 

Perhaps is a native of Guinea : the ^wgelo of the Negroes ; 
which Des Mjrchais* fays grows to the length of eight feet, 
of which the tail is four : lives in woods and marfhy places : 
feeds on ants, which it takes by laying its long tongue crofs 
their paths, that member being covered with a fticky faliva, 
fo the infedls that attempt to pafs over it cannot extricate 
themfelves : walks very llowly: would be the prey of every 
ravenous beaft, had it not the power of rolling iifelf up, and 
oppoling to its adverfary a formidable row of ere6led fcales. 
In vain does the leopard attack It with its vail claws, for at laft 
it is obliged to leave it in fafetyf. The Negroes kill thefe ani- 
mals for the fake of the flefli, which they reckon excellent. 

4.61. Broad Anew Manis, Phil. Tranf. vol. Ix. p. 36. tab. 11. 


T\ /r with five toes on the fore feet, and four on the hind : fcales 
"'^ of the fhape of a mufclc: belly quite fmooth: the exterior 

fcales end in a fharp point foinewhat incurvated : tail very broad, 
decreafing to a point: whole length of the zmmzX a. German ell 
and five eighths: the tail half an ell and a fpan broad in the 
broadeft part. 

* Voyage da des Marchaii,\. 200. Barbot, 114. 

t Is faid to deftroy the Elephant, by twilling itfelf round the trunk, and com- 
preffing that tender organ with its hard fcales. 


M A N I S. 2- 

This fpeclcs was found in the wall of a merchsnt's houfeat 'Tran- Place. 
quebar: when purfued it would roll itlelf up fo that iioThino; but the 
back and tail could be feen: ic was with great difficulty killed, al- 
though it was often ftruck with rice-ftampers, or poles arm?d with 
iron : a blow on the belly deprived it of life. The I'cales of this 
genus are fo hard as to ftrike fire. 






Body covered with hair. 

Small niouih: long cylindiic tongue. 

No teeth. 

462, Great. 

TamanJua-guacu. Marcgra'ut Biiijil. 

Tamandua-giiacu five major. PiJ'o Brajil. 

Pifmire-eater, 'Nieuhoff, ig. 
Tamaiidua mnjor cauda panniculata. 

Bun ere Frai a ^Hquiii. 162. 
Mange-fourmis. Dis Marchaii, iii. 307. 
Great Ant- tear. Rait fyi. quad. Zi^l. 
JMyrmecophaga rolho longiiTimo, pe- 

dibus anticistctradaflylis, pofticispen- 

tadaftylis, cauda longiffimis pllis vefti- 

ta. Brijpin quad, ! 5. 
Myrmecophaga jubata. M. palmis tetra- 

daflylis, plaiitis pentadad) lis. Lin. 

fyft. 52. Klin quad. 45. tal:. V. 
Le Tamanoir. De Bu£oii, x. 141. tab. 

xxix. Sui>pl. iii. 278. tah. Iv. Scbreber, 

ii. 14. tab. Ixvii. £r. Muf. 

Place and 


A E. with a long flender nofe: fmall black eyes: fliort round 
■^ ^* ears : flender tongue, two feet and a half long, which lies 
double in the mouth : legs flender : four toes on the fore feet, 
five on the hind : the two middle claws on the fore feet very 
large, ftrong, and hooked : the hair on the upper part of the 
body is half a foot long, black mixed with grey : from the neck, 
crofs the flioulders, to the fides, is a black line bounded above 
with white : the fore legs are whitifli, marked above the feet 
with a black fpot : the tail is cloathcd with very coarfe black 
hairs a foot long : length, from nofe to tail, about three ktt. ten 
inches ; the tail two and a half: weight about a hundred pounds. 

\nhzh\is Brafil ^.nd Guiana : runsflowly: fwims over the great 
rivers ; at which time it flings its tail over its back : lives on 
ants; as ibon as it difcovers their nefls, overturns them, or digs 



them up with its feet-, then thrufts its long tongue into their re- 
treats, and penetrating all the paiFages of the neft, withdraws it 
into its mouth loaded with pre)-: is tearful of rain, and proiefts 
itfelf againft wet by covering its body with i's long tail. This 
(as well as every fpecies of this genus) brings but one young at 
a time, at which feafon it is dangerous to approach the place : 
it does not arrive at its full growth under four years. The flcfh 
has a ftrong difagreeable tafte, but is eaten by the Inaiuns. Not- 
withftanding this animal wants teeth, it is fierce and dangerous; 
nothing that gets within its fore feet can difengage itfelf. The 
very Panthers of y^^m/Va * are often unequal in the combat; for 
if the Ant-eater once has opportunity of embracing them, it fixes 
its talons in their fides, and both fall together, and both perifli ; 
for fuch is the obftinacy and ftupidity of this animal, that it will 
not extricate itfelf even from a dead adverfary f: ^eeps in the 
day ; preys by night. 

The following hiftory of this animal is given In Dillon's Travels 
through Spain, p. 76, in his account of the Royal Cabinet of 
Natural Hiftory at Madrid. " The Great Ant-bear from Buenos 
Ayres, the Myrmecophaga Jubata of Linnaus, called by the Spaniards 
Ofa Palmera, was alive at Madrid in 1776, and is now fluffed and 
preferved in this cabinet. The people who brought it from Buenos 
Ayres fay, it differs from what they call the Ant-eater, which only 
feeds on emmets, and other infefls; whereas this would eat flefh, 
when cut in fmall pieces, to the amount of four or five pounds. 
From the fnout to the extremity of the tail, this animal is two 
yards in length, and his height is about two feet: the head very 

• Cumilk Orttioqut, iii. 232. t P'/" ^^ajil. i^o. 

Vol. II. L 1 mnovf; 



narrow ; the nofe long and {lender. The tongue is Co fingular, 
that it looks more like a worm, and extends above fixteen inches, 
His body is covered with long hair, of a dark brown, with white 
ftripcs on the flioulders; and when he lleeps, he covers his body 
with his tail." 

The fpecimen of the Great Ant-cater in the Leverian Ah- 
feum, is fuperior in fize to any we have before heard of. 

Feet. Inches. 

Its whole length is — ■ — 

Tail _ _ _ 

From tip of the nofe to the ears — — 

Length of the hairs of the mane — — 

of the tail — — — 

Height to the top of the fhoulders — — 

— 7 

— 2 

— I 

— I 

— I 

Both of the above are extremely rare, and in an uncommon 
fine ftate of prefervation. 

6, r 


Tamandua-i. Marcgrave BraftL 225. 

Raii/jti. quad. 7^2. 
Tamandua minor. Pifo Brafil. 320. Bar- 

rcre France jT^quin. 162. 
Tamandua-guacu. Nieuhoff, iq. 
Myrmecophaga roilro longiffimo, pedi- 

bus anticis tetradaftylis, pofticis pen- 

tadaflylis, cauda feie nuda. Brijpm 

quad. i5. 
Myrmecophaga tetradaftyla. Lin. Jjjl. 

52. Zoofh. Grono'v. No. 2. 
Le I'amandua. De Buffon, x. 144. Schre- 

her, ii. ifi. tab. Ixviii. 

A E. with a long {lender- nofe, bending a little down: fmall 
•* ^* black mouth and eyes : fmall upright ears : bottoms of the 
fore feet round j four claws on each, like thofe of the former; 



five on the hind feet: hair fliining and hard, of a pale yellow 
color: along the middle of the back, and on the hind legs, 
duflcy: each fide of the neck is a black line, that crolies the fhoul- 
ders and meets at the lower end of the back : the tail is covered 
with longer hair than the back, is taper, and b.ild at the end: 
length, trom nofe to tail, one foot feven inches-, the tad ten 

Inhabits the fame country with the laft : its manners much the Placb. 
fame: when it drinks, part fpurts out of the noftrils : climbs 
trees, and lays hold of the branches with its tail. 

Le Taraandua. De Bitjoii, Supplem. iii. 281. tab. Ivi. 464. Striped. 

A E. with a taper nofe, the upper mandible extending very 
■^ ^* far beyond the lower: eyes exceedingly fmall: ears round 
and Qiort ; tail covered equally with long hairs : five toes on the 
fore feet. 

Body and tail tawny; the firft marked downwards with broad 
ftripes of black; the laft annulated : legs and nofe ftriped in the 
fame manner : belly of a dirty white. 

Length from nofe to tail thirteen inches French ; of the tail 
feven and a half. 

M. de BuffciH fpeaks of one, which he fuppofes to be the fame 
with this; but the difference in fize and colors forbid us to fub- 
fcribe to his opinion. The account was tranfmitted to him by 
M. de la Borde, phyfician at Cayenne. The hair, fays he, is whitifh, 
and about two inches long : it has very (Irong talons ; eats only 

L 1 2 in 




in the day-time; keeps in the great woods: the flcfli is good; 
it is much more rare than the gi-eat Ant-eater^ 

Weighs lixty pounds. 

Both thefe inhabit Guiana, 

463. Lest. 


T?.mandua minor fiavefcens ; Ouatlri- 
ouaou. Barrsre France Squirt. 1 63. 

Tamandua five Coati Americana alba. 
Seb. MiiJ. i. tab. xxxvii 

Myrmecophaga roltrobrevi, pedibus an- 

Myrmecophaga didafiyla. M. palmij 
didaflylis, plantis tetradaiflylis, cauda 
vil'ofa Lin. fyji. 5 1 . Zoo^h. Grontv. 
Kt. I. 

Little Ant-eater. Ei/iv. 2Z0. 

tic's didadylis, poflicis tetradaclylis. LeFourmillier. Ds Bi'ffon, x. 144 talt. 
BriJJin quad. 17. xxx. Sckreber, ii. 17. tab. Ixvi. 

A E. with a conic nofe, bending a little down : ears fmall, 
^ and hid in the fur: two hooked claws on the fore feet, the 

exterior much the largeft; four on the hind feet: head, body, 
limbs, and upper part and fides of the tail, covered with long fofc 
filky hair, or rather wool, of a yellowifh brown color: from nofe 
to tail feven inches and a half; tail eight and a half, the lad four 
inches of which, on the under fide, naked : the tail is thick at 
the bafe, and tapers to a point. 

Inhabits Guiana: climbs trees, in queft of a fpccies of ants 
which build their nefts among the branches: has the fame pre- 
henfile power with its tail as the former. 

There is a fourth fpecies found at the Cape of Good Hope, and 
in Ceylon; but being delcribed from a mere foetus*, we fliall 
avoid giving a tranfcrlpt of Dr. Pallas's account of it, but wait 
for further information. We fliall only fay, that it has four toes 

• Pa/las M'/cel. Zcel. 64. 



Ja>/ J/f>/^-f^/rr ^i°4.fy. 


on the fore feet, and pendulous ears, which diftinguiflies it from 
other kinds. Knlben * defcribes their manners particularly, and 
fays they have long heads and tongues, and are toothlefs ; and 
that they fo;netimes weigh jocib. f: that if rhey faften their 
claws in the ground, the ftrongeft man cannot pull them away : 
that they thruft out their clammy tongue into the ants neft, and 
draw it into their mouth covered with infects. That the African 
fpecies agrees with the Jmeriran in every external particular, is 
confirmed; but that the laft is furnifhed with grinding teeth, 
like the Armadillo, in the lower end of the jaws, is a difcovery 
proved from the remarks of Doclor Camper, a celebrated zoolo- 
gift in Holland. Mr. Stracha'i, in liis account of Cylon %, gives the 
fame account of the manners of what the natives call the Talgoi, 
or Ant Bear. It is not therefore to be doubted, but that thefe 
animals are common to the old and new continents. 

Fourmlllier d'Afrique. /Ulaman-i Suffl.Y.z^.Xab. xl. <l66. Cape. 

A E. with a long nofc, truncated at the end like that of a Descrip. 
"* ^ • hog; and the noftrils relembling thofe of that animal: 
ears fix inches long, thjn as parchment, and covered with very 
fine hairs: tongue very long and (lender: the hairs on the 
head and up: er part cf the body aiid tail very (hort, and fo clofely 
adhering to the Aim as if they were glu^d to it, their color a 

• Hijl. Cape, 118; where they are called Ea> th Ho^s. 

t As quoced by Dr. Pi.l'a^ ; i iuppole from the Dutch edition. 

J Phu.TrarJ.uhiJg.\. 180. 


262 A N T - E A T E R. 

dirty grey-, thofe on tlie (ides and belly lonj?; and of a rcddlQi 
hue; thofe on the legs {fill longer, black and firaight : the lail 
tliick near the bafe, and tapering to a point : on the fore feet 
are four toes; on the hind five; all armed with ftrong claws: 
thofe behind equal even the length of the toes : all are blunted 
at the end and calculated for burrowing. 
Size. The length is three feet five to the origin of the tail, the tail 

one foot nine. 

This fpecies inhabits the neighborhood of the Cd/)e of Good Hope. 
Manners. It lives vmder ground; feeds on ants like the other fpecies ; 

but when it has found an ants nefl. it looks carefully around to 
fee whether it can feed in fafety, then puts out its long tongue 
to catch its prey. Is an objed of chace among the Hottentots, and 
is reckoned good food. 

467. AcuLEATED. Porcupine Ant-eater. Naturalijl's Mi/ceUany,fi. 109. 


E. Length about a'foot : coated on the upper parts with fpines 
■* refemhling thofeof a porcupine, being white tipped with black ; 
the two colors feparated by a ring of tawny or dull orange : fpines 
on the back and fides fomewhat recumbent, over the tail perpendi-. 
cularly eredl : fnout long, naked, black and tubular, opening very 
Imall : tongue lumbriciform; forehead, cheeks, and whole under 
parts of the body, coated with dark brown fliff hairs ; legs very 
ihort, toes fhort, broad rounded : claws on the fore- feet, five very 
ftrong, fomewhat obttife; on the hind-feet four, of which the two 
iirft are much longer, and fliarper than the others : thumb unarmed : 
Flacej tail very Ihort. Inhabits iNVw South Wales: preys on ants, and is 



/r///if///a . rf//-ff//^^A 

■ 46'7. 

ANT-EATER. " 16^ 

found about ant-hills. A moft extraordinary quadruped, connecl- 
ing in fome meafure the two very diftant genera of Porcupine, 
and Ant-Eater. This fingular animal is more fully defcribed by 
Dr. Shau;\n the Naturalift's Mifcellany, and from the figure in that 
work the reprefentation here given is faithfully copied. Dr. Shazv 
js of opinion that the genera of Manis, and Myrmecophaga, ought 
to be either united, or elfe that this animal fhould form a diftinift 


D I V. in. 


Having fin-like feet : fore legs buried deep in the fkin : hind 
legs pointing quite backwards. 

■>'^iUo. .L/_, f.v 


Vol. II. 

M m 

DI V. 

2^6 WALRUS. 

DIV. III. Pinnated Quadrupeds. 

XLI. WALRUS. With two great tufks in the upper jaw, pointing downwards. 

Four giinders on both fides, above and below. 
No cutting teeth. 
Five palmated toes on each foot. 

468. Arctic. Rofmarus. G e/ner Pi/c. zii. KUin quad. Odobenus. La Vache marine. Brijfon 

92. quad. 30. 

Walrus, Mors, Rofmarus. Worm. Muf. Trichecus Rofmarus. T. dentibus lania- 

<• 289. Raiijyn. quad. igi. riis fuperioribus exfertis. Lin. Jyfi, 

Sea horfe, or Morfe. M'lrfei's Spi/xierg, ^q. 

107,182. Egede Greenland, %2. Le Morfe. De Bufon, ■xui.'!,:,^. tah.Xw, 

Sea-cow. CrantK GreoiL i. 125. Schre- Br, Muf. A jh. Muf. Lev. Mus. 
her, ii. 88. 

\KT "^'^^ ^ round head : fmall mouth : very thick lips, covered 
above and below with pellucid bridles as thick as a ftravv: 
fmall fiery eyes : two fmall orifices inftead of ears : fhort neck : 
body thick in the middle, tapering towards the tail : ikin thick, 
wrinkled, with Qiort brownifh hairs thinly difperfed : legsfhort; 
five toes on each, all conneifled by webs, and fmall nails on each : 
the hind feet very broad : each leg loofely articulated -, the hind 
legs generally extended on a line with the body : tail very Ihort : 
penis long. 
Sjke. Length, from nofe to tail, fometimes eighteen feet, and ten or 




(' '//W/rlhy/z-f,.! . /.'1/Ai' 

WALRUS. 267 

twelve round in the thickefl: part : the teeth have been fome- 
times found of the weight * of 20 lb. each. 

