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Full text of "The history of Queen Charlotte's Lying-in Hospital : from its foundation in 1752 to the present time, with an account of its objects and present state"

COLUMBJA LIBRARIES OFFSITE 

HEALTH SCIENCES STANDARD 



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QUEEN C H A R L O T T E ' S 



HOSPITAL. 



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HF.K MOST GKACIOIIS MAJRSTV 

THE LATE QUEEN CHARLOTTE, 

Pii/riw of the fhsfilal. 



THE 



HISTORY 

OF 

QUEEN CHARLOTTE'S 
LYING-IN HOSPITAL, 

FROM ITS FOUNDATION IN 1752 
TO THE PRESENT TIME. 

WITH AN ACCOUNT OF ITS 

OBJECTS AND PRESENT STATE. 

ILLUSTRATED BY PLANS AND ENGRAVINGS. 

BY THOMAS RYAN, 

SECRETARY TO THE HOSPITAL. 

2)eMcate& bs special permission to Iber ^aiestg tbe (Slueeii. 

1885. 






a3 



LONDON : 
HUTCHINGS AND CROWSLEY, LIMITED, PRINTERS, 

ST. John's wood, n.w. 



Iber flDajest^ tbe caueen, 

THE MUNIFICENT PATROX OF INSTITUTIONS OF EVERY KIND HAVrN-& 

FOR THEIR OBJECT THE PROMOTION OF THE 

WELFARE OF HER PEOPLE, 

AND 

ESPECL-VLLY OF CHARITIES FOR THE RELIEF OF THE SICK POOR, 

Ebi5 Dolume is, 

"U^TH HER majesty's GRACIOUS PERillSSION, 

iSiost TRespectfuU^T anC> Buttfulls JnscribeD. 



PREFACE. 



MHE following pages had their origin in enquiries which it was 
my duty to make last summer as to the situation and work 
of the Hospital during the early part of its existence. 
It had been decided in February, 1884, to petition Her Majesty 
the Queen to grant a Charter of Incorporation to the Hospital ; 
and as the petition should embody a short account of the principal 
occurrences in the history of the Charity, the enquiries above referred 
to were made for the purpose of supplying missing links and verifying 
existing records. This work occupied much time, and so much 
incidental information- relating to the past history of the Charity was 
gathered by the way, that my notes became considerable, and I 
deemed it worth while to spend a little more time in making them as 
far as possible complete. This I have succeeded in doing, and I now 
submit the result of these researches, with the addition of a short 
chapter on the work and condition of the Charity at the present time. 

Very many of the facts and events herein described are not 
generally known, and some will, I have reason to believe, be quite 
new to most of my readers. I have used my best endeavours to be 
accurate, and have taken pains to record everything of interest that I 
have been able to discover in connection with the Hospital during the 
one hundred and thirty-three years of its existence. 



vi. PREFACE. 

I would call special attention to the Statistical Tables on pages 
60 to 62, which will be found very instructive and interesting. The 
reader will observe the very rapid increase in the number of poor 
women relieved, and in the revenue and expenditure, during the period 
since the rebuilding of the Hospital in 1856, as compared with the 
preceding fifty years. These figures have mainly been collected from 
minute books and other manuscript records, as during the earlier years 
no Annual Report was published. They embrace the whole period 
from the re-constitution of the Hospital in 1809, previous to which 
date there is no existing record, that I have been able to discover, of 
the operations of the Charity. 

The plans in the Appendix have been inserted for the purpose of 
showing {a] the position in the grounds, and the extent, of the old 
Manor House of Lisson Green, as compared with that of the new 
Hospital ; (5) the sanitary arrangements and system of drainage of 
the Hospital as built in 1856, side by side with the alterations and 
improvements that have since been made in these important features ; 
[c) the various structural additions and enlargements that have been 
made since 1856, and the extent of the new wing which is shortly to be 
built. These plans have no pretension to accuracy of detail; they 
were sketched by me for the purpose just described, and I hope they 
will serve that end sufficiently well. 

1 have to tender my most cordial thanks to all those who have 
assisted me in my enquiries, particularly when I remember that in 
many cases I have troubled them again and again. To those members 
of the Committee of Management who have aided me by their counsel 
and assistance my respectful acknowledgments are especially due, for 
their kind help has been of the greatest practical value. 

These few remarks are all that it is necessary for me to make. I 
hope that any faults or defects that may exist in the book will be 



viewed with indulgence, as my aim has been to record facts rather 
than to strive after perfection either of style or arrangement. How- 
ever great its imperfections or shortcomings may be, it must in a 
measure be deemed valuable and interesting by those who take an 
interest in the beneficent work in which Queen Charlotte's Hospital 
is engaged. If it results in increasing public interest in this old and 
important Charity, I shall have good reason to consider the time and 
labour spent upon it well employed. 



Queen Charlotte's Hospital, 

Marvlebone Road, N.W. 

August, 1885. 




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INTRODUCTION. 



IT is an interesting fact that until the middle of the eighteenth century- 
there were no Medical Charities in London of the class now known as- 
Special Hospitals, unless we consider a Hospital for Lunatics — which is- 
more properly an Asylum or Home — as one, the Bethlehem Hospital for 
Lunatics having been founded in 1546. In fact, Medical Charities of any- 
kind were very few and far between, and one of the noblest characteristics- 
of the eighteenth century is the great growth of organized voluntary effort 
for the relief and care of the sick. If we take the great general Hospitals of 
London, we shall find that two only, St. Bartholomew's and St. Thomas's, were 
established before the year 1700, and that, of the remainder, the largest and 
the most important, namely Guj-'s, The London, St. George's, Middlesex and 
Westminster, were founded in the eighteenth century. Special Hospitals, as I 
have already said, appeared at this time, and the first among them were the 
Lying-in Hospitals, all of which were founded between 1749 and 1765, a period 
of seventeen years. London was not the first town in the United Kingdom to 
possess a Lying-in Hospital, but was preceded in this particular by Dublin, 
where Dr. Bartholomew Mosse, an eminent physician, in spite of the strongest 
prejudices, persistent opposition, and malevolent misrepresentation, succeeded 
in opening a Lying-in Hospital in March, 1745. In the course of his practice 
in the city of Dublin he had been a constant witness of the misery and 
suffering of the poor women of that city, during their lying-in — misery and 
suffering which would scarcely have been credited by one who had not been 
an eye-witness of it. " Their lodgings were generally in cold garrets open to 



X. INTRODUCTION. 

"every wind, or in damp cellars subject to floods from excessive rain; 
"destitute of attendance, medicine, and often of proper food, by which 
" hundreds perished with their little infants."* The sight of so much distress 
excited his compassion, and he resolved to lose no time in attempting to 
establish a Lying-in Hospital, a resolution which as we have seen he carried 
into effect. He purchased a house for the purpose in George's Lane, furnished 
it with beds and other necessaries, and supported it for a considerable period 
at his own expense. As time wint on, however, its usefulness became so 
evident that other benevolent persons took an interest in the work and 
promoted it by their contributions. This encouraged Dr. Mosse to extend 
his operations, and after the most strenuous exertions, in the face of incredible 
obstacles placed in his way by his enemies, he succeeded in building a large 
and properly appointed Hospital, which was opened by the Duke of Bedford, 
then Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, in the presence of a large company of 
nobility and gentry, at the close of the year 1757. The Rotunda Lying-in 
Hospital has continued the work thus commenced to the present day, and 
is now the largest and most important Lying-in Hospital in the United 
Kingdom, beside being with one exception the largest and oldest chartered 
School of Midwifery in the world. It is resorted to by students not only 
from all parts of Ireland, but from England, Scotland, and even from 
remote British Colonies, from America, France, and other countries. 

In 1749, four years after the founding of the Dublin Lying-In Hospital, 
London followed the example thus set, and a Lying-In Hospital was opened 
in Brownlow Street, Long Acre. This was followed by the foundation of the 
City of London Lying-In Hospital at London House, Aldersgate Street, in 
1750, the General Lying-In Hospital, Bayswaterf, in 1752, and the Westminster 
Lying-In Hospital, Surrey Road, Westminster Bridge, in 1765. In addition 
to these a Lying-In Charity for delivering poor married women at their own 
iabitations was instituted in 1757. These are the only London Lying-In 
Institutions now existing, which were established at the above period ; but 
many others were founded at that time which have since ceased to exist, and 

* State of the Dublin Lying-In Hospital, 1750. f Now Queen Charlotte's Hospital. 



INTRODUCTION. xi. 

there are several small Out-patient Maternities now in existence which are 
of comparatively recent date. 

The Hospital in Brownlow Street was instituted in November, 1749, under 
the presidency of the Duke of Portland, and was first opened for the reception 
of patients on the 7th December of that year. There was no provision made 
for the delivery of patients at their own homes, but shortly after its foundation 
female pupils were received to be trained as Mid wives. In 1756 its name 
was altered, and it was henceforth known as the British Lying-in Hospital. 
In 1849 it was rebuilt in Endell Street, St. Giles's, where it is now situated. 
There is now an out-patient department connected with it, but I am unable 
to state at what date this feature was introduced. At the present time it 
receives about 150 in-patients per annum, and attends about 550 at their 
own homes, at an annual expenditure of about _^i,400. 

The City of London Lying-in Hospital at London House, Aldersgate 
Street, was established on the 30th March, 1750; Slingsby Bethell, Esq., 
M.P., Alderman of the City of London, being its first President. It was 
first commenced at London House, in hired apartments, and had then for 
its objects both the reception of in-patients, and the delivery of out- 
patients at their own homes. It was removed to Shaftesbury House in the 
same street in the following year, and its scope was curtailed by the 
discontinuance of the out-patient department. Shaftesbury House in a few 
years proved to be too small for the increasing work, and the lease of 
a piece of ground at the corner of Old Street and the City Road having 
been granted by the Governors of St. Bartholomew's Hospital at a rental 
of _^5o per annum, the building of a new Hospital was commenced. 
The foundation stone was laid on the loth October, 1770, and the new 
Hospital was opened for the reception of patients on the 4th April, 1773. 
This building has continued to be the scene of the Charity's operations 
ever since. The delivery of out-patients at their own homes was not 
resumed till 1872, since which date about 1,100 out-patients have been 
attended at their own homes every year. The average number of in- 
patients has fallen off in recent years, and is now about 300. The 



XU. INTRODUCTION. 

average annual expenditure is about /3,ooo. Tlie Hospital receives 
pupils for training as Midwives and Monthly Nurses. 

The Westminster Lying-in Hospital ^'as instituted in 1765. It is described 
in "Highmore's Public Charities" as being near Westminster Bridge, and is 
marked in maps of London of that time as standing about 300 yards from 
the Bridge, by the side of the main road (corresponding with the present 
Westminster Bridge Road) leading to St. George's Fields. It was originally 
intended for the wives of poor industrious tradesmen, or distressed housekeepers, 
but the Governors having received many representations of the severe hardships 
sustained by unmarried women, " and reflecting on the numerous instances 
" where women of this description, overwhelmed with shame and destitute 
" of friends, have been tempted to destroy themselves or their infants, 
" unanimously resolved to admit such of them to participate of the benefits 
'•of this Charity as are found to be objects of real distress."* Such patients 
were only to be admitted once, and separate wards were appropriated for 
their reception. Out-patients appear to have been attended at their own 
homes from the commencement. The Physicians, according to Highmore, 
were allowed to take male pupils — previously qualified by having attended 
two courses of midwifery lectures — who lived in the Hospital and boarded 
at the matron's table ; female pupils were also received on like terms. The 
Hospital is now called the General Lying-In Hospital, having been rebuilt 
in York Road, Lambeth, at a short distance from its original situation, in 1830, 
at which time it was incorporated by Royal Charter. The average annual 
number of in-patients is 280 and of out-patients 710, and the expenditure 
is about X3i°°°- 

The Lying-In Charity for delivering married women at their own 
habitations was founded in 1757, to provide for those poor women whom 
the existing Lying-In Hospitals did not reach, for it will be remembered 
that the Hospitals had no out-patient branches at this time, except in 
the one instance of the Bayswater Hospital, which was at the extreme 
Western extremity of the Metropolis, and where the Out-patient Maternity 

* "Pietas Londinensis." A. Highmore, 1810. 



INTRODUCTION. Xlll. 

was of very limited extent. The Prince of Wales, then only five years 
old, became with the gracious permission of Her Majesty Queen Charlotte, 
its first Patron in 1768, and in the following year presented to the 
Charity a munificent benefaction of ;^Soo. In the first ten years of its 
career, its Midwives attended 4,000 poor women at their own homes. In 
1 841 its name was changed to the "Royal Maternity Charity," by which 
title it is now known. The average annual number of patients attended 
is at present about 3,500, and the yearly expenditure nearly ;^2,ooo. 

Having given a short outline of the history and work of each of the 
London Lying-in Institutions, it will probably be not uninteresting to quote 
here the consideration which prompted the philanthropists of the 
eighteenth century to found them. These considerations have as much 
force at the present day as they had then, though they are now seldom 
mentioned. This is probably because the authorities of the various 
Charities, knowing them to be old, have concluded them to be stale, and 
in the effort to publish statements, appeals for help, &c., that shall not be 
open to the reproach that they are hackneyed, have permitted the strongest 
and most forcible claims that the Lying-In Hospitals have to the sympathy 
and support of the benevolent to remain unmentioned. The following remarks 
on the necessity for Lying-in Hospitals are quoted from " Maitland's History 
of London," 1775. 

"Amidst the variety of Charities which are the distinction and glory of 
"this age and nation perhaps not one has been proposed to the publick more 
" truly beneficial, or more extensive in its benefits, than an Hospital for 
"lying-in women. It is natural and just to observe that the arguments for 
" establishing any Hospital are at least as strong when applied to this. 
" Poverty is an object of pity. Sickness and poverty united seem to com- 
" prebend all the natural evils of life. But it is not the case of every sick 
"person to be distressed in circumstances, and there are not many persons 
"thus distressed whose calamity it is to be frequently or periodically afflicted 
" with sickness ; whereas most women that marry bear children, and those who 
" work for their subsistence are for a considerable part of their lives annually 



XIV. INTRODUCTION. 

" disqualified for labour ; at other times their labour is but a bare support. 
" During the latter part of their pregnancy and the time of their lying-in, 
" the needy family is wholly taken up in attendance upon them, and the 
"joys natural to such a season are overshadowed by the wants which surround 
" them ; while if they be destitute of this attendance how great is the hazard 
" that the helpless mother, or more helpless child, or perhaps both, may by 
" their deaths become melancholy instances of the evils of real poverty." 

It will be noticed that the reasons for the existence of Lying-in Hospitals 
here set forth are wholly philanthropic and charitable in character, but 
I wish to point out that there is another very important, if not equally 
powerful, reason for their existence, viz., the facility they afford for the 
practical instruction of pupils in the art of rescuing women from the perils 
of childbirth, who without some practical training could not be entrusted, 
without grave risk to the patient, with the charge of a woman in her 
confinement. Unfortunately, all the Lying-in Hospitals do not labour in 
this field, except in so far as Midwives and Nurses are concerned, as the 
Rotunda Hospital at Dublin, and Queen Charlotte's Hospital in London, 
are the only Lying-in Hospitals in the United Kingdom that make any 
provision for the preliminary obstetric education of Students of Medicine, 
and until the establishment of the Midwifery School at Queen Charlotte's 
Hospital in 1874 the Dublin Hospital stood alone in this particular. Until 
that time the majority of the students of the great London Medical Colleges 
were forced to journey to Dublin to acquire the practical training in Midwifery 
necessary to satisfy the various examining bodies. As I have said, this is not 
now the case ; last year forty-six students passed through a short course in 
Queen Charlotte's Hospital, and this year the number will probably be not less 
than 100. It is to be hoped that the other Lying-in Hospitals will soon follow 
the example thus set, for it must be clear to every one that the necessary 
practical knowledge to enable the medical man to undertake at first the 
conduct of a lying-in case cannot be acquired in books or by lectures, but 
can only be obtained under able guidance at the bedside of the patient. 
There are but four Institutions in London where the means for such training 



INTRODUCTION. XV. 

exist ; and when the large number of students of medicine constantly under- 
going training in the London Medical Schools is borne in mind, it is obvious 
that if the practice of all the Lying-in Hospitals were rendered available for 
the purpose, it could not do more than meet the want, even if it succeeded fuUy 
in doing that. These remarks are intended to show how important it is in 
the interests of the public that the practice of the Lying-in Hospitals should 
(as is the case with other Hospitals) be utilised for the practical training of the 
medical profession, and that in their dual capacity of Charitable Institutions 
for the relief of the poor, and establishments for the practical instruction of 
students of medicine, the Lying-In Hospitals have claims to the sympathy 
and support of the public at least equal to those possessed by any other class 
of Medical Charity. 







, (^Ig^' [^,^^J^ 



HISTORY, OBJECTS AND PRESENT STATE 

QUEEN CHARLOTTE'S 
LYING-IN HOSPITAL. 



CHAPTER I. 

THE HISTORY OF THE HOSPITAL, FROM ITS FOUNDATION IN 1752 TO ITS 
REMOVAL FROM BAYSVVATER IN 1813. 



Early titles of Hospital — Situation 1752-1782 doubtful— Location 1782-1791 — Aspect of Oxford Road at this time — 
Adjacent objects of interest — Tybum Tree — Tyburn Turnpike — St. George's Burial Ground, and graves of Rev. 
Laurence Sterne and Sir Thomas Picton — Incidents while Hospital was situated in St. George's Row — Situation 
1791-1813 — Decadence of Hospital while at Bayswater — Intervention of H.R.H. the Duke of Susse-\, and reconstitu- 
tion of the Institution in 1809 — Her Majesty Queen Charlotte becomes Patron — Active interest of several Members 
of the Royal Family in the Charit) — Succession to the office of Patron of King George IV., King William IV., the 
Dowager Queen Adelaide, and Her Majesty Queen Victoria— Work of the Hospital while at Bayswater— Training 
of Pupils in Midwifery and Rules for the Pupils— Number of Patients— Efforts of the Clergy on behalf of the 
Hospital — Grand Concert for the benefit of the Hospital — Singular Resolution of the Committee of Management — 
Publication of a libel on the Hospital ; conviction and imprisonment of the offender — Remarks upon the libel — 
Dilapidated condition of the Hospital building — Purchase of the Manor House of Lisson Green, Marj-lebone, and 
removal of the Hospital from Bayswater. 

QUEEN CHARLOTTE'S Lying-in Hospital, formerly known as the 
Bayswater Lying-in Hospital, the General Lying-in Hospital at 
Bayswater, and the Queen's Lying-in Hospital, was founded in 
1752, and was thus the third in order of date among the Lying-in 
Hospitals of London ; the British having been established in 1749, and the 
City of London in 1750, while the fourth and last in point of date, the 
General at Lambeth, formerly called the Westminster Lying-in Hospital, was 
instituted in 1765. 

The situation of the Hospital at the time of its establishment and for the 
thirty succeeding years is not known with certainty. The earliest reference to 
its situation that I have been able to find, is contained in one of several Licences 
granted to the Charity by the Justices of the Peace for the County of jMiddlesex, 
as required by the Act 13 George III. cap. 82. This Licence is dated lothjanuary, 



2 THE HISTORY, OBJECTS AND PRESENT STATE OF 

1782, and the Hospital is therein described thus: — "The General Lying-in 
■" Hospital for married and unmarried women, in St. George's Row near Oxford 
" Street Turnpike, in the Parish of St. George Hanover Square, in the County 
-" of Middlesex." As it may not be generally known that Lying-in Hospitals 
are compelled to obtain a Licence before they may receive patients, a copy of 
the document above referred to will not, perhaps, be uninteresting. 

TDitD&ICBCJ. — WE whose names are hereunto subscribed, being four of His Majesty's Justices of the 
Peace for the said County of Middlesex now assembled in the General Quarter Sessions of 
the Peace, holden for the said County in Hicks Hall, in St. John Street, in the said 
County (by adjournment), on this present Thursday, being the tenth day of January in 
the twenty-second year of the reign of our Sovereign Lord King George the Third, by the 
Grace of God of Great Britain, &c., do, in pursuance and by virtue of the power given to us 
by the Act of Parliament, made in the thirteenth year of His present Majesty King George 
the Third, intituled " An Act for the better regulation of Lying-in Hospitals and other 
places appointed for the Charitable reception of Pregnant Women, and also to provide for 
the settlement of illegitimate children born in such Hospitals and places," Grant unto the 
Right Honourable Ralph, Earl of Verney, President, the Vice-President, and the 
Governors of the General Lying-in Hospital for married and unmarried Women, in St. 
George's Row, near Oxford Street Turnpike, in the Parish of St. George, Hanover 
Square, in the County of Middlesex, Licence to keep one Hospital, House, or Place, 
and no more, for the Publick or Charitable reception of Pregnant Women, called 
the General Lying-in Hospital for married and unmarried women in St. George's Row, 
near Oxford Street Turnpike, in the Parish of St. George, Hanover Square, in the 
County of Middlesex, to be used or appropriated, or to be continued to be used or 
appropriated, for the Publick Reception of Pregnant Women, pursuant and according to 
the true intent and meaning of the said Act of Parliament ; PROVIDED NEVERTHELESS, 
that the said Ralph, Earl of Verney, President of the General Lying-in Hospital, the 
Vice-Presidents, and the Governors of the same, in order that it may be more easily known 
that the said Hospital, House, or Place is Licensed as aforesaid, do affix and keep up over 
the Door or Publick Entrance of the said Hospital, House, or Place, an Inscription in large 
letters, in the following words : — LICENSED FOR THE PuBLicK Reception of Pregnant 
Women, pursuant to an Act of Parliament passed in the thirteenth year 
OF the Reign of King George the Third ; and in case such inscription shall not 
be fixed and kept on the Door or Publick Entrance of such Hospital, House, or Place, 
this Licence shall become null and void. Given under our hands at the said Session, 
and signed by us the said Justices in open Session, the day and year first above written. 

{Signed) DAVID WALKER, 

CHARLES TRIQUET, 

J. GIRDLER, 

W. BLACKBOROW. 

There can be no doubt, then, that the Hospital was situated in St. George's 
Row in 1782, and there it remained till it was moved further west nine years 
later. Before I proceed to state what little is known of the Charity while it 
stood in St. George's Row, I propose to turn aside for a moment to explain the 
reason for stating above that its situation prior to 1782 is not known with 
certainty. It has been stated and accepted as true, for at least seventy years. 



QUEEN CHARLOTTE S LYING-IN' HOSPITAL. J 

that the Hospital was founded in 1752, in St. George's Row, near Tyburn 
Turnpike, and for this reason my statement calls for explanation. 

Having assumed, on the authority of numerous papers which I had seen 
that it was a fact that St. George's Row was the scene of the Hospital's work 
from the date of its foundation to 1791, I felt that it would be interesting to 
discover if possible the exact position it occupied in the Row, and the number 
of the house. With this view a visit was paid to the Vestry Hall of the Parish 
of St. George Hanover Square, for the purpose of searching the Rate Books for 
the desired information. This work was very laborious and not very fruitful 
of result. Commencing from 1791 and working backwards, I found that St. 
George's Row occupied the site of the houses now known as Nos. 20 to 33, 
Hyde Park Place, and that probably the second house in the Row was formerly 
the Bayswater Lying-in Hospital. When the year 1767 was reached, however, 
St. George's Row disappeared from the Rate Books altogether, and was not to 
be found in any of them prior to that date. This implied, if it did not 
absolutely prove, that St. George's Row was not built before 1768, and this 
opinion was somewhat strengthened by an examination of an excellent map of 
the parish, dated 1725, fi'om which it appeared that at that time (twenty-seven 
years before the Hospital was founded) there were scarcely any houses west of 
Marylebone Lane on the Oxford Road, and not a vestige of a building of any 
kind where St. George's Row afterwards stood, nor within seven hundred yards 
of its site. Nothing more definite could be learnt at St. George's Vestry, so it 
was necessary to go further afield. The British Museum was next laid under 
contribution, and a reference to the map of London published in 1746 by 
Roque, who was then Royal Topographer, showed that up to that time the 
aspect of the Oxford Road for at least a mile west of Marylebone Lane, was 
substantially the same as in the map before referred to, and that up to that 
date there was not a house standing on the site where the Hospital is reputed 
to have stood six years later, and not only the Hospital, but a row of houses of 
which the Hospital was one. 

In a correspondence which then took place with Mr. J. H. Smith, the 
Vestry Clerk of St. George's Hanover Square, who throughout the enquiry 
was extremely kind and to whom I am indebted for much valuable assistance 
and information, I learnt that a piece of ground on the north side of the 
Oxford Road was purchased under the power of an Act of Parliament in 1763 
by the St. George's Parish, for a burial ground, and that leases of the waste 
groimd in front (which was the site of the place known as St. George's Row), 
were granted for ninety-eight years /rowz 1166, and that St. George's Row first 
appeared in the Rate Book in 1768, there being then only one house rated. 



4 THE HISTORY, OBJECTS AND PRESENT STATE OF 

This was positive and authoritative evidence that St. George's Row was not 
in existence in 1752. 

In the course of my researches at the British Museum, I found some 
facts stated in Malcolm's " Londinium Rediviviim " * which threw further light 
upon the subject. The following is an extract : — 

" The burial ground of this parish (St. George's, Hanover Square) was filled to overflowing 
■"in 1763. Sir Thomas Fredericlc being seised of the Manor of Paddington, and several lands, 
"&c., in the parish, held under a lease for three lives from the Bishop of London, agreed to sell 
"the Rector and Churchwardens" (of the Parish of St. George, Hanover Square) "all his 
"interest in five acres of ground in Tyburn Field, part of the above premises, for an adequate 
" consideration, in breadth 403 feet 4 inches, and in length 540 feet, for a cemetery ; the Rector, 
"&c., to pay £\i, per annum during the then lease from the Bishop, and ;^20 to the Bishop and 
■"his successors as long as it remained in his or their possession, and not in lease from him or 
" them to any persons claiming or to claim under or by virtue of the will of Sir Thomas Frederick : 
" a neat building was erected soon after on the south side of the above ground for the reception 
■" of the priest and persons engaged at funerals, which is a considerable improvement to the appearance 
" of the Uxbridge Road." 

At a subsequent interview with Mr. J. H. Smith, the possibility of houses 
having previously stood abutting on the Uxbridge Road and on the south side 
of the ground converted into a cemetery in 1763 was discussed, and he agreed 
with me in thinking that to suppose houses to have been built after the date of 
Roque's Survey (1741-1745), and to have been removed before 1766, when 
leases were granted of the waste ground in front of the cemetery, is simply 
.absurd. Beside, if houses had stood there it is hardly conceivable — unless 
we suppose a most extraordinary coincidence — that they should have been 
called St. George's Row ; since it is but reasonable to conclude that St. 
George's Row was so called because it was built on land belonging to St. 
George's Parish, but situate outside the parish proper. 

At this interview Mr. Smith was kind enough to lend me a copy of 
the Act of Parliament under which this purchase from Paddington was 
made. The Act is the 3 George III., cap. 50, and is intituled " An Act 
" for vesting certain parcels of land in Paddington, in the County of Middlesex, 
" in the Rector and Churchwardens of the Parish of St. George, Hanover 
■*' Square, in the said County, and appropriating the same for a burial ground 
"for the said parish." On reading it, it was found that the quotation from 
Malcolm, given above, was correct in every particular. 

I epitomize the foregoing remarks for the sake of clearness. It has 
been shown that — 

(a) In 1742 there were no houses standing where St. George's Row 
was afterwards situated. 

*" Londinium Redivivum." J. P. Malcolm, 1804. 



QUEEN charlotte's LYING-IN HOSPITAL. 5 

(b) The land on the north side of the site afterwards occupied by 

St. George's Row, was acquired by St. George's Parish in 1763, 
and leases of the waste grotmd in front were granted in 1766. 

(c) In the Rate Books of the Parish of St. George Hanover Square, 

St. George's Row appears for the first time in 1768. 
It is submitted, therefore, that it is established beyond all reasonable 
doubt that St. George's Row was not built before 1768, and that therefore 
the Hospital could not have been established there in 1752. Where it was 
established is the next question that proposes itself, but in spite of careful 
enquiry and research I am unable to throw any light upon the subject. 

In the Chapter on the Hospitals and Almshouses of London in Maitland s 
History of London* (1756), mention is made of a "Lying-in Hospital m 
" Duke Street, Grosvenor Square, which first began in Jermyn Street, St. 
"James's." As the Lying-in Hospital at Bayswater is not mentioned m this 
work, it occurred to me that it might have been founded in Jermyn Street, 
removed first to Duke Street, Grosvenor Square, and afterwards to St. George's 
Row and that in this way Maitland's Duke Street Hospital and ours might 
be identical. Another search in Rate Books failed, however, to find a reference 
to a Hospital of any kind in Duke Street at the time Maitland's book was 
written, and all attempts to establish a connection between the Charity therein 
referred to and the Bayswater Hospital resulted in failure. 

There is a reference to the Hospital in " Gorton's Topographical Dictionary,"t 
which I hoped might have led to some light being thrown upon the subject, 
but as it only resulted in making confusion more confounded, it will be 
sufficient to quote it. The reference is found under the heading, " Bayswater, 
a Hamlet in the Parish of Paddington," and is as follows :-" The Lying-in 
" Hospital, instituted in 1752, is also in this Hamlet, whence it was removed 
"from Cumberland Street, where it was first established:^ 

The names Tyburn Field, Tyburn Turnpike, and Oxford Road call to 
mind the London of one hundred and thirty years ago, and the contrast it 
presents to the London of to-day. What a difference between the present 
Oxford Street and Uxbridge Road, and the Oxford and Worcester Road of 
the period of which we have been speaking ! Let us suppose ourselves walking 
from the point where Oxford Circus now stands. At first we should find houses 
on both sides of the way, those on the right belonging to the new streets 
leading up to Cavendish Square, which was planned in 1715, and laid out 



■ " History of London from it5 foundation to tlie present time. " W. Maitland, F.R.S., 1756- 
t " A Topographical Dictionary of Great Britain and Ireland. " John Gorton, 1833. 



6 THE HISTORY, OBJECTS AND PRESENT STATE OF 

about 1 717.* After passing Marylebone Lane and a few yards further on 
the bridge over Tyburn Brook, the houses on the right come to an abrupt 
termination and nothing is seen but fields stretching away to Marybone, 
which so late as the opening of the present century was a small village nearly 
a mile distant from any part of the Metropolis. This locality was at that 
time infested by footpads, who often robbed and stripped persons in the fields 
between London and Marybone.t On the left hand, however, the houses 
continue with a few breaks till we come to Tyburn Lane or Hyde Park Lane. 
A short distance further on, and at the corner of the road now called Edgware 
Road, we are confronted with the notorious Tyburn Tree, the public place 
of execution for criminals convicted in the County of Middlesex, from a date 
according to several authorities as far back as the middle of the fourteenth 
century.! The last execution at Tyburn was that of John Austin, in I783.§ The 
Hospital was within a few yards of the gallows at this date, but it is to be 
hoped for the sake of their reputation, that none of the nurses or other 
servants were spectators at the executions, or wasted what little money they 
had in paying 2s. or 2s. 6d. for a seat, which Malcolm describes people as doing 
when Dr. Henley was to have been executed in 1758 for high treason ; on 
which occasion he says that " in the midst of general expectation, the doctor 
was most provokingly reprieved ;" and quite a riot ensued, owing to the 
disappointed sight-seers demanding the return of their money. 

A few yards further on was Tyburn Turnpike, which stood in a line 
with the western corner of the present Edgware Road where it remained 
till 1825, being one of the first of the London toll-gates to be abolished, some 
of them remaining till 1864 when a Bill was passed by the Legislature for the 
abolition of all toll-bars in the neighbourhood of the Metropolis north of the 
Thames. From this point westward the Park ran as at present on the left — 
being shut out from view, however, by a wall about twenty feet high — 
and open fields on the right for a considerable distance till we come to 
Bayswatering, formerly Baynard's Watering from having supplied Baynard's 
Castle with water, and now Bayswater. These remarks will convey a rough 
idea of the aspect of this part of the high road to Oxford one hundred and 

* "Timbs' Curiosities of London," p. 680. f "Tirabs' Curiosities of London," p. 680. 

{ The gallows, which was triangular, was for many years a standing fixture on a small eminence 
at the corner of the Edgware Road, on the identical spot where a tool house has since been erected 
by the Uxbridge Road Trust ; beneath this place Ue the bones of Ireton, Bradshaw, and other 
regicides, which were taken from their graves after the Restoration and buried under the 
gallows. — " Smith's History of Marylebone, 1833." 

§ " Timbs' Curiosities of London," p. 744. 



QUEEN charlotte's LYING-IN HOSPITAL. 7 

thirty years ago. Things have so changed since then that where the Tyburn 
Brook crossed the road, and where the Tyburn Tree stood, are questions upon 
which there are many diverse opinions. 

At the back of the Hospital, as has been before intimated, was situated the 
burial ground of St. George's Parish. Here in 1768 was buried all that was 
mortal of the Rev. Laurence Sterne, author of " Tristram Shandy " and " The 
Sentimental Journey," the English Rabelais, as he was called, of whom 
Horace Walpole sneeringly wrote :-" I know, from indubitable authority, 
"that his mother, who kept a school, having run in debt on account of an 
"extravagant daughter, would have rotted in a gaol if the parents of her 
"scholars had not raised a subscription for her. Her own son had too much 
" sentiment to have any feeling. A dead ass was more important to him 
" than a living mother." His grave is denoted by a headstone which was set 
up by two Freemasons, and restored by a shilling subscription in 1846.* The 

inscription is as follows : — 

alas! poor L'ottcft. 

Near to this Place 

lies the body of 

THE REVEREND LAURENCE STERNE, 

Dyed September -Ll, 11^%. 

Aged 53 Years. 
Hb! flDoUitcr, ossa quicscant. 

If a sound head, wann heart, and breast humane, 

UnsuUy'd worth, and soul without a stain. 

If mental powers could ever justly claim 

The well won tribute of immortal fame, 

Sterne was the Man who with gigantic stride 

Mow'd do\ra luxuriant follies far and wide. 

Yet what though keenest knowledge of mankind 

Unseald to him the Springs that move the mind. 

What did it boot him, Ridicul'd, abus'd. 

By foes insulted and by prudes accus'd. 

In his, mild reader, view thy future fate. 

Like him despise what t'were a sin to hate. 
This Monumental Stone was erected to the memory of the deceased by two Brother Masons, 
for although he did not live to be a Member of their Society, yet all his incomparable 
Performances evidently prove him to have acted by Rule and Square ; they rejoice m this 
opportunity of perpetuating his high and unapproachable character to after ages. ^^ ^ ^^ 

Here also was buried, forty-seven years later. Sir Thomas Picton.t one of 
the heroes and victims of Waterloo ; his body was subsequently removed to 
St. Paul's Cathedral,- where it now rests. 

* '■■ Timbs' Curiosities of London." t " London in 1883." Herbert Fr)-. 



8 ■ THE HISTORY, OBJECTS AND PRESENT STATE OF 

It will probably occur to the reader that with the gallows quite close and a 
burial ground at the back, the spot was not particularly well chosen for 
establishing a Lying-in Hospital, a view to which I am rather disposed to 
incline. Very likely this consideration prompted the Committee to change 
■ their quarters and go further west. Thither we will now follow them, as there 
are no Reports, Minute Books, or other papers of interest procurable relating to 
the Charity while it was situated in St. George's Row, and nothing deserving of 
mention is known of its history at that early period of its existence, except that 
in 1787 two eminent Frenchmen, Messrs. Tenon and Colomb, who had been 
appointed by the Royal Academy of Sciences of Paris to visit every Hospital 
in the United Kingdom, and to make a particular and minute report and 
description of each Institution on their return, visited the Hospital in 
St. George's Row. The date of the visit was the 9th June, and the visitors 
were attended on the occasion by Dr. Walsh.* 

The Hospital was removed to Bayswater in 1791. From this date much 
more is known of its history and work (though for a few years there is still 
much obscurity) as all the histories of London from 1790 mention it, as well as 
many other works relating to the metropolis. For a long time, however, I was 
unable to discover its exact situation. The Minute Books, which were 
excellently kept, have been preserved from 1809, but although they are full of 
information the address of the Charity is not given. In fact every document 
I could find at the Hospital referring to this period described it merely as the 
Bayswater Lying-in Hospital, and this was doubtless sufficiently exact for all 
purposes at that time, when the houses at Bayswater were very few and far 
between. When looking over some old papers, which had most fortunately 
escaped destruction years ago, I found a single dirty page torn from a copy 
of the Laws of the Charity, dated 1809, on which I read as follows: — 
" Patients are admitted, by letters of recommendation from a subscriber, at the 
" General Lying-In Hospital, Bayswater Hall." This was a start for which I 
was sufficiently thankful, and as the quantity of papers was large I carefully 
preserved them till opportunity for further search should present itself. On the 
next occasion I found a draft of a letter which seems to have been sent to the 
clergy asking them to preach sermons on behalf of the Charity, in which it is 
described as the " Queen's General Lying-In Hospital, Bayswater Gate." In a 
tender for butchers' meat which I found the same day, it is called the Queen's 
General Lying-In Hospital at Bayswater Hall. It may be mentioned in passing, 
that the price at which this worthy butcher — one Barnard Brooke — engaged to 
supply prime joints, was 7d. per lb., with a deduction of 2^ per cent, if payment 

* "The Gentleman's Magazine," 1787. 



QUEEN CH.\RLOTTE S LYING- IN HOSPITAL. 9 

was made regularly every three months. I imagine if this gentleman's 
descendants are still carrying on the business, they would have to think twice 
before agreeing to supply us on the same terms. 

Further information I failed to get at the Hospital, as all other books 
and papers referring to this period simply describe it as the General Lying-in 
Hospital at Bayswater. 

The books which I have referred to at the British Museum and elsewhere 
do not help much, but they give some interesting particulars of which the 
substance is somewhat as follows : — The Hospital stood at a short distance 
from the high road, sufficiently retired for the necessary quiet of such a 
purpose, and was surrounded by a garden of sufficient extent to allow of part 
for a pleasant avenue and an agreeable shade on the one side, and of vegetable 
cultivation on the other.* 

It was situated near the eastern extremity of Bayswater, the building occupy- 
ing a site judiciously retired and quiet, surrounded by an extensive garden.t 

In an invaluable work on the condition of the poor at this time, and in 
the chapter dealing with national establishments for their relief, I find the 
Hospital mentioned. It stands there fifth in order among the Lying-in 
Hospitals of London, and is referred to as '' The Lying-in Hospital, Bayswater 
" Hall, Oxford Road."t 

It is certain, therefore, that the Hospital was situated at Bayswater 
Hall ; but then one asks where was Bayswater Hall ? This is exactly what 
I have been unable to discover. No trouble has been spared to find out ; 
maps of London of this date have been examined, and every book that I 
could imagine would refer to the subject has been consulted, but in vain. 
A letter which I wrote to Mr. Henry Walker, F.G.S., the able author of 
the papers on the "History and Antiquities of Paddington," which recently 
appeared in the columns of the " Bayswater Chronicle," resulted in my 
obtaining a suggestion that the Bayswater Gate mentioned in the document 
before referred to, might be the Turnpike Gate which stood at the corner 
of Black Lion Lane (now Queen's Road), stretching across the road to the 
wall enclosing Kensington Gardens. For a variety of reasons, some of which 
will readily occur to the reader from what has preceded, and others which 
occur to me but which it would be wearisome to mention, I am strongly 
of opinion that this is the spot close to which the Hospital formerly stood. 

* " Pietas Londinensis : The History, &c., of the Public Charities in and near London." 
A. Highmore, iSio. 

t " Beauties of England and Wales." J. Norris Brewer, 18 16. 

f " The State of the Poor, &c., from the Conquest to the Present Time." Sir Frederick Morton 
Eden, Bart., 1797. 



10 THE HISTORY, OBJECTS AND PRESENT STATE OF 

Having done the best I can to settle the position of the Hospital in 
Bayswater, I will now proceed to speak of its history and work while there. 

From 1791 to 1809, or at any rate for a considerable part of the time, 
certainly frota 1800, the Charity was extremely badly managed. Highmore, 
in 1810, says : " It had lately fallen almost into disuse." In the Annual Report 
for 1816 are found the following expressions: "It is but a few years since 
" this Institution was so embarrassed, as not only to be deficient in the 
" means to discharge the current expenses, but a heavy debt had also been 

" contracted which, &c must soon have terminated in closing 

"the doors of this excellent Institution." And again : " From the above stated 
■" time of fearful embarrassment, &c." From these statements it is evident 
that the Charity, at the time referred to, was nearly on its last legs. Not much 
is known of the cause of all this trouble, but something has come down to us. 