Inhabit the coafl o^ Spitzhergen, Nova Zembla, Hiidfoii's Bay, and Place. 
the Gulph of St. Laurence, and the Icy Sea, as far as Cape Tfchuktf- 
chi, and the iflands off it; but does not extend fouthward as far as 
the mouth of the Anadyr, nor are any feen in the iflands between 
Kamtfchatka and America. Are gregarious: in-fome places appear 
in herds of hundreds: are fhy animals, and avoid places which 
are much haunted by mankind -j- : are very fierce -, if wounded in 
the water, they attempt to fink the boat, either by rifing under it, 
or by ftriking their great teeth into the fides; roar very loud, and Mankers. 
will follow the boat till it gets out of fight. Numbers of them 
are often feen fleeping on an ifland of ice ; if awakened, fling them- 
felves with great impetuofity into the fea ; at which time it is 
dangerous to approach the ice, leaf! they fhould tumble into the 
boat and overfet it : do not go upon the land till the coaft is 
clear of ice. At particular times, they land in amazing numbers : 
the moment the firfl; gets on fhore, fo as to lie dry, it will not 
ftir till another comes and forces it forward by beating it with its 
great teeth-, this is ferved in the fame manner by the next, and 
fo in fucceflTion till the whole is landed, continuing tumbling 
over one another, and forceing the foremoft, for the fake of quiet, 
to remove further up. 

* Teeth of this fize are only found on the coaft of the Icy Sea, where the animals 
are feldom molelled, and have time to attain their full growth, Hiji. Kamtfchatka, 

f In 1608, the crew of an Englijh vefTel killed on Cherry Ifle above 900 WaWufis 
in feven hours time ; for they lay in heaps, like hogs huddled one upon another. 
Martin's Spitzberg. 181, 182. 

M m 2 The 

a68 WALRUS. 

Chace. The method of killing them on the Magdalene ifles, in the 

gulph of St. laurence, as I am informed, is thus: — The hunters 
watch their landing, and as foon as they find a fufficient number 
for what they call a cut, go on fhore, each armed with a fpear 
fliarp on one fide like a knife, with which they cut their throats : 
great care muft be taken not to ftand in t le way of thofe which 
attempt to get again to fea, which they do with great agility by 
tumbling headlong; for they would crufh any body to death by 
their vaft weight. They are killed for the fake of their oil, one 
Walrus producing about half a tun. The knowledge of this chace 
is of great antiquity ; Ociher, the 'Norwegian, about the year 890, 
made a report of it to King y^//>f^/, having, as he fays, made the 
voyage beyond Norzvay, for the more commoditie of fijlnng of 
horfe-whales, zvhlch have in their teeth hones of great price and 
(xcel'.encie, whereof he brought fame at his returne unto the King *. 
In faifc, it was in the northern world, in eaily times, the fubfti- 
tute to ivory, being very white and very hard. Their ikins, 
OSlher fays, were good to cut into cables. I do not know whe- 
ther we make any ufe of the fkin ; but M. de Bufon fays, he 
has feen braces for coaches made of it, which were both ftrong 
and elaftic. 

They bring one, or at moft two, young -f at a time: feed on 
fea herbs and fifh; alio on ihclis, which they dig out of the fand 
with their teeth : are laid alfo to make ufe of their teeth to afcend 
rocks or pieces of ice, faftening them to the cracks, and drawing 
their bodies up by that means. Befides mankind, they feem to- 
have no other enemy than the white Bear, with whom they have 

* Hakluyi's coll, F>j. i. 5. f Earenlz I'ty, 4. 


W .'^^ L R U S. 

terrible combats; but generally come off viiflorioiis, by means 
of their great teeth. 


Le Dugon. Dt Buffhn, xiii. 374. tab. Ivi. Schreher, ii. 93, .g__ Indian 

\T r with two fliort canine teeth, or tufks, placed in the upper 
• jaw pretty clofe to each other : in the upper jaw four 
grinders on each fide, placed at a diftance from the tufksj in 
the lower, three on each fide. 

Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope and the Fkilipphic illes. The Pla-ce, 
head defcribed above being fuppofed to belong to an animal rc- 
fembling a IValrus, found in the Teas of Africa and India, as ap- 
pears from fonie citations from travellers, too unfatisfaftory to 
merit repetition. It is faid by one, that it goes upon land to 
feed on the green mofsj and that it is called in the Philippines^ 
the Dugung *. 

* De Bufoti, xiii. 377. the wte^ 



S E A -• 

XLII. SEAL. Cutting teeth, and two canine teeth in each jaw. 

Five palmated toes on each foot. 
Body thick at the Ihoulders, tapering towards the talL 

470. Common. *axv>. Arifi. hifl. An.lih.\\. t. \z. Op- vl.fg.l. 

plan Halieut. v. 376. KafTigiak. Cran/z hiji. Greenl.'i. 123, 

Vitulus Oceani. ^o«a't7« /■;'/, 453. 458. Phoca vitulina. Ph. capite la;vi inauri- 

Le Veau Marin, ou Loup de Mer. BeUa culato. Lin. f\ft. i;6. 

PoiJJoiis, 25. Sial. Faun. /uec.'H° 4. 

Phoca. Gf/HfrP//f. 830. ^/^orOT. M«/; 289. Le Phoque. De Buffon, xiii. 333. tab. 

KUii quad. 93. BriJJon quad. 162. xlv. Schreber, cxxxiv. 

Seal, Seoile, or Sea Calf; Phoca five SeaL Br.Zool. i. 71, Br. Zool. illujlr. 

Vitulus Marinus. Raiifyn. quad. i8g. xlviii. Lev. Mus. 

Phil, tranf. abriJg. 'vol. x\v'i\, I20. tab. 


with large black eyes : large whifkers : oblong noftrils : flat 
*• head and nofe : tongue forked at the end : two canine teeth 
in each jaw : fix cutting teeth in the upper jaw ; four in the 
lower: no external ears: body covered with thick fliort hair: 
Ihort tail : toes furniflied with ftrong fharp claws : ufual length 
from five to fix feet : color very various, dulky, brinded, or fpot- 
ted with white or yellow. 
Placi. Inhabit inoft quarters of the globe, but in greateft multitudes 

towards tlie North and the South ; fwarm near the Arctic circle, 
and the lower parts of South America*, in both oceans; near the 

* Dampier {;iys, that they are feen by thoufands on the ifle of Juan Feniandex ; 
that the young bleat like lambs ; that none are found in the South Sea, no<-th of 
the equator, till lat. 2 1 j that he never faw any in the //'^ ladies, except in the Bay 
ofCampeachj ; nor yet in the Eajl Indies, i. 88, 8g. 


SEAL. 271 

fouthern end of Terra del Fiiego; and even among the floating ice 
as low as fouth lat. 60. 21 *. Found in the Cafpian-\- Sea, in the 
lake yfr,?/, and lakes J Baikal and Oro;/, which are frefii waters. 
They are lefTer than thofe which frequent fait waters; but fo fat 
that they feem almolT: Ihapelefs. In lake Baikal fome are covered 
with filvery hairs; others are yellowifh, and have a large dark- 
colored mark on the hind part of the back, covering almoft a 
third of the body. 

They are found in the Cafpian fea, in moft amazing multitudes : 
they vary infinitely in their colors : fome are wholly white ; others 
wholly black ; others of a yellowiflii white ; others moufe colored ; 
and others again fpotted like a leopard : they creep out of 
the fea on the ihores, and are killed as faft as they come ; and 
are followed by a vafl: fucceffion of others, who undergo the 
fame fate. It is Angular that the feals of the Cafpian are very tena- 
cious of life; it is well known that the fmalleft blow on the nofe 
kills thofe of Europe. At approach of winter they go up the Jaik, 
and are killed in great numbers on the ice: they are fought for 
the fkins and the oil: numbers are deftroyed by the wolves and 
jackals ; for which reafon the feal-hunters watch moft carefully the 
haunts of the feals in order to drive away their enemies. The feafons 
for hunting the feals are fpring and autumn ||. 

Seals bring two young at a time, which for fome fliort fpace 
are white and woolly ; bring forth in autumn, and fuckle their 
young in caverns, or in rocks, till they are fix or feven weeks old, 

* Cook's voy, i. 34. 

■\ Bell's trai'els, i. 49. 

X The fame, 280. 

II Decouvertes, &c.faites paries RuJfes.W. 36. 410. ed. 





\vhcn they take to Tea: cannot continue long under water; are 
therefore very frequently obliged to rife to take breath, and often 
float on the waves. In fummer, lleep on rocks, or on fand- 
banks: if furprized, precipitate into the fea; or if at any dif- 
tance, fcramble along, and fling up the fand and gravel with great 
force with their hind feet, making a piteous moaning : if over- 
taken, will make a vigorous defence with their feet and teeth : a 
flight blow on the nofe kills them, otherwife they will bear numbers 
of wounds. I imagine that the Cafpian feal-hunters are not ac- 
quainted with the method. 

Swim with vaft ftrength and fwiftnefs; frolic greatly in their 
element, and will fport without fear about Ihips and boats; 
which may have given rife to the fable o{ Sea- nymphs and Sirens. 
Their docility is very great, and their nature gentle : there is an 
inftance of one which was fo far tamed as to anfwer to the call 
of its keeper, crawl out of its tub at command, ftretch at full 
length, and return into the water when direded ; and extend its 
neck to kifs its mafter as often and as long as required *. 

They never go any great diftance from land : feed on all forts 
of fifli : are themfelves good food, and often eaten by voyagers : 
killed for the fake of the oil made from their fat ; a young feal 
will yield eight gallons: their fliins very ufeful in making waift- 
coats, covers for trunks, and other conveniences: thofe of the 
lake Baikal are fold to the Chinefe, who dye, and fell them to the 
Mongalsf to face their fur-coats : are the wealth of the Greenlanders, 
fupplying them with every necefl"ary of life. 

• Dr.Par/hns in Ph. tranf. xlvii. 113, 
f Mu//er'i KuJf.Samlung.ui. ^^g. 



S E A l^ 


Br. Zool. i. p. 122. .-,_ p,j 

Le Phoque a ventre blanc. De BuJJ'an, Supplem. vj, 310. tab. xliv. ' 

Q with the nofe taper and elongated: fore feet furniflied with five 
^* toes, inclofed in a membrane, but very diftind; the claws 
long and ftrait : the hind feet very broad; five diftinct toes, with 
the claws juft extending to the margin of the membrane, which 
expands into the form of a crefcent. 

This I faw at C/vy?tT; it was taken near that city in A^t)' 1766. Placs. 
On the firft capture its fkin was naked, like that of a porpoife ; and 
only the head, and afmall fpot beneath each leg, was hairy. Before 
it died the hair began to grow on other parts : the fore part of the 
head was black, hind part of the head and the throat white; 
beneath each fore leg a fpot of the fame color; hind feet of a 
dirty white ; the reft of the animal of an intenfe black. I believe 
they vary in the difpofition of the colors : that given by M. de 
Buffon had only the belly white. Thefe fpecies, according to that 
great writer, frequent the coaft of the Adriatic : the length of that 
defcribed by M. de Bi'ffon was feven feet and a half; that which I 
faw was very much lefs, and probably a young one. 


Vitulus Maris Mediterranei. Rendel. tuor, palmis indivifis plantisexungui- 4.-2. Mediter- 

Phoca Monachus, capite inauriculato, culatis. Herman. 
dentibus incis : utriufque maxillae qua- 

Q with a fmall head : neck longer than that of the common 

*^* feal : orifices of the ears not larger than a pea : hair fliort 

Vol. II. N n and 

*74 SEA L. 

and rude: color dufky, fpotted with afh-color: above the navef,. 
of the fpecimen defcribed by Mr. Herman, was a tawny fpot : the 
toes on the fore feet furniflied with nails : the hind feet pinniform, 
and without nails. 

When the animal is placed on its back, the fkin of the ncctc 
folds like a monk's hood. 

Size. Length of the fpecimen defcribed by Mr. Herman was eight 

feet feven inches: the greatefi. circumference above five feet. 

Placf. Inhabits the Mediterranean Sea, and as yet not difcovered in 

the ocean. The common, or oceanic fpecies, is probably an in- 
liabitant of the fame fea, for the fpecies defcribed by AriJIotk*^ 
is of that kind ; he minutely defcribes the feet, and attributes to 
the hind, as well as the fore feet, five toes, every one furnifhed 
with nails: that fpecies therefore is the Phoca of the antients^ 
not the kind jufl under conlideration. 

473. Long- Long necked Seal. Grevj't Mufcum, 1^^^ 


C w'ith a flender body : length from the nofe to the fore legs= 
• as great as from the fore legs to the tail : no claws on the 

fore feet, which refemble fins. 

This was preferved in the Mufeiim of the Royal Society. 

Doifior Parfons has givew a figure of it in the xlviiih vol. of 

Fh. Tr. tab. vi. but we are left uninformed of its place. 

* Hijl. an. lil.u. c. I. 



2 7i 

A LLIED to this is another Seal in the fame Mufeum, fenc of ^74. Falklanb 
^ -^ late years from the Falkland ijles: its length is four feet: nhs. 

hair Ihort, cinereous tipped with dirty white. 

Nofe (bort, befet with ftrong black, bridles : fliort, narrow, 
pointed auricles. 

Upper cutting teeth fulcated tranfverfely ; the lower in an 
oppofite diredion : on each fide of the canine teeth, a lefler, or 
fecondary one : grinders conoid, with a fmall procefs on one fide 
near the bafe. 

No claws on the fore feet-, but beneath the fkin evident marks 
of the bones of five toes : the fkin extends far beyond their ends. 
On the toes of the hind legs are four long and ftrait claws j but 
the Ikin ftretches far beyond, which gives them a very pinniform 

This fpecies probably inhabits alfo the feas about Juan Fer- Place, 
mndez; for Don Ulloa* informs us of one kind, which is not 
above a yard long. The fmall Seals inhabit from the Falkland 
Iflands, round Cape Horn, even as far as N(rw Zealand; and are 
feen further from fhore than any other kind. They are very 
fportive, dipping up and down like porpoifes, and go on in a pro- 
greffive courfe like thofe fifh. When they fleep, one fin general- 
ly appears above the water. They perhaps extend as far as the 
Society Iflands, at left the natives have a name for the Seal, 
which they call Hami, 

• Ulloa fays, the firll fpscies of Seal found near that ifle, is not above a yard 
long. ii. 226. 

^f n 2 Tortoife-headed 

2^6 SEA £j» 


475. ToRTOiSBv Tortoife -headed Seal. Fh.Tranf. xlvii. 120. tap. \\. 

with a head like that of a tortoife ; neck flenderer than head 
' or body : feet like thofe of ilie common Seal. 
We are indebted to Doclor Parfons for the account of this 
fpecies, who fays it is found on the fliores of many parts of 


476. Rub BON. Q with very fliort fine glolTy briftly hair, of an uniform color, 
^* almoft black; marked along the fides, and towards the 
head and tail, with a ftripe of a pale yellow color, exadly re- 
fembling a rubbon laid on it by art ; words cannot fufficiently 
convey the idea, the form is therefore engraven on the title of 
Divifion 111. Pinnated ^ladrupeds, from a drawing communicated 
to me by Dodor Pallas, who received it from one of the remotell 
Kuril iflands. 

Its fize is unknown, for Dodor Pallas receiveti only the middle 
part, v;hich had been cut out of a very large fl^in, fo that no 
defcription can be given of head, (ect or tail : a. fliews the part 
fuppofed to be next to the head ; b. that to the tail. 

Obscure Spe- 
cies. Other obfcure fpecies in thofe feas, which are mentioned in 

Steller's MSS. are, I. A middle-fized Seal, elegantly fpeckied in 

all parts: II. One with brown fpots, fcarcer than the reft: III. A 

black fpecies with a peculiar confornution ol the hind legs. 




Phoca Leporina. Leptchin. aB. acad. Pitrop. fan \. 264, tab. viil, jx. ^ij. Le poa r .ve. 

Q with fur, fofr as that of a hare, upright and interwoven j of 
*^* a dirty white color: whifkers long and thick, fo that the 
animal appears bearded: head long: upper lip thick: four cut- 
ting teeth above; the fame below: nails on fore and hind feet. 