From the Report of a Special Committee, which was appointed in July, 
1809, "To make Enquiry into the nature of the establishment of the General 
"Lying-in Hospital, the manner in which it had been conducted, and its 
" present state," which I have now before me, it appears that for some reason 
the Hospital had got to be considered as the private property of the owner 
of the house, that hence all the money raised by subscriptions, legacies, or 
otherwise, for the benefit of the Charity, was considered as disposable by him ; 
that two doctors actually purchased the goodwill of the house, with all the 
■supposed privileges, and by a special agreement stipulated to pay to the 
former proprietor one-third of a legacy bequeathed to the Hospital by the 
late Admiral Dennis, when it should be received, and did actually so pay 
it afterwards; that the Hospital was purchased by one of these doctors, and 
■directions were given in his will to sell it again by private bargain or by 
public auction. It also appears that the purchaser of the house assumed the 
power of nominating himself Physician to the Hospital, without an election, 
and without the consent, or even the knowledge, of the subscribers by whom 
the Hospital was supported ; that one of the doctors laid out considerable 
rsums of money for the purpose of keeping the house in habitable repair ; 
that the part of the house then allotted to patients was two small rooms in 
the attic storey only, the matron living in the basement, and the principal 
■floor having been reserved for the owner of the house, and in no case for 
the patients; that by these proceedings the pecuniary and medical manage- 
ment of the Hospital fell under the control of the person who owned the 
house, and that the subscriptions to the Hospital had for several years so 
much declined, that they were not adequate to the necessary expenditure 
of the Charity. 





HIS l;n^•Al. Hlr.HNRSS 

THE LATE DUKE OF SUSSEX, 

Presidcnl of I he HoKpi/al, 1809—1843. 



QUEEN charlotte's LYING-IN HOSPITAL. II 

No wonder the subscriptions had declined, when things were in the state 
described in this Report. Indeed, it is evident that the affairs of the Institution 
had been grossly mismanaged, and that its condition had become serious. 

It was at this time that His Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex became 
interested in the Charity, and, being satisfied of the necessity for such an 
Institution in this part of London, applied himself to investigating the causes 
of its decay, and determining the remedies to remove them with such energy 
and perseverance that, in the words of the Committee at that time, " the 
" prospect of speedy relief and future prosperity did not long remain matter for 
" speculative opinion." 

To the intervention of His Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex at this 
time, the very existence of the Hospital is to be attributed. 

The work of renovation was not a light one, even for one in the high 
position and possessing the commanding influence of His Royal Highness ; and 
the Minute Books for the years 1809 to 1812 are a long unbroken record of 
changes, additions, and improvements, effected at his instance. 

His Royal Highness became President in July, 1809, when a Committee of 
twelve Governors was appointed ; he was also induced, as his residence at 
Kensington Palace was in the immediate vicinity of the Hospital, to accept the 
office of Chairman of the Committee. In October of the same year, a Code of 
Laws was drawn up for the government of the Hospital by a Special Com- 
mittee, of which His Royal Highness was the head ; and so carefully were 
these Laws prepared, that, with the additions which have been made from 
time to time as different conditions have arisen, they have continued in force 
to the present day. 

Perhaps nothing can show more clearly the sincerity and depth of the 

Duke of Sussex's interest in the Charity, than the following letter which His 

Royal Highness wrote to the Committee, when sending for their consideration 

a sketch of the Laws which he recommended for the future government of the 

Charity. It is as follows : — 

" Chipping Norton, 

" September Zth, iSog. 
" Gentlemen, — On my way here, where I am detained now by indisposition, I can assure you 
" that the interest of the Bayswater Lying-in Hospital has sincerely occupied my thoughts. With 
" the same anxiety as I would endeavour to assist a distressed friend, I have turned in my mind 
" various plans for extricating our new adopted child from her difficulties, and for ensuring her 
" hereafter a probability of affluence. These I will hastily commit to paper. Should any of them 
" meet with the ideas of my brethren of the Committee, I should feel happy in their being so far 
" adopted as to be recommended for consideration to the Governors at our next General Meeting. 

" (Signed) AUGUSTUS Frederick." 

In November, 1809, Her Majesty Queen Charlotte, at the solicitation of 



12 THE HISTORY, OBJECTS AND PRESENT STATE OF 

His Royal Highness, became the Patron of the Institution ; and its name was 
changed from the General Lying-in Hospital, to the Queen's General Lying- 
in Hospital. This statement will correct an impression which is very general, 
that the Hospital is called Queen Charlotte's Hospital from its having been 
founded by Queen Charlotte. It may be well to remind my readers, also, 
that Queen Charlotte could not have founded the Hospital, inasmuch as it 
was founded in 1752, at which time the future Queen Charlotte was Princess 
of Mecklenburgh-Strelitz, her marriage with His Majesty King George III. 
taking place nine years later, on the 8th September, 1761. His Royal Highness 
the Duke of Sussex also induced his brother, the Prince of Wales, to become a 
Patron and subscriber to the Hospital, who continued so as Prince Regent, and 
afterwards as King George IV., till his death in 1830. His Royal Highness's 
brothers, the Dukes of York, Kent (Her Most Gracious Majesty's illustrious 
father), Cambridge, and Cumberland, were also Patrons at this time, and 
so were their Royal Highnesses the Duchesses of Kent, Cambridge, and 
Gloucester. 

It is worthy of mention that from the date when these Royal personages 
were induced by the advocacy of the Duke of Sussex to become supporters 
of the Charity, it has always enjoyed the high honour of Royal patronage. 
Queen Charlotte was succeeded in the office of Patron by King George TV.; 
King William IV. next accepted it, and His Majesty was succeeded by the 
Dowager Queen Adelaide, who remained Patron till her death in 1849. In the 
year 1850 Her Majesty Queen Victoria was graciously pleased to become and 
still continues to be Patron, and in 1866 the office of Vice-Patron was accepted 
by Her Royal Highness the Princess of Wales. To this list of Royal Patrons 
of the Hospital must also be added the name of His late Majesty Leopold 
King of the Belgians, who was a generous contributor to its funds for upwards 
of thirty years. 

His Royal Highness's association with the Charity resulted in numerous 
members of the nobility and gentry becoming subscribers to its funds ; and we 
find among its supporters in 181 6, ten Royal Princes and Princesses, and nearly 
one hundred ladies and gentlemen of title, including the Duke of Bedford, 
the Duchess of Buccleuch, the Duchess of Bristol, the Duke and Duchess 
of Devonshire, the Duke and Duchess of Grafton, the Duke of Hamilton, the 
Duke of Marlborough, and the Duchesses of Richmond, of Rutland, and of 
Wellington. 

Under these happy auspices the Charity made rapid progress, and we 
find its work most favourably referred to in various books and publications 
of the time. 



QUEEN CHARLOTTES LYING-IN HOSPITAL. 1 3 

It was the first Lying-in Hospital in Great Britain which combined the 
advantages of affording rehef both to in-patients and out-patients, and the 
first also to have compassion on unmarried women with their first child. The 
Governors, reflecting on the numerous instances where women of this descrip- 
tion, overwhelmed with shame and destitute of friends, had been tempted to 
destroy themselves or their infants, resolved to admit such of them to 
participate in the benefits of the Charity as were found to be deserving objects. 
Separate wards were set apart for these unmarried women, and the Hospital 
was worked on similar principles to those at present in force. 

With regard to the out-patients, the limits within which they were 
attended were Temple Bar and Holborn Bar to the east. Hammersmith to the 
west, Fulham to the south, and Hampstead to the north. It will at once be seen 
that a large number of Midwives would be necessary to provide for the needs of 
a district so extensive ; and such was, in fact, the case, for in 18 1 6 there were 
seventeen Midwives on the Hospital list. 

The mention of a district of this great extent, within which there was no 
other Institution for the relief of necessitous women at the anxious period of 
childbirth, shows the need there was for such a Charity in this part of London, 
and what a loss it would have been to this unfortunately numerous class, if the 
Hospital had through mismanagement ceased to exist. They had no house of 
refuge nearer than Westminster Bridge to the south, or Brownlow Street to 
the north, and if they failed to procure the necessary letter of recommendation 
for either of these, they were obliged to proceed as far as the Lying-in Hospital 
in the City Road. Many such cases had occurred, the serious risks of which 
are very apparent when their pregnant condition is considered. 

In addition to providing for the delivery of poor lying-in women, the 
Hospital, even at this early date, received resident male pupils. Women, also, 
who were desirous of receiving instruction in Midwifery, were admitted, 
provided there were then no male pupils in the house. I desire to call 
particular attention to the preceding, as showing that, if not from its first 
commencement at any rate from 1809, when the Hospital was renovated and 
reconstituted under the personal supervision of His Royal Highness the Duke 
of Sussex, a Training School for Medical Pupils as well as Midwives has been 
a' formally constituted integral part of its purpose and aim. As this renovation 
in 1809 was practically the establishment of the present Institution, and is 
certainly the earhest date from which a continuous record of its laws and work 
exists, it may be said that the reception and training of Medical Pupib and 
Midwives was an essential feature in the design of the Charity at the beginning, 
especially as there is nothing to show that they were not received before 1809, 



14 THE HISTORY, OBJECTS AND PRESENT STATE OF 

any more than there is evidence to the contrary. For the purpose of placing 
on record more definite evidence than mere statement of the fact that pupils 
were received at this time, I give an excerpt from the Laws for the Government 
of the Institution as amended on the 21st October, 1809, His Royal Highness 
the Duke of Sussex being in the chair, which Laws were then formally confirmed 
by His Royal Highness's signature. 

"HOUSE PUPILS." 

" The Physician and Surgeon in Ordinary shall have the privilege of taking Pupils, who, 
" before they are admitted, must be examined and approved by them. 

" All such Pupils shall have attended at least two Courses of Lectures on Midwifery. 

" There shall not (for the present) be more than two Pupils residing in the Hospital, who 
" shall be engaged for not less than three months, or more than six, and may board at the Matron's 
" table, paying to the Treasurer, three months in advance, at the rate of One Guinea per week, in 
" which shall not be included either washing, tea, sugar, wine, or porter ; and who shall not leave 
" the Hospital at any time whilst the Matron is absent from it. 

" Not more than one Pupil shall at any time be allowed to go into any of the Wards, nor 
" shall he enter the Wards except with the Physician, Surgeon, or Matron, unless in cases of 
" emergency, which he must report immediately in writing either to the Physician or Surgeon ; and 
" if any Pupil shall act contrary to this order, or in any manner misbehave, such Pupil shall be 
" immediately dismissed from the Hospital, and excluded from any further privilege of attending 
"the same. 

" Women desirous of being instructed in the practice of Midwifery, may be admitted to the 
" Hospital on the recommendation of the Physician or Surgeon in Ordinary, on the same terms 
" as the male Pupils, provided there shall be no male Pupils then residing in the house." 

These were the fundamental objects of the Charity in 1809, and from 
this time it settled down to work in real earnest. For the next ten years 
the annual average of in-patients was one hundred and forty, and of out- 
patients one hundred and nineteen ; and the numbers gradually but constantly 
increased. There is no evidence obtainable as to the results, or whether 
there were many deaths among the mothers or children. The Minutes 
show that some deaths occurred, but particulars are wanting. 

In 1 8 10 an epidemic of scarlet fever occurred in the Hospital, which was 
so severe that several patients died, and it was necessary to close the Hospital 
for three months. During this time temporary premises, consisting of the 
upper part of a house, were taken at 7, Junction Place, Paddington, for 
the sum of twenty-four pounds for the three months, where the operations 
of the Charity were carried on, and for which the Hospital Authorities were 
compelled to take out a separate licence. These three months, during which 
the house at Bayswater was unoccupied, afforded opportunity for thoroughly 
cleaning and disinfecting it, and several small repairs were made at the same 
time to render the place more habitable, for it was very dilapidated and by 
no means water-tight ; and many complaints are found in the Minute Books 
from 1809 as to its unfitness for the purposes of a Hospital. 



QUEEN charlotte's LYING-IN HOSPITAL. 1 5 

At this time the Clergy rendered most valuable assistance to the Charity 
by preaching sermons in its behalf. In several instances a sum exceeding 
one hundred pounds was received as the result of a sermon. One such occasion 
is described in the following copy of a public notice referring to it : — 

TO THE INHABITANTS OF CHELSEA. 



PARK CHAPEL, CHELSEA, 

Saving been Re-built and considerably Mnlarged, 

WILL BE OPENED FOE DIVINE SERVICE 

On Sunday next, October 14th, 1810, 

WHEN 

A SERMON 

WILL BE PEEACHED, FOE THE BENEFIT OP THE 

QUEEN'S LYING-IN HOSPITAL, BAY'S-WATER, 

BY THE 

RIGHT REV. JOHN, LORD BISHOP OF LONDON. 



His Royal Highness the Duke of SUSSEX, &c., President 
of the Institution, will be present on the Occasion. 



STEWARDS. 
Sir Henry Wilson J. Richardson, Esq. 

Sir Henry Gwillisi W. Boscawen, Esq. 

Colonel Smyth M. Yatman, Esq. 

G. BuRLEY, Esq. R. Clarke, Esq. 

Together with the Trustees and Committee of the said Hospital. 

During the Service will be performed the Hundred and Forty Ninth Psalm, 
a Chorus from the " Creation," the Hallelujah Chorus, and Coronation 
Anthems, &c., by a Select Company of Professional Singers, assisted by His 
Royal Highness the Duke of Kent's Band. 

the service to begun at half past eleven. 

In March, 1811, the renowned singer, Madame Catalini, and Mr. Braham 
the celebrated tenor, with some musical friends, offered to sing for the benefit 
of the Hospital. A Concert was accordingly arranged to take place early 



l6 THE HISTORY, OBJECTS AND PRESENT STATE OF 

in May. A considerable sum was received by the Hospital as the outcome 
of this act of kindness, and both Madame Catalini and Mr. Braham were 
elected Honorary Governors for their efforts on behalf of the Institution. 

At the Committee Meeting in May of this year, a few days before the 
Anniversary Dinner, I find the following Resolution entered as carried 
unanimously: "Resolved, that at this and all other Anniversary Dinners, 
"no French Wines or Madeira shall ever be introduced." When it is 
remembered that the Peninsular War was at this time at its height, the 
battles of Fuentes d'Onore and Albuera being fought in this month, the 
antagonistic spirit disclosed in this Resolution will not be difficult to un- 
derstand. 

In September, 1812, a most extraordinary letter, signed, "An Inhabitant 
" of the Neighbourhood," appeared in the columns of a weekly pamphlet 
called " Truth," otherwise " Saturday Morning," containing most extravagant 
charges of misconduct against the officials of the Hospital, stating that the 
Nurses accepted bribes, and charging to the Management the most outrageous 
and no.xious abuses. 

A letter more grossly violent, both in the language employed and in the 
charges made, can scarcely be conceived. It is utterly unfit for repetition. 
An idea of its character may be formed by reading the opening sentence, which 

was as follows : — 

" To THE Editor of ' Saturday Morning.' 
" Sir, — The principles of your useful work seem to me calculated to improve and inform the 
" public on every topic of notoriety. My communications on the B**sw**** Lying-in Hospital 
"may perhaps stagger belief at the first blush, but when properly explained they will banish doubt 
" and fill with indignation the breasts of those who are not totally lost to every principle, &c., &c." 
Here follow the details which I have already alluded to ; the writer concludes : " As I am 
" personally known to you, Sir, you will not, I presume, impute this representation to any but the 
" proper motives ; from 

" Your friend and well-wisher, 

"An Inhabitant of the Neighbourhood. 
"Saturday Evening, September 12th, 1812." 

To the letter was affixed the following editorial note : — 

" We agree with our friend that a parallel case of depravity has not before come within 
" our knowledge, and we have already given it a place in this work, &c., &c." 

As soon as His Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex and the Committee 
became aware of the publication of this letter, three of the Members called 
upon the Editor of the paper, told him it was an infamous fabrication, and 
demanded that he would give up the author and thereby prevent a prosecution 
against himself. This, however, he peremptorily refused to do, and insisted 
that the statement was correct in all respects. No satisfaction being obtained 



QUEEN CHARLOTTES LYING-IN HOSPITAL. 1 7 

from the Editor, it was decided to prosecute him for hbel, and steps were 
immediately taken. 

It soon transpired that the letter was the production of the Editor himself, 
the form it was thrown into, with the editorial note at the end, being a 
subterfuge to lend to the complaint the appearance of being that of a private 
individual associated with the work of the Charity, and thus to add to its weight 
and importance. 

The case was tried at the Westminster Sessions, in January, 1813. The 
following is an extract from the brief for the prosecution, which was conducted 
in the name of John Badger, the Secretary of the Hospital : — 

"The defendant, named William Horncastle, is a stationer and pamphlet seller of No. 9, 
" Titchborne Street, Haymarket, and this prosecution is for publishing on the 19th day of 
" September last a gross, false, and scandalous libel on the said Institution ; in a low scurrilous 
" weekly publication called ' Saturday Morning ' or ' Truth,' of which the defendant is the publisher." 

In the result the defendant, William Horncastle, was convicted of libel 
and sentenced to twelve months' imprisonment, and at the expiration of which 
he was to enter into recognizances for his good behaviour for two years, himself 
in five hundred pounds, and two sureties in two hundred pounds each ; and to 
be kept in custody until such sureties should be given. 

A better illustration of the phrase " the biter bit," would be hard to find. 
The libel was far more malicious than at iirst appears. As we have stated, 
there had been bad management in the administration of the Charity, and 
knowing this, and acting on the principle that a lie which is half the truth is 
always the most difficult to disprove, this man took advantage of the difficulties 
from which the Charity had not yet quite emerged, to level charges against it 
which, if not refuted, would probably have resulted in its doors being closed. 
Out of evil, however, often comes good. The speed with which such things 
always travel must have brought the matter to the notice of everyone who 
knew of the Hospital, and of many who were previously unaware of its 
existence. The papers which I have seen relating to the prosecution, state that 
considerable public interest was excited in the matter. This trial, therefore, 
proving as it did that such charges as these were not founded on fact, and could 
not be substantiated, furnished at once a decisive and authoritative contradiction 
of the reports which had been rife, as well as an audience, so to speak, 
immeasurably larger and more general than could ever have been reached by 
any method, however able and however actively and diligently applied, which 
it would have been possible for the Committee to devise for the purpose of 
bringing to the notice of the public an accurate statement of the condition 
of the Charity. 



10 THE HISTORY, OBJECTS AND PRESENT STATE OF 

In the early part of 1813, William Horncastle, then undergoing his 
sentence, appealed to the Committee, through his friends, to support a petition 
to the Crown for the remission of a part of his sentence ; but although at first 
His Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex hoped the application would be 
leniently considered by the Committee, it was subsequently felt that, as the 
libel was of so damaging a nature, and as the application was unaccompanied 
by any apology, it would be wrong in the interests of the Charity to entertain 
it for one moment, and it was accordingly dismissed. 

This incident may be considered as the closing scene in the dark chapter of 
the history of the Hospital, for although the Charity has experienced many ups 
and downs in the seventy-three years that have since elapsed, its very existence 
has not been threatened as it undoubtedly was at that time. 

I have already had occasion to mention, in connection with the closing of 
the Institution in 1810, on the occasion of an outbreak of scarlet fever, 
the fact that complaints of the bad state of the Hospital building had often 
been made. 

In the Minutes of the Committee Meetings in 181 1 and 1812, frequent 
references are found to the dilapidated condition of the house, its unfitness for 
occupation as a Hospital, and its out of the way situation. At a General 
Meeting in February, 1813, the subject came on for special discussion. At the 
same Meeting a letter was received from the Solicitors to the Hospital Estate, 
stating that a fresh lease of the premises could not be obtained ; and, further, 
that a convenient, well situated freehold property, including a good house in a 
•desirable situation, was then on sale, and not unlikely to be had on reasonable 
■terms. The Governors present thereupon gave instructions for steps to be 
taken to ascertain on what terms the property referred to could be acquired. 

The premises in question were the Old Manor House of Lisson Green, and 
grounds, in Marylebone. 

Enquiries were duly made, and negotiations entered into, which resulted in 
the property being purchased by R. Kilby Cox, Esq., a Member of the 
Committee of Management, on behalf of the Governors of the Hospital, from 
Benjamin Tucker, Esq., the owner. 



QUEEN charlotte's LYING-IN HOSPITAL. 3 9 



CHAPTER II. 

THE HISTORY OF THE HOSPITAL FROM ITS REMOVAL TO MARYLEBONE 

TO THE PRESENT TIME. 

Skelch of the History of the Manor of Lisson Green— Description of the Manor, from Domesday Book— Purchase of the 
Manor House by the Hospital authorities -Description of interior of the house— Sale of property in Stingo Lane 
belonging to the Manor House Estate-Finance of Hospital subsequent to removal— Continued support by the 
Clergy— Revision of the Laws— Construction of two new Wards— Failure of Charity's Bankers— Increase in the 
number of patients-Unsatisfactory condition of Hospital building— Failing health of H.R.H. the Duke of Sussex- 
Second failure of Charitv's Bankers-Death of H.R.H. the Duke of Sussex— Progress of the Institution during the 
Presidentship of His Royal Highness— His Royal Highness the Duke of Cambridge becomes President-Rebuilding 
of Hospital decided upon— Old Manor House of Lisson Green demolished— Completion and opening of the new 
Hospital-Description and principal characteristics of the new building-Cost of the new Hospital— Subsequent 
structural additions and alterations— Great increase in the number of patients— Inadequacy of the accommodation- 
Decision to enlarge the Hospital— Details of the proposed enlargement— Results following rebuilding in 1856— Unsuc- 
cessful attempt to obtain an Act of Incorporation— Establishment of Samaritan Fund— The Metropolitan Railway and 
the Hospital— Viscount Portman elected President— Hospitals and the payment of Poor Rates-Training of Midwives 
for the Army-Special provision for Wives of Soldiers and Sailors on active ser^•ice-The Administration re- 
organized—Establishment of Metropolitan Hospital Sunday and Hospital Saturday Funds— Progress of Hospital 
and Training School— Wood pavement- Incorporation of the Institution by Royal Charier. 

BEFORE proceeding to refer to the points of interest in connection 
with the Hospital since its removal from Bayswater, it may be worth 
while to allude briefly to the history of the Manor and Manor 
House of Lisson Green, Marylebone, which was for the future to 
be the scene of the work of the Charity. 

Occasion may here be taken to refer to the origin of the name Marylebone, 
a point upon which an erroneous impression exists in the minds of many. It 
was anciently called Tiburn,* from its situation near a small bourne or rivulet 
formerly called Aye-brook or Eye-brook, and later, Tiburn Brook-t 

When the site of the Church at Tiburn was altered to a spot nearer the 
brook, it was probably called Mary-at-the-Bourne. The word Bourne, by the 
omission of the letters ur, became bone, hence Marrowbone, with the lower 

* Lysons' "Environs of London," 1795. 
t This broolc or bourne ran on the south side of Hampstead, passing near Bellsize to Barrow 
Hill Farm, thence through Marylebone Park (now Regent's Park) to Marylebone Lane, across 
the 0.\ford Road (now Oxford Street), near Stratford Place, and Piccadilly under a bridge near 
Hay Hill (which is supposed by some to take its name from this Aye-brook), through the Green 
Park, near Buckingham House, thence through Tothill Fields (on part of the site of which now 
stands Vincent Square, Westminster), finally falling into the Thames at a place called King's 
Scholars' Pond, a little below Chelsea. 



20 THE HISTORY, OBJECTS AND PRESENT STATE OF 

classes;* and Marylebone, or Mary the good, with others who have not 
examined into the derivation. t 

After this Uttle digression, I will proceed to deal with the early history of 
the Manor of Lisson Green : — 

The Manor of Lilestone (Lisson Green) is mentioned in Domesday Book, 
among the lands in Osvlvestane (Ossulstone) Hundred given in alms. It is stated 
to have contained five hides (about 600 acres). In King Edward the Confessor's 
time, Edward, the son of Suain, a vassal of the King, held the Manor, and 
might alien it at pleasure. When the survey was taken, Eideva held it of 
the King. The land, says the record, is three carucates (plough-lands). In 
demesne are four hides and a half, on which are two ploughs. The villanes 
have one plough. There are four villanes, each holding half a virgate (a 
virgate equalled one-fourth of a hide of about 120 acres), three cottagers with 
two acres, and one serf; meadow for (the team of) one plough; pasture for 
the cattle of the village ; wood for 100 pigs ; and threepence arising from 
the herbage. With all its profits it was worth sixty shillings ; in King 
Edward's time, forty shillings. | 

The Manor afterwards became the property of the Priory of St. John of 
Jerusalem, § on the suppression of which it was granted in 1548 to Thomas 
Heneage, Esq., and Lord Willoughby, who conveyed it the same year to Edward, 
Duke of Somerset. On his attainder it reverted to the Crown, and was granted 
in 1564 to Edward Downing, Esq., who conveyed it the same year to John 
Milner, Esq., then lessee under the Crown, in the possession of whose family it 
remained nearly two hundred years. On the death of his descendant, John 
Milner, Esq., in 1753, it passed under his will to Edward Lloyd, Esq., of 
Gregories, in the County of Bucks. The Manor (being then the property of 
Captain Lloyd of the Guards) was sold in lots in 1791. The largest lot, 
including the Manor House and the Yorkshire Stingo Bowling Green House 
and Gardens, was purchased by John Harcourt, Esq., M.P., who built a mansion 
for his own residence || at the corner of Harcourt Street and New Road 1 (now 
Marylebone Road). Part of the Harcourt Estate was subsequently — in 1803 — 

* This statement about the lower classes is open to adverse criticism, inasmuch as Pepys in his 
" Diary," vol. ii., page 226, has the following : — " Then we went abroad to Marrowbone, and there 
" walked in the garden, the first time I ever was there, and a pretty place it is," 
j- Malcolm's "Londiniura Redivivum," 1807, 
f Domesday Book. § Lysons' " Environs of London," 1795. 

II Smith's " History of Marylebone," 1833. 
% This New Road (of which part is now called the Marylebone Road, part the Euston Road, 
and a third part the Pentonville Road) was cut through Marylebone Parish from Paddington to 
Islington, in 1757. 




THE HOSPITAL from 1813 to 1856. 

(The Manor House of Li'ison Green. j 



QUEEN CHARLOTTES LYING-IN HOSPITAL. 21 

sold by auction in separate lots, and the Manor House with its adjoining grounds 
was purchased by Benjamin Tucker, Esq., Secretary to the Admiralty,* and from 
him, ten years later, by R. Kilby Cox, Esq., and Charles Shadwell, Esq., on 
behalf of the Governors of the Queen's Lying-in Hospital, for a sum of ;^2,i20, 
including a sum of ;^I25 for fixtures. 

The contract for the sale, duly signed by the contracting parties, is dated 
i6th March, 1813, and specifies that possession is to be given up on the loth 
of May following. 

The funds for the purchase of the Manor House were raised partly by 
subscription and partly by the sale of ^1,200 three per cent, consols, which 
it is interesting to notice were sold at 57I, and only produced ;^687. 

The House consisted of a basement, ground floor, and first and second 
floors, and the following is a copy of the auctioneer's notice of the sale. 

CAPITAL FREEHOLD MANSION, 

Lissoii Green^ St. Mary-le-hone. 

WITH E.\RLY POSSESSION. 

PARTICULARS 

Of 

A valuable Freehold Estate, 

CONSISTING OF A 

SPACIOUS SUBSTANTIAL MANSION, 

CALLED 

LISSON GREEN MANOR HOUSE, 

SITUATE 

ON THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE NEW ROAD, 
ST. AIARY-LE-BONE, 

■WITH 
ATTACHED AND DETACHED OFFICES, 

A Coach House and Stable in Bowling Green Buildings, 

CONTIGUOUS, 
WHICH WILL BE SOLD BY AUCTION 

By Messrs. 

HOGGART & PHILLIPS, 

AT THE AUCTION MART, 

Opposite ilu Bank of E^igland, 

On Friday, the nth of September, 

AT TWELVE O'CLOCK. 

To be viewed, and Particulars had on the Premises ; of Mr. C. Shadwell. Solicitor, 
No. I. Holbom Court, Gray's Inn; at the Auction Mart ; and of Messrs. HOGGART and 
PHILLIPS, No. 62, Broad Street, Royal Exchange. 

* Title deeds of the Hospital. 



2 2 THE HISTORY, OBJECTS AND PRESENT STATE OF 

The Committee lost no time in taking possession of their newly acquired 
house, and patients were very soon admitted. The coachhouse and stable in 
Bowling Green Buildings were let for a term of twenty-one years at a rental of 
£2(i per annum, and after the expiration of that period they continued to be let 
until they were sold to the Metropolitan Board of Works in 1869. This 
sale to the Board of Works was compulsory, and was required to be made 
under the provisions of the Marylebone (Stingo Lane) Improvement Act, 
1868. Considerable difficulties arose owing to the fact that the Governors, 
not being a corporate body, were not empowered to dispose of the propei ty 
of the Hospital. The enrolment of the conveyance of the Hospital to the 
Trustees, in pursuance of the Act of 1 86 1 for the Regulation of Charitable 
Funds, had perfected the title of the Trustees ; but it did not give them, 
nor did they possess, any power to sell land belonging to the Hospital, 
without the sanction of the Charity Commissioners. There was one course 
open to the Governors, however, which was that the Metropolitan Board of 
Works should under the provisions of the Land Clauses Act pay the purchase- 
money into the Court of Chancery. It would then be invested in the 
name of the Accountant-General and the dividends be paid from time to time 
to the Treasurer of the Hospital. This course was adopted ; the sum paid 
(^^550) is still standing there and the dividends are paid from time to time. 

As this disposal of a part of the Hospital property is a matter of 
considerable importance, I append a copy of the contract for its sale : — 

"Terms of sale and purchase agreed on this day, between Benjamin Bond Cabbell, of the 
" Middle Temple, Esq.; William Colburne Towers, of Haggon House, Maidenhead, Esq.; John 
" Propert, of New Cavendish Street, London, surgeon ; and Michael Biddulph, of Charing Cross, 
" banker, such being the Trustees of Queen Charlotte's Hospital (hereinafter called the Vendor), 
"by Philip Flood Page, of I, Catherine Grove, Blackheath Road, London, S.E., surveyor, their 
'•agent of the one part, and the Metropolitan Board of Works, by George Vulliamy, their 
"superintending architect and agent of the other part. 

" The Property so purchased is freehold of inheritance, and consists of a piece of ground with 
" a messuage or tenement and workshops thereon, situate in, and having a frontage on Stingo Lane, 
" Marylebone, in the County of Middlesex, numbered 43a and \%h on the deposited plan referred to 
'•in the said Act, and upon which notice the Vendor sent in a claim to the Board, dated 20th day 
" of October, 1868. The Property is subject to the tenancies mentioned in the schedule herein 
" written ; the Vendor to deliver an abstract of his title to the solicitor of the Board at the office 
"in Spring Gardens, if required, and to deduce a good title to the property so sold, and to convey 
"the same to the Board according to the said Act. The purchase money agreed on is ;^55'^ (five 
" hundred and fifty pounds). The Board are to pay the Vendors' surveyor's costs, amounting to 
" £li,. also the Vendors' costs of title and conveyance as allowed by the Lands Clauses Consolidation 
"Act, 1845. 

" The purchase is to be completed at the office of the Board of Works on or before 25th day of 
" March, 1869, but if not then completed the Vendors will from that date receive five per cent, interest,, 
" and the Board will be entitled to receive and collect the rent. The Board may enter into 
" possession after the 25th day of March next, on giving the Vendor three days' notice and depositing 



QUEEN charlotte's LYING-IN HOSPITAL. 23 

" the purchase-money at a bank in the names of the Chairman of the Board and the Vendor, the 
" deposit being at the Board's risk, and the Board being entitled to any interest allowed. 
"As witness the hands of the said parties this 12th day of Febmarj-, 1869, 

{Signed) "PHILIP FLOOD PAGE." 

T/ie Schedtde above referred to 



Tenant named. 


Commencement of Tenancy. 


Term when determinable. 
Yearly Tenancy. 


Description of Property. 
Nos. on Plan. 


William Smithebs. Lady Day, 1861. 


Lady Day, 1870. 


43o and 43J. 



Resolution adopting this contract and 
directing solicitors to give effect to 
same, dated \2th February, 1869. 

The large expenditure entailed in the purchase of the new Hospital, and 
the falling off in the income resulting from the sale of stock, left the finances in 
a very weak condition. By the end of the year, 1815, however, owing in a great 
measure to the exertions of His Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex, all debts 
were paid, and the Charity was described in the Annual Report as being free 
from embarrassment. 

There is no doubt that the situation of the new Hospital was much better 
than that of the old. Even now, after a lapse of over seventy years, during 
which new streets have been springing up all around, the Hospital occupies a 
prominent position ; and in those days, when no houses were near, it must have 
been much more conspicuous. As will be seen from the engraving facing page 21 
the house stood in a large garden and was surrounded by a wall and railings. 
The principal entrance was on the north or Marylebone Road side, and not as 
at present from Harcourt Street. Among the Hospital papers I found a rough 
sketch of the ground plan of the Manor House, a copy of which, in the absence 
of anything better, I have inserted, thinking it may show more definitely than 
verbal description the position occupied by the house. As to the actual 
building, although better than the house at Bayswater, it was nevertheless 
suffering somewhat from age and wear and tear, as the amounts spent from time 
to time in renovating it show. 

The number of patients relieved remained for many years pretty much the 
same as before the removal ; and the income, except the sums contributed for 
the special purpose of acquiring the new Hospital, was very little larger. 

A Ucence was duly obtained for the New Hospital, though not till 
attention was called to the omission by the parochial authorities. It is dated 
nth Julv, 1 816. 



24 THE HISTORY, OBJECTS AND PRESENT STATE OF 

For the next eight years the Institution seems to have gone on very 
quietly, as I have found nothing in the Minute Books or elsewhere to call 
for special notice. 

The efforts of the Clergy still continued to be actively exerted on its 
behalf. In June, 1820, a sermon was preached at Quebec Chapel, Quebec 
Street, for the benefit of the Hospital, by the Bishop of Chester, in respect 
of which the Treasurer received a sum of ;^67 ; and in June, 1823, at the same 
Chapel, the Hon. and Rev. Edward John Turnour, Chaplain to the Dowager 
Countess of Winterton, preached a sermon from which the Charity benefited 
to the extent of ;^ioi 17s. Indeed, too much cannot be said of the kindness 
of the Clergy at this period, resulting as it did in very considerable pecuniary 
benefit to the Charity at a time when such help was especially needed. 

In October of this year the Laws for the Government of the Hospital were 
revised and improved under the immediate supervision of His Royal Highness 
the Duke of Sussex. 

In 1824 we find the Committee announcing that "in consequence of the 
"dilapidated state of the present building and its inadequacy to accommodate 
" the numerous applicants for admission," it had become necessary to make 
certain repairs and to construct two additional wards, and that during the time 
this work was in progress no patients were to be admitted to the Hospital, 
special arrangements being made for their treatment as out-patients. The 
work was commenced at the end of March, and the Hospital was re-opened on 
the 29th September, having been closed six months. The cost of the alterations 
and repairs was about ^^1,000, and a Public Dinner was given at the City of 
London Tavern, on the 13th May, His Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex 
presiding, for the purpose of assisting to meet this expenditure. Subscriptions 
and donations of an adequate amount were received at the Dinner, and the sum 
thus raised was lodged in the hands of the then Treasurer, who was a Member 
of the firm of Marsh, Stacey and Co., the Charity's Bankers. The failure of this 
house shortly after resulted in the loss of the whole amount raised on the above 
occasion, in addition to a small balance in hand on the General Fund Account. 
This most untoward occurrence rendered it necessary to hold another Public 
Dinner, with the view of improving the shattered condition of the Charity's 
finances. His Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex therefore appointed 
1 7th February as the date for it to take place. His Royal Highness presided 
on the occasion, and presented a munificent donation of ^200 ; and the total 
amount subscribed at the Dinner was nearly ^^1,300. 

By this time the number of patients relieved had become much larger 
than formerly, the average annual number being about 500. The Hospital had 



QUEEN charlotte's LYING-IN HOSPITAL. 2$ 

evidently become much better known, and this fact, coupled with its improved 
reputation, accounts for the increase in the numbers soHciting assistance at 
its hands. 

In 1 83 1 the unsatisfactory state of the Hospital building again forced the 
Governors to consider what had better be done. It seems that it was considered 
useless to attempt to restore the existing building, and I find the construction 
of a new Hospital was talked of, and that a fund for the purpose was opened. 
The project was shortlived, however, and all that was collected was X^^Si 
which was invested and remained untouched till the rebuilding of the Hospital 
was actually effected twenty-five years later. 

During the years 1835 and 1836 the name of His Royal Highness the 
Duke of Sussex is found less frequently among the list of those present at the 
meetings of Governors. This is explained by the fact that at this time His 
Royal Highness's sight became seriously impaired if it was not entirely 
lost. It appears from the minutes of the Quarterly Meeting of Governors 
held on i8th July, 1836, that His Royal Highness had just undergone a 
surgical operation, which resulted in his sight being restored. The letter 
written by the Governors at this Meeting congratulating His Royal Highness 
on the successful result of the operation, and His Royal Highness's 
acknowledgment, are so interesting. that I am induced to insert copies. 

" To His Royal Highness The Duke of Sussex, K.G., etc., etc., 

" President of the ' Queen Charlotte's Lying-in Hospital.' 

"The Governors of the Queen Charlotte's Lying-in Hospital assembled at their General 
" Quarterly Court, beg permission to approach Your Royal Highness with this expression of their 
" warmest congratulation upon the restoration of Your Royal Highness to the blessing of sight. To 
" that merciful God who first said ' let there be light, and there was light,' our gratitude is justly and 
" chiefly due ; but we should be as wanting in justice as in thanks to that science of the triumph 
" of which Your Ro3'al Highness is so remarkable an illustration did we omit to advert to it ; and 
" we hope to stand excused in adding that the Public, and Your Royal Highness's friends and 
" admirers more especially, have not failed to express their high gratification that he who has been 
" for so many years the Patron and Protector of Science and its professors, should have been 
" marked out as so signal an example of its success. 

"To the blessing of sight may that of health be added, and may a long and happy life be the 
" consequence. 

" Given at the Quarterly Court this 18th day of July, 1836. 

{Signed) " S. W. Watson, Chairman:' 

His Royal Highness's reply was as follows : — 

" To the Governors of the Queen Charlotte's Lying-in Hospital. 
" Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen,— I thank you for your congratulation upon my restoration to 
" the blessing of sight as well as for your kind expressions of esteem and regard. 

" The interest which I for so many years have taken in the welfare of the Queen's Lying-lu 
" Hospital has made me acquainted with many valuable men, supporters of that and other 



26 THE HISTORY, OBJECTS AND PRESENT STATE OF 

" Charitable Institutions. Their good will and good opinion must be to myself a source of 
" gratification, and when spontaneously offered, as in this instance, must serve as an additional 
" stimulus to my exertions in the promotion of all objects calculated to forward the benevolent 
" dispositions of a generous Public. 

QSigned') " AUGUSTUS Fkederick, President' 
" Kensington Palace, 

" gM September, 1836." 

In November, 1840, for the second time in its history, the Charity's 
Bankers failed. Fortunately the balance in their hands at the time was 
not large (^85 14s. yd.), and therefore the loss to the Hospital was not so serious 
as on the previous occasion. In this as in the former instance, however, the 
Treasurer was a member of the firm, and the bankruptcy therefore resulted 
in the offices of Bankers and Treasurer both becoming vacant at one and 
the same time. The present law, that "The Treasurer shall not be a partner 
"in any private bank in which the account of the Hospital is kept " no doubt 
originated from the fact that on the two occasions when the Charity's Bankers 
became bankrupt the Treasurer was a member of the firm. Messrs. Cocks, 
Biddulph and Co., were appointed Bankers to the Hospital in the place of the 
house that had failed, and they have continued to act in this capacity to the 
present time. Mr. Benjamin Bond Cabbell, Avho took a deep interest in the 
progress of the Institution, became the new Treasurer. 