Ufual length fix feet and a half; greatefl circumference five ^""^' 
feet two. 

Inhabits the White fea during fummer; afcends and defcends Placet, 
the rivers in queft of prey ; found alfo off Icdandj and from 
Spitjbergen to the Tchutkinofs. 

Sea Calf. Phil. Trar./. 'ix.V4,.tai.v. Utfuk ? Cratitz Greenl. 1, 12J. Schrehir 478. Great, 

Le grand Phoque. De Buffo>!,\n\. 345, Cah i. 43. Lev. Mus. 

Q refembling the common, but grow to the length of twelve *. 
^* feet : that defcribed in the Pkil. TranJ. was feven feet and 
a half long, yet fo young as to have fcarce any teeth; the com^ 
mon Seal is at full growth when it has attained the length of 

Inhabits the coaft of 6'('o//t?«i, and the (out\\ oi Greejiland. The Place. 
Ikin is thick, and is ufed by the Greenlandcrs to cut tliongs out 
of for their Seal fiftiery. Perhaps is the fame with the great 
Kamtfchatkan Seal, called by the Ritffians, Lachtach, weighing 
800 lb. -f, whofe cubs are black. 

* A gentleman of my acquaintance fliot one of that fize in the' north of Scot- 


•f- Mulhr''s Vo)'. Kamtjchatla, Co, 


27S SEAL, 

47<). Rough. Neitfek. Cravlz Cretr.I.'i. 124. Schnher,c\xxxy\. 

C with rough brifily hair, intermixed like that of a hog; of a 
^* pale brown color. 
Placs. Inhabits Greenland: the natives make garments of its fkin, 

turning the hairy fide inraoft. Perhaps what our Newfoundland 
Seal-hunters call Square Pbipper; whofe coat, they fay, is like 
that of a water-dog, and weighs fometii-nes 5001b. 

5o PoRciKE Phoca porcira. Molina Chili. 260. 

Q agreeing in general form with the l/iftne, N° 4S5, but the nofe 
*^' is longer, and rcfembles a hog's fnout; it has alfothe vefliges 
of ears: the feet have five diftinet toes, covered with a common 
Placs. Inhabits the coaft of C/.v7<, but is a rare fpecies. 

481. Eared. Q with conoid head : nofe rather pointed: ears an inch long, very 
• narrow and pointed : whifkers very long and white : forefeet 
pinniform; neither toes nor nails apparent, terminated mem- 
braneoufly : in the hind feet the toes apparent, and each furnilhed 
with its nail J the mtmbrane extends beyond, and then divides 
in o five narrow divifions, correfpondent to each toe; the tail a 




,/uf/-// ,j A/a/ _ 


SEA Lr 2"-^ 

little more than an inch long : the whole body is covered mth 
longifh hair of a whitifh or creme-color: the length from nofe to 
tail is rather more than two feet. 

Inhabits the {lrei;"hts of Magellan. This fpecies is finely preferved Place. 
in Mr. Parkinfon's Mufeum, on the fouchward fide of Black-friars 
Bridge. That gentleman has very properly placed feizing on k 
the Condor vulture, the vaft co-inhabitant of the Magellanic regions. 
Every one knows that Mr. Parkin/on is now pofleflcd of the late 
Sir J/Jjlon Lever's Mufeum; 1 have therefore ftill retained the words 
Lev. Mtrs. to the defcription of every animal contained in that 
matchlefs coHedion. 

Clap-myfs, EgcJe Greeil. S4. Neuferfoak. Cra^ Gretnl.'i. iz^. g tt 

O with a ftrong folded fkin on the forehead, which it can fling 
*^* over its eyes and nofe, to defend them againfl: ftones and 
land in ftormy weather: its hair white, with a thick coat of thick 
black wool under, which makes it appear of a fine grey. 

Inhabits only the fouth of Greenland, and Nnvfoundland: in Px,acb 
the laft is called the Hooded Seal: the hunters f;y they cannot kill 
it till they remove the integumeat on the head. 

Black-l^ded Seal. Egede Greenl. plate \n. Phaca oceanica Krylatca Ruff. Lefechin n jt.bp 

Attarfoak. Cratnz. Greeid. i, 124. Schre- u(l. accd. Petrop. fars i. 259. lab, vi. 
ber, Cah. i. 39. vil. 

Q with a pointed head and thick bo^-ly, of a whitifh grey color, 
marked on the fides with two black crefcents, the horns 


iSo SEAL. 

pointing upwards towards each other ; does not attain this mark 
till the fifth year-, till that period, changes its color annually, 
and is diflinguiihed by the GreenkipJcrs by different names each 
Placi. Inhabits Greenland and Nezi-foimdland, Iceland, the f'FJ.nte Sea, 

and Frozen Ocean, and paffes through the JJiaiic ftrait, as low as 
Kamtfchatka : is the moft valuable kind; the fliin the thickeft 
and beft, and its produce of oil the greateft : grows to the length 
of nine feet. Our Filhers call this the Harp, or Heart Seal, and 
flyle the marks on the fides the faddle. Th.ere is a blackilh va- 
riety, which they fay is a young Harp, called Bedlemer. 

B LifXLE ^'^ petit Phoque. Be Buffcn, iii. 54.1. tab, Yin. Schreher, cxxxv. 

^ "*■ ■ Ltv. Mus. 

Q with the four middle cutting teeth of the upper jaw bifur- 
*^* Gated; the two middle of the lower jaw llightly trifur- 
cated : a rudiment of an ear : the webs of the feet extending far 
beyond the toes and nails: hair foft, fmooth, and longer than in 
the common Seal: color dufky on the head and back; beneath 
brownifh: length two feet four inches. 

Our Seal-hunters affirm, that they often obferve, on the coaft 
of Nezvfoundland, a fmall fpecies, not exceeding two feet, or two 
feet and a half, in length. M. de Bufon fays the fpecimen in the 
cabinet of ihe French king came from India; but from the au- 
thority of Dampler, and of modern voyagers to the Eaji Indies, 
4 who 



'/!/r.>y^/^.' ,Mu/ ' L/.tv 

SEAL. 281 

who have affured me they never faw any Seals * there, I fufpetfl 
he was impofed on. 

Captain Abrahatn Dixon affured me that he faw off the coaft of 
North America, in his voyages of 1785 to 1788, multitudes of fmall 
Seals, not exceeding a foot in length : they were perpetually dip- 
ping and rifing again, but v/ere fo adive that he never could procure 
a fpeciraen. 

Urfus Marinus. Stelkr. Nov. Com. Pe- PhocaUriina. Ph. capite aurlculato. i/«. -s-. Ursine. 

trop.n. I', XV. Jyfi- SS' ^' 

Sea Cat. Hiji. Kamtjchatka, 123. Mul- L'Ours Marin, ^r^n y««</. iSd. Schre- 

ler't Exfed. 59. ber, cx.xxii. 

'nr^HERE are three marine animals, which keep a particular 
■*" fituation, and feera divided between the N. E. of JJm, and 
N. W. of America, in the narrow feas between thofe vaft conti- 
nents. Thefe are v/hat are called the Sea Lion and Sea Bear, 
and the Manati. They inhabit, from June to September, the ifles Place. 
that are fcattered in the feas between Kamtjchatka and America, in 
order to copulate, and bring forth their young in full fecuritj'. 
They never land upon Kamtjchatka. The accurate and indefa- 
tigable naturalift Steller was the firft who gave an exad: defcrip- 
tion of them; he and his companions, in the Rujfian expedi- 
tion of 1742, were in all probability the firft Europeans who gave 

• A gentleman, the mod curious, and greateft navigator of the hdian feas now 
living, informed me, that he not only never met with any Seals in thofe feas, but 
even none nearer than the ifles of Gallopagei, a little north of the line, on the coaft of 

Vot. II. O o them 

282 SEAL. 

them any difturbance in thofe their retreats. In September, thefe 
animals quit their ftations, vaflly emaciated ; fome return to the 
Afiatk, others to \\\.t American fhores ; but, like the Sea Otters, 
are confined in thofe feas betjween lat. 50 and p^^). 

They are not, as far as I can difcover, found from thofe places, 
any where nearer than Neio Zealand*, where they are very com-* 
nion, and again about Staten Landf, the frozen ifland of Nevj. 
Georgial, and the Falkland ii\ands\\. I fufpeft that they are alfo 
found in the ifland of Juan Fernandez ; for, among the Seals fo 
imperfed\ly defcribed by Don Ulloa^, his fecond kind feems to 
be of this fpecies. I may add, that Alexander Selkirk fpeaks of 
Seals which come on fliore in that ifland in November to whelp -|-, 
which nearly correfponds with the time our late circumnavigators 
faw them in New Tear's ijlands, where they found them and their 
young in December. Laftly, I may mention the ifles of Gallopagosy 
where Captain PFoodes Rogers fays he was attacked by a fierce 
Seal, as big as a bear, and with difficulty efcaped with his life**. 
The U>fwe Seal, a name we fubftitute for the fea-bear, leads, 
during the three months in fummer, a moft indolent life : it ar- 
rives at the iflands vaftly fat; but during that time they are fcarce 
ever in motion : confine themfelves for whole weeks to one fpot, 
fleep a great part of the time, eat nothing, and, except the em- 
ployment the females have in fuckling their young, are totally 
inaftive. They live in families; each male has from eight to fifty 
females, whom he guards with the jealoufy of an eaflern monarchy 
and though they lie by thoufands on the fhores, each family 

* Forfter^s ohf. i8g. t Cook's nioy, ii. 205. J Cook's way, ii. 21 J. 

Forjier's 'voy. ii. 529. || Perntiti, Engl. ed. 187. tah. xvi. § Voy. ii. 226, 

4- In IVoodes Rogers's voy^ 1 36. ** The fame, 265. 

4 keeps 

SEAL. 283 

keeps itfelf feparate from the reft, and fometimes, 'vvith the 
young and unmarried ones, amount to a hundred and twenty. 
The old animals, which are deftitute of females, or deferted by 
them, live apart, and are exceffively fplenetic, peevifh, and quar- 
relfome : are exceffively fierce, and fo attached to their old 
haunts, that they would die fooner than quit them. They arc 
monftroufly fat, and have a moft hircine fmell. If another ap- 
proaches their ftation, they are rouzed from their indolence, and 
inftantly fnap at it, and a battle enfues; in the conflift, they per- 
haps intrude on the feat of another: this gives new caufe of of- 
fence, fo in the end the difcord becomes univerfal, and is fpread 
thro' the whole (hore. 

The other males are alfo very irafcible : the caufes of their dif- 
putes are generally thcfe: — The firll: and the moft terrible is, when 
an atrempt is made by another to feduce one of their miftrefles, 
or a young female of the family. This infult produces a com- 
bat, and the conqueror is immediately followed by the whole fe- 
raglio, who are fure of deferting the unhappy vanquifhed. The 
fecond reafon of a quarrel is, when one invades the feat of ano- 
ther. The third arifes from their interfering in the difputes of 
others. Thefe battles are very violent ; the wounds they receive 
are very deep, and refemble the cuts of a fabre. At the end of 
a fight they fling themfelves into the fea, to wafli away the 

The males are very fond of their young; but very tyrannical 
towards the females: if any body attempts to take their cub, 
the male ftands on the defenfive, while the female makes off with 
the young in her mouth ; fhould (he drop It, the former inftantly 
quits his enemy, falls on her, and beats her againft the ftones, 

O o 2 till 

184. SEA L. 

till he leaves her for dead. As foon as fhe recovers, fhe comes 
in the mod fuppliant manner to the male, crawls lo his feet, and 
walhes them with her tears: he, in the mean time, ftalks about 
in the moft infulting manner ; but in cafe the young one is car- 
ried off, he melts into the deepeft affliftion, and Ihews all figns 
of deep concern. It is probable that he feels his misfortune the 
more fenlibly, as the female generally brings but one at a timcj 
never more than two. Even the cubs of thofe on the ifland of 
New Georgia* are very fierce, barking at our failors as they 
pafled by, and biting at their legs. The breeding-time in this 
ifland is in the beginning oi January. 

They fwim very fwiftl)^, at the rate of feven miles an hour. If 
•wounded, will feize on the boat, and carry it along with vaft 
impetuofity, and oftentimes fink it. They can continue a long 
time under water. When they want to climb the rocks, they 
fallen with the fore paws, and fo draw themfelves i>p. They are 
very tenacious of life, and will live for a fortnight after receiving, 
fuch wounds as would immediately defl;roy any other animal. 
Descriptio!?. The male of this fpecies is vaPJy fuperior in fize to the fe- 

male. The bodies of each are of a conic form, very thick be- 
fore, and taper to the tail. The length of a large one is eighc 
feet; the greateft circumference five feetj near the tail, twenty 
inches. The weight 8co lb. The nofe projecls like that of a 
pug dog, but the head rifes fuddenly : noftrils oval, and divided 
by a feptum : the lips thick ; their infide red and ferrated ; 
whifkers long and white. 

The teeth lock into each other when the mouth is doled. In 

Ferfier'j nioy. ii. 516. 529. 


SEAL. 28? 

the upper jaw are four cutting teeth, ench bifurcated ; on both 
fides is a fmall iharp canine tooth bending inwards; near thac 
another, larger: the grinders refemble canine teeth, and are fix 
in number in each jaw : in the lower jaw are alfo four cutting- 
teeth and two canine: but only four grinders in each jaw : in 
all, thirty-fix teeth. 

Tongue bifid : eyes large and pro:ninent : iris black : pupil 
fmaragdine: the eyes may be covered at pleafure with a flefby 
membrane : the ears are fmall, fharp-pointed ; hairy without, 
IJTiooth and polifhed within. 

The length of the fore-legs is twenty-four inches^ like thofe 
of other quadrupeds, not immerfed in the body like thofe of 
Seals: the feet are formed with toes, as thofe of other animals, 
but are covered with a naked ikin, fo that externally they feeni a 
fhapelefs mafs, and have only the rudiments of nails to five la- 
tent toes : the hind legs are twenty-two inches long, are fixed to 
the body quite behind, like thofe of Seals, but are capable of be- 
ing brought forward, fo that the animal uiakes ufe of them to 
fcratch its head : thefe feet are divided into five toes, each di^ 
vided by a great web, and are a foot broad : the tail is only two 
inches long. 

The hair is long and rough ; beneath which is a foft down, of 
a bay-color: on the neck of the old males the hair is erecl, and 
a little longer than the reft. The general color of thefe animals 
is black, but the hairs of the old ones are tipt with grey. The 
females are cinereous. The flvins of the young, cut out of the 
bellies of their dams, are very ufeful for cloathing, and coft about 
3 s. 4d. each ; the Ikin of an old one, 4 s. 

The fat and flefh of the old males is very naufeous ; but the 


2Sb SEA L. 

flefh of the females refeiiibles lamb j and the young ones roafted 
are as good as fucking-pigs. 

i86. Bottle- Sea Lion. Datnpier''s i'»t'. i. 90. iv. ij. Le Lion Marin. BriJJhv. quail. 167. De 
f;os£. Rogers's 'voy.116. ^n/en's <vty. 122. Bhffon, xm. 351. .SV/6'r^t''-, cxxxiii. 

Phoca Leonina. Ph. capite andce cri- Le Lame. Phoca elephaiitina, Molina 
llato. Lin./yjl. 55. C^7/. 261. 

Q (/i?^ male) with a projeding fnout, hanging five or fix 
inches below the lower jaw : the upper part confifts of a 
loofe wrinkled fkin, which the animal, when angry, has the 
power of blowing up, fo as to give the nofe an hooked or arched 
appearance : the feet fliort and duflcy ; five toes on each, fur- 
niflied with nails : the hind feet have the appearance of great 
laciniated fins: large eyes: great whiikers : hair on the body 
■fliort, and of a dun color; that on the neck a little longer: the 

Size. fkin very thick. Length of an old male twenty feet; greateft cir- 
cumference, fifteen. 

Female. Nofe blunt, tuberous at the top : noftrils wide: mouth 
breaking very little into the jaws ; two fmall cutting teeth be- 
low, two fmall and two larger above; two canine teeth, remote 
from the preceding; five grinders in each jaw; all the teeth 
conic : eyes oblique and fmall : auricles none : fore legs twenty 
inches long: toes furniihed with fiat oblong nails: hind parts, 
inftead of legs, divided into two great bifurcated fins: no tail: 

Size. the whole covered with Ihort rufl-colored hair. Length, from nofe 
to the end of the fins, four yards : greateft circumference two 
yards and a half*. 

* Defcribed from a well-preferved fpecimen in the Mufcum of the Royal 
Society. I his is the animal called by Dr. /"ar/sw;, a JVtoa//. 


SEAL. 2S7 

Inhabits the Teas about Nezv Zealand*, the ifland of Juan Fey' Place. 

tiiiHifezf and the Falkland ijla/tds'l, and that of Neza Georgia \\y 
S. bt. 54 — 40. Are feen in great numbers, in yune and July, the 
brceding-feafon, on the ifland of Jura Fernandez, which they refort 
to for the purpofe of fuckhng their young on fhore, and continue 
there till September. They bring two at a time. The female, during 
that feafon, is very fierce : one of Lord Anfon'i iailors was killed by 
the enraged dam of a whelp, which he had robbed her of. The male 
fliews little attachment to its young, but the female is excef- 
fively fond of it: the former will fuffer it to be killed before his 
face without (hewing any refentment. Towards evening, both 
male and female fwim a little way to (ta., the lafl: with the young 
on its back, which the male will piifla off, as if to teach it to 

They arrive on the breeding-iflands very fat and full of blood : 
when they are in motion, they feem like a great fkin full of oil, from 
the tremulous movement of the blubber, which has been found 
to be a foot thick. The Spaniards very properly call thefe, and the 
Urigne lobos de Aceyte, or oil wolves, from their looking like a fkin 
full of oil, from the motion of the vafl quantity of fat or blubber, 
of which their bodies confift§. One has been known to yield a butt 
of oil; and fo full of blood, that what has run out of a fingle 
animal 4- has filled two hogfiieads. The flefi-i is eatable: Lord 
Anfons people eat it under the denomination of beef, to diftinguifli 
it from that of Seal, which they called lamb. 

* For/ler's ohf. 190. f Jifon^s voy. 122. J Pemellt 202» 

II Cook's I'ny. ii. 2:3. For/ler's voj. 527. § VHoa's fq. n. 227. 

4 Aiifan's I'oy. 123. 


2S8 SEA L. 

Tlie old animals have a tremendous appearance, yet arc ex- 
ceffively timid, except at the breeding-feafon, when they feem 
to lofe their apprehenfions, and are lefs difturbed at the fight of 
man. At other times, they hurry into the water; or, if awakened 
out of their lleep by a loud noife, or blows, fall into vaft con- 
fufion, tumble down, and tremble in every part, thro' fear. 

Thcfe animals aflbciate in families, like the former, but not in 
fuch great numbers: the males flievv equal jealoufy about their 
miftrell'es, and have bloody combats on their accounts: oft-times 
there is one of fuperior courage to the reft, and procures by dint 
of valour a greater number of females than others. They arc 
of a very lethargic nature, fond of wallowing in miry places, and 
will lie like fwine on one another: they grunt like thofe animals, 
and will fometimes fnort like horfes in full vigor. They are very 
inactive on land : to prevent furprize, each herd places a centi- 
nel, who gives certain fignals at appearance of danger : during 
the breeding-feafon, they abftain from food, and before that is 
elapfed become very lean ; at other times they feed on fifh and 
the fmaller Seals. 

a87 Leonine. 2e![l:i lAzrlvti, Kurillh, Kamf/chaJ^iUs et Sea Lion, Cock's ivy. i\. 20^. Ferjtr's 

^ ' R!,j/]..,Kunl/icoT\omineSiwutichzdi&d. i»r. ii. 513. Femetti't 'uoy. Zi^o. tab. 

Kov. Com. Pet'Op. ii. 360. xvi. 
Phora Leonina. Mtlma Chili. 162. 

Swith a Ihort nofe turning a little up: great head : eyes large : 
• vvhiikers long and thick, and ftrong enough to ferve for 
pick-tooths: on the neck and Ihoulders of the male is a great 



/fo/uz/f . Oaf _ 



mane of coarfe, long, waving hair, not unlike the Hiaggy ap- 
pearance of a lion : the reft of the body covered with a very 
Ihort, fmooth, and glofTy coat. The vifhole color is a deep brown: 
thofe of the Kamtfchatkan iflands are reddifh ; the females tawny. 

The fore feet are like thofc of the Urjine Seal, refembling a flat 
fin, formed of a black coriaceous fubftance, without the left external 
appearance of toes, as nioft erroneoufly reprefented by Pernetti: 
the hind feet are very broad, furnidied with very fmall nails, 
with a narrow ftripe of membrane extending far beyond each : tail 
very (liort: hind parts vaflly large, fvvelling out with the vaft 
quantity of fat. 

The old males are from ten to fourteen feet long, and of Size. 
great circumference about the fhouldersj they weigh from twelve 
to fifteen hundred pounds : the females are from fix to eight 
feet in length, of a more flender form than the males, and arc 
quite fmooth. 

Penroje and Pernetti afcribe a much greater fize to thofe of the 
Falkland ifles. The former fays, that fome of the males are 
twenty-fix feet long*; and the latter affirms that their length is 
twenty-five feet, and their girth round the (boulders from nine- 
teen to twenty f. 

They inhabit in vaft numbers Phignhi and Seal ifiands, near Place. 
Cape Dejire, on the coaft of Patagonia % ; are found within the 
ftraits oi Magellan, and on Falkland ijles: they have not yet been 
difcovered in any other part of the fouthern hemifphere, or in 
any other place nearer than the fea between Kamtfchatka and 
America. The inhabitants of Chili call them 1'bapcl lame, or the 
Seal with 3. mane. 

i* Exped. Falkland IJJa, iZ. \ Foj. Maltuinei, 2J^o. J iVar^^wa^-J, 31. 

Vot, II. P p They 

290 SEA L. 

Manners. They live in families feparate from the U^ and other Seals: 

thefe poflefs the beach nearefl to the fea: they have much of the 
lethargic nature of the former; and, like them, are polygamous : 
they have from two to thirty females apiece : they have a fierce 
look ; the old ones fnort and roar like enraged bulls ; but on the 
approach of mankind, fly with great precipitation : the females 
make a noife like calves: the young bleat like lambs. 

The old males He apart, and poflefs fome large ftone, which no 
other dare approach ; if they do, a dreadful combat enfues, and 
the marks of their rage appear in the deep gafhes on various 
parts of their bodies. The males frequently go into the water, 
take a large circuit-, land, and carefs their females with great af- 
fedlion ; put fnout to fnout as if they were kifling one another. 
The females, on feeing their male deflroyed, will fometimes at- 
tempt to carry away a cub in their mouth, but oftener defert 
them through fear. 

The food of thefe animals is the lefler Seals, Pinguins, and fifhj. 
but while they are afhore they keep, in the breeding-time, a faft 
of three or four months; but to keep their ftomachs diftended, 
■will fwallow a number of large flones, each as big as two filts. 

488. Uricne* L'Utigne. Phoca lupina. Molina Chili, 255. 

C with the body very thick at the fhoulders, gradually leflening 
*^* to the hind legs : head Tike a dog, with the ears clofe cut : 
nofe fliort and blunt : upper lip cunihneated : fix cutting teeth 
above; four below: fore foot has four toes inclofed in a mem- 
branous (lieath, fo as to refemble fins : the hind feet are hid in a 


SEAL. 291 

continuation of the ikin of the back, and have five toes of unequal 
length, like thofe of the human hand : tail three inches long : the 
fkin is covered with two forts of hairs, one like that of an ox, the 
other more hard : the colors various : length from three to eight 

Thefe are the Sea wolves which navigators fpeak of off the Placi; 
Ifland oiLobos, near the river Plata. They appear in vaft multitudes, 
meet the Chips, and will even hang by the fides with their paws, 
and feem to ftare at and admire the crew : then drop off and return 
to their haunts*. They fwim with incredible fwiftnefs. The na- 
tives of Chili kill them for the fkins, and for the oil. 

» Father Cattaim's firft Lettsr in the miffioni of Paraguay, p. 127, 

P p 3 Pinnjform 

392 M A N A T I. 

XLIII. Plnniform fore-legs : hind parts ending in a tall, horizon- 

MAN ATI. tajiy fl,jf^ -p^yQ jg^jg between the legs. 

489. Whale- Manati. Riiferum Morikuia Korowa. De Buffon, Supplem. \'\. i<^^. 

TAILED. Stellex in Xo'v. Cam. Peirof. ii. 294. Trichecus Borealis. Gm. Li/i. 1. 61. ^^ 

Schreter, 11. C)^. Hiji. Kamtjcbatka, I32. 

'"T^HIS animal in nature fo nearly approaches the cetaceous 
"^ tribe, that it is merely in conform.ity to the fyftematic 
writers, that I continue it in this clafs : it fcarce deferves the 
name of a biped ; what are called feet are little more than pec- 
toral fins ; they ferve only for fvvimming ; they are never ufed to 
affifl: the animal in walking, or landing; for it never goes afhore, 
-nor 6ver attempts to climb the rocks, like the IFalrus and Seal. It 
brings forth in the water, and, like the whale, fuckles its young 
in that element : like the whale, it has no voice; and, like that 
animal, has an horizontal broad tail in form of a crefcent, without 
even the rudiments of hind feet. 
Place. Inhabits the feas about Bering's and the other Jkutian iflands, 

which intervene between Kamtfchatka and America, but never ap- 
pears 0^ Kamtfchatka, unlefs blown alhore by a tempeft. Is pro- 
bably the fame fpecies which is found above Mindanao * ; but is 
certainly that v,'hich inhabits near Rodriguez, vulgarly called 
Diego Rejs, an ifland to the eafl: of Mauritius, or the ifle of 

Dempier'tvoy, j. 321. 


M A N A T I. 


France, near which it is likewile found *: Sir Jofeph Banks favored 
me with the fketch of one drawn off this ifland in 1761, by Uliih 
Mole, of the Norfolk man of war* It is Hkely that this fpecies 
extends to Nezv Holland, where Bampier fays he has feen it -f-. 

They live perpetually In the water, and frequent the edges of Manners. 
the fiiores; and in calm weather fwim in great droves near the 
mouths of rivers; in the time of flood they come fo near the 
land that a perfon may llroke them with his hand: if hurt, they 
r?,':ai our- -to the fea: but prefcntly return again. They live 
in families, one near another ; each confiils of a male, a female, 
a half-grown young one, and a very fmall one. The females 
oblige the young to fwim before them, while the other old ones 
furround, and, as it were, guard them on all fides. The af- 
feftion between the male and female is very great ; for if flie 
is attacked, he will defend her to th'^ utmoft, and if fhe is 
killed, will follow her corpfe to the very fliore, and fv/im for fome 
days near the place it has been landed at. 

They copulate in the fpring, in the fame manner as the 
human kind, efpecially in calm weather, towards the evening. 
The female fwims gently about; the male purfues, till, tired 
with wantoning, flie flings herfelf on her back, and admits his 
embraces J. Steller thinks they go with young above a year : ic 
is certain that they bring but one young at a time, which they 
fuckle by two teats placed between the breafl:. 

They are vaftly voracious and gluttonous, and feed not only 
on the fuel that grow in the fea, but fuch as. are flung on the 

* laCaille, 229. f Voy. i. 33. 

X The Leonine and Urjiae Seals copulate in the fame manner, only, after fpoiting 
h\ the fea for fome time, they come on fhore for that purpofe. 


294 M A N A T I. 

edges of the fliore. When they are filled, they fall afleep on their 
backs. During their meals, they a.e fo intent on their food, 
that any one may go among them and chufe which he likes 

Their back and their fides are generally above water; and as 
their Ikin is filled with a fpecies of loufe peculiar to thtm, 
numbers of gulls are continvially perchiiig on their backs and 
picking out the infefts. 

They continue in the Kamtfchatkan and Amenam feas'the whole 
year ; but in winter are very lean, fo that you may count their ribs. 
They are taken by harpoons faftened to a flrong cord, and after 
they are ftruck it requires the united force of thirty m.en to draw 
them on (bore. Sometimes, when they are transfixed, they will lay 
hold of the rocks with their paws, and ftick fo faft as to leave the 
fkin behind before they can be forced off. When a Manati is 
ftruck, its companions fwim to its afliftance; fome will attempt 
to overturn the boat, by getting under it ; others will prcfs down 
the rope, in order to break it ; and others will ftrike at the har- 
poon with their tails, with a view of getting it out, which they 
often fucceed in. They have not any voice, but make a noife 
by hard breathing, like the fnorting of a horfe. 
Dbscriptiok. They arc of an enormous fize: fome are 28 feet long, and 

Sooo lb. in weight ; but if the Mindanao fpecies is the fame with 
this, it decreafes greatly in fize as it advances fouthward, for 
the largeft which Dampier faw there, weighed only fix hundred 
pounds *. The head, in proportion to the bulk of the animal, 

* Dampier, i. 321, Voyagers are requefted to obferve, whether there are not the 
two fpecies about this and the other iflands of the Indian ocean. 


M A N A T I. 295 

IS fmall, oblong and almoft fquare : the noftrils are filled with 
(hort briftles : the gape, or ri8i(s, is fmall ; the lips are double: 
near the jun6t:ion of the two jaws the mouth is full of white tu- 
bular briftles, which ferve the fame ufe as the laminae in whales, 
to prevent the food running out with the water : the lips are alfo 
full of briftles, which ferve inftead of teeth to cut the ftrong roots 
of the fea-plants, which floating afhore are a fign of the vicinity 
of thefe animals. In the mouth are no teeth, only two flat white 
bones, one each i?.w; one above, another below, with undu- 
lated furfaces, which ferve inftead of grinders. 

The eyes are extremely fmall, not larger than thofe of a flieep : 
the iris black: it is deftitute of ears, having only two orifices, fo 
minute that a quill will fcarcely enter them: the tongue is point- 
ed, and fmall: the neck is thick, and its junflion with the head 
fcarce diftinguift^able; and the laft always hangs down. The cir- Sizr. 
cumference of the body near the fhoulders is twelve feet ; about the 
belly twenty; near the tail only four feet eight : the head thirty- 
one inches : the neck near feven feet: and from thefe meafure- 
ments may be coUefled the deformity of this animal. Mear the 
{boulders are two feet, or rather fins, which are only two feet two 
inches long,- and have neither fingers nor nails ; beneath are con- 
cave, and covered with hard briftles : the tail is thick, ftrong, Tail^ 
and horizontal, ending in a ftifF black fin, and like the fubftance 
of whalebone, and much fplit in the fore part, and flightly fork- 
ed ; but both ends are of equal lengths, like that of a whale. 

The fkin is very thick, black, and full of inequalities, like the 
bark of oak, and fo bard as fcarcely to be cut with an ax, and has 
no hair on it : beneath the fkin is a thick blubber, which taftes 
like oil of almonds. The flefli is coarfer than beef, and will not, 


296 M A N A T !. 

foot! putrify. The young ones tafte like veal. The fkin ufed 
for fhoes, and for covering the fides of boats. 

The RuJJians call this animal Morjkaia koroiva, or Sea-cow; and 
Kapujinik, or Eater of herbs. 

490. Round- Ma»/i>i''j SiiiegaL z^g. Lxv.Mvs. 



with thick lips: eyes as minute as a pea: two very fmall 
orifices in the place of ears : in each jaw are nine grinding 
teeth ; in all thirty fix : neck fliort, and thicker than the head ; the 
greateft thicknefs of the body is about the flioulders, from which it 
grows gradually fmaller to the tail : the tail lies horizontally, is 
broad, and thickeft in the middle, growing thinner to the edges, 
and quite round. 

The feet are placed at the flioulders: beneath the fkins are 
bones for five complete toes, and externally are three or four 
nails f^at and rounded: near the bafe of each leg, in the fe- 
male, is a fmall teat. 

The fkin is very thick and hard, having a few hairs fcattered 
over it. 
Size. The length of the fpecimen in the Lever i an Museum is fix 

feet and a half-,- the greateft circumference, three feet eight 
inches ; that near the tail, two feet two. This was taken near the 
Marigot of Kantai, in the river Senegal: they grow to the length of 
fourteen or fifteen feet : they are very fat, and both fat and lean 
referable veal : but the fat adheres to the fkin, in form of blubber: 
the negroes take them by harpooning, and fell them at the rate of 


M A N A T L 297 

two long bars of iron apiece. The feafon is only in the months of 
December and January. Manati are found in nioft of the African 
rivers to the fouth of the Niger, and poffibly to thofe on the eaftern 
coaft. The woman-fifli taken off the \{[tsBo(icas, to the fouth of the 
river Czwww, is feemingly of tiiis fpecles, notwithftanding the pious 
defcriber. Father Jonanes dos Sancios, furniflies it with four tremen- 
dous tuflies *. 