In 1843 His Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex died. In him many 
of the Charities of London lost their greatest benefactor and most powerful 
advocate. Of no one of the Charities, probably, could this be so truly 
said as of Queen Charlotte's Hospital. He found it on the brink of extinction, 
and after raising it, as it were, from the grave, and instilling new life and vigour 
into it, he left it at his death, after thirty-four years of unceasing personal 
attention not only to the leading principles of its administration but even 
to the minutiae of its operations, one of the most valued and thriving 
Hospitals in the metropolis. His Royal Highness's munificent benefactions 
to its funds were not less conspicuous than his devotion of time and thought 
to the direction of its affairs. I have already had occasion to refer to a generous 
gift of ;^2oo at a time when the Charity was in great difficulties, and many 
other instances of His Royal Highness's liberality might be quoted. 

It will not be without interest to dwell for a moment on the progress 
made in these thirty-four years. At their commencement the number of 
patients received annually in the Hospital was about 30, and of out-patients 
attended at home about 120 ; at their close the number of in- and out-patients 
respectively was about 200 and 330. The total number of poor women relieved 
during the period was no less than 12,500. The income at the commencement 




HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS 

THE LATE DUKE OF CAMBRIDGE, 

President of the Hospital, 1S43— 1850. 



QUEEN charlotte's LYING-IN HOSPITAL. 2? 

was about /410 per annum, while in 1843 it amounted on the average to 
upwards of /800. During the thirty-four years nearly /32,ooo was raised 
and /28,ooo expended, the balance having been invested in Government 
securities, which produced dividends averaging for the ten years endmg 1843, 
/140 per annum, while there was no invested property whatever m 1808 and 
consequently no dividends were received. The Charity in 1843 had a reliable 
income in dividends and annual subscription of upwards of /SSo, whereas the 
amount for the years immediately preceding its renovation could not at the 
hio-hest estimate have exceeded /200. 

These few facts are quite sufficient to show that it would be impossible to 
over-estimate His Royal Highness's services to this Charity, and through it_ to 
those thousands of poor women whom it has been the happy means of relieving 

at a time of special need. , . , ,1 

His Royal Hi-hness was succeeded in the office of President by his brother, 
His Royal Highness the Duke of Cambridge, who had contributed scarcely 
less than the Duke of Sussex to the progress and prosperity of the Charity 
His Royal Highness continued President till his death, on 8th July, 1850, and 
was succeeded in the office by the Right Honourable Lord Londesborough. 

In May 1852, Messrs. Wertheim and Macintosh, of Paternoster Row, 
published a 'little book called "Money and its Influence," which had been 
translated from the German by a lady, whose name is not mentioned, but 
whom I believe to have been Miss E. Plumptre, for the benefit of this Hospital. 
The particular purpose of the translator will best be explained by quoting a 
few words from the preface of her book, a copy of which I havebefore me :- 
"The funds which the translator was requested to assist in raising are for the 
"re-building of one of the oldest Hospitals of its kind in the metropc^is-and 
"beincr a Hospital, consequently one of the most praiseworthy of Chanties; 
"as in°reW to these Institutions, all may feel certain that whatever amount 
"of money they may place at the disposal of the Managers, they are con- 
"tributin.. to the relief of a class of applicants in whom there can be no 
"deception, and at the time of all others when Charity is most gratefu ly 
"acknowledged. The Hospital in question {the Queen Charlottes) being for 
"the reception of women alone, the translator fek of course more anxious 
" to render any small assistance that lay in her power." 

This reference to the raising of funds for the re-building of the Hospital 
is the first intimation of the definite intention of the Governors to erect a more 
suitable house. The subject had been mooted twenty-one years before, and an 
attempt was made to collect funds, but as we have seen ^e effort was not 
persisted in and nothing important resulted. Complaints of its dilapidated 



28 THE HISTORY, OBJECTS AND PRESENT STATE OF 

condition had been for j-ears very frequent, coupled with the recognition of the 
fact that it would be useless to expend any considerable sum in repairs, but no 
decision had hitherto been come to on the subject. 

A Building Fund was now opened, and active efforts were made to acquire 
the sum needed for the work (about _^4,ooo). Progress was for a time very slow, 
for in the Report for 1854 I find that the balance on the Building Fund 
account was less than j^ioo. In the next two years, however, a great improve- 
ment took place, owing in a great measure to the increasing exertions of Mr. 
Charles Hawkins, F.R.C.S., Consulting Surgeon to the Hospital ; and the 
Committee in the autumn of 1855 considered the amount then in their hands 
sufficient to justify them in commencing operations, although there was great 
objection on the part of some Members of the Governing body to commence 
building until the whole amount required by the contracts had been subscribed. 

The Old Manor House of Lisson Green, which had been the scene of the 
Charity's operations for forty-two years, was accordingly vacated on Michaelmas 
Day, 1855, 3.nd the first stone of the new building was laid on the 15th 
November following. During the twelve months occupied in re-building the 
Hospital temporary premises were taken at Middlesex Place, at a rental of 
^50 per annum, where 88 in-patients were delivered, and whence 225 out- 
patients were attended at their own homes. 

The new building, which was constructed from designs by Mr. Charles 
Hawkins, a gentleman of whom the Governors in their Report for 1856 say, 
" to his zealous exertions and untiring energy the building of the new Hospital 
is mainly attributable," was finished early in September 1856, was taken 
possession of by the Matron and servants on Michaelmas Day, and declared 
open for the reception of patients at the commencement of 1857. The 
Governors in their Report speak of the new building as follows : — 

" It is well proportioned, admirabl}' ventilated, and warmed by hot water apparatus, and is 
" capable of receiving 50 patients ; but the Committee propose in consequence of the smallness of 
'" the funds to restrict it to 30 patients at present. Each ward will contain three beds, and there is a 
" convalescent ward ; by the arrangements proposed to be adopted every ward will be vacated at 
" regular intervals, so that the best sanitary plans will be carried out, and the danger arising from 
^' the spread of puerperal fever, should such cases unfortunately occur, be avoided. While your 
'• Committee have endeavoured to render the internal arrangements of the Hospital as complete as 
" possible, they have thought it their dut}' to exercise the most rigid economy in not permitting any 
" money to be spent in ornament whatever. Even the Royal Arms over the porch was presented to 

" them by Mr. Charles Hawkins and on the opening of the New Hospital he also 

" presented, for the Board Room, a valuable portrait, painted by Zoffani, of Her late Majesty Queen 
" Charlotte, first Patron of the Hospital." 

The above extract gives a general idea of the internal arrangements. The 
building consisted of a basement, ground floor, and first and second floors. In 



QUEEN CHARLOTTES LYING-IN HOSPITAL. 29 

the basement were the kitchen and other domestic offices, the servants' dining 
hall, and four rooms unappropriated ; on the ground floor were the Board room, 
Secretary's office, waiting room, sitting room and bed room for the Resident 
Pupil, and sitting room and bed room for the Matron. On the first and second 
floors were the wards. There were six lying-in wards, a large convalescent ward, 
w.c. and lavatory on each of these two floors. Where the domestic servants 
were accommodated is doubtful. It would seem that in preparing the plans 
servants' rooms were forgotten, but it is probable that the four rooms in the 
basement, described as unappropriated in the plan, were utilised for their use. 

The distinguishing feature of the new building was small wards containing 
three beds, a feature of very great importance in any lying-in hospital. The 
convalescent ward, where patients were generally removed, if well enough, 
about the tenth day, contained six beds. The principal faults seem to have been, 
that the deliveries took place in the lying-in wards, that the main drain ran 
right under the basement from back to front of the building, and that the 
water-closets had a ventilation common to that of the wards. 

The total expenditure in connection with the re-building, including repairs 
to garden walls, gate railings, &c., was ^4,454. The amount raised to provide 
for this expenditure, — including a sum of £ii^ (and accumulations which 
brought it to £2<)2)), collected in 1831 in the attempt to form a Building Fund, 
as before explained, with a further sum of ^203 los. lod., the proceeds of a 
concert at Exeter Hall, and £2)5 profit of the sale of " Money and its 
Influence," — was ^2,547 ; and the balance was made up by the transfer of 
;^2,ooo from the General Fund of the Hospital. The List of Subscribers to 
the Building Fund was headed by Her Majesty the Queen, His Royal 
Highness the Duke of Cambridge, and Her Royal Highness the Duchess of 
Gloucester. 

Mr. Charles Hawkins was Chairman of the Building Committee, and 
Dr. Metcalfe Babington, Honorary Secretary. They divided the duties and 
responsibilities of Treasurer between them. Mr. Philip Flood Page was 
architect, and Mr. Bird, builder. 

Now that I am upon the subject of the building of the New Hospital, it 
will promote clearness and intelligibility if I proceed to mention the various 
additions and alterations which the need of greater accommodation and advance 
in the knowledge of the laws of sanitary science have since occasioned, and I 
will therefore with this view depart from the strictly chronological plan hitherto 
followed. 

In 1865 the need of greater accommodation for patients was much felt, and 
in addition to this it was considered injurious to the health of the servants to 



30 THE HISTORY, OBJECTS AND PRESENT STATE OF 

sleep in the basement as they were then doing. These considerations led to the 
decision to add an additional storey (which is spoken of in the Report for 1865, 
as having been included in the original plans in 1856). This enabled the 
Committee to provide ample sleeping accommodation for the servants and 
nurses at the top of the house, and set free very considerable space in the base- 
ment. The Hospital was closed from August, 1865, till the end of the year, 
and opportunity was taken, while this extensive work was being performed, to 
effect several small but important changes, principal among which was the 
improvement of the ventilation of the Hospital. The cost of the additions and 
improvements was ^^1,000. 

In 1872, improvements of the very greatest importance were effected in 
the system of drainage ; they consisted of the removal of the drain, which, as 
already stated, ran under the basement from the back to the fi^ont of the 
Hospital, and the introduction of a system of drain ventilation, by means of 
pipes carried from the drains to a point above the roof. These improvements, 
the value of which it is impossible to over-estimate, were effected at a cost 
of ;^I04 us. 6d. The Governors, speaking of the work in the Report, describe it 
as one materially affecting the health of the patients, and so indeed it proved to 
be. It may be only a coincidence that the rate of mortality among the patients 
after the completion of this work was less than half what it had hitherto been, 
but it has a significant appearance. There still remained one grave and 
fundamental fault in the sanitary arangements, however, which was that 
the water-closets were within the body of the building and had a ventilation 
common to that of the wards. I have no doubt it was the knowledge that the 
remedying of this defect would entail very considerable structural alterations 
and a consequent large expenditure, that deterred the Committee from 
undertaking the work at the same time as the above, rather than that the evil 
was unperceived. 

No steps were taken to remedy the defect till 1877, when the Physicians, 
in a Report on the sanitary condition of the Hospital, which was written at 
the request of the Committee, called special attention to it, and strongly advised 
that immediate action should be taken to remove it. It was accordingly decided 
by the Committee to build a wing at the south end of the Hospital, which 
would provide considerable space on each floor for the required purpose. This 
wing, which was built in 1878, enabled the Committee to make the following 
additions : — in the basement, water tanks for the purification of ward linen 
before sending it to the laundry ; on the ground floor, a dispensary and officers' 
lavatory ; on the first and second floors, a ward lavatory and w.c. ; and on the 
top floor, a lavatory, bath room, and w.c. for nurses and servants. A lift was 




THE HOSPITAL IN 1884. 



QUEEN' CHARLOTTE S LYING-IN HOSPITAL. 3 1 

also added, connecting the kitchen and basement stores with each floor, thus 
much facihtating the conveyance of food and other necessaries from the base- 
ment to the wards. In addition to the above, some other important improve- 
ments were made. The patients had hitherto been delivered in the lying-in 
wards, a practice to which there were very many serious objections, but in 1878 
a separate ward, called the Labour Ward, was set apart for the purpose on 
each floor. In the same year the basement was rendered more accessible by the 
construction of a larger and more convenient staircase connecting it with the 
ground floor ; the ventilation of the rooms at the northern end of the base- 
ment was improved, and these rooms, which had previously been nearly useless, 
were thus rendered suitable for isolation wards. By this opening up of the 
basement, the admission of fresh air into the Hospital was greatly promoted, 
and the whole building became much fresher and more healthy in consequence. 
This improvement was the last alteration in the Hospital structure. At various 
times certain buildings, as follows, have been erected on the ground at the back 
of the Hospital, and have each in their degree been of great service : — a room 
for the porter ; a chamber for the disinfecting apparatus, wherein the patients' 
linen is on its return from the laundry exposed to a temperature of 250° 
Fahrenheit before it may be supplied to the wards, in 1875 ; a lavatory and w.c. 
for the quarantine or isolation wards in the basement in 1878; and a large 
and commodious linen room in 1883. 

The above are the principal structural additions and improvements which 
have been made from time to time to the new Hospital erected in 1856. Rapid 
as the increase of accommodation has been since that time, however, the 
number of poor women applying for admission has increased even more rapidly, 
so much so, that in 1882, 1883, and 1884, and also this year, the Committee 
have been compelled at times to take apartments in neighbouring houses for the 
reception of patients, as there has not been sufficient room in the Hospital. 
This diSiculty was so great in 1883, that a special Committee was appointed to 
consider the subject. The result was that on the presentation of their Report 
to the Committee, it was unanimously resolved : " That it is the recommenda- 
" tion of this Committee to the Annual Meeting of Governors and Subscribers 
" that plans shall be completed and estimates obtained for the extension of the 
■' Hospital building.'' This recommendation was approved by the Annual 
Meeting, and the plans were accordingly completed, and duly submitted to the 
MetropoUtan Board of Works, whose consent to the addition was conveyed in a 
letter dated 3rd January, 1884. 

While these proceedings were in progress, the Committee received informa- 
tion to the effect that a legacy had been bequeathed to the Charity, and it was 



32 THE HISTORY, OBJECTS AND PRESENT STATE OF 

rumoured that it was likely to be of considerable amount. It was therefore 
decided not to proceed with building operations for a time, in the hope that this 
legacy would come to hand and help towards providing for the necessary 
expenditure. Unfortunately, some delay has occurred in realising the testator's 
property, and the bequest has therefore not yet been received. Meanwhile, the 
number of patients continued to increase in an unprecedented manner, the 
number applying for admission during the March quarter of this year being 
231, which is at the rate of 924 per annum, while in one month (March) the 
number presenting themselves was no less than 87, which is at the rate of 
1,064 PS"" annum. The pressure was so great, that some of the patients could 
not possibly be accommodated in the Hospital, and private apartments had to 
be hired for them in neighbouring houses, while some had to be sent to the 
Marylebone Infirmary. Under these circumstances, the subject was again 
considered by the Committee, and it was decided to proceed with the enlarge- 
ment without delay, and to meet the expenditure by selling a portion of the 
invested funds of the Hospital. This step was not taken until after mature 
consideration by a large and thoroughly representative Meeting of the Com- 
mittee of Management. That the Hospital was not large enough for the work 
it was called upon to do did not admit of discussion, and it was also tolerably 
clear that to continue to undertake to receive poor women presenting the order 
of admission, and then frequently every year to send many to the Parish 
Infirmary, is to dissatisfy the subscribers recommending them, to disappoint and 
wound the feelings of the patients themselves, and to do much to forfeit the 
confidence and support of the public. These were some of the considerations 
which led the Committee to decide to commence the work of enlargement 
forthwith, and to provide the means by selling stock. They had also strong 
reason to think that as the additional space would enable them to provide much 
greater and more comfortable accommodation for pupil nurses and midwives, 
these pupils would come to the Hospital for training in greater numbers ; and, 
further, that adequate and more suitable provision for the training of medical 
pupils would be followed by a similar increase, especially as there are at the present 
time three applications by medical pupils for every two vacancies. If these expec- 
tations are verified by actual results, as there is every reason to believe they will 
be, the loss of revenue resulting from the sale of stock will be more than 
compensated for by the increase in the income derived from fees. Apart from 
these considerations, however, I cannot but think that this determination of 
the Committee to maintain the Hospital so that it shall be able to provide 
adequately for the reception of those deserving poor women for whose benefit 
it was founded, will meet with cordial recognition by the benevolent public, and 



QUEEN charlotte's LYIXG-IN HOSPITAL. 33. 

that, as was the case after the building of a new and larger Hospital in 1856, 
the charitable, seeing that the increase in the demands upon the Charity- 
necessitate the provision of extended accommodation, will accord to the work 
an increased and adequate measure of support. 

The extension proposed consists of the erection of a wing at the north or 
Marylebone Road end of the Hospital. The ground on that side between the 
railing and the end of the present building has a mean breadth of about 35 ft., 
and it is proposed to build to within about 10 ft. of the railing, so that the 
new wing will have a mean breadth of about 25 ft., while its length will be 
nearly 80 ft. The extent of the addition will be seen at a glance on referring to 
the plan on page 57. By this enlargement twelve extra beds for patients would 
be provided, and the capacity of the Hospital increased to between 900 and 1,000 
patients per annum, in addition to which ample accommodation would be 
provided for the pupil nurses and other pupils, and such extra servants as would 
be required. 

Havincr dealt with the various additions and improvements to the building 
erected in 1856, I will now return to the subject of the rebuilding itself, and 
the results which followed it. 

Of course the opening of a larger Hospital was followed by 'an increase 
in the expenditure, which necessitated an augmented income. As a matter of 
fact the average annual expenditure for the next ten years was very nearly 
double that for the ten preceding. The income, however, it is very satisfactory 
to note, kept pace with it, indeed it did rather more, thus proving that the 
doubts of those who argued that, since the income was not equal to providing 
for the expenditure of the old small Hospital it was not to be expected that it 
would so improve as to be adequate to meet larger demands, were not well 
founded. Indeed it is extremely probable that a very great increase in public 
interest in the Hospital was occasioned by the rebuilding and the exertions 
made to provide funds for it. Some very large legacies were received about 
this time, which may fairly be attributed to this cause, and the average annual 
income from legacies in the following ten years was upwards of ;^6oo, whereas- 
it had never before exceeded £z 50. 

Speaking of legacies brings. me to an extremely important matter which 
came to the front in connection with the largest of the bequests just referred to, 
that of Mrs. Kennedy Hutchisson, in i860, three years after the opening of the 
New Hospital. By her will this lady bequeathed to Queen Charlotte's Hospital 
one-third of the residue of her estate, consisting of real and personal property^ 
As the Charity was not incorporated that portion of the bequest which consisted 
of real property was void by the Statute of Mortmain. This was a most 



24 THE HISTORY, OBJECTS AND PRESENT STATE OF 

untoward event, and led to the appointment of a special Committee to consider 
what steps could be taken to prevent the recurrence of such a loss. This 
Committee, having previously determined the necessity of obtaining either a 
Charter or Act of Incorporation, reported as follows : — 

"The Committee appointed to consider the subject of obtaining an Act of Parliament 
" for the Incorporation of this Charity, and to enable it to take, hold and sell lands and 
" hereditaments, beg to report that being of opinion that such purposes would best be effected 
■" by an Act of Parliament, they have caused the requisite notices to be published of the intention 
" to apply in the ensuing Session of Parliament for such an Act, and they recommend that 
"they should be authorised to take such further steps as may be necessary to obtain it. 
"They beg to add that their reason for preferring an Act to a Charter, although rather more 
-"expensive, is, that by the former the title to the present Freehold Property of the 
" Hospital would be confirmed, and that it would not be so by Charter." 

The Governors and Subscribers at the Annual Meeting authorised the 
necessary steps to be taken, and a Bill was introduced into the House 
of Lords and read a first time. The Committee soon found, however, 
that there was no probability of carrying the Bill with the clause referring 
to landed properly (their principal object), and they therefore thought it 
prudent to withdraw it, so as not to incur unnecessary expense. 

In this year (i860) the Londesborough Samaritan Fund was formed. 
It was named after, and originated from monies given by, Lord Londesborough 
the President, who died the year before. Its object was to assist destitute 
patients with small sums of money on leaving the Hospital. The fund 
thus commenced has been maintained ever since, and is still in existence ; 
.and though not so liberally supported as it deserves it is nevertheless a 
very valuable supplement to the good work done in the wards of the 
Hospital. There are no expenses of management connected with it, and 
^therefore the whole of the contributions are applied to the objects of 
the fund. 

In this year the " Metropolitan Railway Terminus Bill " was before 
Parliament, and as the Committee apprehended that if the erection of 
"the proposed new Station at Chapel Street were sanctioned, the foundations 
of the Hospital building would be affected owing to the vibration caused 
by the trains, and further that the patients would suffer from the noise 
and the noxious gases emanating from the said Station, decided to oppose 
the passing of the Bill. This they did at a cost of £166, and they succeeded 
in having a special clause inserted in it providing for the prevention of such 
injury, and setting forth that if mischief did ensue, compensation must 
be made to the Trustees of the Hospital by the Railway Company. 