De Buffon, xiii. 425. tab. Ivil. Rali fyn. Trichechus Manatus. Lin. fyji. 49. GuiAN 

quad. 193, • ^c/^Tf^^r, tab. Ixxx. "*" * *' 

T\/r with a head hanging downward ; the feet furniQied with five 
■^"-'■' toes : body alraoft to the tail of an uniform thicknefsj near 
its jundion with that part grows fuddenly thin: tail flat, and in 
form ofajpadda; thickeft in the middle, growing thinner towards 
the edges. 

Inhabits the rivers and fea of Guiana : it grows to the length of 
fixteen or eighteen feet : is covered with a dufky fkin with a few 
hairs f. Thofe meafured by Dampier were ten or twelve feet 
long: their tail twenty inches in length; fourteen in breadth; 
four or five thick in the middle; two at the edges: the largeffc 
(according to the fame voyager) weighed twelve hundred 
pounds. But they arrive at far greater magnitude : Clujius examin- 
ed one which was fixteen feet and a half long; and Gomora fpeaks 
of them as fometimes of the length of twenty feet. 

* Piirchas. u. 1446, + Bancroft's Guiana, 186. 

Vol. II. Q^q CLUSIUS, 

298 M A N A T I. 

492. Manati /^LUSIUS, inhisExotics, p. i32,givesaprintanddercr*iptionofa 
I. V> ]\^jiaii brought from me If'e/l Indies : bur neither one or the other 
enables us to define the fpecies. He ra3's that it had fhort nails and 
broad feet ; and that the tail was broad and fhapelefs. Till we are 
better informed we fliall fuppofe it to be the fame with the Guiana. 
M. de Buffoit, in his Supplement, vi. 396, makes it a diftind 
fpecies, under the i\\\e oi Le grand Lamantia des Antilles. 

493. Oronoko. '"T^HIS is the fpecies to which M. de Buffon has in his Supplement, 
■*■ p. 400, given the name oi Le petit Lamantia deUAmerique, andfays 
it is found in the Oronoko, Oyapoc, and the rivers oi Amazons. This 
pufhes its way to the amazing diftance we have mentioned. By the 
defcription Gumilla has given of the tail, it is circular *, and proba- 
bly muft be referred to this fpecies. I do not underftand why 
M. de Bufon calls it Le petit, for it grows to a vaft fize. Father 
Gumilla had one taken in a diftant lake, near the Oronoko, which 
was fo laige that twenty-feven men could not draw it out of the 
water : on cutting it open, he found two young ones, which 
weighed twenty-five pounds apiece. 

We fufpeft that the Manati of the Ama>zons, &c. never vifit the 
fea, but are perpetually refident in the frefh waters. 
Place. Thefe animals abound in certain parts of the eaftern coafts 

and rivers of South America, about the Bay of Honduras, fome 
of the greater Aitilles-f, the rivers of Oronoque'^, and the 
lakes formed by it ; and laftly, in that of the Amazons, and the 

* Gumilla, 54. f Dampier, 1, jj. J Gumilla, ii. 43. 


M A N A T I. 

Gttallaga, the Pajafa, and mofl: of the others which fall into that 
vaft river : they are found even a thoufand leagues from its 
mouth, and feem to be ftopt from making even an higher ad- 
vance, only by the great cacaradV, the Pofi^o of Borja*. They 
fometimes Hve in the fea, and often near the mouth of forac 
river, into which they come once or twice in twenty-four hours, 
for the fake of brouzing on the marine plants which grow within 
their reach : they altogether delight more in brackifh or fweet 
water, than in the fait ; and in Ihallow water near low land, and 
in places fecure from furges, and where the tides run gently f. 
It is faid, that at times they frolick and leap to great heights out 
, of the water j'. Their ufes were very confiderable to the priva- 
teers or buccaneers in the time of Dampier. Their flefli and fat 
are whice, very fwect and falubrious ; and the tail of a young fe- 
male was particularly efteemed. A fuckling was held to be moft 
delicious, and eaten roafted, as were great pieces cut out of the 
belly of the old animals. 

The fkin cut out of the belly (for that of the back was too 
thick) was in great requeft for the purpole of fattening to the 
iides of canoes, and forming a place for the infertion of the oars^ 
The thicker part of the ikin, cut frelh into lengths of two or three 
feet, ferves for whips, and become, when dried, as tough as 

In the head, it was pretended that there were certain ftones, or 
bones of great value, on account of their virtues in curing the 
gravel and colic {|, 

• Condamine, 77. f Dumpier, i. 34. J Gumilla, li. 55. 

11 Cluf.i Exot. 233. Monardui fimp. Met), 326. 

Q,q 2 They 


300 M A N A T I. 

They are taken by an harpoon ftuck in the end of a ftaff, 
which the Indians ufe with great dexterity. They go in a fmali 
canoe with the utmoft filence, as the animal is very quick of 
hearing. The harpoon is loofe, but fail:ened to a cord of fome 
fathoms in length; for as foon as the Aianati is ftruck, it fwims 
away witii the barb infixed in its body, attended by the canoe, 
till fpent with pain and fatigue : in fome places the Icfler are 
taken in nets. If a female, which has a young one, is ftruck, ihe 
takes it under its fins or feet, if not too large, and ihews, even 
in extremity, the greateft affedion for its offspring ; which makes 
an equal return, never forfaking the captured parent, but is al- 
ways a fure prey to the harpooner *. 

The Indians of the Maragnon, or the river of Amazons, take 
them by the means of intoxicating herbs, or by (hooting them %vith 
ihofe poifoned arrows -f, whofe left touch is fatal, yet imparts 
no degree of venom to the thing ftricken, whofe flelli is eaten 
with the utmoft fafety J. 

At the time the waters of the Oronoqiie (which annually over- 
flow the banks) begin to return into the bed of the river, the 
hdians make dams acrofs the mouths of the fliallow lakes formed 
by the floods, and in that manner take vaft numbers of Mamii, 
or Pexi-buey, or Fifl>cczus, as the Spaniards call them, together 
with tortoifes, and variety of fifh 1|. 

I conclude this account with the extraordinary hiftory of a 
tame Manati, preferved by a certain prince of Eifpaniola, at the 
time of the arrival of the Spaniards, in a lake adjoining to his re- 

^ /)««//>/-, i. 3-. -t- U'/oa,!. 4.12, Gumilla,\i. \6. % Condamin^s 

Trav. 34. Ph. Tr. xK'ii. 8i. Gumilla, ii. 43. 

4- " fidence. 

M A N A T I. 301 

fidence. It was, on account of its gentle nature, called in the 
language of the country Malum. It would appear as ibon as it 
was called by any of its familiars •, for it hated the Spa/Udrds, on 
account of an injury it had received from one of thefe adventurers. 
The fable of Jrion was here realifed. It would offer itfeif to the 
Indian favorites, and carry over the lake ten at a time, finging and 
playing on its back; one youth it was particularly enamoured 
with, which reminds me of the claffical parallel in the Dolphin 
of Hippo, (o beautifully related by the younger Pliny. The fates 
of the two animals were very different; Malum elcaped to its 
native waters, by means of a violent flood ; the Hipponcnjian fifh 
fell a facrifice to the poverty of the retired Colonifls*. 

T^yTR. Steller favv on the coafl of America \ another very fingular 494. Sea Ape. 

^^^ animal, which he calls a Sea Ape; it was five feet long: the 

head like a dog's: ears fliarp and ereft: eyes large; on both 

lips a fort of beard : the form of its body thick and round, 

thickeft near the head, tapering to the tail, which was bifurcat- ^ 

ed, the upper lobe the longeft : the body covered with thick 

hair, grey on the back, red on the belly. Steller could difco- 

ver neither feet nor paws. It was full of frolick, and played a 

* See both relations ; the firft in Peler Martyr's Daatles of the Indies, Dec. iii. 
book 8; the other in lib. ix. epill. 33, ai Pliny. The elder Pliny alfo relates the 
fame ftory, lib. ix. c. 8. 

t The Beluga, which I placed here in my former edition, from the mifrepre- 
fentation of other writers, is an animal of the cetaceous tribe, called by the 
Germans, Wifjiph. ie& Pallas Itin. iii. 84, tab. iv. s.n'^ Craiitx, Greenland, i. 114. 



M A N A T I. 

tlioufand monkey tricks; fometimes fwimming on one fide, fome- 
times on the other fide of the fliip, looking at it with great 
amazement. It would come fo near the fhip, that it might be 
touched with a pole; but if any body ftirred, would immediately 
retire. It often raifed one-third of its body above the water, and 
flood ereft for a confiderable time; then fuddenly darted under the 
fhip, and appeared in the fame attitude on the other fide; and 
would repeat this for thirty times together. It would frequently 
bring up a fea-plant, not unlike the bottle gourd, which it would 
tofs about, and catch again in its mouthy playing numberlefs fan- 
taftic tricks with it. 

D 1 V. 

D I V. IV. 




D I V. IV. Winged Quadrupeds : 

XLIV. BAT. With long extended toes to the fore feet, conncdled by thin 

broad membranes, extending to the hind legs. 

* Without Tails. 

rr- ^„ Vefpertilio ingens. C/a/'. exol. Qd.. x. cc. /a^. xiv. xvii*. Schreher, 185. 

^^^ Cariis volans ternatanus onentahs. >eb. tab. xliv. 

Ml'/, i. 91. tab. Ivii. Pteropus rufus aut niger auriculis brevi- 

Vefpertilio Vampyrus. V. ecaudatus, hai s.i:avmk\i\\s. Brijfon quad, 153, & 

nafo firaplici, membrana inter femora 154. A'a. 2. Shavj Spec. Lin. \m. 

divifa. Lhi./yjh^b. Great B:it. EJ^m. 180. Br.Mu/.AJb. 

La Kouffette & la Rougette. De Bujon, Muf. Lev. Mus. 

The Rousette. -pj with large canine teeth: four cutting teeth above, the fame 
^* below: fliarp black nofe: large naked ears: the tongue is 
pointed, terminated by fharp aculeated papilU : exterior toe de- 
tached from the membrane : the claw ftrong, and hooked : five 
toes on the bind feet : talons very crooked, ftrong, and com- 
preffed fideways : no tail : the membrane divided behind quite 
to the rump : head of a dark ferruginous color : on the neck, 
flioulders, and under fide, of a much lighter and brighter red : 
on the back the hair fi^orter, dufky, and fmooth : the membranes 
of the wings dufky : varies in color ; fome entirely of a reddifli 
brown; others dufky. This now defcribed was one foot lone: 
its extent from tip to tip of the wings four feet ; but they are 
• found vaftly larger. 

• The Hiflory of thefe bats has been greatly elucidated by M. De la Nux, who 
refided fifty years in the Ijle de Bourbon, where they are found. See M. de BuJon, 
Suppl. iii. 253. 



■ y,/-,/,//^ Ma^ . /' 

B A r. S°5 

This fpecics is not gregarious, yet they are found in numbers on 
the fame tree, by accidentally meeting there in fearcli of food r 
they fly by day, and are feen arriving one by one to the fpot 
which furnilhes fubfiftence. If by any accident they are frighted, 
they will then quit the tree in numbers, and thus fortuitoufly 
form a flock. It is different with the other fpecies. 

The Rougette*, or Bat, with the fame kind of teeth as the The Roucette. 
other, and the fhape of head and body the fame : the whole body 
and head cinereous, mixed with fome black ; but on the neck is 
a great bed of lively orange, or red. 

The fize is much lefs; the extent of wings being little more Sizk. 
than two feet. 

They are both inhabitants of the fame countries, agree in their 
food, but differ in fome of their manners, which I Qiall diftinguifli 
in the following hiftory of them. 

Thefe monfters inhabit Guinea, Madagajcar, and all the iflands Place. 
from thence to the remotefl: in the Indian ocean. They are found 
again in Nezv Holland f, the Friendly ijlands, the Nezv HebrideSt 
and New Caledonia %. The Rougettes fly in flocks, and perfedlly 
obfciire the air with their numbers: they begin their flight from 
one neighboring iiland to another immediately on fun-fet, and 
return in clouds from the time it is light till fun-rife ||, and lodge 
•during day in hollow trees : both live on fruits ; and are fo fond 
of the juice of the palm-tree, that they will intoxicate themfelves 
with it lill they drop on the ground §. 

Notwithftanding the fize of their teeth, they are not carnivo- 
rous. Mr. Edzvards relates, that they will dip into the fea for 

* Lev. Mus. f Cook^si'oy. iii. 626. J Forfer's oh/. 187. || Dain- 

Jii«r's 'voy. i. 381. § Mu/cum Hafiiia, Pars i. Seif, 2. No. 18. 

Vox,. II. Rr fifh. 



nil). I fiifpeft that faft ; but it is known that they fkini the 
water with wonderful eafe, perhaps in fportive moods. They 
alfo frequent that element to wadi themfelves from any vermin 
v/hich might adhere to them*. They fwarm like bees, hanging 
near one another from the trees in great cluftersf; at left five 
hundred were obferved hanging, fome by their fore, others by 
their hind legs, in a large Cafuarhia-tree, in one of the Friendly 
ijlands. When Ihot at, they flew from the boughs very heavily, 
uttering a fhrill piping note ; others again, arrived at inter- 
vals from remote places to the tree J. In Nejv Caledofiia, the 
natives ufe their hair in ropes, and in the taflels of their clubs, 
interweaving it with the threads of the Cyperus fqiiarrofus. The 
Indians eat them, and declare the flefli to be very good : they 
grow exceflively fat at certain times of the year. The French, 
who live in the JJle de Bourbon, boil them in their bouillon, to 
give it a relilh ||. The Negroes have them in abhorrence §. Many 
of the Ronjfetles are of an enormous fize: Beeckman** meafured 
one, whofe extent from tip to tip of the wing was five feet four 
inches ; and Dampler-ff another, which extended further than he 
could reach with ftretched-out arms. Tiieir bodies are from the 
fize of a pullet to that of a dove: while eating, they make a 
great noife: their fmell rank; their bite, refiftance, and fiercenefs 
great when taken. 
They bring but one young at a time. 
The antients had fome knowledge of thefe animals. Herodotus^- 

* Forfter^sobf. i88. t -^rgenfola Philip, ijles, ij8. Des Marehais,n. zbl^ 

X Forfier'i 'voy. i. 450. jj Foy. de la Caille, 233. § Des Mauhai:, ibid. 

•• Voy. to Borneo, 39. -ff i. 381. + Smji* ■rolegkiTa, tdcti vvxnjta-j 
^gomxi^ee. Lib, iii. 


.:B A T. 

mentions certain winged wild beafts, like bats, that molefled the 
Arabs, who coUedled the CaJJIa, to fuch a degree that they were 
obliged to cover their bodies and faces, all but their eyes, 
with fkins. It is very probable, as M. de Buffon remarks, it was 
from fuch relations the Poets formed their fidtions o( Harpies. 

L'mnaus gives this fpecies the tide of Vampyre, conjedturing it 
to be the kind which draws blood from people in their fleep. 
M. de Buffon denies it, afcribing that faculty to a fpecies only found . 
\n S.America: but there is reafon to imagine, that this thirft af- 
ter blood is not confined to the bats of one continent, nor to 
one fpecies ; for Bontius and Nieuhoff inform us, that they of 
Java * feldom fail attacking thofe who lie with their feet un- 
covered, whenever they can get accefs; and Gumilla f, after men- 
tioning a greater and leffer fpecies, found on the banks of the 
Orenoque, declares them to be equally greedy after human blood. 
Perfons thus attacked, have been known to be near paffing from 
a found flecp into eternity. The Bat is fo dextrous a bleeder as 
to infinuate its aculeated tongue into a vein without being per- 
ceived, and then fuck the blood till it is fatiated ; all the while 
fanning with its wings, and agitating the air, in that hot climate, 
in fo pleafing a manner, as to fling the fufferer into a ftill 
founder fleep %. It is therefore very unfafe to reft either in the 
open air, or to leave open any entrance to thefe dangerous animals; 
but they do not confine themfelves to human blood ; for M. Con- 

* Baths India, 70. NUuhoff, 2j;. Thefe writers fay that this kind is as 
big as a pigeon. I fufpeft that the fpecies jull defcribed is common to Ii:dia 
and S. America; Mr. Greenwood, painter, long refident at Surinam, informing 
me that there is in that colony a fox-colored bat, whofe extent of wings is above 
four feet. 

f EiJl^Orenojuc'm. 100. J VUoa's 'vey.'i.dl. 

R r 2 damine 


^^o8 BAT 

damine* fays, that in certain parts of America they have dellroyed 
all the great cattle introduced there by the miffionaries. 

/3. Lesser. B, with head like a grchoiind: large teeth like the 
former : ears long, broad, and naked : whole body covered 
with foft fhort hair of a ftraw-coior : fhaped like the other in 
all refpeds : length, eight inches three quarters j extent, two 
feet two inches. Place unknown to the gentleman who fa- 
vored me with it. Lev. Aius. 

4q6. Spectre. Andira-goacu, verpenlUo cornutus. PZ/o ^6. Klein quad. 6i. 

Brafit. 190. h''aycgya've 2r jU. 1113. Pteropus auriculis longis, patults, na/b 

Canis volans maxima aurita fem. ex membrana antrorfum inflexa audio. 

Nov. Hifpania. Seb. Muf. i. tid. Ivii. Br:JJln quad. .54. 

Vefpertilio Ipedlrum. V. ecaudatus, nafo Le Vampire. De Jiufon, x. ^ ^. Schreier, 

infundibuliformi lanceolata. Li:t. fyft, 192. tab. xlv. 


with a long nole : large teeth : long, broad, and upright 
'• ears : at the end of the nofe a long conic erect membrane, 
bending at the end, and flexible : hair on the body cinereous, and 
pretty long : wings full of ramified fibres: the membrane extends 
from hind leg to hind leg: no tail; but from the rump extend 
three tendons, terminating at the edge of the membrane. By 

Size, Seha^i, figure, the extent of the wings is two feet two inches ; 

from the end of the nofe to the rump feven inches and a half. 

Place. Inhabits South America: lives in the palm trees : grows very 

fat : called Vampyre by M. de Bufon, who fuppofes it to be the 
fpecies that fucks human blood : but neither Tifo, or any other 
writers who mention the faft, give the left defcription of the kind. 

* Voj, S, America, 8j. 




Vefpertilio Amencanus vulgaris. Sd. /on quad. i6r. .-„ t 

MuJ. \.tab. \^ 2. LacpauvefourisferdeLmre. D Bufo-, ^^'' J^''^''"'* 

Vefpertilio pe: (^v ri'iacus V. eciudatus yiii. I7.b. ' i. x\\':v i •; ,.■«. vii 102 

nafo tbliato acumit ato. t/V./i/. 47, tab. IxXiV., 194. lab. xlvi. 

V. rPo.T,! colcrii pedibus anticis tctra- B. 

daLlvlis, poftkis ppr.i'ti<idyli5. f//y^ - 

T) with large pouited ears : an e^eA membrane at the end of 

■*^* the noie, in form of the head of an antient javelin, having 

on each (idc iwo jpright pfoceffes : no tail: fur cinereous : fize Size. 

of a commjn uat. 

Inhabits the warm part? oi Awe'ica. Place. 

The bat defcribcd bv Mr. Scbret/er, p. 193. tab. xlvi. A. under 
the title of La Chauve fouris pelle, has fo much refemblance, that I 
place it here as a variety of the former : the nafal membrane be- 
ing nearly of the fame form ; the color differs, the fur being fer- 

Vefpertilio, roftro appendice auriculx Vefpertilio forlcinus. Pallas MiM. 4S. xgg_ Lgy^p 

forma donata Slanne Jam. ii. ^^o. tab. v.* Schreier, 155. tab. xlvii. 

Small bat. Ediv. zox.fig 1. Lev. Mus. 

La Feuille. De Buffbn, xiii. 227. 

Xy with fmall rounded ears : membrane on the nofe of the form 
^~^* of an ovated leaf : no tail: a web between the hind legs: 
fur of a moufe-color, tinged with red : fize of the laft. Size. 

* This feems to be one of the blood-fucking fpecies, the tongue being furni(hed 
with aculeated papilla, and is twice the length of the nofe j fo is well adapted for 
that purpofe. 


310 B A T. 

Place. Inhabits Jamaica, Surinam, and Senegal: in the fiifl: lives in 

caves in woods, which are found full of its dung, productive of 
falt-petre : feeds on the prickly pear. 

499. CoRDATED. Glis volans Ternatanus. Seb.Muf.l tab. Vefpertilio fpafina. V. ecaudatusnafofo- 
Wufg. I. Schreber, 191, tab. xlviii. liato obcordato. Lin./yjl. 47. 


with very broad and long ears : at the end of the nofe a 
heart- fhaped membrane : no tail : a web between the hind 
legs: color of the face a very light red; that of the body ftill 
Place. Inhabits Ceylon, and the ille of Tenia te, one of the Moluccas. 

* * With tails. 

500. Peruvian. Chauve fourisdelaValleed'Ylo. F««7/£« tab. Ix. 

e/if. Peru, 1714. f. 623. Schreber 196. Vefpertilio Leporinus. Gm. Lin, 47. 


with a -head like a pug-dog : large ftrait ears, fliarp at the 
ends and pointing forwards : two canine teeth, and two fmall 
cutting teeth between each, in each jaw : tail enclofed in the mem- 
brane which joins to each hind leg, and is alfo fupported by two 
long cartilaginous ligaments involved in the membrane : color of 
the fur iron-grey ; but erroneoufly colored in the print, of a ftraw 
Sjze. color: body equal to that of a middle-fizcd rat : extent of wings 
two feet five inches. 

p. With 

BAT. 311 

p. With a large head and hanging lips, like the chops of a 
maftifF: nofe bilobated : upper lip divided : ftrait, long, and 
narrow ears, (harp-pointed : teeth like the former : tail Ihort ; 
a few joints of it ftand out of the membrane, which extends 
far beyond it ; Is angular, and ends in a point : claws on the 
hind feet large, hooked, and compreffed fideways: membranes 
of the wings dulky, very thin : fur on the head and back 
brown; on the belly, cinereous. Length, from the nofe to the Size. 
end of the membrane, above five inches ; extent of wings, 

Inhabits Peru and the Mofqmto fhore : the lafl was given me Plack. 
by John Ellis, Efq; F.R. S. It differed from the former in fize, 
being lefs; in all other refpefts agreed. 

Umiiius, carried away by love of fyftem, places this, on ac- 
count of its having only two cutting teeth in each jaw, among 
the Glires, next to the fquirrels, under the name of NoElilio 
Americams. But fuch is the variety in the numbers and difpofi- 
tion of the teeth in the animals of this genus, that he might 
form almoft as many genera out of it as there are fpecies. But 
as the Bats have other fuch ftriking charafters, it is unneceflary 
to have recourfe to the more latent marks to form its definition. 
The fame may be faid of feveral other animals. 

Autre Chauve fourls. De Buffon, x. 84, 87. tab. xix. fig, i, 2. Scheler, 207, tab. poj_ 3ull-dog. 
xlix. Lev. Mus. ^ 

"13 with broad round ears, the edges touching each other in 

^^* front : nofe thick : lips pendulous : upper part of the body 

of a deep a(h-color ; the lower paler : tail long ; the five laft 

7 joints 

312 BAT. 

Size. joints quite difengaged from the membrane. Length above two 

inches ; extent nine and a half. 
Place. Inhabits the H'ejl Indies. 

C02. Senegal, Chauve-founs etrangere. De Btiffon,x, Lev. Mus. xvii. Schreber, 206. tab. Iviii. Vefpertilio njgrita. Cm, Lin. 49. 


with a long head : nofe a little pointed : ears (liort, and 
' pointed : head and body a tawny brown mixed with a(li- 
color : belly paler : two laft joints of the tail extend beyond the 
Size. membrane. Length from nofe to rump, above four inches; ex- 

tent 21. 
Place. Inhabits Senegal. 

co:. Pouch. La Chauve-fouris a bourfe. Schreber, zo<). tab. \\\i. 

T T rlTH the nofe fomewhat produced : the end thickefl:, and 
* " befet with fine whiikers : the chin divided by a fulcus : ears 
long, rounded at their ends : on each wing, near the fecond joint, 
is a fmall purfe, or pouch : the tail is only partly involved in the 
membrane ; the end hanging out : color of the body a cinereous 
brown : the belly paler. 

gjjjg^ Length an inch and a half. 

Place. Inhabits SurinafJU 




Autre Chauve-fourls t/e l<tGuya!;iie. Be Buffon,Supplem. vii. 214. tab. Ixxv, 504. Slouch- 


TJ with large pendulous ears, pointed at the ends : nofe obtufc at 
"*^* the end : tail long, included in the membrane, and ending 
with a hook : color above, a deep chefnut; lighter on the belh', 
and cinereous on the fides : length three inches and four lines : 
extent of wings fifteen inches. 

Inhabits Guiana, Place. 

Autre Chauve-fourls. De Buffou, x. 92. tah. xx.Jig. 3. Schrelir, 204. tab. IvI. -q^ Bh ■^k.ded 

Lev. Mus. i 3* ■ 

T> with the noftrils open for a great way up the nofe : hair on 
■^" the forehead and under the chin very long: ears long and 
narrow : upper part of the head and body of a reddifh brown ; 
the lower of a dirty white tinged with yellow : tail included in 
a membrane very full of nerves. A fmall fpecies. 

Bwith a head fliaped like that of a moufe : top of the nofe 506. New Vork. 
• a little bifid : ears ihort, broad, and rounded : no cutting 
teeth ; two canine in each jaw : tail very long, inclofed in the 
membrane, which is of a conic fhape : head, body, and the 
whole upper fide of the membrane which inclofes the tail, co- 
vered with long very foft hair of a bright tawny color, lighteft 
on the head and beginning of the back ; the belly paler : at 
the bafe of each wing a white fpot : wings thin^ naked, and 
Vol. II. S s duflcy ; 

314 BAT. 

Size. du/ky: bones of the hind legs very flender. Length, from nofe to 
tail two inches and a halfj tail one inch eight-tenths; extent of 
wings ten and a half. 
Place. Inhabits North America. Communicated by Mr. AJloton Black- 

hirne *. It is alfo found in Nezv Zelandf. Mr. Schreber de- 
fcribes it from me, in p. 212. Lev. Mus. 

507. Striped. Autre Chauve-fourls. De Buffon, x. 92. tai. xx. fig. 3. Zoof/j. Gi-cmv. No. 2^. 

Sdreicr, 205. tab. xlix. 


with a fmall fhort nofe; cars fhort, broad, and pointing 
* forward : body brown : wings ftriped with black, and 
Sizi. fometimes with tawny and brown. Length, from nofe to the 
end of the tail, two inches : varies in color ; the upper part of 
the body being fometimes of a clear reddidi brown, the lower 
Place, Inhabits C^/(?« ; called there, Kiriwoula%. I may add to this 

little fpecies of Bat, the mention of a minute kind feen and heard 
in myriads of numbers in the ifle of Tanna, one of the New He- 
brides, but which efcaped every attempt of our voyagers to ob- 
tain a near examination 11. 

* The Rev. M. Clayton mentions another fpecies of North Am-rkan Bat; large, 
with great ears, and long ftraggling hairs. Phil. I'rat/, abridg. iii. 594. 

t ForftrUoh/erv. 189. J PclLs I\li/cel. 49. || Forjier'sobf. 188. 



3/4 ■ 

Z.' \r/r //a/A - \ [jO^". 

BAT. 3,5 

Ve/pertilio Cephalotes. Pallas Sficil. tool. fafc. iii. 10. tab. \. Schreln, !<:>%. tab, 508. Molucca. 
Ixi. Lev. Mus. 

13 with a large head; thick nofe: fmallears: tubular noftrils, 
"*^* terminating outwards in form of a fcrew : upper lip di- 
vided : tongue covered with papills and minute fpines : claw, 
or thumb, joined to the wing by a membrane : firll ray of the 
wing terminated by a claw : end of the tail reaches beyond the 
membrane : color of the head and back greyifli afh-color; that 
in the Leverian Museum of a fine ftraw- color : the belly dull 
white. Length, from nofe to rump, three inches three quarters ; Size. 
extent: of wings about fifteen. 

Inhabits the Molucca ifles. Defcribed firft by that very able Place. 
naturalift Dodor Pallas. 


VefpertUio Lepturus. Schreher,\.3!o.\\n. G»t. Lin. ^o. -qq, Slender- 

with tubular noftrils : long ereft ears : color dufky above, 

• cinereous beneath. 

Inhabits Surinam. Place. 


Vefpertilio Laflurus. S<hreher, tab, Ikii. Gm. Lin. e^o. RoucH- 

Bwith upright fmall ears : tail broad at the bafe, terminating in 
• a point thickly covered with hair: color a reddifli brown: 
a fmall fpecies. 
Place unknown. 

S s 2 Vefpertilio 

3i6 BAT. 


. Lascopte- Vefpertillo Lafcopterus. Scbrekr, tab, Iviii. B. Gm, Lin. 50. 

Bwith a mod prominent rounded forehead : fhort nofe : color a 
• bright ruft: upper part of the wings of a paler rufl: : ends and 
lower parts of the wings black. By Mr. Schrebers figure it feems a 
large fpecies. 
Place unknown. 

512. Horse-shoe. La Chauve-fouusfer a Cheval. De Bujott, v'm. I'^i, 17,2. tah.xvn, xx. Schriliri 

210. tab. Ixii. Br. Zooi. i. 129. 

T> widi a membrane at the end of the nofe in form of a horfe- 
-*-'• flioe: ears large, broad at their bafe, and fiiarp-pointed, in- 
clining backward : wants the little or internal ear : color of the 
upper part of the body deep cinereous ; of the lower, whitifli. 
There is a greater and lefler variety ; the greater is above three 
Cj2i inches and a half long from the nofe to the tip of the tail: its 
extent above fourteen. This and all the following have the tail 
inclofed in the membrane. 
Place. Inhabits Btirgntidy; and has lately been difcovered in Kent, by 

yix. Latham, oi Dart ford; found alfo about the C<-7/^/fl« fea. The 
long-eared Bat, N" 519, has alfo been obfcrved there, and at Peterf- 
burg. This and the four next were fii il difcovered by M, de Buf- 
fon, whofe names I retain. 


BAT. 317 

is No£lule. De "Buffbn, viii. 128, tah, xviii. Schreler, 100. tab. lii. jjj, Noctule. 

Great Bat. Br.Zool illuflr, tab. ciii. Br. Zool, i. 128. 

T> with the nofe flightly bilobated : ears fmall and rounded : 
"V^* on the chin a minute wrr«f a : hair of a reddifli afh-color. 
Length to the rump two inches eight-tenths; tail one feven- Size. 
tenth; extent of wings thirteen inches. 

Inhabits Gr^rt/ jBn/j/« 2^'!\^ France ', very common in the open Place. 
defcrts of Rujfia, wherever they can find Ihelter in caverns : flies 
high in fearch of food, not fkiniming near the ground. A' 'Tii'n informed mc of the following fact, relating to thofe 
aiiM , which he was wicnefs to: — that he faw taken under the 
ea^'es of ^een's College, Cambridge, in one night, one hundred 
and eighty-five-, the fccond night (ixty-three; the third night 
two; ar.d fliac eich that was meafured had fifteen inches extent - 
of wings *. 

La Serotlne. D* 5.-^«, viTi. 129, tab. xviii. Schnber, zoi.lsh.Xni. e^i^, Serotine. 

T> with a longilli nofe : ears fliort, but broad at the bafe : hair 
"*-'• on the upper part of the body brown, mixed with ferrugi- 
nous; the belly of a paler color. Length from nofe to rump, Sizi, . 
two inches and a half: no tail. 

* No notice was taken cf the fpecies ; but, by tlie fize, it could be neither of the 
common kinds. I never faw but one fpecimen of x\\z NiiJitle, which was caught 
during winter in Flinijhire, 

Inhabits ^ 

3i8 BAT. 

Place. Inhabits France; found in caverns of rocks upon the river //r* 

gun, beyond lalce Baikal; but as yet not difcovered in any other 
part of the vaft Rujfian dominions. 