QUEEN CHARLOTTE'S LYING-IN HOSPITAL. 35 

In the same year Viscount Portman, one of the Vice-Presidents, was 
elected to the office of President, vacant by the death of Lord Londesborough. 
His Lordship had been a Vice-President for thirty-six years, during the whole 
of which time he had been one of the most constant and valued supporters of 
the Charity. 

Late in 1861 the Committee, taking advantage of the Act of Parliament of 
that year for the regulation of Charitable Funds, had the Deed enrolled by which 
the real property of the Charity was held, and thereby set at rest any doubts 
which had hitherto existed with regard to the tenure of this portion of the 
Hospital property. 

Dr. Metcalfe Babington, one of the Physicians, and Joint-Treasurer of the 
Building Fund with Mr. Charles Hawkins, died this year. In him the Charity 
sustained a great loss, not only on account of his most kind treatment of the 
patients for a period of twelve years, but because the funds of the Hospital were 
greatly benefited by his constant advocacy of its claims and necessities, more 
especially in connection with the rebuilding in 1856. 

His Majesty the King of the Belgians, who had taken an active interest 
in the Charity and had been a generous contributor to its funds for upwards 
of thirty years, also died this year. 

In 1 866 Mr. Charles Hawkins, whose eminent services to the Charity have 
been previously referred to in connection with the rebuilding of the Hospital, 
resigned the post of Consulting Surgeon, which he had most ably filled for ten 
years. He had served on the Committee of Management previous to his 
acceptance of the office of Consulting Surgeon, and the Charity owes him a 
deep debt of gratitude for his great and successful exertions in its behalf during 
the time he was associated with it. 

The year 1866 is memorable in the history of the Charity as the year 
in which Her Royal Highness the Princess of Wales accepted the office of 
Vice-Patron. 

In 1867 the Hospital paid Poor Rates for the first time. Hospitals had 
up to that time been exempt from the impost, and efforts were made to 
relieve them from it again, but without success, although chapels, Sunday 
schools and ragged schools, scientific and literary institutions, and some lunatic 
asylums enjoy exemption at the present time. This is a glaring inconsistency 
and injustice, the effect of which is, as the British Medical Journal recently 
pointed out, that the Sick Charities are taxed, and very heavily too, to keep 
the sick poor in poor-law infirmaries. 

During the year 1868, the Committee had under their consideration a 
question of some interest, namely, the training of women to act as midwives 



36 THE HISTORY, OBJECTS AND PRESENT STATE OF 

for the army. The subject was brought before them by the Colonel of one of 
Her Majesty's regiments, and it was shown how valuable the services of such 
persons would be, and what a great want there was amongst the soldiers' wives 
•of properly trained women to act in this capacity under the supervision of the 
surgeon of the regiment, or to be of service in an emergency. The Hospital 
authorities had always considered the wives of soldiers and sailors to have 
special claims upon it, and even so far back as 1809, when His Royal Highness 
the Duke of Sussex became President, this feature was specially referred to in 
the Laws of the Charity. The Committee, therefore, felt that the proper 
training of raidwives for the army was a matter in which they were directly 
concerned, and in object which they should do everything in their power to 
advance. It was therefore resolved that " The Governors of this Hospital, in 
" endeavouring to benefit the army of this country, are willing, on receiving a 
" recommendation from the Commanding Officer of a regiment or depot, to 
" receive as they can accommodate them, pupils for learning Midwifery, at half 
■" the sum usually charged, and to board the pupil during the time of tuition." 

I have just referred to the circumstance that mention was made in 1809 of ■ 
the fact that the wives of soldiers and sailors were considered to have special 
claims upon the Charity, In the Report for 181 6 are found the following 
words : — "The wives, too, of those indigent brave men, whose lives are devoted 
" to the service of their country by land or by sea, are more particularly con- 
" sidered as fit objects for the Charity's bounty." Further on it is stated that such 
poor women were relieved in large numbers during the wars with Napoleon. 
This feature of the Charity was not permitted to be overlooked, and we find it 
.again utilised for the benefit of soldiers' wives while the war with Russia in 
1854 to 1856, and the Indian Mutiny in 1857, were in progress. In the present 
year also (1885), when the operations • in Egypt had occasioned the absence 
from home of large numbers of the men of both branches of Her Majesty's 
Service, the Committee communicated to His Royal Highness the Duke of 
Cambridge as the head of the army, and to the Secretary of the Admiralty on 
behalf of the navy, their readiness to receive into the Hospital or to cause to be 
attended by a midwife at their homes, the wives of soldiers or sailors engaged 
on active service in the East, without the formal Hospital " Letter,'' if holding 
a recommendation from such authority as the War Office or Admiralty 
might think fit to appoint. His Royal Highness conveyed to the Committee 
through the Quartermaster-General his acknowledgments and thanks "for 
"the philanthropic decision they have come to to extend the benefits 
" of that excellent Institution to the wives of soldiers now on active service 
"in Egypt." 



QUEEN charlotte's LYING-IN HOSPITAL. 37 

On the 13th November, 1869, Her Royal Highness the Crown Princess of 
Prussia (Princess Royal of Great Britain), attended by Lady Caroline Harrington 
and Dr. Gream, visited the Hospital and inspected the wards. Her Royal 
Highness expressed herself as being very pleased with what she had seen. 

In 1870, during the war between France and Germany, there was con- 
siderable distress from various causes amongst the foreign refugees then in this 
country, and this fact prompted the Committee to place at the disposal of the 
Ladies' Committee of the Refugees' Benevolent Fund a number of letters of 
admission to the Hospital. These letters were thankfully received, and bestowed 
on such refugees as needed the benefits of the Institution. 

In 1872 the principles of the administration of the Charity became the 
subject of special consideration, with the result that in a few years its internal 
organisation was entirely remodelled. The extent of its operations had 
increased so much since the rebuilding of the Hospital in 1856, that the laws 
then enacted for its management had become inadequate and inappropriate. ^ 
The question was opened by Dr. Gream, the senior Consulting Physician 
Accoucheur, a Vice-President and a Trustee of the Hospital, with Dr. Hope 
and Dr. Grigg, the Physicians to the in-patients. In 1856, and for many years 
after, the number of patients admitted to the Hospital and the number of 
Nurses received for training were such that it was not beyond the capacity of 
one person to control the whole internal management, including the discipline 
of the inmates, the delivery and nursing of the patients, the training of the Nurses, 
and the conduct of the domestic arrangements ; but the end of eighteen years 
found the number of in-patients doubled, and the work of training Nurses 
very much increased. This growth was such that it became impossible for 
the numerous duties alluded to above to be efficiently discharged by one 
individual, in addition to which it was most undesirable for one and the same 
person to perform the double duty of delivering the patients and nursing them 
during their lying-in. The changes recommended were the appointment of a 
Resident Medical Officer to take general charge of the patients under the 
Physicians, and of a Resident Midwife, who was to have the immediate care of 
the patients under the Resident Medical Officer, and whose duty it was also to 
be to instruct the Midwives and Nurses. These changes, affecting as they did 
the whole tenor of the internal arrangements, necessitated the alteration of the 
laws, and a Sub-Committee was therefore appointed to consider the whole 
matter, and to revise them. This they did after many meetings, and the 
revised code was approved on the 27th July, 1874. It embodied rules for the 
newly constituted offices of Resident Medical Officer and Resident Midwife, with 
many minor alterations and improvements, which it is not necessary to refer to 



38 THE HISTORY, OBJECTS AND PRESENT STATE OF 

separately. With reference to these changes a subsequent Annual Report of 
the Committee says : — 

" The Committee cannot refrain from reminding the subscribers that the placing of the 
" Hospital in its present satisfactory condition, and the rescuing of it from its previous unsatisfactory 
" state, is entirely due to the unwearied zeal and determined energy of Dr. Gream, who at great 
"personal inconvenience finally succeeded in obtaining the sanction of the Governors to the 
"retention of a scientifically trained Eesident Medical Officer, by whose presence the Physicians 
" have been enabled to carry out the sanitary measures above referred to." 

The first of the new offices, that of Resident Medical Officer, proved a great 
success and it has remained unaltered to the present time : the appointment of 
Resident Midwife, however, was a failure. It will be noticed above that her 
duties were threefold — (i) The delivery of the patients, (2) the supervision of 
the nursing during their lying-in, (3) the instruction of the Nurses. This plan 
was tried for eighteen months, but the three duties were found practically 
incompatible, and they were accordingly separated. In addition to this it had 
become clear that by no precautionary measures could it be rendered safe to 
have the Mid^vife resident in the Hospital. It was therefore decided that the 
Midwife should live outside, but in the immediate vicinity of the Hospital ; 
an arrangement which, though theoretically surrounded by many difficulties, 
has been found to answer admirably ; her house is now connected by telephone 
with the Hospital, so she is practically always on the spot. 

The finishing touches were not given to these new arrangements till 
1879, when the supervision of the domestic affairs was entrusted to a new 
officer called the Housekeeper, leaving to the Matron the charge, under the 
Physicians and Resident Medical Officer, of the patients and the nursing 
department, duties that require her undivided energies if they are to be 
efficiently performed. 

These extensive changes were not completed any too soon. At the time 
they were commenced (1872) they were necessary, though the number of patients 
admitted that year was but 433 and of pupils received about 50, while in 
1880 the numbers of patients and pupils were 602 and 129 respectively. This 
is a very great increase, and it is not too much to say that if the administration 
of the Hospital had been continued on the old lines it must inevitably have 
collapsed. The changes have been proved to have effected much good. 
Some points may be mentioned. I have just said that the final step was taken 
in 1879. Since then the rate of mortality among mothers has been less than 
n per 1,000, while the previous average was nearly 28 per 1,000, and yet the 
number of patients received on the average during these five years exceeded 
the previous average by more than one-half, and the risks attending their 



QUEEN charlotte's LYING-IN 'HOSPITAL. 39 

treatment were therefore correspondingly increased. Another highly satisfactory 
point is that the expenditure has been brought thoroughly under control, resulting 
in a material reduction in the cost per head of patients, nurses, and servants, 
although the prices of necessaries have increased. 

In 1873 the Hospital Sunday and Hospital Saturday Movements, 
which had for years been established in Birmingham, Manchester, Liverpool, 
and elsewhere in the provinces, made their appearance in London. It 
has been said that the establishment of these funds has resulted in the 
withdrawal of subscriptions from the Charities ; however that may be in 
other Institutions — and I am strongly of opinion that the statement cannot 
be substantiated — it is certainly not true of Queen Charlotte's Hospital. 
We have received in awards from the two funds a sum averaging annually 
above ;^2oo, and in the same period the Annual Subscriptions have increased 
from ^686 to ^1,057 per annum, which is a larger increase in this item 
of revenue than has taken place during any corresponding period since the 
foundation of the Hospital. 

The work of the Charity was now proceeding very satisfactorily and 
great progress was made during the next few years. The structural improve- 
ments and additions made in 1878 have already been described. As a training 
establishment for Midwives and Nurses its advance was remarkable, the 
annual number of persons trained having increased fourfold within eight 
years.* There was also a very great increase in the number of patients 
provided for, both in the Hospital and at their own homes ; the number 
in 1873 was 1,019, and by 1882 it had grown to 1,472. 

Her Royal Highness the Crown Princess of Germany paid another visit 
to the Hospital in March, 1879. Her Royal Highness was attended by Lady 
Elizabeth Biddulph and Dr. Gream, and before quitting the Hospital made 
the following entry in the Visitors' Book : "much pleased with the arrange- 
ments of the Hospital I have just seen." Her Royal Highness's opinion of 
the Hospital will be understood from the fact that she has sent nurses from 
Germany on three occasions to train in the Institution, and her daughter-in- 
law. Princess William of Prussia, specially requested in 1884 that the In-patients' 
Midwife should be permitted two months' leave of absence for the purpose of 
going to Potsdam to attend Her Royal Highness in her confinement ; and 
arrangements were accordingly made giving effect to Her Royal Highness's 
wishes. 

In 1882 the Vestry of St. Marylebone were induced to pave the roadway 

* For further particulars in connection with the Training School, see page 47. 



40 THE HISTORY, OBJECTS AND PRESENT STATE OF 

on the north side of the Hospital with wood. The traffic along the Marylebone 
Road is very great, and the consequent noise was the source of much 
discomfort to the patients. Representations were made to the Vestry, and 
a deputation of the Committee of Management attended at the Court House to 
explain the grounds upon which their application to have the roadway 
paved with wood was made. As I have stated, their request was granted. 
The effect produced by the change was very noticeable. It had previously 
been difficult at times for anyone to make themselves heard ' in the wards 
at that end of the building without raising the voice; now this is no longer 
the case and comparative quietude has been secured. 

On the 26th April, 1883, Her Royal Highness the Princess of Wales 
and Her Royal Highness Princess Christian, attended by Mrs. Francis Jeune, 
honoured the Hospital with a visit. Their Royal Highnesses, who were not 
expected, arrived at the Hospital at about a quarter before one o'clock, and 
remained about an hour, during which time they visited nearly every ward 
and also the Hospital Chapel. Their Royal Highnesses took great interest 
in the patients, to each of whom they spoke a few kind words. Before 
leaving, their Royal Highnesses wrote their signatures in the Visitors' Book, 
and were pleased to say that they were delighted with everything they 
had seen. 

It will be remembered that in i860, owing to the inability of the Charity to 
receive some real estate which had been bequeathed to it, an attempt was made 
to obtain an. Act of Parliament incorporating the Institution, but without 
success. In 1881 the Committee learnt that a gentleman who had just died 
had bequeathed a legacy to the Charity, including a share of the proceeds of 
■ some real estate in New Zealand. This mention of real property in a bequest 
to the Hospital, brought the question of incorporation again to the front, and 
it was determined in 1884 to petition Her Majesty the Queen praying that 
a Royal Charter of Incorporatien might be granted to the Hospital. A draft 
of the desired Charter was accordingly prepared by a Special Committee 
appointed for the purpose, and approved at a Special General Meeting of 
Governors. The Draft Charter and accompanying Petition were sent to the 
Hospital's Solicitors, and were by them duly lodged at the Privy Council Office 
on 4th December, 1884. On ist June, 1885, a letter was received from the 
Home Office stating that directions had been given to take the necessary steps 
to cause Letters Patent to be passed under the Great Seal, granting a Charter 
of Incorporation to Queen Charlotte's Hospital ; and requesting that the fees 
for the payment of the various stamp duties due to the Exchequer should be 
forwarded. This was accordingly done, and the Charter was duly received on 



QUEEN charlotte's LYING-IN HOSPITAL. 41 

the 17th June, 1885. The Hospital is thereby constituted a corporate body by 
the name and style of the " President and Governors of Queen Charlotte's 
Lying-in Hospital," having perpetual succession and a Common vSeal, and being 
capable in law, notwithstanding the Statutes of Mortmain and Charitable Uses, 
to acquire and hold real property of an annual value not exceeding ^3,000. 

This important event brings the history of the Hospital down to date, and 
I will now give a short account of the objects and present condition of the 
Charitv. 



42 THE HISTORY, OBJECTS AND PRESENT STATE OF 




CHAPTER III. 

OBJECTS AND PRESENT STATE OF THE HOSPITAL. 

Objects of the Charity— Government and Administration— Privileges of Governors and Subscribers— Remarks upon 
Privileges — Internal arrangements — Appointment of a Chaplain and the fitting up of a Chapel in the Hospital — 
Vaccination of children born in the Hospital— Paying Patients — Homes in connection with the Hospital — Tabular 
Statement of Homes— Remarks upon some results of the establishment of Homes— Out-Patient Department- 
Payment by Patients according to their means — Foundation and progress of Midwiferv' Training School — Finance — 
Inadequacy of Income — Result to the Hospital of the establishment of the Hospital Sunday and Hospital Saturday 
Funds. 

•HE objects of the Charity are to receive into the Hospital for their 
confinement poor married women, widows giving birth to posthu- 
mous children, and deserving unmarried women with their first 
child ; to provide married women at their own homes with a 
:skilful midwife to attend them in their confinements ; and to train JMedical 
Pupils, Pupil Midwives, and Monthly Nurses. 

Although not one of the objects of the Charity, it has long been customary 
to provide facilities for ladies requiring Wet Nurses to obtain them at the 
Hospital on payment of a small fee. Many ladies are accommodated with 
Wet Nurses in the course of the year, and the Hospital is in this way a great 
convenience. 

The affairs of the Charity are administered by a Committee of Manage- 
Tnent consisting of not less than twenty nor more than thirty Governors. The 
Committee meet once a month, and at each monthly meeting two of their 
number, the Visitors, are appointed, in whose hands the conduct and control 
of the Hospital is placed during the period between the meetings of the Com- 
mittee. Under them the Secretary has the direction of the civil department 
of the Hospital, the control of expenditure, and the preservation of order and 
discipline. The medical and nursing department is in the hands of the two 
Physicians to the in-patients, one of whom visits daily. Under the Physicians 
are the Resident Medical Officer, who has immediate charge of the patients, 
and the Matron, who, subject to the Physicians in the same manner, is responsible 
for the nursing. 



QUEEN charlotte's LYING-IN HOSPITAL. 43. 

The domestic arrangements and the control of the domestic servants are 
in the hands of the Housekeeper. 

The privileges of Governors and Subscribers are as follows : annual 
subscribers of £t, 3s. or donors of ^31 los. are qualified for election 
as Governors, and are entitled to recommend two in-patients and three 
out-patients every year ; contributors of larger sums are of course qualified to be 
elected Governors, and their power of recommending patients increases in 
proportion to the amount of the contribution. Annual subscribers of £z 2s. 
or donors of _^2i are entitled to recommend one in-patient and two out-patients, 
and annual subscribers of £1 is. or donors of ;^io los. to recommend four out- 
patients, annually. Contributions of less amount do not entitle the contributor 
to any privileges. 

From 1809 till the rebuilding of the Hospital in 1856, contributors were 
not entitled to privileges to the same extent as at present. For example, a 
donation of •;^3i los. constituted the donor a Governor as now, but only 
entitled him to recommend one in- and six out-patients per annum, whereas a 
donation of this amount now empowers him to recommend two in- and three 
out-patients every year. These two in- and three out-patients cost the Charity 
much more than one in- and six out-patients would, even now, and the 
difference will be seen to be much more considerable when we remember the 
cost of necessaries before 1856 compared with the cost at the present time. 
I shall certainly not exaggerate if I say that the value of the privileges now 
attaching to contributions is at least double what it was before 1856, especially 
when it is borne in mind, that not only was the cost of the patients less than 
now, but, from the same causes, a donation of ;^3i los. was, so to speak, a 
larger donation. The present scale of privileges will be readily understood from 
the following illustration. 

An Annual Governor gives the Charity ^3 3s- every year, and if he exercises 
his privilege sends two in-patients, costing the Charity about £i, each, and 
three out-patients, costing 6s. each— total cost /8 i8s. ; so that his privileges 
exceed in value the amount of his subscription by nearly £i> per annum. 
If every subscriber exercised to the full his power of recommending patients the 
resources of the Charity would soon be exhausted and bankruptcy ensue ; 
fortunately they do not — though the proportion who do is annually increasing 
— yet there is nothing to prevent them from doing so if they choose, and I 
cannot help thinking that subscribers' privileges should be brought somewhat 
more in conformity with the amount of the contribution. 

The patients on admission are received in the Labour Ward, where the 
confinement is conducted by the Midwife to the in-patients or her Assistant, 



44 THE HISTORY, OBJECTS AND PRESENT STATE OF 

attended by a Nurse. The Resident Medical Officer has no duty in connection 
with the confinement if natural, but is at hand if anything abnormal should 
occur. As soon after the confinement as is desirable, the patient is wheeled in 
her bed to the Lying-in Ward, which has been prepared for her receptioni 
and there removed to a fresh bed. The Lying-in Wards accommodate two 
patients each, and a Nurse is set apart for each ward. Here the patients remain 
till they leave the Hospital, which they do on the average after fourteen days' 
stay. There is an experienced Head Nurse called a Sister, on each floor, who 
has the charge of the patients there, and whose duty it is to see the directions 
of the Physicians and Resident Medical Officer carried out, to instruct the 
Nurses, and see that they are attentive to their duties. 