J If. Greater La Grande Serotine de la <j«y'/j«««. De Buffon Supplem. \ii. i^q. tab. W\u. 



with a very long, ftrait and ftrong nofe, floping down at the 
* end : ears long, ereft, dilated towards the bottom, rounded 
at the end : color of the upper parts of a reddifh chefnut ; fides a 
clear yellow, reft of a dirty white. Length five inches eight lines: 
extent of wings two feet : no tail. 
Place. Inhabits Guiana: afTembles in vaft numbers in open places, par- 

ticularly meadows ; and flies in company with the goat fuckers, 
and both together, in fuch numbers as to darken the air. 

ci6. PipisT- La Pipiftrelle. De Buffin, viii. 129. tab. xix.Jig. 2. Schnler, 202. tab. liv. 



with a fmall nofe : the upper lip fwelling out a little on 
'• each fide: the ears broad : the forehead covered with long 
hair : color of the upper part of the body a yellowifh brown ; 
Size. ^^ lower parr dufky ; the lips yellow. The left of Bats; not an 
inch and a quarter long to the rump: extent of wings fix and 
a half. 
Place. Inhabits Fnrw^ : common in the rocky and mountanous parts 

of Rujxa and Siberia. 




LaEarbaftelle. De Buffon, viii. 130, tah, xxx..fg, i. Schrehtr, 203. tab. Iv. 

T> with a funk forehead : long and broad ears ; the lo'ver part 
*'-'• of the inner fides touching each other, and conceal the face 
and head when looked at in front : the nofe (hort j the end flat- 
ted : cheeks full : the upper part of the body of a duiky brown ; 
the lower, afh-colored and brown. Its length to the rump about 
two inches ; its extent ten and a half. 
Inhabits France. 

517. Bareas- 




NtKTf^i?. Ai-ifl hifi. an. lib, i. c. 5. 
Vel'pertilio. Plinii lib. x. f. 61. Ge/ner 

quad. 7G6. AgrUola Jnim. Subter. 483. 
Bat, Flitter moufe. Ra-t/yn. quad. 243. 
Rearmoufe. Char-to': 
Vefpertilio major. Speckmaus, Fleder- 

maus. Khin quad, dl. 
Vefperdlio murinus. V. caudatus nafo 

oreque fimplici, auribus caplte mino- 

ribus. Lin./yft, 47. 
Laderlap, Fladermus. Taun.fuec. A'o. 2. 
La grande Chauve-rcuris de notre pais. 

Briffon quad, 138. D; Buffon, viii. 1 1 3. 

tab. xvi. 
Short-eared Bat. Br. Zool. i. 130. Edw. 

301. Sdjrebcr, 199. Lev.Mus. 

5 18. Com mon. 


with fliort ears: moufe-colored fur tinged with red. 
two inches and a half; extent of wings nine. 
Inhabits Europe: the moft common fpecies in £k^/(?«</. 





320 BAT. 

Jig- Lovr.-EAR- Souris Chauve, Rattepenade. Belon ey/, Bri^hn quad, lio, Sba-w /pec. Lin, vii. 

ED. 147- L'OreiUar. De Buffon, viii. n8. tab. 

Vefpertiiio aurkus. V. nafo oreque fim- xvii. Schreber, 197. tab. 1. 

plici, auriculis duplicatis, capite ma- Long-eared Bat. Edvj. 201. Br. Zoo!, i. 

joribus. Z.;> yj/? ^-j. Fain:. Jute. No. i- J29, Br. Zed. vlujlr. /fii. ciii. Lev. 

KlJnquaii.ti. Mus. 
La petite Chauve-fouris de noire pals. 

Bwith ears above an inch long, thin, and almoft pellucid : 
• body and tail only one inch three quarters long. This 

-Size. and all other Bats, except the Ternate and the Horfe-Jljoe, have a 

Icfler or internal ear, ferving as a valve to clofe the greater when 
the animal is afleep. 

Place Inhabits Furope, and is found in Great Britain. Bats appear 

abroad in this country early in the fpring; fonietimes are tempted 
by a warm day to Tally out in winter; fly in the evenings; live 
on moths and other nofturnal infeds ; fkim along the water in 
queft of gnats; fly by jerks, not with the regular motion of 
birds, for which the antients miftake them; frequent glades 
and ihady places; will go into larders, and gnaw any meat they 
find : bring two young at a time, which they fuckle at their 
breaft : retire at the end of fummer into caves, the eaves of houfes, 
and into ruined buildings, in vaft multitudes, where they gene- 

, rally remain torpid, fufpended by the hind legs, enveloped in 

their wings: are the prey of owls: their voice weak. Owt^ takes 
notice both of that and the origin of the Latin name. 

Minimam pro corpore vocem 
Eniittunt; peraguntque levesjlridore querelas, 
TeBaque, nonjyivas celebrant: lucemque perofa 
No5ie volant : fero^ue ti^ahunt a vefpere nomm. 


A PROOF of their being prolific was produced by Mr. Tullot Mules. 

■^^ in the parifh of Newtyle, in the (hire of Forfar, about P*ge 8. 

twenty years ago, when a fhe-mule, which he turned to a horfe, 
brought a foal which much refembled the female parent. But 
as there is a fuperftition in Scotland about thefe produdions, the 
foal was put to death, being confidered as a monfter. 


p. 104. 

As communicated by Dodlor Shaw. 
Cnmhlng ootan, or Goat of the woods, Marfden^s Sumatra, 93. 

CIZE of a common goat, but ftands confiderably higher on its 
*^ legs: color an uniform black, but each hair when narrowly 
examined is grey towards the bafe : on the top of the neck jufl: ' 
above the flioulders a patch of whitifh, briftly, long flrait hair, 
much ftronger than the reft, and having fomewhat the appear- 
ance of a partial mane : on each fide of the lower jaw a longitu- 
dinal patch of yellowifh white: ears moderate, marked internally 
with three obfcure longitudinal bands of white, as in fome of the 
antelopes:- horns fix inches long, bending flightly backwards 
iharp-pointed, black and annulated near half their length with 

Vol. 11. T t 




prominent rings: tail about the length of horns, and fharptfh: 
hoofs rather fmall and black: hair on the whole animal rather 
harfh, and not lighter-colored below, or on the belly, than above. 

In its difpofition it is wild and fierce, and is faid by the natives 
to be remarkably fwift : we are obliged to the author of the elegant 
hiftory of Sumatra for the difcovery of this animal. 


p. 226. 

La Guenonalong nez. DeBiiffonSupphm. vii. 53. tab. xi. xii. 


with the nofe projefting very far beyond the mouth, like the 
' human, but divided in the middle by a Ihallow furrow: 
in the profile it exadly refembles a long probofcis, and makes a ri- 
diculous appearance: the forehead hangs far over the bafe of the 
nofe; the face is hooked, of a brown color, marked with blue and 
red : the head covered with thick hair of a chefnut brown: the ears 
broad, thin, and naked, hid in the fur: the body is large, cloathed 
with hair of a brown chefnut color; orange on the breaft: round 
the throat, neck, and flioulders, the hair is longer than that on the 
reft of the body, and forms a fort of fiaort cloak, of a color con- 
traftingthat of the face : the legs are covered with fhort tawny hair: 
Sizi. ^h^ length from the tip of the nofe to the bafe of the tail is two 

feet : of the tail, above two feet. 
Place. Inhabits the Eaji Indies; but the particular part is not mentioned. 






'/•f>Af>.)r/.> - l/f// 

, /f/y/ /■/ - // //-/ rA'/fr , Ifff// ro 




p. 234. 

T HAVE totally forgotten the friend who obliged me with the 
- drawing of this animal, and the place ic came from j but pro- 
bably from Mddjgafcar., or the neighboring ifles, the feat of molt 
of the congenerous fpecies. 

All the upper parts of the body are of a deep cinereous brown : 
the face marked with large white heart-fliaped fpots : the broader 
part extends between the ears j the point reaches almoft to the nofe : 
the belly, legs, end feet, are white. I am at a lofs for the fize; but 
poffibly the gentleman from whom I received the drawing may 
reveal himfelf, and communicate the wanted particulars. 


^NE which was examined at the Cape of Good Hope, by Captain Wild Docs. 
Blanket, had ears like thofe of a lurcher, but larger, and more on ^' *^ ' 

the top of the head. It could turn them on all fides with great 
facility : feet flatter than thofe of other dogs. It could not 
bark or howl, but only cried : was very fierce, and mattered the 
tame dogs it was with, though it was only a young one. 


with (hort rounded ears : fur foft and fine, grizzled mi- 
» nutely with black and rufous: toes very long and flen- 
der; five in number; each lobated at the bottom of the firft 
T t 2 joint : 



joint : claws fmall : the upper part of the toes and part of the 
legs covered with Ihort velvet-like down. 

Length from the tip of the nofe to the bafe of the tail feven 
inches: tail about the fame length; buQiy or covered with long 
hairs of the fame color with the rat. 
PfcACE. A native of Cochin China. 


Wwith ears fhort, round and naked: within of a fine pink 
• color: tip of the nofe black: head white and plain; 
the reft of the body and tail white : the firft fpotted with er- 
mine-like black fpots, difpofed in rows from neck to tail, on 
the fides as well as back : the tail annulated with black : the hairs 
on all parts of the tail fliort, only the end is tufted with black. 

The legs remarkably- ftrong, and thick covered to the very 
claws with long bright ferruginous hairs: claws (harp and white: 
length of the head three inches and a half; of the neck and 
body from head to tail fixteen inches and a half; of the tail 
eleven and a half. 

This elegant animal is likewife a native of Cochin China, and » 
with the former, communicated to us by the friendlhip of Lieut* 
Col. Davies, of the artillery. 




'pMnjifcr ! 

^J'ff/tY/f /' /(-vv/ ' . 


.J-J. /. 

MwrCL J'^jf^ 

(^ ///// ^/tr/ / 

N D E X*. 

A Vol. Page 

A NT-Eater, or Ant-Bear II. 256 
Antelopes, their general 

■ hiftory — I. 68 

■ Species of — I. 70 

Apes, their general hiftory — I. 178 

I Sea — II. 301 

Armadillo — II. 246 

Afs — I. 8 

— ^Wild — I. 8 

Axis — — — I. 1 1 7 

^— Greater ■ — I. 118 








I. li 
i. u 







Its wondrous oeconomy - 
Sea, wJe Sea Otter. - 

Beluga — 


Bifon, Scottifh 

Buffalo, Indian — — 

' When introduced in 

Europe — — 

— — ^— American — 

■ Dwarf, or Anoa — 

. Naked, or Bonafus 
Ceylon — 



11 + 
- II. 115 
■ II. 83 
.11. 9 

• II. 301 

I. 58 
I. 17 
I. 113 

• I. 28 

• I. 29 

• I. 23 
I. 30> 36 

I. 30 
I. 3. 
I. 16 


Vol. Page 
I. 242 

Camel, Arabian 

— I. 

— I. 

Peruvian, or Llama — I. 

The only native beaft of 

burden in Ameriia — I. 

Vicunna — I- 

— — — Paicos — I. 

Guanaco — 1. 

■ Chilihucque — I. 

Camelopard — I. 

Cajloreum — !'• 

Cat, Common — I. 

Wild — I. 

Mountain — — I. 

Civet — II. 

Angora — — — I. 

Cav^', various fpecies of — II. 

Chamois ■ — J. 

Chimpanzee — — — I. 

Civet - II. 

















■ — I. 105 

Elk, or Moofe — I. 105 

— Rein — — — I. 1 1 1 

— Fallow — I. 113 

— Mexican — I. 122 

— Porcine •^—— — I. 119 

— Grey — — — I. 123 

— Virginian — I. 116 

— Red, Stag, or Hart — I. 114 

• In this Index very few of the Species are enumerated, that having been amply done under the 
Index of Genera; to which the Reader is referred, the Genera being hste printed in capitals for 
that purpofe, under which he wiU find all the Species belonging to each. 


N D 


DiER, Axis ■ 

— — Rib-faced 

Tail-lefs — 

Dogs, the difFerent varieties — 

Dormoufe, Common — 

Dromedary i — 

Dfliikketaei ■ — 




Ferret - 



Flitter. Moufe 






— Corfak 

— Arftic 


— ^ Silvery 

Gazelle, 'vide Antelope 


Giraffe ■ 

Glutton ■ . 

Gnou • . 

Goat, Wild, or Ibex 

■ Domeftic — I. 

■ Angora — — — I. 

• Syrian, or long-eared I, 

■ ' African ■ — I. 

• Caucafatt — I. 

Whidaw — — I. 

" ' Capricorn — . I. 

Vol. Page 
I.I17, 118 

— I. I 19 
' — I. 120 

— I. 121 

I- 23? 
I. 236 
II. 157 
I. 129 
I. 4 

I. 165 

I. 172 
1. 174 
I. I oc 

n. 3s 

II. 40 
II. 50 
II. 37 
II. 75 

n. 33 
1. 251 

1. 251 

1. 252 

I, 259 
I. 260 

— I. 89 

— II. 74 

— I. 6s 

— II. 10 

— I. 70 

— I- 55 

' 60 



Goat, Pudu 



Hare - 
• Alpine 






Horse — 



Wild — 

Sea, 'vicle Hippopotame. 

Vol. Pajt 
-- I. 64 

— I. 241 

— 1. 138 

— II. 206 

— II. 98 

— II. 107 
' — If. 104 

— I. 114 
•— 11. 234 

— I- 157 

— I. 140 

— I. I 
I. 2 

■ Spotted 

I. 270 
I. 272 

Jackal — I, 272 

Ibex ■ — 1. 55 

Ichneumon, deftroyer of ferpents II. 54 

Jerboa . — II, 164 





Lion — 

Lizard, Scaly 


Lynx ~ 


— — Cafpian 

Mammouth's bones 
Man of the Wood 
Manipouris — 

Manati — 


U. 29 
I. 252 

IL 29S 
II. 198 
L 282 
I. 274 
II. 252 

I- '33 
I. 301 

I 303 

I. 172 
I. 191 

II. 202 


N D 


Mandrill — 

Ivi anis — — 

Martin - 


Minx — 
Mococo — 
Mole Rats 
Mqnk;£S — 
Moofe — 
Mokse — 
Moufe — 
MwLt. Wild 
Mule — - 
Musk. Animal 

Norway Rat 

Once — 

Orang Outang 
Otter — 

Otter, Sea 


Vol. Page 
— I. 190 

— II. Z52 

— II. 128 

— II. 41 

— II- 42 

— I. 227 

— II. 81 

— 1- 230 

— II. 214 

— II. 2jg 

— I. 229 

— J. 199 

— I. .05 

— 11. 265 

— II. 184 

— I. 4 

— I. 8 
I. 124 

— 11. 221 

— J. 44 

— Great Indian 
•— Abyffinian ■ 
•— Madagafcar 

— Lant or Dint 

Holftein and Jutlind 

— Podolian and Hungarian 
-— Grunting 

— Mufli • • 

•— Cape •^-^— — 
•—- American 


- II. 178 

— 1.28; 

— II. 18 

— I. 180 

— II. 77 

— II. 83 

— I. .6 
I. 20, 21 

— I. 21 

— I. 21 

— I. 21 

— I. 21 

— 1. 21 

1. 22 

- I. 24 

- I. ^I 

- I. 32 
_ 1. 23 



Pig, Guinea 
Pole-cat , 


Vol. Page 

— 1.280 

— I. 147 

— II. s» 

— II. 90 

— II. 

— II. 


— II. 122 

Porcupine — 

■ incapable of darting 

its quills — II. I2J 

Potto — II. 59 

Puma ■ — I. 289 

Pygmies, what 1 — I. 183 

Quojas Morrou 





I Norway 



Ratel - 

Rein Deer 
Khi noceros 
River Hog 
Koebuclc - 

Sea Bear 






Sea l 

Shf EP 

Cretan — 





, 14 
























• 1. 

























1 . 
























Sheep, African 
— ^— Broad-tailed 
— — — Sibirian 

■ Corfican 
- Bearded 

Shrew Moufe — 

Siyah Ghufti 

Skunk ^^■^— 

Sloth ^— — 

SciJilRRELS — 




Sukotyro — — 


Hunting — 




— i. 

— I. 

— I. 

— I. 

— I. 

— 11. 

— I. 

— II. 

— 11. 

— II. 

— 1. 

— II. 
I. 38 

— I. 