There is a small Chapel in the Hospital, where married patients who wish 
may be churched before leaving, and unmarried women attend to offer prayers 
and thanksgiving suitable to their circumstances, and where their infants may 
be baptised. The Chaplain frequently visits the patients, and his ministrations 
are, in the great majority of cases, most gladly received. Sunday services are 
held regularly in the Chapel for the household, and Holy Communion is 
celebrated every Monday morning. The appointment of a Chaplain who 
could give regular services, in 1881, and the fitting up of a Chapel in the 
■following year, have been attended with very happy results, and the 
'Committee regard the change with very great satisfaction. It is one of the 
most important improvements ever made in the administration of the Hospital. 

No patients are discharged except by the order of one of the Physicians, 
and each patient immediately before quitting the Hospital is taken before the 
Matron, who sees that proper provision is made for her safe conveyance 
to her friends. The Samaritan Fund, and the gifts of linen sent by thoughtful 
friends, are of great service when patients are leaving. In bad weather, or if 
the patient is weaker than usual, or has a long distance to go, the former 
enables the Charity to provide a cab to convey her safely to her destination, or, 
if the patient is very needy, to give her a small sum to provide for her 
immediate pressing necessities ; while the latter, in the numerous instances 
where the patient is inadequately clothed, or has been unable to provide 
clothing for her infant — or both, as is often the case — provides partially, if not 
entirely, for the deficiency. Neither the Samaritan Fund nor the presents of 
linen are sufficient to meet fully the numerous demands upon them, but still 
they are of very great service. 

In addition to the ordinary patients, it was decided some years ago to 
permit women to be received, if there is room, who, either because it is 
inconvenient for them to be confined at home, or because their case needs 



QUEEN CHARLOTTE S LYIXG-I.\ HOSPITAL. 45 

special attention, wish to enter the Hospital for their coniinement. These cases 
have to make written application to the Committee, explaining their 
circumstances and the reason they wish for admission to the Hospital, and they 
are required to pay not less than £$ ss. for the privilege. Such cases are not 
very numerous, probably not more than about four per annum on the average. 

The number of in-patients treated annually has averaged, for the past 
three years, 710. The growth of late years has been very great, quite out of 
proportion to anything that has gone before. The average for 1872-4, for 
instance, was 431, so the growth in the ten years intervening was equal to sixty- 
five per cent., whereas if we go back another ten years and compare the average 
with that for 1872-4, we find the figures are 374 and 431, which shows an 
increase in that case of not quite sixteen per cent. The growth still continues 
and at an accelerated speed, for the number of patients admitted in 1884 was 
775, while the number in the March quarter of the present year was no less 
than 232, which is at the rate of 928 per annum. 

For many years it had been noticed by the Local Government Board that 
owing to the impossibility of tracing most of our patients, especially the 
unmarried women, after they leave the Hospital, in the majority of cases the 
children were not vaccinated.* 

In 1 88 1 some correspondence took place on the subject between the Board 
and the Committee of Management, which resulted in the Hospital being 
constituted a Vaccination District, and one of the Physicians being appointed 
Public Vaccinator to the district thus created. At the same time the 
Committee passed a Resolution enacting that every child born in the Hospital 
must, if in a fit condition, be vaccinated before leaving. Since that time the 
infants have been regularly vaccinated. Wednesday is the day on which the 
vaccinations are performed, the arms being inspected on the Wednesday 
following. Since the introduction of the system no less than 2,500 children 
have been vaccinated in the Hospital. 

This description of the in-patient department of the Hospital would be 
incomplete without some mention of the Homes, which have sprung up in 

* The following is a copy of a communication which was received by the Committee from the 
National Vaccine Establishment at the end of the year 1817. 

"Nation.^l Vaccine Establishment. — At a Board, 13th November, 1817, Dr. Latham, 
" President, in the Chair, it was Resolved : ' That it is the opinion of this Board that it would 
■' ' conduce towards the extermination of the Small-Pox, and consequently be the means of saving 
" ' many lives, if the Governors of the different Lying-in Hospitals in the Jletropolis would request 
" ' their Surgeons to vaccinate the infants before they leave the Hospitals, and not to trust that 
" ' operation to the caprice of the parents.' Resolved, ' That the above Resolution be transmitted 
" ' to the various Lying-in Hospitals.' 

" By order of the Board. (.Signed) JAMES HERVEY, M.D., Registrai-r 



46 THE HISTORY, ETC., OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE's LYING-IN HOSPITAL. 

recent years, and whose mission it is to reclaim single women who have fallen for 
the first time. The fact that the unmarried women when discharged from the 
Hospital with the additional burden of a new-born child are unfit for active 
work, and the knowledge that in most cases they are nearly destitute, with no 
friends, and hence but too likely to be driven to fresh sin and misery and 
perhaps to crime, suggested twenty years ago to some kind and benevolent 
persons who were interested in the work of the Hospital, that the establishment 
of a Home where such women would be received on their discharge from the 
Hospital, would be the means of doing much good. The project was submitted 
to the Committee, who cordially approved of it and promised their hearty 
co-operation. This, ihe first " Home " established in connection with the work 
of the Hospital, was called the " Magdalene Home," and was opened in 1865, at 
No. 30, Weymouth Street. Its objects were to receive unmarried women 
leaving the Hospital, for a period of one month ; to find suitable employment 
for those able to work, means being taken to watch over their future career ; to 
establish an Infant Home for the children of such as proved worthy of future 
assistance, the mothers in all such cases to contribute towards the support of 
their children ; and to obtain the services of a Visiting Chaplain, who, in 
conjunction with the Lady Superintendent, should administer religious instruc- 
tion to the women. The house in Weymouth Street could not be permanently 
secured, and owing to the difficulty of obtaining suitable premises in a 
convenient situation, the Home was closed in 1867. In 1868, however, a 
suitable house was acquired at 14, Ranelagh Road, Paddington, where the work 
was recommenced, and where it has been in active operation ever since. Other 
Homes of a similar kind have been since established, and there are now four 
working in connection with the Hospital, though under separate and indepen- 
dent management, beside which there are several other Homes not specially 
related to our Hospital, but from whom patients in considerable numbers are 
received. The subjoined tabular statement gives the principal Homes, including 
those who work only in connection with Queen Charlotte's Hospital patients, 
as well as those who do not, and contains many interesting particulars con- 
cerning them. Nine Homes are mentioned, and the latest in date is Queen 
Charlotte's Convalescent Home, opened in 1882, by Mrs. Charles Roundell, 
which is the single one that only receives patients after leaving the Hospital. 
Mrs. Roundell was permitted to call it Queen Charlotte's Home, on condition that 
it was exclusively devoted to the reception of women who had been patients of 
Queen Charlotte's Hospital. During the two years and ten months it has been 
working 172 patients have been received after their discharge from the wards of the 
Hospital, and the Home has been of much service to the Hospital in many ways. 



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48 THE HISTORV, OBJECTS AND PRESENT STATE OF 

This Statement brings out one or two points which call for remark. First, 
it appears that 190 women were received into the Hospital from these Homes 
for their confinement during last year, and it is a fact that a very considerable 
number of these unmarried women came from the country. Now these 
women, before the e.xistence of the Homes, could not have availed themselves of 
the benefits of the Hospital because they could not travel long distances 
immediately before their confinement, and few, if any, would journey to 
London some weeks previously on the chance of finding suitable lodgings at 
such a rate as would suit their means, in the neighbourhood of the Hospital, 
especially when they came to reflect that respectable people do not care to 
receive such cases. It is therefore pretty clear that the establishment of Homes 
has placed the benefits of our Hospital within the reach of women living in 
the provinces, and has thus resulted in a considerable increase in the number 
of our patients. The second point that I wish to refer to is that 71 
unmarried women were received into Queen Charlotte's Home on their dis- 
charge from the Hospital, and if to this figure we add the 190 who returned to 
the Homes whence they came, we find that 261 out of a total number of 505 
single women received into the Hospital last year, were taken in hand on their 
leaving the Hospital, and efforts made to induce them to lead better lives, to 
provide them with respectable suitable employment, and to assist them in 
placing their children in safe custody. More than half our unmarried patients 
were thus provided for, and this proportion represents very nearly the whole of 
those who had no friends, or whose friends had turned their backs upon them, 
as most of the remaining 244 left the Hospital with their parents, relatives, or 
friends. These remarks tend to show how complete is the work performed 
jointly by the Hospital and the Homes. Unmarried women, who in the time of 
temptation have fallen, are in need of twofold assistance — an asylum at the time 
of their confinement, where skilful nursing and proper nourishment will be 
provided, and then a home where they can recruit their strength, and where 
every effort will be made to induce them to endeavour to redeem the past and 
to make a fresh start in life. The Hospital provides the one, and the Homes 
the other, and the whole aim and purpose of Charity is thus fulfilled. 

In the out-patient department the deliveries are conducted by able and 
experienced Midwives, whose duty it also is to wash and dress the infant at the 
birth, to see the patient within twenty-four hours of delivery and for two 
successive days besides, and also to pay not less than three visits within the next 
nine days — six visits in all. 

There is an Out-patient Physician under whose direction the Out-patient 
Midwives work, and who is sent for by them if anything abnormal should occur 



QUEEN charlotte's LYING-IN HOSPITAL. 49 

in connection with the confinement or the lying-in of the patients. The 
annual average number of out-patients is at present 830, and the number of 
Midwives appointed to attend them is five. The limits within which out- 
patients are at present attended are not strictly defined, but the circuit between 
Kilburn on the north, Regent's Park and Baker Street on the east, Oxford 
Street and Uxbridge Road on the south, and Latimer Road and Kensal Green on 
the west, is, roughly speaking, the extent of the Out-patient District. 

In 1883 it was suggested to the Committee that the system of inviting all 
patients to contribute a little towards the funds of the Charity — which had been 
introduced and found to work satisfactorily at several Metropolitan Hospitals — 
might be adopted, with the object of promoting thrift and providence among 
those seeking the assistance of the Charity. The matter was considered, with 
the result that the principle of voluntary payment by patients according to 
their means was adopted ; and at the Half- Yearly General Meeting in June the 
following clause was added to the Laws of the Hospital : " All patients, both in 
"and out, who are able to do so, shall be invited to contribute something 
" according to their means towards the funds of the Hospital, subject to such 
" rules as the Committee of Management may make from time to time." It 
was specially stipulated that the payment was to be voluntary, and that there 
was to be no distinction whatever as to accommodation or treatment whether 
the patient paid or not, and it was arranged that the scheme should come into 
operation on ist January, 1884. 

This arrangement was carried out, and the result of the year's trial has 
been that nearly a hundred of our patients contributed when invited, and 
expressed pleasure in doing so. It is likely that when the adoption of the 
principle becomes better known, a greater proportion will be found ready and 
willing to help if their means will permit them. 

It will have been noticed that one of the objects of the Charity is the 
traiping of pupils in Midwifery and Monthly Nursing. This branch of the 
Hospital work was commenced in 1851. In that year Nurses were first 
received for the purpose of being trained, and as the number of those who 
entered rapidly increased, the training was extended to women who desired to 
qualify themselves as Midwives. The opportunities afforded continued to be 
taken advantage of by women in increasing numbers, and in 1874 ^he Hospital 
was rendered accessible to medical men who were desirous of devoting special 
attention to Midwifery, and a Training School for Medical Pupils, Midwives, 
and Monthly Nurses was established. Since its establishment upwards of 
1,200 persons have passed through a course of instruction, and the School has 
become a flourishing Institution. Its progress during the last five years has been 



50 THE HISTORY, OBJECTS AND PRESENT STATE OF 

remarkable ; the average annual number of pupils having been 164, against 
an annual average of 74 for the preceding five years. The period of training 
for the Nurses is eight weeks ; they live in the Hospital during the time, and 
are instructed mainly by the Matron and the Sisters. The practical instruction 
thus received is supplemented and perfected by a course of lectures given by the 
Physicians. One lecture per week is given, and every Nurse, except in cases of 
emergency, is required to attend, so that each Nurse is present at eight lectures. 
The Nurses pay a fee of X^° ^°^- ^°^ ^^^ eight weeks' training and an 
additional fee of los. 6d. for the course of lectures— /ii os. 6d. in all. At the 
€nd of her term, if approved by the Physician, each Nurse receives a Certificate 
of her competence to act as a Monthly Nurse. The Pupil Midwives receive 
their practical training from the In-patient Midwife ; they also receive regular 
instruction from the Resident Medical Officer, and have to attend a course of 
twelve weekly lectures given by the Physicians. They pay a fee of ;^26 5s., 
which includes £1 is. for the course of lectures. On the completion of their 
period of training they undergo an examination by both Physicians, and if they 
acquit themselves satisfactorily, receive a diploma qualifying them to act as 
Midwives. The Medical Pupils generally attend for shorter periods, their object 
being, in the majority of instances, to attend the number of Midwifery cases 
required by the various examining bodies. They are instructed by the 
Physicians and the Resident Medical Officer. 

The progress and present state of the Charity from a financial standpoint 
will probably be best understood by an examination of the table on pages 60 to 62. 
This table extends over a period of seventy-five years from the date of the 
re-constitution of the Charity to the present time. It has been compiled with 
great care, on a uniform basis, so as to furnish a complete and accurate view of 
the fiscal affairs of the Hospital, arranged in such a n:\anner as to facilitate 
comparison. There are, however, one or two features which it is desirable should 
be explained. Since the institution of the Training School, and more especially 
in the past five years, during which it has assumed such considerable proportions, 
it has become impossible, owing to the cost of board, &c., of these pupils 
being included in the accounts of expenditure, for anyone except those 
immediately engaged in the administration of the Institution to know what 
proportion of the total expenditure relates to the Hospital as such, and what 
to the Training School. For this reason I wUl devote a few words to this 
point. It will be seen that the total expenditure during these five years has 
averaged ^^4,650 per annum, and I estimate the annual expenditure on 
account of the Training School to have been ;^i,25o, and that of the 
Hospital ;^3,400. Now we will turn to the revenue and we shall find the 



QUEEN charlotte's LYING-IN HOSPITAL. 51 

total Annual Income on the average to be £^,^Go, but if we deduct the 
income accruing from pupils' fees, which has averaged ^^1,877 per annum, we 
shall find the Charitable Income, if I may so call it, to be only _^2,683. We 
thus see, on the one hand, that the income from the Training School has sprung 
in five years from an insignificant amount to ^^2,000 per annum, and on the 
other that, while the demands upon the Charity have increased quite sixty-five 
per cent., the support accorded to it by the public has not augmented. It is 
necessary to explain in this connection that what is described as voluntary 
contributions — i.e., annual subscriptions and donations — have improved 
materially — some ;^400 per annum ; but this satisfactory point is counter- 
balanced by a great falling off in the amount of legacies. This item averaged 
for the ten years 1869 to 1878 nearly ;^90o per annum, but has fallen during 
the last five years to £26:^, an annual loss of nearly ^650. This falling off in 
the amount received from legacies is a very serious feature in the affairs of the 
Charity. It has resulted in an annual deficit of about ;^500, to meet which it 
would have been necessary to sell out that amount of the invested funds of the 
Hospital every year — which would speedily have swallowed up our very small 
funded property — had it not been for the profit on the Training School, which 
was applied to liquidating this deficit. This application of the Training School 
surplus to provide for the deficiency in the Hospital Revenue is much to be 
deprecated. It is absolutely essential if the School is to be maintained and 
improved that considerable sums should be expended in providing better 
accommodation for the pupils and for many other necessary purposes. If the 
present profits are otherwise appropriated and are not therefore available for the 
consolidation and extension of the Training School, the progress of this most 
important branch of the work of the Institution will be retarded, and before 
long there will be no surplus to apply. 

It is not satisfactory but is nevertheless the fact that although lying-in 
hospitals are the oldest and most necessary of the special Hospitals — although 
they succour a greater number of individuals for a given expenditure than any 
other kind of Hospital, although Queen Charlotte's is the largest in Great 
Britain and provides for the delivery of nearly 1,700 poor women every year — 
yet it is not adequately supported, but has to face an annual deficiency of ;^S°0- 
It is also worthy of mention that owing to its situation in the W. district 
of the metropoHs, its work comes more immediately under the notice' 
of the wealthy than is the case with the other lying-in hospitals. The 
dwellings of its patients in Marylebone, Paddington, Bayswater, and Kensington 
may be described as next door to the mansions of the aristocracy, and it 
might be expected that this fact would tend to secure for it an adequate 



52 THE HISTORY, ETC., OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE S LYING-IN HOSPITAL. 

measure of support. Another result of its situation is that it is particularly 
convenient for ladies needing the services of Monthly Nurses or Wet Nurses. 
It is calculated that not less than 600 ladies visit the Hospital in the course 
of the year for this purpose. They are thus brought into direct contact 
with the work of the Charity, and derive very material benefit from it, 
and yet the Charity has not benefited to the extent of more than ;^io per 
annum — over and above the fee of los. 6d., which is charged in each case 
for the time and trouble devoted by the Matron to this business — from it. 
The simple fact that ladies — themselves mothers — visit the Hospital, secure the 
services of its patients, and thus acquire a personal knowledge of the good work 
it does, would seem to justify one in concluding that frequent contributions 
to its funds would result. Enquiry, however, would soon convince him of 
his error. 

In spite of the falling off of legacies of late years the Committee have 
been careful to invest such as have been received, and have thus maintained, 
and even slightly increased, the income derived from dividends, which with 
annual subscriptions constitute the only revenue which can really be 
considered reliable, every other class of income being subject to great and 
sudden fluctuation. 

Before quitting the subject of finance, I wish to call attention to the 
benefit derived from the Hospital Sunday and the Hospital Saturday Funds. 
From the time of the establishment of these Funds in 1873, awards amounting 
to £2,^2,0 have been received by this Charity, which is equal to ;^2ii per 
annum. The Hospital never received anything like this amount from Charity 
Sermons, not even in the days when, owing to the powerful influence of 
His Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex, the eloquence of the pulpit was more 
frequently employed in its behalf than has ever since been the case. 

With these remarks I will conclude, as the table before referred to will 
afford full particulars. 



APPENDIX. 



CONTENTS OF APPENDIX. 



Sketch of the Ground Plan of the Manor House of Lisson Green 

AND Grounds 55 

Ground Plan of the Hospital as Rebuilt in 1856 56 

„ „ „ in 1885 57 

Plan of ist and 2nd Floors of Hospital as Rebuilt in 1S56 . . 58 

,, „ „ in 1885 59 

Tabular Statement of Income, Expenditure, Number of Patients, 

&c., &c., FROM 1809 TO 1884 60—62 

List of Physicians and Surgeons from 1809 to 1885 . . . ' 63 



APPENDIX. 



55 



SKETCH OF GROUND PLAN of the MANOR HOUSE of 
LISSON GREEN and GROUNDS. 




S6 



APPENDIX. 



GROUND PLAN of the HOSPITAL, as REBUILT in 1856. 

S/iovimg the position of the Drains. 




57 



GROUND PLAN of the HOSPITAL in 1885. 

Showing the position of the Drains, and. extent of New Wing. 




58 



PLAN OF 1st and 2nd FLOORS of HOSPITAL as REBUILT in 1856. 




59 



PLAN OF 1st and 2nd FLOORS of HOSPITAL, 1885. 



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913 12 
185 2 5 

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3292 2 2 
4579 9 9 
4275 1 9 
4553 2 11 
4761 15 9 
4698 10 1 


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£ s. d. 
2548 17 11 
3360 9 6 
5157 14 6 
4781 15 5 
4857 2 7 
4659 19 7 


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£ .9. d. 
4 15 4 
15 6 1 
41 5 10 
62 6 7 
49 10 11 
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£ s. d. 

5 "5 
5 5 

15 15 
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39 12 


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Sermons 
and Awards 
of Hospital 
Sunday Fund. 


£ .•.-. d. 
175 6 3 
256 13 4 
337 10 
281 5 
247 10 
210 


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429 10 7 
385 13 1 
320 10 6 
352 12 6 
359 12 6 
361 2 10 


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and Awards 
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Saturday 
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£ .v. d. 
682 12 
558 13 
771 14 
839 9 
952 12 1 
775 15 4 


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63 



LIST OF PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 

Of Queen Charlotte's Lying-in Hospital, 
from its Re-constitution in 1809. 



Consultdtg ipbgstclans. 

. Dr. Thomas Denman 
!. Dr. Edwin Godden Jones 
l. Dr. Peter M. Roget, F.R.S. 
\. Dr. James Copland . 

Dr. Joseph Moore . 

Dr. G. Owen Rees, F.R.S. 

Dr. G. Thompson Gream , 

Dr. C. Blakeley Brown 

Dr. G. Bernard Brodie 

ipbESfcians. 

|. Dr. De Coukcy Laffan 

Dr. Andrew Thynne . . . . 1811 — 1813 

Dr. David D. Davis. . . . 1814— 1834 

Dr. R. Byam Dennison . . . 1823— 1833 
Dr. J. Ashburner .... 1833— 1849 
Dr. C. Blakeley Brown 

Dr. Metcalfe Babington . . . 1850— i 
Dr. F. W. Mackenzie 
Dr. G. Bernard Brodie 
Dr. William Hope . 
Dr. W. Chapm.vn Grigg 

/IReaical ©fficcrs for ©utsipatienta. 

Mr. Joseph Cholmondelet 
Dr. G. Bernard Brodie 
Dr. Parson . 
Dr. William Hope . 
Dr. W. Chapman Grigg 
Dr. Williams 
Dr. Champneys . 
Dr. Percy Boulton . 

Consulting Surgeons. 

(Ogice instituted 1856.) 
Mr. Charles Hawkins 

Mr. Henry Lee 

Sir William MacCormac . 



Surgeons. 



. Mr. Charles M. Clarke 
Mr. Charles Herbert 
Mr. Richard Blagden 
Mr. T. A. Stone 

. Mr. C. LococK . 

Mr. J. SWEATMAN 

Mr. Joseph Cholmondeley 
Mr. G. Thompson Gream . 



809 — 1820 
814— 1 8 17 



826—1840 
823-1856 
840—1850 



IRcsiOcnt /ifteDical ©fficers. 

{Office instituted 1873.) 



H. Cripps Lawrence, L.R.C.P., 

M.R.C.S 

R. G.ardiner, M.D. (Edin.) . 
Philip Addis, L.R C.P., M.R.C.S. . 
H. DuNSTAN, M.R.C.S., L.S.A.. 
Henry Charles Lang, M.R.C.S. . 
William Beatson,L.R.C.P.,M.R.C.S. 
D. L. Beckindale, M.D. (Edin.) . 
F. W. Strugnell, L.R.C.P., M.R.C.S. 
S. H. Fisher, L.R.C.P., M.R.C.S. . 

B. H. J. Gardiner, M.R.C.S., L.S.A. 
T. Lloyd Brown, M.R.C.S., L.S.A. 
Norman Dalton, M.B. (London) . 

C. E. B.\ddelev, M.B. (London) . 
Rolph Lesslie, M.A., M.D.(Toronto) 
W. H. QuiCKE, M.R.C.S., L.S.A. . 
H. L. P. Hardy, M.R.C.S., L.S.A. . 
Leonard W. Bickle, L.R.C.P., 

M.R.C.S 

Percy Edgelow, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. 

(Edin.) 

J. B. WOOLBY, M.B. (London) 
St. Clair Thompson, M.B. (London) 
Hugh R. Beevor, M.B. (London) . 
C. Newton Cornish, M.R.C.S., 

L.R.C.P. (Edin.) .... 



1. First Licentiate in Mid^vifery of the Royal College of Physicians, and the father of 

Lord Chief Justice Denman. 

2. Physician to H.R.H. the Duke of York. 

3. Author of " A Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases," &c., &c. 

4. Author of " A Dictionary of Practical Medicine," &c., &c. 

5. Afterwards Sir Joseph De Courcy Laffan, M.D. 

6. Afterwards Sir C. M. Clarke, Bart., M.D. 

7. Afterivards Sir Charles Locock, Bart, 



INDEX. 





PAGE 


Accommodation, Inadequacy of . 29 


31-32 


Adelaide, Dowager Queen . 


12 


Administration of Hospital Remodelled 


37 


„ „ Effects of 


3S-39 


Army, Midwives for, Special Facilities 




for the Training of 


35-36 


„ Special Provision for Relief of 




Wives of Soldiers on Active 




Service 


36 


Aye-brook 


19 


Babington, Dr. Metcalfe 


29 


„ „ Death of 


35 


Badger, John, Secretary 


17 


Bankers, Failure of Hospital's 


24,25 


Baynard's-Watering 


fi 


Bayswater Chronicle . 


9 


„ Early Names of . 


6 


„ Gate .... 


8 


„ Hall, the Hospital at . 


8 


„ „ Situation of 


9 


Bayswatering .... 


6 


Bedford, Duke of . 


12 


Belgians, Leopold, King of. Patron 




the Hospital .... 


12 


„ „ „ Death 


35 


Black Lion Lane, Bayswater 


9 


Bowling Green Buildings, Sale of Coach 




house and Stable in 


22 


,, ,, Copy of Contract for 


22 


Braham, Mr., sings for the Benefit 




the Hospital 


15-16 


Bristol, Duchess of . . . 


12 


British Lying-in Hospital . 


I 


Buccleuch, Duchess of . 


12 



Building Alterations and Improvements 

14, 28-33 

Cabbell, Benjamin Bond, Treasurer . 26 

Cambridge, H.R.H. the Duke of .12, 27 

„ „ and Soldiers' Wives 36 

„ ,, Duchess of . . 12 

Catalini, Madame, sings for the Benefit 

of the Hospital .... 15-16 

Cavendish Square, Date of Building . 5 

Chapel, Fitting up of, in the Hospital . 44 

,, Sunday Services in . . 44 

„ Churching of Patients in . 44 

Charlotte, Her Majesty Oueen, becomes 

Patron 12 

Chester, Bishop of, Sermon by, for 

Benefit of Hospital ... 24 
Children born in Hospital to be Vac- 
cinated before leaving ... 45 
Christian, H.R.H. Princess, Visit of, to 

the Hospital 40 

City of London Lying-in Hospital . I 

Clergy, Efforts of, on behalf of the 

Hospital 15. 24 

Coach-house and Stable in Bowling 
Green Buildings, sold to Metro- 
politan Board of Works . . 22 
„ Particulars and Terms of the 

Sale of 22 

„ Proceeds of the Sale paid into 

the Court of Chancery . . 22 
Cocks, Biddulph & Co. become Hos- 
pital Bankers .... 26 
Committee of Management, how con- 
stituted 42 



66 



Committee of Management, Duties of 

Concert for Benefit of the Hospital 

Cox, R. Kilby .... 

Cumberland, H.R.H. the Duke of 

Dennis, Admiral, Legacy bequeathed by 

Devonshire, Duke of . 
„ Duchess of 

Dinner at City of London Tavern 

Disinfecting Apparatus for Linen . 

Domesday Book, Description of Manor 
of Lisson Green in 

Drainage, Improvements in the 

Duke Street, Grosvenor Square, Lying' 
In Hospital in 

Edward the Confessor . 

Expenditure, Increase of, after Rebuild- 
ing in 1856 . 

Eye-brook . 

Finance, Remarks upon 

Footpads in Marybone 

Foundation of London Lying-in Hos- 
pitals, Date of 

French Wines and the Committee of 
Management 

General Lying-in Hospital 

George IV., Patron 

Germany, H.R.H. the Crown Princess 
of, Second Visit of, to the Hospital 

Gloucester, H.R.H. the Duke of . 
„ H.R.H. the Duchess of 

Governors, Privileges of 

Grafton, Duke of . . . 

,, Duchess of . . . 

Gream, Dr 3, 37i 

„ and Remodelling of Adminis- 

tration of the Hospital 
,, Reference to, in Annual Re- 

port for 1877 

Grigg, Dr. . 

Hamilton, Duke of 

Harcourt, John, M.P. . 
„ Street . 

Hawkins, Charles 

„ New Hospital built from 

Designs by . . . 



PAGE 

15-16 
S 



30 
I- 5 



29 



35 

6 

46-48 



Hawkins, Charles, Chairman of Building 
Committee, 1856 
„ resigns the Office of Con- 

sulting Surgeon 
Henley, Dr., at Tyburn 
Homes . . . . - , 

,, Origin of . . . 

„ Table of . 
„ Results of Establishment of 

Hope, Dr 

Horncastle, William, Libel on the 
Hospital by 
„ Trial of, at Westminster Ses 

sions . , , 
,, Imprisonment of . 
„ Petition by, for Remission of 
Part of Sentence 
Hospital Building, Dilapidated state of 

14,18,24,25 



47 



37 



16-17 



18 



Repairs to . 


14,24 


Rebuilt .... 


28,29 


Description of . . . 


28 


Faults in ... . 


29 


Cost of Erecting in 1856 


29 


Alterations and Improvements 




subsequent to 1856 . 


29.31 


Addition of a Storey in 1865 


30 


Cost of Additional Storey 


30 


Sanitary Arrangements of . 


32 


Addition of a New Wing, 1878 


30 


Construction of a Lift . 


30-31 



Basement utilized for Quar- 
antine and Isolation Wards 

Chamber built for Disinfect- 
ing Apparatus . 

Lavatories built for Basement 
Wards 

Linen Room built 

Porters' Room built 

Extension of, decided upon. 



„ Extension, Details of 
Housekeeper, Office of, introduced 

,, Duties of 

Hyde Park, Wall round 



Income, Falling off of 

„ Increase of, after Rebuilding 
in 1856 . . . . 

Incorporation of Hospital, Attempt to 
obtain an Act of Parliament 
for ... . 
,, Ro3"al Charter of, obtained 
„ ,, Proi-isions of 

In-Patients, Treatment of . 
Jerusalem, Priorj' of St. John of, anc 

Lisson Green Jlanor 
Kennedy-Hutchisson, Mrs., Legacy be 

queathed by . . . 
Kent, H.R.H. the Duke of . 
„ H.R.H. the Duchess of 
Labour Wards First Introduced , 
Laws for the Government of the Ho: 
pital drawn up . 
„ Re\-ised 
Legacies, Numerous, received after Re 

building in 1S56 . 

Libel on the Hospital . 

Licence necessary fur Lying-in HoS' 

pitals . . 

„ Copy of . . . 

Linen, Disinfecting Apparatus for 

,, Presents of . . . 

Lisson Green, Manor House of. Pur 

chased for the Hospital 

,, History of . 

„ Accoimt of, in Domesday 

Book 

„ Heldby Edward, son of Suain 
,, ,, Eideva . 

„ Extent of, according to DomeS' 

day Book . . . ' 
„ Value of, according to Domes 

daj' Book 
„ Held by Priory of St. John 

of Jerusalem 
„ ,, Thomas Heneage 

„ ,, Lord Willoughby 

„ ,, Edward Downing 

„ „ John Milner and SUC' 

cessors . 



PAGE 
23 



34 

40 

40 

43-44 



33 
16, 17 



18 

19-21 



67 

PAGE 



Lisson Green, Manor House of. Held by 

Edward Lloyd, of 

Gregories, in the 

County of Bucks 

,, ,, Captain Lloyd, of 

the Guards . 
,, „ John Harcourt, M.P. 

,, „ Benjamin Tucker, 

Secretary to the 
Admiralty . 

„ Cost of 

,, Funds for the Purchase of, 

how raised 
,, Auctioneer's Notice of Sale of 
,, Pulled down 
Local Government Board and Vaccina- 
tion of Children born in the Hospital 
Londesborough, Lord, President . 

„ ,, establishes the 

Samaritan Fund 

London, Appearance of Oxford Road 

about 1750 

„ Toll-gates in . 
Lying-in Hospitals in London 
Lying-in Wards, E^^ls of Conducting 
Deliveries in 
,, Capacity of 

Manor of Lisson Green (see Lisson Green, 

Manor of). 
Marlborough, Duke of 
Married Women .... 
Marrowbone .... 

„ and Samuel Pep}-s . 

Marylebone, Origin of the Name of 

„ Road 

Meat, Price of, in 1809 . 
Metropolitan Hospital Sunday Fund 

„ ,, Saturday Fund 39, 5 

Metropolitan Railway Terminus BiU and 
the Committee 



34 



5,6 

6 

i>5 



19 



39o2 



Midwife to In-Patients, OfiSce of, 
duced 

„ to be non-resident 

„ Duties of 
Midwifery Training School . 
Midwives, Diplomas granted to 



mtrO' 



3+^ 



38 

44 

13.39,49-50- 
50- 



68 



45 

28-29 



Midwives for the Army, Special Pro- 
vision for Training of . 35-36 

„ for Out-Patients, Number of 13 

„ „ Duties of 

Milner, John .... 

Mismanagement of Hospital while at 
Bayswater . 
„ Special Committee of Enquiry 
into . 
■" Money and its Influence," Published 

for the Benefit of the Hospital 
Mortmain, Statute of. Legacies be 

queathing Real Estate to Charities 

void by ... 

Name of Hospital changed . 
National Vaccine Establishment and 

the Vaccination of Children born 

in the Hospital 
New Hospital, Description of 

,, Road, Marylebone 
Nobility and the Hospital . 
Nurses, Certificates awarded to 

,, Fees paid by . 

,, Lectures to, by Physicians 
Objects of the Charity . 
Ossulstone, or Osvlvestane . 
Out-Patients, District, Extent of . 

„ Midwives, Number of . 

,, ,, Duties of 

,, Physicians' Duties of . 

,, Treatment of 

„ Number of . . . 
■Oxford Road, appearance of, about 

1750 5 

Paris, Visit of Delegates of the Royal 

Academy of Science of, to London 

Hospitals ..... 8 

Park Chapel, Chelsea, Sermon at, for 

Benefit of Hospital . . . 15 
Park Lane ...... 6 

Patients, Number relieved, 1809-1818 . 14 

„ Great increase in the number 

of . . 24, 25, 31, 32, 39, 45 

,, To contribute, if able, towards 

Cost of their Treatment . 49 



13,49 
13 



Patients, Number of, annually, from 
1809 to 1884 
„ In-, Private Lodgings taken 
for, there being no room 
in the Hospital . 
., In-, sent to Marylebone Infir- 
mary, there being no room 
in the Hospital . 
., In-, Treatment of . 
., In-, Churching of, in Hospital 

Chapel 
,, In-, Paying . 
,, In-, Children of, vaccinated 

before leaving Hospital 
„ Out-, Treatment of 
„ Out-, Number of . 
Patrons of Queen Charlotte's Hospital 
Pepys, Samuel, and Marrowbone . 
Physicians to the In-Patients, Duties of 
„ „ Out-Patients, Duties of 

Picton, Sir Thomas, Grave of 
Poor Rates and Hospitals 

,, paid by Queen Charlotte's 
Hospital for first time 
Portman, Viscount, President 
Presidents of Queen Charlotte's Hos- 
pital 2, 

Priory of St. John of Jerusalem and 

Manor of Lisson Green 
Privileges of Governors and Subscribers 
Prussia, H.R.H. the Crown Princess of. 

Visit of, to the Hospital 
Prussia, H.R.H. Princess William of 
Pupils, Resident Male, received . 
,, ,, Regulations for 

„ In-adequate Accommodation for 
,, Number of . . . 
Quebec Chapel, Sermon at, for Benefit 

of the Hospital 
Queen Adelaide, Dowager . 
Queen Charlotte becomes Patron . 

„ Portrait of, presented by 

Charles Hawkins,Esq, 

Queen Charlotte's Home 

Queen Victoria, Patron of the Hospital 



56-58 



32 
43-44 

44 
44-45 

45 
48-49 

49 
II, 12 

20 

42 

48-49 

7 

35 

35 
35 



28 
46-47 



Queen Victoria, Contribution to Build- 
ing Fund, 1855 .... 
Queen's Road, Bayswater 
Real Estate, Loss of, through Hospital 
not being Incorporated. 
„ Enrolment of the Deed by 

which the Hospital held 
Rebuilding of the Hospital . 
Reconstitution of Hospital, 1809 . 
Refugees, Foreign, Offer of Assistance 

to 

Resident Medical Officer, Office of, in- 
troduced . 
„ „ Duties of 38, 4 

Resident Midwife, Office of, introduced 

,, „ abolished 

Richmond, Duchess of . 
Roundell, Mrs. Charles 
Royal Patrons, Queen Charlotte . 

„ Dowager Queen Adelaide 

,, Queen Victoria 

„ King George IV. . 

„ King William IV. 

„ Princess of Wales 

„ Duke of York 

„ „ Kent 

„ II Cambridge 

,, „ Cumberland 

„ Duchess of Kent . 

„ 11 Cambridge 

,, „ Gloucester 

„ Leopold, King of the 

Belgians . 
Rutland, Duchess of 
St. George's Hanover Square Burial 

Ground ..... 
St. George's Row, Date of Building 
St. Mary Magdalene's Home 
Samaritan Fund, Institution of, in i860 

„ Value of . 

Sanitary Arrangements Defective . 
„ „ Improved. 

" Saturday Morning," Weekly News 

paper. Libel on the Hospital in 
Scarlet Fever, Epidemic of, 18 10 . 



■35 
28-29 



46 



12,35 



3,4, 7 

3,4 

46-47 

34 

44 

30 

30, 31 

16 
14 



Secretary, Duties of ... . 

Sisters, Duties of 

Site of Hospital, Description of . 
Situation of Hospital, 1753-1782 . 

„ „ in St. George's 

Row, 1782-1791 2 

„ „ at Bayswater, 

1791-1813 
„ ,, at Marylebone 

Soldiers on Active Service, Special Pro 

vision for Relief of Wives of . 
Statistical Tables .... 
Sterne, Rev. Laurence, Grave of . 

„ and Horace Walpole 

„ Epitaph . 

Stingo Lane, Hospital Property in, 

sold to Metropolitan Board ot 

Works .... 

Stock, Sale of, to provide Funds for 

Extension of Building . 
Subscribers, Privileges of 
Sussex, H.R.H. the Duke of. President 
for Life 
„ Letter to Committee 0; 

Management 
,, Exertions of, to free the Hos 

pital from Debt 
,, Munificent Donation to Hos 

pital by . 
„ Loss of Sight 

„ Sight restored 

„ Congratula 

tory Letter of Committee 
of Management on . 
„ Letter in reply to Committee'i 

Congratulations 
,, Death of . . . 

„ Progress of the Hospital dur 

ing Presidentship of . 
Temporary Hospital at Paddington 

„ Middlesex Place 

Tiburn 

Titles of the Hospital . 
Toll-gates in London . 
Training School for Midwifery . 13, 



69 
PAGE 
42 

44 

9 

1-5 

6,7,8 

2, 8,9 
23 



56-58 
7 
7 
7 



25, 26 
26 



26, 27 
14 



70 



Trustees not empowered to sell Real 

Estate belonging to the Hospital 

without the Consent of the Charity 

Commissioners , , . 

" Truth," Weekly Newspaper, Libel on 

the Hospital in . . . 
Tucker, Benjamin, Secretary to the 

Admiralty .... 
Tumour, Hon. and Rev. E. J., Sermon 

by, for Benefit of the Hospital 
Tyburn, Executions at . 

„ Brook .... 
„ Lane .... 
„ Tree .... 
,, Turnpike 
Unmarried Women 
Vaccination of Children born in HoS' 

pital 

Vaccination District, Hospital COH' 

stituted a . . . . 
Vaccinator, Public, one of the Physi. 

clans appointed a . 
Verney, Ralph, Earl of 
Victoria, Queen, Patron of the Hospital 
„ „ Contribution to Build' 

ing Fund, 1856 
Visitors, Duties of . . . 



16, 17 



24 
6 
6, 19 
6 
6 
6 
13,42 

45 

45 
45 



Wales, H.R.H. the Princess of, Vice- 
Patron of the Hospital 
„ Visit of, to the Hospital 

Walker, Henry, F.G.s. . 

Walsh, Dr 

Wards, Two additional built 
„ Small, in New Hospital . 
„ „ Value of 

„ Lying-in, Evils of conducting 

Deliveries in . 
„ Labour, first introduced . 
„ Lying-in, Capacity of 
Wellington, Duchess of 
Westminster Sessions, Trial of William 

Horncastle for Libel at . 
Wet Nurses, Facilities for obtainin; 
Widows giving birth to Posthumous 

Children .... 
William IV. Patron of the Hospital 
Wood Pavement laid down in Roadway 

adjoining the Hospital . 
York, Duke of ... . 
Yorkshire Stingo Bowling Green House 

and Gardens 

Zoffani, Portrait of Queen Charlotte 
by, presented by Charles Hawkins, 
Esq 



12,35 
40 

9 
8 

24 
29 
29 

31 
31 
44 

24 

17 
42 



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The history of queen 

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