, 88 


^^ol. Pag. 



Van fire 



Water Elephant 



















- I. 72 

I. .3 

1. 267 

II. 72 

II. 66 


N D E 




I N T H E 









Adive — — 




Aigrette • 


Alagh-daagha — — 

Algazel • • 


Allouatte ■ 



Anak cl Ard 


Vol, U. 

Vol. Page 

1. - 154 

II. 12Z 

I. - 89 

I. - 261 

I. - 40 

I. - 261 

I- - 57 
II. 94 

I.- 93 
JI. 240 

1. - 207 

If- 9S 

II. 169 

I. - 105 

I. - 77 

I- - 133 
]. - 215 
I. - 137 
1. - 230 
I. - 306 
11. 30S 




Apar — 









Afpalax — 
Axis — — 
Aye, Aye 
U u 

I. - 



I. - 

I. - 




1. - 



J. - 


I. - 



I, - 










I. - 




I.- 1.7 
11. 142 




Vol. Page 
II. 248 

Babouin — 

Bafwer — 



Baraba •— 

Barbarefque - 

Barry s ■ 

Becheti —^ 

Behemoth — 

Bekker el Wafli 
Belette — 

Belier — 

Beluga — 

Bey -— 

Biber — 

Bievre — — ■ 

Biggel — 

Biorn ■ 

Bifon d'Amerique 
Biur — 

Blaireau — 

Bobak .^— 


JBocht — 



Bonnet Chinols 

Bouc — 

d' Angora 
d' Afrique 
d' Juda 



Boury — 


I. . 


J. . 




J. - 










1. . 


I. - 


1. - 


1. - 




I. - 




J. - 






1. - 




I. - 










I. - 




I. - 


I. - 




J. - 


h - 


I. - 


I. - 


I. - 


I. - 


I. - 


J. - 


1. - 




1. - 








Caaigora ■ 

Cabiai . 

Cabionora — — 


Cagui — . , 

Caitaia , 

Callitriche — 

Callitrichus . 


Camclo pardalis 




Ciprea — 




Caraco Mus 








Cavia, cobaya 

Cavia, genus 

Cay _ 




Chacal — 




Vol. Page 

J- - 37 

I. 28, 102 
I. - 24 
I. - 103 
I. - 28 
I. - 102 

I. - 147 

II. 88 
II. 88 
II. 243 

I. 212, 224 
I. - 220 
I. - 203 
I. - 203 
I. - 132 
I. - 65 
II. 205 
I. - 272 
I. - 265 

11. 88 

I. 96, 120 

I. - 120 

;•- 55 

I - 30J 

II. 181 

II. 8 

I. - 122 

I. - III 

II. 20 

II. 79 

II. 114 

11. 246 

- Jl. So 

11. 88 

I. - 219 

II. 24 

I 85 

i. - 114 

I. - 261 

I. - 132 

I. - 44 

I. - 295 



Chat d' Angora — 
d' Efpjgne — 


Chaus Pliaii — 

Chauve-fouris — 


Cherofo ~ —— 

Cheval — — 



Chevrotain d'Afrque 
de Guinea 
des Indies 














Coati — 


Cochon d'lude 
















I. - 

I. - 
I. - 
I. - 



II. 311 

II. 186 
I. - I 




Cuguacu ete 







Dama, Antelope 

Daman Ifrael 



Daniel — 

Dant — 

Dasfman * 




Dqf, Dofhiort 









Echinus Terrefiris 
Ecureuil -^ 

Eichhorn — 


Elephant, Elephas 


Engalla — — 


Erinaceus — — 
Exquima ■— - 

X. I. Ul'. J I. 

- ir. 234 
II. 138 
II. 138 

I. - 105 

- I. - 165 
I. - 105 

II. 247 

I. - 144 

II. 205 

II. 234, 248 

I. - aoi 



Fara •- 

Felis Catus 


Fial racka 







Fong kyo fo 


Fouine — 





Furo — 




Gazelle — — 

Gemfe — — 

Genette — — 

Gerbo .i. . . 

Ghainouk . 

Gibbon » 

Giraffe ■ 


Glutton — — 


Gnou ■■ 

Gornoftay ■ 

Grafkin ■ 


Grifon . 

Guachi ■ 

Guanaco ■ 

Guanque _ 

Guareba — ^ 

Guepard • ■' 

Vol. Page 

II. 18 

I .95 

II. 309 

I - 255 
II. 114 
II. 22 
II. 10 
11. 6s 

I- - 53 
II. 319 

I- - 133 
II. 75 
II. 41 
II. 260 
II. 41 
II. 40 

I. - 251 
U. 40 

II. 234 

II. 53 

I. - 234 

1-75' 77' ^9 
■ i.-Tz 

II. 74 

II. 170 
I. - 27 
I. - 184 
I.- 6j 

11. 158 
II. 10 

II. 8 
I. - 


I. - 






I. - 138 

II. .83 

I. - 214 

I. - 28A 







Hamfter — 

Hafe — 


Hermine — 

Hirax — -— 

Hirco cervus 
Hiort — 

Hoang yang 
Hagiun — 




Vol. P,ji 

II. 162 
I. - 82 
I. - 81 

II. 120 
II. 10 

il- '37 

II. 206 

I. - 150 

I. - 144 

II. 93 

II. 234 


II. 35 

I. - 115 

1. - ,57 

II. 92 

I. - 52 

1 14 


II. 8S 
II. \^^ 


Jaguar - 







Jelen — 



Igel, Igelkott 


Indri — 


* Dt Bufftm liii, 854. Th« fame with the Hunting Leopard, Nt. 1 84. 

II. 10 

I. 284, 286 

I. - 290 

I. - 286 

II. 10 

I. - 147 

I- - 55 

II. 54 

I. - 114 

II. 234 

II. 164 

II. 234 

II. 240 

I. - 228 

I. - 180 

























Llama — 

Lacertus •— 

Lame — 

Lant • 

Lapin ■■ 

d' Angora 



Lemur — — 
Lemmar, Leming 

Lemni — 

Leo — 

Leopard — 


Vol. Pjg« 
I. - 157 

ir. 88 

L - 2;^ 




I. . ,.4 

II. 249 



I. - 

I. - 
I. - 
I. - 265 

I. - 92 
I. - 119 

II. 60 

I. - 104 

I. - 103 

II. 39 

I. - 2.5 

J. - 8 

II. 229 

I. - 114 

II. 206 

II. 279 

II. 41 

I - 133 

- 11.2,-2 

II. 319 

II. 285 

L - 21 

II. 103 

— II. 104 
I. - i«5 

II. 80 

L - 227 

II. 198 

• II. 214 

I. - 274 

1. - 2S2 

II. 98 

♦ Dt Bvffon, jiv, 224. tab, xxix. 


Lerwee — 

Levrier — 



Lion — — 

Loir — 



de Mexique 
Loup-Cerviiir — 



Maucauco - 

Machlis — - 



iVlagu ■ 




Manati ■ 




Manicoii — — — 

M^nipouris • 


Maiiul — 

Mapach — 

Maraguao - 


Margay ■ 

Marikina • 

Mariputa ■ ' •» 

A variety of our Egnt, No, 119. 

Vol. Page 
II. 1-9 

— I. 

I. - 241 

L - 91 

II. 98 

I. - 274 

II. lj8 

L - 228 

J. - 248 

I. - 250 
1. - 301 


1. - 274 
I. - 248 
II. 198 
II. 77 
L - 301 
J. - 301 
I. - 301 

I. - 227 
L - IOC 
II. 66 
I. - 186 
I. - 213 
I. - 190 

I. - 201 
I. - 172 
II. 292 
I. - 190 
I. - 204 

JI. 54 

IL 18 

L - 163 

IL 252 

L - 294 
IL 12 

L - 292 

II. 41 

I. - 292 

I. - 225 

II. 66 



Marmofe — — 
Marmotte — 

Martes, Marte - 
Mejangan Banjoe 
Meles — 

Meminna — 



Mococo — — 
Molle — 



Monea — 

Mongooz — — 



Morfeuia Korawa 
Mouffettes * 
Mouflon — 

Mouton de Barbarie 



livya,\rj .^—— 



IVlunt-jak . 

Murmelthicr — — 

Mus Alpinus — 


Mufaraigne — — 
Mus Araneus — 



Mufimon ' 

Mufquafh — — 





Vol. Page 

II. 23 

II. I2S 

II. 41, 42 

I. - 118 

II. 14 

I. - 127 

I. - 226 

I. - 230 

1. - 230 

II. 205 

11. 133 

I. - 2 10 

I. - 207 

I. - 229 

I. - 107 

II. 266 

II. 292 

11. 62 

I. - 44 

I. - 205 

1. - 41 

I. - 46 

I - 8 
II. 224 
II. 229 
II. 184 

I -1.9 
II. 128 
II. 1^8 
II. 1S4 
II. 224 
II. 224 

I. - 124 
II. 160 

I. - 44 
I!. 119 
II. 119 

n. 33 
II. 256 

IT. 224 
I. - 86 












Odobenus — 

Onager — 

Once ' 


Opeagha — 


Orang Outang 


Orignal. See Elk, 


Ortrowidz — 

Ouaikare — 

Ouanderou - 

Ouarine — ^ 


Ourebi ■ 



Ours hlanc de mer 

Ours marin — 


Vol. P.ige 
I. - 85 
II. 278 
II. 54 
II. I 
II. 279 
I.- 83 

II. 80 
II. 80 


I. - 287 
I. - 16 

II. 266 

II. 109 

I. - II 

I. 285, 290 

II. 119 


I. - 180 
II. 320 


Paco, Pacos 


71/. De £i^n's generic name for the Polecats which exhale fo pcftilentiai a 1 

I.- 76 

I. - 301 

II. 240 

I. . 198 

I. - 214 

1. - 224 

I. - 79 

If. 134 

II. I 

11. J 

11. 281 

I.- 37 

11. 91 
I.- 78 
I. - 136 
I. - 200 



Palmifte ■ 

Pangolin — ■ — 
Paptbera, Panthere 


Pardus — ^— 

Pareffeux — 
Pafan, Pafan — 




Pelander Aroe 


Pere • 

Perugufna — 

Petit Gris ■ — 

PHalanger - 

Phatagiii — 

Piiilandre — 




Piciiou ■ 



Pinche ■ 



XItbr.K(^, Pitheque 

Platogna ■' 

Platyccros — 


Poulatouclie — 

Pongo _ 


Hfol _ 

Przewiaika — 


Puma ■ 


Putorius ^— 

Vol. Page 

IF. ^49 

n 253 

- I. - 280 

I. - 188 

I. 280, 285 

1. - 280 

II. 240 

I- 57- 75 
I. - 208 
I. - 147 

II. s. 

II. 21 

II. 179 
I. - 12 

II. 38 

II. 144 







11, 252 

II. 270 

I. - 


II. 97 
II. 74 

I.- 2 5 

II. 318 

I. - ..7 

I. - 183 
I. - 11; 








II. 122 
I. - 113 

n. 38 

II. 304, 308 

I. - 289 

n. 37 

a. 37 

I.. 14 




Quauhtla — — 

Quilj Quirpele — 
Quojas Morrou - 



Quumbengo — 


Radj ur 


Rangier ■ 

Rangwo — ^— ^— 



de Madagafcar 


Raton ' 
Rattepenade — 

Rein Deer ' 

Renard — ^ 

Renne — 





River Paard 


Root , — — 


Rofmarus • 

Rofomak ■ 



Rukkaia — — 








, 14.; 

1. - 


1. - 


I. - 



■ U 

I. - 



, 69 

1. - 


I. - 


I. - 


i. - 


1. - 







, 182 

I. - 










I. - 


I. . 


J. - 


1. - 


J. - 


I. - 


I. - 


1. . 


I. - 















i 7^ 



I. - 


I. - 


1. - 





Sai _— 


Saimiri ■ 

Sajou ' — 

Saki — 

Sanglier — ^— 

de Capvert 


Sapajou • 

Saragoy — 
Saricovienne — 
Sarigue . 

Satyrus • 

Scenoontung — 


Schwcin — — 


£emlanoi Saetlhik 

Serotine • 




Siegen Bock 


Simia ^^— . 


Siya . 

Siyah Ghufli — 


Slepez ■ ■ 

Sno-mus . 

Sobol —— - 
Sogur — — 



Souris ' — 


Speck-maus — ^. 
Spring-bock — 

§pnngen Haas — 




Vol. Page 

1. --2.4 

I. - 218 

I. - 98 

1. - 220 

I. - 217 

I. - 222 

I. - 140 

1. - i,)4 
I. - 224 

I. - 2i2 

II. 20 


I. - 

I. - 

I. - I!0 

II. 138 

II. 112 

I. - 301 

II. 190 

II. 270 

I. - 60 

I. - 211 

I. - ,83 

II. 2S8 

II. 79 

I. - 30,5 

II. 2o6 

II. 214 

II. 33 

II. 47 

II. .3. 

II. 212 

II. 22^ 

II. 184 

"■ 135 
II. 3.9 

I. - 04 
II. i^o 




Stink bingfem 



Suhak — 

Suifle, Ecureuil 



Surk — 



Sus Aquaticus 
bwiilcti — 












Tapir — 

Tapoa Tafa 





Tatou — 

Tatu apara 

'1 atuete 


Taupe doice 


Taxus — 


Tchotz — 


Vol. Page 

I. - 261 

I. - 122 

I.- 5; 

II, 66 

I. - 150 

I. 38, 88 

I. - 98 


I. - 296 

II. 57 

II. 220 

II. 178 

I. - 140 

I. - 165 

II. 131 

11. i;i 

I. - 147 

11. i8 

II. ,4 

1. - 206 

II. 229 


II. 256 

I. - 223 

II 236 

II. 107^ 



II r 


I. - 231 

I. - 194 

11. 248 

n. 246 
II. 248 
II. 229 
II. 231 
I. - 16 
1. - 270 
"• 53 
II. 37 
II. 194 






Tcgul — 

Temama^ama i 

Tendrac ' 

Tenlie ■ 

Tepe Ma.xl.iton 

Teutlalmayama — 



Tigris, Tigre 




Tlaquatzin ' - 


Touan ' 

Tragelaphus ■ 
Trago-Camelus — — 
Tragulus — ^— 

Tretretretre — 

Trichechus Rofmarus 

— — Manatus — 


Tfitsjan — ^— 
Tucan -— — 

Vache Marine 

de Tartaric 

tuUa • ' 


Vanfire •^— 

Vary ■ 


Vavi • 

Veldratte — 

Verdadciro — — 

Vefpertilio — 
Vigogne, Vicunna 


Viverra — 
Viverra tigrina 
Vol. II. 


I. - 103 

II. Z56 
I. - 26J 

- 292 

- 122 

- 157 

- 267 

- 277 


I. - 2£ 

II. 149 
II. 18. 124 

II. 104 

11. 34 
I.- 52 
I. - 83 
I. - 124 
I. - 191 

II. 266 

II. 297 



I.- 74 

II. 266 
I.. 24 
I. - 270 

ir. 308 

II. 5, 

I. - 229 

I. - aSo 

I. - 261 

II. 90 

II. 248 

II. 304 

I. - 136 


II. 40 

I. - 298 


















Whang, Yang — — 
Wha Tapoua Row — 
Wiewiorka ■ 

Wirrebocarra . 

Wkydra • 


Yerboa ■ 


Yfard, Yfarus 



Zebre, Zebra 


X X 

Vol. Pig« 
I. - 248 

II. 242 
1. - 282 

II. 210 

n. 290 

II. 126 

II. I 

I. - 16 

I. - 148 

II. 122 

I. - 25. 

II. 277 

II. 77 

II. 266 
I. - 248 
I. - 301 
I. - 141 

". 33 
I. - 150 
I. - 96 

II. 13 

II. 138 
I. - 126 

II. 77 

T. - 187 
I. - 250 

II. 29 

"• 37 

I.- 72 

II. 62 

I. " 29J 
I.- 13 

I. - 2» 



Vol. Page Vol. Page 

Zecora ■ I. - 13 Zibet IF. 72 

Zenik — II. 193 Zizel II. 135 

Zerda — — I. - 267 Zobela • II. 43 

Zibeline H. 43 Zorrina* ■ 11. 60 

* De Buffon, xliit 30Z. tab, xli. 



Nos. 273 and 276, Pages 70 and 72, being the fame animal, the reader is 
defired to corred this nuHake.